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The Age of Enlightenment

Part I - MCQ

1. Which of the following is the least accurate statement about the

(a) They were most often men from the upper classes of society.
(b) They held a common desire for reform of society, government, and
(c) They used the printed word as their major weapon.
(d) They were not well-organized and disagreed on many points.

2. Which one of the following Physiocrats did not believe?

(a) Laissez-faire
(b) Sell more than import
(c) Agriculture was economic basis
(d) Mercantilism hampered economy

3. The statement, “Crush the Infamous Thing,” applies to

(a) monarchy.
(b) aristocracy.
(c) Christianity.
(d) all of the above

4. During this period it was argued that the purpose of laws was to
(a) justice for all classes.
(b) the greatest good for the greatest number.
(c) religious toleration for all peoples.
(d) none of the above

5. Adam Smith’s philosophy of economics basically advocated all but

(a) increased tariff regulation.
(b) free pursuit of economic self-interest.
(c) exploitation of the earth’s physical resources.
(d) free trade.

6. The foundation of Montesquieu’s ideas for reform stem from

(a) his study of sociology.
(b) his effort to support aristocratic institutions.
(c) the inefficient absolutism of monarchy in France.
(d) his knowledge of the development of the English cabinet system

7. Which of the following was not written by Rousseau?

(a) Nathan the Wise
(b) The Social Contract
(c) Discourse on the Moral Effects of the Arts and Sciences
(d) Discourse on the Origin of Inequality

8. The concept that under certain circumstances some people must be

forced to be free is associated with the thinking of
(a) Rousseau.
(b) Montesquieu.
(c) Bentham.
(d) Locke.

9. Which of the following rulers is not normally associated with the

ideas of Enlightened Absolutism?
(a) Joseph II of Austria
(b) Catherine the Great of Russia
(c) George III of England
(d) Frederick III of Prussia

10. In the last analysis, the Enlightened Monarchs of the eighteenth

century supported change and innovation because of their
(a) need for international prestige.
(b) desire for increased revenue.
(c) desire to impress their respective aristocracies.
(d) none of the above

11. Enlightenment thinkers

(a) were convinced that human beings could comprehend the
operation of physical nature, but could not mold it to the ends of moral
(b) had faith in the power of rational criticism
(c) were not popular in their own period since their ideas were difficult
to comprehend
(d) both a and b

12. As a result of the Enlightenment,

(a) the aristocracy became intellectualized
(b) distinctions between social classes were not as defined
(c) the spirit of innovation and improvement come to characterize
modern European and Western society
(d) all of the above

13. Rousseau objurgated most Enlightenment thinkers on the grounds

(a) they cared about materialism and progress, but not virtue and
(b) their critique of religion was not atheistic
(c) they did not sufficiently appreciate the worthiness of science
(d) all of the above

14. The Encyclopedia

(a) sold between 14,000 and 16,000 copies in various editions before
(b) was written by Diderot and d’Alembert
(c) presented all its information in a straightforward style
(d) both a and b

15. Which one of the following was not written by Voltaire?

(a) Philosophical Dictionary
(b) Letters on the English
(c) Elements of the Philosophy of Newton
(d) Letter Concerning Toleration

16. Choose the one that Adam Smith did not insist
(a) Exploitation for comfort of humanity
(b) Mercantilism hampered expansion of wealth
(c) Government exists to protect individual rights
(d) Allow individuals to pursue selfish interests

17. Which one of the following is not Locke’s belief?

(a) Tabula Rasa
(b) Emphasizing education and empiricism
(c) Secularity of absolutism
(d) none of the above

18. The majority of the Philosophes were

(a) middle-class artisans
(b) upper-class liberals
(c) middle-class professionals
(d) both a and b

19. Joseph II
(a) built more bureaucracy outside Hungary
(b) put Catholic Church under royal control
(c) increased robots
(d) both a and b

20. Catherine the Great advocated

(a) suppression of internal tariffs
(b) alienation of upper classes church, ethnic minorities
(c) centralizing the tax collection
(d) both b and c

Part II – Essay Questions

1. Write an essay about similarities and differences between the

Enlightenment and the Renaissance.

2. How did the Enlightenment change basic Western attitude toward

reform, faith and reason? What were the major decisive influences on
the philosophes?

3. Define the term print culture and explain how did it form the
foundation of the Enlightenment

Answers Keys
1. A
2. B
3. C
4. B
5. A
6. C
7. A
8. A
9. C
10. B
11. B
12. C
13. A
14. A
15. D
16. C
17. C
18. C
19. B
20. A