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TITLE: Utilization of fruits ,vegetables & minor oil seed cakes as unconventional feed stuffs.
Submitted to: Dr D.Srinivas Kumar, Asst. Professor, Dept Of Animal Nutrition.
Submitted by: Dr P.Anil. GVM/2010012.
INTRODUCTION There is a chronic shortage of feed and fodders in India and most of the developing countries, the food grains mainly produced for human consumption are also in shortage, so it became necessary to depend on unconventional feeds to sustain the feeding of livestock. Vegetable and fruit by-products have a good potential for use of ruminant and non-ruminant rations so that the gap between the demand and supply of feeds and fodders can be shortened. Efforts are focused on determining the seasonal availability and nutritive value of locally available fruit and vegetable by-products with a view to formulate adequate year round feeding system thus study was taken up to asses nutritive value of few fruits and vegetables to bridge the gap between the demand and supply of nutrients of livestock The common problem in handling these fruit and vegetable by-products is that they contain a large amount of moisture which makes difficult to preserve them, so they have to be preserved either by sun drying or ensiling MANGO The main byproducts of of mango processing industry are mango peels, mango pulp and mango seed kernel, they contribute around 27 to 50 % percent by weight of the total fruit depending on the variety of the fruit that is processed. the approximate crude protein ,crude fiber ,nitrogen free extract of the dried peels are 1%,17%,73% ,pulp 4.6%,11.2%,79% , seed kernels 8%,3%,75% respectively on dry matter basis. The pulp and peels can be used as a alternative energy source to the cereals and seed kernel can be used as medium source of protein replacing maize and DORB in case of poultry The anti nutrients present in mango byproducts include trypsin inhibitors with trypsin inhibitor activity (30 TIU/gm), tannins (67 gm/kg), cyanogenic glycosides (HCN 71 mg/Kg) ,these tannins binds the protein with indigestible fiber thus reducing the availability of protein to the host animal These anti nutrients can be detoxified by using various processing methods such as boiling, autoclaving & irradiation .tannins can be detoxified by boiling and autoclaving ,irradiation is not effective in case of tannins , trypsin inhibitors and HCN can be detoxified by all the three methods. it is reported that combination of boiling for 30 minutes and irradiation at 20 KGY increases the protein digestibility and apparent metabolisable energy increases by 139% and 72% respectively (Food irradiation Department, Ezypt) Ruminants Ruminants can tolerate the incorporation of these by products to an extent of 50% as they can digest the fiber more efficiently than non ruminants (Gohl et all 1981) Sheep Mango kernel cake (MKC) can replace the maize in the concentrate mixture of growing lambs to an extent of 45% without effecting the dry matter intake and digestibility but on further incorporation the dry matter intake reduces do to decrease in digestibility , mango peel waste (MPW) can be used for ensiling bajra napier grass
instead of molasses which can not be easily available to the farmers, it was found that the ph and lactic acid concentration of the silage produced using mango peels is similar to that of the silage produced using 2% molasses Swine Dried mango peels can be used for feeding of finisher pigs for economic pork production, they can be incorporated in the ration of finisher pigs to an extent of 10% without significant alteration in the dry matter intake, feed utilization and daily weight gain Broilers Mango fruit pulp waste (MFPW) can replace maize by 15% without significant alteration in feed intake and weight gain , iso nitrogenous and iso caloric replacement gives better results than w/w replacement ( ), MSK can be used to substitute around 21 % of the total protein requirement of broiler birds for economic broiler ration formulation, MSK can be used to replace the DORB to an extent of 10% without effecting the performance of birds Jackfruit The by-products of jack fruit are pericarp, rind and core which constitute about 59% of the total fruit (Subbu ramu et all 1992), the average DCP and TDN values of these jack fruit waste are 4,17% and 72.08% respectively and can used for feeding the live stock Ruminants In a lactation trial conducted by Asit Das et all 2001 in 8 cross bred cows (2 nd lactation) which were divided in to two groups and 5 kg of the fresh jack fruit was used to replace the concentrate mixture to a extent of 30% in one group of animals and the control group was fed on concentrate mixture, results were found that there is no significant difference in the milk yield and milk fat content between the treatment and control but the feed cost decreased by 15% hence fresh jack fruit can be used to replace the concentrate mixture of a lactating cow to an extent of 30% ORANGE The pulp and seed left after extraction of juice is called as pomace,the CP and NFE of orange pomace is 9.8% and 74% respectively and can be used as an energy source It was reported by Dudhe et al that orange pomace ensiling with wheat straw at a ratio of 30:70% for 60 days improved the dry matter intake in cattle Guava Guava was processed for pulp or other purposes (Bensal 1998) after extracting of the pulp about 30 to 35% weight of the fruit remains as waste containing guava grid and seeds known as pomace
Pigs Guava pomace can be used for feeding of pigs the finishers use this more better than the growers, in an experiment conducted by (madhava rao et all 2003) in the 24 cross bred (large white Yorkshire X desi ) male pigs which were divided into four groups and were fed with diets in which the dry guava pomace was included at 0(T1) , 10%(D2), 20%(D3), 30% (D4) for the grower phase and finisher phase. highest average daily gain was observed in group fed with D3 and the dry matter and organic matter digestibility significantly decreased in grower phase and increased in finisher phase m, this may be do to the higher metabolic age and better adaptation to the fiber Cashew apple The two main by products of cashew industry are cashew apple waste(CAW) and cashew nut shell (CNS),cashew apple is used for extraction of fenny and the left over are discarded as waste. in India around 8 lakh hectares of land is under cashew cultivation and having potential use as a feed in poultry ,the CP and EE of CAW is comparable to that of a maize Sundaram et all 1986 reported that satisfactory production performance has been obtained by incorporation of cashew apple waste at 10% level in dairy cattle In a feeding trial conducted by B,K,Swain et all 2007 for 120 days on 72 layer japanese quails layers of 8weeks age divided in to 3 groups (4 replicates , 6 birds in each) were given a basal diet (C) ,maize replaced by CAW at 5%(C1) and 10% (C2) the results were found that there was no much alteration in egg laying parameters between the treatments but the cost of the feed was lower at 10% level of inclusion In the same model of experiment where the CNS is used to replace the maize decreased in egg production was observed at 10% level of incorporation CAW and CNS can replace 10% and 5% maize , respectively in the diet of Japanese quail layers with better economics of egg production Apple Apple pomace is a by-product of apple processing industry ,consisting of peel pulp, and seeds constitute about 25-35% of fresh apples The average CP and NFE of apple pomace are 7.53% and 66.72% respectively and can be use for feedng of rabbits
R.K.Sawal et all 1995., conducted a experiment to know the maximum level of inclusion of apple pomace in weaner rabbits, where 24 rabbits were divided in to 4 groups and fed for 42 days with complete diets containing 0, 10, 20, 30% apple pomace Intake of nutrients digestibility of NFE,.EE were not effected . digestibility of CP decreased above 10 % of inclusion and more worst at 30% level The maximum recommended level of apple pomace in diets of weaner rabbits is 10 % for better utilization of nutrients Vegetables Tomato The tomato pomace is a by-product obtained from the processing of tomatoes for concentrated paste ,juice, sauce and ketchup. P,Kavitha et all 2003 reported the CP,.EE,ME of the tomato pomace as 22%,12% and 2172 kcal/kg respectively tomato pomace as a feed in poultry Sawal et all., (1996) and Dotas et all (1999) reported the crude fiber content of dried tomato pulp (DTP) as 35% which limits its incorporation in the diets of poultry Hence alternative means are to be explored to improve the utilization of crude finer before incorporating the DTP in the diets of poultry Feeding of high fiber feed resources together with exogenous feed grade enzymes are capable of supporting the broiler performance Devigowda et all.,(1992) A study conducted by P.Kavitha et all., to know the nutrient utilization in broilers fed dried tomato pomace with enzyme supplementation on 240 vencob day old broilers which were divided in to 8 groups and were fed the grower and finisher rations prepared by including DTP at 0,5,10,15 % levels without enzyme (t1,t3,t5,t7) and with enzyme (t2,t4,t6,t8) respectively, the enzyme was added at 5gm/10 kg of feed The results showed that the enzyme system has significantly increased the percent N,EE and CF utilization in both the phases and at each level of inclusion Thus DTP can be included in the broiler diets to an extent of 15 % with enzyme for better nutrient utilization
P,Kavitha et all(2003)., reported that the the N utilization of DTP was 56.64 and Ddo to the high protein and metabolizable energy of DTP it can be used as a potential feed ingredient in poultry Effect of inclusion of DTP on carcass characters P.Kavitha et all (2003) reported that there would be no significant effect of DTP inclusion on ready to cook yield and percent giblet weight at inclusion of DTP up to 15 % P.Kavitha et all (2006) reported that the serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol significantly decreased and serum triglyceride and VLDL-C increased with increase in DTP in diet of broilers, and low cholesterol meat can be produced by inclusion of DTP in broiler diets R,K,Sawal et all .,(1995) reported that inclusion of tomato pomace improves the dry matter intake and digestibility of EE and CF, The TDN value increases and DCP value decreases above 10 % level of.inclusion of DTP Cabbage Cabbage waste can be offered as a feed to livestock in 3 forms 1) fresh 2) meal 3) silage ,it is a good source of protein and can be used for feeding of [poultry Effect of form of cabbage on egg production An experiment conducted by Kamlesh singh et all., (2000) on 180 white leg horn chicks which were divided in to 9 groups and first group was fed control ration (t0) and relaced by cabbage as green at the rate of 20% (t1), 30% (t2) as meal 30% (t3) , 40% (t4) , 50% (t5) and as silage 30% (t6) , 40% (t7) , 50% (t8) Highest dry matter consumption is seen in birds fed with cabbage offered in the form of silage incorporated at 50% and highest hen day average is seen in birds fed with cabbage waste in the form of silage incorporated at 40% level, lower feed costs were observed in the groups that are fed cabbage waste in the form of silage Gupta et all 2004., reported that empty pea pod produced after removal of the peas and Ash gourd peel which is removed while vegetable is processed for preparation of sweet (petha) can replace berseem and oat hayn in the diet of kids without effecting the productive performance Vegetable wastes such as sugar beet leaves , cauliflower leaves , gram plant with empty pods , pes vines and chapan kadu vines can be used as a feed for ruminants, these vegetables serve as a good source of essential vitamins and anti oxidants and serve as a organic source of minerals
Minor oil seed cakes the livestock mainly small ruminants in India are reared by the weaker sections of the society ,Feeding concentrates containing edible oil seed meals and grains increase cost of feeding substantially , substitution of these conventional oil seed meals with minor oil seed cakes such as mahua, neem ,karanj can decrease the cost of feeding of the live stock mahua cake ( madhuka indica) two types of mahua cakes are obtained based on the process of oil extraction which include solvent extracted and expellar extracted ,only solvent extracted mahua cake is used for feeding of livestock the average DCP and TDN values of mahua cake are 8.64% and 45.6%. mahua cake is a good source of carbohydrate and protein, but the presence of incriminating principles such as saponin and Mowrin causes adverse effects S.M Chahal et all (1991) reported from his in–vitro studies reported that increase in incorporation of isolated crude Mowrin ( 0,10,20,40,60,80,100 mg/flask) the cellulose digestibility , microbial protein synthesis and total volatile fatty acid production decreases S.M Chahal et all (1991) reported from his in –vitro studies on concentration of saponins at different time (6,12,24 hours) of incubation found that the saponins get degraded by the microbes and the degradation percentage increases with increase in incubation time Water washing removes the incriminating factors but with a substantial loss of dry matter so different processing methods were tried to detoxify it without loss of dry matter R.C Katiyam et all .,(1991) reported that ensiling of urea (6-8%w/w) mahua seed cake for 6 weeks reduces the Mowrin and tannins without any loss of dry matter and nitrogen ,it is cheaper than the alkali treatment and more over it adds extra nitrogen to the cake thus increasing the nutritive value Sheep Studies are conducted by K.Charan et all (1995)., on 3 groups of lambs to asses the difference between feeding of treated and untreated mahua cake on health of the lambs in which the half of the lambs in each group were fed alkali treated and the other half were fed untreated cake and each group were slaughtered at 19, 30, 46 weeks of age Mild degenerations are seen in liver kidney of lambs offered untreated mahua cake and can be concluded that mahua cake should be offered only after treatment with alkali or any other processing method
V.K Jain et all ., (1995) in their study on processing of mahua cake by different methods ,four groups of sheep were taken and first group is fed on standard ration and next group was fed untreated DMSC and next group were fed on ferrous sulphate treated and last group on formaldehyde treated DMSC Highest pure fiber percentage and density of fiber were found in the group treated with formaldehyde, so formaldehyde treated DMSC should be used for good quality fleece production Neem cake (azadirachta indica) It is by product obtained after extraction of neem oil which has good amount of protein and can used for feeding of ruminants mainly small ruminants. The average DCP and TDN values of deoiled neem cake are 8.4% and 57.8% respectively, in India around 0.9 million tons of NSC is produced ( Singh 1993) Although NSC is rich in crude protein, its incorporation in animal diets is restricted due to presence of bitter and toxic triterpenoids , mainly nimbin, nimbidin, azadirachtin, salanin (Paul et all .,1996) Cattle R.C,Katiyar et all 1993., in their feeding trial conduct for 180 days on nutrient utilization of alkali treated neem seed kernel cake, 1 kg of 3% NaOH (W/W) alkali detoxified neem seed kernel cake along with 1.5 kg of DORB and ad libtum wheat straw was fed to 3 cross breed cattle and 5 murrah buffaloes of 4 years age Average Growth rates observed in cattle and buffaloes were 394.4 gm/day and 498.9 gm/day respectively and no clinical signs of ill health were observed Alkali treatment can be used for detoxifying of neem kernel seed cake without loss of any dry matter (water washing can also be done for detoxifying but ther would be a 25% loss of dry matter) Debitterization through solvent extraction , water washing, alkali soaking, and urea ammonification has been tried with appreciable success( Gowda and Sastry 2000) Sheep K,madhavi et all 2009 ., on their study on effect of processing on the utilization of diets including the neem seed cake in which 24 lambs were divided in to 4 groups in which one group were fed complete mash, and the others were fed control , expander extruded, and steam pelleted diets
The digestibility of organic matter , CF, CP were found highest in pelleted form of diet ,the highest DCP and TDN and calcium balances were found in the same form of diet Karanj cake (pongamia glabra) This cake is of two types one is expellar pressed cake and the other is solvent extracted cake. Expellar prerssed cake is not used for feeding of livestock because of presence of furano flavinoids in the oil in it (Prabhu et all 2002).,.in our country the availability of seed is about 1 lakh 30 thousand tons (aAnon 1992) The solvent extracted karanj cake can be included in the rations of ruminants to a certain extent after treatment with 1% NaOH w/w solution in 1:1 for 24 hours and then sun dried and ground The bitter principle associated with poor palatability can be decreased by various physical , chemical, microbiological treatments karanj cake is rich source of protein ,the CP content of karanj cake ranges between 28 to 34 % and can replace the ground nut cake in the concentrate mixture of sheep goat Srivastava et all 1990., conducted a feeding trial on cross breed kids in which 20 kids were divided into 4 groups and fed on 4 diets EKC replacing GNC at 0, 20, 30, 40% for 365 days The daily weight gains of groups of goats were recorded as 30,35,33,22 gm ,there is no significant difference in weight gain in the first 3 treatment fed animals and can be concluded that SKC can replace the GNC to an extent of 30% without effecting the dry matter in take and growth rate thus decrasing the cost of feed significantly T M Prabhu et all 2005., in their studies on effect of replacing soyabean meal with karanj cake ,24 non descriptive lambs which were divided in to 4 groups which were fed either 22% SBM (c) or SBM in c was replaced by 25(t1) or 50%(t2) or by 50% level treated SKC(t3) and supplemented ad libtum wheat for 165 days the dry matter intake of test feeds are in similar with the control group indicates that incorporation of karanj cake have not altered the palatability of the diet, the digestibility of nutrients, retention of nitrogen , calcium, phosphorous were similar between control and test fed groups, and concluded that substitution of SBM with alkali treated SKC do not cause any harmful effect on the performance of lambs
in a experiment conducted by N M Soren et all 2009., to study the effect of feeding karanj cake on biochemical profile and immune response in growing lambs where 24 lambs were divided in to 4 groups and one group is fed wih control concentrate feed containing soyabean meal and others were fed treatments where the 50% of SBM is replaced by SKC treated with water , 2.5% lime, 0.4% binder and humoral responses were studied by collecting the blood after 150 days of feeding concentration of haemoglobin , glucose , urea nitrogen, albumin, and globulin was similar in all diets but total protein was lower in lime treated SKC diet , while cholesterol was highest in binder treated SKC rumen liquor ph total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen are identical among the groups but TVFA and TCA ppt nitrogen were lower in binder treated SKC thus water washing is most economical method of processing than the other processing methods kosum cake (schleichera oleosa) In India around 1lakh metric tones of kosum cake is produced ,It is a minor oil seed cake which can be used as a alternative to the Niger cake which is used in the cincenrate mixture of various livestock The CP , DCP and TDN values of kosum cake are 20,18.4 and 73.2% respectively ,the DE and ME values are 3235 and 2650 kcal /kg respectively Pigs N.Prasad et all 1991., in a feeding trial 24 cross bred pigs were divided in to 4 groups with 3 males and 3 females in each for 148 days .the 4 groups are fed with diets replacing the nizer cake at 0,20,40,60% The result are found that feed consumption increased up to 40% inclusion and then decreased ,the weight gain was not significantly different in the first 3 groups and decreased in the 4 th group, and was concluded that kosum cake can be used to replace nizer cake to an extent of 40% without effecting weight gain Poultry In a feeding trial conducted by Rajan gupta et all 1992., 140 vencobb day old broiler chicks were divided into 4 groups which were fed on four diets EKC replacing GNC at 0,20,40,60 % and the weight gains were recorded after 10 weeks of age The average weight gains and feed gain ratios of four groups recorded were not significantly different and can be concluded that kosum cake can be used to replace the GNC to an extent of 60% without effecting the performance of the birds
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