Under the guidance of:Er. ANOJ KUMAR Asst. Professor ,CSED MNNIT, Allahabad.

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Multimedia is the integration of text, images, audio, video and any other media. A Multimedia Application is an application which uses a collection of multiple media sources like text, images, audio and video.

Types of Multimedia:Linear

- Linear active content progresses without any navigational control for the viewer such as a cinema presentation. Non-Linear - Non-linear content offers user interactivity to control progress as used with a computer game.

Hypertext is a text which contains links to other texts. Traversal through pages of hypertext is therefore usually non-linear.

Hypermedia is not constrained to be text-based. It can include other media, like graphics, images, and especially the continuous media – sound and video.

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    

Text - insert through keyboard, speech input, data
stored on disk.

Images - digitally scanned, taken from the camera
or may be generated by programs like Photoshop.

Audio -

Audio signals are continuous analog signals. Digitized and then stored.

Video - Analog Video is usually captured by a video
camera and then digitized.

Graphics - constructed by the composition of
primitive objects such as lines, polygons, circles.
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Capture devices — Video Camera, Video Recorder, Audio

Microphone, Keyboards, mice.

Storage Devices — Hard disks, CD-ROMs, DVD-ROM, etc Communication Networks — Local Networks, Intranets, Internet, Multimedia or other special high speed networks. Computer Systems — Multimedia Desktop machines, Workstations, MPEG/VIDEO/DSP Hardware etc. Display Devices — CD-quality speakers, HDTV, Hi-Res monitors, Color printers etc.
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A Multimedia System is a system capable of processing multimedia data and applications.

 A Multimedia System is characterized by the processing,

storage, generation, manipulation, rendition of multimedia information.
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A Multimedia System has four basic characteristics:  

Multimedia system must be computer controlled. Multimedia system must be integrated. The information they handle must be represented digitally. The interface to the final presentation of media is usually interactive.

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Very High Processing Power — needed to deal with large data processing and real time delivery of media. Multimedia Capable File System — needed to deliver real-time media — e.g. Video/Audio Streaming. Special Hardware/Software needed – e.g. RAID technology. Data Representations — File Formats that support multimedia should be easy to handle yet allow for compression/decompression in real-time.

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 Efficient and High I/O — input and output to the file subsystem needs to be efficient and fast. Needs to allow for real-time recording as well as playback of data. e.g. Direct to Disk recording systems.  Special Operating System —to allow access to file system and process data efficiently and quickly. Needs to support direct transfers to disk, real-time scheduling, fast interrupt processing, I/O streaming etc.  Storage and Memory — large storage units (of the order of hundreds of Tb if not more) and large memory (several GB or more). Large Caches also required and high speed buses for efficient management.  Network Support — Client-server systems common as distributed systems common.  Software Tools — user friendly tools needed to handle media, design and develop applications, deliver media.
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Multimedia applications provide valuable services. Consequently they form more workload on workstation and desktop processor. In order the meet the computational requirement they have been implemented using different classes of processors. MULTIMEDIA PROCESSING:Multimedia workloads are processed by two types of processors. DSP based processors:- Oriented on multiply-accumulate operations. The number of operations are similar to each other and gives opportunity to provide efficient parallelization of the calculations. General purpose processors:-They are preferable to specialpurpose media systems because they are easier to program, 10

1)

2)

Approach es

Vector processors

Superscalar processors

Multi processors

Parall el vector Subword processor s

Pipeline d vector

Dynamic schedulin g

Static schedulin g

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VECTOR PROCESSING:-Originally designed for scientific applications i.e. weather forecasting ,physics simulation, which match the data parallel nature of multimedia. It involves performing the same operation over large regularly structure operands.

Two ways to implement :1.

Replicate the functional units and achieve parallelism by processing all elements of the vector at the same time. Having one or more relatively few pipelined functional units processing vector elements in a pipelined fashion. Machines in this class:-CDC STAR-100,CRAY-1.
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2.

SUPERSCALER PROCESSING:- exploits parallelism at the level of individual instructions i.e.–ILP(instruction level parallelism). Two approaches:1.STATIC APPROACH:-it relies on compiler to pack independent instruction and the hardware to execute them in parallel. 2.DYNAMIC APPROACH:-the instruction schedule is done dynamically and dependencies are tracked by hardware. EXAMPLE:- microprocessor architecture for java computing(MIJC).

MULTI-PROCESSING:-Follows Moor’s law, doubling the

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1.

Supporting multimedia applications over a computer network renders the application Distributed hence special computing techniques are required.

2.

Sequencing within the media -- playing frames in correct order/time.

3. 4. 5.

Synchronization -- inter-media scheduling . How to represent and store temporal information. Data has to be represented digitally so initial source of data needs to be digitized -- translated from analog source to digital representation.

6.

The data is large so storage, transfer and processing

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Since

the electronic form is used rather than paper form to file, store and retrieve documents ,the time and space needed are reduced significantly.
Multiple

users can access the same document simultaneously for display on screen or hardcopy print.
Multidimensional

information flow within the organization is improved. Because of stored visual interaction ,the system provides rapid and correct responses to requests for information.

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Each media type is organized in a media-specific manner suitable for that media type Need to compute joins across different data structures. Relatively fast query processing due to specialized structures.

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In multimedia ,there is a huge sharing and exchange of data among multiple applications. 1:-Rich-Text Format(RTF) Use for exchange text between different word processors and text processing application. 2:-Tagged Image File Format(TIFF) Use for storing bit mapped images on PC. 3:-Audio Video Interleaved(AVI) Used with applications that capture , edit and play back audio-video sequences.
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4:-Musical Instrument Digital Interface(MIDI)  This is the interface standard defined for a file transfer between a computer and musical instruments such as piano. 5:-Joint Photographic Expert Group(JPEG)  Use for method of lossy compression for digital photography (image). 6:-Graphics Interchange Format(GIF)  The format supports up to 8 bits per pixel thus allowing 256 distinct colors in a single image .
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World Wide Web(WWW) Hypertext and Hypermedia Video-on-demand Computer Games Digital video editing and production system

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