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NUMBER THEORY

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Since vedic period Indians used numbers and fractions. They also used irrational numbers. Greeks did not regard irrational numbers as numbers at all. But Indians treated all numbers alike and this served them well in the invention of zero, creation of negative numbers and development of the concept of infinity. Empty space was created and was granted a symbol 0 and was given a name ‘Sunya’. The most significant achievement of Indians was the creation of decimal system. The numbers 1 to 9 had been used by Indians even before the time of the Emperor Asoka. Brahmagupta (598-665 AD) was the first to introduce negative numbers. He applied negative numbers to represent debts. He gave the rules for 4 basic operations of +, –, ×, ÷ . In 766 AD Indian numerals 0, 1, 2, ..., 9 were carried by Arab mathematicians to Baghdad. Indian numerical system which was much superior to the complicated Roman numerical system was readily adopted by the European traders ignoring the orders of the Roman Emperor. Srinivasa Ramanujan the most celebrated Indian Mathematical genius made a significant contribution to man’s knowledge of Mathematics, specially in the field of number theory which has been unique and unparalleled in the world. His famous note books contain mathematical results and theorems that can fascinate and stimulate not only research mathematicians but also school students. Ramanujan’s jottings in his note books cover Bernoulli numbers, continued fractions, infinite series including divergent series, analytical theory of numbers, expression for numbers and so on. These jottings began with magic squares, his first passion begun in his school days.

1.1 SEQUENCES

In earlier classes, you might have come across various patterns of numbers like 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ... 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, ... 1, 8, 27, 64, 125, ... These patterns are generally known as sequences. An arrangement of numbers of which one number is designated as the first, another as second, another as third and so on is known as a sequence. Consider the set of numbers 2,3,5,8, ... Here we find the numbers arranged according to some specific rule and this helps us to find out other numbers that follow. Such an arrangement is called a sequence. Thus we may define a sequence formally as follows: If for every positive integer n there is associated only one number an, according to some rule, then the ordered set of numbers a1, a2, a3, … an is said to define a sequence. The various numbers occurring in a sequence are called its terms. an the nth term is also called the general 1

term of the sequence. A sequence can be described either by listing its first few terms till the rule for writing down the other terms becomes clear or, by writing the algebraic formula for the nth term of the sequence. For example, the sequence of odd natural numbers 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, ... can be described as an = 2n – 1 where n = 1, 2, 3, 4,... The sequence 1, 8, 27, 64, 125,... can be described as an = n3 where n = 1, 2, 3, 4, ...

(−1) n find the sequence 2n (−1)1 1 (−1) 2 1 Solution: a1 = 1 = − , a 2 = = , 2 2 4 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 ∴ sequence is − , , − , , − ,... 2 4 8 16 32

Example 1: If

an =

a3 =

(−1)3 1 =− 3 8 2

Example 2: Let a sequence be defined by a1 = 1, a2 = 1, an = an–1 + an–2 for n > 2. Find the sequence. Solution: a1 = 1, a2 = 1 an = an–1 + an–2 for n > 2 a3 = a2 + a1 = 1 + 1 = 2 a4 = a3 + a2 = 2 + 1 = 3 a5 = a4 + a3 = 3 + 2 = 5 ∴ The sequence is : 1, 1, 2, 3, 5,... Do it yourself

I.

Write the first four terms of the sequences whose general terms are given below: 1 + (−1) n 3n − 1 2) 3) 4) 2n2 – 3n+1 5) (–1)n 2n 1) n3 – 1 n 5

II. Find the indicated term in each of the following sequences. n +2 2) a7 if an 1) a12, a15 if an = 5n – 4, 2n + 3 n(n + 1) 3) a3 if an = 4) a10 if an = 5 + 2 (n – 1) 2

5) a5 if an = (–1)n n

1.1.1 Arithmetic Progression (A.P)

In this section, we shall discuss a particular type of sequences in which each term, except the first, progresses in a definite manner. For example in the sequence 2, 5, 8, 11, 14... every term except the first is obtained by adding 3 to the preceding term. Such sequences are called Arithmetic progression. An Arithmetic progression is a sequence of numbers in which each term except the first is obtained by adding a fixed number to the immediately preceding term. This fixed number is called the common difference.

2

For example: 1, 2, 3, 4,... is an A.P with C.D. = 1 5, 7, 9, 11,... is an A.P with C.D. = 2 1 1 3 1 , , , 1 ,... is an A.P with C.D.= 4 2 4 4 102, 97, 92, 87,... is an A.P with C.D = –5

General form of an A.P. is a, a + d, a + 2d,... with first term a, and C.D. = d The general term or the nth term of an A.P. is t n = a+ (n -1)d

Properties of an A.P. 1. An A.P. remains an A.P if a constant quantity is added to or subtracted from each term of the A.P. For example: 9, 13, 17, 21, 25,... is an A.P with C.D = 4. Add 3 to each term of the given A.P. The resulting sequence 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, ...is also an A.P with C.D = 4. Subtract 2 from each term of the given A.P. The resulting sequence 7, 11, 15, 19, 23,... is also an A.P with C.D = 4. An A.P remains an A.P. if each term of the A.P is multiplied or divided by a nonzero constant quantity. For example : 2, 4, 6, 8,... is an A.P with C.D = 2 Multiply the given A.P by 5 The resulting sequence 10, 20, 30, 40, ... is also an A.P. with C.D. 10 Divide the given A.P by 2 The resulting sequence 1, 2, 3, 4,… is also an A.P with C.D = 1

2.

Example 3: Is the sequence 10, 4, –2, –8, … an A.P.? Solution: In the given sequence we find 4 – 10 = –2 – 4 = –8 – (–2) = – 6 The common difference is –6. Hence the given sequence is an A.P. Example 4: Is the sequence described by an = 2n2 + 1 an A.P.? Solution: an = 2n2 + 1 a2 = 2(2)2 + 1 = 9 a1 = 2(1)2 + 1 = 3, a3 = 2(3)2 + 1 = 19, a4 = 2(4)2 + 1 = 33

The sequence is 3, 9, 19, 33, ... Here, 9– 3=6 19 – 9 = 10 33 – 19 = 14 The difference is not the same. ∴The given sequence is not an A.P.

3

Example 5: Find the common difference and the next three terms of the A.P. 1, 4, 7, ... Solution: The common difference = 4 – 1 = 3 The next three terms are 7 + 3 = 10, 10 + 3 = 13 13 + 3 = 16 Example 6: Find the 12th term of an A.P. 6, 1, –4... Solution: Consider the A.P in the form a, a + d, a + 2d, ... Here, a = 6, d = 1 – 6 = –5, n = 12 = a + (n–1) d tn t12 = 6 + (12 – 1) (–5) = 6 + 11 x (–5) = 6 – 55 = – 49 ∴ The 12th term is –49 Example 7: The 7th term of an A.P is –15 and the 16th term is 30. Find the A.P. Solution: Consider the A.P in the form a, a + d, a + 2d,... = a + 6d = –15 t7 t16 = a + 15d = 30 t16–t7 ⇒ 9d = 45, d = 5

**Substituting d = 5 in t7 we get a + 30 = –15, a = –45 ∴ The A.P is –45, –40, –35...
**

Example 8: Write down the A.P. and its general term if a = 3, d = 7. Solution: Consider the A.P in the form a, a + d, a + 2d. ∴ The A.P is 3, 3 + 7, 3 + 14, … or 3, 10, 17… General term tn = a (n – 1)d = 3 + (n – 1) 7 = 7n – 4 Example 9: The nth term of a sequence is 7n – 3. Show that it is an A.P and find the first term and the common difference. Solution: tn = 7n – 3 t1 = 7–3=4 = 14 – 3 = 11 t2 t3 = 21 – 3 = 18 = 28 – 3 = 25 t4 ∴ The sequence is 4, 11, 18, 25, ... First term is 4, Common difference = 11 – 4 = 18 – 11 = 25 – 18 = 7 ∴ The given sequence is an A.P with C.D = 7 Example 10: If an office clerk is fixed in the pay scale 3200 – 85 – 4900, when will he reach his maximum? Solution: Pay Scale : 3200 – 85 – 4900 Starting salary = Rs.3200 = a, Annual increment = Rs. 85 = d

Maximum salary = Rs.4900 = tn tn = a + (n – 1) d ⇒ 4900 = 3200 + (n–1) 85 1700 = 20, n = 20 + 1= 21 n −1 = 85 The clerk will reach his maximum in his 21st year of service. 4

24. ⇒ (a – 3d) + (a – d) + (a + d) + (a + 3d) = 20 ⇒ 4a = 20 ⇒ a =5 Product of the first and fourth part (a − 3d) (a + 3d) 2 = = Product of the second and third part (a − d) (a + d) 3 a 2 − 9d 2 2 = 3 a 2 − d2 2 ⇒ 3(25 – 9d ) = 2(25 – d2) ⇒ 25d2 = 25 ⇒ d = +1 When a = 5.P is equal to 8 times its eighth term. find the angles. 49 – d = 40.. a + d Sum of the numbers = a – d + a + a + d = 21 ⇒ 3a = 21 ⇒ a = 7 Product of the numbers = (a – d) a (a + d) = 280 ⇒ (a2 – d2) a = 280 2 2 2 (49 –d ) 7 = 280..Example 11: Find 4 numbers between 3 and 38 which are in an A. ∴ The 4 numbers between 3 and 38 are 10.P. a + d. a. a + 2d. a. Solution: Let the angles of a triangle be a – d. d = 9 ⇒ d = +3 ∴ The numbers are a – d = 7 – 3 = 4. 31 Example 12: If five times the fifth term of an A.P is 21 and their product is 280. 10 Note : Taking d = –3. 6.P.P are in the form a – d. 2 ⇒ Example 14: The sum of 3 numbers in an A. Example 15 : The angles of a triangle are in A. 17. the 4 parts are 8..P in the form a. ⇒ d = 7 ∴ The A. a + d = 10 ∴ The required numbers are 4. Here a = 3. d = 1. 4. If its greatest angle equals the sum of the other two. 6. show that its 13th term is zero. a + d. 17..P. we get the same set of numbers. d = –1.P such that the product of the first and fourth is to the product of the second and third in the ratio 2: 3 Solution: Let 20 be divided into 4 parts a – 3d. 31. Solution: Given: 5t5 = 8t8 5(a + 4d) = 8 (a + 7d) 3a + 36d = 0 ⇒ a + 12d = 0 ∴ t13 = a + 12d = 0 Example 13: Divide 20 into 4 parts which are in A. a – d. Find the numbers. a + 3d which are in A. the 4 parts are 2. 4. and a + 5d = 38 ⇒ 5d = 35. Solution: Consider the A. 38. . 10. 8 When a = 5. 7. a + d 5 . Solution: Assume that the 3 numbers in A.P. 24. a = 7. is 3.

594 is an A. we get 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 are in A. b. .P show that Solution: a2. c are in A. a = 63. c2 are in A. b2. Solution: The first number divisible by 9 between 60 and 600 is 63.P. b = ky . y x z x y z 6 .. The last number divisible by 9 which is less than 600 is 594. c are in A. a = 60o. a + d = a – d + a ⇒ 2d = a. . c2 are in A. d = 72 – 63 = 9 tn = 594 ⇒ a + (n –1)d = 594 ⇒ 63 + (n–1) 9 = 594 ⇒ (n–1) 9 = 594 – 63 = 531 ⇒ n – 1 = 59 ⇒ n = 60 ∴ There are 60 integers between 60 and 600 which are divisible by 9. b+c c +a a +b ⇒ b2 – a2 = c2 – b2 ⇒ (b – a) (b + a) ⇒ (b + c – c – a) (b + a) = common difference = (c – b) (c + b) = (c + a – a – b) (c + b) ⇒ [(b + c) – (c + a)] (b + a) = [(c + a) – (a + b)] (c + b) dividing both sides by (b +c) (c + a) (a + b).P − = − ⇒ . .P ⇒ b – a = c – b = common difference ⇒ 2b = a + c ⇒ 4b2 = a2 + 2ac + c2 ⇒ 4b2 – 4ac = a2 – 2ac + c2 ⇒ 4(b2 – ac) = (a – c)2 Example 18: If a2.. 81. . c =kz 1 1 ⎛ 1⎞ y x Given b = ac ⇒ ⎜ k ⎟ = k .P. 90o Example 16: Find the number of integers between 60 and 600 which are divisible by 9. b. The sequence 63.P x y z ⇒ a = kx . are also in A. 60o. a + d = 60 + 30 = 90o ∴ The angles of the triangle are 30o. 2d = 60o ∴ d = 30o a – d = 60 – 30 = 30o. are in A.P 1 1 1 . . Example 17: If a. are in A. b2.⇒ a – d + a + a + d = 180o ⇒ 3a = 180o ⇒ a = 60o Again. Here.k z ⇒ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 k =k 2 y 1 1 + x z ⇒ 2 1 1 1 1 1 = + ⇒ .P.P then prove that (a–c)2 = 4(b2 – ac) Solution: a. 72. c+a b+c a +b c+a b+c c+a a +b Example 19: If ax = by = cz and b2 = ac show that Solution: Let ax = by = cz = k (say) 1 1 1 1 1 1 .

a b c a b c –1 –1 –1 If a. 8. b+c−a c +a −b a +b − c 1 1 1 .02 e) tn = 3n – 2 Find the required term in the following a) 15th term of 40. The angles of a quadrilateral are in A. 12. 13. d = 3 d) In an A. . Find the angles.. d) 7.P with 21 terms if a = –3.P.5. –6. 5.P show that . 5. … d) 5.0. d = q d) a = 0... . If are in A. (bc) .. 24th term is twice the 10th term and the sixth term is 10. 10/3? d) Is 68 a term of the A.P whose common difference is 10o. d = 2/5 d) 20th term if a = 18. a) Which term of the sequence 21. Find the first three terms and the common difference..1. 10. 3.. a + 6. 72.. 4. –2/3. 36.P. . 3. 7. 1/2. b) 0. 11.. –9. e) If 10 times the 10th term of an A. 7 . ..5.P is 9 and their product is –48.. Find four numbers in A. : a) 3. –5/6. 29. a + 2. c) 9th term if a = 3/5. c are in A.7.. Which of the following sequences are A.P is 320? c) How many terms are there in the A. 17/3. –5/6. c) 12. 7. . 4. 3/4. The sum of three numbers in an A. . 46. e) –1. 5.P is 12 and the sum of their squares is 56. 2.... t7 = 45.P whose sum is 50 and in which the greatest number is 4 times the least.? a) 11/3. ..? e) How many numbers of two digits are divisible by 6? The sum of three numbers in an A. 1. d = –4 e) 7th term if tn = 4n + 5 a) In an A.P is zero. (ca) are also in A.. e) a.. 11. –3.. 52. . d = 0. 63. 42.P whose third term is 14 and the 9th term is –52.1. –3.. 9. Find the numbers. ..... 10. d = 3 which term of the A. c) 0. 13. 1½. .P –1. .1. 2... t9 = 57. .P is equal to 15 times the 15th term show that 25th term of the A. 10. c) 22.. . b) 6.P. b.. are in A. 1/4. 8.. . b) Find the 30th term of an A. 43. 1..P. Write the first three terms of the A. . d = 6 b) a = 3½. d) 1.P. 13/3. . 2. a + 4.P if a) a = –5. 32.P... c) Find the middle term of an A. .Exercise 1. Find the common difference of the A.. –1.. b) 1.. –2.4.P show that (ab) . Write down the A.. 1.. . 15/3. d = 1½ c) a = p.7. is 420? b) If a = 5. 1. 5. –2/3..P 6. .. e) tn = 4n + 5 Write the next three terms of the following sequences: a) 14. 3. Find the numbers.P. b) 10th term of 10. 11. . 4.

with a ≠ 0 The n term of the G. t5 = ar5–1 = ar4 64 1 ⎛1⎞ = t5 = 64 ⎜ ⎟ = 256 4 ⎝4⎠ 1 ∴ 5th term of the given G. 4. t t t t t t 1 In a) We find 2 = 3 = 4 = 2 . .R) The general form of a G. Such a sequence is called Geometric progression. .. 4/5 c) 3. Example 20: Find the 5th term of the G. The constant factor is called common ratio (C.... r = = . ar3.P is 27 27 27 27 27 27 8 . 33. the resulting series is also a G. Solution: t6 = 63.P.. d) 4. 20.. . we get 63 7 a(3)5 = 63 ⇒ a = = 243 27 −7 If r = –3. 4. –1/2. 4. –2.P.2 Geometric progression Observe the following sequences a) 2. . 16.R = r ≠ 0 If each term of a G. .. These are not A.. ar2. In b) We find 2 = 3 = 4 = t1 t2 t3 t1 t2 t3 5 t t t2 t 1 In d ) We find 2 = 3 = In c) We find = 3 =3. Find the G. then we get a 27 7 21 63 −7 21 −63 .1.P...P be multiplied or divided by the same non zero number. 8. 16 1 Solution: a = 64.P is tn = ar Note: th n–1 C... The G. 34. n=5 64 4 tn = arn–1. But they have definite pattern.. . t1 t2 t1 t2 2 It means each term of the sequence except the first is obtained by multiplying the preceding term by a constant factor.P.1.P 64. .. (or) .P are 63 and 5103 respectively. is 4 Example 21: The sixth and the tenth term of a G. ar. . b) 100. 16.P is a.. 1.. t10 = 5103 t10 ar 9 5103 = 5 = ⇒ r 4 = 81 ∴ r = ± 3 t6 63 ar 4 ∴ Substituting r = 3 in t6. . 32.

Write down the first three 3 terms and also the 10th term. 1. 4 22n −1 Example 24: The nth term of a G. 22n −1 22(1) −1 2 . 2. ar. 3 3 3 2 2 18 219 t10 = ar 9 = (4)9 = (2) = 3 3 3 Sum of the reciprocals = Example 25: The sum of the first two terms of a G.P be a. 2 Example 23: Find three numbers in G.P is for all values of n. ..P whose sum is 14 and product is 64. the numbers are 2. a ⎜ + 1 + r ⎟ = 14 ⎝r ⎠ 2 ⎛1+ r + r ⎞ 2 4⎜ ⎟ = 14 ⇒ 2(1 + r + r ) = 7r r ⎝ ⎠ ⇒ 2r2 – 5r + 2 = 0. a. ar Product of the numbers = a/r × a × ar = 64 ⇒ a3 = 64.. r= =4 ∴ 3 2/3 2 8 32 The first three terms are . Solution: Let the three numbers in G. If r = 1/2 the numbers are 8.P is 2 and the sum of the first four terms is 20.Example 22: Find three numbers in G. 8. ar2 Given : a + ar = 2. t1 = Solution: t n = = 3 3 3 4 −1 6 −1 2 8 2 32 t2 = = . a (1 + r + r2) = 7 (1) 1 1 1 7 1 + r + r2 + + 2 = = (2) a ar ar 4 ar 2 Dividing (1) and (2) we get (ar)2 = 4. ∴ r = ½ or 2 If r = 2. 4. ar. ∴ The numbers are 4. a(1 + r) = 2 (1) a + ar + ar2 + ar3 = 20 ⇒ a (1 + r) (1 + r2) = 20 (2) 9 . Solution: Let the numbers be a/r. 2. 4. ar2 Sum of the numbers = a + ar + ar2 = 7. Solution: Consider the GP a.P such that their sum is 7 and the sum of the reciprocals is 7/4. ar = + 2 ⇒ a = + 2/r Substituting a = 2/r in (1) we get 2/r (1 + r + r2) = 7 ⇒ 2 (1 + r + r2) = 7r ⇒ 2r2 – 5r + 2 = 0 ⇒ r = 1/2 or 2 If r = 1/2 then a = 4.P. Find the G.. t3 = = 3 3 3 3 8/3 2 a= . ∴a = 4 ⎛1 ⎞ Sum of the numbers = a/r + a + ar = 14. If r = 2 then a = 1 ∴ The numbers are 1.

c. 1.. a2. 8.P is b and the common ratio is r. t7 = 1 find the G. 32/125.P is 26.6. Find the 10th term. 1. 18 are in G.1. Their product is 216.P and the last three are in A. the numbers 2. b. ¼. In a set of 4 numbers the first three are in G. d) The sum of the first two terms of a G.P is 216.By virtue of (1). 4. 1. log a2. .P (ai > 0) then show that log a1.P 9. c.P. b. b are in A. a The third and fifth term of a G. .P is 7 and the sum of their squares is 21. b + c.. Find the value of r if average of the first and the fourth term is 140..P whose sum is 6 1 and the product is 8. b) 12. If a1. Find three numbers a.P. are in A. … b) Find the 8th term of the G. –1.. 55. 25/4... 12. 5555..P is 4/9 and the seventh term is 16/81. 4. …. … d) Find the 9th term of a G. ½.P and the numbers b. c + d are in G. … are in G.. The first term of a G. d) 5. find the four numbers. The sum of the first three terms of a G. –9.. log a3.P t3 = 16. 27. 13. … find t7 c) Find the 7th term of a G. Find the number of terms of the G.… 4. 3 6.. Find which of the following are not a G. Find the G. Find the numbers. Find the numbers.P c) The 5th term of a G. –5/2. 11.P. d) The fourth term is 27 and the 7th term is 729. c) The product of 3 numbers in G.. 22.P. a) 2.P. a) In a G. a. b) 1. 8.. 555. 0. If the first number is the same as the fourth. c between 2 and 18 such that their sum is 25.P is .2 1. . The sum of their product taken in pairs is 156. 54/625. 32. d are in G.018. 16. –125/8.P is –1 and the sum of the first four terms is –5. . 8/25. –5. 3.. 14. 3. 6/25. 0.P is 64 and the common ratio is r. 2 2 2 2 Exercise 1. b) In a G.P 1..P. Find three numbers in G. 0. 5.(or) –1. 12. . 2/5.. 16. Find the first five terms of the G.. 2.P. a) 25. The second term of G. b) The sum of three numbers of a G. c) 1. If a. . (2) becomes 2(1 + r2) = 20 ⇒ 1 + r2 = 10 ⇒ r2 = 9 ⇒ r = + 3 Substituting r = + 3 in (1) If r = 3 then a = 1/2 If r = – 3 then a = –1 1 3 9 27 ∴ The G.P with common difference 6. a3.P 1. 42.P are 4/3 and 16/27 respectively.… 3. Find the first term and the common ratio.0054 d) 2/5.. Write down the value of b if the product of the first three terms is 64. … 4096. 10 .P.P such that their sum is 19/3 and the sum of their reciprocals is 19/12. –1. 3. 10. 7. .P.2.. a) Find the three terms in G. Find the G. … c) 0. 9. Find the common ratio of the following G. 18/125.06.P. –1/5. prove that a + b.P.

(1) (2) Example 28: Find the sum of all the numbers between 300 and 500 divisible by 11.2. n Here a = 3. 13. …. a + d. it is called a series. l = 495. Thus a1 + a2 + a3 + … an + … is an infinite series. Sn = [2a + (n − 1)d] 2 11 11 11 = [(2 × 3) + (11 − 1)5] = [6 + 50] = × 56 = 308 2 2 2 ∴ The sum of the first 11 terms of the given A. Solution: The first number greater than 300 and divisible by 11 is 308. d = 8.P a.P 3. + a Adding (1) and (2) 2Sn = [2a + (n – 1)d] + [2a + (n – 1)d] + …. ∴ Series is 308 + 319 + … + 495 a = 308.P is 308.P is 3. + [2a + (n – 1)d] = n [2a + (n – 1) d] n ∴ Sn = [2a + (n-1) d] 2 n n Sn = [a + a+(n-1) d] .1. Solution: The given series is an A. …. tn = a + (n – 1)d = 495 11 . The last number less than 500 and divisible by 11 is 495. 13… Solution: Given A. d = 8 – 3 = 5. n = 11. a+(n–1) d Sn = a + (a + d) + (a + 2d) + … + [a + (n–1)d] Writing this series in the reverse order Sn = [a + (n – 1)d] + [a + (n – 2)d] + …. d = 11. 1.P Let Sn denote the sum of the terms of the A. 8. a + 2d.2 SERIES When the terms of a sequence are connected by the sign +. Here a = 3.P.1 Sum to n terms of an A. Example 27: Find the sum: 3 + 11 + 19 + … + 787. 8. tn = 787 = l tn = a + (n – 1) d = 787 3 + (n – 1) 8 = 787 787 − 3 + 1 = 99 ∴ n = 8 n 99 99 Sn = 2 [a + l] = [3 + 787] = x 790 = 39105 2 2 Hence the sum of the given series is 39105. The symbol Σ an is used to denote a series. Sn = 2 [a + l] 2 where l = tn = a + (n – 1) d = last term Example 26: Find the sum of the first 11 terms of the A.

Solution: Given: S7 = 10.P 3. a1 = 5 – 6(1) = –1 a2 = 5 – 6(2) = –7. how many times does it strike in a day? Solution: i) Number of times the clock strikes at each hour form on A. d = 4. n [3 + (n–1)2] = 1275 2 ⇒ 2n2 + n – 1275 = 0 ⇒ (2n + 51) (n – 25) = 0 ⇒ n = 25 ∴ 25 terms of the A. – 13 … with C. l = 5 – 6 n n n Sn = 2 [a + l] = [4 − 6n] = n[2–3n] = 2n – 3n2 2 Example 30: In an A. 2 n [6 + (n − 1)4] = 1275 . d = 1/7 ∴The A.P whose nth term is an = 5 – 6 n Solution: General term of the given A. …. 12 . S14 = 10 + 17 = 27 7 10 = 10 ⇒ [2a + 6d] = 10 ⇒ a + 3d = S7 (1) 2 7 14 27 [2a + 13d] = 27 ⇒ 2a + 13d = S14 = 27 ⇒ (2) 2 7 Solving (1) and (2) we get a = 1.P. 8/7.3 … 12 12 n Sn = 2 [a + l] = [1 +12] = 78 2 If the clock strikes appropriate number of times at each hour.P is an = 5 – 6 n.308 + (n – 1) 11 = 495 ∴n = 495 − 308 + 1 = 18 11 n ∴ Sn = 2 [a + l] 18 S18 = [308 + 495] = 7227 2 Example 29: Find the sum to n terms of an A.P is 1. = –6 a = –1. 9/7. –7. a3 = 5 – 6(3) = –13 ∴ The A. The A. Find the A. Example 31: How many terms of the A.P is 1. 10/7.P will yield the sum 1275.2. Sn = 1275. 7.P is –1. 11.D. … are needed to yield the sum 1275? n [2a + (n − 1)d] = 1275 Solution: a = 3. total number of times the clock strikes in a day = 2 × 78 = 156 ii) If it strikes half hour also then the total number of times it strikes in a day = 156 + 24 = 180.P. Example 32: i) If a clock strikes appropriate number of times at each hour how many times will it strike in a day? (ii) If it strikes the half hour also.P the sum of the first 7 terms is 10 and that of the next 7 terms is 17.

Example 33: A machine costs Rs.5% Original cost of the machine = Rs.00.+ to 23 terms 4 2 4 d) 4 + 9 + 14 + … + 199 13 .87. 13½% the next year 12% the third year and so on.5 + … + 38 b) 3 1 1 3 +5 +7 +. t2 = b ⇒ C. Each distance is run twice. all percentages applying to the original cost. picking balls kept in a line was one of the games. What will be its value at the end of 10 years. How far a boy would have to run to bring the balls one by one to a basket kept at his starting point? Solution: The distances run by the boy to pick each ball form an A.500 100 Example 34: In a school sports day.5% 2 Value of the machine after 10 years = 100 – 82.1 1.P..5. second term is b and the last term is c is equal to (a + c) (b + c − 2a) 2(b − a) Solution: t1 = a.P whose first term is a. 20 balls were placed in a straight line on the ground at intervals of 3 meters.5 + 5 + 6.. Here a = 15.00.5 n Sn = [2a + (n − 1)d] 2 10 S10 = [30 − 13. The A. Solution: The percentage of depreciation in value in consecutive years form an A.000/–.5 = 17.P. 2 2 The boy has to run 1260 m to bring all balls to the starting point.00. 6. … Total distance run by the boy = 2(3 + 6 + 9 … to 20 terms) n 20 = 2.2.5.000 ∴Value of the machine after 10 years = Rs.5] in % = 82. ∴ Total depreciation (in %) = 15 + 13½ + 12 + … to 10 terms. Example 35: Show that the sum of an A. 9.5 = Rs.5. Find the sum of the following: a) 17 + 19 + 21 + … to 30 terms c) 7 + 3 + (–1) + (–5) + … to 15 terms e) 2 + 3.P is 3.000 × 17.D = b – a. Last term l = c ⇒ a + (n – 1)d = c ⇒ a + (n – 1) (b – a) = c ⇒ n – 1 = ⇒ n = c−a l−a c−a b + c − 2a +1 = b−a b−a n (b + c − 2a) n ∴ Sn = 2 [a + l] = [a + c] = (a + c) 2 2(b − a) Exercise 1. If the value depreciates 15% the first year. d = – 1. Sn = 2 × [2a + (n − 1)d] = 2 × [2(3) + (20 − 1) 3] = 20 × 63 = 1260 m. The starting point was at a distance 3 meters from the first ball in line with the balls.

P 25. r3 = 1/8. The sum of the first 15 terms is 390.4/– for the first meter.P is 1175. … is 116. If the sum of certain number of terms of an A.2. the cost is Rs. 22. In boring a well 50 m deep. The sum of the first 11 terms of an A. 30 consecutive terms of the A.P is 47 and the sum of 24 terms is 576. 19. rn = 1/2n is very small and rn large or .2 Let Sn denote the sum of n terms of the G. 11. …. Sn = ar + ar2 + ar3 + … + arn (2) – (1) ⇒ r. A man saved Rs. 3. 8. The 24th term of an A. At which term will you begin to get the given total.100 more than in the preceding year. Sn – Sn = arn – a.P a.P if the nth term is 6–n.. 1− r 1 + 1 + 3 + 3 + . he saved Rs. 9.P is 12. + arn–1 Multiplying both sides by r r. How many terms of the sequence 18..2/–. 16. Find the first term and the common difference. 6.P 1.500/– in ten years. So the sum of infinite geometric series is S∞ = Example 36: Sum the series to n terms Solution: a . r < 1 ⇒ rn 0 as n ∞. ar2. after the first. 10. What is the cost of boring the entire well? Sum to n terms of a G. Find the middle term. The sum of the first 25 terms of a series in A. e) Find the sum of all odd numbers between 0 and 1000.16. …. Sn = a + ar + ar2 + …. ar. Each year. 5. 3 a= 1 1 . 4. Find the sum of 15 terms of an A.P. 12.P 100 + 99 + 88 … are taken to get a sum 1155. 7. Find the last term. 14. Sn (r – 1) = a(rn – 1) (1) (2) Sn = a (r n −1) if r > 1 or r −1 Sn = a(1 − r n ) if r < 1 or Sn = na if r = 1 1− r 0 when n is very If r < 1 say r = ½ then r2 = ¼.r= 1 3 = 3 >1 3 = 1 3 a(r n − 1) ∴ Sn = r −1 ( 3 −1 3−1 14 n ) 3 −1 = 3− 3 n . Find the common difference and the sum of the first 12 terms.2.P is 44 and that of the next 11 terms is 55. … should be taken so that their sum is zero. The first term of an A. a) Find the sum of all numbers between 200 and 400 divisible by 13. The last term is 83. Find the A. b) Find the sum of all multiples of 9 between 400 and 600 c) Find the sum of all numbers between 100 and 300 not divisible by 5 d) Find the sum of all multiples of 6 between 500 and 700. Find his savings in the first year. The cost of each successive meter increases by Rs.

...241 as a fraction Solution: 0.009 + …. 8. 1 8 ⎛1 1 1 ⎞ ⎜ + + + .9 + 0. = 3 × 3 × 3 × .01 + 0.P a. S∞ = 8 ⇒ = 8 ⇒ 1 – r = 6/8 = 3/4 ⇒ r = 1/4 =8⇒ 1− r 1− r ∴ The G. ar2. to n terms) 9 3 = [(10 − 1) + (100 − 1) + (1000 − 1) + .1 + 0. r = 18/54 = 1/3 < 1 ∴ S∞ = a 54 3 = = 54 × = 81 1− r 1 − 1/ 3 2 Example 39: Find the sum to n terms of the series 3 + 33 + 333 + …. S8 = = 2 (256 – 1) = 2 × 255 = 510 2 −1 r −1 Example 38: Find the sum to infinity of the series 54. n = 8 ∴ Sn = a(r n − 1) 2(28 − 1) . 2.. Solution: Sn = 3 + 33 + 333 + … n terms 3 = 3 (1 + 11 + 111 + … n terms) = (9 + 99 + 999 + .999.…. ⎟ ⎝2 4 8 ⎠ 3 3 3.P..0 10−1 1 = 9× =1 −1 9 1 − 10 0. = 3 15 . = 9 (0. to n terms] 9 ⎤ 3 ⎡10(10n − 1) 30 3n 10 n = (10n − 1) − = (10n −1) − − n⎥ = ⎢ 9 ⎣ 9 81 9 27 3 ⎦ Example 40: Prove that Solution: 0.....P is 6 and its sum is 8. Solution: Consider the G. Solution: a = 54.2414141….9 = 0.] = 9 × Example 41: Express 0.P 2..001 + …) = 9[10–1 + 10–2 + …..09 + 0..241 = 0.2 + 0.00041 + … 2 ⎡ 41 41 41 2 41/103 ⎤ = + ⎢ 3 + 5 + 7 + . 3/2. 6. 3/8. … Solution: a = 2.041 + 0.⎥ = + 10 ⎣10 10 1 − 1/102 10 10 ⎦ 2 41 198 + 41 + = = 239/990 = 10 990 990 Example 42: The first term of an infinite G... = 0... 3/32.9 = 1. … a 6 a = 6.Example 37: Find the sum to 8 terms of the G. 18. = 0. 4. Find the G.. ….P is 6.. Example 43: Find the value of Solution: 1 2 1 4 3 3 3. ar. r = 4/2 = 2 > 1.

= 3 ⎜ + + + . 2. ⎟ 1 1 1 1/ 2 ∴ + + + .P is 3 Find the sum to infinity of the following a) 36.001 + … to 10 terms d) 1 + 3 + 32 + … to 8 terms 2 2n-1 e) Sum of the first 10 terms if the nth terms of the G.P is –1/2 or –2... 9/64.P. Solution: Distance described in the first impact = 50 m = 2[1/2× 50] = 2 × 25 m Distance described in the 2nd impact = 2 × 25/2 m Distance described in the 3rd impact 25 25 ⎛ ⎞ ∴ Distance described by the time it comes to rest = 50 + 2 ⎜ 25 + + + . 4..2 1. 12. b) 1 + 0..977 + … e) 1 + 12 + 104 + 1006 + … d) 1 + 11 + 111 + … Find the sum of the following G... … b) ¼. a Solution: a + ar + ar2 + … = 4 ⇒ =4 1− r a3 / (1–r)3 = 64 (1) 3 a (2) a3 + a3r3 + a3 r6 + … = 192. … d) 2/3 + 2/27 + 2/243 + … e) 8/5 + 1 + 5/8 + … f) 1 + (1 + x) + (1 + x + x2) + … Find the sum to n terms of the G. is an infinite G. 3. Find the total distance described by the time it comes to rest. a) 5 + 25 + 125 + … to 8 terms c) 4 + 3 + 2¼ + … to 7 terms 16 .P.. = = 1 ⇒ 3⎝ 2 4 8 ⎠ = 31 = 3 ∴ The value of 2 4 8 1 − 1/ 2 ⎞ Example 44: The sum of an infinite G. ⇒ = 129 1− r3 (2) (1 − r)3 192 (1 − r) 2 ⇒ = =3⇒ = 3 ⇒ 2r 2 + 5r + 2 = 0 3 2 (1) 64 1− r 1+ r + r ⇒ (2r + 1) (r + 2) = 0 ⇒ r = − 1/ 2 or − 2 ∴ The common ratio of the G.97 + 0.Now 1 1 1 + + + .. ⎟ 2 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 25 ⎞ = 50 + 2 ⎜ ⎟ = 50 + 2 × 25 × 2 = 50 + 100 = 150 m ⎝ 1 − 1/ 2 ⎠ ∴ Distance travelled by the ball by the time it comes to rest is 150 m. … c) (–2) + 1 + (–1/2). –3/16.1 + 0.P a) 3 + (–6) + 12 + … b) 9 + 99 + 999 + … c) 0.01 + 0.2. 2 4 8 ⎛1 1 S∞ = 1 a 1− r 3 3 3.P is 4 and the sum of the cubes of the terms is 192. Find the common ratio.7 + 0. Exercise 1... Example 45: A rubber ball dropped from a height of 50 m rebounds at every impact from the floor to a height half of that from which it has fallen.

Find the total distance travelled by the ball.736 into a fraction. d = 1.P is 15 and the sum of their squares is 45.P where a = 1. + n = ∑n 1 n This is an A.. Express 0.. l = n n n n(n + 1) ∴ Sn = 2 [a + l] = 2 [1 + n] ∴ Σ n = 2 1 n Example 46: Find the sum of 1 + 2 + 3 + … + 30 n(n + 1) Solution: ∑ n = 2 30 30 (30 + 1) ∑ n = 2 = 15 × 31 = 465 1 Example 47: Find the sum of 11 + 12 + 13 + … + 31 31 × 32 Solution: 1 + 2 + 3 + … + 31 = = 496 2 10 × 11 1 + 2 + … + 10 = = 55 2 ∴ 11 + 12 + 13 + … 31 = (1 + 2 + … + 31) – (1 + 2 + 3 … + 10) = 496 – 55 = 441 Sum of the first n odd numbers 1 + 3 + 5 + … + (2n – 1) = ∑ (2n − 1) 1 n This is an A. 6.3.. 5. Summation of some special series Sum of the first n natural numbers : 1 + 2 + 3 + .. 7. Find the least number of terms of the series 1 + 3 + 32 + … that must be taken to give a sum exceeding 1500.2. 1. Find the value of 3 9 3 9 3 9. n Σ 1 n n (2n − 1) = 2 [1 + 2n − 1] = 2 × 2n = n2 17 .P with a = 1. l = 2n − 1 n Sn = 2 [a + l]. Find the sequence. 8. A ball is dropped from a height of 1 m. At every bounce it travels half the height it travelled with the previous flight. The sum of an infinite number of terms of a G. d = 2.4.

. l+1 ⎡l + 1⎤ Note: If l is the last odd number of the series then Sn = ⎢ 2 ⎥ since n = 2 ⎦ ⎣ Example 48: Find the sum of 11 + 13 + … +35 2 ⎛ 35 + 1 ⎞ Solution: 1 + 3 + … + 35 = ⎜ = 182 = 324 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 ⎛ 9 +1 ⎞ 2 1+3+…+ 9= ⎜ ⎟ = 5 = 25 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 ∴ 11 + 13 + … + 35 = 324 – 25 = 299 Sum of the squares of the first n natural numbers ∑n 1 n 2 = 12 + 22 + 32 + . = (1 + 2 + 3) (2 × 3 + 1) = 3(12 + 22 + 32) 3(12 + 22 + 32) = (1 + 2 + 3) [(2 × 3) + 1] ∴ 12 + 22 + 32 = 1/3 (1 + 2 + 3) [(2 × 3) + 1] Extending this pattern of n terms 12 + 22 + 32 + … + n2 = 1/3 (1 + 2 + 3 + …+ n) [(2 × n) + 1] n(n + 1) n(n + 1)(2n + 1) = 1/3 (2n + 1) = 2 6 ∴ ∑ 1 n n2 = n(n + 1) (2n + 1) 6 Verify! The total number of squares in a chess board 8 8 × 9 × 17 ∑ n 2 = 12 + 22 + 32 + ....∴ Sum of the first n odd natural numbers is n2. Look at the figure below : 3 + 1 12 3 32 22 + 3 22 2 2 1 1 Total number of squares in the Fig.P nor a G. + 82 = 6 = 204 1 18 1 32 + 2 + 3 .P. + n 2 This is neither an A.

2.. ∑n = = = 2870 6 6 6 1 1 Sum of the cubes of the first n natural numbers Solution: ∑n 3 n 2 = ∑n 1 n = 13 + 23 + 33 + . + n 3 Observe the pattern 13 13 + 23 13 + 23 + 33 13 + 23 + 33 + 43 = = = = 1 9 36 100 = 12 = 32 = (1 + 2)2 = 62 = (1 + 2 + 3)2 = 102 = (1 + 2 + 3 + 4)2 Extending this to n terms we get 13 + 23 + 33 + .3 1. Find the total amount Mr. Solution: 2 ∑ 1 8 ⎡8 × 9 ⎤ 2 n =⎢ ⎥ = 36 = 1296 ⎣ 2 ⎦ 2 3 Exercise 1. 2. whose sides are 1 cm. 3. …15 cm respectively.. 19 .Example 49: Find the sum of 12 + 22 + … + 202 n(n + 1)(2n + 1) 20 2 20(20 + 1) (2 × 20 + 1) 20 × 21× 41 . 4. 2 cm. … 29 cm respectively. + n3 = (1 + 2 + 3+ + … + n)2 ⎡ n(n + 1) ⎤ = ⎢ ⎣ 2 ⎥ ⎦ ∴ 2 ∑n 1 n 3 ⎡ n(n + 1) ⎤ = ⎢ ⎣ 2 ⎥ ⎦ 2 ⎡ 20 × 21 ⎤ 2 Example 50: 13 + 23 + 33 + … + 203 = ⎢ ⎥ = 210 = 4410 ⎣ 2 ⎦ Verify! The total number of rectangles (including squares) in a chess board. 21 cm.. Find the sum of the following a) 1 + 2 + 3 + … + 70 b) 1 + 2 + 3 + … + 112 c) 50 + 51 + 52 + … + 98 d) 15 + 17 + … + 65 e) 1 + 3 + 5 + … to 100 terms f) 12 + 14 + 16 + … + 88 i) 400 + 441 + … + 1600 g) 5 + 10 + 15 + … + 200 h) 162 + 172 + … + 302 j) 1 + 8 + 2 + … + 8000 k) 213 + 223 + … + 413 Find the sum of the volumes of the 15 cubes. 3 cm. Find the total area of the 10 squares whose sides are 20 cm.Kumar gave his son by the time he was 17 years old.Kumar gave his son square the amount of his age. On each birthday Mr.

2 1111111111 14197 (c) (d) 3280 (e) 2/9 (410 – 1) 1) (a) 488280 (b) 1000000000 1024 2) (a) 54 (b) 1/7 (c) –4/3 (d) 3/4 (e) 64/15 3) (a) 1 –( –2)n (b) 10/9 (10n –1)–n (c) n − n 1 3 1 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜1 − n ⎟ 10 ⎠ ⎝ (d) 10 n (10n − 1) − 81 9 x(1 − x) n 10n − 1 + n(n − 1) (f) (e) − 2 1 − x (1 − x) 9 4) 8 (5) 3 10 20 81 . (2) (a) –2 (b) 0. 3. … (c) p.2 217 (1) (b). –4. 2. 18 (c) 2. 16. 6. 1.1 1) a. 8 (9) 5.1.. 8 Exercise 1. 2 or 2. 6½ . –1 (b) 1. –1. 40/11.200/(12) Rs. p + 2p. 0. … 5) (a) 82 (b) 14. 8.. b. 2. –1/6 4) (a) –5.1785 (3) 6085 cm 20 . 0. −2. . –4/3. 4/3. 12 (12) 8. 4. 4/3 (7) 1. 3½ (e) –½ . 15.–2. 4. –8/3 (6) 3.650/Exercise 1. 3. 32.7 (c) 1/4 (d) –3 (e) 4 3) (a) 5. 6.74.1 1) (a) 1380 (b) 644 (c) –315 (d) 4060 (e) 500 2) (a) 4485 (b) 10989 (c) 32000 (d) 19800 (e) 250000 3) 11.3 (4) 26 (5) 39/11. … (d) 7. 2.5 (c) 43. 50.2. 4. … (e) 1.P..2.72.(d) (2) (a) –1/5 (b) –5/2 (c) 0. 3 (5) (a) 3. d. 8. 16 (8) 3/2 (9) 4 (10) 7 (11) 5.ANSWERS Exercise 1.5 (c) 19/5 (d) –58 (e) 33 6) (a) 9.3 (d) 3/5 (3) (a) 1/64 (b) 384 (c) 1/81 (d) 9 5 (4) (a) 3. … (b) 3½. 4/3 or 4/3.1. 4/3 … (b) 64. 2. e are in A. 2.2. 18 (d) 1. 85. 3 9 (d) 1040 (j) 44100 (e) 10000 (f) 1950 (k) 697221 (2) 14400 cm3 Exercise 1. 7. 20 (10) 75. 0. 6.1. 6. (6) 110 (7) 3 (8) 5.2. 105 (11) 2.2. 41/11. 5. 7. –2/3. 3 (b) 18. –1/3.5. p + q. … (6) 144 (7) 19 (8) 4 9) –30 (10) 53 (11) Rs. … (c) 128/2187 (d) 1. 6 Exercise 1. 57 (d) 2½. 6 (b) –283 (c) 27 (d) 5. –8 or –1/3. 7 th th 7) (a) 20 (b) 106 (c) 27 (d) No (e) 15 8) –2. 10.3 (1) (a) 2485 (b) 6328 (c) 3626 (g) 4100 (h) 8215 (i) 19670 2 (4) Rs. 95. 4. 2.

the area of a wall for painting. the perimeter of a plot for fencing.2. 21 R h r Fig.units d) Volume of the material = πh (R2– r2) = πh (R+r) (R – r) cubic units. (d) Volume = πr2h cubic units. C A A right circular cylinder has two plane ends. a) Area of the base = π(R2– r2) sq.0 INTRODUCTION We do measurement in our daily life in many situations. the volume of a water tank for filling. Hollow cylinder A solid bounded by two coaxial cylinders of same height and different radii is a hollow cylinder. Consider a rectangle ABCD which revolves about its side AB and completes one full round to arrive at its initial position.1 For a right circular cylinder of radius r and height h. MENSURATION 2. This branch of mathematics is called mensuration. which occupy space and have more than two dimensions called solids. (a) Base Area = πr2 sq. (b) Curved surface area = 2πrh sq. units. The line segment joining the centres of the plane ends is the axis of the cylinder. units = π(R+r)(R– r) sq.2. In this chapter we shall study first the volume and surface area of combined solids and finally the invariant volumes. Each plane end is circular in shape and the plane ends are parallel.2. Right circular cylinder A right circular cylinder is a solid generated by the revolution of a rectangle about one of its sides. We have also learnt about figures other than plane figures. D B Fig. Similar to these activities we do measurements for our further needs. we have learnt about perimeters and areas of plane figures. we measure the length of cloth for stitching. For example. The curved surface joining the two plane ends is the lateral surface. Although we have studied about volume and surface area of various solids in earlier classes let us now recall the formulae. units b) Curved surface area = 2πh (R+r) sq. In earlier classes. units c) Total surface area = 2πr (R+r) (h+R– r) sq. The revolution generates a right circular cylinder as shown in Fig. Each of these ends is called the base of the cylinder.2. If R and r are the external and internal radii of a hollow cylinder of height h then. The radius of the base is the radius of the cylinder.1.2 . units. units (c) Total surface area = 2πr (h + r) sq.

Find the volume and the cost of painting its curved surface at the rate of Rs. Find the volume of the cylinder formed. 2 3 πr cubic units 3 A cylindrical pillar is 3. VA is the slant height `l' of the cone. 3. Find the volume of water needed to fill the tank.2. Each part is a hemisphere. It contains 50 m3 of water. A rectangular sheet of aluminium foil 44 cm x 20 cm is rolled along to form a cylinder of height 20 cm. V is a fixed point.3. 5. For a sphere of radius r (a) Surface area = 4πr2 square units For a hemisphere of radius r (a) Curved surface area = 2πr2 square units (b) Volume = (b) Volume = 4 3 πr cubic units 3 (c) Total surface area of a solid hemisphere = 3πr2 square units Review Exercise 1.2. VO is the height `h' of the cone and OA is the base radius ‘r' of the cone. A cone of height 24 cm has a curved surface area of 550 cm2. A plane through the centre of a sphere divides the sphere into two equal parts. In Fig. Find the volume of the cone. units c) Total surface area = πr (l + r) sq. units d) Volume V h B l O r A Fig. Clearly l2 = r2 + h2. 22 .3 A r O r B 1 2 = πr h cubic units. The radius and height of a cone are 7 cm and 24 cm respectively. For a right circular cone of radius r. 3 Fig.20 per square metre. height h and slant height l.2. 2. Find the volume and curved surface area of the cone. VO is a fixed line and VA is a revolving line which makes constant angle with VO. a) Area of the base = πr2 sq.Right circular cone A right circular cone is a solid generated by revolving a line segment which passes through a fixed point and which makes a constant angle with a fixed line. The diameter of hemispherical tank is 14 m. 4.5 m in diameter and 20 m high. units b) Curved surface area = πrl sq.4 Sphere A sphere is generated by revolving a semi-circle about its diameter. The point A will describe a circle with centre O such that the line segment VO is perpendicular to the base.

5 m 3m 52.5 m and slant height of the cone is 53 m.5m Height of the cylindrical part h = 3m ∴Curved surface area of the cylindrical part = 2πrh square units. r = 2. which are combinations of more than one solid.5m.7 Name and draw such objects you see around.8 Slant height of the cone = 53m = πrl sq. toys etc.5 m 105 × 3 m2 = 315 πm2 2 Fig. We will now work out a few examples involving volume and surface area of combination of solids.5) = (3097.5m. The cylinder is of radius 2. Height of the cone h2 = l2 − r2 23 (l = slant height of the cone).1 VOLUMES AND SURFACE AREAS In our day-to-day life we come across objects. Height of the cylinder h1 = 21m . Solution : Radius of the cylinder = radius of the cone .units = π × 105 × 53 m2 = 2782.5m .2. Example 1 : A circus tent is cylindrical to a height of 3 m and conical above it.2. below: Fig.2. .2. Some objects are shown in the Figs.5 πm2 2 Area of the canvas required = CSA of the cylindrical part + CSA of the conical part = π (315 + 2782. Calculate the surface area and volume of the rocket.5 Fig. = Radius of the conical part CSA of the conical part = 52.6 Fig. Solution: Radius of the cylindrical part r = 52. 2×π× 53 m 52.5 m and height 21 m and the cone has the slant height 6. find the area of canvas required to make the tent.2. If the base radius is 52.5) πm2 Example 2 : A rocket is in the form of a cylinder surmounted by a cone.

5 × 21 + π × 2.52 − 2.5 × 6 3 Fig.52 = (6.5m 6 .5)2 = (24.5 cm.h 2 = 6.58) π cm3 Example 4 : A solid is in the form of right circular cylinder with a hemisphere at one end and a cone at the other end.2. The radius of the common base is 3.units = 2 × π × (3.75) π cubic metre.9 Example 3 : A toy is in the form of a cone mounted on a hemisphere of radius 3. B A 3. Find the total surface area of the solid.10 Fig. 1 π × 2.5 + 2.5)π sq. The total height of the toy is 15.5 m = π × 2.5) (6.5 Height of the cone = 15.11 Solution: Radius of the hemisphere = 3.2.58π = (77.5 = 105 π + 16. Find the volume of the toy. Radius of the cylinder r = 3.5 × 6. Volume of the toy = Volume of the cone + volume of the hemisphere = 7 7 7 7 7⎞ 343π ⎛1 ⎞ ⎛2 = ⎜ π × × × 12 ⎟ + ⎜ π × × × ⎟ = 49π + 2 2 2 2 2⎠ 12 ⎝3 ⎠ ⎝3 = 49π + 28.5 cm and the heights of the cylindrical and conical portions are 10 cm and 12 cm respectively.5 – 3.5 = 12 cm. Height of the cone = 12 cm 24 21 m .25) π + (12.5 cm .5 − 2.5cm 1 2 2 πr h + πr3 cubic units 3 3 Fig.5cm cm Total height of the toy = Radius of the hemisphere + height of the cone.5 × 10 = 70 π cm2 Radius of the cone r = 3.5 cm = 7/2 cm 15.5 cm Curved surface area of the hemisphere = 2πr2 sq.2.5cm.5 × 2.units.5 × 21 + = (131. 12 cm 10 cm 3.25π = (121.5 × 2.5) = 9 × 4 = 36 ⇒ h2 = 6m Surface area of the rocket = CSA of the cylinder + CSA of the cone = 2πrh1 + πrl = 2 × π × 2.25)π square metre Volume of the rocket = Volume of cylinder + Volume of the cone = πr2 h1 + 1 2 πr h2 3 2. Height of the cylinder h = 10 cm Curved surface area of the cylinder = 2πrh square units = 2 × π × 3.5) π = (143.5 cm .5 Total height of the toy = 15. Solution : Radius of the cone = Radius of the hemisphere = 3.

5π + 70π + 43.25) π cm2.2.75) π cm2 Total surface area of the solid = Curved Surface area of the hemisphere + curved surface area of the cylinder + curved surface area of the cone = 24.2.25) π cm2 Total Surface area of the solid = (138.5 cm = 7/2 cm Radius of the cylinder = Radius of the hemisphere Total height of the capsule = 19 cm Height of the cylinder = 19 – (2 × 3.5) = 12 cm Volume of the capsule = Volume of the cylinder + volume of two hemisphere ⎡ ⎛2 ⎞⎤ = ⎢πr 2 h + 2⎜ πr 3 ⎟⎥ cubic units ⎝3 ⎠⎦ ⎣ 12 cm Fig.13 25 13 cm . Solution: Diameter of the cylinder = 7cm Radius of the cylinder = 3. The total height of the capsule is 19 cm and the diameter of the cylinder is 7 cm.67) π cm3 3 3 3. Solution: Diameter of the hemisphere = 14 cm Radius of the hemisphere = 7 cm Radius of the cylinder = Radius of the hemisphere Height of the cylinder = 13 – 7 = 6 cm Capacity of the vessel = volume of the hemisphere + volume of the cylinder.75 π = (138. 7 cm 6 cm 7 cm Fig.5 = (43.5 cm Example 6 : A capsule is in the form of a cylinder with hemispherical ends.5 × 12. Slant height of the cone = r 2 + h 2 = 3.5 cm = 4 4 2 Curved Surface area of the cone = πrl square units = π × 3. Find the volume and total surface area of the capsule. The diameter of the sphere is 14 cm and the total height of the vessel is 13 cm. Find its capacity.5 2 + 12 2 = Example 5 : A vessel is in the form of a hemispherical bowl mounted by a hollow cylinder.12 = = 2 3 πr + πr2h cubic units 3 2 π×7×7×7 + π×7×7×6 cm3 3 ⎡⎛ 2 ⎤ ⎞ = π × 7 × 7 ⎢⎜ × 7 ⎟ + 6 ⎥ cm3 ⎠ ⎣⎝ 3 ⎦ = π × 49 × 32 1568 cm3 = π cm3 = (522.625 25 49 + 144 = = 12.

Volume of the cylinder = πr2h cubic units = π×7×7×14 = 686 π cm3 Radius of the hemisphere = 7cm 2 × π r3 3 2 1372 =2× ×π×7×7×7= πcm3 3 3 1372 ⎛ 2⎞ π = 686 π ⎜ 1 .15 . 2 Example 7 : In a cylindrical wooden block of radius 7 cm and height 14 cm hemispherical blocks of radius 7 cm are carved out from both ends.67 πcm3. Height of the cylinder = 14cm . Solution Radius of the cylinder = 7cm. ∴Height of the smaller cone = 12 cm ∴Height of the bigger cone = 12 + 24 = 36 cm Capacity of the bucket = Volume of the bigger cone – Volume of the smaller cone 1 ⎛1 ⎞ = ⎜ π×18 ×18 × 36 − π 6 × 6 ×12 ⎟ cm3 3 ⎝3 ⎠ 26 A 18 cm B D 6 cm 24 cm E h C Fig. Solution: The bucket is obtained by cutting a smaller cone of radius 6 cm from a bigger cone of radius 18 cm.2. Fig. Find the 7 cm volume of the resulting solid. units = 2 × π × 3.7 7 2 7 7 7⎞ ⎛ = ⎜ π × × ×12 + 2 × × π × × × ⎟ cm3 2 2 3 2 2 2⎠ ⎝ 25 1225π = 49π × = = (204.5 (12 + 2 × 3. Its depth is 24 cm. ∴ = = h 6 1 3h = 24 + h or 2h = 24 or h = 12 cm.2.14 Example 8 : The radius of the top of a bucket is 18 cm and that of the bottom is 6 cm. Find the capacity of the bucket.17) π cm3 6 6 Total surface area of the capsule = CSA of the cylinder + surface area of two hemispheres. = 2πrh + 2 × 2 πr2 sq. Let h be the height of the smaller cone 24 + h 18 3 ΔABC | | | ΔDEC.⎟ Volume of the resulting solid = 686π – 3 ⎝ 3⎠ Volume of the 2 hemispheres = 2 × = 686 π 3 = 228.5) cm2 =2×π× 7 × 19 = 133 π cm2.

14 × × × 10 = 384. 1 1 π×3×3×10. 2 27 10.5 = 22.5 m 3 cm 2 cm Fig.3 m3.16 Solution: Upper part of the hay stock is a cone of radius 3 m and height 7m. 2 2 1 (Volume of the cylinder) 2 ∴ Volume of the godown 1 (384.16 Example 10 : A godown building is in the form as shown in the figure.17 3 3 = 40.17 m3 = 43.2. 3 3 7 cm Volume of the lower part Volume of the hay stock = 21π + 22. Radius of the lower end = 2 m Height of the frustum = 10.5 cm . 7m Length of the building = 10m.17 π m3.2.65 m3.5 – × π×2×2×7 3 3 1 π × (94.5 – 28) m3 = 3 1 π × 66.5 = 10. Aliter : Volume of the godown = Volume of the cuboid + Volume of the cuboid Volume of the cylinder = l×b×h = πr2h = 210 + = 7 × 10 × 3 = 210 m3.5 cm The lower part is a frustum.17 π m3.65)m3 = 402.23 × 10 m = 402. = . = 3 = 10. Find its volume (π ~ 3.23 m . Try a formula for the volume of a frustum.14 × 2 × 2 ⎟ m2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 2 10 m = 21 + 19. Example 9 : Find the volume of the hay stock as shown in the Fig.325 m3 = 402.14).5 – 7 = 3. Radius of the upper end = 3m.23m = 40. Solution : Area of the vertical cross section of the godown = Area of the of the rectangle + Area of the 3m semicircle 1 7 7⎞ ⎛1 = l × b + πr2 = (7 x 3) + ⎜2 × 3. Let h be the height of the smaller cone.5 m Let H be the height of the bigger cone.5 + h Using similar triangles.= 144 π(27–1) cm3 = 144 π × 26 cm3 = 3744 π cm3 Note : Solid obtained by cutting a right circular cone by a plane parallel to the base is called frustum of a cone. 7 7 = 3. 3 H 3. ∴Volume of the cone = 1 2 1 πr h = π × 3 × 3 × 7 = 21 π m3. = 2 h h 3h = 7 + 2 h or h = 7 ⇒ H = 7 + 3. Volume of the godown =Area of cross section × length Fig.3 m .2.

The interior of a building is in the form of a cylinder of diameter 4.2 m and height 3. 3.5 cm. The height of a solid cylinder is 15 cm and the diameter of the base is 7 cm. Find the capacity of the vessel. The height of the conical part is 12 cm. B Fig.5 D A 0 3 E 2.8 m and 20 cm in diameter surmounted by a cone of height 42 cm. A solid is composed of a cylinder with hemispherical ends.14).2. Find the surface area of the toy. A toy is in the shape of a right circular cylinder with a hemisphere on one end a cone on another end.Exercises 2. 6. find the volume of the hay that can be stored in it (π = 3. Find the volume of the remaining solid. find the cost of polishing the surface at the rate of 7 ps/cm2 (π = 3. Find the weight of the pillar if 1 cu. CE = 3m and FC = OE = 10.5 gm (π ~ 3. Find the total surface area of the toy. A vessel in the form of a hemispherical bowl is mounted by a hollow cylinder.14). A circus tent is cylindrical upto a height of 3 m and conical above it. The total height of the toy is 24.1 1.18 10. The radius of the hemispherical part is 12.14). If the length of the shed is 24 m. C 13 F 10. find the total surface area if AC = 13 cm. If the diameter of the base is 105 m and the slant height of the cone is 53 m. A toy is in the form of a cone mounted on a hemisphere of radius 4. Two equal conical holes each of radius 3 cm and height 4 cm are cut off.cm of iron weighs 7. An icecream cone has a hemispherical top. find the length of the canvas to be bought if the width of the canvas is 5 m (π=3. 5. An iron pillar is in the form of a cylinder of height 2.5 10. If the length of the solid is 108 cm and the diameter of the cylinder is 36 cm. If the height of the cone is 9 cm and base radius is 2. find the capacity of the cup. 12.14). The radius of the hemisphere and conical parts are the same as that of the cylinder.5m.5 cm and the total height of the cup is 25 cm. 7. Find the volume of the icecream in the icecream cone. 8.5 cm. 9. 11.8m surmounted by a cone whose vertical angle is a right angle. In the adjoining figure. 4.5 cm. 28 . A cup is in the form of a hemisphere surmounted by a cylinder. The radius and height of the cylindrical part are 5 cm and 30 cm respectively. The cross section of a hay shed is a rectangle of height 21 m and width 18 m surmounted by a semicircle on the breadth wise side. Find the surface area and volume of the building. The diameter of the bowl is 14 cm and the total height of the vessel is 13 cm.

Find its capacity in litres (π = 3. Height of the cone = 8cm. In this unit we will learn to compute the number of new shapes made out of given ones when total volume remains unchanged. 14.5 cm 12 cm Fig. 12.2.2.25 cm and is 8 cm in height.75 1. find how many such cones can be made.75 cm in diameter.25 × 8 cm3 3 3 1. Solution: Radius of the cone = 5.19 3 cm 7 cm Fig. Example 11 : A conical piece of lead has a radius of 5. In industries too metal sheets or rods are melted and cast into solids of different shapes and sizes. Volume of the cone = 1 2 1 πr h cubic units = π × 5.25 × 5.20 2.25 cm. The perimeters of the ends of the Fig. 16.2.75 cm ⇒ Radius of the smaller cone = Volume of the smaller cone = Number of smaller cones 1 1. 15.20.2 INVARIANT VOLUMES At home you would have seen your mother making a number of `laddus' spherical in shape with `sweet boondhis' kept in vessels of any shape. If it is melted and made into smaller cones 2 cm high and 1.2.14).13. Find the capacity of the bucket. If the radii of the circular ends of a bucket of height 45 cm are 28 cm and 7cm. Find the volume of the solid given by the Fig.4π cm. If the h eight is 12 cm.75 π× × ×2 3 2 2 Volume of the bigger cone = Volume of the smaller cone 29 2 cm . find its volume.19 are 14π and 8.75 cm 2 Diameter of the smaller cone = 1. The radii of the ends of a bucket 32cm high are 21 cm and 7 cm.

1 cm2 and its slant height is 13 cm.75 ×π × × ×2 3 2 2 ∴ 144 smaller cones can be made.25 cm. Curved surface area of the cone = 204. Radius of the cylinder = 2 ∴Volume of the sand in the bucket = πr2h = π × 6 × 6 × 16 cm3.1 π × 5.14 × r × 13 = 204. Solution : Diameter of the cylinder bucket = 12 cm. Find the height of the heap. 204.1 cm2 or r = 3.14). Height of the cylinder = 16 cm. 2 Let the height of the heap be `h' cm Volume of the conical heap = volume of the sand in the bucket = 1 × π × 9 × 9 × h = π × 6 × 6 × 16 3 π × 6 × 6 × 16 64 cm = 21. find the height (Take π = 3. 18 Diameter of the sand heap = 18 cm. It is melted and cast in the form of a cylinder. ∴Radius of the heap = = 9 cm. If the area of the base of the cylinder is 16π cm2.33 cm. It is full of sand and when emptied the sand stands in the shape of a cone 18 cm in diameter. Example 12 : A cylindrical bucket is internally 12 cm in diameter and 16 cm deep. Let the height of the cylinder be H cm.33 cm.1 πrl = 3. Volume of the cylinder made = Volume of the cone melted ⇒ πr2 H = Base area × H = 1 1 π × 5 × 5 × 12 (or) 16π × H = π × 5 × 5 × 12 (or) 3 3 1 1 (or) H = 6.1cm2.25 × 5. ∴ h = Example 13 : The curved surface area of a cone made of lead is 204. = 1 1.75 1.14 × 13 Radius of the cone = 5 cm . 12 = 6 cm. Solution: Slant height of the cone = 13 cm . h = l2 − r2 = 13 2 − 5 2 ∴Height ‘h’ of the cone = 12 cm Volume of the cone = 1 2 πr h 3 = 1 π × 5 × 5 × 12 cm3 3 1 2 πr h 3 Base area of the cylinder = 16 π cm2 . H = π × 5 × 5 × 12 × 3 16π 30 . = 1 3 ×π×9×9 3 ∴ The height of the heap = 21.25 × 8 3 = 3 × 3 × 8 × 2 = 144.

Example 15 : A solid metal cylinder is 20 cm in height and has a radius of 1.5 × 1.5 × 1. 3 Volume of the cylinder melted π × 1. Depth of water = 2 Volume of water raised in the jar = π × 7 × 7 × 2.5 × 1. Radius of the cylinder = 1. ∴Radius of the jar = = 7 cm 2 20 = 10 cm. 31 π × 7 × 7 × 2.5 cm.5 × 1.5 ⇒ 10 spheres can be cast from the cylinder. Example 16 : A cylindrical jar of diameter 14 cm and depth 20 cm is half full of water.Example 14 : A hemispherical bowl of radius 30 cm is filled with soap paste.4 cm. 2 π × 30 × 30 × 30 Volume of the soap paste 3 = 360 Number of soap cakes = = Volume of the soap cake π × 5 × 5× 2 ∴We get 360 soap cakes out of the given paste. Find the diameter of each lead shot.5 × 20 cm3 Radius of the sphere = 1. How many spheres can be cast from the cylinder? Solution : Height of the cylinder = 20 cm.5 cm3. 3 = 5 cm. If this paste is made into cylindrical soap cakes each of radius 5 cm and height 2 cm. Volume of 300 lead shots = Volume of water raised. 300 lead shots of the same size are dropped into the jar and the level of water rises by 2.8 × 3 = r = 300 × 4 × π .5 cm 4 Volume of the sphere cast = × π × 1.8 3 7×7×7 7 ⎛7⎞ = 0.8 cm.7 cm ∴Diameter of each lead shot = 1. how many cakes do we get? Solution: Radius of the hemisphere = 30 cm . Height of the soap cake = 2 cm.5 cm Volume of the cylinder = π × 1. 300 × 3 4 × π × r3 3 = π × 7 × 7 × 2.8 cm.7 cm. Rise in the level of water = 2.5 × 1. = ⎜ ⎟ (or) r = 10 1000 ⎝ 10 ⎠ Radius of each lead shot = 0. Let r denote the radius of a lead shot. Volume of the hemisphere = 2 3 πr cubic units 3 ∴Volume of the soap paste = Radius of the soap cake Volume of the soap cake 2 π × 30 × 30 × 30 cm3. = π × 5 × 5 × 2 cm3.5 × 1. 14 Solution: Diameter of the jar = 14 cm . This is melted down and cast into spheres each of radius 1.5 × 20 × 3 = = 10 Number of spheres cast = Volume of a sphere cast 4 × π × 1.8 cm3.5 cm.

Water is pumped into it through a pipe of 10 cm diameter. h= 3 6 π×7×7 The level of water in the vessel is rises by 1. By how much does the level of water rise? 7 Solution: Diameter of the sphere = 7 cm ⇒ Radius of the sphere = cm 2 4 7 7 7 Volume of the sphere = π × × × cm3.Example 17 : A cylindrical vessel of diameter 14 cm contains water. Volume of the hollow cylindrical pipe = πh (R + r) (R – r) Outer radius of the pipe R = 5 cm.14 × 5 × 5 × 400 = 2500 seconds = 41 m 40 seconds. 4 7 7 7 π×7×7× h= π× × × 3 2 2 2 4 7 7 7 × π× × × 2 2 2 = 7 cm ~ 1.26 cm is used to caste an iron pipe. (π = 3. How long will it take to fill the tank every morning? (π = 3. Solution: Volume of the iron slab melted = 60 × 20 × 28. Volume of water in the tank = 3140 × 25000 cm3 Volume of water pumped in 1 sec = 3.26 60 × 20 × 28.14) Solution: Volume of water supplied for 1 person = 25 litres = 25000 cm3. A metal sphere of diameter 7 cm is lowered into the water until it is completely immersed.26 cm3. Example 19 : An over head tank has been constructed to supply water to a village with a population of 3140 at the rate of 25 litres per head per day. 32 .17 cm.14 × 5 × 5 × 400 cm3. Calculate the length of the pipe that can be cast from the slab (π = 3. 3 2 2 2 Let h denote the level of water raised in the cylindrical vessel.14) Volume of the tank Time taken to fill the tank = Volume of water pumped in 1 sec = 3140 × 25000 3. π (5 + 4) (5 – 4)h = 60 × 20 × 28. Inner radius of the pipe r = 5 – 1 = 4 cm Volume of the metal in the pipe = Volume of the melted slab. Volume of water raised in the cylindrical vessel = Volume of the sphere immersed. 3. Pipe will take 41 minutes and 40 seconds to fill the tank.14). the rate of flow being 4 m per sec.17 cm.14 × 9 × 1 Length of the pipe that can be cast from the slab is 12 m.26 h = = 1200 cm = 12 m. If the wall of the pipe is 1 cm thick. Example 18 : A slab of iron whose dimensions are 60 cm × 20 cm × 28. The outer diameter of the pipe is 10 cm.

75 m and is transferred to a cylindrical tub of diameter 20 meters. Three solid spheres of radii 6cm. Find the height of water in the cylindrical tub (π = 3.396 m × 2. 13. If the height of the cylinder is 2. long. 2.14). Find the height of the recast cylinder (π=3. Calculate the radius of each spherical ball. 15. Find the height of the cone. The diameter of the cylindrical vessel is 12 cm. 7.2 cm in radius is drawn into another rod of length 72 cm.25 cm and height 6 cm.9 hectares to a depth of 10 cm in 70 hours. A hemisphere of lead of radius 8 cm is cast into a right circular cone of base 6 cm.5 m × 1. Find the radius of the resulting sphere. It is melted and made into 8 spherical balls of equal size. This liquid is to be filled in conical bottles of radius 1. 16.2 1. find the rise of the water level in the vessel. 18.5 m and the radius of the cone is 3 m find the curved surface area and volume of the cone. Rain water falls in a tub of dimensions 6 m x 4 m x 2. If the sphere is completely submerged in water. A solid right circular cylinder has a base radius of 12 cm and height of 16 cm. A cylindrical bowl of diameter 15 cm contains some liquid to a height of 6 cm. How many students can be served if the food is served twice with a hemispherical bowl of radius 14 cm? 4. Find the radius and slant height of the cone. Its internal and external radii are 4 cm and 12 cm respectively. 14. 8 cm and 10 cm respectively are melted to form a single solid sphere.4 m and height 56 cm. A well of diameter 3 m is dug to a depth of 20m. Find the radius of the new rod. Find the height of the cone correct to two decimal places.6 cm is melted and recast into a right circular cone of height 12. A cylindrical tub of radius 12 cm contains water to a depth of 20 cm. Find the number of bottles that can be filled with the liquid in the bowl. What is the radius of the ball? Water flowing through a pipe of diameter 7 cm irrigates a field of area 4. 5. 33 . Find the height and volume of the cone.4 m.6 cm.Exercise 2. For the noon meal. The earth taken out is heaped into a cone of height 15 m. Find the length of the wire (π = 3. A solid rectangular block of iron of dimensions 4. food is kept ready in 3 cylindrical vessels of diameter 1. 12. Find the speed of water. A sphere of diameter 6 cm is dropped in a right circular cylindrical vessel partly filled with water. A sphere of radius 12. A hollow sphere of internal and external diameter 4 cm and 8 cm respectively is melted to form a cone of diameter 8 cm. A hollow cylindrical metal pipe is 40 cm long. 8. 11.14).75 cm.14). What is the diameter of the solid cylinder? A cone and a cylinder have the same base area and the same curved surface area. A rod 4 m in length and 1. The surface area of a sphere of radius 5 cm is five times the curved surface area of a cone of radius 4 cm. 3. 10. 9.6 m is recast into a cylinder of radius 0.5 mm. A spherical ball is dropped into the tub and the water level is raised by 6. A cubic centimeter of iron is drawn into a wire of diameter 3. Find the diameter of the base of the cone. 17. 6. It is melted and cast into a solid cylinder 20 cm.

(19.25 cm (11) 18. (7) (132.2) πm2.08 cm3 (1) 10.17) πcm3 (13) 15335 πcm3 (15) (21.16) πcm2 (16) (48.ANSWERS Exercise 2.4 cm (6) 5.35) h Exercise 2. (3) (22.75) πcm3.37 kg (4) (159.4 cm (12) 32 cm (17) 3m.44 cm (9) 50. πm3 (14) 14 cm (18) 225.19 km/hr (16) 6cm (2) 35m (7) 50.3 m (3) 1 cm (4) 108 (8) 28.854. 15.1 (1) 692.58 (8) (522.2 (2) 1945.3 cm3 (13) 15πcm2.23 m (5) Rs. (5) 2√2 cm (10) 9 cm (15) 12cm 34 .745) πm3 (6) 415 πcm2 (9) 420 πm2 (12) 12124.21) πcm3 (14) (384.5) π cm3.75) πcm2 (10) (29.67) πcm3 (11) (3255.

3. THEORY OF SETS

3.0 INTRODUCTION

Cantor (1845-1918 A.D), father of modern theory of sets published a paper in 1874 A.D that the set of real numbers could not be put into one-to-one correspondence with the integers. From 1879 onwards, he published many research papers on properties of abstract sets. Famous mathematicians Dedekind (1831-1916 A.D) and Kronecker (1810-1893 A.D) have continued research on theory of sets. German mathematician Gottlob presented the set theory as principles of logic. Bertrand Russell (1872-1970 A.D) and Paul Halmos proposed paradoxes in set theory. The axiomatization of set theory was published by Ernest Zermelo (1908), Abraham Fraenekel 1922 and John Von Neumann (1925). Paul Bernays (1937) and Kurt Godel (1940) gave a set of more satisfactory axiomatization. But Cantor’s set theory is used in the present day mathematics. Descartes (1596-1650 A.D) introduced the word ‘function’ in 1637 A.D to mean xn. An explicit definition of function was given by James Gregory (1638-1675 A.D). Leibnitz (1673 A.D) used the word ‘function’ to mean any quantity varying from point to point on a curve, such as the co-ordinates of a point on the curve, the slope of the curve, the tangent and the normal at a point on the curve. Later Leibnitz (1714 A.D) used the word function to mean quantities that depend on a variable. He was the first to use the phrase ‘function of x’. The notation f(x) was introduced by Euler (1734 A.D). Fourier (1768-1830 A.D) while investigating heat conduction problem gave a broad definition of a function. Drichlet (18051859 A.D) gave the definition of function which is in use today. Cantor gave set theoretic definition of the function.

3.1

SETS

We have learnt about sets in the previous classes. All branches of Mathematics can be brought into the frame work of set theory. Let us recall what we have learnt about sets by answering the following questions: Define a set, empty set, disjoint sets, subsets, power set, universal set, complement of a set, operations on sets and give some examples. In this chapter we are going to learn in detail about the laws of set operations, Relations and Functions. Union of two sets is commutative

A B

B A

A

B

A

B

Fig.3.1 35

Fig.3.2

From the diagrams we see that A ∪ B = B ∪ A. For example, given A = {–2, 3, 5, 7} and B = {3, 9, 11} we see that A ∪ B = {–2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11}, B ∪ A = {–2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11} ∴ A ∪ B = B ∪ A Intersection of two sets is commutative

A B

B A

A

B

A

B

Fig.3.3

Fig.3.4

From the above diagrams we see that A ∩ B = B ∩ A. For example, given A = {–7, 5, 2, 3,6} and B = {3, 6, 7, 12}. We see that A ∩ B = {3, 6}; B ∩ A = {3, 6} ∴ A ∩ B = B ∩ A. Idempotency of Union and Intersection of two sets A ∪ A = A and A ∩ A = A If A = {1, 3, 5, 7}, then A ∪ A = {1, 3, 5,7} = A and A ∩ A = {1, 3, 5, 7} = A. Venn diagrams to show the idempotency of union and intersection of sets:

A A

A A

A

B

A

B

Fig.3.5 Associative law for union sets

Fig.3.6

**A ∪ (B ∪ C) = (A ∪ B) ∪ C Verification of the associative law for the union of sets using Venn diagrams: A A (B C) B C
**

A B

A

B

A

B

C Fig.3.7

C Fig.3.8 36

C Fig.3.9

A B A

C

(A B) C

A

B

B

A

B

C

C

C

Fig.3.10

Fig.3.11

Fig.3.12

From Fig.3.9 and Fig.3.12 it is clear that A ∪ (B ∪ C) = (A ∪ B) ∪ C Associative law for intersection of sets A ∩ (B ∩ C) = (A ∩ B) ∩ C Verification of the associative law for intersection of sets using Venn diagrams”

B C A B A A (B C) A A B A (A B) C

B

B

B

C

C

C

C

Fig.3.13

Fig.3.14

Fig.3.15

Fig.3.16

From Fig.3.14 and Fig.3.16 it is clear that A ∩ (B ∩ C) = (A ∩ B) ∩ C Example 1: Verify the associative law of union and intersection of the following sets. A = {4, 5, 6}, B = {6, 7, 8}, C = {7, 8, 9} Solution: (a) B ∪ C = {6, 7, 8, 9}; A ∪ (B ∪ C) = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} A ∪ B = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8}; (A ∪ B) ∪ C = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} From (1) and (2) it is verified that A ∪ (B ∪ C) = (A ∪ B) ∪ C. (b) B ∩ C = {7, 8}; A ∩ (B ∩ C) = { } A ∩ B = {6}; (A ∩ B) ∩ C = { } From (3) and (4) it is verified that A ∩ (B ∩ C) = (A ∩ B) ∩ C Distributive laws (a) A ∪ (B ∩ C) = (A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ C) (b) A ∩ (B ∪ C) = (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C) Consider the sets A = {1, 3, 5, 7}, B = {1, 2, 4, 6, 8} and C = {1, 3, 6,8} (b) B ∩ C = {1, 6, 8}; A ∪ (B ∩ C) = {1, 3, 5, 7, 6, 8} A ∪ B = {1, 3, 5, 7, 2, 4, 6, 8} A ∪ C = {1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8} (A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ C) = {1, 3, 5, 7, 6, 8} From (1) and (2) we see that A ∪ (B ∩ C) = (A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ C) (b) B ∪ C = {1,2,4,6,8,3}; A ∩ (B ∪ C) = {1, 3} A ∩ B = {1} ; A ∩ C = {1, 3} (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C) = {1, 3} From (3) and (4) we see that A ∩ (B ∪ C) = (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C) 37

(1) (2) (3) (4)

(1) (2) (3) (4)

Verification of the law: A ∪ (B ∩ C) = (A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ C) using Venn diagrams:

B C A B A

A (B C)

B

C Fig.3.17 A B A B A A C

C Fig.3.18 (A B) (A C) B A B

C Fig.3.19

C Fig.3.20

C Fig.3.21

**From Fig.3.18 and Fig.3.21 we find A ∪ (B ∩ C) = (A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ C) Verification of the law: A ∩ (B ∪ C) = (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C) using Venn diagrams: A (B C) B C
**

A B A B

C Fig.3.22

C Fig.3.23

A B A B A

A C B

(A B) (A

C) B

**C C C Fig.3.24 Fig.3.25 Fig.3.26 From Fig.3.23 and Fig.3.26 we observe that A ∩ (B ∪ C) = (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C)
**

38

9. 8. 4. 9.28 A’ B’ A B A B A B Fig. 3. 3. d.3. k} A – (B ∪ C) = {d} (1) A–B = {c. 8. f. 3. e. 3. 10} A′ ∪ B′ = {1. 10} A = {2. b. B = {1. A – C = {b.3. (A ∪ B)′ = {7. 7. d. 8. h}.3.3. c. 9. d. 6}. 9.27 B’ Fig. 9. 8. 6. e. 10}.3. h. b. B′ = {4. f} (A – B) ∩ (A – C) = {d} (2) From (1) and (2) we get A – (B ∩ C) = (A – B) ∪ (A – C) Example 4: Verify DeMorgan’s law (A ∪ B)′ = A′ ∩ B′ using Venn diagrams: Solution: (A B)’ A B A B A B A’ Fig. k} verify the DeMorgan’s laws (i) A – (B ∪ C) = (A – B) ∩ (A – C) and (ii) A – (B ∩ C) = (A – B) ∪ (A – C) Solution: (i) B ∪ C = {a. Example 2: ξ = {1. 6}.3. 7. 5. 7. h}. 5. b. c. g. 4. 5. 2. 8. 9. 9. g. 6. e. 2. 3. h. 9. g. (ii) (A ∩ B)′ = A′ ∪ B′ (iii) A – (B ∪ C) = (A – B) ∩ A – C) (iv) A – (B ∩ C) = (A – B) ∪ (A – C) are called De Morgan’s laws. 10}. 4. 2. 9. 8. C be any three sets then (i) (A ∪ B)′ = A′ ∩ B′. 8. 7. e. 10} (3) A′ = {1. 10} (1) A′ = {1. 8. 10} (2) From (1) and (2) it is verified that (A ∪ B)′ = A′ ∩ B′ (i) A ∩ B = {2 } (A ∩ B)′ = {1. 5. f} and C = {a. 4. 5. 6. 4.3. B.30 From Fig. 10} A ∪ B = {1.31 . 7. 5} verify that (i) (A ∪ B)′ = A′ ∩ B′ and (ii) (A ∩ B)′ = A′ ∪ B′ Solution: ξ = {1. 6. 8.29 Fig. 2. 4. 7.28 and Fig. 3. B′ = {4. 9. 10} (4) From (3) and (4) it is verified that (A ∩ B)′ = A′ ∪ B′ Example 3: If A = {a. c. 5. 8. g. 3. 3. 5.De Morgan’s Laws Let A. 4. B = {a. 7. 6.31 we find that (A ∪ B)′ = A′ ∩ B′ 39 Fig. f. 7. 6. 10} A′ ∩ B′ = {7.

3.Example 5: Verify the DeMorgan’s law (A ∩ B)′ = A′ ∪ B′.33 and Fig.B) (A .36 From Fig.33 A’ B’ A B A B A B Fig.3.41 From Fig.3.3.3.36 we find that (A ∩ B)′ = A′ ∪ B′ Example 6: Verify the Demorgan’s law A – (B ∪ C) = (A – B) ∩ (A – C) using Venn diagrams: A .38 A-B A B A A-C B A (A .3.3.3.41 we find that A – (B ∪ C) = (A – B) ∩ (A – C) 40 .C) B C C C Fig. using Venn diagrams: Solution: A B (A B)’ A B A B Fig.40 Fig.39 Fig.35 Fig.37 C Fig.32 A’ B’ Fig.3.38 and Fig.3.3.(B C) B C Solution: A B A B C Fig.34 Fig.3.3.3.

3.46 we find that A – (B ∩ C) = (A – B) ∪ (A – C) In class IX we have learnt to solve problems involving two sets using formula and by using Venn diagrams. 25 in group songs. 7. 7 in dance and drama.Example 7: Verify the DeMorgan’s law A – (B ∩ C) = (A – B) ∪ (A – C) using Venn diagrams: Solution: B C A . 24 students.3. Here we are going to solve problems involving 3 sets using Venn diagrams and formula.44 Fig. 6} C = {3. find how many did not participate in the programme. Total number of students = n(ξ) = 50 The number of students who participate in the dance = n(A) = 24 The number of students who participate in drama = n(B) = 11 The number of students who participate in group songs = n(C) = 25 The number of students who participate in dance and drama = n(A ∩ B) = 7 The number of students who participate in drama and group songs = n(B ∩ C) = 4 The number of students who participate in dance and group songs = n(A ∩ C) = 12 Number of students who participated in all the three = n(A ∩ B ∩ C) = 3 ∴ Number of students who took part in any one of the three programme is n(A∪B∪C) = n(A) + n(B) + n(C) – n(A ∩ B) – n(B ∩ C) – n(A ∩ C) + n(A ∩ B ∩ C) = 24 + 11 + 25 – 7 – 4 – 12 + 3 = 63 – 23 = 40 41 C .3.3. 3. drama and group songs respectively. n(A ∪ B ∪ C) = n(a) + n(B) + n(C) − n(A ∩ B) − n(B ∩ C) − n(C ∩ A) + n(A ∩ B ∩ C) Verify this formula if A = {2.C) B A B C C Fig. 4 in drama and group songs. 12 in dance and group songs and 3 participated in all the three. 8} Example 8: In a cultural programme. B and C denote those who participate in dance.45 Fig. 5.43 and Fig. 3.42 A -B A B A A-C C Fig. 4. took part in dance 11 in drama.(B C) A B A B C Fig.3. 4} B = {2. 5.3. If total of 50 students were there in the class.3.46 From Fig. Solution: Let the sets A.43 (A B) (A .

2 students speak Tamil and Hindi. 56 play hockey. C be the sets those who play football.of students who speak only English 15 – [5 – x + x + 4 – x] = 15 – (9 – x) = 6 + x Strength of the class = 35. H.of students who participate in any one of the three programmes = 8 + 4 + 3 + 9 + 3 + 1 + 12 = 40 No. 25 p lay hockey and cricket.of students who speak Tamil and Hindi = n(A∩B) =2 x No.of students who did not participate in any one of the three programmes = 50 – 40 = 10.of students who speak only Tamil 18 – [2 – x + x + 5 – x] C = 18 – (7 – x) = 11 + x No. C be the sets those who speak Tamil. 4 Hindi and English and 5 speak English and Tamil. 66 play football. Solution: Let A. Also find the number of students who speak Hindi and English but not Tamil. 23 play cricket and football and 5 do not play any game.of students who speak Hindi and English = n(B∩C) =4 4-x 5-x No.of students who play football and hockey = n(F∩H) = 27 42 .48 No.of students who play football = n(F) = 66 No. If the strength of the class is 130. x = 35 – 34 = 1 No. Example 10: In a higher secondary class.of students who speak all three languages = x = 1 No.3. Using Venn diagrams we solve this problem: No.47 Example 9: In a class of 35 students. Calculate the number of students who speak all the three languages. hockey and cricket respectively. 27 play both football and hockey.of students who speak Hindi and English but not Tamil = 4 – x = 4 – 1 = 3.Those who did not participate in any one of the three programmes = n(ζ) – n(A ∪ B ∪ C) = 50 – 40 = 10. Solution: Let F. 18 speak Tamil.of students who speak only Hindi = 12 – (2 – x + x + 4 – x) = 6 + x Fig. 63 play cricket. Calculate (i) the number who play only two games.of students who speak any one of the languages = 11 + x + 2 – x + 6 + x + 5 – x + x + 4 – x + 6 + x = 34 + 4x – 3x = 34 + x 34 + x = 35.of students who speak all three = n(A∩B∩C) = x 6+x No. Strength of the class n(ξ) = 130 No. 12 speak Hindi and 15 speak English.of students who play cricket = n(C) = 63 No. No. (ii) the number who play only football and (iii) number of students who play all the three games.of students who speak Hindi = 12 A 11 + x 2-x 6+x No.of students who speak English = 15 No.of students who speak English and Tamil = n(C∩A) =5 Let the no. A B 11247-3 (4+3+9) = 4 (4+3+1) =3 =8 3 4-3 12-3 =9 =1 25(9+3+1) = 12 C Fig. Let the number of students who speak all the three languages = x.3. No.of students who play hockey = n(H) = 56 No. B. Hindi and English respectively.of students who speak Tamil = 18 B No.

3. B = {2. c. B = {5. r. 4. 3. i) = 27 – x + 23 – x + 25 – x = 75 – 3x = 75 – 3(15) = 75 – 45 = 30 ii) No. 7} (iv) A = {p. C = {8.of students who play only hockey = 56 – (27 – x + x + 25 – x) = 56 – (52 – x) = 4 + x No.of students who do not play any game = 5 No. 6.of students who play atleast one game is n(F∪H∪C) = n(ξ) – No. 8}. 4}. f. 3.of students who play only cricket = 63 – (23 – x + x + 25 – x) = 63 – (48 – x) = 15 + x F 16 + x 27-x x 4+x H 23 .of students who play all the three games = n(F ∩ H ∩ C) = x No. 2.2. B = {a. d. 2.7}. e. 7.5. d. e}.8} (ii) A = {a.of students who play only two games Exercise 3.7. e. 5. 3.4. C = {1.49 No. 7.of students who play all the three games = x = 15 No. g}. h} (ii) A = {1. 9}. o. 6.x 15 + x C Fig. 9} 43 2. B = {4. B = {b. 3. 3. s}. B = {4.6. . 8}. 4. 5. 6. u}. p.of students who play hockey and cricket = n(H ∩ C) = 25 No. 9.x 25 . B = {2. 6. 5. 6.of students who play only football = 66 – (27 – x + x + 23 + x) = 66 – (50 – x) = 66 – 50 + x = 16 + x No. C = {6. 5} Verify the associative laws for the following sets (i) A = {a. n (F ∪ H ∪ C) = 16 + x + 27 – x + 4 + x + 23 – x + x + 25 – x + 15 + x = 110 + x ∴ 110 + x = 125. b. C = {b. 3. 7.6.8} (v) A = {0. r} (iv) A = {5. 2.3.of students who do not play = 130 – 5 = 125 From the diagram. 8. Verify the commutative laws of union and intersection of the following sets (i) A = {1. 8. 3. 10} (iii) A = {3. 9} If A ∪ B = {1. q. 11}. 7.No. 6}. 5. 4}. 6. x = 125 – 110 = 15.of students who play only football = 16 + x = 16 + 15 = 31 iii) No. c = {2. 5. f. 7. i. 5.1 1.6}.6}. 8} (iv A = {1. B = {5.4. B = {1. u} (iii) A = {3. 3.of students who play cricket and football = n(C ∩ F) = 23 Let the no. 9. 7. 4. 1. 4}. B = {2.

4. 16}. English and Mathematics 8. 4. 5. 7. 11}. 5. 10} C = {1. 3. 2. B = {x/3 < x < 8. d}. 7. 8} C = {6. C = {3. 2. 5. 8. 13. A ∩ B = {5. 5. 4. 2. 2} and A = {1. 6. 12. B = {1. 5. 7}. g. x∈ z). using the following sets: (i) (ii) ξ = {1. 16 had both pista and vanilla. ice cream was served in three different flavours of chocolate. 3. all the three subjects 3. 6. 16 had both chocolate and pista. b. 17. 8. 1} B = {5. 65% of the people in a city speak Tamil. B = {3.A ∩ B = {1. 54 children had chocolate 32 pista and 36 vanilla flavour. 3. 7. In a birthday party attended by 100 children. If A ∪ B = {2. 6}.8} B = {8. 4. 6. 7. C = {3. 3. 3. 5. 8}. d. 14 both vanilla and chocolate. 10. 9. 4. 11. 8. 9. 13.of students who failed in all the examination. 2. 6. 9} (iv) U = {x/0 < x < 10. 10} A = {x/0 < x < 9. 7. 9}. C = {b. c. x is an integer}. 52% speak Hindi and 40% speak Malayalam. 17}. 8. A = {4. r. x is an integer} Verify DeMorgan’s laws (A ∪ B)′ = A′ ∩ B′ and (A ∩ B)′ = A′ ∪ B′. B = {2. 7. A = {8. s} find A ∩ A and A ∪ A. q. 4. 5. 6. 9. B = {x/0 < x < 4. d. 15 read Telugu and English newspapers and 9 read all the papers. Mathematics 18. 5} find the set B. 11. 8} B = {6. x∈ z). 14} (iii) ξ = {5. 20 read both Tamil and Telugu. 5. 6. A = {4. B = {c. 12. 6. 7. Maths and Science 5. Science 14. 8} and B = {2. 7. 7} (iii) A = {3.5. 8. 10} A = {2. x is an even integer} (iii) A = {3. 6. 17. 7. 200 persons lived in a street. 7. 8. 9} find the set A − B. 6. 9} B = {1. Find how many do not read any of the three newspapers. 4. 4. 6. 4. 7. (iv) A = {x/-4 < x < 6. 4. f}. 18} B = {6. 10} B = {2. e. x is an odd integer} C = {x/1 < x < 3. 32% speak both Tamil and Malayalam 25 speak both Hindi and Malayalam and 10% of the people in the city speak other different languages find the percentage of the people who can speak all the three. 6. pista and vanilla. 9. f} A = {3. A = {6. 7. 18} (iv) ξ = {x/5 < x < 18. Find the no. 6} 9. English and Science 7. 9. 9} U ={4. Verify the distributive in the following problems: (i) (ii) A = {a. 80 read Tamil and 30 read Telugu newspapers. x ∈ z} In a class of 50 students the number of students who passed in the various subjects is as follows: English 25. 12. 7} C = {1. 5. 9}. 8}. 6. Verify DeMorgan’s laws A – (B ∪ C) = (A – B) ∩ (A – C) and A – (B ∩ C)) = (A – B) ∪ (A – C): (i) (ii) A = {2. 18 children did not take ice cream at all (i) How many had all the three? (ii) How many had chocolate only? 44 . 7. 6. x ∈ N} 8. of them 120 read English newspapers. 4. 3. 5. If 30% speak both Tamil and Hindi. If 60 read and both English and Tamil. C = {x/-2 < x < 3. If A = {p. 9}.

In a street.13. 3 like all the three products.8. 40 like both A and B. r. 31 use only the 2nd and the third brand. Answers Exercise 3.1 (3) B = {1. 2. 14. Find (i) How many like A and B but not C. 20 like product C only. q. 7. 16 like product B only. 4. 20 use only the 1st and the third brand and 9 use all the three. 17. 6. there are 150 persons are living. s} (9) 10 (10) 56 (11) 20% (12) 630 (13) 37. s} A ∪ A = {p. it was found out that 10 students like product A only. They are using 3 brands of soaps 30 persons use only the 1st and the 2nd brand. r. 20 like both B and C and 50 like both A and C. 6. When a sweet company interviewed 150 students in a school.9} (4) A − B = {3. (ii) How many like B and C but not A (iii) the most popular product and (iv) how many like none. A none (14) 87 45 . q. If same number of people use only one brand find the number of persons who use only one brand. 11} (5) A ∩ A = {p.

In earlier classes. His famous book Siddhanta Sironmani is divided into 4 sections. it is not possible to give general rules for solving equations of the 5th degree or higher.D.0 INTRODUCTION Algebra has been studied for many centuries. He is also the founder of the branch of higher mathematics knwon as ‘Numerical Mathematics’. Bhaskaracharya (1114 AD .4. Indian Algebra and Trignometry reached Europe through a cycle of translations traveling from the Arab world to Spain and Sicily and eventually all of Europe. Babylonian. the Persian Mathematician Omar Khayam wrote a treatise on Algebra based on Euclid’s methods. ALGEBRA 4. Kerala’s Chitrabanu of 16th century gave integral solutions to 21 types of systems of two algebraic equations. 4.1 SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS A set of linear equations having a common solution set is called a system of simultaneous linear equations. Six centuries later European mathematicians like Galois. you have learnt different methods of solving simultaneous linear equations in two variables. Other good works were from Italian Luca Pacioli (1445-1517) and of English mathematician Robert Recorde (1510-1558). A book on Algebra written in the 9th century by Arabic mathematician AlKhwarizmi developed methods for solving 6 different types of quadratic equations and contained the first systematic consideration of the subject separately from number theory. In 13th century Leonardo Fibonacci wrote some books on Algebra. Euler and Lagrange rediscovered this method and called it ‘inverse cyclic’. In the 14th century Narayana made important contribution to algebra and magic squares. Sridhara wrote Patiganita Sara. y. Several Indian Mathematicians carried out important work in the field of algebra in the 6th and 7th centuries.1185 AD) was the first to declare that any number divided by zero is infinity and the sum of any number and infinity is also infinity. He identified 25 types of equations and made the first formal distinction between arithmetic and Algebra. Brahmagupta gave solutions of quadratic equation and indeterminate equation Nx2 + 1 = My2 called Varaga-Prakriti equation. ancient Chinese and Egyptian mathematicians proposed and solved problems in words. a book on Algebra in 750 A. A linear equation in three unknowns say x. However it was not until 3rd century that algebraic problems began to be considered in a form similar to those studied today. These include Aryabhatta whose book entitled Aryabhatiya included work on linear and quadratic equations. one of which is Bijaganita (algebra) which means ‘the other mathematics’. Bhaskara’s work was mainly in Algebra. In about 1100. 46 . Rules for solving the cubic equations were discovered in 1515 by Scipione del Ferro (1465-1526) and for quartic equation by Ludovico Ferrai (1522-1565) in 1545. In the 3rd century. the Greek Mathematician Diophantus of Alexandria wrote his book Arithmetica which provides earliest record of an attempt to use symbols to represent unknown quantities. In 1799 Karl Friedrich Gauss proved the fundamental theorem of Algebra which has been proposed as early as 1629. He introduced Chakrawal or the cyclic method to solve algebraic equations. In 1824 Niels Henric Abel (1802-1829) proved that in general.

y.1 Procedure of solving three given linear equations in x.z is a statement of equality of the form ax + by + cz + d = 0 where a. z = 3. 2x + 3y + z = 11. y = 2 in (3) we get 2(1) + 3(2) + z = 11. 47 . Example 1: Solve the equations : x + 2y + 3z = 14. We get two linear equations in x. z Three equations are given. Solve them in the usual way learnt in early cases. In this section we are going to learn how to solve linear equations in three variables. Thus the values of x. Similarly eliminate z from the second and the third (or first and the third equation). Solution: Let the given equations be identified as follows : x + 2y + 3z = 14 (1) 3x + y + 2z = 11 (2) 2x + 3y + z = 11 (3) Consider the equations (1) and (3) (1) ⇒ x + 2y + 3z = 14 (3) × 3 ⇒ 6x + 9y + 3z = 33 –5x – 7y 5x + 7y = –19 = 19 subtracting (4) Consider the equations (2) and (3) (2) ⇒ 3x + y + 2z = 11 (3) × 2 ⇒ 4x + 6y + 2z = 22 –x – 5y x + 5y = –11 = 11 subtracting (5) Consider the equations (4) and (5) (4) ⇒ 5x + 7y = 19 (5) × 5 ⇒ 5x + 25y = 55 –18y = –36 .1. Substitute the values of x and y in any one of the three equations to get the value of z. b ≠ 0 and c ≠ 0. d are real numbers with a ≠ 0. To find the values of three unknowns. 2 + 6 + z = 11 ⇒ z = 3 The solution is x = 1. Take any two say the first two equations. Eliminate one variable say z. y = 2. we need to be given three linear equations in the three unknown variables. For example 2x – 3y + 6z = 5 is a linear equation in 3 variables. b. y and z are obtained. ∴x = 1 Substitute x = 1. x + 10 = 11. c. y. 4. subtracting ∴y = 2 Substitute y = 2 in (5) we get x + 5(2) = 11. 3x + y + 2z = 11.

6x + 3y + z = 5 Solution: Let the given equations be identified as follows: 3x – 3y + 4z = 14 –9x – 6y + 2z = 1 6x + 3y + z = 5 Consider the equations (1) and (2) (1) × 3 ⇒ 9x – 9y + 12z (2) ⇒ –9x – 6y + 2z –15y + 14z Consider the equations (1) and (3) (1) × 2 ⇒ 6x – 6y + 8z = 28 6x + 3y + z = 5 – 9y + 7z = 23 (1) (2) (3) = 42 = 1 adding = 43 (4) subtracting (5) Considering the equations (4) and (5) (4) ⇒ –15y + 14z = 43 (5) × 2 ⇒ –18y + 14z = 46 3y = –3 subtracting ⇒ y = –1 Substituting y = –1 in (4) –15(–1) + 14z = 43 or 14z = 43 – 15 = 28 ⇒ z = 2 Substituting y = –1 and z = 2 in equation (1) we get 3x – 3(–1) + 4(2) = 14 or 3x = 14 – 11 = 3 or x = 1 ∴ The solution is x = 1. –9x – 6y + 2z = 1. Substituting z + x = 2 in equation (4) we get y + 2 = 0 ∴ y = –2. z = –3. y = –1. z = 2 Example 3: Solve : x+ y = 3. 48 (4) (1) (2) (3) . y + z = –5. Solution: Let the equations be identified as x+y = 3 y + z = –5 z+x = 2 Adding all the three equations.Example 2: Solve : 3x – 3y + 4z = 14. Substituting x = 5 in equation (3) we get z + 5 = 2 or z = 2–5 = –3 The solution is x = 5. z + x = 2. we get 2x + 2y + 2z = 3 + (–5) + 2 or 2(x + y + z) = 0 or x + y + z = 0 Substituting y + z = –5 in equation (4) we get x + (–5) = 0 ∴x = 5. y = –2.

we get x = 1/5. 4/x + 3/y = 1. 9/y – 8/z = 5. 4x + 6y – 3z = 13. x – 2y + 4z = 3. 6. x + 2z = 7. 2x – y + 3z = 9. 4. x + y = 7. 9. 10. 2x + 3y – z = 5. y = 1/10.1 Solve the following simultaneous equations. Exercise 4.Example 4: Solve : 2/x + 3/y – 4/z = – 20. x + 2y + 3z = 10. 8. z = 1/15. 11. c = 15. 1/y = b. 8a = –10 + 50 = 40 ∴ a = 5. 1/y + 1/z = 2. b = 10 in equation (3) we get 3(5) – 4(10) + 2c = 5 or –25 + 2c = 5 or 2c = 5+25 = 30 ∴ c = 15. 3. 1/x + 1/y = 1. 4/x – 6/y + 3/z = –5. x – 2y + 2z = –4 –x + y – z = 3 3x + 2y + 2z = 5 x + y – 3z = 2 z+x=1 z + x = –8 x – 3y + 5z = 3 y–z=1 9/z – 9/x + 1/y = 7/2 3/x – 5/y + 2/z = –4 1/z + 1/x = 4 1/z + 6/x = 2 49 . Substituting a = 5. 5. b = 10. 7. x + y = –3. x – y = 2. 3/x – 4/y + 2/z = 5 Solution: Let 1/x = a. y + z = 4.1. 2. 1. 3/x – 4/y – 6/z = –3. 2/y – 6/x + 3/z = 1. 3x + 2y + 2z = 19. 3x + 2y – 3z = 13. 12. Since a = 5. 2/x + 3/y + 1/z = 4. 2/y – 4/x + 3/z = 45. y + z = 1. 1/z = c Then 2a + 3b – 4c = –20 –4a + 2b + 3c = 45 3a – 4b + 2c = 5 Consider equations (1) and (2) (1) (2) × 3 ⇒ 6a + 9b – 12c = –60 × 4 ⇒ –16a + 8b + 12c = 180 –10a + 17b Consider equations (1) and (3) (1) (3) ⇒ 2a + 3b – 4c = –20 × 2 ⇒ 6a – 8b + 4c = 10 8a – 5b (4) (5) × 8 ⇒ –80a + 136b × 10 ⇒ 80a – 50b 86b = –10 = 960 = –100 = 860 adding ∴ b = 10 adding (5) = 120 adding (4) (1) (2) (3) Substituting b = 10 in equation (5) we get 8a – 5(10) = –10. 2x – 2y + 4z = –12. 3x – 2y + z = 0. 4x + y + 3z = 5.

z be the angles m∠A. Solution: Let x. Example 5: In Δ ABC. m∠C is 20° greater than m∠A.1. m∠B. x + z = 2y Since the sum of three angles in triangle is 180°. y. The sum of m∠A and m∠C is twice m∠B. z = x + 20 . m∠B = 60°. According to the given data. When the equations are not directly given. wheat and sugar. x + y + z = 180° The above equations can be written as –x + z = 20° x – 2y + z = 0° x+y+z = 180° Considering (2) and (3) (2) ⇒ x – 2y + z = 0 (3) × 2 ⇒ 2x + 2y + 2z = 360° 3x + 3z x+z Considering (1) and (4) (1) ⇒ –x + z (4) ⇒ x+z 2z = 360° = 120° = 20° = 120° = 140° (1) (2) (3) adding (4) adding (or) ∴ z = 70° Substitute z = 70° in (4) we get x + 70° = 120° or x = 50° Substitute x = 50° and z = 70° in (3) we get 50° + y + 70° = 180° or y = 60° Hence the angles of a triangle are m∠A = 50°. Find three angles.2 Problems leading to simultaneous equations In this section we shall discuss applications of simultaneous linear equations in solving problems related to our day-to-day life. m∠C = 70° Example 6: In a shop three persons A.4. B and C purchased the following quantites of rice. A B C Rice (Kg) 3 2 4 What (Kg) 2 3 5 Sugar (Kg) 4 2 4 50 . we have to form the equations from the given data and solve the equations formed. m∠C respectively in Δ ABC.

If the second and third sorts of currencies are interchanged the value will be decreased by Rs. 104 and Rs. x.z. 14/Kg.6 ⇒ 10x + 5z + 2y = 125 – 6 = 119 10x + 2y + 5z = 119 51 (3) .If they have paid respectively Rs. z be the number of Rs.196 for the purchases made. z = 14 ∴ Rice = = Rs. find the cost of 1 kg of rice.5 and Rs.2 currencies respectively. then we get 3x + 2y + 4z = 140 (1) 2x + 3y + 2z = 104 (2) 4x + 5y + 4z = 196 (3) Considering the equations (1) and (2) (1) (2) ⇒ 3x + 2y + 4z = 140 × 2 ⇒ 4x + 6y + 4z = 208 – x – 4y x + 4y = –68 = 68 subtracting (4) Considering equations (2) and (3) (2) (4) ×2⇒ ⇒ 4x + 6y + 4z = 208 4x + 5y + 4z = 196 y Substituting Substituting = 12 subtracting y = 12 in (4) we get x + 4(12) = 68 or x = 68 – 48 = 20 x = 20. wheat and sugar. y = 12 in (1) we get 3(20) + 2(12) + 4z = 140 or 84 + 4z = 140 z = 56/4 = 14 ∴ x = 20. Sugar = Rs. 20 / Kg . 125 ⇒ 10x + 5y + 2z = 125 (2) If the II and III sorts of currencies are interchanged the value will be decreased by Rs. 12 / Kg . 6. Rs. y = 12. wheat by Rs.y and sugar be Rs. Example 7: A bag contains ten. The total number of currencies is 20 and the total value of money is Rs. Wheat = Rs. Rs. The total number of currencies is 20 ⇒ x + y + z = 20 (1) If the total value of money is Rs. Solution: Let x. Solution: Let tyhe sale price of 1 kg of rice be Rs.125. y.140. Find the number of currency in each sort.10. five and two rupees currencies.

3rd class tickets were respectively Rs. z.2 1. 4. 3 pens. 10. 5 women and 6 children worked in the first week. the tickets were sold at Rs. (4) ⇒ 9 + z = 16 or z = 7 ∴ The numbers are 8. Find the cost of each. Rs. 160. 1130 and Rs. Among them one number is equal to half of the sum of other two numbers but four times the difference of them. 52 . Rs. Solution: Let the numbers be x. 2nd. 6 note books and 4 balls pens cost Rs. 4 note books and 1 ball pen cost Rs.10 × (1) – (2) ⇒ (2) – (3) ⇒ 5y + 8z 3y – 3z y–z = = = 75 6 2 (4) (5) Let us solve (4) and (5) (4) ⇒ 5y + 8z 8 × (5) ⇒ 8y – 8z 13y = = = 75 16 91 y=7 Substituting y = 7 in (5) we get z=5 Substituting z = 5. 2 currencies are respectively 8. y. 1200. 7 women and 4 children worked in the third week find the wage paid for each worker. 66. which was again a houseful day. On a houseful day. 3 pens. The sum of the digits in a three digit number is 24. Twice the tenth digit is equal to sum of the digits in the other two places.200. 1160.500. On a charitable show day. In a workshop the pay bill of workers in 3 successive weeks were Rs. 9 and 7. the gate collection was Rs. 7 and 5 Example 8: The sum of three numbers is 24. 2.30. Find the number of seats in each class. 4 men. 5 and Rs. y = 7 in (1) we get x + 7 + 5 = 20 ⇒ 20 – 7 – 5 or x=8 Number of Rs. 3.50 and Rs. 4 pens. The cost of 1st.47. Exercise 4. Find the number. Find the numbers. Rs. 4 men. In an auditorium. Rs. then the digits will be in the reversed order. 6 women and 5 children worked in the second week. 94. Sum of numbers is 24 ⇒ x + y + z = 24 (1) One number is equal to half of the sum of the other two ⇒ x = ½ (y + z) (2) The same number is four times the difference of them ⇒ x = 4(y–z) or x–4y+4z=0 (3) (1) + (2) ⇒ 3x = 24 or x = 8 (1) ⇒ y + z = 24 – x = 24 – 8 = 16 or y + z = 16 (4) (3) ⇒ 4y – 4z = x = 8 or y – z = 2 (5) (4) + (5) ⇒ 2y = 18 or y = 9. 100 and Rs. 6 ball pens cost Rs. If 198 is added with the number. If 5 men. 25000.100.50 and the total collection was Rs. 12 note books.1. there are 500 seats.

2 pencils are left out. B and C. the dividend is first arranged in descending powers of x. Find the angles. 2 boxes of type C are used 6 pencils are left out. the sum of the first two angles is twice the third angle m∠B is 5° greater than m∠C. What is your answer for the last problem? The quotient is x2 – x + 4 and the remainder is 13.1 Synthetic Division In this method. 2 boxes of type C are used. 100 pencils are to be kept inside three types of boxes A. 4 boxes of type B and 4 boxes of type C are used.2 POLYNOMIAL In class IX we have learnt about polynomials and operations on polynomials in detail. 1 Dividend : x3 – 3x2 + 6x – 5 Divisor : x – 2 2 0 Quotient is = x2 – x + 4. You got the answer by long division method. Find the number. binomial and trinomial. The sum of the digits in a three digit number is 15. remainder is = 13 1 –3 2 –1 6 –2 4 5 8 13 = Remainder Coefficients of the quotient Example 9: Find the quotient and the remainder when x3 + x2 – 2x + 7 is divided by x + 4 1 1 −2 7 Solution: −4 − 4 + 12 − 40 1 − 3 + 10 − 33 Quotient remainder = x2 – 3x + 10 = –33 53 . 7. 4.2. If 2 boxes of type A. If any power of x in between missing the term is written as 0. 6. In ΔABC. there is space for 4 more pencils. The digit in the ten’s place is equal to 2/3 times the sum of the digits in the hundred’s place and unit’s place.5. • • • • • • Write a polynomial of degree n Give examples for monomial. 5 boxes of type B. What is the degree of 7x4 – 2x3 + 5x + 6? What is a zero polynomial? What is a constant term? Find the quotient and remainder on dividing x3 – 3x2 + 6x + 5 by x – 2. Recall all you have learnt by answering the following. If 99 is subtracted the digits will be in the reverse order. Find the number of pencils that each box can hold. If 3 boxes of type A. If 5 boxes of type A. The procedure of long division is shortened by a method known as synthetic division. The calculations are carried out with the successive coefficients of the dividend as shown. 3 boxes of type B. 4.

Since degree of x – a is 1. Hence for all values of x. Taking a few polynomials of our own and dividing them by the binomial (x − a) of our choice. In particular for x = a. we have from above P(a) = (a – a) q(a) + r = 0 × q(a) + r ⇒ P(a) = r. 4x3 – 3x2 + 2x – 4 ÷ x – 3 x3 + x2 – 10x + 8 ÷ x + 4 4x3 – 6x2 – 8x + 7 ÷ 2x + 5 3x3 – 4x2 – 5 ÷ x – 1 4. We observe that when the polynomial P(x) is divided by (x–2). 8. Remainder Theorem : Let P(x) be any polynomial of degree greater than or equal to one and let a be any real number. the remainder is 25. Proof : P(x) is divided by (x – a).2. 54 . Now calculating P(2).2. 6. 3⎞ ⎛ Solution: Consider the divisor 2x – 3 = 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 3 6 −11 5 −7 9 2 +9 −3 3 −6 6 −2 +2 −4 3 Quotient = 1 (6x3 – 2x2 + 2x – 4) = 3x3 – x2 + x – 2 2 Remainder Exercise 4. the remainder is 25 = P(2).Example 10: Find the quotient and the remainder when 6x4 – 11x3 + 5x2 – 7x + 9 is divided by 2x – 3. we will find the remainder P(a). let the quotient be q(x) and the remainder be r(x). When P(x) is divided by the binomial (x–a) the remainder is P(a). 4. Then we have p(x) = (x–a) q(x) + r(x) where degree of r(x) < degree of divisor or r(x) = 0. 7.2 Remainder Theorem We see that when (x–2) divides the polynomial P(x) = 2x4 + x2 – 7x + 3. This is generalized by the remainder theorem. 5. as discussed earlier. P(x) = (x – a) q(x) + r.1 =3 Find the quotient and the remainder using synthetic division 1. 3. we find that P(2) = 2(2)4 + 22 – 7(2) + 3 = 25. r(x) is a constant say r. x3 + x2 – 3x + 5 ÷ x – 1 5x3 + 4x2 – 6x – 8 ÷ x + 2 3x3 + 4x2 – 10x + 6 ÷ 3x – 2 8x4 – 2x2 + 6x – 5 ÷ x + 1 2.

Solution: When P(x) is divided by (x + 2). b = 4 Example 15: If a quadratic polynomial is divided by (x–1). 2a + b = 14 (1) When (x + 3) divides P(x). If (ax + b) divides P(x). the remainder is P(–3). b = 4. ⇒ –3a + b = –11 (1) ⇒ 2a + b = 14 (2) ⇒ –3a + b = –11 subtracting 5a = 25 (or) a = 5 Substituting a = 5 in equation (1) we get 10 + b = 14. ∴ P(–3) = (–3)2 + a(–3) + b = 9 – 3a + b. Example 11: Find the remainder when x3 – 5x2 + 7x – 4 is divided by (x – 1). But remainder = –2 . 4 respectively. But remainder = 18 ⇒ 4 + 2a + b = 18 . Solution: P(x) = x2 + ax + b. (2) p(1) = 2 ⇒ p(–1) = 4 ⇒ p(2) = 4 ⇒ Considering (1) and (2) a+b+c a–b+c 4a + 2b + c = 2 = 4 = 4 (1) (2) (3) 55 . the remainder is P(–a). ∴P(2) = 4 + 2a + b. when divided by x – 2 and leaves a remainder –2 when divided by (x + 3). find the quadratic polynomial. Find the values of a and b. ∴ a = 5. the remainder is P(1). By the remainder theorem when P(x) is divided by (x – 1). Solution: Remainder is P(–1) = 5(–1)5 – 9(–1)3 + 3(–1) + m = –5 + 9 – 3 + m = 1 + m But remainder is 7 ∴ 1 + m = 7 ⇒ m = 7 – 1 = 6. the remainder is P(2). the remainder is P (–b/a). 4. ∴ The remainder P(1) = 13 – 5(1)2 + 7(1) – 4 = –1. Solution: P(x) = x3 – 5x2 + 7x – 4. the remainder is P(–2). Example 14: The polynomial x2 + ax + b gives remainder 18. ∴ The remainder P(–2) = 3(–2)3 + 4(–2)2 – 5(–2) + 8 = 3(–8) + 4(4) + 10 + 8 = 10 Example 13: Find m if 5x5 – 9x3 + 3x + m leaves a remainder 7 when divided by (x+1). ∴ 9 – 3a + b = –2 . When x – 2 divides P(x). (x+1) and (x–2) leaves the remainders 2. p(–1) = 4 and p(2) = 4.Note : If (x + a) divides P(x). By the given data. we have p(1) = 2. Solution: Let the quadratic polynomial be p(x) = ax2 + bx + c. Example 12: Find the remainder when 3x3 + 4x2 – 5x + 8 is divided by x + 2.

the remainder is f (–1/2) p q p − 2q + 24 ⇒ f( –1/2) = − +6 = 4 2 4 p − 2q + 24 But remainder = 1 (given) ∴ = 1 4 p – 2q + 24 = 4 (or) p – 2q = – 20 When (3x – 1) divides g(x) = 2qx2 + 6x + p. Example 16: Given that px2 + qx + 6 leaves a remainder 1 on division by 2x + 1 and 2qx2 + 6x + p leaves a remainder 2 on division by 3x – 1 find p and q. ⇒ ∴ 4a + c = 6 Considering (4) and (5) we have (5) ⇒ 4a + c = 6 (4) ⇒ a + c = 3 subtracting 3a = 3 . the remainder is g(1/3) g (1/3) = 2q (1/3)2 + 6(1/3) + p 2q + 18 + 9p 2q 6 + + p = 9 3 9 2q + 18 + 9p But remainder is 2 (given) ∴ = 2 9 2q + 18 + 9p = 18 (or) 9p + 2q = 0 = (1) + (2) ⇒ p – 2q 9p + 2q 10p Substituting = –20 = 0 (1) (2) ⇒ ∴ p = –2 = –20 p = –2 in (2) we get – 18 + 2q = 0 ⇒ ∴ q = 9. Solution: f(x) = px2 + qx + 6 When 2x + 1 divides f(x). q=9 56 .(1) ⇒ (2) ⇒ a+b+c a–b+c 2b =2 =4 subtracting = –2 . ⇒∴a+c=3 (3) ⇒ 4a – 2 + c = 4. a = 1 put a = 1 in (4) (or) 1 + c = 3 ⇒ c = 2 ∴ The required quadratic polynomial is q(x) = x2 – x + 2. p = –2 . b = –1 (4) (5) Substitute b = –1 in (1) and (3) we get (1) ⇒ a – 1 + c = 2.

8 respectively. 9. 4. Find the value of m if 2x3 + 3x2 + mx + 5 leaves a remainder – 15 when divided by 2x + 5. the remainder is –16.2. 3. 6. Find a. Given that px3 + 9x2 + qx + 1 leaves remainder 4 on division by 2x + 1 and 9x3 + qx2 + px + 1 leaves the remainder 3 on division by 3x – 1. the remainders are –8. 13. b = –4 Exercise 4. When a polynomial 3x + mx – 2x – 8 is divided by x + 2. b and c.Example 17: Find the value of a and b if ax3 + bx2 + 7x + 9 and x3 + ax2 – 2x + b – 4 when divided by x + 2 leave remainders –13 and –16 respectively. Find a and b if x3 + 7x2 + ax + b leaves a remainder 40 when divided by x–2 and a remainder 25. (1) ⇒ g(–2) = –16 or –8 + 4a + 4 + b – 4 = –16 (or) 4a + b = –8 Let us solve (1) and (2) 2a – b = 2 4a + b = –8 adding 6a = –6 (or) a = –1 (2) Substituting a = –1 in (1) we get –2 – b = 2 (or) ⇒ b = –4 The solution is a = –1. the remainder is 20. 8. When x + 2 divides g(x). the remainder is –13 ⇒ f(–2) = –13 or –8a + 4b – 14 + 9 = –13 –8a + 4b = –8 ⇒ 8a –4b = 8 ⇒ 2a – b = 2 g(x) = x3 + ax2 – 2x + b – 4. Find the value of m. If (x–2) divides 3x3 – 2x2 + mx – 20 without remainder find m. Find the values of a and b if x3 + ax2 + bx + 8 leaves a remainder 2 when divided by (x–1) and (x–2).2 1. Find p and q. (x–2). When x + 2 divides 4x3 + 5x2 + px – 2 without remainder find p. 7. 5. Solution: f(x) = ax3 + bx2 + 7x + 9 When (x+2) divides f(x). Find the remainder using remainder theorem a) 4x3 – 5x2 + 2x – 6 ÷ x – 2 b) 5x3 – 6x2 + 3x – 4 ÷ x + 2 d) x3 – 17x – 21 ÷x + 4 c) x4 + 2x3 – 5x2 – 6x – 4 ÷x – 3 4 3 2. When ax2 + bx + c is divided by (x+1). when divided by x + 3. Find the value of a if 10x2 + ax – 10 leaves a remainder 2 when divided by 2x – 3. 57 . 10. (x+3).

(x – 3) exactly divide a cubic polynomial with leading coefficient unity. Example 21: If (x – 1). Solution: Since the leading coefficient of the cubic polynomial is 1. Example 18: Determine whether (x–3) is a factor of the polynomial p(x) = x3 – 3x2 + 4x – 12 Solution: For (x–3) to be a factor of p(x). p(3) should be zero by the factor theorem. x + 2 and x – 3 exactly divide f(x) ⇒ they are factors of f(x).2. f(1) = 0 ⇒ 1 + a + b + c = 0 (or) a + b + c = –1 f(–2) = 0 ⇒ –8 + 4a – 2b + c = 0 (or) 4a – 2b + c = 8 f(3) = 0 ⇒ 27 + 9a + 3b + c = 0 (or) 9a + 3b + c = –27 58 (1) (2) (3) .Factor Theorem If p(x) is a polynomial of degree n > 1 and a is any real number then (i) (x–a) is a factor of p(x) if p(a) = 0 and (ii) p(a) = 0 if (x–a) is a factor of p(x). we have f(1) = f(–2) = f(3) = 0. Example 19: Determine the value of m if x + 1 is a factor of x3 + mx2 + 19x + 12 Solution: Let P(x) = x3 + mx2 + 19x + 12 P(–1) = (–1)3 + m(–1)2 + 19(–1) + 12 = –8 + m By factor theorem since (x + 1) is a factor P(–1) = 0 or –8 + m = 0 or m = 8 Example 20: Find the values of a and b if 3x4 + x3 + ax2 + 5x + b is exactly divisible by x + 2 and x – 1.2 (x+2) and (x–1) are factors of P(x) and hence both P(–2) and P(1) = 0 P(–2) = 3(–2)4 + (–2)3 + a(–2)2 + 5(–2) + b = 30 + 4a + b Since P(–2) = 0 we get 4a + b = –30 P(1) = 3(1) + (1) + a(1) + 5(1) + b = 9 + a + b Since P(1) = 0 we get 9 + a + b = 0 or a + b = –9 (1) – (2) gives 4a + b = –30 a + b = –9 3a = –21 (or) Substituting (2) 4 3 2 (1) a = –7 a = –7 in equation (2) we get –7 + b = –9 (or) ∴ b = –2 ∴ a = –7. Now p(3) = 33 – 3(3)2 + 4(3) – 12 = 27 – 27 + 12 – 12 = 0 Hence (x–3) is a factor of the given polynomial. then find the polynomial. Given that x – 1. b = –2. let the cubic polynomial be f(x) = x3 + ax2 + bx + c. By using factor theorem. (x + 2). Solution: Let P(x) = 3x4 + x3 + ax2 + 5x + b 4.

Determine whether (x – 1) is a factor of b. 8x4 + 12x3 – 16x – 4 Find a in the following functions: a. If x – 1. 4.Considering the equations (1) and (2) (2) ⇒ 4a – 2b + c (1) ⇒ a + b + c 3a – 3b (3) ⇒ 9a + 3b + c 4a – 2b + c 5a + 5b = = = = = 8 –1 9 (or) –27 8 subtracting a–b=3 subtracting a + b = –7 (4) = –35 (or) (5) Considering the equations (4) and (5) we have (4) ⇒ a – b = 3 a+b = –7 2a Substituting Substituting = –4 (or) a = –2 a = –2 in (5) we get –2 + b = –7 (or) b = –5 a = –2.3 1. If (x – 2) is a common factor of x3 – 4x2 + ax + b and x3 – ax2 + bx + 8.2. find the values of a and b. to factorise polynomial expressions of degree three or more using factor theorem and synthetic division. find a. find the values of p and q. 4. 3. then x + 1 is a factor. x3 – 27x2 + 8x + 18 a. Let us learn in this class. 59 . (x + 1) is a factor of 8x4 – ax3 – x2 – 3x + 4 c. b and c. 8x – 12x + 18x + 14 d. x3 – 3x + 3a is exactly divisible by x + 3 b. If the sum of all coefficients in a polynomial including the constant term is zero. 6.2. x3 + 8x2 + ax – 2 is divisible by (x – 1) If x2 – 5x + 6 is a factor of 3x3 + ax2 + bx + 12 find a and b. then x – 1 is a factor. x3 + 8x2 – 7x – 2 4 3 c. x + 2 and x – 2 are the factors of x3 + ax2 + bx + c.4 Factorisation We have already learnt in Class IX to factorise the quadratic polynomial expressions. 3x4 + ax2 + 58x + 40 is divisible by x +5 d. 2. 5. If the sum of the coefficients of even powers together with the constant term is the same as the sum of the coefficients of odd powers. If (x – 7) and (x – 4) are the factors of px3 + qx2 – 5x + 84. b = –5 in (1) we get –2 –5 + c = –1 (or) c = 6 Hence the required cubic polynomial is f(x) = x3 – 2x2 – 5x + 6 Exercise 4. 2. Note : 1.

By synthetic division. By synthetic division −1 3 −4 −13 −6 −3 3 −7 +7 −6 +6 0 Remainder is 0. 2x2 + 3x – 2 = 2x2 + 4x – x – 2 = 2x (x + 2) – 1 (x + 2) = (x + 2) (2x – 1) 3 2 ∴ 2x + x – 5x + 2 = (x – 1) (x + 2) (2x – 1) Example 23: Factorise 3x3 – 4x2 – 13x – 6. 3x2 – 7x – 6 60 . Sum of the coefficients of odd degree terms = 3 – 13 = –10. ∴ (x – 1) is not a factor.Example 22: Factorise 2x3 + x2 – 5x + 2 Solution: Since the sum of the coefficients of all the terms: 2 + 1 – 5 + 2 = 5 – 5 = 0 we guess that (x – 1) is a factor. Since they are equal (x + 1) is a factor. Sum of the coefficients of even degree terms = –4 – 6 = –10. Factorising the quotient = 3x2 – 9x + 2x – 6 = 3x (x–3) + 2 (x–3) = (x–3) (3x+2) 3 2 ∴ 3x – 4x – 13x – 6 = (x+1) (x–3) (3x+2) Example 24: Factorise x3 – 3x2 – 10x + 24 Solution: Sum of the coefficients of terms: 1–3–10 + 24 = 12 ≠ 0. ∴(x + 1) is a factor. factorise the quotient. Sum of the coefficients of even degree terms = –3 + 24 = 21 Sum of the coefficients of odd degree terms = 1 – 10 = –9 Since they are not equal we guess that (x + 1) is also not a factor. ∴ (x–1) is not a factor. Solution: Sum of the coefficients of all terms: 3 – 4 – 13 – 6 = 20 ≠ 0. Quotient is 2x2 + 3x – 2 To find other factors. By synthetic division 1 2 +1 − 5 + 2 2 +3 −2 2 3 −2 0 = Remainder Remainder is 0. Let us check whether x – 2 is a factor.

Among all the common divisors x2yz is the common divisor of highest degree. 7. x3 – 7x + 6 x3 + 4x2 + 5x + 2 x3 – x2 + x – 6 2x3 – x2 – 8x + 4 x3 – 5x + 4 4.C. x3 – 23x2 + 142x – 120 x3 – 3x2 + 4 3x3 – 10x2 + 11x – 4 x3 + 6x2 + 11x + 6 2x3 + 3x2 – 2x – 3 2. Solution: 1) 25 = 52 .C.C. x3y7z3p2. Example 25: Find the G. 15.D AND L.D. x2.D. is 5 2) 36 = 22 × 32 48 = 24 × 3 144 = 24 × 32 ⇒ G.2 1 − 3 − 10 + 24 +2 1 −2 − 24 0 Remainder − 1 − 12 Since the remainder is 0. 9. 45 = 32 × 5 ⇒ G.C.D.D. x2yz2 is x2 yz. is x5 Example 27: Find the G.C. 144.3 4.D. x2yz are common divisors of the given terms. of (1) 25.C. (x – 2) is a factor. 8.C. 13.) The greatest common divisor G. 6x2 yz2.C. Hence the G. x2z.C. For example consider x3 y2 z p. 2 × 3x2 yz2. We observe that x. xz.D. x2y.4 Factorise the following 1. 10. of x5.D = 3xyz2 Example 28: Find the G. of a3 – 1 and a2 – 1 Solution: a3 – 1 = a3 – 13 = (a – 1) (a2 + a + 1) and a2 – 1 = a2 – 12 = (a+1) (a–1) The common factor is a – 1 ∴ G. x3 y7 z3 p2.C.M Greatest Common Divisor (G.1 G. xy. 9xyz2 Solution: Given 3x2 y2 z2.C. yz.D. = a – 1 61 . 45 (2) 36.C.3. y. 4.D. 11. 35 = 5 × 7 . or Highest Common Factor (HCF) of two or more polynomials is that common divisor which has highest degree among all common divisors and in which the coefficient of highest degree term is positive. 14.2. x2 y z2. x7 and x10 Solution: G.D = 22 × 3 = 12 Example 26: Find the G.D. x3 + 13x2 + 32x + 20 x3 + 2x – 3 x3 + 2x2 + 2x + 1 x3 – 6x2 + 11 x –6 x3 – 3x2 – x + 3 3. 5. z. 12.C. To find other factors x2 – x – 12 = x2 – 4x + 3x – 12 = x (x–4) + 3 (x–4) = (x + 3) (x – 4) ∴ x3 – 3x2 – 10x + 24 = (x–2) (x–4) (x+3) Exercise 4.D. 35. of 3x2 y2 z2. of x3y2 zp. 48. 32 xyz2 ⇒ G. 6.C.

of x2 + 2xy + y2.C. then g(x) is the G. = x2 – 4x + 3 Example 31: Find the H. If s(x) is zero then r(x) is the G.D. (x + y)3. If not repeat the above process again and again till we get the remainder as zero.C.C. = (x + y) G. The divisor of the last polynomial is called the G.D.F. of the polynomials 2x3 + 2x2 + 2x + 2 and 6x3 + 12x2 + 6x + 12 Solution: Let f(x) = 2x3 + 2x2 + 2x + 2 = 2 (x3 + x2 + x + 1) and g(x) = 6x3 + 12x2 + 6x + 12 = 6(x3 + 2x2 + x + 2) 1 x3 + x2 + x + 1 x3 + 2x2 + x + 2 x3 + x2 + x + 1 x2 + 1 ≠0 62 .D.C.D.C. Then leave out the common numerical factor of f(x) and g(x) and divide f(x) by g(x) to get the remainder r(x). of the following polynomials x3 – 9x2 + 23x – 15 and 4x2 – 16x + 12 Solution: Let f(x) = x3 – 9x2 + 23x – 15 and g(x) = 4x2 – 16x + 12 = 4 (x2 – 4x + 3) x–5 x2 – 4x + 3 x3 – 9x2 + 23x – 15 x3 – 4x2 + 3x – 5x2 + 20x – 15 – 5x2 + 20x – 15 0 G.D. of f(x) and g(x).Example 29: Find the G. can be found by long division method as follows: Let f(x) and g(x) be two polynomials with deg g(x) < deg f(x).C. If not leave out the common numerical factor of r(x) and then divide g(x) by r(x) to get the remainder s(x). by long division method When the polynomials are not easily factorisable the G.D.D. If r(x) is zero. 25 (x2 – y2) Solution: x2 + 2xy + y2 = (x + y)2 (x + y)3 = (x + y)3 25 (x2 – y2) = 25 (x + y) (x – y) x + y is the only common factor ∴ G. Example 30: Find the G.C.C.C.C.D.D.

3.D.D.D. Example 32: Find the G. x h) 3a . 21m3n3 Find the G. of 2 and 6 is 2). 2x2 – 9x – 35 2. 28mn2.D.C. 63 .F. 6xy2 z3.1 1. 3x2 + 2x d) (a – b)2. 8p3q2r2. 64x5 b) 78a3. 9a . p9. x3 – 8 h) 2x2 – 11x – 40. 36m d) 12y4 20y5 e) p8. of the following terms a) 48x9. 6ab2c. = x2 + 4 Exercise 4. 12a i) 3a2bc.C. m18 n n+1 n+2 4 6 7 g) x . x . p11 f) m6.Dividing x3 + x2 + x + 1 by x2 + 1. a2 – b2 e) x2 – 4. 16p2q4r3 l) 14m2n. 8xyz2 k) 4p2q3r. of the polynomials = 2 (x2 + 1) (since the G. we have x+1 x2 + 1 x3 + x2 + x + 1 +x x3 x2 + 1 x2 + 1 0 ∴ H. 5x – 10 b) 4x + 10. Find the G. of the following a) 3x – 6.C. 52a10 c) 24m6. x2 – 1 g) x2 – 4.D.C. m12. x + 2 f) x3 + 1. of the polynomials x3–3x2+4x–12 and x4 + x3 + 4x2 + 4x Solution: Let f(x) : x3–3x2 + 4x – 12 and g(x) = x4 + x3 + 4x2 + 4x = x (x3 + x2 + 4x +4) 1 x3 + x2 + 4x + 4 x3 – 3x2 + 4x – 12 x3 + x2 + 4x + 4 – 4x2 x+1 x2 + 4 x3 + x2 + 4x + 4 + 4x x3 x2 + 4 x2 + 4 0 – 16 = – 4 (x2+4) ≠ 0 ∴ G. 6x – 15 c) 4x2 – 3x.C. 9abc2 j) 4x3y3z2.C.

= 2 × 3 × 5 (x – 1)3 (x + 2)2 = 60 (x – 1)3 (x + 2)2 Example 34: Find the L.M.C.M. i) 6a2 – 7a – 3.M.M of 12(x–1)3 and 15(x–1) (x+2)2 Solution: 12(x–1)3 = 22 × 3 (x –1)3 15 (x–1) (x + 2)2 = 5 × 3 (x – 1) (x + 2)2 2 L. 98q = 2 × 49q = 2 × 72 q ∴ L.C.) 4. = 36x2y2 z Example 36: Find the L. 2x2 – 11x – 21 l) 64(x2–9).C. x3 + 9x2 + 27x + 27 c) 3x2 + 13x + 10 .C.C.M.C.C. x2 – 1. Example 33: Find the L.C. x3 – 3x + 2 e) 24x4 – 2x3 – 60x2 – 32x .M.C. = (x + 1)2 (x – 1) (x2 – x + 1) Example 38: Find the L. of x3 + 1. 3x3 + 18x2 + 33x + 18 d) x3 + 4x2 – 5 .M.C.3.M.C. 36(x2 + 10x + 21).C.C. a) x4 + 2x3 + x2 – 1.3.D. of 28 p and 98 q. (a+3) (a–4) (a2–a–12) k) 6x2 + 7x – 3.M.M. of 6x2y.2 The least common multiple of two or more polynomials is the polynomial of the lowest degree which is exactly divisible by the given polynomials and whose coefficient of the highest degree term has the same sign as the sign of the coefficient of the highest degree term in their product. Solution: 28p = 4 × 7p = 22 × 7p .C. 9x2yz. 18x4 – 6x3 – 39x2 – 18x Least Common Multiple (L. 10x2 + 11x – 6. of x3 + y3. of the following pair of polynomials by successive division method. 12x2y2z Solution: 6x2y = 2 × 3 × x2 y 9xy2z = 32 x2 yz 12x2y2z= 22 × 3x2 y2z L.M. x3 – y3 and x4 + x2y2 + y4 Solution: x3 + y3 = (x + y) (x2 – xy + y2) 64 . (x + 1)2 = (x + 1)2 L. = 22 × 32 × x2y2z = 4 × 9 x2y2z L. of (x–1) (x+2) and (x+2) (x+3) Solution: L.M. (x + 1)2 Solution: x3 + 1 = (x + 1) (x2 – x+ 1) x2 – 1 = (x + 1) (x – 1) . = 22 × 72 pq = 4 × 49 pq = 196 pq Example 35: Find the L. 10a2 – 11a – 6 j) a2 – 8a+16. 24 (x2 + 2x – 3) Find the G. x4 + x2 + 1 b) x3 + 6x2 + 11x + 6 . = (x–1) (x+2) (x+3) Example 37: Find the L.M.

C.× G.D. If one of the polynomials is x3 + 1. Solution: Let f(x) = x3 – 12x2 + 44x – 48 .M.C. We first find the G.C.D.M.C. For example consider. = = = = = = = x2 – 2x + 1 = (x – 1)2 x2 + x – 2 = (x – 1) (x + 2) (x – 1) (x – 1)2 (x + 2) (x – 1)2 × (x – 1) (x + 2) = (x – 1)3 (x + 2) and (x – 1)2 (x + 2) × (x – 1) = (x – 1)3 (x + 2) L. × G.C.M.C. and G.C.M.M = (x + y) (x2 – xy + y2) (x – y) (x2 + xy + y2) = (x3+y3) (x3–y3).D. L. x3 – x2 – 25 x – 30 and x3 + 4x2 – 5.C.C. find the other.D. g(x) = x2 – 10x + 24 L.D. If we know any three of the four functions in the above product. f(x) × g(x) L. and L.C. = = f (x) × g(x) L.C.M. Now. of two polynomials x3 – 12x2 + 44x – 48 and x2 – 10x + 24 is x3 – 12x2 + 44x – 48 find the G. of f(x) and g(x). Consider two polynomials f(x) and g(x). Relation between L.M.M.D. = x + 1.D.C.C.C. of f(x) and g(x).M.C. 65 . By inspection we find that L. of f(x) and g(x) × G.M. and G.D. Solution: Given G.C.D.D. f(x) .C.C.C. ∴ f(x) × g(x) Example 39: The L.C.C.C. = x6 + 1 . are connected by the following relations: f(x) × g(x) = L. we can find the fourth one.D. L. ( x 3 − 12x 2 + 44 x − 48) ( x 2 − 10x + 24) ( x 3 − 12 x 2 + 44 x − 48) = x 2 −10x + 24 Example 40: The G. f (x) = (x 6 − 1) × (x + 1) x3 + 1 ( x 3 + 1) ( x 3 − 1) ( x + 1) ( x 3 + 1) = ( x 3 − 1) ( x + 1) Example 41: Find the L.M.x3 – y3 = (x – y) (x2 + xy + y2) x4 + x2y2 + y4 = (x2 + xy + y2) (x2 – xy + y2) L. Solution: Let f(x) = x3 – x2 – 25 x – 30 g(x) = x3 + 4x2 – 5.C.M.D.C.M. of the following two polynomials.C. x3 + 1 ∴ g(x) = = L.C. of two polynomials are x + 1 and x6 – 1 respectively. = x3 – 12x2 + 44x – 48 ∴ G. f(x) g(x) G. × G.M.

x2 – 9x+20 2 2 2 2 g) 8x –10x–3.C.D. = = (x 3 − x 2 − 25x − 30) (x 3 + 4x 2 − 5) (x 2 + 5x + 5) (x 3 − x 2 − 25x − 30) (x − 1) (x 2 + 5x + 5) (x 2 + 5x + 5) ∴ L. x –5x+6 i) 4(x3+1). 100p8 14x3y. 24pqr 2. a10 b) x7. 24 zx j) am+2.F. 3x2 + 14x – 5. a2+ab f) x2–x–12. of the following a) (x+2)3. If one of the polynomials is x3 – 4x2 + 6x – 3.C.C. 28x2y2z 8p2qr.M.F.C. 4. 2x2 – 7x – 4. 12p2r2. 16x –1 h) x +x–6. 4x2 + 16x c) a3–b3.M. The H. find the other.4 RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS An expression of the form P(x) / Q(x) where P(x) and Q(x) are two polynomials over the set of real numbers and Q(x) ≠ 0 is called a rational expression. Find the other.M.C. = (x – 1) (x3 – x2 – 25x – 30) Exercise 4. am+4+ c) f) i) l) m5. Find the L.C.C.am+3. of two polynomials are (x–1) (x–2) (x2–3x+3) and (x–1) respectively.M.F.3. (x4+x3+x+1)/(x+5). 3x2 – 14x + 8 1) 9x2 + 12x – 5. and L. = x2 + 5x + 5. m9 45p9. = f (x) × g(x) G. of x3 – x2 – 4x – 6 and x2 – 2x + 3 with the help of their H. a – b d) 4x–12. of two polynomials are 5x2 + x and (x3 – 4x) (5x + 1) respectively. The L. y z h) ab. 4x2 + 21x + 5 The G. 6. Find the other. x2 + 7x + 10 k) 6x2 – x – 2. and L. 5.M.C.M.D.2 1. 12(x2–1) j) x2 + 5x + 6. 3x–9 e) a2b+ab2. Find the L.C.C.D. Find the L. x2 + 8x + 15. 4. (x–2)/(x+2) are rational expressions. of two polynomials are (x+1) and 2(x+1) (x2–4) and one of the polynomials is (x+1) (x–2). x4 d) 15a6 75a5 e) 20x3.C. and H. 66 . One of the polynomials is 5x3 – 9x2 – 2x. of the following terms a) a8. 3. Also g(x) = x3 + 4x2 – 5 = (x – 1) (x2 + 5x + 5) ∴ L.36x6 2 2 g) x y.C.1 x3 + 4x2 – 5 x3 – x2 – 25x – 30 – 5 x3 + 4x2 – 5x2 – 25x – 25 – 5(x2+5x+5) ≠ 0 x2 + 5x + 5 x–1 x3 + 4x2 – 0 – 5 x3 + 5x2 + 5x – x2 – 5x – 5 – x2 – 5x – 5 0 ∴ G. 6(x4–1).M. For example 2/x2 . (x+2)4 b) x2–16. 21xyz2. 5/(x+7).C. 18yz.M.C. bc k) 12xy.

27y 3 16x 4 .25y 2 3x 2 .4.5xy 2x 2 + x . g ( x ) × = q( x ) h ( x ) q( x ) .4.x2 y 2 y4 .x3 8x 3 . h ( x ) The resulting expression is then reduced to its lowest form.C.125b3 4a 2 b + 5ab 2 4) 8) 12) 9x 2 .3 2x 2 +5x + 3 4x 2 +17x+5 8x 2 + 6x . 67 .D.x2 y 2 6x 2 .5 Multiplication and division of rational expressions If p(x) / q(x) and g(x) / h(x) are the two rational expressions.54 x 2 +7x+12 2) 6) 10) 3a 4 b a3b2 xy 3 .1 Simplification of Rational expressions A rational expression P(x) / Q(x) can be reduced to its lowest term by dividing both numerator P(x) and denominator Q(x) by the G.x 3 y y 3 .4.81y 4 3) 7) 11) 5x+20 6x+24 x 2 + 7x + 10 x2 .2 2x+10 2x -6 x4 .4 64a 3 .1 Simplify the following 1) 5) 9) 4. of P(x) and Q(x). Example 42: Simplify Solution: 5x + 20 7 x + 28 5x + 20 5 ( x + 4) 5 = = 7 x + 28 7 ( x + 4) 7 3x + 9 3x + 15 3x + 9 3(x + 3) x+3 = = 3x + 15 3(x + 5) x +5 x2 − x − 6 x 2 + 5x + 6 ( x − 3) ( x + 2) x2 − x − 6 x −3 = = 2 ( x + 2) ( x + 3) x+3 x + 5x + 6 x−y x 3 − y3 x−y x−y 1 = = 2 3 3 2 2 x −y ( x − y) ( x + xy + y ) x + xy + y 2 Example 43: Simplify Solution: Example 44: Simplify Solution: Example 45: Simplify Solution: Exercise 4.4. then their product is p( x ) g ( x ) p ( x ) .

6x – 6 = 6(x –1). 5ab 4cb 16ac × × 15cd 32ad 2bc ab 5 × a × b × 4 × c × b × 16 × a × c 5ab 4cb 16ac Solution: × × = = 2 15cd 32ad 2bc 5 × 3 × c × d × 2 × 16 × a × d × 2 × b × c 3d Example 46: Simplify : Example 47: Multiply : Solution: a 3 + b3 a 2 − b2 × a−b a 2 + 2ab + b 2 a 3 + b3 a 2 − b 2 (a + b) (a 2 − ab + b 2 ) × (a + b) (a − b) 2 = × = a – ab + b2 a −b (a + b ) ( a + b ) ( a − b ) a 2 + 2ab + b 2 x 2 − 2x + 1 3x − 6 × Example 48: Multiply 2 6x − 6 x − 3x + 2 2 2 Solution: x – 2x + 1 = (x–1) x2 – 3x + 2 = (x – 2) (x – 1). 3x – 6 = 3( x – 2) 2 x − 2x + 1 3x − 6 (x − 1) 2 × 3(x − 2) 1 ∴ 2 × = = x − 3x + 2 6x − 6 (x − 2)(x − 1) × 6 (x − 1) 2 Example 49: Divide Solution: ⇒ x 2 − 25 (x + 5) 2 by x +3 x2 − 9 (x + 5) (x − 5) (x + 5) 2 ÷ x +3 (x + 3) (x − 3) ( x + 5) ( x − 5) ( x + 3) ( x − 3) ( x − 5) ( x − 3) = × = x +3 x +5 ( x + 5) 2 ( x − 1) 2 x2 − 1 by 2x 2 + x − 3 2 x 2 + 5x + 3 Solution: 2x2 + x – 3 = 2x2 + 3x – 2x – 3 = x(2x + 3) –1 (2x + 3) = (2x + 3)(x–1) 2 2x + 5x + 3 = 2x2 + 2x + 3x + 3 = 2x (x + 1) + 3 (x + 1) = (2x + 3) (x+1) 2 (x − 1) x 2 −1 (x −1) 2 (x + 1) (x − 1) Hence ÷ 2 = ÷ 2 2x + x − 3 2x + 5x + 3 (2x + 3) (x − 1) (2x + 3) (x + 1) (x − 1) (x −1) (x − 1) (2x + 3) ÷ = × =1 = 2x + 3 (2x + 3) (2x + 3) (x − 1) Example 50: Divide 68 . then their quotient is p ( x ) g ( x ) p( x ) h ( x ) p ( x ) . g( x ) The resulting expression is then reduced to its lowest form.If p(x) / q(x) and g(x) / h(x) are the two rational expressions. h ( x ) ÷ = × = q( x ) h ( x ) q( x ) g( x ) q( x ) .

9 (b) (d) (f) a2 4a 4 ÷ 2 2a+3 6a +9a x 2 .8 × 2 6x + 6 x .3y x +4xy+3y 2 x 2 .4x .3q bx .5x .x .2 1.3x -18 x 2 +3x+2 x 2 -16 x2 .10 x .10 x 2 .3 x2 . If p(x) / q(x) and g(x) / h(x) are two rational p(x) × h(x) ± q(x) × g(x) p(x) g(x) expression we define their sum or difference as ± = .2 ⎟÷⎜ . a+b a 3 .4x+3 Divide (b) (d) (f) (h) x 2 .2x .4 (x + 2)2 ÷ 2 x +3 x -9 3x 2 .2p ax .b a 3 +b3 x 2 . q(x) h(x) q(x).Example 51: Divide Solution: x 2 + 3x + 2 x 2 − 4x −12 by 2 x 2 − 3x −18 x − 2x − 3 x 2 − 4x −12 x 2 + 3x + 2 ÷ 2 x 2 − 3x −18 x − 2x − 3 (x − 6) (x + 2) (x + 2) (x + 1) x + 2 x − 3 x −3 = = ÷ = × (x − 6) (x + 3) (x − 3) (x + 1) x + 3 x + 2 x +3 Exercise 4. Multiply a) (c) (e) (g) 2.9x + 18 2x 2 + 13x + 15 2x 2 .9 x .3x .5x + 6 4x .12 x 2 .4x -12 x 2 .4 × 3 x-2 x + 64 x 2 .4x + 4 4.4x+16 × x 2 .7x + 12 × 2 ÷ x-2 x .2x .3 Addition and subtraction of Rational Expression While adding or subtracting two rational expressions p(x) / q(x) and g(x) / h(x) we follow the same rules as in the case of rational numbers.3 × x 2 .3b x 2 .9y 2 x 2 -y 2 × 2 3x .6 +1 ÷ 2x 2 .4.20 x 3 +64 x+7 x 2 +8x+7 × x+1 x 2 +14x+49 p 2 -1 p3 1 × × p p -1 p+1 (a) (c) (e) (g) (h) px .h(x) 69 .4.x -6 ÷ 2 x 2 + 3x .8 4x .7x + 2 9x 2 .8x + 16 ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 1⎞ ⎜ 2 .⎟ b ⎠ ⎝a b⎠ ⎝a x 2 .2a ÷ qx .8 x 2 .b 3 × a .16 2x + 8 ÷ 2 3x .

If p( x ) g( x ) are two rational expressions having the same denominator then and q( x ) q( x ) p(x) g(x) p(x) ± g(x) ± = q(x) q(x) q(x) 4x + 3 x+2 and 2 x + 3x + 2 x + 3x + 2 2 Example 52: Add 4x + 3 x+2 4x + 3 + x + 2 5x + 5 5 + 2 = = = 2 (x + 1) (x + 2) x+2 x + 3x + 2 x + 3x + 2 x + 3x + 2 a b and 3 Example 53: Add 3 3 a +b a + b3 a b a+b a+b 1 + 3 = 3 Solution: 3 = = 2 3 3 3 2 2 a +b a +b a +b (a + b) (a − ab + b ) a − ab + b 2 Solution: 2 x 2 + 3x − 4 x 2 + 5x + 6 + 2 x 2 + 6x + 8 x − x − 12 2 2 (x + 4) (x − 1) (x + 2) (x + 3) x + 3x − 4 x + 5x + 6 + 2 = + Solution: 2 (x + 4) (x + 2) (x − 4) (x + 3) x + 6x + 8 x − x − 12 Example 54: Simplify = 2x 2 − x + 8 (x − 1) (x + 2) (x − 1) (x − 4) + (x + 2) 2 + = = (x + 2) (x − 4) (x + 2) (x − 4) (x + 2) (x − 4) a3 b3 + a−b b−a Example 55: Simplify Solution: a3 b3 a3 b3 a3 b3 + = + = − a − b b − a a − b − (−b + a ) a − b a − b = a 3 − b3 (a − b) (a 2 + ab + b 2 ) = = a 2 + ab + b 2 a−b (a − b) Example 56: Simplify x2 y2 − 4 x 4 − y4 x − y4 = (x 2 − y 2 ) 1 = 2 2 2 2 2 (x + y ) (x − y ) x + y 2 x3 −1 2x 3 − x 2 + 3 ? to get x2 + 2 x2 + 2 Solution: x 2 − y2 (x 2 − y 2 ) = 2 2 x 4 − y 4 (x ) − ( y 2 ) 2 Example 57: What rational expression should be added to Solution: Given x3 −1 2x 3 − x 2 + 3 + Rational expression = . x2 + 2 x2 + 2 70 .

Simplify x 5x a) + 16 16 b) x y + x+y x+y 71 c) 8 3 + 2 2 x y xy . (P–Q)2 as rational expressions.Q= x +1 x −1 2 Example 60: If P = 2 ⎛ x −1 x +1⎞ Solution: (P+Q) = ⎜ + ⎟ ⎝ x +1 x −1⎠ ⎡ x 2 − 2x + 1 + x 2 + 2x + 1 ⎤ =⎢ ⎥ (x + 1) (x − 1) ⎣ ⎦ 2 ⎡ ( x − 1) 2 + ( x + 1) 2 ⎤ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ( x + 1) ( x − 1) ⎦ 2 2 2 ⎡ 2x 2 + 2 ⎤ ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎣ x −1 ⎦ ⎡ 2(x 2 + 1) ⎤ = ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣ x −1 ⎦ 2 2 = 4(x 2 + 1) 2 (x 2 − 1) 2 2 ⎡ (x − 1) 2 − (x + 1) 2 ⎤ ⎛ x −1 x +1⎞ and (P–Q) = ⎜ − = ⎢ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ x +1 x −1⎠ ⎣ (x + 1) (x − 1) ⎦ 2 ⎡ x 2 − 2x + 1 − (x 2 + 2x + 1) ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ (x 2 − 1) ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ − 4x ⎞ = ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ x −1⎠ 2 16 x 2 = ( x 2 − 1) 2 Exercise 4.4.Required rational expression = 2x 3 − x 2 + 3 x 3 − 1 2x 3 − x 2 + 3 − x 3 + 1 x 3 − x 2 + 4 = − 2 = x2 + 2 x +2 x2 + 2 x2 + 2 x2 +1 x 4 − 3x + 1 to get ? x−2 x+3 Example 58: What rational expression should be added to Solution: Required rational expression = x 2 + 1 x 4 − 3x + 1 − x−2 x+3 = = (x 2 + 1) (x + 3) − (x 4 − 3x + 1) (x − 2) x 3 + 3x 2 + x + 3 − ( x 5 − 2x 4 − 3x 2 + 6x + x − 2) = ( x − 2) ( x + 3) (x − 2) (x + 3) x 3 + 3x 2 + x + 3 − x 5 + 2x 4 + 3x 2 − 7 x + 2 − x 5 + 2x 4 + x 3 + 6x 2 − 6x + 5 = ( x − 2) ( x + 3) ( x − 2) ( x + 3) 4x 3 − 7 x 2 + 5 to get 2x − 1 Example 59: Which rational expression should be subtracted from 2x2 – 5x + 1? Solution: Required expression = 4x 3 − 7 x 2 + 5 − (2 x 2 − 5x + 1) 2x − 1 = (4x 3 − 7x 2 + 5) − (4x 3 − 10x 2 + 2x − 2x 2 + 5x − 1) 5x 2 − 7x + 6 = 2x − 1 2x − 1 x −1 x +1 express (P+Q)2.3 I. .

Q= 2. Which rational expression should be added to ? 2x-1 x+2 x 4 − 7x 3 +4 1 − 5x − x 2 to get ? x+1 x2 − 2 5x 2 − x+2 3x 2 +1 3. we mean a number which when multiplied by itself gives x.1. The square root of a polynomial is defined similarly. 784 = 7 × 7 × 4 × 4 = 72 × 42 ∴ 784 = 7 2 × 42 = 7 × 4 = 28 As in the case of numbers we denote P( x ) .1 Square root by factorisation method Example 61: Find the square root of (i) x2 y4 z8 (ii) 256 z2 y6 (iii) 36a2 (b–c)4 (c+a)8 (iv) (p+q)2 – 4pq 72 . wherever the case may be. 1. If P = x+y x+y P − Q P − Q2 2.5 SQUARE ROOT We recall that by a square root of a positive number x. In finding square roots. If P = and Q = express (P+Q)2 and (P–Q)2 as a rational expression. x −1 x+1 x y 1 2Q find − 2 .5.1 2b + 2 2 a+b a -b y x f) 2 2 x-y x -y d) i) x-2 x+3 + 2 x -7x+10 x -2x-15 5 4 k) − 2 2 4a − 9 2a − a − 3 2 e) x+2 x-3 + 2 x +3x+2 x -2x-3 3 a 64 g) a-4 a-4 2 2 x4 81 h) x-3 x-3 x x . For example let us find the square root of 784. as that polynomial when multiplied with itself gives the original polynomial. we consider positive square roots. Which rational expression should be added to 4. Which rational expression should be subtracted from ? to get 3x+4 2x-3 x+1 x −1 III. we use the following methods namely (i) factorisation method. (ii) division method. for the square root of the polynomial P(x). 4.2 x +5x+6 x +7x+12 x+1 (x − 1) − l) (x − 2)(x − 1) (x+1)(x − 2) j) n) p) 1 1 4x − 2 + 2x+3y 2x − 3y 4x − 9y 2 2 m) o) m 1 1 + + 2 m+1 m+1 m − 1 x+a x-a 4ax − + 2 x-a x+a a − x 2 x x x − 2 + 2 x − 9x+20 x − 8x+15 x − 7x+12 2 x +x-3 3x 2 +x+4 to get II. For definiteness.

0625 9 Find the square root of the following 4. 0. 2025 0. 11 25 II. 25(a+b)8 (x+y)4 9(x-y)6 (a+b)16 2. 9x2y4z8 5. 81 (a–b)2 (x+y)4 (x 2 -y 2 )2 36(x-y)2 (x+2y)6 3. 73 . Find the square root by factor method 1. (x–y)2 + 4xy 8.0169 7. 121z2y4 ÷ 49x6 9. 676 3. 36 (2–x)4 (3–x2)6 7.Solution: i) x2 y4 z8 = x2(y2)2 (z4)2 = (xy2z4)2 Hence ii) iii) iv) x 2 y 4 z8 = (xy 2 z 4 ) 2 = (xy 2 z 4 ) 256z 2 y 6 = (16zy3 ) 2 = 16zy3 36a 2 (b − c) 4 (c − a ) 8 = [6a (b − c) 2 (c − a ) 4 ] 2 = 6a (b − c) 2 (c + a ) 4 (p + q) 2 − 4pq = (p − q) 2 = p − q (i) x2 + 10x + 25 (ii) 4a2 + 20ab + 25b2 (iii) (x2 – 4) (x2 + x – 6) (x2 + 5x + 6) Example 62: Find the square root of : Solution: i) x2 + 10x + 25 = x2 + 5x + 5x + 25 = x (x+5) + 5 (x+5) = (x+5) (x+5) = (x + 5)2 ∴ x 2 + 10x + 25 = ( x + 5) 2 = x + 5 (2a + 5b) 2 = (2a + 5b) ii) 4a 2 + 20ab + 25b 2 = iii) x2 – 4 = x2 – 22 = (x–2) (x+2) x2 + x – 6 = x2 + 3x – 2x – 6 = x (x+3) – 2 (x+3) = (x+3) (x–2) x2 + 5x + 6 = x2 + 3x + 2x – 6 = x (x+3) + 2 (x+3) = (x+3) (x+2) Hence (x2 – 4) (x2 + x – 6) (x2 + 5x + 6) = (x + 2) (x + 3) (x – 2) (x + 3) (x + 2) (x – 2) = (x–2)2 (x + 2)2 (x + 3)2 = [(x – 2) (x + 2) (x + 3)]2 ∴ The required square root is (x – 2) (x + 2) (x + 3) Exercise 4. 169 a8b6c4 4. 50(x+y)2 ÷128(x–y)4 10.1 I. 1. 4 25 5. 0.5. 49 (2a–4b)2c2 6. 9801 21 9. 11025 14 10.0144 1 8. 7 6. 576 2.

2 Finding square root by division method The division method can be used to find the square root of polynomials which cannot be easily reduced to factors.5. – 4x 3 =− x 4x 2 2 × (2x2–x) = 4x2 – 2x 4x 2 =1 4x 2 74 . 125 1 22 245 1. 0 We can use the same procedure to find the square root of a polynomial Example 63: Find the square root of 4x4 – 4x3 + 5x2 – 2x + 1 Solution: 2x2 – x + 1 2x2 4x4 – 4x3 + 5x2 – 2x + 1 4x4 – 4x3 + 5x2 – 4x3 + x2 4x2 – 2x + 1 4x2 – 2x + 1 4x2 – 2x + 1 0 ∴ Square root = ± (2x – x + 1) 2 Procedure Square root of the first term 4x 4 = 2x 2 4x2 – x 2 × 2x2 = 4x2. Find the square root of the following 1) 9x2 + 30x + 25 2) 16x2 – 24x + 9 3) (x2 – 4) (x2 – 3x – 10) (x2 – 7x + 10) 4) (x2 – 1) (x2 – 4x + 3) (x2 – 2x – 3) 2 2 2 2 2 2 5) (a – b ) (a – 4ab + 3b ) (a – 2ab – 3b ) 6) a2 + b2 + c2 – 2ab + 2bc – 2ca x2 y2 8) 2 + 2 + 2 7) x2 + y2 + z2 + 2xy – 2yz – 2zx y x 1 1 9) x 2 + 2 -2 10) x 4 +2+ 4 x x 2 2 2 11) (6x + 7x – 20) (3x + 23x – 36) (2x + 23x + 45) 12) (2x2 – x – 1) (3x2 – 2x – 1) (6x2 + 5x + 1) 4. Recall the method of finding the square root of a number by division method. 25 1 56 44 12 25 12 25 ∴ Square root of 15625 is 125. 56.III.

Find the square root by division method (a) 7225 (b) 8649 (c) 18225 (d) 524176 (e) 287296 (f) 186624 (g) 2819041 (h) 1708249. Find the square root by division method (b) 4x4 + 8x3 + 8x2 + 4x + 1 (a) x4 – 4x3 + 10x2 – 12x + 9 75 .Example 64: Find the square root of a4 – 2a3 + Solution: 3 2 1 1 a − a+ 2 2 16 a2 – a + a2 1 4 3 2 1 1 a − a+ 2 2 16 a4 – 2a3 + a4 2a2 – a 3 2 a 2 – 2a3 + a2 – 2a3 + 1 2 1 1 a − a+ 2 2 16 1 2 1 1 a − a+ 2 2 16 0 2a2 – 2a + 1 4 ∴ 3 1 1 a − 2a + a 2 − a + = ± 2 16 2 4 3 1⎞ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎛ 2 ⎜a − a + ⎟ = ± ⎜a − a + ⎟ 4⎠ 4⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 2 Example 65: If p + qx + 10x2 + 12x3 + 9x4 is a perfect square. 2.2 1.5. Solution: 3x2 + 2x + 1 3x2 6x2 + 2x 6x2 + 4x + 1 9x4 + 12x3 + 10x2 + qx + p 9x4 12x3 + 10x2 12x3 + 4x2 6x2 + qx + p 6x2 + 4x + 1 0 because given expression is a perfect square ∴ p = 1 q = 4 Exercise 4. find the value of p and q.

⎬ ⎩ 2 ⎭ Example 67: Solve 64x2 – 36 = 0 Solution: 64x2 – 36 = 0 or (8x + 6) (8x – 6) = 0 or x = –6/8 = –3/4 or x = 6/8 = 3/4 ⎧− 3 3 ⎫ . ⎬ 3⎭ ⎩ 76 . 4.6 QUADRATIC EQUATION An equation of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0. Finding the roots of a quadratic equation is known as solving the quadratic equations.3. c ∈ R and a ≠ 0 is called a quadratic equation. we apply the method of factorization to solve quadratic equation. 5x2 + 6x + 7 = 0. b. 9x2 – 4 = 0. ⎬ The solution set = ⎨ 4⎭ ⎩ 4 Example 68: Solve 3x2 – 4x = 0 Solution: 3x2 – 4x = x (3x – 4) Since 3x2 – 4x = 0. This method is used when the quadratic equation is expressible as the product of two linear equations. If p(x) = 0 is a quadratic equation. For example. Example 66: Solve the quadratic equation 2x2 + 3x – 5 = 0 Solution: 2x2 + 3x – 5 = 2x2 + 5x – 2x – 5 = x (2x + 5) – 1(2x + 5) = (x – 1) (2x + 5) Since 2x2 + 3x – 5 = 0 we get (x – 1) (2x + 5) = 0 ⇒ x – 1 = 0 or 2x + 5 = 0 ⇒ x = 1. where a. then the zeros of the polynomial p(x) are called the roots of equation p(x) = 0.1 Solution of quadratic equations by factorisation In this section. we get x (3x – 4) = 0 or x = 0 or 3 x –4 = 0 ⇒ 3x = 4 ⇒ x = 4/3 4⎫ ⎧ The solution set = ⎨0 . 3 2 1 1 x + x+ 2 2 16 4 3 2 4 3 2 (f) 16x – 24x – 31x + 30x + 25 (e) x – 6x + 11x – 6x + 1 1 4 13 1 1 4 (g) x − 3x 3 + 13x 2 − 24 x + 16 (h) x 4 − x 3 + x 2 − 2x + 9 3 3 4 4 Find the value of a in the following given that the polynomials are perfect squares (b) 4x4 + 12x3 + 13x2 + ax + 1 (a) 9x4 – 6x3 + 7x2 – 2x + a 4 3 2 (c) x – 6x + 11x + ax + 1 Find the values of a and b in the following given that the polynomials are perfect squares (b) 9x4 + 12x3 + 40x2 + ax + b (a) 25x4 – 40x3 – 34x2 + ax + b 4 3 2 (c) 4x + 12x + x + ax + b (c) 9x4 – 18x3 + 33x2 – 24x + 16 (d) x4 – 2x3 – 4. 2x2 – 3x = 0 are quadratic equations. 4.6. It is an equation with degree 2. –5/2 ⎧ − 5⎫ The solution set = ⎨1.

x – 4 = 0 or x = –3 x = 4 The solution set = {− 3. 2 ⎬ ⎩a b ⎭ Example 75: Solve 2 (x + 1)2 – 5(x + 1) = 12 Solution: Put x + 1 = t then we get 2t2 – 5t – 12 = 0 or 2t (t – 4) + 3t – 12 = 0 2t (t – 4) + 3 (t – 4) = 0 or (2t + 3) (t – 4) = 0 or t=− 3 . x = 4 ⎧ −1 ⎫ Solution set = ⎨4 . 2}. 4x + 1 = 0 or x = 4 . x = 2 The solution set = {-1/2. 3 ⎬ ⎩3 ⎭ Example 74: Solve a2b2x2 – (a2 + b2) x + 1 = 0 Solution: a2b2x2 – (a2 + b2) x + 1 = 0 or a2b2x2 – a2x – b2x + 1 = 0 or 1 1 (a2x – 1) (b2x – 1) = 0 or x = 2 . –7}. 4} 1 15 = Example 72: Solve x − x 4 2 x −1 1 15 15 Solution: x − = or = x 4 x 4 or 4(x2 – 1) = 15x or 4x2 – 4 – 15x = 0 or 4x2 – 15x – 4 = 0 or 4x2 – 16x + x – 4 = 0 or −1 4x (x – 4) + 1 (x – 4) = 0 or x – 4 = 0. x + 3 3 = 0 or x = −2 or x = − 3 3 3 ⎧ −2 ⎫ The solution set = ⎨ . x = 2 a b ⎧1 1⎫ The solution set = ⎨ 2 . − 3. Example 70: Solve (2x + 1) (x – 2) = 0 Solution: (2x + 1) (x – 2) = 0 or 2x + 1 = 0 or x – 2 = 0 or x = –1/2. Example 71: Solve x2 – x – 12 = 0 Solution: Factorising the given quadratic equation we have x2 – x – 12 = 0 (x + 3) (x – 4) = 0 or x + 3 = 0.t= 4 2 77 .Example 69: Solve (x + 3) (x + 5) = 1 – x Solution: (x + 3) (x + 5) = 1 – x x2 + 8x + 15 – 1 + x = 0 or x2 + 9x + 14 = 0 or (x + 2) (x + 7) = 0 or x = –2 x = –7 The solution set = {–2. ⎬ 4⎭ ⎩ Example 73: Solve 3 x 2 + 11x + 6 3 = 0 Solution: Factorising the equation we have 3 x 2 + 11x + 6 3 = 0 or x ( 3x+2 ) +3 3( 3 x + 2 = 0 or ) ( 3 x 2 + 2x + 9x + 6 3 = 0 3 x+ 2 ) (x + 3 3) = 0 3 x + 2 = 0 .

12x ∴ b= = 6 and b 2 = 62. 3 10 When x = − . This method was given by Indian mathematician Sridharacharya (A. Example 77: What should be added with x2 + 12x to get a perfect square? What is that square? Solution: Comparing with the expression a2 + 2ab + b2. x + 2 is not real 3 10 (Hence x = − is inadmissible) ⇒ the solution of the given equation is x = –2. 3⎬ ⎩2 ⎭ t=− Example 76: Solve x + 2 + x + 3 = 3x + 7 Solution: Squaring both sides we get x + 2 + x + 3 + 2 ( x + 2 ( x + 3) = 3x + 7 2 (x + 2) (x + 3) = 3x + 7 − 2x − 5 = x + 2 Squaring both sides we get 4 (x + 2) (x + 3) = (x + 2)2 ⇒ (x + 2) [(x + 2) – 4(x + 3)] = 0 ⇒ (x + 2) (–3x –10) = 0 − 10 ⇒ (3x + 10) (x + 2) = 0 ⇒ x = .D 1025). So the term to be added is 36. here 2ab = 12x where a = x. 3 Solution by the method of completion of squares Consider the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0.3 3 5 ⇒ x + 1 = − ⇒ x = − and t = 4 ⇒ x + 1 = 4 ⇒ x = 3 2 2 2 ⎧ −5 ⎫ The solution set = ⎨ . b c We write this equation as x 2 + x + = 0 a a b ⎞ c ⎛ or x2 + 2⎜ ⎟ x + = 0 or a ⎝ 2a ⎠ or or b2 b2 c ⎛ b ⎞ x +2⎜ ⎟x+ 2 = 2 − a 4a 4a ⎝ 2a ⎠ 2 c ⎛ b ⎞ x2 + 2 ⎜ ⎟ x = − a ⎝ 2a ⎠ b 2 − 4ac b ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ = ⎜x + 2a ⎠ 4a 2 ⎝ 2 or x= x+ b =± 2a b 2 − 4ac 2a or −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a Thus we get the roots of the quadratic equation using the method of completion of squares. 2x The required square = x2 + 12x + 62 = (x + 6)2. 78 . x = −2.

b. (6x)2 + 2 × 6x × + = 6 + 2 4 4 2 1⎞ 25 1 5 ⎛ ⇒ 6x + = ± ⎜ 6x + ⎟ = 2⎠ 4 2 2 ⎝ 1 5 1 5 ⇒ 6x = + or 6x = − − 2 2 2 2 ⇒ 6x = 2 or 6x = –3 2 3 1 1 ⇒ x= or x = − ⇒ x = or x = − 6 6 3 2 The solution set = {− 1/2.We know. ∈ R and a ≠ 0. − 1 − 2} Example 80: Solve 6x2 + x –1 = 0 Solution: 6x2 + x = 1. ⎝2⎠ 2 Adding 9 on both sides we get x + 6x + 9 = 7 + 9 or (x + 3)2 = 16 Taking square root on both sides x + 3 = ± 16 = ± 4 x + 3 = 4 ⇒ x = 1. ⎛6⎞ Solution: x2 + 6x = 7. The term to be added = ⎜ ⎟ = 9. –7} Example 79: Solve x2 + 2x – 1 = 0 Solution: x2 + 2x = 1 or x2 + 2x + 1 = 1 + 1 or (x + 1)2 = 2 x + 1 = + 2 ⇒ x = –1 + 2 ∴ x = –1 + 2 . 1/3} Solution by formula method 2 Consider the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 where a. x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac − (−7) ± = 2a (−7) 2 − 4(1)(12) 2 ×1 79 . Multiply by 6 on both sides we get 1 1 1 (6x)2 + (6x) = 6 . c. x + 3 = –4 ⇒ = –7 The solution set = {1. we get a = 1. Example 81: Solve the equation using formula x2 – 7x + 12 = 0. b = –7. –1 – 2 The solution set = {1 + 2. c = 12.Example 78: Solve the equation by completing the square x2 + 6x – 7 = 0. Its solution is given by the formula : 2a Note : We derived this formula in the method of completion of squares. Solution: Comparing with ax2 + bx + c = 0.

3 2 The solution set = {4. b) x2 + 5x c) x2 – 10x d) x2 – 7x a) x2 + 16x f) 2x2 + 9x g) ax2 + bx h) 5x2 – 4x e) 3x2 – 8x 2. 3} Example 82: Solve x2 + 2x – 1 = 0. Exercise 4.= +7 ± 49 − 48 2 = 7 ±1 = 4. Solve by factorisation 1) (x – 5) (x – 2) = 0 4) (x + 7)2 = 0 7) x2 – 64 = 0 10) 9x2 – 64 = 0 { } −2 ± 8 = −1 ± 2 2 2) 5) 8) 11) (x + 3) (x + 7) = 0 x (x – 8) = 0 4x2 – 25 = 0 x2 + 10x + 21 = 0 3) (x – 9)2 = 0 6) x (3x – 4) = 0 9) 3x2 – 75 = 0 12) x2 – 10x – 24 = 0 15) x − 3 =2 x 13) 3x2 – 5x + 2 = 0 16) x + 14) 9x2 – 15x – 14 = 0 1 26 = 17) (x – 2) (2x + 3) = 3 (x – 4) (x + 8) x 5 18) (5x – 2) (x + 1) = 3x (3x – 1) 19) 4a2x2 – 5abx + b2 = 0 20) II. we get a = 1. Solution: Comparing the given equation x2 + 2x – 1 = 0 with ax2 + bx + c = 0. What should be added to make the following a perfect square. b = 2.6. By formula x = −b ± b 2 − 4ac −2 ± = 2a = 22 − 4 × 1 × (− 1) 2 ×1 ∴The solution set − 1 + 2. − 1 − 2 . Solve the equations using completion of square method b) 2x2 – x – 10 = 0 c) 3x2 – 4x + 1 = 0 a) x2 + 2x – 3 = 0 e) x2 + x = 72 d) x2 + 5 = –6x d) 5x2 – 7x – 6 = 0 g) x2 – 4x – 7 = 0 h) x2 + 14x + 40 = 0 Solve the equations using formula 1) 6x2 + x – 1 = 0 2) 4x2 + 17x + 4 = 0 3) x2 – 28x + 160 = 0 4) 15x2 – 11x + 2 = 0 5) 3x2 – 6x + 2 = 0 7) x2 – 10x + 9 = 0 10) x2 + 7x – 6 = 0 8) x2 – 5x + 5 = 0 11) x + 5 = 2x + 3 6) x + 1 1 =2 x 2 2 9) 2 (x + 2) = x + 4 12) 3a2x2 – abx – 2b2 = 0 80 . 5 x 2 + 8x + 3 5 = 0 III.1 I. c = –1. 1.

By the given data. the slant height l = x + 8 cm. we know that x + x2 = 90 or x2 + x – 90 = 0 or (x + 10) (x – 9) = 0 x + 10 = 0 .4. Its square is x2. x – 9 = 0 ⇒ x = –10. Find the number. In this section we are going to form the equation translating the given statement and then solve the equation either by factorization method or by formula method. Find the curved surface area of the cone. barbed wire. Then the height h = x + 7 cm . x = 2. rectangular vegetable garden. Solution: Let the number in the tens place be x and the number in the unit place be y. Since the product of the digits is 8 we get. x = 9. Example 84: The height of right circular cone is 7 cm greater than its radius.6. Solution: Let the required number be x.m. they interchange their places. x 2 Example 86: A farmer wishes to start a 100 sq. Solution: Let the radius be x cm. he fences the sides of the rectangular garden letting his house compound wall act as the fourth side fence. Determine the number. Since he has only 30 m. So the required number is –10 or 9. Area = 100m2 ∴ xy = 100 (1) Given length of wire = 30 m 81 . l = x + 8 = 13 cm Curved surface area of the cone = πrl = π x 5 x 13 = 65πcm2 Example 85: A two digit number is such that the product of the digits is 8. Example 83: The sum of a number and its square is 90. The slant height is 8 cm greater than its radius.2 Problems leading to quadratic equation In some problems the quadratic equation will not be given directly. Hence the value of the number is 10x + y. Solution: Let the breadth and length of the garden be x meters and y meters. xy = 8 (1) When 18 is added to the number. In such cases we form the quadratic equation first from the given data and then solve it. the digits get interchanged ∴ 10x + y + 18 = 10y + x ⇒ 9x – 9y = –18 ⇒ x – y = –2 ⇒ y = x + 2 (2) Substitute y = x + 2 in (1) we get (x + 4) (x – 2) = 0 x (x + 2) = 8 or x2 + 2x – 8 = 0 or x + 4 = 0. We know that in a cone. x – 2 = 0 or x = –4. h = x + 7 = 12 cm . 8 8 Since the digits are +ve integers x = 2 ⇒ y = = = 4 ∴ The two digit number is 24. ⇒ x2 + (x + 7)2 = (x + 8)2 r2 + h2 = l2 2x2 + 14x + 49 – x2 – 16x – 64 = 0 x2 + x2 + 14x + 49 = x2 + 16x + 64 ⇒ x2 – 2x – 15 = 0 ⇒ (x – 5) (x + 3) = 0 ⇒ x = 5 and x = –3 The radius cannot be negative ∴ x = 5 cm . Find the dimensions of the garden. When 18 is added to the number.

4. Pipe B fills the tank in x + 5 minutes. After two hours. find the time in which each pipe would fill the tank. x = 10 when x = 5. Five years hence the age of Ramya will be (x + 5) years and that of her father will be (x2 + 5) years. If one pipe takes 5 minutes more than the other to fill the tank. Find their present ages.1 In right angled triangle ABC. Solution: Let the speed of the second train be x km/hour. Hence the speed of the first train = x + 5 = 15 + 5 = 20 km/hour and the speed of the second train x = 15 km/hour. CA2 + CB2 = AB2 ⇒ 4 (x + 5)2 + 4x2 = 2500 ⇒ 4(x2 + 10x + 25) + 4x2 – 2500 = 0 ⇒ 4x2 + 40x + 100 + 4x2 – 2500 = 0 ⇒ 8x2 + 40x – 2400 = 0 ⇒ x2 + 5x – 300 = 0 (x + 20) (x – 15) = 0 ⇒ x = – 20 or x = 15 Since the speed of the train is positive. The full tank is filled in 11 minutes + x (x + 5) x x +5 9 x ( x + 5) x ( x + 5) 100 = minutes or = 2x + 5 9 2x + 5 9x2 + 45x = 200x + 500 or 9x2 – 155x – 500 = 0 or 9x2 – 180x + 25x – 500 = 0 − 25 or x = 20 ⇒ Pipe A fills 9x (x – 20) + 25 (x – 20) = 0 or (9x + 25) (x – 20) = 0 or x = 9 the tank in 20 minutes. (2) ⇒ y = 30 – 2 x 10 = 30 – 20 = 10. If after 2 hours they are 50 km apart. N 82 .∴ 2x + y = 30 y = 30 – 2x (2) Substituting (2) in (1) we get x (30 – 2x) = 100 30x – 2x2 – 100 = 0 ⇒ – 2x2 + 30x – 100 = 0 x2 – 15x + 50 = 0 ⇒ (x – 5) (x – 10) = 0 x = 5. Example 87: The age of the father is square of the age of his daughter Ramya. By the given data x2 + 5 = 3 (x + 5) ⇒ x2 + 5 = 3x + 15 ⇒ x2 – 3x – 10 = 0 (x + 2) (x – 5) = 0 ⇒ x = – 2 or x = 5 Since the age cannot be negative. find B the average speed of each train. pipe B fills the tank in 25 minutes. (2) ⇒ y = 30 – 2 x 5 = 30 – 10 = 20. when x = 10. we get x = 5. ∴ The present age of Ramya x = 5 years and the present age of father x2 = 25 years. Solution: Let the present age of Ramya be x years and that of her father's age be x2 years. Example 89: Two pipes can together fill a tank in 11 1/9 minutes. In 1 minute 2x + 5 1 1 1 both pipes fill = part of the tank. Let C denote the Chennai Railway Station. The first train travels due west and the second train due North. S Fig. Solution: Pipe A fills the tank in x minutes. Example 88: Two trains leave Chennai Central Railway Station. Then CA = 2 (x + 5) km and CB = 2x km. x = 15. Given AB = 50 km. The first train travels 5 km per hour faster than the second train. let W E C 2(x+5) A the first train be at A and the second train be at B. Five years hence. The dimensions of the garden is 5m × 20m. 50 2x Then the speed of the first train will be (x + 5) km/hour. the father is three times as old as Ramya.

Hence x = 4. Since the speed of motor boat in still water is 15 km/hr. Exercise 4. Determine the speed of water.x Example 90: The outer dimensions of a bordered table are 72 cm x and 108 cm. x = 86 is not admissible. Again (s + 5) × (t – 2) = 300 st + 5t – 2s – 10 = 300 or 300 + 5t – 2s – 10 = 300 or 5t – 2s – 10 = 0 300 5× − 2s − 10 = 0 or 2s2 + 10s – 1500 = 0 or s2 + 5s – 750 = 0 s (s + 30) (s – 25) = 0 ⇒ s = – 30 or s = 25. Find the speed of the train. If the area of the table. Speed of the train = 25 km/hr.2 Example 91: A train travels a distance of 300 km at a constant speed.cm. 2. Find them. 30 Time taken for 30 km downstream = hours 15 + x 30 Time taken for 30 km upstream = hours 15 − x 1 9 The total time is given to be 4 hours 30 minutes = 4 hours = hours 2 2 ⎛ 30 ⎞ ⎡ 15 − x + 15 + x ⎤ 30 30 9 9 9 ∴ + = or 30 ⎢ = ⎥ = 2 or 30 ⎜ 2 2 ⎟ 15 + x 15 − x 2 2 ⎣ (15 + x) (15 − x) ⎦ ⎝ 15 − x ⎠ 1800 = 9 (225 – x2) or 200 = 225 – x2 or x2 = 25 Since x is positive. 3. the journey would have taken 2 hours less. The width of the border = 4 cm. x x 72 x x 108 Fig. If the speed of the train is increased by 5 km per hour.4. The product of two consecutive odd number is 323. Find its dimensions. Example 92: A motor boat whose speed is 5 km/hr in still water goes 30 km downstream and comes back in 4 hours 30 minutes. how wide is the border? Solution : Length of the rectangle excluding the border = 108–2x x Breadth of the rectangle excluding the border = 72 – 2 x x Area of the table excluding the border = (108 – 2x) (72–2x) = 6400 or 4x2 – 360 x + 1376 = 0 or x2 – 90x + 344 = 0 or x2 – 86x – 4x + 344 = 0 or x (x – 86) – 4 (x – 86) = 0 or (x – 86) (x – 4) = 0 ⇒ x = 86 or x = 4. Find the number.6. its speed downstream is (15 + x) km/hr and the speed upstream is (15 – x) km/hr. excluding the border is 6400 cm2. 8 Sum of the squares of 3 consecutive number is 194. 65 . 4. Solution: Let the speed of water be x km/hr. Solution: speed = s km/hour and time = t hour speed x time = distance or s × t = 300 .2 ⇒ x=5 1. Find them. The sum of a number and its reciprocal is 83 . The perimeter of a rectangle is 36 cm and its area is 80 sq. the speed of the water = 5 km/hour.

13. Such roots are called imaginary roots. Find the area of the triangle. Its roots are given by x2 = –1 or x = + −1 which are not real since the square root of negative quantity is not real. Discriminant Δ = b2 – 4ac Nature of roots Real.1200. 6 years before and 10 years later is 960. Find two consecutive positive even integers whose product is 224. Sl. 6. 7. The value of the expression b2 – 4ac discriminates the nature of the roots and so its is called the discriminant of the quadratic equation. 8. equal and rational Unreal (imaginary) The roots of the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 are −b ± b 2 − 4ac Δ > 0.6.8) cm and (x + 1) cm. but not a perfect square Δ > 0 and a perfect square Δ=0 Δ<0 Note: Consider x2 + 1 = 0. 1. In ca class of 60 students each boy contributed rupees equal to the number of girls and each girl contributed rupees equal to the number of boys. The sides of a right angle triangle are (x – 1. The product of age of a man.No. Determine the length and breadth of the land. Five years hence the product of their ages will be 600.8) cm. 2. (x + 1.5. The nature 2a of the roots depends on the value b2 – 4ac.60 on the whole transaction. 12.1600.3 Nature of roots . Find the length and breadth of the verandah. If the total contribution then collected is Rs. 11. 3. Five times a certain number is equal to three less than twice the square of the number. unequal and irrational Real. The numerical value of its area is equal to the numerical value of its perimeter. Ten were damaged and he sold each of the rest at Rs. It is denoted by the symbol Δ. Find the number. Find their present ages. Solution: Herea = 1 b = –11 c = –30 84 . If 8 m is decreased from its length it will become a square. The area of a rectangular land is 240 m2. 10.2 more than what he paid for it thus getting a profit of Rs. The sum of ages of a father and the son is 45 years. Example 93: Determine the nature of the roots of the equation x2 – 11x – 30 = 0. The length of a verandah is 3 m more than its breadth. Find his present age. Find the number of articles bought. How many boys are there in the class? 4. unequal and rational Real. A trader bought a number of articles for Rs. 9.

B = 2 (a + b). but not a perfect square. Δ < 0. Solution: Comparing with Ax2 + Bx + c = 0. Example 95: Determine the nature of the roots of the equation 4x2 – 28x + 49 = 0. Solution: Consider Δ = b2 – 4ac = (a+c)2 −4ac = a2 + 2ac + c2 − 4ac = a2 − 2ac + c2 = (a − c)2 = a perfect square ∴ The roots are rational. Example 99: If b = a + c. Hence the roots are real. B2 – 4AC = 0 ⇒ 4 (K + 3)2 – 4 (2K + 3) (K + 5) = 0 ⇒ 4[K2 + 6K + 9 – (2K2 + 10K + 3K + 15) = 0 ⇒ K2 + 6K – 9 – 2K2 – 13K – 15 = 0 ⇒ K2 + 7K + 6 = 0 ⇒ (K + 1) (K + 6) = 0 ⇒ K = –1.Discriminant Δ = b2 – 4ac = (–11)2 – 4 (1) (–30) = 121 + 120 = 241. ∴ The roots are real. show that the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 has rational roots. Δ > 0. Example 94: Determine the nature of the roots of the equation 5x2 – 2x – 7 = 0. Δ = B2 – 4AC = 4 (a – b)2 – 4 (a – b + c) (a – b – c) = 4 (a – b)2 – 4 [(a – b) + c] [(a–b) – c] = 4 (a – b)2 – 4 [(a – b)2 – c2] = 4 [(a – b)2 – (a – b)2 + c2] = 4c2 > 0. C = 2(a2 + b2) Now Δ 85 . Hence the roots are not real. Example 96: Determine the nature of the roots of the equation x2 – 2x + 5 = 0. Δ= 0. Since the roots are equal. Δ = 0 Hence the roots are real. B = 2 (a – b). Hence the roots are real. unequal and rational. but not a perfect square. Solution: HereA = a – b + c . Example 97: Prove that the roots of the equation (a – b + c) x2 + 2 (a–b) x + (a–b–c) = 0 are real. we get A = 1. C = a – b – c. Δ > 0. Solution: Herea = 4 b = 28 c = 49 2 2 Discriminant Δ = b – 4ac = (28) – 4 (4 x 49) = 784 – 784 = 0. Solution: Here A = 2K + 3. unequal and irrational. C = K + 5. Solution: Herea = 5 b = –2 c = –7 Discriminant Δ = b2 – 4ac = (–2)2 – 4(5) (–7) = 4 + 140 = 144 = 122. Example 100: Show that the roots of the equation x2 + 2(a + b) x + 2(a2 + b2) = 0 are not real. Example 98: Find the value of K such that the equation (2K + 3) x2 + 2 (K + 3) x + (K + 5) = 0 has equal roots. equal and rational. B = 2 (K + 3). K = –6. Solution: Herea = 1 b=2 c=5 Discriminant Δ = b2 – 4ac = (2)2 – 4 (1) (5) = 4 – 20 = –16 < 0.

prove that a. Solution: If the roots are equal Δ = 0 or B2 − 4AC = 0 or (c − a)2 − 4(b−c) (a − b)= 0 or (c2 + a2 − 2ca − 4ab + 4ac + 4b2 − 4bc) = 0 or (c2 + a2 + 2ca) + 4b2 − 4b (c + a ) = 0 or (c + a)2 + (2b)2 − 2 x 2b (c + a) = 0 or [(c + a) − 2b]2 = 0 or c + a = 2b or c − b = b − a ⇒ a. −c2 + a2 + m2a2 = 0 or a2 + m2 a2 = c2 or a2 (1+ m2) = c2 or ∴c2 = a2 (1+m2). and x is the common ratio. we get A = 1 + m2.P. x are all real ⇒ (ax − b)2 ≥ 0. B = 2mc. show that the equation a (b − c)x2 + b(c − a) x + a (c − b) = 0 has real roots. Solution: Comparing with Ax2 + Bx + C = 0. Example 102: If a. c are in G. with common ratio x. 3. then prove that a. 4. 5. x are all real numbers and (a2 + b2) x2 − 2b (a + c)x + (b2 + c2) = 0. (2mc)2 − 4(1 + m2) (c2 − a2) = 0 or 4m2 c2 − 4(c2 − a2 + m2c2 − m2a2) = 0 or 4 [m2c2 − c2 + a2 − m2c2 + m2a2) = 0. Prove that the roots of x2 − 2ax + a2 − b2 − c2 = 0 are always real. (g) x2 + 4x + 7 = 0 (i) x2 − 10x + 25 = 0 (j) 7x2 − 8x + 1 = 0 Find the value of K such that the following equations may have equal roots (a) 3x2 − 4x + K = 0 (b) x2 − K(2x−17) = 12 (c) 9x2 − Kx + 4 = 0 (d) x2 + Kx + 1 = 0 (e) x2 + K(7x − 8) + 65 = 0 (f) Kx2 − 24x + 9 = 0 If 2b = (a + c). Δ = 0. b. show that the equations (b − c)x2 + (c − a)x + (a − b) = 0 has equal roots. c are in A. Determine the nature of the roots of the equation. b.P. b. c. c are in G. c are real.P. If a. a b Example 103: If the roots of the equation (b − c) x2 + (c −a)x + (a − b) = 0 be equal. b. Example 101: If the equation (1 + m2) x2 + 2mcx + c2 − a2 = 0 has equal roots. Solution: We have (a2 + b2) x2 − 2b (a + c) x + (b2 + c2) = 0 or (a2x2 − 2abx + b2) + (b2 x2 − 2bc x + c2) = 0 or (ax − b)2 + (bx − c)2 = 0 Since a.6. b. b. Since the roots are equal. c are in A. 86 x + 5 = 2x + 3 (h) 9x2 − 16x + 25 = 0 . The roots are not real.= B2 − 4AC = 4 (a + b)2 − 4(1) 2 (a2 + b2) = 4 (a2 + b2 + 2ab) − 8a2 − 8b2 = 4a2 + 4 b2 + 8ab − 8a2 − 8b2 = − 4a2 − 4b2 + 8ab = − 4(a2 + b2 − 2ab) = − [2(a−b)]2 ∴Δ < 0.P.3 1. (a) 6x2 − 2x − 1 = 0 (b) 9x2 + 12x + 4 = 0 (d) x2 − 8x + 12 = 0 (e) (c) 2x2 − 3x + 4 = 0 (f) x2 + 9 = 0 2. b. Exercise 4. c. C = c2 − a2. (bx − c)2 ≥ 0 ⇒ ax − b = 0 and bx − c = 0 or x = b c = ⇒ a. B2 − 4AC = 0. prove that c2 + a2 = (1 + m2).

2. b =10.2.80. (12) 2. 65°.3. q = −3 Exercise 4. b = −4. Show that the roots of equation x2 + 2(a + b) x + 2(a2 + b2) = 0 are unreal. 1.1. 250 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Remainder 4 83 −20 0 2 −73 −5 −6 (1) (a) 10 (b) −74 (c) −4 (d) −17 (2) m = 3 (3) p = −7 (4) m = 2 (5) a = −7 (6) m = 3 (7) a = 3. 60° Exercise 4. −2 3 2 2 (10) 1. 12 (7) 564 Exercise 4. Rs. b = −2 (8) a = −3.1 (1) 1. −1 (6) −6.10.2. 10. b = 0 (5) p = 1. c =5 (9) a = 0. 1 (8) 3. −1 (11) .2 (4) 100. 5. 2 (9) 3. ANSWERS Exercise 4.4 (1) (4) (7) (10) (13) (x − 1) (x − 10) (x − 12) (x + 1) (x − 2)2 (x − 1) (x − 1) (3x − 4) (x + 1) (x + 2) (x + 3) (x − 1) (x + 1) (2x + 3) (2) (5) (8) (11) (14) (x + 1) (x + 2 ) (x + 10) (x − 1) (x2 + x + 3) (x + 1) (x2 + x + 1) (x − 2) (x − 3) (x − 1) (x − 1) (x − 3) (x + 1) (3) (6) (9) (12) (15) (x − 1) (x + 3) (x − 2) (x + 1) (x + 1) (x + 2) (x − 2) (x2 + x + 3) (x − 2) (2x − 1) (x+2) (x − 1) (x2 + x − 4) Exercise 4. . c = 4 Exercise 4. 3. −1 2 3 5 (1) Rs.1 Quotient x2 + 2x − 1 4x2 + 9x + 29 5x2 − 6x + 6 x2 − 3x + 2 x2 + 2x − 2 2x2 − 8x + 16 8x3 − 8x2 + 6x 3x2 − x − 1 (2) Rs. 0 (4) 3. Rs.3 (1) (a) Yes (b) Yes (c) No (d) Yes (2) (a) 6 (b) −16 (c) −65 (d) −7 (3) a = −13 (b) = 8 (4) a = 4. Rs.2 1 2 (2) 5. b = −7 (10) p = 6.1 Exercise 4. q = −8 (6) a = −1.1.8. 2.2. 8. Show that the roots of the equation 3 p2x2 − 2pq x + q2 = 0 are not real. Rs. 100. 5. 150.50 (5) 55°. 7. Show that the roots of x2 − 2px + p2 + q2 + r2 = 0 are not real. −3 (3) 1.−3. 3. −2 (7) 4. 1.4 (3) 789 (6) 8.1 1) (a) 16x5 (b) 26 a3 (c) 12m (d) 4y4 (e) p8 (f) m6 n 4 2 2 2 (g) x (h) 3a (i) 3abc (j) 2xyz (k) 4p q r (l) 7 mn (c) x (d) a − b (e) x + 2 (f) x + 1 2) (a) x − 2 (b) 2x + 5 (i) 2a − 3 (j) a − 4 (k) 2x + 3 (l) 4(x+3) (g) x − 2 (h) 2x + 5 2 (b) x + 3 (c) x + 1 (d) x − 1 (e) x (3x + 2) 3) (a) x + x + 1 87 . (5) 2.6. − 2.2.2.

3.Exercise 4.1 (c) m9 (d) 75a6 (e) 180x6 (f) 900 p9 (i) 84x3y2z2 (j) a m+4 (k) 72 xyz (l) 24p2 qr2 (c) a3 − b3 (d) 12 (x−3) (e) ab (a+b) (g) (4x + 1) (4x − 1) (2x − 3) (h) (x − 2) (x − 3) (x + 3) (j) (x + 2) (x + 3) (x + 5) (l) (x + 5) (3x − 1) (3x + 5) (4x + 1) 4) (x − 1) (x − 2) 6) (x3 − x2 − 4x − 6) (x + 1) x+ 5 1) x−3 6) 3a 2) b 7) 5 3) 6 x+5 x−2 8) 3x + 5y 4) x x −1 x+ 1 9) 5) − x2 y2 xy ( x + y) y 2 + yx + x 2 6( x − 3) x+4 12) 10) 4 x 2 + 6 xy + 9 y 2 ( 4 x + 9 y ) ( 2 x + 3y ) 2 2 16a 2 − 20ab + 25b 2 11) ab x+ 3 2x − 1 Exercise 4.4.2 1) (a) a 2 + ab + b 2 a 2 − ab + b 2 ( x − 4) ( x + 2) x − 4 x + 16 2 (b) x − 3y 3 (c) x−3 x+3 2( x − 2) 2 3( x − 1) 2 (d) x+2 (x + 4)2 (e) (f) 1 (g) (h) p2 2.2 1) (a) a10 (b) x7 (g) x2y2z (h) abc 2) (a) (x+2)4 (b) 4x (x+4) (x−4) (f) (x + 3) (x − 4) (x − 5) (i) 12 (x4 − 1) (x2 − x + 1) (k) (x − 4) (2x +1) (3x − 2) 3) x(x + 2) (5x + 1) 5) 2(x + 1) (x + 2) Exercise 4. (a) (e) bp aq (b) 3 4a (c) (f) ( x − 2) ( x − 3) x+ 2 b+a ab (d) 3( x − 3) 2( x − 4) (h) 1 ( x − 2) ( x + 3) (2x + 1) (3x − 1) (g) 4 Exercise 4.4. (a) (b) 1 (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) a2 + 4a + 16 2 2 2 2 8 a−b x +1 x y x −y (h) (x + 3)(x2 + 9) (i) 2 x −5 (m) (j) 2x ( x + 2) ( x + 3) ( x + 4) (n) 0 (o) 0 (k) − 3a − 7 (2a − 3) (2a + 3) (a + 1) x ( x − 2) ( x − 3) ( x − 4) ( x − 5) (l) 4x ( x − 1) ( x + 1) ( x − 2) m2 − 2 m2 −1 (p) 88 .4.3 3x 1 2 8 y + 3x y − x 2 − xy I.

(1) (3x + 5) (2) (4x − 3) (6) a − b − c (3) (x−2) (x+2) (x−5) (7) x + y − z (8) (4) (x−1) (x+1) (x−3) (5) (a−b) (a+b) (a−3b) (9) x − x y + y x 1 x (10) x2 + 1 x2 (11) (2x + 5) (3x − 4) (x + 9) (12) (x −1) (2x+1) (3x +1) Exercise 4. (2) 1 Exercise 4.5.2 1) (a) 85 (b) 93 (c) 135 (d) 724 (e) 536 (f) 432 (g) 1679 (d) x2 − x − (h) (h) 1307 2) (a) x2 − 2x + 3 (e) x2 − 3x + 1 (b) 2x2 + 2x + 1 (f) 4x2 − 3x − 5 (c) 3x2 − 3x + 4 (g) 1 4 3) (a) a = 1 (b) a = 6 4) (a) a = 40.5.II. 3 2 2 2 −8 8 (11) – 3. (10) 3 3 3 (2) −3.1 (c) a = −6 (b) a = 24. (1) 24 (8) (2) 26 (9) (4) 99 (5) 105 (6) 0.8 14) −2 7 . b = 25 Exercise 4. –7 (12) –2.5 4 −5 5 (6) 0. (1) 5x 3 − 4 x 2 + 8x + 2 ( x + 2) (2 x − 1) (2) − x 5 + 5x 4 + 2x 3 + 3x 2 + 6x − 6 (x + 1) (x 2 − 2) x 3 − 29x 2 + 4x − 10 (3) (3x + 4) (2x − 3) 4( x 2 + 1) 2 ( x 2 − 1) 2 16 x 2 ( x 2 − 1) 2 (3) 45 (10) III.6. 1 . 8 (8) (9) −5. (1) 2. 5 . 12 (13) . b = 4 I.1 I. (1) 13a4b3c2 (2) 3xy2 z4 (7) (3) 7c (2a − 4b) (4) 6(2−x)2 (3−x2)3 (9) (5) 9 (a−b) (x+y)2 (10) x+y 6(x + 2y)3 (8) 5( x + y) 8( x − y) 2 5(a + b) 4 ( x + y) 2 3( x − y) (a + b) 3 4 III.13 (7) 12 25 8 3 (6) x+ y 11 5 11zy 2 7x 3 17 5 II. b = 36 1 2 x −3x +4 2 1 2 1 x − 2x + 3 2 (c) a = −12. (1) . 3 3 89 . −7 (3) 9 (4) −7 (5) 0. (7) −8.

(a) 64 (h) −3 5 (b) 1 . 2 Exercise 4. (5) . 10 years (8) 30 years −1 (10) 14. − 2 (e) –9. equal and rational (d) Real. (7) 1. 8 cm (5) 20m. 8 5 (e) (h) –10. −2 2 (g) 2 + 11. 3 2 5 3 3 3 4 1 5+ 5 5− 5 − 7 + 17 − 7 − 17 (6) 2. (a) (b) Real. –4 1 −1 2 1 3+ 3 3− 3 1 .2 cm. − 4 (3) 20. 6. (2) − . (a) –3.8 cm 9. (a) Real. unequal and irrational (g) Real. 3m (12) 100 (13) 40 or 20 (9) 3.cm (7) 35 years. unequal and irrational (i) Real.6 sq. unequal and irrational (f) Unreal or imaginary (h) Unreal or imaginary (j) Real. unequal and irrational (c) Unreal or imaginary (e) Real. 3 (16) (20) − 5 . 2 − 11 (b) 49 4 1 (c) . 2 2 8 8 a 3a Exercise 4. 1.6. 9 (8) (9) . (1) 5 .(15) –1. 5 (18) 1. II.6. 19 (4) 10 cm.9 (3) 17. unequal and rational (d) ±2 (e) 2 (f) 16 4 3 (b) 8 or 9 (c) ± 12 90 . . 1 (f) –5. 6 cm.2 (1) 8 (2) 7.8.3 1. 8 (4) . 16 (11) 6m. 4a a 25 4 (c) 25 4 5 2. 12m (6) 3.5 5 (17) – 18. . 1 2 (19) b b . . –1 III. 2 2 2 4 4 − 7 + 73 − 7 − 73 − 11 + 57 − 11 − 57 b − 2b (10) (11) (12) . 1 3 (d) b2 16 81 (f) (g) 3 8 4a 2 3 (d) . equal and rational 2.

Mathematical Statistics. Mathematical Biology. Mathematics interacted well with all other branches of Science and Social Sciences and new fields such as Operations Research. Such problems could be effectively studied for analytical and exact solution only with the help of Mathematics.V. Dantziz and he formulated the general linear programming problem and developed the simplex method (1947) for solving such problems. Mathematical Modelling. application and computation point of view. ax + by > c and ax + by < c which are linear in x and y. Mathematics of Computation. APPLIED MATHEMATICS 5. This decision making technique was later on developed by George B. Today all these fields of sciences have been growing exponentially thanks to mathematical treatment. They are i) ii) iii) the set of points on the line the set of points on one side of the line the set of points on the other side of the line. Mathematical Physics.5. Social Sciences. Cryptology. We should observe that Applied Mathematics represents a great stream gushing out irresistibly in many directions overcoming all resistances and all along retaining its originality. Here ax + by = c is called a linear equation and ax + by > c and ax + by < c are called linear inequations or linear inequalities.1 LINEAR PROGRAMMING The Russian Mathematician L. Industrial Mathematics. Each of these three sets of points are generated by the relations ax + by = c.0 INTRODUCTION The needs of Science and Technology. Humanities and Computers posed new and challenging problems. 5. Linear Inequations We have already learnt to draw the graph of a linear equation of the form ax + by = c. The resulting line divides the plane into three sets of points. Linear programming today is one of the best developed optimization techniques from theory. When we combine the equation ax + by = c with ax + by > c we get ax + by > c. 91 . More than 60% of the Nobel prizes in Economics have gone to those economists who have done their research work purely based on Mathematics. Similarly by combining ax + by = c and ax + by < c we get ax + by < c.Kantorovich first of all applied mathematical models to solve linear programming problems. Here also ax + by > c and ax + by < c are called linear inequations or linear inequalities. Mathematical Economics and so on and so forth. He pointed out in 1939 that many classes of problems which arise in production can be defined mathematically and therefore can be solved numerically.

Note: 1. Take any point in one of the regions (usually the origin (0. Substitute this point in the given inequation. If the inequation is satisfied then the region containing the point is the desired region and it is shaded. The unshaded portion on the other side of the line represents x + y > 2. x + y > 2 represents the points on the line and to the right of the line. That is ax + by = c. Method to draw the graph of an inequation The following steps are used to draw the graph of inequations ax + by > c or ax + by < c. 2.1 In the above graph the straight line represents the equation x + y = 2. 0) is taken). 0).0) represents the relation x + y < 2. Step 3: The line ax + by = c divides the plane into two regions. Let us take (0. The inequation x + y < 2 is satisfied by (0. Its graph is drawn as follows. The relations x + y < 2 and x + y > 2 are called the inequations or inequalities.5. 92 .We can understand the above discussions by an example. Step 1: Treat the inequation as if it were an equation. Step 2: Draw the graph of ax + by = c. The shaded region represents the given inequation.1 the shaded portion containing (0. All the points in this region satisfy the inequation and they are the solutions of the inequation. If the point does not satisfy the given inequation then the region not containing the point is the desired region and it is shaded.0). x + y = 2. Choose a point on one side of the line. Consider the equation x+ y=2 ⇒ y =2 − x y 5 4 3 2 1 x’ -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 x+y<2 x y 0 2 2 0 3 –1 x+y>2 o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 -1 -2 -3 x+ y= 2 x y’ Fig.5. In Fig. x + y < 2 represents the points on the line and the points to the left of the line.

Let us choose the points (6. 12) and substitute in 2x + y > 10.2) x x’ -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 -2 -4 -6 y’ Fig. All the points in the shaded region satisfy 2x + y > 10 and they are the solutions of 2x + y > 10. 2(6) + 2 = 14 > 10 2(3) + 10 = 16 > 10 2(–1) + 12 = 10 Example 2: Sketch the graph 3x + 4y < 12 Solution: Draw the graph of 3x + 4y = 12 3x + 4y = 12 ⇒ y = 12 − 3x 4 x y 0 3 4 0 6 –1. Note: We can choose points arbitrarily from the shaded region and show the points satisfy 2x + y > 10. 2x + y =10 ⇒ y =10 − 2x x y 1 8 5 0 0 10 Plot the points (1.10) in the graph and join them to get the straight line 2x + y = 10. So the region not containing the point (0. Solution: y 2x + y > 10 (-1. Take the point (0.5.5 93 . 0 + 0 > 10 which is false. (3.10) (6.Example 1: Draw the graph of the inequation 2x + y > 10.8).0) and (0. (5. 2).0) and substitute in the inequation 2x + y > 10.2 Draw the graph of 2x + y = 10. The shaded region in the graph represents the inequation 2x + y > 10.0) is the desired region and it is shaded.12) 12 10 8 6 4 2 (3.10) and (–1.

So take any point which does not lie on the line.4 x .y 5 4 3 3x + 4y 2 = 12 1 o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 -1 -2 -3 x 3x + 4y < 12 x’ -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 y’ Fig. Take the point (0. So the points on the line will not satisfy 3x + 4y < 12 and they should be excluded.0) and (6.5.4y =0 x Draw the graph of x – 4y = 0 x − 4y = 0 ⇒ y = x 4 x y 0 0 4 1 6 1.0) is the desired region and it is shaded.5) in the graph and join them to get the dotted line 3x + 4y = 12. In order to show this the dotted line is drawn. Example 3: Draw the graph of x – 4y > 0. 3).3 Plot the points (0. The shaded region represents the inequation 3x + 4y < 12. 0 + 0 < 12 which is true.0) and substitute it in the inequation 3x + 4y < 12. (4. Solution: 5 4 3 2 1 x’ -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 -1 -2 -3 x . –1.4y > 0 y’ Fig. The given inequation 3x + 4y < 12 does not contain equality sign. The point (5.0). 94 .5. Therefore the region containing the point (0.5 The straight line passes through (0. –1) satisfies the inequation x – 4y > 0. All the points in the shaded region are the solutions of 3x + 4y < 12.

Thus the region containing (5, –1) is the desired region and it is shaded. The shaded region represents the inequation x – 4y > 0. All points in this region are the solutions of x – 4y > 0.

Solving the system of inequations by graph

Two or more inequations considered simultaneously are called a system of inequations. To solve them, shade the regions represented by the inequations. The intersection of the shaded regions is the solution set of the inequations.

Example 4: Draw the graph of the system of linear inequations: x – 2y > 3 and 2x + 3y < 6 and find the solution set. Solution:

y

5 4 3 2 1 x’ -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 y’

Fig.5.5

x

x 3 0 1 i) x – 2y > 3: Draw the graph of x – 2y = 3 y 0 –1.5 –1 x −3 x − 2y = 3 ⇒ y = 2 The point (0,0) does not satisfy the inequation x – 2y > 3. So, shade the region not containing the point (0,0).

ii) 2x + 3y < 6: Draw the graph 2x + 3y = 6

2x + 3y = 6 ⇒ y =

6 − 2x 3

x y

3 0

0 2

1.5 1

The point (0,0) satisfies the inequation 2x + 3y < 6. So shade the region containing the point (0,0). The intersection of the shaded regions (darkly shaded) is the solution set of the inequations. This region extends infinitely.

95

Example 5: Draw the graph of the following system of linear inequations and find the solution set. x – 2y > – 8, 3x + y < 18, x > 0 y > 0. Solution:

y 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 x’ -10 -8 -6 -4 -2

x-

= 2y

-8

o 2 4 6 8 10 -2 -4 -6

3x + y=

x

y’

18

Fig.5.6

**Since x > 0 and y > 0, the solution set is restricted to the first quadrant.
**

i) x – 2y > –8 Draw the graph of x – 2y = –8

x − 2y = − 8 ⇒ y =

x +8 2

x y

0 4

–8

0

4 6

**The point (0,0) satisfies the inequation x – 2y > –8. The region containing (0,0) represents x – 2y > –8
**

ii) 3x + y < 18 Draw the graph of 3x + y = 18

3x + y =18 ⇒ y =18 − 3x

x y

6 0

0 18

2 12

The point (0,0) satisfies the inequation 3x + y < 18. The region containing (0,0) represents 3x + y < 18. The intersection of the two regions is shaded and it is the solution set of the inequations.

Example 6: Find the solution set of the system of inequations x – 2y > 0, 2x – y < –2 x > 0, y > 0.

96

Solution:

y 6 5 4 3 2 1 x’ -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1

-y =2

2x

x

-2

y=

0

o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 -1 -2 -3 y’

x

Fig.5.7 Since x > 0 and y > 0, the solution set is restricted to the first quadrant. i) x – 2y > 0 Draw the graph of x – 2y = 0

x − 2y = 0 ⇒ y = x / 2

x y

0 0

2 1

1 0.5

The line passes through (0,0). So we choose a point (4,1). The point (4,1) satisfies the inequation x – 2y > 0. The region containing (4,1) represents x – 2y > 0.

ii) 2x – y < –2 Draw the graph 2x – y = –2

x 0 –1 2 y 2 0 6 The point (0,0) does not satisfy the inequation 2x – y < –2. The region not containing (0,0) represents 2x – y < –2. The two regions are not intersecting. Therefore there is no solution for the system of inequations. 2x − y = − 2 ⇒ y = 2x + 2

Example 7: Find the solution set of the system of linear inequations x + y < 8, 2x – 3y < 1, x > 2, x > 0 and y > 0 y Solution: 8 7 C 6 =1 5 3y 2x 4 3 B 2 1 A x’ x -3 -2 -1 o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 -1 -2 -3

x+ y = 8

y’

Fig.5.8

x=2

97

i) x + y < 8 Draw the graph of x + y = 8

x + y = 8 ⇒ y = 8− x

x y

0 8

8 0

4 4

**The point (0,0) satisfies the inequation x + y < 8. The region containing (0,0) represents x + y < 8.
**

ii) 2x – 3y < 1 Draw the graph of 2x – 3y = 1

2x − 3y =1 ⇒ y =

2x − 1 3

x y

5 3

2 1

0.5 0

**The point (0,0) satisfies the inequation 2x – 3y < 1. So, the region containing (0,0) represents 2x – 3y < 1.
**

iii) x > 2 Draw the graph of x = 2

This line passes through the point (2,0) and is parallel to the y axis. The point (0,0) does not satisfy x > 2. So the region not containing (0,0) represents x > 2. The intersection of the three regions is shaded and it is the solution set of inequations.

Linear Programming Problem

Linear programming is a mathematical technique of resource planning. It is a method used in making decisions in the areas of agriculture, industry, military, transportation, economics, health system etc. In these fields the available resources are limited. These resources can be of any type such as manpower, materials, money, storage space, machine time etc. The problem is to make the best use of these resources so as to yield the maximum production or to minimise the cost of production or to give the maximum profit. Linear programming refers to a plan that allocate the limited available resources for various uses. The plan helps to maximise the profit or minimise the cost subject to the limitations. The profit or the cost is made up of unknown quantities. These unknowns are variables of degree one and they are called as decision variables. The profit or the cost is a linear function of these variables. This linear function is aimed at maximising the profit or minimising the cost. This function is called the objective function. The limitations are generally expressed in the form of linear inequations. These inequations are called as constraints. The linear programming problem (LPP) is to maximise or minimise the objective function subject to the constraints.

Graphical method of solving a LPP • •

Draw the graph of the constraints. Determine the region which satisfies all the constraints and non-negative constraints (x > 0, y > 0). This region is called the feasible region. 98

i) 2x + 5y < 16 Draw the graph of 2x + 5y = 16 16 − 2x 5 Determine the region represented by 2x + 5y < 16 2x + 5y = 16 ⇒ y = ii) x < 5 Draw the graph of x = 5 x y 8 0 0 3. x < 5.2) is the point of intersection of 2x + 5y = 16 and x = 5.2) 1 A(5. B(5. A(5. 99 O(0. y > 0.2) C(0. Maximise Z = 2x + 10 y Subject to the constraints 2 x + 5y < 16.3.3.2 Maximum value of Z = 32.2) and C(0. x > 0. y = 3. Corners Z = 2x + 10y Z is maximum at x = 0.0) x’ o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 -1 -2 -3 x=5 x y’ Fig. The co-ordinates of that point determine the optimal solution.0) 0 A(5. The corner points of OABC are O(0. Example 8: Use graphical method to solve the following linear programming problem.2) 22 32 .0).1.1. Shade the intersection of the two regions.5. Calculate the values of the objective function at each corner. 1.2) 3 5y= 16 2 B(5. The shaded region OABC is the feasible region B(5.3.0) 10 B(5.9 Since x > 0 and y > 0 the solution set is restricted to the first quadrant.1.2 3 2 Determine the region represented by x < 5.• • • Determine the co-ordinates of the corners of the feasible region. Select the corner point which gives the optimum (maximum or minimum) value of the objective function.0).2). Solution: y 5 4 2x+ C(0.

Maximum value of Z = 175.0) 0 A(25/3.5) 175 C(0.Example 9: Use graphical method to solve the following linear programming problem. x + y < 10. B (5.0). x y 0 10 10 0 5 5 Shade the intersection of the two regions. x > 0. 100 . B(5.67 B(5. The shaded region OABC is the feasible region.10) 10 8 6 B(5. The corner points of OABC are O(0. y > 0 Solution: y 12 C(0. Maximise Z = 20 x + 15y Subject to 180x + 120y < 1500. 0). Draw the graph of 3x + 2y = 25 3x + 2y = 25 ⇒ y = 25 − 3x 2 x y 0 25/3 25/2 0 5 5 Determine the region represented by 3x + 2y < 25.5) 4 2 x’ o 2 4 6 8 10 -2 -4 -6 /3. Corners Z = 20x + 15y O(0. ii) x + y < 10 Draw the graph of x + y = 10 x + y = 10 ⇒ y =10 − x Determine the region represented by x + y < 10. the solution set is restricted to the first quadrant. A(25/3.5) is the point of intersection of 3x + 2y = 25 and x + y = 10.10).10 Since x > 0 and y > 0.5.10) 150 Z is maximum at x = 5 and y = 5.5) and C(0.0) 166. 25 A( x x + y +2 3x 0) y= = 10 y’ 25 Fig. i) 180x + 120 y < 1500 180x + 120y < 1500 => 3x + 2y < 25.

101 . A project will consist of a number of jobs and particular jobs can be started only after finishing some other jobs. Solve the following inequations graphically: i) x – y > 2. y > 0 x > 0. effort.1 1. An activity is represented by an arrow indicating the direction in which the events are to occur. x > 0. The activity is denoted by 1-2. Activity 1 Starting event Fig. Activity: An activity is a task or item of work to be done. i) Maximise Z = 6x + 10y ii) Maximise Z = 30x + 20 y Subject to 2x + y < 800. There are two basic planning and control techniques that use a network to complete a predetermined schedule. A path of a network is the sequence of activities starting from the initial event to the final event proceeding in the direction of arrows.11.Exercise 5. In the Fig. It lies between two events.5. They are Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) and the Critical Path Method (CPM). Network: A network is a diagrammatic representation of various activities concerning a project arranged in a logical manner. y > 0 x > 0. CPM technique is generally applied to well known projects where the time schedule to perform the activities can exactly be determined. Walker of Dupont to help schedule maintenance of chemical plants. 5x + 10y > 4. It has no time duration and does not consume any resource or time. An event is represented on the network by a circle. 1 is the starting event and 2 is the ending event. The critical path method (CPM) was developed in 1957 by J. 3x + 2y < 21 ii) 5x + 2y < 25. Activities are identified by the numbers of their starting event and ending event. x + 2y < 1000.16 2 Ending event Event: An event represents the start or completion of some activity. y > 0 x > 0. y < 5. 3x + 5y > 15 2x + y < 4 iv) x + 2y > 0.2 NETWORK PROGRAMMING The problems in set theory which cannot be easily solved using algebraic equations can be easily solved using Venn diagrams. that consumes time. money or other resources.R. Kelly of Ramington Rand and M. called the starting event and ending event.E. Subject to 2x + y > 1. The duration of a path is the sum of the durations of activities coming along the path. Network scheduling is a technique which helps to determine the various sequences of jobs concerning a project and the project completion time. y > 0 2. Similarly network diagram is used to determine the project completion time. x > 0. y > 0 5. iii) 2x + y > 4. There may be jobs which may not depend on some other jobs.5. Use graphical method to solve the following linear programming problems.

∴ The critical path is 1-2-3-4-6-7-8. duration of activity 1-3 is 8. That is why the activities 3 – 5 – 6 do not appear in the critical path. The duration of this path is called the project duration. Illustration Following are the activities which are to be performed to construct a building. the initial event of the project is 1 and the final event is 6. The duration of activity 1-2 is 5. The various paths and their durations in the above network diagram are given below. 1-2-3-5-6-7-8 Duration 15+10+5+7+8+5 = 50 15+10+4+5+8+5 = 47 The first path takes the longest duration.2 5 1 8 Starting event 3 7 4 8 6 5 4 5 Ending event 6 Fig. The duration is 50 days.5.12 In the Figure 5. Paths Duration 1-2-4-6 5 + 7 + 8 = 20 1-3-5-6 8 + 4 + 5 = 17 1-3-4-6 8 + 6 + 8 = 22 The path that takes the longest duration is called the critical path. Note: The activities plumbing and grillwork will go on simultaneously along with electrical and wood work.13 Paths 1. 102 .5. Activity Duration (days) Activity Duration (days) Foundation 15 Wood work 7 Brick work 10 Grill work 5 Electrical work 5 Cementing 8 Plumbing 4 Flooring 5 e le c tri cal 4 woo Foundation 1 15 2 Brick work 3 10 5 4 in g 7 5 5 dw o rk 6 g r il r l wo k Flooring 8 7 Painting 5 8 p lu mb Fig. 1-2-3-4-6-7-8 2.12. The critical path method is used to calculate the total project duration and to check the actual progress of the project against the scheduled duration of the project. duration of activity 2-4 is 7 etc. the duration for each activity is given.

The project duration is 24 days.5.15 Paths 1-2-3-5-8 1-2-4-5-8 1-6-7-8 The critical path is 1-2-3-5-8 Duration 7+14+11+4 = 36 7+5+7+4 = 23 6+11+18 = 35 The project duration is 36 days.19 The critical path is 1-2-3-4-5. Activity Duration 1-2 5 1-3 8 2-4 7 2-3 6 3-4 5 3-5 4 4-5 8 Determine the critical path and duration.5. Solution 7 1 2 5 14 3 11 5 7 6 4 4 6 11 7 18 8 Fig.Example 10: The following table gives the activities of a project and their duration in days. Solution : 7 2 5 6 5 4 8 1 8 Starting event 3 4 5 Ending event Fig. Example 11: A project has the following time schedule Activity Duration in days 1-2 7 1-6 6 2-3 14 2-4 5 3-5 11 4-5 7 6-7 11 5-8 4 7-8 18 Draw the network diagram and find the critical path. 103 .

2 1. The duration is 34 weeks. The following table gives the activities in a construction project and relevant information Activity Duration in days 1-2 22 1-3 27 2-3 12 2-4 14 3-4 6 4-5 12 Draw the network for the project and find the critical path. Job a b c d e f g h i j k l Solution: 7 1 2 a 2 3 b c Activity 1-2 2-3 2-4 3-4 3-5 4-6 5-8 6-7 6-10 7-9 8-9 9-10 Duration (weeks) 2 7 3 3 5 3 5 8 4 4 1 7 3 3 d 5 e 5 5 g 8 k 1 f 4 3 6 h 7 8 i 4 10 j 9 4 l 7 Fig. Exercise 5. 104 .Example 12: A projects consists of 12 jobs. Compute the project duration. Draw the project network and determine the critical path.5.16 Path Duration 1-2-3-5-8-9-10 2+7+5+5+1+7 = 27 1-2-3-4-6-7-9-10 2+7+3+3+8+4+7 = 34 1-2-3-4-6-10 2+7+3+3+4 = 19 1-2-4-6-7-9-10 2+3+3+8+4+7 = 27 1-2-4-6-10 2+3+3+4 = 12 The critical path is 1-2-3-4-6-7-9-10.

A small maintenance project consists of the following jobs whose activities and durations are given below. 4.17 105 . Activity Duration in days 1-2 20 1-3 25 2-3 10 2-4 12 3-4 5 3-5 8 4-5 10 1-2 6 2-3 8 2-4 4 3-5 9 4-6 2 5-6 7 i) Draw the network diagram ii) Find the critical path and project duration. The following table gives the characteristics of a project Activity Duration in days 1-2 5 1-3 10 2-3 3 3-4 4 3-5 6 4-6 6 5-6 5 6-7 5 i) Draw the network diagram ii) Find the critical path and project duration 5. A project has the following schedule Activity Duration in weeks i) Construct the network ii) Find the critical path and project duration. Find the critical path and project duration of the following 3 6 2 1 9 8 5 2 7 4 5 3 4 Fig. 3.2.5.

ANSWERS Exercise 5.2 (ii) x = 200 y = 400 Z 14000 1. Duration 30 weeks 3. 1 The critical path is 1-3-5-6-7. 1 6 7 2 4 4 2 6 Critical path is 1-2-3-5-6. i) x = 0 y = 1 Z = 10 Exercise 5. 106 . Duration 45 days 5 2 3 4 10 3 6 5 5 4 6 6 5 7 4. Duration 26 days 5. Duration 52 days 9 8 3 5 2. Critical path is 1-2-4-6. 1 22 2 12 14 4 12 5 27 3 6 Critical path is 1-2-3-4-5. Duration 21 days. 1 25 20 10 5 3 8 2 12 4 10 5 The critical path is 1-2-3-4-5.1 2.

6.1 the fold is at the same distance from both points P and Q. Later Appolonius extended Euclid's work on geometry to conics.0 INTRODUCTION Third century saw the culmination of Greek Geometry. These sutras indicated knowledge of the form a2 + b2 = c2 which we call Pythagoras theorem. construction of a square equal in perimeter to a circle. 6. An early statement of what is commonly known as Pythagoras theorem is to be found in Baudhayana's sutra (800 BC): "The chord which is stretched across the diagonal of a square produces an area of double the size!" Ramanujan showed interest in construction of a square very nearly equal to a given circle in area. History of Indian Mathematics used to begin by describing the geometry contained in sulvasutras. Euclid belongs to this period.Ganit) include construction of a square.Q on a sheet of paper. Locus is a path pursued by a moving point which satisfies certain geometrical conditions. The mid point of the segment PQ is also on the fold. construction of a square equal in area to a given rectangle.6. So. Thus we find that the Greek mathematician Pythagoras (6 BC) was not the first to discover this theorem. Mark two points P. 6. Ramanujan's intuitive flash gave a rider to the theorem of Pythagoras which is a very interesting property of the right angled triangle. From these we learn that i) points satisfying the conditions lie on the locus ii) all points on the locus satisfy the conditions. Greeks are known for their acumen in Geometry and a significant contribution was made to geometry by Greeks. We state this in the following theorem: 107 . Every point on Fig. we find the fold as the perpendicular bisector of the segment PQ (Fig. The tip of the seconds hand occupies several positions in the plane of the dial. Vedic period findings in Geometry (Rekha . GEOMETRY 6. The curve so traced by the tip of the seconds hand is called its locus. We observe that the tip of the seconds hand traces a circle. Pythagoras was familiar with Upanishads and learnt his basic geometry from the Sulvasutras. Even today many mathematicians are crazy about squaring the circle. namely a closed curve each of whose points is equidistant from the point about which the second hand is rotating. P Q We can find the locus by plotting the points. Squaring a circle is a famous problem in Mathematics having its origin in antiquity. Fold the paper such that P and Q fall on each other. Mathematicians of vedic period knew sutras related to construction of mounds for yogas and altars for keeping fire.1 LOCUS Let us observe the motion of the seconds hand of a watch.1).

B and C.3 formed. ∠DOA are B Fig. ∠DOA are OQ.2).2 1 d d 2 Let us now take an angle to find the locus of a point equidistant from the arms of an angle. Fold the paper such that the lines fall on each other. 4. Exercise 6. 3. 5.4 Likewise QS is also a line. If PQ is not parallel to XY find the point equidistant from X and Y which lies on PQ. The locus of a point equidistant from OA and OB is OP.3). ∠COD. OR and OS respectively. So we conclude that the locus of a point equidistant from two given parallel lines is the parallel line situated midway between the lines (Fig. QS is the angular bisector of ∠BOC and ∠DOA So. Every point on the fold is equidistant from the two lines.6. X and Y are two given points. A l2 D l2 S Theorem 2 : The locus of a point equidistant from two intersecting lines is the pair of bisectors of the angles formed by the given lines. Four angles ∠AOB. ll P 1 1 B From the figure O o we have m∠AOB + m∠BOC = 180 (Adjacent angles) m∠POB + m ∠BOQ = ½ {m∠AOB + m∠BOC} Q m∠POQ = ½ × 180o = 90o Similarly m∠QOR = m ∠ROS = m∠SOP = 90o C Hence m∠POQ + ∠QOR = 180o R Hence PR is a line Fig. Every point on the fold is at the same distance from M OA and OB. the angular bisector of ∠AOB.4). 6. (Fig. P O Let us now take two intersecting lines l1 and l2 and find the N locus of a point equidistant from both the lines. 2. PR is the angular bisector of ∠AOB and ∠COD. ∠COD. 108 .1 1. Are the points on the diagonals of rectangle are equidistant from its sides? Show that the points on the diagonals of a rhombus are equidistant from its sides. PQ is a line. Find the locus of the point equidistant from three non collinear points A. we conclude that all points on PR and QS are equidistant from the lines l1 and l2 We state this in the following theorem. So.6. 6.Theorem 1. we conclude that the locus of a point equidistant from the arms of an angle is the angular bisector (Fig.6. 6. Show that the points on the diagonals of a square are equidistant from its sides. Let the lines l1 and l2 intersect at O. Fig. ∠BOC. The locus of a point equidistant from two fixed points is the perpendicular bisector of the line segment joining the two points. l1 úUÛm l2 Gu\ C n a sheet of paper. Similarly the angular bisector of ∠BOC. Draw an ∠AOB on a sheet of paper fold the paper such that A OA falls on OB.

6. To prove: The point C bisects the chord AB. The fixed point is called its centre and the constant distance is called its radius.Angle (ASA) iii) Side .Side (SAS) ii) Angle . A chord passing through the centre of a circle is called its diameter. OA = OB (Radii) OC = OC (common side) ΔOAC ≡ ΔOBC (RHS) CA ≡ CB (corresponding sides) ∴The point C bisects the chord AB.Side (RHS) Theorem 3: Perpendicular from the centre of a circle to a chord bisects the chord. A line segment whose end points lie on the circumference of a circle is called a chord. The perimeter or boundary of a circle is called its circumference. Construction: Join OA and OB (Fig. Theorem 3A: (converse of Theorem 3) The line joining the centre and the mid point of a chord is perpendicular to the chord. i) Side .6 B (ACB is a line) (m∠OCB = m∠OCA) 109 .6) Proof: In triangles OAC and OBC OA = OB (Radii). Recall: We will now learn the relationship between the centre and chords in a circle. Proof: In triangles OAC and OBC m∠OCA = m∠OCB = 90o (Given). OC ⊥ AB. 6.Side (SSS) In a right angled triangle congruency is established by iv) Right angle . A diameter is the longest chord of a circle.Side . Given : AB is a chord in a circle with centre O. Given : AB is a chord in a circle with centre O. The congruency of two triangle can be ensured by establishing any one of the following criterion. OC = OC (Common side) ΔOAC ≡ ΔOBC (SSS) m∠OCA ≡ m∠OCB (corresponding angles) But m∠OCA + m∠OCB = 180o m∠OCA + m∠OCA = 180 o O A C Fig.Angle . To prove : OC ⊥ AB Construction : Join OA and OB (Fig.5 B O A C Fig.2 CIRCLES The locus of a point.5). which moves such that its distance from a fixed point always a constant is called a Circle. AC = BC (Given).Side .6. C is the mid point of AB.6.6. Hence the theorem is proved.Hypotenuse .

A P B Let us draw a circle with centre O on a tracing paper. 6. If possible there will be another circle with centre O′ and radius r′ passing through A. We shall now prove that this is the only circle passing through A. Let A.9 such that OP = OQ. Because of the equal chords AB and CD this is possible.9). Draw a chord AB. B and C.6. Every time we shall obtain the same result.8). So we get this in the following theorem. So we state this in the following theorem. Theorem 5: Equal chords of a circle are equidistant from the centre. From O draw OP ⊥ AB. we state this in the following C theorem.8 Q O D D Now let us examine another result concerning two equal chords of a circle. B The converse of theorem 5 can be seen in the following manner. Theorem 4 : There is one and only one circle passing through three given non-collinear points. Since two lines can not intersect at more than one point.= 180o. Then O′ must lie on perpendicular bisectors PQ and RS.6. Draw perpendicular bisectors R PQ and RS of AB and BC respectively. AB is not parallel to BC. It will pass through the points A. We may repeat this activity by drawing several circles and chords with equal distances. OA = OB (by theorem 1) (1) similarly OB = OC (2) From (1) and (2) OA = OB = OC = r.6. That is AB = CD. ∴OC ⊥ AB Hence the theorem is proved. we can easily see that AB falls completely on CD. Every time we shall obtain the same result. Then we observe that P falls on Q and the line of fold passes through O. 2m∠OCA m∠OCA = 90o Let us find how many circles can be drawn through three given non-collinear points. 6. Join OA. O lies on PQ (perpendicular bisector of AB). (say) P O C S A Q B Fig. So. Now let us mark a point Q in the circle Fig. OB and OC (Fig.7 Taking r as radius O as centre draw a circle. Let us now fold the paper so that A falls on C and B falls on A D. 110 .7). Thus OP = OQ that is AB and CD are equidistant from centre O.B and C be three given non collinear points. Now through Q draw a chord CD such that OQ ⊥ CD (Fig. Hence they will intersect at some point say O.B and C. Q C O P Fig. PQ will not be parallel to RS. Draw two equal chords AB and CD. O′ must coincide with O. Therefore OA = O′A = r (= r′). Draw line segments AB and BC. Let us draw a circle with centre O on a tracing paper. By folding the paper. B and C. We now draw OP ⊥ AB and OQ ⊥ CD (Fig. so that OP falls on OQ. 6. We may repeat this activity by drawing several circles and equal chords.

13 intersect at M.6.11 Example 3 : In two concentric circles. To prove : ∠OMN = ∠ONM M N Proof : AB = CD (given) OM ⊥ AB (given).12 In the outer circle. radius OA = 13 cm A In a right angled triangle OAC (Fig. Prove that m∠OMN = m∠ONM. Solution: AB is a chord of length 10 cm C in the mid point of AB (Fig. The M O two chords intersect each other at the point M. chords equidistant from the centre are equal. In a circle. CM = DM (OM ⊥ CD.6. ON ⊥ CD (Fig. 6. To prove : AC = BD A C D B M Construction: Draw OM ⊥ AB Proof : Since OM ⊥ AB (by construction) OM is also ⊥ CD (ACDB is a line) Fig.6. perpendicular bisects the chord) (1) In the inner circle. AM = BM (OM ⊥ AB.10) OC2 = OA2 – AC2 = 132 – 52 = 169 – 25 = 144 OC = 144 = 12 cm The chord is 12 cm away from the centre. If OM bisects ∠AMD P C prove that AB = CD. OM ⊥ AB and ON ⊥ CD. 6. 6. perpendicular bisects the chord) (2) From (1) and (2) D AM – CM = BM – DM or AC = BD B Q Example 4 : AB and CD are two chords of a circle with centre O. Prove AC = BD. Solution : O Given : Chord AB of the outer circle cuts the inner circle at C and D (Fig.12). O C Fig. Solution: C A Given : In a circle with centre O chords AB and CD are equal OM ⊥ AB.10) AC = ½ AB = ½ × 10 = 5 cm . OM bisects ∠AMD (Fig. ON ⊥ CD (given) O OM = ON (equal chords equidistant from the centre) D B In triangle OMN m∠OMN = m∠ONM (Δ OMN is isosceles) Fig. 6. Solution : A Given : AB and CD are any two chords of circle with centre O.Theorem 5A: (Converse of theorem 5).6.11).13) To prove : AB = CD 111 .6.10 B Example 2: AB and CD are equal chords of a circle whose centre is O. Example 1: How far away is a chord of length 10 cm from the centre of a circle of radius 13 cm. They Fig. chord AB of the outer circle cuts the inner circle at C and D.

B Construction : Draw the line segments OA. Solution: O O' M Given : Two circles C (O. 2. Let M be the point of intersection of AB and OO′. Find the length of the chord. 4. AB and CD are two equal chords of a circle with centre O. prove that the circumcentre of Δ ABC lies on the angular bisector of ∠BAC. 3. O′A and O′B. If P is the mid point of AB. and OO′ ⊥ AB ⇒ OO′ is the perpendicular bisector of the chord AB. Fig.2 1. 6. A chord is 15 cm away from the centre of a circle of radius 17 cm. 5. prove that ∠APQ = ∠CQP.Construction : Draw OP ⊥ AB. When produced the chords meet at P. Q is the mid point of CD.14 Proof : In triangles OAO′ and OBO′ OA = OB (radius of the circle with centre O) O′A = O′B (radius of the circle with centre O′) OO′ = OO′ (common side) ∴ By SSS criterion Δ OAO′ ≡ ΔOBO′ ⇒ m∠AOO′ = m∠BOO′ Now in triangle AOM and BOM. OQ ⊥ CD Proof : In triangles OMP.6. To prove : OO′ is the perpendicular bisector of the chord AB. Exercise 6. OB. OMQ ∠OPM = ∠OQM = 90o (construction) ∠OMP = ∠OMQ (given) OM = OM (common side) ΔOMP ≡ ΔOMQ (AAS) ∴OP = OQ (corresponding sides) Hence AB = CD (chords equidistant from the centre are equal) A Example 5 : If two circles intersect in two points prove that the line through the centres is the perpendicular bisector of the common chord. 112 . AB = AC . Prove that PB = PD. OA = OB m∠AOM = m∠BOM (Q m∠AOM = m∠AOO′ and m∠BOM = m∠BOO′) OM = OM (common side) By SAS criterion ΔAOM ≡ ΔBOM ⇒ AM = MB and m∠AMO = m∠BMO But m∠AMO + m∠BMO = 180o ∴m∠AMO = m∠BMO = 90o ∴OM ⊥ AB Since M is the mid point of AB. r′) intersect at A and B so that AB is the common chord of the two circles (Fig. In ΔABC. AB and CD are equal chords of a circle whose centre is O. How far is a chord of length 12 cm away from the centre of a circle of radius 10 cm.14). r) and C′ (O′.

18 Given : In a circle with centre O. C Q O P A Fig. 6. ∠ACB at the circumference.15 and 6. To prove : m∠AOB = 2m∠ACB.6.15 B A O B D Fig. Recall.6.17 join CO and extend it to P.16 In the Figs. Each of these may be named as arc AB or AB.16 ACB is the major arc and ADB is the minor arc. 6. If the two parts are unequal. the angles opposite to equal sides of a triangle are equal. Sometimes a third point is taken on the arc to distinguish it from the other arc.6. Likewise the major arc ACB subtends reflex m∠AOB at the centre and m∠ADB at the circumference. D is a point on the minor arc (Fig. We will establish a relationship between the angles subtended by an arc at the centre and at the circumference. In Fig. C C O A D Fig. 6.17 B O B A D Fig. We know m∠AOB + m reflex ∠AOB = 360o. 6. If a side of a triangle is produced then the exterior angle so formed is equal to the sum of the interior opposite angles.3 ANGLES IN A CIRCLE Any two points say A and B of a circle divide the circumference of the circle into two parts called the arcs of the circle.18).17). m reflex ∠AOB = 2m∠ADB Construction : In Fig. AB is a minor arc. the smaller part is called the minor arc and the larger one is called the major arc.6. Theorem 6 : Angle subtended by an arc at the centre is double the angle subtended by it at any point on the remaining part of the circle. The minor arc ADB subtends ∠AOB at the centre.6. C is a point on the major arc (Fig. Proof : In Δ AOC OA = OC (Radii of a circle) m∠OCA = m∠OAC (Angles opposite to the equal sides) In Δ AOC 113 .18 join DO and extend it to Q. AB is a major arc. 6.

6. 6. These two regions are Minor called segments. Let us now study the angles subtended by an arc at more than one point on the circumference. 6. Theorem 7: Angles in the same segment of a circle are equal. we join CO and produce it to P.20 In a circle with centre O and ∠ACB. C Let us now examine the case when an arc AB is a semicircle (see the Fig. extended it to P (construction) ∠AOP is the exterior angle m∠AOP = m∠OAC + m ∠OCA (exterior angle = sum of interior opposite angles) m∠AOP = m∠OCA + m ∠OCA as ∠OAC = ∠OCA = 2m ∠OCA = 2m ∠OCB similarly m∠BOP = m∠AOP + m∠BOP (parts of angle) m∠AOB = 2m∠OCA + 2m∠OCB = 2{m∠OCA + m ∠OCB} = 2m∠ACB Likewise we can show that m reflex ∠AOB = 2m∠ADB Hence the theorem is proved.6.6. The segment which contains the centre is the major A Segment segment and the smaller region is the minor segment.21 semicircle. Major Segment O Segments of circle: The region in the interior of a circle is divided into two parts by the chord AB (see the Fig. B m∠AOP + m∠BOP m∠AOB But m∠AOB m∠ACB = = = = 180o 180 o 2m∠ACB (by theorem 6) ½ m∠AOB A O P Fig.side CO. = ½ m∠AOB (by theorem 6) m∠ACB = ½ m∠AOB (by theorem 6) m∠ADB ∴m∠ACB = m∠ADB We state this in the following theorem. Each of these is called a Fig.6.6.22). We note that.19 B O Fig.22). C D C A D B O A Fig. A diameter divides the circumference into two equal parts.22 B 114 .20). As done in theorem 6.19 and Fig. 6. ∠ADB are two angles formed in the same segment of the circle (Fig.

If the angles subtended by the chords at the centre are equal then the chords are equal. To know the converse of the theorem 8 let us take a right angled triangle PQR right angled at P. 2 Theorem 8: The angle in the semicircle is a right angle.25 Theorem 9A: (converse of theorem 9).23 Theorem 8A: (converse of theorem 8). 6. The circle drawn with hypotenuse of a right angled triangle as diameter passes through its opposite vertex at any point of the semicircle. We now get an important relation regarding the angles of a cyclic quadrilateral. Hence the circle passes through P. Now let us draw a circle with hypotenuse QR as diameter (see the Fig.6.24 Theorem 9 : Equal chords subtend equal angle at the centre.6. Thus in this case OP = OQ = OR. Let us recall. OA = OC (radii). 6. In a circle with centre O. A O D B C Fig. In a circle with centre O. (SSS) m∠AOB = m∠COD (corresponding angles) We state this in the following theorem. m∠B + m∠D = 180o 115 . AB and CD are equal chords (See the Fig. 6.6. Cyclic quadrilateral If all the vertices of a quadrilateral lie on a circle then it is called a cyclic quadrilateral.24). m∠AOB = m∠COD (see the Fig. A O D B C Fig. OB = OD (radii) .25) In triangles AOB and COD. To prove : m∠A + m∠C = 180o. OA = OC (radii) m∠AOB = m∠COD (equal angles) OB = OD (radii) ΔAOB ≡ Δ COD (SAS) AB = CD (corresponding side) We state this in the following theorem. In triangle AOB and COD. Given : ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral in a circle with centre O.= ½ × 180 o = This fact is expressed as 180 o = 90o = a right angle. We state this in the following theorem: P O R Fig.23). if we join the mid point of the hypotenuse to the vertex of the right angle then Q the line segment so formed is half of the hypotenuse. Theorem 10 : The sum of the opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral is 180o. AB = CD (equal chords) ΔAOB ≡ ΔCOD .

D E D C C E A Fig. 6. C Proof : m∠BCD = ½ m∠BOD (Angle at the centre = Twice angle at any point on the circumference) O = ½ reflex m∠BOD(same theorem) m∠BAD m∠BCD + m ∠BAD = ½ m∠BOD + ½ reflex m∠BOD = ½ (m∠BOD + reflex m∠BOD) D = ½ × 360o = 180o A m∠A + m∠C = 180o m∠A + m∠B + m∠C + m∠D = 360o Fig. 6. Let BC or its extension meet the circle at E.6. Therefore the opposite angles in a cyclic quadrilateral are supplementary.28) ∠BED is the exterior angle m∠BED > m∠BCD (exterior angle = sum of interior opposite angles) Hence we arrive at a contradiction ⇒ C and E will coincide That is the circle through A.27) m∠BCD is the exterior angle m∠BCD > m∠BED (exterior angle = sum of interior opposite angles) In Δ DEC (Fig.27 B A Fig. Hence the theorem is proved. B Theorem 10A (Converse of theorem 10). Proof: ABED is cyclic (construction) m∠A + m∠E = 180o (opposite angles) But m∠A + m∠C = 180o (given) m∠A + m∠E = m∠A + m∠C = m∠C m∠E m∠BED = m∠BCD In ΔDEC (Fig. 116 . m∠B + m∠D = 180o To prove : ABCD is cyclic Construction : Draw the circumcircle of ΔABD if C does not lie on it.26 (The sum of angles of a quadrilateral is 360) But m∠A + m∠C = 180o (proved) ⇒ m∠B + m∠D = 180o Hence the theorem is proved. then it is cyclic.Construction : Join B and D to the centre O (Fig.26). If the sum of opposite angles of a quadrilateral is 180o. B and D will also pass through C That is ABCD is cyclic.6.28 B Given : ABCD is a quadrilateral in which m∠A + m∠C =180o.6. 6.

That is m ∠ACB is an obtuse angle in a minor segment. PQRS is cyclic ⇒ m∠QRS+ m∠QPS = 180o P Q 0 O (opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral supplementary) m∠QRS + 50o = 180o. m∠ADC+ m∠ABC = 180o (ABCD is cyclic) m∠ADC+65o = 180o. m∠BCD =180o –115o = 65o 117 D C A B Fig. m∠AOB = 2m ∠ACB = 2 × 80o = 160o Fig. We have to prove that ∠ACB is obtuse. m∠ABC + m∠ADC = 180o E A B m∠ABC + m∠CBE = 180 o (ABE is a line) Fig. m∠ACB = m∠OCA + m∠OCB = 35o + 45o = 80o.32 Example 9: ABCD is a cyclic trapezium with AD⎥⎥ BC. O A B C Fig.6.6. the side AB is extended to E O (Fig. m∠OSP = m∠OPS = 50o (Angles opposite to equal sides) m∠QOS = m∠OSP + m∠OPS (Exterior angle = sum of interior R S opposite angles) = 50o + 50o = 100o. m∠QRS = 180o – 50o = 130o Fig.31 Example 8: In the figure PQ is a diameter. determine other three angles of the trapezium. m∠BAD+ m∠ABC =180o [sum of interior angles) m∠BAD+65o = 180o. AB transversal. Solution: ABCD is a cyclic trapezium. m∠BAD = 180o – 65o = 115o.29).6.33 .30 o o Example 7: Prove that angle in a minor segment is obtuse.Corollary : The exterior angle formed by extending a side of a D cyclic quadrilateral is equal to the internally opposite angle.6. If ∠B = 65o. m∠OCA = m∠OAC = 35o B A m∠OCB = m∠OBC = 45o.30) 35 OA = OB = OC.29 m∠ABC + m∠ADC = m∠ABC + m∠CBE m∠ADC = m∠CBE ∠CBE is the exterior angle and ∠ADC is the internally opposite angle. m∠OAC = 35o and m∠OBC = 45o find m∠AOB O 45 Solution : Join OC (Fig. Solution: Let ∠ACB be an angle formed in a minor segment of a circle with centre O. Solution: OP = OS (radii). If m∠OPS = 50o find m∠QOS and m∠QRS. C In a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD. AD⎥⎥ BC. Now m∠ACB = ½ m reflex ∠AOB but m reflex ∠AOB > 180o ½ m reflex ∠AOB > ½ × 180o or ½ m reflex ∠AOB > 90o Hence m∠ACB > 90o. C Example 6: In the figure O is the centre. By theorem 10. m∠ADC = 180o – 65o = 115o m∠BCD+ m∠BAD =180o (ABCD cyclic) ∠BCD+ 115o =180o .6.6.6.

Fig. You find that all other points on the tangent lie outside the circle.6.6. Two diameters of a circle intersect each other at right angles. In Fig.6. A A A O B O B O P B Fig.D. 6.35 Fig.42 line AB touches the circle in exactly one point that is P. TAT′ is the tangent and A is the point of contact. Hence we get the following theorem: 118 ⎯→ O P T A B T’ Fig. ThereforeOA is perpendicular to TAT′ and OA is the radius at A. Prove that the quadrilateral formed by joining their end points is a square.6. Let B be any point on TAT′. 6. Find the angle marked as x in the following figures: (a) (b) (c) x O 130 o o (d) x 240 O o (e) 33 o x O 110 O 52 o x O x Fig. Prove that parallelogram inscribed in a circle is a rectangle.36 Fig.Exercise 6.4 CIRCLES AND TANGENTS Given a circle and a line in a plane there exists three possibilities. 5. and EBF are drawn through A and B to cut the circles at C.6.6. The point P is called the point of contact of AB with the circle.E and F.37 Fig.6. In this case line AB is a tangent to the circle at that point P. OB > OA . A O B In the figure m∠OAC =30o m ∠OBC = 25o find m ∠AOB 3. Two circles cut each other at A and B.42 In the Fig.39 Prove that angle in a major segment is acute.43 .6.41 line AB intersects the circle in two distinct points and is called a secant. In Fig.43 given a circle with centre O.6. 4. You know that the perpendicular from a point to a line is the shortest among the lines joining the point and the point on the lines. Prove that CE || DF.6.41 Fig.40 Fig.34 C Fig. Lines CAD.6.40 line AB does not intersect the circle. In Fig.6.38 2.6.6.3 1.

m∠T′AE = m ∠T′AB + m∠BAE (Parts of angle) 119 . OA = OB (radii) Δ OAP ≡ ΔOBP (RHS). OP = OP (Common side).48). Fig. Hence the theorem is proved.44).45 Theorem 14: The angle between the tangent and a chord passing through the point of contact is equal to the angle in the alternate segment. Since the tangent is perpendicular to the radius at the point of contact. To prove: m ∠TAB = m∠ADB. Chord AB makes two angles with the tangent TAT′ namely∠TAB and ∠T′AB. If a point lies on the circle only one tangent can be drawn through that point to the circle. You know that one and only one perpendicular can be drawn from a point to a line. This is stated as the following theorem: Theorem 12: There is one and only one tangent at any point on the circle.6. Similarly ∠ACB is said to be the angle in the alternate segment of ∠T′AB.6. B C O D A T T’ Fig. Given: PT and PT′ are the tangents from a point P outside O P the circle with centre O. 6. If a point lies outside the circle two tangents can be drawn through that point to the T circle. there can be only one tangent at a point on the circle. (Fig.45). Construction: Draw diameter AE and join BE Proof : m∠T′AE = 90o ( OA ⊥AT′). Given: TAT′ is a tangent and AB is a chord through the point of contact A. Let C and D be any two points on either side of AB. Angles in the alternate segment Let TAT′ be a tangent and AB be a chord to the circle at A.6. OBP m ∠OAP = m∠OBP = 90 (radius is perpendicular to the tangent at the point of contact). PA and PB are tangent segments (Fig. A and B are the points of contact. Then ∠ADB is said to be the angle in the alternate segment of ∠TAB. If a point lies inside the circle no tangents can be drawn to the circle.Theorem 11: A tangent at any point on a circle is perpendicular to the radius through the point of contact. m∠T′AB = m∠ACB (Fig.6. PA = PB (Corresponding sides). A Theorem 13: The lengths of two tangents drawn from an external point to a circle are equal. To prove : PA = PB B T’ Construction: Join OP.44 o Proof : In triangles OAP.

51 Fig.6.51 one circle is inside the other circle and they have no common point. They are called concentric circles.50 Fig.∴ m∠T′AB +m∠BAE = 90o (1) m∠EBA = 90o (Angle in the semicircle) m∠AEB+m∠BAE = 90o (ABE right angled Triangle) (2) From (1) and (2) m∠T′AB+m∠BAE = m∠AEB+m∠BAE m∠T′AB = m∠AEB (Removing common∠BAE) (3) m∠AEB =m∠ACB (Angles in the same segment) (4) From (3) and (4) m∠T′AB = m∠ACB m∠TAB+m∠T′AB = 180o (TAT′ is a line) (5) o m∠ACB +m∠ADB = 180 (ABCD is cyclic) (6) From (5) an d(6) m∠TAB + m∠T′AB = m∠ACB +m∠ADB But m∠T′AB =m∠ACB ∴m∠TAB =m∠ADB Hence the theorem is proved.54 . In Fig. Touching Circles: Let us see how circles can locate themselves.6. 6.48 the circles touch each other externally.52 In Fig. There are no common points between them.52 one circle is inside the other and they have no common point.6.6.6. In Fig.6.6.50 the circles tough each other internally. There is one common point (say Q). T T P A B P AB T’ T’ Fig.6. But they have common centre (say O ).6. 6. E B C O D T A T’ Fig.47 each one of the circle is outside the other.6.53 120 Fig.6. In Fig.47 Fig.49 Q O O’ O Fig.6.6. There is one common point (say P).48 Fig. They have different centres.46 A P B Fig.49 the circles cut each other and they have two common points (say A and B). In Fig. In Fig.

6.The above circles are called touching circles. In Fig. Let r1.55 PA2 = OP2 – 32 = (7.58 r3 = (r1+r2+r3)– (r1+r2) = 9–4 = 5 ⇒ radii are 3 cm. O C To prove: PQ+ RS = PS +QR (Fig. m∠APT + m∠BPT = 180o ∴ APB is a line.6. S Solution: PQRS is a quadrilateral touching the circle with centre O at A A.6. ∴ In a right angled triangle OAP. OA is radius = 3 cm. Hence m∠ACD = 48o Fig. Fig. So. 1 cm and 5 cm respectively. OA ⊥ PA (radius is perpendicular to the tangent at the point of contact).57 Example 13 : Three circles with centres at A.58). Let TPT′ be the common tangent to the circles.8) (4. In Fig. ∴PAB is a straight line. BC = r2 + r3 = 6.6. B and C touch each other externally.6. r Solution: There circles with centres A.6.B. RC = RB .C touch one another. Find ∠ACD o Solution: In the given figure m∠ACB = 90 (Angle in the semicircle) C m∠ACB+ m∠BAC +m∠ABC = 180o (Sum of three angles of a triangle) A 42o o m∠ABC = 180 – (m∠ACB + m∠BAC) O = 180o – (90o+42o) = 48o But m∠ACD = m∠ABC (Angle between the chord and tangent = Angle B in the alternate segment). A and B are the centres of touching circles and P is the point of contact.2 cm Example 11: In the Fig.8)2 – 32 = (7.8 cm Solution: O is the centre of the circle.53 m∠APT = 90o (AP⊥PT). Find their radii.54 m∠APT = m∠BPT Since only one perpendicular can be drawn at P to PT. PA = PD.6. SC = SD R Adding we get PA+ QA+ RC +SC = PD +SD +QB+RB ⇒ PQ + RS = PS + QR Fig.56 Example 12: If all the sides of a quadrilateral touch a circle prove P that the sum of a pair of opposite sides is equal to the sum of the other D pair of sides.8+3) (7. PA and PB lie on the same line. we state this in the following theorem : Theorem 15 : When two circles touch each other. P is a point outside the circle such that OP = 7. P O 7.8 cm.6. A r Given: AB = r1+ r2 = 4. The common point in called the point of contact.8) = 51.C and D. 3 3 1 1 2 2 121 .59) Proof: Length of tangents from an external point are equal Q B ⇒. r2. QA = QB.8–3) = (10. A Example 10: Determine the length of tangent to a circle of radius 3 3cm cm from a point at a distance of 7. 6.8 cm from the centre of the circle.84 or PA = 51. r r Adding we get 2r1+ 2r2 + 2r3 = 18. CA = r3 + r1 = 8 (Fig. PA is a tangent.56 AB is the diameter of the circle. m∠BPT = 90o (BP ⊥ PT).84 = 7. their centres and the point of contact lie on a line. D ∠BAC = 42o.B. C AB = 4 cm BC = 6 cm CA = 8 cm. Fig. r1 + r2 + r3 = 9 B r1 = (r1+r2+r3)– (r2+r3) = 9–6 = 3 r2 = (r1+r2+r3)– (r1+r3) = 9–8 = 1. 2 ( r1 + r2 + r3) = 18. r r r3 be the radii of the circles.

6. If AB⎥⎥ QR. D Solution: R Given: All the sides of a parallelogram ABCD touch a circle with S C centre O. CD are tangents to a circle. 122 . PB.6. Example 16: If all the sides of a parallelogram touch a circle show that the parallelogram is a rhombus. Hence ABCD is a rhombus.59 PA. A C Solution: In the given figure let Q be the point of contact of the tangent CD to the circle. B A Solution: Given: AB is a tangent at P to the circumcircle of ΔPQR and AB⎥⎥ QR a Q R To prove: Δ PQR is isosceles (Fig. PQ transversal (1) Fig.61 ⇒ AB + AB = AD+AD ( ABCD is a parallelogram ⇒ CD= AB. ∠APQ = ∠PRQ (Angle between a tangent and a chord = Angle in the alternate segment) (2) From (1) and (2) we get ∠PQR = ∠PQR. ( CQ+DQ=CD) Example 15: AB is a tangent at P to the circumcircle of ΔPQR.59 PA+PB = PC+CA+ PD+DB = PC+CQ+ PD+DQ (from (1) and (2)) = PC +PD+CQ +DQ = PC+ PD+CD.60) Proof : AB ⎥⎥ QR (Given).6. CR = CQ. BC=AD) ⇒ 2AB = 2AD ⇒ AB= AD But AB= CD and AD = BC ( opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal) ∴ AB = BC = CD = AD. BP = BQ. Q CA = CQ (Tangent from an external P point C are equal) (1) DB = DQ (Tangent from an external point D D B are equal) (2) Fig.6. DR = DS B Adding (AP+BP)+ (CR+DR) = (AS+DS) + (BQ+CQ) ⇒ AB + CD = AD + BC Fig.61) P AP = AS.60 m∠APQ = ∠PQR (alternative angle) AB is a tangent and PQ is a chord. prove that P ΔPQR is isosceles. Base angles of triangle PQR are equal.Example 14: In the Fig.6.6. Prove PC + PD + CD = PA + PB. ∴PQ = PR ∴ Triangle PQR is isosceles. To prove ABCD is a rhombus O a Q Proof: Since the lengths of the tangents from an external point to a A given circle are equal (Fig.

Three circles with centres at A.B. 9. Such figures are said to be similar. It is obvious that the congruent figures are similar but the converse is not necessarily true. O In the Fig.6.E respectively. 8.6.5 SIMILAR TRIANGLE In standard IX we have stated that the geometric figures are congruent if they have the same shape and the same size. Circles 123 .C. Fig. Equilateral triangles (ii) Fig.6. If AC is a diameter m∠CAD= 27o and m∠ACB = 63o find m∠BAC. If BD =4 cm.63 TPT′ is a tangent m∠PBA = 38o find m∠APT. Three circles with equal radii touch one another externally. Find the radii of the circles.E. PQ is a tangent at D. A R 3. C Prove that the triangle formed by joining their centres is an P T T’ equilateral Triangle.64.Exercise 6. find the perimeter of the triangle. 7. D.F are points of contact of in-circle. and AC= 7 cm. m∠PDA. CE = 7 cm AF = 2cm.62 APB is a tangent O is the centre P a Q (a) If m∠POQ = 70o find m∠QPB. BC= 5cm. Prove that CE || BD B A ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral. Fig. 4.6. 5. In this chapter we shall learn some properties of geometric figures that are of the same shape but not necessarily of the same size. In the Fig. touch one another.63 6. Determine the length of the tangent to a circle of radius 6 cm from a point at a distance of 10cm from the centre of the circle.6.D and C. Two lines ABC and ADE meet the circle in B.6. m∠QPA b) If m∠QPB = 80o find m∠POQ. 2.4 1. AB = 8 cm. Two circles touch each other internally at A. 6. In triangle ABC. Let us consider the following figures (i) Fig.65.62 m∠ACP B Prove that the tangent at the ends of a diameter are parallel.

6.70 5 C P 124 .(iii) Fig. any two squares are similar.68 and 6.6. m ∠B = m ∠E.68 C E Fig. Q H G A 1 2 B 3 4 Fig. Through B and C let as draw lines BE. It is for this reason that in the above case we would not write Δ ABC⎟⎟⎟ ΔEDF or ΔABC⎟⎟⎟ ΔFDE).69) D A B Fig. and any two segments are similar. Let us denote 2nd and 5th points by B and C respectively.69 F AB BC CA . Through A let us draw a line AD.6.6. D E F m∠A = m∠D.70. different print of movies for projection on different screens etc are some examples for similar figures that we come across in our day-to-day life. any two circles are similar. then the triangles = = DE EF FD ABC and DEF are similar.6. We define the similarity of two triangles as follows. Two triangles are similar if the angles of one triangle are equal to the corresponding angles of the other and their corresponding sides are in the same ratio (sides are proportional).67 Segments We note that any two equilateral triangles are similar. (The students are advised to observe carefully which pair of angles are equal and which pairs of sides are in the same ratio in the similarity of triangles ABC and DEF.6. Photographs of different sizes printed from the same negative . Thus if in two triangles ABC and DEF (See Figs. From the point A let us step off five equal segments on the line AP as shown in the Fig.6.66 Squares (iv) Fig. CF both parallel to the line AD. We write ΔABC⎥⎥⎥ DEF. m ∠C = m∠F and Some basic results on proportionately Let us draw a line AP.

Then Theorem 16 (Basic proportionality theorem): If a line is drawn parallel to one side of a triangle the other two sides are divided in the same ratio. We = = = BC 3 GH 3 BC GH AB AG observe in the figure that ACH is a triangle BG is parallel to the line CH and = BC GH we state that in the following theorem. ∴ E and F will coincide.71 AD AF (By basic proportionality theorem) (2) ∴ = DB FC AE AF = From (1) and (2) we get EC FC This means both the points E and F divide AC in the same ratio.Let us draw a transversal AQ to intersect the lines BE and CF at the points G and H respectively. Then = .70) AB AG In ΔACH BG⎥⎥ CH . Given: ABC is a triangle DE is a line which meets AB at D and AC at E such that AD AE A = DB EC To prove: DE⎥⎥ BC E Construction: If DE is not parallel to BC. D F draw DF⎥⎥ BC which meets AC at F. AD AE = (Given) (1) B Proof: C DB EC DF⎥⎥ BC (By construction) Fig. But DF ⎢⎢ BC That is DE ⎢⎢BC Hence the theorem is proved 125 . Adding 1 on both sides BC GH AB AB + BC AG + GH AG AC AH or +1 = + 1 or = = BC GH BC GH BC GH Similarly we can get the result AB AG = AC AH Theorem 16A : (Converse of Theorem 16) If a line divides any two sides of a triangle in the same ratio the line is parallel to the third side. AB 2 AG 2 AB AG (By Construction) and (By equal intercepts) ⇒ . We also note that (see the Fig. There can be only one point dividing a segment in a given ratio.6. 6.

6.73 Consider two triangles ABC and DEF such that m∠A = m∠D. m∠C = m∠F.72 C E F Fig. Take points P and Q respectively on the sides AB and AC such that AP = DE. ΔAPQ≡ Δ DEF (SAS) m∠APQ= m∠DEF (corresponding angles) But m∠DEF = m∠ABC. (3) (4) 126 . AQ= DF) = DE DF AB BC = Similarly we can show that DE EF AB BC AC = = From (3) and (4) If follows that DE EF DF We conclude this by the following theorem. Theorem 17: If in two triangles the corresponding angles are equal then their corresponding sides are proportional. AQ = DF.6. m∠B =m∠E.6. By (1) and (2) we get m∠APQ = m ∠ABC Then PQ ⎪⎪BC (corresponding angles are equal) ∴ PB QC = (By basic proportionality Theorem) AP AQ PB QC +1 = +1 AP AQ (1) (2) Adding 1 on both sides PB + AP QC + AQ = AP AQ AB AC = AP AQ AB AC (AP = DE.72).A-A-A-Similarity A D P Q B Fig. Join P and Q (see the Fig.

Theorem 17A: (Converse of theorem 17).6.75). ∠B = ∠E. If the sides of two triangles are proportional. Hence ∠A = ∠D.74 AB AC AB AC = (given) .74.6. PQ EF That is PQ = EF ΔAPQ ≡ ΔDEF (SSS) so that ∠PAQ = ∠D. AQ=DF by construction) DE DF AP AQ AB − AP AC − AQ PB QC = Subtract 1 from both sides and obtain = . 127 . = (AP = DE. ∠C = ∠F (from (1)) We conclude this in the following theorem. AB BC = (2) ∴ AP PQ AB BC (given) = DE EF AB BC = (3) or AP EF From (2) and (3) we get BC BC = .S-S-S Similarity A D P Q B C E F Fig. the triangles are equiangular. AP AQ AP AQ Thus PQ ⎟⎟ BC (By Basic proportionality theorem) ∠APQ =∠ABC (corresponding angles) ∠AQP=∠ACB (same) (1) From (1) we note that all the angles of Δ APQ are equal to the corresponding angles of ΔABC. Fig. Fig. ∠APQ = ∠E. Take points P and Q Consider two triangles ABC and DEF such that = = DE EF DF respectively on the sides AB and AC such that AP = DE and AQ = DF Join P and Q (see Fig.6.6.75 AB BC AC . ∠AQF = ∠F.

From the points A and D let us draw AM and DN perpendicular to the sides BC and EF respectively (Fig.76 Fig. DEF be two similar triangles.79 Let ABC.77 AB AC = and ∠A = ∠D. Join P and Q (see the Fig.6.79). Also ΔAPQ ≡ ΔDEF (SAS).6. From this we get the following theorem.76). Let us take points P and Q on DE DF sides AB and AC respectively such that AP = DE and AQ = DF.6. AP AQ Consequently PQ || BC.6.S-A-S Similarity A D P Q B C E F Fig. A D B M C E N F Fig. ΔABC ||| ΔAPQ (AAA).6. Consider triangles in which AP = DE and AQ = DF (by construction).6. Hence ΔABC ||| ΔDEF. ΔABC ||| ΔDEF (given) 128 . AB AC = (by basic proportionality). Theorem 18: If an angle of one triangle is equal to one angle of the other and the sides including the angles are proportional then the triangles are similar.78 and Fig6.78 Fig. Thus ∠ABC = ∠APQ ∠ACB = ∠AQP (corresponding angles are equal).

meeting BA produced at E. AD bisects ∠BAC BD AB = To Prove: DC AC Construction: Through C. Proof: DA || CE BE transversal m∠BAD = m∠AEC (corresponding angles) DA || CE AC transverse m∠CAD = m∠ACE (alternate angles) But m∠BAD = m∠CAD (given) m∠AEC = m∠ACE Base angles of ΔACE are equal. Theorem 20 (Angle bisector theorem): The bisector of any angle of a triangle divides the opposite side in the ratio of the corresponding adjacent sides. ∴ AC = AE In ΔBCE. Thus AB AM AM BC = = .80 129 . Theorem 19: The ratio of the areas of similar triangles is equal to the ratio of the squares of corresponding sides.6.∴ AB BC AC = = DE EF DF (1) In triangles ABM and DEN m∠ABM = m∠DEN (Q ABC ||| ΔDEF) By construction m∠AMB = m∠DNE = 90o Remaining m∠BAM = m∠EDN. DA || CE E A B D C Fig. ∴ ΔABM ||| ΔDEN. Thus (from (1)) DE DN DN EF (2) 1 × BC × AM Area of Δ ABC 2 BC BC BC2 Now (from (2)) = = × = 1 Area of Δ DEF EF EF EF2 × EF × DN 2 Area of ΔABC AC2 AB2 = = Similarly we can show that Area of ΔDEF DF2 DE 2 From thus we get the following theorem. draw CE || DA. Given: In Triangle ABC.

6. To Prove: BC2 = AB2 + AC2 Construction: Draw AD perpendicular to BC B Proof: In triangles ABC and DBA o m∠BAC = m∠ADB = 90 m∠ABC = m∠ABD (common angle) Remaining m∠ACB = m∠BAD ΔABC ||| ΔDBA (by AAA similarity). Given: A triangle ABC right angled at A and AD is perpendicular to hypotenuse BC. the triangle on each side of the perpendicular are similar to the whole triangle and to each other. Hence ΔDBA ||| ΔABC (1) In triangles DAC and ABC m∠ADC = m∠BAC = 90 m∠ACD = m∠ACB (common angle) Remaining m∠DAC = m∠ABC. Remaining m∠BAD = m∠ACB. Given: A triangle ABC right angled at A. Hence ΔDAC ||| ΔABC (2) From the results (1) and (2) we obtain ΔDBA ||| ΔDAC Hence the theorem is proved. ∴ Theorem 21: If a perpendicular is drawn from the vertex of a right angle to a hypotenuse. = DC AE BD AB ∴ = DC AC Hence the theorem is proved. Thus triangles DBA and ABC are equiangular.6. BD In triangles ABC and DCA m∠BAC = m∠ADC = 90o A D C Fig.81 A D C Fig. Theorem 22 (Pythagoras theorem): In a right angled triangle the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides.82 (1) 130 . But AE = AC (just proved). BC AB ∴ Corresponding sides are proportional = AB BD AB2 = BC. To prove: (i) ΔDBA ||| Δ ABC B (ii) ΔDAC ||| Δ ABC (iii) ΔDBA ||| Δ DAC Proof: In triangles DBA and ABC m∠ADB = m∠BAC = 90o m∠ABD = m∠ABC (common angle). Thus triangles DAC and ABC are equiangular.BD AB (by basic proportionality).

6. From this we get the theorem. CD = BC (BD + CD) = BC.m∠ACB = m∠ACD (common angle) Remaining m∠ABC = m∠DAC ΔABC ||| ΔDCA (by AAA similarity). AC = b and AB = c (Figs.83). Thus r2 = a2 + b2 (by Pythagoras theorem) (1) But c2 = a2 + b2 (given) (2) From (1) and (2) we get r2 = c2 That is r = c. Then the product of PA. PR = b and ∠PRQ = 90o Let PQ = r In triangle PQR (Fig. Corresponding sides are proportional BC AC = AC CD (2) AC2 = BC. This product is referred to as the area A of the rectangle contained by two parts PA and PB of the line segment AB. PB represents the area of the rectangle whose sides are PA and PB. Intersection of two chords of a circle Consider a line segment AB and a point P on it. Theorem 23: In a triangle the square on one side is equal to the sum of the squares on the remaining two. AB = c = PQ (by 3).6.6. Let us construct a right triangle PQR such that QR = a.83 Fig.84) m∠PRQ = 90o (by construction).6.BC = BC2 Hence the theorem is proved. So that m∠ACB = m∠PRQ = 90o. ∴ ΔABC ||| ΔPQR (SSS similarity). P Fig.85 B 131 . we get AB + AC = BC. (3) In triangles ABC and PQR BC = a = QR (by construction).6. the angle opposite to the first side is the right angle (converse of Pythagoras theorem).BD + BC. CD 2 2 Adding (1) and (2). AC = b = PR (by construction). C b b R a a A c B P Q Fig.84 Consider a triangle ABC in which c2 = a2 + b2 where BC = a.

86). D B O In triangles DAP. PA PD = . m∠PAC = m∠PDB (in a cyclic D C quadrilateral exterior angle = the interior opposite angle). ∴ ≠ BR 6 3 2 3 AQ BR Q R AB is not parallel to QR ( by converse of BPT) Fig.6. CP = 6.6. ΔDAP ||| Δ BCP. Then PB = 11 – 3 = 8.86 m∠APD = m∠CPB (vertically opposite angles). PB = PC. PD. Find CD. AB = 11. DB = 10. AP = 3.87). From this we get the following theorem. P m∠PAD = m∠PCB (angles in the same segment) A C m∠ADP = m∠CBP (same).Consider two chords AB and CD of a circle with centre O. PB = 4. Let these chords intersect at a point P inside or outside the circle.87 PA PC ⇒ = PD PB That is PA.PD. That is PA.88 x= = 5 . PB = PC. Example 17: In triangle ABC.6. 3 × 8 = 6 × PD P A D 3×8 PD = = 4 . AP = 3 B C CP = 6. PA 5 1 = = Solution: A AQ 10 2 B PB 4 2 1 2 PA PB = = . PA = 5. Solution: Given AB = 11.6. AC = x + 3 = 5 + 3 = 8 6 P Example 18: In triangle PQR. AE = 3. 6 3 AD AE = (DE || BC) Solution: D DB EC E 6 3 10 x = . Since ≠ .6. DE || BC A AD = 6. m∠PCA = m∠PBD (same reason) ⇒ ΔACP ||| ΔBDP Fig. PC PB A B In triangles ACP and BDP (see the Fig. AQ = 10. We know that AP × PB = CP × PD.89 Example 19: Chord AB and CD cut at P inside the circle. BR = 6. verify AB || QR. BCP (see the Fig.90 6 132 . Find AC. 6x = 30 10 x C B 30 Fig.6. Theorem 23: If two chords of a circle intersect either inside or outside the circle the area of the rectangle obtained by the parts of a chord is equal in area to the rectangle by the parts of the other. P m∠P = m∠P (common). Fig. CD = PC + PD = 6 + 4 = 10 Fig.6.

To prove: BD = BC.92 = 32 × 2 = 64 .Example 20: Chords AB and CD cut at P outside the circle such that PC = 15 CD = 7 PA = 12 find AB. Determine the distance of the foot of the 15m ladder from the house. PD or 12 × PB = 15 × 8 D 15 × 8 PB = = 10 .similarity). BC2 = AC2 – AB2 = 172 .93 a2 = 16 × 2 = 16. CD. BC = 64 = 8 m Distance of the foot of the ladder from the house = 8 m.6. Example 23: ABC is a triangle in which AB = AC and D is a point on the side AC such that BC2 = AC. BC BD 133 . PD = PC . Prove that BD = BC. CD = 7.6. a A 4 2 D Let a be the side of the square given. a + a = ( 4 2 ) . a = 2 16 = 4. That is BC = BD. PA = 12. A Solution: Given PC = 15.6. = (since AB = AC given).6. Solution: AC = ladder = 17 m.94 AC AB AB AB Thus = . Find the length of the side. CD (given) AC BC = (1) BC CD D In triangles ABC and DBC ∠C is common and the sides containing ∠C are proportional B C from (1) ∴ ΔABC ||| ΔDBC (by S-A-S. AB = height the ladder touches = 15 m B In a right angled triangle ABC AC2 = AB2 + BC2. CD. In a right angled triangle ABC AB + BC = AC . PB = PC.152 = (17 + 15) (17 – 15) 17m P C Fig. We know that PA.91 A Example 21: A ladder 17 m long touches a window of a house 15 m above the ground. Fig.CD B = 15 – 7 = 8. A Proof: BC2 = AC. Given: ABC is a triangle in which AB = AC and D is a point on the side AC such that BC2 = AC . Side of square is 4 m. 2a = 16 × 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 B a C Fig. BC BD BC BD 1 1 That is = . Example 22: The length of the diagonal of a square is 4 2 m. C 12 Fig. AB = PA – PB = 12 – 10 = 2. AC = 4 2 .

R Q A To Prove: PA2 = 3QA2 Proof: Since PA ⊥ QR in an equilateral triangle PQR Fig.6. AP AB To prove = Fig. ∠B = ∠E (corresponding angles of similar triangles ABC and DEF). 2 2 2 2 AD = AB + BC + CD .6. ∴ ΔABP ||| ΔDEQ (SAS similarity). DQ is the median through D. Solution: ΔABC ||| Δ DEF In ΔABC. DE EF DF AB 2BP ⎡ P is the midpo int of BC ⎤ AB BP = .6. = DE 2EQ ⎢ Q is the mid po int of EF⎥ DE EQ ⎣ ⎦ In triangles ABP and DEQ.6. Solution: D Given: ABCD is a quadrilateral in which m∠B = 90o.97 PA is the median. (1) AC2 = AB2 + BC2 (By Pythagoras theorem) 2 2 2 2 But AD = AB + BC + CD (given) C B AD2 = AC2 + CD2 (by (1)) Fig.96 DQ DE AB BC AC Proof: ΔABC ||| ΔDEF. Therefore = .98 By the converse of Pythagoras theorem. A To prove: m∠ACD = 90o Construction: Join AC Proof: In triangle ABC (by construction). Prove that PA2 = 3QA2 Solution: Given PQR is an equilateral triangle in which PA ⊥ QR. PA2 = PQ2 – QA2 = QR2 – QA2 (since PQR is equilateral PQ = QR) = (2QA)2 – QA2 (From (1)) = 4QA2 – QA2 = 3QA2 Example 26: ABCD is a quadrilateral with ∠B = 90o. angle opposite to AD in ΔADC is 90o That is m∠ACD = 90o 134 .A Example 24: Prove that the medians of two D similar triangles are proportional to the corresponding sides. prove that ∠ACD = 90o. Q C E F B P In ΔDEF. AP is the median through A. If AD2 = AB2 + BC2 + CD2. That is QA = RA = QR/2 that is QR = 2QA (1) In a right angled triangle PQA PQ2 = PA2 + QA2. DE EQ AB BP AP AB AP = = .95 Fig. AB BP = (Proved). P DE EQ DQ DE DQ Example 25: PQR is an equilateral triangle and PA is perpendicular from P to QR. = = (corresponding sides are proportional). ∴A is the mid point of QR.

DEFG is a square and m∠C = 90o. ∴ ΔADG ||| ΔFEB. Also m∠GDE + m∠GDA = 180o (straight angle). (ii) Similarly ΔFEB ||| ΔGCF. Prove that AQ2 + BP2 = AB2 + PQ2 A Solution: Given: ABC is a triangle right angled at C.6. (iii) Since ΔADG ||| ΔFEB ⇒ (iv) Since ΔADG ||| ΔFEB ⇒ AD DG AD DE = ⇒ = (Q FE = DG = DE sides of a square) FE EB DE EB AD DG AD FE = ⇒ = FE EB DG EB ∴ DE2 = AD × EB 135 . C Proof: (i) DE || GF (Q opposite side of square). AB = AC + BC (By Pythagoras theorem) (5) Substituting (4) and (5) in (3) we get AQ2 + BP2 = AC2 + BC2 + QC2 + PC2 = AB2 + PQ2 Example 28: In the figure.6. AD FE Prove that (i) ΔADG ||| ΔGCF (ii) ΔADG ||| ΔFEB (iii) = (iv) DE2 = AD × EB. we have ΔADG ||| GCF. But m∠GDE = 90o (Q angle of a square). ⇒ AB || GF and AC is a transversal. P To prove: AQ2 + BP2 = AB2 + PQ2 Proof: In right angled ΔAQC B C Q (1) AQ2 = AC2 + QC2 (by Pythagoras theorem) In right angled ΔBPC Fig. m∠GDA = m∠GCB (each is 90 ).Example 27: P and Q are points on the sides CA and CB respectively of a triangle ABC right angled at C. m∠GDA = 90o Now in triangles ADG and GCF ∴ By AAA criterion.100 o m∠DAG = m∠FGC (Proved).99 2 2 2 BP = BC + PC (by Pythagoras theorem) (2) Adding (1) + (2) we get (3) AQ2 + BP2 = AC2 + QC2 + BC2 + PC2 But in right angled ΔPQC PQ2 = PC2 + QC2 (By Pythagoras theorem) (4) 2 2 2 In right angled ΔABC. P and Q are any two points on the sides AC and BC respectively. G F ∴ m∠DAG = m∠FGC (Q corresponding angles are equal). ∴ 90o + m∠GDA = 180o. A D E B Fig. DG EB Solution: Given: DEFG is a square inscribed in ΔACB which is right angled at C. Since triangles ADG and FEB are both similar to ΔGCF.

BC = a. OB = OD = ½ BD o m∠AOB = m∠BOC = m∠COD = m∠DOA = 90 (1) In right angled ΔAOB AB2 = OA2 + OB2 (2) In right angled ΔBOC BC2 = OB2 + OC2 2 2 2 B A In right angled Δ COD CD = OC + OD (3) 2 2 2 In right angled Δ DOA DA = OD + OA (4) Fig. 136 . all the sides are equal. then prove that (i) pc = ab 1 1 1 (ii) 2 = 2 + 2 p a b Solution: (i) In right angled ΔABC. (3) and (4) we have AB2 + BC2 + CD2 + DA2 = 2OA2 + 2OB2 + 2OC2 + 2OD2 = 2OA2 + 2OB2 + 2OA2 + 2OB2 (Q OC = OA. CA = b.102 Adding (1).Example 29: ABC is a right angled triangle right angled at C. AB2 = AC2 + CB2 c2 = b2 + a2 (1) In right angled triangles ADC and ACB m∠A = m∠A m∠ADC = m∠ACB = 90o ∴ By AAA criterion DC AC p b ΔADC ||| ΔACB ⇒ = ⇒ = ⇒ pc = ab CB AB a c ab 1 c 1 c2 (ii) Now from (i) we have p = ⇒ = ⇒ 2 = 2 2 c p ab p a b A c b p D C a B = = b2 + a 2 (Q By (1)) a 2 b2 b2 a2 + 2 2 a 2 b2 a b 1 1 1 = 2 + 2 2 p a b Example 30: Prove that four times the squares of the sides of a rhombus is equal to the sum of the squares of its diagonals. Solution: Given: ABCD is a rhombus with diagonals AC and BD.6. D To Prove: 4AB2 = AC2 + BD2 C Proof: Since the diagonals of a rhombus bisect each other at right angles. OB = ½ BD) Since in a rhombus ABCD. If p is the length of the perpendicular from C to AB and AB = c. OD = OB) = 4OA2 + 4OB2 = (2OA)2 + (2OB)2 AB2 + BC2 + CD2 + DA2 = AC2 + BD2 (Q OA = ½ AC . 0 ∴ OA = OC = ½ AC. 4AB2 = AC2 + BD2. that is AB = BC = CD = DA. (2).

OF2 – OD2 – OE2 2 2 137 . AF2 + OF2 = OA2 . N be the mid points of AM.M. In right angled ΔOBD. the points R. Let the circle (O. BM and AB as diameters on the same side of O the line AB.Example 31: AB is a line segment and M is r its mid point. Semicircles are drawn with AM. Let AB = x.Q respectively. CA and AB respectively. M are collinear.6. A circle with centre O and r r radius r is drawn so that it touches all the 1 Q P semicircles. OE and OF are drawn to the sides BC. 6 Solution: Given: AM. perpendiculars OD. BD2 + OD2 = OB2 In right angled ΔOCE. Q. To prove: r = AB/6. MB and AB are diameters of the L M N B semicircles and r is the radius of the circle as A Fig.N at P. M is the midpoint of base LN. ∴ Triangle OLN is isosceles. OE and F OF are drawn perpendicular to the sides BC. OB and OC. Proof: Let L. Then the points 0. O. O To prove: (i) AF2 + BD2 + CE2 = OA2 + OB2 2 2 2 + OC – OD – OE – OF 2 2 2 C D B (ii) AF + BD + CE = AE2 + BF2 + CD2 Construction: Join OA.103 shown in the figure. P. MB respectively.R. then OL = OP + PL = r + LM = r + x/4 and ON = r + x/4. CE2 + OE2 = OC2 Adding we get AF2 + BD2 + CE2 + OF2 + OD2 + OE2 = OA2 + OB2 + OC2 ∴ AF2 + BD2 + CE2 = OA2 + OB2 + OC2 . L are collinear. Now in right angled triangle OML 2 2 ⎛ x⎞ ⎛x⎞ OL2 = OM2 + LM2 ⇒ ⎜ r + ⎟ = (RM − OR) 2 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4⎠ ⎝4⎠ R rx x 2 ⎛ x x2 ⎞ ⇒r + + = ⎜ − r⎟ + 2 16 ⎝ 2 16 ⎠ 2 2 rx x x x2 ⇒ r2 + + = − rx + r 2 + 2 16 4 16 rx x 2 3 x2 ⇒ = − rx ⇒ rx = 2 4 2 4 3 x ⇒ 2 r = 4 ( x ≠ 0) x 2 1 1 ∴ r = × = x ∴ r = AB 4 3 6 6 Example 32: From a point O in the interior of a ΔABC. Prove that r = AB. CA and AB respectively. Fig. ∴ OM ⊥ LN. r) touch the semicircle with centres L. Prove that (i) AF2 + BD2 + CE2 = OA2 + OB2 + OC2 – OD2 – OE2 – OF2 (ii) AF2 + BD2 + CE2 = AE2 + BF2 + CD2 A Solution: E Given: ABC is a triangle in which OD. N are collinear. the points O.104 Proof: i) In right angled ΔOAF.6.

find the distance between their tops. Example 33: A vertical stick 15 cm long casts its shadow 10 cm long on the ground. In ΔABC and ΔPQR m∠ABC = m∠PQR = 90o m∠BCA = m∠QRP (angle of elevation same) ∴ ΔABC ||| ΔPQR (by AAA criterion). What is the height of the flag pole. OD2 + CD2 = OC2 (1) (2) (3) SUN P A 15 cm C 10 cm B R 60 cm Q Fig. We have to find AC. ∴CE = DB = 12 m AE = AB – BE = AB – CD = 11 – 6 = 5 m In right angled triangle AEC. If the distance between their feet is 12 m. in right angled Subtracting we get BD2 – CD2 = OB2 – OC2 Similarly by considering right angled triangles OCE and OAE CE2 – AE2 = OC2 – OA2 By considering right triangles OAF and OBF AF2 – BF2 = OA2 – OB2 Adding (1). Example 34: Two poles of heights 6 m and 11 m stand on a plane ground.6. OD2 + BD2 = OB2. Solution: Let AB = 11m and CD = 6 m be the two poles such that BD = the distance between their feet = 12 m.106 138 . Draw CE ⊥ AB. Let PQ be the flag pole and RQ = 60 cm be its shadow.ii) In right angled ΔOBD. Solution: Let AB = 15 cm be the stick and BC = 10 cm be its shadow. A flag pole casts a shadow 60 cm long at the same place.6.105 ∴ PQ = 15 × 60 = 90 cm 10 ∴ The height of the flag pole = 90 cm. AC2 = CE2 + AE2 = 122 + 52 = 144 + 25 = 169 ∴ AC = 169 = 13 cm A 5m C 6m D 12m E 12m 6m B 11m Fig. (2) and (3) we get BD2 + CE2 + AF2 – CD2 – AE2 – BF2 = 0 ∴ AF2 + BD2 + CE2 = AE2 + BF2 + CD2. AB PQ 15 PQ ⇒ = ⇒ = BC QR 10 60 ΔOCD. by Pythagoras theorem.

CA and AB respectively. Prove that ΔABC = 4ΔDEF (areas). Proof: D and E are mid points of BC and CA respectively. Solution: Given: ABCD is a trapezium in which AB || DC and whose diagonals AC and BD intersect at 0. B. Example 37: Prove that the diagonals of a trapezium divide each D other proportionally. ⎟ =⎜ ⎟ . and FD = ½ CA.108 1 ⇒ DE = AB (since the line joining the mid points of two sides of a triangle is parallel to 2 the third side and half its length). E. Prove that E OB2 + OD2 = OC2 + OA2. FD are joined forming ΔDEF. ∴ 2 Area of ΔDEF Area of ΔDEF DE ⎝ DE ⎠ ⎝1⎠ Area of ΔABC = 4 Area of ΔDEF.D C Example 35: A point O in the interior of a rectangle ABCD is joined with each of the vertices A. Solution: A point O is an interior point of a rectangle ABCD. C and D. Similarly in rectangle EFCD ED = FC.6. B C D To prove: ΔABC = 4ΔDEF (areas).6. F are the mid points of the sides BC. E.6. Fig. CA and AB respectively of a triangle ABC. F are the mid points of the sides BC. DE EF FD 1 Similarly EF = ½ BC. ∴ AE = BF. ∴ = = = ⇒ Δ DEF ||| ΔABC AB BC CA 2 Area of ΔABC AB2 Area of ΔABC ⎛ AB ⎞ ⎛2⎞ = =⎜ = 4. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) A Example 36: D. DE. In right angled triangle OFB OB2 = OF2 + BF2 In right angled triangle OED OD2 = OE2 + ED2 Adding (1) and (2) we get OB2 + OD2 = OF2 + BF2 + OE2 + ED2 In right angled triangle OFC OC2 = OF2 + FC2 or OC2 = OF2 + ED2 (Q FC = ED) In right angled triangle OEA OA2 = OE2 + AE2 or OA2 = OE2 + BF2 (Q AE = BF) Adding (4) and (5) we have OC2 + OA2 = OF2 + ED2 + OE2 + BF2 From (3) and (6) we get OB2 + OD2 = OC2 + OA2. AO BO To Prove = A OC OD 2 2 ∴ C E O B Fig. Through O draw a line parallel to AB meeting AD and BC in A O F B Fig. Then in rectangle ABFE opposite sides are equal.107 E and F respectively.109 139 . F E Solution: Given: ABC is a triangle in which D. EF.

5 (d) AB = 1.5. CQ = 5 (c) AP = 4. find for what sets of measurements will PQ parallel to BC (a) AB = 18. AQ = 4. PQ || BC. In ΔABC. DE is the bisector of ∠ADB.56. we have (1) = OC EC In triangle BCD. BP = 4. Given the following measurements find the length of the segment asked.16 AQ = 0.6.5 1. The bisectors of angles of m∠ADB and m∠ADC meet AB and AC in E and F respectively. A To prove: EF || BC Proof: In ΔADB. DE || BC.110 ∴ = (2) FC DB AE AF From (1) and (2) we get = EB FC ∴By converse of basic proportionality theorem. Prove that EF || BC. CP = 12 CD = ? (b) AP = 2x. OE || DC BO BE ∴ By basic proportionality theorem. AC = 2. AQ = 6. draw a line parallel to AB and CD meeting BC at E. BP = 6.32 Chords AB and CD cut at P inside the circle. 3. AP = ? 2. QC = 15 (b) AP = 5. AE AD ∴ By angle bisector theorem. we have (1) = EB DB E F In ΔADC. AQ = 12. AP = 0. Proof: In triangle CAB. AP = 8.Construction: Through 0.28. we have (2) = OD EC AO BO From (1) and (2). EF || BC. AF AD Fig. DF is the bisector of m∠ADC AF AD ∴ By angle bisector theorem = FC DC B D C But DC = BD since AD is a median. Find what is required (a) AD = 3 DB = 5 AE = 6 EC = ? (b) DB = 6 EC = 8 AE = 5 AD = ? (c) AE = 3 EC = 7 AD = 6 AB = ? (d) AB = 12 AD = 5 AE = 6 AC = ? (e) AC = 15 AE = 3 DB = 9 AB = ? In ΔABC. Exercise 6. PB = x. AB = 17. (a) AP = 8. 140 . we get = OC OD Example 38: AD is a median of a ΔABC. The bisectors of m∠ADB and m∠ADC meet AB and AC in E and F respectively. OE || AB AO BE ∴ By basic proportionality theorem. CP = 10 PD = 5. Solution: Given: AD is a median of ΔABC. QC = 4.

7.5 (b) 160o (3) 38o. 63o Exercise 6.25 (c) 20 (d) 14. BP = 4x. DP = 9 find BP. Chords AB and CD cut at P outside the circle.24. 12 (c) 50. BP = 4 CD = 8 Find DP. (b) AP = 9x. 9. find what is asked. Keeping its foot on the same point the ladder is turned to the other side of the street to reach a window 9 metres high. 142o (5) 26 cm (6) 2 cm. P and Q are the mid points of the sides CA and CB respectively of ΔABC right angled at C.4 (e) 11. ANSWERS Exercise 6. Given the following measurements. 5 cm (1) (a) 10 (2) (a) PQ || BC (3) (a) 18 cm (5) (a) right triangle (6) 21 metres (b) 6. 100 (d) 5. Which are the sides of a right triangle (a) 7. 145o (8) 27o. Prove that (i) 4AQ2 = 4AC2 + BC2 (ii) 4BP2 = 4BC2 + AC2 5. 80. 3 cm. 25 (b) 6. 6. Find the width of the street if the length of the ladder is 15 metres.25 (c) PQ || BC (d) PQ || BC (b) PQ || BC (b) 10 cm (4) (a) 4 cm (b) 8 cm (b) not a right triangle (c) not a right triangle (d) right triangle 141 . 5. CP = 16.4. 5 2 A ladder reaches a window which is 12 metres above the ground on one side of the street.2 (1) 8 cm (2) 16 cm Exercise 6. (a) AB = 8.4 (1) 8 cm (2) (a) 35o.3 (1) (a) 65o (b) 220o (c) 26o (d) 60o (e) 57o (2) 110o Exercise 6.

slope and angle between two straight lines are not to be found in the work of Decartes. The work of Fermat was mentioned by him in correspondence but his treatese on the subject Ad locus Planos et Solidos Isagoge was published in 1679 only after his demise. Example 1: Divide the line segment AB of length 16 units in the ratio 3:5 Solution: D A C B Fig. An important text book on analytical geometry was written by L’Hospital around 1700. If P lies outside AB . Descartes′ procedure in geometry was to begin with a geometrical problem to convert it into an algebraic equation simplify it and then solve the equation geometrically. P lies on AB produced. The lengths of AP and PB AP m = . that is.1 RATIO FORMULA Let A and B be two given points. Since the numerator is smaller than the CB 5 denominator.1). 142 . Let P be a point on the line segment AB or on AB produced. With a given ratio m : n. then we say that P divides AB externally in the ratio m : n. However. However the fundamental principles and methods of analytical geometry were already discovered by Pierre de Fermat (1601-1665) earlier. that is AP : PB = m : n or PB n If P lies inside AB we say that P divides AB internally in the ratio m : n. These lengths are in some ratio m : n.7. So Descartes came to be regarded as the inventor of the subject. These are due to later mathematicians like Clairaut (1729) Monge (1781) and Lacroin (1765-1843). are AP and PB. Newton used several types of co-ordinates including polar and bipolar. 7.7. AB can be divided either internally or externally. Then 5 AC = 3 BC or 5 AC = 3 (AB – AC) or 8 AC = 3 (16) = 48 AC = 6 units and so CB = AB – AC = 16 – 6 = 10 units. Then P divides AB into two segments AP and PB .0 INTRODUCTION Rene Descartes (1596-1650) whose “La Geometric” was published in 1637 as an appendix to his “Discours de la methods” is regarded as the inventor of Analytical Geometry and Modern Analytical Geometry is called “Cartesian Geometry” after him. ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY 7.7.1 i) Let C be the point inside AB such that AC 3 = . even the usual formulae for distance between two points. C is closer to A than to B (See Fig.

Example 2: Divide the line segments AB of length 16 units in the ratio 3:1.Hence C lies inside AB 6 units distance from A and 10 units distance from B.7. Then AF = 3FB or AF = 3(AF – AB) or AF = 3AF – 3AB 2AF = 3AB = 3(16) = 48 or AF = 24 ∴ FB = AF – AB = 24 – 16 = 8 ∴ F lies outside AB 24 units distance from A and 8 units distance from B. y2) in the given ratio m : n.2 i) Let E be the point inside AB such that AE 3 = . D is closer to A than to B (See Fig.1). y1) and (x2. 12 units distance from A and 4 units distance from B. Since the numerator is greater than FB 1 the denominator. Now we have 5 AD = 3DB or 5 AD = 3(AD + AB) or 5 AD = 3AD + 3AB 2 AD = 3AB 3(16) = 48 or AD = 24 Then DB = DA + AB = 24 + 16 = 40 ∴ D lies outside AB 24 units distance from A and 40 units distance from B. Then AE = 3 EB or AE = 3(AB – AE) or AE = 3AB – 3AE or 4AE = 3AB = 3(16) = 48 or AE = 12. The point D is unique and it divides AB externally in the given ratio 3:5. Then EB = AB – AE = 16 – 12 = 4 ∴ E lies inside AB .7. The point F is unique and it divides AB externally in the ratio 3:1. the point E is closer to B than to A (See Fig. ii) Let D be the point outside AB such that AD 3 = .2). Since the numerator is smaller than DB 5 the denominator. we understand that a given line segments can be divided either internally or externally by a point in a given ratio. Since the numerator is greater than the EB 1 denominator. F is closer to B than to A (See Fig. Section Formula To find the coordinates of the point which divides internally the line segment joining two given points (x1.2). 143 . The point E is unique and it divides AB internally in the ratio 3:1. From the above two examples. Solution: E A B F Fig. The point C is unique and it divides AB internally in the given ratio 3:5.7.7. AF 3 ii) Let F be the point outside AB such that = .

7. y3) be the point which divides the line segment AB internally in the ratio m : n. However.3). y2) respectively. The students are advised to do the derivation in other cases. y1) and (x2.7.3). m+ n ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Note: We have obtained the above derivation by taking A and B in the 1st quadrant as in the (Fig. the same derivation holds as well for other positions of A and B. So we have = = CT BT CB But AS = x3 – x1. Then we have AC m = CB n Draw AP. x 3 − x1 y −y m ∴ = 3 1 = x 2 − x 3 y 2 − y3 n Cross multiplying n(x3 – x1) (or) nx3 – nx1 (or) (m+n) x3 mx 2 + nx1 = m+n y B C T A S 0 P R Q x Fig.7.3 CS = y3 – y1. If D is (x4. BD AD m Since = . BT = y2 – y3 y3 − y 1 x −x m m ∴ 3 1 = = and x 2 − x3 n y 2 − y3 n = m(x2 – x3) = mx2 – mx3 = mx2 + nx1 and n(y3 – y1) = m(y2 – y3) and ny3 – ny1 = my2 – my3 and (m+n) y3 = my2 + ny1 my 2 + ny1 y3 = m+n ∴ x3 and That is the point which divides AB internally in the ratio m : n is given by ⎡ mx 2 + nx1 my 2 + ny 1 ⎤ (1) ⎢ m+ n . we get nAD = mBD or n(AB + BD) = mBD or nAB = (m–n) BD or BD n AB m − n = . y 2 ) D(x 4 .Let A and B be the given points (x1.4). y 4 ) (See Fig. y4) then BD n (m − n) x4 + nx1 (m − n) y4 + ny1 x2 = . CT = x2 – x3. That is B divides AD internally in the ratio (m – n): n. We observe that B AB Fig. Let C (x3. Then D lies AD m m -n:n outside but closer to B and = DB n A(x 1 . BQ and CR perpendicular to the x-axis.4 divides AD internally in the ratio . Next we proceed to obtain the coordinates of the point D which divides AB externally in the ratio m : n (m > n). y2 = ( by using (1)) (m − n) + n (m − n) + n 144 . We observe that the triangles ΔASC and ΔCTB are AS CS AC similar. Draw AS perpendicular to CR and CT perpendicular to BQ (See Fig.y 1 ) B(x 2 .7.7.

n . we get nAE = mEB or nEA = m(EA + AB) EB n (or) (n – m) EA = mAB m:n-m EA m (or) = E(x5. (2) and (3) are called Ratio formulae. m. 2 ⎥ 1+1 1+1 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 145 . y2) AB n − m Fig.7.6). y1) B(x2.7.5).mx 2 ny1 .n ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (or) (2) Let us now consider the situation where a point E divides AB externally in the ratio m : n AE m (m < n) then = < 1 or AE < EB and so the point E is closer to A (See Fig.mx 2 ny − my 2 . Then we observe that F divides AB internally in the ratio 1:1 since AF = FB (see Fig.7.7.ny 1 ⎤ ⎢ m. y5 = 1 n-m n−m Thus we get the point which divides AB externally in the ratio m : n (m < n) as ∴ x5 = ⎡ nx1 . n-m ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (3) The formulae (1).5 That is A divides EB internally in the ratio m : n – m mx 2 + (n − m) x 5 mx 2 + (n − m) x 5 ⇒ x1 = ∴ x1 = m+n−m n and y1 = my 2 + (n − m) y5 m+n−m ⇒ y1 = my 2 + (n − m) y5 n nx1 . the middle point of AB is given by ⎡1 × x 1 + 1 × x 2 1 × y1 + 1 × y 2 ⎤ ⎡ x 1 + x 2 y1 + y 2 ⎤ =⎢ . y5) A(x1. y4 = m−n m−n Hence the point which divides AB externally in the ratio m : n (m > n) is given by ⎡ mx 2 .and my2 = (m – n) y4 + ny1 mx2 = (m – n) x4 + nx1 mx 2 − nx1 my 2 − ny1 (or) x4 = . We EB n EA . observe that A divides EB internally in the ratio AB AE m Since = .nx1 my 2 . Let F be the middle point of the line segment AB .my 2 ⎤ ⎢ n-m .6 ∴ The point F. ⎥=⎢ 2 . A F B Fig.

y2) and (x3.5) externally in the ratio 2:3. 2) (x2.5). (x1. 1 2 is the average of the y-co-ordinates 2 of the end points of the line segment. ⎟ 5 ⎟ ⎝5 5 ⎠ ⎝ 5 ⎠ m:n=2:3 −4 ⎞ ⎛ = ⎜1. 1 1 G We are now able to find the coordinates of the centroid of the triangle whose vertices are the given points (x1. y +y Similarly. 2) and (4. = ⎜ . y2) (4.This result is known as the middle point formula or simply the mid-point formula. (x2 . ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ n−m ⎠ 3− 2 ⎠ ⎝ 3− 2 ⎝ n−m ⎛ 6 − 6 3 − 10 ⎞ = ⎜ (x1.7. B(x 2 . y3). ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ m+n ⎠ 2+3 2+3 ⎝ m+n ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 8 − 3 −10 + 6 ⎞ ⎛ 5 −4 ⎞ = ⎜ =⎜ . y1). G divides AD in the ratio 2:1 (See Fig. . ⎥= ⎜ ⎟ . 3 3 ⎠ ⎢ ⎥ ⎝ 2 +1 2 +1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Example 3: Find the point which divides the line segment joining the points (–1. y 2 ) G x2 + x3 2 D y2 + y3 . y1) (–1. y2) (3.–5) internally in the ratio 2:3. y 3 ) A(x 1 . y1) (2.7. Consider the median AD. y ) x-co-ordinates of the end points of the segments.–5) . y 2 ) D 2:1 C(x 3 .7). ⎡ ⎤ ⎛ x 2 + x3 ⎞ ⎛ y 2 + y3 ⎞ ⎢ 2 × ⎜ 2 ⎟ + 1× x1 2 × ⎜ 2 ⎟ + 1 × y1 ⎥ ⎛ x1 + x 2 + x 3 y1 + y 2 + y 3 ⎞ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ The point G is ⎢ . Formula (1) is applied.–7) Here m < n formulae (3) is applied. We x1 + x 2 is the average of the observe that 2 A(x . 2 Fig. ⎟ 1 ⎠ ⎝ 1 m:n=2:3 = (0.1).7 The centroid of the triangle divides each median internally in the ratio 2:1. = ⎜ . Solution: The required point is given by ⎛ 3 × 2 − 2 × 3 3 ×1 − 2 × 5 ⎞ ⎛ nx1 − mx 2 ny1 − my 2 ⎞ . First we recall that a median of a triangle is a line segment joining a vertex to the mid point of the opposite side.1) and (3. 146 . Solution: The required point is given by ⎛ mx 2 + nx1 my 2 + ny1 ⎞ ⎛ 2 × 4 + 3 × (−1) 2 × (−5) + 3 × 2 ⎞ . ⎟ ⎝ 5 ⎠ Example 4: Find the point which divides the line segment joining the points (2. (x2. called the centroid of the triangle. So there are three medians of a triangle and they are concurrent at a point G.

7) internally and externally in the ratio 7:5. ⎟ ⎝ 12 12 ⎠ ⎛ mx 2 + nx1 my 2 + ny1 ⎞ . 7) m:n = 7:5 Here m > n formula (2) is applied. 12 ⎟ ⎝ 12 ⎠ ⎛ −71 29 ⎞ = ⎜ .4) and B(7. we have to know whether the points A.8 128 = 8 2 (7 − 4) 2 + (7 − 4)2 = 9+9 (x1. y1) (x2 y2) (–3. Solution: i) Internal ratio 7:5. –4) and (–8.7) divided by the point C(–1.4) B(7. we find the lengths AC = (−1 − 4) 2 + ( −1 − 4) 2 = 25 + 25 C 5 2 A 3 2 B = CB = = AB = = 50 = 5 2 (−1 − 7) 2 + (−1 − 7) 2 = 64 + 64 Fig. y2) (–3. C are collinear and if so whether the point C lies inside or outside AB . For this.7) C(–1. ⎜ ⎟ m+n ⎠ ⎝ m+n (x1. The required point is ⎛ 7 × (−8) + 5 × (−3) 7 × 7 + 5 × (−4) ⎞ =⎜ . ⎜ ⎟ m−n ⎠ ⎝ m−n (x1. ⎟ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎛ mx 2 − nx1 my 2 − ny1 ⎞ . ii) External ratio 7:5 The required point is ⎛ 7 × (−8) − 5 × (−3) 7 × 7 − 5 × ( −4) ⎞ =⎜ .7. –1)? Solution: First. B. –4) (–8. 7) m : n = 7. y2) (x3. y1) (x2. ⎟ 7+5 7+5 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ −56 − 15 49 − 20 ⎞ =⎜ . –1) 18 = 3 2 147 . y1) (x2. Example 6: In what ratio is the line segment joining the points A(4.Example 5: Find the points which divides the line segment joining (–3. ⎟ 7−5 7 −5 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ −56 + 15 49 + 20 ⎞ =⎜ . ⎟ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ −41 69 ⎞ = ⎜ . –4) (–8.5 Formula (1) is applied. y3) A(4.

We observe that AC + AB = CB. let C lie on AB and divide it in the ratio m : n. (x1. y1) (x2. . Then C is given by ⎛ m(7) + n(4) m(7) + n(4) ⎞ . 7) m:n=5:8 m<n Formula (3) is applied Alternately. –1). since 5 < 8 the point which divides AB externally in the ratio 5 : 8 is given by ⎛ nx1 − mx 2 ny1 − my 2 ⎞ ⎛ 8× 4 − 5× 7 8× 4 − 5× 7 ⎞ . y2) (4. ⎜ ⎟ m+n ⎠ ⎝ m+n ⎛ 7m + 4n 7m + 4n ⎞ . AC 5 2 5 Now the required ratio is = = = 5:8 CB 8 2 8 ⇒ The point C(–1. 7) (–1. then we can consider C as the point which divides AB internally in the ratio (–m): n. = ⎜ ⎟ m+n ⎠ ⎝ m+n But C is given to be (–1. Since C is ⎛ nx1 − mx 2 ny1 − my 2 ⎞ ⎛ (− m)x 2 + nx1 (− m)y 2 + ny1 ⎞ . ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ n−m ⎠ 8−5 ⎠ ⎝ n−m ⎝ 8−5 ⎛ 32 − 35 32 − 35 ⎞ = ⎜ . m < n Formula (1) is applied 7m + 4n = –m – n or 8m = –5n or m/n = –5/8 ⇒ C divides AB in the ratio (–5) : 8 (or) C divides AB externally in the ratio 5 : 8 and C is closer to A than to B. y3) (4. –1) ∴ Equating the co-ordinates we get 7m + 4n = − 1 or m+n m : n = 5 : 8. ⎜ ⎟=⎜ ⎟ n − m ⎠ ⎝ (−m) + n (−m) + n ⎠ ⎝ n−m 148 .–1) divides AB externally in the ratio 5:8 We verify this result with the ratio formula (3). B and C are collinear and C lies outside AB but closer to A (See Fig. 3 ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎛ −3 −3 ⎞ = ⎜ . ⎟ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 = (−1.8). 4) (7. So the points A.7. 4) (7. − 1) (x1. Note: If C divides AB externally in the ratio m : n where m and n are positive numbers with m < n. y2) (x3. ⎜ ⎟ m+n ⎠ ⎝ m+n ⎛ mx 2 + nx1 my 2 + ny1 ⎞ . . y1) (x2.

Similarly, if C divides AB externally in the ratio m : n with m > n, then C can be considered as the point which divides AB internally in the ratio m : (–n), since C is ⎛ mx 2 − nx1 my 2 − ny1 ⎞ ⎛ mx 2 + (−n)x1 my 2 + (−n)y1 ⎞ , , ⎜ ⎟=⎜ ⎟ m − n ⎠ ⎝ m + (−n) m + (−n) ⎠ ⎝ m−n Thus, a ratio of the form m : (–n) or (–m) : n where m and n are positive numbers, corresponds to external division. For example, if we say that the point C divides AB “internally” in the ratio (–5): 9 then we mean that C divides AB externally in the ratio 5:9 and that C is closer to A than to B.

Example 7: Find the co-ordinates of the mid point of the line segment joining the points A(–3,2) and B(7,8) Solution: The required mid point is ⎛ (−3) + 7 2 + 8 ⎞ =⎜ , (x1, y1) (–3,2) 2 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 4 10 ⎞ = ⎜ , ⎟ = (2,5) (x2, y2) (7,8) ⎝2 2 ⎠ ⎛ x +x y +y ⎞ formula ⎜ 1 2 , 1 2 ⎟ is applied. 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 Example 8: The centre of a circle is (–6,4). A diameter of the circle has its one end at the origin. Find its other end. Solution: Let the diameter be OA where O is the origin (0, 0). Let the other end A be (x1, y1). The mid point of a diameter is the centre of the circle. So the mid point of OA is the centre (–6,4). But by the mid point formula, the mid point of OA is ⎛ 0 + x1 0 + y1 ⎞ ⎛ x1 y1 ⎞ ⎜ 2 , 2 ⎟=⎜ 2 , 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ x y But this point is the centre (–6,4). So 1 = − 6 and 1 = 4 (or) x1 = –12, y1 = 8 2 2 ⇒ the other end A of the diameter is (–12, 8). Example 9: If the points A(2, –2), B (8,4), C(5,7) are the three vertices of a parallelogram ABCD taken in order, find the fourth vertex D. Solution: Let D(a,b) be the fourth vertex (See Fig.7.9) since ABCD is a parallelogram, the diagonals AC and BD bisect each other. That is the mid point of AC is the same as the D C mid point of BD . 2 + 5 (−2) + 7 ⎞ ⎛ 7 5 ⎞ ⎛ =⎜ , ⎟ , But the mid point of AC is ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝2 2⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 8+a 4+ b ⎞ and the mid point of BD is ⎜ , ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 A B 8+a 7 4+b 5 Equating the co-ordinates, we get = , = Fig.7.9 2 2 2 2

=> 8 + a = 7, 4 + b = 5 => a = –1, b = 1

**∴ The fourth vertex is D(–1, 1)
**

149

Example 10: Find the centroid of the triangle whose vertices are the points (8, 4), (1,3) and (3,–1). Solution: The centroid of the triangle is

⎛ 8 + 1 + 3 4 + 3 + (−1) ⎞ ⎜ 3 , ⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 12 6 ⎞ =⎜ , ⎟ ⎝ 3 3⎠ = (4,2)

(x1 y1) (x2 y2)

(8,4) (1,3)

(x3 y3) (3, –1) ⎛ x + x + x 3 y1 + y 2 + y3 ⎞ , formula ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ is applied. 3 3 ⎝ ⎠

Example 11: If a triangle has its centroid at (4,3) and two of its vertices are (2,–1) and (7,8) find the third vertex. Solution: Let the third vertex be (a,b) then the centroid of the triangle is ⎛ 2 + 7 + a (−1) + 8 + b ⎞ , (x1, y1) (2, –1) ⎜ ⎟ 3 3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 9+a 7 + b ⎞ (x2, y2) (7,8) =⎜ , ⎟ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 (x3, y3) (a, b ⎛ x + x + x 3 y1 + y 2 + y3 ⎞ formula ⎜ 1 2 , ⎟ is applied. 3 3 ⎝ ⎠ But the centroid is given to be (4,3) so equating the coordinates, we get

⇒ the third vertex is (3,2) m . If we denote this real number by Note: The ratio m : n corresponds to the real number n m λ λ (Greek letter called lambda) then = λ = . So m : n = λ : 1 n 1 5 5 For example, the ratio 5 : 3 is same as the ratio : 1 and conversely the ratio : 1 is same as 3 3 the ratio 5 : 3.

Exercise 7.1

9+a 7+b = 4 and = 3. 3 3

⇒ 9 + a = 12 and 7 + b = 9

⇒ a = 3 and b = 2

1. Find the co-ordinates of the point which divides the line segment joining the points i) A(–2,6) and B(3,6) in the ratio 3 : 2 internally. ii) P(3,4) and Q(–6,2) in the ratio 1 : 3 externally. iii) A(4, –7) and B(–1,5) in the ratio 5:2 externally iv) (–1, –2) and (5,3) in the ratio 2 : –1 internally v) (3, –4) and (–2,6) in the ratio –2:3 internally vi) (a+b, a–b) and (a–b, a+b) in the ratio 3 : 2 internally.

150

2. Find in what ratio the point P divides the line segment joining the two points A and B where P, A and B are respectively given by i) (11,7) (13,4) and (7,13) ii) (–5,3, (–3, –1) and (–8, 9) iii) (1,12) (5,6) and (7,3) 3. Find the ratio in which the x-axis divides the line segment joining the points. i) (1,2) and (–2,5) ii) (–3, –2) and (–1, 4) iii) (3, –2) and (–7, –1) iv (5, –4) and (9, 1) 4. Find the ratio in which the y-axis divides the line segment joining the points iii) (3, –4) and (–6,2) iv) (–1, 2) and (5, –2) i) (3,0) and (–3,5) ii) (–2,6) and (3,4) 5. Find the mid point of the line segment joining the points. ii) (8, –2) and (3, –4) i) (–1, –3) and (–5, –7) 6. ABC is a triangle whose vertices are A(2,–1), B(–4, 2) and C(2,5). Find the length of the median AD 7. The mid point of the line segment PQ is (5,1). If P is (8,4), find the point Q. 8. The centre of a circle is (4,–1). If one end of a diameter of the circle is (9,7), find the other end. 9. Prove that the following points form a parallelogram. i) (1,2), (–2, 2), (–4, –3) and (–1, –3) (ii) (–2, –1), (1, 0), (4,3) and (1,2) iii) (2, –2), (8,4), (5,7) and (–1, 1) (iv) (0, 3), (4,4), (6,2) and (2,1) 10. Find the fourth vertex of the parallelogram three of whose vertices are given by i) (1, 1), (2,3) and (–2,2) taken in order ii) (–1,0), (5,2) and (7,4) taken in order iii) (2,3), (3,8) and (10,–1) taken in order iv) (–2,–5), (4, –5) and (4,7) taken in order 11. Find the centroid of the triangle whose vertices are given by i) (1,10), (–7, 2) and (–3, 7) ii) (–1, –3), (2, 1) and (2, –4) iii) (1, 1), (2,3) and (–2, 2) iv) (1, 3), (2,7) and (12, –16) 12. The centroid of a triangle ABC is (3, –2). Find the vertex C if A and B are given by i) (1, –2) and (7, 4) ii) (3, 4) and (–1, 9) iii) (5, –1) and (–2, –7) iv) (–11, 1) and (2, –5)

7.2 AREA OF A TRIANGLE

We have already learnt in practical geometry that the area of a trapezium is one half the sum of the lengths of two parallel sides multiplied by the perpendicular distance between them. Using this formula, we shall now derive an algebraic formula for the area of a triangle when the coordinates of its vertices are given. Let ABC be the triangle. The vertices A, B and C be respectively (x1,y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3). Draw AL , BM and CN perpendicular to the x-axis (See Fig.7.10).

y A

C B

O

M

L

N

X

Fig.7.10

Area of the ΔABC = Area of the trapezium ABML + Area of the trapezium ALNC – Area of the trapezium BMNC 151

1 1 1 ML (AL + BM) + LN (AL + CN) − MN (BM + CN) 2 2 2 1 1 1 = (x1 − x 2 ) (y1 + y 2 ) + (x 3 − x1 ) (y3 + y1 ) − (x 3 − x 2 ) (y 2 + y3 ) 2 2 2 1 = ⎡ ( x1 y1 + x1 y 2 − x 2 y1 − x 2 y 2 ) + ( x 3 y3 + x 3 y1 − x1 y3 − x1 y1 ) 2 ⎣ − ( x 3 y 2 + x 3 y 3 − x 2 y 2 − x 2 y3 ) ⎤ ⎦ =

= 1 ⎡ x1 y1 + x1 y 2 − x 2 y1 − x 2 y 2 + x 3 y3 + x 3 y1 − x1 y3 − x1 y1 2 ⎣ − x 3 y 2 − x 3 y 3 + x 2 y 2 + x 2 y3 ⎤ ⎦

We denote the area of the triangle by Δ. 1 Thus we have Δ = [ x1 (y 2 − y 3 ) + x 2 (y 3 − y1 ) + x 3 (y1 − y 2 )] square units. This is called 2 the area formula for a triangle.

Note: i) All areas are positive. So Δ (area) must be positive. In order that Δ should be positive, the points (x1, y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3) taken in order, should be in the counter clockwise direction (See Fig.7.11). If the points are taken in order are in the clockwise direction then the formula for the area yields a negative number (See Fig.7.12).

A C

B

C

B

A

Counter Clockwise Direction Fig.7.11

Clockwise Direction Fig.7.12

ii) If the three points (x1, y1) (x2, y2) and (x3, y3) are collinear, then the area of the triangle formed by them is 0, that is D C 1 [ x1 (y2 − y3 ) + x 2 (y3 − y1 ) + x 3 (y1 − y2 )] = 0 2 (or) x1 (y2 – y3) + x2 (y3 – y1) + x3 (y1 – y2) = 0 ∴ The condition for the collinearity of three given points (x1, y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3) is x1 (y2 – y3) + x2 (y3 – y1) + x3 (y1 – y2) = 0

A

B

Fig.7.13 iii) Using the area formula for a triangle, we can calculate the area of four sided geometrical figures such as quadrilateral by dividing the quadrilateral ABCD into two triangles ΔABD and ΔBCD having one diagonal BD as the common side (See Fig.7.13).

152

If we consider (–9.2) as B and (–3. that is they lie on a straight line.5). 153 . We can plot the points in the Cartesian plane and confirm ourself the above observation.y1) → (5. Solution: Let the given points be P. So that A. 7. then. the given points taken in order are in counter clockwise direction. Example 13 : Find the area of the triangle whose vertices are (4.5) as A. if we take (4.2) as B and (4.Example 12: Find the area of the triangle whose vertices are (5. 1 Area of Δ ABC = [(–9) (2+5) + 5 (–5+3) + (–3) (–3–2)] 2 1 1 1 [–63–10+15] = (–63+5) = (–58) = –29 = 2 2 2 We get a negative number for the area since the points (–9.2) [10 + 63 – 15] = 2 2 (x2. (4. (4.5) as C. (b. B and C respectively.14 Note : In case. (5.2) and (–3. (–9. 2).units.2).2) as C then we get the area of the ΔABC as –9 square units. –3) as A.14) we take y C (4. (4. –5) as C.2) 1 1 = [6+12+0] = (18) = 9 sq.B and C taken in order are in counter clockwise direction. –5) Note: Since the area is positive. x 2 2 0 Fig.Q and R respectively. c+a) and (c. –5). Then by the area formula Area of 1 Δ = [x1(y2–y3) + x2 (y3–y1) + x3 (y1–y2)] 2 1 Δ ABC = [(–2) (2–5) +4(5–2) +4 (2–2)] A B 2 (-2.–5) taken in order. the points are in clockwise direction). Example 14: Prove that the points (a. are not in counter clockwise direction (i.2) (4. –3) (x3.e. (5.y2) → (–9.Q.2) as B and (–2. ∴Area of the Δ ABC 1 1 = [5(–3+5) + (–9) (–5 –2) + (–3) (2+3)] Δ = [x1 (y2–y3) + x2 (y3–y1) + x3 (y1–y2)] 2 2 58 1 = = 29 square units (x1. Omit the minus sign and say that the area of ΔABC is 9 units.2) and (–2. 1 Area of Δ PQR = [a{(c+a) – (a+b)} + b{(a+b) – (b+c)}+c {(b+c) – (c+a)}] 2 1 1 1 = [a(c–b) + b(a–c) +c(b–a)] = [ac–ab + ba – bc + cb – ca] = (0) = 0 2 2 2 ∴ P.5) (–2. –3) and (–3.7.2) as A. Solution: Let the vertices be A.a+b) are in a straight line. Solution : From the rough sketch (See Fig.b+c).R are collinear.y3) → (–3. –3).

3). (4. Find the area of the quadrilateral whose vertices are i) (–1.-8) 2 B(-3.3).3).4) and (1.–1) iii) (5. –2) and (–3.–2).6) (–3. 4. (–7.9) and (5.-9) 1 y’ [(–1) (–1) + (–3) (–14) + 5(15)] = 2 Fig. If the point (x.6).–1) v) (1. iii) (5.6) and (–8.7. (5. 154 . (–1.1). (3.6) iv) (3.8) iii) (9. (1.2). Solution: Plotting the points roughly in the Cartesian plane (See Fig. x y 5. (3.b). If the points (2. C and D respectively. (–3.6) (–3.0) and (0.–6) and (4.–1) and (4.15 1 = [118] = 59 square units 2 1 Area of ΔACD = [(–1) (–8–9) +5(9–6)+3(6+8)] 2 1 = [(–1) (–17) + 5(3) + 3(14)] 2 1 1 = [17 + 15 + 42] = [74] = 37 square units. Find the area of the triangle whose vertices are i) (0.–7) and (1.1).6).4). Solution: Let the points be A. If (x. taken in order.–1) lie on a straight line find x.–9). (5. (r.4). (2.–6).–8) and (3. B. (4. (11. a b 6.4). x’ x O are in counter clockwise direction. (–3.5) ii) (– .1). 18 –18 + 6r = 0 or 6r = 18 or r= or r=3 y 6 D(3.–2) ii) (3.8).4).15) we find that (–1.7.–8) and (3. Then the area of ΔABC 1 = [(–1) (–9 +8) + (–3) (–8 –6) + 5(6+9)] C(5.6).–1) 2 3. then prove that + = 1 . (–5.3) and (4. (3.–11). (2. Then the area of ΔABC is 1 1 1 = [1(–2–16) + r(16 – 4) + (–3) (4+2)] = [(–18+12r–18)] = [–36 +12r] = –18 + 6r. (–8.4) and (5. Show that the following points are collinear 1 i) (3.–7). (3.6).6) and (5.b) are collinear. (6. (5.4). (–5.5). (–1.4). 2 2 2 If A. 2 2 ∴Area of the quadrilateral ABCD = Area of ΔABC + Area of ΔACD = 59 + 37 = 96 square units.y) is collinear with the points (a. find the relation between a and b.1) and (2.9) ii) (1. 16) are collinear find r.B and C are collinear. (5.6) and (a. Let these points be A.Example 15: If the points (1.0).9) Example 16 : Find the area of the quadrilateral formed by the points A(-1. (2.2 1. –9). Exercise 7. then the area of ΔABC is 0 and so.–2) 2.B and C respectively.9).–8).–3) iv) (1.–9).

17). The angle made by a straight line l with the positive direction of x-axis is called the inclination of a line. Then the x-coordinate of any point on l is clearly `a’. y Hence the equation of y-axis is x = 0. ⇒ the equation of the x-axis is y = 0. the x-co-ordinate of any point is zero. iii) The inclination of y-axis is 90o. Equation of a straight line parallel to the y-axis and at a distance `a’ from it is x = a Let l be a straight line parallel to the y-axis at a distance `a’ from it. iv) The inclination of every line parallel to y-axis is 90o.7. Therefore the equation of the straight line l is y = b (Fig. Results: o y=b b x’ O y’ Fig. If a straight line l cuts the x-axis at A and y-axis at B then the x coordinate of A that is OA is called the x-intercept and the y coordinate of B that is OB is called the y-intercept of the straight line (Fig. x=a x x a x’ O Fig. Equation of a straight line in various forms. Hence the equation of the straight line l is x = a (Fig.18). the y co-ordinate of any point is zero.7.16).3 STRAIGHT LINE y A linear equation or an equation of the first degree in x and y represents a straight line. Then the y-coordinate of every point on l is clearly b.16 We know that on the x-axis.7.7. The equation of a straight line is satisfied by the co-ordinates of every point lying on the straight line and not by any other point outside the straight line. 155 . ii) The inclination of every line parallel to x-axis is 0o. Similarly on the y-axis.18 i) The inclination of x-axis is 0 .7. that is y = 0. Equation of x-axis is y = 0 and Equation of y-axis is x = 0 x’ 0 y’ B x A Fig.7.7.17 Equation of a straight line parallel to the x-axis at a distance `b’ from x-axis is y = b y Let l be a straight line parallel to the x-axis at a distance ‘b’ from it.

y2) y Let BN be drawn perpendicular to the x-axis and AM perpendicular to BN meeting it at M.y 1 (x 1 A θ M θ C N x Fig. Let l1 and l2 be two parallel lines with slopes m1 and m2 and inclinations θ1 and θ2 respectively.21 ) .7.y2) is given by m = tan θ BM BN − MN BN − AC y 2 − y1 = = = = AM CN ON − OC x 2 − x 1 y − y2 y − y1 x’ or m = 1 ∴ m= 2 x1 − x 2 x 2 − x1 Condition for parallelism and perpendicularity y’ θ x’ 0 y’ x Fig.y 2 (x 2 B ) .20 y Slope of a straight line The tangent of the angle made by the straight line l with positive direction of the x-axis in the counter clockwise sense) is called the slope or gradient of the straight line.7.7.y y θ x’ x x’ 0 y’ y’ Fig. From the figure 7.y1) and B (x2. slope of the straight line = m = tan θ.19 θ x Fig.23).23 y’ 156 .7.21. The slope m of the straight line joining the points A (x1. Then m1 = tan θ1 and m2 = tan θ2 (Fig. let m1 = m2 ⇒ tan θ1 = tan θ2 ⇒ θ1 = θ2 ⇒ l1 || l2 x’ 0 θ2 θ1 x Fig.22 y 2 1 Two lines are parallel if and only if their slopes are equal.7. Given l1 || l2 l1 || l2 ⇒ θ1 = θ2 [corresponding angles] ⇒ tan θ1 = tan θ2 ⇒ m1 = m2 Conversely.7. Slope of the straight line joining the two points A(x1.y1) and B(x2.

y ) 0. Q l1 || l2 ⇔ m1 = m2 If the two lines l1 and l2 are perpendicular with slopes m1 and m2 then m1m2 = –1 Let the lines l1 and l2 intersect at B (x2.C A( θ M θ x’ C 0 y’ N x Fig. y − y3 Slope of l1 = m1 = 2 (1) A (x . Let P(x. y3) be any two points on the lines l1 and l2 respectively.y ) x2 − x3 y − y2 (2) Slope of l2 = m2 = 1 C (x . y1) and C(x3.7. ∴AB2 + BC2 = AC2 y’ (x1 – x2)2 + (y1– y2)2 + (x2 – x3)3 + (y2 – y3)2 = (x1 – x3)2 + (y1 – y3)2 Fig. y2). m2 = –1 by (1) & (2) ∴ If the two lines are perpendicular with the slopes m1 and m2 then m1 .[Q θ1 and θ2 are corresponding angles]. c).24). Since the slope of the line is m = tan θ.24 2 1 1 1 B (x 2 .7. Given that the straight line cuts off an intercept c on the y-axis implies that the line passes through A(0.y) be any point on the line.25 157 .y 2) 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 x1 + x 2 − 2x1 x 2 + y1 + y 2 − 2y1 y 2 + x 2 + x 3 − 2x 2 x 3 + y 2 + y3 2 2 2 2 2 − 2y 2 y3 = x1 + x 3 − 2x1 x 3 + y1 + y3 − 2y1 y3 2y22 – 2y1y2 – 2y2y3 + 2y1y3 = –2x22 + 2x1 x2 + 2x2 x3 – 2x1 x3 y22 – y2y3 – y1y2 + y1y3 = –x22 + x2 x3 – x1x3 + x1x2 y2 (y2–y3) – y1 (y2 – y3) = x2 (x3 – x2) – x1 (x3 – x2) (y2 – y3) (y2 – y1) = (x3 – x2) (x2 –x1) –(y2 – y3) (y1 – y2) = (x2 – x3) (x1 – x2) ⎡ y1 − y 2 ⎤ ⎡ y 2 − y 3 ⎤ ⎥ = –1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ x1 − x 2 ⎦ ⎣ x 2 − x 3 ⎦ ( ÷ by 2) ∴ m1 .7. from ΔAPM we get P( ) x. m2 = –1. y Now ∠ABC = 90o since l1 and l2 are perpendicular (Fig. Slope – intercept form y The equation of straight-line with slope m and having a y-intercept `c’ is y = mx + c. Let a line l have slope m and y-intercept c. Let θ be the angle made by the line with the positive direction of x-axis. A(x1. Draw PN perpendicular to x-axis and AM perpendicular to PN meeting it at M.y ) x1 − x 2 x’ x 0 Since ABC is a right angled triangle.

For a straight line passing through the origin. then the equation is y – 0 = m(x – 0). B( ) y2 x 1. Since the straight line passes through x 2 − x1 158 x 2. = y 2 − y1 x 2 − x 1 Let l be a straight line passing through A(x1.y2) is given by .y1) and B(x2. y1 = 0.y1) P(x.27 . y Slope – Point form The equation of a straight line with slope m and passing through a point (x1.7.y) x’ 0 θ x y’ Fig.m = tan θ = = PM PN − NM = AM ON PN − OA y − c = ON x (or) y = mx + c ⇒ y – c = mx Hence the equation of a straight line with slope m and having y-intercept c is y = mx+ c. Note: If the straight lines passes through the origin. its equation is y = mx.y) be any point on the given straight y − y1 line. Note : If the straight line passes through the origin. y intercept is zero ⇒ c = 0. 7. that is x1 = 0.y1) and (x2. y1) is y – y1 = m (x – x1). Then the slope of the straight line is y − y1 m= 2 . A( ) y1 x’ x 0 y’ Fig. Let P (x. But the x − x1 y − y1 slope is given to be m ⇒ m = x − x1 (or) y – y1 = m (x – x1).26 Hence the equation of a straight line with slope m and passing through the point Q (x1. Q(x1. Let the line l make an angle θ with the x-axis as shown in the Fig. Therefore its equation is y = mx. y Two-points form The equation of a straight line passing through two y − y1 x − x1 points (x1. ∴ y = mx.7.27. y1).7.y2) Fig. then the slope of the straight line is .26 and pass through the given point Q (x1. y1) is y – y1 = m (x – x1).

7. so that A is (a. a b Let l represents the given straight line which make intercepts a and b with x and y axes respectively.R are collinear (Fig. QS = x – x1 PS = y – y1 QT = x2 – x1 RT = y2 – y1 ΔQSP ||| ΔQTR PS QS PS RT ∴ QS QT RT QT y − y1 y 2 − y1 (or) = x − x1 x 2 − x1 y − y1 x − x1 = y 2 − y1 x 2 − x 1 x’ Hence the equation of the straight line passing through two given points is y − y1 x − x1 = . y − y1 y 2 − y1 ∴ Slope PQ = Slope of QR ⇒ = x − x1 x 2 − x1 y − y1 x − x1 .y 1) S T O y’ y x Fig. y 2 − y1 x 2 − x 1 Intercept form R(x2.29.y) .b).0) and B is (0.28 y’ y x 2.y1) x’ x 0 Fig.y1) and R(x2. y1) its equation is y-y1 = m (x–x1).b) b ) a.y2). y2) is given by y − y1 x − x1 = y y 2 − y1 x 2 − x 1 Let l be the line passing through Q(x1. y1) and (x2.y2) is y − y1 x − x1 = y 2 − y1 x 2 − x 1 Aliter: The equation of a line l passing through two points (x1. If it intersects x-axis at A and y-axis at B then we have OA = a and OB = b.7.y) Q(x1.30 159 . ⎡ y − y1 ⎤ y − y1 x − x1 y–y1 = ⎢ 2 = ⎥ (x − x 1 ) (or) y 2 − y1 x 2 − x 1 ⎣ x 2 − x1 ⎦ Hence the equation of the straight line l passing through two points (x1. The two points form of the equation is given by B(0. = y 2 − y1 x 2 − x 1 Aliter : From the figure 7.y) be any point on QR. R( P(x Q (x 1 y 2) .0 A( x’ a 0 x y’ Fig.y2) P(x.A(x1.7.y1) and (x2. 7. Let P(x.29 Equation of a straight line which makes intercepts a and x y b on the co-ordinate axes is + = 1.28).P. The points Q.

y2) we get y−0 x−a y x−a = = b−0 0−a b −a y x a y x = − = − +1 b −a −a b a x y ∴ + =1 a b Hence the equation of a line having x-intercept `a’ and y-intercept `b’ is given by x y + = 1. we get a = –7.b) for (x2.y − y1 x − x1 = y 2 − y1 x 2 − x 1 Substituting (a. ∴(–7. 160 . a c Further.y1) and (0. Solution : Slope = m = tan θ = tan 60o = 3.0) for (x1.2). Equation of the straight line in slope intercept form is y = mx + c (or) y= 3 x+0 (or) y= 3 x. ∴c = 0. Solution : Equation of a straight line parallel to y-axis is given by x = a (1) It is given that the straight line (1) passes through (–7. a b Note : A general first degree equation in two variables always represents a straight line.5). Hence. Since the straight line passes through the origin its y-intercept is zero. Solution : Equation of a line parallel to x-axis is given by y=b (1) It is given that the straight line (1) passes through (–3. Substituting y = 2 in (1) we get b = 2 ∴y = 2 Hence the required equation of the line is y – 2 = 0.2) should satisfy the equation (1). Hence we can take general equation of a straight line as ax + by + c = 0 with atleast one of a or b different from 0. ∴(–3. Example 18 : Find the equation of a straight line parallel to y-axis and passing through the point (–7.5).5) should satisfy the equation (1) substituting x = –7 in (1). this gives by = –ax – c or y = − x − b b Now comparing this with the equation y = mx + c we get slope = m = –a/b coefficient of x ∴m=– coefficient of y Example 17 : Find the equation of a straight line parallel to x-axis and passing through the point (–3. Example 19 : Find the equation of a straight line whose inclination with x-axis 60o and passes through the origin. x + 7 = 0 is the required straight line.2).

∴Slope of the required line is 3 1 (x1.3) and passing through the point (–3.4).Example 20 : Find the equation of a straight line whose inclination is 30o with the x-axis and whose y-intercept is –3. Solution : Slope of the straight line joining the points (7. 1 3 Solution : The equation is 3x + 2y + 1 = 0 (or) 2y = –3x – 1 (or) y = – x − 2 2 3 1 Comparing this with the equation y = mx + c. 1 .–7) (or) y + 7 = 4x–20 m = 4 (or) 4x – y – 27 = 0 y – y1 = m (x–x1) in the slope – point form Example 24: Find the equation of a straight line parallel to the line joining the points (7. 2 2 Example 23 : Find the equation of a straight line whose slope is 4 and which passes through the point (5. Example 21 : Find the equation of a straight line whose slope is Solution : Slope m = 3 and y-intercept is – 4. Example 22 : The equation of a straight line is 3x + 2y + 1 = 0 find its slope and y-intercept.y1) = (5.–7) is y – (–7) = 4 (x–5) (x1. 2 2 3 1 ∴ Slope = − . ∴ The required equation is y = x – 3 (or) 3 y = x – 3 3 (or) 3 x – 3 y–3 3 = 0.–7).3) is y − y1 3−5 −2 1 = = m= 2 m= x 2 − x1 1− 7 − 6 3 1 m= 3 1 If two straight lines are parallel then their slopes are equal. 4 3 . y-intercept = − .5) and (1. m= − . c = –4 4 3 x–4 (or) 4y = 3x–16 (or) 3x – 4y – 16 = 0. Solution : Equation of a straight line with the slope 4 and passing through the point (5. 4 Equation of the straight line is y = mx + c. The equation of the straight line in slope intercept form is 1 y = mx + c. Solution : Slope of the given straight line is m = tan 30o = 3 The y-intercept is c = –3.5) and (1. y = ∴The required equation is 3x – 4y – 16 = 0. c=− . 161 .y1) = (–3.4) y–4 = (x + 3) 3 3y – 12 = x+3 y – y1 = m(x – x1) x – 3y + 15 = 0 Hence the required equation is x – 3y + 15 = 0.

Slope of the given straight line = –5/4.3) 3y – 9 = 5x – 5 y – y1 = m(x – x1) 5x – 3y + 4 = 0 Example 27 : Find the equation of a straight line through (0. Example 26 : Find the equation of the straight line through (1. ⎛ y 2 − y1 ⎞ −3−4 7 Slope of BC = =− ⎜Q m = ⎟ x 2 − x1 ⎠ 5+3 8 ⎝ If two lines are perpendicular m1m2 = –1.y1) = (0. 162 .–3).5) and (1.Example 25 : Find the equation of the straight line passing through the point (3.2) is ⎛ y 2 − y1 ⎞ 2−5 −3 = m= =1 ⎜Q m = ⎟ x 2 − x1 ⎠ 1− 4 − 3 ⎝ m=1 If the two straight lines are perpendicular m1 × m2 = –1 Slope of the perpendicular straight line is = –1/m = –1/1 = –1.2). (–3.y1) = (1.2) to the opposite side.2) and perpendicular to the straight line joining the points (4.5) and (1.3). −coefficient of x m= ∴ Slope of a perpendicular line = 4/5 coefficient of y The straight line passes through (0.4) and C(5.2).3) is y – 3 = 5/3 (x – 1) (x1.3) and parallel to a straight line 5x – 3y + 1 = 0. ⎛ −coefficient of x ⎞ Solution : Equation of the given straight line is 5x – 3y + 1 = 0 ⎜Q m = ⎟ coefficient of y ⎠ ⎝ ⇒ Slope of the line = –5/–3 = 5/3 The straight line passes through (1. B(–3.7) If two lines are perpendicular ∴Equation of the line is y – 7 = 4/5 (x – 0) m1m2 = –1 5y – 35 = 4x (x1.7) and perpendicular to a straight line 5x + 4y + 11 = 0. ⇒ The equation of the straight line with slope 5/3 and passing through the point (1.4) and (5. Solution : Slope of the straight line joining the points (4. Slope of the altitude through A = 8/7. Solution : Equation of the given straight line is 5x + 4y + 11 = 0.2). Find the equation of the altitude from (1. ∴Slope of the required straight line is –1. Since the altitude through A is perpendicular to BC.–3).7) 4x – 5y + 35 = 0 y–y1 = m(x–x1) Example 28 : The vertices of a triangle are (1. Solution : Let the vertices be A(1. ∴ The required equation is y – 2 = –1 (x – 3) y – y1 = m(x – x1) (or) y – 2 = –x + 3 (or) x + y – 5 = 0 The required equation of the line is x + y – 5 = 0.

7. Let D be the mid point of BC.1) and B(–2. ⎡ x + x 2 y1 + y 2 ⎤ ⎡− 3 +1 3 + 7⎤ Solution : Mid point of AB = ⎢ Mid point = ⎢ 1 . 2 ⎥ ⎣ 2 ⎦ The median AD passes through A (–2.2) and C(7.2). . Find the equation of the median through A.5) x+y–4=0 y – y1 = m(x – x1) Example 30 : Find the equation of the straight line which joins the points A(5.y1) = (–1.5) 2 ⎦ 2 ⎥ ⎣ 2 ⎣ 2 ⎦ y − y1 m= 2 x 2 − x1 3−7 −4 Slope of AB = = =1 − 3 −1 − 4 ∴ Slope of a perpendicular line = –1 Now equation of the perpendicular bisector passing through the mid point (–1. B(1.-8) Fig.1) and B(–2. B(1.5) with slope –1 is y – 5 = –1 (x+1) m = –1 y – 5 = –x – 1 (x1.31 ⎡1 + 7 2 − 8 ⎤ .2) and C(7. –3) ∴ Mid point of BC = ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎣ 2 ⎦ ⎡ x + x 2 y1 + y 2 ⎤ Mid point = ⎢ 1 . Solution : Given that the vertices of the triangle ABC are A(–2. Solution : The given points are A(5.2) D C(7.8). B(1.2).8).7) and B(–3. –8). = (4.Altitude passes through the point A(1. Example 31 : The vertices of a triangle ABC are A(–2.–8). ⇒ The equation of the straight line is y – 2 = 8/7 (x–1) 7y – 14 = 8x – 8 (or) 8x – 7y + 6 = 0 ( y – y1 = m(x – x1)) Example 29 : Find the equation of the perpendicular bisector of the line joining the points A(1. ⎥ = (−1.8) and D(4. ∴ The equation of AD is 163 .2). ∴The equation of the straight line joining A and B is y − y1 x − x1 y −1 x −5 = = 2 −1 − 2 − 5 y 2 − y1 x 2 − x 1 y −1 x − 5 (or) –7y + 7 = x – 5 = +1 −7 A(-2.8) ∴The required equation is x + 7y – 12 = 0.–3).3).

y−7 x −1 Solution : Equation of AB is = − 2 − 7 0 −1 B(0.5) and (9. (7.32 (or) y+2 x = 5 3 (or) 3y + 6 = 5x (or) 5x – 3y – 6 = 0 Equation of AC is y − 7 x −1 (or) = 3 − 7 3 −1 y − 7 x −1 = −4 2 2y –14 = –4x + 4 (or) 4x + 2y – 18 = 0 (or) 2x + y – 9 = 0.7) (1.1) what is k? Solution : Equation of the given straight line is 7x – 5y = k (1) This straight line passes through (1.–2) and C(3.1) in the equation (1) 7(1) – 5(1) = k 2 = k ∴k=2 Example 34 : Find the equation of the sides of the triangle ABC whose vertices are A(1.3). 164 .2). –3) Example 32 : Show that the points (4. B(0.-2) D C(3. y − y1 x − x1 y−2 x−4 Equation of AB is = = 5−2 7−4 y 2 − y1 x 2 − x 1 y−2 x-4 = 3 3 ∴x–y–2=0 (1) Substituting (9.7). y2) = (4.7) satisfies the equation of AB.3) y − 7 x −1 = −9 −1 or 9x – y – 2 = 0 or Equation of BC is y+2 x−0 = 3+ 2 3−0 or –y + 7 = –9x + 9 Fig.7) lies on the straight line AB ⇒ The points are collinear. B(7.7) in the equation (1) x – y – 2 = 0 (or) 9–7–2=0 (or) 0 = 0 ∴ (9.7.1).7). Solution : The given points are A(4. y1) = (− 2.y−8 x+2 = −3−8 4+ 2 y −8 x + 2 = 6 − 11 6y – 48 = –11x – 22 11x + 6y – 26 = 0 y − y1 x − x1 = y 2 − y1 x 2 − x 1 (x1.7) are collinear. 8) (x2. Example 33 : If the straight line 7x – 5y = k passes through the point (1.5) and C(9. Hence C(9. Substituting A(1.2).

1 1 Product of the slopes = m1 m2 = × (–2) = –1. Solution : Let the triangle be ABC. 6 + 5 11 A F(6. CA and AB respectively. The co-ordinates of D. 165 .3) and (6.6) respectively.–3) is 3 y+3= (x – 5) or 11y + 33 = 3x – 15 or 3x – 11y – 48 = 0 11 ∴Equation of BC is 3x – 11y – 48 = 0 Again. 2 Hence the two straight lines are perpendicular to each other. Find the equation of the sides of the triangle.3) and (6.-3) C Fig.7. DF || CA ∴Slope of AC = slope of DF = 6+3 9 = =9 6−5 1 ∴9x –y + 48 = 0 3+3 6 −3 = = − 5 − 5 − 10 5 3 ∴Equation of AB is y – 6 = − (x – 6) (or) 5y – 30 = –3x + 18.–3).33 D (5. ∴Equation of AC is y – 3 = 9 (x + 5) (or) Lastly. −1 1 − coefficient of x m= Solution : Slope of the straight line x – 2y = 0.–3) is a point on the line BC.6) E(-5. Let D.3) B D(5. ∴ 3x + 5y – 48 = 0 5 Example 36 : Show that the straight lines x – 2y = 0 and 2x + y + 1 = 0 are perpendicular to each other.–3). Slope of AB = slope of DE = Example 37 : Is the straight line x = 2y parallel to 2x – 4y + 7 = 0? Solution : Slope of the straight line x – 2y = 0 is −1 1 m1 = = −2 2 Slope of the straight line 2x – 4y + 7 = 0 is E(–5. ∴ Equation of BC with slope 3/11 and passing through the point D(5. The line joining the mid points of two sides of a triangle is parallel to the third side ∴ BC || EF 6−3 3 ∴ Slope of BC = Slope of EF = = . E and F are (5. (–5.3) is a point on AC.Example 35 : The mid points of three sides of a triangle are (5.6). is m1 = = −2 2 coefficient of y −2 Slope of the line 2x + y + 1 = 0 is m2 = = –2. DE || AB y – 3 = 9x + 45. (–5.E and F be the mid points of BC.

5) should satisfy (1) ∴ 6–5 = a. x y Solution: Equation of the straight line in the intercept form is + = 1 (1) a b Given. ∴The required equation of the straight line in the intercept form is x y x – y = a . sum of the intercepts = 8 ⇒ a + b = 8. Solution : a = x – intercept = 1/3.).. m2 = Example 38 : Find the equation of the straight line whose intercepts on the axes are given by 1/3 and 2/5 respectively. b = y – intercept = 2/5 x y x y ∴Equation of the straight line is given by + =1 Q + =1 1/3 2/5 a b 5y or 3x + = 1 ∴6x + 5y – 2 = 0 2 Example 39 : Find the intercepts made by the straight line 3x –2y – 6 = 0 on the axes of co–ordinates. Solution : Equation of the straight line is 3x – 2y = 6 3x 2y Dividing the equation by 6 (to get 1 in the R.10) and whose sum of the intercepts is 8. a = 1 ∴From (1) the equation of the required straight line is x – y = 1 or x – y – 1 = 0 Example 41: Find the equation of the straight line passing through (–3...5) ⇒ (6. =1 a 8−a a(8 − a) 166 . Solution : Let the intercepts on the axes be a and –a. (1) + =1 a −a This straight line passes through the point (6.S. b = 8 – a y x Substituting in (1) we get + =1 (2) a 8−a This straight line passes through (–3.5) with intercepts on the axes are equal in magnitude but opposite in sign. − =1 6 6 x y x y The equation can be rewritten as + = 1 and comparing with the equation + = 1 2 −3 a b ∴ we get x–intercept = 2.−2 1 1 = ⇒ m1 = m2 = 2 −4 2 Since the slopes are equal the two straight lines are parallel..H.10) should satisfy (2) −3 10 −3(8 − a) + 10a + = 1. y – intercept = –3 Example 40 : Find the equation of the straight line passing through (6.10) ⇒ (–3..

5x + 3y – 5 = 0 y Example 43: Find the equation of the straight line the portion of which between the axes is divided by the point (4. b = 8 – (–8) = 8 + 8 = 16 x y when a = 3 and b = 5 the equation of the straight line is + = 1 ⇒ 3 5 5x + 3y = 15 or 5x + 3y – 15 = 0 x y when a = –8 and b = +16. 2x – y + 16 = 0 16 Example 42 : Find the equation of the straight line through the point (4.b) respectively.–5) and having x and y intercepts in the ratio 3:5. The straight line BA is divided by the point (4.0)A x y’ Fig.35 .3) internally in the ratio 3:2. 0) (0.–5) in the equation 5x + 3y = 15k we get 5(4) + 3(–5) = 15k or 20 – 15 = 15k or 5 = 15k ∴ k = 1/3 Hence the equation of the line is 5x + 3y = 15 (1/3). –2x + y = 16.3) 2 x’ 0 (a.34 3 (4.b) Hence by (1) the required straight line is given by x y + = 1. Solution : Let the intercepts on the axes be a and b It is given a : b = 3:5 ⇒ a = 3k and b = 5 k x y Now the equation becomes + = 1. 5x + 3y = 15k 3k 5k Substituting (4. 3× a + 2 × 0 20 ⇒4= ⇒ 20 = 3a ∴a = 3+ 2 3 3 ×0 + 2× b 15 ⇒3= ⇒ 15 = 2b ∴ b = 3+ 2 2 B (0. when a = –8.3) in the ratio 2:3. 20 15 167 Fig.0) and B(0. the equation of the straight line is + =1 − 8 16 − 2x + y = 1 .7. b = 8 – a = 8 – 3 = 5. a = – 8 when a = 3. (20/3) (15/2) 3x 2y (or) + = 1 or 9x + 8y = 60.7.b)B 3 (4.3) 2 A (a. Solution : Let the equation of the straight line be x y + =1 a b (1) This straight line meets the x and y axes at A(a.–24 + 3a + 10a = 8a – a2 (a – 3) (a + 8) = 0 or or a2 + 5a – 24 = 0 a = 3.

–4) and which passes through (–3. Find the equation of the median through A. 2. Find the equation of the straight line parallel to the straight line given by the equation (i) 5x – 3y +1 = 0 and which passes through (2.1) (ii) 3x + 2y – 1 = 0 and which passes through (1. B(0.–2) (ii) (3.3) to the opposite side. Find (i) the slope of the straight line (ii) the inclination of the straight line. (ii) Find the equation of the perpendicular bisector of the straight line joining (5.2) and R(8.1) and which passes through (–9.–2).5) are the vertices of the triangle PQR.5) and which passes through (2.2) (iv) (0. 12.0) and (3. 8.6) and (2.–4). 4. Q(–8.3). (ii) Find the equation of the median through R if P(0. Show that the following points are collinear. Find the equation of a straight line (i) Whose slope is –3 and which passes through the point (–2. Find the equation of the straight line perpendicular to the straight line given by the equation (i) x – 2y + 1 = 0 and which passes through (2.3) and (4. (i) (0.7) and (2.16) (ii) (2.Exercise 7. Find the equation of the straight line parallel to the straight line joining the point. 5. (i) ABC is a triangle with vertices A(3.3) (ii) Whose slope is –5/3 and which passes through the point (–3.3 1.7) and (2.4) (ii) 4x – 3y + 2 = 0 and which passes through (–2. (i) 3x + 2y = 4 (ii) 2x = y 6.5) and (–3.–6). (i) Find the equation of a straight line parallel to x-axis and which passes through the point (2.–3).6) and (–2.2). (i) Find the equation of the altitude AD of triangle ABC where A.1) and which passes through (–9.5).1) 14. (i) Find the equation of the perpendicular bisector of PQ where Pis (5. (1. 9.–5). (iii)Find the equation of the median from A in triangle ABC with vertices A(5.–11). Find the slope and y-intercept of the straight line. Find the equation of a straight line whose inclination is 60o and y-intercept – 3.4) and (–3.–6) and Q is (5.8) and (3.4) and C(6.–3) (–2. 168 .2).–4). Find the equation of the straight line which joins the points. 11. 3.B and C are points (1.–2). (i) (3.–3).2) and C(6. B(–11.3) and B(4. Find the equation of the altitude from (1.1) and (1.1) 7.3).4) (ii) (0.3). Find the equation of a straight line whose slope is 3 and y-intercept – 2/3. (ii) The vertices of a triangle are (1. 13.6).1) (iii) (0. (–2. Find the equation of the straight line perpendicular to the straight line joining (i) (3. 10.–5). 15.5). (i) A(–1.5) (iii) Whose slope is 2/3 and which passes through the point (3. The equation of a straight line is 2x–2 3 y – 3 = 0.4) and (3. (4.5) (ii) (2.2) and (6.4) respectively. (ii) Find the equation of a straight line parallel to y-axis and which passes through the point (–3.

–5) and (2. 29. Find the value of k if the straight lines x + 2y +1 = 0 and 3x + ky + 5 = 0 are parallel. If the vertices of a triangle ABC are A(1. Show that the straight line 3x + 4y + 7 = 0 and 28x – 21y + 50 = 0 are perpendicular to each other. 19. 23.5) and making equal intercepts on the axes of coordinates. (ii) Find the equation of the side BC of triangle ABC if the mid points of the sides BC. Find the equation of the straight line which makes intercepts of 2a on the x-axis and 3a on the y-axis. 31. 28.3) and (3.5) and C(2.–1) and whose intercepts on the axes of coordinates are equal in magnitude but opposite in sign. Then find the equation of the sides. 169 . 27. Prove that the straight lines x + 2y + 1 = 0 and 2x – y + k = 0 are perpendicular for all values of k. 20.2 (ii) 4. Find the value of k if the following point (i) (1. (–5.2) lies on the straight line x – ky = 5 18. Find the equation of the straight line passing through (3. Find the equation of the straight line passing through (2.7).4) and has intercepts which are in the ratio 3:5.1) lies on the straight line 2x + ky + 1 = 0 (ii) (1. 26. given that the straight line passes through the point (14. Find the equation of the straight line passing through (4.1). Find the intercepts made by the following straight lines on the axes of co-ordinates (i) 4x + 3y + 12 = 0 (ii) 5x + y + 3 = 0 22.1) respectively. Find the equation of the straight line whose intercepts on the axes of co–ordinates are given below (i) 3.4) and makes intercepts on the axes of coordinates such that their sum is 14. (i) Find the equation of the sides of triangle ABC whose three sides BC.2) and having its y-intercept twice as its x-intercept. 24. Show that the straight lines 3x + 4y+ 7 = 0 and 21x + 28y + 50 = 0 are parallel. Find the equation of the straight line passing through (5.3/4 21.2) lies on the straight line 2x – y + 3 = 0 (b. Find the equation of the straight line passing through (1.–4) respectively.0) lies on the straight line 4x – 3y – 8 = 0 (1.–5). Find the equation of the straight line which passes through the point (3.16. CA and AB are (–5.–4) and making equal intercepts on the axes of coordinates.–3 (iii) –2.a) lies on the straight line ax + by – 2ab = 0 17. B(3. 32.0) lies on the straight line x + 3y – 1 = 0 (1.2). Check whether (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (2. (5. CA and AB have mid points at (2.–2) lies on the straight line 3x + 12y + k = 0 (iii) (1. 30.–9). 25.

Solution : Solving the two equations of the intersecting straight lines.–1) and parallel to the straight line 2x – y + 5 = 0.7.–10) Example 46 : Find the equation of the straight line passing through the point of intersection of the straight lines. Solution : Equation of the given straight line is 6x – 3y – 30 = 0 (1) i) Let the straight line meet the x-axis at A. y = 3 – 4 or y = –1 The point of intersection of two straight lines is (2.–1). 2x – 3y = 6 (1) (2) × 3 ⇒ 3x + 3y = 9 (3) (1) + (3) ⇒ 5x = 15 ∴ x = 3 Substituting x = 3 in equation (2) we get 3 + y = 3 or y = 0 Hence the point of intersection of the straight lines is (3. Then the y-coordinate of A is y = 0 ∴ Substituting y = 0 in the equation (1) we get. Example 45: Where does the straight line 6x – 3y – 30 = 0 meet (i) x – axis (ii) y – axis. 2x + y = 3 and 3x – y = 7 and is parallel to 2x – y + 5 = 0. Fig. If the equations of two intersecting straight lines are given.1 SOME PROPERTIES OF STRAIGHT LINES Intersection of two straight lines If two straight lines are not parallel then they will meet at a point.30 = 0 x’ O y’ A x ii) Let the straight line meets the y-axis at B. –3y = 30 or y = 30/–3 = –10 ⇒ The straight line meets the y-axis at B(0. Slope of the line 2x – y + 5 = 0 is = –2/–1 = 2 170 . 6(0) –3y – 30 = 0.0). Example 44 : Find the point of intersection of the straight lines 2x – 2y = 6 and x + y = 3 Solution: Let us solve the equation 2x – 3y = 6 (1) x+ y=3 (2) We have.3y . then their point of intersection is obtained by solving the equations simultaneously.7.4.0). This common point for both straight lines is called the point of intersection. 6x – 3(0) – 30 = 0 or 6x = 30 or x = 30/6 = 5 ⇒ The straight line meets the x-axis at A (5. 2x + y = 3 (1) 3x – y = 7 (2) (1) + (2) 5x =10 x =2 Substituting the value of x = 2 in (1) we get 2(2) + y = 3.36 Then the x-coordinate of B is 0 Substituting x = 0 in the equation (1) we get. The required straight line passes through (2.4 7. y B 6x .

y = –48/–8 = 6 ⇒ Point of intersection of the straight lines is (5.4) and (8.6) with slope –1/2 is y – 6 = –1/2 (x – 5) or 2y – 12 = –x + 5 or x + 2y = 17 Hence the required equation of the straight line is x + 2y – 17 = 0 Example 48 : The straight lines x + y – 5 = 0 and 2x + 3y = 13 are diameters of a circle. Find the coordinates of the point.1) lies on the circle.1).3).6). Hence solving x+y–5 =0 (1) 2x + 3y = 13 (2) (1) x 2 ⇒ 2x + 2y = 10 (3) (2) – (3) ⇒ y =3 Substituting y = 3 in (1) x + y – 5 = 0.1). Radius = (2 − 2) 2 + (1 − 3) 2 = 02 + (−2) 2 = 4 units Q d = (x 2 − x1 ) 2 + (y 2 − y1 ) 2 Radius = 2 units Example 49 : A point is collinear with the points (3. Given that the point (2. It also lies on the straight line 2x + y + 1 = 0. let us solve 5x – 8y + 23 = 0 (1) 7x + 6y – 71 = 0 (2) (1) x 6 ⇒ 30x – 48y + 138 = 0 (3) (2) x 8 ⇒ 56x + 48y – 568 = 0 (4) 430 (or) x = (3) + (4) ⇒ 86x – 430 = 0 (or) 86x = 430 =5 86 Substituting x = 5 in (1) 5(5) – 8y + 23 = 0.3) (or) the centre of the circle is (2. ⇒ Radius = Distance between the centre (2. we get x + 3 – 5 = 0 or x = 2. Find the radius of the circle if the circle passes through the point (2. Solution : The centre of the circle is the point of intersection of the diameters. Example 47 : Find the equation of the straight line passing through the point of intersection of the straight lines 5x – 8y + 23 = 0 and 7x + 6y – 71 = 0 and perpendicular to the straight line 4x – 2y = 3.–1) with slope m = 2 is y – (–1) = 2 (x – 2) or y + 1 = 2x – 4 or 2x – y – 5 = 0 Hence the required equation of the straight line is 2x – y – 5 = 0. Hence the equation of the straight line passing through (2. Solution : To find the point of intersection of the straight lines. –8y = –48.5). ⇒ The point of intersection is (2.3) and the point (2.⇒ Slope of the straight line parallel to 2x – y + 5 = 0 is 2. Slope of straight line 4x –2y = 3 is –4/–2 = 2 ⇒ Slope of the straight line perpendicular to the straight line 4x – 2y = 3 is –1/2 Hence the equation of the straight line passing through the point (5. 171 .

5) as follows. Hence solving x – 5y + 17 = 0 (1) 2x + y + 1 = 0 (2) (2) × 5 ⇒ 10x + 5y + 5 = 0 (3) (1) ⇒ x – 5y + 17 = 0 (1) + (3) ⇒ 11x + 22 = 0 11x = –22 or x = –22/11 = –2 Substituting the value of x in (1) x = –5y + 17 = 0 or –2 –5y + 17 = 0 or –5y + 15 = 0 A(3.5) is y − y1 x − x1 y−4 x −3 y−4 x −3 or = = = 5−4 8−3 1 5 y 2 − y1 x 2 − x 1 5y – 20 = x – 3. –y = –1. –4 – y + 5 = 0.Solution : The required point is collinear with (3.3). Fig.1) and P(–2.7. Now we can find the equation of the straight line joining the points (1.1) and the point of intersection of the straight lines 2x – y + 5 = 0 and x + y + 1 = 0. y = 3/–3 = –1 ∴ y = –1 Hence the point of intersection of the straight lines (1) and (2) is (1.4) or –5y = –15.37 Example 50: Find the length of the straight line segment joining the point (3. x – 5y + 17 = 0 B(8.1) ⇒ 2(–2) – y + 5 = 0. Solution : Let the straight lines 2x – y + 5 = 0 and x + y + 1 = 0 P intersect at P. The required point is (–2.1).38 Let A(3.7. 5(1) – 3y = 8.5) and the point of intersection of the straight lines 5x – 3y = 8 and 2x – 3y = 5. 172 2x . Fig.4) and (8. The equation of the straight line joining the points (3. –1).1).5) and lies on the straight line 2x + y + 1 = 0.5) The required point is the point of intersection of x – 5y + 17 = 0 and 2x + y + 1 = 0. The distance between the points A(3.1) be the given point. –y + 1 = 0. ⇒ 2x +y + 1= 0 x+ = 0 y+ + 5 1= -y 0 = (−2 − 3) 2 + (1 − 1) 2 = 25 = 5 units Hence the length of the required straight line segment is 5 units. Example 51 : Find the equation of the straight line joining the point (4. y = 1 ⇒ The straight lines intersect at (–2. let us solve : 5x – 3y = 8 (1) 2x – 3y = 5 (2) (1) – (2) ⇒ 3x = 3 (or) x = 1 Substituting the value of x in (1) 5x – 3y = 8. y = 3.4) and (8. Let us solve the equations 2x – y + 5 = 0 (1) x+y+1=0 (2) (1) + (2) ⇒ 3x + 6=0 3x = – 6 (or) x = –6/3 or x = –2 substituting the value of x in (1) 2x – y + 5 = 0 A(3.–1) and (4. Solution : In order to get the point of intersection of the straight lines. –3y = 8 – 5 =3.

173 . x + y = 3 or 2 + y = 3 or y = 3 – 2 = 1. Find the equation of the straight line parallel to y-axis and passing through the point of intersection of the straight lines x + y – 5 = 0 and 2x + 3y = 13. Find the point of intersection of the straight lines (i) 2x + 3y = 8.1). 2.1) and (–2.1 1.3) y −1 x − 2 y −1 x − 2 or = = 3 − 1 −2 − 2 2 −4 –4y + 4 = 2x – 4 (or) 2x + 4y – 8 = 0 (or) x + 2y – 4 = 0 Hence the required equation is x + 2y – 4 = 0. Example 52: Find the equation of the straight line through the point of intersection of the straight lines x + y = 3 and 2x + y = 5 and bisecting the line segment joining the points (1. Exercise 7. 7.3) . Solution : In order to get the point of intersection of the straight lines. ⇒ The point of intersection of (1) and (2) is (2.5) and (–5. Find the radius of the circle if the point (0. Find the coordinates of the point of intersection of the following pairs of straight lines (i) x= –4.4. 5.1) lies on the circle. =⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎣ 2 ⎦ The required equation of the straight line through the points (2. 2x – 3y = 4.1) ⎡1 − 5 5 + 1⎤ = (–2. The straight lines x + y – 5 = 0 and 3x – y + 1 = 0 are the diameters of a circle. let us solve x+y =3 (1) 2x + y = 5 (2) Subtracting –x = –2 (or) x = 2 Substituting x = 2 in (1). 6. 5x – y = 10.5) and (–5. Where does the straight line 4x + 3y – 12 =0 meet the axis of coordinates? 3. 4. 8. Find the coordinates of the vertices of a triangle the equations of whose sides are x + 4y = 9. Find the point of intersection of the straight lines 2x + y – 1 = 0 and x – 3y + 3 = 0 and also find the equation of the straight line parallel to x-axis which passes through the point of intersection of these lines. 9x + 10y + 23 = 0 and 7x + 2y = 11.y +1 x −1 or = 5 +1 4 −1 6x – 3y – 9 = 0 2x – y – 3 = 0 y +1 x −1 = 6 3 or 3y + 3 = 6x – 6 ( Dividing by 3) Hence the required equation of the straight line is 2x – y – 3 = 0. y = 0 (ii) y = 0. Find the equation of the straight line passing through the point of intersection of the straight lines 2x –y + 5 = 0 and x + y + 1 = 0 and parallel to the straight line 3x – y + 1 = 0.1). (ii) 3x + 5y = 6. The mid point of the straight line joining the points (1. x = 3.

13. Find the coordinates of the point. Check whether the third equation is satisfied. Substitute the co-ordinates of the point of intersection in the third equation.2).5) and (1. Example 53: Show that the straight lines 2x – 3y + 4 = 0.2).1). If it is satisfied. iii.4) and the point of intersection of the straight lines 2x + 5y – 25 = 0 and 5x + 4y – 20 = 0.3) and (–4. Find the length of the straight line segment joining the point (3.2) and (3.4. It also lies on the straight line x – 3y + 2 = 0. 14. Find the equation of the straight line joining the point (2. 15. Find the equation of the straight line passing through the point of intersection of 4x–y–3=0 and x + y – 2 = 0 and perpendicular to 2x – 5y + 3 = 0. 7.9. Steps to find out whether the three given straight lines are concurrent i.2 Concurrency of straight lines If three or more straight lines passes through the same point then that common point is called the point of concurrency.3) and the point of intersection of the straight lines x + y – 5 = 0 and 3x – y + 1 = 0.2) and (2. the point lies on the third line and so the three straight lines are concurrent.1). Solve any two equations of the straight lines and obtain their point of intersection. Find the equation of the straight line through the point of intersection of the straight lines 2x + y – 5 = 0 and x + y – 3 = 0 and bisecting the straight line segment joining the points (2. 9x + 5y = 19 and 2x – 7y + 12 = 0 are concurrent.1).Find the equation of the straight line passing through the point of intersection of the straight lines 2x + y – 3 = 0 and 5x + y – 6 = 0 and perpendicular to the line joining the points (1. ii.Find the length of the straight line segment which joins the point of intersection of the straight lines 2x + y – 3 = 0 and 5x +y – 6 = 0 and the mid point of the straight line joining the points (7. 10. or 3y = 6 6 y= =2 3 ∴The point of intersection of (1) and (2) is (1. 11. 174 . iv. Solution : The given equations are 2x – 3y + 4 = 0 (1) 9x + 5y = 19 (2) 2x – 7y + 12 = 0 (3) Let us solve equations (1) and (2) (1) x 5 ⇒ 10x – 15y + 20 = 0 (4) (2) x 3 ⇒ 27x + 15y – 57 = 0 (5) (4) + (5) ⇒ 37x – 37 = 0 37 x= =1 37 Substituting x = 1 in (1) 2x – 3y + 4 = 0 we get 2(1) – 3y + 4 = 0.A point is collinear with the points (7. Find the point of concurrency. 12.

we get 2(1) – 7(2) + 12 = 0 or 2 – 14 + 12 = 0 or –12 + 12 = 0. Solution: Let us solve the equations 2x + y – 1 = 0 (1) 3x + 2y – 2 = 0 (2) 2x + ay – 3 = 0 (3) (1) × 2 ⇒ 4x + 2y – 2 = 0 (4) 3x + 2y – 2 = 0 (2) (4) – (2) ⇒ x = 0 Substituting x = 0 in (1) 2x + y – 1 = 0.4) is y – 4 = 5(x – 1) or y – 4 = 5x – 5 or 5x – y – 1 = 0 Example 56 : Find the equation of the straight line which is concurrent with the straight lines x – y – 2 = 0 and 3x + 4y + 15 = 0 and also concurrent with the straight lines x – 3y + 3 = 0 and 2x + y = 8. ⇒ The point of intersection is (–1. ⇒ Slope of the required line = 5. Solution : We can get the point of intersection by solving the equations. Example 54 : Find the value of `a’ for which the straight lines 2x + y – 1 = 0. So the point (1. Hence the three straight lines are concurrent. we get 2(0) + y – 1 = 0 or y = 1.1) lies on the straight line 2x + ay – 3 = 0 ⇒ 2(0) + a(1) – 3 = 0 or a – 3 = 0 or a = 3.1). Find its equation. 0 = 0. Slope of 5x – y + 2 = 0 is –5/–1 = 5. Again we can get the point of intersection by solving the equations x – 3y + 3 = 0 (4) 175 . The required straight line is parallel to the straight line 5x – y + 2 = 0. Hence the equation of the line with slope 5 and passing through (1. ⇒ The third equation is satisfied. (0. The point of concurrency is (1.Now substituting x = 1 and y = 2 in equation (3) 2x –7y + 12 = 0. ⇒ The point of intersection of (1) and (2) is (0. Since the three lines are concurrent. we get –1 –y – 2 = 0 or –y = 3 or y = –3. Example 55 : A straight line is concurrent with the straight lines x + y – 5 = 0 and 3x –y + 1 = 0 and is parallel to 5x – y + 2 = 0. –3). ⇒ The required point of intersection is (1. 2x + ay – 3 = 0 and 3x + 2y – 2 = 0 are concurrent. Solution : Let us find the point of intersection of the straight lines x+y–5 = 0 (1) 3x – y + 1 = 0 (2) (1) + (2) ⇒ 4x – 4 = 0 x= 1 Substituting x = 1 in equation (1) x + y – 5 = 0 we get 1 + y – 5 = 0 or y = 4.2) lies on the third straight line.4). x–y–2 = 0 (1) 3x + 4y + 15 = 0 (2) (1) × 4 ⇒ 4x – 4y – 8 = 0 (3) 3x + 4y + 15 = 0 (2) (3) + (2) ⇒ 7x + 7 = 0 x = –1 Substituting x = –1 in x – y – 2 = 0.2).

(x2. x + my – 3 = 0 (ii) 3x – 4y + 5 = 0. 3x + 8y = 11 (ii) x + y – 3 = 0. (5) (4) (6) Now to find the equation of a straight line passing through the points (–1. Find the equation of the line which is concurrent with the lines x + y – 3 = 0 and 3x + 2y + 1 = 0 and also concurrent with the lines y – x = 1 and 2x + y + 2 = 0.y1). BE and CF be the internal bisectors of the angles of the triangle ΔABC.1).y2) and (x3. we get 3 – 3y + 3 = 0 or –3y + 6 = 0 or y = 2.2) and (–6. = = 2 + 3 3 +1 5 4 4y + 12 = 5x + 5 or 5x – 4y – 12 + 5 = 0 5x – 4y – 7 = 0 ∴ The required straight line is 5x – 4y – 7 = 0 Exercise 7. x + 2y – 5 = 0 and x + 3y – 7 = 0 2.y1) Fig.3 Incentre. y3) : Let ABC be a triangle whose vertices are (x1. This point of concurrency is called the incentre of the triangle. A(x1. 2x + y = 16.2x + y – 8 = 0 x – 3y + 3 = 0 (5) × 3 ⇒ 6x + 3y – 24 = 0 (4) + (6) ⇒ 7x – 21 = 0 x = 3 Substituting the value of x in x – 3y + 3 = 0.39 176 . The incentre I of ΔABC is the point of intersection of AD. 7x – 8y + 5 = 0 and 4x + my – 45 = 0 3. 5.3) and (1. To find the coordinates of the incentre of the triangle formed by the points (x1. y2) and (x3.4). y3). Let AD. 6. –3) and (3. The incentre is deonoted by I. BE and CF. 2x + y – 3 = 0 and bisects the line joining the points (4. Find their point of concurrency (i) x + y = 7.7. circumcentre and orthocentre of a triangle Incentre : The internal bisectors of the three vertical angle of a triangle are concurrent. 7. ⇒ The point of intersection is (3.4. Find the equation of the line which passes through the intersection of the lines x+ y – 2 = 0. (x2. Obtain the equation of the line which is concurrent with the lines x – y – 2 = 0 and 3x + 4y + 15 = 0 and is perpendicular to the line joining the points (2. y + 3 x +1 y + 3 x +1 . Show that the following set of lines are concurrent.4. Find the equation of the line which is concurrent with the lines 9x + 4y = 1 and 2x – y = 4 and perpendicular to 3x – y + 7 = 0 7. y1).2 1. 4. 2x – y + 3 = 0.y2) D z z C(x1. Obtain the equation of the line which passes through the origin and is concurrent with the lines x – y – 4 = 0 and 7x + y + 20 = 0. Find the value of m for which the lines are concurrent (i) 3x + y + 2 = 0.2).y1) x x F E y y B(x2.2).

If AB = c, BC = a and CA = b, by angle bisector theorem,

⇒ D divides BC internally in the ratio c : b. DC b ⎛ cx + bx 2 cy3 + by 2 ⎞ Hence D is ⎜ 3 , = ⎟ from (1) c+b ⎠ BD c ⎝ c+b BC BD + DC c + b = = BD BD c cBC ca ⇒ BD = = b+c b+c b+c AI AB c Again, from triangle ABD, = = = ca a ID BD b+c ⇒ I divides AD in the ratio b + c : a ⎡ cx + bx 2 ⎤ (b + c) ⎢ 3 ⎥ + ax 1 ax + bx + cx ⎣ b+c ⎦ 2 3 = 1 ⇒ x co-ordinates of I is b+c+a a+b+c ay + by 2 + cy 3 Similarly the y co-ordinates of I is 1 a+b+c ⎡ ax + bx 2 + cx 3 ay1 + by 2 + cy 3 ⎤ , Hence the incentre I of a triangle is given by ⎢ 1 ⎥ a+b+c a+b+c ⎣ ⎦ Example 57 : Find the coordinates of the incentre of the triangle whose vertices are A(1,1), B(2,1) and C(2,2). Solution : The vertices of the triangle are A(1,1), B(2,1) and C(2,2).

a = BC =

BD AB c = = DC AC b

(1)

(2 − 2) 2 + (2 − 1) 2 =

0 + 12 = 1

b = CA = c = AB =

(1 − 2) 2 + (1 − 2) 2 =

(2 − 1) + (1 − 1)

2 2

(−1) 2 + (−1) 2 = 1 + 1 =

2

2

= 1 +0 = 1=1

⎡ ax + bx 2 + cx 3 ay1 + by 2 + cy 3 ⎤ Incentre I, of the triangle is given by ⎢ 1 , ⎥ a+b+c a+b+c ⎣ ⎦ ⎡1(1) + 2 (2) + 1(2) 1(1) + 2 (1) + 1(2) ⎤ , I is ⎢ ⎥ 1+ 2 +1 1+ 2 +1 ⎣ ⎦ ⎡3 + 2 2 3 + 2 ⎤ ∴ Incentre I is ⎢ , ⎥ 2+ 2 2+ 2⎦ ⎣ Circumcentre: The point of concurrency of the perpendicular bisectors of the sides of a triangle is called the circumcentre of the triangle. The circumcentre is denoted by S. Let ABC be the given triangle and D, E and F are the mid points of BC, CA and AB respectively. Find the slopes of the perpendicular bisectors of BC, CA and AB. Then find the equation of the perpendicular bisectors. By solving any two equations of the perpendicular bisectors we can get the circumcentre. Example 58 : Find the co-ordinates of the circumcentre of a triangle whose vertices are (2,–3), (8,–2) and (8,6).

177

Solution : Let A(2,–3), B(8,–2) and C(8,6) be the vertices of the triangle ABC. Let S be the circumcentre which is the point of intersection of the perpendicular bisectors of the sides AB, BC. Let D and E are the mid points of AB and BC respectively. ⎡ 2 + 8 − 3 − 2⎤ ⎡ − 5⎤ The co-ordinates of D = ⎢ = 5, , 2 ⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎣ 2 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ −2+3 1 = Slope of AB = A(2,-3) 8−2 6 Slope of the perpendicular bisector of AB = Slope of DS = –6 Equation of the perpendicular bisector through D D is y + 5/2 = –6 (x–5) or y + 5/2 = –6x + 30 S or 6x + y – 55/2 = 0 or 12x + 2y – 55 = 0 (1) The co-ordinates of E = ⎡ 8 + 8 − 2 + 6 ⎤ ⎡16 4 ⎤ ⎢ 2 , 2 ⎥ = ⎢ 2 , 2 ⎥ = (8,2) E C(8,6) B(8,-2) ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 6+2 8 Slope of BC = = =∞ Fig.7.40 8−8 0 −1 =0 Slope of the perpendicular bisector through E = ∞ Equation of the perpendicular bisector SE is y – 2 = 0 (x – 8), y – 2 = 0, y = 2 (2) By solving the equations (1) and (2) 12x + 2y – 55 = 0, y = 2 we get 12x + 4 – 55 = 0, or 12x – 51 = 0 or 12x = 51 x = 51/12 = 17/4 ⎡17 ⎤ Hence the circumcentre S is ⎢ ,2⎥ ⎣4 ⎦ Orthocentre: It can be shown that the altitudes of a triangle are concurrent and the point of concurrence is called the orthocentre of the triangle. The orthocentre is denoted by O. Let ABC be the given triangle. AD, BE and CF are three altitudes from A,B and C to BC, CA and AB respectively. Find the slopes of altitudes of AD, BE and CF. Now find the equation of AD, BE and CF by using slope point form. By solving any two altitudes we can get the orthocentre. Example 59 : Find the coordinates of the orthocentre of the triangle whose vertices are (3,1), (0,4) and (–3,1). A(3,1) Solution : Let the vertices of the triangle be A(3,1), B(0,4) and C(–3,1). Let AD and BE be the altitudes. 1− 4 −3 Slope of BC = = =1 −3−0 −3 E ⇒ Slope of the altitude AD = –1 Equation of altitude AD is y – 1 = –1 (x – 3) O or y – 1 = –x + 3 x+y–4=0 (1) D 1−1 0 C(-3,1) B(0,4) = =0 Slope of AC = Fig.7.41 −3−3 −6

178

⇒ Slope of the altitude BE = –1/0 = ∞ ⇒ Equation of BE is y – 4 = –1/0 (x – 0) or 0 = –x + 0 or x = 0 (2) Solving the equations (1) and (2) x + y – 4 = 0 and x = 0, we get y – 4 = 0 or y = 4 Hence the orthocentre is (0,4) Example 60: Obtain the coordinates of the orthocentre of the triangle whose vertices are the points (1,–2), (3,1) and (–2,3). 3 −1 +2 2 Solution : BC is the straight line joining (3,1) and (–2,3). Its slope = = =− −2−3 −5 5 If AD is drawn perpendicular to BC then its slope is 5/2. ⇒ Equation of AD is y + 2 = 5/2 (x – 1) A(1,-2) or 5x – 2y = 9 (1) AC is the line joining the points (–2,3) and (1,–2). −2−3 5 =− Its slope = 1+ 2 3 E If BE is drawn perpendicular to AC then its slope is 3/5 ⇒ Equation of BE is y – 1 = 3/5 (x – 3) i.e. 3x – 5y = 4 (2) The orthocentre is the point of intersection of D C(-2,3) B(3,1) altitudes AD and BE. (1) x 3 ⇒ 15x – 6y = 27 (3) Fig.7.42 (2) x 5 ⇒ 15x –25y = 20 (4) 19y = 7 y = 7/19 Substituting y = 7/19 in (1) wet get 5x – 2 (7/19) = 9, x = 37/19. ⎡ 37 7 ⎤ The orthocentre is ⎢ , ⎥ . ⎣ 19 19 ⎦ Exercise 7.4.3

1. Find the coordinates of the incentre of the triangle whose vertices are (i) (3,1), (0,4) and (–3,1) (ii) (–36,7), (20,7) and (0,–8) 2. Find the coordinates of the circumcentre of the triangle whose vertices are (i) (3,1), (2,2) and (2,0) (ii) (0,0), (–4,0) and (0,4) 3. Find the coordinates of the orthocentre of the triangle whose vertices are (i) (1,2), (2,3) and (4,3) (ii) (0,1), (1,–2) and (2,–3)

ANSWERS

Exercise 7.1

⎡ 5a − b 5a + b ⎤ , (iii) (–13/3, 13) (iv) (11,8) (v) (13,–24) (vi) ⎢ 5 ⎥ ⎣ 5 ⎦ (2) (i) 1:2 internally (ii) 2:3 internally (iii) 2:3 externally (3) (i) 2:5 externally (ii) 1:2 internally (iii) 2:1 externally (iv) 4:1 internally (4) (i) 1:1 internally (ii) 2:3 internally (iii) 1:2 internally (iv) 1:5 internally (1) (i) (1,6) (ii) (15/2, 5)

179

**3 13 (7) (2,–2) (8) (–1,–9) 2 (9) (i) parallelogram (ii) parallelogram (iii) parallelogram (iv) parallelogram (10) (i) (–3,0) (ii) (1,2) (iii) (9,–6) (iv) (–2,7) (11) (i) (–3,19/3) (ii) (1,–2) (iii) (1/3,2) (iv) (5,–2) (12) (i) (1,–8) (ii) (7,–19) (iii) (6,2) (iv) (18,–2) (5) (i) (–3,–5) (ii) (11/2, –3) (6)
**

Exercise 7.2

(1) (i) 1 square units (iv) 10 square units (6) (i) 96 square units Exercise 7.3

(ii) 7.5 square units (v) 9 square units (ii) 43 square units

(iii) 9.5 square units (3) a – 2b + 8 = 0 (4) 9 (iii) 17 square units (iv) 41/2 square units.

(1) (i) y + 3 = 0 (ii) x + 3 = 0 (2) y = 3 x – 3 (3) 3 3 x – 3y – 2 = 0 o (4) m = 1/ 3 , θ = 30 (5) (i) m = –3/2, c = 2 (ii) m = 2, c = 0 (6) (i) y + 3x + 3 = 0 (ii) 3y + 5x = 0 (iii) 2x – 3y – 3 = 0 (7) (i) 3x + y + 22 = 0 (ii) x + 3y + 10 = 0 (8) (i) x – 2y + 11 = 0 (ii) x – 3y + 24 = 0 (9) (i) 5x – 3y – 7 = 0 (ii) 3x + 2y – 9 = 0 (10) (i) 2x + y – 8 = 0 (ii) 3x + 4y – 6 = 0 (11) (i) x + y + 2 = 0 (ii) 5x – 9y + 22 = 0 (12) (i) y = –5 (ii) 6x + 16y – 53 = 0 (13) (i) x + y – 2 = 0 (ii) x – y + 3 = 0 (iii) 2x – 3y = 0 (iv) 7x + 3y – 24 = 0 (14) (i) x = 3 (ii) 7x – 12y + 4 = 0 (iii) 7x – 5y – 5 = 0 (16) (i) Yes (ii) Yes (iii) No (iv) Yes (17) (i) k = –3 (ii) k = 21 (iii) k = –2 (18) 7x + y – 9 = 0; 10x –y – 25 = 0; 3x –2y + 1 = 0 (19) (i) 2x – 3y – 18 = 0, 7x – 2y – 12 = 0, 5x + y – 28 = 0 (ii) 6x – 7y + 79 = 0 (20) (i) 2x + 3y – 6 = 0 (ii) 3x – 4y – 12 = 0 (iii) 3x – 8y + 6 = 0 (21) (i) (–3,–4) (ii) (–3/5, –3) (22) x + y – 9 = 0 (23) x + y + 1 = 0 (24) 2x + y – 12 = 0 (25) x – y – 3 = 0 (26) 3x + 2y – 24 = 0 (27) 4x + 3y = 24 and x + y – 7 = 0 (28) 5x + 3y – 17 = 0 (32) k = 6

Exercise 7.4.1 (1) (i) (3,2/3) (ii) (2,0) (4) (–7,4), (3,–5), (1,2) (9) 5x + 2y – 7 = 0 (13) x + 3y – 5 = 0 Exercise 7.4.2 (1) (i) (9,–2) (ii) (1,2) (5) x + y – 2 = 0 Exercise 7.4.3

(2) x-axis at (3,0) and y-axis at (0,4) (3) 3x – y + 7 = 0 (5) (0,1), y = 1 (6) x = 2 (7) (i) (–4,0) (ii) (3,0), (8) 10 (10) (1,1) (11) 10 (12) x + y – 5 = 0 (14) 17 (15) x – y = 0 (2) (i) 4(ii) 5 (3) 3x – y = 0 (4) 5x + 3y + 5 = 0 (6) x + 3y + 5 = 0 (7) x + 2y + 7 = 0

⎡ 2 + 4⎤ (1) (i) ⎢0, ⎥ (ii) (–1,0) 2 +1⎦ ⎣

(2) (i) (2,1) (ii) (–2,2) (3) (i) (1,6) (ii) (–7,–6)

180

tan θ.8. cot θ. Father of trigonometry proved the equation sin2A+cos2A=1 using geometry involving a relationship between the chords of a circle. 30°. Kumbakonam.D) was very brilliant and most popular Mathematician. Bhaskaracharya II (114 A. one of which is Goladhyaya (spherical trigonometry). Brahmagupta was the first to use algebra in trigonometry. We recall the tabulation of those values.D) contains a part named Ganitabhaga devoted to Mathematics. Ramanujan had not only finished mastering this book at one reading but he had taught himself how to do every problem in it as mental sums. θ sin θ cos θ tan θ cot θ sec θ cosec θ 0° 0 1 0 ∞ 1 ∞ 30° 1 2 45° 1 2 60° 3 2 1 90° 1 0 ∞ 0 ∞ 1 3 2 1 1 2 2 3 1 1 2 2 3 1 3 2 3 3 2 2 3 2 From the above table we observe that when values of θ are increasing their corresponding trigonometric values sin θ. His work known as Siddhantasironmani is divided into four parts. Greek Mathematician Ptolmey. 45°. The famous Indian Mathematician astronomer Aryabhata's work entitled Aryabhatiya (499 A. borrowed the book Trigonometry (Part II) by Loney from his friend studying at Government College. trigonometrical ratios and trigonometrical identities. Further we found the values of trigonometric ratios of angles 0°. This book Ramanujan's first contact led him towards learning easily advanced topics of mathematics with his intuitive. In IX standard we have studied basic trigonometry such as angles. 90°. superactive and creative brain! But the first trigger . But ancient Indians used simple algebra to calculate sin A and cos A and proved this relation. cosec θ are decreasing. 181 .0 INTRODUCTION Indian Mathematicians have shown keen interest in Trigonometry. It is mention worthy that this book on trigonometry has some of the advanced topics of mathematics in it. The genius of the 20th century Srinivasa Ramanujan at his age 12. TRIGONOMETRY 8. 60°. sec θ are also increasing whereas those of cos θ. This part contains a knowledge of the trigonometric ratio of sine (jya).book for Ramanujan was Carr's synopsis of elementary results in pure and applied mathematics.

We computed trigonometric ratios for angular measures 30°. Before we see how to use them let us define a few terms.4706 + 0. 60° and 90°. We are going to solve a few problems on heights and distances. Again a minute is subdivided into 60 equal parts. tan θ can be easily taken from the table. cos θ.1 USE OF TRIGONOMETRIC TABLES We have seen with the help of geometry how to calculate the trigonometric ratios of certain angles. then we have to split the given angle the following way. 8.4706 Difference of 3′ = 0. Since 0.4717 182 .4478 – 0. 60' = 1° Following is the method given in detail to find the values of trigonometric ratios for any values of θ from 0° to 90°.4465 Example 3: Find from the table tan 25° 15′.0004 = 0.0013 = 0.1 how to solve problems by using the trigonometric tables and in section 8. If the given angle is not given as a multiple of 6'. minutes and degrees we write 60'' = 1' .0013 cos 63° 29′ = 0. Each part is called a minute and it is denoted by 1′. For example 38° 15' = 38°+12'+3' Example 1: Find from the table sin 40° 38′ Solution: Since sine value increases as the degree measure increases from 0° to 90°. A degree is subdivided into 60 equal parts. Each part is called a second and it is denoted by 1″.6512 Example 2: Find from the table cos 63° 29′ Solution: Since cosine value decreases as the degree measure increases from 0° to 90° 63° 29′ = 63° 24′ + 5′ cos 63° 24′ = 0. The values of sin θ.0011 = 0.6508 + 0. Mathematicians have found these values for all angular measures ranging from 0° to 90° and formed tables (see Appendix).In this chapter we are going to learn in the section 8. 40° 38′ = 40° 36′ + 2′ sin 40° 36′ = 0.2.6508 Difference of 2′ = 0.1°=6' the table increases only by 6'.4478 Difference of 5′ = 0. 45°.0004 sin 40° 38′ = 0. Solution: 25° 15′ = 25° 12′ + 3′ tan 25° 12′ = 0. 60 minutes = 1 degree using symbols for seconds. Then we have 60 seconds = 1 minute.0011 tan 25° 15′ = 0.

9511 = 4.091 that is we find 47° 30′ against 1.0006 = 0.0987 ∴ sin 5° 40′ = 0. Solution: Let AB be a chord of a circle with centre at 0 of radius 5 cm.6433 ii) tan 36° 40′ + cot 63° 20′ = tan 36° 40′ + cot (90–26° 40′) = tan 36° 40′ + tan 26° 40′ = 0. Solution: Let AB be a side of a regular polygon with 25 sides. θ = 47° 30′ Example 5: Use trigonometric tables to find i) sin 64° 42′ + cos 42° 20′ ii) tan 36° 40' + cot 63° 20' Solution: From the table we find the values of the following i) sin 64° 42′ + cos 42° 20′ = 0.0993 – 0. θ = 35° 36′ iii) From the table of tangents we find 71°24′ against 2.9409 ii) cos θ = 0.091 ∴ tan 47° 30′ = 1.091 Solution: i) From the table of sines we find 70°12′ against 0.5110 cm 5 o cm Example 7: Find the length of a side of a regular polygon of 25 sides inscribed in a circle of radius 8 cm.2 . θ = 70° 12′ ii) From the table of cosines we find 35°36′ against 0. Then C is the mid point of AB.9409.9714.5022 = 1.0993 and 2′ against 0.9041 + 0. θ = 5° 40′ v) From the table of tangent we find 1. From the centre O of the circle draw OC ⊥AB. θ = 71° 24′ iv) From the table of sines we find 5° 42′ against 0. then C is the mid point of AB and 360° ∠AOB = 25 183 O 8 8 cm cm A C B Fig.8131 ∴ cos 35° 36′ = 0.8131.8.7392 = 1. and ∠AOB = 144° ⇒ ∠COB = 72° O In right angled triangle OCB cm 72 5 BC = sin 72° A B C OB BC = 5 sin 72° cm Fig.9714 iv) sin θ = 0.091.7555 cm ∴ Length of chord AB = 2 × BC = 2 × 4.1 = 5 × 0.0987.2467 Example 6: Find the length of the chord of a circle of radius 5 cm subtending at the centre the angle of 144°.9409 ∴ sin 70° 12′ = 0.0913 is nearer to 1.0987 v) tan θ = 1.8131 iii) tan θ = 2.Example 4: Find the value of θ i) sin θ = 0.9714 ∴ tan 71° 24′ = 2.0987 That is 5° 40′ against 0.8.0987 = 0.0006 0.7555 cm = 9. Draw OC⊥AB.7445 + 0.

1 1 draw OM⊥AB. Solution: Let AB be the side of the regular hexagon.736 cm2 = 117. and ∠A = 57o Draw AD ⊥ BC.8. O MB 3 = tan 30° = 30 OM r n r 3 1 = r B 3 A M o r = 3 3 cm = 3 × 1.736 cm2 Fig.360° 36° 1 ∠AOB = = = 7° 12′ 2 50 5 In right angled triangle OCB BC sin 7° 12′ = OB BC = 8 × sin 7° 12′ cm = 8 × 0.0024 cm = 2. 2 2 Let r be the radius of the circle. A 1 o o ∴∠BAD = ∠DAC = × 57 = 28 30' 28 30' 2 In right angled triangle ADC h AD o cot 28 30' = 8 cm DC 8 cm o o B C D AD = 8 × cot 28 30' cm = 8 tan 61 30′ b = 16 cm h = 8 × 1.8. Then OM = r. BC = 16 cm. Solution: Let ABC be an isosceles triangle with AB = AC.736 cm 1 bh Area of triangle ABC = 2 1 = × 16 × 14.0024 cm Length of side AB = 2 × BC = 2 ×1. From the centre O of the inscribed circle. Then AD bisects BC so that BD = DC = 8 cm. Then M is the mid point of AB and ∠MOB = ∠AOB = × 60° = 30°. Also AD bisects the vertical angle ∠A.842 cm = 14.196 cm Fig.3 Example 9: Find the area of an isosceles triangle with base 16 cm and vertical angle 57°.0048 cm ∴∠COB = Example 8: Find the radius of the incircle of a regular hexagon each side of length 6 cm.1253 cm = 1.888 cm2 o Example 10 : Find the area of a right angled triangle with hypotenuse 10 cm and one of the acute angle is 66o48' 184 .732 cm = 5.4 2 = 8 × 14. 1 1 Also MB = AB = × 6 cm = 3 cm 2 2 In right angled triangle OMB.

9. Though we can not measure them easily we can determine those by using trigonometric ratios. Find the area of a right angled triangle with hypotenuse 10 cm and one of the acute angle is 66o33'. width of a river etc.939 cm AB = sin66 o 48' AC AB = 10 × 0.191 cm 1 Area of the right angled triangle = × BC × AB 2 1 × 3. 5. Many times we are required to find the distance between two objects and to find the height of a building. 6.191 cm2 = 2 = 18. 4.1736 (b) cos θ = 0.10 cm2 (approximately) Exercise 8.5 C 2. 185 .3188 (d) sin θ = 0. tower.3939 cm = 3.9695 × 9. Find the radius of the in circle of a regular polygon of 36 sides.191 cm2 = 1.2 HEIGHTS AND DISTANCES Trigonometric ratios are very useful in solving problems on heights and distances. 8. The problem of finding heights and distances is solved by observations of angles subtended by those objects at the eye of the observer. 3. Find the radius of its circumscribing circle. 8. 7. ∠C = 66o48' and AC = 10 cm BC = cos66 o 48' AC BC = 10 × 0. A 10 cm 66 48' B o Fig.9191 cm = 9.4115 (f) tan θ = 1.5697 Use trigonometric tables to find (a) sin 29o20' + cos 57o40' (b) sin 44°36' + tan 49o40' (c) cot 48o42' + tan 70o20' Find the length of a side of a regular polygon inscribed in a circle of radius 6 cm if it has 24 sides. If sin θ = cos θ where θ is an acute angle.8221 (e) cos θ = 0. Find the value of 2tan2θ – sin2θ – 1. distance of a ship from a light house.1016745 cm2 Area of the triangle = 18.Solution: Let ABC be the right angled triangle with ∠B = 90o.1 1. Find the length of each side of a regular polygon of 12 sides is 20 cm. Find the values from the tables (a) sin 22o (b) cos 35o (c) tan 56o (d) sin 36o24' (e) cos 24o48' (f) tan 62o12' (g) sin 48o56' (h) sin 52o17' (i) cos 46o34' (j) tan 37o45' Find the value of θ (a) sin θ = 0.9063 (c) tan θ = 6.8.939 × 9. tree. each of length 10 cm. Find the area of an isosceles triangle with base 20 cm and vertical angle 48o40'.

6) suppose the measure of ∠QPR = 60o. B θ2 D θ1 Fig. Then we can find the height of QR of the tower by using trigonometric ratios QR QR tan 60o = ⇒ 3= PQ PR QR = 3PQ R 60o P 8m Q = 8 3m Fig.8. θ2 = angle of depression. Fig. ∴ θ1 = θ2 θ1 = angle of elevation.8).8 186 . in a right angled triangle if one side and one angle are known we can find the remaining sides of the triangle. If the object is below the horizontal level from the eye. We could stand on the ground at a point P at some distance say 8 m from the foot Q of the tower. In the process. This angle is called the angle of elevation. we have to move downwards our head to view the object. A If the object is above the horizontal level from the eye we have to lift up our head to view the object.8. Before we proceed to solve problems of the above type let us first define a few terms.8. This angle is called the angle of depression (see Fig.8.7 C It should also be noted that the angle of elevation of one position as seen from the other is equal to the angle of depression of the latter as seen from the former. Our height is negligible compared to the height of the tower (see Fig. So. 8. Suppose we are viewing an object. The line of sight or line of vision is a straight line from our eye to the object we are viewing.Suppose we wish to determine the height of a tower without actually measuring it. our eyes move through an angle.6 Thus we have been able to find the height of the tower using trigonometric ratios. In the process our eyes move through an angle.

64 m The height of the tower = 34. Solution: Let CA be the tower equal to h metres in height and B a point at a distance of 60 metres from its foot C.Example 11 : The angle of elevation of the top of a tower at a distance of 60 m from its foot on a horizontal plane is found to be 30o. If the stone is at a distance of 50 metres away from the building.732 = 34. 17 form the sides of a right angled triangle A tanθ = 15 ⇒ 8 15 8 17 θ 90 m h θ C B h 15 sinθ = = 90m 17 h = 90 × 15 m = 79. find the height of the building.8.11 187 .41 m 17 Fig. If the 15 string makes an angle θ with the level of the ground such that tanθ = how high is the kite? 8 Solution: 8. P Solution: PQ = height of building equal to h metres 60 S RQ = Distance of the stone from the building = 50m PS is the line of vision (horizontal direction) h Angle of depression ∠SPR = 60o Angle of elevation ∠QRP = Angle of depression ∠SPR 60 = 60o Q R 50 m In right angled triangle PQR h PQ h Fig. 15.8. Find the height of the tower.732m = 86. It is given that A ∠ABC = 30o From the right angled triangle ABC AC h tan30° = = BC 60m 1 h o 30 or 3 h = 60 m = 3 60m B C 60 m = 20 3m 3 3 3.6 m height of the building = 86. 3 = 20 × 1.9 Example 12 : The angle of depression of a stone on the ground from the top of a building is 60o.8.10 or 3 = tan 60° = = RQ 50m 50m h = 50 3m = 50x1.6 m o o Example 13: The length of a string between a kite and a point on a ground is 90 m. h= 60m = 60 3m = 60 3m Fig.64 m (approximately).

To find the height of the flag pole CD. Solution: Let AB be the light house = 200 m and EF be the horizontal level through A. D Solution: Let hm (= BC) be the height of the building h1 m (= CD) h1 be the height of the flag pole and A is the person. If the height of the light house is 200 metres.12 o o Thus the height of the building is 40 m. BD BD or 3= Now tan 60o = 40m AB BD = 40 3 m = 40 × 1.4 m = 200m 188 .4 m In the right angled triangle ADB tan 45° = AB or 1 Fig.8. the angles of depression of two ships on either sides of the light house are observed as 30° and 45°.732 m = 346.13 BD BD BD = 200 m Distance between the ships = CD = BC + BD = 346. tan 30° = BC AB BC or 1 3 = 200m BC C 30 o 200m 45o = 200 √3 m B D = 200 × 1.732 m = 69. Since the angles of depression of two ships are 30° and 45° respectively.8.28 m – 40 m = 29. C In the right angled triangle ABC h BC h 60 We have tan 45o = = 45 AB 40m A B 40 m h l = or h = 40 m 40 m Fig.4 m + 200 m = 546. Find the height of the building and the height of the flag pole. find the distance between the ships.28 m Example 15: From the top of a light house. E A 30o 45 o F ∠EAC = 30° ∴∠ACB = 30° ∠FAD = 45° ∴∠ADB = 45° In the right angled triangle ACB. C and D be the two ships.28 m Hence the height of the flag pole h1 = CD = BD – BC = 69.Example 14: A person stands at a distance of 40 m from a building and observes the top and the bottom of a flag pole on the building at angles of elevation 60° and 45°. let us first find out the length BD in the right angled triangle ABD.

Solution Let AB be the hill = 100 m and CD be the tower At A. Find the height of the tree and the width of the river.Example 16: A tree stands vertically on the bank of a river. the angle of elevation of the top of the tree is 30°. so that BC is the width of the river. From a point on the other bank directly opposite to the tree. the angle of depression of D is 30° That is ∠EAD = 30° At A.15 .8. the angle of depression of C is 60° That is ∠EAC = 60° Let DF be the perpendicular from D to AB Then ∠ADF = 30°. From a point 40 m behind this point on the same bank. 3d = d + 40 m 2d = 40 m.8. ∠ACB = 60° In a right angled triangle ABC 189 30 o A D 30 o F 100 m 60 o C B Fig.732 m = 34.14 In a right angled triangle ABC AB h or 3 = tan 60° = BC d o o h = d 3 In a right angled triangle ABD AB 1 or tan 30° = BD 3 d + 40m h = 3 From equations (1) and (2) we get d + 40m d 3 = 3 (1) = h d + 40m or 3 h = d + 40m (2) d 3 × 3 = d + 40 m. the angle of elevation of the top of the tree is 60° D B d 40 m C That is ∠BCA = 60° Fig. Find the height of the tower. the angle of elevation of the top of the tree is 60°. Let C and D be the two points on the other river bank opposite to the tree. Let BC = d h At D.64 m E 60 o Example 17: The top and bottom of a tower were seen to be at angles of depression 30° and 60° from the top of a hill of height 100 m. A Solution: Let h (=AB) be a height of the tree. the angle of elevation of the top of the tree is 30° That is ∠BDA = 30° 60 30 At C. d = 20 m Thus the width of the river is 20 m The height of the tree h = d 3 = 20 3 m = 20 × 1.

33m (accuracy to 2 decimal places) 3 3x 3 BF = AB – AF = 100 m – 33. Solution : Let AB be the tower CD be the building of height 20 m. That is ∠BCA = 60° At D.16 3 In a right angled triangle AED x x + 20m AE or 1 = or = x tan 45° = x + 20m ED 3 3 o o 3x = x = x + 20 m or 20 3 −1 3 x–x = 20 m or x( 3 –1)= 20 m 190 .tan 60° BC = = AB BC 100 m or 3 = 100m BC or BC 3 = 100 m 3 In rectangle CBFD. That is ∠EDA = 45° BE = CD = 20 m (since BEDC is a rectangle) A Let AE be x in metres. At C. the angle of elevation of A is 45°.67 m The height of the tower is CD = BF [since CBFD is a rectangle] = 66. Let DE be perpendicular to AB from D.8.67 m AF = m= 100 Example 18: The top of a tower was observed from the top and the bottom of a building of height 20 m at angles of elevation 45° and 60°. the angle of elevation of A is 60°. then AB is = x +20 m x In a right angled triangle ABC 45 x + 20m AB E D or tan 60° = 3 = BC BC 20 m 20 m x + 20m 60 BC 3 = x + 20m or BC = 3 C B x + 20m ED = BC = Fig. Find the height of the tower.33 m = 66. CB = DF 1 3 ∴ DF = 100 3 m 100 3 In a right angled triangle ADF AF tan 30° = or DF = AF 100 m 3 or AF 3 = m 100 m = 33.

732+1)m = 10(2.32 m + 20 m = 47. If the angle of elevation are 30° and 45°. h At C.17 That is CD = 120 m Let BC be x in metres then BD= 120 m–x. the angle of elevation of A is 30° xm (120-x)m C D B That is ∠BDA = 30° Given the distance between two points is 120 m Fig. Solution: Let AB = h be the height of the light house. x = 120m 3 +1 x( 3 +1) = 120 m = 120( 3 − 1) ( 3 + 1)( 3 − 1) m = 120( 3 − 1) m ( 3 ) 2 − 12 191 . Let C and D be the two points in a line with it lying on opposite sides of the light house. In a right angled triangle ABC AB h tan 45° = or 1 = BC x h = x (1) In a right angled triangle ABD h AB 1 = tan 30° = or or h 3 = 120m − x 120m − x BD 3 o o 20( 3 + 1) 3 From equation (1) and (2) we get 120m − x x = .32 m = m = Example 19: A light house was observed from two points in a line with it. 3 h = 120m − x (2) 3 x = 120 m–x. The distance between the point is 120 m. but on opposite sides of it. 3 x +x = 120 m.8.32 m ∴ Height of the tower AB = x + 20 m = 27. A find the height of the light house.x = = 20( 3 + 1) m ( 3 − 1)( 3 + 1) 20( 3 + 1) m 2 − 12 ( 3) (Rationalising the denominator) 20( 3 + 1) m 2 3 −1 = 10(1. the angle of elevation of A is 45° That is ∠BCA = 45° 30 45 At D.732) m = 27.

Find the width of the river.92 m ∴ Height of the light house = 43.3604 m y = 901 m Example 21: The angle of elevation of the top of a tower from two points distant a and b from the base and in the same straight line with it are complementary. Prove that the height of the tower is ab . Let BC = y be the width of the river.8. Let CD = x. Then ∠CBD = 90° – θ (since they are complementary angles) D In a right angled triangle ACD CD h tan θ = = AC a h h (1) ∴ tanθ = a In a right angled triangle BCD a CD h B C A tan(90° − θ) = or cot θ = BC b b Fig. If ∠CAD = θ. Let B and C be the two opposite points on the two banks of a river such that B.19 tan θ (1) and (2) ⇒ h a = = b h b h (2) or h2 = ab or h = ab 192 .92 m Example 20: An aeroplane at an altitude of 2500 metres observes the angles of depression of opposite points on the two banks of a river to be 41° 20′ and 52°10′. C and D all line in a straight line.732 m = 43. Solution: Let A be the position of the aeroplane at an instant and D be the point vertically below A on the ground. Then ∠DBA = 41°20′ ∠DCA = 52°10′.1370 – 0.= 120( 3 − 1) 3 −1 m = 120( 3 − 1) 2 m = 60 (1.7766) = 2500 x 0.18 y = 2500 (cot 41°20′–cot 52°10′)m = 2500 (tan 48o 40′ – tan 37°50′)m = 2500 (1. In a right angled triangle CDA A CD x = Cot 52°10′ = AD 2500m x = 2500 cot 52°10′ m (1) 2500 m In a right angled triangle BDA BD x+y cot 41°20' = = AD 2500m y B D C ∴ x + y = 2500 cot 41°20′ m (2) x (2) – (1) ⇒ x+y–x = 2500 cot 41°20′–2500 cot 52°10′m Fig. Solution: Let CD = h be the height of the tower and A and B be the two points such that CA = a.732–1) m = 60 x 0. CB = b.8. Then DA = 2500 m.

5. A ladder placed against a wall such that it reaches the top of the wall of height 6 m and the ladder is inclined at an angle of 60°.2 1. 2. 8. Find the height of the tower. 11. 9. Find the height of the flag staff. They measure the angles of elevation of the top of the tower as 30° and 45° respectively. Find the height of the poles. What is the distance between the two pillars? Two men are on the opposite sides of a tower. From the top of a hill 240 metres height the angles of the depression of the top and the bottom of a tower are 30° and 45°. 10. Find the height of the tree. Find the height of the tower. which is 100 metres wide from a point between them on the road. 193 3. 7. If the height of the tower is 150 m. Find the distance between the tree and the tower. A flag staff stands on the top of 6 m high tower. A man standing on the deck of a ship which is 20 m above the water level. The angles of depression of the top and the bottom of a 12 m tall building from the top of a tower are 45° and 60° respectively. 12. the angles of elevation of their tops are 30° and 45°. 13. find the distance between the men. . Two persons standing 20 m apart observed the top of a tree in between them at angles of elevation of 30° and 45°. From the top of a tower 30 metres height a person observes the base of a tree at an angle of depression measuring 30°. The angle of elevation of the top of a tower at a distance of 50 m from its foot on horizontal plane is found to be 60°. What is the height of the light house if A is 40 m from the base? What is the elevation of the sun when the length of the shadow of a pole is 3 times the height of the pole? A man standing on top of a multistoreyed building 45 m high is looking at two advertising pillars on the same side whose angles of depression are 30° and 45°. 14. Find the height of the tower. observes the angle of elevation of the top of a hill 60° and the angle of the depression of the base of the hill is 30° calculate the distance of the hill from the ship and the height of the hill. 6. From a point on the ground the angle of elevation of the top of the flag staff is 60° and from the same point the angle of elevation of the top of the tower is 45°.Exercise 8. The angle of elevation of a multistoreyed building from a point on the road changes from 30° to 60° as one walks 120 m along the road towards the building. Find how far the ladder is from the foot of the wall. find the height of the building. He measures the angle at A and finds that tan A = ¾. Two poles of equal heights are standing opposite to each other on either side of road. 4. A surveyor wants to determine the height of a light house.

7540 2) 3) 4) a) 10° a) 1.8802 c) 1.8967 5) 221.392 m 11) 34.1 1) a) 0.392 101.3746 g) 0.44 m 13) 7.0247 1.6765 d) 0.1 cm2 6) 57.6876 c) 81° c) 3.ANSWERS Exercise 8.94 m 2) 3.4826 i) 0.9078 f) 1.2 1) 6) 12) 86.4446 j) 0.7743 d) 55°24′ e) 65° 42′ f) 57° 37′ e) 0.7911 b) 25° b) 1.566 cm b) 0.637 cm 9) 1/2 Exercise 8.15 cm 7) 18.8192 h) 0.10 cm2 8) 38.464 7) 409.92 m 9) 4.64 m 8) 103.96 m 4) 30 m 5) 18°25′ 10) 28.8 m 3) 51.6 m 32.32 m 194 .

Navigators of aeroplanes. metal workers and photographers also use geometric principles in their career. (iv) To draw a tangent to a circle from a given point on the circle. (v) To draw two tangents to a circle from a given point outside the circle. PRACTICAL GEOMETRY 9. Babylonians used geometry in measurements needed for building and surveying. architects and carpenters must understand the properties of geometric objects to construct stable and attractive buildings.9. For example. (ii) Construction of a right angled triangle. Designers. 195 . Note: All figures given in this chapter are not drawn to scale. (iii) Construction of concentric circles. drawing a tangent at a point on a circle can be done easily by protractor but in drawing the same using the compass we need much skill. Drawing geometrical figures using geometrical instruments is called the Practical geometry. Ancient Egyptians developed geometric ideas that could be used to reestablish land boundaries after the annual flooding of the Nile river. Brahmagupta (598AD-665 AD) made significant contribution. Here. They also used geometry in building the pyramids. engineers. In Indian Geometry. we do not construct exact geometrical figures but we draw rough sketches of the figures to give support to our logical reasoning. For example. (v) To locate the orthocentre of a triangle. ships and spacecrafts rely on geometric ideas to chart and follow correct course. One of his theorem expresses the relationship between the sides and the diagonals of a cyclic quadrilateral. and quadrilaterals with rational sides that can be inscribed in a circle called cyclic quadrilateral. (ii) To construct a triangle with the given altitude.0 INTRODUCTION Geometry has practical applications in many fields. (iii) To construct a triangle with the given median. we have learnt the following : (i) Construction of an equilateral triangle. In Theoretical Geometry. We are in need of much skill while doing practical geometry. In the present chapter we shall learn how to construct the following : (i) To construct cyclic quadrilaterals. (iv) Construction of circumcircle and incircle of a triangle. In our earlier classes. we do not need any geometrical instruments to draw the diagrams. He was particularly interested in finding the triangles with rational sides and rational areas. He gave the area of a cyclic quadrilateral as ( s − a )( s − b)( s − c)( s − d ) where 2s = a + b + c + d = sum of the sides.

The opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral are supplementary. In other words. 9.1 Construct a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD. Draw the perpendicular bisectors of AB and BC cutting each other at O.3 Construction : • Draw a line segment AB • With A as centre and AC as radius draw an arc. With O as centre and OA or OB or OC as radius draw a circle. Q. P Q R S Fig.1 note that the vertices P. • With B as centre and BC as radius draw another arc to cut the previous arc at C. 196 . Join CD and DA. Now ABCD is the required cyclic quadrilateral. m∠Q + m∠S Type I Given three sides and one diagonal = 180°.9. • • • • • Join BC and AC. R and S of a cyclic quadrilateral lie on the circumference of a circle. 9.2 A B Fig. BC and AD and the diagonal AC are given. C D Rough diagram C D O A B Fig. With A as centre and AD as radius draw an arc cutting the circle at D.1 CONSTRUCTION OF CYCLIC QUADRILATERAL A quadrilateral formed by joining any four points on a circle is called a cyclic quadrilateral. In the Fig. 9. whose sides AB. 9. m∠P + m ∠R = 180°. if all the four vertices of a quadrilateral lie on a circle then it is called a cyclic quadrilateral.

9.5 Construction : • Draw a line segment AB = 6 cm • With A as centre and radius 8. AC = 8. • With O as centre and OA or OB or OC as radius draw a circle. Type II Given two sides and two diagonals Construct a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD given two sides AB and BC and the two diagonals AC and BD. 9. C D 8 cm Rough diagram C D cm 8. • With B as centre and radius 8 cm draw another arc to cut the previous arc at C. 9. • Now ABCD is the required cyclic quadrilateral.5 cm 5 cm 5 cm O 8.5 cm draw an arc. • Join BC and AC • Draw the perpendicular bisectors of AB and BC cutting each other at `O'.Example 1 : Construct a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD given AB=6 cm. D C O Rough diagram D C A B 8 cm B A Fig.5 cm and AD = 5 cm. • With A as centre and 5 cm as radius draw an arc cutting the circle at D. • Join CD and DA.4 A 6 cm B Fig. 9. 5 A 6 cm Fig.7 197 . BC = 8 cm.6 B Fig.

• Join AD and BD. BD = 5.Construction : • Draw the line segment AB. • With O as centre and OA or OB or OC as radius draw a circle.6 c m 5. ABCD is the required cyclic quadrilateral.6 cm.9 Construction : • Draw a line segment AB = 4 cm.8 cm radius draw an arc cutting the circle at D.6 cm draw another arc cutting the previous arc at C. Type III Given two sides and two angles Construct a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD whose sides AB and BC and two angles ∠BAC and ∠ACD are given. • With B as centre and radius 2. With `O' as centre and OA or OB or OC as radius draw a circle. • Join BC and AC. Example 2 : Construct a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD given AB = 4 cm.6 c m cm C cm O . BC = 2.5 cm A 4 cm B A 4 cm B Fig. Rough diagram D 5. Draw the perpendicular bisectors of AB and BC cutting each other at `O'. D 8 5. 198 2. With B as centre and BD as radius draw an arc cutting the circle at D.5 cm 5. Join AD and CD. AC = 5. 9. • With B as centre and 5. • With A as centre and AC as radius draw an arc. • Draw the perpendicular bisectors of AB and BC cutting each other at 'O'. • Now ABCD is the required cyclic quadrilateral.8 Fig.8 C 2.8 cm.5 cm draw an arc. • With A as centre and radius 5. • • • • • • • With B as centre and BC as radius draw an arc cutting the previous arc at C. Join BC and AC. 9.5 cm.

• With B as centre and BC as radius draw an arc cutting AX at C. • With 'O' as centre and OA or OB or OC as radius draw a circle.13 199 4 cm B . 9. • Through C draw CY such that ∠ACY = ∠ACD = φ.12 B Fig. • Draw the perpendicular bisectors of AB and BC cutting each other at 'O'. 9. • Join AC and BC. • Join AD. Example 3: Construct a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD given AB = 5 cm. • Let CY cut the circle at D. ∠BAC = 35° and ∠ACD = 70° y D x Rough diagram C 70o D 70 o C O 4 cm 35 A o 35o A 5 cm 5 cm Fig.11 Construction : • Draw a line segment AB.y D x D Rough diagram φ C φ C O A θ B Fig. BC = 4 cm. • ABCD is the required cyclic quadrilateral. 9. 9. • Through A draw AX such that ∠BAX = θ.10 θ A B Fig.

• With O as centre and OA or OB or OC as radius draw a circle. • Through A draw AX such that ∠BAX = ∠BAC = θ. • Join CD and AD. • Draw the perpendicular bisectors of AB and BC. • With A as centre and AC as radius draw an arc cutting AX at C.5 cm.Construction : • Draw a line segment AB = 5 cm. • With B as centre and 4 cm radius draw an arc cutting AX at C. Type IV Given two sides. Rough diagram D C x D C O θ A B A θ Fig. • Join BC. • Through C draw CY such that ∠ACY = 70°. • With O as centre and OA or OB or OC as radius draw a circle. • Let CY cut the circle at D.14 B Fig. 200 . • Draw the perpendicular bisectors of AB and BC cutting each other at O.15 Construction : • Draw a line segment AB.5 cm. AC = 10 cm. 9. • Through A draw AX such that ∠BAX = 35°. Let them intersect at 'O'. the diagonal AC and ∠BAC are given. Example 4 : Construct a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD given AB = 7. 9. • Join AC and BC. one diagonal and one angle Construct a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD whose sides AB and AD. • ABCD is the required cyclic quadrilateral. ∠BAC = 30° and AD = 6. • ABCD is the required cyclic quadrilateral. • With A as centre and AD as radius draw an arc cutting the circle at D. • Join AD.

201 . • Join CD and AD.1 1. • With A as centre and 10 cm as radius draw an arc on AX. • Join BC and AC. AD = 2. Exercise 9.8 cm. BC = 7 cm. Let them intersect at 'O'.D C 6. ∠BAD = 100° and BC = 4 cm.8 cm.5 cm. QR = 5. Construct a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD given AB = 7 cm. Construct a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD given AB = 7. EG = 8. BC = 5 cm. PR = 8. • Draw the perpendicular bisectors of AB and BC.2 cm.17 Construction : • Draw a line segment AB=7. Construct a cyclic quadrilateral PQRS given PQ = 4.5 cm. PR = 6.6 cm and RS = 7. Construct a cyclic quadrilateral EFGH given EF = 7 cm.6 cm. Construct a cyclic quadrilateral PQRS given PQ = 8 cm. 2.5 cm ο A B A 30o 7.8 cm. Construct a cyclic quadrilateral EFGH given EF = 6 cm. QR = 7 cm. Construct a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD with AB = 8 cm.9 cm. QR = 5. 6.5 cm c 10 m C O 30 7. ∠EFG = 85° and ∠FEH = 72°.5 cm. 9. EH = 6 cm. • ABCD is the required cyclic quadrilateral. Construct a cyclic quadrilateral EFGH given EF = 5 cm.2 cm and FH = 7. 7.5 cm Fig. 9. Construct a cyclic quadrilateral EFGH given EF = 7 cm.5 cm. AC = 6 cm and AD = 4 cm.3 cm. Let it cut AX at C. EH = 6 cm and GH = 5. • With O as centre and OA or OB or OC as radius draw a circle.4 cm.5 cm and PS = 4 cm. FG = 4.5 cm.5 cm. 8. Construct a cyclic quadrilateral PQRS given PQ = 8 cm. AC = 6 cm and BD = 6. EG = 7. AC = 6. 4. 11. FG = 5.9 cm Construct a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD given AB = 5. • Through A draw AX such that ∠BAX = 30°. ∠QPR = 40° and ∠PRS = 60°. ∠ABD = 45°.5 cm as radius draw an arc cutting the circle at D.16 B Fig.7 cm and BD = 6.8 cm. FH = 10 cm and FG = 6. 5. 10. 9. 3.5 cm cm 10 Rough diagram X D 6. • With A as centre and 6.

19 • With O as centre and OA as radius draw the circle ABE. a segment of a circle containing B A θ the angle θ. QR = 8. BD = 10 cm.5 cm. O • Draw AC such that ∠BAC = 30°. BC = 7. O Required : To construct a triangle ABC with base AB and vertical angle θ such that the altitude from C on AB is of B G A θ length l. the vertical F angle and the altitude on the base J C H Given : Let AB be the given base. o 202 . Fig. Construct a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD with the given measurements.18 • At A make ∠BAC = θ. • Draw AD ⊥ AC. K Type I Construct a triangle given the base. CD = 5 cm. Construction : • Draw the base AB. 9. • Draw AD ⊥ AC. AB = 8. m∠ACD = 35°. a) b) Construct a cyclic quadrilateral PQRS given PQ = 7 cm. C • AEB is the required segment containing the angle 30°. E Construction: • Draw a line segment AB = 5 cm. 9.2 CONSTRUCTION OF TRIANGLES D Construct a segment of a circle on a given line segment E containing given angle θ. • Draw the perpendicular bisector of AB meeting AD at 'O'. 9.5 cm.4 cm. O Given : Let AB be a given line segment and θ be a given angle. ∠PQR = 90° and ∠SRP = 56°.12. AEB is the required segment containing the angle θ. 5 cm B A 30 • Draw the perpendicular bisector of AB meeting AD at 'O'. Construction : Fig. 9. • Draw the perpendicular bisector GO of AB meeting E AF at O.20 • At A make ∠BAE = θ. θ l be the altitude on the base. θ be the given vertical angle. Required : To describe on AB. 13. m∠A = 100°. AC = 10 cm. Fig. • With O as centre and OA as radius draw the circle ABK. D Example 5: Construct a segment of a circle on AB = 5 cm containing an angle 30°. • With O as centre and OA as radius draw the circle ABE. AB = 7 cm. • Draw AF⊥AE.

e) ∠ACB = θ. 9.23 R . • With O as centre and radius equal to OB or OC draw a circle BCK. • Draw a line parallel to AB through H meeting the segment AKB at C and J. Construction : • Draw the base AB. Altitude from C to AB = the distance between the parallels AB and CJ = GH = l. l be the median through C Required : To construct a triangle ABC with base AB. • Draw the perpendicular bisector of BC meeting BF at 'O'.21 C Fig. θ be the given vertical angle.• The bigger segment AKB contains the angle θ. Type II Construct a triangle. Proof : In ΔABC. 9. Given : Let AB be the given base.5 cm H F O G 7 cm Rough diagram A 60 o A B 60o C 4. it is equal to θ (i.22 E Construction : • Draw a line segment BC = 7 cm.5 cm. K F A' 60o 4. Example 6 : Construct a triangle ABC such that BC = 7 cm. • Then the segment BKC contains the angle 60°. m∠A = 60° and altitude from A to BC is 4. ∠C = θ and the median from C to the base AB equal to l. 9.5 cm B 7 cm Fig. 203 K E J B Fig. mark a point H such that GH = l.5 cm. O θ l • ABC is the required triangle. • On the perpendicular bisector GO mark a point 'H' such that GH = 4. • Through H draw AHA′ parallel to BC. CA. C • Join BA. AB is the base. the vertical A θ D angle and the median on the base. • Join AC and BC. • On the perpendicular bisector GO. • ABC is the required triangle. Thus ABC is the required triangle. • At B make ∠CBE = 60°. given the base. Since ∠ACB is an angle in the alternate segment. • Draw BF ⊥ BE.

e) ∠ACB = θ.• • • • • • • • Proof : • • • Draw AR such that ∠BAR = θ. 9. • At B make ∠CBE = 45°. Draw AE ⊥ AR. With D as centre and median length l as radius draw an arc meeting the bigger segment AKB at C and J. ABC is the required triangle. The bigger segment AKB contains the angle θ. • Draw the perpendicular bisector of BC meeting BC at D. Since ∠ACB is the angle in the alternate segment. 9. • ABC is the required triangle. K A 45 o Rough diagram A 1 F O 4c m A 45 o B D 5 cm C 45o 4 cm D 5 cm Fig. • Draw BF ⊥ BE. • The perpendicular bisector meets BF at 'O'. Join AC and BC. • With 'O' as centre and OB or OC as radius draw the circle BCK. With O as centre and OA as radius draw the circle ABK. • With D as centre and radius 4 cm draw an arc on the circle to cut the circle at A and A′.24 B Fig. D is the mid point of AB. m∠BAC = 45° and median AD = 4 cm.25 C E Construction : • Draw a line segment BC = 5 cm. Example 7 : Construct a ΔABC given the base BC = 5 cm. Draw the perpendicular bisector DO of AB meeting AE at 'O'. AB is the base of the ΔABC. • Join BA and CA. ∴CD is the median through C. it is equal to θ (i. • The segment BKC contains the vertical angle 45°. Hence ABC is the required triangle. 204 .

1 cm m∠P=60° and altitude from P to QR is 3. Construct a segment of a circle on a) CD = 6 cm containing an angle of 60°.27 Construction : • Draw a circle of radius 3 cm with 'O' as its centre. Take a point P on it. T L N 90 M o O P Fig. ∠A = 60 ° and altitude through the vertex is equal to 3 cm. 205 .28 Fig. Construct a triangle ABC in which base BC = 4 cm.2 1. • With P as centre draw an arc cutting OP at M.5 cm containing an angle of 135°. m∠C = 40° and altitude from C to AB is of length 4 cm.3 CONSTRUCTION OF TANGENTS TO CIRCLES T Draw a tangent to a circle at a given point on it. m∠A = 60° and median AD through A is 3.26 Rough diagram T L N O O 3 cm M P 3 cm P Fig. Construct a ΔABC in which BC = 4. • Draw the bisector PT of the angle ∠NPL. Construct a ΔABC having base AB = 4. 2. Join OP. 5. 9.7 cm. 9. 3. • Let P be any point on the circle.4 cm. • Let P be any point on the circle.2 cm. Construction : • Draw a circle of any radius with O as its centre.5 cm. 4.2 cm. • ∠OPT = 90° and PT is a tangent at P. Example 8 : Draw a circle with centre 'O' and radius 3 cm. 6. b) EF = 4 cm containing an angle of 100°. 9. Construct a triangle PQR such that QR = 5. • With M as centre and with the same radius draw an arc cutting the previous arc at N. • With P as centre draw an arc cutting OP at M. Construct a triangle ABC such that AB = 6 cm. 9.Exercise 9. c) PQ = 6. Join OP. vertical angle ∠C = 60° and median through vertex equal to 2. Draw a tangent to the circle at the point P. Again with N as centre and with the same radius draw an arc cutting the first arc at L.

• PA and PB are the tangents from P to the given circle. A r O r G P B Fig. Example 9 : Draw a circle of diameter 10 cm. 2) Thus AP and BP are the two tangents from P to the given circle. Proof : Join OA and OB. ∠OAP = ∠OBP = 90°. 9. Draw the bisector PT of the angle ∠NPL. A 5c m 12 Rough diagram cm A 5c m O 5 cm G 13 cm cm 12 P O 13 cm P B Fig. Take a point P at a distance of 13 cm from the centre. • Mark a point P outside the circle and join OP.30 206 .• • • With M as centre and with the same radius draw an arc cutting the former arc at N. 9. Since OP is a diameter and angle in a semicircle is 90°. ∠OPT = 90° and PT is a tangent at P. Again with N as centre and with the same radius draw an arc cutting the first arc at L. Let P be any point outside the circle. 9.31 m 5c B Fig. Construction : • Draw a circle of radius 'r' with O as centre. 1) OA = OB is the radius to the given circle and ∠OBP = ∠OAP = 90°.29 Required : To construct two tangents to the given circle through the point P outside the circle. • Draw the perpendicular bisector of OP. Draw two tangents to a given circle from a point outside the circle Given : Let O be the centre and r be the radius of the given circle. Draw two tangents from P to the circle and measure the length of the tangents. • Join PA and PB. Let it meets OP at G. • With G as centre and GO as radius draw a circle cutting the given circle at A and B.

Draw two tangents to a circle whose diameter is 6 cm from a point P. PA = PB = 12 cm is got by measurement. 6. 5.5 cm. Measure the length of these tangents.25 = 144 ∴ PA = 12 cm Exercise 9.52 = 169 .4 cm.3 cm (5) 4 cm 207 . at a distance of 5 cm from the centre. OA = 5 cm. • Mark a point P at a distance of 13 cm from 'O'. Draw a circle with centre O and radius 2. Measure the length of each tangent. ΔOPA is a right angled triangle ∴ PA2 = OP2 . Using ruler and compass draw two tangents to a circle whose diameter is 6 cm from a point P at a distance of 9 cm from its centre. Draw tangent to the circle at point P. Draw a circle with centre O and radius 2 cm.OA2 = 132 .8 cm from its centre. 4. • Join PA and PB • PA and PB are the required tangents. 3. 2. Draw two tangents to the circle from the point P. Join OP. Verify the length of the tangents by algebraic calculation. • Draw the perpendicular bisector of OP.3 (4) 6. Let it meet OP at G. ANSWERS Exercise 9. Take a point P outside the circle at a distance of 5. Draw a circle of radius 3. Take a point P on it. Take a point P at a distance of 7 cm from the centre of a circle of radius 3 cm and from P draw two tangents PA and PB to the circle.Construction : • Draw a circle of radius 5 cm with centre 'O'.3 1. Draw a tangent to the circle at point P. Verification: OP = 13 cm. • With G as centre and OG or GP as radius draw a circle cutting the given circle at A and B. Take a point P on it.

Bowley.5. That is the dispersion is used to indicate the extent to which the data is spread. 84. S = smallest value L−S Coefficient of range = L+S Example 1 : Find the range of the data 27.10.0 INTRODUCTION The word ‘Statistics’ has been derived from either Latin word ‘Status’ or Italian word ‘Statista’ or German word ‘Statistik’ or French word ‘Statistique’ each of which means a political state.5.36.372 L + S 59 + 27 86 Example 2: The weights of seven persons in kg are 46. “Dispersion is the measure of the variation of the individual item”. Statistics is also very widely used in all the disciplines.5. Smallest value S = 38 208 . Genetics and Education. Also find the coefficient of range. 10. Solution : Largest value L = 84. According to A. It supplies essential information for developmental activities in all the departments. Now a days statistics is used for solving or analyzing the problems of the state. From the data we have learnt to calculate the measures of the central tendency like mean. L = largest value. Solution : Largest value L = 59.5. 38. Find the range and the coefficient of range. Measures of dispersion are many but we are restricting ourselves to study range.L. median and mode. STATISTICS 10. Further descriptions of the data called measures of dispersion are necessary. These central measures do not give us all the details about the distribution. Ronald A. Smallest value S = 27 Range = L – S = 59–27 = 32 L − S 59 − 27 32 Coefficient of Range = = = = 0.39. Range = L – S. He applied statistics to several fields such as Psychology.28. 52. It is defined as the difference between the largest and the smallest values in the series. Range Range is the simplest measure of dispersion.34. Fisher (1890–1962) who is called the “Father of Statistics” contributed many useful calculations from the statistical data.1 DISPERSION In earlier classes we have studied that collection of data is represented in different forms. 79. standard deviation and coefficient of variation for the individual series only. 45.59. 49.5. By the word statistics we mean the “numerical statements as well as statistical methodology”. Sir.

It is denoted by σ . find the smallest value of the data. Variance σ2 = ∑ (x i =1 n i − x) 2 n = ∑d i =1 n 2 i /n where d i = x i − x The following methods are used for calculating standard deviation • Direct method Assumed mean method • Actual mean method Step deviation method Direct Method: By definition. Range = 73 Range = L – S or 73 = 98 – S or S = 98 – 73 = 25 ∴The smallest value = 25.5 + 38 122. the standard deviation is calculated by the formula σ= Σ(x − x) 2 n Σ(x − x) 2 Σ(x 2 − 2xx + x ) Σx 2 Σx Σ x = = − 2x + n n n n n 2 2 Here Σx 2 nx − 2x × x + = n n 2 2 2 2 Σx 2 Σx 2 ⎛ Σx ⎞ Σx 2 −x = −⎜ − 2x + x = = ⎟ n n n ⎝ n ⎠ 2 2 Therefore σ= Σx 2 ⎛ Σx ⎞ − ⎜ ⎟ n ⎝ n ⎠ 209 . If the range of the data is 73.5 – 38 = 46. Range = 87 Range = L – S or 87 = L – 5 or L = 87 + 5 = 92 ∴The highest score = 92 runs.5 Example 3: The largest value of a data is 98.5 kg L − S 84.D) and is denoted by σ2. Example 4: The least score of a cricket player of the school team is 5 runs in a series of ten matches. σ= ∑ (x i =1 n i − x) 2 (or) σ = Standard Deviation n ∑ d i2 / n i =1 n where d i = x i − x Variance: Variance is defined as the square of the Standard Deviation (S. find his highest score in the series.5 − 38 46. If his range of scores is 87. Solution : Largest value L = 98.Range = L – S = 84.379 = Coefficient of Range = = L + S 84.5 = 0. Standard Deviation Standard Deviation is defined as the positive square root of the mean of the squared deviations of the data from the mean. Solution : Least Score S = 5 .

12. Calculate the standard deviation of the marks. 75. n in the formula and calculate σ = Σd 2 n Example 6: The marks obtained by 10 students in a class test out of 100 marks are 62.This formula is used to find S. 31. 50. in direct method • Find Σx and Σx2 • Substitute the values of Σx. 15. 71.5000 16 81 150 81 828 6900 6624 276 Actual Mean Method: The formula used in this method is σ = Σ( x − x ) 2 n (or) σ= Σd 2 n where d = x − x • • • Σx n Calculate the deviation d = x − x for each value of the series and find Σd2 Calculate the mean x = Substitute Σd2.5 − 225 2 Σx = 120 Σx = 1940 2 = 17. 600 Σx 62 + 49 + 71 + 75 + 33 + 41 + 100 + 88 + 50 + 31 Solution: = = 60 x = = 10 10 n 210 .18 4. Σx2 and the number of data n in the formula σ= Σx 2 ⎛ Σx ⎞ − ⎜ ⎟ n ⎝ n ⎠ 2 Example 5: Calculate the standard deviation for the data 14. 20.18 4 17. 33.D. 100. 41.5 σ = 4. 88. 22. 17. 9. 49. 11 Solution x 14 22 9 15 20 17 12 11 x2 196 484 81 225 400 289 144 121 σ= = = Σx n 2 ⎛ Σx ⎞ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ n ⎠ 2 1940 ⎛ 120 ⎞ − ⎜ ⎟ 8 ⎝ 8 ⎠ 242.

09 0. 5.0 5.2.5 0 –0.1089 2. Σd2 and n in the formula and calculate the standard deviation The formula for standard deviation is σ = Σd 2 n − Σd ( n ) 2 where d = x–A Example 7: The following are the bowling rate per over of a player in 12 cricket matches : 6.0 4. 9.42 Step Deviation Method • Choose one of the nearest middle values in the series as the assumed mean A • Calculate d=x–A for each value of the series 211 .25 0 0.5 1.x 62 49 71 75 33 41 100 88 50 31 d = x − x = x − 60 2 –11 11 15 –27 –19 40 28 –10 –29 Σd = 0 d2 4 121 121 225 729 361 1600 784 100 841 Σd2 = 4886 σ= = Σd 2 n 4886 10 = 488.10 Therefore. 6.00 16.00 Σd2 = 25.0 Σd = 4.5 5.2 5.5.5 6.0.0. 5. 4. 5.04 0. Σd2 • Substitute Σd. • Choose one of the items nearer to the middle value in the data say A as the assumed mean.3 5.25 0 0.3 –2. 5.2 0.7 4.09 0.69 4. • Calculate deviation d = x–A for each value of the series and find Σd.5.0 d2 2.66.25 1. Find the standard deviation.1383 − 0.0.0 4.0.3 0. 3.5 5.0 4.3 3.66 ⎛ 4 ⎞ −⎜ ⎟ 12 ⎝ 12 ⎠ 2 = = 2.3. 4. n = 12 σ= = Σd 2 ⎛ Σd ⎞ −⎜ ⎟ n ⎝ n ⎠ 2 25. 5.0.10 Assumed Mean Method: When the data is large or the mean is not an integer we use assumed mean method to calculate the standard deviation. 4.5 0 0.0294 = 1. Take the assumed mean A=5 Bowling rate per over 6. Σd2 = 25.3.6 = 22.66 Σd = 4.0 –1.3 –0.00 1.0 d = x–A = x–5 1.7.0 9.5. standard deviation is 22.

) x 600 620 640 620 680 670 680 640 700 650 d = x–640 d ' = –40 –20 0 –20 40 30 40 0 60 10 x − 640 10 d2 16 4 0 4 16 9 16 0 36 1 2 Σd′ = 102 –4 –2 0 –2 4 3 4 0 6 1 Σd′ = 10 n = 10. 60.x−A where c is the common factor of all ‘d’ c • Find Σd′.) of ten employees of a firm 600.30. Σd′2. 50 Solution: i) Direct method x x2 2 30 900 Σx 2 ⎛ Σx ⎞ σ = −⎜ ⎟ 80 6400 n ⎝ n ⎠ 60 3600 2 70 4900 20300 ⎛ 350 ⎞ = −⎜ ⎟ 20 400 7 ⎝ 7 ⎠ 40 1600 400 = 50 2500 2 σ = 20 Σx = 350 Σx =20300 ii) Actual mean method x = Σx n = 30 + 80 + 60 + 70 + 20 + 40 + 50 7 212 = 350 7 = 50 . Common factor c = 10 Income (in Rs. 680. 620.033 × 10 = Rs. Solution: Take assumed mean A = 640. 70.33 9. 700. Σd′2 • Substitute the values of Σd′. 20. Σd′2 = 102 2 Σd '2 ⎛ Σd ' ⎞ σ = −⎜ ⎟ ×c n ⎝ n ⎠ 2 102 ⎛ 10 ⎞ = − ⎜ ⎟ × 10 10 ⎝ 10 ⎠ σ = 10. 650. 680. 640.80.2 × 10 Example 9: Find standard deviation for the following values : 30. 40. 640. Calculate the standard deviation of the income. • Find d ' = The formula for standard deviation is σ = Σd '2 ⎛ Σd ' ⎞ −⎜ ⎟ ×c n ⎝ n ⎠ 2 where d ' = x−A c Example 8 : The following are the income (in Rs. Σd′ = 10. 620. c and n in the formula and calculate the standard deviation. 670.2 − 1 × 10 = = 3.

36.24 213 .34.36.9 – 2. Calculate the variance & SD.01 = 8.41.89 = 68.D σ = 68.60 d' = d2 x d = x – 60 10 30 80 60 70 20 40 50 –30 20 0 10 –40 –20 –10 –3 2 0 1 –4 –2 –1 Σd′ = –7 9 4 0 1 16 4 1 Σd′2 = 35 σ = = = = Σd '2 ⎛ Σd ' ⎞ −⎜ ⎟ n ⎝ n ⎠ 35 ⎛ −7 ⎞ −⎜ ⎟ 7 ⎝ 7 ⎠ 4 × 10 2 2 ×c × 10 5 − 1 × 10 σ = 20 In all the four methods we get the same standard deviation σ = 20. The no.26.26.22.x 30 80 60 70 20 40 50 d = x – 50 –20 30 10 20 –30 –10 0 Σd = 0 d = x – 40 –10 40 20 30 –20 0 10 Σd = 70 d2 400 900 100 400 900 100 0 2 Σd = 2800 d2 100 1600 400 900 400 0 100 Σd2 = 3500 σ = = Σd 2 n 2800 7 400 20 ⎛ Σd ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ n ⎠ 2 σ = = Σd 2 n iii) Assumed mean method: Take assumed mean A = 40 x 30 80 60 70 20 40 50 σ = = = = = −⎜ 3500 ⎛ 70 ⎞ −⎜ ⎟ 7 ⎝7⎠ 500 − 10 2 400 20 2 σ iv) Step deviation method: Take A = 60. Example 10: A school has the strength of 1600 students. Solution: Take the assumed mean A = 30 Variance Marks x d = x–A = x – 30 d2 2 2 26 –4 16 2 = Σd − ⎛ Σd ⎞ σ 34 4 16 ⎜ ⎟ n ⎝ n ⎠ 22 –8 64 2 36 6 36 709 ⎛ 17 ⎞ 26 –4 16 = −⎜ ⎟ 10 ⎝ 10 ⎠ 41 11 121 48 22 36 26 18 –8 6 –4 Σd = 17 324 64 36 16 Σd2 = 709 = 70.01 S.48.of absentees to the school on 10 different days are as follows : 26.22. c = 10 x .

30. 13. 18. Find the standard deviation of the marks. 40. 15. 60.Example 11: Find the standard deviation of the following data 5. Solution: Here c = 5 and take assumed mean A = 15 x 5 10 15 20 25 x-15 d' = 5 –2 –1 0 1 2 Σd′ = 0 d′ 2 σ = = = Σd '2 ⎛ Σd ' ⎞ −⎜ ⎟ n ⎝ n ⎠ 10 −0 ×5 5 2 ×5 2 ×c 4 1 0 1 4 2 Σd′ = 10 = 5 2 When we add 3 to each value we get 8. Solution : Take the assumed mean A = 30. 80. 28 x -18 d' = x d′2 σ 5 8 –2 4 13 –1 1 18 0 0 23 1 1 28 2 4 2 Σd′ = 0 Σd′ = 10 = = = Σd '2 ⎛ Σd ' ⎞ −⎜ ⎟ n ⎝ n ⎠ 10 −0 ×5 5 2 ×5 2 ×c = 5 2 From the above example we conclude: The standard deviation of a series remains unchanged when each value is added or subtracted by the same quantity.10. 70. Then the new marks are 40. 23. it is enough to multiply the marks by 2. 25. 20.30 d' = 5 –2 –1 0 1 2 Σd′ = 0 d′2 4 1 0 1 4 Σd′2 = 10 σ = = = Σd '2 ⎛ Σd ' ⎞ −⎜ ⎟ n ⎝ n ⎠ 10 −0 ×5 5 2 ×5 2 ×c = 5 2 To convert the marks out of 100. Add 3 to each item and find the new standard deviation. 25. c = 5 x 20 25 30 35 40 x . 50. When we convert the marks to 100 find the new standard deviation. 35. Here c = 10 and take A = 60 214 . Example 12: The marks of 5 students scored out of 50 are 20.

If each value is doubled then find the standard deviation of new values.x 40 50 60 75 80 d' = x . of 5 values = 3 When each value is doubled.. Example 13: The standard deviation of 10 values is 4. of 5 new values = 3 x 2 = 6 Example 15: Find the standard deviation of the first n natural numbers.D. Variance σ2 = 42 = 16 Example 14: The variance of 5 values is 9. 215 . If each value is increased by 3. Increment in each value = 3 S. or S.D.D. ∴ σ = 4. + n n(n + 1) n + 1 and Σx 2 = = = n 2n 2 2 n ( n + 1)( 2n + 1) 6 σ= Σx 2 ⎛ Σx ⎞ −⎜ ⎟ n ⎝ n ⎠ = (n + 1)(2n + 1) ⎛ n + 1 ⎞2 −⎜ ⎟ = 6 ⎝ 2 ⎠ (n + 1) ⎡4n + 2 − 3n − 3⎤ ⎥= ⎢ 6 2 ⎦ ⎣ (n − 1) ⎡2n + 1 n + 1⎤ ⎢ 3 − 2 ⎥ 2 ⎣ ⎦ (n + 1) (n − 1) = (n2 − 1)/12 12 = Example 16: The mean of 100 items is 48 and their standard deviation is 10. of given 10 values = 4. find the standard deviation and the variance of the new set of values. Find the sum of all the items and also the sum of the squares of all the items. Solution: Mean x = 1 + 2 + 3 + ..D. is also doubled ∴ S. S. Solution: Variance of 5 values = 9. is unchanged by the increments in the values.60 10 –2 –1 0 1 2 d′2 4 1 0 1 4 Σd′2 = 10 σ = = = Σd '2 ⎛ Σd ' ⎞ −⎜ ⎟ n ⎝ n ⎠ 10 − 0 × 10 5 2 × 10 2 ×c = 10 2 Σd′ = 0 From the above example we conclude the following result: The standard deviation of a series gets multiplied or divided by the quantity k if each value is multiplied or divided by k.D. Solution: S.

Σ(x2 – 20x + 100) = 79 or Σx2 – (20 × 99) + 900 = 79 Σ(x – x )2 = Σ(x – 11)2 = Σ(x2 – 22x + 121) = Σx2 – 22Σx + (121 × 9) Σ(x – x )2 = 1159 – (22 × 99) + 1089 = 70 ∴ Σx2 = 1159. ∑x2 = 240400 Example 17: Given that ∑x = 99. After the calculations. ⎯ ⎯ ∑x Solution: Mean x = n . ∑x = n x = 100 × 48 = 4800 2 ⎯ ∑x2 ∑x2 σ2 = n − ( x ) ⇒ 102 = 100 − 482 ∑x2 = 100(482 + 102) = 100(2304 + 100) = (240400) ∴ ∑x = 4800. ∑x = 99 . ⎯ ( ⎯ 2 ) ∑x 99 x = n = 9 = 11 or or Σx2 – 20 Σx + (100 × 9) = 79 Σx2 = 79 + 1980 – 900 = 1159 Σ(x – 10)2 = 79 .Solution: ⎯ ⎯ ∑x x = n . Example 18: The mean and standard deviation of a set of 100 observations were worked as 40 and 5 respectively. Correct Σx = 4000 – 50 + 40 = 3990 correct ∑ x 3990 ∴ Correct mean = = 100 = 39. when we detect the mistake.90 n Variance ∑x2 ⎛∑x⎞ σ = n − ⎜ n ⎟ . Σ(x – x )2 = 70 Note: Sometimes when we calculate mean x and standard deviation σ. By mistake 40 was entered as 50. some values of the data may be taken incorrectly in the calculations. x = 40 ⎝ ⎠ ∑x2 25 = 100 − 1600 . ∑x = n x In correct Σx = 100 × 40 = 4000. Calculate the correct mean and standard deviation. n = 9 ∑(x – 10)2 = 79. Find ∑x2 and ∑ x − x Solution: n = 9. Incorrect Σx2 = 2500 + 160000 = 162500 2 2 Correct Σ x2 = 162500 – 502 + 402 = 162500 – 2500 + 1600 = 161600 216 . Incorrect σ = 5. we can calculate the correct values of the mean and the standard deviation without repeating the whole procedure.

V. The series of data for which the coefficient of variation is large indicates that the group is more variable (less stable/less uniform/less consistent).Correct variance = correct ∑x2 161600 − (correct mean)2 = 100 − (39.3)2 = 1649.38 − 1544.99.89 = 10. ⎯ ⎯ ∑x Solution: Mean x = n .D. Incorrect Σx = 100 × 40 = 4000 Correct Σx = 4000 – 70 – 30 + 3 + 27 = 3930 .24 ∴ Correct mean = 39. Coefficient of variation is defined as follows: σ C.9)2 = 1616 − 1592. Example 20: Find the coefficient of variation of the following data: 16. If the coefficient of variation is small it indicates that the group is less variable (more stable / more uniform / more consistent. Find the correct mean and standard deviation.D σ2 Example 19: = 23. 17. Correct standard deviation = 10.49 = 104.89 The mean and standard deviation of 100 items are found to be 40 and 10. Coefficient of Variation According to Karl Pearson “Coefficient of variation is the percentage variation in mean. standard deviation being considered as the total variation in the mean”. = ⎯ × 100% where σ is the S.3 . At the time of calculations two items were wrongly taken as 30 and 70 instead of 3 and 27.89 3930 = 39. x is the mean of the given data. It is also called x relative standard deviation. If we wish to compare the variability of two or more series. ∑x = n x . Correct mean x = Incorrect σ2 2 ⎯ ∑x2 ∑x2 − ( x ) or 102 = 100 − 402 ⇒ ∑x2 = 10000 + 160000 n Incorrect Σx2 = 170000 Correct Σx2 = 170000 – 302 – 702 + 32 + 272 = 170000 – 900 – 4900 + 9 + 729 Correct Σx2 = 164938 ⎯ 2 correct ∑x2 − (correct x ) Correct σ2 = n 164938 = 100 − (39.24. σ= 23. 13. we can use the coefficient of variation.01 n Correct S. 21.99 = 4. 18 217 .3 100 = ⇒ σ = 104.

σ 21. Find the arithmetic mean of the series.19.28. = − × 100 = 35.V × 100 = 69 × 100 = 22.V. formula.V.V.61 C.V. σ.2.Solution: Mean x = 16 +13 +17 + 21 +18 85 = = 17 5 5 x d = x – 17 16 –1 13 –4 17 0 21 4 18 1 Σd = 0 d2 1 16 0 16 1 2 Σd = 34 ∑d 34 S.33% .2 = 5. Wage bill for section B = 60 x 475 = Rs.300.D.11% Section B is more consistent ⇒ There is greater variability in the wages of section A.24 x Example 24: A factory has two sections with 50 and 60 employees respectively.V. for section A = 386 × 100 − 2.8 cm with coefficient of variation 3.2 %. of their runs are 15.500 ⇒ Section B has larger wage bill. for section B = 475 × 100 = 2. if two are given then the third can be calculated using the C.48 and 14 respectively. Example 25 : The mean of the runs scored by three batsman A.V.6 Example 22: The standard deviation and the mean of 20 values are 21.6. (i). C. Their average weekly wages are Rs. x = 36.V × 100 x ⎯ σ 15. = 15.8 n = σ = 2.475.What is the standard deviation of their height? σ x 163. Which section has a larger wage bill? (ii) Which section has greater variability in wages? Solution : i) Wage bill for section A = 50 x 386 = Rs.8 Solution: C.V. ⎯ σ σ Solution: Coefficient of variation C.6. σ = 100 × C.2 and 36. Example 21: The coefficient of variation of a series is 69% and its standard deviation is 15.V. C.386 and Rs. 12 and 2 respectively who is the most consistent batsman? − 218 . 9 10 ii) C.6. Find the coefficient of variation. The S. σ = 5 = 6.2 Solution: σ = 21.35% 2 Note: Of the three values x . B and C in the same series of 10 innings are 58.V.6 Arithmetic mean of the series x = C. = − × 100% .61 σ 2.V = 100 × 3. = ⎯ × 100 = 17 × 100 x C.D.92% x Example 23: A group of 100 candidates have their average height 163. C.5 × 100 = 57. The standard deviations are 9 and 10. = − × 100 ⇒ x = C.

Calculate the standard deviation of the marks secured by a student of Std X in the terminal exam as given: 87.1 1. 1640. The pocket expenses (in Rs. 6. 3. 70.V. Find the sum of the items and also the sum of the squares of all the items. 2. 34. for B = 48 × 100 = 25. Their S. But on comparison with original data it was found that the value 12 was incorrectly taken as 21.50. What are their S. Find the standard deviation. 50. Find their arithmetic means. Find Σx2 and Σ(x – 5)2. 1614. 50. 4. If at the time of calculation two items were wrongly taken as 3 and 67 instead of 13 and 17. A 58 15 B 48 12 C 14 2 12 15 C. 2 C.V. 63 80. 10. C.86% . The variance of 5 scores in 16. 5. Calculate the correct mean and standard deviation. 15. Find the standard deviation of the following data a+5. of two series are 75% and 90%. 3. 48. a+10 (Hint : First take the data as 5. The score of a batsman are 38.3 and 20 respectively. 80. 10.29% Since C. Σ (x – x )2 = 36.Solution: Player Mean S.Ds? 14. a+10. 1586. 9.0% . a+2. The C. 42. 60. 40. 90. 70. for C is the least ⇒ C is the most consistent batsman. The following are the details of weekly wages paid to a worker in two branches A and B of a firm: 219 . 7. There are five post bags which are weighed as 11.V. for C = 14 × 100 = 14. are 15 and 18 respectively. 12. 65. The coefficient of variations of two series are 60% and 80%. Mean of 200 items is 80 and their standard deviation is 10. a+3. 8.V. 13.D. The mean and standard deviation of 18 observations are 7 and 4 respectively. find the correct mean and standard deviation.14. 18 (kgs). Calculate the standard deviation and variance of the heights (in mm) of 5 men as given: 1593. Calculate the standard deviation and variance. The mean and standard deviation of 200 items are found to be 60 and 20 respectively. If each one of them is divided by 2. Calculate the coefficient of variation. Exercise 10.V.D. The arithmetic means are 33. 56. 1633. 79. 17. The sum of 10 observations is 60.) of 10 students are 30. 2 10). 11. find the standard deviation and variance of the new scores. 80. for A = 58 × 100 = 25.

Information regarding the price movements of the shares of three companies is given below. Consider the following statements: Our cricket team is likely to win the worldcup. Sample space : The set of all possible outcomes of a random experiment is called a sample space and is denoted by S. The following terms are used in studying the theory of probability. Jerome Cardon an Italian mathematician wrote a book on ‘Games of chance’ published in 1663. Some more examples of random experiment: 1. Taking out a ball from a bag containing balls of different colours. Pierre Simon de Laplace made an extensive research and published his book on ‘Theory of Analytical Probability’ in 1812 which became the first book in theory of probability. Drawing a card from a pack of cards. When we toss a coin either head or tail may turn up. 2. 220 .D.00 6. The prices of essential commodities are likely to be stable. In 19th century. Tossing a coin is a random experiment. 15. A Swiss mathematician James Bernoulli made an extensive study on probability. Meterological officials predict that the rainfall will be normal during the monsoon. Trial : Performing a random experiment is called a trial. 369 Rs. when we arrive at a decision we face uncertainity. 1.40 B 22. we cannot predict the outcome. The possibility (chance) for happening is called probability. In a random experiment. Rolling a die.00 5.50 C 24. In all these cases.2 PROBABILITY The probability theory has its origin in the games of chance pertaining to gambling. Abraham de Moivre (1667 – 1754) and Thomas Bayes (1702 – 1761) made significant contribution to this theory. When an experiment is conducted repeatedly under the same conditions the results can not be unique but may be one of the various possible outcomes. 427 Variance 100 121 Find the branch in which there is greater variability in wages.00 Which company’s share is more stable in price? 10. 2. (in Rs) A 18. 3.50 4. 3. French mathematicians Blaise Pascal and Pierre de Fermat developed a systematic procedure for probability theory.) S. Such an experiment is called a random experiment. Random experiment: An operation which produces an outcome is known as experiment.A B No of workers 160 150 Average wage Rs. Company Average Price (in Rs.

The event S – E is called the complement of E. 6} 3 4 The number that turns up cannot be odd and even simultaneously. A = {H}. THT. S = A∪B∪C∪D. In an experiment of tossing three coins. TTT} A = {HTT. In throwing a die. TTH. In throwing a die. 1 E = {1. B. C. Therefore A. It is denoted by E . the events of getting an odd number and the event of getting an even number together form the sample space. Events are usually denoted by A. That is. HTH. 3. the possible outcomes are 1. 5. THH} C = {HHH} D = { TTH. E. HTT. D. let E be the event of getting E F an odd number and F be the event of getting an even 2 number. C and D together form the sample space S. When a coin is tossed. 4. F. 2. Here events A and B are subsets of the sample space S. TTT} S The events A. 2. Note : The events B. A: exactly one head appears. B: exactly two heads appear C: exactly three heads appear D : atleast two tails appear S = {HHH.1 Exhaustive events: If two or more events together constitute the sample space S then these events are said to be exhaustive events. Note that E and E are mutually exclusive and exhaustive events. 4. HTH. 6} Event: Any possible outcome or combination of outcomes is called an event. C and D are called C B exhaustive events. THT. 6 .10. consider the following events. Equally likely events: Two or more events are said to be equally likely if each one of them has an equal chance of occurring. B = {T}.10. 3. B. B. All the other outcomes which are not in E belong to the subset S–E. 3. S 1 A D Fig. In tossing a coin. Fig. HHT. THH. T}. C and D are mutually exclusive and exhaustive. S = { H. 5} 5 6 F = {2. Therefore events E and F are mutually exclusive.2 221 3 6 4 2 5 . THT. HTT. That is every subset of the sample space S is called an event. 5. getting a head and getting a tail are equally likely events. Mutually exclusive events can not occur simultaneously. So they are exhaustive events. Sample space is S = { 1. Mutually exclusive events: Two or more events are said to be mutually exclusive when the S occurrence of anyone event excludes the occurrence of the other event. Complementary events: Let E be an event of a random experiment and S the sample space.When we roll a die. TTH} B = {HHT. 4. getting a head or tail is an event.

Fig.3 In tossing two coins simultaneously. An empty set ϕ is an impossible event. (2) The probability of impossible event is 0. T}. denoted by E . Let E be an event of getting an even number. That is P(S) = 1. E = {H}. is given by P(E) = − Number of outcomes not favourable for E n − m m = n = 1− n Total number of outcomes − P(E) = 1 − P(E) Note : Let us try to understand the meaning of A ∪ B and A ∩ B in the context of probability theory. That is 0 ≤ P(E) ≤ 1 (4) The probability of non-occurrence of an event E. ⇒ A sample space is a sure event.. then the probability of an event E. denoted by P (E). Impossible Event : Let F be an event of getting more than two heads in tossing two coins simultaneously.10. E = { HH. So F is an impossible event. Probability of an event: If a sample space contains n outcomes. 6} E = { 1. 4. Number of favourable outcomes for E n(E) m m P(E) = = or P(E) = = Total number of outcomes n n(S) n In tossing a coin. S itself is an event and S is called sure or certain event. let E be an event of getting less than 3 tails. TH. Favourable outcomes: The outcomes corresponding to the desired event are called the favourable outcomes. TT} = S Therefore E is the sure event. HT.In throwing a die. F are given by P(E) = P(F) = = n(S) 2 n(S) 2 Note : (1) The probability of sure event is 1. m of which are favourable to an event E. 2. 4. 5} Sure Event: Since S ⊆ S. let E be an event of getting a ‘multiple of 3’ E = { 3. Then the outcomes 2. (3) The probability of any event E is between 0 and 1. A ∪ B means ‘event A or the event B or both’. 6 are favourable to the event E. In rolling a die there are six outcomes. F = { T } n(E) 1 n(F) 1 = . F = { } = ϕ. Probability E. A ∩ B means ‘event A and event B’ 222 . That is P(ϕ) = 0. is defined as the ratio of m to n. let E be the event of getting a head and F be the event of getting a tail S = { H.

3. n(A) 13 1 P(A) = = = n(S) 52 4 (ii) Let B be the event of drawing a black card. n (C) = 5 n(S) 6 (i) Let D be an event by getting prime factors of 6 n(D) 2 1 ∴ D = { 2. Find the probability of getting i) 3 on the face of the die iii) a number greater than 1 on the die. 4. Solution: In rolling a die. 3}. TH. n(A) = 13. 2. There are 4 king cards. n (B) = 3 ∴ n(S) 6 2 (iii) Let C be an event of getting a number greater than 1 n(C) 5 P(C) = = ∴ C = { 2. n (A) = 1 = ∴ P(A) = n(S) 6 (ii) Let B be an event of getting an odd number n(B) 3 1 P(B) = = = B = { 1. Solution: In tossing two coins the sample space S = {HH. Again by P(A ∩ B) we mean ‘Probability that event A and event B occur’. 5. 6} : n (S) = 6. n (D) = 2 P(D) = = = n(S) 6 3 Example 27: One card is drawn at random from a shuffled pack of 52 cards. 5}. 5. Solution : The total number of cards n (S)= 52. Example 26 : A fair die is rolled. iv) prime factors of 6 on the die. ii) an odd number on the face of the die. n(S) = 4. 6}. Therefore n(D) = 52–4 = 48. n(D) 48 12 P(D) = = = n(S) 52 13 Example 28: Two coins are tossed simultaneously. There are 26 black cards. 3. Let A denote the event of getting two heads A = {HH}. n(A) = 1. (i) Let A be an event of getting 3 n(A) 1 A = { 3 }. TT}. 3. n (B) = 26. (i) Let A be the event of drawing spade. There are 4 queen cards.Thus by writing P (A ∪ B) we mean ‘Probability that event A or event B occurs or both events occur’. There are 13 spade cards. n(B) 26 1 P(B) = = = n(S) 52 2 (iii) Let C be the event of drawing a king card. What is the probability of getting two heads?. HT. What is the probability that it will be (i) a spade (ii) a black card (iii) a king (iv) any card except queen. 4. n(A) 1 = Therefore P(A) = n(S) 4 223 . the sample space S ={ 1. n(C) = 4 n(C) 4 1 P(C) = = = n(S) 52 13 (iv) Let D be the event of drawing a card which is not a queen.

Solution : Sample space S = { 1. HTHT. TTH. …. 45. HHTH. 2. 20. Let A be the event of getting exactly one head.Example 29: An integer is chosen at random from 1 to 50. 35. HHT. Find the probability that an item chosen at random from the sample space is not defective. HTT. HTHH. n(A) = 10. Find the probability that the number is divisible by 5. 7 2 Therefore the probability of 53 Sundays in a leap year . What is the probability of getting exactly one tail?. n(A) 20 4 Let A be the event of selecting an item which is not defective. 30. HHTT. TTTH. Number of defective items = 5. Solution : Total number of items n(S) = 25. (b) a non-leap year selected at random will contain 53 Sundays. HTTH. There are 52 Sundays and the remaining one day may be any one of the seven days. S = {HHHH. TTHT. A = { HTT. THHT. then what is the chance of getting exactly one head? Solution : Sample space S = {HHH. 25. A = { 5. P(A) = = = n(S) 25 5 Example 31 : If three coins are tossed. TTT}. n(A) 3 P(A) = = ∴ n(S) 8 Example 32: Four coins are tossed simultaneously. 3. n(A) 4 1 = = Therefore P(A) = n(S) 16 4 Example 33: What is the probability that (a) a leap year selected at random will contain 53 Sundays. 50}. A = { THHH. 7 (b) Number of days in a non-leap year = 365 days = 52 weeks + 1 day. HHTH. THT. So. HTHH. Number of items which are not defective = 25 – 5 = 20. 40. 15. TTH}. HTH. 2 The chances of 53rd Sunday falling on one of the remaining two days period = . 50}. 1 Therefore the probability of 53 Sundays in a non-leap year = . n(S) = 50. HHHT. THHH. THTH. n(A) =3. THTT. n(A) = 4. n(A) 10 1 P(A) = = = n(S) 50 5 Example 30: There are 5 items defective in the sample of 25 items. 10. THT. Solution: (a) Number of days in a leap year = 366 days = 52 weeks + 2 days. HHHT}. TTTT} Let A be the event of getting exactly one tail. 7 224 . HTTT. THH. Solution: In tossing four coins simultaneously the sample space. 52 weeks contain 52 Sundays. Let A denote the event of getting a number divisible by 5. n(S) = 16. TTHH.

(5. (6.4).4 Addition theorem on probability A S B A B If A and B are any two events associated with a sample space S. (6.3). (6. Therefore P(B) = n(S) 36 Example 35: Three dice are rolled once.6. (4. (5.5).6).4.1). (3.1).4). (6. (6. S contains 6 × 6 × 6 = 216 outcomes.2). (6.2).1. n(A) = 6. (5. (1.2).6).6) (5. (3. (5.. (2.1).(6. (5. (2.5.4). (6.5). n(B) 1 = B = {(6. n(S) = 216. then P (A∪B) = P (A) + P(B) – P(A∩B) or P (A or B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A and B) Proof: Let the events A and B of a sample space S be represented as sets in the diagram.3) .5).10.5).6.2).5). (4.5 225 . (2. (3. we know n(A∪B) = n(A) + n(B) – n(A∩B) Divide both sides by n(S) Fig.10.4).5).6)}. the sample space S = {(1. (1. (4. (2.6). (5.6). (2.4). n(S) = 36 n(A) 6 1 Therefore P(A) = = = n(S) 36 6 ii) Let B be the event of getting the total of face numbers 12.1.5.5.5). (6. i) Let A be the event of getting the same number on the dice A = { (1. What is the probability of getting (i) the same number on both dice (ii) a total of face numbers 12 Solution : The sample space in throwing two dice is given by S = {(1. A = { (4.2).6.3). (3. (6. n(A) = 10. (1. Consider a concentric circle of radius 1. (3.5). (3. What is the chance that the sum of the face numbers on the three dice is greater than 15? Solution: When three dice are rolled.5).3). (2.4).1).6.6. (4.3). If the chosen point P is inside the smaller circle then it is nearer to the O 1 centre O than to the circle.6)}.1).6.Example 34: Two dice are thrown.4).6. n(B) = 1.3).2). n(A) 10 5 .1). (1.5). (6.2). (1. (4. (4.1). (5. (6. (2.1.6).4). (5. (4. Let A be the event of getting the sum of face numbers greater than 15.3). Probability that the point is nearer to the centre than to the circle P 2 π× 1 1 Area of the circle with radius 1 2 = Area of the circle with radius 2 = 2 = 4 π×2 Fig.3).6)}. (3.6). (6. (5. What is the probability that this point is nearer to the centre than to the circle. (1. Solution: Radius of the circle is 2. (1.6).1).6).6)}.2).. From set theory.6).6) }. (6. Therefore P(A) = = = n(S) 216 108 Example 36: A point is chosen at random inside a circle of radius 2.

Solution : Sample space in throwing two dice is S = { (1.(6.2). (1. But there is no such card in the pack. Example 37: Two dice are thrown. B are mutually exclusive ⇒ P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B) = 4 + 4 = 2 Example 39: Two dice are thrown. Let A be the event of drawing a spade and B the event of drawing a heart n(A) = 13.n(A ∪ B) n(A) n(B) n(A ∩ B) ⇒ P(A∪B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A∩B) n(S) = n(S) + n(S) − n(S) Corollary : If A and B are mutually exclusive events then A ∩ B = ϕ. n(A∩B) = 2 n(A) 12 1 P(A) = = = n(S) 36 3 n(B) 6 1 P(B) = = = n(S) 36 6 n(A ∩ B) 2 1 P(A ∩ B) = n(S) = 36 = 18 Required probability is given by P(A∪B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A∩B) 1 1 1 8 4 + = = = 3 6 18 18 9 Example 38: A card is drawn from the pack of 52 cards. B the set of outcomes with even sum. then P(A∪B∪C) = P(A) + P(B) + P(C) – P(A∩B) – P(B∩C) – P(A∩C) + P (A∩B∩C) and if A. then P(A∪B∪C) = P(A) + P(B) + P(C). B and C are mutually exclusive.3).1) . (3.3). iii) P(A∩C) and P(B∩D) 226 .6)} Let A denote the event of getting a multiple of 3 on the first die.5).2).4). n(B) = 13.5). i) P(A). B and C are any three events associated with a sample space S.1)}. (6.1)} A∩B = {(3. Solution : Total number of cards n(S) =52.6)} Let B denote the event of getting the total of 7.1). (6. (6. If A is the set outcomes with odd sum of the face numbers of the dice.6). (3. (4.3). (3. (5. what is the probability of getting ‘a multiple of 3 on the face of the first die or the total of the numbers on the faces is 7’. (3. n(A∩B) = 0. Therefore P(A∩B) = 0.3). 1 1 1 A. (6. 13 1 13 1 P(A) = = . ii) P(C). (1. (2.5).4). P(B) = = 52 4 52 4 A∩B denote the event of drawing a card which is spade and heart.4).6). A = {(3. (6. n(B) =6. That is A∩B = ϕ. (3. n(S) = 36.2). P(D) and P(C∪D). (6. P(B) and P(A∪B). n(A) = 12.4). (6. The addition theorem on probability for mutually exclusive events is P(A∪B) = P(A) + P(B) Extension of Addition theorem on probability for three events If A. ……. Find the probability of getting a spade or heart. (6.1).2). C the set of outcomes with sum 11 and D the set of outcomes with sum 4 then find the following. (3. B = {(1.

(3.3). n(C) = 2 .6).5). (5. (4. (4.5)}. (4. (2. n(D) = 3 i) P(A) = 18 1 18 1 = . (1. (2.5).4).5)} = {(1.Solution : The following table shows all possible outcomes of throwing of two dice. (4. (4. (2.4). (2.4)} 227 . (6.1).1). P(B ∩ D) = 36 = 12 Example 40: A die is thrown twice what is the probability that atleast one of the two throws comes up with the number 4? Solution: Throwing a die twice is same as throwing two dice once. n(B∩D) = 3 2 1 3 1 P(A ∩ C) = 36 = 18 . (2.5).1). A = { (4. (6. (5.2). + 1 2 3 4 5 6 A B C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 = {(1.3). (4.2). (4. (6. (4. Sum of the face numbers on the dice are entered in the table.1).1).1). B = {(1. Let A be the event of getting 4 in the first throw and B be the event of getting 4 in the second throw.3).4). (3. (6. (1.4). (6.4)} A∩B = {(4. (2. P(B) = = 36 2 36 2 1 1 A and B are mutually exclusive events ⇒ P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B) = 2 + 2 = 1 2 1 3 1 P(C) = ii) = .6).1)} n(S) = 36.4). (4.2). (3. n(B) = 18. 18 . (5.2).2).2). (5.6).2).6). (2. n(A) = 18.2).5).3). (5. 12 = 36 = 36 iii) A ∩C = {(5. (6.6).4).5). (6. (5.6).4).4).5)}. (6.3). P(D) = = 36 18 36 12 1 1 2+3 5 C and D are mutually exclusive events ⇒ P(C ∪ D) + P(C) + P(D) . (4. (3. (4.4). (3.3).1)}. (3.2).6).6) }.3). (3.4).5).1). (3. D {(1. (2. (1. (5. (1. (2.3).6)} = { (5. (4.4). n(A ∩ C) = 2 B∩D = {(1.3). (3. Therefore n(S) = 36. (6.4).

That is P(A and B) = P(A) P(B) Let us consider the following random experiment. P(A ∩ B) = 12 = 4 . P(A) P(B) = 2 × 2 = 4 12 2 Therefore P(A∩B) = P(A) P(B) Example 42 : Two friends A and B appeared for an interview for two vacancies. H2. H2. T1. T5. 1 1 Solution: P(A) = Probability of selecting A = 3 P(B) = Probability of selecting B = 2 1 2 P(A) = Probability of not selecting A = 1 − 3 = 3 1 1 P(B) = Probability of not selecting B = 1 − 2 = 2 Selection or non-selection of any one of the candidate is not affecting the selection of the other. Find the probability that 3 2 i) both of them will be selected ii) only one of them will be selected iii) none of them will be selected. P(A ∩ B) = 36 6 11 11 6 y addition theorem P(A∪B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A∩B) = 36 + 36 − 36 = 36 Example 41 : The probability that a student passes a mathematics test is 2/3. H5. H5. Let A be the event : the coin shows head and B be the event: the die shows an even number A and B are independent events. 12 2 P(B) = 3 1 1 1 1 6 1 = . H4. T2. P(B) = 36 . 9 Independent events: In a random experiment two events are called independent events of the occurrence or non-occurrence of one event does not influence the occurrence or nonoccurrence of the other event. H3. H3. H4. H6} B = [H2. T6}. H4. T3. 2 14 4 Solution: Given values are P(M) = 3 . A ∩ B = { H2. Therefore A and B are independent events. then P(A∩B) = P(A) × P(B). Sample space S = {H1. If two events A and B are independent. The 1 1 probability of A’s selection is and that of B’s selection is . First a coin is tossed and then a die is rolled. H6. P(M ∩ S) = 45 and P(M ∪ S) = 5 4 2 14 P(M∪S) = P(M) + P(S) – P(M∩S) or = + P(S) − 5 3 45 4 P(S) = . T6} A = { H1. The probability that he passes atleast one test is 4/5. T4. H6} P(A) = 6 1 = . T2. H6. What is the probability that he passes the science test. H4.6 6 1 P(A) = 36 . T4. 228 . the probability that he passes both mathematics and science tests is 14/45.

1 red balls) = P (G ∩R) + P (R∩G) 5 7 P(taking a green ball first) = . 5. P (taking a red ball second) = 12 11 7 35 5 ∴ P (G ∩R) = P (G) P(R) = × 11 = 132 Since G and R are independent events 12 7 5 P(taking a red ball first) = . Two colour balls are taken out one after the other.2 ( ) () () 1. Find the probability of choosing a perfect cube from the numbers 1 to 300. 3. An integer is chosen from 1 to 50. Probability of taking two balls. from the bag. What is the probability of one is green and the other is red? Solution: There are 5 green and 7 red balls. 6. Find the probability that it is a prime number.) 229 . 8. 27. 4.. Find the probability of getting i) an even number ii) a number less than 5 iii) a number multiple of 3 In a simultaneous toss of two coins. Probability of taking two balls.i) ii) 1 1 1 Probability of selecting both A and B = P(A∩B) = P(A) P(B) = 3 × 2 = 6 Probability of selecting anyone of them = P(Selecting A and not selecting B) + P(not selecting A and selecting B) = P A ∩ B + P A ∩ B = P(A) P(B) + P(A) P(B) 1 1 2 1 1 2 3 1 =3×2+3×2=6+6= = 6 2 ( − ) ( − ) iii) − − − − 2 1 1 Probability of not selecting both A and B = P A ∩ B = P A P B = 3 × 2 = 3 Example 43 : A bag contains 5 green and 7 red colour balls. 1 green and 1 red . P (taking a green ball second) = 12 11 7 5 35 ∴ P (R ∩G) = P(R) P(G) = 12 × 11 = 132 since R and G are independent events.Probability of taking a green ball first and a red ball next + probability of taking a red all first and a green ball next. (Hint : perfect cubes are 1. find the probability that i) two heads turn up ii) exactly one head turns up A card is drawn from a pack of 52 cards find the probability that i) it is a red card ii) it is an ace. Find the probability that it is a multiple of? An integer is chosen from 10 to 30. 2.. 1 green and 1 red ball = P (G ∩R) + P (R ∩G) 35 35 70 35 = = + = 132 132 132 66 Exercise 10. That is (taking 1 green. A die is rolled once.

12.67 % 15) Company B 4) 21. Four oranges are rotten. 6 kg 7) 16000. 20 Exercise 10. 2. Find the chance that the number is a multiple of 3 or 7. Two persons X and Y appeared in an interview for two vacancies in an office.8. 15. From a set of 17 cards numbered 1.09 14) Company A 3) 2. 10. Two dice are rolled once. Find the probability that each of the three dice shows the same number on its face. 4 10) 59. 14.5 13) 19. Find the probability that it is either red card or king card. (i) 2 3 3 4 2 2 14 1 3 1 1 3 7. 13 50 7 5 5 15 (ii) (iii) (iv) 16 16 16 1 2 24 (ii) (iii) 35 7 35 (ii) 6. 11.2. Find the probability of getting i) head and tail alternatively iii) atleast two heads ii) exactly two heads iv) no head In a simultaneous loss of four coins.45 kg. Find the chance that (i) both 5 7 of them are selected (ii) only one of them is selected..(i) 15 4 8 2 8 8 7 7 19 101 11. 8. 16 2) 9. (iii) none of them is selected.11 5) 3.25 mm. ANSWERS Exercise 10. 17 one card is draw at random. 14. B and C can solve with probability . (i) (ii) (iii) 2. (i) 17 13 36 105 1 7 2 4.76 mm 8) 396. Find the probability of getting an even number on the second die or the total of face numbers 10. 5. 1300000. 451. 11) 30. 13.2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1. If A 5 3 7 8 2 and B can solve with probability . and respectively. (i) (ii) 3. A and C 15 7 12 8 can solve with probability all the three can solve the problem with probability . B and C can solve a problem are .3. Find the probability of choosing a good orange.1 1) 12 . 46 12) 20.98. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 9.7. A card is drawn from a pack of 52 cards. 20. 1 50 1 36 10. 9.26 6) 2. 15. 8. 35 35 what is the probability that the problem gets solved. 12. 4 2 3 The probability that A.. A coin is tossed three times.5. There are 5 dozen oranges in a box. what is the probability of getting i) exactly 2 heads ii) more than 2 heads iii) less than 2 heads iv) atleast one head Three dice are thrown. The chance 1 1 for X’s selection is and the chance for Y’s selection is . 13.4 9) 6. 230 .

Using the equation connected by two variables x and y we can get a value for y for each given value of x and obtain a set of ordered pair (x.11.y) can be plotted as points in the Cartesian plane where the horizontal line represents x-axis and the vertical line represents y-axis. In Class IX we have seen some linear graphs. The different variables that govern a particular situation may be connected by an equation. Graphs are a good visual aid. y) of real numbers. • Join these points by a smooth curve. We have already seen in Algebra that the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 is a quadratic equation. • By substituting selected values for x in the equation y = ax2 + bx + c. In this chapter we are going to draw quadratic graphs (parabolas) and some special graphs. These points now define the graph of the equation. Using these graphs we are going to solve quadratic equations. 11. Note: All figures given in this chapter are not to scale. The graph shows the nature of relationship between the variables x and y. This is the reason why we call y = ax2 + bx + c as a quadratic graph. we get corresponding values for y and then we form a table. 231 . But graphs do not give accurate solution of the variables as are obtained by calculations. then we get the required quadratic graph of y = ax2 + bx + c. However if the curves are drawn plotting more number of points then the graph will be very smooth ensuring solution of better accuracy. All these ordered pairs (x. Graphs drawn attractively are eye-catching. GRAPHS 11. • Draw x-axis and y-axis on the graph sheet and choose a suitable scale on the co-ordinates axes. To draw the quadratic graph y = ax2 + bx + c We now proceed to draw quadratic graphs of different nature. For each value of x the equation y = ax2 + b x + c gives a value of y and we obtain an ordered pair (x. • Plot the points in the Cartesian plane of the graph sheet. The set of all such ordered pairs define the graph of y = ax2 + bx + c called the quadratic graph.0 INTRODUCTION In several fields we come across variables assuming real values. The following procedure is used in drawing quadratic graphs. y) of real numbers. The scale for both the axes are chosen depending on the values of the co-ordinates obtained.1 QUADRATIC GRAPHS If two variables x and y are connected by an equation of the form y = ax2 + bx + c then it is called a quadratic polynomial.

draw a horizontal dotted line through y = 15 to intersect the curve at a point and draw a vertical dotted lines through that point which meets the x-axis at x = ± 3. Therefore the square root of 15 is ±3.9) (-2.9).-9) (-4. (2.-16) y=.0).1).0) o 2 3 4 5 6 7 (2.9. (0. (-4.2 232 . In the graph.4) x (1. (1. Solution: Draw x-axis and y-axis on the graph sheet. This curve is called the parabola y = x2 (Fig. Mark the scales on x-axis 1 cm = 1 unit and on y-axis 1 cm = 2 units. x’ -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 (-2. –16).1) o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 -2 -4 3.0). We form a table as follows: x –4 y = –x2 –16 –3 –9 –2 –4 –1 –1 0 0 1 –1 2 –4 3 –9 y 4 –16 x-axis : 1 cm = 1 unit y-axis : 1 cm = 2 units Plot the points (–4. (–2.1 Example 2: Draw the graph of y = –x2 Solution: Draw x-axis and y-axis on the graph sheet.4). –4).Example 1: Draw the graph of y = x2 and use this to find the square root of 15. (4. (–2. (–1.-16) y’ Fig. –16) on the graph sheet and join these points by a smooth curve.9) (2.4) x’ (-1.2 x -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 -12 -14 -16 -18 6 4 2 (0. (3. Assign values for x = –4 to 4 and we get the corresponding y values tabulated as follows: x y = x2 –4 16 –3 9 –2 4 –1 1 0 0 1 1 2 4 3 9 y 4 16 x-axis : 1 cm = 1 unit y-axis : 1 cm = 2 units Plot the points (–4. –9).11. –1). (3. 1).1) -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 20 18 15 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 (4.16).11. (2. (0. Note that it is symmetrical about y-axis. –9).-9) x (4.9 approximately.4).11. (–3.2). –4).16) on the graph sheet and join the points by smooth curve. –1). Assign values from –4 to 4 for x to get the corresponding values for y.1). (1.-4) (3.9 -6 -8 y’ Fig. (–3. (4.9).16) (3. Mark the scales as on x-axis 1 cm = 1 unit and on y-axis 1 cm = 2 units.-4) (-3.11. (–1. We get the required parabola y = –x2 (Fig.16) y=x 2 (-3.

5) (4.11. (3. (-4.-3) -4 (0.12) (5.12). (2.4 233 . (–3. Join these points by a smooth curve we get the required graph of the parabola y = x2 – 4 (Fig.12) on the graph sheet and join these points by a smooth curve. Solution: Draw x-axis and y-axis on the graph sheet and mark the scales on x-axis 1 cm = 1 unit and on y-axis 1 cm = 2 units. (–1. Assign values x = –4 to 5 and calculate the corresponding y values to form a table as follows: x x2 –2x –3 y = x2 – 2x – 3 –4 16 8 –3 21 –3 9 6 –3 12 –2 4 4 –3 5 –1 1 2 –3 0 0 0 0 –3 –3 1 1 –2 –3 –4 2 4 –4 –3 –3 3 9 –6 –3 0 4 16 –8 –3 5 y 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 (-4. –4).12) (-2.3).3 Example 4: Draw the graph of y = x2 – 2x – 3.5) x (3. (–2. (1.-3) -4 (1.0).-4) -6 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 Fig. Assigning values x = –4 to 4 we calculate the values for y and prepare the following table : x x2 –4 y = x2 – 4 –4 16 –4 12 –3 9 –4 5 –2 4 –4 0 –1 1 –4 –3 0 0 –4 –4 1 1 –4 –3 2 4 –4 0 y 3 9 –4 5 4 16 –4 12 x-axis : 1 cm = 1 unit y-axis : 1 cm = 2 units We plot the points (–4.0).11.4).21) y=x (4.5).21). (4.12) (-3.0) (-1. (1. (0.12).-4) -6 y’ Fig.12) 2 -4 (3.–3). –3). We get a required graph of the parabola y = x2 – 2x – 3 (Fig.Example 3: Draw the graph of y = x2 – 4 Solution: Mark the scales on the graph sheet on x-axis 1 cm = 1 unit and on y-axis 1 cm = 2 units.2x 3 (-3. (–2. (0.-3) (-1.12) on the graph sheet.0) -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 -2 (1.0) -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 -2 (2.5).5) x’ (2.0) (-2.0).-3) (0. x’ y=x 2 . –3). –3).5) x y’ 5 25 –10 –3 12 x-axis : 1 cm = 1 unit y-axis : 1 cm = 2 units We plot the points (–4.0) (–1. (–3.11. –4).11.5). (2. (3.5) and (5. (4.

We form a table as follows: x 2x2 –5x +2 y = 2x2 – 5x + 2 –4 32 20 2 54 –3 18 15 2 35 –2 8 10 2 20 –1 2 5 2 9 0 0 0 2 2 1 2 –5 2 –1 2 8 –10 2 0 y y =2 3 18 –15 2 5 4 32 –20 2 14 We plot the points (–4.2) -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 -5 (1. (0.54).Example 5: Draw the graph of y = 2x2 – 5x + 2 Solution: Draw x-axis and y-axis on the graph sheet.35).9). (–3.0). (3.54) (-3. Assign values from x = –4 to 4 to calculate the values for y.14) on the graph sheet.6).11. (–2.5). (4.35) 55 50 45 40 35 30 20 15 10 5 (2. x’ (4. Let us form a table as follows: x x2 +3x –4 y = x2 + 3x – 4 –5 –4 25 16 –15 –12 –4 –4 6 0 –3 9 –9 –4 –4 –2 4 –6 –4 –6 –1 1 –3 –4 –6 0 0 0 –4 –4 1 1 3 –4 0 2 4 6 –4 6 3 9 9 –4 14 4 16 12 –4 24 Choose on x-axis 1 cm = 1 unit and on y-axis 1 cm = 2 units. we get 234 2 x+ x -5 2 x y’ Fig. Now we are going to solve this equation by graphical method. –1).-1) -10 -15 In this section while we solve the quadratic equations by graphical method we adopt two methods. Mark the scales on x-axis 1 cm = 1 unit and on y-axis 1 cm = 5 units. In the first method.11.5) (0.2).14) (-1.5).5 . we draw the graph of the given equation and get the points of intersection of the curve with x-axis to determine the roots. The x co-ordinates of the points of intersection of the parabola and the straight line will give us the roots of the given quadratic equation.9) (3.0) (-2. In the second method we split the quadratic equation into two equations representing a parabola and a straight line.20).11. We get the graph of y = x2 + 3x – 4 (Fig.20) While studying Algebra we have solved the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 by algebraic method. Plot the above points and join these points by a smooth curve. (1. (2. (–1. Join these points by smooth arcs to get the required graph of the parabola y = 2x2 – 5x + 2 (Fig. The quadratic equation has two distinct real roots or two equal real roots or no real roots. To solve the quadratic ax2 + bx + c = 0 graphically equation x-axis : 1 cm = 1 unit y-axis : 1 cm = 5 units (-4. Now by solving the equations. Example 6: Solve graphically the equation x2 + 3x – 4 = 0 Solution: First let us draw the graph of y = x2 + 3x – 4 by the usual method.

-6) (2. Mark the above points and join them by smooth arcs.-6) (-1. We get the graph of the parabola y = 2x2 – x – 3 (Fig.5} (-1.7). 0).14) 2 + 3x - which is the equation of x-axis.6 Example 7: Solve graphically 2x2 – x – 3 = 0 Solution: First form a table for the parabola y = 2x2 – x – 3 x 2x2 –x –3 y = 2x2 – x – 3 –4 32 4 –3 33 –3 18 3 –3 18 –2 8 2 –3 7 –1 2 1 –3 0 0 0 0 –3 –3 1 2 –1 –3 –2 2 8 –2 –3 3 3 18 –3 –3 12 4 32 –4 –3 25 y (-4.1.0).7 235 .0) and (3/2. x’ 4 (-5.0) and (1. 0). The points of intersection of the parabola with x-axis are (–4.12) (2.1}.y = 0 = – y = x2 + 3x – 4 x2 + 3x – 4 – – + 0 y=x y 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 x axis : 1 cm = 1 unit y axis : 1 cm = 2 units (4.6) (-4.-2) (0. ∴ The roots of the equation x2 + 3x – 4 = 0 are –4 and 1.-3)-4 -6 y’ Fig.18) (-2.x Choose the scales on x-axis 1 cm = 1 unit and on y-axis 1 cm = 2 units.0) -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 x axis : 1 cm = 1 unit y axis : 1 cm = 2 units (4.6) x -2 -4 (0.11.7) This is the equation of x-axis. The x-co-ordinates of these points are the roots of the given equation.0) o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Fig.25) (3.-4) -6 y’ (1.11.11. The points of intersection of the curve with x-axis are (–1.3) x o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 -2 (1.-4) (-2.0) -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 (-3. Solving the equation of the parabola and the given equation we get y = 0 = – y = 2x2 – x – 3 2x2 – x – 3 – + + 0 x’ (-3.24) (3.5. (or) (1. Therefore the solution set is {–4.33) 2 -3 y = 2x . ∴The solution set is {–1.

Example 8: Solve graphically (2x + 1) (3 – x) = 0.-2) (-1.6) (2. x’ (-5. By solving y = –2x2 + 5x + 3 and 0 = –2x2 + 5x + 3 we get y = 0. ∴ The solution set is {–3. By joining these points we get the parabola y = x2 + 3x (Fig.28) 26 24 22 20 18 (3.8 Example 9: Draw the graph of y = x + 3x and solve the equation x2 + 3x = 0 Solution: First we form the following table for the parabola y = x2 + 3x y Choose the scale on x-axis 1 cm = 1 unit and on y-axis 1 cm = 2 units and plot the above points on the graph sheet.0) -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (-2.11.5) 6 4 (0.10) 8 6 4 (1.5.11.-15) -16 -18 -20 -22 (5. 3} 2 x’ 10 8 (1. Solution: First form a table for the parabola y = (2x + 1) (3 – x) = 6x – 2x2 + 3 – x = –2x2 + 5x + 3 x –2x2 +5x +3 y = –2x2 + 5x + 3 –3 –2 –18 –8 –15 –10 3 3 –30 –15 –1 0 1 2 –2 0 –2 –8 –5 0 5 10 3 3 3 3 –4 3 6 5 3 4 5 –18 –32 –50 15 20 25 3 3 3 0 –9 –22 y x axis : 1 cm = 1 unit y axis : 1 cm = 2 units Choose the scale on x-axis 1 cm = 1 unit and on y-axis 1 cm = 2 units. the x-axis.-9) -10 -12 -14 (-2.-2) -2 -4 -6 y’ y = x2 + 3x x –5 –4 x2 25 16 3x –15 –12 y = x2 + 3x 10 4 –3 9 –9 0 –2 4 –6 –2 –1 1 –3 –2 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 4 3 6 4 10 3 9 9 18 4 16 12 28 x axis : 1 cm = 1 unit y axis : 1 cm = 2 units 30 28 (4.-4) -4 -6 -8 (4.11. Solving the equation y = x2 + 3x and x2 + 3x = 0 we get y = 0.9 236 .11.-30) -30 -32 2 5x + 3 y = -2 x + x y’ Fig.8). 0}. The roots of the required equation are the x-co-ordinates of the points of intersection of the parabola with x-axis.4) (-3.3) 2 (3.-22) -24 -26 -28 (-3. The x-co-ordinates of the points of intersection of the parabola with x-axis give the solution of the given equation. We get the graph of the parabola y = –2x2 + 5x + 3 (Fig.0) -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 -2 (-1.18) 16 14 12 10 (2. ∴ The solution set is {–0. Plot the above points on the graph sheet and join these points. the x-axis.10) (-4.4) 2 x Fig.9).

x –2 –1 0 y=x+7 5 6 7 1 8 2 9 (-1.4) 3 2 1 o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 -1 -2 (3. Solution: First we form a table for y = x2 – x – 8 x x2 –x –8 y = x2 – x – 8 –4 16 4 –8 12 –3 9 3 –8 4 –2 4 2 –8 –2 –1 1 1 –8 –6 0 0 0 –8 –8 1 1 –1 –8 –8 2 4 –2 –8 –6 3 9 –3 –8 –2 4 16 –4 –8 4 5 25 –5 –8 12 y x axis : 1 cm = 1 unit y axis : 1 cm = 1 unit (-4.4) x’ -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 (-2.17) Choose the scale on x-axis 1 cm = 1 unit and on y-axis 1 cm = 2 units.24) (-2. Mark these points on the graph sheet and join these points.8) 6 4 2 o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 -2 -4 -6 y’ x 9 x’ -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 Fig. Solving we get. Mark the above points on the graph sheet and join these points to get the graph of the parabola y = x2 – 2x + 9.11 236 .9) (2. Note that the two roots are real and distinct.12) 10 y=8 (0.12) (3.17) 16 14 12 (-1. 5}. ∴ The solution set is {–3.-2) which is a straight line.Example 10: Draw the graph of y = x2 – x – 8 and hence solve the equation x2 – 2x – 15 = 0. Again form the table for the straight line y = x + 7 and draw the straight line. x x2 –2x +9 y = x2 – 2x +9 –4 16 8 9 33 –3 9 6 9 24 –2 4 4 9 17 –1 1 2 9 12 0 1 2 3 0 1 4 9 0 –2 –4 –6 9 9 9 9 9 8 9 12 4 16 –8 9 17 Fig.-8) 13 12 7 (5.11.9) 8 (1.7) 6 5 4 (4.9) 9 8 (1.-8) y’ 2 8 y=x -x - x The x-co-ordinates of the points of intersection of y = x2 – x – 8 and y = x + 7 give the solution set. Solution: First form a table for y = x2 – 2x + 9. y = 0 = – y = x2 x2 – x – x – 8 – 2x – 15 + + + 7 (-1.8) 7(0.-6) (0.-2) -3 -4 -5 -6 (2.33) y=x 2 .12) Choose the scale on x-axis 1 cm = 1 unit and on y-axis 1 cm = 1 unit. Example 11: Draw the graph of y = x2 – 2x + 9 and use it to solve the equation x2 – 2x + 1 = 0.5) (-3.11. We get the graph of y = x2 – x – 8.-6) -7 -8 (1. y = x2 – 2x + 9 0 = x2 – 2x + 1 – – + – y = 8 (4.12) + x 11 = y 10 (2.6) (-2. Solving the equations we get.2x + (-3.10 y 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 x axis : 1 cm = 1 unit y axis : 1 cm = 2 units (-4.

x’ (3.0) -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 (-3.11.-10) -11 ) -12 (0. x x 2 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 25 16 9 4 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 4 2 3 9 3 4 16 4 +x –12 y = x + x – 12 2 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –12 –12 –12 –12 –12 –12 –12 –12 –12 –12 8 0 –6 –10 –12 –12 –10 –6 0 8 Choose the scale on x-axis 1 cm = 1 unit and on y-axis 1cm = 1 unit. -14 (0 5) . Mark the above points on the graph sheet and join them. Therefore the roots of the given equation x2 + 2x + 2 = 0 are not real. y x y –2 –1 0 1 2 –12 –13 –14 –15 –16 x axis: 1 cm = 1 unit y axis: 1 cm = 1 unit 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 (4. The x co-ordinates of these points 1 and 1 are the roots of the given equation.-1 -15 y (1 -16) = .-6) (2.8) Since the straight line does not intersect the parabola we are unable to find the x–co-ordinates of the points of intersection.8). -16 .8).0) (-4.-13) -13 -14) .which is a straight line parallel to x-axis.12 237 . By solving y = x2 + x – 12 and x2 + 2x + 2 = 0 we get the equation of straight line y = – x – 14. Solution: First we form a table for y = x2 + x – 12. y = 0 = – y= x2 + x – 12 x2 + 2x + 2 – – – – x – 14 Form a table for y = – x – 14 and draw the graph of it. Therefore the solution set is {1.-12) (-1. (1. Then we get the graph of y = x2 + x – 12. It touches the curve at the point (1.-12 (-2.-10) -10 (1. This straight line intersects the curve at two coincident points (1. x2 – 2x + 1 = 0.x (2 -1 y’ 4 x Fig. Note that the roots are real and equal.8) y = x2 + x 12 (-5.-6) -7 -8 -9 (-2. Example 12: Draw the graph of y = x2 + x – 12 and hence solve the equation x2 + 2x + 2 = 0.8).1}.

20) = = = 2 4 5 6 80 100 O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 = = = 10 = K 8 10 ∴ we get K = 10.Exercise 11.13 Example 14: For the following table draw the suitable graph.11. Number of Pens (x) Cost in Rs. 4. The first one is well known as a straight line while the second one is called a Rectangular Hyperbola. 2 4 5 6 8 10 20 40 50 60 80 100 y 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 x-axis : 1 cm = 1 unit y axis : 1 cm = 10 units (10. Therefore it is in direct variation. (a) x2 – 9 = 0 (b) x2 – 4x = 0 (c) x2 + 4x – 12 = 0 (d) x2 – 5x + 6 = 0 (e) 2x2 – x – 3 = 0 (f) (2x – 1) (3–x) = 0 (g) 2x2 – x – 6 = 0 (h) (2x + 1) (x – 3) = 0 2 Draw the graph of y = x – 4x + 3 and hence solve the equation x2 – 4x + 3 = 0. 1 (a) y = x 2 (b) y =2x2+ x (c) y = x2–x–12 (d) y = (2 + x) (x – 4) (e) y = 2x2 – x + 3 2 Solve graphically the equations.(y) 1 2 4 8 10 1000 500 250 125 100 238 . Draw the graph of y = x2 – 3x and use it to solve x2 – 3x – 4 = 0. 2. ∴ we get y α x. 3. Example 13: The following table gives the cost and the number of pens bought.60) constant of proportionality.1 1.80) that as x increases y also increases. The relation y = 10 x is a straight line as exhibited in the graph. y= x Number of Years (x) Value of the machine in Rs. (5.50) y (4. (y) For the above table find what type of variation involved and draw the suitable graph. 11.2 SOME SPECIAL GRAPHS This section demonstrates how to draw two types of graphs one of direct variation and the other of indirect variation.40) Since = K . 6. Finally we will find the approximate area under a curve by the rule of trapezoidal approximation. Draw the graph of y = 2x2 + x – 6 and hence find the roots of 2x2 + x – 10 = 0.100) 10 x Solution: From the above table we observe (8. 5. ∴ y = Kx where K is a (6. Draw the graph of y = x2 – 4x + 6 and use the graph to show that the equation x2 + 3x + 5 = 0 does not have a real root. 7. and from the table we find x 20 40 50 60 (2. Draw the graph of the following equations. Draw the graph of y = x2 – 2x – 8 and hence use it to solve x2 – 2x – 8 = 0. Fig.

x axis: 1 cm = 1 unit y axis: 1 cm = 100 units Fig. ∴ xy = k where k is the constant of proportionality. That is y α 1/x or xy = K where K is a constant of proportionality. 288 Let us now form the table for curve y = and the draw the graph (Fig.11. ∴ k = 72 × 4 = 288.14 Example 15: It is estimated that the water tank can be filled in 72 hours if 4 pumps are used.11. x x axis: 1 cm = 1 unit y axis: 1 cm = 10 units x y 3 96 4 72 6 48 8 36 9 12 32 24 From the graph we observe that to we need (x = ) 6 pumps to fill the tank in (y = ) 48 hours.11. The relation is y α 1/x. Given y = 72 when x = 4.Estimate the value of the machine for the 5th year. Fig.11. As the number of pumps increases the number of hours y (time) will be reduced.15). ∴ The relation becomes xy = 288. Solution: Let x denote the number of pumps and y denote the number of hours. Solution: From the table we observe that as x increases y decreases.16). From the graph we see that the estimated value of the machine for 5th year is Rs. This type of variation is called indirect variation.15 239 . Therefore they are in indirect variation. Also from the table we find that K = 1 × 1000 = 2 × 500 = 4 × 250 = 8 × 125 = 10 × 100 = 1000 The relation is xy = 1000 is a rectangular hyperbola as exhibited in the graph (Fig. Find graphically how many pumps would be needed to complete the work in 48 hours.200.

Give the speed time formula for it and draw the graph. 2 (h) –0. 2 (d) 2. 4 (c) –6. (3) 1. Using this find the number of hours to travel with a speed of 16 km per hour. 3. 4 (6) –2. 1.4. x.2 1. y > 0. 3. x = 1. A bus travels with a speed of 30 km per hour. Use the graph to find y when x = 5 and x when y = 8. 3 (g) –1. Draw the graphs for the following tables and identify the variation and also find the constant of proportionality. ANSWERS Exercise 11. Exercise 11. (a) x y 2 8 3 5 8 15 12 20 32 60 (b) x y 2 4 5 8 10 50 25 20 12.5.3 (4) –2.5 (4) 6 hrs 15 min 240 .Exercise 11. Use it to find the distance when it travels 3½ hours journey.5 10 2.5.5 (f) 0.5. 3 (b) 0. 4. 3 (e) –1.1 (2) (a) –3. Draw the graph of xy = 12. (5) –1. Give the distance time formula and draw the graph of it. 4. 2 (8) no real roots.5.2 (1) (a) k = 4 (b) k = 100 (2) 105 km (3) y = 2. A train travels from Chennai to Arkonam for a distance nearly 100 kms.

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