Seagate

presents

TRIVIA THAT GIVES YOU THE EDGE

Seagate
presents

TRIVIA THAT GIVES YOU THE EDGE

3 •

S m i t h Srinivasan R a m a k r i s h n a n Suprotip Ghosh Upendra Singhai Copy Editors Ram Mohan Rao Syed Nadim Siraj Design and Layout Ashwin Boricha Shivshankar Pillai Sivalal S Photographs Mexy Xavier © 2 0 0 4 Jasubhai Digital Media.The f o l l o w i n g w r i t e r s at Digit compiled t h e 1001 t e c h facts: Aparna K r i s h n a k u m a r Garfield D'Souza Meera V a n k i p u r a m Ram Mohan Rao Robert S o v e r e i g n . Mumbai • 4 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S .

CONTENTS Topic Page No. The History of Computing The Internet Networking Various Timelines Processors and Components Storage Operating Systems Companies and Personalities Supercomputer Displays Imaging Telephony Cellphones Entertainment Games Human Interface Devices Miscellaneous Tech Facts 9 19 32 35 42 52 55 60 66 70 72 77 82 85 91 95 98 mwmtm ^ .

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we tend to lose sight of t h e pioneers. make y o u exchange notes with malicious glee at that next Saturday night party. let your hair down. and from those lessons alone alone can we shape our future. This b o o k is m e a n t to bring us closer to reality. We learn from history. closer to our t e c h n o l o g y history. Ergo. we don't really k n o w whether Gates is still h a u n t e d by that statement. and people e x c h a n g e notes with malicious glee: "Did you know that Bill Gates was stupid enough to say this. has history. W h a t we know for sure is that statements like these b e c o m e more t h a n just that. o n e of t h e richest m e n in t h e universe. tell us if you didn't get t h a t smile o n your face. how did he b e c o m e t h e richest m a n on earth?" This special compilation of 1 0 0 1 amazing t e c h n o l o g y facts is n o t filled with malice. Technology. and let time pass you by. like most aspects of our life that pass us by and we take for granted. Gates. even t h e m o s t successful. put your feet o n t h e table. So sit back. William Henry Gates III told a gathering that in t h e future 6 4 0 KB of RAM ought to be e n o u g h for anybody. And yes. H H B 70 . closer to t h e people w h o made it happen. makes most of his m o n e y selling software so heavy even a Sumo wrestler would blush. or. I mean. Twenty-three years later.INTRODUCTION In 1981. of t h e technologies that changed our lives. Today. or foresighted. in an apparent m o m e n t of epiphany. but with stuff that would make you smile. raise your eyebrows. god forbid. people in t h e world are n o t infallible. Since t e c h n o l o g i c a l progress has b e e n fast e n o u g h to send every o n e of us into a tizzy.

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Microsoft shipped it w i t h BASIC. 1981 was t h e year t h a t PCs began. in 1937. Claude Shannon is usually called the f a t h e r of I n f o r m a t i o n Tech nology. Konrad Zuse. Beginning in 1934. Alan T u r i n g is considered the f a t h e r of C o m p u t e r Science. a G e r m a n engineer. In 1948. built a series of c o m p u t e r s . he published t h e paper "On C o m p u t a b l e Numbers. when IBM d e b u t e d the IBM PC. w i t h an Appli cation t o t h e E n t s h e i d u n g s p r o b l e m " . 9 9 9 . 9987 . 3 9 5 . t h e Z1 t h r o u g h Z4. It was developed by Kristen Nygaard and Ole-Johan Dahl in t h e mid 1960s. aauiMny 90 . utilising binary a r i t h m e t i c . he published "A M a t h e m a t i c a l T h e o r y of C o m m u n i c a t i o n " in t h e Bell System Technical J o u r n a l . Fortran became c o m m e r c i a l l y available in 1957. too.Seagate 1 0 0 1 . The first o b j e c t . It was developed in 1956 by an IBM t e a m headed by J o h n Backus. The f i r s t high-level p r o g r a m m i n g language was Fortran. The o p e r a t i n g system. was developed by M i c r o s o f t .o r i e n t e d language was Simula.

while w o r k i n g on t h e original version of M i c r o s o f t ' s Disk O p e r a t i n g System (DOS). in t h e May issue of Byte Magazine. t h e f i r s t home c o m p u t e r . The f i r s t ' c o m p u t e r ' . In 1976.' a 'real-time c o m p u t e r . In 1951.9 9 4 .d r i v e n calculating machine. t h e s t e a m . Bill Gates made a r e m a r k a b l e prediction: " 6 4 0 K (of RAM) should be e n o u g h f o r anyone. It is much debated whether any single person can be said to have invented the first computer. In 1981. 9 8 9 . J a y F o r r e s t e r and Robert Everett. 9 8 7 . g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s at MIT. the t e r m "personal c o m p u t e r " first appeared in print. c o n s t r u c t e d t h e ' Whirlwind. $10. C h r i s t o p h e r Pile was sentenced t o 18 m o n t h s f o r releasing a t o o l k i t t h a t w o u l d boost t h e impact of existing viruses by r a n d o m i sing t h e i r codes. ' w o r k i n g at twice t h e speed of t h e ENIAC. The Incredible Feat of a Seagate Read/Write Head it's like a 7 4 7 going 6 0 0 Mph 3 Feet off the ground count ing blades of grass as it flies by . 991. Examples of candidates are Charles Babbage and Konrad Zuse. c o m p u t e r f i r m Honey well released t h e H316 " K i t c h e n C o m p u t e r " . was built in 1823 by Charles Babbage." The t e r m 'bug' was p r o b a b l y coined a f t e r A d m i r a l Grace Hopper 9 8 8 . 990. priced at 9 9 3 .600. In 1969. 992.

in 1982 with J o n a t h a n Sachs. Bulletin-Board System Q u a n t u m C o m p u t e r Services. 986. pseudonym J i m Button. 0 0 0 v a c u u m tubes and 4 0 racks of equipment. Mitch Kapor f o u n d e d Lotus Development Corp. in 1 9 8 2 . 981. a n d e a r n e d his n i c k n a m e w h e n he c o . Steve Chase. and Ed Roberts l/l 0 -1 < -h 01 o 9 8 3 . which Knopf published under t h e 5' (D 3 (D ™ 1 0) 9 8 4 . t h e mid 1940s. transistor were looking for a name t o release their new c o m p u t e r under. 0 0 0 leaflets for a non-exis t e n t c o m p u t e r . They finally called it t h e Altair.Seagate f o u n d a m o t h in t h e Mark II c o m p u t e r at t h e US Naval Surface W a r f a r e Center. 980. Founder Paul Gavin came up w i t h t h e n a m e M o t o r o l a when his c o m p a n y s t a r t e d m a n u f a c t u r i n g radios for m o t o r c a r s . w i t h Dr R o b e r t K a h n i n 1 9 7 3 . causing t h e machine t o m a l f u n c t i o n . publisher of t h e magazine Popular The first silicon Electronics. a p a p e r t h a t g a v e t h e w o r l d T C P a n d IP. r e n a m e d it A m e r i c a Online. 9 8 2 . w n I d . o o •o c 1* >o •o 9 8 5 . 9797 In 1989. Steve Wozniak played a huge prank by d i s t r i b u t i n g 2 5 . J i m Knopf is known as t h e ' f a t h e r of shareware'. His f i r s t shareware p r o g r a m was PC-Fiie. In 1970. w h i c h was later r e f e r r e d t o as t h e Zaltair Hoax. and ran up a daily electric bill of $ 6 0 . Founder of t h e I n t e r n e t 1 a V i n t o n C e r f Is h a i l e d as t h e F a t h e r of t h e I n t e r n e t . a large a m o u n t at the time. Les Solomon.a u t h o r e d . The first c o m p u t e r t o p e r f o r m a t r i l l i o n opera tions per second was called t h e G r a v i t y Pipeline. w h o was i n s t r u m e n t a l in launching Lotus 1-2-3. The ENIAC had 2 0 .

9 7 7 .

On 4 t h J u l y , 1996, Sabeer Bhatia and Jack Smith launched Hotmail. In 1997, t h e y sold it t o Microsoft f o r an e s t i m a t e d price of $ 3 8 5 million. AT&T Bell Labs was the first company to transmit human voice across the Atlantic, on January 25, 1915. The exercise was conducted to celebrate the open ing of the Panama Canal to Alexander Graham Bell.

9 7 6 .

975.
In 1991, 4 5 0 complete works of literature were published on one CD-ROM.

9 7 4 .

Paul Allen, w h o c o - f o u n d e d M i c r o s o f t w i t h Bill Gates, is now t h e c h a i r m a n of Vulcan N o r t h w e s t , an i n v e s t m e n t f i r m . M a t h e m a t i c i a n Blaise Pascal a t t e m p t e d a u t o m a t e d c o m p u t i n g as early as 1642.

9 7 3 .

9 7 2 .

In 1993, t h e US D e p a r t m e n t of C o m m e r c e c r e a t e d InterNIC t o m a i n t a i n a c e n t r a l database t o c o n t a i n all registered d o m a i n names and IP addresses. In 1998, online p o r n o g r a p h y a c c o u n t e d f o r 8 0 percent of all ec o m m e r c e . However, the f i g u r e has t o d a y fallen t o 2 0 per cent. Online p o r n o g r a p h y was a $1 billion i n d u s t r y in 1998. In 1949, J Woodland and B Silver i n v e n t e d t h e bar code. It was p a t e n t e d in 1952 and was used c o m m e r d a i l y f o r t h e first t i m e in 1974.

971.

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968.

In 1971, Intel launched the w o r l d ' s f i r s t single-chip m i c r o p r o c e s s o r , t h e Intel 4 0 0 4 . The Pioneer 10 spacecraft used t h e 4 0 0 4 m i c r o p r o c e s s o r .

Vinton Cerf, co-creator of TCP/IP and the Internet

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Seagate
9 6 6 . On 9 t h March, 2 0 0 4 , t h e US g o v e r n m e n t b o u g h t t h e world's biggest ever solid state disk (SSD) f r o m Texas M e m o r y Systems. In A u g u s t 1944, J o h n Mauchly and Presper Eckert proposed t h e building of a new machine called t h e e l e c t r o n i c discrete variable a u t o m a t i c c o m p u t e r (the EDVAC). It was t o b e c o m e the first s t o r e d - p r o g r a m c o m p u t e r . 9 6 4 . Niklaus W i r t h developed t h e Pascal p r o g r a m m i n g language in 1971. 1975 saw t h e e m e r g e n c e of t h e first w o r d processing s o f t w a r e , t h e Electric Pencil. WordStar, a n o t h e r w o r d processing s o f t w a r e , was released in 1975. In 1975, M i c r o s o f t , t h e unofficial partnership of Bill Gates and Paul Allen, a t t a i n e d sales of $16,000.
Chester Carlson invented the photocopier machine at Xerox

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In 1958, Chester Carlson invented t h e Xerox machine. The i n t e g r a t e d circuit was invented at the same t i m e , enabling t h e 959. m i n i a t u r i s a t i o n of electronic devices. V i s i C a l c w a s d e v e l o p e d by Edmund Gunter of England invented t h e slide rule as early as 1692. Dan B r i c k l i n and Bob F r a n k s t o n in 1 9 7 9 . R e t a i l i n g f o r $ 9 9 apiece, V i s i C a l c sold o v e r

9 5 8 .

9 5 7 .

7 0 0 , 0 0 0 copies. The EDSAC ran its first p r o g r a m on May 6 , 1 9 4 9 . It wasn't t h e first s t o r e d - p r o g r a m c o m p u t e r , but r a t h e r , t h e f i r s t practical one.

In December 1 9 7 0 , Gilbert H y a t t filed a p a t e n t a p p l i c a t i o n e n t i t l e d " S i n g l e Chip I n t e g r a t e d C i r c u i t C o m p u t e r A r c h i t e c t u r e " , t h e f i r s t basic p a t e n t on t h e m i c r o p r o c e s s o r .
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9 5 5 .

In t h e 1940s, H u n g a r i a n - A m e r i c a n J o h n v o n Neumann devised t h e von N e u m a n n a r c h i t e c t u r e for c o m p u t e r s , w h i c h is the basic archi t e c t u r e t h a t y o u see t o d a y in v i r t u a l l y e v e r y non-parallel-processing c o m p u t e r around, and ever t o have been built. The f i r s t v o n N e u m a n n - a r c h i t e c t u r e c o m p u t e r t o be actually c o n s t r u c t e d and o p e r a t e d was the Manchester Markl,designed and built at Manches-ter University in England. In t h e s u m m e r of 1969, UNIX was developed. Linus Torvalds, t h e c r e a t o r of Linux, was born t h e same year. The first edition of the Unix Programmer's Manual, by K Thompson and D Ritchie, was released in 1971.

9 5 4 .

9 5 3 .

9 5 2 .

The Intel

Pentium in 1993

processor

was relased

9 5 1 .

In 1993, Intel released t h e P e n t i u m processor. It was a 6 0 MHz processor, i n c o r p o r a t i n g 3.2 million t r a n s i s t o r s . It sold for $ 8 7 8 apiece. In 1991, Linus Torvalds, t h e n a s t u d e n t in Finland, i n t r o d u c e d In 1991, Sun unveiled the Linux. He posted the f o l l o w i n g Solaris 2 operating w o r d s t o t h e comp.os.minix environment, fined-tuned n e w s g r o u p : "Hello e v e r y b o d y for symmetric out t h e r e using minix - I'm multiprocessing. doing a (free) o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m (just a hobby, w o n ' t be big and professional like gnu) f o r 3 8 6 ( 4 8 6 ) AT clones. In 1995, SCO acquired the UNIX Systems source t e c h n o l o g y busi-

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ness f r o m Novell Corporation. In August, 1995, Microsoft Windows 9 5 was released. It sold m o r e t h a n a million copies w i t h i n t h e f i r s t f o u r days of its launch.

946.

2 0 0 4 saw Lindows changing its name to Linspire on April 14, after it lost a legal battle against Microsoft.
1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S

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i/i' 0 < 01 9 4 3 . THE HISTORY OF COMPUTERS AND COMMUNICATION 9 4 4 . Cray Research Incorporated i n t r o d u c e d t h e first s u p e r c o m p u t e r in 1 9 7 6 . The floppy disk was invented in 1971. t h e Bell 103. 9 3 8 . o o •o iO 3 944. n 3 fl> — ' a. M i c r o s o f t filed a t r a d e m a r k suit against Lindows. 9 3 9 . It w o n t h e case in early 2 0 0 4 .com in December. In 1966. In 2001. 9 4 2 . ARPANET. The m i c r o p r o c e s s o r was invented in 1971. Laptop computers sold t o public for the first time. 15D . 9 4 0 . AT&T m a n u f a c t u r e d t h e first c o m m e r c i a l m o d e m . It could p e r f o r m 2 4 0 million calculations per second. o 9 4 1 . was launched in 1969. Ted T u r n e r launched and i m p l e m e n t e d t h e first n a t i o n w i d e p r o g r a m m i n g . C o m p u t e r s w e r e sold c o m m e r cially f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e in 1951.t h e first successful fax machine. Digital E q u i p m e n t ' s PDP-8.v i a satellite. The w o r l d ' s first m i n i c o m p u t e r . The world wasn't always a wired place During t h e same year. 1981: The f i r s t IBM PC is sold. the first 'Internet'.Seagate 9 4 5 . The c r e a t i o n was considered a c o m p u t e r on a chip. The Apple I h o m e c o m p u t e r was released in 1976. 937. 935. and cost a p h e n o m e n a l $18.000. Xerox i n v e n t e d t h e T e l e c o p i e r . in 1962.t h e Cray 1. was i n t r o d u c e d in 1965.

Dr Brent T o w n s h e n d invented t h e 5 6 K m o d e m in 1996. w e r e d e s t r o y e d w i t h o u t t r a c e by w a r t i m e b o m b i n g d u r i n g WW II. 01 a) o> • 16 . the father 926. a c o n s t r u c t i o n of the World Wide Web engineer at t h e Henschel A i r c r a f t C o m p a n y in Berlin. to L. developed t h e world's first p r o g r a m m a b l e c o m p u t e r in 1941. The first cellular phone c o m m u n i c a t i o n n e t w o r k was launched in J a p a n . was released in 1980. one of t h e most popular arcade games of all times. and t h e WWW was born. 9 3 0 . 9 2 7 . u <0 1925. 928. 932. K o n r a d Zuse. Time magazine named t h e c o m p u t e r t h e Man of t h e Year in 1983. The f i r s t cellular phone n e t w o r k was launched t h e same year in the US. The Z1. The Apple Macintosh was released in 1984. and its blue prints. in 1979. Sir Tim Berners-Lee. a pre-war electro mechanical binary c o m p u t e r designed by German i n v e n t o r K o n r a d Zuse. Pacman.9 3 4 . 931. 9 2 9 .p r o g r a m c o m p u t e r was in N o v e m b e r 1951 w h e n t h e J Lyons c o m p a n y began weekly o p e r a t i o n of a bakery valuations job. along w i t h IBM PC AT. The first business application t o go live on a s t o r e d . The US g o v e r n m e n t released c o n t r o l of t h e Internet in 1994. BASIC was written in 1964 by Tom Kurtz and John Kemeny of Dartmouth. 9 3 3 .

keyboard. 916. a t r a d e m a r k of t h e Xerox C o m p a n y . d a u g h t e r of t h e poet L o r d Byron. Douglas C. invent ing Boolean algebra in 1854. In 1972. published t h e first computer programs. m a t h e m a t i c i a n Ada Lovelace. In 1 9 6 4 . at MIT in early 1956.c a r d t a b u l a t i n g machine f o r use in t h e US Census.M a r i e J a c q u a r d invents a machine to a u t o m a t i cally c o n t r o l t h e p a t t e r n s in fabrics using punch cards. 8 921. in 1971. Radio Shack i n t r o d u c e d . 920. 15. t h e f i r s t c o m p u t e r w i t h a k e y b o a r d and CRT display.Seagate 9 2 3 . 1968. t h e A m e r i c a n Standards Association adopted ASCII (American n> 3 ® I w — r+ ° -I < S t a n d a r d Code f o r In December. H e r m a n Hollerith c o n s t r u c t s a p u n c h . The f i r s t t r a n s i s t o r i s e d c o m p u t e r was c o m p l e t e d . The QWERTY keyboard was actually designed with the intention of slowing down typists I — * ! Oi 1 O 919. George Boole published his M a t h e m a t i c a l Analysis of Logic. 922. In 1890. d e m o n s t r a t e d his s y s t e m of data transfer. They were called J a c q u a r d Looms. J o s e p h . w h o also c o . ( Gay Lussac and T h e n a r d e x t r a c t e d i m p u r e a m o r p h o u s silicon in 1811. 17D . This became t h e basis f o r c o m p u t e r design. The f i r s t mechanical calculator capa ble of m u l t i p l i c a t i o n was invented by G o t t f r i e d Wilhelm Leibniz. in 1673. 917. of t h e S t a n f o r d as a s t a n d a r d code f o r Research Institute. In 1843. In 1801.i n v e n t e d t h e calculus. ' 18. mouse and w i n d o w s at t h e Fall J o i n t C o m p u t e r Conference in San Francisco's Civic Center. Bob M e t c a l f e c r e a t e d Ethernet. Information Interchange) Engelbart. t h e TX-O.

by Alain Comerauer. in 1846. 9 0 6 . Charles Babbage invented his Analytical Engine in 1833. 9 0 2 . J o h n Backus of IBM created FORTRAN in 1954. 909. 911. 9 0 8 . t h e f i r s t punch-card programmable general-purpose computer. Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments p a t e n t e d t h e first i n t e g r a t e d circuit in 1959. PROLOG was developed The C o m p u S e r v e online service was launched in 1979. p a t e n t e d an electrical logic circuit called a gate or switch. S o f t w a r e A p p l i c a t i o n giants. Microsoft's sales reached $1 billion. The first known English-language use of t h e w o r d ' c o m p u t e r ' . 9 0 5 . an A m e r i c a n engineer. and Walter Brattain. Digital Equipment C o r p o r a t i o n was f o u n d e d by Ken Olsen in 1957. the first year to do so. J o h n Bardeen. The o p t i c a l laserdisc was d e v e l o p e d by b o t h Philips and MCA in 1972. • 18 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S .912. invented by William Shockley. Nikola Tesla. In 1989. 9 0 1 . was f o u n d in t h e w r i t i n g s of Sir T h o m a s Browne. m e r g e d in 1994F. In 1903. Aldus and Adobe. 9 0 4 . 1951 saw t h e first c o m m e r c i a l use of t h e t r a n s i s t o r . In 1973. 9 0 7 . 9 1 0 . u < 0 > Lo w !E "ro L- « c 9) o> 3 £ o o a. 9 0 3 .

and A b o u t . including a f f i l i a t e d sites. 896. 899. t h e Time Warner N e t w o r k . public i n f o r m a t i o n said t o be 5 0 0 times larger t h a n on t h e WWW. MSN. 8 9 4 . The f i r s t search engine for Gopher files was called Veronica. Researchers consider t h a t t h e f i r s t search engine was Archie. Lycos. The w o r l d average is 11. were Yahoo!. Yahoo! derived its name f r o m t h e w o r d Yahoo coined by J o n a t h a n Swift in Gulliver's Travels. 898. 895. In February 2 0 0 4 . but the project never seems t o have really taken off.900. Canada. a s t u d e n t at McGill University in Montreal. 9 percent of people c o n n e c t e d t o t h e Internet. Sweden led t h e w o r l d in I n t e r n e t p e n e t r a t i o n .1 per cent. 897. w i t h 7 6 . EBay. A Yahoo is a person w h o is repulsive in appearance and action and is barely h u m a n ! In t h e Deep Web. c o m . t h e part of t h e Web not c u r r e n t l y catalogued by search engines. c r e a t e d by t h e University of Nevada System C o m p u t i n g Services group. c r e a t e d in 1990 by Alan Emtage. J i m Berners-Lee predicted in 2 0 0 2 t h a t t h e Semantic Web w o u l d " f o s t e r global c o l l a b o r a t i o n s a m o n g people w i t h diverse c u l t u r a l perspectives". 19 • . Google. The t o p visited websites in February 2 0 0 4 .

Germans a of g o p h e r s e r v e r s . It was once considered a letter V e r o n i c a is a c o n s t a n t l y in t h e English language. Developed at the U n i v e r s i t y of N e v a d a . 885. 8 8 8 . The world average for internet 8 9 2 . What is it? The 1 sign. I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v e r s ' . 8 8 6 . The c e n t r a l s y s t e m f o r all a c c r e d i t e d r e g i s t r a r s t o access. 8 9 1 . The u p d a t e d d a t a b a s e of t h e Chinese call it a little mouse. • 20 A n a n o n y m i s e r is a p r i v a c y s e r v i c e t h a t a l l o w s a u s e r t o v i s i t Web sites w i t h o u t allowing anyone t o gather information about which sites they visit. basi cally). 889. c r e a t e d a p r o x y service t o allow Chinese. Iranians and o t h e r 'oppressed' people t o circumv e n t t h e i r national firewalls.1 percent.. the Latin name f o r t h e wolf spider family.. t h e n makes those indices searchable across t h e I n t e r n e t . Lurking is t o read t h r o u g h mailing lists or news g r o u p s and get a feel of t h e t o p i c b e f o r e posting one's o w n messages. Marc A n d r e e s s e n f o u n d e d Netscape. 8 8 7 . register and c o n t r o l d o m a i n names.8 9 3 . The search engine " L y c o s " is n a m e d f o r Lycosidae. 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S .a c o m m e r c i a l s o f t w a r e package t h a t allows t h e indexing of huge quantities of i n f o r m a t i o n . The US I n t e r n a t i o n a l Broadcasting Bureau (Voice of America. 890. SRS stands f o r Shared Registry Server. WAIS stands f o r 'Wide Area penetration is 11. and Italians a snail. t h e first Web b r o w s e r w i t h a GUI. In 1993. spider m o n k e y . n a m e s of a l m o s t e v e r y Danes and Swedes call it m e n u i t e m on t h o u s a n d s ' e l e p h a n t ' s t r u n k ' . Israelis p r o n o u n c e it ' s t r u d e l s ' and t h e Czechs say 'rollmops'. he had already devel o p e d Mosaic. relaying f o r b i d d e n pages behind silicon c u r t a i n s .

Cyber Patrol. The Electrohippies Collective is an international group of 'hack tivists' based in Oxfordshire. by the US Federal Bureau of stanford. 876. a demo is a non-interactive multimedia presentation. 8 7 8 . 2 o 3 8 8 1 . 877. 8 7 9 . 'Carnivore' is the Internet original URL of Yahoo! surveillance system developed was http://akebono. 1995. Did you know that the name of the famous search engine AltaVista came into existence when some one accidentally read and suggested the w o r d 'Alto' w r i t t e n near the w o r d 'Vista' on an unclean whiteboard as 'AltaVista'? n T^ 'Jbi'ST* Did you know that the 3 n 8 8 0 . 2. changed i t ? 21 • . Net Nanny and Big Brother are all access filters used to block access to objectionable Web sites. England. Did you know t h a t Domain Registration was free until an announcement by the National Science Foundation on 14 t h September. UIML (User Interface Markup Language) is a descriptive language that lets you create a Web page that can be sent to any kind of interface device.edu/ ? Investigation (FBI). c 882. Archie is an i n f o r m a t i o n system o f f e r i n g an electronic d i r e c t o r y 8 service for locating information residing on anonymous FTP sites. In Internet t e r m i n o l o g y . | On the Internet. a 'bastion host' is the only host computer t h a t a company allows to be addressed directly f r o m the public network. 883.the computer world's equivalent of a music video. way back in 1993.Seagate 884. Surf Watch. Boeing was the first arliner to discover the Y2K problem. 8757 Boeing was the first airline to discover the Y2K problem. who devel oped it to monitor the electronic transmissions of criminal suspects.

to'. 871. 8 6 5 . a d o c t o r a t e in a g r i c u l t u r e and chief priest of Daioh T e m p l e in K y o t o has created an online v i r t u a l t e m p l e which will p e r f o r m m e m o r i a l services f o r lost i n f o r m a t i o n .to' and 'head. 870. y o u could o w n d o m a i n s as cool as 'mail. d o c u m e n t s . A 5 5 kg laddu was made f o r L o r d V e n k a t e s w a r a at Tirumala as a Y2K p r a y e r o f f e r i n g . 4 emails a day. 8 6 7 . The French Culture Ministry has banned t h e w o r d 'e-mail' in all g o v e r n m e n t ministries. The Internet was initially called Galactic Network. The f i r s t Internet w o r m was created by Robert T. 8 6 6 . The A m e r i c a n Registry f o r I n t e r n e t N u m b e r s (ARIN) began t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and r e g i s t r a t i o n of I n t e r n e t IP addresses in N o r t h and South A m e r i c a in March 1998. called First V i r t u a l Holdings. each person receives 2 6 . A c c o r d i n g t o The Economist magazine. The I n t e r n e t was initially called t h e 'Galactic n e t w o r k ' in m e m o s w r i t t e n by MIT's J C R Licklider in 1962. Morris. t h e f i r s t t r u l y e l e c t r o n i c bank on t h e Internet. was opened by Lee Stein in 1994. on Netscape's f r o n t lawn. and attacked more than 6 . The t e s t b e d for t h e Internet's new addressing system. IPv6. Shokyu Ishiko. J r . 8 6 8 . certain 8 7 2 . 8 6 9 7The mischievous Microsoft w o r k e r s left a 10-by-12-foot letter 'e' and a balloon w i t h the message. is called t h e 6bone. 8 6 4 . "We love y o u " . •22 . publications and Web sites. 8 6 3 . On an average. If y o u were a resident of Tonga. a m o n a r c h y in the s o u t h w e s t Pacific. 0 0 0 Internet hosts.8 7 3 . m o r n i n g a f t e r Internet Explorer 4 was released.

because earlier auctions f e t c h e d low prices and only a few people tu ever s h o w e d up. 852. P r o g r e s s i v e RealAudio s y s t e m on April 10.Seagate because 'e-mail' is an English w o r d . 8 5 5 . D o m a i n n a m e s c a n r e a l l y sell a t h i g h p r i c e s ! T h e m o s t expensive domain name was 'business. 858. Butler J e e v e s of the Internet site AskJeeves. online. 853. 2. Sun M i c r o s y s t e m s sponsors NetDay. launched the a 2> ID 8 6 0 .com made its d e b u t as a large helium balloon in t h e Macy's Thanksgiving Day parade in 2 0 0 0 . w i t h help f r o m the US g o v e r n m e n t . the Internet c o m m u n i t y has coined t h e w o r d 'Chortal' as a s h o r t ened v e r s i o n of 'Chinese portal'. ' B r o w s e r safe colours' refer t o t h e 216 colours t h a t are r e n d e r e d t h e same way in b o t h t h e PC and Mac o p e r a t i n g systems. Today. In Beijing. Networks. o The German police sell used p a t r o l cars o v e r the Internet.com'. Google got its name f r o m t h e m a t h e matical f i g u r e googol. They p r e f e r t o use the t e r m 'courriel'. o" 3 Rob Glaser's c o m p a n y .' Dilbert Zone was the to go first comic strip Telnet is one of t h e oldest f o r m s of I n t e r n e t connections. 8 6 1 . an e f f o r t t o wire A m e r i c a n public schools t o t h e Internet. which was bought by eCompanies for $ 7 . The 'Dilbert Z o n e ' Web site was t h e f i r s t s y n d i c a t e d comic strip site available on t h e Internet. 8 5 7 . 5 million in 1 9 9 9 . 8 5 4 . T h o u g h t h e W o r l d Wide Web w a s b o r n in 1 9 8 9 a t C E R N in S w i t z e r l a n d . QP/" O J D . C E R N is m a i n l y i n v o l v e d in research for particle physics. which d e n o t e s t h e n u m b e r 'one f o l l o w e d by a h u n d r e d zeroes. it is used p r i m a r i l y t o access online databases. d i g i t 23D . 859.1995.

a scientist f r o m Cambridge. The f i r s t ever ISP was CompuServe. 8 4 9 . S a t y a m Online became the f i r s t p r i v a t e ISP in December 1998 to offer Internet c o n n e c t i o n s in India.8 5 0 . More t h a n a million new jobs were c r e a t e d by t h e US high-tech i n d u s t r y since 1993. a j o u r n a l i s t f r o m t h e T i m e s . 8 4 7 . In 1969. It allows people t o d o w n l o a d songs f o r an a f f o r d a b l e 9 9 cents each. E 841. It still exists. 8 4 5 . 848. as c o m p a r e d t o 2 4 percent in 1998. the most important a s p e c t s of t h e I n t e r n e t . 8 4 3 . 5 6 p e r c e n t of US companies sold t h e i r p r o d u c t s online by 2 0 0 0 . The I n t e r n e t is t h e t h i r d . used I n t e r n e t search engines t o t r a c k down f o u r people on Interpol's 'most wanted' l i s t . c o m m e r c e and c o m m u n i t y " are referred t o as ' t h e t h r e e big Cs'. • 24 . T r a n s m i s s i o n C o n t r o l Proto c o l / I n t e r n e t Protocol (TCP/IP) was designed in 1973. 8 4 4 . He used t h e @ t o distinguish between t h e sender's name and n e t w o r k name in t h e e-mail address. closely catching up w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l local Ian Cobain. Ray T o m l i n s o n . The idea was t o have a back up in case a m i l i t a r y attack d e s t r o y e d c o n v e n t i o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s systems. 5: The n u m b e r of UK Internet users increases by an e s t i m a t e d 7 5 percent each year. Satyam Online Online was the first private connections in India ISP to Satyam offer Internet 8 4 2 .i n just 8 2 minutes! 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S 839. London. £ c 8 4 0 .m o s t used a d v e r t i s i n g m e d i u m in t h e w o r l d . c o n n e c t i n g f o u r major US universities. 8 4 6 . under AOL T i m e Warner. The Apple iTunes music store was i n t r o d u c e d in the spring of 2 0 0 3 . i n t r o d u c e d electronic mail in 1972. ARPA (Advanced Research Projects A g e n c y ) w e n t online. ' C o n t e n t .

The a v e r a g e c o m p u t e r user blinks 7 t i m e s a m i n u t e . AOL says spam is t h e n u m b e r one c o m p l a i n t of its c u s t o m e r s . P r e l i m i n a r y e m p l o y m e n t data show t h a t t h e US high-tech i n d u s t r y e m p l o y e d 4 . 830. 8 3 3 . accountant. By 25D . bookkeeper. Did you know that Digital Equipment Corporation was the first computer company to register a domain name? 8 3 4 .92 billion in 1998. according t o a s t u d y sponsored by N o r t e l Networks.7 spam messages per day. In 2 0 0 2 .2 spam messages per day in 2 0 0 2 . o o It t o o k 13 years for television t o r e a c h 5 0 million u s e r s . making it t h e n a t i o n ' s largest i n d u s t r y . 3 8 3 6 .Seagate newspapers and Yellow Pages. and t h a t it has t o block over one billion unso licited e-mails e v e r y day.i t t o o k t h e c 3 I n t e r n e t less t h a n 4 years. 8 3 8 . 8 million w o r k e r s in 1998. bookkeeper" actu- 8 2 8 . As of now. 832. 3 3 o" 0) If 8 3 7 .. "A computer is a.. a c t u a r y . t h e a v e r a g e Internet user received 3.' An e s t i m a t e d 2. 8 2 9 .5 billion h o u r s w e r e w a s t e d online last year as people w a i t e d f o r pages t o download.. 831. The t o t a l rose t o 6. I n t e r n e t A d v e r t i s i n g in t h e US g e n e r a t e d $1.. ary . t h e r e are over 2 6 0 million people w i t h Internet access o" 3 worldwide. 1 o u t of 6 people used t h e Internet in N o r t h A m e r i c a and Europe. ft) 835. d o u b l e t h e 1997 figure. t h e M e r r i a m Webster D i c t i o n a r y defined c o m p u t e r as 'a person w h o tabulates numbers. as per a 1999 survey. In 1946.

i n just one year! 8 2 5 . B r i g h t m a i l .b a s e d ISP called Earthlink w o n a lawsuit w o r t h $16. 8 2 3 . 8 1 8 . The cost t o t h e e c o n o m y reaches $1 billion annually. g r o w i n g f r o m 4 0 per cent to m o r e t h a n 5 6 percent of all internet e . A t e c h n o l o g y i n d u s t r y research f i r m called Basex says t h a t unsolicited e-mail cost nearly $ 2 0 billion in lost t i m e and expenses w o r l d w i d e in 2 0 0 0 . A f t e r English. 8 1 9 . t h e leading supplier of anti-spam s o f t w a r e .2 0 0 7 . 0 0 0 domain names in use. it is e x p e c t e d to reach 8 3 0 messages per day. an A t l a n t a . there were 5 million web sites. 8 2 4 . 6 0 per cent of all Internet users will speak a language o t h e r t h a n English. In 1993. In 1999. In 2 0 0 3 . and a $ 2 5 million (US) lawsuit against a s p a m m e r in Tennessee. spam actually exceeded l e g i t i m a t e e-mail. • 8 2 0 .4 million (US) against a s p a m m e r in Buffalo NY.m a i L . five billion junk e-mails were sent last year. Recent studies indicate t h a t m o r e t h a n t w o o u t of every five people in N o r t h America are now I n t e r n e t users. An e s t i m a t e d 2. 822. I % 816. It is e s t i m a t e d t h a t by 2 0 0 5 . there were 2 6 . 8 1 7 . Japanese and t h e n German are t h e most used languages on t h e Net. . 821. r e p o r t e d t h a t in 2 0 0 3 . The latest s t a t s i n d i c a t e t h a t China a p p e a r s t o be t h e f a s t e s t g r o w i n g I n t e r n e t m a r k e t in t h e w o r l d . 8 2 6 . A b o u t 6 0 percent of N o r t h A m e r i c a n I n t e r n e t users have used t h e Web t o shop. In Canada.2 percent of t h e w o r l d ' s p o p u l a t i o n is c u r r e n t l y online.

a US navy spy plane and a Chinese f i g h t e r jet. c o m . J e f f Bezos. Which companies spend t h e m o s t on Web a d v e r t i sing? Microsoft tops the list.com t a k i n g second spot and 3 IV 8 1 0 . c o m . to . Subhash Ghai's film Taal was t h e first Bollywood m o v i e t o be widely p r o m o t e d on the Net. Use of h o m e PCs t o surf t h e Net has d r o p p e d by a l m o s t 4 0 percent in t h e last f o u r years as I n t e r n e t use has p e n e t r a t e d t h e workplace. o 3 | £ 5- 13. On a per capita basis. 1 China had 150 billion junk e-mails last year. Sweden & Finland have a higher percapita use. 27 • . c o m and cnn. The t o p e . N o r w a y . iw ' M4AM snwasi: if O'S Taal was the first Bollywood flick to be promoted online. Iceland.co. has 8 0 7 . Chinese hackers launched Denial of Service (DoS) attacks against American web sites. r s SUBHASH CHAI sum J jgdSBUa M j i 4 El 8087 Ziggy. and B u y . A f t e r t h e April 2 0 0 1 collision of TRUSTe the third. m a k i n g it the second-biggest t a r g e t of spam. w e a t h e r . become t h e first animal in t h e w o r l d t o o w n shares of a d o t c o m .com. w h e n s t a r t i n g his business c o u l d not name his Web site Cadabra (as in 'abra cadabra') due to c o p y r i g h t issues. w i t h Amazon.com. T i c k e t m a s t e r . 8 0 6 .t a i l sites on t h e Web are A m a z o n . (1.Seagate 8 1 4 . c o m . Where do most news addicts go t o on t h e Web? The t o p t h r e e e destinations are msnbc. called intersaver. a cat.uk.com. He later named it amazon. the US only ranks 5 t h in t e r m s of I n t e r n e t users. 8 0 9 .

In t h e 1 9 8 0 s .w e l l before t h e I n t e r n e t became s o m e t h i n g t h e general public w a n t e d t o u s e . 799. because t h e s o f t w a r e t h a t ran t h e service c o u l d n ' t recognise t h e year 2 0 0 0 . There are between 1. J u s t like a s t r o n o m e r s w o u l d love t o f i n d t h e elusive 'Dark M a t t e r ' . much. 801. The first free public BBS was 'Cleveland Free-Net'. 8 0 0 . 802. Viral m a r k e t i n g is when y o u r app 'infects' o t h e r users via usage. As a result of this. •28 . Madcow and Syndicate. and t h e y shut d o w n On 1 st O c t o b e r 1999. According to a study by Nielsen Media Research. a > c t_ a > c c o a o E 3 E E o u Saddam: Most searched. t h e p a r t of t h e Web t h a t search engines typically do not crawl.8 0 4 . making Britons t h e most w a t c h e d people on earth. The recipient finds out a b o u t t h e service by receiving a card f r o m his or her friend. The t h r e e legitimate names f o r c o p y c a t viruses inspired by t h e i n f a m o u s Melissa virus w e r e Ping. 798. households with Internet access watch 13 percent less TV than households that are not online. The M i c r o s o f t T e r r a s e r v e r is a f r e e Web site t h a t has m o r e t h a n 9 9 9 gigabytes of black-and-white photos f e a t u r i n g specific parts of t h e Earth's surface t a k e n by Russian and A m e r i c a n airplanes and satellites d u r i n g t h e Cold War. m u c h m o r e of t h e Web will be accessible via Yahool's search engines. 8 0 3 . Yahoo! is now w o r k i n g on its C o n t e n t Acguisition P r o g r a m t o map and explore the 'Deep Web'.5 million t o 2 million closed circuit t e l e v i s i o n cameras in Britain.s c o r e s of free 'bulletin b o a r d services' (BBSs) s p r a n g up a r o u n d the United States.

Y a h o o ! w e r e Kazaa. For example. 5 0 0 for one s e a r c h e d . and t h e r e was a t i m e in t h e recent past w h e n one could easily get d o m a i n names like rajesh.Seagate 9 6 . WWE. 5 0 Cent.nu. created in 1990 by Alan Emtage. A m e r i c a n Idol. s i n c e Las V e g a s is i n N e v a d a .w h i c h is n o t s u r p r i s i n g . The c o u n t r y code is . PhotoHighway. In 1999.com introduced the first Internet P h o t o g raphy site to o f f e r s o f t w a r e t h a t allows people t o load photos directly f r o m a digital c a m e r a t o a website. 7 9 2 . P a r i s H i s t o n . Sites m a i n t a i n e-mail lists t h a t t h e y send spam to. B r i t n e y Spears. On 5 t h J u n e 2 0 0 1 . P o t t e r . N a s c a r and Christina Aguilera. if you sign up f o r a n e w s l e t t e r . E m i n e m . a s t u d e n t at McGill University in Montreal. 29D . t h e t o p 10 be as low as Rs 2 . Yahoo! is now ^pping the •Deep Web'. Niue is a small island in t h e Pacific t h a t makes m u c h of its r e v e n u e selling d o m a i n names. t h e site may sell y o u r e-mail t o a s p a m m e r . Y o u get spam because y o u r e-mail address makes its way t o s p a m m e r s t h r o u g h various channels.nu.f o r t e r m s on lakh e-mails. 9 3 . Prices can In 2 0 0 3 . N e v a d a b e c a m e t h e f i r s t U S s t a t e t o v o t e t o l e g a l i s e o n l i n e g a m b l i n g . 794. o o 3 3 c 3_ 0 01 z o 3 r+ n 3 A 7 9 5 . H a r r y Many researchers and surfers consider t h a t t h e first search engine was Archie.

w w w . x c •»•> 784 783. Queen Elizabeth sends her first e-mai She's t h e first state leader t o use this service. 788. Domain Name System (DNS) is established. w h i t e house. (VI C O 0\ US Presidential c a n d i d a t e J i m m y Carter uses e-mail t o plan campaign events.gov. . 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S E E o u • 30 .edu. The w o r d " l n t e r n e t " i s used for t h e f i r s t time. s h o r t f o r "internetwork". Novelist William Gibson coins t h e tern "cyberspace". 01 ^ c c o ? ID O C 3 The White House launches its website. Initial commerce sites are established and mas m a r k e t i n g campaigns are launched via e-mail.org and .timeline 790.com. w i t h network addresses identified by extensions such as . i n t r o d u c i n g the term 'spamming'. 789.

CompuServe. s o o c 3 3 3 0 01 «f o" 3 780. and 6 million in Asia Pacific. maa . as t h e f o u n t a i n of i n v e s t m e n t capital dries up and t h e Nasdaq plummets. 79. • O J * " e . A m e r i c a Online. I n t e r n e t t r a f f i c records are b r o k e n as t h e NASA website broadcasts images t a k e n by Pathfinder on Mars. 7 7 2 . Napster is dealt a fatal blow w h e n t h e 9 t h US Circuit C o u r t of Appeals in San Francisco rules t h a t t h e c o m p a n y is v i o l a t i n g c o p y r i g h t laws. 774. The I n t e r n e t b u b b l e bursts. 5" m m 3 778. Deviant c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m m e r s begin spreading viruses w i t h i n c r e a s e d f r e q u e n c y .6 billion music files each m o n t h . |5] It's e s t i m a t e d t h a t I n t e r n e t users illegally d o w n l o a d a b o u t 2. College s t u d e n t Shawn Fanning invents Napster.Seagate h-r Marc Andreessen and J i m Clark i n t r o d u c e the Navigator browser. 5 percent of t h e US p o p u l a t i o n uses the Internet. w i t h r o u g h l y 3 0 million of those in t h e US and Canada.c o m m e r c e " becomes t h e new b u z z w o r d as Internet shopping rapidly spreads. Sun Microsys terns launches Java. A r o u n d 4 5 million people are using t h e Internet. 77. and Prodigy start p r o v i d i n g dial-up Internet access. 776. On J u l y 8. a c o m p u t e r application t h a t allows users t o swap music o v e r the Internet. 9 million in Europe." A s t a g g e r i n g 5 8 .

moth e r b o a r d t o s w i t c h itself on (and o f f ) based on signals a r r i v i n g at t h e c o m p u t e r ' s n e t w o r k card. C e r t i f i c a t e Revocation List (CRL) is a m e t h o d of using a public key i n f r a s t r u c t u r e for m a i n t a i n i n g access t o servers. OCSP (Online Certificate Status P r o t o c o l ) is one of t w o c o m m o n schemes f o r m a i n t a i n i n g t h e s e c u r i t y of a server. The t e r m ' p e t a b i t ' is used in discussing possible v o l u m e s of data t r a f f i c per second in a large n e t w o r k . 764. 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S 7677 Wake-on-LAN (WOL) is a t e c h n o l o g y t h a t enables a c o m p u t e r D > C I c o 766. A 'blue b o m b ' is a t e c h n i q u e f o r causing t h e Windows o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m of s o m e o n e you are c o m m u n i c a t i n g w i t h t o crash. 'Finger' is an Internet t o o l f o r locating people on o t h e r sites. It gives access t o non-personal i n f o r m a t i o n . 7 6 3 .' i ' l w J M 771. 770. 768. • 32 . 765. SOAP (Simple Object Access P r o t o c o l ) is a p r o t o c o l for clientserver c o m m u n i c a t i o n t h a t sends and receives i n f o r m a t i o n 'on t o p o f HTTP. A hacker w i t h benign i n t e n t i o n s is called a ' w h i t e hat'. 7697 RDF (Resource Definition F r a m e w o r k ) is a set of rules f o r c r e a t i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s of i n f o r m a t i o n available on t h e World Wide Web.

57. Silver is t h e most c o n d u c t i v e material. 0 0 0 s i m u l t a n e o u s t e l e p h o n e calls.r i n g technology t o c o n t r o l LAN t r a f f i c m o r e e f f i c i e n t l y and reliably. IBM researchers were w o r k i n g on this t y p e of t e c h n o l o g y t h a t connects printers. IBM's tokenring a r c h i t e c t u r e has become The construction an i n d u s t r y s t a n d a r d f o r LANs.o p t i c cable fivet h o u s a n d t h s of an inch thick can c a r r y up t o 2.t r a n s l a t e d as B l u e t o o t h in E n g l i s h w h o lived in t h e l a t t e r part of t h e 10th c e n t u r y . w o r k s t a t i o n s and various servers in o f f i c e buildings. 761. IBM devised t o k e n . 58. 59. Blatand united and c o n t r o l l e d D e n m a r k and Norway. Since its i n t r o d u c t i o n in 1985. The first such layout was across the Atlantic. in 1988. and is b e t t e r in t e r m s of s t r e n g t h and flexibility. f a c t o r i e s and college campuses. as in ' u n i t i n g devices t h r o u g h B l u e t o o t h ' . or ring.Seagate 7 6 2 . The high-speed data highways of t h e Internet are called backbones. 7 6 0 . The name B l u e t o o t h is derived f r o m a Danish Viking King. A t y p i c a l f i b r e . but copper is widely used in c o m m u n i c a t i o n s because it costs m u c h less 754. Most intercontinental Internet traffic passes through underwater fibreoptic cables. A t o k e n ring controls access of individual c o m p u t e r s to the n e t w o r k . South Pacific Railroad laid d o w n t e l e g r a p h wires across t r a c k s t o help railway s t a t i o n s keep in t o u c h . Harald B l a t a n d . The idea of B l u e t o o t h t e c h n o l ogy was b o r n in 1994. or 3 2 . of a fibre-optic cable 33 • . hence t h e inspiration f o r t h e name. Long b e f o r e t h e expression 'local area n e t w o r k ' (LAN) became part of t h e w o r l d ' s technical v o c a b u l a r y . Sprint and AT&T o w n t h e major backbones in t h e US.5 billion bits of data per second.

752. Nokia. 753. P r o g r a m s t h a t are small and un-useful. c o d e n a m e d " B l u e t o o t h " by five companies: Ericsson. In the mid-1980s. 750. NANA is t h e newsgroups news. coined t h e wor 'netiquette'. 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S • 3 4 . 751. but d e m o n s t r a t e a point. For example.net-abuse. A b o u t 6 0 million devices shipped w i t h FireWire ports in 2 0 0 2 . 754. Noddy p r o g r a m s are o f t e n w r i t t e n by people learning a new language or system. V a n n e v a r Bush. The a r c h e t y p a l noddy p r o g r a m is t h e " h e l l o w o r l d " p r o g r a m . a c c o r d i n g t o research f i r m In-Stat/MDR. 0 01 (0 o 'E 3 E E o o 748. Ericsson Mobile C o m m u n i c a t i o n s initiated a s t u d y t o i n v e s t i g a t e the feasibility of a low-power low-cost radio interface b e t w e e n mobile phones and t h e i r accessories. They called it FireWire.net-abuse. HTML ( h y p e r t e x t m a r k u p language). In 1998. circa 1983.755. Each individual n e w s g r o u p is o f t e n r e f e r r e d to by adding a l e t t e r to NANA. IBM. In 1994. Tim Berners-Lee set d o w n t h e basics of t h e World Wide Web. d e v o t e d to f i g h t i n g n e t w o r k abuse and spam. Intel. flirtatious messages that users of Bluetooth enabled mobile devices broadcast to other Bluetooth enabled devices in the area. MIT. In N o r t h A m e r i c a this m i g h t be called a 'Mickey Mouse' p r o g r a m . later t h e vice-president and dean of t h e Electri cal Engineering d e p a r t m e n t .*. engineers at Apple C o m p u t e r d e v e l o p e d a high-speed m e t h o d of t r a n s f e r r i n g data to and f r o m t h e h a r d drives in Macintosh desktops while s i m p l i f y i n g the i n t e r n a l cabling. NANAU w o u l d refer t o news. a speciali n t e r e s t g r o u p was f o r m e d .usenet. 7 4 9 . f i r s t proposed t h e basics of h y p e r t e x t in 1945.admin. HTTP(HyperText T r a n s f e r P r o t o c o l ) and URLs (Universal Resource L o c a t o r s ) in 1990.admin. 'Toothing' is random sending of sexually charged. and Toshiba. are called 'Noddy' p r o g r a m s . Chuq v o n Rospach of Apple C o m p u t e r .

I B B 1987 743. infects c o m m a n d . One of t h e most c o m m o n viruses.exe and . 2. Found o n t h e Apple II oper a t i n g system. n Fred Cohen defines a c o m p u t e r virus as "a p r o g r a m t h a t 00 o> can affect other c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m s by modifying t h e m in such a way as t o include a (possibly e v o l v e d ) copy of itself. MacMag and t h e Scores virus cause t h e first major Macintosh outbreaks. J e r u s a l e m . c o m files. 1 1986 35Q . The virus a f f e c t s b o t h . Theories f o r self-replicating p r o g r a m s are first developed. I 745." T w o daredevil Pakistani p r o g r a m m e r s ." or in t h e public d o m a i n . and 3 are s o m e of t h e f i r s t viruses " i n t h e wild. replace the executable code in t h e boot sector of a f l o p p y disk w i t h t h e i r o w n code designed t o infect each 3 6 0 K B floppy accessed on any drive. is unleashed. Apple Viruses 1. Basit and Amjad. The Lehigh virus.Seagate COMPUTER VIRUS TIMELINE 1949 00 7 4 7 .com files. 7 4 6 . the viruses spread across Texas t h r o u g h p i r a t e d games. one of t h e f i r s t file viruses.

v i r u s p r o g r a m s d e v e l o p e d by a major c o m p a n y . It is spread t h r o u g h M i c r o s o f t Word documents. The C h e r n o b y l virus spreads quickly via . Bubble Boy strikes. The Love Bug. I o> Tequila is t h e first widespread p o l y m o r p h i c virus f o u n d in t h e wild. The Virus Creation Laboratory (VCL) is also made available. a> o S y m a n t e c launches N o r t o n A n t i v i r u s .m a i l hoax t e a r s t h r o u g h t h e I n t e r n e t c o m m u n i t y . sends itself o u t via Outlook. in t u r n . 733. Bubble Boy is t h e f i r s t w o r m t h a t does not depend on t h e recipient o p e n i n g an a t t a c h m e n t for infection to set in. 1992 739. 740. Excel. 734. The Good Times e . As m a n y as 1.300 viruses are in existence. 735. Word Concept becomes one of t h e most prevalent viruses in t h e mid-1990s. As soon as t h e user opens t h e e-mail. also k n o w n as t h e ILOVEYOU virus. 1994 737. • 36 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S . The hoax w a r n s of a malicious virus t h a t will erase an e n t i r e hard drive. S t r a n g e B r e w was t h e f i r s t v i r u s t o i n f e c t J a v a files.exe files. It's a toolkit that turns ordinary viruses into polymorphic viruses. 1990 738. The Melissa virus executes a m a c r o in a d o c u m e n t a t t a c h e d to an e-mail. f o r w a r d s t h e d o c u m e n t to 5 0 people in the user's Outlook address book. The Dark Avenger Mutation Engine (DAME) is created. >o o* The Baza. It also sends usernames and pass w o r d s t o t h e virus' a u t h o r . which . 1998 1999 2000 2000 1995 736. one of t h e first a n t i . a new v a r i a t i o n of t h e Melissa virus. and Linux respectively. The ' r e s u m e ' v i r u s uses a Word m a c r o t o infect Outlook and spread itself.741. 732.Resume. is d e t e r m i n e d to be in t h e wild. 731.A. Laroux and Staog viruses are the first to infect 0* W i n d o w s 9 5 files. W97M. P o l y m o r p h i c viruses were specially designed to make d e t e c t i o n d i f f i c u l t for virus scanners.

t h e relatively benign ' S l a m m e r ' w o r m . 729. t x t " extension. also known as Sapphire. luring recipients i n t o opening it. i n f e c t i n g 7 5 . Smith. spreads across t h e Internet. becomes t h e fastest spreading w o r m till date. 11th 3' 3 m 5" n> </) 725. In J a n u a r y . disguised as a joke e-mail about the stages of life. David L. The virus is one of t h e most sophisticated t o date. m a n d a t i n g a fine and i m p r i s o n m e n t for people w h o spread t h e m . o o 3 •o c •a The 'Stages' virus. COMMUNICATIONS TIMELINE U M U 37D . The 'Anna K o u r n i k o v a ' virus w o r r i e s analysts who believed it was w r i t t e n with a 'tool kit' t h a t would allow p r o g r a m mers to c r e a t e viruses. Shortly a f t e r the S e p t e m b e r attacks. 'Stages' is hidden in an a t t a c h m e n t w i t h a false " . is sentenced t o 2 0 m o n t h s in f e d e r a l prison in New Jersey. A u t h o r of t h e Melissa virus. The Sobig w o r m becomes t h e one of t h e first to join the spam c o m m u n i t y . The t a r g e t is 'denial of service a t t a c k ' on t h e SCO Group. 723. The M y D o o m or Novarg w o r m spreads t h r o u g h e-mails faster t h a n any previous virus or w o r m .Seagate China t i g h t e n s regulations against viruses. the Nimda virus infects c o m p u t e r s all over t h e w o r l d . 0 0 0 c o m p u t e r s in j u s t 10 minutes.

which used symbols carved on a w o o d e n block. 710. clay. .p i c t o g r a p h s of o in accounts w r i t t e n on clay tablets. 0* o First m o v a b l e type. The very first postal service. o 3 5 0 0 BC t o 2 9 0 0 BC: The Phoenicians develop an alphabet. (\l S o m e t i m e s fire messages used instead of humans. 712. 709. 717. 714. 715. 718. Q < 2 n The Romans establish postal services. w h e r e w h a t c h a n g e d t h e w o r l d most. 711. in China. Many say t h a t o this. to 170 BC: Papyrus rolls and early p a r c h m e n t s made of dried r e e d s . 708. H e l i o g r a p h s . U m t o 100 BC: Human messengers on f o o t or horseback o o c o m m o n in Egypt and China w i t h messenger relay stations built. f o r g o v e r n m e n t use. 716. i n v e n t e d in China by Pi Sheng. o m in The Greeks use a phonetic alphabet w r i t t e n f r o m left FO m o Oldest r e c o r d of w r i t i n g in China. The Greeks start t h e very first library. in Tsai Lun of China invents paper as we know it.R o m a n E m p e r o r Tiberius uses m i r r o r s t o send messages. t o right. 713.f i r s t p o r t a b l e and light w r i t i n g surfaces. o o m o r^ w (J C O o o 0* o m v O N 1o m o n in o C D o o in on bones. The Egyptians develop n hieroglyphic w r i t i n g . 720. II in First w o o d e n p r i n t i n g press invented in China.721. m o The Sumerians develop c u n e i f o r m w r i t i n g . The first encyclopedia is w r i t t e n in Syria. 719. First r e c o r d e d use of h o m i n g pigeons used to send a message t h e winners of t h e Olympic Games t o Athenians. along w i t h the i n v e n t i o n of t h e wheel.

5' "SU » 5' 705. Samuel Morse invents t h e Morse code. Melvyl Dewey invents t h e Dewey Decimal System f o r o r d e r i n g library books.p r i m i t i v e image making makes its e n t r y . J o s e p h Nicephore Ni6pce achieves t h e first p h o t o g r a p h i c image. an office c o p y i n g machine. J o s e p h Henry invents t h e first electric t e l e g r a p h . 39D . Claude Chappe invents t h e f i r s t long-distance t e l e g r a p h line. The first newspapers appear in Europe. Englishman Henry Mill receives t h e f i r s t patent for a type-writer. The US s t a r t s t h e Pony Express f o r mail delivery. Camera Obscura i n v e n t e d . Coleman Sellers invents t h e K i n e m a t o s c o p e . Samuel Morse invents t h e f i r s t long distance electric t e l e g r a p h line. Charles W h e a t s t o n e r e p r o d u c e s sound in a p r i m i t i v e sound box t h e first m i c r o p h o n e .Seagate 707. r> o "o c r+ 3 J o h a n n e s Gutenberg invents a p r i n t i n g press with metal m o v a b l e t y p e . T h o m a s Edison patents t h e m i m e o g r a p h . Germany. Alexander Graham Bell patents t h e electric telephone. Alexander Bain p a t e n t s t h e f i r s t fax machine. His first p r i n t e d book? The Holy Bible. First daily newspaper is published in Leipzig.a machine t h a t flashed a series of still p h o t o g r a p h s o n t o a screen. It was called t h e Einkommende Zeitung.

00 00 George Eastman patents t h e 00 Kodak roll f i l m camera. 691. 681. This is debatable. the firstTV camera. Thomas Edison patents t h e p h o n o g r a p h i t h a wax cylinder as recording m e d i u m . It allowed e l e c t r o n i c signals to be amplified.s o m e say it was Edison. 682. First regular comic books. J o h n Logie Baird t r a n s m i t s t h e first e x p e r i m e n t a l television signal. 688. Lee DeForest invents t h e e l e c t r o n i c a m p l i f y i n g t u b e or t r i o d e . T h o m a s Edison d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e first talking m o t i o n picture. is invented by Vladimir Kosma Z w o r y k i n . A l m o n S t r o w g e r p a t e n t s t h e direct dial telephone or a u t o matic t e l e p h o n e exchange. o J First c r o s s . t h o u g h . 686. 1923 1925 • 40 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S . 683. 689. 687. Guglielmo Marconi i m p r o v e s wireless t e l e g r a p h y . some say it was Charles Cros. 684. Emile Berliner invents t h e g r a m o p h o n e . 680. Eadweard Muybridge invents high-speed p h o t o g r a p h y c r e a t i n g t h e first pictures t h a t c a p t u r e d m o t i o n . 685.c o n t i n e n t a l t e l e p h o n e 5j call made. 1877 693. i m p r o v i n g t e l e p h o n e s and radios. v O O First radios w i t h t u n e r s giving access t o d i f f e r e n t v stations. First t e l e p h o n e a n s w e r i n g machines c o m e up. Iconoscope.1879 1887 6881 1894 1898 1904 1906 692.

r p m . <•> o C TJ 3 i+ 5" >2 £ 2L 3 677. The t r a n s i s t o r is invented.Seagate 679. The Long Playing r e c o r d is invented. a m Radio p o p u l a r i t y spreads w i t h t h e Golden Age of radio. CBS is founded. NBC s t a r t s t w o radio n e t w o r k s . First TV broadcasts in t h e US. The 4 5 . N e t w o r k TV starts in t h e US.r e c o r d is invented. the first successful talking m o t i o n picture. 5" ( D 675. Warner Brothers Studios i n v e n t s a way to r e c o r d sound separately f r o m t h e film on large disks. 76. playing at 33 rpm. and s y n c h r o n i s e d sound and m o t i o n p i c t u r e t r a c k s upon playback. C o m p u t e r s such as H a r v a r d ' s Mark I put into public service. Scheduled TV broadcasts begin. First television broadcasts in England. Warner Brothers releases The Jazz Singer. D I G I T . 673. M o v i e t o n e s y s t e m of r e c o r d i n g f i l m sound on an audio t r a c k r i g h t on t h e f i l m invented.

Douglas Engelbart invented the mouse as a pointing device for c o m p u t e r s .6 7 2 . It was p a t e n t e d as t h e X-Y indicator in 1968. FC-PGA (Flip Chip-Pin Grid A r r a y ) is a m i c r o c h i p design developed by Intel f o r its faster m i c r o p r o c e s s o r s . 671. 2 6 6 8 . Intel is s h o r t for I n t e g r a t e d Electronics. used in m i c r o c h i p s w i t h over one million t r a n s i s t o r s . UJ u a. ULSI stands for Ultra Large Scale Integration. invented in 1979. "The a m o u n t of i n f o r m a t i o n storable in one square inch of silicon will double e v e r y 18 m o n t h s . • 42 . In 1963. Intel co-founder Gordon Moore said in 1965. " This came t o be k n o w n as Moore's Law. was t h e first spreadsheet p r o g r a m available for o m p u t e r s . 6 6 9 . VisiCalc. ^u w e 1 6 6 7 o. ! 6 6 6 . A fat Mac application is an application p r o g r a m for the Macintosh c o m p u t e r that works on a Mac running on a Motorola 6 8 0 0 0 series chip. 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S 6 7 0 .

you would find 4 7 signatures. Intel's code name for its e f f o r t t o make t h e one GHz micro processor was Project Foster. 0 0 0 .i n c h square sili con chip has t h e p o w e r of t h e 1949 ENIAC c o m p u t e r . computer 6 5 7 . A message was inscribed on t h e chip. If you happened to open up the case of the original Macintosh. The c o m p u t i n g for t h e Pioneer 10 s p a c e c r a f t was done by t h e Intel 4 0 0 4 microprocessor. Intel Corporation. w h e n y o u care e n o u g h to steal the v e r y b e s t " ! A m o d e r n g u a r t e r . Robert Noyce and G o r d o n Moore. This chip is more powerful a room-sized '40s than 658. A n d r e w Grove. 6 5 9 . 6 5 6 . i o <> • 6 6 3 . t h e y s t a r t e d calling it Intel. Soon a f t e r . Stan Mazor and Federico Faggin designed t h e P e n t i u m Chip t h a t was launched on March 2 2 . IBM was i n c o r p o r a t e d in 1911 under the name ComputingTabulating-Recording Company. which said. The CVAX chip used a DEC Micro VAX I microprocessor. 664. Intel's Flying Pentium Ads and t h e 'Intel Inside' logo w e r e made on an Apple Macintosh. s t a r t e d N M Electronics. in Russian. He f i n a l l y s e t t l e d on ' P e n t i u m ' a f t e r spending $ 4 0 . one for each member of Apple's Macintosh division as of 1982.Seagate 6 6 5 . Apple introduced the Macintosh. o 3 o 6 6 2 . b 6 0 . 1 9 9 3 . In J u l y 1968. Claude Shannon f i r s t s h o w e d t h a t e l e c t r o n i c s w i t c h i n g c i r c u i t s could p e r f o r m logical operations. the first PC with a graphical user interface. f o r m e r Chairman. In 1938. 6 5 5 . 43 • . was flooded w i t h over 120 names to choose f r o m f o r its latest p r o c e s s o r . which occupied a full city block. 1984 was the year of the GUI. w o •a c 661. Ted Hoff. "VAX.

In 1 9 8 4 . a low-end p r o d u c t . 651. 6 4 7 . 6 5 0 . Wintel c o m p u t e r s . Hewlett Packard i n t r o d u c e d t h e mopier in 1996. 2 5 . It was t h e f i r s t e n t i r e l y keyo p e r a t e d calculating m a c h i n e . Intel c r e a t e d t h e Timna processor in 2001. 0 0 0 t i m e s faster t h a n the 8 0 8 8 . The f i r s t m i c r o p r o c e s s o r to make a real splash in t h e m a r k e t was t h e Intel 8 0 8 8 . Windows Me s t a r t e d a new t e c h n o l ogy called System File P r o t e c t i o n t h a t p r e v e n t e d applications f r o m o v e r w r i t i n g key system files. The C o m p t o m e t e r was i n v e n t e d by Dorr Felt. 6 5 2 . PCs w i t h an Intel processor and running a Windows o p e r a t i n g system.a practical adding and listing machine. for eight oscillators. high-quality a l t e r n a t i v e to p h o t o c o p y i n g . a p r i n t e r t h a t o f f e r s a low-cost. 6 4 6 . calculating an early machine 6 4 5 . Apple C o m p u t e r i n t r o d u c e d t h e Apple lie model l a p t o p . while he was making t h e film Fantasia in 1940. i n t r o d u c e d in 1979 and i n c o r p o r a t e d into t h e IBM PC.6 5 4 . 649. 6 4 8 .b i t c o m p u t e r on one chip. i n t r o d u c e d in 1974.i n c h f l o p p y d r i v e . 642. account for 8 0 percent of PCs in use t o d a y . came f r o m Walt Disney. • 44 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S . but it was given a hasty burial a f t e r problems c r o p p e d up w i t h t h e m e m o r y t r a n s l a t o r hub (MTH).b i t a r c h i t e c t u r e was under t h e code name Merced. The comptometer. w h i c h had an i n t e r n a l 5 . The f i r s t microprocessor to make it into a home c o m p u t e r was the Intel 8 0 8 0 . 6 4 4 . Hewlett Packard's first o r d e r . Intel's project on the first processor to use the new 6 4 . The P e n t i u m 4 runs code about 5 . a c o m p l e t e 8 .

In a c o m p u t e r m o n i t o r . 0 0 0 volts in parts of t h e circuitry.f o r . the v o l t a g e gets boosted to 3 0 . TWAIN is short for ' t e c h n o l o g y w i t h o u t an i n t e r e s t i n g name'. 637. g d i g i t / n a monitor. A peer-to-peer N e t w o r k is a t y p e of n e t w o r k in which each w o r k s t a t i o n has equivalent capabilities and responsibilities. It still exists. 3 6 4 0 . J a m e s Gosling c r e a t e d PROM ( P r o g r a m m a b l e Reado n l y M e m o r y ) is m e m o r y p r o g r a m m e d at t h e t i m e of manufacturing.& o g r a t i o n in a single p r o d u c t .p r o f i t organisation. It r e p r e s e n t s t h e imaging i n d u s t r y . 638. o c 639. When it opened way back in 1993. •o o 3 n> 641. 6 3 5 . o ' S t i n g e r ' was t h e c o d e n a m e M i c r o s o f t used for its s m a r t phone p l a t f o r m t h a t was unveiled in 2001. 6 3 4 . established in 1969. The TWAIN Working Group is a n o t . for example. . without there being. The first ever ISP was CompuServe. J a v a at Sun M i c r o s y s t e m s . It unites e n t e r p r i s e n application i n t e g r a t i o n (EAI) and business-to-business (B2B) inte. and you'll most f e q u e n t l y see TWAIN d r i v e r s w i t h scanners. The Trojan Room became t h e world's first I n t e r n e t site t o use a webcam. under AOL Time Warner. It took little time for It t o develop a cult following.Seagate 6 4 3 . a central server. He c a m e up w i t h t h e n a m e ' J a v a ' while debating over it at a c o f f e e shop. 6 3 6 . ed the voltage gets boostto 30 KVolts in some parts Did y o u know t h a t t h e f i r s t c o m p u t e r t o p e r f o r m a t r i l l i o n o p e r a t i o n s per s e c o n d w a s c a l l e d G r a v i t y P i p e l i n e ? 45 • . The Biztalk Server is a M i c r o s o f t p r o d u c t .

6 2 5 . In 1982. 624. It calculated at t h e t h e n . 0 0 0 additions per second. The first laptop c o m p u t e r was designed in 1979 by William Moggridge of Grid Systems Corp. 6 2 6 .p h e n o m e n a l r a t e of 5 . 6 5 1 . The high-speed data high ways of the Internet are called backbones. It had 3 4 0 kilobytes of bubble m e m o r y . 3 CL O c < D C Uf o Q. A n d r e w Fluegelman c r e a t e d t h e first ever s h a r e w a r e . E o u o Q. The C o m m o d o r e 6 4 was t h e best-selling PC of its time. k n o w n as PC-Talk. ' B i o m e t r i c s ' is the t e r m for the technology that performs i d e n t i f i c a t i o n by f i n g e r p r i n t . It had a large m e m o r y capacity for t h e t i m e . 6 2 9 . The ENIAC was developed way back in 1946 at the University of Penn sylvania. The CD-ROM made its debut in 1984 through the combined efforts of Phillips and Sony. 6 3 0 . It was a c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s o f t w a r e . p o r t a b l e c o m p u t e r called t h e Dyna book in t h e 1970s. Did y o u know t h a t t h e University of Waterloo 'stole' Version 7 of Unix b e f o r e it was released? Alan Kay of the Xerox Palo A l t o Research Center envisioned t h e f i r s t notebook-sized. The popular CD recording s o f t w a r e Nero Burning ROM is n a m e d a f t e r t h e Roman Emperor Nero Claudius Caesar A u g u s t u s Germanicus. . retinal.6 4 KB. 6 2 7 . 6 3 2 . and voice scans. low-cost f l o p p y disks. w h o is said to have ben playing music while Rome was burning.6 3 3 . and colour graphics.

38 M B p s . a circuit board. Many medical schools in t h e US provide financial aid t o s t u d e n t s t o purchase handhelds as they o f f e r PDAs have come a long way since devices like the Newton 615.Seagate Isrf 623. In 1980. if y o u said a=2. 1X equals 1. t h e n 3 would 'become' 2. m a r k i n g Microsoft's first f o r a y into t h e h a r d w a r e world. t h e r e l e a s e of t h e 8 0 2 8 6 p r o c e s s o r . and 3+3 w o u l d add up t o 4! Did you know t h a t Windows XP was code-named Whistler? The first digital c o m p u t e r w e i g h e d 3 0 tons. In CD-ROM drives. The C e l e r o n p r o c e s s o r w a s l a u n c h e d in 1 9 9 9 . Handheld Device Markup Language (HDML) is a simple language used t o define hyper text-like c o n t e n t and applica tions for hand held devices.telephone and o 3 e n t e r t a i n m e n t systems. 614. Passengers could o access and control in-car 3 •a navigation. a w h o p p i n g 15 million 286-based personal c o m p u t e r s were installed globally. •o In early 2 0 0 2 . a n d / o r any h a r d w a r e device t h a t attaches t o a PC's I/O port to add h a r d w a r e capabilities. and t h e n said 3=a. Microsoft a n n o u n c e d t h a t t h e BMW 7. Microsoft i n t r o d u c e d t h e Z8 0 SoftCard. 613. 619. A 'dongle' is a security or copy p r o t e c t i o n device consisting of h a r d w a r e .a little over nine t i m e s faster t h a n CDs. as p a r t of Intel's s t r a t e g y to develop processors for specific market segments. s o f t w a r e or b o t h w o r k i n g in c o m b i n a t i o n . TJ C In old F o r t r a n compilers. 616. 617. 47 • . 620. 622. < D 3 W i t h i n j u s t s i x y e a r s of 618. 1X is equal t o 150 KBps. The card was designed f o r t h e Apple II computer. In DVDs.series luxury o sedans were now running t h e Windows CE embedded o p e r a t i n g f> s y s t e m .

advanced applications. It flopped. expensive and complicated. But t h e N e w t o n was t o o big. and has a specialised alphabet. w h i c h is less t h a n one percent the size of Windows 9 8 or t h e Mac OS. and its h a n d w r i t i n g r e c o g n i t i o n p r o g r a m was poor. etc. The 'danger zone' is typically when t h e t e m p e r a t u r e goes above 6 0 degrees. 612. such as b e t w e e n s y n t h e sizers and c o m p u t e r s . Two popular h a n d w r i t i n g r e c o g n i t i o n s o f t w a r e for PDAs are G r a f f i t i and J o t .services like patient trackers. The Palm OS f i t s in less t h a n 100K. d r u g databases. A cabinet should 'MIDI' stands for Musical I n s t r u m e n t always be properly Digital Interface. 6 0 8 . Data and p r o g r a m s added later are s t o r e d in RAM. It stores basic programs on a ROM c h i p .t h e y r e m a i n intact even w h e n t h e m a c h i n e shuts down. even t h o u g h it was ahead of its t i m e . . 6 0 5 . Seagate Tech Factoid: W h a t does 5 0 GB of s t o r a g e r e a l l y m e a n ? Y o u c a n s t a c k 3 piles of s i n g l e s p a c e d t y p e w r i t t e n pages t a l l e r t h a n t h e E i f f e l t o w e r a n d t h e d a t a t o s u p p o r t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n is about 5 0 gigabytes. A PDA doesn't have a hard drive. 6 1 0 . G r a f f i t i requires t h a t each l e t t e r be r e c o r d e d in one u n i n t e r r u p t e d m o t i o n . 651. O U f . CPUs typically o p e r a t e at 4 0 t o 5 0 degrees Celsius. 6 0 6 . I t c o m m e c i a l l y available was e n h a n c e d p e r f o r m a n c e of Apple's N e w t o n Message Pad. It's a s t a n d a r d for ventilated sending digitally encoded music i n f o r m a t i o n between e l e c t r o n i c devices. The P e n t i u m III p r o c e s s o r One of the first PDAs to be w a s l a u n c h e d in 1 9 9 9 .

599. while t h e latter are pressed. 6 0 3 . It used only vacuum tubes. The nVidia GeForce 6 8 0 0 Ultra has 222 million t r a n s i s t o r s . 597. most Keyboards are 'AZERTY' instead of the regular QWERTY. According to Xerox. Remington-Rand developed the first high-speed p r i n t e r for use on the Univac computer. The d i f f e r e n c e between CDRs and music CDs (or o t h e r c o m m e r c i a l l y p r o d u c e d CDs) are t h a t t h e f o r m e r are b u r n t . Wisconsin in French keyboards are 'AZERTY' instead 1976." The IBM 3 8 0 0 of 'QWERTY' Printing System was the i n d u s t r y ' s first high-speed. •o o I 3 < D 3 •a c 3 602. 5 9 8 • The inkjet p r i n t e r was i n v e n t e d in 1976 but it took t w o decades f o r it t o become a c o m m o n h o u s e h o l d item. •o r> o o er> 600. W. which is the r e c o r d for t h e m a x i m u m number of transistors o n a chip. and had no relays.Seagate 6 0 4 . 'Pressing' is a m a n u f a c t u r i n g t e c h n i q u e very d i f f e r e n t f r o m burning. The first H e w l e t t Packard DeskJet printer for household use cost $1000. W o o l w o r t h ' s N o r t h A m e r i c a n data center in Milwaukee. The original laser printer called EARS was developed at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center beginning in 1969 and completed in November 1971. Did you know t h a t t h e IBM PC once sold as 'Model 5150'? In France. 601. "The Xerox 9 7 0 0 Electronic Printing System. 'Colossus' was the first totally electronic computing device." A c c o r d i n g t o IBM. was released in 1977. In 1953. the first xerographic laser printer product. d i g i t 49 • . laser p r i n t e r t h a t o p e r a t e d at speeds of m o r e t h a n 100 impressions per m i n u t e . " t h e v e r y f i r s t IBM 3 8 0 0 was installed in the c e n t r a l a c c o u n t i n g o f f i c e at F.

b a s e d personal c o m p u t e r s were installed globally. Its success s k y r o c k e t e d Intel i n t o F o r t u n e 5 0 0 . The 8 0 8 0 m i c r o p r o c e s s o r became the brains of t h e first P C . the user 0> g r a d u a t e d f r o m c o m m a n d . c a > c o a. Within just six years of its release. Users could a f f o r d a kit for the Altair f o r just $ 3 9 5 . The 8 0 8 6 and 8 0 8 8 m i c r o p r o c e s s o r s became t h e brains of IBM's new superhit p r o d u c t the IBM PC. The Pentium Pro processor.5 9 5 . t h e Mark-8 was hailed as one of t h e f i r s t c o m p u t e r s for t h e home. 590. The 8 0 0 8 m i c r o p r o c e s s o r . 591. named a f t e r a d e s t i n a t i o n of t h e Starship Enterprise f r o m t h e popular Star Trek series. In 1974. a w h o p p i n g 15 million 2 8 6 .t h e Altair. This was Intel's first ever microprocessor. E o u 587. 0I B timeline INTEL PROCESSOR TIMELINE The 4 0 0 4 micro processor. h a n d . 0 0 0 transistors.l i n e t o point-and-click c o m p u t i n g . 589. The processor e v e n t u a l l y propelled speedy c o m p u t e r . c3 u a.a i d e d design. This processor f e a t u r e d a O stagering 2 7 5 . It was designed specifically to fuel 32-bit server and w o r k s t a t i o n applications. With this. m 0* o* The Pentium processor. 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S 592. such as sound. Interestingly. a u 588.w r i t t e n and p h o t o images. in C The 8 0 3 8 6 m i c r o p r o c e s s o r . Radio Electronics r e f e r r e d to a device called the Mark-8 t h a t used this processor. . o> CO The 4 8 6 DX m i c r o p r o c e s s o r . This processor allowed c o m p u t e r s t o process real-world data. C\l 00 The 8 0 2 8 6 m i c r o p r o c e s s o r .

apart f r o m enabling e . all at a f f o r d a b l e prices. The Itanium processor. . along w i t h high p e r f o r m a n c e . The processor enabled t h e speeding up of e . The P e n t i u m II Xeon Processor. 80. This chip enabled PC users t o capture. •a n 585. It p r o m i s e d 579. i outstanding p e r f o r m a n c e . Users could now c r e a t e professional-quality movies and render 3D graphics in r e a l t i m e . The t e c h n o l o g y o f f e r s new capabilities specifically f o r t h e mobile world. s u p p o r t i n g business applications. and a 4 0 0 MHz p o w e r . aann . S The Itanium 2 processor. such as increased b a t t e r y life. this processor clocked a phenomenal 1.. It f e a t u r e s a 2MB L2 cache. TJ 583. • 5 • • s H I O Intel releases t h e P e n t i u m 4 Processor Extreme Edition t h a t s u p p o r t s H y p e r T h r e a d i n g t e c h n o l o g y . 581. 577. and is designed for gamers and t h e like.c o m m e r c e applications.c o m m e r c e s e c u r i t y transactions.5 giga hertz. The processor has 2 MB of L3 cache. The Intel Centrino Mobile t e c h n o l o g y launched. This processor o f f e r s users a choice of o p e r a t i n g systems. The P e n t i u m 4 processor.o p t i m i z e d s y s t e m bus. edit and share digital photos via t h e I n t e r n e t .Seagate ii ! 6 Ui I (J\ - The P e n t i u m II Processor. This processor f e a t u r e s innovations specially designed f o r w o r k s t a t i o n s t h r i v i n g on business applications. It is built on Intel's 9 0 nm f a b r i c a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y . o > 1 0* The P e n t i u m III Xeon processor. The Centrino M (Mobile) Processor debuts. While t h e 4 0 0 4 chipran at 108 kilohertz. It delivered world-class p e r f o r m a n c e . IBBwy' o The Xeon processor. o o TJ fl> 3 O 3 O C 4.

Reynold J o h n s o n . w h o headed t h e IBM t e a m t h a t was t o develop t h e first RAM. In 1970. in Education A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . t h e newly f o r m e d Intel publicly released t h e 1103. In t h e 1950s. Robert Heath Dennard.5 7 6 . of t h e IBM T J Watson Research Center.S. J a c o b Rabinow invented the first magnetic c o m p u t e r m e m o r y t o use a disk instead of a tape f o r data s t o r a g e . Static Random Access M e m o r y (SRAM) is faster and b e t t e r t h a n Dynamic Random Access M e m o r y (DRAM). c 0) 1 5 7 1 . In 1970. was a B. By 1972 it was t h e best selling s e m i c o n d u c t o r m e m o r y chip in t h e world. was t h e i n v e n t o r of RAM.K Static Random Access M e m o r y (SRAM) chip. 575. 574. 1. FPM DRAM (Fast Page Mode DRAM) was t h e most c o m m o n kind of d y n a m i c RAM in p e r s o n a l computers. E o ——— Ul £ 5 7 0 . 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S 569. The p r o d u c t i o n of a 32 MB DRAM chip t h a t weighs t w o g r a m s requires 32 Kg of w a t e r .6 Kg of fossil fuel. 7 0 0 g m of e l e m e n t a l gases and 72 gm of hazardous chemicals. +» M o • 52 . Fairchild C o r p o r a t i o n invented t h e first 2 5 6 . Prior t o newer f o r m s of DRAM. 5 7 2 . t h e first DRAM chip. 573.

in t o d a y ' s prices. and sold f o r C > o o 565. a hard disk head does not touch the platter surface. It floats a few micrometres above the platter. At t h o s e prices. Super A u d i o CD players. 53D . On April 2 2 n d 2 0 0 4 . The first hard drives c o m m e r c i a l l y available w e r e a b o u t 5 t o 10 MB. _ _ •a o I 3 a> 3 564.Seagate 5 6 8 . The f i r s t hard drive available f o r t h e Apple II had a capacity of 5 B. the information on these disks is not striped in any way or protected. $100 per m e g a b y t e . 562. 3 •a can a c c o m m o d a t e m o r e t h a n f o u r t i m e s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n of t h e •o c u r r e n t CD f o r m a t . Contrary to what most people believe. o o •o 3 5 6 7 . 563. However. 0 0 0 . Sony introduced the 3-1/2 floppy disk in 1981. inch Seagate introduced the first hard disk for PCs in 1979. a 4 0 GB hard disk w o u l d cost $ 4 . In late 1955. Just a Bunch Of Disks (JBOD) is a t e r m for one or more disk drives t h a t f o r m a single volume. scientists at S t a n f o r d announced t h e d i s c o v e r y of t h e upper speed limit at which data can be w r i t t e n to a hard drive. 0 0 0 . 561. or Rs 18 c r o r e . t e r m e d t h e RAMAC. o Magnetic Storage 566. Reynold J o h n s o n p r e s e n t e d t h e first-ever w o r k i n g h a r d drive t o IBM m a n a g e m e n t . M a g n e t o r e s i s t i v e (MR) head t e c h n o l o g y is used in disk drives t o allow higher storage densities t h a n t h e older inductive-head technology. c r e a t e d by Sony and Philips Electronics. It held 5 MB of data. This limit is m u c h higher t h a n w h a t is achieved by c u r r e n t drives.

w h i c h is w h y no power supply is r e q u i r e d t o keep data intact. It is possible t o run a P-lll processor w i t h o u t a heatsink. and will replace DDR and flash. causing data loss and h a r d disk damage. and M i c r o s o f t . 5 5 1 .m a g n e t i c R A M . 556. and its specifications were published in an e x t e n s i o n t o t h e Yellow Book. Sony i n t r o d u c e d t h e 3 1/2-inch floppy in 1981. Regular RAM is electricity-based. and g r e a t e r data storage density. lower power c o n s u m p t i o n . It promises faster data access. A hard disk is v e r y v u l n e r a b l e t o vibrations: a minor b u m p can make t h e head crash into t h e disk's surface. aimed at increasing speed and reducing power consumption. Philips. The d a m a g e usually cannot be repaired. so a much m o r e precise laser is r e q u i r e d t o read and w r i t e data o f f DVDs. M R A M . II will be faster and denser t h a n DRAM. The d i f f e r e n c e in CD and DVD t e c h n o l o g y lies m o s t l y in t h e laser DVDs pack the data elements closer t o g e t h e r on the disk. m e m o r y like flash is magenetism-based. being developed by N a n t e r o Corp. GDDR3 is a new standard for RAM in graphics. 558. and t h a t ' s w h y it's volatile. 5 5 3 . In c o n t r a s t . 5 5 5 .5 5 9 . because Intel bundles along p r o t e c t i o n devices t h a t clocks d o w n t h e CPU tc get it back t o a stable t e m p e r a t u r e . NRAM is a new kind of RAM 557. and will be non-volatile. It will use nanotubes t o s t o r e 1s and Os. 5 5 2 . CD-ROM XA was developed j o i n t l y by Sony. 5 5 4 . in Massachusetts. .w i l l p r o b a b l y be out this decade.

Windows 9 5 can officially r u n on a 3 8 6 D X at 2 0 Megahertz. 5 4 3 .•>45. When Windows 3. . 3 million copies were sold in t h e first t w o months. >46. 'Gone Gold' is w h e n a gold c o m p u t e r disk is created. I. At the trial.b i t version t o India. ) 4 8 . The W i n 9 5 / 9 8 logos were c r e a t e d w i t h Freehand on a Macintosh.t h e f l o p p y .i n M i c r o s o f t Office applications is w r o n g l y d e p i c t e d ? The small rectangle is on t h e right instead of on t h e left. 55D . But an e x p e r t witness f o r t h e prosecution w e n t t o w o r k in t h e c o u r t r o o m and u n b u n d l e d Explorer in just 10 minutes! Did y o u know t h a t t h e 'Save' i c o n . T h o u g h t h e highest possible e n c r y p t i o n in Windows 2 0 0 0 was 128bit. w i t h just 4 MB of RAM. At Microsoft.1 was launched. 4 7 . Gates claimed t h a t Internet Explorer could not be unbundled f r o m t h e rest of Windows. Bill Gates went head t o head w i t h t h e United States D e p a r t m e n t of J u s t i c e over the c o m p a n y ' s bundling of s o f t w a r e . j 4 4 .IHI1 . because India was under US sanctions a f t e r Pokhran.Seagate Systems 5 4 9 . Microsoft only sent t h e 4 0 . At t h e t u r n of the millennium.

542. In t h e movie True Lies. > Gene A m d a h l p r o g r a m m e d t h e f i r s t o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m . In 1994. Adele Goldberg. f o r t h e IBM 7 0 4 . 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S • 56 . V) 5 3 5 .indicating t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r s o f t w a r e product coding is f r o z e n and p r o d u c t i o n would now begin. In 1964. The book The Rules of the Net calls UNIX 'the Swiss a r m y knife of the Net'.p e r f o r m Macintosh! V! ance operating system E a t a r g e t e d at t h e next g e n e r a t i o n of servers under the code name K42. 537. Alan Kay. the first truly objectoriented language and OS. > in 5 3 6 . 541. IBM Research labs is w o r k i n g This logo was created on a on building a h i g h . David Bradley w r o t e t h e code for t h e [Ctrl] + [ A l t ] + [Delete] key sequence. 540. MS-DOS was r e f e r r e d t o as 'Domestos'.1. 539. and it runs on PC-compatible machines. Microsoft said t h a t A d a m B a r a t z . The 'Office Lady' is a virtual assistant t h a t bows. OS/2 was developed j o i n t l y by Microsoft and IBM. by people against this o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m . A t one time. all of PARC. serves tea. C P c 5 3 4 . It is considered by many to be superior t o Windows. t h e businessman who finances t h e t e r r o r i s t s runs t h e Arabic edition of Windows 3.a 9 year o l d .w a s t h e y o u n g e s t beta t e s t e r f o r Windows 9 5 . and David Robson. developed SmallTalk-72. a f t e r a brand of local toilet cleaner. The Japanese version of MS Office has a character y o u can't f i n d in any o t h e r version. 5 3 8 .

w 3 531.Seagate (C £ 32. 'WinPad' was M i c r o s o f t ' s failed handheld PC o p e r a t i n g system. one of the first p o r t a b l e o p e r a t i n g systems.0 V) < 3 10 [ D I G I T 57D . ' P o r t a b l e ' means t h a t t h e OS could r u n on d i f f e r e n t hardware. tu MS-DOS was a r o u g h i m i t a t i o n of CP/M. M i c r o s o f t scrapped t h e WinPad p r o j e c t r e p o r t e d l y because t h e y £ c o u l d n ' t f i g u r e out how t o squeeze a v a r i a n t of Windows i n t o an « a f f o r d a b l e handheld size. 530. g w h i c h it developed and killed b e f o r e c o m i n g up w i t h Windows CE. 3 . A w y v e r n is g n a t w o . " W y v e r n " was t h e code name f o r t h e version of Windows CE t h a t 3 s u p p o r t s colour screens f o r t h e Palm-sized PC f o r m a t .l e g g e d f l y i n g d r a g o n w i t h a poisonous spiked tail.

It was publicly unveiled at a c o n f e r e n c e in October. SCO delivers its f i r s t packaged UNIX system. • 58 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S . 2BSD was released mid 1978. The result was a s y s t e m w h i c h a punning colleague called UNICS (UNiplexed I n f o r m a t i o n and C o m p u t i n g S e r v i c e ) .a n 'emascu lated Multics'. Q. 1BSD was released. The third. smaller machine. When Multics was w i t h d r a w n . f o u r t h and f i f t h editions followed. o | JH "5 o i/) a > c 523. Bell Labs was a d o p t i n g t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n c o m p u t e r equip ment. called SCO XENIX System V for Intel 8 0 8 6 and 8 0 8 8 processor-based PCs. The BESYS o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m was c r e a t e d t o deal with these needs. Ken T h o m p s o n and Dennis Ritchie needed t o r e w r i t e an o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m in o r d e t o play space t r a v e l on a n o t h e r . all w i t h i n A T & T / W e s t e r n Electric. SCO was f o u n d e d by Doug and L a r r y Michels as a UNIX p o r t i n g and c o n s u l t i n g c o m p a n y .timeline Bell Labs f o u n d t h e y needed an o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m f o r t h e i r c o m p u t e r c e n t r e which at t h e t i m e was r u n n i n g various batch jobs. AT&T made a decision t o w i t h d r a w Multics and go w i t h GECOS. I o> 01 525 UNIX had been installed on 16 sites. 3BSD was released late 1979. and decided t o join forces with General Electric and MIT t o c r e a t e Multics (Multiplexed I n f o r m a t i o n and C o m p u t i n g Service).

— o •a (D -t 1988 5" tO 1/ <1 V) r-f a> 516. SCO acquired UNIX Systems source t e c h n o l o g y business f r o m Novell C o r p o r a t i o n . < / > 1987: Sun and AT&T laid t h e g r o u n d w o r k f o r business c o m p u t ing in the next decade w i t h an alliance t o develop UNIX System V Release 4. aT The GNU m a n i f e s t o is published in the March 1985 issue 3 of Dr. t h e second o f f e r i n g in Caldera's OpenLinux p r o d u c t line. Red Hat Linux is i n t r o d u c e d . SCO delivered t h e UnixWare 7 o p e r a t i n g system. Ultrix 1. The GNU project s t a r t e d a year and a half ID O c later. short for A d v a n c e d I n t e r a c t i v e e x e c u t i v e . FreeBSD 3.0 f o l l o w e d . was f o u n d e d by Ransom Love and Bryan Sparks. i/) SCO ships SCO UNIX S y s t e m V / 3 8 6 .0 was released on t h e 16th of October. t h e f i r s t v o l u m e c o m m e r c i a l p r o d u c t licensed by AT&T t o use t h e UNIX System trademark. Caldera shipped OpenLinux S t a n d a r d 1. Version 3. . the f i f t h g e n e r a t i o n of SGI UNIX. m u 59D . 513.0 was released. 3 | O 0\ AIX. Q J r+ 2. Oi Caldera Inc.1 on May 5. IRIX 6. Dobb's J o u r n a l . FreeBSD 1. 1987 519.0 was released in December. 515. SCO also acquired t h e UnixWare 2 OS f r o m Novell. w h i c h had acquired it f r o m AT&T's UNIX System L a b o r a t o r i e s . ui o 1985 520. was released o n t h e 6 t h of J u l y . The Sun Solaris 7 o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m was released.Seagate 1984 521. 1994 514. 1989 517.0 was released. was f i r s t O N e n t e r e d into t h e m a r k e t by IBM in February.5. HP-UX 2.

0 E o u Q. George W Bush. 5 0 5 . Bill Gates' home was designed using a Mac! The most f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g c o m p a n y name or t r a d e m a r k o n t h e World Wide Web is IBM. 0) 'E > 5 0 2 . t h e y were a s t o n i s h e d t o f i n d t h a t none of t h e building's c o m p u t e r keyboards had Ws! Bill Gates' c o m p u t e r . S ID l/l 503. in h o n o u r of t h e r e n o w n e d a s t r o n o m e r Carl Sagan. " 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S 5 0 4 . and w o n t h e case. recalled t h a t Gates never put sheets on his bed. a college buddy w h o later became t h e c o m p a n y ' s president.g e e k image was established well b e f o r e his days at M i c r o s o f t . w h o doesn't like M i c r o s o f t . But t h e r e ' s no-one w h o likes t h e PC. and once left f o r vacation in t h e middle of a t h u n d e r s t o r m .w i t h t h e w i n d o w s and door wide open. his d e p a r t i n g aides played a curious practical joke on the incumbent president. Bill Gates once said. 0 01 JE 5 0 1 . When his s t a f f e r s a r r i v e d . Sagan sued Apple. and people w h o d o n ' t like PCs. Steve Ballmer. On Bill Clinton's last day in t h e White House.5 0 6 .12 • 60 . " T h e r e are people w h o d o n ' t like capitalism. g . Apple p r o g r a m m e r s n a m e d a beta version of a novel s o f t w a r e application 'Sagan'.

He was shocked when t h e y agreed a l m o s t immediately! Mashayoshi Son f o u n d e d Softbank at age 23. t h i n k i n g t h e y ' d t u r n him down. The only t h i n g he missed out on was t h e e l e c t r o n i c doggy door. A p a r t i c l e of t o b a c c o s m o k e is 2 5 0 m i c r o i n c h e s . while: A red blood cell is 3 0 0 m i c r o i n c h e s in d i a m e t e r . 494. 499. J o h n Sculley was CEO of Pepsi. or 3 m t o have left t h e venue i m m e d i a t e l y . August 1997 MacWorld I "g trade show. while a b o a r d t h e Russian space s t a t i o n Mir. But Gates just r e m a r k e d o c t h a t t h e pie wasn't v e r y t a s t y . — n o A s t r o n a u t David Wolf was t h e 497. 0 0 0 m i c r o i n c h e s . and was hit in t h e face < 5T w i t h a cream pie. Y o u ' d expect him to have pressed charges. to 496. Before joining Apple. M i c r o s o f t asked Rolling Stones f r o n t . The c o m p a n y h o l d s large stakes in Yahoo!. He Steve Jobs announced to e-mailed his v o t e f o r t h e Housin Apple's partnership w i t h t o n Mayoral elections in N o v e m Q > Microsoft during the ber 1997. if t h e y could use t h e Stones' hit ' S t a r t me up' in p r o m o t i o n s f o r W i n d o w s 9 5 . 495. which was published in Harper's Magazine in February 1999. he asked f o r a ridiculous $12 million. Comdex and Kingston Technologies. A p a r t i c l e of s m o g is 1 0 0 m i c r o i n c h e s . first A m e r i c a n t o exercise his 0) r i g h t t o vote f r o m space.m a n . w o D Bill Gates visited Belgium in February 1998. Stones Seagate Tech Factoid Disk d r i v e r e c o r d i n g head f l y h e i g h t (gap b e t w e e n t h e head and t h e disc w h e n t h e d r i v e is s p i n n i n g ) is less t h a n 1 microinch. A h u m a n h a i r is 4 . Mick J a g g e r .Seagate 500. The audience Fifth grade student Laney Rupp booed f o r 4 2 s e c o n d s ! drew his vision of Bill Gate's $ 4 2 million mansion. 498. A l m o s t jokingly. fmasM .

c o m p u t e r scientist and a u t h o r J a r o n Lanier coined t h e t e r m ' v i r t u a l reality'? The t e r m 'cyberspace' was coined by sci-fi a u t h o r William Gibson. c 4 8 4 . a) 4 8 6 . £ 2 4 8 5 . one was a spoof news release in 1994 that claimed Microsoft was purchasing the Catholic Church. 4 9 2 . The code name for t h e 12 engineers w h o designed t h e f i r s t IBM PC was 'The Dirty Dozen'. 4 8 8 . began in S e p t e m b e r 1975. and was also t h e a u t h o r of t h e book Literary Machines. 4 8 9 . Byte Magazine ceased publication with its July 1998 issue < o Ted Nelson coined t h e t e r m H y p e r t e x t in 1965. Did y o u know t h a t c o m p o s e r . a f o r m e r Osaka Municipal University w o r k i n g for Sharp in t h e early 1970s. The t e r m 'bit' was coined by J o h n Tuckey. w h i c h ceased publication w i t h its J u l y 1998 issue. Sanai Mito. 1483. because Steve Wozniak liked n u m b e r s w i t h r e p e a t i n g digits! The legendary m a g a z i n e ' B y t e ' . and appeared in his 1984 novel Neuromancer. The w o r d f i r s t a p p e a r e d in p r i n t in relation t o c o m p u t e r science sense in 1949.4 9 3 . Of the many rumours about Microsoft. i n v e n t e d t h e LCD. 491. called Shockwave Rider. 6 6 . J o h n Brunner is c r e d i t e d w i t h w r i t i n g t h e first c y b e r p u n k novel. • 62 . Did y o u know t h a t t h e t h r e e f o u n d e r s of Compaq all c a m e f r o m Texas I n s t r u m e n t s ? 4 8 7 . 4 9 0 . The original retail price of t h e Apple I c o m p u t e r was $ 6 6 6 .

Adobe is the second largest software company in the world Adobe Scott McNealy f o u n d e d Sun M i c r o s y s t e m s in 1982. 4 7 5 . The t e r m 'Silicon Valley' was coined by j o u r n a l i s t Don Hoefler. thus. 480. f o u n d e d C o m p u t e r Associates in 1976. o VI Bill Gates' The Road Ahead has been t r a n s l a t e d into 2 5 languages. 63 • . 'Apache' got its name because its f o u n d e r s got s t a r t e d by apply ng a (Dpatches t o code w r i t t e n f o r I/I NCSA's h t t p d daemon. =j H o t m a i l had over 9 million c u s t o m e r s . w o u l d be c a l l e d H e w l e t t fl> I/I 01 3 w o r k i n g on a consulting p r o j e c t f o r t h e CIA.m a i l p r o v i d e r .Seagate (<L 481. i. 4 7 3 . an i m m i g r a n t f r o m Shanghai. f o u n d e d by Sabeer Bhatia and Jack Smith. To one-up t h e m in all respects he called his c o m p a n y International Busines Machines. The name was simply a s h o r t e n e d version of 'San Francisco'. The 01 477. result was 'A PAtCHy' server. Charles Wang. t/i o Hotmail. Sandra Kesinor and L e o n a r d Bosack s t a r t e d Cisco in 1984. t h e G u i n n e s s B o o k of W o r l d R e c o r d s l i s t e d M S N H o t m a i l as t h e w o r l d ' s l a r g e s t f r e e e . L a r r y Ellison and Bob Oats were company they founded P a c k a r d or P a c k a r d Hewlett. t h e name Apache. w i t h more than a 100 million subscribers. ' A d o b e ' came f r o m t h e n a m e of t h e river Adobe Creek t h a t ran behind t h e house of f o u n d e r J o h n Warnock. The code name f o r t h e project was Oracle. 4 7 9 . 4 7 2 . In 2 0 0 1 . The name IBM was started by an 3 decide w h e t h e r t h e CD ex-employee of National Cash Register. 4 7 4 . Later t h e y kept t h e same name f o r t h e company. o 0 TJ 4 7 8 . w e n t online on = 4 t h J u l y 1996. When M i c r o s o f t acquired H o t m a i l in J a n u a r y 1998. I-a a > Bill Hewlett and Dave -i in Packard tossed a coin t o o 4 7 6 .

. .4 6 9 . Heinz Nixdorf f o u n d e d Nixdorf C o m p u t e r Corp. or Adobe Systems Incorporated. t h e name was spelt 'MicroSoft'. Jeff Hawkins invented the Palm Pilot. Senior Executive at Microsoft in charge of Windows 9 5 . Brad Chase. Ifl 0) E (D Q. but the hyphen was e v e n t u a l l y dropped. E o o 3 o fl> c 461. The earliest r e f e r e n c e by Bill Gates made to t h e c o m p a n y name ' M i c r o s o f t ' was in a l e t t e r sent by Gates to c o . The irony is t h a t t h e Palm „ . 464. 4 6 8 . It remained an inde pendent c o r p o r a t i o n until m e r g i n g w i t h Siemens in 1990. which enabled c o u n t y g o v e r n m e n t s t o get federal m o n e y for road projects. 3 C o m changed t h e name of t h e PalmPilot to simply 'Palm' because Pilot Pen Company t h r e a t e n e d a t r a d e m a r k lawsuit. b o u g h t Scientific Data Systems f o r nearly $1 billion—90 times t h e latter's earnings.t h e federal g o v e r n m e n t t h a t gave away similar s o f t w a r e for free. 467. 462. Windows CE and o t h e r pen based devices. left t h e c o m p a n y in 1999 and created a board g a m e called Derivation. . Pen Company makes styli usable on 463. In t h e letter. t h r o w n a t him• a n d remarked it wasn t he tasty {ust Palm. (/> 01 o 01 Q. A c r o b a t . c i t i n g possible brand confusion.. In 1969..f o u n d e r Paul Allen on 2 9 t h November. was f o u n d e d in 1982. Adobe. So 3 C o m backed d o w n and changed t h e name t o 'Palm'. 4 6 5 . w h i c h made s o f t w a r e to analyse t r a f f i c . Bill Gates' m a t h ' S A T score was a perfect 8 0 0 . The c o m p a n y was d r i v e n o u t of business by a huge m o n o p o l y . 1975. Xerox Corp. •64 H'l'MIHiMim . in Germany. Bill Gates' first c o m p a n y was called Traf-O-Data. Steven Gray f o u n d e d t h e A m a t e u r C o m p u t e r Society in 1966 and began publishing t h e ACS Newsletter. and so on. the c o m p a n y behind Photoshop. which is a b o u t English words and phrases and t h e i r origins and meanings. 4 6 0 . 4 6 6 . In 1952.

Bill Gates launched his business career in 1969 at age 14 by f o r m i n g a c o m p a n y named Lakeside P r o g r a m m i n g Group. Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak earned money in college by selling "blue boxes" t o o t h e r students. AT&T is believed t o have e m p l o y e d o v e r a million people at one point. 4 5 8 . d i g i t 65D . in e x c h a n g e f o r c o m p u t e r time. in "Think keep- in in ing with it's trademark o . •o Q J 3 5" 0) 3 a. -a to forefront Different" of PC innovatin. Gates and his f r i e n d Paul Allen signed an agreem e n t w i t h C o m p u t e r Center C o r p o r a t i o n to r e p o r t bugs in PDP-10 s o f t w a r e .Seagate ICQ 4 5 9 . A blue box a t t a c h e d t o a pay t e l e p h o n e and c r e a t e d t h e p r o p e r signals t o allow a user t o make free phone calls. One of t h e largest c o m p a n i e s in t h e world.

A m o n g s t o t h e r uses. J a p a n ' s Earth S i m u l a t o r Center is listed as t h e w o r l d . S e y m o u r Cray. nuclear energy research and petroleum exploration.upercomputing 4 5 6 . • 66 . could not save h i m s e l f . 3 V) c <u c I u u Q. The new s u p e r c o m p u t e r . c r e a t o r of high-end c o m p u t e r s . a n i m a t e d graphics. and is expected t o slash t h e a m o u n t of t i m e it takes t o get a vehicle t o m a r k e t f r o m f o u r years t o 18 m o n t h s .r e c o r d holder at 3 5 . A s u p e r c o m p u t e r executes a single p r o g r a m m u c h f a s t e r t h a n a m a i n f r a m e . But m a i n f r a m e s are considered m o r e p o w e r f u l because t h e y s u p p o r t m o r e m u l t i t a s k i n g .h e died in a car crash. 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S 1 454. The f o u r most p o w e r f u l s u p e r c o m p u t e r s in t h e w o r l d are o w n e d by g o v e r n m e n t agencies or universities. based on IBM's Power 4 and Power 5 t e c h n o l o g y . General Motors has purchased an IBM s u p e r c o m p u t e r t h e companies say is t h e fastest in t h e a u t o m o t i v e i n d u s t r y . <u Q. 2 s 453. s u p e r c o m p u t e r s are used f o r w e a t h e r f o r e casting. m o r e t h a n doubles t h e c o m p u t i n g capacity of GM. 4 5 5 . 8 t e r a f l o p s . whose vehicle was t e s t e d against accidents by his o w n systems. 452.

The first fully transistorised supercomputer was the CDC 1604. designed by Seymour Cray in 1958.000 times faster t h a n Deep Blue. 8 6 TeraFLOPs/sec. 446. o 4 4 9 . This is a measure of the speed at which a computer can perform programmed instructions. The p e r f o r m a n c e of s u p e r c o m p u t e r s is j u d g e d using t h e UNPACK 3 •a benchmark. • 3 to 3 <+ t/> I T3 f* O C ID 447. 448. 67 • . 'FLOPS' refers t o 'floating point operations per second'. •o A u t o m o t i v e companies including Ford. as highperformance c o m p u t e r s can p e r f o r m several million m a t h e m a t i c a l operations per cycle. Each node has 4GB of MIPS stands for 'millions of instructions per second'. i n t r o d u c e d by Jack Dongarra. n 4 5 0 . Bangalore. The fastest s u p e r c o m p u t e r in India is the 574-CPU cluster at Intel. Since it went operational in 2001.V i r g i n i a Earth Simulator Tech's X is a cluster s u p e r c o m p u t e r t h a t contains 1100 Apple G5 systems each having t w o IBM PowerPC 9 7 0 processors rated at 2 GHz. T o y o t a and Daimler o & Chrysler own 12 of t h e 5 0 0 fastest s u p e r c o m p u t e r s in t h e world. T3 C 3 4 4 5 . Apple powers the world's t h i r d most A view of the Japanese powerful s u p e r c o m p u t e r .Seagate 4 5 1 . Researchers making use of high-performance computing tend to be m o r e interested in this number t h a n in MIPS or the m o r e familiar clock speed MHz rating. and represents the speed at which a c o m p u t e r can p e r f o r m m a t h e matical calculations (like multiplication and division). o Blue Gene is t h e n i c k n a m e of t h e new s u p e r c o m p u t e r f r o m IBM t h a t would be 1. t h e Japanese Earth Simulator has consistently claimed t h e t o p spot in the list of the worlds most powerful supercomputers. The MHz rating is not particularly useful here. 444. It has been benchmarked at a speed of 3 5 .

As of November 2 0 0 3 . "Central iron" is slang for a centrally funded c o m p u t i n g resource. H 439.28 TeraFLOPs/sec. t h r o u g h high speed a supercomputer looks something like this interconnects. S. it fell down to 2 5 8 with newer and more powerful supercomputers entering the list. 440. making t h e m t h e most c o m m o n architecture in t h e t o p 5 0 0 supercomputers in the world. 4 4 2 . Q. Industry analysts o f t e n say that clusters cannot provide very high p e r f o r m a n c e and this makes for interesting news-since clusters are now predominant on the list. and just t h r e e traditional 'stratospheric' super computers. Cluster supercomputers are made up by clustering a lot of c o m p u t e r s and connecting t h e m t h r o u g h a high speed network. The Berkeley Computer Corporation was f o r m e d in 1968 t o build a supercomputer that could a c c o m m o d a t e up t o 5 0 0 users at a time. traditional supercomputers-the 'stratospheric' o n e s are monolithic and have several CPUs w o r k i n g in parallel. E o CDAC's ParamPadma cluster supercomputer was ranked in June 2 0 0 3 as the world's 171st fastest. w India's fastest supercomputer is an Intel Xeon cluster owned by Intel. The nine other s u p e r c o m p u t e r s in the list of t o p 10 supercomputers are located in the United States. apart f r o m Japan's Earth Simulator.main m e m o r y and 160 GB of Serial ATA storage and 176 TB total secondary storage. in November 2003. • 68 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S . The CNS IBM R S / 6 0 0 0 Rack is an example of central iron. ranked at 105 in the world. 4 3 8 . Two hundred and eight systems on the t o p 5 0 0 super computers list are classified as clusters. by November 2 0 0 3 . t h e r e were seven 'cluster' s u p e r c o m p u t e r s in the t o p 10 list. using shared m e m o r y 4 4 1 . The m a x i m u m computing speed benchmarked is 10.

Also. 3 The US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National L a b o r a t o r y 433. Fortune magazine called the IBM 3 6 0 mainframe " t h e most crucial and p o r t e n t o u s . t o build the world's fastest supercom 5 puter. o has commissioned Cray Inc.Seagate (C 4 3 5 . This 50-100 teraFLOPs machine should surpass NEC's 35 3teraFLOPs Earth Simulator and allow the US t o regain t h e t o p spot ^ in supercomputers. Cray's s u p e r c o m p u t e r will require 12 c megawatts of dedicated power! "S o When it was introduced." o g J3" [ D I G I T 69D .a s well as perhaps the most risky-business j u d g m e n t of recent times. 9 0 percent of all 5 0 0 systems are produced in the United States. 5 0 per cent of the t o p 5 0 0 fastest systems are installed in the United o States. 2 434.

4 3 2 .

A r e f r e s h rate of 8 5 Hz on y o u r m o n i t o r means t h a t e v e r y single pixel is refreshed 8 5 t i m e s a second. Moire is a graphic effect that puts an undesirable p a t t e r n composed of small dots placed in a t i g h t p a t t e r n on a plain image.

430.

429.

A nematic liquid crystal is a t r a n s p a r e n t liquid t h a t is used in t w i s t e d nematic displays, t h e most c o m m o n f o r m of liquid crystal display. Self-Scanned A m o r p h o u s Silicon Integrated Display (SASID) technology is used in flat-panel displays in notebook and p o r t a b l e computers. TOLED (transparent organic light-emitting device) is a display technology being developed by t h e Universal Display C o r p o r a t i o n (UDC). It uses t r a n s p a r e n t electrodes and light e m i t t i n g m a t e r i a l s in an organic l i g h t - e m i t t i n g device (OLED). The stair-step e f f e c t t h a t can be seen in diagonal lines of some c o m p u t e r graphics is called 'the jaggies'.

428.

427.

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4 2 5 . The concept of plasma display panels was first c o n c e i v e d in J u l y 1964 at t h e University of Illinois. Plasma m o n i t o r s do not c o m e w i t h in-built t u n e r . An NTSC/ATSC television signal must be passed t h r o u g h a satellite box, cable box, HDTV receiver, VCR/VHS device, or an o u t b o a r d t u n i n g device. Unlike t r a d i t i o n a l displays, where the image is scanned across the screen, in plasma displays, pixels are 'lit' all at once. Plasma t e c h n o l o g y is d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t used in o t h e r display systems in t h a t red, blue and g r e e n light is created in e v e r y A high-definition, futuristic plasma pixel, reducing space. screen looks something like this Charged electrodes between glass panels cause t i n y pockets of inert gas t o change the state of the plasma. This process causes u l t r a v i o l e t light to be produced, which in t u r n reacts w i t h t h e phosphors in each pixel t o produce visible light. Plasma screens have no scan lines due t o t h e f a c t t h a t each and every pixel has its o w n t r a n s i s t o r electrode. This creates a s m o o t h , evenly lit image across t h e e n t i r e surface of t h e display. In 1968, a research g r o u p at RCA in the US, headed by George Heilmeier, developed t h e first LCDs based on DSM, or dynamic scat t e r i n g mode. 4 1 9 . S Kobayashi of J a p a n p r o d u c e d first d e f e c t - f r e e LCD. This was in 1972. 4 1 8 . 4 1 7 . 4 1 6 . NEC, in 1986, p r o d u c e d t h e f i r s t LCD laptop c o m p u t e r . Sharp produced t h e 2 8 - i n c h TFT LCD in 1995. LCDs were first put i n t o use as displays in electronic calculators.

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D I G I T

PRINTERS AND SCANNERS
4 1 5 . A Page Description Language (PDL) specifies t h e a r r a n g e m e n t of a p r i n t e d page t h r o u g h c o m m a n d s f r o m a c o m p u t e r . Printer Control Language (PCL) is a language t h a t enables applications t o c o n t r o l HP DeskJets, LaserJets, and o t h e r HP printers. The name Epson for the popular brand of printers was coined when t h e subsequent models of t h e i r first printer 'Electronic P r i n t e r 101' were called 'Sons of Electronic Printer'. HP's f i r s t Inkjet p r i n t e r was launched in 1984. A Dichroic M i r r o r is an i n t e r f e r e n c e filter t h a t r e f l e c t s a specific part of the s p e c t r u m , t r a n s m i t t i n g t h e rest. It is used in scanners. A i r p o r t scanners in t h e UK will soon be able t o c a p t u r e naked images of travellers, even u n d e r n e a t h several layers of clothing. When desktop scanners w e r e first introduced, m a n y m a n u f a c t u r ers used f l u o r e s c e n t bulbs as light sources.
1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S

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9 written over virtually an as of J a n u a r y 2 0 0 0 . and is contrast.p r o g r a m Interface) for Microsoft Windows A CD-RW disk can. ( A p p l i c a t i o n . but now all are ' t h r e e c o l o u r ' RGB devices using separate photocells t o measure red. TWAIN is unlimited number of times. on which t h e original is placed. usually a CCD (Charge-Coupled Device) a r r a y or a CIS (Compact Image Sensor). considered t h e i n v e n t o r of t h e UPC or U n i f o r m P r o d u c t Code.Seagate (C 408. a hard disk can be c u r r e n t l y r a t i f i e d at v e r s i o n 1. In f i r s t released in 1992. TWAIN is an image c a p t u r e API 405. The s t a n d a r d was a thousand times. be re-written about systems. in and Apple Macintosh o p e r a t i n g general. Older scanners were o f t e n m o n o c h r o m e only. source usually and the a CCD phoarray tosensitive •a 406. He was a p r o f e s s o r of physiology and biophysics and of radiology. on t h e t o p of a box c o n t a i n i n g a light source and p h o t o sensitive receiver. 407. c o l o u r pre-press companies used d r u m 3 tu scanners. __ A flatbed nents G e o r g e J . which were expensive and difficult t o o p e r a t e •a 5' The i n v e n t o r of t h e scanner is Robert S. w h o p a t e n t e d t h e whole-body CT ( c o m p u t e r i s e d t o m o g r a p h i c ) diagnostic X-ray scanner. and he was t h e f i r s t t o do medical imaging and t h r e e dimensional r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s . 404. Most have a glass bed or 'platen'. g r e e n and blue light. Ledley. a single row of photocells. L a u r e r is scanner's important compoare the light device. Seagate Tech Factoid A Seagate cleanroom is 100 times cleaner than a typical hospital operating room [ D I G I T 73D . 403. invented in 1973. typically used as an i n t e r f a c e between image processing s o f t w a r e and a scanner or digital camera A f l a t b e d scanner is designed f o r scanning prints and o t h e r flat a r t w o r k . The UPC s y m b o l set for b a r c o d e r e c o g n i t i o n is still used in t h e USA. Before desktop scanners.

4001 A CD-RW disk can. . 1 9 5 2 . Possibly the first k n o w n example of biometrics in practice was a f o r m of finger p r i n t i n g being used in China in t h e 14th c e n t u r y . The m o d e r n f i n g e r p r i n t i n g t e c h n i q u e .w r i t t e n about a t h o u s a n d t i m e s . 3 9 8 . . the 'Best Match Principle' t o d e t e r m i n e t h e original message.4 0 2 . as r e p o r t e d by e x p l o r e r J o a o de Barros of Portugal. using f o r t h e f i r s t time. it was d e c i d e d t h a t a CD s h o u l d be long e n o u g h t o hold B e e t h o v e n ' s N i n t h S y m p h o n y at any t e m p o . an a u t o m a t e d scanning and s o r t i n g appliance w h i c h scanned printed material and c o m p a r e d each c h a r a c t e r t o a set of standards in a matrix. He developed a m e t h o d of m u l t i p l e body m e a s u r e m e n t s . t o r of t h e 'Reading Machine'. a hard disk can be w r i t t e n over v i r t u a l l y an 399. 9 9 4 was issued t o i n v e n t o r s J o s e p h Woodland and Bernard Silver on October 7 .p r e c i s e l y 7 2 minutes. 3 9 6 . The simplest 3D scanners o f t e n use physical c o n t a c t using hinged arms. in J u n e 1974. Ohio. J a c o b Rabinow was t h e invenu n l i m i t e d n u m b e r of t i m e s . In c o n t r a s t . which got named a f t e r him-Bertillonage. which was developed by Richard Edward H e n r y of Scotland Yard. 3 9 7 . 6 1 2 . • 74 . an a n t h r o p o l ogist and police desk clerk in Paris named Alphonse Bertillon sought t o fix t h e HDCD is a new digital encoding/decodp r o b l e m of i d e n t i f y i n g ing process for CD/DVD recording c o n v i c t e d criminals and turned biometrics into a distinct field of study. essentially r e v e r t s t o t h e W h e n t h e CD w a s being i n v e n t e d . 4 0 1 . The first UPC scanner was installed at a Marsh's S u p e r m a r k e t in Troy. The f i r s t p a t e n t f o r t h e bar code . 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S 394. in general. In t h e 1890s.US Patent # 2 . be r e . The d e p t h is t h e n calculated by measuring t h e o r i e n t a t i o n of t h e ranged object at t h e i n s t a n t of c o n t a c t .

m e m o r y (CD-ROM). Enhanced CD (E-CD) is a c o m p a c t disk f o r m a t t h a t enables disks t o be played on either a CD player or a multimedia-capable device. had 6 0 t i m e s the capacity of a 5 .Seagate same m e t h o d s used by t h e Chinese for centuries. The Yellow Book is t h e i n f o r m a l name for Philips and Sony's ECMA130 s t a n d a r d specification f o r c o m p a c t disk. a Belgian c o m p a n y f o u n d e d in 1976. 3 8 5 . The Red Book is the 1980 d o c u m e n t that provides the specifications for t h e standard c o m p a c t disk developed by Sony and Philips. 3 8 8 .o n l y .r e a d . developed The Eyedentification 7. •2. developed by Philips. or 10"15 of a second.i n c h floppy disk. r e a d . 750 391. and audio at t h e same t i m e .5 personal i d e n t i f i c a t i o n unit. The p r o j e c t aims at using n e t w o r k b a n d w i d t h t o s t o r e data. so t h a t t h e disk can be played on e i t h e r a CDplayer a t t a c h e d t o a TV or a CD-ROM XA drive a t t a c h e d t o a PC. 2 5 . 3 8 3 . A f e m t o s e c o n d is one m i l l i o n t h of a nanosecond. It is a m e a s u r e m e n t s o m e t i m e s used in laser technology. EyeDentify. 3 8 7 . The t i t l e of 'world's largest h a r d disk' would go to t h e W a v e l e n g t h Disk Drive Project by Canadian g r o u p CANARIE. t h e f i r s t r e t i n a scan device made f o r c o m m e r c i a l use. 3 8 6 . video. CD-ROM XA (Compact D i s k . It was published in 1988.o n l y m e m o r y . i i m i . and a u t h e n t i c a t i o n m e t h o d used t o p r o t e c t digital versatile disk movies f r o m being illegally v i e w e d f r o m o t h e r devices. . A CD-Bridge Disc is a CD f o r m a t t h a t includes extra i n f o r m a t i o n on a CD-ROM XA track. graphics. e x t e n d e d a r c h i t e c t u r e ) is a m o d i f i c a t i o n of CD-ROM t h a t defines t w o new types of sectors t h a t enable it t o read and display data. The f i r s t optical data s t o r a g e disk. 5' 0) 3 OPTICAL STORAGE 3 ) 2 . 3907 The Content Scrambling S y s t e m (CSS) is a data e n c r y p t i o n 3 8 9 . 3 8 4 . 393. HDCD (High Definition C o m p a t i b l e Digital) is a digital e n c o d i n g and decoding process f o r CD and DVD audio recording. in 1984.

CD-ROM XA was developed j o i n t l y by Sony. ' O v e r b u r n i n g ' is t h e process of w r i t i n g beyond t h e official capacity of a CD-R or CD-RW. This is possible by using t h e lead-oi t o store d a t a . Philips.3 8 2 . o> e o» m E • 76 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S .t h e lead-out is used to indicate t h e end of t h e disk and contains n o t h i n g but zeroes. 3 8 1 . and Microsof and its specifications were published in an extension t o t h e Yello Book.

Hacktivism is the act of hacking. is a unidirectional a n t e n n a c o m m o n l y used in c o m m u n i c a t i o n s w h e n a f r e q u e n c y is above 10 MHz. w h i c h may be perceived as u n f r i e n d l y or unwelcome. 3 7 8 . Cloaking is the masking of t h e sender's name and address in an email note or d i s t r i b u t i o n . 3 7 7 . l a w " 77 • . 3 7 9 . 3 7 4 . when testing t h e h o t l i n e telex. 3 7 5 . ' c o c o o n i n g ' is t h e act of hiding oneself f r o m t h e n o r m a l social e n v i r o n m e n t . In c o m p u t e r j a r g o n . Bluesnarfing is t h e t h e f t of i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m a wireless device through a Bluetooth connection. A Yagi antenna. A soft m o d e m is s o f t w a r e t h a t p e r f o r m s m o d e m f u n c t i o n s using t h e c o m p u t e r ' s CPU r a t h e r t h a n in m o d e m h a r d w a r e . f o r a politically or socially m o t i v a t e d purpose. Bluejacking is the practice of sending messages b e t w e e n mobile users using a B l u e t o o t h wireless c o n n e c t i o n . 3 7 6 . . That phrase c o n t a i n s each of t h e letters of the alphabet at least once. The popular phrase T h e quick b r o w n fox j u m p s over t h e lazy dog' was t h e first message sent b e t w e e n the Kremlin and t h e White house. or breaking i n t o a c o m p u t e r system.3 8 0 . also k n o w n as a Yagi-Uda a r r a y or simply a Yagi.

o p t i c wire which could c a r r y 6 5 . T o u c h . m a n u f a c t u r e d i 1962. 3 6 7 . Modems In 1 9 7 0 . 3 6 9 . p r o d u c e d t h e first m o d e m t h a t used t h e c o m m o n A' c o m m a n d set. using f i b r e . Digital modems developed f r o m the need to t r a n s m i t data for Nort American Air Defence d u r i n g t h e 1950s. 365. were developed because < needs NAAD's data transmission at Corning Glass Works in New York made f i b r e optic c o m m u n i c a tions a reality. The device allowec for the transmission of sound on a beam of light. and Peter Schultz. w h i c h t o d a y t r a n s p o r t o v e r eight percent of the w o r l d ' s telecommunications. Britain i m p l e m e n t e d its ' 9 9 9 ' emergency telephone system in 1937 The first 9 9 9 call r e p o r t e d a burglary. Bell t r a n s m i t t e d the first wireless t e l e p h o n e message on his n e w l y . 366. Bell's p h o t o p h o n e is recognised as t h e p r e c u r s o r of m o d e r n fibre optics. t h e b u r g l a r was appre hended. 1 8 8 0 . ( O o • 78 . 0 0 0 times m o r e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a n copper wire.t o n e service was f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d c o m m e r c i a l l y in t h e US ir 1963. frequency-shift keying or FSH 364. It had full-duplex transmission. The first c o m m e r c i a l m o d e m was AT&T's Bell 103.i n v e n t e d ' p h o t o p h o n e ' . 3 6 8 . On J u n e 3 .. > c o Nearly all of t h e m o r e t h a n 2 5 million kilometres of fibre-optic wir installed in t h e US t o d a y is based on t h e f i r s t " O p t i c a l Waveguid Fibers" designed by Corning Labs' Robert Maurer. |363. but t o o k almost 10 years t o gain w i d e s p r e a d use. a t e a m o f r e s e a r c h e r s the 371. Donald Keck. 3 7 0 . The '911' e m e r g e n c y t e l e p h o n e system was developed by AT&T ir t h e US as a public service. Hayes Corp.

The message " W h a t h a t h God w r o u g h t ? " was t h e first official message sent in Morse Code on May 2 4 . If you drove 10.000 rpm disk drive In a common server application. 0 0 0 . How low is very low? Over the typical five-year service life of a Seagate 10.Seagate and a speed of 3 0 0 bits per second or 3 0 0 bauds.t h a t ' s longer than four round-trip ourneys from the earth to the moon (each round trip is a mere 5 0 0 . only five years later. T h o u g h Samuel Morse gave a public d e m o n s t r a t i o n of t h e Morse Code in 1838. a c t i v a t e an e l e c t r o m a g n e t which caused a bell to strike. they should survive 1014 miles. o - . or 100 trillion miles. 0 0 0 .000 miles. The basic concept of cellular phones began in 1947. What does all this mean? If the tyres on a car were as robust as the disk overcoat on a Seagate drive. the sliding distance of the head over the disk is more than two million miles . 0 0 0 miles or so). 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . t h a t ' s 1 0 0 .000 miles a /ear with these wonder wheels on your car. 1 8 4 4 . t h e Congress f u n d e d $ 3 0 .m i l e t e l e g r a p h line f r o m Washi n g t o n to Baltimore. they should last one billion /ears before having to be changed. the best of which are made of material about 10 million times thicker than a disc's overcoat. f r o m t h e old Supreme Court c h a m b e r in Washi n g t o n to Baltimore. 0 0 0 to c o n s t r u c t an exper imental 4 0 . The electric t e l e g r a p h was b o r n in 1830 when an A m e r i c a n named | J o s e p h Henry sent an e l e c t r o n i c c u r r e n t over one mile of w i r e to 2 . when researchers looked at crude mobile car phones and 3 6 0 . Seagate Tech Factoid Seagate must keep the "wear r a t e " of its drives very low to guarantee eliability. 3 361. Mow compare these numbers to car tyres. Tyres are made of essentially the same material as the overcoat (carbon) but most mechanics would agree that tyres become not reliable after only about 100. The electric telegraph was born 1930 in the United States in 3 5 9 . 79d .

c o -C Q. t h e technology to do so was n o n e x i s t e n t . In 1994.1995. The 1st APNIC m e e t i n g was held at C h e r a r o n k o n University. 1 9 9 7 . APNIC was registered in Seychelles as non-profit international organisation. on J a n u a r y 16 and 17. On April 3 0 . In 1986. The Domain Registry at t h e I n f o r m a t i o n Sciences I n s t i t u t e of the U n i v e r s i t y of S o u t h e r n California a d m i n i s t e r s t h e top-level domain '. By 1987. whose a u t h o r i t y it is t o m a n a g e t h e IP address space in use in N o r t h and South America.2 <u In October 1998. t h e u p w a r d range was 5 . t h e FCC g r a n t e d the f r e q u e n c y range of 2. t h e Caribbean and sub-saharan Africa. A Regional I n t e r n e t Registry (RIR) for the Asia Pacific region was originally p r o p o s e d at t h e APCCIRN (Asia-Pacific C o o r d i n a t i n g C o m m i t t e e for I n t e r n a t i o n a l Research N e t w o r k i n g ) m e e t i n g on 13 J a n u a r y 1993. 3 5 8 . Despite incredible d e m a n d . It was t h e p r e c u r s o r of APNIC (Asia-Pacific N e t w o r k I n f o r m a t i o n Center). — — — 1 —a 3 5 3 .realized t h a t by using small c e l l s . and in 1995. In 1998. the Federal C o m m u n i c a t i o n s Commission or FCC granted the frequency range of 4 7 .r a n g e of service a r e a . • 80 . > •2 3 5 1 . However at t h a t t i m e . Bangkok. 1 9 9 6 . 3 5 6 .w i t h f r e q u e n c y reuse t h e y could increase the t r a f f i c capacity of mobile phones substantially. c o (0 . 352. began o p e r a t i o n s on December 2 2 .4 GHz f o r cordless phones. 355. t h e US G o v e r n m e n t a p p o i n t e d a p r i v a t e organisation called I n t e r n e t C o r p o r a t i o n f o r Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) to oversee t h e opening of t h e Domain Name Registration s y s t e m t o o t h e r c o m p e t i n g companies. it took cellular phone service 37 years to become c o m m e r c i a l l y available in the United States. 357. As of 2 0 0 3 . Consumer d e m a n d quickly o u t s t r i p p e d the 1982 s y s t e m standards. Thailand. digital cordless phones.us'. The A m e r i c a n Registry for Internet N u m b e r s (ARIN). t h e very first cordless phones w e r e i n t r o d u c e d . 354. In 1990. were respectively i n t r o d u c e d . 8 g i g a h e r t z .4 9 MHz for cordless phones. cellular t e l e p h o n e subscribers exceeded one million and t h e airways w e r e c r o w d e d . digital spread s p e c t r u m . 1 3 5 0 . In t h e 1970s. this became 9 0 0 MHz.

fcanarar . It promises p e r f o r m a n c e t h a t ' s h u n d r e d s of times faster t h a n t o d a y ' s technology. 3 4 7 . ADSL. 3 4 8 . The fastest t y p e of i n t e r n e t c o n n e c t i o n is t h e T3. 3 4 6 . The f i r s t c o m m e r c i a l m o d e m was t h e Dataphone f r o m AT&T. s h o r t for " t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n " . Of course. w h i c h can go up t o 4 4 Mbps.5 and 9 Mbps.Seagate 3 4 9 . and can upload at speeds between 16 and 6 4 0 Kbps. 3G. in 1960. refers to wireless t e c h n o l o g i e s designed for high-speed voice and data transmission. t h e y ' r e used mostly by ISPs. the most widely-used DSL s t a n d a r d in the US. can d o w n l o a d at speeds b e t w e e n 1.

Cell phones w e n t public in 1977. Michael Faraday's e x h a u s t i v e research i n t o w h e t h e r space could conduct e l e c t r i c i t y had an incalculable e f f e c t on cellular phone d e v e l o p m e n t . a dentist. 341. The Nokia 5160 series included an edition w i t h Disney characters Mickey. Minnie. Bell Labs conceived t h e idea of t h e cellular phone in 1947. 342. may have been t h e first person t o c o m m u n i c a t e t h r o u g h wireless via t h e a t m o s p h e r e . Citizens of N o r w a y can s u b m i t t h e i r tax f o r m s by SMS. 340. when Chicago began public cell phone trials w i t h 2 0 0 0 c u s t o m e r s . » i l . Dr. CDMA t e c h n o l o g y uses multiple channels s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . l » I I I ! I I M « . 343. Goofy and Donald. 339. Mahlon Loomis of Virginia. 344. 338. It does this by assigning each user a code t h a t is used in t h e multiplexing of data. Catholics in the Philippines are not allowed t o confess their sins via t e x t m e s s a g i n g because t h e Bishops f e e l t h a t e . J a p a n began t e s t i n g cellular phone services in 1979.m a i l and fax confessions are not secure enough.3 4 5 .

A similar amount of radiation comes f r o m t h e keypad and t h e m o u t h D i e c e as w e l l Studies phone aircraft by NASA show is potentially that cellof usage in the vicinity 332. f o l l o w e d by digital c a m e r a s and mobile phones. including India. Studies c o n d u c t e d by NASA show t h a t the use of cell phones and other personal e l e c t r o n i c devices inside and in t h e vicinity of a i r c r a f t is potentially dangerous. 83 • . but f u r t h e r research is needed. Or M a r t i n C o o p e r is c o n s i d e r e d t h e i n v e n t o r of the first portable handset. anybody w i t h a scanner t h a t o p e r a t e d at t h e right f r e q u e n c y could easily listen in on calls not i n t e n d e d f o r t h e m . In Ireland. he w a s t h e f i r s t p e r s o n t o m a k e a c a l l on a portable cellular phone. 336. Japanese t e l e c o m c a r r i e r NTT DoCoMo launched t h e w o r l d ' s f i r s t 3G mobile phone services in J a p a n in October 2001. 330. gets absorbed by t h e user's head. 31. Mobile phone r i n g t o n e s was t h e most searched-for t e c h n o l o g y t e r m in Yahool's annual survey. have banned t h e use of cell phones while driving. Multiple independent t e s t s have confirmed t h a t t h e r a d i a t i o n f r o m t h e e a r p i e c e of a c e l l p h o n e is up t o f o u r times that from the antenna.Seagate 3 3 7 . O 3 IB VI 333. A s t h e f o r m e r GM f o r t h e S y s t e m s division at M o t o r o l a . A large a m o u n t of t h e r a d i a t i o n e m i t t e d by a cell phone. 329. When cordless phones and t h e first analogue cellphones hit t h e m a r k e t . r> 01 O 3 O Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) t e c h n o l o g y was originally developed f o r m i l t a r y use in t h e late 1960s. ID 3 3 4 . o o 3 3 335. Nearly 4 5 countries. The WHO says t h e r e is still no dangerous evidence t o prove t h a t cellular phones pose any h e a l t h risks. y o u can be f i n e d $ 3 8 0 a n d / o r face i m p r i s o n m e n t f o r t h r e e months.

debit.4 GHz band comes under t h e so-called ISM band. and Wi-Fi and WiMax o p e r a t e on t h e 2 . an engineer named Neil Papworth sent the first SMS-"MERRY CHRISTMA S " .4 GHz band is generally a delicensed band. 1 9 9 2 . 3 2 2 .8 GHz f r e q u e n c y bands. The WHO is researching posed by cellphone the risks usage <u c o o u <0 o E E o o • 84 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S . specified as t h e 9 0 2 9 2 8 MHz band. 3 2 4 .t o his colleagues at Vodafone in Britain.5 7 8 0 MHz band.3 2 7 . The Chameleon Card is a p r o g r a m m a b l e card in d e v e l o p m e n t at Chameleon N e t w o r k t h a t can represent each of t h e o w n e r ' s credit. 3 2 6 . B l u e t o o t h uses t h e 2. On December 3 . so t h a t one doesn't c a r r y all of t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d . 323. 325.4 GHz band.2 4 8 3 MHz band and t h e 5 7 2 5 . which means that y o u do not have t o apply f o r a license f o r using devices on this band. The 2. which stands f o r I n s t r u m e n t a tion. Scientific and Medical (usage). Cellphones are m o r e popular in European and Asian countries t h a n t h e y are in t h e United S t a t e s . c o m p a r e d t o a b o u t 5 0 percent of A m e r i c a n s . t h e 2 4 0 0 . Cellphones o p e r a t e in t h e 9 0 0 MHz. 4 GHz and 5. 1800 MHz and 1 9 0 0 MHz bands. The 2.m o r e t h a n 9 0 percent of Europeans o w n a cell phone. and c u s t o m e r cards as required.

319. Nintendo's release in 1983 of t h e Famicom.f u l as t h e most p o w e r f u l PCs at t h a t t i m e . w h i c h is 14" wide.p u b l i s h e r s of t h e f a m o u s Unreal game series. 1 9 6 6 . was as p o w e r .c o m p u t e r championship was held in New York and w o n by CHESS 3 . released in 1982. The Bose Wave radio. In 1970. 317. 320.M c C a r t h y MIT chess p r o g r a m . 316. The Coleco C o l e c o v i s i o n c o n s o l e . The m a t c h lasted 9 m o n t h s and was w o n by t h e Soviet c o m p u t e r . 318.m e t r e long waveguide.Seagate ^ 321. a p r o g r a m w r i t t e n by Slate. m a r k e d t h e second age of h o m e video games and the s t a r t of Nintendo's dominance in t h e g a m i n g w o r l d . . t h e first a l l . a USSR chess p r o g r a m m e began a correspondence m a t c h w i t h t h e K o t o k . On November 2 2 . Nolan Bushnell originally named his company 'Syzygy'. in J a p a n . houses a o n e . A t k i n and Gorlen at N o r t h w e s t e r n University. Today. 0 (CDC 6 4 0 0 ) . this c o m p a n y is known as A t a r i .

3 0 9 . Alan Kotok w r o t e t h e first MIT chess p r o g r a m f o r his B. m a r k e d Sega's e n t r y into t h e video game m a r k e t . I In 1951. which could do 4 2 . 0 0 0 instructions per second and used 7 0 K of m e m o r y . 310. In 1977. It • 86 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S . Did you know t h a t Sega released Sonic t h e Hedgehog in 1991 as a direct response t o Nintendo's Super NES g a m i n g s y s t e m ? In 1962. thesis project. one o u t of e v e r y f o u r households in t h e United States had a PlayStation. and established it as an inde pendent c o m p a n y c h r i s t e n e d ' P i x a r ' . It was t h e first ' p r o p e r ' chess playing p r o g r a m .3 1 5 . Alex Bernstein w r o t e a chess p r o g r a m in 1957 for an IBM 7 0 4 . T u r b o C h a m p . d e f e a t e d Alan Turing's chess p r o g r a m . led a research t e a m at Ampex C o r p o r a t i o n in developing the first practical v i d e o t a p e recorder. In 1986. It was t h e f i r s t A t a r i was the size of a piano! 8 . The still video or digital c a m e r a was first d e m o n s t r a t e d in 1981. Charles Ginsburg. 3 0 5 . mathematician Alan Turing wrote the first chess program. A t a r i released its VCS (Video C o m p u t e r System). A c c o r d i n g t o a s u r v e y in May 2 0 0 0 . w h o w r o t e t h e f i r s t c o m p i l e r . Steve J o b s purchased t h e c o m p u t e r graphics division of Lucas Films L t d for $10 million. The Sega Genesis. Alick Glennie. In 1952.b i t video console and r e v o l u t i o n i s e d t h e h o m e video game m a r k e t . 3 0 8 . 3 0 4 . In 1950. The first VCR (Video Cassette Recorder) was made in 1956 and was t h e size of a piano. 313. known as t h e f a t h e r of t h e video cassette recorder. 307. 3 1 4 . He was t h e first person t o beat a c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m at chess. released as MegaDrive in J a p a n in 1988. this-it 3 0 6 .S. 311. He was assisted by J o h n McCarthy of Stanford. also called t h e The first VCR didn't look like 2 6 0 0 .

Q < D 3 01 3' 3 301. The mass p r o d u c t i o n of c o m p a c t audio cassettes began in 1965 in Hanover. 'Pressman'. in 1957.Seagate (L used a f a s t . 302. Germany. The first v i d e o t a p e d m a t e r i a l on a TV show was "Douglas Edwards and t h e News". 3 0 3 . Masaru Ibuka and Kozo Ohsone i n v e n t e d t h e p o r t a b l e 'Sony Walkman' audio cassette player. broadcast on CBS on N o v e m b e r 30. Philips d e m o n s t r a t e d its first 'Compact A u d i o Cassette 1 using BASF 1/8-inch tape. It was released in 1979. j | | J | | . This was later renamed Sony. and 'Discman' are Sony trademarks. Sony's first f o r a y i n t o t h e audio cassettes began in 1965 3 0 0 . In 1963. Sony acquired Psygnosis. known as musicassettes. and 8 r e c o r d e d on it up t o 5 0 images f o r m e d in a solid-state device in t h e 3 camera. g a m i n g market was in 1988. 2 9 5 . and t h e English w o r d 'sunny'. W h e n H e w l e t t P a c k a r d ' s c o m p u t e r d i v i s i o n e x h i b i t s at t r a d e shows. It was r e n a m e d Sony I n t e r a c t i v e E n t e r t a i n ment. and is responsible f o r some of the PlayStation's best games. 'Watchman'. The first c o m m e r c i a l blank videotape was o f f e r e d by 3M Corp. Sony's name takes f r o m t h e Latin w o r d 'sonus'. 2 9 7 . It was priced at $ 3 0 7 per reel.r e c o r d e d music cassettes.r o t a t i n g m a g n e t i c disc t w o inches in d i a m e t e r . for $ 4 8 million. 2 9 6 . 2 9 9 . m e a n i n g sound. a relatively u n k n o w n European devel oper. w h e n it e m b a r k e d on a deal w i t h Nintendo to develop a CD-ROM drive for t h e Super NES. Akio Morita. 'Walkman'. t h e y a l w a y s play t h e s a m e t u n e at t h e e n d of t h e 87D 2 9 4 . 1956. 3 . 2 9 8 . Akio Morita along w i t h Masaru Ibuka f o u n d e d t h e T o k y o Tele c o m m u n i c a t i o n s Engineering C o r p o r a t i o n in 1946. including WipeOut and D e s t r u c t i o n Derby. as did c o m m e r c i a l sales of p r e .

Iowa.G r a e m e Fergu son. 4 9 9 t o t h e public in San Diego. 2 9 1 . 2 9 3 . 2 0 0 0 . a film by Stefan Avalos and Lance Weiler. 2 9 0 . From March 6 . and m a n u f a c t u r e d in Tijuana. It was a 56-inch Panasonic set t h a t was developed at t h e c o m p a n y ' s research and d e v e l o p m e n t c e n t r e in San Diego. d e b u t e d a t h e Reuben H FleetSpace T h e a t r e in San Diego. The first HD car radio was sold on J a n u a r y 5. On August 6 . s t a r t i n g w i t h "US Marshals" at 8 pm. E o u • 8 8 . co-sponsored by Texas I n s t r u m e n t s using its DLP digital cinema p r o j e c t o r . p r e m i e r e d as " t h e first desktop f e a t u r e f i l m " . In 1985. c 286. r a t h e r t h a n t h e c u m b e r some multiple p r o j e c t o r s used at t h e time. The IMAX dome. 2 8 8 . 1 9 9 8 . t h e n called t h e Omnimax. p o w e r f u l projector. 284. Sony and Philips produced t h e s t a n d a r d f o r CD-ROM disks. 0 0 0 songs available for f r e e d o w n l o a d . In the next 12 m o n t h s . 2004. t h e f i r s t HDTV set went on sale f o r $ 5 . it became the #1 music site on t h e I n t e r n e t w i t h 3 million hits m o n t h l y .t h e p o p u l a r h y m n A m a z i n g Grace. A small g r o u p of Canadian f i l m m a k e r s and e n t r e p r e n e u r s . In November 1997. The Last B r o a d c a s t . 2 9 2 .s h o w in t h e i r b o o t h . in 1973. The first HD card radio January 5. was sold on 2 8 7 . 285. leaving the CD and the audio cassette as the t w o d o m i n a n t c o n s u m e r f o r m a t s .com was f o u n d e d by Michael Robertson w i t h 3 . The IMAX s y s t e m has its roots in t h e EXPO ' 6 7 in Montreal. San Diego's MP3. In 1988. 2 8 9 . 1 9 9 9 . Roman K r o i t o r and Robert Kerr-decided to design a new s y s t e m using a single. 2 0 0 4 in Cedar Rapids. Disney released Fantasia 2 0 0 0 in the IMAX film f o r m a t w i t h 6-channel digital sound on J a n u a r y 1. CD sales surpassed LP sales for t h e f i r s t t i m e . HBO began HDTV satellite m o v i e broadcasts. produced and exhibited digitally. In 1998. 10 0 1 T E C H F A C T S J <D c "(0 e <D A-* c IV cr c 3 Q. California. which would use t h e same laser t e c h n o l o g y as t h e audio CD.

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2 8 3 . DVD players were i n t r o d u c e d in J a p a n in 1996 and later in t h e US o o 3 in 1997. •a By 2 0 0 3 , in t h e US, DVD rentals increased 51.2% and VHS rentals d r o p p e d 2 9 % f r o m the previous year; DVD sales increased 4 2 . 2 % t o $12.1 billion, and VHS sales d r o p p e d 3 4 . 8 % t o $2.4 billion, according to Video Store Magazine. 2 8 0 .

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Dick Tracy, released J u n e 15, 1990 was the first 3 5 m m f e a t u r e film d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h a digital soundtrack by Cinema Digital Sound (CDS), developed by East man Kodak and Optical Radiation Corp. In t h e s t o p - m o t i o n kind of a n i m a t i o n , one must m o v e each joint of each character f o r e v e r y f r a m e , which means y o u need to stop the camera and m o v e a n y t h i n g t h a t is moving for e v e r y f r a m e . The biggest drawback of this kind of a n i m a t i o n is t h a t it is v e r y t i m e consuming. The longest example of stopm o t i o n a n i m a t i o n was The N i g h t m a r e Before Christmas, d i r e c t e d by Henry Selick. This movie lasted for 7 4 minutes, w h i c h required a t o t a l of 1 0 6 , 5 6 0 frames! Each of these had t o be filmed individually. The characters in t h e m o v i e were puppets made of f o a m rubber. Producing t h e e n t i r e movie required a t o t a l of 3 0 0 puppets for the 7 4 roles.
Tron r e l e a s e d in In 1993, Jurassic Park released on May 3 0 as t h e f i r s t f i l m w i t h DTS sound, developed by T e r r y Beard, f o u n d e r of Digital T h e a t r e Systems in Westalke Village, CA, partly o w n e d by Steven Spielberg and Universal Pictures. This digital sound f i l m f o r m a t records six tracks on s e p a r a t e CD-ROM disks, s y n c h r o n i s e d by an optical t i m e code t r a c k r e c o r d e d on t h e film, co-existing w i t h a backup optical s o u n d t r a c k similar t o Dolby Stereo.

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MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) develops s t a n d a r d s for digi tal video and digital audio compression. It o p e r a t e s under t h e auspices of t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Organisation f o r S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n (ISO). _ _ In 1995, amidst g r e a t f a n f a r e , Pixar A n i m a t i o n Studios and Disney released t h e f i r s t f u l l - l e n g t h c o m p u t e r - g e n e r a t e d film, Toy Story. Toy Story d i r e c t o r J o h n Lasseter had w o n an a c a d e m y a w a r d for a previous c o m p u t e r - g e n e r a t e d short film, Tin Toy. The sci-fi flick Gog (1954), in which a nuclear 'brain' takes over a secret laboratory, was the first film to feature a c o m p u t e r as the main character in a movie. The first true digital camera for the consumer was introduced to t h e world in 1990. It was the Dycam Model I, and it produced black and white photos at a resolution of 3 2 0 x 2 4 0 pixels. The camera was capable of storing 32 compressed images on 1MB of built-in RAM. The images could be downloaded, using a cable, t o a PC or a Mac. The world's first portable video recording system, t h e D V - 2 4 0 0 Video Rover, was launched by Sony in 1967. It filmed in B&W only, and required a separate unit for playback.
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In the late 1980s, Sony introduced their professional ProMavica M V C - 5 0 0 0 . Mavica was short for "magnetic video cam", and that's really what it was. It was a professional level digital camcorder that had the ability to take freeze-frame pictures, and not a still digital camera. In 1992, Sharp, in its quest to make filming easier, introduced the first colour LCD screen, so videographers could see the display on a screen, w i t h o u t having to squint t h r o u g h a viewfinder. Today, this is a standard f e a t u r e on all camcorders. Phillips developed the first wearable CD player. It was manufactured attached to a jacket, in 2003.
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Tetris has sold o v e r 4 0 million copies worldwide, since it began in 1982. That comes t o $ 8 0 0 million in revenues! The first all-computer c h a m p i o n s h i p was held in New York in 1970, and was w o n by CHESS 3 . 0 - a p r o g r a m w r i t t e n by Slate, Atkin and Gorlen at N o r t h w e s t e r n University, Illinois. In Spring 1967, MacHACK VI became t h e f i r s t chess p r o g r a m t o beat a human, at t h e Massachussets State Chess Championship. The Sega Dreamcast, released in 1999, was t h e f i r s t console game machine to sport a 128-bit a r c h i t e c t u r e .

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On 2 2 n d November, 1966, a USSR chess p r o g r a m m e began a correspondence m a t c h w i t h t h e K o t o k - M c C a r t h y MIT chess p r o g r a m . The m a t c h lasted 9 m o n t h s and was won by t h e Soviet c o m p u t e r , w i t h 3 wins and 1 loss. Sega released Sonic t h e Hedgehog in 1991 as a d i r e c t response to Nintendo's Super NES g a m i n g system.

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In 1968, I n t e r n a t i o n a l Master David Levy made a $ 3 , 0 0 0 bet w i t h J o h n McCarthy, r e s e a r c h e r in Artificial Intelligence at S t a n f o r d University, t h a t no chess c o m p u t e r would beat him in 10 years. He w o n his bet!

D I G I T

i/) < D E m w In 2 0 0 3 . 2 5 8 .f o r nine d a y s in a r o w . and was t h e f i r s t 16-bit h o m e g a m e console. 2 5 7 .o l d R o m a n i a n boy c o l l a p s e d and was 251. t h e f i r s t c o m m e r c i a l home game s y s t e m was launched t h e Magnavox Odyssey. The first c o m p u t e r book t o sell one million copies was 101 BASIC Computer Games. which was called MegaDrive in Japan. 2 5 5 . by Magnavox. The console. The first 32-bit h o m e video game s y s t e m was t h e Panasonic 3 D 0 released in 1993. of the Sony 2 5 6 . in t h e US. was t h e f i r s t t o challenge Nintendo's monopoly. In 1978. 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S • 9 2 . Sega e n t e r e d t h e video g a m e m a r k e t w i t h Genesis. The f i r s t a r c a d e v i d e o game t h a t used vector g r a p h i c s i n s t e a d of a r a s t e r d i s p l a y w a s Space Wars. The Mattel Intellivision was released in 1980. A matte black version The first s o f t w a r e t o be PlayStation i m p o r t e d f r o m t h e Soviet Union to t h e US was Tetris. 2 5 2 . 259. In 1988. T h e g a m e w a s r e l e a s e d in 1 9 7 7 . a 1 4 . developed in 1985 by Alexey Pazhitnov. It was called Net Yaroze.C o u n t e r S t r i k e . which enabled p r o g r a m m e r s t o c r e a t e t h e i r o w n video games in the C p r o g r a m m i n g language. A t a r i Football became the first arcade g a m e t o use a track ball. .y e a r . 2 5 4 . hospi t a l i s e d b e c a u s e he'd been p l a y i n g a c o m p u t e r g a m e . Sony released a m a t t e black version of its P l a y S t a t i o n in 1997. w i t h its 16bit processor. In 1972. It was published in the US by Creative Computing in 1978.2 6 0 . 253.

one of the best known video game characters. was discovered in a hidden file on the CD-ROM? The recall was necessitated due to the fact that the clip was unauthorised and was full of expletives. Playstation 2 hit the shelves in Japan on March 4. 0 0 0 units in four hours. was released by Magnavox in 1972. 2 4 2 . 2 4 3 . 244. the Odyssey. 2 4 8 . made famous by George Orwell. . 2 4 7 . Did you know that an estimated 1 lakh copies of the PlayStation game Tiger Woods 9 9 were recalled after The Spirit of Christmas. Atari's 'Asteroids' and 'Lunar Lander' were the first two video games to ever be registered in the Copyright Office. 2 0 0 0 . 2 4 5 . Mario.1980. His game. It is capable of evaluating 10 crore positions per second. and sold 9 8 . called 'Tennis for Two'. 2 4 6 . Deep Blue's chess playing p r o g r a m is w r i t t e n in C and runs under the AIX operating system. In 1988. On June 17. the first commercial video game console that could be used in the home. was named after Nintendo's landlord. The year 1984. is also the year the great crash of the video game market occurred. Designed by Ralph Baer. — n > VI 2 4 9 . William Higginbotham created what might have been the first video game. a clip in which Jesus Christ and Santa Claus get into fistfight over the t r u e meaning of Christmas. was characters created and played on a Brookhaven National L a b o r a t o r y oscilloscope. Deep Thought and Grandmaster Tony Miles shared first place in the US Open chess championship. in 1958.Seagate 2 5 0 .

In 1952. guided by Gunpei Yokoi. . which made special playing cards called Hanafunda ( " f l o w e r cards"). w h e n t h e g r e a t . only w i t h a 'p' sound. which had a cathode ray t u b e display. t h e Metroid series. Nintendo s t a r t e d its e n t e r p r i s e in 1889. its name was changed to " P a c M a n " . In 1981. meaning " t o m u n c h " . 234. Nin-ten-do. He w o r k e d on Famicom. A S Douglas Microsoft's Flight Simulator was the c r e a t e d t h e f i r s t graphical bestselling PC game of all time c o m p u t e r game. made the first game f o r Nintendo s t a r r i n g Mario. 2 3 9 . 237. The w o r d N i n t e n d o is c o m p o s e d of t h r e e J a p a n e s e Kanji characters. and did extensive w o r k on t h e s y s t e m we know t o d a y as t h e Nintendo E n t e r t a i n m e n t System. f o u n d e d N i n t e n d o Koppai. These characters can be t r a n s l a t e d into " H e a v e n blesses hard w o r k " . Fusajiro Yamauchi. The most expensive game ever developed was ShenMue for Sega Dreamcast. It cost $ 2 0 million. p r o g r a m m e d on t h e EDSAC vacuumt u b e c o m p u t e r . Game Boy Pocket. Gunpei Yokoi was t h e c r e a t o r of t h e Game Boy and V i r t u a l Boy. It was a version of Tic-Tac-Toe. which was p r e v i o u s l y t h e arcade game Donkey Kong. Since " p a c u " is p r o n o u n c e d t h e same as " f — y o u " . Shigeru M i y a m o t o . 2 3 8 . PacMan got its name f r o m t h e Japanese w o r d " p a c u " .2 4 0 .g r a n d f a t h e r of the c u r r e n t Nintendo president. 235.

2 2 9 . In September of 1940. 2 2 7 . p r o d u c e d by g u n m a k e r s E Remington & Sons in llinois.Seagate (C 2 3 3 . This allows y o u t o w r i t e over 3 . Stibitz d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e Model 1 228. R. only about 5 0 w o r d s can be t y p e d on a QWERTY k e y b o a r d w i t h o u t reaching o u t t o t h e middle or home row. [ D I G I T 95D . The first i n f r a r e d wireless k e y b o a r d for M i c r o s o f t ' s WebTV set-top box was m a n u f a c t u r e d by Sejin Electron Inc in Korea. 0 0 0 w o r d s w i t h o u t t h e f i n g e r s reaching out t o t h e other rows. 2 3 2 . Everytime a mouse moves or t h e user clicks a b u t t o n . n a m e d a f t e r Dr A u g u s t Dvorak. The QWERTY k e y b o a r d was present on t h e v e r y f i r s t t y p e w r i t e r called the 'Sholes & Glidden Type Writer'. Mice first broke o n t o t h e public stage w i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of the Apple Macintosh in 1984. 2 3 0 . G. New York. The QWERTY k e y b o a r d layout is 129 years old! Dvorak keyboards. In c o n t r a s t . 231. have nine of t h e most used letters in t h e middle row of the keyboard. t h e mouse sends t h r e e bytes of data t o t h e c o m p u t e r it's a t t a c h e d to.

226. SketchPad s u p p o r t e d t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n of objects using a light pen. A v e r y early d e m o n s t r a t i o n of g e s t u r e 225. some t h i n g t h a t w o u l d not be duplicated for a n o t h e r decade. including g r a b b i n g objects.l i k e w i t h a mouse or a light p e n .which was his 1963 MIT PhD thesis. 0 > U 10 224. p r i m a r i l y 1984 by t h e Military and DARPA. which. G o v e r n m e n t . This d e m o n s t r a t i o n was additionally unique in t h a t it was accomplished in r e m o t e fashion over t e l e p h o n e lines. in 1964. Research o r i e n t e d t o w a r d s A u t o m a t i c Speech Recognition and T r a n s c r i p t i o n technologies began in 1936 at AT&T's Bell Labs. developed t h e first trainable g e s t u r e recogniser. the RAND tablet.c o m p u t i n g device.w a s f i r s t d e m o n s t r a t e d by Ivan S u t h e r l a n d in SketchPad. w h e r e visible objects on t h e screen are d i r e c t l y m a n i p u l a t e d w i t h a pointing d e v i c e . was f u n d e d by ARPA. The first pen-based input device.S. changing size. m o v i n g t h e m . The now u b i q u i t o u s direct m a n i p u l a t i o n i n t e r f a c e . f o r t h e first t i m e . It wasn't until t h e early 1980s t h a t the t e c h n o l o g y reached the commercial market. Later. At t h a t t i m e . A m i t Teitelman. most • • • • H I research was f u n d e d and The mouse became popular when p e r f o r m e d by Universities and Apple Macintosh was launched in t h e U. The QWERTY 129 years old keyboard layout is • 96 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S . The s y s t e m was built at Lincoln Labs w i t h s u p p o r t f r o m the Air Force and NSF. utilised input f r o m a t e l e t y p e k e y b o a r d or paper tape and p r e s e n t e d o u t p u t on t h e m as well. and using c o n s t r a i n t s .

An early use was f o r m o l e c u l a r modelling. The 'Lincoln Wand' by L a r r y Roberts was an ultrasonic 3D location sensing system.Seagate (C r e c o g n i t i o n was T o m Ellis' GRAIL system on t h e RAND tablet. — 2 2 2 . as one of t h e chief designers of t h e Xerox Star. 2 2 3 . S m i t h later popularised icons. f u n d e d by ARPA and NIMH. 3 a a 5 01 o < D [ D I G I T 97D . David Canfield S m i t h coined t h e t e r m ' i c o n ' i n his 1975 S t a n f o r d PhD thesis on Pygmalion. « (Jn . g 3 TS o 221. developed at Lincoln Labs in 1966. The first 3-D s y s t e m was p r o b a b l y T i m o t h y J o h n s o n ' s 3-D CAD system. in 1963.

a p r o g r a m . 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S . 217. o The first Indian s o f t w a r e e n t e r p r i s e to c r e a t e a video t h a t went on t o win a G r a m m y was Bangalore-based 'Thinking Pictures'. 216. 215. a t h r e a d . In graphic design. The project was e x e c u t e d at Hyderabad. f o r t h e video Deep Forest. The 'Quiet zone' is t h e blank m a r g i n on e i t h e r side of a bar code t h a t is used t o tell t h e barcode reader w h e r e a barcode's symbology starts and stops. Apple. OXGA ( Q u a n t u m Extended Graphics A r r a y ) is a display specificat i o n capable of s u p p o r i n g a r e s o l u t i o n of 2 0 4 8 x 1536. 10 3 o I <v VI 214. T i t a n i u m is t h e name of a popular laptop c o m p u t e r f r o m It's called so because it's encased in t i t a n i u m . Microsoft 218. To 'quiesce' is t o put a c o m p u t e r . or s o m e o t h e r c o m p u t e r r e s o u r c e i n t o a t e m p o r a r i l y i n a c t i v e or inhibited state. 219. t o ' f e a t h e r ' is to s o f t e n an edge of an image by m a k i n g t h e edge gradually fade o u t until it becomes transparent.220. ' P r o j e c t B a n j a r a ' was t h e c o d e n a m e g i v e n by t o its d e v e l o p m e n t of J U M P (Java User M i g r a t i o n Path).

i/i o 01 3 m o 211. a 'PnP r e c r u i t ' means an e m p l o y e e . 2 0 6 . A special parallel-processing c o m p u t e r called ' B e o w u l f was used f o r t h e special e f f e c t s in t h e multiOscar-winning m o v i e Titanic. 210. It was once f e a r e d t h a t on September 9 . 'Worm' was coined by writer John Brunner in 1975 for selfreplicating malicious programs. f o r 9 5 million pounds. Despite having radios and e-mail. D I G I T 99D . c o m p u t e r s would shut down because p r o g r a m m e r s o f t e n use a series of nines as a code t o shut d o w n systems. Fiat claimed t h a t it had made one of the most p o w e r f u l engines. orange Orange bought Ananova for 95 million pounds 2 0 5 . 1 9 9 9 . 2 0 7 . f r o m Digital A n i m a tions Group based in Bellshill near Glasgow. A car named Fingo was in t h e news when it w e n t a r o u n d t h e world. 2 0 9 . In t h e IT world. 'Nerd' was coined in 1950 by Dr Seuss in the book 'If I Ran the Zoo'. t h e Orissa state police force uses 7 0 0 'pigeon police' t o s h u t t l e messages b e t w e e n distant stations. like a Plug and Play device. 212. It was d e v e l o p e d by Fernando Lopez and Osvaldo Malvestitti of A r g e n t i n a . can i m m e d i a t e l y be p r o d u c t i v e t o t h e c o m p a n y because of his skills and knowledge. t h e virtual newscaster. who. They had developed t h e p r o g r a m m a b l e pacemaker for the h u m a n heart. PERL. the p r o g r a m m i n g language.213. but not for cars. was c r e a t e d by L a r r y Wall w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n of re-humanising c o m p u t i n g technology. 2 0 8 . Mobile service p r o v i d e r Orange had bought Ananova. because it was r e m o t e c o n t r o l l e d and had no steering wheel.

It f e a t u r e d a n i m a t e d Polar Bears. the c r e a t o r s of t h e RSA129 e n c r y p t i o n scheme e n c r y p t e d a message w i t h a 4 3 0 . In 1899. to stand for 'Mouse-Activated Computer'. using parallel c o m p u t i n g resources. V % on the logo orig- Newton was pictured Computer ) ik inal Apple In 1 9 0 2 . 199. was t h e first s y s t e m to have a CD player a t t a c h m e n t . Atari's c o m p u t e r . The message was d e c r y p t e d in 1994.2 0 3 . In 1977. In J u l y 1995. V a l d e m a r Poulsen invented the f i r s t m a g n e t i c recordings. f r o m C o r n w a l l t o N e w f o u n d l a n d . Bob Massey of CompuServe. 202.b i t public key and o f f e r e d $100 to anyone w h o could d e c r y p t t h e message. • 100 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S . The NEC Turbografx-16. the 'Annie' awards. W T . given each year f o r t h e best a n i m a t e d c o m m e r c i a l s . 198. and Edward Bennett of Prodigy w r o t e and signed a letter to Microsoft CEO Bill Gates. Steve Case of AOL. called t h e 520ST. Loudspeakers were also invented t h e same year. 2 0 0 . was d u b b e d 'Jackintosh' after Atari owner Jack Tramiel.t h e f i r s t r a d i o signal across the Atlantic. using m a g n e t i s e d steel tape as t h e r e c o r d i n g medium. went for the first t i m e t o a c o m p u t e r generated animated commercial done for Coca Cola. Apple had once planned t o s h o r t e n t h e n a m e of t h e Macintosh computer to simply 'Mac'. 201. released in J a p a n in 1988 as t h e PCEngine. The original Apple C o m p u t e r logo p i c t u r e d Sir Isaac Newton. urging him t o un-bundle t h e M i c r o s o f t N e t w o r k (MSN) f r o m Windows 95. G u g l i e l m o M a r c o n i t r a n s m i t t e d r a d i o s i g n a l s 195. In 1994. :i((§|P' 1 n 196.

[ D I G I T 101D . SWF/LFM-926 was t h e first c o m p u t e r virus t o use Macromedia's Shockwave Flash files t o t r a n s m i t itself w h e n a v i c t i m ran t h e Flash movie. 191. 1 8 8 . a graphics s o f t w a r e . expecting s o m e t h i n g t o go w r o n g as t h e new m i l l e n n i u m dawned. Did y o u know t h e f i r s t p r o d u c t to have a bar code on its package was Wrigleys c h e w i n g g u m ? More t h a n 3 0 0 t e c h n i c a l s t a f f e r s g a t h e r e d at M i c r o s o f t ' s head The first product to use a barq u a r t e r s on New Year's Eve of code was Wrigleys chewing gum 2 0 0 0 . 190. From t h e smallest m i c r o p r o c e s s o r t o t h e largest of m a i n f r a m e s . Number t w o is g a m i n g . In the 1997 book 'TechnoStress'. and was built by Swiss company Staubli Unimation. t h e average A m e r i c a n depends on m o r e t h a n 2 5 0 c o m p u t e r s per day. N o t h i n g happened.Seagate (C 194. It is the most c o m m o n l y used robot for assembly lines and u n i v e r s i t y laboratories. by Michelle Weil and Larry Rosen. Using v i r t u a l reality h e a d s e t s is k n o w n t o r e s u l t in a h e a l t h d i s o r d e r called binocular dysphoria. 189. is pac aged in a paint can! S o u t h K o r e a ' s SK T e l e c o m o f f e r s an i n a u d i b l e r i n g t o n e t o i t s c u s t o m e r s w h i c h . The n u m b e r one use f o r home c o m p u t e r s is w o r d processing. 1 9 2 . it's m e n t i o n e d t h a t some people b e c o m e so i m m e r s e d in t e c h n o l o g y t h a t t h e y risk losing t h e i r o w n ident i t y . 1 8 7 . 1 8 6 . c a n r e p e l m o s g u i t o e s . it c l a i m s . in to 5T to o 3 1 9 3 . Puma ( P r o g r a m m a b l e Universal Machine f o r A s s e m b l y ) was designed by Vic S c h i e n m a n in t h e 1970s. a s y n d r o m e called 'technosis'. MetaCreations' Fractal Design Painter.

It was in S e p t e m b e r 1997 t h a t a r o b o t . In 1971. Honda c o m m e n c e d the h u m a n o i d research p r o g r a m . H e a r s a y . 178. • 102 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S .'Booting' y o u r c o m p u t e r means s t a r t i n g it up. t h e f i r s t s p e e c h r e c o g n i t i o n s o f t w a r e . The Biztalk Server is a Microsoft product. 175. 'Convergence' refers to how sharply an individual color pixel on a monitor appears. . t h r e e d o t s . It unites e n t e r p r i s e application i n t e g r a t i o n (EAI) and business-to-business (B2B) i n t e g r a t i o n in a single product. 180. AT&T Bell Labs was t h e first c o m p a n y to t r a n s m i t h u m a n voice across t h e A t l a n t i c on 2 5 t h J a n u a r y . created t h e Logo language. C o r n i n g Glass i n v e n t e d t h e O p t i c a l F i b r e in 1 9 7 0 . w a s d e v e l o p e d in India. weighing 130 kg. and a green one. 181. In 1986. as GE a n d A T & T began testing the transference of s o u n d a n d i m a g e d a t a t h r o u g h these fibres. was designed. Seymour Papert. a blue. 182. 1915. after Microsoft.a red. aimed at teaching p r o g r a m m i n g to schoolchildren. Dr. Each pixel is composed of Humanoid September P3. Ken T h o m p s o n designed t h e 'B' language for c o m p u t e r s t h a t were s w i t c h e d t o C in t h e early 1970s by Dennis Ritchie. 177. It was named ' H u m a n o i d P3'. It r e v o l u t i o n i s e d t h e communications industry. in 1968. Adobe. or A d o b e Systems Incorporated. is t h e second-largest PC s o f t w a r e c o m p a n y in the world. but did y o u know t h a t t h e w o r d comes f r o m 'pulling yourself up by y o u r bootstraps'? 183. 1 7 9 . designed 1997 in 1 7 6 .

168. (/i o <0 172. a l t h o u g h i t is o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as t h e ' c o m m e r c i a l a'. with each one c o n n e c t e d t o t w o others. w e b s i t e s w e r e in E n g l i s h . 9 6 per c e n t of all e . c o . The Bell Telephone C o m p a n y set up by Alexander Graham Bell in 1877 has m o r p h e d over t h e years into t o d a y ' s AT&T. 1 6 7 .Seagate (C 74. The process uses speech recognition techniques. who is a Republican. consisting of a n e t w o r k e d ring w i t h connections in Chicago. A m s t e r d a m . 171. In a ring. In December 2 0 0 3 . 169. M o s c o w . for example. Garret Gruener. Project Chicago was t h e code name for Windows 9 5 . organised over t h e 'Net. Beijing and Hong Kong. flash mobs. " A u d i o m i n i n g " is t h e t e r m used to refer t o e x t r a c t i n g data f r o m audio recordings. 7 3 . 1 6 6 . The s y m b o l has no particular designation. A s of t h e y e a r 2 0 0 0 . t h e c o m p u t e r s are c o n n e c t e d in a ring-like fashion. "To get a m a z o n n e d " means t h a t one has lost a significant p o r t i o n of one's business t o a dotcom enterprise.f o u n d e r of AskJeeves. Graham stration Bell giving of his a demon- invention 170. t h e bus and t h e star are ways in w h i c h c o m p u t e r s are a r r a n g e d in a LAN. was a Democratic candidate in t h e f a m o u s recall election of California involving Arnold Schwarzenegger. w h i l e half of all I n t e r n e t u s e r s were native English speakers. The ring. L i t t l e GLORIAD (Global Ring N e t w o r k f o r Advanced A p p l i c a i ' development) started operations. s t a r t e d in New York and quickly f o r m e d in cities w o r l d w i d e . In 2 0 0 3 .c o m m e r c e 165.com. [ D I G I T 103D .

" T r e e w a r e " is s l a n g f o r a n y p a p e r . In 1994. Germany. Leonardo Chiariglione and o t h e r s developed t h e MP3 f o r m a t in 1988 at t h e University of Erlangen. propounded by the d e s i g n e r of t h e E t h e r n e t protocol. The Economist magazine r e p o r t e d t h a t Lee Stein opened the firs t r u l y e l e c t r o n i c bank on t h e Internet in 1994 called 'First V i r t u a l Holdings'.b a s e d m a t e r i a l . T e c h i e s use it t o r e f e r t o d o c u m e n t a t i o n m a n u a l s . This happened in t h e late 1980s. The bumps and flats are a r r a n g e d in a c o n t i n u o u s spiral track t h a t is five k i l o m e t r e s in length. t h e h a n d w r i t i n g recog nition s y s t e m used in some PDAs. In CDs. led t h e 158. since the plant supplied 6 0 percent of the world's supply of Cresol.0. • 104 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S . 1 5 6 . The vi editor was the de facto Unix standard editor until about 198' when Emacs t o o k over. J e f f Hawkins invented Graffiti. Apple first has come release a long way since its a u t h o r t o u n c o v e r a German hacker ring. states t h a t the u t i l i t y of a n e t w o r k is proportional t o t h e square of t h e n u m b e r of u s e r s . A c c o r d i n g to t h e book 'The Cuckoo's Egg' by Clif f o r d Stoll.164. 161. 159. an a c c o u n t i n g discrepancy of 7 5 cents on a c o m p u t e r at L a w r e n c e Berkeley Labs. 163. Apple named t h e f i r s t release of its Mac OS X 10. The second v e r s i o n was called J a g u a r . MP3 stands f o r 'MPEG Layer3'. 157. 162. The a c r o n y m stands f o r Visual Interface. bumps and flat areas on t h e disk's s u r f a c e represent 1s and Os. 160. In 1993. used in memory chip casings. Metcalfe's Law. a fire destroyed a Sumitomo Chemical Company plant in Japan and memory prices skyrocketed.

of t h e breaking of t h e German codes at Bletchely park. S o f t w a r e c r e a t e d under t h e GNU Public License is f r e e t o r e p r o d u c e but carries c e r t a i n . 1 4 9 . The US Congress passed laws in 1999 t o discourage t h e p r a c t i c e . 'a happy man'. there was only one country in the world with no telephonesBhutan. The o p e r a t i o n aims at t r a c k i n g d o w n paedophiles.Seagate 1 5 4 . It was called Minix. called the abacus. 3 D) n = 153. 147. 152. 1 4 8 . 1 4 6 . The FBI r e c r u i t e d t h r e e 14-year-old girls in J u n e 2 0 0 3 t o t e a c h agents how t o c o m m u n i c a t e like y o u n g girls on the 'Net. GNU s o f t w a r e is c o p y r i g h t e d . The first c o m p u t e r t h a t was operated w i t h a mouse was t h e Xerox Alto. f a m e d c o m p u t e r e d u c a t o r Donald Knuth gave s o m e t h i n g up and is now.o f registering t r a d e m a r k d o m a i n names for t h e sole purpose of resale and p r o f i t . England. In 1980.k n o w n as c y b e r s q u a t t i n g . to reach a million in sales 1 5 0 . The device was called t h e Ouipu. Thriller w r i t e r Robert Harris w r o t e a semi-fictional a c c o u n t . a stir was c r e a t e d in the Unix c o m m u n i t y when a publicly d i s t r i b u t e d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of Unix f o r PCs was released. The Chinese had a similar device with beads. o c i/i 151. In 1990. in his book Enigma. d u r i n g World War II. One of t h e earliest f o r m s of mechanical i n f o r m a t i o n storage was an ancient Peruvian device consisting of a c o r d w i t h k n o t t e d strings of various colours a t t a c h e d . as he asserts. In t h e 1980s. He was r e f e r r i n g t o e-mail. in 1996.

' 137. The domain is registered in Australia. a n n o u n c e d in N o v e m b e r 1982. it was later . in 1938. Did you know t h a t Bill Gates and Paul Allen s t a r t e d a c o m p a n y called Traf-O-Data t o m o n i t o r t r a f f i c f l o w ? HP's first p r o d u c t to hit the market 2 0 0 A .restrictions. the FBI recruited teenage girls this year to teach officers to behave like girls on the Net . The first web browser w r i t t e n in Java was by J a m e s Gosling. was the Compaq Portable? 143. The s o f t w a r e is f r o m Estonia. • 106 . 140. 1 3 5 . That's K a z a a . T° counter paedophiles. The first ' t e c h n o l o q y ' c o r p o r a t i o n t o m o v e into California's Silicon Valley was Hewlett-Packard.h a n d e d t y p i n g m e t h o d . 138.t h e world's f a v o u r i t e P2P s o f t w a r e . I Did you know that the first glossary of computer I technology came out in 1954? it was edited by Rear I Admiral Grace Hopper of the US Navy. This concept is called ' c o p y l e f t ' . 1 3 6 . 144. w h i c h was used to test sound e q u i p m e n t .. New Jersey? 141.a resistance capacity audio oscillator. Initially called 'WebRunner'. The DVD of t h e movie 'Matrix' was the f i r s t t o reach one million in sales. r e n a m e d H o t J a v a 139.. and t h e i r f i r s t p r o d u c t . Did you know that the world's first transistor is located at Murray Hill. 142. and the c o r p o r a t i o n is on a South Pacific island. Did you know C o m p a q C o m p u t e r was f o r m e d in 1982.. where the living can send telegrams to the dead. American cartoon artist Paul Kinsella has set up a Web site called 'Afterlife telegrams'. 'Stewardesses' is the longest w o r d you can t y p e w i t h y o u r left hand using t h e usual t w o . The servers are in Denmark...

Toonz A n i m a t i o n India. 121. 7 2 0 Kg of paper per day. t h e c o m p u t e r and video g a m e maker. 124. 126. The Apple ' T h i n k D i f f e r e n t ' c a m p a i g n used M a h a t m a Gandhi's philosophy in one of its ads. The lobby of Cyrix Corporation's c o r p o r a t e h e a d q u a r t e r s has a m a u s o l e u m w i t h t h e inscription " I n t e l Inside. Did you know that Seagate was the first company to manufacture hard disks for microcomputers? 107O . Former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee was t h e f i r s t subscriber t o India's first p r i v a t e I n t e r n e t Service Provider. free of charge. Scott McNealy of Sun Microsystems has a dog called Network. 125. Steve J o b s w o r k e d f o r Atari. 'Bloatware' is s o f t w a r e t h a t ' s t o o large for its utility. Messages were left by 5. in 2001. f o l l o w i n g t h e death of Princess Diana.Seagate 133. In c o m p u t e r slang. 130. 122. 129. Vajpayee Infoway's was first Satyam subscriber 123. an o r d i n a r y . and MSN has e s t i m a t e d tth a tt t h e i r service saves 5 0 0 t r e e s ." 3 £ = 132.8 lakh people on t h e official Web site of t h e British m o n a r c h y in S e p t e m b e r 1997. 127. HP came up w i t h an a l t e r a t i v e t o Java. o |j| 131. S a t y a m Infoway. An average of 4 0 million H o t m a i l e-mails are sent each day.f o u n d i n g Apple. postal mail is called snail mail. p r o d u c e d the film Stone Crusher.a b o u t ha 7 2 . called Chai. for UNICEF. Sending e-mails w i t h CCs m a r k e d t o f a m o u s personalities are called mail droppings in t h e IT world. an a n i m a t i o n c o m p a n y based in T h i r u v a n a n t h a p u r a m . Before c o . 128.

b y . . 115. is a w a r d e d t o people w h o have made significant c o n t r i b u t i o n s of a technical n a t u r e t o t h e c o m p u t i n g c o m m u n i t y . 'chip j e w e l l e r y ' is an o u t d a t e d c o m p u t e r .w i r e test flight was held in 1972 on a NASA F-8 test plane. The T u r i n g A w a r d . It consists of a tape head.w i r e tech- 113. 117. 112.120. of Apple.b y . Hewlett Packard started at a garage in Palo Alto in 1939. co-founder ware. a tape w i t h 1s and Os on it which can scroll in either d i r e c t i o n . The first f l y . which t h e n gives t h e a p p r o p r i a t e response t o t h e a i r c r a f t ' s h y d r a u y l i c systems. worked for Hewlett-Packard as a summer trainee. based in New York. The first passenger a i r c r a f t t o get f l y . Bill Gates and Apple CEO J o h n Sculley signed c o n f i d e n t i a l a g r e e m e n t s t h a t allowed Microsoft t o use e l e m e n t s of the Apple GUI in its soft Steve Wozniak. t h e well-known British m a t h e m a t i c i a n and c o m p u t e r scientist. Infosys was t h e f i r s t Indian c o m p a n y t o release its annual r e p o r t in CD-ROM format. A 'Turing m a c h i n e ' defines our n o t i o n t o d a y of w h a t a c o m p u t e r is. In t e c h parlance. 116. 119. and is named after Alan Turing. and something to interpret what t h e sequence of 1s and Os mean. It is r e f e r r e d t o as 'the Nobel Prize of c o m p u t i n g ' . given by t h e Association f o r C o m p u t i n g Machinery. Fly-by-wire is a t e c h n o l o g y where a c o m p u t e r c o n t r o l s the flight of an a i r c r a f t and w h e r e the pilot's responses are relayed t o a c o m p u t e r . Windows 1. A demonstration of the Univac in action 114.0 was released in 1985.

is an a c r o n y m for Beginners' A l l . 1 0 5 . i/> o 2L 57 3 o c tfl m 1 0 9 . CBS News b o r r o w e d a UNIVAC t o make a scientific prediction of t h e o u t c o m e of t h e race for t h e presidency between Dwight D. a c o m p l a i n t was filed against IBM. 107. Macquariums are aquariums made from old Macintosh computers. V i e t n a m War p r o t e s t e r s a t t a c k e d u n i v e r s i t y c o m p u t e r centres in 1970. The US Navy spent $ 3 7 5 .5 o u t ' comes f r o m t h e process billion due to piracy in of creat ing an optical mask for Asia. Google recently added linear local search capabilities to its existing services. 1 0 8 . At t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin. The research proved t h a t the frisbee was not feasible as m i l i t a r y h a r d w a r e . In 2 0 0 3 .Seagate nology was t h e Airbus A 3 2 0 . a s e m i c o n d u c t o r device. Eisenhower and Adlai Stevenson. 0 0 0 on an ' a e r o d y n a m i c analysis of t h e self-suspended flare'. N o v e m b e r 4.p u r p o s e Symbolic Instruction Code. software The origin of t h e t e r m 'taped companies lost $5. alleging monopolistic practices in its c o m p u t e r business. t h e toll was one h u m a n and f o u r machines. 1 0 6 . launched in 1988. On election night. nally called OS/2 magazine 1 0 4 . 1952. BASIC. J 109O . t h e name of t h e popular beginners' p r o g r a m m i n g language. It was done by laying out p i e c e s ' o f ' tape r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e various parts of t h e chip on large tables. In 1952. 110. in v i o l a t i o n of t h e Sherman Act.

HDTV made its debut but still hasn't gotten a long time to the ago. was launched in 1990 under t h e name 'OS/2 Magazine'. 9 4 . telephone. There are more than 2 0 0 satellites orbitinq earth just for private communications services-including the pager. By t h e early 1980s. 100. a cool and a f f o r d a b l e line of c o n s u m e r PCs and laptops. 0 0 0 visitors. masses 95. The publication 'Windows Magazine'.102. 9 9 . by Xerox Machine f o u n d e r Chester Carlson. Content P r o t e c t i o n f o r Removable Media (CPRM) is a hardware-based t e c h n o l o g y designed t o e n f o r c e copy p r o t e c t i o n restrictions. on since February 1992. In Silicon Valley slang. 'VAIO' stands for 'Video A u d i o I n t e g r a t e d Operation'. •110 1001 TECHFACTS . The f i r s t Comdex was held in 1979 w i t h 150 companies and 4 . Dropping a c o m p u t e r one f o o t o n t o a flat surface was an Appleendorsed p r o c e d u r e for t h e Apple III t o ensure t h a t t h e machine's i n t e g r a t e d circuits were securely in t h e i r sockets. ' m e a t l o a f ' means unsolicited personal mass mailings. MS Word had became t h e most popular w o r d processing p r o g r a m . "10. is a popular brand. and Internet services.22. on October 2 2 . Half a b y t e is c a l l e d a nibble.38" was t h e f i r s t ever Xerox taken. 1 9 3 8 . at a place called Astoria. The Sony VAIO.

t h e Electric Pencil. R. The w o r d r o b o t comes f r o m t h e One of the first Apple 88. Some US states taxed I n t e r n e t b a n d w i d t h and t h e EU r e q u i r e d all I n t e r n e t companies t o collect Value Added T a x ( V A T ) o n digital d o w n l o a d s .Seagate 92. humid w e a t h e r . Capek's b r o t h e r suggested t h e word. 12 per cent had cut back on seeing t h e i r friends. 5T 3 < D O c IA 90. Air c o n d i t i o n i n g was invented by Willis Carrier t o help a Brooklyn. Air c o n d i t i o n ing wasn't used f o r cooling people until 1924 w h e n it made its debut at t h e J L Hudson D e p a r t m e n t S t o r e in Detroit. The t e c h n o l o g y c o n t a i n e d in a s i n g l e G a m e B o y u n i t in 2 0 0 0 e x c e e d s all t h e c o m p u t i n g p o w e r t h a t w a s used t o p u t t h e f i r s t m a n on t h e Moon in 1 9 6 9 . Taxes made headlines in 2 0 0 3 . 1975 saw t h e e m e r g e n c e of t h e first w o r d processing s o f t w a r e . New York. HDTV made its debut in Japan.U.R (Rossum's Universal Robots). WordStar was released in 1978. A NUKE InterNETWORK poll in 2001 f o u n d t h a t 5 2 per cent of Internet users had cut back on w a t c h i n g TV in o r d e r to spend m o r e t i m e online. u> o 2. or ' f o r c e d labour'. 1 Macs ^ 87. priced at $ 6 6 6 . p r i n t e r t o get decent c o l o u r d u r i n g hot. 86. D I G I T . by Karel Capek. 89. 2001 was t h e serial n u m b e r of t h e f i r s t Apple t h a t rolled out of t h e assembly line. ' s e r v i t u d e ' . In 1989. 8 4 0 W h e n t h e O r i g i n a l Mac was introduced. Michigan. as US I n t e r n e t retailers collected taxes on all purchases. Czech w o r d ' r o b o t a ' meaning ' d r u d g e r y ' . The w o r d came into English in t h e early 1920s f r o m a play. 91. many Christians were against it because 6 6 6 is ' S a t a n ' s n u m b e r ' .

1978. and used to use CPUs f r o m a c o m p a n y called MIPS.0 o n May 22. IBM exchanged t h e IPR f o r Bubble M e m o r y w i t h Intel. M i c r o s o f t shipped Windows 3. The Unix base of OS X is Darwin. SGI machines. as a part of a deal w i t h Intel t o m a n u f a c t u r e and use the 8 0 8 6 processors in t h e i r Display Write Intelligent T y p e w r i t e r . the Electric Pencil. 78. which has since m e r g e d w i t h HP) used t o assemble Apple Macs in India. 79. Alan turing 80. w h i c h is open source. DEC ( m e r g e d w i t h Compaq. hailed as high p e r f o r m a n c e graphics w o r k s t a t i o n s . 81. the Union Budget was made on Apple computers gifted to the Finance Ministry. IRIX. it was t h e f i r s t successful version of Windows t h a t finally o f f e r e d satisfactory p e r f o r m a n c e to PC users. and MacOS9. M i c r o s o f t was l a t e r o f f i c i a l l y f o u n d e d in 1977. In the late 8 0 s and early 90s. OpenStep. but some people did make m o n e y off it: f r o m 1999 t o 2001. Steve J o b s and Steve Wozniak f o u n d e d Apple C o m p u t e r in 1976. It was only on the 3rd of July. Compatible w i t h all DOS p r o g r a m s . 77. 1975 saw t h e e m e r gence of t h e f i r s t w o r d processing soft ware. •112 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S . use a c u s t o m developed UNIX-like OS.84. that the New York Times began using computerised word processing. The r e c o r d i n g i n d u s t r y lost m o n e y as a result of t h e 'Napster Revolution'. In 1990. sales of CD b u r n e r s and blank CDs skyrocketed. 8 2 . IBM developed an early m e m o r y t e c h n o l o g y k n o w n as Bubble M e m o r y . Apple's MacOS X utilises elements f r o m BSD Unix. WordStar was released in 1978.

such as vMac and Basilisk II. 69. code-named Project Star Trek. The Turing Test d e t e r m i n e s w h e t h e r Al has been reached. w h o continues t o produce it t o d a y as t h e XScale.Seagate (C 74. used this project was t o c r e a t e a Transputer CPUs from a version of Mac OS t h a t w o u l d British company called run on I n t e l .c o m p a t i b l e x 8 6 INMOS. a h u m a n in t h e other. due t o political infighting.k a r a t gold medal t o one w h o makes a machine pass t h e T u r i n g Test. The setup is of a c o m p u t e r in one room. a RISC microprocessor.p a r t y M a c i n t o s h e m u l a t o r s . It was c r e a t e d by Digital Equipment C o r p o r a t i o n . Intel produced t h e i 8 6 0 . an work on in 1992. but later sold t o Intel. 70. t h e l a t t e r is declared intelligent. Magnetic t a p e was f i r s t used t o r e c o r d data in 1951. and an i n t e r r o g a t o r in t h e t h i r d . The processor f o u n d limited m a r k e t s in w o r k s t a t i o n s as a graphics a c c e l e r a t o r . < D o c i/> 72. 68. w i t h t h e goal not having been met. The r e c o r d i n g m e d i u m was a t h i n band of solid steel. An i n t e r e s t i n g historical aspect of t h e classic Mac OS was a relatively u n k n o w n One of India's first parallel secret p r o t o t y p e Apple s t a r t e d processing computers. PCs. for a machiIf t h e i n t e r r o g a t o r c a n n o t make ne passing the Turing Test out the h u m a n f r o m t h e c o m p u t e r . The Loebner Award. The goal of early PARAM. being cancelled only one year later in 1993. 67. A l t h o u g h a direct port was never released. which was released in 1989. The S t r o n g A R M m i c r o p r o c e s s o r is a f a s t e r v e r s i o n of t h e Advanced RISC Machines ARM design. It was s h o r t lived. The Loebner A w a r d is a prize consisting of a solid 2 4 . it did eventually become possible t o r u n t h e classic Mac OS on x 8 6 PCs by using t h i r d . [ D I G I T Did you know Apple and Sun came very close to a merger in 1996? 113D .

which means for all practical purposes in t h e universe. i v iMILI urneiei :> IUMLJ. J i m Adkisson.25 inches wide. and developed a new drive of this size s t o r i n g 110 KB. f o u n d it t o be 5. t h e t e r m " c o m p u t e r " is defined as " a n y device f o r s t o r i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o this definition. processing or r e t r i e v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n " . Q u a n t u m c r y p t o g r a p h y is the u l t i m a t e f o r m of c r y p t o g r a p h y . Adkisson t o o k t h e napkin back to California. c a r b o n n a n o t u b e t r a n s i s t o r . In 1976. 61.25 inch floppy is t h a t large is i n t e r e s t i n g . The first iMac had no f l o p p y disk drive. 6 3 . Xerox was the first company to develop technology to protect digital intellectual property rights. 64. The 'nanoguitar'-a guitar on the w h o felt t h a t t h e 8 " f o r m a t of nanoscaie with actual strings t h e t i m e was t o o large f o r t h e desktop w o r d processing machines he was developing at t h e time. Under Hong Kong laws. w i t h t h e release of t h e iMac in 1998. The chances of an eavesdrop per being u n d e t e c t e d are one in trillions or quadrillions. Peter Burke and his t e a m at t h e University of California at Irvine built a high-speed. A f t e r m e e t i n g in a bar in Boston. Adkisson asked Wang what size he t h o u g h t t h e disks should be. How t h e 5. Apple was t h e first mass-market c o m p u t e r m a n u f a c t u r e r to eschew t h e floppy a l t o g e t h e r . aciudiiy has six s t r u m m a b l e strings. On 3 0 t h April 2 0 0 4 . 60. 6 2 . nil. was a p p r o a c h e d by An Wang of Wang Laboratories. and a c c o r d i n g to t h e researchers. is t h e next step t o w a r d s replacing silicon in a v a r i e t y of e l e c t r o n i c applications.66. a slide rule and a pocket calculator are computers. OI14 . This is t h e latest in a string of devices t h a t can be made w i t h nanotubes. and Wang p o i n t e d t o a napkin and said " a b o u t t h a t size".

Pedot. for example. Even 2 0 years f r o m now. A r t i f i c i a l Life can evolve. one of t h e oldest expert systems.3 ers. will be r e a c h e d in 2 0 0 8 .o r i e n t e d . logical. w o r l d w i d e piracy cost t h e US enter t a i n m e n t s o f t w a r e i n d u s t r y $3. 128-bit SSL e n c r y p t i o n is so s t r o n g t h a t it w o u l d t a k e much. Lisp. t h e r e b y f o r c i n g t h e 3 1/2" t o become t h e s t a n d a r d f o r m a t f o r $ floppy drives in t h e US. P r o g r a m m i n g languages are c o m m o n l y divided i n t o f o u r g r o u p s . if c o m p u t e r s are a million times faster. 2002:1 billion PCs sold so far 5 4 . not e n v i s i o n e d by t h e p r o g r a m m e r s . t h e one billion m a r k for n u m b e r of PCs sold was reached. Prolog. it w o u l d still t a k e longer t h a n t h e age of t h e universe t o crack it. shows special promise. 5 0 . One p o l y m e r . and J a v a .2 billion in 1998. An expert s y s t e m is a c o m p u t e r s y s t e m t h a t answers questions t h a t would t a k e a h u m a n e x p e r t t o be a n s w e r e d p r o p e r l y . Apple selected t h e Sony 3 1/2" f o r m a t for t h e i r Macintosh c o m p u t . is m o r e a c c u r a t e t h a n a h u m a n d o c t o r at answering questions a b o u t diagnosis. 5 5 . in medical diagnosis. Respective examples are C. and produce results. or behaviours.i m p e r a t i v e .Seagate (wLi 5 8 . aims at c r e a t i n g a database of c o m m o n . 5 6 . 53. Mycin. They are used. and o b j e c t . The Cyc p r o j e c t . p i o n e e r e d by Doug L e n a t . D I G I T 115D . In 2 0 0 2 . it is e s t i m a t e d . 5: Q) A c c o r d i n g t o an IDSA estimate. which all c o m p u t e r s can use so t h a t t h e y b e c o m e " a u t o m a t i c a l l y " m o r e intelligent. beyond what the p r o g r a m m e r s defined in t h e first place. m u c h longer t h a n t h e age of t h e universe t o crack a message e n c r y p t e d using it. 52. 51. Xerox and TDA research are w o r k i n g on p r o j e c t s t h a t could ulti m a t e l y lead t o t h e r e p l a c e m e n t of silicon in chips by plastic polymers. or.s e n s e . The 2 billion mark. life-like behaviours in c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m s . The field of A r t i f i c i a l Life aims at c r e a t i n g complex. § 5 5 7 . declarative.

he published " A M a t h e m a t i c a l T h e o r y of C o m m u n i c a t i o n " in t h e Bell System Technical J o u r n a l . a l t h o u g h it's been b o u g h t by AOL. This paper f o u n d e d t h e subject of i n f o r m a t i o n t h e o r y . a l t h o u g h it was not c o m p l e t e l y o b j e c t . Urban India stands at position 11 in t h e w o r l d in t e r m s of I n t e r n e t p e n e t r a t i o n . He i n t r o d u c e d t h e '<E>' sign in addresses. The JPEG s u b .c o m m i t t e e was set up by t h e ISO in t h e late 1980s t o r e c o m m e n d a file f o r m a t for t h e s t o r a g e of high quality still images. (/) 3 O < u c u </) ELIZA was t h e first well-known example of a " t a l k i n g " Al p r o g r a m . 4 3 .o r i e n t e d . an image c o m p r e s s i o n standard. A c c o r d i n g t o a N o v e m b e r 2 0 0 3 e s t i m a t e .49. 47. The c o m m i t t e e delivered. It was in 1972 t h a t Ray Tomlinson developed t h e first n e t w o r k e d based e-mail p r o g r a m . "53 • 116 . 40. 00 • Claude Shannon The f i r s t o b j e c t . 4 4 . and was reasonably realistic f o r t h e t i m e . w i t h a rate of 19%. instead. It was d e v e l o p e d by Kristen Nygaard and Ole-Johan Dahl in t h e mid 1960s. There are a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 5 million . It m i m i c k e d a psychiatrist talking to one of her patients.o r i e n t e d language was Simula. The f i r s t high-level p r o g r a m m i n g language was Fortran. 46. The t e r m ' b a n d w i d t h ' is c o m m o n l y used t o refer t o how fast data can t r a v e l over a connection. 45. 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S I<0 3 9 . 4 2 . In 1948. Claude Shannon is arguably t h e f a t h e r of I n f o r m a t i o n Technology. b a n d w i d t h refers t o t h e range of f r e q u e n c i e s t h a t t h e data is t r a n s m i t t e d over. F o r t r a n became c o m m e r c i a l l y available in 1957. ICO was t h e first instant messaging p r o g r a m .com d o m a i n names registered worldwide. JPEG stands f o r J o i n t P h o t o g r a p h i c Experts Group. Google receives a 2 0 0 million hits a day. It was developed in 1956 by an IBM t e a m headed by J o h n Backus. and t h a t ' s notable because it's still running. Actually.

It was later used by several countries to pass messages through insecure channels. DVD-18 is a s t a n d a r d t h a t increased DVD capacities t o 17 GB. 3 5 . The RSA public-key e n c r y p t i o n a l g o r i t h m remains t h e most widely-used e n c r y p t i o n s t a n d a r d by secure Web sites etc. Iomega Corp. 3 2 . H Q D 117 • .600. 3 3 . ( " t o w r i t e " ) . was released in October 1999. and L e o n a r d A d l e m a n i n v e n t e d t h e RSA cipher in 1978. In 1995.5 a share t o $ 4 8 . '. The Stand. 6 3 . a bang is an e x c l a m a t i o n point. The t e r m 'silver bullet'. The technique of compressing text or images into microdots to prevent their viewing by unintended recipients was invented by the Germans during World War II. originates f r o m t h e m y t h t h a t only a silver bullet could kill a w e r e w o l f . C r y p t o g r a p h y . 2 9 . t h a t is. 0 0 0 . which applies t o any new t e c h n o l o g y or practice t h a t will easily cure a major prevailing problem. Ronald Rivest. This made men behind RSA encryption it t h e c o m p a n y t o have t h e greatest p e r c e n t a g e gain of all NASDAQ h i g h . T h r e e MIT s c i e n t i s t s . went f r o m $3. the f o r a gain of 1396%. c o m p r e h e n s i b l e f o r m into an o b s c u r e d and unreadable guise. t h e study of ways t o c o n v e r t i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m its normal. by a S o u t h e r n Cali f o r n i a financial adviser. o r i g i n a t e s f r o m t h e f r o m Greek w o r d s ' k r y p t o s ' ( " h i d d e n " ) and 'graphein'. inspired by the principle of echo-location. 3 7 . Mike Muuss. A m o n g Unix users.Seagate r e 3 8 . The f i r s t c o m m e r c i a l DVD-18 title. says he n a m e d it a f t e r t h e sound t h a t a sonar makes. was p u r c h a s e d recently f o r $ 7 0 0 . The c r e a t o r . Shamir and Adleman. The n e t w o r k 'ping' p r o g r a m get its name f r o m t h e sound of a sonar. Rivest. t h e f i r s t t o w n t o be a u c t i o n e d on eBay. Nieman-Marcus o f f e r e d a Honeywell H316 c o m p u t e r in 1969 f o r $10. Bridgeville in N o r t h e r n California. A d i S h a m i r . The s t a n d a r d provides f o r 2 layers of data on e i t h e r side of t h e disk. That was t h e first t i m e a h o m e c o m p u t e r was o f f e r e d f o r sale by mail o r d e r .t e c h stocks ever. dual-sided dual-layered. 3 4 .

Smart cards. When y o u define f u n c t i o n s in LISP. t h e part of t h e Web not c u r r e n t l y catalogued by search engines. According to this definition. processing or retrieving information". some say it is J o h n McCarthy. The Last Starfighter. 2 6 . public i n f o r m a t i o n is 5 0 0 t i m e s larger t h a n on the WWW. the term "computer" is defined as "any device for storing. During t h e 9 3 0 s . 2 7 . LISP is a p r o g r a m m i n g language w r i t t e n in LISP itself.w h i c h means cars esfRSH can be i d e n t i f i e d using photos A ^TTW—"""III • 1 B • K 2 2 Z X Z 2 H f r o m these satellites! George Philbrick was a pioneer in analogue c o m p u t i n g .2 8 . Alan Turing is well-known f o r cracking German codes d u r i n g WWII. he developed the o p e r a t i o n a l amplifier. 7 m . a slide rule and a pocket calculator are computers. It contains nearly 5 5 0 billion indi vidual d o c u m e n t s c o m p a r e d t o t h e 1 billion of t h e surface Web. The IKONOS satellite. t h e e n t i r e language gets modified. used for c o m m e r c i a l satellite p h o t o g r a p h y . In t h e Deep Web. Under Hong Kong laws. The Deep Web contains 7 . and some say it's due t o him t h a t we Indians speak English now instead of German. 2 3 . The Quick bird satellite can go upto a reso lution of 0 .ers f o r c a r r y i n g out c r y p t o graphic o p e r a t i o n s e m b e d d e d w i t h i n a credit card-sized or smaller cards were i n v e n t e d and p a t e n t e d in France by Roland Moreno in t h e 1970s. which was key t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of analogue c o m p u t e r s . 2 2 . • Smart cards and used in cassor-- MttJA * V E TA O A S. o <u a > u V) 1 2 0 . All of the special effects shots took just eight hours to generate. M S were first patented France 2 5 . All shots of spaceships and space were generated on a Cray computer. was the first movie to do all special effects (except makeup) on a computer. t i n y secure c o m p u t . • 118 . 21. c o m p a r e d t o 19 t e r a b y t e s o n t h e surface Web. released in 1984 and directed by Nick Castle. Some regard Alan T u r i n g as t h e f a t h e r of Al. Many researchers and surfers consider t h a t t h e first search engine 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S 24. 5 0 0 t e r a b y t e s . can c a p t u r e satellite images u p t o a r e s o l u t i o n of 1m. M c C a r t h y also invented t h e LISP language.

o r i e n t e d . It was in t h e early 1990s t h a t digital video was i n t r o d u c e d o n t o the t e c h n o l o g y f r o n t . w o r k i n g w i t h digital video t e c h n o l o g y r e q u i r e d at least $ 6 .0 a r r i v e d on t h e scene as t h e p r i m a r y codec p r o g r a m . with no compression. Only a f e w m o n t h s a f t e r QuickTime's release. This is a 9 7 % decrease in 5 years t i m e . 3 o < p 2j 19.o r i e n t e d language was Simula. That was because it t r i e d t o be s o m e t h i n g § of e v e r y t h i n g . s o m e t h i n g usable in business. [ D I G I T . QuickTime. for example. 18. When QuickTime was developed. The BIOS. 11. or Basic I n p u t / O u t p u t System. In 1992.q u a l i t y f r a m e rate and speed w i t h some digital video and s t r e a m i n g t e c h n o l o g i e s . F o r t r a n b e c a m e c o m m e r c i a l l y available in 1957. Today. The first high-level p r o g r a m m i n g language was F o r t r a n . Video for Windows was released as an AVI f o r m a t . and scientific users m i g r a t e d t o Fortran. m a t h e m a t i c s . 0 0 0 . 12. To a u t h o r and p r o d u c e digital video t e c h n o l o g y w h e n it first appeared on t h e scene averaged $ 2 0 . .Seagate (C was Archie. Business users. PL-I is a c o m p u t e r language developed by IBM t h a t never reached wide usage. will be superseded by technologies such as Phoenix's CME (Content M a n a g e m e n t Engine) and t h e EFI (Extensible F i r m w a r e Interface). it played 5 f r a m e s per second. 0 0 0 . Today. popular was codec 16. c r e a t e d in 1990 by Alan Emtage. a l t h o u g h it was not c o m p l e t e l y o b j e c t . QuickTime 1. It was developed by Kristen Nygaard and Ole-Johan Dahl in the mid 1960s. 13. Today. 0 0 0 at s t a r t up. In 1992. began using COBOL. and 5 other disciplines. . It was developed in 1956 by an IBM t e a m headed by J o h n Backus. 14. a s t u d e n t at McGill University in M o n t r e a l . a school district can utilise digital video at a very low cost and can produce digital video technologies for as little as $ 2 . 119D 15. 17. you can increase t h e price of a G3 by $130 for it t o have audio-visual capabilities. the most in 1992. y o u can achieve b r o a d c a s t . The first o b j e c t .

d e f e a t e d British m a t h e m a t i c i a n Alan Turing's chess p r o g r a m . T u r b o C h a m p . Alick Glennie. or 152 crore. 1 . 5. The f i r s t mass usage of ' s m a r t cards' was p a y m e n t in French payphones. " 8. In 1994. miles of t e l e p h o n e wire is s t r u n g across t h e U. They w e r e called 'Telecartes'. 1. • 10 2 g ^ M M M g i W i i S ^ ^ 10 0 1 T E C H F A C T S j . The RDC-1 was t h e first digital c a m e r a t o o f f e r b o t h still and m o v i n g image and sound r e c o r d i n g / r e p r o d u c t i o n . or 4 9 2 in e c o n o m y mode. 6. 3. Nobel laureate Herbert Simon said t h a t w i t h i n 10 years. t h e Apple Quick Take 100 was t h e first mass-market colour digital camera. 7. 5 2 5 . The f i r s t device w i t h an in-build h a r d drive f o r image r e c o r d i n g was t h e Kodak DCS 2 0 0 . 2. w h o w r o t e t h e f i r s t c o m p u t e r compiler. In 1957. He was t h e first person t o beat a c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m at chess. or f o u r video scenes of five seconds each w i t h sound. beginning in 1983. 0 0 0 . in 1992. 9. a digital c o m p u t e r would be t h e w o r l d ' s chess c h a m p i o n . t h e US p a t e n t o f f i c e said t h a t it m i g h t as well close. This was in 1995.10. It is said t h a t in t h e late 1800s. 4. It had a 6 4 0 x 4 8 0 pixel CCD. In 1952.S. 0 0 0 . Up to eight 6 4 0 x 4 8 0 r e s o l u t i o n images could be s t o r e d in internal m e m o r y It had a fixed-focus 5 0 m m lens. MPEG1/Motion JPEG arrived on the scene as the latest codecs in 1995. because e v e r y t h i n g t h a t could be invented had already been invented. A r t i f i c i a l Intelligence was listed by Wired Magazine in 2 0 0 3 as one of t e n 'ideas t h a t failed'. Its r e c o r d i n g capacity on a 2 4 M B PC card was 2 4 6 still pictures in s t a n d a r d mode. and an in-built flash. This is similar t o w h a t physicist L o r d Kelvin said in 1900: " T h e r e is n o t h i n g new t o be discovered in physics n o w .

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