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TEXTILES

TEXTILES PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION FLOW
FLOW

TEXTILE
TEXTILE RAW
RAW MATERIAL
MATERIAL
(NATURAL/MAN-MADE)
(NATURAL/MAN-MADE)

YARN
YARN MANUFACTURING
MANUFACTURING
(SPINNING)
(SPINNING)

FABRIC
FABRIC MANUFACTURING
MANUFACTURING
(WEAVING/KNITTING)
(WEAVING/KNITTING)

TEXTILES
TEXTILES PROCESSING
PROCESSING

GARMENT
GARMENT MANUFACTURING
MANUFACTURING

BZU TEXTILE ENGINEERS 1


Textiles Raw Materials
• Nature presents a large variety of fibers.
Beside this it is possible today to produce
a number of different kinds of man made
fibers but only a relatively small amount of
this is actually used in textile industry.

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Raw Material Blends
• Textile raw materials are selected as per
the manufacturing policy of the company
i.e. whether a composite mill or only a
spinning, weaving or dyeing /finishing.

• Cotton mills are usually using the blends of


cotton polyester, cotton viscose, cotton
acrylic, blends of more then two fibers
suit various purpose. Proper selection of
the suitable raw material is directly linked
with the quality of the planned production.

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Textile Fiber
• Fiber is a matter which includes
flexibility, fineness and a high ratio of
length to thickness. It is necessary at
least length to diameter ratio is 1000 to
consider a fiber.

• Some additional characteristics are the


required for textile fibers, such as
stability at high temperature, a certain
minimum strength & extensibility.
BZU TEXTILE ENGINEERS 4
RAW
RAW MATERIALS
MATERIALS TYPES
TYPES

NATURAL
NATURAL FIBERS
FIBERS MAN-MADE
MAN-MADE FIBERS
FIBERS

ANIMAL
ANIMAL VEGITABLE
VEGITABLE SYNTHETICS
SYNTHETICS REGENRATED
REGENRATED

SILK
SILK POLYESTER
POLYESTER VISCOSE
VISCOSE RAYON
RAYON
COTTON
COTTON CUPRO.
WOOL
WOOL NYLON
NYLON CUPRO.
FLAX
FLAX ACETATES
HAIR
HAIR ACRYLIC
ACRYLIC ACETATES
JUTE
JUTE RUBBER
POLYURETHANE
POLYURETHANE RUBBER

MINERAL
MINERAL BASE
BASE MINERAL
MINERAL BASE
BASE
(ASBESTOS)
(ASBESTOS) (GLASS/METAL)
(GLASS/METAL)

BZU TEXTILE ENGINEERS 5


Physical Types of Fiber
1. Staple Fibers: Any fiber with a
practically limited or finite length is
called “Staple Fiber” These are small
length fiber like cotton, wool, jute etc. it
may be natural (Cotton) or man-made
(Viscose rayon, Polyester).
2. Filament Fibers: All fibers having a
practically unlimited or infinite length
are called filaments. Filament fibers are
continuous (long) fiber. It may be natural
like silk or synthetic like Nylon.

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Cotton
• The cotton fiber from the plant as the
long hair attached to the seed inside the
boll. As the plant grow the fibers packed
tightly into the boll. When it reached to
maturity , the bolls bursts and cotton
appears as a soft wad of fine fibers.

• Each cotton seed may produce as many as


20000 fibers on its surface, and a single
boll will contains 150,000 fibers.

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Cotton Fiber Production

1. CULTIVATION
2. PICKING/HARVESTING
3. GINNING

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Ginning
• After picking from field the cotton fibers
are separated from seeds by “Ginning
Process”.

• Quite often wet & damp cotton is


presented to Ginneries which cannot be
perfectly pass through the machine
passages and generally cases to loose a
large percentage of foreign substance . All
foreign matter can not be taken out during
ginning.

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Types of Ginning
1. Saw Ginning: In saw ginning circular saw
revolves on one shaft. The quality of
cotton is more clean in saw ginning. But
Fiber breakage (Gin cut) is too high in saw
ginning.

2. Roller Ginning: In case of roller ginning the


cotton fibers are separated by revolving
rollers. The cotton contains comparatively
more trash.

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Bast Fibers
• These fibers are constructed of long thick
walled cells which overlapped one and
other; they are cemented together by non
cellulose material to form continues strand
that may run the entire length of the plant
stem.

• On the quantity based the jute is most


important in the bast textile fibers, but
the most of is made into baggage cloths.

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Flax
• The production of the flax is 1/7 of the
jute fibers, but the flax is the fibers from
which we make linen; it is on that basis the
most important of the bast fibers in
textiles.

• Flax appears to be the earliest vegetable


bast fiber to be used industrially and there
fibers come from the stem of an annul
plant which grown was confirmed from
almost in all European country, Russia &
North America .
BZU TEXTILE ENGINEERS 12
Production Flow of Flax

1. Cultivation
2. Harvesting
3. Rippling
4. Retting
5. Breaking and Scutching
6. Heckling

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• Harvesting: When the plant reaches to
height of 3`-4` as consider full growth
the plant is pulled up & cut down.

• Rippling: Removal of leaves and seeds by a


series of up right forks.

• Retting: It involve the decomposition of


the woody matter enclosing the cellulose
fibers.

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• Scutching: This process separates
unwanted woody matter from fibers.

• Heckling: This process is like the combing


process of cotton fibers, The coarse
bundle of fibers are separated from finer
bundles, and the fibers are also arranged
parallel to one another the longer fine
fibers.

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Wool Production
• The sheep was an obvious choice when
human needs worm clothing, as he wanted
an animal that would provide a skin of size
suitable for use as a human garment: and
he wanted, at the same time, a creature
that grew a soft and comfortable fleece.

• Modern sheep have been bread to provide


as a large proposition of wool as possible.

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Wool Grading
• When the bales of the wools are opened in
the mills, the fleeces are skirted if this
has not already been done. The fleece may
be classified as whole or, if variable in
quality, separated in to sections such as
shoulders, ides, back, thighs and birth and
belly.
• In general, the shoulder provides the best
wool and the flanks a slight lower quality.
The belly, the tails and legs yield the
poorest quality of wool.

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Types of Recycle Wool
Recovered wool:
• The supply of the wool available to the
world every year amounts to about 2700
million kg (6000 million lbs.). After
scouring, the weight is reduced to some
1550 million kg of pure wool.
• This crop of wool is insufficient to meet
the world’s needs, and the supply is
maintained to some extend by re-using
wool which has already been made in to
yarns and fabrics.

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All wool and virgin wool:
• A fabric or garment label as “all wool”
is not necessarily made from new
fleece wool; it may contain a
proportion of the recovered wool. It
is customary to refer to new wool
materials as “virgin wool”. The “wool
mark”, which designates such virgin
wools, guarantees that a fabric is
made from the new wools.
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Silk
• Silk is not grown in the form of hair, but it
is produced by insects which makes their
webs. Cocoons & climbing ropes. Almost
the entire commercial silk industry is
based on one insect as known “silk worm”.
The silk is made by it, when it wants to
change in chrysalis, then a moth. It spins
the silk rapes the fiber around itself in
the form of a cocoon, inside which it can
settle down in comfort.

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Silk Production
• Production
• Hatching:
• Process of hatching
• Moulting:
• Spinning the cocoon:
• Reeling:
• De-gumming:

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Silk Production
• Production: The silk worm is the cater
pillar of a small half moths belonging to
“bombyx” it lives only on leaves of
mulberry tree. The silk worm spent their
life in eating leaves.

• Hatching: Eggs of silk worm are warm up


for hatching in winter. Hatching is done by
spreading the eggs over the trays in the
hatching shed and chopped leaves of
mulberry trees are spread on the
perforated paper. The worm climbs
through the holes
BZUfor eating
TEXTILE the leaves.
ENGINEERS 22
Silk Production
• Moulting: After 35 days of hatching worm
is 10000 times as heavy as it was born and
it has become greenish white cater pillar.
Now it is ready to start spinning, silk worm
built its cocoon to settle down in it.

• Spinning the cocoon: The liquid silk comes


from two glands called spinneret in the silk
worm head, as the liquid comes out it is
hardened into very fine filaments which
are coated by a gummy substance called
sericin which comes from other two glands
nearly. BZU TEXTILE ENGINEERS 23
Silk Production
• Reeling: The unwinding of filament from
cocoon, is called reeling.

• De-gumming: The natural gum, sericin is


normally left on silk during reeling &
weaving, it acts as a sizing material which
protects fibers from mechanical injury.
The gum is removed from the finished
yarn of fabrics usually by boiling with soap
in water.
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The Final Comments
• Thank you very much for your time
but thanks for this opportunity you
have provided to us at very basic
stage, this actually gives us very tuff
time but with your guidance and
instruction forward by our supervisor
infect, make this dream imaginable.

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