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Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
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Applied Mathematics
for
Industrial Hygiene and Safety
Ψ
Professional Safety Instruction
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Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
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About this Book: Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
was developed to provide an indepth review of math as it applies to
industrial hygiene and safety. The focus is on equations used in
certification exams for the CIH, CSP, and COHNSafety credential.
Developed as part of a continuing education program for busy industrial
hygienists and safety professionals, this book also provides a valuable
resource for those wishing to prepare for their registration exams.
We have tried to keep the formulas and variables as seen in the equation
sheets used for the certification exams, but some changes have been
made for clarity or consistency.
Although the focus has been on the application of common industrial
hygiene and safety formulas, this book also shows the mathematical
derivation of several important equations from basic principles. This
approach was taken because of the importance in understanding,
applying, and recalling the equations. Each formula or group of formulas
includes a worked example. Common symbols, conversions, and
constants are also included.
Finally, this book is a review of mathematics. The determination of the
acceptability of the use of any equation or data presented in this book for
addressing any industrial hygiene or safety issue is outside the scope of
this work.
About Professional Safety Instruction: Professional Safety Instruction
has one goal: To be the premier provider of costeffective highquality
continuing education for busy industrial hygienists and safety
professionals. For more information, please visit
www.professionalsafetyinstruction.com.
Earn CEUs: Visit www.professionalsafetyinstruction.com to learn how you
can earn valuable CEUs for completing Applied Mathematics for Industrial
Hygiene and Safety.
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Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
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Table of Contents
1 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS ......................................................................................... 1
1.1 SIGNIFICANT FIGURES ..................................................................................................... 1
1.1.1 Addition and Subtraction ............................................................................................ 2
1.1.2 Multiplication and Division ........................................................................................ 2
1.2 SCIENTIFIC NOTATION ..................................................................................................... 3
1.3 EXPONENTS AND RADICALS ............................................................................................ 3
1.4 LOGARITHM FUNCTIONS .................................................................................................. 5
1.5 ABSOLUTE VALUE EQUATIONS ....................................................................................... 7
1.6 QUADRATIC FORMULA .................................................................................................... 7
1.7 BOOLEAN ALGEBRA ........................................................................................................ 8
1.8 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS ........................................................................................ 10
1.8.1 Right Triangles ......................................................................................................... 10
1.8.2 Law of Cosines ......................................................................................................... 10
1.8.3 Law of Sines .............................................................................................................. 10
1.9 USEFUL EQUATIONS FOR GEOMETRIC SHAPES .............................................................. 11
1.9.1 Perimeter .................................................................................................................. 11
1.9.2 Area .......................................................................................................................... 11
1.9.3 Volume ...................................................................................................................... 12
1.9.4 Surface Area ............................................................................................................. 12
2 STATISTICS ........................................................................................................................ 15
2.1 ARITHMETIC MEAN ....................................................................................................... 15
2.2 GEOMETRIC MEAN ........................................................................................................ 15
2.3 STANDARD DEVIATION .................................................................................................. 17
2.4 GEOMETRIC STANDARD DEVIATION .............................................................................. 19
2.5 COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION .......................................................................................... 20
2.6 CUMULATIVE ERROR ..................................................................................................... 21
2.7 SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL ERROR ............................................................................ 21
2.8 STUDENT’S TTEST ........................................................................................................ 22
2.9 POOLED STANDARD DEVIATION .................................................................................... 23
2.10 NORMAL DISTRIBUTION Z SCORE .................................................................................. 25
2.11 CHISQUARED ............................................................................................................... 26
2.12 SPEARMAN RANK CORRELATION .................................................................................. 27
2.13 CORRELATION COEFFICIENT .......................................................................................... 29
2.14 LOWER CONFIDENCE LIMIT ........................................................................................... 30
2.15 TWOSIDED 90% CONFIDENCE INTERVAL ..................................................................... 31
2.16 TWOSIDED 95% CONFIDENCE INTERVAL ..................................................................... 32
2.17 ONESIDED 95% CONFIDENCE INTERVAL ...................................................................... 32
2.18 PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS ............................................................................ 33
2.18.1 Permutation .......................................................................................................... 33
2.18.2 Combination ......................................................................................................... 34
2.19 POISSON DISTRIBUTION ................................................................................................. 35
2.20 RELIABILITY .................................................................................................................. 36
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3 ENGINEERING ECONOMICS ........................................................................................ 39
4 CHEMISTRY AND CONCENTRATIONS ...................................................................... 43
4.1 IDEAL GAS LAW ............................................................................................................ 43
4.2 CONCENTRATION OF VAPORS AND GASES ..................................................................... 45
4.3 AIRBORNE CONCENTRATION VIA VOLUME .................................................................... 45
4.4 DALTON’S LAW OF PARTIAL PRESSURE (GAS) & RAOULT’S LAW (LIQUIDS) ................ 46
4.5 AIRBORNE CONCENTRATION VIA PRESSURE .................................................................. 47
4.6 CONVERSION FOR AIRBORNE CONCENTRATIONS: PPM (TO/FROM) MG/M
3
..................... 47
4.7 CONVERSION FOR AIRBORNE CONCENTRATIONS: PPM (TO/FROM) G/L .......................... 48
4.8 THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE (TLV) OF AIRBORNE MIXTURE ........................................... 49
4.9 THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE (TLV) OF LIQUIDS ............................................................... 49
4.10 LE CHATELIER’S RULE .................................................................................................. 50
4.11 VAPORHAZARD RATIO ................................................................................................. 51
4.12 REDUCTION FACTOR – DAY ........................................................................................... 52
4.13 REDUCTION FACTOR – WEEK ........................................................................................ 52
4.14 CHEMISTRY OF SOLUTIONS ............................................................................................ 53
4.14.1 BeerLambert Law (Beer’s Law) .......................................................................... 53
4.14.2 pH Calculation ..................................................................................................... 54
4.14.3 Acid Dissociation Constant .................................................................................. 55
4.14.4 Base Dissociation Constant ................................................................................. 56
4.15 ASBESTOS (AIRBORNE CONTAMINANT) ......................................................................... 57
4.15.1 Asbestos Fiber Concentration by PCM ................................................................ 57
4.15.2 Asbestos Fiber Concentration .............................................................................. 58
4.15.3 Fiber Density ........................................................................................................ 58
4.15.4 Microscopic Limit of Resolution (Abbe’s Equation) ............................................ 59
4.16 PARTICLE SETTLING VELOCITY ..................................................................................... 60
4.16.1 Reynolds Number ................................................................................................. 61
5 MECHANICS ...................................................................................................................... 63
5.1 NEWTON’S SECOND LAW .............................................................................................. 63
5.2 WEIGHT ......................................................................................................................... 64
5.3 MOMENTUM .................................................................................................................. 64
5.4 WORK ............................................................................................................................ 65
5.5 MOMENT OF FORCE ....................................................................................................... 66
5.6 FRICTION ....................................................................................................................... 66
5.7 POTENTIAL ENERGY ...................................................................................................... 67
5.8 HOOKE’S LAW AND THE POTENTIAL ENERGY OF A SPRING ........................................... 68
5.9 KINETIC ENERGY ........................................................................................................... 69
5.10 RECTILINEAR MOTION ................................................................................................... 69
6 HYDROSTATICS AND HYDRAULICS .......................................................................... 73
6.1 PRESSURE AND FORCE ................................................................................................... 73
6.1.1 Static Pressure .......................................................................................................... 73
6.1.2 Velocity Pressure ...................................................................................................... 75
6.2 BERNOULLI’S THEOREM ................................................................................................ 76
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6.3 WATER FLOW IN A PIPE ................................................................................................. 78
6.3.1 Flow – Pressure Relationships ................................................................................. 79
6.3.2 HazenWilliams Formula ......................................................................................... 81
7 HEAT TRANSFER ............................................................................................................. 83
7.1 CONDUCTION ................................................................................................................. 83
7.2 CONVECTION ................................................................................................................. 83
7.3 RADIATION .................................................................................................................... 84
8 VENTILATION ................................................................................................................... 87
8.1 CONSERVATION OF MASS (THE CONTINUITY EQUATION) .............................................. 87
8.2 CONSERVATION OF ENERGY .......................................................................................... 88
8.3 DERIVATION OF THE FUNDAMENTAL DUCT FLOW EQUATIONS ..................................... 90
8.3.1 Density Correction Factor ........................................................................................ 93
8.4 DALLAVALLE EQUATION .............................................................................................. 95
8.5 HOOD STATIC PRESSURE ............................................................................................... 96
8.6 HOOD ENTRY COEFFICIENT AND LOSS .......................................................................... 97
8.7 CONVERGING DUCT FLOWS AND LOSSES ...................................................................... 99
8.8 FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF FLOW AND VELOCITY EQUATIONS .................................. 101
8.9 DILUTION VENTILATION .............................................................................................. 103
8.10 ROOM AIR CHANGES PER HOUR .................................................................................. 108
8.10.1 Dilution Ventilation Based on Room Air Changes ............................................. 109
8.11 DILUTION TO CONTROL EVAPORATION ....................................................................... 111
8.12 FAN LAWS AND EQUATIONS ........................................................................................ 112
8.12.1 Fan Laws ............................................................................................................ 113
9 SOUND AND NOISE ........................................................................................................ 117
9.1 SOUND INTENSITY ....................................................................................................... 117
9.2 SOUND PRESSURE LEVEL (SPL) .................................................................................. 118
9.2.1 Addition of Sound Pressure Levels (SPLs) ............................................................. 119
9.2.2 Time Weighted Equivalent Sound Pressure Level .................................................. 122
9.3 SOUND POWER LEVEL ................................................................................................. 123
9.4 TRANSMISSION LOSS ................................................................................................... 124
9.5 NOISE REDUCTION BY ABSORPTION ............................................................................ 125
9.5.1 Noise Reduction in a Duct ...................................................................................... 126
9.6 PERCENT NOISE DOSE AND TWA ................................................................................ 127
9.7 FREQUENCY BY A FAN ................................................................................................. 129
9.8 OCTAVE AND THIRDOCTAVE BANDS ......................................................................... 130
9.9 SOUND FREQUENCY AND WAVELENGTH ..................................................................... 132
10 RADIATION ...................................................................................................................... 133
10.1 IONIZING ...................................................................................................................... 133
10.1.1 Inverse Square Law ............................................................................................ 133
10.1.2 Gamma Radiation Exposure .............................................................................. 134
10.1.3 Equivalent Dose ................................................................................................. 135
10.1.4 Radioactive Decay ............................................................................................. 135
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10.1.5 Activity of a Radioactive Element ...................................................................... 137
10.1.6 Radiation Attenuation by Layers ........................................................................ 137
10.1.7 Exponential Rate Attenuation ............................................................................. 140
10.1.8 Effective HalfLife .............................................................................................. 141
10.2 NONIONIZING ............................................................................................................. 142
10.2.1 Absolute Gain (Antenna) .................................................................................... 142
10.2.2 Field Strength ..................................................................................................... 143
10.2.3 Safe Distance for NonIonizing Radiation ......................................................... 145
10.2.4 Magnetic Flux Density ....................................................................................... 146
10.2.5 Electromagnetic Radiation Wavelength and Frequency .................................... 147
10.2.6 Effective Ultraviolet Irradiance ......................................................................... 147
10.2.7 Lasers ................................................................................................................. 148
10.2.8 Spatial Averaging of Measurements ................................................................... 153
10.2.9 Time Exposure for NonIonizing Radiation ....................................................... 155
11 ELECTRICITY ................................................................................................................. 157
11.1 OHM’S LAW ................................................................................................................. 157
11.2 JOULE’S LAW ............................................................................................................... 158
11.3 RESISTANCE ................................................................................................................ 158
11.4 EQUIVALENT VALUES FOR COMPONENTS IN SERIES AND IN PARALLEL ...................... 159
11.4.1 Resistors in Series .............................................................................................. 159
11.4.2 Resistors in Parallel ........................................................................................... 159
11.4.3 Capacitors in Series ........................................................................................... 160
11.4.4 Capacitors in Parallel ........................................................................................ 160
11.4.5 Inductors in Series ............................................................................................. 160
11.4.6 Inductors in Parallel .......................................................................................... 160
12 ERGONOMICS ................................................................................................................. 163
12.1 REVISED NIOSH LIFTING EQUATION .......................................................................... 163
12.1.1 Lifting Index ....................................................................................................... 166
12.2 HEAT STRESS AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY ..................................................................... 167
12.2.1 Wet Bulb Globe Temperature ............................................................................. 167
12.2.2 Heat Storage by Body ......................................................................................... 168
12.2.3 Heat Stress Index ............................................................................................... 171
12.2.4 Ventilation of Sensible Heat ............................................................................... 171
13 STATISTICAL TABLES .................................................................................................. 175
14 PSYCHROMETRIC CHARTS ........................................................................................ 179
14.1 BASIC DEFINITIONS OF AIR .......................................................................................... 179
14.2 BASIC DEFINITIONS OF AIR TEMPERATURE ................................................................. 179
14.3 RELATIVE HUMIDITY ................................................................................................... 180
15 CONSTANTS AND CONVERSIONS ............................................................................. 183
15.1 LENGTH ....................................................................................................................... 183
15.2 VOLUME ...................................................................................................................... 183
15.3 WEIGHT & MASS ......................................................................................................... 183
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15.4 PRESSURE .................................................................................................................... 183
15.5 TEMPERATURE ............................................................................................................. 183
15.6 ANGLES ....................................................................................................................... 184
15.7 DENSITY OF WATER .................................................................................................... 184
15.8 DENSITY OF AIR .......................................................................................................... 184
15.9 ENERGY ....................................................................................................................... 184
15.10 RADIATION .............................................................................................................. 184
15.11 LIGHT ...................................................................................................................... 184
15.12 MAGNETIC FIELDS .................................................................................................. 184
15.13 PHYSICAL CONSTANTS ............................................................................................ 185
15.14 STANDARD TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (STP) ................................................... 185
15.15 MISCELLANEOUS ..................................................................................................... 185
16 STUDY PROBLEMS ........................................................................................................ 187
17 SOLUTIONS TO STUDY PROBLEMS ......................................................................... 197
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Introductory Concepts
1 Introductory Concepts
1.1 Significant Figures
The significant figures (also called significant digits) of a number are those digits
that carry meaning contributing to its precision. Digits that are not significant
imply a false sense of precision and should not be reported. Calculators and
spreadsheets routinely display more digits than those that are significant.
The following rules assist in deciding the correct number of significant figures.
Rule No. Rule for Significant Figures
1 All nonzero digits (i.e., 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8, and 9) are always significant.
2 All zeroes between nonzero numbers are always significant.
3
All zeroes which are simultaneously to the right of the decimal point
and at the end of the number are always significant.
4
All zeroes which are to the left of a written decimal point and are in a
number greater than or equal to 10 are always significant.
Note: One way to check rules 3 and 4 is to write the number in scientific notation.
If you can eliminate any zeroes, then they are not significant.
Examples of Significant Figures
Number # Significant Figures Rule(s)
84,239 5 1
9.376 4 1
100.02 5 1,2,4
0.0005 (= 5 E4) 1 1,4
2.3000 5 1,3
609.020 6 1,2,3,4
5,000,000 (= 5 E+6) 1 1
20.0 (= 2.00 E+1) 3 1,3,4
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1.1.1 Addition and Subtraction
When adding or subtracting numbers, count the number of decimal places to
determine the number of significant figures. The answer cannot contain more
places after the decimal point than the smallest number of decimal places in the
numbers being added or subtracted.
Example: Add three number, 12.345678 + 9.8765 + 0.12
12.345678 (6 places after the decimal point)
+ 9.8765 (4 places after the decimal point)
+ 0.12 (2 places after the decimal point)
= 22.342178 (displays on calculator)
= 22.34 (rounded to 2 places in the answer)
Notice there are four significant figures in the answer.
1.1.2 Multiplication and Division
When multiplying or dividing numbers, count the number of significant figures.
The answer cannot contain more significant figures than the number being
multiplied or divided with the least number of significant figures.
Example: Multiply 98.765432 times 1.2345
98.765432 (8 significant figures)
x 1.2345 (5 significant figures)
= 121.9259258 (displayed on calculator)
= 121.93 (rounded to 5 significant figures)
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1.2 Scientific Notation
Scientific notation (sometimes called exponential notation) is a way of writing or
displaying numbers in terms of a decimal number between 1 and 10 multiplied by
a power of 10. Scientific notation numbers use the form:
10
b
a x (1)
Scientific notation is typically used when numbers are too large or small to be
conveniently written in standard decimal notation.
For example, Avogadro’s number is the number of molecules in a mole of a substance.
In scientific notation Avogadro’s number is written as approximately 6.0225 × 10
23
which is much easier than writing all those zeros.
1.3 Exponents and Radicals
Exponents and radicals are used extensively in the mathematics of safety and
industrial hygiene. The following table summarizes the important rules for
exponents and radicals.
Rule Notes Example
n
a a a a a a a = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
a times itself n
times
5
3 3 3 3 3 3 243 = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
0
1 a = 0 a ≠
0
3.14 1 =
1
n
n
a
a
−
= 0 a ≠
2
2
1 1
5
5 25
−
= =
n m n m
a a a
+
=
7 2 7 2 5
a a a a
− − + −
= =
( )
m
n nm
a a =
( )
7
3 3 7 21
a a a
⋅
= =
1
n m
n
m
m n
a
a
a
a
−
−
¦
¦
=
´
¦
¹
1
, 0
m n
for a
a
−
≠
2
2 3 1
3
1
n
m
a a
a a
a a a
− −
= = = =
( )
n
n n
ab a b =
( )
7
7 7
ab a b
−
− −
=
n
n
n
a a
b b
 
=

\ .
0 b ≠
5
5
5
a a
b b
 
=

\ .
n n
n
n
a b b
b a a
−
   
= =
 
\ . \ .
0 a ≠
2 2
2
2
a b b
b a a
−
   
= =
 
\ . \ .
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( )
( )
1 n
n
ab
ab
−
=
0 a b ⋅ ≠
( )
( )
3
3
1
ab
ab
−
=
1
n
n
a
a
−
=
9
9
1
a
a
−
=
n m
m n
a b
b a
−
−
= 0 a ≠
4 6
6 4
a b
b a
−
−
=
( )
k
n m nk mk
a b a b =
( )
4
2 3 2 4 3 4 8 12
a b a b a b
− ⋅ − ⋅ −
= =
k
n nk
m mk
a a
b b
 
=

\ .
0 b ≠
3
2 2 3 6
5 5 3 15
a a a
b b b
⋅
⋅
 
= =

\ .
1
n
n
a a =
n is a positive
integer > 1 and a is
a positive real
number
1
3
3
a a =
n n
a a =
n is a positive
integer > 1 and a is
a positive real
number
5 5
a a =
n n n
ab a b =
n is a positive
integer > 1 and a
and b are positive
real numbers
4 4 4
ab a b =
n
n
n
a a
b b
=
n is a positive
integer > 1 and a
and b are positive
real numbers
3
3
3
a a
b b
=
Problem: Simplify the following expressions; provide answers with only positive
exponents:
1.
2
xy
−
2.
5
3
a
b
−
3.
( )
2
3 4
2x y
−
4.
( ) ( )
2 5
2 4 3
4a b a b
−
−
−
5.
2
4 3
7
n m
m n
−
− −
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6.
2
2 8
5
12
3
t s
t s
−
−
−
 

\ .
Solution:
1.
2
2 2
1 x
xy x
y y
−
= =
2.
5
5 5
1 1
3 3 3
a ab
a
b b
− −
= =
3.
( )
2 8 8
2
3 4 2 6 8
6 6
2 4
2 2
y y
x y x y
x x
− −
= = =
4.
( ) ( ) ( )
15 2 5
2
2 4 3 4 8 5 11 13
11 13
16
4 4 16 a b a b a b a b a b
a b
− −
− − − − −
− = − = =
5.
2 4 3 5
4 3 2
7 7 7
n m m n m m n
m n n
−
− −
= =
6.
2 2 2
2 8 2 5 7 2 14 18
5 8 9 18 14
12 4 4 4
3 16
t s t t t t s
t s s s s s t
− − −
− − −
− −
     
= = = =
  
⋅
\ . \ . \ .
1.4 Logarithm Functions
Logarithmic functions are used in several areas of safety and industrial hygiene,
including those related to sound and noise as well as radiation.
The definition of the logarithm function is:
If b is any number such that b > 0 and b ≠ 1 and x > 0 then,
log
b
y x = (2)
This is read as “log base b of x” and is equivalent to:
y
b x = (3)
Although the base (b) can be any number complying with the definition, the most
common logarithm functions are the common and natural logarithms,
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common logarithm: log log x x = (4)
natural logarithm: ln log
e
x x = (5)
where e = 2.71828...
Note the natural logarithm is written ln, not log.
The following table reviews the important rules related to logarithmic functions.
Rule Notes
1 log 1 0
b
=
0
1 b =
2 log 1
b
b =
1
b b =
3 log
x
b
b x =
4
log
b
x
b x =
5 ( ) log log log
b b b
xy x y = + x>0 and y>0
6 log log log
b b b
x
x y
y
 
= −

\ .
x>0 and y>0
7 ( )
log log
r
b b
x r x = x>0 and y>0
8 If log log then
b b
x y x y = = x>0 and y>0
Note that there is no rule for breaking up a logarithm for the sum or difference of
two terms, i.e.,
( ) log log log
b b b
x y x y + ≠ + (6)
( ) log log log
b b b
x y x y − ≠ − (7)
Here’s a simple example of a logarithm function:
3
6
log 216 3 6 =216 just as =
Many other examples of logarithms are presented in Section 9 on Sound and Noise
and Section 10 on Radiation.
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1.5 Absolute Value Equations
In mathematics, the absolute value (or modulus) of a real number is the numerical
value of that number without regard to its sign (i.e., it is considered positive and
no sign is shown). Absolute value is shown by a vertical bar on each side of the
number:
if 0
if 0
a a
a
a a
≥ ¦
=
´
− <
¹
(8)
Problem: What is the absolute value of 5?
Solution:
5 5 − =
1.6 Quadratic Formula
A quadratic equation is a secondorder polynomial equation with a single
variable, x, in the form:
2
0 ax bx c + + = (9)
where 0 a ≠ (when 0 a = the equation becomes linear). Because Equation (9) is a
secondorder polynomial equation, the fundamental theorem of algebra
guarantees that it has two solutions. This is found by the quadratic formula,
which is derived by completing the squares as follows:
2
b c
x x
a a
+ = − (10)
2
2 2
2 2
4
2 4 4
b c b b ac
x
a a a a
−  
+ = − + =

\ .
(11)
2
4
2 2
b b ac
x
a a
± −
+ = (12)
2
4
2
b b ac
x
a
− ± −
= (13)
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± Note the ± symbol in the above equations. This symbol means the term after the ±
sign is both added, and subtracted, from the term before the ± sign.
Problem: Solve
2
3 4 0 x x + − =
Solution: By reviewing equation (10) we see for this equation a=1, b=3, c=4, and
substituting those values into equation (13) yields:
2
3 3 4(1)( 4)
2(1)
x
− ± − −
=
3 25 3 5
2 2
x
− ± − ±
= =
8 2
, 4,1
2 2
x
−
= = −
1.7 Boolean Algebra
Boolean algebra can be thought of as the algebra of events and states. Boolean
algebra is important in the construction and mathematical evaluation of event
trees, such as fault trees, particularly when a large number of events are related in
some manner.
The most common rules for Boolean algebra are shown in the accompanying
table. Boolean algebra assumes A, B, and C (etc.) are logical states that can have
the values 0 (false) and 1 (true). Although the nomenclature used may vary
depending on preference, the following are typical examples of Boolean algebra
formats, where “+” means OR, “·” means AND, and A’ means NOT A.
Rules for Boolean Algebra
Addition Multiplication Rule
A + A = A A · A = A identity
A + 0 = A A · 0 = 0 operation with 0
A + 1 = 1 A · 1 = A operation with 1
A + A’ = 1 A · A’ = 0 complement
A + B = B + A A · B = B · A commutative law
A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C A · (B · C) = (A · B) · C associative law
A + (A · B) = A A · ( A + B) = A absorption
A + (B · C) = (A + B) · (A + C) A · (B + C) = (A · B) + (A · C) distributive law
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Consider the following example. Assume you want to evaluate the probability of
an uncontrolled fire occurring at some location. When constructing an event tree
(e.g., a fault tree) to evaluate this scenario, two high level events are required. A
fire must occur, and the fire must not be controlled (notice the “and” in the
statement – both events are required). Each of these events can be broken down
further. The failure to control the fire can be broken down to two other events;
failure of automatic methods (e.g., sprinklers) and failure of manual methods
(e.g., fire department) – again note the “and.” With regard to sprinkler system
failure, this could be due to the fire pump failing to start or the preaction valve
failing to open. Notice the ‘or’ here, either event would lead to failure; both are
not required.
This is a very simple example, but you can see how such an analysis could
quickly generate a very large number of events. Boolean algebra allows you to
quantify the events and rank the importance of contributing events.
Problem: Resolve the following Boolean expression.
( ) ( ) ' A B A B + ⋅ +
Solution: First, we can expand the statement to find:
( ) ( ) ' ' ' A B A B A A A B A B B B + ⋅ + = ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅
and
' ' ( ') 0 A A A B A B B B A A B B ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ = + + +
since and ' 0 A A A B B ⋅ = ⋅ = and then
( ') 0 A A B B A A A + + + = + =
since ' 1 B B + = and A A A + = we find the above expression resolves to A.
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A
B
C
a
b
c
1.8 Trigonometric Functions
1.8.1 Right Triangles
For a right triangle (i.e., one with angle C=90
o
) equations (14) through (16) are
true:
sin / A a c = (14)
cos / A b c = (15)
tan / A a b = (16)
1.8.2 Law of Cosines
2 2 2
2 cos c a b ab C = + − (17)
Note when C = 90
o
1.8.2.1 Pythagorean Theorem
(i.e., for a right triangle) equation (17) reduces to the
Pythagorean Theorem, equation (18).
2 2 2
a b c + = (18)
1.8.3 Law of Sines
sin sin sin
a b c
A B C
= = (19)
Problem: You walk about 50 feet away from the base of a water tank. From that
location it appears the top of the water tank is about 60 degrees above the ground.
About how high is the top of the water tank?
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Solution: Reviewing the triangle diagram above, we see we have angle “A” and side
“b” and want side “a”. Equation (16) can be written to allow us to estimate the height of
the tank (side “a” in the diagram).
tan 50tan 60 86.6feet
o
a b A = ⋅ = =
So we can estimate our water tank is about 90 feet high. To understand the possible
error with our estimate, we need to know the error with the horizontal measurement
and the angle used.
1.9 Useful Equations for Geometric Shapes
1.9.1 Perimeter
Triangle : P a b c = + + (20)
Rectangle : P 2L 2W = + (21)
Square : P 4s = (22)
Circle : C circumference d 2 r π π = = = (23)
1.9.2 Area
1
Triangle : A bh
2
= (24)
Rectangle : A LW = (25)
2
Square : A s = (26)
2
2
d
Circle : A r
4
π
π = = (27)
Parallelogram: A bh = (28)
( )
1
1 2 2
Trapezoid : A h b b = + (29)
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1.9.3 Volume
Rectangular solid : V LWH = (30)
3
Cube : V s = (31)
3
4
3
Sphere : V r π = (32)
2
Circular cylinder : V r h π = (33)
2
1
3
Circular cone : V r h π = (34)
2
1
3
Regular pyramid : V s h = (35)
1.9.4 Surface Area
Rectangular solid : SA 2LW 2LH 2WH = + + (36)
2
Cube : SA 6s = (37)
2
Sphere : SA 4 r π = (38)
2
Right circular cylinder : SA 2 r 2 rh π π = + (39)
2
Right circular cone : SA r rl π π = + (40)
2
Regular pyramid : SA s 2sl = + (41)
Problem: A cylindrical tank with a diameter of 3 feet stands 6 feet tall. What is the
volume of the tank in cubicfeet? How many gallons of liquid can this tank hold?
Assuming the tank is used for water and another for acetone, how many pounds of
water or acetone can each tank hold? Note: Assume water weight 62.4 lbs/ft
3
.
Solution: First, we can calculate the volume of the tank in cubic feet using equation
(33).
2
2 3
3
V r h ft 6ft = 42.4ft
2
π π
 
= = ⋅

\ .
We can convert to gallons using the conversion 1 ft
3
= 7.481 gallons,
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3
3
7.481gal
42.4ft 317.2gallons
1ft
 
=

\ .
We can find the capacity of the tank in pounds of water by converting volume to
pounds of water as follows:
2
3
H 0 3
42.4ft 62.4 2645.8lbs
lbs
ft
 
=

\ .
To find the weight for acetone, we can use the specific gravity. We can find the specific
gravity from data on its MSDS sheet. MSDS typically list the specific gravity of acetone
as 0.79 (water = 1.0). Since we know the weight in water, we simply multiply that by
the specific gravity for acetone:
( )
2
H 0 acetone
2645.8lbs (0.79) 2090.2lbs =
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Statistics
2 Statistics
2.1 Arithmetic Mean
The arithmetic mean, often referred to simply as the average, is a method to
derive the central tendency of a sample space. The term "arithmetic mean" is
preferred because it helps distinguish it from other averages, such as the
geometric mean. The arithmetic mean is calculated as follows:
1 2 n
X X X
X
n
+ + +
=
(42)
where
X = arithmetic mean of n items
X
n
n = total number of items to be averaged
= value of nth item
The Ellipsis (…) Equation (42) contains a common symbol, the ellipsis (…). In
mathematics, an ellipsis is often used to indicate "and so on." Equation (42) can be
described as reading “add X
1
and X
2
and so on for as many items as you have, and
then divide by the number of item you have.” It is common in mathematics to indicate
the number of items by the variable n.
2.2 Geometric Mean
The geometric mean, is similar to the arithmetic mean except that the sample
numbers are multiplied and then the nth root of the resulting product is taken, as
shown here,
( )( ) ( )
1 2
n
n
GM X x X = (43)
where
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GM = geometric mean of n items
n = total number of items to be averaged
X
n
The following equation is simply another form of the geometric mean equation
above.
= value of nth item
( )
1
log
10
n
i
X
n
GM
=
∑
= (44)
where
GM = geometric mean of n items
X
n
n = total number of items to be averaged
= value of nth item
i = count
Σ Notation Mathematical formulae often require the addition of many variables.
The summation notation, indicated by a capital Greek sigma, is the common form of
shorthand used to give a concise expression for a sum of the values of a variable. For
example:
1 2 3
1
n
n i
i
x x x x x
=
= + + + +
∑
Problem: Several air samples are taken to determine the airborne concentration of a
process solvent. The following concentrations (in ppm) are found: 51, 76, 49, 79, and
36. Calculate the arithmetic and geometric means.
Solution: To calculate the arithmetic mean, we use equation (42) and for the geometric
mean we use equation (43).
1 2
51 76 49 79 36 291
58.2
5 5
n
X X X
X
n
+ + + + + + +
= = = =
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( )( )( )( )( )
5
51 76 49 79 36 55.8 GM = =
The results demonstrate that all averages are not the same. The selection of the mean
equation will depend on the application of the data. Typically, if numbers are to be
added, use an arithmetic mean. If values are to be multiplied, use a geometric mean.
For example, if a investment return yielded 12, 17 and 14 percent over a three year
period, the appropriate average would be the geometric mean since the gains are
compounded (i.e., multiplied).
2.3 Standard Deviation
The standard deviation of a data set is the square root of its variance. Standard
deviation is a widely used measure of the variability or dispersion; that is it shows
how much variation there is from the "average." A low standard deviation
indicates that the data points tend to be very close to the mean, whereas high
standard deviation indicates that the data are spread out over a large range of
values.
The sample standard deviation is the most common estimator for a “standard
deviation.” It is an adjusted version (i.e., N1) and is typically denoted by as s or
SD.
Another estimator for the standard deviation is not adjusted (i.e. N) and is
typically denoted by σ. It has a uniformly smaller mean squared error than the
sample standard deviation. It provides the maximumlikelihood estimate when
the population is normally distributed. But this estimator, when applied to smaller
samples, tends to be too low.
The two are typically expressed as follows:
When N1 this is a “Sample Standard Deviation” (usually written SD):
( )
2
1
1
n
i
i
x x
SD
n
=
−
=
−
∑
(45)
This can also be written as:
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( )
2
1
1
n
i
x
SD
n
=
=
−
∑
(46)
where
i
x x x = −
When n is used unmodified this is a “Standard Deviation” (usually written
as σ):
( )
2
1
n
i
i
x x
n
σ
=
−
=
∑
(47)
This can also be written as:
( )
2
1
n
i
x
n
σ
=
=
∑
(48)
where
i
x x x = −
N or n In some formulas for standard deviation, you may see n written as an upper
case N. In this application they are simply used to denote the total number of items
being evaluated, so either form is acceptable.
Problem: Several air samples are taken to determine the airborne concentration of a
process solvent. The following concentrations (in ppm) are found; 51, 76, 49, 79, 36.
Calculate the sample standard deviation and the standard deviation.
Solution: We can use equations (45) and (47). Also note the following term is the same
in each equation:
( )
2
1
n
i
i
x x
=
−
∑
We also know the arithmetic mean ( 58.2 X = ) from the sample problem above.
Next, we can calculate term above as shown in the following table:
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i
x
i
x x −
( )
2
i
x x −
51 7.2 51.84
76 17.8 316.84
49 9.2 84.64
79 20.8 432.64
36 22.2 492.84
( )
2
1
n
i
i
x x
=
−
∑
1378.8
We can now solve for the sample standard deviation:
1378.8
18.57
5 1
SD = =
−
And the standard deviation:
1378.8
16.61
5
σ = =
2.4 Geometric Standard Deviation
The geometric standard deviation describes how spread out a set of numbers is
whose average is characterized by a geometric mean. In safety and industrial
hygiene applications related to particle size distributions, the geometric standard
deviation (of a lognormal distribution) is easily determined by dividing the mass
median particle diameter by the particle size at the 15.87 percent probability or
by
dividing the particle size at the 84.13 percent probability by the mass median
particle diameter. These two equations are shown here:
50%tile value
GSD
15.87%tile value
= (49)
84.13%tile value
GSD
50%tile value
= (50)
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where
GSD = geometric standard deviation
Problem: Particle sample data are plotted on logarithmic graph paper, and the resulting
plot reveals the average particle size is 10µm, and 84.13% of the cumulative particle
mass is below 20µm and 15.87% of the cumulative particle mass is below 5µm.
Calculate the geometric standard deviation of the samples.
Solution: Both equations (49) and (50) should provide the same determination.
10
2.0
5
50%tile value m
GSD
15.87%tile value m
µ
µ
= = =
20
2.0
10
84.13%tile value m
GSD
50%tile value m
µ
µ
= = =
2.5 Coefficient of Variation
The coefficient of variation is a measure of relative variation of a set of normally
distributed values; it is calculated as follows:
SD
CV
X
= (51)
where
CV = coefficient of variation (see following equation), percent in decimal
format
SD = the sample standard deviation (see equation (45))
X = the arithmetic mean (see equation (42))
Problem: Several air samples are taken to determine the airborne concentration of a
process solvent. The following concentrations (in ppm) are found; 51, 76, 49, 79, 36.
Calculate the coefficient of variation.
Solution: The formula for the coefficient of variation is given in equation (51). For the
data set in the problem, the arithmetic mean and sample standard deviation were
derived in the sample problems above ( X = 58.2, and SD = 18.57).
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18.57
0.312 31.2%
58.2
SD
CV
X
= = = =
2.6 Cumulative Error
In some cases, the individual errors associated with various steps in a
measurement can be quantified. However, the total cumulative error is not just a
simple summation of the individual errors, rather the cumulative error is defined
by the following expression:
2 2 2
1 2 c n
E E E E = + + + (52)
where
E
c
E
= cumulative error
n
n = total number of error items
= individual error of item n
Problem: Consider a case in which sampling and analytical errors (SAE) are used to
account for a margin of error before measured exposures are determined to exceed the
total airborne contaminant limit. Assume the total air sampling error factor accounts for
three uncontrollable variances; 1) air pump performance (CV
P
), 2) variability of the
deposit area on the filter (CV
D
) and 3) variability of the laboratory analysis (CV
A
). These
values are CV
P
= 0.04, CV
D
=0.5, CV
A
= 0.07. What is the total variance?
Solution: To determine CV
total
, the individual components are determined separately
and then combined according to the cumulative error formula, equation (52):
2 2 2 2 2 2
0.04 0.5 0.07 0.506
total P D A
CV CV CV CV = + + = + + =
2.7 Sampling and Analytical Error
All sampling and analytical methods have some degree of uncertainty. The total
uncertainty depends on the combined effects of the contributing uncertainties
inherent in sampling and analysis. Uncertainty in sampling results has historically
been called Sampling and Analytical Error (SAE) by OSHA. It can be calculated
as follows:
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1.645
total
SAE CV = ⋅ (53)
where
SAE = Sampling and Analytical Error
1.645 = a constant that is a 95percent 1tailed confidence coefficient
CV
total
Problem: Based on the total coefficient of variation just calculated, what is the
sampling and analytical error for the method used (95% confidence)?
= coefficient of variation (see equation (51)), percent in decimal
format
Solution:
( ) 1.645 1.645 0.506 0.833
total
SAE CV = = =
2.8 Student’s tTest
Any statistical test that uses the tdistribution can be called a ttest. One of the
most common is Student's ttest. Student's ttest is used to compare the means of
two samples. The shape of the tdistribution depends on the number of degrees of
freedom. The degrees of freedom for a ttest is the total number of observations in
the groups minus 2, or n
1
+n
2
These statistics can be used to carry out either a onetailed test or a twotailed test.
2.
Once a t value is determined, a pvalue can be found using a table of values from
Student's tdistribution (See Table in Section 13). If the calculated pvalue is
below the threshold chosen for statistical significance (frequently the 0.05 level),
then the null hypothesis is rejected in favor of the alternative hypothesis.
The following equation is used for ttests:
1 2
1 2
1 1
pooled
x x
t
SD
n n
−
=
+
(54)
where
t = the test statistic
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x
1
x
= mean of sample 1
2
SD
= mean of sample 2
pooled
n
= pooled standard deviation (see following equation)
1
n
= number of measurements in sample set 1
2
Tails? Generally, when you conduct a test of statistical significance, you are given a
probability (pvalue) in the output. Also, if your test statistic is symmetrically distributed
(such as a tdistribution), you can select a onetailed test or a twotailed test. Most
references on statistical tests will recommend that if there is any doubt, a twotailed test
should be done; that is, select your pvalues from a twotailed table. However, if you
have a table of onetailed data (e.g., the CSP examination reference tdistribution
table), simply multiply the probability value by 2 and use the data from that column. For
example, data for a twotailed pvalue of 0.1 is the same as a onetailed pvalue of 0.05
(i.e., 2*0.05 = 0.1). See the TDistribution Table in Section 13.
= number of measurements in sample set 2
2.9 Pooled Standard Deviation
The pooled standard deviation is used in the above ttest equation.
( ) ( )
2 2
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1
2
pooled
n SD n SD
SD
n n
− + −
=
+ −
(55)
where
SD
pooled
= pooled standard deviation
SD
1
= standard deviation for sample set 1
SD
2
= standard deviation for sample set 2
n
1
= number of measurements in sample set 1
n
2
= number of measurements in sample set 2
The following equation is used for an independent onesample ttest.
1
X X
t n n
SD
µ µ
σ
− −
= − = (56)
where
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t = the test statistic
X = mean of sample
µ = mean of the population
SD = sample standard deviation
σ = standard deviation
n = sample size
Note that these can be written as:
1
X X
t
SD
n n
µ µ
σ
− −
= =
−
(57)
Problem: Two shifts at a factory each have 8 employees working at a time. The work
requires repetitive motions, so short breaks are encouraged. You are asked to conduct
an analysis of the breaks taken to ascertain if there is a significant difference between
the two shifts. The student’s ttest is a good tool since you are comparing two similar
data sets. An initial assessment reveals the following data on the number of breaks
taken, along with the totals, average and standard deviation:
Group 1 Group 2
5 8
7 1
5 4
3 6
5 6
3 4
3 1
9 2
Total 40 32
Average 5 4
SD 2.14 2.56
Solution: With the data above, you can use equations (55) and (54) to determine the t
test value.
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( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
2 2
2 2
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 7 2.14 7 2.56
2.36
2 8 8 2
pooled
n SD n SD
SD
n n
− + − +
= = =
+ − + −
1 2
1 2
5 4
0.847
1 1 1 1
2.36
8 8
pooled
x x
t
SD
n n
− −
= = =
+ +
Now, going to the table of tdistributions (see Section 13), we see for 14 degrees of
freedom (i.e., 162) and with a probability of 0.05 (two tails), t must be at least 2.145.
Therefore we conclude the difference in breaks is not significant.
2.10 Normal Distribution Z Score
The number of standard deviations from the mean is called the zscore. One of the
most useful applications of the normal distribution Z score is being able to
determine the exact proportion of data that falls above and below that score. They
are found by the formula:
X
z
µ
σ
−
= (58)
where
z = number of standard deviations between X and µ
X = value to be evaluated
µ = mean of the population (x in equation (42) above)
σ = standard deviation of the population
A negative Zscore means that the original score was below the mean. A positive
Zscore means that the original score was above the mean. Zscores are typically
used in conjunction with standard normal curve data tables (see Section 13). The
following example will demonstrate how zscores are commonly used.
Problem: Several air samples are taken to determine the airborne concentration of a
process solvent. The following concentrations (in ppm) are found; 51, 76, 49, 79, 36.
Assuming a normal distribution, what is the probability of a reading greater than 80?
Solution: The formula for the zscore is given in equation (58). For the data set in the
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problem, the arithmetic mean and standard deviation were derived in the sample
problems above (µ = X = 58.2, and σ = 16.61). First we calculate the zscore:
80 58.2
1.31
16.61
X
z
µ
σ
− −
= = =
Now, going to a zscore table (see Section 13), we find the area under the curve from 0
to 1.31 is 0.4049. However, we want the value beyond z = 1.31, so we must subtract
the zscore from 0.5 (i.e., ½ of 1). Consequently the answer we are looking for is:
0.5 0.4049 0.0951 9.51% − = =
In other words, there is a 9.51% chance that we could get a reading of 80 or greater
based on our samples (assuming the data follows a normal distribution).
2.11 ChiSquared
The chisquared test is used to assess two types of statistical comparison: tests of
goodness of fit, and tests of independence.
The chisquare value (determined by the following equation) can be used to
determine a pvalue by comparing the value of the statistic to a chisquared
distribution table.
( )
2
2
1
n
i i
i
i
O E
E
χ
=
−
=
∑
(59)
where
2
χ = Chi squared test statistic
O
i
E
= an observed frequency
i
i = count
= an expected (or theoretical) frequency
n = the total number
Problem: We toss a coin 200 times and obtain the following results; 108 heads and 92
tails. Is this a reasonable outcome, or can we suspect the coin somehow favors heads?
Solution: First, we can assume that a fair coin toss should give us on average 100
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heads and 100 tails. But we can also assume that there is some variation due to
chance, particularly with a small number of coin tosses. This problem is a good
application of a Chisquared test. We can calculate the chisquared test statistic for this
problem as follows:
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2
1
n
i i H H T T
i
i H T
O E O E O E
E E E
χ
=
− − −
= = +
∑
( ) ( )
2 2
2
108 100 92 100
1.28
100 100
χ
− −
= + =
From a Chisquared distribution table (see Section 13), we find for 1 degree of freedom
(i.e., 2 classes, head and tails, minus 1) a value of 1.28 falls between 90% and 10%.
From this we conclude our coin toss results can be accounted for by chance and the
coin toss was fair.
2.12 Spearman Rank Correlation
The Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient was developed for use with data such
as ranks. The score runs between 1 and 1. A coefficient of 1 means a perfect
positive correlation and 1 means a perfect negative correlation. A coefficient of
0 indicates no correlation. The formula for the Spearman Rank Correlation
Coefficient is:
( )
( )
2
2
6
1
1
s
D
r
N N
= −
−
∑
(60)
where
r
s
6 = a constant (it is always used in the formula)
= Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, nondimensional
D = the difference between two corresponding variables
N = the number of data pairs
Problem: Two safety inspectors perform surveys in the same 10 locations within a site.
They then independently rank the areas based on the number and type of findings.
Based on the independent rankings, how likely is it that these two inspectors would
have similar findings at other sites? The ranking (from 1 to 10) for each location
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assessed by the inspectors is shown here:
Location Inspector 1 Inspector 2
1 8 10
2 4 2
3 1 3
4 5 6
5 7 7
6 10 9
7 2 1
8 3 4
9 9 8
10 6 5
Solution: Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, equation (60), provides an
acceptable approximation of the uniformity in the two inspector’s findings and is easy
to calculate.
Location Inspector 1 Inspector 2 D D
1
2
8 10 2 4
2 4 2 2 4
3 1 3 2 4
4 5 6 1 1
5 7 7 0 0
6 10 9 1 1
7 2 1 1 1
8 3 4 1 1
9 9 8 1 1
10 6 5 1 1
Sum 18
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2 2
6
6 18
1 1 0.89 89%
1 10 10 1
s
D
r
N N
= − = − = =
− −
∑
Therefore, from this analysis, we can conclude there is a strong positive correlation
between the two inspectors.
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2.13 Correlation Coefficient
The linear correlation coefficient (usually denoted by the letter r) is a measure of
the strength and direction of a linear relationship between two variables (here, x
and y). The value of r is a dimensionless quantity such that 1 < r < +1. If x and
y have a strong positive linear correlation, r is close to +1 (an r value of exactly
+1 indicates a perfect positive fit). Positive values indicate a relationship
between x and y variables such that as values for x increase, values for y also
increase. If x and y have a strong negative linear correlation, r is close to 1 (an r
value of exactly 1 indicates a perfect negative fit). Negative values indicate a
relationship between x and y such that as values for x increase, values for y
decrease. If there is no linear correlation or a weak linear correlation, r is close to
0.
( ) ( )( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
N XY X Y
r
N X X N Y Y
−
=
( (
− −
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
∑ ∑ ∑
∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
(61)
where
X and Y are two variables being evaluated
Equation (61) may be written in an equivalent, but somewhat more simple form:
( )( )
2 2
xy
r
x y
=
∑
∑ ∑
(62)
where
x X X = −
y Y Y = −
Problem: Calculate the linear correlation coefficient for the following data set.
X Y
1 2
2 5
3 6
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Solution: We will use equation (62); that requires the average of the x and y values.
These are easily found to be 2 and 4.33, respectively.
x X X = − y Y Y = − xy x y
2
1.00
2
2.33 2.33 1.00 5.44
0.00 0.67 0.00 0.00 0.44
1.00 1.67 1.67 1.00 2.78
∑
4.00 2.00 8.67
( )( )
( )( )
2 2
4.0
0.961
2 8.67
xy
r
x y
= = =
∑
∑ ∑
A linear correlation coefficient of 0.961 indicates a strong positive relationship between
the data. Note: Although this sample problem only uses three data pairs, the method
is typically used for larger data sets.
2.14 Lower Confidence Limit
With regard to the permissible exposure limit (PEL), the lower confidence limit
can be considered the lowest value that the true exposure could be with some
degree of confidence (e.g., 95% or 99%). This is written as:
( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 2
n n
A
n
SAE T C T C T C
C
LCL
PEL PEL T T T
+ + +
= −
+ + +
(63)
where
LCL = lower confidence limit, ppm
C
A
PEL = permissible exposure limit, ppm
= timeweighted average concentration of consecutive samples, ppm
SAE = sampling and analytical error, see equation (53)
T
n
C
= duration of sample n, minutes
n
n = total number of samples
= concentration of sample n, ppm
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Problem: Chlorine is used in a process and the following measurements of airborne
concentrations are made: 0.75 ppm for 90 min, 0.45 ppm for 170 min, and 0.55 for 220
min. Find the lower confidence limit for this data. Assume the PEL for chlorine is 0.5
ppm and the SAE for this method is 20%.
Solution: First, we need to calculate the timeweighted average of the chlorine
samples:
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
( ) ( ) ( )
0.75 ppm 90 min 0.45 ppm 170 min 0.55 ppm 220 min
90 min 170 min 220 min
0.552ppm
A
C
+ +
+ +
= =
Then equation (63) is used to determine to LCL,
( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
0.552 0.2 0.75 90 0.45 170 0.55 220
0.97
0.5 0.5 90 170 220
LCL
+ +
= − =
+ +
Therefore, since the LCL is less than 1.0, we conclude that the exposure does not
exceed the PEL at the 95% confidence level.
2.15 TwoSided 90% Confidence Interval
Given the mean value of a data set, as well as the standard deviation and number
of samples in that data set, the twosided 90% confidence interval is calculated as
follows:
1.645 90%Conf = X
n
σ  
±

\ .
(64)
where
90%Conf = the twosided 90% confidence value, units to match X , σ and
n
X = arithmetic mean of the sample
σ = standard deviation
n = sample size
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2.16 TwoSided 95% Confidence Interval
Given the mean value of a data set, as well as the standard deviation and number
of samples in that data set, the twosided 95% confidence interval is calculated as
follows:
1.96 95%Conf = X
n
σ  
±

\ .
(65)
where
95%Conf = the twosided 95% confidence value, units to match X , σ and
n
X = arithmetic mean of the sample
σ = standard deviation
n = sample size
2.17 OneSided 95% Confidence Interval
Given the mean value of a data set, as well as the standard deviation and number
of samples in that data set, the onesided 95% confidence interval can be
calculated as follows:
 1.645 95%Conf = X or
n
σ  
+ −

\ .
(66)
where
95%Conf = the onesided 95% confidence value, units to match X
and
σ
X = arithmetic mean of the sample
σ = standard deviation
n = sample size
Problem: Several air samples are taken to determine the airborne concentration of a
process solvent. The following concentrations (in ppm) are found; 51, 76, 49, 79, 36.
Assuming a normal distribution, what is the twosided 90% confidence interval?
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Solution: The formula for the twosided 90% confidence interval is given in equation
(64). For the data set in the problem, the arithmetic mean and standard deviation were
derived in the samples problems above ( X = 58.2, and σ = 16.61). There were five
samples, so n = 5.
16.61
1.645 58.2 1.645
5
90%Conf = X =
n
σ    
± ±
 
\ . \ .
16.61
58.2 1.645 58.2 12.22
5
 
± = ±

\ .
58.2 12.22 45.98, 70.42 ± =
Therefore, the twosided 90% confidence interval for the sample set is 45.98 ppm and
70.42 ppm.
Equations (64) and (65) are solved in the same manner; the only difference is the
choice of the confidence level desired. However, equation (66) is for a one sided
confidence interval, so you must decide if you need the upper or lower confidence
interval and use the equation as such (i.e., + or , not both).
2.18 Permutations and Combinations
Permutations and combinations are mathematical terms applied to the two rules
by which items are selected from a group of items. Which rule (equation) to
apply is determined by the importance of order in the selection.
2.18.1 Permutation
The number of ways of obtaining an ordered subset of k elements from a set of n
elements is given by:
!
( )!
n
k
n
P
n k
=
−
(67)
where
n
k
P = the number of ways of obtaining an ordered subset of k elements
from a set of n elements
n = total number of items from which to select
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k = number of items taken each time
n! In mathematics, the factorial
of a positive integer n, denoted by n!, is the product of
all positive integers less than or equal to n (e.g., 4! = 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 = 24). Also note that
0! = 1.
2.18.2 Combination
The number of ways of picking k unordered outcomes from n possibilities is
given by:
!
!( )!
n
k
n
C
k n k
=
−
(68)
where
n
k
C = the number of ways of obtaining an unordered subset (combination)
of k elements from a set of n elements
n = total number of items from which to select
k = number of items taken each time
The terms ordered and unordered can be a bit confusing. The term unordered
may seem less restrictive, and as a result, more options appear available. This
situation is not true. For example, say you have to pick two people from a group
of ten, and you pick Al and Beth. In an unordered set, Al and Beth are the same as
Beth and Al, so in an unordered set there are actually fewer options.
Problem: At a production facility, there are three standby generators provided so that
the backup electrical power has a high degree of reliability. If only two are required to
provide the required capacity, how many combinations of two generators are provided
by the set of three? Also, if the three generators are labeled A, B and C, how many
ways can they be arranged in a row?
Solution: To answer the first question, we use a combination with n = 3 and k = 2.
! 3!
3
!( )! 2!(3 2)!
n
k
n
C
k n k
= = =
− −
For the second question, we use a permutation because we want to range three out of
three, so in this case n=3 and k=3:
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! 3!
6
( )! (3 3)!
n
k
n
P
n k
= = =
− −
Remember that factorial of zero is one; i.e., 0! =1.
2.19 Poisson Distribution
The Poisson distribution expresses the probability of a number of events
occurring in a fixed period of time if these events occur with a known average
rate and independently of the time since the last event. It is typically applied to
rare events. Mathematically it can be written as:
( ) ( )
/
/
( )
! !
r r
t t m
t e t m e
P r
r r
λ
λ
− −
= = (69)
where
P(r) = probability of r, based on a Poisson distribution
λ = expected number of events over time t
t = time period
r = number of occurrence of an event
m = 1/λ = time period per event
e = natural logarithm, 2.71828…
Another way of showing the probability function of the Poisson distribution is:
{ }
!
m a
m
a e
P P X m
m
−
= = = (70)
where
a = λt
Problem: Electrical power to a factory fails an average of 5 times every year (e.g.,
storms, high winds, etc.). Assuming a Poisson distribution, calculate the probability that
there will not be more than one failure during a particular week.
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Solution: Since this is a Poisson distribution question, we use equation (70). Hint: For
this you must calculate the probability of no failures in a week and the probability of
one failure in a week and sum them. Fist we calculated the average failure rate:
( )
5failures
1week = 0.096
52week
a t λ
 
= =

\ .
( ) ( )
0 1
0.096 0.096
0.096 0.096
( ) 0.996
! 0! 1!
m a
e e
a e
P r
m
− −
−
= = + =
Remember: Any number raised to the zero power, 0! and 1! all equal 1.
2.20 Reliability
In simple terms, reliability is defined as the probability that a device will perform
its required function for a specific period of time (i.e., reliability is the probability
of no failure). Mathematically this probability can be defined as:
( )
t
R t e
λ −
= (71)
where
R(t) = reliability as a function of time, 0 ≤ R (t) ≤ 1
λ = the failure rate (also called the hazard rate) which predicts the number
of failures that have occurred over a period of time
t = time
Problem: Electrical power to a factory fails an average of 5 times every year (e.g.,
storms, high winds, etc.). Calculate the reliability of the power system over a oneweek
period.
Solution:
( )
5failures
52weeks
1week
0.908
t
R t e e
λ
 

\ .
−
−
= = =
Based on this calculation, the power supply system has a reliability of about 91%.
The probability of failure is simply the complement of the reliability probability,
and can be written as:
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1
f s
P P + = (72)
where
P
f
P
= probability of failure
s
From these equations we can write:
= probability of success, which is equal to R(t)
( ) 1
f
P R t = − (73)
and
1
f s
P P = − (74)
Problem: Based on the reliability just calculated, what is the failure probability of the
electrical supply system over a oneweek period?
Solution: For this calculation, use equation (73) and use the reliability rate just
calculated.
( ) 1 1 0.908 0.092
f
P R t = − = − =
Based on this calculation, there is about a 9% probability of electrical system failure in
a week.
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Engineering Economics
3 Engineering Economics
Engineering economics, previously known as engineering economy, is a subset of
economics that is concerned with the application of economic techniques to the
evaluation of design and engineering alternatives. Engineers should seek solutions
to problems that are technically sound but in which the economic viability of each
potential solution is also considered. However, the following equations are not
special “engineering” equations; they apply universally to financial projections.
The first equation calculates the future value of a lump sum payment made today
given an interest rate compounding over a number of years.
( ) 1
n
F P i = + (75)
where
F = future value of money, $
P = present value of money, $
i = interest rate, percent in decimal form
n = number of years
Equation (75) can be rearranged to calculate P given F (same units).
( ) 1
n
P F i
−
= + (76)
Problem: Personal protective equipment has a current replacement cost of $15,000.
Assuming an inflation increase of 3% per year, what will be the adjusted cost of the
PPE in 5 years when it is expected to be replaced?
Given the expected replacement cost and assuming the cost allocated for the PPE
replacement can be put into an interest bearing account that yields 5% per year, how
much should be invested today to cover the PPE costs in 5 years?
Solution: The two problems can be solved with equations (75) and (76), respectively.
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First, the cost of the PPE in 5 years is:
( ) ( )
5
1 $15, 000 1 0.03 $17, 389.11
n
F P i = + = + =
Next, based on this amount ($17,389.11) and assuming we earn 5% interest, the
amount we would need to invest today is:
( )
5
1 $17, 389.11(1 0.05) $13, 628.82
n
P F i
−
−
= + = + =
The following equation can be used to calculate the future value of a series of
annual payments given an interest rate and number of years.
( ) 1 1
n
i
F A
i
(
+ −
= (
(
¸ ¸
(77)
where
F = future value of money, $
A = annual payment, $
i = interest rate, percent in decimal form
n = number of years
Equation (77) can be rearranged to calculate A given F (same units).
( ) 1 1
n
i
A F
i
(
= (
+ −
(
¸ ¸
(78)
Problem: Continuing with the PPE replacement problem above; calculate how much
would you have to place into the account each year for 5 years instead of one lump
sum today.
Also, you evaluate your PPE budget and it appears you can place $3500 into the same
account each year over the next 5 years. How much will be available for PPE purchase
in 5 years?
Solution: First, use equation (78) to find the answer to the first question:
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( ) ( )
5
0.05
$17, 389.11 $3,146.99
1 1 1 0.05 1
n
i
A F
i
( (
= = = ( (
+ − + −
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
Next, use equation (77) to see how much would accumulate based on the yearly
contributions to the interestbearing account:
( ) ( )
5
1 1 1 0.05 1
$3, 500 $19, 339.71
0.05
n
i
F A
i
( (
+ − + −
= = = ( (
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
The following equation is used to calculate the present value of a series of equal
annual payments given an interest rate and number of years.
( )
( )
1 1
1
n
n
i
P A
i i
(
+ −
= (
+
(
¸ ¸
(79)
where
P = present value of money, $
A = annual payment, $
i = interest rate, percent in decimal form
n = number of years
Equation (79) can be rearranged to calculate A given P (same units); it is known
as capital recovery.
( )
( )
1
1 1
n
n
i i
A P
i
(
+
= (
+ −
(
¸ ¸
(80)
Problem: Your company is considering the purchase of a new lab analyzer. One
model (Model A) costs $4500. A second model (Model B) costs more, $6000, but
requires $375 less each year in replacement parts and supplies. Using the concept of
present worth, evaluate which option is more cost effective over a 7 year period (the
expected service life of both). Assume an interest rate of 4%.
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Solution: First, we must calculate the present worth of the $375 saved each year over
the 7 year period. For this we use equation (79):
( )
( )
( )
( )
7
7
1 1 1 0.04 1
$375 $2250.77
1 0.04 1 0.04
n
n
i
P A
i i
( (
+ − + −
= = = ( (
+ +
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
Next, we need to subtract this amount from the present value of Model B since it would
be “paying” back this amount each year:
$6, 000 $2250.77 $3749.23 − =
This is less than the present value of Model A, $4500, so Model B is the more cost
effective.
Problem: A testing lab is considering the addition of a new gas chromatograph that has
a purchase price of about $18,000. Ignoring other costs, estimate the yearly cost that
should be charged to clients to offset the acquisition. Assume an interest rate of 3.5%
and a service life of 6 years with negligible salvage value.
Solution: For this we use equation (80):
( )
( )
( )
( )
6
6
1 0.035 1 0.035
$18, 000 $3378.02
1 1 1 0.035 1
n
n
i i
A P
i
( (
+ +
= = = ( (
+ − + −
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
In other words, if $3378.02 is charged each year for the use of the GC, the cost of the
GC will be recouped in 6 years, assuming an interest rate of 3.5%.
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Chemistry and Concentrations
4 Chemistry and Concentrations
4.1 Ideal Gas Law
The ideal gas law (also called the perfect gas law) is the equation of state of a
hypothetical ideal gas. It provides a good approximation of the behavior of many
gases under many conditions, such as air and other gases typically encountered in
industrial hygiene and safety applications. The ideal gas law can be written as:
P Vol n R T ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ (81)
where
P = absolute pressure of the gas, atm
Vol = volume of gas, liters (l)
n = amount of gas, gram moles
R = gas constant, 0.082 latm/gram molesK
T = temperature, K
These are the typical units used in safety and industrial hygiene applications.
However, other applications (or simply personal preference) may employ
different units. See the following table.
Ideal Gas Law Gas Constant (R)
Absolute Pressure
Volume Temp moles atm psi mm Hg in Hg ft H
2
ft
O
K
3
gm 0.00290 0.0426 2.20 0.0867 0.0982
lb 1.31 19.31 999.0 39.3 44.6
o gm
R
0.00161 0.02366 1.22 0.0482 0.0546
lb 0.730 10.73 555.0 21.85 24.8
liters
K
gm 0.08206 1.206 62.4 2.45 2.78
lb 37.2 547.0 28300.0 1113.0 1262.0
o gm
R
0.0456 0.670 34.6 1.36 1.55
lb 20.7 304.0 15715.0 619.0 701.0
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For a gas at two varying conditions, equation (81) can be written as:
1 1 2 2
1 2
PVol PVol
nRT nRT
= (82)
With n and R constant, equation (82) can be written:
1 1 2 2
1 2
PVol PVol
T T
= (83)
Problem: Propane has a chemical composition of C
3
H
8
yielding a molecular weight of
44. Calculate its density in lbs/ft
3
at 1 atmosphere and 68
o
F.
Solution: First, we can take equation (81) and multiply each side of the equation by the
molecular weight (MW); to provide:
MW P Vol MW n R T ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
This can be rearranged to:
MW n
MW P R T
Vol
⋅  
⋅ = ⋅

\ .
The term
MW n
Vol
⋅  

\ .
is the density (ρ), so we can write:
MW P R T ρ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅
which can be rearranged to solve for d:
MW P
R T
ρ
⋅
=
⋅
Selecting the appropriate value for R (based on the units we desire) we find:
( ) ( )
3
3
44 1atm
0.114lbs/ft
0.73ft atm/lb mole R 460 68F
ρ
⋅
= =
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ +
Problem: A small oxygen cylinder is full, and at room temperature the gauge reads
1500 psi. The cylinder is left in an area where the ambient temperature can climb as
high as 90
o
F. What pressure would the gauge read at that temperature? Assume
room temperature is 70
o
F.
Solution: We can use equation (83), and since the volume of the cylinder does not
change, the equation can be written as:
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1 2
1 2
P P
T T
=
Solving for P
2
and remembering to use degrees Rankine leads to:
1
2 2
1
1500psi
(90F 460F) 1556.6psi
(70F 460F)
P
P T
T
= = + =
+
The pressure increase is not that substantial in this case.
4.2 Concentration of Vapors and Gases
The calculation of concentrations of airborne contaminants is a common effort in
safety and industrial hygiene. Equations related to permissible exposure limits are
also commonly encountered. These are presented in the following section.
4.3 Airborne Concentration via Volume
The following expression may be used to calculate the airborne concentration of a
gas or vapor in partpermillion (ppm) based on volume.
6
10
contam
air
V
ppm x
V
= (84)
where
ppm = airborne concentration, ppm
V
contam
= volume of contaminant (units to match V
air
V
)
air
= volume of air (units to match V
contam
10
)
6
Problem: One pound of acetylene leaks from a cylinder into a room that measures 30 ft
wide by 50 ft long by 12 feet high. Assume acetylene as a density of 0.0682 lbs/ft
= conversion factor for ppm
3
at
room temperature and pressure. What is the concentration in ppm (assume uniform
mixing and no losses)?
Solution: First, if we take the inverse of the density, we find acetylene occupies 14.66
ft
3
/lb, so we write:
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( )( )( )
3
6 6
14.66ft
10 10 814.4ppm
30ft 50ft 12ft
contam
air
V
ppm x x
V
= = =
4.4 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure (Gas) & Raoult’s Law (Liquids)
Dalton's law (also called Dalton's law of partial pressures) states that the total
pressure exerted by a gaseous mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures
of each individual component in a gas mixture. It can be written as:
1 1 2 2 total i i
P X P X P X P = + + + (85)
where
P
total
X
= total pressure of gas mixture, mmHg
i
P
= mole fraction of gas i in the mixture, non dimensional
i
Note that the partial pressure of each component is:
= pressure of gas i in the mixture, mmHg
partial i i i
P X P
−
= (86)
Raoult's law states the vapor pressure of an ideal solution is dependent on the
vapor pressure of each chemical component and the mole fraction of the
component present in the solution. Mathematically, Raoult’s law can be written
the same as Dalton’s law, but applied to problems involving solutions.
Problem: An air compressor supplies air at 400 psi. Assuming air is comprised of
oxygen (21%) and nitrogen (79%), what is the partial pressure of the oxygen and
nitrogen?
Solution: Since we know the total pressure and percent fractions, the solution is found
by multiplying the oxygen (21%) and nitrogen (79%) fractions by the total pressure to
arrive at the partial pressures contributed by each:
( )( ) 0.79 400psi 316psi
nitrogen
P = =
( )( ) 0.21 400psi 84psi
oxygen
P = =
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4.5 Airborne Concentration via Pressure
The following expression may be used to calculate the airborne concentration of a
gas or vapor in partpermillion (ppm) based on pressure.
6
10
v
atm
P
ppm x
P
= (87)
where
ppm = airborne concentration, ppm
P
v
= vapor pressure of contaminant (units to match P
atm
P
)
atm
= vapor pressure of air (units to match P
v
10
)
6
Problem: Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) has a vapor pressure of 44 mmHg at 25
= conversion factor for ppm
o
C. What is
the equilibrium concentration (in ppm) in air around the IPA source assuming a
temperature of 25
o
C and a pressure of 1 atmosphere?
Solution: Knowing 1 atmosphere equals 760 mmHg, we can write:
6 6
44mmHg
10 10 57, 895ppm
760mmHg
v
atm
P
ppm x x
P
= = =
4.6 Conversion for Airborne Concentrations: ppm (to/from) mg/m
In addition to quantifying airborne contaminants in units of ppm, another common
set of units is mg/m
3
3
. The following equation can be used to make this
conversion.
3
/ 24.45 mg m x
ppm
MW
= (88)
where
ppm = airborne concentration, ppm
mg/m
3
= airborne concentration, mg/m
3
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24.45 = molar volume of any gas or vapor at STP, l/gram mole
MW = molecular weight of contaminant, g/gram mole
Problem: Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) has a chemical formula of C
3
H
8
O, and therefore a
molecular weight of 60. Using the equilibrium concentration just calculated above
(57,895 ppm), calculate the equilibrium concentration in mg/m
3
of the IPA in air.
Solution: We need to rearrange equation (88) as follows:
( )( ) ( )( )
3 3 3
57, 895 60
/ 142, 073mg/m 142kg/m
24.45 24.45
ppm MW
mg m = = = =
4.7 Conversion for Airborne Concentrations: ppm (to/from) g/l
Another volumetric conversion, this for converting between ppm and gramsper
liter (g/l) is:
6
24.45 10 g x
C
MW V
⋅
=
⋅
(89)
where
C = airborne concentration, ppm
g = airborne concentration, grams
24.45 = molar volume of any gas or vapor at STP, l/mole
MW = molecular weight of contaminant, g/mole
V = Volume, liters (l)
Problem: A carbon dioxide (CO
2
) test gas is prepared by placing 1 gram of CO
2
into a
10 liter container. What is the concentration (ppm) of the CO
2
air mixture?
Solution: The molecular weight of CO
2
is 44 and the other required data are provided
in the question, so we can use equation (89) to find the solution:
6 6
24.45 10 1g 24.45 10
55, 568ppm
44 10liter
g x x
C
MW V
⋅ ⋅
= = =
⋅ ⋅
This is well over the published IDLH value of 40,000 ppm.
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4.8 Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of Airborne Mixture
The Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of a single airborne contaminant can be found
by looking it up in a table of permitted exposure limits. But what if more than one
contaminant is present; how is the TLV of the mixture determined? To do this,
the following expression is used. If the resulting TLV
mix
is equal or greater than
1.0, the mixture exceeds the TLV.
1 2
1 2
n
mix
n
C C C
TLV
TLV TLV TLV
= + + + (90)
where
TLV
mix
C
= TLV ratio of the airborne mixture, nondimmensional
n
TLV
= measured airborne concentration of contaminant n
n
Problem: Air samples find toluene concentrations at 35 ppm and benzene
concentrations at 0.25 ppm within the same air sample. If the TLVs are 50 ppm and
0.5 ppm, respectively, is the combined TLV exceeded?
= permitted airborne concentration of contaminant n
Solution: Substituting directly into equation (90) yields:
1 2
1 2
35ppm 0.25ppm
1.2
50ppm 0.5ppm
mix
C C
TLV
TLV TLV
= + = + =
Therefore the combined TLV of the mixture is exceeded.
4.9 Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of Liquids
For liquid mixtures, a similar approach is taken, except the actual TLV of the
mixture is calculated as follows:
1 2
1 2
1
mix
n
n
TLV
F F F
TLV TLV TLV
=
+ + +
(91)
where
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TLV
mix
= TLV of the liquid mixture, mg/m
F
3
n
TLV
= weight fraction of chemical n, decimal percent
n
= TLV of chemical n, mg/m
Problem: What is the TLV of a 50/50 mixture of hexane and xylene? Assume the TLV
for hexane is 176 mg/m
3
3
and the TLV for xylene is 434 mg/m
3
.
Solution: Substituting into equation (91) yields:
3
1 2
3 3
1 2
1 1
250mg/m
.50 .50
176mg/m 434mg/m
mix
TLV
F F
TLV TLV
= = =
+ +
4.10 Le Chatelier’s Rule
The estimated lower flammability limit (LFL) of a mixture of combustible gases
can be calculated using Le Chatelier's Rule:
1 2
1 2
1
mix
n
n
LFL
f f f
LFL LFL LFL
=
+ + +
(92)
where
LFL
mix
f
= LFL of the gas mixture, %
n
LFL
= volume fraction of flammable gas n, decimal form
n
Note: Although this formula calculates LFL, the same approach can be used for
the upper flammability limit (UFL).
= LFL of flammable gas n, %
Problem: What is the LFL of the following mixture: methane (75%), ethane (15%) and
propane (10%)?
Solution: Consulting MSDS of other suitable sources, we find the following LFLs:
methane (5%), ethane (3%) and propane (2.1%). We can substitute the above
fractions and LFLs into equation (92) to find:
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1 2
1 2
1 1
4.0%
.75 .15 .10
5 3 2.1
mix
n
n
LFL
f f f
LFL LFL LFL
= = =
     
+ + + + +
  
\ . \ . \ .
4.11 VaporHazard Ratio
The vaporhazard ratio is a simple ratio of the saturation concentration of an
airborne contaminant to permitted concentration. Since it is a ratio of the two
values, it indicates a relative level of risk that includes the volatility of the
contaminant. The vaporhazard ratio is expressed as:
sat. concentration
vapor  hazard ratio =
exposure guideline
(93)
where
vaporhazard ratio = relative level of risk of an airborne contaminant, non
dimensional
sat. concentration = saturation concentration of gas (or vapor), ppm
exposure guideline = concentration permitted by guidelines, ppm
Problem: What is the VaporHazard Ratio of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)?
Solution: From an MSDS for MEK, we find an exposure limit of 200 ppm and a vapor
pressure of 78 mmHg (at 20
o
C). Standard atmospheric pressure is 760 mmHg. We
can then use equation (87) to find the saturation pressure:
6 6
78mmHg
10 10 102, 632ppm
760mmHg
v
atm
P
ppm x x
P
= = =
Equation (93) can then be used to find the VaporHazard Ratio:
513
102632ppm
vapor / hazard ratio =
200ppm
=
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4.12 Reduction Factor – Day
Many occupational limits for exposure are based on an 8 hour workday, and a 40
hour workweek. When an employee works an altered schedule, a Reduction
Factor for an unusual work schedule can be used to adjust exposure limits based
on the actual hours worked in a day. For a modified work day, this can be written
as:
8 24
16
day
h
RF x
h
−
= (94)
where
RF
day
h = number of hours worked in a day
= reduction factor, nondimensional
4.13 Reduction Factor – Week
Similar to above, when an employee works an altered work week, a Reduction
Factor can be used to adjust exposure limits based on the actual hours worked in a
week. For a modified work week, this can be written as:
168 40
128
w
week
w
h
RF x
h
−
= (95)
where
RF
week
h
= reduction factor, nondimensional
w
Problem: A worker is exposed to toluene during his shift. The TLV for toluene is 50
ppm. If the worker works 9 hours in a day, what is the permitted exposure to toluene? If
the worker works 9 hours per day all week (5 days) what is the permitted exposure?
= number of hours worked in a week
Solution: First we can calculate the reduction factors for one day and one week based
on the hours worked:
8 24 8 24 9
0.83
16 9 16
day
h
RF x x
h
− −
= = =
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168 40 40 168 50
0.74
128 50 128
w
week
w
h
RF x x
h
− −
= = =
Therefore, the permitted exposure for an increased day and week is:
( ) 0.83 50ppm 41ppm
permitted day
TLV
−
= =
( ) 0.74 50ppm 37ppm
permitted week
TLV
−
= =
Notice the week value is not the same as the day value, even though it is based on the
same increase in hours per work day.
4.14 Chemistry of Solutions
4.14.1 BeerLambert Law (Beer’s Law)
One form of Beer’s law can be used to evaluate the presence of a contaminant in a
solution based on the amount of light absorbed by the solution. This is written as:
log
o
I
A abc
I
= = (96)
where
A = absorbance, nondimensional
I
o
I = intensity of transmitted (exiting) light
= intensity of incident light
a = molar absorptivity constant, L/gcm
b = length of light beam path, cm
c = concentration of absorbing material, g/L
Note that the units for I
o
Problem: A solution reduces the amount of light transmitted through it to 1/5 the
original intensity. If the molar absorptivity has been found to be 2.04 L/gcm and the
beam length is 1.2 cm, what is the concentration of the solution?
and I are not specified above. Since they are expressed
as a fraction, the units only need to be consistent.
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Solution: First, we can use equation (96) to solve for the absorbance:
5
log log 0.7
1
o
I
A
I
= = =
Equation (96) can then be rearranged to solve for the concentration:
( )( )
0.7
0.286g/L
2.04L/gcm 1.2cm
A
c
ab
= = =
4.14.2 pH Calculation
The pH of a solution indicates if the solution is an acid, base, or neutral.
Therefore, pH can indicate potential hazards of solutions. pH is a measure of the
hydrogen ions in solution and pH is calculated as follows:
10
log pH H
+
( = −
¸ ¸
(97)
where
pH = a quantitative description of acidity or alkalinity of a solution
(ranges from 014)
H
+
(
¸ ¸
= hydrogen ion concentration, gram moles/liter (= Molarity, = M)
Problem: Calculate the pH of a solution that has 5.0 grams of HNO
3
in 2.0 liters of
solution. The molecular weight of HNO
3
is 63.01 g/mole.
Solution: First we need to calculate the number of moles of HNO
3
:
5.0grams
0.0794moles
63.01grams/mole
=
Then we can calculate the molarity of the solution:
0.0794moles
0.0397
2.0liters
M M = =
Finally, we can use equation (97) to find the pH:
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10 10
log log 0.0397 1.4 pH H
+
( = − = − =
¸ ¸
4.14.3 Acid Dissociation Constant
In simple terms, the acid dissociation constant, K
a
, is a quantitative measure of
the strength of an acid in solution. It is calculated as follows:
 
a
H x A
K
HA
+ −
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
= (98)
where
K
a
H
+
(
¸ ¸
= acid dissociation constant, nondimensional
= hydrogen ion concentration, M
A
−
(
¸ ¸
= concentration of conjugate base of a weak acid, M
  HA = weak acid concentration, M
Problem: A solution of acetic acid (C
2
H
4
O
2
) in water has a pH of 2.54 and a molarity of
0.462. What is the acid dissociation constant, K
a
?
Solution: First, we can use equation (97) to find the hydrogen ion concentration of the
solution.
10
log pH H
+
( = −
¸ ¸
Which can be rearranged to solve for the hydrogen ion concentration,
2.54
10 10 0.002884M
pH
H
+ − −
( = = =
¸ ¸
Next, since the ratio of moles of C
2
H
3
O
2

to H
+
is 1:1; we can use equation (98) to
write:
 
   
5
0.002884M 0.002884M
1.8x10
0.462M
a
H x A
x
K
HA
+ −
−
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
= = =
This value can be compared to those published for K
a
.
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4.14.4 Base Dissociation Constant
In simple terms, the base dissociation constant, K
b
, is a quantitative measure of
the strength of a base in solution. It is calculated as follows:
 
b
BH x OH
K
B
+ −
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
= (99)
where
K
b
BH
+
(
¸ ¸
= base dissociation constant, nondimensional
= concentration of positive ions from ionized base, M
OH
−
(
¸ ¸
= hydroxide ion concentration, M
  B = concentration of nonionized base, M
Problem: What is the pH of a 0.10 M solution of methylamine (CH
5
N) in water? Note:
Methylamine has a base dissociation constant of 4.4x10
4
.
Solution: First, we can write the chemical equation as:

5 2 6
CH N + H 0 CH N + OH
+
⇔
Then we can use equation (99) to write:
 
6
4
CH N
4.4x10
0.10
x OH
+ −
−
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
=
Since CH
6
N
+
and OH

have a ratio of 1:1 (i.e., equal molarity); we can find they both
are:
( )( )
4 3
6
CH N 0.10M 4.4x10 6.63x10 OH
+ − − −
( ( = = =
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
Similar to finding the pH, we can find pOH :
3
10
log 6.63x10 2.18 pOH
−
( = − =
¸ ¸
We want to determine pH, so we need to subtract the pOH from 14;
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14 14 2.18 11.82 pH pOH = − = − =
Thus the pH of the methylamine solution is 11.82.
4.15 Asbestos (Airborne Contaminant)
Various methods are used to assess asbestos concentrations in air. The following
presents some of the equations used by those methods.
4.15.1 Asbestos Fiber Concentration by PCM
Airborne asbestos fiber concentrations can be assessed using phase contrast
microscopy (PCM). The following equation is used in the analysis:
( )
1000
s b c
asb
f s
C C A
C
A V
−
= (100)
where
C
asb
C
= airborne concentration of asbestos fibers, fibers/ml
s
C
= average number of fibers counted per graticule field in the sample
b
A
= average number of fibers counted per graticule field in the field
blank
c
= effective collection area of filter, 385 mm
2
for 25 mm filter
A
f
= graticule field area, 0.00785 mm
V
2
s
Problem: What is the airborne concentration of asbestos fibers if 800 liters of air are
sampled and 100 fibers are counted on 46 fields, and the field blank has no fibers.
Assume the effective area of the filter is 385 mm
= air volume sample, liters (l)
2
(25 mm filter) and the graticule field
area is 0.00785 mm
2
.
Solution: Applying equation (100) and substituting leads to:
( )
( )( )
( )( )
2
2
2.17 0 fibers 385mm
0.133f/mL
1000 1000 0.00785mm 800L
s b c
asb
f s
C C A
C
A V
−
−
= = =
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4.15.2 Asbestos Fiber Concentration
Another form of the equation for assessing airborne asbestos fiber concentration
is:
1000
c
asb
s
EA
C
V
= (101)
where
C
asb
E = fiber density on filter, fibers/ mm
= airborne concentration of asbestos fibers, fibers/ml
2
A
(see next equation)
c
= effective collection area of filter, 385 mm
2
for 25 mm filter
V
s
Problem: What is the airborne concentration of asbestos fibers if 800 liters of air are
sampled and the fiber density is 102 f/mm
= air volume sample, liters (l)
2
? Assume the effective area of the filter is
385 mm
2
(25 mm filter).
Solution: Applying equation (101) and substituting leads to:
( )( )
2 2
102f/mm 385mm
0.049fibers/mL
1000 1000 800L
c
asb
s
EA
C
V
= = =
⋅
4.15.3 Fiber Density
The fiber density can be calculated as follows:
f b
f
F B
N N
E
A
−
= (102)
where
E = fiber density on filter, fibers/ mm
2
F/N
f
= average fiber count per graticule field
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B/N
b
A
= average fiber count per graticule field for the field blank
f
= graticule field area, 0.00785 mm
Problem: What is the fiber density on a filter if 100 fibers are counted on 46 fields, and
the field blank has no fibers? Assume the graticule field area is 0.00785 mm
2
2
.
Solution: Using equation (102) and substituting leads to:
2
2
100
0 fibers
46
277f/mm
0.00785mm
f b
f
F B
N N
E
A
 
−
−

\ .
= = =
4.15.4 Microscopic Limit of Resolution (Abbe’s Equation)
The Abbe’s equation can be used to determine the limit of resolution for a
microscope, which may be required when conducting asbestos sample
assessment. The equation can be written as:
0.61
sin
d
λ
η α
= (103)
where
d = limit of resolution, nm
0.61 = a constant
λ = wavelength of light used in microscope, nm
η = index of refraction of medium between point source and lens, relative
to free space
α = half the angle of the cone of light from specimen plane accepted by the
objective, radians
Note: Values for η typically range between 1.0 (air) to about 1.5 (oils). Also, the
value ηsinα is often expressed as NA (numerical aperture). Also, radians are
related to degrees in the following manner:
180
1 radian =
o
π
(104)
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Problem: Visible light in air is used for a microscope. The wavelength for visible light is
500 nm. What is the limit of resolution for this setup? Assume a halfangle of 40
degrees (0.698 radians) and η = 1.0 for air.
Solution: Using equation (103) and substituting leads to:
( )( ) 0.61 500nm
0.61
475nm = 475 m
sin 1.0 sin (0.698)
d
λ
µ
η α
= = =
⋅
4.16 Particle Settling Velocity
The terminal settling velocity of a spherical particle in a fluid (e.g., air) can be
described by:
2
( )
18
p p a
TS
gd
V
ρ ρ
η
−
= (105)
where
V
TS
g = acceleration due to gravity, cm/sec
= terminal settling velocity of particle, cm/sec
d = diameter of particle, cm
2
ρ
p
= density of particle, g/cm
ρ
3
a
= density of fluid (e.g., air), g/cm
η = viscosity of fluid (e.g., air), poise (P)
3
Note that equation (105) is applicable for particles less than 80 micrometers (µm)
in size (i.e., aerodynamic diameter) and having a Reynolds number less than 2.0.
Reynolds numbers are presented next.
Problem: A high pressure water spray system generates particles with an average
diameter of 80 µm. Calculate the terminal settling velocity of the water particles in still
air. Assume the density of water is 1.0 g/cm
3
. Also, the density of air is 0.0012 g/cm
3
and its viscosity is 0.000182 Poise. The gravitational acceleration is 980 cm/sec
2
.
Solution: Substituting the given data into equation (105) leads to:
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( )( )
( )
2
2 3
2
980cm/sec 0.008cm (1 0.0012g/cm )
( )
19.12cm/sec
18 18 0.000182g/cmsec
p p a
TS
gd
V
ρ ρ
η
−
−
= = =
4.16.1 Reynolds Number
The Reynolds number expresses the ratio of inertial (resistance to change or
motion) forces to viscous (heavy and gluey) forces. The Reynolds number is
nondimensional and is used in numerous fluid mechanics applications; it can be
calculated using the following equation.
e
dv
R
ρ
η
= (106)
where
Re = Reynolds number, nondimensional
ρ
a
= density of fluid (e.g., air), g/cm
d = characteristic dimension (here it is the diameter of particle), cm
3
v = velocity of particle, cm/sec
η = viscosity of fluid (e.g., air), poise (P)
Problem: Calculate the Reynolds number for the particle described in the previous
sample problem and determine if the use of equation (105) is appropriate based on the
calculated settling velocity.
Solution: Given the data from the previous sample problem, including the calculated
settling velocity of 19.12 cm/sec, we can use equation (106) to calculate the Reynolds
number.
( )( )( )
3
1g/cm 0.008cm 19.12cm/sec
1.01
0.000182g/cmsec
e
dv
R
ρ
η
= = =
Since the calculated Reynolds number is less than 2.0, equation (105) provides a
reasonable approximation of the particle settling velocity.
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Mechanics
5 Mechanics
5.1 Newton’s Second Law
Newton’s Second Law explains how the velocity of an object changes when it is
subjected to an external force. The law defines a force to be equal to change in
momentum (mass times velocity) per change in time. Since a change in velocity
with respect to time is acceleration, Newton’s Second Law can be written as:
F ma = (107)
where
F = force, lbs
m = mass, slugs
a = acceleration, ft/sec
Slug The slug is a unit of mass in the English footpoundsecond system. One slug is
the mass accelerated at 1 foot per second per second by a force of 1 pound. Since the
acceleration of gravity (g) in English units is 32.17 feet per second per second, the slug
is equal to 32.2 pounds (14.6 kilograms).
2
Problem: A roller coaster accelerates from 0 to 50 mph in 5 seconds. What is the force
a 100 lb child exerts on the back of her seat?
Solution: First, we must convert the weight in pounds to Slugs:
2
100lbs
3.1slugs
32.2ft/sec
=
We must also calculate the acceleration:
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( )( )( )
2
50mile/hr 5280ft/mile hr / 3600sec
14.67ft/sec
5sec
v
a
t
= = =
Now, using equation (107) we find:
( )( )
2
3.1slugs 14.67ft/sec 45.47lbs F ma = = =
Therefore, the child experiences about a onehalf “g” force during the acceleration.
5.2 Weight
Weight is the force exerted on an object with a given mass due to gravitational
acceleration. This is an application of Newton’s Second Law and can be written:
W mg = (108)
where
W = weight, lbforce
m = mass, slugs
g = acceleration due to gravity, ft/sec
Problem: An adult weighs 185 pounds; what is his mass?
2
Solution: Rearranging equation (108), we find:
2
185lbs
5.75slugs
32.2ft/sec
W
m
g
= = =
5.3 Momentum
In mechanics, momentum is the product of the mass and velocity of an object,
p mv = (109)
where
p = momentum, lb/sec
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m = mass, slugs
v =velocity, ft/sec
Problem: A truck weighing 11,000 lbs and traveling at 60 mph strikes the rear of a car
that weighs 7,000 lbs and is traveling at 40 mph in the same direction. Assuming that
immediately after the crash the vehicles’ damage causes them to interlock and travel
as one; what is their combined speed before brakes are applied?
Solution: The individual momentums and masses of both vehicles can be combined,
and the resulting velocity determined as follows:
( )( ) ( )( )
1 1 2 2
11, 000lbs 60mph 7, 000lbs 40mph
52.2mph
18, 000lbs
T
T
mV m V
V
m
+
+
= = =
Important: Notice the units in the equation do not match those listed above? That is
because there is no need to convert here as long as the same units are used (i.e., lbs
and lbs, and mph and mph). Try doing all the conversions and see for yourself.
5.4 Work
In mechanics, work is the amount of energy transferred by a force acting through
a distance,
W Fs = (110)
where
W = work, ftlbs
F = force, lbs
s = distance, ft
Problem: A 10 lb weight is lifted 50 feet. How much work is required?
Solution: We simply plug the values into equation (110) and find:
( )( ) 10lbs 50ft 500ftlbs W Fs = = =
Note: Ftlbs can be easily converted to other units such as joules, wattssec, calories,
Btus, etc.
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5.5 Moment of Force
Moment of force can be thought of as a rotational force resulting from a force
acting some distance from a point. When balanced by an opposing but equal
moment, this can be written as:
1 1 2 2
FD F D = (111)
where
F
n
D
= force n, lbs
n
Problem: The moment force is the principle behind levers. Assume a 55 gallon drum
contains about 400 lbs of fluid and you want to lift the drum to place a pad under it.
You connect a sling to the drum and attach it to a 10 foot long steel bar. The steel bar
is then placed over a pivot point such that there is 2 feet of bar between the pivot point
and the sling, and the remaining 8 feet is on the other side of the pivot point. What
force must be applied to the end of the steel bar to lift the drum?
= distance n, feet
Solution: We can use equation (111) to calculate the force required and see the
mechanical advantage of levers.
( )( ) ( )( )
1 1 2 2 2
400lbs 2ft 8ft FD F D F = = =
Solving for F
2
yields:
( )( )
( )
2
400lbs 2ft
100lbs
8ft
F = =
In this case it takes a force ¼ the weight to lift the weight.
5.6 Friction
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of two objects sliding against
each other. Mathematically, this relationship can be written as:
F N µ = (112)
where
F = frictional force, lbforce
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µ = coefficient of friction, nondimensional
N = the normal (perpendicular) force, lbforce
Problem: A pallet with a load weighs 350 lbs. If the coefficient of friction is 0.65, what
horizontal force must be applied to slide the pallet?
Solution: The horizontal force must be equal to or greater than the frictional force.
Applying equation (112) and substituting values:
( )( ) 0.65 350lbs 227.5lbs F N µ = = =
5.7 Potential Energy
In mechanics, potential energy is the energy stored in an object due to its position.
This can be written as:
. . P E mgh = (113)
where
P.E. = potential energy, ftlbs
m = mass, slugs
g = gravitational acceleration, ft/sec
h = height, ft
2
Note from equation (108) above, W = mg, so we can write:
. . P E Wh = (114)
Problem: An air conditioning unit is being lifted to the roof of a new building. The unit
weighs 750 lbs and the roof is located 45 feet above grade. What is the potential
energy of the unit as it reaches roof level?
Solution: Applying equation (114) results in:
( )( ) . . 750lbs 45ft 33, 750ftlbs P E Wh = = =
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5.8 Hooke’s Law and the Potential Energy of a Spring
In mechanics, Hooke's law states the extension of a spring is in direct proportion
to the force acting on it as long as this load does not exceed the elastic limit. This
can be written:
F kx = − (115)
where
F = force on spring, lbs
k = spring constant, lbs/ft
x = distance spring is changed, ft
The potential energy stored in a spring can be derived in the following manner.
Recalling equation (110) above, the work done by the spring force (F) over some
displacement (s) is given by W = Fs. The work stored in the spring is its potential
energy.
Thus, we can write:
( ) ( )
2
1
2
. .
o o
P E C Fdx k x x dx k x x = + − = − − − = −
∫ ∫
(116)
Setting C = 0 so that P.E. is zero at x = x
o
and making the equilibrium position
zero (x
o
=
0) simplifies Equation (116) to:
2
. .
2
kx
P E = (117)
where
P.E. = potential energy in spring, ftlbs
k = spring constant, lbs/ft
x = distance spring is changed, ft
Problem: A spring with a constant of 15,000 lbs/ft is compressed 3 inches. What is the
potential energy stored in the compressed spring?
Solution: Converting 3 inches to 0.25 ft and substituting the values into equation (117)
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yields:
( )( )
2
2
15, 000lbs/ft 0.25ft
. . 469ftlbs
2 2
kx
P E = = =
5.9 Kinetic Energy
The kinetic energy of an object is the energy which it possesses due to its motion.
Mathematically this can be expressed as:
2
. .
2
mv
K E = (118)
where
K.E. = kinetic energy, ftlbs
m = mass of moving object, slugs
v = velocity of object, ft/sec
Problem: A forklift weighs 3980 lbs; what is its kinetic energy when traveling at 10 mph?
Solution: First, convert weight in pounds to slugs and speed in mph to ft/sec, and then
use equation (118) to calculate kinetic energy.
2
2 2
3980lbs miles ft 1hr
10 5280
32.2ft/sec hr mile 3600sec
. . 13, 294ftlbs
2 2
mv
K E = = =
 
(    
  

(
\ .\ .\ . ¸ ¸
\ .
5.10 Rectilinear Motion
In simple terms, rectilinear motion refers to the motion of objects along straight
line without consideration of outside forces. Within rectilinear motion;
distance,
velocity, and acceleration are related by the following equations:
o
v v at = + (119)
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2
2
o
at
s v t = + (120)
2 2
2
o
v v as = + (121)
where
s = distance, ft
v = velocity, ft/sec
a = ft/sec
t = time, sec
2
Problem: A worker is attempting to throw a small bundle of rope to a 60 ft high platform.
Assume the worker can throw the rope straight up at 20 mph from a starting height of 6
feet. Will the rope make it to the platform?
Solution: We can solve this two ways. First, use equation (119) to calculate the time (t)
the rope travels up. Note that when the rope reaches its highest point, its velocity will
be zero. So:
• v = 0
• v
o
= 20 mph = 58.67 ft/sec
2
0 58.67ft/sec ( 32.2ft/sec ) t = + − ⋅
Solving for t leads to t = 1.82 seconds.
Then using equation (120), we can solve for the distance traveled,
2 2
( 32.2ft/sec )(1.82sec)
(58.67ft/sec)(1.82sec)
2
s
−
= +
Solving for s leads to s = 53.4 feet.
We must add 6 feet, so the height reached by the rope is 53.4 ft + 6 ft = 59.4 feet. So
he just barely misses it. Of course this ignores air resistance and assumes a perfect
vertical path.
Note that you can also solve this more directly by using equation (121) and setting the
final velocity to zero:
( ) ( )
2
2
0 58.67ft/sec 2 32.3ft/sec s = + ⋅
Solving for s leads to s = 53.4 feet.
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Problem: When the worker is finished working on the platform, he drops the rope from
the platform. How fast is the bundle of rope moving when it hits the floor? Assume he
drops the rope from about 3 feet above the platform floor.
Solution: The total distance the rope will fall is 60 ft + 3 ft = 63 ft. This time the initial
velocity is zero. Again using equation (121) and solving for v:
( ) ( )
2
2 2
0 ft/sec 2 32.3ft/sec 63ft v = + ⋅
Solving for v leads to v = 63.7 ft/sec = 39.4 mph
Getting struck by a bundle of rope traveling at nearly 40 mph can cause serious injury.
Note that in the above calculations, the weight or size of the rope was not required.
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Hydrostatics and Hydraulics
6 Hydrostatics and Hydraulics
6.1 Pressure and Force
Hydrostatics and Hydraulics refers to properties of water at rest and in motion.
One basic relationship is that which relates pressure and force; this is given by the
following equation:
F
P
A
= (122)
where
P = pressure, lbs/ft
F = force, lbs
2
A = area, ft
Problem: A tanks holds 3000 pounds of quench water. If the tank has a square bottom
and each side is 4 feet long, what is the pressure exerted on the base of the tank?
2
Solution:
( )( )
2
2 2
3000lbs lbs 1ft
187.5 1.3psi
4ft 4ft ft 144in
F
P
A
 
 
= = = =
 
\ .
\ .
6.1.1 Static Pressure
One cubic foot of water weighs 62.4 lbs (i.e., 62.4 lbs/ft
3
). Therefore a column of
water measuring 1 foot high creates a pressure of:
2
62.4lbs
0.433psi
144in
= (123)
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To determine the pressure (in psi) exerted by a column of water of any height,
simply multiply equation (123) by the height, in feet, or:
0.433
psi
P h = (124)
or, for units of pound persquarefoot (psf):
62.4
psf
P h = (125)
If we call the specific weight of water (62.4 lb/ft
3
), w, we can write:
psf
P wh = (126)
Solving for h leads to:
P
h
w
= (127)
The h in equation (127) is known as the pressure head, and has units of feet. This
is the net or normal pressure; that is pressure exerted against the side of a
container (e.g., pipe) without flow. Since it represents a pressure head, it is
usually written as:
P
P
h
w
= (128)
Problem: What pressure would be measured at the base of a fire standpipe in a 5 story
highrise? Assume each floor is 12 feet high.
Solution: We can rearrange equation (128) and substitute to find:
( )( )( )
3 2
5stories 12ft/story 62.4lbs/ft 3744lbs/ft
P
P h w = = =
Or simply use equation (124) to find the answer directly in psi:
( )( ) 0.433 0.433 5stories 12ft/story 26psi
psi
P h = = =
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6.1.2 Velocity Pressure
Velocity pressure, as the name implies, is the pressure due to moving water. The
velocity produced in a mass of water by the pressure acting on it is the same as if
the same mass of water were to fall freely from some height, h, that creates an
equivalent pressure. This can be shown as follows:
Recall the equation for kinetic energy:
2
. .
2
mv
K E = (129)
And the equation for potential energy:
. . P E mgh = (130)
When the potential energy of water at some height is turned into kinetic energy as
it falls, equations (129) and (130) can be set equal:
2
2
mv
mgh = (131)
Solving for h (and since it is the velocity head), labeling it as h
V
, leads to:
2
2
v
V
h
g
= (132)
This can be solved for the velocity to find:
2
v
V gh = (133)
This equation is known as Torricelli's law, or Torricelli's theorem (not to be
confused with Torricelli's equation).
Problem: A 21/2 inch valve is opened at the base of a large water storage tank. If the
surface of the water in the tank is 50 feet above the open valve. What is the velocity of
the water exiting the open valve?
Solution: We can use equation (133) and substitute the value for the height and the
gravitational acceleration (32.2 ft/sec
2
):
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( )( )( )
2
2 2 32.2ft/sec 50ft 56.7ft/sec
v
V gh = = =
Note that as the water level drops, so does the velocity. Also note that the size of the
opening does not affect velocity. However, since we know the velocity and the size of
the opening, we can also solve for the actual flow (e.g., gpm).
6.2 Bernoulli’s Theorem
Equations (128) and (132) are part of Bernoulli’s theorem. Bernoulli’s theorem is
an expression that relates, through conservation of energy, the pressure, velocity
and elevation (height) of the steady flow of an incompressible, nonviscous fluid.
Remember, “fluids” includes liquids and gases; so Bernoulli’s theorem also
applies to gases that can be considered incompressible (i.e., the density can be
considered constant). This theorem is also known as Bernoulli’s equation or
Bernoulli’s law, and is shown here:
2 2
1 1 2 2
1 2 1 2
2 2
V P V P
Z Z h
g w g w
−
+ + = + + + (134)
where
V = Velocity, ft/sec
g = gravitational acceleration, ft/sec
P = Pressure, lbs/ft
2
w = Specific weight, lbs/ft
2
Z = Elevation, ft
3
h
12
Notice that each group of variables (e.g., V
= energy (head) lost between locations 1 and 2, ft
2
Problem: A fire truck draws water from a pond that is 6 feet below the fire truck. It then
pumps the water up to a fire that is 15 feet higher through 250 feet of 2 inch hose to a
11/2 inch nozzle that discharges 100 gpm into the fire. Assume the friction losses in
the hoses total 30 psi. What pressure does the pump need to add to move the water
from the pond to the fire? (Note: 1 gallon of water = 0.1337 ft
/2g) has units of feet and is referred to
as “head.”
3
)
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Solution: First, we need to change the friction losses from psi to head, using equation
(124):
0.433
psi
P h =
30psi
69.3ft
0.433 0.433
psi
P
h = = =
Next, the pond is at zero velocity, but the water discharging from the nozzle has a
velocity. We find this by first finding the velocity of the water exiting the nozzle, then
using equation(132). For this we need the area of the nozzle:
( )
2 2 2
2 2 2
2
2 1ft
3.14in 3.14in 0.0218ft
4 4 144in
d
A π π
 
= = = = =

\ .
Now we can find the velocity from the continuity equation (Q=AV):
3
2
100gpm 0.1337ft
613.3ft/min 10.22ft/sec
0.0218ft 1gallon
Q
V
A
   
= = = =
 
\ .\ .
From equation (132):
( )
( )
2
2
2
10.22ft/sec
1.62ft
2 2 32.2ft/sec
v
V
h
g
= = =
We can now apply Bernoulli’s equation(134):
2 2
1 1 2 2
1 2 1 2
2 2
V P V P
Z Z h
g w g w
−
+ + = + + +
2
0 0 ( 6ft) 1.62ft 15ft 69.3ft
P
w
+ + − = + + +
or
( )
2
91.92ft
P
w
= −
Since this is what the overall pressured drop (in feet) it is also what the pump must add
to compensate. To convert to psi:
( )( )
2
3
2
1ft
91.92ft 62.4lb/ft 39.6psi
144in
 
=

\ .
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6.3 Water Flow in a Pipe
The velocity pressure in a pipe with a given flow (e.g., gallons per minute, gpm)
can be derived as follows:
Recalling the continuity equation:
Q A V = ⋅ (135)
or
Q
V
A
= (136)
where
Q = volumetric flow rate, ft
3
A = crosssectional area, ft
/sec
V
2
Converting gallons per minute to cubic feet per seconds,
= velocity, ft/sec
3
gallons 1 1
minute 60sec/min 7.48gal/ft
  
 
  
\ .
\ .\ .
(137)
and converting the cross sectional area of a pipe in square inches to square feet
2
2 2
1
4 144in /ft
d π   
 
\ . \ .
(138)
where
d = diameter of pipe, inches
Combining equations (136), (137), and (138) leads to:
( )( )( )
( )( )( )
( )( )
( )
3 2 2
gpm 4 144 0.4085 gpm
60 7.48gal/ft
Q
V
A d d π
 
 = = =

\ .
(139)
Recall equation (132), and substituting the value of V just derived leads to:
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2
2 2 2
4
0.4085
2 2 386
v
gpm
V gpm d
h
g g d
⋅  

\ .
= = = (140)
Recalling equation (124), and substituting h
v
just derived, leads to:
2 2
4 4
( ) 0.433
386 891
gpm gpm
P psi
d d
= = (141)
which is typically written with Q substituted for gpm
2
4
891
V
Q
P
d
= (142)
Problem: What is the velocity pressure created by water flowing at 100 gpm in a
nominal 2 inch pipe? Assume the actual internal diameter pipe is 2.07 inches.
Solution: Substitute the flow and pipe diameter values into equation (142):
( )
( )
2
2
4 4
100gpm
0.61psi
891
891 2.07in
V
Q
P
d
= = =
⋅
Remember the 891 is a conversion, so units must be in gpm and inches, and resulting
velocity pressure is in psi.
6.3.1 Flow – Pressure Relationships
For flow in a pipe with fixed diameter, equation (142) can be written:
2
Q
P
C
= (143)
where C is a constant (due to the diameter being fixed). This equation can also be
written:
2 2
1 2
1 2
Q Q
C
P P
= = (144)
which can be rearranged to yield:
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1 1 1
2 2 2
P Q P
Q P P
= = (145)
Problem: A water supply system to a series of emergency showers is designed and the
water flow and pressure are known. A decision is then made to increase the required
flow by a 25% safety factor. What increase in pressure is required?
Solution: Since we are concerned with ratios, the exact flow and pressures are not
required. We do know ( )
2 1
Q Q 1.25 = ⋅ . We can rearrange equation (145) and
substitute as follows:
2
2
2
2 1 1
1
1.25
1
Q
P P P
Q
 
 
= =
 
\ .
\ .
2 1
1.56 P P = ⋅
So we can see increasing the flow by 25% requires the pressure be increased by 56%.
Another useful equation is one that relates the flow from an orifice (e.g., a fire
sprinkler) due to the pressure at the orifice. Equation (143) can be written as:
2
2
Q Q
P
C K
 
= =

\ .
(146)
where
K = constant based on the orifice
Equation (146) is commonly applied in the form:
Q K P = (147)
where
Q = water flow, gpm
K = orifice factor, gpm/psi
P = pressure, psi
1/2
Problem: The pressure in a sprinkler supply pipe is 25 psi at the location of a sprinkler.
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What is the expected flow in gpm for that sprinkler? Assume K=5.6 gpm/psi
1/2
(a
common Kfactor for fire sprinklers).
Solution: Applying equation (147): 5.6 25 28GPM Q K P = = =
6.3.2 HazenWilliams Formula
The design or evaluation of hydraulic systems typically requires the calculation of
pressure losses due to friction as water flows through a section of pipe. This is
typically accomplished using the HazenWilliams formula:
1.85
1.85 4.87
4.52
d
Q
P
C d
= (148)
where
P
d
4.52 = constant based on pressure losses perfoot
= pressure drop, psi/ft
Q = flow, gpm
C = HazenWilliams coefficient, this is related to the roughness of the
piping
d = pipe diameter, in
Notice the atypical power values (i.e., 1.85 and 4.87) used in equation (148). This is
due to the HazenWilliams formula being an empirical formula. An empirical formula is
a mathematical equation that predicts observed results, but is derived from experiment
and not directly from first principles.
Problem: A new 8 inch (nominal) cast iron water supply line, 500 feet in length, is run
to a new building. What is the friction loss when 1000 gpm is flowing through the pipe?
Assume a HazenWilliams coefficient of 120 and an interior diameter of 8.3 inches.
Solution: First, we use equation (148) to calculate the friction loss per foot, and then
multiply that by the total length.
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( )
( ) ( )
1.85
1.85
1.85 4.87 1.85 4.87
4.52 1000gal
4.52
0.0076psi/ft
120 8.3in
d
Q
P
C d
= = =
( )( ) 500ft 0.0076psi/ft 3.82psi
total
P = =
Another hydraulic formula that is commonly used to evaluate water supplies is the
following expression which relates changes in water flow due to changes in
residual pressures. Static pressure is the pressure measured on a water supply
when there is no water flowing and the residual pressure is the pressure remaining
when there is water flow.
( )
( )
0.54
2
2 1 0.54
1
S R
Q Q
S R
(
−
= (
−
(
¸ ¸
(149)
where
Q
1
= flow at residual pressure R
1
Q
, gpm
2
= flow at residual pressure R
2
S = static pressure on the water supply system, psi
, gpm
R
1
= residual pressure when flowing Q
1
R
, psi
2
= residual pressure when flowing Q
2
Problem: A pressure gauge is placed on a fire hydrant and the pressure recorded with
no water flowing is 80 psi. The next closest hydrant is opened and a Pitot tube is used
to measure and calculate a flow of 3000 gpm; the pressure gauge at the first hydrant
now reads 58 psi. A second hydrant is partially opened and the pressure gauge on the
first hydrant now shows 50 psi. Without having to use a Pitot tube at both flowing
hydrants, calculate the total flow from both hydrants.
, psi
Solution: We know the static pressure on the water supply system at this location is 80
psi. We also know that when flowing 3000 gpm, the residual pressure is 58 psi. We
also know when a second hydrant is opened; the residual pressure drops to 50 psi.
From this, we can use equation (149) to find the new (combined) water flow:
( )
( )
( )
( )
0.54 0.54
2
2 1 0.54 0.54
1
80psi50psi
3000gpm 3547gpm
80psi58psi
S R
Q Q
S R
( (
−
= = = ( (
−
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
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Heat Transfer
7 Heat Transfer
Heat transfer is the transfer of energy between material bodies as a result of
temperature differences. There are three modes of heat transfer: conduction,
convection and radiation. The following equations present simple forms of the
three heat transfer modes.
7.1 Conduction
( )
( )
1 2
1 2
T T
q
k
A x x
−
=
−
(150)
where
q = heat transferred, Btu/hr
A = area through which heat is conducted, ft
k = thermal conductivity, Btu/hrft
2
o
T
F
1
= temperature at location x
1
,
o
T
F
2
= temperature at location x
2
,
o
x
F
1
= location of T
1
x
, ft
2
= location of T
2
7.2 Convection
, ft
( )
w
q
h T T
A
∞
= − (151)
where
q = heat transferred, Btu/hr
A = area through which heat is conducted, ft
h = convective heat transfer coefficient, Btu/hrft
2
2

o
F
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T
w
= temperature solid surface,
o
T
F
∞
= temperature of fluid (e.g., air) in which energy is transferred,
o
Note: The true definition of fluids includes liquids and gases.
F
7.3 Radiation
( )
4 4
1 2
q
T T
A
σ = − (152)
where
q = heat transferred, Btu/hr
A = area through which heat is conducted, ft
σ = StephanBoltzman constant,
2
0.1714 10
8
Btu/hrft
2

o
R
T
4
w
= temperature of solid surface,
o
T
R
∞
= temperature of fluid (e.g., air) which energy is transferred,
o
Important: For radiation heat transfer calculations, temperatures are absolute and
raised to the fourth power.
R
Problem: There are two rooms separated by a 6 inch concrete wall. In one room there
is a fully developed fire and the average room gas temperature is 1000
o
F. The other
room is large and the room temperature is maintained at 70
o
F. Calculate the wall
surface temperatures of the separating wall. Assume h = 1.5 Btu/hrft
2

o
F in the fire
room, h = 0.7 Btu/hrft
2

o
F in the other room, and the thermal conductivity of the
concrete is 0.45 Btu/hrft
o
The energy balance across the wall can be written as:
F. Assume radiation gains and losses can be ignored.
( )
( )
( )
( )
1 2
Iw Ow
f f Iw Ow
T T
h T T k h T T
x x
∞ ∞
−
− = = −
−
where
q = heat transferred, Btu/hr
A = area through which heat is conducted, ft
h
2
f
= convective heat transfer coefficient, Btu/hrft
2

o
T
F
f
= temperature in fire room,
o
T
F
Iw
= temperature of wall surface in fire room,
o
k = thermal conductivity of concrete wall, Btu/hrft
F
o
T
F
Ow
= temperature of wall surface in other room,
o
x
F
1
x
2
h
= wall thickness, ft
∞
= convective heat transfer coefficient, Btu/hrft
2

o
T
F
∞
= temperature in other room,
o
F
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Entering what we know leads to:
( )
( )
( )
( ) 1.5 1000 0.45 0.7 70
0.5
Iw Ow
Iw Ow
T T
T T
−
− = = −
There are a few methods to solve this. The direct approach is to isolate one variable
and then substitute. Another approach is to use the Excel Addin called Solver.
Either method used should result in:
T
Iw
= 806.6
o
T
F
Ow
= 484.4
o
F
The calculated wall surface temperature of 484.4
o
F is very high and suggests radiation
losses should be considered. The heat losses from the wall surface from convective
and radiative heat losses can be found as follows:
( )
2
0.7 484.4 70 290.1 Btu/hrft
q
A
= − =
and
( )
8 4 4 2
0.1714 x10 (484.4 459.69) (70 459.69) 1226.7Btu/hrft
q
A
−
= + − + =
This demonstrates the radiative losses from the surface of the other wall is over four
times greater than the convective losses, so the original assumption was incorrect
(remember always to confirm assumptions are appropriate). To add the radiative
losses, the above equation can be written to include the radiative losses from the
surface of the second room.
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
8 4 4
1.5 1000 0.45 0.7 70 0.1714 x10 ( 459.69) (70 459.69)
0.5
Iw Ow
Iw Ow Ow
T T
T T T
−
−
− = = − + + − +
The Excel Addin called Solver was used to solve this set of equations and resulted in:
T
Iw
= 718.3
o
T
F
Ow
= 248.9
o
F
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Ventilation
8 Ventilation
8.1 Conservation of Mass (the Continuity Equation)
A basic concept when evaluating the flow of a gas in a system (e.g., air in a duct)
is conservation of mass. This states that the mass flow rate of a gas at one point
in a stream is equal to the mass flow rate at any other location (assuming no
additions or losses). This is also known as the “continuity equation” and can be
written as:
1 1 1 2 2 2
A V A V ρ ρ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ (153)
where
A
n
= crosssectional area at location n, ft
V
2
n
ρ
= velocity at location n, ft/min
n
= density of gas at location n, lbs/ft
In most applications of building ventilation, it can be assumed that ρ behaves as a
constant (i.e., ρ
3
1
= ρ
2
) and equation (153) can be written as:
1 1 1
Q A V = ⋅ (154)
where
Q
1
= volumetric flow, ft
3
Note that equation (154) can be rearranged to show:
/min
1 1 1
/ A Q V = (155)
and
1 1 1
/ V Q A = (156)
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For constant volumetric flow, we can write:
1 2
Q Q = (157)
or
1 1 2 2
AV AV = (158)
Through simple rearrangement of Equation (158), any one of the four variables
can be found if the other three are known. For example, solving for V
2
results in
Equation (158) being written as:
1 1
2
2
AV
V
A
= (159)
Problem: The design of a section of duct has air velocities that are too high. To reduce
the velocity in half, what change to the duct crosssectional area would be required?
Solution: We can see from equation (158) that to decrease the velocity by half, the
duct area must be doubled.
8.2 Conservation of Energy
The energy in a ducted ventilation flow stream (assuming no losses) can be
written as:
TP VP SP = + (160)
where
TP = total pressure, inches of water column (also written as in. wc)
VP = velocity pressure, in. wc
SP = static pressure, in. wc
TP represents to total energy, or “head” in a flow stream at any location. VP
represents the pressure due to movement (it is always positive) and SP represents
the pressure of the fluid or gas exerted in all directions.
Due to conservation of energy (i.e., TP remains constant), Equation (160) can be
rewritten as:
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1 1 2 2 L
SP VP SP VP h + = + + (161)
where
TP
n
VP
= total pressure at location n, inches of water column (also written as
in. wc)
n
SP
= velocity pressure at location n, in. wc
n
h
= static pressure at location n, in. wc
L
= head (energy) loss from location 1 to location 2, in. wc
Problem: Measurements made at two ends of a section of ductwork showed a total
pressure at one location of 2.5 in. wc, and 2.25 in wc. at the other end. What is the
head loss across the section of ductwork?
Solution: Combining equations (160) and (161) provides:
1 2 L
TP TP h = +
( ) ( )
1 2
2.5 in.wc 2.25 in.wc = 0.25 in.wc
L
h TP TP = − = −
Velocity pressure is always positive, and an average duct velocity pressure can be
found using the following expression:
2
1 2 n
ave
VP VP VP
VP
n
 
+ + +
= 

\ .
(162)
where
VP
ave
VP
= average velocity pressure, in. wc
n
n = number of velocity pressure readings
= velocity pressure n, in. wc
We will now explore some common applications of equation (161) and the law of
conservation of energy and mass.
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Problem: Three velocity pressures are sampled across a duct and the following data
recorded: 0.75, 1.0 and 0.95 in. wc. What is the average velocity pressure at that
location?
Solution:
2
2
1 2
0.75 1.0 0.95
0.90 in.wc
3
n
ave
VP VP VP
VP
n
 
  + + +
+ +
= = = 



\ .
\ .
8.3 Derivation of the Fundamental Duct Flow Equations
A very common equation related to air flow in a duct is typically written as:
4005 V VP = (163)
where
V = velocity of air, ft/min
4005 = a constant based on air flowing at standard temperature and
pressure (STP)
VP = velocity pressure, in. wc
This equation can be derived as follows (first we will derive it for any gas and
then for air).
Constants Use caution whenever you see a constant in an equation (e.g., 4005
in equation (163)). This frequently means the equation uses a set type of units. Using
the wrong units will lead to incorrect calculations.
From Torricelli's law, see equation (133), the velocity of a gas created by the
velocity pressure (head) of a column of gas can be written as:
2
gas
V gh = (164)
where
V = velocity of gas, ft/sec
g = gravitational acceleration, ft/sec
2
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h
gas
Since the elevation head in equation (164) is in feet of gas and we want to use
water column, we need to convert equation (164) from gas to water. We can do
this with this relationship:
= elevation head, ft of gas
gas gas water water
h h ρ ρ = (165)
where
ρ
gas
= density of gas (at STP), lbs/ft
h
3
gas
ρ
= elevation head, ft of gas
water
= density of water (at STP), lbs/ft
h
3
water
Equation (165) can be rewritten as:
= elevation head, ft of water
water water
gas
gas
h
h
ρ
ρ
= (166)
Note that we also need to change from feet of gas to inches of water head; this is
done by the following conversion (which allows the substitution of VP for h
water
):
1
12
water
gas
gas
VP
h
ρ
ρ
⋅ ⋅
=
⋅
(167)
Combining equation (164) and (167), and converting from seconds to minutes
(that’s the 60 in front of the radical), leads to:
2
60
12
water
gas
g VP
V
ρ
ρ
⋅
= ⋅
⋅
(168)
Substituting values for g, ρ
water
, and maintaining ρ
gas
for now, results in:
1096
gas
VP
V
ρ
= (169)
where
V = velocity, ft/min
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VP = velocity pressure (head), in. wc
ρ
gas
= density of gas (at STP), lbs/ft
Problem: What is the velocity in a duct when the velocity pressure recorded is 0.90
in.wc? The duct carries nitrogen at normal temperature and pressure; assume a
density of 0.073 lbs/ft
3
3
.
Solution:
0.90
1096 1096 3,848 cfm
0.073
gas
VP
V
ρ
= = =
Equation (169) can be used to find the velocity of any gas at STP flowing in a
duct. However, we are frequently concerned with air movement in ventilation
systems. When the value for the density of air at STP (0.075 lb/ft
3
) is substituted
for ρ
gas
, we find:
4005 V VP = (170)
where
V = velocity or air, ft/min
VP = velocity pressure (head), in. wc
Problem: What is the velocity in an air duct when the velocity pressure recorded is 0.90
in.wc? Assume standard air conditions.
Solution: Since we are dealing with air, we can use equation (170):
4005 4005 0.9 3799 cfm V VP = = =
Note that this is very close to the value for nitrogen just calculated above. Since air is
79% nitrogen, its density is very close to air.
Note that equation (170) only applies to air at standard temperature and pressure
(STP). If the air is not at standard temperature and pressure, this must be
accounted for in equation (170). Once again, a conversion is required.
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8.3.1 Density Correction Factor
Density of gases is a function of temperature and pressure. When conditions vary
from standard temperature and pressure (STP), a density factor must be applied to
account for this variation. This is shown here:
Actual STP
df ρ ρ = ⋅ (171)
where
ρ
Actual
= density of gas (at some temperature and pressure), lbs/ft
ρ
3
STP
= density of gas (at STP), lbs/ft
df = density factor, nondimensional
3
Dimensionless Number A dimensionless number is a quantity without a physical
unit; a pure number. Such a number is typically defined as a product or ratio of
quantities that might have units individually, but which cancel out when taken in
combination. They are very useful in calculations as they are not scale or unit
dependant.
For industrial hygiene and safety applications, the density factor is typically
calculated as follows:
530
460 29.92
BP
df
T
   
= ⋅
 
+
\ . \ .
(172)
where
T = temperature of gas,
o
BP = barometric pressure, inches of Mercury (in. Hg)
F
Problem: A location is 1000 feet above sea level, and the local barometric pressure is
28.86 mmHg, and the temperature is 90
o
F. What is the density correction factor for
these conditions?
Solution:
530 530 28.86
0.93
460 29.92 90 460 29.92
BP
df
T
       
= ⋅ = ⋅ =
   
+ +
\ . \ . \ . \ .
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Equation (172) can be derived from the ideal gas law (see section 4.1 above):
P Vol n R T ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ (173)
where
P = absolute pressure of the gas, atm
Vol = volume of gas, liters (l)
n = amount of gas, moles
R = gas constant, 0.082 latm/molesK
These are the typical units used in safety and industrial hygiene applications.
However, other applications (or simply personal preference) may employ
different units.
For a gas at two varying conditions, Equation (173) can be written as:
1 1 2 2
1 2
PVol PVol
nRT nRT
= (174)
For n and R being constant, equation (174) can be written:
1 1 2 2
1 2
PVol PVol
T T
= (175)
We know that density is a measure of the amount of a gas in a given volume. For
a fixed amount (mass) of gas, the volume is inverselyproportional to the density.
This can be written as:
1
Vol
ρ
∝ (176)
Proportionality Symbol ∝ In mathematics, two quantities are said to be
proportional if each of the quantities is a constant multiple of the other. There is no
specific relationship given; in fact the lack of specific detail is the reason the
Proportionality Sign is used.
Combining Equations (175) and (176) results in:
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Actual STP
Actual Actual STP STP
P P
T T ρ ρ
= (177)
which can be rearranged to
Actual STP Actual
STP Actual STP
T P
df
T P
ρ
ρ
= = (178)
Recall that Equations (169) and (170) are based on standard temperature and
pressure (STP) conditions. We can use the density factor (178) to modify those
equations (and others) to account for conditions other than standard temperature
and pressure, as seen here:
1096
gas
VP
V
df ρ
=
⋅
(179)
4005
VP
V
df
= (180)
Remember that at standard temperature and pressure (STP), df = 1.0.
Problem: In the previous sample problem, the density factor calculated was 0.93.
Compare the velocity of air with that density factor and conditions at STP (i.e., df =
1.0). Assume a velocity pressure of 1.0 in.wc.
Solution:
1.0
4005 4005 4153 ft/min
0.93
VP
V
df
= = =
1.0
4005 4005 4005 ft/min
1
VP
V
df
= = =
Notice that as the density factor goes down, the air velocity increases.
8.4 DallaValle Equation
The following form of the DallaValle equation calculates the capture velocity
required for a plain opening hood (no flange):
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2
10
Q
V
x A
=
+
(181)
where
V = capture velocity at distance x from the hood opening, ft/min
Q = air flow, ft
3
x = centerline distance from hood opening to target area, ft
/min
A = area of the hood opening, ft
Important: The DallaValle equation is valid when x is not greater than 1.5 times the
equivalent diameter of the hood opening. Using the equation outside this limitation will
result in erroneous answers. Many equations used in industrial hygiene and safety
have such limitations, so always verify the limitations of any equation or model before
applying it.
2
Problem: What volumetric flow rate is required in a 6 inch round plain duct hood
located 9 inches from a location requiring a capture velocity of 100 fpm?
Solution: First, the area of the hood is required in ft
2
:
( )
2
2
2
6 / 12
0.196 ft
4 4
d
A
π
π
= = =
Next, rearranging equation (181) and substituting the appropriate values provides:
( )
2
2
9
10 100 10 0.196 582 cfm
12
Q V x A
 
 
= + = + =



\ .
\ .
8.5 Hood Static Pressure
The hood static pressure equation can be used to calculate the hood static pressure
required to overcome losses as air enters a hood.
h d e
SP VP h = + (182)
where
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SP
h
VP
= value of hood static pressure, in. wc
d
h
= velocity pressure in duct, in. wc
e
The hood entry loss (h
= hood entry loss, in. wc
e
) can be defined as:
e h d
h F VP = ⋅ (183)
where
F
h
Values for F
= hood entry loss factor, dimensionless
h
Problem: Calculate the hood static pressure when the duct velocity pressure is 1.25 in.
wc and the hood entry loss is 0.9 in. wc.
vary depending on hood entry design with typical values ranging
from 0.04 to 0.93.
Solution:
1.25 in.wc + 0.9 in.wc = 2.15 in.wc
h d e
SP VP h = + =
Note: Here the static pressure is calculated as an absolute value. Since this is a hood
static pressure, SP
h
= 2.15 in. wc.
Problem: Based on the same data, what is the hood entry loss factor for this hood?
Solution: Rearranging equation (183) and substituting leads to:
1.25 in.wc
1.39
0.9 in.wc
d
h
e
VP
F
h
= = =
8.6 Hood Entry Coefficient and Loss
Hoods are not perfect at turning available static pressure into velocity pressure.
As a result the actual flow entering a hood is related to the theoretical maximum
flow by the hood entry coefficient, C
e
.
d
e
h
VP
C
SP
= (184)
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where
C
e
The hood entry coefficient can be used to determine the hood entry losses for a
given velocity pressure,
= hood entry coefficient, dimensionless
( )
2
2
1
e
e d
e
C
h VP
C
−
= (185)
Problem: Based on the data provided and calculated in the previous sample problem,
determine the hood entry coefficient.
Solution: The duct velocity pressure was 1.25 in. wc and the hood entry loss is 0.9 in.
wc. The hood static pressure was found to be 2.15 in. wc.
1.25
0.76
2.15
d
e
h
VP
C
SP
= = =
Problem: Using the calculated hood entry coefficient, verify the hood entry loss factor.
Solution:
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
1 1 0.76
1.25 in.wc = 0.9
0.76
e
e d
e
C
h VP
C
− −
= =
As expected, the values are equal.
Note that equations (183) and (185) can be combined to demonstrate:
( )
2
2
1
e
h
e
C
F
C
−
= (186)
Equation (186) can then be rearranged as follows:
2
1
1
h
e
F
C
= − (187)
2
1
1
h
e
F
C
+ = (188)
now solving for C
e
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1
1
e
h
C
F
=
+
(189)
Problem: Given the hood entry loss factor of 0.9 in. wc used in the previous example,
calculate the hood entry loss coefficient and compare the result to that answer found
using equation (184).
Solution: The value calculated using equation (184) was 0.76. For equation (189) we
find:
1
0.73
0.9 1
e
C = =
+
The difference (~4%) is due to the precision of the values carried through the
equations; that is with each rounding comes a loss of precision.
8.7 Converging Duct Flows and Losses
Another type of loss encountered with ventilation flows occurs when two ducts
merge and turbulence causes losses. This can be calculated as follows:
1 2
1 2
3 3
r
Q Q
VP VP VP
Q Q
   
= +
 
\ . \ .
(190)
where
VP
r
Q
= resulting velocity pressure of the merged flows, in. wc
3
= volumetric flow rate of the merged flows, ft
3
Q
/min
1
= volumetric flow rate of duct 1, ft
3
VP
/min
1
Q
= velocity pressure in duct 1, in. wc
2
= volumetric flow rate of duct 2, ft
3
VP
/min
2
Problem: Two ventilation branch ducts converge. The first has a volumetric flow rate of
1500 cfm at a velocity pressure of 1.25 in. wc. The second has a volumetric flow rate
of 2000 cfm at a velocity pressure of 0.75 in. wc. Calculate the resulting volumetric flow
and velocity pressure.
= velocity pressure in duct 2, in. wc
Solution: First, the volumetric flow rate is simply the sum of the two flows, or 3500 cfm.
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The resulting velocity pressure is calculated using equation (190).
1 2
1 2
3 3
1500 2000
1.25 0.75 0.96 in.wc
3500 3500
r
Q Q
VP VP VP
Q Q
   
   
= + = + =
   
\ . \ .
\ . \ .
Another consideration of two ducts joining is the resulting flow and static
pressure. In effect, this can be used to balance static pressures during the design
of a ventilation system by determining a new volumetric flow for one duct based
on the governing static pressure. This can be written as
gov
cor design
duct
SP
Q Q
SP
= (191)
where
Q
cor
= corrected (new) flow rate, ft
3
Q
/min
design
= design (existing) flow rate, ft
3
SP
/min
gov
SP
= governing static pressure, in. wc
duct
The equation can also be used to determine a new volumetric flow rate in a duct
when an old flow and static pressure are known and a new static pressure is
measured.
= design static pressure, in. wc
Problem: Two ventilation branch ducts converge. Preliminary design calculations show
the following: The first has a volumetric flow rate of 2000 cfm and a static pressure of
1.25 in. wc. The second has a volumetric flow rate of 1500 cfm and a static pressure
of 1.20 in. wc. Since the static pressures must be equivalent at the junction, calculate a
corrected flow for the second branch.
Solution:
1.25
1500 1531 cfm
1.20
gov
cor design
duct
SP
Q Q
SP
= = =
Therefore, a flow of 1531 cfm in the second branch will result in the pressures at the
junction being balanced (which is required).
Note: This approach of balancing converging duct flows is only appropriate for small
differences in static pressure (i.e., about 20%).
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8.8 Further Applications of Flow and Velocity Equations
The various volumetric flow rate and velocity equations and corrections derived
above can be combined and written in a variety of useful formats. For example,
equation (170):
4005
d
V VP = (192)
and equation (184):
d
e
h
VP
C
SP
= (193)
can be combined to yield:
4005
e h
V C SP = (194)
Problem: Calculate the velocity in an 8inch round duct from a hood if the hood static
pressure measurement is 2.0 in. wc and the hood entry coefficient is 0.72 (round duct,
plain end).
Solution:
( ) 4005 4005 0.72 2.0 4078 fpm
e h
V C SP = = =
Recalling equation (154)
Q A V = ⋅ (195)
Combing equations (194) and (195) leads to
4005
e h
Q C A SP = (196)
Problem: Calculate the volumetric flow rate in an 8inch round duct from a hood if the
hood static pressure measurement is 2.0 in. wc and the hood entry coefficient is 0.72
(round duct, plain end).
Solution:
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( )
2
8
4005 4005 0.72 2.0 1423 cfm
4 12
e h
Q C A SP
π
(
 
= = =
(

\ .
(
¸ ¸
We can then modify this by recalling from above
1
1
e
h
C
F
=
+
(197)
and including the density correction factor (equation (172)) results in
4005
(1 )
h
h
SP
Q A
df F
=
+
(198)
Problem: Calculate the volumetric flow rate in an 8inch round flanged hood if the static
pressure is 0.8 in. wc., the hood entry loss factor is 0.50 and the duct is moving air at
standard atmospheric pressure and 95
o
F.
Solution: First, we need to use equation (172) to determine the density factor:
530 530 29.92
0.95
460 29.92 95 460 29.92
BP
df
T
       
= ⋅ = ⋅ =
   
+ +
\ . \ . \ . \ .
Next we use equation (198):
2
8 2.0
4005 4005 1656 cfm
(1 ) 4 12 0.95(1 0.5)
h
h
SP
Q A
df F
π
(
 
= = =
(

+ +
\ .
(
¸ ¸
A similar substitution (and using equation (169) from above) results in
1096
(1 )
h
h
SP
Q A
F ρ
=
+
(199)
Note here the density correction factor is not needed because this form of the
equation requires the density of the air at the appropriate temperature and
pressure.
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Problem: Using equation (199), calculate the volumetric flow rate in an 8inch round
flanged hood if the static pressure is 0.8 in. wc., the hood entry loss factor is 0.50, and
the duct is moving air at standard atmospheric pressure and 95
o
F.
Solution: First, we need the density of air at 95
o
F. There are various sources that can
be consulted. One simple way that only requires the density at standard temperature
and pressure (STP) is the relationship:
constant T ρ =
Knowing the density of air at STP (0.075 lb/ft
3
) leads to:
3 o
3
95 o
95
(0.075 lbs/ft )(460 + 68 F)
= 0.071 lbs/ft
460 + 95 F
STP STP
T
T
ρ
ρ = =
Next, substituting values into equation (199) leads to:
2
8 2
1096 1096 1658 cfm
(1 ) 4 12 0.071(1 0.5)
h
h
SP
Q A
F
π
ρ
(
 
= = =
(

+ +
\ .
(
¸ ¸
As expected, this value is very close to the 1656 cfm calculated in the previous sample
problem. The small difference is due to rounding in the equations.
Note that equation (199) assumes standard pressure, which was also used (but not
required) in the previous problem.
8.9 Dilution Ventilation
Dilution ventilation is an important aspect of airborne contaminant control. The
concentration of a gas or vapor as a function of time can be derived from a
differential material balance which, when integrated, relates the ventilation to the
generation and removal of a contaminant.
This material balance can be written as
' VdC Gdt Q Cdt = − (200)
where
V = volume of enclosure
C = concentration of gas or vapor at time t
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G = rate of generation of contaminant
Q = rate of ventilation
K = mixing factor
Q’ = Q/K = effective rate of ventilation
From equation (200), several useful relationships can be derived. Rearranging
equation (200) and integrating leads to:
2 2
1 1
1
'
C t
C t
dC
dt
G Q C V
=
−
∫ ∫
(201)
Recall that (for a definite integral)
ln
b
a
dx
x
x
=
∫
(202)
and
ln ln ln
a
a b
b
 
− =

\ .
(203)
So equation (201) becomes
( )
2
2 1
1
' '
ln
'
G Q C Q
t t
G Q C V
  −
= − −

−
\ .
(204)
where
ln = natural logarithm
V = volume of enclosure, ft
C
3
1
= initial concentration of gas or vapor, partspermillion/10
6
, ppm/10
C
6
2
= final concentration of gas or vapor, ppm/10
G = rate of generation of contaminant, ft
6
3
Q’ = Q/K = effective rate of ventilation, ft
/min
3
where Q = rate of ventilation, ft
/min
3
/min
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K = mixing factor (typical values range from 1 to 10),
nondimmensional
t
2
t
= final time, min
1
Problem: Acetone evolves at a rate of 3.5 cfm in a room that measures 30’ x 50’ x 12’.
If an initial concentration is measured at 25 ppm, what will the concentration be after
15 minutes of 3000 cfm of dilution air? Assume K=1 (i.e., Q’ = Q).
= initial time, min
Solution: We can use equation (204), but the final concentration (C
2
) is embedded in
this form of the equation, so we must solve for C
2
.
( )
2
2 1
1
' '
ln
'
G Q C Q
t t
G Q C V
  −
= − −

−
\ .
( )
( )
2
3.5 3000 3000
ln 15 0
3.5 3000 0.000025 18000
C
 
− ⋅
= − −


−
\ .
( )
( )
3000
15 0
18000 2
3.5 3000
3.5 3000 0.000025
C
e
 
− −

\ .
− ⋅
=
−
2
3.5 3000
0.0821
3.425
C − ⋅
=
( )( )
2
0.0821 3.425 3.5
0.00107 1073 ppm
3000
C
−
= = =
−
It is important to note that the contaminant concentration, if given in ppm, must
be converted to a volume fraction. This can be done by the following equation
which relates concentrations in ppm to volumetric fractions for airborne gases and
vapors.
6
10
contam
contam
air
V
ppm x
V
= (205)
This can be written as
6
10
contam contam
air
ppm V
V
= (206)
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Problem: What is the volume of airborne acetone after 15 minutes in the sample
problem above?
Solution: From the above equation, we know at 15 minutes the acetone is at 1073
ppm. We also know the volume of the enclosure is 18,000 ft
3
. Therefore, we can re
arrange equation (206) as follows:
3 3
6 6
1073
18, 000 ft 19.3 ft
10 10
contam
contam air
ppm
V V
   
= = =
 
\ . \ .
From the general form dilution equation (204) comes other dilution equations that
address special cases. For example, if we assume at time t=0, the concentration is
C
1
=0, then equation (204) is simplified and becomes:
' '
ln
G Q C Q
t
G V
−  
= −

\ .
(207)
and since
( )
ln x
e x = (208)
Equation (207) can be written as
'
'
Q
t
V
G Q C
G
e
−
−
= (209)
Problem: Acetone begins to be evolved at a rate of 3.5 cfm in a room that measures
30’ x 50’ x 12’ high. If the initial acetone concentration is 0 ppm, what will the
concentration be after 15 minutes of 3000 cfm of dilution air? Assume K=1.
Solution: This is an application of equation (209).
'
'
Q
t
V
G Q C
G
e
−
−
=
'
'
Q
t
V
G G
C
Q
e
−
⋅ −
=
−
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3000
15
18000
3.5 3.5
0.001071 1071 ppm
3000
C
e
−
⋅ −
= = =
−
Now consider the case where a volume of air is contaminated at some initial
concentration and we wish to calculate the change in concentration over time due
to dilution ventilation when there is no new contaminant being added (i.e., G = 0).
For this we start with the material balance of:
' VdC Q Cdt = − (210)
Similar to above, we can find:
2 2
1 1
'
C t
C t
dC Q
dt
C V
= −
∫ ∫
(211)
Integration leads to
( )
2
2 1
1
'
ln
C Q
t t
C V
 
= − −

\ .
(212)
and this equation can be rearranged to yield
2
2 1 '
1
ln
C V
t t
Q C
 
− = −

\ .
(213)
Problem: Acetone is used in a room that measures 30’ x 50’ x 12’. An initial
concentration is measured at 5000 ppm, and the acetone use is stopped (i.e., no
more acetone vapors evolve). With 3000 cfm of dilution air, how long would it take to
reach a level of 250 ppm? Assume K=1.
Solution:
2
2 1 '
1
18000 250
ln ln 18min
3000 5000
C V
t t
Q C
 
 
− = − = − =
 
\ .
\ .
Fractions in Equations Note that in the above equations, the fraction C
2
/C
1
appears. In this case, we do not worry about units as they cancel to form a
dimensionless fraction; they only need to have the same units. This simplifies this
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problem.
Now consider the case in which we seek to identify the constant level of an
airborne contaminant when the generation rate and ventilation rate are known and
there is a steady concentration of contaminant in the supply air.
6
'
10
supply
G
C x C
Q
 
= +

\ .
(214)
where
the variables and units are as defined above, and
C
supply
Problem: Connected rooms utilize a cascading ventilation system where air with lower
contamination levels moves towards rooms with higher concentrations before reaching
filters. Assume a room with a toluene process that evolves 0.5 cfm of toluene is
supplied by 2500 cfm or air coming from a room with an airborne concentration that is
limited to 50 ppm. Determine the steadystate concentration of toluene in the room.
= concentration of contaminant in the supply air, ppm
Solution:
6 6
'
0.5
10 10 50 ppm = 250 ppm
2500
supply
G
C x C x
Q
 
 
= + = +
 
\ .
\ .
Notice that the room volume is not required.
8.10 Room Air Changes per Hour
A common value for indoor air ventilation is the number of air changes per hour
(ACH). Building and mechanical codes typically specify minimum ACH for most
occupancy types. The ACH can easily be calculated as follows:
60
changes
room
Q
N
V
= (215)
where
N
changes
= number of air changes per hour (ACH)
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60 = conversion factor for minutes to hours, min/hour
Q = room ventilation rate, ft
3
V
/min
room
= room volume, ft
Problem: A room measures 30’ x 50’ x 12’ high. How many air changes per hour (ACH)
are required to provide a ventilation rate of 3000 cfm?
3
Solution:
60 60 3000
10 ACH
18, 000
changes
room
Q
N
V
⋅
= = =
8.10.1 Dilution Ventilation Based on Room Air Changes
When a room starts with no concentration of an airborne contaminant, but a
contaminant is added at a steady rate over time, the timedependant concentration
can be calculated based on the number of air changes per hour. This is shown
here:
( )
6
'
/60
1 10
Nt
G
C x
Q
e
−
= − (216)
where
C = concentration at time t, ppm/10
G = rate of generation of contaminant, ft
6
3
Q’ = effective rate of ventilation, ft
/min
3
e = natural logarithm, 2.71828…
/min
t = time elapsed, hours
N = number of air changes per hour
60 = conversion from minutes to hours
Problem: Starting with equation (209) and (215), derive equation (216).
Solution: First, we must rearrange equation (209):
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'
'
Q
t
V
G Q C
G
e
−
−
=
6
'
x 10
'
ppm
Q
t
V
G G
C
Q
e
−
⋅ −
=
−
6 6
'
'
x 10 1 x 10
' '
ppm
Q
t
Q
V
t
V
G G G
C
Q Q
e
e
−
−  
⋅ −
= = −


−
\ .
Next, equation (215) can be rearranged as follows:
60
changes
room
N
Q
V
=
Substituting this into the preceding equation leads to:
( )
6
'
/60
1 10
ppm
Nt
G
C x
Q
e
−
= −
When a room starts with a known concentration of an airborne contaminant, and
no additional contaminate is added, the timedependant concentration (dilution)
can be calculated based on the number of air changes per hour. This is shown
here:
0
tN
C C e
−
= (217)
where
C = concentration at time t, units to match C
C
0
0
t = time, hours
= initial concentration, units to match C
N = number of air changes per hour
Problem: A process area has a ventilation system that provides 20 ACH. What is the
concentration of an airborne contaminant after 15 minutes if the initial concentration is
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300 ppm?
Solution:
( )
( )( ) 0.25 hr 20 ACH
0

300 ppm 2.02 ppm
tN
C C e e
−
= = =
8.11 Dilution to Control Evaporation
The following equation can be used to calculate the ventilation required to keep
an evaporating contaminant (e.g., a solvent) below a desired concentration. The
concentration can be a TLV, LFL (LEL) or any other desired concentration. Note
that this equation is based on pints/min of evaporating contaminant.
( )( )( )( )( )
( )( )
6
403 10 SG ER K
Q
MW C
= (218)
where
Q = volumetric flow required to limit concentration, ft
3
403 = constant for units used
/min
SG = specific gravity, nondimensional
ER = evaporation rate, pints/min
K = ventilation (dilution) safety factor, nondimensional
10
6
MW = molecular weight, g
= unit conversion (ppm to volume percent)
C = contaminant concentration in air, ppm
Problem: Acetone evaporates at a rate of 0.1 pints/min. How much dilution air is
required to maintain the concentration below the TLV? Assume the TLV is 500 ppm
and a ventilation safety factor of 5. The molecular weight is 58.08, and the specific
gravity is 0.79.
Solution:
( )( )( )( )( )
( )( )
( )( )( )( )( )
( )( )
6 6
403 10 403 0.79 0.1 5 10
5482 cfm
58.08 500
SG ER K
Q
MW C
= = =
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8.12 Fan Laws and Equations
Many engineered controls for airborne contaminant control require the use of
fans.
Two equations that describe a fan’s ratings are fan static pressure and fan total
pressure. These are shown here.
out in in
FSP SP SP VP = − − (219)
where
FSP = fan static pressure; this can also be shown as SP
fan
SP
, in. wc
out
SP
= static pressure out; measured on the outlet side of the fan, in. wc
in
VP
= static pressure in; measured on the inlet side of the fan, in. wc
in
Problem: Calculate the fan static pressure if the static pressure on the inlet side is 2.5
in. wc, the static pressure on the outlet side is 0.75 in. wc, and the velocity pressure is
1 in. wc.
= velocity pressure on the inlet side of the fan, in. wc
Solution:
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.75 in.wc  2.5 in.wc  1 in.wc = 2.25 in.wc
out in in
FSP SP SP VP = − − =
Important: The static pressure on the inlet side is always negatively signed. The static
pressure on the outlet side and the velocity pressure is always positively signed.
The fan total pressure is defined as:
out in
FTP TP TP = − (220)
where
FTP = fan total pressure, in. wc
TP
out
TP
= total pressure measured at the outlet, in. wc
in
= total pressure measured at the inlet, in. wc
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Problem: A fan supplies air at a velocity of 4000 fpm. At the same fan, the inlet and
outlet static pressures are 5.0 in. wc and 0.6 in. wc, respectively. Determine the fan
total pressure. Assume the inlet and outlet velocity pressures are 1.0 in. wc and 0.7 in.
wc, respectively.
Solution: From equation (160) we know:
TP VP SP = +
Therefore, equation (220) can be written:
( ) ( )
out in out out in in
FTP TP TP VP SP VP SP = − = + − +
( ) ( ) 0.7 0.6 1.0 5.0 5.3 in.wc FTP = + − + − =
Important: The static pressure on the inlet side is always negatively signed. The static
pressure on the outlet side and the velocity pressure is always positively signed.
8.12.1 Fan Laws
The following three equations are known as the fan laws; they are also referred to
as affinity laws. Notice all the “laws” are a function of size and speed (revolutions
per minute). Sometimes these equations are written without showing the “size”
term. When this is done, this assumes the fan size cannot be changed; such as
after a fan is installed. Note that these equations apply to a “family” of fans of
similar design and manufacturer. They may not be applied to a mix of various
designs. Also note the various powers used in the fan laws.
The first equation relates the volumetric movement of a fan to size (to the third
power) and speed.
3
2 2
2 1
1 1
Size RPM
Q Q
Size RPM
   
=
 
\ . \ .
(221)
where
Q
2
= volumetric flow rate for condition 2, ft
3
Q
/min
1
= volumetric flow rate for condition 1, ft
3
Size
/min
2
= fan diameter for condition 2, inches
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Size
1
RPM
= fan diameter for condition 1, inches
2
RPM
= fan speed for condition 2, rpm
1
Problem: A fan with a 6 inch impeller operates at 2000 RPM to supply 1500 cfm. If the
impeller size and speed is changed to 8 inches and 2500 RPM, what will be the new
flow?
= fan speed for condition 1, rpm
Solution:
3
3
2 2
2 1
1 1
8 2500
1500 4444 cfm
6 2000
Size RPM
Q Q
Size RPM
   
   
= = =
   
\ . \ .
\ . \ .
The second equation relates the fan pressure to size and speed (both to the second
power).
2 2
2 2
2 1
1 1
Size RPM
P P
Size RPM
   
=
 
\ . \ .
(222)
where
variables and units are as defined above
P
2
P
= system pressure for condition 2, in. wc
1
Problem: If a fan size remains the same, how much faster would the fan have to turn to
increase the pressure 50%?
= system pressure for condition 1, in. wc
Solution: Since the fan size does not change, that portion of the equation equals 1.0.
Equation (222) can then be rearranged to solve for RPM
2
.
2
2
2 1
1
RPM
P P
RPM
 
=

\ .
2
2 1
1
P
RPM RPM
P
=
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2
2 1
1
1.5
1 1.22
1
P
RPM RPM
P
= = =
Therefore, a 22% increase in RPM will increase the pressure by 50 percent. Also, note
we did not use specific values for the speed and pressure, only multipliers since we
were only looking for a multiplier.
The third equation relates a fan’s power requirement to size (to the fifth power)
and speed (to the third power).
5 3
2 2
2 1
1 1
Size RPM
PWR PWR
Size RPM
   
=
 
\ . \ .
(223)
where
variables and units are as defined above
PWR
2
PWR
= fan horsepower for condition 2, horsepower, hp
1
Problem: An 8 inch fan operates at 2500 RPM with a breaking horsepower (BHP) of
30. The fan size is decreased to 6 inches and the speed increased to 3000 RPM. What
is the new BHP?
= fan horsepower for condition 1, hp
Solution:
5 3
5 3
2 2
2 1
1 1
6 3000
30 12.3 BHP
8 2500
Size RPM
PWR PWR
Size RPM
   
   
= = =
   
\ . \ .
\ . \ .
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Sound and Noise
9 Sound and Noise
9.1 Sound Intensity
Safety and industrial hygiene professionals typically deal with sound pressure and
not sound intensity. Generally, there is no direct relationship between sound
pressure and sound intensity. However, for a plane wave there is a relationship.
This relationship can be used in a free field at a distance from the source.
2
p
I
c ρ
= (224)
where
I = sound intensity, W/m
p = rms sound pressure, Pa
2
ρ = density of air, kg/m
3
c = speed of sound in air, m/sec
Note: rms stands for root mean square, and the value ρc is the characteristic
specific acoustic impedance and is equal to 413 Ns/m
3
for air at 20
o
Problem: Calculate the sound intensity of a 0.2 Pa source. Assume the air
temperature is 20
C.
o
C.
Solution:
( )
2
2
5 2
3
0.2 Pa
= 9.7x10 W/m
413 Ns/m
p
I
c ρ
−
= =
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9.2 Sound Pressure Level (SPL)
Sound pressure level (SPL) or sound level is a logarithmic measure of the
effective sound pressure of a sound relative to a reference value. It is measured in
decibels (dB) above a standard reference level, typically 20 µPa RMS (which is
usually considered the threshold of human hearing at 1 kHz). Mathematically,
sound pressure level (SPL) can be written as:
0
20 log
P
SPL
P
 
=

\ .
(225)
where
SPL = sound pressure level, dB
P = measured rms sound pressure, Pa
P
0
= reference rms sound pressure, Pa (P
o
is typically 20 µPa)
Problem: Calculate the sound pressure level (in dB) due to a sound pressure of 0.5 Pa.
Solution:
6
0
0.5 Pa
20 log 20 log = 88 dB
20x10 Pa
P
SPL
P
 
 
= =
 
\ .
\ .
Sound pressure level (SPL) can be related to the sound intensity (power) by:
0
10 log
I
SPL
I
 
=

\ .
(226)
where
SPL = sound pressure level, dB
I = sound intensity, W/m
I
2
0
= reference sound intensity, W/m
2
(I
0
is typically 10
12
W/m
2
)
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Problem: Calculate the sound pressure level for a measured intensity of 0.005 W/m
2
.
Solution:
2
12 2
0
0.005 W/m
10 log 10 log = 97 dB
10 W/m
I
SPL
I
   
= =
 
\ . \ .
Sound pressure level decreases over distance. The change is not linear, rather it
changes logarithmically as follows:
1
2 1
2
20log
d
SPL SPL
d
 
= +

\ .
(227)
where
SPL
2
= sound pressure level at distance d
2
SPL
, dB
1
= sound pressure level at distance d
1
d
dB
1
= distance where SPL
1
d
was measured
2
= distance where SPL
2
Problem: Sound measurements record an average sound pressure level of 85 dB at a
location 10 feet away from a punchpress. What is the expected sound pressure level
at 15 feet from the press?
was measured
Solution:
1
2 1
2
10 ft
20log 85 dB+20log = 81.5 dB
15 ft
d
SPL SPL
d
 
 
= + =
 
\ .
\ .
Reminder: Since the distances are in a fraction, any units can be used as long as they
are consistent.
9.2.1 Addition of Sound Pressure Levels (SPLs)
Due to their logarithmic nature, sound pressure levels cannot simply be added
together, rather they must be added while accounting for their logarithmic nature.
The two following equations can be used to add sound pressure levels.
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10
1
10log 10
i
SPL
N
total
i
SPL
=
=
∑
(228)
where
SPL
total
i = count of individual sound pressure levels
= total (sum) of all sound pressure levels, dB
N = number of individual sound pressure levels summed
SPL
i
= SPL of sound i, dB
Problem: Calculate the combined sound pressure level created by three sources
measured at 80 dB, 95 dB and 90 dB.
Solution:
80 95 90
10 10 10
10log 10 10 10 96.3 dB
total
SPL
 
= + + =

\ .
A simple form of the equation can be derived for cases involving a number of
identical sources.
10log( )
total i
SPL SPL n = + (229)
where
SPL
total
SPL
= total (sum) of all sound pressure levels, dB
i
n = number of identical sound pressure levels summed
= SPL of a single source, dB
Problem: Four machines are to be collocated. Produce literature indicates an expected
sound pressure level of 80 dB (at a reference distance) for each machine. What is the
expected combined sound pressure level?
Solution:
10log( ) 85 10log(4) 85 6 91 dB
total i
SPL SPL n = + = + = + =
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Note: Equation (228) can also be used as follows:
85
10
10log 4 10 91dB
total
SPL
   
= =
 

\ . \ .
Another form that you may see for adding sound pressure levels (mathematically
identical to equation (228)) is:
10
1
10log 10
Pi
L
N
PT
i
L
=
 
=

\ .
∑
(230)
where
L
PT
i = count of individual sound pressure levels
= total (sum) of all sound pressure levels, dB
N = number of individual sound pressure levels summed
Lp
i
This equation can be used for any number of varying sources. When you have two
sources, the equation simplifies to the following:
= SPL of sound i, dB
2 1
10
1
10log 10 1
L L
Total
L L
−
 
= + +

\ .
(231)
where
L
Total
L
= total (sum) of two source sound pressure levels, dB
1
L
= SPL of sound I, dB
2
Problem: Two machines are to be collocated. Produce literature indicates an expected
sound pressure level of 80 dB and 85 dB (at a reference distance) for the machines.
What is the expected combined sound pressure level?
= SPL of sound 2, dB
Solution:
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2 1
85 80
10 10
1
10log 10 1 80 10log 10 1 86.2 dB
L L
Total
L L
− −
   
= + + = + + =
 
\ . \ .
Note: The assignment of the higher or lower sound to L
1
is not required. Try reversing
the values for L
1
and L
2
and check the solution.
9.2.2 Time Weighted Equivalent Sound Pressure Level
Sometimes you wish to determine an equivalent sound pressure level for a variety
of sounds (noises) experienced over varying durations. This can be found as
follows:
10
1
1
10log 10
i
L
N
eq i
i
L t
T
=
   
=
 

\ . \ .
∑
(232)
where
L
eq
T = total observation time of the sounds, hours
= time weighed equivalent sound pressure level, dB
i = count of individual sound pressure levels
N = number of individual sound pressure levels summed
L
i
t
= SPL of sound i, dB
i
Note that each sound exposure is multiplied by its duration, and then the total
duration is divided out to yield the weighted average.
= duration of sound i, hours
Problem: Calculate the equivalent sound pressure level for the following
measurements: 80dB for 2 hours, 92 dB for 1 hour, 94 dB for 2 hours, and 80 dB for 3
hours.
Solution:
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10
1
80 92 94 80
10 10 10 10
1
1
10log 10
1
10log 10 2 10 1 10 2 10 3 89.6 dB
i
L
N
eq i
i
N
eq
i
L t
T
L
T
=
=
   
=
 

\ . \ .
   
= ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ =
 

\ . \ .
∑
∑
9.3 Sound Power Level
The sound power level (L
W
) of a signal with sound power W (watts) is:
0
10log
W
W
L
W
 
=

\ .
(233)
where
L
w
W = sound power, W
= sound power level, dB
W
0
= reference sound intensity, W (W
0
is commonly set to 10
12
Problem: A sound system produces 50 Watts of power. What is the sound power
level?
W)
Solution:
12
0
50 W
10log 10log = 137 dB
10 W
W
W
L
W
 
 
= =
 
\ .
\ .
Within a free field, the sound pressure level and sound power level can be related
by the following equation:
20log 0.5
p w
L L r DI T = − − + + (234)
where
L
p
L
= sound pressure level, dB
w
= sound power level, dB
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r = distance, ft
0.5 = a constant for English units
DI = direction index (see below), dB
T = temperature and pressure correction factor (ignored at standard
conditions), dB
and
10log DI Q = (235)
where
DI = directivity index, dB
Q = directivity factor, nondimensional
Q = 1 for spherical radiation
2 for ½ spherical radiation
4 for ¼ spherical radiation
8 for 1/8 spherical radiation
Problem: Assume the sound system from the previous sample problem is measured in
a free field; calculate the sound pressure level at 15 feet. Assume standard conditions
and ½ spherical radiation.
Solution: First, the directivity index must be calculated using equation (235):
( ) 10log 10log 2 3 dB DI Q = = =
Then equation (234) can be applied with a temperature and pressure correction factor
set to 0.
( ) 20log 0.5 137 20log 15 0.5 3 0 116 dB
p w
L L r DI T = − − + + = − − + + =
9.4 Transmission Loss
The sound transmission loss describes the sound reduction due to a sound striking
one surface of a barrier (e.g., a wall) and leaving the other side. It is defined as
flows:
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10log
i
t
E
TL
E
 
=

\ .
(236)
where
TL = transmission loss, dB
E
i
= sound power incident on the barrier, W/m
E
2
t
= sound power on the opposite side of the barrier, W/m
Equation (236) is also written as:
2
1
10log TL
τ
 
=

\ .
(237)
where
τ = transmission coefficient, nondimensional
The transmission coefficient is frequency dependant.
Problem: What is the transmission loss for a 33/4” wall constructed of ½” gypsum on
metal studs with no insulation? Assume a frequency of 1000 hZ.
Solution: Various sources on sound transmission coefficients are available. For the
wall design described, at a frequency of 1000 Hz, the sound transmission coefficient
will be about 0.00003.
1 1
10log 10log 45 dB
0.00003
TL
τ
   
= = =
 
\ . \ .
9.5 Noise Reduction by Absorption
Noise reduction can be reported as a fraction of the amount of noise absorbed in a
room before and after treatment for noise reduction. Mathematically this can be
written as:
2
1
10log
A
dB
A
 
=

\ .
(238)
where
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dB = noise reduction, dB
A
1
A
= total amount of absorption before treatment, sabins
2
The Sabin The Sabin is defined as a unit of sound absorption. One square meter
of 100% absorbing material has a value of one metric Sabin.
= total amount of absorption after treatment, sabins
Problem: A plaster ceiling is made of plaster with a sound absorption coefficient of
0.02. The ceiling material is changed to acoustical ceiling tiles with a sound absorption
coefficient of 0.6. What is the change in noise reduction for the new material?
Solution: The sound absorption coefficient is typically multiplied by the area to find the
sound absorption. Since the area is a constant and equation (238) uses the
absorption in fraction (ratio) form, we can simply use the sound absorption coefficient.
2
1
0.6
10log 10log 14.8 dB
0.02
A
dB
A
 
 
= = =
 
\ .
\ .
Note that calculation is only for the change due to the ceiling material. The overall
change in the room would have to account for all the surfaces and their absorption
coefficients.
9.5.1 Noise Reduction in a Duct
Ducts can be lined to reduce the noise transmission within the duct. This can be
expressed as:
1.4
12.6P
NR
A
α
= (239)
where
12.6 = a constant
NR = noise reduction, dB/ft
P = perimeter of duct, in.
α = absorption coefficient of the lining material, nondimensional
A = crosssection area of duct, in
2
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Note that in equation (239) α is raised to the 1.4 power.
Problem: A duct lining material has an absorption coefficient of 0.4. Calculate the
reduction in noise as a function of length in a 9” by 24” duct.
Solution: Equation (239) provides the solution in dB/ft, so we can simply substitute
values into the equation to find:
( )( )
1.4
1.4
12.6 2 9 2 24 0.4
12.6
1.1 dB/ft
9 24
P
NR
A
α
⋅ + ⋅
= = =
⋅
9.6 Percent Noise Dose and TWA
The noise dose received over a time period is the summation of the individual
noise and duration fractions. Mathematically this can be expressed as:
1 2
1 2
% 100
i
i
C C C
D
T T T
 
= + + +

\ .
(240)
where
%D = noise dose expressed as a percent
C
1
to C
i
T
= exposure duration of each individual noise, hr
1
to T
i
The following is another form of the same equation; mathematically they are
identical.
= corresponding allowable exposure duration of each individual
noise, hr
1
% 100
N
i
i
i
C
D
T
=
(
=
(
¸ ¸
∑
(241)
Problem: The following sound measurements are made during a work day; 85 dB for 2
hours, 95 dB for 1 hour, 90 dB for 2 hours, 78 dB for 1 hour, 84 dB for 1 hour, 85 dB
for 1 hour. Calculate the percent noise dose.
Solution: The values for T
i
are calculated using equation (243) below. The following
table can be constructed to assists in the calculation:
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dB C T
i
C
i
i
/T
85
i
2 16.0 0.13
95 1 4.0 0.25
90 2 8.0 0.25
78 1 42.2 0.02
84 1 18.4 0.05
88 1 10.6 0.09
Next, the values for C
i
/T
i
can be substituted into equation (240) to find:
( )
1 2
1 2
% 100
% 100 0.13 0.25 0.25 0.02 0.05 0.09 79%
i
i
C C C
D
T T T
D
 
= + + +

\ .
= + + + + + =
Values for T
i
in the above equations can be calculated as follows:
( ) 85
3
8
2
L
T
−
= (242)
and
( ) 90
5
8
2
L
T
−
= (243)
where
T = allowed exposure time, hr
L = time weighted average (TWA) exposure, dBA
Note that the first exposure calculation is based on the ACGIH TLV for noise of
85 dBA and an exchange rate of 3. The second exposure calculation is based on
the OSHA TLV of 90 dBA and an exchange rate of 5.
Problem: Based on OSHA requirements, what is the allowable exposure time for 84
dBA?
Solution: Since we are concerned with OSHA requirements, equation (243) is the
appropriate equation to use.
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( ) ( ) 90 84 90
5 5
8 8
18.4 hours
2 2
L
T
− −
= = =
Once the percent dose has been calculated, the equivalent TWA can be calculated
as following:
%
10 log 85
100
D
TWA dBA
 
= ⋅ +

\ .
(244)
and
%
16.61 log 90
100
D
TWA dBA
 
= ⋅ +

\ .
(245)
where
TWA = equivalent time weighted average noise exposure, dBA
%D = noise dose expressed as a percent
Once again, the first TWA calculation is based on the ACGIH TLV for noise of
85 dBA and an exchange rate of 3. The second TWA calculation is based on the
OSHA TLV of 90 dBA and an exchange rate or 5.
Problem: Calculate the equivalent time weighted average for a percent noise dose of
79% assuming an OSHA TLV.
Solution: Since we are concerned with OSHA requirements, equation (245) is the
appropriate equation to use.
79
16.61 log 90 88.3 dBA
100
TWA dBA
 
= ⋅ + =

\ .
9.7 Frequency by a Fan
The pure tone frequency of a fan can be determined based on the number of fans
blades and the rotation speed, as follows:
( )( )
60
N RPM
f = (246)
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where
N = number of fan blades
RPM = speed of fan, rpm
60 = time unit conversion
Problem: Determine the fan frequency generated by a fan with 8 blades turning 2400
RPM.
Solution:
( )( ) ( )( ) 8 2400
320 Hz
60 60
N RPM
f = = =
9.8 Octave and ThirdOctave Bands
Sound frequencies can be complex to assess, so a scale of octave bands and one
third octave bands has been developed to assist in their analyses. Each band
covers a specific range of frequencies. The ratio of the frequency of the highest
note to the lowest note in an octave is 2:1. The center frequencies for these Octave
bands, as defined by ISO, are:
31.5Hz , 63Hz , 125Hz , 250Hz , 500Hz , 1kHz , 2kHz , 4kHz , 8kHz and 16kHz
The ratio of band limits is given by:
1
2
k n
n
f
f
+
= (247)
An octave has a center frequency that is 2 times the lower cutoff frequency and
has an upper cutoff frequency that is twice the lower cutoff frequency. Therefore,
2
1
2
f
f = (248)
2 1
2 f f = (249)
1 2 c
f f f = ⋅ (250)
1
2
c
f f = (251)
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2
2
c
f
f = (252)
2 1
BW f f = − (253)
where
f
n+1
f
= the upper cutoff frequency
n
k = 1 for full octave bands, and k = 1/3 for onethird octave bands.
= the lower cutoff frequency
f
c
BW = bandwidth
= the center frequency
Problem: The lower cutoff frequency of an octave band is 354 Hz. Calculate the upper
cutoff frequency and the center frequency.
Solution: The upper cutoff frequency is given by equation (249):
2 1
2 2 354 707 Hz f f = = ⋅ =
The center frequency is given by equation (251):
1
2 2 354 Hz 500 Hz
c
f f = = ⋅ =
The center frequency is also given by equation (250):
1 2
354 707 500 Hz
c
f f f = ⋅ = ⋅ =
ThirdOctave bands are calculated the same way, except thirdoctaves use a one
third power in equation (247). For example,
3
2 1
2 f f = (254)
Problem: The lower cutoff frequency of a thirdoctave band is 891 Hz. Calculate the
upper cutoff frequency.
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Solution:
3 3
2 1
2 2 891 Hz = 1122 Hz f f = = ⋅
9.9 Sound Frequency and Wavelength
The frequency and wavelength of a sound are related to the speed of sound in the
medium the sound travels through (usually air), and is determined by the
following equation:
c
f
λ
= (255)
where
f = frequency, Hz
c = speed of sound, m/sec
λ = wavelength, m
The speed of sound in air at 20
o
Problem: What is the frequency of a sound in air at 20
C is 344 m/sec (1125 ft/sec).
o
C if the wavelength is 0.75
meters?
Solution:
344 / sec
459 Hz
0.75
c m
f
m λ
= = =
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Radiation
10 Radiation
10.1 Ionizing
Ionizing radiation results from electromagnetic radiation with sufficient energy to
cause the loss of an electron from the matter in which it interacts (i.e., produces
ions). The more common ionizing radiation sources encountered in safety and
industrial hygiene are alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays (or photons), X
rays (or photons) and neutrons.
10.1.1 Inverse Square Law
Radiation intensity decreases as a function of distance from its source. The
decrease is not linear, rather it is a function of the second power and is defined as:
2
1
2 1
2
d
I I
d
 
=

\ .
(256)
where
I
1
= intensity at distance d
I
1
2
= intensity at distance d
d
2
1
d
= first distance from source
2
Note that since this equation is a simple ratio, units are not specified but must be
consistent. Also, this is a point source approximation so estimates up close to the
source will not be accurate.
= second distance from source
Problem: A source emits particles (i.e., photons) that are measured at 250
particles/cm
2
sec at a distance of 1 meter. What activity will be detected at 2 meters?
Solution:
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2
2
2 2 1
2 1
2
1 m
250 particles/cm sec = 62.5 particles/cm
2 m
d
I I
d
 
 
= =
 
\ .
\ .
10.1.2 Gamma Radiation Exposure
The roentgen value at 1 foot from a gamma emitter is described as:
6 S CE ≅ (257)
where
S = roentgens, per hour at 1 ft
6 = a constant for English units
C = curie strength of gamma emitter, Ci
E = energy of gamma radiation, MeV
Problem: Assume Iodine131 emits gamma photons at different energies; one of which
is 0.313 MeV. What is the partial exposure rate at 1 foot from a 10 mCi source due to
this energy?
Solution:
( )( ) 6 6 10 mCi 0.313 MeV = 18.8 mR/hr S CE ≅ ≅
Note: This equation has an accuracy of about 20% between 0.07 and 4 MeV; that is
why the symbol ≅ is used as it indicates “approximately equal to.”
The following equation can be used to calculate the exposure rate from a gamma
radiation source located some distance away.
2
A
D
d
Γ
= (258)
where
D = exposure rate, R/hour
Γ = gamma ray constant, R/mCihr
A = source activity, mCi
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d = distance from emitter, cm
Problem: Determine the exposure rate 1 meter from a 10 mCi source of Iodine131.
Assume the Gamma value for I131 is Γ =2.18 R/mCihr at 1 cm.
Solution:
( )( )
( )
2 2
2.18 R/mCihr 10 mCi
= 0.00218 R/hr
100 cm
A
D
d
Γ
= =
10.1.3 Equivalent Dose
The following equation converts an absorbed source in units of rad, to an
equivalent dose in rem.
( )( ) rem = rad QF (259)
where
rem = equivalent dose, rem
rad = absorbed dose, rad
QF = quality factor that converts rad to rem
Problem: A worker may be exposed to 5 rad of neutron radiation. According to the
International Commission on Radiological Protection, the Quality Factor (QF) for neutrons is
10. Calculate the worker’s potential exposure.
Solution:
( )( ) ( )( ) 5 rad 10 = 50 rem rem = rad QF =
10.1.4 Radioactive Decay
Radioactive elements can be characterized by a halflife, which is the time
required to lose half its radioactive atoms.
This form of the radioactive decay equations can be used to determine the
remaining residual activity in a body after a know exposure (amount and time).
( )
1/2
0.5
T
i
t
A A = (260)
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where
A = radioactivity remaining after some time, mCi (or other appropriate
units)
A
i
t = elapsed time, units to match T
= initial radioactivity, mCi (or other appropriate units)
T
1/2
1/2
Problem: 1.5 mCi of Iodine123 (I123) is used to image thyroid cancer. If I123 has a
halflife of 13 hours; what radioactivity will remain in the patient after 8 hours?
= half life, units to match t
Solution:
( ) ( )
1/2
13 hr
8 hr
0.5 1.5 mCi 0.5 1.0 mCi
T
i
t
A A = = =
Another form of the radioactive decay is:
1/2
0.639
i
t
T
A Ae
−
= (261)
where
A = radioactivity remaining after some time, mCi (or other appropriate
units)
A
i
e = natural logarithm, 2.71828…
= initial radioactivity, mCi (or other appropriate units)
t = elapsed time, units to match T
T
1/2
1/2
Problem: Recalculate the radioactivity from the previous problem using equation (261).
= half life, min (or other appropriate units)
Solution:
( )
( )
1/2
8 hours
13 hours
0.639 0.639
1.5 mCi = 1.0 mCi
i
t
T
A Ae
−
= =
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10.1.5 Activity of a Radioactive Element
The activity remaining in a radioactive element can be calculated by the following
equation:
1/ 2
0.693
i
A N
T
= (262)
where
A = radioactivity remaining after some time, mCi (or other appropriate
units)
T
1/2
N
= half life, min (or other appropriate units)
i
Problem: Calculate the activity (disintegrations per second) of 1 microgram of Iodine
123. I123 has a halflife of 13 hours. The atomic weight of Iodine is 127.
= the number of atoms
Solution: First, we need to calculate the number of atoms in 1 microgram of I123. This
is accomplished using Avogadro’s number; one mole of an element has 6.023 x 10
23
atoms.
23
6 15
6.023 x 10
1 x 10 g = 4.74 x 10 atoms
127
N =
We also need the halflife is seconds:
1/2
3600 sec
T = 13 hours = 46,800 sec
hour
Now, substituting into equation (262) yields:
15 10 1
1/ 2
0.693 0.693
4.74 x 10 7.02 x 10 sec
46,800
i
A N
T
−
= = =
Note that this is equivalent to 7.02x 10
10
becquerel.
10.1.6 Radiation Attenuation by Layers
As radiation passes through some medium, energy is lost.
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The amount of radiation reduced as it passes through a number of halflayers is
given by:
1
2
A
o
I I
 
=

\ .
(263)
where
I = intensity of radiation leaving layer(s), mR/hour
I
o
A = number of halfvalue layers, nondimensional
= original intensity of radiation striking layer(s), mR/hour
A similar expression applies to the number of tenthlayers.
1
10
B
o
I I
 
=

\ .
(264)
where
I = intensity of radiation leaving layer(s), mR/hour
I
o
B = number of tenthvalue layers, nondimensional
= original intensity of radiation striking layer(s), mR/hour
Problem: A source of radiation has created a radiation intensity of 125 mR/hr. If six
halfvalue layers (HVL) of a shielding material, each 0.5 inch thick, are provided, what
is the reduced intensity in mR/hr?
Solution: For halfvalue layer calculations, we use equation (263)
6
1 1
125 mR/hr = 1.95 mR/hr
2 2
A
o
I I
   
= =
 
\ . \ .
Note that the thickness is not required for this solution; just the number of halflayers.
By definition a halflayer will reduce the transmitted radiation by half. Also, similar
calculations can be made with tenthlayer protection using equation (264).
The above two equation can be written in the following form, which simply
replaces the A or B values (number of layers) with a term that calculates the
number of layers based on the total thickness and the values of the partial (1/2 or
1/10) layer thicknesses (HVL and TVL, respectively).
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0
2
X
HVL
I
I = (265)
and
0
10
X
TVL
I
I = (266)
where
I = intensity of radiation leaving layer(s), mR/hour
I
o
X = total thickness of layers, units to match HVL or TVL
= original intensity of radiation striking layer(s), mR/hour
HVL = thickness of halfvalue layers, units to match X
TVL = thickness of tenthvalue layers, units to match X
Problem: A source of radiation has created a radiation intensity of 125 mR/hr. If 3
inches of a shielding material with a TVL of 1.5 inches are provided, what is the
reduced intensity in mR/hr?
Solution: For a tenthvalue layer calculation, we use equation (266):
0
3
1.5
125 mR/hr
1.25 mR/hr
10 10
X
TVL
I
I = = =
Equation (265) can be used for halfvalue layers.
If the incident and attenuated radiation, as well as the thickness of the halfvalue
layer are known, the required thickness of a barrier medium can be found by re
arranging equation (265) and solving for X. This leads to:
( )
0
3.32log
I
X HVL
I
 
=

\ .
(267)
A similar expression can also be found for the tenthvalue layer problems by re
arranging equation (266).
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Problem: Derive equation (267).
Solution: We start with equation (265) and proceed as follows:
0
2
X
HVL
I
I =
0
2
X
HVL
I
I
=
0
log 2 log
X
HVL
I
I
 
 
=
 
\ .
\ .
0
log 2 log
I X
HVL I
   
=
 
\ . \ .
0
1
log
log 2
I
X HVL
I
 
= ⋅

\ .
0
3.32 log
I
X HVL
I
 
= ⋅

\ .
10.1.7 Exponential Rate Attenuation
As a medium thickness increases, the attenuation increases and can be written
(with and without a buildup factor) as:
x
o
I I Be
µ −
= (268)
and
x
o
I I e
µ −
= (269)
where
I = attenuated radiation exposure rate, counts/min
I
o
B = buildup factor, nondimensional
= original radiation exposure rate, counts/min
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e = natural logarithm, 2.71828…
µ = linear attenuation coefficient, cm
x = thickness of attenuator, cm
1
Problem: Calculate the attenuation of radiation passing through a lead shield that is 2
cm thick. Assume a linear attenuation coefficient of 0.78 cm
1
and a buildup factor of
1.87.
Solution: Rearranging equation (268) leads to:
1
0.78 2
1.87 0.39 = 39%
x cm cm
o
I
Be e
I
µ
−
− −
= = =
Since I is 39% of I
o
, the attenuation is 61%.
10.1.8 Effective HalfLife
The rate at which radioactivity decreases in the body can be described by the
effective halflife, which is a function of the biological halflife and radiological
halflife, by the following expression:
1/ 2 1/ 2 1/ 2
1 1 1
eff rad bio
T T T
= + (270)
where
T
1/2eff
T
= effective halflife
1/2rad
T
= effective radiological halflife
1/2bio
Note: Use same units for all three halflives.
= effective biological halflife
This equation can be rearranged to provide the following form:
( )( )
1/ 2 1/ 2
1/ 2
1/ 2 1/ 2
rad bio
eff
rad bio
T T
T
T T
=
+
(271)
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Problem: Iodine123 (I123) has a halflife of 13 hours and a biological halflife of 120
days (2880 hours). What is the effective halflife of I123?
Solution:
( )( ) ( )( )
1/ 2 1/ 2
1/ 2
1/ 2 1/ 2
2880 13
12.9 hours
2880 13
rad bio
eff
rad bio
T T
T
T T
= = =
+ +
The biological halflife of I123 is long compared to the radiological halflife, so it does
not contribute significantly to the effective halflife.
10.2 NonIonizing
Nonionizing radiation has insufficient energy to ionize matter. The range of non
ionizing radiation includes lasers, ultraviolet (UV), visible, infrared (IR), radio
frequency (RF) and extremelylow frequencies (ELF).
10.2.1 Absolute Gain (Antenna)
The absolute gain equation simply converts the gain for a particular antenna into
an absolute gain, as follows:
10
10
g
G = (272)
where
G = absolute gain, nondimensional
g = gain for a particular antenna, dB
Problem: An indoor antenna has a power of 1 W and a gain of 2.3 dB; what is the
antenna’s absolute gain?
Solution: Using equation (272) and substituting the gain, we find:
2.3
10 10
10 10 1.7
g
G = = =
Note that the power is not required here and the Gain is nondimensional.
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10.2.2 Field Strength
The electric field strength can be converted to a power density with the following
equation:
2
3770
E
PD = (273)
where
PD = electrical power density, mW/cm
E = electric field strength, V/m
2
3770 = conversion constant, ohms
Problem: What is the power density of an electric field with a strength of 250V/m?
Solution:
( )
2
2
2
250V/m
16.6mW/cm
3770 3770
E
PD = = =
Ω
Note: The omega symbol Ω is commonly used to indicate ohms.
The magnetic field strength can be converted to a power density with the
following equation:
2
37.7 PD H = (274)
where
PD = magnetic power density, mW/cm
H = magnetic field strength, A/m
2
37.7 = conversion constant, ohms
Problem: What is the power density of a magnetic field with a strength of 1.5 A/m?
Solution:
( )
2
2 2
37.7 37.7 1.5A/m 84.8mW/cm PD H = = Ω =
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For antennas, the far field power density can be calculates as follows:
2 2 2
4
GP AP
W
r r π λ
= = (275)
where
W = far field power density, W/m
G = gain
2
P = radiated power from antenna, W
π = 3.141593…
λ= wavelength, m (see equation (281))
r = distance from antenna, m
A = area of antenna, m
Problem: What is the power density 10 feet away from a 500 W radar transmitter that
has an absolute gain of 2?
2
Solution: Converting 10 feet to meters (3.048 meters) and substituting the problem
values into equation (275) leads to:
( )( )
( )
2
2 2
2 500W
8.56W/m
4
4 3.048
GP
W
r π
π
= = =
For antennas, the near field power density can be calculated as follows:
2
16P
W
D π
= (276)
Note that the equation of the area of a circle is:
2
4
D
A
π
= (277)
So, for a dishtype antenna, equation (276) and (277) can be combined to find the
near field power density as:
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4P
W
A
= (278)
where
W = near field power density, W/m
P = radiated power from antenna, W
2
A = area of antenna, m
Problem: A round antenna with a diameter of 7 meter has a total feed input power of
112.2 Watts; what is the power density at the surface of the antenna?
2
Solution: Applying equation (278) leads to:
( )
( )
2 2
2
4 112.2W
4
11.66W/m 1.166mW/cm
7
4
P
W
A
m π
= = = =
 


\ .
Note: One W/m
2
is equal to 0.1 mW/cm.
10.2.3 Safe Distance for NonIonizing Radiation
An estimated safe distance from an antenna can be derived as follows:
1/ 2
4
PG
r
EL π
 
=

\ .
(279)
where
r = distance, cm
P = emitted power, W
G = absolute gain, nondimensional
π = 3.141593…
EL = exposure limit, W/cm
2
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Problem: Calculate the distance at which the exposure level is exceeded for a 1000 W
antenna with an absolute gain of 100. Assume an exposure limit of 10 W/m
2
.
Solution: Substituting values into equation (279) leads to:
( )( )
( )
1/ 2
1/ 2
2
1000W 100
28.2m
4 4 10W/m
PG
r
EL π π
 
 
 = = =


\ .
\ .
( )( ) 28.2 m 3.28 ft/m = 92.5 ft
10.2.4 Magnetic Flux Density
The following equation can be used to calculate the vector sum magnetic flux by
taking the square root of the sum of the squares of measurements in the x, y, and z
direction.
2 2 2
r x y z
B B B B = + + (280)
where
B
r
B
= resulting magnetic flux density, tesla
x
B
= magnetic flux density in the x plane, tesla
y
B
= magnetic flux density in the y plane, tesla
z
= magnetic flux density in the z plane, tesla
Problem: Magnetic flux measurements are made in the x, y and z planes at a particular
location and the following data recorded: B
x
= 1.5 mT, B
y
= 0.75 mT, B
z
= 1.25 mT.
Calculate the resulting magnitude of the magnetic flux.
Solution:
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2 2
1.5mT 0.75mT 1.25mT 2.1mT
r x y z
B B B B = + + = + + =
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10.2.5 Electromagnetic Radiation Wavelength and Frequency
Recall the wavelength and frequency relationship for sound moving through air;
electromagnetic radiation behaves according to a similar relationship, except this
equation is based on the speed of light (not the speed of sound).
c f
T
λ
λ = = (281)
where
c = speed of light, 3x10
8
λ = wavelength, m
m/sec
f = frequency, Hz
T = period, sec
Problem: A particular microwave oven operates with a wavelength of about 0.2m; what
is its frequency?
Solution: Rearranging equation (281) and substituting leads to:
8
9 1
3 x 10 m/s
=1.5 x 10 s =1500 MHz
0.2 m
c
f
λ
= =
10.2.6 Effective Ultraviolet Irradiance
The effective irradiance from a broadband ultraviolet source can be calculated
using the following expression:
eff
E E S
λ λ λ
= ∆
∑
(282)
where
E
eff
= effective irradiance (relative to a source), W/m
E
2
λ
= spectral irradiance, W/m
2
S
nm
λ
Δ
= relative spectral effectiveness, nondimensional
λ
= wavelength step, nm
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Note the summation sign (Σ) in equation (282). Remember that means the
product of each E S
λ λ λ
∆ term must be added to find the total effective
irradiance.
Problem: A lamp has the following UV properties; calculate the effective UV irradiance.
Wavelength
Spectral
Irradiance
W/m
2
Relative Spectral
Effectiveness
nm
Wavelength Step
nm
254 0.01 0.5 1
300 0.03 0.3 1
315 0.1 0.003 1
Solution:
( )( )( )
( )( )( )
( )( )( )
2
2
2
2 6 2
0.01 W/m nm 0.5 1nm
0.03 W/m nm 0.3 1nm
0.1 W/m nm 0.003 1nm
0.0143 W/m = 1.43 x10 W/cm
eff
E E S
λ λ λ
= ∆
=
+
+
=
∑
Note: The exposure time permitted for a given UV irradiance can be found using
equation (291).
10.2.7 Lasers
10.2.7.1 Magnification
A laser that has been magnified will have a resulting irradiance that increases by
the square of the magnification power, which can be written:
2
0
( ) I I magnification = ⋅ (283)
where
I = irradiance after beam passes through magnifier, W/cm
I
2
o
= irradiance prior to magnifier, W/cm
magnification = the magnifying power
2
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Problem: What is the increase in irradiance of a 1 W/cm
2
laser beam passing through a
10x30 binocular lens?
Solution: It is possible to reduce the divergence of most lasers using simple optics. For
example, a binocular lens will decrease the divergence by the magnification factor (e.g.,
10x30 would reduce the divergence to 1/10th of its original divergence). The reduction
in divergence will increase the irradiance per unit area according to equation (283).
Therefore,
( )( )
2
2 2 2
0
( ) 1 W/cm 10 100 W/cm I I magnification = ⋅ = =
10.2.7.2 Optical Density
Protective eyewear for use around lasers is rated for optical density (OD), which
is the attenuation factor by which the optical filter reduces beam power according
to the following equation:
. . log
o
I
O D
I
= (284)
where
O.D. = optical density
I
o
I = irradiance after beam passes through filter
= irradiance prior to filter
Note: For pulsed laser use J/cm
2
; for CW lasers use W/cm
Problem: A pulsed laser produces a potential exposure of 2.6 x 10
2
2
J/cm
2
. If the
maximum permitted exposure level is 5.0 x 10
7
J/cm
2
, calculate the optical density
required to reduce the laser pulse below the permitted level.
Solution:
2 2
7 2
2.6 x 10 J/cm
. . log . . log 4.72
5.0 x 10 J/cm
o
I
O D O D
I
= = = =
10.2.7.3 Laser Beam Diameter
The diameter of a laser beam at some distance from the source can be estimated
by:
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2 2 2
L
D a r φ = + (285)
where
D
L
a = emergent beam diameter, cm
= laser beam diameter at distance r, cm
φ = emergent beam divergence, radians
r = distance, cm
Problem: Determine the diameter of a laser beam 0.5 km away from a source with an
emergent diameter of 2 cm and a beam divergence of 1 x10
4
radians.
Solution:
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2 2 2 4 4
2 10 5.0 10 5.4 cm
L L
D a r D x φ
−
= + = = + =
10.2.7.4 Nominal Hazard Zone (NHZ)
The safe use of lasers requires the evaluation of various safe distances. These are
presented here.
The following equation can be used to calculate the distance from a laser at which
the potential eye exposure no longer exceeds the permitted exposure limit.
1/ 2
2
1 4
NHZ
r a
EL φ π
Φ  
= −

\ .
(286)
where
r
NHZ
φ
= nominal hazard zone, cm
= emergent beam divergence, radians
Φ = total radiant power output of laser, W or J
π = 3.141593…
EL = exposure limit, W/cm
2
or J/cm
a = emergent beam diameter, cm
2
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Problem: Determine the hazard zone distance for a 0.2 J pulsed laser that has a beam
divergence of 1 x10
3
radians and an emergent beam diameter of 0.6 cm. Assume the
maximum permitted exposure level is 5.0 x 10
7
J/cm
2
.
Solution:
( )
( )
( )
1/ 2
1/ 2
2
2 5
3 7
4 0.2
1 4 1
0.6 7.14x10 cm = 7.14km
10 5x10
NHZ
r a
EL φ π π
−
 
Φ  
 = − = − =


\ .
\ .
The following equation can be used to calculate the distance from a laser at which
the potential eye exposure no longer exceeds the permitted exposure limit for the
“lens on laser” case.
1/ 2
4
o
NHZ
o
f
r
b EL π
Φ  
=

\ .
(287)
where
r
NHZ
f
= nominal hazard zone, cm
o
b
= focal length of lens, cm
o
Φ = total radiant power output of laser, W
= diameter of laser beam incident on focusing lens, cm
π = 3.141593…
EL = exposure limit, W/cm
Problem: A 3000 W laser has a 12.7 cm focal length, and an incident beam diameter of
2.54 cm. Calculate the distance beyond which the irradiance is less than the permitted
exposure level (assume 45 W/cm
2
2
).
Solution:
( )
( )
1/ 2
1/ 2
2
4 3000W
4 12.7cm
46cm
2.54cm 45W/cm
o
NHZ
o
f
r
b EL π π
 
Φ  
 = = =


\ .
\ .
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The following equation can be used to calculate the distance from a laser at which
the potential eye exposure no longer exceeds the permitted exposure limit when
diffuse reflection is included.
1/ 2
cos
NHZ
r
EL
ρ θ
π
Φ  
=

\ .
(288)
where
r
NHZ
ρ = effectiveness of diffuse reflecting surface, 100% = 1
= nominal hazard zone, cm
Φ = total radiant power output of laser, W
θ = angle from normal for the viewing surface, degrees
π = 3.141593…
EL = exposure limit, W/cm
Problem: Calculate the nominal hazard zone distance of a 500 W laser. Assume 100%
effective diffuse reflecting surface, a viewing angle of 0degrees from normal, and an
exposure limit of 0.05 W/cm
2
2
.
Solution:
( )( )( )
( )
1/ 2
1/ 2
2
1 500W cos 0
cos
56.4cm
0.05W/cm
NHZ
r
EL
ρ θ
π π
 
Φ  
 = = =


\ .
\ .
10.2.7.5 Laser Barrier Distance
The following equation can be used to determine the minimum distance for a
barrier to provide protection from a given laser.
1/ 2
2
1 4
s
D a
TL φ π
Φ  
= −

\ .
(289)
where
D
s
= separation distance for barrier, cm
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φ = emergent beam divergence, radians
Φ = total radiant power output of laser, W
π = 3.141593…
TL = threshold limit value for barrier, W/cm
a = emergent beam diameter, cm
2
Problem: A 400 W laser has a beam divergence of 2.5 x 10
3
radians, and an exit
beam diameter of 0.5 cm. Calculate the barrier distance at which the irradiance is less
than the worst case exposure level (assume 45 W/cm
2
).
Solution:
( )
( )
( )
1/ 2
2
1/ 2
2
3 2
1 4
4 400W 1
0.5cm 1330cm = 13.3m
2.5x10 45W/cm
s
s
D a
TL
D
φ π
π
Φ
= −
= − =
 

\ .
 


\ .
10.2.8 Spatial Averaging of Measurements
Typically, multiple measurements of an electric or magnetic field strength are
made so that an average value can be found. Typically ten or more measurements
are required. The resulting field strength average is called the spatial average and
is calculated as follows:
1/ 2
2
1
=
N
i
i
FS
spatial average
N
=
 




\ .
∑
(290)
where
FS
i
i = incremental measurement count
= field strength measurement i, V/m (electric) or A/m (magnetic)
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N = total number of measurements
Problem: Electric field strength measurements are made at ten locations and the
following data recorded. What is the spatial average of the measurements?
Location
Field Strength
(V/m)
1 10
2 10
3 12
4 14
5 16
6 20
7 18
8 14
9 12
10 8
Solution: The following table is setup to solve equation (290) for the data presented.
Note that since there are ten samples, N=10.
Location
Field
Strength
(V/m)
FS
1
2
10 100
2 10 100
3 12 144
4 14 196
5 16 256
6 20 400
7 18 324
8 14 196
9 12 144
10 8 64
2
1
N
i
i
FS
=
∑
1924
2
1
N
i
i
FS
N
=
∑
192.4
1/ 2
2
1
N
i
i
FS
N
=
 




\ .
∑
14
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Therefore, the spatially averaged electric field strength is 14 V/m.
10.2.9 Time Exposure for NonIonizing Radiation
The permissible exposure time in seconds, for exposure to ultraviolet radiation
incident upon the unprotected eye or skin, may be computed by:
2
0.003J/cm
eff
t
E
= (291)
where
t = exposure time, sec
E
eff
= effective irradiance, W/cm
0.003 J/ cm
2
2
= 0.003 Ws/cm
2
Problem: A lamp used in an industrial process has an effective irradiance of 5.0
µW/cm
= conversion factor, from effective
irradiance to exposure time
2
. What is the permissible time exposure?
Solution:
2 2
6 2
0.003J/cm 0.003J/cm
600 seconds = 10 minutes
5.0 x 10 W/cm
eff
t
E
= = =
Note: A Watt is also a Joule/second.
Exposure times to some type of nonionizing radiation (e.g., radio frequency,
microwave) are limited to a permissible level which is based on a sixminute
exposure. When the actual exposure exceeds the allowable limit, the following
equation can be used to determine an alternative exposure duration based on the
actual exposure level.
x 0.1hr
EL
t
ML
= (292)
where
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t = time (duration) of acceptable exposure to the actual exposure level, hr
EL = exposure limit, mW/cm
ML = measured (actual) level, mW/cm
2
0.1hr = 6 minutes; the basis for the permissible exposure limit
2
Problem: Assume that for incident electromagnetic energy frequencies between 10
MHz and 100 GHz, a Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 10 mW/cm
2
(averaged over
sixminute periods) has been specified. However, a worker is potentially subjected to 15
mW/cm
2
. What is the acceptable exposure time?
Solution:
2
2
10 mW/cm
x 0.1hr x 0.1hr = 0.067 hr = 4 min
15 mW/cm
EL
t
ML
= =
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Electricity
11 Electricity
11.1 Ohm’s Law
One of the fundamental laws of electrical circuits is Ohm's law. Ohm’s law states
that the current between two points in a conductor is directly proportional to the
voltage across the two points, and inversely proportional to the resistance between
them. Mathematically this can be written:
V
I
R
= (293)
which can also be written
V IR = (294)
where
V = the potential difference measured across the resistance, volts
I = the current through the resistance, amperes
R = the resistance of the conductor, ohms
Problem: A 120 volt power tool and long extension cord has a total equivalent
resistance of 40 ohms. What is the current in the system?
Solution:
120volts
3 amps
40ohms
V
I
R
= = =
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11.2 Joule’s Law
Another important law that pertains to electrical circuits is Joule’s law. Joule's law
states that the rate of heat dissipation in a conductor is proportional to the square
of the current through it and to its resistance. Mathematically this can be written:
2
P I R = (295)
where
P = power, watts
I = the current through the resistance, amperes
R = the resistance of the conductor, ohms
Equations (294) and (295) can be combined to yield:
P IV = (296)
Problem: A forklift has lights that draw 5 amps each. Assuming a 12 Volt electrical
system, what is the power to each light?
Solution:
( )( ) 5amps 12volts 60watts P IV = = =
11.3 Resistance
The electrical resistance of a conductor (R) can be calculated by the following
equation:
L
R
A
ρ = (297)
where
R = the resistance of the conductor, ohms
ρ = is the resistivity in units of ohmfeet
L = length of conductor, feet
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A = crosssectional area of conductor, ft
Problem: What is the resistance in 1000 feet of 14 Gauge copper wire?
2
Solution: We can use equation (297) but some preliminary calculations are required
first. From tables of properties for copper, we can find ρ
copper
= 5.51E08 Ohmsft.
Also, the crosssectional area of the conductor must be found:
14 Gauge wire has a nominal diameter of 0.06408 inches, or 0.00534 ft
( )
2
2
2
0.00534ft
0.000022ft
4 4
d
A
π
π
= = =
Then substituting into equation (297) leads to:
8
2
1000ft
(5.51 10 ohmft) 2.46ohms
0.000022ft
L
R x
A
ρ
−
= = =
Comparing this value to 2.53 ohms obtained from a wire data table shows about a 3%
difference. This small difference can be attributed to the actual versus nominal
dimension, as well as the resistivity of the actual copper used in the wire.
11.4 Equivalent Values for Components in Series and in Parallel
Whenever multiple resistors, capacitors, or inductors are located within the same
electrical circuit, they can be reduced to a single equivalent part using the
following equations. The resulting equivalent value depends on if the parts are in
series, or in parallel.
11.4.1 Resistors in Series
1 2 series n
R R R R = + + + (298)
11.4.2 Resistors in Parallel
1 2
1 1 1 1
parallel n
R R R R
= + + + (299)
where
R = resistance, ohms
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11.4.3 Capacitors in Series
1 2
1 1 1 1
series n
C C C C
= + + + (300)
11.4.4 Capacitors in Parallel
1 2 parallel n
C C C C = + + + (301)
where
C = capacitance, farads
11.4.5 Inductors in Series
1 2 series n
L L L L = + + + (302)
11.4.6 Inductors in Parallel
1 2
1 1 1 1
parallel n
L L L L
= + + + (303)
where
L = inductance, henries
Problem: What is the equivalent resistance (in ohms) of three resistors, 1 ohm, 2
ohms and 3 ohms, in series, and in parallel?
Series Solution:
1ohms 2ohms 3ohms = 6ohms
series
R = + +
Parallel Solution:
1
1 1 1 1
1.833ohms
1ohms 2ohms 3ohms
parallel
R
−
= + + =
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To solve for R
parallel
take the reciprocal, which leads to R
parallel
= 0.545 ohms
Note: The same approach that is used for resistors is used for inductors; that is the
same math, just different units. However, capacitor formulas are “flipped” when
compared to resistors and inductors.
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Ergonomics
12 Ergonomics
12.1 Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation
Per the Applications Manual for the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation (1994), the
recommended weight limit (RWL) is the principal product of the revised NIOSH
lifting equation. The RWL is defined for a specific set of task conditions as the
weight of the load that nearly all healthy workers could perform over a substantial
period of time (e.g., up to 8 hours) without an increased risk of developing lifting
related lower back pain. The RWL is defined by the following equation:
RWL LC x HM xVM x DM x AM x FM xCM = (304)
where
RWL = recommended weight limit
LC = load constant
HM = horizontal multiplier
VM = vertical multiplier
DM = distance multiplier
AM = asymmetric multiplier
FM = frequency multiplier
CM = coupling multiplier
Substituting appropriate values from the Applications Manual for the Revised
NIOSH Lifting Equation, equation (304) can be written:
( ) ( )   ( )( )( )
10 1.8
( ) 51 1 0.0075 30 0.82 1 0.0032 RWL lb V A FM CM
H D
= − − + −
   (
 
(
\ . ¸ \ .¸
(305)
and
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( ) ( )   ( )( )( )
25 4.5
( ) 23 1 0.003 75 0.82 1 0.0032 RWL kg V A FM CM
H D
= − − + −
   (
 
(
\ . ¸ \ .¸
(306)
where
H = horizontal location, measured from the midpoint of the line joining
the inner ankle bones to a point projected on the floor directly below the
midpoint of the hand grasps, inches (English) or cm (Metric)
V = vertical location, defined as the vertical height of the hands above the
floor. V is measured vertically from the floor to the midpoint between the
hand grasps, inches (English) or cm (Metric)
D = vertical travel distance, defined as the vertical travel distance of the
hands between the origin and destination of the lift, inches (English) or cm
(Metric)
A = asymmetric angle, defined as the angle between the asymmetry line
and the midsagittal line, degrees
FM = frequency multiplier (see table below)
CM = coupling multiplier (see table below)
Coupling Multiplier (CM) Table
Coupling Type
Coupling Multiplier
V < 30 inches (75 cm) V ≥ 30 inches (75 cm)
Good 1.00 1.00
Fair 0.95 1.00
Poor 0.90 0.90
Frequency Multiplier (FM) Table
Frequency
Lifts/min
(F)
Work Duration
‡
≤ 1 Hour > 1 but ≤ 2 Hours > 2 but ≤ 8 Hours
V < 30 in. V ≥ 30 in.
†
V < 30 in. V ≥ 30 in. V < 30 in. V ≥ 30 in.
≤ 0.2 1.00 1.00 0.95 0.95 0.85 0.85
0.5 0.97 0.97 0.92 0.92 0.81 0.81
1 0.94 0.94 0.88 0.88 0.75 0.75
2 0.91 0.91 0.84 0.84 0.65 0.65
3 0.88 0.88 0.79 0.79 0.55 0.55
4 0.84 0.84 0.72 0.72 0.45 0.45
5 0.80 0.80 0.60 0.60 0.35 0.35
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6 0.75 0.75 0.50 0.50 0.27 0.27
7 0.60 0.70 0.42 0.42 0.22 0.22
8 0.52 0.60 0.35 0.35 0.18 0.18
9 0.45 0.52 0.30 0.30 0.00 0.15
10 0.41 0.45 0.26 0.26 0.00 0.13
11 0.37 0.41 0.00 0.23 0.00 0.00
12 0.00 0.37 0.00 0.21 0.00 0.00
13 0.00 0.34 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
14 0.00 0.31 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
15 0.00 0.28 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
>15 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
†
Values for V are inches.
‡
For lifting less frequently than once per five minutes, set F = 0.2 Lifts/min.
Problem: During his shift, a worker at a printing machine must occasionally lift a roll of
paper stock and place it into the paper receiver. The rolls weigh 40 lbs each and are
30 inches in diameter and initially located on the floor. The grab points are the center
of the roll, so the lifting point is 15 inches above the floor. The final placement height of
the center of the roll is 63 inches above the floor. The horizontal distance from the roll’s
initial and final location is 23 inches. Calculate the recommended weight limit (RWL) for
the original location of this task.
Solution: From the data given, and the tables above, we can determine the following
multipliers:
• H = 23 inches
• V = 15 inches
• D = 48 inches
• A = 0 (assume no asymmetric movement)
• FM =1.0 (from frequency table footnote)
• CM =0.95 (from coupling table, assume the coupling is “fair”)
Then using equation (305) for English units:
( )
( )
( )  
( )
( )( )( )
10 1.8
( ) 51 1 0.0075 30 0.82 1 0.0032 RWL lb V A FM CM
H D
= − − + −
(
(
¸ ¸
( )
( )
( )  
( )
( ) ( )( )( )
10 1.8
( ) 51 1 0.0075 15 30 0.82 1 0.0032 1 .95
23 48
0 16 lbs RWL lb = − − + −
(
=
(
¸ ¸
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12.1.1 Lifting Index
The Lifting Index (LI) provides a relative estimate of the physical stress
associated with a manual lifting job. Per NIOSH, the lifting index may be used to
identify potentially hazardous lifting jobs or to compare the relative severity of
two jobs for the purpose of evaluating and redesigning them. From the NIOSH
perspective, it is likely that lifting tasks with a LI > 1.0 pose an increased risk for
liftingrelated low back pain for some fraction of the workforce. Hence, the goal
should be to design all lifting jobs to achieve a LI of 1.0 or less. The Lifting Index
is calculated as follows:
L
LI
RWL
= (307)
where
LI = Lifting Index
L = load weight
RWL = recommended weight limit, calculated using equations above
Note: In equation (307), any weight measure can be used, as long as L and RWL
are in the same units.
Problem: Based on the data and the RWL calculated above, determine the Lifting
Index for the task.
Solution:
40 lbs
2.5
16 lbs
L
LI
RWL
= = =
Therefore, the actual load is nearly 21/2 times the recommended weight limit
indicating this lifting task would be hazardous for a majority of healthy industrial
workers.
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12.2 Heat Stress and Relative Humidity
12.2.1 Wet Bulb Globe Temperature
The Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) is a composite temperature used to
estimate the heat stress effect of temperature, humidity, wind speed, and solar
heating on people. WBGT values are calculated by the following equations:
Indoor WBGT (or outdoors with no solar load)
0.7 0.3
WB GT
WBGT T T = + (308)
Outdoor WBGT (with a solar load)
0.7 0.2 0.1
WB GT DB
WBGT T T T = + + (309)
where
WBGT = wet bulb globe temperature,
o
F or
o
T
C
WB
= wetbulb temperature,
o
F or
o
T
C
GT
= globe temperature,
o
F or
o
T
C
DB
= drybulb temperature,
o
F or
o
For a description of these temperatures, see Section 14.
C
Problem: What is the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) at a sunny location if a wet
bulb temperature is 85
o
F, the globe temperature is 94
o
F, and the dry blub temperature
is 90
o
F?
Solution: Since we are evaluating a sunny day, we use equation (309).
( ) ( ) ( )
o o o o
0.7 0.2 0.1 0.7 85 F 0.2 94 F 0.1 90 F 87 F
WB GT DB
WBGT T T T = + + = + + =
Important: Note that when you do not include the solar load you do not simply drop the
dry bulb measurement; the globe temperature multiplier is different. Compare equations
(308) and (309).
Common psychrometric charts graphically illustrate the relationships between air
temperature and relative humidity, as well as other properties of air.
Psychrometric charts are versatile; by knowing just two properties of air, various
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other properties can quickly be determined. See Section 14 for more info and
example of their use.
12.2.2 Heat Storage by Body
The thermal (heat) balance within a human body can be mathematically described
as follows:
M W E R C K S − = + + + + (310)
where
M = metabolic energy (heat) production, Btu/hr
W = external work rate, Btu/hr
E = evaporative heat change, Btu/hr
R = radiant heat change, Btu/hr
C = convective heat change, Btu/hr
K = conductive heat change, Btu/hr
S = energy (heat) storage rate by the body, Btu/hr
The term MW is always positive.
The conductive heat change (K) is typically small and, if so, can be ignored. In
such cases equation (310)can be written:
( ) S M W C R E ∆ = − ± ± − (311)
Note that as suggested by equation (311), the convective and radiative changes
can be positive or negative (i.e., gains or losses). Evaporative changes are losses.
Assuming no net change in the storage of energy (heat) in the body (i.e., S=0),
and no work is done (i.e., W=0) equation (311) can be rearranged to find the
evaporative cooling required to offset the metabolic, convective and radiative
changes:
req
E M C R = + + (312)
where
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E
req
Problem: A worker is conducting light work such that metabolic heat production minus
the work expended is 650 Btu/hr. If the worker has a local fan that provides 50 Btu/hr
of convective cooling, local equipment that causes a radiant heat gain of 125 Btu/hr,
and an evaporative heat loss of 250 BTU/hr, what is the worker’s net heat gain?
= steady state evaporative heat loss, Btu/hr
Solution:
( ) ( ) 650 50 125 250 475Btu/hr S M W C R E ∆ = − ± ± − = − + − =
12.2.2.1 Convective Heat Gain/Loss by Body
The convective heat change can be calculated using the following equation:
( )
0.6
0.65 95
a
C v T = − (313)
where
C = convective heat change, Btu/hr
v = air velocity, ft/min
T
a
= air temperature,
o
95 = mean weighted skin temperature,
F
o
Problem: What is the convective cooling of an outside worker who is exposed to a
temperature of 75
F
o
F and 15 mph winds?
Solution: Equation (313) uses an air speed in ft/min, so the wind speed must be
converted from mph to ft/min.
( )
( )
0.6
0.6
0.65 95
15 miles 5280 ft 1 hour
0.65 75 95 969 Btu/hr
hr mile 60 min
a
C v T
C
= −
 
= − = −

\ .
12.2.2.2 Radiant Heat Gain/Loss by Body
The radiative heat change can be calculated using the following equation:
( ) 15 95
r
R T = − (314)
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where
R = radiative heat change, Btu/hr
15 = constant
T
r
= mean radiant temperature,
o
95 = mean weighted skin temperature,
F
o
Problem: A worker is located in an area with production equipment that creates an
average radiant environment of 110
F
o
F. What is the radiant heat gain of a worker in this
area?
Solution:
( ) ( ) 15 95 15 110 95 225 Btu/hr
r
R T = − = − =
12.2.2.3 Maximum Evaporative Heat Loss
The maximum evaporative heat loss formula quantifies the amount of heat that is
lost from the body through evaporative cooling.
( )
0.6
max
2.4 42
w
E v vp = − (315)
where
E
max
2.4 = constant
= evaporative heat loss, Btu/hr
v = air velocity, ft/min
42 = vapor pressure of water at 95
o
vp
F skin temperature, mmHg
w
Problem: What is the maximum evaporative loss of an outside worker who is exposed
to a temperature of 75
= vapor pressure of water at ambient temperature, mmHg
o
F and 15 mph winds?
Solution: Equation (315) requires the vapor pressure of water. Assuming an effective
temperature that is between the body temperature and the ambient air, tables of water
pressure can be consulted to find a water vapor pressure of 32 mmHg. Then applying
equation (315) leads to:
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( )
( )
0.6
max
0.6
max
2.4 42
15 miles 5280 ft 1 hour
2.4 42 32 1789 Btu/hr
hr mile 60 min
w
E v vp
E
= −
= − =
 

\ .
12.2.3 Heat Stress Index
The heat stress index (HSI) is one method of quantifying thermal stress. As can be
seen in the following equation, it is simply the ratio of the steady state evaporative
cooling to the maximum possible evaporative cooling, expressed as a percentage,
max
100
req
E
HSI x
E
= (316)
where
HSI = heat stress index, non dimensional
E
req
E
= steady state evaporative heat loss, Btu/hr (see equation (312))
max
Problem: A worker has a maximum evaporative loss of 1789 Btu/hr. Calculate the Heat
Stress Index (HSI) if a worker requires an evaporative heat loss of 475 Btu/hr.
= evaporative heat loss, Btu/hr
Solution:
max
475 Btu/hr
100 x 100 = 27%
1789 Btu/hr
req
E
HSI x
E
= =
12.2.4 Ventilation of Sensible Heat
Sensible heat
First, recalling from thermodynamics, the heat capacity of a system can be
defined by:
is the heat which results in a temperature change only when a
transfer takes place. For example, sensible heat is produced by a heating system
or is removed by a refrigeration system. The volume of air required to dissipate
the sensible heat load can be calculated in the following manner.
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p
E mc T = ∆
(317)
where
E
= energy change in the system, Btu/min
m = mass rate of the system, lbs/min
c
p
= specific heat of the system, Btu/lb
o
F (0.24 Btu/lb
o
ΔT = change in temperature,
F)
o
The mass flow rate can be found by:
F
s a
m Q ρ = ⋅ (318)
where
Q
s
= volumetric flow rate of sensible air, ft
3
ρ
/min
a
= density of air, lb/ft
3
(0.075 lb/ft
3
Combining equations (317) and (318) and defining
)
E
as the sensible heat, H
s
,
leads to:
(60min/hr)
s s a p
H Q c T ρ = ∆ ⋅ (319)
Note the 60 min/hr conversion is required since Qs has units of ft
3
Rearranging to solve for Q
/min, and Hs
has units of Btu/hr.
s
, and substituting values for c
p
and ρ
a
, leads to:
1.08
s
s
H
Q
T
=
∆
(320)
This is sometimes written as:
( )
(Btu/hr)
1.08
Total Sensible Heat
cfm
T
=
∆
(321)
Problem: Determine the volumetric air flow rate (cfm) required to limit an area with an
industrial oven that produces 25,000 Btu/hr of heat to a 10
o
F degree temperature rise.
Solution:
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( )
( )
o
(Btu/hr) 25,000 Btu/hr
= 2315 cfm
1.08 1.08 10 F
Total Sensible Heat
cfm
T
= =
∆
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Statistical Tables
13 Statistical Tables
The following statistical tables are provided on the following pages:
• Area Under the Standard Normal Curve from 0 to Z
• Table of Percentage Points of the t Distribution
• Upper Percentage Points of the χ
2
Distribution
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Area Under the Standard Normal Curve
from 0 to Z
Z 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0.0 0.0000 0.0040 0.0080 0.0120 0.0160 0.0199 0.0239 0.0279 0.0319 0.0359
0.1 0.0398 0.0438 0.0478 0.0517 0.0557 0.0596 0.0636 0.0675 0.0714 0.0753
0.2 0.0793 0.0832 0.0871 0.0910 0.0948 0.0987 0.1026 0.1064 0.1103 0.1141
0.3 0.1179 0.1217 0.1255 0.1293 0.1331 0.1368 0.1406 0.1443 0.1480 0.1517
0.4 0.1554 0.1591 0.1628 0.1664 0.1700 0.1736 0.1772 0.1808 0.1844 0.1879
0.5 0.1915 0.1950 0.1985 0.2019 0.2054 0.2088 0.2123 0.2157 0.2190 0.2224
0.6 0.2257 0.2291 0.2324 0.2357 0.2389 0.2422 0.2454 0.2486 0.2517 0.2549
0.7 0.2580 0.2611 0.2642 0.2673 0.2704 0.2734 0.2764 0.2794 0.2823 0.2852
0.8 0.2881 0.2910 0.2939 0.2967 0.2995 0.3023 0.3051 0.3078 0.3106 0.3133
0.9 0.3159 0.3186 0.3212 0.3238 0.3264 0.3289 0.3315 0.3340 0.3365 0.3389
1.0 0.3413 0.3438 0.3461 0.3485 0.3508 0.3531 0.3554 0.3577 0.3599 0.3621
1.1 0.3643 0.3665 0.3686 0.3708 0.3729 0.3749 0.3770 0.3790 0.3810 0.3830
1.2 0.3849 0.3869 0.3888 0.3907 0.3925 0.3944 0.3962 0.3980 0.3997 0.4015
1.3 0.4032 0.4049 0.4066 0.4082 0.4099 0.4115 0.4131 0.4147 0.4162 0.4177
1.4 0.4192 0.4207 0.4222 0.4236 0.4251 0.4265 0.4279 0.4292 0.4306 0.4319
1.5 0.4332 0.4345 0.4357 0.4370 0.4382 0.4394 0.4406 0.4418 0.4429 0.4441
1.6 0.4452 0.4463 0.4474 0.4484 0.4495 0.4505 0.4515 0.4525 0.4535 0.4545
1.7 0.4554 0.4564 0.4573 0.4582 0.4591 0.4599 0.4608 0.4616 0.4625 0.4633
1.8 0.4641 0.4649 0.4656 0.4664 0.4671 0.4678 0.4686 0.4693 0.4699 0.4706
1.9 0.4713 0.4719 0.4726 0.4732 0.4738 0.4744 0.4750 0.4756 0.4761 0.4767
2.0 0.4772 0.4778 0.4783 0.4788 0.4793 0.4798 0.4803 0.4808 0.4812 0.4817
2.1 0.4821 0.4826 0.4830 0.4834 0.4838 0.4842 0.4846 0.4850 0.4854 0.4857
2.2 0.4861 0.4864 0.4868 0.4871 0.4875 0.4878 0.4881 0.4884 0.4887 0.4890
2.3 0.4893 0.4896 0.4898 0.4901 0.4904 0.4906 0.4909 0.4911 0.4913 0.4916
2.4 0.4918 0.4920 0.4922 0.4925 0.4927 0.4929 0.4931 0.4932 0.4934 0.4936
2.5 0.4938 0.4940 0.4941 0.4943 0.4945 0.4946 0.4948 0.4949 0.4951 0.4952
2.6 0.4953 0.4955 0.4956 0.4957 0.4959 0.4960 0.4961 0.4962 0.4963 0.4964
2.7 0.4965 0.4966 0.4967 0.4968 0.4969 0.4970 0.4971 0.4972 0.4973 0.4974
2.8 0.4974 0.4975 0.4976 0.4977 0.4977 0.4978 0.4979 0.4979 0.4980 0.4981
2.9 0.4981 0.4982 0.4982 0.4983 0.4984 0.4984 0.4985 0.4985 0.4986 0.4986
3.0 0.4987 0.4987 0.4987 0.4988 0.4988 0.4989 0.4989 0.4989 0.4990 0.4990
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Table of Percentage Points of the t Distribution
TwoSided
OneSided
Degrees of
Freedom
Probability
0.25
(one tail)
0.1
(one tail)
0.05
(one tail)
0.025
(one tail)
0.01
(one tail)
0.50
(two tail)
0.2
(two tail)
0.10
(two tail)
0.050
(two tail)
0.02
(two tail)
1 1.000 3.078 6.314 12.706 31.821
2 0.816 1.886 2.920 4.303 6.965
3 0.765 1.638 2.353 3.182 4.541
4 0.741 1.533 2.132 2.776 3.747
5 0.727 1.476 2.015 2.571 3.365
6 0.718 1.440 1.943 2.447 3.143
7 0.711 1.415 1.895 2.365 2.998
8 0.706 1.397 1.860 2.306 2.896
9 0.703 1.383 1.833 2.262 2.821
10 0.700 1.372 1.812 2.228 2.764
15 0.691 1.341 1.753 2.131 2.602
20 0.687 1.325 1.725 2.086 2.528
25 0.684 1.316 1.708 2.060 2.485
30 0.683 1.310 1.697 2.042 2.457
∞ 0.674 1.282 1.645 1.960 2.326
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Upper Percentage Points of the χ
2
Distribution
Degrees of
Freedom
Probability
0.99 0.95 0.90 0.10 0.05 0.01
1 0.000 0.004 0.016 2.706 3.841 6.635
2 0.020 0.103 0.211 4.605 5.991 9.210
3 0.115 0.352 0.584 6.251 7.815 11.345
4 0.297 0.711 1.064 7.779 9.488 13.277
5 0.554 1.145 1.610 9.236 11.070 15.086
6 0.872 1.635 2.204 10.645 12.592 16.812
7 1.239 2.167 2.833 12.017 14.067 18.475
8 1.646 2.733 3.490 13.362 15.507 20.090
9 2.088 3.325 4.168 14.684 16.919 21.666
10 2.558 3.940 4.865 15.987 18.307 23.209
11 3.053 4.575 5.578 17.275 19.675 24.725
12 3.571 5.226 6.304 18.549 21.026 26.217
13 4.107 5.892 7.042 19.812 22.362 27.688
14 4.660 6.571 7.790 21.064 23.685 29.141
15 5.229 7.261 8.547 22.307 24.996 30.578
20 8.260 10.851 12.443 28.412 31.410 37.566
25 11.524 14.611 16.473 34.382 37.652 44.314
30 14.953 18.493 20.599 40.256 43.773 50.892
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Psychrometric Charts
14 Psychrometric Charts
Psychrometrics refers to the properties of gasvapor mixtures, including air.
Common psychrometric charts (see example below) graphically illustrate the
relationships between air temperature and relative humidity as well as other
properties of air. Psychrometric charts are versatile; by knowing just two
properties of air, various other properties can quickly be determined.
14.1 Basic Definitions of Air
1. Atmospheric Air
Atmospheric air is the air we breathe and use for normal ventilation. Air is
primarily comprised of nitrogen and oxygen and small amounts of carbon
dioxide, water vapor, and other gases. Miscellaneous contaminants such
as dust, pollen, smoke, etc., may also be encountered depending on air
quality.
2. Dry Air
Dry air exists when all of the contaminants and water vapor have been
removed from atmospheric air. By volume, dry air contains about 78
percent nitrogen, 21 percent oxygen, and 1 percent other gases. Dry air is
used as the reference in psychrometrics.
3. Moist Air
Moist air is a mixture of dry air and water vapor. Due to the variability of
atmospheric air, the terms dry air and moist air are used in psychrometrics.
For practical purposes, moist air and atmospheric air can be considered
equal under the range of conditions normally encountered.
14.2 Basic Definitions of Air Temperature
1. Dry Bulb Temperature
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Dry bulb temperature is the air temperature determined by an ordinary
thermometer. The dry bulb temperature scale is located at the base of the
chart and the vertical lines indicate constant dry bulb temperature.
2. Wet Bulb Temperature
Wet bulb temperature reflects the cooling effect of evaporating water.
Wet bulb temperature can be determined by passing air over a
thermometer that has been wrapped with a small amount of moist cloth.
The cooling effect of the evaporating water causes a lower temperature
compared to the dry bulb air temperature. The wet bulb temperature scale
is located along the curved upper left portion of the chart. The sloping
lines indicate equal wet bulb temperatures.
3. Globe Temperature
Globe temperature is a measure of the radiant and convective temperature
and is usually measured with what it known as a globe (or black globe)
thermometer. This is a normal dry bulb thermometer encased in a 150mm
diameter matteblack copper sphere whose absorptivity approaches that of
the skin.
4. Dew Point Temperature
Dew point temperature is the temperature below which moisture will
condense out of air. Air that is holding as much water vapor as possible is
saturated, or at its dew point. Water will condense on a surface that is at or
below the dew point temperature of the air. The dew point temperature
scale is located along the same curved portion of the chart as the wet bulb
temperature scale. However, horizontal lines indicate equal dew point
temperatures.
14.3 Relative Humidity
Relative humidity is a measure of how much moisture is present compared to how
much moisture the air could hold at that temperature. Relative humidity is
expressed as a percent. Lines of equal relative humidity curve from the lower left
to the upper right of the psychrometric chart. The 100 percent relative humidity
(saturation) line corresponds to the wet bulb and the dew point temperature scale
line. The line for zero percent relative humidity falls along the dry bulb
temperature scale line.
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Problem: Air is known to be at 80°F (dry bulb) and 50 percent relative humidity. What
are the wet bulb and dew point temperatures of this air?
Solution: First, locate the intersection of the 80°F dry bulb temperature line and the 50
percent relative humidity curve. From this intersection, follow the appropriate lines to
the correct scales and find:
1. Wet bulb temperature = 67°F
2. Dew point temperature = 59°F
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5
9
0
9
5
D E W P O I N T  ° F
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Constant and Conversion
15 Constants and Conversions
15.1 Length
1 inch = 2.54 cm
1 foot = 30.48 cm = 0.3048 m
1 meter = 3.28 ft
1 mile = 5,280 ft
1 micron = 10
4
15.2 Volume
cm
1 molar volume = 1 grammole (at 0°C and 1 atm) = 22.4 L
1 molar volume = 1 grammole (at 25°C and 1 atm) = 24.45 L
1 ft
3
= 28.32 L = 7.481 U.S. gal = 0.0283 m
1 m
3
3
= 35.31 ft
1 L = 1.0566 qt = 61.02 in
3
3
= 0.03531 ft
15.3 Weight & Mass
3
1 lb = 453.6 grams
1 kg = 2.2 lb
1 gram = 15.43 grains
15.4 Pressure
1 atm = 14.7 psi = 760 mm Hg = 29.92 in. Hg = 33.93 ft water = 406.78 in. water
= 1013.25 mbar = 101,325 pascals = 760 torr
15.5 Temperature
°F = 9/5(°C) + 32
°C = (°F  32)/1.8
°R = °F + 460
K = °C + 273
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15.6 Angles
1 radian = 180
o
15.7 Density of Water
/π
density of water = 1 gram/cm
3
= 1.94 slugs/ft
weight density of water = 62.4 lb/ft
3
15.8 Density of Air
3
density of air (at 0°C and 1 atm) = 0.29 g/L
density of air (at 20°C and 1 atm) = 1.204 kg/m
density of air (at 70
3
o
F and 1 atm) = 0.075 lb/ft
3
15.9 Energy
1 BTU = 1054.8 joules = 0.293 watthr
1 gramcalorie = 4.184 joules
1 faraday = 9.65 x 10
4
1 watt = 1 joule/sec = 1 ampere x 1 volt
coulombs
1 kwh = 3.6 x 10
6
15.10 Radiation
joules
1 becquerel = 1 disintegration/sec
1 currie = 3.7 x 10
10
1 rad = 102 gray (1 gray = 100 rad)
becquerel = 2.2x1012 dpm
1 rem = 102 sievert (1 sievert = 100 rem)
15.11 Light
1 candela = 1 lumen/steradian
1 footcandle = 10.76 candela/m
2
15.12 Magnetic Fields
= 10.76 lux
1 tesla = 10,000 gauss
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15.13 Physical Constants
speed of sound in air (at 20°C) = 1125 ft/sec = 344 m/sec
speed of light = 3 x 10
8
Planck's constant = 6.626 x 10
m/sec
27
ergsec = 6.626 x 10
34
Avogadro's number = 6.024 x 10
joulesec
23
gas constant, R = 8.314 J/mole K = 0.082 L atm/moleK = 10.731 ft
/grammole
3
acceleration of gravity, g = 9.81 m/ sec
psi/°Rlb
mol
2
= 981 cm/sec
2
= 32 ft/sec
2
15.14 Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)
STP (Physical Sciences) = 0
o
STP (Ventilation) = 70
C at 1 atm
o
STP (Industrial Hygiene) = 25
F at 1 atm
o
15.15 Miscellaneous
C at 1 atm
Effective area of filter, A
c
= 385 mm for 25 mm filter
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Study Problems
16 Study Problems
The following study problems can be solved with formulas and information
contained in this book. Solutions are provided in the following section. The
sample problems focus on the mathematical skills required to solve all the
formulas in this book, and others encountered in industrial hygiene and safety.
The final examination, required for the issuance of CEUs, will be similar to those
contained in this section, as well as those in other sections of this book. You
should be comfortable solving these problems before requesting a final exam.
Problem 1
Calculate the volumetric flow rate in an 12inch round flanged hood if the static
pressure is 1.75 in. wc, the hood entry floss factor is 0.50 and the duct is moving
air with a density factor or 0.95.
Problem 2
Calculate the combined sound pressure level created by four sources measured at
82 dB, 85 dB, 90 dB and 90 dB.
Problem 3
What volumetric flow rate is required in a 8 inch round plain duct hood located 1
foot from a location requiring a capture velocity of 150 fpm?
Problem 4
What is the equivalent capacitance (in farads) of three capacitors, 60µF, 40µF,
and 12µF in series, and in parallel?
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Problem 5
At a hazardous materials laboratory, there are four HVAC charcoal filter units to
remove airborne contaminants. If two are required to provide the required filter
capacity, how many combinations of two filter units are provided by the set of
four?
Problem 6
Indicate if each of the following logarithmic expressions is True or False.
a) log log log
b b b
x
x y
y
 
− =

\ .
b)
( )
log log
r
b b
x r x =
Problem 7
Calculate the attenuation of radiation passing through a lead shield that is 3 cm
thick. Assume a linear attenuation coefficient of 0.78 cm
1
Problem 8
and a buildup factor of
1.87.
Simplify the following expression:
( ) ( )
2 5
3 2 4
10z y zy
−
−
−
Problem 9
As part of your annual budget, you need to allocate money to replace a piece of
equipment that has an expected replacement cost of $20,000 in five years. How
much would you have to place into the account each year for 5 years assuming an
annual interest rate of 3%?
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Problem 10
A fan with an 8 inch impeller operates at 1500 RPM to supply 2000 cfm. If the
impeller size and speed are changed to 6 inches and 2500 RPM, what will be the
new flow?
Problem 11
Several water pressure measurements are taken and the following data are
recorded: 75, 82, 101, 93, and 78; all is psi. Assuming a normal distribution, what
is the probability of a reading greater than 110 psi? For the data set in the
problem, assume the arithmetic mean and standard deviation are µ = X = 85.8,
and σ = 10.9, respectively.
Problem 12
A forklift weighs 3980 lbs; what is its mass?
Problem 13
Electrical power to a factory fails an average of 7 times every year (e.g., storms,
high winds, etc.). Calculate the reliability of the power system over a twoweek
period.
Problem 14
A shipping area has a ventilation system that provides 15 air changes per hour
(ACH). What is the concentration of an airborne contaminant after 20 minutes if
the initial concentration is 750 ppm and there is no additional contaminant?
Problem 15
Determine the Lifting Index (LI) for a task that has a RWL of 22.5 pounds and an
actual lifted weight of 20 pounds. Also, what is indicated by the calculated LI?
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Problem 16
Calculate the distance at which the exposure level is exceeded for a 500 W
antenna with an absolute gain of 20. Assume an exposure limit of 10 W/m
2
Problem 17
.
A car is initially traveling at 20 mph and then accelerates at 30 miles/hr
2
Problem 18
for 1.5
miles. How fast is the car now going?
A duct lining material has an absorption coefficient of 0.35. Calculate the
reduction in noise in a 6” by 12” duct.
Problem 19
Calculate the volumetric flow rate in an 8inch round duct from a hood if the hood
static pressure measurement is 2.0 in. wc and the hood entry coefficient is 0.72
(round duct, plain end).
Problem 20
A location has a barometric pressure of 29.10 mmHg and the temperature is 75
o
Problem 21
F.
What is the density correction factor for these conditions?
What is the TLV of a 25/75 mixture of hexane and xylene? Assume the TLV for
hexane is 176 mg/m
3
and the TLV for xylene is 434 mg/m
3
.
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Problem 22
Calculate the heat transfer rate through 4 inches of concrete when one surface is
212
o
F and the other is 70
o
F. Assume the thermal conductivity of the concrete is
0.45 Btu/hrft
o
Problem 23
F
Determine the hazard zone distance for a 0.4 J pulsed laser that has a beam
divergence of 1 x10
3
radians and an emergent beam diameter of 0.5 cm. Assume
the maximum permitted exposure level is 5.0 x 10
7
J/cm
2
Problem 24
.
A worker is exposed to toluene during their work. The TLV for toluene is 50
ppm. If the worker works 8.5 hours in a day, what is the permitted exposure to
toluene?
Problem 25
What is the airborne concentration of asbestos fibers if 500 liters of air are
sampled and the fiber density is 88 f/mm
2
? Assume the effective area of the filter
is 385 mm
2
Problem 26
(25 mm filter).
Calculate the equivalent sound pressure level for the following measurements: 85
dB for 3 hours, 90 dB for 2 hours, and 82 dB for 3 hours.
Problem 27
What is the power density of an electric field with a strength of 500V/m?
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Problem 28
Sound measurements record an average sound pressure level of 92 dB at a
location 5 feet away from a compressor. What is the expected sound pressure
level at 20 feet from the compressor?
Problem 29
Calculate the terminal settling velocity of 130 µm particles in still air. Assume the
density of the particles is 1.15 g/cm
3
. Also, the density of air is 0.0012 g/cm
3
and
its viscosity is 0.000182 Poise. The gravitational acceleration is 980 cm/sec
2
Problem 30
.
Ammonia has a chemical composition of NH
3
yielding a molecular weight of
17.03. Calculate its density in lbs/ft
3
at 0.95 atmospheres and 85
o
Problem 31
F. Hint: See
sample problem in Section 4.1.
Determine the diameter of a laser beam 1.0 km away from a source with an
emergent diameter of 1 cm and a beam divergence of 1 x10
4
Problem 32
radians.
Several water pressure measurements are taken and the following data are
recorded: 75, 82, 101, 93, and 78; all is psi. Calculate the standard deviation (n1)
for the data.
Problem 33
A box that weighs 225 lbs moves along a conveyor at 5 mph; what is its kinetic
energy?
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Problem 34
A fault tree has an event C that will occur if event A occurs or if event A and B
occurs. In Boolean algebra this can be shown as: A + (A · B). Remember, in
Boolean algebra “+" means OR and "·" means AND.
If event A has a frequency of 1.2E6 events/year, and event B has a frequency of
2.3E6 event per year, calculate the frequency of event C.
Problem 35
What is the velocity in an air duct when the velocity pressure recorded is 1.20
in.wc? Assume standard air conditions.
Problem 36
Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) has a chemical formula of C
3
H
8
O, and therefore a
molecular weight of 60. If a concentration of 500 ppm is measured, calculate the
equivalent concentration in mg/m
3
Problem 37
of the IPA in air.
A source of radiation has created a radiation intensity of 500 mR/hr. If three
tenthvalue layers (TVL) of a shielding material are provided, what is the reduced
intensity in mR/hr?
Problem 38
What is the convective cooling of an outside worker who is exposed to a
temperature of 40
o
Problem 39
F and 5 mph winds?
What is the friction loss when 500 gpm is flowing through 50 feet of 2 inch hose?
Assume a HazenWilliams coefficient of 130.
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Problem 40
Calculate the linear correlation coefficient for the following data set.
X Y
3 2
4 3
6 7
Problem 41
Based on ACGIH requirements, what is the allowable exposure time for 82 dBA?
Problem 42
Calculate the hood entry loss factor for a hood with a velocity pressure of 1.50 in.
wc and a hood entry loss of 0.85 in. wc.
Problem 43
Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) evolves at a rate of 1.5 cfm in a room that measures 25’ x
45’ x 9’ high. If an initial concentration is measured at 50 ppm, what will the
concentration of IPA be after 30 minutes of 2500 cfm of dilution air? Assume
K=1 (i.e., Q’=Q).
Problem 44
The lower cutoff frequency of an octave band is 1.414 kHz. Calculate the upper
cutoff frequency and the center frequency.
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Problem 45
Measurements made at two ends of a section of ductwork showed a total pressure
at one location of 1.25 in. wc, and 0.95 in. wc at the other end. What is the head
loss across the section of ductwork?
Problem 46
One pound of ethylene leaks from a cylinder into a room that measures 25 ft wide
by 75 ft long by 9 feet high. Assume ethylene has a density of 0.0786 lbs/ft
3
Problem 47
at
room temperature and pressure. What is the concentration in ppm (assume
uniform mixing and no losses)?
A 1inch valve is opened at the base of a water storage tank. The surface of the
water in the tank is 20 feet above the open valve. What is the velocity and
volumetric flow rate of the water exiting the open valve?
Problem 48
1.25 mCi of Iodine123 (I123) is used to image thyroid cancer. If I123 has a
halflife of 13 hours; what radioactivity will remain in the patient after 5 hours?
Problem 49
Calculate the pH of a solution that has 2.5 grams of HNO
3
in 3.0 liters of
solution. The molecular weight of HNO
3
Problem 50
is 63.01 g/mole.
Two 120 volt power tools have a combined resistance of 60 ohms. What is the
current in the system?
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Solutions to Study Problems
17 Solutions to Study Problems
Solution 1
Use equation (198):
2
12 1.75
4005 4005 3486 cfm
(1 ) 4 12 0.95(1 0.5)
h
h
SP
Q A
df F
π
(
 
= = =
(

+ +
\ .
(
¸ ¸
Solution 2
Use equation (228):
82 85 90 90
10 10 10 10
10log 10 10 10 10 93.9 dB
total
SPL
 
= + + + =

\ .
Solution 3
First, the area of the hood is required in ft
2
:
( )
2
2
2
8 / 12
0.35 ft
4 4
d
A
π
π
= = =
Next, rearranging equation (181) and substituting the appropriate values
provides:
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
10 150 10 1.0 0.35 1552.5 cfm Q V x A = + = + =
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Solution 4
For capacitors in series use equation (300):
1 2
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
0.125/ F
60 F 40 F 12 F
series n
C C C C
µ
µ µ µ
= + + + = + + =
8 F
series
C µ =
For capacitors in parallel use equation (301):
1 2
60 F 40 F 12 F 112 F
parallel n
C C C C µ µ µ µ = + + + = + + =
Solution 5
Use equation (68) with n = 4 and k = 2.
! 4!
6
!( )! 2!(4 2)!
n
k
n
C
k n k
= = =
− −
Solution 6
Both are true. See Section 1.4
Solution 7
Rearranging equation (268) leads to:
1
0.78 3
1.87 0.18 = 18%
x cm cm
o
I
Be e
I
µ
−
− −
= = =
Since I is 18% of I
o
, the attenuation is 82%.
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Solution 8
Using the rules in section 1.3, simplify as follows:
( ) ( )
2 5
3 2 4 6 4 5 20 24
24
100
10 100 100
z
z y zy z y z y zy
y
−
− − − − −
− = = =
Solution 9
Use equation (78) to find the answer to this question:
( ) ( )
5
0.03
$20, 000 $3, 767
1 1 1 0.03 1
n
i
A F
i
( (
= = = ( (
+ − + −
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
Solution 10
Use equation (221):
3
3
2 2
2 1
1 1
6 2500
2000 1406 cfm
8 1500
Size RPM
Q Q
Size RPM
   
   
= = =
   
\ . \ .
\ . \ .
Solution 11
First calculate the zscore. The formula for the zscore is given in equation (58).
110 85.8
2.22
10.9
X
z
µ
σ
− −
= = =
Now, going to a zscore table (see Section 13), find the area under the curve from
0 to 2.22 is .4868. However, the value beyond z = 2.22 is desired, so subtract the
zscore from 0.5 (i.e., ½ of 1) and the answer is:
0.5 0.4868 0.0132 1.32% − = =
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Solution 12
Rearranging equation (108):
2
3980lbs
123.6slugs
32.2ft/sec
W
m
g
= = =
Solution 13
Use equation (71):
( )
7failures
52weeks
2weeks
0.76
t
R t e e
λ
 

\ .
−
−
= = =
Based on this calculation, the power supply system has a reliability of only about
76% so there is about a 24% probability of electrical system failure in a two week
period.
Solution 14
Use equation (217):
( )
( )( ) 20/60 hr 15 ACH
0

750 ppm 5.0 ppm
tN
C C e e
−
= = =
Solution 15
Use equation (307):
20 lbs
0.89
22.5 lbs
L
LI
RWL
= = =
Therefore, the Lift Index indicates this lifting task would not be hazardous for a
majority of healthy industrial workers.
Solution 16
Substituting values into equation (279) leads to:
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( )( )
( )
1/ 2
1/ 2
2
500W 20
8.9m
4 4 10W/m
PG
r
EL π π
 
 
 = = =


\ .
\ .
( )( ) 8.9 m 3.28 ft/m = 29.3 ft
Solution 17
Using equation (121) and solving for v:
2 2
2
o
v v as = +
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2
20 mi/hr 2 30 mi/hr 1.5 mi 490 mi /hr
490 mi /hr
22.1 mph
v
v
v
= + ⋅ =
=
=
Solution 18
Equation (239) provides the solution in dB/ft, so substitute values into the
equation to find:
( )( )
1.4
1.4
12.6 2 6 2 12 0.35
12.6
1.45 dB/ft
6 12
P
NR
A
α
⋅ + ⋅
= = =
⋅
Solution 19
Use equation (196):
( )
2
8
4005 4005 0.72 2.0 1423 cfm
4 12
e h
Q C A SP
π
(
 
= = =
(

\ .
(
¸ ¸
Solution 20
Use equation (172):
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530 530 29.10
0.96
460 29.92 75 460 29.92
BP
df
T
       
= ⋅ = ⋅ =
   
+ +
\ . \ . \ . \ .
Solution 21
Substituting into equation (91) yields:
3
1 2
3 3
1 2
1 1
317.6mg/m
.25 .75
176mg/m 434mg/m
mix
TLV
F F
TLV TLV
= = =
+ +
Solution 22
Use equation (150):
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
o
1 2 o 2
1 2
212 70 F
0.45 Btu/hrft F 191.7 Btu/hrft
4 / 12 ft
T T
q
k
A x x
−
−
= = =
−
Solution 23
Use equation (286):
( )
( )
( )
1/ 2
1/ 2
2
2 6
3 7
4 0.4
1 4 1
0.5 1.0x10 cm = 10 km
10 5x10
NHZ
r a
EL φ π π
−
 
Φ  
 = − = − =


\ .
\ .
Solution 24
First calculate the reduction factor for one day based on the hours worked using
equation (94):
8 24 8 24 8.5
0.91
16 8.5 16
day
h
RF x x
h
− −
= = =
Next, multiply the TLV by the reduction factor to determine the adjusted TLV:
( ) 0.91 50ppm 45.5ppm
permitted day
TLV
−
= =
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Solution 25
Applying equation (101) and substituting leads to:
( )( )
2 2
88f/mm 385mm
0.068fibers/mL
1000 1000 500L
c
asb
s
EA
C
V
= = =
⋅
Solution 26
Use equation (232):
10
1
85 90 82
10 10 10
1
1
10log 10
1
10log 10 3 10 2 10 3 86.3 dB
i
L
N
eq i
i
N
eq
i
L t
T
L
T
=
=
   
=
 

\ . \ .
   
= ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ =
 

\ . \ .
∑
∑
Solution 27
Use equation (273):
( )
2
2
2
500V/m
66.3mW/cm
3770 3770
E
PD = = =
Ω
Solution 28
Use equation (227):
1
2 1
2
5 ft
20log 92 dB+20log = 80 dB
20 ft
d
SPL SPL
d
 
 
= + =
 
\ .
\ .
Solution 29
Substituting the given data into equation (105) leads to:
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( )( )
( )
2
2 3
2
980cm/sec 0.0130cm (1.15 0.0012g/cm )
( )
58.1cm/sec
18 18 0.000182g/cmsec
p p a
TS
gd
V
ρ ρ
η
−
−
= = =
Solution 30
First, take equation (81) and multiply each side of the equation by the molecular
weight (MW); to provide:
MW P Vol MW n R T ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
This can be rearranged to:
MW n
MW P R T
Vol
⋅  
⋅ = ⋅

\ .
The term
MW n
Vol
⋅  

\ .
is the density (ρ):
MW P R T ρ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅
Which can be rearranged to solve for d:
MW P
R T
ρ
⋅
=
⋅
Selecting the appropriate value for R (based on the units desired) :
( ) ( )
3
3
17.03 0.95atm
0.041 lbs/ft
0.73ft atm/lb mole R 460 85F
ρ
⋅
= =
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ +
Solution 31
Use equation (285):
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2 2 2 4 5
1 10 1.0 10 10.0 cm
L L
D a r D x φ
−
= + = = + =
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Solution 32
Use equation (45) to solve this problem. The following table assists with the
calculation.
i
x
i
x x −
( )
2
i
x x −
n=5
75
10.8 116.6
82
3.8 14.4
101
15.2 231.0
93
7.2 51.8
78
7.8 60.8
Sum 429
474.8
x 85.8
( )
2
1
1
n
i
i
x x
n
=
−
−
∑
10.9
So, 10.9 psi is the standard deviation of this data.
Solution 33
First, convert weight in pounds to slugs, and speed in mph to ft/sec, and then use
equation (118) to calculate kinetic energy.
2
2 2
225lbs miles ft 1hr
5 5280
32.2ft/sec hr mile 3600sec
. . 187.9 ftlbs
2 2
mv
K E = = =
 
(    
  

(
\ .\ .\ . ¸ ¸
\ .
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Solution 34
Apply the rules of Boolean algebra presented in section 1.7:
A + (A · B) = A, so event C has a frequency of 1.2E06 events per year.
Solution 35
Since this is for air, use equation (170):
4005 4005 1.2 4387 cfm V VP = = =
Solution 36
Rearrange equation (88) as follows:
( )( ) ( )( )
3 3
500 60
/ 1227mg/m
24.45 24.45
ppm MW
mg m = = =
Solution 37
For tenthvalue layer calculations, use equation (264):
3
1 1
500 mR/hr = 0.5 mR/hr
10 10
B
o
I I
   
= =
 
\ . \ .
Solution 38
Equation (313) uses an air speed in ft/min, so the wind speed must be converted
from mph to ft/min.
( )
( )
0.6
0.6
0.65 95
5 miles 5280 ft 1 hour
0.65 40 95 1378 Btu/hr
hr mile 60 min
a
C v T
C
= −
 
= − = −

\ .
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This is a significant amount of cooling.
Solution 39
First, use equation (148) to calculate the friction loss per foot, and then multiply
that by the total length.
( )
( ) ( )
1.85
1.85
1.85 4.87 1.85 4.87
4.52 500gal
4.52
1.86psi/ft
130 2in
d
Q
P
C d
= = =
( )( ) 50ft 1.86psi/ft 93psi
total
P = =
Note: Generally you want to use the actual, not nominal, value of the pipe or hose
diameter. Here the nominal value for the hose diameter is used since no actual
diameter was specified.
Solution 40
Use equation (62); that requires the average of the X and Y values. These are
easily found to be 4.33 and 4, respectively.
x X X = − y Y Y = − xy x y
2
1.33
2
2.00 2.67 1.78 4.00
0.33 1.00 0.33 0.11 1.00
1.67 3.00 5.00 2.78 9.00
∑
8.00 4.67 14.00
( )( )
( )( )
2 2
8.0
0.99
4.67 14.0
xy
r
x y
= = =
∑
∑ ∑
A linear correlation coefficient of 0.99 indicates a very strong positive
relationship between the data. Note: Although this sample problem only uses
three data pairs, the method is typically used for larger data sets.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
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Solution 41
Since question is concerned with ACGIH requirements, equation (242) is the
appropriate equation to use.
( ) ( ) 85 82 85
3 3
8 8
16 hours
2 2
L
T
− −
= = =
Solution 42
Rearranging equation (183) and substituting leads to:
1.50 in.wc
1.76
0.85 in.wc
d
h
e
VP
F
h
= = =
Solution 43
Use equation (204), but the final concentration (C
2
) is embedded in this form of
the equation, so solve for C
2
.
( )
2
2 1
1
' '
ln
'
G Q C Q
t t
G Q C V
  −
= − −

−
\ .
( )
( )
2
1.5 2500 2500
ln 30 0
1.5 2500 0.000050 10125
C
 
− ⋅
= − −


−
\ .
( )
( )
2500
30 0
10125 2
1.5 2500
1.5 2500 0.000050
C
e
 
− −

\ .
− ⋅
=
−
2
1.5 2500
0.00061
1.375
C − ⋅
=
( )( )
2
0.00061 1.375 1.5
0.0006 600 ppm
2500
C
−
= = =
−
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
209
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Solution 44
The upper cutoff frequency is given by equation (249):
( )
2 1
2 2 1.414 kHz 2.828 kHz f f = = ⋅ =
The center frequency is given by equation (251):
1
2 2 1.414 kHz 2 kHz
c
f f = = ⋅ =
Solution 45
Combining equations (160) and (161) provides:
1 2 L
TP TP h = +
( ) ( )
1 2
1.25 in.wc 0.95 in.wc = 0.3 in.wc
L
h TP TP = − = −
Solution 46
First, the inverse of the density shows ethylene occupies 12.72 ft
3
( )( )( )
3
6 6
12.72ft
10 10 754ppm
25ft 75ft 9ft
contam
air
V
ppm x x
V
= = =
/lb. Then using
equation (84) leads to:
Solution 47
Use equation (133) and substitute the value for the height and the gravitational
acceleration (32.2 ft/sec
2
) to find the velocity:
( )( )( )
2
2 2 32.2ft/sec 20ft 35.9ft/sec
v
V gh = = =
Next, find the area of the flow by the area of a circle:
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
210
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( )
2
2
2
1/ 12
0.00545 ft
4 4
d
A
π
π
= = =
The volumetric flow is given by equation (135):
( )( )
2 3
1
0.00545ft 35.9ft/sec = 0.196 ft /sec Q A V = ⋅ =
This can easily be converted to gpm, if desired.
Solution 48
Use equation (260):
( ) ( )
1/2
13 hr
5 hr
0.5 1.25 mCi 0.5 0.96 mCi
T
i
t
A A = = =
Solution 49
First calculate the number of moles of HNO
3
2.5grams
0.0397moles
63.01grams/mole
=
:
Then calculate the molarity of the solution:
0.0397moles
0.0132
3.0liters
M M = =
Finally, use equation (97) to find the pH:
 
10 10
log log 0.0132 1.88 pH H
+
( = − = − =
¸ ¸
Solution 50
Use equation (293):
120volts
2 amps
60ohms
V
I
R
= = =
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
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Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
Ψ
Professional Safety Instruction
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© Copyright 2011 by Professional Safety Instruction All rights reserved except that permission is granted to share and distribute this book, unmodified and in its entirety, including this copyright notice, for individual use. For all other uses, no part of this publication may be reproduced in any form without prior written permission of the publisher, Professional Safety Instruction. Notice: Although every reasonable precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, the publisher and authors assume no responsibility for errors or omissions or any liability for damages resulting from the use of the information in this book.
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Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
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This approach was taken because of the importance in understanding. this book also provides a valuable resource for those wishing to prepare for their registration exams. iii © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.professionalsafetyinstruction. Developed as part of a continuing education program for busy industrial hygienists and safety professionals.com to learn how you can earn valuable CEUs for completing Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety. The determination of the acceptability of the use of any equation or data presented in this book for addressing any industrial hygiene or safety issue is outside the scope of this work. this book also shows the mathematical derivation of several important equations from basic principles. and COHNSafety credential. but some changes have been made for clarity or consistency. Although the focus has been on the application of common industrial hygiene and safety formulas. Each formula or group of formulas includes a worked example. About Professional Safety Instruction: Professional Safety Instruction has one goal: To be the premier provider of costeffective highquality continuing education for busy industrial hygienists and safety professionals. CSP. this book is a review of mathematics. The focus is on equations used in certification exams for the CIH. We have tried to keep the formulas and variables as seen in the equation sheets used for the certification exams. Finally. applying. please visit www.com .Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety About this Book: Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety was developed to provide an indepth review of math as it applies to industrial hygiene and safety. For more information. Earn CEUs: Visit www. and constants are also included.com. conversions. and recalling the equations. Common symbols.professionalsafetyinstruction.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety iv © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com .
..................................................... 33 2..............19 POISSON DISTRIBUTION .................3 STANDARD DEVIATION ...8 STUDENT’S TTEST ................................................................... 8 1.............2 GEOMETRIC MEAN ....................................................................................... 2 1............8 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS .............. 15 ARITHMETIC MEAN ........................................................................................................5 ABSOLUTE VALUE EQUATIONS .. 29 2............ 10 1.............................................6 QUADRATIC FORMULA ................................................7 BOOLEAN ALGEBRA ...........1 2...9..............20 RELIABILITY .....................................................................................................................9.............................................................................................................................1 Permutation ............ 35 2. 7 1............................ 1 SIGNIFICANT FIGURES .... 3 1............ 34 2.......................................................................3 Volume .............................11 CHISQUARED ................. 26 2.....................................1..................................... 5 1..........................8................................................................................... 33 2...3 Law of Sines....18..........................2 Combination .......... 20 2..................................................................... 25 2.....2 SCIENTIFIC NOTATION .......................... 15 2......... 15 2. 11 1......................................15 TWOSIDED 90% CONFIDENCE INTERVAL ...........................................1 Right Triangles ..................................................7 SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL ERROR ...................................................... 1 1...........1 Addition and Subtraction .................2 Law of Cosines .........................................................8...................................................6 CUMULATIVE ERROR ..........................................................................................................4 GEOMETRIC STANDARD DEVIATION ....................................................... 11 1................................................................................................2 Multiplication and Division ...........4 Surface Area ......................................................17 ONESIDED 95% CONFIDENCE INTERVAL....................................................................1 Perimeter .......................................9.......................................................................................................................................................... 11 1....................................... 21 2................ 22 2........................ 27 2..............................13 CORRELATION COEFFICIENT ........16 TWOSIDED 95% CONFIDENCE INTERVAL ............................................... 30 2............. 12 1..................................................................... 19 2............................................ 2 1..............................12 SPEARMAN RANK CORRELATION ..................................................................................................................................................... 10 1.....................................................1..................................................................................2 Area ............3 EXPONENTS AND RADICALS ................9 USEFUL EQUATIONS FOR GEOMETRIC SHAPES ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 31 2... 10 1..........................................................................................Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Table of Contents 1 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS ............8....................... 23 2................................................................................................................................4 LOGARITHM FUNCTIONS ..................................................................................9 POOLED STANDARD DEVIATION ........... 12 2 STATISTICS...........................................1 1.....................................10 NORMAL DISTRIBUTION Z SCORE........................... 7 1................................ 10 1.......................................................................... 21 2....18......................... 32 2......................................... 32 2..................................... 17 2.....9........18 PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS ....com .......... 36 v © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction............ 3 1.......................................14 LOWER CONFIDENCE LIMIT ................................................................................................................................................................5 COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION.........................................................................................................
..... 51 4..................................................................................................... 45 4... 73 6.............................................................. 60 4..............................................1 Static Pressure .................................................... 49 4...............5 AIRBORNE CONCENTRATION VIA PRESSURE .... 73 PRESSURE AND FORCE .....................................3 AIRBORNE CONCENTRATION VIA VOLUME . 65 MOMENT OF FORCE ....................................................................................15....................................... 50 4..............................................................................................8 THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE (TLV) OF AIRBORNE MIXTURE ......................................................16.....................1............................2 Asbestos Fiber Concentration ...................................................... 68 KINETIC ENERGY ............................................................................................................................................................................ 63 5.............................................2 BERNOULLI’S THEOREM ....................2 Velocity Pressure ................................ 63 WEIGHT ......................13 REDUCTION FACTOR – WEEK .........................................6 CONVERSION FOR AIRBORNE CONCENTRATIONS: PPM (TO/FROM) MG/M3 ..................................... 45 4..................................... 64 WORK .................................................. 39 CHEMISTRY AND CONCENTRATIONS .............14 CHEMISTRY OF SOLUTIONS..........................14......2 5....3 Acid Dissociation Constant ...............................14......................................................9 THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE (TLV) OF LIQUIDS ......................................1 6...........16 PARTICLE SETTLING VELOCITY ...........................................................................4 Base Dissociation Constant ....................................................................... 69 RECTILINEAR MOTION ..........4 Microscopic Limit of Resolution (Abbe’s Equation) ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................12 REDUCTION FACTOR – DAY..........4 5.....................15......................15......................................... 73 6............................................................................................................ 48 4................................................ 57 4...........10 NEWTON’S SECOND LAW .................................................................................... 58 4.......... 58 4.......................................................................................... 59 4........................14.... 49 4....................................................................................................................................14........................................................1 Reynolds Number ........... 75 6.7 5...... 53 4...................................................................11 VAPORHAZARD RATIO ...................1 4..........................9 5.... 67 HOOKE’S LAW AND THE POTENTIAL ENERGY OF A SPRING ...........15 ASBESTOS (AIRBORNE CONTAMINANT)..................................15.......................................... 76 vi © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction..................................................... 46 4..................................................................................... 56 4..... 61 5 MECHANICS ......................................................1...........6 5.................3 5............. 52 4......................................................... 43 4................................................. 57 4.....................................3 Fiber Density................ 66 FRICTION ...2 CONCENTRATION OF VAPORS AND GASES ..........1 BeerLambert Law (Beer’s Law).......................... 54 4..............................................4 DALTON’S LAW OF PARTIAL PRESSURE (GAS) & RAOULT’S LAW (LIQUIDS) .............................................2 pH Calculation ........ 64 MOMENTUM ..................................................................5 5....................... 69 6 HYDROSTATICS AND HYDRAULICS ............................ 47 4.......7 CONVERSION FOR AIRBORNE CONCENTRATIONS: PPM (TO/FROM) G/L ............................... 66 POTENTIAL ENERGY ...... 47 4......Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 3 4 ENGINEERING ECONOMICS ............................................8 5.......................... 55 4...............................................1 5............................. 53 4.................com ............................................................................................... 52 4...........................................1 Asbestos Fiber Concentration by PCM ..10 LE CHATELIER’S RULE ................. 43 IDEAL GAS LAW ...............................................
........................................................... 84 VENTILATION ............................. 133 10...............................................4 TRANSMISSION LOSS .................9 DILUTION VENTILATION ................................................ 130 9........................................................................................11 DILUTION TO CONTROL EVAPORATION ........................1 7...7 FREQUENCY BY A FAN ...................1.......Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 6......................................................................4 DALLAVALLE EQUATION .....5 NOISE REDUCTION BY ABSORPTION ...........................................................1 9................................................................................................................................................12...................................................................................................3 8 CONDUCTION ................................... 124 9...... 101 8......................10 ROOM AIR CHANGES PER HOUR ....2 HazenWilliams Formula ..................................................... 125 9.................................................................... 87 8................................................................ 83 RADIATION .....................................................................................................................................................8 FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF FLOW AND VELOCITY EQUATIONS ... 132 10 RADIATION .........1 Density Correction Factor...........................................................................................................1....................................1............................................................... 127 9.................. 97 8.........2 CONSERVATION OF ENERGY .....1 Fan Laws ....................................................... 81 7 HEAT TRANSFER .............................................................................................12 FAN LAWS AND EQUATIONS ..... 123 9..........................3......... 87 CONSERVATION OF MASS (THE CONTINUITY EQUATION) ....2 7..............5 HOOD STATIC PRESSURE ..................................3 DERIVATION OF THE FUNDAMENTAL DUCT FLOW EQUATIONS ..............................3................... 109 8.....................1 Noise Reduction in a Duct .......................1 Dilution Ventilation Based on Room Air Changes ..................................... 119 9............ 95 8...... 83 7..6 PERCENT NOISE DOSE AND TWA ................... 111 8...............................2 Time Weighted Equivalent Sound Pressure Level ...........................................................................6 HOOD ENTRY COEFFICIENT AND LOSS .............3..........1 Inverse Square Law .. 118 9..............................................................................................com ...................................... 129 9.1 Flow – Pressure Relationships ...............................2 Gamma Radiation Exposure ............................................................................ 79 6........................................... 93 8.......................... 103 8........................................................ 99 8............................................................................................................................2...................................................................................3 WATER FLOW IN A PIPE ..............................3 SOUND POWER LEVEL ................... 122 9.....................8 OCTAVE AND THIRDOCTAVE BANDS .......................................................7 CONVERGING DUCT FLOWS AND LOSSES .............1......................................................... 133 10.................................................................. 135 10.....1 Addition of Sound Pressure Levels (SPLs) ....... 126 9................................................................... 117 9................................................................................................................3 Equivalent Dose ......................... 78 6.......................... 96 8........................................ 108 8.............................................................................4 Radioactive Decay .. 117 SOUND INTENSITY .................................9 SOUND FREQUENCY AND WAVELENGTH ..................................................................................................................2.................................10........................................1 8...... 113 9 SOUND AND NOISE ................1 10..............................2 SOUND PRESSURE LEVEL (SPL) ..... 83 CONVECTION ................... 134 10........5................................................ 112 8.......... 133 IONIZING ........ 90 8...................................... 88 8................................................................................... 135 vii © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction................................................................................
...........................................................................4..........................2......................................... 137 10.... 142 10...................................................................................2............. 147 10. 183 15......................................5 Electromagnetic Radiation Wavelength and Frequency ......................2............1 15......................2............................................................................................................4........................................... 183 viii © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction....... 180 CONSTANTS AND CONVERSIONS ... 159 11................................. 160 12 ERGONOMICS ..................1 11..2 JOULE’S LAW..8 Effective HalfLife .........................2.......................... 145 10.................4............................................................................................1 12......................................................................... 158 11.................................................................................................................................................................................................3 RESISTANCE .................................................................................... 148 10.....6 Radiation Attenuation by Layers ................................................. 179 14...................................................... 142 10................................................................................2...............................2 14..................... 159 11.......2..... 171 13 14 STATISTICAL TABLES .................. 183 VOLUME ..............................................................6 Effective Ultraviolet Irradiance .........................5 Activity of a Radioactive Element ................................4.......1........................2.............................................................................................................................................................1 Lifting Index ........................................ 175 PSYCHROMETRIC CHARTS ................... 179 RELATIVE HUMIDITY ..........................2 Heat Storage by Body......................... 147 10...4....2 HEAT STRESS AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY ..................... 168 12.... 141 10...............................................................................6 Inductors in Parallel .......1 Resistors in Series ..........................................2 NONIONIZING ....................3 Safe Distance for NonIonizing Radiation .......................Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 10.....................................2 Field Strength .............................................2......................... 146 10......................................................1 Wet Bulb Globe Temperature...................................1..................................3 Capacitors in Series ..................................1 14................ 167 12..................................3 LENGTH .............................................................................................. 163 12...............................................1 Absolute Gain (Antenna) ................................................................................................................................................3 15 BASIC DEFINITIONS OF AIR...2...................................................4 Magnetic Flux Density ........................ 140 10..................... 167 12.......................................4.................. 179 BASIC DEFINITIONS OF AIR TEMPERATURE ...................................................... 157 OHM’S LAW.............................. 183 WEIGHT & MASS . 159 11........... 163 REVISED NIOSH LIFTING EQUATION .............................................................................................2................2........................................................... 143 10.5 Inductors in Series .................. 160 11.............................................................9 Time Exposure for NonIonizing Radiation .............................................................. 160 11.... 153 10.. 160 11................1.1...............................2 15............ 166 12...... 157 11......................4 Capacitors in Parallel ..........................................................................................4 EQUIVALENT VALUES FOR COMPONENTS IN SERIES AND IN PARALLEL ..................................................................................................2.............com . 171 12................................3 Heat Stress Index ...........................7 Lasers .........................2 Resistors in Parallel .............. 155 11 ELECTRICITY ............................................................. 158 11...............7 Exponential Rate Attenuation...............................8 Spatial Averaging of Measurements....................................................................1.................................4 Ventilation of Sensible Heat .... 137 10..............
........................................................................................6 15............................................... 184 ENERGY ...............................................................................................................................................12 15........ 184 LIGHT ............................................................................ 187 SOLUTIONS TO STUDY PROBLEMS ..........................10 15....................................11 15...... 184 RADIATION .................................................................... 184 MAGNETIC FIELDS ......................................com ..................................................................................13 15.... 184 DENSITY OF AIR ........................ 183 TEMPERATURE.................................5 15........................................................................................................................................................15 16 17 PRESSURE .............................................. 184 PHYSICAL CONSTANTS .......... 183 ANGLES ....................................4 15..............9 15......................... 185 STANDARD TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (STP) .................................................................... 197 ix © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction...............................................................Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 15.........................................7 15........................................................................... 185 MISCELLANEOUS ...............14 15......................................... 184 DENSITY OF WATER .......................................................................................................... 185 STUDY PROBLEMS ..........................8 15.................................
com .Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety x © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.
3.3.0005 (= 5 E4) 2. and 9) are always significant.0 (= 2.1 Significant Figures The significant figures (also called significant digits) of a number are those digits that carry meaning contributing to its precision.e.4 1 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. 1.4 1.5.4.376 100. 1 2 3 4 Rule for Significant Figures All nonzero digits (i.7.02 0.2. Digits that are not significant imply a false sense of precision and should not be reported. The following rules assist in deciding the correct number of significant figures. All zeroes between nonzero numbers are always significant. Examples of Significant Figures Number 84.2.000. All zeroes which are to the left of a written decimal point and are in a number greater than or equal to 10 are always significant.4 1 1.4 1. then they are not significant.3000 609. Rule No. All zeroes which are simultaneously to the right of the decimal point and at the end of the number are always significant. Calculators and spreadsheets routinely display more digits than those that are significant.3 1.com .6. Note: One way to check rules 3 and 4 is to write the number in scientific notation.020 5.239 9.2.000 (= 5 E+6) 20.3.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Introductory Concepts 1 Introductory Concepts 1. If you can eliminate any zeroes..00 E+1) # Significant Figures 5 4 5 1 5 6 1 3 Rule(s) 1 1 1.8.
The answer cannot contain more places after the decimal point than the smallest number of decimal places in the numbers being added or subtracted. Example: Multiply 98.12 12.2345 98.8765 + 0.345678 + 9. count the number of decimal places to determine the number of significant figures.2 Multiplication and Division When multiplying or dividing numbers.1 Addition and Subtraction When adding or subtracting numbers.765432 x 1.765432 times 1.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 1.342178 = 22. 1.8765 + 0.1. 12.12 = 22.34 (6 places after the decimal point) (4 places after the decimal point) (2 places after the decimal point) (displays on calculator) (rounded to 2 places in the answer) Notice there are four significant figures in the answer.2345 = 121. count the number of significant figures.com .345678 + 9.93 (8 significant figures) (5 significant figures) (displayed on calculator) (rounded to 5 significant figures) 2 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.1.9259258 = 121. Example: Add three number. The answer cannot contain more significant figures than the number being multiplied or divided with the least number of significant figures.
(1) 1.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 1. Scientific notation numbers use the form: a x 10b Scientific notation is typically used when numbers are too large or small to be conveniently written in standard decimal notation.com . Rule a = a ⋅ a ⋅ a ⋅ a ⋅ a ⋅ a n Notes a times itself n times Example 3 = 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 = 243 5 (a ) a =1 1 a−n = n a n m a a = a n+m 0 a≠0 a≠0 3. For example. Avogadro’s number is the number of molecules in a mole of a substance.0225 × 10 which is much easier than writing all those zeros.140 = 1 1 1 −2 5= = 2 5 25 −7 2 −7 + 2 a = a= a −5 a n m = a nm for .3 Exponents and Radicals Exponents and radicals are used extensively in the mathematics of safety and industrial hygiene. 23 In scientific notation Avogadro’s number is written as approximately 6. The following table summarizes the important rules for exponents and radicals.2 Scientific Notation Scientific notation (sometimes called exponential notation) is a way of writing or displaying numbers in terms of a decimal number between 1 and 10 multiplied by a power of 10.a ≠ 0 m−n 1 (a = ) 3 7 3⋅7 a= a 21 a n −m an = 1 a m m−n a a an a2 1 −3 −1 = = a 2= a= m 3 a a a ( ab ) n = a nb n ( ab ) b≠0 a≠0 −7 = a −7b −7 5 an a = n b b bn a b = = n a b a −n n n 5 a a = 5 b b b2 a b = = 2 a b a −2 2 3 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.
3. 2. ( 2x y ) ( −4a b ) ( a b ) −3 4 2 2 −4 2 3 xy −2 a 3b −5 −5 n −2 m 7 m −4 n −3 4 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. 5.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety ( ab ) −n = 1 ( ab ) n a ⋅b ≠ 0 ( ab ) −3 = 1 ( ab ) 3 (a b ) 1 = an −n a a −n bm = b−m a n a≠0 b ) ( a= 2 −3 4 1 = a9 −9 a a −4 b 6 = b −6 a 4 2⋅4 −3⋅4 a= a8b −12 b n m k = a nk b mk an a nk = mk m b b n k b≠0 n is a positive integer > 1 and a is a positive real number n is a positive integer > 1 and a is a positive real number n is a positive integer > 1 and a and b are positive real numbers n is a positive integer > 1 and a and b are positive real numbers a 2 a 2⋅3 a 6 5= = 15 5⋅3 b b b 3 3 a =a 1 n a = a3 1 n an = a 5 a5 = a n ab = n a n b 4 ab = 4 a 4 b n a na = b nb 3 a 3a = b 3b Problem: Simplify the following expressions.com . provide answers with only positive exponents: 1. 4.
The definition of the logarithm function is: If b is any number such that b > 0 and b ≠ 1 and x > 0 then. ( 2x −3 −6 8 = 22 x= y4 ) y 2 3 −5 22 y 8 4 y 8 = x6 x6 ( −4a b ) ( a b ) 2 −4 2 −15 16 2 16a −11b −13 = = b −5 =11 13 ( −4 ) a 4b−8 a a b −2 4 3 5 n m mnm mn = = −4 −3 7m n 7n 2 7 12t 2 s −8 4t 2t 5 4t 7 4−2 t −14 s18 = = = = 6.com . y = log b x This is read as “log base b of x” and is equivalent to: by = x (2) (3) Although the base (b) can be any number complying with the definition. −5 8 9 s −18 16t14 3t s s⋅s s −2 −2 −2 1. 5 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 12t 2 s −8 6. = = a 3b −5 3 b −5 3 3. the most common logarithm functions are the common and natural logarithms. 4.4 Logarithm Functions Logarithmic functions are used in several areas of safety and industrial hygiene. including those related to sound and noise as well as radiation. −2 1 x xy −2 x= 2 = 2 y y a 1 1 ab5 2. −5 3t s Solution: 1. 5.
71828. not log. 6 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction..Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety common logarithm: log x = log10 x natural logarithm: ln x = log e x where e = 2. Note the natural logarithm is written ln. i..com ..e. (4) (5) The following table reviews the important rules related to logarithmic functions. log b ( x + y ) ≠ log b x + log b y log b ( x − y ) ≠ log b x − log b y Here’s a simple example of a logarithm function: (6) (7) log 6 216 = 3 just as 63 =216 Many other examples of logarithms are presented in Section 9 on Sound and Noise and Section 10 on Radiation. Rule 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Notes log b 1 = 0 log b b = 1 log b b x = x b logb x = x log b= log b x + log b y ( xy ) b0 = 1 b1 = b x>0 and y>0 x>0 and y>0 x>0 and y>0 x>0 and y>0 x log b= log b x − log b y y log b ( x r ) = r log b x = log b y then x y If log b x = Note that there is no rule for breaking up a logarithm for the sum or difference of two terms.
Absolute value is shown by a vertical bar on each side of the number: a if a ≥ 0 a = −a if a < 0 Problem: What is the absolute value of 5? Solution: (8) −5 = 5 1. Because Equation (9) is a secondorder polynomial equation. the fundamental theorem of algebra guarantees that it has two solutions.com . it is considered positive and no sign is shown).6 Quadratic Formula A quadratic equation is a secondorder polynomial equation with a single variable.5 Absolute Value Equations In mathematics.e. x.. in the form: ax 2 + bx + c = 0 (9) where a ≠ 0 (when a = 0 the equation becomes linear).Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 1. the absolute value (or modulus) of a real number is the numerical value of that number without regard to its sign (i. This is found by the quadratic formula. which is derived by completing the squares as follows: x2 + 2 b c x= − a a (10) b c b2 b 2 − 4ac x+ = + 2 = − 2a a 4a 4a 2 (11) b ± b 2 − 4ac x+ = 2a 2a x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a (12) (13) 7 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.
where “+” means OR. This symbol means the term after the ± sign is both added. b=3. = −4. and subtracted. and A’ means NOT A. B. from the term before the ± sign. Boolean algebra assumes A. and C (etc. The most common rules for Boolean algebra are shown in the accompanying table. Rules for Boolean Algebra Addition A+A=A A+0=A A+1=1 A + A’ = 1 A+B=B+A A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C A + (A · B) = A A + (B · C) = (A + B) · (A + C) Multiplication A·A=A A·0=0 A·1=A A · A’ = 0 A·B=B·A A · (B · C) = (A · B) · C A · ( A + B) = A A · (B + C) = (A · B) + (A · C) Rule identity operation with 0 operation with 1 complement commutative law associative law absorption distributive law 8 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. the following are typical examples of Boolean algebra formats.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Note the ± symbol in the above equations.) are logical states that can have the values 0 (false) and 1 (true). particularly when a large number of events are related in some manner.1 2 2 1. “·” means AND. Although the nomenclature used may vary depending on preference. ± Problem: Solve x + 3 x − 4 = 0 2 Solution: By reviewing equation (10) we see for this equation a=1.7 Boolean Algebra Boolean algebra can be thought of as the algebra of events and states.com . and substituting those values into equation (13) yields: −3 ± 32 − 4(1)(−4) x= 2(1) = x −3 ± 25 −3 ± 5 = 2 2 −8 2 x= . c=4. Boolean algebra is important in the construction and mathematical evaluation of event trees. such as fault trees.
” With regard to sprinkler system failure. failure of automatic methods (e. A fire must occur. sprinklers) and failure of manual methods (e. and the fire must not be controlled (notice the “and” in the statement – both events are required). a fault tree) to evaluate this scenario. When constructing an event tree (e. ( A + B ) ⋅ ( A + B ') Solution: First.. Problem: Resolve the following Boolean expression. we can expand the statement to find: ( A + B ) ⋅ ( A + B ') = A ⋅ A + A ⋅ B '+ A ⋅ B + B ⋅ B ' and A ⋅ A + A ⋅ B '+ A ⋅ B + B ⋅ B ' = A + A( B + B ') + 0 since = A and B ⋅ B ' 0 and then A⋅ A = A + A( B + B ') + 0 = A + A = A since B + B ' = A + A =we find the above expression resolves to A. This is a very simple example. either event would lead to failure.. Each of these events can be broken down further. 1 and A 9 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. both are not required. this could be due to the fire pump failing to start or the preaction valve failing to open.com . but you can see how such an analysis could quickly generate a very large number of events. Boolean algebra allows you to quantify the events and rank the importance of contributing events. Assume you want to evaluate the probability of an uncontrolled fire occurring at some location. Notice the ‘or’ here.g. fire department) – again note the “and.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Consider the following example..g. The failure to control the fire can be broken down to two other events.g. two high level events are required.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
1.8
Trigonometric Functions B c a
A b 1.8.1 Right Triangles
C
For a right triangle (i.e., one with angle C=90o) equations (14) through (16) are true:
sin A = a / c cos A = b / c
tan A = a / b
1.8.2 Law of Cosines
c 2 = a 2 + b 2 − 2ab cos C
(14) (15) (16)
(17)
Note when C = 90o (i.e., for a right triangle) equation (17) reduces to the Pythagorean Theorem, equation (18).
1.8.2.1 Pythagorean Theorem
a 2 + b2 = c2
(18)
1.8.3 Law of Sines
a b c = = sin A sin B sin C
Problem: You walk about 50 feet away from the base of a water tank. From that location it appears the top of the water tank is about 60 degrees above the ground. About how high is the top of the water tank?
(19)
10
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Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
Solution: Reviewing the triangle diagram above, we see we have angle “A” and side “b” and want side “a”. Equation (16) can be written to allow us to estimate the height of the tank (side “a” in the diagram).
a = A = 60o = feet b ⋅ tan 50 tan 86.6
So we can estimate our water tank is about 90 feet high. To understand the possible error with our estimate, we need to know the error with the horizontal measurement and the angle used.
1.9 1.9.1
Useful Equations for Geometric Shapes Perimeter
Triangle : P = a + b + c Rectangle := P 2L + 2W
(20) (21) (22)
Square : P = 4s
Circle := C
1.9.2 Area
circumference =
π d 2π r =
(23)
Triangle : A =
1 bh 2
(24) (25) (26)
Rectangle : A = LW
Square : A = s 2 Circle := A
π r2 =
π d2
4
(27) (28) (29)
Parallelogram : A = bh
Trapezoid : A =
1 2
h ( b1 + b 2 )
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Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
1.9.3 Volume
Rectangular solid : V = LWH
Cube : V = s3
(30) (31) (32) (33) (34) (35)
Sphere : V =
4 3
π r3
Circular cylinder : V = π r 2 h
Circular cone : V =
1 3
π r 2h
1 3
Regular pyramid : V =
s2h
1.9.4 Surface Area
Rectangular solid : SA = 2LW + 2LH + 2WH Cube : SA = 6s 2
(36) (37) (38) (39) (40) (41)
Sphere : SA = 4π r 2 Right circular cylinder : = SA Right circular cone : SA = Regular pyramid : SA = 2π r 2 + 2π rh
π r 2 + π rl
s 2 + 2sl
Problem: A cylindrical tank with a diameter of 3 feet stands 6 feet tall. What is the volume of the tank in cubicfeet? How many gallons of liquid can this tank hold? Assuming the tank is used for water and another for acetone, how many pounds of 3 water or acetone can each tank hold? Note: Assume water weight 62.4 lbs/ft . Solution: First, we can calculate the volume of the tank in cubic feet using equation (33).
V =
= π r 2 h π ft ⋅ 6 ft = 42.4 ft 3 2
3
3
2
We can convert to gallons using the conversion 1 ft = 7.481 gallons,
12
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Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
7.481gal 42.4 ft 3 = 317.2 gallons 3 1ft
We can find the capacity of the tank in pounds of water by converting volume to pounds of water as follows:
lbs 42.4 ft 3 62.4 3 = 2645.8lbs H2 0 ft
To find the weight for acetone, we can use the specific gravity. We can find the specific gravity from data on its MSDS sheet. MSDS typically list the specific gravity of acetone as 0.79 (water = 1.0). Since we know the weight in water, we simply multiply that by the specific gravity for acetone:
( 2645.8lbs ) (0.79) = 2090.2 lbs
H2 0
acetone
13
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Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 14 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com .
The term "arithmetic mean" is preferred because it helps distinguish it from other averages. The arithmetic mean is calculated as follows: X= X1 + X 2 + + X n n (42) where X = arithmetic mean of n items X n = value of nth item n = total number of items to be averaged The Ellipsis (…) Equation (42) contains a common symbol." Equation (42) can be described as reading “add X 1 and X 2 and so on for as many items as you have. 2.2 Geometric Mean The geometric mean. often referred to simply as the average. and then divide by the number of item you have. is similar to the arithmetic mean except that the sample numbers are multiplied and then the nth root of the resulting product is taken. is a method to derive the central tendency of a sample space. as shown here. such as the geometric mean. In mathematics.com .1 Arithmetic Mean The arithmetic mean. GM = where n ( X 1 )( x2 ) ( X n ) (43) 15 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. an ellipsis is often used to indicate "and so on.” It is common in mathematics to indicate the number of items by the variable n.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Statistics 2 Statistics 2. the ellipsis (…).
49. The following concentrations (in ppm) are found: 51.2 5 5 n 16 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. is the common form of shorthand used to give a concise expression for a sum of the values of a variable. we use equation (42) and for the geometric mean we use equation (43). = X X 1 + X 2 + + X n 51 + 76 + 49 + 79 + 36 291 = = = 58.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety GM = geometric mean of n items n = total number of items to be averaged X n = value of nth item The following equation is simply another form of the geometric mean equation above. indicated by a capital Greek sigma. 76.com . The summation notation. and 36. 79. ∑ ( log X ) GM = 10 i =1 n n (44) where GM = geometric mean of n items X n = value of nth item n = total number of items to be averaged i = count Σ Notation Mathematical formulae often require the addition of many variables. Calculate the arithmetic and geometric means. For example: ∑ xi = x1 + x2 + x3 + + xn i =1 n Problem: Several air samples are taken to determine the airborne concentration of a process solvent. Solution: To calculate the arithmetic mean.
The selection of the mean equation will depend on the application of the data. If values are to be multiplied. The sample standard deviation is the most common estimator for a “standard deviation.. But this estimator.e. 17 and 14 percent over a three year period. use an arithmetic mean. Another estimator for the standard deviation is not adjusted (i. if numbers are to be added.” It is an adjusted version (i. tends to be too low. use a geometric mean. multiplied).3 Standard Deviation The standard deviation of a data set is the square root of its variance. It has a uniformly smaller mean squared error than the sample standard deviation. 2. if a investment return yielded 12.8 ( 51)( 76 )( 49 )( 79 )( 36 ) The results demonstrate that all averages are not the same. The two are typically expressed as follows: When N1 this is a “Sample Standard Deviation” (usually written SD): SD = ∑(x − x ) i =1 i n 2 n −1 (45) This can also be written as: 17 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.. Typically. N1) and is typically denoted by as s or SD." A low standard deviation indicates that the data points tend to be very close to the mean. the appropriate average would be the geometric mean since the gains are compounded (i. Standard deviation is a widely used measure of the variability or dispersion. whereas high standard deviation indicates that the data are spread out over a large range of values.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety = GM 5 = 55. that is it shows how much variation there is from the "average. For example. It provides the maximumlikelihood estimate when the population is normally distributed.e. N) and is typically denoted by σ. when applied to smaller samples.com .e.
76. so either form is acceptable. 79. The following concentrations (in ppm) are found. we can calculate term above as shown in the following table: 18 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. 51. Solution: We can use equations (45) and (47).com .Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety SD = ∑(x ) n 2 i =1 n −1 (46) where x= x − xi When n is used unmodified this is a “Standard Deviation” (usually written as σ): σ= This can also be written as: ∑(x − x ) i =1 i n 2 n (47) σ= where x= x − xi ∑ ( x) i =1 n 2 n (48) N or n In some formulas for standard deviation. 49. Problem: Several air samples are taken to determine the airborne concentration of a process solvent. Also note the following term is the same in each equation: ∑(x − x ) i =1 i n 2 We also know the arithmetic mean ( X = 58. 36. you may see n written as an upper case N.2 ) from the sample problem above. Next. Calculate the sample standard deviation and the standard deviation. In this application they are simply used to denote the total number of items being evaluated.
64 432.8 = 16.8 22.61 5 2.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety xi 51 76 49 79 36 n x − xi 7.4 Geometric Standard Deviation The geometric standard deviation describes how spread out a set of numbers is whose average is characterized by a geometric mean.8 We can now solve for the sample standard deviation: = SD And the standard deviation: 1378.57 5 −1 = σ 1378.com .8 9.84 84.87 percent probability or by dividing the particle size at the 84. In safety and industrial hygiene applications related to particle size distributions.84 316.2 20.2 17. the geometric standard deviation (of a lognormal distribution) is easily determined by dividing the mass median particle diameter by the particle size at the 15.87%tile value 84.13 percent probability by the mass median particle diameter.13%tile value 50%tile value 19 (49) (50) © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. These two equations are shown here: GSD = GSD = 50%tile value 15.2 2 ( x − xi ) 2 51.64 492.8 = 18.84 ∑(x − x ) i =1 i 1378.
13% of the cumulative particle mass is below 20µm and 15. and the resulting plot reveals the average particle size is 10µm. Calculate the geometric standard deviation of the samples. 76.0 15. The following concentrations (in ppm) are found.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety where GSD = geometric standard deviation Problem: Particle sample data are plotted on logarithmic graph paper. and SD = 18. it is calculated as follows: CV = SD X (51) where CV = coefficient of variation (see following equation).0 50%tile value 10 µ m GSD = 2.2. GSD = 50%tile value 10 µ m = = 2. the arithmetic mean and sample standard deviation were derived in the sample problems above ( X = 58.13%tile value 20 µ m = = 2.87% of the cumulative particle mass is below 5µm. 20 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. 79.57). and 84. For the data set in the problem. Calculate the coefficient of variation. 49.87%tile value 5µ m 84. 51.com . percent in decimal format SD = the sample standard deviation (see equation (45)) X = the arithmetic mean (see equation (42)) Problem: Several air samples are taken to determine the airborne concentration of a process solvent. Solution: The formula for the coefficient of variation is given in equation (51). Solution: Both equations (49) and (50) should provide the same determination. 36.5 Coefficient of Variation The coefficient of variation is a measure of relative variation of a set of normallydistributed values.
the individual errors associated with various steps in a measurement can be quantified. CV A = 0. These values are CV P = 0.5. CV D =0. 1) air pump performance (CV P ).07.07 2 = 0.7 Sampling and Analytical Error All sampling and analytical methods have some degree of uncertainty. Assume the total air sampling error factor accounts for three uncontrollable variances.04. What is the total variance? Solution: To determine CV total .312 31.2% = X 58.57 = = 0. Uncertainty in sampling results has historically been called Sampling and Analytical Error (SAE) by OSHA. 2) variability of the deposit area on the filter (CV D ) and 3) variability of the laboratory analysis (CV A ).042 + 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety CV = SD 18. the individual components are determined separately and then combined according to the cumulative error formula.506 2.52 + 0.6 Cumulative Error In some cases. It can be calculated as follows: 21 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.2 2. The total uncertainty depends on the combined effects of the contributing uncertainties inherent in sampling and analysis. equation (52): CVtotal= 2 CVP2 + CVD + CVA2 = 0. rather the cumulative error is defined by the following expression: Ec= where E c = cumulative error 2 2 E12 + E2 + + En (52) E n = individual error of item n n = total number of error items Problem: Consider a case in which sampling and analytical errors (SAE) are used to account for a margin of error before measured exposures are determined to exceed the total airborne contaminant limit. the total cumulative error is not just a simple summation of the individual errors.com . However.
8 Student’s tTest Any statistical test that uses the tdistribution can be called a ttest. The degrees of freedom for a ttest is the total number of observations in the groups minus 2. These statistics can be used to carry out either a onetailed test or a twotailed test.645CVtotal 1.506 ) 0. Once a t value is determined.645 = a constant that is a 95percent 1tailed confidence coefficient (53) CV total = coefficient of variation (see equation (51)). a pvalue can be found using a table of values from Student's tdistribution (See Table in Section 13).645 ( 0. then the null hypothesis is rejected in favor of the alternative hypothesis.645 ⋅ CVtotal = where SAE = Sampling and Analytical Error 1. The shape of the tdistribution depends on the number of degrees of freedom.com . The following equation is used for ttests: t= x1 − x2 1 1 SD pooled + n1 n2 (54) where t = the test statistic 22 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. One of the most common is Student's ttest.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety SAE 1. If the calculated pvalue is below the threshold chosen for statistical significance (frequently the 0. percent in decimal format Problem: Based on the total coefficient of variation just calculated.833 SAE = = 2. what is the sampling and analytical error for the method used (95% confidence)? Solution: = 1.05 level). or n 1 +n 2 2. Student's ttest is used to compare the means of two samples.
simply multiply the probability value by 2 and use the data from that column. = t X −µ X −µ = n −1 n σ SD (56) where 23 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.g.05 (i.1). you can select a onetailed test or a twotailed test. However. Also. 2*0. Most references on statistical tests will recommend that if there is any doubt.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety x 1 = mean of sample 1 x 2 = mean of sample 2 SD pooled = pooled standard deviation (see following equation) n 1 = number of measurements in sample set 1 n 2 = number of measurements in sample set 2 Tails? Generally. you are given a probability (pvalue) in the output. data for a twotailed pvalue of 0..05 = 0.com . that is. if you have a table of onetailed data (e. See the TDistribution Table in Section 13. SD pooled = where ( n1 − 1) SD12 + ( n2 − 1) SD22 n1 + n2 − 2 (55) SD pooled = pooled standard deviation SD 1 = standard deviation for sample set 1 SD 2 = standard deviation for sample set 2 n 1 = number of measurements in sample set 1 n 2 = number of measurements in sample set 2 The following equation is used for an independent onesample ttest.1 is the same as a onetailed pvalue of 0.e.9 Pooled Standard Deviation The pooled standard deviation is used in the above ttest equation. a twotailed test should be done. 2. if your test statistic is symmetrically distributed (such as a tdistribution). the CSP examination reference tdistribution table).. For example. select your pvalues from a twotailed table. when you conduct a test of statistical significance.
56 Solution: With the data above. so short breaks are encouraged. The student’s ttest is a good tool since you are comparing two similar data sets.com . you can use equations (55) and (54) to determine the ttest value.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety t = the test statistic X = mean of sample µ = mean of the population SD = sample standard deviation σ = standard deviation n = sample size Note that these can be written as: = t X −µ X −µ = σ SD n −1 n (57) Problem: Two shifts at a factory each have 8 employees working at a time.14 Group 2 8 1 4 6 6 4 1 2 32 4 2. along with the totals. You are asked to conduct an analysis of the breaks taken to ascertain if there is a significant difference between the two shifts. An initial assessment reveals the following data on the number of breaks taken. The work requires repetitive motions. 24 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. average and standard deviation: Group 1 5 7 5 3 5 3 3 9 Total Average SD 40 5 2.
Zscores are typically used in conjunction with standard normal curve data tables (see Section 13). A positive Zscore means that the original score was above the mean. 76.05 (two tails).56 ) = 2 2 8+8−2 2.10 Normal Distribution Z Score The number of standard deviations from the mean is called the zscore.e. 49.com . They are found by the formula: z= X −µ σ (58) where z = number of standard deviations between X and µ X = value to be evaluated µ = mean of the population (x in equation (42) above) σ = standard deviation of the population A negative Zscore means that the original score was below the mean.36 t = x1 − x2 5−4 = = 0.14 ) + ( 7 )( 2. The following example will demonstrate how zscores are commonly used. Problem: Several air samples are taken to determine the airborne concentration of a process solvent. The following concentrations (in ppm) are found..145. 162) and with a probability of 0. 2.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety = SD pooled 2 n1 − 1) SD12 + ( n2 − 1) SD2 (= n1 + n2 − 2 ( 7 )( 2. we see for 14 degrees of freedom (i. Therefore we conclude the difference in breaks is not significant.36 + SD pooled + 8 8 n1 n2 Now. 79. Assuming a normal distribution.847 1 1 1 1 2. For the data set in the 25 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. 51. 36. One of the most useful applications of the normal distribution Z score is being able to determine the exact proportion of data that falls above and below that score. going to the table of tdistributions (see Section 13). what is the probability of a reading greater than 80? Solution: The formula for the zscore is given in equation (58). t must be at least 2.
5 (i.com . we find the area under the curve from 0 to 1.. and σ = 16. ½ of 1).e.51% chance that we could get a reading of 80 or greater based on our samples (assuming the data follows a normal distribution). we can assume that a fair coin toss should give us on average 100 26 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. there is a 9.11 ChiSquared The chisquared test is used to assess two types of statistical comparison: tests of goodness of fit. χ =∑ 2 i =1 n ( Oi − Ei ) Ei 2 (59) where χ 2 = Chi squared test statistic O i = an observed frequency E i = an expected (or theoretical) frequency i = count n = the total number Problem: We toss a coin 200 times and obtain the following results.31 σ 16.61).Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety problem. 2.61 Now. Consequently the answer we are looking for is: 0. Is this a reasonable outcome. the arithmetic mean and standard deviation were derived in the sample problems above (µ = X = 58.4049 = 0. we want the value beyond z = 1. The chisquare value (determined by the following equation) can be used to determine a pvalue by comparing the value of the statistic to a chisquared distribution table. 108 heads and 92 tails. and tests of independence. However.31. so we must subtract the zscore from 0.5 − 0.31 is 0. First we calculate the zscore: = z X − µ 80 − 58.0951 = 9.2 = = 1.51% In other words.4049. going to a zscore table (see Section 13). or can we suspect the coin somehow favors heads? Solution: First.2.
Based on the independent rankings.28 From a Chisquared distribution table (see Section 13). nondimensional 6 = a constant (it is always used in the formula) D = the difference between two corresponding variables N = the number of data pairs Problem: Two safety inspectors perform surveys in the same 10 locations within a site. But we can also assume that there is some variation due to chance.com .e. The formula for the Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient is: rs = 1 − 6∑ ( D 2 ) N ( N 2 − 1) (60) where r s = Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. 2. This problem is a good application of a Chisquared test.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety heads and 100 tails. particularly with a small number of coin tosses. minus 1) a value of 1. We can calculate the chisquared test statistic for this problem as follows: = χ 2 ∑ i =1 n ( Oi − Ei ) ( OH − EH ) = 2 2 Ei EH ( O − ET ) + T ET 2 2 χ = 2 (108 − 100 ) 100 2 ( 92 − 100 ) + 100 = 1. head and tails. how likely is it that these two inspectors would have similar findings at other sites? The ranking (from 1 to 10) for each location 27 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. 2 classes.12 Spearman Rank Correlation The Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient was developed for use with data such as ranks.28 falls between 90% and 10%. A coefficient of 1 means a perfect positive correlation and 1 means a perfect negative correlation. They then independently rank the areas based on the number and type of findings. A coefficient of 0 indicates no correlation.. From this we conclude our coin toss results can be accounted for by chance and the coin toss was fair. we find for 1 degree of freedom (i. The score runs between 1 and 1.
Location 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Inspector 1 8 4 1 5 7 10 2 3 9 6 Inspector 2 10 2 3 6 7 9 1 4 8 5 D 2 2 2 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 Sum D 2 4 4 4 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 18 6∑ ( D 2 ) 6 (18 ) rs = 1− =2 1− = 0. equation (60).89 = 89% 2 N ( N − 1) 10 (10 − 1) Therefore.com . 28 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. we can conclude there is a strong positive correlation between the two inspectors. provides an acceptable approximation of the uniformity in the two inspector’s findings and is easy to calculate. from this analysis.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety assessed by the inspectors is shown here: Location 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Inspector 1 8 4 1 5 7 10 2 3 9 6 Inspector 2 10 2 3 6 7 9 1 4 8 5 Solution: Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient.
values for y also increase. Negative values indicate a relationship between x and y such that as values for x increase. r is close to +1 (an r value of exactly +1 indicates a perfect positive fit). r= N ∑ ( XY ) − ( ∑ X )( ∑ Y ) N ( X 2 ) − ( X )2 N (Y 2 ) − ( Y )2 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ (61) where X and Y are two variables being evaluated Equation (61) may be written in an equivalent. If x and y have a strong negative linear correlation. Positive values indicate a relationship between x and y variables such that as values for x increase. r is close to 0.13 Correlation Coefficient The linear correlation coefficient (usually denoted by the letter r) is a measure of the strength and direction of a linear relationship between two variables (here. r is close to 1 (an r value of exactly 1 indicates a perfect negative fit). values for y decrease. If x and y have a strong positive linear correlation. The value of r is a dimensionless quantity such that 1 < r < +1. X 1 2 3 Y 2 5 6 29 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. If there is no linear correlation or a weak linear correlation.com . but somewhat more simple form: r= ∑ xy ( ∑ x )( ∑ y ) 2 2 (62) where = X −X x y Y −Y = Problem: Calculate the linear correlation coefficient for the following data set.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 2. x and y).
This is written as: LCL = where 2 2 2 2 2 2 C A SAE T1 C1 + T2 C2 + + Tn Cn − PEL PEL (T1 + T2 + + Tn ) (63) LCL = lower confidence limit. ppm PEL = permissible exposure limit. the method is typically used for larger data sets. respectively.00 x2 1.67 4.33.com .67 ∑ 2 = r ∑ xy = x )( ∑ y ) (∑ 2 4.44 2. see equation (53) T n = duration of sample n. Note: Although this sample problem only uses three data pairs.00 y2 5. minutes C n = concentration of sample n.67 xy 2. ppm C A = timeweighted average concentration of consecutive samples.00 0. These are easily found to be 2 and 4.961 indicates a strong positive relationship between the data.67 ) A linear correlation coefficient of 0. 2.961 ( 2 )( 8.44 0. = X −X x 1. 95% or 99%).00 1. the lower confidence limit can be considered the lowest value that the true exposure could be with some degree of confidence (e..00 2.33 0.00 1. ppm SAE = sampling and analytical error.00 y Y −Y = 2.0 = 0.14 Lower Confidence Limit With regard to the permissible exposure limit (PEL).00 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Solution: We will use equation (62). ppm n = total number of samples 30 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.67 1.33 0. that requires the average of the x and y values.78 8.g.00 1.
552 ppm ( 90 min ) + (170 min ) + ( 220 min ) Then equation (63) is used to determine to LCL.552 2202 LCL = 0.45 ppm for 170 min.55 for 220 min. we need to calculate the timeweighted average of the chlorine samples: CA ( 0. Solution: First. units to match X .75 ppm )( 90 min ) + ( 0. 2.2 0.645 n where (64) 90%Conf = the twosided 90% confidence value.4521702 + 0. since the LCL is less than 1. 0.97 − = 0. σ and n X = arithmetic mean of the sample σ = standard deviation n = sample size 31 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. as well as the standard deviation and number of samples in that data set. the twosided 90% confidence interval is calculated as follows: σ 90%Conf = X ± 1. Assume the PEL for chlorine is 0.752902 + 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem: Chlorine is used in a process and the following measurements of airborne concentrations are made: 0.75 ppm for 90 min.15 TwoSided 90% Confidence Interval Given the mean value of a data set. and 0.5 0. we conclude that the exposure does not exceed the PEL at the 95% confidence level.0.55 ppm )( 220 min ) = 0.552 0.5 ppm and the SAE for this method is 20%. 0.com . Find the lower confidence limit for this data.5 ( 90 + 170 + 220 ) Therefore.45 ppm )(170 min ) + ( 0.
96 n where (65) 95%Conf = the twosided 95% confidence value.645 n where (66) 95%Conf = the onesided 95% confidence value. σ and n X = arithmetic mean of the sample σ = standard deviation n = sample size 2.com . the twosided 95% confidence interval is calculated as follows: σ 95%Conf = X ± 1. units to match X . The following concentrations (in ppm) are found. 49.17 OneSided 95% Confidence Interval Given the mean value of a data set.16 TwoSided 95% Confidence Interval Given the mean value of a data set. as well as the standard deviation and number of samples in that data set. what is the twosided 90% confidence interval? 32 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 2. 79. the onesided 95% confidence interval can be calculated as follows: σ 95%Conf = X [ +or − ] 1. Assuming a normal distribution. 76. 51. 36. as well as the standard deviation and number of samples in that data set. units to match X and σ X = arithmetic mean of the sample σ = standard deviation n = sample size Problem: Several air samples are taken to determine the airborne concentration of a process solvent.
so n = 5. σ 16.98 ppm and 70. Equations (64) and (65) are solved in the same manner.22 = 70.61 90%Conf = X ± 1.1 Permutation The number of ways of obtaining an ordered subset of k elements from a set of n elements is given by: Pkn = where Pkn = the number of ways of obtaining an ordered subset of k elements from a set of n elements n! (n − k )! (67) n = total number of items from which to select 33 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. the arithmetic mean and standard deviation were derived in the samples problems above ( X = 58.98. and σ = 16.645 n 5 16. Which rule (equation) to apply is determined by the importance of order in the selection.2 ± 1. Therefore.2 ± 12. the only difference is the choice of the confidence level desired. However.com . There were five samples.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Solution: The formula for the twosided 90% confidence interval is given in equation (64). so you must decide if you need the upper or lower confidence interval and use the equation as such (i. 2. equation (66) is for a one sided confidence interval.2.645 = 58. For the data set in the problem.18.42 45.61 58.61). not both).2 ± 12.2 ± 1.645 58.18 Permutations and Combinations Permutations and combinations are mathematical terms applied to the two rules by which items are selected from a group of items.22 = 5 58. 2. the twosided 90% confidence interval for the sample set is 45.e..42 ppm. + or .
say you have to pick two people from a group of ten.2 Combination The number of ways of picking k unordered outcomes from n possibilities is given by: Ckn = where Ckn = the number of ways of obtaining an unordered subset (combination) of k elements from a set of n elements n! k !(n − k )! (68) n = total number of items from which to select k = number of items taken each time The terms ordered and unordered can be a bit confusing. is the product of all positive integers less than or equal to n (e. the factorial of a positive integer n. how many ways can they be arranged in a row? Solution: To answer the first question.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety k = number of items taken each time n! In mathematics. and you pick Al and Beth. how many combinations of two generators are provided by the set of three? Also.com .g. so in this case n=3 and k=3: 34 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. In an unordered set. so in an unordered set there are actually fewer options.. This situation is not true. more options appear available. Problem: At a production facility. denoted by n!.18. Also note that 0! = 1. For example. we use a permutation because we want to range three out of three. 2. If only two are required to provide the required capacity. The term unordered may seem less restrictive. 4! = 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 = 24). and as a result. there are three standby generators provided so that the backup electrical power has a high degree of reliability. we use a combination with n = 3 and k = 2. B and C. Al and Beth are the same as Beth and Al. if the three generators are labeled A. = Ckn n! 3! = = 3 k !(n − k )! 2!(3 − 2)! For the second question.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety = Pkn n! 3! = = 6 (n − k )! (3 − 3)! Remember that factorial of zero is one.19 Poisson Distribution The Poisson distribution expresses the probability of a number of events occurring in a fixed period of time if these events occur with a known average rate and independently of the time since the last event. 0! =1.e.71828… Another way of showing the probability function of the Poisson distribution is: Pm P { = m} X = = where a = λt Problem: Electrical power to a factory fails an average of 5 times every year (e. Mathematically it can be written as: P(r ) = where λ t ) e − λt (= ( t / m ) r r e−t / m r! r! (69) P(r) = probability of r. 2.com .g. calculate the probability that there will not be more than one failure during a particular week. i. It is typically applied to rare events. based on a Poisson distribution λ = expected number of events over time t t = time period r = number of occurrence of an event m = 1/λ = time period per event e = natural logarithm. Assuming a Poisson distribution.. high winds.. etc.). a me− a m! (70) 35 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. storms. 2.
e..g. reliability is the probability of no failure). high winds.096 52 week a m e − a ( 0. The probability of failure is simply the complement of the reliability probability.20 Reliability In simple terms.096 ( 0. Hint: For this you must calculate the probability of no failures in a week and the probability of one failure in a week and sum them.996 = Remember: Any number raised to the zero power..). Solution: R ( t ) e= e = − λt − 5failures 1week 52 weeks = 0.096 ) e P(r ) = = m! 0! 0 −0.com . we use equation (70).096 1! 0. 0! and 1! all equal 1. the power supply system has a reliability of about 91%. reliability is defined as the probability that a device will perform its required function for a specific period of time (i. storms. Fist we calculated the average failure rate: 5failures a = = λt (1week ) = 0. etc. Mathematically this probability can be defined as: R ( t ) = e − λt (71) where R(t) = reliability as a function of time. 2. 0 ≤ R (t) ≤ 1 λ = the failure rate (also called the hazard rate) which predicts the number of failures that have occurred over a period of time t = time Problem: Electrical power to a factory fails an average of 5 times every year (e.908 Based on this calculation.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Solution: Since this is a Poisson distribution question. and can be written as: 36 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.096 ) + 1 e −0. Calculate the reliability of the power system over a oneweek period.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 1 Pf + Ps = (72) where P f = probability of failure P s = probability of success. use equation (73) and use the reliability rate just calculated.092 Based on this calculation. which is equal to R(t) From these equations we can write: Pf = 1 − R ( t ) and Pf = 1 − Ps (73) (74) Problem: Based on the reliability just calculated.com .908 = 1− 1− 0. there is about a 9% probability of electrical system failure in a week. Pf =R ( t ) =0. 37 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. what is the failure probability of the electrical supply system over a oneweek period? Solution: For this calculation.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 38 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com .
000. is a subset of economics that is concerned with the application of economic techniques to the evaluation of design and engineering alternatives. $ i = interest rate. 39 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. previously known as engineering economy. The first equation calculates the future value of a lump sum payment made today given an interest rate compounding over a number of years. they apply universally to financial projections. the following equations are not special “engineering” equations. = F (1 + i ) P −n (76) Problem: Personal protective equipment has a current replacement cost of $15. Engineers should seek solutions to problems that are technically sound but in which the economic viability of each potential solution is also considered. $ P = present value of money. Assuming an inflation increase of 3% per year.com . how much should be invested today to cover the PPE costs in 5 years? Solution: The two problems can be solved with equations (75) and (76). percent in decimal form n = number of years Equation (75) can be rearranged to calculate P given F (same units). respectively. However.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Engineering Economics 3 Engineering Economics Engineering economics. = P (1 + i ) F n (75) where F = future value of money. what will be the adjusted cost of the PPE in 5 years when it is expected to be replaced? Given the expected replacement cost and assuming the cost allocated for the PPE replacement can be put into an interest bearing account that yields 5% per year.
11(1 + 0. the amount we would need to invest today is: P = F (1 + i ) −n = $17.com .11 n 5 Next.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety First.11) and assuming we earn 5% interest. you evaluate your PPE budget and it appears you can place $3500 into the same account each year over the next 5 years.05) −5 = $13. the cost of the PPE in 5 years is: F = P (1 + i ) = $15. (1 + i )n − 1 F = A i where F = future value of money. 000 (1 + 0.82 The following equation can be used to calculate the future value of a series of annual payments given an interest rate and number of years.389. based on this amount ($17.389. i A= F n (1 + i ) − 1 (78) (77) Problem: Continuing with the PPE replacement problem above. percent in decimal form n = number of years Equation (77) can be rearranged to calculate A given F (same units). 628.03) = $17. $ i = interest rate. use equation (78) to find the answer to the first question: 40 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.389. Also. calculate how much would you have to place into the account each year for 5 years instead of one lump sum today. $ A = annual payment. How much will be available for PPE purchase in 5 years? Solution: First.
389. $6000. A second model (Model B) costs more. percent in decimal form n = number of years Equation (79) can be rearranged to calculate A given P (same units).146.71 i 0.99 n 5 (1 + i ) − 1 (1 + 0. i (1 + i )n A= P n (1 + i ) − 1 (80) (79) Problem: Your company is considering the purchase of a new lab analyzer. but requires $375 less each year in replacement parts and supplies. $ i = interest rate. Using the concept of present worth.com . Assume an interest rate of 4%.05 )5 − 1 = A F = $3.05 The following equation is used to calculate the present value of a series of equal annual payments given an interest rate and number of years.05 ) − 1 Next.500 = $19.11 = $3. 41 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. use equation (77) to see how much would accumulate based on the yearly contributions to the interestbearing account: (1 + i )n − 1 (1 + 0.05 = F A = $17. One model (Model A) costs $4500. it is known as capital recovery.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety i 0. $ A = annual payment. evaluate which option is more cost effective over a 7 year period (the expected service life of both). (1 + i )n − 1 P = A n i (1 + i ) where P = present value of money.339.
assuming an interest rate of 3.04 ) Next. 42 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. if $3378. For this we use equation (79): (1 + i )n − 1 (1 + 0.com . 000 − $2250. so Model B is the more costeffective.04 (1 + 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Solution: First. Ignoring other costs.77 n 7 i (1 + i ) 0.035 ) − 1 In other words. the cost of the GC will be recouped in 6 years.035 (1 + 0.04 )7 − 1 = A P = $375 = $2250.035 )6 = P = $3378. Problem: A testing lab is considering the addition of a new gas chromatograph that has a purchase price of about $18. estimate the yearly cost that should be charged to clients to offset the acquisition. Solution: For this we use equation (80): i (1 + i )n 0. we need to subtract this amount from the present value of Model B since it would be “paying” back this amount each year: $6.02 is charged each year for the use of the GC. 000 n 6 (1 + i ) − 1 (1 + 0.77 = $3749. Assume an interest rate of 3.02 A = $18.5% and a service life of 6 years with negligible salvage value. $4500. we must calculate the present worth of the $375 saved each year over the 7 year period.23 This is less than the present value of Model A.000.5%.
gram moles R = gas constant. The ideal gas law can be written as: P ⋅ Vol = n ⋅ R ⋅ T where P = absolute pressure of the gas.0867 lb 1.6 1.082 latm/gram molesK T = temperature.0 1.670 34.0426 2.6 0.00290 0.4 2. other applications (or simply personal preference) may employ different units.45 lb 37.0456 0.0 gm 0.730 10. See the following table. Ideal Gas Law Gas Constant (R) Absolute Pressure moles atm psi mm Hg in Hg gm 0.2 547.0 15715.73 555.1 Ideal Gas Law The ideal gas law (also called the perfect gas law) is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas.0546 24.8 2.08206 1.55 701.02366 1.3 gm 0.0 619.22 0. K These are the typical units used in safety and industrial hygiene applications.0 1113. atm Vol = volume of gas.31 19.0 (81) Volume ft 3 Temp K o R K liters o R ft H 2 O 0. liters (l) n = amount of gas.0 43 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. However.0482 lb 0.20 0.78 1262. such as air and other gases typically encountered in industrial hygiene and safety applications.31 999.36 lb 20.0 39.7 304.com .85 gm 0. It provides a good approximation of the behavior of many gases under many conditions.00161 0.0982 44. 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Chemistry and Concentrations 4 Chemistry and Concentrations 4.0 28300.206 62.0 21.
and at room temperature the gauge reads 1500 psi. the equation can be written as: 44 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. to provide: MW ⋅ P ⋅ Vol MW ⋅ n ⋅ R ⋅ T = This can be rearranged to: MW ⋅ n = MW ⋅ P R ⋅T Vol The term MW ⋅ n is the density (ρ).Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety For a gas at two varying conditions. equation (81) can be written as: PVol1 PVol2 1 = 2 nRT1 nRT2 (82) With n and R constant. Calculate its density in lbs/ft at 1 atmosphere and 68 F. What pressure would the gauge read at that temperature? Assume o room temperature is 70 F. The cylinder is left in an area where the ambient temperature can climb as o high as 90 F.com .73ft ⋅ atm/lb mole ⋅ R ) ⋅ ( 460 + 68F) Problem: A small oxygen cylinder is full. we can take equation (81) and multiply each side of the equation by the molecular weight (MW). and since the volume of the cylinder does not change. equation (82) can be written: PVol1 PVol2 1 = 2 T1 T2 (83) Problem: Propane has a chemical composition of C 3 H 8 yielding a molecular weight of 3 o 44.114 lbs/ft 3 3 ( 0. Solution: First. Solution: We can use equation (83). so we can write: Vol MW ⋅ P = ρ ⋅ R ⋅ T which can be rearranged to solve for d: ρ= MW ⋅ P R ⋅T Selecting the appropriate value for R (based on the units we desire) we find: ρ 44 ⋅1atm = 0.
we find acetylene occupies 14.3 Airborne Concentration via Volume The following expression may be used to calculate the airborne concentration of a gas or vapor in partpermillion (ppm) based on volume. ppm = Vcontam x 106 Vair (84) where ppm = airborne concentration.66 3 ft /lb. Equations related to permissible exposure limits are also commonly encountered. 4. These are presented in the following section.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety P P2 1 = T1 T2 Solving for P 2 and remembering to use degrees Rankine leads to: P 1500psi P2 = 1 T2 = (90F + 460F) = 1556. ppm V contam = volume of contaminant (units to match V air ) V air = volume of air (units to match V contam ) 106 = conversion factor for ppm Problem: One pound of acetylene leaks from a cylinder into a room that measures 30 ft 3 wide by 50 ft long by 12 feet high. so we write: 45 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. 4. if we take the inverse of the density.0682 lbs/ft at room temperature and pressure.6 psi T1 (70F + 460F) The pressure increase is not that substantial in this case. What is the concentration in ppm (assume uniform mixing and no losses)? Solution: First.com . Assume acetylene as a density of 0.2 Concentration of Vapors and Gases The calculation of concentrations of airborne contaminants is a common effort in safety and industrial hygiene.
79 )( 400 psi ) (= 0. but applied to problems involving solutions.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Vcontam = = ppm x 106 Vair 14.4 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure (Gas) & Raoult’s Law (Liquids) Dalton's law (also called Dalton's law of partial pressures) states that the total pressure exerted by a gaseous mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of each individual component in a gas mixture. Problem: An air compressor supplies air at 400 psi.66 ft 3 = 814. mmHg Note that the partial pressure of each component is: Ppartial −i = X i Pi (85) (86) Raoult's law states the vapor pressure of an ideal solution is dependent on the vapor pressure of each chemical component and the mole fraction of the component present in the solution.21)( 400 psi ) (= 316 psi 84 psi 46 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.4 ppm x 106 ( 30 ft )( 50 ft )(12 ft ) 4. Raoult’s law can be written the same as Dalton’s law. non dimensional P i = pressure of gas i in the mixture. Mathematically. mmHg X i = mole fraction of gas i in the mixture. what is the partial pressure of the oxygen and nitrogen? Solution: Since we know the total pressure and percent fractions. the solution is found by multiplying the oxygen (21%) and nitrogen (79%) fractions by the total pressure to arrive at the partial pressures contributed by each: = Pnitrogen = Poxygen 0. Assuming air is comprised of oxygen (21%) and nitrogen (79%).com . It can be written as: Ptotal= X 1 P + X 2 P2 + + X i Pi 1 where P total = total pressure of gas mixture.
ppm = Pv x 106 Patm (87) where ppm = airborne concentration.5 Airborne Concentration via Pressure The following expression may be used to calculate the airborne concentration of a gas or vapor in partpermillion (ppm) based on pressure. we can write: o = ppm Pv 44 mmHg = x 106 = 57. ppm P v = vapor pressure of contaminant (units to match P atm ) P atm = vapor pressure of air (units to match P v ) 106 = conversion factor for ppm Problem: Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) has a vapor pressure of 44 mmHg at 25 C. another common set of units is mg/m3. ppm mg/m3 = airborne concentration.6 Conversion for Airborne Concentrations: ppm (to/from) mg/m3 In addition to quantifying airborne contaminants in units of ppm. mg/m3 47 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 4.895 ppm x 106 760 mmHg Patm 4. ppm = where mg / m3 x 24. What is the equilibrium concentration (in ppm) in air around the IPA source assuming a o temperature of 25 C and a pressure of 1 atmosphere? Solution: Knowing 1 atmosphere equals 760 mmHg. The following equation can be used to make this conversion.45 MW (88) ppm = airborne concentration.com .
l/mole MW = molecular weight of contaminant.45 = molar volume of any gas or vapor at STP.45 x106 1g ⋅ 24.45 x106 MW ⋅ V (89) g ⋅ 24. Solution: We need to rearrange equation (88) as follows: = mg / m3 ppm )( MW ) 57.45 142. Using the equilibrium concentration just calculated above 3 (57.com . calculate the equilibrium concentration in mg/m of the IPA in air.45 = molar volume of any gas or vapor at STP. this for converting between ppm and gramsperliter (g/l) is: C= where C = airborne concentration.45 24.895 )( 60 ) (= (= 24. grams 24.45 x106 = = = 55. liters (l) Problem: A carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) test gas is prepared by placing 1 gram of CO 2 into a 10 liter container.000 ppm.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 24. 073mg/m3 142 kg/m3 = 4.895 ppm). g/mole V = Volume. 48 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. What is the concentration (ppm) of the CO 2 air mixture? Solution: The molecular weight of CO 2 is 44 and the other required data are provided in the question. g/gram mole Problem: Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) has a chemical formula of C 3 H 8 O. ppm g = airborne concentration.7 Conversion for Airborne Concentrations: ppm (to/from) g/l Another volumetric conversion. so we can use equation (89) to find the solution: g ⋅ 24.568 ppm C MW ⋅ V 44 ⋅10 liter This is well over the published IDLH value of 40. l/gram mole MW = molecular weight of contaminant. and therefore a molecular weight of 60.
If the TLVs are 50 ppm and 0. the following expression is used. 4.2 TLV1 TLV2 50 ppm 0.com .25 ppm + 2 = + =1. But what if more than one contaminant is present.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 4. respectively. a similar approach is taken.5 ppm Therefore the combined TLV of the mixture is exceeded.9 Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of Liquids For liquid mixtures. TLVmix = C C1 C + 2 + + n TLV1 TLV2 TLVn (90) where TLV mix = TLV ratio of the airborne mixture. If the resulting TLV mix is equal or greater than 1.25 ppm within the same air sample.5 ppm. is the combined TLV exceeded? Solution: Substituting directly into equation (90) yields: TLVmix = C1 C 35 ppm 0. nondimmensional C n = measured airborne concentration of contaminant n TLV n = permitted airborne concentration of contaminant n Problem: Air samples find toluene concentrations at 35 ppm and benzene concentrations at 0. except the actual TLV of the mixture is calculated as follows: TLVmix = 1 F F1 F + 2 + + n TLV1 TLV2 TLVn (91) where 49 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. how is the TLV of the mixture determined? To do this. the mixture exceeds the TLV.8 Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of Airborne Mixture The Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of a single airborne contaminant can be found by looking it up in a table of permitted exposure limits.0.
ethane (3%) and propane (2.com .1%).10 Le Chatelier’s Rule The estimated lower flammability limit (LFL) of a mixture of combustible gases can be calculated using Le Chatelier's Rule: LFLmix = 1 f f1 f + 2 + + n LFL1 LFL2 LFLn (92) where LFL mix = LFL of the gas mixture. decimal form LFL n = LFL of flammable gas n. We can substitute the above fractions and LFLs into equation (92) to find: 50 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. mg/m3 Problem: What is the TLV of a 50/50 mixture of hexane and xylene? Assume the TLV 3 3 for hexane is 176 mg/m and the TLV for xylene is 434 mg/m . decimal percent TLV n = TLV of chemical n. Problem: What is the LFL of the following mixture: methane (75%). ethane (15%) and propane (10%)? Solution: Consulting MSDS of other suitable sources. the same approach can be used for the upper flammability limit (UFL).Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety TLV mix = TLV of the liquid mixture. Solution: Substituting into equation (91) yields: TLVmix = 1 1 = = 250 mg/m3 . % f n = volume fraction of flammable gas n. % Note: Although this formula calculates LFL.50 . mg/m3 F n = weight fraction of chemical n.50 F1 F2 + + 3 TLV1 TLV2 176 mg/m 434 mg/m3 4. we find the following LFLs: methane (5%).
we find an exposure limit of 200 ppm and a vapor o pressure of 78 mmHg (at 20 C).0 % f f1 f . ppm exposure guideline = concentration permitted by guidelines. concentration exposure guideline (93) Problem: What is the VaporHazard Ratio of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)? Solution: From an MSDS for MEK.15 .11 VaporHazard Ratio The vaporhazard ratio is a simple ratio of the saturation concentration of an airborne contaminant to permitted concentration. Since it is a ratio of the two values.com . non dimensional sat.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety LFLmix = 1 1 = = 4. it indicates a relative level of risk that includes the volatility of the contaminant. The vaporhazard ratio is expressed as: vapor . 632 ppm x 106 760 mmHg Patm Equation (93) can then be used to find the VaporHazard Ratio: vapor / hazard ratio = 102632 ppm = 513 200ppm 51 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.hazard ratio = where vaporhazard ratio = relative level of risk of an airborne contaminant.75 .1 4. We can then use equation (87) to find the saturation pressure: = ppm Pv 78 mmHg = x 106 = 102.10 + 2 + + n + + LFL1 LFL2 LFLn 5 3 2. ppm sat. Standard atmospheric pressure is 760 mmHg. concentration = saturation concentration of gas (or vapor).
what is the permitted exposure to toluene? If the worker works 9 hours per day all week (5 days) what is the permitted exposure? Solution: First we can calculate the reduction factors for one day and one week based on the hours worked: = RFday 8 24 − h 8 24 − 9 = = 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 4. For a modified work week. nondimensional h = number of hours worked in a day 4. this can be written as: RFday = 8 24 − h x h 16 (94) where RF day = reduction factor. a Reduction Factor can be used to adjust exposure limits based on the actual hours worked in a week.13 Reduction Factor – Week Similar to above. When an employee works an altered schedule. nondimensional h w = number of hours worked in a week Problem: A worker is exposed to toluene during his shift. The TLV for toluene is 50 ppm.83 x x h 16 9 16 52 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com . a Reduction Factor for an unusual work schedule can be used to adjust exposure limits based on the actual hours worked in a day. when an employee works an altered work week. If the worker works 9 hours in a day.12 Reduction Factor – Day Many occupational limits for exposure are based on an 8 hour workday. For a modified work day. this can be written as: RFweek = 40 168 − hw x 128 hw (95) where RF week = reduction factor. and a 40 hour workweek.
Since they are expressed as a fraction.14 Chemistry of Solutions 4. the units only need to be consistent. 4.74 x x 128 50 128 hw Therefore.com .2 cm.83 ( 50 ppm ) 41ppm = = = = TLV permitted − week 0. nondimensional I o = intensity of incident light I = intensity of transmitted (exiting) light a = molar absorptivity constant. what is the concentration of the solution? 53 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.04 L/gcm and the beam length is 1. the permitted exposure for an increased day and week is: TLV permitted − day 0. even though it is based on the same increase in hours per work day.14. This is written as: I log o= A abc = I (96) where A = absorbance. g/L Note that the units for I o and I are not specified above. If the molar absorptivity has been found to be 2.1 BeerLambert Law (Beer’s Law) One form of Beer’s law can be used to evaluate the presence of a contaminant in a solution based on the amount of light absorbed by the solution. L/gcm b = length of light beam path. Problem: A solution reduces the amount of light transmitted through it to 1/5 the original intensity. cm c = concentration of absorbing material.74 ( 50 ppm ) 37 ppm Notice the week value is not the same as the day value.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety = RFweek 40 168 − hw 40 168 − 50 = = 0.
pH can indicate potential hazards of solutions.0397 M 2. we can use equation (97) to find the pH: 54 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.14. pH is a measure of the hydrogen ions in solution and pH is calculated as follows: pH = − log10 H + (97) where pH = a quantitative description of acidity or alkalinity of a solution (ranges from 014) H + = hydrogen ion concentration.2 pH Calculation The pH of a solution indicates if the solution is an acid.7 = 1 I Equation (96) can then be rearranged to solve for the concentration: = c A = ab 0. gram moles/liter (= Molarity.0794 moles 63.286 g/L ( 2. Solution: First we need to calculate the number of moles of HNO 3 : 5. Therefore.04 L/gcm )(1. The molecular weight of HNO 3 is 63. we can use equation (96) to solve for the absorbance: I 5 log o= A log = 0.0 grams of HNO 3 in 2.0 grams = 0.0 liters of solution. = M) Problem: Calculate the pH of a solution that has 5.7 = 0.01grams/mole Then we can calculate the molarity of the solution: = M 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Solution: First. or neutral.01 g/mole.com .2 cm ) 4.0 liters Finally.0794 moles = 0. base.
since the ratio of moles of C 2 H 3 O 2 to H is 1:1.002884 M ] x [0.54 and a molarity of 0. 55 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. M A− = concentration of conjugate base of a weak acid. It is calculated as follows: H + x A− Ka = [ HA] where K a = acid dissociation constant.462 M 1.4 4. K a . M Problem: A solution of acetic acid (C 2 H 4 O 2 ) in water has a pH of 2. K a ? Solution: First. is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution.0397 ] = pH =+ = 1.14.54 0.3 Acid Dissociation Constant In simple terms. nondimensional H + = hydrogen ion concentration. the acid dissociation constant. we can use equation (97) to find the hydrogen ion concentration of the solution.462. we can use equation (98) to write:  + H + x A− = = Ka [ HA] [0.8 x10−5 This value can be compared to those published for K a . M (98) [ HA] = weak acid concentration.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety − log10 H − log10 [ 0. + = 10− pH 10−2.002884 M H = = Next.002884 M ] = 0. What is the acid dissociation constant.com . pH = − log10 H + Which can be rearranged to solve for the hydrogen ion concentration.
4x10 . 56 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.14.com . so we need to subtract the pOH from 14. It is calculated as follows: BH + x OH − Kb = B] [ where K b = base dissociation constant. Solution: First.e.4 x10−4 ) 6. M OH − = hydroxide ion concentration. is a quantitative measure of the strength of a base in solution.10] −4 Since CH 6 N and OH have a ratio of 1:1 (i.4 x10 = [0. equal molarity)..10 M solution of methylamine (CH 5 N) in water? Note: 4 Methylamine has a base dissociation constant of 4.4 Base Dissociation Constant In simple terms.63 x10− 2.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 4.10 M ) ( 4. we can write the chemical equation as: CH 5 N + H 2 0 ⇔ CH 6 N + + OH Then we can use equation (99) to write: CH 6 N + x OH − 4.63 x10−3 Similar to finding the pH. the base dissociation constant. nondimensional BH + = concentration of positive ions from ionized base. M Problem: What is the pH of a 0. we can find they both are: − CH 6 N + = = OH +  = ( 0. K b .18 pOH =3 = We want to determine pH. we can find pOH : − log10 6. M (99) [ B ] = concentration of nonionized base.
fibers/ml C s = average number of fibers counted per graticule field in the sample C b = average number of fibers counted per graticule field in the field blank A c = effective collection area of filter.00785 mm . liters (l) Problem: What is the airborne concentration of asbestos fibers if 800 liters of air are sampled and 100 fibers are counted on 46 fields. 4.15.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety pH = − pOH = − 2. 2 Assume the effective area of the filter is 385 mm (25 mm filter) and the graticule field 2 area is 0.17 − 0 fibers ) = 1000 Af Vs 1000 ( 0.00785 mm2 V s = air volume sample. The following presents some of the equations used by those methods. 385 mm2 for 25 mm filter A f = graticule field area.82.82 Thus the pH of the methylamine solution is 11.15 Asbestos (Airborne Contaminant) Various methods are used to assess asbestos concentrations in air.1 Asbestos Fiber Concentration by PCM Airborne asbestos fiber concentrations can be assessed using phase contrast microscopy (PCM). Solution: Applying equation (100) and substituting leads to: = Casb ( 385 mm2 ) Cs − Cb ) Ac (= ( 2. and the field blank has no fibers. The following equation is used in the analysis: Casb = ( Cs − Cb ) Ac 1000 Af Vs (100) where C asb = airborne concentration of asbestos fibers.com .133f/mL © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.00785 mm 2 ) ( 800 L ) 57 0.18 = 14 14 11. 4. 0.
Solution: Applying equation (101) and substituting leads to: EAc = = Casb 1000Vs mm ) (102 f/mm )( 385= 2 2 1000 ⋅ 800 L 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 4. 385 mm2 for 25 mm filter V s = air volume sample.049 fibers/mL 4. liters (l) Problem: What is the airborne concentration of asbestos fibers if 800 liters of air are 2 sampled and the fiber density is 102 f/mm ? Assume the effective area of the filter is 2 385 mm (25 mm filter). fibers/ mm2 (see next equation) A c = effective collection area of filter.15. fibers/ml E = fiber density on filter.2 Asbestos Fiber Concentration Another form of the equation for assessing airborne asbestos fiber concentration is: Casb = EAc 1000Vs (101) where C asb = airborne concentration of asbestos fibers.3 Fiber Density The fiber density can be calculated as follows: E= where F B − N f Nb Af (102) E = fiber density on filter.com .15. fibers/ mm2 F/N f = average fiber count per graticule field 58 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.
61 = a constant λ = wavelength of light used in microscope. relative to free space α = half the angle of the cone of light from specimen plane accepted by the objective.4 Microscopic Limit of Resolution (Abbe’s Equation) The Abbe’s equation can be used to determine the limit of resolution for a microscope.00785 mm2 Problem: What is the fiber density on a filter if 100 fibers are counted on 46 fields. The equation can be written as: d= where d = limit of resolution. Also. radians are related to degrees in the following manner: 1 radian = 180o 0. nm η = index of refraction of medium between point source and lens. and 2 the field blank has no fibers? Assume the graticule field area is 0. the value ηsinα is often expressed as NA (numerical aperture). 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety B/N b = average fiber count per graticule field for the field blank A f = graticule field area.61λ η sin α (103) π (104) 59 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. radians Note: Values for η typically range between 1. nm 0.5 (oils). which may be required when conducting asbestos sample assessment. Solution: Using equation (102) and substituting leads to: F B 100 − − 0 fibers N f Nb 46 = = E = 277 f/mm 2 Af 0.00785 mm 2 4.0 (air) to about 1.00785 mm .15. Also.com .
698 radians) and η = 1. aerodynamic diameter) and having a Reynolds number less than 2. air).g. Reynolds numbers are presented next. cm/sec g = acceleration due to gravity.. Solution: Substituting the given data into equation (105) leads to: 60 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.698) 4. Solution: Using equation (103) and substituting leads to: d = 0. Calculate the terminal settling velocity of the water particles in still 3 3 air. poise (P) Note that equation (105) is applicable for particles less than 80 micrometers (µm) in size (i.e.0 g/cm . cm ρ p = density of particle.61)( 500 nm ) = = 475 nm = 475µ m η sin α 1..g.0. g/cm3 η = viscosity of fluid (e.61λ ( 0.. Problem: A high pressure water spray system generates particles with an average diameter of 80 µm. The gravitational acceleration is 980 cm/sec . g/cm3 ρ a = density of fluid (e.g. cm/sec2 d = diameter of particle.0012 g/cm 2 and its viscosity is 0. Assume the density of water is 1.com .16 Particle Settling Velocity The terminal settling velocity of a spherical particle in a fluid (e..000182 Poise. What is the limit of resolution for this setup? Assume a halfangle of 40 degrees (0.0 for air. air). The wavelength for visible light is 500 nm.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem: Visible light in air is used for a microscope. the density of air is 0.0 ⋅ sin (0. air) can be described by: VTS = where 2 gd p ( ρ p − ρ a ) 18η (105) V TS = terminal settling velocity of particle. Also.
cm v = velocity of particle.12 cm/sec 18 ( 0.g.16. cm/sec η = viscosity of fluid (e.008cm )(19. we can use equation (106) to calculate the Reynolds number. poise (P) Problem: Calculate the Reynolds number for the particle described in the previous sample problem and determine if the use of equation (105) is appropriate based on the calculated settling velocity.. Re = where Re = Reynolds number.12 cm/sec. The Reynolds number is nondimensional and is used in numerous fluid mechanics applications.000182 g/cmsec ) 2 4. g/cm3 d = characteristic dimension (here it is the diameter of particle).1 Reynolds Number The Reynolds number expresses the ratio of inertial (resistance to change or motion) forces to viscous (heavy and gluey) forces.0012 g/cm3 ) = 19.12 cm/sec ) = 3 0.com . air). air)..000182 g/cmsec 1. including the calculated settling velocity of 19. nondimensional ρ a = density of fluid (e.0.01 Since the calculated Reynolds number is less than 2. 61 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 2 gd p ( ρ p − ρ a ) VTS = = 18η ( 980 cm/sec ) ( 0.g. it can be calculated using the following equation.008cm ) 2 (1 − 0. equation (105) provides a reasonable approximation of the particle settling velocity. Solution: Given the data from the previous sample problem. ρ dv η (106) ρ dv Re = = η (1g/cm ) ( 0.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 62 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com .
1slugs 32. slugs a = acceleration.1 Newton’s Second Law Newton’s Second Law explains how the velocity of an object changes when it is subjected to an external force. What is the force a 100 lb child exerts on the back of her seat? Solution: First.6 kilograms).Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Mechanics 5 Mechanics 5. The law defines a force to be equal to change in momentum (mass times velocity) per change in time. Since a change in velocity with respect to time is acceleration. Newton’s Second Law can be written as: F = ma where F = force. Since the acceleration of gravity (g) in English units is 32.2 ft/sec 2 We must also calculate the acceleration: 63 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. lbs m = mass.17 feet per second per second. we must convert the weight in pounds to Slugs: 100 lbs = 3. One slug is the mass accelerated at 1 foot per second per second by a force of 1 pound. Problem: A roller coaster accelerates from 0 to 50 mph in 5 seconds.2 pounds (14.com . ft/sec2 (107) Slug The slug is a unit of mass in the English footpoundsecond system. the slug is equal to 32.
2 ft/sec 2 5. p = mv (109) where p = momentum. what is his mass? Solution: Rearranging equation (108). we find: m = W 185lbs = = 5. slugs g = acceleration due to gravity.com . lb/sec 64 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. This is an application of Newton’s Second Law and can be written: W = mg (108) where W = weight.67 ft/sec 2 Now.75slugs g 32. momentum is the product of the mass and velocity of an object. 5.1slugs ) (14.67 ft/sec= ) 14. lbforce m = mass.47 lbs Therefore. the child experiences about a onehalf “g” force during the acceleration. ft/sec2 Problem: An adult weighs 185 pounds.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety a = v = t ( 50 mile/hr )( 5280 ft/mile )( hr / 3600sec )= 5sec = ma F = 2 ( 3.2 Weight Weight is the force exerted on an object with a given mass due to gravitational acceleration.3 Momentum In mechanics. using equation (107) we find: 45.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety m = mass. work is the amount of energy transferred by a force acting through a distance..e. calories. lbs and lbs. Assuming that immediately after the crash the vehicles’ damage causes them to interlock and travel as one. 65 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. 000 lbs )( 40 mph= ) 18. 000 lbs )( 60 mph ) + ( 7. wattssec.000 lbs and traveling at 60 mph strikes the rear of a car that weighs 7.com . Btus. How much work is required? Solution: We simply plug the values into equation (110) and find: (110) W Fs = = = (10 lbs )( 50 ft ) 500 ftlbs Note: Ftlbs can be easily converted to other units such as joules. ftlbs F = force. etc. Try doing all the conversions and see for yourself. 000 lbs 52. and mph and mph).4 Work In mechanics. 5. ft/sec Problem: A truck weighing 11.000 lbs and is traveling at 40 mph in the same direction. slugs v =velocity. W = Fs where W = work. ft Problem: A 10 lb weight is lifted 50 feet.2 mph Important: Notice the units in the equation do not match those listed above? That is because there is no need to convert here as long as the same units are used (i. lbs s = distance. what is their combined speed before brakes are applied? Solution: The individual momentums and masses of both vehicles can be combined. and the resulting velocity determined as follows: m1V1 + m2V2 = V= T mT (11.
The steel bar is then placed over a pivot point such that there is 2 feet of bar between the pivot point and the sling.6 Friction Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of two objects sliding against each other.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 5. and the remaining 8 feet is on the other side of the pivot point.com . feet Problem: The moment force is the principle behind levers. Mathematically. You connect a sling to the drum and attach it to a 10 foot long steel bar. When balanced by an opposing but equal moment. lbs D n = distance n. this can be written as: F1 D1 = F2 D2 where F n = force n. lbforce 66 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. What force must be applied to the end of the steel bar to lift the drum? Solution: We can use equation (111) to calculate the force required and see the mechanical advantage of levers.5 Moment of Force Moment of force can be thought of as a rotational force resulting from a force acting some distance from a point. Assume a 55 gallon drum contains about 400 lbs of fluid and you want to lift the drum to place a pad under it. (111) F1 D1 F2 D2 = = Solving for F 2 yields: 2 ft ) ( 400 lbs )(= ( F2 )(8ft ) = F2 400 lbs )( 2 ft ) (= (8ft ) 100 lbs In this case it takes a force ¼ the weight to lift the weight. 5. this relationship can be written as: F = µN (112) where F = frictional force.
what horizontal force must be applied to slide the pallet? Solution: The horizontal force must be equal to or greater than the frictional force.= Wh E. = Wh (114) Problem: An air conditioning unit is being lifted to the roof of a new building.65.5lbs 5.E. W = mg. = mgh (113) where P. This can be written as: P.7 Potential Energy In mechanics. The unit weighs 750 lbs and the roof is located 45 feet above grade. What is the potential energy of the unit as it reaches roof level? Solution: Applying equation (114) results in: P.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety µ = coefficient of friction. ft Note from equation (108) above. nondimensional N = the normal (perpendicular) force.E. 750 ftlbs 67 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. so we can write: P. slugs g = gravitational acceleration.65)( 350 lbs ) 227. potential energy is the energy stored in an object due to its position. Applying equation (112) and substituting values: = µN F = = ( 0.E. = = ( 750 lbs )( 45ft ) 33. = potential energy. lbforce Problem: A pallet with a load weighs 350 lbs. ft/sec2 h = height. ftlbs m = mass. If the coefficient of friction is 0.com .
= where P. the work done by the spring force (F) over some displacement (s) is given by W = Fs.25 ft and substituting the values into equation (117) kx 2 2 (117) 68 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. lbs/ft x = distance spring is changed.com .Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 5. is zero at x = x o and making the equilibrium position zero (x o = 0) simplifies Equation (116) to: P. Hooke's law states the extension of a spring is in direct proportion to the force acting on it as long as this load does not exceed the elastic limit.E.E. This can be written: F = −kx where F = force on spring. Thus. lbs k = spring constant. ft (115) The potential energy stored in a spring can be derived in the following manner.000 lbs/ft is compressed 3 inches. The work stored in the spring is its potential energy.E.8 Hooke’s Law and the Potential Energy of a Spring In mechanics. we can write: = − ∫ Fdx =− ∫ −k ( x − xo ) dx =1 k ( x − xo ) + C P. 2 2 (116) Setting C = 0 so that P. ftlbs k = spring constant. Recalling equation (110) above. What is the potential energy stored in the compressed spring? Solution: Converting 3 inches to 0. lbs/ft x = distance spring is changed.E. ft Problem: A spring with a constant of 15. = potential energy in spring.
9 Kinetic Energy The kinetic energy of an object is the energy which it possesses due to its motion. ft/sec Problem: A forklift weighs 3980 lbs. Within rectilinear motion. what is its kinetic energy when traveling at 10 mph? Solution: First. and then use equation (118) to calculate kinetic energy.E. = where K. = kinetic energy. 2 (15. 294ftlbs 2 2 2 5. and acceleration are related by the following equations: v vo + at = (119) 69 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. distance.E.25ft= ) 2 2 469 ftlbs 5. 000 lbs/ft )( 0.10 Rectilinear Motion In simple terms. rectilinear motion refers to the motion of objects along straight line without consideration of outside forces.E .Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety yields: kx 2 P= = . = = = 13.E. Mathematically this can be expressed as: K . velocity. convert weight in pounds to slugs and speed in mph to ft/sec. slugs v = velocity of object.2 ft/sec 2 10 hr 5280 mile 3600 sec 2 mv K .com . mv 2 2 (118) 3980 lbs miles ft 1hr 32. ftlbs m = mass of moving object.
So: • • v=0 v o = 20 mph = 58. So he just barely misses it.3ft/sec 2 ) ⋅ s 2 Solving for s leads to s = 53.2ft/sec 2 )(1.4 feet.2ft/sec 2 ) ⋅ t 0 Solving for t leads to t = 1.4 ft + 6 ft = 59.82 seconds.67ft/sec)(1. Assume the worker can throw the rope straight up at 20 mph from a starting height of 6 feet. so the height reached by the rope is 53. Note that when the rope reaches its highest point.82sec) + s Solving for s leads to s = 53.82sec) 2 2 We must add 6 feet. Then using equation (120). sec Problem: A worker is attempting to throw a small bundle of rope to a 60 ft high platform. First. 70 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. Of course this ignores air resistance and assumes a perfect vertical path.67 ft/sec = 58. its velocity will be zero. use equation (119) to calculate the time (t) the rope travels up.4 feet.67 ft/sec ) + 2 ( 32.4 feet. ft v = velocity. ft/sec a = ft/sec2 t = time.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety = vot + s at 2 2 (120) (121) v 2 vo 2 + 2as = where s = distance. (−32. Note that you can also solve this more directly by using equation (121) and setting the final velocity to zero: 0 = ( 58. Will the rope make it to the platform? Solution: We can solve this two ways.67ft/sec + (−32. we can solve for the distance traveled.com . = (58.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem: When the worker is finished working on the platform.4 mph Getting struck by a bundle of rope traveling at nearly 40 mph can cause serious injury. Note that in the above calculations. 71 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. Solution: The total distance the rope will fall is 60 ft + 3 ft = 63 ft. This time the initial velocity is zero. he drops the rope from the platform.3ft/sec2 ) ⋅ 63ft 2 Solving for v leads to v = 63. How fast is the bundle of rope moving when it hits the floor? Assume he drops the rope from about 3 feet above the platform floor.7 ft/sec = 39.com . the weight or size of the rope was not required. Again using equation (121) and solving for v: v2 = ( 0 ft/sec ) + 2 ( 32.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 72 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com .
4 lbs (i. what is the pressure exerted on the base of the tank? Solution: = P F = A 3000 lbs lbs 1ft 2 = 187..e.1. One basic relationship is that which relates pressure and force. lbs/ft2 F = force.com . this is given by the following equation: P= F A (122) where P = pressure.5 2 = 1.4 lbs = 0. lbs A = area. 62.4 lbs/ft3).1 Static Pressure One cubic foot of water weighs 62. Therefore a column of water measuring 1 foot high creates a pressure of: 62. If the tank has a square bottom and each side is 4 feet long.3psi ft 144in 2 ( 4 ft )( 4 ft ) 6.433psi 144in 2 (123) 73 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.1 Pressure and Force Hydrostatics and Hydraulics refers to properties of water at rest and in motion.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Hydrostatics and Hydraulics 6 Hydrostatics and Hydraulics 6. ft2 Problem: A tanks holds 3000 pounds of quench water.
pipe) without flow.4 lb/ft3).Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety To determine the pressure (in psi) exerted by a column of water of any height. for units of pound. Solution: We can rearrange equation (128) and substitute to find: = h= P Pw = ( 5stories )(12 ft/story ) ( 62.4 h (125) If we call the specific weight of water (62. it is usually written as: hP = P w (128) Problem: What pressure would be measured at the base of a fire standpipe in a 5 story highrise? Assume each floor is 12 feet high. w..persquarefoot (psf): Ppsf = 62. Since it represents a pressure head.433 h 0. and has units of feet.4 lbs/ft 3 ) 3744 lbs/ft 2 Or simply use equation (124) to find the answer directly in psi: = 0. that is pressure exerted against the side of a container (e. we can write: Ppsf = w h (126) Solving for h leads to: h= P w (127) The h in equation (127) is known as the pressure head. in feet.g.433 h (124) or. simply multiply equation (123) by the height. This is the net or normal pressure.com .433 ( 5stories )(12 ft/story ) 26 psi Ppsi = = 74 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. or: Ppsi = 0.
Problem: A 21/2 inch valve is opened at the base of a large water storage tank. leads to: hv = V2 2g (132) This can be solved for the velocity to find: V = 2 ghv (133) This equation is known as Torricelli's law. labeling it as h V .2 ft/sec ): 75 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.2 Velocity Pressure Velocity pressure.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 6. If the surface of the water in the tank is 50 feet above the open valve. h. or Torricelli's theorem (not to be confused with Torricelli's equation).1. The velocity produced in a mass of water by the pressure acting on it is the same as if the same mass of water were to fall freely from some height.E. This can be shown as follows: Recall the equation for kinetic energy: K .E. = And the equation for potential energy: P.com . is the pressure due to moving water. as the name implies. that creates an equivalent pressure. equations (129) and (130) can be set equal: mgh = mv 2 2 (131) Solving for h (and since it is the velocity head). What is the velocity of the water exiting the open valve? Solution: We can use equation (133) and substitute the value for the height and the 2 gravitational acceleration (32. = mgh mv 2 2 (129) (130) When the potential energy of water at some height is turned into kinetic energy as it falls.
However.. ft/sec g = gravitational acceleration. What pressure does the pump need to add to move the water 3 from the pond to the fire? (Note: 1 gallon of water = 0. and is shown here: V12 P V2 P + 1 + Z1 = 2 + 2 + Z 2 + h1− 2 2g w 2g w where V = Velocity. “fluids” includes liquids and gases. 6. we can also solve for the actual flow (e.e.g.2 ft/sec2 ) (= 56. the pressure.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety = V = 2 ghv 50 ft ) ( 2 ) ( 32. lbs/ft2 w = Specific weight.7 ft/sec Note that as the water level drops.. so Bernoulli’s theorem also applies to gases that can be considered incompressible (i. ft Notice that each group of variables (e.g. ft h 12 (134) = energy (head) lost between locations 1 and 2. V2/2g) has units of feet and is referred to as “head. Assume the friction losses in the hoses total 30 psi. Remember.” Problem: A fire truck draws water from a pond that is 6 feet below the fire truck. so does the velocity. Also note that the size of the opening does not affect velocity. Bernoulli’s theorem is an expression that relates. ft/sec2 P = Pressure. lbs/ft3 Z = Elevation. through conservation of energy. This theorem is also known as Bernoulli’s equation or Bernoulli’s law. since we know the velocity and the size of the opening.com . gpm). velocity and elevation (height) of the steady flow of an incompressible.2 Bernoulli’s Theorem Equations (128) and (132) are part of Bernoulli’s theorem.. the density can be considered constant). It then pumps the water up to a fire that is 15 feet higher through 250 feet of 2 inch hose to a 11/2 inch nozzle that discharges 100 gpm into the fire.1337 ft ) 76 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. nonviscous fluid.
com .22 ft/sec ) = = hv = 1.4 lb/ft 3 ) ( 2 144in 77 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. the pond is at zero velocity.92 ft ) ( 62.0218ft 2 1gallon V 2 (10.3ft/min 10. we need to change the friction losses from psi to head.14in ) 144in 2 2 2 0. then using equation(132).0218ft 2 Now we can find the velocity from the continuity equation (Q=AV): V = Q 100 gpm 0.433 0. For this we need the area of the nozzle: Ppsi d2 22 = π= π= 3.433 Next. but the water discharging from the nozzle has a velocity.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Solution: First. We find this by first finding the velocity of the water exiting the nozzle.14in 2 = A 4 4 1ft = ( 3.433 h 30 psi = h= = 69.62 ft 2 g 2 ( 32. To convert to psi: 1ft 2 = 39.2 ft/sec 2 ) 2 From equation (132): We can now apply Bernoulli’s equation(134): V12 P V2 P + 1 + Z1 = 2 + 2 + Z 2 + h1− 2 2g w 2g w P 0 + 0 + (−6 ft) 1.3ft 0.22 ft/sec = A 0.6 psi 91.1337 ft 3 = = 613. using equation (124): Ppsi = 0.92 ft ) w Since this is what the overall pressured drop (in feet) it is also what the pump must add to compensate.3ft = w or P2 = − ( 91.62 ft + 2 + 15ft + 69.
ft2 V = velocity.48gal/ft 3 )(π d 2 ) ( 0.48gal/ft (137) and converting the cross sectional area of a pipe in square inches to square feet π d 2 1 2 2 4 144in /ft where d = diameter of pipe.3 Water Flow in a Pipe The velocity pressure in a pipe with a given flow (e.. ft/sec Converting gallons per minute to cubic feet per seconds. (137).g. inches Combining equations (136). and (138) leads to: (138) V = ( gpm )( 4 )(144 ) = Q = A ( 60 ) ( 7.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 6.com . and substituting the value of V just derived leads to: 78 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. gallons per minute. gpm) can be derived as follows: Recalling the continuity equation: Q A ⋅V = (135) or V= Q A (136) where Q = volumetric flow rate.4085)( gpm ) (d ) 2 (139) Recall equation (132). ft3/sec A = crosssectional area. 1 1 gallons 3 minute 60sec/min 7.
61psi V 4 4 891d 891 ⋅ ( 2. and substituting h v just derived. leads to: gpm 2 gpm 2 = 0. This equation can also be written: Q12 Q22 = C = P P2 1 which can be rearranged to yield: (144) 79 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. equation (142) can be written: P= Q2 C (143) where C is a constant (due to the diameter being fixed).4085 ⋅ gpm 2 V gpm 2 d2 = = hv = 2g 2g 386d 4 2 (140) Recalling equation (124).07 in ) 2 Remember the 891 is a conversion. so units must be in gpm and inches.com .433 P( psi ) = 386d 4 891d 4 which is typically written with Q substituted for gpm P = V Q2 891d 4 (142) (141) Problem: What is the velocity pressure created by water flowing at 100 gpm in a nominal 2 inch pipe? Assume the actual internal diameter pipe is 2.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 0.1 Flow – Pressure Relationships For flow in a pipe with fixed diameter. Solution: Substitute the flow and pipe diameter values into equation (142): (100 gpm ) Q2 = = P = 0.07 inches. 6. and resulting velocity pressure is in psi.3.
We do know substitute as follows: Q= Q1 ⋅ (1. We can rearrange equation (145) and 2 Q2 1. the exact flow and pressures are not required. gpm/psi1/2 P = pressure. What increase in pressure is required? Solution: Since we are concerned with ratios.56 ⋅ P P2 1 So we can see increasing the flow by 25% requires the pressure be increased by 56%. A decision is then made to increase the required flow by a 25% safety factor. gpm K = orifice factor.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Q1 = Q2 P 1 = P2 P 1 P2 (145) Problem: A water supply system to a series of emergency showers is designed and the water flow and pressure are known.25 ) . Another useful equation is one that relates the flow from an orifice (e. psi Problem: The pressure in a sprinkler supply pipe is 25 psi at the location of a sprinkler. a fire sprinkler) due to the pressure at the orifice. 80 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com .g. Equation (143) can be written as: Q2 Q = = P C K 2 (146) where K = constant based on the orifice Equation (146) is commonly applied in the form: Q=K P (147) where Q = water flow..25 = = P2 P 1 1 P 1 Q1 2 2 = 1.
An empirical formula is a mathematical equation that predicts observed results..e. we use equation (148) to calculate the friction loss per foot.87 (148) Problem: A new 8 inch (nominal) cast iron water supply line.52 = constant based on pressure losses perfoot Q = flow. 81 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. This is typically accomplished using the HazenWilliams formula: Pd = where P d = pressure drop.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety What is the expected flow in gpm for that sprinkler? Assume K=5. 1. 500 feet in length.3. gpm C = HazenWilliams coefficient. psi/ft 4. 4.2 HazenWilliams Formula The design or evaluation of hydraulic systems typically requires the calculation of pressure losses due to friction as water flows through a section of pipe. This is due to the HazenWilliams formula being an empirical formula. but is derived from experiment and not directly from first principles.6 gpm/psi common Kfactor for fire sprinklers). this is related to the roughness of the piping d = pipe diameter. What is the friction loss when 1000 gpm is flowing through the pipe? Assume a HazenWilliams coefficient of 120 and an interior diameter of 8.85 d 4. is run to a new building.85 C1.com .52Q1. Solution: Applying equation (147): Q K P 5. and then multiply that by the total length.85 and 4.3 inches.6 25 28GPM = = = 1/2 (a 6. in Notice the atypical power values (i.87) used in equation (148). Solution: First.
85 4. Solution: We know the static pressure on the water supply system at this location is 80 psi.85 d 4.52Q1.85 = = Pd C1.87 (120 ) (8. calculate the total flow from both hydrants. The next closest hydrant is opened and a Pitot tube is used to measure and calculate a flow of 3000 gpm. the residual pressure drops to 50 psi.com .54 ( S − R1 ) ( 80 psi58 psi ) 82 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.3in ) 1. psi Problem: A pressure gauge is placed on a fire hydrant and the pressure recorded with no water flowing is 80 psi. We also know that when flowing 3000 gpm.54 ( S − R1 ) where Q 1 = flow at residual pressure R 1 .54 0.85 = Ptotal 500 ft )( 0. gpm S = static pressure on the water supply system.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 4. ( S − R2 )0. We also know when a second hydrant is opened.54 = Q1 Q2 = 3000 gpm = 3547 gpm 0. psi R 1 = residual pressure when flowing Q 1 .0076 psi/ft 1.82 psi Another hydraulic formula that is commonly used to evaluate water supplies is the following expression which relates changes in water flow due to changes in residual pressures. From this. psi R 2 = residual pressure when flowing Q 2 . Without having to use a Pitot tube at both flowing hydrants.54 ( 80 psi50 psi )0. we can use equation (149) to find the new (combined) water flow: (149) ( S − R2 )0. A second hydrant is partially opened and the pressure gauge on the first hydrant now shows 50 psi. the residual pressure is 58 psi.87 4.54 Q2 = Q1 0. the pressure gauge at the first hydrant now reads 58 psi. gpm Q 2 = flow at residual pressure R 2 .0076 psi/ft ) (= 3. Static pressure is the pressure measured on a water supply when there is no water flowing and the residual pressure is the pressure remaining when there is water flow.52 (1000 gal ) = 0.
7.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Heat Transfer 7 Heat Transfer Heat transfer is the transfer of energy between material bodies as a result of temperature differences.2 Convection q = h (Tw − T∞ ) A (150) (151) where q = heat transferred. Btu/hr A = area through which heat is conducted.1 Conduction (T − T ) q =k 1 2 A ( x1 − x2 ) where q = heat transferred.com . ft2 k = thermal conductivity. Btu/hr A = area through which heat is conducted. convection and radiation. oF x 1 = location of T 1 . The following equations present simple forms of the three heat transfer modes. There are three modes of heat transfer: conduction. oF T 2 = temperature at location x 2 . ft2 h = convective heat transfer coefficient. Btu/hrft2oF 83 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. ft x 2 = location of T 2 . Btu/hrftoF T 1 = temperature at location x 1 . ft 7.
Btu/hrft . Problem: There are two rooms separated by a 6 inch concrete wall. Btu/hr A = area through which heat is conducted. ft2 σ = StephanBoltzman constant. oF Note: The true definition of fluids includes liquids and gases.F in the fire 2 o room. ft 2 o h ∞ = convective heat transfer coefficient.7 Btu/hrft . h = 0. F o k = thermal conductivity of concrete wall. F 84 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. temperatures are absolute and raised to the fourth power.1714 108 Btu/hrft2 oR4 T w = temperature of solid surface. In one room there o is a fully developed fire and the average room gas temperature is 1000 F.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety T w = temperature solid surface. oR Important: For radiation heat transfer calculations.F o T ∞ = temperature in other room.F o T f = temperature in fire room. Assume h = 1.. The energy balance across the wall can be written as: h f (T f − TIw= k ) where (TIw − TOw= ) ( x1 − x2 ) h∞ (TOw − T∞ ) q = heat transferred.45 Btu/hrft. 7.5 Btu/hrft . F x 1 x 2 = wall thickness.F in the other room. oF T ∞ = temperature of fluid (e. air) in which energy is transferred.F o T Ow = temperature of wall surface in other room.. Assume radiation gains and losses can be ignored. air) which energy is transferred. Btu/hrft. Calculate the wall 2 o surface temperatures of the separating wall. F o T Iw = temperature of wall surface in fire room. The other o room is large and the room temperature is maintained at 70 F.g. Btu/hr 2 A = area through which heat is conducted. oR T ∞ = temperature of fluid (e.3 Radiation q = σ (T14 − T24 ) A (152) where q = heat transferred.com .F. ft 2 o h f = convective heat transfer coefficient. and the thermal conductivity of the o concrete is 0.g. Btu/hrft . 0.
The direct approach is to isolate one variable and then substitute. To add the radiative losses.4 F is very high and suggests radiation losses should be considered. The heat losses from the wall surface from convective and radiative heat losses can be found as follows: o o q = 0. Another approach is to use the Excel Addin called Solver.1714 x 10 −8 ( (T Ow + 459.7 ( 484.5 (1000 − TIw ) 0. = 1.6 F o T Ow = 484.5 ) Iw Ow 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Entering what we know leads to: = 1.com .69) 4 ) A This demonstrates the radiative losses from the surface of the other wall is over four times greater than the convective losses.5) 0.45 (TIw − TOw= ) ( 0.1714 x10−8 ( (484.69) 4 4 ) The Excel Addin called Solver was used to solve this set of equations and resulted in: T Iw = 718.3 F o T Ow = 248.5 (1000 − TIw ) 0.1 Btu/hrft 2 = A and q = 0. so the original assumption was incorrect (remember always to confirm assumptions are appropriate).69) 4 −= 1226.69) − (70 + 459.45 (T − T ) = ( 0.4 − 70 ) 290.9 F o 85 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.4 F The calculated wall surface temperature of 484.7 (TOw − 70 ) There are a few methods to solve this.7 ( TOw − 70 ) + 0.4 + 459. Either method used should result in: T Iw = 806. the above equation can be written to include the radiative losses from the surface of the second room.7Btu/hrft 2 (70 + 459.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 86 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com .
e.com .Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Ventilation 8 Ventilation 8. lbs/ft3 In most applications of building ventilation. ft3/min Note that equation (154) can be rearranged to show: A1 = Q1 / V1 and V1 = Q1 / A1 (156) (155) (154) (153) 87 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.. This is also known as the “continuity equation” and can be written as: A1 ⋅ V1 ⋅ ρ1 = A2 ⋅ V2 ⋅ ρ 2 where A n = crosssectional area at location n. it can be assumed that ρ behaves as a constant (i. This states that the mass flow rate of a gas at one point in a stream is equal to the mass flow rate at any other location (assuming no additions or losses). ρ 1 = ρ 2 ) and equation (153) can be written as: Q1 A1 ⋅ V1 = where Q 1 = volumetric flow.1 Conservation of Mass (the Continuity Equation) A basic concept when evaluating the flow of a gas in a system (e..g. ft2 V n = velocity at location n. ft/min ρ n = density of gas at location n. air in a duct) is conservation of mass.
any one of the four variables can be found if the other three are known. To reduce the velocity in half. what change to the duct crosssectional area would be required? Solution: We can see from equation (158) that to decrease the velocity by half. Equation (160) can be rewritten as: 88 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. inches of water column (also written as in. wc (160) TP represents to total energy. the duct area must be doubled. in. wc SP = static pressure. For example. Due to conservation of energy (i. we can write: Q1 = Q2 or AV1 = A2V2 1 (158) (157) Through simple rearrangement of Equation (158).2 Conservation of Energy The energy in a ducted ventilation flow stream (assuming no losses) can be written as: TP VP + SP = where TP = total pressure. or “head” in a flow stream at any location.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety For constant volumetric flow. in. solving for V 2 results in Equation (158) being written as: V2 = AV1 1 A2 (159) Problem: The design of a section of duct has air velocities that are too high.com . VP represents the pressure due to movement (it is always positive) and SP represents the pressure of the fluid or gas exerted in all directions. wc) VP = velocity pressure. 8.e.. TP remains constant).
wc. in. in. wc n = number of velocity pressure readings 2 (162) We will now explore some common applications of equation (161) and the law of conservation of energy and mass. wc) VP n = velocity pressure at location n. and an average duct velocity pressure can be found using the following expression: VP + VP2 + + VPn 1 VPave = n where VP ave = average velocity pressure.wc ) − ( 2. wc SP n = static pressure at location n. inches of water column (also written as in.25 in. in. and 2.wc 1 Velocity pressure is always positive.wc ) = 0.25 in wc.5 in.5 in. at the other end.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety SP + VP = SP2 + VP2 + hL 1 1 where (161) TP n = total pressure at location n. What is the head loss across the section of ductwork? Solution: Combining equations (160) and (161) provides: TP TP2 + hL = 1 hL = TP − TP2 = ( 2. 89 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. wc VP n = velocity pressure n. in. wc Problem: Measurements made at two ends of a section of ductwork showed a total pressure at one location of 2. in.25 in. wc h L = head (energy) loss from location 1 to location 2.com .
wc 3 2 8. wc.90 in.95 = 0. ft/sec g = gravitational acceleration. From Torricelli's law..3 Derivation of the Fundamental Duct Flow Equations A very common equation related to air flow in a duct is typically written as: V = 4005 VP where V = velocity of air.75 + 1.com . What is the average velocity pressure at that location? Solution: VP + VP2 + + VPn 1 = = VPave n 2 0. 1. (163) Constants Use caution whenever you see a constant in an equation (e. Using the wrong units will lead to incorrect calculations.75. the velocity of a gas created by the velocity pressure (head) of a column of gas can be written as: V = 2 ghgas (164) where V = velocity of gas. see equation (133). ft/min 4005 = a constant based on air flowing at standard temperature and pressure (STP) VP = velocity pressure. ft/sec2 90 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. This frequently means the equation uses a set type of units. wc This equation can be derived as follows (first we will derive it for any gas and then for air).0 and 0. in.g. 4005 in equation (163)).95 in.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem: Three velocity pressures are sampled across a duct and the following data recorded: 0.0 + 0.
and converting from seconds to minutes (that’s the 60 in front of the radical). ft of gas ρ water = density of water (at STP). this is done by the following conversion (which allows the substitution of VP for h water ): hgas = 1 ⋅ VP ⋅ ρ water 12 ⋅ ρ gas (167) Combining equation (164) and (167).Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety h gas = elevation head. results in: V = 1096 where V = velocity. lbs/ft3 h water = elevation head. and maintaining ρ gas for now. ft of water Equation (165) can be rewritten as: (165) hgas = ρ water hwater ρ gas (166) Note that we also need to change from feet of gas to inches of water head. ft/min 91 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. We can do this with this relationship: ρ gas hgas = ρ water hwater where ρ gas = density of gas (at STP). ft of gas Since the elevation head in equation (164) is in feet of gas and we want to use water column.com VP ρ gas (169) . we need to convert equation (164) from gas to water. ρ water . lbs/ft3 h gas = elevation head. leads to: V 60 ⋅ = 2 g ⋅ ρ waterVP 12 ⋅ ρ gas (168) Substituting values for g.
wc ρ gas = density of gas (at STP).Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety VP = velocity pressure (head).90 in. a conversion is required. lbs/ft3 Problem: What is the velocity in a duct when the velocity pressure recorded is 0.073 ρ gas Equation (169) can be used to find the velocity of any gas at STP flowing in a duct. in. If the air is not at standard temperature and pressure. Once again. Since air is 79% nitrogen. we find: V = 4005 VP where V = velocity or air. Solution: VP 0. its density is very close to air.90 V = 1096 = 1096 = 3.wc? The duct carries nitrogen at normal temperature and pressure. When the value for the density of air at STP (0.075 lb/ft3) is substituted for ρ gas . this must be accounted for in equation (170). wc Problem: What is the velocity in an air duct when the velocity pressure recorded is 0. ft/min VP = velocity pressure (head). we are frequently concerned with air movement in ventilation systems. assume a 3 density of 0. However. in.com .848 cfm 0. 92 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. Solution: Since we are dealing with air.9 3799 cfm V = = Note that this is very close to the value for nitrogen just calculated above.073 lbs/ft . Note that equation (170) only applies to air at standard temperature and pressure (STP). we can use equation (170): (170) = 4005 VP 4005 0.wc? Assume standard air conditions.90 in.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 8. but which cancel out when taken in combination. and the local barometric pressure is o 28.92 (172) where T = temperature of gas. What is the density correction factor for these conditions? Solution: 530 BP 530 28.com .3.86 df = ⋅ = ⋅ = 0. a density factor must be applied to account for this variation. lbs/ft3 ρ STP = density of gas (at STP). nondimensional (171) Dimensionless Number A dimensionless number is a quantity without a physical unit. inches of Mercury (in. oF BP = barometric pressure.92 93 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.86 mmHg. a pure number. This is shown here: ρ Actual ρ STP ⋅ df = where ρ Actual = density of gas (at some temperature and pressure).92 90 + 460 29. lbs/ft3 df = density factor. Such a number is typically defined as a product or ratio of quantities that might have units individually.1 Density Correction Factor Density of gases is a function of temperature and pressure. They are very useful in calculations as they are not scale or unit dependant. Hg) Problem: A location is 1000 feet above sea level. For industrial hygiene and safety applications. and the temperature is 90 F.93 T + 460 29. When conditions vary from standard temperature and pressure (STP). the density factor is typically calculated as follows: 530 BP = df ⋅ T + 460 29.
For a fixed amount (mass) of gas. For a gas at two varying conditions. Equation (173) can be written as: PVol1 PVol2 1 = 2 nRT1 nRT2 (173) (174) For n and R being constant. other applications (or simply personal preference) may employ different units. moles R = gas constant. atm Vol = volume of gas. two quantities are said to be proportional if each of the quantities is a constant multiple of the other. However. in fact the lack of specific detail is the reason the Proportionality Sign is used. liters (l) n = amount of gas. There is no specific relationship given. ∝ Combining Equations (175) and (176) results in: 94 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com .1 above): P ⋅ Vol = n ⋅ R ⋅ T where P = absolute pressure of the gas. This can be written as: Vol ∝ 1 ρ (176) Proportionality Symbol In mathematics.082 latm/molesK These are the typical units used in safety and industrial hygiene applications. 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Equation (172) can be derived from the ideal gas law (see section 4. the volume is inverselyproportional to the density. equation (174) can be written: PVol1 PVol2 1 = 2 T1 T2 (175) We know that density is a measure of the amount of a gas in a given volume.
0 in. the air velocity increases. Problem: In the previous sample problem. Solution: VP 1.4 DallaValle Equation The following form of the DallaValle equation calculates the capture velocity required for a plain opening hood (no flange): 95 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety PActual PSTP = ρ ActualTActual ρ STPTSTP (177) which can be rearranged to Actual = ρ ρ STP TSTP PActual = df TActual PSTP (178) Recall that Equations (169) and (170) are based on standard temperature and pressure (STP) conditions. We can use the density factor (178) to modify those equations (and others) to account for conditions other than standard temperature and pressure. df = 1.0 = 4005 V = 4005 = 4153 ft/min df 0. Assume a velocity pressure of 1.93 VP 1.com .0 = 4005 V = 4005 = 4005 ft/min df 1 Notice that as the density factor goes down.e.93. 8.. as seen here: V = 1096 VP df ⋅ ρ gas VP df (179) V = 4005 (180) Remember that at standard temperature and pressure (STP).0. df = 1.0). the density factor calculated was 0.wc. Compare the velocity of air with that density factor and conditions at STP (i.
196 582 cfm Q A) = 12 2 8.5 Hood Static Pressure The hood static pressure equation can be used to calculate the hood static pressure required to overcome losses as air enters a hood. SPh VPd + he = where (182) 96 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.5 times the equivalent diameter of the hood opening. rearranging equation (181) and substituting the appropriate values provides: 9 2 = V (10 x + = 100 10 + 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety V= Q 10 x 2 + A (181) where V = capture velocity at distance x from the hood opening. ft/min Q = air flow. the area of the hood is required in ft : 2 A = πd2 = 4 π ( 6 /12 ) 4 2 = 0. ft3/min x = centerline distance from hood opening to target area. Using the equation outside this limitation will result in erroneous answers.196 ft 2 Next. Many equations used in industrial hygiene and safety have such limitations.com . Problem: What volumetric flow rate is required in a 6 inch round plain duct hood located 9 inches from a location requiring a capture velocity of 100 fpm? Solution: First. ft2 Important: The DallaValle equation is valid when x is not greater than 1. ft A = area of the hood opening. so always verify the limitations of any equation or model before applying it.
wc.9 in. wc and the hood entry loss is 0.25 in.wc = 2. wc VP d = velocity pressure in duct. Problem: Calculate the hood static pressure when the duct velocity pressure is 1.15 in. dimensionless Values for F h vary depending on hood entry design with typical values ranging from 0. Ce = VPd SPh (184) 97 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.9 in. wc h e = hood entry loss. Since this is a hood static pressure.39 0.wc he 8. C e . what is the hood entry loss factor for this hood? Solution: Rearranging equation (183) and substituting leads to: = Fh VPd 1.wc = = 1.6 Hood Entry Coefficient and Loss Hoods are not perfect at turning available static pressure into velocity pressure.9 in.wc + 0. Solution: (183) SPh = VPd + he = 1. wc.com .wc Note: Here the static pressure is calculated as an absolute value.04 to 0. in. in.15 in.25 in. Problem: Based on the same data.25 in.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety SP h = value of hood static pressure. in. As a result the actual flow entering a hood is related to the theoretical maximum flow by the hood entry coefficient. SP h = 2.93. wc The hood entry loss (h e ) can be defined as: he Fh ⋅ VPd = where F h = hood entry loss factor.
25 = 0. wc and the hood entry loss is 0.9 VP 2 e 2 Ce2 d 0.com .15 Problem: Using the calculated hood entry coefficient. dimensionless The hood entry coefficient can be used to determine the hood entry losses for a given velocity pressure. wc.25 in.wc = 0. Note that equations (183) and (185) can be combined to demonstrate: Fh = (1 − C ) 2 e Ce2 (186) Equation (186) can then be rearranged as follows: Fh = 1 −1 Ce2 (187) 1 Fh + 1 = 2 Ce (188) now solving for C e 98 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. the values are equal.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety where C e = hood entry coefficient.9 in. wc. = Ce VPd = SPh 1. The hood static pressure was found to be 2. Solution: = he 1− C ) (= (1 − 0.25 in.76 2. verify the hood entry loss factor. determine the hood entry coefficient.762 As expected. he (1 − C ) VP = 2 e Ce2 d (185) Problem: Based on the data provided and calculated in the previous sample problem.76 ) 1.15 in. Solution: The duct velocity pressure was 1.
wc Q 3 = volumetric flow rate of the merged flows.7 Converging Duct Flows and Losses Another type of loss encountered with ventilation flows occurs when two ducts merge and turbulence causes losses.75 in. ft3/min Q 1 = volumetric flow rate of duct 1. wc (190) Problem: Two ventilation branch ducts converge.9 in.25 in. calculate the hood entry loss coefficient and compare the result to that answer found using equation (184). 99 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. in.com . that is with each rounding comes a loss of precision. the volumetric flow rate is simply the sum of the two flows.76. Solution: The value calculated using equation (184) was 0. ft3/min VP 1 = velocity pressure in duct 1.73 0. or 3500 cfm. For equation (189) we find: = Ce 1 = 0. in. wc.9 + 1 The difference (~4%) is due to the precision of the values carried through the equations. The second has a volumetric flow rate of 2000 cfm at a velocity pressure of 0. wc. Solution: First. The first has a volumetric flow rate of 1500 cfm at a velocity pressure of 1. ft3/min VP 2 = velocity pressure in duct 2. wc Q 2 = volumetric flow rate of duct 2.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Ce = 1 Fh + 1 (189) Problem: Given the hood entry loss factor of 0. in. This can be calculated as follows: Q Q = 1 VP + 2 VP2 VPr 1 Q3 Q3 where VP r = resulting velocity pressure of the merged flows. 8. wc used in the previous example. Calculate the resulting volumetric flow and velocity pressure.
This can be written as Qcor = Qdesign where Q cor = corrected (new) flow rate.75 = 0. in.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety The resulting velocity pressure is calculated using equation (190). calculate a corrected flow for the second branch.20 SPduct Therefore.com . Q Q 1500 2000 VPr = 1 VP + 2 VP2 = 1 1.e. about 20%). ft3/min Q design = design (existing) flow rate. wc.96 in.wc 3500 3500 Q3 Q3 Another consideration of two ducts joining is the resulting flow and static pressure. this can be used to balance static pressures during the design of a ventilation system by determining a new volumetric flow for one duct based on the governing static pressure.20 in.. 100 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. wc The equation can also be used to determine a new volumetric flow rate in a duct when an old flow and static pressure are known and a new static pressure is measured. wc. Problem: Two ventilation branch ducts converge.25 in. ft3/min SP gov = governing static pressure. In effect. Solution: SPgov SPduct (191) SPgov 1.25 + 0. wc SP duct = design static pressure.25 = Qdesign Qcor = 1500 = 1531 cfm 1. Note: This approach of balancing converging duct flows is only appropriate for small differences in static pressure (i. Since the static pressures must be equivalent at the junction. Preliminary design calculations show the following: The first has a volumetric flow rate of 2000 cfm and a static pressure of 1. The second has a volumetric flow rate of 1500 cfm and a static pressure of 1. in. a flow of 1531 cfm in the second branch will result in the pressures at the junction being balanced (which is required).
Solution: = 4005Ce SPh 4005= 4078 fpm V = ( 0.8 Further Applications of Flow and Velocity Equations The various volumetric flow rate and velocity equations and corrections derived above can be combined and written in a variety of useful formats.0 in. Solution: 101 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. wc and the hood entry coefficient is 0.0 in. For example. plain end).72 (round duct. equation (170): V = 4005 VPd (192) and equation (184): Ce = can be combined to yield: VPd SPh (193) V = 4005Ce SPh (194) Problem: Calculate the velocity in an 8inch round duct from a hood if the hood static pressure measurement is 2.72 ) 2. wc and the hood entry coefficient is 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 8.com . plain end).72 (round duct.0 Recalling equation (154) Q A ⋅V = (195) Combing equations (194) and (195) leads to Q = 4005Ce A SPh (196) Problem: Calculate the volumetric flow rate in an 8inch round duct from a hood if the hood static pressure measurement is 2.
92 95 + 460 29. Solution: First. wc. we need to use equation (172) to determine the density factor: 530 BP 530 29..0 = 4005 A Q = 4005 = 1656 cfm df (1 + Fh ) 4 12 0.95 T + 460 29.92 df = ⋅ = ⋅ = 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety π 8 2 Q = = 4005Ce A SPh 4005 ( 0.8 in. 102 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.5) A similar substitution (and using equation (169) from above) results in Q = 1096 A SPh ρ (1 + Fh ) (199) Note here the density correction factor is not needed because this form of the equation requires the density of the air at the appropriate temperature and pressure.com .92 Next we use equation (198): π 8 2 SPh 2.50 and the duct is moving air at o standard atmospheric pressure and 95 F.72 ) = 1423 cfm 2.95(1 + 0. the hood entry loss factor is 0.0 4 12 We can then modify this by recalling from above Ce = 1 Fh + 1 (197) and including the density correction factor (equation (172)) results in Q = 4005 A SPh df (1 + Fh ) (198) Problem: Calculate the volumetric flow rate in an 8inch round flanged hood if the static pressure is 0.
8.075 lb/ft ) leads to: 3 = ρ95 ρ STPTSTP = T95 (0. and o the duct is moving air at standard atmospheric pressure and 95 F. There are various sources that can be consulted.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem: Using equation (199). This material balance can be written as VdC Gdt − Q ' Cdt = (200) where V = volume of enclosure C = concentration of gas or vapor at time t 103 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.075 lbs/ft 3 )(460 + 68 o F) = 0.9 Dilution Ventilation Dilution ventilation is an important aspect of airborne contaminant control..071(1 + 0.com .8 in. The small difference is due to rounding in the equations.50. Solution: First. Note that equation (199) assumes standard pressure. relates the ventilation to the generation and removal of a contaminant. One simple way that only requires the density at standard temperature and pressure (STP) is the relationship: o ρT = constant Knowing the density of air at STP (0.071 lbs/ft 3 o 460 + 95 F Next. which was also used (but not required) in the previous problem. this value is very close to the 1656 cfm calculated in the previous sample problem. substituting values into equation (199) leads to: π 8 2 SPh 2 = 1096 A Q = 1096 = 1658 cfm ρ (1 + Fh ) 4 12 0. The concentration of a gas or vapor as a function of time can be derived from a differential material balance which. the hood entry loss factor is 0. wc. when integrated.5) As expected. calculate the volumetric flow rate in an 8inch round flanged hood if the static pressure is 0. we need the density of air at 95 F.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
G = rate of generation of contaminant Q = rate of ventilation K = mixing factor Q’ = Q/K = effective rate of ventilation
From equation (200), several useful relationships can be derived. Rearranging equation (200) and integrating leads to:
∫
C2
C1
dC 1 = G − Q 'C V
∫
t2
t1
dt
(201)
Recall that (for a definite integral)
∫a
and
b
dx = ln x x
(202)
a ln a − ln b = ln b
(203)
So equation (201) becomes
G − Q ' C2 Q' − ( ln = t2 − t1 ) V G − Q ' C1
where ln = natural logarithm V = volume of enclosure, ft3
(204)
C 1 = initial concentration of gas or vapor, partspermillion/106, ppm/106 C 2 = final concentration of gas or vapor, ppm/106 G = rate of generation of contaminant, ft3/min Q’ = Q/K = effective rate of ventilation, ft3/min where Q = rate of ventilation, ft3/min
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Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
K = mixing factor (typical values range from 1 to 10), nondimmensional t 2 = final time, min t 1 = initial time, min
Problem: Acetone evolves at a rate of 3.5 cfm in a room that measures 30’ x 50’ x 12’. If an initial concentration is measured at 25 ppm, what will the concentration be after 15 minutes of 3000 cfm of dilution air? Assume K=1 (i.e., Q’ = Q). Solution: We can use equation (204), but the final concentration (C 2 ) is embedded in this form of the equation, so we must solve for C 2 .
G − Q ' C2 Q' − ( ln = t2 − t1 ) V G − Q ' C1
3.5 − 3000 ⋅ C2 3000 ln 3.5 − 3000 ( 0.000025 ) =15 − 0 ) − 18000 (
(15− 0 ) − 3.5 − 3000 ⋅ C2 = e 18000 3.5 − 3000 ( 0.000025 )
3000
3.5 − 3000 ⋅ C2 = 0.0821 3.425
= C2
( 0.0821)( 3.425) − 3.5 =
−3000
0.00107 1073 ppm =
It is important to note that the contaminant concentration, if given in ppm, must be converted to a volume fraction. This can be done by the following equation which relates concentrations in ppm to volumetric fractions for airborne gases and vapors.
ppmcontam = Vcontam x106 Vair
(205)
This can be written as
ppmcontam Vcontam = 106 Vair
105
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(206)
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
Problem: What is the volume of airborne acetone after 15 minutes in the sample problem above? Solution: From the above equation, we know at 15 minutes the acetone is at 1073 3 ppm. We also know the volume of the enclosure is 18,000 ft . Therefore, we can rearrange equation (206) as follows:
ppmcontam 1073 = Vair = Vcontam = 18, 000 ft 3 6 19.3 ft 3 6 10 10
From the general form dilution equation (204) comes other dilution equations that address special cases. For example, if we assume at time t=0, the concentration is C 1 =0, then equation (204) is simplified and becomes:
Q' G − Q 'C ln = − t G V
(207)
and since
ln x e ( )=x
(208)
Equation (207) can be written as
− t G − Q 'C =e V G Q'
(209)
Problem: Acetone begins to be evolved at a rate of 3.5 cfm in a room that measures 30’ x 50’ x 12’ high. If the initial acetone concentration is 0 ppm, what will the concentration be after 15 minutes of 3000 cfm of dilution air? Assume K=1. Solution: This is an application of equation (209).
− t G − Q 'C =e V G Q'
G ⋅e V −G C= −Q '
−
Q'
t
106
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Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
= C
3.5 ⋅ e
− 3000 15 18000
− 3.5 = 0.001071 1071 ppm = −3000
Now consider the case where a volume of air is contaminated at some initial concentration and we wish to calculate the change in concentration over time due to dilution ventilation when there is no new contaminant being added (i.e., G = 0). For this we start with the material balance of:
VdC = −Q ' Cdt
(210)
Similar to above, we can find:
∫
Integration leads to
C2
C1
dC Q ' t2 = − ∫ dt C V t1
(211)
C Q' − ( ln 2 = t2 − t1 ) V C1
and this equation can be rearranged to yield
(212)
− t2 − t1 =
V C2 ln Q ' C1
(213)
Problem: Acetone is used in a room that measures 30’ x 50’ x 12’. An initial concentration is measured at 5000 ppm, and the acetone use is stopped (i.e., no more acetone vapors evolve). With 3000 cfm of dilution air, how long would it take to reach a level of 250 ppm? Assume K=1. Solution:
− t2 − t1 =
V C2 18000 250 − ln = ln 18 = min ' Q C1 3000 5000
Fractions in Equations Note that in the above equations, the fraction C 2 /C 1
appears. In this case, we do not worry about units as they cancel to form a dimensionless fraction; they only need to have the same units. This simplifies this
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5 cfm of toluene is supplied by 2500 cfm or air coming from a room with an airborne concentration that is limited to 50 ppm. Assume a room with a toluene process that evolves 0. Determine the steadystate concentration of toluene in the room.com . The ACH can easily be calculated as follows: N changes = 60Q Vroom (215) where N changes = number of air changes per hour (ACH) 108 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. 8.5 = ' x106 + Csupply C = x106 + 50 ppm = 250 ppm 2500 Q Notice that the room volume is not required.10 Room Air Changes per Hour A common value for indoor air ventilation is the number of air changes per hour (ACH). ppm (214) Problem: Connected rooms utilize a cascading ventilation system where air with lower contamination levels moves towards rooms with higher concentrations before reaching filters. Building and mechanical codes typically specify minimum ACH for most occupancy types. Now consider the case in which we seek to identify the constant level of an airborne contaminant when the generation rate and ventilation rate are known and there is a steady concentration of contaminant in the supply air. G = ' x106 + Csupply C Q where the variables and units are as defined above. Solution: G 0. and C supply = concentration of contaminant in the supply air.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety problem.
Solution: First.com . ft3/min e = natural logarithm. ft3/min V room = room volume.1 Dilution Ventilation Based on Room Air Changes When a room starts with no concentration of an airborne contaminant. derive equation (216). min/hour Q = room ventilation rate.10. ft3 Problem: A room measures 30’ x 50’ x 12’ high. 000 Vroom 8. 2. This is shown here: C = where C = concentration at time t. but a contaminant is added at a steady rate over time. we must rearrange equation (209): G 1 − e− Nt /60 x106 ' Q ( ) (216) 109 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. ppm/106 G = rate of generation of contaminant. the timedependant concentration can be calculated based on the number of air changes per hour.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 60 = conversion factor for minutes to hours.71828… t = time elapsed. How many air changes per hour (ACH) are required to provide a ventilation rate of 3000 cfm? Solution: N changes = 60Q 60 ⋅ 3000 = = 10 ACH 18. hours N = number of air changes per hour 60 = conversion from minutes to hours Problem: Starting with equation (209) and (215). ft3/min Q’ = effective rate of ventilation.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety − t G − Q 'C =e V G Q' C ppm = − Q' G ⋅e −G x 106 −Q ' − Q' t V Q' − t G ⋅e V −G G C ppm = x= 106 1 − e V x 106 Q' −Q ' t Next. hours N = number of air changes per hour Problem: A process area has a ventilation system that provides 20 ACH. What is the concentration of an airborne contaminant after 15 minutes if the initial concentration is 110 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. the timedependant concentration (dilution) can be calculated based on the number of air changes per hour. units to match C t = time. and no additional contaminate is added.com . This is shown here: C = C0 e −tN (217) where C = concentration at time t. equation (215) can be rearranged as follows: N changes 60 = Q Vroom Substituting this into the preceding equation leads to: C ppm = G 1 − e− Nt /60 x106 Q' ( ) When a room starts with a known concentration of an airborne contaminant. units to match C 0 C 0 = initial concentration.
1)( 5) (106 ) = = ( MW )( C ) ( 58.79.79 )( 0. LFL (LEL) or any other desired concentration.02 ppm 8. nondimensional ER = evaporation rate. ( 403)( SG )( ER )( K ) (106 ) Q= ( MW )( C ) where Q = volumetric flow required to limit concentration.g.25 hr )(= 2.. The molecular weight is 58. and the specific gravity is 0. ft3/min 403 = constant for units used SG = specific gravity. g C = contaminant concentration in air. Note that this equation is based on pints/min of evaporating contaminant.11 Dilution to Control Evaporation The following equation can be used to calculate the ventilation required to keep an evaporating contaminant (e. The concentration can be a TLV. pints/min K = ventilation (dilution) safety factor. How much dilution air is required to maintain the concentration below the TLV? Assume the TLV is 500 ppm and a ventilation safety factor of 5. a solvent) below a desired concentration.08.com .1 pints/min. nondimensional 106 = unit conversion (ppm to volume percent) MW = molecular weight. Solution: = Q ( 403)( SG )( ER )( K ) (106 ) ( 403)( 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 300 ppm? Solution: = C0 e−tN C = 20 ACH ) ( 300 ppm ) e(0. ppm (218) Problem: Acetone evaporates at a rate of 0.08)( 500 ) 5482 cfm 111 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.
75 in. wc. the static pressure on the outlet side is 0.( 2. measured on the outlet side of the fan. in. FSP = SPout − SPin − VPin where FSP = fan static pressure. wc SP out = static pressure out.(1 in. Solution: (219) FSP = SPout − SPin − VPin = ( 0.25 in.5 in. in. wc (220) 112 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. measured on the inlet side of the fan. wc SP in = static pressure in.wc Important: The static pressure on the inlet side is always negatively signed.5 in. The fan total pressure is defined as: FTP TPout − TPin = where FTP = fan total pressure. in. in.wc ) . These are shown here. in.12 Fan Laws and Equations Many engineered controls for airborne contaminant control require the use of fans. in.wc ) = 2. wc.75 in.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 8.wc ) . wc VP in = velocity pressure on the inlet side of the fan. wc TP in = total pressure measured at the inlet. Two equations that describe a fan’s ratings are fan static pressure and fan total pressure. wc TP out = total pressure measured at the outlet. this can also be shown as SP fan . and the velocity pressure is 1 in. wc. The static pressure on the outlet side and the velocity pressure is always positively signed. wc Problem: Calculate the fan static pressure if the static pressure on the inlet side is 2.com . in.
equation (220) can be written: FTP = TPout − TPin = (VPout + SPout ) − (VPin + SPin ) FTP = ( 0. At the same fan. the inlet and outlet static pressures are 5. wc. Notice all the “laws” are a function of size and speed (revolutions per minute).7 in. Size2 RPM 2 Q2 = Q1 Size1 RPM 1 where Q 2 = volumetric flow rate for condition 2. When this is done. this assumes the fan size cannot be changed.0 ) = 5. Sometimes these equations are written without showing the “size” term. They may not be applied to a mix of various designs.wc Important: The static pressure on the inlet side is always negatively signed. Also note the various powers used in the fan laws. wc and 0.12.3 in. wc.0 in. Determine the fan total pressure.7 + 0. Note that these equations apply to a “family” of fans of similar design and manufacturer. such as after a fan is installed.1 Fan Laws The following three equations are known as the fan laws. respectively. ft3/min Size 2 = fan diameter for condition 2. wc and 0. Solution: From equation (160) we know: TP VP + SP = Therefore. they are also referred to as affinity laws. inches 3 (221) 113 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. ft3/min Q 1 = volumetric flow rate for condition 1. The first equation relates the volumetric movement of a fan to size (to the third power) and speed. Assume the inlet and outlet velocity pressures are 1.6 in. respectively. The static pressure on the outlet side and the velocity pressure is always positively signed.com .Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem: A fan supplies air at a velocity of 4000 fpm.0 in.0 + −5.6 ) − (1. 8.
Size2 RPM 2 P2 = P 1 Size1 RPM 1 where variables and units are as defined above P 2 = system pressure for condition 2. what will be the new flow? Solution: Size2 RPM 2 8 2500 Q2 = Q1 = 1500 = 4444 cfm 6 2000 Size1 RPM 1 3 3 The second equation relates the fan pressure to size and speed (both to the second power).com . in.0. that portion of the equation equals 1. rpm Problem: A fan with a 6 inch impeller operates at 2000 RPM to supply 1500 cfm. Equation (222) can then be rearranged to solve for RPM 2 . in. wc P 1 = system pressure for condition 1.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Size 1 = fan diameter for condition 1. RPM 2 P2 = P 1 RPM 1 2 RPM 2 = RPM 1 P2 P 1 114 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. If the impeller size and speed is changed to 8 inches and 2500 RPM. rpm RPM 1 = fan speed for condition 1. wc 2 2 (222) Problem: If a fan size remains the same. inches RPM 2 = fan speed for condition 2. how much faster would the fan have to turn to increase the pressure 50%? Solution: Since the fan size does not change.
The fan size is decreased to 6 inches and the speed increased to 3000 RPM.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety P2 1. What is the new BHP? Solution: Size2 RPM 2 6 3000 = PWR1 = 30 = 12. The third equation relates a fan’s power requirement to size (to the fifth power) and speed (to the third power).3 BHP PWR2 8 2500 Size1 RPM 1 5 3 5 3 115 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. note we did not use specific values for the speed and pressure.com . hp PWR 1 = fan horsepower for condition 1. only multipliers since we were only looking for a multiplier.5 RPM 2 RPM 1= 1= 1.22 = P 1 1 Therefore. Also. Size2 RPM 2 PWR2 = PWR1 Size1 RPM 1 where variables and units are as defined above 5 3 (223) PWR 2 = fan horsepower for condition 2. hp Problem: An 8 inch fan operates at 2500 RPM with a breaking horsepower (BHP) of 30. horsepower. a 22% increase in RPM will increase the pressure by 50 percent.
com .Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 116 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.
kg/m3 c = speed of sound in air.1 Sound Intensity Safety and industrial hygiene professionals typically deal with sound pressure and not sound intensity.com . Assume the air o temperature is 20 C.7x10−5 W/m 2 p2 I = = ρ c 413 Ns/m3 2 117 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. and the value ρc is the characteristic specific acoustic impedance and is equal to 413 Ns/m3 for air at 20 oC. I= where I = sound intensity. Problem: Calculate the sound intensity of a 0. Pa ρ = density of air. Generally.2 Pa ) = 9. for a plane wave there is a relationship. m/sec p2 ρc (224) Note: rms stands for root mean square.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Sound and Noise 9 Sound and Noise 9. However. W/m2 p = rms sound pressure. This relationship can be used in a free field at a distance from the source. Solution: ( 0. there is no direct relationship between sound pressure and sound intensity.2 Pa source.
W/m2 (I 0 is typically 1012 W/m2) (226) 118 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. dB I = sound intensity.2 Sound Pressure Level (SPL) Sound pressure level (SPL) or sound level is a logarithmic measure of the effective sound pressure of a sound relative to a reference value.com . Mathematically. Pa (P o is typically 20 µPa) (225) Problem: Calculate the sound pressure level (in dB) due to a sound pressure of 0. typically 20 µPa RMS (which is usually considered the threshold of human hearing at 1 kHz). Pa P 0 = reference rms sound pressure.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 9. Solution: P 0.5 Pa. It is measured in decibels (dB) above a standard reference level. W/m2 I 0 = reference sound intensity.5 Pa = 20 log 20 log SPL = = 88 dB P0 20x106 Pa Sound pressure level (SPL) can be related to the sound intensity (power) by: I SPL = 10 log I0 where SPL = sound pressure level. sound pressure level (SPL) can be written as: P SPL = 20 log P0 where SPL = sound pressure level. dB P = measured rms sound pressure.
1 Addition of Sound Pressure Levels (SPLs) Due to their logarithmic nature. Solution: 2 I 0. rather they must be added while accounting for their logarithmic nature. The two following equations can be used to add sound pressure levels. any units can be used as long as they are consistent. The change is not linear. 9. sound pressure levels cannot simply be added together.005 W/m 2 = 10 log 10 log 12 SPL = = 97 dB I0 10 W/m 2 Sound pressure level decreases over distance.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem: Calculate the sound pressure level for a measured intensity of 0. What is the expected sound pressure level at 15 feet from the press? Solution: d 10 ft SPL2 = 20 log 1 = SPL1 + 85 dB+20log = 81.2.com . dB SPL 1 = sound pressure level at distance d 1 dB d 1 = distance where SPL 1 was measured d 2 = distance where SPL 2 was measured (227) Problem: Sound measurements record an average sound pressure level of 85 dB at a location 10 feet away from a punchpress.5 dB 15 ft d2 Reminder: Since the distances are in a fraction. rather it changes logarithmically as follows: d = SPL2 SPL1 + 20 log 1 d2 where SPL 2 = sound pressure level at distance d 2 . 119 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.005 W/m .
Produce literature indicates an expected sound pressure level of 80 dB (at a reference distance) for each machine. Solution: 95 90 80 SPLtotal 10 log 1010 + 1010 + 1010 96. dB i = count of individual sound pressure levels N = number of individual sound pressure levels summed SPL i = SPL of sound i. 95 dB and 90 dB.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety SPLtotal = 10 log ∑10 i =1 N SPLi 10 (228) where SPL total = total (sum) of all sound pressure levels.com . What is the expected combined sound pressure level? Solution: SPLtotal = SPLi + 10 log(n) = 85 + 10 log(4) = 85 + 6 = 91 dB 120 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.3 dB = = A simple form of the equation can be derived for cases involving a number of identical sources. dB SPL i = SPL of a single source. dB Problem: Calculate the combined sound pressure level created by three sources measured at 80 dB. dB n = number of identical sound pressure levels summed (229) Problem: Four machines are to be collocated. SPLtotal SPLi + 10 log(n) = where SPL total = total (sum) of all sound pressure levels.
What is the expected combined sound pressure level? Solution: 121 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. the equation simplifies to the following: LTotal where − L210L1 L1 + 10 log = 10 + 1 (231) L Total = total (sum) of two source sound pressure levels. Produce literature indicates an expected sound pressure level of 80 dB and 85 dB (at a reference distance) for the machines. dB Problem: Two machines are to be collocated. dB L 1 = SPL of sound I.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Note: Equation (228) can also be used as follows: 85 10 = 10 log 4 10 91dB SPLtotal = Another form that you may see for adding sound pressure levels (mathematically identical to equation (228)) is: N LPi LPT = 10 log ∑10 10 i =1 where L PT = total (sum) of all sound pressure levels. dB L 2 = SPL of sound 2. dB i = count of individual sound pressure levels N = number of individual sound pressure levels summed Lp i = SPL of sound i.com . When you have two sources. dB (230) This equation can be used for any number of varying sources.
2. and 80 dB for 3 hours.2 Time Weighted Equivalent Sound Pressure Level Sometimes you wish to determine an equivalent sound pressure level for a variety of sounds (noises) experienced over varying durations. dB t i = duration of sound i. 92 dB for 1 hour. This can be found as follows: Li 1 N 10 Leq = 10 log ∑ 10 ti T i =1 (232) where L eq = time weighed equivalent sound pressure level. hours i = count of individual sound pressure levels N = number of individual sound pressure levels summed L i = SPL of sound i. 9.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety L2 − L1 85−80 LTotal = L1 + 10 log 10 10 + 1 = 80 + 10 log 10 10 + 1 = 86.2 dB Note: The assignment of the higher or lower sound to L 1 is not required. Try reversing the values for L 1 and L 2 and check the solution. and then the total duration is divided out to yield the weighted average. 94 dB for 2 hours. Problem: Calculate the equivalent sound pressure level for the following measurements: 80dB for 2 hours. hours Note that each sound exposure is multiplied by its duration.com . Solution: 122 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. dB T = total observation time of the sounds.
What is the sound power level? Solution: (233) W 50 W = 10 log 10log 12 LW = = 137 dB 10 W W0 Within a free field.3 Sound Power Level The sound power level (L W ) of a signal with sound power W (watts) is: W LW = 10 log W0 where L w = sound power level. W W 0 = reference sound intensity.5 + DI + T (234) where L p = sound pressure level. W (W 0 is commonly set to 1012 W) Problem: A sound system produces 50 Watts of power. dB W = sound power.com . dB L w = sound power level.6 dB ⋅ 2 + 10 ⋅ 3 T i =1 9. the sound pressure level and sound power level can be related by the following equation: L p = Lw − 20 log r − 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Leq = 10 log Li 1 N 10 10 ti ∑ T i =1 80 92 94 80 1 N 10 10 10 10 Leq = 10 log ∑ 10 ⋅ 2 + 10 ⋅1 + 10 = 89. dB 123 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.
g. It is defined as flows: 124 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. Lp = Lw − 20 log r − 0.5 + DI + T =137 − 20 log (15 ) − 0. the directivity index must be calculated using equation (235): = 10 log Q 10= 3 dB DI = log ( 2 ) Then equation (234) can be applied with a temperature and pressure correction factor set to 0. calculate the sound pressure level at 15 feet. dB and DI = 10 log Q (235) where DI = directivity index.5 + 3 + 0 =116 dB 9..5 = a constant for English units DI = direction index (see below). a wall) and leaving the other side. dB T = temperature and pressure correction factor (ignored at standard conditions).Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety r = distance.com . Solution: First. Assume standard conditions and ½ spherical radiation. nondimensional Q= 1 for spherical radiation 2 for ½ spherical radiation 4 for ¼ spherical radiation 8 for 1/8 spherical radiation Problem: Assume the sound system from the previous sample problem is measured in a free field. dB Q = directivity factor.4 Transmission Loss The sound transmission loss describes the sound reduction due to a sound striking one surface of a barrier (e. ft 0.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety E TL = 10 log i Et where TL = transmission loss. at a frequency of 1000 Hz. W/m2 Equation (236) is also written as: 1 TL = 10 log τ (236) (237) where τ = transmission coefficient. dB E i = sound power incident on the barrier. W/m2 E t = sound power on the opposite side of the barrier.com . 1 1 = 10 log 10 log = 45 dB TL = τ 0.5 Noise Reduction by Absorption Noise reduction can be reported as a fraction of the amount of noise absorbed in a room before and after treatment for noise reduction. nondimensional The transmission coefficient is frequency dependant.00003. the sound transmission coefficient will be about 0. Mathematically this can be written as: A dB = 10 log 2 A1 where (238) 125 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.00003 9. Solution: Various sources on sound transmission coefficients are available. Problem: What is the transmission loss for a 33/4” wall constructed of ½” gypsum on metal studs with no insulation? Assume a frequency of 1000 hZ. For the wall design described.
This can be expressed as: NR = where 12.02 A1 Note that calculation is only for the change due to the ceiling material. nondimensional A = crosssection area of duct.6Pα 1. α = absorption coefficient of the lining material.5.1 Noise Reduction in a Duct Ducts can be lined to reduce the noise transmission within the duct. in. A 0. The overall change in the room would have to account for all the surfaces and their absorption coefficients. sabins The Sabin The Sabin is defined as a unit of sound absorption. dB/ft P = perimeter of duct.6. 9. Problem: A plaster ceiling is made of plaster with a sound absorption coefficient of 0. One square meter of 100% absorbing material has a value of one metric Sabin. we can simply use the sound absorption coefficient.4 A (239) 126 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.8 dB dB = 0.6 = a constant NR = noise reduction.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety dB = noise reduction. Since the area is a constant and equation (238) uses the absorption in fraction (ratio) form.02. sabins A 2 = total amount of absorption after treatment.com . in2 12. dB A 1 = total amount of absorption before treatment.6 = 10 log 2 10 log = 14. The ceiling material is changed to acoustical ceiling tiles with a sound absorption coefficient of 0. What is the change in noise reduction for the new material? Solution: The sound absorption coefficient is typically multiplied by the area to find the sound absorption.
hr The following is another form of the same equation.4 9. Solution: The values for T i are calculated using equation (243) below. mathematically they are identical.4 ) NR = = = 1. 95 dB for 1 hour.4 power. Problem: A duct lining material has an absorption coefficient of 0. 85 dB for 1 hour.6 ( 2 ⋅ 9 + 2 ⋅ 24 )( 0. 90 dB for 2 hours.4.6 Percent Noise Dose and TWA The noise dose received over a time period is the summation of the individual noise and duration fractions. so we can simply substitute values into the equation to find: 12. 85 dB for 2 hours. hr (240) T 1 to T i = corresponding allowable exposure duration of each individual noise. The following table can be constructed to assists in the calculation: 127 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.6 Pα 1. Calculate the reduction in noise as a function of length in a 9” by 24” duct. 78 dB for 1 hour. Mathematically this can be expressed as: C C C % D 100 1 + 2 + + i = Ti T1 T2 where %D = noise dose expressed as a percent C 1 to C i = exposure duration of each individual noise.4 12.com .1 dB/ft A 9 ⋅ 24 1. Solution: Equation (239) provides the solution in dB/ft. 84 dB for 1 hour. Calculate the percent noise dose.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Note that in equation (239) α is raised to the 1. N C % D = 100 ∑ i i =1 Ti (241) Problem: The following sound measurements are made during a work day.
com .25 + 0. equation (243) is the appropriate equation to use.13 0. hr L = time weighted average (TWA) exposure.02 0.02 + 0.05 + 0. dBA (243) Note that the first exposure calculation is based on the ACGIH TLV for noise of 85 dBA and an exchange rate of 3.25 + 0.4 10.09 Next.05 0.2 18. The second exposure calculation is based on the OSHA TLV of 90 dBA and an exchange rate of 5.6 C i /T i 0.09 ) 79% = = Values for T i in the above equations can be calculated as follows: 8 T = ( L −85) 2 3 and (242) 8 T = ( L −90) 2 5 where T = allowed exposure time. the values for C i /T i can be substituted into equation (240) to find: C C C % D 100 1 + 2 + + i = Ti T1 T2 % D 100 ( 0. 128 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.25 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety dB 85 95 90 78 84 88 Ci 2 1 2 1 1 1 Ti 16.0 8.0 4.0 42. Problem: Based on OSHA requirements.25 0. what is the allowable exposure time for 84 dBA? Solution: Since we are concerned with OSHA requirements.13 + 0.
The second TWA calculation is based on the OSHA TLV of 90 dBA and an exchange rate or 5. the first TWA calculation is based on the ACGIH TLV for noise of 85 dBA and an exchange rate of 3.3 + 90 dBA = dBA 100 9. Problem: Calculate the equivalent time weighted average for a percent noise dose of 79% assuming an OSHA TLV. 79 TWA = 16. the equivalent TWA can be calculated as following: %D TWA = 10 ⋅ log + 85 dBA 100 (244) and %D TWA = ⋅ log 16.61 ⋅ log 88.4 hours 84 −90 ) ( 2 5 Once the percent dose has been calculated. dBA %D = noise dose expressed as a percent Once again.7 Frequency by a Fan The pure tone frequency of a fan can be determined based on the number of fans blades and the rotation speed. Solution: Since we are concerned with OSHA requirements.61 + 90 dBA 100 (245) where TWA = equivalent time weighted average noise exposure. as follows: f = ( N )( RPM ) 60 129 (246) © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety = T 8 = L −90 ) ( 2 5 8 = 18. equation (245) is the appropriate equation to use.com .
com .Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety where N = number of fan blades RPM = speed of fan. are: 31. so a scale of octave bands and onethird octave bands has been developed to assist in their analyses. as defined by ISO. f1 = f2 2 (248) (249) (250) (251) f 2 = 2 f1 = fc f1 ⋅ f 2 f c = 2 f1 130 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. Solution: = f ( N= (= )( RPM ) 8)( 2400 ) 60 60 320 Hz 9. Therefore. 8kHz and 16kHz The ratio of band limits is given by: f n +1 = 2k fn (247) An octave has a center frequency that is 2 times the lower cutoff frequency and has an upper cutoff frequency that is twice the lower cutoff frequency. 500Hz . 4kHz .5Hz . rpm 60 = time unit conversion Problem: Determine the fan frequency generated by a fan with 8 blades turning 2400 RPM. 125Hz . 63Hz . 2kHz .8 Octave and ThirdOctave Bands Sound frequencies can be complex to assess. 1kHz . The center frequencies for these Octave bands. 250Hz . Each band covers a specific range of frequencies. The ratio of the frequency of the highest note to the lowest note in an octave is 2:1.
except thirdoctaves use a onethird power in equation (247). and k = 1/3 for onethird octave bands. f c = the center frequency BW = bandwidth Problem: The lower cutoff frequency of an octave band is 354 Hz. For example. Solution: The upper cutoff frequency is given by equation (249): f 2 =f1 =⋅ 354 = Hz 2 2 707 The center frequency is given by equation (251): f c =f1 =⋅ 354 Hz = Hz 2 2 500 The center frequency is also given by equation (250): fc = f1 ⋅ f 2 = 354 ⋅ 707 = 500 Hz ThirdOctave bands are calculated the same way. Calculate the upper cutoff frequency and the center frequency.com .Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety fc = f2 2 (252) (253) BW f 2 − f1 = where f n+1 = the upper cutoff frequency f n = the lower cutoff frequency k = 1 for full octave bands. Calculate the upper cutoff frequency. 131 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. f 2 = 3 2 f1 (254) Problem: The lower cutoff frequency of a thirdoctave band is 891 Hz.
75m λ 132 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. m The speed of sound in air at 20 oC is 344 m/sec (1125 ft/sec). Hz c = speed of sound. m/sec λ = wavelength.9 Sound Frequency and Wavelength The frequency and wavelength of a sound are related to the speed of sound in the medium the sound travels through (usually air).com . Problem: What is the frequency of a sound in air at 20 C if the wavelength is 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Solution: = f2 3 2= f1 3 2 ⋅ 891 Hz = 1122 Hz 9.75 meters? Solution: o f = c 344m / sec = = 459 Hz 0. and is determined by the following equation: f = c λ (255) where f = frequency.
beta particles.1. this is a point source approximation so estimates up close to the source will not be accurate. rather it is a function of the second power and is defined as: d I 2 = I1 1 d2 where I 1 = intensity at distance d 1 I 2 = intensity at distance d 2 d 1 = first distance from source d 2 = second distance from source 2 (256) Note that since this equation is a simple ratio. units are not specified but must be consistent.e. gamma rays (or photons). Xrays (or photons) and neutrons.com . photons) that are measured at 250 2 particles/cm sec at a distance of 1 meter.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Radiation 10 Radiation 10. What activity will be detected at 2 meters? Solution: 133 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. Problem: A source emits particles (i.. 10. Also.1 Inverse Square Law Radiation intensity decreases as a function of distance from its source.1 Ionizing Ionizing radiation results from electromagnetic radiation with sufficient energy to cause the loss of an electron from the matter in which it interacts (i. The more common ionizing radiation sources encountered in safety and industrial hygiene are alpha particles.e. The decrease is not linear.. produces ions).
313 MeV ) = 18. per hour at 1 ft 6 = a constant for English units C = curie strength of gamma emitter. that is why the symbol ≅ is used as it indicates “approximately equal to.5 particles/cm 2m d2 2 2 10. one of which is 0.8 mR/hr Note: This equation has an accuracy of about 20% between 0. mCi 134 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. R/hour Γ = gamma ray constant.313 MeV.” The following equation can be used to calculate the exposure rate from a gamma radiation source located some distance away.07 and 4 MeV. What is the partial exposure rate at 1 foot from a 10 mCi source due to this energy? Solution: S ≅ 6CE ≅ 6 (10 mCi )( 0. R/mCihr A = source activity. MeV (257) Problem: Assume Iodine131 emits gamma photons at different energies.2 Gamma Radiation Exposure The roentgen value at 1 foot from a gamma emitter is described as: S ≅ 6CE where S = roentgens. Ci E = energy of gamma radiation.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety d 1 m 2 = I= 250 particles/cm 2 sec I2 1 1 = 62.1.com . D= ΓA d2 (258) where D = exposure rate.
18 R/mCihr at 1 cm.com t (260) .3 Equivalent Dose The following equation converts an absorbed source in units of rad. cm Problem: Determine the exposure rate 1 meter from a 10 mCi source of Iodine131.1. Solution: rem = ( rad )( QF ) = ( 5 rad )(10 ) = 50 rem 10. Assume the Gamma value for I131 is Γ =2. According to the International Commission on Radiological Protection. rem = ( rad )( QF ) where rem = equivalent dose. Calculate the worker’s potential exposure. A = Ai ( 0. rad QF = quality factor that converts rad to rem (259) Problem: A worker may be exposed to 5 rad of neutron radiation. This form of the radioactive decay equations can be used to determine the remaining residual activity in a body after a know exposure (amount and time). the Quality Factor (QF) for neutrons is 10.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety d = distance from emitter.18 R/mCihr )(10 mCi ) 2 (100 cm ) = 0. rem rad = absorbed dose. Solution: = D ΓA = d2 ( 2.4 Radioactive Decay Radioactive elements can be characterized by a halflife.00218 R/hr 10. to an equivalent dose in rem.1. which is the time required to lose half its radioactive atoms.5 ) T1/2 135 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.
639t T1/2 0.0 mCi 136 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.0 mCi A = = t 8 hr Another form of the radioactive decay is: A = Ai e where A = radioactivity remaining after some time. If I123 has a halflife of 13 hours. what radioactivity will remain in the patient after 8 hours? Solution: = Ai ( 0. units to match t Problem: 1.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety where A = radioactivity remaining after some time. units to match T 1/2 T 1/2 = half life. mCi (or other appropriate units) A i = initial radioactivity. min (or other appropriate units) Problem: Recalculate the radioactivity from the previous problem using equation (261).5 mCi of Iodine123 (I123) is used to image thyroid cancer.639t T1/2 (261) = Ai e A = 1. mCi (or other appropriate units) A i = initial radioactivity.com .5 ) T1/2 1.5 mCi ( 0. Solution: −0.71828… t = elapsed time. mCi (or other appropriate units) t = elapsed time.5 )13 hr 1.639( 8 hours ) −0. mCi (or other appropriate units) e = natural logarithm. units to match T 1/2 T 1/2 = half life.5 mCi (13 hours ) = 1. 2.
74 x 1015 atoms 127 We also need the halflife is seconds: T1/2 = 13 hours 3600 sec = 46. I123 has a halflife of 13 hours.023 x 10 atoms.023 x 1023 1 x 106 g = 4.693 Ni T1/2 (262) where A = radioactivity remaining after some time. we need to calculate the number of atoms in 1 microgram of I123.693 4. Solution: First.1. N= 6. 10.1. mCi (or other appropriate units) T 1/2 = half life.74 x 1015 7. The atomic weight of Iodine is 127.02x 10 becquerel.02 x 1010 sec −1 = = Ni 46. one mole of an element has 6. 137 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.5 Activity of a Radioactive Element The activity remaining in a radioactive element can be calculated by the following equation: A= 0. substituting into equation (262) yields: = A 0. energy is lost.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 10.693 0. This 23 is accomplished using Avogadro’s number.800 sec hour Now.6 Radiation Attenuation by Layers As radiation passes through some medium. min (or other appropriate units) N i = the number of atoms Problem: Calculate the activity (disintegrations per second) of 1 microgram of Iodine123.com .800 T1/2 10 Note that this is equivalent to 7.
mR/hour I o = original intensity of radiation striking layer(s). 138 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety The amount of radiation reduced as it passes through a number of halflayers is given by: 1 I = Io 2 A (263) where I = intensity of radiation leaving layer(s).95 mR/hr I Io 2 2 Note that the thickness is not required for this solution. which simply replaces the A or B values (number of layers) with a term that calculates the number of layers based on the total thickness and the values of the partial (1/2 or 1/10) layer thicknesses (HVL and TVL. what is the reduced intensity in mR/hr? Solution: For halfvalue layer calculations. similar calculations can be made with tenthlayer protection using equation (264). nondimensional A similar expression applies to the number of tenthlayers. each 0. By definition a halflayer will reduce the transmitted radiation by half.5 inch thick. If six halfvalue layers (HVL) of a shielding material. A 6 The above two equation can be written in the following form. are provided. mR/hour B = number of tenthvalue layers.com . just the number of halflayers. mR/hour A = number of halfvalue layers. 1 I = Io 10 B (264) where I = intensity of radiation leaving layer(s). we use equation (263) 1 1 = = 125 mR/hr = 1. Also. nondimensional Problem: A source of radiation has created a radiation intensity of 125 mR/hr. mR/hour I o = original intensity of radiation striking layer(s). respectively).
units to match X TVL = thickness of tenthvalue layers.5 inches are provided. If 3 inches of a shielding material with a TVL of 1.25 mR/hr 3 X 10 TVL 101.com . the required thickness of a barrier medium can be found by rearranging equation (265) and solving for X. units to match HVL or TVL HVL = thickness of halfvalue layers. we use equation (266): = I I0 125 mR/hr = = 1.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety I= 2 and I= I0 X HVL (265) I0 10 X TVL (266) where I = intensity of radiation leaving layer(s). as well as the thickness of the halfvalue layer are known. 139 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. mR/hour I o = original intensity of radiation striking layer(s). units to match X Problem: A source of radiation has created a radiation intensity of 125 mR/hr. what is the reduced intensity in mR/hr? Solution: For a tenthvalue layer calculation. If the incident and attenuated radiation.32 log 0 ( HVL ) I (267) A similar expression can also be found for the tenthvalue layer problems by rearranging equation (266).5 Equation (265) can be used for halfvalue layers. This leads to: I X = 3. mR/hour X = total thickness of layers.
32 ⋅ log 0 HVL X I 10. the attenuation increases and can be written (with and without a buildup factor) as: I = I o Be − µ x (268) and I = I o e− µ x (269) where I = attenuated radiation exposure rate.1. counts/min B = buildup factor.7 Exponential Rate Attenuation As a medium thickness increases. counts/min I o = original radiation exposure rate. nondimensional 140 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem: Derive equation (267).com . Solution: We start with equation (265) and proceed as follows: I= I0 X 2 HVL 2 X HVL = I0 I X I log 2 HVL = log 0 I I0 X log 2 = log HVL I = X 1 I ⋅ log 0 HVL log 2 I I = 3.
78 cm and a buildup factor of 1. cm1 x = thickness of attenuator. Solution: Rearranging equation (268) leads to: −1 I = Be − µ x 1.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety e = natural logarithm. 10. Assume a linear attenuation coefficient of 0.71828… µ = linear attenuation coefficient. 2. by the following expression: 1 1 1 = + T1/2 eff T1/2 rad T1/2bio where T 1/2eff = effective halflife T 1/2rad = effective radiological halflife T 1/2bio = effective biological halflife Note: Use same units for all three halflives.1.39 = 39% = = Io Since I is 39% of I o . cm Problem: Calculate the attenuation of radiation passing through a lead shield that is 2 1 cm thick.78cm 2 cm 0. which is a function of the biological halflife and radiological halflife.8 Effective HalfLife The rate at which radioactivity decreases in the body can be described by the effective halflife.87.com .87e −0. the attenuation is 61%. This equation can be rearranged to provide the following form: (270) T1/2 eff = (T1/2 rad )(T1/2bio ) T1/2 rad + T1/2bio (271) 141 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.
ultraviolet (UV). g 2.com . nondimensional g = gain for a particular antenna. The range of nonionizing radiation includes lasers. visible.9 hours The biological halflife of I123 is long compared to the radiological halflife. What is the effective halflife of I123? Solution: = T1/2 eff 2880 )(13) (T1/2 rad )(T1/2bio ) (= = T1/2 rad + T1/2bio 2880 + 13 12. so it does not contribute significantly to the effective halflife.2 NonIonizing Nonionizing radiation has insufficient energy to ionize matter. dB g (272) Problem: An indoor antenna has a power of 1 W and a gain of 2. 10.1 Absolute Gain (Antenna) The absolute gain equation simply converts the gain for a particular antenna into an absolute gain.3 dB.7 G = = Note that the power is not required here and the Gain is nondimensional. as follows: G = 1010 where G = absolute gain.2. what is the antenna’s absolute gain? Solution: Using equation (272) and substituting the gain. infrared (IR).Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem: Iodine123 (I123) has a halflife of 13 hours and a biological halflife of 120 days (2880 hours). we find: = 1010 10 10 1. radiofrequency (RF) and extremelylow frequencies (ELF). 10.3 142 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.
6 mW/cm 2 Note: The omega symbol Ω is commonly used to indicate ohms.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 10. mW/cm2 H = magnetic field strength.5 A/m ) = W/cm 2 37.7 = conversion constant.8 m 2 143 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. V/m 3770 = conversion constant.7 H 37. ohms Problem: What is the power density of a magnetic field with a strength of 1. mW/cm2 E = electric field strength.5 A/m? Solution: PD = 2 = (1. A/m 37. The magnetic field strength can be converted to a power density with the following equation: PD = 37.7 H 2 (274) where PD = magnetic power density.2.7 Ω 84.com .2 Field Strength The electric field strength can be converted to a power density with the following equation: E2 PD = 3770 where PD = electrical power density. ohms Problem: What is the power density of an electric field with a strength of 250V/m? Solution: (273) E2 = = PD 3770 ( 250 V/m ) = 2 3770 Ω 16.
the far field power density can be calculates as follows: = W GP AP = 2 2 2 λ r 4π r (275) where W = far field power density. W π = 3. equation (276) and (277) can be combined to find the near field power density as: 144 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. m2 Problem: What is the power density 10 feet away from a 500 W radar transmitter that has an absolute gain of 2? Solution: Converting 10 feet to meters (3. W/m2 G = gain P = radiated power from antenna.com .048 meters) and substituting the problem values into equation (275) leads to: W = ( 2 )( 500 W ) 8.048 ) For antennas. m (see equation (281)) r = distance from antenna.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety For antennas.141593… λ= wavelength. m A = area of antenna. for a dishtype antenna.56 W/m 2 GP = = 2 2 4π r 4π ( 3. the near field power density can be calculated as follows: W= 16P π D2 (276) Note that the equation of the area of a circle is: A= π D2 4 (277) So.
2 10. W/m2 P = radiated power from antenna.166 mW/cm 2 = A π ( 7m )2 4 Note: One W/m is equal to 0.2 W ) = = 11.66 W/m 2 1.2 Watts. W A = area of antenna. m2 Problem: A round antenna with a diameter of 7 meter has a total feed input power of 112. what is the power density at the surface of the antenna? Solution: Applying equation (278) leads to: W = 4 P 4 (112. W G = absolute gain.141593… EL = exposure limit. W/cm2 145 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com .3 Safe Distance for NonIonizing Radiation An estimated safe distance from an antenna can be derived as follows: PG r = 4π EL 1/2 (279) where r = distance.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety W= 4P A (278) where W = near field power density. cm P = emitted power.1 mW/cm. nondimensional π = 3.2.
tesla B x = magnetic flux density in the x plane.75 mT.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem: Calculate the distance at which the exposure level is exceeded for a 1000 W 2 antenna with an absolute gain of 100.2 m )( 3. and z direction.com . tesla 2 Bx2 + By + Bz2 (280) Problem: Magnetic flux measurements are made in the x. y and z planes at a particular location and the following data recorded: B x = 1.2 m 4π (10W/m 2 ) 1/2 ( 28. B y = 0.25mT ) 2 2 2 = 2. Br = where B r = resulting magnetic flux density. B z = 1. tesla B z = magnetic flux density in the z plane.5 ft 10. Calculate the resulting magnitude of the magnetic flux. Solution: Br = 2 Bx2 + By + Bz2 = (1.75mT ) + (1. Solution: Substituting values into equation (279) leads to: PG r = = 4π EL 1/2 (1000 W )(100 ) = 28.5mT ) + ( 0.1mT 146 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.2.25 mT. Assume an exposure limit of 10 W/m .5 mT. tesla B y = magnetic flux density in the y plane.28 ft/m ) = 92. y.4 Magnetic Flux Density The following equation can be used to calculate the vector sum magnetic flux by taking the square root of the sum of the squares of measurements in the x.
5 Electromagnetic Radiation Wavelength and Frequency Recall the wavelength and frequency relationship for sound moving through air. 3x108 m/sec λ = wavelength. W/m2nm S λ = relative spectral effectiveness. electromagnetic radiation behaves according to a similar relationship.6 Effective Ultraviolet Irradiance The effective irradiance from a broadband ultraviolet source can be calculated using the following expression: = Eeff where ∑ Eλ Sλ ∆λ (282) E eff = effective irradiance (relative to a source). = λf c = λ T (281) where c = speed of light.5 x 109 s 1 =1500 MHz = λ 0.2 m 10.2. W/m2 E λ = spectral irradiance.2. m f = frequency. sec Problem: A particular microwave oven operates with a wavelength of about 0.com .2m. Hz T = period. nondimensional Δ λ = wavelength step.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 10. what is its frequency? Solution: Rearranging equation (281) and substituting leads to: f = c 3 x 108 m/s =1. except this equation is based on the speed of light (not the speed of sound). nm 147 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.
5 )(1nm ) + ( 0. Remember that means the product of each Eλ Sλ ∆ λ term must be added to find the total effective irradiance. which can be written: I I 0 ⋅ (magnification) 2 = (283) where I = irradiance after beam passes through magnifier. calculate the effective UV irradiance.1 Relative Spectral Effectiveness 0.3 0.01 0. Spectral Irradiance 2 W/m nm 0. Problem: A lamp has the following UV properties.7 Lasers 10.5 0.003)(1nm ) = 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Note the summation sign (Σ) in equation (282).1 W/m 2 nm ) ( 0.2.03 W/m 2 nm ) ( 0.3)(1nm ) + ( 0.43 x106 W/cm 2 Note: The exposure time permitted for a given UV irradiance can be found using equation (291).003 Wavelength Step nm 1 1 1 Wavelength 254 300 315 Solution: = Eeff = ( 0. ∑ Eλ Sλ ∆λ 10.0143 W/m 2 = 1. W/cm2 magnification = the magnifying power 148 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.03 0.7.01 W/m 2 nm ) ( 0.1 Magnification A laser that has been magnified will have a resulting irradiance that increases by the square of the magnification power.2. W/cm2 I o = irradiance prior to magnifier.com .
D. The reduction in divergence will increase the irradiance per unit area according to equation (283).D.D.. Solution: 2 2 Io 2.3 Laser Beam Diameter The diameter of a laser beam at some distance from the source can be estimated by: 149 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. calculate the optical density required to reduce the laser pulse below the permitted level. 2 I= I 0 ⋅ (magnification) 2 = ) = (1 W/cm2 ) (10 100 W/cm2 2 10.2. a binocular lens will decrease the divergence by the magnification factor (e. for CW lasers use W/cm2 Problem: A pulsed laser produces a potential exposure of 2. = log Io I (284) where O.D.0 x 10 J/cm . Therefore.72 5. log = = 4.2 Optical Density Protective eyewear for use around lasers is rated for optical density (OD).6 x 10 J/cm . If the 7 2 maximum permitted exposure level is 5.0 x 107 J/cm 2 I 10.com .Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem: What is the increase in irradiance of a 1 W/cm laser beam passing through a 10x30 binocular lens? Solution: It is possible to reduce the divergence of most lasers using simple optics.7.7.g. log = = O. which is the attenuation factor by which the optical filter reduces beam power according to the following equation: O. 10x30 would reduce the divergence to 1/10th of its original divergence). For example. = optical density I o = irradiance prior to filter I = irradiance after beam passes through filter Note: For pulsed laser use J/cm2.6 x 102 J/cm 2 O.2.
5 km away from a source with an 4 emergent diameter of 2 cm and a beam divergence of 1 x10 radians. These are presented here. cm Problem: Determine the diameter of a laser beam 0. radians r = distance. cm 150 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. cm φ = emergent beam divergence. 1 4Φ = − a2 rNHZ φ π EL 1/2 (286) where r NHZ = nominal hazard zone.141593… EL = exposure limit.4 Nominal Hazard Zone (NHZ) The safe use of lasers requires the evaluation of various safe distances.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety DL = a2 + φ 2r 2 (285) where D L = laser beam diameter at distance r. Solution: DL = a 2 + φ 2 r 2 = L = 22 + (10−4 ) ( 5.com .0 x104 ) = cm D 5.7.2. cm a = emergent beam diameter. W or J π = 3. The following equation can be used to calculate the distance from a laser at which the potential eye exposure no longer exceeds the permitted exposure limit. cm φ = emergent beam divergence. W/cm2 or J/cm2 a = emergent beam diameter.4 2 2 10. radians Φ = total radiant power output of laser.
7 cm focal length. W/cm2 Problem: A 3000 W laser has a 12.54 cm π ( 45 W/cm 2 ) bo π EL 1/2 151 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.2 ) 2 2 rNHZ= −a = − ( 0. cm Φ = total radiant power output of laser. rNHZ where f 4Φ = o bo π EL 1/2 (287) r NHZ = nominal hazard zone.2 J pulsed laser that has a beam 3 divergence of 1 x10 radians and an emergent beam diameter of 0. Solution: 1/2 f o 4Φ 12.14km 10−3 π ( 5x107 ) φ π EL 1/2 The following equation can be used to calculate the distance from a laser at which the potential eye exposure no longer exceeds the permitted exposure limit for the “lens on laser” case. Assume the 7 2 maximum permitted exposure level is 5.7 cm 4 ( 3000W ) = = = 46 cm rNHZ 2. cm f o = focal length of lens.14x105cm = 7.com . W π = 3. and an incident beam diameter of 2. cm b o = diameter of laser beam incident on focusing lens. Solution: 1/2 1 4Φ 1 4 ( 0.0 x 10 J/cm .Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem: Determine the hazard zone distance for a 0.141593… EL = exposure limit.6 ) = 7. Calculate the distance beyond which the irradiance is less than the permitted 2 exposure level (assume 45 W/cm ).54 cm.6 cm.
05 W/cm .com . W θ = angle from normal for the viewing surface.2.5 Laser Barrier Distance The following equation can be used to determine the minimum distance for a barrier to provide protection from a given laser.7.05W/cm 2 ) π EL 1/2 1/2 10. Solution: (1)( 500 W )( cos 0 ) ρΦ cos θ rNHZ = = = 56. 100% = 1 Φ = total radiant power output of laser. and an 2 exposure limit of 0.4 cm π ( 0. rNHZ ρΦ cos θ = π EL 1/2 (288) where r NHZ = nominal hazard zone. Ds = 1 4Φ − a2 φ π TL 1/2 (289) where D s = separation distance for barrier.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety The following equation can be used to calculate the distance from a laser at which the potential eye exposure no longer exceeds the permitted exposure limit when diffuse reflection is included.141593… EL = exposure limit. cm ρ = effectiveness of diffuse reflecting surface. W/cm2 Problem: Calculate the nominal hazard zone distance of a 500 W laser. cm 152 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. Assume 100% effective diffuse reflecting surface. degrees π = 3. a viewing angle of 0degrees from normal.
W π = 3.2.3 m Ds 2.8 Spatial Averaging of Measurements Typically. Solution: 3 = Ds φ π TL 1 1 4Φ − a2 1/ 2 1/ 2 4 ( 400W ) 2 = − ( 0. cm Problem: A 400 W laser has a beam divergence of 2. Calculate the barrier distance at which the irradiance is less 2 than the worst case exposure level (assume 45 W/cm ). V/m (electric) or A/m (magnetic) i = incremental measurement count 153 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.5cm ) = 1330 cm = 13. multiple measurements of an electric or magnetic field strength are made so that an average value can be found.5 cm. Typically ten or more measurements are required. The resulting field strength average is called the spatial average and is calculated as follows: N 2 ∑ FSi spatial average = i =1 N where 1/2 (290) FS i = field strength measurement i. and an exit beam diameter of 0. W/cm2 a = emergent beam diameter. radians Φ = total radiant power output of laser.5x103 π ( 45W/cm 2 ) 10.com .5 x 10 radians.141593… TL = threshold limit value for barrier.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety φ = emergent beam divergence.
Field Strength (V/m) 10 10 12 14 16 20 18 14 12 8 2 Location 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 FS 100 100 144 196 256 400 324 196 144 64 ∑ FS i =1 N 2 i 1924 ∑ FS i =1 N 2 i 192.4 N N 2 ∑ FSi i =1 N 1/2 14 154 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com . Note that since there are ten samples. What is the spatial average of the measurements? Location 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Field Strength (V/m) 10 10 12 14 16 20 18 14 12 8 Solution: The following table is setup to solve equation (290) for the data presented.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety N = total number of measurements Problem: Electric field strength measurements are made at ten locations and the following data recorded. N=10.
0 2 µW/cm .g.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Therefore. What is the permissible time exposure? Solution: 0.2. 600 seconds = 10 minutes Exposure times to some type of nonionizing radiation (e. the spatially averaged electric field strength is 14 V/m.. from effective irradiance to exposure time Problem: A lamp used in an industrial process has an effective irradiance of 5. radio frequency. t= EL x 0. sec E eff = effective irradiance. microwave) are limited to a permissible level which is based on a sixminute exposure. the following equation can be used to determine an alternative exposure duration based on the actual exposure level.com . for exposure to ultraviolet radiation incident upon the unprotected eye or skin.9 Time Exposure for NonIonizing Radiation The permissible exposure time in seconds. When the actual exposure exceeds the allowable limit. may be computed by: t= 0.003J/cm 2 Eeff (291) where t = exposure time.003 Ws/cm2 = conversion factor.0 x 106 W/cm 2 Eeff Note: A Watt is also a Joule/second.1hr ML (292) where 155 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. W/cm2 0.003 J/ cm2 = 0. 10.003J/cm 2 = = t = 5.003J/cm 2 0.
1hr = 6 minutes.067 hr = 4 min = = ML 15 mW/cm 2 156 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. What is the acceptable exposure time? Solution: EL 10 mW/cm 2 t x 0. a Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 10 mW/cm (averaged over sixminute periods) has been specified. the basis for the permissible exposure limit Problem: Assume that for incident electromagnetic energy frequencies between 10 2 MHz and 100 GHz.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety t = time (duration) of acceptable exposure to the actual exposure level. However. mW/cm2 ML = measured (actual) level. a worker is potentially subjected to 15 2 mW/cm .1hr = 0. mW/cm2 0.1hr x 0. hr EL = exposure limit.com .
What is the current in the system? Solution: (294) = I V 120 volts = = 3 amps R 40 ohms 157 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. Ohm’s law states that the current between two points in a conductor is directly proportional to the voltage across the two points.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Electricity 11 Electricity 11. amperes R = the resistance of the conductor. ohms Problem: A 120 volt power tool and long extension cord has a total equivalent resistance of 40 ohms. Mathematically this can be written: I= V R (293) which can also be written V = IR where V = the potential difference measured across the resistance. and inversely proportional to the resistance between them.com .1 Ohm’s Law One of the fundamental laws of electrical circuits is Ohm's law. volts I = the current through the resistance.
ohms Equations (294) and (295) can be combined to yield: (295) P = IV Problem: A forklift has lights that draw 5 amps each. ohms ρ = is the resistivity in units of ohmfeet L = length of conductor.com . feet 158 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. amperes R = the resistance of the conductor. Mathematically this can be written: P = I 2R where P = power.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 11. Joule's law states that the rate of heat dissipation in a conductor is proportional to the square of the current through it and to its resistance. what is the power to each light? Solution: (296) = IV P = 11.3 Resistance = ( 5amps )(12 volts ) 60 watts The electrical resistance of a conductor (R) can be calculated by the following equation: R=ρ L A (297) where R = the resistance of the conductor.2 Joule’s Law Another important law that pertains to electrical circuits is Joule’s law. watts I = the current through the resistance. Assuming a 12 Volt electrical system.
or 0.2 Resistors in Parallel (298) 1 R parallel where R = resistance.00534 ft ) A = = = 0. they can be reduced to a single equivalent part using the following equations. the crosssectional area of the conductor must be found: 14 Gauge wire has a nominal diameter of 0.1 Resistors in Series Rseries = R1 + R2 + + Rn 11.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety A = crosssectional area of conductor. or in parallel.4.com .51E08 Ohmsft. 11.4.000022ft 2 4 4 2 Then substituting into equation (297) leads to: L 1000 ft R = (5.51x10−8 ohmft) = ρ = 2.000022 ft 2 A Comparing this value to 2. 11. From tables of properties for copper. or inductors are located within the same electrical circuit. ft2 Problem: What is the resistance in 1000 feet of 14 Gauge copper wire? Solution: We can use equation (297) but some preliminary calculations are required first. ohms = 1 1 1 + + + R1 R2 Rn (299) 159 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. The resulting equivalent value depends on if the parts are in series.4 Equivalent Values for Components in Series and in Parallel Whenever multiple resistors.46 ohms 0. Also. capacitors.53 ohms obtained from a wire data table shows about a 3% difference.00534 ft π d 2 π ( 0. as well as the resistivity of the actual copper used in the wire. we can find ρ copper = 5.06408 inches. This small difference can be attributed to the actual versus nominal dimension.
henries = 1 1 1 + + + L1 L2 Ln (303) Problem: What is the equivalent resistance (in ohms) of three resistors.6 Inductors in Parallel (302) 1 Lparallel where L = inductance.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 11.3 Capacitors in Series 1 Cseries = 1 1 1 + + + C1 C2 Cn (300) 11.5 Inductors in Series Lseries = L1 + L2 + + Ln 11. 2 ohms and 3 ohms.4. in series.4.4. and in parallel? Series Solution: Rseries =1ohms + 2 ohms + 3ohms = 6 ohms Parallel Solution: 1 R parallel = 1 1 1 + + =1.833ohms −1 1ohms 2 ohms 3ohms 160 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.4 Capacitors in Parallel C parallel = C1 + C2 + + Cn (301) where C = capacitance.4.com . 1 ohm. farads 11.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety To solve for R parallel take the reciprocal.com . capacitor formulas are “flipped” when compared to resistors and inductors. However. 161 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. that is the same math.545 ohms Note: The same approach that is used for resistors is used for inductors. which leads to R parallel = 0. just different units.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 162 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com .
1 Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation Per the Applications Manual for the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation (1994).0075 V − 30 )] 0. The RWL is defined by the following equation: RWL = LC x HM xVM x DM x AM x FM x CM (304) where RWL = recommended weight limit LC = load constant HM = horizontal multiplier VM = vertical multiplier DM = distance multiplier AM = asymmetric multiplier FM = frequency multiplier CM = coupling multiplier Substituting appropriate values from the Applications Manual for the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation.com . the recommended weight limit (RWL) is the principal product of the revised NIOSH lifting equation.. up to 8 hours) without an increased risk of developing liftingrelated lower back pain.g.0032 A )( FM )( CM ) (305) H D 10 and 163 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Ergonomics 12 Ergonomics 12. equation (304) can be written: RWL (lb = ) ( 51) 1.8 [1 − ( 0. The RWL is defined for a specific set of task conditions as the weight of the load that nearly all healthy workers could perform over a substantial period of time (e.82 + (1 − 0.
00 1. defined as the angle between the asymmetry line and the midsagittal line.90 V ≥ 30 inches (75 cm) 1.65 0.94 0.com .92 0.5 1 2 3 4 5 Work Duration > 1 but ≤ 2 Hours V < 30 in.00 0. 0.97 0.95 0.84 0. inches (English) or cm (Metric) V = vertical location.00 0. inches (English) or cm (Metric) A = asymmetric angle.72 0. measured from the midpoint of the line joining the inner ankle bones to a point projected on the floor directly below the midpoint of the hand grasps.00 1. V ≥ 30 in. 0. degrees FM = frequency multiplier (see table below) CM = coupling multiplier (see table below) Coupling Multiplier (CM) Table Coupling Type Good Fair Poor Coupling Multiplier V < 30 inches (75 cm) 1.91 0. V ≥ 30 in.60 0.85 0.81 0.90 Frequency Multiplier (FM) Table Frequency Lifts/min ‡ (F) ≤ 0.95 0.92 0.2 0.88 0.75 0.97 0.88 0.55 0.75 0.003 V − 75 )] 0.65 0.91 0.00 0. defined as the vertical travel distance of the hands between the origin and destination of the lift.79 0.72 0.84 0.45 0.94 0.88 0.85 0.35 0. inches (English) or cm (Metric) D = vertical travel distance.80 > 2 but ≤ 8 Hours V < 30 in.45 0.55 0. V is measured vertically from the floor to the midpoint between the hand grasps.88 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety RWL ( kg ) = ( 23 ) 4.0032 A )( FM )( CM ) (306) H D 25 where H = horizontal location. defined as the vertical height of the hands above the floor.81 0.35 164 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.82 + (1 − 0.84 0.95 0. 1. V ≥ 30 in.60 ≤ 1 Hour † V < 30 in.5 [1 − ( 0.84 0.79 0.80 0.
18 0.18 0.00 0.8 48 1 − 0.50 0.0 (from frequency table footnote) CM =0.42 0.30 0.00 0. Problem: During his shift.60 0.27 0.00 0.22 0.0032 ( 0 ) ) (1)( .37 0.52 0. set F = 0.75 0.0075 15 − 30 )] 0. The grab points are the center of the roll.34 0.52 0. Calculate the recommended weight limit (RWL) for the original location of this task.82 + ( ) ( ( ) ( 1.00 0.00 0. The rolls weigh 40 lbs each and are 30 inches in diameter and initially located on the floor.00 0.27 0. and the tables above. Solution: From the data given.41 0.00 0. For lifting less frequently than once per five minutes.28 0.00 0.42 0.00 0.8 D 1. we can determine the following multipliers: • • • • • • H = 23 inches V = 15 inches D = 48 inches A = 0 (assume no asymmetric movement) FM =1.50 0.00 0.35 0. so the lifting point is 15 inches above the floor.26 0.00 0.75 0. a worker at a printing machine must occasionally lift a roll of paper stock and place it into the paper receiver.00 0.00 0.00 0.22 0.com .31 0.0075 V − 30 )] 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 >15 † ‡ 0.00 0.41 0.70 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.82 + 1 − 0.00 0.00 0.45 0.30 0.95 (from coupling table.0032 A )( FM )( CM ) 1 − 0.21 0.00 0.00 0.60 0.26 0.23 0.00 0.00 0.00 0. The horizontal distance from the roll’s initial and final location is 23 inches.13 0.2 Lifts/min.00 0.00 Values for V are inches.00 0. assume the coupling is “fair”) Then using equation (305) for English units: RWL (lb= ) ) RWL (lb= ( 51 ( )[ ) ( )[ ( ( 51) 10 10 H 23 1 − ( 0.37 0.15 0.45 0.35 0.00 0.00 0. The final placement height of the center of the roll is 63 inches above the floor.95 ) = 16 lbs 165 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.
the actual load is nearly 21/2 times the recommended weight limit indicating this lifting task would be hazardous for a majority of healthy industrial workers. From the NIOSH perspective.0 or less. the lifting index may be used to identify potentially hazardous lifting jobs or to compare the relative severity of two jobs for the purpose of evaluating and redesigning them.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 12. The Lifting Index is calculated as follows: LI = L RWL (307) where LI = Lifting Index L = load weight RWL = recommended weight limit. the goal should be to design all lifting jobs to achieve a LI of 1.1 Lifting Index The Lifting Index (LI) provides a relative estimate of the physical stress associated with a manual lifting job.0 pose an increased risk for liftingrelated low back pain for some fraction of the workforce. Per NIOSH. as long as L and RWL are in the same units. calculated using equations above Note: In equation (307). Hence. any weight measure can be used.5 RWL 16 lbs Therefore. Solution: = LI L 40 lbs = = 2. 166 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. determine the Lifting Index for the task. it is likely that lifting tasks with a LI > 1.1. Problem: Based on the data and the RWL calculated above.com .
2TGT + 0.1 Wet Bulb Globe Temperature The Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) is a composite temperature used to estimate the heat stress effect of temperature. and solar heating on people. oF or oC T WB = wetbulb temperature.7TWB + 0. Common psychrometric charts graphically illustrate the relationships between air temperature and relative humidity. oF or oC For a description of these temperatures.1( 90 o F ) = 87 o F Important: Note that when you do not include the solar load you do not simply drop the dry bulb measurement. as well as other properties of air.1TDB = 0.2 ( 94 o F ) + 0.2 Heat Stress and Relative Humidity 12. oF or oC T GT = globe temperature.7TWB + 0. (308) (309) WBGT = 0. Problem: What is the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) at a sunny location if a wet o o bulb temperature is 85 F. the globe temperature is 94 F.1TDB where WBGT = wet bulb globe temperature. Psychrometric charts are versatile.7TWB + 0. wind speed.3TGT = Outdoor WBGT (with a solar load) WBGT = 0.7 ( 85 o F ) + 0.com . humidity. the globe temperature multiplier is different. Compare equations (308) and (309). see Section 14. we use equation (309). by knowing just two properties of air.2TGT + 0. WBGT values are calculated by the following equations: Indoor WBGT (or outdoors with no solar load) WBGT 0. various 167 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. oF or oC T DB = drybulb temperature.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 12. and the dry blub temperature o is 90 F? Solution: Since we are evaluating a sunny day.2.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
other properties can quickly be determined. See Section 14 for more info and example of their use. 12.2.2 Heat Storage by Body The thermal (heat) balance within a human body can be mathematically described as follows:
M −W = E + R + C + K + S
where M = metabolic energy (heat) production, Btu/hr W = external work rate, Btu/hr E = evaporative heat change, Btu/hr R = radiant heat change, Btu/hr C = convective heat change, Btu/hr K = conductive heat change, Btu/hr S = energy (heat) storage rate by the body, Btu/hr The term MW is always positive.
(310)
The conductive heat change (K) is typically small and, if so, can be ignored. In such cases equation (310)can be written:
∆S=
( M −W ) ± C ± R − E
(311)
Note that as suggested by equation (311), the convective and radiative changes can be positive or negative (i.e., gains or losses). Evaporative changes are losses. Assuming no net change in the storage of energy (heat) in the body (i.e., S=0), and no work is done (i.e., W=0) equation (311) can be rearranged to find the evaporative cooling required to offset the metabolic, convective and radiative changes:
Ereq = M + C + R
(312)
where
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Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
E req = steady state evaporative heat loss, Btu/hr
Problem: A worker is conducting light work such that metabolic heat production minus the work expended is 650 Btu/hr. If the worker has a local fan that provides 50 Btu/hr of convective cooling, local equipment that causes a radiant heat gain of 125 Btu/hr, and an evaporative heat loss of 250 BTU/hr, what is the worker’s net heat gain? Solution:
∆S=
( M − W ) ± C ± R − E= ( 650 ) − 50 + 125 − 250=
475 Btu/hr
12.2.2.1 Convective Heat Gain/Loss by Body
The convective heat change can be calculated using the following equation:
= 0.65v 0.6 (Ta − 95 ) C
where C = convective heat change, Btu/hr v = air velocity, ft/min T a = air temperature, oF 95 = mean weighted skin temperature, oF
Problem: What is the convective cooling of an outside worker who is exposed to a o temperature of 75 F and 15 mph winds? Solution: Equation (313) uses an air speed in ft/min, so the wind speed must be converted from mph to ft/min.
(313)
= 0.65v 0.6 (Ta − 95 ) C 15 miles 5280 ft 1 hour 0.65 C= mile 60 min hr
0.6
−969 ( 75 − 95) = Btu/hr
12.2.2.2 Radiant Heat Gain/Loss by Body
The radiative heat change can be calculated using the following equation:
= 15 (Tr − 95 ) R
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(314)
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
where R = radiative heat change, Btu/hr 15 = constant T r = mean radiant temperature, oF 95 = mean weighted skin temperature, oF
Problem: A worker is located in an area with production equipment that creates an o average radiant environment of 110 F. What is the radiant heat gain of a worker in this area? Solution:
R= 15 (Tr − 95 )= 15 (110 − 95 )= 225 Btu/hr
12.2.2.3 Maximum Evaporative Heat Loss
The maximum evaporative heat loss formula quantifies the amount of heat that is lost from the body through evaporative cooling.
= 2.4v 0.6 ( 42 − vpw ) Emax
where E max = evaporative heat loss, Btu/hr 2.4 = constant v = air velocity, ft/min 42 = vapor pressure of water at 95 oF skin temperature, mmHg vp w = vapor pressure of water at ambient temperature, mmHg
(315)
Problem: What is the maximum evaporative loss of an outside worker who is exposed o to a temperature of 75 F and 15 mph winds? Solution: Equation (315) requires the vapor pressure of water. Assuming an effective temperature that is between the body temperature and the ambient air, tables of water pressure can be consulted to find a water vapor pressure of 32 mmHg. Then applying equation (315) leads to:
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Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
= 2.4v 0.6 ( 42 − vpw ) Emax
15 miles 5280 ft 1 hour = 2.4 Emax = 1789 Btu/hr ( 42 − 32 ) mile 60 min hr
0.6
12.2.3 Heat Stress Index The heat stress index (HSI) is one method of quantifying thermal stress. As can be seen in the following equation, it is simply the ratio of the steady state evaporative cooling to the maximum possible evaporative cooling, expressed as a percentage,
HSI =
where
Ereq Emax
x 100
(316)
HSI = heat stress index, non dimensional E req = steady state evaporative heat loss, Btu/hr (see equation (312)) E max = evaporative heat loss, Btu/hr
Problem: A worker has a maximum evaporative loss of 1789 Btu/hr. Calculate the Heat Stress Index (HSI) if a worker requires an evaporative heat loss of 475 Btu/hr. Solution:
= HSI
Ereq 475 Btu/hr x 100 = 27% = x 100 1789 Btu/hr Emax
12.2.4 Ventilation of Sensible Heat Sensible heat is the heat which results in a temperature change only when a transfer takes place. For example, sensible heat is produced by a heating system or is removed by a refrigeration system. The volume of air required to dissipate the sensible heat load can be calculated in the following manner. First, recalling from thermodynamics, the heat capacity of a system can be defined by:
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H s . Btu/lboF (0. Btu/min (317) m = mass rate of the system. lbs/min c p = specific heat of the system. and substituting values for c p and ρ a . ft3/min ρ a = density of air.08 ∆T (320) This is sometimes written as: cfm = Total Sensible Heat (Btu/hr) 1.24 Btu/lboF) ΔT = change in temperature.000 Btu/hr of heat to a 10 F degree temperature rise. oF The mass flow rate can be found by: m Qs ⋅ ρ a = where Q s = volumetric flow rate of sensible air.08 ( ∆T ) (321) Problem: Determine the volumetric air flow rate (cfm) required to limit an area with an o industrial oven that produces 25.075 lb/ft3) Combining equations (317) and (318) and defining E as the sensible heat. Rearranging to solve for Q s . lb/ft3 (0. and Hs has units of Btu/hr.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety = mc p ∆T E where E = energy change in the system. leads to: Qs = Hs 1.com . leads to: = Qs ρ a c p ∆T ⋅ (60min/hr) Hs (318) (319) Note the 60 min/hr conversion is required since Qs has units of ft3/min. Solution: 172 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.
000 Btu/hr = = 2315 cfm 1.08 (10 o F ) 173 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.08 ( ∆T ) 1.com .Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety = cfm Total Sensible Heat (Btu/hr) 25.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 174 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com .
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Statistical Tables 13 Statistical Tables The following statistical tables are provided on the following pages: • • • Area Under the Standard Normal Curve from 0 to Z Table of Percentage Points of the t Distribution Upper Percentage Points of the χ2 Distribution 175 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com .
4236 0.4564 0.4767 0.1179 0.4962 0.4920 0.4788 0.4177 0.4890 0.4147 0.2088 0.4904 0.1026 0.4131 0.4 2.0596 0.0714 0.1554 0.3315 0.4693 0.1368 0.3289 0.4945 0.4975 0.4778 0.3869 0.0279 0.3665 0.3980 0.6 2.4960 0.4968 0.4978 0.4678 0.3770 0.0793 0.0478 0.0987 0.4082 0.4987 1 0.2823 0.2734 0.4940 0.4951 0.4817 0.4987 2 0.4970 0.4713 0.4963 0.4946 0.4049 0.3159 0.4821 0.1772 0.4984 0.2704 0.4871 0.4988 5 0.3531 0.3051 0.4834 0.1517 0.4 1.4948 0.1844 0.4625 0.1064 0.2794 0.4452 0.4222 0.4772 0.9 2.4319 0.4484 0.1443 0.4265 0.2995 0.6 1.4887 0.4959 0.4706 0.3023 0.4971 0.4474 0.4868 0.4956 0.9 3.4251 0.4838 0.1879 0.2673 0.2852 0.0 1.4382 0.3186 0.3264 0.4981 0.4974 0.4616 0.4808 0.2224 0.2190 0.0319 0.3729 0.7 1.3340 0.4925 0.4957 0.4906 0.3078 0.3461 0.4525 0.0 0.4783 0.4370 0.4864 0.3 1.4505 0.4756 0.4985 0.0948 0.4418 0.4671 0.4931 0.3997 0.2454 0.0160 0.4982 0.2019 0.1 2.0675 0.2422 0.4980 0.1736 0.3413 0.4985 0.4719 0.4986 0.4973 0.0359 0.3106 0.3810 0.4936 0.4332 0.4913 0.3849 0.4099 0.4803 0.4909 0.4854 0.0239 0.3830 0.4911 0.7 0.4357 0.1480 0.1 1.2642 0.2486 0.2580 0.4633 0.0199 0.4969 0.1141 0.1255 0.3749 0.3238 0.4115 0.0080 0.4441 0.4898 0.1915 0.1591 0.7 2.3554 0.4922 0.4495 0.4875 0.4842 0.0438 0.0517 0.2389 0.4981 0.4732 0.4750 0.4878 0.4961 0.3888 0.4793 0.3389 0.5 2.0557 0.4979 0.4953 0.0 2.4976 0.0398 0.4929 0.4972 0.1103 0.4977 0.4207 0.0000 0.3944 0.2764 0.2123 0.4941 0.4812 0.4649 0.4943 0.4292 0.4515 0.4966 0.0636 0.4964 0.2549 0.4934 0.com .3621 0.2 0.4582 0.2257 0.4798 0.9 1.4974 0.3365 0.4986 0.4990 176 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.3438 0.4988 4 0.3508 0.2157 0.4952 0.4857 0.0832 0.1293 0.4545 0.1 0.0871 0.4306 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Area Under the Standard Normal Curve from 0 to Z Z 0.4884 0.4967 0.4066 0.4984 0.1664 0.4916 0.4535 0.0910 0.4989 7 0.3599 0.3577 0.4987 3 0.4881 0.4977 0.4463 0.4989 8 0.4861 0.4932 0.3643 0.1985 0.4955 0.1217 0.4394 0.1331 0.4927 0.4826 0.3133 0.4726 0.8 0.4830 0.3686 0.2054 0.4032 0.1950 0.4846 0.4686 0.4015 0.2881 0.4850 0.4979 0.2967 0.4896 0.4345 0.4641 0.4664 0.4918 0.3962 0.4699 0.2611 0.4965 0.3212 0.4982 0.4761 0.4983 0.2910 0.4738 0.4901 0.4949 0.4192 0.4656 0.5 0.4989 6 0.4599 0.4 0.2 1.0 0 0.3708 0.2291 0.3485 0.8 1.1628 0.4990 9 0.3 2.0120 0.2324 0.8 2.3790 0.1406 0.4744 0.4554 0.2 2.4573 0.5 1.4608 0.3925 0.4279 0.4162 0.0753 0.0040 0.4893 0.2939 0.3907 0.3 0.2517 0.1808 0.2357 0.4429 0.4591 0.6 0.4406 0.1700 0.4938 0.
703 0.638 1.816 0.365 3.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Table of Percentage Points of the t Distribution TwoSided OneSided Degrees of Freedom 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 20 25 30 ∞ 0.965 4.078 1.747 3.353 2.727 0.2 (two tail) 3.457 2.571 2.691 0.764 2.316 1.25 (one tail) 0.684 0.282 Probability 0.com .687 0.131 2.303 3.228 2.05 (one tail) 0.310 1.708 1.132 2.896 2.326 177 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.262 2.741 0.533 1.365 2.753 1.306 2.060 2.700 0.042 1.372 1.776 2.833 1.765 0.415 1.602 2.383 1.000 0.440 1.50 (two tail) 1.812 1.050 (two tail) 12.314 2.960 0.528 2.920 2.476 1.1 (one tail) 0.10 (two tail) 6.860 1.025 (one tail) 0.182 2.447 2.645 0.821 6.886 1.718 0.086 2.711 0.998 2.01 (one tail) 0.821 2.341 1.943 1.015 1.697 1.397 1.541 3.725 1.02 (two tail) 31.325 1.485 2.706 4.895 1.674 0.143 2.683 0.706 0.
239 1.571 7.204 2.779 9.016 0.919 18.307 28.475 20.571 4.812 18.599 2.410 37.684 15.314 50.549 19.578 37.652 43.660 5.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Upper Percentage Points of the χ2 Distribution Degrees of Freedom 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 20 25 30 0.256 0.575 5.524 14.090 21.167 2.com .605 6.996 31.645 12.488 11.325 3.635 9.226 5.892 6.297 0.020 0.053 3.841 5.95 0.733 3.554 0.646 2.566 44.168 4.812 21.685 24.490 4.000 0.145 1.688 29.610 2.10 0.261 10.017 13.086 16.892 178 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.275 18.352 0.115 0.773 0.666 23.493 Probability 0.070 12.872 1.236 10.05 3.382 40.865 5.026 22.711 1.260 11.611 18.217 27.362 23.103 0.507 16.940 4.141 30.725 26.362 14.790 8.01 6.90 0.953 0.443 16.304 7.345 13.307 19.99 0.067 15.412 34.107 4.815 9.251 7.209 24.706 4.558 3.987 17.851 14.064 22.229 8.211 0.578 6.277 15.004 0.064 1.833 3.584 1.088 2.547 12.592 14.473 20.675 21.042 7.635 2.991 7.210 11.
By volume.2 Basic Definitions of Air Temperature 1. smoke. Psychrometric charts are versatile. 2. various other properties can quickly be determined. pollen. and 1 percent other gases. may also be encountered depending on air quality. and other gases. Dry air is used as the reference in psychrometrics..Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Psychrometric Charts 14 Psychrometric Charts Psychrometrics refers to the properties of gasvapor mixtures.com . Dry Bulb Temperature 179 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. Dry Air Dry air exists when all of the contaminants and water vapor have been removed from atmospheric air. 21 percent oxygen.1 Basic Definitions of Air 1. 14. For practical purposes. the terms dry air and moist air are used in psychrometrics. etc. 14. 3. Common psychrometric charts (see example below) graphically illustrate the relationships between air temperature and relative humidity as well as other properties of air. including air. by knowing just two properties of air. Atmospheric Air Atmospheric air is the air we breathe and use for normal ventilation. Moist Air Moist air is a mixture of dry air and water vapor. Miscellaneous contaminants such as dust. Due to the variability of atmospheric air. water vapor. moist air and atmospheric air can be considered equal under the range of conditions normally encountered. Air is primarily comprised of nitrogen and oxygen and small amounts of carbon dioxide. dry air contains about 78 percent nitrogen.
Dew Point Temperature Dew point temperature is the temperature below which moisture will condense out of air. Wet bulb temperature can be determined by passing air over a thermometer that has been wrapped with a small amount of moist cloth. The dew point temperature scale is located along the same curved portion of the chart as the wet bulb temperature scale. 14. The line for zero percent relative humidity falls along the dry bulb temperature scale line. 4. Water will condense on a surface that is at or below the dew point temperature of the air. The 100 percent relative humidity (saturation) line corresponds to the wet bulb and the dew point temperature scale line. The cooling effect of the evaporating water causes a lower temperature compared to the dry bulb air temperature.3 Relative Humidity Relative humidity is a measure of how much moisture is present compared to how much moisture the air could hold at that temperature. 180 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. 3. horizontal lines indicate equal dew point temperatures. This is a normal dry bulb thermometer encased in a 150mm diameter matteblack copper sphere whose absorptivity approaches that of the skin. Globe Temperature Globe temperature is a measure of the radiant and convective temperature and is usually measured with what it known as a globe (or black globe) thermometer. 2. Air that is holding as much water vapor as possible is saturated. Wet Bulb Temperature Wet bulb temperature reflects the cooling effect of evaporating water. The sloping lines indicate equal wet bulb temperatures. or at its dew point. Lines of equal relative humidity curve from the lower left to the upper right of the psychrometric chart. The dry bulb temperature scale is located at the base of the chart and the vertical lines indicate constant dry bulb temperature.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Dry bulb temperature is the air temperature determined by an ordinary thermometer.com . However. The wet bulb temperature scale is located along the curved upper left portion of the chart. Relative humidity is expressed as a percent.
What are the wet bulb and dew point temperatures of this air? Solution: First.com . Wet bulb temperature = 67°F 2. locate the intersection of the 80°F dry bulb temperature line and the 50 percent relative humidity curve.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem: Air is known to be at 80°F (dry bulb) and 50 percent relative humidity. From this intersection. Dew point temperature = 59°F 181 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. follow the appropriate lines to the correct scales and find: 1.
PSYCHROMETRIC CHART 70 75 80 85 90 300 1.5 90 1.3 40 30 35 .0 60 % 65 60 15 .GRAINS OF MOISTURE PER POUND OF DRY AIR 25 % 65 70 20 70 .4 210 200 190 85 90 50 90 TE M PE RA T OF OUN D °F PER P RAT URE  BTU Y EMP E lb E ft³/ LUM ENT HAL P 35 80 ION T SAT URA T 110 90% 70 .com 13.2 40 35 0 45 30 25 35 40 5 professionalsafetyinstruction.2 80 40 85 1.9 75 .0 95 60 95 55 W ET BU LB 95 240 230 220 UR E ° F 90 1.INCHES OF MERCURY 70 70 60 5 .4 50 40 % 50 45 40 30 % VAPOR PRESSURE .8 270 260 95 250 1.linric.1 80 1.BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction DRY AIR 1.9 290 Sea Level BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 29.0 0 0 5 10 5 15 10 20 15 DEW POINT .921 inches of Mercury 65 10 0 280 1.6 65 14.5 Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 55 60 % 60 55 50 10 50 45 50 .0 IC VO ECIF .0 17.7 100 90 65 80 70 55 60 80% HUMIDITY RATIO .0 5 25 20 15 10 12. www.0 SP 182 80 75 IR RY A OF D 75 .6 1.8 30 75 .3 45 85 15 85 180 170 160 150 140 130 120 1.1 30 25 20 15 10 Linric Company Psychrometric Chart.com 5 0 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 DRY BULB TEMPERATURE .°F 20 25 30 20% 20 10 Y MIDIT E HU LATIV % RE 30 25 20 10 10 0 40 55 .7 16.°F 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 ENTHALPY .
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
Constant and Conversion
15 Constants and Conversions
15.1 Length 1 inch = 2.54 cm 1 foot = 30.48 cm = 0.3048 m 1 meter = 3.28 ft 1 mile = 5,280 ft 1 micron = 104 cm 15.2 Volume 1 molar volume = 1 grammole (at 0°C and 1 atm) = 22.4 L 1 molar volume = 1 grammole (at 25°C and 1 atm) = 24.45 L 1 ft3 = 28.32 L = 7.481 U.S. gal = 0.0283 m3 1 m3 = 35.31 ft3 1 L = 1.0566 qt = 61.02 in3 = 0.03531 ft3 15.3 Weight & Mass 1 lb = 453.6 grams 1 kg = 2.2 lb 1 gram = 15.43 grains 15.4 Pressure 1 atm = 14.7 psi = 760 mm Hg = 29.92 in. Hg = 33.93 ft water = 406.78 in. water = 1013.25 mbar = 101,325 pascals = 760 torr 15.5 Temperature °F = 9/5(°C) + 32 °C = (°F  32)/1.8 °R = °F + 460 K = °C + 273
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Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
15.6 Angles 1 radian = 180o/π 15.7 Density of Water density of water = 1 gram/cm3 = 1.94 slugs/ft3 weight density of water = 62.4 lb/ft3 15.8 Density of Air density of air (at 0°C and 1 atm) = 0.29 g/L density of air (at 20°C and 1 atm) = 1.204 kg/m3 density of air (at 70oF and 1 atm) = 0.075 lb/ft3 15.9 Energy 1 BTU = 1054.8 joules = 0.293 watthr 1 gramcalorie = 4.184 joules 1 faraday = 9.65 x 104 coulombs 1 watt = 1 joule/sec = 1 ampere x 1 volt 1 kwh = 3.6 x 106 joules 15.10 Radiation 1 becquerel = 1 disintegration/sec 1 currie = 3.7 x 1010 becquerel = 2.2x1012 dpm 1 rad = 102 gray (1 gray = 100 rad) 1 rem = 102 sievert (1 sievert = 100 rem) 15.11 Light 1 candela = 1 lumen/steradian 1 footcandle = 10.76 candela/m2 = 10.76 lux 15.12 Magnetic Fields 1 tesla = 10,000 gauss
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Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
15.13 Physical Constants speed of sound in air (at 20°C) = 1125 ft/sec = 344 m/sec speed of light = 3 x 108 m/sec Planck's constant = 6.626 x 1027 ergsec = 6.626 x 1034 joulesec Avogadro's number = 6.024 x 1023 /grammole gas constant, R = 8.314 J/mole K = 0.082 L atm/moleK = 10.731 ft3psi/°Rlbmol acceleration of gravity, g = 9.81 m/ sec2 = 981 cm/sec2 = 32 ft/sec2 15.14 Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP) STP (Physical Sciences) = 0oC at 1 atm STP (Ventilation) = 70oF at 1 atm STP (Industrial Hygiene) = 25oC at 1 atm 15.15 Miscellaneous Effective area of filter, A c = 385 mm for 25 mm filter
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Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
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95.50 and the duct is moving air with a density factor or 0. Problem 2 Calculate the combined sound pressure level created by four sources measured at 82 dB.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Study Problems 16 Study Problems The following study problems can be solved with formulas and information contained in this book. The final examination. and in parallel? 187 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. the hood entry floss factor is 0. 90 dB and 90 dB. and 12µF in series.75 in. will be similar to those contained in this section. required for the issuance of CEUs. as well as those in other sections of this book. You should be comfortable solving these problems before requesting a final exam. Problem 1 Calculate the volumetric flow rate in an 12inch round flanged hood if the static pressure is 1. 60µF.com . 85 dB. and others encountered in industrial hygiene and safety. wc. Solutions are provided in the following section. Problem 3 What volumetric flow rate is required in a 8 inch round plain duct hood located 1 foot from a location requiring a capture velocity of 150 fpm? Problem 4 What is the equivalent capacitance (in farads) of three capacitors. 40µF. The sample problems focus on the mathematical skills required to solve all the formulas in this book.
you need to allocate money to replace a piece of equipment that has an expected replacement cost of $20. Problem 8 Simplify the following expression: ( −10z y ) ( zy ) 3 −2 2 4 −5 Problem 9 As part of your annual budget.000 in five years. Assume a linear attenuation coefficient of 0. how many combinations of two filter units are provided by the set of four? Problem 6 Indicate if each of the following logarithmic expressions is True or False.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem 5 At a hazardous materials laboratory.78 cm1 and a buildup factor of 1. there are four HVAC charcoal filter units to remove airborne contaminants. How much would you have to place into the account each year for 5 years assuming an annual interest rate of 3%? 188 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. If two are required to provide the required filter capacity. x a) log b x − log b y = log b y b) log b ( x r ) = r log b x Problem 7 Calculate the attenuation of radiation passing through a lead shield that is 3 cm thick.com .87.
93. and σ = 10. What is the concentration of an airborne contaminant after 20 minutes if the initial concentration is 750 ppm and there is no additional contaminant? Problem 15 Determine the Lifting Index (LI) for a task that has a RWL of 22. assume the arithmetic mean and standard deviation are µ = X = 85.. etc. Problem 14 A shipping area has a ventilation system that provides 15 air changes per hour (ACH). Problem 12 A forklift weighs 3980 lbs. what is its mass? Problem 13 Electrical power to a factory fails an average of 7 times every year (e.8. storms. high winds. Calculate the reliability of the power system over a twoweek period.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem 10 A fan with an 8 inch impeller operates at 1500 RPM to supply 2000 cfm.com . what is the probability of a reading greater than 110 psi? For the data set in the problem. 101.g. Also.). what is indicated by the calculated LI? 189 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. Assuming a normal distribution. 82. and 78.9.5 pounds and an actual lifted weight of 20 pounds. respectively. If the impeller size and speed are changed to 6 inches and 2500 RPM. what will be the new flow? Problem 11 Several water pressure measurements are taken and the following data are recorded: 75. all is psi.
35.0 in. wc and the hood entry coefficient is 0. Calculate the reduction in noise in a 6” by 12” duct. Assume an exposure limit of 10 W/m2.com . How fast is the car now going? Problem 18 A duct lining material has an absorption coefficient of 0.10 mmHg and the temperature is 75 oF. Problem 17 A car is initially traveling at 20 mph and then accelerates at 30 miles/hr2 for 1. plain end). What is the density correction factor for these conditions? Problem 21 What is the TLV of a 25/75 mixture of hexane and xylene? Assume the TLV for hexane is 176 mg/m3 and the TLV for xylene is 434 mg/m3. Problem 20 A location has a barometric pressure of 29.5 miles.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem 16 Calculate the distance at which the exposure level is exceeded for a 500 W antenna with an absolute gain of 20.72 (round duct. 190 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. Problem 19 Calculate the volumetric flow rate in an 8inch round duct from a hood if the hood static pressure measurement is 2.
5 hours in a day. If the worker works 8.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem 22 Calculate the heat transfer rate through 4 inches of concrete when one surface is 212oF and the other is 70oF.com . Problem 24 A worker is exposed to toluene during their work. Problem 27 What is the power density of an electric field with a strength of 500V/m? 191 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. Assume the thermal conductivity of the concrete is 0.0 x 107J/cm2. Problem 26 Calculate the equivalent sound pressure level for the following measurements: 85 dB for 3 hours. The TLV for toluene is 50 ppm. 90 dB for 2 hours. what is the permitted exposure to toluene? Problem 25 What is the airborne concentration of asbestos fibers if 500 liters of air are sampled and the fiber density is 88 f/mm2? Assume the effective area of the filter is 385 mm2 (25 mm filter).45 Btu/hrftoF Problem 23 Determine the hazard zone distance for a 0.4 J pulsed laser that has a beam divergence of 1 x103 radians and an emergent beam diameter of 0.5 cm. and 82 dB for 3 hours. Assume the maximum permitted exposure level is 5.
all is psi. 101. and 78.0012 g/cm3 and its viscosity is 0. the density of air is 0. 82. The gravitational acceleration is 980 cm/sec2. Problem 33 A box that weighs 225 lbs moves along a conveyor at 5 mph.000182 Poise.95 atmospheres and 85 oF. Problem 31 Determine the diameter of a laser beam 1.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem 28 Sound measurements record an average sound pressure level of 92 dB at a location 5 feet away from a compressor. Problem 30 Ammonia has a chemical composition of NH 3 yielding a molecular weight of 17. what is its kinetic energy? 192 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.03.15 g/cm3.com .1. Problem 32 Several water pressure measurements are taken and the following data are recorded: 75. What is the expected sound pressure level at 20 feet from the compressor? Problem 29 Calculate the terminal settling velocity of 130 µm particles in still air. Calculate the standard deviation (n1) for the data. Calculate its density in lbs/ft3 at 0. Assume the density of the particles is 1. Hint: See sample problem in Section 4. 93. Also.0 km away from a source with an emergent diameter of 1 cm and a beam divergence of 1 x104 radians.
193 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. what is the reduced intensity in mR/hr? Problem 38 What is the convective cooling of an outside worker who is exposed to a temperature of 40 oF and 5 mph winds? Problem 39 What is the friction loss when 500 gpm is flowing through 50 feet of 2 inch hose? Assume a HazenWilliams coefficient of 130.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem 34 A fault tree has an event C that will occur if event A occurs or if event A and B occurs.20 in. in Boolean algebra “+" means OR and "·" means AND. calculate the frequency of event C. If three tenthvalue layers (TVL) of a shielding material are provided. If event A has a frequency of 1. Problem 37 A source of radiation has created a radiation intensity of 500 mR/hr.com .wc? Assume standard air conditions.3E6 event per year. In Boolean algebra this can be shown as: A + (A · B).2E6 events/year. Remember. Problem 35 What is the velocity in an air duct when the velocity pressure recorded is 1. Problem 36 Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) has a chemical formula of C 3 H 8 O. calculate the equivalent concentration in mg/m3 of the IPA in air. and therefore a molecular weight of 60. and event B has a frequency of 2. If a concentration of 500 ppm is measured.
what is the allowable exposure time for 82 dBA? Problem 42 Calculate the hood entry loss factor for a hood with a velocity pressure of 1. wc and a hood entry loss of 0. Calculate the upper cutoff frequency and the center frequency.com . If an initial concentration is measured at 50 ppm. what will the concentration of IPA be after 30 minutes of 2500 cfm of dilution air? Assume K=1 (i. Q’=Q). 194 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.414 kHz.e.5 cfm in a room that measures 25’ x 45’ x 9’ high.. Problem 43 Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) evolves at a rate of 1.50 in.85 in. X 3 4 6 Y 2 3 7 Problem 41 Based on ACGIH requirements. wc.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem 40 Calculate the linear correlation coefficient for the following data set. Problem 44 The lower cutoff frequency of an octave band is 1.
Assume ethylene has a density of 0. Problem 50 Two 120 volt power tools have a combined resistance of 60 ohms. what radioactivity will remain in the patient after 5 hours? Problem 49 Calculate the pH of a solution that has 2. What is the current in the system? 195 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem 45 Measurements made at two ends of a section of ductwork showed a total pressure at one location of 1. What is the velocity and volumetric flow rate of the water exiting the open valve? Problem 48 1. What is the head loss across the section of ductwork? Problem 46 One pound of ethylene leaks from a cylinder into a room that measures 25 ft wide by 75 ft long by 9 feet high. The molecular weight of HNO 3 is 63.0786 lbs/ft3 at room temperature and pressure.25 in. If I123 has a halflife of 13 hours. and 0.25 mCi of Iodine123 (I123) is used to image thyroid cancer.5 grams of HNO 3 in 3. wc at the other end.01 g/mole. wc.com .95 in. The surface of the water in the tank is 20 feet above the open valve.0 liters of solution. What is the concentration in ppm (assume uniform mixing and no losses)? Problem 47 A 1inch valve is opened at the base of a water storage tank.
com .Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 196 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.
75 = 4005 A Q = 4005 = 3486 cfm df (1 + Fh ) 4 12 0.0 ) + 0. rearranging equation (181) and substituting the appropriate values provides: = V (10 x 2 + = 150 10 (1.35 1552.9 dB = = Solution 3 First.5) Solution 2 Use equation (228): 82 85 90 90 10 10 10 10 SPLtotal 10 log 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 93. the area of the hood is required in ft2: A = πd2 = 4 π ( 8 /12 ) 4 2 = 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Solutions to Study Problems 17 Solutions to Study Problems Solution 1 Use equation (198): π 12 2 SPh 1.com .95(1 + 0.5 cfm Q A) = 2 ( ) 197 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.35 ft 2 Next.
18 = 18% = = Io Since I is 18% of I o .87e −0.125/µ F C1 C2 Cn 60 µ F 40 µ F 12 µ F Cseries = 8 µ F For capacitors in parallel use equation (301): C parallel = C1 + C2 + + Cn = 60 µ F + 40 µ F + 12 µ F = 112 µ F Solution 5 Use equation (68) with n = 4 and k = 2. = Ckn Solution 6 n! 4! = = 6 k !(n − k )! 2!(4 − 2)! Both are true.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Solution 4 For capacitors in series use equation (300): 1 Cseries = 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + + = + + = 0. the attenuation is 82%.4 Solution 7 Rearranging equation (268) leads to: −1 I = Be − µ x 1.com .78cm 3cm 0. 198 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. See Section 1.
5 (i. z = X − µ 110 − 85.8 = = 2.4868.22 is . 000 = $3.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Solution 8 Using the rules in section 1. find the area under the curve from 0 to 2.9 σ Now. simplify as follows: ( −10 z y ) ( zy ) 3 −2 2 4 −5 100 z 100 z 6 y − 100 zy −24 = 4 z −5 y −20 = = y 24 Solution 9 Use equation (78) to find the answer to this question: i 0. going to a zscore table (see Section 13).32% 199 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.0132 = 1.5 − 0. the value beyond z = 2.03) − 1 Solution 10 Use equation (221): Size2 RPM 2 6 2500 Q2 = Q1 = 2000 = 1406 cfm 8 1500 Size1 RPM 1 3 3 Solution 11 First calculate the zscore. However.22 is desired. The formula for the zscore is given in equation (58). 767 n 5 (1 + i ) − 1 (1 + 0. ½ of 1) and the answer is: 0.22 10.03 = F A = $20.4868 = 0.com .e. so subtract the zscore from 0.3..
5 lbs Therefore. the power supply system has a reliability of only about 76% so there is about a 24% probability of electrical system failure in a two week period.0 ppm Use equation (307): = LI L 20 lbs = = 0. Solution 16 Substituting values into equation (279) leads to: 200 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com .Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Solution 12 Rearranging equation (108): m = W 3980 lbs = = 123.89 RWL 22. the Lift Index indicates this lifting task would not be hazardous for a majority of healthy industrial workers.2 ft/sec 2 Solution 13 Use equation (71): R ( t ) e= e = − λt − 7 failures 2weeks 52 weeks = 0.6slugs g 32.76 Based on this calculation. Solution 14 Use equation (217): = C0 e−tN C = Solution 15 15 ACH ) ( 750 ppm ) e( 20/60 hr )(= 5.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety PG r = = 4π EL 1/2 ( 500 W )( 20 ) = 8.28 ft/m ) = 29.72 ) = 1423 cfm Q = 2.35 ) = = NR = 1.4 12.6 Pα 1.0 4 12 Solution 20 Use equation (172): 201 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.9 m 4π (10W/m 2 ) 1/2 (8.45 dB/ft A 6 ⋅12 1.6 ( 2 ⋅ 6 + 2 ⋅12 )( 0.com .1 mph Solution 18 Equation (239) provides the solution in dB/ft.5= 490 mi 2 /hr 2 mi v 2 = 490 mi 2 /hr 2 v = 22. so substitute values into the equation to find: 12.4 Solution 19 Use equation (196): π 8 2 = 4005Ce A SPh 4005 ( 0.3 ft Solution 17 Using equation (121) and solving for v: v 2 vo 2 + 2as = = v2 ( 20 mi/hr ) 2 + 2 ( 30 mi/hr 2 ) ⋅1.9 m )( 3.
6 mg/m3 .0x106 cm = 10 km 10−3 π ( 5x107 ) φ π EL 1/2 Solution 24 First calculate the reduction factor for one day based on the hours worked using equation (94): = RFday 8 24 − h 8 24 − 8.5 16 Next.10 df = ⋅ = ⋅ = 0.5 ) = 1. multiply the TLV by the reduction factor to determine the adjusted TLV: TLV permitted − day 0.5 = x x = 0.5 ppm = = 202 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.91( 50 ppm ) 45.45 Btu/hrft o F) ( 212 − 70 F) = o ( 4 /12 ft ) 191.96 T + 460 29.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 530 BP 530 29.4 ) 2 2 rNHZ= −a = − ( 0.92 Solution 21 Substituting into equation (91) yields: TLVmix = 1 1 = = 317.75 F1 F2 + + 3 TLV1 TLV2 176 mg/m 434 mg/m3 Solution 22 Use equation (150): (T1 − T2 ) q = k= A ( x1 − x2 ) Solution 23 ( 0.91 h 16 8.92 75 + 460 29.com .25 .7 Btu/hrft 2 Use equation (286): 1/2 1 4Φ 1 4 ( 0.
3 dB T i =1 Use equation (273): E2 = = PD 3770 Solution 28 ( 500 V/m ) = 2 3770 Ω 66.3mW/cm 2 Use equation (227): d 5 ft SPL2 = 20 log 1 = SPL1 + 92 dB+20log = 80 dB 20 ft d2 Solution 29 Substituting the given data into equation (105) leads to: 203 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.068fibers/mL Use equation (232): Leq = 10 log Leq = 10 log Solution 27 Li 1 N 10 10 ti ∑ T i =1 85 90 82 1 N 10 = ∑ 10 ⋅ 3 + 1010 ⋅ 2 + 1010 ⋅ 3 86.com .Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Solution 25 Applying equation (101) and substituting leads to: EAc = = Casb 1000Vs Solution 26 mm ) (88f/mm )( 385= 2 2 1000 ⋅ 500 L 0.
1 cm/sec 18 ( 0.0130 cm ) 2 (1.73ft ⋅ atm/lb mole ⋅ R ) ⋅ ( 460 + 85F) Use equation (285): DL = a 2 + φ 2 r 2 = L = 12 + (10−4 ) (1.com .0 x105 ) = cm D 10.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 2 gd p ( ρ p − ρ a ) VTS = = 18η ( 980 cm/sec ) ( 0. to provide: MW ⋅ P ⋅ Vol MW ⋅ n ⋅ R ⋅ T = This can be rearranged to: MW ⋅ n MW ⋅ P = R ⋅T Vol MW ⋅ n The term is the density (ρ): Vol MW ⋅ P = ρ ⋅ R ⋅ T Which can be rearranged to solve for d: ρ= MW ⋅ P R ⋅T Selecting the appropriate value for R (based on the units desired) : ρ Solution 31 17.000182 g/cmsec ) 2 Solution 30 First.95atm = 0.0 2 2 204 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. take equation (81) and multiply each side of the equation by the molecular weight (MW).15 − 0.03 ⋅ 0.0012 g/cm3 ) = 58.041 lbs/ft 3 3 ( 0.
4 231.9 ftlbs 2 2 2 205 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.8 60.8 474.8 2 429 85.8 3. 10. = = = 187. and then use equation (118) to calculate kinetic energy. Solution 33 First.0 51.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Solution 32 Use equation (45) to solve this problem.2 ft/sec 2 5 hr 5280 mile 3600 sec 2 mv K .6 14.E .9 psi is the standard deviation of this data. 225 lbs miles ft 1hr 32. convert weight in pounds to slugs.8 15.2 7.9 n −1 So. and speed in mph to ft/sec.8 ∑(x − x ) i =1 i n 2 10.com .2 7.8 ( x − xi ) 116. The following table assists with the calculation. xi 75 82 n=5 101 93 78 Sum x x − xi 10.
45 1227mg/m3 For tenthvalue layer calculations. so event C has a frequency of 1.6 −1378 ( 40 − 95) = Btu/hr .5 mR/hr I Io 10 10 B 3 Solution 38 Equation (313) uses an air speed in ft/min.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Solution 34 Apply the rules of Boolean algebra presented in section 1.6 (Ta − 95 ) C 5 miles 5280 ft 1 hour C= 0. use equation (170): = 4005 VP 4005 1.2E06 events per year.com 0.65v 0. so the wind speed must be converted from mph to ft/min.7: A + (A · B) = A.65 mile 60 min hr 206 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. = 0. use equation (264): 1 1 = = 500 mR/hr = 0.45 24. Solution 35 Since this is for air.2 4387 cfm V = = Solution 36 Rearrange equation (88) as follows: = mg / m3 Solution 37 500 )( 60 ) ( ppm )( MW ) (= = 24.
Note: Although this sample problem only uses three data pairs.85 d 4.0 ) A linear correlation coefficient of 0.00 x2 1. Solution 39 First.11 2.86 psi/ft ) (= 93psi Note: Generally you want to use the actual. not nominal. respectively.00 = r ∑ xy = ( ∑ x 2 )( ∑ y 2 ) 8. that requires the average of the X and Y values.67 )(14.85 4. These are easily found to be 4. = X −X x 1.00 9. use equation (148) to calculate the friction loss per foot. 4.33 5.00 14.00 8. the method is typically used for larger data sets.99 ( 4. 207 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com . value of the pipe or hose diameter.33 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety This is a significant amount of cooling.85 = Ptotal 50 ft )(1. Solution 40 Use equation (62).0 = 0.87 1.67 y2 4.78 0.67 0.33 1. Here the nominal value for the hose diameter is used since no actual diameter was specified.00 3.00 1.52 ( 500 gal ) = = Pd = 1.67 ∑ y Y −Y = 2.52Q1. and then multiply that by the total length.00 1.86 psi/ft C1.85 ( 2in )4.99 indicates a very strong positive relationship between the data.00 xy 2.87 (130 )1.33 and 4.78 4.
000050 ) 2500 1. equation (242) is the appropriate equation to use.5 − 2500 ⋅ C2 = 0. so solve for C 2 .5 − 2500 ( 0. = T 8 = ( L −85) 2 3 8 = 16 hours (82−85) 2 3 Solution 42 Rearranging equation (183) and substituting leads to: = Fh VPd 1. but the final concentration (C 2 ) is embedded in this form of the equation.375 = C2 ( 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Solution 41 Since question is concerned with ACGIH requirements.0006 600 ppm = 208 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.00061 1.85 in.50 in.com .wc = = 1.5 − 2500 ⋅ C2 = e 10125 1.5 − 2500 ⋅ C2 2500 ln 1.wc he Solution 43 Use equation (204).00061)(1.375= ) − 1. G − Q ' C2 Q' − ( ln = t2 − t1 ) V G − Q ' C1 1.5 − 2500 ( 0.76 0.5 −2500 0.000050 ) =30 − 0 ) − 10125 ( ( 30 − 0 ) − 1.
3 in.828 kHz The center frequency is given by equation (251): f c = 2 ⋅1.9 ft/sec Next.25 in.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Solution 44 The upper cutoff frequency is given by equation (249): f2 = 2 f1 = ) = 2 ⋅ (1.72 ft3/lb.2 ft/sec2 ) (= 35.wc ) = 0.wc ) − ( 0.72 ft 3 = 754 ppm x 106 ( 25ft )( 75ft )( 9 ft ) Solution 47 Use equation (133) and substitute the value for the height and the gravitational acceleration (32. find the area of the flow by the area of a circle: 209 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. the inverse of the density shows ethylene occupies 12.com .2 ft/sec2) to find the velocity: = V = 2 ghv 20 ft ) ( 2 ) ( 32.414 kHz 2.wc 1 Solution 46 First. Then using equation (84) leads to: = ppm Vcontam = x 106 Vair 12.95 in.414 kHz = 2 f1 = 2 kHz Solution 45 Combining equations (160) and (161) provides: TP TP2 + hL = 1 hL = TP − TP2 = (1.
use equation (97) to find the pH: − log10 H − log10 [ 0.0132 M 3.5 ) T1/2 1. if desired.196 ft 3 /sec This can easily be converted to gpm.5grams = 0.com .0397 moles = 0.0132] = pH =+ = 1.00545 ft 2 The volumetric flow is given by equation (135): Q1 = A ⋅ V = ( 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety A = πd2 = 4 π (1/12 ) 4 2 = 0.5 )13 hr 0.0 liters Finally. Solution 48 Use equation (260): = Ai ( 0.88 Solution 50 Use equation (293): = I V 120 volts = = 2 amps R 60 ohms 210 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.00545ft 2 ) ( 35.01grams/mole Then calculate the molarity of the solution: = M 0.96 mCi A = = Solution 49 t 5 hr First calculate the number of moles of HNO 3 : 2.0397 moles 63.9ft/sec ) = 0.25 mCi ( 0.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 211 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com .
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