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Burkert Homo Necans

Burkert Homo Necans

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FIOMO NECANS

TheAnthropology Ancient of Greek Sacrificiql Ritual andMtlth
bV WALIER BURKERT
Translated by PETERBING

UNIVERSITYOF CALIFORNIA PRESS Berkeley LosAngeles London

f-.

-L .;
i1, cr

For Reinhold Merlcelbsch

Originally published in German by Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin, under the title Homo Necans(1972). University of California Press Berkeley and Los Angeles, California University of California Press, Ltd. London, England @ 1983by The Regents of the University of California

Library of CongressCatalogingin PublicationData Burkert, Walter r93rHomo necans. Translationof: Homo necans. Bibliography: p. r. Ritesand ceremonies-Greece. z. Sacrifice. 3. Mythology, Greek. 4. Greece-Religion. I. Title. zgz' .38 77-93423 sr788.a8V3 rg8) rsrwo-5zo-o5875-5

Printed in the United Statesof America 456789 The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American National Standardfor llformation Sciences-Permanence of Paperfor Printed Library Materials,ANSI 49.48-r984.

xcti rair'

Eart rd. puarr1pca, cvueltovrt gduut. gouoL xo.i ragoc Clement Alexandria of

et nos servasti_sanguine

fuso

Mithraic inscription, Santaprisca, Rome

Contents

Translator's Preface xi to Preface theEnglish Edition xiii Listof lllustrations xvii lntroduction xix I . SACRIFICE,HUNTING, AND FUNERARYRITUALS r. Sacrifice an Act of Killing 1 as Explanation: Primitiae Man as Hunter z. TheEtsolutionary 3. Ritualization 22 4. Myth and Ritual 29 of 5, TheFunctionand Transformation Ritual Killing J5 Funerary Ritual 48 6. of 7. TheSexualization Ritual Killing: Maiden Sacrifice, PhallusCuIt 58 8. Father Godand GreatGoddess 72 il. WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE r. Lykniaand Lykaion 84 z. Pelops Olympia 93 at and 3. Thyestes Harpagos 1o3 and Aktaion 1o9 4. Aristaios 5. TheDelphicTripod tr6 at 6. A Glance Odysseus t3o
72

83

m. DISSOLUTION AND

NEW YEAR'SFESTIVAL

a35

to r. FromOx-Slaying thePanathenaic Festiaal t36 Dipolieia q6 Skira 74)
IX

Arrhephoria 71'o Panathenaia 754 Excursus: The Troian Horse 1 5 8 2 . Argos and Argeiphontes 16r ) . Agrionia $8 4 . Tereusand the Nightingale a79 5 . Antiope and EPoPeus 185 6 . The Lemnian Women 79o 7. The Return of the DolPhin t96 8 . Fish Adaent 2o4

Translator'sPreface

IV. ANTHESTERIA
Testimoniaand Dissemination 213 Pithoigia and Choes zt6 3 . Carians or Keres zz6 i Marriage and Lenaia-Vases z3o Sacred ?' 5 . Chytroi qnd Aiora 48 6 . Protesilaos 243
7. 2.

273

V. ELEUSIS t. Documentation Secret 248 and z. TheMyth of Koreand Pig-Sacrifice256 3. Myesisand Synthema 265 in 4. TheSacrifice the Telesterion274 Deathand Encountering Death: Initiationand 5. Oaercoming Sacrifice zg3 and Abbreaiations Bibliography 299 and Indexof Cult Sites Festiuals 3o9 of Index of Names Godsand Heroes 3a3 and lndexof Persons Things )79 lndex of GreekWords 33a

248

walter Burkert'sstyle is often suggestive rather than explicit, his descriptionsare vivid (at times almost visionary)rather than dryly academic,and he does not hesitateto use colroquiarisms as to make a so point more forcefully. In the processof translation, such featuresinevitably undergo a certain levelling. I have tried, however, to maintain the drama and drive of ProfessorBurkert'sprose.In the German, Homo Necansis remarkable for being both an exemplary piece of scholarshipand just plain good reading. It is my hope that itiemains so in the.English. Among the many friends and colleagues who helped me at various stagesin this translation,specialthanks are due to fames Fanto, ProfessorBruce Frier, ProfessorLudwig Koenen, Charlotte Melin, ProfessorWilliam Owens, and ProfessorSusan Scheinberg.I was privileged to spend severalenjoyable and productive days revising the manuscript with ProfessorBurkert in Uster. Finally my thanki to Doris Kretschmer of the University of California piess who entrusted this project to me and politely,but firmly, kept my nose to the grindstone.
PHILADELrHIA, NovEMBnn rg8z

PeterBing

xi

Prefaceto the English Edition

It is with some hesitation that I present this book, conceivedin the sixties, to an Anglo-American public of the eighties. An holistic synthesisin the field of anthropology may appear preposterousand inadequateat any time; and changesin approach, method, and interest, which have been especiallymarked in these decades-be it through progress in the individual branchesof study, be it through paradigmsor even fashions-make such an attempt all the changes.of more questionable.When this book appearedin German in 1972,it could claim to be revolutionary in various respects.To a field still positivism or by the residominated largely by philological-historical due of the Tylorian approach in Nilsson and Deubner, it brought a and consistentapplicationof the myth-and-ritual pocomprehensive sition; it introduced, after Harrison's Themis,functionalism to the study of Greek religion; it used a form of structuralismin interpreting the complexesof mythical tales and festivals;and it made a first attempt to apply ethology to religious history. In the English-speaking world, ritualism and functionalismhad made their mark long before, and much more on all theselines has beenworked out, disseminated, and discussedin the last decade.What was originally novel and daring may thus soon apPearantiquated.The socialaspectof religion in generaland the central role of sacrificein ancient religion are taken for granted today.Much of the credit goesto the schoolof Jean-Pierre and Vernant and Marcel Detienne in Paris. Ren6 Girard's Violence the and may be Sacred, which appearedin the sameyear as HomoNecans seenas largely parallelin intent (cf. L5.n.r), was also instrumental. More generally,we have seen the swift rise of semiology and structuralism, which, though judged by some to be already past their apogee, still command attention and discussion.We have likewise which aspiresto a new synwitnessedthe emergence sociobiology, of To thesisof natural and socialsciences. keep up with all thesedevelwould virtually require opments and iniegrate them into HomoNecans
xlll

. whether it applies to the history of culturally dJtermined groups is another question. Nobody wants to question the spiritual achievements of mankind. For the srrange prominence of animal sraughter in ancient rer'igion this still seems to be the most economical. though from a structuralist-semiotic perspective one may well describe religion as the relations between men and gods.tence at some specific point_chimpir.5).6).z3)-showing them to be more human than had been suspected.t_ ing ritual.creativity. and psychology that are open to error and to the possibility of attack and falsification in the course of further research. There is no denying that a decisive impulse for the thesis of Homo Necans came from Konrad Lorenz's On Aggression. specialists are now reluctant to lay claim to knowledge of the importance of hunting behavior.confront the power and effect of tradition as fuily as possibre.n. The picture of evolution hai become ever richer in details but increasingly blurred in its outlines. on ih" self-perpetuation of the "selfish gene" (see I. but these may have it.6.paring the translation. a chimpanzee .d fantasy.z.human nature. I have inevitably made use of various hypotheses concerning prehistory.3. the term gods nonetheless remains fluid and in need of explanation.in its own right. In reaction to the "hunting hypothesis" of Robert Ardrey and others.. which are so prominent in human affairs and not least in the ancient world.re"s are apparentlv irreli_ gious-and that it first becomes disceinibre with funera. In view of all this it is essential to note that the lor. while sacrifice is a fact. The thesis that those groups united by religious ritual have historically been most successful seems to conflict *itn tn" modern version of the theory of evolution. rather.r" or historical development as delineated in Homo Necqns does not at any stage require that "all" men acted or experienced things in a certain way-e'9. exllanation. on the other hand. They elaborate basic ritual structures reflected in myth.rarar. that all hunters feel sympathy for their quairy or remorse over their hunting-but only that ro*" iid indeed instiiute forms of behavior that became traditional and had a formative influence on the high cultures accessible to historical investigation. pre. may simply be an at_ tempt to compensate for the enormous anonymous constraints at work in our society.. Homo Necanstakes a stance that is .. yet the historian of religion still insists that religion must have come into ex_ is. The thesis of Homo Necansdoes not hypothesize about genetic fixation of . It seeks.ung" and opaque substructures. it reduces "ideas" to the imprinting effect of cultural transfer.. to extrapolate from this an historical-causal explanation of the phenomena-that is. Chapters II through V appear less problematical. what had been taken to be lhe earliest evidence for sacrifice has been called into question again (see I. And while it has no intention of thwarting modern optimism.. but some of the criticism and subsequent neglect may be viewed as part of the schizophrenia of our world. and factual. Some overstatements no doubt have been corrected. Fashionable psychology attempts to eradicate feelings of guilt from the human psyche... Lorenz's assertions about the innate roots of aggression and its necessary functions have come under vigorous attack by progressive sociologists. rather. The attempt. I have only been able to rework the ototrography and notes to a limited extent. however. it tries to warn against ignoring what was formerly the case. -F hardly popular: it restricts the role of creative freedom a. Yet I have decided to run this risk rather than many limit my perspectives by preestablished rules. In this sense it is radically historical. As a description-this *ill prorr. dealing with tradition. In so doing. taken the opportunity to refer to more recent specialized studies and stan- . to derive sacrifice from hunting and religion be condemned by the stern rules of from sacrificial ritual-could a methodology. it arguJs that solidarity was achieved through a sacred crime with due reparation.9). howlver. They still largely reflect the state of the relevant scholarship in 1972. for.distribution of meat" among chimpanzees (seeI. ideas of atonement appear old-fashioned or even perverse.PREFACE TO THE ENGLISH EDITION PREFACE TO THE ENGLISH EDITION another book replacing the tentative essay that now constitutes my first chapter. Great advances have been made in prehistory and especially in primatology. which seemed to offer new insight into the disquieting manifestations of violence. ualid. It may be pointed out bnce more that this is a predictable modern perspective ieflecting the disintegration of our society. sociology. It attempts to show that things were different in the formative period of oui civilization. and there are reports of intentionaf kitting by gorillas and orangutans (see I.n.z. with sacrifice mediating between them. demonstrating correspondences and integrating isolated pie-9gsinto a comprehensive whole. and most humane... has been observed. modern insistence on . That theory now discards the concept 9f qlo"p selection and insists. The thrust of Homo Necans runs counter to these trends. to. In pointing them out it is perhaps wisest not even to shun the accusation of reductionism.y uni nrr. I have. more easygoing life amid growing insecurity and uncontrolled violence.n. which pursues the ideal of an ever more human.n. We now know there are hunts with subsequent .

ItremainstothanktheUniversityofCaliforniaPressandPeter Bing. 9 .Attic black-figurecup. Caeretan hydria. n xvll . 'Lenaia-vase'. Sacrificialprocession. Leopard men hunting stagand boar.Sacrificial feast: roasting and cooking. Mystery initiation: purification by liknon. 4. Lovatelli urn. Mystery initiation: pig sacrifice. Attic red-figure stamnos.yurv r98z WalterBurkert List of Illustrations following pagefi4 r. 6. 5 . Attic black-figure oinochoe. 3. Warrior rising from a tripod cauldron. Mitra from Axos. Bulls strolling around an altar. the translator. z. Wall painting from Qatal Htiyrik. Attic red-figure bell crater. Preparation for sacrifice. Lovatelli urn. for their untiring efforts' usrER.PREFACE TO THE ENGLISH EDITION more complete and updard works and to make the documentation to-date. 8 .

g9o. he must-take the risk of projectinga model of his situation and reducing a confusing multiplicity into a comprehensible form. and sociologically deteimined environment and tradition to provide its basisfor understanding. discussed the "historicizins of nature" through Darwin's the<-rry xix .r so sociology. should uccepfthe notion that 'H. Yet we must not assumethat all subiectsfii neatlv within the limits of a particular discipline.Introduction It is not so much the limits of our knowledge as the superabundance of what can be known that makes an attempt to expliin man's religious behavior an almost hopelessenterprise.The mass of available data and interpretation has long exceededthe limits of what an individual can grasp and assimilate. juit as can happen with archaeological finds.like psychology before it. lnternationale wochenshrift ) (1gog). and it is hardly possible for the non-specialist give the Near Easternevidencethe expert treatment to it requires. but as long as intellectualindependenceprevails and an individual must seek to orient himself within his own world.Perhapsthis stream of information will soon be ordered and surveyedthrough a collectiveeffort using computels.psychological. Even philology depends on a biologically.and sociologicalexplanationsfoi religious phenomenanaturally runs the risk of juggling too many balls at once and dropping them all.psychologically. psychology and sociologyare just as reluctant to burden their analysesof contemporary phenomenawith an historical perspectivestretchingback to antiquity and beyond. A philologist who startsfrom ancientGreek textsand attemptsto find biological. he may-indeed. And if it is strangefor a philologist to venture beyond scrupulous discussionof his texts. and ethnological findings be overlooked. Diels.And just as biology acquiredan historical dimension with the conceptof evolution. There is a danger that important biological. psychological.

Nilsson jgo6) z7: "wenn der Stier des Zeus Sosipolis ein Korngeist ist. however.when seenfrom and explains. distinguished ac. If we take up foreign words such as totem. Gadamer. to project a-modelthat accountsfor the various areasof experienceas comprehensivelyas possibleand that is susceptibleto frequent factualveiification. Equivalent expressionswill frequently be lacking. The languagethat has proved the most generallyunderstoodand cross-culturalis that of secularizedscholarship. But if reality were not anthropo.Within this sphereof power. Theories Primitiae Religion(1965). courseof receivedtradition. this mode of discourseremains entirely even in a secularizedsociety... Harrison (r9z) 31r-34. it is merely an attempt set forward for discussion. We cannot hope that our model will be a finiihed product. establishes no explanation.rperiorto the "nonbeliever" (rzr). stood' Thus. See.al fully awareof theseproblems.but needs It within. that this is only possible to a limited degree. Durkheirn's Les formesilimentaires tlela ttte religieuse(r9rz). allegory.r.t man. Evans-Pritchard.religion becomes agentand the medium of communication rather than its subiect.' and to adapt the structures unravel the of understanding to the ever-new realities with which we are confronted and to *tl. And yet a lexiconwill not give us an understanding of the language if the grammar is unknown or disregarded and if the practice under discussion has not been underzFor the fundamental philosophical treatment see H. preciselybecause religious phenomenaseemmore and more to elude the modern world's grasp. G. has the broader perspective here and cannot abstain from analyzing the worldwide fact of religion. one finds..Its practicetoday is determined by sciencein its broadestsense.thenweadmitthatthediversityof thatworldisperceivedasthoughthroughapredeterminedfilterand b" diff"rent kinds of understanding. If we invent new conceptssuch as spirit or YearDaemon. 3W. This is not a hopelessundertaking.can be long periods of time' examining its"develoim"nf ou"t itself presentsus with probOf course. Die KorndiimonenQ868). Psychoanalytical enterprises-most recently La Barre j97o)-are also to be taken seriously. due to the respectivedifferences religious pracin tice and in living conditions.Its claims. whether he likes it or not. with a strange and unknown language:to understand it. E. Mannhardt.ir. still fundamental... scholarship is free to study even the rejection of knowledge and repudiation of independentthought. It may. any discussionabout religion will almost automaticallybecomea religious Pronouncement. is E. he must translateit.seemthe most questionableendeavor of all to try to translatereligiousphenomenainto this language. an outsider finds himself confronted. This is precisely why religious discussionabout religion is effective. classification. mere gathering of material can shed no more light on them than can the uncontrolledresonances of emotional understanding."ify sensewould be altogetherimpossible. muss der des Zeus Polieus es auch sein.their meaning remains unclear or changesaccording to the interpreter'sintent.. which confounds translation. Especially dangerous is the little word is.nHowever.3 aegetation their legitimacyremains a matter of dispute. then understanding "iiii?. for instance. The possibility i. dominate many controversies the study of religion. however.to . a discussionof religion must then be anything but religious. Wahrheit und Methode Q965\').for it finds of in resonance nearly everyone. especiallyas the essenceof religion is an attempt at expressionand the communication. offers a survey with peneof trating criticism that leads to the conclusion that the "believer" is s-.rrr. especiallyif it is unclearat what point the conceptbecomes a new myth itself. make it self-sufficient.To vacillatebetween transformationand imitation will produce the kind of misunderstandingsthat do. If one tries to in translateone religion into the languageof another.In this way.'.*d*_-. or at leastintellectuallydetermined. This means first of all that there should be no ambiguity about the languageinto which one translates. in attempting to understand the world.by its self-conception. of course. ttr" uii of understanding discussed' If by "understanding" we lems that have been widely correspondto-our exPecmean that the outside world will ultimately tutio"'andthoughtstructures. and onlologicaf or psychological realization. religion must deny that such explanationsare posa sible.tabu.INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION understood only by human societyis shapedby the past and.Thus. xxl . Especiallywhen dealing with foreign or extinct religions.fi individuals and groups. and mana. remains tied.its systemof rules by the laws of logic. with full knowledge of its tentative natureEvery religionaspiresto the absolute. as it were. even when the seriousness renon-binding "as if" ligious practiceis replacedby the ambiguousand of emotional understanding. just as in working with ordinary languagesof different nations. our task is to seek the perspectivesthat give us the broadest and clearestview. aE."-uir* of using our consciousness. respectable The opposite extreme in the study of religion is likewise generdocumenacceptedand carriesno risk: this is the lexicographical ally tation and arrangementof the details that have been observed and transmitted to us from the past. in fact. However. for scholarship..

we shall try to combinethis consistenthistoricalperspective with . Hat resp.5 U2 i g a n g m i t dem Heiligen. of the dominant religious tradition in the West. c f .ii"y'-".. 78b-d..l rne earlresttimes until now If religious forms have ofien iro"iaua u focal point for new social and ecinomic developmentr.ri dtr6 veornros 6r..ot si"mply :1". active. Christianity. Eur. always a given tradition which is moaified time and ug"i. a functiorralone.l"g 1"d while tied to social reality. F .y. reflec.__"6. of the greatestantiquity in a highly refined culture. Likewise. 3. It can serve.5. deor. t.though it is hoped that we will illuminate important stagesin the mainstreamof human developmentas well. RGG3 V . i. was due to this union It of antiquity with sophisticationthat the Greekswere the first syst"mati*ri to call religion into question' Seen from that distanceind from c(angrng perspectives. z97d.religion. -/ --^r-i-^r by way ol capitalism. 9. the phenomenon may come into sharper relief..^l:.g ructor of the first order in society.i.r. The pre-Christian religions proclaimed with the utmost conviction that only ancestral tradition could guarantee the legitimacy of religion.as it were. This perspective has determined the common scholarly definition of religion as. and the Boeotian was speaking for many when he remarked. H e s . In the following studies.. To the extent that we find a "personal encounter with the sacred.6 m 9 & ."s And yet individual religions exist in typical and persisting forms precisely because very little unforeseen spontaneity and innovation occur in them.. it takeslittle accountof society's swift changes. the anthroporogical aspectout-weighs humanistrc. Ratheait seemsto deal wrth more fundamental layers of communal human life and with its preconditions.:iir.INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION We shall examine religion as an historical and social phenomenon.iror.. stripped of its context and henie utt tn" more difficult to understand.p'u.. early Christianity felt obliged to its ancestors: oix dpels rilv yeipd oou atro roi uioi oou i) dro fi1s tuyarpog oou. Ges. Die grossenNichtchristlichenReligionenunserer Zeit (rg5+).. do".t"-gi.. Ath." th" rituals.q\. 4 .sing." more. together wiih the mythic TMax weber. ancient Greek religion do we find an uninterrupt"J. 2o7-2o4i Plat. we take both age and accessibility into account simultaneously.z.. q-zo6). H e i l e r . Cotta in Cic.t that reality.primitive. Aufsiitze Rerigionssozur ziologie [ryzo].nn\/p. rather.a n d c f . lo. 18-r9. in his famous study. within historicalreality. Mem.filf.Cic. If.which have changedonly .a.6ri{srs rdv 96Bov roi Beoi (Didache4. regardless how of p?Jr"*or*ry it may be... "r. rtrzwt. Leg. Only those who can attest to a genuine encounter are accepted. As it unfords -iihir. At the core of our study u. Nat. religion is a sta'uitizr. shall proceed from a consistent historical perspective we stretching back to man's beginnings. we wit pr".. In spite of this..:-t:. : ' 6 . various traditions unite.). . our I Lalvlnlsm cannot conversely be explained L. rJ. through his oracle. for instance.. th" many-facetedplay of sociarforces. It is far younger than either the Egyptian or Sumerian tradition.e._irgm superstitionand ary tradition to liturgical practice and Christi""'th. Leg. it is still the most comprehensible and the one that can be obseived from the greatest number of perspectives.t.1. lying far behind us. become visiblewith an almost classical claritv. and in terms of accessibility it cannot even begin to compete with a living religion. 3 . which views the individual's encounter with the one God. This can hardly be a coincidental offshoot of the once-ubiquitous humanistic tradition.As such it upp"u* in its enduring aspect. u"a never replacedby something entirely new. unsurpassed in its intel_ lectual and artistic achievement.nut it the is preciselyhere that both the primeval rools and the lucidity of the Greekmaterialbecomesevideni.. Thus. For it never disappeared entirely. f r .offI. if not the practical reality. E r s c h e i n u n g s t ' o r n r e n u n d W e s e n d e r R e l i g i o n ( r 9 6 t ) ..car'ho xxii xxiii . as the onlyrelevant facts. This contradicts the common assumptions. and his subsequent salvation. Rathe. u6ptp r6\tueXen. demonstrated the influenceof carvinism on capitalism (Dreprotestantische unider Ethik Geistdes xopirotir*ur. but remained 5G Mglsching." gi*itweigtt ""t on theindividuality of Greericultuie.Cic. . as the medium of tradition and communication among men. as a mirror in which the basicorders of rife. the ancient Greek religion assumes a unique position after all: among the most ancient forms of religion.ff f. L/_zuorl but Calvinis_.4o.especiallythose regardingeconomicconditions.material fo. i:t"J." it is performed according to a traditional method and with pedagogical intent. the general problems in the study of religion have been repeatedly linked to research on the religion of the Greeks.*.."." oAgatharchides. thereby perpetuating themselves languishing or and dying out.1":pect.r. in regard to a strange fish-sacrifice at Lake Copais. ri... the Delphic god always sanctioned rites "according to the custom of the city".\. . -. the Greek tradition wiil hold center stage. "man's experiential encounter with the sacred and his action in response to the sacred.a prerequisitethan a consequence these of developments.ty liter_ i. z : . we witt not try to exp]{n nfeigmena by amls." 6 Ancient Greek religion is distinguished neither by extreme antiquity nor by a great wealth of source material...t. Bacch. "There is just one thing I know: that one must maintain the ancestral customs and that it would be improper to excuse oneself for this before others.--.even if in strangetransformations.

AnstructuraleQ958. Farnell and Cook for more completedocumentation. not the ideal or the most likable traits of Greekculture.it lays the foundation that is then assumedfor the rest of the book.and funerary ritual both historically and functionally. The hypothesisand the applicationconfirm one another. The aim of our presentationis to set out the phenomenain a per6The following analyses were begun and conducted largely without reference to C.TNTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION traditions relating to them. on the other. xxlv . on the one hand. virgins.a selective treatmentof the boundlessmassof material. so complexand. L6vi-Strauss'sAnthropologie I-lY 11964-197rl. This sequenceis not to be understood as historicalstratigraphy. and to distinguish Greek from pre-Greek. so directly understandablethat it would be wrong to reduce them to a yes/no pattern. sacrifice.Thus.It is increasingly difficult to separate Mediterranean. from the city festivals to the Dionysiac orgies. and the mysteriesof the grain goddessDemeterappear to be likewise organizedby the rhythm of the sacrificialrites. Theelementsare. of -The aspects Greekreligion and of humanity that emergein this study are not those which are particularly edifying. The first chapter deals with basicprinciples and could stand on its own. For a closer look at structuralism. mothers and fathers -these basic configurations of human life are more easily grasped through experiencethan through logical analysis. even though neither is quite self-sufficient. the sacrificial ritual moves from preparationthrough the "unspeakable"central point to the act of "setting up" an order. Our aim is to identify and to understand relationshipsand structuresthat recur in various guises but always bind certain elementstogetherin the sameway'' We shall consciously refrain from trying to arrangethe materialaccordingto a mathematical model.Killing and eating.The structures are perhaps too basicto follow ethnic distinctions.no illusions: f uio& oaurov.Deubner and Nilsson. Mythologiques thropologie structurale deuxlt971l). yet we can invoke the Delphic god'sinjuction that mankind should seeitself with absoluteclariry. we turn to an interpretation of groups of Greek festival rites under various aspects.Near Eastern. although it would then probably seem too dogmatic and speculative. spicuousand understandable form. we refer the reader to the standardworks of preller-Robert.It pulls together the various threads that appear in the casestudies of the subsequentchapters. the divisions and interactionsof individual groups at the sacrifice of a ram and. we have attempted instead to refer to what is basic and what is new The most important sourcesare cited. By spelling out the consequences. This requiresa practicable brevity and limitation of scope. It would be impossibleto discussall questions in detail or refer exhaustivelyto all specializedsecondaryliterature.and Eurasian elements. thus making them so complicatedthat they would be obscured. Following this attempt to analyze the complex of hunting. but the list is by no means exhaustive. on the othet the sequence dissolutionand restoof ration of the order of life. see Burkert (1979) 5-a4. The sacrificialstructure of guilt incurred and subsequentrestitution also appearsin the consumption of wine at the oldest festival of Dionysus.just as the structure of a ritual and of a mythic tale unfolds in linear time and cannot be representedby a systemof reversiblepermutations. on the one hand. a pattern which can be repeatedbut not reversed.We examine.

Aggression menschliche und Natur Q97o)_.as describedby Konrad Lorenz. Rattner.as though the failure of our upbringing or the faulty developmentof a particular national tradition or economicsystem were to blame. Biologische Grundformen religidser roze (196 P sse 5).Analysesthat attempt to locatethe roots of the evil often set out with shortsighted assumptions.Schrit'ten (r9$.. Ges.did. F.The sometimesspirited criticismsof his approach-for hstance. Freud Xll in pointed the way in Das Unbehngen der Kultur (r91o).inJ.This at least correspondsto the fundamental role played in biology by intraspecificaggression. Ritus. ed. HUNTING. Aggressiaiti)t. AND FUNERARY ruTUALS r.4:'9-5o6. Man and Aggression (1968). Slikularisierung.Werke Xlv (1948). Plack. . deed correctsome particularsbut sometimesalso displayedwishful thinking and partisanship. SACRIFICE. z7-t'r4 = Ges.I. Eibl-Eibesfeldtt (r97o) defensive posture. Ashley-Montagu.A. Lorenz (1963)is basic from the standpointof the behaviorist. indeed. Sacrifice an Act as of KiIIing Aggressionr and human violence have marked the progress of our civilization and appear. More can be said for the thesisthat all orders and forms of authority in human societyare founded on institutionalized violence. Die Gesellschaftund das BijseGg6go). Those. For application to religious studies see P Weidkuhn. cf. however. who turn to religion for salvation from this "socalledevil" of aggression confrontedwith murder at the very core are 'S. M.K. to have Brown so during its coursethat they havebecomea centralproblem of the present.

6GTh-at ine parfiairyordr. Thus.' It is prescribed that daily "burnt offering shall be on the hearth upon the altar. Der Kranzin Antike und Chrisientum (r94o). BAAANEYTIKH.Greekreligionappearedandstill who some as Uiigt t and harmlessly cheerful. Od. Kadletz. Wdchter(r9ro) rt-rz. Assoc'1o(:'923\.4o9. Merc. ad /oc. "od' 3. of Homore. Uedel. z:ouekrlar.I dance. e.*. . TheMeaningof Sacrifce ')The Blood SacrificeComplex. Anab.." Thus the principal sin of Antiochus Epiphanesagainst|erusalemwas that he ordered that "the continual taken away" (Dan.. that the skand"alon the overlook the deeperdimension that accompanies i. he can do so because has "burnt many thighOiurr"rr. K. L. EL 79t and.Anthr.. 4z below' celebratethe establishmSnl0f world peace and.Likewisein Hebrew and Hittite..759. Casabona (1946). If a man is able to draw fri" 3f the gods ""r. pant in the sacrificeis forced to witness are all the more intense be_ causethey are left undiscussedl Thanks to the descriptions"inHomer and tragedy. Iigiosus acts and attains self-awareness homonecans.d gustan art provides a framework for the bloody sacrifices Au_ at the centgl. about only after Abraham had deTestamentcovenant could come fascinatcided to sacrificehis child. the gush Lf Utooa an? the burning of thigh-pieces. slaughter-and eating.esp. conu. operari(whence ." Ann6eSociologique sur historique le I Mauss.35. Baus. r'25.. Thus. n.sacred"offerings burnt there over long periods of ashes left from time. together with his family.It was no different in Israel up to the destruction of the tempie.aivovres"Ep6ew" {fgllowiig ltiv Exa\ouu xai "t'6(ew"' 6s * ptya 6pdures.. t976. Amer. RE XVIII (ry9).49. Innsbruck." god"s.sacrifice. Megas Q956)t7. Recherchis surle batndans I'antiquitd grecque Q96z). (r9zo) g5-a5.66). FUNERARY RITUALS SACRIFICE AS AN ACT OF KILLING the old of Christianity-the death of God'sinnocent son. burkert (1966).but in the deadly blow of the axe. u. 1669-79. the -ort."Essai sur la nature et la fonction du sacrifice. Deubner.i at his place of sacrifice. is formed. still earlier.3r8. q6-17.r. r95z.. ror. Vernant (1979).iler as portrayed by Homer.A. ro.Joftensexual abstinence a requirement. Cebef see und Opfer (r9z).fi. Essai zg-tlg: M.".trltuyov."Die antiken Nilsson $95) tlz-t57. 437a: Schol. e99). p..plutarch writes Theophrastus?) raparrop.-E'M' Loeb' (iqzoj.o Fromaclassicizingpersp"ective. a procession is (rrop. Wilamowitz (t932) j5o_54. us Indeed.77. 2. Biew i. to25 = LS r5t A see 4t_44...4o.as often occursin the cult of Zeus. F Schwenn. 2". 729 r. of the Cross (I Cor.962). the priest Chryseswith Apollo or as Hektor or as he "l^'. iikewise decoratet and transformed-bound with fillets. or by the horns and skulls of slaughteredrams and bulls.but the "sacred" act done at the "sacred" place by the "consecrating" actor consistsof slaughteringsacrificialanimals. The god is. its horns coveredwith gold.. or by the altar-stonewhere the blood must be sprinkled. Ginouvds. 'Animal Sacrifice i"ti. "xen. r.E' O' fames' Sacri(:." Diss.SACRIFICE. . cf. casabona e966) 3or-1o4.3tB.412-38. this is what it means "to act. seeU. Blech (1982).poll." Concerningthe ancients. R.. On sacrificegenerally see W' R Smith (r89+).etc. rd il. Eur. the remnantsof two one-year-old "a plea-sing odor to the Lord.This survived in fork custom until modern times.'Generally it is hoped that the animal will follow the processioncompliantly or even willingly.s putting on ornamentsand wreaths. HUNTING. H Hubert and Metzger z (1898).r.rr). Legendsoften tell of animals that offered tiremselves 'The basicmeaning of 8{ew is "to smoke.... The sacrifi_ cial animal is led along with them. n. II.4o.iiril". 299. Opferin is German)-the name merely coversup the heart gf the action with a euphemism.66.. de Vaux. M..Forthe pictorial tradition seeG. A.Decoronarumapudantiquosaiatque usu (r9t3). Kochling.o rhe bliss of encounteringdivinity finds expression in and yet the strange and extraor-clinary E. lt5-17.tuir. Rizza. on the proverbial "ox at Pentecost". f .a place distinguishedby the heap of . Yet those upp"u. De Atheniensium pompissacris (r9ro). moving to a single rhythm and singing. zz.cf."a"a by servants carrying the sacrificiaraxe. Hy. 8:rr). of bulls. Augustus built an altar to burnt offeri"g 1U"1 2On Greek sacrifice Stengel(r9ro). path that leads to the center or tn" sacred Ihe experienceis complex.s even if still a small one.f$acrificial killing is the basicexperience the "sacred. no temple pr"r"r.lll A (tgzg). i"-. in Greek and Roman Religion. Detienne and 121'-45. Dennistons Commentary J. *ith Od.Aeschines3.. M-auss.Meuli (1966). if tloodshed. Eitrem (r9r5). 8E.g. E'Forster. fr. r:23) is on another ^jir. The festivalpirticipants depart from the everydayworld. ASAA37l38(195916o)' '(ig6S) :roZ-trfi.. cf. ?Fehrle 1r9ro).J.E. appearson the reliefsof this Ari pacisur u ru.""all night until the morning" (Lev' 6:z). z{RW3o (ty). D. Burkert (r98r).rgJ-)o7.7.evot xai ietp. r55-58.L. blood and violence lurk ingly at the very heart of religion' -. r.Eust. The worshipper the god most Powerfully not just in pious conduct or in experiences pruy"r.trt"" tiber das Opferwesen. these lambs cut into pieces.Pfuhl. r. the verb to dois usedin the sense of "to sacrifice".It makesno difference there is or cull-statue. for this is the act of piety: (II. "i"1"." Mei.a7o.g. ficeand Sacrament 3R.frhe preparationsinclude bathing and dressing in cleanclothes. who warns against generarizations.. Loisy. iepeiecv ra iepe{a. for the coan inscription on the sacrifice a bull for Zeus of r-olreus now SlC."t'6{ew. t'tut. Jahn.. oeuures (1968). Ziehen. Die deutschen opferbriiuche Ackerbau bei und viehzucht egg4).il. sE."Diss.or. -sacrifice (r91o) (psychoanalytical). On the meanint otfiepeiovrit erozseeArist.we can reconstruct the courseof an ordinary Greek sacrifice to"the olympian gods almost in its entirety. Lessacrifces I'Ancien Testament de i96$. 436.are offerings. 579-627. University of washington.'At the start. Money-Kyrle. 7o-ro4. 4.The realm of the gods is sacred..

Schol.g: Parke and .Greek custJm of the sacrificial scream"'n marks the emotional climax of the Lo-.zz (Leuke). W.zz (Leuktra).Eur. Berlin(ry4r).L. o ). 294 Arist. an.17 p. r. Rhod. Olten a censeris used to impregnatethe atmoand there is music. on 1898.into a . Pausanias' Description Creece.449145g. pl. Porph. Ir.44r. lying revealed.'u Hidden beneathJhe grains in the basket was the knife. Abst. Mir.844a35(Pedasia).ur. r.2. are not meant for grinding or to be made into food: after a brief silence. cf.selbstdndige 344_72_who. Q. as is knoin from seeing wounded soldiers. lud.. lr. act of beginning (cipyecgat). the iepeis.pur. although meric usage. and his claims" (33)." .8. H.SACRIFICE.r'The leader in this incipient drama.r89. SiOpferkorb pl.)2g and Arr. "as' a serting his existence.. ".1:tz. Abst..3. e. conu.Aristoph. Ori. The final goit it the sacrificialstone. ur. Suda 9o7. El.4to/42r.ropJla una *Lriytoptrra.uxarauciaTl . Philostr' Her. harm_ less projectiles are chosen.45o. followed by a prayer out loud-in a way. 7)2. rrAristoph. carrying the knife still cov_ ered so that the animal cannot see it.L.Eitrem (r9r5) 3. r1at. $*i"r care. A virgin leads gripos).this characteristic. pax 96r-67. the sacrificial basket and water jug are carried thus marking off the sacredrealm from the proaround the assembly.1. Blood has noi yet been spilled and no pain whatsoever has been inflicted.4zz'. but the inviorability of the sacrificial animal has been abolished irreversibly. (Rhesos). r. .5.l. This object alone may.conformsexactlyto the positionof prayerin the sacrificial the prayer qua requestcan.He-rmes)zQgoz). Cf.9 (cf. The animal thus becomesthe center of attention.r4.4t.r . Abh. Pel.BAAANEYTIKH. ziezg hen. ^ Aip. The act of throwing simultaneously as a group is an aggressive gesture. pax 94gwith Schol. l75tFo1 ro'65' In place of the artar(Bup'os). 269. 8 p.rg below.r) or sacriiiciar (Bdpit fpos) can receivethe blood.74-76. 3rr-18. given in Hohis ritual.z. raBull-sacrifice dithyrambic victory: see. Nat.25.VngZcLu.4q6. ht. the hearth." a "yes" to the sacrificial act. l. o.r. rr.6 6' |xoitotov d. i. uid u f"* hairs from the brow are shorn and thrown into the fire." that is. 7297. which now lies uncovered. 4. Absf. Burkert lii:l 1ryoo)to7. 3."saysTrygaiosin Aristophanes. A swift cui.Eitrem(r9r5) z6r-3og. roneouslymakesthe "beginning.Eur. .. Serv.\. -rr18.9r \CAF l6z6). Stengel(tgro) to5_r25. "*prJrrion 3.z7. Hdt.'o The "act" is over. Il' 1.r0 apparent evidenceof a higher will that commands aisent.++5.7z9f De def or' 45b-c.5r (Olympia).Aristoph.whorecog.z. and yet common in the same form to men as well.Eust. bizarre.ut\ovro I rpoBa\ovro ll.. Aul. IV Macc. rg59.3gr-4oo." They are after rorge4lrirou 6ixqu Aesch. otherwise the blood is caught in a bowl and sprinkled on the altar-stone. C'FraSchol. from the basket. value.. see ipviov Od. an alien. schol.4 below)." CQ tg (196).r.ome ancient rituals stones were used. Ag. cf.er_ dpfergabe. the most ancient agricultural product. steps toward the sacrificial animal. This is another.1. If the animal is small it is raised over the altar. Aristoph. Pax 96o. Eust.+++(ct. Aul. and must again and again. duri oiiitu Paus. Paus. drip blood. the way. cf . 2 above. Philostr.cf.not spill on the ground. Theblood nowrnf out is treated*itn ilg-ar4t-th-death:ralfle. usually spherewith ihe scentof the extraordinary. III.A1urr<iz v6p"topa tucraios BoilsAesch..r.'"i-t off a circle.J' Schol. Cf.1" eSlivalelle.437a. Pax Eitrem (r9r5) 7-29.Ael.seeBurkert (t966) to7 n. which is to be sprinkled with.4r. orl. Mir.rry sight. or the sacrificial pit. especiallyfor human sacrificesee Neanthes FGrHist84 F 16 (Epimenides). These.r.rr. Now comes the death blow The *orn"r. (Messenia).9. Ausc. Alc. the .Plut.howeve..) : ngayeiovpoll. (44) 'e'E. 595.2. r..57 4. J. . z. A water iug must be there as well' " fFirst of all. Cf . the altar. Dio Chrys Or' Bo<is Kyzikos). 1565. mon (1969) '2E.Com.rrr.g u iight. however. Meuli (t946\254.r '8Od.Aesch. Schmitt..at.Ololygeund Verwandtes.ri.Apollon. r93.. even if ihJ. Freiutilliger (r9zr). 4o.Stengel(r9ro)r)-)). "Etyop.ro.Porph. Deubner." ning of that which is to take place. Its inner organs are now the main focus. according Hellenistic (Massalia). raise a piercing scream: whether in fear or triumph or both at once.44gb. Eur.otru_ rlrqfeia and eigopia seeSchol.4g. DasKanoun. ro. ro-5o(Eryx).il and Ei'1osin Homer. and cf. The first communal act is washing one's hands as the beginfane.The animal is also sprinkled with for yourself. "carrying the basket" (xavr1tirat of the flute..z5. after arriving at the sacred place... V 'sA. Bacch.blood' Usually a fire is already u[luru on top of it.447.. it must hit the altar.t.z1z. Nilsson(1955) 32. inyap..3o1.Ant. . cf." so that he will bow his head. gto. and the earth. Ag. .425. The anr_ mal is carved up and disembowelled. Eiyd. t'oserdon the Isthmian sanctuaryseeo. The tradition specifies preciselv what must toOritrolurcs d. Aristoph.the solemn eJgqp.4 (Hermione). The bull is watered again. HUNTING/ FUNERARY RITUALS SACRIFICE AS AN ACT OF KILLING uP for sacrifice.A lt. bei Euripides 1tJ.ioJ us tr. Abst. porph. Aesch. II Wormell(1958) #517.ort ancrentgrain see Theophrastus porph.6 and in schol.Paus.rn just as the water and the barley grains were a beginning.g.the iearth gira. iph.e.Od.z5 (Gadeira.. t. as Oriental textsshow.4. vase-paintings n.n.Plut. 3. though more serious. and rri. and of a.rlooerv rois Bapois poll.449. Schol. Peripl. 16:zo. ylputpa r' oi)royirae re xardpyecfiat od. be far more elaborate another kind of food. r.Apoll. n.yith.eiv.t:ro. Sept. t.Ginouvds. more selfaffirmation than prayer-the participantsfling the barley grains away onto the sacrificialanimal.r. ft may. the Munich stamnos z4rz: ARV'z for ro36.4 Opfertod tion. Od. 956-58. lph. of zer. Adkins.7.Aen.Deubner(1912) rr.g._ "rr".i3. t-568. rz. for reproductionssee. Indeed. II. 43.der griechische (tg75\.Schol. the altar "set up" long ago.'' the aniwaterll"shake mal'sirovement is taken to signify a "willing nod. seeJos. Pax96o. V Av. Broneet at Hesperia (g59). tradito Isaac..El.266. its consequences are the next concern. The participants now take unground barley grains (orilal).Schelp. rike beginnir. ). an untouched girl holding a coveredcontainer (see fieuresr and z). rather.449. the participants .For ritual stone_throwing around the altar of l:. Sept. 5 in Stengel(r9zo)pl. 2o-))'. 11 (t{alikarnassos).

Callim.i.7.(Hsch.The Greek cultrabti. tos. . so they are "consecrated"beforehand. fr.r" of fed beasts..72." The skin of the sacrificiarvictim is generary sord to benefit the sanctuary. Char.z6z.rro. the friend of mankind. Tir.rz.Zarathustra.8. ra (G.. 256.92. and the burning of bones became a standard joke in Cr""t comedy. Sacand rif. zto). Sz_07.instauration du sacrifice.in. "Les rapports des haruspicines 6trusque et assyro-babylonienne.adesp.. 13.evov ro dudrirnrerveis dvatiltrLarla SIG3rc44. 982.Hsch.Blecher.sj7. 49z. Com. oie'neiigtonen. MH z7 (r97o) r-r5.[-Uiuia". Th..on the path toward . tS 69. Humbach. r5r A zo intBiew. is put on the aitar." i.o o. u]ia O.3. cf. r..ii^T*.De extispicio capita (t9o). th.I Si_Sil.. z4 above. BCI1 [ry6j]. The bones.pu_ rification'"33Ph'osophy then took up the criticism of blood28Ofteneverythingmustbeeatenonthespot1o'oo.. a "beginning.Eub.. et Plat. sometimesstill beating. however.l. the gods (rpatre{at\: oxilros16 tptTro Bo6s rapteuto r6t Bnt Ib_Iy g74= SIC3 99bitpiauu..irl This rite is obrectionabre." it . was already and fert to uu ...The comic poets normally mention dogus and gall.. esp. Eitrem gy/ 14-48. as the fire dies down. 1Jo (CAF II tg7. HUNTING. Ant. Sudax 17o in Hipp.).. with ilrg{yav an'yec'atagainst 'marorqrov .3. because so cleariv and directly benefits it "u. rz46r. 2aErifsrr:oos zr5-r7 proved that the p. 54o.d7Xzc-the collectiveterm for in the organsl-are quickly roastedin the fire from the altar and eatenat is / once. T'{lp.KILLING l l 'i' be done with eachpiece.. fifth century n. 24r-44. saysthe Lord through Isaiah.Dowand D-H 6iit.. Eup. StC.....2'As the flames to flare up. fr. the sacrificeis made any more than a transparent excusefor festive feasting?All he gets arl the bones. causedthis to be so in ordei to deceive the gods.."t from the subjection of Il:?.a. 264.s ir.. cf.427Dion.4 p.ypothesesto savethe . Thes. = Plut. Sam.Vasepaintings (see n.a XeuxaHes. ""i "-"l""tio'deriue .r'A seeris presentto interpret the lobesof the liv*er. Nougaytria rol. Bethe.943..tz). Schol. consisting of raw pieces of flesh from every limb.to purchase new votive offerLgs and new victims:in this way. the bones are not to is inedible and be used for the subsequentmeal. Thomsen. pouring libationsof wine into the fire and burning cakes. way to everyday life.. 66. Ziehen. one can still seeexactlyhow the parts of thgliving animal the In fit together: its basic form is restored and consecratedJ Homer. RE XVIII 6rc-r6. the ozr).s curseappliesto all who rust for brood and slaughter?attr". Suda g7 at 44. 268-72. Par rrr5.. put on the altar "in the proper order. th"egod. Li fil ll ro 66ptra'xqrrri(("irq.zr. Hal.l"ur.DerTrug des prometheu A. Ap.u. zGalen PIac. utro?. ARWrz (r9o9). rgt-94. 3gg-4o2.xap6cou)\xlat. Euthyphr.zt. Nal. BCHfu Qq6). fa. Is the god . z above) portray the dogris and tail of the sacrificial animal on the altar.6o6). Meuli (1946) larly in Homer are the bare thigh-bones.I do fat not delight in the blood of bulls or of lambs ""J or of he_goats.-.. s. i1 . general.458. ro8 (CAF I 286). Rudhardt. Qrsc. Aristoph.lz75.Biet d){ghav ilpiexrov.)inuuu had enough of burnt o{fering of rams af. Hesiod says that the crafty prometheus.ursing the desirefor a realm of non_violentlove. Luk. cf. jo9. rzo5 (CAF III. Wideneren /&{S .. Meuli (1946)zr8...6or6.LS r57 A.'{Tne purifying-jire then consumesall these remains]The skulls of buTlsand rams ffigoat-horns are preserved" in the sacredplaceas permanent evidenceof the act of consecration' The flow of blood is now replacedin its turn by the offerings of the planter. however.. 45r-52 and cf.r"J rn practice:see M.ffi 88' st.H.. above all the thigh-bones Aqpiq) and the pelvis are with the tail (rio<pris)..Ath. Accordingly. Only the bile transforminq meal. r4c). Meuli (1946) 246-48.to what extent blood_ sacrifice was reiectedon orincipre. Men.. 'z?Oil.SACRIFICE. \in ".lA+.HermesTz(rg).r i"-"tt]Jffi..Inthe Greek wortJ.. Likewise in "gtority. E. Pax rc54 with Schol. G... Bekk.On the Keratonof DelosseeDikaiarchusfr. Die Gathas Zarathustra des [rySSl.459-6o. (An.. zz4-25. (re66). 3. a higher reality seemspresthe alcohol causes ent. Nilsson (1955) 88. The basisof the criticismis the conceptthat d rhrerz Lapekrhaidozy rois rleols (Pla.Iti." First of all. 4rob. 6 6 :r . 3. xoraLlaaas and aiyi(et. For the accumulation goat-horns the templeof Apollo at DrerosseeS. LSSnr. Yasna32. then throw the cadaverinto the seaeI i9 ro. S. Plut.for zeusand Helios.t55. the pleasing feast gradually gives '?rStengel Qgto) p-78.-z 'ui. xpi in. Then.o*^unal has to be disposedof. An 47.r. Od.ry_4).onti.t7.-interpretaiiofsee Siengel ftgrc1.n. Boyce. FUNERARY RITUALS SACRIFICE AS AN ACT OF. c f . exception:16 6eppa dyi[erfaL IS r5r D 6. . for the Near Easterntradition seeJ. xap6lo0orlct.-"ip.e.c. L. fr.to whom..58-64. 54r.rre.uur..lpia mentionedreguHes. t*tuo* t.. IG1r': y496 rtpt'ytuop. tne pythag%.. tabl".ur.rf man. a1ao9 (1969'-rc|-n4' yet it is possibre to sraughtera *iri uo.. $The Pythagorean tradition is divided. LSS'6r. Daux. and cf. 85 W.. M. u"d th" . 2. a first offering. 238K.46r..roal3ro.and . is put on the bonesas well. o tt 66pp'a xararyi(e(rar) meaning "is burned" (sokolowski) .r. the cult insures its own .7. Esp.onti.cf.is or torn apart.r. 2."'oFrom bones.offering.. cvrnrXayTveierz Aristoph." CRAI (t955). r : r r .z4. Likewise.. 47 = LSAM 72.'. :^4. Aristoph. '. Maof in rinatos.lranische Geisteswelt [r96t-j. 61o)? sSee n.Thus the inner circleof activeparticipants brought together h91o1into pleasure. cf. z3_zl.. tsG. Hy. 85..to. deor.3o Criticism that damned the bloody act per se was far more penetrating. "Les mythes grecs relatifs i l.nT.stengel (gzo\ rr6-t7..o$trlcav ll._ phics demanded that the lives of all creatures with souls be spared. indicating the entirety of the slaughteredanimal. r45. Et. and Empedokleswas the most vehement .. G.. Cleanthes Cic.. Widengren. cf..t. 46o_9o. '21s.. l. the heart.2. "Theophr. fr.r8.. z...424. u._ nibalisticmadnessof the traditional sacrificiar "il meal.. 95.

tm Atlertunttt l19r2l. youpravt.f:.::::lt:':11. g p .. 6: r3-zr) and financeit. H. ]eremias. deum.ca lz y$aal. cf. and the complexof Bv<ricit hs+sl ciltuorot(StengelIr9ro] ro5) 3::"r^!. r.. 17. Dem. 2. FGrHist 84F 3z = potph.:::r: . 8z).r. Dit. Abst. had been forced on men because of difficult times. (196$. u. Pr. Aikaterinides.. Neoetrl4zrris aip. inst. the meal during which the dead man is offered blood (11.eophrastus (Porph. Schol.rt often regardedas is fundamentar (Rohde[fi98) r4B-52. After this. ) q s . Demonaxin multocolendum Cf Luk. rt6. ro : 8.3e christianity is here .'o. 84. lustls .nu-rnt'onerings aloneare rare:they often function as a prelimi. Der Retiquienkutt ::.rr.e. rn the culi of the dead. leading it three in Buerr (lambl. in breaking the bread and drinking the wine. u#god.ni one fu. upon which incense was burned when candles were lit. Burkert.2. syrians. ldl 18(r9o3). Folk custom.76).. Theophrastus.gl. .466_8o.. The brood *ur *fiolr"a to sprinkle the stone. in his influential book on Piety. Th.uBoth varro and seneca were convinced that the gods in the Diaspora spread more noi demand blood-sacrifice.Megas (1956) 15.. Emin 79-t6j.attrtaxoupia.Casabona 19661zo4_zog. 37Withthe exceptionof Passover der celebrations. arrhe antithesis betweenorympian and Chthonic cu.vetbesriesthesacriiicial pits(polpot)tliereare differentkinds of altars (Barpcol. of burning and eating.to sliughter heroesani the dead. Eur.A p o l l . For the rest. r r.s). Potscher. Burkert (ry66) rcryn. a theoretical defense of sacrificial custom was virtually do hopeless.prirr.a then slaughterthe animar while praying. Harrison [ryzz) t_1t. n.6 Z5zF r : Neanthes. during prayers.4129-34.r. The sacrificer would bring the animal-a goat or a sheep-into the chapel. zz4. Hom.4.6. (1972). like his ancient counterpart.. burnt_offering/thank_ offeringin I Sam.44. sPorph. 87. Wendlandand E. Animal-sacrifice was an ail-pervasive rearityin the ancientworld.. Et. Gaster. n:t cor_respond the rearm of the chthonic: sacrificiar to mearsare ]amiriar to us :ues trom the cult of the &coi Xfi6urct(Stengel[ryto] r3r-rj3). and siep (F. and flowersonto it. . S e e n o w G . The priest. of tn" underworld is frequently attestedstarting with Aeschylu s (Hik. Die Passahfeier Sacf." The death of God's son is the one-time and perfect sacrifice.ar.rty or sacrifice presentsa problem for the modern historian: the comlreef bination of a fire-altar and a blood_rite. R h o d ' r .. .15.l.8iii* mal would make a sign of the cross with his knife thiee "". or.. . 197q. Abst. sTd zrlo1a ip"6tv i. "Petrus"(Clem. On the other hand. lS r5r A z9_36 (cf. caithaginians. fo5.t. . ia. and srythians.r'This also helped form Christian praciice. though rii.Passoaer: Historyand Traditions Its Q958). Ecyap. Serv. Pyth. 9 above).7 t ..Etruscansuna i{o-a's. 6rr6:.for the sacredact of blood-sacrifice. more bloodthirsty demons: see Xenokratesfr. times around the sacrificial stone while ch'dren threw grass {Th. 1 1 5M : E r . Nilsson j9551 4z-y).2)declares laws of the OT that the sacrificial are forgeries.th" k".i. The Greeksa0 not perceivemuch differencebetween did the substance of their own customs and those of the Egyptians and phoenicians.. as well as its head and feet. N . osaynv and Boiu. Lore and Science AncientPythogoreanism pedoklesB 46-39. The tradition i-natttre Cyprians invented sacrifice(Ta'an. u tumiliar distinctionis that between ivali{eJu.ad.166. receivedthe animal'sthigh and skin.?"d not with two fundamentaty different and separatJ things.". rZ4-75.r. Babyloniansand persians.'Zeus. z3-25 Heinze.in his study of the developmentof sacrifice.. andcf.u?. Cf.6 below) is cf iuxtaposedto a rite of burning (It. 1l"r:. it would be decked with wreaths.fr. phoen. D.t.Der Vagetarismus der Antike (ry5). . (The name of the sacrifice. W.1.29).r8o-83. The Cer("decked out like an ox tpie ein Pfingstocftse man expression geschmilckt at Pentecost") preserves the memory of the ritual slaughter of an ox at the church festival (see n. ' p .On the differentways o f s l a u g h t e r i ns e e S c h o l . In Soviet Armenia the slaughter of a sheep in front of the church is still a feature of regular Sunday service. Thracians.4. which could thus take up the traditions of Greek philosophy. although it is still repeated in the celebration of the Lord's Supper. kDii aei neque desiderant neque ea deposcunt Varro in Arnob. 274. Haussleiter.i+-iti. On in the other hand.6..fS. 5:7. Theophrastos ei<repeias "One way out was to posit inferior.ruf *irf often haveboth the graveof the altar of the gocr: i.SACRIFICE. Meuli [ry46] rgl. z 34 above). 4.found it naturar to include Egyptians. ortside ihe chapel. g. . This book explained animal-sacrifice as having replaced--canlibalism' which. Gr. The ChristianJewsstill made Paul IV partakein a sacrifice ]erusalem(Num. .porph. 16.. we are dearingwith an anrithesiswithin the rituar. Abst. FCrHist lP^ i:.22t Bernays. t6. Schwartz)goes back to Asklepiadesof Cyprus. maritaner (1932).rA a"_ tails varied greatly among the Greeksthemselves. in tuin.enly goa.58-6T. RGG3 fi47-56.86. and cf.cf. Iessschematically."iiu. SchriftitberFrdmmigkeit J.in Albania see Cook III (r94o) t t 6 8 . . it gave the idea of sacrifice a central significance and raised it to a higher status than ever before.ra&n Xprords I Cor.ii'#. especiallyEeizya from hero-cults(A.ar4pis Buoles (Athens. J. pfisrer..62. D. As the prieststoodat the artar.)Coft.. uTiR Lit"*i"". Theophrastos' (1866).ingtu.H "'Fritze. J. 5 S r .zz5.'u Judaism temple easilv because cult practices had become concentrated in one making Judaism outside Jerusalema reliin lerusalem. Antr. Kinder.1T. Isolated Greek communities in Cappadocia celebrated the ancient sacrificial ritual well into the twentieth century: oPPosite the conventional altar in the chapel of the saint would be a sacrificial altarstone.V. 7. non immolationibus sanguine nec Sen. comes from lslam: Arabic qurban) For animal sacrifice to. the Sibyl in Clem. however.ro *oiu than a transparentcover for the ancient form that underlies it: that is to say.S+. corre_ . "to make tubu. M .3. The antithesisbetween hea. managed to defy even Christianization and was subdued only by modern technological civilization. do not mutually exclude each other: see Eur. HUNTING/ FUNERARY RITUALS SACRIFICE AS AN ACT OF KILLING sacrifice-above all. and...y After this.sn-.(Just.z5. the aniriil"woura be carved up and the feast prepared. rz3 = Lact. Acts zt:23-26.. I refer the reader to H. thus virtually eion without animal-sacrifice. " 9i. fiepi W. Nock. zrt. z 4 _ "rn 19-. Cf.

" This is-fofowed by the Day of Sacrifice.He eatssomeof the animar." in Heluetia antiqua.surrounded by a circle of grain. and. HUNTING. the new."r"^or. Encyclopidie de l.a goat. thus inauguriting it into its fu"nction." d'apris dans und lsraelogl+j.e. Dhorme. 1o1-J7o. could eliminate animal-sacrifice." see E. though usually giving-mostof it away or simply leavingit."the stone at altat and the ash-altar into an historicalsystem. Not even the religious revorutioninihe Near East. R. Mesopotamia G. Drerup.i". Der Altar in denKulturen Alten Orients des cf nella religionedei Semiti di Babisee (1925). The central point occurson the ninth day of the holy month. the heart burriea at once. fig.Festschr. pu_ rified with a torch.is the pilgrimage to Meccaos which"stiil today draws hundreds of thousands of woishippers annually. On Eq/g1see H' Kees. Openat AIA 6z (1958)..r. For a depiction of bull-sacrificeat Pylos seeThePalace NestorIl (1959) rr9.J' (n.n.. "Il sacrificio On -Mem.it is from Athens to jerusaour".in order to stressits importance. a sacrificial list from Alalakh see D.h. r ox.begin_ the language of the female. sacrificialcults are uncertiin-and thesediffer markedly rites' all of tian and Mesopotamian. after which it was sprinkled with walr.layers' . M. 1r^:1"_daily rlot. where the pilgiims stay from noon tiil sun"before God.Assyrte et (rg+g').SACRIFICE. zo8-zr1. "Priihistorische Brandopferpldtze. j3_4o Uruk notes 50 rams.ooo animats sacrificed atbelphi: L. cf."" the similarity of action and experience . air sites for burnt offering-ash-altars consistingof piles of ashes and bones-are abundantlyattestedboth for Greece(Nilsson [1955]. .as well as-Minoan-Mycenaean' whichhavenoaltarsforburningwholeanimalsorbones. eoiro*i. After further libations and offerings. . sDemostratedby Yavis(1949). 84. Die alttigyptischen n Ugarit-Forschungen Q98o).and. Archaeologia zz3. On roasting/boilingseeII. After this.butcf. schmid.Bib|ica47$966). to J. "Bemerkungen zum les textes Tieropferder Agypter und seiner Symbolik. D\e Opfermaterie Babylon lonia e Assiria. among many sacrifice: ANET jaa. King Seleukos gave t.t U"ff would be chosenfor the secretceremony. Ufu. sA "r"me. fameson. $Enzyklopiidie s.in the Egyptianrealm. Furlani.4a . were made-describes the membraneof a tympanon in the temple:s an untouched .refersto sacrifice the hearth in Mycenaean times. H."This deed was done by all the gods. galu). A detailed Babyloniantext of which several i.rycoveredtympanon wis brougnt into the center in place of the bull. -For (t951). iar ptlpiu xaiew is absentfrom Mycenaean. 50.BiblOr'zo(t96)' lgyptiensl:Lesaiificedel'oryx(1962). Fifteen dayslater.z on Olympia) and for bronze-ageEurope (W. J. Croesus had 3.r1.Le r'gime desot'frandes Ia soci'ti sumirienne de prtsar_goniques I'agas(196o)." in" l"ai"ia"al peculiarities. Die altiigyptischen r53. a watering place for cattle. in cultural tradition unwhatever complexities.is sacrificial list from desIslam ll (t. Ph' Derchain. the pilgrim must throw sevln pebblesat an old stone monument and then slaughter-usualry with his own hands-a sacrificialanimal-a sheep. the pilgrim is allowed to cut his hair again and removehis pilgrim.is a type known alrz1-28. from older Babylonianmodels..7r-88. an older one forbids at leastthe head priest from eating the meat. lI. O ready in Helladic tirnes:seeH. sacrifice the dead and that for the gods have com' opferlistenaonder Friihzeitbiszur griech. ibid.In the name of Allah" and 'Allah is merciful" ur" ih" Moslem formulas that accompanyeven profane slaughter.. the bull was killed. ani the skin and left shourder sinew removed to string the tymfanon.. yerkes. ordinanceswere createdstipulatingcountiess observances. 35. the priest worrld beni dbwn to the severedhead and say. for the proofthatthe busi. in Mina. The high point in the life of a Moslem. zo7-2o9.2t7.ooo iepeia lsheef) and rz cows for a sacrifice at Didyma: OGI zr4. Barta.therefore assumedthat Israeli burnt offering was a Myin DasBundesopfer Israet cenaeanimportviaUgarit(92).z9' Epoche Q..-rdm mon roots: seew barta. Vogtltg66l.i. They thereby attest to the survival of the ritual over the centuries.w.especiallyin the ancient Near East.'J. at this time to organizethe various forms of sacrifice the "hearth-house. r r r -zz). The Greeks seem to have given most care to the .which took place in a room enclosedon all sidesby curtains.. r. Y." one version of the text saysthat the cadaver*oitd be buried.and sacfor Likewise.o. 1o*l praying o" .y.". z bulls. in (1964).59. On the tympanon and the Kalu-piiest (= Sum. I did not do it. Kriimer.c') see AA of (t962) 118-19. After this.srobes."tenth day. the emergence of Islam. in the journey from Mecca to Mount Arafat. 154 cows were boughtfora festival on Delos: /G IIIIIIr $35.'piJ-rrt"*i. Homerica (1969). of the pirgrimagu i.on Ugarit seeB.G1||. opferlisten iir_sl.. 86-88. Rosengarten. offeringbreadsand libations.The complicatedpreparations included scatteringgrain.concerningwhichcf.g6). It is the consecrated man who kills and the act of killing is made sacred.255_62:Homer. It does not seem possible E. rToolrzoon. Likewise." prayer and song.-althoughthedetailsofUgariticandPhoenician from EgyP.c. or even a camel-which is driven up and sold to him by Bedouins. The "hearth-house."out of which the Greek temple developed. qANET others were copied in the seventhcentury 164a8." NCG (t942).927).9trangfs astounding.. Galling. pl. K.. ILr below on Lykaion. 63.sfamil.in a largelyparallel. n. Les rerigions de Babyronie d.K. Rifes Zandee.. details aside. sacrifce creekand Roman and Religions Earlyludaism(11952\. with prepiratory and closing rites. and g lambs.ftTherefore..rlJ uJ wnis_ pered into both its ears. FUNERARY RITUALS SACRIFICE AS AN ACT OF KILLING iel1rym) of the sponds directly only with the burnt offerings (zebah' oldTestamento. in F.4r above).Andyet. {2R.:.a. Janowski. rz6. Blome. the sacrificeof a bull whose skin was .tslam III (1965). io oabyion. incantations*o..l:. HADJDI. Saudi Ara_ bia has resortedto bulldozersto remove the carcasses. VI 4 G%2). including hornsymbols. wiseman.The bulr stoodchainedon a rush mat until it was time for its mouth to be washed. and bull statuettes(ca. TheAlalakhTablets on at For a monumentalaltar for bull-sacrifice Myrtou Pygades Cyprus. sexualabstinenceendJafter his return to Mecca. Linc.D.The main text is Seleucid.wino"laments" "in rificing a sheep. Daily routine inevitably made the sacrificialritual an empty formality.

Ot: Jagdritender nordlichen Vcitker Asiens und Europas.sarmagical interpretation.A Hultkrantz. Moreove. This powerful step L"u.oi ni.. zz.a bears' skulls and bones.Krihn. I. Dasopfer auf denheute' noch'erreichbaren attertrn si-uiin iJr. .*rrn Nordeurasiens der amertund kanischen Arktis (:. ". and MtiLiler-Karpe (1966) zz8.. TheEaolutionary e : Primitia Mqn Explanation asHunter Karl Meuli's great essayon "GriechischeOpferbrAuche"(rg+6)' added a new dimension to our understanding of sacrifice..and Siberia.r"...rooil the Neolithic Near Easterncomponentby making an all-too-direct connectionbetween the Indo-GermanicGreeksand the Eurasianh. the rattercompretety o. through a terrifying midpoint. (cf.Y. in turn.3 below). Kitagawa..YT. r7. ceniral p"oi"t.SACRIFICE...ithikum. eating: the festive meal of those who share in the sacred. fast nie wilde geopfert werden...-rii""r. paulson. the of death. Schiidel-und Langknochenopfer 47 bei 1 ..o r" c*"r.Siberianhunters. he pointed out prehistoric discoveriesthai s. and the victorious. c'EL( ttnno-uugrtenne (t9i:l: "Kopf-.skull_ u"d lo.. 'zH. 7 7 ..io't iz z.r"u-.ichlerand others.urnrrt _ heitsgeschichte e956)...againsrMeuri.. zation" and "desacralization" that is tf .. n sCorresponding to the special case of the initiation rite.rrr:l:!N. But muci of the oldestevidenceremains controversial. Schmidtg9rli1. I.iir'ir"p.5 73 .He noted striking similaritiesin the detailsof Greeksacrifice and the customsof nTSee .ri fice" observedamong.962\.ite..ior..'aaa_5a.45^.tu-"Iy.-. from the Finns to the Ainus and on to America. see I." applies only to a problem of historical change (cf.and that thesecorrespondedto ttie .. W. northof ern Eurasiantribes. .. that belong to ine goar. and herders. z. I' Paulson. and K. who used to"a"porit tn" bonesand skulls of their quarry-in sacredpraces. Rentiervolkern.'fiumins a centralaction clearlymarked as the emotional climax "Ololyg6'" This act' however' is the act of $y a piercing"r.." below) and not to Meuli's basicargument.r..-!n"y claimed that they nuJ'forr...is.os beginning. Trencs€nyi-waldapfer."Die rituelie Erhebung des B?irenschiiders arktischen bei und subarktischen Volkern. But the offerings can overlap and multiply. again at the end of the ceremony. SOSS.. I.Meuti e946) 217_39. the terrifying sacrifice. especiaty thrgh bones.which.ual with the concepts /to sav. Bl*hf DasalpinePakiot...os-dvaBiao c. as if trying to distract attention from the '*ti. 1. addi_ l! For tional finds in Central Franken. as described by B. tA' I Hallowell. p.isthe bones. oreliminary rites. Ethnotogie gC bSSq. hunting and herding societies.rmilar customs by Middle palaeorithictimes. is here subjectto predeterminedlaws.t.Der well as A. Schmidl lJrsprungtler Gottesiiee'Vi pq5j'. tlrolotoSist (t926)."*i"iy'rJt .". the Jxperience moving from an inhibited. z8 l_M. and closing rites. Yet the findings of Biichler have come under serious uttal liu. f. "Bear ceremonialism in the Northern Hemispher American Ane." .f..'Zeiischr.admittedly seemJto explain ibrrurr_ y. nonetheless remained permanently fixed. 95-r5t....t*ura about 5o. im Jagdritualder nordeurasischen Volker. whose interpretation follows p W. \t927) :r5: rat\orpogia-otapay 'Nilsson's "durchschlagender Einwand" (rgS). Thus.u. z.Die Tierknochen 4r_eA. FUNERARY RITUALS PRIMITIVE MAN AS HUNTER ning" stages (ctpleorloc).oooyears in time. whether the prehistoric evidencemay be taken to indicate belief in a supreme being-a kind of primordial monotheism_is a moot question' It seemedressrisky to state:"sacrifice is the oldest form of religiousaction.mostly in Siberia.". Jettmar.especially-the thigh_bones.. see tvtLiiler_(aril"(1SOS) . and any interpretationot rt-even self-interpretatron_ is secondary I. .^_. 27o_gj. on the lotn"i.rO. the Hubert ind Maussn' aptlv characterized structureof sacrificialrit-"sacrali . a threefold rhythm becomes liffi"i.To be sure. Silesia.der Schweiz (r94o). Mtiller-Karpe (ry66\ zz7-28 proposes a rerigious one fg:oty that proceedsfrom the experience a "tianscendentar of power. it.rp i. t-t75. Historyof Religtons r \196r). to a scrupulously vrinthine comeat the beginning offeringsfrequently Vegetable iidy conclusi. So_ /. caves. labin evlde"nt the courseof the sacrifice.eemed to utt"rt iJ . * .dass nur geziihmte Tiere. HUNTING.on. Mainz (ry5o). in Hungary. "Das problem des Urmonotheismus.Ainu BearFestival. And \this is nearlv alwavs connected with another human-all too human-actio.. . paulson. on the one hand. u"i. Abh. Thebear s specialrole further uppEu* in the "bear festivals.*ay what the ritual communicates.ci!s.. Meuli relied on the "buriar of bears" of Neanderthal times. enlarging the pattern until a triad of sacrificialfestivalsemergeswhich rhythm: the preliminary sacriyet adheresto the sameunchangeable iice. LJtttersuchunSletr zur Rerigionsgeschichte e966) 1 9\ .. as established by Harrison p.Temenos. affirming sacrifice. obscurius." Festschr.when libations are also espeand cially iharacteristic. vorbichler. flhe core is always the experienceof death brought about by human {violence.

Leroi-Gourhan.i". Kulturgez xhichte Afrikas 993\. fr.264. FUNERARY RITUALS PRIMITIVE MAN AS HUNTER assemblage bones cannot be excludedas an-explanltiolgf the alof It legedbeai-burials.on which a row of animal skulls borders the processionto the seatedgoddess'' A stylized pair of horns is the common and omnipresent religious symbol of Minoan-Mycenaeanculture. sive sivewall-paintings /-^^ Fi[ure-.i*ut. : ). xuvrly|orcv in Athens seeHypoth. the Hekaleiu.. Hermes the cattle-thiefand cattle-killerstretchedout on a rock 6Against Bdchler's theory. RhMrcg t4o-42..".z.pl. l. his fictitious Atlantis. symbolizing development of the ancient sacrificial structure (seeIV. 6r_64. trMtiller-Karpe(1966) zz4-25. there are genuine cow-horns set up in rows or inserted in plaster heads.l. cf. see F. A. even if still more ancient layers re^ii" i" the dark.hunters in the Sudan covered a clay figure with the skins of slaughteredlions or leopards. hunters' customs. Friedrich. There are placeswhere stag skulls and deer skeletons were gathered. the very similarity of hunting andsacrificial customs ueries^such'" t". .26."it..Ics gladiateurs ians-l.k.or i}}. st'r obtained from genuinewild bulls.ffi _ p. just as farmers in southern Abyssinia did with the skin of a young sacrificial bull.--lpP"uton the very impreswall-nainrinoc rho. Dertion76 (t96o).96).cf. from Abyssinia see A.. foia i'"ia. 8Jelisejevici: Mtiller-Karpe (19661 zz5.r" tESoph.a (see there c:r.. try to cut through these correspondences with conceptualdistinctions.n.iurr-nunts are attestedin the marginal areis of Greek curture.'o the nylr.ro.39).r7. 391f yances desidles religieusesl et 7Mtiller-Karpe (t966) zz5. Matz and H.iri"iut consecrated horns in the sanctualigsof QatarHriynk .J. efio"g the Sumerians. H.jd' One could.r.r"r..'*::rYff. 5S Bandi in Helaetiaantiqua(1966). For vase_paintings seeBrommer g96o) 19z_96. twenty-sevenmammoth skulls were found set up in a circle around a central point where a female statuette lay buried beneatha pile of bonesand partially worked tusks.it_ uation is often evoked and actedout in latercivilizations.. u place to which it could di." Similarly. weighted down with stones-a "sacrificeof immersion.'uand in ru. lo4-3o8.-ever."i. Robert.. Simon (1959)t8r-83.ri*ur. it let itserf be red to the sacrifice-and this is.259-6o.. H. a _iia U"urt"^..| (196$ #r7. of ii"lJ. they are a further. ffi.- ^tl:r""l objection. rraesopota-L. $.plut... Paus.'oUpper Palaeolithicdeer hunters had attached a reindeer skull to a pole near a place where they used to throw young roes into the water..968).u is saferto rely on the evidenceof the Upper Pala6ofithic. including the manipulation of animals' bones and skulls. rz6: AP o. the epoch of homo sapiens. pl. ".".. M.4following philochoros.ii.?p1l rriron.un'u.z7..it oug^ ". il:". Thus' Plato combinesthe hunt u"a ru..SACRIFICE.. 4-24. HUNTING. Paulson. 199. t6Plat. is "one of the manv sagasabout the origin of . who alsotreatsthe . F. REG77 Fg6+).r::." theirr. rg5.. killing is not ceremonial :"* but practical and subjectto chance. Much earlier.?!' lHat' 7'zi..' At a site in Sberia.. (t976).--^ iff"""ly? only havebeendrivenby men.r. Biesantz. Temenost(l.u.bull_and stag_huniine.r-8. ^"u'.rnting and sacrificeon principle.. wouldhaveto performat thebeir f"rtiuui. figs.r. the discussion in J. we arso h".said ro be the legenaury "o origi. Even if these were meant to rePresent animal-headedvessels(Simon). are clearly attested]Meuli's iniight-about the antiquity of Siberianhuntine riiual is basicallyconfirmed.on eatal Hriytik seeMellaart ' II (1967)zoo-2o8.u..'.'' An Attic myth tells how Theseus subdued the w'd bull of Marathon ir.as if one had to catch a wird beast so as to sacrifice ii at a predetermined prace. Prthistoirede I'art occidentale (1965\.'This recallsa frequently reproducedgold ring from Mycenae. both quite pro_ fane..g .Straube nca see e95) r99^2o4. ^. z5 P.'.ing." in AnthropicaQ.'rrr" u. r8r. yt-17.rfu-6r."l'. L4 L5 . qubo.e in a semi-barbarous context.'r"i*. ed. G. tival in Marathon. teOn Sumerianwild bulls seeMtiller_Karpe (196g) 33E... "the soul'sresidence. lie in obtaining meat for food.n. Paideuma Og4r).A tamebear. on this and on ilie rrrupo*atorf. too. und Nilsson (rglS) pl..il.riii.ir. in the household shrines of Qatal Htiytik.ng and rglpopoldat go913i).Orient (rnO"l. t'For raupo$rlpla in Thessalysee IG rX zvs. and r"purut" r. '0Mellaart j967) r4o-4r.ra in Asia Minor see L."" become ceremonial evena.543.wild bull" was consideredthe most it had long been extinct it'..At this period.ug. of course. O966). the-yq...for instance.as well as the bones of bison and mammoths.'xen' rt rherite -". ana y". In might urgu". 1t3."r r". Herter. stitutesfor actualdead ones.ti"Ji&:riiiilg . ' eui) ln "i"i"{I .ifi. Koby.'ril.249-7r. see 'Corpusiler minoischen mykenischen Siegel.. S+_SZ.on the interrelatron hunt and slaughterin Afof lll^"". LMtiller-Karpe Q966) zo5 pl. "Die Opfer der palaolithischen Menschen.u. L'Anthropologie Ggsr). a . fr.". E. "Mriller-Karpe (t966) zz5(Gravettien). Critias rrgd-e.:.".-'il.mong hunters. onstatuesof bearsassubMeuli(1946)z4r.646-47.ilu. Callim. and goal..45.olpr"t" 5tn"i hana. r above. including the skull. Maringer.#. r44-55. For parallels from the Sudan see L' Frobenius."" There is a life-sizeclay statueof a bear in the caveof Montespan.."J:ljlJ:ffJ:i: tz4iri (cdd.o"" *r" mammoth skeleton found on a-high . Eliade. Histoire des cro.which had been coveredwith a genuinebearskin..st b" sererin op_ position to a tame iomestic u.. Arch. 4-27. to7. the skins of the cows he had slaughtert This..FGrHist 3:8 F ro9. . cf .. grcc lrr_ rn. Thes.

. Xi* 1"":l 'ot. that estimates range be_ tween 95 and 99 percent:it is iear tn"i.:I' can virtuaily be defi'nuo a. animals "set free for the god.r" This presupposes use of fire.ur.#r'i:rliTuu' rfi.2..... 20H. Nikomachos in Porph..." NGG (1942).r.ro..h" p.o. |"r o Ii." Our conceptionof. Cf...u. for."'. toe-rs. and ci. Iambl.g ".. n. the earlier." almost as if they were chosenfor saciificewere wild beasts on sacredland until the time appointed for the bloody "act. though frequently taking on a scurrilous characterwhich prompted Meuli to The ritual betraysan un.i.l . Kees. ill...and p r..i.. Man had to compe?s. for cattle of the "Meteres" in Sicily see Diod. z5 below.societywill always tentativeconstruct. prom.:"i.. for rd Sptp. ". characteristics ::. "Bemerkungen zum Tieropfer der Agypter und seiner Symbolik.::. Apollo. od. In to hunting societiesaccessible ethnologicalstudy.iil!.The earliestweapon that was effectiveat a distancewas the '.. and..!.'i:r. 3.'.6. n"k"l'. of the sacrificeof bulls and hippopotami.:.i!.:il:jT. Uy.'!lZ!!:::::i):f. 4.::**'with the Missing (e5o). HUNTING.6r. Lindner.still. 3zoa. goats.eating indispuiabi"'i. For the cattle of Argive Hera see III.'Aesch.".rhe Link cf.wirson."""t biorogicar evorutio.persian Artemis." 'XT:fi tllTi?*:. performed by the pharaoh..Kor. (evenif more than mere curiosities.'.tisBo0s at Miletus see Hsch.J weapons.2.:'1f.'('.-.r. The correspondences extend from the preparations.ara rils Beol at Kleiror see Polyb.i". this deficiency by a rour de force of ingenious th"." il.i..i t. . But perhaps more im_ portant than alr this was. 4.."lo_i. piot."/ for iThe bloody "act" was necessary the continuanceof life.nportancewas *.p"ar hardened by fire. hunters are said to have expressedclear feelings of guilt with regard to the slaughtered animal.ot u"".il{:Fj:.. by his l"."ooa"r.."..""rr. ti'" nv'o.u.'**'fl1l.r." io .19.. and horses at Delphi see OGI 345. sei31.4.t u. Man ro y. s.r.rhe These customs are #. For Atlantis see plat.4. Anab.:::::i:t:irth A. die Rachemacht.andt. s... ffii'ilTr::i:f[T.t.l. and the fear that they will not. no threat virtually "r".s cattle in Thessaly. chasse Lt !i.'.48-68...r9.n #.4. further.**i h"e .ny.3.3.i"#-".ffi..akeup was not fit for this new way of life. and cf.. Man..ffi . t5-rg.""..l.. in_ biolosical constituiion.seegeneraly K.. Kopp". Pyth. H.. cattle..p. for the Indian A6vamedha a horse is "set free.ii..thesehavebeen set out in detail by Meuli.rt. for Ar.. Anr7 t6 ..ti _...'.. 24. wiener Beitr.'.r r sociarorder leading to conditions .. Luc. deverop-""i. comprises by far the largest part of human history.*n..ii?J". 2tMeuli Q946) zz4-52. cattle... FUNERARY RITUALS PRIMITIVE MAN AS HUNTER ard men swarm around the bull and the stagin thesepaintingsis perhaps almost more suggestive a dancethan of hunting.[::i:. that the age of the hunter.:1"i1. paideuma 4 \agso).g).:it. z. killing to live.-.'".::*:.t. culture' arthoueh that curture.. Baumann.5." become apart herited .thic.*_ makes title)' Thisstatement r" .f a skin is to be understood as an attempt at restoration.. 9.riras.q.iriu" ecorogical changes tween man and the other primates' beMan* '.il .f . ngd. Current i".1:. 3o6.1H. Merc... (Anahita) herds on the Euphrates see Plut. rz.n was "the huntins ape'. "Nyama. For a psychiatric perspective see R.:: ru$. For herds of Hera in Croton see Liry 24.-a.*.z.r to beasts..:::i:W:. 15. 2.n. for the sheep of Helios at Apollonia/Epirus see Hdt.. paraeorithic for the hunt hunter n1t ius. 7r-88. 666. u[."" w. 2lBabrius 37 Qtooyos &qeroc in antithesis to the plow-ox). determine the action of the hunter....fl]:f? . there be a ur" ... the In was entirelvstvlizedas a hunt.kly becamea means of setec_ i.7o_72.. early hunters' The primate's biorrgi.il. V.'..SACRIFICE. In Egypt.Uo.t. with their purifications and abstinences.:iij. to the closing rites.ffi#[ ." tni J .!i.a. the raising of aIIuIIEFstreiihfrg..y.o.the "r"-. for bulls of Dionysus at Kynaithos see paus..3-9.I " reads "..Helios.r8.. cr lr:[*..i:::!'!:#:'ican zz8t.... involving bones. in Spain see Diod.." derlying anxiety about the continuation of life in the face of death. th".... zz6_44.Xen.'ii.l."'jlT:.20 many partsof Greece. the gathfor fiust bring of bones."*{. Burkert (re67)zfi-87.o.7e7*2o4.The hope that the sourcesof nourishment will continue to exist.yep.r.n*#[:tlil]H'j..1.. for sacred sheep at Delos see IG IIllII? t639..Jnua . Critias. similarly.f A .r.Xi. ilil :T.. 8. .iri.primitive man and his. for cattle of ..Thus.a resurrectionin the most concretesense.lF.u.T.:: "tr. in myth.without which 1:1 poses man _O^t_frt1u.ti.*. d. /ahrbuch f .lii ..s upright posture facilitated. Psychologie und psychotherapie 3 e95).. orour tsMorris (196) ry-49. Birz...].. of the predatory animal. for a donkey sacrificed to the winds at Tarentum see Hsch.l il.y Thetransrtion ! one """ to the hunt is' rather' of the mosti'e.s.irriry!T-"* of the -. .fi.i...ui r.t.. lor sacred sheep. Kulturgeschichte 4 9916).i coin the phrase"the comedyof innocence..scillus. skulls.:" rng vrolenceas deriving from the buhu.. N. The ritual provides forgivenessand reparation.. Luc. and skins.". *.i'..::* :. but it is as necessary new life to be ableto start again.Herakles. V Pyth.:':':.ili!":''.: ...h.nf. 791-2)0..fortheherdsofpersephoneofKvzikosseeprut. "Tiert6ter-skrupulantismus..ons."" The continuity between the hunt and sacrificial ritual aPpears most forcibly in the ritual details that leaveno tangiblearchaeological trace.

..r'ior.u_ tional processes that helped fo.:1..l.}'.:{:i!.A Su.ro. 1i dextertyanarborear or rruit $.i1g. 'oMorris (t967)37-39. himself to his role. Current Anthropolo* U tn6rt.rge wait.". succeeded in seizing the power of his deadly enemy/ the leopard.::r. Mead. are the acts of killing and eating.:H rh.. . trii.LaBarre individu"r i"i"iiis!". uoup. his tteoteny.? gave form to some of the foundations of human society'whereas resiarch on biorog"ui iunu'ior.the mind through learning and the transmission of a complicated culture.ur ffl ::i": with . .. which is biologically analogous to a pack of wolves. of prey.... At the core of this new type of male community. Kortlandt. or u.. ifi... Man's extraordinarily protracted youth.ffiffiT. Lorenz.jo ry). they develop round.ur.'. A.u" sexuat ln" qec"lil interpiay 11i. \4 n.i..'. soft forms.....l.u"y of Evidence is probable: see La Barre j97o) 4o4-4o6.1lrilla..)... the use of weapons was controlled by the strictest-if also artificial_ rules: what was allowed una n".. has no parallel among mammals.:-f:'..::i. these"two U". a transition ..'.:.. it w_as. .i.. carefully distinguisher i"irurp".ubertierisches und 28A." S*rc Jviousry L9 ttdeals with secularm-an. too.i. Fathers must accept their sons..rr_ ical serection rather than consci"ul piun"ir. z5 . Cannibalism .'.*r""rrperimposed at the time when man unexpectedlyassumed *r" u"rruuiorof predatory animals."-d. ideal man' A man hadlo uu.. the family and the Miinnerbund. ignorls .Above all.". to resist a momengoal.".3:':j'. Ihis is basically provided by the mother at home. Dart (n. Eibl-Eibesfeldte97o) 7_g. science I.ii.1 . and males were even educated to suppress these inhibitions for the sake of the hunt. Ropea for lntrahuman Killing in the pleistocene . . 422.a patternthatwere...:1 which thus and com_ plexes' "r-tr. the biorogicar of im.1i"... requires long years of security. If man nonetheless survived and with unprecedented success (t97o\79-81...."?"1_lijl. . FUNERARY RITUALS PRIMITIVE MAN AS HUNTER man's work-in contrast to all animal predators-requiring both speed and strength. z3z-33 (Monte Circeo). The decisivepoint is the vlry possibility that man may submit laws to curbing his h. at reastin predatory animals.r.o*l:ullevel. hence the male's long. his world falls into pairs of categories: indoors and out. Ra"ther.""rurf ir'ro. r8B-94. in assuming the traits of the wolf.lnus his tificiallyforming and differentiatinj ar_ r.:::::.--". hunting behavior was mainly deter_ o{ Igg.e E H Hess. even enlarged his sphere of influence.Xf#nd On a psycho.'. inuorn'u"iu.'u The success of the "hunting ape" was due to his ability to work cooperatively.TF itit"iortn"rnun.''n.". Ontheroleof manasbreadwinnerseeM.orrJ f"i.^ent rearm was absolutely in one was murder in the other.irrc aggression from the behavior of huntine u.ug"ous to take part in the hunu therefore' courage is arways rr. so from earliest times men slipped repeatedly into cannibalism.o.n". power tradition il-" of at"iu. z3o (peking Man). u.bec1useplace naturalinstinctshe developed of -rn th" .a Ltir. Moreover.. women's work and men's work.rltiuri..y ro.. to kill a man as it is to kill a fleeing beast.ri. slender thigh' By contrast' since women must bear children with ever larger skulls.*i .il'H:". HUNTING.LTi.. The earliest technology created the tools for killing."riJutu. or even easier...tln.with a..SACRIFICE."j:.:liJ: [T" li'*:[* 3.. U"*. His rudimentary killing inhibitions were insufficient as soon as he could kill at a distance.:..'. Current Anthropilogy to (196).. riu: of societar prldi.printing fact seeK.r" forbidden in rhe other:.# ?. When a boy finally enters the world of men...)o) M.:.polemicagainstR. forsaking the role of the hunted for that of the hunterl But success brought its own dangers. which permits the development of .u.":rigi.. he does so by confronting death. educating them and looking after them-this.i#t9i' ' 'lti-+8. The man institution universal urr. 27on the "gesicherten Tatsache von Ritualtotungen" in palaeolithic times see MtillerKarpe (1966) z4o (Ofnet cave).::T_.""ij.u. The men must constantly move between the two realms. A man hud i."TffiXtJj. to the hunt. :llJi]. .g. closely analogousto the U"nu"i8. il:h.ou.2'Thus. utie to tary impulse for the sake of u rong-.". cLi g i n un vior s ra n .tubtity i.. What an experience it must have been when man. He had to have enduranceand keep to his word. man ever since the development of hunting has belonged to two overlapping social structures.. security and adventure. and their male children must one day take the difficult step from the women's world to the world of men.i:''+ll*:iiL*:1. the role of the family breadwinner-an to human civilizations but contrary to the behavior of all other mammals. oif"urr. to unite with other men in a communal hunt.i]a"a"ir.:.r. Even the wooden spear and wedge provided man with weaPons more dangerous than his instincts could cope with.u" himin an irreversibt" p. self-destruction was a threat to the human race. . "" 'Lorenz A96:) rc..Hll'il.ilil.il". Male and Femalej949.g determined"t-#*ou..".il"T:J:?.uuiri. from the very start.l"". K."i*i..riesof culturaltradltiin.?"1ffi ff1.."ripf.urri. it is as easy._ction obviously does not hold for man. Man had to outdo himielf in his transiiio.hi#.o ihut n" . iij:. the relative of the chimpanzee.'::l eater rhe il:|:. love and death.:ij:jl r8 ..:"'.".' non On the human tendency to submii to authority see Ejbl_Eibesfeldt (r97o) menschriches '2"-2..r*". Thus.ocess anatogous bioiogical to 4il|j.::ffi:-i.

beyona the norm. as to the . this similarity with man was to be recognized the flesh was like flesh' bones like bones' kiilir." whose '"""uUty clearlygrew insure that the family would be supto bind men to women and thus thus aroused could be in" n"ignt"ned aggressiveness i"rr. blood. frightening but fas_ cinating. Becausethehunter'sactivitywasreinforcedbybehavioraimed aggresoriginally at a human partner-that is. Greek.also occursin ritual: seethe Bovtucia insteadof human sacrifice salamis/Cyprus. their eyes and in fleeingand in fear' in attackingand " faces. e Erbse.8 S ) .i.and they were educatedaccordingly.TheMiinnerbundbecomesaclosed'conspirstoredinpotentialof aggression through the explosjve . Paus.F. for it is preciselygroup. through intraspecific. in Iphigenia. Das Brut int craubert und Abergrauben der Menschheit (t9oo7)..and animal-sacrifice aiCarthageseeG. in in rage. B. The reversesituation. 49r.running blood the to clearlygrasp the animal'sresemblance man when it died' Thus' victim' Many observershave told of ouarrv turned into a sacrificial ]rMorris (1967) ..males.1. at 2. on tle contrary. Baumann. and deathestablish sense human io. they are purposefu'y heightened] peace must reign within the group.roz.. provoking feelingsof fearand guilt and increasingdesire io make .For t"hebarriers that had been broken before are now ail the more willingly . Abst. th" rulesare confirmedprecisely their antithetical in tension.a.theintrathemselves .eiperienced as human centraied on the great mammals. with remarkableconsistency. the groping attempt at restoration. myths teil of the origins of man in a xMeuli (1946) 248-52. relationshipof beastand quarry' fixed pf"ce of a biol. Eibl-Eibesfeldr (r97o) r87-9o.r?r-u of Lyi^otogi_ J' cal themein many culturesbesides Greek. Apollod. H.3' a toward outsidersthat creates senseof close onstration of aggression oersonalcommunity. Zen." *"il known from slaughter. Most of all...J. esp. drder has to be observedinside.i-iri adsomething curious occuired: the quarry becamea quasi-human and treatedaccordingly'Hunting conversary. outside.i.putting some limitations on his theses. cf Eibl-Eibesfeldt (r97o) 5o' 749-BZ. Onians. The inteinal and external effects of aggression is defined by-participaCommunity of hanced the chances success.'"_t::ry But lemlant tnar ls preclselywhat must be overcome." their breaih and voices. however. Waszink. L. and gall in basic for the consciousness of one's own "subiectivity"-heart. BIut. H. 58.p in the dangerousand bloody ternallli This aggrelsion was released mutually enhunt.4 3 a n d 8 + . Origis of Europ e a n T h o u g h t[ r 9 5 r ] . is a berovedmotif in tragedy:see Burkert eg66) n6.34 (Tenedos)..yet human tradition. It is surrounded by barriers to be broken down in a .^""ity. Epit.comqlicaled. for what is cailedfor outside.for Veiovisimmolatur 15 ritu humano capracer.12.. R.in Aulis. Athous r. most importantof all' phallis like phaiius. Leben rna SnUlrg3o).. zoo.for a calf treated as a child and sairificed see Aer.". for children designatedas carvesand sacrificed see Luk' syr' D. aileast.Att. R/C Il 11954).As an order embracingits opposite.and the exchangeability man and animal in sacrifice"r".35 the In the shock causedAythe sight of flowing blood36 we clearlyex_ th. 1.men.72." of the iommunity i. clearly does not aim at removing or settling thesetensions.e of a biologlcal.o"iJ-oi" easilyadapt fights and the imfor courtship specific aggressionptog'u-tud (seeI'7)' prllr". by means of redirection.54. J. rFor folkloristic materiar see H.eparation. Feerings of fearand guilt are the necessary consequences overitepping of one'sinhibitions. that a man dies instead of a sacrificiar animal.. The ira of reversibleevent becomesa formative experiencefor aI pariicipants. substitution. of JJxualfrusiration the to cooperate'and especially It is not easy tor adult males out of proportion in order "naked ape.g and slaughtering: and. 3sFor an animal substitutedfor a man seethe story of Abraham and Isaac cen.ecognir"a.for the frequent substitutionof child. porph. .and cf.zz.8 p' 35oMiller. 770-72.33 was the same' One could' perhaps' most ih" *ur. tgg.in the form or .demirll u*" a"scribed by Konrad Lorenz. 16o.". strack. men. human entrails became visible only in those wounded in war or during human sacrifice."rgio.. the almost brotherly bond that hunters felt for their game. z r . paideuma Meuliffi + Fg5o).. e s p .SACRIFICE/ HUNTING. zz: 11.. Rrische. f.correspondingto the ambivalence the event: of sacrarlzatlon desacralization and around a-central point where weaplons.extraordinaryfinds release without. virgin and goat at Munichia. liver and kidneys as well in other languages (cf. names from the earliest times' but "Human and animal on\ayyva bore the same whereas the animal's *".offendswithin.TheearlyhunterSoonsubduedthe world.this fluctuating bara"nce enteredthe tradition of human culture' The power to kilr ind respect for life ilruminate each other. an."rri.ogically . for could not afford "to see no blood.^always endangeredyet capableof uauftutior. something utterly different. tioninthebloodyworkofmen. Nat. "Lorenz Q961\ z5l-y8.s work.. Char-les-picard.ani heartlike heart. Their visible Presence was diaphragm. life-preservinginhibition. which consPicuouslyresembled their men in their body structure and movements.set-way. FUNERARY RITUALS PRIMITIVE MAN AS HUNTER And because of requiring implementation all his spiritual reserves' thissortofbehaviorbecamespecifictothemalesex'thatistosay' to. Les ':l's':": de^t'At'rique antique ft954). 5. and development. the. confronts the ordinary citizen riving withii the tiriits of the everydayworld.

repetition and theatrical exaggeration. LondonBz5r (t966)." the Mithiaistsaddress paradoxhal been iust fact in the What has. The victory over a nonexistent opponent is meant to demonstrate and draw attention to the couple's solidaritv and is confirmed by corresponding behavior in the paitner.. FUNERARY RITUALS The CreifLiflc"violence'" fall.A' E' tensen's'tieatment' rcinq. This single piece of information is considered so important that it is reinforced by constant repetition so as to avoid misunderstanding or misuse..nl'e shedthe sametime' "You savedus by was a crime. Bianchi. god see the irood or areberrious f.:::::.Soc.t basic realization it is the ideology of the food can be made more specific from an historical. oi ^u.i"t'*""t to transition thelron Age'the 'lo-X]lnLl the the ablyfollowing Orphic. however...RITUALIZATION SACRIFICE. Leach.1 sanguine f fuso: of theChurchof in and C. 111. . with articlesby Huxley. but this cannot have been there: S. But it can also be one-sided. Soc. ihe txcauations theMithraeum M. C.d' .." Philos.'"* 7orc'probTtrawxilg#t''"" Plat'. just one piece of information each."ili3:T:::::'T"'rut'. flisht -7t' 165 vorstettungen $e67)' .t unasinnuerwandte acquired its purely religious function outside the context in which necessary for life.. Panciera U.. LondonBz5i.'" beginning. Vermaseren santa Prisca Rome in Q965).511-15 on "ceremonies" the GreatCrested of Grebe.andthe"t"f. .. The fact of understanding is thus more important than what is understood. This pattern in turn provokes a corresponding behavioral response.l biology has defined ritttal as a behavioral pattern that has lost its primary function-present in its unritualized model-but which persists in a new function. ancient its form and perhaps even some in Aztec civiliz"ii""' ft maintained see G' Devereux' on the shock caused by blood a. 4o)-4o4). 2) .-e ErisvI' the EnumaFti{ Vr.. xliii) recognized the displacement of behaviorbut not the communicatoryfunction.thos "{*at ten als kulturgeschichtlicrreilr. which thus upholds a hierarchy.'. |.uli-utlon at Mithrasthe bulltheir savior-god' ding blood.i. Above all.onnPiau r59c-d: Q 6'dueu*o*arr"'.'i... l:'966l.l. ed...pou rilv"ainoi "Uber das Tolitt'Lr}erxov'. ANET..lUf f*. .'.. rqf|.ystic slaver. Siikularisierung (1965)..Le6 n'o)'atcr 68..i.*u. The concept of ritual has long been used to describe the rules of {r.*. Trans. ANET andcf. to confuse the concept.: : yy. *u.a crimethat is oftena bloodyactof vegetananrsm' of modest latedthatthis wasPr".. Lorenz's prime example is the triumph ceremony of a pair of graylag geese.Zool... Soc.i"i^'"tg.i. Weidkuhn. rather.J..:l:::]ginal endingin the "^rrra"i)lll...for example.Xff1}$. Biology's recent usurpation of the term appears.For a psychologitutl"-"p"ttlve (t96r\' t4' 4'-!5. &p'ipgvov 6 Beds'trettoir.it appeared Although sacrifice city cultures' and at its most grueticulous and brilliant in th. Lorenz. tSir. and others. Mysteria in Mithraeeg7). communication is reciprocal and is strengthened by the reactions of each side. Harrison (Epilegomena the study of GreekRetigion to figztl. for example. rip gitow dpailv unil Kult 4Paideuma.41r95.g.*t Catz' 3o6-1o8.'A Discussionon Ritualizationof Behaviorin Animals and Man. ftilowing Porph. 2. who understands the ritual communication because of its predetermined stereotypy.:tllla*. when a threatening gesture is answered by ritual submission.Roy. by quotingE*p"aon"s:born"' As one of the Old Testament yt"itui" U""n inqs from which if it tne children of Cain' Yet killing' miths seemst.fi*-o"''{ccordingly' as. Eibl-Eibesfeldt e97o) 6o-7o.1rr.. van Essen.2..:":*n"-::n"-' j.:::.finds that "communicativebehavior" and "magicalbehavior" in ritual are not basicallydifferent (Philos. which is no longer prompted by a real enemy. (r9r$.Y-^1 has'changed Thestudyof piehistory of humancivilizafion' form I i pi. . mixing the transcendent with the infra-human." thesis and rich in source material His beiNaturadlkernttrrtl. HUNTING.. 247-526..qq-7. Since the work of Sir Julian Huxley and Konrad Lorenz.. Ex re crova'11[o. This communicating function reveals the two basic characteristics of ritual behavior.". and from there we will soon be led deep into the nature of religion.i.i.. But perhaps these two do indeed meet within the fundamental orders that constitute life.pr'*-o* '.y a'golden 19: anthropologists . Now E.B' cr' w' R' Smith(r894) of Dike.Ritus. tn" fr"rri"t3' gatherers' oncesawthe peaceful this :l:....1. as. dependent divorcedfrom the gods-and terizedthe state"f t'itti"a' the conflictsand groan"Such^are on food. eternalihad been read. there had to be ritualization.'ir'it"ta1*""t"1 that he is dependent on organic that this is the expressio. EmpedoklesB ru4 z-in-Porph' Abst l'27 \ilx sept' sap' the parallel traditiori)' Plut Cono' D"l'.. Ritualization at its most mebegan in the hunt'.. Aggressioiidt.. Thus..i. R.Trans.:"^"TLln::."'. trl-lri. namely. For the essentially immutable patterns do not transmit differentiated and complex information but.- te vetxiav $cited by Meuli (1946)zz6. then.ulian Huxley. ritual creates and affirms social interaction. Proc. zt7-zo In the lacuna.. For the action to be thus redirected killing was_ and maintained. In defining ritual as "action re-done or pre-di"ne.Lorenz Qg63)89-tz7... t"ll. we deliberately start from the biological definition of ritual. religious behavior. p.b"*-u'liili'13'. still maintained in the planter's culture Cf Straube Prisca' Rome: e Et nos inscription in the Mithraeum of Santa seruaEti.perspective: (t95) zoo-zo4' hunter. that of communication. In the triumph ceremony.. Uinii. Ethnopsychiatryand Suicide i --^ !L^ r-.xe' o.Roy.

.tir"....".il1 ixr: :":H ff': " existingorder' we maf call it "statut Jtututttu tion.sy .' i Cross-Cutturat yj.y9'ld perha. for instance.v.'. utter madness. ks formesebmentairesde Ia aie religieuse (rgtz.nua..tanders -tA. seInfiIjl ... { P r e t e n d e d a g g r e s s i o nt h u s p l a y s a s p e c i a lr o l e i n r i t u a l c o m m u n i c a tion.l1l."s A. n f::i: ".**J#ri"ffi hand.:: :":: tr f : gj.iJ irthey :?ffilJ. L."o. Rosenkotter.f: study status of ." r[["xi:.On drumming see Eibl-Eibesfeldt (r97o) 4o. building upon these. A rhythm develops from repetition.eri..|u"... R. the question of their biological roots is comparatively unimportant. stamping the feet while turning from attack to flight. 166.:X". oOn the socially learned behavior of the primate see.::Hk tion .*.?. .'.r. but they cannot hide the fact that they grew out of aggressive tensions.:in"."' uttnount-ulihe not is to say that a rite cannotestablish ana aefine a ^.rr.case.'". :#Hj.ffj'3liii. "it is through common action that society becomes self-aware".""' The contrast.to.T::. t2g39.:: I.. "ven ".tbe ':'"f this view. to *-u-iiirl ?ilJ [**ru TI . Yet. These.'": :T:::il.ilmplement p'v.:*. too.un. and especially of religious rituals in society. attack and flight. folding the hands or lifting them in supplication.:ll..: "". Initiation c.. wes.T. Of course..|].':'#lff lU:.".. from waving branches and rhythmic drumming to phallic display and raising the hand in supplication.:' b"".7 below.".p '*il*1y..'in ":?. are primordial forms of human solidarity.. forma of pri te tu.. and auditory signals accompanying the gestures give rise to music and dance.'i"Ieloped il!qHg. construct".:T. r above.c.:.#:ff :Hj:T:3:.n. with their noise and beating.l.o*nh '7For ee33)44 the ..lr::il?i"fr..I#.9-+S. on the outstretched hand see Eibl-Eibesfeldt (r97o) zo4-zo5. 2Lorenz 3Burkert 9963) 268-7o.l sandsy"u. .rliirr:iiit.uriJri.o We will have to wait for further ethological research.r.j. rc (ry24).r ir . 2to_2o = Ges.i. tg6oa)... : n t ccep " alit' it seeksto escapei:. neurosis uarbecome.. Morris (1967) r57.! It is disputed to what extent ritual behavior is innate or learned..:. ji.521-13.T(re7o s Freu .A".. "". man has many modes of expression that are not of this origin and that can be ritualized..rJl. kneeling and prostration: all these are repeated and exaggeratedas a demonstration whereby the individual proclaims his membership and place in the community.r"gative. ) see d / \194t)..Hy::ff . sE.# U. 6ro: .o.l:"".u..action commune qu'elle Isc. les sentiments collectifs et res id6es coilectives qui font son unit6 et sa personnalit6. thus "the ...Werke 24 25 . a society funccan exist by meansof common cepts and feelingswhich."..est par l. I Ever since Emile Durkheim. or u.."^ any..olo$v.r. Durkheim. A ritual can persistin a com- 'Jll!':::.::":"'.'. cultural education creates special forms delimiting individual groups almost as if they were "pseudo-species..is*' p. Eibl-Eibesfeldt (rg7o) r97. Universal modes of behavior suggest an innate stock from which they are drawn.."..."'I through society's effecton the ini?viuual' "The t"'"-o.:.*iJI. observe ror_ il:ffi..:". FUNERARY RITUALS RITUALIZATION Aggressive behavior evokes a highly attentive.ffi jn*lri 6:. is more one of perspective than of sub_ i""l'1. But in ethology.".oig. Raising one's hands.['. Lr.-* ]'rl'::L^l:LU:tary' pragmatic function.. .'ji. #:. ^".ghost " d".'i. Some of these ritual gestures can be traced with certainty to the primates.lffiif The first of theseru..r^onir..f..tries toI cotraictigit. :Tr.ri to e .f.59g: ..X':r. even laughter is thought to originate in an aggressive display of teeth.."."". There is even a possibility that specific learning or formative experiences may activate innate behavior. o.r' n d n ou :i:.i".. and cf.ncano a t .ii""."l. collective feelings and ideas that determine Isociety's] unity and charI acter must be maintained and confirmed at regular intervals.:[:?::::'iii:':.iH I." one the is seen'asan irrational outburst.#g!il'fr:'*'i1x?ff lil.?:it $iilti".:: va ili l:?"..SACRIFICE/ HUNTING.1".1.:""f"". excited response.rv.. Radcliffe_Brown been has the most tho developing this tional perspu.th..?.ln"-u.:fl|': cont.T:ilj.. on phallic display see I.ps ce repra OgZq 1.. Frankfurter Hefte zt (1966). i intervalles rdguliers.r"J..:'. religion avoid anxierd .a.Thus.." Fortunately..m:mt. wielding weapons and torches. sociologists have been interested in the role of rites. j.". waving branches.. . in studying the effect of rituals as communication in society. Jchr.::TJ-f. la soci6t6] prend consiience de soi.entretenir et raffermir. . however..t*#*':xif the termse ti ie nt'w ithtnou n giir s.. Gestures of jdisgust or "purification" are not far removed from the impulses of ag{gression and destruction.r. are impressive evidenc""fo. a ..iy_:: :.his Besidesthis functio"uf_U"f.#iifl :..p'y.. cautiously.y. * Youns.

t:.ary tradition no rongersat_ isfied' sinceit had becomeevident that iiwas Thus."*"a.This alone. schorarirooked instead to'iexperien.1".. 1r85a). but luckily the evil spirit quickly left the frightened young eSoalready O..rr'ila.:rii:' r'". the t...By far the greatest impressionis madeby what terrifies. fl :1:::1. 1"* . 5 rrFor instance'Mannhardt Qg7) 6q as der primitivisten Entwickelu.tfre.no longer. z6 . fhi Setfish Genei976)-but it is still granted that..coffi After tic i.". which sees.'. .. .i. entspriessen.'". die J# jffi..t i'rr' ) t_exposed.." ia"u.lo the Middle Ages. Children act out weddings and funeralsagainand again. and is' considered It serf-evident'tn"t titr"l.tr Furthermore. the seriouscharacter religious ritual becomesa of very real threat.witch. On the Teufelspeitsche see A: Schweiz. the story of the .tenGlaubens mannigfacher und Gebrauchegewesen". Somereligious developmentshave indeed tended in this direction.tin allee Vorstellungenzuerst auf o"'religicisei Handrungen t.aso j.{"n though it afwaysturns out that those peopl:_lnr.. a child who consistentlylaughs during solemn occasionswill not survive in a religious community.that is. as of an "Entwickiur!rg.._spoke . howevet cannot preservethe form of ritual.:":y. Group selection is not accepted by the molern theory of evolution-see R.die iujiati.story.. The swift fall of most Gnostic movementsand the final fall of Manichaeismwere undoubtedly causedby their negationof life.. The biologicar-functional view of rituarhasa consequence that is serdomrearized'beca.Thosewho will not or cannotconform to the rituals of a societyhave no chancein it.For instance. ..f rherite. z8 (1928). die tilil.: nlri. Ritull was evidently so important for the continuanceof human societythat it becameone of the factorsof selectionitself for innumerablegenerations. ii. we are obliged .n':*:'...Eversince wilhelm Mannhardt and Rob"erts".f th.The impulse for imitation.?:*.able to observe practlclngritual . |99_ ror. rascal.aeepef.r.1 tlfr ::.:r. 243../..ira. this indicatesthat in religious ritual is advantageous the processof selection.1.i1"in In{"ur. "r. .Thus. the rite must be establishedas sacred. u^p. RML Suppl."ffu..L-.rerigioser a""*l:fr. iil Heinrich Dersri)ne I.*i behind-ttr" r"t1rt"g'".r.... abbots In foug]r^t^:h". weitverzwei'.*J'iJffi !..riurirl... .# iJ'lljl. was.so".4. y.d""pu. who were maintained by the outside world's consciousness sin. una a". -l'r*n.:i::. d:yil with very real Drrtrrps accounttor the r ro durability of aggressive ritual.*X.'.s f:9Uy.Lore secondary.. the learning processleavesan ineradicable impression.t V Ap. 8r-ros.'.ii"n"T"'n"n ""]11 (ryo7).ru LU*:.:. however.: iUii..use seems it to go uguinrt the intention manism..iEii.ir: natLirlich".e+8'l'33o)sought .:n:..l iz". then at leastfor the continuance group identity." tar idea _."""in". ."..ff r_ a d. A religious rite is almost always "serious": somedanger is evokedarousinganxiety...... primitive ideas.#:."*lirJ. Only those who haveintegratedthemselves can haveinfluenceand affectaction.f.x.SACRIFICE.which.'iitze or Emprin_ Vorstellungen rooks to .J:.{::'":.. men . HUNTING.."* demonstrative.SJele a".in Handlung".. For this.-r...Es gibt Glaubenssdtze.i. and sacrificial ritual plays a specialrole in this process.. Dawkins. :.owve n LiJ:::. in s hi rons revoru ".nnen Geisteshat Vorstellungvon der Greichartig"keitil sich . r h e thi case.. ror instance.l"ii:. the conceptionand wish give rise to the ortr.zo. which remainsrigid and unchanging over long periods of time.. errn.i. hul b"ur..^t'."Tl t. especialry rerigiousritual."riir"._rog.".]r*. tion oosy.ls ''E. and it is just this that makesaggressive rituals so significant. menschrichen Geistes.Geschichte klassischen der Mythologieund Religionsgeschichte" (r9zr).'Re'/ ligion outlives all non-religious communities. *f" und aer Wunsch zu wachsen zu b'ihen wie ein Baum' und sind die '.. which is highly developedin man and especiallyin children.il toPhilostr.'I.*.li1:-a il'.rlrlrrl.42.Als Uberlebser ..#. stilt the rationaris bias in.Ti?rtf"$:. V""*h.if not for of the individual.g. The psychologicalfailure to meet this threat causes personal catastrophe.-1 Apollonios of Tyana once declaredsuch a boy to be possessed a by demon.lli3lli:. just as the monks of Mount Athos.den und.its mission l" p". aus ihnen .. meaning. flxi*rk".*::....."t"lilll. . If.. Here..."0..which then heightensattentiveness and lifts the subsequent proceedings out of the colorful stream of daily experience.. FUNERARY RITUALS RITUALIZATION munity only so long as it does not threatenthat community with extinction.. .i#" stateshis concrusion follows: . .r.ga phenomenologyof huof the mind or sourand in discrosing .. the study of rerigionshas focusedon ritual' The evidenc" .aditiJn..a grudger's strategy" is . those rituals which are not innate can endure only when passedon through a learning process. unaurrtuJir.. schorars looked for its rool: in .ideen. die Hanalunien'.":::i-'d.s in r..i li.." rituar . is decisivehere. " Geschichte tne building btoiks der Vorsterungen. as d e rr #iq::'. . ch. Baumes zeugung 'der Baum hat gere*et.3 the roots which.. pracof tically all human cultures are shaped by religion.. Gruppe.oncepts or ideas.e"dvi -i ip. But even this is not enough to guaranteethe permanenceof the ' f ritual: deviationsare correctedby elimination..'..*. and it is encouragedby the theatricalityof ritual..i*. Nilston (r95) z:. Die Uber_ ejne. Cf. must dependon an anrecedent .. for ... c.s1. are dying out today.r'.evolutionarily stable.

.... Myth andRituql Ritual.' thaits..r.ili.L:1." But to what extent these ideas. by transmittingthe customas custom. 4. brings it . To be cautious..*#:. rituar is far older than linguistic communication.."..y ^ i.C"Ts.."li'if."ar."""n ir. system shourd be a.. The sourceof their beliefsand practicesis .*nTTil." gl"e".it often has many.."i.ey simply accompany Thanks its theatrical.f ilUiT. ii.. as an_ terior to or decisivefor rituar."t i. sciences zgo nr"r..::y1 t."ur""". buriat_b".grrO that can be extractedas a partiar clarificationby nor the emotionsand.ut its courseis predeterminedand tnui u . a... L6vi-Strauss. .i1:jl.are just hermeneutic accessories factorsthat exercise demonstrablecausality or a is a difficult question. . functions.. 74 speech. therewas Acatd.....rqose.guisticmanifestation. M...B Neitirer th" . Male and Female (1949\..'. :io.#.poru-. a'):. 'oCf.bearabte. . shapesexperiences. "a process of transmission.r.us higher.iT. it. n"'iil:T-::. the historic tradition.".J""rili?.that proexcitesdesires.'idea).. as we know.procal personalcontactand seemsless important. for..lfu'-u1: r""i. l'1Plat. u. not of creation.takesus back to a basicassumption of primitive religion which religious studies constantly try to transcend:the sourceof religiouscustomis the "ways of our ancestors..tff "o.....p. Preface n..ut.zo6on ...l.:rlT:il. "Ce ne sont pas des 6motions acqui tuelles. ritual makes sensein two ways.?l#:r. Psychoanalysis conscious ideas."'n'A specificpracticeor belief . Mead..."16Ever since the pre-Socratics...un.r.. biologicalselectionfavorsmultiple functions.t ltf" i.i. p... for instance.ip"iimposed p.... to minetic express and communicate_as.and they have done so although all men of the historical era. changeit but can at most provokeii*?t*rr"re. ritual and languagehave gone hand in k""p'. This changein perspective... t u.. Le totimisme auiourd'hui (1962) tozf . and certainly countlessprehistoric generations. mais I'activit6rituelle qui susciteles a 6motions..it'irll'tr. 19.. ..t_in tt" 't". """'u'5ee Morris (t9671 zoz. Arthough the accomplishment of language resides in communicating some content and in projecting r3a.. fi]."'*#.. ..or reahty. L Hallowell.'-an's most effective \of communication.ou..:.'derthar .were taught their religiousbeliefsby the generation immediately preceding them.and and to*".p* ma . surrounded by images and words." york Annals..o . r1976).." oJr*"ir. in everyd.6r." [:."th:.tffntffi#*.. HUNTING/ FUNERARY RITUALS MYTH AND RITUAL l i not Produceritual.1".."procsnenthi." sametirie u^""t**"ty " socialphenomenor.i)i'o. at least in its constituent parts.n*p"tosist zB7-)o7: (ts7zt.let us say that all human action is accompanied by ideas.o. origin .expJanati". enir gendrent ou perp6tuentles rites. n..flnituil has an undersiandable function within society-of course. one can attributeideas to any aiiion. people have stubbornly asked how mankind cameto have its religiousideas. at best answerableonly in the context of psychology itself.kind of language It is F . Tradition embraceslaneven speaksof "unBuageas well as ritual behavior.""r ir".Tr"' *lo u"to"g' s'.putu"oiiii.f'.. stresses that even childhood experiences bear the stamp of the adult world. ritual itself producesand shapesideas..:H. .."" It is this.i"r..liffl. .ressenties I'occasion des r6unionset des c6r6monies. Plato expressedit thus: children come to believe in the existenceof the gods by observing how "their own parentsact with utmost seriousness behalf of themselves on and their children" at sacrifice and prayer.ution for viewing the .i ....u since*" t'o* *..". rather. I" rh.r... Thus.Hfi *i*r .'' Even the most radicalinnovations in the history of religion proceedfrom this basis. rhat something is in tact *tO roe.l:t b r-rxr"".u.grooming talk. American Anthroltologist z8 (:1926).lg Doubtlesslor this reason." "r" : : :. as a form is 3f . . that verbarized f ru"g"ugu.i:y. d.i n silenceir'u f_ori'lr.?. '5A.9om-munication.1Tt_"-"".':. natural' then. r _"r. 887d.u "" "" the reality of a transcendentpower or the .. or even experienceand emotions.rsed interpreting the rituar by participints in the cult are the basis and. ... tJth" H:T::::t:.ir.E:.. e'"rr.ffi n :$r"J'"J'.:Jl]. *1e". which are then raised after all into the realm of linguistic presentation.it. ducesideas.New yet seaenth llt:.of course.ll:$"":l"Lilo*1*. _o... 7..*"lT[:. cannibalism.ry of mankind.lll SACRIFICE.in.orili ]..-.... Thereis no lustiti.. z8 29 ......t. proc.1 problematicto say thatritual has ro-" .L:...v.. By meansof interpretation.3i#.. Human beingscan usually understand ritual intuitively. of life y. never represents direct psychologicalresponse of individuals to some aspect of the outer world.. Leg. It is quite right to speak of "ideas" or "insights" which are "contained" in ritual and which it can 'uC. and changing..f.ti:::.

l opi.yytn. 185-4o6.. Harrison.O"r"it:" A radical way out is to say tnat *rJaeri"i"g f.Myth inPrimiB.[:*. Otto. H.rt tiio)1.zj4 : Kl.n srri n i.":. Oracles and inbothancient. a necessaryconnectionbetweenmyth and ritual: myth is "the spoken part of the ritual. not grow directly Lut of ritual. 196r'?).[Tj?:l'il :i: mvrh than that of ritual.tradj )o ." "the story which the ritual enacts. 3W R. against siories are." oThe occasional claimsthat this thesisresolvedthe question absolutely have caused a variety of strong reactions.?.. others ceptablemeaning for something that at first aPPears champion the causeof free fantasyand speculation.T:f i'"1T:I.. to naming that which seems presentin it and invoking it.:I l:Xn:.i.ji1'.ffi".m a i..oi"#rrn.lJ:iJ":jr.. 3 (r95o).-r. . G.oT'""#f.l'. spoke of the "Zusammenfall von Kultus und Mythos..0"|o"llX'Ll. Deubner. somewher" rr.."t a"*.'.the .g. c.: :.rorKirk (r9zo).rurk .1 ti. connectionwith rituar.."Paian.:J'." and O. Euripides Herakles [1889].SACRIFICE/ HUNTING/ FUNERARY RITUALS MYTH AND RITUAL for hand sincelanguagebegan. (. ed. H. Dum6zil (k crimedes kmniennes des IrS24l.k r. Myth and Drama in theAncient Near East(rg5o. nd cf N s (.* one courd. Social Lord Raglan. rooted in ancient Near Eastern kingship.are the 'origins.. ).s.. :.. in Germany where W. 44. ..lThisleads us to the problem of myth' The theme of myth and ritual is still the subjectof great controversy.. Dionysos (tSlt..l:i. z."*#'lily.. Deubner |t%zl 7). Kluckhohn.io. Myth and Ritual Og1.llS. F. xxxiii..il.npt"te documentation preserved chance... Hofler (1934)derived the sagasabout hordes of wild men and about werewolves from ritual. u." Nlb zz ftgrgl.:. Myth. tiae Psychology (1926).i. H.'put" iiui^'. Gaster. While some see the ritual backdrop of a myth as the only acabsurd..g *u.2 to a more or lessdirect accountof what is happening there.1:T:*'ffj...eud una grow on its own' Butthis hypothesis "*pu. meantime. Smith (1894)t7-zo. Ritualand Kingship(1958). Y 'S. where the meaning of myth is recognized once again:"the myth is the plot of the dromenon" b3r)." which Jane Harrison then distilled into the theory that myth is often just "ritual misunderstood.:c.much t"t" that tailil.au"_ this: that i.o. In the 4.'1]1#".*..g..vorrir.jlii." u" According to the broadest definition. .'i':Tiil:..Mhemosyne J. only marginalty.'?ilut myth is so much easier to transmit and takes so. a solutionsatisfacLry to-all have been unable to dampen ..from a responsion of expressivecries during the ritual.re iun.Cf.a ine specificallyhuman auitity.". went so far as to reconstructan Ur-ritual..tio. ::'..A. rn antiquiil iJ i.lsson. M. 159.'. u"i*""n.o argue the fascinal d r..""0ab.'" . . i.::j::::: .u^" . whereasmyth onlv b"crm" posriui" -i r-r adventof speech.:."es back even to animals. therituatrhe_ "i o..fliSiX]ilo"1tic' a.and Th. Hooke postulatedon the basis of ancient Near Easternand biblical material that there was a unity.r..ff. on the other. ur.ve)RLeach. Alongside this debate-carried on almost exclusivelyamong English-speakingscholars-are parallel attempts in the early work of G.g66)..il:v'.-#d-.empiricalethnologyhad arrivedon the scene: Malinowski. Myths. h"...s but these '?The divine namesPaian(L." Gili l." HThR35 Q94z).. Rose.."As early as 1910.iti.*arthough i.'a"a utihough one could attribute the Iack of a correspond..i':J?.and many are indeed attested.*:iiilpi"t. i.. This is alreadyienough to airpor" or'tr.son . r..: Mythos(ts67). Cf. Rituaris far older in the history of evolution..50)and Wilamowitz (e.d ro'.. opposedto saga.::"t: (1958).i.. herd from Xenopha- gre(re6t). M.3 ir..r"rrm i.|.?".1. To "": this extent' myth does ll:"{ri"..rl:. Egyptian re't.n an-ritua .":5. deren Bestandteilesich in gleicher Sequenz durch religirismagische Handlungen (Riten) dussern" (lnternationale Wochenschrilt rr74). Nilsson [1955] G6rard-Rousseau 54j.o. 45-79. on the other donot ffi"#::flfacts is virtually n. and K. Hooke. il.uats..it is hard to'attacf by the proofs brought forward by ethnology.. Ni. (1949).After Robertson Smith had determined "the dependenceof myth on ritual. The connections between myth and ritual were already strdssedby F. [1968] t64-65) and Iakchos (Foucart lr9r4l rrr.. J' Bleeker.it"r.. and... Le problime Centaurs [1929])on the one hand.view seeKirk (re7o)z8: . Mythology and Monumentsof Ancient Athens Q89o).i.). such a combination.r^"."NGG 1895.".ot be verified. myth is "the spoken part of the ritual. 2)-zd. .. Any number of forms are conceivable '.tut". Hooke.fairytale. K..irf:. i.j.:.:.'ff 3a seeE otto' "DasVerhdrtnis von Riteund Myrhusim d...s8o)l-'''^ ?.. also S. sH..:. "HeI phaistos. . van Gennepstatedthat myth is "eine Erziihlung . Thespis: Ritual.i. Burkeit :y--"PT"^ t. 85..rt". Schr.For an attempt at an overview see D.:..' l: . rituals "r.". Nilsson lt955l 661 aroseout of the cultic cries i'fice flarov and "IoxX' 6 "Iax1e. n. see already the Mycenaean pa-ja-wo-ne. H. esp. Hocart. z}r-87.. p. Welcker(Die aeschylische Trilogie Prometheus dieKabirenweihe Lemund zu nos[r8z4l..and A. Ker6nv Die Lrofuing . The Originsof Religion Origins$954\. 4 and E .-Jr-gue that myths wit-hout derive nonetheress from rost rituurr. reft with the fact that stories are somethins to Uiofogically observable rituat. Harrison (t927)327-1r. for "absurd mythology" seenas "ritual misunderstood" see J. 249.l sponding' expricatorymyths.*'8 in'riir rl o* (r97o) z5_zg.rrty present long before..a-y*.'iri. in the vast reaches of the unknowabre.nnot be documentedbefore the era in which *. a mythis a traditional tale.".*#:$i*i:r rituars oierrap ratherthan0". "Myths and Rituals: A General Theory.Cults.

. ion (n' 4 above). in which "mythical trurh" is the criterionfor what is \1951'). expressing itself in basic modes of behavior."Aypa. It is true that the generalterms (jepris)I<iyos (Hdt.. U"i it is no less legitimateto slarch for the underlying given for every Poet historically known to us' . myth clarifies the order of iif". idem' 1. tff[nuns desZugangszum Mythos (967). 2.eva.^tt^ltud an tohold the factsof somenew event. Der. suPPosethat even these archetypei.27. Leach.Cf ..for praep. if we accept that its function is to dramatize the order of life.lr.546-5t. ZZ-ti+).43..Myths and Rituals.z..aow.. o*. as.g. Uyin in primitiue psychology.Lact. 'fuo*ing Malinowski. 2.tung by thesis restatedprogramatrcally E' Howald. This.'. (1938). This is speculaiion' We can be certain.2. .. Tat.in aimost every ritual with a story explaining way. Jensen xxiii_xxxiii has now distancedhimself from Jung.t ". even Kerenyi 1rgO7) ut Knight stated:-.. piety was indeed in the Greek view a matter of ritual. and to Hermes der griech' Literatur Il1 Qg4o)' 7o5'7' etiologies in tragedy i"e W. s. E.'I. Continuous stories The ritual can be discussedoutside p"u.. ii well known.'. E. W"htti. in the mysteries. ritual only exceptionally. genuine.or. In its own way. it is perfecity legitimate t. Ach. ARW-3r (tgl+l'. FUNERARY RITUALS MYTH AND RITUAL the that myths y:1" nes up through modern classicists.r'and in so doing it is related to ritual. Following A.and 6ptitp. ArchetypusSymbol derPsychologie' G' Mon oni uii synbols Weltbildeinerfrilhen Kultur lrg48l. individual manifestation of a sure."-ttl-: irig the problem of myth and history W' F Jackson . :::"":"^1bv poet'sfancy. of course. . Byz. .zt.surprisingly-::it^t?.tin.iptn*ta r[ov repi rdu Lr. especially aggression."t' that shape lts unspite of the many fantasticand paradoxicalmotifs they return again mistakableidentity.Ea. Schmid.estigate eachparticular themes which are the ^ytt._ tion falls apart as soon as one can show in even a few cases that rndis_ putably genuine old myths are subordinate to cultic action. Nilsson (1955\z7-29.39 Diz. .tvaand iptitp. wiether in turn all Greek myths refer to rituals' l0. i. the Greeksconnecteh ineachcasewhyaquestionablecustomwasestablished.t.g..psycnoa"utysissees ""aspecificstructuresin the to. 16.in K..if not in historicaltimes. uThus Nilsson (1955)r4n. )2 33 .either in prepaiation or to explain it afterward.it. The most exciting themes in myth come from the realm of sexuality and aggression. (Diasreligi1se lungs(t95fl. as the strict orientation apof the myth-and-ritual school would have it.''onlythe is oppositequestion.precisely in situations where the content of the story and riiual may not be described. the correBut spondenceis not limited to these cases:on"sacrifice generafiy see Firm. iu. Der pythische (cf' I'u at n' r3 above)' On cultic 1f. among the Homuic Hymns prirnarily those to terpolatedverses Dichtung [1963])' to Demeter Apitlonhymnis als aitiologische (D.u|wois 6tt7"yr1p. even though slightly distorted' myth as a projection For this reason. Ko^p\". and these are alsb prominent in ritual communication. who correctly states:. The most fascinating stories ..is-not to say that ritual is a theatrical dramatization of myth.r the periis of death and destruction. speech and action. the myth of Pelops is to the festival at olympia.t: dividiral t" "*p". Nor is it generally true that the Greeks saw a correspondence'b"t-u"r. There is no rituals successfully need for the myth itself to be part of the ritual. entsteht in der Phantasiedes Dichters.17.ovu<tov. 2..r. quidquidestRestum abscondendo in puero. bu"t the di. A. Err.4o3-ro..rsg Nor can it be seen as arising from magical ideas with an alleged pur-pose.. utt elaborationof inborn psychologi"g"f" of however' .z. ittst.. see Kirk t'r970)154-57.election man' And if the ways Palaeolithic tween various ways of life open to they of life were determined by rituals.5r. C in ' (tg6+).3:ut acerbarum mortium casus cottidiano aictimarumsonguiie recrutrescant. beout by ancient streams.2. Geschichte 776. z. ry. HUNTING. *re paraliel functions. Kerenyi. in. . There have been attempts.steph. were createdby a processof s. political Systems. then drama is produced.z. only in mystery cults.9. Jensen. Regardr3rff." From a strictly evolutionarystandpoint' like valleys hollowed *" -.b::T:^t1"1:l.Euseb. .So also.oii. A.8. Xey6p.1o. Kolk. too. lts themes are often.zretrezcd KqL putrnpld rripgavo rois rcovrporepav p.Eranos-lb. (explanatorische) Mythen. These have their counterpart in sacrificial "Echteund. that myths and combineas forms of cultural tradition. this it. The two were transmitted together because they explained and strengthened each other. it frequently explains and justifies social orders and establishments. G.-. instance.z rfis io?ris iqyoivrat r.3g. Although it does not derive from empiri::.arlpa pihov.z.that is.n. then from the very start shaped the mYthic Patterns.i .Whenevermyth precedesritual. bui myt'h was nonetheless] ubiquitous.dtiologische "E. then in ?1:hiti"t{:. on archetypesas "Funktionsformen"... which occurs by means of social interaction.i: and can be only partiallyverified'at best'^TI^. myth is characterizedby suitabilityfor telling..DerMythos ' .'.charter on myths.".C. I.Mythosals !1SlZ).id iprr^ p* imagiiemgeritur in sacris(mysteries of Kuretes).47. 2.)." extraordinarily lucid.eva.. for instance. however. z6i-7o : Mythos uid Krrt beiNaturuorkern lie 67-9t' gz-tcn.cf.8r) or \eyop. to distinguish etiolog_ ical myths referring to cult from"genuine" myths.z. The relationship of the two becomes clear if we take itual for what it is.a.1"i::1""t^t telltngand reits of its origin. context.r.r"ntai container Gates1ry161'9r)' archetypal Pattern" (Cumaean the possibly in1'?The earliest examples are Hesiod's Prometheus story (Th 556-57 ' Apollo I/.i"".The containercan be called u i.2) up."ii*p"tiaions. of rituar and myth see Kruckhohn. "SeeFontenrose(1959) 464..eva (paus..Wilamowitz (lg3t) 4z' a To be D. 38 above. killingrJ disputed.ich. come 9.SACRIFICE.

.73 and 19.. p'ot'id" an obiective are the ritual intends' Rituals what occursthere. Portmann .. "'i io-*ytftituf. Od.no alliancecan be made without sacrifice.though their origins were in can even supplant.r9r. . of course.A community bound by oaths is united in the "sacred shiver" of awe and enthusiasm-the relic of an aggressive reflex that made the hairs bristle.y O" sh"aking hands see Eibl-Eibesfeldt 3^ 34 35 . Der Eid (r9oz)..\reatenrng out becomesgenuine mourngesturebecomesmurder. of whereby customs are inherited. an the sacrificialritual gave societyits form.Thereforesocietyalways An acieleration of communication''o runs contrary to .ra.. shapedby g"tiut"t of guilt and one who is to be feared. In this way it was preservedlong after the time of the primitive hunter.establish contact.tr'r" in a mutual hando"" airother' graiping eachother . see ll. Greece. reSeeI.. man speech naturai]'"re. The only prehistoric and historic groups obviously able to assert themselveswere those held together by the ritual power to kill.'A smile can.seriousness.927) 11r. T s a formula.2. a senseof community arises from collectiveaggression. Theserituals were indispeniable becauseof the particular thing they accomplished.#.r. 3.ili..e... The earliest male societies banded together for collectivekilling in the hunt.n.h.but in all human societies. TheFunction TransformationRitual of Killing Hunting behavior became establishedand.' mythical naming. 1d7-9o somewhat is reluctant.and hands iy a ritual g"'tt""' op"t' *"uponless onlv made uff"..lt "ft" returns to riiual' even though it -rational to deceive. Eibl-Eibesfeldt see e97o) t45-.r.SACRIFICE. Whether in Israel. cf' at n z above' auch in Zukunft 20A. takes precedenceover friendliness and compassion. transferablethrough ritualization.ythical In this *uyiW mutually affirming each firms the reality ii" *V*t' "r force in forming a cultural traother. Through soridarity and cooperative organization. A new theory of how human communityis founded on aggression has beenset out by Girard 6972\:his model is not rne hunting pack but the scapegoat complex(cf.leviouslv of to conceive a relipossible been merely spoken"simitarly' it ^u{.iii.ur.' L'--""'t. so"J* acted elea story of love and death' The as-if ing.and a crying child touchesour hearts. e{.3 Familiesand guildsoorganizethemselvesinto (1963) esp.L"i ""i"f without ritual''i practice. conversely' ment in the ritual il.'"-"iiJ.g'ula. and "cut" becomes virtually identical*ltn tn" covenantitself:foedus ferire. U"'"*pt"""J q"tttty.". Das Tier alssoziales Wesen(t964)' 34o:"Das Ritual bleibt h6heren' d'h sozialen Lein allem das gewaltige Instrument des Uberindividuellen (r97o) zo7-zo6' U"..struck.aggressivemodes of is a human victim''o animals.b: u tutigiott using myth without ritual gion without *yttt'..And..p." ritual conthe ieality..n. in the myth' on the other hand' onto rituals..#il. 6pxtu trrrrd r6.. 'On the "sacredshiver" of awe see Lorenz(t961) J75-77..This must then be releasedin an "act": the sacrificial ritual provides the occasionfor killing and bloodshed.or Rome. R..the myth tells of some :t"It^:"I:t: contain * n*:t gestures.tire iit.i". Burkert bgZgl Sg'_ZZl Dionysiac and a7fapo'yPos-acombinationwhich is questionable.in a feeling of strength and readiness.and by establishing inviolableorder. one cry ..rat is strongerbeing t"O submission.... 249-318..35 above. The practice eatingin sacrifice of is not taken into accountby him.There has yet to be a community 'Lorenz t'Harrison (:.iginal which cannotbe pera quasi-realitv filis the spaceleft vacant'creates in the ritual' Hu'""'"' Ut't is direcfly experienced ceived with the and thus ritual com'o-". the myth names somedisplayedin tire Preparatory . words' but it is clearly in agreement.. This cannoi be explained simply by the psychological mechanisms imitation and impiinting..ritual' -especially To some extent myth ot the group' and organization its function of expressingthe unity One ritual in its precision and dexterity' Speech is far superior tJ of because its dance' But word. at the same time. no agreemeit.l. I. Stengel of ai'pruy agg"ression-sealing shake-amutual thillilf. in the languageof the oath. the objectof aggressionthat is to be . myth and ritual beiame a strong different' . HUNTING/ FUNERARY RITUALS TRANSFORMATION OF RITUAL KILLING The mythical tale' as "The mvth is the plot of the dromenon'" " ritualtradition' withina single ..il description of behavi-oral does not. ii" ^ytf. example the suddeneffect a smilein war (rr3his of of r4) shows how shaky these other kinds of bonding are. Hirzel.*uia | and 5. 24.subjects' between -'"" u1-"diverted behavior sacrifice.r.4$.. It i"t"t ift"t which the *f:t:'11}us' with a displaced' redirectedpatterns orientationand so ".... erotic -o. As ethology has shown.".For criticisms..o contract.u.i. of course.48.vtcu.t t"^filtu u tornprttut"d'war iitxre' It can easilybe abusedor used very flexibility. b.otlo*' l!::. developswhat the : :.. "'ui"ct' hunting and then in In munication gir'".

g .c!71ua.. *fl" "U"r?"fi'a1rr.eirteq the in p"r"p. dodya.. 9 . A Commentary on Liuy | (t9611).tos Cf. ^."i"" B"i^O*"rorrir-s atriov' The murilation atrerjorousir_orxt1oo. *::lffii.. a n d c f . Hennes 59 Qgz4). 4 .". Aristoph.'..n" sacritegium"-r. . Hommel.. fr.fi'"" Lorianos. 'Jebats 6. L y k . 21. within the confines .. Miiller-Wiener. triirw 6L6oyres airois.-H.tft.bedipus cursedhis sonsbe_ causehe was given the wrong pi." rri"r"-iies manifested in th--e mony are given sreat socialtmportance cereu. r.uitu"r". . 6. Antiphon 5 . r ." ldl Erg.a..soph. t13-56."n:5:fl:il:i:T"..). M. A.lo"rs. Alfdldi. TDelos: Thuc. F.. of Corinth.rikewrse symboliccastration(Aristoph.. zoz with Schol. )84.1. Sokolowski.t has a set function and actsaccordingto a precisery n-"J'Jraer.4 oihe Kopwt eno.. through pruy". *. The closer the bond.'.. FGrHist 49 A z7...-t3Thuc.8 They must eat the meat of the victim as well. A Selection of Greek Historical lnscriptions Q96).. . Arist.ff..yripBoiov . cf. Those who swear an oath must touch the blood from the accompanying sacrifice and even step on the testicles of the castrated victim.Ti-'ng' p".:: .Thereis a"-"r"ri "Thuc. . the double uet'sratermot"he." Archiuesd'Histoire du Droit Orientale 5 Qg5ol5:. the 6L1rctpio "aas Xen' Ages' 5'r. Crc. 1 r 4 .. 7 .z. #69... Athens exacted a phallus for the procession at the Dionysia at Athens.. RHR 97 j95o).ey _ouii'"i.. I . Strabo 8 p. po sta .i iurti. Eitrem.. theAlleged Crimes the of .. r. r48...-.tlizor. r"lriri.il:i-"d of ism''" And' in a secularized form among .. r .67. e n i a n h e t a i r i a i ... r. at . 2 4 .""r. Jff ::::"lf_ jJ i[:Hil. tos4..i#... i ..'ffJ:f.ul" in .al haz'cloas lG I' 61 : R.r78)-the permanent establishment of a trading company.u. . drayeLu B6[u xairavotr)\fiav is flavaSftvata rd pttfya). ur. IC I'? ro : SIGr 4r. Nilsson [1955] r39) does not explain the details of the ritual. Latte (96o) t44-46..: r. cutting up. of the herms .3..i.r. Ath killingwasan expression loy"ity..fi..beginnings. In a sacrifice circre thc of participants segregated is from the outside worrd' Compricated socilt st.. Pol. 73... FUNERARY RITUALS TRANSFORMATION OF RITUAL KILLING sacrificial communities.56. l : . <rras 6ri ttov ropiav Demosth. ^ conrains.alsoDiod. P a u s . 8. 6. ^ r L _ . {The phratries are constituted at the sacrifices of the peiou and xovper. .:." . late Hellenistic Delos. r. Planc.. to9-7t2.s the spartal*l:l for iu . !': :.' Frri.hu panathenaia.iri.. " di ]^* Henri. the cities of the Latin League still had the right "to demand their portion of meat" u from the sacrifice of a bull to ]upiter Latiaris. the Ionian cities slaughter a bull to Poseidon at Mykale. G. 4r. 3rr-zr. Cf...... to roasting-and. ando..""t.. r65.l.'."_. Cf.5. "Panionion und Melie...p.".4p. 7 r . On the Semitic "cutting" of a covenant see E."It was generally believed that conspiracies practiced human sacrifice and cannibal(tgzo) 46-38. iorleis is ras yeipas oi r('tv orltayyvar...nd Loftian^" ^^hr^:-^ ^ .rificial meat. fiituut . o fi:rJ. and W.'##."riJ". . r.:!". r. th". :. did.nt'$ll1T:i:1y. from the various .r. so too cities at a festival. 3 Kinkel/Allen-even the Grammarianwho cited thewf oC 'vil round this passage (schol.SACRIFICE/ HUNTING.619. Nuh. on Pelops see ILz below. 4 . Lys. for instance. 386.hr. 36-39.Ur6ng the meat.r'ir"#". Earlychristian in iy."uo* did not they perform the rites of 'beginnine.::l:i::T primitive. A n t . Par. during which the one who swears raises himself above annihilation. ..Apol.uv privilege of founders and.67-and. a Lys. r . . 5-25. P.t-.. On the sacrifice of the /efinleswith the sacred silex see Latte Qg6o) rzz-23."ir:lT:'. . by sinking metal bars in the sea: Hdt.. the Corinthians turned u"gui"riiiu And " a.d.. 37.u_ts. The inhabitants of the Peleponnesus. D .yevits.'i. BCH 94 OgTo).9. 7 b e l o w .1 ^3r.""u.:i toThuc. t. . cf.. Stengel jgzo) 1'16.ol.J"'#"ff..2. l'''a. H a l .. h ^ ..C f .A special case of the encounter with death is passing through the severed halves of the sacrificial victim: see S. is irrevocable." his sister had been deniedthe honor of being "burk. not reastof alr because "in their common festivaii tr.. rina expression in the di_ verse roles the participants assume.lpur."i. the essential point is that the act.25. EStengel Qgro) 78-85./. if: power of rife)' And as for tttu .r. : i::: :::..r4. t .r.n. 5 . r. tne pJiistratt'a.rr.. the islanders celebrate in Delos. "Couper une alliance.a r* .. For this reason the otov\il can take the place of blood sacrifice (cf.ioton. the more gruesome the ritual.kinn]ig. L e o k r . 9..1'r-*o mear raws regthat (ac tuarry .l. Calling down a curse on oneself (Livy r. A e s c h i n e s 1 .. 36 37 . as well as gatherings of larger political groups. divided accordingto occupation and rank' Henge.i ". .trz.. Phoinikika Loilianosrro:z).. Nilsson (ry55) 49-42. r 7 2 s e e D i o C a s s ... 55ff . For the phallus see IG Il/lll? 671." courseof the rituar. rg-25. i:.t. .. Synfu.e.z6 below).._]fl1.r.zr. Aristoph.'It is in the sacrificial procession that the empire's power becomes manifest. as the other coionies . dzroxreiuouttty.of iociety commu_ .i." meet at Pelops' grave for sacrifice at Olympia..il.z o . Oslo 25 Og4Z).. Amasis allowed the Greek merchants to construct "altars and sacred precincts for the gods" at Naukratis (Hdt.4.r. 'Thus Demaratos adjures his mother at the sacrifice: Hdt.n Thesacrificiar is particul'rt. 1 6 .."*ri. Curney.27). Iater.h. 3zc on the request of the Thirty to S. Ct.. The Ionian League headed by Athens first met at Delos.iln war.5 In the time of Cicero. Bickermann. T h e p n i i n .. 5 o . Ogilvie. for the Hittites see O. and a cow for the Panathenaia. for.a a "lord of the sacrific!. the Thebaid... 5Hdt. #q6. 3 . D i o n . uu. This can be shown. '11"" rtt.. R.rtuu't''t".i""Ur1 An ancientepic.... the "island of Pelops.2 Harmodios murdered Hipparchos. I s a e u s 7 .. 4.il::T ff H:lj.tThe sacrificiar nity is thus a moJer.ovat the Apaturia: see Deubner ftg1z) 4z-34. 8 . oL\vy 32. L6. r : .. Schol. cf .i"i. or at least the ozr).. Kleiner. Early Rome and the bztins Qg6). 23.ii".z4. z1 g967). Marm..i"". Burkert $967\ 287.68. Lewis. 1 5 . Meiggs and D. des cf. plat. z o ..96. Ath.. te s.r".c o r e c t i v e of in the sauumno longer .

for Persianyoungsters' Strabo Kannibalismus nibals see E. Miiiler-Karpe(1968) )J6.n.)g. DasBauopfer Ggry). must refrain there is often a rule that the killer..K.Macr.. Ichn. thereby establishingan order the skull.i iiveyxi 1t'ot'67<idvattias igayov (Hegemon. This paradox is embodied' acted ished out. 4.8. cf. III. for can15For der Mexico see E. there is a rule that sacrificial the ritual inhibition becomesan economicfactor.turtre-sheillyres. -i cdd. Sometimes meat must be sold at once. Serv. sacrificio .l (rgr2l. becomes andvilprleios: Aesch. the festival see Ov." Any new creation. one of the most detaiieaLatin descripiions of a sacrificedepicts the erectionof a border-stone. A.i-. However. Soph.Among the Hittites. pyth.. On Egyptian customsseeHdt. of apotheosislsalways precededby death. neighborswould return regularly on the anniversaryof that sacrificetJ repeat it. 38 )9 . with A. ANET6r. H. and the tympanon coveredwith cowhide is the idea that the overwhelming power of music comesfrom a transformationand overcoming of death. cf .i sanguinem facibus instillabant eoque tura et frugesiactabant.'uin this way.Bauov E}al. r58-64.a-J. Der and Ethnopsychiatry Suicide. intraspecificaggressionmust b! set anxiety and through an eating i"itibiti.7 below. or the antlers. of others' Thus' stinencebecomesu.The tabu makes social interaction all the more intense.. 2. Gesche.44above. Devereux. 4.6. 196_99. . 35-45.ro.rz for A house. altars and statuescan be set up over a victim in the courseof a ritual.even the birth of music.""e ^arbel.pi. zgr_93. l"t. and *ll:t-tt"-"mnon. and generalizedin th-eritual.rc. D-urkheim.when nnesos becomes dvtpano\aip. .According to the EnumaElit.-4_24. i56-76.36r.269-7oand Serv' on 269. unguento . it is and perpetuated by death. and human sacrifice .utteried. Aegisthuswith the lyre on the Bostonoresteia-crater: verE. HUNTING. calentes reliquias lapides conlocabaint. i57. Das-Volksleben Niugriechen der eSlr\. for a buitdingsacrifice in the ancient Near East: see R.. orderin€ the constructionof a statueof Apolto to ward off the prague: lT:^ln::. Diod. Hermes' the And this is not so only in human-sacrifice. G. of raising simpi-est horns. an Eur.+o. K.zr. The stonewis then placedon top of the remainswhile they were still hot. a bridge or a dam wil stay strong only if ro-"*ri. cf.' below). 3. TheTragicParadox who flees and does not reappeat is excluded from_thesacrifiBupironia. pl. Rhes.4 below. murdered. furfgrt.ri.zt-.Klaros (tgg9). Eris. must also obey this rule. The death of the lyreorpheus but Linos u. tpgr. Thereafter. B. requiresritual killing. On the I. Once the deadly knife has been used aside' This is accomplished tim. Krauss. Lachmannr 4' lapides solidam in terramrectos conlocabant .619_7g. consumptisque omnibus igie dapibus super 'Fasl.. Hdt..d.oi <i)t)tdd)r)tos ir. .Aen. S.g.rr.2.Die Entstehung speisesakramente (rg1g). in manifestation-is the custom of collecting!o1es. Merc."' we killed'for the sake the sacrificer himself. ks formes of reciprocal collaboration and supplementation. t66_76.'?o Thus.to befor gg1.On the sacrifice Pelopsat Olympia low.. ZPE 5lr97ol' 146-5$' (r9rz). giving. n.g t*.oiqoe ratta xo.i' In any case. interpreted totemism as a ll.. the Bourtnros. FoundationDeposits in Ancient MesopotamiaQ968). Nilsson og55)+o+. underlying the practicaluse of bone-flutes.the statueis then set up on the remains. the exwhose power residesin its contrast to what went before' In the nourof periencl of killing one perceivgt t" sacredness life.Mohaue (t968).iff"i at excludedfrom the meal in [he sacrifice the Ara Maxima. Ea kills his father Apsu and buil"dshis temple rpo. On 2.O.48'r' immo16IG rgg = LS ro C :I8. example. On the z<ipoenoXuxega). zr3-zr' at ciai meal (cf. 734. Reuterski6ld. Henrichs and L' Koenen. pre_ ciselybecause his horribleend. .u" "ri-pt".. Alfdldi's review in pftoenix z4(g7o). Acta Archel.ra.dv ded6ore. slaughtered beneathit.'u iro"utir. The Manichaeanstransfer the principle of exchangeand assertionsof innocence otne oi iyd 1qtpwa oJ'6i ri)reoo ohe BBN. i^maoti oiqu facto hostiaque incensa ardentibus fossa in cooperta (Lachmann.destructionby re-construction. Ag.r -n-otlust 8+-8s).'rr the normal expression the death oi lhu kir. 8.91.1547.ltaoe oihe eis ail food.os pi.SACRIFICE.. FUNERARY RITUALS TRANSFORMATION OF RITUAL KILLING very ulate social interaction in distributing. et faaosquoque uinum . on the head of orpheus see III. uelaminibusque coronis coronabant. *"il--u. a favoritetheme in Greek art (Bromfar.38 r)z 6i Bavylsrore xtv pllXa xa). Historia n Q96z). On the sacrifice the Ara Maxima seeLatte i96o) Hal' Anl' On Pinarii see Cic. t6t'-6z See Hy' Merc TJo-))) likewise at-the Attic Gr. //A 7o (1966).J' P' 15 p. guilt is followed by reparation. Schmidt.'i"utty fact that eating U". animal sacrifice is rare.uitf"-f. .*" on the vrchavior from animal.are for this reasonwidesprs4cl.Dion' seeII'z beto r. 443-44. the fire is extinguished with wine and sea-water. Buresch. Volksglaube religiisir Briuci derSildslaaen )nd (r89o).?T"*1 rne murder and deificationof Caesar is historicallythe most significant .av.liT:1::l"temonial .g. 8Hy. r8Gromatici ed.41. and taking' The distinguish*. gr_g6: a rarnand a sheepare slaughtered in the sacrificial pit and burned.fruits. Volhard.962_n. ro34.On ru" IIT_lu"o". LSAM 54.mentairesde i:t aie religieuse E. bie vergottungCaesars Q.r""*. indealter redimebatur-this is not causa lato Herculi carnescartus evijust an expansion of Vergil's phrase perpetuiboois(Latte lt96ol zt7' z) but' rather' it is simultaneously to insure exchangeand continudence of a crrstomwhosefunitlon to ity.and wine.Qg6r)' 4z-.t83 dehocbotte 12 et ztenilebantur religionis. F. similarly.968). j.:-"" rrylos see III. evokedby rituals that excite "Since huriting society must support women and children' aba guilt. system Building-sacrifices. and similarly the Pinarii were . Dom rS4tYerg. et eos in fossis . even vegetables: x\i. I The shock felt in the act of killing is answeredlater by consolidaIts ttion. honey. Sit. a slain man is easily made a hero or even a god.ltsf_lr meule.r.'s sacrificialanrmal A would be slaughteredin a pit and burned together with offerings of incense. Klusemann."""e Otten (1958) rr9. r?Hock (r9o5)75-83. Aen. s.and cf. whatever is to endure and be effecthe abyss tive musipass through a sacrificewhich opens and reseals of annihilation. 2.

tremendum' and recognition of an absolute auihority' and impressivecombination augusturr'The most thrilling cinans.stifies and affirms life.I"j"llHTX.4j2.In human ritual.lllit:ii#l. Even mammalstear up tufts of grassor shred tree bark when performing the threatening rituals that both introduce and postpone a fight.t 6'ae"*rounding 1ll:tll:::::t::::::confront ll: the must ilil."a flowing bl.Substitutesigns thus used-whether consistingof natural or artific. Yalk.12) Ath. a 40 41. . .t-"t" or by a predeterminedprlos.76z. Bern [ry3]). conx'. 4 above.Mnemos.i""itm of tne new order and brings it to power' have used the folFollowing Rudolf Ott6. .thesacrifice Thus' the new lifestyle the Greekword 6oro0eis''s is {ollowed by o*opnagy its inception are almost complementarv: conscious Killing-t.3.s. Q. they are neither independent nor selfevident. and' shock of the deadly elementso." and instead of a deadly club. Bacih. If and the receiverare sufficiently familiar with one another.t. .12-T'rasr'dtp. 54.iod of abstln:":"" 1"9 -'f1-"jt:1-'. ist das oPf".-.owed have undergone the Tho'u who the sacrificebecomesan initiation' expressedin both exoneratedand consecrated'as unspeakableare at and."act" Sacrificetransforms us' By going through and taken consciously we reacha new ptur'.V.plrpit'6peio't6-q6astiva.. Rom. is inevitabfyf""""tt"a with it an the \wBarilpca.." '{'iir'""""*g"^:"tT n6. 1r9az1..Gynn. the complex of signs can be greatly reduced. Tillich.'.ialobjects.but are taken from a continuous tradition.-ih" ttri.can be carried out on an ivy plant. Holy again and again so that the ancestral tradition will become their own. or words-may be called syrzin bols a pregnant sense.96:) ry3-55.t"t' in sacrificialiitual: the of these and spiritual rapture of festive the bodily ii"* . on the Delphic toto' *inJ*"t" a similar contrastbetweenthe e88 presumably 6crcrilpsee ll.rlii.P. a safe and flexible narthex stalk can be used.os). th: . The wildest form of destruction. Cf. the biological and traditional roots should not be lost sight of in the more sublimated use of the concePt-see/ for instance." when opening ing frontierc o. the sender addressee.understoodby the The object serving as sign is exchangeable.. it makesus i"g..i..e.J.zgraa[ 1dp Evollotrois paxytxois zrcrfrerlt yuvaixes eihig Eri rou xnrdv 9 e povtaL xa i or ap arr ouo t. definition to life. Q.5..TRANSFORMATION SACRIFICE."s !ffi?n I l ..."'-wn"tt"""'"u newstepls Thus' when crosssicrifice' irrevocably..e..t*) o.1929"-"1.Otto. 7 z 6 ..Ji"ort.Pritchett oi'-7r.z below' 25Eur. r M' van der corrupt On dotos see i{arrison (r9zz) 5o4... .." BeiL z.theyo.. Alexander the Hdt obJects sea: 7. "OJu.. P.. when in competition with rival communications.tifications. 55.tpouct 1 21. the aggressive gesturecan becomeso important that its objectis unessential.there are t." will be sacrifice''o societv ther-e age grouP or on enteringinlxcl"sive .. t t .' t gtgt.DasHeiligelgtT. rMorris (:.63ra. but substitutesa sign that is familiar to and.'o The triumphant cries of the greylag gooseare directedtoward a purely imaginary interloper. hence.irr". symbolization-this occurs even in the insect world. On the other hand..:.19rois dplets rous Ex ritv yotpiav' ois xafio.t"o*s REG58 (rg+s)' H Jeanmaire' rr3-4o' Rec 64 i95t\.". .:""* Before the sacririce limits can grve new erectedas a sort of reparation' their . v pc v.r valuabre in i"lt::llll.. (1866).. In myth.thereafterG'Mensching'WesenundLlrsprungder (1954' 7a-22' Religionen nichtchristlichen Die grossen Religion: j965)' 6z: "GiPfelPunkt der Faszr 27See Weidkuhn.16o..the ends and the means of aggressionare exchangeable. 'This is not far removed from the basic meaning of oiptBo\ov (on which see also W.t"uj"oi*"f"1' 77.i".fr.ii.pictures.4r8.2. cries.'u students of religion oi th" Holy: terror' bliss' lowing concePtsto describethe experient" fasmysterium . Harp. SpiriTLorenz (1963) 99-ror..Aboie alt.elist ferung des Niichsten.e.. Aggressitr Ritus Siikularisietung itiit P ist die opGipfelpu"it'a"" tt"*"ndum ' ' ' nation . passinginto a new when assembly. ... but bound to the systemin which they function.They are not chosenarbitrarily..".o1<iuxar KlassikertexteYlz(rgo7)' cf Wilamowitz' Berliner rovpfirau paxyos itxXiltrl' 6c. Burkert [1968]' ..Cyrop. F o r t h e s p e c i a l i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e .the sign is exaggerated and heightened.l.u.t. i. Their richness of meaning coincideswith the complex effectsthey produce in 2' predeterminedinteractions.o"s sacrifices the sameend: 6tav eict{vat 1-t'6L' rDemosth.54' l. thought . Mtiri.Ritual is a pattern of action redirectedto serve for communication.. Although we can understand the persistence sacrificialritual of through its social function.Schol Aristoph Eccl rzS' Aeschines \uctv.. t'On the mock combatof the vapByxogripor Xen.r ais Xe [. "Symbolon.r i t u a l s f o r s p a r t a n s s e e T h u c5 ' 5 4 - ii.l8sis.. xadapotoviSchol' tnsee n.1 o .015"1 ro4n'25)' uei''a'lrcn' s'ltslil' rrz. that of tearing an object to pieces(nnapayp. HUNTING/ FUNERARY RITUALS OF RTTUAL KILLING the irreversible. too. 2oR.: . Symbol undWirklichkeit(1962). when a resourcefulmale offershis bride a white balloon or veil Every communicationis symbolic insteadof an edible wedding gift. In ritual aggression.. Schriftilber Frdmmigkeit n"t"uys' Theophtastos' (readingp""a i.*..a.Ill/ro by a totts"i'J"d through a sacrificeperformed 66-89. Ir it is ioll.ogalous8oitasre\eoo.6pano p"e a t.'?8 inasmuch as it does not use the real object it wants to communicate. des lahresbericht Stadl. lifestyle.n'47 below-There was Orphics (Mart' Cap' uttJ 'it"ul egi*wallowlng among the tabu (Plut. Arr' Anab' r'rr'5-7' to *uJ"'"'"t"". this by no means excludeschange as an explanation. see the thyrsosbecomes terrifying weapon: seeEur. . and this means that the terms of expressionare open to substitution.

'il?.e. its mastery of the environment.. Propylden-Weltgeschichte sFor Egypt see E. we find a transitional phase documentedat eatar Htiytik. see F.a".rii. and.t.ru'l . the many stepsof . Essai leschasses (t969\. along with its theatricality. and cf' Ebert.The power of the traditironar rituar to bind thus remained intact. the hard underpinning of reality was never questioned..' Thereafter.gets the proceedsof the sale. (r959'o). too.': SlG3rc25= LS r5r A z3-27. Weber'sKulturgeschichte Kultursoziologie been renderedobsolete.. the sarcophagus ro' sut Alexander.3r becamethe object of a of of "comedy of innocence.. Geschichte Fest (196o). as were his counterparts_in Babylonand Nineveh.n.thriiing depictionsof the ritual hunt of a band of leopard men. for sacrifice. eds.Science (to6z\. for of on see the animal parks (zrapd6eroor. to be offshoots of farming and city culture-see Mtiller-Karpe (1968) uo-zr. RE IX (r9r4) 558-fu+.Zeuner.. F.nn.2."" Lc. there are also words: prayers to the "stronger" powers and myths that tel of them. there is no archaeological with the theory of a matrilinealsystem(cf. In addition to the "action. lagddarstellungen der griechischen maines Frevert."u"ona. i.oooyears ago.r.zt-zz. Schauenburg. but purely a demonstrationof the ruler.Uberdielagd(1956).E.. especially rather. A of ilg Animars a. i.and Hestia. transmittedby human beings.z. R. C. Heraklts.On domestication see R. historic finds. however.cf.The term is. Moreover. trz 195-264.shortry thereaftet the pig appears.. The animal must.. and Alexa.. J.2.. Ucko and Dimbleby. Rtistow's Ortsbestimmung have (1915.r95o'z) als I Gegenwart (r95r) and A.-A of I ossl. rne rearity Lt-aea*.ch' V). W Dimand of bleby.W. Meissner. yEarlier cultural historiansthought that an era of nomadicshepherdsformed an intermediate stagebetween hunters and farmers. dangerous or even difficult.Domestication." th" gradual extinc_ tion of wild cattle in eatal Hriytik. the persian kings maintained animal parks for hunting.1 j:1r""": HistoruDomesttcated ni.Nomads seem. iotto.ilennirim by the coi. zz9. Through this emphasisthe sport remained pragmatic and serious.. the coffersof tne state. r. however.1. support for the position-still held by some. Miiller-Karpe (1968)ll..fotowed tn the seventh mi. zo-zt.now be removed from the everyday world.. and flowing blood is an unmitigated presence.of course. it must becomesacred. Ucko and G. E' Isaac. a familiar member of the househord."i!.even a father.4.15. P. Willfulness stands in the way of t'he impulse to imitate. Thus.t5-ry. ttsee l. it was retained even in advanced culCharacteristically... 164-77.human ritual must always have a strong underlying component of seriousness. in the Neolithic Revolution. d. Anab.the animal being set free and recaptured.L8 below.n. some 1o.DasiagdlicheBrauchtum generally.iiti. lcl !i ".r. 3z' lt remainsun op"n questionto what extent the rituar of human sacrifice had deveroped beforeanimal-sac. i." Der Alte Orient 13 z (tgtt).and this means that time and again there is a regression from symbolismto reality. The Domestication Exploitation Plantsand Animals(1969). controversial: see I (196r). G.8961.. FUNERARY RITUALS TRANSFORMATION OF RITUAL KILLING tual forcesthus find releasein a harmlessgame which heightens the senseof socialordering by meansof dramatization' Yet the theatricaliharacter of the ritual may becomeso obvious function. hunter.) Xen. cf.ifice' The evidencefor ritual sacriiice men in the palaeolithic of a8eis overwhelming: seeI.The ordestdomestic Y-tk: 3na animarsare-apart from the special caseof the ioe-eoats and sheep." dou. Domestication. For the reliefs of Assurbanipal see ANEP 626.3' Hence. HUNTING.l-. the invention of agriculture.L"su. Otto. E.s power io kill."but because the necessity food.]ll. aggression ward an animal quarry which was thereby raised to the status of a It personality. A:'nlhal. OrtegayGasset. "rp"iiully of i'he acceptance iradition becomeactive. /NES g (1950)... though not the .* thus..at. For Assyria/Persia B.:ir.'u"i.ur ubor"l $In this way' ceremonies bartering of and buying deveroped. Reatr. (Man Makes reaolution Himself[1936]. The NeolithicRevolution1r95g. We can even tru.T'1ry*: 42 43 . the owner preon sents-the sacrificiar bur for Zeus poriius "to tt.This all changedwhen mankind took its most important step.cf^J. K. Thus.i. of course. HeI\. ro. 249.etc.beginning. can fulfill its communicatoryfunction only if it avails itself of a pragmatismthat is unquestionablyreal.E. Childe coined the term Neolilftic S. Z. Mellaart (196) z6g..i. Orth. il. hunting was basically dispensable. 19 above. and P J.but this has been made dubious by prethe discoveryof Near EasternNeolithic sites.e. the bearerof the club.".'-ua in their footsteps. has recently been resurrected: see ln". als 'Assyrische see (1958)..t*is (Die Haustiere.1963'). perhaps ali the more intensebecause the reactionis now inspired uy a aomestic animal.a blood-relation.s rhe most important religioussymbol in this farming town where goat and sheephad long been domesticated was a pair of horns from ihe wild bull.ln this reder spect.it was no longer a question of catching one'sdinner.oryrechnorogy )27_52. Cole. Hornung.n" incenseand the music.the domestic animal is a possession which must be given away.. the outlines of a universal history such as A. Reedin Ucko and Dimbleby. hoiestication. betweenmen was redirectedtoIn the hunting ritual. and Likewise. vorgesch.whicliis." The pharaoh was celebratedas a lSee l. A.oiu.33-35 above.ui.The rapture attendant on eating gamein the sacrificialmeal is no lessreal now..SACRIFICE.z. V zrg) that the domestication of the cow occurred from u"o start for . forces that question gression.7. and wall paintings containclear. W Schmidt. Vasenmalerei in (r95r). ones were now used for sacrifice..A non-instinctiveritual. Pittioni. SB Heidelberg jagden.i"p tt ut followed: in place of the dwindring bandi of wild animars.g". Hence the adornmentand the procession.. as a ritual status symbol. cos. tures. in addi- Dimbleby.. was more popular as a lion-killer than as thetamer of the bull..l7.. In groups shaped by ughere that it imperils its necessary in the younger generation.z7 above. sometimes. usually arguedin connection DasMutterrecht[r955])-that the cultivation of bulbous plants must have preceded grain-growing. v. Aymard.'e.. the most prestigiousquarry was the beastof prey.

a sacred order is presumed and confirmed in this critical situation. the harvest is celebrated in a hunting festival and in sacrifice. Spanakis. too. Here. p. for grinding the grain and pressingthe wine could take the placeof tearing up an animal in the hunt or sacrifice. and-tearing apart. thereafter GB VII/VIII).cou1se.. FGrHist ro1 F 5. Jensen. {For sacred circular structures functioning as granaries ever since Arpachija see MrillerKarpe (1968) 336.'D"-a. 36o_6r).iption ani Anatysi.SACRIFICE. Die Korndiimonen 1fi681.phot. the individual's desire for immediate profit could be controlled by the sacred tradition of the hunting ritual. fr. nei 1969). G Jung and k. a very stable socio-religious structure was established.Iraklion (n.tgo. 3 {3Polynesian myths. zz. below. the ritual can give form only to death and destruction. G. p. The ritual pattern was so strong and inflexible that a festival meal without the preliminary horror of death would have been no festival at all. cutting or breaking must still precedeeating. which established the old order in a new context: renunciation and abstinence for the sake of long-range success. there is now also renunciation and gratification. A. "See IV and V below.d. a plow. rr:24). 16 above. aggresAt "Shepherds today in Crete will dedicate one of their animals to the village saint. t'2utrrnus. u ri. But of the myth is not enough. Most importantly.-u. Cf. Einfiihrung in das wesen !!'!:!i. 4r7). half-buried depositories of wealth. Perip. Sam. for the most gruesometales of living creaturestorn apart and of cannibalismare presentedin conjunction with the achievements civilized life. r3j-go. death gives way a new order of life.ts.125. an at Attic wedding. new shoots toward the light. Ker6nvi.ro u pestle were all used forchopping. the underground r}locupds at Messene: Plut.:11 Ui"t. the groom cuts (xdry'ar) sesame a cake(Aristoph. The sacrificiarritual's power to bind i.A. Egyptianized in the story of Rhampsinit's treasure house. could the seedgrow and the fruit ripen. breaking ::lli:':"d. cutting.nr luit as slaughtering precedesthe eating of meat.3 (following Polybius).. No less important was the expanded symbolism brought about by the newfound sources of food from farming_barley. aGuide toTrauel. with the integration of animal-sacrifice into agricultural society. who developed the idea of the "Vegetationsdimon.In Greece. especialry myth of Hainuwelefrom west-ceram. it was said.. ailoapou).' taking/praying/breaking(I Cor.:ro*9"^!r94t). This occurs first of all in the mvtf. In agriculture.nrCivilized rife endures only by giving a ritual form to the brute fbrce that still lurks in men. the victims were animal. The farmer had to be just as reliable. it was no mean task to overcome the inclination to eat the seed grain rather than throw it on the ground in the mere hope that something would grow.to cultic cannibalism. Thus. HUNTING. z. farming implements assumedthe characrerof weapons. rzr) deals with such a Bqaaupog which can be opened only "secretly. ro9 Allen. followed by I.Kuttir :':. 19. Crete.The vine that has been pruned will bear all the more fruit." accompanied by sacrifice.5o. History and Archeology. After all.3'Gathering and storing at the sacred place now took on a new reality. Consequently.) z9r. and farsighted as the hunter. anportioningpresupposes division. Blood-sacrifice must be made at the harvest festival and at-thepreparationsfor it. sion had to look for new_objects. abouta being the that was killed and out'of which grew edible plu. one oreadrs of the most common sacrificial ceremonies (ANEI y5_5r. C.. Dema:Des.74.l-4 above). pax g6gwith schol.The sacrificial rites are a given: no matter how great the hopes for increase and harvest are. Indeed. the grain that was buried in the earth sends u. wheat. The fact that it is precisely the "Vegetationsdimon" who is killed time and again in the ritual has been explained in various ways: the drowning is weather-magic for rain (1fi751 zr4. Onthe confar_ reatioseeV. The myth of Trophonios and Agamedes (Telegony. Here the savagerybeneaththe seeminglycivilized exterioris exorcized. Das relipi1se Weltbildeinerfri)hen Kultur eg4g) = Die getitete Gottheit. selling it by auction on the Saint's Day to give the proceeds to the saintt church": S.r!.bnly in thii way. nqtnuuele (tgld." are basic. in hunting ritual. n.Li*y 39.na Anim Cutture e966).und Feldkulte j8751771. the fruit of the vine-and added to the themes of ritual killing. Elementi culturepredi cereali miti e riti Greci(Rome. which was to survive many thousands of years.is iar back as we can see. FUNERARY RITUALS TRANSFORMATION OF RITUAL KILLING tion to the old fundamental ambivalence of life and death in the sacrifice. and weddings are celebrated cutting up cake or by bread. 61-n9. 9ro) and divides it up (Men. Wald. But in the tropics.. the very regions that had more favorableclimates. Cutting the wheat could thus-become a symbolic substitute" castration.r. The notion that this represents pre-agricultural a 44 45 . the planters regressedto relular human sacrifice.oo the same time. -hirassi. those mysterious. Hdt."served on this level as well. In any case.::r::!'yhen . In particular.r' We have already shown how. Charax.the victory of life can bE felt with to even greaterimmediacy. The symbolisir courd easilyLecome detached were it not for a counterforceguiding it back to the frightening reality. s*ee Bretich.ti"." made a greatimpression: . : Men. and it is preciselythe latteract that is a i"o!. the immolation is a purification (6o7-6o8). the burying is intended for sowing and germination (4r9-zr). (ry66). enduring."SMSR 3r e96o). 3eThe researches of Wilhelm Mannhardt (Roggenwolf und Roggenhund 11865l. E. As applied to ancientmyths and riiuals. and with it a new order. the whole process stimulates the annual cycle of the death and rebirth of vegetation. Contracts are r"ul"d with libations of wine (trrovDal). and cf. Those who sacrifice a goat on the island of Leuke must deposit the buying price in the temple of Achilles: Arr. Among the Hittites.o1Uor. Philop. Even more than before.plowing and sowing could be seenas preliminary sacrificialrenunciations. the seed grain could not be touched as long as it was stored in sacred granaries. in this case the rite cannot be derived from any attested or hypothetical mythology (l.

1"" onq among E.there is a resurrection.Male societyfinds stabiiity in confronting death. r.s History. Miinchen 3:.. a show. n.-Geistesgeschbhte FriihzeitI (196o). Kallias the Daduchos claimed that ii was v6p"os . Po1ph. 46 47 .Don. on Eleusissee Lity 3t. Schurtz. went into a house of the mysteriesunconsecrated. according to the "law of Romulus. as fir backas we can traceit. J.t4. 5i}_7r. of The gruesome "evil" at work in the ritual fulfills a function. rN. The contrast between the sexeswas now played up-Miinnerbund versus female power-the more so becausewomen now shouldered the main burden.on the distancingof modern historians "::!r:* nom I hucydidesseeA. the death penalty was not so much aimed at profane murder_ ers as at those who entered an "untouchable" ru".. RE Suppl. Riimisches (r8SS).:. {H.6. such modesof behaviorare so bound up with the governmental systems and values of our society that even today. HUNTING/ FUNERARY RITUALS TRANSFORMATION OF RITUAL KILLING Thus.i1 ixenlpnv y.3. ::::lg" de. Likewise. among others. or athletes. Latte.6a5. still final emancipationfrom war lies far in the future.la.tudis in Historiographv <tioor. 2. Webster. r Buecheler. laid a branctr upon or the wrong altar..a sacrificialanimal is substituted at the last minute. Ever sinceThucydides. Hal. Geschichte Fest als (rgb6).compulsive character of this behavior mechanism that confronts us more clearly today than ever before. however. rc. Greek yoyjlt appear as hunters. smith (r8ee) 12'2_2:. it was worked out within the society itself. and A' Guerre. also the executioner'smask.. a self-portrayaland serfaffirmation of male society. Andoc. Altersklassen Miinnerbunde und Qgoz). Today there ire an enorn11be1 of sociologicaland psychological studies or. make them predictable.fr.But it is preciselythe irrationar. K. In ancient times.38. when modern military technologyhas made -at so distant that its absurdity is patent.l (tgzz).257. r. supporting the family according to the new agricultural method. Richardson.4..i spui." Abh.The emphasismay well have varied accordingto the socialreality.3." in s. historians have tried to understandthe_necessity these events and.a the center was a secretsacrifice.guerre Glce ancienne en (r96g). on the cultic aspe*s see F.and warrior.PrimitiaeSeoet Societies (r9o8). Eliade. the individual experiencesin himself how." ris Biy. rrz-26. the bloodshedand the refined methods of torture are very real and guaranteethe seriousness the ritual. the secretsociety makes the initiand himself into a victim. Geheimkulte j96t). E. 299_3zrirr'(isrri. life rises up from the peril of death. BGall. Vll 1599-1619. sacrifice. for instance. r. V. For this to reasonthe death penalty becamethe strongestexpression governof mental power.rro-16.Stat. The pharaoh and Heraklescould be lord of the hunt.SACRIFICE.54.on the Druids. To some extent. when it is beginning to be the source of discord rather than of solidarity.7. civilization cameto dernand absolute seriousness-one could no longer pretend kill men.or mask.as becomesfocusedon this man and he is forthThe group's aggression with killed-symbolically.and if the aggression At there did not suffice.e..::::::^r:!:q:the Aztecssee {.a toi xataaBouiou Ac6s. Petron. Amira. ed. zo9-27. However. war. Schol. Although the male societies that had been superimposedon the family structure lost their ostensiblefunction when the hunt was abanamong planters as secret. z. tion at a public festival correspondedto a sacrificialritual. on its sacrificiatcharacter seeTh.Ontreece. K. Livy ro. been supersededthrough the excavationsatJericho andJarmo: see n.A farmer.on Massalia. sOn the ancient evidence seeK.9oo-9o+. Eissler. Mommsen. 34 above. and V r be.low. V. ARW1o (ry).n. J. as has often been shown. ARW zo (r9-zt).7 below. the conflict between the generations became highly dramatized in the initiation rituals. the criminal'sexecustagehas. war is rituar. see p Vernant. Peuckert.n. Hornung.ft and. to preserve a social structure over the course of generations. cf. (t921/zl zz4_44. pl. 9r8.r. 452.. For the use of criminals in sacrificial ritual on Leukas. warriors. A traitor dies.arprcs.and war were sym_ bolically interchangeable. Indeed. in defying it through a display of readinessto aie. on grave reliefs. B. th" probl"* of war: for inlous stance. Momigliano.Once again.47 tabu almost becamean excuseto find a victim The for releasingthe sacredimpulsesof aggression.9admouebatur altaribus magis ut oictimnquamut sacriparticeps the initiation into the legiolinteataof the Samnites. see Strabo rc p.Les guerres (r95t). . On at initiation rites generally seeM. eOn the. RE Suppl. that of (?) drawings i.agonie curtineili Gicio orroiri(gst1. this too was still a game. on Rhodes (Kronia).v_ orlpiots. Yll t6r4-:.the of the elder generationon the younger. v. L. i. i."some observationson tlie causesof war in Anci€nt Historiography. Frobenius(r9o3)attemptedcould hardly be ac'palaeolithic comPlished today. aggression is once again directed toward human beings. if possiof ble.e. Birth and Rebirth(1958). There are clear elementsof a comedy of innocencein the "last meal" before an execution and in the expectationof goodwill."d precinct.Psyche (t96g).. Schwenn. R./bsf . der 54.Brelich. The of Bouthour.793.. seeF Cornelius. L.45 below). With the progressivegrowth of consciousness. i.16 below. sA "world-History of war" such as L. and in the ecstasyof survival. There is another. stated zz that war is . Ant. sg R. '5Aristoph. Lykaion precinctseeII. after life had been endangered. Armsandrnsecurity: causes war ()96"J). Nub.a rebirth. far more serious. retvdyat (cf. For the Hebrew term to conse. for an opposing view Stralrecht see Latte.H. doned. For the ancient y9tlq1 hunting. lord of the sacrifice. H<ifler 0%4. Theb.and cf.G. Weiser-Aall.. Gu€pin (1963)84. way to divert aggressionto_ ward the outside world: by integrating large groups of m"e"n a comin mon fighting spirit. 6. they were reestablished societies. of course. is-au . Deprived of its hunting quarry. ceremoniat on war in Esypt :. "Die germanischenTodesstra fen.to. on the earliest evidence. is the history of conquestsand wars. Caes.

34.g). There was sacrifice before setting off. paideuma ll1 ":h*l 4 (r95o). almost as important as the battle itself. Nevertheless we can obierve that essential elements of funerary ritual derive from the ritual of hunting and sacrificing. Funernry It is a peculiarity of the human race that it caresfor its dead. 4z 4. 48 49 . was also the age of hunting. whereas the nomadic animal breeder. on the particularly complex problem of how belief and ritual are related in runerary custom see R. For war. FUNERARY RITUALS FUNERARY RITUAL would put more weight on sacrificial ritual. On the Delphic oracle for king Philip see Parke and Wormell (1956) #266 : Diod. transcendent realm.r*u. usrng and the specialtreatmentof the skull. dead bodies are eaten by icaveng". 78.sometimeseven teSee below. Baumann.. Amongihe Greeks.etc.Archiu vorkskunde (a946).On decorationseeHdt. Homo sapiens is also homo necans and homo sepeliens. to interpret it as a first move toward a metaphysical.Ents'tehung und sinn der Trauersitten. H". Paus. The pavianes do not acknowledgedeath: seeG. $ 9a-7og. "see B' M. has this function above all: it must integrate the young into the patriotic community. 4. The Life after Death in oceaniaand the Malay Archipelago (1925). a military expedition was Prepared and ended by sacrificiil ritual. of course. a tropaion." It almost seems as though the aim of war is to gather dead warriors. no lessremarkableis the similar bone-interment.ri i. enduring witness. iust as the Aztecs waged war in order to take prisoners to use as sacrificial victims.A.SACRIFICE. For Gree_ce Rohde (1898)z16-58. the Palaeolithic era.r". inasmuch as the necessary functions deal with hun"ting rather than with the death of a member. burials have been among the most important finds from prehistory. w Griiberkunde (1958). and one can hardly hope to discover the origins of each detail. and it embodies the duty of the following generation. 324_84. Behind every burial there is a funerary ritual. 218f.obid man come to understand death through the paradox of killing?' one's own death always seems far $966) zz9 speaks of a "metaphysischen Dimension.Oslo (196). each influencing tie other.Nilsson (.aeThe erected and consecrated monument is what endures. they testify to the proera. on .:5"rpe 167.M.' It is somewhat more certain that we are dealing with a h. was set uP on the battlefield as a consecrated. Vermeule o97il ro9. for it left an enduring "monument. t'. Pind. Afterward. would become a conquering warrior.. in which burial evolved. on an adolescentorangutan.s . The burial. Thus. is simply called Epyov. Epyov ll.. wiut. Schnaufer. who concludesthat the two coexistlargely without being related. Devereux. is also of fundamental importance. zoo. F.47o. J. (1968) cremation. and by Hecate in a vase-painting. r6. It makes little difference whether one says that the quarry is treated like a dead man or whether a dead man is treated like thl sacrificial quarry. Hence.. As a rule. fr. Chudzinski. pini. action which may vary from culture to culture but "within a single community proceeds according to the same scheme with great constancy over many generations.. Frevert." the fantasies of how the dead are eaten in the underworld. in general. DasjagdlkheBrauchtum eg69. wary of slaughtering his proud possessions. Batsdy . Ceschichte.*.!.for For instance. Tod und rotenkultus denaltenGriechen bei (rq.an prehistory seeMaringer (1956)passim. Anogoil.4c. "Totenkult. u:n cremation see n' 17below. necessary yet controlled because it is ritual. '?w1 here give only a brief indication of the enormous complex of funerary rites.inst. the metaphorof sacrifice appliedto war see. the iuaentus must fight. Grabund Jenseits dronikos. on the cgayta I. (1968) 348_7r." in Archeologia Homefica (1968).". see Stengel (r9ro) 9z-roz. Girard (1972) 152-55.but that ritual will sooner influence belief than vice . Friihgriechischer Totenglaube (rgZo). Beitriige'zii iinoische. the ritual of hunting and sacrificing accompanied the funerary ritual from the start.'? However.. Galdikas." schweiz.SSS)iZ+-SS. Along with the use of fire and tools. complex.o\.r.On human sacrifice AztecsseeHornung. Casabona j966) r8o-93. This was followed by the solemn burial of the dead. National Geographic iggo). g5. Plut. then adornment and crowning with wreaths before battle-all as if it were a festival. 2''8'z.on (19tto)1o2 stressesthat in the wild.2o8-zo9.6. Modern hunters have the "great Halili" sounded at thelurial Ji a hunter as at the end of a hunt: w.Symb.8. a monument. a privilege the victor could not deny his defeated enemy."^y-"]1". Seealso H.starting in the early Palaeolithic Frequentattemptshavebeen made to describethe extraordinaryspiritual and intellectual step underlying this process. by Eurynome in paus. 2. In prehistory and ethnology it generally holds true that deid men and dead animals are treated alike:3 both rituals basically deal with death.7 7. A slaughtered victim introduced the subsequent deadly action which. [.9t.g32.r98. see A. 3Meuli (r967) r6o on tree-burial.by which man becameman. ry7 'Mtiller-Karpe Ritual 6. on burial seeThuc. The senatusresolves.. (r9zo) 4z-33. 76. HUNTING. the Greeks' cnou\ai were for a period of thirty years at most.43. in Homer. Moss. Pritchett (1979) among the 83-9o.7.r. Mriller-Karpe eg66) i9_42. Meuli. cess. was far more lasting in its consequences. Both rituals are. Each generation has the right and the obligation to have its war.

#465-7o. was staring off into spacewith a funny look that I had never seen before.ltavres. however. There is a. lnternat. This sense of loss could.J The mo'st widespread element in funerals-so obvious it may seemhardly worth mentioning-is the role playedby eating.periodof preparation.Solozzr. 6uata. manifest itself just as well through fasting.62-11. funerary meal for patroklosshows very clearly that although Thu feasting follows death." death itself becomesan act of the will. sheep.r' There wa_s thought of burning or burying such a iow whore. so too in Athens it was customary to eat at the grave. 8Allegedlythe customamong the Massagetai. for no the meat belonged to the living. Fossey. z4. many cows. at the same time also signals a pleasing m"ui fo. . Hdt.National Geographic (r98r).. rptaxas. people met for the festivemeal of the rpha. at Archanes(Crete). who drowned his younger foster-sister.. that in an environment of grief. in a form of oral regression. the funerary meal.a . r59 6ll. .IHS fl6(t966).SACRIFICE/ HUNTING/ FUNERARY RITUALS FUNERARY RITUAL off and uncertain. at. oi rpotrfixouteg qtrq. 5o8-5r2. .a 6i ylavres d"y6wartfieiot On the agon seen. fluttering.Martina. it was a man_whom each parhcrpant . t. 5o 57 .'ry9. performing rituals of obsequiousnessto his god." On intraspecifickilling with gorillas."Wdrter z (tgro).nvouv iri rQ dtro$avowt. the death must be repeatedimmediately b"e_ fore the feast. After some time .t9rfi rpnxocrfi yup iptpS .Ges.0 The corpse hardly be placedmore emphaticallyat the centerof a bloody act co-uld which.n.lrirg.vreg.blood pou-r:g from the cups flowed all around the dead man.@oMyrmidons. Sugito . For eatingat the tomb in Geometrictimes see 3. Schiirer. seeD.rc j9zg. Forailtaxovpta see ILz below. pain. "Das Grabals Ttsch. while the deid man . Bekk. through ritual killing. Werke 9 Q94o).A.29. in front of him . .s will to live. Freud. Ethnographie (g9g).Then. 2Jr-3i.3o9. it is the ritual constraint that causesNiobe to eat after ten days: Il. ecstaticbehavior. But. and pigs were slaughteredand". when another dies.8or 8o+. he raised both arms over his head and brought them down.' Sugito.tookhis fill'.5. developed the idea of the ambivalencebetween love and aggressionin relationship to the dead man. 7o. z7g_79 zo trPlu-t.."ct.Achilles permits his companburial. After the mourners circled the corpsethree times while crying out in grief and swearingvengeance.in_the of buffalo-in earlier times. . M. Solone('96g).Od.and cf.pox\auaavtes rp6troviaerra 6i Oarrouct xataxat_ oc. cf.Archiaf .'3The location in which the action takes place remains sacred forever after-distinguished by a monument as the realm of the extraordinary-whereaJat home. After the burial. Because death beconies killing. standing on two legs. 66-88 : Ges. 268. ..:::tTq trao to stab with a spear: F.in whicir the corpse lies in stateand is washed and adornedl a procession marks the transition from indoors to out. tsA somewhat different. Starting here. knew perfectly well that Doe was dead. Schr. t7S. though no resscharacteristic. 24. 23 below. 66-88.Cregory of Nazianzusrailsagainsteatingand drinking in churchesat the tombs of the martyrs: AP 8. He studiously avoided looking into Doe's direction.and a hearty meal. Thus..t ipas zrpottBelotrov vexpdv xc. 23. Grabowsky. goats.but it is more often the real and festive meal of the living "in honor of" the dead that is of primary importance.8): rpeis p"iu i11. of the blood. (5..solon was the first to forbid that cows be slaug'htered there. . z H.his placecould in turn be taken by the sacrificialanimal. und Sachen J. Totemund Tabu. oauehflovres xowfi iiei. ". .r4.6above. At first the necessary combination of death and eating appearedonly in the hunt. bloodshed.z-4. even while mourning the death of Patroklos. the pleasureof the festive meal will thrive.::^out. which confirms the survivor. he slowly approached. The most striking resemblances between hunting and funerary customscan be seen in the treatmentof the bones. Der Toteikult der NgadjuDajakin Sijd_Borneo | (1966).zes r) ritrI<rrs xpi. .166-69. and tears. the ordinary order is restored.8The ritualization of hunting behavior made possiblea twofold transferral:the dead could take the place of the quarry-a substitute more serious than what it replaces-but in the subsequent feast. The idea that the dead delight in blood obviously emanates from_the reality of the r'rual: the pattern of hunting calls for the bloody "act" at the placeof death. . TBesides this there is the psychological explanationthat the senseof loss is compensated for. great funerary festival of the Dajak on Borneo (Tiwah) is l'Jn:. The sacrificialanalogiesextend to the actions that precedeand follow as well. 79-rh."oThis unabashed statement ions to "feastthe heart-pleasing refers to behavior that is offensiveto anyone concernedmerely with the dead individual. however.i'e'. zo. sequenceis noted by Herodotus Thracians. . the frightening confrontation with death and the pleasurableshock of survival leave a deep impression. Murko.'This is not to say that cannibalismwas the earliestform of honoring the dead.i rrcrvroiacg<ith" :::lq Sctmes iepitq eiooyeovtol r. xqi roino xafli|pa iraleiro. namely. by eating. t72. . a killer. Ethnology and religiousstudieshave dwelt mainly on attempts to feed the dead the bizarre and more or less unsuccessful themselves. Dissoi see Ingoi 2.Tlie funeral cereFor funerary sacrificealready in the Moust6rien see Miilrer-Karpe(1966) \tl' n 4. He had killed her. Boardman.Doe: "Sugito . . see Archneology (196).zt6. iutaiota: An. flikel a shaman . and the participant. For this very reasonit can be overcome through the festive meal. eS.For horse-sacrifice and bull-sacrifice the royal tomb in.andcf. yet has not been expunged to this day. the ritual meal functioned as a bond within the community. This is then foliowed by wild. .. subject to performanceand repetition.

H d t .which servedas an urn: tion of sacrificial ritual into that of the plant realm.ARWzz (r923t24. 239-40. "Zergliedernund Zusammenf rigen. Troy VI. The fire that burns the corpse is described as a beast of prey. ro6_ro8. Totenklage Totenlob und (rS68. FGrHist ll. This act is at once a joining together and a foundation. Hermann. Od. 154. as in the Latin word condere. The large part that aggression plays in these rites is evident.for instance. for instance. Hurrians. Bones(unburnt) had been depositedin clay vessels ?Z Gg$\. The most sacred duty for the next-of-kin is to gather the bones (6cro). Karl Meuli demonstrated the extent and inner necessity of the connection between funerals and competitive contests:23 remains to say that an agon can accompany not only a it BSH 8oz. . 5 g . 52 53 . ro F ro = Schol."" Achilles slaughters countless sacrificial animals.burning the body of the dead Argeios so as to be atr. 4.arry "him" back to his father: see Il. like a Bukranion. bodies were set out for scavenging birds.z' It is an inevitable group reflex to offer to protect an endangered member against a hostile force by means of aggressive threats. for example." '' The remains are then united forever in an urn. Hdt. In Qatal Htiyuk. 8t . 4. r . rsA.Cf.S. The produce gathered by the farmer replaces the hunter. de Martino. MtillerQ956) 2)7-34.The skulls from pre-ceramic Karpe (1966) Jerichothat 16 havebeen formed into portraitsare particularlyimpressive: Arch.65-66.36-45. 4 . U. head and thighbones are buried separately at Ugarit. z4-71-75. Once again. a plow ox was sacrificed while the king was invoked: "What you have become. 6 ." lt was a widespread custom during the Neolithic to sever the head and preserve it in a sanctuary.Brandbestattung Seelenglaube und bg6o). Antike 77 \7947). . scratching the face and beating the breast. pl. Antike ry eg4r). aipects of funerary ritual that cannot be fne. Hik.t81. 56-8r.A IL t.1. when faced with the fact of death. Schnaufer. 193-92." Numen1 $956). rzz-28. we find the wine jar of Dionysos serving as an urn. alreadyat Neolithic Lerna:seeMi. the Dionysiac'. preserved only the masks of the ancestors. Unbounded rage can be vented in a life-affirming form through -. the roots of the mummification ritual are much the same.s quarry. "tearing apart" the dead man with "a furious jaw. 220-22. death is mastered when the mourner becomes a killer. of course. as among the Parsees.iller-Karpe (196g) 165.. R. and twelve Trojans at the bier of patroklos. tearing one's clothes and hair. thus. irY:. r8g-zog. Cho.Schuteiz.. Desborough. AIA 5z (t948).The Inst Mycenaeans j964')).tel Totenbrauch. For this reason there is often no clear-cut distinction between merely destructive sacrifice and the sacrifice of the funerary meal (cf.-. 24.Ursprung_fer plympischen Spiele. often seek some external substitute as the butt of their rage: hence those funerary sacrifices that are and intend to be merely destructive. It is then all the more characteristic that these elements have frequently been taken up in the sacrificial ritual. l8+. then defiling oneself. 7. are. $ 1O1en (1958)g. ts'Der. btoody sacrifice the interOn at ment_and"opening of the mouth" in Egypt.f .l11ondo antico(Turin. Accordingto Andron of Halikarnassos. 325. With no enemy nea. These are collected and solemnly deposited' The rhythm of the hunting ritual is. (1968)165-66. 'Oorta '8Lanrrew ll. this reflex aggression strikes out into a vacuum and hence returns in upon itself. Schlenther. 166-67. p. Bossert.r 926). cf. With the development of artisan skills. Beitriige. see A. Der griechische ^! Kampfsp. Volkskunde (ry46). Above all. Wiedemann. Reiner. 'oE..'nOften a corpse was intentionally torn aPart. the hand raised to strike comes down upon one's own headJ Men. On puaivecfio. and ashes. only to be put back together again. E. repeated: death/tearing apartl restoration. after which the bones were carefully deposited in household shrines at the feet of the Great Goddess.3J4-j5 (contradicted Schol. n' 13).d loc.ouv$eieEur. d'A..fypf rrabUttationsschrif t Basel. ossalegere) from the ashes of the pyre. Cremationis found among Their Successors the Hittites.caiveo9at-smearing one's face. 4. Orientforsch.orig.34.71.166-76.96. Miiller-Karpe Q968) 349.l r . Altsyrien tTFor post-Mycenaeancremation in Creece. even cremation" was used for the avowed purpose of obtaining the bones quickly.aXepa trriTerz alreadyin Tva$osAesch. z aOn destructiverage in funerary customsseeMeuli (1946)zot-zo7. four horses. it became possible to substitute a symbol for the skull: the Roman lararium. r t u ' r z r S = L SS Z . Ugarit see H. 7z-86. Th. 1958). (rg5r). 'eOd. 78-86. HUNTING. z1. When. Die rituelleTotenklage Griechen der (r91g).'u Until modern times.On skull-burial at Archanes (Crete) see ArchaeolFor ogy zo (t967) 276-77. githering bones acquires new meaning. nine dogs.r see. through an agon. When a Hittite king died. V. thus. rrz6. Archiuf . rg-zr. 'oOn burying the skull see Maringer 67-7o.2. Heraklesat Troy was the first to use cremation.ronze-crater from Derveni. etc. see (rgS).the law at iulis (Keos). by the second millennium: see Otten bgSB)S. Mylonas. fighting. XVI-XX.239. this too shall become.oyeiv.). ll. im Totentanz. Among the Greeks and Romans. In Egypt. z5z. as early as Homert description of the death of Achilles.Totenglaube.Pini.5z. FUNERARY RITUALS FUNERARY RITUAL mony often centers not so much on the corpse as on the bones from individual limbs. Morte e piantorituale n. in Thuc..on nr. of course. see Mtiller-Karpe (1968) 15r. and G. 58-62. strewing one's head with clay. and cf.'o it is merely the transforma"Melfaart Q967)z4r-45. dirt.SACRIFICE.26 on the Issedonians." traced to the hunt. ruling houses of Europe used to bury certain parts of their dead in different sacred places. lamentallsnro-\^/ggping and wailing.nvpdsp.

dangerous. human culture needs continuity: to be able to go on. even water is a precious commodity and henceplayed a part in somelibations.t d.26 ' .then the restrained attitude of prayer. for additional evidence see Stengel (tgro) 178-86. Perc. and finally the ecstaticcry (ritrolu74) at the moment by No of the libation."rii. obiections already in Nilsson Qfi) 44-:^4.or at least pretend to dtso. Usenet the first to collect the ancient evidence for ritual combat (ARW 7 lrgoal. one can prevent grasping. r9z. 3.. and kingJ have the most magnificent funerals.Apollod. greedy.the Corinthians of the Megarians. 297-1a3 : K.an unforgettablepoeticalimage. The Greek agon of historical times was a sacrificialfestival.Schol. Ehelolf. In Rome. plat. Similarly.Like the sacrificial ritual.2o." lL 9.. Studienzum altitalischen altrdmischen (r97o). by humbling himself in spite '?aOn Olympia see II. for thatr matler. "Giesse. u Homer ll.u rwa zrp<is'A)refciv6 pou ixXvfi 6v.tr. thir way. was followed by a ritual batthe ancientslcrifice of the October-Horse would pretend to tle betweentwo groups. FUNERARY RITUALS FUNERARY RITUAL I i deposition ceremony for human bones but animal sacrificeas well. the warriors' accumulated made them willing to suffer for uum. Indeed. on the Isthmia seeIII.By keeping a space "_pry0 artificially.7o-7t. Myrmidone. hedisplays his wearthor at reasthis freedom.Thus.'u energy struck into a vacquarry was killed. who correctly compares the Platanistas-fightof the Spartan ephebes (4o6(Paus. There would have been a procession.1to-t7)occursinthe context of a sacrifice.the Xindika. Scholz. By playing out the breakdown of the socialor_ der.f hi:needs. the spartans demanded it of the Messenians. FGrHist 4zr F t. the preciouscommodities of a society familiar with dearth and hunger.'n Myth applies the same pattern to the hunt. the social significanceof renunciation rituar and..3. Baudy (r98oj rasf.By renouncing personalprofit.pind.Schr.ruleis characteristicatty expectedtheir vassalgto participatein funerals as a sign of royalty. moreover. 4o7). Ges.Ges.r" individuals .the lon-gperiod of time he spendsin the irocess of learning. Schmidt.IV [r9r3]. similarly. This willingness is primarily shown by offering food in the form of libations.11966l.ug[.4 Dehl = Prato.4-4cf. zz-163. HUNTING.oil.s ancestors' Thus. funerary rit_ lllT:r. A swing of t"he pendulum transformed symbolic parricide into an obliga-tionto worship one.Among the Greeks." fEven more prominent in funerary ritual than in sacrifice is the willingness to assumeand recognizea pattern of renunciation after . 54 55 . In southern regions. man can uplift himself. in which the catastropheof death becameespecially disturbing and.And the v-eryelementsthat funerals took over from hunting and sacrificialritual were the ones able to mend the rift.Milk. however. bAesch. Man.14. Lesky. that very or_ der can be gotten under control. Schr.z below. and. among some peoples alllrr :111"_. Seealso Lucr. upon which new ljl'q-KS are always thrown: see H.in"al repeated ual can be through funerary sa&ifice.and a pile of stones. will grow until it becomesa pyramid.Werke OS6o). On the Xandika see Nilsson (r9o7) 4c.which.their bad conscience their "action.. esp. from clashing.-funeraryritual altogether.8-ro). + B.A. t6g-ss. jl 5. by comparison. (r9eo)ro3-ro5. H.thisway in the Gedrosian desertwhen he emptied Ithe linto the sanda helmetfilted with water. too." Gottfried Benn.becausedeath is not perceivLdas an ending. kg.ll]l"iot 7.:". and wine. z1. :7jb. den funkelnden Wein ins Land.269-7o. celebrationinto an eruption of aggression followed by reparation. were poured away irretrievably. rhe fi6usure of inheriting has to be masked and at least part of the dead man.s neoteny. aboveall between son and father. forged a new relationship betweenyoung and old. rorov yeviciat rt&tvtv ixeivo td ou* ^ the Kabylai. . on the fight for the head see Festus r9o L. F ruppias of Erythrai. ' di<tre eixtT. libation would have occurred outside the confines of everyday reality." The artfully shapedlibation vesselsstressthe grandeur of the proceedings.il"ity etsepale.8. raising it to in tragic seriousness the story of the war between the Aetolians and Here.which also occurredin connectionwith a dog-sacrifice r"For the head and the tufted hide of the boar. 149 ff. Nem. SBBerlinlrg:5l.4J4 f .. The mock-battle among the Hittites (H. Now. U. 1ood.r" Funerary ritual alone may almost be enough to confirm and in_l in the community. the moriument left by collective stoning. such actionspreservethe basicstructure of society. FGrHist327 rg.zr8-zo. was not discussedby the editor.r55b = Demon.SACRIFICE.2" Here.7 belowi on the October-Horsesee und.'0 a funeral is dependenton circumstance But and chance. I p.548. t. Baumann. requires repetition and regularity. W. $5'47)' saw in it a fight between Winter and Summer. 6.is clear. Cho.s possessions property renounced. there h"as be to an authority-recognized through the course Jf generations. even in the easily neutralizedact of self-defilement. chiefs. honey.'z5 other act of destructioncan be expressed gestures so noble and sublime:Achilles pouring wine for his dead friend Patroklos. a great hunter is buried beneath a pile of rocks.cf . Casabona Qg66)4r-97. transformingdeath into killing. etc. grain was mashed into pap so it could drain into the ground. Arexander Greatactedin. paideuma (rgSo).6ro-18. as soon as the the Curetesafter the CalydonianBoarhunt. Nlb y e8y).-Theact of kilring re^Arr' Anab. there arosea posthumous duty toward the dead. Marsmythos Latte (1960)7tg-2r.1 'the fact.rz9. fathers.the Macedonians at fight a battle after the dog-sacrifice their Festivalof Purification.

58.t .r below).ee in general Luk' Merc. Deonna. a tomb that may or may not have been real: the hero had. Clytaemnestra alone celebrates the Day of Death in open triumph. He did so." so funerary sacrifice (with an agon) counts as expiation for killing: Fldt. on the penteteric agon Eleutheria see Paus." In just this way.2. and. the chthonic aspect beside the Olympian. i]3". The remaining participantspresumably ate their fill or ine meat. and seasonal fruits (o)paio)seeThuc.2r-11. while in sacrifice an animal is killed.alreadyexp-erienced their victory as a sacrificein the year *T]t ot the battle: the votive offering they presentedat Delphi after 479 was a bull''? The ritual celebratingthe defeatof the persians is therefore not a creation of the historicaievent but. Gymn. the archon slit the black bull. 1 L 4 . Aristidesz. After this. A unique occurrence was thereby given unisisnfficance and transfoimed into an enduring obiig"ationthat 1111. the sacrificial pit beside the altar. Thus. By joining together to honor the dead. xsee 56 .78. the Greeks set a funerary monument at almost every place of sacrifice. as he announced. a traditional form assimilatingthat event. 9.16. The cult was active till the end of antiquity.521: 11..n"". cond zg on ivayi". funeral. and thev were treatedlike guestsof honor in the sacred ceremony. this could not!r". Die Milch im Kultusiler Griechen und lP: xoma Q9r4)." We see here how deeply sacrificial and funerary ritual permeated one another. As head of the civil authorities. Thuc.I.166-67. and cf. a procession was formed leading from the center of town to the outside.P l u t ." the dead man becomes the focus of attention once again. Nilsson 455-56.6.ltara. Aen. otherwise.r. Both battle and burial were reenactedin the bloody ritual. Epopeus-Athena (11. El. The young men carried amphoras with wine and milk. But the wagons were loaded with myrtle branches and wreaths.p"arcoupta).y The remairi_ ing participants had likewise come to the festival turh"d.l9c6) 3. Inversely. Philostr.J1. Od. . 8.*"s ltipov xai rovcregauov irrtfliwes crritoi trivovat xori eiolyoilvrctt. Something extraordinary had replaced the everyday order.y6. Libations of milk introduced the sacrifice: children'sfood. anointed. and bloodshed was imminent. and thus his power is recognized and renewed. in ail rikelihood. ErechtheusAthena (III. . a black bull trotted along in the middle of the procession. Death and victory alike were presentin the act of killing.s throat so that the blood flowed onto the pyre. from the marketplace to the cemetery.These monumentshad been set up over the men who fell in battle. and cf. 33Plul. jugs of oil and salves. the more profound ambivalence (n. moved toward the cemetery.for the men who died for the freedom of the Hellenes. The myrtle branches the-steles and wreaths were also evidently used to decoratethe steles. would have been initiated.n. C i m o n t 9 .4. rc. The plataeans evihad. he would normally have been forbidden to carry weapons and would always have worn white robes. 277-8t). of course.5. Paus.rt the deAP rr. to "take theii iitK of blood (ai. for example. By encountering death as symbolized in word and ritual. In this way society is consolidated and renewe{]f Plutarch provides us with the most detailed description of a funerary sacrifice in Greece.5below).5.r. Pyrrhos-Apollo (1I.58.UU libations see Serv. 5 . FUNERARY RITUALS FUNERARY RITUAL establishes the context of death. poured it over the pyre. 9 above) is concealed in gestures of propitiation toward the dead (per).K. 2 . succeeding generations are molded into successors. But on the day of the sacrifice he was dressed in a purple mantle and was carrying a sword in his belt. The archon himself brought a water jug from the Bouleuterion. the lord of the sacrifice poured wine on a flaming altar. then washed and anointed rising up from the gravesof the dead. ro. 9. The atmosphere was aggressive and warlike. integrated into the continuity of the society. Wyss. 3.No slaveswere permitted: the archon himself drew water from a nearby well." It concerns those who died at Plataea. 5 .5 below). in contrastto what fol_ lowed. . The archon of the city brought up the rear.. Palaimon-Poseidon (IIL7 below). the survivors.8. for we know that a pyre was built in the center-though Fausanias also mentions an altar and statue of Zeus Eleutherios. Sometimes it is indeed the dead enemy who becomes a hero: Hdt. and Achilles extinguishedthe pyre of Patroklos. then. but Plutarchdoesnot say.z below). and Plutarch was obviously an eyewitness: just before dawn. T-he archon mix# a krater of wine from the amphoras that were brought arong. 32See.SACRIFICE.24.t nsted through centuries. with sacrifices (Soph. The rituals of sacrifice.. the procession 3lJust as "blood is purified through blood.15.3o there were alwayslibationsof wine at the end. and initiation are so closely related that they can be interpreted through the same myths and may even partially overlap. i)raoxtnOar).locew. a trumpeter gave the signal for war.. 5. g above r ^. he calledthe fallen warriors to supper.'u swiftly drawing his sword..2.4. Eisler (r9:5) is7-gt'w.-"". . Pelops-Zeus (ll. Deux itudes de symborisme religieux U955). and educated in the tradition all at once. r. and especially the young. his place at sacrifice beside the recipient god. rather. The myth tells of death and destruction. .6. which had by riow burned to the ground. HUNTING. and wreathed.whatever was finaly burnt on the pyre. ttPaus. In the time of Thucydides.i.robeswere alsobrought for the dead and presumably laid upon the stelesbefore being birned.r.

$ "r ritual remains. Eibl-Eibesfeldt presentation see Lorenz 6ge17 ioj. of F. FUNERARY RITUALS SEXUALIZATION OF RITUAL KILLING irlli ll' ril . though regularly having to tear himself away from her to go out into the unknown and hunt. Sexuality defines the specificallymale role just as much as does hunting and warring behavior.'l il i rrl SACRIFICE/ HUNTING.425-46. Prlhistoire I'art occidental de (r96j).l It is astoundin-g Babyloman ritual: the function-of the phallus is "apotropaic. 6Thus.La Barre g97o) 78. particularlyat the moment of success. On the con1rary. Frobenius. Steinmet zer. r. Morris (t967) ry8' Fehling (t97$ z8-18.not".There is no need to enumerate the ubiquitous military metaphors for the sexualorgans and activity.n. sacrifice. when enthusiastic. a spearor a sword. f 58 59 . . may suddenly turn sexual. Leroi-Gourhan. but. Male aggression bound up with one another.3.256)assembles under the title "schlag mit der Lebensrute. and transformhuman personality' that lhe most powerful human impulse. In ancient literature the Centonuptialis by Ausonius takes pride of place. r99-2oo. Kulturgeschichte Afrikas (ry}). zzo. female/being wounded. For hunting as "making love to the animal" among modern primitives." The the nians made their boundary stones in the shape of a phallus.2. it is inconceivable sexuality is always intimately no part. Internt. 3. ng. fueled in part by the powers of aggression. seeG.'aa.68. nary to Even u-oig primates. and strange. That is to say.i1 sanctuaryof their struction of Plataeain 427. RE XIX $88-9z. in the and educativeimpulses of societyin which women play expectations part. orr_ rump'on phallic display see Fehling Qg7$ 1_281 167'68. On the herms see H' Her'zF. and. The actions of bangingnand stabbing. Separationand bonding are thus two aspectsof a single situation. i l family's supporter had to be emotionally bound to his wife.from the very start it included an underand male sexualityare current of sexualmotivation. Burkert (tqzg) lg-+r. Reichel-Dolmatoff.It does so. after the gruesomesacrifice the Tiwah festival(I. Greeksmarked their territory with herms'' Human sexuality was not alone in experiencing inordinate of growth. of course.rz above): Grabowsky.r7o. thrusting and piercing thus all becomeambivalentin deed just as they do in language. Killing:Maiden CuIt Phnllus lfthethemesofkillingandeatingaresointenselyenactedinrit. in the psychologicalmakeup that the no small male developed in this context. in warlike fighting.but the victors built a the The actorsare interchangeable. would play There is no socialorder without a sexualorder.o.Rump-presentation an invitationto mate inhibiiing an aggressiveresponsefrom the stronger of suLmission in how correspondingbehavior. TheSexualization Sacrifice. Amazonian Cosmos \t97t).this tension strikesinto a vacuum and must find release some other way.were of coursealready suppressedin the Greek ur'See. Thus.which have been observed by ethnologists. sexuality. Ethnographie z fi899). sexualityalways retains the quality of something extraordi"rr"r..Ov. there are frequent periods of license during which sexual impulses stimulated earlier can express themselvesfreely. African hunters fear that the dying animal's revenge could affect their masculinity-they cover their genitals and perceivethe symbolic castrationin initiation as an anticipatory sacrifice to their prey: L. Archiu .o i'hullor. (r97o) zor-zoz. a gun or a cannon. .If it an opponent is defeated. see A. sexual behavior is ritually redirected demonstratepower and differencesin rank' Among someprimates' his the male delimits his territory by facing outward and displaying is a gesture as erectphallus. Hunting is. first. 3Morris (tS6Z\S and Passim. stimulated simultaneouslyand closely almostalways inhibited together. Thereforein hunting rituals. involvei in ritual. for instance.i!.6. ual that they are able to g." sFor the associationsmale/spear.and the evidence that Mannhardt(1875)z5r-1o1 (esp. second. even from t(e standpoint of externals'lRather'it was part existence'The X n"* tension brought about by the polarity of human sThuc. lbid' 1713-44.which had their original function in mating fights.u Such practices. 7r*79. and even in funerary cult. consisting as it does of nothing but patched together so as to describea deVergilian battle sequences flowering in great detail.recurs hupartner. own for observance irr" cult. as a symbol of masculinitythe weapon has with the sexualorgans beenequivalentto and almost interchangeable from Stone Age drawings'to modern advertising. Fcsf. Die babylonischen Kudutru (t9zz)' l4-r' X. Whether it be a stick or a club. on the apotropaicphallus' ter. aggressivetension reachesits peak. lll I I 1 I of Ritual 7.

furtherelaboratedbyStesichoros(zorPage)andlbykos 5. Artemis is both huntressand virgin.ro8. the virgin goddess' An apocryphal variant of the myth tells how he raped her as well. athleteshad to go on a vegetariandiet and abstainfrom sex. Alkaios. 3ro.n. Partheniosro. D. j.z above.5. The Sacred Marriage Rile I1969]). V-98' et enliuements retours (296Page). z. 67o n.Ce ao jg46l 6S-6g). 169.z8o.23-y. sacrifice. f . tz67-68. C' Robert.3. zo8-zogM. according to mythic fantasy. for the Danaids. sa$ifice. victory and sacrificeat the altar were frequently followed. t\lliu Persis to8. by ritual. see Bacchyl. )o with Schol.age.an unsuccessful break. . sexualabstinence TForexample. Aphrodite triumphs in his fall. pind. troe). but everyone knew that he threw his sword away the moment Helen bared her breast in supplication. And just as the realm of the extraordinary-the experience of hunting. Hipp.Above all.69.64. is in constant danger of becoming onesided and absolute.The necessary break between the hunter and the alluring woman is alio manifested through the potiphar motif in the myth of Peleus(Hes. life's necessary nunciation and fulfillment. Apollod. And yet.s napetcay6pevos Ev tais Buoiats. Apollod.4 iv re rais ze. for peneloPe. Aberglaubens ." The very ritual that gives expressionto the realm of " the extraordinaryalso painstakinglycontrols it. Greekswere strictly prohibited from "having intercourse in a sanctuary.rz.For sexualabstinencebeforewar seeI Sam.17. Melanippos and Komaitho in the temple of Artemis Triklaria at Patrai. 4. N' Kramer. Myths frequently tell of shocking exceptions:Atalanta with Melanion. t3On abstinence Philostr. flpianos 'IBurpatrros) wyyauet nvos rttrtils.3. the far-swinging movementbetween reual.''? the growth of the individpolarity. 297--g7. Apollod.4.Poseidonand through the Medusain the templeof Athena. 2. Rom.4. 4.5. Ov. W Lucas.gz.3z.Laocoon in tie temple of Thymbraic Apollo. Such prohibitions correspondto the pattern at the beginning and the act of killing is sexthe end oi sacrificialritual. Euphorion fr. d.4.Brommer(196o) d'H€line$95).zz." Suppliants at a sanctuary are inviolable. and her temple In standsbesidehis sanctuaryand grave. lGlz 724. 35. Ssm. In a si-ila. preciseiybecausethat is the place where blood must be spilled.Men.SACRIFICE. t55. In all human societies. Isthm. but the ambiguity of the extraordinary could not be The girl losing her virginity at a sacrificialfesaltogethersuppressed. FUNERARY RITUALS SEXUALIZATION OF RITUAL KILLING ban culture.c. Lys. dt lY 579.r:6. Fab. Paus. see 9. Paus.9.r8. Kunde des Szlt 11956l.. archaic Helen witli a drawn sword.rr8 below.Hell. 7o Powell. ry6.Beforean agon.Lycoph.r. 15-42rrHdt.' to sacrificeto Aphrodite. begettingof Theseus etc.r{ The preliminaries correspond to the order reestablishedin the closingrituals. z. fr. which was itself also a sacrificial festival. Met. pind." Abh.erais p. Hippolytos 3-ro.so the everyday order is desexualizedbythe tool of civilization. (Tauropolia)' 8Xen. Pind. z.dl.r.55.1.7.Apollod' Epit. paus. PRll. HW. Klinz.). Smith (r89g) .for zo rhebes (Asia Minor). 77. r9r -zoo.. 5. Ov' Met' rc'686-7o4. 2. Simonides 547l.Aristoph. the Kypselos-chest. rz66-74' For pl. see Dikaiirchus fr.n.6uovtais Lrcuvotaxais.19'5. and for the hunt.-W. z-6 Allen. 3. tearing the virgin Cassandraaway naked from the altar and statue of Athena. seeI. for Marpessa.. 4. r59 (Bacchanatia).III. p"era Tdtrortosxqi rat6td. 952-54.z1. For Hippolytus as a vegetarianand Orphic see Eur. Gymn. also HandwArterbuch . the Boeotianpolemarchswere said wife of Ares. The animals flee Enkidu after he makeslove to the whore: see the epic of GilgameshI. in the myth of Kephalos and Prokris-there.a crux mterpretum (cf.zz. ZPE r (196) 8r-95. whaiwould otherwise have ended in death becamethe start of a happy marriage. Preciselybecause is frequently a Part of preparing for ually charged.and death-is sexualized. Schmdkel.cl.Lci xad zcis axe6ov dz'clcrars oriros 6 rleds (scil.]. fr. 148-62.r-3.Diod. S. especiallyat -an-altar. HUNTING.For the hunter'ssexualabstiof nence see CB III. and cf. For the sanctuaryof 'A9po6i"rqsdlri'Irro\it<p in Athens see Eur. "Hieros Gamos.the hunter kills the woman who has pursued him (seePherekydes.FGrHist 1F 34.even among "primitives. t7 Allen : 14 Bethe. A.L.(Adonia). When leaving office.. paul in I Cor. Thus. Brommer (196o)z1z-84 the Kypselos-chest. schefold (1964) Paus' t35b. t (tgtB).Mitt. p. the prohibition againstincest is universally recognizedby mankind and is the basis t'Paus. fittle lliad tr. Ol. "Plut. on the aniient Near Easiern tradition see H.zz. her servant Hippolytus makes chastity the guiding principle o{ his life.6. Ghali-Kahil Les . ih" tup" seeCallim. actuallyonly a special accentuation the hunter paradox.PR ll. heavily armed. ANET 74-75. schol.r. 6o 6r .Dodds Il95r) t48.Depicted already on the pithos relief from Mykonos (ca.25..37(Isis). Barret. It is the ambivalencein the confrontationbetweenwarrior and virgin that makes both pictorial and narrative accountsso thrilling. the not-altogether-legitimate artistsportray Menelausattacking In depicting theiall of Troy.seeApollod.798-8o1. pyth.' Another especially_well-lovedscene portrays Aias.-."Heilige Hochzeit und S.rz.Euripides W. or with Hippomenesin the Srottoof Meter. instead of killing a beast. Schol.tr." Many mysteries required for sexualabstinence a certain period precedinginitiation. that is. Nik. beforesacrifice.164-26). Hyg. (1964). though observers foreign culturesmay at first notice of only the violation of tabus that they share. rituals (A." Par.Schol. some form of sexualitythen would accompanythe blissful shockof the concluding ceremonY. 5." Diss' Halle' determined in pirt by hieros-gamos 7gt). r9o.min.see Paus. oi :tex 47o. Morgenlandes Fiohes Lied. vein. 4. Barret ad loc." there is some kind of sexualtabu. SchefoldQ96$ 4t-42. '{Fehrfe Qgro) 47-18(Demeter/Ceres).by a wedding festival.86. Epif.W R. 3.:53 with Silt. for war. tivalbecame a stock motif in comediesand novels'-an almost predictablefall.2W.on the agon and the wedt: the Argonauts on Lemnos.z. The backgroundis Poseidonand Aigeus in the sanctuaryof Athena. Amphitryon.

7g-r22. tEOn xaraTigl.sacrificing the bride. in man must practicerenunciation. rr5-zz with lit.L. lnternat. see Arnob.7. gometimesit was the groom.Above all.:..o. 2. Seealso the legend Sllo^nhero vr . and yet hunting is not innate-it has to be taughi. winckermannsProgr. 8' zz. Man cannot afford to exposehimsocietyas out of control and helpless. Lehrbuch griech.oca. in turn.In Rome.oro. Hermann and H. Aul.67.Thus here too the new order was based on sacrifice. his animistic interpretation. and cf. rnternat.84-2o4.n. r6g_7a. Briickner.z85a-d. however.38i1 6i rpd yap"ouBuoia rport\etrr. On'ttre presentation to strangers see also loi_!1?:6)^i65_!Z.rgg). sociar Jctences t e96g). Am'. rsCaelibaris hasta: Festus 6z-63M. Likewise. It is unimportant whether or not an individual leads a placid existence. . it endures in its sacredness not be abrogated.r99. 268-78.33. Q. 23.Familienfeste Griechen Rdmer und der (rpr).pxreia for Artemis of Brauron and a parallel rite in Munichia aie preliminary wedding sacrifices: Harp. 9o3 Koerte. 2. LS ilT T:3"-"pteliminary sacrifice"generalljr-1see especially the mystery initiation (Kratinosfu.Hsch.4.her.43 aW. ril 176. and also considerswhether the Ludovisi and :enfury) rn-n::might belong to this temple of Aphrodite (8S-gr).a life for. too. the ancient Deubner (tglz) U derives the name Beop'ogopos tradition from the former. SocialSciences 0S68). per se.Agathocles. L.35 above. rather. -J'^Dollard.all permissibleand necessary tivity is restricted to a permanently defined area which is.s role.n.2. a spear that had dripped with blood and had calleda rpor6). An.7.\atdv Beop'ov.t 5. t" Od.In renouncinglove. "Wedding Rites in Ancient Greece.. who connectsthe votive reliefs (fifth with the cult of Aphrodite.2). Deubner.5 Og2i. !a9a). the d. and.6. the husbandbrought gifts and started a normal sacrifice. virgins had to spend their first night with total strangers.2."the beast self in an aggressive sexualacwith two biiks. Bekk. Magnien. ed.who assumedthe stranger.Plut.2'And on this occasion. . yaptuv EBq.. t4z3.4.296\rixrpor.Priaatalter' der thiimer t. bAvoxa)ruzrripra: see PhererydesvS 7 B z. :. one'sfrustration canbe transformedinto aggressive ability. once again. zro-23.at Delos (Opis and Hekaerge). Even marriage.42F Brelich(1969) )+o_Zg. To succeed the tensionbetweenthe indoor and outdoor worlds.rg. r&.A." ldl 4o (t925). in disguise.seealso I. and Iocal heroines can also be recipients of the preliminary wedding sacrifice. AM t2 (lwil. 4. Aphrodite.g-r3. 433 and cf. and cf. Reparationsfollowed the wedding "sacrifice.5." The sacrificialmeal that sealsthe new bond is permeated by rituals making the bride and groom the butt of makeBy believeaggression.taro and related topics seeE.NiIs_ On (t9ro) 4o-42. z'34'rz (Hermione). in providing motivationprimarily that of jealousy-and in the methods of regulating them. npor'6. 7rg rporilten cacirter'v.The bride's alienationand anxiety can be easedthrough temporary ritual substitutes.Just..Irero can Harp. F. 212_)7 : Ges.26Diehl (Athens).shair is common:at Troizen (Hippolytus). 4.And the human soul is suited to such structurespreciselybecause its capacityfor inhibiof tion and resignedobedience." Greek brides had to make a sacrifice in which they apparently appeasedthe anger of the virgin Artemis. Each mPoll.for Artemis see Eur. I. s.n. 3. the lectusiugalis' Marriage is a Oeopds.42 above.Encycr.r (Troizen).The older generationdies out and the younger one takes an its place.r.4. seepaus. Rom..Plut. Justin. is not compelling: cf.. Rom. Berkowitz.The rituals do not mitigate the transition. This is not the Placeto give more than a few references. Bluemner.ne of Temesa. once instituted.. 1n Tim. only to be reinstituted. killed men.at Megara(Iphinoe). P Nilsson. sacrificialritual is the meansof reestablishing order of the extraordinary. "Hochzeit und Opferkorb. from the latter meaning.this order will be violated again and again.SACRIFICE. with a goat as substitutevictim iee I.34. r.7_rr.a life. @'sss. outsiders come to grips with the couple'snew status.5. Therefore. Ov.this too servedto removeresponsibility in a way familiar to us.zr. -t1_":":* rr' l'nicknet Die LokrischenTonreliefs (1968). seeHdt. deflowering occurred in the sanctuary itself-admittedly a custom that remained if.Anakarypteria(g4.'5 the other hand. FUNERARY RITUALS SEXUALIZATION OF RITUAL KILLING plays a On for our conceptof the family. from sacrificial rilual. Paus. dpxreiew = fC)Hist see g. for example." Opuscula (196o). is the product of sacrificial rites. only in southernItalian Lokroi: seeKearchos fr.3. CyprusseeHdt. as initiation.Wike e e94)."built into a wild tree rooted in the earth. Ges.24t-5o. Paus.Schr. hurling flowers" and smashingpots. depending on local customs.'?3 only activity that canThe not under any circumstances renouncedin a hunting soiiety is the be hrrnt itself. t-t4.. Frustration and Aggression ugls).Hera.. the bride must suffer the male act. r6r*8o. long as the continuance as of societyis guaranteedby a durable structure. plat.Men.774e. aggression prominent part in erecting thesebarriers.6. they stressit by creatinginhibitions and guilt. Leg.'oIn the cult of Aphrodite.an and caninstitution.56o.Here.a spear was used to part the bride's hair. Mead. seeEur. almost as though the wild outdoors were Present within: such is the immovablebed of Odysseus. r.z7.r6 above.43. Das Tabuder Virginitiit. @eop'os likewise the name for sacis rificial remains which have been deposited: see LS 44 B 17 = Abh Berlin i9z8). tph. nymphs.' 6z 63 .5.8823). foreignto the Greeks. Of course. La Barre (r97o) Z giving. coniecratedand tabu. fetr_rle o' r'reud. supporting the new family. paus. fr. Yet in the act of securing the order the two virtually coincide.prut. Defloration turns into sacrificemainly becauseof the exclusivelyhuman phenomenon of sheddingblood in first intercourse. III 3o5-2o M. narr. "Le mariage chez les Grecs. Hipp.characteiistically."just as they db in After the fact. Fasf. V.41." Mtl Cumont Q916). HUNTING. tsM. Mockery plays a specialrole here. Encycl.Aristides:o (praprocl.. Samter.FGrHist 472F r (Praisos). for Caf t O7y. 291. tTon wedding rites seeK.vzb (Hariartos).

ln a similar way Andromeda and Hesuchungen zur Religionsgeschichte sione are given to the sea monster.. 6r-9o. Am. . seepaus.35above. D. For the sacrificeof a vrrgin at Thebessee Paus. '?6C.56.. of :. Arc. 4.Hunting and war are sanctionedby social custom as tests of manhood.ncryyo1r.6-7). Hp.r (in conjunction with the pre-wedding ritual. Wyss.3. a myth of the Chukchis.on the ephebic oath see L. and it precedesthe great sacrificialinstitution in In farming. the virgins sent to the dragon at Lanuvium..30 when beginning their military service...although usually a s mbolic (animal) substitute was used here as well. peditions and war.thevirgin.V. rcris Eylpagais . 256.rn Among the Greeks.: she returned.2. 25. the food. see J.a. symbolicallyand ritually restored. Callim.. call them Iphigenia and Kore and.b-9. at least in some rituals (initiation and mystery rites). Mtiller-Karpe(1966) 224_25.'sin agricultural myth. Lib. *o. ro3o. In the maiden-sacrifice. a myth about the sacrifice a virgin was linked to the Tycheof Antioch and of the citygoddessofLaodikeia:seepaus. Mi.ud gi . or a whale.r9.Leuktrian maidens. and cf.rg. Heracr. all the tensions-the jealousy of the elderly.6vr7 Paus.?iry 774d.4. see Callim.7. the Attic ephebesmarchedin a procession and made sacrifice in honor of Artemis. on the ritual see pJus.as the fbius of the company of youths brought togetherby the double sacrifice.9. z6-27).SACRIFICE/ HUNTING/ FUNERARY RITUALS SEXUALIZATION OF RITUAL KILLING new generationmust be forced to hunt.. namely.3' they swore an oath in the sanctuaryof Aglauros. Diod. with the /'progress" of civilization. on Helena Dendritis (Rhodes) see Paus." SMSR )4 0963).6. ]j:t"-"t roo8.. The Masks of God. ueubner f91z) zo9. See. Ot. for Aio xcipar see n. in any case.1. 64 65 ." the potential sourceboth and of disruptive conflict within the group.. end of the [IapSivotKopavi|es.8.Rlui. 34 e965).4o8-6or. It may be conducted symbolically or in actuality: see Mannhardt ($7) )27-Jj. II r5r-52 (Egypt.' cf. Etudes epigraphiques piilologiques et (ty8).4.21. 4.. Prop. Campbell. during the preliminaries.16 $96).8. maiden-sacrifice the strongestexpressionof It comesat the start of fighting exthe attempt to renounce sexuality. E. I: PrimitizLeMythology (t95). Heil. narr. plat. Maybe thaf is how we must understand the early Palaeolithicsubmersion sacrifices:2' young a doe. the departure for hunting and war. z8-29. Tftes. Strukturen der Moral (1968). after being killed and weighted down with rocks..g.'?a hunting myth. f.r3. The great sacrificethat followed. Pet. Hesperia :q. a city goddesscould also serveas . see GB VII 237 (Mexico). 4. "searching"turns into "hunting.paus. z9t-3o7. Man declinesto in love in order to kill: this is most graphicallydemonstrated the ritual of a happy union slaughterof "the virgin. maiden-sacrifice and provides a balance. see I. in general. on "die Verschriinkung von Inzestverbot und Opfermythologem.o* no details of w" "Maringer (1956)48-42 on the prelude to the hunt.3-r4. rCf. perhaps it was not unknown even among the Greeks. roz9. could thus be psychologicallymotivated as a punitive exlpedition. a hanged woman becomes Hekate. and Ov. FGrHist 328F ro5. Ages. The sacrr fice of a virgin appears atavistically especially during famine and drought. r87. cutting up and eating. II der r58 (Guinea). 6. the "goddess of the outdoor world. and they take precedenceover courtship and marriage. Trencsdnyr-Waldaptel. and cf.9.692-99. g6If .7-8 below On "Apreprs d. inoprev<rau t!1 . the legKorinna and Nikander in Ant.plut.cf.z below nThus.IG II/III. "Katapontismos. Ethnology has shown that maiden-sacrifice occurred.2o The myths.3. arsothe tearrn8apartof a dishonored woman as a call to war.5.. II r49 (lndia). fr. during the Messenianwar.3r t. and the restitution that foliowed referred mainly to her . cf .ld b" pushed into the water in springtime. however. the sacrivirgin becomesthe bride of the quarry whether it is a bear. fr. r$-86. Met. she is connectedwith the seed that must go beneath the earth in order to insure the return of stands in the crops.a.7. rotr. Artemis Agrotera..7. 8. Robert. eachis forcedinto military service. on Ariadne hanged see Plut. *Philochoros.g. on goats hanged in the ritual in which the myth tells of the maiden's suicide (Melite) see Ant.For this reason.2.n. roz9. a king."where a colt was substituted for the maiden.for example. The maiden-sacrifice provided the basisand the excuse the subsequent for kilring. just as. paus.17.from Mexico to polynesia. j.ApreptLt ri1 'A7por6pg.preliminary maiden-sacrifice for the most is part a prelude to war. 33 below. the harvest festival. the substitution is made explicit. It is a ritual of giving in order to get: in the main sacrifice." In the into fighting fury.porph. In Greece. cf. n.to the main sacrificethat supplies contrast.6) at Pelop'zr. on the sacrificefor the." '?5On the bride of the bison.lll.however. Unter(t966).'ptut. hanging from trees.6-7. On the bride of the whale. as a preliminary. with disconcerting frequency.16. Die Menschenopfer alten Hebrtier und der benachbarten Vdlker lr9o9j. before the harvest.3. r5. 20. Fcr|iistg54Fro.Forthe sacriiice the vtrgin 1-"1 Makaria see Eur.tg.z.s daughter who met with a mysterious death.. as vengeancefor the maiden'sdeath.'-zz.5. 46r.9. Gallini. a ficed buffalo. 3.Abst.6.ro.disappearance.t. Hell. see Xen. a pig for Demeter.9. the strivings of the act An irreparable transformsan erotic game young-are released.tu 2aForthe sacrifice of a virgin before fishing see GB II r47 (Algonquins and Hurons). 9. 743. Lib. cf. much later. about the (willing) sacrifice a maiden are mainly connected of with particurar l$n" sanctuaries and their rites: Agesilaos sacrificed Aulis (xin. zo and I.7. a myth of the Blackfoot Indians concerning the origin of the bison dance. 291a.the maiden would be represented-bya goat-for Artemis. there is an anticipatoryself-denialwhich consequently requires other forms of destruction-submerging in water. ro Sbvo. in fulfillment comes in the sparagmos. n. Desperate is period of preparation. Mader.4(followingMyron). schol.

ul7-582 (veav.zg.upon which hunting and warring behavior feeds.45. AthenaParthenos AthenaPotias[t9551. which is linked to the sacrificeof a bull (Cook -r94). z.first king of Athens.Ker6nyi (t952) 57-64. as a seeApollod. which was repeated in in sacrificebefore setting off for war. 556_ZJ9). $K. and aegis. Philochoros."Their death. troryion 9957\. see Nilsson der und Siegel [1964l. III [r94o]. hunters already hung up their "hunting trophies"horned skulls and.Bonn.59. 58_62. A victory meant there had to be restitution. Lammert. the inscription from Selinus. This occurs mainly in funerary ritual. just as her symbolic substitute had been slaughteredin the preliminary sacrifice.4o7. too. Pol. lbb.Sophocles 5zu_zg pearfr.be recognized through an irrevocableact of renunciation. Aros dyaXy. Erechtheus. aboveall. shield. Stengel 92-rO2. So. see Simon [1969]r8r).jz.Brommer gft) z9t_99. the Palladion.144_45. rzz. C. vXen. becauseZeus bestows victory (cf. sPhylarchos. in AntiquityI (rg14). shield.quoted by Jaqut. /G XIV 268). Beforesetting off for at war. the stake came to representthe goddessAthena with her helmet. l"ttjlg 16. for the most part.atpa). RE XVIII z. a those who were conqueredwere made to attest to their adversary's victory. the form of killing.3. Frickenhaus. Ia guerre desgtants (rg5z). a volunteer.r7.od. lyc.r = Corpus minoischen mykenischen r83. i ri 66 67 . lzF 8 (Ad7ts a fire::27. monster like the xip. tzo (rgrr). There. FGrHistgt F 47. 96. 65. rro^ufeyd. 9. J.r. his wishes are carried out by youths. honored at the Leokoreion. there were tales Flling how the statueof Athena. immediately before battle.SACRIFICE. although there are analogiesin sacrificial ritual.4.3e the paradox that both the god of the hunt and the god of war were "virgins" we observethe sexuil tensions. in mythology. who wanted ijil'\g tu rapeher. And again.#r7.burnt offering without wine at the start of a cattle-sacrifice FGrHisfJz1 F 4. In addition seePhanodemos. Austin. F. Iak. HUNTING. For Alhena killing her father pallas. Ibykos fr. Phoen. 6$-71. F.seeI.Through this tropaion. before belng strangled on to the dead man'sbiet the victim. ). J. Corg. third group of heroic sistersat Athens is that of the A. RE XII 2000-2001. The war. z4): Kock. The tropaion is called ArdsBpiras. For pallasas a maiden slain by Athena and ijl:jllT .e rhe most detailed description of a cremation with maiden sacrificewas given by an Arab e. rTog-tr. FGrHist328F rz. Lippold.8.o' Doesthe namepolyxena pointto similar practices?" period of licensegives vent to thJ extraordinary. the sequenceof guilt and atonementcan be reversed.T. the sacrificeof a maiden or woman can follow the battle. Vian.r. ibn Fodlan. &Meuli (ry67) t59-6o.Simonides fr. t99-zo:^.2. t}l. Hell. rz5o. and spear.English transl. Aen. If the sacrificeof Iphigenia precedesthe Trojan war. RE VII A (rg1$. z7g.Schol.3-5: DionysiosSkytobrachion FGrHisl as . l"l"::^ Di.ara. ry1-74. 37This must havealreadyarisenin prehistorictimes. the motivation for their willing sacrifice was a plague (cf. moreovet the army sacrificed the sanctuaryof the Hyakinthides. If the preliminariesand the aftermathof the greatexperience correspond. 727-2)5.69. The demands of the dead man may. skins-on a tree or a stake. feelingsof guilt and ieadiness just as death previously had been given to atone cT !9 expressed. Yerg.the frustration and symbolicsubstitution.z above. Hec. 6.z. guaranteedsuccess the subsequentbloodshedand victory in battle.3u adding By to the tropaion the skin of the goat. pind. veavt'es. J. seeCic.Clem. A dead father can demand renunciationfrom his son.2. Simon 11969] and being through the battle.deor. FUNERARY RITUALS SEXUALIZATION OF RITUAL KILLING l ii i1 the sacrificethat surely accompaniedthe oath. Janssen. on a gold ring from Mycenae. of their own free will. up offered themselves for sacrifice. 557page. animals were slaughteredin great numbers as the enemy looked on.which mav in turn havea symbolicsubstitute. 16-27. fr. Woelcke. the sacrificeof Polyxenafollows it. 4.zo.3'The "virgin" thus came into 33See fr. The old cult-statueof Athena Polias at Athens is different.Lyk. AM y lt9o8l. were often portrayed as king's daughters who had been killed: in the war between Erechtheus.Thuc. Eur. so a stakemade of oak would be set up and adorned with a captured helmet. sexually colored fighting and killing can give rise to yet another different too is Athena's head-birth.In this way.it is symbolically reproducedin the Palladion (G. In this contextthe art of the seeris of decisiveimportance: (r9ro) see Hdt.3s monument to the enemy'sflight. Simon [1969] I Ir955). the brief reports do not even mention a divinity. For depictionsin art and epigrams. VS 8z B 6.z. Callim. of an aggressively and sexuallymotivated act.Plut. NoaaFragmenta in with chorusesof maidens.-97. so$ Eur.etc. On depictionsin art see Metzger Qg65)rt5-r7.7o.iat5z5).18. n.anA otheract of killing ends and transformsit into an order of renunciation. veot.ta xopat. Erechtheus'daughters. Nat.that is. Phoen. for instance. *?_R II ru75-79. as the skin of Gorgo after she had been killed in the gigantomachy see Eur. Het antieke Cook II (rgz5) to8-4. on a stucco dish from Mycenae.65-89. 4t. 9. who. 3o7page. A.mis9ary the Rus on the Volga. 17. That is how Achilles gets his share of the captured women.eaigis.had to offJr hersif to all the participantsin the funeral. and Eleusis. C. Eur. pr. Herington.z. as it is seated (A. and on his skin. zz. ":nlud fr.which had been slaughtered before battle. 4.fell from heavenduring the primordial war between the gods and the giants.t:t rEconstifuted (oavov. on annual Eur. The Spartanssacrificeda femalegoat to Artemis Agrotera:v thus beganthe deadly activity that then continued in the human slaughter of battle.similarly.3s and how Pallaswas named after a creatureof that name whose skin had been In removed to serve as her attire. Euripidea.

# In mammals. Eberle. simply shows that the procedure was the same at every he-goat sacrifice.279-477. "auf}esetzt. Greek evidenceis cleat especially from Philiskos(fr. seeHerte. the worshipper was forced to assumea female role and appearance-padding his body. r 4 . 264-67.3gtcf. 11. Apol4gz."Cat. p. Fast. F. presenting his rump. During the festivalof O. O. When stimulated by sexual jealousy. RE are kept and carriedin i kernosat the Taurobolion t?{.Edda (r8g). we hear of them only exceptionally or by chance. 095il. . Volkskunde g9o). to5-to6.n. 24. 168-69.9o Robert= Schol. Gorg.525.z7-87.82. :1 * 3 . . Wiener October among the Beitriige Kulturgeschichte Linguistik 299.S y r .7ir-r3. "T"d i" .though there is no detailedverification. Jacoby. n z ) . A. and one etiologicalmyth clearly statesthat the donkey's death is due to its remarkable and proverbial lust. only by virtue of a gruesome joke in Martial* do we know that the goat sacrificed to Dionysus was castrated by an assistant at the very moment it received its death-blow.gSi). Breitholz.n. ri R. Herter.61.t5. Callim. U. r85 nr. SertaPhilologica Aenipontana Q962. zo. the significance of hrinte.Lightin August lodorus. 95-roo. H.MnemosynelY jgTo). zz. t.E.nubut because they largely belong to the "unmentionables. A singlephallus was set up for worship and carried through the city as if in a triumph. the one Attic black-figure bowl with a phallic procession see Deubner (1932) the bull at Drdmling (Mark Brandenburg). During the castration an animal. at the moment of death a maleanimalt sexualorgan source.ro. ro9-rro.r. FGrHist 244 F rz6.as hc god Priapos. Thus.s *'As any big gamehunter knows."s The ritual reparationcorrespondingto ritual castrationevidently of consisted an especiallystriking.*'and the frequent association of a sacrificialram and the phallic Hermes is surely no accident. r4g-54.3. . Pytft.At the great elephant-sacrifice zur und +Itgl6l.sr €G. Dtimmler.1" pygal symbolism of the padded dancers(who are preciselynof ithyphallic) I ut et uiro I ut cito testiculos acuta dixcrat agresti falcesecarct taeter immundae ^^": forte rudique see. Devereuxin Mnetnosyne 2) \7970)' and the A6vamedha(W. and our suspicionsare raised to the Ievel of probability by the fact that a horse'stail has too little blood Donkeys are sacrificedto the phalto be of use in the ceremony. 68 69 . Kuhn. . L. Devereux).For a phallus with a he-goat'slegs at the Dionysia on Delos see BCH 3r Faiceim griichischen carnis 51 1rg4).V4. De Priapo(rg1z). t3 $979'). and t*lln:descriptionof asimilarsatyr'sgestureinSoph. Scholz.the genitalsof the slaughteredvillage bull pl. provocativecustom. Genzmer. Nilsson (rglS) pl. for sourcei-seelJdG IX organ plays a large role: R. This has occurred regularly in wars up until recent times.z. be translated into the . H. Miirkische (rrorence3897). was sacrificedand its tail carried bleedtoo. z. s e e L u k .r75r. Dia.Germ. 2g1-3o7.UdG IV 88-9o.but cf .6319-48. the destructive rage operating in the battle of man against man wili turn against the adversary's masculinity: when killed. z5-39.XIll 5ro.Plat.has not stood up to criticism(Wilamowitz. Koppers. worship of a horse'sphallus. 46o.Pr. 522.for the oT seeI sam. whether to Dionysus or to Aphrodite. A. for instance.Buschor.13-16. with a clear allusion to the femalerole (cf. s t a b a t m o r i t u r u s a d a r a s h i r c u s . Aristeas' 'Arimaspeia" may possibly have been pindar. FUNERARY RITUALS SEXUALIZATION OF RITUAL KILLING cycle of destruction and reparation. C. Herter. Die dorische ':'!*y:! aor dem5.4o.n. RE XIX 1673-gr. 276.p. \7907). inst."writes G. Eitrem z1 Q9r) z8-34. Devereux. q u e m T u s c u s m a c t a r e d e o c u m o e l l e t h a r u s p e x l a seatedposition). I c h n . rz9. Die llias und Homer 95't. D .in the Edda. Heusler.J5. Cenalora (Vietnaml habituallylaugh (unpubl. Simmiasand Boiosin Ant. 96o\.5. lahrhundert (Gdteborg. They stimulate aggression and hence are accorded special treatment when the quarry is cut up and distributed. Jensen. Just such practicesare known to us from DiScholarshave sought an easy explanationfor onysiacprocessions.i.duousxadlovet. E. quonnE that from Egypt (Nierhaus9o).aePindar into his description of the Hyperboincorporatessuch associations rean donkey sacrifice:Apollo laughs at seeing the animals' "upright presumPtion. p. 3r.44below. 78-85. we may suspectthat the "tail" representedthe genital organ. . see For 119l. HUNTING. z 8 gctr)toug6oot Arcvtv<p 1." the cippqroz. IV und MtirchenQ84).88-9o. a new photograph in Pickard-Cambridge (1962)pl. seealsoMeuli (1946)247-48.For the rest. Pygmies.Hermes lrgt}l.).2. Hepding Qgo) r9o-93.r r3). V6lsi. Sagen were hung from the loft: A. tu posrt "magic" in place of the purely biological-physicalfactors.8 above. srFor go-5r. f. Tragicorum Graecorum Fragmenta 8r9 Nauck. Nierhaus ldl Sl [1938]. The pseudoexplanation that in this way the meat would be freed of its goat odor and thus be made edible. P. note by G. but the non51 7o-p.z8. when the October-Horse ing to Regiafrom the CampusMartius. Lib. If this worship entailed submission. connectionwith torture and the death penalty see. coniunctionwith lynch law seeWilliam Faulkner. AltodlkerSild-Athiopiens 18:25-27. 5@-507.Lact. HSCP35 (r98r). in sPind. z..SACRIFICE. For instance.\.ed.:. Trilles. :186. Clement of Alexandria gives prominence to an apocryphal myth telling of the ram's castration. without further ado. Ov. and the Kriobolionof the Meter cult: gleu liv etvexa iyti oix iptri . lt can also." but this does not necessarilymean that the figures are porCIL Xll 1567. who is too quickl however.'battle" with his quarry. 3zZ'For castrationin 44o.zt.For the figureson the phallus (one of them xvB6'dro|upaivuu ttvi. 278-96)-with the donkey-sacrifices Asia Minor. F.During purification sacrifice: iytipovaw. 7 Diehl/Pratoproposedby F. In the rite with the otClem. It is certain that castration rituals play an important role in sacrifice. Studienzum altitalixhen und altrdmischen MarskultundMarsmythos (r97o).This work may have connectedthe horse-sacrifice Asiatic rider-nomadsof 4' which has been linked to the Equus becomestumescentand emits semen. Euloiut gc)tloior xoli tivipas fu). tz6.471ci rc. and it appears to be a basic element in man's fightins instinct.Zeitschr.t the male reproductive organs is obvious. 'e"Eral. AM ahiretodor.256. 6z. Wagenvoort. a warrior is immediaLly castrated.and cf. . fr. Philologus 56 cal. The uiresof the sacrificialvictim L5. BennetPasarTheinterpretationof Tyrtaiosfr.cutting off and burying the Procreative of of the Moi-Sedang Pygmles la for^t iquatoriale de Les Qy). nsDuringthe sacrificeat an oath and funerary sacrifice:Stengel (r9ro) 78-84.9o. Thus.

n. z8o. Flacc. Schol.34.15below. Vallois. Sifakis. Vermeule. as the archetypeof his worshippers."Les vasesde l'Heraion.25. where satyrs dance around a phallus as they would for an ascending goddess (cf. ad Lyk.Aggression disR. %-96. Clement of Alexandria exposedthis myth in a polemic. ls. etiology. III.zt)-situates the phallus-cult squarely in the context of restitution following the act of tearing apart... Studies the History oi Hellenistic in Drama(ry67\. Archilochuslrg68]. $Val.BCH 46 (:gzz). for an archaic depiction from Argos see l*tt.-since Isis cannot find Osiris'sorgan.. and his allusion is explicitly substantiatedin sixth-centuryvase-paintings the phallophoria. Schol. Isis in und Jarapis den Griechen bei und Rdmern (r97ol. she erectsartificial phalluses (Plut. Both Anatolian and Cypriot ritual may be in the background.. Eph. sitting on a donkey backward. sondern soziale Drohsymbole. A large phallus would be built from a beam. Thoas was brought down to the beach in a Dionysiac processionand set afloatin a wooden coffin. son of Dionysus and king of Lemnos: after the Lemnian women had exterminatedall other men.Aristroph.For man. 2lr." "aroused. At the ASvamedha. Diod.!p_out of testicles(67515o W. pl. The inscriptions clearly show that the cart remains and is repaired from time to time. M. Paus. the inventor of seriousweapons. the lighthearted threats in obscenegesturesare all too transparent.the presupposesthe sacrificeof a goat for Aphrodite (if.fig. z. Dionysushimself.the inscnptions mention the "Leukothion" and a "river. Luk.n. devereuxin Echangescommuni).. the god set up a phallus made of figwood. Metzger [1955] 5o).s This phallagogiais clearly a closing ritual. Simon [r96fl z5z. 5r above. The phallus-bird has long been known to us from an often-reproducedvotive offering on Delos and from the art of Attic In vase-painters.$ff . Arg. Pr. u.r' 32. 5o4. r. even though we are no longer able embeddedin a speculative to localizethe ritual. p. however.zz. Praep. cf. FUNERARY RITUALS SEXUALIZATION OF RITUAL KILLING these phallic processionsin the term fertility rlfes. rather."" impressive rather than reproductive.he threw the severedportions behind him into the sea-plainly a ritual gesture myth.. rather detailed picture of the ritual." For the votive offering of Karystios see BCH 3r (r9o7\. r87 (KoporBos).* The larger the phallus.c.z4z-3oz.g. Archilochos [tgSgl.Paus.r." but Lukian clearly alludes to it.the phallus-bird floatedout to seaand out of sight.AK tzfr969). #28. I So*i." DilosX (t928). Vidtnu. This polarity is understandable.4t5.e. Mel. Cf . city Dionysia. painted with wax colors. 44 above).1o2. ArD. e:t l:. s. at Earth'sinstigation.. The third. the Delian ritual. Ieaving open the question of whether this fertility is animalic or vegetal. is preciselywhat the phallusesdo not indicate: they do not stand with their headsin the earth but.5). 25. 2. or Ikarios (Schol. in speaking of the god's "epiphany" (rz\.water. alsoC. the queenlies with the horsewhich had been killed. it was driven on a leadweighted wagon down to the "river". the Pygmy chieftain is dressed as a bride (cf.8. That which rises out of the unconscious as something overwhelming and oppressive for man is rendered "do-able" in the rite and is thereby overcome.5(Ilo)'up"vos Cdd.43. seealso I. M. pl.SACRIFICE/ HUNTING. Treu. Sfanund mesgeschichte RitualisierungQ97o) 253 on the herms: "keine Fruchtbarkeits-. Ach. They are "erected.promisedProsymnosthat he would submit to him like a woman. n. after a testival meal on a mountain. Returning from the dead when Prosymnos had died. gives an overview of the Delian Dionysia. $Hes.7-8.t. catons. 52Oclrlrous dyeipew: see Luk. the period of license. A phallic rite was observed at the Altaic horse-sacrifice: Zelenin. a red-figure bowl.payia (cf.).r) in Metzger Q96) 5r-52. Egyptianizing. however. r8. for the act of worship includes disposingof the objectof worship.TAPA9z (196r 5o8-zr . 46 above) liie those for lu":ug: itr':.2. or both at once. The act which alone producesfruit. 6-Z).S-. that Dionysus riding the lewd donkey is soft and effemieven necessaryin view of the nate. The zrAocogioro the cult oilsis (Apul. lii i li'l lii 7o 71 . 243. Dugas. W. partly z9 after the sacrifice. the black-figure lekythos. :_r. In the mythologicalversion. Cf. of Inscriptions from the Delian Dionysia have provided us with a elephant's phallus. 4z-43. C.6cqs (scil. 455.AK 9 e966).It takes place partly before. Lioi-strauss(tg7o). castratedthe father of the heavens. chiaf . It has caused some puzzlement that those carrying the phallus are not ithyphallic. Wickler. When Kronos. +Z-+8.Megas(1956) rr7-18 reportsfrom TyrnabosiThessaly that. with a phallus through thelillage.Burkert : 1r97o). Sale. see H.t7. for an archaicdepiction of the phallus-birdseeCh. cf. r4s orxfis) 6tiBl Et. Berlin z1crc ARV24o9. the union of male and female. the same eventsoccur in the fate of Thoas. UdG lX 399-411. Arch.r-rz): the god punishes those who scorn his prophet by making them ithyphallic. Dionysus 6z. perachora eg4o). cf. t76-zoo.2. and that in the evening-he is dumpei mto the. upright. On the strange clay figurine from Perachora. that is. p. rz.37. G. 2. Once again. and equipped with large wooden wings.7. There is a different etiology for the phallus-cult in the legends about Archilochus (Archilochus-monument EIIII. 7-r1. inhibitions containedin sacrificialritual. Tft. but that the winged agalmais producedanew everyy"ur. Euseb. payne.6 below. of the yel'oiov. while the wagon sank in the water.a bearded Ap-hrodite 1* ?i bg6gl."I/agalma des Dionysiesde D6los. z. zrz (flot ivltvos). Ethnographie QgzB). rzzg_52." $Clem. a "king" is consecratedand led. n.Mil. He is hasty. 76-87\ aie probably a sublimated version of the same ritual. a condition that ends only with the production of artificial phalluses. Tarditi.8.r. Pegasusof Eleutherai (i. The phallophotensionsand ria presupposessacrificialcastrationand assumesthe characterof a restoration and reparation consonant with the transition from seriousnessto merriment." There is an even earlierexampleof a phallus floating away on the sea in Greek mythology. Tzetz.L.Luk. lt95zl. and cf. Athens 969o (ABV 5o5. I.i p. Berard. ). 94-rrz.Ea. aThe decisivecontribution is li.r4zrz. 358b. and overlooksthe phallus swimming away. ih" topographyis uncertain. the greaterthe element of humor. lnternat. The etiologicalmyth clearly shows that setting up the Dionysiac phallus is a restorationafter somekind of death.di* ggq. M.

Godand B. 72 73 .the horns of the goat or bull. 5 Q958).i]f_oJ1 3 tS0-Sl.z in Chantepiede la Saussaye.'oAnd perhapsit is significant that on Corinthian vases. "God is a latecomerin the history of religion. Mogk.l. fig.it will be an act of faith.what Schmidt saw as a primordial revelation. applied to prehistory by H. Reallexikon germanischen sentationsallow us to draw only uncertain conclusionsabout visual conceptsin early times. in one instance. both are actedout in the sacrificial ritual. Chipiez.as though it containedno primitive elements. in the tension between renunciationand fulfillment.were not a vast and intricate systemof balances. ter !' otto (Die GdtterGriechenlands [1929])and his school. AIA 9 O9oil.r. Studentsof religion havelong attemptedto graspand reconstruct stage of religion without gods. de 48-5r. sacrifice. P. z6. T. Herter. Wilhelm Schmidt'gathered impressiveevidence for his theory that there was a belief in a single.&ll ) | 2176. Recently. . It is characteristic substitutea weapon for the phalness could once again symbolically lus-the weaponof the hunted animal. 6lForAsia Minor seeG.Das Ende des Urmonotheismus?. Numen . Met.s primitioe Culture eBTr) and affectedthe study of Greek religio-nprimarily througtrJ. But already in Lower Palaeolithic activity in hunting and funerary custom. 2. even in its earlieststages.Diod. Ktihn. the rites of hunting. Mutually determinant and interwoven. destruction and reparation. cf. lrSSSl +Z-60. as it appearsamong the most primitive hunters. F. in turn. Poulsen.35. S. of 5r above. pouuoxepa. r6t-63.966) 98.any attempt to discover the Ursprung der Gottesidee reflect one's own assumptions.). ritual itself serves in the processby which the group perpetuatesits existence through death. Furtwangler. H. For the sacrifice a bull seePind. The thesis of pre-animismwas formulated by R.a. vMtiller-Karpe Q966)z5z. Latte ([1959] iz-t4). The posiiion drew protest froin watYYt:ll'lryz5l. +lg. 9. 'fylor. which likewise posited a father-like god at the beginning of man'sdevelopment. osee n. The simply only certaintyappearsto be that from the very start.4zt-3o)." brimming with broken-off horn turned flowers and fruit (it is hardly accidentalthat.36-67. R. Dasprobrem r-Irmonotheismas des (Abh. van der Leeuw Phiinomenologie Religioneg1). 4t5.Scholarssaw their own religion as the culminationof a development.Of course.the Palaeolithic in the Upper goddessis holding a horn in her hand. 68-7r).-criticized by R.7 below. Ol. Baur.. Under these circumual wlll stances. Delphische Studien Qgz4). Mainz."j Y{b-t7 ltytl. P. Apollod. r9o3). Lehrbuch Religionsgeder :f-". 'zud-G.u'The Acheloos the bull-shaped into the "horn of plenty. belief in gods a would be precededby animism and this. phalAlready luses rather than fruits project from Herakles' cornucopiae).n. 93. Perrotand Ch. (r97o). Burkert Q. rr-28.3zr-35.and funerals played a decisivepart. Simonides fr. father{ike god at the very start of human evolution. the survey in Nilsson der (tg5:).Heraklesbroke off the horn of while fighting for his bride Deianeira. 159. This too is a horn of plenty. Deubner liee t. a pre-deistic level.. r1. Fqther GreatGoddess Trying to reconstructthe ideasor conceptsof preliterateagesis a game in which nothing can be verified.Against these tendencies. but the . Marett (see l*ttJ:t rne labu-Mana Formula as a Minimum Definition of Religion.The stelebuilt on a gravecan take the form of a phallus.and assumedthat this developmentproceededfrom "the simple" to the complex-as though life. 79 Diehl. 8. According to the myth. Scandinaviasee E. AA (1919). t7t-74.11^9. pl. 4. rG. The concept of an Urmonotheism is suspect. Histoire I'artY (r89o).87. by a pre-animism characterizedby formless notions of Mana and "simple" magical rites.La Barre (r97o) still suPPoses that the belief in god came iaie and was precededby shamanism(ro."' It has sincebecomeclear that the assumption on which this theory is based comes from modern preconceptions.' ARW rz lr9o9l.'" of representation the Venusof Laussel.u' Orgies and death are close neighbors. RE XIX r7z8-13.SACRIFICE/ HUNTING/ FUNERARY RITUALS FATHER GOD AND GREAT GODDESS that rituals requiring serioussolvesinto laughter. rfl6_ 94)and was followed by Nilsson (seeesp.48.III.Freud viewed as a primordial catastrophe: patricide. Thus. Pettazzoni. Harrison's first great book ed. The theory of animism goes bick to i. :z. cf. Acheloos nGazetteArchiologique (fi7il. etc. The earliestpictorial repre5TArchilochus r8r Bergk : Hsch. He did not see how this coincided with Sigmund Freud's theory developed almost contemporaneously. R. For der Altertumskundelll. for instance.4. wuet m a supreme god is more widespread ind older than the proponents of evolution had supposed.. and these are no older than Upper palaeofinds there is evidenceof ritlithic. lsler.r9. 115-19. Dionysiac padded dancersso often carry horns from which they drink wine.7-92. sacrificing a bull is after all also part of the dithyramb."' Sexualreproduction and death are the basic facts of life.Ov. fr.

under no circumstances pressivebut unverifiable.ulir. yet boys must learn was identify with their fathersif they are to be able to perpetuate fym 1d the achievements culture as dictatedby tradition. too. vn gd)tos possessive as DronounseeM. FUNERARY RITUALS FATHER GOD AND GREAT GODDESS I Freud'sfascinatingconstruct. goat.z5.Dasgriechische Nomen'. Leach.the'predatoras sexless.a father-substitute." aggressiveness cultivated at the same time.big. Freud's intuition that a patricide stands at the start of human development is thus to some extent confirmed."r73). intraspecific focuses the hunted animal on and is thus deflected from man. to Religion by J. though not the tastiest. sacrifice. repressedwithin stirs the desireto commit the crime of Oedipus: to his subconscious.and war. Man's neoteny.phitos. ot 74 75 . modified in a remarkableway.Schr. mammoths-and that the largest. ter how gruesome. to assertits power.written t9z6). criticized by A."l. Are the aggressiveimpulses more constant and hence earlier than their object? sSeeI.. xxiii. W. on the one hand. Fox. responses to female sexualityand infant behavioru-have to be blocked. In the (196) fio-95.t to respect authority offsets aggreisive impulses.J. within the individual's soul. plays into this as well. although not in the sense of an historically fixed crime but. Harrison . civilized innovations. "Totemand Ta' booin Retrospecl. the other. So. 2o'L-2o4. big.the long period of dependencyand learning. But in order for this aggressionto achieveits goal. Werk $ lr95ol. which itto*s it. Yet. to be central (Fox. U5-38. instincts that inhibit aggression-namely.developedmainly in his book Tofem andTabu. 48-55. Money-Kyrle. TheMeaningof Sacrifice QgSo). L. the samebasicproblem remains:a unique occurrence. "Totemand 45 TabooReconsidered.s Masculine. Such stylized hunting behaviorbecamevery significant.-andits Oedipal inclinations toward patricide are deflectedand ritually neutralized in the hunt. It was not his aim to drive the quarry away or destroyit. r-a94 -. In the the hunter'simaginationand in mutual actsof encouragement. could if stretchingover thousandsof generations. the prey (cow. friezes on archaic Greek vases frequentry contain confrontations -rrntmal between animals (mainly lions) and their prey. this crime was avengedby an inner compulsion within these now-human brothers. aSeeR. Whiting considered the desire for matricide.brothers joined togetherto kill and eat their father becausehe jealously prevented them from sharing his women. rather. rather. at least temporarily. "The Cannibalistic Impulsesof Par"Totem. For ritual emphasizesand guides individual fantasies. ed. R. there were no genetically for such imprinting. kill his father and marry his mother. aggression In hunting. they submitted to the newly createdorder of renunciation and sexualtabu' The father becamemightier than before and was worshipped as a god. quarry could not appear as woman or child but.. The fact that tfie most profitable game was the largest mammals-cows. zo. In conscious conflict with the teachings of biological herediry Freud found himself constrained (Ges. however." Americanlournal of Sociology Ogiq.especially since-at. 111aator1 boar) is armostalways clearlydepictedas masculine.rc jgz4).z.nn.'The hunter'saggressivenesswas.o matricideor infanticideas the primordial correct. Obedient to the dead man. The rising generation'slatent rebelliousness. 446-5r. bears.although both are specificallyhuman. as has long been and.conscious killing is a kind of patricide. causedgravetensions. in a sense. Landfester.. as does the older generation's head start. sheep. Freud'sconstruct is. Devereuxdemonstrates ents" (Psychoanalytic Forumr [19661. whereasG. Thus. specimensin eachcasewere male. L.rg4. Kroebet AmericanAn' Der griechische zz thropologist (r9zo).'proceedsfrom Darwin. und setne Ableitungeneg66).because the outwardly directed societalactivity combined here with its inner tensionsin a specialway. zoo-zo8) to postulate some archaic heritage in man. It is characteristicof modern biasesabout man that Freud and his schooldid not even considerthe areawhere killing had a necessary function-a function which in fact determined the course of evolution.Ges. enthusiastically taken up (r9zr).Werkeg (rg4o). Among son Smith'sdescription of sacramental the primitive hominid hordes. Ges. r$-75.t73-24) in conjunction with actual casesof infanticide.Patricide assumesthe existenceof fatherhood and father-bonding. R. rather than patricide." in E.lolun. the quarry becomes a kind of father. and from Roberton sacrifice. Freud seesthe reenactmentof this primordial crime in sacrificialand funerary ritual.. HUNTING. seealso Karl Meuli. and "masculine. The human tenof O. in the function of rituar symbols and the correspondingstructuresin the soul. . however.to catchit and make it his own. a father-symbol. and this can be underpredeterminedtendency stood in biological terms only as an adaptation within a long evolutionary process. in this form. matnot assume such formative significance.. implex. of significance the Oedipus comRegardless the psychological of recognized.Even if one assumes no crime. Epilegomena theStudyof Greek Agon (1968.a myth. both a member of the family and doomed to die.the "big" and "masculine" prey was part of the group/ gltros in the basic senseof the word. The Structural Study of Myth and Totemism (t967\. M. structuresbeganto evolvewhich made killing that spiritual and-social the foundation of cultural order. A. Kroeber. It was at the time when Australopithecineprimates were killing and eating baboons. "Erinnerungen an das Erleben frtiherer Generationen" (zo6). and sometimeseven one of their own." even when it was only a rabbit. but.' 3(tgrzlr3).SACRIFICE. had to seem-. Eibl-Eibesfeldt (r97o)esp. rather. z7 above.

264f. M. As ritual. Austin. 3. Paideumazlry4rl. ::: *: f 2.. HJra. pRrI tsEur. fr.cf.ogr. Yet.35..^Prolegomena einer zu wissentschaftlichen iytio.Tarenrum. folding or raising one's hands.sr above. the elephant among the Pygmies (I.fi_1t. the and hencethe perfect likenessof Artemis. accordingly. following W R. Prostration. Europa \196g).'. :oo. g Ap ZS(fora Near "?ig. L. Btihler.Hence.owell. West. 7077) Soph. tion that the god is identical with his sacrificialanimal.At the sametime.7. promoting tension..un lo seeIII."'The experienceof a transcendent power is mediatedby the community.. that is to say."' Ritual restitution includesexpressing one'sbad conscienceand renewing renunciation.7.ll"_Eylpa afsoW.in classicalantiquity this is self-evidentin the complex of [ep6vliepeiov.g)cf. 959pearson. Bacch. the relationship to the Christian communion. 12The focus of myth and ritual is characteristically the death-i. zzgb: aV Page Oa (Poetae MeticiGraeci).n.transforms himself into a bull. where Poseidon himself tne btirt emerge rio. preparatoryritual includesanticipatoryrenunciationand giving things away in the hope of success.SACRIFICE. the .g. there is at leasta rudimentary "conception of.29.The gestures-kneeling. Apollod." destroyed.On Kallistoand Artemis Kalliste(paus.n. .3o below. eipaqu}tn1s.4. fr. gSCt..:*1" . 39 :. patricide almost unthink_ able. f/r.Thus. quasi-human being were present whom they must worship.sd_ ther was central to the consciousmorality. Euphorion fr. 11 99*-page parallel see M. C. seeM. as demonunity and trust rather than aggressive strativecommunication. "-on the long-discussed rerationbetween Kumarbi and Kronos (ANET no. we recognize that heartfelt ambivalence of myth. it was sim_ pl. sacerlsacrificare. O. cr. Eratosthenes zz [. Onthe bull-Dionysus "^O^'::: r. lieber kfeiner Vater. When languagecomesto name this imaginary object and attemptsto describeit. 288. Noz.Fionoring one.lL_r71. z).aFragmenta Euripiden (196g). Bovyevqsplut.tos entered official Greek literature only once under the impact of an orientalizing fashion. (Argos-Lerna). 9zo.++ above). Dumuzi/Attis. Is.the Greekswere not consistentin this ideology"Lidesignating the victim as an enemy: Io was simultaneouslytte priestess of Hera. Mtilfer.n.and Artemis kilred the the sheoearKallrsto who was. Zeus.eo. when the ritual was repeated.sighing.'2 Certain Greek myths indeed give some indica'E.. on Dumuzi see V. "lieber Vater Nilpferd. Hes. 3. HUNTING. : Ap g. 1a!. for example. But the assertionthat the father-likegod was relatedto the patricidal charac_ ter of sacrificeprovoked strong resistance. crying.god. The provocative problem in this context was. . I. "The idea of a god eaten as a sacrament was spread primarily by J. for in_ stance. 75. of course. Their particular function is in relation to one'sfellow man.'3 Dionysus into a kid.in the mysteries. pR I y4_3o5. behavior Theof could otherwise be expressedonly in the context of secretsocieties and secretmyths. 476a. gz. and wailing-are taken from behavior found in human interaction. it created the concept of an almighty Father as a substitute-a reprise of Freud's ideas rendered harmless. rlr 666-n.lt was possibleto play with the idea that the god and the sacrificialanimal were identical. seethe largeamount of evidencein Cook III (r94o) Ar5_ra.great problemsarise. The goat is killed for Dionysus because gnaws at the vine."the quarry is frequentlyinvoked and appeasedas "father. already K. and worship.ro In the picturesshowing the god and his sacrificialanimal side by side in almost inner communion.gg.Kirk (r97o) 214_2r-.'' complementarycharacter extraordinaryand ordina[. . eaten. ZtirS6Sl.It was certain that the god was intimately linked to sacrifice.z. roMorris (tg67) t78-8t thinks that when the cooperative hunting society reduced the actual superiority of the individual father.g_ro. in worshipping this power the individual acquiresa specialfreedom and independencefrom his fellow men. by describing the ritual experiencethrough language. Frazer (GB VIII 48-ro8).n.. the reports of the resurrection are mere appendices to the Passion. L.il lutfl rut medha. The closing rituals could be stagedas a resurrection or revivification. gr-64. Reuteskicild. C.most beautiful.representing goddessherself.e.the god would be killed. West.34 below.. the sacrificewhereas the "resurrection" is seldom explicit: cf.lt. Smith (1894).9r1ostyle the sacrificialanimal an //enemyof the god. especiallyin an extremely patriarchalsociety such as that of ancient Greece.r9..they are severedfrom any real objectand instead oriented toward something imaginary.miraculouslybe present once again. Die Entslehung der Speisesakr amente (rgrz). Cretans.This conduct is consolidated and grows with the urge to imitate and with the pressuresof tradition: people act collectivelyas though an invisible. solemn presentation." basedon the experienceshapedby the ritual.sanger?rives it Io the cow away..in. Hsch.On the themeof the muriered maiien :goddess seealsoI..rnBehind the story that Prsipha€ copulated with an exceptionalsacrificialbull are rituals in which a woman offers herselfsexuallyto the victim. Ltouunos"EpLgos at Sparta. lass dich von deinen Kindern fressen" (Abyssinia. tn" sea as a sacrifice for poseidon. tfr" ritualor the queenat the VedicASva- 76 . rleonidas of. and yet later. E.g. Ath.Euenos. r54-:oo). on Aqhat see II.. Mauss wrote: "La cr6ation de la divinitd est l'oeuvre des sacrifices ant6rieurs": OeuuresI (1968). Horqw Ldrrn. since the inescapable confrontations that result from selfish interestsare replacedby a collective orientation. 14 powel. tt below. But in characteristic contrast to the Egyp"tians. and Adonis/Osiris. fr. by consciouslyrendering it concrete. Even in the Gospels."" i.)o. Hesiod Theogony (1966). the crime of Kronos againstutu.z below. ". cf.g with Zeus in form of a bull? The women-of Elis call upon DionysuJto appear as a bull:'uthe real bull is doubtress presentin the sacrificialmeai. FUNERARY RITUALS FATHER GOD AND GREAT GODDESS hunter's"comedy of innocence.Z. '{Apollod.'s Is Pasiphadto be seen as identical with Europu *uti. (rgz5). howevet considered "most beautiful. submission.

Jettmar. 5z-56 on the "gemeinder samen geistigen Raum" in the look and the gesture of the Phidian fighters involved in single combat. ritual. Priihistor' z(:'96r).2o Strangely.6-:^9. in eatal Huyrik center of a circle of skulls of mammoths. remarkableevidence for the continuity betweenthe age of the hunt and the agriculturalera is prothat have come to be known as "Venus vided by the female statuettes statuettes. I. 3og_ro sMellaart Q96) q3-34.summary on ro6-ro7.ra there are large plaster statuesof a goddess.575-79.SACRIFICE/ HUNTING. sixth innuat Report the ol of ern"obgy.howevet depict sexual intercourse.z(Nestane). r4o.. 78 79 . r47_48 (VI B 8). W. Helck.72-86.47-50. with one or the other simply becoming dominant in a aSeel. so as to contestthe identificationof the figure as a goddess." At that point they are not easyto interpret. in one case. apparently found a specialdevice: starting in the Upper Palaeolithic. J8o-95. Schefold.re Fische) Nordeurasien[Uppsata. 67t68.a perfect-and. J. Naissance la cioilisation Grice ol II (t9$). 245-46.g49l : Religious en de (1956)r93-zor. Miller-Karpe igiores the animarbirths 11t968) 382-83]. Thimme. Pritchard. Zeitschr. a sacrificedmaiden in the myth (F.8 above. throughout the Neolithic and on into the high cultures.n.ru several In bull skulls-and.is?. Buschor. the beautiful mar-bl-e statues from cycladic graves. 46. esP. not of the father' zSee II.A. sometimesin further developed tions. IX (y."Cannibalistic in r37) describes detail the eating up of the son. theseidols are a part of the femalerealm.z7below. 4Mellaart (ry67\ pl. (rg7o)I 166_85. cf. ramy. Hultkrantz. r48-5o (VI B'ro. In order to attain such continuity and demonstrateit. B. Myth itself solution io the conflictsarising from the generational sometimes seemsto indicate uncertainty: was Athamas or Phrixos.For the Near East see E. Clay Figurines Figurinesin Relationto Certain and Assyria(rgJo). R' Lery. Betrachtungen Grossen of female sexuality. the sacrificialvictim for Zeus Laphystios?" In reality. D' van Buren. rr I196r]. "Die religiose Bedeutung der Kykladenidole.:vnat:s_among motherof the horseseepaus. i"Il^r.n.on the femalerealm seeL paulson. They make their appearance the Upper Palaeolithic variaSiberiato Spain and continue.or sometimestwo godset desses. Antaios Age lt9$))' 54-$.4r (VI B 7). (1968) 289-3or. !^y11ou .g. Maringer ol Conceptions theStone of Horn (l. and plL. men clothed in leopard skins swarm around a stag or a bull.a ram's skull-are emerging instances.t884wefl as a mother of reindeer(Rasmussen. In reality. On the murals. as ." simple form. next to her.85-156. sometimesin quite "primitive. criticizedby K. bull horns and boar skulls dominatethe room. was given to Zeus "the glutton. On the Greek Neolithic seeC. due to some grueis some madness. Boas. seesher primarily as a goddess zur ings. Mellaart e97o)I r7o. 565-68. the homo " necans. the symbolizing of the feminine. aMtiller-Karpe (1966) 249_52. For the goddesson her throne givin8 birth to a boy seepl. 266-69). as indicated aboveall in a statuettefound at the Further.Schutzgeister. consistentlysimilar in appearance an at earlierstage. the father or the son. Iiasmussen rhurefahrtlryz5l.I. the Eskimos who have a mother of hunting prey. mythology often reversedthe crime of Oedipus so that the father sacrificedhis own son and even ate him. so diffeient and comof plementary are. the goddessappearsflanked on either sidJ by a leopard: she is attendedby the hunting community. P J. Thurefahrt.z.a mother of lf^*rr!r: the Chukchis(paulson. 144-46(yl B rg.+. TheGate K. Could tl" ygylg boy who is intimately connectedwith the greatgod_ dessat QatalHtiynk perhapsbe a predecessor Attis/Ado. z:.But it cani uiaty uu doubted that they reflect a continuity and differentiationgrowing from a common root' The goddesses Greek polytheism.a life-giving power governing the dead.75berow). K. himself to a beastof prey.g. and K. Zervos.ibid." AK8 ('96). The iconographyleadsdirectly assimilating to the image of Kybele sitting upon her throne between two lions. FUNERARY RITUALS FATHER GOD AND GREAT GODDESS sacrificewhich made it possible for the Greeks to create tragedy. nonetheless.Phidias Mensch (t948\. but they are also connected with hunting quarry. a44-45. the female idols becamein many ways more developed and differentiated. Ucko. MateCretewith comparatiae Egyptand Neolithic of Figurines Predynastic Anthropomorphic (tg68). rne statuette the goddessand the boy of from Hacilar(Anat. Rrimarilf Iuother of seals. schutzgeister (der lagdtie. up in household shrines over the bones of the dead. in a statuette. namely.6rt63. lol3r (r91gl4o). [1888]. 78-8t. 49.In Siberia mseealso E. as a deadly gap.and the consummatelysplendid statues of goddesses from Minoan palaceshrines.n of In the Neolithic and Bronze ages. 5. some kind of substitute.. |. F. 4z-57.87-go. 583-9r."although that name has long been recognizedto be inapfrom in propriate. und in ry6!.59)does h rrur. Die Religionen Nordeurasiens deramerikanischen und Arktis(1962). 26Mellaart Q96) :-16-y (sanctuaryVil !. Hancar. Palestinian Babylonia Known throughLiterature Goddesses Og+). Sedna. Besidessacrificialand burial rites. tX 54t55.n. paulson. child-sacrifice attestedwith frightening frequency2'as a horrible but easy form of substitution. The goddessis portrayed with her legs spread wide so as to give birth."It is characteristic Empedokles Devereux.4. Narr. conteststhe interpretation of aid MainlandGreece rial from the irehistiric NearEast the figurines as mother-goddessesand argues for a plurality of functions and meanGtjttin (r97r).one cannot simply equate the statuettesfrom sesklo and Lerna. and it is even harder to postulatea unity or clarity of meaning and function for them during the Palaeolithic.69-7). and yet culture needsa continuity that can survive catastrophe. For Rhea/Demeter as l:. cf." by of The succession male generationsis characterized conflict and death. Stud. 6+_6il. accordingto myth. golden-ram.'ushe is the mother of the beasts2' that are hunted and sacrificed. from between her thighs. 2lSee (VS 3r B that Impulses.

Next to the gocrdess was her 'Besidethe. Qg46). lover.r'irhoi the goddessloves. chantraine.3. remained a goddess of war.. ry64. 5 ltgzSl). this long-rangeobjectiveforces him to abstainfrom sexualintercourse. Th" unspeakable and simultaneouily a restitution of the maiden according to the Great sSee awtRonanArt (tg66t..it.$primitive man saw and realizedthat the mvsierious processof birth.. Paus. At least in Greece.oviaes the GreatGoddesi with a chosen. M. she holds"the irot"rr_on Horn of P]9nty. The . Barre (t97o) t$-69. *o"ii.as does Hera Lakinia (l... Ch.. *. s.Herr und Herrin der Tiere in Vorderasien"Diss. It is the hunter..3' Aphrodite3'?recallsOriental origins.3o(196). Demeterof phiof galia.. Pandora(Hes.". cf.tiii'5r7_ra. r96r).iii"ji vermaseren. The goddess I5tar.. Spartz.but wants to fit matrilinearityin as a later transitionalstage(83-86). SZS-8+). b.emas_ culates.Jrn"i higher will. a woman releasingnew life fro..y complement.:.outdoors.. 43_45. rramutef:see Frankfort. Artemis enjoys the closest ties to the hunt...t7B79l seesthe priority of the patrilinealfarmer. Koch.7. zr. the bearerof childrlen.r. t77_go.H.59 above. z't5). I. .. FUNERARY RITUALS FATHER GOD AND GREAT GODDESS l 1ir itll iijl sanctuary or city.ii o?. r.. Thus.:"t und sarapisbeiden unechen R\mern(g7o\.5. ySee I.F. the naked goddess. zzz-6o.Diss. inst.zr above).2. religion grecque ancienne 3tOn Venus aictrix seeC.ij.64-72 . Argive Hera appears as mistressof the beasts (simon [1969]4r-45.3. is thepriestess or rrir toiar-oni. stiglitz.9o).and kills. appearsto him as though a mysterious it female being inhabits the.Seealso S.34above.sion in a Babylonian myth: t-"rnbeft. "On Isis and the throne see.y Moreover. it is comfor. E. 16. " ror the $Mellaart (tg6il zt5and passim. each is depicted in her attire as Mistress of the Beasts. Kadmos = + (ts6g. 1. For an armed Aphrodite see Paus.geister.etc.n.n.."Das Wappenbilddes Herrn und der Herrin der Tiere. who was herself a transformation of the ancient "Venus statuettes.". it rtonnaire ii^l.ro(Sparta: Plut.zt. La diesse babylonienne nue orientaux dans la Q9t4). "The is Master of Animals.n. Coa_ dess...."lournalof thewarburglnst.. King.rz5. both Eastern and Westernforms of Catholicism purely are male organizations.h rr" submits becomesconsoridated the conceptionsand artistic in reproductions. The hunter sets out to do his deadly work .. Nilsson 995) 5ry-zt.TheSupernatural Ownersof Nature(Uppsala.o ur..t..father. 45r-53g (who hypoet theticallypositsan origin in the "earth-goddess").Dic- 8o 8r . Female dominance is no more possible in Neolithic farming cultures than it is among Upper Palaeolithic hunting societies. Wozak. Die grossen cijttinnenArkndiensft967J."Syria32 (1959.o"fa shut the jaws of death.u. r89-gr.r (Kythera). The special cult of Aphrodite at Lokroi (1. Munchen. When this merges. f..37Man. who demand and iustify sacrifice. 1968).a".9 the family. contenau."Women in Charge:The Function of Alternativesin Early Greekrradition and the Ancient Idea of Matriarchy. even already in language.the Master of the Beasts less prominent (J.u. Th." who is both her son and . fhe Legendof Attis in Greek "a"aay. his oiu.whei sexualfrustration is added to the hunter'saggressivity..Man of r0. M.z. Each is the Creat Coddess presiding over a male society.gy"g man. .as the figure of the C. btc.6t-76.the giver oiilf".to.r-15. . Christou."i"ty and guilt. RE VIII A 86o-6+. La . Herter in Eliments j96o). evidence see Heodingegq). the Despoinaof Lykosura.the wife and mother. but at the same time Artemis of Ephesus is very much like Asiatic Kybele. y. For the Near EastseeM.7. HUNTING.. bull. Potnia Theron (Thessaloniki.67-7t.anlhropomorphic dfing partne.2rabove) was establishedin thanks for a victory ln war. ritually and symboricarytransformeb : i. qaiai iriy.". and Venus could bring victory to a Sulla or a Caesar."".CeistesgeschichtederFri)hzeitl(r96o).ut Thr. lOn the Potnia Theron (ll. shift responsibility .. iust like the sacrificiai u"t. it was"thewoman who insured continuity beyond death.a . SeegenerallyH..' and Mistress of the Sacrifice. and in Minoan Crete is the bull represlnting masculinity. rri" priurt-of_sarapis changedannuary.SACRIFICE... Chittenden.or Athena Alea (R. Picard..Artemis orthia (R.Kyrerre eSgo)..ra the one who demands death. Wien. Blood sacrificeand death provided the .zr... in her hands.z39a). Hultkrantz.ship the Gods e94g). und 4g_.Cornelius. A. one ought not to call him in pseudo$ Greek +zrjryros ..t"r. Paulson Schut. Th.. Inteltectual The Aduenture Ancient.marriage and mother" after the of the father'smurJer is a routine ^o. Hera Argeia with an animal park among the veneti-strabo 5 p. "Les d6esses arm6eset ail6es.. Dawkins.r3 Bachofen's ingenious but fantastic theory of a prehistoric matriarchy has hindered the understanding of these female deities. even Hera and Demeter.he is known as attis.5.." Hesperia [ry47]. this highEr wil'i"'*i.H.tlq . the sacriricial animal' goddJss i. He actsfor the sake :-uppora of wife and his mother.for the sake of the Mother'" For the time being.." as we learn from ongof the pharaonic epithets. IHSSuppl."rru. Kingship theGods and (ry4g1.$and sooneror laterhe must die.: vidman. ed. rsis X*l-"-..sjob . Ephise Claros (r9zz)..to "trrr *oih". the permanu. these goddesses are characteristically savage and dangerous: they are the ones who kill... o.. the paradigmof mankind in a male society.n". 3rOn Artemis of Ephesussee Ch.151-65.47o) see F Studniczka. Pembroke. 89-rt4). Frankfort.with feeling. one doeswell to rememberthat in spiteof their tremendous honor for the mother of god.seep.. ry62. however.. (tymologiquede Ia " grecqut. of the throne.r5.|qpdv (sicNilsson j9551 1og-to). 32G. Barrelet.n. Nilsson (t95) 3o8-3o9." becoming more sexual and less dangerous in the course of civilization. . sacrifice follows the maiden-sacrifice is thus .. Thus..l langue (tg6g). the pharaoh takes office as but always dies as osiris. the bulr that must die' while Isis representsfhe permanence -Horus.o. TheSanctuary ArtemisOrthia.

HUNTING. :lsttng tnen we may seein this a confirmationof our hypothesis.I_l: notalways correspond to ethnic or linguistic categories. the sanctuaries altarsthat as and O::" set up for all time. But the case the Great Goddess maiden has her share of sacrificeas well: the ram. moreover.e. WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPODKETTLE In the first chapter we tried to see man's basiccondition from a biological. too.doubts couldbe raisedas to our methodology. and restitution. in studying such complexes. stand side by side. II. it was always those societal organizations with religious foundations that were finally able to assert themselves: all that remained of the Roman Empire was the Roman Catholic Church. Byz.we will examinet u.jusias various myths often reflect a single structure.rs individuariurt-complexes as exhaustively possible. So. yet. we shall.and this in spiteof the faci that cookingin a kettle. actually has a necessary function in the drama of human society in the counterpoint of familial bonds and male activity. that his existence is defined by the past. is an essentiar part of the rite. "s sacrrtrcial a clearlyculturalachievement. If in so doing we find ourselves confronted again and again by sacrificialritual with its tension beY:. sociological and perspective. in spite of ihe evidence adduced from prehistory and folklore. too.no which is maiden.o' Thus. one-time and voluntary sacrifice in which the will of the father became one with that of the son. reiatedriiuals can be they need by no meansinvoke or worship the samegods in ::::|. thai we can bridge gaps in the transmission and surmise certain lines in the tradition *nt.oundto permanbntlocal groups and henceto specific localities well. The ritual provides the orientation that transforms confrontation into unity. In the religious ritual and the resultant worship of a god. Ancient Greek rituarswere b. a0Hekate(at Ephesus) comes into existence when Artemis puts her own ornaments on a hanged girl: see Callim. the cohesiveness and continued existence of a group and its culture are best guaranteed through one supreme and permanent authority."" encountering death and affirming rife. n . what appears. when following up the myth by logic..Lemnos. lover. in the Eskimo myth.7.then ask to what extent the detailsfit as the perspective developed in Chapter I. s.e91 urqer to be consideredsimilar.Thus. All attempts to create a new man have failed so far. o ' S e eV 4 . By comparing reratld phenomEnawe shall find that details wilr ilruminate each other. And there. since the examples used to illustrate the thesis were chosen selectively. the two may become indistinguishable and overlap. indicatedin as Greek sacrificialritual. 4 o b e l o w . In the storm of history.io.In myin thology.examine complex a thit appears lspecially it reflectsthe ideology or i[" predatory animat pack at ilt"*.SACRIFICE. 46r (1. and mother at once.p-sychological..:ilce meal. the central act remained the incredible.The following chaptersreverse the procedure. Kore. Sedna is made a sacrificed maiden.t. bringing salvation through admission of guilt. was sacrificed to Kore. FUNERARY RITUALS Goddess'swill. rrrst of all. For the sacrifice of a virgin for the Great Goddess see Steph. The mother and the maiden.n. we were unable to proceedwithout hypotheticalsupplementsand generalizations.26 above). a sacrifice repeated in the sacred meal. an animal considered a kind of father. to cause the most severe contradiction. fr. one al_ l1o waysdiscovers similaritiesto other rituais iriother places. However.a frightening centralmoment. Antithe83 8z . A permanent order thus arosecultural progress that nonetheless preserved human violence. i. meeting in the course of the secret rituals of the Miinnerbund. Perhaps our future chances would be better if man could recognize that he still is what he once was long ago. its external form conot preparations.

c'" It was claimed that he "turned into a wolf at the sacrifice Zeus to '315c. Plato is the first source we know who mentions this as a current story (mythos) "that is told of the sanctuary of Lykaian Zeus in Arcadia. A. The pseudo-Platonic see the oracle (#1r Parke and Wormell [1958]) in Hdt.. who won the boxing competition at Olympia in about 4oo n.atovrrls 'Pias: paus.r7. Schwenn 1r9t5) zo-25.38.ev i9' i16oui1s. Hy. E..zo.8. 1. saw and describedthe altar of Zeus at the summit of Pausanias Mount Lykaion. cf.zt. Kourouniotis.22. Plut. 48 n. r. kriimer. that he who tastes of one bit of human entrails minced up with those of other victims is inevitably transformed into a wolf . a Moretti.on the resultsof the excavationsseeRE XIII zz4o-4r.On the spring. t9r.3. JacobyIII B Notes p.rz.7. RE Cook I (r9r4) 82.565d. Oly-mpionikai (Rome.Cf. .64. at the newly founded city of Megalopolis. t13-2a4. 7 above).4. but he did not participatein the festival. schol. carn. rather. 3ooa-c. Heluetia in antiqua (t966).g.. 8. Zeus rJ.'veyei e nIi Oiizl.y below. FGrHist4r3 : Varro in ptiny NAS. RE Xtll 2243. on the mountain slope somewhat below the summitanyone going in would have to die. n.8. Cook I (r9r4) 83. Aristoph. t6r' 78. FCrHist 554 F 7. but the order of society itself takes shape in sacrifice.praktikae9o). it was told.then the Caveof Rheaand the precinctcalledKretaiaon the mountain where.6.'finally. Die Kulte und Mythen Arkadiens (r8gr).."To this Pausanias no pleasurein delving into this sacrifice. it was slow to join in the rise of the city cultures.. Not just the religious cult. Eph. and the sanctuaryof Pan further down the mountain."'Plato compares this eerie metamorphosis with the development of a tyrant who. -R e9o). Eudoxos fr. The name appearsas Demainetos . t6.4. Callim. Abst. Zeus was born.2. the Stadium. rzz-33.. Zeus 1o--r4(the scholionconfusesthe precinct of Rheawith the dBariv: seen.18. 2W Immerwahr. Theopompos. indicates a festival: i1opeicrap. and excavations have confirmed and expanded our knowledge. Crassicar I iy | 6. 7Pa rs.66. for the sacriremarks: "I could fice there took place "in secret. individual rituals cannot be explained by their momentary aims. Schmidt. certain as and Theophrastus5 comparesthe sacrifice"at the Lykaia in Ar_ fact. and werewolves.ro8.60 x 1lo m.Su.U:t :uamainetos) \''c. Zeus. 4.. t77_22. un tema mrtrco (r968). Cia.c.5F 141: potyb. 483 with Schol. other literary sources supplement Pausanias'indications.56 and Pfeiffer ad loc. FCrHisttz4F z1. Lyknia andLykaion When the wave of Sea Peoples and Dorian migrations destroyed Mycenaean culture."uPausanias cult sites of Zeus Lykaios: the mysteriousprecinct where none other may enter.6. zz48-52.WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE LYKAIA AND LYKAION ses and tensions are the stuff of ritual-hence. cf "8.r. r-24.t. etc.3.8.36. ''K. F. Verg. FGrHist t. ."I Rumors of terrible. Lyk.Arch.cf . too. Bloodshed has its consequences. There were tales of human sacrifice. Nilsson (19o6) 8-ro. 3Resp.Pliny NH 4. votive offerings dating back to the seventhcentury n. rc. #359. Farnell I (1894) 4t-42. Lyknon. Hagno. \Ea ayoua TivecBat. 8 Theocr. to assert its pre-Dorian individuality.38. Es. Later.prihi:j:l':. 84 85 .5.Architimos. 'Paus. Hy. thJ measurements approx. Kallisthenes. Rhod.O/. ITpoctiqvot: see Hippys. srorrsche Brandopferpliitze.G... Cr. iT. Schol.:g. and cf. 'Balavqgayot: at Minos'mentionshuman sacrifice the "Lykaia festival. it be as it is and as it let see also named and describedthe was from the beginning. the Arcadians had been known as "acorn eaters" and "older than the moon. (ryo4).t1t Paus. Jg7. r3. in Skooas(?). as a retreat. Callim. callim. Oldfather e94).3r. we must understand them in the larger context. Strabo p.' and inside he would cast no shadow.2. 2.E XIII (t927).. Nub. Piccaluga. Cook I (t9r$ $-9g. fi5_ Honourof W. On the type see W. 144-46.t. axpov yeipa Lyk. Xlll zz17-4o. the Hippodrome.nrhis is where the athleticcompetitions took place during the Lykaia festival.48z with Schol.264. are t-\nr". 2ri1).'o But what Pausanias piously conceaiedin his description of the altarof Zeus. Ecl. loh.1ee. 8. (r95) 397-4or...Callim.Hy. primitive activity especially surrounded the main Arcadian festival to Zeus. 4r Gisinger : Schol. a simple mound of earth and ash. to cadia"with Carthaginiansacrifices Moloch.l-+. namely. . Mytonas.pind. only the mountainous region of Arcadia was able. fr. can no longer stop.38. and rain-magic seepaus. and fed and caredfor by the Arcadian nymphs. he mentioned in relating the story of Damaichosof parrhasia.cf. cannibalism. have come to light near the altar of Zeus. Dei . sln Porph. 22)5 44. Schol. 8) : Plut Q. FGrHist 3r5T r (cf. Apoll.2 celebrated in the mountains of Lykaion in the heart of Arcadia. The Arcadians themselves were as aware of the antiquity of their race and customs as were their neighbors: long before the Hellenistic Age discovered pastoral Arcadia as the setting for its romantic yearnings.tu\ .27. G. Aug. g. once having killed.7.6.2. it developed an urban center only after 37t.tzle-f rd eiotpyoltcv<r 388.1957).Schol.

z4o fl.Ov.The Libraryof Apollodoros speaks of an anonymous"native" boy. But the sacredmeal turned into cannibalism.. some curious details were reported by a Hellenistic author called Euanthes. Lyk.zg-98. '{Apollod. For this reason. and swim across the lake." Catast.lT that he was 'Arkas. and in the circuit of time. He had to strip.8r. PR I rz7-29.. if he refrainedfrom eating human flesh while he was a wolf.Germ. RML Il z165-68. p. after which time.96-97. graphically putting an end to the newly formed community. r3Hes. contrast.WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE LYKAIA AND LYKAION Lykaios.rg8-219. 3.:63 M. dyvoiloas rilu ." the eponymous say hero of the Arcadians.. : Varro in Pliny N. aso."12 in probably found the legend of Damarchos a localHellenistichistory.zo-24. while in the region of Mount Lykaion. he hunted her down. 163 M.g. 48r. Ovid callshim a "hostage".ly to have him come full circle and return to the sacrificial situation: Arkas was brought up by a goatherd.ppa 5z-53 Robert irrd 6i roi i6iou uioi 6taxop. swim across it. he remaineda beastforever. however.a tragedyby Xenokles.-W = "Eratosth. Admittedly." The condition for being transformed and changed back is just that: "someonewas always turned into a wolf at the sacrificeto Zeus Lykaios. came to visit him and be entertainedin a common sacrificialmeal.ttyet Lykaon'sdescendants.22 who was read by Varro. Once. These mythical variants attest once more to the ambivalence of weapons and sexuality in hunting behavior. Dei $.Ov. According to one text."" Of course. 1:98. divine punishment followed. Thus far.: rd. g. 43-4r. fr. Lyk. b"Eratosth. 8.Hyg. if he had abstained from human meat. Arcadians. allowing the victims to be translated to heaven as stars..rcestors' A young boy of the family would regularly be selected by lot and led to a lake. they say he would turn back into a man in Pausanias the tenth year. thereupon he would disappear in the wilderness and turn into a wolf.. goes on in the same place. ItPaus. r. . Stud. Lykaon himself turned into a wolf. p.H. whom the author seems to count as one of his own u.z4..5.fr.2" according to the myth. this r8R' Franz. (rg9o). Nikolaos. hang his clothes on an oak tree.Xw dvatrXaoas dprrcv thrTxev. FGrHist F 18."'u and makes him Lykaon's own son.Lycophron gives him the name "Nyktimos.t in Fragmenta vaticana (seen. he came on the track of his own mother.t7.For the Arcadiansbeing 1'^9rr:r lzo qescended from the oak seeiyk.-11 'vi11t'o. the gods. according to another. it is to form an important junction in the lives of the Arcadians. Euanthes. Met. tz 45.Apollod.TGF p. Once upon a time. 48r.Lyk. the Arcadian par excellence is the "sorrof abear. 3. The gruesome act occurred in that very precinct on the mountain into which none could enter. Pr.r. t7Fr. At this point the myth fades.tor Dryas as the wife of Arkas seePaus. but upon becoming an ephebe he turned to hunting. Eumelos.Tzetz. This death does not end the story for both Arkas and Nyktirnos were included in the genealogies as ancestral Arcadian kings. though he was now nine years older and a grown man. Zeus overturned the table.2. Lykaon's daughter. Opinions differed as to the identity of the boy whose entrails were slicedinto the sacrificial meat. ad 3. ed."Leipz.6vt1v .-W. Kallisto." the "night-like. n15. plut. Cio.2r Breysig. Ov. frequently told version." on the one hand. Met.6. or.j65. Arkas and the bear had to be sacrificed again "according to the custom.invokby ing Hesiod as its precedent. at the altar of Zeus Lykaios. Picca' luga. including Zeus himself. 48o-8r with Schol.227.2. 354. RhM rc5 e96z). it goesbackbeyond Plato.roo. Met. The ritual. Aug. then he and his helper "mixed the boy'sentrailsin with the sacrificialmeat and brought it to the table. where the last word is written Letween fi|:f"rrh€si rrts matri inscius t'erre uim aoluitSchol. the gruesomesacrifice was followed by a flood that destroyedmost ol the human race. RMLII 9y-35. r7). Lykaon. z.His mother was 12Paus. he could return to the lake. 77o.."De Callistus fabula. t. He would have to live as a wolf among wolves for eight years. and a victim at the altar of Zeus.but if he ateit.Nonnus r8. q6. Lykaon. the EratosthenicKatasterismoi. .r.3-4. 64. but not for his whole life. 8. 2. and hurled a bolt of lightning into Lykaon'shouse. 3.who was Lykaon'sgrandson. Sale. elRon.he is related to the wolf even in his name. take down his clothes from the oak tree. but if it is tied to the victory at Olympia. What is was only a vague rumor among Plato'scontemporaries told here as the crime of the ancestralking of the Arcadians.98-gg. Clem. ZeUsbrotght his victim back to life.36. zg6a. 'uApollod. 1. The accompanyingmyth is found already in the Hesiodic catalogues" and reflectsthe ritual in a particularly transparentway. In another. on the other. and turn into a human again. FragmentaVaticana. ro8 (t965). who during her amorous encounter with Zeuswas turned into a bear." Thus.98. his concern is not with the Arcadians as a whole but with a single family descended from Anthos.cf .survived the to come togetherat the altar again and again for secretsacrifice. . W. and changedback into a man againin the tenth year thereafter.z.a. 8. " C^ot. most importantly. 90 '5Apollod. Fab. 86 87 ." Catast. they mated. Rehm QBg). and cf. FGrHist 45r F 8 = Apollod. RE X t7z6-29.for Lykaon slaughtered a young boy upon the altar at the summit and poured out his blood on that altar.

the significance the sacrei tripod I t d s D e lt"lgel ldl 36lr9zrl.For "dog-men" 35 in Hittite ritual texts see. Markellos of sidon treated casesof "lykanthropy" as a mental special form of melancholy.xpetiru irlr4ols in the the. Tereus.For Indians hunting in wolf'.Apparently. on the other of il..ing ('r. i. Graecillzg:).t6. After this reform. Cf . Aeg. I. Did pan-Arcadian werewolf practices and familial customs run a parallel course? It is more likely that some sort of development took place. 8.:::^1:r2.H.pGuillon. the Arcadians still sacrificedupon the altar on the mountain.wild men.choros of banquets:Lykaon.j (1897).'Lykoon.8.there is nothing about . W H. as a clandestine Miinnerbund. There is no doubt that werewolves existed. who conspired to assassinate others and practice cannibalism. civilized. 4. But the combination of a transformation into a wolf.28. S+. E. and although. 'z6Ftrofler Qryg y5ff . Schweiz.:. thesefits of madnessoccurredwith great regularityl accordingto the in-February. physrognonr. Wackernagel.l--":.Tf. The leopard.who fell upon wine later jars much like the werewolves in Livland. Craef and Langlotz nr. r. Cook | (r9rg 71.8.. Gernet. descriptions sacrifice.c'r-crr)rayxvav.'?8. is missing. Paradoxically.On the Hirpi SoraniseeServ.ur.ANET36o. one of the gfat t. the old ways could no longer be carried on officially.For werewolvesin Wallis still in the eighteenthcentury see H. the Lykaia festival was now organized here.f .4r-ou. to some extent. boiling..t89-zo8 : Anthropologie Ia GriceantiqueQ968). SZ 5o. that it occurred at night.. 1.Aen.3o. it is safe to assume that some aspects of the cult were changed at that time and. Man into Wolf(ry5t). just like leopard men and tiger men."-f^1t e n s t u d i e d ( K .LSayt ro..the primate. Arch. zrBt7. 6. "Dolon le loup. In Europe.f :pl : ". zeuner. Euanthes' report at least gives us some idea of how such wolf-metamorphoses were accomplished. slicedin together with those of a man. so they say.n. Regardless of how we conceive of the relationship between family customs and pan-Arcadian rituals.?7 Greek centaursand satyrs. as is common in such a Miinnerbund. Aeg. the orphic tabooior)<iy usee 88 89 . urban culture arrived in Arcadia. Hdt. 87-rz+). Leopard m"n uppear on the 23Stressed Nilsson j9o6) .6.cf.Abh. enlightened stance. Pliny N. Amid.i9:6t48) "'c acropolis. Met. and an injunction to abstain makes the connection very close.. r-rz. hand. and their costumesrecall thoseof the rnuralsin QatalHtiyuk as well.adto fish I. attestedin antiquity not only in fairytalesbut in a doctor. by the cui!-all of letting disorder. L.n. a fragmentfrom . CumontQ936\. strangely. G. ci. grue_so1n-e '. month of the Lupercalia:even in lati antiqcalendar.z. Ov. 654. There. z above. 1. the werewolvish activity consisted for the most part of breaking into other people's cellars at night and drinking any beer found there.arole in modern psychiatry(contrapiccalugu. the uity. Met.Geheimkulte de (196r).r and a climbel was. r.6. of and most depictionson vases. ij "Lykanthropy" no-longer plays. "Partialy boiting and partiailyioasting. Accius . and there in the agora Zeus Lykaios was given the most prominent temple.presentonty l"U-"::.'n Thus. institutionalizedritual.^:.WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE LYKAIA AND LYKAION iii is not identical with the versions reported by the earlier authors.Dionysus.I. there is at least one case of a "werewolf" on record in sixteenthcentury Livland. and each person"t. Both Pausanias and Pliny considered these werewolf stories to be clear examples of shameless braggadocio and the shameful gullibility of the masses.those . as does the legend of the boxer Damarchos. 5Paus.8. Ky::::throp:ie hardetndiFiagntentttes Marceltusuon Side. Peuckert. 9.zz8_29. Leip):^t:l"". Detienneand Vernant Oszs) pt.645-40.'.sarch-enemy.is a standard . By combining rumors about Arcadian sacrifice with locaimythology.ia. Ov. but without consideringits use as a pot for cooking.rgzo).yestes. 1954). 2aPaus. but only in the tradition of a particularly conservative family.35.rr (Oribas." Their legs usually bore the scarsof dog bites.2l Any link with the pan-Arcadian festival. oF 15 = Clem. a secret society. Could it be that thesebands of leopard men and wolf men were the direct result of this decisive step? werewolves are. the so-calledmental disorder wis regulatedthrough ritual. Volkskunde j916). a nine-year period.26More dangerous and perhaps more ancient were the bands of leopard men in Africa. lit.we arrive at a description of an entirely real." M6l.t5t-g5. Both roastcookingin a kettleare repreJented a Caeretan on hydria] Viila Giulia. afn A6t. Lestripiedsdu lllio" I:s+ll. so that what each persJn ate was seemingly a matter of chance." and when Plato uses the word mythos he is already expressing a certain skepticism. zepdAuxcloyos \uxaugp<iroupaul.9. z6s_6t:Harpagos.. TtI^.6rn. pr'z. n.lg5) by 4ut. in any case.MitesianMolpoi-SrG) =. roor 17. man becamea hunter and iord of the earth.2. AfricanLeopard Men (Uppsala.s-zz. Plato's testimony comes from before this time.gto:.8o.r9 above.sclinical report.z.785.s clothing see F.8.By training himself in the ways of the wolf. 46 (rS+q. Z+. we gather from the name.cf.hasgone largelyunnoticed. Seealso B.1'"l""rl:":: tfiu.3. Eisler. Geschichte Haustiere der (rg6Z\. the modern researcher cannot assume the same critical. as Pausanias tells us.. With the founding of Megalopolis. wavering between demonic possession and horseplay. The entrails of many sacrificialanimals were.r_rV. boiling at the sacrifice the to n:::"^:1 328F 1Zi. it 5U): was culturallydetermined.R. t54-27 W E..16.i-4o4. Galen XIXVg Krihn. the Lykaia.:llj:""_:.paul. everything would be stirred together in a large tripod kettle.a blood' He knew patients who "run out at night imitating wolves and dogs in every way and gadding about for the most part i"ncemeteries until dawn. s c h w e n d e m a n n . Lindskog.9 pt. Nyktimos.rjr ?or^d:. At its center was the secretsacrificialfestival at the ash-altarof Zeus Lykaios."::-!"leric on a spit.119. Cyriopr r. then.5en. there is selection by lot instead of the sacrificial meal. :l::"r..

656b.g above).can easilybe as seen as an initiation ritual. the women attendedto n"ewborn life. 416-zo. V. lll. By the time the dawning rays of sunlight hit the golden eagleson top of the columns eastof the altar..iy6nrdv. 27.Instead. The Arcadians. The "wolves" disappearedinto the dark and had to avoid human settlements for years. 'rrror^r'^n trom a cliff.the myth . In discussingthe preparationsfor the sacrificialfestival. Sepf.tr.too. 693. The power of suggestion comes from tradition. he could have been no older than 16 at the time of his transformation.lygry. or kidney from that of an equally large mammal. Damarchoswon an If Olympic victory after his time as a wolf.'for'the " act of killing.: 3ooa_c (n. Nat.Cf.:^:il_: rather than cipr<zosalready in LSS rr5 B 16 (fourth century .. calls himself ). an. into which hot stoneswould be thrown to heat the water. For boiling a ram seelG Xll7. Stat. indicatea"bear festival. Ath.Human entrails may well have been thought to be present.78.i" an inescapable trap. n o t :o*:t "{. of course. reference the OT seen. G.33 Those who breakthe tabu are damned and consecrated once.. The wolf metamorphosis. was thus analogousto the spartin krypteia which. It is clear that women would have been excludedfrom the Arcadians' nocturnal sacrifices.zgz. RlfL III 2855.llr:.4l Bussemaker (Paris. Bur -. even by daylight it is hard to distinguish a piece of human heart.z5 Lp). in exile. -Paus.in turn.t. cf. rln tJeanmaire 90 97 . The trident alsoappearsas a harpoon:Aesch. But expulsionhas to precedeinclusion.. and whoever touches Apollos altar is i"""ly:"". Probl.DetienneQ977)t63-2r7. rFor the trident as a fork for meat seeI Sam z:13 (cf.u. Boardman. Altgermanische ANET 348/49. in accordance with the paraller of the sanctuaryofApolloHylatasatKurion(Cyprus). Yet. 7. g. Symbols theGods of Q94). for the wolves were waiting just out_ side.n. however.u for they representedthe Arcadian nymphs who took careof him. that is.In the flickering flamesat night. Bulle.. t41. ephebesmust leave. liver. Alcaeus. 48." the Arcadians.r857). from social constraints. would not follow their ouarrv pastthis line.8. it was said.98.WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE LYKAIA AND LYXAION out his portion with the sacredfork (the trident?)(seeFigure 4).ined. Iambl. cf. only "consecrated women" could enter the cavewhere l(hea bore Zeus.. tt 6.uxatpiate(r3o. for the boiling of meat in Germanic sacrifices see ReligionsgeschichteQ956'}). the polarity of (ty1) 55o-69. Life as a wolf in the wilderness..3. later corresponded to military service.Now it is surely the novice. Paus.S.1q f. it is presurnably identical w-ith the aparcv ^ . Arist. sAel' Nal.. Theb. within this small area they were free utthorrgh .The proof lay in their effectson the participants:each time one or more would be struck with "wolf's frenzy. no participant was allowed to the "wolves" from the "sons of decline. Pyth.the sacrifice was long over.4.'For all must partake of the sacredobject.r. 4. for stripping off one'sclothes and swimming acrossa lake are clearly rites of passage.and cf. .rr" *u. just as Lykaon had divorced himself from at the circle of the gods. perhaps a shaggyram could havebeen used as a substitute quarry.Ael. they had to be sacrificed.zr below. t^:1. modern surgeonshave even pondered the feasibilityof transplants. 5r5.who would be most susceptible suggestion. r pp. lo below.rr.It is not certainwhether the infor in vention of boiling presupposes the invention of ceramics. have discoveredno human bones among the sacrificialdetritus.l' It is. Excavators Mount Lykaion. only the innermost circle of sacrificialservants could know what was really floating about in the kettle.ust since the Septuagint (thus Frisk.8. cf. strabo r4 p. . a representative preciselythat age-class of which the p.The boy must die if they are to enter the sphere of manhood.tor its place in Roman ritual see Varro Ll.n":. CR zt (rg7t). The tabu was evid_ently createdonly as an excuseani justification for the sacrificialkilling.The sacrificialmeal separated the bear. de Vries."which would easilyfit the well-known type.36.This behavioawild and primitive though it was. 5z_53 Robert. Exod. occurring.). boiling is also possiblein stretched-out hides.3 (n. e. describedby Euanthes. Chanirarne s.. )iabove.Simon jg6) 8z. makesmention of the precinct "that none may enter."whether spontaneouslyor becausethey were somehow manipulated.thedogsdo into the sacred'grove. 5. Aen. whereas the men gatheredfor sacrifice . L4f.Because both Arkas and the bear went in. 8. J. Predatory animals. Thus.7:there.v rhus. t54." Arcadian warriors carried ihe skins of wolvesand bearsinsteadof shields. as we-seer roughly between the agesof 16 and 25. r3r.doubtful whether bearsstill lived in Arcadia in historical times. who mentions an AJr4 of pan at Mount Lykaion. was enough to preserveArcadian independence.an. there is a female realm that is closedto men. The "eaters" and the "slaughterers"were not the same. From this we surmisethat the separation of the "wolves" from the "sons of the bear" reflecteda division accordingto age.deer. destined for sacat rifice. The myth alwaysspeaksof a "young boy" to be sacrificed. 7 above). van Buren. Erar. D. the first-time participant in the nocturnal festivities.3r According to Myron in his history of the Messenianwar.own .and henceto the shockingrealization to that he had eatenhuman flesh. yerg.tjir . for the Hittites see I J. presumablythe sacrificialanimals were set free'only to be caught all the more certainly when thev would crossthe line "of their own free will. Anyone who entered the precinct on Mount Ly(alon was considered .: a see plut.

the lewd goat-like god' eponymous official and sanctuarywere next to the stadium'o'and the then a priest of oijur. constant those wnb naa turned into "wolves" were of course f'"stival. 9 . purely Arcadianevent. The serioussacrifice the group is the antithesisof the unification during a period divides of license.there was another god besidesZeus His sacred grove volved in the agon-Pan.z.lY'12 629'lllll. white the twenty-five-year-olds.e.the she-bear and her baby are caughtby aizdtror. Robert). roo. r see z*Epimenides." The prize there iii. io.W. u"ii ara.held every four yearson the banks of the Alpheios.eachinto the the other.8.i"tf due to the sacrifice: further down the mounthe summit. was a the oldest of all Greek agons.r.n" C. g.KETTLE WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD assuredperpetuity in the sexesbound together the courseof life and the face of death. O l ' 7 . # "Eratosth. For Panas the inventor of astronomy.i""g of zeus Lyliaios. y6 asthe son of Hermes. his time as u *otf was a time of preparation won-the victory that even for the Olympic victory which he tnen him pan-Hellenic lifted him out of his Arcadian context.Lyk. see Pind' Nen ro 45.rather.aing to X"t'opnott.r.r o 8 ' . Gardiner. 5 5 o . Arcadian Pan is said to be In pan'son the other. fr.1-4c.t51d 1r.They are.. moreovet display Zeus'shead ' yXen. 482.ulled bronze implement..' sCook I (r9r4) 68-7o. bringing f a m e . Polemon 3ePaus.7. Pliny NH 7'zo5' Fot a prize of 1atrrds Ol' l'8+. FGrHist317F 4.i. I n t h e a g o n f o l l o w i n g t h e s a c r i f i c e ' s o c i e t a l r o l e s w e r eto-a s re for others went rt*O. killing/giving do theseantitheses not merely collapseinto a birth.when it is told that Arkas was raised by a "goatherd... belongs' Zeus and Pan alrnost seem to embody the antithesisbetween aggressionand sexualthat itv. Olympia.taking their wrealhs ing their bronze triPods' who was inStrangeto say. of that reminder ". Kallisto.if. lts Historyand Remains Q9z5).sacrimeat-eaters/acorn-eaters. N..4 8 .Theocr. Rodenwaldt. the old/the young. 163." Schol' (new foundation ca zr5 n c ) see IG V 2. Anab.lli.".53.t o .* the ns Similarly. "acorn-eaters"u' oppot"d to carnivorous now participatein the sacpruy. there was the inevitable agon i-he Arcadian "performed the i"i". Mann Par'' Schol. seePind.. 9 6 . cf' Pini' Pind' OI 9 r41a' For inscriptions iirluirt a9 e.1o.I'1993 ro5 AYKAIA seeImhoof-Blumer(1886) For coins with the superscription noFor I 7'n t3 above' agonand weddingsee Theocr'r'rz1c' arpaus.'.rz3b. myths.i"" for. us. 5z .. there must be a new unity correspon-ding following the sacrificeat the altar on ^ur"-uo.nvot seeSchol.""t agonistic fe"stivals. t7.li' i'5."Nilsson bgo6l. the cannibal turns ascetic.8.coins. Characteristically. now TheY ". wolves/bears.like night into day: the hunter becomes hunted. probably a tripod' i. z : Hes. entered athletic competitions'n". Arist fr' 6y.5 (.pavrtiouflavosSchol' o ' I G Y2 ..r.riiophanes. It is thus the polar oppositeof the world of the huntress irtemis.+4+.to ra A'uxola ii$uoe xo. wild.. F FGrHist 4:.38. to the rift in Thus.outdoors. uniform duality.2\. Aristippos. ZeuslPan. too. 8. 4 5 . On the statueof Pan in the sanctuaryof Zens Lykaiosat MegalopolisseePaus.2.Theocr.r.." severaltimes. at celebrants the Arcadianritual: predatoryanimals/sacrificial night/day. ficelagon.g ...a3 genealogical son of Zeus and.g the Lykaia was alternatelya priest of Zeus' on one side and Pan..SS".But the details of the Program. the brother or half-brother of Arkas.p..id76va E#rlxe BOl.iugeable." Arcadiar. to which Arkas' mother. FGrHist F 4. men/women..i +l. fn"y had found their way and might from the altar and dedicatrifice without danger. escaPe A strange abundanceof antithesesis thus impressed upon the animals. 671. .-h". Pelops Olympia antiquity.the agon' and chos. 549.For Panas the son of Aither.the Lykaia remained Although they were of the greatest abasically provincial.Z g : Schol. 3. Schol.8 4r 3 r o 7 .r"^". 93 92 .iri. -were of beasts true Arcadians..s . e. and cf. Ol. The younger members of the rising generation i".. wolves/stags. or at leastbetween order and wild living.. who had returned "igi.Pind. il." it evidently reflects the role played by the cult of Pan in the life of a erowing boy.ti*" not allowed to participate in the agon' but those were peim-ittedto enter' Thus' for Damaryears"abstinence .N e m .t.. fr. in the sacredgrove of Zeus.at the foot of the Hill of Kronos. Xenia-s in foreign lands' ln enuivtuiorl sacrifiie and heid an agon"'-'even pindar mentions the "festive .the race-trackof Zetts. and its sequencein time. 8 1 .accordingto anotherversion("Erat..the living are killed.." Catast p.Zufall. seeAriathos. for altarsof Zeus Lykaiosand Panat Tegea Paus. the dead come back to life-the "secretsacrifice"revealsthe primordial situation of the hunt' at 2.4q. putting an end to the primitive rpoat).The exiulsion of soire and the new start had to be eether.Theywereclearlyeclipsed by the Olympic games." Cat. r. hence. 'E..generallytransformed." *ut. i. Hege and E.r.

'i.::::::i:. Curtius and F. 7.ff ilil# ) s'4.c..ul_.r.I. Jacoby.ro4lli)rotrt A.7.:i: M. 533. in 68o n. 'oH. fL. can be tracedto Hittite roots...c.%.66\'. the history of era. H. Drees. Rather. !'l.'oBut all this does. :.'z come down to us only in scattered Although there are signs of a pre-Doric tradition."Zur Geschichte von Elis und Olympia.3-4 (destruc(cf. Mezo. 5On the protubitionagainstpagancults seeCod.to.StraboZ p. in 97).. a sacrificial Pelopsand the altar of Zeus. W.z..Ziehen and J.8.paus. that is. seeArist. Kunze.we must omit the most famous foundation of my_t_h the olympic games. RE VII A t96-97): destruction War. . R. "'.ur" ""u"." rF. For the lists of victors see L. to the excavations. for here the rnost diverse traditions have become superimposed:pre-Doric and Doric.. Cornford in Harrison Q. Olympische Forschungen . for a hypercritical account see U. Paus.'Until then. F. 1o' and Lykurgus. Moretti..Paus. even if only through the Zeus of Phidias. g.r1 and the fact that it penetratedto olympia testifiesto growing Elean influence in the sev- p"i. fr.5.-w thepedimental sculptures 94 95 .Although the story of pelops.. but also for all of Greece.confused. 351. on account of the votive offeri.'.927\279-29. layers than to organize and evaluate sift through the archaeological the literary evidencefor the cults and gamesat olympia. tion of Pisaafter 588). :l1:j:.reproductionsof war chariotsamong the votive offeringslong before6go-as there are in other Greeksanctuaries as well-and perhaps even the name of the wily charioteer. nut.e). the last Olympic gamestook placein 393. the sanctuaryat Olympia3 seemsto start in the Protogeometric From then on.'wecan often do no more than combinethose items that necessarily belong togetherbecause their of function' In so doing. irni"e""lii:.r7 ffi.s Thanks tion of the Hellanodikaiwas established. "Zeus. F.'9.-localand pan-Hellenii.. Wrede and E.' fi)r dieAltertumswissenuG'.zo. admittedly. which might thente related to the introduction of the war chariot in the middle of tne second millennium n. g Gr.and cf.6. Hai. Bericht E. A.2i. 6. Apollodors Chronik tzz-26.However. tg-zz.5.22.4.and althoughthe pedimental sculpture the eastern o.?y.on see .. . in the chariot race and of oinomaos' death in the processwas already a part of the pseudoHesiodicGreat Ehoiai and appearedon the liyps^elos chest about 57o 8. But the fact that both the religious experienceand the event were imbedded in a ritual with a striking resemsocio-athletic ritual that centeredon the precinctof blanceto the Lykaia. fif (Rome.E the myth only becameimportant for olympia oncechariot-racing had becomethe most prestigious and costiy sport and thus becomethe focal point of the games.to. Deubner. L.). for Pisaand it was about then that the Greek alphabetwas introduced. Kunze.157-76. cf.c.r.' . I teady an alfusion at ll. and unverifiable.' .is well known.13*fl. doubted by L. z6_27.?'.4..ro-rz (lgrlgz).o until.we have detailed knowledge of the sanctuary's glorious architectural history aswell as its declinein late antiquity until the emperor Theodosiusabolishedthe games. Bolte. only victors in the ftot-race were recorded." SMSR 36 (1965). a ctrl ^i' "1:::l t:]t:*s we will not deatwith the traditionsthat attribute the founding of the l*":i::#i:. It is probably just chancethat the list of victors beginsin the year 776. y3b.fo.abduction Hippodameia from her father..2.Tdy^i:" a1p.. zo-zr.1 Kronos(Paus. 5. Olympia Q89oilberdie Ausgrabungen Olympiat-5 Q944-6$.On the excavationssee E.f1.tendentious. 5. TheLocalScriptsof ArchaicGreece sThetradition is late. Kult und Spiel int alten Olympia (1936).On the discusof Iphitos of Pisaby Elis and Spartaafter the (Second?) Messenian (tgoz). Kahrstedt. 5.. r-r74.gs. F Jacoby.Devereux. 3-25._ 5.q{int<p. +.7. Myrtilos.. of which was consideredthe most important expression their conception of god.. z..1. F. 5. Schachermeyr. Long after Pindar. in Elis fought to possess famous site over many generations the the sixth century. XYl. ePaus. M. Pisan and Elean. Morebver.lHS zq (rqoq).Theod.Olympie et lesjeux grecs(196o). n".'... receivedfar less notice and hence has fragments. Adler. Der Ursprungder Olympischen Spielejg6z) sees"pre-Doric fertility cults." CR t7 Qgq).B.6 it is far easierto But OlympiaQ916)...Their enormous importance in giving the Greeks a senseof identity in sports and politics.' z) tp s-le.. 1957).. Cook. he was followed by F. . and even in their spiritual existence.L. u6 n... accordingto the olympic victory lists. $944ff.not touch upon the heart of the olympic festival.WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE PELOPS AT OLYMPIA I lri of Thesegameswere the most important expression unity aboveall in the Peloponnesus.3. chariot-racingwas only introduced in the twenty-fifth olympiad. interpretedthe ritual as a battle between the young and the old priest-king.9.268-78. oinornaos.:set.*s. cf .and the Oak. "The Abduction of Hippodameia as Aition' of a Greek Animar Husoandry Rite.t sideof the greattemple of Zeus depicted the preparationsfor this chariot race... Hall.." NGG j9z7). however. Jupiter.).Pisa was destroyedand the pan-Hellenicorganizawith Elis presiding. Wiesner RE XVIII (ry$.. feffery. FGrHist III B: Kommenlar zzr-28. (t96r).ifi. the significanceof the gamesconstantly grows. Anzeiger *h"ft .There are. Olympionikni '?A. in its detairsthe myth of Hippodameia reflects the strangetabus of Elean animal-husbindry rites. L i'iJiJlJ"i"'i"[ ::*:* :l:.8. 5.'il. the Greekswere still awarethat this athleticeventwas simultaneously a religious festival. they are frequently distorted by local patriotism or politics or becausegenealogieshave becomesystematized.. Mousset.J'. Geschichte Olympischen der Spiele(r93o).

t. Thus.o"r u'"us d. Etvmologisches (r95o). . in the plain of ii"ifpfteios' The toward the altar of Zeus'l'?The side the sacredp. hence stadium..and fina-lly' intimately ffili.TRIPOD KETTLE WEREWOLVES AROUND THE PELOPS AT OLYMPIA ii.3.t. t. the frequent and the rare.the associationwould not be without significance.. the altar of Zeus blood from the stadium. ..i'the4. tz "s.t ofritualscurrentutu"yot'"tit"'private'occasionalsacrifice. the foot-race ttEds r.that is to say. uymn."te antithesisof the god of daylight. GYmn. ttl. e d J: :P:: :Yl":::"'. LSS44.And in fact.2.r5 6 6i Dp<ipos lnfiot .r1. Thus.'o When the schedule started to get too long.all the Greek envoys present not be delayed. . and.z." ..r49a xai npd toi Atos arhQ see Paus. Pausaniasdescribesthe altar more exactly:"The custom is to slaughtervictims in the lower part of the altar. Plut' ':i^t ' 'ii ipJlio' 492-gJ.epa. 5. aPaus. 5.il height through an impressive earth and ash. the early stadium ended at the altar."il*ttr*ial (956).RE Wbrterbuchdes Griechischen luppl. Even if Pelopswere-as is more probable-the ePonym of a people. the pentathlon and the were moved up..t. the two sacrificial recipientswere united in a polar tension.t3..e. followed by the foot-racein the stadium.the had to sacrifice.6." Thus.. 5.*: bff"::.an . Kunze. The name Pelops be interpreted the "dark-face. r4. they fices and the larger or elaborated' press essentiallythe same thing' whether abbreviated than the other heroes "The Eleansno"ot"a Pelopsas much more than the other gods"' says 'Now he at Olimpia as they honored Zeus mote his unique stat rs: Pausanias..r3. 14.are The altar ot. tt'ot'u' large' Inloth sacrificeseven if d.ou'itless visitors'" Not far off' toward of the sacrifices Beforesacrificing of stones' the precinctof n"foft.. trPaus.c.u.uUitt" 'ut'ifices at we the samehero or god at the sameslte' extent that they concerned the smallersacribelween may assumethat there was someanalogy would exones.9-ro. Ol.irilla-io cases'only white .5.Ol."2'It started at the altar and returned there in the end. A|A 5z j948)' in "9 ''o'o' l2E. calling on the Greeks to come.ffii.Whereas was aPProached poured into the sacrificialpitl8 for Pelops.ut'i#e-important once involved in running Olympia.. .3. Hofma.r-).cf.r. ilii r11 illj llt iiii lilll rlli 96 97 . ({urerls)'" servant' woodman Hfi.J diversity there would be a considerable highly frequentedt.5. the altar of Zeus grew higher and higher. 5' Bericht iiberdie Ausgrabungen olympia 675c. o ^ : ruPxltt9eis' p6y'exrct'' viv 6' iv aipcrxortpicrtsd1Lclaiat rot'u(evottarq rapd BallQ' Bov d4'gitot ov i1lrl.t. s t' rre)ttrvcis.flawa npoohil-. uGymn. And yet' to the the gieat fesiival' every four years. rc. (1896)' #62' 64' 72r' r22' in inscriptions see Olympia V tzpaus. B.i.^.i.."'o'The alta. . though it had risen to the west' was .. the prewere.But in order that their procession runners ran one stade away from the altar.littand oriented the foot-racein the stadium' and it preeminent agon at Olyfi.5o. The agon to mean took placein the daytime and could not be continued into the night.tut" . Eumenes'foundation Delphi.. "When alsoconnectsthe double coursewith sacrifice: Philostratus the Eleanshad finished their sacrifice.i.. following ancient sources.iy Bofipou Paus.udi. t'Paus.9.of Zeus is the heap of . VII 849.l.n."t.cf' Paus'5'8'6' 8'26'4. 5.a3. J ...r3. 5. pind. .". though not as yet set on fire' The runners would stand at a distanceof one stadefrom the altar. But only men may climb up from the prothysis to the top.the precinct. 17.... one stadelong..ofPe.lops."zt Thus.y 'mainly 'sacrifiie' Of course' in such a of the cultic activity t".t.daily the because city administration and annual .A.or. downwas ward... ll6)\oaes (like Ari. Cf .rz.n" very end nothing more than a primitive i. Then they take the thighs up to the very highest point of the altar and burn them there."..But the Hippodromer'rras stadium'by contrast'was inZeus.a"tttibes lying by the'ford of the Alis drenched in glorious'blood-offerings' altarwhich the most peopn"i.". from the east. paratorysacrificeto Pelopsoccurredat night' "When the Eleanshad slaughteredthe sacrificialvictim accordingto their custom.r"*g. Philostr. So much for the double course. And the parts and then depart as an winner would set fire to the consecrated Olympic victor. -ian his busy tomb right next tothe true center of the Altis' ple come to visit.t ilone had a sacralfunction' the ."e"a urt"ulf fitta. The hero and the god can went together like night and day..n"" saying that at Olympia.."which horse-racing in turn.\oaes.3:472r. . in front of which there was a priest signalling the start with a torch. the entranceto the precinct of Pelopsis in the west. . to be followed by the sacrifices. its consecratedparts would lie on the altar. the so-calledprothysis. iiiii locatedfar from the Altis of enth century. riTpt at 7lu ttvri rdv Bap"ov. Thuc. On the tyPe.v see lI'r'n ro above' 15paus. If goeswithout cultic centersof the.9.. 5.i.6 6i vutay iganttra ra i.8'H)telous Biew' On the Pelopion' rois r6Schol. a 1' Whereas .n.then turned and ran back as if to announcethat all Greecewas presentrejoicing. . Apitotres).Philostratus" derciiUusthe foot-raceto the altar. t. 5.g-93 !'A\geoir^ r6pot .tJ. \ . u*losed by a circle of n"ropt'1"tho thus got the samenumber to Zeus. torfutreus 724.

i.tou. . yet. On Milon's sacrifice a bull at olympia seeAth.Dionysios. Oinomaos. from encounteringdeath to the joyful satisfaction of surviving is manifestedin the strength of the victor. too.2. upon catchinguP with him. The race marks the transition from blood to pn. there.LV tt.5r. Pind. however. r5z-55.layed. the altar of Zeus. QR.'?8 basedon scenes shift causedby someinterventhis is probably just an iconographical ing facior." for Pelops.r Pelops' severedshoulder blade belongs. 4z. .j8.44o. to give only the ram's neck to the so-calledwoodman. took the shoulder and ate it. vlctory of the pelopids over Trov. the place where fire must blaze is the top and burn up the thigh-bones. with that other gruesomemyth of Pelopswhich Pindar mentioned in his first Ode. the most important agon at Olympia is part of a sacrificialact moving between the Pelopionand the altar of Zeus. 4. Artemis on B 3. so too the only woman allowedto enterthe stadiumwas the priestess Deof DPaus. xprcv .Ar_ as of . Here. only to rejectit indignantly as a maliciousinvention of Olympian the poets. ]." After Pindar. FGrHist15 F Firm. it is a the blackram-this.t. amphora BM F Calyx-crater Qg6o)37o: C o o kl ( r 9 t 4 ) 4 o g : B l = H. especially plied toevery Pelopssacrifice during the great pentetericfestival. those who told the myth were moved to combine Pelopswith a race and the sacrificeof a ram. pR II zg6. F.tt-ffi.92. Fab. 3 ) r : D 7 .5.-5.. Cook I (r9r4) pl 5. it was surely not restricted to the annual sacrificebut apprecedinga sacrificeto zeus. ilarrison (1927)zt8. it is customary ' Anyone. and the stadium were all'u"ty clor" to eachothbr. r. Ietting the suitor get a head start until the "consecrated"parts of the victim were burned. the Greeks often changed the setting of this cannibalistic banquet of the gods to Sipylos in Asia Minor. Iph.5. kettle on metope3z from the Heraion at the river Sele:seeE. the sacrifice a ram at the Babylonian priestsand those who do the slaughteringmust leaveBabylon: ANET 111' 2'Diod. 52-56and Schol. stresses dark sideof the ceremony'Pausanias describesthe annual sacrificeoffered to Pelopsby the Elean officials: ..ue 4.P1us 5ar3+-6. shoulier guaranteedthe 3. a7-53.lP* /dI g: .6. the sacrificeof a ram is also present in the C-iraracteristiially. thereupon he would chaseafter the fleeing suitor and. O/. kill him.e. tl lii lllllllr ll 98 99 . Epit. FGrHist8rF 3.ifyir. cornford in Harrison (ry2." an outsized shoulder blade.WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE PELOPS AT OLYMPIA I the presupposes bloody act of killing. t. who eatsthe meat of the victim sacrificedto 26-that is.1 temts"(Diod. *l'ind.rr. Modern mythologiststhink that the myths of Tantalosand Lykaon must have influencedeachother.ro-r).c r a t e r i n N a p l e s z z o o : -iRV' : D . . not in Asia Minor. 6. though it no longer existed during Pausanias' lifetime.amphoraat Ruvo : Cook | (tgt4) 4oB u5f Zeus appearsas the 4.aog roi 6po1. 3 .Olympia.6.. and Demeter.however.) z4-5r interpietedirt" *y*r ur belongrng to an initiation and New year's festival. C o o k l i r g r a )p i .73. Ot.r. of Hekate. Epit. b e l l . unaware becauseof her intense mourning for Kore.the -t<nifeof perops"was kept in the sikyonian seePaus.theserams are white. 4rz-t3a Phy' of larchos. Eur.r. in the seienth century. Pausanias Lral way. combined in ritual until the time of Pausanias 6Do Chrys.Medeaappears the priestess . Tantalos. rz. 2'2-l. M.pelias. so it is iold. he may not enter his Pelopsis not allowed to go in to Zeus" statesthis rule in a 8enprecinct or draw near to the altar. dyw$iurav 6i riov bpdv rore dpyeoSat E.rsed to sairifice a ram. just as these had been and Philostratus.g fire. to the typical closing "revival" by putting together his bones. of 5.5r. or whlther El-ean foreign. FR III i5r.. There.to.:^". of the aniient heap of ash.f.however. etc. the New YearFestival. But because both clearlydepict a sacrificialact. cf. . of course.:. 26Paus. It was said that his bones were preservedin a chestnot far from the sanctuaryof Artemis Kordax.t9.r3. For Etruscanurns see EAAY recipient of the sacrificeon D 7. )Pind. .turned the divine banquet into cannibalism: he slaughtered his own son Pelops and offered him to the gods as food.Fromthis sacrificethe prophet gets no share.r.zz. ol. with blbod. aBrommer BM F z7r : D 6.:11-. Simon. from cutting the victim up and cooking him in a kettle. both are therefore bound to a specificlocality through ritual. myth linking Pelopsto Oinomaosand Hippodameia. Even the tale is quite far removed from ritual.was kept separately for display.Hyg. Schol. likewise Pelopswas "drenched The end of the race.3lThis myth runs directly parallel to the myth of Lykaon: with Zeus leading the way. in the preliminary sacrifice. In any case. andcf. tl Bacchyl. . the gods came to visit Tantalosfor a festive meal.186-88. Cf. ^fn 1eo_-22. The myth of Medea. There may be a depictionof pelopsrn ["^":_lO. The sanctuaryof Pelopswas no ordinary grave.z4). Thus. And jusi as the pelopion. but from tragedy.r' A series of vase-paintingsdepicts the sacrificeof a ram.Apollod. Lykcoph. too.54. Taur.Apollod. Or. and cf.4g.46 ptivOivop.the nociurnal readerof dogs.Pelops'limbs were put back together in the sacrificialkettle and he was brought to life once more. Pl. admittedly.rather. its goal. for whatever reason. only the missing shoulder had to be replacedby a piece of ivory. the justice of Zeus was quick to folloW even though there is little agreementas to the form it took.and the ram in the kettle is far more pt_rpu_ ll37]: y:-: *e Brommer[196o)348-4g). Anna\i 4 $85r).pelops. fr. Err. Lyk. The propei victim for Zeus is a bull. pelops' shourderwas disat P..

Gymn. their expulsion is comparableto that of the wereworveso1 Lykuio.'Thus. 4.euswhereby the ash-altargi"* higher-a typical distribution "'u".e. fust as the Arcadiansgatheredfor the festival of ZeusLykaios. cf. when a greatmarvel happenedto him while he was at Olympia to see the games. On the futrerisseen. which were full of meat and water.Dreifusskesselvono|ympia. o/.LS xonrero.t3. the Olympic ritual combinesthe very gods that went together in the myth-Pelops. r. ihe cannibalisticmyth of Pelopsthat so shockedPindar clearly refers to the Olympic festival.5r5 = LSS6r. see Eur' Bacch." orympische Forschungen 6 (1966). 3. "Die Kesselder orientalisierenden Zeit. This is apparent from a legend current and retold by Herodotus: Hippokrates.7 vGtroy xai r\arq arm together with the shoulder blade plays a special role in the crapayp'os.consequentlyhe was permanentlybarred from the precinctof Zeus.2o.o2 of Nevertheless.At leastpart of the sacrificialmeat would be collectedin such kettles ()'eB4res)and prepared in them. all of Greecegathered for the Olympic festival "in the wooded valleys of Kronos in pelops. dark.ro.a ram's shouder blade played a specialpart in the sacrificeof a ram.We do not know what was actually done with ramt bones in historical times. $Hdt. Volksglaube und religi1serBrauchder SildslauenQ89o)' 166-67' I'Philostr. Such was the importanceof cookingin a tripod kettle at the pan-Hellenicfestival at Olympia. that-as the excavations bersof tripods were dedicatedthere from the tenth century on.. Hdt. so pelops was the eponymoushero of the whole "island of Pelops"(peloponnesus). Krauss. l]:: :1". Tearing off the 96.o.as elsewhere.r.ina comedy of innocence. sF. 5. fasting was required of the seer taking part. In Slavicand German folk-religion. chosefor the acroteriathis very symbol of Olympic sacthe architects namely. and Demeter.would sacrificeafter the double course. in both the sacrificeof the ram and the myth of Pelops. '5. began to boil without fire and to overflow. so the inhabitantsof the "island of Pelops"and. the shoulderblade sprinkledwith wine"3s-i. ot roles. the tripod. anJ was also requiid of *tt"il:ty the athletes. destruction first.we know with certainty itrat at least until the late sixth "F. Pelops fust as Arkas was the ancestorof the Arcadians. the "woodman" supplied the wood for buint offerings to 7. In Greece.. 69-74.5 -.'o seer would have been present at the sacrificefor Pelops. of age groups and initiations were no longer part of tire pan. who took her place at the gamesuPon an altar opposite the Hellanodikai. The otherswere probably allowed to purify themselvesand return. . Accordingtothebequestof Kritolaos. a ramb while at Olympia a shoulder blade is used for making predictions.woodman. a purificatory bath in pergamon."" Hippokrates was evidently one of those envoys who. "Pind. according to Philostratus. thus. When he had offered the sacrifice. the '. There was one person of sacredstatus who ate of the ram. Zeus. it is expresslystatedthat "the back and the shoulderblade should be cut up. as in the parallel case.. who had yet to be born.thereby shedding light on its workings.WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE PELOPS AT OLYMPIA meter Chamyne. Hellenicfestival. 5.t. In such a sacrificefor Poseidonon Mykonos. namely. then sacredhonors.r3. i1 trXarq cneu6erar'.the great temple of Zeus was constructed. but the "eaters"must subsequently shun the daytime sky god. TS.9. land. although at first without fire.The the division is most noticeablein those participatingin the sacrificeof the ram to Pelops.62.. 6.a sign of the future tyrannyof his son.zz. 35SIC3 roz4. (rgZq) rr sPaus. lGXll7. so too the sacrificial ritual at olympia accentuated distribution of roles in society.zr. and the start of the chariot race between and Oinomaos. Theocr. The fact that the kettlesbegan to boil by themselveswas a sign of the vicyPaus.asacrificial ram is cooked and prepared so as to be eaten after the games. 'r'-v' tlerrmann.nO Betweenthe tripods was the battle of the rifice.59. Zeui.t. later..rnAnd when. It is have shown-great numno surprise. z6. Lapiths and the Centaurs.In sacrificingthe ram..This chthonic. One thing is certain-and once again this connectsthe sacrifice at Olympia with the Lykaia-the big tripod kettle was extremely important in thesesacrificialcustoms. in the fifth century. 17 above.wil|emsen.4..then. The hero's mythical fate is strangely connected with the ram slaughteredin the Pelopion-on accountof that sameshoulderblade.*ffi the olderpieces found *"i" i"-urkaLly numerous aroundthe pelopron. perhaps the meat was given to any socialoutcastswho happened to be there."n'And just as the sacrifice Zeus Lykaiosdivided Arcadian for society. Philostratuswas content to avoid the problem by simply saying that they did "whatever was customarythere" 3tand we too must be satisfied with the realizationthat. 6..the tracesof ancient hunting and sacrificialcustoms shine through preciselyin the way in which the bones are treated.cited by Pausanias. torious strength emanatingfrom Hippokrates.course. S. nocturnal sacrificeis for eating.trz5-27. Bericht iiber die Ausgrabungenin Olvmpia Q967). "as yet held no public office. 8.3. the in the time of Peisistratos father of the future Athenian tyrant. the tripod kettles.

9. This was likewise a time of sexualabstinence.apotvPaus.they had an athletic festival of their own.own sake. An olympic victory was a unique socielalevent. after which the envoyswould sacrifice a specificorder set by the Judgesof the Helin lenes' Pride in individual achievement. j. under threat of death.€Such renunciation and focusing of one's strength was meant to lead all the more certainlyto a final goal. 13above. military symbolism would mark a return to order: trumpets inthis was the norm stead of flutes. On the other hand.Onthearchaeo. the Heraia. yo_5ol I "Purd. cf .v. to the competition.aiti.After the games."-@ studres/or S."were responsiblefor ministering to the cuit of the divine child in the room of Eileithyia. sPaus. sacrifice underlay this uninhibited celebration. the women had to play their part beforeand after the games.6'z5.os for all Greek men.rg.o. seePaus. the tradition that Pythagoras of Samos introduced a diet of meat rather than cheese. to victory.Migne PG 5r.WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE THYESTES AND HARPAGOS illl century athleteshad to undergo a thirty-day period of preparation with a strict vegetariandiet of cheeseand figs. 15 (from Antonios Dogenes). PNostr. For a training period of ten months. Rhea'scave on the slopesof Mount Lykaion has its . Theseconnectionswere no longer so obvious when the games grew into a highly organizedbusinessand when sport becameimportant for its.* The festival divided the family in order to illuminate its relationships. but the victor's status and the order in which the participating cities wereranked becamevisible mainly in the sacrifice. of r. After this. and cf.2.'. with banquets at the state'sexPense. Artemis Kordax was given hs1112ms4-a name that reflectsa lasciviwithin ous dance-because Pelops'companionsheld their procession her precinct. Pelops'bones were kept in the precinct of Artemis Kordax-that is. becausethe men gathered around the site where killing took place.though not virgins.on. the women.on aged priestessand a virgin choseneach year. 76.2. that the incessant in killing in the expectation male sphere where Pelopswas "drenched" with blood must have its counterpartin the female sphere in the mysteriousbirth in the cave.ry (II z7oed.i.the sanctuary were inseparablyunited. Q. U Ap. Women. Gymn. How else could the "city be saved.6.25' 'Agpo}'. rather.23. lll 564. The part"icipating communities demonstratedtheir renewed strength each time in the festive the racebetween the "darK..27. proverbial. until the victory of Dromeus (#r88 Morettt. 5.yet the two managedto survive side by side for a thousand years. sPaus.5.24. 6.3. Iambl. Gymn. By combining those aspectswhich the festival divides. werebarredfrom the Olympic games.On an eveningat the start of the festival. V Pyth.Nilsson Ogcr6) on Hera at Olympia see Simon (r$) 36-18.1. 5. cona. Ol. and to sacrifice. Teubn.r1.The child'sname seemsto havebeen of little importance.n ind a temple was built for the mother of the gods in the fifth century.and divine gIory radiating from. cf.:u.5. 5. BPaus.u. not becauseZeus was any less important but.r7.n'though it sium for sacrifice: may just have been a secondarymotivation for the comedy of innocencepreceding the sacrifice.Ael. Plut. the ash-altat whereas the goddessof women stayed at home. weeping and wailing. V Pyth. we get some indication of the sexualurges that.r.2. would now break out into the open in the festivalcelebration. Yetit was evidently not so much a question of the child's name as the expressed the ritual act. in her vads.7 at n. the circleof life is sealed. Olympionikai. 6. indeed.4J. perhaps..lou_ trophoros.7..€The temple of Hera was built much earlier than that of Zeus.y counterpartat Olympia.Porph.7.16. asPhilostr. Artemidorus r. Schol.6. Thyestes Harpagos and The third and most famous.zz. the . 5. past death to the sovereignorder of life. The winneiof the foot-race would be the first to ligtrt the sacrificialfire.zo.the victory and in the story that celebrationalso included an eveningprocession.4. Schol. would gather in the gymnathis was said to be in honor of Achilles. 6z. M.eierru. RobinJon(r95o). the power of men and the power of women.Gymn. 6.u dtiyecflol seePhilostr.2+.ro.For the thirty-day period see Philostr. lza LO2 103 .) 5. 47Paus. An Igonos. Nat. cannibalistic rnealin Peloponnesian mythology is directry preservedonly in litersPaus'6.484 thence.c.63ge.3.At Olympia." as the name Sosipolls suggests? Thus. JohannesChrysostomos. armor instead of athletic nudity. Aristid.63.z-q. an. the men were barred from the sacredcaveof Zeus Sosipolisand Eileithyiaon the slopesof the Hill of aTupov ix r6v ra). the fire of Zeus.7.p.). having built up inside. Olympia was unable to establishitself as the birthof place Zeuseven though Pindarhad mentionedthe "IdaeanGro tto.ro Dndorf ht ivrfi lli)roaos xpeovpyiqdp/1oa7o 6 [ld. for whom the sculptor Pythagoras Rhegionmade a statue. sacrificeto pelops and -competition.For many kinds of sacrifice followed on a victory. Yet.

98. Gahs. this wondrous changewas variously rethought and rationalized.Sen. Fraenkel ad loc. Atreus servesThyesteshis meal "under the prea tenseof happily celebratinga feast day" (xpeoupydv fip. then. so that Thyestes unsuspectingly ate the flesh of his own children. "'opxqt the coupleThyestesand Daito (. 55. tt. it is clear that the myth appeared already in ancient epic. T3g"pearson.5oHdt. oSen. the other an eater. as feastof Thyestesfollowed the form of a sacrifice. Polyb. cf. z4o.L55 4o B z.In Aeschylus. there areas the parentsof Dionysus and . 3z7F r.Fah. Plat.'only the noi survived. Cf.' The essential part of the "act" is the same in all versions. ry7. and that is how the father later realizedwhat he had eaten. Or. Ennius Scaen. Apollod.. z69a p. recurring several times in Greek sacrificialritual. and the maiority were boiled in a bronze kettle. did any meal with rneat. e-vlP.solitary eaters. as do all the others. fu. Hy.rz.Hsch. the killer. rygz.'o Lykaon. accordingto Accius and SenHere.p).-3. Apollod. -. Atreus. zrz.. in Pherekydes of Athens. whence the motivation for Atreus' dreadful deed: the "eater" could not restrain himself sexually either. name clearlytaken from sacrificialritual.sacrifice. eAesch. 14o-65 Accius w..partially by boiling.t. +.meal. too." it *". the Atreus of tragedies of Sophocles and Euripides have Sophocles and the Thyestes nor have the imitations by Ennius and Accius. The head and feet were kept intact.91-94 and ft. the Mycenaean king.(r9ro)85-9r.. n5 ]tHLa ee forthegod.z. the tripod kettle eca.Eur.. 54.forthepriests.D.17 Or. . LSSrzr. II.. i1 fldtronos xpeoupyia Luk.6 fr. ltllut. =LS55. TCF pp." evidently goesback to primitive hunting customs.ro. is This dreadful sacrificestirred the powers of the cosmos:the sun reversedits course. but the worse pollution belonged to the eater.'Some of the entrails were roasted.r:vivtxipa.ro. The two brothers struggled for the throne of Mycenae. 8rt . and cf.r4z. lph. For this practicein hunting customs seeMeuli e946) z4i.Eur. human victim partially by roasting. It is certain that the I PRII 291-98. e:.e#Batrev aird i_linopiaes. in the Alkmaionls. Stenget.z9 above. and in early mythography. AP9. along with allusions in surviving tragedies. Soph. roort^d cf. with which he remained proverbially associated. Epit. 197-2J4cRibbeck. During the height of fifth-century speculation about nature.Eur. only to be torn away and slaughtered. It is hard to tell how much in Seneca's fantastic description derives from ancient tradition-the children were sacrificed. Eur. Aerope. restxhrift P. Lldc lX zgz. Unfortunately. Therefore. 77 Kinkel.Strabor p. preparedthe meat of his makesits appearance. VS 4r. aAlkmaionis 6 p.568. De salt.Cook I (r9r4) @uicreta 6eir'ra Achill. "man for man.Arpei p. schol.Hyg. Schmid(ry28). Taur' 9tz.r.Serv.. according to the letter of the ritual.see 4z ror thea 3 n a fseetDemon. cf.5o7-5o2. variation occurs only in the preceding sections and in the motivation. z. A. Ag. above all in Aeschylus' Aganrcmnonand in the Electra and orestesof Euripides.2. VS ar. Syr.T the children fled to the altar of Zeus.z.g. For the sun travelringfrom west to east see Eur.r on the basis of quotations.' At this unusual meal. O'' 995' fr. Ag. 997-'to7o. and cf.ro. Of the brothers. Schol.Luk. Aiasng5-g7.): Schol. According to Apollodorus." and this separation of the participants recurs at the PitcherFeastin Athens.n.B16. discovered sun'sretrograde the motion in the zodiacseeEur. Finally. to in just this way that the men of Aegina sacrificed poseidonas . 39t-97. FGrHistS l G r r o Cf. by late version of Thyestes seneca remains. 'Soph. IV.Schol.t15g5. praep. Aen. 't277-2). t'S"" II. togo-97. Atreus slaughtered Thyestes' infant sons and served them up for dinner.z. El. Soph.6or. ior the scientificreinterpretation that lTl astronomer. Serv.r3 Thus. Merc. one was a killer. Epit. Schol. 3Aesch. 765-62. 7Epit.Thy. tr85-93.. as at Mount Lykaion and Olympia. in a secret sacrificial grove in an obscure corner of the palace groundsnthus.n.z.Sophocles. 247-69 Pearson. FGrHist) F t)i : Schol. Thyestesoverturns the table. 6gg-n6.Theseinterpretationsassumethat at that time the sun began to follow the course which it demonstrably follows todav. and the parallels to the crime of Tantalos were drawn already in tragedies. 6Aesch.jt_ul rr'd6r. it is said. 4-3o6. or remained.r .seeLss .15.rl.' Thyestes and Atreus were sons of Pelops.14 above. the world was organized differently beforehand.44above. Thyestes. z3.WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE THYESTES AND HARPAGOS ary sources: it is the feast of Thyestes (@ueoreca 6eirrva).Tfteb.88. . his very name.. Ag.ata.ro-rz. Isag.ILr. Euset.Tlry. A e n .z3 and below roAccius :zo-zz Ribbeck. After this meal-all versions agree in this detail as wellThyestes had to abandon the throne forever and flee the land: thus Atreus became. t581-t6o2 Eur. hurled his unfaithful wife into the sea's It is clear once again how the myth repeats the course of the sacrificial ritual and adds gruesome details.z.rz97 = EuriPides. 2Sophocles pp.. 55. porph.Aesch.'2But the most transparentlink between sacrifice(duos)and the man who ate this feast.o. s 6 g .n. roo8. W..This specialtreatmentof the head and feet.64t-788. On Lesbos.Ea.p. in king.Lyk. just as happened after Lykaon's crime. effective theatrical pathos springs from the religious mystenum tremendum.99g. z. Eitrem (r9r7) 43-48. Vahlen2.18Maass= 4o5-4og. 8rz.apnpilocrs dpa 6rleds. and Pherekydes.Stat. Thyestes sits alone at his own table. the crime asAg. or. ro4 105 . Another set detail in the story is that Thyestes had previously committed adultery with his brother's wife. Or.

of even though there was only one stone ram.But there is no proof. Similarly.z. u.. the Old Testamentcovenantfollowed the crime and the flood to guaranteethe order of "seed-timeand harvest. There are two roles at this sacrifice. Ever since Euripides. cf.6po:r. the next day at dawn the miracle had occurred. Taur.z6above. the changein the sun'scourseand the unspeakable eventsin the story collapse hand in hand: what appear as successive into a single act as soon as the ritual-symbolicequivalenceof animal and man in the sacrificialritual is recognized.|ust so. the From the very start." Sacrificinga ram at night.at dawn. in the Argive myth. they are played by two hostile brothers. The only indication that Thyesteswas anything more than a characterin tragedyin the Argolid is given by Pausanias. Theb."Thus.been intended for sacrifice. Possession the crown depends on this golden lamb.ariesSen.43. @S-Z16. the sociehelps to achievethe succession tal rift causedby sacrifice betweenthe generations-and what happened at Mount Lykaion and at Olympia was no different.and already in Aeschylusthis gave rise to the curious doublet that Thyestes was banished twice.r. of course." Peoplecalledthe site "the rams" (xprci). i." the man who eats the meat at night is forced to leave.3. Already in the lliad-even though heroic epic abhorsritual atrocitiesThyestes'reign is seen as merely provisional. the transition of night into day-the Greek conceptionof time always follows this order-corresponds to the dark and the light sidesof sacrifice. WhereasArgive mythology becameliterary early on.WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE THYESTES AND HARPAGOS sumes an almost cosmogonicfunction: ever since that unspeakable sacrifice. z. El. the other man.r-3. z.a bit further on at toward Argos at the crossingof the river Inachos. Stat. Later versions struggledto connectthe story of the lamb with the feastof Thyestes. 998.43o6. and even lent its name to a summer month: the "days of the lamb.8n.r. Thyestes. Schol. it cameto him via Thyestes. FGrHist z6F r #r9.8:. The great feasttook place at night. even if he killed. and becauseof it. did not receivethe king's scepter from his father. summer and winter. Thus. '6Eur. Callim.Eur.'othe wondrous changein the courseof the sun was moved to the first act.18. Could the multiple rams in the name point to a custom still in practice. It had.Indeed. it was only when he returned that Atreus served him that gruesomemeal. the month Arneos. thii lamb was referred to in the the feminine. The nocturnal "sacrificer" wins only a temporary victory for the sunrise determines who has won the day: his is a mediating role at an exceptionaltime. Once again.ro6-ro8. Ag. Yet according to the older versions.o6 a07 .'u likelihood that it should.paus. myth relatesthe brothers' quarrel to an animal. and it was consideredthe most beautiful animal in his herd.rt. alor the_month "Apz4oe see Schwyzer 9o.A ro6. rathet be a ram-referred to once in this by context with the archaicword dpvet<is"-is suggested its counterof part at Olympia.n.Ov. actionsare exactly the samein both acts:Atreus kills something and it hides it.Eur. who describes"the grave of Thyestes"on the road from Mycenaeto Argos.6gg-216. Or. kept strictly apart yet closely related. Schol. and then sacrificing to Helios at dawn: the conjunction of these acts would be most attractive." However.8:zz. zPaus.cf. day and night. Or.#112. SEGJ Og2g).n.43.who had wanted to seizethe crown by stealing the lamb. we saw that the Tantalos myth reflected the sacrificeof a ram at Olympia and that the Arcadian myth was a gruesome elaborationof the sacrificeon Mount Lykaion.consistingof repeated ram-sacrifice Thyestes'grave?In the samecontext.point to an Argive sacrificialfestivalthat was named after a lamb."'n The kingship of Mycenae was legitimizedby the sun. 158617 4Eur. Thy. '7Schol.g. cold and heat. r. tsSee II. Thyestes seizedthe lamb and showed it as his own at a great feast. zz6. Argive cults sank into oblivion.7.ft.r5a)belongsto the ntnonia-type: seeIIl. but Atreus secretlystrangledit insteadand hid it in a chest (tr<ipvat). a sacrificial animal-the golden ram or golden lamb.El. r.And just as we saw at Olympia. reflecting a familiar tendency in the Greek language." 'Apw1i6es i1p.le Starting with Euripides.The in testival began with the mourning cries of women and girls-just as tne women and girls gatheredfor lamentationat the gymnasium on 21I/.z. becomesthe victor. with the help of the unfaithful Aerope.Pausanias mentions an altar of Helios. Agamemnon. lph. though known to all as the son of Atreus.89. Schol. because Thyestestook possession the golden lamb. was overthrown and expelledby the evidenceof the sun. Crossingthe river would correspondto swimming acrossthe lake.3 below. rather.1. ip 7. '6Apollod. crossing a river. Epit. 'A stone ram stands on top of it.:z above. Thyesteshad to flee.The story of Poineand Koroibos(paus. Thyestesgreedily snatches up and exposeswhat had been hidden. lbis573 with Schol. reAesch. inthe Alkmaionis. where AristarchusarguesagainstLikymnios that Homer did not "yet" know of the fraternal strife between Atreui and Thyestes.t. Other sources. Or. and by the nature of the myth sacrificego itself.7-g. Nilsson (19o6) 43j-38. z. the sun has kept to its familiar and reliable course. z6-3r. the brothers' laGen. By rights it belongedto Atreus.however.r9.998. Konon.

. Yet how are we to understand the peculiar role of the boundaries of the marketplace. tHdt. the Median empire fell to the irersians.czov.--Our evidence dates from the fourth ur. but an ancient Argive tradition speaksof a "lamb-singer.. 5n. '?7Ael.fust as Atreus had taken dreadful vengeanceon Thyestes.at least.r-5. that is. According to the tale. the wolf.6 . it was not Argive dignitaries but a wandering strangerwho would eat the victim. (on Nal.tne J*. according to Herodotus (r. protected by Apollo the "wolf-like.4.the rapacious. G. Sophocles tells us inhis Electra that Orestes. and 4... thereforethe greedy predators were henceforth barred from the kingdom of men. Linos. the proponents of nature-allegorysaw it as a symbolicbattle againstthe deadly heat of the dog-star. tearing him limb from limb.rog_ro. FGrHist Konon. as his name must have Uee..aerlstoodby the Greeks. which is held to commemoratehis name and "his youth among the lambs. and feet were coveredin a basketwhich Harpagoshimself had to uncoverat the end of the meal. from Apollo's agora."" It is. Jr.r-r..r rhe rite DHdt." killed Aegisthus.in that a dog would be killed only if it crossedthem? This is not an event in nature but a social ordinance. Therefore.for we know thai Herodotus was preceded by the versions in the Alkmaionis. diu Lo9 I ro8 I . 6 4 5 .27. 'Theophr' De uentisr4. so Astyages avenged himself on Harpagos. Astyages sent for Harpagos. u S o p h . was brought up by Kyno. Thyestes'son. The aijtrcvoz the Lamb. Aristaios Aktaion .pherekydes. he was Apollo's son by Psamathe."'z? for The myth explainedthis as vengeance Linos.. so calledbecause he was awarded the sacrificiallamb as a prize. the wolf.He then servedit to Harpagosat his special table while the others-significantly-ate lamb. to the time of the Olympic games.1[ li rl'll i WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE ARISTAIOS AND AKTAION the evening before the Olympic games.e.Sirius.2.thebitch.Likewise." possibly a direct allusion to that "day of dog-killing" (the closeaffinity of dogs and wolves needs no elaboration). between Agamemnon and Orestes. Callimachus.rz9). the boy-the lamb-was torn apart. and Aeschylus'Agamemnon But the gory feastis typically connectedwith the theme of the dog.invisibly: for under the mask of the devoted servant. In his history of the Persians.. The parties were divided through the sacrifiiial meal.ry.The "woli-like" man had becomethe eater of human flesh. some of his subgegugnlJy flesh he boiled." The detailsof thl iory were probably taken Jrom the feast of Thyestes.e.on the island of Keos there was an animar-sacrifice ward off to the deadly power of Sirius. 26Fr.Apollo the "wolf-like" was Linos' father."i.6n.and cf. or.They knew him as the persiangeneral who relentlessly subduedthe cities of Asia Minor. Ath." ). if only in_ wardly. . and this meal transformed him. 1. in this context Sophocles calls him the "wolf-killer.rd Moreover.r. the king's son._ i.d thira centuries a. The refrain of their lament. a terrifyin! characteron whom fitting storieswould be fastened. The market of Argos stood under the protection of Apollo. at Argos.r milieu: Cyrus.ro-t4.Herodotus constructeda story in the Median-Persianmilieu that correspondsin all its details to the feast of Thyestes. 6 5 5r."dpvq\os." Thus. he was henceforth the inexorableenemy of the king. had not obeyed his orders to kill Cyrus. rather. some he roasted. Arist. unwilling to rest until Astyageshad been overthrown. in thii Median-persian "ue. gave rise to the myth of the death of the young boy. the ai). and is provided by Aristotre and his students and by the poets c"iri-". .t r. apparently made the connectionbetween this lamb-singerand the Festivalof the Lamb. and the impious Aegisthus had also been a provisional king. ro3 W). Binder. FCrHistz6 F r.c.Heracrides fr.n"r and Apollonios. hands. a n d c f . thirteen_year_old son.fr.only an appealingconjecturethat the main sacrificialvictim at this festival was a lamb.. fr. and their division determinedthe dynastic succession. . whom he slaughtered. But he was torn apart by the hounds of his grandfather lament is sung in his honor at the Festivalof Krotopos.'Tfie head. the child of Mandane. an. the "dog-days" coincidewith the "days of the lamb"-which are close. 45-57.E / . Die Aussetzungdes Kdnigskindes g964).... the wolfboy was helped in carrying out his appointedtasksby Harpagos.. r4r wehrli : Cic." a name which was taken to mean "wolf-like". worshipped here as "Lykeios.'uBut another aspectof the festival made a far greaterimpressionand hencebecamethe focus of "If our sources: a dog happenedto enter the marketplace. 3o8F z. r.)4 Klearchos. j 7 g . for the latter 2f sDonysios of Argos.. they would kill it. ro. of course. too. almost exactly like Romurus and Remus. and grew up among the lambs of the royal flock.. "By reasonor thut ban{uet. z6.the daughter of king Krotopos. 99e. r7-4.uxoxrovos.

Schol. 4r7-z4Mette.Pind.o it to empathizewith a passionate.which ordered them to summon the priest and prophet Aristaios.5zz and Schol.2. a ^ew fragment of Hesiod.analogous to the polarity of Pelopsand Zeus at Olympia.J46= ARV. Apollo.Maiburger lahrb. they sought the advice of in oracle.49gb. on the at other hand. the one brings searing heat. 'Apwtrlaotfi (= 'Apt'?Apoll.to rise.T ll. And since Aristaios was commonly portrayed as a shepherd-specifically.For the head of Aristaios.9. 4. the ritual began at night and would have been continued in the rnorning and into the day.and his raging hounds. just beforedawn' The sacrificerswaited on the mountaintop for this.7.'then he sacrificedto the dog-starand to this Zeus. ?Pind. 45f . Rhod. Nonnus.Apoll. similarly.it is. z. Callim. 'fthol. 'lxpr. r4.gz. a Strom.g. toDiod." As is often the case. Eur. a Botpos. Rhod. 977. z5tf.For the invention of oil and honey on Keos seeSchol. and cf. For a cult organizationof ataccrotai) in Boeotia seeZPE 4 Gg79. Clem. This leadsus from ritual back to myth.Rhod. Poseidon and the Winds" Nigidius fr.r3o.5 Thus.12. nU.r-1. which Aristaios founded. z. and the feastof Thyestesmade the sun changeits course.-W. oriented on the one hand toward the dangerous"dog. u. they would naturally have identified with the daytime ordet the winds that dispelled the danger. 5'AwcDrirov Apoll. a frequent subjectin art from archaictimes. Ran'847' of killer and keeper-we must presumethat his sacrificialvictim for the ragingdog-starwould have been.j 282. struckwith . Aesch.tg. rather. 5 ? * Ul:. and what Artemis did: the hunter becamethe hunted. seeAristoPh. Suddenly the cooling north winds began to blow. his zriBoi.gr. Aristaiosappearsin myth already in Hes. desperateyearning for coolis easy nessand moisture in the arid Greek summers. the Kean sacrificial ritual moves between two poles.Diod. a ram.^t""r(-196o) 1. fr. u2 (1978). and Aristaios' activity has been interpreted as weather-magic. r. the other coolness and rain.6. and a honey Aristaios had "discovered"oil and honey in Keos-so it was rnixture.7to_a5. But only Zeus had an altar. the ritual's nighttime aspectwas followed by a daytime aspect. who the was torn apart by dogs. And they conceivedof their tiny island as the center of the world: the Keans claimed that they celebratedthe festival." on the other toward Zeus.WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE ARISTAIOS AND AKTAION i: llt I I by was not accompanied the sort of rnyth that would be used in tragedy. The regal anger of an ottended goddess is at work here. The first sacrifice was for the dog. 2. z5$gV). Schol. u_PR I 458-6r. 5. {Cook III (r94o)265-7o. so the sacrificeof Aristaios set cosmicpowers in motion: the supremacyof the "dog" was overturned and the rising winds renewed the forcesof life. Rhod.269-79. t'o+5. Callim. 4.z9. the preliminary sacrifice to the " dog" would have used a sacrificial pit. 75.."'o Lykaon sacrificedan Arcadian boy.2 and built an altar on a mountaintop to Zeus Ikmaios. Apoll.65.Cook III (t'g4o)z7o' Cf. Callim. Hes. stat and a dog on coins from Keos. \rg29)."was the father of Aktaion.sfrenzy. z. z. Like the Lykaia. But the corresponding cult is not mere wish-fulfillment or symbolic rain-making. the "Etesian" winds that make the summer heat in Greece bearable.b:ut a sacrifice "for Sirius and for Zeus. to one of the most famous of all Greek myths. mentions a bull-sacrifice the altar of Zeus. ."' It was the men of armsbearing age who became consciousof their solidarity and identity at this sacrificialfestival." "For Zeus. Jacobsthal.z. 1o:io.Diod.T hunter and herdsman. 498alw. "Ze1Jsthe rain 9od". Nonnus 5. as Agreus and Nomios.Pyth. tr. The Keansawaited the appearance of the dog-star and the sun "in arms. the brightest star.Akusilao FGrHist F 33. HSCp T. "for all the Greeks." Its specialform derives from a ritual handed down since ancient times. The dog-starfirst appears in july. Pyth. Schol. thereafter. GB VI 15.On polygnotus.uAccordingly. 498.82. the herdsmanwho discovered and honey and oil established sacrificefor the "dog. even though we know nothing of the order-so important for understanding the ritual-in which they occurred. his son or nephew. once again.wolf.Heraclidesfr' r4r' npotrapotfie 6Apoll.8 told-and libations of oil and honey were clearlylinked to the sacrificial ritual. demanding a victim. Rhod.s Cataloguesin Renner. son of Apollo.498.. Ir. Hy. Apoll. 3^tl For depictions in art see p. see HN'1 484.S. he was transformed into a stag.27o-7j.the motivating forcesin the story are unclear. tore him apart as they would a stag. (\!oay).5:^6-27with Schol. Even in the little we know of the Kean festival we can recognizeanalogiesto the Lykaia. When he came.5zz_.{ ipI_? pears with a wolf's-head cap on the Boston bell-crateroo.9. as a wolf. descendants Lykaon.depictionseepaus.l6-t.tr5. Kunstwiss. Baich. a sacrificein traditional Arcadian stvle. just as they do today in July. zt6l7 M.34. Rhod. he brought with him Arcaof dian priests. 110 111 .5zr and Schol. toxotides ") fr.f. The only certainty is in what Aktaion suffered.For sacrifice a black lamb for a typhoon. 9.Aristaios.3.Stesichorus z 46 page pars. by "the descendantsof Lykaon. Nilsson (19o6) 6-8. In any case. 2. Her wrath was stirred by an oversightwith regard to sacredlaws.527. Tft.os 3Apoll. 4. 99 Swoboda. 498. by trespassing 5. Rhod.498alw.. and just as Lykaon'ssacrificeprovoked a flood. when the people of the Aegean islands were threatened by drought. for Zeus.4 Apollod.2. 75. but only by a foundation legend: once.

WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE

ARISTAIOS AND AKTAION

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on an "untouchable" precinct, by sexualdesires,or, from an ethical perspective, behaving presumptuouslytoward a divinity'" by recalls the"untouchable" precinct on The stag-metamorphosis Mount Lykaion: all who enteredwere forthwith regardedas stagsto be hunted and killed." Even the Delphic god orderedsuch a "stag" to be given up to its pursuers. And, accordingto mythic fantasy,Arkas und hir mother mated in that very precinctlo-the same motifs, the are sameexcuses always superimposedon the act of killing. The fact is that in storiesand art this stag-metamorphosis often enactedby ArAktaion" is perhapsnot so much a temis throwing a stag'sskin over rationalizationas a feature of ritual, a mask, though of course completely seriousfor the masked participant. Whereasthe Greek examples show a man disguised as a stag being attackedby real hounds, the wall paintings at Qatal Htiyrik depict the masked leopard men surrounding a realisticallypainted stag.'u In fact, there is something peculiarabout Aktaion'sdogs as well. It is probable that already Hesiod gave a catalogueof their names/ thus making them virtually individuals;" and the end of the myth, as told by the mythographers,has a particularly ancientquality: "When Aktaion was dead, his dogs searchedand howled for their master. Their searchtook them to the caveof Cheiron;and he made an image of Aktaion which stilled their grief."'8 This description of the dogs' behavior doubtlessgoes beyond anything that could be observedin nature; real dogs cannot be comfortedby an image.Rather,these animals are performing a human ritual of the sort we find attestedagain
12According to Hesiod (new fragment), Stesichorus, and Akusilaos, Aktaion wanted to marry Semele; according to Eur- Bacch. 339 he boasted that he was a better hunter than Artemis (cf . Soph. EI. 56). There is no certain attestation before Callimachus that Aktaion saw Artemis naked. I3Architimos, FGrHist Plut. Q. Gr. 3ooa-c; ILr.nn.7, 14 above. 3t5F t: r a S e eI I . r . n . z r a b o v e . 'sstesichorus : ARV2 287 24, f.ig.8 : ARV' 46Page;Jacobsthal, Marburger lahrb , fig.6 285.r, fig. g : ARV'155z.zo;cf . the metope from Selinus, fig rr. Similarly, in Dionysios' the god clothes the victim, who is to be torn apart, in the skin and horns of a Bassarika, -- fr. r9.9 Heitsch. For newly slain stag; cf. D. L. Page, Literary Papyri (r94t\, fi6-4o d e e r - m a s q u e r a d e sa m o n g t h e B u k o l i a s t a i i n S i c i l y s e e S c h o l . T h e o c r . P P . 3 . 6 , 7 ' 1 4 ' 14.2,5Wendel; cf. an early Greek gem in D. Ohly, Griech. Gemmen Q95), fig. z4; for 'Axrc,icou xepaogopos as a theater mask see Poll. 4.r4r. r6See z.n.19, I.8.n.28 above, and Figure L 1. rTSee pollod.3.32; Aesch. fr.4z3 Mette; Ov. Met. A 1.2o6-zz4;Hyg. Fab.r8r. tsApollod. Hesiod. Cf. A. Casanova, RFIC 97 Og6q, 3.y; POxy 25o9, going back to )r-46.

teSee I.z.n.rz uro eArmenides, FCrHist37g g; Eust.77r.59. F "Vib Sequ.r7z, andcf. Stat. Theb.7.z74with Schol; REyll757;for,,on Kithairon,,see Apollod. 3.3o. aHerakl. 2.8 (F. Pfister, Die Reisebiliter Herakreides[r95r]. gg). on hunters masquerdes ading in animals'skins see Baudy (r9go)4oJ n.ro2. o'A*'6t ,'Axr<7otv-zeusAktaios, like Lykaon-ZeusLykaios.For Zeus Akraios as su-

and again: the "search" for a torn-up victim ending in a symbolicrestoration.leAktaion's death is a sacrificiarritual oI the hunt, consecratedby the Mistress of the Beastsand performed in the form that had been standard sincePalaeolithic times. The actorsare dogs struck mad by "wolf's frenzy," werewolves whose shrine is in a riountain cave.one mythographer even identifiesAktaion'sdogs with the Rhodian Telchines,''the magicalbronze-smiths;in so do.-ing, equates he one secretsocietywith another. The literary myth probably combines various local cultic traditions' Aktaion's death, for instance,is situated at the spring Gargaphia near Mount Kithairon;r' the cave of Cheiron, howev6r, is on Mount Pelion in Thessaly.Almost by chance,a few details about the cave of Cheiron in Thessaly happen to have come down to us in a note by the Hellenistic periegete Heraclides:,,On the heiehts of Mount Pelion, there is a cave, the so-calledcave of Cheiron,"and a shrine of Zeus Aktaios. At sirius' rising, which is the time of the heat, the most prominent citizens,thosein the prime of their greatest lives, climb up to the cave.They are chosenby the priest and girded with fresh, thrice-shorn sheepskins.This shows how cold it must be on the mountain!"2'?whatthe witty author considersa geographical curiosity is_obviously a-sacred ritual performed by *re rrilin[ cliss of Magnesia' It was introduced by the sicrifice of a iheep or rul*; participanthad to slaughteran animal. Then camethe strangestpart "rr"ry of the ritual: eachman put on the skin of his victim, and thuJthe processionclimbed the mountain to the caveof Cheiron and the shrine of Zeus. The sacrificeridentifies with his victim to the point of wearing its skin, tries in effect to undo his own deed; yet he remains a wolf in sheep'sclothing. With its expiatory character,the journey to Chei_ following the sacrifice obviously corresponds to the jour_ lo"b :uy: Aktaion's dogs to the mysterious mountain cave where ihey II_:f round comfort in the restoredimage of their victim. The connection with Aktaion would be direct if tie transmitted text, which names "zeusAktaios," were reliable;but the inscriptions from Magnesia near Mount Pelion speak only of ,,ZeusAkraios,,,,,Zeusof theieights.,,, -

r13

WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE

ARISTAIOS AND AKTAION

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They do, however,mention a cult of Pan in the caveof Cheiron, and Thus, the parallels to there were even rumors of human sacrifice.2o the Lykaia becomecloser. on The sacrifices Mount Lykaion, Keos, and Mount Pelion have long been connected from the standpoint of weather-magic'" The proverbial "prayer of Aiakos" at the altar of Zeus Hellanios on the highest mountain in Aegina, said to bring storms and rain,'ufalls into this categoryas well, as does the sacrificeto Zeus Laphystios in the myth of Phrixos and the golden ram." In order to prevent famine, Halos) wanted king Athamas (whether in Orchomenosor Thessalian he was alreadystanding to sicrifice his son to Zeus Laphystios.When at the altar, the "cloud," Nephele, suddenly camedown and a golden ram appeared.Thereupon both Phrixos and the ram vanished. The old connectionwith the Argonauts, and the removal of Phrixos and the ram to Aietes, more likely reflecta poetic combinationthan a cult legend. But even in this version of the myth, the ram is sacrificed, and all that remainsis the golden fleece. Herodotus tells us that a similar human sacrificefaced the deHalos down to scendantsof Phrixos (that is, Athamas) in Thessalian left step was characteristically to the victim The his own time.28 crucial in a comedy of innocence:if the eldestmemberof the family set foot in the "Le7ton,"the prytaneum, he had to die. Once again,entering a If place not to be enteredis used as an excusefor sacrifice. the victim to flee but happensto be caught later on, he is led back into manages
preme god and god of oaths see IG IX 2.71oJ,rto5, tro8, rro9.54,77, 1770,rrz8. For 'Axroios seeStrabo 'Ar<itrtr<ov L.r,vuoos'Axroioson Chios see C/G zzr4e (II ro3o);for r3 p. 588,Steph.Byz. "Axrt'ov. 2a"Erat." The "Pan Painter"couples Cat.4o p. r84 Robert;Monimos in Clem. Pr. 1.42.4. his famous depictionof Pan with Aktaion'sdeath;seeBostonro.r85 : ARV')55o.r' sNilsson j95) 395-4or. 26lsocr.9.r4-r5; Diod.4.6r; Paus.2.29.6-8;Clem. Sfron.6.z8.On Cos there was a xotvdvt6tv oul.nropeuop,ivavrapa Lia'Y|rr'oz. see SIG3 tro7.'lr,peirov duaBaa6 on see Plut. fr' r9r Sandbach= PhiloP with an ash-altar: Mount Olympus in Thessaly, seeLyk.16o CAGXIV r.z6-27.ForanallegedhumansacrificeforZeusOmbriosatElis, with Schol. '??Ttirk, Rrvll lll 2458-67;PR lI 4r-5r; Schwenn -r9r) 9-46; Cook I (r9r4) 474-19; Hes. fr. 6819,254-56,299;Hekataios, FGrHistr F r7; Pherekydes,FGrHisf3F g9lg; I Eur. Phrixos and II, fr. Hellanikos, FGrHist 4F rz6;Soph. "Athamas" r-ro Pearson; ed. Euripidea, C. Austin (1968),pp. 1ol-loJ The myth of Phrixos is NouaFragmenta linked to two sanctuariesof Zeus Laphystios, at Halos in Thessaly(Eur. P/rrirosI; Hdt. 7.rg7; cf. strabo g p. 433; schol. Apoll. Rhod. 2.513)and at orchomenos in Boeotia Hellanikos, FGrHistr F rz6). (Eut. Phrixos Paus.9.j4.5, 1.44.7; II; 8HdL 7.197,and cf. Plat. Minos 3r5c. 744

]i

the "Leiton" to start,the sacrificialprocessionaccordingto the rules. The descendentof Phrixos, "completely coveredwith rioolen fillets,,, would be led to the shrine of Laphystian Zeus. The equationwith the ram could hardly be more obvious. Presumably,a ram would normally take the place of a human victim for Zeus Laphystios, as it would for other deities. But here, too, the motif of the wolf accommyth of human sacrifice: panies-the Athamas became, just as the oracle had proclaimed,a companionin the meal of the woives, beforehe ascendedthe Thessalianthrone.2" The motivation for sacrificialritual in weather-magicmust have seemedquite convincing to early farming and urban communitiesalways living in the shadow of famine. But the elementof the werewolf cannot derive from this source,nor the ritual's persistence, given the undoubtedly frequent failure of the weather to cooperate.frhe.eve, we can grasp details, we seethat the festival accentuates and restructures the distribution of societalroles;there are hints of this in the domestictragedybehind the Phrixosmyth-women againstmen, father against son, brother and sister against everyoneelie. what actually setsthe "unspeakablesacrifice"in motion is not nature but the order of the community and its spiritual life. The sacrificecausessuch a shockthat the cosmosmight well seemto move to the rhythm of the sacredaction.r scholars have tried to relate this weather-magicsurrounding storm god, but the paral3:":,o-the_concept of an Indo-European lels lead rather toward Asia Minor and th" semitic realm. A strange sheep-sacrifice, attestedfor Cyprian Aphrodite, has been the subje-ct of detailedstudy by RobertsonSmith: ,;Theysacrifice sheeptogether, while they are themselves coveredwith sheepskins"','then thlre is a sacrificeof wild pigs, which is seen us trengear,.e Adonis, who for was killed by a boar. Thus, the preliminary Jheep-sacrifice, which in tne participants disguise themselvesso strangely,probably repeats ,,lord,, the death of the Great Goddess's and lover. At Hierapolis, in the temple of the "syrian Goddess,,-another placewhere the Adonis tegend was at home-a worshipper,spreliminary sacrifice consisted a black sheep, in"., prortrating himself on its skin, l..llaughtering wtth the head and feet wrapped around his body.r, But the Great Goddesscan bring about a woif-metamorphosis well. as Gilgamesh's
Plat. Minos 3r5c;Apollod. r.g4. "Thus, Seneca Thy. 696,has the , earth quake during the sacrificeof Atreus. llt Mens.4.65p. tt9.r9-zz Wuensch; Smith(rg94) +65_Zg. xl-ydus LuK. Syl. D. 55, and cf. Porph. V.pyth. t7 (Idaeancave,Crete).
115

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WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE

THE DELPHIC TRIPOD

complaint against I5tar has long been known: "Because you loved the herdsman, the keeper . . . you smote him and changed him into a wolf: now he is hunted by his own shepherd boys and his dogs bite his ankles."'3 Although the distribution of roles is somewhat different, the context is reminiscent of both Adonis and Aktaion. In Ugaritic mythology, there is the story of Aqhat the hunter, who was torn apart by birds of prey, at the bidding of the goddess Anat, who wanted his bow; his father managed to retrieve from the belly of the vulture-mother his remains-bones and fat-and to bury them.'It would be tempting to equate the names Aktaon, Akteon, Aktaion with Aqhat," but even in the Babylonian and Ugaritic versions we are nowhere near the "origins" of the myth. The wall painting at Qatal Hriytik has already been mentioned:* here, some four to five thousand years earlier, we find the leopard men, servants of the Creat Goddess, a Miinnerbund and mask society, dancing around their victim, the stag. By changing himself into a predatory animal, a hunter, man single-handedly guaranteed the continuance and development of the human race in Palaeolithic times; he lived on in this form through the Neolithic period in the rituals that shaped society, and on into classical Greece in the sacrificial rites and myths about the stag and the werewolf.

Tripod 5. TheDelphic
The first sanctuarythat comesto mind in consideringthe sacred tripod is, of course, Pytho, the Delphic sanctuary,the far-famedorawas the centerof the PylaicAmcle of Apollo which, simultaneously, phictiony and site of the Pythian games.Delphi played such a significant role in Greek religious, intellectual, and political life that it is impossibleto do justice in a few pagesto the Delphic phenomenonas
33Gilgamesh i, Vl 58-63, ANET 84. vANET r49-5j.lt has been postulatedtime and again that Aqhat is revived-ANET (r96r'1),323-but the heart of the myth consistsof death by r55; Th. Gaster,Thespis being torn apart, "collecting,"and burying; cf. l.8.n.rz above. 35Astour $96) t$-68. aSeeaboveat n. 16.

a whole.' Moreover, like Olympia-or even more so, becauseof its greatpopularity-the sanctuarywas repeatedlyentangledin political and military disorders, and each SacredWar brought new forms of administrationwhich influencedthe function and senseof identity of Apollo's servants.Thus, as at Olympia, various traditions becamesu_ and perimpo-sed,. disentanglingthem is no mean task. The most significant break probably came with the first sacred war, shortlv after 6oo n.c., in the course of which the Pylaic Amphictiony of Anthela took over the supervisionof Delphi from the inhabitantsof Krisa and, aboveall, organizedthe Pythian games,starting in 586.,Nonetheless, the oracle'sauthority was undiminished by the crisis. The cult of the Delphic priesthood was virtually untouched, just as, later, it would survive the sanctuary'ssudden decline in late Hellenistic timesStrabo called Delphi "the poorest sanctuary", of his time. yet the detailed information about the cult, which we find primarily in plutarch, consistentlycorrespondsto more ancient allusions or indications. Thus, we may conclude that the Delphic rituars maintained the essentially sameforms at the sameplacefor at leasteight hundred years. Delphi was set apart from the normal Greek polis: since it was isolatedon a steepmountain six hundred metersabove the valley of the Pleistos,nestled by the Castalianspring between the grandiose Phaedriadiccliffs, Delphi could never be a farming community. Already the HomericHymn to Apollonstatesin no uncertain termi that the Delphianshad lived for, as well as from, the sanctuaryever since the most ancienttimes. There may be sometruth to the tradition that the Delphiansoriginally camefrom Lykoreia,s inasmuchas it is possible for a community to exist there bn the large plateau above the
Nilsson Q9o6)15o-62,283-88,46t-62; (t955) t7o-74,6r5-fi; Farnell IV (r9o7) t79-zr8,2ga-911,; Pomtow REIY z5r7-z7oo;RE Suppl. ly rrSg-r412; F. Schober, H. R! Suppf Y 6r-ry2; G. Daux, Pausanias Detphes d apolliQ976);p.Amandry Ia mantique nenned Delphes delphique (1954);M. DelQg5o);f. Defradas, Lesthimesde la propagande court, L'oracle Delphes (1955);Parkeand Wormell (rSSg);G. Roux, Delphi:Orakelund de Kultstiitten (r97r). on the myth seeFontenrose (1959); the resultsof the excavations on see Foulllas Delphes de (r9oz and after). 'zThe most accuratetradition is to be found in the hypothesis to pindar's pythian odes, fthol' Pind. ILr-5 Drachmann,basedon the archivalresearches of Aristotle and Kalusthenes Delphi, SIC) 275= FCrHist rz4T at 23. 4zo.wvi ye ror neuicrarov icrw 16 Ev A,ehgois iepdv11pr11.tarorvyapw. "ye ltO:?: tf yyth. .rut. ue or. 4o5c, whose time the pythia was the daughterof poor farmers. in ]'. oSee n. 7 below. ssee n. zz below. 'See

t16

477

is As he eCom. Nem."'Thus. the _son of Achilles.he himself becamethe vict-t. piety was firmly imbedded in the transcendental world.62c. The genealogies call the murderer "Machaireus. 4fu.the feaster. However. App. rz5zbzand in Hsch. J. the sacrificerhimself is often left empty-handed. AK i (9Oa)-. :-Uryr Nem.1..hearth..62..the worldly actionthat gaverise to the oracle. the . .a versefrom comedy be- cameproverbial: "When you sacrificeat Delphi.73. Delphi was the only Greek community to make religion its main occupation.U.4-14. in his temple. outdoors. 9 p. Apotlod. Callim. pouilJ. pr4lo6dx9 flistizrPind. in addition see Achaios ft. then all those standing around cut off as much as they can for themselvesand go away with it. 229. It was this. paus. E.phoenrx 33 Gg7il. ailesp.g. Neoptolemossacrificedto Apollo at the . Flor. and his grave in the sacredprecinct was ilways The motivation for the act varies accordingto whether pointed out.6. the Delphic sheep-sacrifice "Like flies around a goatherdor like Delphiansat sacrifice:. high on the mountain. rocrc . and cf. and removed its entrails.nor. Callim. t. 7.Toga.:^6-25.535 and Aristoph.Schol. 49_55. But no one ever tried to reform what picture of shameless acruallytook place in the sacredprecinct. too.z6-27. he was killed with a Delphic knife.lsrhus.62a. pyrrhos pyr.1. Paroem."u Houseswere even built in this terrain that would normally have been considered unfit for habitation. If '"Ma1odpq 9g5-9g. but already before 6oo n. each of them carrying a knife. fr. Nem.I 393. Delcourt. His descendant Branchus. Apollo's worshippers brought their sheep up from the fertile plain to the mountain to be slaughteredwith the assistance the priestswith their knives.the Delphians.5g.rather than a transcendenof exhibited all-too-human traits. 6a4. FCrHist tz F t5. 421. de. prov. For the myth see . and filled with countless Mycenaeansherdsand terra-cottas.::1. Gr. Burkert. remains unchanged. Ap. 'Hy. Ap.The knife is alsomentioneJrn Hy. Anir.7. .'0 any case.IOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE THE DELPHIC TRIPOD ilill . Test. 239)seeJ.. Schol. e.Soph. for the envoys who came to the isolated slopes seeking the counsel of the god generally came by ship. l8 rr8 r19 . The Homeric Hymn to Apollodescribes how the god himself built his sanctuaryamong the cragsof Mount Parnassus and in the form of a dolphin personallyled his priests.'r this is a obtrusion.la What actuallyhappenedthere.'rbthersdescribefrim as a pious worshipper of the oraclewho was perniciously killed by Orestes.Dtrabo 4. rlll l I I Phaedriadic cliffs between the Korykian cave and Mount Parnassus. prov.e. .c.. Andr. .4. itoux.^gS-_tll.9. 7.and cf.. | 3g1.:t:"o Schol.4."'For this reason. But guard my temple and receivethe tribes of men."oThe Delphic knives were made in a form which we are unableto reconstruct with certaintyin spite special In numerousironic allusions. Pyth.The god spoke at Delphi: here. cono.pind. 421. sacredcustom. fr. Gnomon (t966). Delphi was governed by Krisa down on the gulf of Corinth.the place of pronouncementsand liberating purifications. The excavators the temenosfound "the earth fat with organic of remains mixed with ash and burnt bones. z2r. mArist. Woodbury. On the Ruvo crater(Jatta r: F r5.95. paroem. Roux. itself. to5 : App. that prompted the intervention of the Amphictiony.for it was an unchangeable. t.Pind.'-Eur. and.For the tomb seepaus.prov.. r2J' Fontenrose The Cult nnd Myth of pyrrosat Derphi(196o). Roux. 19r.from Crete. r94. B. thus.9tl"j .Eur.. in sacrificing. r. Pol. Preciselythis form of Delphic sacrificeis reflectedin the heroic myth that reconstructsthe action as a human tragedy: NeoptolemosPyrrhos. pp.rC. Some makehim a temple robber whom the god justly punishes. pouil_ ljlt G.. inigmes a Oapiu (r9g).. was a specialform of sacrificial ritual. there he was surrounded by Delphiansand. suffered a horrible death ai Apollo. r5oa.7. '"Asklepiades. (1952).L. ]:lo1!-y. the basisfor this unique role was the oracle's pan-Hellenicand even international fame. 25 p. trzz_57. EForthe legerid of Aesop see POxy r8oo fr. These of priests were then allowed to enjoy themselves the meal. in the confusion of carving and snatchingup the sacrificialmeat. Xo . . 7. esklepi 1F Oa.. yz7. 4.act.7.Eur.5g. 19r.and which we can grasp. But the god comforts them with a smile: "Each of you should carry a knife in your right hand and slaughter sheep continually. Nem. 6l piety. i. And when the lord of the sacrificehas slaughteredthe victim.7.16 for Neoptolemos-pyrrhos. Coisl. Aelgrr4 p. Nern. 4)g-4o. Gr." "the knife-man. et rhn$96).i" this specificallyDelphic ritual." son of Daitis.49_6o.Strabog p.3. pind. you will have to buy extra meat for yourself to eat. I . z col. fr. Epit. Ir. 528-38.4. And the Pythian gameswere all the more glorious becausethey were connectedto the sanctuary.and cf.4o-47 with Schol. The sacriat fice was accomplished a most peculiar way: "Whenever someone in enters the sacred precinct to sacrifice to the god. Pouillouxand G. 249 = Ath. Schol.iUii Hermione 14a-43pearson. was first and foremost a placeof sacrifice.. FGrHrst3 F 64.the founder of the other famous'oracle is of Apollo. G. TGI p.rr6-zo. ttCallim. the Delphians surround the altar.DelphelII: La rtgion nord du sanctuaire e9tu). . ll 3z-46 = Aesopica. they give him priestly status.6. Pind.r] *1r l'.42.12 or not the specific version presents Pyrrhos in a good light. for they will be there in abundance. CAF lll 495: Plut. M.ayarpa. "How shall we live now?" they ask in fright on seeingthe temple high up on the slope. at Didyma near Miletus. Pherekydes. The siteof the oracle. r73d.-far from making him a criminal. y_q. skinned it.ltli I lllir 6Nilsson (rgSS\ llg. . Perry ed.s hearth in Delphi. pherekydes. Enigmes Detphes d fugg) r:.

and cf . 27Paus. xArist.6. By contrast.-an. killing and renewinglife.Paus. Kunze.4r8.a group of greedy gluttons. but the identification of Herakles and Apollo becomes a certainty only in the ffi""n. guided by "howling wolves.8. The name of the wolf is linked their behavior with Lykoreia.r49o.. far from the world of peacefulcommunitiesand farms. cf. ECook I (ryr4) g-68. suffered the wound that was to reveal his identity. traced their ancestryback to Deucalion. as Apollo's opponent and victim. Delphians set there was a story that a wolf caught and killed a temple robber. Marm. 4.in u se.There was even a story that Apollo was borne by a shewolf. 58oar8. Ant.8. Bousquet'BCH p (t#).in any case.z. in any case. is the story of how Herakles fought Apollo for the pythian tripod.ro. The first to inhabitantof the ravines of Mount Parnassus be attestedin Greek the "werewolf. 2tNat. Nem.light. xPaus." that Odysseus The Delphianspointed out the site of the boar hunt. Hrst. Schefold (rg6+) T.ldl 7o (:'gS). still more ancient. 4.57-59. ll." His grandliteratureis none other than Autolykos. or. )73-:. Lt)-77.6. at the hands was distinctly wolflike. Rhod.and the native Delphians. and there he encountersthe god'swild servants. fr. z.landed on Mount Parnassus '8Pouilloux. Par. "The Delphiansworship the wolf" was Aelian'sstraightforward in pronouncement2' referenceto the bronze statue of a wolf that the up as a votive gift beside the great altar.r powell. Callim.Lr. the others "steal" the one brings a sacrificial meat and eat it.and cf."Thisis..7o. If was Neoptolemos-Pyrrhos a temple robbet he sufferedthe samefate of the Delphians. in the Hymn to Apoilo. r"1Sj. was disputed even in antiquity. Brornmer (i96o) 3o_38.. AlAl4eyo). 15. and Pyrrha. Lib." Opposing the she-wolf'sson was the son of the . OlympischeForschungenz \1950). Once again. seeJ.fhey were still following the footstepsof the wolf in the ritual of robbing the sacrifice. nPaus.".The name was taken to mean "howling of the wolves. 11. but. two grouPs confront each other in the sacrifice: Apollo'sworshippercoming from afar. poll. the first human beings. man searchesfor god in the wilderness.an.22. F Willemsen. Euphorion fr. 47 below. the earthborn dragon. rather.'oand modern scholarsdispute whether the name Apollo Lykeios has to do with Lycia. who argues for .zr. whom he taught how to hunt. . :.4. moreover.'The Delphians. FGrHist z1g A 2. in their gymnasium20 where Odysseus spring. filled with ashesand the remains of with its double aspectof bones. the dragon is female and nameless. 'Azrdtrtrary lruxaptis Callim. Strabo 9 p. the official myth. Accordingto the legend.'names python.in stealing the sacrifice. Thus. the place where the Delphians were said primarily to have originated.and it waJprobafor blytransposedto Delphi by the poetswithout affectingthe cult or entirely supplanting rival traditions. is a favorite motif of the orientalizing era.ury. Paus.the son of Krios..took it to mean "wolf . however. Plut. 'For the most detailed discussion see Fontenrose (1959). Andron." they founded their city and named it accordingly.l8a. Nal. fust as Zeus was united with Pelops. gl_gg. In any case.l.tor..7g. BSee n. The meaning of Apollo nvxrlyevils.Fouilles '7Pind.and immensely popular. Ael.. 8o. Hy. from the Castalian This early legend is not the only link between Delphi and the wolf. ry391-466. and it was there son was Odysseus. to did not find at the site a grave consecrated Neoptolemos-Pyrrhos. FGrHist ro F g.8.r9. "There are reliefs and vase-paintings with the fight for the tripod starting in Geometric times. 421. an. a it period with a distinct preference such monsters. Strabo gp.e. 7 44-47. cf.ram. 4t7f -4.r. Deucalion after the great flood and.so Delphic Apollo is associatedwith his chosen victim.r4. whom the poets made into the son of Achilles. the excavators such a heroto be situatedin the sanctuary. which becamewidespread no later than the first Pythian gamesin 586when Sakadas included it in his performanceof the "Pythian nome. The animal and slaughtersit. or at least the most prominent Delphic families. gr 120 . the sacrifice a of sheepin Apollo's precinct has becomepart of the legend almost undisguised.ru Here.rse.". His death occursin the sacredprecinct in a violentritual which the Delphiansregularly repeat. each struggling ro. teOd.P.5'."" Pindar assuresus that it was necessaryfor Admittedly.rsBut already plutarch noticedthat the fight againstthe dragon has very little to do with Delphic ritual-'?e'Rather.WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE THE DELPHIC TRIPOD honored eternallypreciselybecausehe died: he now has a place in the sanctuary"seeing to law and iustice in the heroes' processions amid much sacrifice.4o.ab. ru.7.the fact that two polarized groups arosein the Delphic ritual. Apoll.a placeof sacrifice. ro.s rhis may or may not reflect the memoriesof a Dorian invasion and the take-overof a pre-Dorian cult-site. 4.. De def.E.z6. nPlut.On Apollon Lykeios at Delphi.a Mycenaeanpithos. Pericl. "light" or the "wolf"'u-most Greeks.6. ro. and the place not far received his wound.." though "wolf-mountain" would be etymologically more accurate.:one tradi_ tion claimedthat the Pythian gameswere established because Apollo killed a robber from Euboea.

z4.32 of the eternal Greek temple.rt.tofchance. r. The tripod was kept in the temple'sinnermost area. M. or. Iph.however.AsatOlympia.n. but he preserved them closeto the tripod. Drerup. Taur.r.dej8ousa"E). We find his statementconfirmed by Plutarch: .T:toros.ldl 7o Pjdl "4fa.cutting up the ram links phitot"heLykaiaandolympia. plutarch placesthis tradition in the contextof a sacrificialritual. following Antonios Dogenes.Zg.For vase-paintings Wilsee lllb. they would have seen the consecrated tripod.92.itT. Is. Pyth.S.paroem.4-16.Whenthe Titans had torn apart Dionysus. home cratid to Apolio.ivonp. by contrast.. 13 powell.Thus.Lov roi tpiroios 6agn1 t<rraro.Eust.. "J.165.l7z.vaPors surrounding the tripod as the nyihia entered the adyton and took her place on the sacred seat:lauiel leaveswould have been burned. Dionysus]. p.s It is no wonder that all sorts of rumors circulatedas to its secretcontents."n' This was surely not Callimachus'own inventicin. 826C t40 [ipr. Dion. V7 in Et.36o 6. Bisacc.2.i"r" truly obedient not just a ritual provided the storyb basic structure and that it was p'oa. RristonoosI ro. roo above. [11 trere. Mantique. ft. (t95).4g.Cf' Nilsson iPl.inverted the victor and his victim: 'Apollo was the son of Silenus."" accordingto one version in keeping with the official myth of the fight and death at Delphi."a The majority. 5z Aen. z"rt. O. . pp. per. 19-24. . TPt lph. iluixa Eypqcp<!6et. Marinatos. 163Powell.18. F. . ad irro re rpt44t: Lpaxav 1** gtey-fetat'. 16. De E 385c'For the Amphictionic oath 'Azrti)r)tcov fhir]ros rai Lar<i xcti "Aprep'tfs xai)'Ecria re] roi see SIG.AristonoosI 13 p. z. would have been kept those the tripod-and the fact that the "robbers" in this ritual were that the to the god are goo-d..sitting" .E schwartz' RE V with text and interPs'-Long' r3'z.An.26-27.61.r4t. rising from the depihs of the earth in the adyton would have tranceand her prophetic Powers'But this theory induced the"Pythia's v examination: there is simply no has not stood up to archaeological trace of a chasrrlor any volcanicactivity whatsoeverbeneaththe temple at Delphi. Clem.85-88 The "raving" Qtc.lflil"l rl i I rt in for the sacrificialmeat-which. Brsacc.But it was simply subjectiveopinion lnd traditional belief.l ..trr1ot BoasEur. De Pyth.26(lateHellenisticsource. De E 3g9c. R. as was the role of the Pythia.Ion 92. 255. with barley grains" and rtPaus. ll*n fr:!o-2: Schol.4.t. The temple'sspecialfunction. there was the famous hearth (ioria)' alien to the ordinary flxms3r-a very ancient feature.= Et. 164-65Powell' the hymn of Aristonoos. schol.5 d6vov Hdt. however. zz. and ct.For the Pythia '. Gen.Lucan5. Euphorion fr.that the tripod rocked and shook in the murky 1eofllr that a power from the depths was at work when the pythia spokeot rather "sang" and "screamed.he was killed by Python. 3. perhaps-othersorts of incense.i)u i1 flu}ia. Aristoph.on which the pythia sat. rtut."" iu.'3which *it oputt to only a few' Thosewho came for advice could probably have ieen what was happening only from a diswoman sitting on the tance. Zeit $96$. they gave hir li-bs to his brother.twl Luk.ril i..til^ FGrHistSzBF7..but all of them pointed basicallyin one direction: the remains of some creaturewere gatheredinside-"the bones and the teeth slaughtered of the Python snake. j65a." and cf. Starting with Aeschylus' Eumenides. Amandry. An apocryphal tradition. Aristides zo'4. th9 w9m11 conseunique to Delphi.ivri.indications *t o . rz54. r. plut. we the tale of the tripod mysteriously starting to boil.Vesp. having thrown them into a kettle. disputed the pythiis ecstasy. *ittl the tripod.. Eur.7c'Theexactarrangeoixos. the act of. his remains were deposited in the so-calledtripod. SS5-56).s Aesch' Cho' to17. would have heard her alteredvoice and thus have known that Aiollo's word was passingthrough her lips' The Stoic"pneuma" doctrine gave rise to tire theory-eagerly taken up by rationalists-that .Luk.. ad loc.spokeof Dionysusslain: .g.parke and Wormell (t95g) | 3a_q.Plut. 3rYavis (1949) 59-Zo.and the Hosioi offer a secretsacrificein Apollo's shrine whenever the Thyiades wake Liknites [sc.. DeDef'or'4'.. Apollo.Luk.Diod.tos l fr_ ro44 Pearson. however.The people of Delphi believethat the remainsof Dionysus rest with them besidethe oracle. Diod. Nunrag. There were. Dir. V. Archaeologia 119571. Jo6-24. J97a. there is a great deal of evitdv rpizroia itaoeurap. rzl-28. rPythia rl I r22 723 . t7z'1' (1955) pretation uncertain..plut.moreover/afoot-race was ivas held in ihe stadium. too.Transcendingthesacrificialstruggles."$The tripod and the vapors rising from a fire go hand in hand in any case.l . zo7.Rrulrl? Etudes des Anciennes (r95o).De E 385c. lon 9z (correspondingly.3paus. Apollo's order Prevailed. fr. .chewing the laurel is mentioned by Lyk' 6 ano Tzetz.3' encountered The Delphic tripod had a cover.147.tp'6vovsrQBeQxafil{ouvtvPlut -tt5 ment of the interior of the temple is not certain:seeRoux \tg7r) 9t vcic.z. also unofficial and relatedto sectarianmysteries.ro.ueiao) the pythia is meitioned by of -S. Flacecf. BCHfu $y6). pr. xwL ::" Astr.'. 7. cf p. t<retev.Strabo gi.r15. +rS.Or. of course.1.phi. the adyton. and cf. ' Deliogethu. Aristoph.Cailim. Callim' Hy' 4'178' 682). xcrinitp dtlavarovrai rleoi r:o:vresxai rdc:aq and ct Hom' Hy z4. of course.ro. Taur.''. YSee ILz. Par.0. Inside.rlr iirl il' WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE THE DELPHIC TRIPOD . 18. .rupor:. 16.^r:tZenob.. !yl. rz56. r53 Powell.4.Gr. Oelmann.Lyk. 3. Bonn' lb' t57 in Baukunst geometrischer O" Homerica Griechische ti-5ziE.rorlsyp<.Schol..at Olympia. 49-4o.

3r.seemingly ancient. in Asia Minor seeApollo and Marsyas(linked with at the sacrificeof a ram in the Louvre statue542). The circle of the "werewolves" around the tripod kettle is a form of the ritual especiallyrich in antitheses.its entire boay had to be made to shudder.7. Plutarchas to three winter months were consecrated Dionysus. 49.sbirthday falls on the seventhday of the month of nysios in the spring.t78.15-74. but Apollo resumed power in the month Bysios in spring."" Lr. t:'z5.r3 ::rrupu above. Ant. De def or. the Vienna crater 9J5 : ARV2 r44r. as Cr Plut. on ihe shudder of the sacrificiar animal .e There is undoubtedly some truth to this. i regular on basis.Lyk. tearing apart.a shrewd balance. See also'Atr6Mruv 6tovuoo}oros Phlya. Omphalos. that he associates Dionysus. z9zd. zo7alludesto a secretsacrifice Donysus to .. Phoen.St. Gr. Aiirto. "llt. stepi.dsAiTcaosis cf. fr a7z. in the Hosioi must have offered their unspeakablesacrificeat this time. which likewise signalsApollo's return to power. 1965). of lack of inhibition versusawareness limitations. Philodamosp.oos I 37..By undergoing a special. On Liknites. O.light/darkness. .sr therefore k. cf.zz6 with Schol. Nrh. 165Powell. and_theThyiades would "wake" the child in the winnowing The Hosioi were the m-ost distinguished sociargroup at Delphi . e. rather.1 at Delphi Oltl t'rig..as. Bacch.n.. Ion 150-51. Jeanmaire.25.Euripides combines a similar "consecration"with omophagy in Crete. 4.r ltll hir iil liill'' l tl l '1 dence that not only Apollo was worshipped at Delphi.mul.Hdt. shrine.zz.6. 166poweil.47 of direct descendants Deucalion. Iph.p. a secretaction performed in the mountain wilderness.5. Eum. Schefold (.This probably entailed a sacrificialdismemberment. Metzger(r95r) T. Paus. Taur. Messelidre.they attained the stitus of .\K Beih. J. For "Delphos" the son of Apollo and Thyia see Paus. . tz41. as embodied in the previous un_ speakablesacrifice. t'or a qoat'shead on Derphiccoins see HN2 34o.2. P./ jlJh.n3The Leningrad vase-painting on which Apollo offers his hand to Dionysus at Delphi has often been used as an illustration. .{. simultaneously performed and with the dismembermentof mutually determinant. t) Drachmann.however. Ecstasy a phenom_ is enon sui generis. Dionysusis more likely a new name or accentuationof the one pole than a foreign intruder. "In ancienttimes--the oracle spoke only on this day. 6o5. Dionysos 54-55. Beforeit could be iaughtered. . accordingly. 7r4-t8. the advent 9f Apollo marked the closeof the Dionysiacperiod. i.but its placeis fixed by the sacrificialritual. The Thyiadeswould have roamed Mount Parnassus ecstasyduring the winter. Metzger Qg5r) pl.25 above. *Rohde (1898)II (rg5r). Latullus 6+.but.(rSSil lg_+5.4. 86 Mette and Philodamos. like east and west.. De uir. De E 389c. Aesch.. Plutarch mentions two rituals. Pind. 7. r24 125 . Dionysus among the Thyiades in the wests-a studied antithesisof morning/evening.cf . r6L Be6fuyp4orilpbo. permitting the Delphic priesthood to assimilatethe religious movements of the sixth century and at the same time to soften their impact."u Niilrror.3. Thus.Thyiad.paus. cf. Cr. Yet another sacrificehad to be made before the pythia might enter the-adyton-this time. the act killing in the shrine correspondsto caring for thJnewborn child in of the female realm. testifiesthat the two were in fact conceivedof as brothers.37b .. zz.clearlya_s one possibly could with something "unspeakable. 4JBb.and cf.4. The Hosioi would offer an "unspeakable"sacrificein the a3Aesch. z4.E. fr.lr l' rll iltr I {l |[ WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE THE DELPHIC TRIPOD l rli iti I .a1. '!_-?r. rPfut. ro. $o7 : trpyz n85. and preserving in a sa_ cred container. the polar tension is present from the outset.e. Apollo.initiation sacrifice. a goat-sacrifice. 3o6-1o9. zgze-f. Plutarch indicates. Apollo. QgSt). And at Delphi..rz -ry.ason Mount Lykaion or at olympia. emergedfrom the sacrificialkettle revived. Hsch. .4. p. The pediments of the fourth-century temple presentedApollo in the circle of the Muses in the east. proximity to death versusaffirmation of life: this is the circularcourse that sacrificialritual charts again and again. Soph. and were hence able to deal with "the unspeakable. 9yd.p. but Dionysus as well.aiya x[c.. )6sa.d The is Miinnerbund juxtaposedto the company of "iaviig" women. rrz6. Hypsipyle 752.the purified.for the identificationof Dionysuswith Apollo seeMenander Rhet.r9. of a polarity in which the contrary elements determine each other. ro.o5-rog. r87-9r. in the sacrificialritual.7. z49e-f. ' III 446 Spengel. Aiva.This in turn correspondsto the aniient closiig rite in hunting and sacrificial ritua_I. . Byz.*rtprevona 65c. H. fr.".. It comprisessavageryversus clarity."that the sacrificecorresponded to the dismember_ ment of Dionysus.. gathering. Aristoph.r. day and night.In the Delphic context. 4. The sixth century temple was different: see FD IV 3. cf. This pairing has been seen as a result of a religious-historicalprocess. Festschr. the pedimentsee Ior Paus. Ddrig. But it is not a question of diplomatic compromise or give-and-take. Eur.z-3 (everysecondyear). philodamos 27-2'). 1.and cf. sleningrad crater.On Dionysusas the first to give oraclessee Schol. O. with reference Kallisthenes FGrHist 124F to .Z.ll'l\er 41'21. l^Ol"r. renewing life by encountering death.. The myth tells us that Arkas u. ripgal. def or. Pyth.r. i1u aiya. it probably followed the main lines of Dionysiacmyth. Death.4.was finally overcomeby renewed divine life when the Pythia took her placeon the coveredtripod. de la CosteArt archailque: sculptures temples des K.ro. femaleversusmale. 16l powell.4: Aphrodite.3go-Sl.jp"lop.

plut. her entire body would quake. There is rich commaterialin the essays W. Fehrle(tgro)7-8.Joh. rather. 54 = Strabog p. becowskinson the rocks. longr.{.. sorig. J.u'Theomphalos.$ of the temple. 6 Varro L. a mature woman' male sodressed and adorned like a virgin. as a sign of quaking but also of speak oi t o* Aix.kipzig 7o.d7vi16r'oBiouPlut'Dedef'or' 4J5d'$k. and Hermes laid out the monument. Ael. T of iou Bouvos.z. ro. 16.z Eyrup. De def.3r.z6.Migne PG T.l. The omphalos appears as the centerof the world in the myth of the two birds who come from either end of the world and meet there.t6.De mus. Aesch. wisdom and cllarity. spaus.z.or. 4r above). for Python. the tripod.s the only woman in-a no other woman wal permitted to approalh thg oracle. 4o9e. she r. 7.!ir"rr up to death in an expiatory act-of mourning for the_previous Python or Uttifu lt'made no difference whether the victim was called yet Dionlsus or even Apollo himself' The Pythia.Gr.Mag' r'z9r' sTplut. It was coveredwith a net-like adyton fabric made of raw wool.. fr. 415d.d However. which Plutarch alone describesin all its curious details.reprotaneouslyan encounterwith death.j4-36. Fontenrose Q95g 376-77. the omphalos had one primary function in the ritual: it was the stand over which the woolen net was draped. every function of the Delphic stone was a matter for debate.the. the symbols of the oracle are Hestia.tomb Diof OgSil tZS.was it a chthonic altar?62 everthe standardinterpretationsor designationsmay have been.r. Pind.cf. the t"i p"*"r^"d divine uua^sor spring mark the advent of Apollo.Was it a grave Whatmonument. (n.For the onysus"seeTatian8 p. and the omphalos." mourned its father' Python'u2 insane by the n'. 6r.z (r9t8). or.Aristoph.19. Omphalos (r1Sil. followedby Schol. xo\tav.WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE THE DELPHIC TRIPOD I 1l I it was it was doused with cold water' When the goat then quivered' nottakenasanodofconsent-aswouldnormallybethecaseina fe-ar'I 'egends comedy of innocence-but. Harrison called it ayprlvovwith referenceto Poll. The conceptof a center of the world. Leipzig29. Omphalos 5g above). Latte. 4zz.out on the stone:in the temple at Delphi.The stone set up for sacrificeis the centerof the world.Fontenrose .the source of potentially crucial Besidesthe hearth and the tripod. n.3. The "virgin" by it' ductive po*"r.r16: BCH z4 egrn). HThRY (r94o).26. B. ry4. ro.H. . z91c. the embodiment of guidance.r7. Chrysost. VH lllT. Harrison Ggzil 4z+. seealso e. cf. and cf. Seealso Pap.De pyth. In just this way Palaeolithic huntersspreada bearskinover a clay model. and even more prominent' wastheomphalos. +lg on pind.:: J'r. c 48. Gr.Cook II (r9zl :169_93. De sera566d. De def..Plut. 4... {th sourceis Plut. She divine preswould shudder. in the contextof saciiiice. 86-89. in what had been dead and. zro'23..r* g"". s3Dod. 2. Christian polemicstried to denigratethe imageof the woman sitEven a ting atop rising vapors by embroidering-it with sexualdetails'us as calied the Sibyl "the god's consecrated_wife.t7 *Herrmann. expressedanthropomorphically in the image of the designatesa place where sacredactions ocnavel/ characteristically sanctuaryis in some sensea "center. Eum." Thus.5lfor instance. Das Heilige und das Profanej957). Slaughtering the victim at the "hearth" and tearing it apart like wolves are combined with "gathering" the piecesinto the tripod kettle and spreadingthe fleece. K.S66yerrlt.rl above.rz. a 4o.. The prophetessat Patarais shut into the temPleat night: Hdt..i"ty-fo.'t was offering Fytf.t!.r aiscoveredti'e oraclewhen they were driven apors. H. zz-zg.or the goatskin.rrueipa6urr6tvyvvaweiav Sudazr 3r4o. being posse-ssed sacrificeof winmakes this new life manifest."* Nevertheless..ti.9-r8. After the unspeakable in the shrine beside the hearth and the tripod. next to the tripod. but the encewelledupoutoftheanguishandfear:Apotlowouldbethere and would speak. 18.16. ihe "goat. Snell.or. L2o)-L2. Paus. Herrmann. Every eighth year there was a festival at Delphi.75-76. Parative of Ber.r8z.r (r9r5).ypair'Aesch. Ptuti.Abh.Ull ttt 3407. a practice spanning the longs time from the ancient hunter through Greek sacrificialritual.the c!. 'Ci M Eliade.9g9t1l. paus. When the pylhia mounted the tripod. h. Don.z. 9.4r8d.'^u.Ps.5' simulYet. there have beennumerousinterpretationsof this symbol. De def.For frescoesfrom the house of the Vettii see R. Roscher.offering oneselfup to the god-is awakensthe. Theopompos. pae. Q. xafl The actualomphalos was probably locatedin the Delphicsanctuary. Ag."itt FGrHist 7oF 3tb: Strabo9 p. aDiod.4o5c. Gr' 293c.thesacredsymbolofthe s'?Plut. 419.r similar ideaswere ipplied to the Pythia consortingwith Apollo.navelofttreearth.i" heiself. Hermes73 OSlg). tt36a.n. the goat is clearly made to correspond-to the . BCH 75 g95r). too *ui l"d to the tripod almost like a sacrificial victim herself. but J. becauseboth $See Harrison Qgzz) 396-4o6.54-62.as a sacrificial in the category of ritual restoration.yuwlEur. 4r7e. FGrHist rrTF Bo = Ael. L27 rz6 . Hsch. or. asee l.-Long. Schwartz(cf. r. Y." ouiun like pausanias a sexualencounL""rct yt"r had made Apollo's relation to-Kassandra ter.Att. tlts name could be aiyis. \-afum. ro." Both in antiquity and today.cf. cels.ova fis 6o:r'tt'oviott ti wt a p"6v4v 6uv P'eas.EAA Vl 315.Bousquet.

h.4.the barbarian king.basedon the foundations sepessentially ritual structure. to the tribes and cities woul"cl the agon. Mythographers tried to link this ritual to Apollo'svictory over the Python dragon. and Delphi is the other site linked to the myth of the flood.rou.Plut. According to the story the wounded monster fled from Apollo. rzof. 4rgazous i{<r flul. which were also originally every fourth. Anians. had to be blotted out. n ." "a slave's march through the land"-this could mean something like armed dancesor torch-waving. rs1r..3"pi"rio. def or.isHat. PP. Thus.t.3a.Thus. But the rjtual here is only beginning." uniting the Thessalians. Titchener(1935)' ner BedeutunS u' Die Entstehung religidse 6Plut. His journey is an "erwork.7.AAAE.'s7. and an unsPeakable end suddenly and radically in ritual fire. the Mss. documented here in ritual. it must still travel a wide arc beforeit can finally overcomethe catastropheand reestablishdivine purity in the sanctuary. as Plutarchnoted. 4r8a. at Delphi. for it was closelylinked held in every eighth year until in games. or. Cr. The ritual establishesa !g6 ah"V began to be celebra"ted Delphi and the valley of Tempein Thesii.vE(i.Malians. R.For d)r<os Delphic inscriptionssee51G3 in the De . we find a sacrificeto incur guilt. is made the instrument of destruction. together at with purificatory rites. 4Ephoros. iu 3.t).Q.8 Bu<riat &'dlglrou xai ozr:ou6fis trerottlpivc. cf.15 67plut. structure. as if a terrible stain. circular sPacea short what went tance down from the iemple terrace'6'We do not know comon inside the hut. rz8 a29 lli .2.^lzcs 4 a<itrr5 xrltop:vd.. we know that the festival it been in existence. plut.'n lowed by the all-consumingflood.9. za b o v e . the detailsare incongruous. A. r . from ihere that the sacred laurel branch the victor at the Pythian games' In the *frich was used to crown group of courseof the long pilgrimage on the "sacred" route' a large to be s-ummoned the common festival.considerably The eight-yearperiod.e. marked by flight' expiation' the return of the god.lt f -".Ael. LSS44. Dorians. a wooden building.Finally. e. or. "looks like an imitation of a king's or a tyrant'spala-ce"'was disthe built on the "threshing floor" (<il. n . was evidently even Uy ttre fourth century iong to the Pythian oider than the first Sacredfrar.i 66. a young boy whose Parentsare still alive.4r8b. De def. e . which was precededby the festival which Plutarch called . they overturned [h" tubt".even the rare and exceptional there.po6os (on the meaning of 6rri see Num.Gr..{ovca y.Jeanmaire rison uQ.89. sacrifice. when they slew Rhesus. For this festival.ag "E}. a sacredmeal at a festival in the sanctuary-i. Oitaeans. DSee -rSee I I .ilil WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE THE DELPHIC TRIPOD had' Ephorus and Theopompusallude to it.pltos' oreltlt'ara. set fiie to ihe wooden of the fled without turning around until they reachedthe entrance r5o. of an b"". r . des griech. a sacrifice-a meal which was then violently destroyedand obliteratedso that no trace remained to attest to its existence.6) r5t'r lot ix r(ou xt a6.Pelasgians. ontrrilpta' Nilsson ('.aBvc. Gr. p. this too is accomplished the god by In EPlut. z91c2errrr1prcv Mss. Roscher. The act of overturning a table.. De def. nPlut.VH 3'r. 2tetrrilptov Bernardakis.z91c.ic.* and the ning" in this name recalls the cunning and murderous exploit of Odysseusand Diomedesat Troy. at night-the init tfr" f-uUyadaiphratry silently Ied a young boy to attack the hut. who was dothed in a wolfskin. Mo-rnr". De d4.7o the myth. Lykaon's"act" is folin appears the myths of Lykaon and Thyestes. and side. "dangerouscunshrine. the young boy setsout with his retinue in the long processionto the valley of Tempe.rr.For list of the stopping-places sacrifices and a tn Tempe seeAel. LS 7).t.Neie IU'49 U879\'il+-ll' edition by J. Gr.. n. 4r8a. have MHAIO.Callim. the god chasedit to the valley of Tempe. for it There may have was then that the four-yeir interval was established.9. terion fiti the structure of the normal Delphic sacrificialritual: and too. guided by the information wrested from Dolon. Q.r.'3It is a "sacredroute. criticized by Plut.Hsch oerrnpia' xa0o..if.there was a "splendid" sacrifice an altar on the Peneiosin the valley of Tempe. been introduced into Delphi at tire time of the first SacredWar. Dedef or. for. z93c.t is Pomptow's coniecture (cf . The attack was calledthe Dolonia.u'but. schol. but the climax came when the building was members pt". u more complicatedoverlapping. above. an unthinkable crime. r'l"p. If there was a table inside the "king's building.pind."u' the festival of 'dread" ot "flight'" One might consider whether or not this was actuallya festival of the PylaicAmphictiony' closerto sinceit was originally centeredat Thermopylae.au Z."ty destroyed' Torchesin hand-that is. Kalenders 40-48. <ioi' ix6tat dxrluocs(incorrectly listed after oecuop6vos\) Hsch.<os).. H. 672: LS 8o'58.'' An exceptionalperiod. 1 . argued for oetrtqpn.. however'* cannot have the valley of Tlmpe. Fontenrose(tgSil +fiff' (1927) 425-28. FGrHist 7oF 3rb.itrg t"h?ionship between was brought . cf M P Nilsson' (r?Sil 6+4-+7' (Lund. It was then taken up in the Python myth. (t919) 187-4l. Usener.eypt retlltdu iAnAarcy. HarNilsson(19o6) H." but at the sametime an "orgiastic" raticwandering.rr-r+Drachmann.." there was surely a meal on top of it. and Locrians. ARW7 . or. who has not as yet faced the spectreof death. i1 6n r4s Aotr<oziasi.3t7-28: Kl Schr'lV (r9r3)' 45r-58.r.where he finally killed it. l i l l I 4Plut.4). beforethe new Teuborerrhpwv.f. r 4 . pyrft. 1962'?).following W. . a "hut" (oqvi)' which' however.

#i-iili. Apollo would speakonly through the raving woman sitting on top of the coveredtripod. 3o7 nHy.ltr. Odyssee Argonautikaegzt)|.:.5. they were ennaeteric: sorinus 18.The extraordinarypopularity of this unforgettable.r rsee I^8a:f ll. 76Ael.Ielerung_(Helsingfors 1904). the wereworf from Parnassus. Hackm an.. P. TBefore see Schol.h:. also becomes significant.fu' t9436. Pind. VH 3. who in so doing attempted to fix his own nature i. c*t I vnll^::t. Or.*'. the Wust. De def or. part also exhibiting more primitive featuresl-g2n hardly be overiooked. cf. One might be tempted to considerthe story of the man-eater an almost universal folk motif... he was led through all the lands ind was received everywhere with reverenceand esteem.Callim. l^6l Powell.The fact that Odysseuswas named by hii grandfather.R. p.-vase-naintings vn-*t. Plut.z3. polyphemsage. For the parallels see O.for his grandfather was Autolykos.. clearly non-Greek. see Plut' Q Gr makesit possible. (t96o).The idea of tying men under the belfies of sheep is worthy of the mind that conceivedof the wooden horse-and just as impractical. 1.Ap.*_1.. B 7e s . uo a3r . man must identify himself with the slaughteredaniachieve mal. . 66-7t. ivvaer1piias xcrd ro if4s. r (Eleusinian amphora found ry54).7-74. The fact that he pro-p1ly sacrificeshis rescuer to Zeus must gravely offend any animalJover.zz: "od. Homeric rhe or.and with the sheep-sacrifice Cyprian Aphrodite. ruurcrtq lurrrc xtLvLil. disguisedas animals. . But the order and the art themselveswere suspendedover an abyssof dread that was continuously torn open in feelings of guilt and sacrificialexpiation.1#i:. 4. Die polyphemsagi der in !vr. pl. i. I rrrrrrst. 89.:.i:::':X ) rv.163. z49a: Tert.le the shipwrecked'sailo. fr. Plutarch.escape groping hands of the the In blinded monster. -otds. z. First of all. a Greek inteipreter once made a strange conifor._^_-.." Apollo himself would return to Delphi at midsummer in from the land of the Hyperboreans.CH [rg s]..pithy tale is already attestedin the seventhcentury n'c' Moreover.d-. the correspondences with the cult in the cave of Cheiron on Mount Pelion. After this.4. l. . \'>))rt see Schefold e96g pl.ro-rr. malsand thus. and it had to be done before the escape.:.. . at 6. page.r". we notice the decisiverole played by a ram.76 arrived in Delphi.Cen586.'sThe purificatory god was himself in need of purification."Y::::} 14tr5.+qr pi...d'. Thyestes.i.. Odysseusis able to escapethe terrifying cave. 4toawith 4r8a. und . the caveof Dionysusin paus.r.w:oer. Clinging to the ram'sfleeceand hidden beneathit. or Tantalos.The cettilptov took place "shortly before" the Pythian . 48. Septerion... the young boy would break off a laurel branch and carry it back all the way from the valley of Tempe. in order to freedom. that the imprecisestatement zg3b-f. Od. J:l::ttut.45 o"riili]t"r L.ril.2 this case.leading us to suspect a specific ritual structure underlying of this masterpiece early Greek song.."-^:.nr xvil r9o9_rJ.ir. but Phrixosactedno differently. 2h i1':.though not certain. -J.z67.rr36a. A Glance Odysseus The oldest story of cannibalismin Greek literature is Odysseus' adventurewith the Cyclops. folklorists-mainly related to the odysseybwt in parallels collectedby TsPind.:'. If we presume this version behind the adventure oi odyste. a sacrificialanimal.. malority of variants:seeHackman. games:seePlut.Now. a whole group of those parallel versionsseemto offer us something more ancient:threatenedby the men concealthemselvesin the skins of slaughteredaniman-eater. through the beauty of art. De mus.. Charila.'.4o6_4o9.s is The myth of uclysseus leads us back not just to pre-Homeric times but to sources outsideGreece.qr q t'qai.7. the gamescould beginTT-the When the procession women had in the meantimeapparently performed closing rituals of their own.n The poet of the Odyssey not understand it in this way.Here.r._. and hence not look for closeties with such myths as those of Lykaon.s.::'^l!*p$t _r.'p:. fr. But more carcfulconsiderationuncoversa whole seriesof strange correspondences.Callim..and the musicalagon was the most important at Delphi.Here. cf.. are quite for close. Pyth."r. De cor. .o#A.the great massof thr6ugh a wiroleseriesof vase-paintings.K.Aristonoosl:'7.nn.14 Drachmann.. But did eventhe name Odysseus.. The violent act at the "place of putrefaction"-the ancient etymology of Pythoe-was surmounted and overcomeonce and for all through luminous order." Music was the primary mode of experiencingthe Delphic god's epiphany. Schol. . Accompanied by the music of the flute. Meuli.r. 'E. Olytteus.necessityforced them to kill their rescuers.as celebrated the hymn by Alcaeus.. ^Tpeis .Herois. ior he had killed. ry.'J.?t.. r84.sos.s beforethe Pythian games(Fontenrose [1959]458) Herois and Charila were celebrated DAlcaeus : Lobel-Page Himer.. . 'a rrar^rrrdtl' utt r-utypn(rnsugc In uzr \ .WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE A GLANCE AT ODYSSEUS Apollo in person.

. Homerischt Llntersuchungen$88$..pointed hat. 254.a smith (#+6. Cook III (r94o). 6. 58. with strange consistency. 9. cf. 6oo n. U'v Wilamowitz-Moellendorff..7.85. Schol.? Alihough virtually no details of the secret initiation are known. FGrHist 3z8F 92. more important yet is the fact that the structure of odysseus. 9 r 7 x c i ' O 6 u o o i o 6 i . r .IO. so Odysseusleft Calypso's"Ogygian" great flood island-a name still unexplainedand enigmaticin the context of the ancestral Ogygos. t2. already appears with a p'os on the re8of a tripod at Olympia ca. 4. His arrival establishes new order in a ilace of cha os." odysseus escapesbeneaththe fleeceof the ram. Schol. . 79.is elsewhereknown as Boeotia's Odyssey. ody. there are only various myths connected with Samothrace.s angea an incompre_ IT-y'r:ron"s nenslblemoral paradox.. The raft carries Odysseusto new shores._a.59. The fact that odysse.Like the Delphic boy. the gruesomefeast is as swiftly and violently brought to a closl by fire undth" invention of man'sprimordial weapon. and. s. 7l. 57g = Schol' Apoll Rhod' t 9r7.7t. StiSlitz. was odysseus involved in the mysteries of the In Cabiol? any case. In a series of parallel versions."' king. sHemberg (t95o).244. Varro in Cens."iro ur" them_ selvesGreat Gods."_] (1196). Samothrace was called 1\euxoaia.Aen.6." moreovet his wife Harmohardly separate nia" links the myth directly with Samothrace'Among the grotesque from the OdrTsfound in the BoeotianCabirion. 7r.iau o[ pep"vqp'6votrawias rirrotxrt ropgupds.r. suetoniusin serv. Plat. scenes vase-paintings sey crop up with surprising frequency. r.WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE A GLANCE AT ODYSSEUS I'l . mysteries:"They and the Samothracian nection between the Odyssey and thereforewore the veil initiated at Samothrace sav Odvsseuswas insteadof a fillet.t62. 538t mentions a "goat island. +2.rli..i..The man who vanquishes the ogre is..the relationshipof theseCyclo_ 3:t with pe^s .s. R h o d .I r32 733 .qoiov2apotpQxns' According to Aristotle ft. fhe spearhardenedby fire.111.'-Wearingthe woolen fillet was linked to a bath' Aside from this. On Ogygos see Korinna 67r Page. 10N4oou dr''Ayvyirls Od. On Samo' The Ancient Literary Sources(1958). .5.47.7z. r. Just as at Dardanus came from an island on a raft (o1e6ta)n the time of the to found llion-Troy. 6j. 4 '3Oxford skyphos. Laert. the Cabiri. TSee the anecdote of the atheist Diagoras or Diogenes.r. One can Cadmus from Cadmilus. but his homecomingis now delayed.the Xackman. zr.R. toz. Odysseus."u. zza.."r.ct.the Cyclopeswere also among Hephaestus. ro ramilienfeste derGriechen Rijmer und (reorl. the pilos. Plat. :'9.rr. E. M.c. samrer. Hemberg (r95o). the sanctuary of the Cabiri played a central role in Boeotia.6g3. Tim. p a c t p e p ' u r l p t v o u i v 2 a p ' o S p g x p y p 1 ' r u oBat rQ xpniip.Jo7. those of od. P Od.com_ And the pilos was made "from the wool of i sacrificialanipanions. 'Lyk. "Herakles auf dem Amphorenfloss' god and his victim." It was commonly believedthat the gods of Samothracewould save their initiates from drowning. This makesthe parallelbetweenthe journeys of Dardanusand Odysseus on the raft even closer. r).zg _ 85. f. and further by the Dioscouii. the with Poseidon's 6 S c h o l . trident in hand..r'. ua.se.. ur. Samothrace: 49-737. On the OgyS'ln flood see Schol. thelramenDiaus: of see Varro in Geil. howevet reveal a series of striking analogiesto Odysseus.life a reaches turning point when he witnessesthat "unspeaiable. 64. ia_3.5.r" u. ++(rSSg). Paus." rhe initiate remains clothed in the symbol of the sacrifice.5. rests on a ritual foundation.jlike the Arcadianwerewolf. Diog.. For the initiatesat samothracetie purof-Leucothea 6 ple fillets around their abdomen.. oiu." Are Poseidonand Odysseus. \ablri are smithv-eod.The best known is a vase on which "Olyteus. Lewis.73. l'?Hellanikos.712. the blinding is often carriedout and with morten rnetal. r4."atthE waning of the old moon. he too must go far u-uy. Ephoros. as Cadmus' father see Suda ro rz. thrace see N. rro Hackman. Heraklesappearedon a ole6rla: paus. he must Jinger in unknown lands for nine years beforebeing able to return home.448. included the circular.. 74-8o with Schol. #8. Jacoby in Philochoros.the Cyclops' curseand poseidon. the coins point us toward one fact: the centralevent was the sacrificeof a ram. .: seeSchefold(ry6g tig.6o.sometimes calledgalerus. the hero is forced to share in the meal of human flesh''6After con-tinuing a symposium. 7. 74 Polyphimsag:e).llepi yap rilv xot). zg p." driven by "Borias. tOt portraysthe Cyclopes alreadyas smiths. otherwise worn by Fiephaestusand his sons. cf' RE VII 2179-88.rr. Whatever these sp_ecific parallelsprove or make probable. Dso with the pitreJs.ut and cf. however. paradoxicallyequatedhere?since archaictimes.cannibalisticmeal in the cave. "Hemberg GgSo) gS.These. 16-17.:. poly1tnsasage. zza.A p o l l . in many parallelversions." sails the seaon a primitive raft. 10'ts 3t. Tim.i ] r 6 i' llfrl l ll..At Erythrai. lahresh. 3r6-t7. "1l. and the start of the new. 1 .2". FCrHist F z3." Aiyo.-. .vtp dvri raruias. odysseus' iconography has.. 1s The king regains po*".. and cf. who lent his name to the most ancient Greek flood legend. far from human civilizatibn.sufferings" quite obvior ^ly correspondsto the werewolf pitt".Ever since the most ancient times. homeward through the sea.Festus arbogarerusp. t". to9. 9 is an old ii1n'pa.rn 1s tnal. that turns up again and again from Delphi to Mount Lykaion. FGrHist 7oF rzo. ut Osterr. finally.

tj_t.6.. women and girls uis. 8. reuectsthe age-oldsituation of the hunter.And.til /rlr "'l WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE ) I I lil. and Lemof which persistedboth in a non-Greekform in Samothrace nos and in a Greek guise in Arcadia and Delphi. 1t i L L l i the festival of Apollo.however. Llomerische zo. The rhythm of anticipatory renunciation.. . in the cult.ro above). further on. Opposing the wild and far-offlands is the power of jusgreed. In the city-culture.25.2. adapted themselvesto the same tradition. zo. for if we find tracesas far back as Qatal Hriytik and beyond.as day the follows night. (r.5. nHermes (1895).In either casethere is. restitution -are expandedinto three related festivalsthat can be characterized as.'n by fighting with his bow In his transformarealm tion.. dread of death and the certainty of life.5.rrn" u special role in which they move from lovely to gloomy ispects. are subjectto the samegod.6oo. demonstratedlong ago that a whole seriesof culEduard Meyer2o link Odysseusand Penelopewith Arcadia. we encounter the customs of fishermen w-ho. Cf.E. then the patterns themselves to must be older than any national differentiationaccessible scholarcity culture to ship. A similar dramatic structure occurs when the two parts follow sequentially.remnants Samothrace. there is a correspondingmyth ot Poseidon(*hol. t'Od. 261-7o.z5o. 1. Wtist. DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR'S FESTIVAL We have traced the two-sided nature of sacrifice-the encounter with death and the will to live-in a group of rituals characterized on the one hand by the act of cooking a ram in a kettle.. only the terrifying central act answeredby an affirmation of order must be constant. we find the antithesisof Poseidonand Apollo.z76. and on the other by the oppositionsamong the participantsand the play between exclusion and membership.. the technol6gy of *eapo.tr. an antithesis also present in one version of the Delphic legend'" The connectionsthat have cropped up simultaneouslywith the Cabiri.is based on sacrifice. The same. the cruel but just ventice at home.. Eumolpia. tic reminiscences too..4-5. Odysseusjburneys between the antithesesof Poseidon's and Apoilo's. Hy. and Troy point to pre-Helleniccultural levels. the three parts of the sacrificialaction-preparation.In one group of rituals centeringon the sacrificeof a bull. 134 Ir 135 [. who exchangedDelphi for Kalaureia. For Poseidon as the patron god of the Delphic oracle.zt 258-59. although situated somewhere between hunting and city culrures.see at Callim.77-14. Thr6ugh changing economicand social conditions. il.which breaksin upon the everydayworld only to disappearagain:humanity assertsitself on sacredoccasions.rs lhat cun be used at a distance.r4. a breakdown of the normal order. and cf. 244-76' j75-8il at Boeotian Tilphusion. A lt. the fundamental structure of rituar remains. 8. For that very reason. both to call that civilization into question and to renew it. 4346) and cult of Apollo (Strabo9 p. PR II 1o5o-59' For the 3o horsesof Odysseusat Pheneossee Paus. There.iinally. 593. fr. and the of perhapsboth aspects sacrifice. 8. li'. in its antithesisto anti-culture. 18.act.4t:'. 2rForthe myth of Thelpusa see Paus. opposing the man-eater's geanceiopposing the predator'sattackat closequarters. RE XVII agro-t'2. what we find is the antithesisof agricultureand the societyof the predator. Evenculture. (z) an "unspeakable (r) of sacrifice.For an altar of Poseidon Delphi seePaus'70'24'4' Faus.4. cf (n.t56.ty-|glically transformed into a New year'sfestival following a period of dissolution.. whether it be that of Poseidon's grove of Apollo. pleasurable fratification.: a symbolicsacrifice a girl. . that is. and civilization risesuP out of perversion. . Ap.l lh. and a sacrificeof renewal. son or that in the oI.structure appearsin Dionysiacorgies.33. It is hardly feasibleto try to determine a more specificnationalorigin. Ritual must constantly realm of the hunting era within the circle of civilization. Untersuchungen Wilamowitz. Here.onrr". Both are divine. see also Burkert i97g) rz5-tzg.44.in addition see the in strange genealogy of Penelope-Pan Pind. almost as an atavisticregression. daylight PresuPPoses exisreestablish the deadly outdoor tenceof night.2. roo.ro. lilling. $) followedby the savage"act" artd.1 1. againstthe wolves.

c. cf .or becauseof a certain apprewith Attic cult hension.z8.'The festival. Nilsson (19o6)r4-$.. for a calendarfrieze seeDeubner : t. Bousrizra. Arzrotrrrir6. even grotesque.but cf.one stood out by virtue of its singular. signified antiquatedhabitsand old-fashionednonsense that modern youths wished to discard. Jacobyon FGrHist 3z4F 16 (Supplement: Notes Pritscher.29rc a to . on a seriesof black figure vasesby the Geta painter (ca. zro. discountediis importance "skrupellos fingiert" r69. has left us by far the greatestnumber of inscriptions. place.cf. 84-86. This skepticismis refuted by newfound evidence !1ol7o). . Following l:?11 rrott. r above).) Erechtheus or (paus. sPaus. Et. tz}-32. of 985.. 'Cf. Bakalakis.. M. rather.Meuli (1946) 275-77. probably going back to Theophrastus. This city.Hsch.Aristoph' Pax 4zoshodd y). RlrM 5z(t8g).2. Pax 4rg. r4o-6u U. G. see lD^:Yt:j:. People talked about far less than they experienced-either becausethey thought it self-evident. 3o 20. the processionincluded water carried by young girls sacrificialgrain.eora xcd K4xel6ou xai pougovi-av. 7 below. Bernays Theophrastos' by Schrift . Smith (1894) 3o4-3o6. For a time. rotravov Schol. Proc.). .4. Schol.But the confusingvariety of religious phenomena makes us all the more consciousof the limits of our knowledge.J.'z) zy pl.56-6o.a. with its love of writing. Ai early as Ariitophanes.DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR.5we can trace the details of this sacrificein a way that is seldom possible.ttt-26: "Le origini delle Buphonia ateniesi.) in the samescholioncomesfrom pax 4rgwith its scholion.I111. 472.h it now added rtptfef)tfaivew Hesperia 37 e96g). As always.+ll-S+.{r1s Nub. features:the Buphonia.. nowhere are cults so well documented.48'zr)' The idea that the 'A1rtvq. r87-zo4. n. 985.Ads Bdxor. Its very name iugg"rtr what the ritual subsequentlymakes tangible: a guiit-laden crime-but one which could not be taken seriously.3o= Et.For the date see lS r79. see S. On re\auos seeStengel egro) 66_72. tz (ig69).Our picture of festivalsin Athens is survive richer and more varied than that of festivalselsewhere. by its high location. Sokolowski.ei). chron. 3Nab' 984-85 dpyo. The myth attributesthe sacrifice Kekrops(Euseb.5oon.but for that very reasonit is more confused.z. 39.Cook lll DasWort ggais 57o-s71. De Diipoliorum sacroAtheniensium $87). Pax 4r9. it attractedthe best artists.[cloeos] t6v hiys r6u nporlftov (with doubts. Dow. Farnell I (t896) 56-58. lG 12r88 : LSSro A 16 (IG I'? Nub. Hsch.IG lr gg : Hesperia \a%il. Abst.z8-1o. F. Abst. t Deubner (1932). Pestalozza. Gen. Massachusetts 7r (196r). Harrison (rgzz) rrr-t3. at the altar of Zeus on the highest spot of the Athenian Acropolis. This occurred on the fourteenth day of Skirophorion in midsummer. H. Absf..Theophrastos LEPI EYL'EBEIA2 es64).. o-r. "ox-slaying. tracedback to Theophrastus J. M." Rend' der Antike Q96z).r. F. I (tgS6).ro. 58-71. At the saired (66po96pot).): t-ook III (r94o) AK 58r-82. Oliver read in a rragmentof the Nikomachean calendar (seen. just as the puzzlingp"erard p. Mauss.Rathe. 4 3z ciz<i.c.lOut of all these sacrifices. H' v' Prott.88-91. q8+). H. lVrb. Moreover.A whole group of oxen would be driven up to the Acropolis. (rg5) r5z-55.those books that dealt specifically only in a few fragments. J.the sacrificialanimal would not immediately be placed at the the oxen had to circle the altar' on which the graincenter.and it is still only fragmentary. nor the Acropolis. Hesperia 839 : LSSz Ac is uncertain.|. Schol. and the sacrificialknife. sacrifice-a kind of meal or cake-had been set (seeFigure 6). Band. see Lmo|ieta (on Ardzrotrr.w. Paideuma 4Og5o). though distinguishedby its date in the midlOn the Athenian sacralcalendar.who felt ill at easewith this text.274-BJ'On the name Lomb.T::!?' :ll -: 1atrr4s rpazr6.. Oliver.rn. d1 dle of the month. Deubner(rg1z) t'58-74.rdszeprel. the official festival calendar recorded by Nikomacnos. Hesperia tury 8.z. FromOx-Slaying the Festiaal Panathenaic DIPOLIEIA The polis of Athens plays a unique role in Greek literature. Suda B +Z+: Androtion.::t:Pi "ut' ztaAords Porph.3 ihe epithets "Dipolieia-like" and "full of Buphonia.p-h: uw. Aristoph.There 'A$fiu'4cru Schol..efers an altar xpt&as. and by the name of the highest god. r. $927) r4z-5o. porph.by evidencethat Deubnerdid notiake into account.89l9o deII'Inst. to Hieron.vorilpn (Deubner [r91zl 16. almost every day had its festival or sacrifice. yet people kne* and felt that the custom was old. 3-36.and so becamea farce which seemed to fit neither Zeus. One would think the god was being offered the fruits of agriculture. Tgr-y"Ja glorified picture of the primordial age. . Oeuures (1968)."t tre}auiv xai gatara z.Thus. For the oldestinscriptionalsourcesee : lG I'?839 LSSz (ca.Aristoph. (VR) .S FESTIVAL THE PANATHENAIC FESTIVAL to r.ei Deubner lrq6zl r58) see IG I'?841 : LS 17 Ab (taken from +Itglr/l.r. recordedby Nikomachosat the end of the fifth cenHistoricalSociety (tgSllSZ).(ts' ratherthan t6' An Bekk.s Thanks mainly to one report. LS t) to *t.r.ro). 8. Abr.24.ro. 5rol48on. cf. pteptylttuaszupois. Aristoph' iead Arno)rlet'.But (though modified in its details)'the Dipolieia survived until the time of the Roman emperors. frdmmigkeit(1866).O." for "Zeus of the City" (Ard[Io).z8.3o. FGrHist3z4F t6. Further.ia ye xai auro\uit}q xai rertiyav duap. In Athens. r1. is a misreading Buphonla were celJbrated. 127_24. was anything but bright and cheerfully devout. nor the prytaneum. otto. rap. a36 137 . and it dominated the production of painted pottery for centuries. n. 267: 29 .c.

Kynosarges). repeatedin 2. VH 5. at :91' lh:und Geistesgeschichte zz (rg7o). n. Sopatroscould ease his Thus. it is the family or just some ^''Pu'(as . could now enjoy the fruits of his action: after the animal had collapsed.n.u.z. In this version. The killer's name varies-Thaulon. Deubner found tnts "ungeheuerlich"(t6Z. all participantswere irrevocablyimplicated in the sacrifice.. Thaulon guTa6eurleis schol. reflected in the . this bull-sacrifice in "sacred" bloodshed.flight. 5.z. Historia (t962). 2.. rott reBveuros xai p. T I/.. n.Religio. Gr.74. Od. By now the axekept in the shrine would have been polished with the water brought for the occasion.).for they are played out in marked the closeof the Silver the ritual.[t was simply a question of waiting until one of the animals turned to the altar and. whether speakingof Sopatrosor Thaulon. the "ox-slayer" would swing his axe.13 rnent had been the price for spilling blood since ancient times. however.. .but Kleidemos FGrHist)2J F . toino rp<r{enu ravres . tl. 18'483'on ritual flight after the sacrificesee Tenedos. n rites concerningBuzygesand the palladion procession Athens: Burkert. But this new step recoiled at once upon the actors.zg)z. In this way.'as follows: KevrpLalat.4.Cf.65r. Botu trorfrs rro}. Paus.4.351. seemsto have at:-'":^. FarmerCraik.the''carvers" would skin it with a knife.l:ryn Earrporcrearry Bovtizrorand ctesigrrate. 6eiv xaraxoriluat porph.del Pass.for the legend see Porph.?rp:". 356-68."1'ZAll would work togetheraccordingto theirioles."the "goaders" driving the ox to the altar.. following its instincts.3o (end) is probrematic the extent that to . There are severalversionsof the legend telling how the first "ox-slaying" resulted from the spontaneous rage of a devout farmer when a greedy ox disrupted the sacred act.29. Abst.Co' a lumella 6 praef. oncein detail. Abst'z.. Abst.3z.'loilat. ::t:schrif:."i. and the "carvers.There is a competingassertionin Androtion.'sBy making the "act" a collectiveundertaking.r7.i1 xrtrrrcyoiotv-"to restrain i}tqL. In /G I ?g43 = 15 is OI aIITOAIETIOII: it is uncertain#h"*. After this. which the ytptl areoncepresented ttFor Thaulon see Androtion. 20-22 + briefly.ud these very functions to the EleusinianKerykes (cf. Byz. z.raoaeiv) abstainis explicitly or forbidden at this sacrifice.54.z9. turns toward the statehearthat the market. Banish_ doesthe legend.1"irors rt. The ox itself thus broke the tabu "' and sinned against the god and his altar.. the biologicalmechanism that rnakesaggressionchange to flight was institutionalized as law.li ^ost.For Rome see the 5t6 Ke$tugium and Poplifugia.Afterward.o\ri6ar r:otrpLd.5o (paroem.78zc. But zz11967). the . the one who performed the sacrificial"act" would run away and not return.The most detailed of the etiological legends. what is more.3." see phot. Par.7 = Zenob.Par.IIr. Leg.but. Abst. 12. 3/4 below. z1o) are explained in phot. cakesand the fruits of the earth soakedin honey and other such pure sacrifices"'-or such was the conclusion drawn already by Plato and more consequentlyby Theophrastus from the introductory part of the sacrifice' Yet this "pure offering" was merely a prelude. Delphi.s '6iuypa. for SopatrosseePorph.Zenob.zobelow. . Crete.the Key(Porph. everyonenow participatedaccordingto his group. II.Thesmophoria." the seeming idyll ended day that Theophrastus and many other romantics were deluding themselvesabout the development of mankind: it was far more a question of old hunting instincts breaking through the thin crust of civilization.'nAt the Buphonia. as his axe and fled. The remaining participants. Thus.53. fithorea. this is usually understoodas though a secondsacrifice. Aggressionhad long been held back behind the sacredness of the altar-sacrifice was expectedand finally done." To Aratus. Ath. rrEophrastus') reference thus linked to Atthidographicaltradition. if not actuallyan excuseor bait for the violent act. ai p"67xa iro' xi$et r&t.DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR. In paint_ ings.".for Hestta.442). Hsch. r3Paus.:::^"-Yt* who are participating. if the contextof the festivalfor Zeus Polieussuggests translation"it is sacrificed it bows its headto Hestia. Eip.z8-3o. rather. for howevet belongsclearlyto the cattle-sacrifice Heraklesat the Diomeia (Aristoph of Everysacrifice a bull is a "primeval crime.Steph. and remove its bowels." 9u74. "family. Hephaestus fleesat Athena'sbirth: seecook III (rg4o) 656-726philoktetesflees after_having Herakles'pyre. z-zgl"rclc.Burkert.happy to be rid of him.Tegea. 6 above).. roThesacrificial bull for Zeus Polieuson Cos is chosen(rprrlels)from many which are driven through the marketplace:SIC ao25= LS r5r A r9: Bietat 66. for Diomos seeibid. 8.'6 which represented one of the old Athenian familieJ: the . Sopatros.nsano purificationof king Demophon. s.fiir. Meuli (1946) 277.to: nuvepyoisyap \aBdu rousri)\trous. Pausanias 'Plat. The meat was evidently roastedand eatenit once.We know toAg". the sacrificial we a the goddess(L 5.lvaterbearers. "Hestra animalis bought from is reimbursed"(z) for the price of the bull. r.ate the grain. but insteadto repeatit and. 38above). ro. Schol. Abst. JacoLyad loc. cut it up. 7. To kill a plow-ox was considered crime at Athens:Ael. to eat the sacrificial animal. but the full offenseappearsonly in what follows: an oracleinsertedin the narrative ordered the Athenians not to atone for the crime.APilurlorz). r. and offered no animals in sacrifice.5.paus. The "oxslayer" (Bovrvros) who administeredthe fatal blow then threw away describesthis as the normal custom.24. in 49-. FGrHist I Itrr ill 88 r39 .porphyry. the bull would fall.Diomos-but the motivation and the act remain constant.ears lrt:. noi families.5. 1 N rimr I I]II . the Greekscalled it "flight.which..ox-slayers.ro. Sopatros"buried. oneself"(xo. conscience. was unable to stomachthis meal. FGrHist 3z4F 16 with the parallelscited by lacoby..l t' I was indeed a time "when people shrank from eating oxen.s "r-t:3. r2Aratus7Jr-J2.e. 2. the larger were inorganicallyinserted(E.S FESTIVAL THE PANATHENAIC FESTIVAL il /1li . 36g_69. r-4zo. 1. the bull whole.rprd n. cf.functions." Ran.:.58. I r+r). that is. i#"":J lt: .In this interPretation must accePt doublet. Cook III (r94o) lit = ARV.

58-7t.. The Coan LexSacra dictatesthat iu6opa Euitperat.was found guilty of murder'" " The "ox-slayer.ropoiis.But even if the famous mealsin pre-sacrificial vegetarian. Mytiotogische (fi84). SinceIG I':843 1: LS r7) mentionswood in connectionwith KHPYKEI and Dipolieia. Eust r156 59. ztzg. For Athena as inventor of the plow see the Altaic horse' the skin of the sacrificial victim: Scyihians' Hdt' 4 72. Thessalische Mythologie 994$. moreover. Mannhirdt.n. Ael. A trial was held ai the center of the polis' that altar' hearth in the prytaneum.and cf. Karl Meuli lodged a strong protest againstisolating the Buphonia ritual and interpreting it in exceptionalways.Oo0g'os'z)@aulos"'{p4sNlaxe6dutos'(Dcu}ta' How this competition between the two families is to be smoothed iopr1. "1.97.tt" . ztg. not a "new custom. The strange and eccentriccharacterof this ritual remains.These two acts seemmore complementarythan contradictory'Both the axe and the knife play a part in the sacrifice:"the knife alone cannot kill the the bull.Cd. 48 telow.A pou{irnls i( dxpono\eas is mentioned in Aristro' Serv auct Aen 4'4oz' For Or. it is natural that the knife should be found more guilty than the axe.5 above).1o mentions the court at the upp"u.but by following any one of them. and he who had done knife which. The bones were subsequently burned on the altar. Cook over is stiil a problem: see A.rd . it.onf.was said to ih" R. "normal" sacrifice. z. W.1o.eusseeCook IIf (r94o)6o5-6o6. the women water-bearers the axe and the knife were more guilty than they' and these in ened the i.2. Mommsen (1898).The axewould presumablyhavebeen kept elsewhere.ssocial is' at the state vance.z. pour4s' 6 rois Atzotrlors ra Bougovn 6priu Cook lll [r94o] 589) During the Roman .S FESTIVAL IHE PANATHENAIC FESTIVAL all ate the meat except the one who killed.in the violence' A plow' the shrine. the remainswere probablvburnt. The knife was. P. as a primordial iymbol of consecrated be kept in just this-wayon primordial piow of its inventor. For the burying of ihu ru. tne Uutt : Forschungen z. have extraordinarysacrificialfestivals which the actsof incurring guilt anclmaking reparationare playedout in at detail. festival(seel. and thus the iacrificial animal had "risen from the dead. UdG IX 287.DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR. VH 81 (probably taken from Theoprastus)." the creation of a refined sensibility.7. Abst. at spreading out situation was restored. T Il. Cook I (r9r4) r85. for the crime of having kille-dat the who had sharpchargedthat those "Here. t8Porph. !r Uu". and cf.'a. in allusions. i3." for he saw that the festival'sbasicrhythm was absolutelyparallel to that of a more straightforward. accordingto porphyry the knife was castinto the sea.2'nobody could forget that prytaneum were essentially ihe was no longer living in a Golden Age. Hsch (Dautrovidat.r. they referred concretelyto an "ox" that would be "killed" for "Zeus of the Crty.at the bear festival.zg. b.nn. Suda r9 67)' 1z4F r6(cf.as Deubner2n claimedin reactionto the bold theoriesadvancedby historians of religion." who would otherwise have been the first to be blamed. from its "beginning" with water and grain to the final "setting-up" and consecrationof the remains.." but sacrifice. and cf. 585. r37e. nor tlre u*" rkir. rz. u.7.<-r52oThisonly in Porph.Philippson. or Perhaps even Zeus himself?" There is doubtless some truth in all of theseexplanations. Abst. above). Hsch.elvttosxptvetat.Hunters and nomads too. 2'Ath. Abst.nutg"d him who had handed them the axe' and he charged this charged the man whJhad cut up the ox.z. 5r-53. According to Pausanias. o.zS. Paus' r. z I zoDindorf.the Altaiansand the Mongols (seeI.76. r40 L47 .5oabove). Both [rg4o]. only the skin remained' releThere followed an epilogue emphasizing the event. he The extraordinary featuresof this sacrificialfestival seem to require extraordinary interpretations:is this bull a totem animal.Toporrivot.Hsch. fo. The stuffed ox_skinwas spread out in front of it. sinceii could not speak.z.gd}tlxplt}eisxaieisro6edvar. Agallis Schol. even from Greece itself. in Thessaly: cook III which links the Bouriros to the Thaulonidai (cf. zFor "the special deity of an ox-clan"seeFarnellI (1896) For the vegetationspirit see 58. 521'-22i Toepffer has probably been III (r94o). But in this case."'oOstensibly. 2o(tg1z) r71.ial Izo8. we risk becomproblem of what something ing entangled in the religious-historical ti"t'_-vrrd is that not simply inventing a new mythology to explain the old? Evidencefor the identity of the god and the sacrificialanimal can be adducedfrom the outer limits of the Greek world and. The pounlros is "not known": see Paus r'24 4' rrCook III both zitrerus and ptllarpo. 596'. GB VIII 4-7.(9au\ros. axe was made to stand trial' but acquitted.rooEizetrerusrc." LLi flo).the horse-sacrifice among the Indo-European peollu ples. (1889)' r49*58.44. 8i946) 275-76.Meuli (1945)zz9. besides their "ordinary" rituals.pavrtxad. lIlIIl2 zrz8. F<>r Empire.the 18'483. Because life-forcesseemto ebb away with the blood. Porph.rsea *ith Bor". ui"lief-depicting a sacrifice: Cook III (rg4o) z8 fig' 7 On knife see Eur' Hik prytaneion see Demosth.^. Zeus oautrtos Ir94ol. 3o.i.z77-$. a ie peis Bourinros Aaxparci6ris is attested: 1G see IC ll/lllr 5oz4' a seat [epdos ALosflo)rrios in the theater.this appliesto the elephantfestivalimong the Pygmies(seeI.\. .smaller and more easily obtainable. on which see Stengel(r9ro) 85-9r. as long as Athenians spoke Greek.z.rei.ltos (Deubner lr91zlt6z. naa Rea and could not be found' Allegedly' no one-knew the him.*i. The comedyof innocencewas merely broader-a fact which incidentally confirms that something very ancient and fundarnental is surfacing here.n. or a vegetationdemon which must be killed at the harvest festival.

)4g-7g. 44. and crisis was far more immediate. the beginning that accompanies multaneously actedout in city government. Stob.Deubner (193-2)/ 40-50. new officialscame to power-at Athens. Since the calendarat Athens. 8z8c-d..The Buphonia fell on the fourteenth day of Skirophorion. 56. as well as the guardiansof the laws Trials in criminal court-the most stirring eventsin and the generals.e.E.ARW z7 . $C. which was renewedon New yeari Day. Pallis.. Eccl'.85). i. Koenen. 443 ." In the Greek polis. 44 (1916). uncertainty. "De Athena Scirade.2o7.the ritual of illuminatesboth the horror of killing.7o7-72. Erechtheus. but it will new order of law in the ancientmonarchies was thought to start with the king'saccession to the throne. It almost sounds as though anything was allowed in the break between the old and the new: whatever anyonecould quickly snatchup.munity the ceremonyof slaughteringthe ox. the farmer's animal helper becamethe victim. PoI.m 26The connectionwith the harvest is more evident in the sacrificeof a bull for zeus in SIGr589 : LSAM 32. see 27For BabylonianNew Year'sritual see ANET yr-14. rg9_z4o. TheBabylontan the Akitu Festiaaljgz6). rather. 3tLeg. t: oJtena free day betweenconsecutive festivals(forthis principle at Romesee ."rrity that is ineluctable. ification and joy would ordinarily prevail. rg. in the of interval betweenharvestand sowing time-the celebration the DiBut the polieia presupposes end of the harvest."Mnemoiyne n.at Karystossee IG Xll 9. far beyond the capacities normal saciifice. the cleft between the old and the new remained. At Athens. the god of death.. on closeinspectionit turns out that the skirais almost the mirror-image of the Buphonia.the king temporarily abdicated. preparatron TT" or the KcA. rb6" c. L.and the latter to Zeus. He too had to be honored.26 the predominanceof at uncanny features a "harvest festival.4.For five days' dvopia at the deathof a persian 17 king. as in many and the Near East.842.l llli l we can come closerto understanding it by taking a look at the officia Attic calendar. S. Il": fl:to].ibid. he shall have and keep until he stepsdown from his office. R. the former refers to Athena. this means the archon. sThus. Such an act of "dissolution.'Athena Skirasund die Skirophorie Hermeszo n. 4-24. after the victory and birth of the successor the throne' The a42 Even when civic life becametoo stableto permit such legal vagaries. We must look. Burkert.s. Ever since calendarswere inthe New Year has been sivented. A.r.The new archon began by proclaiming that "whatever possessions anyone held before his entry into office.. is a peculiarly stirring experience... after the skira festival. from which man tries to escape by fleeing or throwing the blame on others. the end of the year.S FESTIVAL THE PANATHENAIC FESTIVAL ii ll rlill ii. for instance. to the very serious concept of an "end. Mafh.26. hovering between transitory past and uncertain future.DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR.. ind"eed. Aich." Even for modern man. Ath.. immediately precedingthe Buphonia. necessarythan new life. the king.A. Hermes eg66). pa_ f.r r . Ptolem'y absolvedall debts and gaveamnesty for all crimeson New Year's lV to Day (Oct.it was ritual that marked it out. 'z6Antiphon 6. and the sacrednu.. inasmuchas the bull is brought beforethe Sosipolis Magnesia.DeSciris. van der Loeff.. god "at the start of the sowing" in order to be sacrificedin early summer (after the harvest?). for life can assertitself only through food taken from life: hence the blood spilled on the heights in honor of Zeus of the City. at the in end of the agricultural year.which renewed itself through periodic dissolution. the polemarch. 322-37. Nilsson$95) t55-56. cannot be explainedas agricultural. see Sext.All must play their parts until the communal meai. where. To be sure. 32For the month Buphonion on Delos see IG Xl z. (18. at the full moon in the last month of the year' It was thus the year's last major festival. Gjerstad."where gratsuch paradoxical.2.4r..and Demeter. pyrusforschung Q96o).was performed 6y the_com. for dissolution is no less good o.16. 5z. cf. plato wanted the last month of the year dedicatedto Pluto. he could forthwith keep. r99): the middle day at the Thesmophoriais free-N4o""io. the field of law-could not be carriedover from one year to the next.28 There was a caesura. In the Inws. z111. n Arist.was ordered accordingto the agriparts of Greece cultural year-wherein the New Year comes in the summer.9z). all sourcesin Jacobyon FGrllisf 3zg F 94 t4 (III B Supplement286-89).lttTiy*a sacrifice(Deubner 'rq6zl 5z). SKIRA The contextin which the Dipolieia festivalis thus set extendsyet further."'"This proclamation of such continuing security simultaneously curtailed and limited it to the archon'sterm of office.826. Its impact on ancient man as a time of transition.on Tenos see 1G XII 5.."Das attischeFestder Skira.3'what in Plato'shands becamea belief in individual immortalitv was first applied primarily to society.Aristoph.. 91.2. Here.39.33 was cerebrated but It on the twelfth day of Skirophorion.For the date see Schol. the last month of the year was not called Buphonion32 skirophorion. Robert.y and.zo3 A 32. In Near Easternmonarchies. and the remnantsof such customsdo indeed exist..

r. It does not go toward this most holy shrine.*o-en "ren. FGrHist : Harpokr' s. 2 t h e n m e n t i o n s a of Demeter and Kore" where'Athena and Poseidon are honored as well".aiul.yenflat dgpoioiav. is explained in another wa1': "sancs e e P a u s . . 497. "Eccl. The king and the goddessof the city forsake Athens. n.The (Eteo-)Butadai provide the priest of Erechtheus: see Toepffer (fi8g) tr4-:-7. which. is once again peculiar.8. an inversion of the normal order. Beneatha canoPy. Byz. the emperor Elagabal. . oi 6i Lilpqrpos xcd Kdp4s.4 above. a scurrilous feature. Pherekrates fr. has not been entirt'lr' and the clarified.. Bekk. They sacrificed and feasted.t). on the city limits in the direction of Eleusis.orcv. V3. is speaking of augury from the flight of birds. Skiron. Cf. 3 7 . Vict."n. Aug. The Hittites og5+I. r55..The fact that the priest of the sun accompanies them may be a Hellenistic innovation.^ for dice is of course a men's game. P a u s . all at the men's expense. oxecpdpavzs. The state of things on the Acropolis between the Mycenaean royal palace .8r.Already in the Odyssey.the year is gradually drawing to a close. Accordingly. in which the complex of guilt and purification seems to crystallize. The explanation in both cases that the parasol is called axipor <rxcdietov (because of the association with cxtt.trdv qKo. celebrated processionin which the sun god departed from main festival with a his main shrine in the city and moved to one outside it'3'At Skiron 3sLysimachides. the cultic monuments on the height are certainly older than Solon. 522-2).Eust. topuat instead of pavre'r' is although Hsch. inasmuch as they point to a dissolution. 4 ( n a m e d a f t e r t h e d e a d s e e rS k i r o s ) . Byz. 'EpcxDei dpveos is the dictate of the sacrificial calendar of Nikomacnos at an unknown date for the fifth of a month (IG IVIII . a7 B.sheltered. . 6 18 Erbse (: Suda 6 rzro. R.After being destroyedin the Persian Wars. is to be found in a Mycenaean/post-Mycenaean shrine in the Nike-Pyrgos. Hist. r . iu 6i rois lxdpots r!1 6opri1 iiohtov ]fflto5lro-ros. for a seat [ep6as Boirou at the Erechtheum see 1G ll/ lll? 5166. schol."" The Skira procession.The priests walk beneath a canopy.a Syrian sun-priest." including the image of Athena. ]Ttreopompos. 4r (CAF I io6) = phot.r1. 3gJ. . . Nilsson (1955) tro-r1. poll. "house of Erechtheus.by conentered the trast.. marriage suspended.Eph. at the Piraeus is the Thesmophorion. as far as the explanation is concerned. rz below. cxipou. rg. tS2xipa Eopril iortu ri1< in the 'Ar94uris . oxtpogopos . and isolated. Arch. It was one of the few days in which they were allowed to leave the isolation of the women.. but away from it to Skiron. 98 below 3THerodian For a similar pro5.). o*rpog"rcli An.conspicuous. 3 6 .thatthe"houseofErectrtheus. for those leading the procession. in The most prominent featurein the Skirais a procession "the priestessof its way. Thesm. who found mention ol2xipov 366F 3 orator Lykurgos (tr. but it fits well in a day when all is reversed: the domestic and the family orders are abolished.7.s quarters and gather "according to ancestral custom"or at one of the special female shrines. . 9.DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR'S FESTIVAL THE PANATHENAIC FESTIVAL not do to separatethe festival rituals accordingto the individualized namesof the gods.96 (ixiBeuou iri2xip<p 6u re rils I. The Eteobutadaicarry the canopy. Phot.p6u) is not believable. Skiron was proverbially the site of dice-games and general licenser'-in this way the men would while away the hours in the period of fasting. leaving it abandoned.*. L4+ 145 . 3. . The Skira was an even more exceptional time for women. since the festival is calle._ {lr at yvvalxes xaro ta rarpta IG lllltl. to preside over which was the greatest distinction possible to a woman. Att. tprtr..About the his same time. There rnust have been some sort of ram-sacrifice at the skira like those often attested for the cult of Kore.38 The few remaining descriptions of the festival agree.6 (cf .7r7. Aristoph. r .11.-s.t65-zoz. Cf.1. 834_35. the priestess Poseidon-Erechtheus and the priest enjoyed a specialposition-the latter always belonged to the family of the Eteobutadai. iai tuary 2xipq. p. the Eteobutadai.6. oxrpoz (Steph.a 2xipov. Et M. FCrHist 328 F 89 : phot. . The fact that they ate garlic in large quantities so as to be odious to the men is.-tot.orou xai xupeurfiv.phot.). ry57a : LS q B 5) FGrHist rr5 F zz|: Harpokr.iv i1 6 tep6ys roil'Epeyfltas giptt lrrpc!$os )teuxov. v(opotia 6utxa tois dn|."" The priests are those of the central gods of the Acropolis: and Athena Polias.1t6t7) deduced a dice-oracle from nsch. carry the mysterious "ramskin of Zeus. Athena and the priests of Poseidonand of Helios set off from the Acropolis toward a place called Skiron.24.xrpc!5os 'A&qu&5 uerp).:rruPt). 2xtpcrgn (dice games iz lxrp<p)..l lxlpa (Deubner [1932] 49) and the place name. I there was a shrine of Demeter and Kore and one of Athena.o'?InAristophanes. the joint temple of Athena and Erechtheuswas finally replaced Athena was said to have by the Erechtheum.Kardara'sconiecture.94 on the "invention" of dice-playing among the Lydians. It could be an old ritual that the king-priest walks backward in front of the wagon of ihe gods in the procession. Caes. is strangely reversed. Eccl. lxlpoe. Iripos. Steph. z1. the Aros xQitov. . vOd. Eliogab. the women seize the opportunity provided by this day to hatch their plot for overthrowing male domination with an "assembly of women. 6s civ 1ti1 Lt{pav dzrotrv|. 6 cnlp. only the ritual'stotal rhythm can communicateits just as it takes the totality of gods to make the world.. message. The name Skira was associated cession among the Hittites see o. cf. yet it is even more an exPression of the idea of departure: the summer solsticeis past and Helios begins to decline.$96o\.tr77 : LS )6. Nilsson (ARW ft[ryt1\.old tempte" of the iixth century which burned in 48o. rporqh6. (R) Aristoph. They formed their own organization. . [iil lo. must be rejected..28.ro_tz. Gurney. Aur.Ch. The meeting^:::!X"rr". and as a comedy of innocence it may be distantly related to thelrick of Hermes the cattle-thief sPaus.' 267' n. iepotrotia fls strabo g p. etc.

M.Hist.It already existed.66e93t).ur".nu function of the Skirais clear:it marks the dissolutionin the last month of the year. Whereasthe priestsof the Acropolis would go off in the direction of Eleusisto the Athenian city limits.:tff* ('1889) 8r-85. Brumfield . There was another shrine of Athena Skiras at Phaleron. then prat. see also Jacoby on Philochoros . and the Skironic Way." as the name Skirophorion be a clue in the etiologicallegend of how Theseus... Iripos or oxippos meaning "white stone.834. 7) in conjunction with van der Loeff ("De Athena Scirade") tries to separate the festival 2xipa(i is certain because of Aristoph. p. when solon codified the sacrificialcalendar. This brings us quite close to Skiron. a vegetarianfeastin the spirit of Demeter.s. picard. lxlpos.y . z67Mlller) from the place Lxipou and Athena Skiras. M. r." "stucco" is well attested. An..iirty!1 fti1 Cdd.9 1GI..1. Et.8. G r .4o3. Aristoph. T Il. .ur". the herald of the gods.). as in the epithet. sN."* We do not know in what form the "white earth" indicates.:. it was also there that the extraordinary.o. Cen' is corrupt.scurrilous trial took place after the Buphola' Though the Kerykes traced themselvesback to Hermes. . Bekk.:'2.Isocr. the original king and his goddess."uJy Thuc. FGrHist 328F 14.t773-76. The priest of Erechtheusand the priestessof for Athena.8lxerpas Skiras..Menex.who hit on the thought that Skiron could mean that strikWhatever the name means. 239b. S Z 6z M e i n e k e ) . 7zo. 21. Schol. Schol.Eur. Wilamowitz.. there may was "carried.45 Deubner jyz) 46 (with n.6 : Et.-Themythical expression the legendof the war betweenErechtheus in and Eumolpus.D"^.or any sort of parasol.o'ani it is a fact that the famous meal there.13r.Two days later a sacrifice though not to Erechtheusor Athena. praec.Eleusis. fr. rygz.. RMLI n98-t3oo.&csruttesprmitivesd'Athdnesetd. Engelmann. i. cona'667d. they consideredtheir human ancestorto be one of the daughtersof Cecrops. the ox-slaye. exchangeof roles between the Acropolis and Ereusisfinds . r7 uborre.In any. iust as Schol. 4 eanig. r78r-82. lhere is a coincid-ence of shrines to Athena and Demeter.4 $On the history of EleusisseeMylonas (196r). Theocr. l l l 2 . trxupoioSac.. on the island Skyros)..sayingthat the god mated with her-thus. Gramm.g. nor whether it developedgradually or was in^stitutedby a consciousact. . oxup66r7s. Epitr."" ur.iZxiptpsee plut. Suchis the extent of the comedy of innocence.FCrHist 74aF z4. Thesm. r5. Long iota. t8. The citiesunited preciiery for the strangeyet necessary sacrificethrough which the "dissolution" at the eni of th" y"u. was presided over by the Eleusinianhierophant. B u t . For Erechtheuskilline Eu_ r46 r47 . Ch. Vesp. Attic gloss in Schol. Men. t"h" Butades.Androtion. and yet was vicntN. iame in their place. respectively. 6o.92). lxrlpos : Suda a 6z+' p.3 r . Cen..At skiron itself. Cen. 1794_98. according to Herodian.a. 267 Mlller perdMwuraipou which thereby turns Theseus' departure into his return). Vesp. Poll. afier t"he "sacred plowing at skiron. 35 above. The Buphonia continuesand supplementsthe Skira-it virtually inverts the inversion.7. once again the Eleusinian family derives from the Acropolis.) Ieuxg ypittat(c|. r44a. I I I r . the interaction so between the two neighboring cities may well have stretchedback to very early times.| . In the myth it is claimed that Celeos of Eleusisfounded ihe prytaneum. Hellanikos. especialiy since even the vowel seems to change: oxupos "white stone.t8z9\ zo5-r4. who also sacrifice to Skiros (92).241):Zxtpogopn rapa ro gipetu cxipa iv awfl rou @qoea i) yi{tov. S t e p h .. Athena below).4 . V below.18lqb: Phot.91. ur above.. | 3o4. we cannot tell how old this deep involvement betweenAthens and Eleusisis.. as also then Phot.with the evidenceat hand.ri' {lfi1 lr irl'''l |{l. 5 8 ' t z z . {sSchol. tz (panath. those who "goaded" the oxen onto the Acropolis two days later belonged to the great priestly family of Eleusis." "paving-stone" (Oros El. 3 8 5 .4 p. 7l. Rea.]ust as the festivalsand namesof the months antedatesolon considerabry. 5f For sacredplowing ir.n. who hurled travellers from the cliffs. 'A34ua sIn the explanation of the place name." we may well have to reckon with changes in quantity.ou The namewas alreadya mystery to the ancientcommentators..9z6:'AfqvdZxtppas. cameabout. 6 yn itrapyeL treux4.l . oxupura 66os Pind. rpos .t:T*. 6. but to Zeus.. Against Deubner. B y z . took place there.-r""""". would leavethe Acropolis. \fiIl'?678.) 6g. . Eccl 18. r.z4 : Et.926. Hermes z9 lr894l. coni.r. ryBB. and not in "the but solid house of Erechtheus. Aristoph. zr8 Spiro (cf.5. 52.n. Eccl.r98t) 156-58. facoby connected the seer Skiros with Athena Skiras. the Kerykeswere connected with the ox-slayersand carvers as well. standing. 'il.s' the leader of the Eleusinians and first ancestorof the family of hierophants.. r8o8. the Kerykes.t74. t t Austin.Schol. Cf. t rechtheus 65. An.r_76(largelyhypo_ metical). 2 x i p o s ( p ." but there is no solid evidence. z.for the hierophantat the head of the rirotzor(deicnot)see Jty. . ii u.96. Aristoph. Pyth. n.as a fixed part of Athenian history ." left the Acropolis. FGrHist 1z4Fr. Suda o 624. Erechtheusdied in this war.47This reciprocal arrangement between Eleusisand Athens goes yet further. 6 ydp Oqceis dtrepyoptuos xara roi Mwaraipou rfiv'Afir1v&v troti1oas drd yurpouEBacrtaoeu (Et. case of orpos "silo. which he carried along with him. was over. r . administered by the Salaminioi (LSS tg.tlt li DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR S FESTIVAL THE PANATHENAIC FESTIVAL '.however. a s i n t h e . ' with "white earth. who suggests that orlpo may have been "the preservative lime mixture which was used to line the pits and cover the seed" (r73) for storage.It is tempting to assumethat the cattle were brought directly from skiron..:. r4o2-1. Erechtheusset out against Eleusis. had a small plasterstatueof Athena made." "plaster. yi tl-xrpas IC lll lll'? 1672. ch. Phot. 2xtpogoptritv connected the festival with Athena Skiras. azro rozrou 3o4. Bekk. "neatherds. t 3. Paus. when leaving Athens.and in his place the Eleusiniansbrought a bull to the heights of the Acropolis ftr an extraordinarysacrifice. the ing canopy. r5. And." in the open air.93. 54. at least accordingto one tradition.at best. .

and destructionbecame a blessing.5. fr.lth:!ug. that little bit of "sea" in the Erechtheum.4s. 6 5 . His grave was pointed out "at Skiron". 'Erechtheus.'To you.DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR'S FESTIVAL THE PANATHENAIC FESTIVAL I' l I 1l li I torious. 7. Jacoby on the Marmor Parium. 9. Andron. u .the mysterious yet violent disappearanceof the first king-a . 2 o 3 . Photn. r.P R | 261. Hel. the .Hsctr. C a l d e r .. from the family of the ll^". sColin Austin de . 5 . r. 18. z z . 147-56 and ibid.rrru*big. s s C f e m ."d An historian would say that a Homeric. however. the founding of the Erechtheum priestess. that the Eleusinians posed a serious threat to the city. rammed into the earth by Poseidon's trident. r 35 above 5'Hdt. o (r97t\. 58o. 'Epelrger]s. T Il. under the name of 'sacred Poseidon'. Eu eovais Sqpoxrrizots Eur. and that Erechtheus mysteriously died in battle. c . A e l .483. Treu. That Poseidonand Erechtheus were merely two names for a single god.The victim issumed t-hegod'sname. Thus.3. 38. together with Eumolpus. it is propel to speakof a king symbolicallykilled at the end of the year.'o thus. "and for your husband I command a shrine to be constructed in the middle of the city. 5rPhilochoros. The myth distinguishes between the two as victor and the vanquished: Poseidon with his trident.. inasmuch as sacrifice is an act of killing. 5o5g. : z K e i I . for the tomb of his son. and Byz. who.. M .. iepeJs llooer6itvos'Epeylios IG IIilII. led the Eleusinian attack.FGrHist 3 2 8 F r j . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d . rrir'Epc[xDeill lll2 tr46. there is only one priest.O n t h e d a t e o f t h e E r e c h t h e u s ( 4 z 3 o r 4 z z n .Whereas the mythogiapher made a clear distinction betwgen the god and the hero." Athena herself resolves the play at the end when she addresses Erechtheus' widow. mythically speaking. . 9 o . high on the Panathenaic Way.Athena.196. polar tension of sacrifice. The marriage of Erechtheusand Praxitheacontinuesin the comand the priestess of bination of the cult of Poseidon-Erechtheus Athena.tei-see . To be sure. see Drakon. and he subsequently disappeared. P h o e n . n. there is.rr. 485-95.dissolution" in the last month of the year.53 sgssislsa-1. Studiesrc (1969. flooer. 5o -P_aus. 3. 148 149 . X or. P h o e n . M. FCrHisl 314F zz).1.march againstthe Eleusinians. married Her connection with Erechtheusis manifest or widowed woman.9 7 .. 8 5 4 . E u r .k i l l i n g I m a r r h a d o s . tcro-rro.8 5 4 .Vit. its peculiar assignment of parts." In ritual.aFragrnenta Euripidea Q968).. a fact that is statedby Euripides. govaiot povz\iroLs in Euripides (9+) can r3r. the battle must have taken place there. when the sacrificial cattle are slaughtered. Here. Eur. Chiron rz (r97t).. vPaus.36. Athens was victorious. r _ 1 2 .Apolloi. 27.1. but Eumolpus must have penetrated deep into the city. R o m a n ." and the institution of bf the priestess Athena coincide."'rz but re flooerllll-t. perhaps be the place where Erechtheus sank into the earth? There was.. he will be known for him who killed him. Yet in Euripides' play.un above all in the Skira procession. And in fact.tlr" creooutadai. s e e P a u s . 5oPaus. the conflict produced a paradoxical identity. the ritual could not easily be transformed into a consistent quasi-historical narrative. M L e w i s . was regularly pointed out in the Eleusinion beneath the Acropolis. the Boedromia. 2 .There. 'Ereopouraiat. Cook lll e94o) r2. sinceyou have re_ shall also be called had given her assentto the sacbuilt the city'sfoundation" (Praxithea rifice of her own daughter before battle). cf.1." Could the mark of the trident.s death.4. G r e e k .. ) s e e WM ." The place and mythical name Skiros point to the procession of the Skira. 'Er. Ker6nyi (t952) zo-zt.city goddess. hardly be an allusion to the Buphonia. ct. Schol.. fr. 4o7r. F 3.228. saying. Recherches PoTtyrologieq (ry6il.the conclusion of which has recently been discovered on a papyrus.yere woven together to form a seemingly unified account. the . 98 below. E u r . . FGrHist 49 A t5. Erechtheus set out from his "house" on the Acropolis to this place to fight the Eleusinians. S c h o l . Agallis Schol. r . the priestess was always a mature. E t .B S A ( t 9 5 ) . just as the stele of the seer Megistias could be seen at Thermopylae. 3 .26. With the . "I grant the duty of bringing in preliminary fire-sacrificesfor the city.ror* Poweris the female divinity.6ri. 3 . i p o t r r o rh a v e been posited ever since Euripides (Erechtheus 65. Praxithea. Imarrhados. 854.toward Skiron and death.king. is also clearlyvisible in the cult. But poets and local historians agree that this was the first war that Athens had to win. disquieting sacrificewith its inversions. FGrHist1'44 r : Harpokr. and to be called my Thus. pan-Hellenicname has been superimposedon an autochthonous. this correspondsto the act of killing. moreover.y 6'v'A}trviflvt^xa! qts. the intense. consecrations and sacrificeare dedicatedto .non-Greekname. cf. thelragedian recognized unity in the the -higher. 3 r . FCrHist tctF rj.4.t. In the temple itself one altar stands for both.. A r i s t i d . 4 9 .poseidonErechtheus. howevet also a story about the seer Skiros. but among the citizens. Fehrle :9rc) 95.P r . Schol. and cf. Istros. igain. r. Euripides described the events leading up to Erechtheus' death in the tragedy Erechtheus.38. t w o s e p a r a t eE r .piut. details from three and the Mystery proseparate festivals-the Skira. y1g. he m o l p o s s e e A p o l l o d . t54. the departure from the Acropolis and the journey toward Eleusisrepeat Erechtheus. r . z o z . On the Erechtheum see n. against Erechtheus who sank into the depths. for consecration flooer66vr'Epex. drawing each-if it can-to his particular place in the circle of participants. Nttz. P a u s .

fr. fr. Gen. down the steep northern slope of the Acropolis. dpprlgopeiu. in describing this ritual. it ll ll I 150 151 .zZ.fr. (Hitzig-BltimnEr nDscussed in Hermes (t966).u. aja-)4.ir1v i6p<rqv.64iwith Schol.u'Thepreparations sacrifice. as the death of the king and father. r-7." Epiov and ldrirz-likewise points toward cult. Harpok r. 478d. 8 (tSlS).clearlyalludingto ipprlgopor." Ausgew.precinct underAphrodite in the Gardens. 1t'qvi Et. )r7-4)1."il this clue does not take us very far' rhephoros However. and Pandrosus-could not restrain their curiosity.contraryto Hermesi9661.t6-17.The conjectureoix is &rqwa\s) yu<itptp"aconfirmed through 5'18. the first attested for the month of skirophorion. Nlna 9. that the girls carried down and what it was they brought back covered. Broneer. the xicrat. t3.t8. tor a detailed treatment seeHermes ur. 9 Powell. playing and starting to They would probably have helped in . The date. 27. Herse. 60. wool and oil were among the sacrificial with many small carried solemnly in the kernoi." to Aphrodite and under the earth at night.r7z-7g.'.Hesperia Ggl6). Nonnus FGrHist33oF t. Powell." The etymology of the name Erichthonius here-"wool" and "earth.who. During the year.r)adloc. in orthography' riP35.6'Perhapsthere was oil and wool in the kistai. they opened the basketthe goddesshad entrusted to them.* The fire is renewed only once.tr4-75.S FESTIVAL THE PANATHENAIC FESTIVAL ARRHEPHORIA The ritual arc extendsto yet another festival. 6v2xtpogopr'6vr. Euphorion fr. harnessedin the form of the eternally burning lamp whose woolen wick is kept alive by Athena's oil. qPaus.rl. 925 : Erat.'with a natural entranceheading grbund: this is where the virgin girls descend.. Dion.* In the fall of the king's daughters. G. one night. M' t49. Inside they saw the mysteriouschild Erichthonius and a snakeswiftly darting up toward them. the Tabula = lG XIV rz9z. aged sevento twelve. 489-97.u" the peplos of Athena. chosen by the "king" himself from prominent families. aPolemon in Ath. z6o.4. ll of and 47-4o."'-ut t8). fr. CookIII (r94o)r65-88. they leapt to their deaths.r1. when the new oil stands ready.'u The myth tells how the daughters of CecropsAglaurus. r49.""u. Strabog p. After Athena had wiped off the seedwith the virgin goddess's wool. indeed.2.3. Excavations the northern slope of the Acropolis have allowed on us to follow the path of the Arrhephoroi over a steepstairway that in late Mycenaeantimes led to a spring. drop. 5. as well as their journey underground. "bo.Plut. she hurled the wool to the earth. only ipp4gopilcaoav. cf . [r89/9r]. Pfeiffer. they lived in a houseon the Acropolis. M.9'256 is z. while chasing after Athena. the Acropolis instead. t57.4.. Epicorum Borgiana cf.1il DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR.26. 3. Moreover. ariz<irlozee.l. Et. by the light of Athena'slamp. tg6. an order was broken. they perform the following rites during the night. z : Harpokr. Deubner(1932) 9-ry. Cook III (r94o) l8r-237. R. 6TDanais p. which subsequentlygave given birth to the child.Erichthonius was born in an unheard-of way: he was begotten by Hephaestus. Burkert. the myth obviously mirrors the ending of the Arrhephoroi's duties on the Acropolis. dischargedhis seed on thigh. r-25. earthenwarevessels cups fitted to the rim. Suda a 7848'y Et 5zo.t8.3zo-23 with the "mystic lamp" beside "Erechtheus.the image of the snake and the child Erichthonius points to the contentsof the basket."Die Lampeder Athena.and other virgins are brought to himself. 52Callim. coming right at the start-the which the myth depicts for Arrhephoria.u3 can only guessat what was contained in the coveredbaskets. 13. is present in Athena's temple.Amelesagoras. Schmidt. but in historical times led over the slope to a small shrine of Eros nestled among the crags of the northern side. hint at a drama of sexualityand incest in which the king's daughters become the victims.Hesperia r Q93z). the date at the end of the year makes one Point clear: in sending thesegirls. Jomethingendedwhich had endured over the courseof ayear. Hernes "rHarrison11922) "or there94 0966). Lys. zoo-zo6.]acoby on FGrHisl 328 F ro5 (Supplement +24-zZ\. jameson BCH89 (t96). Graecorum Fragmenta QSZZ) Eur.1. (q6o\. sacrificialduties as well.64yap. 1.The Grammarians note variation ptlgopeiv'and ipprlgopeiv.Apollod.ataoardu yovov eisyilv Epptge. from the Erchiacalendar(LS . followedby Nonnus Dion. Erichthonius the ThreeDaughters Cecrops (19o6). lon 2L-26. j7-55. Hephaestus.r89. P Stevens. Apollod. or "virgins." Pausanias We statesthit it is little known and obscure.19. + Uglil. the power of fire. The Arrhephoria takes its name from two small girls. r. t427. most likely at the end of the year. Not far away in the city is the sacred. lnd' Rostock g). In horrot. Eur. B. for depictions in vasepaintings see Brommer Q96o) r99-zcn. ro9-88. They carry on their headswhat Athena's priestessgives them toiarry and neifher shewho givesit nor they who carry it know what of it is shl gives them.(R Reitzenstein. They are then sentaway." Cf. 329-4rZ. the third of Skirophorion deducedby M. Hermes$966). Brelich i96g) zz9-18. 2 (tg1). Aristoph.1886piq . offeringsthat were Elsewhere. Schr. and in caring for the olive tree' "But when the festival comesround. Cal.4 Kinkel.rr.6-7. the dedicatoryinscriptions on the Acropolis have' with two (t966) 3-d' exceptions.. Callim.For the throne of Amyklai seePaus. M. They deposit there iuh"t th"y were carrying and take something else and bring it back coveredup. An' Bekk'I zoz'3.4.Even if Armeant "dew-carrier. AM 81 Q968). s 6PR I r98-zoo.

DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR. tival that embraces the Animal-sacrifice was undoubtedly part of the ritual in the nocturnal festival. Ath.T' sanctuarybeneaththe windows of the Erechtheum. praeterquam sacrificium. roSee-L7. which in mythology was connectedwith Pandrosus.n. z 4 .Here.Ath. it was also said that Athena made the snake dwell with Cecrops' daughters.a) seeHarpokr.'0 also represents phallic impregnation. 587a. of course. The arrival of the olive tree.3$.the daughter of Cecrops. r. because it is said that any olive tree which they bite becomes sterile.3o p. withsemelad necessarium R. Athena got a new cloak(gdpos).undergoat the Arrhephoria. For this reason they are not driven onto the Acropolis at Athens except once a year for a necessary sacrifice'"" 70A. Kortlandt and M. Reitzensteinaiyds rpotrov. or that one of the girls on the Acropolis spent the night with the snake. . young boys and girls from prominent families servedfor a year in the temple of Hera Akraia until the sacrificeof a black goat terminated their duties. this statue'sclothing was removedand washed. n_Phot. is the terrifying armor of the warlike virgin Athena. Brelich (t96$ zz9-18' t3SeeL7 above. for inttPaus. on or roughly carved wooden image.2o4. the sacrifice. z. Marc. l (Ambros. the sacrificeasThe olive tree sumesa disquieting gravity. and the snake. Of course.arau r\typ. t h e a n c i e n t c o m m e n t a t o r s o n 6 p c l x au). at the end of the Arrhephoroi's duties. Markellosin Euaar.s enemy. DSee L7. ai7ds. sexuality took on a terrifying dimension.45 line Stves.b..a of greatabundanceof such myths describingthe preliminary death of a girl. Mikalson . 7 . fr. A goatskin.z7. after having killed Gorgon. The first war in early Athenian history was the battle of ErechtheusagainstEleusis. 7a r.but cf. its "necessity"is stressed. If. and the connectionbetweenmyth and ritual is flexibie. 3. zJeanmaire (ry9) 264-67. Batdy (t98o) z9t' 7 \ P a u s . the life-force of fire is experienced again and again as sexual and phallic. the .It would thus have been appropriate to have given her a new aegisas well. or pole. the exemplary consecration of a maiden in the middle of the polis. H y g .7t. horse-sacrifice took place Z. of e97) r6. a52 r53 . Symp. and that the "virgin" faces death derive from the more general function of sacrifice in society. Varro mentions a most unusual goat-sacrifice on the Acropolis: it was customary "that no member of the goat family be sacrificed to Athena on account of the olive. and it was both stated and believed that the snake on the Acropolis was actually Erechtheus or Erichthonius.for the aiTle as made of plaitedwool (ir rCov rrrep. Zool. Aen. Ov..76 even though genuine goatskinswere in historical times no longer hung about the ancientwooden image of Athena Polias.ed. see Ath. probably instinctively. too. skinned her and plunged into the battle againstthe giants wearing the aegis she had thus newly acquired. Burkert(1966)rtg.39above.At the Plynteria.London rc i96). this appearsas the death of In Medea'schildren. For the prohibition. Kooii. and the priestess herself sent them away to Eros and Aphrodite beneath the earth' The encounter with death. for their spittle is poisonous to the fruit." In the realm of the powerful virgin goddess. r 3 . ztfs ro A 5 seemedto establish-against Deubne e93z) rg-the zgth of Thargelion r as the date of the Plynteria. Yet both ritual and myth add a terrifying dimension to what would otherwise be harmless-a dimension about which neither Athena's priestess nor the virgins may know.n.z.. however. There is. A p .off and the Lexsacra rhorikos "skirophorion. It is clearthat the memory of a real goatskin. P h i l o s t r . The palladionprocession phaleron rs to be kept distinct: see Burkert. v .zo . Virg. and its death in sacrifice. . l6rMiller.hung after the sacrifice a sacredtree. that terrifying animal which excites fear even in primates. the aegis.p. Soc.fits well in the crisis-reflected in the myth of Pandrosus' sisters-that the religious servants on the Acropolis. The priestess of Athena out mention of does not eat cheese (strabo g p.s stomach.Zenob.ZZ8-ig. Everything suggeststhat-along with the journey beneath the earth-an extraordinary goat-sacrifice occurred at Athens once a year. The drama of the maiden's initiation peropens the great sacrificial fesformed as a symbolic maiden-sacrificeT3 end and the beginning of the year at Athens. 7o." The facts that necessary transitions in life are here played up into deadly crises. probably because it is made with rennet from a goat. 2 4 . Erechtheus'death was precededby sacrificeof a maiden-the sacrifice his own daughteiat his own hands. 3g5. ZRGGzz (rg7o). Hermes (t966\. In Corinth too. Pliny NH 8. this animal belonged to the virgin goddess Athena.t.266) precisely because an exceptional Once again the tabu and its infringement are connected. is preservedhere. 7 .Because a goat is never otherwise allowed on the Acropolis.l Il] the remnants of the purification of the sacred lamp.1. Burkert.S FESTIVAL THE PANATHENAIC FESTIVAL l.t . 643 Radt.39 above. the of Athena standsin the Pandroseion. But how could the child emerge if the "basket" remained closed? The young girls' way of life had to end. Horses may not enter the grove of Diana of Aricia (Yetg. According to one myth Athena.78 the myth.os Soph." zPE 25 F97il. 13-zr.2. 356-6g. z .'n The goat-sacrifice a mere prelude to subseis quent acts that are greater and more deadly.z. Fast. l. Fascinating and dreadful at once. to 52.. A s t r .washing festival" a few days before the Arrhephoria. 375c).Suda ar 6o. ending the sheltered life of the "virgin." may be interpreted as an initiation ritual. r.

of this celebrationinaugurating the year must have been appropriate to the Lesser.j. It consisted.Chron.Harpokr. as no one who has seen the parthenon frieze can ever forget.5 SeealsoI. which was located elsewhere. zz5-y.The young men. the arrival of a goddess in a-ship-these are primordial -otifs stretching back over thousands of years and echoing even today in song as the theme of advent.. Hesperia Q958). the Arrhephoria points toward a greater"act of killing" through which the dissolution at the end of the year comesto a climax.t.83 the twelfth on day of Hecatombaion..Neither goats nor rams nor bulls joined in the procession.er The proud horse was there as well.stood out as those actuallysup_ regrrlation the LesserPanathenaia lS 33 (: IG II/III. we do not know what position was oclf?tl"J.5. Mommsen (1898) 41-t5g.Erat. But it may be that these are compromisesbetween rituals of different origins in an already pluralistic urban society. by upon whicf the now-finished peplos of the goddess *as brought. Parm. They could exist side by side so long as they performed a similar function.2. On the Panathenaic amphorasseeJ...'The coming of something new. Dedications from the Athenian Acropolis (r94).o.e In any case. Starting at dawn. Buphonia-points to the panathenaia.Phot..e Every member of the community had his place herel from the youthful horsemento the elders "beaiing branches. FGrHist49 A ro. a run_ ner would bring new fire in a torch from the grove of Akademos to the Acropolis.. 90n g94.ou[x]<izr."s In the parthenon frieze.Schol. z)g\ B 3z-J+.82 (196z)r4t-42.the one who comesin last gets beaten. Thes. Every four years.7jove.1' l stance. FGrHist F 9 : Schol. A. Perhapswhen the girls carried back from the depths something covered like a baby it was meant to signify birth-giving in the mature woman.FGrHist F z.24.rzTa. A whole seriesof detailJ shows how the fesiival sequence-Arrhephoria. Abr.The first LesserPanathenaia z7 were tracedback to Erichthonios:see Arist. and so balancethe masculine "act of killing. Moreover.Androtion. who were carrying the sacrificialtools. FGrHist FCrHist r3. Euripides could shift the deaths of Erechtheus' daughters to the cult of the Hyakinthides. :1J4 Hesperia of see + z8 l-f:rln" It9s9l.12-17.. at 754 r55 . Teubn.Philochoros. 9ggwith 6chol.Aristoph."88 Thus. Before this. the complexity of the Panathenaia preventsus from being able to reconstructit in all its details.r. eAristoph.55o. Plat. see (l59 ed. D. FGrHistlz4Fz. to the matrons' Above all.natuially. r45r (566u. Ran. 4. especiallyas ritual inherently fostersrepetition.7. Euseb. 328 Xen. Schol. Himerios 47. the main procession. esee Lippold (r95o)148-5r. &Pherekydes.] y].82 Whereasthe previousmonth had brought dissolution. H.33 above. starting in about 57o.z3-42. the festival would be magnificently enlarged into the GreaterPanathenaia with its pan-Hellenicagon. ..: Symp. By contrast. which in turn correspondsto and fulfills the previous festivals.For the armed danceof the z. 457-93.a.n.when the order of master and slave was reversed in a lighthearted festival. Thomson. a Pannychis. A. Nub.cpv rp6ro[r. Lessoften they are tracedbackto Theseus.J. u ll' 2. this great pageantof the polis at its festival was transformed into an enduring work of art. 8lTheAttic ephebes sweartheir oath at the shrine of Aglauros:seeI."from the young girls. RE XVIII z (tg+g). but not as a sacrificial animar. however. Sudaflavaflilvcra. of a as sacrificialprocessionand an agon.Even the choice of sacrificialanimals was not arbitrary.637.2. 34aFz.Aristides p. the panathenaia. there was enough meat to give the popu_ "rrtlre lacea portion.adnvdis je #32. A.for tire thck garments of the ephebes Philostr.178-86. 328F8.Cat. rt. the Panathenaia reestablished order.c. Once again.S FESTIVAL THE PANATHENAIC FESTIVAL il t . to the Acropolis.The horse was a living symbol of speed and strength.6r xopfct). Beazley..55t>: }i1xea fi1 'A}qua Biovtw.44 (t96r). Raubitschek. Par. To be sure.annual Panathenaia well. skira.. e-Phifochoros. A. cupiedby the sacrifice "bullsand of rams" to Erechtheus. rather.32above.se procession rhe was accompanied a ship on wheels. z'. dedicatoryinscription of the first Agonothetai(. its festival meal. . 44t-65..544.7...n. Davison. see 8. even in the LesserPanathenaia.85 above)B 16. sLS 33 1n. there would be a preparatory festival at night.V.more than 16ocows could be bought for 4r minai. Hellanikos.slThus.* The basicelements eSeeI. which was enormous. 82A.the deaths of Cecrops' daughters becamethe mythic equivalent of the Arrhephoria. at the marketplace. fr. the anticipatory function of the maidensacrificein guaranteeingvictory is certain. rc9o-g8 with Schol. t:tav. PIut. rou dfy6fva 86. It was the beginning of something new. the essenceof ready Power. D.t7.ai6ssseeAristoph.Soph. Vesp.Strattis p (CAF I7r9). Deubner Q93z\ zz-35.DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR. #326. 3 323. t3See Deubner Qq6z)r5z-55." PANATHENAIA The Panathenaia celebrate birth of the polis Athens at the end the of the first month of the Attic year. the period over which this occurred was unusually long: forty-five days separatethe Skira from the New Year'sfestival.but. formed "at dawn. ewes and cows. Deubner cxapt1 IC ll/lllr 3198: S1G3 fr. Marm.n. Ziehen. Amyx.t Durkert(1967\295_96. the goddess. like a sail. . Paus.). IHS 78 (1958). the ephebes. AIA a7 g9a3\.s On arrivatin the ship see i1?:1 ll-f. the dissolutionwas repeatedin anotherway at the Cronia.29Dind. the processionincluded over a hundred sheep and cows bound for sliughter at the "great altar.

a77-7g. the primordial Ocean. the Babylonian temples contained a bit of Apsu. ). already on late Ceometric Attic amAthenians dedicated the phoras. M. 1949). yet he-or. iir*lrl . esSeen. AK rz (t969).In cult.ds fi BueX6lG l'? 172.5i. AA 78 (rg$).. rather.ll'lt ri" 1. r 8 g 7 .2-3. $ g .the act that celebrated the polis'sbirth restored. For a. as it is the original. Strabo p. Likewise. the Atheni armed herselfwith the skin of the Gorgon-goat' the the two shoresthat embrace abyssof myth of Erichthonius spans the child Erichthoniuswho brought death to "dissolution": it tells of the Cecropids. who. Brommer. Two cultic monuments made the sanctuary toward which the prothe cessionmoved." is a Hellenizing name."'The second is Athena.73. Kontoleon.J.sdefeat and Erechtheus'sinking into the earth was perceived. F Vian. Demetr.'nIn this way the warrior and king warrior from of took possession the land at his advent... rc' '5PR I r98. 84 above. Davison. fr. Hec. F o r E r e c h t h e u sa n d E r i c h t h o n i o s o n a n Attic bowl (with inscriptions) see Berlin F 25i7 = ARV? rz68. see Luk. 251. tPR %On 15b r57 . and the Buphonia had dissolved. the Skira. child and had to come at the start. Poseidonlost by the decisionof Cecropsor Zeus. torHsch.Since the establishment of the greater Panathenaia. with its Panathenaic on winding around the cella. Apollod. I :oz-zo4. procession Above the Parthenon frieze. there is also that bit of sea that lurfaies in the sanctuary. leap of the armed thenaia: chariot-races his moving chariot. Erechtheus-was as much a part of Athens as was the goddess Athena herself. Bulle. Arist. as the "earth-born" child. For lclopo beneath the temple of }iierapolis. ( ro4-10. the trident and filled with salt water.4t. D. Bergquist (:196:) zz-25. (t965) 7r-72.It was said that Athena expressedher gratitude to her father Zeus for his favorable decision by establishingthe Buphonia on the Acropolis'nr-yet another reflection of the sequenceskira-Buphonia. It is hardly accidentalthat the depiction of Athena'sbirth on ezEur.dit. R E V I 4 o 4 . on the pictorial tradition see Metzger Qg5t) 359-6o.r r . 9r-93.j. perhaps taken up in Attic epic because the etymology. 27c'-25. theater seat. In the festivalcycle. To 'Epelrlercv dts oixo66pqpa Tfovias Larpedas (Athens. des 466-74 with Schol.the pedimental sculpture portrays the epiphany of Athena in and for Athens.. paton.Thus. too.n2 triumphant reminder of the crisis for which Likewise. Orig. qDion. 4:z-6. Erichthonius.Assyrie eg+g).s olive tree in the Pandroseion.dhis son Eumolpus againstAthens and killed Erechtheus. $Hdt. Les religionsde Babylonieet d.. La guerre gtants (t952).zo3. Only are and Erechtheus Erichthonius obviously merelyvariants.26.'5 is used in cult. Philadelphia Jo-3)-1)). the easternpediment. the custom itself is certainly older. eBop.zt.yet exposedto the open air. The Erechtheum1927). F. dnopctrrls. 7.m"..ll Chron.. it was said. Dho.. Chatites ( L. Lodepressionmade by Poseidon's catedin the northern hall of the Erechtheum. T. I-anglotz 1957). of neologism. So.the mysterious the king's sacrificialdeath confrontedeachother in the last month of the year.z4. 617.. peculiarly sacred:es first was the bit of . /HS 78 (rg58).-basin in the rempfe at Jerusalem see I Kings 7:23-z6. long live Erichthonius!What the Arrhephoria. At the city'shighest point. it was the site of "sacrificiallibations. and of the adult Erichthonius who establishedthe Panathenaia. inventedthe four-horse It agon. nrur' Ereclilfters. N. The myth then differentiatesbetween the two by telling of Erichthomade nius' birth. which he drove in the first Panathenaic most characteristicand distinctive sPort at the Panathat was the the including the apobates.The myth turns this into a temporal-causal sequence: his anger at losin ing. t. M. 396.4 6 . probablynon-Greek.sea.DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR. Poseidon was identified with Erechtheus. Syr. Harpokr. E. Paus.i. Poseidonle. the correspondence between poseidon.abovethe battlescenes the metopes. RML III z86r-66. pl.upon which the western windows of the Erechtheum seem to look out. RE I z8r4-t7.houseof Erechtheus"already in the most ancient tradition: the theme of the goddessjuxtaposed with a god or ancestralking who is active as a victim in the bowels of the earth. the mythical contest betweenPoseidon and Athena merelyvariesthe basicthemetransposedto an Olympian level-that set the tone for the .'6The contestbetween Athena and po_ on seidon for AtticaeT the western pediment-the first sight greeting the visitor as he approachesthe temple-embodies the sameconflici that is acted out in the ritual and marks off its beginning and end. the peplos was apparently woven only every four years.sea. looks down on the altar of the Buphonia. Cels 6 4z. On the peplos begun by the Arrhephoroi (who in the meantime had been dismissed)were woven pictures of a the gigantomachy.S FESTIVAL THE PANAT}IENAIC FESTIVAL .o3 was this chariot. The new king was inaugurated at the subsequentPanathenaia: Erechtheusis dead.'mEven here.Erichthonius had. the genealogies Erechtheusking after Erichthonius. /G Il/lll'_roz6: Bwlyoou. with the flight of the axe-bearer.. The "sea" and the olive were the pledgesthe two great gods offeredto the city as proof of their power. but Erechtheus' death. il porting the community. who was murdered by his son Ea so that Ea could Athena's birth and cow-sacrifice see Cook III (r94o) 656-62. E s c h e r . H. z5-26. Ermatinger. t5z-7. see Deubner (tqz) 3o.. atop the Acropolis. Erechtheus who is "peculiarly of the earth. Hal." Diss' Z u r i c h .55. Weidauer.The place where Demetrios leaped from the wagon to Zeus Kataibates:Plut.79. )2.'o. a vase-painting depicts poseiclon and Eumolpos riding toward rrtnena and the olive tree: L. ed. Alds rgdxor. "Die attische Autochthonensage bis auf Euripides.5. *E. tz. 8. Reisch.

auct. U.2. r89r. strom. Hartmann.s. the Trojans went on to hold a collectivefeastlasting well into the night.s celebrants. A. warriors climbed out of an opening in the horse. z.This is clearly the tale of a sacrificein which u horr" was killed with a spear.. o n T e l e g o n o s ' s p e a r s e e s c h o l .r" while Odysseuswas still a horse. surviving the courseof generationsand providing food.z. a sacrificialanimal for Athena. Frilhe griechische Sagenbilder B\otien eg16). Among the Dorians.the 8od of the earthquakethat destroyedTroy VI.45-42.even though it was already attestedby Timaios:stabbing a horse was how the descendants Troy avenged of the fall of their ancestralcity.8.n. bound for Eleusis' If a "sacred city. was actually identicalwith the Trojan horse. Schachermeyr. Thereupon.89-9r. t 6 7 o .t and to the founding of Cyrene (callim. Hampe. l 158 a59 . and cf. Troy was similarly forsaken by Pallas Athena when Odysseus and Diomedescarried off the Palladion.'.|"y" horse-sacrifice.4-6. 7237-54. . r5oar6.'* the day of the skira.7o27.in their place appear hostile neigh6ors. pl.wrongly concluded T'l!!. 4 b .whatever the real tGPR rz46-52.it might ue well to askwhat thesebold assertions In point of fact. the priest Laoco6n. E u s t . this.a priest drew near the horse and Jtro"t it with u tp"ui on the side.r7t-89. destroyedby a horse.. d.r:.r!* nom this that Timaioswas likewise speakingof a sacrifice beforegoing of io war in the una not of the october-Horse. ' Jitrut'l iillr ]" 1' THE TROJAN HORSE EXCURSUS: According to Attic tradition. t h e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e E q u u s O c t o b e r i s j confirmedthrough the etiological derivationfrom the Trojanhorse. But the relics of other versions remain: according to apocryphal traditions.82b-c. unverifiable conceits.2 striking featuresof which have the long fascinatedstudents of religion.1 build his palaceand temple on toP of him.48above.25.Ar the Taurobolion. (rgoo. 2. bringing a bull for sacrifice na's priestess leaves the Acropolis. the Skira is a festival of "dissolution'" The city goddesi and the king disappear. the Trojan horse has been depicted as riding on wheels. can be conquered at all. z'6' to' taken into Troy. dyvdv rilo. Preciselythis form of sacrificewas customary in Rome. Over that bit five thy father lies. the Eleusinians. He Burkert Q96) 285-86.5'8'zb' Theocr.allegedlygiven by Odysseus.Chavanne. Odysseushimself was turned into a horse. polybiuspolemicizes agarnst by pointing out that many barbarianpeopleswho had nothing to do with Hlt_Yi"* jl_"J. peristeph.the llf1s. 6a.r89-:. scholzlstudien zum und altrdmischen Marskultund Marsiythoi 1rg7oy. in pios and Athena Tritonia were lionored on the acropolis of pheneos. PR ll rzz5-27' t'213-)7' Ziehen. t.lv1.. madeby the goddessherself:the wooden horse.The Trojans the animal to the themselvesbroie through the walls to consecrate goddesson their u. in the of sacrifice the Equus October. t. festivals. ZPE ai969). On the date of D' 16F. Ptolemaios Chennos. the coins in HNl poseidon dieEntslehung F und des 452.opolis. is quiie comparableto the fantastic-and technically impossible-escape of Odysseusbeneath the ram. 'DTimatos. Berlin.cf.thinks thatihe Trolanhorse = poseidon.and precisely when going-off to war.for the 76). in rroSextus Math. RE XVnl z. 2 .264. a strangeanimal went ahead of the Greeks who conquered Troy.. in Demetriosof Skepsis. Ed." Diss. w PRll rzzTare to be found tn 1(. Shakespe TheTempest. one of the most ilTo iustrious themes of the oral epic tradition. rpds va6v is dxplottoft w' .And in the ritual. etc') and cf."'03 of seaihe olive tree of the goddessgrows.8. see generally Nilsson Troy'sdestructionseePR II rz88-89' rr8-29.'o'Theseseem no ionnected more than arbitrary. Odysseusdied when his son Telegonos stabbedhim with an extremelyancientspearof the Upper palaeolithic type-according to one version. "Full fathom seemsto echoaround this temple.5o-56.5). Hy. Athens comes to within a hair's breadth of being conquered. POxy 26r9.'* However. rEEvidentlyalreadyin Alkman 5zPage. 7o-.it w. I. roR.c.ro4. it must be an Attic tradition. Troy fell on the twelfth day of skirowas phorion.7. r. r u .at the sanctuaryof Artemis Heurippa: paus. urServ. the lliupersis with their specialfestival. with a descriptionof the horse being L.67.O d .o3. the sacker of Troy. grtechis-chen cdtterglaubens (r95o). "De Palladii raptu.lmHis gruesomefate notwithstanding.see a'isoI. .Verg. Schefold (196g pl. Od.'@ this extent.In the myth. 4 5 . Festusr7glgr M.."oThis looks as though the rrrdtcnoprlos. the Carneiawas linked toihe Doric conquest(-Schol. But little attention has been paid to the aition of this sacrifice. considering that anof cient etiologistscould at leastbegin from personalexperience their could mean. the EleusinianKerykes after Athedo indeed scalJthe Acropolis. Ap.S FESTIVAL THE PANATHENAIC FESTIVAL ii'l r lll .phot. Ariel's song. r r . such nature-allegory does not explain the ritual detailsin the mvth. II Aen. side and killed the defenseless Ever sincethe eighth century n. Because this month existsonly in Athens (RE III A 547.there was a herd of horses. A e n . eternally 8reen.65-96).5o7. cleruchy of Lemnos see ASAA 315lrg4t l 411. Bib. are. r 1 4 . intersuchunpenirberdie sasenuom Tod des odusseus (rgr7). Schol.r4.l'p'a Oe&s paid a dreadful price for his act. Meyer (Herntes [1895].who quickly r03W.New fragments of stesichorus' lliu Persis West.'o'Indeed. the Carneia. 4 4 . but. F C r H i s t 5 6 6 F6 : P o l y b .s still believed oy_the"vulgus" in the time of Verrius. it is only during this period of crisis at year'send..DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR.Theocr.z. vuu ts killed with a spear:see prud.5. leClem. 263)saw tiat the metaniorphosis into a hoise 3o ts connected poseidonHipwith the horse-shaped Poseidon Arcadia(paus.

there was even a shrine of 'Aphrodite the whore. the Greeks occasionally associated 6oupetos iz'n'os with "speat. the Boeotianfestivalof Dionysus. a story of how the city was once freed from evil tyrants: these tyrants offered up a sacrifice. Sacrificers and eatersmust succumb to those practicing renunciation and aggression.bellowing loudly. But even fragmentscan be evaluated and classifiedif we have a fully preservedmodel. t966]. op. it was led to the altar. Although. G. FGrHist 8+ F g : Ath. seenow Burkert (gZq Ss-6+. Od.72-77. lraLater. 55-78. cf. 13. wherethis pattern is discussed i. 5 . disguised as hetaeand killed their unsuspectingvicrae.s 116On p. r83-8t{.'Eraipos tep6u. n o t i n P l u t . The enemy unwittingly seized the bull and sacrificedit themselves. 57)a.grew drunk. over the course of many generationsof singers. 6.Normal order and morality could be restorede contrario precisely because Aphrodite had dissolvedthem at her festival. z9 Wehrli = Ath. 5rz. the horse in the Gyges saga was linked to the Trojan horse by P M. Plut. the bull had been given a drug provoking madness:it tore itself loose and ran toward the enemy.feasted. 4 . Le problime des Centaurs (1929).one of whom thereupon opened the gates.There is a similar aition for re\erai. t4. the queen removed her clothing in front of Gygesand then aided him in killing the king and wresting his power away. . W Fauth.t 9 .491. his contemporariestold the story according the samepattern:"'the polemarchs to rrrA. which it Athens leadsfrom the Arrhephoria custom. 627. 35gc-6ob. easyprey for the attackingCodrides... the sending away of the of To :]::t {aPeSoaton the one side corresponds festivalJf dissolutionon the other. scattered indicationsabout cult.. 8. r l. N. Another.DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR'S FESTIVAL ARGOS AND ARGEIPHONTES It il ' Itlrlrl lii r. 38. but he preferred the mythical versionwhich set the calamitous peripeteiain the context of a festival of dissolution.yttv speaks. When Pelopidasmurdered the Thebanleaderswho were loyal to Sparta. cf .6 . RhM tr1 QgTo). the i r6o r6r . restival Thessalian at Melite: seeNikander in Ant. 2.Even the sailors'revels(Plut. but in the oldest literary source. zz."oIn Abydus. for an established were celebrating the Aphrodisia at the end of their term of office when the conspiratorssmuggled themselvesin. A. cit. The rhythm of dissolutionand a new start. 5 7 7 c . 274. more realistic. Hanfmann. Alfdldi.. 'Eraipa rrTNeanthes.76-79."n Cnopus had brought by conquest who now preparedto sacrialonga priestessof Hecatefrom Thessaly. and slept with their hetaerae. a victoryfor one'sown triumphant order. For other cities we often have no more than a few scanty. Resp. RA 7 Qy6). S o c r . W Fauth.. ArgosandArgetphontes Nowhere in Greecehave traditions survived in such detail as at Athens. Tro.She is obviously a manifestation of the king's divine lover. r55 Wehrli.-l1f:.ufip. The well-known legend of Gyges"ualso depicts how one who climbed out of a horse seizedpower: contrary to all custom.c. moreover. at Ephesus see Atn' 57ze-f. Strabo 13 p. MH 7 j95o). literary epic transformed the cultic elementsinto a mechanicaltrick. demonstrated that the tradition goes back at least to the fifth century B. Aphrodite Parakyptusa[Abh. an inkling still remained of what had once been a sacrificeof dissolution-perhaps even at Troy-Ilion-with the stabbingof a horse.h. G e n . The armed citizensthen rushed in and slew their defenseless oppressors.was linked to the sacrifice a horse of by means of a spear"oatteststo a deeper understanding. Lib.24below.son of Codrus. However. Phot. rather. using its meat for their feast. Cf."' the fact that Troy's fall. Dumdzil. thus overthrowing the government in 379.. t or. They were thereupon all struck mad. Luc. see Nilsson i9o6\ 374-77. For Aphrodite at Athens see Hsch. also G. the idea of a wooden horse is already long established. and the literary myths that were able to achievepan-Hellenic status. A quite similar story of a young 111 disguiseshimself is a girl rn ordei io assissinate tyrant is the aition of a a I_11 ih. 1 1 8 X e nH e l l .t. ' A particularly strangelegend tells of the foundation of Erythrae through Cnopus. tt5Plat.1 l. Die troianischenUralurcn der Riimer (1957). t'Agpoii<rta itu ro\6pau xai crparq"yt6:u d.'t-42. the heading "Transformations the Scapegoat.7. P e l o p . l t i s t h e r e f o r e c o n t r o v e r s r a r whether the Theban festival of Aphrodite is historical. There was. at the fateful feast when the Trojans acceptedthe wooden horse." Eur. the former Erythraeans. The Greeks still knew of stories about Gyges' deified hetaera.After its horns had been gilded and its body adorned with fillets. the-Argonauts Lemnos(Burkert on [t97o]8-l.a see Klearchos fr.in Heraclidesfr. and whether it was a privatt' celebration or an established custom. Schuhl. Mainz. ficea bull in full view of the enemy. M. 4 . whom the Greeks called Aphrodite. An seni785e. HSCP 61 j958). tradition was briefly cited by Xenophon. Yalouris. 'Erarlpr.Fauth' RhM n1 $g7o). Fauth. Nonposse ro97e)have their tradi. iilinJ"-: 'u. on which cf." "7 whoin spite of her name-was duly worshipped and had a festival.They then unveiled themselves tims.rl I I connectionsbehind the old Trojan tradition among the Etruscans and Romans. 57ze. Comp Cin tt. The guilt causedby sacrificesignalsan end and a fall-for others.i I ilil.

P u t h ."8Boyhoodwas over. cuseson the Argolid. we must reckon with different forms. V :os. Tact. found it probable that the Heraia ocKalender (66). Frickenhaus. even though it never a became pan-Hellenicagon of the first order. See now P. and cf. Dem. 6rr. becausethe Argives dedicated Kouroi. r. T . For the myrtle-wreath see Schol. pulled their mother. 8Plut. f o ra t r i p o d f r o m V e r g r n a see Proc. 9 ."eAccording to a myth. and actually closerto Mycenae:that is.B l u m e r ( 1 8 8 5 )) 2 . P a r . '147-77.Tiryns. Schol. Mitsos. surprisingly. Waldstein TheArgiueHeraeum (tgozl). z5-49. The goddessis called 'Apyeiq. Blegen. r . who. To be sure. C. King Nikokreon gave bronze.597. dydtv d 1c!trxeo56dpov |rpivet roti Bovtvoiav 'Hpas <iir}trrou re xpicw Pind. An important settlement. they becometransparent. Boethius. 4 [ l z t ) .r3za.3. rc. to the crowning festival' The samefestival feastin the "hecatombs"of the New Year's rhythm appears in many other placesand in the cults of other city gods. Nem. "Sur les concours argiens. Suda o 245.A p o s t o l . Schol.3r.rr3c.The only certainty is that it was sacredto Hera. the priestessof Hera.VII 4 9 . the processionwas followed by an agon that took place inside the city limits. flatrkis ArgiaeHera. Preceding ArgiueHeraeum the Settlement OnZ).' for This links the agon to the procession. Ac. forty-five stades from Argos. Tiryns I ltgtz\. the city of Argos' was relegated to a secondaryrole in the history of Greece. the festivalprocessionmarked an initiation. and the presentationof this As peplos formed a part of the Hecatombaia-Heraia.Hesperia z6 4 0954. There are even tracesof more ancient.52 (l rZil : Bodl. BCH 8t (t957\. included with the priestessof Hera riding in her ancient ox-drawn cart. Schol. fr. 6S GgZg\. W. by is daurus. was Lerna.81.3158.Thus.but the basicstructuresare analogous. the Greeksare simply calledArand a particularly large array of Greek myths foor girses Danaans. z. t7.9.it was time to beararms. G 1 . 6. Another Neolithic settlement was locatedon a hill which.' site of myths and mysteries.Pind' Ol. Paus.moving from Argos to the shrine. 'Callim. Accordingly. know that it a sacrificialprocession. There were three Mycenaeanpalaceshere in closeproximity: Mycenae. Pind. cl. X X X I V .z. the Heraion. Pyth' Nilsson i9o6) 4z-45. r . t 9 5 ) . IV 589. in historicaltimes. 3 ( l 3 z ) . fr. becamethe site of the central shrine of the Argolid. 8z (1958) In Ept' 7. S I G s t o 6 4 . The main festival at this shrineo-one of the greatestfor the city rM. X I V n 9 . there a shield was carried along: "Those who had spent their boyhood purely and blamelesslytook up a sacredshield and thus led the procession:this was their honor. 7. ro inscr. imagesof the youths. z5 Q956). G u a r d u c c i .z2-2). The ephebeswere now capable of bearing arms. ) 6 5 . Brit. (t957)' '?|.z4. It is mentioned severaltimes by Pindar. 25. Our knowledge comesfrom the story of Cleobisand Biton. S t u d i L I . As Callimachustells us. Pind. with shield and wreath. The prize was a bronze shield. SIG35. Nerr. Nem. Ol.Schol. n4-zo' aSchol. r .DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR. for coins see I m h o o f . j958). 959. A. the month Panamos preceded Agrianios:SamuelQgTz)9t. 2 . Pind. through the uncanny sacrificeof the bull. oldestliterary tradition are especiallyilluminating' Once one has recognized the various stagesof sacrificethat organizetheir peripeteia. FGrHist )o5 F 4.S FESTIVAL ARGOS AND ARGEIPHONTES is through the Skira and the Buphonia and finally to the Panathenaia. Though greatly expanded. Amandry. In the Homeric epic. 9 z ( l r 9 5 ) . Lynkeus gavethis shield 'Hdt. ro.Pind.7 6 . '"O lEu "Ap7er 1a).while its cultural significancewas overshadowedby that of Athens. of Because Sparta'ssuperior power. llotrr. ao. OI. it basicallyfollows from the preparatorydrama of the the "normal" sacrificialsequence.uthe Argive maidens also wove a peplos for Hera. 66. Zenob.zr4 ioropia roil " Apyovs(rg45)iApyoXtxi1rpotrazroypapia (1952). at Delphi.which may have derived its name from Anatolia.L.that this was curred in the month Panamos the first month of the year: seeP Charneux. 14z-62. the strong developmentof Argos from the Geometricto the Archaic period contrastswith the stagnationand constantcrisiswhich besetit in historicaltimes. Z e n o b .Demetrios Poliorketes celebrated his wedding at the Heraia: Plut. |-Jo. r r r z . 8 . V . Caskey. t . E . The shield of Euphorlikewise displayed in the Heraion: see Paus. D i o g . M . zoo. z. 7 4 7 . h . 6 (r98o).)5.zo.365.x<is Pind. in place of the oxen. 7.2.r5z. z8 (t95$. in the stadium by the Aspis. local variants and combinations. r. Nikomachos Porph. 683.3. the agon repeatedthe process. 7 r o 2 . D i o g ."Hprl 'A$qvair1. A. Pind.sAlready by 6oos. for the statues see Lippold Q95o) z5. We of Argos-was called both Heraia and Hecatombaia. also Palaiphatos 5r and Aen. (uppsala universitets Arsskrift tgzz).was I ' Y t h . anything but unique.2 7 = I a m b l . M a c a r .z7 3Ch. see Kaibel Epigr. t6z r6j .39. maiden. K . this exampleof Argive piety became known throughout Creece. 7. 2o2-2o7. Par.c. P a o l i .and details The rnyths representingthe often show a striking correspondence. r25-44. 5 3 ( l l 9 ) . Pind.658. 4 4 i n P a r o e m . For coins see Imhoof-Blumer (1885) 4r. zrz-51. Nern. I 3 2 7a n d c f .59o.7. It becameproverbial to call someone"proud as one who has taken on the shield in Argos. :19.5g1. 7 4 6 . Schol. Agias and Derkylos.Neolithic traditions here.An inscription shows.Prosymna: Helladic The llll .It is not known where this shield was stored and from whence it was "taken down" for the procession. 2 7( I I z 9 z ) . For victory inscriptionssee r4z B("Apyous dcri\a IG Il/lll': y62. for instance. Cf.Vr. Der argiaische 8..'the major sanctuary of the goddessHera already in Homer.r7. all the way to the temple.r5zc-d." BCH suppl.3t6g. 24 $95). Ol.846: IG IV 581.r5zc. oCallim. just as Pallasbelongsto Athens. at Athens. and Argive Larisa. Paus.

) 164 . Munzenund Medaillen AG. maiden carrying basket. it must have been precededby a festival of dissolution.C f . J a c o b yl . 196-9g. Basel. qui quoqueawlo agu. there were unspeakable sacrifices for sacrifices which water had to be carriedup from this source. H y g . from father to son: these reflect the situation of the New Year'sfesThe coincidence tival.2-1. S e r v . which the priestesses which are not spoken of .priestess. Ol.5.25. R. Cl. altar with Figure1. rz4-26 t -*').altar with wood and fire. The myth was told (fr. however.-W) and the Hesiodic Catalogues FCrHist 1F 67.rtur. H i e r o n . Courtesy. attendants with branchesdriving bull. the Photronis 4-5 Kinkel. a u c t . in tne Danais. bukranion above. Wehrli. similarly' the foundation myth of the Heraia agon. when Hermes killed Argos.mentionsa spring calledEleutherionon the road to "use for purification of the the shrine of Hera. The myth. )oHyg. attendant holding water vesseland tray of offerings. But given the abundanceof parallel cults in a city.C r H i s f I a 4 5 5 . the H"tiodic (fr. Pind. Fah z74. 4. His name is 6poyupos.t o r . too. vegetarian age.p9evio Schol. For Hera Akreia at Argos see Agias and Derkylos' FGrHist Jo5F 4. Catherine Page Perkins Funcl. FGrHist zF z6-27. t7o clipeunr quen Danaus consecrateratlunoni . photo D. t2Paus. "Ilpa[lc. Klnkel p.Auction 18 no. zt below."he who goes along in the circle. Aesch Hik' z9r-1o5. 1 . A.flute-player. 7749. It is uncertain whether Hera's bath in the spring Kanathos. . 5 8 z f o l l o w i n g H e l l a n i k o s ." Buzyges. F a b . H. especiallyas Buzyges was also linked to the sacrificeof an ox. 85.Attic black-figurecup. lo. r. Pausanias. Cahn.2 7 1 . q . ending a Golden." The new orArgos cameabout under the power of Argive Hera. 1967\. der in the polis If the Heraia was a New Year'sfestival. Lycoph' fi7 wtth Schol. Cia. Private collection. thebeloved Zeus.oneus founds the cult of Hera in Hyg. Pherekydes.t r. F ' al(.The myth of the names a of makesLynkeus' wife Hypermestra priestess Hera. Boston. further participants. etc ' Akusilaos.Paus. r.t.g).6 7 . the first murder among the gods. 238.1499). and with marks of blood."'2 Thus.r7. 2 8 6 . Fab."'3 which recalls the manner in which the bull was "driven around" the altar at the Buphonia. 295-96 M. Abas.attendant holding ram. 65.e. a shield transferred panies of youths. whereby she becomes a virgin again (Paus. r43). guardthis of ianof Io.r(' comking of Argos. sacrificer washinghis hands. namely. Courresv.z4. fr.whowasturnedintoacow. when the son announcedthe death of Danaus. (Seep. Sacrificialprocession: wood and fire. A e t t . 6.Varro mentions an Argive hero who corresponds to the Attic "yoker of oxen. There is little more than allusions to this in Argos. sow. Widmer. A b r . )irhtrrrg und Kultlegende K Beih. F o r s c h u n g e n z uA l t e n G e s c h i c h t I ( 1 8 9 2 ) .'aThus. Just as the Attic Buphonia was depicted as a primordial crime. Dei fi. z.8.z. the Argive myth included a primordial crime. has anything to do with the Heraion. Callim. e r M e y e r .Ilz51-66. (Seep.440/30 B C Boston. about 560 BC. supportedby the armed. perhapsin the form of the sacrifice of a bull. laPRIlg4-g7. then in Aigimios (ir. reftxit et donaoit Ahanti "ApTet (i. r t E u s e b .4. 4. for instance. sacrificerpouring a libation. which the Heraia sharedwith the Panathenaia' is Hecatombaia/Hecatombaion no accident. Museum of Fine Arts.zr. goddessAthena (damaged). Lynkeus thereby became A new king following the old. nn. and cf . dignitary (seer?)Attic red-figurebell crater by the Kleophon painter (ARV. sheep. Museum of Fine Arts 95. . Pho..r. so.6.takes us further.) Figure2. and cf. Preparationfor sacrifice:fluteplayer. 13Varroin Aug. 4. 2. qut appellantur dryris Ev ludosqueconsecraztit quintL) missing in Nilsson 119o614z-45\.DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR-S FESTIVAL to his son. it is impossible to isolate any combination with certainty. Z$s yupa'ltrcsat Chios. ready in the old epics at least four times.

about 530 B.1. s a c r i f i c i a l e a s ti n h o n o r o f D i o n y s u s :r o a s t i n g . .l:.tt ti$.) llr .tt.r . r \ 1r. $.Museo Nazionaledi Villa Giulia. k i n g i n 4 t a tripod kettle.' . r a n a l t a r a n d c o . 15.trf-1. iii: t:li ..i.:.29.'' ' ' ' l ' . ! Iames Mellaart.ll. :i r. n. \'. (Seep.:. Rome.. . (See p. g9.r. caeretan hyclria. Museo Nazionaledi Villa citrlia..\ men hunting stag and boar.Il .) ----- _ .l::l]j.1::-rl.*.':. Courtesy..t. . . .t. bI F i g u r e .

785). 1 Figure6.7. Munich. 9 9 . Basel. (Seep. C C o u r t e * Lion on either side.n. 137.) . Museum of Iraklion. Munich 1824' Courtesy.c. Attic black-figureoinochoeby the Gela painter (ABV 473. Vereinigung der FreundeAntiker Kunst. 510/480 n.from a tripod cauldron (PeloPsi Figure5. a b o u t 6 3 0 u . (SeeP. Buphonia:bulls strollingaround an altar. Bronze mitra from Axos. Warrior with shieldand sword rising Crete.and Staatlich Antikensammlungen und Clyptothek.

' l,rl hr

I lJl

offerrr 'Lenaia vase': mask of Dionysus fastened to a column' table of Figure 7. Vr red-figure stamnos by the wine' Attic with two stamnoi, woman tasting 90 l Arts 450 B C Boston' Museum of Fine Giulia painter (ARV'61,I.34)' abo"t Boston' (Seep' 235 ) of Fine Arts' anonymous gift. Courtesy' Mu*turn

(lion-skin) a low altar, priest at bv g. Figure Mystery initiation:pig sacrifice Heracles Museo NazionaledelleTerme' with offering tray pouring a libation. Lovatelii urn, Rome. Courtesy, DeutschesArchliologischeInstitut' Rome' (Seep' 257')

ARGOS AND ARGEIPHONTES

r,l I I

with the Heraion. "When epoch-makingact of violencewas associated Argos, the guardian of Io, at Zets' behest,he was Hermes had killed brought to trial. He was arraigned by Hera and the other gods becausehe was the first god ever to be stained with death. Now when the gods were holding this trial, they were afraid of Zeus, for Hermes had acted on his orders. They wanted both to remove this stain from their presenceand acquit the god of murder: agitatedas they were, they threw their voting pebbles at Hermes, so that a pile of stones grew at his feet": thus Anticlides following Xanthosthe Lydian.'u 'The killer is freed through symbolic stoning. Thus, the pile of stonesin which Hermes is present atteststo the first bloodshed and Likewise, in the HomericHymn bearing his how it was overcome.'u is the inventor of sacrificeand is calledBov96uos.'7 name, Hermes the Starting with the Hesiodic Catalogues, Greeks believed that his was won by killing Argos. Modern skepticism epithet, Argeiphontes, of has arisen partly because the probconcerningthis interpretationls the "killing of Argos" is formation, but aboveall because lem of word taken to be insignficapt,a minor detail. The myth, however,adds another dimension to this act, surrounding this first divine shedding of blood, i.e., the first sacrifice,with a typical comedy of innocenceincluding trial, sentencing,and apparent stoning. On Tenedos,at the sacrificeof a calf for Dionysus Anthroporrhaistes, the participants shower the killer with stones "in order to remove the stain from themselves."" In Aeschylus' metaphor of the Sipta Ireioclt'ov,the "sacrificethat ends in stoning," there may be a hint that such occurAbove all, the courtroom comedyrecalls rences were not infrequent.'?o
r5Xanthos, ItOn FGrHist 765F z9; Anticlides, FCrHist r4oF 19; Eust. r8o9.38-43. Hermes, the pile of stones, see Nilsson I OgSil, 5o7-5o5;1.6.n.29 above. The Argives held trials at a place where, according to the saga, traitors had been stoned: see Deinias, FGrHist 1o6 F 3. Voting with stones at a trial can probably be traced back to stoning rituals. " 4 1 6 ;c f . I . z . n . r 3 a b o v e . I8P Chantraine, MAL O. Naaarre (tglil, 6g-ZS (Pre-Greek); J. Chittenden, AIA 5z (1948). z4-28 ("dog-killer"); A. Heubeck, Beitr. z. Namenf. 5 U95d, 19-3r ("Im Glanz prangend"). Argos ("plain", Callim. fr. 299.2; Strabo 8 p. 172) and the eponymous Argos can hardly be distinguished; the fact that the mythical character changes over into the o-declension causes no problem (cf . Aiohos beside Aioheis); however, the word formation is problematical. The epic epithet comes perhaps from the locative (ll. 6.224, t4-rr9; Od . r74) " shining at Argos," then the "killer at Argos." Ever since the lliad, the 4. latter part of the word has, with certainty, been understood as "killer" (like riu6Pe ryovrns. floXugovn1s). teAel. Naf . an. 12.J4)III.4.n.zo below. eAesch. Ag. rrrS; Burkert Q966) rtg.

veti' 't by a priestessholding a liknon' Figure9. Mystery initiation: purification Lovatelli urr' Mus"' fl*t" (nott beneath his foot)' on initiand seated u.,*'' Archiologische lnstrttrt Deutsches Nazionale deile Terme, Rome. Courtesy, p R o m e .( S e e . 2 6 7 . )

165

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DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR,S FESTIVAL

ARGOS AND ARGEIPHONTES

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l

I,

the Attic Buphonia. There, in Athens, Hermes' descendants,the EleusinianKerykes, are the ones who kill the bull. Correspondingly, the act of HermesArgeiphontes,"killer of Argos," reflectsa Buphoniarite at Argos. Moreover, the myth identifies Argos, the "neatherd," as closely 'Argos killed the bull that ravaged as it possibly could with the bull. Arcadia, and clothed himself in its skin."" In severalvase-paintings he can be seen wearing the bullskin. The conqueror of the bull becomesvirtually identical with his victim by covering himself with its skin. Hermes, the "ox-slayeg"thereupon lulls him to sleep and kills hitting him with a stone.Thus, the subhim, as the myth relates,2'by sequentstoning was payment in kind. To sacrificea bull, one needs an axe, an instrument once made of stone. Hermes' act-because it is linked to the myth of lo-is, once again, combined with the preparatory drama of a maiden. Io, the king's daughter and beloved of Zeus, was confined within Hera's sphere of power, guarded in the Argive Heraion, chained to the sacred olive tree.a With Argos' death, these chains were broken: and the cow fled into the wide world, goadedto far-offlands by the sting of the gadfly.There seemsto be a twofold cultic reality underlying the mythical play between the daughter of the king and the cow: already was in Hesiod'sCatalogues,Io a priestessof Hera. And the priestess's place is in the sanctuary tending the eternal flame of the sacred lamp'o-this, too, is common to the Heraion and the Erechtheum'But from Argos to is if at the Heraia the priestess led in solemnprocession that she previously left that shrine in an the shrine, we must assume act of "dissolution." Was the lamp extinguishedduring her absence? The drama is played out in a more sharply articulated,drasticform on the animal level: when the bull dies in the unspeakablesacrifice,it leavesthe cows in its herd without a leader.Peopleat Argos spokeof the "cattle of Argos" which were "sacredto Hera." The hill on which
'rApollod. 2.4;Schol.Eur. Phoen. with Argos in a bullskin see rr16. For vase-paintings the black figure amphora BM B :^64= 13y 148.2, Cook III (r94o) 632; lor red figure hydria, Boston o8.4r7 : ARV'1 579.84, Cook III (r94o) 661; for rdd-figure-crater from Ruvo, fatta 498 : ARV'r4o9.9, Cook I (r9r4) 46o;for a catalogueof depictionsof Argos seeR. Engelmann,Jdl 18(ry3\, 17-58. zApollod.2.7. sApollod. 2.6; Pliny NH 16.49; cf. black figure amphora, Mtinchen 5n l. = Cook lll (r94o) pl. 49.4 red figure stamnos, Wien 3729= ARVz288.r, Cook III (r94o) Pl. 49 2' "Hpas For lo is a priqrtess of H"tu see Hes. fr. rz4 M.-W. = APollod. 2.5; xLn}oixov Aesch. Hik. z9r; Hellanikos, FGrHist| ^ P. 455. 2rPaus. 2.t7.7,and cf. 3.15.6.

the Heraion was set was calledEuboea.2. cattlewere ,,setfree,,to The be caught for sacrifice.At the bull's death-for thus we may conclude from the myth-a cow would be chasedaway ,,asif it were mad.,,But even the mad cows did not escapethe festivil of the Hecatombs. The processionat the Heraia responded in a specialway to the sacrificeof the bull in the "dissolution." It does so by means tf a singular feature:the act of bearing the sacredshield. In historical times, of course,as we know from Pindar, at leastthe shields that servedas prizesin the agon were made of bronze. They were hoplite shieldsof the sort common after approximately7ooB.c.lts more lncient predehowevet would have been a shield made of cowhide, which cessor/ thus, in its source, was so directly linked to the cow that in an especially ancient Homeric verse the shield is simply designateduy ine Indo-Europeanword for cow, B6v.ru One musf kill the bull ii one wants the shield. But preciselyin this form-as a stretched skinthe Bo0sassumesa new existence,becoming the warrior's trustiest comrade-in-arms, protectiveskin for his own skin. Thus, the dead a bull is security for the living; and thus, in taking up the shield, the young man who has outgrown boyhood entersthe-shadow and the shelter of the dead. To this extent the armed warrior himself plays the role of Argos, who killed the bull to wear its skin. away, then, the power and order of Argos the city are embod_ ied in Argos the neatherd, lord of the herdlnd lord of the land, whosename itself is the name of the land. In the myth, Argos is Zeus, oPponent,but it has long been seen that he is nonethelessclosely identifiedwith Zeus.2'fustas Argos is called,,panoptes,,, one who the -is "seesall," so Zeus, the omniscient sky-god, invoked as Zeus pa_ noptes. And just as mythographers describeArgos as having four eyes or three, so there was an image of Zeus ui Argos with"three eyes."In the countless,starlikeeyesof Argos,2e poets ,i* ur, imageof
6Paus. z.t7.r. The name Nemea was etymologized from the ,,grazing,, of Argos, cattle: see-A'rrian,.FGrHist .^56 16 = Ef. F M. r76.y (it would be temp"ting t6.o.,.,"Jt the altar

here llt:t_oon"tys meirtioned with <ieer"g*.,t.r.".);"r"j,;[;;;i.'iror.3, Et M' &n 23; schot.Pind.III 3.23 Drachmann. Diod.4.15.4 mentions herdof horses a
sacred to Hera, which existed until the time of Alexander.

Bronze from ill to t78e7'')tt-cf. (1964\, 600B.C. 17_69,r7o_7t. E-.Meyer, Forsch. alten Gesch. (figz),72, is criticalof this view; rirZeu z. I lln.t nO.u Eum. rc45. For an altar AIFO: IANOIITA at Argos seeBCH y gcr), ;:T:l,t",r.n. ar); \-oor(I (1914) lll 452_62; (ry4o)gr. with.four eyessee,,Hes.,,Aigimios 294M.-W.;two-headed vase_paintfr. on , l":t 1f:: qrES, s€€black figure amphora, BM B tZa (n. zr above), bell_crater from Ruvo, Genoa 167

A. snodgra Earry ss, Greek Armour weapons and

theEndof the

t66

3.DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR'S FESTIVAL AGRIONIA the universe-just as Zeus himself was the universe.rr. 3Hes. 'Hes. 3tYerg. representing the period of dissolution before the new beginning: see Lydus Mens.e.545-48. where Pausanias saw it set up ARV') ro54.. where Proitos was king. Ecl.3o order. Hera of Tiryns. Bz-trz. yup"vai Ael. the goddessdestroyed the tender flower of their youth. the Catalogues. to be driven off into distant lands as a mad cow. Frickenhaus. 1qa-b. z. see Paus' 2. ry7 e95). doubting.-W.lbb. accordingto Serv.1. Simon (.z. nr6-r7 ra p.73r.st 3.7:-9r.z7. A. Simon (1969)3zo.n. and now the hair fell out on their scalpsand their beautiful headswere bald. r33. and cf. ing." fiLooiz4. z FGrHist 3o4F r. F. on Verg.On this image seeAkusilaos. is better known through a myth from a place directly adioining Argos-Tiryns. pseudo-Hesiodeia eg6o). too. allegedly Priam's Zeus Herkeios. on a column."a of shameless nudity and of the madnessthat causedthem to take themselves cows and for roam the Peloponnesus mooing. 6. had to be securedwith a death. Cook II (1924) 18o.' Our oldest source. For Zeus with three eyes (the third on his forehead). fr. they probablydressed them_selves like Hera."r and it was perceivedso already in the fifth century. the king's daughter. FGrHist F z8. The periegetefound it "insignificant. r68 r69 . it was Argos died in the undissolved for the sake of being reestablished. for the metamorphosis into cows seeschol. z alct.z9. VH 3. ztudes Anciennes (1965). PR II 246-52.+st.ZS-9o. Tirynsjgtz).and the myth of the pear as the first food after the great flood: seeplut.ro3-r4) are applying a cosmogonical idea to )anus that was already in the background of the anthropogony in Plato's Symposium(r89d-r93d). There were stories of "all sorts of indecent behavior.4o-58. presentsa somewhat different picture: "becauseof their loathsome lewdness. 8.3. stat." Reauedes !9. Aen.5.The proitids are perhaps in the metopefrom Thermos (seventhcentury n. the image still was brought to the Argive Heraion. It is clearfrom Philodemosthat Hera is the subiect:seeM.969) 3zo. Verrius (Festus 5z M. At Tiryns therewas a hero named Argos with a sacred grove. 6. Agrionia In the myth.48. Here. was virtually the embodimentof the cosmos. speakablesacrificeof the bull so that the youthful warriors might carry the sacredshield on their shoulders.z9. Theb.. dppqgopeiv. tserv and Prob.3 causingthem to break out of the sanctuaryand city and to wander the earth. on fr.. accordingto the HesiodicCatalogues. Saturnus aPPears as a mask with two heads. i. The Arrhephoroi of the goddessat Athens got gold jewelry: up see Harpokr.6. this two-faced quality of Argos recalls the myths of double beings who had to be killed and cut up so that our world could come into exisIndeed.when legend had it that proitos' daughters had mocked the wretched image and thus incurred the wrath. whose small seated statue made of wood from the pear tree was reckoned among the most ancient and venerableof Greek statuesof the gods.F Vian. ANET 62. in the context of the city Argos. so as to endure. rrz.48.to which the Odyssey alludes. Hera is active. rln identifying Janus with Chaos. is comparable: their girlhood.) and Ovid (Fasf. Bacchyl.pear-throwers.iv civ &crput' itrso\ai<vtu dtrtpara B). 4. shortly before 'Paus.2. At the New Year's festival at Philadelphia. 2Akusilaos of Argos.24.r7.). FGrHist F z8. comes to a violent halt when." "over their headsshe poured a dreadful itching substance and spread white leprosy over their whole skin.c. :.The fact that the image was made from the wood of the pear tree probably has to do with the festival of the . 'Met' dxocltic. Schwartz. AM 77 eg6z).a radicalantithesisto the image of lovely and modest virgins-redolent of a witch's sabbath. like Aeneas: attollens nepotum.they took the gold of Hera for their own use. Demetriosof Argos. This pattern of kings' daughters roaming like cows. Cf. e. Gr. Dilrig. FGrHist 3 F 66 (the third is on the back of his head).70-75. the mythical Argos tence.For Argos as the donor of the imageof Hera seeDemetrios.2Hera'sanger was sometimesascribedto other motigoddess's vations. The myth of Pandareos' daughters.FGrHist 3o4F r. which had stood under the protection of Athena and Artemis. in the temple of Zeus Larisaios at Ar8os. "Melampous et les Proitides.46.the all-embracing This order. For Argos with three eyes see Pherekydes.through forest and mountain. 37. 6. When Argos destroyedTiryns. Ec/. which had by then been divided. EEur. go-33 14. Moreover. 3ta."6This is both lust and the repulsiveness sickness of and old age. Bonn.48. 67 2j_Jo.2 p' 65 Wuensch.s<ttrac4sApollod. Phoen. cf.) in which young girls are lorlrayed oaringtheir breasts: Schefold see Og6+)lS fig.. fr.-W.thus carrying the city'soret umerisfamnmque fata der on into the future. distracted.42. r. Oelmann. fr. cf. but it was always the encounterwith Hera in her sanctuary that suddenly wrenched the daughtersof the Tirynthian king out of The goddessdrove them to "frenziedroamtheir shelteredexistence. T. r. 8.Etrovra ta 6i xpir' rovta \uvovrav pirc.J. Marduk has four eyes and four ears: see Enal4i: uma Eli5. Argos' death causesIo.pl.Argos: seeHdt.8.

repulsiveness. cf. des einer Rekonstruktion versuch lnhalts(rg$).66-78-an isolatedbit of the tradition for this story. The reconstruction on the basisof the various Hesiodic fla8ments 170 purifying priest. description of the dreadful transformation of the daughtersof Proitosis basedon the symptoms of real illnesses. z.Nonnus 47. 16r. van der Kolf. Harpokr. "Rubbed down with white meal like the basketcarriers" is how one comic playwright in Athens ritual.'Thedaughtersof Proitoswandering in the wilderness also becameErinyes-likebeings. cf.2)is disprovenby Hes. 47-62. dtop'arron.1. and deviation of all kinds belong to the period of dissolution both in the Attic ritual and in the myth of the daughtersof Proitos.fr. it permits us so to tracethe inroads made by the cult of Dionysus in the sixth century. z6 (CAF | 4t). an unspeakablygruesome act took place-the murder of one's own children.the separation the myths of the proitids unJ M"lu-prr. murdering and even eating her children.Das pl.zz. accordingto it. Schriften e96o). 2. ut. was also considered to have been the founder of the iutt of Dionysus.n. 477 . Athenian critics found a similarly affectedrepulsivenessin the women at the Skira.'2 '/Od. Die Melampodie. H. fiIretgovyap rtp For a4)rQ rai rQ rrtpq rois 1.is here transformed into a show of strength by the god of This madness becomes ambivalent:is it a blessingor a curse? rnadness.2. Once again. their headsbesprinkledwith white meal.S FESTIVAL AGRIONIA i.This is evident only in the Melampus version of the saga.Cf. realization of the plot hatched at the Skira is dominated by the image of a lasciviousold hag' Old age.9. it is the child. and thesesymptoms are imitated in the ritual.484-95. For SamosseeH.the latter probably reflectsthe The ritual of a weiberbund. Walter. 2o. Hera'swrath. Sfi-55.z6. In the "slaughteringof the bull" which we saw reflectedin the myth of Argeiphontes. Dissolution turns into perversion. Proitosrefused Melampus'first offer to cure his frenzied daughters.tuou1t'ivous. fr. Artemis of Alpheios and her with clay.8In Aristophanes' gatheringsof the garlic-eating the Lcclesiazisae. but is only a slight changeof emphasisin structurescomrnon to non-Dionysiacrituals as well. toHy.1. the Graiai in the myth of Perseus. out of the mountains and on to and testimonia is. describes referring to somesacrificial the prophetic Thriae. where virgins must actually appear covered with white soot. raving goeshand in hand with sacrifice. Leipzig r7.r8.3 lr897l) con' Kynanthropie nectedwith Kynanthropy. is The Melampodia probably later than the Catalogues.Abh. 6. And yet the new interpretationfollows the old rhythm of dissolution and new beginning.DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR. Liiffler.. most uncertain. kAP-ollod.Nilsson (1955) Pickard-Cambridge(1962)pl. Yet this distinction is in fact part of a polar re-between lationship. the prophet and Hesiod. Thus.4. M. and similar maskswere found in the Heraion of Samos'The of oldest representations the Gorgon are the larger than life-sizepotmasks. t" any case. could be used as a substitutein the ritual. Whether causedby Hera or Dionysus. it is the Melampus versionthat givesa full accountof . Roscher the "sickness"of the daughtersof Pandareos des handelnde Fragment Marcellusaon Side. 8See III. R. rrFor Artemis Alpheiaia see Paus. Artemis Orthia see /HS Suppl' 5 $gzg)' 161' Heiligtum{196). cf. the scholionto v' 66 calls (Dasaonder xuvc. servantsof Delthe Homeric Hymn to Hermes. pfeiffer. which were votive offerings to Hera of Tiryns..and in addition to the antithesisof the lovely virgin comes that of the loving mother.Accordingly.ll L I their weddings. how this dreadful tale could yet end happily: "Melampus took along the strongestyouths and puisued the women and giils with battlecries and a specificecstaticdance. for they too forsook their homes. (Nilsson of lo-11 U9551 611. the ancestralking or universal father was the victim. Dionysus struck the daughters of Proitos with madnessbecausethey were unwilling to accept his orgies. C. they were abductedby the Harpies and given to the "hateful Erinyes" as servants.49. 499-504."r0 According to the cult-legendof Letrinoi. z8' griech. forced on the virgins by Hera. r3r = Apollod . which otherwise signifiesthe wrath and alienationof the great goddess.azabove.r.Yet the presenceof the Dionysiacelement is not radicaliy different here.37 tovg ittpaorriious Eyoucatzoldas rris oapxas aitiaui<-rnoiuro. The dissolution of the normal order. for she too has becomea witch. phic Apollo. Ausgew. and ran off into the solitude. 'Hermippos fr. we can postulateeven now that a young animal. RE XVIII z."1a Thus." In this version.28. 37. a bull-calf instead of a bull.in which the madnessis raisedto a secondlevel." The shaped transformationof the daughtersof Proitosis a ritual masking. however.the maidensgrew even more frantic and were now joined by all the other women as well.'Likewise. are "virgins. once again.The grotesquemasksfrom the nymphs maskedthemselves at Sparta confirm that this reflectsa ritual shrine of Artemis Orthia custom. 2. killed their own children. Paus. presumably the Melampodia. )7-Jg.whereupon. r2Hes. For Tiryns see RE VI A 1465. Here.Merc. throwing custom to the winds. which W. Patricide and infanticide are the two variants which the unspeakablesacrificecan shift at any time. "Hdt. XII b. howevet competedwith the Power of Dionysus in this myth-and here again the authority cited is a sourceas early as MelamPus.

aNilsson (ryo6) 277-74. But even this last phasedid not occurwithout sacrifice: met her death in the pursuit.7.18.i1 Ev "Apyet. a heroine presupposesher death: the festival was thus for lphinoe. #t95. One must propitiate them so that they will leaveone in peace.'Aypnun. who would like to make the festival. the youths establishthemselvesand their king. z9ra. the ephebes. Plutarch. thus Dionysus' priest returns again to Hera'ssphereof power. R. Callim. is the . thereby becomes the new king. but then give yay to normal life again.iion with dypros. a vase from Naples (H.and a Boeotian.In the same breath. 3. RMLII 2571. Our only evidencethat the myth of proitos' daughterswas con_ nected with a festival is a gloss in Hesychius: 'Agrania.ves. Gr.)7-)g. Theopompos. has provided us with somecharacteristic details of the 6opr.who prove themselveshere. for she is the goddess his of marriage. r8. Paus.Thus. the antithesis of perversion.22 The exceptional period in the myth ends with the death of Proitos' daughter in the wild hunt. of the clead. rz6 (CAF Il 577). 3 . Byz.25. of course. Berlin \tgzg). 5." He forthwith marries one of the successfullyhealed daughters. the paih from the virgin to the queen.z9. for the tomb of Iphinoe with the inscription at the marketplace of SEG 15 ig58\. 'oBacchyl. Hdt.i . FGrHist 8t F 63. the circle of correspondences paniedis with the Hecatombaia-Heraia closed.various meansare used to chasethem away.ill It' llii DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR. see 1G XII 45. ar. Demetrios Poliorketescelebrated marriage in Argos at the festival of the Heraia. Arcaeus 4z. rsApollod. etc. fr.r. +9f. For dramatic pictorial repreSikyon see Praktika OgSz). p9P." Mir. as a.is instead of priamos.3o. see LTrt \. Paus. Robert..Qt6v flpoirou Bvyar|puv. I I Eudoxos fr.3 below. ' e S e eI I I . 5.ex s. '-.a.16 (cf. rleppap. z4.7-8. \-'mestes at Lesbos besides Hera and Zeus. Agrionios. For the purification at Elis see Strabo 8 p. the raving of the maidens and the women is merely an exceptionalstatefollowed by the reestablishment of order in the polis. in the course of which the old order is dernolished in a transitionalperiod of madness.'7 at least a closing rite at Tiryns which.28-J5) has Melampus turn down the kingship. Phylarchos. For the month-name Agrianios/Agrionios see Samuel (tg7z). see the crater from Canicattini. Pliny NH 1r. Diphilos fr. rApollod. Byz. Oiua. The hunt is repeated and fulfilled in the inimalwhich marks and surmounts the crisesof society.Frequently. "Arist. On purification through Melampus see also Alexis fr.IG YII 2447. IG vll 3348. Hirmer. festival in Argos in honor of one of Proitos' daughters. 'Ayeppavt'os at Eresos (cf .29. Die Kunst der Westgriechen Q9$).s Paus. 346. ui-Cnaiior." "Iphinoe. the antithesisof death must aid in establishingthe thesis of life.and one must passthrough death before reaching one's goal.5. however. dema4ding their rights for a certain time.the spirits or masks swarm up.rlpLa@v (Thracian tribe'Ayptd.. Only Pindar (Pae.5." Her the eldest daughter of Proitos. pl.5. lg+-gS: sentations of the purification of the Proitids through the sacrifice of a pig. t76o) and a cameo..: Paus.23-s.7rya. Boll.z Lp)... In the most common versions.'Aypt<itvw xoi Nuxritrta plut.1. sacrificed. uexiota napa'Apyeiots xai dyioves 6v @i1Ba'f-. on which cf. there must or also have been a Tirynthian conclusion. In any case. V z." "Honoring. 6.S FESTIVAL ACRIONIA Jt..23 The evidence is especiallyplentiful in Boeotia. The ecstaticdance of the led ephebes. z . 1o1-1o5. and their leader. zg9 I. BCH 59 eg5). Agriania/Agrionia is one of the most widespreadof all Greek festival names. j 172 773 brl.t l l. Frickenhaus..onn". Paus.The myth sacrifice. ausc 842b6. AK t3 Q97o).r6). Trendall (t96) 6oz #toz.there in was as little question of an actualhuman sacrifice the ritual as there infanticide. at Orchomenos see Plut. 21'Aypavn. a Nekysia.4. z. 6 a b o v e .by Melampus is obviously a ritualized hunt to help catch the wild animals. The women who have gotten out of hand are made to feel the men'ssuperior strength. Melampus. The fact that the raving daughter identihad been in the accomfies herself with a cow makes it probablethat a cow-sacrifice 'sApollod.. the_rescue and the cure. rTThe numerous votive statuettes of women with pigs that were found at Tiryns indicate a rite of purification (cf . 2. tz (CAF II 337). and an exceptionalperiod recurs annually "in her honor. of Proitos' daughters is the story of an initiation. 8.5 below) : see A. d'Arte 35 Q95o\. Nem. Hy. e symp. z617 Cisinger : Steph. For the Agrionia at Thebes see n."2lAt a festivalof the dead.L. Stiglitz. trerzog.e9.'oNaturally. Pind.how the myth here leaps from Tiryns to Sikyon. in many placeseven lending its name to a month. Dionysos i2:? !.gathering.10). n . Abh. 9." only to be overcome.rrTs xai dypuivtos plut. Q. more likely. Paus. parallel to the Anthesteria. Ltovuoos t)pqc.18. 3o. Bucriats te dnoppfirots xai xaSappoi. 97-to7. 2. nr. 24. 4. In overcoming perversion. 2. nn. in late autumn. It is the youths. nay. 2See IV. whom Melampus and his ephebeshad killed.70. Agrionios is the first month of the year.r. PR II z5z. Etri p.$tl I il t Sikyon. and cf. gravewas pointed out in the marketplaceat Sikyon. E. Anton. 5. 21 above. Die grossenGdt' tinnen Arkadiens (1967). On Cos.the daughtersof Proitosare purified at yet a third place. 67.Ind."iu see plut. Thus. the sanctuaryof Artemis Hemera in Arcadian Lusoi.'A(auia. could not have survived the annexationof Tiryns by Argos. Tiryns | (r9rz) ' t7 For a sanctuary of Artemis in the Argolis founded by Melampous see Soph. 2. Schol.z. Langkrtz and M.'6The myth seemsto combine various local traditions. Arcaeus tz9.Hesychiusnotes the 'Agriania: festival of the dead among the Argives. 8. ry-9g (in honor of Artjyuoos Kcl6petos). Steph."'s Strange. FGrHist rr5 F 269.

Zoilus apparently failed to recognize the theatrical. puriued the daughters 11 of Lttl Proitos. Athens de Belge 3442. a74 175 .an accompanying myth of Proitos' daughters.B. that of archegeteof the Dionysian cult-is played here by the real priest of Dionysus at Orchomenos. Lib. 5-72."s ?recisely the role that Melampus played in the myth_ namely. "The husbandsof the daughtersof Minyas. which."'?s epiphany of Dionysus brings about Dionysiac madness: "They threw lots into a pot. The unspeakablesacrifice(rl0. the 'rnurderesses. vying with each other in their work for Athena Ergane. 4. nE. when suddenly ivy and grape vines began to coil around the looms. repudiating the polluted ones. with xoptivr1. Leukippe. Ael. the one embraces In^ -Toepffer_(1889) :99e-f. The one would be unthinkable without the other..42.168).) or Alkithoe (Ael. Lib. Ov. Ael.And she and her sisterstore her son. Plutarch explicitly links the myth of Minyas' daughterswith a ritual that included pursuit._"1 is supportedby plutarch'setymllogy oioy <iAoris. r89-9o defendedthe text Ado.' rlotrdecs. H. however. the "black foot.of course. and Alkathoe. only of bats. There were storiesof a Dionysiacepiphany and frenzy.tgg-4r1'."the pure ones.the city of Minyas. "j. Orchomenos. he carriesa sword. wxrepis.s tun.. and the act of killing a woman of the oleiae correspondsto the death of Proitos' eldestdaughter. thal the puriuit culminated in an animal-sacrifice..thewhite mare. And when Leukippe'slot appearedshe spoke. as elsewhere.and those who are sooty and black ate actually pure inside-an inversion of interior and ext-erior qualittes-reflects the polar tensions that find expression here. each serving Dionysus.Ant. 3orz-r6. because they were polluted with murder... VH. Alkathoe(Plut. u skyphos.).animal-sacrifice guaranteesthat the ritual functions sensibly. plutarch subsequently describeshow this. But Dionysus was angered. there takes place a flight and pursuit of t'hem by the priest of Dionysus with sword in hand. playactingnature of the ritual and thus pursued it adabsurdurn.In Boeotia.we can gather from the myth that a mysterious_andunspeakablenoctural sacrificefor Dionysus-the eater of raw flesh and nocturnal god of the Agrionia-preceded the flight of the "murderesses. vowing to bring the god a sacrifice..is here in every way a Dionysian sparagmos.. indeed. Any one of them that h-e catcheshe may kill. y[afi{.Met.Plut.7Xa0(.Like the armed ephebei. Lib.R. pnfa (a kind of owl). Harrison Qgzz) 452. however.And they were busy at their looms. the In Dionysian realm. The-communityis divided into two groups at the Agrionia sacri...' And even today the people of Orchomenosgive this name to the women descendedfrom this family.. apart"26 nal maenads.) or Arsinoe (Plut. who had covered themselveswith white meal-a i. Gr. into Arsippe (Ant.zgge-f. is emphasizedby the men being called "sooty. tnR"pp. is yet another place with especially old traditions. "like a fawn. and the people of orchomenos.. PRI69o. Aeschylus' Xantriai dealt either with the myth of the Minyads or of the Proitids. and the three of them drew lots. Reuue Philologie (19jo). the Minyads themselves but were called Oleiae. .4. Philippafi. Arsippe.Lib. snakes were nestling in the baskets of wool.ra).death. our one securelyattejted instance of human sacrifice. this way.deprived his family of the priesthood. to reform of the custom. the Dionysiac horde splits in two. becausethey wore black clothing in grief and soriow were called 'looty. and in my time the priest Zoilus killed one of them. ThenamesofthethreeMinyadsare Q. and milk and wine The dripped from the ceiling. likewise. .cf.g . '?6lbid.whereas the leaderof the women is named Leukippe. indeed.cf.. The myth closeswith a metamorphosis in which the situationof flight and pursuit is forever fixed in an image of from nature: the creatures the night are alwayshated and pursued bv the birds of dav." 2' "and then dashed off to the origiHippasos.ecture'o)reiat. with the "original members. For Donysus tearing apart a deer see a stamnos BM +lg = 9 ARV'z298. Thereupon they turned into birds"'8-into owls and bats.&lL II 25 Ael. The fact that those with the light color are actually stained. .offered at the peak of madMaenadswith disness. Itce. ro. Ant. 27 Ael. endswith the transformation Ovid speaks vuxrepis.n"arri. Ov )and Leukippe(Leuconoe.The seriousnature of the ritual is here raised to the highest pitch of intensity. 3. VH 7. led to a crisis. The opposition of the sexes.of women and men.42.Ov.Harrison Q. 26Ant. Zoilus died a painful.\eiar againstButtmann. in keeping with the central role of the priest of Dionysus in the cult. animals of the night. . with the fanaticism of a zealot."The gruesome act causesa rift: in the face of this deed.3 following Korinna (665Page)and Nikander.Dionysus took on the most prominent role.. it is the daughters of Minyas who are driven to madness and infanticide before their frenzy is calmed in a "The only ones to abstain from the Dino less frenzied pursuit. and every other yea\ at the Agrionia." pointing Deyonclthe mourning custom to a ritual masquerade. Melampus. Here.s FESTIVAL AGRIONIA myth directly paralleled the ritual.DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR.gzz)45o. membered fawns were a frequent subject of vase-paintings.*mery of black soot versusone of white meal.. after internal disorder. At Orchomenos.2a onysiac dances were the daughters of Minyas. who chased them away.."and..

with strong shivers upon him at the man's threatening ihouts. and Di omedestells the tale in the lliad to warn of the dangerswhen men try to fight with gods. yet the triumphant daytime order still preservesthe memory of darkness. Rohde II 39-43 interpretsthe myths of the proitids and the Minyads in this way. Those. 7t7a. then they stop and say that he has fled to the Muses and is hidden with them. with Lykurgus representing winter (pR I 6g7-gs) or ihe heat ur summer (Rapp. BCH go (tg66).in turn. Thus. resolvedunexpectedlyinto a "meal.t4 [t9681.Apollod.r. He pursues them to the sea. performing the dreadful sacrificein his honor. thereafterthe Lykurgia fr.. Die griech. Ior a new mosaicfrom Trikka. fr. Nilsson I (rSSS)565. and they themselvesdirect the shift from wild behavior to that controlled by the Muses. Ant. In the logic of the story Lykurgus is Dionysus. for the tomb of Xopeia seePaus. see BCH (tg69).87 above. 52c-25 = fr. find that Lykurgus actually occupiesthe we position of the priest of Dionysus. We do not know in what way other societalgroups took part in this festival.r' and Theseus returned from Crete with a black sail.2).3'but the resistance when related. Plutarchspeaksbriefly of the Agrionia festival in Chaironeia.4'. Soph.3u at least at the or same festival.and cf.T Ant'h. Accordingto Schol. himself in a frenzy.A IL 6.the enemy of the new god.. 8zr.t:: Mythos ist. and.t DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR'S FESTIVAL AGRIONIA l. 955-65. while Dionysus in terror dove beneath the ocean waves. Kniserzeit der ('961). and all of them scatteredtheir sacrificialimplements on the ground.Literary Papyri(ry41. An armed man bursts into a Dionysiac sacrificeprepared by the women who protect and care for the frenzied god. hymn to Dionysusin Page.T II.Pentheus. Bacch.zobelow): . "In my own region at the Agrionia." sometimeseven speaking of the death of the god himself..the restlesssearching. the for the tempfe of DionysusKresioswith the tomb of Ariadne seePaus. The myth of Lykurgus has often been interpretedas testifying to met by the expandingcult of Dionysus. The detailsof what Deinarchos Delossaidare uncerof tain (FGrHrsl)ggF r). 732. selbsterleidet.kept in the kindly careof the Muses. * F. son of Dryas.symp. but 11U98) leave out Lykurgus (4o. but even Plutarch's brief sketchrevealsthe samefamiliar pattern of dissolution followed by the order of the Muses. is himself made to take on the appearance Dionysus.4r above).DerSinn des roo at l. to the Agrionia ritual at Orchomenosand the myth of_Melampus. Lykurgus too is torn to tll. Euphorion (fr.3'onlyto be torn to piecesby the of raving Bakchai.4-)j.Besidesthis. who chasedthe Minyads away were Dionysian maenads.n.Camhridge Philol. his home town. but the polar tension between divine madness and human order as acted out in a single ritual. and Thetis took him to her bosom. Vatin. EumelosEuropia ro Kinkel : Schol. the "sea-women.4. swinging the axe as one would to kill a cow-later versions depict him pursuing the frenzied god. they ask each other riddles and conundrums. Wildness and frenzy have disappeared.. Nonnus 47.zz. Fah.. also the victory of Melanthios over Xanthos (on which see P Vidal-Naquet. who had struggled against Dionysus.z.9. because the presence the logos. das er tut. RMt ll zzq) in opposition to the vegetationspirit.as after something lost. 56 Heitsch. 867-88. the women searchfor Dionysus as if he had run away. 69-roo Mette. frightened.z. !!.In one version of the myth.r1o-4o.for mosaicsseeP Bruneauand C. R. it was fashionableto interpret the ::-1. It is alwaysastoundinghow much light the report of a contemporary can shed on rituals still activein his time. Hyg. as it surely must be. The powerof ful Lykurgus.49-64) 3'Q. t4-1tg. Euripides Bacchae (r96oz)on g54-55. a76 177 . "the wild.n. Otto (1931) on the sacrifice Tenedos(III. everything happens between women.6rr-rz. lnurderous Lykurgus. becamehis priestesses.Soc.t. enemy. PRI 688." myth in terms of nature.4. The antagonistsare linked to one another by serving the same god. this means that. 6.. Yet this event was linked to the founding of Dionysus' temple and his cult." According to Plutarch. thus becoming king. after the meal has ended. 3f'. has ended. sWilamowitz (rgjz\ 65f. 242.. 18 Powell). iil li I the other. 39t-427.7-8.The Attic ephebes wore black robesat the Panathenaic festival. Those in white turn into flying creaturesof the night.It was disputed whether 9z Bour)\4{ . Harrison (r9zz) 369. Dodds. For vase-paintingsseeBrommer (196o)355." a sacrificial feastin which oppressiveanxiety givesway to cheerful sport. 3'Eur.n. it is not an historicaiconflict that is attestedhere. dassder Gott das Furchtbare. in this state. 33For tombs of the "AtrrarseePaus.Dichterfragtnente rdm.. by Aeschylus. stricken with an ox-goad by 3tSeeIILr.it is uncertainto what extent he is following... II. The Minyads. but the testimoniaspeakof the god'sdeath (cf.475-74rcombinedthe Perseus and Melampusversions.a'As early as the lliad we find a description of the flight and disappearance Dionysus. Perseus hurled Dionysusinto the lake at Lerna.21.rtt was an axe(Leonidas pai."" Here. frenzied behavof of ior is hidden away. E.35.35ri ora whip: seeSchol. referring to Lyseas(FGrHist3rz F $.Proc. In Argos there were tales of king Perseus'deadly pursuit of Dionysus and his femaleservants. a bit later.zo..cutting down his own childrenwith the axe:a victim for a victim. once "drove the nurses of raving Dionysus over the sacredplain of Nysa.5. the different stages of which could be named after antithetical gods.2.l fl j .Peoplewould point out the gravesof the fallen maenads.

r94. the nurse and child leap into the sea.rc. Ov. r78 179 ."provides the link to the daugh_ ters of Proitos.. 675e. Pind. Fasl. Schirmer Rlll II zorr-r7. Fab. Byz. 5ob 4. pl..$ And as late as the Roman Empire we still find a Dionysian mosaic with Lykurgus in the middle.ir i$r't' 'illi. Ino she killed Melikertesherselfin the boiling water of a tripod kettle and fled Athamas' rage with her dead child.Serv. 56r.oT was said to have been found and buried there.39) worshippedher.white plain" through which Athamas had pursued her.He mocks this paradoxicalcombination. *Od. even the namesAthamas and Ino establisha closelink with the werewolf motif from Lykaon to Phrixos. Od. projected into the cult of the "white goddess.)as sffange combination of sacrificeand mourning in the Elean cult of Leukothea. projectedinto the bird world. The pursuit across the "white plain.€ The transformationof the king's daughter into a goddessis alwayslinked to the birth of Dionysus in Thebes:Ino took careof the young Dionysus and brought him up.16of. and cf.. Lescultes d'Hauran I'epoque (1952). Megaralaid claim to Leukothea:Ino..3e this for act of violence is also a Dionysian sacrifice. e. Leukothea. Schol. sStrabo 70p. Naf. Schol. Met. the roles are variable. Nilsson does not discussLeukothea. zz9. lll p..z4r. A peculiar dedication is that of one Menneas rleg Aeuxorldg 2eyeipav with reference to his great-grandfather. r. sPaus.i '. although in its tension between killing and surviving it is the direct successor the hunter'scomedy of innoto cence." )titcca. are the motifs that determine the other Dionysus-myth known to the Homeric epic. of Leukothea. rltpapaus. n8z-8g with Schol.on Delos we find the sanctuaryof Leukotheacombined with Above all.srhe rocks from which she leapt were pointed out not far away.ll1. d romaine 8r-88. Hera struck Ino and her husband Athamas with madness.she savesOdysseuswith her veil.OGI 6t: the lebes.]. she finally in threw herself with her son down a steepcliff into the sea.2-g. Athamas slew his own son. Once again.44.48r. Eur. 192. Par. Nonnus rc. rg-64.Schol. III p.9 Dachmann. 6. Eitrem.7.28.28. RE XII (rgzl) zz93-4c6. Moreovet as before. through which the family of Athamas was annihilated.7.t1. I bits as a victim for Dionysus.Ov.Od.and cf.PRl6ot-6o5.76.The story normally goes on to tell of a double infanticide.probably : roi4s Dpdpoe piut. 'sSee IIL7.DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR.'From the standpoint of the story setting the pursuit within a fixed area is paradoxical. Et. sSeeII. The motif of the tripod.-98. signifies both death and deification. ttSee I. as it was with Lykurgus. for an altar of Au]xoi. 266. RE XII zz93-23o6.3.5.8. Med. even though ]_Se1 cunctaGraecia (Cic. Athamas wields the double axe in his pursuit. p.M.p7os from Cotiaeum (Phrygia)seeJournal Roman of Studies Qgz).54 above.:. Schol. and 4. To avenge herself for this. where the release of aggressi.539-42. ry sCuicul (Algeria). Learchos. Formerly the mortal daughter of Cadmus but "now" honored as a goddessin the sea. and the leap into the sea.Luk.4.Moreover. and that was wh-ere shefirst receivedher divine name."hunting him down like a stag.n.zz Drach' mann.n'z any case. rci dno$eutiutos iv rQ LdBryt. And as with him.some actually identified Lykurgus with Dionysus. z1 Q98o).* which was perhapstaken over from phocaea.scorpse phallagogy.rtoobf. is at work here.. 53J+. the myth of Ino-Leukothea. deor. Lyk.28. It is hard to say for which local cult the most common version of the myth was intended' (of the return of Melikertes-Palaimon the Isthmiin sancat Xenophanesmentions what seemed to him a ruary. striking his daughter with the axe. 3. 3. a. Leukothea was a goddessworshipped in many her cult was so widespiead. sAeurdu ze6loy Schol. stretchtemples.l rl'i r Sii.on kept is within set bounds. For dedications &eQ lrilxoitpyqt D. 6t' oi ai oprcti d"yavrar.31-43.6. there was a . n84-89.'Schol. a child is sacrificedin a moment of madness. more later.Evr. z.* but preciselybecause ng far beyond the Greek world. Melikertes-alternately. As Strabosays.Motroupis pind. cona. the stag comparison. Soursee 471. AK oApollod.5J33-j5.S FESTIVAL TEREUS AND THE NIGHTINGALE t. 3.r-4 above. Rhet. Dionysus' nurse being pursued with the axe. Aen. but it makes'sense we are dealing with a ritual analogousto the if Agrionia of Orchomenos. lepave.vase-paintings.42. In the ritual.Steph. 5. 1543. zz.Eust. There can be no doubt that there is cultic action underlying the Arabia:Nonnus zr.Apollod.38.to Leukippe-perhaps indeed to the Skira. Alkman Page. del. myth. {VS zr A rJ = Arist.Zenob.a3 "Wolf's madness. as with the Minyads. Tereus theNightingale The abominationof a mother killing her own child. iJthe subjectof the myth of the t1rem. Med. as a funerary urn. f''Os ildpou OqpeirrasApoltod.44.in Nilsson Qg5) tr4. ry4. its contours are indisfinct.with flight and pursuit coming after."n1 then fled with her secondson.Hyg...

(648). rilrl ' I DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR. He imprisoned her on an isolated farm. ).ed.5Hesiod and Sappho knew the swallow as the daughter of Pandion. When she was finished. among Dionysiac-orphic initiatbs it is forbidden to 8Fr. partially boiled.. 58r-95 Pearson. Philomela the swallow which. 45 top'Arcy Thompson.'There Philomela wove a peplos in which she depicted the story of her sufferings... 642. when springtime has just begun. Met. : Ael.8 Tereus. And in fact. however."' Pherekydes supplementsthe story. already appearsin the Homeric epic. When Tereus afterward discovered what had been done to him.. like those of Lykurgus and Leukothea. (1964\1114. quoted trom Boio. ct' Acc. as in the Agrionia ritual. Fab.. 59t. which influenced most of the later sources.mourning Itylos. ]]Ou. ibid.-W.pours out the melody. as Thucydides attests.L.29. The fateful tale begins with a maiden's ftagedy and a king's guilt. Tereus. which led to an uprising of all women and a reunion of the wife and the dishonored maiden. 16. e.zt-18. Hik. One night she took up a weapon to kill one of her nephews. a r8o r8r . and cf.it requiresonly a little objectivity to realizewhat a misunderstanding. Penelopeturns to the myth of the nightingale as In the Odyssey. which. 'i6punev xrit1t"71 puiaKiv TLvdn.indeed. Aesch.. R. Erga Sapphor35 LP _168. betweenthem. Sophocles probably did not introduce many innovations. 6o9Mette. Among the Romans(Philokles? Radke. Koenen. The Donysian elementis certainly there alreadyin Sophocles.t.n. he grabbed a double axe and pursued the dreadful sisters-at this moment.5r8-21. 1F sSchefold aFr.in Studien Textgeschichte Textkritik zur (iestschr. the son whom she killed with her own hands.Fragntnts. A. Her flight after the deed and her transformation into a bird was presupposed in her name. rRoscher. Aedon.. expanding it to include Zethos' brother Amphion of Thebesand his wife Niobe. the wife of Zethos.645-46 calls it a "sacrificeaccording to ancestralcustom.r." It is patent that flight and pursuit are being staged here. "nightingale. partially boiled.. The nightingale mourns incessantlyfor Itylos or ltys. This is just what the Titans did to the child Dionyius after thev had killed him.npresumably the Ornithomantia. who raped her and cut out her tongue so that his deed would remain secret.criloas Liiv ban.n [tgSgl. Lattimore. she varying the manifold strainsof her voice.7g)-g5. uOu.'Seething jealousyover Niobe's greaternumber of children drove Aedon. but from the human tradition of horror in a nocturnal ritual. turns into an "epops. the greenwoodnightingale. Cf. was the son-in-law of Pandion.'Eri r6v yupiav Apollod. but the son.no one has had any difficulty imagining that "the beautiful but sad song of the nightingale" "could stir one to thoughts of the bird's heavy guilt and deep sorrow"' Nonetheless.194. t. 45. Itylos. Ityshis usual name in this version-was torn to pieces. trag. Ao. Nightingale poems have appearedin an unbroken stream from Homer up until modern literature.her own belovedchild.'In his Tereus.And sincethey have in large part shapedour conceptions. partially roasted." The horrible meal corresponds to a Dionysian sacrifice in the detail that the meat is "partially roasted.. sings out her lovely song.fr. can only twitter. Sophocles. lachund G. ARVr 456. seeBrommer(t96o)j7z. S7). the story shifts to the bird realm: Procne becomes the sorrowing nightingale. Lib.ir iri I I nightingale.p.oand "many poets" called the nightingale Daulias..lllr rlir . king of Daulis and a Thracian by birth. the primordial image of mourning: 'As when Pandareos'daughter. \o.philomelaturns rnto see the nightingale.T. 3. Glossary Greek of Birds e936r).i 'l{.S FESTIVAL TEREUS AND THE NIGHTINGALE l I rfll . zOd. early as the seventhcentury 8. 3FGrHist n4. Their victim.perching in the deep of the forestfoliage. Procne's virgin sister. and set before his father for supper. Thus." The form of the myth that joins the swallow to the nightingale is and relationships.A peculiarversionof the Aedon myth is found in Ant. whom sheonce killed with the bronze when the madnesswas on her. This conceptionwas not drawn from the reality of nature. the peplos was brought to the queen.zq bove.2o. lll RML I85." the woodpecker-like bird that can split wood'o and which is usually somewhat incorrectly translated as the "hoopoe. because of its maimed tongue. esp. rr. 6. Procne comes to philomela as a maenad.6o-68.K.zo.95-1oo. cHes... 6. but in the dark she struck her own and only child. see II. 'Thuc. Philomela.587-&t5. to murder.Hofer.c.Y 17r-76.LIL 444-48. Pearson (r9t7\.52t. having rnarried his daughter Procne. king of Attica. Narr. the wielder of the axe. PRll II t54-62. came under the power of Tereus. though it had alreadybeen part of a work ascribedto As Hesiod.son of the lord Zethos. what a perverse supposition this is on the part of the human fantasy with respectto the song of the bird. accordingly conjectures Spuq i-y6uu' ix r6n 6p7iav Aristoph. however. translationby R. g. In this way Procne learned of the crime. 2.'. 6.C. Apollod. Met. II 569-71. was not the father. 18 (VIII Foerster).It becamethe canonicalveryet richer in characters sion at Athens.Hyg. for vase-paintings ro.RE XXIII z4g-5o). 1rz M. stabula Ov.r. the myth is rooted in the Dionysian realm: Ovid describes how the women's nocturnal rising occurs on the pretext of being a festival of Dionysus.. the metopesin the templeat ThermosdepictedAedon and Chelidon with the child. z.. VH rz. 8l-BZ\.

r95. 757. +t. by symbolically stoning Hermes.t 1l' i "roast that which has been boiled.'3and his assures where the gruesomemeal took place.Hesperia $946). us. Skabo g p.There was a memorial to Pandionat Megara.the queen. Hsch.overseer.r0For plutarch. ro. ry '5Phot. too. and probably rementionslo sanctuary a flectsa local Daulian claim. Ahsl. The sacrificer. which he incorrectly ascribesto Thucyiiies 12.n. Ap.n.and cf.Steph.the Pandia." The samemotif accompaniedthe of unspeakablesacrifices Lykaon.8z."is certainly the name of a bird. cf.4. Stevens.after cothurnoi were put on its feet. Hom. Aa0)rr.r.l. Procne. Does the name Philomela point to an intoPaus. N a f .a n . According to the myth. .of the killing of Argos as the first murder. and the end of their duties in the encounter with the snake of the Acropolis corresponds to Philomela'sfall. ( r g S S ) 1 5 6 . aHsch.54 carried an Attic king under her wings to Megara (Hsch. In Megara. On the 42. of Lykaon and Tantalos. Philomela'swork on the peplos belongs to the realm of Athena Ergane. and cf. Dionysus Omestesis identicatwith Dionysus Agrionios. At Tenedos.29. G.the man-destroyer. the . Tereusis linked to an unspeakablesacrificethat appearsin the myth as the primordial guilt that establishedkilling and the eating of meat among men. above. who in the shapeof a waterfowl 'Ev 6'Ai0ur. On Tnpeis-rnpeiv see Schol. 3.l'This could just be coincidence.z.. LS r8 A zo. flcivdto.then fled to the sea. When he adds that this meal "started the defilementof the table among men. E t z. P. a dissolution. 7 2 .a).4. I.III. He is the custodian of power who.exceptthat it followed closeon the heels of the Great Dionysia. Apollod. rcz. and Tereusin Daulis. Et. M. M. J 4 . In just this way. r8z 183 . Pandareosbelongs in Miletus. r. 2tPlut.lsAdmittedly.16 above. 'Ez<iar\ s' zeis.6 at the cliff of Athena Aithyia.cf. but it cannot be set apart from such similar forms as Epopetesand Epopeus.1rynerci see LS r8 f zo.4.lll l. Tereuswas a Thracian.Pandion in Athens. Callim.8. ll il l.sxai rqpqrds Et.and Harpagos." We are ignorant as to how. Zeis r. bAel. t':o. the gods extricated themselvesfrom any guilt for the killing of Argos.11 l DIssoLUTIoN AND NEw yEAR's FESTIvAL TEREUS AND THE NIGHTINGALE I ifiiui .j.a newborn calf was sacrificedto Dionysus Anthroporrhaistes. the obiect of a cult there. 2. like Argos. apparentlyin order to identify it as closelyas possiblewith the god of tragedy..f o 9 .g. this is a symbolic stoning ceremony. Furthet Pausanias of Athena at Daulis where the most ancient cultic image had been brought by Procnefrom Athens.5. Hsch. Hsch. Cf. .and cf .6.pd'Atqvaio's.y. pR I rr7.'ffit' .:_tz1. Anton. Pausanias referenceto the ornithological miracle that swallows do not nest at Daulis indicateslocal tradition. dtrotrro. other hand.s. i l s s o n ( r S 0 6 ) f o 8 . Zethos in Thebes. This thus competeswith the myth of the Attic Buphonia. and it was connectedwith an especiallyodd sacrificalcerernony: "every year they offer him a sacrificeusing pebblesinstead of barley-grains. rsPaus. Aa.z4. stesichorus z8o page. and on what sort of sac" rificial animal." and he was '3ro. M. zeis xai'AroitAorv and cf. 1. to the very first meal of meat. Thyestes." he raisesthe Daulian meal to the status of a primordial crime.tor sacrifice Aci 'Etrri'nerfs.thus appearsas a priestessof Athena at Daulis.ffill. just as queen Praxitheahad in Athens. Tereusthe Epopsbecomesthe exactequivalentof Argos Panoptes. thus purifying themselvesof guilt.Euelpis of Karystos spoke of human sacrificeat Tenedos:porph. Through his connection with the family of king Pandion.n.48. r.Strabo 9p. Rhod.44. Et.pursued by the participants. At Erchia.however. Apoll. Tereus is also linked to Athens. C o o k l ( r 9 r6 5 9 . Ac0)tr.The sacreddouble axe was used to slaughter it. 65.496.s'6opri iv 'Ayyet.especiallyas there is a sacrifice "Epops" attestedfor the fifth day of Boedromion. these pebbles were thrown. 24.45.55. Hy. The Arrhephoroi worked on a peplos as well. rTIn the sacrificialcalendar of Erchia.o.rl The circleof comparablerituals thus comesto a close.Even the name Tereu.Cf . jg. But the This was hadition clingsto this last placewith particular doggedness. Deubner (ry32) 176. z5o. 6cir)rovis explained as a "thicket" (Paus. Hy. to-tr. Preciselybecauseof the myth's wide circulation.s begins to sound so Greek that it could be taken for a translation or paraphraseof Epops. to in the fall.8-9. He is the "watcher. virtually nothing is known of the Attic festival. r. nsch." There is an even closerconnectionof the cult of Pandion provides us with a and Tereuswith Megara.Thus. The grave of Tereuswas likewise located there. showing that guilt was incurred and pardoned. to whom the Minyads had likewise been so exclusivelydedicated.But the namesbecome transparent from the perspectiveof Greek: Epops. . is nonethelessdestined to fall victim to an uprising.7.r. sacrifices were made to Zeus Epopetesin exactly the sameway that they were to the Epops.3. Byz.All thesenamesappear as epithets of Zeus" and indicate an "overseeing"universal god or sky god. itrorrqs. z. pipnpo indicates a sacrifice with mock rfis flpoitov rpds'Axpiotou p"ayr1s combat.it is difficult to localize the corresponding rituals. iao$. rsTherewas a statue of Procne with ltys by Alkamenes on the Acropolis: Paus.who hurled stones at him. r. 'Etto{ttos. but this much is clear: although rendered harmless."guarding Philomelaas Argos did with Io.423 knows of a MegarianTereus hadition. fromthe standpoint of the name. about which Pausanias few details.7).+. I l | 1 9 2 4 ) N 4) o-54-Ti. Aristoph.8 below.

atei5payrlu Ir9o61 1l:r{Aors I* i1)r*ov rois dv'p. H. . M.orrbles.The god here desiresthe rupturing of the establishment:it is his epiphany.shame_ Iessnudity. in the night of the Agrionia the mother kills her child to *o""a n". as in that of the nightingale. 'z{Thegloss tra). . of is not clearly distinguished from drunkenness.-i-. Lib."2....marriageis the principal order that is overturned. if this is so. at the Dionysia on Chios ended in a marriagewhich.. tend the house.." irdros.whereasa wife is modestlydressed. z.but this appearsas an initial step to ignite the frenzy which is then experiencedfor its own sake.r.{ and 5.4z..auu... Antiope Epopeus At Sikyon. Lib. t57s"r.c. . 5D. . the nightingare. The version in Ant. also brings out the distinction between possessionthat is perceived as an illness and "mystical" possessionthat is perceived as salvation.1etvrr3.. the frenzied outburst leads to a purification. Sabbatucci.'sefe. a preparation for marriage. ..foadness delivershim who was maddenedaright and p'ossess"a r. t.ioi.':_": "-.lrn*s: see "Ant. His Sravewas in the sacredprecinci of Athena.. was already connected with the Latin aitulus.It occurredin the sacrificial ritual.26 of Hera in boast_ ing that hermarriage was-happier than that of the quee. whereasa wife must love her husband and provide for her.rr. inasmuchas the mute nurse at the isolatedfarm recallsPhilomela. rather than the community as a whole.worshipped as a hero. DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR.Here we can probably grasp the growth of the cult of Dionysus starting in the seventh century s. the maenadsroam the wilderness... . this more anciently attestedforrx of the name. The battle be"tween ^". which followed in the footstepsof the old ritual. questionable. We now find the private group.If Hera and Dionysus becom6antagonists. during the transitional period when the normal order was inverted and there were wild outbursts.z).iyvvaixee rote iv Arowcloc trap.lll'' li. Dionysus provides the antithesisto the family: i.oiihe goas.qp. produced the most famous of ail bhianr.xad 'dyzes <ipqpa vup.. Glottaz7 jg18). urrJ -. And ltylos. bio. "bull.'?n We have seen how the rituals of the Agrionia correspondto the rhythms of the New Year's festival in the citiesof Athens and Argos. lIl 36r. Although the festivals of the polis seem older. however. cf."ffi Plut. What sets Dionysus apart. u-*il -. In the myth of Proitos' daughters. of course. the Dionysian element is presentonly in the later versions. Brendel. private groups could alsomore easilyafford a smaller victim. Testimonia linguaeEtruscae IryS+]. Egyptianized Hdt.Admittedly.ovil. accordinsto the legend... Kotn.1|.r. the mythicalking Epopeus.9o.il.."u. lascivious..l'l' I r'li il i. Leu' mann. which berongedto a "r .t3 Dind." the individual experience ecstasy-which.sIt is still linked with sacrifice. just as we saw the bull-calf replacethe bull.r.^fnu r"rtival room at the villa dei Misteri at pompei was adjacent to the matrimonial bedroom... the familial order. coming to the fore.d Zuv. This is repeatedly stressedin the myths...the Dionysiacmob ravesin wild. -n the Bacchic rites of the Vilra as an initiation into nutronastatus ^ seeo.. rr. anl .. In and precisery this way.. #839).Aristid.iita.whose name so clearlyre_ callsthat of Epopsu. instead of affectionut" .. especiallyat the loom. Edp"Ar.t. "calf..o^ rri..4pi6at(missing Nilsson in 3o6): . aPlat. we cannot clearup the question of which non-Greek language forms the background for the myth.'il 184 r85 . whenever the human order is consideredso stable. even in a predeterminedframework.." the word that gave Italy its name. the Minyads refused to follow the horde of mae'?rHarpokr.os. is the "frenzy.it will all the more certainly be broken by a higher power and changedinto ils opposite. f. The boy's name would then be an indication of the animal used in the unspeakable sacrifice.l.incurred the wrath nads. In the private sphere. whereasthere may be a Phrygian variant in the Bixxos story (Schol. itiBotou: Philochoros.i l just as a preliminary sheep-sacrifice troductory sheep-sacrifice.f. was linked to Pandrosus..*if: must work. which revealswhat the day-suppresses hides.FCrHist328F ro.the bull-calf. beside'*r" jral"rrt "rj.t" trru night.55-68.n".they are nonethe_ less mutually determinant. this does not excludethe possibility that cultic societies revived the clan traditions of the pre-polis era. r1 suggests Lycia.z9ra. 'Op.Saggio misticismo sul greco(196).ukos in Harpokr..i.S FESTIVAL ANTIOPE AND EPOPEUS '. Out of loyalty to their husbands. Pallottino. husband' Hate and murder.. whereasu.a". z44e ..h".PriestsofDionysusandHera-".y_ sus scareswomen and girls "away from the looms and the spindle. The maiden'stiagedy becomes an initiation. Aedon. oiirovtros was known to the Creeks at least since Hellanikos (FCrHist4 F rrr). phdr.rr. Timaiossaid that the word was Greek(FCrHist 566F 4z).others that it was Etruscan (M. the daughter of Cecrops?" There can be no peplos without wool."r./dI or (1966)' zo6-6o' esp' 258-6o' rn" crri*ir""'r"[" Medea.giovs xat vttp"gas ir61i14auro. The identification of Orphic with "mystic" (65) is.

Antiope. Schol' For RMLII'iI86. Epopeus falls.t'. Antiope'srelative-either the father Lykurgos. = p.n. in the catalogue women in-the OdysAntiope is the daughter of Asopos. a king's daughter from boeotian Hyrii.4. and cf.Dirke.9-zz. 1 $fll . 9. a slave. Hausmann. 3PRII rr4-r9. they would "box her earsand beather with rods.Berlin AM 71 Q958)' 5o-72' Hellenistic relief cups see U. flight: see Burkert (tg66\ cide. 3o above. crater. At this stage in the story her Iife is governedby a witchlike stepmother.tt. and it was perhaps invented by him in honor of the god of tragedy. At the start is the maiden'stragedy:Antiope loses is her virginity in Zeus' arms and then marries Epopeusof Sikyon. Fab S. the father Nykteus. iill lt^::Jd"t however.l The combinationof the goddess's The anreminiscentof the relationshlpof Attic Athena to Erechtheus. the Villa dei Misteri seeIII.a.f. supplementum H. contrast.who in the Dionysian interpretation is seen as an initiated maenad'owhose duty it is to lead the young. Epo" Zeus.n. ood.n.Nykteus in Euripides. or the uncle Lykos'-marches against Sikyon and conquers it.r. wife of Zeus and sein Nekyia. lILr. A slave would be led by women into the shrine of Mater Matuta. 5Prokl.4- ple's shepherd. The latter makesLykos the cruel king in the interregnum. Rom.o A dimother of Zethos and Amphion. '"Hyg.41-+4. regtfestivalof Hera Akraia. Zethos and Amphion' built the walls of Thebes. F Vian." Whereasin the Agrionia myths the maidensand women banded together to rise up against the men-Proitos' daughters with the women of Argos. Antiopewasthe"subjectofherownEhoie. Now Dirke in turn is chained to the bull and dragged to her death.2. v.rr.Chresl' ro3.ec'hthe"slshrgely identical 6f y^pi"" fire-sacrifice. Lesorigines Thibes rekydes.woman's r:l7-9. the queen. Apollod. Antiope's passionends with a dramatic inversion of roles:just as Dirke tries to kill her with a wild bull. 27vonArnim.267d. Similar things occurred in ritual. Bonn. 4'1o9o. r85.z6o_65'ThetwoversionsofthefoundingofThebes-ZethosandAmphionon ways: see Phe' the one hand. daughter of Asopos' bore sixth-century Zethos and Amphion. In the Dionysian version. Odelberg.t896)' H. alsodepicteda.' In th. P. rpaus. the 6ale partner who seizesthe maiden thereby sealshis own fate. Skalet.td.e *oma. Cadmus on the other-were reconciled in different (tg$)' 69-75' de FCrHist3 F 4r. 6 above_ trPlut. She secretlygives birth to twins and exposesthem. howevet Sikyon is linked to Boeotia through the marriage of Epopeus 1nd. fr.Thus.6. with Dirke as their leader. rgr-82.zzabove.tto. tft" E. Trendall\196') 2ol' was inspired by Euripides' F 3296. Arnim. In the Hesiodic Catalogues.7 baccha to fuerat.lil li.'The realisticepic has Epopeus.zoAllen. because tellshow "Epopeul lost his city in war gressionin the Cyprias seducedthe daughterof Lykos'" The fragment does not even te had by mention the daughter'sname. Euripideum . whosi ions.3.8:Dirke comesperbacchationemAntiope'srefuge (accordln8 to Euripides). in 'Antiope's father is called Lykurgos in the Cypria.direct their aggression toward a young girl.Paus. sacraCorinthiasicyoniaPhliasia(tJppsala.Hes. Fab.. the wild women.t71. Met.. uninitiated woman through a course of sufferings to a final goal. l'4o.4ro). 2See lII.. Ov. presumablydetermined Apollodorus' summary'u ^Sikyonian by the elements are linked. Rhod. Lykos then abdicates and. with the killing of a virgin. the familiar basic structure preservedintact. Cook I (r9r4) n4-J9.6. corn-on version. the twins take power and build the walls of Thebes.r. iil I r86 a87 . and abuse. as the seducer. Eur.. h.17.4.Whether seducer or savior. with the kingship now falling to them. In of Sikyon is not present. now grown into youths.r Kinkel : Paus' 2. and cf infanticide and finally ti.. Hi.Antiope. rationalized Kephalion.combined is thesestoiies and namesaccordingto their own fantasies impossible our oldest sources. 7Fr.'There Antiope.alongwiththeplay Here' by fuiipides. Zeus himself appearson Mount Kithairon in the shape of a satyr. 6.Cf.FGrHist qF 5. storm the farm. P.unattended by any divine double.S FESTIVAL ANTIOPE AND EPOPEUS 1 cult and the graveof the hero is tar. Olympian cestral king who was killed itands beside the victorious act of propitiating the dead is iuxtaposed to the eoddess. thus confirming the unity of the series:Epops' Epopsios' petes." Euripides is the first sourcein which the Dionysiac ntmosphereplays a part in the myth of Antiope. 3. Apoll. (TGF p. Zethos and Amphion. Schol.whether this indicatesan historical connectionbet*""n Hyria-Thebesand Sikyon or whether epic singers.AncientSikyon Q9z8)." " A beatingwith a rod is depictedin the Villa dei Misteri. and Antiope falls into the hands of the "wolvish" powers.which. On Q.. EPoPeus. in a purely Boeotiansetting. (r9t1).78. In spite of the story'scomplexlayers. lhr ll:jl DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR. All that is left for her is slavery dishonor. "pregantboth by Zeus and Epopeus' the peorevolt. Epopeuso{ Sikyon is virtually the double of I" it myth. Philomela with Procne-here. For two mosaics from the RomanEmpire seeCook lll (r94o) 467 Pl' 4@.6.thi connection between Boeotia and to say. i. as is assumed Bteotian and poei Asios. rrFor the closingsceneof the Euripideandrama see 1 PPetr. calyx' epoh nnoa' 4 rogo The Paestan eptlr. In this way a young woman would be introduced into the cirEEuripides according to Malalas p 49 ed.

LoL. accom_ the modating both stages. the alien Tithoreans and the native Thebans. Epogoddess.'n Epopeuscould be at once thf victim and the founder of the cult.an animal is torn to pieces and buried.4-7.Sikyonian story is somewhat more complex. ln the myth of Antiope. but in the time of the wolf. was allowed to enter the temple itself.nn. warlike riders taking power correspondsto the military organizationof the polis of Thebes.6. 2rSee II. Frazer. This nocturnal killing repeatsthe violent act by means of which "those of the white horses" seizedpower.apparently.ltl. "In front of them. "the nocturnal one" and "the wolf. The grave of Dirke is. fr.Dang-er and death were signalled beside victory and immortality. two grouPs were at oJds. Nothing elseis known of the rites of this period of transition. 1 1 . f'he cul't would have performedits.7. . OC ryfi-y).ro. Thus.Aeuxd zrci\o Eur.n. so. and close at hand the "gods who ward. This can hardly be unrelated to that other solitary nocturnal rite. Pausanias Thebes-a not particutions the graveof Amphion and Zethosbefore larly large burial mound surrounded by stonesthat have barely been worked. Antrttltt: Hsch. is the nephew of r88 r89 I I . 1 . Oedipus'tomb at Kolonos Hippios at Athens was known only to Theseus and his followeis (Soph. then he celebratedhis triumph and died of his wound thereafter." in is the bull.t'l rl]lll cle of matrons. "g. the end of the reign of women or witches.6." are in power.. too.pussld all other templesof the time in sizeand ornamentation. The cultic situation at sikyon is perhaps clearer. this abuse. "3::. at Lemnos digging up earth with curativepowers was part ef a festival of renewal. HF zg.Her end. and that of Sisyphusat the Isthmus was also below).. trne statueof the goddesswas made for it.functionof renewing life and viial energiesby stressing the sequencefrom the king's death and warding olr of evit to the triumphal sacrificefor Athena. in is of The Socr. and cf. are thought among the Greeksto ward off evji. 2.7t. method for coveringup the traces a sacrifice described HV' Merc. in ail [kelihood." A secret sacrificeat the secretgrave of Dirke is the act through which the old hipparch hands on his office to the new. xoi.6o6.the men of Tithoreawould try to stealearth from the mound.a.."l\euxot<iX|lD." None of theie associations. For the retiring hipparch takes his successor alone and shows him the graveat night. j J.n. The analogy with Athens. z.when the sun was in the constellationof Taurus. "unknown to any Theban who has not served as hipparch. During that time. b'the E p o P e u si9 a n o t h e r n genealogy (paus.an elq€rly woman. zz v.39 l(rgt$716' V 57. with the festivals involving Erechtheus and Atheni polias.Epopeus dedicatedthe temple of Athena.os PPetr.F o r a S i k y o n i a n c o i n o f A t h e n a s e e I m h o o f _ B l u m e r (rgg5) 3r. r. This recallsthe cult lfoj"" ot Zeus Sosipolis at Olympia. which "su. and Eric-hthonius. Nykteus and Lykos. and after performing certain sacrificesthere in which no fire is used.49 above. There was a statue of Antiope at Sikyon in the temple of Aphro_ temple so important thai in the Classical a .2' and perhaps the statue of Antiope r6Burkert Q97o) ro. bears up under analysis' whereas at.578b. secret(seeI11. the woman Dirke is likewise active and dangerous. The transition to the new stageis marked oncemore in the opposition of bull and horse. Arnim."'s gloomy sacrithat fices.P z.n. fouid"._ era $]:.5)."tzwith a victory sacrifice. zz4.Athens the myth split up a single figlre into Erechtheus. What had been covered up must be exposed. in the sign of the bull. DPaus.which can alsobe an initiation.z." the rleor drrorpopeus. r t r -a u s . occursat an exceptionaltime.lll.in the-life of Epopeus: first he was mortally wounded.nryr"tupt ur. exmencept perhaps for a remnant transformed into magic. he reports. t . III.'6At Athens.'5At the beginning of summer. at the grave of the mythical riders lrTdrAeuroz6)ro Eur.aGen. they perform the rites lfo. Sikyon is the son of Erechtheus in Hes.there must be bloodshed. the hipparch'sinauguration at the tomb of Dirke. The valiant gikyonianssaw a reflection of themselvesin the image of the armed But next to Athena's altar is the tomb or tni founder. zz below. G.r. who was killed by Amphion and ZethoJ.t1.44 above. Jf th" puthe nathenaia.DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR. Cook beforethe city. r4o. Ar.Pausanias(1898). almost certainly at night. the Thebansstood guard there in order to prevent this from happening.however. they cover up and obliterate 1o all trace of them and return their separateways in the dark. robbers and guards.S FESTIVAL ANTIOPE AND EPOPEUS It i!r. off. with a maiden annually and given the titre of Lutropioros. 2 . J.rr. the skirophoria seemsto have involved "carrying white earth. p.zr.por. were worshipped. as the agent of the last sacrifice the intermediateperiod.'ia. Phoen.can be conclusivelyproven. leads to the foundation of of the city and reestablishment the daytime ruler. A passingremark by the BoeotianPlutarchgivesus someinsight into just how closely the myth of the young.the dead king.r l7b r . for it was said that this earth would bring fertility to either Tithorea or Thebes. only one priesiess.expressingvexation and anxiety. The sons of Zeus Opposedto them are calied"those of the white horses.

cf. r58.:i drives away tl: -:r.r14. Hypsipylg. r'19 P l51 Mrller.gS_ll+. The ltalian excavationsbrought to light important new information: seethe preliminary report in ASAA rylfi Qgz/33).6z116a. G.. RE XII r9z8-3o. chorus of ChoEhoroi Aeschylus.. Arg. coffinlike. uy . with adultery. Euripides Hypsipyle eg6).ttr. the advent of an exceptionalperiod. This is nortie fL. s. :19-11. and continued even longer in the cult.. 6. rta.6o9(Apollonloshi-T n" IT.the womery who develop a sickering body ."p'r"ru. Iz qime desLanniennes (1924). AP 3'ro' For the Euneid.6rg. tlke up withihruc"an slave_gi. ley.4r8. r. Lloyd-Jonesin G. It starts in the typical way.S'. and Kleonof Kurion. Rhod.74_g7.s. howtOn the history of Lemnos seeC.t*". rtut' Is' 356c'osiris : Donysus in Hdt. pJ-?i" n"r"ot bandsbut fathersand sonsas wel. and cf.63r. at n.G. r.see n . :.the city of Hephaestus on and the Cabiri. t. In a single bloody nighi they murder the entire male population of the islind.r.oiaorl'Ls'vu' '[7&v dpcvev 6uoi yeuoc Aooll. e..s robes.tinked to Dionysus_indeed. Forthe myth as relatedto the festivalseeF.ll ll'lately. frdAq)' _roO. in the figure of Leukotheaand in the name Skira. or with the aid of those trying to discover'her secret-pushes into the sea. 2.t. Welcker. 6.rc5_trt cf fr. Apollod. the Greeksconsideredosiris and Dionysus identical' Things both sacredand evil disappearmysteriously in the vast reaches the sea.z4z-3o2. 64.z.. the one who acfually.5Itis impossibleto saly ho#*". Fredrich.. ^rIr' Ath.But the story of the man-killing in Lernnian women had long been known through the legend of the Argonauts.FCrHist SzBf roo/ror. r.. Even their defeatat the hands of Miltiades and the colonizationby Attic kleruchs was not sufficient to break all continuity.g-r3 oiu.". 2Cho. etc. in Hephaestia Lemnos. z-6. Lunously.17.The women then form u . i.'ny. 6uoa.y that erupts in a nocturnal uprising. por the)wpva{on -n. zur K. Dumdund zu zil. the death of the king: these were the conditions for the younger generation's accession to power.and then led to the sea.:1":::::. piiests or oi""yr".6ta). tire goddessof -urriue"_falls upon . is tord in preciserythe same"wav:seth lockshim up in a larnax and the N'e carrieshfu il. an intermJdiary period. Odyssee Argoruutika(r9zr).J. The Furniture of thc Greeks.4z and probablyalreadyin Hekataios.so from the seanew life returned 3Kaukalos? FGrHist J8. Only one man has a specialfate. Merpomenos. . 3-g5. irr'.r. RML V g06.z. a. y. Rhod. rw r91 . W.u valerius Flaccusfiits iln the detail that the king was first hidden in the temple of Dionysus.4z-48. zg9-y7 = Studien antikenLiteraturund Kunst(tg69).MM 69 (t9r4). of As the king disappearedat sea... Xenagoras FGrHist z4oF . W. Schol. the death of osiris evet the entire male population_isimplicated.On reconstructing the ancient Argonaut myth see P.rep. i. Philochoros. 24a-j5.rr" fiffh c-entury u'c.rr5. EAA lll z1o-y.":ilngihe or.rpi. but they were interrupted in 1939. sApoll." dear further with the widespreadmotif of the ark [Dunu". Bond. The island henceforth berongs to the women. presumably of the Anatolian type. fu-86. *rrict Hypsipyle-alone. TheLemnian Women Just as. They spoke and wrote an unknown language. F. L. 755-304. tl turn. Vul. iJ ti" gJt ro.C.r 'Of all legendaryevils. Fredrich.S FESTIVAL THE LEMNIAN WOMEN is an indication that there was a similar polarity at Sikyon between Antiope/Aphrodite and Epopeus/Athena. Dio.ai.117-4o. Tennes.Dre re*hylixhe Trilogie Prometheus dieKnbirenzoeihe bmnos (r1z4). III p.'th-"I.ls. U.. Flacc.On the Athenian conquestseeHdt. The wrath of Aphrodite-here taking the place of Hera. Auge. Sea.148-74.nui uldel Hypsipyle'sguidance.n the red figure Dowl Berlin 4n = ARV2 4a9. iu. Etruscans Romans and {ro66).S.$. The sacrificesof the men.fathers and husbands. that is. H.in ihe mask ofihe god.u.!st rraprlij.t u-iut. but as early u. beneath the god.AM 3t (lqn6). at Athens as de:27ft'! scendants of Jason and Hypsipyle seeToepffer .5o. ^r.Zenob. FriedLaender. z. .e.). Bond (1963)..Apoll.9r8lrg).r.DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR. ii. l\l 542-45. . nypsrpyleft. ftr. z.. The Greekscalled the inhabitants Tyrsenoi. for the most detalledaccount'see Stat. .and cf.Osiris. c. Hellenistische und Dichtungll(r9zg. so the most famous myth of a femaleuprising takesus back to a city in which the pre-Greekpopulation and culture remained independent until the sixth century n.7o7-422. v..Theb. reflectsthe more ancient local tradiiion.6zo-26:Theolytos. BSA z1 Q. PR II 8+g-Sg. Pind. who hides him in a wooden. r. 3r.cf. This time.. Wilamowitz-Moellendorff. un_ affectedby the goddess'sanger.n of tni. Schol. king Thoas.o an act more radicalthan procne. Rhod. the feminine realm against the masculine. Rt oa. that of Lemnos comesfirst": so sang the . Euriplau..obviously could not exist without the power of Aphrodite constantly creating new life. schoi. 35rMileu Errst.t.cf.. who govern it like Amazons' Yet. lmmisch. Meuli. this can onry be a transition.Ic XII 8 pp. r. the patriarchal society. The end of the vir_ gin's duties.-FG rHist 47gF3.r. Apollod.. Hypstpyle 64. He is saved by his au"ghi".c. establishing the order of the warlike goddess. the festivals and myths of dissolutionpointed beyond the bordersof Greece. Burkert (r97o). schol.. Ehrys.Aooft.

z3z Boissonade(Paris 1806)= p.t. so that one could eat at most only raw piecesof meat. Rhod. lrair. tts"u I.Cf.zy with schol. "SeelII. 5z.Philostratusof Lemnos provides us with an eyewitnessaccount-for at Hephaestia.n. and cf. In any case.p.468-69. t2II. a disorganizedmasscelebrationof the nuptials. but perhaps the phallagogy at the Delian Dionysid'presentsanother possibleway in which a disappearance could be ritually enactedat a Dionysiac sacrificialfestival.o"the work of Aphrodite. and thus. 3zg glossin Antig. Ni-k. rt-r4 (CAF I zzz). rather. 4r-461. 144-45(CAF II 7o).j. .For the priest 11".in which normal life almost comesto an of to end: there is no fire.and the family breaksapart. the ship of the Argonauts-the primordial ship-on which the most valiant men of Greecewere united. We can gather how that sickeningsmell cameabout by turning to the parallelof the Attic Skira:there. Antiphanes fr.gs fire from Delos.. lr I rl ri I to Lemnos. they keep the fire pure on the sea. In the myth this is raised to the level of a man-killing hatred. ll zo7: L. an. Mir. Anz..1u did they too disgusted the men and drove them away. sacrificewas clearlya part of the exceptionalperiod at Lemnos.7204' "simonides 547Page.'oAn agon in honor of the dead was held The to test the strength of the living successors. and cf. the mothers their sons. and if it arrivesbefore the funerary sacrifices are over.This is clearly a ritual that belongs to that exceptionalperiod. most impressivedescriptionsof a time dissolution and exception.61o5'r5. r0Fr. and no funeral pyre. rr8 = Myrsilos. powers that tak-e U. even before landing. Already in the lliad we hear of Euneos.44(CAF II 345).Alex. there is a certain day every year on which the women keep away from their husbandsand sons on accountof their sickening smell. Theb. when the women gatheredtogetherthey chewed on tarls lic "in order not to smell of salves. Nilsson j9o6) 47o-7r.." " 'Apoll.Iord of the "good ship. 477 ." son of fason and Hypsipyle and ruler of Lemnos. see ttFcrHist F r. FGrHist F tbmentions ri1^yavov. lSod or Hephaestus !ray9!rro. Wilhul. We do not know what actually happened at Lemnos-.Stat. Alexis fr.254.r. it is permitted to sail in. )56-75.Pind. appeired on the coastsof Lemnos.ts above.-4ro iiwas used in the mystenes. Lemnian women procloak.d' Ak' d' Wiss' see Burk-ert(t97o) 1: xatpdv xanl'6va toi irous (?).Diphilos fr' 14 (CAf II 558).But when the sacredship has sailedin and thev have of hirttibrt"d the fire for all other necessities life and especiallyfor that need fire.fr. they made the Argonauts. cf' xal' Eua xar'pov |19191. 7 above.Pyth. The myth gives the aition of the rite and reflectsthe detailsof this festival.ust as according Schol. tzo6. cf. 193 .'rThe attire is linked with marvided a prize foi the winner-a riage or.rHer.7.Turpilius 9o-99 Ribbeck. 2t.7. For at this time they call upon subterraneanandlecret gods.47..and what the myth of Thoasimplies is attestedin ritual at Athens-that is. r.DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR'S FESTIVAL THE LEMNIAN WOMEN i. FGrHist F g9:seelll."'aThe fantasticstench that broke up all the marriageson Lemnos returns regularly every year. Rhod.421-14..de Lannoy. Pyth. (: FGrHist6o9F zz). FGrHist F 6."rri.i.' a festival of purification and new fire. a4. rather. no sacrifices the gods. he himself or a close relative was "the priest of Hephaestus. burying the rest o1 throwing it into the sea. Herodoros.'Its arrival transformedthe would-be Amazons' hatred of men into its opposite. endthe period of hate between the sexesand the lack of in{ e contrario min.4t. Thenceltfiputar'as 3r 40 a title and theme in comedy:-Aristoph.Subterranean powers seemto rise up out of the sacrificialpits into which the blood flo*s. the most grotesquefeaturein the myth becomes reality.(xafl' Evarou irous.4zabove. 21. This links the Lemnian festivalto the Skira. no normal food.z.m*sinal dn herb_whose smell repels snakes(Arisi.. r.747. . cf.325 Kayser (Ziirich 1844: r853'z): ed reubn.5j uborr".. it rides on the open sea before the promontories. The Hellenistichistorian Myrsilus of Lesbosclaimed that Medea casta spell on the Lemnian women out of jealousy of Hypsipyle. Nikocharesft. . perhapsthis herb was used in the Lemnian rituar. transforming a day on which the sexesare separated into a transitionalperiod of matriarchy. it is only by a coincidenceof locality-and that in late antiquity-that we are informed about a ritual celebratedannually "because of the crime of the Lemnian women against the mer.A/ex. as I think. 4. the wives their husbands.6nazg) and causessexualabstirence-(schol. the departure of the king. after whom the city is named"-"Lemnos is purified at a certaintime in the year and the fire on the island is extinguishedfor nine days. Hist.n. "and to this very day.l' To be sure. calledPhilostratos IG Xll g. to Nik. till. 477 '5Philochoros.2)o. Apoll. A sacred ship bri. the road to Skiron is less dramatiCthan the coffinlikechest on Lemnos. n.r.ed' Teubn' (rgn) P' 67'7' On the corrupt passage Wien xai xcrB'Evarofrdrousagainst A." Whatever their Lemnian sisters to produce the same effect. accordingto sacred custom.4ro). ). Pind. the bakers and smithies lay down the tools of their trades.4. 192 This is one of the clearest.)0-32. it may not be brought to anchor on Lemnos. Mette." Once again. swearto help them . 2. one night. sacrificewithout tue. According to Aeschylus. 4. they say that from then on a new life begins the crafts for them.

38above.. III A.instead of Hephaestus. Thebes. 7z-74.. Les au d. u Hephaestus'victory in his own city tJthe \i"t:l of ritua-l laughter such us was required by medievarcustom at ".'In modern times this took place on the twenty-eighth of August. such are the intimate links between the detailsof the Argonaut sagaand Lemnos. So. Moreovet the festival occursin August. r:.). ASAA tlz 75-toJ.and the continuity of cult from the pre-Greek to the Greek era is astounding' A community of initiates DKoniglicheMuseen zu Berlin. According io pindar. the children or grandchildrenof HePhaestus. Pherekydes. the Cabiri fled from Lemnos in horir at the women.e. ::.3zc."' ro l"r. HNr der z6z-63. Argo. and cf' roz.1ri.and lasion. the Cabirion.was reputed to have medicinal properties useful for many different ailments.F. even to the point of identification.64r-5:. 4 19-23. Hephaestusreturned to his city.s deed. Oliill"tt (r95o)Passim. the primordial ship.Fredrich.. Hemberg Q95o)t6o-7o' Charisterion L94 Rhod. is offereda ram.the Cabiri.. Schol. Dioskouridesmentions at a goat-sacrifice this occasion. the transitionalperiod in which the subterranean Powers are conjured up.'o part of the city'smain festival' Erechtheus. Ai2. The leader of the Argonauts is Jason. KclFerpot.the Argo is the ship of the.0. Here.167.os).. 25r. alro the Cariancitv Iasos.'polyb ]fn(]tt Steph. and as Great Gods they have been compared to the Cabiri time and again." it may be assumed. Just as the herald who conductsthe negotiationsbetweenthe Argonauts and the Lemnian women is calledAithalides.:'.ua. the smithies. r.eturned the fire was brought back and the artisins courd when go tack to work.and Sikyon in the ::]::r_!. there is a charactlristic dif_ f:l"l:". Hemberg (tg5o) r6t.2' to observe the mining of Lemnian personally travelled to Lemnos earth. as Philostratusstresses.279-83. why Lemnos feil lut !r to the Greeks. who got a share of the new flame. report see FGrHistuF zo. brought new life back to the land of women' Above all. the so as the islandoJHephaestus.FGrHist F 48 For the excavation 3 :'5lt6 (r95zl5$. i. cf.2' The Argonauts' goal was to retrieve the fleeceof a ram mysteriously sacrificedin the land of the sun.:?)_":_o:.an artisan society.irutior. At Lemnos. 284on Samothrace' 20See IIl. thougt in Greek j"ir".perhaps tt i.The connection between the digging at Hephaestus'mountainand the festival of fire in Hephaestus'own city is indisputable. not or ty a miritary orgu. zXII 169-75 Kiihn. Cook III (rg4o) 43-14.idlng rnythm ot dissolution and starting anew.2'butby the time of Galen the Lemnians no longer had anything to do with such a practice. $vrs a r t o r i .r. ad loc.28 . Levt tn (r99l4o) 22)-24. where Hephaestusfell to earth. Orlandos (Athens. would gather there for secretcelebrations which wine played a main i p pers of t h e m y t h i caI sm i t h i es. (r94o) zz8-14..*o. has been excavatedon artisans. they must rrarre abominable . Pherekydes.then. were themthe Cabiri.Cabiribringing new fire and new rife.ttj.n. From the standpoint of the cult and the pre-Greekperspective.Mannhardt(r87)5oz_5og. Beschreibung antikenMiinzen(1888). Argos. 114Qg4tl4p. u j.the husband of Demeter. too. Their shrine.'?6 Hephaestus. Hasluck.Callim..2o selves Lemnos not far from Hephaestia." slabsof redt dish cliy stampedwith the picture of a goat. the new. fr. it the bakers and was the fire-using artisans.. r: SitteundBrauchlll(r9r4). played a specialrole in Lemnos.GBXrzr_rr 795 rh I .'u But if their cult survived. under the supervisionof the localpriest.ent Easter. tCf. zzo_3o..ra..ir.The fact that a priestess of Artemis participates. BSA16 (t9o9lto). t n *!. A pacing ram is often depicted on the coins of Hephaestia. t9f6). When the intermediary period ended." as performed by the The act of digging sacred priestessof Artemis at Mount Mosychlos. In spite of the similaritiesbetween the Lemnian festival and the festivatsat Athens. FGrHist3F rcg:Schol.. Chapoutier. According to myth.. The Dioskouroi were among the Argonauts.D.is calledAithale.Cf. "Lemnian earth.tur..o-32. AM Cook Ill 1r (rg6). tne biostouroi-and odysseus-wear the circurar peaked cap (zrir. J77-4o. Lemnos. that sacrificeof a ram formed a too..It ll 11t I f DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR-S FESTIVAL THE LEMNIAN WOMEN I fli r. the brotheiof Dardanos on samothrace. the masculi"ne order was not reestablishedby shield-carriers white riders-i. Even the name Skiradenotesa sPecial white earth that is carried. pure fire: thus. *u. ti" .r.::::f f babry "y " which modeled itself on a smithy guild.i '$rl I .indicatesthe absence of the god.. the men crowded at the shore to keep watch for the ship bringing back new life. at virtually the same time as the Attic Skira. 2nAkusilaos.unediesse (ry35).Byz.and continued Galen to be so viewed in the Near East until the twentieth century. 2rC.whose name can hirdly be distinguished from Iasion. li over the island. W.K.sootyorre. Dioscoures seraice F. according 6 Mannerbund to the myth.Yet there were powers at work in the lower crasses-as seen from the perspectiveof thu Greek aristocracy-that found a certain resonance even among the Greeksand playei a part in the social cribPhot. n.o-pu"r. "Lemnian earth. ut whom the others had laughed. 66g. the Lemnianagon was won by the white_haired Erginor.

' This connectionis quite natural for those who live by the sea:so many things disappearinto its vastness never to return again. z5. Sisyphus. Philostratos (II 162.bringing unforeseenbenefits.r.tzg-4$ on "Dio. the herald's staff of Hermes Aithalides. B I-XII.. Between the two.loss and the unspeakrecovery.itarting when the aristocratic way to lyran.ry.r92-g4 Drachmann. The fear of death and happy deliverance.Hephaestus'return in the Dionysiac processionwas one of the most popular themes in vasegovernmentat Corinth gave painting.e. fgr uSee n. the there must be consequences: sea is just. the tholos and the temple.67. Hesperia (t9y). TheReturn theDolphin Again and again the path from destruction to a new beginning leads through the sea.mentioned alreadyby Welcker.677b.6.4. ed. supersededby O. 3. For coins on which a bull movestoward the palaimonion seeImhoof-Blumer(1885) B. is shown by the drinking cups from the Cabiribn at Thebes. Neuedeutsche hei Hemberg(r95o)r84-zo5. Robert. the tholos in the Palaimonionwhich Pausanias saw.DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR S FESTIVAL THE RETURN OF THE DOLPHIN ll|frir ilt sis and reform of the polis. 16(ll 362. there are two cult centersthat give the sanctuaryat the Isthmus its shape: that of Palaimon and that of Poseidon. sometimesas a merry rider. 33F. For a black bull was slaughteredat night for Palaimon.s status. e84. 47-48.Pind.-1. the coins of Hephaestia dilplay the felt caps of the Cabiri. 56. the Isthmian games at Poseidon'ssanctuary near Corinth achieved pan-Hellenic Trilogie' " Seen. the stadium for the foot-racebegan and ended.r5.Apollod.Eur. y zz (196z).6 Perhapsat first a simple sacrificialpit was enough for the nocturnal sacrificialritual. it is not known what the original precinct of Palaimonlooked like.T. Alcaeus of Lesbosintroduced the theme into literaGreek fashion a theme from the turl. III pp.. Schol. AA (t967\. 7Thes. and grapesand vines as well. philostratosII pl. "Paus. indeed. 156-59. 3 above.Schol.err1) than an athletic and folk festival. Imhoof-Blumer(1885) B XI-XIil.29.r.. 6.r mentionsa herd of cattle oelongingto Poseidon.24 Teubn. z8 (rg5q. Aristid.Alcaeus149 L.fig. Nen. L96 r97 . a characteristically non-Greekisland of Hephaestus. r-37.2 leap into the sea:here.Prokles(a studentof Xenokrates) Plut. Thus.z.1z-35Keil. 363. Although they were only fourth in importance. DasKabirenheiligtum Theben (rg4o). Seeberg. Barigazzi.Arist. For coins seeImhoof-Blumer(t885) ro-rz.oWas it possible that a hero worshipped in his own shrine. and it is likely that it appearedas early as the ancient epic of Eumelos. ad Jacoby FGrHist45r F 4. who was henceforth known as the Isthmian gamesin his honor.r. Or. the hero and the god. 'P-aus.4o.o3. z7 9958\. of 7. the Palaimonion. Schneider. cona.FGrHist455.r.. Roux (r95g) 9j.and which was depictedon the coins of the Roman Empire. lC IV zo3. leap into the seaand Lykurgus' pursuit of Dibut also in Leukothea's onysus. 637." Or.j. Q.cf.r'and also by the Lemnian myth which so closely connectsThoas with Dionysus-osiris. z+ (ISSS). chthonic versus Olympian ritual. O. Philostr. the nimblest. that it overlaps with it smoothly. and he appeared on Corinthian coins as the emblem of the Isthmian games-sometimes as a limp corpse. t8z-95.-P tSeeIII. fr. T.363. the shrewd founder of Corinth-and coincidentallythe "inventor" of the burial ritual-buried the dead boy.Wheneverthe seareceives And yet able sacrifice. z. Besidesthe ram mentioned above. Isthmiall (r97). z7 Thymdli Qy9. at the Isthmus of Corinth. A.Aeschylische Aus' r2P. 29814i.and established on the dolphin was a frequent subjectin sculpture. And to Plutarchthis seemedmore a mystery initiation (re}. the body of young Melikertes had been brought ashore by a dolphin.Wolters and G. fr.n.r.Musin aios. The Attic etiologicalwriters even thought that the Skira reflected Theseus'departure for Crete. the most nearly human of all the inhabitantsof the sea-the dolphin.raipov pl\avaphilostr. Broneer'sexcavationof the sanctuary.Roux (1958) aoo-ao2. its cult legend was linked to Leukothea.3The boy Palaimon.In.45above.. could really have died? As often. XI. 17.tt-t4. Brommet Jdl 5z (rg). '!K.27)has Poseidonhimself dig up the subterranean aOrr7or/ Palaimon. Im. r9 above." That the Cabiric element is closely related to the Dionysian.di Filol.IHS 85 Q96). 14. For the most part. r98-z:^z.r-25. it receivesand it gives' The return from the sea was almost stereotypicallyaccompaniedby the image of the most beautiful. But we can tracethe cult of Palaimonat least as far back as the etiologicallegend in Pindar. other things wash ashore. 94Q966). Or.are closelyrelated.?Philostratus mentions an ecstaticdirge like REIX zz48-55.perhapsmost clearly on the island of Lemnos. b. echoing i. pworilpnliban. Bruns. Med. zz8-71' grabtrngen Q95$. A. 3. t"?tf'.tatpogovtlt tpt"erqpiil Pind. r87r). 3Pind. ro2-1og.sand in the processa new stadium was constructedover the old. To be sure. rr. XI[.Rio. was first built in Roman times. probablyalreadyin Eumelos. cf. tto-47. G Bruns. Hesperta eg58).purity and innocenceseemto be reestablished. Broneer.8. .r7.

++z-49.The myth. Schol.r. by .Indeed. Diss. an "oath. the story of Leukothea.'a o+l"ruLi. Bowra.43.Eur. plat.the cheerful and liberatReleased 1. Keil. . "Dithyrambos und Vasenmilereiin Athen.. 454. ad Lyk." (Poets and interpreters..7. roo.Webster in pickardlltj. For the picture of Dionysuson the amphoriskoswith the return of dePhaestus. Deonna d killed this way: Plut. Hellanikos. Breit_ :Y donsche Farceirn griech. 4... of the thiasoi of padded dancerson corinthian pottery starting preciselyat the time of periander. roa-8r. poetae MeliciGraecig39l. Cnomon 1915). 6o5.Athens N. a spruce would be pointed out which was linked to the pityokamptes." Siniskilled his This story of Sinis. preferred to substitute another story at the start. PTne. .:J +. ug-24: F.:::^"t ratyros POxy 2465 fr.'sLater. "G. we should postulate an unsacrificeat the Isthmus itself on the shore. This went on until one day Theseusdid the same to Sinis. 3 col. . RE III A 48-44. ryr-7). 677: p1or1.88. Arion plu{"g..(r87r): p. prior to that.t _a. Apoll. FGrHist F 86.2.Rhod. see G. Thes. AM t9 jg9$. 17. A/er.:::r. 35 Lgg 198 1 . In full singer'sgarb. Bacchyl.at leastaccordingto a tradition with Attic bias. z5.5e. lTi"):^: Schol. For paddeddancers Athens seeA."-?1. Ztirich (1844: r85l'). Bacrh der had Bessos to64 ff . r95.the sprucewreath.. r2Paus.) The victor's prize at the Isthmian gameswas a spruce wreath.7.'3 victim torn apart and hung on a tree that bearsno fruit is a A terrifyingly clear image of an unspeakablesacrifice..o1f. M.age. from Palaimon's the altar of Poseidon..this story was told by both Corinthians and Lesbians. from death to the order of life. howevet in Corinth.3-4. H. J-u?burg. 4 Dikaiarchosfr. 977-78.Pild- isthnt. the path leads from grief to visacrificialpit to tality. Thevenot.ru.3.lzoa3r. Greifenhagen. "l* 3g4c.corinthian sailorshad wanted to rob him of gold and his life while he was travelling with them from Tarentum to Corinth.There-surely in the famous sanctuaryof poseidon-Herodotus saw the statue of a dolphin-rider.6o5.. makesthe Isthmian gamesonly the last step in a tragedy whose gruesomecentralact it locateselsewhere.'o oath that the contestants to take before the gamesmost probably occurredright there-an encounter with Palaimon at night in the underground vault preceded the days of competition. and "becauseof" this bloody victory. 3u5ed.Schmidt. Hipp." It has long been recognizedthat this pretty tale has a most spe_ _ cific meaning.t::" ^onrgsberg.. The dolphin and the dead youth came from the sea. 75 W." nPausanias the had monion as the site of sacredoaths...in the house of Athamas and at the Molurian cliff near Megara. Teubn. zo_zz. II. of the cult of the god fr. this killing of Sinis.'. his las-tsong on the cithara and sprang into the sea.#'. lll 191. The itory actuallv ends.3 Drachmann.where a dolphin suddenly appearedand carried hi* to Tainaron. Websterin Pickaid-Cambridge of 1i962.yof po_ seidon.2. the "spruce-bender.DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR'S FESTIVAL THE RETURN OF THE DOLPHIN I )1. Alex.. was restored. Arist. 2 rrSeeIII. In that case.Nik. then. too. Lloyd-Jones.tl-t.r9.r5 . of course. MH zo (1961).In this version.r8 in_ This troduction of Dionysiac choral songs cannot be separatedfrom the :mergenceof Dionysiac motifs. payne#rc71.:'lt'rloge." As Herodotus attestsin this contextand as even pindar alreadyknew. 'Or. 13. cf. the fir tree of Pentheus. l.rr. Loeschcke.(r962) at schwarzfig_urige Vasengaitung und die Darstellung des Komosim 6.33. The god of the seapresidedover the placewhere searoutes and land routes cross. of who claimed that they were the direct descendants Dionysus. taComment..On the pictorialtraditionseeWcirner. where Arion goesto the palaceof the tyiant perianderand provides testimony to convict the iriminals. z."9""9.nn.kMLIY gzr-34. the Dionysiac poej.1. J. remporarily reptaced 3. Mutterland(Goteborg.. fr. 6ea. . (ry57). ti. rnon from this gloomy background.ror. Brommer(196o) r89-9o.r0. seifert.Eur. even usingalmostthe samelocation." As in the caseof Antiope and Epopeus.'and Aelius Aristides speaksof "initiations" refersto the Palaiand orgiesand.1' 2. 'Arion and the Dolphin. O.Hommages W. ry6o). Arion is the "inventorof the dithyramb. H.Tzetz. The dirge for palaialwaysremainedpart of the Isthmianfesiival. Iip. Pind. t27_)4: On Creek Margins (rg7o).rz4o. Diod. such a sacrificialritual using two recoilingtreesis actuallyattestedin Gaul. '3 Marm.4o-42.59.rldl . FGrHist239A zo.Arion. t97o.2."'..r8-19 with Schol...M.f3ttin o{ t3. Necrocorinthia (t93t).pind.Lffesf .4o \o . Satyroi (t97).'gll il those in the mysteries. Cf.445.L. .. cf.re After the fall of the aristocraticr-egime ine Bakchiadai. According to Herodotus.to which the respeakable turn of the dolphin-boy would then correspond. AlexanLucafl." victims by tying them to a spruce on either side and then sacrificial letting the treessnap back up. "ojT:!. And in fact.Plut. Resp.E. !{. the sprucewreath was replacedby a celerywreath from Classicaluntil Hellenistictimes.'List Monuments #38. Schol.":. 5ro. 46..2. above. Theseus founded the Isthmian games. Joh. thus tearing the victim apart or smashing him. Following the example of Ne8HerIIzo7.:'il..of the sixth century further developed the image of the i"q dolphin-rider under the colorsof the renewedcult of Dionvsus. for imagesof Dionysusmade from this fir tree seePaus. Schol.rg3. . is rj":d PI a dolphin and comesashoreat the sanct. ro9z.. the wreath from t'mystery-like" 1[e sacrificialtree. p.h: "$s' ry29. Par.Schol. Jh. on the beachbelow the sanctuary next to the altar of Melikertes. the wandering bards presumably combined various local traditions. the allegedsong of thanksgivingby Arion. Nent. Here. Brommer. Schol.zt ed.

pl.g.ip i. fr.Bonn I1877]. having cast off. black figure bowl. Geldgesch.lgrl.where the samestatuesque. fi. the processionwith the *ugo. Timothei Usener (Progr. n.2 Z .IrgSSlSZz. etc.r. Hall.zr. 617b.686.esp.42-5r.Nilsson lt9o6l 4r6.264. and E. Louvre CA ry24.197. Bernhatt. r H.677. I ba .2) rz-r5. pickard-Cambridge 84. Kerameikos.e. To be sure. Acr. 2. 1o1-J4. Singer. zSee a black figure skyphos. Karaytit:|lrr of Dionysus are attested at Miletus' ed. z4 above). fig. but they tiremselveswere destroyed together with their ships by the returning Smyraeans:for Or' above.g. is called Dionysia and the Dionysia at Priene (SIGJroo3.at Priene: S/G'roo] = LSAM 37. and from three Attic vases. A bit later. the wagon-ship see. M. . (rg+g).On one of these vases. carried or driven on wheels. red figure psycter. the god makes him "entirely happy" by putting him in the god's own service. Websterin Pickard-Cambridge(1962)t7z.A. 253#r5. r . n. E. e.c. In the latter.outsizedDionysusis depictedtravellingin the ship. LSAM 48.z. lkyphos. Foi the god s arrivalon the ship seealso ANEP676.2'Indeed. ( r 8 7 r ) .DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR. 7t pl. Burkert 6{e71 295. For the arrival of the dol' phin-rider and the founding of the city in the Tarentine tradition of Phalantos-Taras' For especiallyon Tarentine coini. Met.r-ri. Lorimer..n. ibid. Holm_ J. 36-37. at leaston occasion. Haspels.cf. at Ephesus:Acta 5. AA tg4z.Georg. on the primitive "cross!yn2 oar-wheel"seeH.r8. Herter Archaiognosia (r98o). Cyclops Aglaosthenes. id 4 2 . 2 a P h i l o s t r. Dionysia at Tarentum seePlat' to us already from the sixth century B. z 5 . Utit nguie Bolognar3o.rr. alsothe black figure amphoiu r3. Nilss-on Qgo6) 268. 2 4 . z-rz. Ultimately. pickard-Cambridge . Is it wine that they are pouring into the water?2' of In any case. see RE IV A zzfJ6-87. even though the festival at ::2-1o3. (1962) List ry24.. The Greater Dionysia were foundedat Athens in the courseof the Dionysiacreforms around 56o. P.nu Dionysia see Deubner (ry32) (1968) 57_7or.the dancersare busy with a dolphin. l l V.26 flre sacrificial bull that is led along in the procession suggests a dithyramb at the festival of Dionysus. L. zr'4 the Donysia as the retakingof the city seeIII. a trireme is raised up and carried to the marketplace.zs with men dressedin strangely EgyptianJike aprons carrying the ship. . CirildeinC.' q 6 Keil = I 373 Dindorf (with a characteristicaition: the hostile Chians intended to conquer the city while the people of Smyrna were celebratingon the ntountain. Excursus Keil : I 44o Dindorf. Aen. On Dionysus z6 as the .TheHistoryof the Greek and RomanTheatreQ96r). 8 e d . ldl z7 . lb l' t Numismatiku.Eur.G. Gnomon (1954). S o p h .zrr.inchen 2c.Grabplastik 096a\.c. a n d cIfI. and A.. which was even introduced into the Panathenaic procession." 20 image of the ship of Dionysus.5 4 . t . then Pind.indeed.216. Pickard-Cambridge(1968)fig. esp. pl.But the chainsfall off. {.rauy assignedto the Anthesteria (Nilsson beubner [r93zJ {ryo6) 269.76-77: Tarquinia 678. of "Mi. rou^)." ldl z7 Qgrz). in M. the HomericHymn makes the hero the god Dionysus himself. Pickard-Cambridge (1968) Deubner(r 932)pl. T e u b n . Panofsky. Payne#98g. with all its high spirits and voluptuousness. E. He is seizedby Tyrrhenian pirateswho want to enchain him while at sea. rn Lorneto. 8. C. is known 2rParis..S FESTIVAL THE RETURN OF THE DOLPHIN . Because of the parallel from Smyrna (n. Burkert eg6) 295-96.53above. and to begin the festival his image would be carried in once again from the direction of Eleutherai. Atiic Black-Figurea Lckyttroi(ty6).n kg.5g3. dolphin-riders and dolphin-masks became popular at Athens as well.n.9o above. Louvre F r38 = ABV $5.Nilsson \r$06) z7s." Whereasthe Lesbiansand the Corinthians told of the adventure of Dionysus' poet. BSee III. Steph. hesitantly.Simon j969) zSafig.lil r lri had to develop new and more democraticforms. the god of the Dionysiais Dionys. four men are de' picted carrying the bow of a ship with the child DionysuJ (?): M. For men carryinga boat in Egyptianart see.J7. seated.t '1i11 tl ilii"l' ln+it'r 'i . from a Clazomenianvase found inEgypl.E. A r i s tO r. Boardman.. Yl rasos see Pickard-Cambridge (196. in the early forms of Dionysiac comedy. For satyrsand dolphins see. It is quite conceivable that a Lesbian poet and musician establishedthe musical forq for these crude folk-dances. Boston zo.276.zo-24)do not take :Ty. vines start to sprout and wind around the mast and sail. Norbert black figure lekythos. Bethe. But the advent of new life. 3. 2ariptov. VI-he susPects the inscription EIII AEAOINO! is the beginningof a choral song. Byz.7. rz8ra.r. and were subsequently expanded. for ". New York.zr. ar}ue in favor of the Greater Donysia.Bor.god who c-omes from qrar"see Otto (1933) 75_gr..l" in Pface the month Anthesterion. ci. AOn 494.g. 415. image an most beautifully depicted on the eye-cupby Exekias.the association Dionysiacdancesand dolphins is thus attested to virtually within Arion's lifetime.On coins from Magnesia. the ship has a very ancientkind of wheel. H. and the mast is coveredwith ivy.38. for he alone had spoken against the pirates... 13. Verg. bBlack figure skyphos.prob. aOxford J.r4. the Lysikrates . Apollod.463. monumentat Athens: F 3. A Historyof fecttnotog1 (tSS+).Zr-69. Louvre MNC 674.o 48-42.rsof Eleutherai in Kithairon.8. List oI Monuments #43.2r4. zz.14. the dithyramb acquired its classicalform near the end of the sixth century through of Lasos Hermione. 1. The sailors leap into the seain terror and are transformedinto dolphins.g (CAF I 243). Sifakis. cf. Dion.Ov . JHS4egq). rz5a. that Schimmel Collection:G.. BM B 79. et-)tez6'1. the black figure rylix.On pegasos EleutheraiseeI. Only the pilot is spared by the god. BICS 14 i96). Friikenhaus. black figure skyptros. rz. dated to between 5oo and 48oB.7.for Tarentum: SatyrionseeDiod. Deubner e9\z) T. Lesky.g. AOB ry9.is so graphicallyembodiedin the image of the ship that.5with ritual combat).IHS78 (rg5}). R. 3.53-54. z6 above. FGrHist 499 rr. Pickard-Cambridge(196S)fig. yard.the image of the god surrounded by dolphins on his ship of vines is the epiphanyof the "god who comesfrom afar" par excellence.. BHy.The priest of Dionysus The steersit like a pilot as it comes from the sea.r. = Hermippos fr. of Monuments#82.44 ABV t46.4gZ. 582-69t. Bieber.Pickard-Cambridge [1968] rz-4).the centralplace in the processionwas held by the wagon-ship." Our earliestsourcefor the accompanyingritual datesto the Roman Empire: in Smyrna "in the month of Anthesterion.

which had been torn off in ary of Bakchos.after Orpheus the Thracianmaenads.r9. however. In conA. 203 r . sap. raisedto the core of new life. On the motif of the prophesyingheadseeW. perd l\icrBtovtir6du: Arist.tz ed. Oa). the locale in the Certamenis the land of the Opuntian L o k r i a n s a c r o s sf r o m E u b o e a . West.2JWtl. plut.6ze-f. and pricisely this prompted Callimachusto use the legend. Arist.5o3.446)and Eraiosthenes (fr.7. the festival of Ariadne suggests at Dionysus:the legends of Palaimon and Arion were likewise shaped by the polarity fr.2. 52. numismat. llL. sThuc. eCertamen Homeri et Hesiodi 14. 536. 42.Exc. = t 234 Allen..3.jr.47 OF F o s .only to catchit a secondtime. ro. It starts with a of maiden'stragedy. V. it was given a cult and sacrificial at by Pausanias Delphi. rgg-zoj. they "set it up" in a temple in the city. the two are nonetheless = rLuk. (r?us. 4-2o. ARV2rr74. . and .247-5j Allen.'3"Carten.There. Ziegler.fi1. just as the Locrians were going toward the sea at Rhion to celebrate the festival of Ariadne. Kroll. followtng Alkidamas (M.96. There.tr424Lobeck [1829]ro87). 4.or are attested in Schol. as the vase-paintings show the Lesbian tale of Orpheus was known at Athens starting at leastas early as the fifth century n. RE XIX t7z7-28. Rundschau (1944. where phallus = head xap1uov. fr. On Poseidon-Dionysus see also Taras (son of poseidon.C e r t a m e n .55 : OFT. 3?See red figurevases.77.r7).rr .Cf. g. For an image onysopolis(Pontos)seeSkymnos 753-54. a n d c f . Vogt. t8. oPlut.rl iit Arion camefrom Lesbos.3'And. fr. Plutarch.6.4 .z5r-68.36 Transferredto the sacralsphere. r7z.234 lines zz4-53 Allen..Procl. W i l a m o w i t z . a festival for poseidon Iil.d comm. Harm.r (CookIII [r94o]pl. displaved at Orchomenos: see Arist. sept. 5 .a red figure hydria in Basel. Deonna. REG38 (tgz)' 44-69. f8+d. ind.Nilsson (19o6\ z8z-83. R.). Cahn.pl.M o e l l e n d o r f f .6. The act of "carrying around" seerrs to provide an especiallyclose link with the Phallen of Methymna.a legend at Ainos of speaks an image of Hermes driven acrossthe seafrom the Troad to Thrace. Antipater Ir. a schoolof dolphins brought the corpse ashore. G. above all the Diegesis.Praep Ea. The fesiival of Ariadne is mentioned in the Certamen. WhereasPausanias speaksof a festival of Poseidon Rhion.. : 1. P h i l o s t r .there was a celebration which the dead man'slyre who brought Aeolic muwould sound anew. E. On the fate of the murderers see Plut.t4.According to the story.aMtru\quaiav xaiKupairirv see Strabo 7 p. On coins from Ainos see H.331 fr. "there where now there is a sanctu(Jpon burying the head.rrg. fishermen netted a strangestatueof the god made of olive wood-a phallus and a head at once. and Pausanias.38 murderersfled but The did not escape punishment... 5. Schweiz.. 16)and ARV2r4or'r lCook two III Ir94o] ror). J. 4z Wilamowitz: p."lt is found by fishermenwho tossit backinto the sea. Merkelba ch. r Diehl/Powell : Stob.U.v . 4 o 6 . 3tPhot. With an oracle's festivalsas Dionysus Phalapproval.The poet was accused having disgraceda virgin.r-3: Parkeand Wormell US55)5gJ.545.cf Nilsson Oinomaosof Gadarain Euseb.\)oydv rtlt'irrvt fi37: of Dionysus coming frorn the sea at Disee Herter. the personalityor fructifying force of the dead man. is cruder and lesssublimated most than the Antissan tradition of orpheus. r49. CQ ry 1ry671. 17. roz (1959\. Nilsson (1955) 8r-82..42.his head and his lyre floated acrossthe seato Lesbos. r97.8-nJan= Resp. H e r . Phanoklesfr. Or' 24. fr.Boll. after a bloody catastrophe.H i s t 4 T T F 2 . Beccatti. Ach. had been torn apart by the sea.67iy). 33Paus.yet there are other divine irnagesthat come from the sea: see Nilsson i9o6) zz6 1Cf.On the third d. The cult's lower-classmilieu extends to Ainos as well. tog: OF T. fishermenfished it out of the water and depositedit in an underground caveat Antissa."'o in Dionysiac frenzy.and a myth locatedin Lesbosdescribes life new and consecrated arosefrorn how.Nlk. her brothers slew him in the temple of Zeus and hurled him into the sea. Cook III [r94o] 7o7-7o2. . L. ry). 10. Historicorum Romanorum Reliquiae). for Ainos as xritrp. a bronze copy of the log was seen is mentioned in a Methymnian rying the god'simage at the Dionysia" insciiption. ry-zt powell). Imhoof-Blumer. Plut.Ap.Zeitschr. $Callim.AK t5 QgTz). X 414' f intimately related on a structural level. century was linked to Ansic to the Greek mainland in the seventh tissa.forthedistrictofAntissaseeMyrsil Keil : I 84r Dindorf. .tavuooto (1958) Qc.DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR'S FESTIVAL THE RETURN OF THE DOLPHIN 1.tpp z66. j5 Peter. De soll.pl.on coins from Methymna and Antissa see HNt zo s6o-6r.'Did they fish it out of the seaevery year?Although the idea of a head or phallus. S l l Gr T.IG XII 2. however.9).On fantasies L. Ada. uona. "Das Gottesbildaus dem Wasset y-6o' F. an.was already known to the Athenians at the time of the War.ayfollowing.r1.rz8'17 Cf. Teubn. .7 (11t8l.11 p 3f2e. Inversely. The story of Terpander. ro. Arcviota of the Nauzrclxr. ffM rrast to Thucydides. 31 59-63.5r9-zr. not far from Oineon and Naupaktos. Nilsson (19o6) :fl. Festschr. Aristid. They thereupon sacrificethe first fruits of their catchto the image while passingit around from man to man. uonderLeyenQg66).lrT4Kroll Hyg. Finally. Poll. (1897). rbzd. p 42. 5 6 5 . 59o. A. Miscellanea Rostagni (1963).rr8. Astr.6.c.186). r6ze speaks of i1 ritv'Piau fvoia. His death in a sanctuaryof Zeus Nemeios. D i e t l i a su n d H o m e r e 9 $ ) .32 A parallel legend reflecting a neighboring ritual leads us to Lesbian Methymna. A tomb of Hesiod was. ' The story of the death of Hesiod leads us back to the realm of to high poetry and to a gloominesscomparable the myth of Palaimon. RE XVIII 7242. Numism.Satura.3 (Adwoov Kega\fiva Mss. 4o6-4o8. Brommer(196o) 358. cf.r. p. Paus.285. Oi1. Seegenerally PR II see Globus in a secretcult in New Zealand-(r864) 7 '12. Aristoph.the story of his Peloponnesian deathbecomespart of the pattern of sacrificialritual.37 Hesiod'sbody was then depositedin the sanctuaryof Zeus Nemeios-though the location of his gravewas known only to initiates.80.

semiramis."'|ust as Athamas had 3ePaus. {Philochoros. his fall assuredhim of a successor.ian Population Groups Lyciaand Cilicia of and P Noyen.3. rather.Gatisthe q.o The Syrian fish-tabu was-noted by the Greeks time and again. however. Stebbins.3 Ktesiasfurther neile"izei the myth and rendered it harmleJs:Derketowas not eatenby the fish.2. "-Every day the priests" of Atargatis ". as Mnas"* .t . the temple'" Thus. by not just a-simple prohibition but. Perdrizet. R.3'Thus.. wachter (ryro) 97-98.24.lil jry ure. but was instead savedby them when she hurled herself inio the waters in shameand despair after the birth of her illegitimuie J"ugt t".n" decreed "that no one might eat fish. the dolphin of Poseidonis a symbolicemblem:it is the sea-god's attribute. 8. too.rr. .4. an expression playful.ln Ath. nicely cooried. fio notrertof the 3g lake at Bambyke.T::. Rabinovitch. ir". and eaten up by the fish. lchthys..r4 above. 'Luk.3-4 without details concerningrites).". Syr.cf."all fish aie sacred to her: the syrians may not eat them. Baltimore. prized for eating. :. the typical ambiguity of sacredritual. F.a fishermanfished the bones of the dead man out of the seaso that they could be buried. there was a pond with saired fish..since she was carried ashoreby a fish.. and the Elakate_ fish.u fish it contains is sacredto the goddess. nsn. t4. they are holy because theyire eatenin a sacredsacrificial com. too. FGrHist 45rF 4 on the tombs of Sisyphusand Neleus." Ditt' (t947).bringto tfie goaaess real fish and set it before her on a table. J. -u. 2j8-n. In thii context. receiving and bringing to birth.l1tll". F Catast. The dead man's return from the seaas a sign of Dionysus' favor appearsalsoin the legendof Alexanderof Pherai..II(rgzz).Semelewas washedashorethere in a larnaxand was given a solemn burial.5.'Their astonishingtamenesswith 3Dod.pany_ Atar-Gatis.t7. 'Ktesias. j46e. Moxos.the mother of of T:.tr. Nai.n.s They weri presumablykept in the l-. for the product of that deadly union was/ according to the story.Indeed. u.rruiir. The Greeksalso calledher Derketo. B. rather. rather. ry29.the myth of Atargatisand Ichthys.the GreatGoddess. 346d-e. z.4. In the temple of the Syrian Goddessat Bambyke_Hierapolis.o.the death of the poet who with his Theogony Greekstheir gods was subsumedinto the structureof the sacredand In of sacrificewith its ambivalence.At a deeper level it perhaps symbolizesthe mother's womb. since xen.who was killed in 358: seeTheopompos. 6gg sEver 7g5. following the god's instructions.o sacrifice to the sound of the J il 204 zo5 .885-9t. Paus.8.44-5o.s The. according themselves.4.".r. p. Strabo16 p. Eisler.seeHippias. but. fits with the Hittite MuksusiMuksas. speaksof the lake at Askalon. washedashoreat Pheneos. Anab."me becamethe Great Goddessof Askalon. FGrHist F r : Diod.i. see for Knopos at Erythrae.. Donysus.detailedreport g-rven Mnaseasof pataraproves . l.Thereare fish that .tirq" sacredlake.for the cult of Myrtilos.ir|_ar. herself Mnaseaseven .the tombs of Dirke and Oedipus.. halfhuman. orpheusthe rtsher(r9:r)passim. Already in the fifth century Xanthus the Lydian told of how the evil queen Atargatis "was captured by Moxos the Lydian and becauseof her haughtinesswas drowned together with her son. At the Isthmus. elegantbeauty and of friendly companionship..FGrHisttr5F 352-Alexander especially honoredDionysusPelagios of Pagasai.2. or. so here the king had both mother and son thrown into the sea."The Dolphin in the Literatureand Art of Greeceu.Atara goddess becauseof her sufferings:she g"rir ::qr. it is not that one may not eat fish becarise they are holy. and then the priests of the goddessconsume the fish 6For." to Antipater o"fTu.9. in the lake of Askalon.cf . tE.z: Eumelos.. FGrHist9o F t6. rord. Syr. Nrur. FGrHist 328F zr3.r. Der Delphinin Sage und Mythosder Griechen 'zFGrHist 765F t7: Ath. P Lambrechts 6 (rgS4.. On Atargatissee TheLua.pliny NH 3z. .een of the syrians was such a gourmet that she issueda proclamation forbidding anyone to eat fish without Catis'.was brought up by Ino in a cave(Paus.Ktesiasattests_ asLukian did later-that the goddesswas portrayedas half-fish. 2. driven Leukothea and Melikertes into the sea. t. CIto P..must brint itloi". Houwink Ten Kate' Aspera1lg6t). FishAdaent In Greek myth..botfi boited and roasted.Diod.4 Stesichorus. the next great molder of myth.q..l The fish has a far more concretesignificanceas fish in the Anatolian-Phoenician counterpart to the myth of Leukothea.d "uu. The form of the name. .1. -ln Ath. 346c_d.Her sanctuaryis rocatedby the lake of Askalon. relerrngto o8-g r).And like Leukothea. cf III. Dolgea titilrysllrgroi." lchthys.z. goes on to say that her son'sdescendantswere the fish Galene. going back to Xanthos' ct.d Ro-".Eratosth.D. as-r8: Ael.175_4476ln Ath. rt. the end he found pardon and permanencein the sanctuary.LSS_54. Accordingto a cult legendfrom Brastat (Lakonia).7 p"ii.3. M.D. t\tesias(FGrHiri T:r1. FCrHist4zr F r.MilangesCumont$y6\. . Myiraina.4. there were secret gave the graves.DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR'S FESTIVAL FISH ADVENT of Dionysus and Poseidon. H..Luk.

an.. Preparatorymaiden-sacrifices documented in fishing are ?rrt*.4u8-zo. since otherwise they would die. . r45 Breysig.." Paus. profane garnish for Demeter'sbounty.Ae|. hunting customs turned into fishinj. Top"ni\ot'.And just as every dinner of meat is precededby the bloody businessof killing.rt. an evil king tried to prevent them.) ffotn". palaeitthic. but the sacred.ri Zeitschr.tn_ is tie rnother of the fish. to the god. to the peculiar structureof the "exceptionar"period.r.f11_tt1rf"1ir.this npp"urs to.J.4.3o.s and the terrifying act of symboric parricide or infanticide is found r.ru whe"therqueen Ku-Ba'u.Dorger pt. z4 above.D.urr. 8r. too.zz.5."b)pneus Fisher qreteeding the (t9zr).tary seeH.65 Vahlen. Inside the egg was Aphrodite. sending forth the bl"ssi.579-82.. fishing is far more recent"than hunting uig . ". has something to do with the goddessKubaba." u.4.ii.r . and thus the meal itself is a strictly regulated. IIr .Manrl. 47.Kybebe_ ''Mtiller-Karpe (t966) fiz '"See I. It was said that an egg fell from heaveninto the Euphrates and that it was carried ashoreby fishermen and hatched by doves.e fishermen-of Esagia. (tg3d. 9r). Rather. The . ""r.here performed at make out the pattern of the unspeakable the lake of the sacredfish. Giterbock. Aphakaby the Libanon.o--".o. Sacrifices Hera led the way. The myth of Uranos reflects the castration of a sacrificial animal whose genitals one would throw over one's shoulder into the water flute at the sanctuaryof Apollo at Sura near Myra in Lycia: see PolycharmosFGrHist Pliny NH 32. .Fora pond with sacred fish at Smyrna see SIG3 997.5.prerequisitefor acquiring food is the guilt-ridden act of kilring."wers the born togetherwith Aphrodite from the blood of Uranos": ''? epiphany of the goddessthus coincideswith the arrival of the sacredfish.. in tne t isio. Leskv Thatatta trrOrl.festivarchaiacterof the action . the withorrtsacrificiaranimals were led to the lake.Uppe. Dorger.throwing themselves to the fish.y or mankind. 5ol/.. of somethingdevelopedin another sphere:*r! u"urote" tiua"ition or hunting and sacrificingritual in whiih the."p... and son *r" catastrophe. Assyriol.rz. 5l and therefore Marduk made Ku-Ba'u queen.Hyg. As a rule. For the Syrians. 207 zo6 . and it was told that famous.r..tror.8). Nonetheless.Ov.8. n. but tn" ""itilr.f by o7 1i1als ment.-r. There is almost no need to call attention to the structuralidentity between the Syrian fish tabu and the normal bloody sacrificialmeal: is that which is consecrated used for food.for Atargatis "o."'. The well-known fable of the piper and the fish comes from a relateddistrict: see Hdt.".Plut..7. ror . elaborating on Hesiod. (r9zz).on the festival day fire falls from the mountain into the 2. turning around to rook. 5.rlto-r..n.. above all in the plunge into the watery depths.DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR S FESTIVAL FISH ADVENT 11 meal?-was the priests-did they pressup willingly for the sacrificial were brought down to the lake.." There was also a story. great importanceby the Neorithic.\tz.an. The mention of the mountain insteadof the sky reveals true character (see Mannhardt | 118751 the rite: a fire-wheel would be rolled down the mountain 5o7-5oB). to which she herself gives birt-h.r"gave the fishermenbread..'a coastar peoples the inhabitants the Mediterraneansacrarized meal of fish around the itserf. sacredact.pl. that dolphins and escortingfish. ar"rr"a r..in this fishing we see*. ^ott".."r. Pind Others told of how Aphrodite leapt into the Euphrates fr. toLuk..t97 while fleeingTyphon (cf. those offeringswhich are pleasingto the goddesssink.?.. F 45T zz = Ath.". oI the in the air). who originally lived far from the sea. +z of l-!-5s Forpictures the sacrifice thesacred on cylinder of fish sears F.r. In the myths of Askalbn. T n above. "Lydia" see Varro R. pr.'only a meal of meat *a.Fish was the iveryday. or he11e]fresponds.3. the fishermen'sfriend. Fast. however. roo Swoboda: Schol.Forp.". but U.g76c. off"rir.r.. gave them water.. The Greeksequated the Syrian Goddess with Aphrodite. Asv' 2.i"rt.. 333d-f. lt ry. pp. zo. rtrr . consideredsacralby the Greeks. u girl would be thrown into the seaat the start of the seasJn.be de_ rived from this function.Weid_ ner Chronical" relates how "tf. 1'NigidiusFigulusfr. O_* u.frightening yet necessary the domain of the divine wife.there At z. At Bambyke. "this is Aphrodite Urania" (Sozomen. sacredfish were brought u.ntnvs t8. ooig".p1. Met. Fab.is no analogy. (There. FGrHist s6 . . but arsoto various customs amons the fishermen of Greece. Nat. a preparatoryevent. holding back Zeus so that he wouldn't seethe fish. FCrHistrzo F z = Hyg.cr. offeringswere sublake in which sacrificial was a sanctuaryof Aphrodite with a sacred merged (Zosimosr.33r.be supPosed..g. Ennius Saf.". z8z.In the Babyronian-iu.As fishing supplantedthe hunt.ill5_3r. and changedinto a fish: seeDiognetosof Erythrai. tui ieeding "otning the fish. Syr."_ When rationalized.21. just as each act of killing is a sacrifice.lnJor "rr"r. every meal of fish becomes a sacrificialmeal. pi pf. though it is already y_r:. And in fact. for the king of the gods this sacrificeis hidden. set forth to catchfish "for the tabreof Bel". so the ostensiblybloodlessact of catching fish PresuPposes violence and death. G.ir" or Marduk. r6.Zosimosspeaksof a fire-ball river Adonis. p.rn1"" iig".we can still clearly sacrifice.58. Eiri". see I (r9ro).'oThus. it is a sacrificeof aversion. laA.t7.. as rn "lnot water.3. t:Epimenides.ttsrer of thefishseeibid.Germ.igrun. what we have encounteredat Bambykeand Askaron readsus to the high civilizationsof the ancie"t N.r.459. r. f.e-f On the birth of Aphrodite seel.5.Tll""lin the. For 77oF rlz: Ath.r4r. whire this reflectsthe tradiiion li'i-. submerJ.r7.

phys. Athirat is called"mistressof the sea. $3a-d. the peopleof Apollonia sacrifice their ph:bgfio. providentiary calredEnaros. Antigonos of Karystosin Ath.. sept.aiawPlut. A youth. the middle of the lake for the householdof his lord. of the priest as fishermanin the context of guilt incurred and expiation.Jr"g to Aerian.sarrival into." He then did battle with the South Wind and broke his wings.Thetunafish hunt A by about Apolronia.net_man. (196).eaten by the priest and distinguished citizensin the sanctuary.a Dionysian milieu: wine-growers and coal burners surby satyrs draw the net out oJ th" water.The arrival of the lo".az. cf. becomesthe ark that savesthem.2l '7Cf. In mourning robes he did penance.correspondingcustomsare to be found not and socialfringes of the in the great templesbut in the geographical Greek world. the . rrae.. dX. In Ugaritic. exhibits a stiange correlation of funerary sacrificeand fishing. Naf.'Mother and child had been hurled into ihe sia.ior" i." 68t-96 Philologus (1889).. G r .T l.In the months of Anthesterion and Elaspring. 8 ancienne t8ANET1o1-1oJ(thequotes: Ag. pR 45.iu. is discussed. A p o s t .. FGrHist r4o F a.rr :lrl. Then. the word dr6truptsfor Iish-sacrifice appearsin the coan tnscription SIC. zo6. ro4-ro5.b:ut 'Atrreris. G5 . as it stiil does today in sardinia: Aer.Brommer (1960) 2os_206 8Fr.. to dead. though abstractspeculationis combined with poetry to produce a complex and ambiguousepic/ it seemsthat the theme of the fisherman as priest.n t : r d u n i i n g t u n a : s e e D i o g ..tt moilre. ll zzg_33. he became the priest of Ea at Eridu. H.o. Tilmpel. The lake was named ifter Bolbe. Gusmani. orynthos' tomb is on the otyr.ry6 in . cf.sap.... t l ?. This place may have been Halai Aixonides in Attica'o where.. Byz' and cf.8F 'Atrar. 'Hegesandros in Ath. r ro6 :'Li ry7.ei.. and later. when he went to the shore." jumped down with her into the sea.rne triaent Iz r5 (p I l i " . Astour. Rollig in Wdrterbuch Mythologie. is a matter for debate. uo. inctudtngrherrHero.. For a vase-picture a tuna-sacrifice Detienne urrd 3o-above] of see v".on the peninsuraof 19Ro1t Hegesandros chalcidike by Lake Bolbe.R.FGrHist 68o F r." In any case. Kadmos (1969). kind of fishlthe r6rrg ivaxios. W Haussig. newly attired and anointed.rru. 464-74 Mette.rl r197il t7g with fig. they say. E. the possibility of identifying Adapa with the fish-man Oannes in Berossos."and her servant Qds-w-Amrr is a fisherman. which arso lPPearedin the Lemnian myth.. r 4 . zz9-3t.l. z97e. B 5o)= 491 14J-46. the fishermanon the island of seriphos who one diy netted a chestin which Danaeand the young perseuswere hidden.K.at Babyloncatchingand offering fish in the temple was a centralact of piety without which no governmentcould endure." Aeschyrus translatesDanae. a. a Amphitrite.). t5. and all the inhabitants from the surrounding a1el cal put up as much preservedfish as they The need.z8. 16. s.d_ 459. oz. |acoby ad loc. (9z1lz9). createdby Ea as "guardian of the rites.and if it beginswith a prayer. A bit later in the "Chronical. the first tuna would be sacrificed Poseidon. A similar system is presupposedin the myth of Adapa for the temple of Ea at Eridu.4. Pope and W. nirr"a which flows into Lake Bolbe.the "net-drawers. FGrHist 16zF z.in.'8 Adapa. points back to the sacrificial rites of the temple and to the theme of sacrificeas a whole. RML | 946-49.3-5. Among the Greeks. The peopleof Lesbos.u.an. dr Llr DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR-S FESTIVAL FISH ADVENT lil{lr '' . r9t: Schol. at his tomb by the river. F Albright.TT I'l' . Here. sacrificed maiden to poseidon. jacobsen. 5 . fust as the fishermen of Methymna or Ainos pulled their Dionysus-or Hermes-logout of the sea..lll ry86-zo6o.lq"d bride and the divine child in the ark has been taken too-s simply as a story motif.1-6."another fisherman who catchesa "fish as a gift" for the "great lord Marduk" becomesking himself. .9t4d. " Alovvcos 48 2lKrates. Orientforsch. M. 8 . in Eldments (ry6o). but the myth of perseus had a more concretesignificance for the fishermen of seriphos. the "fisherman of mistressAthirat of the sea. nb doubt. Myrsilos. Hellenosemitiu zoOracle Philochoros FGrHist andPlut. they made it a point never to catchu rp""ifi. "m11 of the-sea. Arch. and the Nereids. (atrtever. zo8 2o9 I . .. FGrHist 477 F a4. C. Anticiides.l! l Kybele. he survived.just rike Atargatisand Ichthys-except ihut h"r" the coffin-chest. H.n Ou*" seeHes. But even the title of links the goddessboth to the sanctuaries the Syrian Goddessand to the temple systemsof Mesopotamia. \ . Laroche.The groornyrituar J^ .tt."22 goddessof the rake wiir send the peopruu-piu?ood if they honor her dead son with sacrifice.1. a huge wave brought forth a crowd uis octopuseswho willingry followed him to the"sanctuary 9{ of Poseidon23-f6 sslys for a meal. just rike Ino and Merikertes.6r. 'Plut' Cozu.6.v 'A)trcisat Argos should also be considered. i z ( p a r o e m ." "went fishing for Eridu as prescribed" "he caught fish in .I Qg65)' der ed. cf. seeSteph. when tuna-fishing beto gan."" Nothing is known of the appertainingritual. reM. for which he had to defend himself before the court of Anu. In Classical Greek literaturewe encounterDictys.II. until finally.":. . Jacobyad loc.TheSumer5 f orientaut dansla religiongrecque ian King-List (t939).Bolbe 'broiler' to olynthos and at this time countlessfish go sends a up from the lake into the Olynthiac River . ANETAddenda6Tt-72' cf.in legend. W. 9 6 a r o e m .orv Wilamowitz and Maass' Schol.nIn lrc Diktyoulkoi. Aet. fr. 246-49. or " olynthos by Herakles.that is to say.r 58.t5. answeredby the advent of the fish. 32.there was another place where Dionysus was annually immersed in the sea. Th..

'. 5ra. 4c.t'. . hunts for a sea mammal with .26. G. .D. people competitionin the cult of .5r. 1 . sCod. Schneider-Hermann.51nu. caught thesesacredfish. Mens. Paus. c f ' D e m o s t r a t o s . FGrHist z44F tog: Ath. Od. IHS 18 (1898). Of course. 2.r. m o t h e r o f t h e s e a l sa n d t h e E s k i m o m y t h o f t h e s a c r i f i c eo f t h e v i r g i n .. 3 .27 To or daughter of Perses Perseus. r33 Wuensch. Apoll. this leads us once more to himself would have lanthe fringes of the Greek world: Themistokles guished in obscurityhad he been born on Seriphos.v At the Maiuma in ostia." gods. Shortly thereafter. the meta""u-god morphosisof a fishermanwho leapt into the . 8 . r9o-9r). Aphrodite Urania setsher foot on a turtre: lr'96o1 !T.ri.though in humorous guise. ietr.a seamonster swam up to the old man'sship and devoured Epopeusbefore the eyesof his sons. The myth of swimmer or diver accompanies Theseus'leap into the sea to retrieve the ring reflectssuch a ji. 42o-47. with rheseus overthrowing skiron fio-62.in vase-paintings. ing a fish on an altar see A." a Pankrates. rz8) Belt. the tortoisewas so important to the coastalinhabitants that Aegina took it as its emblem. in the myth. was especially . r 3 .ii. A t h .i T . Kleinasien zur Ritmerzeit(tg68) #t27. Rhod. r.:rn..97. AK t1 i97o). Dolger.The expression "Deiian diver. z4 e966). 7 o Fz z 5 ..87. mentorum religionisequitum danuainorum Q969I 75)' into the_water. T h e p i c t u r e s o n t h e coins of Tarsos are peculiar: for Perseus with a statue of Apollo Lykeios facing a fisherman. A1Samothracian ready Hipponax combinedthe Cabiri.25.. according to Schol. and he and his sonsate them in a festivemeal. skiron fell from the skironic rocks into the sea and was eaten by an enormous tortoiser-indeed.who played among the fish. $sokrates-Apophthegma Diog. E p h o r o s F c r H i s t -Tanag. lbr 270 .It was saidthat Laiswas beatento death :. Them. ." During the goldenage. who was subsequently caught with wine and killed in a Dionysiac hunting ceremony.i nA e l . He who eatsthe sacredfish is himself eatenby a sea monster-this is an inversion of what. suggests a [oatskinl' iimilur situation on the island of Apollo-on the FranEois"iase.. participants ihrew each other into the water. The Glaukosis. For Perseus with a tuna on the coins of Kyzikos see RML III 2o58.t'eiitur in (A.42o.ll(t9zz) J.4. the Ketos. a period without fire.". .:".46. Phlyax Vases 'zEPlut.35. the women. Fiscler.69. . At Elis. Schol. Cl. Tritons on an ancient clay figurine f. "1. 4. Buil. $Apollod' Epit. For Hekate llepolis see Hes. etc.Bepiv4. D.a among the Samothracian fisherman from the island of lkaros. 177-78. r93. and cf.1.t. and this tabu was linked to Perseus. Festus 238M. 5z-7o' For a phlyax player eat(t'967'z)pl. 283a..4zd. in the recurrentcycleof ritual._.5 .3s imageof the Ketoswas presumablyinspired The by seal-and whale-hunts.. .::i . Mus.lud. Corpusmonu' see J. z S .gop.:tI"' co. Erman.Jos. and a particular fish.. a n . ttp"as . P. For the fish-sacrifice of a masked woman to Artemis or Bendis on an Etruscan stamnos see G. 2 7 . version a caanXnite aDove). poet of the secondcentury A.t pAmh. 4. t3.*':.set near Jaffain palestine(Konon. t. '.. they threw it back into the sea:"they say that Zeus'son.z. and cf. t41-5o.r. ::: . Trendall. rr75. lz5a-b. the sea.a Theseus'ship as it lands.zl_?'ot_3o9): Astart" go". N n t . in turn. Is 6. 27Eust.rli Sudap 4Z.an.2). the pictureon the FranEois vase(ABV 76. ..r.Dionysus the black spokeof i _dry]ng of Melanaigis.3) nUf l rc7A_AO. a n . narratesa legend honored who about the sacred"escort-fish zrop'nOtos.rg5.. oie air'Agy7. r. n .2. 4$-46.3'At Tanagra. 3. z.tpevi"a at Hermione. F o r a f i s h c a l l e d l l e p o e u s i n t h e R e d S e a s e e A eN a t .:.t). d."u] pR I6rc_1. to be related to the Great Gods of Samothrace. und 'wrLrcnntte i"irJi:. Among the Greeks themselveswe find the remnants of a leap z6Nat.rg test.fishsacrifice played a special role in the mystery cult of the Thracian riders. 3Bacchyl. D. ry e949). e. t79. pliny NH5. Franke.-evidentry il.. soot. a fish-prince among the denizensof the sea.ro-rr: cult of poseidonand Aphrodite frouria xai h.-|" :^"1_::. flepatus tap9tvos Lyk. Epopeus.^l a Hittite counterpart ""'Esffii". "ln Ath.9. 38re.:::" 542. 43'F. :'8.467.. 71. "ttrt tur'€s"i Ath' 598a.r19.r: Perseus tyet .-lust.a .g. *ur. Architt Orientdlni . whom the hero then slew.. lchthysl(rgto). 78 Masson-West. It is surely no the is coincidencethat fish-sacrifice attestedfor the cult of Hekate.Herondas 1. r. z r . Laert. t6 Iro6.' blood. see F Imhoof-Blumer. R. 759.o. At Hermion€. demands tribute. z.4o.. piscatoriilr. ciation distinguished the fishermen of Seriphos from any common fishermen. for Re in Egypt seeH. fr.although we cannot make senseof all the fragment's details.fish can be caught and eaten. be sure.'Ire41.. *-Paus' 9 ' : o 4 . peyioras Ev re \epi6qt l.72.l!^117:ort urnrsr26I r. is understood the other way around: becausethe old man sank into the sea. rp Brommer e96o)165.om see RML y n64. Folschungen g S."" A specialrenunof the fish are the playmates Perseus.DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR'S FESTIVAL FISH ADVENT 4 . Analogous motifs frequently surfacein Greek myths.r8. . Apollod. 3.Aristophprut. For the turtreas the enemyof and .35.-"d.5? The myth of Andromecta.Once again.nt. the mention of the gods takesus beyond the limits of the Greekworld. Morenz.'eThis brings us back to the dolphint realm. Friedrich .j:" ilql{j:: or myth lJ."r yam.3t." which seems.Paus. in Schefold (r96a) pl.Lydos..3sa boisteroui festival celebratedb| provincials but attended by genteel Romans as well. rFr.r And judging by pictorial representations.34.Strabo paus. Cf.22.9. $p. Diod.tli rl I I I got caught in their nets.59. Andromeda and Hesione were set out almost like bait to lure the great sea beast. .8z_85. Bibtiotheca Orientatis l1g52l.s procession down to the beachprovoked an attackby the seamonster. Tudor. the IP_a_us.. RML III zo59.ihe Triton.. do*n I ff_T lgtrJ'T .

Foucart Qgo4) ro7-63. see SIGs 38. and overlapped.Fishing rituals and legendscameinto play here too.tS.Massalia. t .The sacrificeof the maiden and the plunge into the seaare answeredby the arrival of food from the sea. -rnuc. grows into a great arc of myth embracing the maiden's tragedy.1j. Testimoniq and Dissemination The importance of the Anthesteria. z5o-58.Antigonosin Ath.2. FarnellY (r9o9)zt4-24. palmer. 4. S8z-8+. R.c. such culturally refined developments are always in danger of growing anemic' We have seenthat the samestructureof sacrificialritual presents itself at different levels.c.8. Ephesus.Deubner(t932)rzz-23.4 'PY Ya roz. P h i l oV . 7o. and civilized life are born of their antithesis:the encounterwith death.L.for the island Tenos. where an artisan guild supplantedthe customary Greek military organization.c. ANTHESTERIA L.from Miletus to Prieneon the coastof Asia Minor. and the younger generation'saccessionto power.l95:r). i77-2o.598. It is impossible to trace just how the rituals of hunters.rz below). who drew the conclusion. Only homo necans becomehomosapiens.. one may conclude that the wine-god Donysusmust already have been long familiar by rooo n. L S S 6 9 . influenced nomadic animal-breeders.n. Studiade Dionysiis Atticis (Lund. r\usson. is immediately shown by the fact that it lent its name to a month. especiallyin non-Greek areas. and in the type of the Dionysian advent on the other. S m y r n a .Kyzikos.a. (lV3. However. the name of the month Anthesterionis attestedfor the entire Ionian region. regicide/parricideor infanticide. ) .Cf. it was continuouslyused as a cult site. fishermen. 14 r8r-zoo = Opuscula .bloody central act. idem (19o6)267-7r. order.1969\r-25. The Linear B texts from Pvlos that refer to Dionvsus'befoie 12ooB. in the Agrionia type on the one hand. and restitution. rgo). and not only at Athens.We may thereforewonder all the more at the structural unity that rendered that reciprocalexchangepossible.6 566F r58.o p h . but we were able to detect hints of it at Sikyon and Thebesas well. playing out their socio-psychological purely symbolic fashion. Pickard-Cambridge with the Scholia POry YIp. there was the parallel of the Lemnian fire festival.still irrefutable. was provided by Athens and Argos.'This agreementwas noted alreadyby Thucydides.And inasmuchas the festival deals with Dionysus and wine. Laert. and in the Ionic colonies of Thasos. where the god enteredthe city from the sea. For Syracuse. egz) 275-94.with its preparations. tr5-38. Diog. l a s o s .The samestructureswere given a new emphasis in the expanding cults of Dionysus. z 4 e d . o4 #853. TheInterpretation MycewaanGreekTexts(rg$). Gdrard-Rousseau(1968) of 74-76.4. 93-rz1. Xb 4t9. SEG4. 437e. B u l l . and city dwellers Brew apart. The basic structure of sacrifice. can ry. Nourishment. where the period of exceptionbecamethe setting for ecstasyand the sacrificialsparagmosoutdoors. z 5 . and Massalia. r ( l I 4 z .' That makes the Anthesteria one of the earliestattestedof all Greek festivals.Teos. with its dissolution in the unspeakablesacrifice and its restorationof order in the festivefeastand agon. for Eretriaon Euboea. 745-61:.from Erythrai to Smyrna. e p i g r . van Hoorn (r95r).11. make this Samuef (1972)Index s. r n a s o s . T e u b n . eachother.S FESTIVAL hlr Greek myths and a large share of major Greek cults have become characteristicallydetached from the fisherman's everyday Pragmafunction in a tism and needs. 43. I GSSS). 5g4-g8. that this festival and the name of this month must antedateIonian colonization of Asia Minor.DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR. in the non-Greekrealm. r-tubner jglz) . Of no less importance is the excavation of the rernPle Agia Irini at on Keos:sincer5ooB. The most detailed picture of the New Year's festival of the polis.and f See 272 I 243 . Harrison egzz) 3z-74. For the rinthesteriaand the Aiora see Eranos (1916).) for the festival at Teos. s r r97l nr. celebratedin the spring in honor of Dionysus. Timaios. FGrHist see Just..

r6t-76. s u s : 1 .oi."pitchers'" the festival. G. There may be a picture of the temple on the Chous: Mtinchen r+e+. cf." Bonn. 2 o . this hazy causedconfusion' sionallY of "iasks. 7't2-'77. on the thirteenthday of the month. accordingto the old religiouschronology.o.46 (tgzr) 8r-96." des Anthesterien-Skyphos Polygnotos AK 6 i9$).Sat..52-53'"Demosth'" 59'76' to)ical 2a4 I no9ulat and often the only part of the festival that is mentioned. fnlectr1r9Sz[3o7 1791.'946)' 245-tu.. Aristoph' Ran' z16 (iv dr xai oixos rai vetirsro0 rleoi'). FGrHist 3z8F 84 (cf. Eiavtltls 6' 218.'Av. Isaios 8.4. Callim.t. fr.tz. Thuc.. the Greater Dionysia 8o8 Dr.inparticuno reasonto deviate lar with the blossom of the vine. S. Od. and it was followed by the day of the "i""enttr i.iHS zo Lgrr|. r6-6t). van Hoorn.oand there is ^^from this simple interpretationof the-name' material to O^." the Chytroi. Moreover.. V A p .tlhu painting itself:one chous -ft of the Anthesteriaon other sortsof vases . the sanctuary of Dionysus in the trarshes.Macr.d).| 4o1'32. J. the Pithoigiaand the Choes meet .J".on the Lr^is day of Anthesterion.festival of the Choes' the most twelfth day of Anthesterion. Suda 1 6zu) to claim that the Choes and Chytroi were on the same day. Simon (tg6g) 289.I' Italy:seeu"r. which were establishedin the sixth century by the tvrants and the polis.6t. 245 .duf'eo96potatArgos(Nilsson119o61357). ad loc.c. p. and comprehensively van Hoorn (r95r).This is often evenhas a grafhto XOITI pitcherbeing depictedug"*i.3. An."t-'fnere can be no the.4.of.-. and. Pickard-Cambridge (1968) zr-25.tthens provides us with enough festival.r. Green. the day of to the festivalevents' it p"ir.. Ach roT6 rind rous Xoas Tzlp xai Xritpous led Didymos (Schol.'Av$eonlpttilz.Aristoph. Harrison lgzzl +Z-+g)must not Aiticlonic ']no'o as the suffixfor festivalnames apocope. A' W Gomme' A Htsby representsan anoent traditioi." H. alreadybecause be rejected Verrall. even if it is conceivable wine festival' The Creeks name may be a secondaryaccretion!o tfe. the Anthesteria nothing' 'Called rti (ro0) iv ltipvats Arcvicrou Thuc.). so we know that this festival spanned fell on the Thucydides tells us that the *iin day.'Hpoctiuten. E' Simon' "Ein TAPA 77 Cnyt.ti.acoby 62. r78. this festival was a in thesedesignations. rzr. popular character this Indeed. 2. alstros.2 below). 1G llllll2 1496. 1 .BLorlp unth"si-s the father of lhe'6ver of wine.P h i l o s t r . Immerwahr.gs on thesepitchersare also related " isioncentrated in the fifth and fourth centuries Mosi of the-evidence later times as 8. Byz. Notes PP..which is precisely of the itre1"o"parilpn G6rard-Rousseau (1968)2o7-20)' go"s back toMycenaeantimes' by sstudied by Deubner (t912) 48-47. 126-15.n.Here. Gnomon4z(t97o). in contrastto the more recent Dionysia.3r.the Lesser Dionysia brings in 3rr Dr. Gu6pin (1968) 283 seeks to locate the Limnaion in the Ilissos temple (V. curred largely on the level of folk custom."d guisheddue toan especiallysacredcommandmentthat was enjoined ipon it: it could be opened only on a single day in the year. It precededby the day of "opening the casks." "pitchers. 9-:.t5.4. only .the by Attic poets' we tion to accountsby local historians and allusions of pottery the Choes have the evidenceof a clearly delineatedtype doubt that it was used on the main day of fit. RA z5 j9z).M' "Avrltos IC translited "Floralia" by Just' 41'4'6.. R.. fr. T.notr. Cal1m.E Sv . Strabo 8p 161. who describes the shrine at the theater of Dionysus as the oldest shrine of Dionyroi ALpvatou. 8In the account of sales of sacrificial hides. ure are depictiois in an Anthesteria southern as well.97.the Panathenaia.Hesperia 1 sinceArchaictimes the cult was certainlythat of Dionysus: j964). Typicalchoes pitchersindicatethat there was also rr McPhee. It has not been identified with certaintyand had apof Pausanias-perhaps it larently already disappearedin the time by the pii.Et.'This was the day seeJ.?One must sundown sig.Metzger 'Attische.' which Thucydides consideredto be one of the oldest in Athens. "Demosth'" 59'76. The fact that there were no marshes at this sanctuary is discussed by Strabo I p 16l and Schol.f.. L' caskey.Philochoros (?).zo Hude. the received text ii defended ll on Commentary Thucydides (1956).. S. r6t (t96tl.3o5. Phanodemos'FGtHist325F tz' and cf Eullllll2 {J56and Paus' r. Stovvcros rog. 1o4-zo.Icall that.Hoo."the Pithoigia." uguir. see "Choes"' AlA5o(t946)' 722-)9. B/CS8 (196r). "Choes i. lbi...4. below. Bekk. lripvat' Not mentioned by Pausanias. FGrHist 244 F rj3. l. pleaded for the area u. but there are isolateddocumentsin Hellenisticand over 1/oooyears' well.the Choesand the Chytroi on the eveon the distinction occanine of the twelfth.. Nilsson (rg5il SS+. which was later the cult site o f t h e l o b a k c h o i ( l G I I i I I I ' : r 3 6 8 : s I G 3 1 1 0 9: L s 5 r ) l t h a s b e e n h y p o t h e t i c a l l y i d e n t i tied with the Limnaion: see AM zo (1895). and that evening and night were reckoned as nufedttt" end of a day of the following day. R.. Jacoby ad loc. was apparentlyuntouchedby the monumentalbuilding program at Atheni. in addiform a comirehensi.cf.or the GreaterDionysia' It ocsav.It probably lan*ur r"plu.6-zz. whose very name was Choes. 4lz7' Cl' S' P' Karouzou' . Already in antiquity.. festivalmay be seen of for nigligeable the finances the polis' when comparedwith.'Avleorpl8es in Rhodes(LSS96'and cf +dva-rgioooorlat(A' W "f.r5. Zto-ii' by no meansall' depicAttische Vasen. ri1 6a6exat71is deleted as an interpolation by Torstrik' trd"' and thus but appearsalready in POxy^853 (FGrHisttII b Suppl.i (tg6) 55-76..rit"tc. Thuc. t5-17. L.aetaitea'picture.Hes' 'z\' Unconnectedwith Dionvsus ihera tC Xll 1329( "BekranJer.FGrHistSl4FrJ=HarPokr.ANTHESTERIA TESTIMONIA AND DISSEMINATION that the god's conclusion easier to accept. Schol.dvBetrgopot An Hsch avfleanlpLa}es' in Sicliylnol. W Dorpfeld excavated a small shrine between the Areopagus and the Pnyx. Thus.t4 also mentions an riTaApa roi Jtovioov cf. t37).FesteFor a skepticalview seeA Rumpf' mon.ek*.. W Hooker. ut*uy.f." "pots"-the earthy. Judeich (t91r) zgt96.hol. uutr Hoorn (r95r) #699pl." "u"eveningof the eleventh. auantitt the Mysteries.IV'5'n (l95tl 5o-52. Apollod.r1eroat Paiania (LSS18) The derivationfrom iri.d ih" llissos.AKzz(tg7g)'38fCf n'rabove.connectedthenameAnthesteriawith..rz. POry Yl #8y. Maron.blossoming. /HS 8o (rq6o). the day TPhilochoros. zo8-r4' Many' though confirmedby a Choes tions on Choes pitchersrefer to tie Anthesteria.." Wilamowitz lr91zl77 are'Hpa'g.35.rute cult site of the Iobakchoi. FGrHist 3zBF zz9.of the. Steph.

ANTHESTERIA

PITHOIGIA

AND CHOES

Dionysusin the of the Choes. Another riddle is posed by the name scarcelybe lvlarshr;in historical times, marshesand swamps could foundinAthens.lfitcorrespondssopoorlytoAthenianconditions, There is no ii r.,rrt have come from a more ancient, alien tradition' such thing as an autochthonousorigin for religion'

and z. Pithoigia Choes
The Anthesteria has lcng attractedattention for three reasons. all threeThe first is as a children'sfestial.' On the day of the Choes' fo".-y"ar-old children were given presents' The depictions on ".,J ti,,t" bho", pitchers of the cfiildten, their offertory tablos' and ,tr" for the histoys are a unique record of Athenian private life' Second' of the i;i-" of religion, the Anthesteria was fascinatingas a festival from the dead: it wasiaid that ghosts or spirits of the dead emerged be chased underworld on theseiays and entered the city' only to "sacred marto ut the end of the festival'' Third, references a "*uy at this festival have provoked great curiosity: the "queen" of iiug"" Dionysus tn Itfiu.,r, wife of the archon basileus,was presentedto into play' marriage.3Thus, animism and fertility -magicboth came days as well olr"rrhldor"ing that which, judging by the namesof the the central of as by the statements the Athenians, was fundamentally These simple ' opening the casksand drinking the new wine' "*r"ri were h"ere given a set, ritualizel form, and in interpreting the actions Anthesteria, our main goal must be to understand this ritual' 'At Athens, ,n" p""opf" start with the new wine on the eleventh pithoigia." so Pluday of the month Airthesterion, calling the day ;And since long ago tl"y h,1: tarch, who adds a pious interpretation: and prayeo uppa."r,tty porrr"d a libation of the wine before drinking but' rather' be that the use of this Jraught would not harm them' on this g..a i". th"*."0 Thus, itTs the wine caskswhich are opened
tSee n.z7-29 below. ad,See IV.1 below. The interpretation of the Anthesteria as a festival of the dead was (rgzz) 3z'49; cf' Nilsson (rgSS\ Sg+-sZ,' yP it^::Tt";i vanced mainly by Harrison extrinsicbutveryoldconnectionbetweenDionysusandthefestivalotthesouls\)Y/'' 3See IV.4 below oQ. cona.655e.For the month fltfioryuiv at Peparethos see IG XII 8'6+S'S'

ll

I

day,or, more precisely, the great clay iars (niflot), which were sealed after the wine had fermented. The rule that the wine must then lie untouched for several months until spring is certainly strange and ar$ficial, but it was observed even outside of Greece,among the RoDrinking the wine is not left to the whim of the individual; the rnans.s gernmunity comes together and celebratesthe god. The beginning bound up with danger:it was possiblethat this drinking could seems "4sharrfl." Even today, the growers of wine follow set customs,starting the harvest together, pressingtheir wine together. Here, tasting the new wine is a collectivecelebrationwithin the of sanctuary.The report 'At the Atthidographer Phanodemos can only the temple of Dionysus in the marshes,the referto the Pithoigia: Athenians mix the new wine which they bring from their casks for the god, and then drink it themselves.Hence Dionysus was called the god of the marsh, becausethe new wine was mixed with water for and drunk on that occasion the first time. . . . Delighted then with the mixture, the people celebratedDionysus in song, dancing and calling upon him with the names Flowery, Dithyrambos, the Frenzied u One, the Roarer." It is unthinkable that wine would be mixed and poured out to the wine-godat a closedtemple. For this reasonalone,Phanodemos must be referring to the Anthesteria. However, the temple iu Adpuarswas open only on the Choes, on the twelfth day of the month.? The fact that the eleventhday was alreadycalled "the opening of the casks"is due to the sacralchronology. In the evening, the day of the Pithoigia over into the Choes, so that the caskswould have been opened Passes iust beforenightfall, and the temple would have openedat sundown. Plutarch attests that, in his native Boeotia, the new wine would be
sThe Vinalia on the twenty-third of April are degustandis uinis instituta:Pliny NH r8.287, and cf. Varro r.r.6.:16; Festus65 M.; Ov. Fast. Wissowa(r9rz) rr5.8. 4.863-9o<;; 6FG/Hrst F tz = Ath. 465a: r.pdsre iepe 9t1<rttoi 6v Lip.vcLts Ltouioov rd 7)rer)ros 125 wpovaas rois'Asnuo.iovs ix rdu riB<ov tQ fleQ xtpvavat, eir' aiirois trpoagipeaBat. r_tno1 i.epov rd with the consequencethat the date of the opening, "Demosth." Jacoby, 59.76, has to be changedllII b Suppl. Notes p. 16r). If Dorpfeld'sidentificationof the Lhnaion is correct(seeIV.r.n.9 above),only a few peoplecould enter the shrine at the sametime. K. Ker€nyi, Symb.Oslo (196o),5-tt,-con.lrrd"s from the word 7treOxos, 36 _must,"that Phanodemosis describingan autumn festival. But Plut. Q. cona. 655e656bevidently identifies with vrios o'lvos: y)\ei,rog iixarrra p"efioret 655t; 16 7)reOrcos c"t<hors vios oiyos oi pe[icxet ri 656a;c(. sapaOv. Fast.4.7b. f ]reOxos course also of Irteans€rapejuice (zeorgAizrrqt it6 yXeixer Nik. A/er. 299;; the change brought about ;ltough fermentationis not marked in the language.Fordepictior,t 6f th" ofening of the caskseevan Hoorn (r95r) #611 pl. tt, * rle pl. tz. t,,h ^_nemosth."59.76.The shrine of Dionysus at Thebes(Paus.9.16.6)is likewise open oruy on one day; cf. Paus.2.7.5(Dionysusat Sikyon),7.zo.r (Patrai). 277

zt6

ANTHESTERIA

PITHOIGIA AND CHOES

1.1

,rl

opened in honor of the Agathos Daimon "after the evening wind.,,' Throughout the day, people flocked together from vineyards all over Attica: freeholderswho seldom enteredthe city, slaves and laborerss1 the landowners who lived in the city-a colorful crowd of strangers and friends with greatzlrlor loaded on clatteringcartsdrawn by don_ keys: they gatheredat the placein front of the temple, waiting for it to open at sunset, and to pour the first libation to the god from the newly opened casks.After holding out for months, despitelongings and anxious curiosity,they finally broke the resinatedseals.The ten_ sion of testing the results of a year'swork dissolvedinto pleasurereasonenough to praise the god of wine. The fact that the wine-tasting grew into a drinking competition on the following day of the pitchers, and that everyonegot his own jug-slaves and laborers, too, indeed, even children-seems to be such a simple form of collectivemerriment as to require no explanation.e In Aristophanes' Acharnians, the good fortune of the peacemaking anti-hero, Dikaiopolis, culminatesin a drinking bout at the Choes. Here too, Dikaiopolis wins and gets a wineskin as a prize, enough to fill dozens of Choes pitchers. Thus, the guzzling is selfperpetuating-no wonder scholarshave been satisfied to state that the Choeswas an undeniably merry festival.'0 the backgroundfor Yet this day'smerriment seemsstrangeand even uncanny. There is unambiguoustestimony that the day of the Choeswas a "day of pollution" (p,npa iptpo).r, People would start the day by chewing-contrary to all natural predilection-on leavesof a particular hawthorn variety,pap"vos, which were otherwise used to ward off ghosts.l? Doors would be painted with pitch-a normal way to water8On the sixth day of the month Prostaterios: Plut. e. conu. 655e. 'Procl. Schol. Hes- Erga 368, on Pithoigia: oire oix6r4u oilre pto\arou eipyep ris dnoXauoeug roi oilvou Bep,ndv iyv . . . Cf . Antigonos of Karystos, Ath. 437e. That is why the "black" day of the Choes is a "white" day for slaves: see Callim. tr. ryg.2. On the children see nn. 27-29 below. For expenditures for state slaves at the Xdes see /G llllll' fi72.2o4. l0Aristoph. Ach. t o c n - r 2 1 4 . " T h e A n t h e s t e r i a . . . p l a i n l y a c h e e r f u l f e a s t , , :p i c k a r d Cambridge (1968) r5. ttPhot. ,nrapzi ilpttpa' iu tois Xouoiv'Avfeo"zlpiovos More concisely Hsch, 1,tt1vos. pnpai i11t"ipat' toi'Av&ennlpuituos p.nv6s (cf. Eust. 456.6). There is a tendency, contrary to Photios' clear indication, to treat the Chytroi as the actual p.npd fip.epa: see Farnell V (tgog) z16; Pickard-Cambridge (1968) 14. 1'zPhot. t'ap.vos' pwou 6 iv roi.s Xouoiy 6s d[e(tgdpp"axov |p,aodvro 6a\eu; Phot. p.capa fip.6pa. On t'aptuos see Nik. Ther. g6t-62: p,oivq yap v.fioretpa Bporiov ano xipas Epixet (862) with Schol. 86o = Sophron fr. 166 Kaibel, Euphorion fr. r17 Powell;

when all the doors o{ the city shone, sticky pl"gl ,l^" I::1,:::l and so that a door-co rld be opened only with care, it was black, a most sfiking expressionof a diesater. All temples were shut on this day ro so that normal life was largely pararyzed:since there corrlJ-be ,,o oaths sworn in the temple, no important businesscould occur, no be marriage settledon. There could be no "normal,, sacrificeat any of altars' Nevertheless, the jhe tempreswere not barricaded,j"rt ,rr.round€d with ropes. Each individual had to construct the symbolic boundaryin his mind:.on this day access the gods was inte-lrupted. to onlythat temple which was otherwiseshut waJno* open-the temple of Dionysus iz Aipvats. In observance the diesater,far from the gods, people gathered of behind.dogrgfleshly coveredwith pitch to eat togeihei u.,i, above all, to drink.'s rhe family, incruding ail relatives-itnorgh frouuury without women-assembled at the house of the head oFth'e family. officials gathered at the office of the archons, the Thesmotheteion near the Areopagus.'u rhe "king," basileus,would preside. The people probably came.togetherat the usual mealtime, in the late after_ noon. what followed, however, was the clear antithesis of the usual festivalmeal' Eachparticipant had his own tabre,''and whereaswine and water were norma,y served in a great mixing bowl out of which the wine-pourers would fiil the cups"ail around,"eachparticipant at ,h:.9h.o".r.-_us given a pitcher that would be f,ir'foreue;-rh" 61""r, which held about two and a half ritersof mixed wine.,8 This is the preL 4 o s K o r .r . 9 o ; O v . F n s t . 6 . r z 9 - 6 g o n s p i t r o / b a ;R o h d e ( r g 9 g ) I z l z . , ] ; H a r r i s o n ( r 9 z : ) a 39-40. '3Phot' frlpruos' ' ' xai rrirrTl iypiovr<t ra 'dpara r<rtip..'.raCd.); phot. ptapt) t11tepa. rlt Jtpas Exptov. On the use of pitch see the Uuilai.g'u.;iunt ;;^: i"d T:r:! from t'teusis, lC illlll: $7z.t7o zrirrrls xeptiltLa niureiir,,lro, ras dpo,pas rui.l,)rrurrtyiou '.' ' tai rcis 0ripas. The priest at the baiylonian New year,s festivar paints the doors of the shrine with cedar-res in: AN ET jy. f{Poff . 8.r4r rept..xoruioo

,""pr,u.,oi"*x","f;":;;r;?:;:ii,i::,;:#:r:::iliJ,i""l'i;,,J,ii:f.::1f
* hg67l, r7s-g8 (who incorrectly speaks of the ..chytroi,,). l,'is,tJ' ..r-neSuests brought food in baskets;.seeAristoph. Ach. rcg5- rt4:r, qrfferent Schol. ad,96r; for a view seetratosthenes, I GrHist z4 r F r6.

;,ilti.?"i"'

613b; Alkiphr' t8,tt;cf Arist AthPol.,l.5; 4 Aristoph. Ach. rzo1, rzz4

64)a;Eratosthenes, Q. ,,i:: lry !u, non,Plut. cotrz,. FGrHist F ft. z4r phanodemos, ^-"'' tpn laur' 9s\,q6o: FcrHist1z5F rt;Apolrod., \Jn.thepitcher. FcrHistz44Ft11. r"e (rut",
in Ath. 495b.At Ath;; they were sold '{Y-laxrrz at the choes: see on a sacrificiar aninral,5 iip,aprou;J;;"" for the stateslaves ,r,Ifllll2 sis xdas see t67z.zoa.

zrB

219

iir

I

ANTHESTERIA

PITHOIGIA

AND CHOES

';,1

flr ,.,,
lliltl . '',Jlll

requisite for the notorious drinking competition: crowned with ir,y wr'eaths,"the people would wait for the trumpet slsna-l'iblown frorx the Thesmotheteionat the king's order to initiate the drinking. Then all those assembledwould drink "in silence,"" without a word or q song-indeed, apparently,without prayer-filling and refilling their titt the Chous was empty. glt oj all the odd customs on this ",rpi of pollution," the silencewhile drinking probably seemedthe "d'ay most peiuliar to the loquaciousAthenians. To them, wine and song went iogether, and drinking to one another with song and speech was a highly refined socialgame.on the day of the choes-,people sat togetheiunder one roof but as if enclosedby invisible walls: seParate known jugs, and ali surrounded by a-general.silence tailes, separate when the herald callsout his eigrlp'eire. otherwise only at sacrifice drinking competiThe languageof the ritual is clear:the so-called The peculiaritiesof the Choestion bears th" Jtu*p of a sacrifice. drinking are the noim at the bloody sacrifice:not just the silence,22 but theindividual tables'3and the distribution in portions as equalas aboveall, the atmosphereof pollution and guilt. From this possible;r, perspective,the drinking competitionrevealsits original function: evfirst.'?s starts together so that no one can say another_started "ryotru when the day begins, the act of chewing the leavesto avert Lilewise, evil, rather than carrying them or hanging them up, is a cathartic preparation for the ruitud meal, handed down from hunting rituals''u
IV.4.n.zbelow 4.r8,tr; frequentlydepictedon the Choespitchers-cf. 20Aristoph. cf. IV.5.n.15below. Ach. roor; ,1pfut. to Phanodemos, Q. cona. 6r1b, 641a;Eur. Iph. Taur.g5r. The prize, according Aristoph' Ach' rooz, rzz5 has a wineskrn-a FGrHist3z5F tr, was a cake (zr)\axo05); of the drinking competition:besidesthe Chous, Dikaiopolisimmecomic "*agg".ation doxos diately dririks a bowl of unmixedwine (ruz9); he thereupon receivesa whole a victory in the drinking competition-depicted on For lriike with a Chous-i.e., (r97o)' 7rt" : ARV'?87t'.95;E ' Simon, Gnonron 4z Chous seeWiirzburg 4917 2zEigqpeiv:seeStengel(tgzo) ttt; among the RomansseeG. Mensching, DasHelig! gen Schwei (t 926\, tor - toz 6xxai6exa pera 23Movogayotinthe cult of Poseidonat Aegina, xao' airois i9' i11t'ipas xof4pezos Aesch' riz6paxcis Plut. Q. Gr. 3ord-e Gf. etn. 588e); otuzrils 1.,rtCour,.t (cf Ag.,5g5 at the feast of Thyestes-the text, howevet'is fragmentaryand corrupt E. Franekelad loc.). 'Irro8alr4s' 2oA,tovuoog iooiaittls Plut De E 389a,Harpokr', Hsch' ,5For,,dividing up the guilt" in sacrificial ritual seeMeuli (t946)zz8; at executions'see Abh.Mi)nchen3t'3 (r9zz)' zz6' zz8;at a Plot Todesstrafen," K. v. Amira, "Germanische of murder, Hdt. 5.92y4' fruits" (lndi26For laxativesand the like, see GB VIII 81;beforethe "festivalof the first ans)seeGB VIII n,75-76. rrAlkiphr.

food, one incurs guilt which must be distributed equally Sy eating -uinonsall. And only_thosewho receive their share can belong, bound by the act they have committed. together For preciselythis reason,the meaning of the Choes touches the hvesof children When a child was no longer a baby, at the age of tyee, it would be presented to the family clan, the phratry ur,a it participated in the Choes festival for the first time that same year.r, iqrtth, Choes, adolescence, and marriage,,za the basic stagesin are of a young Athenian. The child was given a wreath the development of blossomt his own table, and his own pitcher, of a size appropriate to his age. Sharing in the wine signified the first step toward shlring in the life of the society,in adult life. A little Choes pitcher was placed in the grave of any child who died before it was three, so that if could at leastreach the goal symbolically in the next life which it had failed This was analogous to the placement of the to reach in this one.2e the water jug for the bridal bath, on the tomb of one Loutrophoros, who had died before marriage.sMost of the Choespitchersthat have survived come from such grave offerings, a custom which appears to havebeen especially fashionable for a time in the second hlfu of the fifth century. This interpretation of the Choes ritual as an initiation, a bond madeby-symbolically incurring guilt, is confirmed by the etiological flths tgld by the Athenians to explain the customs. ihough *ruryirrg in detail, they agree in speaking of a murder and blood glritt tt t"it its mark upon the drinking of wine. And they forged"a link "iwith
TPhilostr. Her. tz.z(rlr87.zred. Teubn. fi7r)'A*"ilut]trr,voiraiies iv 1rr]ui'Auheot4pti'tvt ota?avoivrat r6ry dv06av rpir<|tdrd yevedstret. For membership in ttre phratry in_the "third or fourth year" seeProcl. /n Tim. I88.rg Diehl; Deubner^eg1z),i0,44. yewiloerl,s, yo,bu, EgrlBeias: IG lIlIIIl see 468.4o; cf. the relief, KoumanouItau"ov' llq-l Deubner(1932) 16.r with the epigramflrxtas Xotxi,tv, 6i iaipav EgBapl. 6 1!t oc tois Xoi,s(#r57 Kaibel = /G Illlll'? r3r39). On the wreath of blossoms and oftertory t:u.uuiHoorn (r95r) passim. The oft-depictedlittle cart was given to pheidip11,-" the Diasia (Aristoph. Nub. 864),but an Athenian terracotta has a silenus puillt::: *t.t, * Eckstein,and A. Legner,Antike F Kleinkunst Liebieghaus im (Frankfurt, ry69i, pl. 4r.The insqliption'Axpitrrot 6 narilp on a Chous in Baltim;re, Cjy USA 3o6.3,shows presentfor a child. For teachers receivingpresents the day of the choes on H'lt Y":. i 'e€_hubulides fr. r (ClF II 43r). on Keos, one could only drink wine once one had qurried: seeArist. ft. 6tt.zg.

I

Re-

Chous, Deubner eyz) pt. r5. rhe ;goJd illlj^i.,eJ:-y":'-,:.1:l !!: stone !{
;:: -w :TMH r4rnosth. 44.18,1o;Eust. rz93.g;Cook III (rg4o) 37o_go.

H : ^ T t : u r o " , A l A 5 o ( 1 9 4 6 ) , r z 6 , t 3 o ; A . R u m p f , B o n n l.b b . : 1 6 r ( : 1 9 6 r ) , 2 7 i _ 7 4 ; v a r . 'ruorn (r95r) #rt9, for instance,comes from the tomb of a child; #n5; fig.l5 por_ -.,u.r",, TI.Q.HNHXPH>TH is shown holding a Cirtes pitctrer on heigrave_stele:

on this day when $Hekataios.: qtut\Ylol AKMH.FGrHist F5.474-75. fn"t" it ^. esp. Or. III b suppl on tZ'. Demophon. Ikarios was suspectedof havingpoisonedthem. artificial as the inclusion of Orestesin the Athenian custorl may be.oiirtior.r' in nu^"t. the Athenian king.Orestheus. consecrated as something bizarre. Pfeiffer. OT 236-41-.35 has rightly been suspectedthat the Attic myth of the it o"r festival confusedOrestheusand Orestes.3'All behavedas though they had been stiined with murder. R.FGrHist 3z1aF zz Marm. His daughter.6o. Lyk' 474' lt FGrHist49 A 25. 947-6oPhanodemos.a.Kallimachossludien 32Callim.ANTHESTERIA PITHOIGIA AND CHOES heroic epic by introducing orestes: after killing his mother. M. Par'.For the connectionwith the Anthesteriu.aition of a goat-sacrifice. paradoxicallyextended to all Athenians. an Attic village famous for its vineyards and the customs of its vineqrowers.planted the first vine. Ach. 7o4-72' pp. 37The later authors(esp. Hieron.. on Erigone zz-26 Powell. ru' the the death of a pii"st & Dionysusas.the host could thus alsobe calledAmphit<tyon (Philochorcs. cona' 643a. 75.LSSrr5 B 54 (Cyrene)' 44il.Euseb." p'capos'" aboveall.t Orestesmight Both inown table and jug of wine.But the "opening of the casks"turned into a disaster:when the revellers.For a new mosaicwith ^Tllliill. The angry crowd thereupon killed their benefactorwith clubs. E4. itt" guilt for his act' ine " There was a parallel myth from Ikaria.they are linked by the theme of bloodshed. Plut' Q. fr. and the oracleordered the Choes festival to at least tablishedin atonement.4 : . the wine-man' rvho 3rEur.ltthenappearsonaseriesofAtticreliefsinthe rirte Hellenisticage (Ch.u"slavesand Aetolians" are "xcl"ded thea at Chaironeia:seePlut. 427.n. in the land of wine. Clytaernnestra. but ire had to Hence the lens through contactwith one who was himself polluted. rg4. 448-52."" uiro goesbackto the sixth centuryand that for is assumedthat the Orestes-aition the Choes lll b Suppl ' Notes Aeschylus. tr. harvesting. grew drunk and sank to the ground.96t. What we found expressed in the ritual is confirmed in the myths of violence and murder surrounding the first wine: drinking the new wine fulfills the function of a sacrificial meal.'.#'. cf.rfli.it is forbidden to speak with the murderer-the Athenians emPty their pitchers in sinfepalence. Oresies cameto Athens pursued by the Erinyes.lA of 18 [rgl+].t of duties and the shrewd solution found by the king: a communal meal in which community is simultaneously abolished. in which the wine is brought to Athens by Aetolians' be esThey were killed.o.r. Merkelbach. cf.of the myth that points toward Aetolia.2.FGrHisi 3zg 328 ts206. Iakonische Kulte(i8y1. I 3F.the oracleof (1545 Parkeand Wormell [1958])referred to the god's arrival at the home of ift_lhi was thus takenas the oldestand decisive eptphany. enter the house' but was given his curious . Nachtrag der Schriftiiber die Aeschylische zu Trilogie e}z6). the murderer The new wine is imbibed as though it carried blood guilt.".unfamiliar with wine. cf facobv 325 Hellanikos. desperately her lost father for Erigone. and on this day all Athenians are OresAs teioi.chron. Schol. = X364.5. :186.Apollod. Rom'z67d' whosegrandfather.led by her dog Maira.A. however. The murderer may not enter the tempies-on the day of the-Choes. Le pur et l'impur seeAesch Euthyphr' on the silence 4b.-Plat grecs "eu^. the murderer must be kept 1ryuy ft9*. IKApIo> and oI IIpoToI olNoN IIIdNTE: from paphos see ^rchaeology zr ( I 96g)4g_5-1. r54. (r95o). she subsequentlyhanged herself.In tlie uerrior. The day of the Choes is a "day of pollution-.8r-92.2. FGrHist F 15.at lar story about from the lanctuary of Leukoniai: seePaus. a disastrous inversion of the norm.]. According to paus. r. iival together with the Athenians. Ikarios happily loadedthe casksfull of the god'snew gift ontohis cart and brought it to his fellow villagers.3.Nonnus 47'34-264depend for the essentials Eratosthened (fr.but the murderers' descendants. Rostagni di [1961]. Soph. S. B t+S : ABV 245. For Orestes. Mus. Wide.tflivAel.implicitly rejlcts it: see Jacoby (r9zz). Dionysus'visit is depictedon black figure vases(Brit. Welcker. Taur.bringing him ihe vine and instructing him in cultivation.Dionysus himself cameto the house of Ikarios. pp. Astr.Aristoph. the Athenians are sharnot just Orestes'companions.. G. 73 Hercher Suda 9 428. z8-zg.54). Catast. the ritual. EAA III rr4. S. Bieber. Paus. 223 .?:t 'dlil'*t'". in Attica. Picard. t)Z-Sr.stabu.9. the modern Dionyso. and no one said a word to him' the first Choes fesOrestescelebrated cluded und e^iuled at once.7.and pressing of the wine. and his blood mixed with the wine.the temples are llosed.64.2. was f. Eur.hol." till Thus.77-gr Robert.the murderer.5)or Semachos (philochoros." mentions O"rnopiion. tr.FGrHist1z5F rt = Ath' 4l7c-d is the one 6t1b' Apollod ' FGrHistz11I j. the offspring of It o'bitch.1'r't'apa is the one who is "polluted. did not dare turn avoid polluting himself and his fellow q11iptilnt away.Misciltanea Studi Alessandrini di in memoria A.-51y introduced.R.vAetolia was a centerof viticulture.ztt. 469-526). the myth of the wine overflows with gruesomedetails:this wine is a very specialjuice and anything but harmless. Moulinier.Dv 243'45\ without namesbeing inscribed.Iplr.Hyg.L. r jJ = B ^. Eum. F rr..cf. HF rzig. (cf. 8z-Bj. or of myths about wine: the ruler there was Oineus. searched she found his body in a well.e5 speaksof Pandion. This is the expressedeven more forcefully in another etiologicalmyth about Choes festival. des et Ia swachter dans penste ta sensibilift igro\ 64-76.:.Abr..TheSculpture the 'arcIrcnstic Age [19551. hearth and iable-at the Choes. yhen the cult of DionysusEleuthereus f .8. tril at etier* seealso p. Q.s inner tension is appropriately expressedin the .*Beyondthe similar. t78.Eratosth. in searchof the supexpiation. interpretationdisputed). people eat at separatetables.

. iigypt. The Titans lured the child Dionysus away from his tni. up_ il*_. act ! alreadyamong the Egyptians:seeS.Reu.Sir.euos K' demos.y" in the Orphic mysteries.l arter L. . rather. Soma' aineMushroom lmmortality(1968). Di'made from sadar-fruit at Qaial Hriytik seeMellaart Q967\ 269. seeK. iinn'lZ Gg+r..myth of the god torn apart.:h" *1". i.ning the ta'tl olosiris-which wereby no meanssecret in Egypt.l. fr. 74 Eudoxosin Plut. IX "Rig-Veda (for German transl.62. Various kinds of beer.cf. ffi .trrirnsetj'. meal? Such myths become themselves. Sprache Altertumskunde Q918''1. Crat. 'fil ri l-ti.* or wecangather fromallusio"r. it describes not the preparation .trr. him.ig.Ji. r-rzo).. By simultaneously liberating and binding. and squeezed-a sacrificialvictim.gr i ri-*'".""H:t ::ff . V3d. which has ieJsivery changedthe situationcon- iivuiit.i.Ancient Philologists.r.roLu(tu nery.."l.."i-inat the rnyth courd be tracea uu.a'TheGreeks tended to equate Dionysus and the wine already in Classicaltimes.. frl I 224 .5.g."fu pr"rr.i.'e it is certain that the sacrificial rites.orr. is clearly not just a metaphor: the drinking of wine becamesacred when a whole complex ritual of bloody sacrifice was transferred to For of the laborsand pleasures the wine-grower. that this myth was invented in the earry Hellenistic age. tH.R. Gen. )"rq.. sionsanddisguises. Tan. {s) Xenokrates Ir. 7). the fermented drink made fro6 barley. a si*tn-ceni. .riri"g fice *-irr. a broody initi ation sacri "if"g.r8-zoup through late medieval depictions of wine-pressing. ANTHESTERIA PITHOIGIA AND CHOES l ''i l { l 'll i '' the normal order is inverted.. though largely analo€ous."Das blutninstige Keltergerdt. . Wortmann.f.Jir.:lT1l":l.'iuurir_ tion.Tlfr' r'il I 1. is criticizedby J. and cf. Nevertheless.:. Plat. rtg.1lii:xff j .. Wasson. Israel. For a detailed discussionof drugs and ecstasyespecially America. The Greek "eye-cups"are possiblya continuationof the Pastill pres' laeolithic"skull-cups"(Mtiller-Karpe[t966] z4t.. regardlessof his form-and leads the pious back to heaven. zz6-35.:. the god of wine offered a new and stable form of community. 49:tr.A.88-93.?Tf .3r.the.*o. was known p_?r:ntty.7 : el skori'onin plut..Tl:::ij.{ Here.g-rong seeschol.'"i.lJi.i1-y.Loi r6v'eos. To be sure. And just as groups had always found their identity and inner solidaritythrough a sacrificialritual.{'.may this always have JxistJ fifth century even if it was officialry ignoied.myths about the death of the inventor of wine came to be of descriptions.. G.anallegoryof wine_preparatron rwr.$"ru. La in 13t-62. FGrHist 328 F 5.but. Geldner III Ir95r].."'drini. forrowins Arist.since Homer. u." Androkydes.. e)The identi(rcatron with osiris.unspeakable sacrifice.G)Plat. aEur. Pliny N.3. and Fierodotus' emphatic sil"nce conJ"."0 ov wilamowitz 378-8o {ffijli. sFor conjectures concerningbeer and Dionysus seeHarrison (rgzz) 4t1-25.zt h*oo\. Hg_w. "Der Wein ist Dionysos.z9.nandecl in the qtently. gods had been immJrtal bv iefini_ able could a god die o. Among the Indo-Aryans..i..269-Z9. 4ooc. Is..::"a-.s J11. er. rz-5: ent at Pompei). the sacredintoxicating drink is called Soma.tries to prove that "soma" was an hallucinogenrc of he mushroom (fly-agaric).i^ i" lfi Fr*:#r?i.. *horu blood is representedin the sacramentar drinling of thi . whereas the story once again "ff"_ made""if distinctions betweenthe god and the victim. the sufferings. Philochoros.r." Zeitscht. rooted in the life of the hunter.r5.rr'uni'i. Murray in Harrison 11927) 3lz-+t.ypoem courd perhaps underlie {us coniecture The DervJni pupyrrr. O. The rite of the Anthesieria impries u .1d ttre.' Conse$"Blood of the vine" in Ugaritic:BaalII iv 37.7 Ta^. ofJohn 14. and we must considerthat other kinds of narcoticsmay have served similar functions in the religious ritual. Leg. natural and is attestedoutside of Greece. !i1a Fi.rTrr&r*t1 gt". tic But there ryar u-single god of whom this story was told: Dionysus. are far older than these.)4 Oq71t' Or. classique certain source known for the myth of Dionysus. FGrHist3z5F rz._then. F.ir *yit.ror.rl r.. Lec.5o. ANETr33.Phano519-28.gT*:i#*x#fi'..i.cf.g:. )5)b-c. but still a god. and transformation of the god regard. Maringer j9561t4-28. even though the history of the origin and disseminationof intoxicating beveragesin the Neolithic and in the early civilizations is still unclear. But thereare earrieratusions to it: (r) rr 13). trampled. death.1.'l:'lG.o"i". death is catim.. (wine as patuop. sAbove all.4. see Barre (r97o) 1$-49."the victim oif. philostratus claimed sThe oldest course/ hypoth"rl:.O'prlros. *':"1-ol.a god who descendedfrom heaven.rr.r.J11his inhibitions:ever.."..Isaiah63:z.drinker of the wine would be drinking the god himself.unspeakabr". Eisler j9z) esp..nr.-'6. 246-48. pressingthe grapes turns into the bloody sacrificial of tearing aPart. Uz._f-. Bull. . prat.". the Classicar Greekshad virtuaily ir. "Blood of the earth.gopiltrtrns (4) Isocr' rr (Bus tuxrts rtlvyv<i1t4v.ilff 225 rot the ra$q of Dionvsus as. +6-6. r. (re3z) and.-be. The associationof wine and blood.i"."H-ff:?#ti*' ugsi.itT--r#r=**rfr#i :ft..probably existedbeforewine.t to onomakritos o'37'5'probably (paus.. the male society discovered a new overpowering area of experiencein which the burdens of reality were swept away by the flood of something utterly different.284. Brough.lg.Cyclops de<is)." Schefold. Schott. D.o-u-hlt differ_ ent. Ror". ohd cf. Stud."ioiling and roasting.urdless of larer interpretations. was mashed.zz7-to. especially around the Mediterraneanwhere red wine predominates.. . 14. so this new pleasurewas actedout as a secret..58. MH z7 Q97o). Bacch. p. )J4-44."*:i:g.'uJ .*. .)itirl^i'fi:.*. ZPE z (1968). see Diod.in the Semiticrealm. for wine -G. u""tt"o. then via the Apoc. School Afr. Ctem.Phitot.ft.1'.

entertained. 6 .'..:lll''::.&ult of the dead appearedtime and again in which the dead were ilritaa in.t48..n. R P h4 t 1 9 6 7 1 . The Paroemiographers' claim that there was an especiallylarge numberof Carian slavesat Athens'is.But this approachtoo comesfrom the perspectiveof theChoesritual: this "black day" is a "white day" for slaves'o-a sign thatall is topsy-turvy-when they too may celebrate and participate m drinking.*:j . cf C'Dtmdzil' II (r87r..: ' ' ' at Zenob Par' 4')J Cf' Hsch' Knp' VuXn an addition in some manuscripis tt-tt' K.c.3o p. A.. they were thought to be independent. 146 "dremonis mira inventa" (+g).33 mentioned first.2t. Ath.tg of relatedfolk-customswere marshalledand it was found that /. op"nea casL accessories. "harmful u demons.4 above."or at most "spirits.'The "Keres" version.noiu* we-re overlookingthe function of the verseas a proverb.'Crusius traced it back to the AthenianDemon."l'iii'itt"-(tg22i . H." re\eTi1' guilt for death' to estabiish .ll CARIANS OR KERES ANTHESTERIA ).:. *e IV. "rp.s. az-'+g. According to all other testimony.19.::1. a b o v e ailn t r i m e t e t e ' g ' . 4. :llir / ir.2 of "Keres.td h"tt"" entitled to take --. Lepro0L Crusiu'' D"ubtt"t-opp cit'.33 (n.q above. ' 9 2itr e . der Enryclopiidie Wissenschatten'.if it is such. -A_talecta criticaad Paroemiographos Cralcos (r881. ltrrt 'i . .Rather. was a polemic againstDemon by Didywere speakingof Carians.. Eranos45 g947).r i ll| at the Anthesteria' qtq that the Athenians performed masquerades and hoiai "amid the Orphictheology""u fresented Bakchai.in the fourth cenfury n.n. who was writing before Philochoros. In this at. Ath. b l l over-hasty makinS ..z. . by contrast.. ^haunt which vocativedesignationaccompanied the city at the Anthesteria". II).which had been set asidewith scorn. aro*2o.. Par' 4'31. H. and finally.u._tried to show that Demon was wrong. was thinking of recitations performances iil.f.r :"::H:li:lilil1.'buteventhedrinkingcompetitionlf.. De salt..Ctu'a symbolicreprise of a bloody sicaltimes was an "initiation. 7 t c .5z' Centaurs 3 *.sand the li" i. ot" so"ices do not agree -to speak Some.d* comesfromlateantiquity. the only one to apPearin the old versionof Zenobius' collection of sayings. ' . the Athenians themselves it is hard to explain how such a misunderstanding..Mentioned secondin Phot." for whom no connection with any deadancestorswas attested. or the Keres souls of the dead. 152Miller : Zenob.. Admittedlv.i:::.r o 4 .'Carian"explanation. . the Carians in-habited part of Attica and.areagreedthattheywereintimatelylinkedtotheAnthesterta' and Ertrrfl. l+-*' L'.. . Still strangeris the story attributed to Demon: "Once.unsatisfactory.the. [1968]t4)' Pickard-Cambridge it into a ritual cry 1r"" O".n-but *V. +lt :.rii suda o tni.fr. more or less drastically. Pickard-Cambridge (1968)r4-r5 and '' srunel.t:lt-o]. The fact that the older tradition speaks of Carians was stressed by . r.13:1. there were philological misgivings that the souls of the dead were ever Keres. of course. Bripa(a r&pes. it was pointed out that the . i tdr ro alrtr Gr' rZenob.!'oii. 352Miller : Zenob. par.' v e r s e .Thus."::"-'^'-Z.rr below). z e n o b ' P a r ' r ' 5 o ' ? " ' . that "gel outt'".::""T:*: zz6 227 ."a Uy the theory of animism' both Otto Crusius . 'Wilamowitz (tg1r) z7z. or else part' Either way/ our inhabitants of Attica u.." "as though dead souls in the Anothers of "Carians. z above). AU r9 zo (n. 48-49. il. par.3 There the win Rohde strongly ad. . wine and drinking became arose whether to consider Dionysus here as the god of aouUt ""a tn" ot as "lord of the souls'" Against this. Cf. Luk. among the Greeks. Rona" (1898) RVIL II 1136-66. 9 8 . accordingto Crusius. Supplementum[i96r].:.r"r. : U ' 8 6 ' o o .^i" was seen to reflect a Pithoigiawas thought to contain the souls. '&nob. could havearisen there.il. (t929'1. Ap. 'ie'.r . a r e u n d e c i d e d . roo-tt1. u:u^. when the Athenians celebrated 'See IV. L. r9t15). REG 76 (t9o31.ii" p"if"t*ed in sacredsilence'incurring the order of life.deadsouls. strangelyunconnected il"w. of the orphic or h. 1.Rohde.l::. 4o..r.tt'"' lrg3zl ttl-r4. M. even "conjuring up" of the souls."ilu'u"s who were allowed to participate w"'e cottsideredthe aboriginal in"rt"riu by way of exleption. On DeFGrHist 327." the"day of the choe.Psroem' I 91 irri tn often appear asquotationsfrom drama' ent(qrouuravravrote xo1"'Ba'"" 'Proverbs' . 4.nymphs.ot^tut 4. Thracian and Getan slaveswere far morenumerous.ro:see '\obanszyniec. van tler Valk.Moreover. this evidenqs .-. and mus.o.. Cariqns Keres Whenmenbecamerambunctiousandtriedtoclaimastheirdue could rebuff them what had been granted simply as an excePtion'one 'tG-et out' you ' ' ' ! The Anwith the verse quoted from a comedy.explanation.lo p.Thus.uocuted soon a whole was the immediateparallel of the Roman Lemuria. reprinted in Corpus Paroentit'tgraphorum uroecorum..orrr"".:o in Al[gemeine fffru. was a late addition which. : ' . t*ti. as precisely thesteriais overJ" However. the Anthesteriabecamean All Soulsfestival. or 3.. reflected an ancientand securetradition.. Zenob.chased "^^"^u again..

Schweizer 2j-zg. if only becauseboth are "chased away."K&.." des Anciennes Fg67).1srhe Chols fi. r."u9" outlying areastogether with the new wine-perhaps even ridi"ngon the wlg-on+at carry the casks. above all.Men.zro. .. Kcp<is.-jf": lt is. Kapia..the Choes. ttPaus' r'39'5.:.T. driving u*uy tlr" alien .eras speaks therrce iv rois atovuntots App. AB. Masken Qg43). plat.B^ffi oaLr-.ii. Hesychius has nPo' parov.4.:::":: . the people chew on hawthorn.llilifi. it is atiestedthat on the day of. In mask customs such as those practicedin isolatedAlpine valleys well into the twentieth century the grotesquelymasked beings that invaded a village had.. \t961/6$' i5t-7o.and 'ut*uy.5-8. r7-t8. r 4Erbse: iy t!1 r. The motif of allegedly aboriginal inhabitants appearing on certain days only to be chased away afterward is found especiallyin one areaof folklore-the masquerade. they enter the housesas entitled fy an agreement. f!"Y:{.a. Th" i:tT1?.r'{ otza.n"r.. for a tepdv roi Kapiiu at Torrebis/Lydia see Nikolaos. f . someoneshould meet such Cariansstill lingering in Athens. If.1'fi :*." . this open-door policy very nearly proved the ruin of Massalia. z7. esp. ciltlcism b/ R S.'The now becomes comprehensible: during the Anthesteria. on the "schurtendiebe" in the Lotschentalsee L. .o .At any rate..ostlr8.n. 757.itv yoCou 6opr71 oi dtrcrvr(ovtas ioxatrrovre rad iAol6<ip ow. Schweiz. tEPhot. Meuli.ft"'r**ffi d.f il. $. Schwyzer. Ath.-i*pro_ visational. Suda r xrolt"d(ovteg iti rirv duat:6u roig xairois \nvqio's tio'"'ooJ ioorouu. rffi?.Cariarrrl. To this extent. ui vv<bpLs'ot vivu*o.i]f.\. Ur Ethnographie Schweiz (r9zg. rd 6. the meaning of whicn was disputed in antiquity (see Schol. Rritimeyer.i. Ev xaposakrn lt." many Gauls living in the surrounding areascould enter the city..o*edy and tragedy.fi r*:ru s.:fi. Brunel. 229 zz9 I . thus forging a link with xdpvos. "aboriginal inhabi tants.ANTHESTERIA CARIANS OR KERES the Anthesteria. and others smuggled themselvesin on carts driven into the city from outside and clearly used for transporting casks. *u. rirumi::nl l!:.." On this day.oand il. to eas!. "D'AthEnesi Marseill Reoue Etudes 15-30..'.2. suda r zoz3)s.'ill?-..u .Tol.d it. r)-64. they made an agreementwith them." come to the city. 6q e.&J. a explain Zeus Kariosrsor the aboriginalMegarian.The belief in spirits is intimately and reciprocally related to mask customs.u. z8 Arch." Kfipes. Kar. The mixture of merriment and seriousness particurarly is striking in the masquerade: wild laughter is actedout againstthe backdrop of terror and fright. recognizedthe structuralcorrespondence with the visit and expulsion of the Carians. P Beekes. rci ix rdv dpat6tv. 8lti:1lt 19 : paus.'3 approachingthe problem from By this perspective. or^o-n* iHdt'. see Paus.ornlnf f.Y^trl the barbarous Carians.philemon 4. l. which keeps awiy the Keres.MSS 16 (rgZZ). he would say jokingly: "Get out. Att. (phot. FGrLIist for ApoiloKapw6s in the form of a pyramidar stone been dialect variants even within Attica. after the festival. this prompts the hypothesis that the "spirits...They were mummers-probably called K&pes in Attic. l2Justin. however. you Carians!The Anthesteriais over!" 1' More important than the astounding claim that Carians ever inhabited Attica is the information concerninga custom which clearlv underlies this report: during the festival. .o..13.*+t.. Bvz.masked festival menacing mummers the city u. who filled the city on the day of the Choeswere identical.. perittthiarr.. however. Kapueta. 352Miller has only this version. Eust.rzz.r.On ihe day of tf.. taking theh into the city and into their homes.!.'. for instance. As one meaning for Kap. the right to be entertainedas guests."l.we can resolvethe contradictionsof the tradition.n.hard to say which way we should.oi41. homes.i . of Ltovvctaxai toltrai..:::. Krip).and also comparedthe legendof the murdered Aetolians(IVz.3o p. aliens. prov.and the "aboriginal inhabitants.As it turned out.which appearssecondin Zenob..But they may stay no longer than the duration of the festival. .rd Harpokr.te-'51jnsch. At any rate. in accordance with the "right of guest_ friendship.4. indeed. pursuing.6 The Attic Ktipes correspondat ieastin prrt to the Ionic Krpes.parodisticform of mummery.' airitv r*i:t#. 9378. It has been suggestedthat there may have existed an old inflectionKnp. Par..pes.44. Glottan .z.34 above).rffi ##. oftencontaindepictions of grotesquemisks in various forms that in_ duced reactionsof terror and even aggression. 364. The respectaccordedto them was explainedby their statusas the ancestorsof the human raceor as earlierinhabitantsof the country. Preciselysuch a custom is attestedfor the Anthesteriain t\s city of Massalia.of *i::. a.harm_ fLayhave "bogeyman" would fit the mummers equally well. this is doubtful.8o (paroem.rg4). mummers would ride around in the city on carts. der I{E..#.rz above.'othough there but nZenob. pugriese carrateri.ai. ttSee IV..s'66.6.^.l. l*.tiH aTiliir*.. 4.'. "K. with lewd jests.?. In the caseof Athens. tul'd"^on..whereas the more artisticmasquerade becamecenteredai the GreaterDionysia.tit.the Anthesteria remained a more pri^itirr". for Apolro Kriperosat Hierapolis see G. Volkskunde (r9z7lz8.u. apafi6ov 90 F 15. oem. anyone they met. steph..i.

see at Lev. swarm of th" iitt JJiur. Helbig. tlr:l. cf.tery 2oSee Ch. #611 iig.ThismythisaPeloponnesianversionoftheAttic nithoigia and Choeson a heroic level' qnd Marriage 4. qser tr8.4 There we see thesomewhat unsteady figures.81-85.++o fig. #328 fig. cf' the black f1gut" (tSrS).who seze a portion for themselvesand the people s1 draw again. the Choespitcherswere empty.:-."uii-. roo paraphrases last words. 'u24.1. is now aiready attested through lekythos from Je'* of Qatal Hiiyiik (seeI z. For the breakingof pots in funerarycult seeW. On this yet eachman -ignt be turned away. 88. simon. their 'See Timaios. 2)o 237 .j:t." at a separate encounteredthe sacredthrough that which is uncanny' myth tells of anotheropening of a caskwhich likeA pan-Heilenic wise atiractedwild guests:Heraklesstoppedat the houseof Pholosin bi* old the Pholoe Mountains. t68.the temples closed.n. II above. which we sing in the water to the Nysaean son of Zeus. #65r fig.ANTHESTERIA SACRED MARRIAGE AND LENAIA-VASES of character drinking at the Choes. qs. and there could be no more question of sacred silence. oiousrevellerswould bring the wreaths that they had worn to a temble and deposit them on a statue.1.rOn this day.cf. on the evening of the day of the Choes. . Omphalos Pl 5't 1::*. Lt 499-5oz. in Hebraic sin-srurg. at libationsfor the dead. f 7 LCNAM-VASCS with Even though the topsy-turvy order of the day of the-C-hoes' was enjoyed io the full' the goal its license. TApA 77 C946).85." this time.: = Metiger eg65) 68. V Herrmann.9. his host opened the stormeddown caskthat was sunkin the floor. it wur orr.7-5t (against this cf.'and then perform the further sacrifices 2 the sanctuary.robsaysthat in Atlanll:iHtg s tn€ bowls out of which people drink at the sacrifice an oath are consecrated for in qe shrine. the and alleys of Athens came to life with people flocking to the streets temple"in the marshes. zo. #B4z f\g. van Hoorn (r95r) lDgubler Q93z) 244.n" intrusion of aliens.uiulor. my lovely sounding song. Sqcred i . its drunken'*o." T-hiswas a favorite theme subsepainting: centaurscomefrom outsideto tastethe wine and are quently"drivenaway.Rather. 247-5o.i.crowned with wreaths. . 2Phanodemos..rt in Frankfurt H.eachreceivedhis pitcher of wine. behind pitch-covereddoors' Thus' one . At other festivals.or round clay rings.vere peculiarritual that closedthe day of the Choes.exceptfor that of Dionysus "in the Marshes. comedyof innofi"Jr .Harrisonlgzzl 4) in which the ry'u1oi. Plato Critiai l. 97. and in his honor. urr-r9. Sundown on of Anthesterion signaled the end of the "day of pollu[ne welfth Bf 1isn. R." again begun by king Demophon when he was entertain"He ordered that after the drinking was ovet they should ing Orestes: depositin the templesthe wreathswhich they had worn.1zi pace Harrison. lmmerw atu.alone in the centralmoment of the unspeakable in sacrifice.. ko-ax. Thereuponthe centaurs ended from the mountains. LS 97. as "die Neige zu spenden"-but Buerz is not ottdvtew.?jl1'i:. mustalwayshavebeen to overcomethe "day of pollution. a 9. pelike Y6i 1t8 ry3. ior Basilinna -E.I. 3Rnn. pl. 5: zr. since no"t thev had been under the sameroof with Orestes. "rambling in drunken revelry. no one the frieids and family who had been invited.ltygl th:.Uu :::ir:ft tol-t^1l.. #58t fig.etc. FGrHist325F n. SBMiinchen (rgrn). Aristophanes has his watery chorus of croaking frogssing of the eventsat the temple "in the marshes":"Let us strike up the hymn to the sound of the flute. We may recall the bands of werewolves' the sacramental fust Oelpniit sacrifice."holding their empty pitchers.frcl 6e tilTTeio dnogtpurbal.after the drinking was over.tu.vases. it is brought to life in the depictions on the Choespitchers. zr?).n.z8 above)'The Picture on the bY which have been coniured (ARV'z76o. rog #6oz fig.rg." Thus. #385 fig. unfamiliai uncanny guests^were arinking of day. this rtBoiyta.but they could not ft simply put away.26: "priesteis'. r. the erretta&tew iv rQ iepQra ini\onra. 5o1. FGrHist566F r58.liwr"' animal masquerade' show that centaurs existed as masks: see his pl.n"titiifi the animal's hind part fastened on.rApollod. Donysus.eachshould lay his wreath around his Choespitcher and take it to the priestessat in the temple'in the marshes.'zo so at presentbeside the wine. Deubner 0%z) gg. AK 6 [rg({."3The word xpatna)toxa&os.when the drunken crowd staggers procession my sain to credprecinct at the sacredfestival of pots.It is Precisely in with the sacrificial action' th. not every reveller was quite steadyon his feet.tt":t-:i:f-1: explained out it"r^"r. ro7. however.8. This sort of tft" yt"tt-.According to the tale. table.They grew drunk and startedthe fight that in Archaic vasein their bloody defeat.4t. receiving *.ind the hirpi Sorani."Hence the i. H. from has no direct connectron wlth tne uru' men (rgoo)." to end the the neriodof godlessness: Chytroi follows the Choes...j. pR tfS-19. xs16fig."captures the mood of the evening.After drinking two and a half liters of wine. On a visual level. Dionysus. koax.integratedas part of the must therefole withcence.Dumezil (tS!g) Brommer 2. 527.". 87 : Deubner (r9l:) pl.

ruter AK6(t96)' pl 5'1 TarquiniaRC 4r.'o'*i[ii"av.E.il in VerDionyrus on'in oi.. s"e caly.n"'O"n day of the ... tionedthereafter(79). who suggests cf' see of the day of the Choes.ry..'Aie s ' called simply "the veneraDle 'Priasrc pt'hr1 ottvl.6 mtxtu6'riad open only on the day of the was written on a stele kept in the Limnaion.".rni'i'wh"erestoriesappearofthegod."il to the -.62.cano.97= ARV'?ro57'96. order' The sacredwine was distribbolic restitution anclu"p"tt"""!nt portions: everyonehad the same uted in the Choes p*["tt i" equal gatheredtogetherat a conamount to drink. w.ait"..""a ia'q") ""ly. Antike und Abendland (tgso). "tipsy crowd" marched to the .'. G" as night..'o.rtyU"theoneintheLimnaion'TheEleusinianHierokeryry men(ibid. Mus. pl."n"'tuo".'*" '"tog"it" evening assembly'Killing and eatand sacrificing compiex in thii order to makea svmi. ct' yipatpalltlt'opos)'is tttnot ''-! and *u' t"ua'ily"{Jtut.'o fr". i.ii.death' and the sacralmeal' .Ariadne.SACRED MAI(XIAGI. fig' z. AK 6 (rg$) rr. o*.lil from the day of *iuan"'is shown..t-. 37.."i" in ilytn brought back to life in iust this way' apart are collected. (Cd. rrts HiPP-9lvlu-' pno'a*'i+za1' n56-7il' fire"' (Il'.:n:'H:E1lIriHffiiX".l.. Dioahoes pitcheiin New York on which the marriage of :::":i. t"rarriageprocessions in nallt^". Xlll. t i^t Hsch Arozuooulap'os' That this act was ro.9 Ael Di:t.. moving toward a door behind which a womanwaits.4r. AK 6it961\.t :1: Art inscriptions (/c II/II'? 6288..:.Time ...'"-1il:"'lljl::i:t^l-::"T::::: p"* of "iii" statingwhat wasrequired the "queen" .il.76. together in love'. of a bull beside Ariadne (E.zs_26. of wedding AK sitg = env' to57.. there is no possibility of shameless :t^:'."rt".oca. which upp"u'"i"'tf'u "tro 2)2 fr' 652' tottt"*t of a child's game: Men' rit"l'.n"iJ""g.2. Arist.ayof pollution" at least would be out be clear that the y"t i. Ariadne oder Basilinna.r.til. 6 (rs$). th"t-"nPl: ointe apPornteq'v r'e app d bythe"li". 27.f.nli"*T.i"" conditionsat Athens: marshesand seemsso inapproptlt"i" if1" focal where i"nuuitunt' the sea-are the places bt in" . fig."queen.-. Sinron.ahe to corresponded the centralact drinking at the Choes hunting the closingrltua-l'9f'the of the bloody .+F l' (rq68) rr' conlra..'ill-':'d lltii'jl.. Mus. z1t. 5'r' rhe ...::1Ji:ilil3lli*"i":?. Tillyard. (of the Komos-". Afft. pl...il"i""a uvg"ihering the remiins'in .H"Hf.. Did"". Now.{nthesteria this occurred is not recorded. LSS rr5 A rr-14.. Deubner Q91z) 7oa-1'o2... M. anctsince the "qtt""ttt' was formally delivered coupling by trii". eii'ioPfi"l":'l.f. Immerwahr' !!nA n Chous at Ll946l.l pacrir.f."t9 9: : i:11 4i:t'0"n" (= cf.For a satyr-childnext to a recumbentcouple on a South ltalian Erhdisi see Mitteitungen7o (r9$)... for the oath of the Tiporpar menit o"r.rrt Marwitz.llThisisconfirmedbyvase-paintings..T'lit between recognize' 7atrL' and poirlAeliusrjt""y"YJtiil (p...irr.Ll':::l:"d atthe ff*.elolsriveFio..r83: van Hoorn (r95r) #745 fig. cf' alsoIII 8 above' tr.#..T:li: Ai (E.iL i*. ro5 rz.^ . clasr Bekk..*H:'1"'.t.e' resardlessof whether the Suchwas the story oidio"yt"t tornipart'" oi *e'" mlved to Crete' Perhaps eventswere said to occur ut O"tptti which in tn" nameDionvsus theMarshes' t'ap"L'iiv .H. F'ros'see f.. fot tni' temple wasnormally were dt'ties for this daY'Fourteenwomen who assumedthe p'i"'tly .. likewise. AAIIJ LE.J.il a priestessexThe tempte *u' ua^ittistered by a priestess-not but by a woman dosed' . r"" uu. fjiti::l..5.il. Piikard-Cambridge "d".'51'$?l3i::'. confirrnedthrough sThe form yipatpalreminine of yepapos. belong to the night' as do the works 9ll'*ir.r..Dlemosth.i .r.'h.Deubner "Thus also E...choLselryz. Rdmische hayrng pionysus *itfi ih" ho.e}rlpepwoi yapotas scandalous Demosth' t8'tz9.".). the altar.t* ""ty r'nmtheChoestotheChytroi. )rtvva.."" ss. Pl' +l'An Italic v?se PorK. at the start of whiih the "sacredChytroi'" uionlo celebrate it. For Dionysus rt"ppi"g towird a woman on a throne see the oinochoe (not the normalform oltn.n."' their head was the t r r r s r r r L q v ! ' e v r " "}"JJ::: on T". it is transmittediwltfr-iifferini accentuation) E'bt".'d. t.1z.'ifit". a"ir. escorted by torchbearerswith Chous.iu Bus.r o(966)' "i.Diod' piet.J . ' A r :L r :1"-5'-:*L ..'becausethe Pithoigia is clearly preliminary night of transition possibletime left in the festivalis the i.. nachin* aerintiiiir. ro For DiPl' onysus.t uuo""1' of osiris ihe myths Aktaion " [o'" ''app'r4o-4iRobert)' (Etr. Now au theselugJwere thJ remnantsof a victim torn secratedplace.I\I ANTHESTERIA hand or eventtung pitchers(obviouslylong empty) in wreath-covered the-lighrof torches' reeling and caper.)assiststhe women at the (bloody) sacrificefor the oath On the rleocztd on tionedin the oath seeJacoby FGrHisf.which :ffj1.rozr.m)in the Brit.Bacch't.ri. Pol.51trJ:ix ii.. +hpouestlon. o6...'J#irring in Lerna t..rri""iy i .8l'-1'.42o) at L't' Cen = t't M' zz7'35'and A). ...clearly.e.ilo'pr't""J1'rlt Pentheus up" (Plut' and reaPPears' is "called Dionvsus. ..Hsch' (incorrectly zl' o' . correctly comments:"Es gibt Szenen' in 6z-63. tnottut woman came .f. 7 S'ro8.Demosth.t Hoorn Ir95rl #76 ftg' rr7. framed by the revellers mark ":i*r "?O The torch and the dangling Choes pitcher. and .sreturn himself as whcre Dionysus-reveals from the depths. *nrch .and 228.h" lyre. Fory.-. tl.. tlt-'3'n 33 above). Simon..h. r."popii)'"Demosth'" sg' zailoll s. Vormittug und vielleicht den Beginn des Nachmittags" (1932) rog. is where vic"""'tut miraculously'This things disappear uiJ *tfut" again timsaresubmerged. that the zdtrtos ffi::ff#ir.lit.. For reveilers with ChousbesideDionysus. ." Sg..2 P' 16 col' 44Gomperz Cf ' cf ' ll'5'n'4t' above Li11't'qrposT6r p'e\6u ou.. .. which was .u.1toefrom the Villa Giulia: see L' Curtius . ii{"ino"r.XII 3. TheHope 23J i.." For onysus and Ariadne inlhe bower see Chous Leningrad zo74St' = van Hoorn #579' Metzger (rqsr) pl.' lO+f.. 98.. Cno. striding along by for Chvtroi' wit\ *"rf:1. Ker6nyi.l^g begun th"eevening the new phasehadalready "'' j. : Metzger (1965) r2NewYorkMetr.25o). zz5Lobeck). yepatai Phrrnlchf.'fitit it tn" phce bloodshed.. nicht gefellt werden darf.

it-at least when the painter restrainshis fantaly and l. but only the 'king's' wife. a herm. Bekk. GB Il r48 V 'fheseus:the Against this cf.{l .lr . .5. 85. of the "sacred" in the sacredmarriage . many sacredsecretcustoms. rz with reference the myth of to to king must defer when Dionysus appears.5 2 6 _ 2 7 . most importantly.containsthe motif that the king departsbut comesback in disguise. raFarnell (r9o9) zr7 (with doubts)." or did a mortal representthe god-Evenin one of the surviving speec\ss most likely the "king" himself?'o of Demosthenes. AJA a6 Q94z).this report givesus the outline of a set program.ti.97-tro.7). he"can kill the woman' Theseoutlines would have to suffice. he is revitalized in the ancl. Kerdnyi. 69.In a similar way Oineus leavesDeianeira Dionysus: Hyg. Fab. 357d.". 358e. r.55." Our sourcesare uniformly silent and offer no assistance de_ in ciding between the two possibleexplanations:was there a symbolic union with a statue. With !9od. Reallexikon rigyptischertReli_ der wnsgesch e "."unspeqftable. l]h. This was no anthropomorphicgod. Is. T a l c o t t. 1 6 S eIe r .tnno-or. though lackinglrms and legs.6-:.nn.H. branchessprout from the body. Dozensof Attic vasesexhibit an utterly primitive form of Dionyslacstatuethat has sparkedthe curiosity of religioushistorians for a iong time. and a man in front of an artar see a fragment from the Agora pL . II. V t7 An.21 a statue (of Dionvsus?). besideher a man with two torcheso!1 basket' Chous-see van Hoorn (r95r) #87o tig. FGrHist)F 34). AK 6 (rg$). (72. 3r."'s In spite of its lack of clarity in the details.The depictionon the brack "Burelekythos-Mtinchenr}7t. op.32. Dion. Instead of these. Thus. fot a supplementseepickard-cambridgetliogi l". which deah with the scandalthat the daughter of a hetaera-herself not blameless-rose to the statusof "queen. the greaiestdancourse. she saw that which a non-Athenian should not have seen. rgrz). rj". above. 8 above). the oaths were taken "over the sacrificial baskets.such a woman enteredthe room that none of the manv other Athenians enters. saw Egyptian jk'*irffi trtrfi d.Iltatd icht trgS z). r:. two jugs of *ir.4r. Il*t.195. and cf. she administerei the oath to the 'venerable women. cf.r."This woman offeredup the unspeakable sacrifice on behalf of the city. Whatever was carried down into it and whatever was then taken out of it-we recall the night of the Arrhephoroi-it was followed by a sacrificial oath by which the "venerableones" were bound together..ti The details of the sacredmarriagewere kept a secret. Isis conceives etnbrace Horus afterosiris' scatteredremains have been gathered together. Deubner (:'g1z) ro7-tog.For coupling with a statueof Leukipposbeforethe wedding at Phaistos Ant.obtalnsnew regenerativepowers. "H. van Hoorn [r9:r] p. she was given to Dionysus as a bride. cit. Foucart @go4)r1B-4r brought orrt the strangecorrespondence that Osiris was torn into fourteen parts (Piut. Enteringa placethat may not be entered: next to the temple in the sanctuary"in the marshes"there was a subterranean "house"'u which obviously came into play here. n .u. however.rz9. and that accordinglythere were tombs of Osiris in equal nufltJ ber.ro Herejtoo.' who assist in the sacred acts. inwhich R.Winckelmannsprogr.) has been linked with the marriagein the Bukolion.j58a.::-_ott"ltlg teaves the usual horde of intruding out satyrsand maenads1r"'eFigure 7). 'i . Marwitz. cf.Tn.llr r r.z)."There were fourteen "venerable ones.: in PIut.." This indicatesa large number of sacrifices Dionysus.ti af<w n egog).. The myth of Kephalosand Prokris (Pherekydes.7.re and the god enters the Pythia sitting on the trifod..zr8.64-67.A robe was hung around the column.::ff "tr". 7 7 Erbse(n. pl.it is not statednor is it probable that all of these altars were in the Limnaion. Goldmann. f|.awini wine lT]T:f.zr. and cf .fif *q *l*#t*l#:':. Diod. il i lr . describedtwenty_nine .the sacred marriage thit followed the bloody fathering of the remainsmust likewise belong in the context of rituai-restitution.sometimes there are two masks peering in either direction." we are provided with little more than vague indications. ger:just as the woman can revive her dead partner. for zb parts.H. ' A I A + s ( 1 9 4 5 1 . The to Vases lrgz3l. The victim is b{ appeased b:1"9 given a woman. *:T"" move about the whole scene. AntikeundAbendland rz(1966). t'76 see " jg. the crude indication of.t Ifl ANTHESTERIA SACRED MARRIAGE AND LENAIA-VASES llfi.. Bonnet. Ael. likeJanus.d. Simon. And this_isseveraltimes attestedin myth and custom. we see caKes skeweredonto it. 5r.for aman with Chousand sacrificial 2)4 camewhen the "queen" was presentedto the god and the rite dtmax gas accomphshed-precisely what Aristotle unabashedlycalls the sexualact' drinking on the day of the Choessymbolizeda If the sacramental sacrifice. E. Lrb.were it not for the pictorial hadition which in all probability provides us with a precise inhication of the form in which Dionysus appearedon that nigit. 9 a b o v e . the stamnoi. Sig_ Zo.t_l:q:.a body.rie. For two komasts-a woman at an aliar. a threeJegged sacrificialtable is set up in front of th" .ls indeed.D€e 56 -'A' Frickenhau Lenlienaasert s. covered with all sorts of bul. ls. There was simply a mask"suspended on a column." corresponding to the fourteen Athenian altars of Dionysus. trres to explain the 'Aldobrandicwedding" as referringto the Attic Hieros Gamos.-: 235 .tutrr".".that of the prosecutionagainstNeaira. she performed the ancestral customsbefore the gods on behalf of the city.

between the "tying" of the 'i6puots''u This word could iust "setting-up.Frickenhaus#.titY"!:. Simon aLeningrad rg8g3.(Hock lt9o5l 6z argues (aipeow Cdd.at the altar of the venerable women.zo.2'was set up afterthe sacredwine had been consumed:the deity was present."pr"'r*t-asthemortalcounterpar-toflhemythicalmaenads-the office on the ..f theAnthethe Chytroi. which is linked to Arluar = the attribution to the Lenaia is the name of the festival is literary evidence for Dionysus fleprxtourosat Bcrxlgt (Frickenhaus z7-zB)' There phoen. zz.. In this way.f""rty "*ttiUitt "itLf. zq TGFin Clem Stront't z4't67' the oracleand Eur.nor in Classical the god's death and resurrection.z? the "queen" carry it up out of the subterraneanOikos power in the Limnaion?And what was the sourceof the regenerative marriage?It is curious how the statue for the subsequent soirnportant of Dionysus on Lesbos combinesthe head and the phallus. Graef and *S *' Langlotz. conj.lt:. seeMnaseu.16 above.. Paideuma jg5o)." Yet at Athenswe find nothing more to illuminate the dark abyssof the unOnly this much is clear. hesitantly. j.riu". "igta'.38. Lenaia.j.. Thoseargrrinj -1zg Opusculal above).rs in a similar form on herms-is i*g" it connected with Lenaios' (tg69) z7:. Coll. p. orDtros. Mainz (r9$). Matz. Vlasto. rather.vopdvos Theophr. are women on the Lenaia-vases evibut the *o-un was scandalous. the mask was raised." administering their is a text listing tl".7. and running adorned..ich i"c. zo. but alta. "goo or masr . -ree 4 ttt = ARV? 46o. encircledby ivy.6.van Hoorn (rg5r) #fu1 f\g. Fiel.ANTHESTERIA SACRED MARRIAGE AND LENAIA-VASES It is impossible to decide which Attic festival of Dionysus this the most corlmask-worship reflects. 18.#zoz Sarkophage PrincetonseeF. A similar .One of the Lenaiavases depictsthe arrival of Dionysus. for the wine his already been poured into the. mally continue to existj III. Die antiken Vasenuon der Akropolis zu Athen II (1933). e t c ... " D e r M a s k e n g o t t i . _Dee a^ 1.(te69)'. but preferablyin Metzger (rs6l) Pl there are men portrayedhere 27. AA Q96). l V e b 8 two women of masklike ster in Pickard-CambriagJ (r 96z) 8o' The votive offering by not decisive:see of Dionysus-wf. those advocating the Lenaia were Deubner (rg3z) tz7-12. 9 5 t ) . the drinking of wine and dancingwith ever greater frenzy around the column. tr' zBesides Frickenhaus. ' A M 5 3 ( r 9 2a ) ' ^ 8 r . duty' lt is likely. can virtually see done: the most important thing was the mask.stamoi tt a wine-drinking noi. schol.'" .n. undecided' Metzger Simon (1969)276.'Eur.PI. z..33above. 7oB). his theory gTtlot be conclu.". blood and flickering fire.*i"ty of the "venerable ones.Rather. fixed and adorned.53. t for a . E. they told the simple myth thatDionysusdisappeared and returned from afar. the continuance of life through death. then' that they dently performing a solemn.65r. sacred . For the Greeks.. a Kar eora p."f"t"a.."Aut for a connectionwith the Anthesteria'. ( 1 9 5 5 ) s a z .6 Q . One of the oldest Lenaia-vases a depicts woman dancing in front of a great mask of Dionysus set up Did in'a cave.' for the connectionwith the Abh." Chytroi itself. Cook I (r9r4) 7o7 @f. clothed. BCH87 r 9g\.Pickard-Cimbridge to for the day of the-Choes'with reference Phanodemos' <tgl5) &-0i3. Baumann. 15.n.oAlkiphr.s.were Nilsson' ldl 3r (19:16)' FGrHist 1z5F tz(see IV. zo5. Werecognizehere too the enduring elementsof those prehistoric restitutionrituals. pp. Caus.z.l)^1t).nt i. w w r e d e .1toJUr"."where it was storedfor daily use. the equivalentof the skull. "oeakable The statuebetraysits origins. which was low it was Lroughtand raised up. Frickenhaus p.r.set For the setting-upof a Dionysush:lT-T ""::t:tP-':lli.9 5 . see ir. The "queen" had to enter a room which no one otherwise ever entered. There ropes temple-wtth.f stJria which mentions...as a column. 4. H.rs at the iime of Hekataios(cf lII'6'n 8 above)' itself. August Frickenhaus. link with the setting-up of the fourteen altars. The god and the bride must have been led in a double oBerlin r91o. ]ust as the animal's bones-most importantly.tr th" wine is set up before the god of wine' In either case.'tz J.t n sacrificewas now given shapeagain.n" goa i" the Liknon. .66-6T. z8-34. that amid prayer and sacrifice.led by Hermes. It is not a permanenttemple-statue We but is simply improvised for an annual ceremony. who made Since called them "Lenaia-vases'" or-"fa"r. The table would then be broughtand food and wine set on it. the ritual attempted to document the restoration of order after its violation.it ing is known of the l"-ii" the Choesvaseshave recentlyyielded uP someevi"'i""fy. The Greeks did not subject this phenomenon to any sort of sociologicalpsychological times did they speakdirectly of analysis.rg.h"t speaks and another Choes depiction has appeared on a Choes pitcher"3 in the ritual: here we see the an earlier stage . 237 .that amid the singing of hymns. Die dionysischen . t g 8 . its skull-had beendepositedat a specificsite-or.raisedand consecrated-so here the mask. Meineke). flanked by two women with the wineIl"rt in any case/part "f kantharos uid u ttuy containing fruits''o This is not' pithoigia.EAAIv rrc4 III. .B. r4z8-41also also Hock (r9o5)56' 2)6 l ocwell refer to the strangestatueof Dionysusas to the two stamnoiin L]ni.lncontrast to the other Lenaia-vases' a bull's skull in the picture ..'i6puotu 4. speakable. van Hoorn (tg5l #z7t fig' 38 ARV2 p|.rru"y of these vases. 3r9. the god would suddenlyappear in the middle of the night to celebratehis sacred marriagewith unparalleled vital power. a "iJrt " betakenlightly:thedepictionthusbecomesafurtherexampleforthesyncretismof The main argumentfor OririrlOioiyr."n. pl.rt up"'inolder ttT::.that a previously been dismemberedand destroyed in an un..r We can surmise the course of the nocturnal celebrationonly in vaguesteps.""t toit idol and the offertory table' There is --\ " : rz49'r3' Nilsson (rc))' 24Athens. (1968)1o-34."f".

r8..t:I 1rY55) "davon kostet 595.i ANTHESTERIA CHYTROI AND AIORA ii. we have the priests and bloody food.". zr8: Theopompu s. Accordingly.The shorter one claimsthat "no one ate" from these pots.e. A.". "Eine Dithyrambos-Aufftihrung in Athen. 88 5. z.ias Theopompus..(Jacoby U.. .v oiievi rd }j:'--h xai rils yinpas i)v iiltouor"v riavresoi xara rilu ronw. 5.rr.3 and this gave rise to the theory of a meal for the it deadfrom which the living were excluded. has been . Even today at a funeral in R. ro76." A. Eust.. 42r. thegod who carriesDionysus awayand brings him back. flour and baking bread or cakeswere as yet unknown: all edible into uruitrr thut could be found in nature were put fogether to allay hun"""r.#t?. pt"put"d with honey. der Seelezum Gedenken.3'Who took the mask down from the column. a54-7o. then the festival iJ probabiy the Dionysia. Deubner Q93z) pl.E. axns ix xtaooi xcri dpn6\. 6-zz. pl. brought this long and many-faceted and 5.ov. AK 6 (rg$).. rc76.. the revellers'merrvmaking and turmoil continued in the streetslong into the night. not to the Olympiangods.Whereashis sacrifice would probablyoccurin the night betweenthe Choesand the Chyhoi. Pickard-Cambridge (1962)pl. rather.16.rs-sia.. to Chthonic Hermes.\ trr-rJ.Da Vid. Il ir{rLli ' fi{"I 'l ll."oThus.among Russianssee Wtiter uxu und Volkbrauch Chriitentum. FGrHistrr5F 347a. yi:rpav nav' Cf.7. ARV'z AK 6 (r9$).. pl. Harrison (ryzz) tasted.2.zo\." If the identification of the ditiyramb is correJt. Suda 16zz = Theopompus. Schmidt.r 'l'" i bridal processionfrom the Limnaion.cf.635.il:::":tbu .'This meal. lm lnteresse Sache as d nlays significantrole in folk customoutside Greece well. z1 = ARV'z4436 The wagon-ship belongs in the Dionysia rather than in the night of the Chytroi: see lll."#f . i. 7.'#1. Nilsson il::.as &46iua 17 writes G22. Brendel. 9. sacrificedto Hermes..They.. New York z5.On the panspermiasee Nilsson (1955) (t'87 6o.. ff?.whose temples. however.3.ep6<ov [epiav. roo.5.*. the "food in ihe pot" conclusivelyestablishedthe daytime order..6g..3'The doors of the Bukolion likewise closed after the god's bride went in. to the Bukolion in the Agora.5. Hermesis the mediatorbetweenthis world and the next. perhaps to put it on and embody t\q god for a night.Hsch oxtds.A nopnfi beginning alongsideDonysus. which 3tBoththe skyphosBerlin F z58g= apyz r3or. perhapsin the Limnaion.e:. for their part. Solschenizyn.J^"".^i"d "u supper for the souls. 4lz (t95). Theopompustells the myth of the 2Harrison(7g22)37. orepp." Meded. is arbitraryto call 16z i. and none of the priests eats from the pot which everybody in the city cooks. niemand.. Sosibiosin Ath.77. FGrHist rr5 F 3147a. 857. Simply put. "nattirlich durfte niemand von dem opfer essen". On on the other. Friis Johansen. tfldv arippa eis yt'lpo:vE$tloavres Didyrnos Schol.r. pl. .interpolation. . Volkglaube "D#n bekam jeder in seine z Sachen (r9ro).as we recall.:t P. the volute-crater 59o.amongmodern GreeksseeB.ot9. Ach. Metzger Q96) 66. Selsk.. The processionof Donysus underneath the ivy-canopy on thu -ugon recurs at Alexandria. to the procession the "queen". AIA 49 j9a).13. seealsothe bell-crater of Vatican.i:ffi1". and cf. van Hoorn jg5r) #zp fig.'. 648bEcti 6i to na' vLou. Wifstrandin Nilsson [1955] Xouolv is also in the paralleliext F 347a)r6tv ltiv'o.no man yeioa<rBol.but.. whose gateswould thereupol closefor another year. FGrHist rt5 F I *P: 4tu' vuelu adrois i8os flois) Xouolv (tyouotv Cd.J.o.n.T. RW z6 (rgzi). saysthat "it is their (the Themore comprehensive Athenians')custom at the Choesto sacrificeto none of the Olympian gods. die wir. Poll.. then. ohne (r97ot). der 722 zg. HarrisonlryzTl zgt. version."2and it certainly does reappearin the dead as-well. it representsthe most primitive of ail ]"aent coming from a time when the arts of grinding grain lestivalmeals. navoreppia iv y\uxei i{ltpdvn. ju. Simon. in which festively attired men sing while standing around a three{egged "maypole. Of course. the one hand. "r#11L'Eppi1^6i.r4above. Mommsen (r898j398*ur. Aristoph' Ach..pl. attached such importance must be reevaluatedin light of the bell-craterCopenhagenNM 13829:see K.among Serbiansand BohemiJnsseeJ.ultzriav f to. is allegorically depicted on the Chous. the one seasoningfound whole in nature: ihir ir th" "PansPermia'" The historian Theopompus has a report on this in a passage bansmittedin two versions. cf. 3. a vegetarianmeal. DasVotLslebin Neugriechen l' E.7. is unknown. trft j.ll[1 . the food in the pot was eaten on this day by everyone in the city except the priests. etc.'F schol. and the skyphosin Basel..t as the Pannychis would accompany a wedding until sleep finallv day to a close.*X.r9o._lt an.. 579-25. AK 6 Qg$). 5z der Zutat ausloffelten.AK 6 (196). A.Aristoph.i:'.were closedon the day of the Choes. 2. havebeen linked Louvre G 4zz: ARV'z1. (the.t As the etiology of the Chytroi.The little Choes pitcher to which Deubner Qglz) 7o4-LoZ. Ran. em.Deubner(tg3z)ltz:Nilsson.t74. Clrytroi Aiora The "day of the pots" took its name from the specialfestivalfood prepared for it: grains of all sorts were cookedtogether in a pot until they were soft.the more so because was by for accompanied talk of sacrifices Chthonic Hermes-at the Choes.rils 6i . jede Schtisselein klein wenig Honiggrtitze.. pl. Gjeistad.r). r.4. 32See nn.z6 above.X$ovi<p.sourcefor Schol. Kallixeinos.*iliff t 239 48 .cf. FGrHist 627 F z (p. The antithesisis maintained all the waythrough. and then sweetenedwith honey.though only because is part of an especially it iotot the tradition. Lipperi (r88i).M) Aristoph. O.r. Deubner Q93z)pl.

ted the by no means all connected with they are. 'AA4zs' 6. a woman. Coll. sfls.5 above. the evidencecontinuesup through Irrd ttt" century e. That it occurred on the third day of the Anthesteria is shown by Callim. they remained hopelesslyovershadowedby the Dionysia rrrorninent.) pt )7.6) Lekythos. the maidens and women of Athens must likewise r'zthoughof course just on a swing. 8 S e eI I . dybues Xirpt'vot. as the Choespitchersshow us. tQ rainls 6uop'art npooaTopeooat 'Eppilv' Sacrifices to terms .r-34. boy with stri6il on the altar.n.filleu pithos. an Apulian lekythos. business The day of the Chytroi contained a specialdelight for children. M.): iaeri)te cav rois Kurlpous. 79 Robert (the festival .between the Choesattd ih" new start on the day of the iacrifice at sacramental pots. Hsch. garlanded women/ 77 to the right the samethrone as in #r. Cf.'Thus.Hyg. for Just as an agon ends a sacrifice. this is unfun. Agons are frequentiy represen. trJcl4. But Panathenaia. aition. the ephebeswho played lie second role here. a fillet hung up as a sign of festivity. FCrHist t5 F 147 b: 6taoot)6was oiy rous dvBp<inrotts. too. F 84. *'oPq).which functions as its cause. D e u b n e r ( 1 9 3 2 ) r r 3 .so there are agons attested the bhytroi. Nat. S.2. (4) Hydria.t7:"women perfuming clothes". the masqueraders longer have rights. The few men who were able to save themselvescooked t\u1 meal of grains in a pot into which everything which could be founq was thro'wn together. Deubner(1932) pl. n = ARVz 711J."At the same_time. above all. Mtinchen 44.of IP$* c rtue Srrl swing. Immerwahr.or evenEros himself. even so. p. an open rifios stood beside it in the groundwhetherit was seenas an opened wine-caskor meant to receivelibationsfor the dead is uncertain. ilttep xai rilv \optilv rltraocv ' ' rois pqociv ilptlpq. cf.7.r: IIAIA|A swings IMEPOI.Bull. r 5 a b o v e . the "venerable"Erinyes disappeared' The story of the flood complicatesthe picture becauseit brings in an entirely new myth. both the crime and criminals go down into permanent oblivion.or" n"p.2: satyr swinging a girl. 1t has long been are often depicted on Choes pitchers: zz' (c{' IV4-nn-rr' matter of dispute whether or not herms can also Portray Dionysus the thirz6 above). ro above.iouvre F 6 : AR:V3o8.In just this way the hood began after Lykaon's cannibalisticmealsor after the killing In at Samothrale. the Chytroi signified the . ro = ARV2a249.8.4 : Erat." by meansof the sactri"edto appeaseHermes on behalf of rifice to He]^"s mentioned above. Ael. lTr:"" ev. TAPA77 0946).The slavesand laborersare sent backto no work.212. thereby replacinganxi. Diog.ANTHESTERIA CHYTROI AND AIORA flood. The memorial to the dead is like a departure. Hermes. The inscription is legible: Eiafvf|en .5.1.opri1 i1 viv aidtpa ('Edtpa Cd. by the association eii6eravoslyinpor the Orestes-Erigone tionson Choes pitchers. tmmerwaht TAPA Q946). and by depic178. At Cyzicus. Metzger Q95r) Pt' 5.ru.and cf . 256-58: robes on a swing above a fire.6. Ath. "Plut. and virgins: that is.56. fr.14. FRlll a8:a girl swinging.. the saga on new sh-ores.84r f . In this way they regained their strength and . The story of orestes can also be concluded in this way: orestes was purified during the night-the Areopagusmet at night'-and after being given one last sairifice. lGIllIII'?zr1o69 (ephebic on Choes-pitchers e. FGrHist or.7j. 259.52. of course.named the whole festival after the name of the day on which they "those who then survive4 regainedtheir courage.1 turning away:Bvpa(eK&pes.r7z." DEt. (5) Skyphos.: restitution through 1z8F 57.) \eyop"iv4. fire was lit. Mus. van Hoorn (r95r) #ZU frg.n the great flood that coversall. little boy on a swing. Cam'Art and Trendalftl*i g (r94t) 235:woman letting 59. and new life can begin Thus. 64. energeticallyswinging a girl. Hsch. however. the dead..elorery of the solid earth after the flood. swinging on a swing. Cf. On South Italian Choes. a n d c f . Hermot. z Asfr.the sacralcharacter the of s c e n e w a s p o i n t e d o u t b y E . De domo t8. 42. Nilsson (rSl. to the left is an opened pithos in the ground. 3. see *'r'n.an. van Hoorn Qg5r) #z7o fig.zB.. spite of occasionalattemPts to make them more itap. after all.rs uldicatedby the richly adorned clothing.Antichthon Q968). 6Theopompus 7Luk.'o I.1 Akipa' 6opri1'AAnrycw l'Afr1uas Cdd. 3 . AM . the in" *ort prominent of the younger generation. The picturesof swinging girls on black figure amphorasby the "swing Boston 98.7. The myth that the Athenians told in connectionwith this custom surprisingly gloomy: a "wandering" maiden hanged herself. 3 . Marinatos.'). Q) Hydria. 240 247 .t7).r7"rioy"6vousirip r[ov t]avovtav i\acaaSat rdv a see van Hoorn (r95r) z6-27. but. it had a solemn Sroblematic 'rid" the Athenians. (1968) g: a garlandedman setsa garlanded Pickard-Cambridge fig.951. Gu6pin i968) 287' roPhilochoros.Berlin2589= ARV2r3or." vit. r3od.71.go (oscilhtb =nY.. Fab. (u) Chous. It was. Yet the flood is not infrequently linked to an unspeakatle sacriflce. (van Hoorn rrgSrl lyy). 2.. Cat. the Chytroi is indeed linked with the dead. the return to a normal way of hf. 'qSee II.918= ABV 1o6.nn. erlDelzvots'Bu<riarc fnapa]'A$fivqctu 1-xai fi rptto yevils 'Afli1vtyrw (hti'Hpryovr1s Meursius). n . r . For us. A throne was set up and coveredwith elegant fot a clothes.Aletis.ar.'suting. X inscription r9z 9) Lykurgos. a pithos in the groundas in #r. The newly won order is. New York 75. to is propitiate her. Vlasto. reterto the festival. tombs are garlanded with wreaths on tire twelfth and teenth of Anthesterion: SEG zB (1978). Louvre CA ztgr : ARVI 7t)t. New York 4. Metr. the of the flood provides a structurally appropriatecaesura. Berlin 2394: ARV'zrt1r.o.4. (r) Chous. to the right a throne with woman'sclothing and a wreath. B u s c h o r5 1 $ 9 2 8 ) . 'AB4zais [sic] Gaisford) fiz xa\oiow eii\eurvov. Cultic backgroundhas also been surin the caseof the Minoan terracotta group of the swinging girl from Hagia Tri31ed qvc:see Nilsson (r95o)31:n. r o o . CV France635:Eros swrngs a Brrl.. but our sourcesare unambiguousin calling the Choes "the day of pollution'" According to Theopompus." Here.. Laert. evin if it was a later addition in Attica. the encounterwith death andthe joy of life permeateone another:sometimeswe seea satyr.9.

^rhich swinging and suffocating is likewise solidly attested. though halfincomprehensible.\eds'Arlrtvas. zz5 explains Regisvilla near Pyrgi as Baoi). she was sometimesequatedwith Medea or Persephone. Fab.Milangrt iliiroiq eq7).3 (roiiir^7t.". 4. "the wanderer. Com. 6 . Addrpc' 6opri1 A$fiut1<rw.) Hsch.n.t-D*uu. Strabo 5 p. 2 . Gen.anox6mie). Panofsky. Aristoph. 7 . poem Errgone.u. 4 o above.88.the Chytroi. Schol. Hal.20-27 is peculiar: the sounding of the trumpet signifies the rejection of cannibalism. Medea was temporarily the queen of Athens. Ant r . T. Mantero rn . 14.". r m e d after him. Schol. daughter of that Ikarios who was visited by Dionysus and given 16u first wine.picture of phaedra swinging. z 7 5 e .74. according to Hyg. Eur. We may ask whether the Diasia u." act-of swinging in the morning breeze.we find a story. A Mythotogicarpnitrting by poussin in the ^#::::y tut^ut.u6e Poll. Apollod.fr.but goesback to the sixth century.tu is Thus.'' t3Marm. tirere inop.os.. 1 7 A r i s t . the daughter of Ikarios. all the way to Athens to aicuse him. Paus. r z H R R I ' ? 5 9 .s it i. Gen.Q .. 47r_78. z3 _ zg.] on Polygnotos.. Cf. M.9 o o .r25.2. Jacoby ad loc.. Sulla r4.lsEven 6^/esn The father.:'jl:'fi?:"1:il::':T rarsrr' (lvresse d.224 Maleus Tuscorumrex." In another version. lIl.29.. tr.o. Schol. M. Hsch.fi l'pS-ZozlCVpria fr..Erigone was th. Orestes married Erigone. . seealso i. 6.37 above.the Choes.9.cf .f r . 6 5 . deitn confirmed one last time: the maiden'ssacrifice-of the polythesteria xenatypele-is a final ceremony of propitiation for what happened on the day of. It was this version t\u1 dominated Hellenistic and Roman literature through Eratosthensr. z. -. 3 8 2 ) . 242 243 . the "wanderer" was the daughter of a tyrant-king who 1nvented the trumpetrs-the Tyrrhenian trumpet played a part in the drinking at the Choes.t which see Deubnet [r91zl ry5-57\. .z1 above. no longer tied to the earth. in of how the leaped from the ships onto the Trojan shore and imme1Tll9l*k Qately becamethe first Greeksliin. removes the final impurities still to b1 from the "day of pollution. 62. t246n. 5 1 5 = A t h . Or. FGrLIist 239 A z5."'6. i)v oi lt iv itri rp MciAe<o Brryarpi gaow. : Et. and cf.7 s.. There were various explanations to who Aletis. Malea is linked to Silenus-dances. ro..6.r8.Hippolytos und Thekla. z8.Hes.) is connected with Chytroi (thus Deubner lry3zl tt1. Protesilaos As early as the Iliadic "Catalogueof Ships.il.Erigone.4. L." was. 62. oi 6i rilv roi Nlatr'eorol rou Tvpprlvo| Bvyaripo. E. dne\Beiu EvB6. C a t o f r .n.ira rwa zrpotrigepo! airi1. according to Plut. Asthe wife of Aegeus. RML . ten days afte..7.6iat. Eum.45-16. r r-"'"' Tnrk. the Tyrrhenians as the opponents of Dionysus in the Homeric Hymn.i-:l however.SB Wien fi2. Theb. C a p e M a l e a a n d A p o l l o M a l e o t a s ( s e e R E X I V 8 7 5 . 6. Here.The association be. = Hsch.6. P l u t .8 8 r ) w e r e n ..zr. otes. she took her own life. perhaps following the model of Sophocles' Erigone. . Cf . qui tubam prinus in' a e n i t ( c f." Aletis. s.TJ#. . Par. X*. it is therefore uncertain whether "'the ilpo. she became a priestess in Attica."1""'J. *"li io.il4rt( 4. There is mention of songs about the "wanderer. the Anthesteriatheir name.. u^ St ockl tol (Stockhol nt m.links it too to the flood aition.to. The Etruscan Mezentius claims the wine of Latium for himself: see Varro in Pliny N. the "one born the eatly. According to one version she was Erigoxp -' the daughter of Aegisthus. Radermachea G.7.ara zrotrAri to the flood in this month.r0 counterpart of the "queen" who. Pearson on Soph.I r Itr as ety with high spirits. Apollonios' were FGrHist 365F j. ' 15 Tuppryvoi \rapavvou Cd. oiho. Sfrom.ANTHESTERIA PROTESILAOS lrl.rwhose verv rPa-u_s. was related to the Anthesteria. umur"rnent symbolizesan act of violence.7ar. which. which gave theunspeakable. Mef . 274.lr.z5.55:. Ran Clem.popia (Apollonios. pres. ry Atten: r5 Bethe: paus. 1648. Et. M. the name Erigone solidly attestedand evidently usedin the cult. ry6. ent. Aletis : Persephone. Herzog-Hauser. Milanges C.The terror retainedby the myth is transformedinto something charming in the ritual: in honor of Erigone. Aen. tzz. Nilsson ltsSS| SgS\. Dion. r 96o).3. FGrHist 365 F +. '-lef. she hanged herself. F a s t . Finally.. driving his daughter to despair is a motif that the two familiar ieattr have in common: murdering the father leads to the E igon"-^yths Thus we see the sacrificialpattern of the Anof the _maiden.6 with reference to rpayq. Serv. Fasti Praenestini.vilp. as the most preeminent of mythic Athenianwomen/ was given to the god on the night beforethe swingingfestival.55..a sacrifice. 2.ro4.l. iiu ganw .1:'5i. This was protesilaos.lf T|. Et. Stat.Et. 4.ercu Mr!treo rou [Ie. According to Kinaithon (Paus.fl'riil. r. who pursued her father'smurderer. R o m .y.rising and falling. Me0ri6r.?-:trr -'"tus: Scrtpta Honorem in Marii lJntersteiner e97o). inb." After having passedthrough overcome one can rejoicein the flowers of spring."rr". Accius Erigona.6). When he was ""q.certarns !t!tf Eki. 199.Plat. F o r t h e T v r r h e ' 't)3. . Pind. wai-made She is thus the the bride of Dionysus when he visited her father. 567. Hyg. 6r<iz roJs ripois dt'oivres nip. zrz(CAFl6Sd perhaPswere sung at the swinging festival. O v .. fr.. " S e eI . CIL I':316.. howevet caused his dreadful death. Epit.Another version..ta other version was presumably used by SophoThe cles. I'R I6o-64. 8 6 3 . 6 r 8 e . Lizti-Strauss (t97o).also the Cypriaat the beginning of the Trojan War.g7_rro. P o l l . . 4 . n . fr.'Atr4zrs . 'oEt. anyoi. "See IVz. in Ov. ct. When shs found her father dead.u.perhaps preservesthe most authentic tradition. nian trumpet see already Aesch.

Protesilaoswas was than an epic hero. ior a demonic image com.&'LIII 3163. Lyk. WienerVorlegebliitter rr-4. made him the wine-grower'smost faithful friend.roz.8-(11148t4 Teubn. Protesilaos'father.73 p' 5g5. in all the sources. For protesilaosas the III Donysus r"" M. rzo. mort. RtufLIII 3r7o.and cf. z.rz. Konon.Philostr.116-zo(followedby Paus. 1. crowned with a wreath in front of the image. 16. Phylarchus told a curious storv about rHdt. raptyor". o.accordingto K' Sihauenburg.Laodameiatakes her own life.+g. lphiklos. Strabo 7 p. "the first of men. se€ .Eust. O't' Phitostr.Dionysus." Philostratus. Schol. :Jo-)2' For Protesilaoshonored as 8oo f z. 6pind.o.aly mo"re to him. belongsto a specifictype with ritual equivathe death of Protesilaos lents:in order to reacha new stageor win a new land.4. survive' Seealso cotns: foundation-walland a statue.n. R. This sameact is in presupposed the myth of Laodameia. 4g6.67r'1oDindotf' tHyg. Pats.. there must be a Death itself establishes permanent worship equal to that envictim.. n. Most impoitant was the greatand rich sanctuaryof Prowhere his tomb was tesilaosin Elaiuson the ThracianChersonnesus.]) tSee I.r above.. Numism.'"lt}:l qtJo life during a song sung by women in a medievalstory from Denmark (.3.r8above.1. .4. seeAt(h' Ui. F 5O.Wiener Vorlegebliitteru.utr. Tzetz. Attis.rt'5. by contrast..58-59withschol.o This vampire-story also told by Phlegon'*rt! the male-and female roles rev-ersed-ihe inspiration for Goethe'sBrautaon Korinthis generally held to be a folk-tale motif.ANTHESTERIA PROTESILAOS name reflectshis fate. Err.rr ed. Vatican.c. Her agony is enough to to apPears her and compel the dead man up out of Hades.r [l r4r. made either of wax or wood.8 the Greeks. even flies into a Bacchicfrenzy.teanfikenSarkophag-Reliefs3 (r9r9). for rhe holy of holies for sexualorgies.-thePeisiangovernor Artayktes carried offerings.defJrmed by time and rca W.as Laodameiabreaksdown in front of d rn?skof Dionysus..the dead man deto parts. For coinsof PhthiotianThebes ed. ai a rider on a Corinthianpyxis in the Louvre. .rr above. 3. Attis: Diod.zzabove.came back to life-a dangerous force.rged.3o.1o ioyedby the gods. tosee I.1r. 42. Sll. z16. Dial.tia i.e there must have been some was of arrangement that gave the Persiansthe idea of turning the sofi iemple into a harem. r21-rg. Muy"r. she talks to him.3(Ilt41.13. nornptriftt1Al is deZeitg.Aristid p. and agons (mentionedby Pindar)uwere held therc dedicated in his honor.Protesilaos Bonn' an Apulian ioti". Teubn.4.n. 9.: NH +. 1.by the time of displayed. fatai The miracle that confronted the sinner is most significant: pickled fisfi. r84. with a woman dancingin front of it in ever-greateragitation until the statue cameto life. Chiara. worship.3 imageis sharls her bed burned the next morning. 512-34. The story stressed zTGFp. n. Thuc.5. In Euripides' herseifto her husband'sdeath' With slight variis unable to reconcile ations. 6. f"d". Drexler. that case.moreover.invasion.5cr. 16r Qg6r).). Naples. :. Keller.pl.' young-widow Laodameia death. pl. Teubn.5.cf. Epit. And in the Cypriahis wife was the granddaughterof Aetolian Oineus. Zeitschr. was linked to the story of Melampus.1. RobB il|^i"d "' -u. He was worshipped as a god'' Of course. for which act his off great treasures fro. the later sourcesall tell the same story: Laodameiasets up in her bedroom an image of the dead man. Her.Her' z't (II r4o-4r-ed Teubn.). V\lkerkunde f 4z(t912).t lb.59. r. Zeitschr. C. R-&lLIII B .r4 (1887). A sacredprecinctat Phylakein Thess.3.h" the sarcophagus. lm. Artayktes' sacrilegiousmarriage presupposes kind of custom or at least a fantasy of a sacredmarriage in the sorne In tomb and Laodameia's templeof Protesilaos.y sherd in Mainz: seeldl 71 i958)' 68-7o. Wolfram. pl. ct.)25.Likewise.z.7. On another. According to one version. and cf.)_". lla sarcophagus from S.Philostr.\$6$.. g. st-ill worshipped by the populace' In the time of Xerxes. z3. Istlrrn.. lHdt. Fab.r' It is no surprise that the cult of Protesilaosthereby takes on a somewhatDionysiac complexion.22-26. criesin front of him. burst forth from the dead and "embalmed. and.Her.In both casesthe setting-up of an image is an act of restitution precededby a sacrifice.tr6.Luk. Apollod.5F . 2.218.7.. A sarcophagus from the Koman Empire depicts the return of Protesilaosfollowing directly uPona sacrifice Hermes Chthonios.561. Protesilaos the for one night.Protesilaos' night of love would not merely stand within a novelisticcontext. 8.'3 In the third centurv n. Rerum mtnores Graeci Q87). ll.g the votive_ g*Ero-" demiseafter the victory of theGreeks was considereda iust aboveall that he brought women into iunishment. Anab t." It is only in the fifth century influenceby no meansceasedwith fiig that we learn that Protesilaos' the tragedy Protesilaos. of course. Donysus:Firm. philostr. Phijosiratusnothing was left but the foundations with a statuerising up out of them. sex in a temple But the abominationpar excellence. t45.r. Similar storiesof restoringthe dead man by means of a statuewere told of Aktaion. 1. However.Canta -"r ). only a Arr. r I J 244 245 .3on skione. see R.g.6.Pliny 7.ro4. ro3 {Apollod. 14. 57-62: FGrHist257 361' naturaliumscriptores 2. ad LYk." with their deThe rite that we saw reflectedin the Lenaia-vases pictionsof wine-drinking women marching around a mask of Dionysusentaileda statuebeing setup.. Humes i g'at5y. FGrHist RML lll 1t66.4l(taron: "PR Il s8-6o.n.

8r 514. here calledPenates the Latin translation.e yudaughter should die.He did not fail to mention that it was the sites1 Protesilaos' tomb. 4o8. of course. r10y. whetherwe must reckonwith rhracian or pre_Thraiian material." When the deed was discovered.. ended in a particularly gruesomesacrifice. Fick and F.Matusioswas hurled into the seaalong with the mixing bowl. There is no simple way to connectthe cult of Protesilaos with the ritual underlying the story of Matusios.only conject.r:^ he is protesilaos.{ouoia(dxpa) Lyk. and Troy.rFa:Tsposed into the heroic. a virgin had to be sacrificed annually1o the Penates. over whs.4o.o. z.the sacredmarriage.r. tusios "killed the daughter of the king and.The "first man" is the first mortal altogethet laFGrHist F 69 = Hyg.Strabo7 p. offered it to the king to drink on hrs arrival. Lemnos.16 d.7 above. Theseare..A dispute between the king and a father.6..52 For Matusia. even though both individually reveal striking correspondences the Attic Anthesteria:the one to in the setting-upof the statue.laIn this way the memory of the gruesomeact was made permanent and sacred. in the myth of Protesilaos comesafter' it ward. Additional myths that have come down to us thirdhand are too distorted for us to form any securejudgment. 246 hi 247 . Phylarchus' horror-story reflects analogous mysteriesfor the Great Gods.but in evidently the Great Gods or Cabiri. Fol 48. 4zt. Bechtel. as associated with Samothrace. 7 Protesilaos as an epic modification of *Protolaos see A. but there is a strangebridge from Protesilaos the Cabiri: an inscribed vase to from the Cabirion of Thebesportrays Pratolaos"beside the Dionysusllke lGbirosand his pais.. seePliny NH +.fd *tjl_T:n-s origins. But whereasin the story of Matusios the girl's death comes first. the plunge into the sea after an unspeakable belongsto the set type of the Leukothea sacrifice myth. 1y ir.q9.. th" f::tt. O. This was the origin of the name "15u Matusian foothills". having mixed her blood with wine in a mixing bowl.im_ pofiedby way of Asia Minor.1? l1u 1t nr. D1t griechischen Personennamen(1894?). lTNilsson (rSSl) pl.il' [{r"l ]l i . Dionysus dismembered was first the n e*ise'.r.. t6SeeIII.'uThe drinking of wine played a major role in the mystery rites of the Cabiri. AM 13 (1888).. Mo.i"l: ll: ql:/ areabetweenthe Greek and the pre_Greek world. Moreover.we cannotassociate Protesilaos'death with the drink from the crater. 9. the craterwas translatedto heavenas a constellation. Drinking wine from the sacredcraterof Dionysusis here seenas drinking blood and is linked to the sacrificeof a girl. is yet anothei question.e uglil.milieu.but ln any casethe rituar of the Anthesteria reudsus o. II. Astr. In this city. who does not discussthis source. It' this sameciry Elaius.cf. Hermes z5 GBgo).|l'] ] ANTHESTERIA PROTESILAOS li. Kern. Preciselythis is the will of the gods.and the deathofa young woman.ul urro_ datlo\s. r5See generallyHemberg (r95o). pl. IILb n 2l above. the other in the drinking of wine as blood in connec' tion with the sacrificeof a girl. Further.

"Diss.h" outside world' The pveiv"'to initiate"' 1'nadressed in the wo. is misleadin If mysiicisrrmeans shines forth in of a deeper dime"nsion the soul until a light openins were precisely un-mystical' in"'Eleusinian mysteries #. M. R.::::1.1113. #z : and iou'd Profanet'rfz!' ruryriii.as pciatqs.C. 13below.the secrecy. 1l:11. C.Z.accountingreports. Noack.R. f95ol5r).a" is .rspictures found elsewhere.Zaehner.F. WiirteftuckIV 8o9-34. financial conduct of the sanctuary and even.the mystery celebrationitself' A plebiscitefrom ca.. 6:rg. v. 5 58. the Telestetiruntr to careful to the Parthenonela .. C.Varro L.Ker6nyi (1962).iot. I Cor. Rom. in a few lucky cases..'. con. una its developmentfrom the Peisistratean well known. For other important inscriptionsseeplebiscite the geater and iess". Fruvtier. as are the strange.:::. the Gospelis a p'ucrrfiptov: Coloss.asymmetricallyplaced areparticularly We nolv of holiesand the throne of the hierophant. "*fiu. Postulates a genuine mystical experience iiiir i grrrn(r965)-who.::i:'::1J.an important step was N.A large number south-ern of inscriptions. B.. the ancient'Greekcult' modern usage of these mous one.::-:r.-t*t -t"asm in ' seeH' Schloetermann Mystik den Religionen l':-''o'r' ing the exoterictestimonies(t55-6t)' t'29t C .. ftorn the urrilogo. see alsol. aj5 = rs g. lG uAil.' lJ.elt of mysticism and in the Phaedrus ing the metaphors of the irysteries' used them of the. (t965\ t-51.Kiffels r:26-u7. Bornkamm. together with in*. 16:25.s havevotive offersanctuary reliefs and vase-paintingsthat.The great hall of initiation. Ou.. . /'_-92. . On Clement seeat n."The EleusinianGods and Heroesin Greek Art. excavations. -yst"-..In Christianity. "the initiate i' it ittit' by meansof specific initiation"' rrlpcov.' except for those of the Gnostic sect. C i c .yield up a copious Eleusinian Whple inventoriesof Attic vasesexported especiallyto iconofoaphy.io'l}11: mans renderedthe wtord' -t. v (1958).il... Ephes. Kern. Theol." AK g (tg66).vaxtopovrils J. I I DOCUMENTATION AND SECRET V. l n i t i a ."ceremony. (re58).. was doubtrign.. Zaehner.o there for all to see. on which seeMylonas (196r) by ror a summary description. Cf. Nero34'4' Suet' in iiitia. Ephem."To d. Russiaportray Eleusiniangods and heroes..the first comW-l].ies before 48o(Hespiria ry lr948l.Il Thess.". or confirmation." qss' Washington E.' t"r*.'records the entire festival program as it was tAlreadyin the New Testament."is = on sIG. the fire that *i..1-Aeuoivos.1959 "N"u" Deutung zweier Eleusinischer Denkmiilerdes 4.Metzger O9-. rnngsheim (r9o5). Nijmwegen. i c ' T u s c r.u -un was made a new member Rovery initiation ceremony' The the main function ot which was this as puarilplq as initia' p'irlocs initiat.r4:z. "Het woord MY>THPION in de Catechezen van Cyrillus van ferusalem.including governmentaldecrees. Kerdnyi Qg6z)and (ry6).h"i in a sealed in Thev were celebrated front of thousandsof participants was to be seenthere.I.-. familiarize us with the detailsof administration..il.i. t-t6.on the conrraw. is the condition for admissionto holy comindeed. V a r r o R2 . z . . Documentation Secret common today' are The words mystical. SiUniv.philosopher' expressthe spiritual contemplation Symposiumto Neopliton-ism and a concept which then was iranded down through mysteriousinly to outsiders'Iniwere Monasticism. Chr. Ambrosius De mysteriis (MignePafroJogia LatinaXVI 389-4ro) deals with baptism and holy communion.22o e. gave up the i'ri-it ri. g .'wespeakoftheGreekmysteriesasinitiationsweareSlmptyt"' A.trao ancienttranslation. the Eleusinianmysteries'Yet' the personalintrospection' the g. a this plLt"ote the fact that admission depends on individual initiation of T. SaintLouis (Missouri). and honorary and funerary inscriptions.mysterious still in particular the most faTheir origin.The sanctuary is riJff wfrictt Pausaniusdemurred to describe. lon. cf. 9.. a consecration.12.. (microfilm). the early Christian authors found it natural to dei#. gcrect' Thereis no lack of documentsfor the cult of Eleusis. bisic phenomenonadrevealing anything . L e g ....ii" first arosewhen Plato' appropriatless real.'92 = SEG rz lr955l.i of a cult group/ ritual ceremonies. ELEUSIS $. lh. ljrr" Uaptismand holy communion as the "mysteries"of their faith. 4 .The esotericelement.no other local cult in Greeceis so richly attested. initiatio). ir: and r. rg47.rt.The celebrations but a holy oath prevented them from tiates were gl. Eleusis. comprehensive study by Foucait (r9r4) was written before the more recentexcavations. Matt.die baugeschichtliche Entwicklungdes Heiligtums 1t927). ur" i. racreuunu rrutq'K \Lv) / t' _. 1:g.. RE XVI 11934).)i. Travlos. Crossmann.ht :. .^r.utiott'. i n i t i a r i : T r a g ' i n c4 S R i b b e c k . z:7. Mysttc$m. rzrr-63.l\ 41-6." o9-9u O.. too. alsobeen superseded subsequent has findings.it tf. ty2B. 3 6 ..mystery. 5The thorough. initiatio Eleusis: Samothracum 248 ."r.rnderly' utt however.tiuns. The most important surveysare Deubner (1932) .n.L. priesthood.

and besides. would tell about conceivable it. R e.Milano(ly7).cultstatutesca. a bridge.*rr ysvors. VIII rro-24 Waltz. rzo. fCiUist 346F t' It cannot be determined rtl.( I G 1 2 1 t r . all there was to it? Clearly this secretis a specialcase. Clement's hatred is combined with a Platonic sympathy for the mystery language. Deubner (tqlz)85. Rf XVI 1236. c f .tuoip. and the contemplati.ro. g-2). 13Pr.. 42J) li/lll' r4o : 5IG3zoo : LSS:'1' 35zn'c'). above all symp. r i t .He would exposewhat the night of the mysterieshad hidden" and set it out in all its wretchedness:murder. r. . Mylonas (1961)3o5-ro. puornlpirr..j. Theodorus'O llauaTris rpocayopeuoltt'vos' to what extent flepi roi k 1pt. 8r-toz.Cr. "the great. of Nikomachossee /G llllll? 1157: LSSro A 6o-76.fictitious speech for the almost a sport for the in a dream the friend of a man who had experienced whole initiation this irend. Abst...ifi. Poimandres(r9o4)." identity of all mysteries with Gnostic Christianity.46o(IGl'6:SIG'42:LSSI). o 1 l 9 4 r i 6 4 . The mysteries of Attis have a decisiveinfluence in this case."speakable" itell.Tospeak lating the secret.Presumablysuch a Gnosreligiosiof late antiquity. 9 . t77 sEC Eleusiniaka Inscriptrori.and that night was the to Eleusison the nineteenth night of the mYsteries.llllll'1 t666' t668.t. wonderful. 4 ." for example. deslettres sciences et de ll '5J-c. a". 16:--73. . eOn the pathos of the Gnostic's "freedom" see Porph.' .a IG x"il..1O. Sincethat time.evos'[epotpaurei 6e ri xupros xairou picrrlu ogpayi{erat ganaTayin..:i n'' hum' d .wehavetheliteraryevidence.fourth-centuryregulationofthe 49lt98oi. sympatheticto the rite.*ilv Stesimbrotos||epi (Clem' Pr' 564'5\ touched upon GCrHist Aa F ri.r 3 .r"" f'C li.TheancientHomeric the myth' Uy^" ti Or*eter aheadyweavesan Eleusinianepisode-into aspectof the ritual. rsThe text is discussed as "Hippolytus. Kerenyi (1962) 98.ti1iap'ifvou re]. 7o5-7o9.platonet la langue dei mystdres. Des Places j969) zrz.ui"nd". n .Ko1. " H i p p o l .The situation is different-which oddly is almost always overi=ooked"-in a document preservedby Hippolytus of Romein his RelIt utntionof AII Heresies.on the pure mind is compared mysteries. R. Dem. Although it is almost intional commandmentsand prohibitions.rr. . Melanthiosllepi. regulation_of procession. 9z-g3. announcement mysterres. such seemsto have been the casehere.96-1oz. funerary epigramsfor hierophants(IG ll/lll'] 3639 concerninggrain taxes (ciacpyir':'v""u s79. the : Kaibel add' 97a: ro [1949]#24). 21. The "Naassenian's" sermon as a Gnostic document is oealt with thoroughly by R.3."Annales Ia fac. FGrHisty8T t. Neanthes f|tpi rtt. 8Hy.i.above The philosophicalpath is conceivedof as in Platoand his .ii. t0Rhet.8 r ' (IG : SiG'S+o\. r2o. of and selection the aais d9' ic. 7 7b e l o w . (:.'a must contain at least a kernel of the truth..building accounts lr 8r. Kern. . describedChristianity as a mystery LSSr).12 "false" heathenmysterieswere naturally the more vehemently attacked. 433. ?"t:t:. who.tau ev 'Etreuoivr. ca. (Hcsperia the LSSru).r 6g6ou1oup.it ELEUSIS DOCUMENTATION AND SECRET the procession determined "accordingto ancientcustom.tti'Aa7 -. ton Publications r94z) .ls67) (1962) 98-99.Clement of Alexandria.'Local historianseven d6ubtlessreferring to some of course' viowrote books aboul the Eleusinianmysteries'without' detailswere plentifut enolq!. FCrHist1z6F z-4. rz4o..]. Reitzenstein. UCI'70 : LS 7. Mylonas.sex. and Hikesios. set himself the task inhis Protrepticus tearing the veil away from the secret. howevet attempts to trace Philo's mystery language all too directly back to the actual mysteries. Inaddition. "Die Mysterien von Eleusis"' (Universityof washingat and Hqmnto Demeter Her sanctuary Eleusis G. raThe most radical skepticism about Clement and Hippolytus is exercised by Mylonas (196r).rivta. LJniu.4t 7.96) tt6-tg. The rz..ca'5ooBc"Ontheentryinthe itg66l.ugont""tGl'5-= above' . Studien zunr antiren Synkretismus(tgz6).'oMore important still is the approwas the culmination of ali priation of the mystery languageand imagesto philosophy'. above of all." the Gnostic felt himself above all tradi"freedom of god's.:ios (Hesperia esp.4zBurlds ifouolas. Pr. III'r'n'r ARW 3t (tg1$' 77-to4.llepi pucrrlpiav rtov'ABi1ur1cw..liotis. . most perfect epoptic secret" of Eleusishas been openly known-the hierophant displayed an ear of cut wheat." right up-to of Boedromion. z:rz. Pap." REG75 (1962). Der Ki:n$sweg Wiedergeburt Vergittung 250 the and Christ asthe hierophant. 38 gg6a). &ytos yivopat l.". cf.c.feio$at ra 'E\er. effectivepolemics presentedby a hostile party cum ira et studio. E. [lepi 1t'uorrlpiaz Eleusis. V . cf.. Pascher' Phd.2a. l l l 1 I ' z $ 7 t .'7Was that.Koirobos I IAthens.It is surely more devout propandreiaQ93r). Sopatros. Scholarshiphas been justly skeptical of these accounts yet. t2Clem. 2ogeaon AIex' bei Philon und' zu BATIAIKH OAO2.It should not be entirely impossibleto the epopteiaof the retranslatethe metaphor into the reality from which it was taken. 1. he who claimsthe basic quotesthe sermonof a Gnostic.er6v (FGrHist to7 F tz_zo.plebjscites : SiC' 83 : LS 5.d. S Dow and R' F Healey' HThRzr . cra-J. 479. u . while avoiding the secret orators. The position that Clement's statements can refer only to Alexandria is defended by Ker€nyi is well: (ry621 ro7-tz. o .a "Naassenian.i to of an initiation. Christian Platonism. first century a. indecency.-hiero-phantis: 17og). .t-Sgl."Sur les mystdresd'Eleusis.16 that an initiate. Sgrr. and crime.ontheEleusiniu. F Wehrli.5. .at the same time.at tois oipavois xai rdv Seov inorteioat.f 5 . and cf. 8 . is not the Christian bishop speakinghere.r. became of th"emysteries inallusions. For the rest. then. 22.7 2 = L 5 5 r 5 ) . 14. . he stresses the uniqueness of the Eleusinian mysteries and does not question the significance of Hippolytus: .i"f calendarfrom Eleusis(IG lJ' 4$ LS4. [tr<i7or'Hp]axtr6ous1. z6-28\. #zo (V'4 n 58 below) esp 464-n' t rrP Boyanc6. rg1zl.a-ddrpart of thls in andcf'thehonorarv ."rrorr. then. had himself initiated in tic.Philochoros. 251 . consciousof the children. like other homines as many mysteries as possible. by Foucart (t9r4) 4zo.

rrrst. Melanthios. for scruplesbecameeven greater. and cf. the mysteries of An_ Qania were renewed .. ii was to Eleusis.lwho. Eunap.r9 39 More and more the rule obtained that the hierophant was .ea.dichotomy of "in" and "out" with an almost instinctive urge toward the inner circle. and dissuadedthose it then.rly a special co. vulgarizing Heraclides. instance. F. and in Athens the polis stood in the closestielationship with Eleusis.l:r"9 tclentical with the polis. 1959.8.Kern.not to Cnossos.a-zl The meaning of rereXecpl.are handed down openly to all. After the liberation of Messene.continued to be celerePorts brated until eight hundred years after Diagoras._Diodorus.: Luk.p.77. however. p.interpretations. for tumult and accusation = Comm' in Arist' Cr' ru'a6oxt7v see Heraclides Fr' r7o Wehrli pvnrrt(i.The mystes distinguishedbyihe is fact that non-mystai."leNevertheless. Aristoph.7 22Fr.therefore. in Cnossoson Crete. FGrHisf rEKrateros. presu-iuty since the m"ostancient times...'2Numenius surely had not gotte us far as the "Naassenian.2o the course of time.u. excrusivenesson the inside correspondsto aggression the outside. pol. there is no exclusive societywithout its secret.it is possible.n prevented him fiom describingthe sanctuaryof Eleusis. the secretof the mysteriesis no blessinE. Somn. philosophical explicationslike those of Plato.. iri rQ r6v 20 Or)x ei6iyar.the harder and more irrevoiabre the admission.urrr" u stage prop had reialled the rites..vos. r. Sc." = schol. rc71. 4. There is no imperiumwithout the arcana imperii. on A group can endure only so long as it continues to admit new members. Ran.r9.') o 4o-4i (cvrene) is disputed. Aristoph. He claimed in his defense In that he nal not known that this was secret."gurding ih" li^itt of t'qra and droppqta RE XVI 1249.This determineswho belongsto the group and who is to be driven away. femaleinhabitantsand initiated rorergners were considered equalsin a cult of Demeter.). The Diugorus to death and pursued him throughout nians c"ondemned their realm. was not an whole.pagus when on the *us o. .inlrather' is a Atheby nothing.c. . first applied in /G trro iiu. t z. The Eleusinianmysteries.no ga. 5.^- 252 253 . grou. ) 1z6F z-4.Pausanias. suih gtonps-hu. but there are many exceptions to the rule down to Roman lll" tlmes.. lideed. actually tt z. Lobeck (1829) 76-84.The story that Heraklls was adopted by pylios Lrrnton('qzrl qf. Leemans : Macr."that ii. By referring themselves to the superhuman authority of the holy.rit of initiates flr a mystery trial: Andoc.The poet Aeschylus was brought to trial for profaning the mysteriesbe.rG ilrrrr 3grr.: paus.3r) we may. Jacoby. =^LS g6..Even children discoveragain and again spontaneously how keeping a secretevokesrespectarid a feering"ofpower: blessedis he who belongs. q. speaks of a trial on the Are. f*"iUy ttre first and H"'toia everyonethe mysteries. tnei tota him that he had prostituted the secretsof Eleusisin a book of .i'l'_i"* -."who had always. It is essentialthat it be kept a secret. that his private name should not be menlioned.r.. groups that have separated themselves from society and its culture have invariably established themselves as secret societies.. the secretof Eleusiswas flagrantlyand_provocatively atheist.Constructionand penetration of barriers through the ritual of initiation are mutually determinant: secret and initiation are features of one of the most successfulstructural forms in the human community. What others transmit under the sealof secrecyis hidden there from none who wants to learn. the philosophizing poet Diagorasof-Melos.26. Aa. It is in this absoluteobservance a secrecyno longer rerated of to its content that one of the secret'sfundamentai charactEristicsis betrayed: a secretis not-very significant when seen by the light of day.Belas iri. Afft. Together *ith clem. Diagoras6 t"Diod. the uninitiate.that the people went' opinions differed about the extent of the Eleusiniansecret.].. ro.tu reptgipew 'XX sfrottr' r45.heritage as the of Aristomenes. dtetrris."" Told on the street. according to ancient orphic rites .6o.lt." and the NeopythagoreanNumenius dreamt that he had seenthe Eleusinas ian goddesses"dressed prostitutes standing in front of a brothel.. the more strong and durable the society. r* n. Lexrph. EN r r r ra9. In Mykonos. The mysteries r:ry.yised by the king.3. that there Ct' ferences of opinion among initiate. Zl-. vH 5. Thus.however.. basileus. tcut 'papo(rt Ael. and man reacts to this.hieronyrflou:.g. Expivero dcf.. retrloxeorgcr LSS .thus making tfrem-vr1l-Sar mean' who wished to be initiated. to I:1" oe an initiate. like faerie-goldihat turns to charcoal daylight._the community of mystai could be virtually . mysteriesfound in the Eleusinian.rrto*. undeistand Aristotle's statement to mean that Aeschylus proved he were difinitiate (differently.claims that a a.z. Iive aiongside himlthe inner circleof initiatescontrasts with thosewho standlutside.nu survived for thousandsof years.886-87).t. The samewas true for the ephebeswho organizedthe festival procession. FGrHist 14zF t6 "Afeoc (Abh' Berlin. ". how could somethingbe kept a secretwhen it was shown to thousands every year? At the time when the great Telesterionwas viobeing built.B The heightened secrecyveiled the sinking power of the mysteries. 5z Boiss. 6rt anropprlta du Arist.samothracian.ELEUSIS DOCUMENTATION AND SECRET agandathan fact that the secretof the mysterieswas never violated.and that the same .

33. V. With the exception of one boy at each celebration. on the othef . animal-sacrifices.". Leg. 42. 2'LSS zrhiv 16 dp Elotias puolt'iufo lci' 1C zo-zz p)iorcp. rrr-rs-uno the temprewith earsoI wheat on an Apulian funerary vase-Nilsson (ISSS) pl. and the Peloponnesus. u p..ro part in the holy rites has another lot as he wastesaway in murky darkness.but only that which could release. we....rzz (interpolation).mThe educative power of Athens" then did its part by frequently portraying the gods of Eleusisin its philosophy and poetry.. thanks to its local tradition. the secret male society is very ancient.u"lfloT grain as primitive agiarian _u!i.n.1. the celebrationstill marked the transition into the adult world. symbolir. z.-l' southern Itary and 1l"tsicily'furnistr iicn material.5. 2ELuk."Theselines are echoedby sophocles:..g abov". seeit in historicaiperspective. F. Ap rt.. yet. rThe market in Eleusisis brought to life in th.. dus were adopted into the iamily-of the Eumolpidae:IG Il/lll'? 1592: SIG3 lI/III'?rrro = SlG387J. in the complex of hunting and sacrifice. trgrol.514. l.we shall not attempt to isoratethe phenom".az.g.s Festschi bea r. the nourishment from grain turning crude cannibalisminto tame custom. on philosophicallyformulated dogma' Trade had long brought many peoples to the market at Eleusis. and.discoveryof the individual" around 69on.. . ai were slavesand foreigners. Mysteries of Demete.e66fva V.the traditional providers of hierophantsand dadouchoi. As.2. with reference rerated to mystery.for all its internationalappeal. sSee. by. Dem. The Athenians were. . in terms of human history and the themes of"nourishment. death and survival are found arreadyin palaeolithicrituars.In Rome. rathel. 48o-82. punctuate'themys_ teries of Demeter. for the life after death. Jmpnasis shifted in the course of history between the introduction of agriculture into Greecein the sixth millenium and the .z below. Nilsson(rqss)66r qsee l.eSikyonios Menander.. just as thJ Great !*. The Ji.Similarly.pi"rrrppor". tto.-rre9uentlyreproducedare the golden ears of wheat from a Siciliantomb-Nilsson (1955) pl' 4r'r.4_6...cults. 7.65. fr. th" victory over death as the raterhope for the next life]. tr.ELEUSIS DOCUMENTATION AND SECRET 1l { llr i1 rtrl l ii lil closely relates adoption into the before being initiated at Eleusis2u family-struciured polis with initiation into the mysteries.* Beneath all the local differenceswe can and cf.c. pevov 67pi1u niypagrlIfivat rporepov xo.elsewhere.n. it could maintain its identity through all the changes in time and fashion without relying on books.o_ grammedschemeof action that has becometransferabie': the symbolthe grain grows out of the sacrificialritual. Boeotia.e among the most wide_ spreadrituals in Greece:those in the towns of Anlania in Messenia and Lykosura in Arcadiu.and guide the force of the human soul' In the tradition. nSeeRE XVI rz55-58.'?T Thus.shape.cf. and the emPerorsfrom Hadrian to Commodus brought the sanctuaryits last period of grandeur'" The festival.i tlol.hope. Demonax the Cynic struck he because exemptedhimself from the mystepeople as disagreeable iier. and structural description of the EleusinianfesThe sociological of tival as the self-renewal a secretsocietythrough initiation describes only a superficialfunction.3rbelow).Jul Or. that is.i'Afquaiouyeu\o$at could not generallv rot haveheld true: Lobeck(t8zg) 2o. Hdt..and 68 SrC3 : tc y 2.! For the time being this miy stand as an anticipatory conjecture. Nonetheless. l}::l f Nnnagoras.sacrificialrites. Qaryp).oi" f. too. on theme:32 the one hand. Dem. P wort". cf. chance.4.z18bTou Thes. as a rule.Apollod. it could spreadthrough the whole ancient world.Eleusisowed much of its characterto this carefully poised balancebetween worldwide and to it local ties..: e99 o37. l 254 255 I .The emPerorsVerusand CommoIG 869'25.33. e.known *itf..remainedbound to its setting and to the families of the Eumolpidai and Kerykes. Because offered access all.only adults were injtiated.Soph. ptuou' Luk Scyth.Act 4 of 3'See Wilamowltz (tq6z) 59.t39o. Keftnyi (196z) t5g. the gifts of the goddess Demeter make up a two-part Eleusinian 26Plut.notomy of "in" and "out" is quite naturally-projectedinto the afterlife. everything there is evil. Hy. Cic.even agricultureis .jri-ritue clarificationin the details.28. young.?f Goddessseemsto have sprung out of the palaeolithic. a37n"*ro. SokolowskiHTftRSz (rgSil. "b"i.Nifsson 736 1. Of course. scholarship has been tempted to divide these two gifts of Demetea viewing the nourishT.. indeed. for the others.i 6v6l\t'xa p'uEv pr.whoeveron this earth has seen theseis blessed.8. Stiglitz (196n 3r-_46.but he *ho hus . Eleusisbecamefashionablefor a time.Thriceblessedare those that have seentheserites and theniome to Hades: there is life there for them alone.. lT q:. p. 8.for there the three roads met from Attica. SIG] = IG V LS : paus..z .38-39. mystai.6f Er"rrsisbut. In the Homeric Hymn to Demeter is said that it . were initiated.Indeed.h. In 3ny case.o. 4. eg5) 478." And yet the mystical community of Eleusiswas sufficientlydetachedfrom the polis that it could be effectiveoutside it: women.not iust any Passwordor token could becomea secretof the mysteries.6.

. Schol.t u tu. ro below).preciselybecauseit is known's No critic.In whatever way merits and chance came together. historical.tzt. for priTh. who. 5.see Antil<e ir'g4z).2 roast of 6nd pictures show how. ro1.tyapov. Mylonas (196r) 22g. Culti e miti dellaMagna Grecia(r963':). found in sanctuaries of Demeter: see F wintlr. 'Aristoph. PAP'_275'. r9o (restored).But if one patiently collects the surviving fragments from the larger context. Giannelli.t".The ancient world saw and purity of the specialquality of Eleusisin the unique seriousness that modern realists dismiss as its divine services.the mythical archetypeoith" Eleusinianiniti(seeFigure 8)."' A slavegets a tantalizingwhiff of pig when he hearsthe lakchos-song ihe approachinimystai.3.i.nos (1965) #:4. HN.Mylonas (1924)pl. pro. Erose'counter to Clementc explicit stalement. p z i:{poeopiuv. sRelief-hydria from Cumae.Metzger(1965) z. Instead. by especially Herakles.-"::l ::". RMLII y6ili.4. not the secret. pl.s in The pig was the cheapestsacrificiaranimal and the easiestto raise-inquantity. 34 5The peTapl(ervis described crem. lrsssl +6. Luk. Persephone: (rg7r).igionsgeschichte g-n.19.67-68.j5. iiiarro[to. l8 II For to 554. rE.s 16r..Whatever can be learned from testimony is. zur Rel.1671.g.17ga. Here. Schrader.There is literary evidencefor thiJ in Athens and potniai. Pax 374with Schol.. \1955\ 46j-66.65. p.For a aois a9' eorai seeJ. he can argue. Sinceit was discoveredthat agriculture cameto Greecefrom Asia Minor and that Kybele is a continuation of the Great Goddess of Qatal Htiyiik. n. opuscula (r95r). which'is there compared to ir"jTll^T 'xs rnesmophoria: seeBurkert.". anadurtpig sacrificed the Eleustntan goddesses. over Crete.rz berow). Leningrad51659. 2t.r. for the Thesmophorionin Thasossee BCH g9ft965). For U€meter with a pig. fi ( 196r pl.. on ) .. The full price of myesis was 15 drachmas: lG lllill2 $72. z.7-g. C. Eleusisis for us the most prominent and impressive complex' exampleof a more comprehensive The existenceof the secret gives the skeptic almost unlimited power over the mysteries.275 P Roussel. ro7.apig_ sacrificewas above all part of the Thesmophoria. Sz-Sl. J1-15. Lovatelliurn (cf. Schede. and psychologicalsense.g..and cf.iriene'(r9og. For the rhesmophoriaas . toti'e statuettesof worshippers with pigs or the goddessherself with a pig. 256 257 . Zuntz. for Corinth.e. historico-religiousstudies have had to take such matters into consideration. but for this very reasonit was not the final perfect sacrifice. 154-55.?. Aristoph. Wiegand and H. to Sicily. TheWth of Kore Pig-Sacrifice the All who celebrated initiation of Eleusishad to bring a sacrifito pig (loipos).4. Rnn. there was no roast pig. zz pl. see the terracotta statuette from Eleusis. 24. rra. CharbonneJux Ia sculpture . rr5-r8. rro. plat. 65-67.Deubner (ryz) 4o mistakenly conrtltemenr of the Lukian scholion to the skira. t87-zo4. assumea common structural base stretching out beyond Greece16 the Meter cult of Asia Minor. the pigs were thrown into undlrground chambersor pits (p"6yapa). fig. from Asia Minor.470_71. and. 66. tasted it (cf.585. seeHesperia Og6il. 337-the mystai apparently also ate the pig. Such an endeavor is to be prethe ferred to the ars nesciendi: reconstructionattempt is worthwhile becomesvisible.Die Ruinen lff::: tis.:::::::::. phot.t'characteristics Athenian cultural propaganda. Cf. the widespread form of the Demeter festival in which women celebratedamong themselvesapart from the men. Nilsson (rSSS) pl. Epicharmus fr. laaing the diverse reflectionsin myth and philosophy. tg7. 47. 37Diod.(:19z6).rise cial the Aristophanic antihero answersa threat of death with lokei. Clinton cf e974) tq. Atheniin votive relief ro16.!. rtl.the little pigs are broughi by worihippers.lhus some nimble panhandling: "Lend me three drachmasfor a little pig' G. of the fi.n. 48. though.:o.::"j :l :. roo Kaibel. For a pig and .. tE'8'.t2u4').themost widespread .can be preventedfrom claimingignorance. votive statuettes worshippers with sacforms of or appearin sanctuaries Demeterthroughrificialpig_s pig statuettes of out the Greek world.r. Leipoldt.t7. Resp.3 ate The pig-sacrifice Demeterwas the most common featureof all for of the Demetercult. Die Typender t'igiirlichenTerrakotten I (r9 ).rand by more thoroughryin schol. rz7-28' and on ThreeEssays Religion Cult in MagnaGraecn 1j4...BCH (tyo\. Dion.gives a different formulation: und Bild fiihrt der Weg iiber das Wort und das Bild hinaus" (4o).25. Thesm.g.:":u" !f":*l r'5-25. i. M. of course.. then in the of conveigence lines one can recognizeforms that yield a sociological. the votivereliefLo uvre see l. and a sacrificialpit of this kind was excavated priene. Ael. we may in addition refer to Nilsson (reo6) . 9. zo7. for votive pigs. The megarismos occurred on the first introductory iay of tAristoph. however. Hermes (1966). Metzger . .39r. grecque 752. and cf' Ker6nvi (1962) )9' ldurch den Mythos in Wort 62. cf.J-276 otherwise the sources give onry indications z4. This was not a part of the secretand even Save. Nilsson. Forpotniai seepaus. et romaine Mus6e Louore au du (1963). v. even if only a torso I Before die I have to get initiated.ELEUSIS THE MYTH OF KORE AND PIG-SACRIFICE I t..n oii*. and z.

l6 but there were far more famous placeswhere Hades was thought to have driven into the earth with his bride. p / t I 7 5 8 .lslt is by no meansspecificallyEleusinian.The pig-sacrificeas a substitution is very widespreadin initiation festivals among the agrarian cultures of the South Seas.9. t 5 .the naked pig and the sexualobjectmerge. . Foerster.mi"stakenly. There is no evidence that pigs were taken along on the great procession of the mystai on the nineteenth of Boedromion. The women in the Thesmophoriatherefore throw pigs into the underground p.The Greeks mentioned explicitly that the initiate surrenderedthe animal to death "in his stead" and that a life was exchangedfor a life. 5. that is. this myth is one of the generalfeaturesof Demeter-worshipthroughout the Greek world and even beyond it. when the mystai were called "to the sea. Aristoph. p r . Megarian sellshis daughtersin a sackas. 2 7 5 . 7g5-2o4. E(a roi. t 1 o . E t . z. fab. r o .. O v . lDsf. Persephone The rape of Kore-Persephone one of the best-known and most is widespreadof the Greek myths. a n d c f . in the Eleusinion. s e e 7 6 7 . according to Sokolowski's admittedly uncertain restoration. 469. Thus. for instance.'oThis. a ) . z . t 3 5 3 r 3 6 4 w i t h S c h o l . for the word-play on loipos. A pasinitiate.'8 Like the pig-sacrifice. The oldest and most imtestimony is the Homeric Hymn to Derneter:see Vr. M e t . r o 7 . the pig-sacrifice myesis. e'A)ra6e i)raors IG llll. 28. everyonehad to provide his own sacrificial sagein Plutarch even depicts an initiate bathing in the sea together with his pig. of belongedto the preliminary ceremonies the Thus. zga : Diog.7 5 .) . r. L u k . P o l y a e n . . 2. Phanodemos. the rite of casting-down had the function of compelling a greater fulfillment through selfdenial and submission.in the courtyard of the sanctuary and. Bloch. ttPaus. the word and image of the loipos had defi6LSS 3 C 19-42.. 5 . the gate 6[t] cila6e ily]oe]. When the Lord of the Dead sank into the earth with his stolln bride. you have not been initiated. as they can be reconstructed from Ovid. Beschneidung und Reifezeremonien Naturudlkern(ty)' 90-97. 4 .2 7 6 . z .. ItFirm. 3AS.just as had fallen to the god of the dead.11 and in her placepigs were rooting about. Laert. the female the inthe Achnrnians. 2 3 .r8 (confused with the iepri 66<is).6. A fig tree where Kore had descendedwas shown at Eleusis. "Die Religionen der Siidsee. 4 . that is. the pig as enemy of the sown field: Hyg. t0Schol. S e e a l s o t h e s o . Absl. associative undercurrents surfacein laughter. 4 1 2 .The pig-sacrifice Eleusis was a preliminary. on the versions of the myth in callimachus and Nicander.r o . was no secret. gZ.38. therefore pigs had to die in the sanctuaryof Demeter. pveioBar in the Telesterion: Dio Chrys. AA Q9z). o . Ev r!1aJI1 is mentioned by "Demosth."'The fulfillment of the initiation at first came in the great processionto Eleusis. Jensen. nan.3k. kills the first pig.. trH. k M L I I t 3 t 1 . V a r r o R . on Orphic versions. C i c . rEDiod.n. c f . 4 . 3 . O v . Sinceantiquity. that Aristophanescould not resist:loipos is slangfor nite associations genitals. too. a b o v e .465-66. EPlut. they would have been bothersomeon the long march. . € r r .because herd of pigs had run a Kore had disappeared over them. 2 4C l e m . Greek mythology in fact explainsthe pig-sacrifice the maiden. j . PR I 747-8o6. the myth of Kore has been regardedas especially t2Aristoph. Geors.aiuonw oi pi<rrat lG l' g 4 .the Ennian Lake" or the spring of Kyane near Syracuse. A e s c h i n e s 3 . NA 4." 59. A. 57. An ic'E). 1g.2 6 . 4 4 5 .11. and cf." see 747. r . V e r r . performed "for those initiated in Eleusis. following Callimachus. for those initiated in the city. t2. Aristoph. FGrHjst 3z5F 27. RhM 9o (r94r). see H. J 5 : S l G 3 9 3 .myspiggies. Ach.7ra. c f . t3Schol.2 4 . 54. the pigs of the shepherd Eubuleuswere pulled along into the depths.zo).38o. Schol. O. The mystery sacrificedistinguished itself from "normal" sacrificial rites in that the sacrificialanimal was individually assignedto the pig. M . Cook lI|1924) r3z.s as descentinto the underworld.8.euoivt ycrpa. Or.epicrctav rois Beois (hence Aristoxenos could prove that Pythagoras ate Ptg: fr. S c h o l ." in Die Religionender Menschhait Y z bei (1968)." a distant historical connection with the Demeter mysteriesis altogetherpossible. Herter. 5 . RML Il tz14-t179. 5 . called "Baubo" statuettes (a woman on a pig): e. tery The animal that is to die in the preliminary sacrificein place of the initiate himself was experiencedas a female entity: the pig-sacrifice had the characterof an anticipatorysacrificeof a maiden. Nevermann.6yapa.g. Fasf.2o." above the Agora. Demeter could no longer find the tracksof her stolen daughter. 277: Serv." In another version.5.C f .. Phoc. A r i s t o p h . 747 ixo. . in which Klymene (a name that recalls persephone) . tsThe most thorough discussion is in R. Der Rau[tunrl dit. t i a r a LH s c h . HOv. Rilckkehrdar persephone Q874). n . L. ved ro trporilreta puncas Themist. At other times as well.uBut "as long as you have not reachedthe Anaktoron.ros 6i rdv pvouptvau itrip |auroi i$ueu. E. z5 : Gell.The reference is to the sixteenth of Boedromion ( P o l y a e n ."n but we do know that the pig had to be as clean as the initiate who was to approach the sacred. the sixteenth of Boedromion. and cf Porph.J|'1847.764. see lorlant \'rat (r974) r5r-8r. p p .116. F a s t4 .V e s p .z8 concerning the Pythagoreans: 6re 6i eis dnapynv rt r(rv (Qav dvf' 6awC'w p. Each initiand must be individua l l y i n i t i a t e d : I G I ' ?6 : L S S1 C z z .ELEUSIS THE MYTH OF KORE AND PIG-SACRIFICE the Thesmophoria. Or. 4. Among the Greeks. t . as the rape of Kore bv Hades. 2 . Rubensohn. 8.rr and fr. 6 ep .7z9-8r7. 7 . 2.'We do not know if this was the rule on that day of preparation. ."12 Here. Cf. 46-6g. Tyr. There is a strange tradition in Porph. 258 259 . Ach.5 9 . as. 1 7 .o. 7Max. for "mystery pigs. 1 7 .

The great and very probably sacral role of the granary in Neolithic accordswith this interpretation. Fast..32. an Martin P. Praelt..H dvaB. The myth can. 20Eubulos (CAF II 3r). specificaily.g. Arnob. nor harvesttime. the wanderings of Demeter in searchof her daughter?The myth is shaped not by natural phenomena but-by purely human themes: marriage and grief and anger. 5. 31.^. The Eleusinian mysneither at sowing time.n. Hyg.) "entry" rather than a in Sicily. however. rzr.stifiesa douLle existenceietween tnl. SVFI#547: Plut.Ciu.i ili ltl irl li. in subterraneangranariesdurthe grain. thus the myth.tn factSchol. what actionsof the farmer could give rived rise to such essentialand penetrating featuresas. There is no evidence.577-88.5. Kourouniolis. the whole. Antiphanestr. t'SeealsoIV. z6o z6r [. the grain.614. The Hymn explicitly setsKore'sreturn in the spring. and naturar events.Arat.o".Even those fixed "four months" wourd correspondEetter to a sacralcalendar than to a vegetation period.9 head. 5.half a yearin each:Ov.Hymn.6-t5.riziic Lio _. ing the summer months. Around the Mediterraneanit does not stay in the earth for four months: it sprouts in autumn.descent.with refer' enceto Egypt.t46. 75.9.Strabo6 p. eight months in the sunlight.1. fr.andcf.. ro6-l^4 = OpusculallQg5z). xnsuppl. ot tell T" a cycle. ond field (r98r) zrr-:'6. 151-66.it ur. Homeri. At this point in the Mediterraneansummer all vegetablelife seemsto die. as we have seen.22 the seed grain. and final reconciliation.. lTepi&7o'). . 2tLines Met. were celebrated sprouting time. they could also occur in the middle of the summer.1.zg. do not agreewith the agriculturalinterpretation. In Athens there was even a popular metonymy that allowed grain and flour to be adYet dressedas Persephone.BrumbyK.on the other hand.of Kore) r.y death. ls.:. There is no victory over death: Had-es aciomplished his goal. The opposition of Zeus ju. to enter into a marriage with him.rr. Porph. although aiming both at festivar . To be raped by Hades.. Orph. Eu.n1s 6riorsrzls rleor) (sc. means Llne 4O1.Lpp". on the one hind. Malten. r. z9 = LS rz8 in rnteru-d" of months' 9 For Krio4s Karayarn (corresponding to the Dionysiac xaraydtyai. u.6. Hydria Athens t443. sprouts just a few weeks after sowing.zr. Vase-painters make the fr.7 p. Cornford. 5. Kore'sfl_ower-pickingin the meadow and. 15oPuts the rapeof Kore in summer. e.3.tt "" rrusson e955) 465_66.L. what occurs proves to be irrevocabre.seeDiod..66.the myth does not .c Nils_ thesis has been generally. (1955) 472-74. :T.paus. and "thejourney up" (Kathodosand Anodoi). that the Greeks of historical times understood the myth in this way.l. . but this also means that death containsa dimension of life.7.as they occur for instancein Hymn.5.2l Homeric the Kore is said to spend four months in the underworld. although perhaps toJgenerally and son's hastilY.however. Hydria Tyskiewitz(Lyon). Apollod. Is. 52. rnonths 9an !e explained thus. . 339-4oJ. ure f.be related to the actualeventsof the year in two or more ways. 4.i"". The Thesmophoriacould be neta immeaiately before the sowing. dvleosopnP_olluxr.rr above. O". gaining thereby each time a particular and transparency. on the other. Strom. iii transparentand comprehensibleas a description of the agriculturnl cycle: Kore is the grain that must go under the earth'e so that.Plut. the festivals were set according to a calendar.preservedat its core a human drama.43. however. DARW and cf. she returns. . Nilsson therefore advocates interpretation more in Kore'spath into the underworld is the storageof accordwith nature.567. fro6 Hunger threatenswhen this seemingdeath. precedingNilsson was F M. were in accordwith these themes.Kleanthes. .49.to (CAF ll rgr).. contrarl to all vegetationinterpretations.4o above.n.37 (Sicily)..t1-t4. FestivalsoI flower-picking. 1. Metzger (r95r) earsof wheat crossover Persephone's pl. not in spring.n.445-42.4.ELEUSIS THE MYTH OF KORE AND PIG-SACRIFICE I 1i{i i'11{ ll''l tlt.Gnomonzo(tg44).that the festivalsof the cult of Demeter-Kore case.paruv 2.Nat.zo.Deltionryiysll). 2. J77d.oPPoseo 1z(rg3). and Kore disappears. Essays StudiesWRidge' way j9r1).i XpucauBen K6panl" Suraii. the new fruit can aPPear' but to the delight of gods and men. as does the connectionbetowns23 tween storage vesselsand the concept of the underworld as seen of in the great buried pithoi'?a Minoan-Mycenaeantimes. Schol. l+.t.It is certain. The rituals were established by tradition as self-sufficient in their interpersonal function. assumedin Epigenes.the journey down. but wherever they were held. but about one month beforesowing in the aufumn. Vesp. u"a *|1 world tower :q in which the latter'srights are not infringed upon.rejected. nor teries.Cic. with her the blessing of grain from Demeter.deor' 1438..Aristoph. atharvest_time.g* Bidez : Euseb.2o the details.Ir.33.OF ll : Clem. tnermisng. 256(Hipponion). cix_x." Thus. Fab. j78f. as in_-Athens.5. Then during the first autumn rains the stocks of the state are brought from their underground containers: Kore returns to the upper world and the vegetationcyclestartsanew. Life has gained the dimension of death..eqtreniryattestedin the Greek world" and are only loosely connectedwittr ihe seasons. Metzger Q95r) pl.35.5 Irl'::: . Cornutus z8. 'z3See I.it cannot be deon relevance from natural conditions. BMC Lydia pp. The four leVarroinAug.IV5.

r17. 37. only Dumuzi stays seatedon his throne.599.. All versionsnow in S. The myth and cult of Demeter are a symbolizing transformation of the older sacrificial ritual into agrarian terms. there is no direct tie to grain. all men p6strate themselvesin the dust. Kybele. und der Mythos von Inannas Gang zur Unterwelt. for her.umer -*t. As almost always in sacrificialmyths. O r . Alster. transfiguration.7 O962). they could even shapethe faith of the individual confronted with the problem of death. uumuzi by the Gallu. strangeform of the "rape" appears on some votive reliefs from Lokroi Epizephyrioi in Southern ltaly." The Kore myth relatesa maiden'sdeath that has the approval of zets. the oldestliterary example of a Kathodos. the connection with practical agriculture is only partial and loose. Now.zr above.n. :11t"":.. it describesthe sacrificeof a maiden. The sevenjudges of the underworld gazeat her breastplate.r3..ELEUSIS THE MYTH OF KORE AND PIG-SACRIFICE simply to die.(4. It is she who t:. In the Sumerianmyth of Inanna. N. Falkenstein. "Il rapitore di Kore nel mito Locrese. for this very reason. her servantcarriesthe lament for Inanna from town to town." .and refurn of the one . R. Ur.T.'nThe characterof renunciationin the maiden-sacrifice holding in quite clear:the maiden. l p h . r8z. it is the arrival of the fish and the greathaul. :ff"gi*|" e968). was again an an_ 1cipatory sexual renunciation guaranteeing great success. The festival rituals could sever themselvesagain from the seasonsand accomplish on their own strength what they had alwaysaccomplished. eigners' nighttime privilege was limited.. is surrendered to the god of death.s journey to the underworld. O. a sacgressive rifice of a maiden.zzt.n. cf. nP Zancani Montuoro. 5o7b. whom the young man was already his arms. At the beginning of the Sumerianioem X:"_l"t 3'Tl .Acc... the end of yet it is not unrelated to the Kore myth. the harvest festivaltook the placeof the sacrificial meal. In this casethere is no mother-daughterdrama. it was a gieat surprise.r. loincloth. e r a c l . the ring. and Eridu.'(5. 3 o 7 . The "pure Inanna" decidesof her own free will to she adorns herself and setsoff for the Land of go to the underrryorld."d trom the upper world. Sacred Marriage Rite eg69). accompaniedby the Gallu. the main part describinga ritual leadingto death.N. Lintil now no ritual has been adduced that could correspo. the necklace. the god of the is underworld. Cuneif Stud.e. only as substitutes within preestablishedstructuresand.di Archeol' TonreliefsQg68).1::"0^:Tt"a t7r). IILg. 147_6o.ThlTreasures Gu6pin (1968)rzo-27. the daytime order lay in the hands of the Lokrians. to Ekur. S o p h .Beforethem. -see Hepding (r9oj).. If Demeteris the goddessof grain. then. the sacrificeol a S e e E u r . variants of the Kore myth in which the A agricultural connectioncompletelydisappears. The seven gatesof the underworld open for her and." Rend. There are. as she passesthrough each gate. the young women of the town had to give themselvesto forof eigners. When. 7z-74. Kramer. the queen of the underworld is a maiden who was 1ry561. Then magical beings created by Enki call Inanna back to life. the pursuit of .. the tragedyof the maiden is only a preParation for what is to follow: for the hunter. In Lokroi there was a In strangerite of maiden-sacrifice. Burkert OSZS) 9g-tt7. iccordingly. with the eyesof death. Gurney.ly utrgamesh.with the development of personal initiation.1me1 lourn.A n t . order and renewal of society.7. significantly.Untiithen scholars had connectedI5tar'sdescentinto hell with the coniecturedresurrection of Dumuzi-Tammuzand had seentherein onceagaina reflection of the vegetationcycle.Sumerian Mythotogy [r96t.Stud. and her retinue of maddened Lailoi. after which she is hangedupon a belm. to7-a32. Dumuzi's 5 Dream(tg7z). Accordingly. In the upper world. that is.This too signifiesa renunciation.. in 3 rnaiden. The words "Inanna ascendsfrom the underworld" are repeatedover and over like a password.. then. 4 8 4 r o . 489.n.perhapsthe Greek z6z 263 . Cf. the staff. A u l ' 4 6 r . j95r). Htstory . and yet the bridge to the Greek world seemsto be forged by the Anatolian Mother.Tammuz Recon. CI' on Napoli z9 $954). 8 1 6 . the magnificenttemple of Aphrodite. Priickner. 79-86. dangerousarmed underworld beings who neithereat nor drink but only destroy.. S.dto this myth. A.55_. Sem.17 above. .S. Caskel W.en. N. Die lokrischen Lokroi l.an exchange roles in the Naturally the forcritical transition from virginity to womanhood.31 ihis myth becameknown. a piece of her attire is removed: the crown.pure goddess.the chain about her chest.accomplished the form of an initiation. No Return. ^1ltt fr. of course.r The Lokrians believedthey owed their militiry victoriesto their Aphrodite. i. it is the great hunt. The paraltelto the myth of l'^":11]":"O. r-t7. however. the nourishment from grain is the goal answeringto the surrender of the maiden. t o 9 . AP 7.r. rSeeIII.the myth takesa far more ag_ turn. tnaddition. A young man (a local hero?)abductsthe maiden but then hands her over to a solemn. 96_ of Daikness (1976).and she rises. Itqered. Here.in Abydos they told of the defeat and expulsion of those who had enjoyed the pleasuresof Aphrodite in the temple of Aphrodite Porne. in rg5r. ::Ys . among fishermen.. the dreadful and liberating act of killing. bearded old man. 8 9 r ' r z o 4 ' T H rz4o. whereupon the Gallu seizehim and carry him off to the underworld.).qt.Dersumerische lourn. B..Enkidu and the Underworld" are the words: 'Alter Ereshkigar had been Kur as its prize. The new themes functioned. 186.. only the death. H. Lestschr.4 t .

jr (:.tudniczka.e. :^69-z3o.is not alone in the theme of deat-h. and Romans thereafter would rarely have gone to Eleusis twice.75.edzrozresPlut.s. Mobius.storming through the mountains with only the itill more the fruntress"than giver of grain. Crassus came too late: see Cic. if an equilibrium exists at all at the centerof being. Steph.r6rdu pteyaXau |vnnndu 6la. there are only general statements concerninga "purification. V'4. 4r-42' 144-47' $fapan: K. 5. Byz.zo9e. as is shown by Plat.847. at the sametime. For the temple of Meter see IG 12 ?'To. A distinction was also made betweenthe Lesserand GreaterMysteries. 3592 = SlG3 869. place."A7pa. and cf . he destroysa liie in his stead.u.n 75 below 264 265 .pain.Q. Eleusis.9t6). civcideors xai orepp..s when a theme of fapanese and Polynesianmyth is the death of a goddessas a condition for the gift of nourishmentfu when already in Neolithic Qatal Hnytik the two godas dessesseemto aPPear mother and daughter. Aristoph. Theon Smyrn.6 Eleusis seruatquod ostendatrexisentibus." tttro.rjz. soden 2). xa9appdv re\oiow polyaen. Suda c a39..r. 218.Sen. w. Bekk.ri(oua LSS r.Plat. Td le}aAo-rri rpos' Af pav pLvorilpn /G IylII'z 66t . 44-j7 = Studia i.n. for an emperor.seeking. Jul.Cf. just as Plut.Of course.J?orswas accomplished on a specific day of the ptuortlpta. indepen' similar to that of the Gallu with Inanna. the mother's fury and the wild before.r7.r." a "preliminary consecration.unrrt"s?). the mysteries could be repeated: IG ll/lll. Or.a processionof men (Mantineia: IG Y z'265't6. PIut. u.9. One could becomean epoptesiby participating in the great festivalfor a second time one year later.r. Meno 76e. ignored by Deubner).ELEUSIS MYESIS AND SYNTHEMA of brings castrationand death to the unfaithful Attis.Againstthis.freeing feiocious powers and pressing ii.is gods'. FGrHist lz9F 6917o. Athena pu- rzl-29. rapa rou'lkocdu . Bacch' ' .7 above. and sanctuary.. and 3. and mid-Metageitnion until the tenth of Pyanopsion). Gr' 935Page MeI Hymn IG lY t? r3r .the kalu-piiestswere entrustedwith the knowledge As of how to make the tympanon in secretsacrificialceremonies).(r97o)I r7o-7t. 7247."' Though the story of Herakles' initiation at "Erdnrreuov 6i rodtrripcrou d. L6vi-Strauss. the scaleimust swing back again. and expectation. ropayeiv to dvaytw rilvKoprlv) should be taken as Ati urrr. Cicero only lived at Athens for half a year (RE VII A 838. zetrezis rapa\octs (: p. "lisan mitlrurti . . Philochoros. pvo{p.Phdr.zz. the routine sacrifice of the "mystery pig" could always assume a deeper dimension: standing the'reat'theiage of death. H. AM 6o16r (ty5l36). An seni 7g5d mentions pucrayul[ov as th-econclusion. Mythologiqueslll(t968)' zz9' (rgr9).49:LSS3B5. 27. ). Florenz. LSS 3 B 3e.u5oc.Symp. failing to Jind' and discovery. of course. the actual festival day in both casesmust also come on the twentteth of the intermediate month (A.2r.where a small temple of Meter. Poetae nA myth of the Cherokeesin C.r. the_ de-onic procession (969).They were divided according to time. Her wrath abates from the sacrificeof a when she receivesthe tympanon that comes bull (in Babylon. 6v " Aypas An.Miorat-Er6trzal already ICI'?6. dence of Dumuzi is stressedby C.l.zz. V.73o." in the precinct of Agra by the banks of the Ilissos. On Meter and Tympanon:Eur' Hel t346-52. colpe. The date on which they were celebrated was the twentieth of Anthesterion/ seven months before the GreaterMysteries. z. 266'4r xopa7ory6s a Hsch. certain tamsuccessful bourine dances among the men. when the American Indians tell of the death of the maiden. z6.n 43 above' $Mellaart (t96) 46.evos as the beginning. cf. Alc. |rottreia. r"zoz+. the unsuccessfulreturn from the underworld' the of establishment death and. ftr the receptlve initiate.<1rav Erifleors.It is the hope of the initiate that the path into death will lead to life' in Kopayca. ''thol Atistoph. pp.nat. and cf.. ticre xcti Er6. Since the time spans mentioned nere for the orroy6arj at the Lesser and Greater Mysteries correspond to each other exactly (mid-Gamelion until the tenth of Elaphebolion.rg"r.The community permitted to participatein the festival at Eleusisis broken up into mystai and epoptai.islandslike the peaksof sunken surv#ed only in isola'ied mountain . iz1l. The mother the her wild attendants.Plut. x uy tt'e loss of the daughter: the virgin-sacrificeis.'3 hunt are motivated with Demeter. And.n.2o.c xai rpoayveucr. IG li/lll.the former connected with grainft-orL'begins to sensethe dimensionsof a theme that has indications. Mommsen [t8981 4o6. the act of killing is irrevoiable and yet must prbvoke an answer' The scalesof [fe. ro8-37. stood until modern times. Epidaurian sSee I.24.745. now as toward a sacrip'reparation.r73b-c: "PoraAata. Die historischen Quellender Shinto-Religion see On Polynesia I 5.The LesserMysteriesoccurred "in the city.44. the mother's wrath.for all its peculiarities." Festschr. B45 tionep rpoxatgap. 5.pots rapaioivat 6ivaa$at. Myesis Synthema The few indications that we have concerningthe Eleusinianmystery rituals are the more problematicalbecausethere were various sitesand various stagesin the mysteries. De ol.s lquilibrium have been tipped and.Schol. . the mother of the gods. Demetr. ldl varn j967). The . Ran. Lobeck ll^8z9j 3).rgh which uPPer und lo*"t worlds reach a tension-filled equilibrium.Virtually no detailshave come down to us about what took placeby the llissos.\4wrriyptara p6(ova-ra ri). t4-75 Hiller mentions the following steps: rarlappos.

r . tgrr.) see G." Axioch.g. contaminates Plat.'Slavesneededto clean the shrine could be hastily initiated at the Lesser Mysteries for this purpose.r." Hippol. K e r 6 n y i ( 1 9 6 2 )p l . 324.1vc.+:. E. Pr.z. on the sarcophagus Lovatelli urn (seefigures 8 and flgrn lbrre Nova and on the so-called q). r-4. rnony for those to be initiated.h e r Mobius. 3Ve. Ran. Roussel.58 below). Tiibingen E r83 : ARV'1 477. see also the relief from llissos.d . 4 6 . Byz. C o m m . R o m e ) s e e E .'' The preliminary sacrifice of a pig is followed by the Bpovaoc in the centralscene:the initiand sits veiled and barefoot. considers ::it:.t4. The allegorical interpretation of the Lesser and Greater Mysteries given by the "Naassenian.45. We can say with certainty that the Greater Mysteries included an associated with initiation. Corg. " P o u r t a l d s . 8. "the Mysteries" were and at alwaysremained primarily those celebrated Eleusis. z above): see F.n.a v a r i atlon of the Eleusinian version on the urn.33. 7.portrays suchan act of "sitting on a seat" preciselyin connectionwith the initiation of Herakles." Plato relates the term to the Korybantesin the cult of Meter. t h e b e s t r e p r o d u c t i o n s a r e i n K e r 6 n y i ( r 9 6 2 ) p l .r. Y z. z5o wnet t h e m o d e l f o r t h e w h o l e s e r i e so f p i c t u r e s m i g h t n o t c o m e f r o m t h e r e . cf . One of the copyistsmisunderstood but it as the liont skin of Herakles. ACI4i94). Asia Minor second cen.r.'0The pictorial tradition. Rizzo. The associationwith the Eleusinian mysteriesmay also representa balancing between the municipal Athenian cult and the far more extravagant neighboring cult. Symp. 1546. ine second part is an abbreviated paraphrase of Clem. Ephem. a myesis. Nilsson (1955) p l .3 above. for this H .6.8. on the sarcophagus passes burning torch very closeto his hand. Plut. and.r'This mythical initiation appearsin three scenes on two reliefs made during the Roman Empire.445. C L l B e l g i q u e 7 2 .ELEUSIS MYESIS AND SYNTHEMA Eleusisis very common. c o v e r " for a bowl. Dio Chrys. Maia ryQ. C . 8 6 .o.4 above. an ossuary length r3o cm. "Plat. Rijntische Mitteilungen z5 89-167.zo4). See also Attic vases of the f i f t h a n d f o u r t h c e n t u r i e s : " S k y p h o s S o m z 6 e " B r u s s e l sA r o = A R V : 6 6 r .reliefs. Oed fi rpecBwipa-fi aDiod. RPh 4o $966). 577-81. Aristoph. Rnn. it is sometimessaid that the LesserMysteries In were establishedespeciallyfor Herakles. t t . 7 . D. 497c (Greater/Lesser Mysteries) with Plal. A priestess the approaches veiled candidatefrom behind.3.In Agrai there was neither a Telesterion nor Epopteia.6. Uniu. Feytmans. Cf. j 7 . r3. cf . I o n r e l i e f s e r K q i s e r z c i(tr 9 r r ) . zoge (Myesis/EpoPteia). after the Anthesteria (eis Xo. Classicaet Mediaeualiat7 Qg56). Theseecho a common model from which individual sceneswere reproducedon Roman architectural. Plut. B r u s s e l sR z l 5 = A R V ' t r z r .t2z.'A7pa. Or. For the Athenians. 4 .613.and that there was a pig-sacrifice Eleusis.or so-calledCampana. The ancient name for such rituals is 1"Plat. and this is hardly coincidental. AiA 45 b941). ct. Leningrad ry92 .3. z8.497c with Schol.ApollodorosobviouslyreferstoAgrainFGrHistz44Fr4z:Clem. !f-jS )o-b5. P. For the urn (Museo Nazionale Rom a n o .EuthyLl. o^ Agra see n.p l .1011. see Schol.. r5). introductory cererified herself at the Ilissos with mystica lampas: Stat. of the dadouchos. in Anatolia and elsewhere.the hierokeryx.ARV11476. Hell. see A. z. Pr.24. 8 .is t67z. CV Belgique 7r. t2.n'8' V. 71g-2o. 4 1 .' By the fourth century at least. 2 . ' the p"ucrrfipn are named dr6 Mvoivtos ttvos Arrtxoi. 6. s L S Sr . &q5. 4. T h e d t h r o n o s i s ( a s o n t h e s a r c o p h a g u s )a l s o a p p e a r s on a marble relief in Naples: see Cook I (r9t4) 426.o Classicaltimes the festival was administeredby the Eleusinianpersonnel' The hierophant.r'on Rohden and H. Z 0 8 2 i l .StucliaVaria (1967). L o v a t e l l i .967). 5or. 3 6IG MII'? 167z.96. Lloyd-Jones. 6v iu xuuqyiq \nqSapilvat' eThere is explicit reference to the mysteries in Boedromion at Plut. D. ror the Campana reliefs see H. 84.r r . 4. R. _ s . Ker6nyi (t962)65 pI.1. Demetr. BCH 54 eyo).b e l l . Leg. Nock. r / 3 . P e l i k e . 158). however. y . Deubner (1932) Pl 7.r3'r' 37-lg.3.". Apollod. for the lakchos-song and the aroma of roast pig see Aristoph. Theb. Rel. n. Ker6nyi (1962) Pl.z77d (ct. (the first part of the Scholion follows Atthidographic tradition. 845) comes from associating iLarrovo.V a s e . Siudniczka.8 . D e u b n e r ( 1 9 3 2 ) P l 7 : . C . tury a. 378-' Ker6nyi (1962) 68-69. The finds in the at Samothrace may indicate a corresponding rite there. Phoc.ei(ova . Schol.' since Meter. N i l s s o n ( r g S S )p l .lgro).on a strangely shapedstool coveredwith a skin. "On the Lovatelli urn: see Figure 9. Nilsson (rSff) pI. 8Ker6nyi (1962)64interpretsthedesignationof thelocale iv"Aypas (e.and the priestess Demetereachgot their fee.Ker€nyi \tg6z) 68-7r (in reference to A figure on the side of the sarcophagus corresponds to a figure on the relief lSra')trth the llissos temple (n. Cf. 1'Herakles'initiation at Eleusis is now attested already in Pindar. Plut. IGI'3ro. 7Plat.but there was a cult of Artemis Agrotera. Architektonische rtim. for Spovtoltcti M4rpQot as a 'Anaktoron" work of "Orpheus" see Suda o 654). r7z-73. LS r8 A 39) as "auf dem Gebiet der Gottin namens Jagdbeute". Milano zo ('t917). Ker6nyi (1962) pl. Kallias in Xen. zo (V4.zo7. the Greater for Demeter with (Schol. ) . 5.n. Athens q78. pipnpa rdv repi rov Ltouucov Steph.79od-e.'Yet in later times this requirement was obviously no longer observed. Qg67) 55-56 discusses the pig-sacrificeonly in connection with Agrai.tuorfipn vearEpa (IG IyIII'? ft73. 7. rr below. 26. M e t z g e r ( r 9 5 r ) p l . M e t z g e r (t965)pl. Aristoph. PIut. initiation in the Lesser Mysteries was mandatory before proceeding to the Greater. the Hunhess. Diod. Winnefeld. for a different interpretation see P Chantraine. B o l l .25. r?For the sarcophagus (more exactly.t3z. Gorg.1 8 . The statement that the Lesser Mysteries were held for Persephone. ro4. Pelike.l p.c r a t e r B M F 6 8 : A R V ' } 1 4 4 6 . r.13 a ram'shead or horn underneath the initiand's foot clearly shows that a ramskin is meant.42-44.285-318.7. On the interpretation see Pringsheim (r9o) g-rz. 1894 pl. Ephem.H. Mylonas (1961)zo5-zo8 (hypercritical). zo6-29. POxy z6zz and P51 t39t. 266 267 lilrr . Mylonas (196r) fig. kM z5 ggto). On the urn she is holda she ing a winnowing fan over him. Aristoph. AM 6o16r (t95t16).765. The Lesser Mysteries are no longer attested in Roman times.'A further preparatoryact belongingto the Eleusinianmyesis is mentioned in a glossby Hesychius:"Bp6vacts. Pa1t. t671. has stronger connections with hunting than Demeter. Heracl.3 8 . thereafter Eur.d. ldl 3t (t9t6).

remained silent.aBou Ex xi<rrqs. as Aristophanesparodiesthis act by having Socrates a falsepriest initiate the novice. Pringsheim [r9o5l z6. rz) with the iconographically completely different "lakchos. Pr. I have taken from the 'kiste. 254-68 was a parody of a ritual. cf. He describes as the "watchword" it krtvBTpa) of the EleusinianMysteries: "I have fasted.The recurrentbinding or veiling of the eyes in initiation is not fortuitous.." A few yearslater.. the snake is no longer dangerous.r. and frightened. dared to write such a scene. The snake arousesboth a fear of death and a secretsexualfascination. E). cf. Then she sat down.g. 15rgz-98. Strepsiades.ZivBr11pa. about which a snakemay be seenwinding. a festivePrayeris sung.outer form of initiation revealingnothing of its content.ls was part of the initiation. He can touch it without fear.g. made insecure.""e It has been obiected is widely assumed that the frieze. n . Approaching Demeter. r .. C e o r g . surrounded by those who are active and knowing.ro. (tgrt\. C. the Eleusinian rituals were not ." "take this wreath"-"$111 pleasedon't sacrificeme!" cries the mistrusting candidateworriedly "Bequiet!" Dust trickles down on him.a ramskin. knowing her duty. Wehrli."tuHere. ARW 3t (rql}.r . His new contactwith reality prepareshim for contemplationof the divine. the goddessDemeter herself performs this act.E\euowiau cru-n:rtuaa.It could be seen 35a general. zr. The comic poet would. recognized that Aris48 (r8g1\. whereas the candidate is left out. transforming the fear of death into quiet confidence-these are the themes of the night of the mysteries at Eleusis. pfeiffer on Callim. Tie singelng of the Kedestei in Aristoph . Z8-Zg. Guthrie. W K. holding the veil over her face in her hands. "she refused to sit on the shining seat. Harrison Qgzz) 546. He is captiveand ignorant. have left open the possibilitylhat he could deny any reference. Schr.3i. The divine myth is presentedhere in connectionwith a ritual instrument. Harrison igzzl 5tt-t6). Thesm. Blind. 6 . he must now experience the unveiling. the cistamystica. depositedinto the basketand out of the basket into the 'kiste.is the model for those who enter her mysteries. wno wrongly identifies the candidate on the urn and on the Campana-reliefs (Ker6nyi 1196zl pl. the candidatemust suffer the unknown. ipyacap.n'38 above). with downcast eyes. see generally O. ro7. Att. 5.zr. ry). Cumoni [r93o] pl. the bowed head. taken in this order from right to left. Metzger g965) 11-36.r. III. And she sat silently on the stool for a long time in sorrow. on coming to Eleusis. Paus. and hastily pulls his cloakup over his head in order not to get Strepsiades wet. however. I."-rem. but also with those of Attis (Hepding lr9ql.evog dre$|p. his new sight. however. e. becauseof a much-discussed saying transmitted by Clement of Alexandria. R/rM 48..ELEUSIS MYESIS AND SYNTHEMA clear: purification by air-just as the grain in the winnowing fan is purified by the wind-and purification by fire. Hermes 3 Q869). These hints for those with knowledge betray nothing to the uninitiated. But a precisely corresponding rite seems to be 6 attested only at Eleusis. until Iambe. the kiste. ry5. since a parody of the Eleusinian rite seemed unthinkable to him.iqr". ''lt 268 269 . coming before the secret. 275-$: toph. experiencing Kore's return.'n The psychological effectis alio at once clear. Dieterich. he spoke of "Orphism" (following him cf. Demeter looks back in the direction of a young woman hurrying toward her with a torch: this is Persephone comingback from the underworld. set up a stool and over this she spread a shimmering ramskin. Ma Bellona (Cumont [r93o] pl. As she entered the hall of king Keleos. Essal sur Ie culte u tstsa Pompei [1964). Nrb.. "Sit down on the sacredseat. t5A. Having previously been isolated.. the snake. II r).parole. too.z (followedbyArnob. which apPearsunmotivated both psychologically and artistically. Jahn. t 6 6 . and for this reasonit could be portrayed in the visual arts. for now the gods-the clouds-appear. 1t7-34. by Pringsheim Q9o5) z1-24 and Mylonas e96t) zo7.The goddesssits on a plaited basket (rciorq). A e n . "On the xicnl at Eleusis see Pringsheim (r9o5) 49-64. . fsis [V Tran Tam Tinh.Yet this veiled sitting was still only the beginning of the initiation. Dieterich. portrays the sequence of steps in the initiation: e.For the initiate.qv eis xd_ naDov xad ix xotrriDou eis xtcrrnv. the only differenceis that whereasthe representations the mystai. and depict the veil. On the snake s e eI I I .his bundle of twigs showing that he is a participant in the Iakchos procession.26) xriortroaiv$rlpa. after the great Mystery scandal. pieus and Greek Religion (rg5r').Aristophaneswould presumablynot have ' n S e r v . F. the myth speaksof the god.' worked. rather. rt7-24. The basket remains covered. RhM Kl. u. Or6g6a01os ii'E\'euc:iu. The xlor4 is connected mainly with mysteries of Demeter and Dionysus (see Nilsson U1SZI 5il. But what actually happened is hidden behind the glorious artistic facade of Greek mythology. tr. irov rov xuxefoua.' xai 6 18 Erbse. to be sure. Kerenyi (7962) 70. there is a seat. as a blissful liberation.He is splendidly dressed. The third and last sceneof this initiation frieze is a different matter:" the initiate approachesDemeter. the use there too of the Atos x<l6roz lypCovrat .r. The connectionof the Thronosiswith the Eleusinianrather than the Lesser Mysteries is attested by the HomericHymn to Demeter' Here. 46-48 may parody the torch-purification.276. Her conduct." The latter is added on the left of the sarcophagus. and abandoned.into his newfangled meteorological mysteries. and a very general symbol.4r-44. pucrqpiav. We know that the encounter with the kiste.but. 27c--12. helpless. The identification of the initiate in the third scene with Herakles in the first has been disputed. I have drunk the kykeon. . 7 o a b o v e . 7 4 t .

is evidently paraphrasing Pr. The adDoia the to of Gailorare .. . and ambiluous.'ll"j.Matz.Yh (r. "working. Ch. 271 270 .. Ziehen. since no one expeof his riences birth consciously. .Bibl. W. In"one case.4116. of -kalathos 472-1J.Nik. Plut. I.)%-g4.tS. i'uro. Lagranse._478c ot u o^-u. are thus the possibilitiesthat have been played out in all combinations.meaning the same.For marriagerites in . an oPenbasket.1rf:t (pringsheim[reo5l7z_y). $-z6. 359.ta specifii part of the ritual in which the synthemahad to be pait. )oo-Jot.?o-55.poken (e. z... R. lgS. D. Dieterich ('921) .cf. there is a rgatrripr4 rn . for coins seeACl zo Ir95r]. Genital symbols are leastappropriatefor the representation a birth. G.inferred from Theodore Gr'aff' cur' 7'17 that-arebirth of coming into contactwith a xreis 1i. ."t. The mention of the "basket" (rc<itained such specialized ). with their lives (Livy 3r'r4).and an almost over-obviouJallusion in Arispoints to such associations with the kiste:when the women tophanes makepeacewith the men.at Eleusisdepicis a large in (IG II/III.ti.:t|^o:?i!"i. t5)7_zt."The saying..ELEUSIS MYESIS AND SYNTHEMA that Clement was unfamiliar with Athens and could hardly have obinformation.ru.c.t. taking. Err. rczele.The kalathosis connected (Callim.".196)'469.l:* tt after having beencut off: seeSchol.Demeteimysteriesthere are unattestedand Clement could hardly have expectedhis Alexandrian public to accept some. 4o5. For a largekalathosflanked by bladesof wheat_on plTrendall Qg6) 552. FCrHistz++F 89\. A far longer-lastingeffectresultsfrom something indirect.'n took place under the aegis of the ii'ni. a butcheredreindeerburied in a box made of bark. Ker€nyi (rs6z) 78.: ::. Mainz."'s rhe religiousmetaphor of self-purificationand abstinencepoints to the marvelous festival to come. naked sexuality ii overwhelmingand transforming.etc. Mil.. occurred t ARW 18 (t9t5). etc. was famous for its specialpurity and the nysus. scholars cameunasked Ker6nyi[196z17)' But the Acarnanians . For generations indignant tone sugand the kalathoscould have contained.. ry6\. r5z_54. fillll"'_:."'po*ers of the celebrations female."r-14. zr5'5' ln the myth. affi. Dieterich. and MysteriesseePlaut.4 above.Polemon.ou Tlt*-'i:'. somethinglike a mystery . tz4-zb) suspected that the_kiste con' '. Helidorus 7. in_itspediment' The gZg6) tt muse.Kern. Jgg. in-tl" on taineda phallus the analog|oiii"-O"i. $9+o).Ei_ 5 trem.479'The grave-stele Nikarion $l-8+.3.'l'. rebirth likewise does not lend itseli to a impressive symbolization. tn" mysteriesof Demeter o."Now keep yourselves nice and clein sothat we women can then entertainyou in the city with the contents of our xiaran.Clement found orri thu ^0.gidentifiedui kuluthoiarebakchos-rinss: Fideito(OF i' :rro)' Expos' r-T. Ad. Ath. see " objectson coinswhich Deubner(rglz) zg..36r).882. as the emblem of Eleusis.charito 4.::li8 'rc-mysteries see Firm.. 3n-74' ln-78' liefs. 8.rA..9. ux.:s. For srgna nun of the Bacchus Err. ffi.94r). Repeti_ tion.t.Osl. Cf. #162-$. disagreeing. Ntrrrrism.known from rhe painting in the Villa dei Misteri..H toUt.7t_gr. Meuli j946) 256. symbolic 6r both.as . ii (t967) 66' A' Kotte' 2.'Eleusinian.. Beazley.r. ^.resougf.84).aoos) seemi more suggestiveof Demeter celebrationsin Alexandria. RE XVI rz39. C. 16 _ tg. The controversy surrounding the interpretation reflects how uncertainthe interpretersare as to what degreeof explicitness they must utrrr1g in ritual symbolism. f'h" phallic herms on the streetsof Athens becamea matter of concernoniy after they had beenmutilated.u." putting scholarJhavetried to puzzle out what the kiste back.Forthemost recognitionforinitiatesseeFirm. rr1z-84. the kalathosis pres' Italian lekanissee re 7.S.r-7. e93z)8r-83. J 78 (r9zg). really discloses a geiuine with knowledge that he has acTlie initiate is only telling someone what complishedall the prescribedrites in the proper order.'?iThe unveiling*ofthe the dismembered phallusin-a winnowing fan is a centralevent in the mysteriesbf DioEleusis.6tri r<itrz.BCH89 (. Precisely the most general. quickly exhaustsits fascinatior. rcr6 cf. Lys. J87. howevet ti::i* by means agreeu'o T'heodoretfirst explainsthe word xreds.98.j" cf.r9. suggested phallus in the kiste. F. Pr' 2'1'7 seealso the sarcophagus III Die antikenSirkophag-Reliefs 3 (r9r9). For a puritan. one can marshal support for all these interpretations. Robert. responsaasthemutualsignsof ha.. J.4 with Schol.tdHowever.ll.g. 6ttd. and paid of uses respondetis the concePt the cuppo\ou following the model sacfofumacceptionibus of the Christian symbolon:seeDelatteQ955)tz-23' 20Pringsheim (ryo) +g. Aler.he speaksof Thesmophoria.95. cilt'po\ov Eur.t. a cunnus the kalathos.however..the Chalsitting on the kalathos a south kis Museum (ca. 6. Rftes.r. Err.horyevgr'seemsto [q thing Alexattdtiu.etc.it nothing. Deubner cf.2t a 57211'For parody of the srgHdt. Elderkin Ctph 35 . Clern' who mentions the kalathosin the contextof Eleusis.Clement's intercourse or birth..watchword" preciselybecause. were intimately connectedwith marriagepi"puAphrodite lvtysteries -organri$ons.n rhere is a tradition in which the reproductive of Dionysus is hidden in a kiste. AIONY>IAKH TE_ . in reference the cabrri..).' i'rt". Epiphanios Chton. Eine Mithrastiturgie (lr9o3. a in l)nK rvr. "Pl ln: seeAlicphr'-r'4'3.4. Arnob' 5 26 quaerogatiin into the TJesterion.L. Inter6e!fs€ as a mystery is a common metaphor. Nilsson (rgS) 6Sgassumesan Alexandrianelaboranot only with the D€meter tion oi the Eleuiinian synthema.Rea. Lysistratasaysto the sexuallyafflictedrepof resentatives the oppositesex.. female gests sexual obfects. picard.allusive.For used lrueicBaL. Gnomon 0929). 475. (Apollod'. male. however."t. {nstoph. unspeaking rites these were ii hidden behind words: a coveredbasket. J89.I{omantrnd I.ll"iftn. 140-44.Thus a late authority speaksof the femalegenitals.. lfl 95 (1927)..7 above.77. z8o u.iott Thasos. Merkerbach.hlat at procession Alexandria goddess *itf.t el'ti"' fu"ug". Deubner l9l8o. mysteriesof Dionysusand marriageseeIII. Hy. ro.zo (r94o). lgz12l. andcf. for a on seethe Thesmopho. and cf.or more than a metaphor.utYsterum (196z). is ent when Persephone picking flowers:Clem.Symb.

Grindin8 in stones and mortars have been found in Neolithic toirbs: see f. the zo6-rr.4: oqcap. E.pou. rrr ^rr(. zEBurkert (1967) zgz-91. ivy. the Ssabians mourn the god.seeNikander in Ant.pslyThey consistedof sesame fig omphalos cakes.1 : OF lj. The rite be performedby the priest as the highest mystery of Christianity is very similarto that which can be tracedback far into Anatolian-Hiitite cuiture-that is. Makkay."l Here. in their simplest Eleusis. L.n.bg contained in the word ipyaoay. Lru. 2 4 dandTher. Strom. the function of the kiste itself is to store and conceal. round cakes.The significance Theophrastus'testimony was recognizedby Delatte(rSfl) S-8. but cf.pyramid cakes. once ground and cooked in water with a seasoning. Here again of sexual basic human themes of aggression. collective saciifice brings about social coheston' The correspondence with Eleusisis yet gieater if we consider varro's . see M.ai . Paideuma FSSS). on the Attic sesame cake ai weddings see 'i"rc. Kaiserzeit lrg61'zl.globular cakes.sacredthings 26 z.lZl-Z+. lumps of salt. Heitsch. yverepermitted to sit during thi confirreatio with their heads veiled. Diod. a primeval receptacle. z7r f . z4 t l ( ')iln:"*.zz.the need for food and sexthe uality are addressed.t1-36.dpytov Arcvutrov Baoc<1. just as Demeter did in the house of Keleosafter sitting veiled and in silence. Eder. 478d. j9 (D. for the orphic version see Clem. alreadyF. poppyseed cakes.5 above.54o. in Porph. 'Serv.44g. Nonnus in 6.:ji:rt^ (r9r2) 387. Die Ssabier derSsabismus (1856). (rgz8). and it was customary . the mortar and pestle. Aen. because is writing in Athens. Page. as it older eventhan the invention of pottery. must beat 6 rice cakesuntil she faints. z.evos.but this too is an act of destruction-necessary nonethelessfor nourishment.ilsrou in the kernos seePolemon in Ath.Delattereferredalso to Diod.rp i. This presumes-counter to the skepticism of WisllJ:t.A sheep wasslaughteredas the sacrificialanimal.a. 5. For a femaleshamanin fapan who. Porph.z5. more plausible with respect to Demeter as a goddess of grain.5.5. ^ ')!1. Speiser 6o Zeitschr. plut. and there the marriagecouple.ELEUSIS MYESIS AND SYNTHEMA contents of a cistamysticn-in the mysteries of Dionysus Bassaros.to set up two seatsconnectedby the skin of the sheep that had been the sacrificial animal.roen Schol. branches. 14.The only specificindication may.for which spelt-bread was used.374. 3. xowauia roi gapp6s Dion. A ll.49. 5. thus."e fpipnu'. Serv.perhaps.z-1.J-a communal meal.82."trra""to the marriage. Sud. Schol. At the festival of Tammuz. e. the grain] as a secretand encounteredthem as something sacred.zo were.ln Dionysios' Bassarika. we encountei the sitting on the sheepskin and veilingof the head. that of the most solemn form of marriage contract. Hal.5. xowuuoig rils itporarrls rposils yeu|o\ar.z5." Spinning or weaving comes to mind. Cf.32 A curious parallel to the Eleusinianmyesiscomesfrom a Roman initiation custom."r In talking of things hidden yet encountered. Cf. The grain.. Pomegranates. und ll son.produces the kykeon which the initiate drinks.26. the activities of the VestalVirgins. 2tTheocr." The contents of the kiste are thus related to food and to sacrifice. Epyaflepoeg6vrls Parianmyth seeApollod. a narthex.witi theinto a lizard (Askatabos).9 v.Dichterfragmente rijm. nfr. Etst. t1z. remains of the omophagy are hidden in the xlorar beforedaybreak.484.. Ior Epnv d. at ]east symbolically. 3o (1978). the confarreafio. Theophrastus llepd eip4pirotv of o Schol. FGrHist z44F 89.az above. Ethnol.e.As u commentson pig-sacrifice: p. 8. Theophrastus writes that when men discovered agriculture and the grinding of grain. and on top of it all. then eatencommunally. 4. the bread is broken.44r.Th" pomenand flaminicy. nEpigenes in Clem. The initiate had to grind the wheat.5.In proper frame of mind one can experience what would otherrryise simple as something fundamental.Theophrastos IIEPI EY:EBELA2 1ry6+1. .t}es xqi roltvtrat xai rorq. Ov.3lAccordingly we may presume that some ears of wheatand a mortar and pestlewere among the objectsto be found in the covered and uncovered baskets.37o. of course. and it is followed by a communalrite with a bread rnadefrom the most ancientNeolithic frain. 4 2 . "they hid the tools with which they worked [sc. r48): rd 1. the allusion must be to he Derneter "The tools with which they worked" are.This may seemrather banalby the light ol duy. u rniit.and cf. The associations stamping and grinding are obvious. "I worked. too. "See l. Rom.'nAristotle's student Theophrastus suggestsanother interpretation. Kore worked at a loom before the snakeattackedher. rc a\6v xai 6paxoiv. Festus rr4 M. ..lllrjr:mation to4-67 with . Od. Abst.446_'6t. Ant.: (Demeterinventeq f et the xtrrep1ao[a of the grain) and above all to Pliny NH 7. the breaking of the bread.5. For mortars in the cannibalisticrtXercv narrlqaofthe Gnostics. Delatte (1955) 3o_35. 272 connectedwith grain.tiv rils ipyaoias opyava Beiav rois ploc in*oupiav napatqlovta xpw rlavres eis dnoppqrov <irsiepois ainois drilvrau. seeD' Chwol' z7. Ecl. Met. t. n .Dit der griech.It is. Act.1. ioros. p. Arch' Hung.t21-64. who was ground .2.4.'.ua ro)ruop'gahay6v6pot Pr. 191p. ll^ uatus 1 112.6 (W Potscher.a 9o7. auct. Thus too TheocritusPortrays the Bakchaitaking all manner of baked goods out of their kistai and depositingthem on the altar. For kalathos. at her initiation.tilr'bon.ze cakes. The contents of the Eleusiniankiste were probably also manyshapedand ambiguous.. Theophrastuscan only mean the mysteries of and.r. This rite was performed "through a kindlf sacrifice offeredto fupiter Farreus. sTheophr. Lib. a snake. pr. . 66). 5.in order to help in producing the next kykeon.zo-zr = OF 52. In his cultural-historical work Or Piety.LiteraryPapyril95ol. since both often appear as Preparatorycontrasts prior to a departure from the everyday to the mythic world.. GeseQ97o)7 f ..7..rgt (tie invention ol molere conficere Attica). xcrl rtpap. 273 . z.

ep. R. Nurnen Suppl."3s thus have the following seriage contractand the mystery initiation que. the polarity betweenDemeter and Hera. and deepensthat which had been laid as a foundation in the myesis. i i lunonisclauditur.including instruction. Only one possibility seemsto remain: during a specificcentral ceremony. For whereasthe mystai must "suffer" and were passivelyaffectedby the events.8.which occurredonly once. Greece. 3r.efia {LSS 15.o who would direct him in conducting himself properly. r9 below). z z . following in her footsteps.All promisesrefer to the mystai.necsacerdot[ Cereris IunoniEleusine templum ftt. 6oot p. $967\ 65 placesthe drinking of the kykeon immediatelyafter the in yeguptoltoi (n.' 'Arrll8os ciurpov.Y ELEUSIS SACRIFICE IN THE TELESTERION ancient kings and nobles in Etruria. Erga 1z. Cf . The Epopteiarepeats. Ov. No evidencehas survived to tell us how this juxtaposition of myesis and epopteiawas organized. Tentptts hnbantmrq staesideraoisa cibi. the synthema. r r K e i l ( l 4 z z D i n d . r4. 175. Varro does not neglectto refer In to the initia Cereris.r. ad Hes. Hy. is conceivable. : . that It on the mystai had to leavethe Telesterion beforea secondact in the ceremony/ but being sent out would make one all too aware of one'sdeficient status. esp. the ancientLatins and the Greekswho a The marit lived in Italy appearto have celebrated in the sameway.. -Atlpqrtp .26 Hiller. It is hard to say how the individual myesis and preparations. Deubner eyz) g.9.item cum Cereris sacrum aedes 4. Or. in 4. between transforming and maintaining the societalstatusquo.e i p e s A r i s t i d . but 6p&v does not equal 6. Pax Aristoph. rServ. the mystai had to be veiled and allow the priests to do to them whateverit was they did.9opdv.8.on the vessels which the kykeon was perhapscarriedsee 274 275 . when she is found. Insteadof too few there are almost too many indicationsof what went on at Eleusis. Tzetz. do the same. Ilepi gtXooogio5fr. The marriage bond through sacrificeassumed various basic and the mystery community are two relatedproductsof the ritual that elevatesthe individual into a new.too. The epoptai may simply have seenmore ot more importantly.the epoptai were "observers"with a broader. 837 pearson) is identified with the Epopteia by.s aition mentions not the kykeon. Bilvai p"e rpiv re$uqxtvat Aristoph.ui1p.The pig-sacrifice the individual's purification and accordinglyprecededthe procession of the mystai. Pind.4. 'The "sight" (Hy. fr. on the other hand."tg. 6.Hyrnn. a i r o t g t r i 1 v x o p t l t .s "Proserpinais sought with burning torchesin the night. TheSacrifice the m7 rcrcfiernn The goal of initiation is the path to Eleusisand to seeing what occurred in the great chamber of initiation on the sacrednight. This is followed by the act of finding: Demeter found her daughter again at Eleusis. Demeter cameto Eleusissearchingfor her daughter. The initiate was accompanied into the Telesterionby his sponsor. .' were related mythological and philosophical-allegorical and the thronosis belong to to this mass ceremony. It should be emphasizedthat the step that was the decisiveone in a man'slife was his myesis. There is no evidenceto suggestwhen the kykeon was drunk'-an in3sVarro 2.calmerview. Livy absurde '?Ker6nyi Q96z)77. 6rDarflxriy-re)recrrtxov Arist. once consummated.GtvosEreureu Callim.The myth is an essentialaid to our understanding.5 Colonna. establishment the community forms. rTfs re)rer4s f. used to sacrifice pig to sealthe bond. Already the mystai were permitted to see the blissful "sight. dication that it probably belongedto the secretcentral portion of the festival.oL "Eorepos.48o.).58 cum Eleusine fit. 40-41. Fast. Dem. the mystagogue. sit libatum.8-Ovid. the entire cereKerdnyi (1967) r8r-86 and Initiation.ur1". If. 6s re rrciv A. could view the sacred events freely for the first time. licetgustare undeCereri Iunonis clauditur. and the collectivemeal of grain. Soph. The juxtaposition of mystai and epoptai complicatesthe reconstruction even more.536-which cannot follow the yegvpxrp. r5 Ross.sIn the Neolithic.sTheon p. r17.aptarepa y. ro (1965) 6z-61. the one hand. ) . O r .r4. an Eleusinianinitiate was no longer a katechoumenos. The epoptai. 456. Ran. 6. 6et ydp p. however.aioor. Himer.Lr.4.". then the gesturesinvolving the basketand kiste must come at the end of the celebration. socialexistence. The departure from the everyday world in the great processionto Eleusis corresponds to the searchfor Kore. a n d c f .sitting on a sheepskin. is supposedto guaranteean initiation. on the other hand. Aen. 2 . Orph. the mystai. .The uninitiated Aetolians betray themselvesin the Telesterion quaedam percunctantes.renews.tce in common: a preliminary pig-sacrifice.t4:pluton brought Kore rjz. fr. What is missing is the relationship among the parts and their inner cohesion. both bride and groom. of is firmly attested. auct. 4 (l 4r7 Dind. but the poppy $lt-S+). differently.

7. Ker6nyi (tg6il gl. Kourouniotes. Moreover.tu<rrLxilsg). Poll.8rd-e. Zum Mysterien (Abh. OC rc48 irrd rils 1. rtz). 6o.24. r5Ker6nyi did associate the Eleusinian fire with the burning of the dead on a pyre.7n-but pevos xai piya I'its i&bv. Or.Here. as at Lykosura. whose findings have been superseded by Travlos and My'Aycirropoy lonas. p.+. 8. piyapov = Suda a 1924. sacrificial remains. denotes the chamber of initiation when the reference is to initiation " i n s i d e t h e A n a k t o r o n " .3. that the great fire at a festival the gods does not burn for its own sakebut for its purificatory and for its destructive powers. Picard.77\ 59. 'o Mylonas Q96t) 57-58.rvDio Chrys. "Das Weihehaus von Eleusis und sein Allerheiligstes. rrK.13 and there too the celebrationoccurred at first in the open air. Thus."6 dering is transformed. played its part. ori rd 6g6ori1ol rip phitret. already Deubner (1932) 88-9o citing Noack. At Lykosura. the Eleusinian ritual falls into place in the larger contextof Greekcult and gives us a further clue by which to grasp the rhythm of the nighttime events. 681. Paus. We must. oLov dvaxr6pau duotyop. dvaxropou (but cf. r. cf. see iG llllll']38rr.9 Keil). The hierophant completed the initiation in the Telesterion"amid a great fire. With this hypothesis. 4o. j9g. dM i c e n o l o g i a l Q g 6 S ) . Myth. then.r 6 'O 6'ivrris Tevopeuos xoJ piya.Dio Cass.9. Deubner's interpretation falls with Plut. this must be becauseit was an dppqros$voia.ro). S.) near the throne of the hierophant as reconstructed by Travlos.i zrupris. the throne of the hetaera of Demetrius stood rdpa rd dvaxropov (Hege' sandrcls in Ath. r. 2 4 . epit. lon ro76. Ephem. 8 above.e. 8 r . lnst. fr. next to which stood the throne of the hierophant. 8. oiov roi nupds toi xar"EXeuciva z<irlos.rr. the fire shininS from the holy of holies. Pericl. Qg67) tor. Soph. RHR ro7 (t9)). t95ol5r. Berlin. connect the vu{iv tv epigram to the hieroph ant (6 p. 7 2 ) . )g5.uaxropa A1o0s. For a different view see Ker6nyi (1967) to9-rro.78r TCF : Suppl. through the terror of death. name which in the more impreciseusagewas applied to the whole Telesterion. z9. d 0' rit (fr. zz.8rc ivros yevoOr.'And the mystai then saw him "emergefrom the Anaktoron. :^8(4). Travlos.1k. The great processionmarching the more than thirty kilometers between Athens and Eleusison the thirteenth of Boedromion'ufollows the path of the enragedDemeter. Ran. Ailpqrep iortoiy' 'Etreuoivos lrlouris Eur.83-88. it is a nocturnal light. 2 4 .He alonewas allowed to go inside it.8.z). ro = Suda e : duaxropoy Hsch. o nO d . Such a Megaron was found in the open air at LykoBurn marks are the most ancientevidencefor the cult at Eleusura. Pr. (1962) 7o2-7oj. too. Ot l. ro. <rxorous re xai gords iua)r)tcl{ airQ gawo piv<. 8re. 1 1 4 . n. Diu. et ea inuenta ritus omnis gratulatione ac taeilarum iactatione finitur. moreover. Korres. Offerings for the gods. r-49.zo. ivBa ra puort xri rfis Lrlpqrpos.p6s i6tiv. O r ." ldl (rg5). r. dvaxropau dvotyopLtv<. Inst. Pericl. it is certain that this transformation went hand in hand with the transition from night to light.7 lacibus accensisper noctem Proserpina inquiritur.9 Xupiov clBarou n.7. and referred to the self-immolation of the Brahman Zarmanochegas at Eleusis (Strabo l5 p. N. 4Z-5+. f. tirt.2. 13. O. depci66ds. T h e r e i s n o m e n e i tion of daylight breaking in. sis. dvaxropov. in the shining nights of the mysteries.J). 38r. 1l ii lll' rt I { I 276 277 i{ t . for the sacred eirriDes see already E:ur.38. r-:16. and Ch. t. Rubensohn. IG Illlll? 376$ with the high point of the celebration. Phndthon p.zo. (1967) 6o-66. da'aia served as openings for smoke-see C. 7zo. Affi e n t e m o r id e l l C o n g r e s s o l n t .. saw a connection between the cremation at Eleusis portrayed in Euripides' Hiketidesand the mysteries.37. r. Polemonof Ifion rlepd rfis iepds 66o0. L.zz.687 with Schol.|uav. Iocatediust off center in the great hall. rip ro ltuortx6u Himer.ln off though. rr8.eya).we have evidenceof something that was natural to all Greek cults. 4 9 a . then.21.' et6er' dvaxropou ixtrpogautvra &pyeuuais." In other placespeople referredto Demeter's roof ancientword for "palace"-and this was likewiseprimarily the site an of a great fire. the fire in the EleusinianTelesterionmust likewise have formed the centerof a sacrificial ritual.iora4 rore p. and cf. 8 above. IG lllilI'? 38rr) and hierophantis (ri retrctcls du\gawt Seoiu rap'd. 1tvotwds <rnx6e Strabo 9 p.4o8. Phoen. Schol.3zowithSchol.r7 dvaxropov-yprlorilptov).. and cf. Deubner. Or. Mylonas (196r) rr9-zo. the enthusiasmfor 1o/Gl/lll'? l l 38rr. r67f. t4z-6r. "'ld itraiov itri rot dvaxtopou Plttt. S o p a t r o s p p . yet from the oldest times. n.VI ELEUSIS I I SACRIFICE IN THE TELESTERION Anxious wanmony is ended with rejoicing and waving of torches. Ammonios rr3 ro 6i ptyapov repu4txoiop. rrr. The more precisewriters calledit the a Anaktoron."'0A "great light" would become visible "when the Anaktoron was opened. Hik.T h e m i s t . 39.8 oi narpds p"vorayayoivros . Tyr.tvPlut.'truppipous rleris Eur. stated more briefly in Lact. 3 z o . it was certainly screened from the outside y/orld by walls. r z t . C TNurrds iu 'E\euoivt dz'ti a-otrtrQ nupi ra p. airf . n. the smoke escaped Megaronaboveit. . The ambiguity comes from the expression "to reach the Anaktoron" as the goal of initiation: see Max.'There was an entrance at the side. rzo-zr following f. 'Ael. Cia.8 6 . And if our sourcesdo not mention it. De proi. into blissful joy. oixos Aristid.t d(n p"iv oiu vvxr6s ra rc\{opara xo. t rg5. 8 above. ''Plut. 7 . cf' 36o4. and cf. corpsesare purified and dispensedwith by fire. 54. De prof. argued the thesis that Weihehausder eleusinischen dvdxropov designates the whole rdreorilptov (for this word see Plut. l'945146. 8On the remains of the building see Mylonas Q96t) 69."'It must have been here that the permanentlittle room. 2 4 . Varro in Aug. 5.. Rel. z.oyos xai rdv iepdv 6Q6av. Ker6nyi (t967) 86-87. 6Lact. t . r3. '6"At\ouctuyotvrdu"Iaxyou Aristoph.l r l J . and cf. Fulgent. Clem."1'This was. rgtz. Euripideum [r9r3] rupds \iorotuc Afiprlrpos xopqEur.rlltturl Eoria. 395. through a hole in the the location of the greatfire. 8: below. Harpokr. There is no certainty regarding an 6traiov in the older Telesterion (Mylonas j96rl 7o. . For the program of the preceding days (IG lll[l2 ro78 is the main source) see Ker6nyi (tg6z\ 71-75. 5.a xoi dppqra puorilpta Hippol. Sopatros p. Ephem. but unattested (and hence for unconsidered)'u Eleusisalone: i.

poucrtu (citing Xenophanes. und Ib. or rather hierophant and daduchos.24 the time the procession reachedEleusis. Cf. Pr.725. Ion rc75-86. of Demeter or of Dionysus. 343. 7779. 268. Ephem. Seyrig.l'This aggressiveposture is turned against the novices who. The joking on that first bridge (yegvpt"og. Metzger. Aristoph. 316-17.Labyrinth Totenfahrt auf Malekula. Hsch. 648. however (ARW lr 36 the scene to "der eigentlichen Mysterienfeier. It is uncertain what the verses cited bY Kephisos (IG II/IIIt rrgr Koprl 769upav' Plutarch (fr.53.2. Schol. 8.1..cl6os oris oi piorat g|. Thereis mention of a prostitute who stood on the bridge. see Schol. for lakchos : Dionysus. 13. '?6Plut. Layard. "The wanderings" mentioned26 Ran. zolt.zo. J. 6. an IakchosBy statuewas evidently brought along as well.2. is a bundle of branches perhaps called Baxyos."2s We do not know the details of what happened at the spring. etc. Schol. l'? I'? 8t.93.r6)*earoq cf. therefore. 242-43.e. Ephem.vrrrwdv taxyov.r (Ker6nyi lrg6zlT. virtually pre-human kind of weaponry: a branch broken off from a tree greatly enhances the strength of one'sbare hands.ELEUSIS Y I SACRIFICE IN THE TELESTERION The emblem of thq the collectiveundertaking is basedon aggression. Lnbyrinthstudien e95or1. G.. V 5. VS zt B t7. 124. D. g17. see Schol.r8.65. ro\iu ilyiloet rdu"Iaxyov. In frequently identified with Dionysus.16. 8g-9o." EAAVI 389.7 6trrc pi.d6os iz rais relterais." [ly4l.r66 Powell.g. "Cameo Morgan. for instance. Himer.In Clasiical times Iakchos was considereda divine or demonic personage. r. . one must tear oneself loose from this in order to cross the mountain and reachthe plain of Eleusis.2. 3gg. . Ran. . Athenian and foreigner.36r: rois ydp p|\\ouras p. Ost. P. (t96o). .38. . Phaedo rola: the path to Hades Eo'xe cyio6ts re xad rpr<iDousrrotrtrcis tyew.links t'Aristoph. Ker6nyi. z a b o v e . S.rr hos ciu hrepcl. metaphorically. for Tegupi{ew in the transferred sense "to mock" see Plut. ft. Sulla 2. Grat jg74\ 6o-66. But perhaps we must reckon with a variety of refermeter laugh.z.t rd rpina xcli repripop. Carmina popularia 877 Page\ refer to: rapdt 6cov oilzra lrptnoXeovie (rpiroirou 6i1 or rptnot eiv 6ei Wilamowitz[ryzl 5r.r d1v pavfiv eiuat rdv p. by exposing herself obscenely. BCH 88 11964l. t. times.aI the grotto of Pluto." Such carrying and waving of branchesis found with great frequency at festivals of the Sods and basically reflects the most primitive. and cf. dtr)tor 6i ot' yuvaixa.. at the suggesta gate.3 above. Or. 42. Chron. Totenreich. Yet confirmation came from a votive relief with a hierophant in the same costume: AIA 64 j96o). Simon.i d. Aen.r. Eq. D. Dionysus'increased prominence at Eleusis in the fourth century (on which see Metzger j95rl 248-57. slave and free. Symb. Bacch. Priestesses accomand panied the processioncarrying "the sacred" objectsin the covered 'xiorqt on their heads. as son of Persephone. g63 and Schol..exp'atpolrevos ). C.euoeyr rQ'lo. titr)rri riz6pa ixei xafle(opevov .Poll. Aristoph. a contrast to what is to follow. IC IIlllI'? togzB 1t. 2aThere is an'laxyayay6s.av r'iu Ev3t76e r.the sun would be going down. reproduced. Mylonas [196rl zrr. 278 279 . zo1-zo5. . probably.5r2.18. A. are led about by the nose by those long initiated. BMF 68: ARV')466.959 Pearson.ovyxa\utrtop. tt'Ez'E).84: = ARV2 1J15. VI r (r94r). pl.9. H. the mythical hierophant. ox<bp'p'ara)r67etv. 4o4.4oo on the Kephisos: ig' of xc. 4 . Mylonas. AK 9 Qg66). Num.rz)y. in Cumont (r93o) pl.67. S e eI .dedication 46o4).2t. . Scholars have identified the figure of the youth with the two torches and hunting boots-typical of Eleusinian pictures-as Iakchos (Pringsheim Irgo5l 67-68. depicted time and again on the monuments.xoiet xai reiBerat. .n. Aristoph. Philodamos 27-36 p.23 later. Strabo gp."'nThis has often been linked to that part of the myth in made the grieving Dewhich Baubo. was read i. FR II 56. and cL 167z.i i1 yiqupa xai oi "yegupurpol. cf. Torcheswould flareup. Serv. does not refer to Eleusis). :. I. 395.d.4 mentions a statue of Iakchos by Praxiteles. Fox. [196512r.u d. REG 9r (1978).'o encesin the myth here too. Ker6nyi (196z) pl. contra. Ran. In cases where two such figures are portrayed. Aristid. For the statues of the IG Kistophoroi from the inner Propylaea see. On the labyrinthine path into the next world see F. Pringsheim (r9o) 16-19. and even more so the impressionmade by a threatening gesture.touiocov IG Il/lll'? 1672. Eur. fr.r) and the Eleusinian was also a bridge over the : SIG3 to48. 1'Hsch. e. as on the bell-crater. Ant.ueioSat rpo\aBovres 6e' iirrovrat. frightened.3. Beazley.i7o. r-7.). and cf. Plat. . rr . 4o8 paxyovs 6xa)touv . to joke with as "before the mysteries. roi 'lc!r1ou inoioyil IG Il/lll'? 847.z). the bereSma of the Magi. K.t5. The place for vulgar mockery was the bridge acrossthe Kephisosat Athens. H. 68-l. Clinton (1974) 3z-35. . roi roris x). E.lAristoph.5.r4). The people enteredthe sanctuary"together with Iakchos. AP 9.xy<1tcruvetc:etr crivew LSS ry. Kerdnyi. who. It gives one superior standing.78-89.3. a custom evidently parodied by Aristophaneswhen he has the drunken Philokleonstationa scantily clad hetaera with two torches. tt5t. see Soph. 69. according to Kerdnyi lt'9671 rz7). Cf. Daux. Hdt. )Bt-g4. K. Paus. ry6o. BCH 5r (rgz). '?]Tfis L'i1p4rpos \aipova Strabo ro p.t36.q. 6o Sandbach. [EYMOA]IIOI. yegvpis' ropvrl rts.ro rdv Buryirv re xai uoltip. z0Wilamowitz (:. HSCP8T $97).6.pipoc t hat hte peat dfo]9a\ecrara." Eranos 242-97. theater seat IG Il/lll'? 5o44. Burkert Vesp. '8See (ry2il +1. idem [1965] 5z. 73. z.8o-82).ris) does not serve to liberate. zr*23 Dindorf. Paus. refet' ring to the way home. p.ai xoz66ers ral 6rci oxorous rryes iirorrroL ropeiat xo. they may represent Eumolpos and tubuleus (combined with Eumolpos in the Orphic version: Clem. mystai. rod r). pclx1os .35. r." Paideumar j94o). n . Kourouniotes. Strabo 15 '"larcy' to"laxy6zt united the crowd of young The rhythmic cry of old. rather. 468. a woman with a bundle of branches raised in the air before Priapos. Rusten. 157-6r. "Pourtal0s-Vase").8. C. Wehrli.Metzger [r95r] 757-58. it is. But the inscription on the fragmentary stamnos by the Meidias Painter. 733. however. There 'Penoi (lC I'?8r. + (rilil.For corresponding obiects in other cults cf. Boston o3.tt"Iakche" is merely a cry with which the departing crowd would whip itself into ever greaterexcitement.evov . r78 Sandbach: r)rc:uc. .

It was what occurredin that room." The child must pay closeattentionto what he is told. According to the myth. Bekk' zo4. holding torches very closeto a child cowering between them. Metzger (196) 38. Frazer. 3. Apollodorusll(r9zr). ." which was. 41.547-48. 624-27. For a Minoan goddess with poppies see S. Eleusinianwine tabu (Hy. she wanted to purify him for immortality.11967l 54)gn which an exhausted ing againsta rock while Triptolemosis flying abovehim. 44. Fab. the poppy is an emblem of Demeter. and makes it very probable that he was meant to correspond to the mythical Demophon. rz4. New evidence on the form of selection in Hesperia 49 j98o). Bull. "Feuerreinigung Il des Demophon". and cf.rr. papauer Ov. The "hearth" "from which" the child was initiated was probably the shows that the statehearth of the Prytanesat the marketplace. 6o4 Pearson. Mus. seeSvoronos(rS+) pl to4.atot Btoav. Katapl. Simon.3. Aen.27 the pressingcrowds. v. What Callimachusand Ovid said that Demeter did to the child Triptolemos was perhaps actually part of the rite: she put him to sleepwith poppy juice.. # 5o. According to Pringsheim (r9o5) zr. there was always one child chosen for initiation. 527pl.2. and ct.). Such is the reality of the child's "initiation in the fire. Art ry j956). Aristoph.O. zz6-9r. cf.s s2Foucart Q9r$ z7g. Sophocles may have portrayed Demeter as his nurse. d. sJ. Walter. is severely damaged) depicts two figures next to Demeter on her throne.. the torchesmust havebeen extinguished. Eu. 4.xptBds6pdu rd zrpocrerayp"iva. the Telesterion-opened its doors. Robert.(rSSf) pl. Mylonas (196r) fig. '?"Hy. r5.4. 4. Cf . Triptolemos' iconography changes from a bearded type to one more like an ephebe. the Eleusinian relief with the so-called "baptism" (e. Ephem.Yet the darknessof the sealedroom may well have evoked a senseof nearnessto Hades. .4."" A relief (which. and cf. Beitriige Geschichte Naturwissenschaften der Technik zur der und (t921). in later tradition. r3).r4."3l Being thus 27Muoro6<ixos Dtiptos. dadouchos. in front of which the priests-hierophant. too. Isaios fr.9l7.4. lahresh.e.rios. Kreta und das mykenische z8o z8r . dg' 6c.a x6p. The poppy was interpretedas r4s zotruPorph. this could explain the fire inEur.Y ELEUSIS SACRIFICE IN THE TELESTERION would lengthy route leading this way and that. ySammlung Este. r47. The iourney into the underof Demeter was not realized in any world suggestedin some literary sources'8 concretesenseat Eleusis. Ref 4. 2ELuk.Osterr. her "lack of understanding" because The notion that the myth correspondsto something in the mystery celebrationfinds support in the fact that a child.3 Thus. For a compilation of rzz Triptolemos-vases see Recueil Charles Dugas Q96o). The goddessrebukes she shrinks from this path. Bacch. at approximately this time. 264.Thereis a peculiarlekythosfrom Kerch(Louvre CA zrgo. 42.5o-7o. Ker'nyi 1196zl pl. There are many inscriptions from statue-basesand some surviving statues: see now Clinton Q97$ 98-tr4. Tovias<ripBo). M. and proud parentsoften set up statues of their children in the sanctuary if they were honored in this way.ro8. 6o-66. Demeter'swrath demanded a victim. a torch ritual reminiscent of the depiction of Herakles' initiation is here superimposed on the mythical image of Demophon-Triptolemosin the fire. and cf. Nilsson IrSSf l Pl.7. however. then. Ov.that was truly frightening. Deubner [1932] pl.d. Pyrrhos et Pyrrha: Re' cherchessur les ualeurs du feu dans les ligendes helliniques (ry6). for a poppy stalk and blade of wheat on coins from Athens/Eleusis pl.5dvriravravrtovltuoul. Fasf.y.va\eixvurar. Astr. 8o.2.3'zThis child represents the community. Soph. knew of the specialeffect of the soporit'erum (Yerg.t6. initiateis leanIt965] pl. Metr.58.\)rau iv rdterais nt 6p p. At Eleusis. 1oz. AM 6917o(rg54155). had a specialrole at Eleusis:among all the adult mystai. 84 Baiter-sauppe : Flarpokr. "Porph.' However.757-28. portrays Triptolemos as an initiate between the "two goddesses". Triptolemus"-and held him in the fire.Fasf. 4. Lippmann. see Ker6nyi (1962)pI. not without danger. 3o Opuscula (rg5z).-48.3'Thetranquilizing opiate could thus be used to still the children's fear. De cultu simulacr. An.uaudrop."Fire magic" can be done with heited wine and a torch:seeHippol.. howevet it depicts a boy as a sacrificial servant at the head of a procession of worshippers to the goddess.53r.287. zo6-zo8)may correspondto a secretuse of the wine. unfortunately.for poppies(?)on the sacrificial tray of the priest on the Lovatelli urn. 65. 4z-39.Darknessenvelopedthe multitude of many thousandsand only a few small flamesprovided a bit of light. which is broken off on the left. Nilsson. initiate the correspondsto the Attis on the marble tray in the Cabinetdes M€dailles:see P Friedlaender.529-6o following Callimachus.r9. Hyg. Fasf.486.-1. fr. Die antiken see Sarkophagenreliefslll r (r89).8. Marinatos. r5Ov. (19613). children of rd npd puardv d. and religious studieshave gathered much corroborativeevidencefor such beliefs in fire-magic. O. )71.66r). $ : New York 47. Kerdnyi lt96z)pl. E. But Lukian is only referring to the complete darkness out of which the terrifying daduchos-here Teisiphone-apPears. G. IG ll/l['? 4op.priestess played their parts. In his Triptolemos(468 u.7. Corfr.Hyg. according to E.Dem. z. 16.Studien antiken zur Literaturund Kunst(tg6). usually a young boy.Praep. chosenwas a greatdistinction. however.see Ker6nyi (1962) ra. Nub. 28. Nyx or Hypnos is depictedholding poppiesover Endymion on sarcophagi: C. for he must "appeasethe gods in placeof all those who are being initiated. Finally the celebrants "house that receivedthe mystai"reachthe end of their journey: the In i.ou: nut.c. 45. whose very name reflectsthe "people. the Dem. Iconographically. the boy's mother has an unerring senseof reality: this way lies certaindeath. zz. He was subsequently called the boy "who was initiated from the hearth. Foucart (r9r4) 4or. 6Bidez = Euseb.38-45. Abst. 6.ei)i<rceratrdBeiov. The myth tells how Demeter took the son of the Eleusinianking-in the hymn his name is Demophon.7oo.g. rtlc 12 6: LSS l. 4. .Vienna rcg5.Metzger pl. Delcourt. $For the bundle branchesand of the poppy on a frieze from the Eleusinion.

the ram is attestedas a sacrificial victim for Kore. Muntu.1. rSo also Ker6nyi (l^962)69-7o.xqu Enifl4xoz) refers to a rite (elaborated as an anecdote by Helladios: Phot.Clement Demeterwas enraged relatesa myth reflecting certainritual details:42 for having raped her-the samereasonthat Arcadian Demeat Zeus were ter had been angry at Poseidon'3-thus supplicationceremonies for in which brancheshung with wool were carried (a familiar called sight to the Greeks). rOn the daduchoi and the Ar.r. Llmrisseder neoafrikanischen Kultur (1958\. ISS ro.r (Phigalia). . * Pr. Eumolpos-ancestor of the hierophants-a shepherd.What had happenedwould becomeclear during the Epopteiaat the latest:a ram would be killed.o (Lobeck Ir829] r5r).oolors . Bibl. p. P z.r -17. Lyk. C.who followed the exampleof Hermes-and finally burned in the "great fire" in the Telesterion. In Egypt." followed by "unspeakabletouching. The Gatesof Horn (1948). ro5-ro6 (a human sacrificial victim lulled to sleep?).for instance." Diss. as if he had castrated himself. Levy. Paus."* It is clear that the very thing done to the sacrificialanimal in ritual is here raised to the sphere of the gods in the myth. Then came the uncial act. For the Neolithic evidence see G.rt3-t6. 5 .a's rairqs t5. or does so simply in madness. which Clement lays bare: "Zeus tore off a ram's testispeakable He brought them to Demeter and threw them into the folds of cies. Eleusis. z ( A r n o b .r) tells the myth of Demeter and Kore in a continuous narrative. and Procne:the mother s1 the nurse kills the young boy in order to hurt a man..* The candidite fot initiation was thus confrontedfirst of all with a fait accompli.evov xai rQ xptQ Xoyou irtcraptvos oi Lty.aia6o' Btvraeisp. Kult und Zeremonialisierung.o'Andit was not only the "Naassenian" who "'Mylonas (r96r) fig.quibus Phrygia initiatur atque omnis gensIIia.z r f o l lows Clement.The ramskin upon which Demeter and the mystai would sit could only have come from a sacrifice.. Triptolemos a neatherd: su/ove/taurilia. Att.g. and cf. but gives additional details. and. skinned3n-the job of the Kerykes. De es. von Ins. 1 . 65.the supplicant's branch is the symbol that sealshis death." Evidently a priest would make of gestures supplicationand drink a bitter drink. rpoBip. Perhaps Xenokrates fr.63 Qeppegarrp xptos. r51 (Demeter Erinys. Pr. .. For a bloody sacrifice with castration in initiation see J. 47f .and there are parallels in detail that go beyond the sacrifice the ram.n. V3.72rois 64g. a kiste.'We know from sourcesas early as the Odyssey that the sacrificeof a ram was used to establishcommunicationwith the Hellas Q959).8. r . 99 Heinze : Plut. on the Nilnigos in Latin America. Clement Q5. rzSee 1. cf. thereafterthe sacrifianimal was killed and its heart was torn out. $ : r o u 6 i i v rel'erp Mlrpos iri'Eppi1 ).45 above on Marsyas. On the day of the of mysteriesat Eleusis. 1 At second sacrifice appeasesthe wrath provoked by the preliminary maiden-sacrifice. t 5 . y4b38).5. IG II/III'? 1671.eyop. Ztirich.n.5. z o . z.This is the theme that forms the core of so many other sacrificialfestivals-the Lykaia. the theme of infanticide3'is presentin the mysteries. {See the account of the epistates. nr. however. 652. Callim.Therewasalsoasacrificeatthe Eleusinia: see the calendar of Nikomachos.25.n. 8.Then "bile would be drunk. .8.thus doing falsepenancefor his rape. raitqu d1v puSo}royiau .78. ls.r-2. carn. "Ekstase. 157b-c.n. following J. Thelpusa). Nothing compelsus to make similar assumptionsfor Eleusis.o'It would not occur to the uninitiated why rams' headswere gazingdown on them rather than lions'. n2 r.4 above." "a heart torn out. r .z. and cf. z o ) .e. A r n o b . it turns into a sacred marriage. 2. leaving human beings untouched yet maintaining the seriousness of the ritual. a type of aqpnros $uaia.n.a rfi s p. t1o-3t. begins. understood. Schol.but the mysteriesof Meter and Demeter are related. becausethe genitals fall into the goddess'slap. the metamorphosis of Zeus into a bull.zz above.zo. the initiate. the corresponding myth is that'of the burning child Horus-the fire is extinguished by the Nile: see L. Jahn. though sublimated in the myth and symbolized in rifual. her dress. R. Corpus Cultus CybelaeAttidisqueYll (1977). According to the EleusinianOrphic myth.47.1. 2aBa{iav yoitv pucrqpiav cilt"po}. ''Paus. There is a statue of Demeter with a pig..guilt and expiation are played out on two levelsat once:the act aggressive is motivated as punishment for a sexualcrime but. zBz 283 . T h e f i r s t e x p l i c i t r e f e r e n c et o E l e u s i s i s i n z o . In connectionwith the Anatolian mysteriesof Demeter.z r .. t. The murder of the suppliant. Chronique d'Egypte 77 (1962). the unspeakable.tisx{r6roz see Paus. and an ox (or cow): M. inserting intermittent references to the cults: raira (raira Mond6sert) of OpuTes r e|io xouo tv''A1116r rad KuBiIn xai Ko pi Barr t u t 5.but we can make an educatedguessas to what occurred. 167-74. anIn other context. is evidently a sacred form of sacrilege. Koenen.This tale is repreatedtime and again as the explanation and counterpart of the unspeakable sacrifices.ov t6. the Agrionia rituals..15. Clem. In the process.16 above. 5 . Eubuleus was a swineherd.Kopr'ltxptos. It is here that the realm of the dppqrov.47 above. 74-Br.42. ln' schriften uon Erythrai und Klazomenai OSZ). t o p r a ( o v o t u r 7 . The decorationsat the corners of the Telesterion were rams' heads.n. 6 18 Erbse (cf. seealso Hdt. an altar covered with a fleece and tympanon.utla t. On the identification of Isis and Demeter see Plut. world of the dead.38 above). which is demanded by the hierophant at the rnysteries. fr. but also at Eleusis. fig.too. ra oJ p Bo).Lilptqrprois. ry7g. Pelopsat Olympia. IILr. P a u s a n i a sc l e a r l y a l l u d e s t o a p a r a l l e l v e r s i o n ( 2 . He too mentions mysteria. see also II. (tg6) 6o. .996a ('AtrlvaiotrQ {towardu xptov ixlelpaurt6[.5-7. On "tearing the heart out.42. Vermaseren. 2o7." see I. 8o.irytrwois.ELEUSIS SACRIFICE IN THE TELESTERION Thus. n'Andoc. zr.z. This was of course accomplishedthrough an animal-sacrifice. z ..

blood. Syt"t Calu. Orig. Marcovich. laud. ['t9671 tr7) and that there was no xaraptTotov at Eleusis (Mylonas j96rl 3r4\.Pausanias to attribute the invention of beans to Demeter.8.65 o[ pvoipevot roiv Sxoiv oix dv raoawro ya\eoi. Nat. Archiz'esde Sociologie Religionszg (tg7o). . 'Arcana "Diels."50 fantasies relatedto beanshavebeenpreservedin the Pythagorean and with human flesh and male semen. and cf ' Harrison Qgzz) 55o. For preciselythis reasona sacredmarriageis not a normal marriage. 4r-49. si non tale Cerespassa est) seems to associate what Asterios describes with the myth of Kore's abduction. r . where none could enter. direct. ttAel. 4. Die Inschriftenuon Magnesiaam Maeander Qgoo). are not the torches extinguished and does not the crowd believe that its salvationdepends on what these two do in the dark?"e A much earlier example of sexualinnuendo surrounding the Eleusinian priesthood was Andokides' cutting accusationagainst the dadouchos Kallias that he had seducedhis own stepdaughter.14. trologia Latina 4.25. tluibusdamemasculabantur. see Paus. 9.7g. M.49. Pliny . Koenen in Studicn zur Text' geschichte und Textkritik (t96o).each alone with the other.r4. rather. 9. ZeisEiBouhei. W i e g a n d a n d H .pdv iiltou.rz4 tepeis tiv rfis p7rpds xai rfs Buyarpos. Hsch.il It must be said that no Baubostatuettes sis. r r 5. z. N i l s s o n p OSS1) l +S l. could with some imagination be depicted as a gate to the underworld. 5. Antonios Diogenes in Porph. z3o BaiterSauppe. an.who exposed her genitalsto Demeter in such a way that they looked like the faceof from Demeter a child-Iakchos. .a pecufiar role is played by the bean as the antithesisto the "precepts" of tells us only "that the Athenians were Demeter. . Asklepiades."ssThe interchangeabilit ity of the oral and sexualspheres-also reflectedamong the Greeksin o'The rleopogo pndoucrat eat pomegranate seeds: see Clem. Philologus ro8 (1964). the Anaktoron. disputed by Mylonas (196r) 1t5. Detienne. eating beans was considered the But cannibalism. there is the strange remark that the small shark (7atre<is) consideredimpure for the mystai of the "two godwas desses""because gavebirth with its mouth. " ln Jul. j967\ r13-44. P r i e n e. he who has unable seen an initiation at Eleusisor read the so-calledworks of Orpheus Some abstrusedetails on the symbolism will know what I mean. 3-r4. Artemidoros r. oi yap airr)v eivat xafio. 6. Cels. aTAsterios Hom.6 3 . a much-disputed Passagein Bishop Asterios mentions a "sacredmarriage": at Eleusisthere were "sacredencounters between the hierophant and the priestess.It follows from Paus. We can make out only the bare outlines of what happened after and sexualoutbursts finally gruesomeness the unspeakablesacrifice: overcome in the establishment of a divine order. 1 6 r . IG Iylll'1628. iirt. This fish is therefore a symbol of regeneration in Egypt: E. Further evidence for a sacred marriage at Eleusis has been sought in the imitation by Alexander of Abonuteichos (Luk. his comments start applying to Eleusis only in the next sentence. "babushka.1 that the Eleusinian hierophant was not allowed to marry yet there were married hierophants: see Isaios 7. r. by C.were the gesturesused by Demeter to initiate her myshavebeen found at Eleutai. so we must be careful in assumi n g i n f l u e n c e s ( c f .s. zz1. as to the latter.227 beside Aqpry1p Q)ecp. tradition: beans were associated female womb and a child's head. HierophantasquoqueAtheniensium usquehodiecicutaesorbitionecastrafi. Cerealia". nat . (cur rapitur sicerdosCereris.z. NH 25. *Hippol. Re. A.4o eiuouytopteuos 6i 6td xaueiou. 5.37. 497cis basJ on Clement: see V3. Ker6nyi (1962) tz6-14. BauB<it= Empedokles. 4441. Cook III (r94o) 81r-r8.7 iborr". z9-39. hoc liquoris genere(sc. We know nothing of how this was accomplishedin practice. F. Iul. on which a female abdomen appearsas a sanctuaries Such. T h . Winter.The sacredritual acquiresits stability precisely by symbolizing and sublimating that which is all too Ref. Clinton (tgZd ++f Their marriages were evidently consummated before they took office: see Paus. 38-1g). S u m e r i a n K u b a b n . 5. . but as to the former obiection.euois tiTet td Li11tt1' rpos &uaxauutrrtlpr". Delatte. t. Serv. Serta Leodiensia j93o). Diels. t5J-55. Atex. Baubo is attested epigraphically on Paros: IC Xll 5. VS 3r B r 53.4 'lHippol. Kern.Of course. Die Typen der figi)rtichen Terrakottenll (t9o1).13.s2We find this illustratedin statuettes in Asia Minor.z:. S c h a d e r . Cf. Hypereides fr. Pers.s3 of Nazianus.art rirret. a'Paus. Eranos lb 46 (t977). IHS z6 ltgo6l. Atlzt. r.n. 7. Schol. Hornung. 2.taory. Pr. Pr. ttAndoc.653ti xai uiv irc retrsi rois oxql. . herltis . Datema.7y cf.. Pyth. but the word is evidently baby talk. 2. 284 285 .25. on the other hand. Dawkins. V. M.B a b a i . The bean fantasiesrecall the Orphic tale of Baubo.95. r." "grandmother").lt has been argued against his testimony that the "two temples" he mentions were in Alexandria (Ker6nyi lt96z) rog.r.t) H. 4acw. L. FGrHisf rz F 4.oqopos." Miscellanea Satinas(ryo7).9. et postquam in pontificatum fuerint allecti. EtrdrQ trrop.s On the other hand. #2t5. Lydus Mens.r45 Sawdotes Cereris Eleusiniae and cf.ELEUSIS SACRIFICE IN THE TELESTERION claimed that the hierophant becamea eunuch by drinking hemlock.be seenas a polarity.sl beansbelongedto the world of the dead as well.t7)c-d. airos essedesinere. Aen. scoffed Gregory face between two upward-pointing torches. to. At the Thesmophoria. "Babo. Clement.bu1 something unheard-of and impossible that occurs in the context of the sacrifice.66 qui maxima sacra Hieron. r97o).42. 196-gil is Slavic (Russ. Migne Paaccipiebant.7 (on the ripened blade of wheat) presupposes Demeter's wedding: itri toitots'E).o'At Eleusis. Ad. : g o l . Leiden. Migne Patrologia Graeca 4o. Plat' Gorg. . Deubner Qqz)85.ut a concubitu se'abstinerent.j. Kdp4. Migne PatrologiaGraeca 15.the dark red juice of the pomegranateevidently representsblood. Deubner (1932) 58." the old woman in Thracian folk-custom (R."* The and the idea of becominga contradictionbetweenthe sexualfantasies eunuch cannot be removed but must. and. this is t'regory's addition to his source. Schol. 5z: Clem. lou.zg5f. For one of the Theban maenads in Magnesia see O.87.thus becoming in truth "the priest of the mother and the daughter. 7. des t'OF 'Arcana Cerealia. cicuta) unguebantur. OF 49. Or.324 (new ed. M.the women'sfestival. f A.48 xorveraor9eisra titpoeva pipl. On t'on.44.

Ach. lt884l.ol. We cannot guesswhat appeared-perhaps only for an instantin the flickering firelight. on the other hand. the implementsand containers.1. . where Kore appears on Demeter's lap. Realistshave suggestedthat a divine image. Walter F.SimiYet lar things did indeed occur in the mysteries. a n d c f . r . 6'sopatros Rhet.vqrots. .ELEUSIS SACRIFICE IN THE TELESTERION a specializedsenseof "unspeakabletouching"-thus seemsto have played a part at Eleusisafter all. 83-rrz = Die Gestalt und das Sein (r95). r79-8o. the uncanny atmosphereled to an epiphany. *Pap. Iambe (Hy.3 Dionysus ya). in the context of the pure ritual. .rir ri]Iar]i<rrepa pepiqptat . trtttrtoiy'evos tepa ireieixvu rois dp. would be displayed. (Demeter gives the grain) rpdrou dB6<rpus ouy"yevoptvqKe\eQ.7. . . "the epiphany of a divine Phantom" (t967) rt'9. Lys. 2 8 . be sure. Orph.bread and wine. cf. See also Hymn." is an "antithesis"which borderson the Perverse. Aristid. (t967) 81-84.But Kore's return from the underworld was a high point in the celebrations. Hel. Dem.evov ra pucrfipta xai ietxvioura in the eisangelia of Thessalos.c. Apollodorus of Athens wrote: "When Kore is called up. for example. On 7trr11<u." 63SeeKer6nyi (196)rrr. performing with the kiste and the wheat. Plul.4r. Pat. To "thesis. 6 . Forsch. Orpheus. . n2 Lobeck (tlzg) S7. r93g. primitive. cf. and the remainder feel ashamedin their isolation. 57Apollod.However. ltuorilpn [z'ol}. exhibiting or eating a bean. r z . it cannot be just an incidental preparation that accounts for Demeter's anger being assuaged. 19 above). f . zo. . Metzger i96)pl' z3. $96) "'Lobeck (t829) tr9. 7. F.. and every young girl in the company is given a piece of it "mit vielem Geliichter.z4 irei oitv etou rbv dvaxtopav yey|w1p-at xai picrqs av [epogavtrlv d. Here is no trace of touching crude sexual symbols: seeing the goddess is the high point of the mysteries.6 (Demeter) Eiipou). but if the drinking of the kykeon or the giving of the grain follows immediately thereafter. (196) 96.ov r6{aoa Seov Bvtpils in' dva' 7x4s. Pointed out long ago that Christian of songsand sermons sPeakof the unmiti8ated Presence the god in Yet on the surfacethere the massas if it were a foregoneconclusion.87 . sometimes The "unspeakable"was acted out in semi-darkness. Otto. Otto took this for a confirmation of his fundamentalconvictionthat the Greekswere able to experiencetheir gods directly as personalentities.aprarcpos.4. ieKer6nyi (t962) in too. 1346.Schol. the imitation here probably refers to a gesture.5r (concerning Andocides): oitos yap ir6Js otohlu.yet it can be heightenedby such means undergo an experience as fasting and keeping vigil through the night. t76-77 dnox\etloov rilu'Ef)'eurreiva xo. So too at Eleusiswe need expectno more than the presenceof the hierophant and dadouchos. to (1965). R. who praises his father as follows: ci .15 Dind. iyit lwove ta dya\pata (Or. Dem. Ilniu. Heusler. Mythol."u'Walter F. .in order to explain a vision repeatedannually by the mystai. in total darkness.rlz.nt7.Karl Kerdnyi made this the heart of his interpretation of Eleusis. t 6 .4. clubs were accused-not entirely without cause/as when aristocratic it seems-of having "performed the mysteries"in secretmeetings.xoxporou *7pe6pov A. ta sluorfipw rotoivra A n d o c .76-77. FGrHist 244 F rro.Gr. Lobeck. in the metaphorical language of Themistios. for he had been supremelyinitiated through his journey to the underworld. .. The collectiveritual which. Paideuma7 OgSg). and hencesacredone.45a). For Kore's coming in the visual arts see Y.1a). there is evidence for mysteries in which the images of the gods were stripped naked. bells and candles. Eur.postulating a genuine vision. Luk. zr r) points to the desacralization after the dppqrou. ra zz. 6olqs \vexeu (Hy. a ghost-like sSchol. Zeitschr. it occurred to no one to ask about a statuetteas a corPus delicti. Eranoslb. rilv Kdp4v Keei6oz.62 in the year 4758.i rd ffipftd iepdv]. there was no need of special instruments.1. r d l t v o r n p t a . I have seen Kore. ti 9 ' { B p e t T h u c . W.6 is nothing there but the priest and his ministers. cf . the lekythos from Sofia. a symbolic gesture is enough. lsthm. $-64. r6nyi.Vell. Aristoph. r i s n o t e i r o . the tail is cut off and specially roasted.An individual'swillingness to varies. Themalorityof sourcesontheMysteryscandalof 4r5refer not to an "imitation" but to a "performance" of the mysteries. d.* The prerequisitefor Demeter'srlecrg. Pind. 1 7 . the hierophant strikes the bronze gong" sT-in his view this was clearly not yet a part of the secretritual-and the call did not go unheard. water. 53. 186): at the threshing feast a ram is slaughtered. between Hermes and Eumolpos. drroptltoip. perhaps an esPecially old." A. Mylonas Q96r) 271-7 4: "small relics frorn the Mycenaean age. .I have experienced far truer mysteries. he was forced to consider whether the seasoningin the kykeon miSht be a hallucinogense-a dubious borrowing from chemistry. 6.6g6o01e. 286 2. dadouchos. #zo pp. Ylll tr4. ro (6g6ori1grze rad rois ci|. A harvest custom in Normandy gives us an inkling of what really occurred in the rite (W. y5-y.44-5o above. apparition on the night of the mysteries. 1 .nn.xoirr'aJ6civ a$oviav in the song to Meter. who was himself a hierophant. the initiation see Nunen Suppl." In playing the part of the hierophant. Milano (ry). Or.trorsdppqrozorois) is meant obscenely. in the history and tradition of man. Herakles no longer needed the Eleusinian mysteries. Lexiph. 7o8.r nocturno aerissono.pa xai 696o01oz te36apat. zoz) and Baubo are often associated with the Gephyrismoi (n. Alc.qunlis Cerealibussacris cieri solet. And a variation of the myth points in her this direction as well. p. Q96z) 9o. r r . Mannhardt.who were seen "together"6rat the gong and the fire. Volkskunde t1 Qry3). r. z9-1o. "Lock up Eleusisand the sacredfire. has become associated with the soul is able to pull that soul into its rhythm so that many actuallyexperiencewhat is expectedof them. . Otto and Karl Ker€nyi compared the text of a rhetorical exercise from Hadrianic times in which Herakles argued with the hierophant.

lI to1. 9 6 9 ."* The author of the Epinomis expectedphilosophicalpiety to insure a proper attitude toward sacrifices and purificationr "1o! by making subtle use of figures. lj. Metzger e965) ol. z. on the procedure see the transferral into the christian milieu in clem.Td.r15.the El_ eusinian mysteriesconsistedof "figures" and "calls.4 Kroll gaopara . *On Eumolpos rcp of his voice:the mistresshas given birth to a sa. j .). etc. the bell-crater BM F 68 : ARV'1 446.SaIt. AK 9 9966). for the child Plutos with the horn of plenty in the circle of Eleusinian divinities on fourth-century vases see the pelike from Kerch. Rhod. he is portrayed in an especially beautiful way.26 du 6q6ovyiav Bed<rap.1. Cf . . Metzger e96) pl. see.qrpos xai Ltovioou iv'Exeu<vivrrdrer4s Hippol. c f . 4.artD4ldoaerilvre)rerilv. of the mysteries-gestures or dance steps. lG llllll'z j6jg.) iy toig dppv1a66 gaopaow. z.16. "ya\ivns peora.. . 35.5." ayfip.15.z-4r. Bpi1t t1.i rots pvcrtxoig oxtprillta<rt. 'aSee Kerenyi (t96zl 46-47.3."o'Much earlier. Alex. Theodoret Gt aff.T2 Plutos. For gaopara xo. plat. For Brimo : Persephone. for Hekate. cf .. and cf. roJs rleous ltucrtxd cyily.r. tiv rdv tepogavrou t'iloeuv akrBapat. Procl. dppqtotroia yuvat xeia. or. For Brimo : Hekate see Apoll.6r'oi n prie rdv &edu duaBaivere. . rizd cxorepfiv r6trav avetpa[uero rois 1. son of Persephone..6z on Ceres-Llbera-Liber: quod quale sit.* Perhaps was itself only a sitn. 1. 6 9 4 c . also n.* As indicated in the rhetorical exerciseof Sopatros.rz. ex mysteriis intellegitur. lvlenipp. Philostr. z5. n.3o. Soph. rds 6{ dvaxropou gavds.33. Evenamong initiatesthere seemto have beenvarious interpretations. one can "dance" them. Praep.3. Oxford 1956-335. Teubn. Brimo to Brimos. z5oc eiiaip.8. T h e s m . ro. where Christ. t z .Clem. Q967) 94-the text of Sopatros should not be altered. ^Hes. 1 1 7 6 . 16.rzro.22. for an instant beforeshe vanished. Eu. 16.ata 6). Cic. . Nat. 4 8 9 . says yupvdu ir. TrForthe angered Demeter identified with Brimo see Clem. . z." Only the "Naassenian"relateshow the hierophant "at Eleusis.ro. howevet Roussel r99).8.66 above. 32. Greg. pSl:116z.ots r6v Beioy xai riDrjrors xpiela xai tippqra cAtlp." there were the "sacred calls.72o. z.Nilsson ('SSS) pl. Lyk. Clem.rouoa in the mysteries of sabazios.7z above. on a fragment from Fethiye Diami. plut. 3.he wrote at Athens. . 17. 24 above. 288 289 .'rIt is otherwiseunattested Eleusis. A seriesof sourcesmentions secret"figures. a lid. n'A9qvaiot Ltouuoov zdv Ar<is rad Kdp4s atpovatv . almost resentations to the extent that they cannot be told apart-in fact identical?'n The differencein their names proves nothing: mythological systematizations are secondary.Bpt.ei{at rd axipa. ci6e). 6 9 8 .iTpmro\6p.rowrpuartlpnBoqxaixtxpaye)rtyav 6crrtv inyvpa itryupov. calls out at the *There are numerous allusions to gdopara which were seen in the mysteries. Aristid.53.os xai rdu pitrryv ogpayi{rrat garayuyiv. 72. 1. 14. or Or son of Demeter.T3 were the "two goddesses"-who in pictorial repwere intentionally made to resembleeach other. Luk.zo. Pr. II 185.pucr. Hsch. Resp.9ris. pr. 5. Arnob. raped by Hermes at Lake Boibe. see Schol.fiptai(opyet<rfat:seeLuk. The hieroph nt clranted his proclamation. Besides the "figures. eigavio. and for an independent godat and it is even harder to dess. Deubner Qyz) 86 raised the possibility that plutos and the blade of wheat were identical. . r7g sandbach Phdr.z.120. between growing blades of wheat.z. i. Eucl. Nilsson eg6) p|.6 : lnscriptions de Ddlos 2475 L!fipqrpos 'Etreuorydas xo.z 9 6 . 54 above. Graf (gZ+) 6Z-lS. portrayed dancing. rfs Ketreo0 xo. Metzger (ry5t\ pl.r5. for instance. unspeakablemysteriesamid great fire.r. YIll 14.eyev eiuat xai x). C f . For a priestess as the spirit 'T-p. This is ?0Hippol. deor.2o. jg67) 1z-33 on P Roussel. the "far-rvle{' from the underwq114. z. Cf.ou xaiK6pqs xo. 1175-76. Naz.i dpprlra i..pilcyilp. a hydria from Istanbul.and cf. Pr.v6nlras dxouap.i Lilp. P G u r o b V S r B z 3 ." he adds. .rr pi1 Xoyoveitriu. f o r a p a r o d y s e e L u k . r g : O F j r . "the strong to the strong.at xai o:yilpa rt repi ::oi d6e\qoi ye7v6peuou . Ref .r. z. 4.red boy.r. Deltion pl. 7z-86.i xopqs xaiyvvatxos (cl. Contrary to Ker6nyi's suggestion-(r962) tm.1 Keil (I 416 Dind.n . u5SopatrosRhet. f yewilcana rdv "laxyov.ELEUSIS SACRIFICE IN THE TELESTERION I I I I I was only able to see Eurydice. L2. n. Cf. xai6 "laxXos 6 pvortxisrowqt rQ Atovio<p EtrQierat Arr.ZpErjg67). L y k . Ttibingen E rg1. H y . aep. .t-t7.tTrav dytou. i168. 86r. Schol."70 The name Brimois used for Demeter. Ker6nyi (196z) pl.ara.esnecoav iina on the funerary epigram of a hierophant.#2c. Ker6nyi (t962) pl.5. see n.Euseb.4oer. 6Plat. as the hierophant. say who the boy may have been to whom the mistress gave birth. FGrHist yg F. ry 1196:116z\.r. Leningrad a7g2 :'ARV2 1476^. Epin. A r i s t o p h . For a different perspective (images) see Procl.'A child is born. Ker€nyi (1962) pl. Eur. pisc. p. z. n.. Or.Cr.64.xatoaiwls lzr'f.r.zr.r iepogavrei 6i d nipr. Ref . 38t9. (r87o). the Stoic Cleanthescompared the cosmosto a chamber of the rnys_ teriesin which the sun gives off light as the dadouchos. 6SVF | #518: Epiphan.i 'eipara in the mysteries of Dionysus see orig. D e m .4o wxrds e.but the gods are "mystical figures and sacredcalls. zo. Eipr)rn. the hydria] Istanbul.tuovpeuo6. the birth of Dionysus on a pelike from lats Kerch as a counterpart to the birth of Plutos. cf .\vErexe torvtaxoipov. the bell-crater from Al Mina. z3 above. z . P r o pz . 67Rhet.Epict. cf. r4r. Anab." Side by side with the peril of death and blood we find the miracle of new life in birth. De fiile g. . cf .ara. 4o 0g6oullats xo. That is. . E. Cels.2. For ceres as the nurse of Iakchos see Lucr.t5-zo ed.19rb.zz Friedlein ra iv tois dyyei.ttiBpLtrtov". but by truly honoring virtue. 2oyiav ip. S k o l i o n 8 8 5 . Vltl tt above.989c oJ oyilpau reyva{onee. r P a g e = A t h . For Dionysus as the son of Demeter see Diod. zz. as indicated already in the name Eumolpos. Pr. g64ilepo69acroc xal)tl0ea. and cf . We hear the name lakchos-Dionysus. T h .us There are vasepaintings on which the mythical hierophant Eumolpos appearsto bs dancing. pelike Sandford Graham.7. Simon. 46.when periorming the great.eya\a xo. it a gesture.Cr.s depcls.The fellow initiand is herereferredtoas"brother":seetheoathoftheIsismystai.ova gaopara pvoiltevoi re xai irorreiovres.Mysteriescan be revealedqs clearly in deeds as in words. 5. r 3g. see Idomeneus .v'Ehevoiut Jz<i zroLlQ rupi re\6v ra p. Les cultes\gyptiens d D6los \.r. Metzger (1965) pl. V.4r.arav iep6v xai . fr. cur.paop.73.VIIrr-5."u'Like Cleanthes.

p p r y o v B t p o sF i. iv otarfl reBepurltivou crdyuv. The secret is hidden in what is familiar.r m . E r r . Texteset monuments relatifs aux nnlstires de Mithra I (r899). e (r93). who was calledby his mystai the "sprouting. she appears as mother of the animals. Preuss. A. Ot 69.displayedby the hierophant amid general silence. For lamentation for Osiris while reaping in Egypt see Diod.: see J.7 o 2 .. r. I.the seeminglyfarQ96) 44. rr) and the birth of a child (uqnnyou yovtl. Of course. far . And to be eaten. Iclr bin lsis (Uppsala.26 above. he notes that blades of cut wheat are often depicted. Apoll.zo f.45 ff . uirt. which itself holds the power of perPetuating life." has rarely been taken seriously. r86-88. C . Themistios Or. d .14 (Foucart ltgt'4| 44t.8. . 3. en Mount Parnassus. 7 o t . Praep. Symbolsof the Godsin Mesopotamian Art Q94). Mythol. A u s t i n ( 1 9 6 8 ) . For the most part. zr3d. The uncanny/ provocative source of reproduction is transformed into the fruit of the earth. The cutting of the wheat is given a poetic/universalizing guise in the w o r d s o f c o m f o r t f o r t h e c h i l d ' s d e a t h i n E u r i p i d e s ' H y p s i p y l e . 5 .44). the appurtenant thought. De prof. L.8'?with the "great fire" blazing inside.Sl-gS Bond: dzoTxal<os 6'ixsr piov Scpi(ew anre xapnqtov arayvv xai rdv piv tivat. 2Jo n. giving birth to a human child. z . 4. Hy. For Triptolemos as the inventor of threshing see Callim.rs Tpmro\Ep.{varcs. 2o. Anal. 86-87. the encounter island named after the castration of Kronos by Zeus see Timaios.which makesthe cycleof life a possibility. this processis dramatizedin the sacrifice. For the ci\<.6 Whether this reflectsan historical connection or mere coincidence. is rnerely a transposition of hunting behavior onto agriculture-which also explains why an animal sacrifice is still included in the harvest festival.8. birth of the child standsside by side with sacri_ the ficial killing. and we are surely missing many details. 788. cut blade of wheat. "cut. For Attis and ihe blade of tut w h e a t s e e J u l . Of course. can be threshed only after having been toasted in the fire.'uIs this already the grain-mother?The Mexicansportrayed the Great Goddessgiving birth to the corn-godin a frontal posture much like that of the statuesat Qatal Htiytik. ry68). and the blade are. Th. Or.6. Bilderatlas zur Religionsgeschichte (r93o). has at most been used to call the report's authenticity into question. Following in the footstepsof the more ancienthunting festivals. A regular feature of the Mithras reliefs is the bull dying in the sacrifice. . 8 above).D.ov. DTh. Mylonas Q96r) 275 assumes that the Phrygian and Eleusinian cults have been confuseC. 'lorv Mesomedes Eis rilv indicates the stages of the mysteries of Isis-Demeter: an underground wedding (lBriuros itp. Himer.986-9o: Corcyra was called Drepaneafter the sickle of Demeter. The collective experience that life and nourishment result from terror. (where drixorlte. 7 S 7 . 7 . I L 4 . 67-68 and pl. ii rt Kp6vrcs citlttlros (r7).the image. FCrHist 566 F 79. r4). )27-j5. pl. But-unbeknownst to the Gnostic-already Dumuzi.7 Colonna. he uses the word "he mowed. FCrHisf 87 F 16 #5r = Ath.'e Historically seen. Bergmann.8r (n.rz.3.ou see Paus.Eya xai Baupatrrdv xai re)rerotarov Etrotrrwdv ixei pucrfipr. equating the cutting of the blade with castration.Z T G F : f t .'8And when Hesiod tells the well-known myth of Uranos' castration. %K.and ritual action all serve the same necessary function in the balanceof human life.annhardt. IX. Rhod.just like Meter-Demeter. n . in three gradations." wealth in the form of grain.39'A}qvaZot" ltuoivreg'E\evoiuta xoi ilrr. S . the woman's achievementnext to the man's. o'F Cumont.44c. in Olympia. 1 . a n d c f . r 6 8 d . eingefiihrt. r.m Even "domesticated" food must reach man by way of the unspeakable sacrifice. see also W M.n.38. als man mich die Geburt des Gottes. Rel. e "Plut. Synesios Dion 6.1o it says "ich wurde in die heiligen verborgenen Dinge .2. " This is also indicated in the myth of the child in the fire: (6a. Kronos wields a sickle. 290 291 . is the primary yield of the agricultural year. 64. It grew light in the middle of the night when "the Anaktoron was opened" and the hierophant came from the door. ln the Egyptian fi Book of the Dead 78. V. van Buren..the sourceof people'sfood.f r . rdv 6i 1ti1. z 7 a b o v e . fig. Ea. r9r. experience. Mithraic Iconography and ldeology (t968). Already in the domestic shrines of Qatal Htiytik it was customary to depict the Great Goddess as giving birth. The blade of cut wheat was made visible at Eleusis. cf. "Plutos.p p .. cf.In just this way at Mount Lykaion. a blade must once more go through fire. For the TsMellaart fetched fantasy.6. zHippol. des Grossen sehen liess. 4. p . which attested to a liberating transformation: for what had appeared in the darkness as the castration of a ram is disclosed in the gleaming fire as the cutting of the grain.but a statuettefound in a grain bin represents her sitting on a throne between leopards. Nobody would deny this. the birth of the child. Perhaps the kykeon was only drunk now and now the mystai would touch the kalathos and the kiste. the sequence of events is uncertain. The myth of Ino and Phrixos combines the toasting of the grain with the sacrifice of a child and that of a ram: see PR II 4z and Nouafragmenta E u r i p i d e a .zThe "Naassenian's" explanation that the blade correspondedto Attis. P o r p h . z .". XII. symbols of the restoration and renewal of life. the victim of Inanna who rosefrom the underworld. was represented a as blade of wheat.n. Campbell. a seal of secrecy fell once again on that which had happened. who taught the Titans how to reap-or after the castration of Uranos. this was long past by the time the hierophant displayed the blade. r o * ) Bidez = Euseb.81 The virgin's return. ( e i r . O r . ForschungenQ884\. 187-88. 6o. For "opening" and "closing" of the Anaktoron see also Poseidonios. rip r6)reov dppqrov (r5). But as soon as the objects were returned to the kiste. Cf . 5.Detxviureg rois inozrreiouot to p. navra 6t' duaxropav "lot6t yopeierat (r9l zo). its tail turning into a blade of wheat.3oabove.rr." alludes to castration).ELEUSIS SACRIFICE IN THE TELESTERION the sacrificialritual'snecessary supplement.

92.lThe way in which men mold themselves into a community by means of tradition is a basic phenomenon. to78.3.ibingen V.And thus the sacrificialcycle ended with the familiar group of three: Su/ove/taurilia. Cf. r .. rie xie itrepyue. Rf.ivrdv oipav6v d.zSDiehliyrois'Etreusviotstepoiseisp. cf .aojo.it is hard to be contentwith only In the gift of Demeter. . tozS. plemochoai.nlpioc <Loaifras iu civt rfi Buoig.Procl. 8sHesperia24Og55). lnst . Large sacrificeswith ample meals of meat would still take with the return to place-the normal form of cult was reestablished normal life.Zl+ropreyaxaidppqrov'E). Deathand 5.i:Bilp . Ker€nyi (1962) t15. Artemidoros r.g96)t4t. R a n . 4 . a bullfight. ije-rue.treiouvu Powell) Lnpnrpq. Demeter'sgift is indeed spread acrossthe whole world."" The crowd perhaps flocked to the field called Rharion. but one had to be careful at this point not to "dance out" the mysteries themselves. the mythic model for the priestess Demeter.pere Niugat xcAod. "invisible" (BCH zo I18961.7. but on the inside. (1967) t4r. 'E].8. "open to the public view" (Mylonas [196r] z7o). perhaps even outside the sanctuary. zz7-34.euotviav ltuorilptov. the one toward the east.a zi). De oictu 4. Llesperia 4Og6il. L. Two speciallyshapedjugs.33-36. for instance. ij re toliu lt"icrptrw 'Etreuaivos rapa r6(au eiacsrov xpugiav i(egopet ttoyiuu'Paptov ipyei'tua uopq 6r/ronrutouoa (\tarourvorcuaa A.rr abovei the hydria.Hippol. . and the exultant dancing of the mystai. but we can survey its basic dimensions. xarap\|gavres 6i eds rilv yilv rd " xue" (the same Sestures occur in the Roman devotion: see Macr. "'Kerdnyi(tg6z)t35. Those who had won special honors were given the sameportion as the Eumolpidai when it cdme to distributing the meat.r. Even if we could make a film that exhaustively documented the celebration in the Telesterion. = S c h o l .a custom that virtually developedinto an agon. rotrot xaBapoi xai )ret1t"6vesi66(avro Plut. rie rue. so impressively evoked in Aristophanes' choral song." Thosethings that had been experienced their essenceduring the night of the mysteriescontinued to affect the cycle of life.Eumolpos'mother.22o-)9: EGr5(1958). Deubner i91z) 9r. ao29.3 3 a b o v e . {Hippokr.7. Ti. lnTim.rz). fr. 496a. however. the secret of Eleusis leaves room for many conjectures and hypotheses in its details. "Soph. binds the new dimension to their lives.9. the lid. 7. according to the custom.For J Bukrania on vases in the midst of the Eleusinian divinities see. Even grain comesfrom the dead.r7 Powell on Antiope. Sat.'Without this supplement.255'72: SEC zz(196) #rrt. . 6 Mfir yai. . Ouercoming Encountering Death: Initiqtionand Sacrifice Now as before.8o).9-1.The narrow confines The waving of torches were too small to hold in such an experience.S.tt Sandbach. 1 4 4 . A r i s t o p h .eu' 'E]. panting through Rharion. R a n . n n . andcf .The ephebeswould show off their youthful strength by "lifting up" the bull for sacrifice.os." the basis of the initiate's hopes for the other world.7. Cook I (r9r4) 5o5..iLatrop. Athens 1443. r78. eHermesianax fr.* The role of the younger generation within the framework of the ancientcustom was likewise part of the festival's conclusion. not. a red figure vasepainting.). epit. the other toward the wests-a gesture embracing the whole world. s e e a l s o E p i c t e t u s1 ."performs the powerful cry of joy of of the mystai. site of the orgies.)tt-rzliipavro. too8. Hermes 66 (t91t). The ephebicinscriptions mention bull-sacrifices Eleuin sis "at the mysteries""-this was no longer secretand must have occurred after the initiation was over: one could not be a proper "spectator" on a full stomach. 3 4 o . fr. where the first grain was sown and harvested. Ziehen. life would be incomplete:the initiation is a consummation. 2 r . the inscription from a well at the Dipylon gate. and "Conceive!" to the in earth.5 1 . as a celestial torch.the people called out "Rain!" to the heavens. occurred on the "meadow. 29J . 1 6 .vaB\irovres ipoav "$e" .87 worldly pleasures. 19. r. .tr Bv rQ reptBo).c.8. in the time of Proclus.Eur. *Ath. Metzger (1965) pl. IC llllll'z 4876'O II&y.7.In Hermesianax. mother of Eumolpos.are filled and poured out. as told in the myth of Triptolemos. lon ro74-86 xai Ltds dcrepatros dveyopeuctv o.Perhapsin the process. A solemn libation is the last ritual."* The dancewas possiblystill set off by the gesturesof the hierophant.euoivt.rois S #to4Qz7lz6v. the mysteries were already part of the past. 89r P J72-76. lSee V .9 EBouBinlcav Bv rQlneptBotrrp].ro Bv B]o0s 6r'iaur[ti v]rcie Mvc.n.lll rT6.ELEUSIS INITIATION AND SACRIFICE together and adds a with death and destruction. &See Stengel (r9ro) ro5-rz.A r i s t o p h . IG II/III'? roo6.a roi iepoit. n. rorr. 8'ZIG ll/lll? 72)1. 3 z . 6 above. we would still be no closer to explaining the "thrice blessed. performed by daylight. The nighttime festival was brought to a close outside the Telesterion. Lact. easier to reproduce than to illuminate rationally.The waning moon would by now have risen and could illuminate this festival until dawn. 4.

in the grain. The hope of the initiate was that in that self-same death he would be "blessed". did not reach the level of spoken language. in aAug. Cic. rzo-16. 377d. and cf. '?Ch. death is no evil.n.774-94.Delsideet Osiride.318-y.Varro L. SeealsoKer6nyi (tg6z) r36-5t. as a funerary epigram from the Imperial epoch puts it.saying that it contains the recollectionof the transition from culturelessness culture in the to festival. There were indeed gods at work here.Plutarch. 35r-8t. The festival bond is archaic. it is.z3-24 above.4r-44.Serv-Aen.4.ry Sandbach. 6. Eubuleus. EpictetusJ. 276. seems to provide only a superficial account of the point of the mysteries at Eleusis. Plut.3r. the pneuma."'o Ironically objective. both simply and memorably.GAL' A. Laycf. g63c-d. 'iG II/III'?366r. the anthropomorphic.Gallienuseven with Demeterhertified themselves self. the dreadful gods of the underworld put on a friendly face. and ct.nor of a soul and the transmigrationof souls.7-g on the myth of Attis." Eranos 4 j%il 242-gt. cohesive archaic societies naturally conceive of "SeeV4. "for mortals. Dei fi.n. tradition. Is.2o9e-2r2a genet' is in the background.A. 5. Burkert. alsothe interpretation Proserpina-Moon. setting nature aside to seek the drama of spirit and matter.reflectinga genuine ambiguity in the eventsthat took placeat Eleusis. 368. " Hdt. etc.Roman emperorsidenwith Triptolemos. 4. Symp.95.One could cite Varro for the belief that Eleusinianmysterieswere concerned"only" with the invention of grain.Cf. puberty rites or induction into a secret society determine one's status both in the here-and-now and after death."La patEred'Aquileia et l'dleusinisme Romeaux d6butsde l'6poqueimA pdrrale." ACI zo (t95r).r. arguing that the vital force.n. rather. Cereris\ tradi. and Iamblichus. 6Kleanthes SVF | #547 = Plut.'The explanationsgiven to the mystai through oral instruction probably underwent greater changesin the course of time than did Christian theology or religious instruction in the church. hence that "blessed" with which the mystai mutually reinforced their faith. who "will lie in the mire. Even for the mystai. Cia. nor that of philosoPhical thought. 4. Ref . Trsc. he had learnt that.l2 After all. Examples can be adduced from primitive societies showing how initiation..ELEUSIS INITIATION AND SACRIFICE We tend to assumethat there must have been a specificEleusinian message. ally argue for the Platonic/transcendental interpretationof the mysteries.ovoveivatrdy Bauarov Bvnroisoi xax6v. the cameo. f 3TheDoxographers tracethe teachings about immortalityback to Thales(VS tr A r.Braunschweig. and ritual as the characteristic communication and formative experience remained constant. There was no dogma at Eleusis. there is no mention of immortality at Eleusis. on the transmigration souls and Pythagoreanism of seeW. Indeed. within the mystery celebration. sis had already been shapedbefore Pythagoras3 All attemptsto reconstructa genuine Eleusinianbelief havebeen thwarted by the diversity of ancientinterpretations. as is the concept of an elite group that sees the "bliss" of the initiate only in contrast to the uninitiate.'yet during the Creek period at Eleusisthe distinction between the immortal gods and mortal man was apparentlymaintained. even the pre-philosophic formation of Greek religion. above. The place.2t.39. kingship. death was a fact and could not be shrugged off."'g Surprisingly. 'tSo especiallyin the initiations and "Totenfahrt" in Malekula (Melanesia): f. Furtwiingler. Herodotus gives a similar description of the belief in immortality among the Getai.ut homines eos fuisse taceretur.r3. and sVarrointerprets the secretconcerningthe gods of the mysteries. on Daeira see Nilsson.942d. Sall. 6gc.Cab. Cio.De mysteriis.Plut.5-6oi p.Dog. This is not the placeto describein detail the developmentof initiation. quaenisiadfrugum inaen7.Eleuand Plato. Aug. Dei eius(sc.t6o. (t96) 144-69. ry8.Paris.8. ?Hippol."Totenfahrtauf Malekula. Iakchos'-there may well have been secret myths. Loreand Science AncientPythagoreanism (tg7z). Alfoldi. Plrd. who were convinced by Zalmoxis "that he and his drinking companions and their descendants would not die": " membership in the tribe and participation in festive eating and drinking guaranteed one's hopes for the next world.75. Men of Malekula lb.sThose philosophically educatedcould offer a spiritualizing explanation.z9. 545-4T Kerenyi II (t962) r7t.Cook I (r9r4) zz8. an onyx vessel.zz above.zo: multa in mysteriis tionem pertineant. the good. Daeira.and against the nature interpretation. ard. and funerary ritual. Plat.18 (1928). 4. cf. which was celebrated in the sacrifice. priestly families. "Homeric" mythology. Med. '0Plat. Laert. Epicharmus59 Vahlen'?. Stone (t942).none could understand the myth of Demeter'sarrival in the manner of Euhemerus. 294 295 .3z cf. also Numeniosat Vr.5. Vr. Everything revolved around the encounter with death.68= non See of Ennius.6 The Platonistswent further.a secretbut distinct declarationof death overcome.nor yet of deification. The mysteries effected a reconciliation with death.(r96fl 2.24. thus too the "Naassenian" in Hippolytus. was the actual divinity revealedat Eleusis.But no matter how surprising it may seemto one Platonicallyinfluenced. Opuscula (r95r). and cf. Ir.AntikeCemmen (r9oo). but what they were called and in what relationship they stood to one another remained undetermined and ambiguous. rather. A zza)or Pherekydes (VS 7 A 5). 167c. Zeitschr. Numism. 5. cf. Defac.Resp. Picard.d). lll LIENA AUGUSTA.58. its rise and fall. but the essential element apparently lay beyond myth. l.X'dyaB6v. or.

but the samedynamic structures recur with almost monotonous regularity. The modern world. or in the gift of Demeter. is unalterable-indeed. .by trial and error. it has relegateddeath to the fringes of existence and thought." "silly.44-45above.This. shapedby older traditions. Neolithic agriculturewas. city-dwelling Greeksor Romans. it is not in the sense of "imperfect. At the same time. which is no longer shrouded in superstition and secrets. which is neither self-evident but frightening and yet incomparablypowerful.zo7d.a point of reference and a moving forcebehind stories of myth. but above all Kore-Persephone. If we use the word primitiae in this regard. through the Panathenaia the Chytroi and the Eleusinian"bullfight."but. in the courseof life. . The ritual shifts anxiety in such a way that the resul_ tant formative forces work toward the continuance of our societal forms in the present.6z). who play a determinant role in their lives. i'hilomela and Ino. This core finds expressionin the cannibalisticfan"Cf. in turn. a real death seemsno more than a repetition. Interpretationson these lines that proceed from initiation ritual havedeeperfoundationsthan thosebasedonly on agriculturalmagic. tasies. At its core. "basic. for which reason the encounterwith death is unavoidable. L5. The fact of that. one can take the other'splace. love of violence and death spring up all the more wildly and destructively amid seemingly rational orders' Ritual cannot be produced artificially."13 en_ an counter with death.of werewolf societies. r5Nilsson Q95) 675-76 rightly citesPlat.'. It was. in turn.or even practices.merciful in the Process. et ab legibusmortnlitatiseducr (Arnob. societalforms in which man'sarchaicpsychewill be granted its rights will presumablyassert themselves. beyond agriculture to the hunting and sacrificingritual.zo8b.ecstaticbehavior. The amazing variety of rituals and cult sites.and yet all encompassed the nor banal.7 ELEUSIS INITIATION AND SACRIFICE themselvesas living among their own dead. one must normally undergo "sufferings. an act of killing that simultaneouslyguarantees the perpetuation of life and food.The difby ferentiationsare old and significant.For the cultivated.z.our knowledge of the traditions that proved themselvesin the past and thus survived in the various experimentsof human development should not be lost as we Proceed. moreover. overarchingspan of the ritual. secret societies. Included in the prelude and renunciation is the maiden's tragedy-Kallisto and Io.however. As the idealistictradition deteriorates. or "defective. 296 297 . the hesitantbeginning and the painstakingending. after all. victorious gratification.nn. In any case. has gradually allowed the ritual tradition to break down.much less its transcendentorientation.This core likewise determinesthe prelude and the conclusion.We can only hope that primitivism and violencewill not be releasedunbridled.'n After this.the path to Eleusiswas a regressionto the goddessof grain. can elicit both the triumphant ecstasy survival and the willingnessto die.feedingitself. Symp. non-violent man is a protest of hope against the tradition of violenceand anxiety. this regressionwent backyet further.in "murdering" the bull at the end of the year and alsoin the sacredyet uncanny drinking of the wine and in the sacrificesthat accompany the night of the mysteries. grew up out of the existence the of Palaeolithic hunter and remained the formative core of the sacredritual. the will to live rises triumphant over the fallen vic_ tim. In order to reach a new plane of existence the in initiation ritual." It connotessimple. Sacrificeas an encounterwith death. to the Greeks it is "divine"'" one can only hope that the gods will be.and in the agon to from the Lykaia and the Olympics.The closing confirmation occursin the processionof armed ephebes. begetting and dying. is linked to eating the food now happily secured. preliminary renunciation and joyous. to the growing forcesof the plant world." This. egocentricintelligencecan be subordinatedto the collective need in order to make possiblethe continuanceof mankind over the breachbetween the generations. antici_ pated long ago. that he is dependent on the societalgrouping from which he came. '"Such is the teachingof the ancient Acheruntici animalibri of the Etruscans: certorum lium sanguinenuminibuscertisdato dioinasanimasfieri .that the death of the individual is an integral part of communal life. The ideal of a new.whether it be manifestedin hecatombsof cattle. i1 the act of killing. rather.But it is hard to foreseehow the individual.In the end. self-evidentsuppositions:that an individual cannot live in isolation. myths and names which we have examinedmay seemconfusing. through which death is overcome:in sacrifice. toward an uncertain future. in a haul of fish. whose pride is in the full emancipationof the individual.

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Choes Anthesteria. |udeich. 196r. S.Vols. van Hoorn. 1968. New York. from the fournal of Hellenic Studies). 'E)ttr4zcrad ioprai xai 60cp'arfis ltai' G. with supplements S. ReligionsgeschlclrMtinchen. Ker6nyi. der Bdse: K. London (reprinted mentaryon Pausanias. 1957). Numismatic vols. ry57. Aggression. Recherches l'imag1rie sur K. and G. K.1953). dans attique H. with minor changesin pagination). steinzeit. der griechischenReligion. Lobeck. E. ry67. 1886. Latte. Mannhardt. amendments.1886. :952. t967 (AK Beiheft 4) a59K. Miinchen. Berlin. Mikalson.BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY Hdfler ky4) z:an Hoorn(rg. 1934. Athens.Leipzig. der A. Die griechische (Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft). (rgo:). K. Otto. r95o G. du lV" siicle. Hofler. Myth: Its Meaning Berkeleyand Los Angeles. E. SeeNilsson GgS9. TheNaked manAnimal. QatalHiiyiik: Stadtausder Steinzeit. nian Year. r8z9 (reprint DarmGraecorum stadt. Vol. r93r' (Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft). Dassogenannte Zur Naturgeschichte r97o. xfrs trarperias. A. AItMtinchen. fiellaart (ry67) Bergf . 1967). Jeanmaire. Mommsen. in CreekReligion. 'An Karl Schefold. l: W. Schefold). (:^927). Plastik. mysticae siae C. The GhostDance:The Origins of Religion. Vogt(Zririch.Zirich. 1958. Aglaophamus de theologiae causis. t967. Metzger. 1966. The DionysiacMysteriesof the HellenisticAge' Lund.r97o. 19o6 (reprint der attischen. Imhoof-Blumer and P Gardner. lungsteinzeit' Mtinchen. (tg+o)."ln Phyllobolia (Festschrift Peter Von der Mtihll) (Basel.Mtinchen. Lorenz. O. I: H. Bern. Maringer. jo5 Mellaart(ry7o) Metzger(ry5r) Metzgerh965) Meuli (1946) (1939) leanmaire (tyt) ludeich (r952) Ker1nyi (t962) Kerdnyi Kertnyi (1967) Kirk (ry7o) (1966) Krrimer la BarreG97o) Iatte (ry6o) LippoldG95o) (r829) Lobeck Meuli(t967) (ry75) Miknlson n A . Leiden. Totenrituale. Kirk. Lesreprtsentations Ia cdramique Paris. Otten. and lts Suraiual Religion TheMinoan-Mycenaean t95o'. Imageof Mother and DaughArchetypal Eleusis: fer. Eleusis Princeton. t962. t965. r97o. Rtimische (Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft). New York. W. ry19. Essai l'Eduution sur H. Lund.1967(QatalHtiytik: A Neolithic Town in Anatolia."PriihistorischeBrandopferpldtze.1975. ll Handbuchder Vorgeschichte. Hethitische Mythos und Kultus' Frankfurt. Studyof theHuApe:A Zoologist's D. KrAmer. Religion. t956. and OtherCultures. 1898. Vorgeschichtliche 1956. W. Mellaart. New York. "GriechischeOpferbriiuche. 53) (Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft).Konigsberg." Wien (1963). at Excaaations Hacilar. ot' and J. fe. Lippold. I. TheSacred Ciail Calendar the Athe' Princeton. and the Eleusinian G. A. t96o. London. 1885. II. ln Gestaltund Geschichte (Festschr. t887) der Germanen. Kultische Geheimbiinde Frankfurt. 1970. P Nilsson. mit Ausschluss Darmstadt.r95r. ry66). M o m m s e( f i 9 8 ) (1967) 1r11syyi5 Miiller-Knrpe(ry66) (t968) Miiller-Karpe Mylonas h96t) (t9o6) Nilsson (ry5o) Nilsson Nilsson k955) Lorenz k9fi) (r87j) Mannhardt (t957) Nilsson (ry67) Nilsson (ry58) Otten Otto(t%3) Maringerk956) Megas G956) )o4 . ry46) r85288. Einsiedeln' f . Meuli. Mriller-Karpe. Edinburgh. 6r. :1875(r9o5' with minor lJntersuchungen. Mysteries. t933 $948'. Zirich. Die lungfrau und Mutter in iler griechischen Athene. u't-zz. Megas. 848-7o and pl. r95r. Die Mysterienaon Eleusis. isch Gladbach. in and Functions Ancient G. Topographie Athen. Geschichte Miinchen. I. Dionysos: W. aon W. Feste StadtAthenim Altertum.Couroiet Courdtes: dans et spartiate sur lesritesd'adolescence l'antiquit(helldnique. Handbuchder Vorgeschichte."In Helaetiaantiqua. La Barre. Eine StudieiiberPaIIas Religion. Mylonas. comF. I-III. F. H.r) lmhoof-BIumer (t885. Morris. Griechische aonreligi\ser Leipzig.Lille.reprint Darmstadt. Bedeutung Feste M. WaId-und Feldkulte Der Baumkultus Mythologische und ihrer Nachbarstiimme: der Germanen Berlin. Patis. 1887.1. t955' Ft967'.Festschr. athtnienne. 196r).

revisedby T. v. A. Gould and D. TheRed-Figured paniaand Sicily. 1932. h979) Vermeule (tgto) Wiichter E. Frilhgriechische Sagenbilder. ry6t). desEleusinischen W.Diss. Pausanias Corinthie.Der Claube der Hellenen Berlin. (r8So). Dithyramb. L. edy. Die Menschenopfer den Griechenunil VerRijmern. Rohde. A. Wormell.z' (Handbuch der Klassischen Altertumswissenschaft). Die grossen Giittinnen Wien.rgro (Religionsgeschichtliche und g. Mrinchen. Genealogie. reprint Berlin. E. Pritchett. tg:. (tg3t) Wilamowitz (tyz) Wilamowitz (19r. II. 1924. Vorarbeiten r). Mrinchen. Religion KultusderRdmer. Arkndiens. Pringsheim. D. 'Attische Feste-Attische Vasen.rgzo' (Handbuch der Klassischen Altertums. Svoronos. (figq). l.Aspects Death EarlyGreek and poof in Art etry. B. W Parkeand D. lahrbiicher Mtinchen. der Miinchen. Comand A. Delphi. Archiiolo Kultes. Schwenn. Smith. Freiburg. Psyche: der Criechen. Der KultR.BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY Parkeand Wormell (t956) Pickard-Cambridge (r962) Picknrd-Cambridge (t958) Pringsheim h9o5) (t979) Pritchett Rohde h898) H.t979. Die Giitter Griechen. G. P. turuijlker. Wiichter. Rumpf. K. U. lll Berkeleyand Los Angeles. Lectures the Religion theSemites. vols. L974. Nader H. 196z'. Die Tieraerkleidungen afrikanischen Wiesbaden. Der Glaulte Hellenen Berlin. LonW. wissenschaft).1955. The GreekStateat War. ot' A. ry67.Oxford. and Chronology.Attische CamVases Lucania. 1898? r9z9n''o. of ic t Oxf TheDramat Fes iaals At hens. Versuche' Giessen. Miinchen.r93r. Schefold. Die griechischen Kultusaltertilmer. Roux.r9r5 (Religionsgeschichtliche r5. Religion. Straube. (r 952). f . Mtinchen. TheDelphicOracle. Webster. Wissowa. C. L964. Greek Louis. E. Wilamowitz-Moellendorff.1958.Mld'nchen. der Leipzig. Oxford. 1889.1979. Pickard-Cambridge. bei F.vols. Toepffer. Th. Reinheitsuorschrit'ten im griec'hischen Kult.Lesmonnaies Berlin. K. re1: print Darmstadt." Bonner fit (t95r). sucheund Vorarbeiten 3. 1969. (1927). r949. Saint Altars: Origirtsand Typology. Yavis. il. Beitrrige Geschichte gische zur H. M. Oxford. Athens. 1967. Opfergebrriuche Griechen. G.Giessen. Stiglitz. on of don. R. Orakel und Kultstiitten. d'Athines.6 ynttis (1949) P6yy (t958) Peuy(t97r) Rumpf(t96t) Samuel G97z) (t964) Schefold (r9t5) Schwenn Simon(t969) Smith(t894) Stengel Ggro) (t9zo) Stengel Stiglitz(t967) Straube k955) (t924) Suoronos (t889) Toepffer (1967) Trendall 307 . W. Lewis. Paris.revisedby J.Berkeleyand Los Angeles. I. r9o5. Samuel Greek Roman r97z (Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft). E. 1968'. 1894':. I. 1966). N. . Trendall. J. Stengel. der IL und G.2) Wissou)a und Seelencult Unsterblichkeitsglaube E. t9to. ord. 1956. zo8-l^4. Tragedy. Bonn. 3c. Vermeule. nameME|AAAI OEAI und seineGrundlagen. en G. (tgoz). Simon.

rr8 Brasiai.r5.29 Babylon. Poseidon. Fish-Sacrifice. 154-58. Aphrodite Hetaera. Panathenaia.-51 Boeotia. zo9 Arcadia. Semele. Dionysia. zo4. 2 o o . Plynteria. Piraeus Aulis. 775. 6r.rz Agrionia. Aphrodisia. t'73.35.16. t4(f .4. r76 Ainos. Lykaia. 84-93. 65. r56f. t73. r44. 749. z6z Aegina.37. t36-41 ct' 18. 16. Calendar. Temple of Meter. uo3 Alalakh. Artemis. zor. 7113.4). and Skira. Bacchanalia. zzz. seea/so Eleusis. Olynthos. Aphrodite epitragia. at Massalia. grave of Thyestes. zo6. 214. Bakcheion. Di- omeia.rr. Atargatis. :. r4 Bambyke. 6o' t6of . 2ry-4J: name. zoz. ro7f. Artemis.r. Phaleron. ftz-68.r8. testimonia. Lesser Mysteries.14. Herosantheia. Lenaia. 2r. 58. 164' r65f. rrz Chios. 7o5. the ritual at Orchomenos. Carneia. 255 Anthesteria. 283 Argos. 7 Antissa (Lesbos). r38.54. r14.2) Agra. 227. Aphrodite. r53. s.r3. 27J..rz. r 42.34 Cheiron's cave.5. Agrionia. Aphrodite Porne. New Year's Festival. Phratries Aphaka. zo7t. ro7.21. Hermes.ro..49. sacrificial lists.t'4 Chaironeia.3o. Demeter and Poseidon. 16. 176. 220.).). Dipolieia and Buphonia. ePi HiPPolYtoi.7. r85. 2o2. 265. Pelion.. 7t. t6o.to5. and Dionysus. 66.26. z67.. Dionysia. Munichia. Skira.9.J4 Apaturia. Anthesteria.zt. Monophdgoi. 98.v. Dea Syria. name and dissemination. zz9.rt7. ry5f . zo4f. and the birth of Athena. zo5f' Boedromia.15. t6rl(f . Zeus Hellanios. 2r).43 Alexandria. Arneides. zz8. Daulis. seealso Index of Persons and Things. zr3f . 75o. and Dionysia a t S m y r n a .4o Brauron.r. z35. Heraia.47 Andania. ErechtheusPoseidon.23 )o9 . 33.4.2o. t62. Dionysos Aktaios. 46-41.27. altar of Helios. Marathon. 6r. 143.56 Arrhephoria. r48. 284.4. 146. 63. 279. t6o. r36. r8z.z6. 2t). Lysioi teletai. r5o. 63 zo Buphonia. Calendar. ro7. Leu' kothea. ro. z31. fi6. at Syracuse. t44.t.6r. Diasia. zzr.. date. 2t5. zz8. z4z. 36. z7o. in the gardens. ryo. r48.z8. zr 35. Athena Polias.zr3. t57. Demeter. name/ 151 Askalon.rr Apollonia (Chalkidike).z t ) . Mysteries.Index of Cult Sites and Festivals Abydos. at Chaironeia.a3. Athens.

24 Laodikeia. Aphrodite.Athena Skiras."Penates.15 Massalia.z6 Melite.2t5.54. foundation legend. history of the games.2L. 2741. rz4f 4o. b.2+.ur. 16.r8zf.4. zz6 zz9..sacredherds. 65.rr Pedasia. 96f. Maiuma.Artemis. song. r9z..zoo.26. r85.z8.226.Pelopion.ry4f. pedimental sculptures. Hermione.).asexuality.DemeterThesmophoros. s. Hierophant. 2J).253. r7o Leukas.35.96f.Tarentum. temple of Zeus..Artemis Alpheiaia. 4. 249.64.Dionysus.11.Apollo Hylatas. Thyiades.124.5o Ilissos.r3 Eryx.52 Passover.Marathon. z6z Lupercalia.3T Corinth.ro. Donysus. Kore'skatabasis.4 Naupaktos. Dionysus. r6. 89. zrn(f. zrr.z7 Olympia.rr3. 36. 4.ro Gargaphianspiing (Kithairon). 95. 255. Paros.z8of.z4. Kar.24. t54-58. Priene.257. zrr. neolithic.r6 Pagasai. stone-throwing. Hagno. sacrifice.Cheiron'scave.234. 266-69. Demeter. zo5(f. Dionysus. z8z. Daduchos. ro9-rr Kleitor (Arcadia).16 Ddyma. 194.zoz. 11 1 Phigalia.4. DionysosPelagios.Zeus Akraios." z54f. Opis and Hekaerge. 284.45 j70 Ja7 . 295.g. r99f. r89. Artemis. ry'.288f.ro Halos (Thessaly).to. 277. goat sacrifice. r13 Pergamon. pediment.8 Halai Aixonides. 96. 279..96f.r3z(f.Smyrna. sterion.119.precinct of Neoptolemos. Herakles. 285.279.z4. 6o.Agrionia.2. Temple of Apollo.r7. Tereus. agon.zr Elaius.gl.46 Megalopolis. offering.z8.3. r9z Delphi..mysteriesof Demeter.).8.1z. r5 Hephaestia(Lemnos). sacrifice. Anaktoron.t6o. 4. Zeus Sosipolis. Dionysus.6. rr5.+l Megara.)8. n3.ro5.Zeus Laphystios. rites of mourning.ro Keos. Hosioi.Leukothea.65.kykedn.r6 Magnesia the Maeander..Y INDEX INDEX Choes. 1 5 9 .z6 Magnesia (Thessaly). 46. 225.r8.t2.fish. Leukothion. 275. lo1.24 Dipolieia. t 66.z8. t46f. 722.z9. xyleils. seealso Olympia 259 Enna.46.fire festival.33. tzo Lykosura. 265.rz ag6-99.3o Letrinoi (Elis).257.9r.46 Kurion (Cyprus). zJ7-43... 4. 2Jj. t6.ro. rr4 Hekaleia.lgot'.7of. 276. caveof Zeus.). 63.Cabirion.266. chariot race. animal tabu..Hera Akraia. the "two gifts.Artemis.2o.sacrificial animals.ro.zoo.3o Phlya. sacrifice. 251.ry9.zo3 Nemean games.121. 64. Athens. 7r. Delos.48.7o..pais 254.Hierokeryx. 65. Palaimonion.ro Pelion.Poseidon..275. 47. Herois.146.54.zor. herds. Athena. 84-93 Lykoreiaand Delphi. zt9. Branchus.5.292.procession.ng Messene. Pandia.37 Patrai. miardhemira.1o Lokroi.. ^o katdbasis. hestia. r7z Lykaia.r4 Phaleron.ftt. price. zz8. agons. 140(f.rr4 Ostia.Eumolpidai. Septerion. u7f .pig-sacrifice. 8o. Naupaktos.Teleaph'hestias. 122.. z6z.see 4.Plataea.1o.a98..zro. 2r." 246 Elea. 286.Rharion.40.Persephone.56..Thynneion.7o. burnt gdmos?.J. 4o1.36 Mykonos.zo8 Halikarnassos.zo. zt8. Demeter.. festivalprogram/ z4g(f r48. mliesis. 266f. 85 Kronia. sacrifice. 266.zr Kyzikos. Protesilaos.7. 16z Lesbos.zl Lenaia.Delian diver. on zn.37.to. 82. 257. 136-43 z8o.his costume. birth of the god. 63. r94f. r34.29 Lemnos. 31 56 Elis.20 Cyrene.secrecyconcerning his name.2t. 254.16r. 29L. Sosipolis. purification rilual.fire festival.Aphrodite Hetaera. 249(f .legendsof human sacrifice.2.7.Athens.. ror Phaistos. 43.Iakchos.ro5.. drinking contest. rr.16.t7g. Donysus Phallen(Methymna). cf. Charila.). 41(f Leuktra. omphalos.. ror.44 Pheneos(Arcadia).273.2o. 285. rz5f.rr.rz. 278. 8o.29 Munichia.8. 88.ro.2o Mykale. . 288. z7z.18 4. r78f.36. 797. Apollo Dionysodotos. mystai and ep6ptai.gephyrismoi. zzr.roo Myra (Lycia). pictorial representations.r27-)o.r.78. 289f. 95.8.3o Cos. zor. Panionion. his throne. r6.Dionysus. stadium. tomb of Dionysus.z4. zoz. 176. zr3. Zeus Lykaios.sacrifice. Kynaithos(Arcadia).257.. Apollo. Demeter. .zr7-zg. Kerykes.Saturnalia. 7of. temple. mystagogue.Leukothea. Ida. spring (Mount Lykaion).34 259 Kyane.z6. 279.. r8z.63. r46f. zr8. r54.266.r8:.232.46 Eleusis. 89 Lusoi (Arcadia). r8z. Molpoi. 2o3.277 Naukratis.Apollo Kareios. Hekate.9. 255.7. 27o.279.Artemis.46 Leuke (Pontos). rcr. 253.n. z4of.Dionysia. sacrifice.zr.4o Panathenaia. Kore..3o.7. Sirius and Zeus. and Skira.). and Lemnos.a1on. Createrand 36. t75. rr8f. rr3 Maiuma. Rhodes.8o. myth of Tereus.t6 Dionysia. ror.z6. 55. meal in the Prytaneum.79. rz8.z67. zzr. . gg.).3r.Dionysia. $5.zrr Hierapolis.244.l^4.Donysus.18. 1g).ng. Corcyra.Hekaleia. zo4. 163 Diasia. 219 Chytroi.sacrificial ritual.229.16. Cleobis and Biton.purificationrite. tLg.tr7.)3.. myth and ritual.city goddess..r78f.Athena Aithyia. LesserPanathenaia. Zeus Polieus. z4g(. thrinosis. Eleusisand Athens.dance.horse herds. z5o. alsoAndania Methymna (Lesbos).269. altar of Zeus. sanctuaryof Poseidon. 171.56 59. Isthmus. n4f .eoo. 235.spondai. Zeus Laphystios.Chios. t1o.). zt8.Lemnian earth. z8o.25. zor.) dparchai.zor Eleutheria.the spring. r94 Lemuria.94f.Rhea. 2o). Lerna. agon. 249. z4 Daulis.rr7.Demeterand Hera. rzo. Miletus. t46 Eleutherai. 274.promise.36. tripod. roz. 249.T.. Ephesus. Dionysus Phallen..266.46.26.24.Mysteries.J7.ao Erythrai. 4g(f . 4. gymnasion.. sacrifice.46.15 Lanuvium. cf.2j Nestane(Arcadia).9 Gadeira.Artemis. z4z. 292. Heraia.Per seus. 44f . spring near Syracuse.sacrificial lists.Anthesteria.DionysusEnorches.z4.2.gJ-lo7.r8r Delos. r93.cf. r4z. zz9. 4. 12o. Keraton.z8o.4o.21.). 276. 192-95. 16.6.Dionysus. Zeus Nemeios. 33. P4. z4(f . hierds 284.z6. oracle.t. zrr Marathon. Bakcheion(Antissa).95) temple of Hera. tt. sacrifice.85.52.Leukippos. rz3. 8z.).ro3 Orchomenos. diving festival. 4. GreatGoddess. rzz. 227-8j. 7j8. r95f.zr Kretaia (Mount Lykaion). 291. V.767.

9r.26 Tegea.zrr. mYsteries. Protesilaos. 79 Aegisthus. zo6.19 Apsu.7o Septerion.3z. zt)'u Kyane. 16oI'. hipparchoi.777. 259.45.16o.zr Tiryns. zo8 resurrection?. r39. zoo(f -)' zo1. Laokoon. zo9f.r6. r44'15.r88 Torrhebis(LYdia).Karios.121'. 8o.AlPheiaia.at APhaka. with Dionysus. Kareios(Hierapolis). 7Lr-r4. Heraion. Demetet.Thasos Tilphusion. t65. 124.Y INDEX Phylake (Thessaly).LYkeios LYkoreus.1o. 267. r47 Smyrna.zrr. 167.2J. IPhinoe.34. 257'5 Skiron. r2).. t46'44. and Thebes.Lemnos. ThesmoPhorior. r5o. and ThesmoPhoria.t3 Temesa. t7o. in the gardens(Athens). zr7 5 Xandika. 714. :'14. agon.77 Tithorea.)5. 255.). 2o1.2r. rz1f. zo6. 186-88 Anahita. :'6o. dePictions.210. 716'2)2. 257 Priene. Dionysus..r85-89 Aphrodite. EPhesia. r57f. zrr Acheloos. Lykegenes.zl Anat.16.r59 7r1.7r. APhrodite. 6t.. r89. rrof.44. Thebes. Kallisteand Kallisto. 68. grave(Argos). Artemis.SePterion. (Kurion).rr. zo3. DelPhi. rz7 Y: Seriphos. and rz5 tor.7).tz. rr5. tz8-1o Rhion. Hemera (Lusoi).Hero. 7o2'Orthia (Sparta). sacrifice Zeus Hellanios. human sacrifice. Demeter. 2oo. festivalat Rhion.lr4 Aithalides. u31 Aristaios. 65f 266. Agrionia. t76 33. 64. Aglauros.24. 46..t7o. Argos PanoPtes. DionYsus and Triton.HeuriPPa(Pheneos). 16.r8 Ariadne.ritual flight. gg.sheePsacrifice(CYPrus). r86. ro8. Po*"granate. zo3 Rome. 8o. Sicily. DionysusAnthroporrhaistes. see .EPhesus). fish tabu.i. zoo(f z4.kteis. Thelpusa.statueto ward off plagte. r72. Anthesteria. Dionysia.t3z' t96. sacred Plowing.24 Tainaron. Amphiktyon and DionYsus. r47.. 2)o. 158. r65f. 6o. 6r. r19'r3. zz9'r5 Index of Namesof Gods and Heroes Yinalia. Hera.zz9 r5. Athena and Epopeus.33. 8o.zr Tarsos. cf. 7r.r92 Argos.ThYmbraios r31f'.z6. r41-49.9 Syracuse. zz9. 6o. 76. 275. birth. 244 Piraeus. 39.21. (Argos). Pig sacrifice. 113f. sacrifice the BoeotianPole277. 6o. 63.t5r for Aiakos.39. 165. 227. 4b Plataea.76. Porne (Abydos). sacrifice for the dead. ual defloration.12. resurrection.Ar.and the city Argos. oriental Aphrodite. 199 Tanagra. donkey 17 sacrifice. dolphin rider. zor'26 Pythian festival. z6l. 772. Nesteia. and Pan. Athena and Demeter. and Karinos. 27 )5 Samos.z6z. r88. 11'3. 277. Ara Maxima. z6 Apollo. ro4. and Poseidon. 38 Salamis (Cyprus). Arkas. r51 Potniai. 116 Argonauts. and the bull. r83 Thasos. and LYkaon. Demeter and Kore. 19.roz Adapa. $8-7t.6 Aletis. 169. l7o Samothrace. z6z. of rr5. 63'zr rz8-3o Tempe.. 8g.q. Tenedos. r94.77. t7f '.zz. r6of. 8o.z6l.56. on Lemnos. 745. at DelPhi..r9o. sacredherds.and Hippolytos. Arcadians. sPring seealso ')'24' Tarentum. 7t.r9. 651. and Dea SYria. SYracuse Sikyon.7r.gz. festivalin Ithaka. temis Agrotera. Triklaria (Patrai)'6o'rr.J7 Antiope. Limenia (Hermione).r r64f. 7)2' a9t' 27o.r94'.donis. r44. of bearded.t1. and Zeus. APhrodite and GYges. sacrifice a he-goat. rtt^ march. Lokroi.242 Aerope. APhrodite a6o'117. . HYlatas Aktaios.257'5' 27o'2o 45(f ')'zt. Kordax (Olympia). ligeneia.281 Thesmophoria. r55 Aktaion.2r Agathos Daimon. 56f' Plynteria.56.Kalz7o'zr. r89. 54.ritual flight. r95 Akademos.5t Dionysus. Poseidon.56.277'7. Diony sia.rt. 242f. Pontia. SikYon.63. 285) also Paros. sacred fish.hanged. Cabfuion. l^73.Piraeus.Thesmophorion. in the mYth of Pel- 372 343 . diogma.valleY. 8o'13. t'o6 Agamemnon.26.47 Pithoigia. 7z Achilleus. zr7f. rzr. Argos. r34. huntressand virgin.rz.zt... 65'3o maiden sacrifice.87. hero at Tiryns. Hetaera(Athens. 297. 72!. 8o. 14134. mysterles. 2LJ' r.zC seearsoEnna.mourned at OlYmPia.sheepsacrifice in Cyprus.24. Apollo Dionysodotos. r89.257. zo5(f. r16 Andromeda. Aphrodisia.37 Amphion and Zethos.Perseus. 1o8. rTzf' Skira. .3e. 2t. Poseidon and Ariadne.armed. cf. Aqhat.223.

fisherand the myth of 1o..r4f. 161.7. Cyclops.. 16o (Pagasai).rz shield.z8z. 2L4.ro7 Dumuzi..19.156.66f.z5 Diktys. 2183r.4o. in Hipponax.261. z8g. 278. zr5. 33. LYsios sea Glaukos..84 r89. masks. 2o7. Dendritis.54.64. Pelagios at 2)5(.herds.156. 43(f. age of cult. and Phrixos.zz.zrr.29. at t6. r85f. 289. ry4f.6. 2oJ. zt7t.52.ro5. r39. and 156..1o.6. zoo.and man. and Dionysus.. r88 Athens.resurrection?.164.and Dionysus.26.r25. Athena Polias(Athens).and Aktaion. .21.and Hermes Chthonios. zz boiled and roasted. immerBartbo. 164. t9z.Bassaros. 6+.3.2.Apollo (Delphi).Lemnos. 24o.Artemis apanchomdne. at Erinyes. r76'33. and Antiope. 2jZ. t86f.zo9f. lrz.and Brimo. Astarte.and the blade of wheat.146. Paros. 67. cult in 266-69. priestess.6. herds of cattle.t75. stealingtriPod. t6z. r85(f. Cnopus. sacrifice. (Hermione). Eriphos (Sparta). Erichthonius.rrr Athirat.9. Priene. 25J. and Poseidon.253f. :'87. 168.7. 274. r92 2)o.z3 z4z.r53.Limnaios Danaos. . U4. 257.Keramyntes.279.6. 99. Demeter Chamyne at OlYmPia. 44. 154. and Cabiri.15.217. r89.at Ainos. r99f. the Kanathosspring. 255.37 Atalante. z. Tiryns. r44.2o. sion in sea. 2)7 Derketo.r9r. 2. and Panathenaia.zrof.32. zz1.. r4o..89.r7o. r1.2)2.. 283. zo5 Athamas. 47.. alsoIndex of Cult Sitesand 257.z3 (Athens). zo4. 99.r57. and Ino.o)-to7 Attis. 225. Brimo.on Paros. bath in and Dipolieia. Potniai. ikionios(Thebes). zo8.).PsychoPomPos.and the kiste.166. Eros.'232.21...2o2.23.24. Kadmeios (Thebes). and 232..44.28t.r1o-14.163.. Melampus. Hesione. 65.:^49.r38. Brasiai. Kore myth.and. MYkonos. 2oo.r4. 292 of Euneos.r. Heraion. Methymna.)..ft cf.Eleuthereus. t96.t33 Eileithyia. zro. 76.41.iconography.and the plow.Corinth. 795 . r89. 45(f . Demophon. r78. of Argos.Phigalia. 165.t1 Kerykes. roz Hera.and a blade of Hephaestus.34. r89.21. Omestes. god. Daeira. neos). 283.). tg6. 255.16. grave.mYsteries.24. 21o of Phoroneus. Andania. Fndymion. 45.24. 47f .at Olympia.r5r. Brimo.as masks. Hera Akraia (Corinth). return. 48. zo6 Erginos.82.r33 70.h.Dionysusand Osiris.3o.44. 294. Eleusis. peplos. r63f.Liknites Danae.t4 altars. n3f . 263. Demeter.1.rz. rr4. 163 fi5. 164. 287f. z7r.+i. 8o. r47f. Erigone.Lakinia. 275. . 7o.26.4o. . Eleusis.ts. 257.52.66. Hainuwele. Proteltia. on Delos.zrr )L4 375 . Olympia.6o.277' Cain. Eubuleus 95.)3o.. fi5f .).8o. 222. and Sikyon.2r.rz.46.Ar288.z7r.. 199f.. V.zr.4o.of death and cult. t85. priest.priestess. r84. 255.. r7o (Athens). and Pholos. "Penz8g-72. bull sacrifice. r83.r5).35.and the daughtersof Kek43. t57.64. visit with lkarios.rr Donysus.. and Poseidon. and Athena. name.r8.Hermes. Poseidon. 257. r17. Pig sacrifice. roz. 289. r18. Donysus.as hangedmaiden. 263. ro. 236.rr Atargatis. at Eleusis. 165. 78. 225. Hekate Perseis.and Odysseus. 119.tr.Z. r78.3o. Athena Alea (Tegea).14.zr h Dioscuri.. PerGyges. 66(f.19 Demeter.7 cattle 68f.89.and a4g. 144. 259f 275f and. 171. sacrificeof a he-goat. shepherd.$.285.52. z3o 2r4. Bugenes(Lerna).. z4t.v.killed. tg9. ryof . inventor of cremation.6r. 99f.. zz3. homonymns. cf Cadmus. :.2r7. and funerary urns.165. mistressof animals. r85f. z7r. statuettes.rz.INDEX INDEX ias. hierds gdmos. Ariadne.zzz.Anthios.zz.birth. r5o.rz. 196. r95 Helios. Hephaestus.ancestor the Europa. 279. Agra. taming of the hunter.V.2J.7o. and Inanna..4. Athens. Ere5kigal. ry6. and Perseus. :-7)(f Centaurs. 79 Autolykos. z9o. Melanaigis Gorgonsof Gorgo.26 63. 16r z7z.279. 52. Acheloos. and ates" at Elaius.z5g. r73. and wolves.zo. 289 Herms. r51.. z7o.11.'. Hekate. mysteries.2J7. 5).).Thebes. r19. Anthroporrhaistes (Tenedos).35. 285f.and Erechtheus.zo3. r7o-7J.19. t49. r78 t56f Athena. 236.7r. MelPomenos Tiryns. 68..3o. r5r Erythrai. z8o.36.12 and the birth of Athena. t9o. 22g.z4.7z.cf.4. altarat Inachus. and Erichthonius.Skfton. and the Galloi. rz5 cf.name. 16r.Sicrly. 144. 288.5o.. t44.Proitids. and Erechtheus. r51. geiphontes.and Menelaus. resurrection?.g6(f . lsodaites.3r and Dea Syria.pomP6.rg. zz4f. Cabiri.). Eumolpidai. 14.44.265f.. (Delphi). z9o. 76. Potniai. growth of cult. r3z. Enkidu. zro.r3.37. Cabiri.daughters. 156. IdaeandactYl. 295.z3o. r87. 4z(f . 42f.2.15-17.t8. and Orestes.25g. Lemnos.Akreia (Argos).zo. sacrificer.77.and the shield of Argos.26..246.. t76. sanctuaryat the Acropolis. 95. Hermes.z6g.26.. iconography. zrr. rzof.r95 Herakles. Vf '. and Buphonia.z9r. warrior. zo9 Diomos.Zr. Iakchos.z9z..7o. 64.Protesilaos.4o. ry7. zo5 Deucalion and Pyrrha.). pilos. z4zf. stone piles. in Thebes.132.zg5..Antheia.21 torn apart. preparation.12. 2zo.cf . Samos.43 zoo. rr4.Enorches (Lesbos). chomenos.7.zo4.Erigone. Tritonia (Phe8o.286. :o8 Atreus and Thyestes. and Poseidon. 289. Dionysus. Lykurgtts.13. and Samothrace. 2t. rops.).hunter.8. z7z.r4. zr3f. z4o pyte. r77. rape ofKore. Ot2o2. 196.. ram sacrifice.34 (Boeotia).zr.. s. and Brimo.21. rgtf .77.Skiras. 166. Hera..77.32 Helen.birth.zr. 233. 254.'t39. 245.Miletus. onysosAktaios. r48. r4g.Thesmoat phoria.37. on wheat. z)4. r9o. 223. z16. Smyrna. Phallophoria.255.rz. Lykosura. 289.JJ. Gallu.EPhesus.16.r59.4.q1'z). 267. 24.285. Cleobis and Biton.29. Eumolpos.4o.r9.8l(. Erichthonius.tgt. 285. Eubuleus.. and.8 Kresios(Argos).and Qatal Htiytik. t9r.16 16.A' and Aias. r47 Eurydice.r2. and Artemis. z6z Dionysopolis.26. :^49. on Lemnos. 257.263f. 1J2f. tropaion and aegis. 232.priest in Dirke.7j7 Dardanus. 8o. ftgf .see alsoZe. rzrf.35. Hades. z3r.r6o(f.4. Platonic interpretation.4. 121. Epopeusof Siykon. 7J). 274.see Festivals.7. t94t. 186..7.1o.15. 6o Cassandra.war against 245. r2o. and wine.7r. 8r. at Erythrai. 156.

8o.r4.17 Procne. 246 Pyrrhos-Neoptolemos. birth.37 Pratolaos. 86. z4u.29.8t Io. myth of dismemberment. cult at Olympia. 285.48. z6o. thaldmni. a44. 5o Pegasos Eleutherai. hair sacrifice(Delos). 5 2 . 175. 295. 214. 77 Patroklos.and Dionysus. ro7. gg. burning.24. sacrifice of . and Aphrodite.64 Semachos. Mezentius. bull sacrifice. ro9 Sabazios. z9r Myrtilos. 4. r8r. r59.54.37 Hyakinthides.name. and Uranos. 263.at Argos. z. t78f . ) . ry5 Oedipus.zro.89.wounding.pursuesDionysus.6 Persephone. r98. thr6nosis.63. 110 Lykurgus. at the loom.lr. r97.J4.32.. a3j. 2J5.r8 Pandora. zo7 INDEX Neoptolemos. a49.death.37 I5tar.death at Delphi.35.y. at Elaius and phylake. Poseidon Hipposeidon pios (Pheneos). 1g.s water. resurrection?.Athens.andEfigone. 319.5 5 Inanna.2o I s a a c .r4. Phoroneus.243. 6r. Jason.2o Orestes. 7c. 293. gj. myth. in Aegina. 98 Hippolytus... cultic cry Jo. 95 Odysseus.17. r8o. fish sacrifice.72. g]. 6-5. z4z. 757. 99.at Athens. Dolonia.6o.tz. rr5t. z89 Polyxena.7 Nymphs.r27 Rhea. aJ7. r34. z9o(f. 32. rr9 Orestheus. 6z.7o. and Dionysus. ro1 Krotopos and Linos. z7r.. 286. Rhion. zo7 Marsyas. t59. r83f. 278. 1J1. Delphi. rzt. 223. r8z.s cave.95. 279.42 Liknites.269.rr. 8r. grain. 232. s a c r i f i c e .at Ofympia. gt.40 Sinis Pityokamptes. 221.rcliefs. and Poseidon. r3of.. 96.)g 316 317 .. return. and Arcadia.12 Palaimon. myth. 27. 125. and Cyrus.lsthmus. 157 daughters. r63f. and Demeter. ktste.2.37. t7o-72. 4 3 .27 Rhesos. tz6. 2t. 6r. rzg. 256. and Penelope. Ma Bellona. r78{.r8z. mysteries. Mount Lykaion. 21o. 6o.. Karios.12. tz9 Romulus. 2r. 263 Ino. and the Cabiri. ram sacrifice.z3 Korybantes..23 Iambe. r84 Pasiphae.r97f..)..r4 Phrixos. r8tf. zo8. 261. as priestess of Hera. r76.8o.86f . r39. 2 5 9 .17 Kybele.95. Gilgamesh's accusation.45. division of sacrifice. r14 Niobe. his death as a horse. r 4 7 $ . 98 Opis and Hekaerge. 3 8 . :32.r5 Minyads. and throne. as god. 268. Osiris. and 76..mistressof animals.53 I m a r r h a d o s . ro3.53 of Peleus. r 4 8 . 1g1. season.2. 2go. and Baubo. death at Delphi. ro8 Kumarbi.19 Pan. ro8. :59f. 164 Hypsipyle. z9r.27. and horse. 288. 95. 5o. 69. zgr. 63.3o Maleos the Tyrrhenian. 77g. r7d Phaedra. 289. r9r Koroibos.7o. 269. z4zt.r77. burial. 269. r r9f. 8t. 153 Keleos.3r Melikertes. birth. zzz. Python. ag7.rz.z66f . Proitid (Sikyon).and Erigone. and Hera. 269. gr.65 Iphinoe. t74f . sacrifice of hair (Megara). 286. 2411' Melanthios and Xanthos.r 1 8 .:r8. maiden sacrifice and restitution. at Athens.14 Leukothea. father of Antiope. r76f. r24. r97. katabasis.49 Linos. 79.245 Oinomaos. and Artemis. and Qatal Huytik. and Dionysus. tr9 Makaria.6.79. r85(f .and the Cabiri. receives Dionysus.kills Neo_ ptolemos. in Arcadia. and Ku-Bau. sacrifice. Cheiron. r58 Leukippos. dedication of Menneas. r5 Kekrops.8r Plutos. at Megara. Prosymnos.ro Pandrosus. t77f . grave. 223.4 .L.6 Horai. 65. 8o Itylos. at Olympia. at Athens. gg_ror.37 Semele and Aktaion.79. 85. 129..r57. and tripod. 7o. r98 Sisyphus. 99. 66. death. r87 Lynkeus. Megara. 241. 244. z9z.zt. q8. 89. at Phaistos.r 4 Kore. 164-67 Iphigenia. j 5 Isis. Ino. infanticide. rJ4. r7o.8rf. 67.. visited by Dionysus.41. Hermione. zz9.. 7r. and Artemis Alpheiaia. Arcadia.at Olympia. 282.). 9r.r64.). and Phrixos. zSzf. 24j-47.3z Pelops.father of Athena or a murdered maiden. conception. at Chaironeia.85. pursues Dionysus. r9t. 243-45 Laokodn.tr Melampus. t78. toz|.169. 6r..53. Isthmus. and Demeter.67. r84 Laodameia. zzo.e. 89. 2o4. as dead king. rr9 Nephele. r o Hippodameia.77.7. iconography. and Dionysus. r34.71.z3. 212. and Calloi. Halai Aixonides.6r. marriagebed. 179. Taurobolion. Cyclops. r95 Kallisto. a21. and grain.37. 275f.20 Pandareos' daughters. 147. dedicationat Athens. t54 Hypermestra.zzzf. r95 Ikarios. 2j5. z4z. katabasis.rt. 211. 288.r5 Marduk. t1g. Pallas. z7o. u68 Iasion.r8r. ). grave. inventor of burial. 85.y. 246 Medea. 7 c . 95 Pentheus. 29). 2o4. rzo. zo. 255f.89 Iakchos.INDEX H e s t i a .and Athamas.36. 243 Poseidon. 279.77.771. on Mbunt Lykaion.Ploiaphesia. r14. 2jr. 232. 2J_5.z3.8. and Hekate. omphalos. r9t.39 Mater Matuta. myth. clrrs.55. r99. 7o. 68. 225.t5. zo6. 1o5. rrz.6. 7o Protesilaos. z9o(f .3o.6r. zo3. and Apollo.29 Horus.. and Demeter. 42f. 63. z59f . 24o. z15.17.45. 282.r8 Machaireus.242. 279. r7z. .13 Philomela.267 Kronos. and ram sacrifice.67. z:2. 214.242.:'51. and Leukothea. ram sacrifice. 78. phallus cult.. Samothrace.t4 K l y m e n e . ry7 Meter.44. 187 Matusios. r88. see also Kore Perseus. mysteries.zr. and Osiris. 203. 79.r8 PhiJoktetes. 222. r58. 77.and Hippodameia. and Seriphos.32. 283.rz Pelias. Medusa. 246 Priapos. Delos.99.theft of the Palladion. 747. 272.rh Pandion. and the daughters of Pelias. r3z Oineus. 168-73 Prometheus. 2 7 .56 Kephalos and Prokris.zr 125. 1J2. Mithras.15 Proitids.14 Ogygos. ro8 Lykaon. and Lemnos. 21. tr4. zzz34.r4. Tainaron.

56.8r. SacrifiS(f.(Olympia). 7t.44. 9of.. iconography.r95f. 73.78. 4s(f . and. r59 Tereus.37. t18.Olympia.t7. 2r.r7 6otr. q6. 96f. 1'92. equivalence. seer. 27z.67f.67.67. 7. invention. t6-43.to. 51. tr4.72 Titans. z8o. alsoDumuzi see Tantalos.r8r.44. zzo.42. Theseus. in Arcadia. 65. and the possessed boy. To.6.5o Aristophanes. 46. rBz Thaulon. 49. r99 Aristeas.king of Lemnos. see Arpachija.. 156. zo5f andbrtll.see Areopagus.2o Arion. 54. Aeschylus.29. 156 Adyton. 4z. inhunting. 52....89..98. 37f. 62. zo6' zp Venus victrix.and Eleusis. ror. zVf .tomb. 40. in myth.. r67(f.34 Age groups. r7o Thyestes. ro7..zu7l. 51. r88.284. 161.87f. 3z Archilochus.4o.t67. 24. seealsoEphebes Aggression. 17. and the Choes festival at Athens. 2t.24o. Epoptes.zzz. 6r. . hunt. altar at OlYmPia. tot lr T8 319 .leap into the concePtion.and marriage. gtanaries. Panoptes.rz.initiation by fire. Polieus (Athens). 65.4o Tycheof Antioch.and EPoPeus.293. z59f. r8o Zeus. sacredmarfia6e. rzz t53 Aeg. Karios. roz. and Dea Syria.45.295 Zethos and Amphion.r. r9r Thracian riders.4o Mount Lykaion.Arimaspeia.92 Advent. 58.14.r. rt5. sacrificialrituals.). parodies of cult. 4o.Isthmian 1'95. 85. 8zf.-Z INDEX Skiron. 33 Agon. Odysseus Archetypes.banquet. inhi bition. farming culture and matriarchy?. games. 55. Ash altar. in the temple at DelPhi.rr. rro. as retreat. 9t.'41 Agrarian magic.. Herkeios. Nemeios. 142. and Aedon...t.and Kares. birth (Mount Lykaion). S.z5z Aetolians. among athletes. 294 Alexander the Great. Demeter. Ariadne.33 Tammuz.Epopsios. in myth.167$.74. 161. 7o5. sacrifice. procession. and the 154. Syria Dea.. z6z Abstinence from meat. ry. name.55f. 21o Thriai.43. r83. zz8f. trTf .zz.grave. 234. zo4. z7r.21L. 46. 3.r7 Abstentionrites. 27t) creales community. r7f. Thaulios.45.neatherd. (Magnesia).285. 56.. Eubuleus.t5 Animal tabu in Elis. Pan' athenaia. zof. ro6. 35f. 1o2. mourned by the Ssabians.28.84. r38f. z5 Apollo hymn.z9. z8z. on Lesbos.84. 268. r17 Ancestors. seealso Werewolves Animal bride. Ash altar.at ram sacrifice. seeAgriculture Agriculture.r8r.Ikmaios.. Protesilaos.threshing.. r4r. 88.t98 Thoas.Athena Skiras.abstinencefrom human meat.cult of Dionysus. 196. 9r. V.mission.61. 26. ritualized. 46. . r39. and the encounterwith death.rr Animism.29. and 186. t48 Sopatros. in sacrifice.15. )5-46. Laphystios. Isthmian games. see of Namesof Gods and Heroes. t38. 2.u83. Hellanios.. V.). and mysteries of Demeter. Athens. Olympia. 281.r54.zz. 92.4o Alliance. 22. 39 clsoIndex Arcadia. Olympian and chthonic. at Delphi. 64. 44f.Heraia.and death. at Tanagra.7r. 70. 259. sea.2. (Cos). z4o.ro. Lykaia. Lykaios. substitutionin sacrifice. z8z.94. 44f. zz6 Anointing of stones.35. r9(t.$. 58f r38.and Donysus. death. V. 8o. 34. Sosipolis r4:.v. 95.+r.19..76. black sail.75.48 Alexander of Pherai. 278 Chest in water Ark. zrr Skiros.85.'tzr Apollonios of Tyana. castration.\.6r.63. 89.69. 43. 96-98. seealso cial pit Amphictyony. transformation into animal. and transferred.85. Kataibates. Acorn eaters. 8r.29 Index of Personsand Things Uranos.85.and frustration.z3. and emperors.25.\. r39.28. at bull sacrifice. zo3.).1'o..marriage. Demeter. z..44. Larisaios. 186-88. Animal and man. zo6 Triton. Zeus Akraios/Aktaios. zrr Trophoniosand Agamedes. r69f .ro3-ro7.r1.7. 255.. 253. and the sanctuary of Leukotheaat Chaironeia. r14. 3z.ChYtroi..2i2. zzzf. in Megara. Telegonos. Olympia. z6 Apotheosis. 46.22 Alexander of Abonuteichos. Lemnos. 75. r83l.15.8c. zz5 Triptolemos.99 rr3 Telchines.z9r.waL 47. 294 ZalmoAs. 96-98. 61f.initiation. gz.r1.164. Ntar.84. z8o.and sexualiry59.EPoPetes.s.. 4f .s. funerary r\t' ual. 57 Anxiety and ritual. and the Panathenaia. 4a.5) alsoBasileus Archon. and sacrificial ritual.rr3.

r6. comedy. Cosmogony.72. Meter cult.z9z. 238. 5r.5gf. 44. z5ot. as urn. 3. 13. t55. 274.palaeolithic burials.1.r7g.4. and primordial crime. 764. t4o.46..17throwing. fi1.4.zr. 7r. sacrifice. born. roz. ro. 38.wine. 64. 43.278. t7. ry.285 Bloodlesssacrifice. 2r. r65f.14. zz5 Defloration. 156.zr. 234.a5 Crete. 9r Contractsratified. and shock.t5. r87.46. 2oo. zjo. 62. see alsoCakes. 13. ritual. rg7 Blood. 48. through the GreatGoddess. two goddesses.of Zeus. r8z. :ro1 Bisectingthe victim. 226-29 Carthage.285 Bear.1O.r4. 3o. 6.45. Idaean. offering for the dead. 59. 195 Crater. r53. z7r . dead left for birds of PrcY. 246.18 Boundary stone. 75Jf.r4r. 5.in ritual.75f .68. 18..4. 165.t55. as purification. Tenedos. in funeraryritual. z9z Dthyramb. 47.zr.4o. Cave.5' 290f. sacrifice. 249. at sacrifice.46.4 Augury. cf. and belief in gods.5o.18 )6. . zo6 Bakchiadai.j+ Axe.zz4.6.16.2). 45.7t.seealso"Setting free" of Domestication animals. s. 87. since palaeolithic times. j. 46. 57.roz. and sacrifice..6+. 2. 52 confarreatio. ry7. Days. 3z. ro8. 95. +8. in war. at the Heraia. zn. 14l 6. and defloration. Zeus.r5. zzr.7.2Jr. 83. zz4. 199.of the sacrificialanimal. rr8. 22L. at Eleusis. Salamis.gg.54.6. of Pluto (Eleusis).28 Beans. sacrificeof.). 4. A r c a d i a n s8 7 . Chthonic and Olympian. and burial. zzl Choespitchers.48.7. 279 Celery r99 Censer.at sacrifice.4.16..t76. 172 Diagorasof Melos. zor.z5. 53. Cremation. Great Goddess.rz. 246. t3g. 16. 2)4. 257 26q. 85 Castration. Phalanthos. and ritual. war as ritual.41 Demeterhymn.4o Catilinarians. 33.j7. 45. Daulis. rc.295f. .38. 18. systemof reckoning. r1r. "invention.zog. r97 City.26. hunting of game. 744.Dionysia. Charter myth. and matriarchy. swinging.5r 69(f Atlantis. 39 Bukoliastai. ro9 Caesar. f Double headedaxe. experienced and overcome.4). 28. 16j. 43 A6vamedha.52 Backwards going. ters. 4. . r55. hunting. 268 DemetriosPoliorketes. Arion. 16. 49f.4 Calf. Palaimon.2o.and seagons. Qatal Hi. r9z. Zeus. z3zf. zt36.at sacrifice. Libation Bfows. 4. r85.rz Boiling in a kettle.z9 Barley grains. 85.cf .on vase painting. depictions.17.gatheringtogether of.49. 25. Panathenaia.2+. 2o4f Domesticanimals.-ofCheiron (Pelion). and ritual.227. 4o. 167. in cosmogony. 24L. 8r. and fire festival.48. 233 Bulbous plants.v.77 Christianity. and virgin sacrifice. and initiation.rrz.. 24.z7z. 66(f. r 44(d. 273 Building sacrifice. and. ry6.notion of the. war. taking off and putting on.Soddessgiving birth. and the dead. 2tg.48 Baba.zz.rrr.rz. Taras. 45. 58 Branches.7z. rz6.285. r77. 15 Bukolion. 57 Club. 2)r. and wine. sacrifice.2. 42. 98. 203. rzz Basileus. r78.15. Clothing."r58 Clementof Alexandria.symbolic. 12. 75. 9 r .gr. 66. \6-4). 98. in war.at Athens. 56. 90.29o. killed at Argos.. rrz. 43 Combat.hunt.and Osiris. rJ6.42. dog star.15 Children'sgames. raised by she dog. seealsoRoasting and boiling. Athens.of Dionysus. )). and Donysus. Carians. 78.87. and Dionysus. r97. ro. z7o. 2r. r38.6. 49.)4.77. )6. 147.79. ritual.17. 27f. t6. 47.6z.J. and the sacredmarriage.Semele. 283.iynk.44.fu. zr. I )20 J2L .on the mysteries.8r. againstdevil.r1. after sacrifice. and mysteries.43 Bull.6.ro4.25.).+5-+2.4r Buying ceremonies.zr Calendar. 2c6. as graveofferings. at Athens. Panathenaia. r4r.76.ry. at sacrifice. in funerary cult.2. apotheosis. 35f. r&of. 48. l^5. 24. 5r. z. 69. 45. 28.r5. 68...and human sacrifice.68. symbolizedthrough beans. 2J. rr.overcome.Hesiod. 70.3 Blackclothing. z6r. 249.8. 56.r97.human sacrifice. 288 Cudgel. zoo. "sacred. 9o. bull sacrifice. Danae. 12. 77. ro7. 37.and Eleusis. Blacksacrificial animal. 52f.and society.9. 8.252 Cry. z3o Communal meal. see Double headed axe Aztecs.4r.3r Dogs. in sacrifice. z5r.43 Donkey.53. Olympia.13.. of Uranos.tor Mithras.51t.285.68 Dolphin. 79. z4z. of Dionysus/ a1a.z16. see alsoCremation Burnt offerings. 54 Cannibalism. $6. zo4.2. suspended. 264.masking.4.13. prize in an agon.. and the Choesfesat tival. Eleusis. Athens.in myth. q36. t34. and Eleusis. seealso Infanticide Continuity of culture.zt.14.Mykale. Beer.and pomegranate. bull hunting. and planr8.z4. 45.99. in Babylon. z8g. zzo Communication. buplix.16. 68. for the Hyakinthides.and sacrificialanimal.287f. r99 Baptismat Eleusis?.r45 Distribution of meat. ritual. zzo. mysteriesnot secret. z16. for Dionysus.35.).2 Bile. 42. Basket. 269f.birth of Athena. 46.of Sosipolis(Olympia). 289. Chariot racing.zr5 Death.4. r99.rr. z6f. in secretsocieties 16f.). z8q Childhood experiences. r84 Calydonianboar hunt.39.249. zgr. r41. 49.palaeolithic. ct. bull hunt and leopard men.r3. ro5 Craftsmen. (S. 61 Dema. 49.4o Belief. 24O. Dionysus.z3.. 5z Bull sacrifice.37. ro)ro7. q8.ro at Cattle sacrifice. Sisyphus as inventor. 77. see Sirius Dolonia. symbolized through the female. 59.72.52. 36. 16r. 288-9t.tr. 9. see alsoTaurobolion Burial.male partner.tz Chestin water.253 Basilinna. Tripod kettle Bones. 4f. zt6.254f. 272. 55. 4o(f.see also"Kiste" Bath. fu. 8 9. zorf.bear festivals.15. 162. and god. in funerary cult.. 224.i.. conaere. Pharaoh. 256. 112. on Delos. 4o.66f. t55.zo. Athamas. see Index of Cult Sites and Festivals.f.Lykaia?. cf.. 9t. $7. 271 Conflict between generations. and Itylos. r29. 7r.8r. and domestication. Death of the god. r55f." 799. 84-87. Breakingbread.Y INDEX INDEX Assyrians.Dirke. r3.12. r4of.Thoas. loJi. dedicatoryofferin8. and Apollo. roz.2)7. 15(f. and Aktaion. 6 Birth.Buphonia. at sacrifice. 19.4 Center. r75t.8r. r9r Child. with wine and blood. z8o.Argos.). 8z.2r Cakes.94. lz6f.236. figure in the caveof Montespan.3c.zz9. symbolic birth in ritual?.t.89.z4 Comedy of innocence. 5o..sacrifice oath.66.1. 2oj. z5z Dice games. Cyrus.

54. r8g. 24.. rz5 of Egg.7. 6.r..u9. 64.87. rzo. raisingof. among pygmies.ro.. ry{. 50. 70f.74 Freud.6). as preliminary sacrifice.1 Fig tree.77. zo7 Fishermen. sacrifice.r8of.2o. war as ritual. as libation. 69. 1of.Erichthonius.75 Funerary meal. 76. zSof z8z.v. oath.1J. 20 Hearth house. zrf. 44. 8 o .288.. 58f. 17f 4of zo6. Babylon.Acherunticilibri. 217. 86. 254. zo6.34 God.t7o. t78.\.eternalfire . secrecy. n.as ceremony.46. 2Jz. @.r.rj.e. 74g. 1. Septerion.8r Fasting.z5 Experience. Heraia.and the Trojans. at sacrifice. fight against. defaced. rT6.and sacrifice. 2J2. 33 Family. 27.35. 22). :o9.zV. 5o Garlic. . zo8.24o Earth. r6g. Leuktra. 273.744. dog men. 16J. 278.. tg3. l. r4z. 27f.4J. Chytroi. 68. 65-67. tabu and sacrifice.9 8 . Exposing oneself. 24of at Argos. Erigone. rgzf. Aerope.26. to4. October equus Hospitality for mummers. 14.253. rrgf.29.1.41. and ritual. 71t. 294. 1.7o. before a military expedition. 6r. by a tree. &of. ritual and myth. t51. zgz.z5 Empedokles. 9. .222. r28 Flood.21.2r Emperors. like animal sacrifice.z5r. 4J..zz. lane. 3-7 Honey. 1-37 Hierokerlx. the taming of Enkidu. 24. at the Agrionia. 94. 17 Hide of sacrificial animal.59. t28. 19.2J7 Heart. Hierophant..272. 64. head and phallus.46. r4o. 8z Goddess.in funerary ritual. 5 2 .254. r85.16. and sacrificeat Keos. rc.29. 55. funerary ritual. prophesying head. 37 Harpagos. 2. see Goat horns. Emile..and divine images. l^56 67. lire rolled down mountain. rro Etiology. 263..37. 732. zo4 Grave offerings.r88. 278. at Olympia. new fire. as ritual duty. in se- Hair-cutting. r3o. and Panspermia. carrying.4. Osiris Eight year periods.z6.t47. the Pythia.26 Horse sacrifice. following gruesome banquet. creation of man.. on Eleusis. and feet of sacrificial animal. z93f . 169. 5. zo4.rB3. tSJ. 241.15. 8r. z7z. zro. 8r. zlJ6.t. and sacrificial ritual.4 Funerary sacrifice.40.765. 74. 35(f. t..65. Lemnos.. 9o Epiphany..Sg Etesianwinds. fishing festivals. breaking bread. Flight.:5. 85. 64..26.286. 45. r6of. 35 Food sacrifice. and the mysteries.269 Father and sacrificial animal.. of Apollo. Atargatis.and victim-paredros. sacrifice without fire. fi.7gi breaking off the horns. boiling meat.. 89. 122 Hecatombs.rr5f.2ao Fir tree.4o. Artemis. among Asiatic nomads.v. 8.1. origins of fishing. zo5. zo6 Egypt.26. 9 6 . 7 5 f .t. 5 4 .cannibalism?. r38f. n5f . 82. .19 Druids. 224. at Panathenaia. Ariadne. 165. 49.2o. r45f.8r. Isis. 34 Hanging. zo6. 65. Hetairoi. as ritual. . Lake Bolbe..25.243 Fertility ritual.Great. Earth-born.18.J. 14.g. 3o. l . cf. 2)5.22. see gatheringtogetherof Gigantomachy.39 INDEX Funerary rituals and sacrifice.INDEX Tereus.43.52. and. and katabasis. 29o.. r57. human sacrifice.14.39. and religion. rzr Drama.zoz. against animal sacrifice. 2o. and swinging. 285 Eye cups.1. rVf . polari t y w i t h g o d .26. zo4f.beforemarriage.). shakin8.42. ritual dissolution. death. and the role of the male. 5r. 7ao.48L Hope for after life. eating the god?. z9r.r98. 237...see alsoIndex of Gods and Heroes. holding out.44. r5t. rz9.a\d phallus. 96 Hippolytus of Rome. 4o. hunting. 88.Bt. Gilded horns.find divine image. 64.r44 Elephantsacrifice.Letkothea.SyriaDea. description of sacrifice. at Delphi. 265.r6o Euhemerism. y(f . tg7 Hesiod. function. Horn of plenty.Inanna.2 Enuma Eli5.42. 53.tz. 286f.rt. Lutrophoroi. ztl... 156 Eating.44. 5 5 f .9.m o c k c o m b a t .2 Granary sacral. zoz. a44. 1z. . 64. fif. 2t. r3o.3).7o4. Fire. 63.r4 Hermes hymn. ro. L41. Eleusis Hippodrome. Tenedos..zo. fuf. Athens. Erechtheum. z+ Etruscans. 1 7 . of Kore (Eleusis). 89. zo6. cf. z96.t84. r85 far. of Donysts.2. 229 Head.Hekate. seeIndex of Cult Sites and Festivals. as sacrificialfestival.26 Hittites.91.r3. zo8. Myra..139. Athens.banquet. 5 Goat sacrifice.and new order.76f. r67f. eating and abstaining. alsoNaassenian decline. r55. of Aphrodite. 16r Gilgameshepic.t7r. goat sacrifice. s.om. 67 77 Golden Age. giving birth.t8.56 )22 323 . accusation againstl5tar. 3r. 46f. Proitids. birth of the Dea Syria.r87 cf. Keraton (Delos). 5r. 24o.23g Ecstasy. r45.s. 2 1 . 275f. 33. t61 He-goat sacrifice.rz. phallic. 5 3 .16. r39.againstthe Froitids. fire at Eleusis.745. 54 Formative influence of ritual.155. 5o.z7z Guilt-consciousness. Heroes.6..44. ez8 Human sacrifice. 157 Eteobutadai. 2o2. Skira..mysteries.. 7o.r94.t6 foedusferire. Smyrna. r 4 8 f.26 Harmodios.243. fl5.t57. as trophies.the Gnostic'sfreed. dead father.kept secret.249. 5).2o. 194.and sacrifice of a virgin.3o. 255. 78. . t9j alsoBones.29.46 Drukheim. in myth. zo4f.of the Arrhephoroi.. 115. r39. zo7f. 169.r88. 45. 165 Dragon. in Islam. mummification. 251 hirpi Sorani. rr Hands. . 2 5 Homer. zo3 Hetaerae. 294 Execution.26. z6o Grave.7. J8. and sacrificial meal.4r.and Eleusis.77.38. Vegetation daimon. ro5. e3.ro.cf.r4 Fish. and ritual. 38.. 64. 551.Phaedra. Thebes. r54.tr. 75-78. and Dionysus. 58. on Lemnos. Dpolieia. t22.48. 5o.r4r. Ugarit. especially at Qatal Htiytik.seealso ASvamedha. . 774.72 Horns.Sigmund. bisection at sacrifice.. t z o . 4 .19. 69. rrzf. zzo Drowning. 4z. Procne.of sacrificial animal.rr. and Pentheus.77 Elagabal. 748t. z z o .g.26. in Arcadia?.:.65.2 fetiales.)2. Baubo.35. 145. Tenedos. and sacrifice.. put on. on Mount Lykaion. 4. t85t.j Harvest festival. Horus. zzr Grinding grain. and castration.37 Ephebes. r88. 72. z4z. ry4f.3z. 22. Gnosis. 2og. brought to the altar. birth legend. 64.tog Harrison. Golden ornaments. Atargatis.. zor..Sol procession. 6 7 .t5 Drinking contest.z o Hawthorn. 47. t6. 22..5z. tabu. Choes pitchers. 24.2r. 25t.73. 242.26.5r. ro6.48. 56. and sacrifice. t54.t5t. t 9 . at 1. 1og. 37. Gathering remains. 3o. conceptionof. 6. at Delphi. zzo. gZ.r6..35. 25g.66.3 2 f .r7 Herms. Hekate. 88. 42. tz. in funerary cult. 75f.267f.

791. r7zf. 26. r8r Meuli. z45. r o Ivy. 2)5-)B Leopard men.77 Hyperboreans. rtz. to the dead. r8o Nikomachos.40. ethnological reports. 278. in the mysteries. 228. image of Dionysus.. 47f. 29) Liknon. z6rf. 54. 253f.4. philosophical interpretation. zg-34. 56.3o. i n t h e myth of Thyestes. at Qatal Hnynk. 2o2." and Arrhephoroi. masks and spirits of the dead. as sacrifice. 253. Oedipus complex. 243-46 Immersion sacrifice.. m a r r i a g e t o . zo6. and the conflict between generations. 79. Werewolves Master of animals. )4 Latin league.tz. sacrificial calendar at Athens. 263. 3rf . z5z. Pallas.jo. as epiphany.r. t6o. 245. 7.1o.5. and sacrifice.32..78. 36 Laughter.27. z5of. 7. 45. 285 )24 325 . 277. libation.762. r c 7 f . Cheiron's cave.2o. z6sf. and Great Goddess. of the ephebes. z5t. of Pelops. 77L. zo. 45.INDEX INDEX mactare. dolphins.z7. zzo.22. 57. of Dionysus. r o l e o f s e x u a l i t y .56. 3 cf. seealso Sacred marriage Masks. a dArtemis.. of the victim..s e e nlso Oedipus complex Mother goddess. in myth. Zeus Laphystios. z6-zg Image as substitute.. Villa dei misteri. r r o .9 Isaiah.. 46. 62. symbolic castration.278. 1. 6r.25.. against animal sacrifice. cathartic.32.3o Madness. 287. transformation into a wolf .h. 7tf .46. rz6f. and kllling." 18. zzgf . seeVirgin sacrifice Mammoths. 97f . 16-zr. and skttlls. r o l e o f a n i m a l s a c r i f i c e . and the Arcadians. z9z Initiation.. ro7. z7f . r87f. 59.3o "Kiste. zt5 Nightingale. 20. 99. 157. poppy juice?. smilrng. 87. 28r. canopy.4.before battle. 56. 79. winnowing fan. Delphi. tz5. 282. zgr. 294 Incest tabu. q7. and omophagy. 274. r98.. L40 Kriobolion. 6r.6. r6 Jesting and mockery ex hamaxbn. at the Anthesteria. and Dionysus. 1oo. zr King.74. 63. z)5-)7. 52. : r 4 . 42.87f . tor the dead. and Athena's lamp. and succession.36 Hunt. portrait-skulls.5r Maiden sacrifice. 267. 285. 268.t7 Magic.rz.J7. Choes. 54. 2) Lovatelli urn. 54. zo6f. pilgrimage to Mecca.). 272.\. 34.27 Omphalos.. 277 Liver.27. r41 Milk. ct. Heraion.). 7 . 99. z7r. Delphic. seealso Drowning. 6 Long bone sacrifice. r16. in funerary cult. 2)5-7 cf.7.z . 53 Lamp. 265(f. 74-76.52 Magi. Orthia. in the temple of Athena. 9o. p r o s e c u tion because ot. 266 Hunting ape.. 235. 46. 9. significance for the history of mankind. Claude. r3o Keres. to Hades. 742.4. 166 Language and ritual. seeWerewolves Naassenian.. )7. 44. Werewolves Mannhardt. rrrf. 259. of the executioner. 779. 722. 46. r79f.27.g. libation. marriage to.3. Dionysus. r5r Olive tree. r85 Maenads.29. 45. Eleusis. symbolically killed..258. )8.76f. Dionysus myth. 2o7. criminal used as. z7g. z8 Libation. r54. and war. 235. 46. 29f. and ritual.. and fishing. 17o. rof. r52.. 72. t85. t6j. r9r..46. 230. 4o.u . Metamorphosis.15. 4r. 287.. r8]l. z4g(f .621. 4. a8 Orpheus. ritualization. 27). 137.j4. r8t. and Eleusis. 2oo. 69. . 156. 78-8o.39.r5. Proitids. r5e. z88f. 74. in rnyth. 177-79. Osiris. and secret societies. 26. r5rf. 294. go. t74. 184. rz8 Labyrinth.1)o Lenaia-vases. initiand as victim. r5o. 225. . 23il. of the gdrairai.rt.82.2J5.2l Murdet tab. 68..t. t87 Innate behavior?. Acropolis. donkey sacrifice. 14.24.$. ro6f. to statue.rr. and Delphi. 35$. in cult of Meter. 272. 8 t . 7t7. 279. Aktaion.)3. 166. 35'1 Lauref. at sacrifice. 74. 295.48. rz-16. fi5. compulsory 55 Mummies.7Z. sent by Hera or Dionysus.). 29). 72f. 288 Mysticism. zzg. xxiv.79. r55. 269. n(f . r78. 8o. 248 Octoberequus.27.. 774. initiation. for Inanna. za Iobakchoi. concept of . at Argos.89. Tammuz. and Delphi. t5r. torn apart in myth. and cakes. Attis.6 r . 71. Ornamentation of victim. mummers. 164. a7j.45 Krypteia.7. 191. 7 Islam. z4r. ro8 Marriage. Matriarchy. 42. A9rionia. 22. 725.39 Market place. 234. 69. 54f.42. 29r Ideas. r5gf. 46. rz. 67. 268. as mystery 2Zr. zoz Olympian and chthonic. t85.69. mother of animals.. 7 1 2 . t54. and aboriginal inhabitants. roz. 56. mistress of animals.z Mysteries. 4 6 . as preparation and conclusion. 267 Lycanthropy. from sacrifice. rr l s r a e l . 15. treatment of dead animals.41 Omophagy. 74. 2jo. 45. 22... r73. and sexualiry 75.2go Neolithic revolution. 88f. as abstention. rrt. L6vi-Strauss..25.J9 Mourning. 24. Hera. Karl. tl. 2481. 65. at the Isthmus.. 268. 78. r84f. 1 "Origin" of religion. 40. r3o Myrtle. 29t.4o Nomads.76 "Mdnnerbund. and women. mysteries. lamentation for the dead. 217. r74.43 operari. preparation.. r44.2Z).overcoming death. agricultural interpretation.. sacrifice. ro6. 2J2. 52. 65.. r95. 15 Manichaeans.. 1. and sacrificial ritual. Demeter myth.8{. 4z New Yeat 142. 24. 75. 84-87. 40. zz6 Killing inhibition. 46. Konrad. 57. ro6f.seset. 52. r95. r77. 248. 9r Kykeon. 57 Minoan and Mycenean sacrifice. cenlaurs.. 46. 79f. in the Heraion (Argos). 88f. r8. 8 7 . on Eleusis. wreath. 256. seealso Leopard men. Greater and Lesser mysteries.8.31 Jericho. 45. r74.724.r.79. ro Mopsos-Moxos. r3 Lorenz.80 Matricide. zz5. r r4. and Arrhephoroi. z61f . 286. 278 Judaism. 271f. 287f.4 Meaning of rituals. z7z. cf . wine libation. 4z. 76 Knife. zzr. 48 Oak tree. Music. t68-7r. 273 M o t h e r .. at Buphonia. gephyrismoi. Patricide motif Oil.a. vegetarianism. r66f . cret societies.J4. seealso Leopard men..26 L a m b s a c r i f i c e . Protesilaos. 4)f . Oath. ritual disruption. z8f. torn apart by Maenads.. and aggression. 229. Lamentation. as gesture. zo4 Mortar. taken away..r5 Infanticide.r6. z8z. seealso Execution. r49. in sacrificial basket. zzg. rrz. sequence/ r2. and Eurydice.74. rrot. end of sacrifices. 8 Labyadai. deposed. Onomakritos. in cult. rTzL. nf . Sofr. 164 Night and duy. z r .. seealso Mother. 2 7 r . z7z Kneeling. mystai and citizens. 2. zzrl. 238.. Sea Immortality.248 Myth and ritual. 5. z5z. 25a-53. rites of. 757. Wilhelm.62.Lykaia. 26). r853o. Orphism.17.7. 39.

)2. 6o'rr' gdmos). z9of. skull cuPs. 58. definition.t6. cf' 4o Respectfor life. t76.zzr Pig sacrifiie. z7z Seasons and festivals. g9.31.. in Keos?.113..z8t Potiphar inotif.ro. sacredplowing. 65.. tz6. 62. tsJ. Zeus as satYr.ro9. seeAgriculture Plato. 245. of Philomela. t45. Erichthonius. Panspermia.27.45. 5r 82.4o' Sedna. alsoGatheringremains Korc.seealso Castration. and horn of PlentY.96f. and Hera of Tiryns. Schmidt.J..77. 53 r47. 28. . and Qatal HiiYtik. 284. r48. 24. to9-ttt. 98'26 Rarn'sskin. fl. t44. 72.Lemnos. 66f' Rampsinit. 85 communiry 17. 88f. 254 z1z. 75. and Phallus. ror Peloponnese.z9z.bones gathered.285 Poppy.216.Di' z75f.r3z. Hittites. 7o.r3r.6gt. 13.at sacrifice. rg3. r94. 59.35. 59.72 58.rfi' 76f. n. t44. at the Ara Maxima. 16. DelPhi.on Mount Pelion. 115. 4g'1. r44 Prytaneum. after sacrifice.4. 58. 284. 9t. g5. submer' sion sacrifice. z58. z+. 5o'9.17. toz.rz9. 2J5. 146 Parthenon. Sexualiry. 89.$.274 (f.16. see tion ritual Reindeer. t4r.7i. t5z..6r. of the virgin. see priests.donkeY.5.43. sheeP Sickle. 73.4r. Ram sacrifice Phoenicians.on mysteries. head. see Islam. in bols. ll8. Samnites.v.a5J77 Pallasprocession. zr8 Planter. llof '' pit. 9). 99. 56f'. 14' zjj.rz Pots. n6 cf.to the valley of Tempe. fi1f . Phallusbird' 7r of Philostratos Lemnos.245 zo. cenaean Shield. tomb stone.:19 Paraiol. Eleusis. lsreal. r5:.29.75' Shamanism.z7z.72.9. at Olympia.. burial. onysus. 222. 24. r57.57' 222't4.19 Soma.19. 171. 224. 9rf . on Mount Pelion. plow-ox sacrificed.33. 46. DonYsus.r3.4.Jg. !. spread out.. R'. 3. and Marfor syas. at the Skira. cattle. sinking something into the sea.asvirgSn. bull. and Pelops. seeunderindiaidualanimal: Ship.. z8z alsoRestituRebirth. . and sacrifice. 18. 294. agon. 16. 44t.. t9g hunt. t66-68 l)garit..at the Heraia'163' mysteries. zoz.' Precinct where none may enter. cf' r46. r4o.l2.78 Palladion. function. 739.. 15J'77. 8z.6..44. 45. 52.lost. z4f' Ram sacrifice. j1f .16' r47. 2)2. PeloPs.J. z. 248. 4o. ro. 58-72. Y Roastingand boiling. r4.at Argos. 6.r and the dead. tor Erechtheus. ft. and the Anthesteria.t6' 76' r4o.b. rt5. 91. $f ..94. rr7 Poet and myth. ry6f. 16z. 22o.61. in clothing. Image as 244. zt. r45' and Thyestes. r55.Procession. seeElephant sacrifice Pyramids.73 Prirnates. 1'o2'4J. 288 Plemochoai. 256-58.48. in Arcadia?.weaPon. loo Peisistratos. r99 Paean.35.76f .68t rcf Sheepsacrifice. 44f. "Ramskin of Zeus.and boundary stone. 39.z7o'zr.battle. 6of. z7).66. 87. afrer a1on. gg-toz. the mysteries.46. Sacrifice. 5rf'.56. dePictions' z.Eleusis?. APhrodite killing. teachingson immortality. ror Selection.237. z69. 73 Procession. mYsteries. Smith.45 Skin of sacrificialanimal. 755. tt1 linteata. . 245. 47.246. 44'4o Rite and ritual. seealsolnd'ex of Names of Gods and rz.on Samothrace.72. r44' wilh Palladion. 39. 98. fall into sea.in wat.temPorary freedom. intoxicating drink.14'r95 image from. on Acropolis. 85' f36f 9L Pre-deism. 36. tuPalaeolithic nerary ritual. and ecstasy.61.r47' 249(f)'7' zVf'. 16. 7. r@35 lamb. 57 "Purpose"of ritual.11 Socrates. 251-5)' in Solon.excluded. .).3o.t67.abstention from meat. Athena. and fire.t6o.44 Salaminioi.exaltedand Preserved. rt3. Periander. 65.271. r5t.tt.172.J.69. sacrifice. 59. "setting uP". generalform..r4.Y INDEX INDEX Paddeddancers. arrival.9.zr.. 23. P Wilhelm. away into the sea. zz7f. 147'48 rxi'4. of the sacrificial animal. 167 animal. and desacralization. the. Sea. on CyPrus. zt8' r9g. through ritual.court. and mYth. Sacrificial Silence.6r. r68f. 19. Cyclops. Phallus. Psychoanalysis.z7of. 94. Shoulderblade of victim. z4t.192 horse' he-goat.rrr. 4g'5'74' 89 Primordial monotheism.16. rz7. z6o A' Radcliffe-Brown. PatriciderIrolif . 29. driving something zz6. 21 Sacralization.. at Eleusis.Panathenaia.19. 283. 44' 55. xxii. seealso substitute Resurrection..tt1 Seer. a4of death. 43 Persians. 82. 2)9. Meter. smashed 6).Minoan and MYfice. @. zV. seealso Carthage Phratries. 284 Meter.7.pig.66. rc7 cf' rr'46. purification in.t3. )27 .r5r. 55. 68. 256.:'o5.r8r and the cult of Dionysus. concept of.69. 268. zo3 Snakes. 161. 5r . on religion and tradition.. at the Skira. Robertston. a89.259-6r and Leon of Salamis.Eskimogoddess. sacrificeon Keos. r9z Phoenicians. Heroes. 5o'7. goddessof sexualiry 78'23. where none maYenter.66. 1of' rite depassage. rz3. 248 cf.rz6. rr3. :. r5ot rs5rHera.79.6 "Setting free" the sacrificial animal.7. alsoLamb sacriry5. 74 divine J5&). 14o. 235. xe "searching" in ritual. .17.zz9't6 Pythagoras. 65 Religion.nf ' Purificationrites.s. roz.mysteries.4of' Sacred. 3. and god. z8. 6t.5r.and masks.Elagabal. Skira. sacrificialcalendar. r44 21r.2. initiated at Eleusis. 69-72.238. 33 Pygmies. after sacrifice. and Pelias.r55. r94. ram.24o.natural. sexual sYmSacredmarriage(hierds zTrf'.99. stored up. in mysteries.164. 1'72. 3z Pomegranate. zo.\4. treasure house. Put on. rz5. display.37. 291 burial law. r6. 2J4 also 6Z. r8r Rome and TroY.on beans. 5r. funerary ritual. 2. 1'3). snakes. 293 Plow. 143. tg6. 38 Pisa and Olyrnpia. Slaves. zz4 Seedgrain. on the end of th" y"ut.7 Pitch. zt Restitution ritual. at Olympia.14.18. Hierophant. and Demeter.274 Pinarii.'r91.zt." r45. in the sanctuary. 1g1. sacrifice. r3g'r4. legendfrom Olympia. xxiv. 4g'1'5z.. 48f.1o2f. SmithYgods. Sexualabstention. for Pepl-os. Skulls.Iegio 46.meal.42.:e-ry. 25. n7'3 of Arkas. W.5 . in funerary cult.seParate r87. for Kore. 283.217. a d sacralized Shadow.. and aggression. 32. 98.zo7 Peartree. 66. 4t.5t.77.74.37 Sarapis Hide of sacrificialanimal Satyrs.. 269.285 Pythia.. sold. rzr. :. sacred. t54. 11.75t.gt.268 Purity. 258. and tripod.with Protesilaos?..z era.2c. representational art. order. r4r. oI the Hierophant.7z. Solstice. t)'a4..in temple.29o 198 Sirius. at the sacredmarriage' 47f.. Sancfuary tlf. as Delphic priest. 24f 14. 2ar.. T3 2J7 176-78. sacrifice. Secrecy. Plutarih. r55'9r Sexof sacrificial before sacrifice.r58 Athens. 1'24.8r. r4t cf.

4.246. Egypt. 45. xxii. zo4 Stones. 99 97. cf. r.1o. at initiation into mysteries. wine.). and Mdnnerbund.73.r4r..15. r78 Statue. 795.descriptions sacrifice.4). cf .88. ol r59.. 9r. throwing. r7o White horses. 42. sprinkling with water. r87. Wagonship. 69.64-68. z3r.uo. bladesat Eleusis.7.a@.245f.. and Dionysus.ro5.v. of Dionysus.fi Symbol. 286.85. 216.71t.7 Ugarit.t.. 268. cultican- r )29 )28 .22. zz4. r8t.267. 242. t4z'26 Sparta. 35. r58f. 44. 241 Thyiades. zzo|.to. 66f.zrr Totemism. zzo.9t. and Melikertes. 91. 224. z9r. Trident. 285. 2oo. conquestof. 87 rro.18. r5o. Wreath.Isthmus.163. 54. t59.28t. xxi. 164. 27o Soulsof the dead. 95 Watet as libation for the dead. 235.1o.rz. 19. 68. carrying weaPonsin cult. tt5.andking. r2).8. 255.59. r9o tithesis.Borneo. and Thyestes.. Athirat Vampire. changesdirection.26.45.fibation.3z Tiwah festival. 45. 56.41. after war.163.56. 56. and sacrifice.64.preparation of wrne.o Lemnos.229 .a6.. ro5. 157 Tripod kettle. eo8f.264 Tyrannicide.34. Stag. at bur65. r33..DelPhi. zo4.t6.85. 294 Sowing.45. torch raceat the Panathenaia. 67. r9z. t83 Stoning.34. in funerary ritual. sacrifice 16.56f. zz5.r55 267 Torre Nova sarcoPhagus. fi.tz. 86. r74. l-t5f.r78 Tropaion. 77. 79 aictima.225. at Eleusis. 47. and Mezentius.r8r. White earth. t7z. tearing apart and in slaughtering.r5. rrr. piety. 169.18. 74.21. and animal sacrifice..41 spirit.24.s. t7L. as tearing apart.260. r6j. 92.zo7. beans. and goddess. z6o.rt3 Trumpet. 15). r18 ). Thyrsos. ro9. 67. Kore. q. r87 Virgin.12. White goddess. cf. ofdest.235 Syrians.r.99.3.r6o(f. cutting as castration. 38.7 11 .gg. 28t. grain. 6of. see ro8.22. for mummery 775.24. 48.6. z7g.66f. alsoHearth house :'o. 17. zz5. 224. 66.zz4f. on Buphonia. dolPhin.39. 48. symbolic. r88 Whites againstblacks. )4. 164.in ethnologY. r73. rz8 Tabu. rzof.y.29. 5t. 4o. 277. 3-7 Transferred behavioral Patterns.r3z. z2o. sacrifice. 5. OlYmPia'95.sacrifice. at sacrifice.of the Arrhephoroi. t48f.r47.zr. 243.72. 64. symbolic. in uprising. to. War chariot. in cult.16. battle.seealsoIndex of Names of Gods and Heroes. war. at Delphi. sacrificewithout wine. Vegetation t77.2.57. ivy.3o. see Theft. 62. go.4). rr8. a9. fish tabu.29.. 4.15. t85.. r45f. z42 Tuna fish. Pel' ops and Pelias.ritually controlled.at the Isthmus.44. 64.in the Anthesteria.Aktaion. 268. 66 Troy. Willingnessof the victim.at OlYmPia.. Wine. r79 White hair. and Donysus.5. ttz. z. r83 to7.zz Tradition. rr2. rz6 Virgin sacrifice.cf. transformation and killing. customs.gl.and Kore.6.z5 War. 121-23. cine. Argos. Pentheus... 242.84-9o. 44.beforeharvest. Mount Lykaion. at sacrifice. Temple.goddessas virgin. r97. 749 Zarathustra. 59. and breaking tabu. roz.. 2or. 198 zr. in Roman marriage Telegonos. a25. 66.275f. 41.and dog.r2 Spear. for trophies."blood of the vine" . Werewolves. roz Wooden horse. 89.19.75. Weaving.J9.62 Spruce. r98 Minyads. as opponents.atthe Lykaia. and Aktaion's dogs. spruce.39.r75f.i 1 "Year Daemon". myrtle. of Hera'spriestess.16. Minyads. and Dardanos. Wheat.48. as shock. 24.Pythiaas virgin.set up on placeof sacrifice.INDEX INDEX Soot. J5.8) of Tragedy. rz4f.15 Sun. 157. 261 Veilingthe head. z9r 45. alsoMut' "Totem and Tabu". r5z.y. :91 Survival. 54. 46. zm. ro5 z8z.32. Wegonride. . 96. in Succession. 17. z3rf. suouetaurilia. 224. in myth.rrz Tearing into pieces. 243.29.275 Venus statuettes.weaPon.165. rrr. 64.L55.4.4c. 4o-42. ial.zz6.and Eleusis.zo8(f.64.f Panathenaia. 268.. ro7. r47f .11 Wine pressing. 4r.66.. cult and myth of Donysus. 99. fishing.7. Tortoise.r6o.238. excluded. r87f.4c.sacrifice. Aqhat.r4. r74. 39 female.. Philomela.belief in soul.and Pluto. 53. and and the blood. 27f. 5r. r87. z9r. r4. 725f Weapons. 76 Transitional king. 59.antlersas trophy. Tyrrhenians. funerary cult. 18. z6o. setting uP.285. see der. Cabir| ry5. rrof. Anat. 155. t84. and worshiP of the gods.r98.tozf.6 Torches. Tympanon. seeLiknon Wolf. Pityokamptes. zzr. in medi88 t7o. through ritual. r58f.. r^2. rzo on Theophrastus. 259.4r. sexualsymbolism.63. 50 Swamp. r98 Stadium. r45. zo4 Sumerians.87. rz1. Stesichorus.. 56. 29o. transformationinto wolf. 289. r4o. at Choes.. zrz.hardenedwith fire. supportedby men. z3z Swinging. r37.z5r. rltual drinking.z9r Taurobolion. 55. alsoWerewolves. r5o. sacrifice. 55.4.)9 Winnowing fan.8. xxi Year'send.r3 Throne. 89. tabu Tail of sacrificial animal.anointed. zor.27). . z6z. rrzi and Autolykos. rrr Women.9 Tree. and Romans. z4r.3o Villa dei misteri. Dionysia. 65.65. for hanging. 263 Winds. 218.8.4 Weatherma$c. 48-4r Thigh bones. r7. 77o. gil. 7.46. developed relatively late. rzo. roz. 78-8o Statuettes. zo5 Table overturned. r1.

67 aiyis (aigis).' AvBeotpi6es (anthesph6roi. 77o zo Bou{tryns (buzyges). tippqros (drrhetos). rz 5. zgr.288.7t Tfpatpa (gdraira). 18 165. 258. 288. 56 286. r89 dpyetg6vnls (argetphdntes). z6r. 167. 61. ry3.z3 dyeucror.4 dtrapyai (aparkhai).zz5.4o r. I d. z4r.ro y egvp to 1. 285 Teloiou (geloion). (buk6loi). 35 I dpxr eia (arkteia).r 4o.8r dvalaoc fits Beoi (andbasisfts thei).fis (atells).34 ' A7 t p pav rcs (Agerrdnios). 34 Bons@trs).).25 278 BaxTps(bdkkhos). z7z. Anthestrides). n7 -59 <i6e)t9tis (adelph6s).276. 9. 288.<i Bougou v (Bupho n).t (gephyrismoi).aoaew (haimdssein).9r. . l.zr. ry6 azro$ eclfl eis (apotheotheis).8. r 6z cipyeo$at(irkhesthai). oi z7 tg 334 . o8 dpv<1t66s t dppqronorcs (arrhetopoi6s). 4z dr6trupc (apdpyris\. Buoiat (dgeustoithysiai). ro 17.47. 165 Bougovos (bom6s). 249(.z.2r 'A7peus (Agreis).63.).z.ry(f . ct. z6r.r.2y.42.4. nv 6 Bou t77.a (Agrdnia).).9 Bios (bios). tto dy pqv6v (agrendn).z6 dvaxatr wrril p ta (anakaly pt tr ia).).7.t dv$ ecgopn (anthesphdria). r6. zzo.zt dvna (dg*a) {Qa (dnetaldpheta z6a\.48 dvaxropov (andktoron).16.4o (b6thros).ro7 fip.ro atr oBan1s (apokites). t7 3. tz8.z3 dve pdnas (anem6las\. rc8 tt. 2l.Y Index of GreekWords &Barou (dbaton). 22.4r yaleos (gale6s).31 &t as (halos). z4t.ipat (Arneides (arnod6s). 278.79. 253.z6 dvBeogopot. aitrraxoupia (haimakuria). 151. 258. t27. r78. z8z p appr19o tiv (arrhephorein). Bour|rl( (bupl6x).ppq'ros Svcia (drrhetos thysia). 43. xpav (bukrdnion).pxos dp xtos (drkos drktos). pourritror.zz dr6p pqrot Buoiat (ap6rrhetoithysiai). dre). r72.59. 219 ' Ay pavr. 277. 3z nid (buphdnos).1o drrcrpotatoL Oeoi (apotrdpaioi theof).ry8 .rr dlraie piorat (luilade mystai). 5o. 284. 57 atp. 117.89 z9o(f ti.24 cigera (Qa (dpheta z6a).4rrs (Afttis).4r. z9o(f.zo ailbpa (ai6ra).64. 5. 176. Bo$pos 9.tr "Allol(Hdliai). 4. pccilu vva-pac i\tooa (basilinnabasilissa).67.232.zo 'Apzql6es hemirai).9 'A).6.167 poinrs (bites).20 droppqrov (ap6nheton). Baptos 9.9t.79 dvipaxas (andraMs). 66. zog. z33.76 Ailrwov (Ailinon\.7 Borrtnos (butypos).

46. 27).6s (sparagm6s). 277 pe tlrio o etu (meil i ssein). tz8 trxr.4 llotun 3r1p6r (P6tnia ther6n). 9. zr8 t'6(ew (rhizein).rt r nuo xtTlt lzrqs (pityolaimptes). y. t21.). r8B Aecox6pat (Leo k6rai).7) Ecyapa (eskhdra). zgz.pes lKfi pes (thyraze Kires I K4res).5.ara (katakhysmata). z&s. rg5 niorts (pistis). 4 Kap (Kdr). 59 you avt (gurpdni).r Kopayta.3t cxipos. ++ trporeXeta (protdleia). Blaau pos (thesaur6s).v (hiereilein).a (periskhoinisma).4r iv\opa (6ndora).z3 p.4r ivay i(ew (enagizein).z. 279.33. z7o.49 It eu xotr<b\a(Le ukop6lo). 38 riloluTri @lolygt). j9 282. 45. 45. 4c.49 )tapva[ (ldrnax). r5o. 55 ta top. 269 L 3)2 )33 . zz xar a B do ov (katabdsion). rro Nuxri).r9 oi uB q p. t51.8 ze). z7o. 279 xtitrzos: rleos 6r.7. 286. t6. 125 6ctoiu (hositrn).45.J p. skiron.as (skids). 16 62. z3g. r55. to Beopos (thesm6s). 274 xtiv enu (k6neion). 2r5.t9 tz6trlos (peplos).42 crct1ui1$keni). 3.nn (pompd).1. 16 crovi'fi . ropayayoi (Kordgia. l1J. 6 oihoi (ulai).24 xpeoupydv ilpap (kreurgdn €mar).rcs (Thaillios). z6r.zz9. pucrrlprcu (myein. ryo.8 orlcapoiu (sesamitn). 164 itraiou (opaion). zzz lt ovogayot (monophdgoi).rco.7 xtpvos (kdrnos\.3t lttlpia (meria). 41. 56.64 itonrrls (ep6ptes).279. 4o. 172. 47 'Irpcaios (lkmaios). r4o.t7 xiyos (kitos).t3 p. i py ao ia (ergasdm enos. {6a (zta). 4 ei)yeofiat (efikhesthai).gos(dlaphos).). skirrhos). 5z dcgis (osphys).zz i py aca pe uos.8r So'Xapq (haldme).r. 4o.16 oi gopa (u phord). 1 t'on (rhoid\. Bnecv (thyein).). 19 pr 9. q3 N4arela (Nesteia). r6o(f . z4o rais dg' icrias 6arr pos(daitr6s). trxippos (skiros. $7 n dvcn ep pLa \panspermia). 64.r4 xap6rou). 146.2r7. zoo.4o B p6van6 (thr6nosis).zj 6ci4 (hosie). 246 r poay ueu<r (prodgneusis).9. 99. 265.aos (Prat6laos). 275. roz utlp$n{ @drthex). 9.). ro6.ogopos (thesmoph6ros).6 trr ap71os(hipparkhos).6yapou (mdgaron).r6roy (Dids k6dion).z84.tbu (leimbn).ueZv.. 285. epopteitein). t5t xq papiurqs (keramyntes).a Doriperos tnros (dilreios hippos).14 Ndpros (Ntinios). r 39. 178. 2o. r75 6)rp. z6 Kar ay <lry (Kat a96 gia).t Erog (epops). 54 6 trt"oyvpos (hom6gyros). 6pdp"eva (dr6mena\.r57. 265. oxipov.29 (iakkhagog6s). 31 oixos (oikos).z6 r \rotag 6<r (ploiaphisia). 288. 258.42 Xey6p-eva xo. ryo. 288.24.8 'O)teiar (Oleiai).2o. r43. 4t NexJora (Nekysia). 286 B eo p.r. 49(. 97. t2. t78 (gb[kos).taiveoBat (miainesthai). 49. 89(f.\. 68. t5 r.p. 47.z6g.79. zr9. 19 Kfipes (K4res).6 eigqp.a (sy n thema). l1. z 6taoy (diogma).2o.eiv (euphemein).45. t7g. 5.1 6 tr poBuo ts (pr6thysis). 46 p.ao ts (perillasis). (pais aph' hestias).aiv eoBat (mainesthai).a"yyva (spldngkhna). 248. r78. r89 Li crto t r dr er a i (Ly sioi t eletai ). t98 n)ravq (pline). zg(f .z iepeis (hierefis). 5 rlep<istr<i7os(hierds l6gos). 35(f. zzg.48.28 o t)rwou (stlinon).25.q7.r5 69$du p"i1 h&u (hephthdn mi optkn).z3 Oau). 275. l^8.8o flpcrdl.56 6orct.266t.48 Eprcv (6rion).d x6)rtrou (kdlpos: thedsdid kolpu). z4r. t 5 cerril pt"ov(septirion).r4.12 Ko pav i6 es lla pB 6vo t (Koronfi es Parthdnoi).2 oil. 277.t9. 276.t8 E{o pyeioflat (exorkhetsthai). iv 1\ip. (h6sioi). 6. 51 p.65 in orr eia. 44.tapa i1p.os (hblmos).Bos (pithos). z7 o xauqgopoe (kaneph6ros). 4o. 2j7. pcvrlots. t8 Keur pt o. 46. 4t. Lur olrie w (Dipolieia).INDEX INDEX )rer. n4f . 4o(f .84. z7z Epyou(6rgon). z7r.zo 6vr 6puew (entimnein). 64.3 vaos (nads). r81.49. 35 6pyec (6rkheis). 4. rro Dtaa x ecB at (hihiskesthai). 9j. 284. z9r.euxou reilov (leukdn pedion). fiyesis. Sipa ). fi5 Bipa(e Kd.z4 n xarayuc p. 5. 258. 6633 hrlnov (kiton). 34.4o Ards x<.eva (leg6mena kai dr6mena). zr5. o8 aqxos (sek6s). (poneisthai).774 atr).i 6pdp.. 17 it<tparfi pn (diabatiria). 269. 265.6pa (miari hemtra).rz tipxta (h6rkia).4 Bu41<ios(thyekh6os). zz9 pu xi1 x es (kirykes)'. 5.15.rda (kardiulkia). nilros (pilos). 276.r4 ixerqpia (hikteria).zr xuxt<itv (kyke6n).evctltov (thyma leilsimon). z5g. rrr. 483r rou eioBat. 62.3r nauvuTis (pannykhis). zz8.rBolrov (symbolon). 272. 38 p. ry9.4r. 4o 6oro\oyeiv (ostologein).96f. 67 Ecria (hestia).9.7 tr eptoyoiv to p. mystirion).99 xa$aipew (kathairein). zr8. 4r.63. t84 nduoTrrne (pan6ptes).29. tgt. ). 269(f.ua6 (en Limnais).83 ). koragogoi).76 iepeier. l4. 7 r. 275 46 trfiyavov (pdganon).3 r poo i Xtlvot (prosdlenoi). z4o. r. fatrtuos (rhdmnos).3.tz. 17 B eoiv ta (theoinia). l'63 n epd. 268 16. zrr xlot4 (kiste). 97 n po xa# apc 6 (proMtharsis). rc5 xreis (kteis). ergasia).iot (Kentri6dai).g. zt9f .rr4 E)'o. 64.2o. z3 {u}reus (xyleils). 257.).6 7)te0xos y\fiyau (gl6khon).33 rfu.44 trtrapayp. zzo. 4g t55. 37. rc1. r1g.125. sp1ndo). 3. 48. Etrorr ei ew (epopte{a. t4. 265. 257.9r.9 )tornpog6pos (lutroph6ros).16 ntBoiy w (pithoigia).7. r88 ira\os (ital6s). r r 8 Ituooa (lyssa). 62.6. zo4.4o XiBns (l6bes). 4.62.287. 5 iepa (hieri). zr5 tri.ra (Nykteha).)3.4r i( dp"a(t'tv (ex hamax6n). 6 M4zepes (Mdteres). criv6<o (spondd.z3 xcltrorlos (lailathos). q3.r trelrauos (pelan6s).zr p. 193.erus (p4lekys). 265.24 irrxycryco"yos iipuots (hidrysis). zfuf . 277. 47 xaray <'ty'i1 (katagogt).utrrayayos (mystagog6s).29 6p pqgo p eiu (errhephor ein).

).a (skhAma).11.8 t pdr e(a (trdpeza). r53 288. 42.t6 i6 pogopot (hydroph6r 47 oi). T av po8qpia (Taurotheria). Vail-BallouPress Vail-Ballou Press rolrz Palatino Palatino & Italic \ 334 .253.g Tnavtxil tptcts (Titaniki ph. 481. 225.75 evti @hyga). z6 z6t. zr5. ry ry.43 fipa (t6mia).14.21o. (Psol6entes).igia).zr i6 pogop ia (hydrophorin). gZ.9 gu)tloBotrrio(phyllobolia). 293 ri p. z4 rileros (tdleios).Y INDEX aeaf eiov (sphageion). <bpaia 57.9 relretai (teletai). z5 ia 4o. 258 sdntheia). 197.4r. 3).9. 256. zo 5. 9. t6 5.!sis).z1o. r75 Vo).xie (h!e .oB eiv (omothetein). r elteiv (telein). 48.8 7 yfiovrcr Beoi (khthdnioi theoi).a (phdsmn). 54. ije . ogayta (sph.z5 er 6.36 .<ievzes fuyo.49 aaedia (skhedia).4r aoai (khoai).64 9t7op.'288 285.t1 ayfi p.i (psykhat). (horaia). tittrrogay (omophagia). 4z(f .pdpos(phiros). 1. z4z.$. Inc. XpucavBen (Khry ytnpot (lihytroi).54 Toipos (khoiros\.h!e). gi\os (philos). 30. Designer: Compositor: Printer: Binder: Text: Dsplay: Rick Chafian G&S Typesetters.22.37.