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CvSU HS 1 Final Manuscript

CvSU HS 1 Final Manuscript

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0 PRODUCTION OF GLUE STICKS FROM USED PLASTIC MATERIALS

A Research submitted to the faculty of Science High School Cavite State University Indang, Cavite

In partial Fulfillment on the Requirements for graduation

PATRICIA S. CREENCIA KYSCES CAMILLE B. BAUTISTA March 2010

1 PRODUCTION OF GLUE STICKS FROM USED PLASTIC MATERIALS

Creencia, Patricia S. Bautista, Kysces Camille B.

A research submitted to the faculty of Science High School, College of Education, Cavite State University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for graduation, under the supervision of Mrs Dulce Ramos.

INTRODUCTION

Plastics are indispensable to modern way of life. So it is produced in a very huge amount and its convenience is undeniable. The considerable growth in plastic use is due to the beneficial properties of plastics. These include: extreme versatility and ability to be tailored to meet very specific technical needs; lighter weight than competing materials, reducing fuel consumption during transportation; extreme durability; resistance to

chemicals, water and impact; good safety and hygiene properties for food packaging; excellent thermal and electrical insulation properties; and relatively inexpensive to produce (West, 2001). Because of the advantages that plastic products offer, its use has increased plastic waste. Plastic has the property of not decomposing for a long time. This means that if thrown in landfills it will take thousands of years to decay. The manufacturing of plastic also consumes water and releases greenhouse gases in the atmosphere contributing to global warming. Plastic being light weight can be transported to long distance easily by water or air. It is also responsible for the deaths of many animals, fishes and birds. Thus,

2 there is a need that plastic products must be recycled and must not end in landfills (Black Dog Publishing, 2006). Recycling is the process of turning one products useful part into a new product. Recycling involves processing used materials into new products in order to prevent the waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air (from incineration) and water (from land filling) pollution by reducing the need for "conventional" waste disposal, and lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to virgin production. Recycling is a key component of modern waste management and is the third component of the "Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle" waste hierarchy (Ackerman, 1997). Plastic recycling saves energy. When new products are manufactured from the raw material obtained from recycled products, it saves a lot of energy which is consumed for the production. Recycling plastics helps in preventing global climate change to a great extent. By minimizing the energy spent on industrial production, recycling also helps in reducing greenhouse gas emission. Since recycling involves the processing and usage of the core elements of an old product for the production of new products. Plastic recycling helps in saving natural resources to a great extent (Ghosh, 2008). There is a wide range of products made from recycled plastic. This includes polyethylene bin liners and carrier bags; PVC sewer pipes, flooring and window frames; building insulation board; video and compact disc cassette cases; fencing and garden furniture; water butts, garden sheds and composters; seed trays; anoraks and fleeces; fiber filling for sleeping bags and duvets; and a variety of office accessories (www.recycledproducts.org.uk).

this research answered the following questions: 1. but hardens and stops being sticky in a few seconds—a minute at most (Keenan. which may be pushed through the gun by a trigger mechanism. 2000). shop and in industry. single use plastic materials. What is the percentage yield of glue sticks produced from used plastic materials? . Glue stick has found its way into hundreds of new and innovative uses around the home. The glue squeezed out of the heated nozzle is initially hot enough to burn and blister skin. Statement of the Problem This study generally aimed to produce glue sticks from used plastic materials. The glue is tacky when hot.3 Glue stick is one of the products that could be created by recycling plastic materials. The gun uses a continuous-duty heating element to melt the plastic glue. Specifically. or directly by the user. Glue stick has become popular for many crafts and household repairs. This experimental study aimed to recycle plastic materials by transforming them into glue sticks thereby providing a viable solution to the actual costs paid by our environmental and by our society for the fleeting convenience of unlimited free. designed to be melted in an electric hot glue gun. It is a form of thermoplastic adhesive that is commonly supplied in solid cylindrical sticks of various diameters. What are the physical/sensory properties of glue sticks from used plastic materials? 2.

Specifically. and 4. Which among the produced glue sticks will be the most acceptable to consumers in terms of physical or sensory properties? 4. This study could . This study could help minimize plastic garbage in the community. This study will demonstrate a successful way to strengthen the capacity to recycle plastic wastes in the community.4 3. and to reduce environmental impacts associated with pollution from new plastics production and incineration of plastic waste and pressure on limited landfill space. determine the physical/sensory properties of glue sticks from used plastic materials. determine the percentage yield of glue sticks produced from used plastic materials. determine the acceptability of the produced glue sticks from used plastic materials when compared to commercial glue sticks. 3. the purpose of this study was to produce glue sticks from used plastic materials. Importance of the Study Several notable benefits would be generated as a result of this study. 2. determine the most acceptable to consumers in terms of physical or sensory properties among the produced glue sticks. this aimed to: 1. What is the acceptability of the produced glue sticks from used plastic materials when compared to the commercial glue sticks? Objectives of the Study Generally.

Purposive sampling was employed in selecting the respondents. Scope and Limitations of the Study The study was limited to the production of glue sticks from used plastic materials such as plastic cups and plastic bags. Kerosene was used for melting plastic materials. . The entrepreneurs who profit from making crafts may be able to use the produced glue stick as an alternative to commercial glue sticks. the results of this study may serve as reference material to students conducting related studies. Dimabiling St. Finally. Cavite who are using glue sticks in their business. The study involved six treatments. The most acceptable glue stick was compared to the commercial glue stick. Time and Place of the Study The study was conducted at 134 J. The produced glue sticks by treatment were evaluated by thirty (30) selected craftsmen from the locality of Indang. Cavite from October to November 2009. The production process was done in three trials. each replicated three times. The respondents were asked to use the products and answer the prepared score sheet according to their sensory or physical properties.5 also open new employment opportunities for people interested in this line of business by using the tools. techniques and information that will be obtained in this study. Indang.

paper. Plastic refers to plastic cups and bags which will be recycled with the aid of kerosene to produce glue sticks. rubber. paper. 3=Sticky 2=Slightly Sticky. thin. Odor refers to the scent of the produced glue sticks which will be rated by panelists using a four-point rating scale ranging from 4= Very Pleasant. Sensory evaluation is a procedure in which panelists evaluate the samples and decides on the attributes of the product based on the use of senses such as odor. Kerosene is colorless flammable oil distilled from petroleum that will be used to recycle plastics cups and bags to produce glue sticks. and 1=Not Pleasant.6 Definition of Terms General Acceptability refers to the degree of preference for the appearance and satisfactoriness of glue stick as an adhesive material. The stickiness of the produced glue sticks will be tested on wood. General acceptability will be rated using a four-point rating scale ranging from 4=Highly Acceptable. . 3=Pleasant 2=Slightly Pleasant. ceramics and glass. metal. and 1= Not Sticky. transparency and stickiness. 3=Acceptable. metal. texture. rubber. It is the product made of used plastic materials. ceramics and glass. Glue stick refers to a short. Stickiness refers to the adhesiveness of the produced glue sticks which will be rated by panelists using a four-point rating scale ranging from 4=Very Sticky. colorless adhesive stick that is either placed inside an electronic gun or be heated in a candle to attach objects such as wood. 2=Slightly acceptable and 1=Not Unacceptable.

Transparency refers to the lucidity of the produced glue sticks which will be rated by panelists using a four-point rating scale ranging from 4= Very Transparent.7 Texture refers to the consistency of surface of the produced glue sticks which will be rated by panelists using a four-point rating scale ranging from 4=Very Smooth. 3= Smooth. 2= Slightly Transparent and 1= Not Transparent. 2=Rough. 3=Transparent. . and 1=Very Rough.

plastics do not rust or rot. of many of them.29 oz/cu.8 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE General Properties of Plastic Plastic is the general term for a wide range of synthetic or semisynthetic polymerization products.85 g/cm3 (5.45 to 1. The word derives from the Greek plastikos. aluminum is a ductile material and can undergo "plastic" deformation when the material undergoes stress from a force and results in a strain of which it will not return. Plastics have a lower density than that of metals. They are composed of organic condensation or addition polymers and may contain other substances to improve performance or reduce costs. There are many natural polymers generally considered to be "plastics".in.) compared to steels density of 7. They can also be manufactured as clear glass. "Plastics" refers to the polymer material. translucent or opaque (Encarta Encyclopedia. 2001). most plastics vary in density from 0. They are lighter than any materials of comparable strength. "fit for molding". Plastics can be formed into many different types of objects.5 oz/cu.). or plasticity.in. The "s" in "plastics" is there to distinguish between the polymer and the way a material deforms. and from plastos "molded" (Encarta Encyclopedia. Plastic can also be reinforced with glass and other fibers to form incredibly strong materials for example. Most plastics can be produced in any color.9 to 2. 2001). or films. so plastics are lighter. For example. nylon reinforced with glass can . Plastics pose a wide variety of useful properties and are relatively inexpensive to produce. and unlike metals and wood. or fibers. Their name is derived from the malleability.2 g/cm3 (0.

Because of their molecular stability. plastics do not easily break down simpler components. And chances are the reason has everything to do with helping you. Plastics help make these things possible (Ackerman. there's a reason. If a product is made of plastic. plastics help make your life easier and better. So maybe there's another question that's relevant: What do I want? Regardless of how you answer this question. get what you want. disposal of plastic creates a solid waste problem (Ackerman. Although certain plastics are specially designed to withstand temperatures as high as 288ْ C (550ْ F). plastics play an important part in your life. Plastics' versatility allows it to be used in everything from car parts to doll parts. plastic are not used whan high heat resistance is needed. From the car you drive to work in to the television you watch when you get home. . 1997). Plastics have the unique capability to be manufactured to meet very specific functional needs for consumers. 000psi).9 have tensile strength (resistance of material to being elongated or pulled apart) of op to 165 mega Pascal (24. Uses of Plastic Whether you are aware of it or not. from soft drink bottles to the refrigerators they are stored in. So how is it that plastic has become so widely used? How did plastics become the material of choice for so many varied applications? The simple answer is that plastics are the material that can provide the things consumers want and need. As a result. plastics can probably satisfy your needs. Plastic have some disadvantages. the consumer. Plastics help make these things possible. some plastics produce poisonous gas. in general. 1997). Plastics have the unique capability to be manufactured to meet very specific functional needs. When burned.

2001).10 Plastic Recycling Plastic recycling is the process of recovering scrap or waste plastics and reprocessing the material into useful products. Another barrier to recycling is the widespread use of dyes. . plastic polymers require greater processing to be recycled. so its enthalpy of mixing is large compared to that of an organic molecule with a similar structure. A macromolecule interacts with its environment along its entire length. Heating alone is not enough to dissolve such a large molecule. sometimes completely different from their original state. PET. plastics must often be of nearly identical composition in order to mix efficiently (West. like oil and water. meaning that polymer blends are only useful in limited applications (West. The polymer is generally too viscous to economically remove fillers. 2001). for instance. 2001). Additives are less widely used in beverage containers and plastic bags. The phase boundaries cause structural weakness in the resulting material. plastics are sorted according to their resin identification code. 2001). this could mean melting down soft drink bottles then casting them as plastic chairs and tables. which is due to the high molecular weight of their large polymer chains. allowing them to be recycled more frequently (West. Plastics have low entropy of mixing. fillers. and set in these layers. For instance. and other additives in plastics. has a resin code of 1 (West. and would be damaged by many of the processes that could cheaply remove the added dyes. When compared to other materials like glass and metal materials. When different types of plastics are melted together they tend to phase-separate. Before recycling. because of this.

. card and felt together. the study showed that adhesive stick produced in T2 can be a good substitute for commercial adhesive stick. to see where the glue is being applied easier) varieties . odor. solvent free. 2000). There are now permanent. and dyed (e.11 Uses of Glue Sticks Glue sticks are only designed to glue paper. The kerosene added to the solutions affected the odor of the adhesive sticks. Overall. 125 g cut plastic cups and a liter of kerosene (T2). washable.g. 2000). and texture of adhesive sticks among treatments. Commercial adhesive stick was found to be the most pleasant in terms of odor. and advise that. There were significant differences in the transparency. It was found out that T1 and T2 can be substituted to commercial adhesive stick in terms of transparency while T1. as glue sticks are not as strong as some liquid based variants. though the glue is non-toxic so use with children over three is safe (Keenan. office use and at school. non-toxic. They can be used for craft and design. The treatments were: a control (commercial adhesive stick and four solutions containing 100 g cut plastic cups and a liter of kerosene (T1). due to small parts (the cap). acid-free. T2 and T4 had similar texture with the control. and 200 g cut plastic cups and a liter of kerosene (T4).glue sticks can have one or more of these features incorporated into them (Keenan. 150 g cut plastic cups and a liter of kerosene (T3). Related Studies A study conducted by Mendoza and Papa (2002) tested the use of plastic cups in the production of adhesive sticks. The manufacturers recommend replacing the cap after use. The amount of plastic cups used affected the visibility of adhesive sticks. children under the age of three should not use it.

Methods Collection and Preparation of Materials A. Indang. the methods of producing glue sticks. Kerosene was bought in a gasoline station in Indang. Collection of Materials The used plastic materials were collected from different households in Indang town proper and Carasuchi. gathering of data and statistical analyses. Cavite. Materials and Equipment Materials Used plastic materials (such as Plastic cups and plastic bags) 54 liters of kerosene Spring balance Evaluation sheet Equipment Molder Charcoal stove Kettle Double boiler Beaker Pair of scissors II. Cavite.12 METHODOLOGY This chapter discusses the materials and equipment that were. Beaker and spring balance were borrowed from the CvSU-SHS laboratory room. I. .

Preparation of sample The production process involved six treatments with each treatment replicated three times. charcoal stove and molder were prepared.13 B. Thereafter. Preparation of glue sticks Prior to the production of glue sticks. the labeled containers of cut plastic materials. A liter of kerosene were combined with cut plastic materials according to the . The dried plastic cups were wiped with a clean piece of cloth and cut into small pieces with the use of scissors. the cut plastics were weighed in the amount specified in the experimental treatments and were placed in separate containers. Production of Glue Sticks A. The treatments were as follows: Control treatment (T0) = Commercial glue stick (Best Buy glue stick) Treatment 1 (T1) Treatment 2 (T2) Treatment 3 (T3) Treatment 4 (T4) Treatment 5 (T5) Treatment6 (T6) = 100 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene = 125 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene = 150 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene = 100 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene = 125 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene = 150 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene B. kerosene and equipment such as double boiler. Preparation of materials The plastics collected were cleaned with water (H2O) then sun-dried.

the mixture was cooled down overnight until it sets in completely and takes the shape of the molder. Statistical Analyses The data collected were analyzed using one way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance). stickiness and general acceptability. texture. Gathering of Data 1. it was removed from the molder and placed in separate containers for evaluation. Yield refers to the percent yield of the glue sticks produced from each treatment after three production trials. Once melted.14 specified treatment and melted using a double boiler. The mixture was placed in medium heat until it totally melts. Significant results were further subjected to Duncan’s Multiple Range Test for mean comparison. Then. Sensory evaluation Thirty panelists composed of craftsmen evaluated the glue sticks by treatment with the use of the prepared score sheet (Appendix A) in terms of transparency. The formula for yield is: Percent Yield  Total Weight of Glue Sticks produced by Treatment x 100 Total Volume of Solution by Treatment 2. The same procedure was employed for all treatments. the liquefied mixture was transferred in a kettle so that it would be easier to place it in a ¼ in x 5 in molder. odor. Once cooled. .

The computed F-value of 22.27 was significant at 1% level. Hence. On the other hand. Data indicated that the produced glue sticks were rated as ―unpleasant‖ by the evaluators. data suggest the commercial glue stick was better than the produced glue sticks in terms of odor. Highly significant difference was found in the odor of produced glue sticks among treatments (Appendix Table 2). . All of the produced glue sticks were rated ―not transparent‖ by the evaluators while the control was rated as ―slightly transparent‖.15 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION This section discusses the physical/sensory properties of glue sticks from used plastic materials. This was due to the stingy smell of the kerosene used in producing glue sticks. the percentage yield of glue sticks produced from used plastic materials. commercial glue stick was rated with ―pleasant‖ odor by the evaluators.16 was significant at 1% level. Physical/Sensory Properties of Produced Glue Sticks from Used Plastic Materials by Treatment Transparency. The computed F-value of 85. and the acceptability of the produced glue sticks from used plastic materials when compared to the commercial glue sticks. Data on Table 1 shows the commercial glue stick was better than the produced glue sticks in terms of transparency. Highly significant difference existed in the transparency of produced glue sticks among treatments (Appendix Table 1). Odor. the most acceptable glue sticks to consumers in terms of physical or sensory properties by treatment.

02b 1.16 Table 1.50 – 3.02b 1.00 ADJECTIVAL RATING Not Transparent Slightly Transparent Transparent Very Transparent .24 3.07a 1.74 1. Transparency of the produced glue sticks by treatment TREATMENT MEAN SCORE* 2.75 – 2.03b 1.03b INTERPRETATION T0 = Commercial glue stick (Best Buy glue stick) T1 = 100 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene T2 = 125 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene T3 = 150 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene T4 = 100 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene T5 = 125 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene T6 = 150 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene Slightly Transparent Not Transparent Not Transparent Not Transparent Not Transparent Not Transparent Not Transparent *Means in the same column containing superscripts with similar alphabet do not differ significantly (P > 0.49 2.00 – 1.05) Scale: MEAN SCORE 1.07b 1.01b 1.25 – 4.

56 was less than the critical value of 2. The computed F-value of 0. This suggests that the produced glue sticks were comparable to commercial glue stick in terms of texture. No significant difference existed in terms of texture of produced glue sticks among treatments.12b INTERPRETATION T0 = Commercial glue stick (Best Buy glue stick) T1 = 100 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene T2 = 125 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene T3 = 150 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene T4 = 100 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene T5 = 125 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene T6 = 150 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene Pleasant Unpleasant Unpleasant Unpleasant Unpleasant Unpleasant Unpleasant *Means in the same column containing superscripts with similar alphabet do not differ significantly (P > 0.17 Table 2. .00 Unpleasant Slightly Pleasant Pleasant Very Pleasant Texture.00 – 1.24 3.75 – 2.16b 1.25 – 4.85 at five percent level (Appendix Table 3). This pointed to the existence of similar textures among treatments.68a 1.05) Scale: MEAN SCORE ADJECTIVAL RATING 1.50 – 3.14b 1. Table 3 shows that all of the produced glue sticks including the control were rated by the evaluators as ―very smooth‖.49 2.09b 1.24b 1.14b 1. Odor of the produced glue sticks by treatment TREATMENT MEAN SCORE* 2.74 1.

71 was significant at 1% level.49 2.50 – 3. The computed F-value of 21.25 – 4.00 – 1. Texture of the produced glue sticks by treatment TREATMENT MEAN SCORE* 3. Highly significant difference existed in terms stickiness on wood of produced glue sticks among treatments. This pointed to the existence of notable difference among treatments when evaluators tested the stickiness of produced glue sticks on wood.18 Table 3. T2 (125 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of .36a 3. Two treatments.34a 3.00 ADJECTIVAL RATING Not Smooth Slightly Smooth Smooth Very Smooth Stickiness on wood.91a 3.37a 3.24 3.31a 3. Table 4 shows that commercial glue stick was ―very sticky‖ on wood while produced glue sticks made from 150 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene (T6 ) was rated ―sticky‖ on wood.75 – 2.74 1.36a INTERPRETATION T0 = Commercial glue stick (Best Buy glue stick) T1 = 100 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene T2 = 125 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene T3 = 150 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene T4 = 100 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene T5 = 125 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene T6 = 150 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene Very Smooth Very Smooth Very Smooth Very Smooth Very Smooth Very Smooth Very Smooth *Means in the same column containing superscripts with similar alphabet do not differ significantly (P > 0.32a 3.05) Scale: MEAN SCORE 1.

00 ADJECTIVAL RATING Not Sticky Slightly Sticky Sticky Very Sticky . Stickiness on wood of the produced glue sticks by treatment TREATMENT MEAN SCORE* 3.50 – 3.49 2.75 – 2.52c 2. Except for commercial glue stick (T0).39c 1.00 – 1.91a 1.13c 3. The remaining glue sticks produced from 100 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene (T1) and 100 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene (T4) were found ―not sticky‖ on wood by the evaluators. Table 4.18c INTERPRETATION T0 = Commercial glue stick (Best Buy glue stick) T1 = 100 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene T2 = 125 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene T3 = 150 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene T4 = 100 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene T5 = 125 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene T6 = 150 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene Very Sticky Not Sticky Slightly Sticky Sticky Not Sticky Slightly Sticky Sticky *Means in the same column containing superscripts with similar alphabet do not differ significantly (P > 0.99c 2.25 – 4.05) Scale: MEAN SCORE 1. glue sticks made from T6 was the best to use to glue wooden materials.91b 1.74 1.19 kerosene) and T5 (125 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene) were rated by the evaluators as ―slightly sticky‖.24 3.

Glue sticks produced from 125 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene (T5) were . Ranked second were glue sticks made from 150 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene (T6) and glue sticks made from 150 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene (T3) which were rated by the evaluators as ―sticky‖ on metal objects. glue sticks made from 125 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene (T2) and glue sticks produced from 125 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene (T5) were rated by the evaluators as ―slightly sticky‖. Apart from commercial glue stick (T0).20 Stickiness on rubber. This implies that there was a striking difference among treatments when evaluators tested the produced glue sticks on metal objects. The computed F-value of 19. Highly significant difference existed in terms stickiness on metal of produced glue sticks among treatments. The remaining glue sticks produced from 100 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene (T1) and 100 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene (T4) were rated ―not sticky‖ on rubber by the evaluators. glue sticks made from T6 was the best to use to stick rubber materials. Table 5 shows that commercial glue stick was ―very sticky‖ on rubber. Highly significant difference was found in terms stickiness on rubber of produced glue sticks among treatments.67 was significant at 1% level (Appendix Table 5). Two treatments.92 was significant at 1% level (Appendix Table 6). This suggests that there was a considerable difference in the stickiness of produced glue sticks on rubber when used by evaluators. Stickiness on metal. The computed F-value of 57. Ranked second in terms of stickiness on rubber were produced glue sticks made from 150 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene (T6 ) which was rated ―sticky‖ by the evaluators. Data on Table 6 shows that commercial glue stick was ―very sticky‖ on metal.

00 ADJECTIVAL RATING Not Sticky Slightly Sticky Sticky Very Sticky . Stickiness on rubber of the produced glue sticks by treatment TREATMENT MEAN SCORE 3.57c 2.00 – 1. and 100 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene (T4) were found ―not sticky‖ on metal by the evaluators. Excluding commercial glue stick (T0).81b 1.74 1.21 rated by the evaluators as ―slightly sticky‖.25 – 4. glue sticks made from T3 and T6 were the most suitable to stick metal objects. The remaining glue sticks produced from 100 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene (T1).75 – 2.05) Scale: MEAN SCORE 1.04b INTERPRETATION T0 = Commercial glue stick (Best Buy glue stick) T1 = 100 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene T2 = 125 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene T3 = 150 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene T4 = 100 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene T5 = 125 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene T6 = 150 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene Very Sticky Not Sticky Slightly Sticky Sticky Not Sticky Slightly Sticky Sticky *Means in the same column containing superscripts with similar alphabet do not differ significantly (P > 0.93a 1.03c 3.50 – 3. 125 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene (T2).49 2.84c 2. Table 5.20c 1.24 3.

24 3. commercial glue stick was found ―very sticky‖ on paper while glue sticks made from 150 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene (T6 ) and glue sticks produced from 150 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene (T3) were .50 – 3.31c 1.75 – 2.27c 1.22 Table 6. Appendix Table 7 revealed a high significant difference in the stickiness on paper of produced glue sticks among treatments.00 – 1. Stickiness on metal of the produced glue sticks by treatment TREATMENT MEAN SCORE 3.49 2.78c 2.89a 1. The computed F-value of 38.88b 1. As shown in Table 7.25 – 4.05) Scale: MEAN SCORE 1.00 ADJECTIVAL RATING Not Sticky Slightly Sticky Sticky Very Sticky Stickiness on paper.74 1.86 was significant at 1% level.52c 2.88b INTERPRETATION T0 = Commercial glue stick (Best Buy glue stick) T1 = 100 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene T2 = 125 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene T3 = 150 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene T4 = 100 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene T5 = 125 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene T6 = 150 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene Very Sticky Not Sticky Not Sticky Sticky Not Sticky Slightly Sticky Sticky *Means in the same column containing superscripts with similar alphabet do not differ significantly (P > 0. This shows that there was a remarkable difference among treatments when evaluators tested the stickiness of produced glue sticks on paper.

125 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene (T2).75 – 2. Stickiness on paper of the produced glue sticks by treatment TREATMENT MEAN SCORE 3. and 100 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene (T4) were found ―not sticky‖ on paper by the evaluators. One treatment.49 2.00 – 1.00 ADJECTIVAL RATING Not Sticky Slightly Sticky Sticky Very Sticky .43c 1. Table 7. The remaining glue sticks produced from 100 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene (T1).24 3.90b 1.87a 1. glue sticks produced from T6 and T3 was the best to use to fasten paper materials.05) Scale: MEAN SCORE 1.69c 2.25 – 4.32c 1.50 – 3.01b INTERPRETATION T0 = Commercial glue stick (Best Buy glue stick) T1 = 100 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene T2 = 125 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene T3 = 150 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene T4 = 100 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene T5 = 125 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene T6 = 150 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene Very Sticky Not Sticky Not Sticky Sticky Not Sticky Slightly Sticky Sticky *Means in the same column containing superscripts with similar alphabet do not differ significantly (P > 0.23 rated ―sticky‖ on paper by the evaluators. Except for commercial glue stick (T0).74 1. T5 (glue sticks made from 125 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene) was rated as ―slightly sticky‖ by the evaluators.87c 3.

glue sticks made from 150 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene (T6 ) and glue sticks made from 150 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene (T3) were rated as ―slightly sticky‖ by the evaluators. and 100 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene (T4) were rated by the evaluators as ―not sticky‖ on ceramic material. This implies that there was notable difference when evaluators tested the produced glue sticks on ceramic materials. The remaining treatments. The computed F-value of 41.24 Stickiness on ceramics. Highly significant difference was found in terms stickiness on glass of produced glue sticks among treatments. glue sticks .14 was significant at 1% level (Appendix Table 8). 125 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene (T2). The remaining glue sticks produced from 100 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene (T1). glue sticks made from T3 and T6 were the most suitable to stick ceramic materials. Glue sticks produced from 125 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene (T5) were rated by the evaluators as ―slightly sticky‖ on ceramic materials. On the other hand. Ranked second were glue sticks made from 150 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene (T6) and glue sticks made from 150 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene (T3) which were rated by the evaluators as ―sticky‖ on ceramic materials. Data on Table 8 shows that commercial glue stick was ―very sticky‖ on ceramic materials. Excluding commercial glue stick (T0). The computed F-value of 19. Table 9 shows that commercial glue stick was ―very sticky‖ on glass. Stickiness on glass. Highly significant difference existed in terms stickiness on ceramics of produced glue sticks among treatments. This pointed to the existence of marked difference in the stickiness of produced glue sticks on glass when tested by evaluators.09 was significant at 1% level (Appendix Table 9).

Stickiness on ceramics of the produced glue sticks by treatment TREATMENT MEAN SCORE 3.74 1. Data suggest that only commercial glue stick (T0) was appropriate to use to stick glass and glass materials.24 3. Table 8.66b 1.90c 3.25 – 4.50 – 3. glue sticks made from 125 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene (T2). glue sticks 100 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene (T4).49 2.25 produced from 100 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene (T1).53c 1.00 – 1.29c 1.05) Scale: MEAN SCORE 1.00 ADJECTIVAL RATING Not Sticky Slightly Sticky Sticky Very Sticky .67c 2.86a 1.75 – 2. and glue sticks made from 125 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene (T5) were rated by the evaluators as ―not sticky‖ on glass.22b INTERPRETATION T0 = Commercial glue stick (Best Buy glue stick) T1 = 100 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene T2 = 125 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene T3 = 150 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene T4 = 100 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene T5 = 125 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene T6 = 150 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene Very Sticky Not Sticky Not Sticky Sticky Not Sticky Slightly Sticky Sticky *Means in the same column containing superscripts with similar alphabet do not differ significantly (P > 0.

48c 1.23% yield accounted on glue sticks produced from 100 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter .24 3.05) Scale: MEAN SCORE 1. Stickiness on glass of the produced glue sticks by treatment TREATMENT MEAN SCORE 3.49c 2.17c 1.33c 1.96c 1.29b INTERPRETATION T0 = Commercial glue stick (Best Buy glue stick) T1 = 100 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene T2 = 125 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene T3 = 150 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene T4 = 100 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene T5 = 125 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene T6 = 150 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene Very Sticky Not Sticky Not Sticky Slightly Sticky Not Sticky Not Sticky Slightly Sticky *Means in the same column containing superscripts with similar alphabet do not differ significantly (P > 0.00 ADJECTIVAL RATING Not Sticky Slightly Sticky Sticky Very Sticky Percentage Yield of Glue Sticks Produced from Used Plastic Materials Table 10 shows that except for glue sticks made from 125 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene (T2) the percentage yield of all remaining five treatments were more than 100 percent.62a 1.74 1.50 – 3.25 – 4.26 Table 9.49 2.42 % was recorded on T1 or glue sticks produced from 100 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene followed by 100.00 – 1. Highest yield of 100.75 – 2.

30 100.21 126.10 109.30 126.42 153.27 of kerosene (T4).98 113. Ranked second were glue sticks produced from 150 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene (T6) rated by the evaluators as ―acceptable‖.40 131.83 100.50 153. The lowest yield among treatments of 99.06 Acceptability of Produced Glue Sticks from Used Plastics Materials In terms of acceptability of produced glue sticks by treatment.33 100. the highest rating of 3. Ranked third in terms of acceptability were glue sticks made from 150 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of . Percentage yield of glue sticks produced from used plastic materials TREATMENT MEAN WEIGHT OF SOLUTION (in l) MEAN WEIGHT OF PRODUCED GLUE STICKS (in g) PERCENTAGE YIELD T0 = Commercial glue stick (Best Buy glue stick) T1 = 100 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene T2 = 125 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene T3 = 150 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene T4 = 100 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene T5 = 125 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene T6 = 150 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene 109.70 100.47 99.63 100.98% was noted in T2 or glue sticks produced from 125 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene. Table 10.93 interpreted as ―highly acceptable‖ was recorded on commercial glue sticks.23 161.60 113.03 131.20 161.

06 3.32 1.74 1.75 – 2. the most acceptable glue sticks were those produced from 150 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene (T3).49 2.82 2.93 1.24 3.00 ADJECTIVAL RATING Not Acceptable Slightly Acceptable Acceptable Highly Acceptable .00 – 1.28 kerosene (T3). General acceptability of glue sticks produced from used plastic materials TREATMENT MEAN SCORE 3. The lowest ratings in terms of acceptability were recorded on glue sticks produced from 100 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene (T1) and glue sticks made from 100 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene which were rated by evaluators as ―not acceptable‖.50 – 3. Data revealed that except for commercial glue stick (T0). Table 11.53 2. glue sticks made from T3 could be substituted to commercial glue sticks.05) Scale: MEAN SCORE 1.03 INTERPRETATION T0 = Commercial glue stick (Best Buy glue stick) T1 = 100 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene T2 = 125 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene T3 = 150 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene T4 = 100 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene T5 = 125 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene T6 = 150 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene Highly Acceptable Not Acceptable Slightly Acceptable Acceptable Not Acceptable Slightly Acceptable Acceptable *Means in the same column containing superscripts with similar alphabet do not differ significantly (P > 0. Hence.78 1.25 – 4.

determined the percentage yield of glue sticks produced from used plastic materials. Results showed that commercial glue stick (T0) ranked first in all sensory and physical properties as rated by the evaluators. stickiness on wood. and determined the acceptability of the produced glue sticks from used plastic materials when compared to commercial glue sticks. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary An experimental study was conducted to produce glue sticks from used plastic materials. rubber. glue sticks produced from 150 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene (T6) ranked highest in terms of smoothness. paper. and glass. Analysis of variance was used to compare the physical/sensory properties and acceptability of produced glue sticks. the study determined the physical/sensory properties of glue sticks from used plastic materials.29 SUMMARY. determined the most acceptable to consumers in terms of physical or sensory properties among the produced glue sticks. only the commercial glue stick was found acceptable. In terms of odor and transparency. All of the treatments were acceptable in texture. each replicated three times. The lowest rating in terms of physical/sensory properties was recorded on glue sticks made from 100 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene (T1). . DMRT was employed to compare significant results. Excluding commercial glue stick. The experiment was arranged in Completely Randomized Design using six treatments and control. metal. Specifically. ceramics.

3. Commercial glue stick ranked highest in sensory properties and acceptability. Highest yield of 100.42 % was recorded on T1 or glue sticks produced from 100 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene while lowest yield of 99. Conclusions Based on the significant findings of the study.98% was noted in T2 or glue sticks produced from 125 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene. Overall.30 Except for glue sticks made from 125 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene (T2) the percentage yield of all remaining five treatments were more than 100 percent. Glue sticks produced from 150 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene (T6) can be substituted from commercial glue sticks since it passed on almost all evaluations in terms of sensory characteristics and acceptability. In contrast. the following conclusions were drawn: 1. glue sticks made from 150 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene (T6) and glue sticks produced from 150 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene (T3) were the most acceptable as rated by evaluators. glue sticks produced from 100 grams of cut plastic cups and 1 liter of kerosene (T1) and glue sticks made from 100 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene (T4) were ―not acceptable‖. 2. glue sticks from used plastic materials could be a viable alternative to glue sticks available in the market. . Odor and transparency are the most critical sensory properties that should be given consideration when producing glue sticks from plastic materials. In terms of acceptability. 4.

it is therefore suggested to interested entrepreneurs to explore the possibility of engaging in the business of producing glue sticks utilizing the methods and materials used in T6 with added improvements in odor and transparency. future research should seek to explore other alternative and enhanced method in the production of glue sticks. Since it was found out that glue sticks produced from 150 grams of cut plastic bottles and 1 liter of kerosene (T6) can be substituted from commercial glue sticks.31 Recommendations The findings of the study revealed that the odor and transparency of produced glue sticks did not pass on the standards of evaluators. this could be a good source of income for interested entrepreneurs. Individuals who wish to engage in the production of glue sticks from used plastic materials should conduct research to improve the quality of glue sticks. Since the materials are made primarily from plastic garbage. . Finally. it is recommended to find ways in improving the smell and transparency of glue sticks. Hence.

(2008). Ghosh. Recyclable Plastic: Why are so few food containers made of recyclable plastic? Retrieved from http://environment. www. ISBN 15596350245. 9781559635042. Island Press. London. (2000).buzzle.org.uk.J. T. Cavite.html on September 2009. Research study.about.htm. Values. Utilization of Plastic Cups to Produce Adhesive Sticks. (1997). Mendoza. UK: Black Dog Publishing. Laboratory School College of Education. Indang. on August 2009. Recycle: a source book. and D. Keenan. Why do we recycle?: Markets.glustix. Larry (2001). T. . Encarta Encyclopedia. (2001). Cavite State University. Retrieved from http://www. and Public Policy. Papa. Why is Recycling Important? Retrieved from http://www.com/articles/why-is-recycling-important. (2006).M. The Recycled Products Guide (RPG). P. Hot melt glue product overview.com on July 2009.recycledproducts. Black Dog Publishing.com/od/reducing waste/a/corn_plastic. (2002). West. ISBN 1904772366.32 BIBLIOGRAPHY Ackerman. F.

Please examine the product’s qualities and put the number on the blank for each item in the table for your judgment.Very Transparent 3.Slightly Sticky 1.: ________ Direction: Kindly evaluate the samples presented to you.Smooth 2.Not Unacceptable .Highly Acceptable 3. T0 Transparency Odor Texture Stickiness on Wood Stickiness on Rubber Stickiness on Metal Stickiness on Paper Stickiness on Ceramics Stickiness on Glass General Acceptability T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 Transparency 4.Slightly acceptable 1.Slightly Smooth 1.Slightly Transparent 1.Pleasant 2.Acceptable 2.Very Pleasant 3.Very Sticky 3.Unpleasant Texture 4.33 Score Sheet Name (optional): _________________________________ Age: ________ Occupation: _____________________________________ Respondent No.Sticky 2.Very Smooth 3.Not Transparent Odor 4.Not Sticky General Acceptability 4.Transparent 2.Slightly Pleasant 1.Not Smooth Stickiness 4.

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