MOTOR DEVELOPMENT Chin up Chest up Knee push and “swim” Sits alone/stands with help Crawls on stomach

Stands holding on furniture Walks when led Stands alone Walks alone 1 month 2 month 6 month 7 month 8 month 10 month 11 month 14 month 15 month

AT THE PLAY GROUND * * * * * Stranger anxiety: 0 -1 year Separation anxiety: 1 - 3 years Solitary play: 0 – 1 year Parallel play: 2 – 3 years Group play: 3 – 4 years PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT AGE Infant 0 – 1.5 Toddler 1.5 -3 Pre-school 3-6 School age 6 - 11 11 - 20 20 – 25 25 – 50 ERIKSON Trust vs. mistrust Autonomy vs. shame Initiative vs. guilt Industry vs. inferiority Identity vs. role confusion Intimacy vs. isolation Generativity vs. stagnation FREUD Oral (trust & dependence Anal (holding vs. letting out) Phallic (Oedipus complex) latency genital PIAGET sensorimotor preoperational preoperational Concrete operational Formal operational

1

5 – 6.5 mg/dL Cholesterol: 120 – 200mg/dL Lipase: 31 -186 U/L Lipids: 400 – 800 mg/dL Triclycerides: Normal range: 10 – 190 mg/dL Borderline high: 200 – 400 mg/dL High: 400 – 1000mg/dL Very high: greater than 1000mg.5 to 8 minutes SERUM GASTROINTESTINAL STUDIES Albumin: 3.8 seconds Female: 9.? Integrity vs.6 meq/L Chloride (Cl-): 96 – 106 meq/L COAGULATION STUDIES Activated partial thromboplastin time(APTT): 20 – 36 seconds depending on the type of activator used Prothrombin time(PT): male: 9.3 seconds International Normalized Ratio(INR): 2.5 – 8 ng/dL Female: 2.0 mg/dL Total: less than 1.5 for high-dose Coumadin therapy Clotting time: 8 – 15 minutes Platelet count: 150.0 to 12 mg/dL Child: 8.5 to 13 King-Armstrong units/dL Ammonia: 15 to 45 ug/dL Amylase: 50 – 180 Somogyi U/dL in adult 20 – 160 Somogyi U/dL in the older adult Bilirubin: direct: 0 .000 to 400.5 – 5.0 – 8.000 cells/Ul Bleeding time: 2.6 – 11.0 for standard Coumadin therapy 3.3.3 mg/dL Indirect: 0. decrease overhydration) Potassium (K+): 3.5.5 – 2.0 .7 – 2.0 – 4.0.5 .8 meq/L Neonate : 7.2 ng/dL GLUCOSE STUDIES 2 .5 meq/L Calcium (Ca++): 4.1 – 1.0 g/L Uric acid: male: 4.50 .0 to 10.0 meq/L Magnesium (Mg++): 1.4 to 5 g/dL Alkaline phosphatase: 4.5 – 11.despair LABORATORY VALUES ELECTROLYTES Sodium (Na+): 135 – 145 meq/L (increase-dehydration.5 mg/dL Phosphorus (PO4): 1.dL Protien: 6.

IV. Glossopharyngeal (S-M) X.5 to 6. fluid loss and dehydration) Female: 35% .6 – 1. VI. Olfactory (S) Optic (S) smell vision Eye movement Facial sensation Jaw movement Eye movement Taste Facial expression Hearing and balance Taste Throat sensation Gag and swallow Gag and swallow Parasympathetic activity Oculomotor (M) Trochlear (M) Trigeminal Abducent (S-M) (M) (S-M) (S) VII. Vagus (S-M) 3 .3 mg/dL Blood urea nitrogen (BUN): 5 – 20 mg/dL ERYTROCYTES STUDIES Erytrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR): 0 – 30 mm/hr depending on age Hemoglobin: male: 14 – 16.5 million/uL White blood cell (WBC): 4500 to 11.5 g/dL Female: 12 – 15 g/dL Hematocrit: male: 42% .000/uL Erytrocyte Protoporthyrin (EP) : <9ug/dL Phenylalanine Level: <2 mg/dL PKU: >25 mg/dL CRANIAL NERVES MAJOR FUNCTIONS I. Acoustic IX.52% (increased in hemoconcentration. Facial VIII. III.2 million/uL Female: 4 to 5.Fasting blood sugar: 70 – 105 mg/dL Glucose monitoring (capillary Blood): 60 – 110 mg/dL RENAL FUNCTION TEST Creatinine: 0. V.47% ( decreased in fluid retention) Red blood cell (RBC): male: 4. II.

XII. Metabolic Same) GLASGOW COMA SCALE Eye opening response Motor response Verbal response AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM SYMPATHETIC/ ADRENERGIC Heart Bronchi GI tract Rectum Bladder Erection Ejaculation Pupils of eye Salivary glands 4 Triggers ejaculation Big (mydriasis) Small (miosis) Secretion Increased heart rate Increased conduction Increased force dilation Reduced motility Allows filling Allows filling PARASYMPATHETIC/ CHOLINERGIC Decreased heart rate constriction Increased motility Empties rectum Relaxes internal sphincter Empties bladder Relaxes internal sphincter Maintains erection . But My Brother Says Bad Business Marry Money ARTERIAL BLOOD GAS (ABG) pH: 7.100% Acid-base “RAMS”(Respiratory Alternate.45 PCO2: 35 .45 mmHg PO2: 80 .100 mmHg HCO3: 22 .27 mEq/L O2 saturation: 96% .35 – 7. A Finn And German Viewed Some Hops Some Says Marry Money. Spinal Accessory (M) Hypoglossal (M) Tongue movement On Old Olympus’ Towering Tops.Neck and back muscles XI.

5 -1.5 ug/mL 4 -7 mg/dL 50 – 150 ng/mL 10 – 30 ug/mL 10 -20 ug/mL 5 – 20 ug/mL 4 – 10 ug/mL 50 – 100 ng/mL 2 – 5ug/mL 5 .0 ug/mL 0.5 – 5. decreased in dehydration) Pressure within the right atrium: 2 to 7 mmHg Capillary refill time: <3 seconds Normal sweat chloride: <40 mEq/L Normal pupil diameter: 3 to 5mm Normal ocular pressure: 10 to 21 mmHg Normal Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP): 8 to 13 mmhg Normal cardiac output : 4 to 8 L/min.0 ng/mL 2 -5 ug/mL 40 – 100 ug/mL 5 – 10 ug/mL 150 – 300 ug/mL 1. THERAPEUTIC SERUM MEDICATION LEVELS Acetaminopen (Tylenol) Amikacin (Amikin) Amitryptyline (Elavil) Carbamazepine (Tegretol) Chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin) Desipramine (Norpramin) Digotoxin ( Crystodigin) Digoxin ( Lanoxin) Disopyramide (Norpase) Ethosuximide ( Zarontin) Gentamycin (Garamycin) Imipramide (Tofranil) Lidocaine (Xylocaine) Lithium (Lithobid) Magnesium sulphate Nortriptyline (Aventyl) Phenobarbital (Luminal) Phenytoin (Dilantin) Primidone (Myoline) Procainamide (Pronestryl) Propranolol (Inderal) Quinidine (Quinalaglute. Blood volume: 5000mL Central venous pressure: 4 to 10 cmH2O (increased in cardiac overload. Cardioquin) 10 – 20 ug/mL 25 – 30 ug/mL 120 -150 ng/mL 5 -12 ug/mL 10 – 20 ug/mL 150 -300 ng/mL 15.5 – 2.25 ng/mL 0.Blood vessels Depends on receptors -a contrict -b dilates FLOW OF BLOOD THROUGH THE HEART Inferior vena cava and superior vena cava – right atrium – tricuspid valve – right ventricle – pulmonic valve – pulmonary artery – lungs – pulmonary veins – left atrium – bicuspid valve (mitral) – left ventricle – aortic valve aorta – systemic circulation CARDIAC IMPULSES Sinoatrial (SA) node – right and left atria (atria contract) – atrioventricular (AV) node – bundle his – bundle brabches – purjinje’s fibers – ventricles contract.

DURATION tolbutamide Glycburide.  Accummulation of drug will increase risk of hypoglycaemia. Theo-Dur) 10 -20 ug/mL Tobramycin (Nebcin ) 5 -10 ug/mL Valproic acid (depakene) 50 -100 ug/mL Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure: 5 to 13 mmHg Pulmonary artery pressure: systolic: 16 to 30 mmHg Diastolic: 0 to 7 mmHg Spinal pressure: 70 to 200mmH2O Morphine sulphate pediatric dose: 0. most potent 48 h CONVERSION Metric System 6 . glipizide chlorpropamide 8h 20 h.Salisylate 100 -250 ug/mL Theophylline (Aminiphylline. 18 -24 h 36 h SULFONYLUREAS For treatment of NIDDM  Sulfonylureas should not be given to patients with liver or kidney failure. 8 -12 h 24 h DURATION 120 min.1mg/kg every 3 – 4 hour INSULIN For treatment of IDDM PEAK Regular NPH PZI Fast acting Intermediate acting Long acting 30 min.

capsules.Meter – m Liter – L Gram – g.8 C + 32 = F Formula for Calculating a Medication Dosage D (desired ) = the dosage that the physician ordered A (available) =the dosage strength as stated on the medication label Q (quantity ) = the volume that the dosage strength is available in. gm. mcg Kilogram – kg.001L or 1 cc 1kg = 1000 g 1ug = 0.2 lb 1L = 1000mL Apothecary and Household System Grain –gr Dram – dr Ounce –oz Minim – min. Kg Millilitre – mL Cubic centimetre – cc 1 mg = 1000ug or 0.oo1g 1gm = 1000mg 1mL = 0.8 = C 1. or mL D A X Q = X Fahrenheit to Celcius Celcius to Fahrenheit Formulas for Intravenous Calculations Flow Rates: Total volume x gtt factor Time in minutes Infusion Time: Total volume to infuse mL per hour being infused = gtt per min = Infusion time 7 .4 mg 1 oz = 30 mL 1 dr = 4 mL 1 T = 15 mL or 3 tsp 1 min = 1 gtt 15 min = 1mL 60 min = 1 dr 8 dr = 1 oz 1 qt = 1000mL or 1L 1 qt = 2 pt or 32 oz 1 pt = 16 oz 16 oz = 1 lb 2. M. such as tablet. mgm Microgram – ug. m Quart – qt Pint – pt Drop – gtt Tablespoon – T or tbs Teaspoon – t or tsp Pound – lb 1 gr = 60 mg 5 gr = 300 mg 15 gr = 1000mg or 1g 1/150 gr =0. Gm Milligram – mg.2lb = 1 kg (F – 32) divide 1.000001 g 1kg = 2.

the bladder will contract but not empty (neurogenic bladder)  Injury above S2 in males allows them to have an erection. OPV MMR DPT Varicella vaccine DPT. DPT. bradycardia. and legs. preventing erection and ejaculation.  Injury between S2 and S4 damages the sympathetic and parasympathetic response. HIB DPT. depending on the level of injury  Leg paralysis (paraplegia)  Autonomic dysreflexia with lesions above T6 and in cervical lesions  Visceral distention from a distended bladder or impacted rectum may cause reactions such as sweating. MMR MMR ( if not administered at 4 -6 years) TD booster SPINAL CORD INJURY Cervical Injury:  C2 to C3 injury usually fatal  C4 is the major innervation to the diaphragm by th phrenic nerve  Involvement above th C4 causes respiratory difficulty and paralysis extremities  C5 or below client may have movement in the shoulder of all the four Thoracic Level Injury:  loss of movement of the chest.IMMUNIZATION Birth 1 months 2 months 4 months 6 months 12 months 15 months 18 months 12 – 18 months 4 -6 years 11 – 12 years 11 – 16 Hepatitis B Hepatitis B OPV. nasal stuffiness. 8 . therefore below this level. but they are unable to ejaculate because of sympathetic nerve damage. trunk. hypertension. bowel. HIB. HIB. OPV. OPV DPT. bladder. hepatitis B HIB. and gooseflesh Lumbar and Sacral Level Injuries:  loss of movement and sensation of the lower extremities.  S2 and S3 center on micturation.

016 .0 to 12. Erythrocyte Protoporhyrin (EP): < 9ug/dL Phenylalanine level: < 2mg/dL PKU: >25 mg/dL Urine specific gravity: 1. THS): 0.3% or 34% or 4% or 18000 – 7800/uL 0 – 700/uL 0 – 450/uL 0 – 200/uL 1000 – 4800/uL 0 – 800/uL THYROID STUDIES Thyroid –stimulating hormone (thyrotropin.RULE OF NINE Head and neck Anterior trunk Posterior trunk Arms (9%) Legs (18%) Perineum 9% 18% 18% 18% 36% 1% NORMAL ADULT WHITE BLOOD CELL DIFFERENTIAL Neutrophils Bands Eosinophils Basophils Lymphocytes Monocytes 56% or 3% or 2. 50-180 mmH2O Normal serum osmolality: 285 – 295 mOsmlkgH2O increase in dehydration. Decrease in over hydration Normal scalp pH: 7.20 to 7.1. 9 .0 ug/dL Thyroxine free (FT3) : 0. improve concentration and enhance physical or cognitive performance.15 HERBAL MEDICINE Aloe vera Gel – abrasionsand dermatologic conditions American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) – boost energy. decrease in diabetes insipidus Normal CSF protein: 15 – 45 mg/dL increase in Guillain-Barre syndrome Normal CSF pressure: 5 – 15 mmHg.8 to 2. relieve stress.022 increase in SIADH.7% or 0.4 ug/dL Thyroxine (T4): 5.26 and above Borderline acidosis: 7.25 Acidosis: < 7.4 ng/dL Triiodothyronine (T3): 80 to 230 ng/dL Normal Fribrinogen level: for men: 180 to 340mg/dL Women: 190 to 420mg/dL Fribrinogen is used up in the clotting process.2 to 5.

allergies. or dyspepsia and anxiety Chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus) – menstrual related disorders. inflammatory diseases. or as diuretic Papaya (Carica papaya) – digestive aid. dyspepsia. PMS.skin inflammation.help prevent cardiovascular disease and cancer Ginger (Zingiber officinale) –nausea and motion sickness. BPH. topically applied to wounds Passion flower (Passiflora incarnata). irritable bowel syndrome.) – arthritis.Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) – stress arthritis Asian gingseng (Panax ginseng) – enhance health and combat stress and disease Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) – vision and peripheral vascular disorders and as antioxidant Black Cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) – menopausal Black Currant and Borage oil (Ribes nigrum and Borago offinalis) – anti-inflammatory. anti-inflammatory Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) – dementia and intermittent claudication. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum) – antidepressant effect Tea Tree Oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) – antifungal and antibacterial Turmeric (Curuma longa ) – anti-inflammatory. colic.) – acute viral URI symptoms Ederberry (Sanbacus nigra) – respiratory tract infection Ephedra or Ma Huang (Ephedra sinica) Source of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine Evening Primrose Oil (Oenothera biennis) – eczema. and infections Melatonin – insomia.sedative-hypnotic or anxiolytic herb Pokeroot (Phytolacca Americana) – inflammatory conditions also as an emetic/cathartic Pygeum (Pygeum africanum) – mild symptoms of BPH Red Clover (Trifolium pratense) – used as a natural estrogen substitute for women’s health St. rheumatic disordes and skin disease Kava ( piper methysticum) – mild psychoactive and antianxiety property Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis) – sedative and for dyspepsia Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) – respiratory disorders. and antioxidant Uva Ursi (Arctostaphylos uva ursi) – urinary antiseptic and diuretic Yohimbe – erectile dysfunction FOUR STRATEGIES: 10 . and for inflammatory. neuralgia and other painful treatment Chamomile (Matricaria recutita) “manzanilla”. anti-arthritis. hepatitis. and colonic spasm and as a topical counterirritant Nettle (Urtica dioica) – arthritis pains. rheumatoid arthritis Capsicum Peppers (Capsicum spp. cyclical mastalgia Chodroitin – osteoarthritis Coenzyme Q10 – antioxidant Coltsfoot ( Tussilago farfara ) – cough and other respiratory disoders Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) – UTI Devil’s Claw ( Harpagophytum procumbers) – anti inflammatory and analgesic Echinacea (Echinacea spp. jet lag Milk Thistle – hepatitis. memory enhancement and treatment of vertigo nad tinnitus Glucosamine – osteoarthritis Goldenseal ( Hydrastis Canadensis) – tonic and antibiotic Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica) – mental support. used for upper respiratory problems. breast pain associated with PMS and inflammatory condition Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) – lowering blood glucose Feverfew ( Tanacetum parthenium) – migraine headache prophylaxis Garlic (Allium sativaum). anti cancer. dyspepsia. wound healing and venous disorders Hawtorn ( Crategus species) – CHF and related cardiovascular conditions Horebound (Marribium vulgare) – primary cough suppression and expectoration Horse Chestnut Seed (Aesculus hippocastanum) chronic venous insufficiency Ivy (Hedera helix) – coughs. liver desease Mints (Mentha species) – minor calcium channel antagonists.

REMEMBER: AIRWAY. focus on the patient safety. If the question involves communicating with a patient.1. If the question asks what the client needs. Use the nursing process to determine which step in the nursing process would be next? 2. BREATHING. If the question indicates that the client doesn’t have urgent physiologic need. 3. Use principles of therapeutic communication. If the question asks what you should do in the situation.CIRCULATION AND SAFETY (ABCS) 11 . 4. Use maslow’s hierarchy to determine which need to address.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful