1

A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
sI.sI.]n. A_vZp√
(sF.Fkv.Fw. kwÿm\ {]h¿ØI kanXn AwKw)
AhXmcnI
A_vZpdlvam≥ Ccnth‰n
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp
]n$≥hnfn
2 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
Andavishvasangalilekkoru
Pinvili
K.K.P. Abdulla
First Edition: 2011 June
Second Edition: 2011 October
Publishers: Al hidaya
Copy. 1000
Rs: 50/-
3
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
CX- fp- I- fn¬
1. Ah- Xm- cnI 5
2. apJhpc 11
3. CkvXn-Kmk AÃmlphn-t\mSv am{Xw 15
4. a\pjy Ignhn\XoXw 22
5. a\pjy Ignhpw klmb tX«hpw 29
6. ]nimNpw hn{K-l-kw-km-chpw 50
7. kman-cn-bpsS Imf
hn{Kl kwkmc¯n\pÅ sXfnthm? 59
8. {]mÀ°-\bpw Bcm-[-\bpw 63
9. Bcm-[-\-b-Ãm¯ {]mÀ°\ 79
10. {]mÀ°\ þ Bcm[\ 81
11. tcmK-s¯-¡mÄ amc-I-amb NnInÕ 89
12. A¿q_v \_nbpw tcmKhpw ]nimNv _m[bpw 111
13. AZriy Imcy§fpw Pn¶pw tPmÕyhpw 114
14. tPmÕy³amcpsS {]hN\w: hkvXpX F´v? 121
15. ]nimNv ZpÀ_e³ 137
16. XJveoZv 142
4 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
5
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
Ah- Xm- cnI
tIcfØn se apPmln Zv { ]ÿm\w F√mh¿°pw
kp]cnNnXamWt√m. XuloZn\v Du∂¬ \¬Ins°m≠pw
kapZmbØns‚ ka{K ]ptcmKXn e£yam°ns°m≠pw
GItZiw Hcp \q‰m≠v Imeambn AXv hyXykv Xamb
t]cpIfn¬ {]h¿Øn°p∂p. a‰p aX {]ÿm\ßfn¬ \n∂pw
hyXykvXambn aZvl_pIsf \ncmIcn®v Jp¿B\pw kp∂Øpw
{]amWßfm°ns°m≠mWv {]ÿm\w {]h¿Øn°p∂Xv .
{]ÿm\Øns‚ BZ¿iw, e£yw, ]cn]mSn F∂nhsbm∂pw
AXns‚ an{Xßsftbm i{Xp°tftbm {]tXyIw ]d™v
a\nemt°≠ Imcyan√. BZ¿iw sIm≠pw i–w sIm≠pw
ssien sIm≠psams° {]ÿm\w Xncn®dnbs∏Sp∂p.
{]ÿm\{]h¿Ø\w Bcw`n°p∂ L´Øn¬ tIcfØnse
P\߃ PmXn aX t`Zat\y A‘hn iz mkßfn epw
A\mNmcßfnepw amaqepIfnepw apgpIn°gnbpIbmbncp∂p.
Pn∂v, ]nimNv, t{]Xw, HSn, Imfn, Iqfn, b£n, c‡c£v, {_“
c£v XpSßnbhsb Ipdn® H´t\Iw A‘hnizmk߃ sh®v
]pe¿ØpI aqew kaqlw BsI AXn `oXn Xamb
Ahÿbnembncp∂p. Chs°ms° ]cnlmcsat∂mWw knlvdv
AYhm amcWw, a{¥n® \qev, icocØns‚ ]e `mKßfn¬
sI´nØq°p∂ GepIƒ, a{¥hmZw, Dgns™Sp°¬,
ASn ®n d°¬, tlmaw, Dgn ™v aÆn ¬ Ipgn ®v aqS¬,
shffØnsemgp°¬, IpcpXn sImSp°¬, t\¿® hgn]mSpIƒ,
aJmapIfn te°pw Z¿KIfn te°pw afi]ßfn te°p
sams°bpff Xo¿∞mS\߃ apXemb £p{ZI¿Ω߃
PohnXØn¬ A\pjvTn®v t]m∂ncp∂p Ah¿.
6 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
amcWØnse hnizmkw i‡ambXn\m¬ ]ckv ]cw amcWw
sNbv Xpsh∂mtcm]n®v sIm≠v _‘p°fpw Ab¬°mcpw
kv t\lP\ßfpw XΩn ¬ h°mWßfpw hg°pw
sIme]mXIßfpsams° \n¿_m[w Fßpw Actßdnbncp∂p.
A‘hnizmkßfpw A\mNmcßfpw \m´pamaqepIfpw ISpØ
A⁄Xbpambn \S∂ncp∂ B kaqlØnemWv apPmlnZv
{]ÿm\w XnI®pw {]amW_≤amb Ckvemln {]h¿Ø\w
Bcw`n®Xv .
ad™ am¿§ØneqsS KpWw {]Xo£n®v sImt≠m tZmjw
`bs∏´v sImt≠m Hcp hy‡n B¿°v F¥¿∏n°p∂Xpw
Bcm[\bsW∂ efn Xat\mlchpw EPphpw
kp{ KlambXpamb \n ¿hN\w C_mZØn \v (Bcm[\)
\¬Ins°m≠mWv {]ÿm\w P\ßsf t_m[h¬°cn®Xv .
XuloZn¬ Du∂n \n¬°ptºmƒ Xs∂ kaqlØns‚ ka{Kamb
]ptcmKXnbpw {]ÿm\w e£yan´p. aZvl_pIf√, Jp¿B\pw
kp∂ØpamWv {]amWßsf∂v ]Tn∏n®p. Pn∂v ]nimNv
XpSßn bhsb bYm¿∞ hn iz mkØm¬ A√mlphn ¬
Xh°p¬(A¿∏Ww) sNbv Xpw Ah\n¬ A`bw tXSnbpw
Jp¿Bs\ apdpsI ]nSn®pw AXnPbn°m≥ Ignbpsa∂v
{ ]ÿm\w P\ßsf ]Tn ∏n ®p. AtXmsS P\߃
£p{Zam¿§ßfpw hnIe hnizmkßfpw Dt]£n°pIbbncp∂p.
tcmK߃ acp∂p sIm≠pw ssZh{]m¿∞\bmepw
Nn In ’n °m≥ ioen ∏n ®p. { ]ÿm\w aX `uXn I
hnZym`ymk߃°pw ]pcpj≥a¿°pw kv {XoIƒ°pw Hcp t]mse
{]m[m\yw \¬In. PpapA JpXp_IfneqsSbpw Jp¿B≥
]cn`mjs∏SpØnbpw hgn P\ßsf t_m[h¬°cn®pw
Aßn s\ C∂v ImWp∂ GIssZh hn iz mkn Ifpw
ZrUa\kvIcpamb \n¿`b P\Xsb kr„n°m≥ tIcfØnse
Ckzvemln {]ÿm\Øn\v Ign™p.
7
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
Cu {]h¿Ø\߃°nSbn¬ {]ÿm\ ]finX≥am¿°pw
{]h¿ØI¿°pw kaqlØn¬ \n∂pw h≥ FXn¿∏pIsf
t\cn tS≠n h∂p. H´t\Iw al√pIfn ¬ { `„pIfpw
]¥nhne°pIfpw J_¿ÿm≥ \ntcm[\hpw hnhmlw
apS°epIfpw am{Xa√, imcocnI ]oU\ßfpw h[{ia߃
hscbpw \S∂p. Chsbsb√mw AXnPohn®v sIm≠mWv
{]ÿm\w {]aW_≤amb BZ¿ihoYnbn¬ h≥t\´w
ssIhcn®Xv. C∂v, tIcf ap…nw kaqlw C¥ybnse a‰v ap…nw
kaqlßfn ¬ \n ∂v hyXykv Xambn Nn ¥n °pIbpw
{]h¿Øn°pIbpw sNøp∂ Hcp Poh¬kaqlambn amdnbXv
apPmlnZv {]ÿm\Øns‚ kzm[o\w H∂v sIm≠v am{XamWv.
Cu \thm∞m\Øns‚ ]nXrXzw Gs‰Sp°m≥ C∂v ]ecpw
cwKØv hcp∂ps≠∂ Imcyw hnkv acn°p∂n√. Ahcn¬,
Zo¿LImew Cu kapZmbsØ ]ndtIm´v hen°m≥ {ian®n´pw
^ew ImWmsX \ncmicmbn \n¿_‘nXmhÿbn¬ XßfpsS
£p{Z{]h¿Ø\߃ ]mXnhgnbnept]£n®hcpw Ds≠∂
Imcyw Hm¿t°≠XmWv. A°mcyw AhnsS \n¬°s´. F∂m¬
C∂v Zu¿`mKyw sIm≠v apPmlnZv {]ÿm\Øn¬ apf®v s]m¥nb
Nne hnjs®SnIƒ {]ÿm\Øn\v Atemkcw am{Xae,
Xocmim]hpambn amdnbncn°pIbmWv . XuloZv , in¿°v ,
apAv PnkØv , IdmaØv , tcmKNnIn’, kv {XohnZym`ymkw,
]ffn { ]thiw, aX`uXn I hn Zym`ymk { ]NcWw,
shffn bmgv Nbn se JpXp_ amXr`mjbn embn cn °¬,
{ ]amW߃ aZv l_pIf√ adn ®v Jp¿B\pw
kp∂ØpamsW∂Xv, CkveanI hnhmlw, kv{Xo[\w XpSßnb
ASnÿm\ hnjb߃s°m∏w kaqlØnse \pffp \pcpºv
hnjbßfpw P\ßsf {]amW _≤ambn ]Tn∏n°pIbpw
]cn h¿Øn ∏n °pIbpw sNbv XXn s‚ ^eambn
kXyhnizmknIfpw kZmNmcnIfpamb B D¬]Xnjv Wp
8 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
P\Xsb I≠pw ImWn®pw FXncmfnIƒ t]mepw A`nam\w
sImffp∂ Hchÿ ChnsSbp≠mbncp∂p.
s]s´∂mWv Ipd®v sIm®pauehnam¿ XßfpsS AdnhpIfpw
sIm≠v {]ÿm\Ønte°v FSpØv NmSnbXv . kwLS\°v
ZmCamsc Ipdn®v {]tXyIw ImgvN∏mtSm sFU‚n^nt°jt\m
ssek≥tkm H∂pan√mXncp∂Xn\m¬ Ah¿s°ms° Ffp∏w
kwLS\bpsS ZmCamcpw JXo_pamcpsams° BbnØocm≥
km[n®p. Aßns\ Ah¿ kv IqfpIfnepw tImfPpIfnepw
]ffnIfnepw hmbn®v ]Tn® Nne ]pkv XIßfnepffXpw Ah¿°v
Xs∂ kzbw tXm∂nbXpamb A`n{]mb߃ kwLS\bpsS
HutZymKnI A`n{]mbßsf∂ a´n¬ X´n aqfn°m≥ Bcw`n®p.
GtXm Hcp tUmŒ¿ CXn\nS°v Pn∂v, ssiØm≥ XpSßnb
“ssK_n bmb“ hn jbßfn ¬ KthjWhpw
Bcw`n®ncp∂phs{X. AbmfpsS Nne \nKa\߃ I≠v
Ip´nauehnam¿ t]Sn®p.
]ga°m¿ ]d™ncp∂Xv Pn∂pw ssiØm\psams°
]ffnIfnepw Hgn™ hoSpIfnepsams° D≠mhpsa∂mbncp∂p.
Ch¿ Ahsc ISØnsh´n. tXßbnSp∂ sXßn\p Xmsgbpw
hS°n\nbpsS ]ndInepw dqanse Ãqƒ am‰nbnSptºmƒ AhnsSbpw
taihen ∏n epw Hs° Pn ∂pIfp≠mhpas{ X! Ahsc
t\mhn °msX t\m°m≥ a\pjycmb \mw Pm{ KX
]pe¿ØWas{X!! As√¶n¬ s\m¥ Pn∂pIƒ D]{Zhn°pas{X!!
Pn∂v ]mºmbpw hcpw. AXn\m¬ ho´nepw ]dºnepw
ImWp∂ hnj∏mºns\bpw sIm√m≥ ]mSn√. AsXms°
kln°mambncp∂p. `¿Ømhn√mØt∏mƒ Pn∂v `¿Ømhns‚
cq]w ]q≠v h∂v `mcysb NXn °pas{ X. AXn ¬
Ip´nIfp≠mhpas{X!! kv {Xo ]oU\w Gsd h¿≤n® Cu
ImeL´Øn¬ Pn∂pIƒ IqSn Cßns\ XpSßnbm¬.....!!! Xami
AsXm∂pa√, Cu Pn∂v ieysams° apkvenw \yq\]£Øn\v
am{Xtabpffq.
9
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
FdWmwIpfw km¬thj\n ¬ sh®pw tIm´°¬
AßmSn bn ¬ sh®pw Pn ∂n s\ t\cn ¬ “I≠“hcpw
ZmCamcnep≠mbn. hmZw ]ptcmKan®t∏mƒ hnP\\amb ÿeØv
IpSpßnt∏mb Bƒ°v klmbØn\mbn (Abmƒ ImWmØ)
Pn∂ns\bpw ae°ns\bpw hnfn®v klmbw tXSmsa∂v Hcp
hnZzm≥ X´n hn´p. AXv {]m¿∞\bs√∂pw “klmbw tXS¬“
am{XamsW∂pw AXn\p hntcm[ans√∂pw!!!!Aºnbm Huenb
XpSßnb alm≥amcpsS ImcyØn¬ kp∂n ap…ym°ƒ ]dbp∂
AtX hmZw.(hnP\amb ÿeØv sh®√mlphns\ am{Xw
Aflm¿∞ambn klmbØn \v hn fn ®n cp∂ a°m
apiv cn°pIsfbpw tXm¬∏n®v If™t√m.). Pn∂nt\mSpw
imØmt\mSpapff klmb tX´hpw tkhbpsams° shdpw
`uXn I Imcy߃ am{ Xambn . `uXn I Imcyßfn ¬
Ahn iz mkn IfpsS klmbhpw kz oIcn °mat√m.
Ahnizmknsbbpw tkhn°mw. sNIpØm≥ tkh°n\n thtd
sXfnhv thtWm?
Cu KpcpXcamb hyXnbm\Øn\v ]pdta, apPmlnZv
{]ÿm\Øns‚ {]t_m[\ hnjbßsf A´nadn°m≥
thsdbpw Nne ASnÿm\ {]iv\߃ Ch¿ Db¿Øns°m≠v
h∂p. ItÆdv, IdpØ \mb, IdpØ ]q®, ]√n h[w, knlvdns‚
bmYm¿∞yw, AXv {]hmNIsc t]mepw G¬°p∂Xnepff
kt¥mjw, {]hmNIs‚ Ct∏mƒ e`ya√mØ Xncp tijn∏pIƒ
sIm≠v _¿°sØSp°¬,.....Aßns\ t]mhp∂p ]pXnb
ASnÿm\ hnjb߃.
l÷v Dwd {Kq∏p≠m°nbpw kztZiØpw hntZiØpw ]ncnhv
\SØnbpw aXsØ hmWnPyh¬°cn® Nne¿ Pn∂ns\bpw
]nimNns\bpw Cd°m\pff ASnNnIn¬kbpw(kztZiØpw
hntZiØpw) Bcw`n®p. C°mea{Xbpw Hcp Pn∂v kmºnfn\p
t]mepw Hcp apPmlnZv IpSpw_Øn¬ Ibdnbncp∂n√. ]s£
10 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
s]s´∂nXm XpcpXpcm Pn∂v Ib‰ßƒ!!. AXn\\pkcn®v
Nn In ’m hn imcZ≥amcpw. (Fhn sSbmWmthm Ch¿
kvs]jssekv sNbvXXv?). apt≠ßc(ae∏pdw)bn¬ XpSßnb
Pn∂v Ib‰w IÆqcpw Xet»cnbpsams° IS∂v apPmlnZv
tI{μamb ]pfn°epw FØn. apPmlnZpIƒ {]t_m[\w sNbvX,
sNm√n∏Tn® C_mZØns‚ \n¿hN\w t]mepw A´nadn®p.
Cu Iq´sc ]nSn®v sI´m≥ ]e ]≤XnIƒ h∂p. H∂pw
^e{]Zambn ImWp∂n√. Ct∏mƒ Cu hnIe hnt{Zml
Bib߃ kwLS\m {]kn≤oIcWßfneqsSbpw ]pdØv
hcp∂p. Ah°v Jfi\sagpXnbm¬ shfn®w ImWn√.
ZpJIcamb Cubhÿbn ¬ bYm¿∞ apPmln Zv
Bibßfpw sse\pw ssien bpw tISp IqSmsX
kwc£n°phm≥ XuloZo hmZnIfmb apPmlnZv {]h¿ØI¿
Fs¥¶nepw sNbvtX ]‰q. AXmWnt∏mƒ bph ]finX\pw
FgpØpImc\pw sF Fkv Fw kwÿm\ {]h¿ØI kanXn
AwKhpamb P\m_v. sI sI ]n A–p√ (Xfn∏dºv) sNøp∂Xv.
]dbm\pffXv t\sc sNmtΔ kss[cyw At±lw ]dbp∂p.
]Tn°pI, {]XnIcn°pI.
Cu ]pkv XIw t\¿am¿§sØ ]n ≥]‰m≥
B{Kln°p∂h¿°mbn ka¿∏n°pIbmWv.
{]m¿∞\m ]q¿Δw
A–pdlvam≥ Ccnth‰n
JZoP al¬
(t]mÃv) tXm´neßmSn,
(hgn) Acot°mSv,
673639 t^m¨: 9497118817
11
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
apJ- hpc
aX hnZym`ymk kmaqlnI kmkvImcnI taJeIfnse√mw
Gsd ]nt∂m°w \n∂ncp∂ tIcf apkvenwIƒ°v Znim t_m[w
\¬Inb GI CkvemanI \thm∞m\ {]ÿm\amWv apPmlnZv
{]ÿm\w. Hcp \q‰m≠n\SpØmbn apkvenwIsf Cu {]ÿm\w
\bn®psIm≠ncn°pIbmWv.
Cu {]ÿm\w Db¿Øn∏nSn® Bibw A¬∏w sshInsb
¶nepw kap-Zmbw Ipsd-sbms° kzoI-cn-®n-´p-≠v. tIcf \thm-
∞m\ Ncn-{X-Øn¬ apPm-lnZv {]ÿm-\sØ am‰n-\n¿Øn Hcp
Ncn{X cN\ km[y- a- √. apkv enw- Isf am{X- a√ kaq- lsØ
samØn¬ Xs∂ kzm[o\n°m≥ Cu alØmb {]ÿm\Øn\v
km[n®n´p≠v. "tIcf Ncn{Xw' F∂ ]pkvXIØn¬ (t]Pv: 352,
386, 387˛ Un.kn._n.) F. {io[ctat\m\pw tIcfhpw kzmX{¥y
ka- chpw F∂ ]pkvX- I- Øn¬ (t]Pv: 66, 67) s{]m^- k¿ F.
{io[c tat\m\pw "tIc-fob \thm-∞m\w' F∂ IrXn-bn¬ (
t]Pv: 73˛77 ˛ Nn¥ ]ªn- tj- gvkv) tUm. ]n.- F- ^v. tKm]- Ip- amdpw
"tIcf Ncn{Xw hnZym¿∞n- Iƒ°v' F∂ ]pkvX- I- Øn¬ (t]Pv:
126, 135) tUm. h≈n-°mhv taml≥Zmkpw Ckvemln {]ÿm\w
D≠m- °n b \thm- ∞m\ Ncn {Xw hn i- Zo- I- cn - °p- ∂p- ≠v .
CXpt]mep≈ [mcmfw IrXnIƒ D]e`vXamWv. 1998¬ Imen°‰v
k¿hIemime h°w auehnbpsS tXPknIƒ F∂ ]pkvXIw
]mT-]p-kvX-I-ambn {]kn-≤o-I-cn-®p. k\m-D√ a‡n X߃, la-
Zm\n X߃, C.sI. auehn, h°w auehn, C. sambvXp auehn,
aplΩZv A_vZpdlvam≥ kmln_v, koXn kmln_v, sI.Fw. aue
hn, sI.]n., sI.DΩ¿ auehn, XpSßn \nh[n t\Xm°ƒ BZ¿i
Øn¬ sshIeyØn¬ \n∂pw kmaqlnI ]nt∂m°mhÿbn¬
\n∂pw apkvenwIsf {]_p≤cm°m≥ XymIw kln® Ckzemlo
t\Xm°fmWv. F√m \∑bnepw kmaqly Db¿®bnepw ap∂n¬
12 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
\n∂psIm≠v tIcf P\Xsb \bn® ]mcºcyamWv Ckz vemlo
t\Xm°ƒ°pw {]ÿm\Øn∂pap≈Xv. ]≈nbnse JØot_m
Camtam F∂ \nebn¬ tIhew BJnd tXmgnemfnIƒ Bbncp
∂n√ Ah¿. _lp `mjm ]WvVn-Xcpw Htc kabw cmjv{So
kmaqlnI Imcyßfnse√mw CSs]´ Hmtcm {]ÿm\w Xs∂bm
bncp∂p. Ah¿ "‚p'∏q∏m°m\≠mbncp∂' F∂v ]d™v Imcy
an√t√m. AhcpsS hgnbneqsS k©cnt°≠hcmWv \mw.
I√pw ap≈pw \nd™ hgn-Isf cmP ]mX-bm-°n-Øo¿Ø
Ckz vemlo t\Xm-°-fpsS ]n≥Km-an-I-fm-th-≠, apkvenwIfpsS
`mKt[bw \n¿Wbnt°≠ \ΩpsS Nne t\Xm°ƒ (k°cnbm
°ƒ) B cmP ]mX-bn¬ ap≈pw I√pw hen-®n-Sp∂ ]Wn-bmWv
C∂v sNbv Xp- sIm- ≠n- cn- °p- ∂- Xv . cmPmhv \·- \m- sW∂
bmYm¿∞yw hnfn®p ]dbm≥ F´pw s]m´pw XncnbmØ CØncn
t∏m∂ Hcp Ip´n°v am{Xta Ign™n´p≈q F∂ s]m≈p∂ kXy
amWv CsX-gp-Xm-\p≈ t{]c-Iw. ssI∏p-≈-Xm-sW-¶nepw kXyw
]dbWw. kXyw ]et∏mgpw A{]nbamWv. tkzOm[n]Xnbmb
cmPmhns‚ ]pºn¬ kXyw Dds° ]dbp∂Xv PnlmZmsW¶n¬
CXv Hcp XqenIm hnπhamWv. I∏en\v Hm´bp≠m°p∂Xv ImWp
tºmƒ t\m°n-\n¬°p-∂Xv icn-b-√t√m? ke-^n-Ifpw ke^o
]Wv VnXcpw Fsßs\bmtWm lZokns\ a\nem°nbXv AXp
t]mse a\-n-em-°-W-sa-∂mWv ke^o a≥lPv \sΩ ]Tn-∏n-
°p∂Xv. H‰s∏´ Ht∂m ct≠m t]cpsS _p≤nbn¬ tXm∂nbXp
t]mse Jp¿-B-\n-s\bpw lZo-kn-s\bpw a\-n-e-°m-W-sa∂pw
DƒsIm≈Wsa∂pw hmin]nSn°p∂Xv XJv eoZns‚ DSpºn¬ amf
Ønte°p≈ {]thi\ IhmSw Xpd°emWv . XJv eoZn¬ \n∂mWv
ioCkhpw JhmcnPpIfpw apAvØknepIfpw D≠mbXv. kq^n
kØns‚ Ccp´dIfnte°mWv A‘m\pIcW {`aw sNs∂Øp
I. Ckzvemlo {]ÿm-\-Øn¬ ]utcm-ln-Xyhpw A‘m-\p-I-c-
W-hp-an-√. hy‡n tI{μo-IrX ]m¿´n-bm°n apPm-lnZv {]ÿm-
13
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
\sØ am‰m-\p≈ sIm≠p-]n-Sn-® {ia-amWv k°-cn-bm-°ƒ \S-
Øp∂Xv. CXv ]dbmXncn°m≥ hø.
Cßs\ Hcp ]pkv XIsagpXm\p≈ ImcW°mc\pw kzemln
Xs∂bmWv. ""Pn∂v, ]nimNv, kznlvdv hnjbnØn¬ Jp¿B\n\pw
kzlo-lmb lZo-kn\pw Alvep-p-∂-bpsS \ne-]m-Sp-Iƒ°pw
FXn-cmbn h√ ]pXnb hmX-ßfpw Bsc-¶nepw {]N-cn-∏n-Ip-∂p-
s≠¶n¬ BbXv FXn¿°s∏tS≠Xv Xs∂bmWv'' kzemlnbpsS
Cu hm°v apJ-hn-e-s°-Sp-°p-∂p. sI.-sP.-bp.hpw sI.-F≥.-Fw.
Dw c≠v {]mhiyw Cu hnibØn¬ k°cnbm°ƒs°Xncmbn
k¿°pe¿ Cd°n. \ΩpsS ]WvVnX≥am¿ k°cnbm kzemln
bpsS AXncv Ihn™ hmXsØ \ninXambn hna¿in®p. kzem
ln- s°- Xnsc {]_‘w Ah- X- cn- ∏n- °- s∏- ´p. t\Xr- Xz- Øns‚
ap∂n¬ sh®v ke^n \ne]mSns\Xnsc kwkmcn°pIbns√∂v
Dd∏v \¬IpIbpw P\߃°nSbnseØnbm¬ Xs‚ lnU≥ AP
≠- I- fpsS `mWvV- sI- ´p- Iƒ s]mXp P\- ߃°n- S- bn- te°v Agn-
®nSp∂ kz`mhamWv kzemln°p≈Xv. {]kwKØns‚ t]cnepw
kzemln t\Xr- Xz- Øn¬ \n∂v imk\ tIƒt°≠n h∂n- ´p- ≠v.
Xm≥ ]dbp∂sX√mamWv apPmlnZv BZ¿isa∂v hcpØnØoc
°m\p≈ IpX{¥ßfmWv kzemln ]b‰ns°m≠ncn°p∂Xv . tI.
sP.bp.hpw sI.F≥.Fw.Dw ]dbp∂Xmbncn°Ww \ΩpsS \ne
]mSv. lZokpIsf \ΩpsS _p≤°\pkcn®v hymJym\n°cpXv.
kq£v aX°pdhv aqew h√ A_≤hpw h∂v t]msb¶n¬ AsXmcp
hmZambn IcpXcpXv. sI.F≥.Fw. \ne]mSn\∏pdw as‰mcp Bi
bhpan√mØ \Ωn¬ s]´ ]escbpw lZokv \ntj[nIfpw bp‡n
hmZn-I-fp-am°n ap{Z-Ip-Øm-\p≈ k°-cn-bm-°-fpsS {iaw ke-
^n- Iƒ Xncn- ®- dn- bp- I- Xs∂ sNøpw. Cu ]pkvXI cN- \- bn¬
F\n°v F√m hn[ klmbhpw \¬Inb Fs‚ {]nb kplrØv
sI.-F≥.-Fw. Iymadm am≥ kn±oJv Xe-t»-cn, lmcnkv tNdq¿,
A\kv Xfn- ∏- d- ºv, F∂nh- tcm- Sp≈ \μn {]I- Sn- ∏n- °p- ∂p. Cu
teJ\w ke^n tIcfØn\v ka¿∏n°p∂p.
14 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
A[n- Im- chpw ÿm\hpw kmº- ØnI t\´hpw e£y- am-
°msX ke^o BZ¿i {]t_m- [\ ]mZ- bn- te- °n- d- ßnb
\nkzm¿∞cmb apPmlnZpIfpsS h\tcmZ\amWnXv. Zp¿_ecm
sW¶nepw sIm°n¬ Poh\htijn°pw ImetØmfpw apPmlnZv
{]ÿm\amIp∂ hShr£Øns‚ IS°v IØnsh°p∂hcpsS
ssI ]nSn-°m≥ \mw {]Xn-⁄m-_-≤-cm-Wv. Cu BZ¿i {]Im-
isØ DuZns°SpØmw F∂mWv Nne¿ hymtamln°p∂Xv. Hcn
°epw \n߃°-Xn\v km[y-a-√. Hcm-t£-]-I-cpsS Bt£-]-
sØbpw `oj-Wn-sbbpw `b-°mØ ^n¿J-Øp-∂m-Pnb F°m-
eØpw D≠mhpIXs∂ sNøpw.
sI.sI.]n. A_vZp√
(sF.- F- kv.- Fw.
kwÿm\ {]h¿ØI kanXn AwKw)
15
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
CkvXnKmk
AÃmlphnt\mSv am{Xw
Bcm- [\ A√m- lp- hn- t\mSv am{Xw F∂- Xv t]mse
Ckvemans‚ Poh\pw ASnØdbpamb XuloZns‚ ImX
emWv klmbtX´w A√m- lp- hn- t\mSv am{Xw F∂- Xv .
a\pjy Ign-hn-\-Xo-X-amb GsXmcp Imcyhpw A√m-lphn-
t\mSv am{Xta tNmZn°m\pw tXSm\pw ]mSp≈q F∂Imcy
Øn¬ ap≥KmanIƒ°nSbn¬ `n∂m`n{]mbap≠mbncp∂n√.
{]- am- W- ß- fp- sS ]q¿Æ- sh- fn- ®- Øn¬ k©- cn- ®p- sIm- ≠n- cn-
°p∂ Ckvemlo{]ÿm\Øn\pw C°mcyØn¬ ]£m¥
c- an- √. a\p- jy- I- gn- hn¬s]´ \√- Im- cy- ß- fn¬ ]c- kv ]cw
klmb klIcWw sNø¬ ]pWyamsW∂ hnjbØnepw
apkvenw߃°nSbn¬ X¿°an√t√m? acWs∏´ alm∑m¿°v
]eIgnhpw ]S®h≥ \¬Inbn´ps≠∂v ]d™v AhcpsS
Ign- hn¬s∏- SmØ Imcy- ß- fn¬ Ah¿ klm- bn- °p- sa∂
hnizmkw ChnsS ]ecpw sh®p- ]p- e¿Øp- ∂p≠v , AXp-
t]mse ae°pIƒ°pw Pn∂pIƒ°pwa\pjy¿°v IgnbmØ
]eIgnhpIfpw A√mlp\¬Inbn´ps≠¶nepw Ah¿ a\p
jysc btYjvSw klmbn°pw F∂ hnizmkw P\n∏n°p∂
NnesX‰n≤cn∏n°¬ ChnsS \S°p∂p≠v. krjvSnIfpsS
Ignhn\∏pdap≈ Imcy߃°mWv A`uXnI Imcysa∂pw
ad- ™- Im- cy- sa∂pw Imcy- Im- cW _‘- ߃°- ∏p- d- ap≈
Imcyßfpsa∂ kIcnø kzemlnbpsS ]pXnb \n¿hN\w
XuloZns‚ ASnØd Cf°p∂ A]IShmZamWv. At±l
Øns‚ \ho\\n¿hN\w Cßs\ hmbn°mw ad™am¿§
sa∂m¬ \ΩpsS IÆpsIm≠v t\cn¬ ImWm≥]‰mØ am¿§
sa∂√, AZriyam¿§sa∂ {]tbmKØn¬ \n∂v Nne¿ sX‰n
≤cn®XmWXv.ad™ am¿§w A`uXnI am¿§w F∂p ]d
16 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
™m¬ ImcyImcW_‘߃°∏pdap≈ am¿§w AYhm
krjvSnIfpsS Ignhn∂∏pdØp≈Xv F∂mW¿∞w At∏mƒ
ImcyImcW_‘߃°XoXambn \sΩ klmbn°m\pw
\ap°v D]{Zhw hcpØm\pw A√mlphn\v am{Xsa Ignbq
F∂mWv Hcp apkvenw hnizkn°p∂Xv .(ke^n{]ÿm\w
hna¿i- \- ßfpw adp- ]- Sn- bpw.sI.- sI.- k- I- cn- ø- kz- emln t]Pv
75)apIfn¬ ]d™ BibØn\v kam\amb hm°pIƒ CtX
]pkvXIØn¬ [mcmfw ÿeßfn¬ At±lw Bh¿Øn
°p∂p≠v. Pn∂pIƒ°pw ae°pIƒ°pw {]IrXymXs∂ ]e
IgnhpIfpaps≠∂v Jp¿B\pw lZokpw km£ys∏SpØp∂p.
{]kvXpXIgnhpIƒ a\pjys\ kw_‘n®nStØmfw Akm
[yamsW¶nepw Ah A`uXnItam ImcyImcW߃°∏p
dtØm A√Xs∂. (- Pn- ∂p- tk- hbpw ]nimNv _m[bpw
]nf¿∏≥amcpsS kz¥wIrXnIfn¬ kIcnøkzemln) Pn∂p
Iƒ CuIm-cy-ß-sfm-s°-sN-øp-∂Xv \ΩpsS {]Ir-Xn-°-Xo-
Xhpw AhcpsS {]IrXnhyhÿ°v A[o\hpamb \ne°mWv .
F√mw A√mlp \n›- bn- °p∂ hyh- ÿ- Xs∂ (AtX
]pkvXIw kIcnøkzemln) krjvSnIƒ°v \¬Is∏´ Ign
hn\v AXo- X- amb Imcy- ß- fn¬ klmbw tXS- emWv
{]m¿∞\ (ke- ^n- {]- ÿm\w hna¿i- \- ßfpw adp- ]- Snbpw
kIcnøkzemln t]Pv 101) a\pjy\n√mØ ]eIgnhpIfpw
A√mlp Pn∂n\v \¬Inbn´ps≠∂pw BIgnhns\ Ipdn®v
A`uXnIsa∂v hntijn∏n®p IqsS∂pwCu teJI\pw a‰p
Nnecpw ]d™t∏mƒ........ (AtX ]pkvXIw kIcnøkzem
ln t]Pv 101) Pn∂pIƒ°v A√mlp \¬Ip∂Ignhv a\pjy
Ignhn\v AXoXsa¶nepw AXns\ A`uXnIsa∂v hnti
jn∏n°p∂Xv CkvemanIambn icnb√. A`uXnIamb Ignhv
F∂Xv sIm≠v \mw Dt±- in- °p- ∂Xv A√mlp krjv Sn-
17
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
Iƒ°m¿°pw \¬In- bn´n√mØ Ign- sh- ∂m- Wv . (AtX
]pkv XIw kI- cn- ø- kz- em- ln t]Pv 100) ]nim- Np- °- fmb
Pn∂pIƒ Ahs‚ an{X߃°v sNøp∂ klmbsØ°p
dn®pw ae°pIƒ a\pjy¿°v sNøp∂ klmbsØ°pdn®pw
A`uXnIsa∂v ]d™pIqSm. (AtX ]pkvXIw kIcnø
kzemln t]Pv 103) AXpt]mse ]e s]mXp{]kwKßfnepw
CtX Bibw ka¿∞n°m≥ At±lw InW™p {ian®n
cp∂p.krjvSnIfpsS Ignhn¬s]´Imcyßfn¬ F∂v ]d™v
Imcy- Im- c- W- _- ‘- ߃°- I- Øm- °n- bm¬ \- sΩ- k- lm- bn-
°m\pw D]- {Z- hn- °m\pw Pn∂p- Iƒ°pw a‰pw Ign- bp- sa∂v
kzemln Zp¿{Km-ly-amb coXn-bn¬ ]d™p ^en-∏n-°m≥
{ian°pIbmWnhnsS. ad™ am¿§sØ krjvSnIfpsS Ign
hn-\-∏p-d-tØ°v hen-®p \o´n-bm¬ AXp-≠m-°p∂ {]iv\-
߃ KpcpXcambncn°pw. a\pjyIgnhn¬s]SmØ Imcy߃
A√mlpthmSv am{Xw F∂v ]d™m¬ a\pjy Ignhn¬ s]´
Imcy߃ ]ckv]cw tNmZn°m\pw klmbn°m\pw ]‰pw
F∂pw Ignhn¬s]SmØXv tNmZn°mt\m tXSmt\m -]mSn
s√∂pw GsXm- cmƒ°pw Ffp∏w a\- kn- em°mw. F∂m¬
krjvSnIfpsS Ignhn∂XoXw F∂ {]tbmKw sIm≠v a\p
jy\p ]pdsabp≈ krjvSnIfmb ae°pIfpw Pn∂pIfpw
]nim- Np- °- fp- sa√mw AXn¬s∏- Sp- at√m? A- ßs\ Pn∂n-
t\mSpw ae°nt\mSpw klmbw tXS¬ sX‰s√∂pw A\p
h- Z- \obamsW∂pw s]mXp- P\w Icp- Xpw.- \∑bnepw ]pWy-
Ønepw klIcn°m\pw Xn∑bnepw i{XpXbnepw \nl
Icn°m\pw Jp¿B≥ hnizmknItfmSv Bhiys∏´n´p≠t√m?
Cu BbØns‚ ]cn[nbn¬ ae°pIfpw Pn∂pIfpw s]Sp
sa∂v Hcp ap^ndpw C∂phsc ]d™n´n√. A√mlphns‚
A\paXn{]Imcw ae°pIƒ a\pjycdnbmsX Ahsc klm
18 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
bn°p∂Xv Cu ]d™Xn\v FXnc√. kIcnø kzemlnbpsS
krjvSnIƒ°XoXsa∂ hnNn{XhmZw At±lØns‚ Xs∂
hmNIØneqsS XIcp∂Xpw ChnsS ImWmw. “a\pjy\dn
bmsXbpw Bhiys∏SmsXbpw ae°pIfpw Pn∂pIfpw A√m
lp\n›bn® hyhÿb\pkcn®v a\pjysc klmbn°psa
∂Xv Jp¿-B≥ sIm≠pw lZo-kp-IƒsIm≠pw ÿnc-s∏-´-
Xm-Wv” Pn∂pIfpsSbpw, ae°pIfpsSbpw klmbw `uXnI
amsW¶n¬, a\p- jy- \- dn- bm- sXbpw Bh- iy- s∏- Sm- sX- bp≈
A√mlp \n›bn® hyhÿ°\pkcn®p≈ klmbw F∂
\n_‘\ F¥n\mWv? `uXnIamsW¶n¬ klmbw tXS¬
in¿°s√∂v am{Xa√, \√ ImcyØn¬ ]pWyhpamWv. a\p
jys‚ \∑bpw Xn∑bpw tcJs∏SpØm≥ A√mlp ae°p
Isf G¿s∏SpØnbn´p≠v. C¬ans‚ kZnepw ]≈nbnepw,
PpapA Znhkw ]≈nbn¬ t\csØ hcp∂hcpsS t]scgp
Xm\psa√mw, ae°pIƒhcpw. A√mlp ae°pIsf Cßs\
]etPmenIfpw G¬∏n®n´p≠v. A√mlphns‚ I¬∏\Iƒ
bYm- hn- [n- ]m- en- °- emWv Ah- cpsS tPmen.- Pn- ∂p- I- ƒ a\p-
jysct]mse kzX{¥cmWv. Ahcn¬ \√hcpw Zpjn®hcp
ap≠v. a\pjys‚ Imcy߃ t\m°mt\m a\pjysc klm
bn°mt\m A√mlp Ahsc NpaXes∏SpØnbn´n√. J\\w
sNbvXpw KthjWw \SØnbpw Is≠tØ≠ henb Imcy
sam∂pa√nXv. Cu hnj-b-Øn¬ apkvenw߃°nSbn¬ H´pw
X¿°hpan√. krjvSnIƒ°XoXsa∂ {]tbmKw kIcnø°v
apºv ap≥KmanIfmb ke^n]finX∑mcn¬ ]ecpw FgpXn
bn´ps≠∂pw B{]tbmKØn¬ Hcp A]mIXbpans√∂pw
kIcnbbpw A\pbmbnIfpw P¬∏n°p∂p. F∂m¬ kXyhpw
AkXyhpw XΩn¬ Ch¿Iq´n Ipg°pIbmWv. ]n.A_vZp¬
JmZ¿ auehn FgpXnb AØuloZv F∂ ]pkvXIØn¬
19
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
c≠v ÿeØv krjvSnIƒ°XoXw F∂ ]Z{]tbmKw D≈Xv
Ch¿°p≈ hen- b- sX- fn- hmbn Fgp∂≈n- °p- ∂Xv {i≤-
bn¬s]´n´p≠v. F∂m¬ Bc≠v ÿeØpw krjvSnIƒ°
XoXw F∂XvsIm≠v a\pjykrjvSnsb am{Xta At±lw
Dt±- in- ®n- ´p≈q, F∂- Imcyw kμ¿`- Øn¬\n∂pw hfsc
hy‡amWv. “ZpB” F∂ ]Zw {]kvXpX kwt_m[Øn\v
(krjvSnIfpsS Ignhn\∏pdap≈ kwKXnIƒ°v th≠nbp≈
kwt_m[Øn\v) (AØuloZv P55) F∂m¬ krjvSnItfmSv
Ah¿°v Ignhp≈ kwKXnIfn¬ klmbØn\t]£n°m
sa∂Xns\ BcpwXs∂ \ntj[n°p∂n√ (t]Pv 88) krjvSn
Iƒ F∂Xv sIm≠v ]n. A_vZp¬Jm- Zn¿ aue- hn- bm- Is´
AXpt]mse at‰Xv apPmlnZv ]WvUnX\pamIs´ Ahsc√mw
a\pjy krjv Sn- sb- bmWv Dt±- in- °p∂Xv Hcp DZm- l- cWw
AØuloZn¬ \n∂pw Ipdn°mw.
""a\pjy i‡n°v A[o\a√mØXpw ImcyImcW
_- ‘- ߃°v AXo- X- hp- amb Imcy- ߃°mbn k¿h- Xn-
s‚bpw {]Ya ImcWamb A√mlphns\am{Xta B{ibn
°mhq, F∂pw ImcyImcW_‘Øns‚ ]cn[n°∏pdambn
ÿnXn sNøp∂ Imcy- ߃°v th≠n B{i- bn- °p- hm≥
A¿l-X-bp-≈-h≥ km£m¬ ssZh-amb A√m-l-ph-√msX
a‰pbmsXm∂pw Xs∂bn√ F∂pamWv emCemlC√√mlv
F∂ ]cnip≤ hmIyw \sΩ ]Tn∏n°p∂Xv (AØuloZv.
]n. A_vZp¬ JmZn¿ auehn IÆq¿ ˛ t]Pv 25) F∂m¬
a\pjys‚ Ignhn∂∏pdap≈Xpw A√mlphn\v am{Xw Ign
hp≈Xpamb Imcy߃... (t]Pv 12)
""KpW kºm- Z- \- Ønt\m tZmj \nhm- c- W- Ønt\m
Bbn a\pjycpsS Ignhn\v A∏pdap≈ Imcy߃°v th≠n
acn-®-htcm Pohn-®n-cn-°p-∂-htcm Bb Bfp-I-tfmSv ZpB
sNøp∂Xv Bcm[\bmWv'' (AØuloZv t]Pv 54)
20 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
""ASnaIsf∂ \nebn¬ a\pjy i‡n°v AXoX
amb Ignhpw {]m]vXnbpw Ahcn¬ Btcm]n°p∂Xv ]cam
_≤amWv. Ah¿ Ahsc Xs∂ klmbn°m≥ Ignhn√m
Ø- h- cp- amWv '' (t]Pv 66) CXp- t]mse Xs∂- bmWv a‰p
Ckvemlo- ]- finX∑mcpsS IrXn- I- fpw. F∂m¬ kI- cnø
kzemlnbpsS DkvXmZv P∫m¿ auehn,Xs‚ teJ\Øn¬
Pn∂nt\mSv klmbw tXSmsa∂v ]®bmbn FgpXnbncp∂p.
“]I¬ shfn- ®- Øn¬ hnP\- amb acp- `q- an- bn- eqsS hgn- b- dn-
bmsX \S∂pt]mIp∂ a\pjy≥ ]S∏pItf Fs∂ klm
bn°tW F∂v hnfn®p]d™m¬ AXn¬ a\pjy\p]pdsa
Pn ∂pw ae°pw s]Spsa∂v At±lw Zp¿hym- Jym\w
\SØnbncp-∂p.”]eh´w Ckvemlv amknIbn¬ P∫m¿ au
ehnbpw a‰pw hnP\{]tZisØ Pn∂nt\mSp≈ klmbtX
´-sØ-∏‰n Bh¿Øn-s®-gp-Xn-bn-´pw P∫m¿au-e-hnsb Xncp-
Øp- ∂- Xn- \p- ]- Icw ae- °n- t\mtSm Pn∂n- t\mtSm klmbw
Bhiys∏Smtam? Ah¿ klmbn°ptam? F∂ N¿® P∫m¿
auehnbpsS BteJ\Øns‚ Dt±iyta A√ F∂v ]d™v
kzemln Xs‚ ]pkv X- I- ØneqsS \ymbo- I- cn- °m\mWv
{ian°p- ∂Xv . k- I- cn- øm- kz- em- ln- bpsS ta¬t\m- ´- Øn- en- d-
ßp∂ Ckv emlv amkn- I- bn¬ hnP- \- {]- tZ- isØ Pn∂n-
t\mSqw ae°nt\mSpap≈ klmbtX´w ]eh´w Bh¿Øn
®n´pw Snbm≥ AsXm∂pw I≠ns√∂v \Sn°pIbmWv. sIm
√߃°v apºv aÆm¿°mSv sh®v kp∂nIfpambn \SØnb
hmZ- {]- Xn- hm- Z- Øn¬ {]kv XpX lZokv fCu- ^m- sW∂v
kzemln BW- bn´v hy‡- am- °n- b- XmWv . Zp¿_- e- amb
lZokmsW∂v AwKoIcn®psIm≠vXs∂ kzemln AhnsS
apkvenw Pn∂ns\ Fgp∂≈n°m\pw {ian®ncp∂p. Zp¿_e
amb lZokns‚ ImcyØn¬ I¿i\amb \ne]msSSp°p∂
21
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
apPmlnZpIƒ°v tN¿∂ coXnbmtWm CXv. kakvX°msc
t∏mse kz¥w hmZw-ÿm-]n-°m≥ Zp¿_e lZokpw ]‰p-
sa∂ bp‡n Fhn- sS- \n- ∂m- Wmthm kem- ln°v In´n- b- Xv.
Cu Hcp hnjbØn¬ am{Xa√ ]e hnjbØnepw At±lw
Zp¿hymJy\w \S- Øn- bn- cp- ∂p. Bb- Øns\ Zp¿hym- Jym- \n-
°p-∂-hcpw Zp¿_-e-l-Zokv sIm≠p-\-S-°p-∂-hcpw C_v\p
XoanbbpsS ^Xmhm Bh¿Øn®p hmbn°s´
Ò°ùØàdG ÒZ ≈∏Y ¬∏jhCÉJh åj~◊G hCG ¿BGô≤dG ô°ùa øe
¬∏dG ≈∏Y ÎØe º¡a Ú©HÉàdGh áHÉë°üdG øY ±hô©ŸG
Gògh,¬©°VGƒŸG øY º∏μ∏d ±ôfi ¬∏dG äÉjCG ‘ ~ë∏e
¿Ó£ÑdG Ωƒ∏©e ƒgh OÉ◊E ’Gh áb~fõdG ÜÉÑd íàa
(13ê243¢U: ihÉàØdG ´ƒª› )ΩÓ°S’G øjO øeQGô£°VE ’ÉH
“kzlm- _n- I- fn- ¬\n∂pw Xm_n- D- I- fn¬\n∂pw Adn-
bs∏´ X^vkod√mØhn[w Jp¿B\ns\bpw lZokns\bpw
Bsc¶nepw hniZoIcn®m¬ Ah≥ A√mlphns‚ t]cn¬
Ifhv Btcm]n°p∂h\pw A√mlphns‚ hN\ßsf \ntj
[n°p∂h\pw, hN\߃ÿm\Øv \n∂v sX‰n°p∂h\p
amWv . CXv \n¿ΩXXz- Øn- s‚bpw aX- \n- tj- [- Øns‚bpw
IhmSw Xpd- °- em- Wv . - Zo- \p¬ Ckv eman\v \nc- °mØ
s]m≈hmZamWsX∂Xv kphy‡amWv” Pn∂v ]nimNv hnj
bØn¬ AXncpIhnbpIbpw Zp¿hymJym\w \¬In Xs‚
hmZ߃ {]amWoIcn°m\pamWv kIcnø kzemln {ian
°p- ∂- Xv . {]m¿∞- \- bp- tSbpw Bcm- [- \- bp- tSbpw Xulo- Zn-
t‚bpw \n¿ΔN\w ]dbptºmsf√mw As√¶n¬ A√mlp
hn¬ \n∂p≈ Imcy߃°mhptºmsg√mw a\pjyIgnhn\
XoXw F∂ {]tbmKambncp∂p \mfnXzsc D]tbmKn®ncp∂
Xv. FXm\pw DZmlcW߃ NphsS sImSp°mw.
22 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
a\pjy Ignhn\XoXw
1. a\pjy Ignhn∂XoXamb Imcyßfn¬ Pohn®ncn°p∂-h
tcmtSm acn - ®- h- tcmtSm klm- bm¿∞\ \S- Øp- ∂Xv
in¿°mWv (sI. Ip™oXpaZ\n, A√mlphns‚ Huenbm
°ƒ t]Pv 102)
2. a\pjy Ign- hn- \- ∏p- d- ap≈ am¿K- ß- fn¬ IqSn c£bpw
in £bpw KpWhpw tZmjhpw sNøm≥ Ign - bp- ∂Xv
B¿°mtWm Aht\mSp≈ At]£°mWv {]m¿∞\ F∂v
]d-bp∂Xv (C…manI hnizmk ]mT߃, 4mw ¢mkv sI.
F≥.-Fw. hnZym-`ymk t_m¿Uv, t]Pv 32,36)
3. a\pjy Ignhn\v km[n°mØ Imcyßfnep≈ klmb
tX´w krjvSnItfmSv \SØp∂Xv A\phZn°s∏SmØXm
Wv . {]kvXpX tX´w Bcm[\bmWv AXv A√mlphnt\mSv
am{Xta tXSmhq (A√mlphns\ GI\m°pI kpsseam≥
\Zvhn t]Pv 17)
4. a\pjy i‡n°v A[o\a√mØXpw ImcyImcW _‘-
ß- ƒ°v AXo- X- hp- amb Imcy- ߃°mbn k¿h- Xn- s‚bpw
{]Ya Imc- W- amb A√m- lp- hns\ am{Xta B{i- bn- °mhq
(AØuloZv, ]n.A_vZp¬ JmZn¿ auehn IÆq¿ t]Pv 25)
5. KpW kºmZ\Ønt\m tZmj \nhmcWØnt\m Bbn
a\pjycpsS Ignhn\v A∏pdap≈ Imcy߃°pth≠n acn®
htcmSv Pohn®ncn°p∂htcm Bb BfpItfmSv ZpB sNøp
∂Xv Bcm[\bmWv. (AØuloZv˛ t]Pv54)
6. ASn- a- I- sf∂ \ne- bn¬ a\pjy i‡n°v AXo- X- amb
Ignhpw {]m]vXnbpw Ahcn¬ Btcm]n°p∂Xv ]cam_≤
amsW∂pw hmkvXhØn¬ Ah¿ Ahsc Xs∂bpw klm
bn°m≥ Ignhp≈ hcs√∂pw kv]jvSambpw {]kvXmhn°p
∂p. (AØu-loZv ˛ t]Pv 66)
23
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
7. C\n a\pjymXoX i‡nt° Xßsf c£n°m≥ Ignbp
I-bp-≈q-sh∂v Ah¿°v ZrV t_m[y-am-bn-Øo-cp-∂p. Cu
kμ¿`- Øn¬ Ah- cpsS a\- n¬ \n∂v \njv If- ¶- amb
{]m¿∞-\-I-fp-b-cp-∂p. (C…m-ans‚ Poh≥ Ip™o-Xp-a-Z\n
t]Pv 24)
8. a\pjy≥ a\dn™p {]m¿∞n°p∂ ]e kμ¿`ßfpap
≠v . Xma- c- t»cn Npc- Øn- eqsS IS- ∂p- t]m- Ip∂ Hcp _v
Hcp hf-hn-se-Øn-b-t∏mƒ \nb-{¥Ww hnSp-∂p. C\n a\p-
jym-XoX i‡n-°p-am-{Xta Rßsf c£n-°m≥ Ign-bp-I-
bp≈p F∂v Ah¿°v ZrU t_m[yap≠mIp∂p. (C…mans‚
ASnØd XuloZv Ip™oXp aZ\n t]Pv 52)
9. a\pjyIgnhn\v AXoXamb Imcyßfn¬ krjvSnItfmSv
klmbw tXSp∂Xn\v Jp¿B≥ in¿°v F∂v ]d™Xn\v
sXfnhp≠v. (A≥I _qØv 65, hnNn¥\w 2011 sabv 13 t]Pv
˛9)
10. a\pjyIgnhn\v AXoXamb Imcy߃°p≈ klmb
tØ´w Bcm[\bmWv.
(A-√m-lp-hns\ GI-\m-°p-I˛ kpsse-am≥ \Zvhn˛ t]Pv˛
16)
11. \nt∂mSpam{Xw R߃ klmbw A¿∞n°p∂p F∂ -
hmIyw a\pjy i‡n°v A∏pdØp≈ Imcyßfn¬ ssZh
tØmS√msX a‰mtcmSpw \mw klmbsØ A`y¿∞n°cp
sX∂v ]Tn- ∏n- °p- ∂p. (^m- Øn- l- bpsS XocØv , sI. Da¿
auehn, t]Pv˛ 63)
12. a\pjy i‡n°[o\ßf√mØ Imcyßsf kw_‘n®n
StØmfw ssZhtØmS√msX a‰mtcmsS¶nepw klmbsØ
A¿∞n- °p- ∂Xv Ahsc Bcm- [n- °p- ∂Xv t]mse Xs∂
Ah¿°v ZnhyXzw Ds≠∂v hniz-kn-°p-∂-Xns‚ ^e-am-I-
24 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
bm¬ A\ysc Bcm[n°p∂hsc t]mse Xs∂ AhtcmSv
ap\pjy i‡n°v ]pdsabp≈ hnjbßfn¬ klmbsØ
A¿∞n°p∂hcpw Ahsc ssZhtØmSv kmZriys∏SpØp
IbmWv. (^mØnlbpsS XocØv˛ Da¿ auhen t]Pv ˛63)
13. A√mlphns‚ klmbhpw tcmKia\hpw GXv cq]Øn
emsW∂v \ap°⁄mXamWv. tUmIvS¿ sNøn∂Xv t]mse
A√mlp t\¿°pt\sc h∂v ]cntim[n®v acp∂v \¬Ipsa
∂√ Dt±-iyw. adn®v a\pjy¿°v IgnbmØ XnI®pw Imcy
ImcW _‘߃°XoXamb A`uXnI am¿§Øn¬ klm
bn°psa∂mWv. (CkvXnKmk: Zp¿hyJym\w sNøs∏Sp∂
BbØpIƒ im^nkzemlnNßeocn t]Pv ˛8)
14. a\pjy Ignhn\XoXamb Imcy-߃°vth≠n \S-Øp∂
klmb¿∞\Iƒ°v CkvXnKmk F∂v ]dbpsa∂v (t]Pv
˛9)
15. Npcp°Øn¬ a\pjy¿ ]ckv]cw sNøp∂ AhcpsS Ign
hnepw \nb{¥WØnepw s]SmØ klmb߃ A√mlp
hnt\mSv am{Xta tNmZn°m≥ ]mSp≈p. CXmWv CkvXnKm
kbpsS C…manI ho£Ww. (CkvXnKmk: Zp¿hymJy\w
sNøs∏Sp∂ BbØpIƒ t]Pv ˛14 im^n kemln Nßn
te-cn) (t]-Pv-˛27, 31)
16. Npcp°Øn¬ a\pjyIgnhns‚ ]cn[nb¬s]SmØ klm
b- ߃/A`u- Xn- I- amb klm- b- ߃/ Imcy- Im- cW _‘-
߃°- Xo- X- amb klmb߃ A√m- lp- hn- t\mSv am{Xta
tNmZn°m≥ ]mSp≈psh∂v ta¬hniZo-I-c-W-Øn¬ \n∂pw
a\-n-em-°m≥ km[n-°pw. t]Pv(32)
17. km[mcW kz`mhØne√mØ GXv klmb {]Xo£bpw
tX´hpw {]m¿∞\bpamWv. AØcw klmbw sNø¬ a\p
jys‚ Ignhns‚ ]cn[nbn¬ s]´X√. (hmZ{]XnhmZßfn
25
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
eqsS˛F.]n. bpambn A`napJw˛C.sI.Fw. ]∂q¿ t]Pv ˛97)
18. A]IS L´ßfn¬ A`bw tXSnbncp∂Xpw Bhiyß
fp∂bn®ncp∂Xpw AhtcmSmbncp∂p ap\jyIgnhpIƒ°
XoXamb kn≤nIƒ I√pIƒ°pw ac߃°pw Ah¿ Ah
tcm[n®p. ssiJv aplΩZv_v\p A_vZp¬ hlm_v ˛Ip™n
aplΩZv ]d∏q¿ t]Pv ˛9)
19. `cta¬∏n°pI, ImcyImcW\nbaßfneq∂n \n∂v AXn
\∏pdsØ Imcy߃ ]S®hs\ G¬]n°pI F∂ efnX
amb thKw a\nemhp∂ kXyw, XXzw (XuloZv , Xh°q
ew, kpssl¿ Np¶Ød˛t]Pv ˛13)
20. ImcyImcW \nba߃ ]men°Ww. Ah a\pjy Ign
hn¬s]´XmWv. Ignhn¬s]´Imcyßfn¬ Ah\h≥ Xs∂
bmWv DØchmZn (t]-Pv-˛13)
21. IgnhpIƒ°∏pdØp≈h ]S®hs\ G¬∏n°Ww. (t]-
Pv-˛14)
22. a\pjyIgnhn\v ]pdsabp≈h Kbv_nbmb ⁄m\w A√m
lphn¬am{Xw ]cnanXamIp∂p. (A¬ a\m¿ 1985 G{]n¬
t]Pv ˛46)
23. a\pjy Ignhn\XoXamb {]iv\ßfn¬ ad™ hgnbn
eqsS Fßs\ klmbw e`n°psa∂dnbmsX, GXp klm
bhpw FØn- °p- hm≥ Ign- hp≈h≥ A√m- lp- am- {X- am- Wv .
F∂m¬ Cu kXyØn¬ \n∂v hfsc AIeØnemWv ssZh
hnizmknIƒ. ]S® d∫ns\ Hcp t\m°p IpØnbmbn \n¿Øn
Ahs‚ krjvSnItfmSv klmbw tXSp∂p. ae°pIƒ, Pn∂p
Iƒ, ac- W- s∏- ´- h¿, Pohn- ®n- cn- ∏p- ≈- h¿, hr£- ߃ k¿∏-
߃ (A¬a-\m¿ 2006 P\p-hcn t]Pv-˛19)
23. a\pjycpsS klmbw sIm≠v ]cnlcn°m≥ IgnbmØ
{]bm-k-ßfpw {]iv\-ßfpw D≠m-Ip-tºm-fmWt√m AP-ø-
26 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
\mb Hcp i‡ntbmSv klmbw tXSp∂Xv. (A¬a\m¿ 2006
P\p-hcn t]Pv˛ 18)
24. krjv Sn- I- tfmSv klmbw tXScp- sX∂v sXfn- bn- °m≥
]finX∑m¿ ]d™Xpw FgpXnbXpamb F{Xtbm sXfn
hpIƒ \ΩpsS apºnep≠v. (A¬a\m¿ 2006 P\phcn t]Pv
˛22)
25. a\pjyIgnhn\XoXamb hn[Øn¬ c£min£Itf¬∏n
°m- \p≈ Ignhv Cu {]]- ©- Øn¬ A√m- lp- hn- \- √msX
a‰m¿s°¶nepw Ds≠∂v hnizkn®m¬ in¿°mIpw. (A√m
lphns‚ Huenbm°ƒ, Ip™oXpaZ\n)
26. {]hmNI¿t]mepw a\pjyIgnhn\XoXamb AZriy߃
Adnbpsa∂p IcpXmhXs√∂pw AZriyImcy߃ Adnbp
hm\p≈ Ignhv A√mlphn\v am{XamsW∂pw idlp¬ AJm
CZn¬ {]kvXmhn°p∂p. (CkvXnKmk.sI.]n.t]Pv: 130,131)
27. {]hmNI≥am¿ a\pjyIgnhn\XoXamb ]e A¤pX
IrXy- ßfpw sNbvXn- ´p- ≠v. bYm¿∞- Øn¬ Ah- cpsS Ign-
hnepw A[o\Ønepw s]´ Imcyambncp∂n√ AXv. (AtX
]pkvXIw, t]Pv˛ 132)
28. a\pjyIgn∂XoXamb Imcy߃ Pn∂pItfmSpw ae°p
ItfmSpw tNmZn®m¬ in¿°mhns√∂mWv ChnsS k°cnø
bpsS t\Xr- Xz- Øn- ep≈ ke- ^n- tSm¨ Xpd∂p {]Jym- ]n-
°p-∂-Xv. (kp-∂n-thmbvkv 2008 s^{_-hcn , t]Pv-˛11)-
29. ""B Ignhn∂∏pdap≈ Imcyßsf°pdn®p≈ tNmZyßsf
kw_- ‘n- ®mWv ae- bmf `mj- bn¬ km[m- cW {]m¿∞\
F∂v D]- tbm- Kn- °m- dp- ≈Xv'' (sIm´- ∏pdw kwhmZw, H.- Fw.
XcphW t]Pv 10)
30. apPmlnZv ]WvUnX≥ AXn\pw adp]Sn ]d™p : ""{]m¿∞
\˛At]£ ho≠pw hcp∂p. A√mlp a\pjy\v km[mcW
27
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
sImSp- °m- dp≈ Ign- hn- ∂- Xo- X- amb Imcy- ß- fn¬ Ah- tcmSv
At]£n°p∂XmWv {]m¿∞\'' (AtX]pkvXIw t]Pv 21)
""apPmlnZv ]WvUnX∑m¿ ]d™ Cu bmYB¿∞yw
AwKoIcn°m≥ Iq´m°mØ kakvX kp∂nIƒ°v HSphn¬
B kXyw AwKo-I-cn-t°≠n h∂p.'' (Ckvemlv 2004 am¿®v
t]Pv 24)
31. a\pjy Ignhn∂∏pdap≈ klmb tX´Øn\mWt√m apPm
lnZp ]WvUnX∑m¿ sIm´∏pdØv {]m¿∞\ F∂v hniZoI
cn-®-Xv. (Ckvemlv 2004 am¿®v t]Pv 24)
32. CXpXs∂bmWv apPmlnZpIƒ ]d™ a\pjy Ignhn∂
∏pdØp≈ klmbhpw, AXy¥nIw, ]caw Fs∂√mw ]d
bp- ∂- Xv . a\p- jy- I- gn- hn- ∂- ∏p- d- Øp≈ kwK- Xn- °m- sW∂
kXyw kakvX kp∂nIfpw AwKoIcn°pat√m? (Ckvemlv
2004 am¿®v t]Pv 25)
kpsseam≥ kJm^n amfntb°¬t]mepw apPmln
ZpIfpsS hnizmksØ °pdn®v a\nem°nbncp∂p. At±
lØns‚ kp∂Øv PamAØv F∂ ]pkvXIØn¬ [mcmfw
ÿeØv a\p- jy- I- gn- hn- \- XoXw apPm- ln- Zp- I- fpsS hmZ- am-
sW∂ ka¿∞\w ImWmw.
a\pjyIgnhn\∏pdap≈ Imcyßfn¬ Pohn-°p-∂-h-
tcmtSm acn®htcmtSm klmbm¿∞\ \SØp∂Xv _lp
ssZhmcm[\ in¿°msW∂v, CkvXnKmk hntcm[nIfpsS
hmZØn\v Jp¿B≥, kp∂Øv ap…nw temIØns‚ CPvam
Av XpSßnbh- bn- sem∂pw bmsXm- c- Sn- ÿm- \- hp- an- s√∂v
CXn¬ \ns∂√mw hy‡amIp∂p. (kp∂Øv PamAØv ˛
kpsse-am≥ kJm^n amfn-tb-°¬ 9˛mw ]Xn∏v t]Pv-˛47)
a\pjyIgnhn\∏pdap≈ Imcyßfn¬ PohnXImeØpw
acWtijhpw \_n(k)tbmSv klm_Øv klmbw tXSn
28 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
bXmbn lZokpIfn¬ ImWmhp∂XmWv. (t]Pv ˛38)
kemaXv(d) apdnth‰Imepambn \_n(k)sb kao]n®Xv a\p
jyIgnhn\∏pdØp≈ klmbw {]hmNI khn[Øn¬ \n∂v
e`n-°p-sa∂ hnizmktØmsSbmbn-cp-∂p. (t]-Pv-˛39)
adhn°v a\pjyIgnhn\∏pdap≈ {]Xnhn[ntXSnbmWv
A_vZplpdbvd(d) \_nsb kao]n°p∂Xv (t]Pv ˛39), a\p
jyIgnhn\∏pdØnep≈ am¿KØneqsS sh≈w e`n°W
sa∂t√ kzlm_nam¿ B{Kln°p∂Xv? (t]Pv ˛40), a\p-jy-
I-gn-hn-\-∏p-d-Øp≈ am¿K-Øn-eqsS {]iv\-Øn\v ]cn-lmcw
ImWpIbpw sNøp∂p. (t]Pv˛40) \_n(k)tbmSv a\pjyIgn
hn¬s]-SmØ Cu Imcyw tNmZn°p∂XvsIm≠v apivcn°m
IpIbns√∂v d_oAØv (d) hnizkn°p∂p. (t]Pv˛41) Aß
s\sb¶n¬ a\pjyIgnhn\∏pdØp≈ CØcw Imcy߃
tNmZn°∂Xv in¿°msW∂v \_n(-k) D]-tZin°pambncp
∂n-√. (t]-Pv-˛41)
Npcp- °- Øn¬ a\p- jy- I- gn- hn- \- ∏p- d- ap≈ Imcy- ߃
tNmZn- °p- ∂- Xn\v C…m- an¬ hntcm- [- an- s√∂v {]am- W- ߃
ÿncoIcn®ncn°pIbmWv. (kp∂Øv PamAØv: amfntb°¬
kpsseam≥ kJm^n t]Pv ˛41)
a\p- jy- I- gn- hn- \- Xo- X- amb Imcy- ߃ \_n(- k)
sNbvXncp∂Xv apAvPnkØneqsSbmWv. apAv PnkØv kzX
{¥ambn CjvSw t]mse sNømhp∂ Hcp Ignh√. A√mlp
Dt±y- in- °p- tºmƒ Ah- \p- t±- in- °p∂ {]hm- N- I- ∑m- cpsS
ssIbneqsS shfnhm°p∂ Aam\pjnIamb A¤pXamWv
apAvPnksØ∂ hkvXpXsb ad®psh®v sIm≠mWv kJm
^nam¿ P\ßsf h©n°p∂Xv. F¶nepw a\pjyIgnhn\
XoXamb Imcy߃ A√mlphn¬ \n∂v am{Xta D≠mIp
F∂ hnizmkw apPmlnZpIfpsS hnizmksa∂mWv kJm
^n t]mepw \√Xv t]mse a\nem°nbnXv.
29
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
a\pjy Ignhpw klmbtX«hpw
A≈mlp A√mØsX√mw krjvSnbmWv a\pjycpw
ae°pw Pn∂pw IpXncbpw H´Ihpw sPkn_nbpw.... F√mw
krjvSnbmWv. krjvSnIƒ°v Hmtcm∂n\pw hyXykvXamb
Hmtcm IgnhmWv A≈mlp \¬InbXv a\pjy\v `qanbneqsS
IpXn- csb t]mse HmSm- \m- hn- √, Pe- Øn- eqsS a’y- sØ-
t∏mse \o¥m\pamhn√ BImiØneqsS ]dhIsft∏mse
]d°m\pamhn√ F∂ncp∂mepw a\pjy\v A≈mlp a‰p Pohn
Iƒ°n- √mØ [mcmfw Ign- hp- Iƒ \¬In- bn- ´p≠v AXn¬
G‰hpw khntijambXv hntij _p≤nbpw AdnhpamWv.
Ah- \mWv `qan- bn- ep- ≈- sX√mw \n߃°v th≠n krjvSn-
°p-∂-Xv. (2:29)F√m hkvXp-°tfbpw krjvSn-®n-cn-°p-∂Xv
a\pjy\pth≠nbmWv `oamImcamb B\sb Xf°m\pw \oe
Øn- aow- K- esØ th´- bm- Sm\pw A≈mlp a\p- jy\v Ignhv
\¬In-bn-´p≠v hmkvX-h-Øn¬ a\p-jy-s\-°mƒ F{Xsbm
Cc´n hep∏hpw i‡nbpap≈ PohnItfmSv a√nSm≥ {]Ir
Xym a\pjy\v km[yas√¶nepw F√m PohnIsfbpw hcp[n
bnem°m\p≈ Adnhpw _p≤nbpw A≈mlp a\pjy\v \¬In
bn´p≠v. a\pjycn¬Xs∂ HmtcmcpØ¿°pw hyXykvXamb
IgnhmWp≈X.v A≈mlp a\pjy\v \∑bpw Xn∑bpw {]hm
N-I-∑m¿ aptJ-\-bpw, thZ-{K-Ÿ-߃ aptJ-\bpw ]Tn-∏n®v
sImSp°p∂p. CjvSap≈Xv sXcs™Sp°m\p≈ kzmX{¥yw
\¬In. a\pjyscbpw Pn∂pIsfbpw A√mlphns\ Bcm
[n°phm≥ am{XamWv krjvSn®ncn°p∂sX∂v A√mlp Hm¿an
∏n®p. A√mlphns‚ krjvSnIfn¬s∏´ as‰mcp h¿§amWv
ae°pIƒ. ]m]kpc£nXXzap≈hcmWv Ah¿ A√mlp
hns‚ I¬]\Iƒ ewLn°pIbn√. a\pjycpw Pn∂pIfpw
30 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
]e hnjbØnepw kzX{¥cmWv. kXyhnizmkw kzoIcn
°m\pw \∑- sN- øp- hm\pw kzmX- {¥yap- ≈- Xp- t]m- se- Xs∂
Ahnizmkw kzoIcn°m\pw Xn∑sNøphm\pw a\pjy¿°pw
Pn∂n\pw A≈mlp kzmX{¥yw \¬Inbn´p≠v. a\pjysc
t∏mse Pn∂pIƒ°pw hnXykvXamb IgnhmWv D≈Xv. a\p
jyt\°mƒ ]e i‡nbpw Ignhpw imcocnIambn Ah¿°v
Ds≠-¶nepw a\p-jy-t\mfw _p≤ntbm Adnthm Ah¿°n-
s√∂v thWw a\nem°m≥. Ah\mWv `qanbnep≈sX√mw
\n߃°pth≠n krjvSn®pX∂-Xv. (hn.Jp. 2˛29) CXmWv
hy‡am°p∂Xv a\pjysc kw_‘n®nStØmfw Pn∂pIƒ
AZriy PohnIfmWv. Cu hnjbIambn {]amW߃ ]d
bp- ∂Xv AXvt]mse hniz- kn- °p- ∂- X- √msX AXn¬ IqSp-
X¬ Adnbm≥ bmsXmcp \n¿hmlhpan√. {]amWØn\∏pdw
Nn¥t°m, At\zjWØnt\m ]co£W߃t°m, imkv{X
Ønt\m, et_m´dnt°m hgßp∂ hnjba√nXv AXn\m¬
ae°pIsf ]‰nbpw Pn∂pIsf]‰nbpw IqSpX¬ ]dbp∂Xpw
Nn¥n°p∂Xpw A]ISamWv DulØnte°pw k¶¬∏Øn
te°pw A\mhiy `oXnbnte°pw A]k¿]IYIfnte°pw
FØnt®cms\ CØcw At\zjtWmZy-a߃ hgnsh°q.
X\n- °m- h- iy- an- √mØ Imcy- ߃°v Xe- bn- Sm- Xn- cn- °- emWv
ap…nwIƒs°√mw \√Xv. Pn∂phnjbØn¬ tI´ptIƒhnbpw
apØ»n IYIfpw Ip´n°mew apXte \ΩpsSsb√mw a\
n¬ ]®]nSn®v InS°p∂p≠v. {Um°pfbpw `qXt{]XmXn
Ifpw c‡ c£kpw K‘¿h≥amcpw \nd™ slmd¿ IY
Iƒ Nne¿°v ¢mkn°ƒ kmlnXytam t\cwt]m°n\p≈
hnt\m- Ztam cpNn- tb- dnb hn`- htam BImw AØcw Zln-
°m- Ø- sXm∂pw hmcn- hn- gp- ßm≥ aX- Øns‚ t]cn¬ \mw
t]mtI≠Xn√. Cu ASpØ ImeØv an\n kv{Io\pIfn¬
31
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
“hnizkn®mepw Cs√¶nepw” t]msebp≈ [mcmfw `oXnP
\n∏n°p∂ Un‰Iv‰ohpIƒ tIcfØnse hnhn[ Nm\epIƒ
kwt{]jWw sNbvXncp∂p. \ΩpsS Ip´nIsf CsXms°
h√msX kzm[o- \n- °p∂p ambm- hn, Un¶≥, amPnIv amep,
I]ojv IYIƒ shdpw t\ctºm°n\p≈ IYIƒ am{XamWv.
AXn- sem∂pw bmsXmcp Imcy- hp- an- s√∂v ]n∂oSv \ΩpsS
Ip´nIƒ a\nem°p∂pap≠v. AXpt]mse kvamcI ine
Iƒ, Jm°ns‚ CXnlmkw, ssZhØns‚ IÆv, Aemhp
±os‚ A¤pX hnf°v, BbncsØm∂v cmhpIƒ, j¿e°v
tlmwkv, Ccp´ns‚ Bflm°ƒ, `m¿Khn \nebw XpSßnb
aebmf kmlnXyØnse t{]X S®p≈ IYIfpw IYm]m
{Xßfpw IYam{Xambnt´ tIcfw kzoIcn®n´p≈q. IYmkm
lnXytemIsØ `oXnP\n∏n°p∂ amb°mgvNIƒ A`yÿ
hnZycmb tIcfobcpsS PohnXsØ H´pw kv]¿in®ncp∂n√.
Ckvemln {]ÿm\Øns‚ (1921 \v apºv) \hPmIcWØn\v
apºp≈ Pmln- enbm ap…nw tIcfw Pn∂v , ]nim- Nv , am´v ,
amcWw XpSßnb `oXnbpsS \ngen¬ APvXbpw A‘hn
izmkhpw am{Xw IqS∏nd∏mbn kzoIcn®psIm≠v IcnºpX
∏n\p≈n¬ aqSn∏pX®v Ddßnbhcmbncp∂p. APvRXbpsS
At¥- hm- kn- Isf ]utcm- lnXyw Bhpw hn[w NqjWw
sNbvXp. hn[nbpsS th´ arKambn \pIw t]dp∂ ImfI
fmbn PohnXw tlman- °m≥ Ah¿ hn[n- °- s∏- ´p. hnip≤
Jp¿B\ns‚ shfn®ta¥nh∂ Ckvemln {]ÿm\w ap…nw
tIcfsØ am{Xa√ tIcf kaqlsØ samØØn¬Xs∂
kzm[o- \n- °m≥ am{Xw i‡- ambn hf¿∂p. FXn- cm- fn-
Iƒt]mepw kXy{]ÿm\Øns‚ BZ¿iw AwKoIcn°p∂
Ahÿbnte°v amdn sI.F≥.Fw. P\d¬ sk{I´dn F.
]n. A_vZpƒ JmZ¿ auehnbpsS ho´nep≈ kv{XoIƒt]mepw
32 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
]≠v Pn∂p-Iq-°n-bn-cp-∂p-sh∂v At±lw]d-bp-I-bp-≠mbn.
apPm- lnZv {]ÿm- \- Øn- te°v IS- ∂p- h- ∂- t∏mƒ At±- l-
Øns‚ ho´n¬ am{Xa√ \m´nepw Pn∂pIq°p∂Xv tIƒ°m
sXbmbn. ""sNdnb Ip´nIƒ D®bv°v ]≈nbn¬ t]mbm¬
dqlm\n ]nSn°pw cm{Xnbn¬ t]mbm¬ Pn∂v ]nSn°pw F∂m
bncp∂p DΩam¿ D]tZin®ncp∂Xv'' (F.]n. A_vZp¬ JmZn¿
aue- hn- ˛- ap- Pm- lnZv Ggmw kwÿ- B\ ktΩ- f\w Nßcw
Ipfw˛kph\o¿) Cu ImeØv kp∂nIfnepw Pn∂v IqSepw
Iq°epw tIƒ°mdn√. F∂m¬ B ]gb A‘hnizmk
߃ ]p\xkrjvSn°m\p≈ {iaØnemWv k°cnbm kzem
lnbpw Iq´cpw \n¿`mKyhim¬ G¿s]´ncn°p∂Xv. `oXnP
\Iamb A‘hnizmkØns‚ Ccp´dbn¬ \n∂v tamNnX
cmhm≥ a\pjy¿°v km[n°Wsa¶n¬ ss[cyw D≠mbm¬
am{Xw t]mcm AXnep]cnbmbn Nm©√yan√mØ ssZhnI
hnizmkamWv Bhiyw. Xh°pent\°mƒ kpc£nXamb
as‰mcp A`bhpw ]cnlmchpan√. Cuam\neqsS am{XamWv
Aw\v (\n¿`bXzw) ssIhcnIbp≈q.
(2: I~FÉŸG) ¿Gh~©dGh ºKE’G ≈∏Y ƒfhÉ©J ’h iƒ≤àdGh ÈdG ≈∏Y GƒfhÉ©Jh
]pWyØnepw [¿Ω\njvTbnepw \n߃ At\ym\yw
klm- bn- °p- I, ]m]- Ønepw AXn- {I- a- Ønepw \n߃
At\ym\yw klm- bn- °- cp- Xv. (- am- CZ ˛2) Cu Bb-
Øns‚ ASnÿm\Øn¬ a\pjy≥ Ahs‚ Ignhn¬s]´
Imcyßfn¬ ]ckv]cw klmbw tNmZn°pIbpw klmbn
°pIbpw sNøp∂p.F∂m¬ krjvSnIfn¬ s]´ Pn∂v,ae°v
F∂o h¿§tØmSv CuBbØns\ B[mcam°n a\pjy¿°v
klmbw tXSmtam? Cu BbØv \√ ImcyØn¬ a\pjy¿
]ckv]cw sNtø≠ klmb klIcWsØ°pdn®√msX
as‰s¥¶nepw Dt±in°p∂pt≠m?krjvSnIfpsS Ignhn\∏p
33
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
d- Øp≈ Imcy- ߃°mWv A`uXnI Imcysa∂v ]d- bp- I-
sb∂ kIcnbm kzemlnbpsS hmZ{]Imcw Cu BbØns‚
]cn- [n- bn¬Pn∂pw ae°pw s]tS- ≠- Xt√?kXy- hn- izm- kn- I-
fmb a\pjy¿ ]ckv]cw sh®p]pe¿tØ≠ ImcyßsfIp
dn®pw _m[yXIsf]‰nbpw hy‡n,IpSpw_,kmaqlnI taJ
e- I- fn¬ Hmtcm- cp- Øcpw ]men- t°≠ acym- Z- I- sf- °p- dn®pw
am\pjnI ]cnKW\bn¬ samØØn¬ F√ma\pjytcmSp
ap- ≈- s]- cp- am‰ coXn- sb- ∏- ‰nbpw ]≈n- ]- cn- ]m- e- \hpw I®- h-
Shpw `cWm[n]s‚bpw `cWobcpsSbpw _m[yXIsf]‰
nbpsa√mw C…man¬ IrXyamb \n¿tZiap≠v Nne DZmlc
W- ߃ kmμ¿`n- I- ambn DW¿Øs´“kXyhn- izm- kn- Iƒ
aptJ\ \n\°v ]n≥_ew \¬In (A≥^m¬ ˛62 ) h√-
h\pw \√ip]m¿isNbvXm¬ AXnsemcp ]¶v Ah\p≠v
(\nkmAv˛55) \∑bpw Xn∑bpw Xpeya√. Xn∑sb \∑sIm≠v
{]Xntcm[n°pI F¶n¬ Ah≥ \ns‚ an{XambnØocpw (^p
kzneØv˛ 34) `qanbn¬ \S°p∂ GXv P¥phpw hmbphn¬
]d- °p∂ GXv ]d- hbpw \nß- sf- t∏msebp≈ kap- Zm- b-
߃X- s∂- bmWv (6:38) Hcp- P- \- hn- `m- K- tØm- Sp≈ hntZzjw
\nßsf A\oXnsNøm≥t{]cn∏n°mXncn°s´(5:2) A\ym
bambn a\pjysc h[n°cpXv(17:33)AhnthInIfn¬\n∂v hn´v
\n¬°Ww Dul߃ h¿Pn°Ww (3:154)P\ßtfmSv Imcp
Wy-tØmsS h¿Øn-°Ww (15:88) Ip{]-N-c-W-߃°v sNhn-
sImSp°cpXv(24:12)P\ßsf tkhn°Ww (2:224)NqjWwsN
øcpXv(2:159)hn´phogvNsNøWw (3:134)A\mhiyambnX¿°n
°cpXv(8:46)kmºØnIambnklmbn°Ww(2:184) Zcn{ZtcmSv
am\y- am- bn- s]- cp- am- d- Ww(4:36)]c- kv ]cw kv t\ln- °m- Øn- S-
tØmfw \n߃ hnizmknIfmhpIbn√,sNdnbhtcmSv Imcp
Wyw- Im- Wn- °pI hen- b- hsc _lp- am- \n- °p- I, BcpsS
34 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
\mhn¬\n∂pw Iøn¬\n∂pw a‰p- ≈- h¿kp- c- £n- X- \mtWm
Ah\mWv apkvenw, CltemIØv Hcp kXyhnizmknbpsS
Hcp hnjaw AI‰nbm¬ A√mlp Ahs‚ ]ctemIsØ
hnjaw AI‰pw, Ab¬hmkn ]´nWnInSs° hbdp\nd®p
Æp∂h≥ \Ωn¬s]´h\√, A\mYs\ XtemSpI km[p
hn\v Blmcw \¬IpI, kXy- hn- izm- kn- I- ƒ Hcp- sI- ´nSw
t]msebmWv. sI´nSØns‚ Hcp`mKw as‰mcp `mKØn\v
Xmßm- Wv . - \n- ߃ Hmtcm- cp- Øcpw ktlm- Z- cs‚ IÆm- Sn-
bm- Wv. Xs‚ ktlm- Z- cs\ {]k- ∂- h- Z- \- \m- bn- Im- Wp- ∂- Xp-
t]mepw [¿ΩamWv.ChnsS kqNn∏n® Jp¿B≥hN\ßfpw
lZokpIfpw a\pjy¿ ]ckv]cw sNtø≠ _m[yXXIsf
∏‰nbmWv ]cma¿in°p∂Xv. CXpt]mep≈ [mcmfw hN\
߃ Jp¿B\nepw kp∂Ønepap≠v a\pjy\v Pn∂nt\mSp
≈-_m-[y-X-sb-∏-‰ntbm Pn∂n\v a\p-jy-t\m-Sp≈ _m[y-X-
sb- ∏- ‰ntbm Jp¿- Bt\m lZo- tkm- {]- Xn- ]m- Zn- °p∂pt≠m?
Ds≠¶n¬ Aßs\sbmcp BbtØm lZotkm ImWnt√.
(72: ∫ÉØfC ’G ) ...... ô°üædG ºμ«∏©a øj~dG ‘ ºchô°üæà°SG ¿Gh
C\n aXImcyØn¬ Ah¿ \nßfpsS klmbw tXSpIbm
sW- ¶n ¬ klm- bn - °m≥ \n ߃°v _m[y- X-
bp≠v (A≥^m¬˛72)AXn\m- emWv F√mw XyPn®v sIm≠v
a°bn¬ \n∂v aZo\bnte°v ]emb\w sNbvXncp∂ aplm
PndpIsf CcpIøpw \o´n kzoIcn®v k¿Δ kuIcyßfpw
sNbvXpsImSpØ aZo\bnse kXy hnizmknIƒ°v A≥km
dpIƒ AYhm klmbnIƒ F∂v t]cv kn≤n®Xv. F¶nepw
kXy hnizmkØns‚ t]cn¬ ktlmZc∑mcmbn Øo¿∂
A√mlp Xr]vXns∏´ (Xu_.100) kzlm_nItfmSv A√mlp
Hcp Imcyw {]tXyIw DW¿Ønbncp∂p, Icmdnep≈ Ahn
izm- kn- Iƒs°- Xnsc klmbw ]mSn- √, F∂m¬ aX- Im- cy-
35
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
Øn¬ kXyhnizmknIƒ ]ckv]cw klmbn°m≥ _m[y
ÿcmWv. JpssdinIƒ aZo\sb A{Ian°m≥ {ian®t∏mƒ
aZo- \- bnse _\q- ssJ- \p- Jm- Av _\q \fo¿ _\q- Jp-
ssdfF∂o PqX tKm{XßfpsS klmbw \_n (k) tNmZn
°pIbpw Ah¿ apkvenwßsf klmbn°pIbpw sNbvXn
cp∂p. \_n (k) h^mØmIptºmƒ AhnSpsØ ]Sb¶n
Hcp PqXs‚ ssIhiw ]WbØnembncp∂p. a°bn¬ \n∂v
dkq¬ (k)Xzmbn- ^n- te°v A`bw tXSn sN∂p. ]t£
_‘p°ƒ At±lsØ klmbn®ns√∂p am{Xa√ sXcphp
]nt≈sc sIm≠v IqInhnfn∏n°pIbpw {Iqcambn A{Ian
°pIbpw sNbvXp.XpS¿∂v At±lw Hcp PqXs‚ klmb
tØmsS AbmfpsS tXm´Øn¬ hn{ian®p.am\pjnIhpw kmaq
lnIhpamb Imcyßfn¬ CkvemanI \nba imk\Iƒ ]men
®psIm≠v A\yaXhnizmknItfmSv t]mepw klmbw tXSp
∂Xpw Ahsc klmbn°p∂Xpw Ckvemw hne°p∂ns√∂v
CXn¬ \n∂pw {]kv]-jvSamWv.F∂m¬ CØcw kμ¿`ß-
fn- sem∂pw \_n(- k)tbm klm- _n- Itfm ae- °p- I- tfmtSm
Pn∂pItfmtSm klmbw tXSnbn´n√ F∂Imcyw {]tXyIw
Hm¿t°- ≠- Xp- ≠v.- a- X- Im- cy- Øn¬ apkven- ߃°v ]c- kv]cw
_m[yXbp≈Xv t]mse apkvenw Pn∂nt\mSv apkvenw a\p
jysc klm- bn- °m≥ A√mlp I¬]n- ®n- ´n- √.- apkvenamb
H‰°mcWØm¬ temIØns‚ hnhn[ `mKßfn¬ sImSnb
]oV\߃°n - c- bm- Ip∂ At\Iw kXyhn iz m- kn - I-
fp≠.vkXyhnizmkw kzoIcn®Xns‚ t]cn¬ a°bn¬ \n∂v
BZyambn kzlm_nIƒ lnPvd t]mbXv Aapkvenw cmPm
hmb FtXym- ]y- bn- se \÷m- jn- bpsS ASp°te- °m- bn- cp-
∂p.At±lØns‚ klmbhpw kwc£Whpw tXSpIbpw
At±lw apkv enw߃°v A`bw \¬Ip- IbpwsNbv Xp.C-
36 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
Øcw L´ßfnsem∂pw apkvenw Pn∂pIƒ apkvenßsf
klm- bn- ®- Xm- bn- tI- ´n- ´n- √.- Im- ^n¿Pn- ∂p- Iƒ a\p- jysc
Zp¿t_m[\w sNøp- I- b- √msX imco- cn- I- ambn D]- {Z- hn- °p-
Itbm klmbn°pItbm sNøpambncp∂psh¶n¬ apkvenw
Pn∂n\v apkvenwßsf klmbn°m≥ Igntb≠Xt√? A√,
D]{Zhn°mt\ Ignbq F∂ hmZamtWm D≈Xv.
D]{Zhn°psa¶n¬ Fs¥ms° D]{ZhamWv D≈Xv.
A{IaØn\pw sIme]mXIØn\pw \ΩpsS sIm®p tIcf
Øn¬t]mepw Izt´- j≥ kwL- ß- fp- ≠v . IØn,- tXm- °v ,-
t_mw_v XpSßnb acImbp[ßfpambn Ccsb t\cnSp∂
A{IanIsf At\zjtWmtZymKkvXcpw t]meokpw kn._n.
Fbpw ]nSn- Iq- Sm- dp- ≠v . kwi- b- Øns‚ _eØn¬ \nb- a-
Øns‚ ]gpXneqsS Ip‰hmfnIƒ c£s∏Smdp≠v. F∂m¬
{]amZamb A`btIkpw tNI∂¿ tIkpw shÃv t_°dn
tIkpw sXfnbn°s∏´p. AZriy\mb Hcp sImebmfn GsX
¶nepw Hcp sIme]mXIØntem kwL´\Øntem B{Ia
WØntem IrXyw \n¿Δln®p F∂ dnt∏m¿´v \mw CtX
hsc tI´n´n√. ]nimNn\v a\pjys‚ icocsØ t{Zmln°m≥
]‰p∂ ]cn[n F{XbmWv.
(15:¢ü°ü≤dG) √h~Y øe øjòdG ≈∏Y ¬à©«°T øe …òdG ¬Kɨà°SÉa
Xs‚ I£n- bn¬ s]´- h≥ i{X- p]- £- Øp- ≈- h- s\- Xn- cn¬
At±ltØmSv (aqkm\_n) klmbw tXSn.
aqkm- \_n(A)tbmSv Xs‚ I£n- bn¬s]´- bm¬
klmbw tXSn - b- t∏mƒ ^tdm- h- bp sS I£n - bn ¬
s]´h\n¬\n∂v Abmsf aqkm- \_n c£n- ®p.Cu A{I- a-
Øn¬\n∂v c£s∏Sm≥ Ba\pjy≥ GsX¶nepw Pn∂nt\mSv
klmbw tXSn - bn - √. - t\sc ap ∂n ¬I≠ aq km- \-
_n(A)tbmSmWv klmbw tXSn- bXv.A- bmsf c£n- °m≥
37
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
aqkm-\-_n°v sNdnb ssI{]-tbmKw \S-tØ-≠n-h-cn-Ibpw
A_≤him¬ At±lw sIm√s∏SpIbpw sNbvXp.XpS¿∂v
aqkm- \_n°v \mSp- hn- tS- ≠n- h- ∂p.- aq- km- \- _n- bpsS I£n-
bn¬s]´bmsf klmbn°m≥ Hcp Pn∂n\v Ign™ncps∂
¶n ¬ aqkm- \_n °v \mSp- hn - tS- ≠n - hcpam- bn - cp- ∂n -
√.XpS¿∂p≈ [mcmfw {]bmkßfpw t\cntS≠nhcpambn
cp- ∂n√
(52:¿GôªY ∫BG) ¬∏dGQÉ°üfCG øëf ¿ƒjQGƒ◊G ∫Éb ¬∏dG ¤EG …QÉ°üfCG øe ∫Éb
A√mlphnte°v Fs‚ klmbnIfmbn Bcp≠v? (Cukm
\_n Xs‚ A\pbmbnItfmSv tNmZn®p) lhmcnIƒ ]d™p
R߃ A√m-lp-hns‚ klm-bn-I-fm-Ip-∂p.-kqdØv kz^v
64 epw CtX Imcyw Bh¿Øn°p∂p≠v.Xs‚ ASpØ A\p
bmbnItfmSmWv Xs∂ c£n°m≥ Cukm\_n klmbw
tXSnbXv Cu hn]¬L´Øn¬ At±lw apkvenw Pn∂nt\mSv
klmbw tXSnbn√ F∂Xv Gsd{it≤bamW.v aqkm\_n
Xs‚ IpSpw_sØbpw Iq´n ko\m ]¿ΔXXmgvhmcØneqsS
t]mbnsIm≠ncn°ptºmƒ Hcp shfn®w A¬]w Zqsc \n∂v
ImWpIbp≠mbn shfn®tam Hcp hgnbmb{X°mcs\tbm
klmbnbmbn e`n°Wsa∂ Dt±itØmsSbmWv At±lw
AhntS°v sN∂Xv hnP\{]tZiamb B ÿeØv [mcmfw
Pn∂p- Iƒ D≠m- hm≥ Gsd km[y- X- bp- ≠m- bn´pw aqkm-
\_n(A)Hcp apkvenw Pn∂ns‚bpw klmbw tXSnbXmbn
sXfnhn√.“h AΩmCe ^emX≥l¿” Zm\wtNmZn®p hcp
∂hs\ \o hnc´ntbmSn°cpXv “hbw\Du\¬ amDu≥” ]tcm
]Imc hkvXp°ƒ XSbcpXv CXpt]mep≈ BbØpIfpw
Cu Bibw hcp∂ [mcmfw lZokpIfpw \aps°√mw kp]
cnNnXamWt√m CØcw BbØpIfpw lZokpIfpw a\p
jy¿ ]c- kv]cw sNtø≠ klmb kl- I- c- W- sØ- ]- ‰n- b-
38 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
√msX Pn∂v a\pjyt\mSv sNtø≠ klmbsØ∏‰n ]dbp
∂n- √t√m.
(197: ±GôYC ’G)¿hô°üæj º¡°ùØfC G ’h ºcô°üf ¿ƒ©«£à°ùj ’ ¬fhO øe ¿ƒY~J øjòdGh
Ah\p ]pdsa \n߃ hnfn®p {]m¿∞n°p∂h¿s°m∂pw
\nßsf klm- bn- °p- hm≥ km[n- °p- I- bn- √. - kz- tZ- l-
߃°vXs∂bpw Ah¿ klmbw sNøpIbn√(A-Avdm^v
197)
ºμd ÜÉéà°ùa ºμHQ ¿ƒã«¨à°ùJ PE G
(9:∫ÉØfC C ’G) ÚaOôe áμFÓŸG øe ∞dC ÉH ºc~‡ ÊC G
\n߃ \nßfpsS d∫nt\mSv klmbw tXSnbt∏mƒ XpSsc
XpSscbmbn Bbncw ae°pIsf Cd°ns°m≠v A√mlp
\n߃°v DØcw \¬In(A≥^m¬ 9) Cu B-b-Øns\
hniZoIcn®psIm≠v a¿lqw Aam\n auehn FgpXnbXv {i≤n
°pI “Xncpta\n d∫nt\mSv _Zdn¬ klmbw A¿∞n®pw
{]m¿∞n®pw sIm≠n- cp∂p CXn- s\- ∏- ‰n- bmWv CZv Xkv X-
Kokq.....F∂hN\w AhXcn®Xv s]mXphn¬ kXy hnizm
knIsf√mw A√mlphns‚ klmbØn\v th≠n At]£n
®ncn°psa∂v ]dtb≠Xn√t√m? bYm¿∞Ønep≈ klm
bhpw hnPbhpw e`n°p∂Xv A√mlphn¶¬ \n∂p am{X
amWv ˛ AYhm ae°pIsf sImt≠m Bƒ _ew sImt≠m
Bbp[ i‡nsImt≠m at‰m A√ A√mlphn¬ \n∂√msX
c£bpw klmbhpw e`n°m≥ am¿§an√. Ahs‚ klmb
hpw c£bpans√- ¶n¬ at‰Xp i‡n- sIm≠pw kzm[o\w
sIm≠pw AXp km[ya√. AXn\m¬ GXp k∂nKvZ L´
Ønepw Aht\mSp am{XamWv klmbØn\t]£nt°≠
Xv F∂mWv CXneSßnb ]mT߃ (hn.Jp.hnhcWw Aam\n
auehn hmfyw 2 t]Pv 124˛125)
39
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
C.sI.Fw.]∂q¿, sI.F≥.Fw.P\d¬ sk{I´dn F.
]n.A_vZp¬ JmZ¿ auehnbpambn \SØnb “hmZ{]Xn hmZ
ßfneqsS” F∂ A`napJ ]pkvXIØn¬ \n∂pw hmbn°pI
""CZv XkvXKokq\ d∫Ipw.... , \n߃ \nßfpsS d∫nt\mSv
Ckv Xn- Kmk sNbv X- t∏mƒ F∂- Xns‚ A¿∞w, \n߃
{]m∞n®t∏mƒ F∂mWv At∏mƒ Bbncw ae°pIsf Cd
°ns°mSpØpsIm≠v A√mlp Ahscklmbn®p. _Zdnse
Cu CkvXnKmk (klmbtX´w){]m¿∞\bt√?(hmZ{]Xn
hmZßfneqsS, t]Pv 78) “`uXnI coXnbnep≈ klmba√
\_n(k)bpw kzlm_nIfpw {]Xo£n®ncp∂Xv”. ......CkvXn
Kmk F∂ ]Zw {]m¿∞\ F∂ A¿∞Øn¬ D]tbmKn
°mdp≠v km[mcWklmbØn\√ ImcyImcW_‘Øn¬
s]SmØ AYhm A`u-Xn-I-amb klm-b-Øn\v.(hmZ-{]Xn
hmZßfneqsS, t]Pv 88) ChnsS F.]n. ae°pIfpsS klmbw
A`uXnIamsW∂pw ImcyImcW_‘߃°v A∏pdØp
≈XmsW∂pw hy‡am°p∂p. F∂m¬ kIcnøm kzemln
ae°pIfpsS klmbw `uXnIsa∂pw krjvSnIfpsS Ign
hn¬ s]´sX∂pamWv P¬∏n°p∂Xv. _Zdnse klmbsØ
kw_‘n®p Jp¿B≥ Bh¿Øn°p∂Xv ImWpI “{]tXyI
AS- bm- f- ap≈ Aøm- bncw ae- °p- Iƒ apJ- tJ\ \nßsf
A√mlp klmbn®p” (-BepC{am≥ 125) - “\n߃ Zp¿_e
cmbn t° A√mlp _Z- dn ¬ \n ß- sf klm- bn ®p”(-
BepC{am≥ 123) ......... ¬∏dG ~æY øe ’E G ô°üædG Éeh klmbw A√mlp
hn¬\n∂p am{XamWv (BepC{am≥ 126, A≥^m¬ 10)_Z
dn¬ ]s¶SpØ kzlm_nIƒ°v Bbp[hpw AwK_ehpw
Gsd Zp¿_eambncp∂p F¶nepw dkq¬ Bhp∂{X k÷
cmhm≥ kzlm_nItfmSv Bhiys∏´p. \_n(k) AZriy
krjvSnIfmb apkvenw Pn∂pIfpsStbm ae°pIfpsStbm
40 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
klmbw tXSnbn´n√. Pn∂pIƒ°v a\pjysc°mƒ ]eI
gnhpw i‡nbpaps≠∂pw \∂mbdnbp∂ \_n(k) krjvSn
IfpsS Ignhn¬s]´ klmbsa∂ hnizmktØmsS tXSn
bpan√. ae°pIfpsSbpw Pn∂pIfpsSbpw klmbw `uXnI
ambncp∂p sh¶n¬ dkq¬ AØcw L´Ønse¶nepw ae
°pIfpsS klmbw tXtS≠Xt√? F∂m¬ dkq¬ Cßs\
{]m∞n°pIbmWv sNbvXXv.
G~HC G ¢VQC ’G ‘ ~Ñ©J ød áHÉ°ü©dG √òg ∂∏¡J ¿E G º¡∏dGp
\mYm! Cu sNdp kwLsØsbßm\pw \o \in∏n°pI
bmsW¶n¬ \o Hcn°epw `qanbn¬ Bcm[n°s∏SpIbn√.
\_n(- k)bpw kzlm- _n- Ifpw A√m- lp- hn- t\m- Sv am{X- amWv
_Zdn¬ klmbw tXSnbX.v F∂m¬ ae°pIsf Ab®p
sIm- ≠mWv apkv enwßsf A√mlp klm- bn- ®Xv . hn]¬
L´- ß- fn¬ ae- °p- I- tfmtSm Pn∂p- I- tfmtSm klmbw
tXSn bm¬ Ah¿°v klm- bn - °m\mhp Ibn - s√∂v
apiv cn°pIƒ t]mepw \√Xv t]mse a\- m- em- °n- bXv
sIm≠mWv AhcpsS t\Xmhmb A_qPl¬ _Zdn¬ A√m
lp- thmSv am{Xw klmbw tXSn- bXv .Cuc≠v I£n- I- fn¬
H∂v kXy- Øns‚ I£n- bmWv kXy- Øns‚ kwLsØ
hnPbn- ∏n- t°- Wta F∂mWv A_q- P- l¬t]mepw _Z-
dn¬h®v A√mlphnt\mSv {]m∞n®ncp∂Xv
C\n Kpl- bn- e- I- s∏´hcpsS Ncn{Xw _pJm- cn- bn¬
hnhcn°p∂Xv ImWpI.
¬«p a o ør ën fÉn e És æn Y r êo ôr Øn a n ∂p ¡r Ln h n AÉn ¨p àr HG n ∂p dn P o âr ∏n ©n a o âr æo c ¿p E Én a s ºo ¡∏s dG
(¬«∏Y ≥Øàe)
“A√mlpth, Rm≥ CXp- sN- bv XXv \ns‚ Xr]v Xn am{Xw
Dt±- in- ®m- bn- cp- s∂- ¶n¬ R߃ AI- s∏´ (Cu hnj- a-
Øn¬\n∂v) Rßsf c£s∏SptØWta” Kplbn¬ AI
41
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
s∏´ aq∂m- fpsS Ncn{X kw`hw \_n(- k) ]d- ™- Xmbn
_pJm- cnbpw apkv enapw D≤- cn- ®n- cp∂p. Ah¿sNbv X
k¬I¿Ω߃ aptJ\ A√mlphnt\mSv klmbw tXSnb
t∏m- gmWv Ah¿c- £- s∏- ´Xv . hnP- \- amb ÿeØpw Kpl-
bnepw AIs∏´t∏mƒ Ah¿ apkvenw Pn∂nt\mtSm ae°p
ItfmtSm klmbw tXSnbn√.
.................. Gƒ©ª°Sƒdh ºcAÉYO ƒ©ª°ùj ’ ºgƒY~J ¿EG n
\n ߃ Ahsc hn fn - ®p- { ]m¿∞n - ®m¬ Ah¿ \n ß-
fpsS{]m¿∞\ tIƒ°pIbn√ tIƒ°psa∂v k¶¬]n®mepw
Ah¿ \n߃°pØcw \¬IpIbn√(^mXzn¿ 14) CuBb
Øns\ hniZoIcn®psIm≠v {]apJ ap^ndmb Jp¿Xzp_n
FgpXnbXv ImWpI Pn∂pw ssiØm\pw ae°pIfpw Aºn
bm°pfpsa√mw ChnsS Bcm[n°s∏Sp∂Xn¬ Dt≤in°
s∏Sp∂p.
....ºcAÉYO ¿ƒ©ª°ùj ’ ÖFGƒædÉH º¡H ƒã«¨à°ùJ ¿C G …C G
AXmbXv {]bmkL´Øn¬ \n߃ AhtcmSv kmlmbw
tXSnbm¬ \nßfpsS {]m¿∞\ Ah¿°v tIƒ°m\mhn√(
Jp¿Xzp_n hmfyw 6 t]P 5418)
¬æY I~°ûdG ∂∏J ádGRE’G ‘ ¬H É㫨à°ùe
Xs‚ {]bmkw \oßm≥ A√m- lp- thmSv Ah¿ k- lm- bw-
tXSpw.
ɇ øjOƒÑ©ŸG ¤E G Gòg ™Lôj ¿C G Rƒéj ºK
ÚWÉ«°ûdGh AÉ«ÑfC ’Gƒq æ÷Gh áμÄ∏ŸÉc π≤©j
ae- °p- Iƒ Pn∂v , \_n- am¿, ]nim- Np- °ƒ t]mse-
bp≈ Bcm- [y- cn- te°v Cu BbØv Dt±- in- °- s∏- Spw.
(Jp¿Xzp_n 14˛336)
CtXBbØns\hniZoIcn®psIm≠v as‰mcp C_m
dØv IqSn ImWpI
42 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
ΩÉæ°UC ’Gh ¢ùfE ’Gh ø÷G øe ¬∏dG ¿hO øe OƒÑ©e πc ~jôj ¿C G Rƒéjh
A√mlphn\v ]dsa Bcm[n°s∏Sp∂ Pn∂pIfpw a\pjycpw
hn{Klßfpsa√mw ChnsS Dt±in°∏Spw (dqlp¬_bm≥
hmfyw 7, t]Pv 333) A√mlphn\v ]pdsa Bcm[n°s∏Sp∂
Pn∂p- Ifpw hn{K- l- ß- fp- sa√mw ChnsS Dt±- in- °- s∏- Sp-
sa∂dqlp¬ _mbm- \nse ]cm- a¿i- sØ- ∏‰n Btem- Nn®v
t\m°q. Pohn®ncn°p∂Xpw acn®Xpamb alm∑mcpsS ASp
tØ°v bmYm- ÿn- I- cmb P\- ߃ t]mIp- ∂Xv `uXnI
klmbw tXSn- sIm- ≠√ a\p- jy¿°v km[m- c- W- bm- bn- I- gn-
bmØ Imcy߃ t\Sm≥ th≠nbmWv Xo¿Øpw A`uXn
Iamb klmbamWv Ah¿{]Xo£n°p∂Xv. hn{Klw It√m
actam Bbn- cn°pw ImWmt\m tIƒ°mt\m D]- Im- ctam
D]{Zhtam sNømt\m AXn\mhn√. hn{KlsØkw_‘n®v
hn{K-l-]q-P-I¿t]mepw Aßs\ hniz-kn-°p-∂pan-√. kqd:
\qlv 23 ˛mw kq‡sØ Camw _pJmcn Cßs\ hymJym\n
°p∂p “CsX√mwkZvhrØcmb GXm\pw BfpIfpsS \ma
ßfmWv Ah¿acn®t∏mƒ Ah¿ ]s¶SpØncp∂ kZpI
fn¬ Nne cq]ßfp≠m°n Bcq]߃°v AhcpsS t]cv
\¬IWsa∂v P\߃°v ]nimNv Zp¿t_m[\w \¬In.A
h¿A{]Imcw sNbvXp As∂m∂pw Ah¿ Bcm[n°s∏´n
´n√. ]n∂oSv ChcpsS Imew Ign™t∏mƒ Chsb∏‰n icn
bmb Adnhn√msXbmbn. Aßs\ Cu cq]ßf{Xbpw Bcm
[n°s∏´p”(_pJmcn 6/133) hn{Klw D]Imtcm]{Zhw sNøn
s√∂v {]am- W- ßfn- eq- sSbpw Nc- n{X- Øn- eq- sSbpw kz¥w
A\p`hßfneqsSbpsa√mw \mw a\nem°nbn´p≠v a¨a
d™ alm∑mcpsSbpw Pn∂pIfpsSbpw hnjbw hn{KlØn
t‚Xp t]mseØs∂bmWv. a\pjyIgnhn∂XoXamb Imcy
ß- fn- sem∂pw \sΩ- k- lm- bn- °m≥ Pn∂p- Iƒ°v Ign- bn√.
43
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
hn]¬ L´Øn¬ a\pjysc klmbn°m≥ Pn∂pIƒ°m
hpambncps∂¶n¬ AXv A`uXnItam {]m¿∞\tbm BIp
ambncp∂n√ F∂v am{Xa√ hn]¬L´w F∂ {]bmkL´w
Xs∂ a\pjyPohnXØn¬ D≠mIpambncp∂n√.
Ip™oXpaZ\n, apivcn¡pIfpsS Bcm[\sb]än]
dbp¶Xv ImWpI “Bsc√mambncp∂p a°mapivcn°pIfpsS
ssZh߃? a‰pP\kaqlßpsSsX∂t]mse AhcpsSbpw
ssZh߃ ae- °p- Iƒ ,Pn- ∂p- Iƒ, {]hm- N- I≥am¿,- a- ‰p- a-
lm≥am¿,AhcpsS {]XnjvTIƒ,_nw_߃,Pmd߃ apX
embhbmbncp∂p._nw_ßsf am{XamWv Ah¿Bcm[n®n
cp∂Xv F∂[mcW Hcn°epw icnb√” (C…mans‚ ASn
Ød XuloZv , Ip™oXpaZ\n, t]Pv 35)acWs∏´ alm≥amcpw
{]hmNI≥amcpw klmbwtXSnbm¬ tIƒ°pIbn√ _nw_
ßfpw Pmd- ßfpw AXp- t]m- se- X- s∂- bm- Wv. CuIq- ´- Øn¬
Xs∂bmWv ae°pIsfbpw Pn∂pIsfbpw At±lw FÆn
bX.v Jnbmaw\mfp- hsc Pohn- °p- ∂- h- cmWv ae- °p- I- ƒ
Ah¿°v t]mepw a\pjysc klmbn°m\mhn√.Cu hni
ZoIcWØn¬\n∂v a\nem°mw 17/56,57 F∂ohN\sØ
hymJym\n®v Pemsse\n hnhcn°p∂p ôjõYh ≈°ù«Yh áμÄ∏ŸÉc ôjõYh ≈°ù«Yh áμÄ∏ŸÉc ôjõYh ≈°ù«Yh áμÄ∏ŸÉc ôjõYh ≈°ù«Yh áμÄ∏ŸÉc ôjõYh ≈°ù«Yh áμÄ∏ŸÉc
ae°pIƒ,Cukm,Dssk¿ F∂nhsct]mep≈ alm
∑m¿ CXn¬ Dƒs∏Spw .apiv°pItf ae°pIƒ ,Cukm,D
ssk¿ XpSßnbhsc√mw A√mlphn\v ]pdsabp≈ ssZh
ß- fm- sW- ∂m- Wt√m \n߃hm- Zn- ®p- sIm- ≠n- cn- °p- ∂Xv .
\n߃ Ahscsbm∂v hnfn®v {]m∞n®pt\m°pI. F∂m¬
Ah¿°v \nß- fpsS Zpcn- X- ß- f- I- ‰m≥Ign- bp- I- bn√ (t]Pv
˛36)“A∂papX¬ C∂vhscbp≈Imebfhn¬ hgnsX‰nt∏mb
a\p- jy- a- °- ƒ ae- °p- I- ƒ°v apX¬ \n¿Poh hkv Xp-
°ƒ°v hsc Znhy- Xzw- I¬]n®v Ahsc Bcm- [n®v hcp∂p
44 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
F∂Xv HcphkvXpXbmWv” (Ckvemans‚ Poh≥ Ip™oXp
a-Z\n t]Pv 11) “ae°pIsfbpw Cukm,Dssk¿ XpSßnb
{]hmNI∑mscbpw F\n°v ]pdsa c£I∑mcmbn kzoIcn
°m- sa∂v kXy- \n- tj- [n- Iƒ hnNm- cn- °p- I- bm- tWm(18/102)”
apivcn°pIƒ _nw_ßsfam{Xa√ ae°pIƒ {]hmNI∑m¿
a‰p-a-lm≥am¿ F∂n-h-scbpw Ah¿ Bcm-[n-®n-cp-∂p(t]Pv
˛36) Hcmtfm HcpkwLtam A]ISØn¬ s]´v \nlmb
cmbm¬ a\pjys‚ Ignhn¬s]SmØ klmbw A√mlp
hn\v am{Xta sNøm- \mhq Chn- sS- c- £- bv °mbp- ≈- tX- ´w -
{]m¿∞\bmWv A`uXnIamb klmbwam{Xsa Cu L´
Øn¬ Ah¿{]Xo£n°p∂p≈p. kXyhnizmknIƒ F√m
thfIfnepw A√mlphnt\mSv am{Xw {]m∞n°ptºmƒ kXy
\n-tj-[n-Iƒ a\pjycpsS klmbw km[ya√mØ thfbn
emWv {]m∞\ A√mlphnt\mSv am{Xam°p∂Xv. Bcm[n
°pIsb∂m¬ Cemslt∂m ds∫t∂m hnizkn°pItbm
kzbwIgnhps≠∂v hnNmcn°pItbmth≠Xn√ adn®v a\p
jy\v A√mlp\¬Inb Ignhv apdn™v \mw \nlmbcmhp
tºmƒ Pnt∂m aet°m c£n°psat∂m c£bv°v th≠n
AhtcmSv tXSmsat∂m -hnizkn°p∂Xv Ahsc Cemlm
°emWv. sXßn¬\n∂v tXß]dn°m\pw ho´p]IcW߃
\n¿Ωn- °m\pw temI- Ømcpw A√m- lp- \n- t\mSv klmbw
tXSmdn√. `£Ww XctW agsh≈wXctW tcmKw am‰tW
Fs∂ms° Bcv Bhiys∏Spt∂m Ahsc√mw A`uXnI
-am¿KØneqsSbp≈ klmbtX´amWv XßfpsS \mYt\mSv
\S- Øp- ∂Xv .kXy- hn- izm- kn- Iƒ A√m- lp- hn- t\mSpw _lp-
ssZh hnizmknIƒ hymPssZhßtfmSpw klmbw tXSp
∂Xv A`uXnI am¿§ØneqsSbp≈ klmbtX´w Xs∂
bm-Wv.-thfmwIÆnbnte°pw G¿hmSnbnte°pw Kpcphmbq
45
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
cnte°pw tcmKw amdpIF∂Dt±itØmsS t]mIp∂Xv Imcy
ImcW_‘߃°∏pdap≈ klmbtX´amWv. tcmKw am‰p
∂Xv A√mlp am{Xambncns° a‰ptI{μßfnte°v tcmK
im- ¥n- °mbn t]mIp- ∂Xv in¿°m- Wv . - P¿Ω- \n- bn¬\n-
t∂mat‰m ASpØp\nt∂m AIeØv \nt∂m Pn∂pIƒ acp∂v
sIm≠pXcpsa∂v hnizkn°¬ A`uXnIamb klmbw {]Xo
£n- °- emWv . Pn∂ns\ CΔn[w \ΩpsS klm- bn- I- fmbn
A√mlp \n›- bn- ®n- ´n√ Pn∂n- t\mSv acp∂v tXSp- ∂Xv
am{Xa√sX‰v Pn∂v,Pn∂v ]qPI¿°v acps∂Øn®vsImSp°p
sa- ∂- hn- izm- k- hp- w- sX- ‰mWv . P∏m- \n¬\nt∂m P¿Ω- \n-
bn¬\nt∂m Pn∂v a\pjy\v acps∂Øn®vsImSpØ Hcpkw
`hw tem°- Øv - C- t∂- hsc D≠m- bn- ´n√ ]nimNv ]qP-
I¿t]mepw Aßs\ AhImis∏´n´n√. F∂n´pwCßs\
sbmcp CXnlmkIY D≠mt°≠ F¥v BhiyamWv kzem
ln-°p-≈X.v
_Z- dn¬\- _n(- k)bpw kzlm- _n- Ifpw A√m- lp- hn-
t\mSv am{X-amWv hnP-b-Øn-\pth≠n {]m¿∞n-®Xv dkq¬
{]Xo£n®Xv A`uXnI klmbamWv apkvenßfpsS hnP
b- Øn\v klm- bn- ®Xv ae- °p- I- fm- sW- ¶nepw Bk- lmbw
`uXnI klm- b- am- bn- cp- ∂p- sh- ¶n¬ hcƒ®- t\- cn- Sp- tºmgpw
sh≈s∏m°ap≠mIptºmgpw ao°mCute klmbn°tW
F∂v \_n(- k) Bh- iy- s∏- Sp- am- bn- cp∂p.tX- ß- ]- dn- °m≥
apkvenant\mSv am{Xa√ Aapkvenant\mSpw \mw Bhiys∏
Sm- dp≠v F∂m¬ Ct∂- hsc tXß- ]- dn- °p- ∂vXp- t]m- se- bp-
≈ GsX-¶n-ep-sam-cp-hn-j-b-Øn¬ \mw Pn∂p-I-tfm-Svk-lm-
bwtXSmdn√.CØcw `uXnI Imcyßfn¬ Ah¿°v \sΩ
klmbn°m≥ Ignbns√¶n¬ A`uXnI Imcyßfn¬ Fß
s\bmWv Ah¿ \sΩklmbn°pI ? a\pjyIgnhn\XoX
46 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
amb Imcyßsf√mw A`uXnIamWv Aapkvenw Pn∂pIƒ
imcocnIambn \sΩ D]{Zhn°psa¶n¬ ap…nw Pn∂n\v \sΩ
klmbn°m\pw tkhn°m\pw IgnbWambncp∂p. Kƒ^n¬
\n∂v `mctadnb hkvXp°ƒ an\p´pIƒ°Iw sIm≠phcm\pw
sI´nS\n¿ΩmWw t]msebp≈ `mcn® tPmenIƒ sNbvXp
X∂pw Ah¿ \-sΩ-k-lm-bn-°p-am-bn-cp-∂p. Cß-s\-sbmcp
hyhÿ A√mlphp\n›bn®psh∂v {]mamWnIambn sXfn
bn°m≥ Hcp kzemln°v km[ya√. hn]¬L´Øn¬ A√m
lp- hn- t\mSv am{Xw tXSn- bmte c£- s∏- Sm- \m- hq- sh∂pw
a‰m¿°pw c£n - °m- \m- hn - s√- ∂p- ap≈ Dd- ®- hn - iz mkw
sIm≠mWv a°mapivcn°pIƒt]mepw {]Xnk‘nL´ßfn¬
A√mlpthmSvam{Xw c£tXSnbsX∂v {]amWØneqsS \mw
a\n- em- °n- bt√m, F∂m¬ kI- cn- øm- kz- emlnbpsS Hcp
Zp¿hym- Jym\w {i≤n°q! Hcmƒ BIm- i- Øn- eqsS ]d- ∂p-
t]m-Ip-∂-Xmbpw sh≈-Øn-eqsS \S-°p-∂-Xmbpw I≠m¬
Abmfn¬ ZnhyXzwI¬∏nt°≠Xn√ ,Ba\pjys\ ]nimNv
XmßnbXmsW∂v IcpXnbm¬ aXn F∂ Camw im^nbpsS
Hcp Juev ]nimNv a\pjys\klmbn°pw F∂Xn\v sXfn
hmbn At±lw D≤cn®n´p≠v.hkvXpXsb¥mWvCXv Hcpkw
`hyambImcya√lZotkmA\p`hbmYm¿Xytam A√ Hcp
Be¶mcnI{]tbmKw am{XamWv.
.......AGƒ¡dG ≈∏Y Ò£jhCG AÉŸG ≈∏Y »°TùÁ πLôdG ºàjCGQƒd
ChnsS “eu” F∂-{]-tbmK-Øn¬\n∂v Imcyw hy‡ambna
\- n- em- °mw. Hcmƒ]- d- °p- ∂- Xm- bn- I- ≠mepw Abm- fn¬Zn-
hyXzw I¬∏nt°≠Xns√∂hmNIsØ Pn∂ns‚ klmb
ambn sX‰n≤cn∏n°m\mWv k°cnømkzemln {ian°p∂Xv
]nimNn\v Hcpa\pjys\ Xmßn∏nSn®v ]d°m≥ Ignbpam
bncps∂¶n¬ hn]¬L´sas∂mcp {]bmkthf a\pjyPo
47
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
hnXØn¬ D≠mIpambncp∂n√ I∏¬ apßptºmgpw hnam\w
IØn®mºemIptºmgpw AXnep≈hsc c£n°m≥ Pn∂p
Iƒ apt∂m- ´p- h- cp- am- bn- cp∂p, am{X- a√ ]nimNv a\p- jys\
Xmßp∂psh∂v ]Tn∏n°m\√ im^n(d) Cßs\ A`n{]m
bs∏´Xv. Henb Nabp∂hscbpw Ahsc amXrIbm°p∂
hscbpw hna¿in°m\mWv, At±lw CØcw ]cma¿iw \S
ØnbXv. F¥¬`pXw I≠mepw AXnsem∂pw ZnhyXzw Z¿in
t°≠Xns√∂ Hcp XXzw ]Tn∏n°emWv im^n(d) Dt±in
®n- ´p- ≈Xv . ]nim- Nns\ al- Xzh¬°- cn- °p- ∂- h¿°v CXn-
sem∂pw bmsXmcpsXfnhpw e`ya√. CsXmcp lZokpa√.
I¿Ωimkv{XØnse A`n{]mbwt]mepw BfpsS hep∏tam
alXztam t\m°nbn´mbncp∂n√ ke^nIƒ kzoIcn®ncp
∂Xv. {]am- W- wam{Xw kzoI- cn- °p- Ibpw {]amW hncp- ≤- am-
bXv X≈p- Ibpw lZokv klo- lm- bXv kzoI- cn- °p- Ibpw
sNøp∂ \bw \ΩpsS AZ¿iØns‚ `mKamWv Bsft\m
t°≠ Bibw t\m°nbm¬ aXn F∂ hm°n\v ke^n
Iƒ°nSbn¬ Gsd {]Nmcw kn≤n®Xv Aßs\bmWv. ”Xm≥
FhnsS \n∂v hcp∂psh∂pw Ftßm´vt]mIp∂p sh∂pw
Xs‚ Pohn- X- k- cWn GXm- sW∂pw c£m- am¿§- sa- ¥m-
sW∂pw hfsc hy‡ambn {Kln®h\mWv Ah≥, Aß
s\bp≈ Hcp kXyhnizmkn A¤pXßsf∂v tIƒ°ptºm
tg°v IÆpaS®v sIm≠v AXns‚ ]n∂mse HmtS≠h\√.
krjvSnIfpsS IgnhpIsf kw_‘n®pw Ah¿°v {]ISn∏n
°m≥ Ignbp∂ A¤pXßsf kw_‘n®pw Ah\v hy‡
amb [mcWbp≠v. C\n {]Ya ZrjvSnbn¬ hymJym\n°m≥
Ign- bmØ Hc- Xv `p- X- kw- `hw Hcmƒ {]I- Sn- ∏n®p F∂v
k¶¬]n®m¬Xs∂ Xs‚ sFlnI hnPbØnt\m imizX
c£t°m Ah- \n¬ \n∂v bmsXm∂pw t\Sm- \n- s√∂v
48 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
ZrVambn hniz- kn- °p- ∂- h- \mWv Ah≥” (A- √m- lp- hns‚
Huenbm°ƒ-˛-Ip™o-XpaZ\n t]Pv 185)
in¿°psNøp∂h¿ ]nimNp°sf ]pIgvØn∏dbpw
kn≤∑mcpsS IgnhpIsf {]Ncn∏n°pw Huenb A¥co£
ØneqsS \S°p∂p AZriy߃ ]dbp∂p Cßs\ Ad_n
I- fnse _nw_m- cm- [- I¿ {]N- cn- ∏n- ®- Xp- t]mse \mSp- \osf
\S∂p {]Ncn∏n°pw (XuloZns‚ ktμiw˛C_v\pssXan
b t]Pv 52)
Hcmƒ iq\ymImiØn¬ ]d°p∂tXm Pe
\nc∏neqsS \S°p∂tXmI≠m¬ Abmsf kn≤\msW∂v
\n߃ sX‰p≤cn°cpXv aXØns‚ hn[nhne°pItfmSp≈
Abm- fpsS kao- ]\w Fs¥∂v kkq£v aw ho£n- °p- I.
A√m- lp- hns‚ Huen- bm- °ƒ CØcw the- Iƒ H∏n- °p- I-
bn√ (XuloZns‚ ktμiw˛C_v\pssXanb t]Pv 53)
]nim- NmWv Ahs\ BIm- i- Øn¬ ]d- Øp- ∂- Xv .
CØcw IYIƒ hnizkn°pIbpw {]Ncn∏n°pIbpw sNøp
∂hsc ]nimNmWv kzm[o\n°p∂Xv (AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv
53) Pn∂pIƒ°v a\pjysc°mƒ ]eIgnhpIfpap≠v Ah¿°v
BImiØneqsS henb `mcw hln®v ]d°m\pw ISen¬
apß\psams° Ignbpw kpsseam≥\_nbpsS ImeØv At±
lØn\pth≠n Pn∂pIƒ ]etPmenIfpw sNbvXn´p≠v AXn
\m¬ Pn∂ns‚ Ignhv kpsseam≥\_nbpsS apAvPnkØ√
Fs∂ms°∏d™v Pn∂pIƒ°v a\pjyPohnXØn¬kzX
{¥-ambn CS-s]-Sm-\mhpw F∂v hcp-Øn-Øo¿°p∂ \ymb-
hm- Z- ߃ Dt]- £n- °p- I- bmWv Ic- Wobw ]pWy- Ønepw
\∑bnepw klmbn°¬ apkvenßfpsS ]ckv]c _m[yX
bmWt√m? apkvenw Pn∂n\v ap…nw a\pjysc A]ISka
bØv klmbn°m≥ Ign™n´pw klmbn°m≥ Ah¿k∂
49
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
≤cmbns√¶n¬ Ah¿ bYm¿∞ apkvenßfmhptam a\pjy
s\-kw-_-‘n-®n-S-tØmfw Pn∂p-Ifpw ae-°p-Ifpw AZr-iy-
Po-hn-I-fmWv. Ch-sc-°p-dn®v Jp¿-B\pw lZokpw Fs¥m-
s°- ]- d- ™pthm AsX√mw A£cw {]Xn hniz- kn- °p- b-
√msX \ap°v CØcw Imcy- ß- fn¬ Kth- j- Ww- \- S- Øm≥
AhImian√. ImcWw CPvXnlmZn\v hgßmØ Hcphnj
bamWnXv .“hnizmkw et_md-´-dnIfn¬ G¬∏nt°≠ hnj-
ba√” (Hm¿ΩIfpsS XocØv sI.Da¿auehn t]Pv˛450) Ime
IoeIfpw ]finX∑mcpsS A_≤ßfpw tiJcn®psIm≠√
teJ\ßfpw {]kwKwßfpw \StØ≠Xv.
50 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
]nimNpw hn{Kl kwkmchpw
]nim- Nns‚ CS- s]- S¬aqew hn{Klw kwkm- cn- °p-
sa∂v k°- cn- ø- k- emln {]kw- Kn- ®XpImWq.“hn- {K- l- w
Nnet∏mƒ kwkm- cn- ®- Xmbn hn{K- l- ]q- P- I∑m¿ Ah- Im- i-
s∏Smdp≠v. C∂ hn{Klw kwkmcn®p,Aßns\ kwkmcn
®n- ´p- s≠- ¶n¬Xs∂ hn{K- l- Øn\v kwkm- cn- °m≥ Ign- bn-
√t√m, AXvshdpw actam It√mAt√? in¬]n sImØnbp
≠m°nbXt√, At∏mƒ AXns‚ ]n∂n¬ ssiXzm≥ i_vZ
ap- ≠m- °n- bn´v Cuhn- {K- lm- cm- [- \- bn- te°v P\- ßsf t{]cn-
∏n°m≥˛ hn{Kl߃°v Ignhps≠∂v hcpØnØo¿°m≥
Nnet∏mƒ kwkmcnt®°m≥ km≤yXbp≠v Ft∂ AXn
s\kw_‘n®v ]dbm\p≈q”
“C{_mlnw \_n-bpsS Ime-sØt¥ kwkm-cn-°m-
Xncp∂Xv? henb hn{KlØns‚ IgpØn¬ tImSmensImfp
Ønbn´v at‰Xns‚sbms° XebdpØt√m Bhenb hn{K
Øn\v kwkmcn®pIqsS CXv C{_mloamWv sNbvXsX∂
A∂v ssiXzm≥ B {Sn°v {]tbmKn®n´n√m F∂v h®v temI
sØmcnSØpw {]tbmKn°m≥ ]mSns√∂mtWm”. (k¡cn¿
kzemlnbpsS ISh¯qÀ {]kwK¯n \n¶v)
hn{Kl]qPI¿ hn{Klw ]mepIpSn°psa∂pw hn{K
lØns‚ IÆn¬\n∂v tNmcbn‰psas∂√mw AhImis∏
Smdp≠v Ah¿hn{KlsØ∏‰n ]e sI´pIYIfpw A¤pX
ßfpw sa\™p≠m°mdpap≠v AXns‚ BfpIƒ AXns\
]‰nkwkmcn°p∂Xv a\nem°mw. F∂m¬ hn{KlØns‚
kwkm-c-sØ-∏‰n hn{K-lm-cm-[\ FXn¿°p∂ Hcp ]fin-
X≥ AXn- i- tbm- ‡n- tbmsS C√m- I- YIƒ ]d- bp- ∂Xv
51
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
F¥n\m- Wv .AXp- hgn {]ÿm- \- Øn\pw At±- l- Øn\pw
F¥vt\´amWp≈Xv. hn{Kl]qPIcpsS I√ph® \pWIƒ
a\nem°m≥ Akmam\y_p≤nBhiyan√t√m a\pjyI
cßfm¬ sXfnbn°p∂aIctPymXnbn¬ ZnhyXzw AhIm
is∏Sp∂Xvt]msebt√ CXpw.A‘hnizmknIƒ°v F¥pw
hnizkn°m≥ kzmX{¥yap≠v ]t£ Ah¿°v hfw sh®vsIm
Sp- °p- ∂- co- Xn- bn¬ bmsXmcp XXzZo£- bp- an- √msX \mw
kwkmcn°cpX.v GI- ssZ- h- hn- izmkw {]N- cn- ∏n- °p- ∂- Xn\v
th≠n Xs‚buΔ\Øns‚ ap°m¬`mKhpw Nnehgn® Hcmƒ
]nimNn\vam{Xw kt¥mjap≠m°p∂XpwAbYm¿∞yhpam
bImcy߃ hn{KlsØkw_‘n®p]d™t∏mƒ ” At±-
l-tØm-Sp≈ kvt\lhpw _lp-am-\hpw \ne-\n¿Øn-s°m-
≠vXs∂ KpWImw£tbmsS XncpØm≥ apt∂m´phcmsX
t{]m’mln∏n°phm\mWv \Ωn¬ Nne¿ {ian®Xv.At±l-
Øns‚ A]IShmZsØ°pdn®v Nn¥n®pt\m°q,\qlv \_n
bp-sSbpw C{_mlow \_n-bp-sSbpw apl-ΩZv \_n(-k)-bp-
sSbpw ImesØ hn{K- lm- cm- [- I- cpsS hnizmkhpw C°m-
esØ hnizmkhpw H∂pXs∂bmW.v D]Imtcm]{ZhwsN
ømt\m ImWphmt\mtIƒ°phmt\m hn{Kl߃°v km[y
a- s√∂v hn{K- l- ]q- P- I¿t]mepw \√- t]m- se- a- \- n- em- °n- bn-
cp∂p.Chsc√mw hn{Klßsf kmao]n®Xv F¥n\msW∂
ktμlw kzm`mhnIamWt√m hn{Klw A∂pw C∂pw Hcp{]
XoIw am{XamWv. Hcpalms\bmWv AXv{]Xn\n[m\wsN
øp∂Xv. hn{KlØns‚ icocØnte°v ]mdnhcp∂ Cu®
sbtbm ImjvSn°p∂]£nsbtbm hn{Kl߃°v XSp°m
\mhn√ AºnbmAv 52apX¬ 68 hscbp≈hN\ßfn¬ hn{K
lsØkw_‘n®pw hn{Kl]qPIcpsS hnizmk sshIey
sØ°pdn®pw hn{Kl[zwk\Øns‚ t]cn¬ C{_mlnw\
52 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
_nsb in£n- °m≥ \wdqZpw in¶nSnIfpw Hcp- sº- ´- Xns\
kw_‘n®pamWv khnkvXcw {]Xn]mZn°p∂Xv. hn{Klm
cm- [- \- bpsS \ncÀ°- IX C{_mlow \_n(- A) P\- §sf
t_m[y- s¸- Sp- ¯p- ¶Xv hn{K- l- ¯n\v D]- Im- tcm- ]- {Z- h- §Ä
sN¿mt\m ImWphmt\m, tIÄ¡phmt\mt]mepw km²ya
söv sXfn- bn- ¨p- sIm- - m- Wv .
“Ah¿tNmZn®p \obmtWm RßfpsS ssZhßsf
sIm≠v CXp- sNbvXXv ”. At±lw ]d™p Ah- cpsS Iq´-
Ønse Cuh- en- b- h- \mWv AXp- sN- bvX- Xv. Ah¿kw- km- cp-
°psa¶n¬ \n߃ AhtcmSv tNmZn®pt\m°q. Ch¿kwkm
cn- °p- I- bn- s√∂v \n\- °- dn- bm- at√m? At∏mƒ \n߃°v
bmsXmcp D]- {Z- htam D]- Im- c- tam - sN- ømØ hkvXp°sf
A√mlphn\p]pdsa \n߃ Bcm[n°pIbmtWm? (Aºn
bm-Av 62˛66) Cu hnj-b-Øn¬ Aam-\n-au-e-hn-bpsS Jp¿-
B≥hn-h-cWw ]d-bp-∂-Xvt\m°mw “hen-b- hn-{Klw \in-
∏n- °- s∏- Sm- Ø- ÿn- Xn°v a‰p- hn- {K- l- ß- sf- Ip- dn®v P\- ߃
AXnt\mSv h∂v tNmZn°pIbpw At∏mƒ AXns‚ Ignhn
√mbva Ah¿{Kln°pIbpw sNøm≥th≠n F∂kmcØn
emWv Bc- ≠v hym- Jym- \- ߃” (hn- ip- ≤- Jp¿- B≥hn- h- cWw
hmfyw aq∂v t]Pv 2063) ho≠pw At±lw ]d-bp∂p “AXm
B henb hn{Klw! AbmfXm agphpambn\n¬°p∂p Abm
ƒ sNbvXXmbncn°Ww CXv Chscms° \nßfpsS Bcm
[y≥amcmWt√m? Ch¿°v Adnbphm\pw ]dbphm\pw km[n
°Wat√m Ch¿]dbs´, ChtcmSvXs∂ tNmZn®p t\m°p
hn≥ Ipdn°psIm≈p∂ DØcw”!(hnip≤Jp¿B≥ hnhcWw
hmfyw aq∂v t]Pv 2064) H∂pIqSn At±lw hniZoIcn°p∂p
“kz¥w tZl- ß- fn¬t\- cn- Sp∂ B]- Øp- t]mepw XSp-
°phmt\m a\nem°phmt\m ]d™dnbn°phmt\m Ign
53
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
bm- Ø- B- \n¿Poh hkv Xp- °sf ssZh- ß- fm- °n- sh- °p-
∂XvISpØhnUvUnØamsW∂v AhcpsS a\m£n Ah
tcmSv]d™p.C{_mlnw \_n (A)sIm≠ph∂ \ymbØns‚
APøi‡n°papºn¬ Ah¿XXvImesa¶nepw e÷n®p.]
t£ Xma- kn- °msX Ah¿ `mhw am‰n kwkm- cn- °m- ≥
XpSßn. Chbv °v kwkm- cn- °m≥ Ign- hn- s√∂p \n\- °- dn-
™vIqsS ]ns∂ Fßs\bmWv AhtbmSv tNmZn°m≥ ]d
bp∂Xv”(t]Pv.2063)
sI.Da¿auehnbpsS hm°pIƒ {i≤n°q, “hn{Klßsf X®p
S°pIbpw sNbvXp sIm≠mWv C{_mlnw \_n(A)]nXm
hn-t\mSv ]d-™Xv {]nb ]nXmth,tIƒ°p-I-bn-√,-Im-Wp-I-
bn- √,- \n- ߃°v bmtXmcp KpWhpw sNbv Xp- X- cn- I- bn√
Aßs\bp≈ hkvXphn\p \n߃ C_mZsØSp°p∂sX
¥n\v....(emCemlC√√mlphnss‚ A¿∞w.sI.Da¿auehn)
kakvX t\Xmhv sI.hn.aplΩZv apkvenbm¿,Iq‰\mSv
J_dmfnItfmSv tXSmsa∂pw J_¿sI´n∏m°msa∂pw hmZn
°p∂-bmfmbn´pw Cu hnjbØn¬ At±lw t]mepw ]d-
bp∂Xv {it≤bamWv. B agp IgpØnen´v \n¬°p∂ henb
_nw_aXm Abmƒ sNbvXXmWv Cu ]Wn, Ahscms°
\nßfpsS ssZhßfs√ AhtcmSv Xs∂ tNmZn®vt\m°p
I, \nßsf BcmWv Cßs\ sNbvX-sX∂v kwkm-cn-°p-
hm≥ Ign- bp- sa- ¶n¬ Ah¿Xs∂ AXv hnh- cn- ®v X- cp- as√m
Fs∂ F¥n\v hnNmcWsNøp∂p. (^Xvlpd“m≥ sI.hn.
apl-ΩZv ap…ym¿ Ip‰-\mSv (thmfyw 3 t]Pv 552)
_nw_tØmSv tNmZn®v t\m°q kwkmcn°m≥ Ign
bp- sa- ¶n¬ hn{Klw XI¿ØXv Bcm- sW∂v AXv ]d- bp-
at√m F∂ C{_mlnw \_n- bpsS _p≤n- ]- c- amb adp- ]Sn
hn{Kl ]qPIsc Nn¥n∏n°m≥ DXIp∂XmWv. Cu Ah
54 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
kcw D]tbmKs∏SpØn ]nimNv hn{KlsØsIm≠v kwkm
cn∏n®n√. hn{KlØns‚ ]n∂n¬ \n∂v ]nimNn\v kwkm
cn°m\mIpsa¶n¬ Xo¿®bmbpw AhnsS kwkmcn°pambn
cp∂p. A\nhmcymb L´Øn¬ {Sn°v {]tbmKn°msX ]ns∂
Ft∏m- sg- ¶nepw D]- tbm- Kn- °m≥ Bsc- ¶nepw ImØn- cn-
°ptam? {]tXyIn®v a\pjysc ]ng∏n°m≥ Ahkcw t\m°n
\n¬°p∂ kabØv ]nimNv an≠mXncp∂p F∂Xv ANn
¥y- am- Wv . ]nim- Nn\v Ign- bmØ Imcyw ]nim- Nns‚ ta¬
kzemln AhImis∏Sp∂Xv F¥n\mWv.
tcmKia\Øn\pw k¥m\ ku`mKyØn\pw kmº
ØnI A`nhr≤n°pw a\t¢i ap‡n°pw th≠n I_dmfn
ItfmSv {]m¿∞n°p∂ [mcmfw BfpIƒ kakvX°m¿°nS
bnep≠v Ah¿ I_dns\ Bcm[n°s∏Sp∂ _nw_am°mdp
≠v. hn{KlØns‚ ]n∂n¬ \n∂v ]nimNv kwkmcn°psa
¶n¬ sI´nDb¿Øs∏´ I_dns‚ ]n∂n¬ \n∂pw ]nimNv
kwkmcn® hm¿Ø tIƒ°pambncp∂p. Ah¿°v AhcpsS
hymP Huen-bm-°-fpsS Idm-aØv sXfn-bn-°m-\m-Ip-am-bn-cp-
∂p. hnizmk hyXnbm\Ønte°v ap…nwIsf NmSn°m\mWv
]nimNn\v IqSpX¬ Xm¬]cyap≠mIpI. _nw_mcm[Icmb
_lp- ssZh hnizm- kn- °n- S- bn¬ Np‰n- Øn- cn™v kabw
shdpsX Ifbm≥ ]nimNv sa\s°SmsX I_¿ knbmdØv
F∂ ]pWy I¿aØns‚ adhn¬ Fßs\ I_dmcm[\bn
te°v P\ßsf Xncn®v hn´v alm]m]w sNøn°msa∂ X{¥
ambncn°pat√m ]nimNv IqSpXembn BhnjvIcn°pI. bYm
ÿn- I- cpsS Idm- a- Øp- sI´p- I- Y- I- fn¬ t]mepw I_- dnse
kwkmc IY tIƒ°m- \m- In √. A‘hn - iz m- k- Øn \v
ssIØmßv \¬Ip∂ sI. hn Iq‰- \mSn s\t]m- ep≈
kwÿm\ t\Xm°ƒ°v t]mepw C√mØ hn{Kl kwkm
55
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
chmZw Hcp ke^n ]WvUnX≥ Xs‚ {]kwKØnse hnj
bam°nbXn¬ klX]n°pIb√msX as‰mcp \n¿hmlhp
an-√.
bp‡n°pw _p≤n°pw A\pkcn®v Jp¿B≥ hymJym
\n°pIbpw X\n°v t_m[ys∏SmØ apAv PnkØpIsf X≈p
Itbm As√¶n¬ kz¥w `mjyw \¬In hfs®mSn°pItbm
sNbvXn-cp∂ kn.-F≥. Al-ΩZv aue-hn-tbm, tNI-∂qtcm
hn{K- l- Øns‚ kwkm- csØ Ipdn®v A`n- {]m- b- s∏- ´- Xmbn
Adn-hn√. ka-kvX-°m¿ {]N-cn-∏n-°p∂ Z¿K-I-fnse I≈
IdmaØpIYbpsS \nc¿∞IX t_m[ys∏´v XuloZns‚
imZze Xoc- tØ°v sIm√wtXmdpw ka- kv X- bn¬ \n∂v
[mcmfw Bfp- Iƒ h∂p- tN- cp- ∂p- ap≠v in bmbn kw,
_td¬hnkw, JmZnbm\nkw t]msebp≈ {]ÿm\Ønepw
CXpt]msebp≈ Nn¥ tI´n´n√. k¿ΔaX kXyhmZtØm
sSm∏w IqSn\n∂v sIm≠v IøSnhmßm≥ {ian°p∂ Nne
kwLS\Ifpw, hy‡nIfpw ap…nwIƒ°nSbnep≠v Ahcpw
CtX∏‰n kwkmcn®Xmbn tI´n´n√.
C{_mlow \_n- bpsS ImeØv hn{K- l- Øns‚
]n∂n¬ \n∂v ]nimNv kwkmcn®n´ns√¶nepw ]ns∂ Ft∏m
sg¶nepw B {Sn°v {]tbmKn®pIqSm F∂pt≠m F∂ k°
cnøm kem- ln- bpsS bp‡n- hmZw hfsc am\y- ambn ]d-
™m¬ Atßb‰sØ A{Iahpw ip≤ Akw_‘hpam
bn- t∏mbn. Bsc tXm¬∏n- °m- \m- Wmthm Cß- \- sbms°
Ct±lw kwkmcn®vsImt≠bncn°p∂Xv. C{_mlnw \_n
bpsS Ime- Øn\v apºv \qlv \_n- bpsS Imew- ap- Xte
temIØv hn{Klmcm[\ Bcw`n®ncp∂q. aqkm\_nbpsSbpw
Cukm\_nbpsSbpw aplΩZv \_nbptSbpw ImesØ√mw
_nw_mcm[\ D≠mbncp∂p. As∂m∂pw hn{Klw kwkm
56 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
cn®n´n√. ]nimNn\v {Sn°v {]tbmKn°m\pambn´n√. IuXpI
hm¿Ø- I- fnepw hniz- kn- ®mepw Cs√- ¶nepw F∂ I≈
hm¿ØIfntem Ip´n®mØ≥ IYIfntem t]mepw hn{Kl
kw- kmc hm¿Ø- bn √ aI- c- tPym- Xn - bn ¬ Zn hy- Xz tam
hkvXpXtbm H´pw Cs√¶nepw AXns\ Ipdn®v ]eI≈I
Y- Ifpw ChnsS {]Nm- c- Øn- ep≠v. AXv t]mse- bp≈ IY-
Iƒ sa\- ™p- ≠m°n hn{Kl ]qP- I¿ t]mepw hn{Kl
kwkmcw ka¿∞n°m≥ {ian®n´pan√. C…manImibmZ¿i
XI¿°m≥ th≠n [mcmfw I≈ lZokpIƒ Nne X¬]c
I£nIƒ krjvSn®n´p≠v. Ct∏mgpw AXv XpScp∂p. aufq
Bb˛ \n¿ΩnX lZokpIfpsS Iq´Ønepw hn{Kl kwkmc
hm¿Ø IWm- \m- hn√. hn{K- l- Øns‚ ]n∂n¬ ]nimNv
kwkm-cn-°p-sa∂ A]-i-_vZ-Øns‚ e£y-sa-¥m-Wv. CXv
]nimNns\ CIgvØemtWm AtXm ]pIgvØemtWm?
F{X- h- enb ]Wv Un- X- \m- bmepw BcpsS {]kw- K-
Ønepw teJ\Ønepw A_≤߃ IS∂phcnI kzm`mhn
I- am- Wv . A_- ≤- ߃ {i≤- bn¬s∏- ´m¬ am\y- X- bp- sSbpw
]mWv Un- Xy- Øn- s‚bpw e£- W- amWv Xncp- Øp- ∂- Xv . hmb-
bn¬ \n∂v hoWXv AhnsS InS°s´, XncpØnbm¬ X\n°v
Ipd®nemIpw F∂ Nn¥bm¬ hoWXv hnZybm°p∂Xv Hcp
]Wv Un- X\pw `qj- W- a- √. km¶¬∏nI FXn- cm- fn- Isf
krjvSn®v Ahsc IS∂m{Ian°m\pw Acp°m°m\pw hne
s∏´ kabw hn\n- tbm- Kn- ®m¬ B I®- h- S- Øn¬ Cutem-
IØpw ]ctemIØpw \jvSa√msX as‰mcp t\´hpw Ah¿°v
D≠m-hp-I-bn-√.
hn{KlØns‚ ]mepIpSnbpw IÆn¬ tNmchcepw
hn{Km- lm- cm- [- I- cpsS _nkn- \v {Sn°v am{X- am- sW∂v a\-
n-em-°m≥ Akmam\y kma¿∞yw Bh-iy-an√. hn{Kl
57
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
kwkmc hmZw kzemln XncpØmØXn\m¬ ]ns∂ sXfnhv
D≠m- °m- \mWv injy∑m¿ {ian®p- sIm- ≠n- cn- °p- ∂- Xv .
Aßs\ kmancnbpsS Imf AhcpsS Nn¥bn¬ ta™pw
ap{Ibn´pw sskzcy hnlmcw \SØn, ]nimNn\v s]m´n®ncn
°m≥ CXn¬]cw F¥v tImfmWv Int´≠Xv. hn{KlsØ
°pdn®v temI{]iÿ ke^n ]WvUnX\mb imlv hen
bp≈mln Zlvehn ]dbp∂Xv {i≤n°q... Cu alm∑mcpsS
Bcm[\bpambn Iq´nt®¿Øm¬ am{Xta A≈mlphnt\m
Sp≈ Bcm[\ kzoIcn°s∏SpIbp≈q F∂pw Ch¿ ]dbp
∂p. ""A≈mlp hfsc D∂Xnbn¬ \nesIm≈p∂h\mWv,
AXv sIm≠v Ahs\ Bcm[n°p∂XneqsS am{Xw Ah\n
te°v \ap°v ASp°m≥ km[n°pIbn√. ChcpsS Imcy
߃ Ah¿ \nb{¥n°pIbpw Chsc klmbn°pIbpw sNøp
Ibp≈q""
Aßs\ AhcpsS t]cpIƒ sh®v I√pIƒ sIm≠v hn{Kl
߃ sNØnbp≠m°n F∂n´v Ahsc A`napJoIcn®v Ah
tcmSv {]m¿∞n°ptºmƒ Cu hn{Kl߃ Hcp In_vebmbn
ap∂n¬ ImWp- ∂p. Aßs\ Iptd Imew ]n∂n- ´- t∏mƒ
]n≥KmanIƒ Cu hn{Klßfpw Ah {]Xn\n[m\w sNøp∂
alm- ∑m- cpw XΩn- ep≈ hnXymkw icn- bmbn a\- n- em- °n-
bn√. Cu hn{Kl߃ Xs∂bmWv Bcm[n°s∏Sp∂sX∂v
Ah¿ [cn-®p-h-im-bn. \n߃ Bcm- [n- °p∂ Cu hn{K-l-
߃ shdpw AtNX\ hkvXp°fmWv Ah¿°v \S°phm≥
ImepI- fpt≠m, Ah¿°v ]nSn- °p- hm≥ ssII- fp- t≠m,
Ah¿°v ImWphm≥ IÆpIfpt≠m Ah¿°v tIƒ°phm≥
sNhnIfpt≠m (imlv henbp≈mln Zlvehn, lp÷Øp
≈mln¬ _menA 1˛59)
58 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
k°- cn- b- bpsS Dkv Xm- Zmb]n. A_v Zpƒ P∫m¿
auehn Ckvemln¬ FgpXnb Hcp teJ\Ønse hcnIƒ
IqSnImWpI "" hn{Kl߃°v ]qPmI¿Ω߃ A¿∏n°m≥
ImcWambn Ah¿ ]d™ncp∂Xv C{]Imcambncp∂p. B
hn{Kl߃ A≈mlphnte°v ASp∏n°pIbpw Ah A≈m
lp- hns‚ ASp- °¬ kzm[o\w sNbv Xv ip]m¿i sNbv Xv
P\ßsf c£n°pIbpw sNøpw AhcmIs´ Cu hn{Kl
߃ bmsXmcp D]Imchpw D]{Zhhpw sNøm≥ Ignbns√∂v
Adnbp∂hcmbncp∂p. At∏mƒ A≈mlp {]hmNItcmSv
]d™p (\_nsb \n߃ ]dbpI \n߃ kq£n°p∂n
t√) C_m- ZØv A¿∏n- °- s∏- Sp- ∂- Xn¬ Cu hn{Klßsf
A≈mlphn\v ]¶mfnIfm°p∂Xv \n߃ kq£n°p∂nt√
F∂v Xm¬]- cyw. Zp\n-bm-hnepw BJn-d-Xnepw k¿Δ \∑-
Ifpw A≈mlphn¬ \n∂v am{XamsW∂v \n߃ kΩXn
°p∂p. (]n A_vZpƒ P∫m¿ auehn Ckvemlv 2006 Pq¨
t]Pv 17, dmkn 17˛87)
,,..,,. · ¸ƒ.. ≈∏. ¸.:¸ ’·¸ Ω.... ’· √,. ·ƒ...¸ ,,. ·
π,:..:.· √,. .:..,., ·ƒ∏x:..· ≈:. ,,. · ·ƒ..¸¸ ,.¸,.s ·¸
·-·v_¸·¸.·, .∏.· ,.. ,,. ..... ¸ƒμ:¸ ¸,.s ’· ∂...¸ · ¸..
\n›bw Ah¿ Cu hn{Klßsfbpw {]XnaIsfbpw
D≠m°nbXv Ahcnep≈ \_namcpsSbpw alm∑mcpsSbpw
cq]Ønembncp∂p. F∂n´h¿ C{]Imcw P¬]n®p. Cu hn{K
l߃°v C_mZsØSp°¬ sIm≠v A√mlphns‚ ASp
°¬ Ah¿ (\_nam¿) ip]m¿i sNøpsa∂v.
59
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
kmancnbpsS Imf hn{Kl
kwkmc¯n\v sXfnthm ?
C{kmCuenb¿ _nw_mcm[\bpw ]ip]qPbpw \S
Ønbncp∂hcmbncp∂p. Imf°p´ntbmSp≈ `‡n AhcpsS
a\n¬ ebn®ncp∂p F∂v hnip≤ Jp¿B≥ 2:93epw Xzml
85 apX¬ 89 hscbp≈ hN\ßfn¬ \n∂pw kp{Kmlyam
Wv . _nw_m- cm- [\ shSn™v aqkm- \- _n- bpsS A\p-
bmbnIfn¬ Nne¿ kmancnbpsS IpX{¥Øn¬ hoWv ]ip
Bcm[\Icmbn amdnbncp∂p. lmdq≥ \_n (A) Ahsc
th≠- t]mse D]- tZ- in- ®p. ]s£ Ah¿ sNhn- sIm- ≠n- √.
XudmØv G‰p - hm- ßm≥ aq km \_n (- A) ko\m
XmgvhmcØnte°v t]mb Ahkcw apXem°ns°m≠mWv
kmancn ]ip hn{Klw D≠m°nbXpw P\ßsf AXnte°v
BI¿jn®Xpw hn{Kl kwkmcØn\v sXfnhmbn kmancn
bpsS ]ip ap{I- bn- ´- XmWv Nne Bfp- Iƒ Ct∏mƒ sXfn-
hmbn D∂bn°p∂Xv. aXhnjb߃ sXfnhns‚ ]n≥_e
Øn¬ am{Xambncp∂p ke^nIƒ C°mea{Xbpw kwkm
cn-®n-cp-∂-Xv. hmbn¬ tXm∂n-bXv ]d-bp-Ibpw ]d-™-Xn\v
H∏n®v {]am- WsØ hf- s®m- Sn®v sXfnhv D≠m- °p- Ibpw
sNøp∂ ssien kzoIcn®ncp∂Xv kakvX°mcmWv. Ahsc
A\pIcn®v sIm≠v tXm∂nbXv ]d™v ]ns∂ AXn\v sXfn
hp≠m°pIbmWv \Ωn¬s∏´ Nne ktlmZc߃. kmancn
bpsS Imf ap{Ibn´Xv hn{Kl kwkmcØn\p≈ sXfnhmbn
ap^ndpItfm apl±nkpItfm ap≥Ime ke^n ]WvUn
Xtcm ]d- ™n- ´n√. kma- ncn- bpsS Imfsb kw_- ‘n®v
{]amWw F¥v ]d-bp∂p F∂v \ap°v ]cn-tim-[n°mw. "" \o
t]m∂Xn\v tijw \ns‚ P\Xsb \mw ]co£n®ncn°pI
60 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
bmWv kmancn Ahsc hgn- sX- ‰n- ®p- I- f™p (Xzml 85)
""R߃ RßfpsS lnXa\pkcn®p. Xm¶tfmSp≈ \n›bw
ewLn®X√. F∂m¬ B P\ßfpsS B`cW NpaSpIƒ
\n߃ hln°s∏´ncp∂p Aßs\ RßfXv (Xobn¬) Fdn
™pIf™p. At∏mƒ kman- cnbpw A{]- Imcw AXv (Xo-
bn¬) C´p"" (Xzml 87)
""F∂n´v Ah¿°v Ah≥ (B temlw sIm≠v) Hcp
ap{I- bn- Sp∂ Imf- °p- ´n- bpsS cq]w D≠m- °n- s°m- SpØp.
At∏mƒ Ah¿ (At\ym\yw) ]d™p \nßfpsS ssZhhpw
aqkmbpsS ssZhhpw CXpXs∂bmWv. F∂m¬ At±lw
ad∂pt]mbncn°pIbmWv "" (Xzml 88) kmancnbpsS Imf
sbIpdn®v Aam\n auehn ]d™ `mKw t\m°mw ""{]hmN
I- ∑m- cpsS ]c- º- c- bm- Wt√m C{km- bo¬ h¿§w. F¶nepw
AhcpsS ]gb ÿnXnIsf√mw amdn°gn™ncp∂p Ah¿
CuPn]vXpImcn¬ \n∂v hn{Kmlmcm[\bpw ]ip ]qPbpw
]Tn®p. CuPn]vXn¬ \n∂v c£s∏´pt]mcp∂ hgn°v _nw_
ßsf sh®v ]qPn®phcp∂ Hcp P\Xsb I≠t∏mƒ Ah¿
aqkm \_n(A) tbmSv ]d™ hm°n¬ \n∂v hn{Klmcm[
\bn¬ Ah¿°p≈ Xm¬]cyw F{Xam{XamsW∂v a\n
em- °mw. (R- ߃°pw Hcp ssZhsØ D≠m- °n- Ø- c- Ww)
(hnip≤ Jp¿B≥ hnhcWw hmfyw 3 t]Pv 2001) kz¿Æm`
cWw Dcp°n Hcp ]ip°nSmhns‚ cq]Øn¬ kmancn Hcp
hn{Klw D≠m- °p- Ibpw AXns\ ]qPn- °m≥ P\- ߃
apt∂m´v hcnIbpw sNbvXXv Adn™ aqkm \_n(A) Ah
tcmSv tIm]n®p. GtXm Nne kq{X]WnIƒ aqew I∂pIm
enIfpsS ap{It]mse i_vZw ]pd∏Sphn®ncn∂Xv sIm≠v
AsXmcp A¤pX hkvXphmbn C{kmboe¿ IcpXn. tIhew
Poh- \n- √m- ØXpw bmsXm∂n\pw Ign- hn- √m- Ø- Xp- amWv
61
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
AsX∂v Ah¿ Ku\n®n√. am{Xtam AXv Xs∂bmWv aqk
\_n(- A) tXSn- t∏mb ssZh- sa∂v Ah¿ ]d- ™p- ≠m°n.
B ]ip°p´ntbmSp≈ kvt\lw AhcpsS lrZbØn¬ IpSn
∏n°s∏´pt]mbncp∂p _Id 93 epw Cu Imcyw kqNn∏n°
s∏Sp∂p. P\߃°v I≠pa\nem°m≥ IgnbmØ Nne
kq{X߃ Rm≥ (kmancn) I≠p]nSn®p. Fs‚ kz¥w a\
ns‚ t{]c- W- b- \p- k- cn- ®mWv Rm≥ Aßs\ sNbvX- Xv.
dkq¬ F∂v (ChnsS) ]d™Xv Pn_vco¬ (A) s\ Dt±in
®msW∂v ]e ap^ndpIfpw ]d™n´p≠v. Pn_vcoens‚
IpXncbpsS ImeSnbn¬ \ns∂mcp ]nSn asÆSpØv F∂pw
kmcamIp∂p. kmancn°v AXv In´nbXns‚ ]e \o≠ IY
Ifpap≠v. Cu IYIfpsS km[pXbpw \nthZ\ am¿§ßfpw
]e \ne°pw hna¿i\m¿lamWv. hnip≤ Jp¿B≥ hnh
cWw Aam\n auehn (t]Pv 2003,2005)
kmam- cn- bpsS Imf- °p- ´n- sb- ∏‰n kakvX t\Xm- hm-
bncp∂ sI.hn. aplΩZv ap…ym¿ Iq‰\mSv F¥v ]dbp∂p
F∂v t\m°mw.
“kmamcn Hcp ]ip°p´nbpsS cq]ap≠m°n AsXmcp
PVw am{X- am- bn- cp- ∂p- sh- ¶nepw Nne X{¥- ߃ {]tbm- Kn-
®ncp∂Xv sIm≠v AXn\v ]iphns\t]mse i_vZap≠mbn
cp∂p. Pn{_oens‚ ]mZkv]¿ita‰ ÿeØv \n∂v FSpØ
aÆv \nt£]n®t∏mƒ AXv Hcp {]XyI i_vZap≠m°n”
(sI.hn. aplΩZv apkym¿ Ip‰\mSv Jp¿ B≥ ]cn`mj hmfyw
3 t]Pv 496)
Nnebn\w Ifn∏mhIƒ hyXykvXamb iw_vZap≠m
°mdp≠v. arKßfpsS cq]Øn¬ \n¿Ωn® Ifnt°m∏pIƒ
]q®- bp- sSbpw \mb- bp- sSbpw BSn- s‚bpw ]ip- hn- s‚bpw
i_vZw ]pds∏Sphn°mdp≠v. ]£nIfpsS cq]Ønep≈ Ifn
62 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
t°m∏pIfpw AXXv ]£nIfpsS i_vZw ]pds∏Sphn°pw.
CXnsem∂pw bmsXmcp A¤pXhpan√. Im‰Sn®v hoiptºmƒ
apf-¥-≠p-Iƒ BSn bpe-bp-Ibpw AXn¬ \n∂v {]tXyI
i_vZw ]pds∏SpIbpw sNøpw. ]p√pIfnte°v Im‰pIƒ hnip
tºmƒ t]mepw a¿Ωcw D≠mImdp≠v. HmSbnepw apfbnepw
Hm´- bp- ≠m°n kwKo- tXm- ]- I- c- W- ߃ D≠m- °p- Ibpw
kwKoX t{]anIƒ AXv D]tbmKn®v kwKoXw Be]n°p
Ibpw sNøp- ∂Xv ]≠vap- Xte {]Nm- c- Øn- ep- ≈- Xm- Wt√m.
Imf- °p- ´n- bpsS ap{I- bpsS ]n∂n¬ ]nim- Nns\ IpSn- bn- cp-
Øm≥ {ian°p∂Xn\v bmsXmcp {]amWhpw ImWn®pXcm
\m-hn-√. Npcp°n ]d-™m¬ hn{Klw kwkm-cn-°p-∂-Xn\v
]n∂n¬ ]nim- Nm- sW∂ hmZw bmsXmcp sXfn- hp- an- √mØ
_menihmZw am{XamWv.
63
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
{]mÀ°\bpw Bcm[\bpw
Hcp AZriy i‡n°p apºn¬ `‡n- tbm- Sp- IqSn
sNøp∂ At]- £- bmWv {]m¿∞- \. F√m {]m¿∞- \bpw
C_mZØmWv, C_mZØv A√mlphn\√msX sNøm≥ ]mSn
√. (hn.-Jp. hnh-c-Ww˛ Aam\n auehn Vol-3- t]Pv 1950)
:..,..· ƒ. ...,.·
{]m¿∞\ AXp- X- s∂- bmWv C_m- ZØv
Cu lZo- kns\ hni- Zo- I- cn- ®Xv \_n(- k) Hcp BbØv
HmXn- s°m- ≠m- bn- cp∂p.
¸¸_μ:.., ¸,,.· ¸ · ,μ. ¸,,:.. · _ƒ..· ,μ,¸ ∫..¸
(·¸. ƒŸ·, ¸,¸i·. ,.,, ¸ƒ∏i,,.. _:..,. ¸ ·
\n ß- fp sS c£n - Xmhv ]d- ™n - cn - °p ∂p Ft∂mSv
{]m¿∞n°q Rm≥ \n߃°v DØcw \¬Ipw. Fs∂ Bcm- [n-
°p-∂-Xn¬ \n∂v hnapJXIm´n Al-¶-cn-°p-∂-h¿ ]n∂oSv \nμy-
cmbn \c-I-Øn¬ {]th-in°pw (ap-Avan≥˛60)
,.ƒ.... ,μ..:. · ..,. .∏.· ¸¸. ¸. ¸ƒ.,: ¸,,.· ¸ ·
(··· .·¸. ’· , _..... ,:.s ¸ · ,μ.·ƒ,,,:..,∏.
A√m-lp-hns\ IqSmsX \n߃ klm-bm-`y¿∞\
\S- Ø- s∏- Sp- ∂- h¿ \nß- sf- t]m- se- bp≈ ASn- a- Iƒ Xs∂-
bmWv \n߃ Ahsc hnfn®p {]m¿∞n°pI Ah¿ \n߃
DØcw \¬Is´. AAvdm^v˛194 (DØcw e`n°p∂Xv H∂v
ImW- W- at√m?)
¸...Ÿ· ∞..s¸ ™...Ÿ· ¸∏. ...,.· √,. ≈...¸
ZpBCs‚ A¿∞w D]- Imcw e`n - °m\pw D]- {Zhw
\nßm\pw th≠nbp≈ tX´amWv. (dmkn 15˛16 t]Pv 92)
(··v.·¸. ’·, ¸¸¸..., ,,.... · ’¸ ,s¸... ¸ƒ.,u:.., ’ ..¸. ¸. ¸ƒ.,: ¸,,.·¸
64 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
A√m-lp-hn\v ]pdsa \n߃ hnfn®p {]m¿∞n-°p-∂-h¿°v
\nßsf klm- bn- °p- hm≥ km≤y- a- √. Ah- sc- X- s∂bpw Ah¿
klm-bn-°p-∂-Xp-a-√. (A-lvdm^v 197)
.∏.· ¸¸. ¸. .ƒ,.. πs
A√m-l-hn\v ]pdsa Bcm-[n-°-s∏-Sp∂ F√m Bcm-[ycpw F∂-
Wt√m A¿∞w.
:..,..· _¸¸ .. ..
{]m¿∞\ C_m-Z-Øns‚ Bflm-hmWv (Xp-lv^)
⁄ .... ¸ ·¸ ,:. ..... _ · ,μ,., · .... ¸ ·
,μ,. · .∏.· ∫ƒ..¸ ’ · .. · ..¸ ,μ,,,,
\n߃ Bh- iy- s∏- ´- Imcyw e`n- °m≥ Rm≥ Ah- t\mSv
{]m¿∞n-®m¬ Ah≥ Dt±-in-®m¬ adp-]Sn e`n-°pw. Ah≥ Dt±-
in-®n-s√-¶n¬ DØcw e`n-°n-√. Rm≥ \nß-fn-te°v Ab-°-s∏´
ZqX≥ am{X-amWv (C-_v\p-I-ko¿ ]mfyw 3, t]Pv 64)
·ƒ..s¸ .·,. · ,,. ·ƒ..s _....· ¸... ·: ·¸
(· ..≤. ’· , ¸,¸..s ,,:..,.,
P\-ßsf Hcp-an®p Iq´-s∏-Sp-tºmƒ Ah¿ Ah-cpsS i{Xp-
°- fm- bn- cn- °pw. (A- lvJm- ^v˛6) Ah¿ (B- cm- [n- °- s∏- ´- h¿) Ah-
cpsS C_m- Z- Øns\ \ntj- [n- °p- ∂- h- cmWv (ChnsS tIhew
_nw_mc[\bmsW-∂mWv kakvX°m¿ \ymbo-IcWw ]dbp∂-
Xv ) _nw_- Øn\v kwkm- cn- °m- \m- hm- Ø- Xn- \m¬ \ntj- [n- °p∂
kz`mhw D≠m- hn- √t√m
.∏.· ¸¸. ¸. ,,., ¸. πs ,,, .·¸, ¸·¸ƒ,, ,.¸
(-v·_.-_.ƒ....· ƒ, ·, ,._.¸ _.. ’·¸ ¸,·¸ :μ.∏Ÿ· ¸.
\n›bw A√m-lp-hn\v ]pdsa Bcm-[n-°-s∏-Sp∂ ae-°p-
Iƒ, Pn∂v, a\p-jy¿ a‰p-≈-hcpw ChnsS Dt±-in-°-s∏-S¬ A\p-h-
Z\obamWv. (A_ppDuZv hmfyw 15 t]Pv 571)
,.ƒ..¸ :μ.∏Ÿ.s ..,. · ,..ƒ,.. ¸ƒs ¸,,≤: ≈∏.¸
(··-_.»_ ¸.,,.· _¸¸,,,.·ƒ. ., ¸ƒ.ƒx... ¸¸¸i... ..,. ,,.
65
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
C_mZsØSp°s∏-Sp∂-h¿ ae°pIsft]msebpw AXp
t]m- se- bp- ≈- hbpw Poh- \p- ≈- h- cm- sW- ¶nepw tIƒ°p- I- bn√
ImcWw Ah¿ \mYs‚ {]IrXn \nb-a-Øn\v Iogvs∏-´-hcpw Ah-
cpsS Ah- ÿ- bn¬ hym]rXcmb- h- cp- am- Wv.
.∏.., ..:....
\o A√m-lp-hn-t\mSv c£-tX-SpI (A-Avdm^v 200, Km^n¿
56)
-Cemlnt\mSv sNøp∂ klmbmt]£bmWv C_m
ZØn¬s]´ ZpB AYhm {]m¿∞\ (Jp¿-B≥ ]cn-`m-j.-sI.-
hn. apl-ΩZv ap…ym¿, Iq‰-\m-Sv,Vol-3-422)
:¸i ’·¸ .,.,.· ‘ ¸·_i πs ¸., ,μ.·¸.· ™.
,μ.·¸.·¸ ......·¸ .∏.· :..¸ ¸. π..– .‰ ·
(»v-·v…¸·¸.·,::,.· ¸..: ’¸ ™..: ’ ¸.:¸ ’· √,. ¸ .,
ClØnepw ]cØnepw a\pjy\v e`n°p∂ A\p{K
l߃ A√mlphn¬ \n∂v am{XamsW∂pw Ahs‚ \∑
bpsS ASn- ÿm- \- Øn- em- sW∂pw hn{K- l- Øn\v bmsXmcp
D]Imctam D]{Zhtam sNøm\mhns√∂pw Ah¿ AwKoI
cn®tXmsSm∏w A√mlp A√mØh¿°v Ah¿ C_mZØv
sNbvXn-cp∂p (dmkn 17˛87)
(··....μ.· , π.,.·¸ ¡ƒ...·:,.. ≈... · :..,..·¸
Atßb‰sØ Xmgvabpw hnt[bXzhpw {]ISn∏n°
emWv Bcm[\.
\a- kv Imcw, t\mºv , l÷v , Dwd, kmjv Smw- Kw,
{]m¿∞\ F∂oImcy߃(AZriy `mKØv \n∂v ImcyIm
cW _‘an√mØ AYhm a\pjyIgnhn\v AXoXamb Imcy
߃°p≈ klmb tX´w, Imh¬ tX´w, icWw. ad™
`mKØp\n∂v Imcy˛ImcW _‘߃°XoXambn (a\pjy
66 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
Ignhn\XoXambn) e`nt°≠ klmb tX´hpw Imh¬ tX´
hpamWt√m {]m¿∞\. AXv Bcm[\bmWv. _Zvdn¬ sh®v
\_n(- k) \S- Ønb {]m¿∞- \sb klmbtX´w (C- kv Xn-
Kmk) F∂v A√mlp ]d™p. (A√mlphns\ GI\m°pI˛
kpsseam≥ \Zvhn, t]Pv ˛16)
Pohn°p∂h¿ ]ckv]cw Ignbp∂ ˛ AtXmsSm∏w
A\phZ\obamb Imcyßfn¬ ]ckv]cw klmbn°pIbpw
klmbw tXSpIbpw sNømw F∂v a\nem°mw. F∂m¬
a\pjy Ign-hn\v km[n-°mØ klmb tX´w krjvSn7-I-
tfmSv \SØp∂Xv A\phZn°s∏SmØXmWv. {]kvXpX tX´w
Bcm- [- \- bm- Wv . AXv A√m- lp- hn- t\mSv am{Xta tXSm- hq.
(AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv.17)
kmμ¿`nIambn DW¿Øs´. krjvSnIfpsS Ignhn
\XoXambn A`uXnIamb Imcyßfn¬ klmbw tXSemWv
{]m¿∞\ F∂mWv k°cnø kzemln hmZn®psIm≠ncn
°p∂Xv. a\pjyIgnhn\∏pdw krjvSnItfmSv klmbw tXSp
∂Xv Bcm[\bmsW∂pw in¿°msW∂pamWv \Zvhn ]d
bp∂Xv. At±lw XpScp∂p.
AXv hmbn°ptºmƒ Cu Imcyw {]tXyIn®v Hm¿Ωn°Ww
C-Xv-t]mse Pn∂p-I-tfmSpw ae-°p-I-tfmSpw a‰pw {]m¿∞n-
°p∂p. Chsc kzaZmsW∂v (kzbw Ignhp≈hsc∂v) Icp
Xnbn´ns√¶n¬ t]mepw AhtcmSp≈ Cu tX´w ˛ {]m¿∞
\in¿°mWv. AZriy`mKØp\n∂p≈ CØcw klmb tX´
߃ {]m¿∞\bs√∂v ]d™v kaqlsØ in¿°nte°pw
AhnSp∂v \cIØnte°pw \bn°p∂ hmZ߃ kq£n°p
I.
(t]-Pv -˛18)
67
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
Jp¿B≥ KthjI≥ tUm: aplΩZv Aivd^v auehn
]cntim[n®v kpsseam≥ \Zvhn Xømdm°nb A√mlphns\
GI\m°pI F∂ ]pkvXIØn¬ \n∂mWv apIfn¬ ]d™
Imcyw D≤cn®Xv. AZriy `mKØv \n∂p≈ AYhm Pn∂n
t\mSpw ae°nt\mSpap≈ klmbtX´w in¿°s√∂v hcpØn
Xo¿°m\p≈ sIm≠p]nSn® {iaw ChnsS P∫m¿ auehnbpw
k°cnø kzemlnbpw At±lØns‚ apcoZpIfpw \SØn
s°m≠ncn°ptºmƒ H¿Pn\¬ ke^n tI{μØn¬ \n∂v
Xs∂ aebmfØn¬ hnXcWw sNøp∂ Cu ]pkvXIw Hcm
h¿Øn hmbn°phm≥ km[mcW°mcmb P\߃ kabw
Is≠- Ø- Ww. Nne ]fin- Xsc A‘- ambn hniz- kn- ®m¬
Ah¿ Ipgnbn¬ hogvØpsa∂v aXnbmb sXfnhmWv hnP\
{]tZ- isØklm- b- tX- ´- hm- Zw.
Xzml 25-˛mw hN-\sØ hymJy-\n-®p-sIm≠v dmkn
FgpXp∂Xv ImWq. ZpB C_mZØns‚ C\Øn¬s]´ H∂m
Ip∂psh∂v Xo¿®bmbpw \o Adn™ncn°Ww. (X^v ko
dp¬ I_o¿)
sI.F≥.Fw. ap≥ P\d¬ sk{I´dn sI.]n. aplΩZv
auehn XuloZns\ kw_‘n®v [mcmfw ]pkvXI߃ cNn
®n´p≠v. At±lw Ckvemln tIcfØn\v \¬Inb alØmb
kw`m-h\ CØcw IrXn-I-fmWvv At±-lØns‚ GXm\pw
hcnIfneqsS \ap°v k©cn°mw.
Cu [mcW Xs∂bmWv, C∂v Pmdw ]qPmcnIfmb
a¨ ad™ alm∑mtcmSv {]m¿∞\ A¿∏n°phm≥ th≠n
PmdsØ icWw {]m]n°p∂ ap…nw `‡P\ßfnepw ImW
s∏Sp∂Xv. Aßs\ BfpIƒ temI {kjvSmhmb A√mlp
hns\ hnfn®v {]m¿∞n°pI F∂ Bcm[\bn¬ \n∂p Xosc
Hgn™p \n¬°p- Ibpw krjv SnI- fmb alm- ∑msc hnfn®v
68 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
{]m¿∞n°p∂ Hcp Ahÿm hntijw kwPmXamIpIbpw
BfpIƒ _lpssZhmcm[\bn¬ apgpIpIbpw sNbvXp. GI
ssZhmcm[\ shSn™ Cu `b¶c Ahÿbn¬ \n∂v Bfp
Isf tamNn∏n°phm≥ th≠nbmWv A√mlp \qlv \_nsb
\ntbmKn®Xv. Cu hkvXpX {]_e∑mcmb F√m Jp¿B≥
hymJymXm°fpw tcJs∏SpØnbn´p≠v. (hnizmkw hmfyw
1˛sI.]n. aplΩZv auehn t]Pv 59)
sI.-]n.-bpsS A¬ CkvXn-Kmk tIc-fob apkveow
kaqlØn¬ Gsd kzm[o\w sNepØnb IrXnbmWv. tIhe
klmbtX´w F∂v ]cnI¬∏\ sImSpØvsIm≠mWv ka
kvX°m¿ A√mlpA√mØhsc hnfn®v {]m¿∞n°m\pw a\p
jyIgnhn\XoXamb Imcyßfn¬ klmbw tXSm\pw \ymbw
]d- ™n- cp- ∂- Xv . Ah- cpsS Ckv Xn- Kmk F∂ aW¬
ku[sØ sI.]n. {]kvXpX ]pkvXIØneqsS Xcn∏Wam
°nbn´p≠v. ""F∂m¬ ]≠sØ kakvX°m¿ A√mlpA
√m- Ø- h- tcmSv R߃ {]m¿∞n- °m- dp- s≠∂v ]d- bm≥
C∂sØ t]mse N¶q‰w ImWn®ncp∂n√''. kakvX°msc
t]mse \Ωn¬ \n∂pw Nne¿ {]m¿∞\tbbpw Bcm[\
tbbpw c≠mbn Nn{XoIcn°p∂ krjvSnIfpsS Ignhn\Xo
X- hpambn cwKØv h∂ Cu ImeØv ap≥Ime ke^n
]finXcpsS ]pkvXI߃ t\cdnhns‚, Znimt_m[Øns‚
hnf°pamSambn tijn°pI Xs∂ sNøpw. Cu BZ¿isØ
hmb- sIm≠v DuXn- s°- Sp- Øm≥ Nne¿ {ian- °p- ∂p. ]s£
B {iaw Hcn°epw Pbn°m≥ t]mIp∂n√. A√mlp Cu
BZ¿isØ kwc£n°pI Xs∂ sNøpw.
klm- b- tX- ´- sat∂m CkvXn- Km- k- sbt∂m ]d™p
sIm≠mWv kakvX°m¿ A√mlh√mØhtcmSv {]m¿∞n
®n- cp- ∂Xv ke^n Isf CkvXn- Kmk hntcm- [n- I- sf- ∂mWv
69
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
Ah¿ Bt£]n®ncp∂Xv. {]m¿∞\m hntcm[nIsf∂v ]d
bm\p≈ ss[cyw Ah¿°v Ct∂hsc D≠mbn´n√.
hnP\ {]tZ- isØ klm- b- tX´w ae- °p- I- tfm- Sm-
bmepw Pn∂pItfmSmbmepw {]m¿∞\Xs∂bmWv. {]m¿∞\
F∂v ]dbmsX klmb tX´sa∂ ]pIad krjvSn®psIm
≠mWv P∫m¿ auehn ka- kv X- °m- sc- t]mse Zp¿\ymbw
]dbp∂Xv.
ka-kvX-°m-cpsS ]gb Ah-ÿ-sb-°p-dn®v sI.-]n.
Xs∂ ]dbs´. ""apºpImeßfn¬ A√mlpA√mØhtcmSv
klmbw tXS¬ F∂ A¿∞Øn¬ hymJy\n®psIm≠m
bncp∂p CkvXnKmksb \ymboIcn®ncp∂Xv. A√mlpA
√m- Ø- h- tcmSv {]m¿∞n- °pI F∂ A¿∞- Øn¬ AXns\
\ymboIcn°m\p≈ ss[cyw Bcpw ImWn®ncp∂n√''.
(A¬ Ckv Xn- Kmk: sI.- ]n. apl- ΩZv C_v \p Al- ΩZv
t]Pv˛2,3)
C.sI. A_q_°¿ ap…ym¿ am{Xa√, A√mlpA
√mØhsc hnfn®v {]m¿∞n°pIsb∂ A¿∞Øn¬ CkvXn
Km- ksb \ymbo- I- cn- °m≥ A∂v Hcp ap…ymcpw ss[cyw
ImWn®ncp∂n√. F∂m¬ \n¿`mKysa∂p ]dbs´ C∂nXm
{]m¿∞n-°pI F∂ A¿∞-Øn¬ Xs∂ CkvXn-Km-ksb
\ymboIcn°m\pw Ckveman¬ AXv A\phZ\obw am{Xa√
Bh- iy- sa- ∂p- IqSn ÿm]n- °m\pw ka- kv X- tI- cf PwC-
øØp¬ Deabnse F√m ]finXcpw shº¬ ImWn°pI
bmWv. (AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv ˛3,4)
\nb{¥Ww hn´ hml\m]ISØn¬ \n∂v c£s∏
Sm\pw tUmIvS¿ Isømgn™ Ahÿbn¬ aIs\ c£s∏
SpØm\pw aI≥ ]co£bn¬ Pbn°m\pw bp≤Øn¬ ]cmP
bs∏SmXncn°m\pw tIkn¬ hnPbn°m\psams° a\pjy¿
70 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
Nne AZriyhpw A`uXnIhpamb i‡nItfmSv klmbw
tXSp-∂p. CØcw kμ¿`-ß-fn¬ AXm-bXv Akm-[m-c-W-
amb klmbw AXym- h- iy- ambn- cp∂ kμ¿`- ß- fn¬ GI-
ssZhhnizmknIƒ A√mlphnt\mSpw A√mØh¿ ssZth
Xci‡nItfmSpw klmbw tXSp∂p. tbip{IkvXp, Kpcp
hmbqc∏≥, aplvb≤o≥ ssiJv... XpSßnb ]etcbpw hnfn®p
{]m¿∞n°p- ∂p. Ah- tcmSv klmbw A`y¿∞n- °p- ∂p.
t\cn¬ _‘-s∏-Sm≥ Ign-bmØ i‡n-I-tfmSpw hy‡n-I-
tfmSpw A`uXnIamb am¿§ØneqsS sNbvXpIn´m≥ th≠n
bp≈ klmbm`y¿∞\bmWv A√mlpA√mØhtcmSmIp
∂Xpw. A√m- lp- A- √m- Ø- h¿°v klm- bn- °m≥ Ign- bmØ
Imcy-am-Wn-Xv( t]Pv˛ 11,12)
klmb tX´w thsd, {]m¿∞\ thsd {]m¿∞\
Bcm- [- \- bm- Ip- ∂Xpw BIm- Ø- Xp- ap≠v Bcm- [- \- bm- Ip∂
{]m¿∞\ A≈mlphnt\mSv am{Xta ]mSp≈q F∂ hnizm
kamWv R߃°p≈Xv alm∑m¿°v A≈mlp sImSpØ
Ignhn¬ \n∂mWv R߃ klmbw tXSp∂Xv alm∑m¿°v
kzbw Ignhp- s≠t∂m Ah¿ Cem- lm- sWt∂m R߃
hnizkn°p∂n√ bmYmÿnXnIcmb k¿Δ kp∂nIfpw hniz
kn°pIbpw ]dbpIbpw sNøp∂ NneImcyßfmWv ChnsS
FSpØpsImSpØXv. F∂m¬ Ahsc sh√p∂ coXnbn¬
apPmlnZpIfmsW∂v AhImis∏Sp∂ Hcp ]WvUnX\n¬
\n∂pw AhcpsS Hcp ]‰w A\pbmbnIfn¬ \n∂pw _men
jamb CØcw Akw_‘ hmZ߃ tI´pXpSßnbn´p≠v
]nimNns\ alXzh¬°cn°p∂Xns‚ `mKambn´mhmw Ah
cnß\sbms° ]dbp∂Xv. ""]nimNns\ ]qPn°pIbpw Bcm
[n°pIbpw sNøp∂h¿°v AhcpsS Ignhn¬s∏´ Nne Imcy
߃ sNbvXv sImSp°pw ]nimNv ]qPIsc ]nimNv klm
bn°pw F∂m¬ ]nim- Nn- t\mSv {]m¿∞n- ®m¬ Ah¿°v
71
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
Ahsc klmbn°m≥ Ignbn√"" (k°cnø kemln)
]eh´w kemln Bh¿Øn®psIm≠ncn°p∂ Hcp
ImcyamWv apIfn¬ sImSpØXv {]m¿∞\sbbpw Bcm[\
sbbpw ]‰n {]amWw F¥mWv \sΩ ]Tn∏n°p∂Xv {]mam
WnIcmb ap^ndpIfpw apl±nkpIfpw Cu hnjbØn¬
F¥p]dbp∂p. ke^n AJoZ F¥mWv? \ΩpsS ap≥Kman
Ifmb apPmlnZv t\Xm°fpw ]WvUnX∑mcpw Cu hnjb
Øn¬ F¥mWv \sΩ ]Tn- ∏n- ®Xv? AsXm∂pw {i≤n- °m-
sXtbm As√- ¶n¬ AsX√mw Im‰n¬ ]d- Øn- s°mt≠m
kzemln kakvX°msc t]mse {]m¿∞\sbbpw Bcm[
\tbbpw c≠m°p∂p. ASpØ N¿® AXmImw ""{]m¿∞\
AXp- X- s∂- bmWv Bcm- [\"" dkq- ens‚ Cu hN- \sØ
dkq¬Xs∂ hniZoIcn®Xv Hcp BbØv HmXns°m≠mbn
cp∂p.
""\nß- fpsS c£n- Xmhv ]d- ™n- cn- °p∂p \n߃ Ft∂mSv
{]m¿∞n°q Rm≥ \n߃°v DØcw \¬Imw Fs∂ Bcm
[n°msX Al¶mcw \Sn°p∂hcmtcm Ah¿ hgnsb \nμy
cmbns°m≠v \cIØn¬ {]thin°p∂XmWv Xo¿®"" (hn.
Jp. apAv an≥ 60) Cu BbØns\ hniZoIcn®psIm≠v Aam\n
auehn FgpXp∂p ""F√mhcpw Fs‚ ASnabmb ÿnXn°v
\n߃ Fs∂ hnfn®v {]m¿∞n°mXncn°phm≥ \n¿Δml
an√ AXv \nß- fpsS IS- a- bm- Wv . a‰m- sc- sb- ¶nepw hnfn®v
{]m¿∞n°m≥ AhImitam \ymbtam Bhiytam C√. ZpB
C_m- Z- ØmWv Bcm- [- \- bn¬s∏- ´- XmWv {]m¿∞- \bpw
XpS¿∂p≈ hmIyØn¬ ""Fs∂ hnfn®v {]m¿∞n°p∂Xns\
Ipdn®v Alw`mhw \Sn°p∂h¿"" F∂v ]dbmsX ""Fs∂
Bcm[n°p∂hsc°pdn®v Alw`mhw \Sn°p∂h¿"" F∂
{]tbmKw CXmWv Im´nØcp∂Xv Bcm[\bpsS Hcp C\
72 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
amb ˛ AXnse Hcp {][m\amb ˛ hnfn®v {]m¿∞n°epw
A≈mlphnt\mSv am{Xta BImhq (hnip≤ Jp¿B≥ hnh
cWw Aam\n auehn hmfyw 4 t]Pv 2886) Bcm[\bn¬
sh®v G‰hpw t{ijvT-am-bXv GXm-sW∂v \_n(-k)tbmSv
tNmZn®t∏mƒ dkq¬ Cßs\ adp]Sn ]d™p
...... ·¸Ÿ· .... ∫.. π... · :..,..· … ·(_., π...
,,≤∏i …,.· .∏.., ¸μ.¸ ,..·,. ·¸ ,,:,. ., ·ƒ:,x:.., ⁄¸
a\pjy≥ X\n°pth≠n {]m¿∞n°emIp∂p Bcm[\bn¬
sh®v G‰hpw t{ijvTw (_pJmcn)
Ip™oXp aZ\nbpsS C…mans‚ Poh≥ F∂ ]pkvX
IØn¬ \n∂v Nne Imcyw ChnsS Ipdn°s´ \_n(k)bpsS
Cu hnh- cWw A\p- k- cn®v {]m¿∞- \bpw {]m¿∞- \- bn¬
Dƒs°m- ≈p∂ a‰p I¿Ω- ßfpamWv Bcm- [\ F∂p
{Kln°mw Cu ASn- ÿm- \- Øn¬ ]S- ®- hs\ c£n- °tW
F∂Xv Hcp {]m¿∞- \- bm- bXv sIm≠v AXv Hcp C_m- Z-
ØmWv. \akvImcw {]m¿∞\bn¬ Dƒs°m≈p∂Xv sIm≠v
AXpw C_m- Z- Øm- Wv . A`u- XnI am¿§- Øn¬ KpW- e-
_v[ntbm ZpcnX tamN- \tam t\Sm- \p≈ A¿∞- \- am- {Xta
{]m¿∞\bmIpIbp≈q Imcy ImcW _‘ßfpsS ASn
ÿm\Øn¬ klmbn°m\p≈ A¿∞\sbm∂pw {]m¿∞
\b√. (C…mans‚ Poh≥ sI. Ip™oXp -aZ\n t]Pv 13)
A`uXnIamb am¿§Øn¬ KpWhpw tZmjhpw hcpØm\p≈
Ignhv temI c£n- Xm- hmb A√m- l- hn\v am{Xta D≈q
Ahs‚ ]S∏pIfn¬ Hcmƒ°pw B Ignhn√. AXpsIm≠v
C_mZØn\v A¿l≥ Ah≥ am{XamWv AXmWv XuloZv
(AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 13) tUm: aplΩZv Ajvd^v auehn
]cntim[n°pIbpw kpsseam≥ \Zvhn cNn°pIbpw Pmen
bmØv a° {]kn≤oIcn°pIbpw sNbvX ""A√mlphns\
GI-\m-°pI F∂ ]pkvX-I-Øn¬ \n∂v Nne Imcy-߃
73
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
{Kln- °mw.
ad™ `mKØv \n∂v ImcyImcW_‘߃°v AXo
Xambn e`nt°≠ klmb tX´hpw Imh¬ tX´hpamWt√m
{]m¿∞\ AXv Bcm[\bmWv (A√mlphns\ GI\m°pI,
kpsseam≥ \Zvhn t]Pv 16)
a\pjy Ign- hn\v km[n- °mØ Imcy- ß- fn- ep≈
klmb tX´w krjvSnItfmSv \SØp∂Xv A\phZn°s∏
SmØXmWv. {]kvXpX tX´w Bcm[\bmWv. AXv A√m
lphnt\mSv am{Xta tXSmhq (AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 17)
""Hcp AZriy i‡n°papºn¬ `‡ntbmsS sNøp∂
At]- £- bmWv {]m¿∞\ F√m {]m¿∞- \bpw C_m- Z-
ØmWv C_mZØv A√mlhn\√msX sNøm≥ ]mSn√"" (hn.
Jp. hnhcWw Aam\n auehn hmfyw 3 t]Pv 1950) apl-ΩZv
AlΩZv _mjao¬ FgpXnb "XuloZns‚ {][m\yw" F∂
]pkvXIw aplΩZv sImSnbØq¿ hnh¿Ø\w sNbvXv sI.
F≥.Fw. {]kn≤oIcn®ncp∂p. Cu sIm®p IrXn hmbn°m
Ø- h¿ apPm- ln- Zp- Iƒ°n- S- bn¬ hfsc hnc- f- am- bn- cn°pw
{]kvXpX ]pkvXIØn¬ A¬∏w ItÆmSn°mw ""{]m¿∞
\bneqsSbpw, t\¿® hgn]mSpIfneqsSbpw Jp_qcnIƒ Xß
fpsS Huenbm°sf kao]n°p∂Xpw apivcn°pIƒ A√m
lph√mØ Bcm[ysc kao]n°p∂Xpw XXzØn¬ H∂pX
s∂- bt√ c≠p- Iq- ´cpw A√m- lp- h- √m- Ø- h¿°v C_m- ZØv
sNøp- ∂p. CXp Xs∂- bs√ A√mlp \ntcm- [n® in¿°v?
(XuloZns‚ {]m[m\yw t]Pv 51)
Ckv dm- Av 57˛mw kq‡sØ hymJym- \n- ®p- sIm≠v
ssiJp¬ C…mw C_v\pssXanø]dbp∂Xv hmbn°pI ""]c
aImcpWnI≥ Dt±in®ncp∂psh¶n¬ R߃ Ahsc (ae
°pIsf) Bcm[n°pambncp∂n√ F∂v Ah¿ ]dbpIbpw
sNøpw"" (hn.Jp. kpJvdq^v 20) BscbmtWm Ah¿ hnfn®v
74 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
{]m¿∞n®v sIm≠ncn°p∂Xv Ah¿Xs∂ XßfpsS c£n
Xm- hn- ¶- te°v kmao]yam¿§w tXSn- s°m- ≠n- cn- °p- I- bm- Wv .
AsX. Iq´Øn¬ A√mlpthmSv G‰hpw ASpØh¿Xs∂
(A{]Imcw tXSp∂p) Ah¿ Ahs‚ ImcpWyw B{Kln
°p-Ibpw Ahs‚ in£`b-s∏-Sp-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. (hn.-Jp.
Ckv dm- Av 57)ae- °p- Iƒ,- Pn∂v ,a- \p- jy¿ apX- emb ssZh
Zmk≥amsc Bcm- [y- cm- °nb- F√m- h- tcbpw A`n- kw- t_m-
Z\w sNbvXp-sIm-≠mWv A√mlp ]d-bp-∂Xv {]m¿∞n-°-
s∏- Sp- ∂- h¿ Xs∂ A√m- lp- hns‚ kman]yw tXSp- Ibpw
Ahs‚ A\p{Klw sImXn°pIbpw in£ `bs∏SpIbpw
sNøp-∂p-sh∂v AXn-\m¬ ae-°p-I-tfmSpw Pn∂p-I-tfmSpw
{]m¿∞n- ®- hsc Dƒs°m- s°m- ≈p- ∂Xv t]mse ac- W- s∏- ´-
htcm I¨ap- ∂n- en- √m- Ø- htcm Bb Aºn- bm- °- tfmSpw
kzmen- lo- ß- tfmSpw {]m¿∞n- °p- ∂- h- tcbpw Cu kq‡w
Dƒs°m≈p∂p. B {]m¿∞\ "CkvXnKmk" F∂ ]Zw D]
tbmKn®v sIm≠mbmepw icn (XuloZpw in¿°pw kwib
߃°v adp]Sn ssiJv kzmenlv_v\p A_vZp≈ ^ukm≥
t]Pv 55,56 ZAvh _pIvkv)
emCeml C√-√mlv F∂ hnj-b-Øn¬ 17˛10˛1998
\v tImgn-t°mSv Fw.-F-kv.-F-kv. HmUn-t‰m-dn-b-Øn¬ sh®v
sI. Da¿ auehn {]_‘w AhXcn∏n®p {it≤bamb B
{]_‘Øn¬ \n∂pw \ap°v A¬]w hmbn°mw Bcm[\
F∂m¬ F¥v? Bcm[\ A√mlphn\v am{Xsa∂v {]t_m
[\w sNøm≥ h∂ Ah- km- \sØ {]hm- N- I≥ ]d™p
""{]m¿∞\ Xs∂bmWv Bcm[\"" C_mZØv A√mlphn\v
am{XamsW∂v IWniam°n∏d™ \qdv IW°n\v BbXp
Ifp≠v emCeml C√√mlphns‚ A¿∞hpw AXv Xs∂
AXv Bh¿Øn - ®- Xv t]mse Xs∂ Jp ¿- B- \n ¬
thsdsbm∂pw Bh¿Øn®n´n√. ""\nßfpsS d∫v {]Jym]n
75
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
®n- cn- °p∂p Ft∂mSv \n߃ {]m¿∞n- °p- hn≥ Rm≥
Rn߃°v DØcw \¬Ipw"" Fs∂ Bcm- [n- °p- ∂- Xns\
kw_‘n®v Al¶cn°p∂hcmtcm Ah¿ \nμy∑mcmb Ah
ÿbn¬ \cIØn¬ IS°p∂XmWv ChnsS "{]m¿∞n°pI"
F∂v BZyw I¬∏n®Xn\v tijw Bcm[n°p∂Xns\-∏‰n
Al¶mcw \Sn°p∂hsc Xm°oXv sNbvXncn°pIbmWt√m
At∏mƒ BZyw ]d™ {]m¿∞\sb∏‰nXs∂bmWv ]n∂oSv
Bcm[\ F∂v ]d™sX∂v {]hmNI≥ Nq≠n°mWn®p.
hmkvXhØn¬ {]hmNI≥ Hcp Imcyw ]d™m¬ ]ns∂
thsdmcp sXfnhv \ap°mhiyan√. B A\p{KloX \mhp
sIm≠v ]d™p F∂Xv Xs∂ aXnbmb sXfnhmWv B
ÿnXn°v Jp¿B\n¬ \n∂p≈ sXfnhv FSpØv ]dbpI
IqSn sNbvXm¬ {]ImiØn\pta¬ {]Imiambn (emCeml
C√√mlv sI. Da¿ auehn) ho≠pw Da¿ auehn ]dbp∂p
""Hcp Imcy- Øns‚ ]q¿Øo- I- c- W- Øn\v th≠
{]hr¿Ønbn¬ HcmfpsS i‡nbn¬ ASßmØ `mKsØ
as‰m-cmƒ sNbvXp-sIm-Sp-°p-∂-Xs{X klmbw. ^mØnl
a\pjycpsS {]m¿∞\bv°mbn ]Tn∏n®ncp∂ Hcp kqdbm
Ip∂p. a\pjy≥ Ahs\ A`apJoIcn®psIm≠v ]dbp∂p.
\o Xs∂-bmWv Bcm-[-\-°¿l≥ a‰mcpw AXn\v A¿l-
c√ AXn\m¬ \ns∂ am{Xw R߃ Bcm[n°p∂p \oX
s∂bmWv klmbn°m≥ i‡≥ a‰mcpw AXn\v i‡c√
AXn\m¬ \nt∂mSpam{Xw R߃ klmbsØ A`y¿∞n
°p∂p. {]mNo\ Ad_nIƒ AhcpsS tZh≥amtcmSv sNbvXn
cp∂ {]m¿∞\Itfbpw AhcpsS t]cn¬ Ah¿ sNbvXn
cp∂ I¿Ωßtfbpw Jp¿B≥ C_mZØmsW∂mWv ]d
™n´p≈sX∂pw Ah H∂pw C…mw aXØnse I¿Ωß
fpsS cq]- Øn- em- bn- cp- ∂n- s√∂pw Ch¿ Hm¿t°- ≠- XmWv ''
(sI.Da¿ auehn ^mØnlbpsS XocØv t]Pv 62,63) GsXmcp
76 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
Bcm[\bnepw {]m¿∞\ A¥¿eo\ambncn°pw {]m¿∞\
Bcm[\bmsW∂v hniZoIcn°p∂ [mcmfw ]pkvXI߃
sI.F≥.Fw. {]kn≤oIcn®n´p≠v. A¬a\mdnepw hnNn¥\
Ønepw [mcmfw teJ\߃ h∂n´p≠v aebmfØn¬ Cd
°s∏´ km¿hmwKoImcw D≈ Aam\nauehnbpsS Jp¿B≥
hnhcWw apX¬ a{Zkm ]mT]pkvXIw apX¬ Ad_nt°m
tfPnepw JpXp_Ifnepw Bh¿Øn°p∂Xpw tIƒ°p∂Xpw
]Tn°p∂Xpw {]m¿∞\bn√mØ Hcmcm[\bpw Cs√∂pw
Bcm[\Ifnse√mw {]m¿∞\ tafn®ncn°p∂p F∂pamWv.
F∂m¬ Bcm[\bmIp∂Xpw Bcm[\b√mØXpamb c≠p
Xcw {]m¿∞\bps≠∂mWv kakvX°mcpsS hmZw sIm´
∏pdw kwhmZw apX¬ Ctßm´v hfsc i‡ambn kakvX
°m¿ CØcw hmZhpambn cwKØndßnbncp∂p. C…manIm
ibmZ¿iØne[njvTnXamb Hcp kaqlsØ krjvSn°m\pw
s]mXp apkvenwIsf samØØn¬ Xs∂ kzm[o\n°m\pw
apPmlnZv {]ÿm\Øn\v Ign™n´p≠v . kakv X°m¿t]mepw
Ah- cpsS Hmtcm- hm- Z- ßfpw Dt]- £n- °m≥ \n¿_- ‘n- X- cm-
bn´pap≠v iwkp¬ Deaamcpw Jadp¬ Deaamcpw XmPp¬
Deaamcpw Iptd auem\ amcpw AShpIƒ Bhp∂{X ]b‰n
bn´pw apPm- lnZv {]ÿm\w Db¿Øn∏nSn® BZ¿i- Øn¬
H∂p- sXm- Sm≥ t]mepw Ah¿°v Ct∂- hsc km[n- ®n- ´n- √.
am{Xa√ kakvX°msc Nn¥n∏n°m\pw XncpØn∏n°m\pw
apPmlnZv {]ÿm\Øns‚ {]t_m[\w hgnsh®n´pap≠v. Hcp
hkvXphns‚ ]q¿ÆX AXns‚ A]NbØns‚ Bcw`sa∂
B]vXhmIysØ A\z¿∞am°pwhn[w Bbpns‚ knwl
`mKhpw XuloZn\v th≠n am{Xw am‰nh®ncp∂ Hcp ]WvUn
X≥ Xs∂ Cu {]ÿm\Øns‚bpw AXns‚ BZ¿iØn
s‚bpw IS°v IØnsh°m≥ HcpsºSptºmƒ Atd_y≥
kmln- Xy- Im- c- \mb Xu^o- Jp¬ lIo- ans‚ ""C_v eokp
77
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
b≥Xkndp"" (C_veokv Pbn°p∂p) F∂ KpW]mT IY
Hm¿Øpt]mIp∂p. actØbpw I√nt\bpw B{Kl k^eo
IcWØn\v th≠n kao]n®ncp∂ PmlnenømImesØ .a
cp- `q- hm- kn - IfpsS Zpc- h- ÿ- bmWv IYm- C- Xn hrØw,
kv{XoIƒ°v \√ `¿Ømhns\ e`n°m\pw tcmKw amdm\pw
Zpcn- X߃ \oßn- °n- ´m\pamWv Imcy- ambn acsØ Ah¿
{]m]n®ncp∂Xv. BImeØv B\m´n¬ Hcp`‡\mb]WvUn
X≥ D≠m- bn- cp- ∂p. hnhcw Adn™v At±lw Hcpa- gp- sh-
SpØv Bacw apdn- °m≥ Cdßn.ac- Øns≥dbpw At±- l-
Øns‚bpw CSbn¬ ]nimNv {]Xy£s∏´p. ]nimNpw ]fin
X\pw XΩn¬ tLmcamb hmZ{]XnhmZßfpw ]ns∂ hg°pw
Actßdn. ]finX≥ ]nimNns\ tXm¬∏n®p, `oamImc\mb
]nimNns\ F√p¥nb Zp¿_e\mb Ba\pjy≥ tXm¬∏n
®Xv imcocnI IcpØv sIm≠√, Cuam\ns‚ IcpØv sIm≠m
bncp∂p. Cu {]iv\w ]eh´w Actßdnsb¶nepw At∏m
sg√mw ]finX≥ Pbn®p. ]nimNv ]cmPbs∏´p.`‡\mb
]fin- X- t\mSv Pbn- °m≥ IcpØv sIm≠v km[y- a- √∂v
t_m≤ys∏´ ]nimNv ASshm∂v am‰n. ]finXs‚ Xebn
W°Snbn¬ Hcp Ingn kz¿Æ \mWbw sIm≠v sh®p. B
kz¿Æ\mWbw D]tbmKn®v At±lw cpNntbdnb `£Ww
Ign°m\pw kpJn°m\pw XpSßn, Hmtcm {]mhiyhpw Xe
bn- W- °Snbn¬ sIm≠p- sh- °p∂ kz¿Æ- \m- W- b- Øns‚
FÆw ]nimNv Ipd®psIm≠ncp∂p Hcp Znhkw Hgn™ Ingn
am{Xw XebnW°Snbn¬ I≠ ]WvUnX≥ tIm]njvT\mbn
agp -FSpØv P\߃ Bcm[n°p∂ acw apdn°m≥ Cd-ßn
Øncn®p At±lØns‚bpw acØns‚bpw CSbn¬ ]nimNv
{]Xy£s∏´p Bt{Imi߃°pw, hmKzmZ߃°pw HSphn¬
]nimNpw ]WvUnX\pw XΩn¬ i‡amb bp≤w Actßdn
Ft∏mgpw hnPbn®ncp∂ ]WvUnX≥ A∂ vBZyambn ]cm
78 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
PbØns‚ ssI∏p\o¿ IpSn®p. Abmƒ ]nimNnt\mSv Xs∂
tNmZn®p \n\°v Fßs\ Fs∂ ]cmPbs∏SpØm≥ km[n
®p. ]nimNv ]d™p \o Ft∂mSv bp≤w sNbvXXv A‘hn
izmkhpw _lpssZhmcm[\bpw C√mXm°m≥ th≠nbpw
k¿Δ i‡\mb A√mlphns‚ {]oXnam{Xw Imw£n®psIm
≠pambncp∂p. F∂m¬ C∂v \o Ft∂mSv bp≤Øn\v ]pd
s∏´Xv ]S®h\n¬ \n∂p≈ Iqen {]Xo£n®psIm≠mbn
cp∂n√ adn®v [\ \jvSw kw`hn®Xnep≈ Acniw sIm≠v
am{Xambncp∂p. Cu IY C∂sØ kmlNcyØn¬ F{X
am{Xw A\z¿∞amsW∂v ]d-tb-≠Xn√t√m. CXv IYbm
Wv. ]nimNv {]Xy- £- s∏- Sp- sa∂v ka¿∞n- °m- \p≈ sXfn-
hmbn Bcpw Fgp∂≈n°cptX.
79
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
Bcm[\bÃm¯ {]mÀ°\?
1) {]m¿∞\bn√mØ Bcm[\bns√∂v apPmlnZpIƒ Fgp
Xn- bXv X\n hwK- Øzhpw ]cn- lm- ky- hp- am- Wv . kImØv
t]mep≈ {]m¿∞\bn√mØ Bcm[\Ifpw C…manep≠v
(sI.hn._oc≥Ip´n ap…ym¿ HgpIq¿ ˛ aZvl_pw XJveoZpw
Hcp ka{K ]T\w t]Pv 182)
2) krjvSnIƒ km[mcW \SØmdp≈ klmbmt]£Ifpw
{]m¿∞- \- bmWv (Im- ¥- ]pcw A_q- _°¿ ap…ym¿ sIm- ´-
∏pdw kwhmZw t]Pv 21)
3) A√mlp A√mØhtcmSv {]m¿∞n°mw F∂Xn\v sXfn
hmbn [mcmfw BbØpIƒ Rm≥ HmXn (Im¥]pcw sIm´
∏pdw kwhmZw t]Pv 76)
4) kqdØv apAvan≥ Adp- ]Xmw hmIy- Ønse ""DZv- Du\o""
F∂ ]Z- Øn\v {]m¿∞n- °pI F∂√ A¿∞w (sI.-
hn._oc≥Ip´n ap…ym¿ HgpIq¿ ˛ aZvl_pw XJveoZpw Hcp
ka{K ]T\w t]Pv 208)
5) ""Cøm°\Av_pZp hCøm° \kvXCu≥"" \ns∂ am{Xw
R߃ Bcm[n°p∂p \nt∂mSv am{Xw klmbw tXSp∂p
F∂n- ßs\ CXn\v A¿∞- an√ AXv Zp¿ hymJym\amWv
(kp- ∂Øv Pam- AØv Jp¿- B- \n¬ lwk- t°mb _mJhn
ap∂n-bq¿ t]Pv 121)
6) _ZcoßtfmSpw aplvb≤o≥ ssiJnt\mSpw {]m¿∞n°mw
(^Xmhm aplvbnp∂ s]m∑f A_vZp¬ JmZn¿ ap…ym¿
2/38)
7) A√mlph√mØhtcmSp≈ {]m¿∞\bpsS DZmlcWw
Jp¿B\n¬ ImWn°Wsa∂mbncp∂p auehnbpsS as‰mcp
hmin. acn- ®p- t]m- b- hsc hnfn- ®p- {]m¿∞n- °m- sa∂v Jp¿-
B≥sIm≠vXs∂ F.]n. ÿm]n®t∏mƒ AhnsSbpw auehn
80 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
apJw IpØn (sIm´∏pdw kp∂n ˛apPmlnZv kwhmZw t]Pv
163)
8) kp∂nIƒ almflm°fpsS I_¿ kμ¿i\ thfbn¬
AhtcmSv t\cn´v CkvXnKmk ({]m¿∞\) \SØpI Xs∂
sNøm- dp≠v AXv in¿t°m ]m]tam A√ (\p- kv d- Øp¬
A\mw amknI 1993 HIvtSm-_¿)
9) acn®vt]mbhsc hnfn®v {]m¿∞n°mw (\m´nI hn. aqk
ap…nbm¿ N{μnI Zn\]{Xw 1996)
10) Pohn®ncn°p∂htcm acWs∏´htcm Bb almflm°
tfmSv klmbw tXSptºmgpw A√mlphnt\mSv Xs∂bmWv
klmbw A¿∞n°p∂Xv F∂ hnizmkhpw t_m[hpw kZm
D≠mhWw (sI.Sn. am\p ap…ym¿ kXy[mc amknI 1997
sk]v Xw_¿)
11) {]m¿∞\ A√mlphnt\mSv am{Xsa∂ {]tabw km£m¬
C_veokns‚ {]tabamsW∂v kp∂n ]WvUnX¿ hlm_n
Isf sXcy- s∏- SpØn (h- gn- ]n- c- ™- h¿s°¥p- ]‰n lminw
\Cuan t]Pv 37)
12) ameaueqZpIƒ ]mcmbWw sNøepw aueqZv kwLSn∏n
°epw Ahsc hnfn®v {]m¿∞n°epw _nZvAØv A√ F∂pw
C…man¬ A\phZn°s∏´ ImcyamsW∂pw CXn\m¬ hy‡
amWv. (kp∂Øv amknI 2007 G{]n¬)
A√mlph√mØhtcmSv {]m¿∞n°mw AXv tIhew
klmbtX´w am{XamWv {]m¿∞\ thsd Bcm[\ thsd
km[m- cW klmb tX´- Øn\pw {]m¿∞\ F∂v ]dbpw
A√mlph√mØhtcSv {]m¿∞n°m≥ Jp¿B\n¬ t]mepw
[mcmfw sXfnhpIfp≠v Cßs\sbms°bmWv kakvX°m¿
]d™p {]Ncn∏n®psIm≠ncn°p∂Xv {]m¿∞\ A√mlp
h√mØhcnte°v Xncn®v hnSm≥ ]e Zp¿ \ymbßfpw \ho\
\n¿hN\ßfpw \SØmdp≈ kakvX°m¿ Xs∂ Nnet∏mƒ
kXyw Xpd∂v kΩXn°mdpap≠v AXv ImWpI
81
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
{]mÀ°\ þ Bcm[\
1) {]m¿∞\ Bcm[\bmWv X^vkodp¬ Jp¿B≥ ˛ Pem
sse\n ]cn`mj (Sn.sI. A_vZp≈ ap…ym¿ am´q¬ t]Pv
476)
2) {]m¿∞\ A√mlphnt\mSv am{Xta ]mSp≈q (AtX {KŸw
t]Pv 32,135,138,214)
3) {]m¿∞\ C_mZØm l_ot_
\pAvam\h¿ ]dbp∂p \_nbn¬ \n∂v
(A¬ ahmln_p¬ Penø ˛ Xgh aplΩZv ap…ym¿ 1˛mw
`mKw t]Pv 71)
4) Aºnbm°fmIs´ Henbm°fmIs´ I√mhs´, acamhs´
Ah- tcmSv hn fn ®v { ]m¿∞n °p - ∂Xv in ¿°mWv
(A¬JuepZoZv t]Pv 100 djoZp±o≥ aqk ap…ym¿)
5) {]hr¿Ønbmtem at‰m {kjvSmhns\t]mse krjvSnIfpw
BbnØocpsa∂ hnizmkw in¿°mWv. AXv A√mlphns\
IqSmsX a‰v CemlpIsf D≠m°emWv (Alvepkp∂ Hcp
Zm¿j\nI ]T\w t]Pv 87)
6) {]m¿∞\ Bcm[\bmsW∂v am{Xa√, {]m¿∞\bn√m
ØsXm∂pw Bcm[\bmhpIbn√ (^Xvlp¬ Aeow 2/1032
XncqcßmSn Jmfn A_vZpd“m≥ aJvZqan)
7) \mw \n¿Δ- ln- °p∂ GsXmcp Bcm- [- \- bnepw Hcp
{]m¿∞\ A¥¿eo\ambn InS°p∂p (cnkme 2000 s^{_p
hcn 11)
8) {]m¿∞\ F∂ A¿∞- ap≈ ZpB A≈m- lp- hn- t\mSv
am{Xta ]mSp≈q F∂Xn¬ B¿°pw FXnc`n{]mban√ (Jp
Xp_nbØv ]cn`mjbpw hymJym\hpw ]n.]n. aplvb±o≥ ap
…ym¿ ]md™q¿ t]Pv 25) {]m¿∞\bpsS \n¿hN\w
^Xv lp¬ _mcnbn¬ \n∂v hmbn°pI
82 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
¸ƒ..¸ .∏.. ≈∏. ¸◊· _,.. _ · ...,.·¸ ¸∏u.· ...,.·¸
...¸ ≈∏. ..., · ¸∏u,¸ .::.:.. · .:ƒ..¸ .:. ... ..·.
:¸i ’· ‘ ’¸ .,.,.· ‘ :ƒ.. .. _.,. _..: ..ƒ≤s ¸,≤.·
..., · ...,.· ≥∏u,.∏,. …,.· _ · √.¸ ¸μ,¸ ¸. ¸.· ∫.. ·,s
(··-·· _¸.,.· ¿:., :..,..· ≈∏.
]nimNns\ Bcm[n¨mepw ]qPn¨mepw ]nim
Np¡fn \n¶v Nne klmb§Ä e`n¡pw ]s£ ]nimNn
t\mSv {]mÀ°n¨m AXn\v klmbn¡m\mhnà (kIcn¿m
kem- ln- ) ]qPbpw Bcm- [- \bpw {]mÀ°- \- sb- sÃ- ¶mWv
kI- cn¿m kem- ln- bpsS \ho\ hmZw “\nt∂mSv am{Xw
R߃ klmbw A¿∞n- °p- ∂p” F∂ hmIyw a\pjy
i‡n°v A∏pdØp≈ Imcyßfn¬ ssZhtØmS√msX a‰m
tcmSpw \mw klm- bsØ A`y¿∞n- °- cp- sX∂v ]Tn- ∏n- °p-
∂p. a\pjyi‡nbn¬ ASßnb i‡nIfn¬ a\pjy¿]c
kv ]cw klm- bsØ A¿∞n- °p- ∂- Xn\v hntcm- [- an√
k¬I¿Ω-ß-fn¬ At\ym\yw klm-bn-°p-hm≥ Jp¿-B≥
Xs∂ imkn- °p- ∂p(5:2) a\pjy i‡n- °- Xo- Xß- f- √mØ
Imcyßsf kw_‘n®nStØmfw ssZhtØmS√msX a‰m
tcmsS¶nepw klmbsØ A¿∞n°p∂Xv Ahsc Bcm[n
°p∂Xv t]mseXs∂ Ah¿°v ZnhyXzw Ds≠∂v hnizkn
°p∂Xns‚^eamIbmƒ A\ysc Bcm[n°p∂hsc t]mse
Xs∂ AhtcmSv a\pjy i‡n°v ]pdsabp≈ hnjbß
fn¬ klmbsØ A¿∞n°p∂hcpw Ahsc ssZhtØmSv
kmZriys∏SpØpIbmIp∂p.(^mØnlbpsS XocØv sI.
Da¿ auehn, t]Pv:63)
_s¸..Ÿ., _:. · ¸. π..,. ≥.∏: ≈:. :.....· Ω¸≤: ’
(…,.¸.·, ¸.:¸ ’· ¸¸,,., ≈:.¸
Fs‚ kap- [m- b- Øn¬ \n∂v Nne tKm{X- ߃
apivcn°pItfmSv tNcp∂Xphtcbpw Ah¿ hn{KlsØ Bcm
83
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
[n°p∂Xphscbpw JnbmaØv\mƒ kw`hn°pIbn√ (Xp¿ap
Zn)
aqkm\_nbpsSbpw Cukm \_nbptSbpw kaqlw
hn{Kls¯ Bcm[n¨ncp¶p. DsskÀ \_nsbbpw, Cukm
\_n- tbbpw ssZh- ]p- {X- ·m- cm- ¡n- bn- cp- ¶p. hn{K- l- ¯n\v
]Icw apÉnwIfn [mcmfw t]À J_dns\ Bcm[n¡p¶p
C§s\ ]ehn[¯nepÅ inÀ¡v apÉo§fn C¶v {]IS
am- bn- Im- Wmw.
øL hCG ∂∏e hCG Èb hCG ôéM hCG ôé°T ‘ ~≤àYG øe ¿CG ¬∏c Gòg øe âaôY ~b
√~æY ™Ø°ûj hCG ¤É©J ¬∏dG ¤EG Üô≤j ¬fCG hCG ô°j hCG ™Øæj ¬fCG â«e hCG »M hCG
¬fEÉa.....¤É©J ÜôdG ¤EG π°SƒàdGh ™Ø°ûàdG Oôéà ɫf~dG èFGƒM øe áLÉM ‘
(OÉ◊’G ¿GQOG øY OÉ≤àYE’G Ò¡£J) √ÒZ ¬∏dG ™e ∑ô°TCG~b
CXn¬ \ns∂√mw Hcp hkv XpX \o {Kln- ®n- cn- °p- at√m
AsX, Hcp hr£tam Hcp I_tdm Hcp aet°m Hcp Pnt∂m
Poh\p≈ht\m acn®ht\m D]Imcw sNøpsat∂m D]{Z
hn°psat∂m h√h\pw hnizkn®v As√¶n¬ A√mlphn
te°v ASp∏n°psa∂v [cn®p. As√¶n¬ ip]m¿iI\mtbm
c£n- Xm- hn- te- °p≈ a[y- h¿Øn- bmtbm kzoI- cn- °p∂Xv
sIm≠v GsX¶nepsamcpImcyØn¬ A√mlphns‚ k∂n
[nbn¬ ip]m¿i ]dbpsa∂v Ah≥ IcpXn F¶n¬ Xo¿®
bmbpw A√mlphns‚ IqsS a‰p≈hsc Ah≥ ]¶ptN¿Øp
Ign™p.
(Ckvemans‚ Poh≥)
∑¸..¸ :,,. ’· ‘ ∑¸.. ¸..ƒ. .∏s , ’· ∑¸..¸
≈∏. ¸..x.· ƒ. :,,. ’· ‘ ∑¸..... :,,ƒ,¸.· ‘
:μ..∏Ÿ· ..,.¸ Ω.... ’· ..,. ∑¸.. ƒ.¸ ∑¸.. ’· π. ·
¸·ƒ. ’·¸ ..,. ’· _◊....·¸ ¿....Ÿ· ..,.¸ ¸, ·..,.¸
(··_. ,,.Ÿ· ,,.ƒ:.· ,,,Œ- _.,¸≤Ÿ· ¸,,.. · ¸,,.· _≤: ,
kap- Zm- b- ß- fpsS _lp- ssZ- hm- cm- [\ c≠p- X- c- Øn-
emWv Znhy- Xz- Ønepw, krjvSn- ÿnXn kwlm- cm- Zn- Im- cy- ß-
84 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
fnepw Znhy- Xz- Ønse in¿°mWv _lp- ssZ- hm- cm- [- I- cn¬
A[nIhpw. AXmWv _nw_߃, ae°pIƒ, Pn∂pIƒ acn
®- hcpw Pohn- ®n- cn- °p- ∂- h- cp- amb ssiJp- am¿ k÷- \- ߃
F∂nhscsbms° Bcm[n°p∂hcpsS in¿°v (t]Pv 26)
., ’ · ¸.:..: ’¸ ƒ. ’ · ¡,: ’¸ √., · ’ · ,,.· ·.
ƒ. ’ · ™... ’¸ ¸.... ’¸ _u..’¸ ™... ’ .. ..
¸,. · .,. ·¸ ¸∏sƒ: .,∏. ƒ. ’ · .. · ’ _..:¸ ....,..
(·v-··¡.,: · ¸, ¸. ’·,
AXn\m¬ \o Ahs\b√msX Bcm[n°cpXv Ah
t\mS√msX klmbw A¿∞n°cpXv \¬Im\pw XSbm\pw
D]Imtcm]{Zh߃ sNøm\pw Ah\√msX Bcpan√.
≈.·,.· ¸·¸u..· .,,.. ¸ƒμ, ,≤. ∑... ...,.· :,., · ..¸
¸. · .,,.. ¸ƒμ, ,.¸ .. .∏.· :..¸ .¸› .,,.. ¸ƒμ, ,.¸
¸.,.. · .. ¸ƒμ, ,.¸ ..... π, ’ ’ π,¸¸. ¿∏.· .....
¸..μ.· ¸.s ,.¸ _.·,. · ≥. ‘ :.:. ¸..s ¸ ·¸ _¸i ·
™. ¸ƒ...,¸ ¸¸¸...,¸ ¸ƒ≤..,. ,,. ¸.,:..,. ¸ƒ.,,
_..: ∫.. ,.¸ .,, ,,∏..ƒ:¸ ,,..:¸ · ,.. ,.....
(·¸ƒufi∂,¸ ..u. ¸.s..¸ ..u. ¸. .’ ƒ. ,‰ πs,
AhnsSh®p≈ {]m¿∞\bv°v DØcw e`n°p∂Xv
Hcp ]s£ {]Xn- k- ‘n- L- ´- Øn- ep≈ {]m¿∞- \- bm- b- Xn-
\mtem tIhew Hcp A\pKrlambnt´m AXpas√¶n¬ A√m
lphns‚ ap≥Iq´nbp≈ Xocpam\{]Imctam BImw. kXy
\n- tj- [n- Iƒ Ah- cpsS hn{K- l- ß- fpsS kao- ]- Øv sh®v
Ahsb CSbmfcm°n {]m¿∞n®n´v Ah¿°v DØcw e`n
t®- °pw. ag- e- `n- °p- Ibpw, tcmKw ian- °p- Ibpw sNøpw.
A√mlp ]d™n´p≠v C°q´tcbpw A°q´tcbpw \mw klm
bn°p∂XmWv. \ns‚ \mYs‚ Zm\Øn¬s∏´Xs{X AXv
\ns‚ c£n- Xm- hns‚ Zm\w XS- ™p- sh- °- s∏- Sp- ∂- X√ (C-
kvdmAv˛20)
85
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
hn{Klw AS°ap≈ Bcm[y¿ DØcw \¬IpItbm
klmbn°pItbm tcmKw ian∏n°pItbm sNøp∂n√. hgn
s∏- ´- h¿°pw hgn- s∏- Sm- Ø- h¿°pw Hcp- t]mse `uXn- I- tem-
IØv A√mlp Ahs‚ A\p- {K- l- ߃ \¬Ip- I- Xs∂
sNøpw. ]s£ hn{Klmcm[Icpw a‰pw Ahsb Bcm[n®p
sIm≠mWv CsXms° e`n°p∂sX∂v sX‰mbn a\nem
°p∂p.
(··¸..¸.·, _.¸ ’·¸ ¸·¸.....· ‘ ¸. .∏...,
BImi `qanbnep≈hsc√mw Aht\mSv bmNn°p∂p
(dlvam≥˛29)
( .ƒ,.·, ¸ƒ,,.., ... ¸μ∏. ·¸ .,...., ¸¸...
Ing- °≥ Im‰p- sIm≠v F\n°v A√m- lp- hns‚
klmbw e`n°pIbp≠mbn, ]Sn™md≥ Im‰psIm≠v BZv
kaqlw \in∏n°s∏´p. (hn.Jp.)
Imcy ImcW_ԧġXoXambn tcmKia\w hcp
ØpIsb∂Xv GI Cemlmb A√mlphns‚ am{Xw Ign
hnepƒs∏´ ImcyamWv. tcmKia\w hcpØpI F∂Xv Hcp
Gekns‚ `uXnI amb Ignhntem KpWØntem s]´Im
cya√. F∂ncns° AXp Npa∂p\S∂m¬ tcmKw kpJs∏
Spsa∂p hnizkn°p∂h≥ AXn\p A`uXnIamb Hcp Ignhp
hIsh®p sImSp°pIbmWv sNøp∂Xv.AtXmsS AXv Cem
lns‚ ÿm\tØ°v Dbcp∂p.(t]Pv 47)
............. adn®v Ahs‚ ASnaIƒ Xs∂bmb ]¶pImsc Ah
\p≈qsh∂v kmcw alm≥amcpw ae°pIfpw Pn∂pIfpw Ah
cpsS _nw_ßfpambncp∂p Cuhn[Øn¬ A√mlphns‚
]¶pImcmbn k¶¬∏n°s∏´ncp∂Xv.(Ip™oXp aZ\n, Pohn
®n- cn- °p∂ Huen- bm- °- fpw, Pohn- ®n- cp∂ Huen- bm- °fpw
t]Pv 17)
86 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
At∏mƒ acn®pt]mb _Zv co߃°v ad™Imcyßfdnbm≥I
gnbpsa∂v sX‰n≤cn®psIm≠mWv Ch¿ Cuin¿°pIsf√mw
AhcpsSt]cn¬ sh®p]pe¿Øp∂Xv.F∂m¬ ad™Imcy
adnbp∂h≥ F∂Xv temIc£nXmhmb A√mlphn\v am{X
ap≈ hntijWamWv. apIz¿d_mb ae°nt∂maAvkqamb
{]hm-N-It\m Bhn-ti-j-W-Øn¬ ]¶n√ (t]Pv 122)
a°m apivcn°pIƒt]mepw hn]¬ L´-Øn¬ Pn∂n
t\mtSm, alm∑mtcmtSm klmbw tXSnbncp∂n√. A≈m
lp- hn- t\mSv am{X- am- bn- cp∂p {]bm- k- th- f- bn¬ Ah¿
klmbw tXSn- bn- cp- ∂- Xv.
,,≤∏i …,.· .∏.., ¸μ.¸ ,..·,. ·¸ ,,:,. ., ·ƒ:,x:.., ⁄¸
Ah¿ Ah- cpsS Bcm- [y- tcmtSm ]¶m- fn- Itfm
klmbw tXSn-bn-´n-√. Ahsc krjvSn® A√mlphnt\mSv
am{XamWv klmbw tXSnbXv. (C_v\pPco¿)
.∏.· ™. ¸ƒ∏.,, ¸,,.· _s¸..Ÿ· .’ ƒ. _.. ·: ·¸
•ƒ..¸ ¸¸,.¸ :,.. ,,:,..... ¸.. ¸i · .,,. ·
...,.., √¸.¸. · ,,.ƒ:.·,,,¸.ƒ..∏i · ∫ƒ≤, ,,,¸ ·ƒ..
A√mlphnt\msSm∏w a‰p Bcm[y∑msc D≠m°p∂
apivcn°pIƒ°v h√ D]{Zhtam hcƒ® t]mep≈ hn]tØm
_m[n®m¬ Ah¿ A√mlphnt\mSv am{Xw \njvIf¶ambn
{]m¿∞n°pw. Aßns\ Ah¿ in¿°n¬ \n∂pw Ip^vdn¬
\n∂pw tJZn®v aSßn A√mlpthmSv klmbw tXSpw (C
_v\pPco¿ t]Pv 28)
krjvSnItfmSv klmbw tXScpsX∂v sXfnbn°m≥
]finX∑m¿]d™Xpw FgpXnbXpamb F{XtbmsXfnhp
Iƒ \ΩpsS apºnep≠v. A√mlp Aht\mSv am{Xta klm
bw-tX-Sm-hq-F∂v Imcy-Im-c-W-k-lnXw \tΩmS I¬]n-°p-
tºmƒ BsXfnhv am{Xw aXn \ap°v (A¬a\m¿ 2006 P\p
87
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
hcn) klmb tX´w tIƒ°pI, Bhiy°mcs‚ Bhiyw
AdnbpI AXp ]cnlcn°m≥ Ignhp≠mIpI ,tNmZn°s∏
Sp∂h≥ kao]ÿ\mhpI F∂nh A\nhmcyamb LSI
ßfmWv. klmbtX´Øn¬ ChIsfm∂pan√mØ (Btcm
Spw) klmbw tXSmhX√.(A¬a\m¿ 2006 P\phcn) Pohn
X-Øn¬ a\p-jy≥ Ah\v {]Ir-Xy-mep≈ Ign-hp-sIm≠pw
Xs∂- t∏m- ep≈ a\p- jy- cpsS klmbwsIm≠pw ]cn- l- cn-
°m≥ IgnbmØ {]bmkßfpw {]iv\ßfpap≠mIptºmgm
Wt√m APø\mb Hcp i‡ntbmSv klmbw tXSp∂Xv.
a\pjy Ignhn\XoXamb {]iv\ßfn¬ ad™hgn
bn- eqsS ˛Fßs\ kmlmbw e`n- °p∂p F∂- dn- bmsX ˛
GXv klmbhpw FØn°phm≥ Ignhp≈h≥ A√mlp am{X
amWv F∂m¬ CukXy-Øn¬\n∂v hfsc AIeØnemWv
ssZh- hn- izm- kn- Iƒ ]S® d∫ns\ t\m°p- Ip- Øn- bmbn
\n¿Øn Ahs‚ krjvSnItfmSv klmbw tXSp∂p.ae°p
Iƒ Pn∂pIƒ acWs∏´h¿ Pohn®ncn°p∂h¿ hr£ßƒ
k¿∏߃ kqcy≥ N{μ≥ {]IrXn{]Xn`mk߃ Aßs\
F√m‰nt\mSpw Xs∂ c£n°m\pw klmbn°m\pw a\pjy≥
A¿∞n°p∂p. A√mlphnt\mSv am{Xw tNmZnt°≠ Imcy
߃ acWs∏´htcmSv tNmZn°¬ aXw hntcm[n® ITn\
in¿°n¬ AIs∏Sm≥ CSbmIpw.
∂∏Á ’ ¬H ∂æe ∑Gô°TG ∂dòa ¬∏dG ≥∏N øe~MC G ¤E G á«∏ÑdG ádÉM ‘ ¿ƒμ°ûJ’
ºà≤æe’h ÖdÉL’ ™aGO’h ™aGQ’h ™aÉf’h QÉ°V ’ ÉÄ«°T ~MC G ¬μ∏e ‘ ¬©e
¬«dE G áfÉ©à°S’ÉH ∂«∏©a ≥∏ÿGH π¨à°ûJ Óa √ÒZ ÇÈe’h ‘É©e’h »∏Ñe’h
(Ö«¨dG ìƒàa)
aplvbp≤o≥ ssiJv ]dbp∂p
Hcp hnj- a- L- ´- Ønepw A√m- lp- hns‚ krjv Sn- I- tfmSv
BtcmSpw BhemXns∏ScpXv \ns‚ ]°¬ \n∂v Ahsc
88 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
A√m- lp- hn¬ ]¶p- tN¿°- em- W- Xv . A√m- lp- hn- t\m- sSm∏w
Ahs‚ B[n]YyØn¬ B¿°pw Hc[nImchpan√ A√m
lph√msX tZmjw hcpØp∂ht\m KpWw hcpØp∂ht\m
\nehmcw Db¿Øp∂ht\m hnjaw XSp°p∂ht\m t\´w
D≠m°nØcp∂ht\min£n°p∂ht\m ]co£Ww \SØp
∂ht\m kuJyap≠m°nØcp∂ht\m tcmK ap‡n \¬Ip
∂ht\m Bbn´v Bcpan√Xs∂. AXn\m¬ krjvSnItfmSv
(\ns‚ a\ns\) \o hym]rXam°cpXv A√mlphnt\mSv
am{Xw klmbw tXSemWv \ns‚ ISa (^pXqlp¬ ssK_v,
aplvb±o≥ ssiJv t]Pv 137)
89
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
tcmKt¯¡mÄ amIcamb NnInÕ
BtcmKyw c≠v alØmb A\p{Klßfn¬ H∂m
sW∂v \_n(- k) ]Tn- ∏n- ®n- ´p- ≠v . tcmKhpw Btcm- Kyhpw
\¬Ip∂Xv A√mlphmWv. Nne¿°v tcmKw \¬Inbpw a‰p
Nne¿°v BtcmKyw \¬Inbpw A√mlp ]co£n°pw. ""Xn∑
sIm≠pw \∑sIm≠pw \nßsf \mw ]co£n°p∂XmWv''
(21:35) `bw, hni∏v, kzØp°fnepw tZlßfnepw ^eaqem
ZnIfnepw Ipdhv F∂nhbn¬s]´ h√Xv sIm≠pw Xo¿®
bmbpw \nßsf \mw ]co£n°p∂XmWv. £an°p∂h¿°v
kt¥m-j-hm¿Ø-b-dnbn-°pI.'' (2:155)
A©phn[w ]co£WßsfbmWv A√mlp FSpØp
]d™Xv Chsb√mw ]et∏mgpw D≠mImdp≈ hn]ØpI
fmWt√m? _mlyamb ImcyImcWßsf ap≥\n¿Øn Ch
bvs°√mw NneImcW߃ a\pjy\v ]et∏mgpw ]dbm\p
≠mbncn°pw. F¶nepw Ahsbms° hmkvXhØn¬ A√m
lphn¬ \n∂p≈ Nne ]co£WßfmIp∂p. Ahbn¬ £a
ssI- sIm- ≈p- ∂- h¿°v A√m- lp- hn- ¶- en¬ \n∂v al- Ømb
A\p{Klßfpw \∑bpw e`n°pw. AhcmWv \∑ {]m]n®
alm∑m¿ (hn.Jp¿B≥ hnhcWw Aam\n auehn thm.1
t]Pv275)
.∏.· ∫¸. · .. ∫.. (_.,_,..· ¸.(¸,:¸,¸.≈, · ¸.
(,∏..Ÿ·¸_¸.i,.·, ..... .∏.· ∫¸. · ’ · .·.
A_qlpssdd(d)hn¬ \n∂pw \nthZ\w \_n(k)
]dbpIbp≠mbn ia\w \n›bn®n´n√mØ Hcp tcmKhpw
A√mlp D≠m°nbn´n√. (_p.ap.)
.·,.· ∫¸. · .∏.· ¸ · .∏.· ∫ƒ..¸ ∫..(¸,.·.¸,.· _, · ¸.
(.¸·.ƒ, ·,Ω·¸., ¸¸·,: ’¸ ¸¸·,:. .·¸. .·. πμ. π.,¸ .·¸,.·¸
90 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
A_qZ¿ZmAv(d)hn¬ \n∂v \nthZ\w \_n(k) ]d
™p. A√mlptcmKsØ Cd°n. acp∂pw Cd°n F√m tcmK
߃°pw Ah≥ acp∂pw \n›- bn- ®p. AXn- \m¬ \n߃
acp∂v D]tbmKn°q. ]t£ \njn≤ hkvXp°ƒ sIm≠v
NnIn’n°cpXv (A_qZmhqZv)
tcmK- i- a- \- Øn- \mbn A√m- lp- hn- t\mSv {]m¿∞n- °p-
Ibpw acp∂v tkhn°pIbpamWv kXyhnizmknIƒ sNtø
≠Xv. am\knIhpw imcocnIhpamb c≠v Xcw tcmKßfp
≠v. imcocnI tcmK߃ Hcp]cn[nsc acp∂v D]tbmKn®v
(]- S- ®- hs‚ A\p- {K- l- ap- s≠- ¶n¬) kpJ- s∏- Sp- Øm- \m- hpw.
F∂m¬ am\knI {]iv\߃°v KpfnItbm acpt∂m ^en
°Wsa∂n√. Cu Hcp cwKØmWv a\pjy≥ ]I®p\n¬Ip
∂- Xpw, kam- [m- \hpw km¥z- \- hpw- tXSn Bƒ ssZh- ß- fn-
te°pw Xo¿∞mS\ tI{μßfnte°pw A`bw tXSp∂Xpw.
sshZy- imkv {Xw ssIa- e¿Øp∂ k∂nKv Z L´- ß- fn¬
Bflob NnIn’ ^e- {]- Z- am- sW- ∂mWv "Bflob NnIn-
’'Icmbn thjw sI´n \S°p∂ ]ptcmlnX∑m¿ AhIm
is∏Sp∂Xv. Nne tI{μßfn¬ t]mbm¬ XßfpsS {]iv\
߃ kzmanam¿°pw Xß∑m¿°pw Pn∂pΩam¿°pw ]cnl
cn°m\mhpsa∂mWv hnizmkw. Pn∂Ωam¿°pw am¿°‰v e`n
°p- ∂Xv `qcn- `mKw a\p- jy- cp- sSbpw CØcw at\m- `mhw
sIm≠m- Wv . C∂ tI{μ- Øn¬ t]mbm¬ tcmK- i- a- \hpw
km¥z- \hpw e`n- °psa∂v Dd- ®p- hn- iz- kn- °p∂ Hcmƒ°v
AhnsS t]mbn kpJw e`n°p∂p≠t√m F∂v ap´pim¥n
°m¿ km[mcWbmbn hmZn°mdp≈Xv. kXyØn¬ CsXmcp
sskt°mfPn°¬ {]iv\amWv. bp‡nhmZnbmb Hcp a\
imkv{X hnim-cZs‚ ASpØv t]mbm¬ kam-izmkw e`n-
°psa∂v {]Xo£n°p∂ BfpIƒ°pw km¥z\w e`n°p
91
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
∂p≠t√m CØcw A\p`h߃ ap∂n¬sh®v HmtcmcpØcpw
Ah¿°v tXm∂nb coXnbn¬ A\pam\n°pIbmWv. G¿hm
Sn- bntem D≈m- ftØm t]mIp∂ A‘- hnizmkw _m[n®
Hcp ap…n- am- bmepw thfm- ¶- Æn- bntem ap√- °c tZhky
kmdn‚SpbtØt°m t]mIp∂ {InkvXym\nbmbmepw ]p´
]¿Ønbntem AarXm\μ aTØntem t]mIp∂ sslμh
\mbmepw As√¶n¬ k¿ΔaX kulm¿±Øns‚ hnf \ne
ßsf∂v ]dbs∏Sp∂ Xo¿∞mS\ tI{μßfnte°v PmXn,
aX h¿K- t`- Zrat\y Hgp- In- s°m- ≠n- cn- °p- ∂h¿°√mw In´n-
sb∂v ]dbs∏Sp∂ kam[m\w s]m≈bmWv. Ah¿°v e`n
°psa∂v ]dbp∂ a\:im¥n kXyØn¬ anYybmWv. hmZ
Øn\v th≠n AwKoIcn®m¬Xs∂bpw AXv sskt°mfPn
°epamW.vv kXyØn¬ AhnsS \ns∂m∂pw bmsXmcp ia
\hpw e`n°n√ ]nimNv D≠m°p∂ hkvhmkmWv. CØcw
am\knI tcmK߃°p≈ ia\hpw kn≤uj[hpw A√m
lphnep≈ ]q¿Æamb hnizmkhpw Xh°pepw am{XamWv.
tcmKw am‰p∂h≥ A√mlpam{XamWv. F∂ncnt° ]nimNn
s\ßs\ \ΩpsS tcmKw t`Zam°m\mhpw? C{_mlow \_n(
A) ]d™Xv \mw ]Tn®n´p≠t√m F\n°v tcmKw _m[n
®m¬ Ah\mWv Fs∂ kpJs∏SpØp∂Xv (ipAdmAv 80)
AXmbXv hnizkn°pIbpw A√mlpshHm¿°p∂htc Adn
btW, A√mlpsh ]‰nbp≈ Hm¿asIm≠s{X a\pIƒ
im¥amIp∂Xv (hn.Jp¿B≥ 13:28)
icocnI tcmKtØ°mƒ amcIamWv a\ns\ _m[n
°p∂ tcmKßsf∂v C…mw ]Tn∏n°p∂p. Jp¿B\n¬ "adfv'
(tcmKw) s\ kw_‘n®v [mcmfw hN\߃ ImWmw. Ahn
sSsb√mw lrZbßfnep≈ tcmKsØIpdn®mWv ]cma¿in
°p∂Xv "" AhcpsS a\pIfn¬ Hcp Xcw tcmKap≠v. X∂n
92 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
anØw A√mlp Ah¿°v tcmKw h¿[n∏n°pIbpw sNbvXp''
(hn.-Jp¿-B≥ 2:10) Fgp-]Øn A©p-i-X-am-\hpw tcmK-
ßfpw a\pambn _‘s∏´v D≠mhp∂XmsW∂mWv B[p
\nI sshZyimkv{X \nKa\w. DXvIWvT, Akzmÿyw, `bm
i¶Iƒ, sshcmKyw, tIm]w, Akqb, Zp:Jw, taml`wKw
XpSßnbh a\ns\ _m[n°p∂ tcmKßfmWv. CØcw
tcmK- ߃ ico- c- Øns\ IqSn ]n∂oSv _m[n- °p- ∂p.
sS≥j\pw ]ncnapdp°hpw B[p\nI a\pjysc {Kkn® amdm
hym[nbmbn´mWv a\:imkv{X⁄¿ hnebncpØp∂Xv. hni
∏v, cpNn, Dd°w, Zl\w Chsb√mw icocØnemWv {]IS
am- bn- Im- Wp- ∂- sX- ¶nepw `£Ww Ign- °m- Xn- cp- ∂n´pw hni-
∏n√mbvabpw cpNntbdnb `£Ww Xn∂ptºmgpw cpNntXm
∂mXncn°epw \t∂ £oWnX\mbn´pw Dd°w hcmØ Ah
ÿbpw D≈, kzmÿyw \jvSs∏´ [mcmfw a\pjysc \ap
°n∂v ImWm≥ Ignbp∂p. kmºØnI {]iv\tam Zmcn{Zytam
A√ Ahsc Ae´p∂Xv. {`m¥v ]nSn®hs\ t]mse Xmfw
sX‰nb a\ns‚ DSaIfmb bm{¥nIPohnIƒ B[p\nI
temIsØ D]t`mK kwkvImcw krjvSn°p∂ CcIfmWv.
icocw Xf¿∂h¿°v hsc \akvImcw \n¿_‘amWt√m
F∂m¬ XmfwsX‰nb a\p≈ BtcmKyhm\mb Hcp bphm
hn\v \nkv Imcw _m[y- X- bn- √. hy‡n- Xz- cq- ]o- I- c- W- Øn\v
A\nhmcyamb \n¿t±i߃ \¬Ip∂ C…mw a\pjys‚
a\nt\mSmWv kwhZn°p∂Xv. tbmKbpw, a\imkv{Xhpw
km¥z\ NnIn’bpw Iu¨knenwKpw k¿Δ{X N¿® sNø
s∏Sp∂ C°meØpw C…mans‚ F√m cwKØpap≈Xv t]mep
≈, am¿K\n¿tZiw Cu hnjbØnepw kzoIcn°m≥ Xøm
dmbm¬ am{Xw aXn, \ΩpsS kIe {]iv\ßfpw ]cnlcn
°s∏Spw. FbvUvkns\Ipdn®p≈ `oXnsIm≠v am{Xw kz¥w
93
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
`mcyamcpambn am{Xw ssewKnI _‘w sh®p]pe¿Øm≥
\n¿_- ‘n- X- cm- bn- cn- °p- I- bmWv C∂sØ P\- ߃. C°m-
esØ "]cn- jv Im- cn'- Iƒ°v kZm- Nm- chpw [m¿Ωn- I- Xbpw
tIhew ]g©≥ k{ºZmbamWv. ssZhw acn®psh∂v hoºv
]d™h¿ a\pjy\v am{Xw _m[n°p∂ Nne tcmKßsf
t]- Sn®v Nne \nb- {¥- W- ßfpw Bfl kwb- a- \hpw ]men-
°p∂p. FbvUvkv hcmXncn°m\p≈ GI acp∂v ssewKnI
hnip≤nam{XamsW∂v sshZyimkv{Xw C∂v Dds° hnfn®p
]dbp∂p. k¿Δ Xn∑bnte°pw \bn°p∂ a\ns\ ISn
™mWnSp∂ BtcmKy Nn¥bmWv C…msa¶n¬ F√m `oXn
tcmKØn¬ \n∂pap≈ tamN\w ssZhNn¥sIm≠pam{XamWv
D≠mhpI. A√mlphn¬ Xh°pem°nbh¿°v h√msX `b
s∏SpItbm AanXamb Bi¶tbm \ncmitbm _m[n°p
Itbm C√.
kXy- hn- izm- kn- Iƒ°v ia- \hpw Imcp- Wy- hp- am- bn- ´p-
≈Xv Jp¿- B- \n- eqsS \mw Ah- X- cn- ∏n- ®p- sIm- ≠n- cn- °p- ∂p.
A{IanIƒ°v AXv \jvSa√msX (as‰m∂pw) h¿[n∏n°p
∂n-√. (hn.-Jp¿-B≥ 17:82)
a\pjya\n\p≠mIp∂ amdmhym[n°p≈ kn≤u
j[amWv Ckvemw. _lpssZhhnizmkw, A‘hnizmkw,
temIam\yw, Al¶mcw, Akqb ]I XpSßnb k¿Δ Xn∑
I- fp- tSbpw tI{μw a\- m- Wv . AXp- t]mse GI- ssZ- h- hn-
izmkw kXyk‘X, hn\bw, \oXn, B¿{ZX, klm\p`q
Xn, ImcpWyw, XpSßn F√m \∑bptSbpw kt¶Xhpw a\
mWv. AXn\m¬ Jp¿B≥ ]mcmbWhpw ]T\hpw \n¿Δ
ln°p∂ kXyhnizmkn°pam{Xta Jp¿B≥ ia\hpw Imcp
WyhpambnXocq. Jp¿B≥ GXv a\pjytcbpw kzm[o\n°pw
F∂ XXzw CXns\Xnc√. kXyhnizmkØn¬ \n∂v ]pdw
94 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
Xncn™v \n¬°p∂h¿°v \jvSa√msX h¿[n∏n°pIbn√.
a\ns\ hnaeoIcn®h≥ hnPbw ssIhcn®p. If¶s∏Sp
Ønbh≥ \n¿`mKyaSbpIbpw sNbvXpsh∂ (19:9:10) hN\w
ChnsS Gsd {]k- ‡- am- Wv . kXy- hn- izmkn ]cn- ip- ≤\pw
Ahnizmkn tæO\pamsW∂ {]kvXmhw imcocnI kw_
‘nb√t√m. icocØns‚ hrØnbpw shSn∏pw sIm≠v am{Xw
Hcmfpw ip≤\mhn√. a\ns‚ ip≤nbmWv {][m\w. kXy
hnizmkn°v kIe am\knI {]iv\ßfn¬ \n∂p≈ ia\
amWv hnip≤ Jp¿B≥.
a\pjys‚ icocØn¬ Hcp amwkIjvWap≠v AXv
\∂m-bm¬ apjy≥ BsI \∂mbn. AXv tISm-b¬ a\p-
jy≥ BsI tISmbn. AdnbtW (\_nhN\w) A√mlp
\nßfpsS icocØntet°m cq]Øntet°m A√ t\m°p
∂Xv. J¬_nte°mWv t\m°p∂Xv.
kXyhnizmknIƒ°v Jp¿B≥ ia\hpw ImcpWy
hpamsW∂ hN\sØ kakvX kp∂nIƒ Jp¿B≥ ]mcm
b- W- Øn- \pw ]Tn- °m\pw Xs∂ \bn- °m- \p- ap≈Xm- sW∂
hnizmktØmsSm∏w NnIn’bv°pw IqSnbp≈XmsW∂v {]N
cn∏n®v ]n™mWsagpXm\pw Ddp°v sI´m\pw a{¥hmZ aS
°ap≈ C…manI hncp≤amb NnIn’bv°v th≠n Jp¿B≥
hN\sØ Ah¿ Zpcp]tbmKw sNbvXp. aXØns‚ t]cn¬
ap…ow kapZmbsØ NqjWw sNbvXp h∂ncp∂ ]utcm
ln- Xy- Øn- s\- Xnsc C…mln {]ÿm\w BZ¿i kacw
\SØn \nc- ¥- c- amb t]mcm- ´- Øns‚ ^e- ambn Jp¿- B≥
NnIn’ tIc- f- Øn¬ \ma- am- {X- ambn amdn. Ckv - an- t‚bpw
X¬kamØns‚bpw ]WnIfpw Pn∂nd°¬ NnIn’bpw kaq
lØn¬ Ip‰nb‰pt]mIp∂ Ahÿ kwPmXambn. ]pXnb
cq]`mhw ]q≠v Bflob NqjW taJeIƒ Ifw amdnbpw
95
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
a‰v ta®n¬ ]pd߃ tXSnbpw CcIsf th≠t]mse F√m
ImeØpw krjvSn®ncp∂psh¶nepw Jp¿B≥ NnIn’bpw
Pn∂nd°¬ NnIn’bpw \mSp \oßnbncp∂p. Hcp kp{]`m
XØn¬ s]s´∂p≠mb am‰a√nXv. C…mlo {]ÿm\Øns‚
XymtKm- ÷ze- amb \thm- ∞m\ Ncn{Xw CXn\v ap∂nepw
]n∂nepap≠v. ]t£ A∂v C…mlo {]ÿm\w t\cntS≠n
h∂ Xnt\°mƒ henb {]iv\amWv \n¿`mKyhim¬ C∂v
A`napJoIcnt°≠n hcp∂Xv. A∂v A‘hnizmknIfn¬
\n∂pw ]utcm- ln- Xy- Øn¬ \n∂p- amWv sh√p- hnfn t\cn-
tS≠n h∂sX¶n¬ C∂v BZ¿ihmZnIsf∂vAhImis∏
Sp∂hcn¬\n∂pw P\߃°v Znimt_m[w ImWn®psImSp
t°≠ Nne ]finX∑mcn¬ \n∂pamWv {]Xnk‘n krjvSn
°s∏Sp∂Xv. Bflob NnIn’°pw Jp¿B≥ sXdm∏n°pw
Pn∂nd°en\pw Ch¿°p t\XrXzw \¬Inbt∏mƒ km[m
cW P\ßfn¬ ]ecpw AXn¬ hoWpt]mbn.
apPmlnZv {]ÿm\ap≠m°nb ]cnh¿Ø\sØ ]p—n
°p∂ {]mIrX NnIn’mcoXn hmintbmsS \S∏nem°m≥
ChnsS Nne¿ Hcpsº´ndßnbncn°pIbmWv. Ccp´papdnbnse
Icnºq®bpw Ccp´ns‚ Bflm°fpw C…mlo{]h¿ØIcmb
NnecpsS Xe°IØv C∂v IpSntbdnbncn°pIbmWv. `oXn
P\Iamb A¥co£w krjvSn°m≥ CXns‚ {]mtbmPI¿
[mcmfw IYIƒ sa\s™SpØp. Kƒ^n¬ \n∂pw Pn∂nd
°¬ koUn hym]Iambn Cd°paXn sNbvXp. Zmdpemw
ssk‰neqsS temIsØm´msI A‘hnizmkw {]Ncn∏n°m
\p≈ {iahpw \S°p∂p. \´p®bv°pw Iqcn´p≠m°m≥ kzbw
IÆS®pw a‰p≈hcpsS IÆpIƒ AS∏n®pw ]q® k\ymkn
Iƒ°v hnl- cn- °m- \p≈ CS- Øm- h- f- am°n C…m- ln- tI- {μ-
ßsf am‰m\p≈ Xo{hb⁄amWv C°q´¿ \SØns°m≠n
cn- °p- ∂- Xv.
96 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
A√m- lp- A- √m- Ø- h- tcmSv hnfn®v {]m¿∞n- °m\pw
B{Kl k^eoIcWw e£yan´pw Z¿KIfnte°v Xo¿∞m
S\w \SØp∂ ap…nIƒ tIcfØn¬ [mcmfap≠v. kakvX
°m- cpsS {][m\ hcp- am\ am¿§- amWnXv . Ah- cpsS al-
Ømb ]eÿm]\ßfpw Z¿Kbnse hcpam\w sIm≠mWv
\SØns°m≠v t]mIp∂Xv. Z¿Kbn¬ t]mbmepw AhnSp∂v
e`n- °p∂ sh≈tam FÆtbm ]qthm ]e- lm- ctam Ign-
®mepw tcmKw amd- pIbpw _¿IØv e`n- °p- Ibpw sNøpw
F∂mWv ]ma- c- ߃ hniz- kn- °p- ∂- Xv . F¶nepw C∂v
t]cvtI´ Nne Z¿KIƒ°SpØv h≥InS tlmkv]n‰epIƒ
Db¿∂p- h- ∂n- ´p- ≠v. k¿Δ tcmK- ߃°pw ^e- {]m]vXnbpw
B{K- l- k- ^- eo- I- c- W tI{μ- am- sW∂v ]d- b- s∏- Sp∂ Z¿K-
Iƒ°- SpØv Xs∂ Z¿K- °m- cpsS sNe- hn¬ Ah¿ Xs∂
\SØnt∏m∂ tlmkv]n‰epIƒ Db¿∂phcp∂Xv hntcm[m
`m- k- am- Wv . ]s£ Z¿K- bn¬ hnizm- k- an- √m- Ø- h¿°mWv
tlmkv]n‰ense NnIn’sb∂mWv DØcw ap´ptºmfp≈
\ymbw. kXy- Øn¬ Z¿K \S- Øp- ∂- h¿°pw AhnsS P\-
ßsf sXfn®psIm≠pt]mIp∂ ]finX∑m¿°pw Z¿Kbnse
^ekn≤nsb°pdn®v H´pw hnizmkans√∂Xns‚ {]Xy£
sXfnhmWv. Z¿K°mcpsS kq∏¿ kvs]jymen‰n tlmkv]n‰
epIƒ.
]pWymflm°fpsS J_¿ kμ¿i\w hgn tcmKßfpw
`uXnIamb a‰v ]e {]iv\ßfpw ]cnlcn°m\mhpsa∂mWv
kakvX°mcmb km[mcW°mcpsS hnizmkw. Z¿Kbnte°v
tcmK- i- a\w {]Xo- £n®v t]mbm¬ tcmKw amdpw. ]s£
AhnsS t]mI¬ in¿°mWv F∂mWv k°cnø kzemln
bpsS Xn´qcw. AhnSsØ \qepw sh≈hpw FÆbpw D]
tbm-Kn-®m¬ tcmKw t`ZamIp-a-s{X. ]nim-Nvaq-e-ap-≠m-Ip∂
97
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
tcmKamsW¶n¬ ]nimNv Abmfn¬ \n∂v Cdßnt∏mIpw.
At∏mƒ AbmfpsS tcmKw t`ZamIpw F∂mWv hniZoI
cWw. ]nimNv a\p- jysc sIm≠v in¿°n¬ Xf- ®n- Sm- \m-
Ws{X Cßs\sbms° ]dbn°p∂Xv. J_dmcm[\sb∂
Htcsbmcp in¿°mWv Hcp kakvX°mc≥ sNøp∂sX¶n¬
]nimNv tcmKap≠m°psa∂ ka¿∞\w hmZØn\v th≠n
sb¶nepw AwKoIcn°mambncp∂p. F∂m¬ ]eXcØn¬
in¿°v sNøp- ∂- hsc sIm≠v J_- dm- cm- [\bneqsS Hcp-
in¿°vIqSn sNøn®v ]nimNn\v F¥v t\´amWp≠mhpI. Hcp
aph- lv ln- Xmb a\p- jys‚ tcmKw Z¿K- bn¬ t]mbnt´m
\qev sI- ´n- s°mt≠m ]nimNv am‰nØcp- sa∂v ]d- ™m¬
k¶¬] -IY hniz-mkyambn tXm∂p-am-bn-cp∂p . ]nimNv
tcmKw D≠m°psa¶n¬ AXv aphlnvZpIsf am{XamWv _m[n
t°≠Xv. ]nimNv aqew tcmKnbmbn´v F{XapPmlnZpIfmWv
Z¿K- bn¬ t]mbn ia\w tXSn- bXv . F{X t]cv a{¥- ®- cSv
sI´n - bn - ´p- ≠v . F{X- t]¿ Xpem- `mcw \S- Øn - bn - ´p≠v
Fs∂ms° tNmZn®m¬ Hcp apPmlnZns‚ t]mepw t]cv ]d
bm≥ Ignbptam. ke^nIƒ°nSbn¬ Z¿Kbnse A¤pX
kn≤nbpw ]nimNp≠m°p∂ tcmK IYIfpw k¶¬∏n®v ]d
tb≠ F¥v A\nhmcyXbmWp kemln°p≈Xv. {]t_m
[- \- Øns‚ ap≥K- W- \m- {Iaw sX‰n- °¬ am{X- a√, ip≤
BZ¿i hyXn- bm\w Xs∂- bm- WnXv . Xs‚ Zp¿hm- ZsØ
FXn¿°p∂hscsb√mw lZokv \ntj[nbmbn Nm∏IpØn
HXp°msa∂mWv k°cnø hnNmcn°p∂Xv.A\phZ\obamb
Hcp Imcyw sNøp∂Xns‚ t]cn¬t]mepw A‘hnizmkhpw
in¿°pw IS∂phcm≥ km[yXbps≠¶n¬ AXv Dt]£n
°emWv \√sX∂pw Nnet∏mƒ Dt]£n°¬ \n¿_‘am
sW∂pw ]Wv Un- X- ∑m¿ ]d- ™n- ´p- ≠v . I_¿ knbm- dØv
98 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
C{_mans‚ {]mcw`ImeØv \_n(k) \ntcm[n®ncp∂p F∂
B kmlNcyw \mw a\nem°pI.
hnizmk ZrVoIcWw h∂tijamWv J_¿ knbm
dØv kp∂Ømbn \_n(k) ]Tn∏n°p∂Xv. a°mapivcn°p
Iƒ°v ZmØv A≥hmØp≈Xvt]mse \ap°pw thWw Hcp
ZmØp A≥hmsØ∂v ]pXpap…owIfn¬ Nne¿ dkqent\mSv
Bhiys∏´p. aqkm\_ntbm thsdmcp ssZhsØ Bhiy
s∏-´Xv t]mse-bp≈ Kpcp-X-c-amb Bh-iy-am-WnsX-∂mWv
Xncp\_n adp]Sn ]d™Xv. _lpam\mZchv AXncpIhn™v
a\p- jym- cm- [- \- bn- te°v {]bmWw sNbv X Dssk- d- s‚bpw
CukmbptSbpw kapZmb IY lZokv ]Tn°Ww.
sshdkv aqew tcmKw _m[n°mw. sImXpIv, Cu®,
Xhf, ]√n, tXfv \mb ]∂nXpSßnb PohnIfpsS ImcW
ambpw tcmKw _m[nt®°mw. sImXpIpw Cu®bpw t]mep≈
PohnIƒ ]cØp∂ tcmK߃ kXyhnizmknsb am{Xa√
F√m-P-\-ß-sfbpw _m[n°pw. ]nimNv ]c-Øp-∂-tcm-K-ß-
sf∂v GsX¶nepw Hcp tcmKsØ Ipdn®v B¿°mWv ]dbm
\mhpI? h√ acp∂pw D]tbmKn®v ]nimNp≠m°nb tcmKw
t`ZamIptam? KpfnIbpw acp∂pw C©£\pw ]nimNns\
AI- ‰m\pw Hgn- ∏n- °m\pw ]‰p- tam. ]nimNv Cjv S- s∏- Sp∂
in¿°v t]mep≈ sX‰pIƒ sNbvXmemWv ]nimNv Cdßn
t∏mhpI F∂ k°cnøbpsS KthjWw Gsd sshcp≤yw
\nd™XmWv A]IShpamWv. Nne BbØpIfpw kqdØp
Ifpw {]m¿∞\Ifpw \SØn ]nimNns\ Cd°msa∂pw ]d
bp- ∂p- ap≠v . k°- cnø kzemln {]am- W- hncp- ≤- am- bn- ´mWv
]nimNv tcmK-ap≠m°n in¿°v sNøn°p∂p F∂v ]d-™-
Xv. \_n(k) Aßns\ ]Tn∏n®n´n√. a{¥n®qXnb NcSv sI´n
bm¬ tcmKw amdns√∂mWv dkq¬ (k) ]Tn∏n®Xv. Camw
99
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
AlvaZv D≤cn°p∂p. ""HcmfpsS ssIX≠bn¬ \_nXncp
ta\n sh≈nsIm≠p≈ Hcp hfbw I≠p. AXn¬ A\njvS
{]ISn∏n®sIm≠v AhnSp∂v tNmZn®p. F¥mWnXv? Hcp -
tcm-K-Øn-\p≈ NnIn-’-bmbn Rm\Xv [cn-°p-I-bm-sW∂v
Abmƒ ]d™p. \_n(k) ]d™p \ns‚ tcmKw h¿[n°p
Itb D≈p. AXv FSpsØdn™psIm≈p. AXv tZlØv
hn´psIm≠v acn°p∂ ]£w \o Hcn°epw hnPbw {]m]n
°pIbn√''.
F√m tcmK- ߃°pw acp- ∂p- s≠- ∂mWv Ahn- Sp∂v
(k) ]d™Xv. Icn©ocIØns‚bpw tX\nt‚bpw ^ekn
≤nsb°pdn®v hsc \_n(k) kwkmcn®n´p≠v. ]nimNp≠m
°p∂ tcmKØn\v C∂n∂ NnIn’bmWp≈sX∂v ]dbp∂
Hcp lZosk¶nepw dkqen¬ \n∂v kzlolmbn´v dnt∏m¿´v
sNbvXn´pt≠m? tcmKw h∂m¬ F¥mWv sNtø≠sX∂v
apPmlnZpIƒ tIcfsØ ]Tn∏n®ncp∂p. ""\nßfpsS aIƒ°v
tcmKw _m[n®p. ImcyImcW _‘ßfpsS ASnÿm\Øn¬
NnIn’ \S- Ø- Ww. Atem- ∏- Xnbpw tlman- tbm- ∏- Xnbpw
Bbp¿tΔ- Zhpw bp\m- \nbpw {]tbm- Kn- ®p- t\m- °mw. NnIn-
’Iƒ ^en°msX hcptºmƒ tcmKhpw acp∂pw hn[n®
A√mlphnt\mSv {]m¿∞n°pIbpw £an°pIbpw sNøpI''.
( C…mans‚ ASnØd XuloZv Ip™oXp aZ\n 133)
Ddp°v GXv XcØnep≈XmsW¶nepw AXv \njn
≤amWv. Jp¿B≥ FgpXnb Ddp°v sI´msa∂ hmZKXn C…m
anI hncp≤amWv.
]Øv t]cp≈ kwLw \_n(- k)sb ss_AØv
sNøm≥ th≠n apt∂m´v h∂p. HºXv t]cpsS ss_AØv
kzoI- cn® dkq¬ Hcm- fpsS ss_AØv am{Xw \nc- kn®p.
Abm- fpsS ssIbn¬ Ddp°v sI´nb NcSv D≠m- bn- cp- ∂p.
100 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
Abmƒ kzbw AXv s]m´ns®dn™t∏mgmWv dkq¬ Abm
fn¬ \n∂v ss_AØv kzoIcn®Xv. XpS¿∂v dkq¬ Cßs\
]d™p. Ddp°v sI´nbh≥ in¿°v sNbvXh\mWv.
(,.. · ,.. .∏.· ” · π. :.,“ ≥∏. ¸.
Bsc¶nepw a{¥®cSpsI´nbm¬ A√mlp Ahs‚
Dt±iw ]q¿Øn-bm-°m-Xn-cn-°-s´. (A-l-a-Zv)
(,.. ·,,.fi ≈∏. ∫¸. · .. ¸.s ,≤. ∫ƒ≤, .. ..,... ..·¸. ¸ · ....s ≈: · ¸.
Bsc¶nepw tPym’ys\tbm˛IW°p -t\m°p∂h
s\tbm e£Ww t\m°n∏dbp∂hs\tbm kao]n®v Ah≥
]dbp∂Xv hnizkn°pIbpw sNbvXm¬ Ah≥ aplΩZns‚
ta¬ AhXcn®Xns\ Ahnizkn®p. (AlaZv)
Ddp°pw NcSpw sI´nbm¬ tcmKw amdpsa∂ hnizmkw
Xs∂ C…manI hncp≤amWv. tcmKw h¿≤n∏n°pItb D≈p
F∂pw \ns‚ Dt±yiyw k^eamhmXncn°s´sb∂pw dkq¬
(k) {]m¿∞n- ®XmWv \mw amXr- I- bm- t°- ≠- Xv . A√msX
PqX≥ a{¥n® \qev sI´n C_v\p akv DuZv(d) hns‚ `mcybpsS
IÆn¬ \n∂pw [mc[mcbmbn HgpInb IÆo¿ \n∂p F∂
lZok√. NcSv sI´nbm¬ tcmKw amdns√∂ lZokpw PqX≥
a{¥n- ®m¬ IÆocp \n¬°p- sa∂ lZokpw kzlo- lmbn
dnt∏m¿´v sNbvXn´p≠v. \mw kzlolmb lZosk∂ \ne°v
F√m _lpam\hpw \evIn AXv InXm_n¬ Xs∂ \nt∂ms´
F∂v hnNm-cn-°mt\ \n¿Δm-l-ap-≈q. lZo-kns\ \ntj-[n-
°emhn√. kwibw Hgnhm°n Dd∏nte°pw \o Bhiyan
√m-Ø-Xns‚ ]n∂mse t]mtI≠ F∂ XXzhpw kzoI-cn-
®mWv Cßs\ \ne]mSv.
F¥n- \[nIw ]d- bp- ∂p. lZo- kp- Iƒ sXfn- hn\pw
hnizm- k- Øn\pw ]‰n- s√∂v ]d- ™n- cp∂ AÀp¬ Jp¿-
B≥Im¿t]mepw lZokv \ntj- [n- °m≥ sXfn- hp- ≤- cn- °p-
101
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
∂Xpw lZokpIfmWv. (DZmlcWw, F∂n¬ \n∂v dkq¬
Jp¿-B≥ am{Xw Fgp-Xn-bm¬ aXn F∂v dkq¬ ]d-™p-
h∂ lZo- kv ) ]d™ph- ∂Xv Jp¿- B- \n- s\bpw lZo- kp- I-
sfbpw kz¥anjvS{]Imcw hymJym\n°epw hfs®mSn°epw
^eØn¬ Jp¿B≥ lZokv \ntj[w Xs∂bmWv.
tZmssjI- Zr- °p- Iƒ lZokv ]T\w \SØn- bmepw
KthjWw \SØnbmepw Ah¿°v AXnsems° A‘hn
izmkØn\p≈ sXfnhpIfmWv ImWpI. kakvX°mcpw Pam
AØvImcpw XªoKvImcpw ]Tn®Xpw Jp¿B\pw lZokpw
Xs∂- bm- Wv . Ah- scm∂pw lZokv \ntj- [n- I- f- √. ]s£
C…mans‚ X\Xmb BibmZ¿iØn¬ \n∂v Ah¿ 1500¬
A[nIw sIm√sØ ]pdtIm´v Ah¿ t]mbn´p≠v. AYhm
BZ¿iw kw`hn®n´p≠v.
""\ΩpsS ap…n - bm- °- fn ¬ Nn e¿ Pn ∂n - t‚bpw
ssiØmt‚bpw klmbw tXSpI F∂ in¿°ns‚ Nphbn
√msX A√mlphns‚ klmbw am{Xw tXSns°m≠pw Jp¿
B≥ BbØpIfpw icnbmb Nne {]m¿∞\Ifp]tbmKn®v
sIm≠v a{¥n°p∂Xpw Ddp°v sI´p∂Xpw FgpXn Ie°n
°pSn°p∂Xpw tZmjans√∂v hmZn°p∂p≠v. F∂m¬ Cu
amXrI Bcp ImWn®p. (^mØnlbpsS XocØv Da¿ aue
hn- ˛- t]- Pv- ˛92)
Hcn°¬ \_n(k) Hcp tcmKnsb kμ¿in®p. Ahn
sSbp≈htcmSv tcmKnsb NnIn’n°m≥ sshZys\ hnfn®p
hcm≥ Bhiys∏´p. AXnsemcmƒ B›cytØmsS tNmZn
®p. {]hmNIsc AßmtWm CXv ]dbp∂Xv. Xncpta\n {]Xn
hNn®p. AsX, Rm≥ Xs∂bmWnXv ]dbp∂Xv.\_n(k)
Bflob NnIn- ’tbm dpJn- ø- i- d- C- øtbm \n¿tZ- in- ®n- √.
CsXms° D≠mbn´pw AhnSp∂v sshZys\ sIm≠phcm≥
]d- bn- √t√m.
102 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
Hcp \m´n¬ tImf- d- bp- s≠- ∂- dn- ™m¬ Ahn- tS°v
t]mh- cp- sX∂pw tImf- d- _m- [n® \m´n- ep- ≈- h¿ AhnsS
\n∂pw a‰p Zn°p- I- fn- te°v t]mIm- Xn- cn- °m≥ {i≤n- °- W-
sa∂pw \_n(k) DW¿Ønbn´p≠v. ]nimNv tcmK_m[bp
≠m- °p - sa¶n ¬ dkq en s‚ Cu \n ¿t±iØn \v
F¥¿∞amWp≈Xv. _p≤nbp≈h¿ a\nem°pw. tcmKw
_m[n®m¬ \n߃ tcmKsØ i]n°cpXv. De Ccpºns‚
IoSw Dcp°n°fbp∂Xpt]mse tcmKw a\pjy]p{Xs\ ]m]
Øn¬ \n∂pw ip≤o-Icn°pw. (\_n hN\w)
A_qlp- ssd- d- bn¬ \n∂pw \nth- Z\w dkq¬ ]d-
bpIbp≠m- bn. ia\w \n›- bn- ®n´n√mØ Hcp tcmKhpw
A√mlp D≠m- °n - bn - ´n - √. hm¿≤- Iy- a- √mØ tcmK-
߃s°√mw acp∂p≠v. (A¬ a\m¿ amknI 1985 G{]n¬
t]Pv 11)
"F√m tcmKØn\pw acp∂p≠v''.
B{Kl߃ km[n°m≥ A√mlp A√mØhtcmSv klmbw
tXSp∂p tcmKw kpJs∏Sm\pw Zmcn{Zyw AIem\psams°
A√mlp A√m- Ø- h¿°v t\¿® t\cp- ∂p. AXp- sIm≠v
Dt±yiyw \ndthdpsa∂mWv hnizmkw. _dIØpt±in®v Ah
cpsS \ma߃ Ch¿ DcphnSp∂p. AXpsIm≠mWv A√mlp
I¬∏n®Xv \nkvIm-c-Øn¬ Cßs\ {]m¿∞n-°m≥. Xºp-
cmt\ \ns∂am{Xw Rm≥ Bcm[n°p∂p. \nt∂mSv am{Xw
Rm≥ (\mw) klmbw tXSp∂p. (l÷pØp√mln¬ _men
K˛ imlv henbp√mln Zlvehn ]cn`mj. sI.hn.Fw. ]¥m
hq¿, t]Pv-˛209,210)
Hcp ap≈p Xd®m¬ t]mepw £an®m¬ {]Xn^ehpw
]m]tamN\hpw e`n°psa∂mWv \_n(k) bpsS A[ym]
\w. A√m- lp- hns\ Xs∂ `c- ta- ∏n- °p- I- sb∂ Xulo- Zn¬
103
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
\n∂- I- ∂- h¿ sNs∂- Øp∂ in¿°ns‚ as‰mcp cwK- anXm
AhcpsS Xh°p¬ a{¥hmZnIfnte°pw \oßp∂p. Aßs\
Ahsc Bcm-[y-cm-°p∂p. a{¥-hm-Zn-Iƒ \¬Ip∂ Ddp°v
\qeneqsS tcmKia\tam _¿°tØm B{Kl k^eoIc
Wtam {]Xo£n®m¬ AXv in¿°mbn (A√mlphns\ GI
\m°pI˛ kpsseam≥ \Zvhn t]Pv ˛41)
PohnXØnse kpJ:ZpJ:߃ A√mlphns‚ hn[n
bmsW∂v Cuam≥ Imcyßfn¬ BdmasØXv \sΩ _m[y
s∏SpØp∂p. AXn¬ am‰w hcpØm≥ B¿°pw km[ya√.
PohnXmh-ÿ-bnse am‰-߃°v A√m-lp-hns\ Xs∂ `c-
ta¬∏n°Ww. F∂m¬ ZpcnXßfpw tcmKßfpw `b∏mSp
Ifpw AI‰m≥ k¥m\˛kmºØnI˛Zu¿`mKyßfpw a‰pw
]cnlcn°m≥ ]ecpw acWs∏´ alm∑mcnepw Pn∂pIfnepw
ae°pIfnepw Pmdßfnepw `cta¬∏n°p∂p. AXv in¿°mWv .
Ah- tcm- Sp≈ {]m¿∞- \- bn- te°pw t\¿®- bn- te°pw _en-
bnte°pw a‰pw AXv hen®ng°pw. Xh°pense hyXnbm\w
]e- ap- …ow- I- tfbpw Aº- e- ß- fn¬t]mepw `c- ta¬∏n- °p∂
AhÿbnseØn®n´p≠v. (A√mlphns\ GI\m°pI˛kp
sse-am≥ \Zv-hn˛ t]Pv-˛34,35)
k¥m\ ku`mKyw e`n°m≥ KpcphmbqcºeØn¬
Xpem`mcw\SØnb ap…ow \ma[mcnIfp≠v. CtX Dt±yiy
Øn¬ thfm- ¶- Æn- bn- te°v t]mIp- ∂- h- cp- ≠v . G¿hm- Sn- bn-
te°pw a‰pw t]mIp∂hcp≠v. ap…nw, Aap…nw F∂ hyXym
kan√msX P\߃ CØcw tI{μßfnte°v B{Klk^
eo- I- c- W- Øn\v t]mIm- dp- ≠v . AhnsS sN∂m¬ k¥m\
ku`mKyhpw tcmKia\hpw e`n°ptam? Hcn°epan√. A√m
lpam{XamWv tcmKw am‰p∂Xv. ]nimNn\v Aßs\ Hcp Ignhv
A√mlp \¬In- bn- ´n- √. tcmK- i- a- \- ap- ≠m- bm¬ P\- ߃
104 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
shdpsX CØcw tI{μßfn¬ hchp sh°pIbmWv. Z¿K
bn- te°v t]mbm¬ ]nimNv tcmKw am‰p- sa∂ hnizmkw
A‘hnizmkamWv.
kXyØn¬ F√mh¿°pw tcmKia\w \evIp∂Xpw
k¥m\ ku`mKyw \¬Ip∂Xpw A√mlpam{XamWv. ]nim
Nn\v Aßs\ Hcp Ignhps≠¶n¬ k¥m\ ku`mKyhpw
tcmKia\hpw e£yan´v ss]imNnI tI{μØn¬ t]mI¬
Fßs\bmWv in¿°mhpI. in¿°v F∂m¬ A√mlphn\v
am{Xw AhImis∏´ Ahs‚ am{Xw Ignhn¬s]´ Imcyß
fn¬ as‰m- cmsftbm hkv Xp- hn- t\tbm ]¶m- fn- bm- °- em- Wv .
tUmIvSdpsS ASp°¬ tcmKia\w {]Xo£n®v t]mI¬ A\p
h- Z- \o- b- hpw in¿°- √m- Ø- Xp- am- Ip- ∂p. A√mlp Abmƒ°v
\¬Inb Ignhns‚ t]cnep≈ ImcyImcW _‘Ønep≈
NnIn’ kzoIcn°pI F∂Xn\memW.v tUmIvSsd kao]n
°¬ in¿°- √m- Ø- Xv . tcmK- i- a- \- Øns‚ BXy- ¥nI DSa
A√mlp am{XamsW∂ bmYm¿XyØn\v tUmIvSsd kao
]n°¬ FXncmhp∂n√.
tUmIvS-dpsS NnIn-’-bn¬ A`u-Xn-I-Xbn-√. Xß-
Ωm-cp-tSbpw _ohn-am-cp-tSbpw im¥n- °m-cp-tSbpw tPym’y-
Ωm- cp- tSbpw NnIn’ `uXn- I- a- √. BNn- In- ’°v ^e- an- √.
A`u-XnI am¿K-Øn¬ KpWhpw tZmjhpw hcp-Øm-\p≈
Ignhv temIc£nXmhmb A√mlphn\v am{Xtabp≈q. (C
…mans‚ Poh≥ ˛ Ip™oXp aZ\n t]Pv ˛13)
""Imcy Imc- W- _- ‘- ߃°- Xo- X- ambn tcmK- i- a\w
hcp-ØpI F∂Xv GI Cem-lmb A√m-lp-hns‚ am{Xw
Ign- hn- epƒs∏- ´- Im- cy- am- Wv. tcmK- i- a\w hcp- ØpI F∂Xv
Hcp Gens‚ `uXnIamb Ignhntem KpWØntems]´
Imcya√. F∂ncns° AXn\v A`uXnIamb Hcp Ignhv hI
105
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
sh- ®p- sIm- Sp- °p- I- bmWv sNøp- ∂Xv AtXmsS AXv Cem-
lns‚ ÿm\tØ°pbcp∂p.
(C…mans‚ Poh≥˛sI.Ip™oXp aZ\n t]Pv 47)
tcmK- ߃°pw a‰p Ah- i- X- Iƒ°pw Imcy- Im- c- W-
_‘ßfpsS ASnÿm\Øn¬ am{Xw ]cnlmcw ImWm≥
{ian°pI. ImcyImcW _‘߃°XoXambn tcmKw kpJ
s∏SpØm≥ Ignhp≈ A√mlphnt\mSv {]m¿∞n°pI. £a
ssIsIm≈pIbpw sNøpI. CXmWv C…mans‚ am¿K\n¿t±
i߃. (AtX ]pkvXIw)
dkq¬ ]dbp∂p, Xo¿®bmbpw A√mlp Hmtcm tcmK
Øn\pw Hmtcm acp∂v \n›bn®n´p≠v. AXv sIm≠v \n߃
NnIn’ \S- ØpI ldm- amb am¿K- Øn¬ ia\w tXSm≥
\n߃ {ian°cpXv. (A_qZmhqZv)
^°odp∏m∏am¿ DucpNp‰n sh≈w a{¥n°ptºmƒ
"Pn∂pIqSnb _ohnam¿' hoSpIfnencp∂v \qepa{¥n°p∂p.
Pmd- Ønse \ne- hn- f- °n- ep≈ Agp°pw in¿°pw \nd™
FÆ hnXcWØneqsS ]qPmcnIƒ "kapZmb tkh\w' \S
ØpIbpw sNøp∂p
(C…mans‚ Poh≥ t]Pv 47)
amdmhym[nIƒ am‰m\mbn ]pØ≥ ]≈n PmdsØ
kao]n°p∂h¿ A√mlphns‚ AhImiØnepw A[nIm
cØnepw (F√mwImWp∂h≥, F√mw tIƒ°p∂h≥, F√mw
Adnbp∂h≥, F√m Imcy߃°pw Ignhp≈h≥) F∂o
KpWßfnepw AhnsS adhv sNøs∏´hs\ ]¶ptN¿°pI
bmWv sNøp∂Xv
(AtX ]pkvX-Iw t]Pv 35)
ho≠pw apIfn¬ kqNn∏n® lZokv hmbn°pI A_q
Z¿ZmAv(d) \nthZ\w, \_n(k) ]d™p A√mlptcmKsØ
Cd°n acp∂pw Cd°n
106 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
F√m tcmK߃°pw Ah≥ acp∂pw \n›bn®p. AXn\m¬
\n߃ acp∂v D]tbmKn°q. ]t£ \njn≤ hkvXp°ƒ
sIm≠v NnIn’n°cpXv. .....""AhnsSbp≈ InWdpIfnse aen
\sh≈w k¿h tcmK hn\miIcamb kn≤uj[amsW∂
hnizmkØn¬ sIm≠pt]mIpIbpw t]cptI´ henb henb
Bip]{XnIfn¬ hfsc Imew InS∂p NnIn’n®v amdmØ
Xmb ITn\tcmK߃ ZnhyssNX\yap≈Xmbn hnNmcn°p∂
Cu Pe]m\w sIm≠v amdnIn´psa∂v ]d™p ]cØpIbpw
sNøp-∂p.''
(AØuloZv ]n.A_vZp¬ JmZn¿ auehn IÆq¿ t]Pv 115)
C{X`oaamb ssNX\yw Ahbn¬ (Z¿§bnse, InW¿,
hr£w..) \n£v]vXamsW¶n¬ henb acp∂pimeIfpw NnIn
’mebßfpw AXv`pXIcamb ikv{X{InbIfpw ka¿∞
∑mcmb `njKzc∑mcpw F√mw {]tbmP\iq\yßft√ (A
tX]pkvXIw t]Pv 115)
Iøn¬ ]n®fhf [cn®n´p≈ Hcmsf \_n(k) I≠p
CsX¥mWv F∂v tNmZn®p. CXv hmln\Øv F∂ tcmKsØ
XSp°phm\p≈XmWv F∂v Abmƒ ]d™p. At∏mƒ Ahn
Sp∂v ]d™p AXns\ (]n®f hf) am‰n°fbpI. CXv \n\°v
_e- lo- \- Xtb h¿[n- ∏n- °p- Itb D≈p. CXv [cn- ®n- cns°
\o acn®p t]mhpIbmsW¶n¬ \o hnPbn Bhp∂X√.
(AlvaZv˛apkv\Zv)
Zmlw hnit∏m sImSpamXf¿®tbm
XSnbn¬ adtfm Pn≥ ssiXzm≥ NXn°tem
tZlw het™m≥ t]cns\ sNm√pIn¬
Xocpw apsº in^bmIpw Ft∂mh¿
(_-Z¿ ame)
107
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
_Zco߃ t]cns\HmXp∂temI¿°v
_Z\n¬ H_mIƒAWhn√ Ft∂mh¿
(a- me)
F∂pw sImSpaanIs¥mco Zo\Øn¬
Chsc hnfn®v ZpBs\ Cc∂¶n¬
At∂cw Xs∂ in^mIsf In´msX
Bbn´Xn√ HcpØ\pw Ft∂mh¿ (ame)
“aÆn¬ ]nd¥v lbmØmbn \n°pw \mƒ
a∂¿ _Znco߃ Imhen¬ tbIv A√m
ZÆw _emDw h_mDw AWbaa¬
Xcpf¿ _Zvco߃ Imhen¬ GI√m”
_Zv coßfpsS lJpw Pmlpw _¿IØpw sIm≠v
tcmKia\w {]Xo£n®ncp∂hcmWv bmYmÿnIcmb ka
kvX°m¿ Ah¿ sNm√n∏mSp∂ ameaueoZpIfn¬ tcmKia
\- Øn\v a¨a- d™ alm∑mtcm- Sp≈ tX´w btYjv Sw
ImWmw.
""AXn\m¬ \o Ahs\b√msX Bcm[n°cpXv. Ah
t\mS√msX {]m¿∞n°cpXv. Aht\mS√msX klmba¿∞n
°cpXv. \¬Im\pw XSbm\pw D]Imtcm]{Zh߃ sNøm\pw
Ah\√msX Bcpan√''.
(A¬ Awdp_n≥ CØn_mAv 36˛47)
""F√m amdmhym[nIƒ°pw DS\Sn kn≤ F∂ ]ckyw I≠v
hcp∂ hcn¬ \n∂v e`n°p∂ t\¿®IƒsIm≠v B[p\nI
k÷oIcWßtfmSv IqSnb Hcmip]{Xn \SØp∂p F∂v
tIƒ°ptºmƒ amdmØ tcmK߃Xs∂ DS\Sn kpJs∏
SpØp∂ henøn\v amdp∂ tcmK߃ a‰m\pt≠mh√ {]bm
khpw? ]ns∂ F¥n\mWv B[p\nI k÷oIcWtØmsS
bp≈ Bip]{Xn? F∂v Nn¥n®ncp∂psh¶n¬ ]Whpw ka
108 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
bhpw em`n°mambncp∂p. \nßfpsS XuloZv kpc£nXam
°mambncp∂p. (A√mlphns‚ Huenbm°ƒ, Ip™oXp aZ\n
t]Pv 122)
in¿°n\v ^eaps≠∂mWv k°cnøbpw Iq´cpw hmZn
°p∂Xv. aZytkhI¿°v Nne kpJhpw KpWhpw e`n°p∂p
≠t√m. hy`nNmcn°v kpJw In´p∂p≠t√m F∂Xv t]mse
in¿°n\pw ^eaps≠∂mWv \ymboIcWw. in¿°n\v ^e
ap≠v F∂v ]dbm≥ acWs∏´h¿ {]m¿∞\ tIƒ°Ww,
DØcw \¬I- Ww, tcmK- i- a- \- ap- ≠m- °- Ww, k¥m- \- ߃
\¬IWw, ags]øn°Ww, CsXms°bmWv ^ew A√msX
a{¥n- ®q- Xp∂ ]qPmcn°p In´n∂ ]Wtam kmº- ØnI
t\´tam in¿°ns‚ ^esa√.
iplZm°ƒ A©phn`mKap≠v
- ¸ƒ.uŸ· :...i .·,,...· .∏.· ∫ƒ..¸ ∫.. (¸, :¸,¸. _, · ¸.
.∏.· π,,.. ‘ ,,,...· ¸ Ω,,.· ¸....¸ ≥,¸..·¸ - ¸ƒu.Ÿ·¸
(··-·…¸.i,.· ¿,._. ,
1. tπKv tcmKw aqew acn®h¿, 2. DZc tcmKw aqew acn®h¿,
3. apßn acn®h¿, 4. hoSv apXembh h√Xpw icocØn¬
hoWv NX™p acn®h¿ , 5. A√mlphns‚ am¿KØn¬ [¿a
ka- c- Øn¬ c‡- km- £n- I- fm- b- h¿ (k- lolv _pJm-
cn)tπKv tcm- Khpw, DZc tcmKhpw sIm≠v acn- ®- hsc c‡-
km£nIfpsS KWØnemWv Xncp\_n(k) FÆnbncp∂Xv.
Bh¿Øn°s´, c‡km£nbpsS ]ZhnbnseØm≥ kXy
hnizmkn°v ]nimNv kuIcyw sNøpIbn√.
“ap…nw ssk\yw XmhfaSn®ncp∂ Aahmkv F∂
{KmaØn¬ AXyp{Kamb Hcp tπKv tcmKw ]S¿∂p ]nSn®p.
A√m- lp- hns‚ ]Xn- \m- bn- c- °- W- °n\v Huen- bm- °ƒ tπKv
_m[n®v acn®p hogm≥ XpSßn. A_qDss_Z(d)hpw apB
109
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
Zv(d)hns‚ `mcy°pw aI\pw tπKvtcmKw aqew acn®p Xulo
-Zn\v th≠n t]mcmSnb ap∏Xn\mbncw Huenbm°ƒ tπKv
_m[n®v acn- ®p. _nem¬(- d) AXn¬s∏Spw (Po- hn- ®n- cp∂
_Zvcoßfpw Pohn-®n-cn-°p∂ _Zvcoßfpw sI. Ip™oXp
aZ\n t]Pv 117, 118)
tπKv t]mse ]Scp∂ tcmK߃ ]nimNn¬ \n∂mWv
D≠mIp∂sX∂v \_n(k) ]Tn∏n®ncp∂n√. Aßns\ klm
_n- Iƒ a\- n- em- °n- bn- cp- ∂p- sh- ¶n¬ C∂v Nne¿ Im´p∂
dpJnø Ifpw a‰pw Ah¿ sNbvXXmbn {]amWßfn¬ ImWm
\mhpw am{Xa√ tπKv _m[n® ÿetØ°v t]mIcpsX∂pw
Ahn- sS- bp- ≈- h¿ a‰p ÿe- tØ°pw hc- cp- sX- ∂p- amWv
dkq¬(-k) \n¿t±in®ncp∂-Xv. ]nimNv tπKv ]cØpsa∂v
Ipsd sIm√߃°v apºv kakvX°m¿ {]Ncn∏n®ncp∂p.
AØcw hnIehnizmk߃s°Xnsc C…mln {]ÿm\w
Bibkacw \SØnbncp∂p. F∂m¬ AtXhmZw kzem
lnsbt]mep≈hcn¬ \n∂v tIƒt°≠v h∂Xv \n¿`mKy
IcwXs∂. ]nimNv tcmKw D≠m°pIbpw am‰pIbpw sNøp
am- bn- cp- ∂p- sh- ¶n¬ ]I¿® tcmK- ߃ _m[n® ÿeØv
t]mIcpsX∂pw AhnsSbp≈h¿ a‰p ÿeßfnte°v hc
cp- sX- ∂p- ap≈ \n¿tZiw A_≤- am- bn- t∏m- hn- t√, Zp¿a{¥w
\SØnbm¬ ]nimNv Cdßpambncps∂¶n¬ kqdØns\bpw
DØtc¥ybnse Nne Pn√Isfbpw hngpßnb tπKv AhnsS
kw`- hn- °p- I- t]m- ep- an- √m- bn- cp- ∂p. ]pXnb {]m¿∞- \tbm
a{¥tam NnIn’m apdItfm aX]cambn B¿°pw D≠m°m≥
AhImian√. \qdpIW°n\v klm_nIfpsS acWØn\v
ImcWamb tπKv tcmKw ]nimNv aqeamsW∂v Ah¿ a\
nem°pItbm, dpJnb idCø D]tbmKn®v B tcmKw ian
∏n- °p- Itbm sNbv X- Xmbpw bmsXmcp tcJ- bp- an- √. kXy
110 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
hnizmknbmb Hcmƒ amcIamb tcmKw _m[n®v acn®m¬
Abmƒ c‡km£nsbt]msebmWv. F¶n¬ hnizmkn°v
tcmKap≠m°n £a Ahew_n®v c‡km£nbmIm\p≈
Ah- kcw ]nimNv krjv Sn- °ptam? Aøq_v \_n(- A)s\
A√mlp tcmKw \¬In ]co£n°pIbpw B ]co£WØn¬
At±lw hnP- bn- °p- Ibpw sNbvXpsh∂mWv {]am- W- ߃
]dbp∂Xv ]nimNv Aøq_v \_n°v tcmKw \¬In F∂
{]kvXmhw F{X am{Xw _menihpw hnUvVnØhpamsW∂v
a\nem°≥ \ap°v {]amWwaXn
111
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
A¿q_v \_nbpsS tcmKhpw
]nimNv _m[bpw
\ΩpsS Zmk\mb Aøq_ns\ Hm¿Ωn°pI ]nimNv
F\n°v AhiXbpw ]oU\hpw G¬]n®ncn°p∂p. F∂v
Xs‚ c£nXmhns\ hnfn®v At±lw ]d™ kμ¿`w (kzmZv
41)
Cu BbØn\v Ip™n aplΩZv ]d∏q¿ \¬Inb
Ipdn∏v Cßs\ hmbn°mw ""Aøq_v \_n(A) tcmKßfpw
IjvS∏mSpIfpw aqew ]co£n°s∏´p. At±lw F√mw kln
°pIbpw, £an°pIbpw sNbvXp, ]nimNv Cu Ahkcw
icn°pw D]- tbm- K- s∏- Sp- Øn. Hcp {]hm- N- I\v Hcn- °epw
tcmKtam IjvS∏mSpItfm D≠mIm≥ ]mSns√∂pw AXn\m¬
Aøq_v hymPhmZnbmsW∂pw Ah≥ Zp¿t_m[\w \SØn.
_‘pan{XmZnIƒ At±lØns\Xncmbn Xncn™p. CXns\
]‰nbmWv At±lw A√mlpthmSv k¶SapW¿ØnbXv (sN
dnbap≠hpw Ip™n aplΩZv ]d∏qcpw FgpXnb hnip≤
Jp¿B≥ kºq¿W aebmf ]cn`mjbn¬ \n∂v)
]nimNv tcmKap≠m°n F∂ Hcp kqN\ t]mepw
ChcpsS Ipdn∏nen√. kzmZv 41 s\ Ipdn®v Aam\n auehn
F¥p]dbp∂p F∂v IqSnt\m°mw.
“Aøq_v \_n(A)s\ ]Xnaq∂v sIm√w ]co£n°
s∏SpIbp≠mbn At±lØns‚ ktlmZcßfmb c≠pt]
c√mØ ASpØ _‘p°fpw AI∂ _‘p°fpsa√mw At±
lsØ ssIsømgn™p. Cu c≠pt]¿ At±lØns‚ ASp
°¬ h∂pw t]mbpw sIm≠ncp∂p. Hcmƒ a‰ht\mSv ]d
™p. Ct±lw GsX- ¶nepw Hcp alm- ]m]w sNbv Xn- cn- °-
Ww. As√¶n¬ Cu B ]Øphn´pt]mtI≠Xmbncp∂p (a
112 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
lm-]m]w sNøp-∂-hsc ]nimNv in£n-°p-tam?-˛-te-J-I≥)
hnhcw Aøq_v \_n(- A) Adn- ™p. At±lw hyk- \n®v
{]m¿∞n®p. At±lw Hcn°¬ `mcybpsS ssI]nSn®v shfn
bn¬t]mbn (aehnk¿÷\mhiym¿∞w) B kv{Xo hcm≥
sshIn. B AhkcØn¬ `qanbn¬ ImepsI´m≥ A√mlp
At±lØn\v hlvbv \¬In. Im¬sI´nbt∏mƒ Hcp Ddh
s]m¥n. At±lw AXn¬ \n∂v Ipfn®p Aßns\ At±lw
kpJw {]m]n- ®p- a- S- ßn. `mcy- h∂p \_nsb ]‰n At±- l-
tØmSv Xs∂ At\zjn®p Aøq_v \_n(A)s‚ tcmKsa
¥m- bn- cp∂p sh∂v Cu cnhm- b- Ønepw ]d- bp- ∂n- √. GXm-
bmepw At±lØns‚ icocØnepw kzØnepw hfsc IjvS
XIƒ _m[n®ncp∂p. B]Øns‚ ImTn\yw \nanØw Xs‚
\ne ]mSn\p tbmPn® X√mØ h√ at\mhnImchpw X∂n¬
D≠mbXns\ kqNn∏n®p sImt≠m NoØ Imcy߃ ]nim
Npambn _‘s∏SpØn∏dbmdp≈ ]Xnh\pkcnt®m Bbn
cn°mw. Fs∂ ]nimNp kv]¿in®p F∂v At±lw ]d™
Xv. AºnbmC¬ Cu ÿm\Øv X\n°v IjvSX _m[n®p
F∂mWv ]d™ncn°p∂Xv. A√msX ]nimNns‚ Zp¿t_m
[\߃°v At±lw hiw hZ\mbn F∂v CXn\¿∞an√
(A- am\n aue- hn, Jp¿- B≥ hnh- cWw thmfyw 4 t]Pv
2807)kmº- ØnI \jv S- Øn- eq- sStbm ITn- \- amb tcmKw
\¬Intbm kºØv \¬Intbm BtcmKyw \¬Intbm
A√mlp ]co- £n- t®°mw, AN- ©- e- hn- izm- khpw `‡n-
bpap≈hsc A√mlp Gsd ]co£n°pw. Hmtcm ]co£W
Ønepw hnPbn®ncp∂ BZ¿i ]nXmhmb C{_mlow \_n(
A)bpsS PohnX hnip≤nbpw XymKhpw \ap°v ]mTamWv.
tcmKw im]amtbm in£bmtbm, kXyhnizmkn IcpXpI
bn√, £abpw Xh°pepw Ds≠¶n¬ tcmKw A\p{Klambn
amdn-tb-°pw.
113
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
""Hcp kXy hnizmknbpsS Imcyw F{X A¤pXw!
Ahs‚ Imcy߃ apgps°bpw Ah\\p{KlamWv. AXv
kXy-hn-izm-kn-°-√msX as‰m-cmƒ°pw km≤y-a-√. kt¥m-
jthfbn¬ A√mlphns\ Ah≥ kvXpXn°pw k¥m]th
fbn¬ £amhew_n°pw, AXv c≠pw Ah\vv KpWIcamWv''
(_pJmcn)
ankv A_v _v \pkA- Zv (- d) Xs‚ ]nXm- hn¬ \n∂v
\nthZ\w sNøp∂p. Rm≥ tNmZn®p. ]co£Ww ITn\amb
h¿ BcmWv \_ntb? \_n(- k) ]d- ™p. Aºn- bm- °ƒ,
]ns∂ AhtcmSv Xpeycmbh¿, ]ns∂ AhtcmSSpØh¿.
Hcp a\pjy≥ Ahs‚ hnizmkØns‚ \nehmca\pkcn®v
]co£n°s∏Spw. cqVaqeamb hnizmkw D≈h¿°v AXn
I- Tn- \- amb ]co- £Ww t\cn- tS- ≠n- hcpw tcmK- ß- fp- ≠m- Ip-
tºmƒ £atISv Im´mt\m tcmKtØbpw Imemhÿtbbpw
kabtØbpw ]gn°mt\m ]mSn√. ]co£n°p∂ c£nXm
hns\ A[n- t£- ]n- °p- ∂- Xn- te- °mWv AXv sNs∂- Øp- I.
Pm_n¿(d) \nthZ\w \_n(k) ]d™p. ""kuJyw \¬I
s∏- ´- h¿ (Zp- \n- bm- hn¬) ]co- £- W- Øn\v hnt[- b- am- °- s∏- ´-
h¿°v {]Xn^ew \¬Ip∂Xv (A¥y\mfn¬) ImWptºmƒ
Cßs\ B{Kln®pt]mIpw XßfpsS icocw apgps° Ccp
ºns‚ sImfpØv sIm≠v Ipf- Øn- h- en- °- s∏- ´n- cp- ∂p- sh- ¶n-
se∂v'' (Xn¿anZn) Bbni(d)hn¬ \n∂v \_n(k) ]d™p
"Hcp ap…nan\v _m[n°p∂ GXp A]IShpw ImcWambn
A√mlp Ahs‚ ]m]w s]mdp°mXncn°pIbn√. Ahs‚
Imen¬ Xd- °p∂ ap≈p- hsc (£- an- ®m¬ ]m]- tam- N\w
e`n°pw) (_p-Jmcn ˛ap-…nw)
114 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
AZriy Imcy§fpw
Pn¶pw tPymÕyhpw
( .·¸.. ’·, ’ƒ..¸ ·¸.., ’ · ¸.s π. ≈,¸ ¸..,.. π.
\_ntb ]dbpI Fs‚ c£nXmhv ]cnip≤\mIp
∂p. Rm≥ ssZhZqX\mb Hcp a\pjy≥ am{XamIp∂p. (hn.
Jp.) {]hmN∑m¿t]mepw a\pjyIgnhn∂XoXamb AZriy
Im-cy-߃ Adnbpsa∂p Icp-Xm-h-X-s√-∂pw AZr-iy-Im-cy-
߃ Adnbphm\p≈ Ignhv A√mlphn\v am{XamsW∂pw
{]kvXmhn°p∂p (CkvXnKmk˛sI.]n. 130, 131)
..,., :ƒ≤.· ¸ ·
IgnhpIƒ apgph\pw A≈mlphn\v am{XamIp∂p (_
Jd 165)
“F\n°v AZriy Imcy߃ Adn™ncp∂psh¶n¬
Hcp ]mSv \∑Iƒ kºmZn°pambncp∂p. Xn∑ Fs∂ _m[n
°pIbpan√mbncp∂p”. (A-Avdm^v 188)
“A√mlph√msX BImi `qanIfnep≈hcmcpw AZr
iyImcyw AdnbpIbn√.” (\wev 65)
“Ah≥ Xs‚ AZriy ⁄m\w bmsXm- cmƒ°pw
shfns∏SpØns°mSp°pIbn√. Ah≥ Xr]vXns∏´ h√ ZqX
\pa√msX” (Pn∂v : 26, 27)
“\n߃ Xn∂p∂Xns\]‰nbpw \nßfpsS hoSpIfn¬
kq£n®psh°p∂Xns\ ]‰nbpw Rm≥ \n߃°v ]d™
dnbn®p XcnIbpw sNøpw. Xo¿®bmbpw AXn¬ \n߃°v
ZrjvSm¥ap≠v. \n߃ hnizkn°p∂hcmsW¶n¬” (Bep
Cw-dm≥:48, 49)
“]dbpI, A√mlphns‚ JP\mhpIƒ Fs‚ ]°
eps≠∂v Rm≥ \nßtfmSv ]dbp∂n√. AZriyImcyw Rm≥
AdnbpIbpan√. Rm≥ Hcp ae°msW∂pw \nßtfmSv ]d
bp∂n√ F\n°v t_m[\w \¬Is∏´Xns\b√msX Rm≥
]n¥pScp∂n√” (A≥Bw 50)
115
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
“R߃s°mcdnhpan√. AZriyImcyßsf√mw Adn
bp∂h≥ \oXs∂bmWv (amCZ :109)
(2:33,259) (3:44,76,179) (5:116) (6:50, 59, 73) (10: 20) (11:31, 49, 69,
70, 77, 81, 123) (12 : 84, 102) (13:9) (16:77) (18 :26) (20 : 67, 68) (23
: 92) (27 : 20, 65) (35 : 38) (59 : 23) (59 : 23) (64 : 18) (72 : 26,
27) XpS- ßnb kq‡- ߃ AZr- iy- Imcyw A√m- lp- hn\v
am{Xta AdnbpIbp≈q F∂v hy‡am°p∂p.
{]m¿∞\ A√mlphnt\mSv am{Xw F∂Xv t]mse
bp≈ ImcyamWv AZriyImcyw A√mlphn\v am{Xta Adnbq
F∂ hnizm- khpw. A√m- lp- h- √m- Ø- h¿°p≈ {]m¿∞\
in¿°mWv. A√mlph√mØh¿ AZriyImcy߃ Adnbp
sa∂ hnizmkhpw in¿°≥ hnizmkw Xs∂bmWv. Pn∂p
Iƒ tPym’y∑m¿°v ad™ Imcy߃ FØn®psImSp°p
sa∂mWv k°cnø kzemln {]Ncn∏n°p∂Xv. Jp¿B\n
t\bpw lZokpIsfbpw \ntj[n°p∂ At±lØns‚ Cu
hnjbØnep≈ NnehmZ߃ k{i≤w hmbn°pI.
""ChcpsS (tPym’y∑m¿) {]hN\߃ ]et∏mgpw
IrXyambn ]pecmdps≠∂Xv sIm≠v ap…nwIƒ°pw Aap
…nwIƒ°pw Hcpt]mse Zp¿am¿§ {]tem`\Øn\v Ignhp≈
hcmWnh¿ (ke^n {]ÿm\w ˛ hna¿i\ßfpw adp]Snbpw
t]Pv :77)
""tPym’y- ∑m¿ Pn∂p- Isf B{i- bn- °p- ∂- Xn- s\- °p-
dn®pw Pn∂pIfpsS I´ptIƒhnsb°pdn®pap≈ lZoYpIƒ
hni- Zo- I- cn- °pI am{X- amWv tUm: kpss_¿ sNbv X- Xv .
tPym’ys\ kao]n°p∂hcpsS Ign™ Ime Imcy߃
AbmfpsS Izco\ns\ D]tbmKs∏SpØn tPym’y\v Nne
t∏mƒ Adnbm≥ Ignt™°psa∂mWv tUmIvSdpsS {]kw
KØnep≈Xv” (AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 126)
116 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
""`mhn {]hNn°p∂h¿ Pn∂pambn _‘s∏SpIbpw
Icm- dp- ≠m- °p- Ibpw sNbvXv Ign- ™m¬ Pn∂- h¿°v `mhn-
bnse NneImecyßsf°pdn®v Adnhv \¬Ipw. (t]Pv 127)
k°cnø kzemlnbpsS Ip{]kn≤amb IShØq¿ {]kwK
]cºcbn¬ \n∂v NneImcy߃ IqSn {i≤n°q.
"\n߃ ChnsS \n∂v D≈mfw XßfpsS ASpØv
t]mbm¬ IShØq¿ \n∂t√, \_okbt√t]cv \nßfpsS
hm∏ms‚ t]cv AlΩZt√, \nßfpsS `¿Ømhv Kƒ^nem
bncp∂p At√, \n߃°v Ct∏mƒ kpJan√ At√, AhnsS
t]mbn´pw ChnsS t]mbn´pw amdnbn√ At√, lmDu CXv
tI´- t∏mƒ Rs´! Cbmƒ Znhy≥Xs∂ sIt´m! F¥m
kwKXn CbmfpsS Izco\pw Fs‚ Jco\pw Ct∏mƒ Fs‚
PohnXØnse Imcysams° Adnbmw. XßfpsS Izco\pw
Fs‚ Izco\pw XΩn¬ _‘- s∏- ´n- ´mWv Fs‚ Ign™
ImesØ kwKXnsbms° ]dbp∂Xv. AsXms° tIƒ°p
tºmƒ Ch¿ `mhn]dbp∂ BfmWv. Rm≥ hnizkn®v Cbmƒ
]dbp∂sXms° ASnasbt]mse tIƒ°pIbmWv. (k°
cnøbpsS IShØq¿ {]kwKØn¬ \n∂v
ho≠pw Ct±lw ]dbp∂p
Hcp s]Æns‚ ame- s]m- ´n- t®m- Sp- tºmƒ Ah- fpsS
IqsSbp≈ Izco≥ ImWpIbmWv. Ah≥ DW¿∂ncn°pI
t√, Cu ap…ym-cpsS, Xß-fpsS As√-¶n¬ ]Wn-°m-cpsS
Izco\pw Cu Izco\pw XΩn¬ kw`mjWw \SØnbn´v Nne
t∏mƒ h√t∏mgpsams° km[ns®∂phcmw.
\_ntb ]dbpI, Fs‚ c£nXmhv ]cnip≤\mIp
∂p. Rm≥ ssZh- Zq- X- \mb Hcp a\p- jy≥ am{X- am- Ip- ∂p.
Alvepkp∂Øph¬PamAØns‚ kn≤m¥hpw CXpXs∂
bmWv. {]hmNI∑m¿ t]mepw a\pjy Ignhn∂XoXamb AZr
117
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
iy-Im-cy-߃ Adn-bp-sa-∂v I-cp-Xm-h-X-s√∂pw AZr-iy-Im-
cy߃ Adnbphm\p≈ Ignhv A√mlphn\v am{XamsW∂pw
""idD¬ AJmCZn¬'' {]kvXmhn°p∂p (CkvXnKm\˛ sI.
]n. t]Pv 130, 131)
IÆq¿ Pn√ sI.F≥.Fw. sk{I´dnbmbncp∂ Dss_
Zp√m aZ\n Ccn°q¿ cNn® XuloZns‚ ]mX F∂ ]pkvX
I-Øn¬ \n∂v NneXv ""AZriy⁄m\sØ°dn®v Pn∂pI
fpsS ÿnXnbpw hyXykvXa√'' kpsseam≥ \_nbpsS ac
Ww, At±lw h^mXmbn´v \mfpIƒ Gsd ]n∂n´tijw
Du∂¬ hSn NnX¬ Xn∂v PUw \neØv ]Xn®t∏mƒ am{X
amWv Pn∂pIƒ (kpsseam≥ \_n(A) acn®Imcyw) Adn
™Xv AZr- iy- ⁄m\w A√m- lp- h- √msX a‰mcpw Adn- bn-
s√∂v Jp¿B≥ ]Tn∏n°p∂p (XuloZns‚ ]mX˛Dss_Zp
√m-a-Z\n t]Pv 27)
Hcp hni- Zo- I- c- W- am- h- iy- an- √mØ hn[w AZr- iy-
߃ A√m- lp- hn\v am{Xta Adnbq F∂v D]- cn- B- b- Øp-
Iƒ \sΩ ]T∏n°p∂p. tPym’ysctbm A√mØhtctbm
C°m- cy- Øn¬ kao- ]n- °p- ∂Xv aX- hn- cp- ≤- amWv (AtX
]pkvXIw t]Pv 28)
Camwdmkn apAvan≥ 92˛mw hN\sØ hymJym\n®p
sIms≠gpXp∂p ""AZriyw AdnbpI F∂XpsIm≠v A√m
lp-am{Xw {]tXy-I-am-°-s∏-Sp∂p F∂mWv ChnsS Dt±-in-
°p∂Xv a‰p≈h¿ Zriyadnbpsa¶nepw AZriyw AdnbpI
bn√. (dmkn: hmfyw23 t]Pv 117)
tPym’y- ∑mcpw Xß- ∑mcpw _ohnamcpw `mhn
Adnbpw ]£ Ahsc kao-]n-°-cpXv F∂mWv k°-cnø
kzemlnbpsS XncpshgpØv. ]t£ `mhn Adnbpsa∂ hnizm
kamWv hmkvXhØn¬ henb A]ISw.
118 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
(,∏..Ÿ·,..ƒ,.,.,¸ · :·.. .. π,≤: ⁄ ..,... _,.. ¸. .. ..... ..·¸. ≈: · ¸.
h√h\pw e£Ww t\m°n∏dbp∂hs\ kao]n®v
h√Imcyhpw tNmZn°pIbpw F∂n´v Ah≥ ]dbp∂Xv kXy
amsW∂v hnizkn°pIbpw sNbvXm¬ Ahs‚ 40 ZnhksØ
\akv°mcw kzoIcn°pIbn√ (apkvenw)
.∏.· ¸: ., ’ · ,. · ¸. ., ¸,¸..., ,....
A√mlphns‚ A\paXn {]Imca√msX Hcmƒ°pw
Xs∂ AXpsIm≠v Ah¿ D]{ZhwhcpØp∂hc√Xm\pw.
(_- J- d˛102)
""Bsc¶nepw tPym’ys\tbm˛IW°pt\m°p∂h
s\tbm e£Ww t\m°n∏dbp∂hs\tbm kao]n®v Ah≥
]dbp∂Xv hnizkn°pIbpw sNbvXm¬ Ah≥ aplΩZns‚
ta¬ AhXcn®Xns\ Ahnizkn®p®p. (AlvaZv)
tPym’ys\ hnizkn°p∂Xv dkqens\bpw Jp¿B
\ns\bpw Ahnizkn°emsW∂mWv Cu lZokv \¬Ip∂
]m- Tw.
AZriyw AdnbpI F∂ A√mlphns‚ am{Xamb
hnti- jWw CXns‚ ]n∂n- eqsS krjvSn- Iƒ°v hI- sh®v
sImSp°pIbmWv. A©v Imcyßfnte ssK_p≈p F∂m
bncp∂p kakvX°m¿ hmZn®ncp∂Xv. C∂v k°cnbm°fpw
AtXhmZw G‰p]nSn®ncn°p∂p. \ΩpsS I¨sh´Ønen√m
ØXv AZr- iy- Im- cy- sa∂v ]d- bm- X- √∂pw ad™ Imcy- sa-
∂m¬ A√mlp am{X- a- dn- bp∂ Imcy- ß- fm- sW∂pw Ch¿
P¬]n°p∂p. Cukm\_n(A)bpsS Aam\pjnI ZrjvSm¥
ambn Iptd Imcy߃ BepCwdB\nse 48, 49 hN\߃
FÆn∏- d- bp- ∂p. P∑\m A‘X _m[n- ®- h¿°v Imgv N
\¬Im\pw acn®hsc Pohn∏n°m\pw A√mlphns‚ A\p
hm- Z- tØmsS F\n°v km[n°pw F∂v FÆn- ∏- d- ™- Iq- ´-
119
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
Øn¬ At±lw ]d™ Hcp ZrjvSm¥amWv \n߃ Xn∂p
∂Xns\]‰nbpw \n߃hoSpIfn¬ kq£n®psh°p∂Xns\
]‰nbpw Rm≥ \n߃°v ]d™pXcmsa∂v AhImis∏´
Xv. At±lØn\v Cu Imcyßfnse√mw kzbw Ignhps≠∂v
Hcp ap…napw hnizkn°p∂n√. ]t£ CXv A√mlp Dt±
in® {]hm- N- I- ∑m¿°v Ah- \p- t±- in- °p∂ kμ¿`- Øn¬
\¬Ip∂ Aam\pjnIamb ZrjvSm¥amWv. {]hmNI∑msc
P\߃ hnizkn°m≥ th≠nIqSnbmWv apAvPnkØpIƒ
shfns∏SpØp∂Xv. Hcp Znhy\mbn Nabm\√. ChnsS a\
ncptØ≠ ImcyanXmWv. \mw kq£n®v Izcocn\pambp≈
kw`m- jWw aptJ\tbm Pn∂- h¿Iƒ tPym’y- ∑m¿t°m
Xß∑m¿t°m IpdpIns°mSptØm CØcw Imcy߃ ]d
bm- \m- hn- √. ]d- bm- Xm- hp- sa- ¶n¬ Cukm- \- _n- tbmSv Ah- cn-
ßs\ adp]Sn]dt™s\ "Hm CXmtWm henbImcyw Rß
fpsS Iq´Ønep≈ kn≤∑m¿ CXnt\°mƒ henb henb
Imcy߃ ]dbpw F∂n´m \n߃ \nmcamb Hcp Imcy
hp-ambn h∂n-cn-°p-∂Xv'. Cukm-\-_n-bpsS kaq-l-Øn\v
Cu coXnbn¬ {]XnIcn°m≥ km[n°mØXv Pn∂pw Jco
\pwtPym’y∑mcpw XΩnep≈ _‘ØneqsS `mhnt]mbn´v
`qX- h¿Ø- am\ Imcy- ߃ hsc Ah¿s°m∂pw Adn- bn-
s√∂Xv hkvXpXbmWv \_n(k) H‰ cm{XnsIm≠v akvPn
Zp¬ ldan¬ \n∂v akvPnZp¬ AJvkmbnte°v \nimbm{X
\S- Øn- bXv kqd: C{kmAv 1˛mw hN- \- Øn- eqsS A√mlp
\sΩ ]Tn∏n®p. Cu bm{X Hcp apAvPnkØmWv. Cu hm¿Ø
tI´ apivcn°pIfpw ap\m^nJpIfpw ap…nwIsf IW°‰v
]cn-l-kn®p Nncn-®p. P\-߃°n-S-bn¬ Gsd tImfn-f°w
krjvSn® kw`hambncp∂p CkvdmAv apivcn°pIƒ \_n(
k)sb ]co- £n- °m≥ sa\- s°´p ""ss_Øp¬ apJ- ±kv
120 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
t\cn¬ I≠n- cp- ∂- h- cpsS apºn¬ sh®v B]- ≈nsb ]‰n
dkq¬ (k) IrXyambn adp]Sn]d™p. \_n(k)bpsS hnh
cWw Xo¿Øpw icnbmsW∂v Ah¿°v t_m[ys∏´p. ]t£
F∂n´pw hizkn°m≥ k∂≤cmhmØ B Iq´¿ dkqen
t\mSv Cßs\tNmZn®p. Hcp h¿ØI kwLw imante°v
t]mbn´p≠t√m AhcpsS h¿Øam\sa¥v? B kwLØn¬
C{X BfpIfp≠v. C{X H´Iap≠v C∂Znhkw Xncn®phcpw
Fs∂ms° dkq¬(k) IrXyambn {]XnhNn®p. AXpt]mse
kw`hn®p''. (Aam\n auehnbpsS Jp¿B≥ hnhcWØn¬
\n∂v hmfyw 3 t]Pv 1787)
ss_Øp¬ apJ±nknse \nimbm{Xbpw imante°v
t]mb h¿ØI kwL- Øns‚ hnti- j- Whpw dkq¬(- k)
hnhcn- °p- ∂Xv apAv PnkØv sIm≠v am{X- am- Wv . hfsc
s]s´∂v P¿a\nbn¬ \n∂v Pn∂pIƒ°v acp∂psIm≠ph
cm\pw a\pjys\ Npa∂v ]d°m\pw km[n°psa¶n¬ CXn
sems° F¥¤XamWp≈sX∂v \_n(k)tbmSv adp]Sn]
dbpambncp∂p. H‰ cm{XnbpsS A¬]kabw sIm≠ a°
bn¬ \n∂v ^ekvXo\nse akvPnZp¬ AJvkmbnte°v cm{]
bm- Ww.
a\p- jy- I- gn- hn- \- Xo- X- amb Imcy- ߃ \_n(- k)
sNbv Xn- cp- ∂Xv apAv Pnk- Øn- eq- sS- bm- Wv . apAv PnkØv
kzX{¥ambn Cjv Swt]mse sNøm- hp∂ Hcp Ign- h- √.
A√mlp Dt±in°ptºmƒ Ah\pt±in°p∂ {]hmNI∑mpsS
ssIbneqsS shfnhm°p∂ Aam\pjnIamb A¤pXamWv
apAvPnksØ∂ hkvXpXsb ad®psh®v sIm≠mWv ka
kv X- °m¿ P\- ßsf h©n- °p- ∂- Xv . F¶nepw a\pjy
Ignhn\Xm-X-amb Imcy-߃ A√m-lp-hn¬ \n∂v am{Xsa
D≠mIq F∂ hnizmkw apPmlnZpIfpsS hnizmkamsW
∂v kakvX°m¿°pw \∂mbn Adnbmw.
121
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
tPymÕy·mcpsS {]hN\w:
hkvXpXsb´v
""Bbni(d)hn¬ \n∂v. Ah¿ XncpZqXtcmSv tPym’y
∑msc kw_- ‘n®v tNmZn- ®p. dkq¬ ]d™p Ah¿ Hcp
Np°p- a- √. At∏mƒ Bbn- j(- d) ]d- ™p. Ah¿ ]d- bp∂
Imcyßfn¬ NneXv kXyambn]pecmdp≠t√m {]hmNI≥
]d™p. AXv Pn∂v I´ptIƒ°p∂Xpw Xs‚ an{X߃°v
sNhnbn¬ IpdpIns°mSp°p∂Xpamb Nne \pdpßpIƒ am{X
amWv. ]t£ AhcXn¬ \qdv \pWIƒ tN¿Øn ]dbpw''
(klo-lp¬ _pJmcn)
tPym’y∑m¿°v `mhnbpw AZriyhpw ]dbm≥ Ign
hps≠∂v hcpØn Xo¿°m\pw Ah¿°v IrXyambn {]hNn
°m\mhpsa∂v ]dbm\pw \ΩpsS t]cpam{Xa√ AhntS°v
t]mbXns‚ Dt±yiyw t]mepw ]dbm\psams° Ignbpsa∂v
ÿm]n- °m≥ CØcw lZo- kp- I- fmWv k°- cn- bm- °ƒ
Db¿Øn∏nSn°mdp≈Xv. CXpt]mep≈ Nne lZokpIfpw
thsdbpw ImWm- sa- ¶nepw Ch¿ ]d- bp- ∂- Xv t]m- sebp≈
tPym’y- ∑m¿°v { ]h- Nn - °mt\m Pn ∂p - Iƒ°v I´v
tIƒ°mt\m Ignbpsa∂v Hcp -lZoknepw kqNn∏n°p∂n
√. H∂v In´pw \qdv Iq´psa∂mWv lZokv `mjyw. sIm≈nbm
\p- IsfsIm≠v Ah¿ Fdn - b- s∏- Spw. A\p- am- \- ߃
bmYm¿∞y-hp-ambn Nne-t∏mƒ tbmPn®p hcn-I-am-{X-am-Wv.
AXn\m¬ AZriyadnbp∂hsct∂m `mhn {]hNn°m≥ Ign
bp∂hsct∂m CØc°msc ]‰n ]dbmhX√. kemlnbpw
Soapw Cu hnjbØnepw AXncpIhn™p. ]nimNns‚bpw
tPym’y∑mcpsS Ignhns\bpw ]¿ΔXoIcn®p. At±lw ]d
bp∂Xv kXyhpw AkXyhpw Iq´ntN¿ØpsIm≠p≈ AXn
i- tbm- ‡n- I- fm- Wv.
122 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
""GsX- ¶nepw Hcp ]nim- Nns\ {]tXyIw tkhn- ®n-
s√-¶n¬ IqSn ad-™-Imcyw KWn®pw {]iv\w t\m°nbpw
]dbp∂ ImcyØn¬ ss]imNnI klmbwIn´pw'' (C…mln
{]ÿm\w hna¿i\ßfpw adp]Snbpw t]Pv 134)
""X≥aqew a‰p- ≈- h¿°- dn- bm≥ {]bm- k- ap≈ ]e
Adnhpw CØcw tPmenbn¬ G¿s∏Sp∂h¿°v e`n°pIbpw
sNøpw. CXn¬ bmsXmcp AkmwKXyhpw C√Xs∂. ]nim
Nns\ {]tXyIw ]qPbpw a‰pI¿Ωßfpw \SØn tkhn°p
∂- h¿°v Ahs‚ tk e`n- °p- ∂- Xn¬ Akmw- K- Xy- an- √.
F∂m¬ CØc°m¿ ]dbp∂Xv icntbm sXt‰m F∂X√
{]iv \w. Ah- cpsSbSp- °¬ t]mImtam Ah¿ ]d- bp- ∂Xv
hnizkn°mtam F∂XmWv CsX√mw C…mw I¿i\ambn
\ntcm[n®ncn°p∂p. (AtX]pkvXIw t]Pv 134) ""`mhn {]h
Nn°p∂h¿ Pn∂pambn _‘s∏SpIbpw Icmdp≠m°pIbpw
sNbv Xm¬ Pn∂- h¿°v `mhnse Nne Imcy- ß- sf- °p- dn®v
Adnhv \¬Ipw (t]Pv127) Cu hnjbhpambn ImSpIbdp∂
kzemln IS- h- Øq¿ {]kw- K- Øn¬ IS- h- Øqcn¬\n∂t√
\_o- k- bt√ Fs∂ms° ]d™v hmbn¬ h∂- sX√mw
tImX°v ]m´v F∂amXncn ASnÿm\ clnXambn {]amW
hncp≤ambn kwkmcn®p. tPym’y∑mcpsS {]hN\mhÿ
F¥mWv ? Ah¿ Hcp Np°pw NpÆm- ºp- a- √. ""aSn- b- \mWv
tPym’y- \m- Ip- ∂- sX∂'' Atd- _y≥ ]g- samgn F{X
A∂¿∞w. ssIt\m°nbpw apJe£Ww t\m°nbpw a‰p
≈hcpsS `mhn ]dbm\mhpsa∂hImis∏Sp∂ Cu h¿Kw
kXyØn¬ XßfpsS `mhn°p≈ Xp´pIfmWv X´p∂Xv. Htc
kabw P\ßfpsS Bibpw Ioibpw Ihcp∂ \pWb∑mcm
Wn-h¿. sIm√-߃°v apºv ae-∏pdw Pn√-bnse ]q°n-∏-d-
ºn¬sh®v \ndsb bm{X°mcp≈ Hcp _v IØn®mºem
123
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
bn. sh¥vacn®hcn¬ {]apJ\mb Hcp tPym’y\pw D≠m
bncp∂p. Xs‚bpw injys‚bpw Poh≥ Icn®pIf™ _v
Zpc¥w Abmƒ°v Adn- bm- am- b- ncp- s∂- ¶n¬ Abmƒ B
_n¬ Ibdpambncp∂n√. s]cpa¨ Zpc¥hpw ISep≠n
s{Sbn≥ A]- I- Shpw Cs¥m- t\- jy- bnse kp\m- anbpw
temIsØ Bbnc°W°n\v tPymXnjnamcn¬ Hcmsf¶nepw
{]hNn®n´pt≠m? kmam\y hnhcw t]mepan√mØ jWvU
∑mcmWv BIp´Ønse `qcn`mKhpsa∂v AhscIpdn®p≈
At\zjWw \sΩ t_m[ys∏SpØpw. 1982 s^{_phcn amXr
`qan BgvN]Xn∏n¬ tPymXnjw imkv{XamsW∂v ka¿∞n®v
{]^:tPmk^v FgpXnb teJ- \- Øn¬ C¥y- bnse c≠v
{]ikvX tPymXnjnIfpsS {]hN\w s]´nt°mf hm¿Ø
bmbn {]kn≤oIcn®ncp∂p. ASpØvXs∂ Hcp temIalm
bp±w \S°pw. aq∂v h¿jw \o≠p\n¬°pw C¥y°mc\mb
BflobmNmcys‚ CSs]S¬ aqew bp≤w Ahkm\n°pw.
1984¬ ]m°nÿm\n¬ _w•mtZiv F∂o cmPy߃ temIØv
D≠mhn√ cmPohvKm‘ntb°mƒ IqSpXembn ta\I Km‘n
cmjv{SobØn¬ tim`n°pw s\lvdpIpSpw_w Cu \q‰m≠v
apgph≥ `cn°pw Cu ]d™ Imcyßsfm∂pw kw`hn®n´n
√. Atacn°bpsS cmjv{SobsØ°pdn®v ]e {]hN\ßfpw
\S∂n´p≠v Ahbn¬ NneXv XmsgsImSp°mw.
slhmUv s_°¬ {]knU≠mIpw
Im¿´¿ {]knU≠v a’cØn¬ \n∂v ]n∑mdpw, C‰
enbpw hØn-°m\pw XΩn¬ bp≤w \S-°pw. t]m∏v ]em-
b\w sNøpw. Hcp {KlØn¬ apºv \in® Hcp \mKcnIX
bpsS AhinjvS߃ imkvXc⁄¿ Is≠Øpw. KpcpXzm
I¿j- WsØ adn- I- S- °m- \p≈ b{¥w I≠p- ]n- Sn- °pw. Ch-
bn¬ H∂p- t]mepw C∂pw ]pe¿∂n- ´n- √. F≥. kpμ- c- cm- P-
124 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
s\∂ {]ivX tPymXnjn tkmWnbmKm‘n DS≥ {][m\a
{¥nbmIpsa∂v {]hNn®ncp∂p. hfsc BIkvanIambn´mbn
cp∂p tZh- KuU {][m- \- a- {¥nbmbXv AXv {]h- Nn- °m≥
temI- sØmcp tPymXn- jn°pw Ign- ™n- √. BI- kv an- Itam
A√msXtbm kw`hn°p∂ Ht´sd {][m\ kw`h߃ {]h
Nn°m≥ tPymXnjnIƒ°v Ignbmdn√. Chsb ]‰nhnZqcamb
kqN\t]mepw \¬Ip∂Xn¬ Ah¿ ]cmPbs∏SmdmWv ]Xn
hv. `qcn`mKw P\߃°pap≈ A‘hnizmkhpw anYym[mc
W- bp- amWv tPymXn- jn- I- fpsS aqe- [- \w. Ah- cpsS {]h- N-
\ßfn¬ 90% hpw ]pe- cm- Ø- h- bm- Wv . P\- ß- fpsS adhn
Ah¿°p≈ henb A\p{KlhpamWv (#m[p\nI A‘hn
izm-k-߃-˛ F≥.-Fw. lpssk≥) 10 iX-am\w {]h-N\w
]pecp∂p≠v F∂v [cnt®°cpXv. GXv aμ_p≤nbpw ]d
™m¬ ^en- ®p- t]m- Ip- ∂- XmtWm {]h- N\w. \mbsb
Fdn™v sIm°n\psIm≠Xv t]mse, N°bn´t∏mƒ apb
ens\ In´n- bXv t]mep≈ kwKXn am{X- amWv tPymXn- j-
∑m¿ AhImis∏Sp∂ kXy߃.
KqV- hnZybpw Zp¿_e a\ns‚ Nn”- hp- amWv
tPymXnjw˛ hnthImμ≥ tPymXnimkv{XØnse A¶KWn
Xw, tcJm-K-WnXw _oP-K-WnXw apX-emb KWn-X-`m-K-ß-
sf√mw icnbmbn´p≈XmWv. ^e `mKw apgph≥ ip≤tahymP
am-Wv˛ (Z-bm-\μ kc-kz-Xn-˛kXym¿∞ {]Imiw t]Pv 62,
63)
""Ip´nbpsS amXm]nXm°ƒ tPym’yt\mSv tNmZn°p
∂p, Chs‚ PmXIw \√XpXs∂bt√? Ip™ns‚ P∑{K
lhpw an{X{Klhpw ip`ßfmIp∂p. Ip´n henb [\nIhpw
Io¿Ønam\pamIpw. \√ BtcmKyhm\mbncn°pw. cmPm°
∑m¿IqSn Chs\ _lpam\n°pw. A®\Ωam¿ ]dbpw Aßv
125
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
\√ tPym’ycmWv F∂m¬ CXvsIms≠m∂pw Xs‚Imcyw
km[n°pIbns√∂v tPym’y\dnbmw. tPym’y≥]ns∂]
dbp∂p. {Klßsf√mw A\pIqewXs∂ ]t£ ip`{Kl
߃ {Iqc{KlßtfmSv Iq´nt®¿∂mWncn°p∂Xv. AXn\m¬
F´mw hbn¬ Ip´n°v arXyptbmKap≠mIpw. CXv tI´v
A®- \- Ω- am- cpsS B\μw Zp:Jw IS- ∂p- h- cpw. tPym’ytc!
R߃ F¥v sNøWw? Py’y≥ DSs\ ]dbpw #vXn\v ]cn
lmcw sNøWw'' Zm\w sNøWw {_m“Wsc Du´Ww {Kl
im- ¥n- °p≈ a{¥- ߃ \S- Ø- Ww. F¶n¬ {Kl- ∏n- g- Xo- cp-
sa∂v A\pam\n°pw. tPym’y≥ ap≥ IcpXtemsSbmWv
A\pam\sa∂v ]d™Xv. Ip´nacn®m¬ tPym’y≥ ]dbpw
Cuizc\p]cn Bcpan√. \Ωƒ {]bXv\n®p ]t£ I¿a^ew
Aßs\bmWv. Pohns®¶n¬ ]dbpw RßfpsS a{¥ßfp
sSbpw R߃ D]hkn°p∂ tZh∑mcpsSbpw {_mlvaW
cpsSbpw i‡n F{X hepXmWv! \nßfpsS Ip´nsb c£n®v
X∂nt√! hmkv X- h- Øn¬ P]w sIm≠v ^e- sam- ∂p- ap- ≠n-
s√-¶n¬ B [q¿Ø-∑m-cpsS Iøn¬\n∂v Ah¿°v sImSp-
ØXn¬ ct≠m aqt∂m Cc´n]Ww aS°n hmtß≠XmWv.
Ip´nPohn®ncn°p∂Xmbmepw Aßs\Xs∂ Fs¥∂m¬
Ahs‚ I¿a]eamWv. Cuizc \nbasØ ewLn°phm≥
B¿°pw i‡nbn√. Ahs‚ I¿a^ehpw Cuizcs‚ \nb
ahpamWv. Ahs\ c£n®Xv \nßfpsS {]hrØnb√. F∂v
{Kl\mY\v AbmtfmSv ]dbmw (kXym¿∞ {]Imiw, t]Pv
63, 64)
IqSpX¬ Adnbm≥ tPymXnjw imkv{Xa√ A‘hn
izmkhpw ]®\pWbpamsW∂v hkvXp\njvTambn hniZo
Icn°p∂ Dkvam≥ ]me°mgnbpsS "tPymXnjw imkv{Xtam
A‘hnizmktam F∂IrXn hmbn°pI.
126 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
"" A√mlphn\p≈ i‡n a‰p hkvXp°fn¬ Btcm
]n®psIm≠v AhtbmSv hnfn®¿∞n°phm\pw Ahsb Bcm
[n- °p- hm\pw XpS- ßp∂ Hcp- hs‚ in¿°v F√m- h¿°pw
Ffp∏w I≠dnbphm≥X°hn[wXSn® cq]ap≈XmWv. iIp
\w, tPym’yw apXemb Imcyßsf kw_‘n°p∂ in¿°v
A{]Imcap≈X√. AXp{ItaW ÿqeamb in¿°n\v CS
bm- °p∂ t\cnb cq]- Øn- ep- ≈- Xm- Ip- ∂p. Hcp hn[- Øn¬
t\m°ptºmƒ Cu kq£vaamb in¿Jns\bmWv \mw IqSp
X¬ `bs∏tS≠nbncn°p∂Xv. Fs¥∂m¬ XSn® in¿°v,
in ¿°m- sW- ∂p - ]- d™p a\- n - em°n Bfp - Isf
AXn¬\n∂pw ]n¥n- cn- ∏n- °p- hm≥ Ffp- ∏- am- Wv . t\cnb
in¿°mIs´ in¿°msW∂v BfpIsf ]d™pa\nem°p
∂- Xn\v {]bm- k- ap- ≈Xpw {]tb- W- _p- ≤n- im- en- Iƒ F∂- dn-
b-s∏-Sp-∂-h-cn¬ ]eXpw Ffp-∏-Øn¬ sN∂p NmSn-t∏m-Ip-
∂Xpamb H∂mIp∂p (AØuloZv. ]n.A_vZp¬ JmZn¿ aue
hn-˛-I-Æq¿ t]Pv 156)
alm∑m¿°v ad™ Imcyßfdnbm≥ Ignbpsa∂sX
‰n≤mcW in¿°ns‚ apgph≥ C\ßfnepw kzm[o\w sNep
Øp∂ Hcp LSIamWv. ImcWw B Ignhv Cemlns‚ \n¿_
‘KpWßfnsem∂mWv. AXpsIm≠v A√mlphnt\mSv Bsc
sb√mw ]¶ptN¿°p∂pt≠m Ah¿s°√mw ad™ Imcya
dnbpI F∂ Ignhv hIsh®psImSpt°≠Xp≠v. (C…mans‚
ASnØd XulmZv˛sI.Ip™oXp aZ\n˛t]Pv ˛118)
in¿°ns\√mw t{]cIambn h¿Øn°p∂Xv Ah¿°v
ad™ Imcyßfdnbphm≥ Ignbpsa∂ A‘hnizmkw am{X
am-Wv. in¿°v sNøp-∂-h≥ Cu A‘-hn-izm-k-Øn¬ tamNn-
X\mIp∂ \nanjw Xs‚ in¿°n¬ \ns∂√mw Ah≥ hnc
an°pIbmbn. (AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv ˛119)
127
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
Cemlv A√mlpam{XamWv F∂v Bh¿Øn®pd∏n
°p∂ Jp¿B≥ AtXkzcØn¬ Xs∂ AZriyImcyadnbp
∂h\pw Ah≥ am{XamsW∂ ]cam¿∞w Bh¿Øn®pd∏n
°p∂p (t]-Pv-˛119)
bqk^v \_n(A)s\ Xs‚ a°ƒ sIm≠pt]mIp
∂-Xns‚ ]n∂se ZpjvS-em°v bAv-Iq_v \_n(-A) F∂
]nXmhn\dnhp≠mbn√. XpS¿∂p≠mb Hcp kw`hhpw Adn
bm- \m- bn- √.
bAvJq_v \_n(A) {]hmNI\mbn´pw hlvbneqsS
bqk^v \_nbpsS Xntcm[m\ kw`h߃ A√mlp Adn
bn°mØXn\m¬ At±lØn\v Gsd Zp:Jnt°≠nhcnIbpw
IÆv shfpØpt]mIm\nSbmhpIbpw sNbvXp. Jco\pw Pn∂p
Ifpw kw`mjWw \SØnad™ Imcyadnbm\mhpsa∂ hmZ
Øns‚ s]m≈Øcw ChnsS hy‡amIp∂p.
kpsseam≥ \_n(A)\v [mcmfw Pn∂pIsf Iogvs∏
Sp- Øn- s°m- Sp- Øn- cp- ∂p. k_- Cse P\- ß- fpsS ÿnXnbpw
_n¬Jokv cm⁄nbpsS IYbpw kpsseam≥ \_nsb [cn
∏n- ®Xv ac- s°m- Øn- bm- bn- cp- ∂p. ac- s°m- Øn- bpsS Ign- sh-
ßs\ kpsseam≥ \_nbpsS apAvPnkØmhpI F∂ Ipcp
´ptNmZyw Bcpw D∂bn®Xmbdnbn√.
ad™ Imcyadnbp∂h≥ F∂Xv Cemlmb A√m
lp- hn\v am{X- ap≈ KpW- am- Wv. krjvSn- I- fn- semƒ°pw B
Ignhv \¬Inbn´n√. (Ckvemans‚ ASnØd XuloZv sI.
Ip™oXpaZ\n t]Pv 122)
\_n(- k)°v Hcp PqXkv {Xo amwk- Øn¬ hnjw
Ie¿Øn At±lØn\v kΩm\n®p. AXv Ign®ncp∂ Hcp
kzlm_n X¬£Ww arXyp hcn®p. dkqen\v hlvbv h∂
Xn\m¬ A]ISan√msX c£s∏´p. At±lw hmbn¬ h®
128 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
amwkamWv Xp∏n°f™Xv. Xm¶ƒ Hcp I≈ {]hmNI\m
sW- ¶n¬ \nß- fpsS ieyw Xoc- Ww. As√- ¶n¬ Xm¶sf
\mY≥ c£n°pw F∂mbncp∂p PqX kv{Xo A\¥cw dkq
ent\mSv ]d™ncp∂Xv. PqX kv{Xo hnjw ]pc´nb Imcyw
dkqens\bpw a‰p≈hscbpw kw_‘n®v ad™ImcyamWv.
krjvSn- Iƒ°m¿°pw \¬ImØ Imcy- ߃°mWv ad™
Imcysa∂v ]dbpI F∂v kemlnbpsS hmZw F{Xam{Xw
A]ISamWv. Pn∂pIfnepw ae°pIfnepw s]´ Nnesc¶nepw
B s]Æv \SØnb ZpjvS sNbvXnIƒ ImWm\nSbp≠mhp
at√m. krjvSnIƒ°m¿°pw \¬ImØ Ignhv F∂ \n¿h
N\w ad™ Imcy߃°v ]dbmhX√. Fs‚ a\nep≈Xv
F\n- °- dnbmw. AXv a‰m¿°pw Adn- bn- √. A√m- lp- hn\v
am{Xta Adnbq. Jnf¿ \_nbpw aqkm \_nbpw \SØnb
bm{X- bnse aq∂v kw`- h- ß- fpsS B¥- cn- Im¿∞hpw \nP-
ÿn-Xnbpw Jnf¿ \_n-°-dn-bp-∂p aqkm-\-_n-°-dn-bp-∂n-√.
AXpw AZriyIcamWv.
apivcnIpIfn¬ Nne¿ h∂v Jp¿B\pw Zo\pw ]Tn∏n
°m≥ Ipd®v JmcnDIsf Ab®vXcmsa∂v \_n(k)tbmSv
Bhiys∏´p. dkq¬ H´pw i¶n°msX AhcpsS IqsS Jp¿
B≥ a\:]mTap≈ FgpXn¬ ]cw ]finXsc Ab®psIm
SpØp. ]s£ Ahsc H∂S¶w apivcn°pIƒ hIhcpØn.
Cßs\ NXn®psIm√m≥ apivcn°pIƒ KqVmtemN\ \S
Øn- bn- cn- °p- a- t√m. Jco- \p- I- fmb k‘n- kw- `m- j- Wtam
sIms≠Øn®psImSp°pItbm ChnsS D≠mbn√. thWsa
¶n¬ Cßs\ kam[m\w ]dbmw. ]nimNv ]qPIscbmWv
]nimNv klm- bn- °pI F∂v . s#∂m¬ Pn∂v h¿K- Øn¬
ap…nwIfpw D≠mhpat√m Ahscm∂pw Cu KqVmtemN\
Adn™n√. dkqens\ Adnbn®n√.
129
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
dkqens\ sIm√m≥th≠n hoSv hf™h¿°v kqcy
\pZn®t∏mgmWv Aafn a\nembXv AhnsS InS∂pdßp
∂Xv Aen- bm- sW- ∂v . IÆn- se- Æ- sbm- gn®v dkq- ens\
sIm√m≥ Ahkcw ImØp\n∂hcpsS CSbneqsS dkqen\v
c£s∏Sm\mbXv A√mlphns‚ A]mcamb A\p{KØnem
Wv. dkq¬ IS∂pIfbpt∂m F∂v ]nimNn\v ]d™psIm
Sp°m\mbn√. ku¿Kplbn¬ Hfn®ncn°p∂p F∂v ]d™v
sImSp°m\pambn√.
_\q- ap- kv Z- eJv bp≤- th- f- bn¬ alXn Bbn- j(- d)
hns‚ ame \jvSs∏´p. AXpambn _‘∏´v Nne A]hmZ
ßfpw {]Ncn®p. Cu AZriyImcyßsfm∂pw {]hmNIcpw
klm_nIfpaSßnb kaqlØn\v Adn™ncp∂n√. hlvbn
eqsSbmWv kXym- hÿ t_m[y- s∏- ´- Xv . _Z¿bp- ≤- Øn¬
c≠v _me∑mcmWv X{¥]cambn A_qPlens‚ IY Ign
®Xv. C_v eokns‚ Iq´pImc\mb A_qPmlnen\v ]nimNv
H∂pw ]d™vsImSpØn√. klmbn®n√. ad™ Imcyadn
bp∂h≥ A√mlpam{XamWv F∂mWv aplΩZv \_n(k)°v
Cd°s∏´ Jp¿B\nep≈Xv. AXn\m¬ hnizmkan√mØh
\mWv ad™ Imcyadnbm\mbn tPm’ys\ kao]n°p∂
Xv( C…m-ans‚ ASn-Ød XuloZv t]Pv-˛123)
Pn∂pIqSn _ohnam¿, ainbn´pt\m°p∂ Xß∑m¿
\jvS-s∏´ B`-c-W-߃ I≠p-]n-Sn-°-\n-cn-°p∂ X¬kam-
Øns‚ tPmen°m¿. cminsh®v ]dbp∂ ]Wn°∑m¿, hmsf
SpØv Xp≈p∂ shfn®∏mSpam¿, IhSn\ncØn∏dbp∂ \ºq
Xn- cn- am¿ XpS- ßnbh¿ Cu KW- Øn¬s]- Sp- ∂p. Aßs\
A√mlpA√msX BImi `qanIfnep≈ Hcp Ip´nbpw ad
™-Im-cy-a-dn-bp-I-bn-√ F∂v {]Jym-]n-°p∂ Jp¿-B-\ns‚
BfpIƒ°v ad™ Imcyw ]d™psImSpØpsIm≠v Ch
130 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
sc√mw D]Poh\w Ign®phcp∂p. AXphgn Ah¿ emCu
eml C√√mlv F∂ i_vZw sNm√n∏dbpIbpw AXns‚
Bibw X≈n°fbpIbpw sNbvXncn°pIbmWv. AZriy
Imcyßfdnbp∂h≥ F∂Xv GI Cemlmb temIc£n
Xmhn∂p am{Xamb hntijWamWv (AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pn
123)
ad™Imcyadnbm\mbn Xn√kvamØns‚ ap√tbbpw
Pn∂v IqSn _ohnsbbpw hens®∂v shfns∏Sp∂ {`m¥t\bpw
kao]n°p∂hcpw Ahsc Cu hntijWØn¬ A√mlp
hns‚ ]¶pIm- cm- °p- ∂p. AXm- Is´ A√mlp Hcn- °epw
s]mdp°mØ in¿°msW∂ Imcyw Xo¿®bpamWt√m (t]
Pv˛123,124)
Hcm`cWw Ifhv t]mbncn°p∂p. ho´nse the°m
cnsb kwibn°p∂p. k¿Δ kma¿∞yhpap]tbmKn®v Imcy
Im- cW _‘- ß- fpsS ASn- ÿm- \- Øn¬ At\zjn- °- Ww.
F∂n´pw I≈s\ In´nbns√¶n¬ A√mlpthmSv {]m¿∞n
°pItb \nhrØnbp≈p. \n߃ AkvamAv X¬kamØns‚
]Wn- °msc kao- ]n- °p- ∂p- sh- ¶ntem? Ah≥tNm- Zn- °pw
\n߃°v km[\w In´bm¬ aXntbm AtXm Bsf IqSn
Adntb≠Xpt≠m? km[\w In´nbm¬ aXn. Ab¬hmkn
bmbn ]nW- tß- ≠- Xn- √t√m F¶n¬ Cu \dp- °p- sIm≠v
t]mbn ]pgh°n¬ ]qgvØnsh°pI. \dp°v ]qgvØnb hnhcw
Ab¬]°Øv ]c°ptºmƒ B`cWsaSpØXv Hcp A‘
hnizmknbmWv -F¶n¬ AXv \nßfpsS ap‰sØØnsb∂p
h- cmw. ]s£ \jvS- s∏´ B`- cWw Xncn- ®p- In- ´p- tºm- tg°v
\n߃°v In´nbncp∂ XuloZv \jvSs∏´ncn°pw. ImcWw
ad™ Imcyßfdnbp∂h≥ A√mlp am{XamsW∂v hniz
kn - t°≠ \n ߃ B hn iz mkØn ¬ Akv am- Av
131
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
X¬kamØns‚ hnZysb As√¶n¬ lZp°mcs\°qSn ]
¶ptN¿Øp Ign™p. (Ckvemans‚ ASnØd XuloZv sI.
Ip™oXp aZ\n t]Pv ˛134)
Xß∑m¿°pw ]Wn°¿°pw ad™ Imcyßfdnbpw
]s£ t]mh- cp- sX- ∂mWv k°- cnø kzemln ]d- bp- ∂- Xv.
Cu hmZØn\v bmsXmcp ASnÿm\hpan√.
Ckv ans‚ ]Wn- t]m- ep≈ £p{±- ]- Wn- Iƒ F¥n\v
sNøp∂p F∂v kakvX°mtcmSv tNmZn®m¬ Ah¿ ]dbpw
As√¶n¬ Juw ]Wn°≥amcpsS ASptØ°v t]mhpw F∂v.
CtX tNmZyw Pn∂nd°p∂ ke^nIfmsW∂v ]dbp∂ Nne
Cd°epImtcmSv tNmZn®m¬ Ahcpw ]dbp∂Xv As√¶n¬
ap…n- bm- °- ∑m- cpsS ASp- tØt°m Xß- ∑m- cpsS ASp-
tØt°m t]mIpsa∂mWv. in¿°≥ tI{μßfn¬ t]mImsX
C…manI NnIn’ Xcs∏SpØpIbmWv Rßsf∂mWv Ch
cpsS ]cky hN\w. ad™ Imcyw tPm’y\pw a‰pw {]hNn
°m\mhpsa∂v ]dbp∂Xns‚ ]n∂nep≈ k°cnbm°fpsS
KqV- e- £y- sa- ¥m- Wmthm...
]nimNns‚ Ignhpw i‡nbpw A¤pXhpw hnhcn®v
kpsse-am≥ \_n(-A)\v ]nim-Np-°ƒ sNbvXp sImSpØ
`mctadnb tPmensb°pdns®√mw hniZoIcn® tijw aq∏
cpsS ka¿∞amb Hcp tNmZyap≠v. ]nimNns‚ Ignshß
s\bm kpsseam≥ \_nbpsS apAvPnkØmIp∂Xv -F∂v
Ddp-ºns‚ kwkm-chpw ac-s°m-Øn-bpsS kwkm-chpw a\-
n- em- °n- bXpw apAv PnkØv sIm≠m- Wv . ]nim- Nns\
a‰m¿°pw kpssea≥ \_n(A)\v Iogvs∏SpØnbXv t]mse
hgns∏SpØnbn´n√. A\pPØnsb ImWn®v tPyjvSØnsb
sI´n- °p∂Xv t]mep≈ Hcp X{¥- amWv kemln ChnsS
]b‰m≥ {ian®Xv.
132 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
]nimNv ]qPIsc ]nimNv klmbn°psa∂v ÿm]n
°m\mWv kpsseam≥ \_nbpsS IY kzemln ]dbp∂Xv.
kpsseam≥ \_nbpsS Ncn{Xw t\sc Xncn®mWv. kpsse
am≥ \_n(A) ]nimNv ]qPI\√. ]nimNns\ Xr]vXns∏Sp
Øp∂ Hcp Imcyhpw sNbv Xn- ´pan√. ASn- asb t]mse
A√mlp kpsse- am≥ \_n°v ]nim- Nns\ Iogv s∏- SpØn
F∂Xv Xs∂bmWv A¤pXw. CXv apAvPnkØmWv. km[m
cW Hcp a\p-jy\pw Ign-bm-Ø-Xm-Wv. Pn∂p-Iƒ°v F{X-
Xs∂ Ignhv D≠mbn´pw Imcyan√. AhcpsS klmbw \ap°v
In´m≥ km≤yXbn√.
a\pjy Ignhn\v ]pdabp≈ Kbv_mb ⁄m\w A√m
lphn¬ am{Xw ]cnanXamIp∂p. (A¬ a\m¿ 1985 G{]n¬)
acn®pt]mb _Zvco߃°v ad™ Imcyßfdnbm≥
Ign- bp- sa∂v sX‰n- ≤- cn®p sIm≠mWv Ch¿ Cu in¿°p-
Isf√mw AhcpsS t]cn¬ sh®p ]pe¿Øp∂Xv. F∂m¬
ad™Imcyadnbp∂h≥ F∂Xv temIc£nXmhmb A√m
lphn\v am{Xap≈ hntijWamWv. apIz¿d_mb ae°nt∂m
aAvkqamb {]hmNIt\m B hntijWج ]¶n√. (Po
hn®ncp∂ _Zvcoßfpw Pohn®ncp∂ _Zvcoßfpw t]Pv˛17)
a‰mcpw A√mlp Adnbn®psImSpØme√msX AZr
iyImcy߃ AdnbpIbn√. (^Xvl¬ Aeow 2/835)
ad™Imcy߃ A√mlphn\v am{Xa√ krjvSnIfn
em¿°pw Adnbns√∂v hy‡amWv. A√mlphns‚ CjvSZm
k- ∑m- cmb Aºn- bm- °ƒ°p- t]mepw Ah- cp- t±- in- °p- tºmƒ
ad™ Imcyßfdnbns√∂pw hlvbpeqsS A√mlp Adnbn
®mte Ah¿°pt]mepw AdnbpIbp≈psh∂pw {]kvXpX
hN- \- ߃ hy‡- am- Ip- ∂p. (a- lm- flm- °fpw ad- ™- Im- cy-
ßfpw˛ im^n kzemln t]Pv-˛6)
133
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
Cßs\ \_n(k) [mcmfw {]bmk߃ G¬t°≠n
h∂sX√mw ad™ Imcy- ß- f- dn- bm- Ø- Xp- sIm- ≠m- bn- cp-
∂t√m? Nne kμ¿`ßfn¬ \_n(k) ad™Imcy߃ ]d
™Xv hlvbneqsS Adnbn®v sImSp°p∂Xv am{XamWv. (^
Xvlpd“m≥ sI.hn. aplΩZv ap…ym¿ Iq‰\mSv t]Pv˛334/335)
C∂pw Pohn- ®n- cn- °p∂ Cukm \_n(- A) Cu
temIØv \S- °p∂ kw`- h- ß- sfm∂pw Adn- bp∂n- √. amC-
Zbnse 116˛mw hN\w AXmWv hy‡am°p∂Xv. Kplmhm
kn- IfpsS kw`- hhpw Dssk¿ \_n(- k) \qdv h¿jw acn-
∏n® tijw ho≠pw ]p\¿P\n∏n®Xpw Xm≥ F{X Imew
Pohn- ®n- cp- ∂p- sht∂m Xs‚ Np‰pw Fs¥ms° am‰- ap- ≠m-
sbt∂m At±lØn\dnb√. Cßs\ F{Xsbs{X kw`h
߃.
s]cnßØq¿ aJv_dbn¬ \n∂v AºXn\mbncw cq]
Ifhv t]mbn. (1996 P\phcn 16 sNmΔmgvN N{μnI) IÆq¿
kn‰nbn¬ I≈≥ Ibdn Ccp]ØnAømbncw ]Ww `fim
c-Øn¬ \n∂pw A]-l-cn-®p. (a-t\m-ca 97 am¿®v 4) 1990-˛91
Imeßfnse ]pØ≥ ]≈nkmºØnI {Iat°Sv kn._n.
sF. At\zjWØn\v ip]m¿i sNbvXp (N{μnI 97 am¿®v
18) kam\amb [mcmfw Ifhv tIkpIfpw hn{Kl tamj
Whpw ]{Xßfn¬ \nc¥cw hm¿ØbmImdp≠v. ]maccmb
P\- ߃ h√Xpw \jv S- s∏- ´m¬ e`n- °p- sa∂v {]Xo- £n®v
t]mIp∂ tI{μßfn¬ Xs∂ \S°p∂ Ifhv sXfnbn°m≥
t]meoknt\bpw a‰pkwhn[m\ßtfbpamWv kao]n°mdp
≈- Xv. ]s£ kzemln ]d- bp- ∂tXm IS- h- Øqcv \n∂t√
\^okbt√ Fs∂ms° Ctßm´v D≈m- fsØ ]cn- I¿an
]dbpsa∂v. ame \jvSs∏´m¬ X߃t°m ]Wn°¿t°m
]dbm\pw Ignbpsa∂v kzXth Zp¿_e t]mcmØXn\v K¿`n
134 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
Wnbpw F∂Xv t]msebp≈ AhÿbmWv Z¿KIfpsSbpw
a‰pw IY. F∂n´pw CXnlmk IYIƒ°v bmsXmcp am‰hp
an√. dn∏dnt\bpw hoc∏t\bpw tim`cmPnt\bpw N{μkzm
an- tbbpw _n≥em- Z- t\bpw ]nSn- °m≥ klm- bn- ®Xv GsX-
¶nepw Xßtfm ]Wn- °tcm Z¿Ktbm Xo¿∞m- S\ tI{μ-
ßtfm As√∂ ImcywIqSn k°cnøm°ƒ \√Xv t]mse
a-\-n-em-°s´.
AtX°pdn®v \ap°v t_m[ap≠v. F∂m¬ `mhntbm
AXp \ΩpsS Iønen√. Adn™pIqSm `mhnsb°pdn®v \ap°v
`bw th≠. Bi¶th≠ ImcWw `qXhpw h¿Øam\hpw
`mhnbpw {kjvSmhmb A√mlphn¶es{X. Ah≥ \ΩpsS
\mY≥. c£nXmhv F√mw Xcp∂p. F¶n¬ Ahs\ `cta¬∏n
°Ww. CXmWv ssZh hnizkØns‚ i‡nbpw kam[m\
hpw. F√mw A√mlphns‚ Iøn¬ `mhnbdnbp∂h≥ Ah≥
am{Xw. kzmanbpw Xßfpw _ohnbpw kn≤\pw a‰pw `mhn
{]hN\adnbpsa∂ hmZhpambn DucpNp‰p∂p. cmjv{So°m
cpsS `mhnb{Xbpw AhcpsS IønemWv F∂mWv AhIm
ihmZw. Ah¿s°ßm\pw `mhnbdnbptam? F¶n¬ Ah¿
\msf kp\man hcpsa∂v ]dbn√mbncpt∂m? C√, AZriyw
Ah¿°- dn- bn- √. BImi `qan- bnse AZriyw A√m- lp- h-
√msX Bcpadnbn√. (27:65)
km[m- cW a\p- jy- cmbn P\n®v AΩ- bmbpw DΩ-
bmbpw `Khm\mbpw henømbpw _mhbmbpw _ohnbmbpw
]cnWan®v NqjIcmIp∂p. BƒssZhßfmbn e£ßfpw
tImSnIfpw X´nsbSp°p∂p. Cu ]WØ´n∏n¬ CS\ne°m
cmhp∂h¿ Chsc ]‰n sI´pIYIƒ {]Ncn∏n°p∂p. P\w
]Ww hmcnsbdnbp∂p.
135
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
Cu {]]©sØ apgph≥ \nb{¥n°p∂Xv ]S®h
\m-Wv. B¿°pw AXn¬ Hcp ]¶p-an-√. Ah-\-dn-bm-sXm-cn-
ebpw s]mgn- bn- √. Ahs‚ \√- h- cmb ASn- a- Iƒ°v Ah-
s\∂pw kwc£Ww \¬Ipw. tcmKw, Zp:Jw, ZpcnXw, A]
ISw, \jvSw F√m‰n\pw ]ctemIØv {]Xn^ew. F∂n´pw
CXnsem∂pw hnizkn°msX `mhn]dbpsa∂v I≈w ]dbp
∂- h¿°p- ap- ∂n¬ ssI \o´n- s°m- Sp- Øp. P\- ß- fpsS `bw
Ah¿ NqjWw sNøp∂p. Cu {]]©sØ apgph≥ ]S®p
]cn]men°p∂hs\ X≈n ISØnÆbn¬ shdpw \neØv
N{aw ]Sn™ncn°p∂ km[phmb ssIt\m´°mc≥ \ap°v
tImSn- Iƒ hmKv Zm\w \¬Ip- ∂p. AXv tI´v Xe- bm- ´p- ∂-
hsc°pdns®¥p ]dbp∂p. aplΩZv\_n(k) Acpfn. tPymXn
j- °m- c\pw ssIt\m- ´- °m- c\pw ]d- bp- ∂Xv kXy- s∏- Sp- Øn-
bm¬ Ahs‚ \m¬]Xp ZnhksØ \akvImcw kzoIcn°
s∏Sn√. Abmƒ ]d™Xv hnizkn®mtem Ah≥ Jp¿B≥
Xs∂ \ntj- [n- ®- h- \m- Wv . F¥n- \n- ßs\ sNø- Ww?
Ah¿°pw `mhnbdnb√. Adnbpambncp∂psh¶n¬ Ahsc
¶nepw c£s∏Spambncp∂p. (ISM P\-ap-t∂‰w 2011 G{]n¬
15 sabv 31 t]Pv˛ 10,11˛ eLp-te-J-bn¬ \n∂v)
CXn- t\m- sSm∏w tN¿Øp- hm- bn- t°≠ Nne Imcy-
ßfpw IqSn ]dbs´ Hcn°¬ kmbn_mhsb sIm√m≥ ]p´
]¿Ønbn¬ sh®v kz¥w AwKc£Icn¬ Nne¿ {ian®p.
_mh _mØdqan¬ HmSnsbmfn®p. Xs∂ kwc£n°phm≥
_lfw sImSpØp. \nban® AwKc£IcpsS a\nencn∏pw
KqV{iahpw Xncn®dnbm≥ ssZhw Nabp∂ _mhbv°mbn
√. {io.{io chni¶dn\v t\sc _mw•qcn¬ sh®v Hc⁄m
X≥ shSnDXn¿Øp. Imdns\ Ih- N- am- °n- b- Xn- \m¬ chn- i-
¶¿ c£s∏´p. Ip‰hmfnsb ]nSnIqSm≥ tIkv t]meokns\
136 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
G¬∏n®p.hØn°m\n¬ am¿∏m∏bv°pt\scbpw kam\amb
B{IaWw \S∂p. IqsSbp≈hcpsS AhktcmNnXamb CS
s]ShpsIm≠v am{Xw Ct±lhpw Bbpns‚ _ew sIm≠v
c£- s∏- ´p. BƒssZ- h- ߃°pw ]ptcm- ln- X≥am¿°pw
`mhntbm ad™ Imcyßtfm H´pw AdnbpIbns√∂v CØcw
kw`h- ß- fn¬ \ns∂- ¶nepw _p≤n- bp- ≈- h¿ a\- n- em- t°-
≠XmWv. ]nimNv CØcw L´Øn¬ t]mepw Xs∂ ]qPn
°p∂hsc ad™Imcyw Adnbn®psImSpØv klmbn®n´n√.
]nimNv ad™Imcyw Adnbn°phm≥ Ch¿ ]dbp
∂Xvt]mse km[n°psa¶n¬ Xo¿®bmbpw ]nimNv klm
bn- °p- am- bn- cp- ∂n- t√?.
137
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
]nimNv ZpÀ_e³
(hn.-Jp.) ..,... ¸.s ¸.u,...· ,,s ¸ ·
\n›- bambpw ]nim- Nns‚ NXn Zp¿_- e- a- s{X.
C_v eokv Hcp AP- ø- \mtWm? Hcn °- ep - an - √.
Bflm¿∞cpw`‡- cp- amb ssZh- Zm- k- ∑m¿°v Ahs\
ae¿ØbSn°m≥ Ignbpw. Fs‚ \njvIf¶ ASnaIsf Xs‚
he- bn¬ s]Sp- Øm≥ Ign- bp- ∂- X- √ F∂v A√m- lp- Xs∂
hy‡am°pIbmWv. kXyhnizmkw ssIs°m≈pIbpw Xß
fpsS c£n- Xm- hns‚ ta¬ Imcy- ߃ `c- ta¬∏n- °p- Ibpw
sNøp-∂-h-cpsS ta¬ C_veo-kn∂p bmsXm-cm-[n-]-Xy-hp-an-
√. Ahs\ kwc- £- I- \m- °p- Ibpw A√m- lp- hn- t\mSv ]¶p-
tN¿°pIbpw sNøp∂hcpsS taemWv Ahs‚ B[n]Xyw
-F∂v IqSpX¬ hy‡ambn kqd\lv¬ 99,100¬ hnhcn°p
∂p-≠v. (sI.-hn. apl-ΩZv ap…ym¿ Iq‰-\mSv VOL-˛3 t]Pv-
˛197)
lnPvdv 39 apX¬ 42 hscbp≈ hN\sØ sI.hn. Iq‰
\mSv hniZoIcn°p∂Xv ImWpI.
\mYm Fs∂ \o hgn]ngn∏n®Xp sIm≠v `qanbn¬
a\pjy¿°vv ]eXpw Rm≥ `wKnbm°nImWn®psImSp°pI
Xs∂sNøpw. \n›bambpw Ahsc apgp\pw Rm≥ hgn]ng
∏n®p Ifbp∂XpamWv. \ns‚ \njv If¶ Zmksc HgnsI.
A√mlp ]dbp∂p.. Fs‚ ASnaIfpsS ta¬ \n\°v
bmsXmcp A[n-Im-c-i-‡nbpw D≠m-Ip-∂tXb√. F∂m¬
hgn- sX- ‰n- b- h- cm- b \ns∂ ]n≥]‰n- b- h¿ Aßs\ Bbn- cn-
°pIbn√. (sI.hn. Iq‰\mSv lnP¿ 42˛mw hN\Øn\v \¬Inb
A¿∞w)
]nimNp°ƒ Ahsc Cf°nhnSp∂p. F∂p h®m¬
Zp¿t_m- [- \- Øn- eqsS `uXnI Imcy- ߃ Aew- Ir- X- am°n
ImWn®psImSpØpw Ah¿°v ]nimNp°ƒ t{]cW \¬Ip
Ibpw ZpjvS I¿Ωßfnte°v Xncn®phnSpIbpw sNøp∂p.
138 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
(dmkn, X^vko-dp¬ I_o¿ 21:253)
·: · ∫.. ¸. (_., ∫ƒ..¸ ∫.. ∫.. (¸, ∂... ¸, _.. · ¸.
’¸ ∫ƒ. ’¸ .∏.· ≈∏. ¸∏sƒ: .∏.· ,.., .:,, ¸. _¸i
... ≈..:¸ ¸,. ¸¸ ¸,. s¸ ¸,,. .. ∫.≤, .∏.., ’ · :ƒ.
(…,.¸.·,¸.u,...·
A\kv_v\p amenIv \nthZ\w h√h\pw Xs‚ ho´n¬
\n∂v ]pds∏Sptºmƒ _nkvan√mln Xh°¬Xp Ae√mln
hem lue hem- Jp- ΔX C√ _n√ F∂v sNm√n- bm¬
({]m¿∞n- ®m¬) ]nimNv Ah- \n¬ \n∂- Iepw Ah- t\mSv
Cßs\ ]d-b-s∏Spw \o t\¿h-gn°v \bn-°-s∏-´n-cn-°p∂p
\n\°v aXnbm°s∏´ncn°p∂p. \o kwc£n°s∏SpIbpw
sNbvXn- cn- °p- ∂p. (Xn¿an- Zn)
t\m°q A√m- lp- hns\ sIm≠- √msX i‡nbpw
Ignhpw Cs√∂v ]d™v Ah- \n¬ `c- ta¬∏n- ®m¬ ]nim-
Nns‚ Zp¿t_m[\hpw NXnbpw C√mXmIpw. C{Xbpw \nm
c\mWv ]nimNv. {]m¿∞n°ptºmtg°v Ah≥ AI∂p t]mIp
IbmWv. Ahs‚ X{¥w ]mgmhpIbmWv.
(_., ∫ƒ..¸ ¸.... ¸... .,.. (¸, ,,μ. ¸., :.ƒi ¸.
¸. ¸...:.· .∏.· ¸..∏μ, :ƒ. · ∫.. ’¸.. ∫¸. ¸. ∫ƒ≤,
(,∏..Ÿ·, ∂.: ..¸.. ¸. π–¸, _,.. √¸.., ⁄ ≥∏i .. ¸..
Jue- Xv_n≥Xv lIow \nth- Z\w dkq¬ ]d- bp- ∂-
Xmbn Rm≥ tI´q. Bsc¶nepw Hcp ho´nseØnbm¬ Ah≥
Cßs\ {]m¿∞n°s´. A√mlphns‚ krjvSnIfpsS sISp
Xnbn¬ \n∂v Ahs‚ ]cn]q¿Æamb hm°psIm≠v Rm≥
icWw tXSp∂p. (F¶n¬) B ho´n¬ \n∂v Ah≥ t]mIp
∂Xv hsc Ah\v bmsXmcp _p≤nap´pw _m[n°pIbn√.
(ap-…ow)
≥∏i .. ¸.. ¸. ¸...: .∏.· ¸..μ, :ƒ. ·
krjv Sn- I- fpsS \mi- Øn¬ \n∂v A√m- lp- hns‚
]q¿Æamb IenaØpIƒ aptJs\ Rm≥ Aht\mSv icWw
139
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
tXSp-∂p.
ADuZp_nIenamXn√... F∂ {]m¿∞\ sNm√nbm¬
F√m {]bmkßfn¬ \n∂pw kXyhnizmkn°v tamNnX\m
Imw.
.∏.· _ · ¸. ·¸ _i …ƒ≤.· ¸. ƒŸ· (_., ∫.. (¸, :¸,¸. _, · ¸.
∂..., .. ≈∏. _.¸. · _i πs ‘¸ ∞,....· ¸. ƒŸ· ¸.
_ · ƒ. π≤: ·. _,.. ∂,... · ¸ ·¸ ¸,.: ’¸.∏.., ¸.:..¸
¿:.: ƒ. ¸ .. π.. .... ..¸ .∏.· ¸ ,. π. ¸μ.¸ ·,s¸·,s ¸∏..
,∏..Ÿ·, ¸.u,...· π..
A_vZplpssdd dnt∏m¿´v sNøp∂p. \_n(k) ]d
™p. i‡\mb kXy hnizmknbmWv Zp¿aqe\mb kXy
hn- izm- kn- tb- °m- ƒ \√- Xv . A√m- lp- hn\v G‰hpw {]nb-
ap≈h\pw. F√mhcnepw \∑bp≠v. \n\°v D]Imcap≠m
Ip∂ Imcyßfn¬ \o XmXv]cyw ImWn°pI. \o A√mlp
hnt\mSv klmbw tNmZn°pI. \o Zp¿_e \mIcpXv. \n\°v
h√ hn]Øpw _m[n®m¬ Rm≥ C∂ cq]Øn¬ sNbvXncp
∂psh¶n¬ F∂v ]dbcpXv. \o Cßs\ ]dbpI. A√mlp
IW°m°nbXmWv. Ah≥ Dt±in®Xv \S∂p. ImcWw eu
(C∂ cq]Øn¬ sNbvXncp∂psh¶n¬ Aßns\bmIpambn
cp-∂n-√) F∂Xv sNIp-Øms‚ {]h¿Ø-\sØ Xpd-°-em-
Wv. (ap-…ow)
i‡-amb hnizmkw D≠m-h-W-sa∂pw A√m-lp-hn-
t\mSv am{Xw klmbw tXS- W- sa∂pw Ahs‚ Jfm-
JZvdnep≈ ASn-bp-d® hnizm-k-ap-≠m-h-W-sa∂pw \∑bpw
Xn∑bpw Ah\n¬ \n∂v am{XamsW∂ Nn¥tb D≠mbn
°q- Sq Fs∂ms° ]Tn- ∏n- °p∂ lZo- km- WnXv. ASn- bp- d®
hnizmkn Aßns\ sNbvsX¶n¬ Cßs\bmIpambncp∂p
sh∂v ]dbn√. eu F∂ {]tbmKw ss]imNnI kzm[n\
Ønep≈ hmXn¬ Xpd°emWv. Cuam\pw Xh°qepw D≈
h\n¬ ]nimNn\v bmsXmcp kzm[o\hpans√∂¿∞w.
140 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
\_n(k) C_v\p A∫mkn\v \¬Inb Nne D]tZ
iwIqSn \mw a\nem°pI.
¸..∏s ∂.∏. · _ · Ω·.., (_., _,..· ∫.._..,. ¸,· ¸.
¸. ... ·: · ∂..Œ √,Œ .∏.· s.. · ∂u.., .∏.· s.. ·
:. ’· ¸ · ,∏.·¸ .∏.., ¸.:.... ¸..:..· ·: ·ƒ,∏.· π.....
_,.., ’ · ∑ƒ..., ⁄ _,.., ∑ƒ..., ¸ · ≈∏. ¸..:,·ƒ.
⁄ _,.., ∑¸¸.., ¸ · ≈∏. ·ƒ..:, ¸ ·ƒμ.: .∏.· ¸:s ,.
¸.,¸ Ω·. ’· ¸..¸ ∂. .∏.· ¸:s ,. _,.., ’ .s¸¸..,
(…,.¸.··, ∞....·
Ip´o Rm≥ \n\°v Nne Imcy߃ ]Tn∏n®pXcmw. \o A√m
lphns\ kq£n°pI. F¶n¬ Ah≥ \ns∂ ImØpsIm
≈pw. \o A√mlphns\ kq£n°pI. F¶n¬ Ahs\ \ns‚
apºn¬ Is≠Øpw. \o tNmZn°pIbmsW¶n¬ A√mlphn
t\mSv tNmZn°pI. klmbw tXSpIbmsW¶n¬ A√mlp
hn-t\mSv klmbw tXSp-I. \o a\-n-em-°p-I.. Cu kap-
Zmbw H∂S¶w \n\°v Hcp D]Imcw sNøm≥ th≠n Hcp
an®mepw A√mlphns‚ \n›ban√msX Ah¿s°m∂pw
sNøm\mhn√. C\n \n\s°mcp D]{Zhw hcpØm≥ Hcp
an®v IqSnbmepw A√mlp t\csØ tcJs∏SpØnbX√mØ
bmsXmcp]{Zhhpw Ah¿°v sNøm\mhn√. t]\ Db¿Ø
s∏´p. GSpIƒam‰n. (Xn¿anZn)
apCu- d- Xp- _v \p- ip- Av _bn¬ \n∂v \_n(- k) \a-
kvImcw Ign™m¬ ]dbpambncp∂p
¸... .Ÿ _u.. ’¸ ¸,u. · .Ÿ ™... ’ ,,∏.·
(.,∏. ≥.:Ÿ·, ,,· ∂..¸ ,,· ·: ™.., ’¸
\o \¬InbXv XSbp∂h\n√ \o XS™Xv \¬Ip
∂h\pan√. (_pJmcn˛ap…nw)
¸....ƒ.¸ ∂,. · _,,¸ ¸,,¸¸ ∂,. · _.... ¸.∏.. · ,,∏.·
.,∏. ’ ∂,. · :,i¸¸ :,.¸ ∂,. · …¸,n ¸ ., ·¸ ∂,. · …¸. ·
∂,,.¸¸.¸. · …,.· ∂,.:μ, ¸.. · ∂,. · ’ · ∂.. .,.. ’¸
141
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
(.,∏. ≥.:Ÿ·, ¸∏..¸ · …,.·
alØmb Hcp {]m¿∞\m iIeØns‚ A¿∞w IqSn ]d
b- s´.
A√mlpth Fs‚ icocw Rm≥ \n∂nte°v Xncn
®ncn°p∂p. Fs‚ Imcyw Rm≥ \n\°v hn´ncn°p∂p. B{K
l- tØm- sSbpw `oXn- tbm- sSbpw Fs‚ ]pdw Rm≥ \n∂n-
e¿∏n-°p-∂p. Hcp `bhpw c£bpw \n∂n-te-°-√msXbn√.
\o Cd°nb {KŸØnepw \ntbmKn® {]hmNI\nepw Rm≥
hniz-kn-°p-∂p. (_p-˛-ap)
π. ’· ‘ :.,∏.·¸ ¸....· ‘ ¸.....· ¸. · ,,∏.·
(,∏..Ÿ·, ¸¸◊., .:.: · ,≤. .,.¸ ‹... ¸.
A√mlpth bm{Xbnse Iq´pImc\pw, IpSpwØnse
Jeo^bpw \obmWv (ap…nw)
(v·:,ƒ:.·, _... ’¸ ‹¸ ¸. _.¸ ’· ‘ ,,. ..¸
(···:,ƒ:.·, _... ’¸ ‹¸ ¸. .∏.· ¸¸. ¸. ,μ. ..
\mw \n∂vsImSp°msX ]nimNn\v \sΩsIm≠v sX‰v
sNøn°m\mhn√. Ah≥ tIhew tXm∂epIf√. hkvhm
kpIfpw Zpjvt{]cWbpw Zp¿t_m[\hpw D≠mIpI Xs∂
sNøpw. ]nimNv a\pjys‚ cq]Øn¬ hcpsa∂v ]d™m¬
\sΩ aZy]m\nbm°p∂ kplrØv ]nimNmWv. \ΩpsS `mcy
amcnepw a°fnepw kºØnepw i{Xphps≠∂v ]d™m¬
Ah¿ ]e Xn∑- sN- øm≥ \sΩ t{]cn- ∏n- °p- ∂p F∂mWv.
\sΩ a\pjy \n¿ΩnX aX- Øn- te°v am¿Kw Iq´m- \n-
dßnØncn- °p∂ ]ptcm- ln- X∑mcpw ]nimNv Xs∂- bm- Wv .
\ΩpsS _‘p°fnepw kplrØp°fnepw CØcw a\pjy
]nimNv D≠mbncn°pw. \n¿_‘n®pw {]tem`n∏n®pw Ah¿
\sΩ hgntISnem°pw.
142 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
XJveoZv
`n∂n- ∏p- ≠m- bm¬ Jp¿- B- \n- te°pw kp- Øn- te- °p-
amWv aS- tß- ≠- Xv . AXp- am- {X- am- W- √mlp A\p- h- Zn- ®- Xv .
A√msX `n∂n- ∏p- ≠m- Ip- tºmƒ GsX- ¶nepw hy‡n- bpsS
hm°pIƒ kzoIcn°¬ ldmamWv. ImcWw AXv Jp¿B\
√. lZokpa√. klm_nIfnepw Xm_nDIfnepw s]´ kI
ecpw HØp kΩm- \n® Imcy- am- Wv . (l- ÷- Øp- √m- ln¬
_menK t]Pv-˛425)
]mac P\- ߃ ^nJvlv ]fin- X- ∑sc A‘- ambn
A\pIcn°p∂p. Ah¿°p sX‰p]‰pIbns√∂p hnizkn°p
∂p. ^Jolv ]dbp∂sX¥pw t\cmsW∂v ]mac∑m¿ Icp
Xp- ∂p. CXv ssIhn- Sp- I- bn- s√- ∂mWv `mhw. CXmWv AZn-
øp_v\p lmØnw dnt∏m¿´v sNbvXXv. \_n(k) HmXp∂Xv
Rm≥ tI´p. Ah¿ ]mXncnamscbpw k\ymknItfbpw ssZh
ßfm°n. A√mlphns\ IqSmsX (Xu_ 131) Ah¿ ]mXn
cnamtcbpw k\ymknamtcbpw Bcm[n®n´n√. ]s£ Ah¿
ldmam°p∂Xp ldmapw lemem°p∂Xp lemepamsW∂v
Ch¿ hnizkn°p∂p. (AtX ]pÿIw 426)
apPvXlnZns‚ Juen¬ \nbaw Is≠ج XJven
Zn¬ s]Sp-∂p. (429)
sX‰mb GXv {]hWXbpw kaqlØn¬ hf¿∂ph
cptºmƒ kXy sh´nØpd∂v ]dbpI F∂ \ne]mSv ]q¿ΔnI
]finX∑m¿ kzoIcn®pt]m∂n´p≈Xv. AXv AXymhiyhp
am-Wv. (sI.-]n. hnizkw hmfyw 1 t]Pv 84)
F√m IgnhpIfpw D]tbmKn®v kXyw ]pdØv sIm≠v
hcnIXs∂ sNø-Ww. (t]-Pv ˛87)
“Xm≥ FhnsS \n∂v hcp∂psh∂pw Ftßm´v t]mIp
∂psh∂pw Xs‚ PohnX kcWn GXmsW∂pw c£mam¿§
143
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
sa¥msW∂pw hfsc hy‡ambn {Kln®h\mWh≥. Aß
s\- bp≈ Hcp kXy hnizmkn AXv`pX- ß- sf∂v tIƒ°p-
tºmtg°v IÆp- a- S®v AXns‚ ]n∂mse HmtS- ≠- h- \- √.
krjvSnIfpsS IgnhpIsf kw_‘n®pw Ah¿°v {]ISn∏n
°phm≥ Ignbp∂ A¤pßsf kw_‘n®pw Ah\v hy‡
amb [mcWbp≠v. C\n {]Ya ZrjvSnbn¬ hymJym\n°m≥
Ign- bmØ Hc- ¤pX kw`hw Hcmƒ {]I- Sn- ∏n®p F∂v
k¶¬∏n®m¬ Xs∂ Xs‚ sFlnI hnPbØnt\m imizX
c£t°m Ah\n¬ \n∂v bmsXm∂pw t\Sm\mhns√∂v ZrV
ambn hnizkn°p∂h\mWv Ah≥.
\ap°v Hmtcm¿Ø¿°pw A√mlp hntij _p≤n
\¬In-bn-´p-≠v. Ahs‚ k∑m¿Kw Dƒs°m-≈p∂ hn:Jp¿-
B\pw Xncp kp∂Øpw \ΩpsS ssIIfn¬ ÿnXnsNøp
∂p. AXvsIm≠v \ΩpsS hntij _p≤n D]tbmKn®v Jp¿
B\pw kp∂Øpw Dƒs°m≈p∂ k∑m¿Kw \mw kzmbØ
amt°≠Xp≠v. AX\pkcn®v \ΩpsS hnizmkßfpw I¿Ω
ßfpw \mw {Ias∏SpØpIbpw sNtø≠Xp≠v. AXv \ΩpsS
Hgn®pIqSm\mhmØ I¿ØhyamWv. \ap°v ]Tn°m≥ Ign
™ns√t∂m \m´nse BNmca\pkcn®mWv Xm≥ {]h¿Øn
®- sXt∂m C∂ ]fin- X≥ Aßn- s\- bmWv D]- tZ- in- ®-
sXt∂m at‰m D≈ Hgnhv Ignhv A√mlphn¶¬ kzoIcn°
s∏-Sp-I-bn-√ F∂ kXyw \mw kZm Hm¿Ωn-®n-cn-t°-≠-Xp-
≠v. CltemIØv sh®v Xs∂ \ΩpsS sX‰pIƒ a\nem
°m\pw kXyØnte°v aSßnhcm\pw \ap°v Ign™ns√
¶n¬ ]ctemIØv sh®v \mw ITn\amb Zp:JØnepw sImSpw
tJZØnepw Xocm \jvSØnepw AIs∏´p t]mIpw. Rß
fpsS c£nXmth RßfpsS kZmØpItfbpw RßfpsS
t\Xm°tfbpw R߃ A\pkcn®v t]mbn. Aßs\ Ah¿
144 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
Rßsf hgn- ]n- g- ∏n- ®n- cn- °p- I- bm- Wv . Rß- fpsS \mYm
Ah¿°p \o c≠n- c´n in£ \¬Ip- Ibpw sImSpw im]-
Øn\v Ahsc \o Ccmb°pIbpw sNøWta F∂h¿ ]d
bpw”. (A-√m-lp-hns‚ Huen-bm-°ƒ-˛-sI. Ip™oXp aZ\n
t]Pv˛185,188)
XIzveoZv Hcp ]T\w F∂ io¿j-I-Øn¬ Xs∂
sI.F≥.Fw. kmam\yw anIs®mcp {KŸw {]kn≤oIcn®n´p
≠v. sI.]n.bpw F.]n.bpw tN¿s∂gpXnb {]kvXp {KŸw
apPm-lnZv {]ÿm-\-Øns‚ BZ¿i hyXn-cn-‡-Xbpw \ne-
]mSpw hy‡- am- °p- ∂p. Cu ]pkv X- I- Øn¬ \n∂v Nne
No¥pIƒ.
aX- Im- cy- ß- fn¬ ]q¿Δ- nIsc XIzv eoZv sNøp∂
bmsXmcp kap- Zm- bhpw hgn- ]n- g- °m- Xn- cn- °p- I- bn- s√∂v
kmam\y _p≤nXs∂ hnfnt®mXp∂p≠v. sX‰v ]‰mØhcmbn
a\pjycn¬ {]hmNI∑m¿ am{XamWp≈Xv. {]hmN∑mcpsS
BZyXeapdbn¬ Xs∂ sX‰pIfp≠mImsa∂mWv ASpØ
Xeapd ho≠p hnNmcan√msX ]n≥ ]‰pIbpw aXambwKoI
cn°pIbpw sNøptºmƒ {]ÿpX sX‰pIƒ aXambn amdp
∂p. ]n∂oSv hcp∂ Hmtcm Xeapdbpw AXn\v sXm´papºp≈
Xeapdtb°mƒ {]hmNIs‚ ktμißfn¬ \n∂v IqSpX¬
AI∂ncn°pw. ASpØ XeapdbpsS aXw AXmbn amdpw.
Aßs\ Imem- ¥- c- Øn¬ bYm¿∞ aX \n¿t±- i- ߃°v
hn]coXamb hnizmkmNmcßtfmSp IqSnbXmbn amdnt∏m
Ipw AhcpsS aXw. ]q¿Δ kapZmb߃°v kw`hn®n´p≈Xpw
CXp-Xs∂ (t]-Pv-˛53)
X߃°njvSs∏´hcpw _lpam\n°s∏Sp∂Xpamb
hy‡nIƒ Fs¥¶nepw ]d™m¬ aX]camb ImcyØn
embm¬ t]mepw AX∏Sn kzoIcn°p∂p. aXØns‚ {]am
145
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
Wßfn¬ CXn\v h√ sXfnhpapt≠m F∂h¿ tNmZn°p
∂Xv t]mIs´, Aßs\ Nn¥n°m≥ IqSn Ah¿ ss[cys∏
Sp- I- bn- √. {]am- W- ߃ F¥p- X- s∂- bm- bmepw CØ- c- °m¿
]dbp∂XmWv icn. Ah¿ henb Iq´cmWv. AXv sIm≠v
Ah¿ ]dbp∂Xv kzoIcn°emWv \ΩpsS ISa. CXmWh
cpsS Nn¥mKXn. (XIzveoZv Hcp ]T\w t]Pv 62)
Hcmƒ XIzv eoZv at\m- `mhw Ft∏mƒ Isøm- gn- bp-
∂pthm At∏mƒ apX¬ GXpXcw A‘hnizmkßsfbpw
A\mNmcßtfbpw Isømgnbphm≥ Abmƒ kzbw Xømdm
hp∂XmWv. (AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv ˛69)
Camw amenIv(d) ]dbp∂p. Hcmƒ A{Xt{ijvT\m
bncp∂mepw Abmƒ ]d™ F√m A`n{]mbhpw ]n≥]‰
s∏- tS≠X√.
Rm≥ ]dbp∂Xnse√mw Fs∂ XIzveoZv sNøcpXv.
\o kzbw AXns\ ]‰n Nn¥n°pI. At±lw Cßs\bpw
]d- bm- dp- ≠m- bn- cp- ∂p. ssZh- Zq- X- \- √mØ a‰m- cpsS hm°pw
sXfnhmIpIbn√. (l÷Øp√mln¬ _menI 126)
{]hmNI\√mØ B¿°pw sXfnhpIqSmsX H∂pw
]dbm≥ A[nImcan√. (Camw im^n: A¬DΩv)
XIzveoZv Plv¬ BIp∂p. (A¬ apkvX^m 2/124)
XIneoZv Nn¥m]camb A‘XbmWv (aokm≥ 1/11) XIveoZv
Adnh√. XIveoZv sNøp∂h≥ ]finX\pa√. (Clvemap¬
aphJnCu≥)
PqX- ∑m- cpsS A]- P- b- Øn\v ]e- Im- c- W- ß- fp- ≠v .
GsXmcp kaqlØnt‚bpw \miØns‚ {][m\ ImcWw
XJveoZmWv. AXpt]mse km[mcW°m¿ sX‰psNbvXm¬
in£n°pIbpw {]amWnamcpsS sX‰ns\ \ymboIcn°pIbpw
sNøp∂ Ah- ÿ- bm- bn- cp∂p PqX- cn¬ \ne \n∂n- cp- ∂- Xv.
146 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
B k{ºZmbw C∂v ap…ow kaqlØnepw ]e kwLS\°
IØpw {]Xy£ambnXs∂ ImWm\mhp∂p. apJw t\m°m
sXbpw \oXn- ]q¿Δhpw \S- ]Sn kzoI- cn- °p∂ C…m- ans‚
kwkv Imcw C∂v temI ap…ow- I- fn ¬ \n ∂v Xs∂
\jv Ss∏´psIm- ≠n- cn- °p- I- bm- Wv . BZ- chpw _lp- am- \hpw
AXncpIhn™v A‘m\pIcWØnte°v \oßp∂ Ahÿ
thZ\m P\IamWv.
]caImcpWnIs‚ D¬t_m[\Øns‚ t\¿°v h√
h\pw A‘X \Sn°p∂ ]£w, Ah\p\mw Hcp]nimNns\
G¿s∏SpØns°mSp°pw F∂n´v Ah≥ (]nimNv) Ah∂v
Iq´mfnbmbncn°pw. (kpJvdp^v:36)
A√m- lp- hns‚ \nba \n¿tZ- i- ߃ ]men- °msX
Ah\v PohnXw ka¿∏n°msX tXm∂nb t]mse Pohn°m≥
Xocpam\n® a\pjys‚ Iq´mfn ]nimNmbncn°pw. Ahs‚
t\Xmhpw Ah≥X- s∂. \njv I- f- ¶- amb A\p- k- c- W- ap≈
A√mlphns‚ Zmk≥ A√mlphns‚ ]m¿´nbnemWv ]nim
Nns‚ ]m¿´n-bn-e-√.
\ΩpsS bm{X- bnepw \ΩpsS Akm- ∂n- ≤y- Øn¬
\ΩpsS ho´nepsa√mw A√mlp \ΩpsS Jeo^bmWv
Hcp {]m¿∞\ ImWq, \mYm! bm{Xbnse Iq´pImc\pw IpSpw
_Ønse Jeo^bpw \obmWv (apkvenw)
h√h\pw Fs‚ henønt\mSv i{XpX ]pe¿Ønbm¬
Rm≥ Aht\mSv bp≤w {]Jym]n°pIXs∂ sNøpw (_p
Jm-cn) A√m-lp-hns‚ CjvS-Zm-k\v A√m-lp-a-Xn. Ahs\
]ng- ∏n- °m≥ ]nimNn- \m- hn- √. i{Xp- X- ]p- e¿Øp- ∂- h- t\mSv
A√mlp bp≤ {]Jym]\w \SØpsa∂mWv ]d™Xv. B
Iq´Øn¬ ]nimNpw s]Spat√m \ΩpsS i{Xphmb ]nimNn
t\mSv \mY\v i{ Xp- X- bp≠v \n \°v h√ tZmjhpw
147
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
hcpØnsh°pIbmsW¶n¬ AXv \o°w sNøm≥ Ah\
√msX a‰mcpan√. (A≥Bw 17)
Bcv Ft∂mSv {]m¿∞n- °p- ∂pthm Ah\v Rm≥
DØcw \¬Ipw (_p.ap.) IgnhpIƒ apgph≥ A√mlphn¬
\n∂v am{X-amWv (_-Jd:165)
NqSpsh≈w Xqhn- bm¬ tai- h- en- °p- tºmƒ tXß-
bn- S- tºmƒ hSn Fdn- ™m¬ CXn- \n- S- bn¬ Pn∂v s]´v
t]mbm¬ acn®p t]mIpsa∂v Nne hnZzm∑m¿ apPmlnZv {]ÿm
\Øns‚ _m\dn¬ {]kwKn®ncp∂p.
\sΩ D]- {Z- hn- °p- Ibpw tcmK- ap- ≠m- °p- Ibpw a\p-
jys\ FSpØv AXnio{Lw ]d°pIbpw `mc߃ hln°p
Ibpw P¿a\nbn¬ \n∂v acp∂v sIm≠phcpIbpw sNøp∂
F√m‰n\pw t]m∂ AXni-‡\mWv ssiXzms\∂v Ah¿
]dbp∂p. hnNn¥\Øn¬ {]kn≤oIcn®ph∂ Hcp tNmZyhpw
DØ- chpw Cßs\ hmbn- °mw. \sΩ ]e- t∏mgpw hml- \-
Øn¬ IpSp- ßp- ∂- Xn¬\n∂v c£- s∏- Sp- Øp- ∂Xv Pn∂p- I-
fmsW∂pw AXn\m¬ GsX¶nepsamcp Pn∂ns\ \mw klm
bn- I- fm- °- W- sa- ∂p≈ hmZ- sØ- °p- dn®v Hcp hni- Zo- I- cWw
\¬Im≥ Xm¬]cys∏Sp∂p. (^coZmA≥h¿, ]c∏\ßmSn)
Phm_ns‚ adp]Sn: sX‰mb hmZamWnXv. ae°pIƒ
kZm hnizmknIfpsS Huenbm°fmsW∂v Jp¿B\nep≠m
bn´pt]mepw AhtcmSv5 klmbw tXSmsa∂v A√mlp ]d
™n´n√. Pn∂pIsf AwKc£Icm°mt\m A]ISØn¬
AhcpsS klmbw tXSmt\m \sΩ ]Tn∏n®n´n√ Aßs\
sNømambncp∂psh¶n¬ AhnSp∂v (dkq¬) Pn∂ns\ klm
bn°m≥ D]tZin°pambncp∂pht√m C\n CXns‚ {]mtbm
Kn- I- X- sb- °p- dn®v Nn¥n°q \√ Pnt∂Xv NoØ Pnt∂Xv
F∂vv \dp°v Xocpam\n°m≥ IgnbpIbpan√. ]ns∂ Fßs\
148 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
Ahsc klmbØn\v hnfn°pw? \√ Pnt∂m \msfsb\n
s°mcp hml\bm{Xbp≠v. \o s#s‚ IqsS hcWw F∂v
]dbpItbm? ASpØ RmbdmgvN F\ns°mcp hntZibm
{Xbp≠v. \o A∂v ImeØv Fb¿ t]m¿´nseØWw F∂v
Pn∂nt\mSv At]£n°pItbm? {]amW]ctam {]mtbmKn
Itam A√mØ ImcyamWv \Ωƒ Pn∂ns\ klmbn°W
sa∂v ]d-bp∂-Xv. (hnNn¥\w 2007 s^{_phcn , t]Pv )
kmμ¿`n- I- ambn Hcp- Imcyw ChnsS Ipdn- °- s´,
^nJvlns‚ akv-A-e-I-fnepw ^Xp-lp¬ apCu≥t]m-ep≈
InXm_nse N¿®Ifpambn Hcp\q‰mt≠mfw Imew A\mh
iyamb Nn¥bnepw X¿°Ønepw A`ncan®hcmbncp∂p ka
kvX°m¿, D≈wssIbn¬tcmaw apf®m¬ hpfqAv kzlolv
BIm≥ tcmaw \\btWm th≠tbm ]≈nbpsS ASpØp≈
acØns‚ thcv ]≈nbpsS ASpØp≈ acØns‚ thcv ]≈n
bnte°v FØp∂psh¶n¬ BacØns‚ thcv ]≈nbnte°v
FØp∂psh¶n¬ BacØn¬ Ibdn Ccp∂m¬ CAvXnIm
^ns‚ {]Xn^ew In´ptam C√tbm F∂nßs\bp≈ A\m
hiyhpw k¶¬]nIhpamb hnjbØns‚ ]n∂mse \S∂v
hnes∏´ kabhpw Bbppw \in∏n®h¿ C∂v AØcw
]n¥ncn∏≥ Nn¥Iƒ shSn™v {InbmflIamb {]tbmP\
{]Zamb ]T\ØnseØn tN¿∂ncn°pIbmWv bmYmÿn
XnI¿°vt]mepw t\cw shfpØ Cu ImeØv kaqlsØ
A‘hnizmknIfpw XJveoZpImcpam°nam‰m\p≈ sIm≠p
]nSn® {iaØnemWv CΩnWn _eyauem\am¿ Pn∂v ]nimNv
hnjbhpw t]dn DucpNp‰p∂Xv.
2007 s^{_phcn 9 se hnNn¥\Ønse tNmtZym
ØcwIqSn {i≤n°pI.
149
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
? I´n¬ Npacnt\mSSp∏n°pI, taihen∏pi‡nbn
e-S-°p-I, I\-ap≈ km[-\-߃ ]pd-tØ-s°dn-bp-I, NqSp-
sh≈w Hgn°pI XpSßnbh Pn∂pIƒ°v ]cnt°¬°m≥
CSbmbnØocpsa∂pw AXn\m¬ A°mcyw \mw kq£n°
Wsa∂ hmZsØ°pd®v F¥v ]dbp∂p.
D. Pn∂p-I-sf-°p-dn®v Hcp kwc-£W _m[y-Xbpw
a\p- jy¿°n- √. ImcWw \ap- °- hsc ImWm≥ Ign- bn- √.
ImWm≥ IgnbmØhcpsS kpc£ a\pjy¿ Dd∏phcpØWw
F∂p- h- ∂m¬, a\p- jy- cpsS Ign- hn¬ s]Sm- Ø- Xn\v Ah¿
I¬]n- °- s∏´p F∂p- h- cp- at√m CXv embp- I- √n- ^p- √m- lp- \-
^vk≥ C√mhpkv Alm F∂Xns\Xncmbnhcpw. Pn∂pIƒ
\ΩpsS tai°p≈nepw I´nens‚bpw Npacns‚bpw CSbnepw
h∂p\n¬°pIbmsW¶n¬ I´n¬ hen®nSptºmgpw taih
en∏v AS°ptºmgpw Ah¿°v ]cn°v ]‰ns°m≈s´ F∂p
Icp- Xp- I- bmWv th≠Xv (hn- Nn- ¥\w 2007 s^{_- hp- hcn 9
t]Pv 9˛ Phm_v)
kn.]n. aplΩZv Icpht»cnbpsS tNmZyw IqSn ]cn
tim[n°mw ""Pn∂pIsfbpw ae°pIsfbpw hnfn®v tXSp∂Xv
in¿°m- Ip- I- bn√ ]nim- Nns\ Bcm- [n- °p- ∂- hs\ ]nimNv
klmbn°pw. a\pjy icocØn¬ Pn∂p_m[n°pw. D]{Zhn
°pw. ASn®pw a{¥n®pw Pn∂pIsf Hgn∏n°mw. Pn∂n\v a\p
jy- cn¬ k¥m- \- ß- fp- ≠mIpw Cßs\ hmZn- °p- ∂- h- cmWv
HutZymKnI hn`mKw apPmlnZpIsf∂pw AXn\m¬ kp∂n
Iƒ°pw apPmlnZpIƒ°pw H∂v#n®p {]h¿Øn°msa∂pw
kp∂n-Iƒ ]d-bp-∂p. CXns‚ kXym-h-kvX-sb-°p-dn-®mWv
tNmZyI¿Ømhns‚ kwibw.
apPmlnZpIfpsS hnizmkw Cßs\tbm F∂ io¿j
I- Øn- eq- sS- bp≈ ap^- °n- dns‚ adp- ]Sn apPm- ln- Zp- I- fpsS
BZ¿iamWv. \b{]Jym]\amWv AXv ImWpI.
150 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
{]m¿∞\ A√mlpthmSv am{Xw F∂ hnizmkØn¬
\n∂v apPm- lnZv {]ÿm\w Hcp sk‚n ao‰dpw ]nd- tIm´v
t]mbn´n√. Pn∂pIfpw ae°pIfpw a\pjykv{XoIfpamtbm
a\pjy ]pcp-j-∑m-cp-amtbm ssewKnI _‘-Øn-te¿s∏-Sp-
sa∂ hnizmkhpw apPmlnZv {]ÿm\Øn\n√. ""bYm¿∞
hnizmknIfn¬ ]nimNn\v kzm[o\ap≠mhpIbn√. F∂m¬
]nimNns\ c£m-[n-Im-cn-bm-°p-∂-h-cn¬ Ah∂v kzm[o\-
ap-≠mhpw. (\lv¬ 99,100)
kpsseam≥ \_n(A)∂v Pn∂pIƒ ]etPmenIfpw
sNbvXpsImSpØncp∂p. F∂m¬ \ap°v Ahscs°m≠v Hcp
tPmenbpw sNøn°m≥ km[n°n√. \ap°v Pn∂pIsf tkh
I≥ amcm°m≥ Ignbpw F∂v ]dbmhX√. (hnNn¥\w 2009
Pqembv 3 t]Pv 9)
apPmlnZv {]ÿm\w sh®p]pe¿Øp∂ BibmZ¿iØn\v
t\sc hn]coX ZnibneqsSbmWv k°cnøm kzemlnbpw
Iq´m- fn- Ifpw k©- cn- °p- ∂- Xv . Ah¿°v apºv a\p- jyt\m
Pnt∂m A-hsc kv]¿in®n´n√ (dlvam≥ 74) Cu Bi-b-
Øns\ hfs®mSn®v sIm≠mWv k°cnø kzemln Pn∂pw
a\pjycpw sseKnI _‘w \S°mdps≠∂pw arKßfpam
bn´v t]mepw a\pjy≥ CW tNcmdps≠∂pw ]d™psIm
≠mWv Xs‚ hmZw ka¿∞n°m≥ Snbm≥ sXfnhp≠m°p
∂- Xv.
AXn- io{Lw k©- cn- °p∂ henb `mc- ߃ hln-
°p∂ kap{ZØn¬ apßp∂ BImiØn¬ ]d°p∂ P¿a
\n- bn¬ \n∂v acp∂p sIm≠p- h- cm≥ Ign- bp∂ tPym’y-
∑m¿°v hm¿ØIsfØn®psImSp°p∂ Akmam\y i‡n
bp≈ a√∑mcmWv Pn∂pIsf∂v hmgvØmcn]dbp∂h¿ Xs∂
tai- h- en- °p- tºmgpw hSn Fdn- ™mepw NqSp- sh≈w Xqhn-
151
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
bmepw \in®pt]mIp∂ Zp¿_ecmWv Pns∂∂pw ]dbp∂p.
Iev]nX IYIƒ°v A\nhmcyambpw sshcp≤yw D≠mhpa
t√m. Pn∂v ]nimNv hnjbØn¬ apPmlnZpIfpsSbpw k°
cnøm°fpsSbpw Bib߃ ]ckv]cw G‰pap´p∂p≠v kzem
lnsb XIzveoZv sNøp∂ [mcmfw apJ√nZpIsf ]tØmfw
sIm√߃ sIm≠v At±lw krjvSn®ncp∂p. F¥v tI´mepw
hngpßp∂ Hcp ]‰w A‘m\pImcnIfmWv At±lØns‚
aqe[\w aZvl_ns‚ CamapIsfb√ aplΩZv \_n(k)sb
bmWv X߃ ]n≥]‰p∂sX∂ apPmlnZv {]ÿm\Øns‚
a≥lPn¬ \n∂v ]pdØvt]mbn Nne ssiJ∑msc A\pIcn
°m\mWv Ch¿{i- an- °p- ∂- Xv . apPm- lnZv {]ÿm- \- Øn- \- I-
tØ°v Xt‚Xv am{Xamb Nne ]cnjvImc߃ sImavSph
cm≥ kemln {ian-®n-cp-∂p. kpPqZn¬ \n∂v Db-cp-tºmƒ
apjvSn- Np- cp- ´p- ∂- Xn\v kw_- ‘n®v F.- ]n. A_vZp¬ JmZn¿
auehn Xs‚ tNmtZymØcw F∂ ]pkvXIØneqsS IrXy
ambn hniZoIcn®ncp∂p. kemlnbpsS "s]mSnssI' amhp
IpghmZw ke^n tIcfØn¬ ASnt®¬∏n°m\p≈ {iaw
\S∂p. Kƒ^nepw a‰pw hnXvdn¬ Jp\qXv ]XnhmWv. F∂m¬
tIcfØnse apPmlnZpIƒ°nSbn¬ Cu k{ºZmban√. sI.
F≥.Fw. s‚ Hcp ]≈nbnepw Jp\qXv \n¿Δln°s∏Sp∂n
√. kzemln Cu hnjbØnepw Hcp hnπhImcnbpsS thj
saSpØndßn. Xet»cn t]mep≈ ÿeßfn¬ ]≈nbn¬
hnXv dns‚ Jq\qXv HmXm- \p≈ {ia- ap- ≠m- bn. Ah- km\w
hnπh ImcnIƒ ]ØnaS°n. kwLS\°v th≠n BZ¿ihpw
lZokpw _en- I- gn- °tWm F∂p≈ A]- i- _v Z- ßfpw
Db¿∂p.
\akv°mcm\¥cap≈ {]m¿∞\bn¬ ssI Db¿Øp
∂Xns\ sNm√nbpw Nne¿ _lfap≠m°m≥ {ian®p. ldm
152 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
amb Hcp Imcyw sNøp- I- bm- sW∂v tXm∂n- ∏n- °p∂ hn[-
ØnemWv ssI Db¿Ønbp≈ {]m¿∞\sb k°cnøm°ƒ
\ncp’mls∏SpØp∂Xv. Xet»cn ]≈nbn¬ [mcmfw XqWp
Ifp≠v. AXns‚ t]cnepw kzemln {]i\ap≠m°n. Im°,
IgpI≥, ISn°p∂ \mb, ]mºv, tXƒ XpSßnb Nne ip{Z
PohnIfpw sIm√m≥ \_n(k) ]d™ncp∂ Iq´ØnemWv
]√n h[sØ ]‰n-bp≈ lZo-kp-ap-≈-Xv. F∂m¬ BP∑
i{Xp- hn- s\- t]mse ]√n- h- [- Øn¬ am{Xw AXn- cp- I- hn™
h¿Øam\߃ Chcn¬ \n∂v tIƒ°pIbp≠mbn. Ac
Uk\ne[nIw JpXp_ ]√n h[sØ Ipdn®mbncp∂phs{X.
lZoknep≈Xv t]mse kzoIcn°msX CjvSs∏´Xv kzoI
cn- °p- Ibpw Cjv S- s∏- Sm- ØXv Hgn- hm- °p- Ibpw sNøp- ∂Xv
ke^o coXn imkv{X-a-√-X-s∂. Xs‚ `mcy-bp-ambn CW-
tN¿∂ Bƒ J_dn¬ aøØnd°cpXv F∂ Hcp ^Xvhbpw
Ch¿ \mSp\osf {]Ncn∏n®p. _pJmcnbnse lZokv Ch¿
]dbp∂ hn[Ønte A√. Ccn°qdnse Hcp sF.Fkv.Fw.
{]h¿ØIs‚ ]nXmhns\ J_dS°w sNøptºmƒ Ahn
SpsØ Hcp k°cnøm apJ√nZv P\ßfpsS samØw shdp∏v
kºmZn°p∂ hn[Øn¬ hensbmcp {]kvXmh\ \SØn.
\_n(- k)- bpsS aIƒ ssk\- _ns‚ h^m- Xp- ambn am{Xw
_‘s∏´ ImcyamsW∂pw As√∂pap≈ A`n{]mbw Cu
lZokns\ kw_‘n®v D≠v. J_d°w sNøm≥ `mcyamcp
ambn _‘- s∏- Sm- Ø- h¿ apt∂m´v hc- W- sa- s∂ms° ]d-
™m¬, CsXms° henb hnj- b- am°n Fgp- ∂- ≈n- ®m¬
AXp≠m°p∂ ]pIn¬ B¿°pw k¶¬]n°mhp∂tX D≈q.
apA- Δ- Z- ssX\n Jp¿- B- \n¬s]- ´- X√ Fs∂mcp lZo-
kps≠∂v ]d™v Hcp am\y≥ Ckvemln¬ Kw`ocamb Hcp
teJ\hpw FgpXn (C…mlv 2010 am¿®v A≥h¿ A_q_
153
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
°¿) kv{XoIfpsS apJw ad°¬ hnjbØnepw kzemln
AXncpIhn™p. B[p\nI lZokv ]WvUnX\mb \mkndp
±o≥ A¬_m\n kv{XoIƒ°v apJw ad°¬ \n¿_‘ans√∂v
i‡ambn hmZn®ncp∂p. kv{XoIƒ°v thWsa¶n¬ apJw
ad°pItbm ad°mXncn°pItbm sNømw F∂ \ne]mSmWv
ke^n ]WvUnX∑m¿°p≈Xv. kqdØv \qdnse 31˛mw hN\
{]Imcw apJwad°¬ \n¿_‘ans√∂v hcp∂p. cm{Xnbnepw
kp_v ln°pw ]≈n- bn¬ \a- kv °- cn- °m≥ t]mbn- cp∂
kv{XoIsf Ccp´psIm≠mWv Xncn®dnbmXncp∂sX∂v ]Tn
∏n°p∂ [mcmfw lZokpIfp≠v. apJw ad®XpsIm≠v F∂v
FhnsSbpw ]dbp∂n√. ]ckv]cw ZrjvSnIƒ XmgvØWw
F∂ {]tbmKØn¬\n∂v Xs∂ AImcyw kp{KmlyamWv.
F∂m¬ kzemln Cu teJIt\mSv Cu hnjbØn¬ Hcp
]mSv X¿°n°pIbp≠mbn. kv{XoIfpsS kuμcyw {]ISam
Ip∂Xv apJØmWv a\pjy¿ apJtØ°mWv t\m°mdp≈
Xv. AXn\m¬ apJw ad°Ww F∂ \n¿_‘ kzcw hcp∂
hn[ØnemWv At±lw kwkmcn®Xv. icocØnse h√ Ah
bhßfpw th¿s]´pt]mbm¬ AXv I^≥ sNbvXv aønØv
\akvIcn®v J_dS°Wsa∂pw Ch¿ hmZn°p∂p. ]ncn™p
t]mIptºmƒ apkm^mØv sNøcpsX∂pw Ch¿ ]dbp∂p.
Cßs\ kzbw aX\nbaßfp≠m°n henb ssiJp\mam
cm-Im-\p≈ {ia-Øn-emWv k°-cn-bm-°ƒ. kmc-amb hnj-
bsam∂pa√t√m F∂v ]d™Xv kam[m\n°m≥ ]‰mØ
hn[w CØcw Imcyßfn¬t]mepw Xo{h \ne]mSpw AXn
cpIhnbepamWv Ch¿°p≈Xv. F¶nepw CXnt\°m¬ henb
{]iv\ßfmWv hnizmkcwKØv Chcp≠m°p∂Xv. Pn∂ns\
ImWm\mhns√∂v a{Zkbnse Ip´nIƒ°v t]mepw Adnbmw.
{]amW߃°v hncp≤ambn, Xm≥ Pn∂ns\ I≠psh∂v Hcp
154 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
k°cnø apJ√nXmb {]mkwKnI≥ tIm´°en¬ sh®v X´n
hn- ´- t∏mƒ AsXms° tI´v Nncn- °m- \mWv Nne¿ kabw
Is≠ØnbXv. as‰mcmƒ km¬thj\n¬ Pn∂v lmfndmb
IYbpw ]d™p. {]amWw ]Tn® Hcmƒ°v Fßs\ CØcw
alØmb hnUvVnØc߃ ]dbm\mhp∂p F∂mWv \mw
Nn¥nt°≠Xv [mcmfw hnjbßfn¬ {]amWßfn¬ \n∂v
ke^n BibmZ¿ißfn¬ \n∂pw k°cnøm°ƒ _lp
Zqcw AI∂n´p≠v. kwLS\bn¬ ^nXv\bpw ^kmZpap≠m
°p∂ Imcyhpw kwLS\m hncp≤ {]h¿Ø\hpw FSpØp
]dbm≥ sa\s°´m¬ AXn\pXs∂ ]pkvXI߃ [mcmfw
FgptX≠nhcpw NneImcy߃ am{Xw kqNn∏n°mw.
k°- cn- bm- °- fpsS AXn- cp- I- hn™ ]nimNv hmXw
ImcWw sI.F≥.Fw.\v k¿°pe¿ Cdt°≠n h∂p. F.
]n. kp∂nIfpambn N°c∏dºnepw a´mt©cnbnepw sh®v
\S∂ kwhmZ hyhÿbn¬ Pn∂v hnjbw hen®psIm≠v
h∂v \ΩpsS ]finX≥amsc Ah¿ {]Xntcm[Ønem°n.
hyhÿ kwhmZamhmXncn°m≥ Ah¿°v Ign™p. kzem
lnsb s{]m´Iv‰v sNtø≠nh∂XmWv {]Xntcm[Ønemhm≥
Imc- Ww. kv {Xo ]≈n- {]- th- i\ hnj- b- Øn- \n- S°v Pn∂v
hnjbw ]n∂oSv kwkmcn°sW∂v P∫¿ auehn {]ÿm
hn®p. Cu hnjbtØmSp≈ k°cnbm°fpsS XmXv]cy
amWv AXv hnfnt®mXp∂Xv. kzemln Ckzvemln {]ÿm
\- Øn\v Hcp henb _m[y- X- bm- bn- Øo¿∂n- cn- °p- I- bm- Wv .
ZAvhØv apS-°p∂ kwL-S\m hf¿® apc-Sn-∏n-°p∂ Hcp
hnjbw \sΩ samØØn¬ _m[n®ncn°p∂p. Zud Ft∂m
lZokv ¢mskt∂m t]cn¬ Xs‚ ho´nepw a‰pw ]nimNv
¢mkv Imcy- ambn Ct±lw \S- Øn- bn- cp- ∂p. kwL- S- \sb
sh√p-hn-fn-®p-sIm≠v Hcp kam-¥c ]m¿´n-sb-t]m-se-bmWv
155
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
k°cnbm°ƒ {]h¿Øn°p∂Xv. Xeticn, IÆq¿, s]cn
¥¬aÆ, FShÆ, ]pfn°¬, at©cn XpSßnb [mcmfw
ÿeßfn¬ Pn∂nd°epw _m[ \o°epw \S∂p. A≥h¿
A_q-_-°¿ Pn∂n-d-°-ens\ kw_-‘n®v Hcp eLp-teJ
apPmlnZv sk‚dn¬ sh®v ]ckyambn hnXcWw sNbvXp.
t\XrXzw i‡ambn imkn°pIbpw hne°pIbpw sNbvXp.
F∂n´pw Ckzvemlv B teJ\v ]n∂oSv Ih¿ tÃmdnbmbn
]p\x{]kn≤oIcn®p. amln kztZin Ppss\Zv F∂bmƒ
Xet»cnbn¬ kwLS\ \nbasØ sh√phnfn°p∂ hn[
Øn¬ as‰mcp eJp- teJ {]kn- ≤o- I- cn- ®p. k¿°p- e- dn\v
tijhpw Ckzvemlv Pn∂pw ]nimNpambn ho≠pw cwKØv
h∂p. XpS¿∂v apPmlnZv sk‚dn¬ Ckzvemlns\ t\XrXzw
hne°n. sI.F≥.Fw. kwÿm\ sk{I´dn A_vZpdlvam≥
ke- ^n- s°- Xnsc k°- cnbm kzemln sI.- sP.- bp.- hn\v
\¬Inb ]cmXnteJ\w kzemln injy¿ \msSm´p°pw hnX
cWw sNbvXp. kakvX°mcpsS Iøn¬ hsc Cu IØv
FØm\nSbmbn. ke^nbpsS t]cn¬ kmºØnI Ip‰w
Btcm]n®v sIm≠v Ch¿ IsØgpXpIbpw {]kn≤oIcn°p
Ibpw sNbvXp. Ad_v cmPyØv tPmen sNøp∂ Hcp ae
bmfn ]fin- Xs‚ CS- s]- S¬ aqew ke- ^n- bpsS \nc- ]- cm-
[nXzw sXfnbn°s∏´p.
sI.F≥.Fw. kwLS\m sk{I´dn s{]m^. A_vZp
hns\ ]ckyambn Bt£]n®psIm≠v k°cnbm kzemln
sImbnem≠nbn¬ {]kwKn®p. ]ecpw C\nbpw kwLS\
bn¬ \n∂v ]pdØv t]mIm\ps≠∂pw Ahscsb√mw ]pI®p
NmSn°psa∂pw kzemln ]eh´w hoºv ]d™p. sI.F≥.
Fw. t\Xm°sf Ipdn®v aShq¿ akvXnjvIw hc≠hsc∂pw
Pcm\c _m[n®hsc∂pw ]d™psh∂v Atcm]n®h¿ Xs∂
156 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
F.]n.sbbpw Sn.]n.sbbpw Ingh≥ ]Ssb∂pw d∫¿ Ãmºp
Iƒ F∂pamWv Bt£-]n®Xv. Pn∂v ]nimNv hnj-b-Øn¬
]pkv XIw cPn® kpsse- am≥ Ajv I¿ F∂ Atd- _y≥
]finXs‚ ]pkvXIw "CkveanI ]mT߃' F∂ t]cn¬
hnh¿Ø-Is‚ t]sc-gp-XmsX k°-cn-bm-°ƒ tIc-f-Øn¬
DS\ofw hnXcWw sNbvXp. IÆqcnse hmcw ]≈nbn¬
sh®v AXns‚ GXm\pw tIm∏nIƒ sI.F≥.Fw. Pn√m {]kn
U≠v tUm. F.- F. _jo¿ Is≠- Sp- Øp. kv {Xo ]≈n
{]thiw ]pWy-an-söpw kv{XoIġv Ah-cpsS hoSmWv
DØasa∂pw ]dbp∂ IrXnbn¬ ItÆdns\ Ipdn®pw Ckvem
anI hncp≤hpw CkvdmtbenbØpw IS∂p h∂n´p≠v.
Hcmƒ°v ItÆdv X´nbm¬ IÆv sh®h≥ Ipfn®
sh≈Øn¬ Ipfn°m\mWv teJI≥ {]Xnhn[nbmbn \n¿t±
in°p∂Xv. CØcw {]mIrX NnIn’°v Ckveman¬ sXfn
hpt≠m? D≈Xv ]dbp∂Xn∂v ]Icw AXncp Ihn™v ]d
bp∂ kz`m- h- amWv ke- ^n- I- fn¬ \n∂v kI- cn- bm- °sf
Xncn®dnbm\p≈ Ffp∏am¿Kw.
tNI- ∂q- cnkw DS- se- Sp- Ø- t∏mƒ apPm- ln- Zp- Iƒ
AXns\ t\cn´Xv Bibw sIm≠mWv. Iøq°v sIm≠mbn
cp∂n√. FSØ\m´pIc t]mep≈ apPmlnZv `qcn]£ap≈
al- √p- I- fn¬ ka- kv X- °mcpw a‰pw apPm- ln- Zp- Isf sXdn
]d™v {]kwKn®n´pw \mfn∂phsc Hcp tÃPpw \mw Itø
dnbn´n√. Hcmsfbpw `ojWns∏SpØnbn´n√. AXv BZ¿i
an√mØhcpsS Bbp[amsW∂ Xncn®dnhp≈hcmWv \ap
°p≈Xv. ]s£, AklnjvWpXbpsSbpw `ojWnbpsSbpw
Itø‰Øns‚bpw `mjbn¬ k°cnbm°ƒ sI.F≥.Fw.¬
Xs∂- bp- ≈- hsc t\cn- Sm≥ XpS- ßn- bn- cn- °p- ∂p. Ah- cpsS
Bib]m∏cØamWv CXneqsS hnfnt®mXp∂Xv. Xfn∏d
157
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
ºnse A\kv amjns\ ]≈n¬ sh®v Hcp k°cnbm apJ
√nZv A{Ian®p. Gtgmw kztZinbmb l°ow aplΩZv F∂
bmƒ "]nimNv Ihcp∂ \ΩpsS Nn¥Iƒ' F∂ eJpteJ
hnXcWw sNbvXXns‚ t]cnepw k°cnbm°ƒ {]iv\ap
≠m°n. A¥hnizmk߃s°Xnsc kwkmcn® Ajvd^v
]c- ∏sb JpXp- _- bn¬ \n∂v k°- cn- bm- °ƒ ]ncn- ®p- hn- ´p.
{]ikvX {KŸ-Im-c≥ A_vZp-d-lvam≥ Ccn-th-‰nsb Ch¿
Acp°m°n. Imk¿tKmUv ]eh´w kwL¿jw \S∂p. sI.
F≥.Fw.s‚ HutZymKnI Iymadm am\pw Xet»cnbnse sF.
Fkv.Fw. {]h¿ØI\pamb kn±oJv k°cnbm°fpsS A¥
hnizmk߬s°Xnsc Fkv.Fw.Fkv. Ab®Xn\v ssk_¿
sk√n¬ k°- cnbm kzem- lnbpw apco- Zp- Ifpw ]cmXn
sImSpØv t]meokv tÃj\n¬ hnfn∏n®p. kn±oJns\Xnsc
]{Xßfn¬ I≈ hm¿Ø sImSp°pIbpw eJpteJ ASn
®nd°pIbpw sNbvXp. sI.F≥.Fw. CSbn¬ ]oSnI bqWn
‰nse `mchmlvIfdnbmsX AhcpsS t]cnep≈ hymP t\m´o
kmWv k°cnbm°ƒ {]kn≤oIcn®Xv. ke^o tIcfsØ
A]- am- \n°pw hn[- ap≈ k°- cn- bm- °- fpsS hnf- bm- ´- hpw
IqØm´hpw XpScpIbmWv. k°cnbsb FXn¿°p∂hsc
sb√mw aShqcnIfm°n ap{ZIpØp∂hcpsS X\n \ndw F¥m
sW∂v t\m°mw.
1) i_m_n¬ \n∂pw apIfn¬ D≤cn® teJ\Øn¬
]d™Xn¬ A∏pdsam∂pw ]nimNv tkhI¿°p≈ ]nim
Nns‚ D]ImcsØ Ipdn®v Cu teJI≥ ]d™n´n√. (k
e^n {]ÿm\w: hna¿j\ßfpw adp]Snbpw ˛ k°dnbm
kzemln, t]Pv: 129)
2) Pn∂v hnjbhpambn _‘s∏´v Rm≥ ¢mskSp
Øn- ´p≈ an° Imcy- ßfpw i_m- _n¬ Fw.- sF. X߃
158 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
hnh¿Ø\w sNbvX teJ\Øn¬ \n∂pw sNdnbap≠Øns‚
apJmapJØn¬ \n∂pamWv BZyambn hmbn°p∂Xv Xs∂.
(AtX ]pkvXIw ˛ A\p_‘w A`napJw, t]Pv: 142)
3) Pn∂v ]nimNpIsf Ipdn®v ]pXnb ]e hnhcßfpw
Ckzvemln tIcfØnte°v BZyambn Cd°paXn sNbvXXv
]nf¿∏≥am¿ A\ymbambn IøS°nsh® i_m_v hmcnI
Xs∂bmWv. 1999Xn¬ A_q Aao\m _nem¬ ^nen]vkns‚
Pn∂v hnj- b- Øn- ep≈ \nc- h[n teJ- \- ߃ ]cn- ]m- j- s∏-
SpØn i_m- _n- eqsS h∂- t∏m- gmWv ]ecpw Cu hnjbw
{i≤n°m≥ XpSßnbXv. A°meØv CsXm∂pw A‘hn
izmktam \hbmYmkvXnIØtam Cu kp√antbm At±l
Øns‚ C∂sØ Iq´mfnItfm Btcm]n®n√! F∂m¬ AtX
Imcyw sI.F≥.Fw.s\ A\pIqen°p∂ Nne {]mkwKnI¿
FSpØv ]d™t∏mƒ Ah \hbmYmkvXnIØambn! A‘
hnizmkØnte°v \bn°embn! {]kvXpX teJ\߃ ]cn
]mjs∏SpØnb Fw.sF. Xßfpw AXv tIcfsam´p°v {]N
cn∏n® i_m_pImcpw ip≤ \thm≤m\°mcpw ]ptcmKa\
°mcpw (k°cnbm kzemln ˛ AtX ]pkvXIw, t]Pv: 66)
4) ASn-h-c-bn´ `mKw aS-hq-cn-Iƒ B¿Øn®v hmbn-
°s´! CXn¬ ]cw F¥mWv \nßfp≤cn® Ckzvemlv amkn
I- bn- ep- ≈- Xv ? Ckv emlv amkn- I- bn¬ D≈Xv in¿°m- sW-
¶n¬ 2001 apX¬ C∂phscbpw kz¥w ]pkvXIØneqsS
\msSm´p°v {]Ncn∏n® Cu "KpcpXcamb in¿°ns\' CXp
hsc Xncp- Øn- bn- ´pt≠m? (k- °- cnbm kzem- ln ˛ AtX
]pkvX-Iw, t]Pv: 83)
5) Hcp Imcyw i_m_nepw bphXm ]pkvXIßfnepw
h∂m¬ AXv ip≤ XuloZpw AtX Imcyw Ckzvemlv amkn
I-bntem at‰m Bbm¬ AXv sImSnb in¿°pw Bhp-∂-
159
A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
Xns‚ am\ZWvVw F¥mWv? (k°cnbm kzemln ˛ AtX
]pkvX-Iw, t]Pv: 86)
Fw.sF. Xßfpw sI.sI.bpw A_vZpemw kp√
anbpw tImb°p´nbpw sNdnbap≠hpw kn.Fw. auehnbpw
i_m_pw bphXbpw ]ds™sX√mw (Pn∂v ]nimNv hmXw)
Gs‰- SpØv apPm- lnZv {]ÿm- \- Øn- \- I- tØ°v Cd- °p- aXn
sNøm≥ k°cnbm kzemlnsb sI.F≥.Fw. NpaXes∏Sp
Øn- bn- ´pt≠m? Ah- cpsS D≤- c- Wn- Iƒ sIm≠v ]pkvXIw
\nd®Xv AØcw hmXw sX‰msW∂v ka¿∞n°m\mtWm?
AtX hmZta X\ns°m≈q F∂mh¿Øn°m\t√? Bib
hyXnbm\w kw`hn®hsc∂v ]dbs∏´hcpsS CØcw teJ
\߃ F¥n\mWv G‰p]nSn°p∂Xv. km[mcW FXncm
fnIfpsS D≤cWn FSpØpsImSp°p∂Xv AXns\ hna¿in
°m\mWv. F∂m¬ aShq¿ hn`mKØns‚ teJ\hpw D±c
Wnbpw k°cnb tXmfnte‰nbXv Pn∂v ]nimNv hnjbØn¬
X\n°pw aS- hq- cn- Ifpw hmZ- am- Wp- ≈- sX∂v ]d- bm- \m- Wv .
Fs¥mcp hntcm[m`mkw! Ahsc ]‰n apAvXkne F∂pw
lZokv \ntj[nIsf∂pw kz¥w \mhpsIm≠v ]dbpIbpw
AhcpsS D±cnWnIƒ C{X h≥tXmXn¬ kzoIcn°pIbpw
sNøp∂ ImgvN Hcp ]s£ temIØv Xs∂ BZyambncn
°pw.
F∂m¬ Ah- cpsS teJ- \- ßfpw ]pkv X- I- ßfpw
Xs‚ hmZØn\v sXfnhm°pI! P\ßfpsS IÆn¬ s]mSn
bnSm≥ aShqcnIƒ°v adp]Sn F∂ ]√hn Bh¿Øn°pI.
k°cnbbpw k°cnbm Xzco°ØpImcpw ]b‰p∂ ÿncw
AShpIfmWnsX√mw. \mw CXv Xncn®dnbWw. hmkvXh
Øn¬ k°cnbm kzemln \jn∏n°m\ndßnbncn°p∂Xv
sI.-F≥.-Fw.-s\-bm-Wv. aS-hq-cn-Isf ad-bm-°n-s°m-≠mWv
160 A‘hnizmkØntes°mcp ]n≥hnfn
k°cnbbpw Iq´cpw sI.F≥.Fw.s\Xnsc bp≤w \SØp
∂Xv. apPmlnZv {]ÿm\Øn¬ Pn∂v ]nimNv hnjbw apJy
N¿®bmbXpw ZAvhØv apSv°p∂ kwLS\sb £oWn∏n
°p∂ XeØn¬ AXv amdnbXns‚bpw ImcW°mc≥ kzem
lnbmWv. Cu ]pkvXIw At±lØns‚ Bib hyXnbm
\- Øn- s\- Xn- sc- bm- Wv .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful