Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM: ITS RATIONALE AND BACKGROUND Introduction Water is the key to a person's survival because

without water survival is simply not an option. However, water has to be purified otherwise bacteria in the water can be harmful to your drink. This is highlighted

especially in the Third World countries such as Ethiopia and Gambia where many people die due to contaminated water that contains lots of bacteria that cause infection and illness. maintain In all countries water is considered valuable to its purity and it must go through several

processes such as reverse osmosis which is quite expensive. However there are cheaper ways to purify water; it wouldn’t even cost you money. One example is solar heat. It

Solar radiation can kill bacteria in a period of time.

has been tested and proven to purify water in many parts of the world. On the other hand, the seed extract of Moringa oleifera, commonly called Malunggay in the Philippines, has been tested and also proven to purify and kill bacteria living in water.

1

Both

of

these

ways

are

proven

and

tested

by The if

researchers but not using these two as a combination. researchers will conduct this study to determine

Malunggay seed extracts and heat combined is effective in purifying water. This study aims to determine whether

Moringa seed extracts and Solar Heat can be used in water purification.

Background of the Study The use of solar heat has been reported to be very effective in purifying water. The use of raw malunggay

seed extract has also been reported to be a good water purifier. Considering that both solar heat and malunggay seed extract are not costly at all when used in water

purification, and both

of these ways are proven and tested

by researchers but not using these two as a combination, the researchers found it logical determine if the combination of to try to verify both solar heat and and

malunggay seed extract is effective in purifying water.

2

Theoretical/Conceptual Framework This study is anchored on both foreign and local

claims, based on their studies, that solar radiation and moringga seed extracts have been tested and proven to be effective in purifying dirty waters. Sia (2008) reported that moringa seeds could treat

water on two levels, antimicrobial agent.

acting Drs.

both as a coagulant and an Geoff Folkard and John

Sutherland from the University of Leicester, England, have worked on substituting moringa seeds for alum to remove solids 1996). in water for drinking (Folkard and Sutherland,

According also to

to the study that was made by

researchers on From Haninger(2009), he says that crushed Moringa certain seeds area purify water to be used widely around a

and it can lower the bacterial concentration

in water so that it will be safe to drink. And it can also be used as a quick and very simple method for cleaning dirty water in rivers. Waters are purified to improve its quality and make

it fit for human consumption. Water purification does not only kill the harmful bacteria found in dirty waters but it

3

also aims to make the water looks clear and remove all its impurities to make it more acceptable to user. With the positive reports and encouraging results of earlier studies made about water purification using solar

heat Moringga seeds, the researchers find it interesting to find out how the combination of malunggay seed extracts and solar heat exposure affects the quality of dirty waters in terms of its pH, turbidity and the presence of harmful

micro-organism, Escherichia coli. An evaluation is to made regarding the hypothesis that states that “ H0: There is

no significant difference in the water before and after it is exposed to malunggay extract and solar heat in terms of turbidity, pH and number of the Coliform bacteria.” And for the “H1: There is a significant difference in the water

before and after it is exposed to malunggay extract and solar heat in terms of turbidity, pH and number of the Coliform bacteria.” The schema clearly illustrates the relationship

between the Independent Variables (IV) and the Dependent Variables (DV). There are two (2) namely: Malunggay The Seed first is the to IVs in the left box, or Number water of for

concentration one (1)

added

Liter

purification ( 1 seed:1 Liter; 2 seeds: 1 Liter; and 3

4

seeds:1Liter, respectively) and the second is Solar Heat and in the right box are the Dependent Variables (DV). The

arrow in between the two boxes is pointing to the right box containing the DV. This arrow signifies that the IVs have a direct influence on the DV which is Water Quality measured

in terms of the following characteristics, namely: Color of Water; Water pH; and No. of Escherichia coli. It means

that changes made in the concentration of the Independent Variables , a corresponding reaction will be noted from the DV. the In this study, should there be Dependent Variables, the significant effects on Hypothesis may be

positive

accepted and it will prove that malunggay and solar heat is effective as water purifier.

5

Malunggay Seed Extract • 1 Kernel per Liter of Water 2 Kernels per Liter of Water 2 Kernels per Liter of Water Solar heat Figure 1.1 The Schema of the Study. Water Quality Color of water

Ph No. of coliform bacteria

6

Statement of the Problem This study aims to determine if Malunggay (Moringa oleifera Lin.) seed extract and solar heat are effective in water purification. Specifically, this study seeks to answer the

following sub-problems: 1. Is there a significant difference in the water

before and after it is exposed to malunggay extract and solar heat in terms of turbidity, pH and number of the Coliform bacteria? 2. How many malunggay seeds are needed to

purify a liter of open well water? 3. Does malunggay alter water pH? Hypotheses On the bases of the research problems stated, two

hypothesis are hereby formulated: H0: There is no significant difference in the water before and after it is exposed to malunggay extract and solar heat in terms of turbidity, pH and number of the Coliform bacteria.

7

H1:

There is a significant difference in the water before and after it is exposed to malunggay extract and solar heat in terms of turbidity, pH and number of the Coliform bacteria.

Significance of the Study This study hopes to create an impact on people’s

health and the economy. People’s Health. who are living in People in the rural areas, or those the hinterlands where there is no

purified water available,

just drink water taken from

open wells. They are highly vulnerable to getting sick with diarrhea from their dirty or contaminated drinking water. Using this type of water purification can lessen the cause of diarrhea and many other diseases caused by harmful

bacteria in water. The purification process is very easy to do because even small children can do it right and it

doesn’t use sophisticated and costly gadgets. The Poor. The poor living in either rural areas or in

the cities can do water purification by themselves using malunggay and solar radiation which is cash-saving. Poverty won’t be a hindrance for the poor to drink clean and safe water.

8

Economy.

This study can also be a big help in the

economy of our poor families and the nation, in general, because it doesn’t use any expensive chemicals and

processes. taken from

It uses only malunggay

a very common natural ingredient Malunggay is most commonly

seeds.

found in many parts of the country and it could be easily grown in everyone’s backyard and last for a number of years. Environment. this process is It can benefit the environment because purely organic. This process would

encourage Maluggay tree planting in order to have a readily available source of kernels for water purification.

Likewise, it would eventually guarantee a year-round supply of a very nutritious malunggay leaves for home consumption and for sale. Furthermore, the waste from pounding

malunggay seeds is biodegradable; therefore, it won’t cause poisoning and environmental pollution. It is very safe. Student-Researchers. The results of this study would to use in

be a good source of information for the students

the pursuit of further verifications and experimentations regarding the benefits that the malunggay plant could

give to us in water purification.

Scope and Limitation of the Study

9

The study will be conducted at the Lood’s Residence, Turno, Dipolog City covering the period from last week of September to the second week of an October 2011. The found

Researchers will use samples of

open-well water

at the heart of the City of Dipolog owned by the Kyamko family in Cental Barangay, a block away from the Dipolog City Pilot Demonstration School. The water samples examined by the will Agape collect Laboratory, 12 Dipolog will be The The

City.

researchers

Malunggay

kernels.

production of

Malunggay seed extract will be done using This study is limited only to the

the crushing method.

use of the Malunggay seed extract and solar heat for water purification of an open-well water samples.

Definition of Key Terms Moringa oleifera. Malunggáy in Filipino, refers to the

most widely cultivated species of the genus Moringa, which is the only genus in the family Moringaceae. It is an

exceptionally nutritious vegetable tree with a variety of potential uses.

10

Kernel.

This term refers to the grain or seed, as of

a cereal grass, enclosed in a husk grain or seed, as of a cereal grass, enclosed in a husk. Etract. This term refers to obtain something from a source, usually by separating it out from other material Water purification. This term refers to the process of removing undesirable chemicals, materials, and biological contaminants from contaminated water. The goal is to

produce water fit for a specific purpose.

Most water is

purified for human consumption (drinking water) but water purification may also be designed for a variety of other purposes, including meeting the requirements of medical,

pharmacology, chemical and industrial applications. Water quality. This term refers to the physical,

chemical and biological characteristics of water. It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the

requirements of one or more biotic species and or to any human need or purpose. Solar heat. by the sun from This term refers to the a energy emitted

nuclear fusion reaction that creates

electromagnetic energy.

11

pH. alkalinity.

This term refers to the measure of acidity or

Turbidity. or haziness

This of

term

refers

to

the

cloudiness by

a fluid caused

individual particles (suspended solids) that are generally invisible to the naked eye, similar to smoke in air. The

measurement of turbidity is a key test of water quality. Open well. This term refers to a well whose diameter is great enough (1 meter or more) for a person to descend to the water level. It is an artificial pond filling a large excavation in the zone of saturation up to the water table. Escherichia coli , commonly abbreviated E. coli This term refers to the main species of bacteria that live in the lower intestines of mammals. It is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in humans, and are occasionally

responsible for product recalls.

12

Chapter 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents the Legal Aspects, Related

Literature and Studies which has bearing to the present studies Legal Aspects A. Foreign The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) is the main federal drinking law that water. ensures Under the quality of Americans' States

SDWA,

United

Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) sets standards for drinking water quality and oversees the states, localities, and water suppliers who implement those

standards. SDWA was originally passed by Congress in 1974 to protect public public drinking health water by regulating The law the was

nation's

supply.

amended in 1986 and 1996 and requires many actions to protect drinking water and its sources: rivers, lakes, reservoirs, springs, and ground water wells. This law contains requirements for ensuring the safety of the nation's public drinking water supplies. This is the

13

principal federal law concerning drinking water. The SDWA authorized the to promulgate regulations

regarding water supply. The major regulations are in title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40CFR141, 40CFR142, regulate states, and 40CFR143). Parts 141, 142, and 143 by

primary and are

contaminants, secondary those with states

implementation

contaminants. health to be impacts. the

Primary State

contaminants implementation

allows

primary

regulators of the water supplies (rather than USEPA) provided they meet certain cause requirements. aesthetic Secondary and

contaminants

generally

problems

are not directly harmful. (Wikipedia.com) B. Local Philippine Standards for Drinking Water 1993

(PNSDW 1993) under the provision of Chapter II Section 9 of PD 856, otherwise known as the Code on Sanitation of the Philippines is designed to guide the Waterworks Officials, Developers and Operators of Water Supply

Systems both Government and Private entities, health and sanitation authorities and the general public and all other concerned by standards cover requirements

for the acceptable values of the determined parameters

14

in measuring water quality. These parameters include microbiological, compositions of physical, the chemical The and radiological also

water.

standard

delineates values established in conforming with the medical and health implication of the parameters as opposed to values established purely to satisfy

aesthetic requirements (DENR Administrative Order No. 26-A,Series 1994) Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004 states that the State shall pursue a policy of economic growth in a manner consistent with the protection, preservation and revival of the quality of our fresh, brackish and marine waters. To achieve this end, the framework for sustainable development shall be pursued. This

includes the use of water for domestic purposes like drinking and potable water and also water treatment. Literature Moringa Oleifera. According to the study that was made by researchers on

http://www.miracletrees.org/moringa_water_purification.html hey say that crushed Moringa seeds purify water to be used widely around a certain area and it can lower the

bacterial concentration in water so that it will be safe to

15

drink. And it can also be used as a quick and very simple method method for does cleaning not dirty water in rivers. This simple also

only

remove

water

pollution,

but

removes harmful bacteria. They also indicated on how it works, Moringa joins with the solids in the water and then they both sink to the bottom. This kind of treatment

removes 90-99% of bacteria in water. They say that by using Moringa expensive seeds, means will people of will no longer Using of be depending method such on of as

purification. the use

this

purification

replace

chemicals

aluminum sulphate, which they say are dangerous to people and especially the environment, and mostly these chemicals are very expensive. Every different water sources will need different amounts of Moringa seeds, because impurities on such waters will not be the same. Using a jar for

experimenting will be a bid help in working out the correct amount needed. Heat. Clean drinking water is lacking in many parts of the world and many persons die because of this. It is

estimated that two million people die every year because of water related diseases. By using solar radiation to kill bacteria and microorganisms, it would reduce the amount of people dead and prevent diseases in a very useful and cheap

16

way. This can be done with clear plastic bottles made of clear plastic, then fill the plastic with water and fill with clear water and place above roofs. The radiation will kill the microorganisms after 5-6 hours in the sun. The method will be faster if the temperature is higher, it

would be recommended to paint half of the bottle black and the black part will face the ground or the surface of the roof. This method only works in clear water not pond or

river water. SODIS (Solar Disinfection), Microbes radiation, are destroyed by the through Sun. temperature is and UVA a

provided

Water

placed

in

transparent plastic bottle, which is oxygenated by shaking, followed by topping-up. It is placed on tile or metal for six hours in full sun, which raises the temperature and gives an extended dose of solar radiation, killing any

microbes that may be present. The combination of the two provides a simple method of disinfection for tropical

developing countries. Water purification, or drinking water treatment, is

the process of removing contaminants from surface water or groundwater to make it safe and palatable for human

consumption. A wide variety of technologies may be used, depending on the raw water source, contaminants present,

17

standards to be met, and available finances. Sources of Drinking Water Water to be used in public or private water supplies can be drawn from a variety of sources. Different sources of raw water demand different treatment methods to render it ft for human consumption.

(microbiologyreader.com) It is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, materials, and biological contaminants from contaminated

water. It’s goal is to produce water fit for a specific purpose. (drinking Most water but is purified for human consumption also be

water)

water

purification

may

designed for a variety of other purposes, including meeting the requirements of medical, In pharmacology, general such as such the chemical methods and used and sand as of

industrial include

applications.

physical

processes

filtration as slow

sedimentation, filters or

biological

processes

activated and

sludge,

chemical and as

processes the

such use

flocculation electromagnetic

chlorination such

radiation

ultraviolet

light.

(Wikipedia.com) [REFER TO APA STYLE FOR IN TEXT FORMAT OF CITATION OF SOURCES]

18

Related Studies A. Foreign Studies In large scale treatment plants Aluminium

Sulphate is used as a conventional chemical coagulant. As an alternative to conventional coagulants, Moringa oleifera seeds can be used as a natural coagulant in household water treatment as well as in the community water treatment systems. Natural coagulant properties were found in 6 different The seed Moringa kernels species of by

laboratory oleifera

studies. contain

Moringa of low

significant

quantities

molecular-weight, (water-soluble proteins) which carry a positive charge. When the crushed seeds are added to raw water, the proteins produce positive charges

acting like magnets and attracking the predominantly negatively charged particles such as clay, silk,

bacterias, and other toxic particles in water). The flocculation process occurs when the proteins bind the negatives charges forming flocs through the

aggregation of particles which are present in water. These flocs are easly to remove by settling or

filtration. The material can clarify not only highly turbid muddy water but also water of medium and low

19

turbidity. required

The time

level for

of

turbidity floculation.

influences As with

the all

the

coagulants, the effectiveness of the seeds may vary from one raw water to another. The practical

application of dosing solutions is exactly the same as for all other coagulants. Studies have been carried out to determine the potential risks associated with the use of Moringa seeds in water treatment. To date, no evidence has found that the seeds cause secondary effects in humans, especially at the low doses. Within the pods are possibly the best part of the tree which are the seeds. Not only can they be pressed for a high grade oil, comparable to olive oil, but the press shown cake to remaining retain making after the it oil extraction has been for

active a

ingredients

coagulation, (Folklard and

marketable

commodity

Sutherland, 1996)

According to Meitzner and Price (Amaranth to Zai Holes: Ideas for Growing 1996), in its Food Under oleifera at Difficult has been

Conditions, compared to

ECHO, alum

Moringa

effectiveness

removing

suspended solids from turbid water, but with a major advantage. Because it can be produced locally, "using

moringa rather than alum would save foreign exchange

20

and

generate

farm

and

employment

income."

The

potential for moringa to create a new market for a community is there, and studies and projects are

taking place examining this potential. At the Thyolo Water Treatment Works in Malawi, Africa, two researchers, Drs. Geoff Folkard and John Sutherland from the University of Leicester, England, have worked on substituting moringa seeds for alum to remove solids in water for drinking. the tests successful in removing Not only were as much solid

material as alum, but the seeds used were "purchased from enthusiastic villagers in Nsanje Region in

Malawi" (Folkard and Sutherland, 1996). B. Local Studies Sia (2008) reported that moringa seeds could

treat water on two levels, acting both as a coagulant and an antimicrobial as a agent. due which Moringa to is generally charged,

accepted

coagulant proteins

positively with

water-soluble

bind

negatively

charged particles (silt, clay, bacteria, toxins, etc.) allowing the resulting ‘flocs’ to settle to the bottom or be removed by filtration. The antimicrobial aspects of moringa continue to be researched. The process of

21

treating the water with moringa seeds would take at least one to two hours. As reported by Helen Flores from The Philippine Star, Reports said moringa seeds, seed kernels or

dried presscake can be stored for long periods but moringa solutions for treating water should be

prepared fresh each time. In general, one seed kernel will treat one liter of water. Solutions of moringa seeds for water treatment may be prepared from seed kernels or from the solid residue left over after oil extraction.

22

Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY This chapter discusses the methods, procedures and the materials, the Treatments and number of Replications to be made in the event that this proposed experiment will be carried out. This chapter also presents the data to be

collected. Research Design The present study used the single group design. In this design, it involves treatment with two or more

dosages.

Materials and Equipment This experiment does not require the use of

sophisticated gadgets. The following are the materials and equipments needed: Plastic bottles (one liter capacity), with caps – 8 pcs. Malunggay Seeds- 12 Kernels Open Well water Samples, 8 Liters Mortar and Pestle – 1 pair Cheese Cloth or clean cotton handkerchief- 1 pc.

23

Marker Cash for Laboratory Analysis Fee Record Notebook Ballpens Plastic bags to hold/carry the 8 bottles General Procedure A. Collection and Preparation of Malunggay Seed Extract The researchers will collect malunggay seeds in pods. A total of twelve (12) malunggay kernels will be used in this study. The shelling of the malunggay pods will be done manually by the researchers. The extract will be obtained by pounding the seeds on a Mortar and Pestle. Using a

cheesecloth, the pounded Malunggay seeds will be pressed to extract its juice. B. Collection and Preparation of Water The researchers will collect water samples from an

open well found Dipolog City.

at Kyamko Residence

in Central Barangay ,

The Researchers will get eight (8) Liters sample from the well. Eight be pieces filled of oneliter the capacity plastic for

bottles

will

with

sample

waters

24

experimentation.

Two

(2)

replicates

(Replicate

A

and

Replicate B) will be made which will consist of

a set of

four (4) bottles for each replication where each bottle contains 1 Liter water. C. Preparations of Treatments During the extraction process, the specified number of malunggay kernels pounded to be used for each treatment will be such that, for T1 which is 1

separately,

Kernel:1Liter water, only one (1) kernel will be pounded and its juice will be extracted and immediately added to

one (1) liter bottled water sample, and so on for the other Treatments. The different concentrations of malunggay seed

extracts added to the water samples will be expressed based on its quantity or number of seeds (kernels) used per liter of water. The treatments, in two (2) replications A and B, will use the following proportions or seed (kernel) extracts added to a number of malunggay

liter of water, viz:

25

Replicate A No. of Malunggay Kernels (pcs.) 0

Treatments (Tx)

Volume of water (Liter)

Control (0 Kernel:1Li.) T1 (1 kernel:1Li.) T2 (2 Kernels:1Li.) T3 (3 Kernels:1Li.)

1

1

1

2

1

3

1

Replicate B There will be two (2) replicates ( Replicate A and No. of Volume of water Malunggay Treatments (Tx) (Liter) Kernels (pcs.) Control (0 Kernel:1Li.) T1 (1 kernel:1Li.) T2 (2 Kernels:1Li.) T3 (3 Kernels:1Li.) 0 1

1

1

2

1

3

1

26

The equally hours.

set-ups under

with the in

malunggay heat (2) of

extracts sun for will

will six be

be (6)

exposed The

the

Control,

two

bottles,

left

unexposed to the heat of the sun. Marking all the eight bottles with its assigned

Treatment will be done prior to malunggay juice extractions to make sure that there will be no error done in pouring in the (Treatments) extracts to the right marked bottles. The prevailing weather condition should be given due consideration in the conduct of this study. Extractions of malunggay kernel juice and setting-up of this study will be carried out only when there is an apparent sunny day to ensure that there will be enough and continuous at least exposure

uninterrupted solar radiation that would last for six (6) hours to meet the six-hour solar

requirement

of this study.

Data-Gathering Procedure The Researchers will subject the eight (8) bottles to laboratory analysis. of the six (6) After six (6) hours of sun exposure malunggay seed

bottles

containing

extracts, all the eight (8)

bottles: 2 bottles containing

27

the

Control

group,

and

the

6

bottles

with

Treatments

containing the water Laboratory out their

samples,

will be brought to Agape

in Dipolog City for Laboratory Analysis to find pH, turbidity, and E.Coli presence,

respectively. The data on laboratory the analysis results and will those give with the the

both

Control

group

different Treatments. Table 4.1 below will contain all the data that the Researchers need to gather. Statistical Treatment of the Study

Table 4.1

Laboratory Results of

Water Analysis

Tx TRIAL Control 0 Kernel: 1 Liter TurbidE. pH ity Coli T1 1Kernel: 1Liter TurbidE. pH ity Coli T2 2 Kernel: 1Liter TurbidE. pH ity Coli T3 3 Kernel:1 Liter TurbidE. pH ity Coli

Replicate A Replicate B TOTAL MEANS

Table 4.1 above will contain the primary data taken by the Researchers from the results of the laboratory

analysis. F-test or

ANOVA

(Analysis Of

Variance) will

28

be used with the

to compare the means of the different Treatments Control group and between find the out if there and is a the

significant

difference

Treatments

Control. Itsresults will lead to

finding out the validity

or nullity of the hypothesis of this study relative to the effectiveness of the combinationof Solar Heat and Malunggay Seed extract as water purification agents

Preparation of twelve (12) sterilized plastic bottles.

29

Collection of 12 kernels of fresh malunggay seeds in pods

Manual shelling of the malunggay

Collection of Eight (8) one Liter water sam ples from an open well

Pounding the seeds using a Mortar and Pestle The water sample will have four (4) set-ups each containing 100mL of its respective water. The Control group is going to be brought to Agape Lab for analysis.

Pounded Malunggay seeds will be pressed to extract its juice using cheesecloth.

Three (3) of the set ups will have treatments T1, T2, and T3 and a Control with different malunggay extract concentration: T1= 1 kernel:1 Liter, T2= 2 kernels:1 Liter T3=, 3 kernels: 1 Liter and Control=3 kernels: 1 Liter

Six (6) hours of sun exposure

All eight (8) bottles containing the water samples will be brought to Agape Laboratory for analysis to find out their pH, Turbidity, and E.Coli presence Bibliography

30

Madsen M, J Schlundt, and EF Omer (1987) Effect of water coagulation by seeds of Moringa oleifera on bacterial concentrations. Journal of Tropical Medicine and

Hygiene 90: 101-109. Retrieved August 13, 2011.

Solar water disinfection. Retreived September 3, 2011 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SODIS

Olsen

A

(1987)

Low

technology

water

purification

by

bentonite clay and Moringa oleifera seed flocculation as performed in Sudanese cercariae. villages. Water Effects on

Schistosoma

mansoni

Research

21(5):

517-522. Retrieved August

25, 2011

Duke JA (1987) Moringaceae: Horseradish-tree, benzolivetree, drumstick-tree, p. 19-28. sohnja, In: M. moringa, Benge (ed.) murunga-kai, Moringa: A

malunggay,

multipurpose

vegetable and tree that purifies water.

Sci. & Technol./ For., Environ., & Natural Resources Agro-Forestation Tech. Ser. 27. US AID, Washington,

D.C. Retrieved August 28, 2011

31

Yongbai

KA

(2005)

Studies

on

the

potential

use

of

medicinal plants and macrofungi (lower plants) in water and waste water purification. Retreived September 8,

2011 from www.biotech.kth.se/iobb/news/kenneth04.doc.

Berger

MR,

M

Habs,

SA

Jahn,

S

Schmahl

(1984)

Toxicological assessment of seeds from Moringa oleifera and Moringa stenopetala, two highly efficient primary coagulants for domestic water treatment of tropical raw waters. East African Medical Journal 61: 712-716.

Retrieved September 15, 2011

Jahn SA, HA Musnad and H Burgstaller (1986) Tree that purifies water: Cultivating multipurpose Moringaceae in the Sudan. Unasylva 38(152): 23-28. Retreived September 18, 2011 from

http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp? url_file=/docrep/r7750e/r7750e04.htm

Haninger, M (2009) Moringa: a supermarket on a tree! Retreived
September 18, 2011 from

32

http://www.miracletrees.org/moringa_water_purification.htm l

APPENDIX- A (Letter-head of ZNNHS)

33

August 5, 2011 NOEL G. SOLIS. R.N. Research Adviser ZNNHS Science Department Dipolog City Re: Submission Proposal Writing Sir: In view of my desire to start writing my research proposal for the first semester, school year 2011-2012, may I have honor to submit these research titles for your consideration:
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)

of

Research

Titles

for

Research

(1st title of research) (2nd title of research) (3rd title of research) (4th title of research) (5th title of research) (6th title of research)

(7) (8) Very truly, Maritoni Charity J. Gayapa and Alexa C. Tiu APPENDIX-B Proposed Budget

34

Materials Plastic bottles (one liter capacity) with caps Malunggay Seeds Open Well water Samples Mortar and Pestle Cheese Cloth or clean cotton handkerchief Laboratory Analysis Fee

Quantity

Price/Uni t

Cost

8 pcs.

12 Kernels 8 Liters 1 pair 1 pc.

APPENDIX- C Schedule of Activities
35

DAY

ACTIVITIES

1 Collection of Eight (8) one Liter water samples from an open well and collection of 12 kernels of fresh malunggay seeds in pods. 2

3

4

5

CURRICULUM VITAE I
141, Zamora St. Ext., Estaka, Dipolog City. Email add: playmymusic_mcjg11@yahoo.com Contact No.: 212-6566

36

Name: Gender: Address: Age:

Maritoni Charity J. Gayapa
Female 141, Zamora St. Ext., Estaka, Dipolog City 14

Birthday: February 7, 1997 Place of Birth: Email Address: Father: Dapitan, Zamboanga del Norte playmymusic_mcjg11@yahoo.com

Antonio C. Gayapa Retired

Occupation: Mother:

Ma. Lenita J. Gayapa Government Employee

Occupation:

CURRICULUM VITAE II
535 Ranillo St., Central Barangay, Dipolog City. Email add: jeramchris.reshiram@yahoo.com Contact No.: 212-7180

37

Name: Gender: Address: Age:

Alexa C. Tiu
Female

13

Birthday: August 3, 1997 Place of Birth: Email Address: Father: Occupation: Mother: Occupation: Sindangan, Zamboanga del Norte @yahoo.com

38

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