for
Industrial Hygiene and Safety
Ψ
Professional Safety Instruction
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
i
© 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com
Applied Mathematics
for
Industrial Hygiene and Safety
Ψ
Professional Safety Instruction
PO Box 994
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© Copyright 2011 by Professional Safety Instruction
All rights reserved except that permission is granted to share and distribute this book,
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Trademarks
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of the American Board of Industrial Hygiene, Inc., and COHNS is a registered trademark of the American Board
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Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
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About this Book: Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
was developed to provide an indepth review of math as it applies to
industrial hygiene and safety. The focus is on equations used in
certification exams for the CIH, CSP, and COHNSafety credential.
Developed as part of a continuing education program for busy industrial
hygienists and safety professionals, this book also provides a valuable
resource for those wishing to prepare for their registration exams.
We have tried to keep the formulas and variables as seen in the equation
sheets used for the certification exams, but some changes have been
made for clarity or consistency.
Although the focus has been on the application of common industrial
hygiene and safety formulas, this book also shows the mathematical
derivation of several important equations from basic principles. This
approach was taken because of the importance in understanding,
applying, and recalling the equations. Each formula or group of formulas
includes a worked example. Common symbols, conversions, and
constants are also included.
Finally, this book is a review of mathematics. The determination of the
acceptability of the use of any equation or data presented in this book for
addressing any industrial hygiene or safety issue is outside the scope of
this work.
About Professional Safety Instruction: Professional Safety Instruction
has one goal: To be the premier provider of costeffective highquality
continuing education for busy industrial hygienists and safety
professionals. For more information, please visit
www.professionalsafetyinstruction.com.
Earn CEUs: Visit www.professionalsafetyinstruction.com to learn how you
can earn valuable CEUs for completing Applied Mathematics for Industrial
Hygiene and Safety.
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Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
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Table of Contents
1 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS ......................................................................................... 1
1.1 SIGNIFICANT FIGURES ..................................................................................................... 1
1.1.1 Addition and Subtraction ............................................................................................ 2
1.1.2 Multiplication and Division ........................................................................................ 2
1.2 SCIENTIFIC NOTATION ..................................................................................................... 3
1.3 EXPONENTS AND RADICALS ............................................................................................ 3
1.4 LOGARITHM FUNCTIONS .................................................................................................. 5
1.5 ABSOLUTE VALUE EQUATIONS ....................................................................................... 7
1.6 QUADRATIC FORMULA .................................................................................................... 7
1.7 BOOLEAN ALGEBRA ........................................................................................................ 8
1.8 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS ........................................................................................ 10
1.8.1 Right Triangles ......................................................................................................... 10
1.8.2 Law of Cosines ......................................................................................................... 10
1.8.3 Law of Sines .............................................................................................................. 10
1.9 USEFUL EQUATIONS FOR GEOMETRIC SHAPES .............................................................. 11
1.9.1 Perimeter .................................................................................................................. 11
1.9.2 Area .......................................................................................................................... 11
1.9.3 Volume ...................................................................................................................... 12
1.9.4 Surface Area ............................................................................................................. 12
2 STATISTICS ........................................................................................................................ 15
2.1 ARITHMETIC MEAN ....................................................................................................... 15
2.2 GEOMETRIC MEAN ........................................................................................................ 15
2.3 STANDARD DEVIATION .................................................................................................. 17
2.4 GEOMETRIC STANDARD DEVIATION .............................................................................. 19
2.5 COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION .......................................................................................... 20
2.6 CUMULATIVE ERROR ..................................................................................................... 21
2.7 SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL ERROR ............................................................................ 21
2.8 STUDENT’S TTEST ........................................................................................................ 22
2.9 POOLED STANDARD DEVIATION .................................................................................... 23
2.10 NORMAL DISTRIBUTION Z SCORE .................................................................................. 25
2.11 CHISQUARED ............................................................................................................... 26
2.12 SPEARMAN RANK CORRELATION .................................................................................. 27
2.13 CORRELATION COEFFICIENT .......................................................................................... 29
2.14 LOWER CONFIDENCE LIMIT ........................................................................................... 30
2.15 TWOSIDED 90% CONFIDENCE INTERVAL ..................................................................... 31
2.16 TWOSIDED 95% CONFIDENCE INTERVAL ..................................................................... 32
2.17 ONESIDED 95% CONFIDENCE INTERVAL ...................................................................... 32
2.18 PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS ............................................................................ 33
2.18.1 Permutation .......................................................................................................... 33
2.18.2 Combination ......................................................................................................... 34
2.19 POISSON DISTRIBUTION ................................................................................................. 35
2.20 RELIABILITY .................................................................................................................. 36
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3 ENGINEERING ECONOMICS ........................................................................................ 39
4 CHEMISTRY AND CONCENTRATIONS ...................................................................... 43
4.1 IDEAL GAS LAW ............................................................................................................ 43
4.2 CONCENTRATION OF VAPORS AND GASES ..................................................................... 45
4.3 AIRBORNE CONCENTRATION VIA VOLUME .................................................................... 45
4.4 DALTON’S LAW OF PARTIAL PRESSURE (GAS) & RAOULT’S LAW (LIQUIDS) ................ 46
4.5 AIRBORNE CONCENTRATION VIA PRESSURE .................................................................. 47
4.6 CONVERSION FOR AIRBORNE CONCENTRATIONS: PPM (TO/FROM) MG/M
3
..................... 47
4.7 CONVERSION FOR AIRBORNE CONCENTRATIONS: PPM (TO/FROM) G/L .......................... 48
4.8 THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE (TLV) OF AIRBORNE MIXTURE ........................................... 49
4.9 THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE (TLV) OF LIQUIDS ............................................................... 49
4.10 LE CHATELIER’S RULE .................................................................................................. 50
4.11 VAPORHAZARD RATIO ................................................................................................. 51
4.12 REDUCTION FACTOR – DAY ........................................................................................... 52
4.13 REDUCTION FACTOR – WEEK ........................................................................................ 52
4.14 CHEMISTRY OF SOLUTIONS ............................................................................................ 53
4.14.1 BeerLambert Law (Beer’s Law) .......................................................................... 53
4.14.2 pH Calculation ..................................................................................................... 54
4.14.3 Acid Dissociation Constant .................................................................................. 55
4.14.4 Base Dissociation Constant ................................................................................. 56
4.15 ASBESTOS (AIRBORNE CONTAMINANT) ......................................................................... 57
4.15.1 Asbestos Fiber Concentration by PCM ................................................................ 57
4.15.2 Asbestos Fiber Concentration .............................................................................. 58
4.15.3 Fiber Density ........................................................................................................ 58
4.15.4 Microscopic Limit of Resolution (Abbe’s Equation) ............................................ 59
4.16 PARTICLE SETTLING VELOCITY ..................................................................................... 60
4.16.1 Reynolds Number ................................................................................................. 61
5 MECHANICS ...................................................................................................................... 63
5.1 NEWTON’S SECOND LAW .............................................................................................. 63
5.2 WEIGHT ......................................................................................................................... 64
5.3 MOMENTUM .................................................................................................................. 64
5.4 WORK ............................................................................................................................ 65
5.5 MOMENT OF FORCE ....................................................................................................... 66
5.6 FRICTION ....................................................................................................................... 66
5.7 POTENTIAL ENERGY ...................................................................................................... 67
5.8 HOOKE’S LAW AND THE POTENTIAL ENERGY OF A SPRING ........................................... 68
5.9 KINETIC ENERGY ........................................................................................................... 69
5.10 RECTILINEAR MOTION ................................................................................................... 69
6 HYDROSTATICS AND HYDRAULICS .......................................................................... 73
6.1 PRESSURE AND FORCE ................................................................................................... 73
6.1.1 Static Pressure .......................................................................................................... 73
6.1.2 Velocity Pressure ...................................................................................................... 75
6.2 BERNOULLI’S THEOREM ................................................................................................ 76
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6.3 WATER FLOW IN A PIPE ................................................................................................. 78
6.3.1 Flow – Pressure Relationships ................................................................................. 79
6.3.2 HazenWilliams Formula ......................................................................................... 81
7 HEAT TRANSFER ............................................................................................................. 83
7.1 CONDUCTION ................................................................................................................. 83
7.2 CONVECTION ................................................................................................................. 83
7.3 RADIATION .................................................................................................................... 84
8 VENTILATION ................................................................................................................... 87
8.1 CONSERVATION OF MASS (THE CONTINUITY EQUATION) .............................................. 87
8.2 CONSERVATION OF ENERGY .......................................................................................... 88
8.3 DERIVATION OF THE FUNDAMENTAL DUCT FLOW EQUATIONS ..................................... 90
8.3.1 Density Correction Factor ........................................................................................ 93
8.4 DALLAVALLE EQUATION .............................................................................................. 95
8.5 HOOD STATIC PRESSURE ............................................................................................... 96
8.6 HOOD ENTRY COEFFICIENT AND LOSS .......................................................................... 97
8.7 CONVERGING DUCT FLOWS AND LOSSES ...................................................................... 99
8.8 FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF FLOW AND VELOCITY EQUATIONS .................................. 101
8.9 DILUTION VENTILATION .............................................................................................. 103
8.10 ROOM AIR CHANGES PER HOUR .................................................................................. 108
8.10.1 Dilution Ventilation Based on Room Air Changes ............................................. 109
8.11 DILUTION TO CONTROL EVAPORATION ....................................................................... 111
8.12 FAN LAWS AND EQUATIONS ........................................................................................ 112
8.12.1 Fan Laws ............................................................................................................ 113
9 SOUND AND NOISE ........................................................................................................ 117
9.1 SOUND INTENSITY ....................................................................................................... 117
9.2 SOUND PRESSURE LEVEL (SPL) .................................................................................. 118
9.2.1 Addition of Sound Pressure Levels (SPLs) ............................................................. 119
9.2.2 Time Weighted Equivalent Sound Pressure Level .................................................. 122
9.3 SOUND POWER LEVEL ................................................................................................. 123
9.4 TRANSMISSION LOSS ................................................................................................... 124
9.5 NOISE REDUCTION BY ABSORPTION ............................................................................ 125
9.5.1 Noise Reduction in a Duct ...................................................................................... 126
9.6 PERCENT NOISE DOSE AND TWA ................................................................................ 127
9.7 FREQUENCY BY A FAN ................................................................................................. 129
9.8 OCTAVE AND THIRDOCTAVE BANDS ......................................................................... 130
9.9 SOUND FREQUENCY AND WAVELENGTH ..................................................................... 132
10 RADIATION ...................................................................................................................... 133
10.1 IONIZING ...................................................................................................................... 133
10.1.1 Inverse Square Law ............................................................................................ 133
10.1.2 Gamma Radiation Exposure .............................................................................. 134
10.1.3 Equivalent Dose ................................................................................................. 135
10.1.4 Radioactive Decay ............................................................................................. 135
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10.1.5 Activity of a Radioactive Element ...................................................................... 137
10.1.6 Radiation Attenuation by Layers ........................................................................ 137
10.1.7 Exponential Rate Attenuation ............................................................................. 140
10.1.8 Effective HalfLife .............................................................................................. 141
10.2 NONIONIZING ............................................................................................................. 142
10.2.1 Absolute Gain (Antenna) .................................................................................... 142
10.2.2 Field Strength ..................................................................................................... 143
10.2.3 Safe Distance for NonIonizing Radiation ......................................................... 145
10.2.4 Magnetic Flux Density ....................................................................................... 146
10.2.5 Electromagnetic Radiation Wavelength and Frequency .................................... 147
10.2.6 Effective Ultraviolet Irradiance ......................................................................... 147
10.2.7 Lasers ................................................................................................................. 148
10.2.8 Spatial Averaging of Measurements ................................................................... 153
10.2.9 Time Exposure for NonIonizing Radiation ....................................................... 155
11 ELECTRICITY ................................................................................................................. 157
11.1 OHM’S LAW ................................................................................................................. 157
11.2 JOULE’S LAW ............................................................................................................... 158
11.3 RESISTANCE ................................................................................................................ 158
11.4 EQUIVALENT VALUES FOR COMPONENTS IN SERIES AND IN PARALLEL ...................... 159
11.4.1 Resistors in Series .............................................................................................. 159
11.4.2 Resistors in Parallel ........................................................................................... 159
11.4.3 Capacitors in Series ........................................................................................... 160
11.4.4 Capacitors in Parallel ........................................................................................ 160
11.4.5 Inductors in Series ............................................................................................. 160
11.4.6 Inductors in Parallel .......................................................................................... 160
12 ERGONOMICS ................................................................................................................. 163
12.1 REVISED NIOSH LIFTING EQUATION .......................................................................... 163
12.1.1 Lifting Index ....................................................................................................... 166
12.2 HEAT STRESS AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY ..................................................................... 167
12.2.1 Wet Bulb Globe Temperature ............................................................................. 167
12.2.2 Heat Storage by Body ......................................................................................... 168
12.2.3 Heat Stress Index ............................................................................................... 171
12.2.4 Ventilation of Sensible Heat ............................................................................... 171
13 STATISTICAL TABLES .................................................................................................. 175
14 PSYCHROMETRIC CHARTS ........................................................................................ 179
14.1 BASIC DEFINITIONS OF AIR .......................................................................................... 179
14.2 BASIC DEFINITIONS OF AIR TEMPERATURE ................................................................. 179
14.3 RELATIVE HUMIDITY ................................................................................................... 180
15 CONSTANTS AND CONVERSIONS ............................................................................. 183
15.1 LENGTH ....................................................................................................................... 183
15.2 VOLUME ...................................................................................................................... 183
15.3 WEIGHT & MASS ......................................................................................................... 183
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15.4 PRESSURE .................................................................................................................... 183
15.5 TEMPERATURE ............................................................................................................. 183
15.6 ANGLES ....................................................................................................................... 184
15.7 DENSITY OF WATER .................................................................................................... 184
15.8 DENSITY OF AIR .......................................................................................................... 184
15.9 ENERGY ....................................................................................................................... 184
15.10 RADIATION .............................................................................................................. 184
15.11 LIGHT ...................................................................................................................... 184
15.12 MAGNETIC FIELDS .................................................................................................. 184
15.13 PHYSICAL CONSTANTS ............................................................................................ 185
15.14 STANDARD TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (STP) ................................................... 185
15.15 MISCELLANEOUS ..................................................................................................... 185
16 STUDY PROBLEMS ........................................................................................................ 187
17 SOLUTIONS TO STUDY PROBLEMS ......................................................................... 197
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Introductory Concepts
1 Introductory Concepts
1.1 Significant Figures
The significant figures (also called significant digits) of a number are those digits
that carry meaning contributing to its precision. Digits that are not significant
imply a false sense of precision and should not be reported. Calculators and
spreadsheets routinely display more digits than those that are significant.
The following rules assist in deciding the correct number of significant figures.
Rule No. Rule for Significant Figures
1 All nonzero digits (i.e., 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8, and 9) are always significant.
2 All zeroes between nonzero numbers are always significant.
3
All zeroes which are simultaneously to the right of the decimal point
and at the end of the number are always significant.
4
All zeroes which are to the left of a written decimal point and are in a
number greater than or equal to 10 are always significant.
Note: One way to check rules 3 and 4 is to write the number in scientific notation.
If you can eliminate any zeroes, then they are not significant.
Examples of Significant Figures
Number # Significant Figures Rule(s)
84,239 5 1
9.376 4 1
100.02 5 1,2,4
0.0005 (= 5 E4) 1 1,4
2.3000 5 1,3
609.020 6 1,2,3,4
5,000,000 (= 5 E+6) 1 1
20.0 (= 2.00 E+1) 3 1,3,4
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1.1.1 Addition and Subtraction
When adding or subtracting numbers, count the number of decimal places to
determine the number of significant figures. The answer cannot contain more
places after the decimal point than the smallest number of decimal places in the
numbers being added or subtracted.
Example: Add three number, 12.345678 + 9.8765 + 0.12
12.345678 (6 places after the decimal point)
+ 9.8765 (4 places after the decimal point)
+ 0.12 (2 places after the decimal point)
= 22.342178 (displays on calculator)
= 22.34 (rounded to 2 places in the answer)
Notice there are four significant figures in the answer.
1.1.2 Multiplication and Division
When multiplying or dividing numbers, count the number of significant figures.
The answer cannot contain more significant figures than the number being
multiplied or divided with the least number of significant figures.
Example: Multiply 98.765432 times 1.2345
98.765432 (8 significant figures)
x 1.2345 (5 significant figures)
= 121.9259258 (displayed on calculator)
= 121.93 (rounded to 5 significant figures)
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1.2 Scientific Notation
Scientific notation (sometimes called exponential notation) is a way of writing or
displaying numbers in terms of a decimal number between 1 and 10 multiplied by
a power of 10. Scientific notation numbers use the form:
10
b
a x (1)
Scientific notation is typically used when numbers are too large or small to be
conveniently written in standard decimal notation.
For example, Avogadro’s number is the number of molecules in a mole of a substance.
In scientific notation Avogadro’s number is written as approximately 6.0225 × 10
23
which is much easier than writing all those zeros.
1.3 Exponents and Radicals
Exponents and radicals are used extensively in the mathematics of safety and
industrial hygiene. The following table summarizes the important rules for
exponents and radicals.
Rule Notes Example
n
a a a a a a a = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
a times itself n
times
5
3 3 3 3 3 3 243 = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
0
1 a = 0 a ≠
0
3.14 1 =
1
n
n
a
a
−
= 0 a ≠
2
2
1 1
5
5 25
−
= =
n m n m
a a a
+
=
7 2 7 2 5
a a a a
− − + −
= =
( )
m
n nm
a a =
( )
7
3 3 7 21
a a a
⋅
= =
1
n m
n
m
m n
a
a
a
a
−
−
¦
¦
=
´
¦
¹
1
, 0
m n
for a
a
−
≠
2
2 3 1
3
1
n
m
a a
a a
a a a
− −
= = = =
( )
n
n n
ab a b =
( )
7
7 7
ab a b
−
− −
=
n
n
n
a a
b b
 
=

\ .
0 b ≠
5
5
5
a a
b b
 
=

\ .
n n
n
n
a b b
b a a
−
   
= =
 
\ . \ .
0 a ≠
2 2
2
2
a b b
b a a
−
   
= =
 
\ . \ .
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( )
( )
1 n
n
ab
ab
−
=
0 a b ⋅ ≠
( )
( )
3
3
1
ab
ab
−
=
1
n
n
a
a
−
=
9
9
1
a
a
−
=
n m
m n
a b
b a
−
−
= 0 a ≠
4 6
6 4
a b
b a
−
−
=
( )
k
n m nk mk
a b a b =
( )
4
2 3 2 4 3 4 8 12
a b a b a b
− ⋅ − ⋅ −
= =
k
n nk
m mk
a a
b b
 
=

\ .
0 b ≠
3
2 2 3 6
5 5 3 15
a a a
b b b
⋅
⋅
 
= =

\ .
1
n
n
a a =
n is a positive
integer > 1 and a is
a positive real
number
1
3
3
a a =
n n
a a =
n is a positive
integer > 1 and a is
a positive real
number
5 5
a a =
n n n
ab a b =
n is a positive
integer > 1 and a
and b are positive
real numbers
4 4 4
ab a b =
n
n
n
a a
b b
=
n is a positive
integer > 1 and a
and b are positive
real numbers
3
3
3
a a
b b
=
Problem: Simplify the following expressions; provide answers with only positive
exponents:
1.
2
xy
−
2.
5
3
a
b
−
3.
( )
2
3 4
2x y
−
4.
( ) ( )
2 5
2 4 3
4a b a b
−
−
−
5.
2
4 3
7
n m
m n
−
− −
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6.
2
2 8
5
12
3
t s
t s
−
−
−
 

\ .
Solution:
1.
2
2 2
1 x
xy x
y y
−
= =
2.
5
5 5
1 1
3 3 3
a ab
a
b b
− −
= =
3.
( )
2 8 8
2
3 4 2 6 8
6 6
2 4
2 2
y y
x y x y
x x
− −
= = =
4.
( ) ( ) ( )
15 2 5
2
2 4 3 4 8 5 11 13
11 13
16
4 4 16 a b a b a b a b a b
a b
− −
− − − − −
− = − = =
5.
2 4 3 5
4 3 2
7 7 7
n m m n m m n
m n n
−
− −
= =
6.
2 2 2
2 8 2 5 7 2 14 18
5 8 9 18 14
12 4 4 4
3 16
t s t t t t s
t s s s s s t
− − −
− − −
− −
     
= = = =
  
⋅
\ . \ . \ .
1.4 Logarithm Functions
Logarithmic functions are used in several areas of safety and industrial hygiene,
including those related to sound and noise as well as radiation.
The definition of the logarithm function is:
If b is any number such that b > 0 and b ≠ 1 and x > 0 then,
log
b
y x = (2)
This is read as “log base b of x” and is equivalent to:
y
b x = (3)
Although the base (b) can be any number complying with the definition, the most
common logarithm functions are the common and natural logarithms,
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common logarithm: log log x x = (4)
natural logarithm: ln log
e
x x = (5)
where e = 2.71828...
Note the natural logarithm is written ln, not log.
The following table reviews the important rules related to logarithmic functions.
Rule Notes
1 log 1 0
b
=
0
1 b =
2 log 1
b
b =
1
b b =
3 log
x
b
b x =
4
log
b
x
b x =
5 ( ) log log log
b b b
xy x y = + x>0 and y>0
6 log log log
b b b
x
x y
y
 
= −

\ .
x>0 and y>0
7 ( )
log log
r
b b
x r x = x>0 and y>0
8 If log log then
b b
x y x y = = x>0 and y>0
Note that there is no rule for breaking up a logarithm for the sum or difference of
two terms, i.e.,
( ) log log log
b b b
x y x y + ≠ + (6)
( ) log log log
b b b
x y x y − ≠ − (7)
Here’s a simple example of a logarithm function:
3
6
log 216 3 6 =216 just as =
Many other examples of logarithms are presented in Section 9 on Sound and Noise
and Section 10 on Radiation.
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1.5 Absolute Value Equations
In mathematics, the absolute value (or modulus) of a real number is the numerical
value of that number without regard to its sign (i.e., it is considered positive and
no sign is shown). Absolute value is shown by a vertical bar on each side of the
number:
if 0
if 0
a a
a
a a
≥ ¦
=
´
− <
¹
(8)
Problem: What is the absolute value of 5?
Solution:
5 5 − =
1.6 Quadratic Formula
A quadratic equation is a secondorder polynomial equation with a single
variable, x, in the form:
2
0 ax bx c + + = (9)
where 0 a ≠ (when 0 a = the equation becomes linear). Because Equation (9) is a
secondorder polynomial equation, the fundamental theorem of algebra
guarantees that it has two solutions. This is found by the quadratic formula,
which is derived by completing the squares as follows:
2
b c
x x
a a
+ = − (10)
2
2 2
2 2
4
2 4 4
b c b b ac
x
a a a a
−  
+ = − + =

\ .
(11)
2
4
2 2
b b ac
x
a a
± −
+ = (12)
2
4
2
b b ac
x
a
− ± −
= (13)
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± Note the ± symbol in the above equations. This symbol means the term after the ±
sign is both added, and subtracted, from the term before the ± sign.
Problem: Solve
2
3 4 0 x x + − =
Solution: By reviewing equation (10) we see for this equation a=1, b=3, c=4, and
substituting those values into equation (13) yields:
2
3 3 4(1)( 4)
2(1)
x
− ± − −
=
3 25 3 5
2 2
x
− ± − ±
= =
8 2
, 4,1
2 2
x
−
= = −
1.7 Boolean Algebra
Boolean algebra can be thought of as the algebra of events and states. Boolean
algebra is important in the construction and mathematical evaluation of event
trees, such as fault trees, particularly when a large number of events are related in
some manner.
The most common rules for Boolean algebra are shown in the accompanying
table. Boolean algebra assumes A, B, and C (etc.) are logical states that can have
the values 0 (false) and 1 (true). Although the nomenclature used may vary
depending on preference, the following are typical examples of Boolean algebra
formats, where “+” means OR, “·” means AND, and A’ means NOT A.
Rules for Boolean Algebra
Addition Multiplication Rule
A + A = A A · A = A identity
A + 0 = A A · 0 = 0 operation with 0
A + 1 = 1 A · 1 = A operation with 1
A + A’ = 1 A · A’ = 0 complement
A + B = B + A A · B = B · A commutative law
A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C A · (B · C) = (A · B) · C associative law
A + (A · B) = A A · ( A + B) = A absorption
A + (B · C) = (A + B) · (A + C) A · (B + C) = (A · B) + (A · C) distributive law
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Consider the following example. Assume you want to evaluate the probability of
an uncontrolled fire occurring at some location. When constructing an event tree
(e.g., a fault tree) to evaluate this scenario, two high level events are required. A
fire must occur, and the fire must not be controlled (notice the “and” in the
statement – both events are required). Each of these events can be broken down
further. The failure to control the fire can be broken down to two other events;
failure of automatic methods (e.g., sprinklers) and failure of manual methods
(e.g., fire department) – again note the “and.” With regard to sprinkler system
failure, this could be due to the fire pump failing to start or the preaction valve
failing to open. Notice the ‘or’ here, either event would lead to failure; both are
not required.
This is a very simple example, but you can see how such an analysis could
quickly generate a very large number of events. Boolean algebra allows you to
quantify the events and rank the importance of contributing events.
Problem: Resolve the following Boolean expression.
( ) ( ) ' A B A B + ⋅ +
Solution: First, we can expand the statement to find:
( ) ( ) ' ' ' A B A B A A A B A B B B + ⋅ + = ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅
and
' ' ( ') 0 A A A B A B B B A A B B ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ = + + +
since and ' 0 A A A B B ⋅ = ⋅ = and then
( ') 0 A A B B A A A + + + = + =
since ' 1 B B + = and A A A + = we find the above expression resolves to A.
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A
B
C
a
b
c
1.8 Trigonometric Functions
1.8.1 Right Triangles
For a right triangle (i.e., one with angle C=90
o
) equations (14) through (16) are
true:
sin / A a c = (14)
cos / A b c = (15)
tan / A a b = (16)
1.8.2 Law of Cosines
2 2 2
2 cos c a b ab C = + − (17)
Note when C = 90
o
1.8.2.1 Pythagorean Theorem
(i.e., for a right triangle) equation (17) reduces to the
Pythagorean Theorem, equation (18).
2 2 2
a b c + = (18)
1.8.3 Law of Sines
sin sin sin
a b c
A B C
= = (19)
Problem: You walk about 50 feet away from the base of a water tank. From that
location it appears the top of the water tank is about 60 degrees above the ground.
About how high is the top of the water tank?
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Solution: Reviewing the triangle diagram above, we see we have angle “A” and side
“b” and want side “a”. Equation (16) can be written to allow us to estimate the height of
the tank (side “a” in the diagram).
tan 50tan 60 86.6feet
o
a b A = ⋅ = =
So we can estimate our water tank is about 90 feet high. To understand the possible
error with our estimate, we need to know the error with the horizontal measurement
and the angle used.
1.9 Useful Equations for Geometric Shapes
1.9.1 Perimeter
Triangle : P a b c = + + (20)
Rectangle : P 2L 2W = + (21)
Square : P 4s = (22)
Circle : C circumference d 2 r π π = = = (23)
1.9.2 Area
1
Triangle : A bh
2
= (24)
Rectangle : A LW = (25)
2
Square : A s = (26)
2
2
d
Circle : A r
4
π
π = = (27)
Parallelogram: A bh = (28)
( )
1
1 2 2
Trapezoid : A h b b = + (29)
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1.9.3 Volume
Rectangular solid : V LWH = (30)
3
Cube : V s = (31)
3
4
3
Sphere : V r π = (32)
2
Circular cylinder : V r h π = (33)
2
1
3
Circular cone : V r h π = (34)
2
1
3
Regular pyramid : V s h = (35)
1.9.4 Surface Area
Rectangular solid : SA 2LW 2LH 2WH = + + (36)
2
Cube : SA 6s = (37)
2
Sphere : SA 4 r π = (38)
2
Right circular cylinder : SA 2 r 2 rh π π = + (39)
2
Right circular cone : SA r rl π π = + (40)
2
Regular pyramid : SA s 2sl = + (41)
Problem: A cylindrical tank with a diameter of 3 feet stands 6 feet tall. What is the
volume of the tank in cubicfeet? How many gallons of liquid can this tank hold?
Assuming the tank is used for water and another for acetone, how many pounds of
water or acetone can each tank hold? Note: Assume water weight 62.4 lbs/ft
3
.
Solution: First, we can calculate the volume of the tank in cubic feet using equation
(33).
2
2 3
3
V r h ft 6ft = 42.4ft
2
π π
 
= = ⋅

\ .
We can convert to gallons using the conversion 1 ft
3
= 7.481 gallons,
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3
3
7.481gal
42.4ft 317.2gallons
1ft
 
=

\ .
We can find the capacity of the tank in pounds of water by converting volume to
pounds of water as follows:
2
3
H 0 3
42.4ft 62.4 2645.8lbs
lbs
ft
 
=

\ .
To find the weight for acetone, we can use the specific gravity. We can find the specific
gravity from data on its MSDS sheet. MSDS typically list the specific gravity of acetone
as 0.79 (water = 1.0). Since we know the weight in water, we simply multiply that by
the specific gravity for acetone:
( )
2
H 0 acetone
2645.8lbs (0.79) 2090.2lbs =
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Statistics
2 Statistics
2.1 Arithmetic Mean
The arithmetic mean, often referred to simply as the average, is a method to
derive the central tendency of a sample space. The term "arithmetic mean" is
preferred because it helps distinguish it from other averages, such as the
geometric mean. The arithmetic mean is calculated as follows:
1 2 n
X X X
X
n
+ + +
=
(42)
where
X = arithmetic mean of n items
X
n
n = total number of items to be averaged
= value of nth item
The Ellipsis (…) Equation (42) contains a common symbol, the ellipsis (…). In
mathematics, an ellipsis is often used to indicate "and so on." Equation (42) can be
described as reading “add X
1
and X
2
and so on for as many items as you have, and
then divide by the number of item you have.” It is common in mathematics to indicate
the number of items by the variable n.
2.2 Geometric Mean
The geometric mean, is similar to the arithmetic mean except that the sample
numbers are multiplied and then the nth root of the resulting product is taken, as
shown here,
( )( ) ( )
1 2
n
n
GM X x X = (43)
where
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GM = geometric mean of n items
n = total number of items to be averaged
X
n
The following equation is simply another form of the geometric mean equation
above.
= value of nth item
( )
1
log
10
n
i
X
n
GM
=
∑
= (44)
where
GM = geometric mean of n items
X
n
n = total number of items to be averaged
= value of nth item
i = count
Σ Notation Mathematical formulae often require the addition of many variables.
The summation notation, indicated by a capital Greek sigma, is the common form of
shorthand used to give a concise expression for a sum of the values of a variable. For
example:
1 2 3
1
n
n i
i
x x x x x
=
= + + + +
∑
Problem: Several air samples are taken to determine the airborne concentration of a
process solvent. The following concentrations (in ppm) are found: 51, 76, 49, 79, and
36. Calculate the arithmetic and geometric means.
Solution: To calculate the arithmetic mean, we use equation (42) and for the geometric
mean we use equation (43).
1 2
51 76 49 79 36 291
58.2
5 5
n
X X X
X
n
+ + + + + + +
= = = =
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( )( )( )( )( )
5
51 76 49 79 36 55.8 GM = =
The results demonstrate that all averages are not the same. The selection of the mean
equation will depend on the application of the data. Typically, if numbers are to be
added, use an arithmetic mean. If values are to be multiplied, use a geometric mean.
For example, if a investment return yielded 12, 17 and 14 percent over a three year
period, the appropriate average would be the geometric mean since the gains are
compounded (i.e., multiplied).
2.3 Standard Deviation
The standard deviation of a data set is the square root of its variance. Standard
deviation is a widely used measure of the variability or dispersion; that is it shows
how much variation there is from the "average." A low standard deviation
indicates that the data points tend to be very close to the mean, whereas high
standard deviation indicates that the data are spread out over a large range of
values.
The sample standard deviation is the most common estimator for a “standard
deviation.” It is an adjusted version (i.e., N1) and is typically denoted by as s or
SD.
Another estimator for the standard deviation is not adjusted (i.e. N) and is
typically denoted by σ. It has a uniformly smaller mean squared error than the
sample standard deviation. It provides the maximumlikelihood estimate when
the population is normally distributed. But this estimator, when applied to smaller
samples, tends to be too low.
The two are typically expressed as follows:
When N1 this is a “Sample Standard Deviation” (usually written SD):
( )
2
1
1
n
i
i
x x
SD
n
=
−
=
−
∑
(45)
This can also be written as:
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( )
2
1
1
n
i
x
SD
n
=
=
−
∑
(46)
where
i
x x x = −
When n is used unmodified this is a “Standard Deviation” (usually written
as σ):
( )
2
1
n
i
i
x x
n
σ
=
−
=
∑
(47)
This can also be written as:
( )
2
1
n
i
x
n
σ
=
=
∑
(48)
where
i
x x x = −
N or n In some formulas for standard deviation, you may see n written as an upper
case N. In this application they are simply used to denote the total number of items
being evaluated, so either form is acceptable.
Problem: Several air samples are taken to determine the airborne concentration of a
process solvent. The following concentrations (in ppm) are found; 51, 76, 49, 79, 36.
Calculate the sample standard deviation and the standard deviation.
Solution: We can use equations (45) and (47). Also note the following term is the same
in each equation:
( )
2
1
n
i
i
x x
=
−
∑
We also know the arithmetic mean ( 58.2 X = ) from the sample problem above.
Next, we can calculate term above as shown in the following table:
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i
x
i
x x −
( )
2
i
x x −
51 7.2 51.84
76 17.8 316.84
49 9.2 84.64
79 20.8 432.64
36 22.2 492.84
( )
2
1
n
i
i
x x
=
−
∑
1378.8
We can now solve for the sample standard deviation:
1378.8
18.57
5 1
SD = =
−
And the standard deviation:
1378.8
16.61
5
σ = =
2.4 Geometric Standard Deviation
The geometric standard deviation describes how spread out a set of numbers is
whose average is characterized by a geometric mean. In safety and industrial
hygiene applications related to particle size distributions, the geometric standard
deviation (of a lognormal distribution) is easily determined by dividing the mass
median particle diameter by the particle size at the 15.87 percent probability or
by
dividing the particle size at the 84.13 percent probability by the mass median
particle diameter. These two equations are shown here:
50%tile value
GSD
15.87%tile value
= (49)
84.13%tile value
GSD
50%tile value
= (50)
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where
GSD = geometric standard deviation
Problem: Particle sample data are plotted on logarithmic graph paper, and the resulting
plot reveals the average particle size is 10µm, and 84.13% of the cumulative particle
mass is below 20µm and 15.87% of the cumulative particle mass is below 5µm.
Calculate the geometric standard deviation of the samples.
Solution: Both equations (49) and (50) should provide the same determination.
10
2.0
5
50%tile value m
GSD
15.87%tile value m
µ
µ
= = =
20
2.0
10
84.13%tile value m
GSD
50%tile value m
µ
µ
= = =
2.5 Coefficient of Variation
The coefficient of variation is a measure of relative variation of a set of normally
distributed values; it is calculated as follows:
SD
CV
X
= (51)
where
CV = coefficient of variation (see following equation), percent in decimal
format
SD = the sample standard deviation (see equation (45))
X = the arithmetic mean (see equation (42))
Problem: Several air samples are taken to determine the airborne concentration of a
process solvent. The following concentrations (in ppm) are found; 51, 76, 49, 79, 36.
Calculate the coefficient of variation.
Solution: The formula for the coefficient of variation is given in equation (51). For the
data set in the problem, the arithmetic mean and sample standard deviation were
derived in the sample problems above ( X = 58.2, and SD = 18.57).
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18.57
0.312 31.2%
58.2
SD
CV
X
= = = =
2.6 Cumulative Error
In some cases, the individual errors associated with various steps in a
measurement can be quantified. However, the total cumulative error is not just a
simple summation of the individual errors, rather the cumulative error is defined
by the following expression:
2 2 2
1 2 c n
E E E E = + + + (52)
where
E
c
E
= cumulative error
n
n = total number of error items
= individual error of item n
Problem: Consider a case in which sampling and analytical errors (SAE) are used to
account for a margin of error before measured exposures are determined to exceed the
total airborne contaminant limit. Assume the total air sampling error factor accounts for
three uncontrollable variances; 1) air pump performance (CV
P
), 2) variability of the
deposit area on the filter (CV
D
) and 3) variability of the laboratory analysis (CV
A
). These
values are CV
P
= 0.04, CV
D
=0.5, CV
A
= 0.07. What is the total variance?
Solution: To determine CV
total
, the individual components are determined separately
and then combined according to the cumulative error formula, equation (52):
2 2 2 2 2 2
0.04 0.5 0.07 0.506
total P D A
CV CV CV CV = + + = + + =
2.7 Sampling and Analytical Error
All sampling and analytical methods have some degree of uncertainty. The total
uncertainty depends on the combined effects of the contributing uncertainties
inherent in sampling and analysis. Uncertainty in sampling results has historically
been called Sampling and Analytical Error (SAE) by OSHA. It can be calculated
as follows:
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1.645
total
SAE CV = ⋅ (53)
where
SAE = Sampling and Analytical Error
1.645 = a constant that is a 95percent 1tailed confidence coefficient
CV
total
Problem: Based on the total coefficient of variation just calculated, what is the
sampling and analytical error for the method used (95% confidence)?
= coefficient of variation (see equation (51)), percent in decimal
format
Solution:
( ) 1.645 1.645 0.506 0.833
total
SAE CV = = =
2.8 Student’s tTest
Any statistical test that uses the tdistribution can be called a ttest. One of the
most common is Student's ttest. Student's ttest is used to compare the means of
two samples. The shape of the tdistribution depends on the number of degrees of
freedom. The degrees of freedom for a ttest is the total number of observations in
the groups minus 2, or n
1
+n
2
These statistics can be used to carry out either a onetailed test or a twotailed test.
2.
Once a t value is determined, a pvalue can be found using a table of values from
Student's tdistribution (See Table in Section 13). If the calculated pvalue is
below the threshold chosen for statistical significance (frequently the 0.05 level),
then the null hypothesis is rejected in favor of the alternative hypothesis.
The following equation is used for ttests:
1 2
1 2
1 1
pooled
x x
t
SD
n n
−
=
+
(54)
where
t = the test statistic
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x
1
x
= mean of sample 1
2
SD
= mean of sample 2
pooled
n
= pooled standard deviation (see following equation)
1
n
= number of measurements in sample set 1
2
Tails? Generally, when you conduct a test of statistical significance, you are given a
probability (pvalue) in the output. Also, if your test statistic is symmetrically distributed
(such as a tdistribution), you can select a onetailed test or a twotailed test. Most
references on statistical tests will recommend that if there is any doubt, a twotailed test
should be done; that is, select your pvalues from a twotailed table. However, if you
have a table of onetailed data (e.g., the CSP examination reference tdistribution
table), simply multiply the probability value by 2 and use the data from that column. For
example, data for a twotailed pvalue of 0.1 is the same as a onetailed pvalue of 0.05
(i.e., 2*0.05 = 0.1). See the TDistribution Table in Section 13.
= number of measurements in sample set 2
2.9 Pooled Standard Deviation
The pooled standard deviation is used in the above ttest equation.
( ) ( )
2 2
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1
2
pooled
n SD n SD
SD
n n
− + −
=
+ −
(55)
where
SD
pooled
= pooled standard deviation
SD
1
= standard deviation for sample set 1
SD
2
= standard deviation for sample set 2
n
1
= number of measurements in sample set 1
n
2
= number of measurements in sample set 2
The following equation is used for an independent onesample ttest.
1
X X
t n n
SD
µ µ
σ
− −
= − = (56)
where
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t = the test statistic
X = mean of sample
µ = mean of the population
SD = sample standard deviation
σ = standard deviation
n = sample size
Note that these can be written as:
1
X X
t
SD
n n
µ µ
σ
− −
= =
−
(57)
Problem: Two shifts at a factory each have 8 employees working at a time. The work
requires repetitive motions, so short breaks are encouraged. You are asked to conduct
an analysis of the breaks taken to ascertain if there is a significant difference between
the two shifts. The student’s ttest is a good tool since you are comparing two similar
data sets. An initial assessment reveals the following data on the number of breaks
taken, along with the totals, average and standard deviation:
Group 1 Group 2
5 8
7 1
5 4
3 6
5 6
3 4
3 1
9 2
Total 40 32
Average 5 4
SD 2.14 2.56
Solution: With the data above, you can use equations (55) and (54) to determine the t
test value.
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( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
2 2
2 2
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 7 2.14 7 2.56
2.36
2 8 8 2
pooled
n SD n SD
SD
n n
− + − +
= = =
+ − + −
1 2
1 2
5 4
0.847
1 1 1 1
2.36
8 8
pooled
x x
t
SD
n n
− −
= = =
+ +
Now, going to the table of tdistributions (see Section 13), we see for 14 degrees of
freedom (i.e., 162) and with a probability of 0.05 (two tails), t must be at least 2.145.
Therefore we conclude the difference in breaks is not significant.
2.10 Normal Distribution Z Score
The number of standard deviations from the mean is called the zscore. One of the
most useful applications of the normal distribution Z score is being able to
determine the exact proportion of data that falls above and below that score. They
are found by the formula:
X
z
µ
σ
−
= (58)
where
z = number of standard deviations between X and µ
X = value to be evaluated
µ = mean of the population (x in equation (42) above)
σ = standard deviation of the population
A negative Zscore means that the original score was below the mean. A positive
Zscore means that the original score was above the mean. Zscores are typically
used in conjunction with standard normal curve data tables (see Section 13). The
following example will demonstrate how zscores are commonly used.
Problem: Several air samples are taken to determine the airborne concentration of a
process solvent. The following concentrations (in ppm) are found; 51, 76, 49, 79, 36.
Assuming a normal distribution, what is the probability of a reading greater than 80?
Solution: The formula for the zscore is given in equation (58). For the data set in the
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problem, the arithmetic mean and standard deviation were derived in the sample
problems above (µ = X = 58.2, and σ = 16.61). First we calculate the zscore:
80 58.2
1.31
16.61
X
z
µ
σ
− −
= = =
Now, going to a zscore table (see Section 13), we find the area under the curve from 0
to 1.31 is 0.4049. However, we want the value beyond z = 1.31, so we must subtract
the zscore from 0.5 (i.e., ½ of 1). Consequently the answer we are looking for is:
0.5 0.4049 0.0951 9.51% − = =
In other words, there is a 9.51% chance that we could get a reading of 80 or greater
based on our samples (assuming the data follows a normal distribution).
2.11 ChiSquared
The chisquared test is used to assess two types of statistical comparison: tests of
goodness of fit, and tests of independence.
The chisquare value (determined by the following equation) can be used to
determine a pvalue by comparing the value of the statistic to a chisquared
distribution table.
( )
2
2
1
n
i i
i
i
O E
E
χ
=
−
=
∑
(59)
where
2
χ = Chi squared test statistic
O
i
E
= an observed frequency
i
i = count
= an expected (or theoretical) frequency
n = the total number
Problem: We toss a coin 200 times and obtain the following results; 108 heads and 92
tails. Is this a reasonable outcome, or can we suspect the coin somehow favors heads?
Solution: First, we can assume that a fair coin toss should give us on average 100
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heads and 100 tails. But we can also assume that there is some variation due to
chance, particularly with a small number of coin tosses. This problem is a good
application of a Chisquared test. We can calculate the chisquared test statistic for this
problem as follows:
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2
1
n
i i H H T T
i
i H T
O E O E O E
E E E
χ
=
− − −
= = +
∑
( ) ( )
2 2
2
108 100 92 100
1.28
100 100
χ
− −
= + =
From a Chisquared distribution table (see Section 13), we find for 1 degree of freedom
(i.e., 2 classes, head and tails, minus 1) a value of 1.28 falls between 90% and 10%.
From this we conclude our coin toss results can be accounted for by chance and the
coin toss was fair.
2.12 Spearman Rank Correlation
The Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient was developed for use with data such
as ranks. The score runs between 1 and 1. A coefficient of 1 means a perfect
positive correlation and 1 means a perfect negative correlation. A coefficient of
0 indicates no correlation. The formula for the Spearman Rank Correlation
Coefficient is:
( )
( )
2
2
6
1
1
s
D
r
N N
= −
−
∑
(60)
where
r
s
6 = a constant (it is always used in the formula)
= Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, nondimensional
D = the difference between two corresponding variables
N = the number of data pairs
Problem: Two safety inspectors perform surveys in the same 10 locations within a site.
They then independently rank the areas based on the number and type of findings.
Based on the independent rankings, how likely is it that these two inspectors would
have similar findings at other sites? The ranking (from 1 to 10) for each location
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assessed by the inspectors is shown here:
Location Inspector 1 Inspector 2
1 8 10
2 4 2
3 1 3
4 5 6
5 7 7
6 10 9
7 2 1
8 3 4
9 9 8
10 6 5
Solution: Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, equation (60), provides an
acceptable approximation of the uniformity in the two inspector’s findings and is easy
to calculate.
Location Inspector 1 Inspector 2 D D
1
2
8 10 2 4
2 4 2 2 4
3 1 3 2 4
4 5 6 1 1
5 7 7 0 0
6 10 9 1 1
7 2 1 1 1
8 3 4 1 1
9 9 8 1 1
10 6 5 1 1
Sum 18
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2 2
6
6 18
1 1 0.89 89%
1 10 10 1
s
D
r
N N
= − = − = =
− −
∑
Therefore, from this analysis, we can conclude there is a strong positive correlation
between the two inspectors.
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2.13 Correlation Coefficient
The linear correlation coefficient (usually denoted by the letter r) is a measure of
the strength and direction of a linear relationship between two variables (here, x
and y). The value of r is a dimensionless quantity such that 1 < r < +1. If x and
y have a strong positive linear correlation, r is close to +1 (an r value of exactly
+1 indicates a perfect positive fit). Positive values indicate a relationship
between x and y variables such that as values for x increase, values for y also
increase. If x and y have a strong negative linear correlation, r is close to 1 (an r
value of exactly 1 indicates a perfect negative fit). Negative values indicate a
relationship between x and y such that as values for x increase, values for y
decrease. If there is no linear correlation or a weak linear correlation, r is close to
0.
( ) ( )( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
N XY X Y
r
N X X N Y Y
−
=
( (
− −
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
∑ ∑ ∑
∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
(61)
where
X and Y are two variables being evaluated
Equation (61) may be written in an equivalent, but somewhat more simple form:
( )( )
2 2
xy
r
x y
=
∑
∑ ∑
(62)
where
x X X = −
y Y Y = −
Problem: Calculate the linear correlation coefficient for the following data set.
X Y
1 2
2 5
3 6
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Solution: We will use equation (62); that requires the average of the x and y values.
These are easily found to be 2 and 4.33, respectively.
x X X = − y Y Y = − xy x y
2
1.00
2
2.33 2.33 1.00 5.44
0.00 0.67 0.00 0.00 0.44
1.00 1.67 1.67 1.00 2.78
∑
4.00 2.00 8.67
( )( )
( )( )
2 2
4.0
0.961
2 8.67
xy
r
x y
= = =
∑
∑ ∑
A linear correlation coefficient of 0.961 indicates a strong positive relationship between
the data. Note: Although this sample problem only uses three data pairs, the method
is typically used for larger data sets.
2.14 Lower Confidence Limit
With regard to the permissible exposure limit (PEL), the lower confidence limit
can be considered the lowest value that the true exposure could be with some
degree of confidence (e.g., 95% or 99%). This is written as:
( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 2
n n
A
n
SAE T C T C T C
C
LCL
PEL PEL T T T
+ + +
= −
+ + +
(63)
where
LCL = lower confidence limit, ppm
C
A
PEL = permissible exposure limit, ppm
= timeweighted average concentration of consecutive samples, ppm
SAE = sampling and analytical error, see equation (53)
T
n
C
= duration of sample n, minutes
n
n = total number of samples
= concentration of sample n, ppm
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Problem: Chlorine is used in a process and the following measurements of airborne
concentrations are made: 0.75 ppm for 90 min, 0.45 ppm for 170 min, and 0.55 for 220
min. Find the lower confidence limit for this data. Assume the PEL for chlorine is 0.5
ppm and the SAE for this method is 20%.
Solution: First, we need to calculate the timeweighted average of the chlorine
samples:
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
( ) ( ) ( )
0.75 ppm 90 min 0.45 ppm 170 min 0.55 ppm 220 min
90 min 170 min 220 min
0.552ppm
A
C
+ +
+ +
= =
Then equation (63) is used to determine to LCL,
( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
0.552 0.2 0.75 90 0.45 170 0.55 220
0.97
0.5 0.5 90 170 220
LCL
+ +
= − =
+ +
Therefore, since the LCL is less than 1.0, we conclude that the exposure does not
exceed the PEL at the 95% confidence level.
2.15 TwoSided 90% Confidence Interval
Given the mean value of a data set, as well as the standard deviation and number
of samples in that data set, the twosided 90% confidence interval is calculated as
follows:
1.645 90%Conf = X
n
σ  
±

\ .
(64)
where
90%Conf = the twosided 90% confidence value, units to match X , σ and
n
X = arithmetic mean of the sample
σ = standard deviation
n = sample size
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2.16 TwoSided 95% Confidence Interval
Given the mean value of a data set, as well as the standard deviation and number
of samples in that data set, the twosided 95% confidence interval is calculated as
follows:
1.96 95%Conf = X
n
σ  
±

\ .
(65)
where
95%Conf = the twosided 95% confidence value, units to match X , σ and
n
X = arithmetic mean of the sample
σ = standard deviation
n = sample size
2.17 OneSided 95% Confidence Interval
Given the mean value of a data set, as well as the standard deviation and number
of samples in that data set, the onesided 95% confidence interval can be
calculated as follows:
 1.645 95%Conf = X or
n
σ  
+ −

\ .
(66)
where
95%Conf = the onesided 95% confidence value, units to match X
and
σ
X = arithmetic mean of the sample
σ = standard deviation
n = sample size
Problem: Several air samples are taken to determine the airborne concentration of a
process solvent. The following concentrations (in ppm) are found; 51, 76, 49, 79, 36.
Assuming a normal distribution, what is the twosided 90% confidence interval?
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Solution: The formula for the twosided 90% confidence interval is given in equation
(64). For the data set in the problem, the arithmetic mean and standard deviation were
derived in the samples problems above ( X = 58.2, and σ = 16.61). There were five
samples, so n = 5.
16.61
1.645 58.2 1.645
5
90%Conf = X =
n
σ    
± ±
 
\ . \ .
16.61
58.2 1.645 58.2 12.22
5
 
± = ±

\ .
58.2 12.22 45.98, 70.42 ± =
Therefore, the twosided 90% confidence interval for the sample set is 45.98 ppm and
70.42 ppm.
Equations (64) and (65) are solved in the same manner; the only difference is the
choice of the confidence level desired. However, equation (66) is for a one sided
confidence interval, so you must decide if you need the upper or lower confidence
interval and use the equation as such (i.e., + or , not both).
2.18 Permutations and Combinations
Permutations and combinations are mathematical terms applied to the two rules
by which items are selected from a group of items. Which rule (equation) to
apply is determined by the importance of order in the selection.
2.18.1 Permutation
The number of ways of obtaining an ordered subset of k elements from a set of n
elements is given by:
!
( )!
n
k
n
P
n k
=
−
(67)
where
n
k
P = the number of ways of obtaining an ordered subset of k elements
from a set of n elements
n = total number of items from which to select
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k = number of items taken each time
n! In mathematics, the factorial
of a positive integer n, denoted by n!, is the product of
all positive integers less than or equal to n (e.g., 4! = 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 = 24). Also note that
0! = 1.
2.18.2 Combination
The number of ways of picking k unordered outcomes from n possibilities is
given by:
!
!( )!
n
k
n
C
k n k
=
−
(68)
where
n
k
C = the number of ways of obtaining an unordered subset (combination)
of k elements from a set of n elements
n = total number of items from which to select
k = number of items taken each time
The terms ordered and unordered can be a bit confusing. The term unordered
may seem less restrictive, and as a result, more options appear available. This
situation is not true. For example, say you have to pick two people from a group
of ten, and you pick Al and Beth. In an unordered set, Al and Beth are the same as
Beth and Al, so in an unordered set there are actually fewer options.
Problem: At a production facility, there are three standby generators provided so that
the backup electrical power has a high degree of reliability. If only two are required to
provide the required capacity, how many combinations of two generators are provided
by the set of three? Also, if the three generators are labeled A, B and C, how many
ways can they be arranged in a row?
Solution: To answer the first question, we use a combination with n = 3 and k = 2.
! 3!
3
!( )! 2!(3 2)!
n
k
n
C
k n k
= = =
− −
For the second question, we use a permutation because we want to range three out of
three, so in this case n=3 and k=3:
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! 3!
6
( )! (3 3)!
n
k
n
P
n k
= = =
− −
Remember that factorial of zero is one; i.e., 0! =1.
2.19 Poisson Distribution
The Poisson distribution expresses the probability of a number of events
occurring in a fixed period of time if these events occur with a known average
rate and independently of the time since the last event. It is typically applied to
rare events. Mathematically it can be written as:
( ) ( )
/
/
( )
! !
r r
t t m
t e t m e
P r
r r
λ
λ
− −
= = (69)
where
P(r) = probability of r, based on a Poisson distribution
λ = expected number of events over time t
t = time period
r = number of occurrence of an event
m = 1/λ = time period per event
e = natural logarithm, 2.71828…
Another way of showing the probability function of the Poisson distribution is:
{ }
!
m a
m
a e
P P X m
m
−
= = = (70)
where
a = λt
Problem: Electrical power to a factory fails an average of 5 times every year (e.g.,
storms, high winds, etc.). Assuming a Poisson distribution, calculate the probability that
there will not be more than one failure during a particular week.
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Solution: Since this is a Poisson distribution question, we use equation (70). Hint: For
this you must calculate the probability of no failures in a week and the probability of
one failure in a week and sum them. Fist we calculated the average failure rate:
( )
5failures
1week = 0.096
52week
a t λ
 
= =

\ .
( ) ( )
0 1
0.096 0.096
0.096 0.096
( ) 0.996
! 0! 1!
m a
e e
a e
P r
m
− −
−
= = + =
Remember: Any number raised to the zero power, 0! and 1! all equal 1.
2.20 Reliability
In simple terms, reliability is defined as the probability that a device will perform
its required function for a specific period of time (i.e., reliability is the probability
of no failure). Mathematically this probability can be defined as:
( )
t
R t e
λ −
= (71)
where
R(t) = reliability as a function of time, 0 ≤ R (t) ≤ 1
λ = the failure rate (also called the hazard rate) which predicts the number
of failures that have occurred over a period of time
t = time
Problem: Electrical power to a factory fails an average of 5 times every year (e.g.,
storms, high winds, etc.). Calculate the reliability of the power system over a oneweek
period.
Solution:
( )
5failures
52weeks
1week
0.908
t
R t e e
λ
 

\ .
−
−
= = =
Based on this calculation, the power supply system has a reliability of about 91%.
The probability of failure is simply the complement of the reliability probability,
and can be written as:
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1
f s
P P + = (72)
where
P
f
P
= probability of failure
s
From these equations we can write:
= probability of success, which is equal to R(t)
( ) 1
f
P R t = − (73)
and
1
f s
P P = − (74)
Problem: Based on the reliability just calculated, what is the failure probability of the
electrical supply system over a oneweek period?
Solution: For this calculation, use equation (73) and use the reliability rate just
calculated.
( ) 1 1 0.908 0.092
f
P R t = − = − =
Based on this calculation, there is about a 9% probability of electrical system failure in
a week.
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Engineering Economics
3 Engineering Economics
Engineering economics, previously known as engineering economy, is a subset of
economics that is concerned with the application of economic techniques to the
evaluation of design and engineering alternatives. Engineers should seek solutions
to problems that are technically sound but in which the economic viability of each
potential solution is also considered. However, the following equations are not
special “engineering” equations; they apply universally to financial projections.
The first equation calculates the future value of a lump sum payment made today
given an interest rate compounding over a number of years.
( ) 1
n
F P i = + (75)
where
F = future value of money, $
P = present value of money, $
i = interest rate, percent in decimal form
n = number of years
Equation (75) can be rearranged to calculate P given F (same units).
( ) 1
n
P F i
−
= + (76)
Problem: Personal protective equipment has a current replacement cost of $15,000.
Assuming an inflation increase of 3% per year, what will be the adjusted cost of the
PPE in 5 years when it is expected to be replaced?
Given the expected replacement cost and assuming the cost allocated for the PPE
replacement can be put into an interest bearing account that yields 5% per year, how
much should be invested today to cover the PPE costs in 5 years?
Solution: The two problems can be solved with equations (75) and (76), respectively.
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First, the cost of the PPE in 5 years is:
( ) ( )
5
1 $15, 000 1 0.03 $17, 389.11
n
F P i = + = + =
Next, based on this amount ($17,389.11) and assuming we earn 5% interest, the
amount we would need to invest today is:
( )
5
1 $17, 389.11(1 0.05) $13, 628.82
n
P F i
−
−
= + = + =
The following equation can be used to calculate the future value of a series of
annual payments given an interest rate and number of years.
( ) 1 1
n
i
F A
i
(
+ −
= (
(
¸ ¸
(77)
where
F = future value of money, $
A = annual payment, $
i = interest rate, percent in decimal form
n = number of years
Equation (77) can be rearranged to calculate A given F (same units).
( ) 1 1
n
i
A F
i
(
= (
+ −
(
¸ ¸
(78)
Problem: Continuing with the PPE replacement problem above; calculate how much
would you have to place into the account each year for 5 years instead of one lump
sum today.
Also, you evaluate your PPE budget and it appears you can place $3500 into the same
account each year over the next 5 years. How much will be available for PPE purchase
in 5 years?
Solution: First, use equation (78) to find the answer to the first question:
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( ) ( )
5
0.05
$17, 389.11 $3,146.99
1 1 1 0.05 1
n
i
A F
i
( (
= = = ( (
+ − + −
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
Next, use equation (77) to see how much would accumulate based on the yearly
contributions to the interestbearing account:
( ) ( )
5
1 1 1 0.05 1
$3, 500 $19, 339.71
0.05
n
i
F A
i
( (
+ − + −
= = = ( (
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
The following equation is used to calculate the present value of a series of equal
annual payments given an interest rate and number of years.
( )
( )
1 1
1
n
n
i
P A
i i
(
+ −
= (
+
(
¸ ¸
(79)
where
P = present value of money, $
A = annual payment, $
i = interest rate, percent in decimal form
n = number of years
Equation (79) can be rearranged to calculate A given P (same units); it is known
as capital recovery.
( )
( )
1
1 1
n
n
i i
A P
i
(
+
= (
+ −
(
¸ ¸
(80)
Problem: Your company is considering the purchase of a new lab analyzer. One
model (Model A) costs $4500. A second model (Model B) costs more, $6000, but
requires $375 less each year in replacement parts and supplies. Using the concept of
present worth, evaluate which option is more cost effective over a 7 year period (the
expected service life of both). Assume an interest rate of 4%.
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Solution: First, we must calculate the present worth of the $375 saved each year over
the 7 year period. For this we use equation (79):
( )
( )
( )
( )
7
7
1 1 1 0.04 1
$375 $2250.77
1 0.04 1 0.04
n
n
i
P A
i i
( (
+ − + −
= = = ( (
+ +
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
Next, we need to subtract this amount from the present value of Model B since it would
be “paying” back this amount each year:
$6, 000 $2250.77 $3749.23 − =
This is less than the present value of Model A, $4500, so Model B is the more cost
effective.
Problem: A testing lab is considering the addition of a new gas chromatograph that has
a purchase price of about $18,000. Ignoring other costs, estimate the yearly cost that
should be charged to clients to offset the acquisition. Assume an interest rate of 3.5%
and a service life of 6 years with negligible salvage value.
Solution: For this we use equation (80):
( )
( )
( )
( )
6
6
1 0.035 1 0.035
$18, 000 $3378.02
1 1 1 0.035 1
n
n
i i
A P
i
( (
+ +
= = = ( (
+ − + −
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
In other words, if $3378.02 is charged each year for the use of the GC, the cost of the
GC will be recouped in 6 years, assuming an interest rate of 3.5%.
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Chemistry and Concentrations
4 Chemistry and Concentrations
4.1 Ideal Gas Law
The ideal gas law (also called the perfect gas law) is the equation of state of a
hypothetical ideal gas. It provides a good approximation of the behavior of many
gases under many conditions, such as air and other gases typically encountered in
industrial hygiene and safety applications. The ideal gas law can be written as:
P Vol n R T ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ (81)
where
P = absolute pressure of the gas, atm
Vol = volume of gas, liters (l)
n = amount of gas, gram moles
R = gas constant, 0.082 latm/gram molesK
T = temperature, K
These are the typical units used in safety and industrial hygiene applications.
However, other applications (or simply personal preference) may employ
different units. See the following table.
Ideal Gas Law Gas Constant (R)
Absolute Pressure
Volume Temp moles atm psi mm Hg in Hg ft H
2
ft
O
K
3
gm 0.00290 0.0426 2.20 0.0867 0.0982
lb 1.31 19.31 999.0 39.3 44.6
o gm
R
0.00161 0.02366 1.22 0.0482 0.0546
lb 0.730 10.73 555.0 21.85 24.8
liters
K
gm 0.08206 1.206 62.4 2.45 2.78
lb 37.2 547.0 28300.0 1113.0 1262.0
o gm
R
0.0456 0.670 34.6 1.36 1.55
lb 20.7 304.0 15715.0 619.0 701.0
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For a gas at two varying conditions, equation (81) can be written as:
1 1 2 2
1 2
PVol PVol
nRT nRT
= (82)
With n and R constant, equation (82) can be written:
1 1 2 2
1 2
PVol PVol
T T
= (83)
Problem: Propane has a chemical composition of C
3
H
8
yielding a molecular weight of
44. Calculate its density in lbs/ft
3
at 1 atmosphere and 68
o
F.
Solution: First, we can take equation (81) and multiply each side of the equation by the
molecular weight (MW); to provide:
MW P Vol MW n R T ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
This can be rearranged to:
MW n
MW P R T
Vol
⋅  
⋅ = ⋅

\ .
The term
MW n
Vol
⋅  

\ .
is the density (ρ), so we can write:
MW P R T ρ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅
which can be rearranged to solve for d:
MW P
R T
ρ
⋅
=
⋅
Selecting the appropriate value for R (based on the units we desire) we find:
( ) ( )
3
3
44 1atm
0.114lbs/ft
0.73ft atm/lb mole R 460 68F
ρ
⋅
= =
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ +
Problem: A small oxygen cylinder is full, and at room temperature the gauge reads
1500 psi. The cylinder is left in an area where the ambient temperature can climb as
high as 90
o
F. What pressure would the gauge read at that temperature? Assume
room temperature is 70
o
F.
Solution: We can use equation (83), and since the volume of the cylinder does not
change, the equation can be written as:
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1 2
1 2
P P
T T
=
Solving for P
2
and remembering to use degrees Rankine leads to:
1
2 2
1
1500psi
(90F 460F) 1556.6psi
(70F 460F)
P
P T
T
= = + =
+
The pressure increase is not that substantial in this case.
4.2 Concentration of Vapors and Gases
The calculation of concentrations of airborne contaminants is a common effort in
safety and industrial hygiene. Equations related to permissible exposure limits are
also commonly encountered. These are presented in the following section.
4.3 Airborne Concentration via Volume
The following expression may be used to calculate the airborne concentration of a
gas or vapor in partpermillion (ppm) based on volume.
6
10
contam
air
V
ppm x
V
= (84)
where
ppm = airborne concentration, ppm
V
contam
= volume of contaminant (units to match V
air
V
)
air
= volume of air (units to match V
contam
10
)
6
Problem: One pound of acetylene leaks from a cylinder into a room that measures 30 ft
wide by 50 ft long by 12 feet high. Assume acetylene as a density of 0.0682 lbs/ft
= conversion factor for ppm
3
at
room temperature and pressure. What is the concentration in ppm (assume uniform
mixing and no losses)?
Solution: First, if we take the inverse of the density, we find acetylene occupies 14.66
ft
3
/lb, so we write:
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( )( )( )
3
6 6
14.66ft
10 10 814.4ppm
30ft 50ft 12ft
contam
air
V
ppm x x
V
= = =
4.4 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure (Gas) & Raoult’s Law (Liquids)
Dalton's law (also called Dalton's law of partial pressures) states that the total
pressure exerted by a gaseous mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures
of each individual component in a gas mixture. It can be written as:
1 1 2 2 total i i
P X P X P X P = + + + (85)
where
P
total
X
= total pressure of gas mixture, mmHg
i
P
= mole fraction of gas i in the mixture, non dimensional
i
Note that the partial pressure of each component is:
= pressure of gas i in the mixture, mmHg
partial i i i
P X P
−
= (86)
Raoult's law states the vapor pressure of an ideal solution is dependent on the
vapor pressure of each chemical component and the mole fraction of the
component present in the solution. Mathematically, Raoult’s law can be written
the same as Dalton’s law, but applied to problems involving solutions.
Problem: An air compressor supplies air at 400 psi. Assuming air is comprised of
oxygen (21%) and nitrogen (79%), what is the partial pressure of the oxygen and
nitrogen?
Solution: Since we know the total pressure and percent fractions, the solution is found
by multiplying the oxygen (21%) and nitrogen (79%) fractions by the total pressure to
arrive at the partial pressures contributed by each:
( )( ) 0.79 400psi 316psi
nitrogen
P = =
( )( ) 0.21 400psi 84psi
oxygen
P = =
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4.5 Airborne Concentration via Pressure
The following expression may be used to calculate the airborne concentration of a
gas or vapor in partpermillion (ppm) based on pressure.
6
10
v
atm
P
ppm x
P
= (87)
where
ppm = airborne concentration, ppm
P
v
= vapor pressure of contaminant (units to match P
atm
P
)
atm
= vapor pressure of air (units to match P
v
10
)
6
Problem: Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) has a vapor pressure of 44 mmHg at 25
= conversion factor for ppm
o
C. What is
the equilibrium concentration (in ppm) in air around the IPA source assuming a
temperature of 25
o
C and a pressure of 1 atmosphere?
Solution: Knowing 1 atmosphere equals 760 mmHg, we can write:
6 6
44mmHg
10 10 57, 895ppm
760mmHg
v
atm
P
ppm x x
P
= = =
4.6 Conversion for Airborne Concentrations: ppm (to/from) mg/m
In addition to quantifying airborne contaminants in units of ppm, another common
set of units is mg/m
3
3
. The following equation can be used to make this
conversion.
3
/ 24.45 mg m x
ppm
MW
= (88)
where
ppm = airborne concentration, ppm
mg/m
3
= airborne concentration, mg/m
3
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24.45 = molar volume of any gas or vapor at STP, l/gram mole
MW = molecular weight of contaminant, g/gram mole
Problem: Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) has a chemical formula of C
3
H
8
O, and therefore a
molecular weight of 60. Using the equilibrium concentration just calculated above
(57,895 ppm), calculate the equilibrium concentration in mg/m
3
of the IPA in air.
Solution: We need to rearrange equation (88) as follows:
( )( ) ( )( )
3 3 3
57, 895 60
/ 142, 073mg/m 142kg/m
24.45 24.45
ppm MW
mg m = = = =
4.7 Conversion for Airborne Concentrations: ppm (to/from) g/l
Another volumetric conversion, this for converting between ppm and gramsper
liter (g/l) is:
6
24.45 10 g x
C
MW V
⋅
=
⋅
(89)
where
C = airborne concentration, ppm
g = airborne concentration, grams
24.45 = molar volume of any gas or vapor at STP, l/mole
MW = molecular weight of contaminant, g/mole
V = Volume, liters (l)
Problem: A carbon dioxide (CO
2
) test gas is prepared by placing 1 gram of CO
2
into a
10 liter container. What is the concentration (ppm) of the CO
2
air mixture?
Solution: The molecular weight of CO
2
is 44 and the other required data are provided
in the question, so we can use equation (89) to find the solution:
6 6
24.45 10 1g 24.45 10
55, 568ppm
44 10liter
g x x
C
MW V
⋅ ⋅
= = =
⋅ ⋅
This is well over the published IDLH value of 40,000 ppm.
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4.8 Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of Airborne Mixture
The Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of a single airborne contaminant can be found
by looking it up in a table of permitted exposure limits. But what if more than one
contaminant is present; how is the TLV of the mixture determined? To do this,
the following expression is used. If the resulting TLV
mix
is equal or greater than
1.0, the mixture exceeds the TLV.
1 2
1 2
n
mix
n
C C C
TLV
TLV TLV TLV
= + + + (90)
where
TLV
mix
C
= TLV ratio of the airborne mixture, nondimmensional
n
TLV
= measured airborne concentration of contaminant n
n
Problem: Air samples find toluene concentrations at 35 ppm and benzene
concentrations at 0.25 ppm within the same air sample. If the TLVs are 50 ppm and
0.5 ppm, respectively, is the combined TLV exceeded?
= permitted airborne concentration of contaminant n
Solution: Substituting directly into equation (90) yields:
1 2
1 2
35ppm 0.25ppm
1.2
50ppm 0.5ppm
mix
C C
TLV
TLV TLV
= + = + =
Therefore the combined TLV of the mixture is exceeded.
4.9 Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of Liquids
For liquid mixtures, a similar approach is taken, except the actual TLV of the
mixture is calculated as follows:
1 2
1 2
1
mix
n
n
TLV
F F F
TLV TLV TLV
=
+ + +
(91)
where
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TLV
mix
= TLV of the liquid mixture, mg/m
F
3
n
TLV
= weight fraction of chemical n, decimal percent
n
= TLV of chemical n, mg/m
Problem: What is the TLV of a 50/50 mixture of hexane and xylene? Assume the TLV
for hexane is 176 mg/m
3
3
and the TLV for xylene is 434 mg/m
3
.
Solution: Substituting into equation (91) yields:
3
1 2
3 3
1 2
1 1
250mg/m
.50 .50
176mg/m 434mg/m
mix
TLV
F F
TLV TLV
= = =
+ +
4.10 Le Chatelier’s Rule
The estimated lower flammability limit (LFL) of a mixture of combustible gases
can be calculated using Le Chatelier's Rule:
1 2
1 2
1
mix
n
n
LFL
f f f
LFL LFL LFL
=
+ + +
(92)
where
LFL
mix
f
= LFL of the gas mixture, %
n
LFL
= volume fraction of flammable gas n, decimal form
n
Note: Although this formula calculates LFL, the same approach can be used for
the upper flammability limit (UFL).
= LFL of flammable gas n, %
Problem: What is the LFL of the following mixture: methane (75%), ethane (15%) and
propane (10%)?
Solution: Consulting MSDS of other suitable sources, we find the following LFLs:
methane (5%), ethane (3%) and propane (2.1%). We can substitute the above
fractions and LFLs into equation (92) to find:
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1 2
1 2
1 1
4.0%
.75 .15 .10
5 3 2.1
mix
n
n
LFL
f f f
LFL LFL LFL
= = =
     
+ + + + +
  
\ . \ . \ .
4.11 VaporHazard Ratio
The vaporhazard ratio is a simple ratio of the saturation concentration of an
airborne contaminant to permitted concentration. Since it is a ratio of the two
values, it indicates a relative level of risk that includes the volatility of the
contaminant. The vaporhazard ratio is expressed as:
sat. concentration
vapor  hazard ratio =
exposure guideline
(93)
where
vaporhazard ratio = relative level of risk of an airborne contaminant, non
dimensional
sat. concentration = saturation concentration of gas (or vapor), ppm
exposure guideline = concentration permitted by guidelines, ppm
Problem: What is the VaporHazard Ratio of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)?
Solution: From an MSDS for MEK, we find an exposure limit of 200 ppm and a vapor
pressure of 78 mmHg (at 20
o
C). Standard atmospheric pressure is 760 mmHg. We
can then use equation (87) to find the saturation pressure:
6 6
78mmHg
10 10 102, 632ppm
760mmHg
v
atm
P
ppm x x
P
= = =
Equation (93) can then be used to find the VaporHazard Ratio:
513
102632ppm
vapor / hazard ratio =
200ppm
=
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4.12 Reduction Factor – Day
Many occupational limits for exposure are based on an 8 hour workday, and a 40
hour workweek. When an employee works an altered schedule, a Reduction
Factor for an unusual work schedule can be used to adjust exposure limits based
on the actual hours worked in a day. For a modified work day, this can be written
as:
8 24
16
day
h
RF x
h
−
= (94)
where
RF
day
h = number of hours worked in a day
= reduction factor, nondimensional
4.13 Reduction Factor – Week
Similar to above, when an employee works an altered work week, a Reduction
Factor can be used to adjust exposure limits based on the actual hours worked in a
week. For a modified work week, this can be written as:
168 40
128
w
week
w
h
RF x
h
−
= (95)
where
RF
week
h
= reduction factor, nondimensional
w
Problem: A worker is exposed to toluene during his shift. The TLV for toluene is 50
ppm. If the worker works 9 hours in a day, what is the permitted exposure to toluene? If
the worker works 9 hours per day all week (5 days) what is the permitted exposure?
= number of hours worked in a week
Solution: First we can calculate the reduction factors for one day and one week based
on the hours worked:
8 24 8 24 9
0.83
16 9 16
day
h
RF x x
h
− −
= = =
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168 40 40 168 50
0.74
128 50 128
w
week
w
h
RF x x
h
− −
= = =
Therefore, the permitted exposure for an increased day and week is:
( ) 0.83 50ppm 41ppm
permitted day
TLV
−
= =
( ) 0.74 50ppm 37ppm
permitted week
TLV
−
= =
Notice the week value is not the same as the day value, even though it is based on the
same increase in hours per work day.
4.14 Chemistry of Solutions
4.14.1 BeerLambert Law (Beer’s Law)
One form of Beer’s law can be used to evaluate the presence of a contaminant in a
solution based on the amount of light absorbed by the solution. This is written as:
log
o
I
A abc
I
= = (96)
where
A = absorbance, nondimensional
I
o
I = intensity of transmitted (exiting) light
= intensity of incident light
a = molar absorptivity constant, L/gcm
b = length of light beam path, cm
c = concentration of absorbing material, g/L
Note that the units for I
o
Problem: A solution reduces the amount of light transmitted through it to 1/5 the
original intensity. If the molar absorptivity has been found to be 2.04 L/gcm and the
beam length is 1.2 cm, what is the concentration of the solution?
and I are not specified above. Since they are expressed
as a fraction, the units only need to be consistent.
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Solution: First, we can use equation (96) to solve for the absorbance:
5
log log 0.7
1
o
I
A
I
= = =
Equation (96) can then be rearranged to solve for the concentration:
( )( )
0.7
0.286g/L
2.04L/gcm 1.2cm
A
c
ab
= = =
4.14.2 pH Calculation
The pH of a solution indicates if the solution is an acid, base, or neutral.
Therefore, pH can indicate potential hazards of solutions. pH is a measure of the
hydrogen ions in solution and pH is calculated as follows:
10
log pH H
+
( = −
¸ ¸
(97)
where
pH = a quantitative description of acidity or alkalinity of a solution
(ranges from 014)
H
+
(
¸ ¸
= hydrogen ion concentration, gram moles/liter (= Molarity, = M)
Problem: Calculate the pH of a solution that has 5.0 grams of HNO
3
in 2.0 liters of
solution. The molecular weight of HNO
3
is 63.01 g/mole.
Solution: First we need to calculate the number of moles of HNO
3
:
5.0grams
0.0794moles
63.01grams/mole
=
Then we can calculate the molarity of the solution:
0.0794moles
0.0397
2.0liters
M M = =
Finally, we can use equation (97) to find the pH:
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10 10
log log 0.0397 1.4 pH H
+
( = − = − =
¸ ¸
4.14.3 Acid Dissociation Constant
In simple terms, the acid dissociation constant, K
a
, is a quantitative measure of
the strength of an acid in solution. It is calculated as follows:
 
a
H x A
K
HA
+ −
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
= (98)
where
K
a
H
+
(
¸ ¸
= acid dissociation constant, nondimensional
= hydrogen ion concentration, M
A
−
(
¸ ¸
= concentration of conjugate base of a weak acid, M
  HA = weak acid concentration, M
Problem: A solution of acetic acid (C
2
H
4
O
2
) in water has a pH of 2.54 and a molarity of
0.462. What is the acid dissociation constant, K
a
?
Solution: First, we can use equation (97) to find the hydrogen ion concentration of the
solution.
10
log pH H
+
( = −
¸ ¸
Which can be rearranged to solve for the hydrogen ion concentration,
2.54
10 10 0.002884M
pH
H
+ − −
( = = =
¸ ¸
Next, since the ratio of moles of C
2
H
3
O
2

to H
+
is 1:1; we can use equation (98) to
write:
 
   
5
0.002884M 0.002884M
1.8x10
0.462M
a
H x A
x
K
HA
+ −
−
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
= = =
This value can be compared to those published for K
a
.
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4.14.4 Base Dissociation Constant
In simple terms, the base dissociation constant, K
b
, is a quantitative measure of
the strength of a base in solution. It is calculated as follows:
 
b
BH x OH
K
B
+ −
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
= (99)
where
K
b
BH
+
(
¸ ¸
= base dissociation constant, nondimensional
= concentration of positive ions from ionized base, M
OH
−
(
¸ ¸
= hydroxide ion concentration, M
  B = concentration of nonionized base, M
Problem: What is the pH of a 0.10 M solution of methylamine (CH
5
N) in water? Note:
Methylamine has a base dissociation constant of 4.4x10
4
.
Solution: First, we can write the chemical equation as:

5 2 6
CH N + H 0 CH N + OH
+
⇔
Then we can use equation (99) to write:
 
6
4
CH N
4.4x10
0.10
x OH
+ −
−
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
=
Since CH
6
N
+
and OH

have a ratio of 1:1 (i.e., equal molarity); we can find they both
are:
( )( )
4 3
6
CH N 0.10M 4.4x10 6.63x10 OH
+ − − −
( ( = = =
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
Similar to finding the pH, we can find pOH :
3
10
log 6.63x10 2.18 pOH
−
( = − =
¸ ¸
We want to determine pH, so we need to subtract the pOH from 14;
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14 14 2.18 11.82 pH pOH = − = − =
Thus the pH of the methylamine solution is 11.82.
4.15 Asbestos (Airborne Contaminant)
Various methods are used to assess asbestos concentrations in air. The following
presents some of the equations used by those methods.
4.15.1 Asbestos Fiber Concentration by PCM
Airborne asbestos fiber concentrations can be assessed using phase contrast
microscopy (PCM). The following equation is used in the analysis:
( )
1000
s b c
asb
f s
C C A
C
A V
−
= (100)
where
C
asb
C
= airborne concentration of asbestos fibers, fibers/ml
s
C
= average number of fibers counted per graticule field in the sample
b
A
= average number of fibers counted per graticule field in the field
blank
c
= effective collection area of filter, 385 mm
2
for 25 mm filter
A
f
= graticule field area, 0.00785 mm
V
2
s
Problem: What is the airborne concentration of asbestos fibers if 800 liters of air are
sampled and 100 fibers are counted on 46 fields, and the field blank has no fibers.
Assume the effective area of the filter is 385 mm
= air volume sample, liters (l)
2
(25 mm filter) and the graticule field
area is 0.00785 mm
2
.
Solution: Applying equation (100) and substituting leads to:
( )
( )( )
( )( )
2
2
2.17 0 fibers 385mm
0.133f/mL
1000 1000 0.00785mm 800L
s b c
asb
f s
C C A
C
A V
−
−
= = =
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4.15.2 Asbestos Fiber Concentration
Another form of the equation for assessing airborne asbestos fiber concentration
is:
1000
c
asb
s
EA
C
V
= (101)
where
C
asb
E = fiber density on filter, fibers/ mm
= airborne concentration of asbestos fibers, fibers/ml
2
A
(see next equation)
c
= effective collection area of filter, 385 mm
2
for 25 mm filter
V
s
Problem: What is the airborne concentration of asbestos fibers if 800 liters of air are
sampled and the fiber density is 102 f/mm
= air volume sample, liters (l)
2
? Assume the effective area of the filter is
385 mm
2
(25 mm filter).
Solution: Applying equation (101) and substituting leads to:
( )( )
2 2
102f/mm 385mm
0.049fibers/mL
1000 1000 800L
c
asb
s
EA
C
V
= = =
⋅
4.15.3 Fiber Density
The fiber density can be calculated as follows:
f b
f
F B
N N
E
A
−
= (102)
where
E = fiber density on filter, fibers/ mm
2
F/N
f
= average fiber count per graticule field
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B/N
b
A
= average fiber count per graticule field for the field blank
f
= graticule field area, 0.00785 mm
Problem: What is the fiber density on a filter if 100 fibers are counted on 46 fields, and
the field blank has no fibers? Assume the graticule field area is 0.00785 mm
2
2
.
Solution: Using equation (102) and substituting leads to:
2
2
100
0 fibers
46
277f/mm
0.00785mm
f b
f
F B
N N
E
A
 
−
−

\ .
= = =
4.15.4 Microscopic Limit of Resolution (Abbe’s Equation)
The Abbe’s equation can be used to determine the limit of resolution for a
microscope, which may be required when conducting asbestos sample
assessment. The equation can be written as:
0.61
sin
d
λ
η α
= (103)
where
d = limit of resolution, nm
0.61 = a constant
λ = wavelength of light used in microscope, nm
η = index of refraction of medium between point source and lens, relative
to free space
α = half the angle of the cone of light from specimen plane accepted by the
objective, radians
Note: Values for η typically range between 1.0 (air) to about 1.5 (oils). Also, the
value ηsinα is often expressed as NA (numerical aperture). Also, radians are
related to degrees in the following manner:
180
1 radian =
o
π
(104)
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Problem: Visible light in air is used for a microscope. The wavelength for visible light is
500 nm. What is the limit of resolution for this setup? Assume a halfangle of 40
degrees (0.698 radians) and η = 1.0 for air.
Solution: Using equation (103) and substituting leads to:
( )( ) 0.61 500nm
0.61
475nm = 475 m
sin 1.0 sin (0.698)
d
λ
µ
η α
= = =
⋅
4.16 Particle Settling Velocity
The terminal settling velocity of a spherical particle in a fluid (e.g., air) can be
described by:
2
( )
18
p p a
TS
gd
V
ρ ρ
η
−
= (105)
where
V
TS
g = acceleration due to gravity, cm/sec
= terminal settling velocity of particle, cm/sec
d = diameter of particle, cm
2
ρ
p
= density of particle, g/cm
ρ
3
a
= density of fluid (e.g., air), g/cm
η = viscosity of fluid (e.g., air), poise (P)
3
Note that equation (105) is applicable for particles less than 80 micrometers (µm)
in size (i.e., aerodynamic diameter) and having a Reynolds number less than 2.0.
Reynolds numbers are presented next.
Problem: A high pressure water spray system generates particles with an average
diameter of 80 µm. Calculate the terminal settling velocity of the water particles in still
air. Assume the density of water is 1.0 g/cm
3
. Also, the density of air is 0.0012 g/cm
3
and its viscosity is 0.000182 Poise. The gravitational acceleration is 980 cm/sec
2
.
Solution: Substituting the given data into equation (105) leads to:
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( )( )
( )
2
2 3
2
980cm/sec 0.008cm (1 0.0012g/cm )
( )
19.12cm/sec
18 18 0.000182g/cmsec
p p a
TS
gd
V
ρ ρ
η
−
−
= = =
4.16.1 Reynolds Number
The Reynolds number expresses the ratio of inertial (resistance to change or
motion) forces to viscous (heavy and gluey) forces. The Reynolds number is
nondimensional and is used in numerous fluid mechanics applications; it can be
calculated using the following equation.
e
dv
R
ρ
η
= (106)
where
Re = Reynolds number, nondimensional
ρ
a
= density of fluid (e.g., air), g/cm
d = characteristic dimension (here it is the diameter of particle), cm
3
v = velocity of particle, cm/sec
η = viscosity of fluid (e.g., air), poise (P)
Problem: Calculate the Reynolds number for the particle described in the previous
sample problem and determine if the use of equation (105) is appropriate based on the
calculated settling velocity.
Solution: Given the data from the previous sample problem, including the calculated
settling velocity of 19.12 cm/sec, we can use equation (106) to calculate the Reynolds
number.
( )( )( )
3
1g/cm 0.008cm 19.12cm/sec
1.01
0.000182g/cmsec
e
dv
R
ρ
η
= = =
Since the calculated Reynolds number is less than 2.0, equation (105) provides a
reasonable approximation of the particle settling velocity.
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Mechanics
5 Mechanics
5.1 Newton’s Second Law
Newton’s Second Law explains how the velocity of an object changes when it is
subjected to an external force. The law defines a force to be equal to change in
momentum (mass times velocity) per change in time. Since a change in velocity
with respect to time is acceleration, Newton’s Second Law can be written as:
F ma = (107)
where
F = force, lbs
m = mass, slugs
a = acceleration, ft/sec
Slug The slug is a unit of mass in the English footpoundsecond system. One slug is
the mass accelerated at 1 foot per second per second by a force of 1 pound. Since the
acceleration of gravity (g) in English units is 32.17 feet per second per second, the slug
is equal to 32.2 pounds (14.6 kilograms).
2
Problem: A roller coaster accelerates from 0 to 50 mph in 5 seconds. What is the force
a 100 lb child exerts on the back of her seat?
Solution: First, we must convert the weight in pounds to Slugs:
2
100lbs
3.1slugs
32.2ft/sec
=
We must also calculate the acceleration:
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( )( )( )
2
50mile/hr 5280ft/mile hr / 3600sec
14.67ft/sec
5sec
v
a
t
= = =
Now, using equation (107) we find:
( )( )
2
3.1slugs 14.67ft/sec 45.47lbs F ma = = =
Therefore, the child experiences about a onehalf “g” force during the acceleration.
5.2 Weight
Weight is the force exerted on an object with a given mass due to gravitational
acceleration. This is an application of Newton’s Second Law and can be written:
W mg = (108)
where
W = weight, lbforce
m = mass, slugs
g = acceleration due to gravity, ft/sec
Problem: An adult weighs 185 pounds; what is his mass?
2
Solution: Rearranging equation (108), we find:
2
185lbs
5.75slugs
32.2ft/sec
W
m
g
= = =
5.3 Momentum
In mechanics, momentum is the product of the mass and velocity of an object,
p mv = (109)
where
p = momentum, lb/sec
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m = mass, slugs
v =velocity, ft/sec
Problem: A truck weighing 11,000 lbs and traveling at 60 mph strikes the rear of a car
that weighs 7,000 lbs and is traveling at 40 mph in the same direction. Assuming that
immediately after the crash the vehicles’ damage causes them to interlock and travel
as one; what is their combined speed before brakes are applied?
Solution: The individual momentums and masses of both vehicles can be combined,
and the resulting velocity determined as follows:
( )( ) ( )( )
1 1 2 2
11, 000lbs 60mph 7, 000lbs 40mph
52.2mph
18, 000lbs
T
T
mV m V
V
m
+
+
= = =
Important: Notice the units in the equation do not match those listed above? That is
because there is no need to convert here as long as the same units are used (i.e., lbs
and lbs, and mph and mph). Try doing all the conversions and see for yourself.
5.4 Work
In mechanics, work is the amount of energy transferred by a force acting through
a distance,
W Fs = (110)
where
W = work, ftlbs
F = force, lbs
s = distance, ft
Problem: A 10 lb weight is lifted 50 feet. How much work is required?
Solution: We simply plug the values into equation (110) and find:
( )( ) 10lbs 50ft 500ftlbs W Fs = = =
Note: Ftlbs can be easily converted to other units such as joules, wattssec, calories,
Btus, etc.
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5.5 Moment of Force
Moment of force can be thought of as a rotational force resulting from a force
acting some distance from a point. When balanced by an opposing but equal
moment, this can be written as:
1 1 2 2
FD F D = (111)
where
F
n
D
= force n, lbs
n
Problem: The moment force is the principle behind levers. Assume a 55 gallon drum
contains about 400 lbs of fluid and you want to lift the drum to place a pad under it.
You connect a sling to the drum and attach it to a 10 foot long steel bar. The steel bar
is then placed over a pivot point such that there is 2 feet of bar between the pivot point
and the sling, and the remaining 8 feet is on the other side of the pivot point. What
force must be applied to the end of the steel bar to lift the drum?
= distance n, feet
Solution: We can use equation (111) to calculate the force required and see the
mechanical advantage of levers.
( )( ) ( )( )
1 1 2 2 2
400lbs 2ft 8ft FD F D F = = =
Solving for F
2
yields:
( )( )
( )
2
400lbs 2ft
100lbs
8ft
F = =
In this case it takes a force ¼ the weight to lift the weight.
5.6 Friction
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of two objects sliding against
each other. Mathematically, this relationship can be written as:
F N µ = (112)
where
F = frictional force, lbforce
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µ = coefficient of friction, nondimensional
N = the normal (perpendicular) force, lbforce
Problem: A pallet with a load weighs 350 lbs. If the coefficient of friction is 0.65, what
horizontal force must be applied to slide the pallet?
Solution: The horizontal force must be equal to or greater than the frictional force.
Applying equation (112) and substituting values:
( )( ) 0.65 350lbs 227.5lbs F N µ = = =
5.7 Potential Energy
In mechanics, potential energy is the energy stored in an object due to its position.
This can be written as:
. . P E mgh = (113)
where
P.E. = potential energy, ftlbs
m = mass, slugs
g = gravitational acceleration, ft/sec
h = height, ft
2
Note from equation (108) above, W = mg, so we can write:
. . P E Wh = (114)
Problem: An air conditioning unit is being lifted to the roof of a new building. The unit
weighs 750 lbs and the roof is located 45 feet above grade. What is the potential
energy of the unit as it reaches roof level?
Solution: Applying equation (114) results in:
( )( ) . . 750lbs 45ft 33, 750ftlbs P E Wh = = =
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5.8 Hooke’s Law and the Potential Energy of a Spring
In mechanics, Hooke's law states the extension of a spring is in direct proportion
to the force acting on it as long as this load does not exceed the elastic limit. This
can be written:
F kx = − (115)
where
F = force on spring, lbs
k = spring constant, lbs/ft
x = distance spring is changed, ft
The potential energy stored in a spring can be derived in the following manner.
Recalling equation (110) above, the work done by the spring force (F) over some
displacement (s) is given by W = Fs. The work stored in the spring is its potential
energy.
Thus, we can write:
( ) ( )
2
1
2
. .
o o
P E C Fdx k x x dx k x x = + − = − − − = −
∫ ∫
(116)
Setting C = 0 so that P.E. is zero at x = x
o
and making the equilibrium position
zero (x
o
=
0) simplifies Equation (116) to:
2
. .
2
kx
P E = (117)
where
P.E. = potential energy in spring, ftlbs
k = spring constant, lbs/ft
x = distance spring is changed, ft
Problem: A spring with a constant of 15,000 lbs/ft is compressed 3 inches. What is the
potential energy stored in the compressed spring?
Solution: Converting 3 inches to 0.25 ft and substituting the values into equation (117)
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yields:
( )( )
2
2
15, 000lbs/ft 0.25ft
. . 469ftlbs
2 2
kx
P E = = =
5.9 Kinetic Energy
The kinetic energy of an object is the energy which it possesses due to its motion.
Mathematically this can be expressed as:
2
. .
2
mv
K E = (118)
where
K.E. = kinetic energy, ftlbs
m = mass of moving object, slugs
v = velocity of object, ft/sec
Problem: A forklift weighs 3980 lbs; what is its kinetic energy when traveling at 10 mph?
Solution: First, convert weight in pounds to slugs and speed in mph to ft/sec, and then
use equation (118) to calculate kinetic energy.
2
2 2
3980lbs miles ft 1hr
10 5280
32.2ft/sec hr mile 3600sec
. . 13, 294ftlbs
2 2
mv
K E = = =
 
(    
  

(
\ .\ .\ . ¸ ¸
\ .
5.10 Rectilinear Motion
In simple terms, rectilinear motion refers to the motion of objects along straight
line without consideration of outside forces. Within rectilinear motion;
distance,
velocity, and acceleration are related by the following equations:
o
v v at = + (119)
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2
2
o
at
s v t = + (120)
2 2
2
o
v v as = + (121)
where
s = distance, ft
v = velocity, ft/sec
a = ft/sec
t = time, sec
2
Problem: A worker is attempting to throw a small bundle of rope to a 60 ft high platform.
Assume the worker can throw the rope straight up at 20 mph from a starting height of 6
feet. Will the rope make it to the platform?
Solution: We can solve this two ways. First, use equation (119) to calculate the time (t)
the rope travels up. Note that when the rope reaches its highest point, its velocity will
be zero. So:
• v = 0
• v
o
= 20 mph = 58.67 ft/sec
2
0 58.67ft/sec ( 32.2ft/sec ) t = + − ⋅
Solving for t leads to t = 1.82 seconds.
Then using equation (120), we can solve for the distance traveled,
2 2
( 32.2ft/sec )(1.82sec)
(58.67ft/sec)(1.82sec)
2
s
−
= +
Solving for s leads to s = 53.4 feet.
We must add 6 feet, so the height reached by the rope is 53.4 ft + 6 ft = 59.4 feet. So
he just barely misses it. Of course this ignores air resistance and assumes a perfect
vertical path.
Note that you can also solve this more directly by using equation (121) and setting the
final velocity to zero:
( ) ( )
2
2
0 58.67ft/sec 2 32.3ft/sec s = + ⋅
Solving for s leads to s = 53.4 feet.
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Problem: When the worker is finished working on the platform, he drops the rope from
the platform. How fast is the bundle of rope moving when it hits the floor? Assume he
drops the rope from about 3 feet above the platform floor.
Solution: The total distance the rope will fall is 60 ft + 3 ft = 63 ft. This time the initial
velocity is zero. Again using equation (121) and solving for v:
( ) ( )
2
2 2
0 ft/sec 2 32.3ft/sec 63ft v = + ⋅
Solving for v leads to v = 63.7 ft/sec = 39.4 mph
Getting struck by a bundle of rope traveling at nearly 40 mph can cause serious injury.
Note that in the above calculations, the weight or size of the rope was not required.
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Hydrostatics and Hydraulics
6 Hydrostatics and Hydraulics
6.1 Pressure and Force
Hydrostatics and Hydraulics refers to properties of water at rest and in motion.
One basic relationship is that which relates pressure and force; this is given by the
following equation:
F
P
A
= (122)
where
P = pressure, lbs/ft
F = force, lbs
2
A = area, ft
Problem: A tanks holds 3000 pounds of quench water. If the tank has a square bottom
and each side is 4 feet long, what is the pressure exerted on the base of the tank?
2
Solution:
( )( )
2
2 2
3000lbs lbs 1ft
187.5 1.3psi
4ft 4ft ft 144in
F
P
A
 
 
= = = =
 
\ .
\ .
6.1.1 Static Pressure
One cubic foot of water weighs 62.4 lbs (i.e., 62.4 lbs/ft
3
). Therefore a column of
water measuring 1 foot high creates a pressure of:
2
62.4lbs
0.433psi
144in
= (123)
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To determine the pressure (in psi) exerted by a column of water of any height,
simply multiply equation (123) by the height, in feet, or:
0.433
psi
P h = (124)
or, for units of pound persquarefoot (psf):
62.4
psf
P h = (125)
If we call the specific weight of water (62.4 lb/ft
3
), w, we can write:
psf
P wh = (126)
Solving for h leads to:
P
h
w
= (127)
The h in equation (127) is known as the pressure head, and has units of feet. This
is the net or normal pressure; that is pressure exerted against the side of a
container (e.g., pipe) without flow. Since it represents a pressure head, it is
usually written as:
P
P
h
w
= (128)
Problem: What pressure would be measured at the base of a fire standpipe in a 5 story
highrise? Assume each floor is 12 feet high.
Solution: We can rearrange equation (128) and substitute to find:
( )( )( )
3 2
5stories 12ft/story 62.4lbs/ft 3744lbs/ft
P
P h w = = =
Or simply use equation (124) to find the answer directly in psi:
( )( ) 0.433 0.433 5stories 12ft/story 26psi
psi
P h = = =
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6.1.2 Velocity Pressure
Velocity pressure, as the name implies, is the pressure due to moving water. The
velocity produced in a mass of water by the pressure acting on it is the same as if
the same mass of water were to fall freely from some height, h, that creates an
equivalent pressure. This can be shown as follows:
Recall the equation for kinetic energy:
2
. .
2
mv
K E = (129)
And the equation for potential energy:
. . P E mgh = (130)
When the potential energy of water at some height is turned into kinetic energy as
it falls, equations (129) and (130) can be set equal:
2
2
mv
mgh = (131)
Solving for h (and since it is the velocity head), labeling it as h
V
, leads to:
2
2
v
V
h
g
= (132)
This can be solved for the velocity to find:
2
v
V gh = (133)
This equation is known as Torricelli's law, or Torricelli's theorem (not to be
confused with Torricelli's equation).
Problem: A 21/2 inch valve is opened at the base of a large water storage tank. If the
surface of the water in the tank is 50 feet above the open valve. What is the velocity of
the water exiting the open valve?
Solution: We can use equation (133) and substitute the value for the height and the
gravitational acceleration (32.2 ft/sec
2
):
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( )( )( )
2
2 2 32.2ft/sec 50ft 56.7ft/sec
v
V gh = = =
Note that as the water level drops, so does the velocity. Also note that the size of the
opening does not affect velocity. However, since we know the velocity and the size of
the opening, we can also solve for the actual flow (e.g., gpm).
6.2 Bernoulli’s Theorem
Equations (128) and (132) are part of Bernoulli’s theorem. Bernoulli’s theorem is
an expression that relates, through conservation of energy, the pressure, velocity
and elevation (height) of the steady flow of an incompressible, nonviscous fluid.
Remember, “fluids” includes liquids and gases; so Bernoulli’s theorem also
applies to gases that can be considered incompressible (i.e., the density can be
considered constant). This theorem is also known as Bernoulli’s equation or
Bernoulli’s law, and is shown here:
2 2
1 1 2 2
1 2 1 2
2 2
V P V P
Z Z h
g w g w
−
+ + = + + + (134)
where
V = Velocity, ft/sec
g = gravitational acceleration, ft/sec
P = Pressure, lbs/ft
2
w = Specific weight, lbs/ft
2
Z = Elevation, ft
3
h
12
Notice that each group of variables (e.g., V
= energy (head) lost between locations 1 and 2, ft
2
Problem: A fire truck draws water from a pond that is 6 feet below the fire truck. It then
pumps the water up to a fire that is 15 feet higher through 250 feet of 2 inch hose to a
11/2 inch nozzle that discharges 100 gpm into the fire. Assume the friction losses in
the hoses total 30 psi. What pressure does the pump need to add to move the water
from the pond to the fire? (Note: 1 gallon of water = 0.1337 ft
/2g) has units of feet and is referred to
as “head.”
3
)
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Solution: First, we need to change the friction losses from psi to head, using equation
(124):
0.433
psi
P h =
30psi
69.3ft
0.433 0.433
psi
P
h = = =
Next, the pond is at zero velocity, but the water discharging from the nozzle has a
velocity. We find this by first finding the velocity of the water exiting the nozzle, then
using equation(132). For this we need the area of the nozzle:
( )
2 2 2
2 2 2
2
2 1ft
3.14in 3.14in 0.0218ft
4 4 144in
d
A π π
 
= = = = =

\ .
Now we can find the velocity from the continuity equation (Q=AV):
3
2
100gpm 0.1337ft
613.3ft/min 10.22ft/sec
0.0218ft 1gallon
Q
V
A
   
= = = =
 
\ .\ .
From equation (132):
( )
( )
2
2
2
10.22ft/sec
1.62ft
2 2 32.2ft/sec
v
V
h
g
= = =
We can now apply Bernoulli’s equation(134):
2 2
1 1 2 2
1 2 1 2
2 2
V P V P
Z Z h
g w g w
−
+ + = + + +
2
0 0 ( 6ft) 1.62ft 15ft 69.3ft
P
w
+ + − = + + +
or
( )
2
91.92ft
P
w
= −
Since this is what the overall pressured drop (in feet) it is also what the pump must add
to compensate. To convert to psi:
( )( )
2
3
2
1ft
91.92ft 62.4lb/ft 39.6psi
144in
 
=

\ .
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6.3 Water Flow in a Pipe
The velocity pressure in a pipe with a given flow (e.g., gallons per minute, gpm)
can be derived as follows:
Recalling the continuity equation:
Q A V = ⋅ (135)
or
Q
V
A
= (136)
where
Q = volumetric flow rate, ft
3
A = crosssectional area, ft
/sec
V
2
Converting gallons per minute to cubic feet per seconds,
= velocity, ft/sec
3
gallons 1 1
minute 60sec/min 7.48gal/ft
  
 
  
\ .
\ .\ .
(137)
and converting the cross sectional area of a pipe in square inches to square feet
2
2 2
1
4 144in /ft
d π   
 
\ . \ .
(138)
where
d = diameter of pipe, inches
Combining equations (136), (137), and (138) leads to:
( )( )( )
( )( )( )
( )( )
( )
3 2 2
gpm 4 144 0.4085 gpm
60 7.48gal/ft
Q
V
A d d π
 
 = = =

\ .
(139)
Recall equation (132), and substituting the value of V just derived leads to:
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2
2 2 2
4
0.4085
2 2 386
v
gpm
V gpm d
h
g g d
⋅  

\ .
= = = (140)
Recalling equation (124), and substituting h
v
just derived, leads to:
2 2
4 4
( ) 0.433
386 891
gpm gpm
P psi
d d
= = (141)
which is typically written with Q substituted for gpm
2
4
891
V
Q
P
d
= (142)
Problem: What is the velocity pressure created by water flowing at 100 gpm in a
nominal 2 inch pipe? Assume the actual internal diameter pipe is 2.07 inches.
Solution: Substitute the flow and pipe diameter values into equation (142):
( )
( )
2
2
4 4
100gpm
0.61psi
891
891 2.07in
V
Q
P
d
= = =
⋅
Remember the 891 is a conversion, so units must be in gpm and inches, and resulting
velocity pressure is in psi.
6.3.1 Flow – Pressure Relationships
For flow in a pipe with fixed diameter, equation (142) can be written:
2
Q
P
C
= (143)
where C is a constant (due to the diameter being fixed). This equation can also be
written:
2 2
1 2
1 2
Q Q
C
P P
= = (144)
which can be rearranged to yield:
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1 1 1
2 2 2
P Q P
Q P P
= = (145)
Problem: A water supply system to a series of emergency showers is designed and the
water flow and pressure are known. A decision is then made to increase the required
flow by a 25% safety factor. What increase in pressure is required?
Solution: Since we are concerned with ratios, the exact flow and pressures are not
required. We do know ( )
2 1
Q Q 1.25 = ⋅ . We can rearrange equation (145) and
substitute as follows:
2
2
2
2 1 1
1
1.25
1
Q
P P P
Q
 
 
= =
 
\ .
\ .
2 1
1.56 P P = ⋅
So we can see increasing the flow by 25% requires the pressure be increased by 56%.
Another useful equation is one that relates the flow from an orifice (e.g., a fire
sprinkler) due to the pressure at the orifice. Equation (143) can be written as:
2
2
Q Q
P
C K
 
= =

\ .
(146)
where
K = constant based on the orifice
Equation (146) is commonly applied in the form:
Q K P = (147)
where
Q = water flow, gpm
K = orifice factor, gpm/psi
P = pressure, psi
1/2
Problem: The pressure in a sprinkler supply pipe is 25 psi at the location of a sprinkler.
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What is the expected flow in gpm for that sprinkler? Assume K=5.6 gpm/psi
1/2
(a
common Kfactor for fire sprinklers).
Solution: Applying equation (147): 5.6 25 28GPM Q K P = = =
6.3.2 HazenWilliams Formula
The design or evaluation of hydraulic systems typically requires the calculation of
pressure losses due to friction as water flows through a section of pipe. This is
typically accomplished using the HazenWilliams formula:
1.85
1.85 4.87
4.52
d
Q
P
C d
= (148)
where
P
d
4.52 = constant based on pressure losses perfoot
= pressure drop, psi/ft
Q = flow, gpm
C = HazenWilliams coefficient, this is related to the roughness of the
piping
d = pipe diameter, in
Notice the atypical power values (i.e., 1.85 and 4.87) used in equation (148). This is
due to the HazenWilliams formula being an empirical formula. An empirical formula is
a mathematical equation that predicts observed results, but is derived from experiment
and not directly from first principles.
Problem: A new 8 inch (nominal) cast iron water supply line, 500 feet in length, is run
to a new building. What is the friction loss when 1000 gpm is flowing through the pipe?
Assume a HazenWilliams coefficient of 120 and an interior diameter of 8.3 inches.
Solution: First, we use equation (148) to calculate the friction loss per foot, and then
multiply that by the total length.
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( )
( ) ( )
1.85
1.85
1.85 4.87 1.85 4.87
4.52 1000gal
4.52
0.0076psi/ft
120 8.3in
d
Q
P
C d
= = =
( )( ) 500ft 0.0076psi/ft 3.82psi
total
P = =
Another hydraulic formula that is commonly used to evaluate water supplies is the
following expression which relates changes in water flow due to changes in
residual pressures. Static pressure is the pressure measured on a water supply
when there is no water flowing and the residual pressure is the pressure remaining
when there is water flow.
( )
( )
0.54
2
2 1 0.54
1
S R
Q Q
S R
(
−
= (
−
(
¸ ¸
(149)
where
Q
1
= flow at residual pressure R
1
Q
, gpm
2
= flow at residual pressure R
2
S = static pressure on the water supply system, psi
, gpm
R
1
= residual pressure when flowing Q
1
R
, psi
2
= residual pressure when flowing Q
2
Problem: A pressure gauge is placed on a fire hydrant and the pressure recorded with
no water flowing is 80 psi. The next closest hydrant is opened and a Pitot tube is used
to measure and calculate a flow of 3000 gpm; the pressure gauge at the first hydrant
now reads 58 psi. A second hydrant is partially opened and the pressure gauge on the
first hydrant now shows 50 psi. Without having to use a Pitot tube at both flowing
hydrants, calculate the total flow from both hydrants.
, psi
Solution: We know the static pressure on the water supply system at this location is 80
psi. We also know that when flowing 3000 gpm, the residual pressure is 58 psi. We
also know when a second hydrant is opened; the residual pressure drops to 50 psi.
From this, we can use equation (149) to find the new (combined) water flow:
( )
( )
( )
( )
0.54 0.54
2
2 1 0.54 0.54
1
80psi50psi
3000gpm 3547gpm
80psi58psi
S R
Q Q
S R
( (
−
= = = ( (
−
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
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Heat Transfer
7 Heat Transfer
Heat transfer is the transfer of energy between material bodies as a result of
temperature differences. There are three modes of heat transfer: conduction,
convection and radiation. The following equations present simple forms of the
three heat transfer modes.
7.1 Conduction
( )
( )
1 2
1 2
T T
q
k
A x x
−
=
−
(150)
where
q = heat transferred, Btu/hr
A = area through which heat is conducted, ft
k = thermal conductivity, Btu/hrft
2
o
T
F
1
= temperature at location x
1
,
o
T
F
2
= temperature at location x
2
,
o
x
F
1
= location of T
1
x
, ft
2
= location of T
2
7.2 Convection
, ft
( )
w
q
h T T
A
∞
= − (151)
where
q = heat transferred, Btu/hr
A = area through which heat is conducted, ft
h = convective heat transfer coefficient, Btu/hrft
2
2

o
F
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T
w
= temperature solid surface,
o
T
F
∞
= temperature of fluid (e.g., air) in which energy is transferred,
o
Note: The true definition of fluids includes liquids and gases.
F
7.3 Radiation
( )
4 4
1 2
q
T T
A
σ = − (152)
where
q = heat transferred, Btu/hr
A = area through which heat is conducted, ft
σ = StephanBoltzman constant,
2
0.1714 10
8
Btu/hrft
2

o
R
T
4
w
= temperature of solid surface,
o
T
R
∞
= temperature of fluid (e.g., air) which energy is transferred,
o
Important: For radiation heat transfer calculations, temperatures are absolute and
raised to the fourth power.
R
Problem: There are two rooms separated by a 6 inch concrete wall. In one room there
is a fully developed fire and the average room gas temperature is 1000
o
F. The other
room is large and the room temperature is maintained at 70
o
F. Calculate the wall
surface temperatures of the separating wall. Assume h = 1.5 Btu/hrft
2

o
F in the fire
room, h = 0.7 Btu/hrft
2

o
F in the other room, and the thermal conductivity of the
concrete is 0.45 Btu/hrft
o
The energy balance across the wall can be written as:
F. Assume radiation gains and losses can be ignored.
( )
( )
( )
( )
1 2
Iw Ow
f f Iw Ow
T T
h T T k h T T
x x
∞ ∞
−
− = = −
−
where
q = heat transferred, Btu/hr
A = area through which heat is conducted, ft
h
2
f
= convective heat transfer coefficient, Btu/hrft
2

o
T
F
f
= temperature in fire room,
o
T
F
Iw
= temperature of wall surface in fire room,
o
k = thermal conductivity of concrete wall, Btu/hrft
F
o
T
F
Ow
= temperature of wall surface in other room,
o
x
F
1
x
2
h
= wall thickness, ft
∞
= convective heat transfer coefficient, Btu/hrft
2

o
T
F
∞
= temperature in other room,
o
F
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Entering what we know leads to:
( )
( )
( )
( ) 1.5 1000 0.45 0.7 70
0.5
Iw Ow
Iw Ow
T T
T T
−
− = = −
There are a few methods to solve this. The direct approach is to isolate one variable
and then substitute. Another approach is to use the Excel Addin called Solver.
Either method used should result in:
T
Iw
= 806.6
o
T
F
Ow
= 484.4
o
F
The calculated wall surface temperature of 484.4
o
F is very high and suggests radiation
losses should be considered. The heat losses from the wall surface from convective
and radiative heat losses can be found as follows:
( )
2
0.7 484.4 70 290.1 Btu/hrft
q
A
= − =
and
( )
8 4 4 2
0.1714 x10 (484.4 459.69) (70 459.69) 1226.7Btu/hrft
q
A
−
= + − + =
This demonstrates the radiative losses from the surface of the other wall is over four
times greater than the convective losses, so the original assumption was incorrect
(remember always to confirm assumptions are appropriate). To add the radiative
losses, the above equation can be written to include the radiative losses from the
surface of the second room.
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
8 4 4
1.5 1000 0.45 0.7 70 0.1714 x10 ( 459.69) (70 459.69)
0.5
Iw Ow
Iw Ow Ow
T T
T T T
−
−
− = = − + + − +
The Excel Addin called Solver was used to solve this set of equations and resulted in:
T
Iw
= 718.3
o
T
F
Ow
= 248.9
o
F
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Ventilation
8 Ventilation
8.1 Conservation of Mass (the Continuity Equation)
A basic concept when evaluating the flow of a gas in a system (e.g., air in a duct)
is conservation of mass. This states that the mass flow rate of a gas at one point
in a stream is equal to the mass flow rate at any other location (assuming no
additions or losses). This is also known as the “continuity equation” and can be
written as:
1 1 1 2 2 2
A V A V ρ ρ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ (153)
where
A
n
= crosssectional area at location n, ft
V
2
n
ρ
= velocity at location n, ft/min
n
= density of gas at location n, lbs/ft
In most applications of building ventilation, it can be assumed that ρ behaves as a
constant (i.e., ρ
3
1
= ρ
2
) and equation (153) can be written as:
1 1 1
Q A V = ⋅ (154)
where
Q
1
= volumetric flow, ft
3
Note that equation (154) can be rearranged to show:
/min
1 1 1
/ A Q V = (155)
and
1 1 1
/ V Q A = (156)
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For constant volumetric flow, we can write:
1 2
Q Q = (157)
or
1 1 2 2
AV AV = (158)
Through simple rearrangement of Equation (158), any one of the four variables
can be found if the other three are known. For example, solving for V
2
results in
Equation (158) being written as:
1 1
2
2
AV
V
A
= (159)
Problem: The design of a section of duct has air velocities that are too high. To reduce
the velocity in half, what change to the duct crosssectional area would be required?
Solution: We can see from equation (158) that to decrease the velocity by half, the
duct area must be doubled.
8.2 Conservation of Energy
The energy in a ducted ventilation flow stream (assuming no losses) can be
written as:
TP VP SP = + (160)
where
TP = total pressure, inches of water column (also written as in. wc)
VP = velocity pressure, in. wc
SP = static pressure, in. wc
TP represents to total energy, or “head” in a flow stream at any location. VP
represents the pressure due to movement (it is always positive) and SP represents
the pressure of the fluid or gas exerted in all directions.
Due to conservation of energy (i.e., TP remains constant), Equation (160) can be
rewritten as:
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1 1 2 2 L
SP VP SP VP h + = + + (161)
where
TP
n
VP
= total pressure at location n, inches of water column (also written as
in. wc)
n
SP
= velocity pressure at location n, in. wc
n
h
= static pressure at location n, in. wc
L
= head (energy) loss from location 1 to location 2, in. wc
Problem: Measurements made at two ends of a section of ductwork showed a total
pressure at one location of 2.5 in. wc, and 2.25 in wc. at the other end. What is the
head loss across the section of ductwork?
Solution: Combining equations (160) and (161) provides:
1 2 L
TP TP h = +
( ) ( )
1 2
2.5 in.wc 2.25 in.wc = 0.25 in.wc
L
h TP TP = − = −
Velocity pressure is always positive, and an average duct velocity pressure can be
found using the following expression:
2
1 2 n
ave
VP VP VP
VP
n
 
+ + +
= 

\ .
(162)
where
VP
ave
VP
= average velocity pressure, in. wc
n
n = number of velocity pressure readings
= velocity pressure n, in. wc
We will now explore some common applications of equation (161) and the law of
conservation of energy and mass.
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Problem: Three velocity pressures are sampled across a duct and the following data
recorded: 0.75, 1.0 and 0.95 in. wc. What is the average velocity pressure at that
location?
Solution:
2
2
1 2
0.75 1.0 0.95
0.90 in.wc
3
n
ave
VP VP VP
VP
n
 
  + + +
+ +
= = = 



\ .
\ .
8.3 Derivation of the Fundamental Duct Flow Equations
A very common equation related to air flow in a duct is typically written as:
4005 V VP = (163)
where
V = velocity of air, ft/min
4005 = a constant based on air flowing at standard temperature and
pressure (STP)
VP = velocity pressure, in. wc
This equation can be derived as follows (first we will derive it for any gas and
then for air).
Constants Use caution whenever you see a constant in an equation (e.g., 4005
in equation (163)). This frequently means the equation uses a set type of units. Using
the wrong units will lead to incorrect calculations.
From Torricelli's law, see equation (133), the velocity of a gas created by the
velocity pressure (head) of a column of gas can be written as:
2
gas
V gh = (164)
where
V = velocity of gas, ft/sec
g = gravitational acceleration, ft/sec
2
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h
gas
Since the elevation head in equation (164) is in feet of gas and we want to use
water column, we need to convert equation (164) from gas to water. We can do
this with this relationship:
= elevation head, ft of gas
gas gas water water
h h ρ ρ = (165)
where
ρ
gas
= density of gas (at STP), lbs/ft
h
3
gas
ρ
= elevation head, ft of gas
water
= density of water (at STP), lbs/ft
h
3
water
Equation (165) can be rewritten as:
= elevation head, ft of water
water water
gas
gas
h
h
ρ
ρ
= (166)
Note that we also need to change from feet of gas to inches of water head; this is
done by the following conversion (which allows the substitution of VP for h
water
):
1
12
water
gas
gas
VP
h
ρ
ρ
⋅ ⋅
=
⋅
(167)
Combining equation (164) and (167), and converting from seconds to minutes
(that’s the 60 in front of the radical), leads to:
2
60
12
water
gas
g VP
V
ρ
ρ
⋅
= ⋅
⋅
(168)
Substituting values for g, ρ
water
, and maintaining ρ
gas
for now, results in:
1096
gas
VP
V
ρ
= (169)
where
V = velocity, ft/min
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VP = velocity pressure (head), in. wc
ρ
gas
= density of gas (at STP), lbs/ft
Problem: What is the velocity in a duct when the velocity pressure recorded is 0.90
in.wc? The duct carries nitrogen at normal temperature and pressure; assume a
density of 0.073 lbs/ft
3
3
.
Solution:
0.90
1096 1096 3,848 cfm
0.073
gas
VP
V
ρ
= = =
Equation (169) can be used to find the velocity of any gas at STP flowing in a
duct. However, we are frequently concerned with air movement in ventilation
systems. When the value for the density of air at STP (0.075 lb/ft
3
) is substituted
for ρ
gas
, we find:
4005 V VP = (170)
where
V = velocity or air, ft/min
VP = velocity pressure (head), in. wc
Problem: What is the velocity in an air duct when the velocity pressure recorded is 0.90
in.wc? Assume standard air conditions.
Solution: Since we are dealing with air, we can use equation (170):
4005 4005 0.9 3799 cfm V VP = = =
Note that this is very close to the value for nitrogen just calculated above. Since air is
79% nitrogen, its density is very close to air.
Note that equation (170) only applies to air at standard temperature and pressure
(STP). If the air is not at standard temperature and pressure, this must be
accounted for in equation (170). Once again, a conversion is required.
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8.3.1 Density Correction Factor
Density of gases is a function of temperature and pressure. When conditions vary
from standard temperature and pressure (STP), a density factor must be applied to
account for this variation. This is shown here:
Actual STP
df ρ ρ = ⋅ (171)
where
ρ
Actual
= density of gas (at some temperature and pressure), lbs/ft
ρ
3
STP
= density of gas (at STP), lbs/ft
df = density factor, nondimensional
3
Dimensionless Number A dimensionless number is a quantity without a physical
unit; a pure number. Such a number is typically defined as a product or ratio of
quantities that might have units individually, but which cancel out when taken in
combination. They are very useful in calculations as they are not scale or unit
dependant.
For industrial hygiene and safety applications, the density factor is typically
calculated as follows:
530
460 29.92
BP
df
T
   
= ⋅
 
+
\ . \ .
(172)
where
T = temperature of gas,
o
BP = barometric pressure, inches of Mercury (in. Hg)
F
Problem: A location is 1000 feet above sea level, and the local barometric pressure is
28.86 mmHg, and the temperature is 90
o
F. What is the density correction factor for
these conditions?
Solution:
530 530 28.86
0.93
460 29.92 90 460 29.92
BP
df
T
       
= ⋅ = ⋅ =
   
+ +
\ . \ . \ . \ .
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Equation (172) can be derived from the ideal gas law (see section 4.1 above):
P Vol n R T ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ (173)
where
P = absolute pressure of the gas, atm
Vol = volume of gas, liters (l)
n = amount of gas, moles
R = gas constant, 0.082 latm/molesK
These are the typical units used in safety and industrial hygiene applications.
However, other applications (or simply personal preference) may employ
different units.
For a gas at two varying conditions, Equation (173) can be written as:
1 1 2 2
1 2
PVol PVol
nRT nRT
= (174)
For n and R being constant, equation (174) can be written:
1 1 2 2
1 2
PVol PVol
T T
= (175)
We know that density is a measure of the amount of a gas in a given volume. For
a fixed amount (mass) of gas, the volume is inverselyproportional to the density.
This can be written as:
1
Vol
ρ
∝ (176)
Proportionality Symbol ∝ In mathematics, two quantities are said to be
proportional if each of the quantities is a constant multiple of the other. There is no
specific relationship given; in fact the lack of specific detail is the reason the
Proportionality Sign is used.
Combining Equations (175) and (176) results in:
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Actual STP
Actual Actual STP STP
P P
T T ρ ρ
= (177)
which can be rearranged to
Actual STP Actual
STP Actual STP
T P
df
T P
ρ
ρ
= = (178)
Recall that Equations (169) and (170) are based on standard temperature and
pressure (STP) conditions. We can use the density factor (178) to modify those
equations (and others) to account for conditions other than standard temperature
and pressure, as seen here:
1096
gas
VP
V
df ρ
=
⋅
(179)
4005
VP
V
df
= (180)
Remember that at standard temperature and pressure (STP), df = 1.0.
Problem: In the previous sample problem, the density factor calculated was 0.93.
Compare the velocity of air with that density factor and conditions at STP (i.e., df =
1.0). Assume a velocity pressure of 1.0 in.wc.
Solution:
1.0
4005 4005 4153 ft/min
0.93
VP
V
df
= = =
1.0
4005 4005 4005 ft/min
1
VP
V
df
= = =
Notice that as the density factor goes down, the air velocity increases.
8.4 DallaValle Equation
The following form of the DallaValle equation calculates the capture velocity
required for a plain opening hood (no flange):
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2
10
Q
V
x A
=
+
(181)
where
V = capture velocity at distance x from the hood opening, ft/min
Q = air flow, ft
3
x = centerline distance from hood opening to target area, ft
/min
A = area of the hood opening, ft
Important: The DallaValle equation is valid when x is not greater than 1.5 times the
equivalent diameter of the hood opening. Using the equation outside this limitation will
result in erroneous answers. Many equations used in industrial hygiene and safety
have such limitations, so always verify the limitations of any equation or model before
applying it.
2
Problem: What volumetric flow rate is required in a 6 inch round plain duct hood
located 9 inches from a location requiring a capture velocity of 100 fpm?
Solution: First, the area of the hood is required in ft
2
:
( )
2
2
2
6 / 12
0.196 ft
4 4
d
A
π
π
= = =
Next, rearranging equation (181) and substituting the appropriate values provides:
( )
2
2
9
10 100 10 0.196 582 cfm
12
Q V x A
 
 
= + = + =



\ .
\ .
8.5 Hood Static Pressure
The hood static pressure equation can be used to calculate the hood static pressure
required to overcome losses as air enters a hood.
h d e
SP VP h = + (182)
where
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SP
h
VP
= value of hood static pressure, in. wc
d
h
= velocity pressure in duct, in. wc
e
The hood entry loss (h
= hood entry loss, in. wc
e
) can be defined as:
e h d
h F VP = ⋅ (183)
where
F
h
Values for F
= hood entry loss factor, dimensionless
h
Problem: Calculate the hood static pressure when the duct velocity pressure is 1.25 in.
wc and the hood entry loss is 0.9 in. wc.
vary depending on hood entry design with typical values ranging
from 0.04 to 0.93.
Solution:
1.25 in.wc + 0.9 in.wc = 2.15 in.wc
h d e
SP VP h = + =
Note: Here the static pressure is calculated as an absolute value. Since this is a hood
static pressure, SP
h
= 2.15 in. wc.
Problem: Based on the same data, what is the hood entry loss factor for this hood?
Solution: Rearranging equation (183) and substituting leads to:
1.25 in.wc
1.39
0.9 in.wc
d
h
e
VP
F
h
= = =
8.6 Hood Entry Coefficient and Loss
Hoods are not perfect at turning available static pressure into velocity pressure.
As a result the actual flow entering a hood is related to the theoretical maximum
flow by the hood entry coefficient, C
e
.
d
e
h
VP
C
SP
= (184)
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where
C
e
The hood entry coefficient can be used to determine the hood entry losses for a
given velocity pressure,
= hood entry coefficient, dimensionless
( )
2
2
1
e
e d
e
C
h VP
C
−
= (185)
Problem: Based on the data provided and calculated in the previous sample problem,
determine the hood entry coefficient.
Solution: The duct velocity pressure was 1.25 in. wc and the hood entry loss is 0.9 in.
wc. The hood static pressure was found to be 2.15 in. wc.
1.25
0.76
2.15
d
e
h
VP
C
SP
= = =
Problem: Using the calculated hood entry coefficient, verify the hood entry loss factor.
Solution:
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
1 1 0.76
1.25 in.wc = 0.9
0.76
e
e d
e
C
h VP
C
− −
= =
As expected, the values are equal.
Note that equations (183) and (185) can be combined to demonstrate:
( )
2
2
1
e
h
e
C
F
C
−
= (186)
Equation (186) can then be rearranged as follows:
2
1
1
h
e
F
C
= − (187)
2
1
1
h
e
F
C
+ = (188)
now solving for C
e
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1
1
e
h
C
F
=
+
(189)
Problem: Given the hood entry loss factor of 0.9 in. wc used in the previous example,
calculate the hood entry loss coefficient and compare the result to that answer found
using equation (184).
Solution: The value calculated using equation (184) was 0.76. For equation (189) we
find:
1
0.73
0.9 1
e
C = =
+
The difference (~4%) is due to the precision of the values carried through the
equations; that is with each rounding comes a loss of precision.
8.7 Converging Duct Flows and Losses
Another type of loss encountered with ventilation flows occurs when two ducts
merge and turbulence causes losses. This can be calculated as follows:
1 2
1 2
3 3
r
Q Q
VP VP VP
Q Q
   
= +
 
\ . \ .
(190)
where
VP
r
Q
= resulting velocity pressure of the merged flows, in. wc
3
= volumetric flow rate of the merged flows, ft
3
Q
/min
1
= volumetric flow rate of duct 1, ft
3
VP
/min
1
Q
= velocity pressure in duct 1, in. wc
2
= volumetric flow rate of duct 2, ft
3
VP
/min
2
Problem: Two ventilation branch ducts converge. The first has a volumetric flow rate of
1500 cfm at a velocity pressure of 1.25 in. wc. The second has a volumetric flow rate
of 2000 cfm at a velocity pressure of 0.75 in. wc. Calculate the resulting volumetric flow
and velocity pressure.
= velocity pressure in duct 2, in. wc
Solution: First, the volumetric flow rate is simply the sum of the two flows, or 3500 cfm.
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The resulting velocity pressure is calculated using equation (190).
1 2
1 2
3 3
1500 2000
1.25 0.75 0.96 in.wc
3500 3500
r
Q Q
VP VP VP
Q Q
   
   
= + = + =
   
\ . \ .
\ . \ .
Another consideration of two ducts joining is the resulting flow and static
pressure. In effect, this can be used to balance static pressures during the design
of a ventilation system by determining a new volumetric flow for one duct based
on the governing static pressure. This can be written as
gov
cor design
duct
SP
Q Q
SP
= (191)
where
Q
cor
= corrected (new) flow rate, ft
3
Q
/min
design
= design (existing) flow rate, ft
3
SP
/min
gov
SP
= governing static pressure, in. wc
duct
The equation can also be used to determine a new volumetric flow rate in a duct
when an old flow and static pressure are known and a new static pressure is
measured.
= design static pressure, in. wc
Problem: Two ventilation branch ducts converge. Preliminary design calculations show
the following: The first has a volumetric flow rate of 2000 cfm and a static pressure of
1.25 in. wc. The second has a volumetric flow rate of 1500 cfm and a static pressure
of 1.20 in. wc. Since the static pressures must be equivalent at the junction, calculate a
corrected flow for the second branch.
Solution:
1.25
1500 1531 cfm
1.20
gov
cor design
duct
SP
Q Q
SP
= = =
Therefore, a flow of 1531 cfm in the second branch will result in the pressures at the
junction being balanced (which is required).
Note: This approach of balancing converging duct flows is only appropriate for small
differences in static pressure (i.e., about 20%).
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8.8 Further Applications of Flow and Velocity Equations
The various volumetric flow rate and velocity equations and corrections derived
above can be combined and written in a variety of useful formats. For example,
equation (170):
4005
d
V VP = (192)
and equation (184):
d
e
h
VP
C
SP
= (193)
can be combined to yield:
4005
e h
V C SP = (194)
Problem: Calculate the velocity in an 8inch round duct from a hood if the hood static
pressure measurement is 2.0 in. wc and the hood entry coefficient is 0.72 (round duct,
plain end).
Solution:
( ) 4005 4005 0.72 2.0 4078 fpm
e h
V C SP = = =
Recalling equation (154)
Q A V = ⋅ (195)
Combing equations (194) and (195) leads to
4005
e h
Q C A SP = (196)
Problem: Calculate the volumetric flow rate in an 8inch round duct from a hood if the
hood static pressure measurement is 2.0 in. wc and the hood entry coefficient is 0.72
(round duct, plain end).
Solution:
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( )
2
8
4005 4005 0.72 2.0 1423 cfm
4 12
e h
Q C A SP
π
(
 
= = =
(

\ .
(
¸ ¸
We can then modify this by recalling from above
1
1
e
h
C
F
=
+
(197)
and including the density correction factor (equation (172)) results in
4005
(1 )
h
h
SP
Q A
df F
=
+
(198)
Problem: Calculate the volumetric flow rate in an 8inch round flanged hood if the static
pressure is 0.8 in. wc., the hood entry loss factor is 0.50 and the duct is moving air at
standard atmospheric pressure and 95
o
F.
Solution: First, we need to use equation (172) to determine the density factor:
530 530 29.92
0.95
460 29.92 95 460 29.92
BP
df
T
       
= ⋅ = ⋅ =
   
+ +
\ . \ . \ . \ .
Next we use equation (198):
2
8 2.0
4005 4005 1656 cfm
(1 ) 4 12 0.95(1 0.5)
h
h
SP
Q A
df F
π
(
 
= = =
(

+ +
\ .
(
¸ ¸
A similar substitution (and using equation (169) from above) results in
1096
(1 )
h
h
SP
Q A
F ρ
=
+
(199)
Note here the density correction factor is not needed because this form of the
equation requires the density of the air at the appropriate temperature and
pressure.
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Problem: Using equation (199), calculate the volumetric flow rate in an 8inch round
flanged hood if the static pressure is 0.8 in. wc., the hood entry loss factor is 0.50, and
the duct is moving air at standard atmospheric pressure and 95
o
F.
Solution: First, we need the density of air at 95
o
F. There are various sources that can
be consulted. One simple way that only requires the density at standard temperature
and pressure (STP) is the relationship:
constant T ρ =
Knowing the density of air at STP (0.075 lb/ft
3
) leads to:
3 o
3
95 o
95
(0.075 lbs/ft )(460 + 68 F)
= 0.071 lbs/ft
460 + 95 F
STP STP
T
T
ρ
ρ = =
Next, substituting values into equation (199) leads to:
2
8 2
1096 1096 1658 cfm
(1 ) 4 12 0.071(1 0.5)
h
h
SP
Q A
F
π
ρ
(
 
= = =
(

+ +
\ .
(
¸ ¸
As expected, this value is very close to the 1656 cfm calculated in the previous sample
problem. The small difference is due to rounding in the equations.
Note that equation (199) assumes standard pressure, which was also used (but not
required) in the previous problem.
8.9 Dilution Ventilation
Dilution ventilation is an important aspect of airborne contaminant control. The
concentration of a gas or vapor as a function of time can be derived from a
differential material balance which, when integrated, relates the ventilation to the
generation and removal of a contaminant.
This material balance can be written as
' VdC Gdt Q Cdt = − (200)
where
V = volume of enclosure
C = concentration of gas or vapor at time t
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G = rate of generation of contaminant
Q = rate of ventilation
K = mixing factor
Q’ = Q/K = effective rate of ventilation
From equation (200), several useful relationships can be derived. Rearranging
equation (200) and integrating leads to:
2 2
1 1
1
'
C t
C t
dC
dt
G Q C V
=
−
∫ ∫
(201)
Recall that (for a definite integral)
ln
b
a
dx
x
x
=
∫
(202)
and
ln ln ln
a
a b
b
 
− =

\ .
(203)
So equation (201) becomes
( )
2
2 1
1
' '
ln
'
G Q C Q
t t
G Q C V
  −
= − −

−
\ .
(204)
where
ln = natural logarithm
V = volume of enclosure, ft
C
3
1
= initial concentration of gas or vapor, partspermillion/10
6
, ppm/10
C
6
2
= final concentration of gas or vapor, ppm/10
G = rate of generation of contaminant, ft
6
3
Q’ = Q/K = effective rate of ventilation, ft
/min
3
where Q = rate of ventilation, ft
/min
3
/min
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K = mixing factor (typical values range from 1 to 10),
nondimmensional
t
2
t
= final time, min
1
Problem: Acetone evolves at a rate of 3.5 cfm in a room that measures 30’ x 50’ x 12’.
If an initial concentration is measured at 25 ppm, what will the concentration be after
15 minutes of 3000 cfm of dilution air? Assume K=1 (i.e., Q’ = Q).
= initial time, min
Solution: We can use equation (204), but the final concentration (C
2
) is embedded in
this form of the equation, so we must solve for C
2
.
( )
2
2 1
1
' '
ln
'
G Q C Q
t t
G Q C V
  −
= − −

−
\ .
( )
( )
2
3.5 3000 3000
ln 15 0
3.5 3000 0.000025 18000
C
 
− ⋅
= − −


−
\ .
( )
( )
3000
15 0
18000 2
3.5 3000
3.5 3000 0.000025
C
e
 
− −

\ .
− ⋅
=
−
2
3.5 3000
0.0821
3.425
C − ⋅
=
( )( )
2
0.0821 3.425 3.5
0.00107 1073 ppm
3000
C
−
= = =
−
It is important to note that the contaminant concentration, if given in ppm, must
be converted to a volume fraction. This can be done by the following equation
which relates concentrations in ppm to volumetric fractions for airborne gases and
vapors.
6
10
contam
contam
air
V
ppm x
V
= (205)
This can be written as
6
10
contam contam
air
ppm V
V
= (206)
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Problem: What is the volume of airborne acetone after 15 minutes in the sample
problem above?
Solution: From the above equation, we know at 15 minutes the acetone is at 1073
ppm. We also know the volume of the enclosure is 18,000 ft
3
. Therefore, we can re
arrange equation (206) as follows:
3 3
6 6
1073
18, 000 ft 19.3 ft
10 10
contam
contam air
ppm
V V
   
= = =
 
\ . \ .
From the general form dilution equation (204) comes other dilution equations that
address special cases. For example, if we assume at time t=0, the concentration is
C
1
=0, then equation (204) is simplified and becomes:
' '
ln
G Q C Q
t
G V
−  
= −

\ .
(207)
and since
( )
ln x
e x = (208)
Equation (207) can be written as
'
'
Q
t
V
G Q C
G
e
−
−
= (209)
Problem: Acetone begins to be evolved at a rate of 3.5 cfm in a room that measures
30’ x 50’ x 12’ high. If the initial acetone concentration is 0 ppm, what will the
concentration be after 15 minutes of 3000 cfm of dilution air? Assume K=1.
Solution: This is an application of equation (209).
'
'
Q
t
V
G Q C
G
e
−
−
=
'
'
Q
t
V
G G
C
Q
e
−
⋅ −
=
−
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3000
15
18000
3.5 3.5
0.001071 1071 ppm
3000
C
e
−
⋅ −
= = =
−
Now consider the case where a volume of air is contaminated at some initial
concentration and we wish to calculate the change in concentration over time due
to dilution ventilation when there is no new contaminant being added (i.e., G = 0).
For this we start with the material balance of:
' VdC Q Cdt = − (210)
Similar to above, we can find:
2 2
1 1
'
C t
C t
dC Q
dt
C V
= −
∫ ∫
(211)
Integration leads to
( )
2
2 1
1
'
ln
C Q
t t
C V
 
= − −

\ .
(212)
and this equation can be rearranged to yield
2
2 1 '
1
ln
C V
t t
Q C
 
− = −

\ .
(213)
Problem: Acetone is used in a room that measures 30’ x 50’ x 12’. An initial
concentration is measured at 5000 ppm, and the acetone use is stopped (i.e., no
more acetone vapors evolve). With 3000 cfm of dilution air, how long would it take to
reach a level of 250 ppm? Assume K=1.
Solution:
2
2 1 '
1
18000 250
ln ln 18min
3000 5000
C V
t t
Q C
 
 
− = − = − =
 
\ .
\ .
Fractions in Equations Note that in the above equations, the fraction C
2
/C
1
appears. In this case, we do not worry about units as they cancel to form a
dimensionless fraction; they only need to have the same units. This simplifies this
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problem.
Now consider the case in which we seek to identify the constant level of an
airborne contaminant when the generation rate and ventilation rate are known and
there is a steady concentration of contaminant in the supply air.
6
'
10
supply
G
C x C
Q
 
= +

\ .
(214)
where
the variables and units are as defined above, and
C
supply
Problem: Connected rooms utilize a cascading ventilation system where air with lower
contamination levels moves towards rooms with higher concentrations before reaching
filters. Assume a room with a toluene process that evolves 0.5 cfm of toluene is
supplied by 2500 cfm or air coming from a room with an airborne concentration that is
limited to 50 ppm. Determine the steadystate concentration of toluene in the room.
= concentration of contaminant in the supply air, ppm
Solution:
6 6
'
0.5
10 10 50 ppm = 250 ppm
2500
supply
G
C x C x
Q
 
 
= + = +
 
\ .
\ .
Notice that the room volume is not required.
8.10 Room Air Changes per Hour
A common value for indoor air ventilation is the number of air changes per hour
(ACH). Building and mechanical codes typically specify minimum ACH for most
occupancy types. The ACH can easily be calculated as follows:
60
changes
room
Q
N
V
= (215)
where
N
changes
= number of air changes per hour (ACH)
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60 = conversion factor for minutes to hours, min/hour
Q = room ventilation rate, ft
3
V
/min
room
= room volume, ft
Problem: A room measures 30’ x 50’ x 12’ high. How many air changes per hour (ACH)
are required to provide a ventilation rate of 3000 cfm?
3
Solution:
60 60 3000
10 ACH
18, 000
changes
room
Q
N
V
⋅
= = =
8.10.1 Dilution Ventilation Based on Room Air Changes
When a room starts with no concentration of an airborne contaminant, but a
contaminant is added at a steady rate over time, the timedependant concentration
can be calculated based on the number of air changes per hour. This is shown
here:
( )
6
'
/60
1 10
Nt
G
C x
Q
e
−
= − (216)
where
C = concentration at time t, ppm/10
G = rate of generation of contaminant, ft
6
3
Q’ = effective rate of ventilation, ft
/min
3
e = natural logarithm, 2.71828…
/min
t = time elapsed, hours
N = number of air changes per hour
60 = conversion from minutes to hours
Problem: Starting with equation (209) and (215), derive equation (216).
Solution: First, we must rearrange equation (209):
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'
'
Q
t
V
G Q C
G
e
−
−
=
6
'
x 10
'
ppm
Q
t
V
G G
C
Q
e
−
⋅ −
=
−
6 6
'
'
x 10 1 x 10
' '
ppm
Q
t
Q
V
t
V
G G G
C
Q Q
e
e
−
−  
⋅ −
= = −


−
\ .
Next, equation (215) can be rearranged as follows:
60
changes
room
N
Q
V
=
Substituting this into the preceding equation leads to:
( )
6
'
/60
1 10
ppm
Nt
G
C x
Q
e
−
= −
When a room starts with a known concentration of an airborne contaminant, and
no additional contaminate is added, the timedependant concentration (dilution)
can be calculated based on the number of air changes per hour. This is shown
here:
0
tN
C C e
−
= (217)
where
C = concentration at time t, units to match C
C
0
0
t = time, hours
= initial concentration, units to match C
N = number of air changes per hour
Problem: A process area has a ventilation system that provides 20 ACH. What is the
concentration of an airborne contaminant after 15 minutes if the initial concentration is
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300 ppm?
Solution:
( )
( )( ) 0.25 hr 20 ACH
0

300 ppm 2.02 ppm
tN
C C e e
−
= = =
8.11 Dilution to Control Evaporation
The following equation can be used to calculate the ventilation required to keep
an evaporating contaminant (e.g., a solvent) below a desired concentration. The
concentration can be a TLV, LFL (LEL) or any other desired concentration. Note
that this equation is based on pints/min of evaporating contaminant.
( )( )( )( )( )
( )( )
6
403 10 SG ER K
Q
MW C
= (218)
where
Q = volumetric flow required to limit concentration, ft
3
403 = constant for units used
/min
SG = specific gravity, nondimensional
ER = evaporation rate, pints/min
K = ventilation (dilution) safety factor, nondimensional
10
6
MW = molecular weight, g
= unit conversion (ppm to volume percent)
C = contaminant concentration in air, ppm
Problem: Acetone evaporates at a rate of 0.1 pints/min. How much dilution air is
required to maintain the concentration below the TLV? Assume the TLV is 500 ppm
and a ventilation safety factor of 5. The molecular weight is 58.08, and the specific
gravity is 0.79.
Solution:
( )( )( )( )( )
( )( )
( )( )( )( )( )
( )( )
6 6
403 10 403 0.79 0.1 5 10
5482 cfm
58.08 500
SG ER K
Q
MW C
= = =
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8.12 Fan Laws and Equations
Many engineered controls for airborne contaminant control require the use of
fans.
Two equations that describe a fan’s ratings are fan static pressure and fan total
pressure. These are shown here.
out in in
FSP SP SP VP = − − (219)
where
FSP = fan static pressure; this can also be shown as SP
fan
SP
, in. wc
out
SP
= static pressure out; measured on the outlet side of the fan, in. wc
in
VP
= static pressure in; measured on the inlet side of the fan, in. wc
in
Problem: Calculate the fan static pressure if the static pressure on the inlet side is 2.5
in. wc, the static pressure on the outlet side is 0.75 in. wc, and the velocity pressure is
1 in. wc.
= velocity pressure on the inlet side of the fan, in. wc
Solution:
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.75 in.wc  2.5 in.wc  1 in.wc = 2.25 in.wc
out in in
FSP SP SP VP = − − =
Important: The static pressure on the inlet side is always negatively signed. The static
pressure on the outlet side and the velocity pressure is always positively signed.
The fan total pressure is defined as:
out in
FTP TP TP = − (220)
where
FTP = fan total pressure, in. wc
TP
out
TP
= total pressure measured at the outlet, in. wc
in
= total pressure measured at the inlet, in. wc
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Problem: A fan supplies air at a velocity of 4000 fpm. At the same fan, the inlet and
outlet static pressures are 5.0 in. wc and 0.6 in. wc, respectively. Determine the fan
total pressure. Assume the inlet and outlet velocity pressures are 1.0 in. wc and 0.7 in.
wc, respectively.
Solution: From equation (160) we know:
TP VP SP = +
Therefore, equation (220) can be written:
( ) ( )
out in out out in in
FTP TP TP VP SP VP SP = − = + − +
( ) ( ) 0.7 0.6 1.0 5.0 5.3 in.wc FTP = + − + − =
Important: The static pressure on the inlet side is always negatively signed. The static
pressure on the outlet side and the velocity pressure is always positively signed.
8.12.1 Fan Laws
The following three equations are known as the fan laws; they are also referred to
as affinity laws. Notice all the “laws” are a function of size and speed (revolutions
per minute). Sometimes these equations are written without showing the “size”
term. When this is done, this assumes the fan size cannot be changed; such as
after a fan is installed. Note that these equations apply to a “family” of fans of
similar design and manufacturer. They may not be applied to a mix of various
designs. Also note the various powers used in the fan laws.
The first equation relates the volumetric movement of a fan to size (to the third
power) and speed.
3
2 2
2 1
1 1
Size RPM
Q Q
Size RPM
   
=
 
\ . \ .
(221)
where
Q
2
= volumetric flow rate for condition 2, ft
3
Q
/min
1
= volumetric flow rate for condition 1, ft
3
Size
/min
2
= fan diameter for condition 2, inches
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Size
1
RPM
= fan diameter for condition 1, inches
2
RPM
= fan speed for condition 2, rpm
1
Problem: A fan with a 6 inch impeller operates at 2000 RPM to supply 1500 cfm. If the
impeller size and speed is changed to 8 inches and 2500 RPM, what will be the new
flow?
= fan speed for condition 1, rpm
Solution:
3
3
2 2
2 1
1 1
8 2500
1500 4444 cfm
6 2000
Size RPM
Q Q
Size RPM
   
   
= = =
   
\ . \ .
\ . \ .
The second equation relates the fan pressure to size and speed (both to the second
power).
2 2
2 2
2 1
1 1
Size RPM
P P
Size RPM
   
=
 
\ . \ .
(222)
where
variables and units are as defined above
P
2
P
= system pressure for condition 2, in. wc
1
Problem: If a fan size remains the same, how much faster would the fan have to turn to
increase the pressure 50%?
= system pressure for condition 1, in. wc
Solution: Since the fan size does not change, that portion of the equation equals 1.0.
Equation (222) can then be rearranged to solve for RPM
2
.
2
2
2 1
1
RPM
P P
RPM
 
=

\ .
2
2 1
1
P
RPM RPM
P
=
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2
2 1
1
1.5
1 1.22
1
P
RPM RPM
P
= = =
Therefore, a 22% increase in RPM will increase the pressure by 50 percent. Also, note
we did not use specific values for the speed and pressure, only multipliers since we
were only looking for a multiplier.
The third equation relates a fan’s power requirement to size (to the fifth power)
and speed (to the third power).
5 3
2 2
2 1
1 1
Size RPM
PWR PWR
Size RPM
   
=
 
\ . \ .
(223)
where
variables and units are as defined above
PWR
2
PWR
= fan horsepower for condition 2, horsepower, hp
1
Problem: An 8 inch fan operates at 2500 RPM with a breaking horsepower (BHP) of
30. The fan size is decreased to 6 inches and the speed increased to 3000 RPM. What
is the new BHP?
= fan horsepower for condition 1, hp
Solution:
5 3
5 3
2 2
2 1
1 1
6 3000
30 12.3 BHP
8 2500
Size RPM
PWR PWR
Size RPM
   
   
= = =
   
\ . \ .
\ . \ .
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Sound and Noise
9 Sound and Noise
9.1 Sound Intensity
Safety and industrial hygiene professionals typically deal with sound pressure and
not sound intensity. Generally, there is no direct relationship between sound
pressure and sound intensity. However, for a plane wave there is a relationship.
This relationship can be used in a free field at a distance from the source.
2
p
I
c ρ
= (224)
where
I = sound intensity, W/m
p = rms sound pressure, Pa
2
ρ = density of air, kg/m
3
c = speed of sound in air, m/sec
Note: rms stands for root mean square, and the value ρc is the characteristic
specific acoustic impedance and is equal to 413 Ns/m
3
for air at 20
o
Problem: Calculate the sound intensity of a 0.2 Pa source. Assume the air
temperature is 20
C.
o
C.
Solution:
( )
2
2
5 2
3
0.2 Pa
= 9.7x10 W/m
413 Ns/m
p
I
c ρ
−
= =
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9.2 Sound Pressure Level (SPL)
Sound pressure level (SPL) or sound level is a logarithmic measure of the
effective sound pressure of a sound relative to a reference value. It is measured in
decibels (dB) above a standard reference level, typically 20 µPa RMS (which is
usually considered the threshold of human hearing at 1 kHz). Mathematically,
sound pressure level (SPL) can be written as:
0
20 log
P
SPL
P
 
=

\ .
(225)
where
SPL = sound pressure level, dB
P = measured rms sound pressure, Pa
P
0
= reference rms sound pressure, Pa (P
o
is typically 20 µPa)
Problem: Calculate the sound pressure level (in dB) due to a sound pressure of 0.5 Pa.
Solution:
6
0
0.5 Pa
20 log 20 log = 88 dB
20x10 Pa
P
SPL
P
 
 
= =
 
\ .
\ .
Sound pressure level (SPL) can be related to the sound intensity (power) by:
0
10 log
I
SPL
I
 
=

\ .
(226)
where
SPL = sound pressure level, dB
I = sound intensity, W/m
I
2
0
= reference sound intensity, W/m
2
(I
0
is typically 10
12
W/m
2
)
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Problem: Calculate the sound pressure level for a measured intensity of 0.005 W/m
2
.
Solution:
2
12 2
0
0.005 W/m
10 log 10 log = 97 dB
10 W/m
I
SPL
I
   
= =
 
\ . \ .
Sound pressure level decreases over distance. The change is not linear, rather it
changes logarithmically as follows:
1
2 1
2
20log
d
SPL SPL
d
 
= +

\ .
(227)
where
SPL
2
= sound pressure level at distance d
2
SPL
, dB
1
= sound pressure level at distance d
1
d
dB
1
= distance where SPL
1
d
was measured
2
= distance where SPL
2
Problem: Sound measurements record an average sound pressure level of 85 dB at a
location 10 feet away from a punchpress. What is the expected sound pressure level
at 15 feet from the press?
was measured
Solution:
1
2 1
2
10 ft
20log 85 dB+20log = 81.5 dB
15 ft
d
SPL SPL
d
 
 
= + =
 
\ .
\ .
Reminder: Since the distances are in a fraction, any units can be used as long as they
are consistent.
9.2.1 Addition of Sound Pressure Levels (SPLs)
Due to their logarithmic nature, sound pressure levels cannot simply be added
together, rather they must be added while accounting for their logarithmic nature.
The two following equations can be used to add sound pressure levels.
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10
1
10log 10
i
SPL
N
total
i
SPL
=
=
∑
(228)
where
SPL
total
i = count of individual sound pressure levels
= total (sum) of all sound pressure levels, dB
N = number of individual sound pressure levels summed
SPL
i
= SPL of sound i, dB
Problem: Calculate the combined sound pressure level created by three sources
measured at 80 dB, 95 dB and 90 dB.
Solution:
80 95 90
10 10 10
10log 10 10 10 96.3 dB
total
SPL
 
= + + =

\ .
A simple form of the equation can be derived for cases involving a number of
identical sources.
10log( )
total i
SPL SPL n = + (229)
where
SPL
total
SPL
= total (sum) of all sound pressure levels, dB
i
n = number of identical sound pressure levels summed
= SPL of a single source, dB
Problem: Four machines are to be collocated. Produce literature indicates an expected
sound pressure level of 80 dB (at a reference distance) for each machine. What is the
expected combined sound pressure level?
Solution:
10log( ) 85 10log(4) 85 6 91 dB
total i
SPL SPL n = + = + = + =
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Note: Equation (228) can also be used as follows:
85
10
10log 4 10 91dB
total
SPL
   
= =
 

\ . \ .
Another form that you may see for adding sound pressure levels (mathematically
identical to equation (228)) is:
10
1
10log 10
Pi
L
N
PT
i
L
=
 
=

\ .
∑
(230)
where
L
PT
i = count of individual sound pressure levels
= total (sum) of all sound pressure levels, dB
N = number of individual sound pressure levels summed
Lp
i
This equation can be used for any number of varying sources. When you have two
sources, the equation simplifies to the following:
= SPL of sound i, dB
2 1
10
1
10log 10 1
L L
Total
L L
−
 
= + +

\ .
(231)
where
L
Total
L
= total (sum) of two source sound pressure levels, dB
1
L
= SPL of sound I, dB
2
Problem: Two machines are to be collocated. Produce literature indicates an expected
sound pressure level of 80 dB and 85 dB (at a reference distance) for the machines.
What is the expected combined sound pressure level?
= SPL of sound 2, dB
Solution:
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2 1
85 80
10 10
1
10log 10 1 80 10log 10 1 86.2 dB
L L
Total
L L
− −
   
= + + = + + =
 
\ . \ .
Note: The assignment of the higher or lower sound to L
1
is not required. Try reversing
the values for L
1
and L
2
and check the solution.
9.2.2 Time Weighted Equivalent Sound Pressure Level
Sometimes you wish to determine an equivalent sound pressure level for a variety
of sounds (noises) experienced over varying durations. This can be found as
follows:
10
1
1
10log 10
i
L
N
eq i
i
L t
T
=
   
=
 

\ . \ .
∑
(232)
where
L
eq
T = total observation time of the sounds, hours
= time weighed equivalent sound pressure level, dB
i = count of individual sound pressure levels
N = number of individual sound pressure levels summed
L
i
t
= SPL of sound i, dB
i
Note that each sound exposure is multiplied by its duration, and then the total
duration is divided out to yield the weighted average.
= duration of sound i, hours
Problem: Calculate the equivalent sound pressure level for the following
measurements: 80dB for 2 hours, 92 dB for 1 hour, 94 dB for 2 hours, and 80 dB for 3
hours.
Solution:
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10
1
80 92 94 80
10 10 10 10
1
1
10log 10
1
10log 10 2 10 1 10 2 10 3 89.6 dB
i
L
N
eq i
i
N
eq
i
L t
T
L
T
=
=
   
=
 

\ . \ .
   
= ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ =
 

\ . \ .
∑
∑
9.3 Sound Power Level
The sound power level (L
W
) of a signal with sound power W (watts) is:
0
10log
W
W
L
W
 
=

\ .
(233)
where
L
w
W = sound power, W
= sound power level, dB
W
0
= reference sound intensity, W (W
0
is commonly set to 10
12
Problem: A sound system produces 50 Watts of power. What is the sound power
level?
W)
Solution:
12
0
50 W
10log 10log = 137 dB
10 W
W
W
L
W
 
 
= =
 
\ .
\ .
Within a free field, the sound pressure level and sound power level can be related
by the following equation:
20log 0.5
p w
L L r DI T = − − + + (234)
where
L
p
L
= sound pressure level, dB
w
= sound power level, dB
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r = distance, ft
0.5 = a constant for English units
DI = direction index (see below), dB
T = temperature and pressure correction factor (ignored at standard
conditions), dB
and
10log DI Q = (235)
where
DI = directivity index, dB
Q = directivity factor, nondimensional
Q = 1 for spherical radiation
2 for ½ spherical radiation
4 for ¼ spherical radiation
8 for 1/8 spherical radiation
Problem: Assume the sound system from the previous sample problem is measured in
a free field; calculate the sound pressure level at 15 feet. Assume standard conditions
and ½ spherical radiation.
Solution: First, the directivity index must be calculated using equation (235):
( ) 10log 10log 2 3 dB DI Q = = =
Then equation (234) can be applied with a temperature and pressure correction factor
set to 0.
( ) 20log 0.5 137 20log 15 0.5 3 0 116 dB
p w
L L r DI T = − − + + = − − + + =
9.4 Transmission Loss
The sound transmission loss describes the sound reduction due to a sound striking
one surface of a barrier (e.g., a wall) and leaving the other side. It is defined as
flows:
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10log
i
t
E
TL
E
 
=

\ .
(236)
where
TL = transmission loss, dB
E
i
= sound power incident on the barrier, W/m
E
2
t
= sound power on the opposite side of the barrier, W/m
Equation (236) is also written as:
2
1
10log TL
τ
 
=

\ .
(237)
where
τ = transmission coefficient, nondimensional
The transmission coefficient is frequency dependant.
Problem: What is the transmission loss for a 33/4” wall constructed of ½” gypsum on
metal studs with no insulation? Assume a frequency of 1000 hZ.
Solution: Various sources on sound transmission coefficients are available. For the
wall design described, at a frequency of 1000 Hz, the sound transmission coefficient
will be about 0.00003.
1 1
10log 10log 45 dB
0.00003
TL
τ
   
= = =
 
\ . \ .
9.5 Noise Reduction by Absorption
Noise reduction can be reported as a fraction of the amount of noise absorbed in a
room before and after treatment for noise reduction. Mathematically this can be
written as:
2
1
10log
A
dB
A
 
=

\ .
(238)
where
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dB = noise reduction, dB
A
1
A
= total amount of absorption before treatment, sabins
2
The Sabin The Sabin is defined as a unit of sound absorption. One square meter
of 100% absorbing material has a value of one metric Sabin.
= total amount of absorption after treatment, sabins
Problem: A plaster ceiling is made of plaster with a sound absorption coefficient of
0.02. The ceiling material is changed to acoustical ceiling tiles with a sound absorption
coefficient of 0.6. What is the change in noise reduction for the new material?
Solution: The sound absorption coefficient is typically multiplied by the area to find the
sound absorption. Since the area is a constant and equation (238) uses the
absorption in fraction (ratio) form, we can simply use the sound absorption coefficient.
2
1
0.6
10log 10log 14.8 dB
0.02
A
dB
A
 
 
= = =
 
\ .
\ .
Note that calculation is only for the change due to the ceiling material. The overall
change in the room would have to account for all the surfaces and their absorption
coefficients.
9.5.1 Noise Reduction in a Duct
Ducts can be lined to reduce the noise transmission within the duct. This can be
expressed as:
1.4
12.6P
NR
A
α
= (239)
where
12.6 = a constant
NR = noise reduction, dB/ft
P = perimeter of duct, in.
α = absorption coefficient of the lining material, nondimensional
A = crosssection area of duct, in
2
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Note that in equation (239) α is raised to the 1.4 power.
Problem: A duct lining material has an absorption coefficient of 0.4. Calculate the
reduction in noise as a function of length in a 9” by 24” duct.
Solution: Equation (239) provides the solution in dB/ft, so we can simply substitute
values into the equation to find:
( )( )
1.4
1.4
12.6 2 9 2 24 0.4
12.6
1.1 dB/ft
9 24
P
NR
A
α
⋅ + ⋅
= = =
⋅
9.6 Percent Noise Dose and TWA
The noise dose received over a time period is the summation of the individual
noise and duration fractions. Mathematically this can be expressed as:
1 2
1 2
% 100
i
i
C C C
D
T T T
 
= + + +

\ .
(240)
where
%D = noise dose expressed as a percent
C
1
to C
i
T
= exposure duration of each individual noise, hr
1
to T
i
The following is another form of the same equation; mathematically they are
identical.
= corresponding allowable exposure duration of each individual
noise, hr
1
% 100
N
i
i
i
C
D
T
=
(
=
(
¸ ¸
∑
(241)
Problem: The following sound measurements are made during a work day; 85 dB for 2
hours, 95 dB for 1 hour, 90 dB for 2 hours, 78 dB for 1 hour, 84 dB for 1 hour, 85 dB
for 1 hour. Calculate the percent noise dose.
Solution: The values for T
i
are calculated using equation (243) below. The following
table can be constructed to assists in the calculation:
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dB C T
i
C
i
i
/T
85
i
2 16.0 0.13
95 1 4.0 0.25
90 2 8.0 0.25
78 1 42.2 0.02
84 1 18.4 0.05
88 1 10.6 0.09
Next, the values for C
i
/T
i
can be substituted into equation (240) to find:
( )
1 2
1 2
% 100
% 100 0.13 0.25 0.25 0.02 0.05 0.09 79%
i
i
C C C
D
T T T
D
 
= + + +

\ .
= + + + + + =
Values for T
i
in the above equations can be calculated as follows:
( ) 85
3
8
2
L
T
−
= (242)
and
( ) 90
5
8
2
L
T
−
= (243)
where
T = allowed exposure time, hr
L = time weighted average (TWA) exposure, dBA
Note that the first exposure calculation is based on the ACGIH TLV for noise of
85 dBA and an exchange rate of 3. The second exposure calculation is based on
the OSHA TLV of 90 dBA and an exchange rate of 5.
Problem: Based on OSHA requirements, what is the allowable exposure time for 84
dBA?
Solution: Since we are concerned with OSHA requirements, equation (243) is the
appropriate equation to use.
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( ) ( ) 90 84 90
5 5
8 8
18.4 hours
2 2
L
T
− −
= = =
Once the percent dose has been calculated, the equivalent TWA can be calculated
as following:
%
10 log 85
100
D
TWA dBA
 
= ⋅ +

\ .
(244)
and
%
16.61 log 90
100
D
TWA dBA
 
= ⋅ +

\ .
(245)
where
TWA = equivalent time weighted average noise exposure, dBA
%D = noise dose expressed as a percent
Once again, the first TWA calculation is based on the ACGIH TLV for noise of
85 dBA and an exchange rate of 3. The second TWA calculation is based on the
OSHA TLV of 90 dBA and an exchange rate or 5.
Problem: Calculate the equivalent time weighted average for a percent noise dose of
79% assuming an OSHA TLV.
Solution: Since we are concerned with OSHA requirements, equation (245) is the
appropriate equation to use.
79
16.61 log 90 88.3 dBA
100
TWA dBA
 
= ⋅ + =

\ .
9.7 Frequency by a Fan
The pure tone frequency of a fan can be determined based on the number of fans
blades and the rotation speed, as follows:
( )( )
60
N RPM
f = (246)
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where
N = number of fan blades
RPM = speed of fan, rpm
60 = time unit conversion
Problem: Determine the fan frequency generated by a fan with 8 blades turning 2400
RPM.
Solution:
( )( ) ( )( ) 8 2400
320 Hz
60 60
N RPM
f = = =
9.8 Octave and ThirdOctave Bands
Sound frequencies can be complex to assess, so a scale of octave bands and one
third octave bands has been developed to assist in their analyses. Each band
covers a specific range of frequencies. The ratio of the frequency of the highest
note to the lowest note in an octave is 2:1. The center frequencies for these Octave
bands, as defined by ISO, are:
31.5Hz , 63Hz , 125Hz , 250Hz , 500Hz , 1kHz , 2kHz , 4kHz , 8kHz and 16kHz
The ratio of band limits is given by:
1
2
k n
n
f
f
+
= (247)
An octave has a center frequency that is 2 times the lower cutoff frequency and
has an upper cutoff frequency that is twice the lower cutoff frequency. Therefore,
2
1
2
f
f = (248)
2 1
2 f f = (249)
1 2 c
f f f = ⋅ (250)
1
2
c
f f = (251)
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2
2
c
f
f = (252)
2 1
BW f f = − (253)
where
f
n+1
f
= the upper cutoff frequency
n
k = 1 for full octave bands, and k = 1/3 for onethird octave bands.
= the lower cutoff frequency
f
c
BW = bandwidth
= the center frequency
Problem: The lower cutoff frequency of an octave band is 354 Hz. Calculate the upper
cutoff frequency and the center frequency.
Solution: The upper cutoff frequency is given by equation (249):
2 1
2 2 354 707 Hz f f = = ⋅ =
The center frequency is given by equation (251):
1
2 2 354 Hz 500 Hz
c
f f = = ⋅ =
The center frequency is also given by equation (250):
1 2
354 707 500 Hz
c
f f f = ⋅ = ⋅ =
ThirdOctave bands are calculated the same way, except thirdoctaves use a one
third power in equation (247). For example,
3
2 1
2 f f = (254)
Problem: The lower cutoff frequency of a thirdoctave band is 891 Hz. Calculate the
upper cutoff frequency.
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Solution:
3 3
2 1
2 2 891 Hz = 1122 Hz f f = = ⋅
9.9 Sound Frequency and Wavelength
The frequency and wavelength of a sound are related to the speed of sound in the
medium the sound travels through (usually air), and is determined by the
following equation:
c
f
λ
= (255)
where
f = frequency, Hz
c = speed of sound, m/sec
λ = wavelength, m
The speed of sound in air at 20
o
Problem: What is the frequency of a sound in air at 20
C is 344 m/sec (1125 ft/sec).
o
C if the wavelength is 0.75
meters?
Solution:
344 / sec
459 Hz
0.75
c m
f
m λ
= = =
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Radiation
10 Radiation
10.1 Ionizing
Ionizing radiation results from electromagnetic radiation with sufficient energy to
cause the loss of an electron from the matter in which it interacts (i.e., produces
ions). The more common ionizing radiation sources encountered in safety and
industrial hygiene are alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays (or photons), X
rays (or photons) and neutrons.
10.1.1 Inverse Square Law
Radiation intensity decreases as a function of distance from its source. The
decrease is not linear, rather it is a function of the second power and is defined as:
2
1
2 1
2
d
I I
d
 
=

\ .
(256)
where
I
1
= intensity at distance d
I
1
2
= intensity at distance d
d
2
1
d
= first distance from source
2
Note that since this equation is a simple ratio, units are not specified but must be
consistent. Also, this is a point source approximation so estimates up close to the
source will not be accurate.
= second distance from source
Problem: A source emits particles (i.e., photons) that are measured at 250
particles/cm
2
sec at a distance of 1 meter. What activity will be detected at 2 meters?
Solution:
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2
2
2 2 1
2 1
2
1 m
250 particles/cm sec = 62.5 particles/cm
2 m
d
I I
d
 
 
= =
 
\ .
\ .
10.1.2 Gamma Radiation Exposure
The roentgen value at 1 foot from a gamma emitter is described as:
6 S CE ≅ (257)
where
S = roentgens, per hour at 1 ft
6 = a constant for English units
C = curie strength of gamma emitter, Ci
E = energy of gamma radiation, MeV
Problem: Assume Iodine131 emits gamma photons at different energies; one of which
is 0.313 MeV. What is the partial exposure rate at 1 foot from a 10 mCi source due to
this energy?
Solution:
( )( ) 6 6 10 mCi 0.313 MeV = 18.8 mR/hr S CE ≅ ≅
Note: This equation has an accuracy of about 20% between 0.07 and 4 MeV; that is
why the symbol ≅ is used as it indicates “approximately equal to.”
The following equation can be used to calculate the exposure rate from a gamma
radiation source located some distance away.
2
A
D
d
Γ
= (258)
where
D = exposure rate, R/hour
Γ = gamma ray constant, R/mCihr
A = source activity, mCi
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d = distance from emitter, cm
Problem: Determine the exposure rate 1 meter from a 10 mCi source of Iodine131.
Assume the Gamma value for I131 is Γ =2.18 R/mCihr at 1 cm.
Solution:
( )( )
( )
2 2
2.18 R/mCihr 10 mCi
= 0.00218 R/hr
100 cm
A
D
d
Γ
= =
10.1.3 Equivalent Dose
The following equation converts an absorbed source in units of rad, to an
equivalent dose in rem.
( )( ) rem = rad QF (259)
where
rem = equivalent dose, rem
rad = absorbed dose, rad
QF = quality factor that converts rad to rem
Problem: A worker may be exposed to 5 rad of neutron radiation. According to the
International Commission on Radiological Protection, the Quality Factor (QF) for neutrons is
10. Calculate the worker’s potential exposure.
Solution:
( )( ) ( )( ) 5 rad 10 = 50 rem rem = rad QF =
10.1.4 Radioactive Decay
Radioactive elements can be characterized by a halflife, which is the time
required to lose half its radioactive atoms.
This form of the radioactive decay equations can be used to determine the
remaining residual activity in a body after a know exposure (amount and time).
( )
1/2
0.5
T
i
t
A A = (260)
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where
A = radioactivity remaining after some time, mCi (or other appropriate
units)
A
i
t = elapsed time, units to match T
= initial radioactivity, mCi (or other appropriate units)
T
1/2
1/2
Problem: 1.5 mCi of Iodine123 (I123) is used to image thyroid cancer. If I123 has a
halflife of 13 hours; what radioactivity will remain in the patient after 8 hours?
= half life, units to match t
Solution:
( ) ( )
1/2
13 hr
8 hr
0.5 1.5 mCi 0.5 1.0 mCi
T
i
t
A A = = =
Another form of the radioactive decay is:
1/2
0.639
i
t
T
A Ae
−
= (261)
where
A = radioactivity remaining after some time, mCi (or other appropriate
units)
A
i
e = natural logarithm, 2.71828…
= initial radioactivity, mCi (or other appropriate units)
t = elapsed time, units to match T
T
1/2
1/2
Problem: Recalculate the radioactivity from the previous problem using equation (261).
= half life, min (or other appropriate units)
Solution:
( )
( )
1/2
8 hours
13 hours
0.639 0.639
1.5 mCi = 1.0 mCi
i
t
T
A Ae
−
= =
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10.1.5 Activity of a Radioactive Element
The activity remaining in a radioactive element can be calculated by the following
equation:
1/ 2
0.693
i
A N
T
= (262)
where
A = radioactivity remaining after some time, mCi (or other appropriate
units)
T
1/2
N
= half life, min (or other appropriate units)
i
Problem: Calculate the activity (disintegrations per second) of 1 microgram of Iodine
123. I123 has a halflife of 13 hours. The atomic weight of Iodine is 127.
= the number of atoms
Solution: First, we need to calculate the number of atoms in 1 microgram of I123. This
is accomplished using Avogadro’s number; one mole of an element has 6.023 x 10
23
atoms.
23
6 15
6.023 x 10
1 x 10 g = 4.74 x 10 atoms
127
N =
We also need the halflife is seconds:
1/2
3600 sec
T = 13 hours = 46,800 sec
hour
Now, substituting into equation (262) yields:
15 10 1
1/ 2
0.693 0.693
4.74 x 10 7.02 x 10 sec
46,800
i
A N
T
−
= = =
Note that this is equivalent to 7.02x 10
10
becquerel.
10.1.6 Radiation Attenuation by Layers
As radiation passes through some medium, energy is lost.
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The amount of radiation reduced as it passes through a number of halflayers is
given by:
1
2
A
o
I I
 
=

\ .
(263)
where
I = intensity of radiation leaving layer(s), mR/hour
I
o
A = number of halfvalue layers, nondimensional
= original intensity of radiation striking layer(s), mR/hour
A similar expression applies to the number of tenthlayers.
1
10
B
o
I I
 
=

\ .
(264)
where
I = intensity of radiation leaving layer(s), mR/hour
I
o
B = number of tenthvalue layers, nondimensional
= original intensity of radiation striking layer(s), mR/hour
Problem: A source of radiation has created a radiation intensity of 125 mR/hr. If six
halfvalue layers (HVL) of a shielding material, each 0.5 inch thick, are provided, what
is the reduced intensity in mR/hr?
Solution: For halfvalue layer calculations, we use equation (263)
6
1 1
125 mR/hr = 1.95 mR/hr
2 2
A
o
I I
   
= =
 
\ . \ .
Note that the thickness is not required for this solution; just the number of halflayers.
By definition a halflayer will reduce the transmitted radiation by half. Also, similar
calculations can be made with tenthlayer protection using equation (264).
The above two equation can be written in the following form, which simply
replaces the A or B values (number of layers) with a term that calculates the
number of layers based on the total thickness and the values of the partial (1/2 or
1/10) layer thicknesses (HVL and TVL, respectively).
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0
2
X
HVL
I
I = (265)
and
0
10
X
TVL
I
I = (266)
where
I = intensity of radiation leaving layer(s), mR/hour
I
o
X = total thickness of layers, units to match HVL or TVL
= original intensity of radiation striking layer(s), mR/hour
HVL = thickness of halfvalue layers, units to match X
TVL = thickness of tenthvalue layers, units to match X
Problem: A source of radiation has created a radiation intensity of 125 mR/hr. If 3
inches of a shielding material with a TVL of 1.5 inches are provided, what is the
reduced intensity in mR/hr?
Solution: For a tenthvalue layer calculation, we use equation (266):
0
3
1.5
125 mR/hr
1.25 mR/hr
10 10
X
TVL
I
I = = =
Equation (265) can be used for halfvalue layers.
If the incident and attenuated radiation, as well as the thickness of the halfvalue
layer are known, the required thickness of a barrier medium can be found by re
arranging equation (265) and solving for X. This leads to:
( )
0
3.32log
I
X HVL
I
 
=

\ .
(267)
A similar expression can also be found for the tenthvalue layer problems by re
arranging equation (266).
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Problem: Derive equation (267).
Solution: We start with equation (265) and proceed as follows:
0
2
X
HVL
I
I =
0
2
X
HVL
I
I
=
0
log 2 log
X
HVL
I
I
 
 
=
 
\ .
\ .
0
log 2 log
I X
HVL I
   
=
 
\ . \ .
0
1
log
log 2
I
X HVL
I
 
= ⋅

\ .
0
3.32 log
I
X HVL
I
 
= ⋅

\ .
10.1.7 Exponential Rate Attenuation
As a medium thickness increases, the attenuation increases and can be written
(with and without a buildup factor) as:
x
o
I I Be
µ −
= (268)
and
x
o
I I e
µ −
= (269)
where
I = attenuated radiation exposure rate, counts/min
I
o
B = buildup factor, nondimensional
= original radiation exposure rate, counts/min
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e = natural logarithm, 2.71828…
µ = linear attenuation coefficient, cm
x = thickness of attenuator, cm
1
Problem: Calculate the attenuation of radiation passing through a lead shield that is 2
cm thick. Assume a linear attenuation coefficient of 0.78 cm
1
and a buildup factor of
1.87.
Solution: Rearranging equation (268) leads to:
1
0.78 2
1.87 0.39 = 39%
x cm cm
o
I
Be e
I
µ
−
− −
= = =
Since I is 39% of I
o
, the attenuation is 61%.
10.1.8 Effective HalfLife
The rate at which radioactivity decreases in the body can be described by the
effective halflife, which is a function of the biological halflife and radiological
halflife, by the following expression:
1/ 2 1/ 2 1/ 2
1 1 1
eff rad bio
T T T
= + (270)
where
T
1/2eff
T
= effective halflife
1/2rad
T
= effective radiological halflife
1/2bio
Note: Use same units for all three halflives.
= effective biological halflife
This equation can be rearranged to provide the following form:
( )( )
1/ 2 1/ 2
1/ 2
1/ 2 1/ 2
rad bio
eff
rad bio
T T
T
T T
=
+
(271)
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Problem: Iodine123 (I123) has a halflife of 13 hours and a biological halflife of 120
days (2880 hours). What is the effective halflife of I123?
Solution:
( )( ) ( )( )
1/ 2 1/ 2
1/ 2
1/ 2 1/ 2
2880 13
12.9 hours
2880 13
rad bio
eff
rad bio
T T
T
T T
= = =
+ +
The biological halflife of I123 is long compared to the radiological halflife, so it does
not contribute significantly to the effective halflife.
10.2 NonIonizing
Nonionizing radiation has insufficient energy to ionize matter. The range of non
ionizing radiation includes lasers, ultraviolet (UV), visible, infrared (IR), radio
frequency (RF) and extremelylow frequencies (ELF).
10.2.1 Absolute Gain (Antenna)
The absolute gain equation simply converts the gain for a particular antenna into
an absolute gain, as follows:
10
10
g
G = (272)
where
G = absolute gain, nondimensional
g = gain for a particular antenna, dB
Problem: An indoor antenna has a power of 1 W and a gain of 2.3 dB; what is the
antenna’s absolute gain?
Solution: Using equation (272) and substituting the gain, we find:
2.3
10 10
10 10 1.7
g
G = = =
Note that the power is not required here and the Gain is nondimensional.
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10.2.2 Field Strength
The electric field strength can be converted to a power density with the following
equation:
2
3770
E
PD = (273)
where
PD = electrical power density, mW/cm
E = electric field strength, V/m
2
3770 = conversion constant, ohms
Problem: What is the power density of an electric field with a strength of 250V/m?
Solution:
( )
2
2
2
250V/m
16.6mW/cm
3770 3770
E
PD = = =
Ω
Note: The omega symbol Ω is commonly used to indicate ohms.
The magnetic field strength can be converted to a power density with the
following equation:
2
37.7 PD H = (274)
where
PD = magnetic power density, mW/cm
H = magnetic field strength, A/m
2
37.7 = conversion constant, ohms
Problem: What is the power density of a magnetic field with a strength of 1.5 A/m?
Solution:
( )
2
2 2
37.7 37.7 1.5A/m 84.8mW/cm PD H = = Ω =
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For antennas, the far field power density can be calculates as follows:
2 2 2
4
GP AP
W
r r π λ
= = (275)
where
W = far field power density, W/m
G = gain
2
P = radiated power from antenna, W
π = 3.141593…
λ= wavelength, m (see equation (281))
r = distance from antenna, m
A = area of antenna, m
Problem: What is the power density 10 feet away from a 500 W radar transmitter that
has an absolute gain of 2?
2
Solution: Converting 10 feet to meters (3.048 meters) and substituting the problem
values into equation (275) leads to:
( )( )
( )
2
2 2
2 500W
8.56W/m
4
4 3.048
GP
W
r π
π
= = =
For antennas, the near field power density can be calculated as follows:
2
16P
W
D π
= (276)
Note that the equation of the area of a circle is:
2
4
D
A
π
= (277)
So, for a dishtype antenna, equation (276) and (277) can be combined to find the
near field power density as:
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4P
W
A
= (278)
where
W = near field power density, W/m
P = radiated power from antenna, W
2
A = area of antenna, m
Problem: A round antenna with a diameter of 7 meter has a total feed input power of
112.2 Watts; what is the power density at the surface of the antenna?
2
Solution: Applying equation (278) leads to:
( )
( )
2 2
2
4 112.2W
4
11.66W/m 1.166mW/cm
7
4
P
W
A
m π
= = = =
 


\ .
Note: One W/m
2
is equal to 0.1 mW/cm.
10.2.3 Safe Distance for NonIonizing Radiation
An estimated safe distance from an antenna can be derived as follows:
1/ 2
4
PG
r
EL π
 
=

\ .
(279)
where
r = distance, cm
P = emitted power, W
G = absolute gain, nondimensional
π = 3.141593…
EL = exposure limit, W/cm
2
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Problem: Calculate the distance at which the exposure level is exceeded for a 1000 W
antenna with an absolute gain of 100. Assume an exposure limit of 10 W/m
2
.
Solution: Substituting values into equation (279) leads to:
( )( )
( )
1/ 2
1/ 2
2
1000W 100
28.2m
4 4 10W/m
PG
r
EL π π
 
 
 = = =


\ .
\ .
( )( ) 28.2 m 3.28 ft/m = 92.5 ft
10.2.4 Magnetic Flux Density
The following equation can be used to calculate the vector sum magnetic flux by
taking the square root of the sum of the squares of measurements in the x, y, and z
direction.
2 2 2
r x y z
B B B B = + + (280)
where
B
r
B
= resulting magnetic flux density, tesla
x
B
= magnetic flux density in the x plane, tesla
y
B
= magnetic flux density in the y plane, tesla
z
= magnetic flux density in the z plane, tesla
Problem: Magnetic flux measurements are made in the x, y and z planes at a particular
location and the following data recorded: B
x
= 1.5 mT, B
y
= 0.75 mT, B
z
= 1.25 mT.
Calculate the resulting magnitude of the magnetic flux.
Solution:
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2 2
1.5mT 0.75mT 1.25mT 2.1mT
r x y z
B B B B = + + = + + =
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10.2.5 Electromagnetic Radiation Wavelength and Frequency
Recall the wavelength and frequency relationship for sound moving through air;
electromagnetic radiation behaves according to a similar relationship, except this
equation is based on the speed of light (not the speed of sound).
c f
T
λ
λ = = (281)
where
c = speed of light, 3x10
8
λ = wavelength, m
m/sec
f = frequency, Hz
T = period, sec
Problem: A particular microwave oven operates with a wavelength of about 0.2m; what
is its frequency?
Solution: Rearranging equation (281) and substituting leads to:
8
9 1
3 x 10 m/s
=1.5 x 10 s =1500 MHz
0.2 m
c
f
λ
= =
10.2.6 Effective Ultraviolet Irradiance
The effective irradiance from a broadband ultraviolet source can be calculated
using the following expression:
eff
E E S
λ λ λ
= ∆
∑
(282)
where
E
eff
= effective irradiance (relative to a source), W/m
E
2
λ
= spectral irradiance, W/m
2
S
nm
λ
Δ
= relative spectral effectiveness, nondimensional
λ
= wavelength step, nm
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Note the summation sign (Σ) in equation (282). Remember that means the
product of each E S
λ λ λ
∆ term must be added to find the total effective
irradiance.
Problem: A lamp has the following UV properties; calculate the effective UV irradiance.
Wavelength
Spectral
Irradiance
W/m
2
Relative Spectral
Effectiveness
nm
Wavelength Step
nm
254 0.01 0.5 1
300 0.03 0.3 1
315 0.1 0.003 1
Solution:
( )( )( )
( )( )( )
( )( )( )
2
2
2
2 6 2
0.01 W/m nm 0.5 1nm
0.03 W/m nm 0.3 1nm
0.1 W/m nm 0.003 1nm
0.0143 W/m = 1.43 x10 W/cm
eff
E E S
λ λ λ
= ∆
=
+
+
=
∑
Note: The exposure time permitted for a given UV irradiance can be found using
equation (291).
10.2.7 Lasers
10.2.7.1 Magnification
A laser that has been magnified will have a resulting irradiance that increases by
the square of the magnification power, which can be written:
2
0
( ) I I magnification = ⋅ (283)
where
I = irradiance after beam passes through magnifier, W/cm
I
2
o
= irradiance prior to magnifier, W/cm
magnification = the magnifying power
2
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Problem: What is the increase in irradiance of a 1 W/cm
2
laser beam passing through a
10x30 binocular lens?
Solution: It is possible to reduce the divergence of most lasers using simple optics. For
example, a binocular lens will decrease the divergence by the magnification factor (e.g.,
10x30 would reduce the divergence to 1/10th of its original divergence). The reduction
in divergence will increase the irradiance per unit area according to equation (283).
Therefore,
( )( )
2
2 2 2
0
( ) 1 W/cm 10 100 W/cm I I magnification = ⋅ = =
10.2.7.2 Optical Density
Protective eyewear for use around lasers is rated for optical density (OD), which
is the attenuation factor by which the optical filter reduces beam power according
to the following equation:
. . log
o
I
O D
I
= (284)
where
O.D. = optical density
I
o
I = irradiance after beam passes through filter
= irradiance prior to filter
Note: For pulsed laser use J/cm
2
; for CW lasers use W/cm
Problem: A pulsed laser produces a potential exposure of 2.6 x 10
2
2
J/cm
2
. If the
maximum permitted exposure level is 5.0 x 10
7
J/cm
2
, calculate the optical density
required to reduce the laser pulse below the permitted level.
Solution:
2 2
7 2
2.6 x 10 J/cm
. . log . . log 4.72
5.0 x 10 J/cm
o
I
O D O D
I
= = = =
10.2.7.3 Laser Beam Diameter
The diameter of a laser beam at some distance from the source can be estimated
by:
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2 2 2
L
D a r φ = + (285)
where
D
L
a = emergent beam diameter, cm
= laser beam diameter at distance r, cm
φ = emergent beam divergence, radians
r = distance, cm
Problem: Determine the diameter of a laser beam 0.5 km away from a source with an
emergent diameter of 2 cm and a beam divergence of 1 x10
4
radians.
Solution:
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2 2 2 4 4
2 10 5.0 10 5.4 cm
L L
D a r D x φ
−
= + = = + =
10.2.7.4 Nominal Hazard Zone (NHZ)
The safe use of lasers requires the evaluation of various safe distances. These are
presented here.
The following equation can be used to calculate the distance from a laser at which
the potential eye exposure no longer exceeds the permitted exposure limit.
1/ 2
2
1 4
NHZ
r a
EL φ π
Φ  
= −

\ .
(286)
where
r
NHZ
φ
= nominal hazard zone, cm
= emergent beam divergence, radians
Φ = total radiant power output of laser, W or J
π = 3.141593…
EL = exposure limit, W/cm
2
or J/cm
a = emergent beam diameter, cm
2
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Problem: Determine the hazard zone distance for a 0.2 J pulsed laser that has a beam
divergence of 1 x10
3
radians and an emergent beam diameter of 0.6 cm. Assume the
maximum permitted exposure level is 5.0 x 10
7
J/cm
2
.
Solution:
( )
( )
( )
1/ 2
1/ 2
2
2 5
3 7
4 0.2
1 4 1
0.6 7.14x10 cm = 7.14km
10 5x10
NHZ
r a
EL φ π π
−
 
Φ  
 = − = − =


\ .
\ .
The following equation can be used to calculate the distance from a laser at which
the potential eye exposure no longer exceeds the permitted exposure limit for the
“lens on laser” case.
1/ 2
4
o
NHZ
o
f
r
b EL π
Φ  
=

\ .
(287)
where
r
NHZ
f
= nominal hazard zone, cm
o
b
= focal length of lens, cm
o
Φ = total radiant power output of laser, W
= diameter of laser beam incident on focusing lens, cm
π = 3.141593…
EL = exposure limit, W/cm
Problem: A 3000 W laser has a 12.7 cm focal length, and an incident beam diameter of
2.54 cm. Calculate the distance beyond which the irradiance is less than the permitted
exposure level (assume 45 W/cm
2
2
).
Solution:
( )
( )
1/ 2
1/ 2
2
4 3000W
4 12.7cm
46cm
2.54cm 45W/cm
o
NHZ
o
f
r
b EL π π
 
Φ  
 = = =


\ .
\ .
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The following equation can be used to calculate the distance from a laser at which
the potential eye exposure no longer exceeds the permitted exposure limit when
diffuse reflection is included.
1/ 2
cos
NHZ
r
EL
ρ θ
π
Φ  
=

\ .
(288)
where
r
NHZ
ρ = effectiveness of diffuse reflecting surface, 100% = 1
= nominal hazard zone, cm
Φ = total radiant power output of laser, W
θ = angle from normal for the viewing surface, degrees
π = 3.141593…
EL = exposure limit, W/cm
Problem: Calculate the nominal hazard zone distance of a 500 W laser. Assume 100%
effective diffuse reflecting surface, a viewing angle of 0degrees from normal, and an
exposure limit of 0.05 W/cm
2
2
.
Solution:
( )( )( )
( )
1/ 2
1/ 2
2
1 500W cos 0
cos
56.4cm
0.05W/cm
NHZ
r
EL
ρ θ
π π
 
Φ  
 = = =


\ .
\ .
10.2.7.5 Laser Barrier Distance
The following equation can be used to determine the minimum distance for a
barrier to provide protection from a given laser.
1/ 2
2
1 4
s
D a
TL φ π
Φ  
= −

\ .
(289)
where
D
s
= separation distance for barrier, cm
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φ = emergent beam divergence, radians
Φ = total radiant power output of laser, W
π = 3.141593…
TL = threshold limit value for barrier, W/cm
a = emergent beam diameter, cm
2
Problem: A 400 W laser has a beam divergence of 2.5 x 10
3
radians, and an exit
beam diameter of 0.5 cm. Calculate the barrier distance at which the irradiance is less
than the worst case exposure level (assume 45 W/cm
2
).
Solution:
( )
( )
( )
1/ 2
2
1/ 2
2
3 2
1 4
4 400W 1
0.5cm 1330cm = 13.3m
2.5x10 45W/cm
s
s
D a
TL
D
φ π
π
Φ
= −
= − =
 

\ .
 


\ .
10.2.8 Spatial Averaging of Measurements
Typically, multiple measurements of an electric or magnetic field strength are
made so that an average value can be found. Typically ten or more measurements
are required. The resulting field strength average is called the spatial average and
is calculated as follows:
1/ 2
2
1
=
N
i
i
FS
spatial average
N
=
 




\ .
∑
(290)
where
FS
i
i = incremental measurement count
= field strength measurement i, V/m (electric) or A/m (magnetic)
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N = total number of measurements
Problem: Electric field strength measurements are made at ten locations and the
following data recorded. What is the spatial average of the measurements?
Location
Field Strength
(V/m)
1 10
2 10
3 12
4 14
5 16
6 20
7 18
8 14
9 12
10 8
Solution: The following table is setup to solve equation (290) for the data presented.
Note that since there are ten samples, N=10.
Location
Field
Strength
(V/m)
FS
1
2
10 100
2 10 100
3 12 144
4 14 196
5 16 256
6 20 400
7 18 324
8 14 196
9 12 144
10 8 64
2
1
N
i
i
FS
=
∑
1924
2
1
N
i
i
FS
N
=
∑
192.4
1/ 2
2
1
N
i
i
FS
N
=
 




\ .
∑
14
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Therefore, the spatially averaged electric field strength is 14 V/m.
10.2.9 Time Exposure for NonIonizing Radiation
The permissible exposure time in seconds, for exposure to ultraviolet radiation
incident upon the unprotected eye or skin, may be computed by:
2
0.003J/cm
eff
t
E
= (291)
where
t = exposure time, sec
E
eff
= effective irradiance, W/cm
0.003 J/ cm
2
2
= 0.003 Ws/cm
2
Problem: A lamp used in an industrial process has an effective irradiance of 5.0
µW/cm
= conversion factor, from effective
irradiance to exposure time
2
. What is the permissible time exposure?
Solution:
2 2
6 2
0.003J/cm 0.003J/cm
600 seconds = 10 minutes
5.0 x 10 W/cm
eff
t
E
= = =
Note: A Watt is also a Joule/second.
Exposure times to some type of nonionizing radiation (e.g., radio frequency,
microwave) are limited to a permissible level which is based on a sixminute
exposure. When the actual exposure exceeds the allowable limit, the following
equation can be used to determine an alternative exposure duration based on the
actual exposure level.
x 0.1hr
EL
t
ML
= (292)
where
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t = time (duration) of acceptable exposure to the actual exposure level, hr
EL = exposure limit, mW/cm
ML = measured (actual) level, mW/cm
2
0.1hr = 6 minutes; the basis for the permissible exposure limit
2
Problem: Assume that for incident electromagnetic energy frequencies between 10
MHz and 100 GHz, a Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 10 mW/cm
2
(averaged over
sixminute periods) has been specified. However, a worker is potentially subjected to 15
mW/cm
2
. What is the acceptable exposure time?
Solution:
2
2
10 mW/cm
x 0.1hr x 0.1hr = 0.067 hr = 4 min
15 mW/cm
EL
t
ML
= =
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Electricity
11 Electricity
11.1 Ohm’s Law
One of the fundamental laws of electrical circuits is Ohm's law. Ohm’s law states
that the current between two points in a conductor is directly proportional to the
voltage across the two points, and inversely proportional to the resistance between
them. Mathematically this can be written:
V
I
R
= (293)
which can also be written
V IR = (294)
where
V = the potential difference measured across the resistance, volts
I = the current through the resistance, amperes
R = the resistance of the conductor, ohms
Problem: A 120 volt power tool and long extension cord has a total equivalent
resistance of 40 ohms. What is the current in the system?
Solution:
120volts
3 amps
40ohms
V
I
R
= = =
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11.2 Joule’s Law
Another important law that pertains to electrical circuits is Joule’s law. Joule's law
states that the rate of heat dissipation in a conductor is proportional to the square
of the current through it and to its resistance. Mathematically this can be written:
2
P I R = (295)
where
P = power, watts
I = the current through the resistance, amperes
R = the resistance of the conductor, ohms
Equations (294) and (295) can be combined to yield:
P IV = (296)
Problem: A forklift has lights that draw 5 amps each. Assuming a 12 Volt electrical
system, what is the power to each light?
Solution:
( )( ) 5amps 12volts 60watts P IV = = =
11.3 Resistance
The electrical resistance of a conductor (R) can be calculated by the following
equation:
L
R
A
ρ = (297)
where
R = the resistance of the conductor, ohms
ρ = is the resistivity in units of ohmfeet
L = length of conductor, feet
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A = crosssectional area of conductor, ft
Problem: What is the resistance in 1000 feet of 14 Gauge copper wire?
2
Solution: We can use equation (297) but some preliminary calculations are required
first. From tables of properties for copper, we can find ρ
copper
= 5.51E08 Ohmsft.
Also, the crosssectional area of the conductor must be found:
14 Gauge wire has a nominal diameter of 0.06408 inches, or 0.00534 ft
( )
2
2
2
0.00534ft
0.000022ft
4 4
d
A
π
π
= = =
Then substituting into equation (297) leads to:
8
2
1000ft
(5.51 10 ohmft) 2.46ohms
0.000022ft
L
R x
A
ρ
−
= = =
Comparing this value to 2.53 ohms obtained from a wire data table shows about a 3%
difference. This small difference can be attributed to the actual versus nominal
dimension, as well as the resistivity of the actual copper used in the wire.
11.4 Equivalent Values for Components in Series and in Parallel
Whenever multiple resistors, capacitors, or inductors are located within the same
electrical circuit, they can be reduced to a single equivalent part using the
following equations. The resulting equivalent value depends on if the parts are in
series, or in parallel.
11.4.1 Resistors in Series
1 2 series n
R R R R = + + + (298)
11.4.2 Resistors in Parallel
1 2
1 1 1 1
parallel n
R R R R
= + + + (299)
where
R = resistance, ohms
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11.4.3 Capacitors in Series
1 2
1 1 1 1
series n
C C C C
= + + + (300)
11.4.4 Capacitors in Parallel
1 2 parallel n
C C C C = + + + (301)
where
C = capacitance, farads
11.4.5 Inductors in Series
1 2 series n
L L L L = + + + (302)
11.4.6 Inductors in Parallel
1 2
1 1 1 1
parallel n
L L L L
= + + + (303)
where
L = inductance, henries
Problem: What is the equivalent resistance (in ohms) of three resistors, 1 ohm, 2
ohms and 3 ohms, in series, and in parallel?
Series Solution:
1ohms 2ohms 3ohms = 6ohms
series
R = + +
Parallel Solution:
1
1 1 1 1
1.833ohms
1ohms 2ohms 3ohms
parallel
R
−
= + + =
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To solve for R
parallel
take the reciprocal, which leads to R
parallel
= 0.545 ohms
Note: The same approach that is used for resistors is used for inductors; that is the
same math, just different units. However, capacitor formulas are “flipped” when
compared to resistors and inductors.
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Ergonomics
12 Ergonomics
12.1 Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation
Per the Applications Manual for the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation (1994), the
recommended weight limit (RWL) is the principal product of the revised NIOSH
lifting equation. The RWL is defined for a specific set of task conditions as the
weight of the load that nearly all healthy workers could perform over a substantial
period of time (e.g., up to 8 hours) without an increased risk of developing lifting
related lower back pain. The RWL is defined by the following equation:
RWL LC x HM xVM x DM x AM x FM xCM = (304)
where
RWL = recommended weight limit
LC = load constant
HM = horizontal multiplier
VM = vertical multiplier
DM = distance multiplier
AM = asymmetric multiplier
FM = frequency multiplier
CM = coupling multiplier
Substituting appropriate values from the Applications Manual for the Revised
NIOSH Lifting Equation, equation (304) can be written:
( ) ( )   ( )( )( )
10 1.8
( ) 51 1 0.0075 30 0.82 1 0.0032 RWL lb V A FM CM
H D
= − − + −
   (
 
(
\ . ¸ \ .¸
(305)
and
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( ) ( )   ( )( )( )
25 4.5
( ) 23 1 0.003 75 0.82 1 0.0032 RWL kg V A FM CM
H D
= − − + −
   (
 
(
\ . ¸ \ .¸
(306)
where
H = horizontal location, measured from the midpoint of the line joining
the inner ankle bones to a point projected on the floor directly below the
midpoint of the hand grasps, inches (English) or cm (Metric)
V = vertical location, defined as the vertical height of the hands above the
floor. V is measured vertically from the floor to the midpoint between the
hand grasps, inches (English) or cm (Metric)
D = vertical travel distance, defined as the vertical travel distance of the
hands between the origin and destination of the lift, inches (English) or cm
(Metric)
A = asymmetric angle, defined as the angle between the asymmetry line
and the midsagittal line, degrees
FM = frequency multiplier (see table below)
CM = coupling multiplier (see table below)
Coupling Multiplier (CM) Table
Coupling Type
Coupling Multiplier
V < 30 inches (75 cm) V ≥ 30 inches (75 cm)
Good 1.00 1.00
Fair 0.95 1.00
Poor 0.90 0.90
Frequency Multiplier (FM) Table
Frequency
Lifts/min
(F)
Work Duration
‡
≤ 1 Hour > 1 but ≤ 2 Hours > 2 but ≤ 8 Hours
V < 30 in. V ≥ 30 in.
†
V < 30 in. V ≥ 30 in. V < 30 in. V ≥ 30 in.
≤ 0.2 1.00 1.00 0.95 0.95 0.85 0.85
0.5 0.97 0.97 0.92 0.92 0.81 0.81
1 0.94 0.94 0.88 0.88 0.75 0.75
2 0.91 0.91 0.84 0.84 0.65 0.65
3 0.88 0.88 0.79 0.79 0.55 0.55
4 0.84 0.84 0.72 0.72 0.45 0.45
5 0.80 0.80 0.60 0.60 0.35 0.35
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6 0.75 0.75 0.50 0.50 0.27 0.27
7 0.60 0.70 0.42 0.42 0.22 0.22
8 0.52 0.60 0.35 0.35 0.18 0.18
9 0.45 0.52 0.30 0.30 0.00 0.15
10 0.41 0.45 0.26 0.26 0.00 0.13
11 0.37 0.41 0.00 0.23 0.00 0.00
12 0.00 0.37 0.00 0.21 0.00 0.00
13 0.00 0.34 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
14 0.00 0.31 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
15 0.00 0.28 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
>15 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
†
Values for V are inches.
‡
For lifting less frequently than once per five minutes, set F = 0.2 Lifts/min.
Problem: During his shift, a worker at a printing machine must occasionally lift a roll of
paper stock and place it into the paper receiver. The rolls weigh 40 lbs each and are
30 inches in diameter and initially located on the floor. The grab points are the center
of the roll, so the lifting point is 15 inches above the floor. The final placement height of
the center of the roll is 63 inches above the floor. The horizontal distance from the roll’s
initial and final location is 23 inches. Calculate the recommended weight limit (RWL) for
the original location of this task.
Solution: From the data given, and the tables above, we can determine the following
multipliers:
• H = 23 inches
• V = 15 inches
• D = 48 inches
• A = 0 (assume no asymmetric movement)
• FM =1.0 (from frequency table footnote)
• CM =0.95 (from coupling table, assume the coupling is “fair”)
Then using equation (305) for English units:
( )
( )
( )  
( )
( )( )( )
10 1.8
( ) 51 1 0.0075 30 0.82 1 0.0032 RWL lb V A FM CM
H D
= − − + −
(
(
¸ ¸
( )
( )
( )  
( )
( ) ( )( )( )
10 1.8
( ) 51 1 0.0075 15 30 0.82 1 0.0032 1 .95
23 48
0 16 lbs RWL lb = − − + −
(
=
(
¸ ¸
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12.1.1 Lifting Index
The Lifting Index (LI) provides a relative estimate of the physical stress
associated with a manual lifting job. Per NIOSH, the lifting index may be used to
identify potentially hazardous lifting jobs or to compare the relative severity of
two jobs for the purpose of evaluating and redesigning them. From the NIOSH
perspective, it is likely that lifting tasks with a LI > 1.0 pose an increased risk for
liftingrelated low back pain for some fraction of the workforce. Hence, the goal
should be to design all lifting jobs to achieve a LI of 1.0 or less. The Lifting Index
is calculated as follows:
L
LI
RWL
= (307)
where
LI = Lifting Index
L = load weight
RWL = recommended weight limit, calculated using equations above
Note: In equation (307), any weight measure can be used, as long as L and RWL
are in the same units.
Problem: Based on the data and the RWL calculated above, determine the Lifting
Index for the task.
Solution:
40 lbs
2.5
16 lbs
L
LI
RWL
= = =
Therefore, the actual load is nearly 21/2 times the recommended weight limit
indicating this lifting task would be hazardous for a majority of healthy industrial
workers.
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12.2 Heat Stress and Relative Humidity
12.2.1 Wet Bulb Globe Temperature
The Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) is a composite temperature used to
estimate the heat stress effect of temperature, humidity, wind speed, and solar
heating on people. WBGT values are calculated by the following equations:
Indoor WBGT (or outdoors with no solar load)
0.7 0.3
WB GT
WBGT T T = + (308)
Outdoor WBGT (with a solar load)
0.7 0.2 0.1
WB GT DB
WBGT T T T = + + (309)
where
WBGT = wet bulb globe temperature,
o
F or
o
T
C
WB
= wetbulb temperature,
o
F or
o
T
C
GT
= globe temperature,
o
F or
o
T
C
DB
= drybulb temperature,
o
F or
o
For a description of these temperatures, see Section 14.
C
Problem: What is the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) at a sunny location if a wet
bulb temperature is 85
o
F, the globe temperature is 94
o
F, and the dry blub temperature
is 90
o
F?
Solution: Since we are evaluating a sunny day, we use equation (309).
( ) ( ) ( )
o o o o
0.7 0.2 0.1 0.7 85 F 0.2 94 F 0.1 90 F 87 F
WB GT DB
WBGT T T T = + + = + + =
Important: Note that when you do not include the solar load you do not simply drop the
dry bulb measurement; the globe temperature multiplier is different. Compare equations
(308) and (309).
Common psychrometric charts graphically illustrate the relationships between air
temperature and relative humidity, as well as other properties of air.
Psychrometric charts are versatile; by knowing just two properties of air, various
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other properties can quickly be determined. See Section 14 for more info and
example of their use.
12.2.2 Heat Storage by Body
The thermal (heat) balance within a human body can be mathematically described
as follows:
M W E R C K S − = + + + + (310)
where
M = metabolic energy (heat) production, Btu/hr
W = external work rate, Btu/hr
E = evaporative heat change, Btu/hr
R = radiant heat change, Btu/hr
C = convective heat change, Btu/hr
K = conductive heat change, Btu/hr
S = energy (heat) storage rate by the body, Btu/hr
The term MW is always positive.
The conductive heat change (K) is typically small and, if so, can be ignored. In
such cases equation (310)can be written:
( ) S M W C R E ∆ = − ± ± − (311)
Note that as suggested by equation (311), the convective and radiative changes
can be positive or negative (i.e., gains or losses). Evaporative changes are losses.
Assuming no net change in the storage of energy (heat) in the body (i.e., S=0),
and no work is done (i.e., W=0) equation (311) can be rearranged to find the
evaporative cooling required to offset the metabolic, convective and radiative
changes:
req
E M C R = + + (312)
where
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E
req
Problem: A worker is conducting light work such that metabolic heat production minus
the work expended is 650 Btu/hr. If the worker has a local fan that provides 50 Btu/hr
of convective cooling, local equipment that causes a radiant heat gain of 125 Btu/hr,
and an evaporative heat loss of 250 BTU/hr, what is the worker’s net heat gain?
= steady state evaporative heat loss, Btu/hr
Solution:
( ) ( ) 650 50 125 250 475Btu/hr S M W C R E ∆ = − ± ± − = − + − =
12.2.2.1 Convective Heat Gain/Loss by Body
The convective heat change can be calculated using the following equation:
( )
0.6
0.65 95
a
C v T = − (313)
where
C = convective heat change, Btu/hr
v = air velocity, ft/min
T
a
= air temperature,
o
95 = mean weighted skin temperature,
F
o
Problem: What is the convective cooling of an outside worker who is exposed to a
temperature of 75
F
o
F and 15 mph winds?
Solution: Equation (313) uses an air speed in ft/min, so the wind speed must be
converted from mph to ft/min.
( )
( )
0.6
0.6
0.65 95
15 miles 5280 ft 1 hour
0.65 75 95 969 Btu/hr
hr mile 60 min
a
C v T
C
= −
 
= − = −

\ .
12.2.2.2 Radiant Heat Gain/Loss by Body
The radiative heat change can be calculated using the following equation:
( ) 15 95
r
R T = − (314)
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where
R = radiative heat change, Btu/hr
15 = constant
T
r
= mean radiant temperature,
o
95 = mean weighted skin temperature,
F
o
Problem: A worker is located in an area with production equipment that creates an
average radiant environment of 110
F
o
F. What is the radiant heat gain of a worker in this
area?
Solution:
( ) ( ) 15 95 15 110 95 225 Btu/hr
r
R T = − = − =
12.2.2.3 Maximum Evaporative Heat Loss
The maximum evaporative heat loss formula quantifies the amount of heat that is
lost from the body through evaporative cooling.
( )
0.6
max
2.4 42
w
E v vp = − (315)
where
E
max
2.4 = constant
= evaporative heat loss, Btu/hr
v = air velocity, ft/min
42 = vapor pressure of water at 95
o
vp
F skin temperature, mmHg
w
Problem: What is the maximum evaporative loss of an outside worker who is exposed
to a temperature of 75
= vapor pressure of water at ambient temperature, mmHg
o
F and 15 mph winds?
Solution: Equation (315) requires the vapor pressure of water. Assuming an effective
temperature that is between the body temperature and the ambient air, tables of water
pressure can be consulted to find a water vapor pressure of 32 mmHg. Then applying
equation (315) leads to:
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( )
( )
0.6
max
0.6
max
2.4 42
15 miles 5280 ft 1 hour
2.4 42 32 1789 Btu/hr
hr mile 60 min
w
E v vp
E
= −
= − =
 

\ .
12.2.3 Heat Stress Index
The heat stress index (HSI) is one method of quantifying thermal stress. As can be
seen in the following equation, it is simply the ratio of the steady state evaporative
cooling to the maximum possible evaporative cooling, expressed as a percentage,
max
100
req
E
HSI x
E
= (316)
where
HSI = heat stress index, non dimensional
E
req
E
= steady state evaporative heat loss, Btu/hr (see equation (312))
max
Problem: A worker has a maximum evaporative loss of 1789 Btu/hr. Calculate the Heat
Stress Index (HSI) if a worker requires an evaporative heat loss of 475 Btu/hr.
= evaporative heat loss, Btu/hr
Solution:
max
475 Btu/hr
100 x 100 = 27%
1789 Btu/hr
req
E
HSI x
E
= =
12.2.4 Ventilation of Sensible Heat
Sensible heat
First, recalling from thermodynamics, the heat capacity of a system can be
defined by:
is the heat which results in a temperature change only when a
transfer takes place. For example, sensible heat is produced by a heating system
or is removed by a refrigeration system. The volume of air required to dissipate
the sensible heat load can be calculated in the following manner.
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p
E mc T = ∆
(317)
where
E
= energy change in the system, Btu/min
m = mass rate of the system, lbs/min
c
p
= specific heat of the system, Btu/lb
o
F (0.24 Btu/lb
o
ΔT = change in temperature,
F)
o
The mass flow rate can be found by:
F
s a
m Q ρ = ⋅ (318)
where
Q
s
= volumetric flow rate of sensible air, ft
3
ρ
/min
a
= density of air, lb/ft
3
(0.075 lb/ft
3
Combining equations (317) and (318) and defining
)
E
as the sensible heat, H
s
,
leads to:
(60min/hr)
s s a p
H Q c T ρ = ∆ ⋅ (319)
Note the 60 min/hr conversion is required since Qs has units of ft
3
Rearranging to solve for Q
/min, and Hs
has units of Btu/hr.
s
, and substituting values for c
p
and ρ
a
, leads to:
1.08
s
s
H
Q
T
=
∆
(320)
This is sometimes written as:
( )
(Btu/hr)
1.08
Total Sensible Heat
cfm
T
=
∆
(321)
Problem: Determine the volumetric air flow rate (cfm) required to limit an area with an
industrial oven that produces 25,000 Btu/hr of heat to a 10
o
F degree temperature rise.
Solution:
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( )
( )
o
(Btu/hr) 25,000 Btu/hr
= 2315 cfm
1.08 1.08 10 F
Total Sensible Heat
cfm
T
= =
∆
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Statistical Tables
13 Statistical Tables
The following statistical tables are provided on the following pages:
• Area Under the Standard Normal Curve from 0 to Z
• Table of Percentage Points of the t Distribution
• Upper Percentage Points of the χ
2
Distribution
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Area Under the Standard Normal Curve
from 0 to Z
Z 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0.0 0.0000 0.0040 0.0080 0.0120 0.0160 0.0199 0.0239 0.0279 0.0319 0.0359
0.1 0.0398 0.0438 0.0478 0.0517 0.0557 0.0596 0.0636 0.0675 0.0714 0.0753
0.2 0.0793 0.0832 0.0871 0.0910 0.0948 0.0987 0.1026 0.1064 0.1103 0.1141
0.3 0.1179 0.1217 0.1255 0.1293 0.1331 0.1368 0.1406 0.1443 0.1480 0.1517
0.4 0.1554 0.1591 0.1628 0.1664 0.1700 0.1736 0.1772 0.1808 0.1844 0.1879
0.5 0.1915 0.1950 0.1985 0.2019 0.2054 0.2088 0.2123 0.2157 0.2190 0.2224
0.6 0.2257 0.2291 0.2324 0.2357 0.2389 0.2422 0.2454 0.2486 0.2517 0.2549
0.7 0.2580 0.2611 0.2642 0.2673 0.2704 0.2734 0.2764 0.2794 0.2823 0.2852
0.8 0.2881 0.2910 0.2939 0.2967 0.2995 0.3023 0.3051 0.3078 0.3106 0.3133
0.9 0.3159 0.3186 0.3212 0.3238 0.3264 0.3289 0.3315 0.3340 0.3365 0.3389
1.0 0.3413 0.3438 0.3461 0.3485 0.3508 0.3531 0.3554 0.3577 0.3599 0.3621
1.1 0.3643 0.3665 0.3686 0.3708 0.3729 0.3749 0.3770 0.3790 0.3810 0.3830
1.2 0.3849 0.3869 0.3888 0.3907 0.3925 0.3944 0.3962 0.3980 0.3997 0.4015
1.3 0.4032 0.4049 0.4066 0.4082 0.4099 0.4115 0.4131 0.4147 0.4162 0.4177
1.4 0.4192 0.4207 0.4222 0.4236 0.4251 0.4265 0.4279 0.4292 0.4306 0.4319
1.5 0.4332 0.4345 0.4357 0.4370 0.4382 0.4394 0.4406 0.4418 0.4429 0.4441
1.6 0.4452 0.4463 0.4474 0.4484 0.4495 0.4505 0.4515 0.4525 0.4535 0.4545
1.7 0.4554 0.4564 0.4573 0.4582 0.4591 0.4599 0.4608 0.4616 0.4625 0.4633
1.8 0.4641 0.4649 0.4656 0.4664 0.4671 0.4678 0.4686 0.4693 0.4699 0.4706
1.9 0.4713 0.4719 0.4726 0.4732 0.4738 0.4744 0.4750 0.4756 0.4761 0.4767
2.0 0.4772 0.4778 0.4783 0.4788 0.4793 0.4798 0.4803 0.4808 0.4812 0.4817
2.1 0.4821 0.4826 0.4830 0.4834 0.4838 0.4842 0.4846 0.4850 0.4854 0.4857
2.2 0.4861 0.4864 0.4868 0.4871 0.4875 0.4878 0.4881 0.4884 0.4887 0.4890
2.3 0.4893 0.4896 0.4898 0.4901 0.4904 0.4906 0.4909 0.4911 0.4913 0.4916
2.4 0.4918 0.4920 0.4922 0.4925 0.4927 0.4929 0.4931 0.4932 0.4934 0.4936
2.5 0.4938 0.4940 0.4941 0.4943 0.4945 0.4946 0.4948 0.4949 0.4951 0.4952
2.6 0.4953 0.4955 0.4956 0.4957 0.4959 0.4960 0.4961 0.4962 0.4963 0.4964
2.7 0.4965 0.4966 0.4967 0.4968 0.4969 0.4970 0.4971 0.4972 0.4973 0.4974
2.8 0.4974 0.4975 0.4976 0.4977 0.4977 0.4978 0.4979 0.4979 0.4980 0.4981
2.9 0.4981 0.4982 0.4982 0.4983 0.4984 0.4984 0.4985 0.4985 0.4986 0.4986
3.0 0.4987 0.4987 0.4987 0.4988 0.4988 0.4989 0.4989 0.4989 0.4990 0.4990
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Table of Percentage Points of the t Distribution
TwoSided
OneSided
Degrees of
Freedom
Probability
0.25
(one tail)
0.1
(one tail)
0.05
(one tail)
0.025
(one tail)
0.01
(one tail)
0.50
(two tail)
0.2
(two tail)
0.10
(two tail)
0.050
(two tail)
0.02
(two tail)
1 1.000 3.078 6.314 12.706 31.821
2 0.816 1.886 2.920 4.303 6.965
3 0.765 1.638 2.353 3.182 4.541
4 0.741 1.533 2.132 2.776 3.747
5 0.727 1.476 2.015 2.571 3.365
6 0.718 1.440 1.943 2.447 3.143
7 0.711 1.415 1.895 2.365 2.998
8 0.706 1.397 1.860 2.306 2.896
9 0.703 1.383 1.833 2.262 2.821
10 0.700 1.372 1.812 2.228 2.764
15 0.691 1.341 1.753 2.131 2.602
20 0.687 1.325 1.725 2.086 2.528
25 0.684 1.316 1.708 2.060 2.485
30 0.683 1.310 1.697 2.042 2.457
∞ 0.674 1.282 1.645 1.960 2.326
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Upper Percentage Points of the χ
2
Distribution
Degrees of
Freedom
Probability
0.99 0.95 0.90 0.10 0.05 0.01
1 0.000 0.004 0.016 2.706 3.841 6.635
2 0.020 0.103 0.211 4.605 5.991 9.210
3 0.115 0.352 0.584 6.251 7.815 11.345
4 0.297 0.711 1.064 7.779 9.488 13.277
5 0.554 1.145 1.610 9.236 11.070 15.086
6 0.872 1.635 2.204 10.645 12.592 16.812
7 1.239 2.167 2.833 12.017 14.067 18.475
8 1.646 2.733 3.490 13.362 15.507 20.090
9 2.088 3.325 4.168 14.684 16.919 21.666
10 2.558 3.940 4.865 15.987 18.307 23.209
11 3.053 4.575 5.578 17.275 19.675 24.725
12 3.571 5.226 6.304 18.549 21.026 26.217
13 4.107 5.892 7.042 19.812 22.362 27.688
14 4.660 6.571 7.790 21.064 23.685 29.141
15 5.229 7.261 8.547 22.307 24.996 30.578
20 8.260 10.851 12.443 28.412 31.410 37.566
25 11.524 14.611 16.473 34.382 37.652 44.314
30 14.953 18.493 20.599 40.256 43.773 50.892
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Psychrometric Charts
14 Psychrometric Charts
Psychrometrics refers to the properties of gasvapor mixtures, including air.
Common psychrometric charts (see example below) graphically illustrate the
relationships between air temperature and relative humidity as well as other
properties of air. Psychrometric charts are versatile; by knowing just two
properties of air, various other properties can quickly be determined.
14.1 Basic Definitions of Air
1. Atmospheric Air
Atmospheric air is the air we breathe and use for normal ventilation. Air is
primarily comprised of nitrogen and oxygen and small amounts of carbon
dioxide, water vapor, and other gases. Miscellaneous contaminants such
as dust, pollen, smoke, etc., may also be encountered depending on air
quality.
2. Dry Air
Dry air exists when all of the contaminants and water vapor have been
removed from atmospheric air. By volume, dry air contains about 78
percent nitrogen, 21 percent oxygen, and 1 percent other gases. Dry air is
used as the reference in psychrometrics.
3. Moist Air
Moist air is a mixture of dry air and water vapor. Due to the variability of
atmospheric air, the terms dry air and moist air are used in psychrometrics.
For practical purposes, moist air and atmospheric air can be considered
equal under the range of conditions normally encountered.
14.2 Basic Definitions of Air Temperature
1. Dry Bulb Temperature
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Dry bulb temperature is the air temperature determined by an ordinary
thermometer. The dry bulb temperature scale is located at the base of the
chart and the vertical lines indicate constant dry bulb temperature.
2. Wet Bulb Temperature
Wet bulb temperature reflects the cooling effect of evaporating water.
Wet bulb temperature can be determined by passing air over a
thermometer that has been wrapped with a small amount of moist cloth.
The cooling effect of the evaporating water causes a lower temperature
compared to the dry bulb air temperature. The wet bulb temperature scale
is located along the curved upper left portion of the chart. The sloping
lines indicate equal wet bulb temperatures.
3. Globe Temperature
Globe temperature is a measure of the radiant and convective temperature
and is usually measured with what it known as a globe (or black globe)
thermometer. This is a normal dry bulb thermometer encased in a 150mm
diameter matteblack copper sphere whose absorptivity approaches that of
the skin.
4. Dew Point Temperature
Dew point temperature is the temperature below which moisture will
condense out of air. Air that is holding as much water vapor as possible is
saturated, or at its dew point. Water will condense on a surface that is at or
below the dew point temperature of the air. The dew point temperature
scale is located along the same curved portion of the chart as the wet bulb
temperature scale. However, horizontal lines indicate equal dew point
temperatures.
14.3 Relative Humidity
Relative humidity is a measure of how much moisture is present compared to how
much moisture the air could hold at that temperature. Relative humidity is
expressed as a percent. Lines of equal relative humidity curve from the lower left
to the upper right of the psychrometric chart. The 100 percent relative humidity
(saturation) line corresponds to the wet bulb and the dew point temperature scale
line. The line for zero percent relative humidity falls along the dry bulb
temperature scale line.
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Problem: Air is known to be at 80°F (dry bulb) and 50 percent relative humidity. What
are the wet bulb and dew point temperatures of this air?
Solution: First, locate the intersection of the 80°F dry bulb temperature line and the 50
percent relative humidity curve. From this intersection, follow the appropriate lines to
the correct scales and find:
1. Wet bulb temperature = 67°F
2. Dew point temperature = 59°F
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5
9
0
9
5
D E W P O I N T  ° F
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Constant and Conversion
15 Constants and Conversions
15.1 Length
1 inch = 2.54 cm
1 foot = 30.48 cm = 0.3048 m
1 meter = 3.28 ft
1 mile = 5,280 ft
1 micron = 10
4
15.2 Volume
cm
1 molar volume = 1 grammole (at 0°C and 1 atm) = 22.4 L
1 molar volume = 1 grammole (at 25°C and 1 atm) = 24.45 L
1 ft
3
= 28.32 L = 7.481 U.S. gal = 0.0283 m
1 m
3
3
= 35.31 ft
1 L = 1.0566 qt = 61.02 in
3
3
= 0.03531 ft
15.3 Weight & Mass
3
1 lb = 453.6 grams
1 kg = 2.2 lb
1 gram = 15.43 grains
15.4 Pressure
1 atm = 14.7 psi = 760 mm Hg = 29.92 in. Hg = 33.93 ft water = 406.78 in. water
= 1013.25 mbar = 101,325 pascals = 760 torr
15.5 Temperature
°F = 9/5(°C) + 32
°C = (°F  32)/1.8
°R = °F + 460
K = °C + 273
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15.6 Angles
1 radian = 180
o
15.7 Density of Water
/π
density of water = 1 gram/cm
3
= 1.94 slugs/ft
weight density of water = 62.4 lb/ft
3
15.8 Density of Air
3
density of air (at 0°C and 1 atm) = 0.29 g/L
density of air (at 20°C and 1 atm) = 1.204 kg/m
density of air (at 70
3
o
F and 1 atm) = 0.075 lb/ft
3
15.9 Energy
1 BTU = 1054.8 joules = 0.293 watthr
1 gramcalorie = 4.184 joules
1 faraday = 9.65 x 10
4
1 watt = 1 joule/sec = 1 ampere x 1 volt
coulombs
1 kwh = 3.6 x 10
6
15.10 Radiation
joules
1 becquerel = 1 disintegration/sec
1 currie = 3.7 x 10
10
1 rad = 102 gray (1 gray = 100 rad)
becquerel = 2.2x1012 dpm
1 rem = 102 sievert (1 sievert = 100 rem)
15.11 Light
1 candela = 1 lumen/steradian
1 footcandle = 10.76 candela/m
2
15.12 Magnetic Fields
= 10.76 lux
1 tesla = 10,000 gauss
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15.13 Physical Constants
speed of sound in air (at 20°C) = 1125 ft/sec = 344 m/sec
speed of light = 3 x 10
8
Planck's constant = 6.626 x 10
m/sec
27
ergsec = 6.626 x 10
34
Avogadro's number = 6.024 x 10
joulesec
23
gas constant, R = 8.314 J/mole K = 0.082 L atm/moleK = 10.731 ft
/grammole
3
acceleration of gravity, g = 9.81 m/ sec
psi/°Rlb
mol
2
= 981 cm/sec
2
= 32 ft/sec
2
15.14 Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)
STP (Physical Sciences) = 0
o
STP (Ventilation) = 70
C at 1 atm
o
STP (Industrial Hygiene) = 25
F at 1 atm
o
15.15 Miscellaneous
C at 1 atm
Effective area of filter, A
c
= 385 mm for 25 mm filter
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Study Problems
16 Study Problems
The following study problems can be solved with formulas and information
contained in this book. Solutions are provided in the following section. The
sample problems focus on the mathematical skills required to solve all the
formulas in this book, and others encountered in industrial hygiene and safety.
The final examination, required for the issuance of CEUs, will be similar to those
contained in this section, as well as those in other sections of this book. You
should be comfortable solving these problems before requesting a final exam.
Problem 1
Calculate the volumetric flow rate in an 12inch round flanged hood if the static
pressure is 1.75 in. wc, the hood entry floss factor is 0.50 and the duct is moving
air with a density factor or 0.95.
Problem 2
Calculate the combined sound pressure level created by four sources measured at
82 dB, 85 dB, 90 dB and 90 dB.
Problem 3
What volumetric flow rate is required in a 8 inch round plain duct hood located 1
foot from a location requiring a capture velocity of 150 fpm?
Problem 4
What is the equivalent capacitance (in farads) of three capacitors, 60µF, 40µF,
and 12µF in series, and in parallel?
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Problem 5
At a hazardous materials laboratory, there are four HVAC charcoal filter units to
remove airborne contaminants. If two are required to provide the required filter
capacity, how many combinations of two filter units are provided by the set of
four?
Problem 6
Indicate if each of the following logarithmic expressions is True or False.
a) log log log
b b b
x
x y
y
 
− =

\ .
b)
( )
log log
r
b b
x r x =
Problem 7
Calculate the attenuation of radiation passing through a lead shield that is 3 cm
thick. Assume a linear attenuation coefficient of 0.78 cm
1
Problem 8
and a buildup factor of
1.87.
Simplify the following expression:
( ) ( )
2 5
3 2 4
10z y zy
−
−
−
Problem 9
As part of your annual budget, you need to allocate money to replace a piece of
equipment that has an expected replacement cost of $20,000 in five years. How
much would you have to place into the account each year for 5 years assuming an
annual interest rate of 3%?
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Problem 10
A fan with an 8 inch impeller operates at 1500 RPM to supply 2000 cfm. If the
impeller size and speed are changed to 6 inches and 2500 RPM, what will be the
new flow?
Problem 11
Several water pressure measurements are taken and the following data are
recorded: 75, 82, 101, 93, and 78; all is psi. Assuming a normal distribution, what
is the probability of a reading greater than 110 psi? For the data set in the
problem, assume the arithmetic mean and standard deviation are µ = X = 85.8,
and σ = 10.9, respectively.
Problem 12
A forklift weighs 3980 lbs; what is its mass?
Problem 13
Electrical power to a factory fails an average of 7 times every year (e.g., storms,
high winds, etc.). Calculate the reliability of the power system over a twoweek
period.
Problem 14
A shipping area has a ventilation system that provides 15 air changes per hour
(ACH). What is the concentration of an airborne contaminant after 20 minutes if
the initial concentration is 750 ppm and there is no additional contaminant?
Problem 15
Determine the Lifting Index (LI) for a task that has a RWL of 22.5 pounds and an
actual lifted weight of 20 pounds. Also, what is indicated by the calculated LI?
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Problem 16
Calculate the distance at which the exposure level is exceeded for a 500 W
antenna with an absolute gain of 20. Assume an exposure limit of 10 W/m
2
Problem 17
.
A car is initially traveling at 20 mph and then accelerates at 30 miles/hr
2
Problem 18
for 1.5
miles. How fast is the car now going?
A duct lining material has an absorption coefficient of 0.35. Calculate the
reduction in noise in a 6” by 12” duct.
Problem 19
Calculate the volumetric flow rate in an 8inch round duct from a hood if the hood
static pressure measurement is 2.0 in. wc and the hood entry coefficient is 0.72
(round duct, plain end).
Problem 20
A location has a barometric pressure of 29.10 mmHg and the temperature is 75
o
Problem 21
F.
What is the density correction factor for these conditions?
What is the TLV of a 25/75 mixture of hexane and xylene? Assume the TLV for
hexane is 176 mg/m
3
and the TLV for xylene is 434 mg/m
3
.
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Problem 22
Calculate the heat transfer rate through 4 inches of concrete when one surface is
212
o
F and the other is 70
o
F. Assume the thermal conductivity of the concrete is
0.45 Btu/hrft
o
Problem 23
F
Determine the hazard zone distance for a 0.4 J pulsed laser that has a beam
divergence of 1 x10
3
radians and an emergent beam diameter of 0.5 cm. Assume
the maximum permitted exposure level is 5.0 x 10
7
J/cm
2
Problem 24
.
A worker is exposed to toluene during their work. The TLV for toluene is 50
ppm. If the worker works 8.5 hours in a day, what is the permitted exposure to
toluene?
Problem 25
What is the airborne concentration of asbestos fibers if 500 liters of air are
sampled and the fiber density is 88 f/mm
2
? Assume the effective area of the filter
is 385 mm
2
Problem 26
(25 mm filter).
Calculate the equivalent sound pressure level for the following measurements: 85
dB for 3 hours, 90 dB for 2 hours, and 82 dB for 3 hours.
Problem 27
What is the power density of an electric field with a strength of 500V/m?
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Problem 28
Sound measurements record an average sound pressure level of 92 dB at a
location 5 feet away from a compressor. What is the expected sound pressure
level at 20 feet from the compressor?
Problem 29
Calculate the terminal settling velocity of 130 µm particles in still air. Assume the
density of the particles is 1.15 g/cm
3
. Also, the density of air is 0.0012 g/cm
3
and
its viscosity is 0.000182 Poise. The gravitational acceleration is 980 cm/sec
2
Problem 30
.
Ammonia has a chemical composition of NH
3
yielding a molecular weight of
17.03. Calculate its density in lbs/ft
3
at 0.95 atmospheres and 85
o
Problem 31
F. Hint: See
sample problem in Section 4.1.
Determine the diameter of a laser beam 1.0 km away from a source with an
emergent diameter of 1 cm and a beam divergence of 1 x10
4
Problem 32
radians.
Several water pressure measurements are taken and the following data are
recorded: 75, 82, 101, 93, and 78; all is psi. Calculate the standard deviation (n1)
for the data.
Problem 33
A box that weighs 225 lbs moves along a conveyor at 5 mph; what is its kinetic
energy?
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Problem 34
A fault tree has an event C that will occur if event A occurs or if event A and B
occurs. In Boolean algebra this can be shown as: A + (A · B). Remember, in
Boolean algebra “+" means OR and "·" means AND.
If event A has a frequency of 1.2E6 events/year, and event B has a frequency of
2.3E6 event per year, calculate the frequency of event C.
Problem 35
What is the velocity in an air duct when the velocity pressure recorded is 1.20
in.wc? Assume standard air conditions.
Problem 36
Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) has a chemical formula of C
3
H
8
O, and therefore a
molecular weight of 60. If a concentration of 500 ppm is measured, calculate the
equivalent concentration in mg/m
3
Problem 37
of the IPA in air.
A source of radiation has created a radiation intensity of 500 mR/hr. If three
tenthvalue layers (TVL) of a shielding material are provided, what is the reduced
intensity in mR/hr?
Problem 38
What is the convective cooling of an outside worker who is exposed to a
temperature of 40
o
Problem 39
F and 5 mph winds?
What is the friction loss when 500 gpm is flowing through 50 feet of 2 inch hose?
Assume a HazenWilliams coefficient of 130.
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Problem 40
Calculate the linear correlation coefficient for the following data set.
X Y
3 2
4 3
6 7
Problem 41
Based on ACGIH requirements, what is the allowable exposure time for 82 dBA?
Problem 42
Calculate the hood entry loss factor for a hood with a velocity pressure of 1.50 in.
wc and a hood entry loss of 0.85 in. wc.
Problem 43
Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) evolves at a rate of 1.5 cfm in a room that measures 25’ x
45’ x 9’ high. If an initial concentration is measured at 50 ppm, what will the
concentration of IPA be after 30 minutes of 2500 cfm of dilution air? Assume
K=1 (i.e., Q’=Q).
Problem 44
The lower cutoff frequency of an octave band is 1.414 kHz. Calculate the upper
cutoff frequency and the center frequency.
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Problem 45
Measurements made at two ends of a section of ductwork showed a total pressure
at one location of 1.25 in. wc, and 0.95 in. wc at the other end. What is the head
loss across the section of ductwork?
Problem 46
One pound of ethylene leaks from a cylinder into a room that measures 25 ft wide
by 75 ft long by 9 feet high. Assume ethylene has a density of 0.0786 lbs/ft
3
Problem 47
at
room temperature and pressure. What is the concentration in ppm (assume
uniform mixing and no losses)?
A 1inch valve is opened at the base of a water storage tank. The surface of the
water in the tank is 20 feet above the open valve. What is the velocity and
volumetric flow rate of the water exiting the open valve?
Problem 48
1.25 mCi of Iodine123 (I123) is used to image thyroid cancer. If I123 has a
halflife of 13 hours; what radioactivity will remain in the patient after 5 hours?
Problem 49
Calculate the pH of a solution that has 2.5 grams of HNO
3
in 3.0 liters of
solution. The molecular weight of HNO
3
Problem 50
is 63.01 g/mole.
Two 120 volt power tools have a combined resistance of 60 ohms. What is the
current in the system?
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Solutions to Study Problems
17 Solutions to Study Problems
Solution 1
Use equation (198):
2
12 1.75
4005 4005 3486 cfm
(1 ) 4 12 0.95(1 0.5)
h
h
SP
Q A
df F
π
(
 
= = =
(

+ +
\ .
(
¸ ¸
Solution 2
Use equation (228):
82 85 90 90
10 10 10 10
10log 10 10 10 10 93.9 dB
total
SPL
 
= + + + =

\ .
Solution 3
First, the area of the hood is required in ft
2
:
( )
2
2
2
8 / 12
0.35 ft
4 4
d
A
π
π
= = =
Next, rearranging equation (181) and substituting the appropriate values
provides:
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
10 150 10 1.0 0.35 1552.5 cfm Q V x A = + = + =
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Solution 4
For capacitors in series use equation (300):
1 2
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
0.125/ F
60 F 40 F 12 F
series n
C C C C
µ
µ µ µ
= + + + = + + =
8 F
series
C µ =
For capacitors in parallel use equation (301):
1 2
60 F 40 F 12 F 112 F
parallel n
C C C C µ µ µ µ = + + + = + + =
Solution 5
Use equation (68) with n = 4 and k = 2.
! 4!
6
!( )! 2!(4 2)!
n
k
n
C
k n k
= = =
− −
Solution 6
Both are true. See Section 1.4
Solution 7
Rearranging equation (268) leads to:
1
0.78 3
1.87 0.18 = 18%
x cm cm
o
I
Be e
I
µ
−
− −
= = =
Since I is 18% of I
o
, the attenuation is 82%.
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Solution 8
Using the rules in section 1.3, simplify as follows:
( ) ( )
2 5
3 2 4 6 4 5 20 24
24
100
10 100 100
z
z y zy z y z y zy
y
−
− − − − −
− = = =
Solution 9
Use equation (78) to find the answer to this question:
( ) ( )
5
0.03
$20, 000 $3, 767
1 1 1 0.03 1
n
i
A F
i
( (
= = = ( (
+ − + −
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
Solution 10
Use equation (221):
3
3
2 2
2 1
1 1
6 2500
2000 1406 cfm
8 1500
Size RPM
Q Q
Size RPM
   
   
= = =
   
\ . \ .
\ . \ .
Solution 11
First calculate the zscore. The formula for the zscore is given in equation (58).
110 85.8
2.22
10.9
X
z
µ
σ
− −
= = =
Now, going to a zscore table (see Section 13), find the area under the curve from
0 to 2.22 is .4868. However, the value beyond z = 2.22 is desired, so subtract the
zscore from 0.5 (i.e., ½ of 1) and the answer is:
0.5 0.4868 0.0132 1.32% − = =
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Solution 12
Rearranging equation (108):
2
3980lbs
123.6slugs
32.2ft/sec
W
m
g
= = =
Solution 13
Use equation (71):
( )
7failures
52weeks
2weeks
0.76
t
R t e e
λ
 

\ .
−
−
= = =
Based on this calculation, the power supply system has a reliability of only about
76% so there is about a 24% probability of electrical system failure in a two week
period.
Solution 14
Use equation (217):
( )
( )( ) 20/60 hr 15 ACH
0

750 ppm 5.0 ppm
tN
C C e e
−
= = =
Solution 15
Use equation (307):
20 lbs
0.89
22.5 lbs
L
LI
RWL
= = =
Therefore, the Lift Index indicates this lifting task would not be hazardous for a
majority of healthy industrial workers.
Solution 16
Substituting values into equation (279) leads to:
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( )( )
( )
1/ 2
1/ 2
2
500W 20
8.9m
4 4 10W/m
PG
r
EL π π
 
 
 = = =


\ .
\ .
( )( ) 8.9 m 3.28 ft/m = 29.3 ft
Solution 17
Using equation (121) and solving for v:
2 2
2
o
v v as = +
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2
20 mi/hr 2 30 mi/hr 1.5 mi 490 mi /hr
490 mi /hr
22.1 mph
v
v
v
= + ⋅ =
=
=
Solution 18
Equation (239) provides the solution in dB/ft, so substitute values into the
equation to find:
( )( )
1.4
1.4
12.6 2 6 2 12 0.35
12.6
1.45 dB/ft
6 12
P
NR
A
α
⋅ + ⋅
= = =
⋅
Solution 19
Use equation (196):
( )
2
8
4005 4005 0.72 2.0 1423 cfm
4 12
e h
Q C A SP
π
(
 
= = =
(

\ .
(
¸ ¸
Solution 20
Use equation (172):
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530 530 29.10
0.96
460 29.92 75 460 29.92
BP
df
T
       
= ⋅ = ⋅ =
   
+ +
\ . \ . \ . \ .
Solution 21
Substituting into equation (91) yields:
3
1 2
3 3
1 2
1 1
317.6mg/m
.25 .75
176mg/m 434mg/m
mix
TLV
F F
TLV TLV
= = =
+ +
Solution 22
Use equation (150):
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
o
1 2 o 2
1 2
212 70 F
0.45 Btu/hrft F 191.7 Btu/hrft
4 / 12 ft
T T
q
k
A x x
−
−
= = =
−
Solution 23
Use equation (286):
( )
( )
( )
1/ 2
1/ 2
2
2 6
3 7
4 0.4
1 4 1
0.5 1.0x10 cm = 10 km
10 5x10
NHZ
r a
EL φ π π
−
 
Φ  
 = − = − =


\ .
\ .
Solution 24
First calculate the reduction factor for one day based on the hours worked using
equation (94):
8 24 8 24 8.5
0.91
16 8.5 16
day
h
RF x x
h
− −
= = =
Next, multiply the TLV by the reduction factor to determine the adjusted TLV:
( ) 0.91 50ppm 45.5ppm
permitted day
TLV
−
= =
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Solution 25
Applying equation (101) and substituting leads to:
( )( )
2 2
88f/mm 385mm
0.068fibers/mL
1000 1000 500L
c
asb
s
EA
C
V
= = =
⋅
Solution 26
Use equation (232):
10
1
85 90 82
10 10 10
1
1
10log 10
1
10log 10 3 10 2 10 3 86.3 dB
i
L
N
eq i
i
N
eq
i
L t
T
L
T
=
=
   
=
 

\ . \ .
   
= ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ =
 

\ . \ .
∑
∑
Solution 27
Use equation (273):
( )
2
2
2
500V/m
66.3mW/cm
3770 3770
E
PD = = =
Ω
Solution 28
Use equation (227):
1
2 1
2
5 ft
20log 92 dB+20log = 80 dB
20 ft
d
SPL SPL
d
 
 
= + =
 
\ .
\ .
Solution 29
Substituting the given data into equation (105) leads to:
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( )( )
( )
2
2 3
2
980cm/sec 0.0130cm (1.15 0.0012g/cm )
( )
58.1cm/sec
18 18 0.000182g/cmsec
p p a
TS
gd
V
ρ ρ
η
−
−
= = =
Solution 30
First, take equation (81) and multiply each side of the equation by the molecular
weight (MW); to provide:
MW P Vol MW n R T ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
This can be rearranged to:
MW n
MW P R T
Vol
⋅  
⋅ = ⋅

\ .
The term
MW n
Vol
⋅  

\ .
is the density (ρ):
MW P R T ρ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅
Which can be rearranged to solve for d:
MW P
R T
ρ
⋅
=
⋅
Selecting the appropriate value for R (based on the units desired) :
( ) ( )
3
3
17.03 0.95atm
0.041 lbs/ft
0.73ft atm/lb mole R 460 85F
ρ
⋅
= =
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ +
Solution 31
Use equation (285):
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2 2 2 4 5
1 10 1.0 10 10.0 cm
L L
D a r D x φ
−
= + = = + =
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Solution 32
Use equation (45) to solve this problem. The following table assists with the
calculation.
i
x
i
x x −
( )
2
i
x x −
n=5
75
10.8 116.6
82
3.8 14.4
101
15.2 231.0
93
7.2 51.8
78
7.8 60.8
Sum 429
474.8
x 85.8
( )
2
1
1
n
i
i
x x
n
=
−
−
∑
10.9
So, 10.9 psi is the standard deviation of this data.
Solution 33
First, convert weight in pounds to slugs, and speed in mph to ft/sec, and then use
equation (118) to calculate kinetic energy.
2
2 2
225lbs miles ft 1hr
5 5280
32.2ft/sec hr mile 3600sec
. . 187.9 ftlbs
2 2
mv
K E = = =
 
(    
  

(
\ .\ .\ . ¸ ¸
\ .
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Solution 34
Apply the rules of Boolean algebra presented in section 1.7:
A + (A · B) = A, so event C has a frequency of 1.2E06 events per year.
Solution 35
Since this is for air, use equation (170):
4005 4005 1.2 4387 cfm V VP = = =
Solution 36
Rearrange equation (88) as follows:
( )( ) ( )( )
3 3
500 60
/ 1227mg/m
24.45 24.45
ppm MW
mg m = = =
Solution 37
For tenthvalue layer calculations, use equation (264):
3
1 1
500 mR/hr = 0.5 mR/hr
10 10
B
o
I I
   
= =
 
\ . \ .
Solution 38
Equation (313) uses an air speed in ft/min, so the wind speed must be converted
from mph to ft/min.
( )
( )
0.6
0.6
0.65 95
5 miles 5280 ft 1 hour
0.65 40 95 1378 Btu/hr
hr mile 60 min
a
C v T
C
= −
 
= − = −

\ .
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This is a significant amount of cooling.
Solution 39
First, use equation (148) to calculate the friction loss per foot, and then multiply
that by the total length.
( )
( ) ( )
1.85
1.85
1.85 4.87 1.85 4.87
4.52 500gal
4.52
1.86psi/ft
130 2in
d
Q
P
C d
= = =
( )( ) 50ft 1.86psi/ft 93psi
total
P = =
Note: Generally you want to use the actual, not nominal, value of the pipe or hose
diameter. Here the nominal value for the hose diameter is used since no actual
diameter was specified.
Solution 40
Use equation (62); that requires the average of the X and Y values. These are
easily found to be 4.33 and 4, respectively.
x X X = − y Y Y = − xy x y
2
1.33
2
2.00 2.67 1.78 4.00
0.33 1.00 0.33 0.11 1.00
1.67 3.00 5.00 2.78 9.00
∑
8.00 4.67 14.00
( )( )
( )( )
2 2
8.0
0.99
4.67 14.0
xy
r
x y
= = =
∑
∑ ∑
A linear correlation coefficient of 0.99 indicates a very strong positive
relationship between the data. Note: Although this sample problem only uses
three data pairs, the method is typically used for larger data sets.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
208
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Solution 41
Since question is concerned with ACGIH requirements, equation (242) is the
appropriate equation to use.
( ) ( ) 85 82 85
3 3
8 8
16 hours
2 2
L
T
− −
= = =
Solution 42
Rearranging equation (183) and substituting leads to:
1.50 in.wc
1.76
0.85 in.wc
d
h
e
VP
F
h
= = =
Solution 43
Use equation (204), but the final concentration (C
2
) is embedded in this form of
the equation, so solve for C
2
.
( )
2
2 1
1
' '
ln
'
G Q C Q
t t
G Q C V
  −
= − −

−
\ .
( )
( )
2
1.5 2500 2500
ln 30 0
1.5 2500 0.000050 10125
C
 
− ⋅
= − −


−
\ .
( )
( )
2500
30 0
10125 2
1.5 2500
1.5 2500 0.000050
C
e
 
− −

\ .
− ⋅
=
−
2
1.5 2500
0.00061
1.375
C − ⋅
=
( )( )
2
0.00061 1.375 1.5
0.0006 600 ppm
2500
C
−
= = =
−
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
209
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Solution 44
The upper cutoff frequency is given by equation (249):
( )
2 1
2 2 1.414 kHz 2.828 kHz f f = = ⋅ =
The center frequency is given by equation (251):
1
2 2 1.414 kHz 2 kHz
c
f f = = ⋅ =
Solution 45
Combining equations (160) and (161) provides:
1 2 L
TP TP h = +
( ) ( )
1 2
1.25 in.wc 0.95 in.wc = 0.3 in.wc
L
h TP TP = − = −
Solution 46
First, the inverse of the density shows ethylene occupies 12.72 ft
3
( )( )( )
3
6 6
12.72ft
10 10 754ppm
25ft 75ft 9ft
contam
air
V
ppm x x
V
= = =
/lb. Then using
equation (84) leads to:
Solution 47
Use equation (133) and substitute the value for the height and the gravitational
acceleration (32.2 ft/sec
2
) to find the velocity:
( )( )( )
2
2 2 32.2ft/sec 20ft 35.9ft/sec
v
V gh = = =
Next, find the area of the flow by the area of a circle:
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
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( )
2
2
2
1/ 12
0.00545 ft
4 4
d
A
π
π
= = =
The volumetric flow is given by equation (135):
( )( )
2 3
1
0.00545ft 35.9ft/sec = 0.196 ft /sec Q A V = ⋅ =
This can easily be converted to gpm, if desired.
Solution 48
Use equation (260):
( ) ( )
1/2
13 hr
5 hr
0.5 1.25 mCi 0.5 0.96 mCi
T
i
t
A A = = =
Solution 49
First calculate the number of moles of HNO
3
2.5grams
0.0397moles
63.01grams/mole
=
:
Then calculate the molarity of the solution:
0.0397moles
0.0132
3.0liters
M M = =
Finally, use equation (97) to find the pH:
 
10 10
log log 0.0132 1.88 pH H
+
( = − = − =
¸ ¸
Solution 50
Use equation (293):
120volts
2 amps
60ohms
V
I
R
= = =
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
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Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
Ψ
Professional Safety Instruction
PO Box 994 Abingdon, MD 21009 professionalsafetyinstruction.com
© Copyright 2011 by Professional Safety Instruction All rights reserved except that permission is granted to share and distribute this book, unmodified and in its entirety, including this copyright notice, for individual use. For all other uses, no part of this publication may be reproduced in any form without prior written permission of the publisher, Professional Safety Instruction. Notice: Although every reasonable precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, the publisher and authors assume no responsibility for errors or omissions or any liability for damages resulting from the use of the information in this book.
Trademarks CSP is a registered trademark of the Board of Certified Safety Professionals, Inc., CIH is a registered trademark of the American Board of Industrial Hygiene, Inc., and COHNS is a registered trademark of the American Board for Occupational Health Nurses. Professional Safety Instruction is not affiliated with these organizations, and no endorsement is expressed or implied.
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Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
ii
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professionalsafetyinstruction. and COHNSafety credential. Each formula or group of formulas includes a worked example.professionalsafetyinstruction. Although the focus has been on the application of common industrial hygiene and safety formulas. Finally. Earn CEUs: Visit www. this book also provides a valuable resource for those wishing to prepare for their registration exams.com to learn how you can earn valuable CEUs for completing Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety. Developed as part of a continuing education program for busy industrial hygienists and safety professionals.com. iii © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. We have tried to keep the formulas and variables as seen in the equation sheets used for the certification exams. and constants are also included. About Professional Safety Instruction: Professional Safety Instruction has one goal: To be the premier provider of costeffective highquality continuing education for busy industrial hygienists and safety professionals. and recalling the equations. this book is a review of mathematics.com . For more information. CSP. please visit www. this book also shows the mathematical derivation of several important equations from basic principles.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety About this Book: Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety was developed to provide an indepth review of math as it applies to industrial hygiene and safety. The focus is on equations used in certification exams for the CIH. but some changes have been made for clarity or consistency. applying. conversions. Common symbols. The determination of the acceptability of the use of any equation or data presented in this book for addressing any industrial hygiene or safety issue is outside the scope of this work. This approach was taken because of the importance in understanding.
com .Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety iv © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.
.........1 Addition and Subtraction ........................................................... 15 2...........................18 PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS ...........13 CORRELATION COEFFICIENT ................................ 27 2.............................11 CHISQUARED .............................................................................. 11 1.................... 1 SIGNIFICANT FIGURES ................................................................................................. 21 2..................6 CUMULATIVE ERROR ...................................................... 19 2..............19 POISSON DISTRIBUTION ..............................................................................................2 SCIENTIFIC NOTATION .................................................................................2 GEOMETRIC MEAN ......................................................3 Volume ..................................................................................................................20 RELIABILITY ..............9......................................................................................... 33 2................................................................1 1..................................................................................... 5 1...........1 Permutation .............8............................................................................................................. 32 2..........1......... 2 1.....................16 TWOSIDED 95% CONFIDENCE INTERVAL ........9.. 20 2.....................................................................................................3 STANDARD DEVIATION ............................7 BOOLEAN ALGEBRA .............................................................................................. 29 2.................................... 7 1..7 SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL ERROR ................ 10 1.............................2 Combination ...............9 POOLED STANDARD DEVIATION ...............................................................4 LOGARITHM FUNCTIONS .......................................................8 STUDENT’S TTEST ........................................................................9.................................. 15 2..................................................... 32 2..................................................................................... 26 2..........................Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Table of Contents 1 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS ....... 12 2 STATISTICS.......................3 EXPONENTS AND RADICALS ...8.................... 8 1.....18.....8......................................................................14 LOWER CONFIDENCE LIMIT .......15 TWOSIDED 90% CONFIDENCE INTERVAL ............. 10 1......................1........................ 21 2..................... 17 2.......................................... 11 1.....9...............................................................................................5 COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION.............................................................................17 ONESIDED 95% CONFIDENCE INTERVAL...........................................12 SPEARMAN RANK CORRELATION ..................................................com ....................................................................................................................... 36 v © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction................... 25 2.......1 Perimeter ................................................... 10 1...................................... 23 2..........................................................................4 GEOMETRIC STANDARD DEVIATION ................................1 2.......... 3 1........................4 Surface Area ........ 7 1.........................................................................................2 Law of Cosines ............................................................................. 1 1.....................................................................................................................3 Law of Sines............................... 10 1...................... 12 1.......................................................................10 NORMAL DISTRIBUTION Z SCORE......................................................................................................................................................................................6 QUADRATIC FORMULA .............. 35 2..................5 ABSOLUTE VALUE EQUATIONS .....................................................................................2 Multiplication and Division ...................... 33 2....................................................................................................................... 30 2....................................... 11 1........................9 USEFUL EQUATIONS FOR GEOMETRIC SHAPES .........1 Right Triangles ...........................................................................18. 31 2........................... 2 1..... 3 1........................................................................8 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS ........................................................... 34 2........... 15 ARITHMETIC MEAN .......................... 22 2.......2 Area .......
..1................................... 49 4.................................................................................................................. 63 5...6 5............................................................. 53 4...... 75 6............................................................................ 73 6............................................2 5............................. 51 4...... 52 4..............................................1 BeerLambert Law (Beer’s Law).....9 5...........................................14...............9 THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE (TLV) OF LIQUIDS .................................... 52 4..............12 REDUCTION FACTOR – DAY................ 60 4............. 64 WORK .....................................10 NEWTON’S SECOND LAW .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 54 4...................................................4 Base Dissociation Constant ......4 DALTON’S LAW OF PARTIAL PRESSURE (GAS) & RAOULT’S LAW (LIQUIDS) ....................................................................... 64 MOMENTUM ......... 46 4..............................................15.................................................... 57 4.........................................................................................................................6 CONVERSION FOR AIRBORNE CONCENTRATIONS: PPM (TO/FROM) MG/M3 .......................................................11 VAPORHAZARD RATIO ..........15.......................... 68 KINETIC ENERGY ..................Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 3 4 ENGINEERING ECONOMICS ...................2 Velocity Pressure ...........................................................................5 5..................................... 66 POTENTIAL ENERGY ............... 43 4..........................14............................................................................................................. 67 HOOKE’S LAW AND THE POTENTIAL ENERGY OF A SPRING .....15 ASBESTOS (AIRBORNE CONTAMINANT)..2 pH Calculation ............................................... 59 4....... 66 FRICTION ................... 58 4.......4 5.....................................2 BERNOULLI’S THEOREM .. 50 4.......... 57 4..................................................................8 THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE (TLV) OF AIRBORNE MIXTURE .. 58 4..................2 CONCENTRATION OF VAPORS AND GASES ................2 Asbestos Fiber Concentration ................................1 Static Pressure ........1 Asbestos Fiber Concentration by PCM .........................................15...........................................................10 LE CHATELIER’S RULE ....................... 76 vi © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction............8 5.................................................1 Reynolds Number .. 65 MOMENT OF FORCE ....................................................................................com ..1................................................................................................................................ 61 5 MECHANICS ...............................................................1 5............................................................ 45 4.................................................................................... 48 4.................................................................................................................................. 69 RECTILINEAR MOTION ... 53 4.... 47 4..... 69 6 HYDROSTATICS AND HYDRAULICS ...........................14 CHEMISTRY OF SOLUTIONS................................................................. 73 PRESSURE AND FORCE ...................................... 73 6.............14... 55 4................................5 AIRBORNE CONCENTRATION VIA PRESSURE .................................. 43 IDEAL GAS LAW ...3 5................................................... 45 4...........1 6...............14...7 CONVERSION FOR AIRBORNE CONCENTRATIONS: PPM (TO/FROM) G/L .................................... 39 CHEMISTRY AND CONCENTRATIONS .........16..................................3 Acid Dissociation Constant .......................... 49 4..................................13 REDUCTION FACTOR – WEEK .........................................................................7 5.. 56 4..............................................3 AIRBORNE CONCENTRATION VIA VOLUME ................................................................................................................................15.................................16 PARTICLE SETTLING VELOCITY ....................................................................................................3 Fiber Density..........................................................................................................................................................................4 Microscopic Limit of Resolution (Abbe’s Equation) ....................................................... 47 4....................1 4..... 63 WEIGHT ..................................
...................1 Inverse Square Law ............................. 78 6... 113 9 SOUND AND NOISE ...................... 87 8.1 Fan Laws ..........................3.........................................................3 Equivalent Dose ..11 DILUTION TO CONTROL EVAPORATION ........................4 Radioactive Decay ............................................ 90 8........................................................ 99 8.com ..................6 PERCENT NOISE DOSE AND TWA .2..............................9 DILUTION VENTILATION ................................................1............2 HazenWilliams Formula ...........................................................................................................1 Addition of Sound Pressure Levels (SPLs) ........................................................................................................1 Noise Reduction in a Duct ............................................... 95 8..................................................................................10....................12 FAN LAWS AND EQUATIONS ................................................................ 129 9.............................................................................................................. 124 9...............................................1 Density Correction Factor... 81 7 HEAT TRANSFER ................................................................2 SOUND PRESSURE LEVEL (SPL) ...................... 133 10........................................3 SOUND POWER LEVEL ........ 88 8................6 HOOD ENTRY COEFFICIENT AND LOSS ................................. 132 10 RADIATION . 133 IONIZING ..................................................................... 135 10............ 122 9........................................................... 83 RADIATION .......................................................................10 ROOM AIR CHANGES PER HOUR .....................................................2..... 130 9................ 83 7............... 108 8.8 FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF FLOW AND VELOCITY EQUATIONS ................................5 HOOD STATIC PRESSURE .......................... 117 9......9 SOUND FREQUENCY AND WAVELENGTH ..................................................................................................................................4 TRANSMISSION LOSS .........................................2 Time Weighted Equivalent Sound Pressure Level .........................................................................................................................................................1 Dilution Ventilation Based on Room Air Changes ....7 FREQUENCY BY A FAN ................Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 6............................................ 111 8......................... 117 SOUND INTENSITY .......................................... 97 8.............................................1...................................... 83 CONVECTION .................................................................................................................................3 8 CONDUCTION ........................................................................................................... 135 vii © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction... 84 VENTILATION ..2 Gamma Radiation Exposure ..........................................................................................1 8................3 WATER FLOW IN A PIPE ........................................5...... 127 9..............................................................1 7.... 123 9....................................................... 126 9........................................................................................ 79 6.......................................................................................................12........... 93 8.................................................................1....... 87 CONSERVATION OF MASS (THE CONTINUITY EQUATION) ........................................................5 NOISE REDUCTION BY ABSORPTION ............................8 OCTAVE AND THIRDOCTAVE BANDS ...................1.............4 DALLAVALLE EQUATION ............3.2 7....................................................................................................................2 CONSERVATION OF ENERGY ......................................................................... 133 10......................................1 10...............3 DERIVATION OF THE FUNDAMENTAL DUCT FLOW EQUATIONS ............................................................................................................................................. 109 8.......... 125 9............................. 112 8.. 118 9.....................7 CONVERGING DUCT FLOWS AND LOSSES ................................................................. 134 10.... 103 8..........1 Flow – Pressure Relationships ................................................................................... 101 8...........1 9................................................................ 96 8.3....... 119 9...
.........................................................................3 15 BASIC DEFINITIONS OF AIR....................1 11..................................................................1.........2 Resistors in Parallel ................................................................................1 15....................................3 Safe Distance for NonIonizing Radiation .............. 137 10.............................................................2.....................................................................................................................................................1 12........................................................................6 Inductors in Parallel .............. 142 10.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 10.... 148 10..................................................2............................................ 160 11............ 142 10................................................. 153 10.................................................................................................................5 Activity of a Radioactive Element ..................................2.................................................................................................................. 167 12...........................8 Spatial Averaging of Measurements.......................2................................................................... 166 12.............. 157 OHM’S LAW............... 140 10................................................................... 183 WEIGHT & MASS ...................................................... 160 11................................................................... 163 REVISED NIOSH LIFTING EQUATION ............................2.................. 179 14............................................................................................. 157 11................................4 EQUIVALENT VALUES FOR COMPONENTS IN SERIES AND IN PARALLEL ...7 Exponential Rate Attenuation................................................ 147 10.............2........................................7 Lasers ...........2 Field Strength ....1....................................4.........................3 LENGTH ................................................................... 147 10................ 146 10......................4 Ventilation of Sensible Heat .........................9 Time Exposure for NonIonizing Radiation ................... 183 viii © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction................. 158 11...............................................................................5 Electromagnetic Radiation Wavelength and Frequency .....................2.....................4.........................1..... 168 12..................................................2 Heat Storage by Body.......................................................... 141 10.............. 159 11............................1 Absolute Gain (Antenna) ................................. 159 11.................1 Resistors in Series ........... 143 10........................................................................................................... 159 11.............. 160 11.........................4 Capacitors in Parallel ...............2......8 Effective HalfLife ............................. 160 12 ERGONOMICS ....com ............4......2..............................................2 15........................... 167 12.................................... 175 PSYCHROMETRIC CHARTS .................................................6 Radiation Attenuation by Layers .......................................2........ 158 11.................... 171 13 14 STATISTICAL TABLES ................4.................................4 Magnetic Flux Density .............3 RESISTANCE .........................................2 JOULE’S LAW........2...................1 Wet Bulb Globe Temperature.............................................5 Inductors in Series ............... 155 11 ELECTRICITY ................................... 183 15...........2 NONIONIZING ............................................. 179 RELATIVE HUMIDITY ................................................................4.......................4................... 171 12... 183 VOLUME ................ 179 BASIC DEFINITIONS OF AIR TEMPERATURE .............................................. 163 12......................................................................................................................... 137 10............................................................... 145 10.1 14..................................................................... 180 CONSTANTS AND CONVERSIONS ................................1.............2......3 Capacitors in Series ...................................................................................................................................1 Lifting Index ................1....................2 14.....3 Heat Stress Index ...6 Effective Ultraviolet Irradiance ......................................................................................................................2 HEAT STRESS AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY ......2.......
......................................................... 187 SOLUTIONS TO STUDY PROBLEMS ...............................13 15................................................................................. 184 LIGHT .................... 184 MAGNETIC FIELDS .............................................................6 15.. 185 STUDY PROBLEMS .............................................................. 197 ix © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction............ 184 DENSITY OF WATER ........................ 185 MISCELLANEOUS ..............com .....................4 15......................7 15....Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 15................................................ 184 PHYSICAL CONSTANTS ..........................................................................................................11 15...........................................................12 15.................................................................................................................................................. 184 RADIATION . 183 ANGLES ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................10 15..........9 15........ 185 STANDARD TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (STP) ..................... 183 TEMPERATURE................................................................................................................................14 15......... 184 DENSITY OF AIR .................................................................................................................................................15 16 17 PRESSURE .........8 15.................................................................................. 184 ENERGY ................5 15.................
com .Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety x © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.
3000 609.3 1.4 1. All zeroes which are simultaneously to the right of the decimal point and at the end of the number are always significant.2. All zeroes between nonzero numbers are always significant.5.com . then they are not significant.02 0.0005 (= 5 E4) 2.239 9. Rule No.00 E+1) # Significant Figures 5 4 5 1 5 6 1 3 Rule(s) 1 1 1. 1.020 5. Calculators and spreadsheets routinely display more digits than those that are significant.6. All zeroes which are to the left of a written decimal point and are in a number greater than or equal to 10 are always significant. Note: One way to check rules 3 and 4 is to write the number in scientific notation.4 1.000..3.1 Significant Figures The significant figures (also called significant digits) of a number are those digits that carry meaning contributing to its precision.3.e.4 1 1.3.0 (= 2.7. and 9) are always significant. If you can eliminate any zeroes.8.4 1 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. Examples of Significant Figures Number 84.2.000 (= 5 E+6) 20. The following rules assist in deciding the correct number of significant figures.376 100.4.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Introductory Concepts 1 Introductory Concepts 1.2. 1 2 3 4 Rule for Significant Figures All nonzero digits (i. Digits that are not significant imply a false sense of precision and should not be reported.
1 Addition and Subtraction When adding or subtracting numbers.2 Multiplication and Division When multiplying or dividing numbers.765432 times 1.765432 x 1.1. Example: Multiply 98. The answer cannot contain more significant figures than the number being multiplied or divided with the least number of significant figures.34 (6 places after the decimal point) (4 places after the decimal point) (2 places after the decimal point) (displays on calculator) (rounded to 2 places in the answer) Notice there are four significant figures in the answer.345678 + 9. 1.1.com .Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 1. count the number of significant figures. Example: Add three number.8765 + 0.345678 + 9. 12.12 12.12 = 22. count the number of decimal places to determine the number of significant figures. The answer cannot contain more places after the decimal point than the smallest number of decimal places in the numbers being added or subtracted.9259258 = 121.8765 + 0.342178 = 22.93 (8 significant figures) (5 significant figures) (displayed on calculator) (rounded to 5 significant figures) 2 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.2345 = 121.2345 98.
3 Exponents and Radicals Exponents and radicals are used extensively in the mathematics of safety and industrial hygiene.0225 × 10 which is much easier than writing all those zeros.com . Rule a = a ⋅ a ⋅ a ⋅ a ⋅ a ⋅ a n Notes a times itself n times Example 3 = 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 = 243 5 (a ) a =1 1 a−n = n a n m a a = a n+m 0 a≠0 a≠0 3. Avogadro’s number is the number of molecules in a mole of a substance. Scientific notation numbers use the form: a x 10b Scientific notation is typically used when numbers are too large or small to be conveniently written in standard decimal notation. (1) 1.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 1. For example.a ≠ 0 m−n 1 (a = ) 3 7 3⋅7 a= a 21 a n −m an = 1 a m m−n a a an a2 1 −3 −1 = = a 2= a= m 3 a a a ( ab ) n = a nb n ( ab ) b≠0 a≠0 −7 = a −7b −7 5 an a = n b b bn a b = = n a b a −n n n 5 a a = 5 b b b2 a b = = 2 a b a −2 2 3 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.2 Scientific Notation Scientific notation (sometimes called exponential notation) is a way of writing or displaying numbers in terms of a decimal number between 1 and 10 multiplied by a power of 10. The following table summarizes the important rules for exponents and radicals.140 = 1 1 1 −2 5= = 2 5 25 −7 2 −7 + 2 a = a= a −5 a n m = a nm for . 23 In scientific notation Avogadro’s number is written as approximately 6.
3. 2.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety ( ab ) −n = 1 ( ab ) n a ⋅b ≠ 0 ( ab ) −3 = 1 ( ab ) 3 (a b ) 1 = an −n a a −n bm = b−m a n a≠0 b ) ( a= 2 −3 4 1 = a9 −9 a a −4 b 6 = b −6 a 4 2⋅4 −3⋅4 a= a8b −12 b n m k = a nk b mk an a nk = mk m b b n k b≠0 n is a positive integer > 1 and a is a positive real number n is a positive integer > 1 and a is a positive real number n is a positive integer > 1 and a and b are positive real numbers n is a positive integer > 1 and a and b are positive real numbers a 2 a 2⋅3 a 6 5= = 15 5⋅3 b b b 3 3 a =a 1 n a = a3 1 n an = a 5 a5 = a n ab = n a n b 4 ab = 4 a 4 b n a na = b nb 3 a 3a = b 3b Problem: Simplify the following expressions. ( 2x y ) ( −4a b ) ( a b ) −3 4 2 2 −4 2 3 xy −2 a 3b −5 −5 n −2 m 7 m −4 n −3 4 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. 4. provide answers with only positive exponents: 1. 5.com .
( 2x −3 −6 8 = 22 x= y4 ) y 2 3 −5 22 y 8 4 y 8 = x6 x6 ( −4a b ) ( a b ) 2 −4 2 −15 16 2 16a −11b −13 = = b −5 =11 13 ( −4 ) a 4b−8 a a b −2 4 3 5 n m mnm mn = = −4 −3 7m n 7n 2 7 12t 2 s −8 4t 2t 5 4t 7 4−2 t −14 s18 = = = = 6. the most common logarithm functions are the common and natural logarithms.4 Logarithm Functions Logarithmic functions are used in several areas of safety and industrial hygiene. 5 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. = = a 3b −5 3 b −5 3 3. y = log b x This is read as “log base b of x” and is equivalent to: by = x (2) (3) Although the base (b) can be any number complying with the definition. −2 1 x xy −2 x= 2 = 2 y y a 1 1 ab5 2.com . −5 3t s Solution: 1. −5 8 9 s −18 16t14 3t s s⋅s s −2 −2 −2 1. 5. including those related to sound and noise as well as radiation.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 12t 2 s −8 6. The definition of the logarithm function is: If b is any number such that b > 0 and b ≠ 1 and x > 0 then. 4.
log b ( x + y ) ≠ log b x + log b y log b ( x − y ) ≠ log b x − log b y Here’s a simple example of a logarithm function: (6) (7) log 6 216 = 3 just as 63 =216 Many other examples of logarithms are presented in Section 9 on Sound and Noise and Section 10 on Radiation.. i. 6 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction..com .71828. (4) (5) The following table reviews the important rules related to logarithmic functions. not log. Rule 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Notes log b 1 = 0 log b b = 1 log b b x = x b logb x = x log b= log b x + log b y ( xy ) b0 = 1 b1 = b x>0 and y>0 x>0 and y>0 x>0 and y>0 x>0 and y>0 x log b= log b x − log b y y log b ( x r ) = r log b x = log b y then x y If log b x = Note that there is no rule for breaking up a logarithm for the sum or difference of two terms. Note the natural logarithm is written ln..e.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety common logarithm: log x = log10 x natural logarithm: ln x = log e x where e = 2.
5 Absolute Value Equations In mathematics. in the form: ax 2 + bx + c = 0 (9) where a ≠ 0 (when a = 0 the equation becomes linear). the absolute value (or modulus) of a real number is the numerical value of that number without regard to its sign (i.6 Quadratic Formula A quadratic equation is a secondorder polynomial equation with a single variable. it is considered positive and no sign is shown).com .. x. the fundamental theorem of algebra guarantees that it has two solutions.e. This is found by the quadratic formula. which is derived by completing the squares as follows: x2 + 2 b c x= − a a (10) b c b2 b 2 − 4ac x+ = + 2 = − 2a a 4a 4a 2 (11) b ± b 2 − 4ac x+ = 2a 2a x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a (12) (13) 7 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. Because Equation (9) is a secondorder polynomial equation.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 1. Absolute value is shown by a vertical bar on each side of the number: a if a ≥ 0 a = −a if a < 0 Problem: What is the absolute value of 5? Solution: (8) −5 = 5 1.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Note the ± symbol in the above equations.1 2 2 1. such as fault trees. and A’ means NOT A. particularly when a large number of events are related in some manner. Rules for Boolean Algebra Addition A+A=A A+0=A A+1=1 A + A’ = 1 A+B=B+A A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C A + (A · B) = A A + (B · C) = (A + B) · (A + C) Multiplication A·A=A A·0=0 A·1=A A · A’ = 0 A·B=B·A A · (B · C) = (A · B) · C A · ( A + B) = A A · (B + C) = (A · B) + (A · C) Rule identity operation with 0 operation with 1 complement commutative law associative law absorption distributive law 8 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. B. from the term before the ± sign. Boolean algebra assumes A. and C (etc. ± Problem: Solve x + 3 x − 4 = 0 2 Solution: By reviewing equation (10) we see for this equation a=1. and substituting those values into equation (13) yields: −3 ± 32 − 4(1)(−4) x= 2(1) = x −3 ± 25 −3 ± 5 = 2 2 −8 2 x= . Although the nomenclature used may vary depending on preference. = −4. b=3. the following are typical examples of Boolean algebra formats.com . and subtracted. “·” means AND.7 Boolean Algebra Boolean algebra can be thought of as the algebra of events and states. where “+” means OR. The most common rules for Boolean algebra are shown in the accompanying table. Boolean algebra is important in the construction and mathematical evaluation of event trees.) are logical states that can have the values 0 (false) and 1 (true). c=4. This symbol means the term after the ± sign is both added.
Notice the ‘or’ here.com . sprinklers) and failure of manual methods (e. two high level events are required.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Consider the following example. A fire must occur.. failure of automatic methods (e. When constructing an event tree (e.g. 1 and A 9 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. a fault tree) to evaluate this scenario. this could be due to the fire pump failing to start or the preaction valve failing to open. either event would lead to failure.g. This is a very simple example. ( A + B ) ⋅ ( A + B ') Solution: First.g. Problem: Resolve the following Boolean expression. The failure to control the fire can be broken down to two other events. we can expand the statement to find: ( A + B ) ⋅ ( A + B ') = A ⋅ A + A ⋅ B '+ A ⋅ B + B ⋅ B ' and A ⋅ A + A ⋅ B '+ A ⋅ B + B ⋅ B ' = A + A( B + B ') + 0 since = A and B ⋅ B ' 0 and then A⋅ A = A + A( B + B ') + 0 = A + A = A since B + B ' = A + A =we find the above expression resolves to A. Boolean algebra allows you to quantify the events and rank the importance of contributing events.. Assume you want to evaluate the probability of an uncontrolled fire occurring at some location. but you can see how such an analysis could quickly generate a very large number of events.. both are not required. and the fire must not be controlled (notice the “and” in the statement – both events are required).” With regard to sprinkler system failure. fire department) – again note the “and. Each of these events can be broken down further.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
1.8
Trigonometric Functions B c a
A b 1.8.1 Right Triangles
C
For a right triangle (i.e., one with angle C=90o) equations (14) through (16) are true:
sin A = a / c cos A = b / c
tan A = a / b
1.8.2 Law of Cosines
c 2 = a 2 + b 2 − 2ab cos C
(14) (15) (16)
(17)
Note when C = 90o (i.e., for a right triangle) equation (17) reduces to the Pythagorean Theorem, equation (18).
1.8.2.1 Pythagorean Theorem
a 2 + b2 = c2
(18)
1.8.3 Law of Sines
a b c = = sin A sin B sin C
Problem: You walk about 50 feet away from the base of a water tank. From that location it appears the top of the water tank is about 60 degrees above the ground. About how high is the top of the water tank?
(19)
10
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Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
Solution: Reviewing the triangle diagram above, we see we have angle “A” and side “b” and want side “a”. Equation (16) can be written to allow us to estimate the height of the tank (side “a” in the diagram).
a = A = 60o = feet b ⋅ tan 50 tan 86.6
So we can estimate our water tank is about 90 feet high. To understand the possible error with our estimate, we need to know the error with the horizontal measurement and the angle used.
1.9 1.9.1
Useful Equations for Geometric Shapes Perimeter
Triangle : P = a + b + c Rectangle := P 2L + 2W
(20) (21) (22)
Square : P = 4s
Circle := C
1.9.2 Area
circumference =
π d 2π r =
(23)
Triangle : A =
1 bh 2
(24) (25) (26)
Rectangle : A = LW
Square : A = s 2 Circle := A
π r2 =
π d2
4
(27) (28) (29)
Parallelogram : A = bh
Trapezoid : A =
1 2
h ( b1 + b 2 )
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Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
1.9.3 Volume
Rectangular solid : V = LWH
Cube : V = s3
(30) (31) (32) (33) (34) (35)
Sphere : V =
4 3
π r3
Circular cylinder : V = π r 2 h
Circular cone : V =
1 3
π r 2h
1 3
Regular pyramid : V =
s2h
1.9.4 Surface Area
Rectangular solid : SA = 2LW + 2LH + 2WH Cube : SA = 6s 2
(36) (37) (38) (39) (40) (41)
Sphere : SA = 4π r 2 Right circular cylinder : = SA Right circular cone : SA = Regular pyramid : SA = 2π r 2 + 2π rh
π r 2 + π rl
s 2 + 2sl
Problem: A cylindrical tank with a diameter of 3 feet stands 6 feet tall. What is the volume of the tank in cubicfeet? How many gallons of liquid can this tank hold? Assuming the tank is used for water and another for acetone, how many pounds of 3 water or acetone can each tank hold? Note: Assume water weight 62.4 lbs/ft . Solution: First, we can calculate the volume of the tank in cubic feet using equation (33).
V =
= π r 2 h π ft ⋅ 6 ft = 42.4 ft 3 2
3
3
2
We can convert to gallons using the conversion 1 ft = 7.481 gallons,
12
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Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
7.481gal 42.4 ft 3 = 317.2 gallons 3 1ft
We can find the capacity of the tank in pounds of water by converting volume to pounds of water as follows:
lbs 42.4 ft 3 62.4 3 = 2645.8lbs H2 0 ft
To find the weight for acetone, we can use the specific gravity. We can find the specific gravity from data on its MSDS sheet. MSDS typically list the specific gravity of acetone as 0.79 (water = 1.0). Since we know the weight in water, we simply multiply that by the specific gravity for acetone:
( 2645.8lbs ) (0.79) = 2090.2 lbs
H2 0
acetone
13
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Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 14 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com .
In mathematics.” It is common in mathematics to indicate the number of items by the variable n.1 Arithmetic Mean The arithmetic mean." Equation (42) can be described as reading “add X 1 and X 2 and so on for as many items as you have. The arithmetic mean is calculated as follows: X= X1 + X 2 + + X n n (42) where X = arithmetic mean of n items X n = value of nth item n = total number of items to be averaged The Ellipsis (…) Equation (42) contains a common symbol. 2. such as the geometric mean. often referred to simply as the average.2 Geometric Mean The geometric mean. as shown here. the ellipsis (…). is a method to derive the central tendency of a sample space. The term "arithmetic mean" is preferred because it helps distinguish it from other averages. GM = where n ( X 1 )( x2 ) ( X n ) (43) 15 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. is similar to the arithmetic mean except that the sample numbers are multiplied and then the nth root of the resulting product is taken.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Statistics 2 Statistics 2. an ellipsis is often used to indicate "and so on.com . and then divide by the number of item you have.
The following concentrations (in ppm) are found: 51. 49. Solution: To calculate the arithmetic mean. and 36. we use equation (42) and for the geometric mean we use equation (43). Calculate the arithmetic and geometric means. The summation notation. ∑ ( log X ) GM = 10 i =1 n n (44) where GM = geometric mean of n items X n = value of nth item n = total number of items to be averaged i = count Σ Notation Mathematical formulae often require the addition of many variables. indicated by a capital Greek sigma. For example: ∑ xi = x1 + x2 + x3 + + xn i =1 n Problem: Several air samples are taken to determine the airborne concentration of a process solvent. 79. is the common form of shorthand used to give a concise expression for a sum of the values of a variable.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety GM = geometric mean of n items n = total number of items to be averaged X n = value of nth item The following equation is simply another form of the geometric mean equation above. = X X 1 + X 2 + + X n 51 + 76 + 49 + 79 + 36 291 = = = 58.com . 76.2 5 5 n 16 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.
8 ( 51)( 76 )( 49 )( 79 )( 36 ) The results demonstrate that all averages are not the same. The two are typically expressed as follows: When N1 this is a “Sample Standard Deviation” (usually written SD): SD = ∑(x − x ) i =1 i n 2 n −1 (45) This can also be written as: 17 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.3 Standard Deviation The standard deviation of a data set is the square root of its variance. use an arithmetic mean. The sample standard deviation is the most common estimator for a “standard deviation. multiplied). that is it shows how much variation there is from the "average. whereas high standard deviation indicates that the data are spread out over a large range of values.” It is an adjusted version (i.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety = GM 5 = 55. 17 and 14 percent over a three year period. It provides the maximumlikelihood estimate when the population is normally distributed. use a geometric mean. 2. if a investment return yielded 12..e.com . N) and is typically denoted by σ.. tends to be too low. The selection of the mean equation will depend on the application of the data.e. It has a uniformly smaller mean squared error than the sample standard deviation. the appropriate average would be the geometric mean since the gains are compounded (i. For example. If values are to be multiplied. Typically. when applied to smaller samples.e. But this estimator." A low standard deviation indicates that the data points tend to be very close to the mean. Standard deviation is a widely used measure of the variability or dispersion. Another estimator for the standard deviation is not adjusted (i. N1) and is typically denoted by as s or SD. if numbers are to be added.
you may see n written as an upper case N. 79. Next. In this application they are simply used to denote the total number of items being evaluated. we can calculate term above as shown in the following table: 18 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. 51. 76. 49. so either form is acceptable. Calculate the sample standard deviation and the standard deviation.2 ) from the sample problem above.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety SD = ∑(x ) n 2 i =1 n −1 (46) where x= x − xi When n is used unmodified this is a “Standard Deviation” (usually written as σ): σ= This can also be written as: ∑(x − x ) i =1 i n 2 n (47) σ= where x= x − xi ∑ ( x) i =1 n 2 n (48) N or n In some formulas for standard deviation.com . Solution: We can use equations (45) and (47). Also note the following term is the same in each equation: ∑(x − x ) i =1 i n 2 We also know the arithmetic mean ( X = 58. 36. Problem: Several air samples are taken to determine the airborne concentration of a process solvent. The following concentrations (in ppm) are found.
8 22.64 492.84 316.13 percent probability by the mass median particle diameter.61 5 2.57 5 −1 = σ 1378.8 We can now solve for the sample standard deviation: = SD And the standard deviation: 1378.4 Geometric Standard Deviation The geometric standard deviation describes how spread out a set of numbers is whose average is characterized by a geometric mean.87%tile value 84.84 84.2 20. These two equations are shown here: GSD = GSD = 50%tile value 15.13%tile value 50%tile value 19 (49) (50) © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.8 9.8 = 18.8 = 16. In safety and industrial hygiene applications related to particle size distributions.2 17. the geometric standard deviation (of a lognormal distribution) is easily determined by dividing the mass median particle diameter by the particle size at the 15.84 ∑(x − x ) i =1 i 1378.87 percent probability or by dividing the particle size at the 84.com .2 2 ( x − xi ) 2 51.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety xi 51 76 49 79 36 n x − xi 7.64 432.
51. 79.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety where GSD = geometric standard deviation Problem: Particle sample data are plotted on logarithmic graph paper. 49. For the data set in the problem. 36. the arithmetic mean and sample standard deviation were derived in the sample problems above ( X = 58. Solution: Both equations (49) and (50) should provide the same determination. GSD = 50%tile value 10 µ m = = 2. 20 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.87% of the cumulative particle mass is below 5µm. and 84. Solution: The formula for the coefficient of variation is given in equation (51).57). Calculate the geometric standard deviation of the samples. The following concentrations (in ppm) are found. and SD = 18.0 15. Calculate the coefficient of variation. 76.13%tile value 20 µ m = = 2.87%tile value 5µ m 84.13% of the cumulative particle mass is below 20µm and 15. percent in decimal format SD = the sample standard deviation (see equation (45)) X = the arithmetic mean (see equation (42)) Problem: Several air samples are taken to determine the airborne concentration of a process solvent.5 Coefficient of Variation The coefficient of variation is a measure of relative variation of a set of normallydistributed values. and the resulting plot reveals the average particle size is 10µm. it is calculated as follows: CV = SD X (51) where CV = coefficient of variation (see following equation).com .2.0 50%tile value 10 µ m GSD = 2.
5.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety CV = SD 18. equation (52): CVtotal= 2 CVP2 + CVD + CVA2 = 0. the individual errors associated with various steps in a measurement can be quantified.com .506 2.7 Sampling and Analytical Error All sampling and analytical methods have some degree of uncertainty. rather the cumulative error is defined by the following expression: Ec= where E c = cumulative error 2 2 E12 + E2 + + En (52) E n = individual error of item n n = total number of error items Problem: Consider a case in which sampling and analytical errors (SAE) are used to account for a margin of error before measured exposures are determined to exceed the total airborne contaminant limit. Uncertainty in sampling results has historically been called Sampling and Analytical Error (SAE) by OSHA.2 2. 1) air pump performance (CV P ). The total uncertainty depends on the combined effects of the contributing uncertainties inherent in sampling and analysis. Assume the total air sampling error factor accounts for three uncontrollable variances. It can be calculated as follows: 21 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.2% = X 58. 2) variability of the deposit area on the filter (CV D ) and 3) variability of the laboratory analysis (CV A ). CV A = 0.6 Cumulative Error In some cases.52 + 0.07 2 = 0.07. These values are CV P = 0.312 31. What is the total variance? Solution: To determine CV total .042 + 0. the total cumulative error is not just a simple summation of the individual errors.57 = = 0.04. However. CV D =0. the individual components are determined separately and then combined according to the cumulative error formula.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety SAE 1.645 ⋅ CVtotal = where SAE = Sampling and Analytical Error 1. The shape of the tdistribution depends on the number of degrees of freedom.8 Student’s tTest Any statistical test that uses the tdistribution can be called a ttest. If the calculated pvalue is below the threshold chosen for statistical significance (frequently the 0. or n 1 +n 2 2.645CVtotal 1. then the null hypothesis is rejected in favor of the alternative hypothesis. Student's ttest is used to compare the means of two samples. These statistics can be used to carry out either a onetailed test or a twotailed test.645 = a constant that is a 95percent 1tailed confidence coefficient (53) CV total = coefficient of variation (see equation (51)). Once a t value is determined.com . The degrees of freedom for a ttest is the total number of observations in the groups minus 2. what is the sampling and analytical error for the method used (95% confidence)? Solution: = 1.05 level). The following equation is used for ttests: t= x1 − x2 1 1 SD pooled + n1 n2 (54) where t = the test statistic 22 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. One of the most common is Student's ttest.506 ) 0.645 ( 0.833 SAE = = 2. a pvalue can be found using a table of values from Student's tdistribution (See Table in Section 13). percent in decimal format Problem: Based on the total coefficient of variation just calculated.
9 Pooled Standard Deviation The pooled standard deviation is used in the above ttest equation.g. when you conduct a test of statistical significance.. 2*0. 2. you are given a probability (pvalue) in the output. that is. if you have a table of onetailed data (e. data for a twotailed pvalue of 0. select your pvalues from a twotailed table. simply multiply the probability value by 2 and use the data from that column.05 = 0. Also.. Most references on statistical tests will recommend that if there is any doubt. SD pooled = where ( n1 − 1) SD12 + ( n2 − 1) SD22 n1 + n2 − 2 (55) SD pooled = pooled standard deviation SD 1 = standard deviation for sample set 1 SD 2 = standard deviation for sample set 2 n 1 = number of measurements in sample set 1 n 2 = number of measurements in sample set 2 The following equation is used for an independent onesample ttest.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety x 1 = mean of sample 1 x 2 = mean of sample 2 SD pooled = pooled standard deviation (see following equation) n 1 = number of measurements in sample set 1 n 2 = number of measurements in sample set 2 Tails? Generally. the CSP examination reference tdistribution table).com .e.1).05 (i. See the TDistribution Table in Section 13.1 is the same as a onetailed pvalue of 0. a twotailed test should be done. For example. However. = t X −µ X −µ = n −1 n σ SD (56) where 23 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. if your test statistic is symmetrically distributed (such as a tdistribution). you can select a onetailed test or a twotailed test.
You are asked to conduct an analysis of the breaks taken to ascertain if there is a significant difference between the two shifts.com . you can use equations (55) and (54) to determine the ttest value.14 Group 2 8 1 4 6 6 4 1 2 32 4 2. average and standard deviation: Group 1 5 7 5 3 5 3 3 9 Total Average SD 40 5 2. 24 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.56 Solution: With the data above. An initial assessment reveals the following data on the number of breaks taken. The work requires repetitive motions.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety t = the test statistic X = mean of sample µ = mean of the population SD = sample standard deviation σ = standard deviation n = sample size Note that these can be written as: = t X −µ X −µ = σ SD n −1 n (57) Problem: Two shifts at a factory each have 8 employees working at a time. The student’s ttest is a good tool since you are comparing two similar data sets. so short breaks are encouraged. along with the totals.
49.14 ) + ( 7 )( 2. 51. going to the table of tdistributions (see Section 13). A positive Zscore means that the original score was above the mean.com .. we see for 14 degrees of freedom (i.56 ) = 2 2 8+8−2 2. 162) and with a probability of 0. Zscores are typically used in conjunction with standard normal curve data tables (see Section 13). Therefore we conclude the difference in breaks is not significant. 2. The following concentrations (in ppm) are found.145. For the data set in the 25 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.e. 79.36 + SD pooled + 8 8 n1 n2 Now. 76. The following example will demonstrate how zscores are commonly used.05 (two tails). 36. Assuming a normal distribution. what is the probability of a reading greater than 80? Solution: The formula for the zscore is given in equation (58). They are found by the formula: z= X −µ σ (58) where z = number of standard deviations between X and µ X = value to be evaluated µ = mean of the population (x in equation (42) above) σ = standard deviation of the population A negative Zscore means that the original score was below the mean.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety = SD pooled 2 n1 − 1) SD12 + ( n2 − 1) SD2 (= n1 + n2 − 2 ( 7 )( 2.847 1 1 1 1 2. Problem: Several air samples are taken to determine the airborne concentration of a process solvent. t must be at least 2. One of the most useful applications of the normal distribution Z score is being able to determine the exact proportion of data that falls above and below that score.36 t = x1 − x2 5−4 = = 0.10 Normal Distribution Z Score The number of standard deviations from the mean is called the zscore.
31 σ 16.4049 = 0. or can we suspect the coin somehow favors heads? Solution: First. so we must subtract the zscore from 0. The chisquare value (determined by the following equation) can be used to determine a pvalue by comparing the value of the statistic to a chisquared distribution table. and σ = 16.61).51% In other words. 108 heads and 92 tails.51% chance that we could get a reading of 80 or greater based on our samples (assuming the data follows a normal distribution).2. First we calculate the zscore: = z X − µ 80 − 58.5 − 0. ½ of 1). and tests of independence. Is this a reasonable outcome.0951 = 9.61 Now. However.e.5 (i.31 is 0. going to a zscore table (see Section 13). we find the area under the curve from 0 to 1.2 = = 1.11 ChiSquared The chisquared test is used to assess two types of statistical comparison: tests of goodness of fit. we can assume that a fair coin toss should give us on average 100 26 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.4049.. the arithmetic mean and standard deviation were derived in the sample problems above (µ = X = 58. we want the value beyond z = 1. there is a 9. Consequently the answer we are looking for is: 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety problem.31. 2.com . χ =∑ 2 i =1 n ( Oi − Ei ) Ei 2 (59) where χ 2 = Chi squared test statistic O i = an observed frequency E i = an expected (or theoretical) frequency i = count n = the total number Problem: We toss a coin 200 times and obtain the following results.
This problem is a good application of a Chisquared test. But we can also assume that there is some variation due to chance.e.com . We can calculate the chisquared test statistic for this problem as follows: = χ 2 ∑ i =1 n ( Oi − Ei ) ( OH − EH ) = 2 2 Ei EH ( O − ET ) + T ET 2 2 χ = 2 (108 − 100 ) 100 2 ( 92 − 100 ) + 100 = 1. The formula for the Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient is: rs = 1 − 6∑ ( D 2 ) N ( N 2 − 1) (60) where r s = Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. From this we conclude our coin toss results can be accounted for by chance and the coin toss was fair. we find for 1 degree of freedom (i. They then independently rank the areas based on the number and type of findings.12 Spearman Rank Correlation The Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient was developed for use with data such as ranks. 2 classes. head and tails.. nondimensional 6 = a constant (it is always used in the formula) D = the difference between two corresponding variables N = the number of data pairs Problem: Two safety inspectors perform surveys in the same 10 locations within a site. The score runs between 1 and 1. minus 1) a value of 1.28 From a Chisquared distribution table (see Section 13).Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety heads and 100 tails. Based on the independent rankings. how likely is it that these two inspectors would have similar findings at other sites? The ranking (from 1 to 10) for each location 27 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.28 falls between 90% and 10%. 2. A coefficient of 1 means a perfect positive correlation and 1 means a perfect negative correlation. A coefficient of 0 indicates no correlation. particularly with a small number of coin tosses.
equation (60).89 = 89% 2 N ( N − 1) 10 (10 − 1) Therefore. provides an acceptable approximation of the uniformity in the two inspector’s findings and is easy to calculate. we can conclude there is a strong positive correlation between the two inspectors. 28 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com . from this analysis.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety assessed by the inspectors is shown here: Location 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Inspector 1 8 4 1 5 7 10 2 3 9 6 Inspector 2 10 2 3 6 7 9 1 4 8 5 Solution: Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. Location 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Inspector 1 8 4 1 5 7 10 2 3 9 6 Inspector 2 10 2 3 6 7 9 1 4 8 5 D 2 2 2 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 Sum D 2 4 4 4 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 18 6∑ ( D 2 ) 6 (18 ) rs = 1− =2 1− = 0.
r= N ∑ ( XY ) − ( ∑ X )( ∑ Y ) N ( X 2 ) − ( X )2 N (Y 2 ) − ( Y )2 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ (61) where X and Y are two variables being evaluated Equation (61) may be written in an equivalent. The value of r is a dimensionless quantity such that 1 < r < +1. r is close to +1 (an r value of exactly +1 indicates a perfect positive fit). r is close to 1 (an r value of exactly 1 indicates a perfect negative fit). but somewhat more simple form: r= ∑ xy ( ∑ x )( ∑ y ) 2 2 (62) where = X −X x y Y −Y = Problem: Calculate the linear correlation coefficient for the following data set. Positive values indicate a relationship between x and y variables such that as values for x increase. x and y). If there is no linear correlation or a weak linear correlation. values for y decrease.13 Correlation Coefficient The linear correlation coefficient (usually denoted by the letter r) is a measure of the strength and direction of a linear relationship between two variables (here. values for y also increase. If x and y have a strong negative linear correlation. Negative values indicate a relationship between x and y such that as values for x increase. r is close to 0. X 1 2 3 Y 2 5 6 29 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com .Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 2. If x and y have a strong positive linear correlation.
00 y Y −Y = 2. see equation (53) T n = duration of sample n.44 2.44 0. minutes C n = concentration of sample n.00 0.00 1. ppm n = total number of samples 30 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.67 xy 2.33 0.78 8. ppm C A = timeweighted average concentration of consecutive samples.67 ∑ 2 = r ∑ xy = x )( ∑ y ) (∑ 2 4.14 Lower Confidence Limit With regard to the permissible exposure limit (PEL). These are easily found to be 2 and 4. = X −X x 1..67 1.33.00 1.0 = 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Solution: We will use equation (62). 95% or 99%).com .00 2.33 0.00 1. Note: Although this sample problem only uses three data pairs.961 ( 2 )( 8.00 y2 5.00 x2 1. ppm PEL = permissible exposure limit.67 4.g. that requires the average of the x and y values. 2. ppm SAE = sampling and analytical error.961 indicates a strong positive relationship between the data. This is written as: LCL = where 2 2 2 2 2 2 C A SAE T1 C1 + T2 C2 + + Tn Cn − PEL PEL (T1 + T2 + + Tn ) (63) LCL = lower confidence limit. the method is typically used for larger data sets.67 ) A linear correlation coefficient of 0. the lower confidence limit can be considered the lowest value that the true exposure could be with some degree of confidence (e.00 0. respectively.
since the LCL is less than 1. σ and n X = arithmetic mean of the sample σ = standard deviation n = sample size 31 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.0.5 ppm and the SAE for this method is 20%. we conclude that the exposure does not exceed the PEL at the 95% confidence level.com . 0.5 ( 90 + 170 + 220 ) Therefore.45 ppm )(170 min ) + ( 0. 0. Solution: First.4521702 + 0.2 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem: Chlorine is used in a process and the following measurements of airborne concentrations are made: 0.552 ppm ( 90 min ) + (170 min ) + ( 220 min ) Then equation (63) is used to determine to LCL. as well as the standard deviation and number of samples in that data set. Find the lower confidence limit for this data.552 0. the twosided 90% confidence interval is calculated as follows: σ 90%Conf = X ± 1.97 − = 0.75 ppm for 90 min.552 2202 LCL = 0.752902 + 0.55 for 220 min.75 ppm )( 90 min ) + ( 0.45 ppm for 170 min.15 TwoSided 90% Confidence Interval Given the mean value of a data set.645 n where (64) 90%Conf = the twosided 90% confidence value. units to match X .55 ppm )( 220 min ) = 0. 2.5 0. we need to calculate the timeweighted average of the chlorine samples: CA ( 0. Assume the PEL for chlorine is 0. and 0.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 2. as well as the standard deviation and number of samples in that data set. 76.17 OneSided 95% Confidence Interval Given the mean value of a data set.645 n where (66) 95%Conf = the onesided 95% confidence value. 36. the onesided 95% confidence interval can be calculated as follows: σ 95%Conf = X [ +or − ] 1.16 TwoSided 95% Confidence Interval Given the mean value of a data set. The following concentrations (in ppm) are found. what is the twosided 90% confidence interval? 32 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. 49. 51. σ and n X = arithmetic mean of the sample σ = standard deviation n = sample size 2. units to match X and σ X = arithmetic mean of the sample σ = standard deviation n = sample size Problem: Several air samples are taken to determine the airborne concentration of a process solvent. Assuming a normal distribution.com . the twosided 95% confidence interval is calculated as follows: σ 95%Conf = X ± 1.96 n where (65) 95%Conf = the twosided 95% confidence value. as well as the standard deviation and number of samples in that data set. units to match X . 79.
the only difference is the choice of the confidence level desired. + or .645 n 5 16. 2. σ 16.18. the twosided 90% confidence interval for the sample set is 45.42 ppm. Which rule (equation) to apply is determined by the importance of order in the selection.98.645 = 58.22 = 5 58.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Solution: The formula for the twosided 90% confidence interval is given in equation (64).645 58.e. not both)..18 Permutations and Combinations Permutations and combinations are mathematical terms applied to the two rules by which items are selected from a group of items. Therefore.2 ± 1.61 90%Conf = X ± 1. There were five samples. For the data set in the problem. so you must decide if you need the upper or lower confidence interval and use the equation as such (i. the arithmetic mean and standard deviation were derived in the samples problems above ( X = 58.2. so n = 5.61 58. However.61).42 45.2 ± 12.com . equation (66) is for a one sided confidence interval.2 ± 1.1 Permutation The number of ways of obtaining an ordered subset of k elements from a set of n elements is given by: Pkn = where Pkn = the number of ways of obtaining an ordered subset of k elements from a set of n elements n! (n − k )! (67) n = total number of items from which to select 33 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. and σ = 16. 2. Equations (64) and (65) are solved in the same manner.22 = 70.2 ± 12.98 ppm and 70.
is the product of all positive integers less than or equal to n (e. 2. we use a permutation because we want to range three out of three. The term unordered may seem less restrictive.g. This situation is not true. Also note that 0! = 1.18. In an unordered set. denoted by n!. there are three standby generators provided so that the backup electrical power has a high degree of reliability. the factorial of a positive integer n. so in this case n=3 and k=3: 34 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. B and C. how many combinations of two generators are provided by the set of three? Also. we use a combination with n = 3 and k = 2. 4! = 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 = 24). and you pick Al and Beth.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety k = number of items taken each time n! In mathematics. If only two are required to provide the required capacity.com . and as a result. For example. if the three generators are labeled A. how many ways can they be arranged in a row? Solution: To answer the first question. = Ckn n! 3! = = 3 k !(n − k )! 2!(3 − 2)! For the second question.2 Combination The number of ways of picking k unordered outcomes from n possibilities is given by: Ckn = where Ckn = the number of ways of obtaining an unordered subset (combination) of k elements from a set of n elements n! k !(n − k )! (68) n = total number of items from which to select k = number of items taken each time The terms ordered and unordered can be a bit confusing. Al and Beth are the same as Beth and Al. more options appear available. so in an unordered set there are actually fewer options. say you have to pick two people from a group of ten.. Problem: At a production facility.
2..). Assuming a Poisson distribution. storms.com . Mathematically it can be written as: P(r ) = where λ t ) e − λt (= ( t / m ) r r e−t / m r! r! (69) P(r) = probability of r. It is typically applied to rare events.g. calculate the probability that there will not be more than one failure during a particular week. a me− a m! (70) 35 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. etc.71828… Another way of showing the probability function of the Poisson distribution is: Pm P { = m} X = = where a = λt Problem: Electrical power to a factory fails an average of 5 times every year (e. i.e.19 Poisson Distribution The Poisson distribution expresses the probability of a number of events occurring in a fixed period of time if these events occur with a known average rate and independently of the time since the last event. high winds. based on a Poisson distribution λ = expected number of events over time t t = time period r = number of occurrence of an event m = 1/λ = time period per event e = natural logarithm.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety = Pkn n! 3! = = 6 (n − k )! (3 − 3)! Remember that factorial of zero is one. 0! =1. 2..
The probability of failure is simply the complement of the reliability probability. Hint: For this you must calculate the probability of no failures in a week and the probability of one failure in a week and sum them. 0 ≤ R (t) ≤ 1 λ = the failure rate (also called the hazard rate) which predicts the number of failures that have occurred over a period of time t = time Problem: Electrical power to a factory fails an average of 5 times every year (e.096 ( 0. Mathematically this probability can be defined as: R ( t ) = e − λt (71) where R(t) = reliability as a function of time.096 52 week a m e − a ( 0.096 ) e P(r ) = = m! 0! 0 −0. reliability is defined as the probability that a device will perform its required function for a specific period of time (i. and can be written as: 36 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction..com ..e.20 Reliability In simple terms. 2.908 Based on this calculation.g. storms.096 ) + 1 e −0. high winds. the power supply system has a reliability of about 91%. 0! and 1! all equal 1. Calculate the reliability of the power system over a oneweek period. Fist we calculated the average failure rate: 5failures a = = λt (1week ) = 0. we use equation (70).996 = Remember: Any number raised to the zero power.).Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Solution: Since this is a Poisson distribution question. reliability is the probability of no failure). Solution: R ( t ) e= e = − λt − 5failures 1week 52 weeks = 0.096 1! 0. etc.
908 = 1− 1− 0. use equation (73) and use the reliability rate just calculated.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 1 Pf + Ps = (72) where P f = probability of failure P s = probability of success. Pf =R ( t ) =0. there is about a 9% probability of electrical system failure in a week.com . 37 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. what is the failure probability of the electrical supply system over a oneweek period? Solution: For this calculation. which is equal to R(t) From these equations we can write: Pf = 1 − R ( t ) and Pf = 1 − Ps (73) (74) Problem: Based on the reliability just calculated.092 Based on this calculation.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 38 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com .
$ i = interest rate. percent in decimal form n = number of years Equation (75) can be rearranged to calculate P given F (same units). Engineers should seek solutions to problems that are technically sound but in which the economic viability of each potential solution is also considered. $ P = present value of money. what will be the adjusted cost of the PPE in 5 years when it is expected to be replaced? Given the expected replacement cost and assuming the cost allocated for the PPE replacement can be put into an interest bearing account that yields 5% per year. However. how much should be invested today to cover the PPE costs in 5 years? Solution: The two problems can be solved with equations (75) and (76).000. The first equation calculates the future value of a lump sum payment made today given an interest rate compounding over a number of years. they apply universally to financial projections. = P (1 + i ) F n (75) where F = future value of money. previously known as engineering economy. respectively. the following equations are not special “engineering” equations. 39 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. is a subset of economics that is concerned with the application of economic techniques to the evaluation of design and engineering alternatives.com . Assuming an inflation increase of 3% per year. = F (1 + i ) P −n (76) Problem: Personal protective equipment has a current replacement cost of $15.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Engineering Economics 3 Engineering Economics Engineering economics.
the amount we would need to invest today is: P = F (1 + i ) −n = $17. percent in decimal form n = number of years Equation (77) can be rearranged to calculate A given F (same units). you evaluate your PPE budget and it appears you can place $3500 into the same account each year over the next 5 years. based on this amount ($17.11(1 + 0.389. the cost of the PPE in 5 years is: F = P (1 + i ) = $15.11 n 5 Next.389. $ A = annual payment. calculate how much would you have to place into the account each year for 5 years instead of one lump sum today. 628.11) and assuming we earn 5% interest.03) = $17.82 The following equation can be used to calculate the future value of a series of annual payments given an interest rate and number of years. use equation (78) to find the answer to the first question: 40 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. $ i = interest rate. 000 (1 + 0.389. Also. i A= F n (1 + i ) − 1 (78) (77) Problem: Continuing with the PPE replacement problem above. How much will be available for PPE purchase in 5 years? Solution: First. (1 + i )n − 1 F = A i where F = future value of money.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety First.com .05) −5 = $13.
but requires $375 less each year in replacement parts and supplies. i (1 + i )n A= P n (1 + i ) − 1 (80) (79) Problem: Your company is considering the purchase of a new lab analyzer.05 The following equation is used to calculate the present value of a series of equal annual payments given an interest rate and number of years. Assume an interest rate of 4%. Using the concept of present worth. use equation (77) to see how much would accumulate based on the yearly contributions to the interestbearing account: (1 + i )n − 1 (1 + 0.146. $ A = annual payment. A second model (Model B) costs more. $ i = interest rate. 41 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.389. $6000.99 n 5 (1 + i ) − 1 (1 + 0. One model (Model A) costs $4500.339.05 )5 − 1 = A F = $3.05 ) − 1 Next. evaluate which option is more cost effective over a 7 year period (the expected service life of both).com . (1 + i )n − 1 P = A n i (1 + i ) where P = present value of money. percent in decimal form n = number of years Equation (79) can be rearranged to calculate A given P (same units).11 = $3.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety i 0.500 = $19.71 i 0. it is known as capital recovery.05 = F A = $17.
035 (1 + 0. 000 − $2250.5% and a service life of 6 years with negligible salvage value.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Solution: First. Ignoring other costs. estimate the yearly cost that should be charged to clients to offset the acquisition. 000 n 6 (1 + i ) − 1 (1 + 0.77 n 7 i (1 + i ) 0.23 This is less than the present value of Model A.000.77 = $3749.035 ) − 1 In other words. $4500. 42 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.035 )6 = P = $3378.com .5%. For this we use equation (79): (1 + i )n − 1 (1 + 0. Problem: A testing lab is considering the addition of a new gas chromatograph that has a purchase price of about $18.04 (1 + 0. the cost of the GC will be recouped in 6 years. we must calculate the present worth of the $375 saved each year over the 7 year period. so Model B is the more costeffective.02 A = $18. Solution: For this we use equation (80): i (1 + i )n 0. we need to subtract this amount from the present value of Model B since it would be “paying” back this amount each year: $6.04 )7 − 1 = A P = $375 = $2250. if $3378.04 ) Next. Assume an interest rate of 3.02 is charged each year for the use of the GC. assuming an interest rate of 3.
liters (l) n = amount of gas.0867 lb 1.20 0.0 (81) Volume ft 3 Temp K o R K liters o R ft H 2 O 0.45 lb 37.6 1.0 43 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.0 15715.730 10.4 2. However.00290 0.55 701. such as air and other gases typically encountered in industrial hygiene and safety applications.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Chemistry and Concentrations 4 Chemistry and Concentrations 4.1 Ideal Gas Law The ideal gas law (also called the perfect gas law) is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas.0546 24.6 0.31 999. atm Vol = volume of gas.082 latm/gram molesK T = temperature.73 555. other applications (or simply personal preference) may employ different units.08206 1. The ideal gas law can be written as: P ⋅ Vol = n ⋅ R ⋅ T where P = absolute pressure of the gas.0 21.0 619. gram moles R = gas constant.com .36 lb 20.0456 0.7 304.0 gm 0.78 1262.0982 44.2 547.3 gm 0.31 19. K These are the typical units used in safety and industrial hygiene applications.0 1.02366 1. See the following table.8 2.22 0.00161 0. It provides a good approximation of the behavior of many gases under many conditions. 0.0426 2.0 39.670 34.85 gm 0.0482 lb 0.0 1113.0 28300.206 62. Ideal Gas Law Gas Constant (R) Absolute Pressure moles atm psi mm Hg in Hg gm 0.
The cylinder is left in an area where the ambient temperature can climb as o high as 90 F. Calculate its density in lbs/ft at 1 atmosphere and 68 F. to provide: MW ⋅ P ⋅ Vol MW ⋅ n ⋅ R ⋅ T = This can be rearranged to: MW ⋅ n = MW ⋅ P R ⋅T Vol The term MW ⋅ n is the density (ρ).114 lbs/ft 3 3 ( 0. so we can write: Vol MW ⋅ P = ρ ⋅ R ⋅ T which can be rearranged to solve for d: ρ= MW ⋅ P R ⋅T Selecting the appropriate value for R (based on the units we desire) we find: ρ 44 ⋅1atm = 0. equation (81) can be written as: PVol1 PVol2 1 = 2 nRT1 nRT2 (82) With n and R constant. What pressure would the gauge read at that temperature? Assume o room temperature is 70 F.73ft ⋅ atm/lb mole ⋅ R ) ⋅ ( 460 + 68F) Problem: A small oxygen cylinder is full. Solution: First.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety For a gas at two varying conditions. and since the volume of the cylinder does not change. the equation can be written as: 44 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. we can take equation (81) and multiply each side of the equation by the molecular weight (MW).com . and at room temperature the gauge reads 1500 psi. equation (82) can be written: PVol1 PVol2 1 = 2 T1 T2 (83) Problem: Propane has a chemical composition of C 3 H 8 yielding a molecular weight of 3 o 44. Solution: We can use equation (83).
Equations related to permissible exposure limits are also commonly encountered.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety P P2 1 = T1 T2 Solving for P 2 and remembering to use degrees Rankine leads to: P 1500psi P2 = 1 T2 = (90F + 460F) = 1556.6 psi T1 (70F + 460F) The pressure increase is not that substantial in this case. 4. Assume acetylene as a density of 0.66 3 ft /lb.0682 lbs/ft at room temperature and pressure. 4. so we write: 45 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com . if we take the inverse of the density.3 Airborne Concentration via Volume The following expression may be used to calculate the airborne concentration of a gas or vapor in partpermillion (ppm) based on volume. we find acetylene occupies 14.2 Concentration of Vapors and Gases The calculation of concentrations of airborne contaminants is a common effort in safety and industrial hygiene. These are presented in the following section. ppm V contam = volume of contaminant (units to match V air ) V air = volume of air (units to match V contam ) 106 = conversion factor for ppm Problem: One pound of acetylene leaks from a cylinder into a room that measures 30 ft 3 wide by 50 ft long by 12 feet high. What is the concentration in ppm (assume uniform mixing and no losses)? Solution: First. ppm = Vcontam x 106 Vair (84) where ppm = airborne concentration.
non dimensional P i = pressure of gas i in the mixture.66 ft 3 = 814. what is the partial pressure of the oxygen and nitrogen? Solution: Since we know the total pressure and percent fractions.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Vcontam = = ppm x 106 Vair 14. mmHg X i = mole fraction of gas i in the mixture. but applied to problems involving solutions.79 )( 400 psi ) (= 0. Problem: An air compressor supplies air at 400 psi.com .4 ppm x 106 ( 30 ft )( 50 ft )(12 ft ) 4. the solution is found by multiplying the oxygen (21%) and nitrogen (79%) fractions by the total pressure to arrive at the partial pressures contributed by each: = Pnitrogen = Poxygen 0. Mathematically. It can be written as: Ptotal= X 1 P + X 2 P2 + + X i Pi 1 where P total = total pressure of gas mixture.4 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure (Gas) & Raoult’s Law (Liquids) Dalton's law (also called Dalton's law of partial pressures) states that the total pressure exerted by a gaseous mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of each individual component in a gas mixture.21)( 400 psi ) (= 316 psi 84 psi 46 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. Assuming air is comprised of oxygen (21%) and nitrogen (79%). Raoult’s law can be written the same as Dalton’s law. mmHg Note that the partial pressure of each component is: Ppartial −i = X i Pi (85) (86) Raoult's law states the vapor pressure of an ideal solution is dependent on the vapor pressure of each chemical component and the mole fraction of the component present in the solution.
mg/m3 47 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. The following equation can be used to make this conversion.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 4. ppm mg/m3 = airborne concentration.com . What is the equilibrium concentration (in ppm) in air around the IPA source assuming a o temperature of 25 C and a pressure of 1 atmosphere? Solution: Knowing 1 atmosphere equals 760 mmHg. ppm P v = vapor pressure of contaminant (units to match P atm ) P atm = vapor pressure of air (units to match P v ) 106 = conversion factor for ppm Problem: Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) has a vapor pressure of 44 mmHg at 25 C.895 ppm x 106 760 mmHg Patm 4.45 MW (88) ppm = airborne concentration. ppm = where mg / m3 x 24.6 Conversion for Airborne Concentrations: ppm (to/from) mg/m3 In addition to quantifying airborne contaminants in units of ppm. another common set of units is mg/m3. we can write: o = ppm Pv 44 mmHg = x 106 = 57.5 Airborne Concentration via Pressure The following expression may be used to calculate the airborne concentration of a gas or vapor in partpermillion (ppm) based on pressure. ppm = Pv x 106 Patm (87) where ppm = airborne concentration.
568 ppm C MW ⋅ V 44 ⋅10 liter This is well over the published IDLH value of 40. l/mole MW = molecular weight of contaminant. Solution: We need to rearrange equation (88) as follows: = mg / m3 ppm )( MW ) 57. 48 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.45 x106 MW ⋅ V (89) g ⋅ 24. grams 24.45 x106 1g ⋅ 24.45 142.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 24.895 )( 60 ) (= (= 24. 073mg/m3 142 kg/m3 = 4.45 = molar volume of any gas or vapor at STP.895 ppm).45 = molar volume of any gas or vapor at STP. so we can use equation (89) to find the solution: g ⋅ 24.45 x106 = = = 55. g/mole V = Volume.7 Conversion for Airborne Concentrations: ppm (to/from) g/l Another volumetric conversion. What is the concentration (ppm) of the CO 2 air mixture? Solution: The molecular weight of CO 2 is 44 and the other required data are provided in the question.000 ppm. and therefore a molecular weight of 60.com . l/gram mole MW = molecular weight of contaminant. ppm g = airborne concentration. this for converting between ppm and gramsperliter (g/l) is: C= where C = airborne concentration.45 24. calculate the equilibrium concentration in mg/m of the IPA in air. liters (l) Problem: A carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) test gas is prepared by placing 1 gram of CO 2 into a 10 liter container. Using the equilibrium concentration just calculated above 3 (57. g/gram mole Problem: Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) has a chemical formula of C 3 H 8 O.
If the TLVs are 50 ppm and 0. If the resulting TLV mix is equal or greater than 1. how is the TLV of the mixture determined? To do this. a similar approach is taken.9 Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of Liquids For liquid mixtures. nondimmensional C n = measured airborne concentration of contaminant n TLV n = permitted airborne concentration of contaminant n Problem: Air samples find toluene concentrations at 35 ppm and benzene concentrations at 0.0. the mixture exceeds the TLV.25 ppm within the same air sample. respectively. But what if more than one contaminant is present. TLVmix = C C1 C + 2 + + n TLV1 TLV2 TLVn (90) where TLV mix = TLV ratio of the airborne mixture. is the combined TLV exceeded? Solution: Substituting directly into equation (90) yields: TLVmix = C1 C 35 ppm 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 4.25 ppm + 2 = + =1.2 TLV1 TLV2 50 ppm 0.com . the following expression is used.5 ppm.5 ppm Therefore the combined TLV of the mixture is exceeded. except the actual TLV of the mixture is calculated as follows: TLVmix = 1 F F1 F + 2 + + n TLV1 TLV2 TLVn (91) where 49 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. 4.8 Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of Airborne Mixture The Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of a single airborne contaminant can be found by looking it up in a table of permitted exposure limits.
We can substitute the above fractions and LFLs into equation (92) to find: 50 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. mg/m3 F n = weight fraction of chemical n.50 .Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety TLV mix = TLV of the liquid mixture. decimal percent TLV n = TLV of chemical n.1%). mg/m3 Problem: What is the TLV of a 50/50 mixture of hexane and xylene? Assume the TLV 3 3 for hexane is 176 mg/m and the TLV for xylene is 434 mg/m . decimal form LFL n = LFL of flammable gas n. we find the following LFLs: methane (5%). % f n = volume fraction of flammable gas n. Solution: Substituting into equation (91) yields: TLVmix = 1 1 = = 250 mg/m3 .com . ethane (3%) and propane (2. % Note: Although this formula calculates LFL.10 Le Chatelier’s Rule The estimated lower flammability limit (LFL) of a mixture of combustible gases can be calculated using Le Chatelier's Rule: LFLmix = 1 f f1 f + 2 + + n LFL1 LFL2 LFLn (92) where LFL mix = LFL of the gas mixture. ethane (15%) and propane (10%)? Solution: Consulting MSDS of other suitable sources. Problem: What is the LFL of the following mixture: methane (75%).50 F1 F2 + + 3 TLV1 TLV2 176 mg/m 434 mg/m3 4. the same approach can be used for the upper flammability limit (UFL).
75 . concentration = saturation concentration of gas (or vapor).11 VaporHazard Ratio The vaporhazard ratio is a simple ratio of the saturation concentration of an airborne contaminant to permitted concentration. Since it is a ratio of the two values.0 % f f1 f .hazard ratio = where vaporhazard ratio = relative level of risk of an airborne contaminant. non dimensional sat. 632 ppm x 106 760 mmHg Patm Equation (93) can then be used to find the VaporHazard Ratio: vapor / hazard ratio = 102632 ppm = 513 200ppm 51 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. The vaporhazard ratio is expressed as: vapor . ppm sat. Standard atmospheric pressure is 760 mmHg.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety LFLmix = 1 1 = = 4. We can then use equation (87) to find the saturation pressure: = ppm Pv 78 mmHg = x 106 = 102. it indicates a relative level of risk that includes the volatility of the contaminant. concentration exposure guideline (93) Problem: What is the VaporHazard Ratio of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)? Solution: From an MSDS for MEK. we find an exposure limit of 200 ppm and a vapor o pressure of 78 mmHg (at 20 C). ppm exposure guideline = concentration permitted by guidelines.1 4.15 .10 + 2 + + n + + LFL1 LFL2 LFLn 5 3 2.com .
com . If the worker works 9 hours in a day. what is the permitted exposure to toluene? If the worker works 9 hours per day all week (5 days) what is the permitted exposure? Solution: First we can calculate the reduction factors for one day and one week based on the hours worked: = RFday 8 24 − h 8 24 − 9 = = 0. a Reduction Factor for an unusual work schedule can be used to adjust exposure limits based on the actual hours worked in a day.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 4. When an employee works an altered schedule. nondimensional h = number of hours worked in a day 4. a Reduction Factor can be used to adjust exposure limits based on the actual hours worked in a week. this can be written as: RFweek = 40 168 − hw x 128 hw (95) where RF week = reduction factor. For a modified work day. and a 40 hour workweek. this can be written as: RFday = 8 24 − h x h 16 (94) where RF day = reduction factor. The TLV for toluene is 50 ppm.12 Reduction Factor – Day Many occupational limits for exposure are based on an 8 hour workday. when an employee works an altered work week. nondimensional h w = number of hours worked in a week Problem: A worker is exposed to toluene during his shift.13 Reduction Factor – Week Similar to above.83 x x h 16 9 16 52 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. For a modified work week.
L/gcm b = length of light beam path.14 Chemistry of Solutions 4. even though it is based on the same increase in hours per work day. nondimensional I o = intensity of incident light I = intensity of transmitted (exiting) light a = molar absorptivity constant. Problem: A solution reduces the amount of light transmitted through it to 1/5 the original intensity. the permitted exposure for an increased day and week is: TLV permitted − day 0.com .74 ( 50 ppm ) 37 ppm Notice the week value is not the same as the day value.83 ( 50 ppm ) 41ppm = = = = TLV permitted − week 0. what is the concentration of the solution? 53 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. the units only need to be consistent. cm c = concentration of absorbing material.1 BeerLambert Law (Beer’s Law) One form of Beer’s law can be used to evaluate the presence of a contaminant in a solution based on the amount of light absorbed by the solution. If the molar absorptivity has been found to be 2.14. 4.2 cm. This is written as: I log o= A abc = I (96) where A = absorbance. g/L Note that the units for I o and I are not specified above.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety = RFweek 40 168 − hw 40 168 − 50 = = 0. Since they are expressed as a fraction.74 x x 128 50 128 hw Therefore.04 L/gcm and the beam length is 1.
2 cm ) 4.01 g/mole. or neutral. we can use equation (96) to solve for the absorbance: I 5 log o= A log = 0. The molecular weight of HNO 3 is 63.0794 moles = 0.286 g/L ( 2.0 liters Finally.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Solution: First.01grams/mole Then we can calculate the molarity of the solution: = M 0.0 liters of solution. pH is a measure of the hydrogen ions in solution and pH is calculated as follows: pH = − log10 H + (97) where pH = a quantitative description of acidity or alkalinity of a solution (ranges from 014) H + = hydrogen ion concentration.04 L/gcm )(1. base. we can use equation (97) to find the pH: 54 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.2 pH Calculation The pH of a solution indicates if the solution is an acid. Therefore. Solution: First we need to calculate the number of moles of HNO 3 : 5.7 = 0.0397 M 2. gram moles/liter (= Molarity.0 grams of HNO 3 in 2.com .7 = 1 I Equation (96) can then be rearranged to solve for the concentration: = c A = ab 0. = M) Problem: Calculate the pH of a solution that has 5.14.0 grams = 0.0794 moles 63. pH can indicate potential hazards of solutions.
K a .54 0. 55 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. we can use equation (97) to find the hydrogen ion concentration of the solution.002884 M ] = 0.462.54 and a molarity of 0.002884 M H = = Next.4 4. since the ratio of moles of C 2 H 3 O 2 to H is 1:1.002884 M ] x [0. K a ? Solution: First. M Problem: A solution of acetic acid (C 2 H 4 O 2 ) in water has a pH of 2. the acid dissociation constant.3 Acid Dissociation Constant In simple terms. nondimensional H + = hydrogen ion concentration. we can use equation (98) to write:  + H + x A− = = Ka [ HA] [0.0397 ] = pH =+ = 1.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety − log10 H − log10 [ 0.14. pH = − log10 H + Which can be rearranged to solve for the hydrogen ion concentration.462 M 1. What is the acid dissociation constant.com . M A− = concentration of conjugate base of a weak acid.8 x10−5 This value can be compared to those published for K a . M (98) [ HA] = weak acid concentration. + = 10− pH 10−2. is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution. It is calculated as follows: H + x A− Ka = [ HA] where K a = acid dissociation constant.
equal molarity). M (99) [ B ] = concentration of nonionized base. nondimensional BH + = concentration of positive ions from ionized base.com .Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 4. we can find pOH : − log10 6.10 M solution of methylamine (CH 5 N) in water? Note: 4 Methylamine has a base dissociation constant of 4. we can find they both are: − CH 6 N + = = OH +  = ( 0. K b .10 M ) ( 4. the base dissociation constant.63 x10−3 Similar to finding the pH. Solution: First. It is calculated as follows: BH + x OH − Kb = B] [ where K b = base dissociation constant.4 x10 = [0. so we need to subtract the pOH from 14.63 x10− 2.4 x10−4 ) 6.14. we can write the chemical equation as: CH 5 N + H 2 0 ⇔ CH 6 N + + OH Then we can use equation (99) to write: CH 6 N + x OH − 4.4x10 . M OH − = hydroxide ion concentration. M Problem: What is the pH of a 0. is a quantitative measure of the strength of a base in solution..10] −4 Since CH 6 N and OH have a ratio of 1:1 (i. 56 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.4 Base Dissociation Constant In simple terms.e.18 pOH =3 = We want to determine pH.
liters (l) Problem: What is the airborne concentration of asbestos fibers if 800 liters of air are sampled and 100 fibers are counted on 46 fields.1 Asbestos Fiber Concentration by PCM Airborne asbestos fiber concentrations can be assessed using phase contrast microscopy (PCM). fibers/ml C s = average number of fibers counted per graticule field in the sample C b = average number of fibers counted per graticule field in the field blank A c = effective collection area of filter.00785 mm 2 ) ( 800 L ) 57 0.18 = 14 14 11. 4.17 − 0 fibers ) = 1000 Af Vs 1000 ( 0.15.00785 mm2 V s = air volume sample.com . The following presents some of the equations used by those methods.82 Thus the pH of the methylamine solution is 11. 385 mm2 for 25 mm filter A f = graticule field area.00785 mm . 4.133f/mL © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety pH = − pOH = − 2. Solution: Applying equation (100) and substituting leads to: = Casb ( 385 mm2 ) Cs − Cb ) Ac (= ( 2.15 Asbestos (Airborne Contaminant) Various methods are used to assess asbestos concentrations in air. 0. 2 Assume the effective area of the filter is 385 mm (25 mm filter) and the graticule field 2 area is 0. The following equation is used in the analysis: Casb = ( Cs − Cb ) Ac 1000 Af Vs (100) where C asb = airborne concentration of asbestos fibers. and the field blank has no fibers.82.
15. liters (l) Problem: What is the airborne concentration of asbestos fibers if 800 liters of air are 2 sampled and the fiber density is 102 f/mm ? Assume the effective area of the filter is 2 385 mm (25 mm filter). 385 mm2 for 25 mm filter V s = air volume sample.15.049 fibers/mL 4.2 Asbestos Fiber Concentration Another form of the equation for assessing airborne asbestos fiber concentration is: Casb = EAc 1000Vs (101) where C asb = airborne concentration of asbestos fibers.com .3 Fiber Density The fiber density can be calculated as follows: E= where F B − N f Nb Af (102) E = fiber density on filter. fibers/ml E = fiber density on filter. Solution: Applying equation (101) and substituting leads to: EAc = = Casb 1000Vs mm ) (102 f/mm )( 385= 2 2 1000 ⋅ 800 L 0. fibers/ mm2 F/N f = average fiber count per graticule field 58 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 4. fibers/ mm2 (see next equation) A c = effective collection area of filter.
00785 mm . nm η = index of refraction of medium between point source and lens.61 = a constant λ = wavelength of light used in microscope. radians are related to degrees in the following manner: 1 radian = 180o 0.0 (air) to about 1. nm 0.61λ η sin α (103) π (104) 59 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. The equation can be written as: d= where d = limit of resolution.00785 mm 2 4. Solution: Using equation (102) and substituting leads to: F B 100 − − 0 fibers N f Nb 46 = = E = 277 f/mm 2 Af 0.com .5 (oils). radians Note: Values for η typically range between 1. Also. Also.15. and 2 the field blank has no fibers? Assume the graticule field area is 0. which may be required when conducting asbestos sample assessment. 0. the value ηsinα is often expressed as NA (numerical aperture).00785 mm2 Problem: What is the fiber density on a filter if 100 fibers are counted on 46 fields.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety B/N b = average fiber count per graticule field for the field blank A f = graticule field area.4 Microscopic Limit of Resolution (Abbe’s Equation) The Abbe’s equation can be used to determine the limit of resolution for a microscope. relative to free space α = half the angle of the cone of light from specimen plane accepted by the objective.
61λ ( 0. air). Calculate the terminal settling velocity of the water particles in still 3 3 air..698 radians) and η = 1. Problem: A high pressure water spray system generates particles with an average diameter of 80 µm. air).0 for air.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem: Visible light in air is used for a microscope. air) can be described by: VTS = where 2 gd p ( ρ p − ρ a ) 18η (105) V TS = terminal settling velocity of particle.g. poise (P) Note that equation (105) is applicable for particles less than 80 micrometers (µm) in size (i...g.0 g/cm .g. Solution: Substituting the given data into equation (105) leads to: 60 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.0. cm/sec2 d = diameter of particle. What is the limit of resolution for this setup? Assume a halfangle of 40 degrees (0. cm ρ p = density of particle.000182 Poise..61)( 500 nm ) = = 475 nm = 475µ m η sin α 1. g/cm3 ρ a = density of fluid (e.e. Also. Reynolds numbers are presented next.16 Particle Settling Velocity The terminal settling velocity of a spherical particle in a fluid (e. the density of air is 0. g/cm3 η = viscosity of fluid (e.0012 g/cm 2 and its viscosity is 0.com . cm/sec g = acceleration due to gravity.0 ⋅ sin (0. The gravitational acceleration is 980 cm/sec . Solution: Using equation (103) and substituting leads to: d = 0. Assume the density of water is 1. aerodynamic diameter) and having a Reynolds number less than 2.698) 4. The wavelength for visible light is 500 nm.
12 cm/sec.12 cm/sec 18 ( 0.g.0. including the calculated settling velocity of 19. cm/sec η = viscosity of fluid (e.16. poise (P) Problem: Calculate the Reynolds number for the particle described in the previous sample problem and determine if the use of equation (105) is appropriate based on the calculated settling velocity.0012 g/cm3 ) = 19.. we can use equation (106) to calculate the Reynolds number.008cm )(19.1 Reynolds Number The Reynolds number expresses the ratio of inertial (resistance to change or motion) forces to viscous (heavy and gluey) forces.000182 g/cmsec 1. it can be calculated using the following equation.g. 61 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. Solution: Given the data from the previous sample problem. g/cm3 d = characteristic dimension (here it is the diameter of particle). Re = where Re = Reynolds number.. The Reynolds number is nondimensional and is used in numerous fluid mechanics applications.12 cm/sec ) = 3 0.com . air). cm v = velocity of particle. nondimensional ρ a = density of fluid (e. ρ dv η (106) ρ dv Re = = η (1g/cm ) ( 0.01 Since the calculated Reynolds number is less than 2.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 2 gd p ( ρ p − ρ a ) VTS = = 18η ( 980 cm/sec ) ( 0.008cm ) 2 (1 − 0. air).000182 g/cmsec ) 2 4. equation (105) provides a reasonable approximation of the particle settling velocity.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 62 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com .
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Mechanics 5 Mechanics 5. slugs a = acceleration. One slug is the mass accelerated at 1 foot per second per second by a force of 1 pound.1 Newton’s Second Law Newton’s Second Law explains how the velocity of an object changes when it is subjected to an external force. the slug is equal to 32. Problem: A roller coaster accelerates from 0 to 50 mph in 5 seconds.2 ft/sec 2 We must also calculate the acceleration: 63 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com . What is the force a 100 lb child exerts on the back of her seat? Solution: First.1slugs 32. The law defines a force to be equal to change in momentum (mass times velocity) per change in time. lbs m = mass.17 feet per second per second. Since a change in velocity with respect to time is acceleration.2 pounds (14. Newton’s Second Law can be written as: F = ma where F = force. ft/sec2 (107) Slug The slug is a unit of mass in the English footpoundsecond system.6 kilograms). Since the acceleration of gravity (g) in English units is 32. we must convert the weight in pounds to Slugs: 100 lbs = 3.
67 ft/sec= ) 14.75slugs g 32. ft/sec2 Problem: An adult weighs 185 pounds.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety a = v = t ( 50 mile/hr )( 5280 ft/mile )( hr / 3600sec )= 5sec = ma F = 2 ( 3. the child experiences about a onehalf “g” force during the acceleration.2 ft/sec 2 5.3 Momentum In mechanics. what is his mass? Solution: Rearranging equation (108).1slugs ) (14.2 Weight Weight is the force exerted on an object with a given mass due to gravitational acceleration.com . This is an application of Newton’s Second Law and can be written: W = mg (108) where W = weight. lb/sec 64 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. using equation (107) we find: 45. p = mv (109) where p = momentum.67 ft/sec 2 Now. 5. lbforce m = mass.47 lbs Therefore. we find: m = W 185lbs = = 5. momentum is the product of the mass and velocity of an object. slugs g = acceleration due to gravity.
wattssec. lbs s = distance..com . what is their combined speed before brakes are applied? Solution: The individual momentums and masses of both vehicles can be combined. Assuming that immediately after the crash the vehicles’ damage causes them to interlock and travel as one.e.000 lbs and traveling at 60 mph strikes the rear of a car that weighs 7.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety m = mass.2 mph Important: Notice the units in the equation do not match those listed above? That is because there is no need to convert here as long as the same units are used (i. lbs and lbs. How much work is required? Solution: We simply plug the values into equation (110) and find: (110) W Fs = = = (10 lbs )( 50 ft ) 500 ftlbs Note: Ftlbs can be easily converted to other units such as joules. Btus. 5.4 Work In mechanics. ft/sec Problem: A truck weighing 11. 65 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. slugs v =velocity. ftlbs F = force. work is the amount of energy transferred by a force acting through a distance.000 lbs and is traveling at 40 mph in the same direction. ft Problem: A 10 lb weight is lifted 50 feet. 000 lbs )( 60 mph ) + ( 7. and the resulting velocity determined as follows: m1V1 + m2V2 = V= T mT (11. calories. Try doing all the conversions and see for yourself. W = Fs where W = work. etc. 000 lbs 52. 000 lbs )( 40 mph= ) 18. and mph and mph).
What force must be applied to the end of the steel bar to lift the drum? Solution: We can use equation (111) to calculate the force required and see the mechanical advantage of levers. this can be written as: F1 D1 = F2 D2 where F n = force n. Assume a 55 gallon drum contains about 400 lbs of fluid and you want to lift the drum to place a pad under it. When balanced by an opposing but equal moment.com . (111) F1 D1 F2 D2 = = Solving for F 2 yields: 2 ft ) ( 400 lbs )(= ( F2 )(8ft ) = F2 400 lbs )( 2 ft ) (= (8ft ) 100 lbs In this case it takes a force ¼ the weight to lift the weight. lbs D n = distance n.5 Moment of Force Moment of force can be thought of as a rotational force resulting from a force acting some distance from a point. feet Problem: The moment force is the principle behind levers. this relationship can be written as: F = µN (112) where F = frictional force. Mathematically. and the remaining 8 feet is on the other side of the pivot point.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 5. lbforce 66 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. The steel bar is then placed over a pivot point such that there is 2 feet of bar between the pivot point and the sling.6 Friction Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of two objects sliding against each other. You connect a sling to the drum and attach it to a 10 foot long steel bar. 5.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety µ = coefficient of friction. = = ( 750 lbs )( 45ft ) 33.7 Potential Energy In mechanics.65. ftlbs m = mass. = potential energy. = mgh (113) where P. What is the potential energy of the unit as it reaches roof level? Solution: Applying equation (114) results in: P.5lbs 5.com . nondimensional N = the normal (perpendicular) force.E. potential energy is the energy stored in an object due to its position. If the coefficient of friction is 0. so we can write: P. 750 ftlbs 67 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. ft/sec2 h = height. lbforce Problem: A pallet with a load weighs 350 lbs.E. Applying equation (112) and substituting values: = µN F = = ( 0. W = mg.= Wh E. The unit weighs 750 lbs and the roof is located 45 feet above grade. slugs g = gravitational acceleration. = Wh (114) Problem: An air conditioning unit is being lifted to the roof of a new building. ft Note from equation (108) above. This can be written as: P.65)( 350 lbs ) 227. what horizontal force must be applied to slide the pallet? Solution: The horizontal force must be equal to or greater than the frictional force.E.
is zero at x = x o and making the equilibrium position zero (x o = 0) simplifies Equation (116) to: P.com .8 Hooke’s Law and the Potential Energy of a Spring In mechanics.25 ft and substituting the values into equation (117) kx 2 2 (117) 68 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. lbs k = spring constant.E. ftlbs k = spring constant. the work done by the spring force (F) over some displacement (s) is given by W = Fs. The work stored in the spring is its potential energy. Recalling equation (110) above. lbs/ft x = distance spring is changed.E. lbs/ft x = distance spring is changed.E. = potential energy in spring. What is the potential energy stored in the compressed spring? Solution: Converting 3 inches to 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 5. Thus. ft Problem: A spring with a constant of 15.E. ft (115) The potential energy stored in a spring can be derived in the following manner. = where P. we can write: = − ∫ Fdx =− ∫ −k ( x − xo ) dx =1 k ( x − xo ) + C P. 2 2 (116) Setting C = 0 so that P. This can be written: F = −kx where F = force on spring. Hooke's law states the extension of a spring is in direct proportion to the force acting on it as long as this load does not exceed the elastic limit.000 lbs/ft is compressed 3 inches.
294ftlbs 2 2 2 5.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety yields: kx 2 P= = . velocity.10 Rectilinear Motion In simple terms. and then use equation (118) to calculate kinetic energy. 000 lbs/ft )( 0. convert weight in pounds to slugs and speed in mph to ft/sec. what is its kinetic energy when traveling at 10 mph? Solution: First. ft/sec Problem: A forklift weighs 3980 lbs.2 ft/sec 2 10 hr 5280 mile 3600 sec 2 mv K . distance. slugs v = velocity of object.9 Kinetic Energy The kinetic energy of an object is the energy which it possesses due to its motion.E.25ft= ) 2 2 469 ftlbs 5. Within rectilinear motion. mv 2 2 (118) 3980 lbs miles ft 1hr 32.com . 2 (15. = = = 13. ftlbs m = mass of moving object.E . Mathematically this can be expressed as: K .E. rectilinear motion refers to the motion of objects along straight line without consideration of outside forces. = where K.E. and acceleration are related by the following equations: v vo + at = (119) 69 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. = kinetic energy.
Note that you can also solve this more directly by using equation (121) and setting the final velocity to zero: 0 = ( 58. = (58.4 ft + 6 ft = 59. so the height reached by the rope is 53. Note that when the rope reaches its highest point.82sec) + s Solving for s leads to s = 53.4 feet. Then using equation (120).82sec) 2 2 We must add 6 feet. Will the rope make it to the platform? Solution: We can solve this two ways.4 feet.67 ft/sec = 58. So he just barely misses it. (−32.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety = vot + s at 2 2 (120) (121) v 2 vo 2 + 2as = where s = distance. ft/sec a = ft/sec2 t = time. we can solve for the distance traveled. First. Of course this ignores air resistance and assumes a perfect vertical path. So: • • v=0 v o = 20 mph = 58.82 seconds. its velocity will be zero. Assume the worker can throw the rope straight up at 20 mph from a starting height of 6 feet. sec Problem: A worker is attempting to throw a small bundle of rope to a 60 ft high platform.2ft/sec 2 ) ⋅ t 0 Solving for t leads to t = 1.2ft/sec 2 )(1.com .67ft/sec + (−32.4 feet. ft v = velocity.67ft/sec)(1. 70 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. use equation (119) to calculate the time (t) the rope travels up.3ft/sec 2 ) ⋅ s 2 Solving for s leads to s = 53.67 ft/sec ) + 2 ( 32.
How fast is the bundle of rope moving when it hits the floor? Assume he drops the rope from about 3 feet above the platform floor. 71 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. Solution: The total distance the rope will fall is 60 ft + 3 ft = 63 ft. he drops the rope from the platform.3ft/sec2 ) ⋅ 63ft 2 Solving for v leads to v = 63.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem: When the worker is finished working on the platform. the weight or size of the rope was not required. Again using equation (121) and solving for v: v2 = ( 0 ft/sec ) + 2 ( 32.com . This time the initial velocity is zero.4 mph Getting struck by a bundle of rope traveling at nearly 40 mph can cause serious injury.7 ft/sec = 39. Note that in the above calculations.
com .Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 72 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.
3psi ft 144in 2 ( 4 ft )( 4 ft ) 6.. If the tank has a square bottom and each side is 4 feet long.1.1 Static Pressure One cubic foot of water weighs 62.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Hydrostatics and Hydraulics 6 Hydrostatics and Hydraulics 6. lbs/ft2 F = force.433psi 144in 2 (123) 73 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.4 lbs = 0. 62. One basic relationship is that which relates pressure and force.com .5 2 = 1.4 lbs/ft3). Therefore a column of water measuring 1 foot high creates a pressure of: 62.e.1 Pressure and Force Hydrostatics and Hydraulics refers to properties of water at rest and in motion. what is the pressure exerted on the base of the tank? Solution: = P F = A 3000 lbs lbs 1ft 2 = 187. this is given by the following equation: P= F A (122) where P = pressure.4 lbs (i. lbs A = area. ft2 Problem: A tanks holds 3000 pounds of quench water.
and has units of feet. pipe) without flow. it is usually written as: hP = P w (128) Problem: What pressure would be measured at the base of a fire standpipe in a 5 story highrise? Assume each floor is 12 feet high.com .4 lb/ft3).4 lbs/ft 3 ) 3744 lbs/ft 2 Or simply use equation (124) to find the answer directly in psi: = 0.433 h (124) or. Since it represents a pressure head.. or: Ppsi = 0. Solution: We can rearrange equation (128) and substitute to find: = h= P Pw = ( 5stories )(12 ft/story ) ( 62. we can write: Ppsf = w h (126) Solving for h leads to: h= P w (127) The h in equation (127) is known as the pressure head. w. for units of pound. in feet.433 ( 5stories )(12 ft/story ) 26 psi Ppsi = = 74 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.g. simply multiply equation (123) by the height. that is pressure exerted against the side of a container (e.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety To determine the pressure (in psi) exerted by a column of water of any height.persquarefoot (psf): Ppsf = 62.4 h (125) If we call the specific weight of water (62.433 h 0. This is the net or normal pressure.
If the surface of the water in the tank is 50 feet above the open valve.2 Velocity Pressure Velocity pressure.2 ft/sec ): 75 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. as the name implies.1. leads to: hv = V2 2g (132) This can be solved for the velocity to find: V = 2 ghv (133) This equation is known as Torricelli's law.E. The velocity produced in a mass of water by the pressure acting on it is the same as if the same mass of water were to fall freely from some height. is the pressure due to moving water.E. equations (129) and (130) can be set equal: mgh = mv 2 2 (131) Solving for h (and since it is the velocity head).com . or Torricelli's theorem (not to be confused with Torricelli's equation).Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 6. h. = And the equation for potential energy: P. This can be shown as follows: Recall the equation for kinetic energy: K . Problem: A 21/2 inch valve is opened at the base of a large water storage tank. What is the velocity of the water exiting the open valve? Solution: We can use equation (133) and substitute the value for the height and the 2 gravitational acceleration (32. labeling it as h V . that creates an equivalent pressure. = mgh mv 2 2 (129) (130) When the potential energy of water at some height is turned into kinetic energy as it falls.
com . so Bernoulli’s theorem also applies to gases that can be considered incompressible (i. since we know the velocity and the size of the opening..” Problem: A fire truck draws water from a pond that is 6 feet below the fire truck.g.e..Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety = V = 2 ghv 50 ft ) ( 2 ) ( 32.. This theorem is also known as Bernoulli’s equation or Bernoulli’s law. 6. Also note that the size of the opening does not affect velocity. ft h 12 (134) = energy (head) lost between locations 1 and 2. ft/sec2 P = Pressure. Remember. lbs/ft3 Z = Elevation. ft Notice that each group of variables (e. Bernoulli’s theorem is an expression that relates. the pressure. so does the velocity. “fluids” includes liquids and gases. lbs/ft2 w = Specific weight. through conservation of energy. Assume the friction losses in the hoses total 30 psi. ft/sec g = gravitational acceleration. velocity and elevation (height) of the steady flow of an incompressible. V2/2g) has units of feet and is referred to as “head. gpm).2 Bernoulli’s Theorem Equations (128) and (132) are part of Bernoulli’s theorem.g.1337 ft ) 76 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. we can also solve for the actual flow (e. the density can be considered constant). nonviscous fluid.7 ft/sec Note that as the water level drops. What pressure does the pump need to add to move the water 3 from the pond to the fire? (Note: 1 gallon of water = 0. However. It then pumps the water up to a fire that is 15 feet higher through 250 feet of 2 inch hose to a 11/2 inch nozzle that discharges 100 gpm into the fire.2 ft/sec2 ) (= 56. and is shown here: V12 P V2 P + 1 + Z1 = 2 + 2 + Z 2 + h1− 2 2g w 2g w where V = Velocity.
3ft = w or P2 = − ( 91.22 ft/sec = A 0.62 ft + 2 + 15ft + 69.2 ft/sec 2 ) 2 From equation (132): We can now apply Bernoulli’s equation(134): V12 P V2 P + 1 + Z1 = 2 + 2 + Z 2 + h1− 2 2g w 2g w P 0 + 0 + (−6 ft) 1. We find this by first finding the velocity of the water exiting the nozzle.3ft/min 10.92 ft ) w Since this is what the overall pressured drop (in feet) it is also what the pump must add to compensate.433 h 30 psi = h= = 69. For this we need the area of the nozzle: Ppsi d2 22 = π= π= 3.22 ft/sec ) = = hv = 1. the pond is at zero velocity.14in 2 = A 4 4 1ft = ( 3. To convert to psi: 1ft 2 = 39. then using equation(132).3ft 0.0218ft 2 Now we can find the velocity from the continuity equation (Q=AV): V = Q 100 gpm 0.1337 ft 3 = = 613. using equation (124): Ppsi = 0.4 lb/ft 3 ) ( 2 144in 77 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. we need to change the friction losses from psi to head.6 psi 91.433 0.433 Next.0218ft 2 1gallon V 2 (10. but the water discharging from the nozzle has a velocity.14in ) 144in 2 2 2 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Solution: First.62 ft 2 g 2 ( 32.com .92 ft ) ( 62.
gpm) can be derived as follows: Recalling the continuity equation: Q A ⋅V = (135) or V= Q A (136) where Q = volumetric flow rate. (137). ft2 V = velocity.48gal/ft 3 )(π d 2 ) ( 0.3 Water Flow in a Pipe The velocity pressure in a pipe with a given flow (e. and (138) leads to: (138) V = ( gpm )( 4 )(144 ) = Q = A ( 60 ) ( 7. 1 1 gallons 3 minute 60sec/min 7.4085)( gpm ) (d ) 2 (139) Recall equation (132)..g.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 6. and substituting the value of V just derived leads to: 78 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.48gal/ft (137) and converting the cross sectional area of a pipe in square inches to square feet π d 2 1 2 2 4 144in /ft where d = diameter of pipe. ft3/sec A = crosssectional area.com . inches Combining equations (136). ft/sec Converting gallons per minute to cubic feet per seconds. gallons per minute.
Solution: Substitute the flow and pipe diameter values into equation (142): (100 gpm ) Q2 = = P = 0.433 P( psi ) = 386d 4 891d 4 which is typically written with Q substituted for gpm P = V Q2 891d 4 (142) (141) Problem: What is the velocity pressure created by water flowing at 100 gpm in a nominal 2 inch pipe? Assume the actual internal diameter pipe is 2.3.1 Flow – Pressure Relationships For flow in a pipe with fixed diameter.07 in ) 2 Remember the 891 is a conversion. and resulting velocity pressure is in psi.4085 ⋅ gpm 2 V gpm 2 d2 = = hv = 2g 2g 386d 4 2 (140) Recalling equation (124).com . leads to: gpm 2 gpm 2 = 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 0. and substituting h v just derived.61psi V 4 4 891d 891 ⋅ ( 2. This equation can also be written: Q12 Q22 = C = P P2 1 which can be rearranged to yield: (144) 79 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.07 inches. 6. equation (142) can be written: P= Q2 C (143) where C is a constant (due to the diameter being fixed). so units must be in gpm and inches.
80 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.25 = = P2 P 1 1 P 1 Q1 2 2 = 1. the exact flow and pressures are not required. We do know substitute as follows: Q= Q1 ⋅ (1. a fire sprinkler) due to the pressure at the orifice.. gpm K = orifice factor. A decision is then made to increase the required flow by a 25% safety factor. We can rearrange equation (145) and 2 Q2 1.56 ⋅ P P2 1 So we can see increasing the flow by 25% requires the pressure be increased by 56%.com .g. Another useful equation is one that relates the flow from an orifice (e.25 ) . psi Problem: The pressure in a sprinkler supply pipe is 25 psi at the location of a sprinkler. Equation (143) can be written as: Q2 Q = = P C K 2 (146) where K = constant based on the orifice Equation (146) is commonly applied in the form: Q=K P (147) where Q = water flow. gpm/psi1/2 P = pressure.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Q1 = Q2 P 1 = P2 P 1 P2 (145) Problem: A water supply system to a series of emergency showers is designed and the water flow and pressure are known. What increase in pressure is required? Solution: Since we are concerned with ratios.
and then multiply that by the total length.87) used in equation (148). This is due to the HazenWilliams formula being an empirical formula. 500 feet in length. psi/ft 4. 81 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction..52Q1. gpm C = HazenWilliams coefficient. An empirical formula is a mathematical equation that predicts observed results. we use equation (148) to calculate the friction loss per foot.3 inches. is run to a new building.6 gpm/psi common Kfactor for fire sprinklers).3.2 HazenWilliams Formula The design or evaluation of hydraulic systems typically requires the calculation of pressure losses due to friction as water flows through a section of pipe.52 = constant based on pressure losses perfoot Q = flow.e.85 d 4. Solution: First.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety What is the expected flow in gpm for that sprinkler? Assume K=5. but is derived from experiment and not directly from first principles.85 and 4.com . this is related to the roughness of the piping d = pipe diameter. Solution: Applying equation (147): Q K P 5.85 C1. This is typically accomplished using the HazenWilliams formula: Pd = where P d = pressure drop.87 (148) Problem: A new 8 inch (nominal) cast iron water supply line.6 25 28GPM = = = 1/2 (a 6. 4. 1. What is the friction loss when 1000 gpm is flowing through the pipe? Assume a HazenWilliams coefficient of 120 and an interior diameter of 8. in Notice the atypical power values (i.
psi Problem: A pressure gauge is placed on a fire hydrant and the pressure recorded with no water flowing is 80 psi. We also know that when flowing 3000 gpm. The next closest hydrant is opened and a Pitot tube is used to measure and calculate a flow of 3000 gpm.0076 psi/ft ) (= 3. the residual pressure drops to 50 psi. psi R 2 = residual pressure when flowing Q 2 .54 Q2 = Q1 0.com . the residual pressure is 58 psi.82 psi Another hydraulic formula that is commonly used to evaluate water supplies is the following expression which relates changes in water flow due to changes in residual pressures. gpm Q 2 = flow at residual pressure R 2 . Without having to use a Pitot tube at both flowing hydrants.85 d 4.85 = Ptotal 500 ft )( 0. From this.52 (1000 gal ) = 0. A second hydrant is partially opened and the pressure gauge on the first hydrant now shows 50 psi.85 = = Pd C1. ( S − R2 )0. calculate the total flow from both hydrants.52Q1.3in ) 1.85 4.87 4. Solution: We know the static pressure on the water supply system at this location is 80 psi.54 ( 80 psi50 psi )0. gpm S = static pressure on the water supply system.54 ( S − R1 ) where Q 1 = flow at residual pressure R 1 . Static pressure is the pressure measured on a water supply when there is no water flowing and the residual pressure is the pressure remaining when there is water flow.87 (120 ) (8.54 0. We also know when a second hydrant is opened. psi R 1 = residual pressure when flowing Q 1 .Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 4. the pressure gauge at the first hydrant now reads 58 psi.54 = Q1 Q2 = 3000 gpm = 3547 gpm 0.0076 psi/ft 1.54 ( S − R1 ) ( 80 psi58 psi ) 82 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. we can use equation (149) to find the new (combined) water flow: (149) ( S − R2 )0.
oF x 1 = location of T 1 . Btu/hrftoF T 1 = temperature at location x 1 .1 Conduction (T − T ) q =k 1 2 A ( x1 − x2 ) where q = heat transferred. ft2 h = convective heat transfer coefficient. 7. There are three modes of heat transfer: conduction. Btu/hrft2oF 83 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. ft2 k = thermal conductivity. The following equations present simple forms of the three heat transfer modes.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Heat Transfer 7 Heat Transfer Heat transfer is the transfer of energy between material bodies as a result of temperature differences. Btu/hr A = area through which heat is conducted. oF T 2 = temperature at location x 2 . convection and radiation.2 Convection q = h (Tw − T∞ ) A (150) (151) where q = heat transferred.com . Btu/hr A = area through which heat is conducted. ft 7. ft x 2 = location of T 2 .
45 Btu/hrft. temperatures are absolute and raised to the fourth power. Btu/hr 2 A = area through which heat is conducted.F o T f = temperature in fire room. Assume radiation gains and losses can be ignored.3 Radiation q = σ (T14 − T24 ) A (152) where q = heat transferred. F o k = thermal conductivity of concrete wall. air) in which energy is transferred. The other o room is large and the room temperature is maintained at 70 F. F x 1 x 2 = wall thickness. F 84 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.. oR Important: For radiation heat transfer calculations.1714 108 Btu/hrft2 oR4 T w = temperature of solid surface. Btu/hrft .F o T Ow = temperature of wall surface in other room.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety T w = temperature solid surface. Btu/hrft .g. Calculate the wall 2 o surface temperatures of the separating wall.F in the fire 2 o room. The energy balance across the wall can be written as: h f (T f − TIw= k ) where (TIw − TOw= ) ( x1 − x2 ) h∞ (TOw − T∞ ) q = heat transferred. Btu/hrft. and the thermal conductivity of the o concrete is 0. F o T Iw = temperature of wall surface in fire room. h = 0. oF Note: The true definition of fluids includes liquids and gases. In one room there o is a fully developed fire and the average room gas temperature is 1000 F. ft 2 o h f = convective heat transfer coefficient.. oF T ∞ = temperature of fluid (e. ft 2 o h ∞ = convective heat transfer coefficient. air) which energy is transferred. 0.com .g.F.5 Btu/hrft .7 Btu/hrft . oR T ∞ = temperature of fluid (e. ft2 σ = StephanBoltzman constant. Problem: There are two rooms separated by a 6 inch concrete wall. Assume h = 1. 7.F o T ∞ = temperature in other room. Btu/hr A = area through which heat is conducted.F in the other room.
4 − 70 ) 290.1714 x 10 −8 ( (T Ow + 459.4 F is very high and suggests radiation losses should be considered. = 1.4 F The calculated wall surface temperature of 484.5) 0.3 F o T Ow = 248.7 (TOw − 70 ) There are a few methods to solve this.7 ( TOw − 70 ) + 0. the above equation can be written to include the radiative losses from the surface of the second room.7Btu/hrft 2 (70 + 459. The direct approach is to isolate one variable and then substitute.69) 4 4 ) The Excel Addin called Solver was used to solve this set of equations and resulted in: T Iw = 718.45 (T − T ) = ( 0. so the original assumption was incorrect (remember always to confirm assumptions are appropriate).7 ( 484.69) 4 ) A This demonstrates the radiative losses from the surface of the other wall is over four times greater than the convective losses.69) − (70 + 459.69) 4 −= 1226.5 (1000 − TIw ) 0.9 F o 85 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. Another approach is to use the Excel Addin called Solver.1 Btu/hrft 2 = A and q = 0.4 + 459.com .6 F o T Ow = 484.5 ) Iw Ow 0.45 (TIw − TOw= ) ( 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Entering what we know leads to: = 1.5 (1000 − TIw ) 0. The heat losses from the wall surface from convective and radiative heat losses can be found as follows: o o q = 0. To add the radiative losses. Either method used should result in: T Iw = 806.1714 x10−8 ( (484.
com .Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 86 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.
it can be assumed that ρ behaves as a constant (i. ft/min ρ n = density of gas at location n. ft2 V n = velocity at location n.com ..e. This is also known as the “continuity equation” and can be written as: A1 ⋅ V1 ⋅ ρ1 = A2 ⋅ V2 ⋅ ρ 2 where A n = crosssectional area at location n.. lbs/ft3 In most applications of building ventilation. This states that the mass flow rate of a gas at one point in a stream is equal to the mass flow rate at any other location (assuming no additions or losses).1 Conservation of Mass (the Continuity Equation) A basic concept when evaluating the flow of a gas in a system (e.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Ventilation 8 Ventilation 8. ρ 1 = ρ 2 ) and equation (153) can be written as: Q1 A1 ⋅ V1 = where Q 1 = volumetric flow. ft3/min Note that equation (154) can be rearranged to show: A1 = Q1 / V1 and V1 = Q1 / A1 (156) (155) (154) (153) 87 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.g. air in a duct) is conservation of mass.
or “head” in a flow stream at any location. Equation (160) can be rewritten as: 88 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. wc (160) TP represents to total energy. inches of water column (also written as in. To reduce the velocity in half. any one of the four variables can be found if the other three are known. solving for V 2 results in Equation (158) being written as: V2 = AV1 1 A2 (159) Problem: The design of a section of duct has air velocities that are too high.com . we can write: Q1 = Q2 or AV1 = A2V2 1 (158) (157) Through simple rearrangement of Equation (158). VP represents the pressure due to movement (it is always positive) and SP represents the pressure of the fluid or gas exerted in all directions. wc SP = static pressure. For example.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety For constant volumetric flow. TP remains constant). 8. the duct area must be doubled. what change to the duct crosssectional area would be required? Solution: We can see from equation (158) that to decrease the velocity by half. in. wc) VP = velocity pressure.e.. Due to conservation of energy (i.2 Conservation of Energy The energy in a ducted ventilation flow stream (assuming no losses) can be written as: TP VP + SP = where TP = total pressure. in.
wc SP n = static pressure at location n.wc ) = 0. wc. wc) VP n = velocity pressure at location n.5 in. 89 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety SP + VP = SP2 + VP2 + hL 1 1 where (161) TP n = total pressure at location n.25 in. inches of water column (also written as in. in. wc Problem: Measurements made at two ends of a section of ductwork showed a total pressure at one location of 2.wc ) − ( 2. in. and 2.5 in. in.wc 1 Velocity pressure is always positive. wc n = number of velocity pressure readings 2 (162) We will now explore some common applications of equation (161) and the law of conservation of energy and mass. in.25 in wc. wc VP n = velocity pressure n. What is the head loss across the section of ductwork? Solution: Combining equations (160) and (161) provides: TP TP2 + hL = 1 hL = TP − TP2 = ( 2. wc h L = head (energy) loss from location 1 to location 2. at the other end. and an average duct velocity pressure can be found using the following expression: VP + VP2 + + VPn 1 VPave = n where VP ave = average velocity pressure. in.25 in.com .
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem: Three velocity pressures are sampled across a duct and the following data recorded: 0. wc This equation can be derived as follows (first we will derive it for any gas and then for air). ft/min 4005 = a constant based on air flowing at standard temperature and pressure (STP) VP = velocity pressure. the velocity of a gas created by the velocity pressure (head) of a column of gas can be written as: V = 2 ghgas (164) where V = velocity of gas.g.95 = 0. 1. ft/sec2 90 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.75 + 1. see equation (133).wc 3 2 8. What is the average velocity pressure at that location? Solution: VP + VP2 + + VPn 1 = = VPave n 2 0. in.. Using the wrong units will lead to incorrect calculations.3 Derivation of the Fundamental Duct Flow Equations A very common equation related to air flow in a duct is typically written as: V = 4005 VP where V = velocity of air.0 and 0.75.com . This frequently means the equation uses a set type of units.95 in. From Torricelli's law. wc. (163) Constants Use caution whenever you see a constant in an equation (e. ft/sec g = gravitational acceleration.0 + 0.90 in. 4005 in equation (163)).
lbs/ft3 h water = elevation head. we need to convert equation (164) from gas to water.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety h gas = elevation head. and converting from seconds to minutes (that’s the 60 in front of the radical). lbs/ft3 h gas = elevation head. and maintaining ρ gas for now.com VP ρ gas (169) . this is done by the following conversion (which allows the substitution of VP for h water ): hgas = 1 ⋅ VP ⋅ ρ water 12 ⋅ ρ gas (167) Combining equation (164) and (167). ft of gas Since the elevation head in equation (164) is in feet of gas and we want to use water column. We can do this with this relationship: ρ gas hgas = ρ water hwater where ρ gas = density of gas (at STP). results in: V = 1096 where V = velocity. ft of water Equation (165) can be rewritten as: (165) hgas = ρ water hwater ρ gas (166) Note that we also need to change from feet of gas to inches of water head. leads to: V 60 ⋅ = 2 g ⋅ ρ waterVP 12 ⋅ ρ gas (168) Substituting values for g. ρ water . ft/min 91 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. ft of gas ρ water = density of water (at STP).
9 3799 cfm V = = Note that this is very close to the value for nitrogen just calculated above.073 lbs/ft . 92 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.90 in. ft/min VP = velocity pressure (head). However. Note that equation (170) only applies to air at standard temperature and pressure (STP). we can use equation (170): (170) = 4005 VP 4005 0. lbs/ft3 Problem: What is the velocity in a duct when the velocity pressure recorded is 0. wc ρ gas = density of gas (at STP). in. a conversion is required. we find: V = 4005 VP where V = velocity or air.848 cfm 0. Once again.wc? The duct carries nitrogen at normal temperature and pressure.90 in. Since air is 79% nitrogen.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety VP = velocity pressure (head). Solution: Since we are dealing with air. its density is very close to air. assume a 3 density of 0. in. When the value for the density of air at STP (0. Solution: VP 0. wc Problem: What is the velocity in an air duct when the velocity pressure recorded is 0.90 V = 1096 = 1096 = 3.073 ρ gas Equation (169) can be used to find the velocity of any gas at STP flowing in a duct.075 lb/ft3) is substituted for ρ gas .wc? Assume standard air conditions. If the air is not at standard temperature and pressure.com . this must be accounted for in equation (170). we are frequently concerned with air movement in ventilation systems.
86 df = ⋅ = ⋅ = 0. When conditions vary from standard temperature and pressure (STP).3. They are very useful in calculations as they are not scale or unit dependant. oF BP = barometric pressure. the density factor is typically calculated as follows: 530 BP = df ⋅ T + 460 29.86 mmHg. lbs/ft3 df = density factor. lbs/ft3 ρ STP = density of gas (at STP). For industrial hygiene and safety applications.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 8. and the temperature is 90 F. inches of Mercury (in. a density factor must be applied to account for this variation. but which cancel out when taken in combination.93 T + 460 29. Hg) Problem: A location is 1000 feet above sea level.92 (172) where T = temperature of gas. and the local barometric pressure is o 28.92 93 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. This is shown here: ρ Actual ρ STP ⋅ df = where ρ Actual = density of gas (at some temperature and pressure). nondimensional (171) Dimensionless Number A dimensionless number is a quantity without a physical unit.1 Density Correction Factor Density of gases is a function of temperature and pressure. What is the density correction factor for these conditions? Solution: 530 BP 530 28.com . a pure number.92 90 + 460 29. Such a number is typically defined as a product or ratio of quantities that might have units individually.
in fact the lack of specific detail is the reason the Proportionality Sign is used.1 above): P ⋅ Vol = n ⋅ R ⋅ T where P = absolute pressure of the gas. two quantities are said to be proportional if each of the quantities is a constant multiple of the other. Equation (173) can be written as: PVol1 PVol2 1 = 2 nRT1 nRT2 (173) (174) For n and R being constant.com . the volume is inverselyproportional to the density. This can be written as: Vol ∝ 1 ρ (176) Proportionality Symbol In mathematics. moles R = gas constant. For a fixed amount (mass) of gas. liters (l) n = amount of gas. other applications (or simply personal preference) may employ different units. ∝ Combining Equations (175) and (176) results in: 94 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.082 latm/molesK These are the typical units used in safety and industrial hygiene applications. For a gas at two varying conditions. atm Vol = volume of gas. equation (174) can be written: PVol1 PVol2 1 = 2 T1 T2 (175) We know that density is a measure of the amount of a gas in a given volume.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Equation (172) can be derived from the ideal gas law (see section 4. However. There is no specific relationship given. 0.
Assume a velocity pressure of 1. df = 1.0.4 DallaValle Equation The following form of the DallaValle equation calculates the capture velocity required for a plain opening hood (no flange): 95 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. df = 1. Solution: VP 1.com .wc.0 = 4005 V = 4005 = 4153 ft/min df 0. Compare the velocity of air with that density factor and conditions at STP (i. Problem: In the previous sample problem.93 VP 1. the density factor calculated was 0. 8. We can use the density factor (178) to modify those equations (and others) to account for conditions other than standard temperature and pressure.e. the air velocity increases.0).93.. as seen here: V = 1096 VP df ⋅ ρ gas VP df (179) V = 4005 (180) Remember that at standard temperature and pressure (STP).Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety PActual PSTP = ρ ActualTActual ρ STPTSTP (177) which can be rearranged to Actual = ρ ρ STP TSTP PActual = df TActual PSTP (178) Recall that Equations (169) and (170) are based on standard temperature and pressure (STP) conditions.0 = 4005 V = 4005 = 4005 ft/min df 1 Notice that as the density factor goes down.0 in.
196 ft 2 Next.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety V= Q 10 x 2 + A (181) where V = capture velocity at distance x from the hood opening.196 582 cfm Q A) = 12 2 8. ft A = area of the hood opening. rearranging equation (181) and substituting the appropriate values provides: 9 2 = V (10 x + = 100 10 + 0. ft2 Important: The DallaValle equation is valid when x is not greater than 1. Many equations used in industrial hygiene and safety have such limitations. ft3/min x = centerline distance from hood opening to target area. so always verify the limitations of any equation or model before applying it.com .5 Hood Static Pressure The hood static pressure equation can be used to calculate the hood static pressure required to overcome losses as air enters a hood. SPh VPd + he = where (182) 96 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. Problem: What volumetric flow rate is required in a 6 inch round plain duct hood located 9 inches from a location requiring a capture velocity of 100 fpm? Solution: First. the area of the hood is required in ft : 2 A = πd2 = 4 π ( 6 /12 ) 4 2 = 0. Using the equation outside this limitation will result in erroneous answers.5 times the equivalent diameter of the hood opening. ft/min Q = air flow.
dimensionless Values for F h vary depending on hood entry design with typical values ranging from 0. Problem: Based on the same data. C e . what is the hood entry loss factor for this hood? Solution: Rearranging equation (183) and substituting leads to: = Fh VPd 1.6 Hood Entry Coefficient and Loss Hoods are not perfect at turning available static pressure into velocity pressure. Solution: (183) SPh = VPd + he = 1.9 in.39 0. in. Problem: Calculate the hood static pressure when the duct velocity pressure is 1.93. in.25 in. SP h = 2.9 in.wc Note: Here the static pressure is calculated as an absolute value.15 in. wc.9 in. As a result the actual flow entering a hood is related to the theoretical maximum flow by the hood entry coefficient.wc + 0.04 to 0. Ce = VPd SPh (184) 97 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety SP h = value of hood static pressure.25 in. wc and the hood entry loss is 0.wc he 8.wc = 2. wc VP d = velocity pressure in duct. wc h e = hood entry loss. wc The hood entry loss (h e ) can be defined as: he Fh ⋅ VPd = where F h = hood entry loss factor. wc.com .wc = = 1. Since this is a hood static pressure.25 in. in.15 in.
9 VP 2 e 2 Ce2 d 0. wc and the hood entry loss is 0.15 Problem: Using the calculated hood entry coefficient.762 As expected.25 in.76 2.25 in.76 ) 1. wc.com . wc. Note that equations (183) and (185) can be combined to demonstrate: Fh = (1 − C ) 2 e Ce2 (186) Equation (186) can then be rearranged as follows: Fh = 1 −1 Ce2 (187) 1 Fh + 1 = 2 Ce (188) now solving for C e 98 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.25 = 0. The hood static pressure was found to be 2.wc = 0.9 in.15 in. Solution: = he 1− C ) (= (1 − 0. Solution: The duct velocity pressure was 1. the values are equal. verify the hood entry loss factor. determine the hood entry coefficient. = Ce VPd = SPh 1.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety where C e = hood entry coefficient. dimensionless The hood entry coefficient can be used to determine the hood entry losses for a given velocity pressure. he (1 − C ) VP = 2 e Ce2 d (185) Problem: Based on the data provided and calculated in the previous sample problem.
Calculate the resulting volumetric flow and velocity pressure. ft3/min Q 1 = volumetric flow rate of duct 1. 8.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Ce = 1 Fh + 1 (189) Problem: Given the hood entry loss factor of 0. that is with each rounding comes a loss of precision.com . This can be calculated as follows: Q Q = 1 VP + 2 VP2 VPr 1 Q3 Q3 where VP r = resulting velocity pressure of the merged flows.25 in.75 in. or 3500 cfm. The second has a volumetric flow rate of 2000 cfm at a velocity pressure of 0. The first has a volumetric flow rate of 1500 cfm at a velocity pressure of 1. in. wc Q 3 = volumetric flow rate of the merged flows. the volumetric flow rate is simply the sum of the two flows. wc used in the previous example. ft3/min VP 2 = velocity pressure in duct 2.9 + 1 The difference (~4%) is due to the precision of the values carried through the equations.9 in. Solution: The value calculated using equation (184) was 0. wc. 99 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. For equation (189) we find: = Ce 1 = 0.73 0. in. ft3/min VP 1 = velocity pressure in duct 1. wc (190) Problem: Two ventilation branch ducts converge. calculate the hood entry loss coefficient and compare the result to that answer found using equation (184). Solution: First. in.7 Converging Duct Flows and Losses Another type of loss encountered with ventilation flows occurs when two ducts merge and turbulence causes losses. wc Q 2 = volumetric flow rate of duct 2.76. wc.
e.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety The resulting velocity pressure is calculated using equation (190). wc The equation can also be used to determine a new volumetric flow rate in a duct when an old flow and static pressure are known and a new static pressure is measured. The second has a volumetric flow rate of 1500 cfm and a static pressure of 1. in.20 SPduct Therefore. Solution: SPgov SPduct (191) SPgov 1.75 = 0.96 in. 100 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. calculate a corrected flow for the second branch. ft3/min Q design = design (existing) flow rate. wc SP duct = design static pressure. Since the static pressures must be equivalent at the junction. Note: This approach of balancing converging duct flows is only appropriate for small differences in static pressure (i. This can be written as Qcor = Qdesign where Q cor = corrected (new) flow rate.25 = Qdesign Qcor = 1500 = 1531 cfm 1.25 + 0. wc. this can be used to balance static pressures during the design of a ventilation system by determining a new volumetric flow for one duct based on the governing static pressure.25 in. ft3/min SP gov = governing static pressure. Preliminary design calculations show the following: The first has a volumetric flow rate of 2000 cfm and a static pressure of 1. In effect.wc 3500 3500 Q3 Q3 Another consideration of two ducts joining is the resulting flow and static pressure. in. about 20%). Q Q 1500 2000 VPr = 1 VP + 2 VP2 = 1 1.20 in.. a flow of 1531 cfm in the second branch will result in the pressures at the junction being balanced (which is required). wc. Problem: Two ventilation branch ducts converge.com .
wc and the hood entry coefficient is 0.72 ) 2. plain end). equation (170): V = 4005 VPd (192) and equation (184): Ce = can be combined to yield: VPd SPh (193) V = 4005Ce SPh (194) Problem: Calculate the velocity in an 8inch round duct from a hood if the hood static pressure measurement is 2. Solution: = 4005Ce SPh 4005= 4078 fpm V = ( 0.72 (round duct. wc and the hood entry coefficient is 0.8 Further Applications of Flow and Velocity Equations The various volumetric flow rate and velocity equations and corrections derived above can be combined and written in a variety of useful formats.com .0 in. Solution: 101 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 8.0 in. plain end).72 (round duct. For example.0 Recalling equation (154) Q A ⋅V = (195) Combing equations (194) and (195) leads to Q = 4005Ce A SPh (196) Problem: Calculate the volumetric flow rate in an 8inch round duct from a hood if the hood static pressure measurement is 2.
0 = 4005 A Q = 4005 = 1656 cfm df (1 + Fh ) 4 12 0. the hood entry loss factor is 0..Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety π 8 2 Q = = 4005Ce A SPh 4005 ( 0.92 df = ⋅ = ⋅ = 0.92 Next we use equation (198): π 8 2 SPh 2.95 T + 460 29.92 95 + 460 29.8 in.5) A similar substitution (and using equation (169) from above) results in Q = 1096 A SPh ρ (1 + Fh ) (199) Note here the density correction factor is not needed because this form of the equation requires the density of the air at the appropriate temperature and pressure. we need to use equation (172) to determine the density factor: 530 BP 530 29.72 ) = 1423 cfm 2. Solution: First.50 and the duct is moving air at o standard atmospheric pressure and 95 F.95(1 + 0. wc. 102 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com .0 4 12 We can then modify this by recalling from above Ce = 1 Fh + 1 (197) and including the density correction factor (equation (172)) results in Q = 4005 A SPh df (1 + Fh ) (198) Problem: Calculate the volumetric flow rate in an 8inch round flanged hood if the static pressure is 0.
when integrated.5) As expected. The small difference is due to rounding in the equations. Solution: First. This material balance can be written as VdC Gdt − Q ' Cdt = (200) where V = volume of enclosure C = concentration of gas or vapor at time t 103 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com . and o the duct is moving air at standard atmospheric pressure and 95 F.071 lbs/ft 3 o 460 + 95 F Next. One simple way that only requires the density at standard temperature and pressure (STP) is the relationship: o ρT = constant Knowing the density of air at STP (0. substituting values into equation (199) leads to: π 8 2 SPh 2 = 1096 A Q = 1096 = 1658 cfm ρ (1 + Fh ) 4 12 0.. calculate the volumetric flow rate in an 8inch round flanged hood if the static pressure is 0.071(1 + 0. Note that equation (199) assumes standard pressure. 8.50. wc. relates the ventilation to the generation and removal of a contaminant. There are various sources that can be consulted.8 in. this value is very close to the 1656 cfm calculated in the previous sample problem. we need the density of air at 95 F.075 lbs/ft 3 )(460 + 68 o F) = 0. The concentration of a gas or vapor as a function of time can be derived from a differential material balance which.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem: Using equation (199).075 lb/ft ) leads to: 3 = ρ95 ρ STPTSTP = T95 (0.9 Dilution Ventilation Dilution ventilation is an important aspect of airborne contaminant control. the hood entry loss factor is 0. which was also used (but not required) in the previous problem.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
G = rate of generation of contaminant Q = rate of ventilation K = mixing factor Q’ = Q/K = effective rate of ventilation
From equation (200), several useful relationships can be derived. Rearranging equation (200) and integrating leads to:
∫
C2
C1
dC 1 = G − Q 'C V
∫
t2
t1
dt
(201)
Recall that (for a definite integral)
∫a
and
b
dx = ln x x
(202)
a ln a − ln b = ln b
(203)
So equation (201) becomes
G − Q ' C2 Q' − ( ln = t2 − t1 ) V G − Q ' C1
where ln = natural logarithm V = volume of enclosure, ft3
(204)
C 1 = initial concentration of gas or vapor, partspermillion/106, ppm/106 C 2 = final concentration of gas or vapor, ppm/106 G = rate of generation of contaminant, ft3/min Q’ = Q/K = effective rate of ventilation, ft3/min where Q = rate of ventilation, ft3/min
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Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
K = mixing factor (typical values range from 1 to 10), nondimmensional t 2 = final time, min t 1 = initial time, min
Problem: Acetone evolves at a rate of 3.5 cfm in a room that measures 30’ x 50’ x 12’. If an initial concentration is measured at 25 ppm, what will the concentration be after 15 minutes of 3000 cfm of dilution air? Assume K=1 (i.e., Q’ = Q). Solution: We can use equation (204), but the final concentration (C 2 ) is embedded in this form of the equation, so we must solve for C 2 .
G − Q ' C2 Q' − ( ln = t2 − t1 ) V G − Q ' C1
3.5 − 3000 ⋅ C2 3000 ln 3.5 − 3000 ( 0.000025 ) =15 − 0 ) − 18000 (
(15− 0 ) − 3.5 − 3000 ⋅ C2 = e 18000 3.5 − 3000 ( 0.000025 )
3000
3.5 − 3000 ⋅ C2 = 0.0821 3.425
= C2
( 0.0821)( 3.425) − 3.5 =
−3000
0.00107 1073 ppm =
It is important to note that the contaminant concentration, if given in ppm, must be converted to a volume fraction. This can be done by the following equation which relates concentrations in ppm to volumetric fractions for airborne gases and vapors.
ppmcontam = Vcontam x106 Vair
(205)
This can be written as
ppmcontam Vcontam = 106 Vair
105
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(206)
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
Problem: What is the volume of airborne acetone after 15 minutes in the sample problem above? Solution: From the above equation, we know at 15 minutes the acetone is at 1073 3 ppm. We also know the volume of the enclosure is 18,000 ft . Therefore, we can rearrange equation (206) as follows:
ppmcontam 1073 = Vair = Vcontam = 18, 000 ft 3 6 19.3 ft 3 6 10 10
From the general form dilution equation (204) comes other dilution equations that address special cases. For example, if we assume at time t=0, the concentration is C 1 =0, then equation (204) is simplified and becomes:
Q' G − Q 'C ln = − t G V
(207)
and since
ln x e ( )=x
(208)
Equation (207) can be written as
− t G − Q 'C =e V G Q'
(209)
Problem: Acetone begins to be evolved at a rate of 3.5 cfm in a room that measures 30’ x 50’ x 12’ high. If the initial acetone concentration is 0 ppm, what will the concentration be after 15 minutes of 3000 cfm of dilution air? Assume K=1. Solution: This is an application of equation (209).
− t G − Q 'C =e V G Q'
G ⋅e V −G C= −Q '
−
Q'
t
106
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Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
= C
3.5 ⋅ e
− 3000 15 18000
− 3.5 = 0.001071 1071 ppm = −3000
Now consider the case where a volume of air is contaminated at some initial concentration and we wish to calculate the change in concentration over time due to dilution ventilation when there is no new contaminant being added (i.e., G = 0). For this we start with the material balance of:
VdC = −Q ' Cdt
(210)
Similar to above, we can find:
∫
Integration leads to
C2
C1
dC Q ' t2 = − ∫ dt C V t1
(211)
C Q' − ( ln 2 = t2 − t1 ) V C1
and this equation can be rearranged to yield
(212)
− t2 − t1 =
V C2 ln Q ' C1
(213)
Problem: Acetone is used in a room that measures 30’ x 50’ x 12’. An initial concentration is measured at 5000 ppm, and the acetone use is stopped (i.e., no more acetone vapors evolve). With 3000 cfm of dilution air, how long would it take to reach a level of 250 ppm? Assume K=1. Solution:
− t2 − t1 =
V C2 18000 250 − ln = ln 18 = min ' Q C1 3000 5000
Fractions in Equations Note that in the above equations, the fraction C 2 /C 1
appears. In this case, we do not worry about units as they cancel to form a dimensionless fraction; they only need to have the same units. This simplifies this
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The ACH can easily be calculated as follows: N changes = 60Q Vroom (215) where N changes = number of air changes per hour (ACH) 108 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.5 cfm of toluene is supplied by 2500 cfm or air coming from a room with an airborne concentration that is limited to 50 ppm. Building and mechanical codes typically specify minimum ACH for most occupancy types.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety problem. and C supply = concentration of contaminant in the supply air.com .5 = ' x106 + Csupply C = x106 + 50 ppm = 250 ppm 2500 Q Notice that the room volume is not required. Determine the steadystate concentration of toluene in the room. ppm (214) Problem: Connected rooms utilize a cascading ventilation system where air with lower contamination levels moves towards rooms with higher concentrations before reaching filters. 8. Now consider the case in which we seek to identify the constant level of an airborne contaminant when the generation rate and ventilation rate are known and there is a steady concentration of contaminant in the supply air. Solution: G 0. Assume a room with a toluene process that evolves 0.10 Room Air Changes per Hour A common value for indoor air ventilation is the number of air changes per hour (ACH). G = ' x106 + Csupply C Q where the variables and units are as defined above.
hours N = number of air changes per hour 60 = conversion from minutes to hours Problem: Starting with equation (209) and (215).1 Dilution Ventilation Based on Room Air Changes When a room starts with no concentration of an airborne contaminant.71828… t = time elapsed. we must rearrange equation (209): G 1 − e− Nt /60 x106 ' Q ( ) (216) 109 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. ppm/106 G = rate of generation of contaminant. but a contaminant is added at a steady rate over time.10. How many air changes per hour (ACH) are required to provide a ventilation rate of 3000 cfm? Solution: N changes = 60Q 60 ⋅ 3000 = = 10 ACH 18. ft3 Problem: A room measures 30’ x 50’ x 12’ high. ft3/min V room = room volume. ft3/min e = natural logarithm. min/hour Q = room ventilation rate. 000 Vroom 8. the timedependant concentration can be calculated based on the number of air changes per hour. derive equation (216). ft3/min Q’ = effective rate of ventilation. 2.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 60 = conversion factor for minutes to hours. Solution: First.com . This is shown here: C = where C = concentration at time t.
units to match C t = time. What is the concentration of an airborne contaminant after 15 minutes if the initial concentration is 110 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com . units to match C 0 C 0 = initial concentration. hours N = number of air changes per hour Problem: A process area has a ventilation system that provides 20 ACH. This is shown here: C = C0 e −tN (217) where C = concentration at time t. equation (215) can be rearranged as follows: N changes 60 = Q Vroom Substituting this into the preceding equation leads to: C ppm = G 1 − e− Nt /60 x106 Q' ( ) When a room starts with a known concentration of an airborne contaminant. and no additional contaminate is added. the timedependant concentration (dilution) can be calculated based on the number of air changes per hour.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety − t G − Q 'C =e V G Q' C ppm = − Q' G ⋅e −G x 106 −Q ' − Q' t V Q' − t G ⋅e V −G G C ppm = x= 106 1 − e V x 106 Q' −Q ' t Next.
com .. nondimensional 106 = unit conversion (ppm to volume percent) MW = molecular weight. g C = contaminant concentration in air.08)( 500 ) 5482 cfm 111 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. LFL (LEL) or any other desired concentration. The molecular weight is 58.1 pints/min.11 Dilution to Control Evaporation The following equation can be used to calculate the ventilation required to keep an evaporating contaminant (e.1)( 5) (106 ) = = ( MW )( C ) ( 58.08. The concentration can be a TLV. Solution: = Q ( 403)( SG )( ER )( K ) (106 ) ( 403)( 0.25 hr )(= 2. Note that this equation is based on pints/min of evaporating contaminant.79. ft3/min 403 = constant for units used SG = specific gravity. How much dilution air is required to maintain the concentration below the TLV? Assume the TLV is 500 ppm and a ventilation safety factor of 5. a solvent) below a desired concentration.02 ppm 8.79 )( 0. ppm (218) Problem: Acetone evaporates at a rate of 0. ( 403)( SG )( ER )( K ) (106 ) Q= ( MW )( C ) where Q = volumetric flow required to limit concentration. pints/min K = ventilation (dilution) safety factor.g.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 300 ppm? Solution: = C0 e−tN C = 20 ACH ) ( 300 ppm ) e(0. and the specific gravity is 0. nondimensional ER = evaporation rate.
wc VP in = velocity pressure on the inlet side of the fan. wc. in. wc SP in = static pressure in. wc SP out = static pressure out.wc ) . The static pressure on the outlet side and the velocity pressure is always positively signed. in. in. and the velocity pressure is 1 in. the static pressure on the outlet side is 0.25 in.com . wc (220) 112 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. this can also be shown as SP fan . wc. wc TP out = total pressure measured at the outlet.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 8. measured on the outlet side of the fan.wc ) .( 2.75 in. Solution: (219) FSP = SPout − SPin − VPin = ( 0. in.12 Fan Laws and Equations Many engineered controls for airborne contaminant control require the use of fans. in.wc Important: The static pressure on the inlet side is always negatively signed. These are shown here. wc Problem: Calculate the fan static pressure if the static pressure on the inlet side is 2.wc ) = 2. wc TP in = total pressure measured at the inlet.75 in.5 in. FSP = SPout − SPin − VPin where FSP = fan static pressure. wc. Two equations that describe a fan’s ratings are fan static pressure and fan total pressure. in.5 in. The fan total pressure is defined as: FTP TPout − TPin = where FTP = fan total pressure. measured on the inlet side of the fan. in.(1 in.
12. The first equation relates the volumetric movement of a fan to size (to the third power) and speed. The static pressure on the outlet side and the velocity pressure is always positively signed. ft3/min Q 1 = volumetric flow rate for condition 1. Solution: From equation (160) we know: TP VP + SP = Therefore.0 in. 8.0 + −5. wc and 0. such as after a fan is installed. wc. ft3/min Size 2 = fan diameter for condition 2. Assume the inlet and outlet velocity pressures are 1.6 in. this assumes the fan size cannot be changed. Notice all the “laws” are a function of size and speed (revolutions per minute). At the same fan. wc and 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem: A fan supplies air at a velocity of 4000 fpm. wc.com . inches 3 (221) 113 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.3 in.wc Important: The static pressure on the inlet side is always negatively signed.1 Fan Laws The following three equations are known as the fan laws.6 ) − (1.7 in.0 ) = 5. respectively. Sometimes these equations are written without showing the “size” term.7 + 0. Also note the various powers used in the fan laws. Size2 RPM 2 Q2 = Q1 Size1 RPM 1 where Q 2 = volumetric flow rate for condition 2. they are also referred to as affinity laws.0 in. Note that these equations apply to a “family” of fans of similar design and manufacturer. They may not be applied to a mix of various designs. When this is done. the inlet and outlet static pressures are 5. Determine the fan total pressure. respectively. equation (220) can be written: FTP = TPout − TPin = (VPout + SPout ) − (VPin + SPin ) FTP = ( 0.
If the impeller size and speed is changed to 8 inches and 2500 RPM. wc P 1 = system pressure for condition 1. Equation (222) can then be rearranged to solve for RPM 2 . RPM 2 P2 = P 1 RPM 1 2 RPM 2 = RPM 1 P2 P 1 114 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. in. inches RPM 2 = fan speed for condition 2.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Size 1 = fan diameter for condition 1. Size2 RPM 2 P2 = P 1 Size1 RPM 1 where variables and units are as defined above P 2 = system pressure for condition 2. rpm Problem: A fan with a 6 inch impeller operates at 2000 RPM to supply 1500 cfm. rpm RPM 1 = fan speed for condition 1.0. that portion of the equation equals 1. in. how much faster would the fan have to turn to increase the pressure 50%? Solution: Since the fan size does not change.com . what will be the new flow? Solution: Size2 RPM 2 8 2500 Q2 = Q1 = 1500 = 4444 cfm 6 2000 Size1 RPM 1 3 3 The second equation relates the fan pressure to size and speed (both to the second power). wc 2 2 (222) Problem: If a fan size remains the same.
Size2 RPM 2 PWR2 = PWR1 Size1 RPM 1 where variables and units are as defined above 5 3 (223) PWR 2 = fan horsepower for condition 2.3 BHP PWR2 8 2500 Size1 RPM 1 5 3 5 3 115 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.5 RPM 2 RPM 1= 1= 1. The fan size is decreased to 6 inches and the speed increased to 3000 RPM. What is the new BHP? Solution: Size2 RPM 2 6 3000 = PWR1 = 30 = 12. Also.22 = P 1 1 Therefore. hp Problem: An 8 inch fan operates at 2500 RPM with a breaking horsepower (BHP) of 30. The third equation relates a fan’s power requirement to size (to the fifth power) and speed (to the third power). a 22% increase in RPM will increase the pressure by 50 percent.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety P2 1. hp PWR 1 = fan horsepower for condition 1. only multipliers since we were only looking for a multiplier. horsepower.com . note we did not use specific values for the speed and pressure.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 116 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com .
This relationship can be used in a free field at a distance from the source. I= where I = sound intensity.2 Pa source. Generally. W/m2 p = rms sound pressure.2 Pa ) = 9. for a plane wave there is a relationship. However. Assume the air o temperature is 20 C.com . Problem: Calculate the sound intensity of a 0. kg/m3 c = speed of sound in air.7x10−5 W/m 2 p2 I = = ρ c 413 Ns/m3 2 117 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Sound and Noise 9 Sound and Noise 9. Solution: ( 0.1 Sound Intensity Safety and industrial hygiene professionals typically deal with sound pressure and not sound intensity. m/sec p2 ρc (224) Note: rms stands for root mean square. there is no direct relationship between sound pressure and sound intensity. and the value ρc is the characteristic specific acoustic impedance and is equal to 413 Ns/m3 for air at 20 oC. Pa ρ = density of air.
5 Pa. typically 20 µPa RMS (which is usually considered the threshold of human hearing at 1 kHz).Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 9. Pa P 0 = reference rms sound pressure. W/m2 I 0 = reference sound intensity. Mathematically.5 Pa = 20 log 20 log SPL = = 88 dB P0 20x106 Pa Sound pressure level (SPL) can be related to the sound intensity (power) by: I SPL = 10 log I0 where SPL = sound pressure level. dB I = sound intensity. It is measured in decibels (dB) above a standard reference level.com . sound pressure level (SPL) can be written as: P SPL = 20 log P0 where SPL = sound pressure level.2 Sound Pressure Level (SPL) Sound pressure level (SPL) or sound level is a logarithmic measure of the effective sound pressure of a sound relative to a reference value. Pa (P o is typically 20 µPa) (225) Problem: Calculate the sound pressure level (in dB) due to a sound pressure of 0. W/m2 (I 0 is typically 1012 W/m2) (226) 118 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. dB P = measured rms sound pressure. Solution: P 0.
2.5 dB 15 ft d2 Reminder: Since the distances are in a fraction.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem: Calculate the sound pressure level for a measured intensity of 0.com . The change is not linear. any units can be used as long as they are consistent. The two following equations can be used to add sound pressure levels. 9. Solution: 2 I 0. What is the expected sound pressure level at 15 feet from the press? Solution: d 10 ft SPL2 = 20 log 1 = SPL1 + 85 dB+20log = 81. sound pressure levels cannot simply be added together.005 W/m 2 = 10 log 10 log 12 SPL = = 97 dB I0 10 W/m 2 Sound pressure level decreases over distance. rather they must be added while accounting for their logarithmic nature.005 W/m . dB SPL 1 = sound pressure level at distance d 1 dB d 1 = distance where SPL 1 was measured d 2 = distance where SPL 2 was measured (227) Problem: Sound measurements record an average sound pressure level of 85 dB at a location 10 feet away from a punchpress.1 Addition of Sound Pressure Levels (SPLs) Due to their logarithmic nature. 119 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. rather it changes logarithmically as follows: d = SPL2 SPL1 + 20 log 1 d2 where SPL 2 = sound pressure level at distance d 2 .
3 dB = = A simple form of the equation can be derived for cases involving a number of identical sources. SPLtotal SPLi + 10 log(n) = where SPL total = total (sum) of all sound pressure levels. Produce literature indicates an expected sound pressure level of 80 dB (at a reference distance) for each machine. dB n = number of identical sound pressure levels summed (229) Problem: Four machines are to be collocated. What is the expected combined sound pressure level? Solution: SPLtotal = SPLi + 10 log(n) = 85 + 10 log(4) = 85 + 6 = 91 dB 120 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. Solution: 95 90 80 SPLtotal 10 log 1010 + 1010 + 1010 96. dB SPL i = SPL of a single source.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety SPLtotal = 10 log ∑10 i =1 N SPLi 10 (228) where SPL total = total (sum) of all sound pressure levels. 95 dB and 90 dB. dB Problem: Calculate the combined sound pressure level created by three sources measured at 80 dB.com . dB i = count of individual sound pressure levels N = number of individual sound pressure levels summed SPL i = SPL of sound i.
When you have two sources. dB i = count of individual sound pressure levels N = number of individual sound pressure levels summed Lp i = SPL of sound i. the equation simplifies to the following: LTotal where − L210L1 L1 + 10 log = 10 + 1 (231) L Total = total (sum) of two source sound pressure levels. What is the expected combined sound pressure level? Solution: 121 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. dB L 1 = SPL of sound I. Produce literature indicates an expected sound pressure level of 80 dB and 85 dB (at a reference distance) for the machines. dB (230) This equation can be used for any number of varying sources. dB L 2 = SPL of sound 2.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Note: Equation (228) can also be used as follows: 85 10 = 10 log 4 10 91dB SPLtotal = Another form that you may see for adding sound pressure levels (mathematically identical to equation (228)) is: N LPi LPT = 10 log ∑10 10 i =1 where L PT = total (sum) of all sound pressure levels.com . dB Problem: Two machines are to be collocated.
hours Note that each sound exposure is multiplied by its duration. This can be found as follows: Li 1 N 10 Leq = 10 log ∑ 10 ti T i =1 (232) where L eq = time weighed equivalent sound pressure level. hours i = count of individual sound pressure levels N = number of individual sound pressure levels summed L i = SPL of sound i. 92 dB for 1 hour.2 Time Weighted Equivalent Sound Pressure Level Sometimes you wish to determine an equivalent sound pressure level for a variety of sounds (noises) experienced over varying durations. Problem: Calculate the equivalent sound pressure level for the following measurements: 80dB for 2 hours.2. 94 dB for 2 hours. 9. dB t i = duration of sound i. and then the total duration is divided out to yield the weighted average.2 dB Note: The assignment of the higher or lower sound to L 1 is not required. Solution: 122 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. and 80 dB for 3 hours.com .Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety L2 − L1 85−80 LTotal = L1 + 10 log 10 10 + 1 = 80 + 10 log 10 10 + 1 = 86. Try reversing the values for L 1 and L 2 and check the solution. dB T = total observation time of the sounds.
What is the sound power level? Solution: (233) W 50 W = 10 log 10log 12 LW = = 137 dB 10 W W0 Within a free field.5 + DI + T (234) where L p = sound pressure level.3 Sound Power Level The sound power level (L W ) of a signal with sound power W (watts) is: W LW = 10 log W0 where L w = sound power level.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Leq = 10 log Li 1 N 10 10 ti ∑ T i =1 80 92 94 80 1 N 10 10 10 10 Leq = 10 log ∑ 10 ⋅ 2 + 10 ⋅1 + 10 = 89. dB L w = sound power level.6 dB ⋅ 2 + 10 ⋅ 3 T i =1 9. dB W = sound power. dB 123 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. W (W 0 is commonly set to 1012 W) Problem: A sound system produces 50 Watts of power. the sound pressure level and sound power level can be related by the following equation: L p = Lw − 20 log r − 0.com . W W 0 = reference sound intensity.
5 + 3 + 0 =116 dB 9.4 Transmission Loss The sound transmission loss describes the sound reduction due to a sound striking one surface of a barrier (e. ft 0. dB T = temperature and pressure correction factor (ignored at standard conditions).. a wall) and leaving the other side.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety r = distance. dB and DI = 10 log Q (235) where DI = directivity index. nondimensional Q= 1 for spherical radiation 2 for ½ spherical radiation 4 for ¼ spherical radiation 8 for 1/8 spherical radiation Problem: Assume the sound system from the previous sample problem is measured in a free field.com . It is defined as flows: 124 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. calculate the sound pressure level at 15 feet.g.5 = a constant for English units DI = direction index (see below). dB Q = directivity factor. Lp = Lw − 20 log r − 0.5 + DI + T =137 − 20 log (15 ) − 0. the directivity index must be calculated using equation (235): = 10 log Q 10= 3 dB DI = log ( 2 ) Then equation (234) can be applied with a temperature and pressure correction factor set to 0. Solution: First. Assume standard conditions and ½ spherical radiation.
Problem: What is the transmission loss for a 33/4” wall constructed of ½” gypsum on metal studs with no insulation? Assume a frequency of 1000 hZ. dB E i = sound power incident on the barrier.5 Noise Reduction by Absorption Noise reduction can be reported as a fraction of the amount of noise absorbed in a room before and after treatment for noise reduction. Mathematically this can be written as: A dB = 10 log 2 A1 where (238) 125 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. nondimensional The transmission coefficient is frequency dependant.00003.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety E TL = 10 log i Et where TL = transmission loss. 1 1 = 10 log 10 log = 45 dB TL = τ 0. at a frequency of 1000 Hz.com . the sound transmission coefficient will be about 0. W/m2 E t = sound power on the opposite side of the barrier. W/m2 Equation (236) is also written as: 1 TL = 10 log τ (236) (237) where τ = transmission coefficient.00003 9. For the wall design described. Solution: Various sources on sound transmission coefficients are available.
6. What is the change in noise reduction for the new material? Solution: The sound absorption coefficient is typically multiplied by the area to find the sound absorption.5.4 A (239) 126 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. This can be expressed as: NR = where 12. sabins A 2 = total amount of absorption after treatment.8 dB dB = 0. Since the area is a constant and equation (238) uses the absorption in fraction (ratio) form. dB/ft P = perimeter of duct.6 = a constant NR = noise reduction.com . in2 12.02. in. The ceiling material is changed to acoustical ceiling tiles with a sound absorption coefficient of 0. One square meter of 100% absorbing material has a value of one metric Sabin.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety dB = noise reduction.6 = 10 log 2 10 log = 14. 9. The overall change in the room would have to account for all the surfaces and their absorption coefficients.1 Noise Reduction in a Duct Ducts can be lined to reduce the noise transmission within the duct. A 0. sabins The Sabin The Sabin is defined as a unit of sound absorption.02 A1 Note that calculation is only for the change due to the ceiling material. we can simply use the sound absorption coefficient. Problem: A plaster ceiling is made of plaster with a sound absorption coefficient of 0. dB A 1 = total amount of absorption before treatment. α = absorption coefficient of the lining material.6Pα 1. nondimensional A = crosssection area of duct.
6 Pα 1. mathematically they are identical. The following table can be constructed to assists in the calculation: 127 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. 90 dB for 2 hours. so we can simply substitute values into the equation to find: 12. Solution: Equation (239) provides the solution in dB/ft.4 12.1 dB/ft A 9 ⋅ 24 1. Calculate the reduction in noise as a function of length in a 9” by 24” duct.6 Percent Noise Dose and TWA The noise dose received over a time period is the summation of the individual noise and duration fractions. 95 dB for 1 hour. Mathematically this can be expressed as: C C C % D 100 1 + 2 + + i = Ti T1 T2 where %D = noise dose expressed as a percent C 1 to C i = exposure duration of each individual noise.4 power.4.4 ) NR = = = 1. Problem: A duct lining material has an absorption coefficient of 0. 78 dB for 1 hour. hr The following is another form of the same equation.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Note that in equation (239) α is raised to the 1. Calculate the percent noise dose.4 9.6 ( 2 ⋅ 9 + 2 ⋅ 24 )( 0. 85 dB for 2 hours. hr (240) T 1 to T i = corresponding allowable exposure duration of each individual noise. 84 dB for 1 hour.com . N C % D = 100 ∑ i i =1 Ti (241) Problem: The following sound measurements are made during a work day. Solution: The values for T i are calculated using equation (243) below. 85 dB for 1 hour.
the values for C i /T i can be substituted into equation (240) to find: C C C % D 100 1 + 2 + + i = Ti T1 T2 % D 100 ( 0.09 ) 79% = = Values for T i in the above equations can be calculated as follows: 8 T = ( L −85) 2 3 and (242) 8 T = ( L −90) 2 5 where T = allowed exposure time.13 0.0 42.25 + 0.05 0.02 0.2 18.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety dB 85 95 90 78 84 88 Ci 2 1 2 1 1 1 Ti 16.25 0.0 4.02 + 0. dBA (243) Note that the first exposure calculation is based on the ACGIH TLV for noise of 85 dBA and an exchange rate of 3. what is the allowable exposure time for 84 dBA? Solution: Since we are concerned with OSHA requirements. The second exposure calculation is based on the OSHA TLV of 90 dBA and an exchange rate of 5.com .25 + 0.05 + 0. Problem: Based on OSHA requirements. 128 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.25 0. equation (243) is the appropriate equation to use.6 C i /T i 0.09 Next.4 10.13 + 0.0 8. hr L = time weighted average (TWA) exposure.
equation (245) is the appropriate equation to use. dBA %D = noise dose expressed as a percent Once again. Solution: Since we are concerned with OSHA requirements.3 + 90 dBA = dBA 100 9. the equivalent TWA can be calculated as following: %D TWA = 10 ⋅ log + 85 dBA 100 (244) and %D TWA = ⋅ log 16. Problem: Calculate the equivalent time weighted average for a percent noise dose of 79% assuming an OSHA TLV.com .Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety = T 8 = L −90 ) ( 2 5 8 = 18. The second TWA calculation is based on the OSHA TLV of 90 dBA and an exchange rate or 5. 79 TWA = 16. the first TWA calculation is based on the ACGIH TLV for noise of 85 dBA and an exchange rate of 3.7 Frequency by a Fan The pure tone frequency of a fan can be determined based on the number of fans blades and the rotation speed.4 hours 84 −90 ) ( 2 5 Once the percent dose has been calculated. as follows: f = ( N )( RPM ) 60 129 (246) © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.61 ⋅ log 88.61 + 90 dBA 100 (245) where TWA = equivalent time weighted average noise exposure.
so a scale of octave bands and onethird octave bands has been developed to assist in their analyses. f1 = f2 2 (248) (249) (250) (251) f 2 = 2 f1 = fc f1 ⋅ f 2 f c = 2 f1 130 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. are: 31. The ratio of the frequency of the highest note to the lowest note in an octave is 2:1. 4kHz .com . 2kHz .8 Octave and ThirdOctave Bands Sound frequencies can be complex to assess. 250Hz . as defined by ISO. 63Hz . Therefore.5Hz . rpm 60 = time unit conversion Problem: Determine the fan frequency generated by a fan with 8 blades turning 2400 RPM. 1kHz .Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety where N = number of fan blades RPM = speed of fan. The center frequencies for these Octave bands. 125Hz . Solution: = f ( N= (= )( RPM ) 8)( 2400 ) 60 60 320 Hz 9. 500Hz . Each band covers a specific range of frequencies. 8kHz and 16kHz The ratio of band limits is given by: f n +1 = 2k fn (247) An octave has a center frequency that is 2 times the lower cutoff frequency and has an upper cutoff frequency that is twice the lower cutoff frequency.
For example. Calculate the upper cutoff frequency. Calculate the upper cutoff frequency and the center frequency. except thirdoctaves use a onethird power in equation (247). and k = 1/3 for onethird octave bands.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety fc = f2 2 (252) (253) BW f 2 − f1 = where f n+1 = the upper cutoff frequency f n = the lower cutoff frequency k = 1 for full octave bands. f c = the center frequency BW = bandwidth Problem: The lower cutoff frequency of an octave band is 354 Hz.com . Solution: The upper cutoff frequency is given by equation (249): f 2 =f1 =⋅ 354 = Hz 2 2 707 The center frequency is given by equation (251): f c =f1 =⋅ 354 Hz = Hz 2 2 500 The center frequency is also given by equation (250): fc = f1 ⋅ f 2 = 354 ⋅ 707 = 500 Hz ThirdOctave bands are calculated the same way. 131 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. f 2 = 3 2 f1 (254) Problem: The lower cutoff frequency of a thirdoctave band is 891 Hz.
9 Sound Frequency and Wavelength The frequency and wavelength of a sound are related to the speed of sound in the medium the sound travels through (usually air).75 meters? Solution: o f = c 344m / sec = = 459 Hz 0. Hz c = speed of sound. and is determined by the following equation: f = c λ (255) where f = frequency. Problem: What is the frequency of a sound in air at 20 C if the wavelength is 0.75m λ 132 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com . m/sec λ = wavelength.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Solution: = f2 3 2= f1 3 2 ⋅ 891 Hz = 1122 Hz 9. m The speed of sound in air at 20 oC is 344 m/sec (1125 ft/sec).
. units are not specified but must be consistent.com . 10. Also.e. The more common ionizing radiation sources encountered in safety and industrial hygiene are alpha particles.e. Xrays (or photons) and neutrons. produces ions). What activity will be detected at 2 meters? Solution: 133 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.1 Ionizing Ionizing radiation results from electromagnetic radiation with sufficient energy to cause the loss of an electron from the matter in which it interacts (i. this is a point source approximation so estimates up close to the source will not be accurate. beta particles.1..Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Radiation 10 Radiation 10. rather it is a function of the second power and is defined as: d I 2 = I1 1 d2 where I 1 = intensity at distance d 1 I 2 = intensity at distance d 2 d 1 = first distance from source d 2 = second distance from source 2 (256) Note that since this equation is a simple ratio. gamma rays (or photons).1 Inverse Square Law Radiation intensity decreases as a function of distance from its source. The decrease is not linear. photons) that are measured at 250 2 particles/cm sec at a distance of 1 meter. Problem: A source emits particles (i.
per hour at 1 ft 6 = a constant for English units C = curie strength of gamma emitter. mCi 134 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.1. MeV (257) Problem: Assume Iodine131 emits gamma photons at different energies.2 Gamma Radiation Exposure The roentgen value at 1 foot from a gamma emitter is described as: S ≅ 6CE where S = roentgens.8 mR/hr Note: This equation has an accuracy of about 20% between 0.5 particles/cm 2m d2 2 2 10. R/hour Γ = gamma ray constant.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety d 1 m 2 = I= 250 particles/cm 2 sec I2 1 1 = 62. What is the partial exposure rate at 1 foot from a 10 mCi source due to this energy? Solution: S ≅ 6CE ≅ 6 (10 mCi )( 0.com . one of which is 0.” The following equation can be used to calculate the exposure rate from a gamma radiation source located some distance away. D= ΓA d2 (258) where D = exposure rate.313 MeV. Ci E = energy of gamma radiation. R/mCihr A = source activity.07 and 4 MeV.313 MeV ) = 18. that is why the symbol ≅ is used as it indicates “approximately equal to.
com t (260) .18 R/mCihr at 1 cm. According to the International Commission on Radiological Protection.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety d = distance from emitter.00218 R/hr 10.1. the Quality Factor (QF) for neutrons is 10.5 ) T1/2 135 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. which is the time required to lose half its radioactive atoms.3 Equivalent Dose The following equation converts an absorbed source in units of rad.1.4 Radioactive Decay Radioactive elements can be characterized by a halflife. Solution: = D ΓA = d2 ( 2. rem = ( rad )( QF ) where rem = equivalent dose. A = Ai ( 0. Solution: rem = ( rad )( QF ) = ( 5 rad )(10 ) = 50 rem 10. Calculate the worker’s potential exposure. rem rad = absorbed dose.18 R/mCihr )(10 mCi ) 2 (100 cm ) = 0. to an equivalent dose in rem. cm Problem: Determine the exposure rate 1 meter from a 10 mCi source of Iodine131. This form of the radioactive decay equations can be used to determine the remaining residual activity in a body after a know exposure (amount and time). Assume the Gamma value for I131 is Γ =2. rad QF = quality factor that converts rad to rem (259) Problem: A worker may be exposed to 5 rad of neutron radiation.
units to match T 1/2 T 1/2 = half life. mCi (or other appropriate units) A i = initial radioactivity. 2.5 mCi of Iodine123 (I123) is used to image thyroid cancer. Solution: −0.71828… t = elapsed time. mCi (or other appropriate units) e = natural logarithm. what radioactivity will remain in the patient after 8 hours? Solution: = Ai ( 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety where A = radioactivity remaining after some time.639t T1/2 (261) = Ai e A = 1.5 mCi ( 0. mCi (or other appropriate units) t = elapsed time.639t T1/2 0. If I123 has a halflife of 13 hours. min (or other appropriate units) Problem: Recalculate the radioactivity from the previous problem using equation (261).5 mCi (13 hours ) = 1. units to match T 1/2 T 1/2 = half life.0 mCi A = = t 8 hr Another form of the radioactive decay is: A = Ai e where A = radioactivity remaining after some time.com .0 mCi 136 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.5 ) T1/2 1. units to match t Problem: 1.5 )13 hr 1.639( 8 hours ) −0. mCi (or other appropriate units) A i = initial radioactivity.
693 Ni T1/2 (262) where A = radioactivity remaining after some time.023 x 10 atoms. I123 has a halflife of 13 hours.800 sec hour Now. mCi (or other appropriate units) T 1/2 = half life.6 Radiation Attenuation by Layers As radiation passes through some medium. N= 6. Solution: First.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 10. This 23 is accomplished using Avogadro’s number.693 0. substituting into equation (262) yields: = A 0.800 T1/2 10 Note that this is equivalent to 7.74 x 1015 atoms 127 We also need the halflife is seconds: T1/2 = 13 hours 3600 sec = 46. one mole of an element has 6. energy is lost.02 x 1010 sec −1 = = Ni 46. 137 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. The atomic weight of Iodine is 127.5 Activity of a Radioactive Element The activity remaining in a radioactive element can be calculated by the following equation: A= 0.02x 10 becquerel. we need to calculate the number of atoms in 1 microgram of I123.74 x 1015 7.023 x 1023 1 x 106 g = 4. min (or other appropriate units) N i = the number of atoms Problem: Calculate the activity (disintegrations per second) of 1 microgram of Iodine123.1.com . 10.693 4.1.
each 0. which simply replaces the A or B values (number of layers) with a term that calculates the number of layers based on the total thickness and the values of the partial (1/2 or 1/10) layer thicknesses (HVL and TVL.5 inch thick. 138 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety The amount of radiation reduced as it passes through a number of halflayers is given by: 1 I = Io 2 A (263) where I = intensity of radiation leaving layer(s). A 6 The above two equation can be written in the following form.com . nondimensional Problem: A source of radiation has created a radiation intensity of 125 mR/hr. are provided. mR/hour A = number of halfvalue layers. mR/hour I o = original intensity of radiation striking layer(s). what is the reduced intensity in mR/hr? Solution: For halfvalue layer calculations. nondimensional A similar expression applies to the number of tenthlayers. By definition a halflayer will reduce the transmitted radiation by half. 1 I = Io 10 B (264) where I = intensity of radiation leaving layer(s).95 mR/hr I Io 2 2 Note that the thickness is not required for this solution. Also. If six halfvalue layers (HVL) of a shielding material. respectively). mR/hour B = number of tenthvalue layers. similar calculations can be made with tenthlayer protection using equation (264). mR/hour I o = original intensity of radiation striking layer(s). we use equation (263) 1 1 = = 125 mR/hr = 1. just the number of halflayers.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety I= 2 and I= I0 X HVL (265) I0 10 X TVL (266) where I = intensity of radiation leaving layer(s). mR/hour X = total thickness of layers.5 Equation (265) can be used for halfvalue layers. If 3 inches of a shielding material with a TVL of 1. 139 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. units to match X TVL = thickness of tenthvalue layers. mR/hour I o = original intensity of radiation striking layer(s).5 inches are provided. as well as the thickness of the halfvalue layer are known. what is the reduced intensity in mR/hr? Solution: For a tenthvalue layer calculation.32 log 0 ( HVL ) I (267) A similar expression can also be found for the tenthvalue layer problems by rearranging equation (266).com .25 mR/hr 3 X 10 TVL 101. If the incident and attenuated radiation. units to match HVL or TVL HVL = thickness of halfvalue layers. the required thickness of a barrier medium can be found by rearranging equation (265) and solving for X. units to match X Problem: A source of radiation has created a radiation intensity of 125 mR/hr. we use equation (266): = I I0 125 mR/hr = = 1. This leads to: I X = 3.
7 Exponential Rate Attenuation As a medium thickness increases. counts/min I o = original radiation exposure rate. nondimensional 140 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. Solution: We start with equation (265) and proceed as follows: I= I0 X 2 HVL 2 X HVL = I0 I X I log 2 HVL = log 0 I I0 X log 2 = log HVL I = X 1 I ⋅ log 0 HVL log 2 I I = 3.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem: Derive equation (267). counts/min B = buildup factor. the attenuation increases and can be written (with and without a buildup factor) as: I = I o Be − µ x (268) and I = I o e− µ x (269) where I = attenuated radiation exposure rate.32 ⋅ log 0 HVL X I 10.com .1.
87. cm Problem: Calculate the attenuation of radiation passing through a lead shield that is 2 1 cm thick.8 Effective HalfLife The rate at which radioactivity decreases in the body can be described by the effective halflife. Solution: Rearranging equation (268) leads to: −1 I = Be − µ x 1. by the following expression: 1 1 1 = + T1/2 eff T1/2 rad T1/2bio where T 1/2eff = effective halflife T 1/2rad = effective radiological halflife T 1/2bio = effective biological halflife Note: Use same units for all three halflives. the attenuation is 61%.1.78cm 2 cm 0.39 = 39% = = Io Since I is 39% of I o . This equation can be rearranged to provide the following form: (270) T1/2 eff = (T1/2 rad )(T1/2bio ) T1/2 rad + T1/2bio (271) 141 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com .Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety e = natural logarithm. cm1 x = thickness of attenuator. 2. which is a function of the biological halflife and radiological halflife.87e −0.71828… µ = linear attenuation coefficient. 10.78 cm and a buildup factor of 1. Assume a linear attenuation coefficient of 0.
9 hours The biological halflife of I123 is long compared to the radiological halflife. as follows: G = 1010 where G = absolute gain. what is the antenna’s absolute gain? Solution: Using equation (272) and substituting the gain.com . g 2. nondimensional g = gain for a particular antenna.7 G = = Note that the power is not required here and the Gain is nondimensional. The range of nonionizing radiation includes lasers.3 dB.2 NonIonizing Nonionizing radiation has insufficient energy to ionize matter. we find: = 1010 10 10 1. ultraviolet (UV).3 142 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. 10.1 Absolute Gain (Antenna) The absolute gain equation simply converts the gain for a particular antenna into an absolute gain. infrared (IR). What is the effective halflife of I123? Solution: = T1/2 eff 2880 )(13) (T1/2 rad )(T1/2bio ) (= = T1/2 rad + T1/2bio 2880 + 13 12.2. visible. so it does not contribute significantly to the effective halflife. dB g (272) Problem: An indoor antenna has a power of 1 W and a gain of 2. 10. radiofrequency (RF) and extremelylow frequencies (ELF).Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem: Iodine123 (I123) has a halflife of 13 hours and a biological halflife of 120 days (2880 hours).
7 = conversion constant. A/m 37.8 m 2 143 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. The magnetic field strength can be converted to a power density with the following equation: PD = 37.7 H 2 (274) where PD = magnetic power density.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 10.7 H 37.5 A/m? Solution: PD = 2 = (1. V/m 3770 = conversion constant.7 Ω 84.2 Field Strength The electric field strength can be converted to a power density with the following equation: E2 PD = 3770 where PD = electrical power density. ohms Problem: What is the power density of an electric field with a strength of 250V/m? Solution: (273) E2 = = PD 3770 ( 250 V/m ) = 2 3770 Ω 16.6 mW/cm 2 Note: The omega symbol Ω is commonly used to indicate ohms.2. mW/cm2 E = electric field strength. ohms Problem: What is the power density of a magnetic field with a strength of 1.com . mW/cm2 H = magnetic field strength.5 A/m ) = W/cm 2 37.
for a dishtype antenna. W/m2 G = gain P = radiated power from antenna. m (see equation (281)) r = distance from antenna.048 ) For antennas. equation (276) and (277) can be combined to find the near field power density as: 144 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. W π = 3. the near field power density can be calculated as follows: W= 16P π D2 (276) Note that the equation of the area of a circle is: A= π D2 4 (277) So.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety For antennas.141593… λ= wavelength. the far field power density can be calculates as follows: = W GP AP = 2 2 2 λ r 4π r (275) where W = far field power density.56 W/m 2 GP = = 2 2 4π r 4π ( 3.com . m2 Problem: What is the power density 10 feet away from a 500 W radar transmitter that has an absolute gain of 2? Solution: Converting 10 feet to meters (3. m A = area of antenna.048 meters) and substituting the problem values into equation (275) leads to: W = ( 2 )( 500 W ) 8.
2.2 W ) = = 11.1 mW/cm.2 Watts. W/cm2 145 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.3 Safe Distance for NonIonizing Radiation An estimated safe distance from an antenna can be derived as follows: PG r = 4π EL 1/2 (279) where r = distance.166 mW/cm 2 = A π ( 7m )2 4 Note: One W/m is equal to 0. W/m2 P = radiated power from antenna.141593… EL = exposure limit. W A = area of antenna.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety W= 4P A (278) where W = near field power density. nondimensional π = 3. 2 10. cm P = emitted power. what is the power density at the surface of the antenna? Solution: Applying equation (278) leads to: W = 4 P 4 (112. W G = absolute gain. m2 Problem: A round antenna with a diameter of 7 meter has a total feed input power of 112.com .66 W/m 2 1.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem: Calculate the distance at which the exposure level is exceeded for a 1000 W 2 antenna with an absolute gain of 100. Br = where B r = resulting magnetic flux density. Assume an exposure limit of 10 W/m .2 m 4π (10W/m 2 ) 1/2 ( 28. tesla B y = magnetic flux density in the y plane.5mT ) + ( 0. Solution: Br = 2 Bx2 + By + Bz2 = (1. tesla B z = magnetic flux density in the z plane.2 m )( 3. B z = 1.75mT ) + (1. tesla 2 Bx2 + By + Bz2 (280) Problem: Magnetic flux measurements are made in the x. Calculate the resulting magnitude of the magnetic flux.25mT ) 2 2 2 = 2.5 mT. tesla B x = magnetic flux density in the x plane. y and z planes at a particular location and the following data recorded: B x = 1.75 mT.1mT 146 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. y.4 Magnetic Flux Density The following equation can be used to calculate the vector sum magnetic flux by taking the square root of the sum of the squares of measurements in the x.28 ft/m ) = 92. and z direction. Solution: Substituting values into equation (279) leads to: PG r = = 4π EL 1/2 (1000 W )(100 ) = 28.5 ft 10.com .25 mT. B y = 0.2.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 10.5 Electromagnetic Radiation Wavelength and Frequency Recall the wavelength and frequency relationship for sound moving through air.6 Effective Ultraviolet Irradiance The effective irradiance from a broadband ultraviolet source can be calculated using the following expression: = Eeff where ∑ Eλ Sλ ∆λ (282) E eff = effective irradiance (relative to a source). except this equation is based on the speed of light (not the speed of sound).2.5 x 109 s 1 =1500 MHz = λ 0. Hz T = period. sec Problem: A particular microwave oven operates with a wavelength of about 0. nm 147 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. 3x108 m/sec λ = wavelength.2. W/m2nm S λ = relative spectral effectiveness. = λf c = λ T (281) where c = speed of light.2 m 10. m f = frequency. W/m2 E λ = spectral irradiance.com .2m. what is its frequency? Solution: Rearranging equation (281) and substituting leads to: f = c 3 x 108 m/s =1. nondimensional Δ λ = wavelength step. electromagnetic radiation behaves according to a similar relationship.
2. W/cm2 I o = irradiance prior to magnifier.43 x106 W/cm 2 Note: The exposure time permitted for a given UV irradiance can be found using equation (291).Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Note the summation sign (Σ) in equation (282). Spectral Irradiance 2 W/m nm 0.2.7 Lasers 10.0143 W/m 2 = 1.5 )(1nm ) + ( 0.01 0. W/cm2 magnification = the magnifying power 148 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. Remember that means the product of each Eλ Sλ ∆ λ term must be added to find the total effective irradiance.7. Problem: A lamp has the following UV properties.1 Magnification A laser that has been magnified will have a resulting irradiance that increases by the square of the magnification power.03 W/m 2 nm ) ( 0.3 0.003)(1nm ) = 0.com .1 Relative Spectral Effectiveness 0. ∑ Eλ Sλ ∆λ 10.5 0. which can be written: I I 0 ⋅ (magnification) 2 = (283) where I = irradiance after beam passes through magnifier.03 0. calculate the effective UV irradiance.1 W/m 2 nm ) ( 0.003 Wavelength Step nm 1 1 1 Wavelength 254 300 315 Solution: = Eeff = ( 0.3)(1nm ) + ( 0.01 W/m 2 nm ) ( 0.
= optical density I o = irradiance prior to filter I = irradiance after beam passes through filter Note: For pulsed laser use J/cm2. calculate the optical density required to reduce the laser pulse below the permitted level. 2 I= I 0 ⋅ (magnification) 2 = ) = (1 W/cm2 ) (10 100 W/cm2 2 10.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem: What is the increase in irradiance of a 1 W/cm laser beam passing through a 10x30 binocular lens? Solution: It is possible to reduce the divergence of most lasers using simple optics. The reduction in divergence will increase the irradiance per unit area according to equation (283). a binocular lens will decrease the divergence by the magnification factor (e.7.6 x 102 J/cm 2 O. Therefore. log = = O.6 x 10 J/cm ..7.3 Laser Beam Diameter The diameter of a laser beam at some distance from the source can be estimated by: 149 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.D. For example.g.72 5. = log Io I (284) where O. Solution: 2 2 Io 2.com . 10x30 would reduce the divergence to 1/10th of its original divergence). which is the attenuation factor by which the optical filter reduces beam power according to the following equation: O.2 Optical Density Protective eyewear for use around lasers is rated for optical density (OD).0 x 107 J/cm 2 I 10.D. If the 7 2 maximum permitted exposure level is 5. log = = 4.2.D.0 x 10 J/cm .D. for CW lasers use W/cm2 Problem: A pulsed laser produces a potential exposure of 2.2.
These are presented here. W or J π = 3. cm 150 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. The following equation can be used to calculate the distance from a laser at which the potential eye exposure no longer exceeds the permitted exposure limit. Solution: DL = a 2 + φ 2 r 2 = L = 22 + (10−4 ) ( 5.5 km away from a source with an 4 emergent diameter of 2 cm and a beam divergence of 1 x10 radians.141593… EL = exposure limit. radians r = distance. cm a = emergent beam diameter. cm φ = emergent beam divergence. 1 4Φ = − a2 rNHZ φ π EL 1/2 (286) where r NHZ = nominal hazard zone.2.4 2 2 10. W/cm2 or J/cm2 a = emergent beam diameter. cm φ = emergent beam divergence.com . radians Φ = total radiant power output of laser.7.4 Nominal Hazard Zone (NHZ) The safe use of lasers requires the evaluation of various safe distances.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety DL = a2 + φ 2r 2 (285) where D L = laser beam diameter at distance r.0 x104 ) = cm D 5. cm Problem: Determine the diameter of a laser beam 0.
141593… EL = exposure limit. and an incident beam diameter of 2.7 cm 4 ( 3000W ) = = = 46 cm rNHZ 2. Assume the 7 2 maximum permitted exposure level is 5.6 ) = 7.com . cm b o = diameter of laser beam incident on focusing lens.14x105cm = 7. cm Φ = total radiant power output of laser. Solution: 1/2 1 4Φ 1 4 ( 0. Calculate the distance beyond which the irradiance is less than the permitted 2 exposure level (assume 45 W/cm ).14km 10−3 π ( 5x107 ) φ π EL 1/2 The following equation can be used to calculate the distance from a laser at which the potential eye exposure no longer exceeds the permitted exposure limit for the “lens on laser” case. Solution: 1/2 f o 4Φ 12. rNHZ where f 4Φ = o bo π EL 1/2 (287) r NHZ = nominal hazard zone.2 J pulsed laser that has a beam 3 divergence of 1 x10 radians and an emergent beam diameter of 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem: Determine the hazard zone distance for a 0. cm f o = focal length of lens.6 cm. W π = 3.54 cm π ( 45 W/cm 2 ) bo π EL 1/2 151 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.0 x 10 J/cm .2 ) 2 2 rNHZ= −a = − ( 0.54 cm. W/cm2 Problem: A 3000 W laser has a 12.7 cm focal length.
5 Laser Barrier Distance The following equation can be used to determine the minimum distance for a barrier to provide protection from a given laser. Solution: (1)( 500 W )( cos 0 ) ρΦ cos θ rNHZ = = = 56. cm ρ = effectiveness of diffuse reflecting surface.2.4 cm π ( 0.05 W/cm .Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety The following equation can be used to calculate the distance from a laser at which the potential eye exposure no longer exceeds the permitted exposure limit when diffuse reflection is included.7. a viewing angle of 0degrees from normal.141593… EL = exposure limit. Assume 100% effective diffuse reflecting surface.05W/cm 2 ) π EL 1/2 1/2 10. and an 2 exposure limit of 0. cm 152 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com . degrees π = 3. Ds = 1 4Φ − a2 φ π TL 1/2 (289) where D s = separation distance for barrier. 100% = 1 Φ = total radiant power output of laser. W/cm2 Problem: Calculate the nominal hazard zone distance of a 500 W laser. W θ = angle from normal for the viewing surface. rNHZ ρΦ cos θ = π EL 1/2 (288) where r NHZ = nominal hazard zone.
5x103 π ( 45W/cm 2 ) 10. W/cm2 a = emergent beam diameter.5 cm. The resulting field strength average is called the spatial average and is calculated as follows: N 2 ∑ FSi spatial average = i =1 N where 1/2 (290) FS i = field strength measurement i.5 x 10 radians.8 Spatial Averaging of Measurements Typically. V/m (electric) or A/m (magnetic) i = incremental measurement count 153 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.5cm ) = 1330 cm = 13.3 m Ds 2. W π = 3. Calculate the barrier distance at which the irradiance is less 2 than the worst case exposure level (assume 45 W/cm ). and an exit beam diameter of 0. cm Problem: A 400 W laser has a beam divergence of 2.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety φ = emergent beam divergence. multiple measurements of an electric or magnetic field strength are made so that an average value can be found. radians Φ = total radiant power output of laser.2.141593… TL = threshold limit value for barrier. Typically ten or more measurements are required.com . Solution: 3 = Ds φ π TL 1 1 4Φ − a2 1/ 2 1/ 2 4 ( 400W ) 2 = − ( 0.
4 N N 2 ∑ FSi i =1 N 1/2 14 154 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. Note that since there are ten samples. N=10.com . What is the spatial average of the measurements? Location 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Field Strength (V/m) 10 10 12 14 16 20 18 14 12 8 Solution: The following table is setup to solve equation (290) for the data presented.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety N = total number of measurements Problem: Electric field strength measurements are made at ten locations and the following data recorded. Field Strength (V/m) 10 10 12 14 16 20 18 14 12 8 2 Location 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 FS 100 100 144 196 256 400 324 196 144 64 ∑ FS i =1 N 2 i 1924 ∑ FS i =1 N 2 i 192.
the following equation can be used to determine an alternative exposure duration based on the actual exposure level. for exposure to ultraviolet radiation incident upon the unprotected eye or skin.003J/cm 2 = = t = 5.2.003 J/ cm2 = 0. radio frequency.. W/cm2 0.0 x 106 W/cm 2 Eeff Note: A Watt is also a Joule/second. 10.com . t= EL x 0.9 Time Exposure for NonIonizing Radiation The permissible exposure time in seconds. from effective irradiance to exposure time Problem: A lamp used in an industrial process has an effective irradiance of 5.003 Ws/cm2 = conversion factor. may be computed by: t= 0.g.003J/cm 2 0.0 2 µW/cm . microwave) are limited to a permissible level which is based on a sixminute exposure.1hr ML (292) where 155 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.003J/cm 2 Eeff (291) where t = exposure time. When the actual exposure exceeds the allowable limit. sec E eff = effective irradiance. the spatially averaged electric field strength is 14 V/m. 600 seconds = 10 minutes Exposure times to some type of nonionizing radiation (e.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Therefore. What is the permissible time exposure? Solution: 0.
1hr = 6 minutes.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety t = time (duration) of acceptable exposure to the actual exposure level. a worker is potentially subjected to 15 2 mW/cm .1hr = 0. However.com . mW/cm2 ML = measured (actual) level. a Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 10 mW/cm (averaged over sixminute periods) has been specified. hr EL = exposure limit. mW/cm2 0. the basis for the permissible exposure limit Problem: Assume that for incident electromagnetic energy frequencies between 10 2 MHz and 100 GHz.1hr x 0.067 hr = 4 min = = ML 15 mW/cm 2 156 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. What is the acceptable exposure time? Solution: EL 10 mW/cm 2 t x 0.
amperes R = the resistance of the conductor. volts I = the current through the resistance. and inversely proportional to the resistance between them. Ohm’s law states that the current between two points in a conductor is directly proportional to the voltage across the two points.com . ohms Problem: A 120 volt power tool and long extension cord has a total equivalent resistance of 40 ohms. Mathematically this can be written: I= V R (293) which can also be written V = IR where V = the potential difference measured across the resistance. What is the current in the system? Solution: (294) = I V 120 volts = = 3 amps R 40 ohms 157 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Electricity 11 Electricity 11.1 Ohm’s Law One of the fundamental laws of electrical circuits is Ohm's law.
Joule's law states that the rate of heat dissipation in a conductor is proportional to the square of the current through it and to its resistance. Assuming a 12 Volt electrical system. ohms Equations (294) and (295) can be combined to yield: (295) P = IV Problem: A forklift has lights that draw 5 amps each. feet 158 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.2 Joule’s Law Another important law that pertains to electrical circuits is Joule’s law.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 11. Mathematically this can be written: P = I 2R where P = power.com . what is the power to each light? Solution: (296) = IV P = 11. watts I = the current through the resistance. amperes R = the resistance of the conductor. ohms ρ = is the resistivity in units of ohmfeet L = length of conductor.3 Resistance = ( 5amps )(12 volts ) 60 watts The electrical resistance of a conductor (R) can be calculated by the following equation: R=ρ L A (297) where R = the resistance of the conductor.
1 Resistors in Series Rseries = R1 + R2 + + Rn 11.com . we can find ρ copper = 5. they can be reduced to a single equivalent part using the following equations. as well as the resistivity of the actual copper used in the wire. This small difference can be attributed to the actual versus nominal dimension.000022ft 2 4 4 2 Then substituting into equation (297) leads to: L 1000 ft R = (5. Also.46 ohms 0. ohms = 1 1 1 + + + R1 R2 Rn (299) 159 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. the crosssectional area of the conductor must be found: 14 Gauge wire has a nominal diameter of 0. or 0.2 Resistors in Parallel (298) 1 R parallel where R = resistance. or in parallel.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety A = crosssectional area of conductor. The resulting equivalent value depends on if the parts are in series. From tables of properties for copper. 11.4. 11.51E08 Ohmsft.53 ohms obtained from a wire data table shows about a 3% difference.06408 inches. capacitors.00534 ft ) A = = = 0.4.000022 ft 2 A Comparing this value to 2. ft2 Problem: What is the resistance in 1000 feet of 14 Gauge copper wire? Solution: We can use equation (297) but some preliminary calculations are required first.51x10−8 ohmft) = ρ = 2.4 Equivalent Values for Components in Series and in Parallel Whenever multiple resistors.00534 ft π d 2 π ( 0. or inductors are located within the same electrical circuit.
4. henries = 1 1 1 + + + L1 L2 Ln (303) Problem: What is the equivalent resistance (in ohms) of three resistors.com . 1 ohm.4.4 Capacitors in Parallel C parallel = C1 + C2 + + Cn (301) where C = capacitance.4. and in parallel? Series Solution: Rseries =1ohms + 2 ohms + 3ohms = 6 ohms Parallel Solution: 1 R parallel = 1 1 1 + + =1.3 Capacitors in Series 1 Cseries = 1 1 1 + + + C1 C2 Cn (300) 11.5 Inductors in Series Lseries = L1 + L2 + + Ln 11. farads 11. in series.833ohms −1 1ohms 2 ohms 3ohms 160 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. 2 ohms and 3 ohms.6 Inductors in Parallel (302) 1 Lparallel where L = inductance.4.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 11.
However. 161 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. capacitor formulas are “flipped” when compared to resistors and inductors.545 ohms Note: The same approach that is used for resistors is used for inductors. just different units. which leads to R parallel = 0. that is the same math.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety To solve for R parallel take the reciprocal.com .
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 162 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com .
The RWL is defined for a specific set of task conditions as the weight of the load that nearly all healthy workers could perform over a substantial period of time (e.1 Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation Per the Applications Manual for the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation (1994).0075 V − 30 )] 0.0032 A )( FM )( CM ) (305) H D 10 and 163 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.82 + (1 − 0. the recommended weight limit (RWL) is the principal product of the revised NIOSH lifting equation..Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Ergonomics 12 Ergonomics 12. The RWL is defined by the following equation: RWL = LC x HM xVM x DM x AM x FM x CM (304) where RWL = recommended weight limit LC = load constant HM = horizontal multiplier VM = vertical multiplier DM = distance multiplier AM = asymmetric multiplier FM = frequency multiplier CM = coupling multiplier Substituting appropriate values from the Applications Manual for the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation.8 [1 − ( 0. equation (304) can be written: RWL (lb = ) ( 51) 1.com . up to 8 hours) without an increased risk of developing liftingrelated lower back pain.g.
81 0.00 0. V ≥ 30 in.75 0.90 Frequency Multiplier (FM) Table Frequency Lifts/min ‡ (F) ≤ 0.91 0.00 1.92 0.00 0.80 > 2 but ≤ 8 Hours V < 30 in.97 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety RWL ( kg ) = ( 23 ) 4.75 0.90 V ≥ 30 inches (75 cm) 1.5 1 2 3 4 5 Work Duration > 1 but ≤ 2 Hours V < 30 in.00 0.97 0.88 0.72 0.65 0.95 0.94 0.82 + (1 − 0.84 0. inches (English) or cm (Metric) V = vertical location.85 0.55 0.72 0.00 1. degrees FM = frequency multiplier (see table below) CM = coupling multiplier (see table below) Coupling Multiplier (CM) Table Coupling Type Good Fair Poor Coupling Multiplier V < 30 inches (75 cm) 1. V is measured vertically from the floor to the midpoint between the hand grasps.84 0. defined as the vertical height of the hands above the floor. measured from the midpoint of the line joining the inner ankle bones to a point projected on the floor directly below the midpoint of the hand grasps. inches (English) or cm (Metric) D = vertical travel distance. 0.79 0.95 0.45 0.84 0.65 0.91 0.95 0.35 164 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.0032 A )( FM )( CM ) (306) H D 25 where H = horizontal location.92 0. defined as the vertical travel distance of the hands between the origin and destination of the lift.88 0.85 0.55 0.35 0. inches (English) or cm (Metric) A = asymmetric angle.84 0. defined as the angle between the asymmetry line and the midsagittal line.60 0.60 ≤ 1 Hour † V < 30 in.45 0.003 V − 75 )] 0. V ≥ 30 in. 1.5 [1 − ( 0.88 0. 0.2 0.80 0.81 0.com .94 0.88 0.79 0. V ≥ 30 in.
75 0.13 0. Problem: During his shift. assume the coupling is “fair”) Then using equation (305) for English units: RWL (lb= ) ) RWL (lb= ( 51 ( )[ ) ( )[ ( ( 51) 10 10 H 23 1 − ( 0.41 0.22 0.37 0.00 0.00 0.0075 15 − 30 )] 0.00 0.00 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 >15 † ‡ 0.60 0.34 0.15 0. The horizontal distance from the roll’s initial and final location is 23 inches.00 0.0 (from frequency table footnote) CM =0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.8 48 1 − 0.82 + ( ) ( ( ) ( 1.00 Values for V are inches.35 0.75 0.26 0.52 0. For lifting less frequently than once per five minutes. we can determine the following multipliers: • • • • • • H = 23 inches V = 15 inches D = 48 inches A = 0 (assume no asymmetric movement) FM =1.0075 V − 30 )] 0.31 0.27 0.00 0.com .00 0.42 0.70 0.8 D 1.35 0.00 0.2 Lifts/min.45 0.95 ) = 16 lbs 165 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.28 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 0. Solution: From the data given.0032 A )( FM )( CM ) 1 − 0.00 0.00 0.60 0. a worker at a printing machine must occasionally lift a roll of paper stock and place it into the paper receiver.50 0.00 0.41 0.00 0.52 0.00 0.23 0.27 0.37 0.42 0.95 (from coupling table. set F = 0.21 0.0032 ( 0 ) ) (1)( .26 0.00 0. The grab points are the center of the roll. and the tables above.30 0. Calculate the recommended weight limit (RWL) for the original location of this task.22 0.00 0.82 + 1 − 0.00 0. The final placement height of the center of the roll is 63 inches above the floor.18 0.00 0. The rolls weigh 40 lbs each and are 30 inches in diameter and initially located on the floor.00 0.00 0.30 0.00 0.45 0. so the lifting point is 15 inches above the floor.18 0.00 0.
Per NIOSH. Solution: = LI L 40 lbs = = 2. Hence. as long as L and RWL are in the same units.com . calculated using equations above Note: In equation (307). any weight measure can be used. Problem: Based on the data and the RWL calculated above. it is likely that lifting tasks with a LI > 1. From the NIOSH perspective.0 pose an increased risk for liftingrelated low back pain for some fraction of the workforce. 166 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. the lifting index may be used to identify potentially hazardous lifting jobs or to compare the relative severity of two jobs for the purpose of evaluating and redesigning them. The Lifting Index is calculated as follows: LI = L RWL (307) where LI = Lifting Index L = load weight RWL = recommended weight limit. determine the Lifting Index for the task. the goal should be to design all lifting jobs to achieve a LI of 1.1 Lifting Index The Lifting Index (LI) provides a relative estimate of the physical stress associated with a manual lifting job.5 RWL 16 lbs Therefore.0 or less. the actual load is nearly 21/2 times the recommended weight limit indicating this lifting task would be hazardous for a majority of healthy industrial workers.1.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 12.
Compare equations (308) and (309). Problem: What is the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) at a sunny location if a wet o o bulb temperature is 85 F.1TDB where WBGT = wet bulb globe temperature. as well as other properties of air. various 167 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.2.2TGT + 0. by knowing just two properties of air.3TGT = Outdoor WBGT (with a solar load) WBGT = 0.2 Heat Stress and Relative Humidity 12. and solar heating on people.7TWB + 0. the globe temperature multiplier is different.1 Wet Bulb Globe Temperature The Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) is a composite temperature used to estimate the heat stress effect of temperature. and the dry blub temperature o is 90 F? Solution: Since we are evaluating a sunny day.7TWB + 0. Psychrometric charts are versatile.2 ( 94 o F ) + 0. oF or oC T GT = globe temperature. WBGT values are calculated by the following equations: Indoor WBGT (or outdoors with no solar load) WBGT 0.7TWB + 0. the globe temperature is 94 F. wind speed. oF or oC For a description of these temperatures.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 12.7 ( 85 o F ) + 0. (308) (309) WBGT = 0. see Section 14. oF or oC T DB = drybulb temperature. oF or oC T WB = wetbulb temperature. humidity. we use equation (309).1TDB = 0.2TGT + 0.com .1( 90 o F ) = 87 o F Important: Note that when you do not include the solar load you do not simply drop the dry bulb measurement. Common psychrometric charts graphically illustrate the relationships between air temperature and relative humidity.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
other properties can quickly be determined. See Section 14 for more info and example of their use. 12.2.2 Heat Storage by Body The thermal (heat) balance within a human body can be mathematically described as follows:
M −W = E + R + C + K + S
where M = metabolic energy (heat) production, Btu/hr W = external work rate, Btu/hr E = evaporative heat change, Btu/hr R = radiant heat change, Btu/hr C = convective heat change, Btu/hr K = conductive heat change, Btu/hr S = energy (heat) storage rate by the body, Btu/hr The term MW is always positive.
(310)
The conductive heat change (K) is typically small and, if so, can be ignored. In such cases equation (310)can be written:
∆S=
( M −W ) ± C ± R − E
(311)
Note that as suggested by equation (311), the convective and radiative changes can be positive or negative (i.e., gains or losses). Evaporative changes are losses. Assuming no net change in the storage of energy (heat) in the body (i.e., S=0), and no work is done (i.e., W=0) equation (311) can be rearranged to find the evaporative cooling required to offset the metabolic, convective and radiative changes:
Ereq = M + C + R
(312)
where
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Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
E req = steady state evaporative heat loss, Btu/hr
Problem: A worker is conducting light work such that metabolic heat production minus the work expended is 650 Btu/hr. If the worker has a local fan that provides 50 Btu/hr of convective cooling, local equipment that causes a radiant heat gain of 125 Btu/hr, and an evaporative heat loss of 250 BTU/hr, what is the worker’s net heat gain? Solution:
∆S=
( M − W ) ± C ± R − E= ( 650 ) − 50 + 125 − 250=
475 Btu/hr
12.2.2.1 Convective Heat Gain/Loss by Body
The convective heat change can be calculated using the following equation:
= 0.65v 0.6 (Ta − 95 ) C
where C = convective heat change, Btu/hr v = air velocity, ft/min T a = air temperature, oF 95 = mean weighted skin temperature, oF
Problem: What is the convective cooling of an outside worker who is exposed to a o temperature of 75 F and 15 mph winds? Solution: Equation (313) uses an air speed in ft/min, so the wind speed must be converted from mph to ft/min.
(313)
= 0.65v 0.6 (Ta − 95 ) C 15 miles 5280 ft 1 hour 0.65 C= mile 60 min hr
0.6
−969 ( 75 − 95) = Btu/hr
12.2.2.2 Radiant Heat Gain/Loss by Body
The radiative heat change can be calculated using the following equation:
= 15 (Tr − 95 ) R
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(314)
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
where R = radiative heat change, Btu/hr 15 = constant T r = mean radiant temperature, oF 95 = mean weighted skin temperature, oF
Problem: A worker is located in an area with production equipment that creates an o average radiant environment of 110 F. What is the radiant heat gain of a worker in this area? Solution:
R= 15 (Tr − 95 )= 15 (110 − 95 )= 225 Btu/hr
12.2.2.3 Maximum Evaporative Heat Loss
The maximum evaporative heat loss formula quantifies the amount of heat that is lost from the body through evaporative cooling.
= 2.4v 0.6 ( 42 − vpw ) Emax
where E max = evaporative heat loss, Btu/hr 2.4 = constant v = air velocity, ft/min 42 = vapor pressure of water at 95 oF skin temperature, mmHg vp w = vapor pressure of water at ambient temperature, mmHg
(315)
Problem: What is the maximum evaporative loss of an outside worker who is exposed o to a temperature of 75 F and 15 mph winds? Solution: Equation (315) requires the vapor pressure of water. Assuming an effective temperature that is between the body temperature and the ambient air, tables of water pressure can be consulted to find a water vapor pressure of 32 mmHg. Then applying equation (315) leads to:
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Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
= 2.4v 0.6 ( 42 − vpw ) Emax
15 miles 5280 ft 1 hour = 2.4 Emax = 1789 Btu/hr ( 42 − 32 ) mile 60 min hr
0.6
12.2.3 Heat Stress Index The heat stress index (HSI) is one method of quantifying thermal stress. As can be seen in the following equation, it is simply the ratio of the steady state evaporative cooling to the maximum possible evaporative cooling, expressed as a percentage,
HSI =
where
Ereq Emax
x 100
(316)
HSI = heat stress index, non dimensional E req = steady state evaporative heat loss, Btu/hr (see equation (312)) E max = evaporative heat loss, Btu/hr
Problem: A worker has a maximum evaporative loss of 1789 Btu/hr. Calculate the Heat Stress Index (HSI) if a worker requires an evaporative heat loss of 475 Btu/hr. Solution:
= HSI
Ereq 475 Btu/hr x 100 = 27% = x 100 1789 Btu/hr Emax
12.2.4 Ventilation of Sensible Heat Sensible heat is the heat which results in a temperature change only when a transfer takes place. For example, sensible heat is produced by a heating system or is removed by a refrigeration system. The volume of air required to dissipate the sensible heat load can be calculated in the following manner. First, recalling from thermodynamics, the heat capacity of a system can be defined by:
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H s .08 ∆T (320) This is sometimes written as: cfm = Total Sensible Heat (Btu/hr) 1. and Hs has units of Btu/hr. lbs/min c p = specific heat of the system.com .08 ( ∆T ) (321) Problem: Determine the volumetric air flow rate (cfm) required to limit an area with an o industrial oven that produces 25.24 Btu/lboF) ΔT = change in temperature. ft3/min ρ a = density of air. Solution: 172 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. oF The mass flow rate can be found by: m Qs ⋅ ρ a = where Q s = volumetric flow rate of sensible air. leads to: = Qs ρ a c p ∆T ⋅ (60min/hr) Hs (318) (319) Note the 60 min/hr conversion is required since Qs has units of ft3/min.075 lb/ft3) Combining equations (317) and (318) and defining E as the sensible heat.000 Btu/hr of heat to a 10 F degree temperature rise. and substituting values for c p and ρ a . leads to: Qs = Hs 1. lb/ft3 (0. Btu/lboF (0. Btu/min (317) m = mass rate of the system. Rearranging to solve for Q s .Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety = mc p ∆T E where E = energy change in the system.
000 Btu/hr = = 2315 cfm 1.com .08 ( ∆T ) 1.08 (10 o F ) 173 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety = cfm Total Sensible Heat (Btu/hr) 25.
com .Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 174 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.
com .Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Statistical Tables 13 Statistical Tables The following statistical tables are provided on the following pages: • • • Area Under the Standard Normal Curve from 0 to Z Table of Percentage Points of the t Distribution Upper Percentage Points of the χ2 Distribution 175 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.
4978 0.3944 0.4977 0.1 1.4979 0.2088 0.2224 0.4 2.4798 0.1879 0.0359 0.3133 0.4940 0.4788 0.4925 0.1808 0.3810 0.0 2.4778 0.3 2.4099 0.4984 0.4964 0.4394 0.0000 0.2611 0.4222 0.4906 0.4909 0.4979 0.0160 0.0948 0.4974 0.0636 0.2704 0.2794 0.4834 0.1844 0.4115 0.4177 0.4959 0.4382 0.2967 0.com .4756 0.0120 0.1217 0.3830 0.4821 0.7 0.4949 0.4265 0.2642 0.4671 0.4699 0.4554 0.2389 0.4418 0.4962 0.4990 176 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.3 0.4986 0.1064 0.2324 0.8 1.9 2.4505 0.4292 0.4279 0.4706 0.7 1.4812 0.4970 0.3997 0.1255 0.4901 0.0557 0.1700 0.4582 0.4938 0.6 1.3554 0.4946 0.2486 0.9 1.8 2.3770 0.4967 0.3849 0.1985 0.3078 0.4975 0.6 0.4957 0.4306 0.4918 0.2 1.4192 0.4981 0.4545 0.4982 0.4881 0.3508 0.4484 0.4976 0.4864 0.3389 0.4693 0.0040 0.4989 6 0.4616 0.4817 0.2517 0.4049 0.4966 0.3643 0.1591 0.0398 0.3461 0.4987 1 0.2580 0.4887 0.1480 0.4429 0.4345 0.4846 0.0832 0.0714 0.3315 0.4842 0.3869 0.4573 0.2764 0.4830 0.4920 0.1443 0.4793 0.1368 0.2852 0.4656 0.2995 0.4732 0.3485 0.0 0.4898 0.3907 0.4678 0.4861 0.3289 0.4916 0.0871 0.4319 0.4608 0.4474 0.1103 0.4987 3 0.4911 0.1406 0.0438 0.4990 9 0.4961 0.4989 8 0.2019 0.4922 0.3238 0.4960 0.0319 0.4868 0.4968 0.4357 0.3686 0.4082 0.2 2.1772 0.0987 0.3749 0.1517 0.2881 0.4854 0.3888 0.4441 0.4649 0.1141 0.4808 0.4 0.0517 0.4931 0.2549 0.4452 0.4890 0.5 1.4625 0.1915 0.0910 0.4857 0.4463 0.3365 0.4932 0.2357 0.4803 0.4850 0.4965 0.2939 0.4719 0.4641 0.4525 0.3577 0.4945 0.4955 0.4875 0.3438 0.0596 0.4989 7 0.0793 0.4406 0.4744 0.1 2.9 3.4664 0.2190 0.1950 0.4772 0.4948 0.4951 0.4032 0.4761 0.4982 0.4953 0.4985 0.4983 0.2734 0.1736 0.4927 0.3159 0.2823 0.4838 0.4988 4 0.2910 0.4515 0.4015 0.3621 0.2422 0.4878 0.1026 0.2454 0.4535 0.3531 0.4726 0.3413 0.4686 0.0 1.4913 0.4564 0.0675 0.3051 0.3023 0.4943 0.3962 0.3729 0.1664 0.4131 0.4495 0.0239 0.5 2.4893 0.3212 0.4971 0.5 0.0080 0.1 0.4 1.1179 0.4956 0.2054 0.4162 0.4599 0.3264 0.4332 0.4963 0.3790 0.4974 0.4929 0.4984 0.3980 0.4987 2 0.2291 0.4633 0.4988 5 0.4904 0.7 2.4750 0.3665 0.4871 0.0753 0.0478 0.4941 0.4884 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Area Under the Standard Normal Curve from 0 to Z Z 0.3186 0.2157 0.1331 0.1554 0.3599 0.4969 0.4591 0.0199 0.2123 0.4783 0.0 0 0.6 2.4973 0.3925 0.4981 0.4207 0.4896 0.3 1.4952 0.4972 0.8 0.4066 0.4738 0.4767 0.2257 0.4147 0.4826 0.0279 0.1293 0.4934 0.4977 0.2 0.4936 0.2673 0.4713 0.1628 0.3340 0.4236 0.4370 0.4986 0.4251 0.3708 0.3106 0.4985 0.4980 0.
com .528 2.533 1.920 2.776 2.833 1.896 2.365 3.060 2.303 3.316 1.397 1.708 1.960 0.765 0.725 1.571 2.086 2.674 0.476 1.816 0.10 (two tail) 6.727 0.747 3.943 1.821 6.886 1.131 2.684 0.711 0.965 4.645 0.02 (two tail) 31.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Table of Percentage Points of the t Distribution TwoSided OneSided Degrees of Freedom 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 20 25 30 ∞ 0.1 (one tail) 0.132 2.325 1.383 1.143 2.025 (one tail) 0.687 0.228 2.372 1.485 2.700 0.697 1.341 1.326 177 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.000 0.683 0.706 4.078 1.998 2.895 1.310 1.691 0.812 1.306 2.314 2.457 2.447 2.365 2.2 (two tail) 3.706 0.262 2.182 2.050 (two tail) 12.764 2.821 2.440 1.860 1.015 1.541 3.703 0.353 2.282 Probability 0.042 1.415 1.50 (two tail) 1.638 1.741 0.718 0.01 (one tail) 0.25 (one tail) 0.602 2.05 (one tail) 0.753 1.
706 4.167 2.410 37.578 37.599 2.919 18.103 0.070 12.865 5.064 1.004 0.90 0.684 15.773 0.260 11.841 5.064 22.996 31.610 2.953 0.307 19.042 7.229 8.020 0.090 21.352 0.725 26.256 0.507 16.812 18.584 1.382 40.490 4.646 2.05 3.10 0.571 4.549 19.892 178 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.685 24.251 7.016 0.493 Probability 0.141 30.892 6.145 1.554 0.711 1.488 11.987 17.99 0.362 23.812 21.635 9.209 24.558 3.475 20.95 0.790 8.211 0.210 11.412 34.635 2.086 16.991 7.566 44.026 22.204 2.314 50.275 18.017 13.053 3.652 43.645 12.666 23.473 20.592 14.660 5.833 3.067 15.815 9.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Upper Percentage Points of the χ2 Distribution Degrees of Freedom 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 20 25 30 0.578 6.226 5.088 2.611 18.547 12.217 27.733 3.575 5.675 21.307 28.872 1.571 7.115 0.304 7.779 9.com .851 14.277 15.000 0.940 4.168 4.236 10.345 13.01 6.107 4.325 3.261 10.443 16.688 29.297 0.239 1.362 14.524 14.605 6.
By volume. Dry air is used as the reference in psychrometrics. Atmospheric Air Atmospheric air is the air we breathe and use for normal ventilation. smoke. by knowing just two properties of air. may also be encountered depending on air quality.1 Basic Definitions of Air 1. and other gases. pollen. moist air and atmospheric air can be considered equal under the range of conditions normally encountered. Air is primarily comprised of nitrogen and oxygen and small amounts of carbon dioxide. dry air contains about 78 percent nitrogen. 14. Dry Bulb Temperature 179 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.2 Basic Definitions of Air Temperature 1. Common psychrometric charts (see example below) graphically illustrate the relationships between air temperature and relative humidity as well as other properties of air. 3. Moist Air Moist air is a mixture of dry air and water vapor. and 1 percent other gases. 14. Psychrometric charts are versatile. Due to the variability of atmospheric air. Dry Air Dry air exists when all of the contaminants and water vapor have been removed from atmospheric air. including air. Miscellaneous contaminants such as dust. various other properties can quickly be determined. water vapor.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Psychrometric Charts 14 Psychrometric Charts Psychrometrics refers to the properties of gasvapor mixtures.com . 2.. the terms dry air and moist air are used in psychrometrics. 21 percent oxygen. etc. For practical purposes.
Globe Temperature Globe temperature is a measure of the radiant and convective temperature and is usually measured with what it known as a globe (or black globe) thermometer. Relative humidity is expressed as a percent. Lines of equal relative humidity curve from the lower left to the upper right of the psychrometric chart. 180 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. 14. 3. The dew point temperature scale is located along the same curved portion of the chart as the wet bulb temperature scale.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Dry bulb temperature is the air temperature determined by an ordinary thermometer. Wet bulb temperature can be determined by passing air over a thermometer that has been wrapped with a small amount of moist cloth. 2. The dry bulb temperature scale is located at the base of the chart and the vertical lines indicate constant dry bulb temperature. Dew Point Temperature Dew point temperature is the temperature below which moisture will condense out of air. The wet bulb temperature scale is located along the curved upper left portion of the chart. Wet Bulb Temperature Wet bulb temperature reflects the cooling effect of evaporating water. or at its dew point.com . The sloping lines indicate equal wet bulb temperatures. Water will condense on a surface that is at or below the dew point temperature of the air. horizontal lines indicate equal dew point temperatures. The line for zero percent relative humidity falls along the dry bulb temperature scale line. However. 4.3 Relative Humidity Relative humidity is a measure of how much moisture is present compared to how much moisture the air could hold at that temperature. The 100 percent relative humidity (saturation) line corresponds to the wet bulb and the dew point temperature scale line. Air that is holding as much water vapor as possible is saturated. This is a normal dry bulb thermometer encased in a 150mm diameter matteblack copper sphere whose absorptivity approaches that of the skin. The cooling effect of the evaporating water causes a lower temperature compared to the dry bulb air temperature.
follow the appropriate lines to the correct scales and find: 1. What are the wet bulb and dew point temperatures of this air? Solution: First. Dew point temperature = 59°F 181 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. Wet bulb temperature = 67°F 2.com . From this intersection. locate the intersection of the 80°F dry bulb temperature line and the 50 percent relative humidity curve.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem: Air is known to be at 80°F (dry bulb) and 50 percent relative humidity.
9 290 Sea Level BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 29.0 SP 182 80 75 IR RY A OF D 75 .0 95 60 95 55 W ET BU LB 95 240 230 220 UR E ° F 90 1.7 16.3 45 85 15 85 180 170 160 150 140 130 120 1.2 40 35 0 45 30 25 35 40 5 professionalsafetyinstruction.4 210 200 190 85 90 50 90 TE M PE RA T OF OUN D °F PER P RAT URE  BTU Y EMP E lb E ft³/ LUM ENT HAL P 35 80 ION T SAT URA T 110 90% 70 .6 65 14.1 80 1.0 IC VO ECIF .6 1.com 5 0 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 DRY BULB TEMPERATURE .0 5 25 20 15 10 12.1 30 25 20 15 10 Linric Company Psychrometric Chart.7 100 90 65 80 70 55 60 80% HUMIDITY RATIO .INCHES OF MERCURY 70 70 60 5 .4 50 40 % 50 45 40 30 % VAPOR PRESSURE .3 40 30 35 .°F 20 25 30 20% 20 10 Y MIDIT E HU LATIV % RE 30 25 20 10 10 0 40 55 .8 30 75 .GRAINS OF MOISTURE PER POUND OF DRY AIR 25 % 65 70 20 70 .0 60 % 65 60 15 .PSYCHROMETRIC CHART 70 75 80 85 90 300 1.0 17.921 inches of Mercury 65 10 0 280 1.2 80 40 85 1.5 90 1.0 0 0 5 10 5 15 10 20 15 DEW POINT .5 Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 55 60 % 60 55 50 10 50 45 50 .8 270 260 95 250 1.BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction DRY AIR 1.9 75 .°F 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 ENTHALPY .com 13. www.linric.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
Constant and Conversion
15 Constants and Conversions
15.1 Length 1 inch = 2.54 cm 1 foot = 30.48 cm = 0.3048 m 1 meter = 3.28 ft 1 mile = 5,280 ft 1 micron = 104 cm 15.2 Volume 1 molar volume = 1 grammole (at 0°C and 1 atm) = 22.4 L 1 molar volume = 1 grammole (at 25°C and 1 atm) = 24.45 L 1 ft3 = 28.32 L = 7.481 U.S. gal = 0.0283 m3 1 m3 = 35.31 ft3 1 L = 1.0566 qt = 61.02 in3 = 0.03531 ft3 15.3 Weight & Mass 1 lb = 453.6 grams 1 kg = 2.2 lb 1 gram = 15.43 grains 15.4 Pressure 1 atm = 14.7 psi = 760 mm Hg = 29.92 in. Hg = 33.93 ft water = 406.78 in. water = 1013.25 mbar = 101,325 pascals = 760 torr 15.5 Temperature °F = 9/5(°C) + 32 °C = (°F  32)/1.8 °R = °F + 460 K = °C + 273
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Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
15.6 Angles 1 radian = 180o/π 15.7 Density of Water density of water = 1 gram/cm3 = 1.94 slugs/ft3 weight density of water = 62.4 lb/ft3 15.8 Density of Air density of air (at 0°C and 1 atm) = 0.29 g/L density of air (at 20°C and 1 atm) = 1.204 kg/m3 density of air (at 70oF and 1 atm) = 0.075 lb/ft3 15.9 Energy 1 BTU = 1054.8 joules = 0.293 watthr 1 gramcalorie = 4.184 joules 1 faraday = 9.65 x 104 coulombs 1 watt = 1 joule/sec = 1 ampere x 1 volt 1 kwh = 3.6 x 106 joules 15.10 Radiation 1 becquerel = 1 disintegration/sec 1 currie = 3.7 x 1010 becquerel = 2.2x1012 dpm 1 rad = 102 gray (1 gray = 100 rad) 1 rem = 102 sievert (1 sievert = 100 rem) 15.11 Light 1 candela = 1 lumen/steradian 1 footcandle = 10.76 candela/m2 = 10.76 lux 15.12 Magnetic Fields 1 tesla = 10,000 gauss
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Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
15.13 Physical Constants speed of sound in air (at 20°C) = 1125 ft/sec = 344 m/sec speed of light = 3 x 108 m/sec Planck's constant = 6.626 x 1027 ergsec = 6.626 x 1034 joulesec Avogadro's number = 6.024 x 1023 /grammole gas constant, R = 8.314 J/mole K = 0.082 L atm/moleK = 10.731 ft3psi/°Rlbmol acceleration of gravity, g = 9.81 m/ sec2 = 981 cm/sec2 = 32 ft/sec2 15.14 Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP) STP (Physical Sciences) = 0oC at 1 atm STP (Ventilation) = 70oF at 1 atm STP (Industrial Hygiene) = 25oC at 1 atm 15.15 Miscellaneous Effective area of filter, A c = 385 mm for 25 mm filter
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Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety
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com .50 and the duct is moving air with a density factor or 0. required for the issuance of CEUs. and others encountered in industrial hygiene and safety.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Study Problems 16 Study Problems The following study problems can be solved with formulas and information contained in this book. You should be comfortable solving these problems before requesting a final exam.95. 60µF. Problem 3 What volumetric flow rate is required in a 8 inch round plain duct hood located 1 foot from a location requiring a capture velocity of 150 fpm? Problem 4 What is the equivalent capacitance (in farads) of three capacitors.75 in. 85 dB. the hood entry floss factor is 0. as well as those in other sections of this book. Problem 1 Calculate the volumetric flow rate in an 12inch round flanged hood if the static pressure is 1. and 12µF in series. The sample problems focus on the mathematical skills required to solve all the formulas in this book. The final examination. and in parallel? 187 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. wc. 40µF. 90 dB and 90 dB. Problem 2 Calculate the combined sound pressure level created by four sources measured at 82 dB. will be similar to those contained in this section. Solutions are provided in the following section.
how many combinations of two filter units are provided by the set of four? Problem 6 Indicate if each of the following logarithmic expressions is True or False. you need to allocate money to replace a piece of equipment that has an expected replacement cost of $20. there are four HVAC charcoal filter units to remove airborne contaminants. x a) log b x − log b y = log b y b) log b ( x r ) = r log b x Problem 7 Calculate the attenuation of radiation passing through a lead shield that is 3 cm thick. Problem 8 Simplify the following expression: ( −10z y ) ( zy ) 3 −2 2 4 −5 Problem 9 As part of your annual budget.87. How much would you have to place into the account each year for 5 years assuming an annual interest rate of 3%? 188 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com .78 cm1 and a buildup factor of 1. Assume a linear attenuation coefficient of 0.000 in five years. If two are required to provide the required filter capacity.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem 5 At a hazardous materials laboratory.
what is the probability of a reading greater than 110 psi? For the data set in the problem.g. high winds. storms. 93. Also. and σ = 10. and 78. Calculate the reliability of the power system over a twoweek period. what will be the new flow? Problem 11 Several water pressure measurements are taken and the following data are recorded: 75.com . Problem 14 A shipping area has a ventilation system that provides 15 air changes per hour (ACH). Problem 12 A forklift weighs 3980 lbs. assume the arithmetic mean and standard deviation are µ = X = 85. 82. etc. respectively. What is the concentration of an airborne contaminant after 20 minutes if the initial concentration is 750 ppm and there is no additional contaminant? Problem 15 Determine the Lifting Index (LI) for a task that has a RWL of 22.8.9. what is indicated by the calculated LI? 189 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. If the impeller size and speed are changed to 6 inches and 2500 RPM. Assuming a normal distribution.).5 pounds and an actual lifted weight of 20 pounds. 101.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem 10 A fan with an 8 inch impeller operates at 1500 RPM to supply 2000 cfm. all is psi. what is its mass? Problem 13 Electrical power to a factory fails an average of 7 times every year (e..
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem 16 Calculate the distance at which the exposure level is exceeded for a 500 W antenna with an absolute gain of 20. How fast is the car now going? Problem 18 A duct lining material has an absorption coefficient of 0. wc and the hood entry coefficient is 0. Calculate the reduction in noise in a 6” by 12” duct.com .35.10 mmHg and the temperature is 75 oF.5 miles. 190 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. plain end). Problem 20 A location has a barometric pressure of 29. Assume an exposure limit of 10 W/m2. Problem 17 A car is initially traveling at 20 mph and then accelerates at 30 miles/hr2 for 1.72 (round duct.0 in. What is the density correction factor for these conditions? Problem 21 What is the TLV of a 25/75 mixture of hexane and xylene? Assume the TLV for hexane is 176 mg/m3 and the TLV for xylene is 434 mg/m3. Problem 19 Calculate the volumetric flow rate in an 8inch round duct from a hood if the hood static pressure measurement is 2.
90 dB for 2 hours. Problem 27 What is the power density of an electric field with a strength of 500V/m? 191 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. If the worker works 8. what is the permitted exposure to toluene? Problem 25 What is the airborne concentration of asbestos fibers if 500 liters of air are sampled and the fiber density is 88 f/mm2? Assume the effective area of the filter is 385 mm2 (25 mm filter).0 x 107J/cm2. Problem 24 A worker is exposed to toluene during their work. The TLV for toluene is 50 ppm.com . Assume the maximum permitted exposure level is 5. and 82 dB for 3 hours.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem 22 Calculate the heat transfer rate through 4 inches of concrete when one surface is 212oF and the other is 70oF.45 Btu/hrftoF Problem 23 Determine the hazard zone distance for a 0. Problem 26 Calculate the equivalent sound pressure level for the following measurements: 85 dB for 3 hours.4 J pulsed laser that has a beam divergence of 1 x103 radians and an emergent beam diameter of 0.5 cm.5 hours in a day. Assume the thermal conductivity of the concrete is 0.
the density of air is 0. 82. The gravitational acceleration is 980 cm/sec2.com . 93. What is the expected sound pressure level at 20 feet from the compressor? Problem 29 Calculate the terminal settling velocity of 130 µm particles in still air. Hint: See sample problem in Section 4. what is its kinetic energy? 192 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. Problem 30 Ammonia has a chemical composition of NH 3 yielding a molecular weight of 17.0012 g/cm3 and its viscosity is 0. all is psi. Calculate the standard deviation (n1) for the data.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem 28 Sound measurements record an average sound pressure level of 92 dB at a location 5 feet away from a compressor.03. Also. Problem 32 Several water pressure measurements are taken and the following data are recorded: 75. Assume the density of the particles is 1. Calculate its density in lbs/ft3 at 0. and 78.0 km away from a source with an emergent diameter of 1 cm and a beam divergence of 1 x104 radians.1. Problem 33 A box that weighs 225 lbs moves along a conveyor at 5 mph. Problem 31 Determine the diameter of a laser beam 1. 101.15 g/cm3.95 atmospheres and 85 oF.000182 Poise.
3E6 event per year. calculate the frequency of event C. If event A has a frequency of 1.com . If a concentration of 500 ppm is measured.2E6 events/year. and event B has a frequency of 2. Problem 37 A source of radiation has created a radiation intensity of 500 mR/hr. 193 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. Problem 35 What is the velocity in an air duct when the velocity pressure recorded is 1. what is the reduced intensity in mR/hr? Problem 38 What is the convective cooling of an outside worker who is exposed to a temperature of 40 oF and 5 mph winds? Problem 39 What is the friction loss when 500 gpm is flowing through 50 feet of 2 inch hose? Assume a HazenWilliams coefficient of 130. in Boolean algebra “+" means OR and "·" means AND. In Boolean algebra this can be shown as: A + (A · B). calculate the equivalent concentration in mg/m3 of the IPA in air.wc? Assume standard air conditions.20 in. If three tenthvalue layers (TVL) of a shielding material are provided.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem 34 A fault tree has an event C that will occur if event A occurs or if event A and B occurs. Remember. and therefore a molecular weight of 60. Problem 36 Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) has a chemical formula of C 3 H 8 O.
Problem 43 Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) evolves at a rate of 1. wc. X 3 4 6 Y 2 3 7 Problem 41 Based on ACGIH requirements.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem 40 Calculate the linear correlation coefficient for the following data set. 194 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. If an initial concentration is measured at 50 ppm.50 in.e. wc and a hood entry loss of 0.414 kHz. Problem 44 The lower cutoff frequency of an octave band is 1.com . what is the allowable exposure time for 82 dBA? Problem 42 Calculate the hood entry loss factor for a hood with a velocity pressure of 1. what will the concentration of IPA be after 30 minutes of 2500 cfm of dilution air? Assume K=1 (i..5 cfm in a room that measures 25’ x 45’ x 9’ high. Calculate the upper cutoff frequency and the center frequency. Q’=Q).85 in.
The surface of the water in the tank is 20 feet above the open valve. If I123 has a halflife of 13 hours. wc. what radioactivity will remain in the patient after 5 hours? Problem 49 Calculate the pH of a solution that has 2. What is the velocity and volumetric flow rate of the water exiting the open valve? Problem 48 1.01 g/mole. The molecular weight of HNO 3 is 63.0786 lbs/ft3 at room temperature and pressure. What is the head loss across the section of ductwork? Problem 46 One pound of ethylene leaks from a cylinder into a room that measures 25 ft wide by 75 ft long by 9 feet high.0 liters of solution. wc at the other end.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Problem 45 Measurements made at two ends of a section of ductwork showed a total pressure at one location of 1. Assume ethylene has a density of 0.25 mCi of Iodine123 (I123) is used to image thyroid cancer. Problem 50 Two 120 volt power tools have a combined resistance of 60 ohms.95 in. and 0.com .5 grams of HNO 3 in 3. What is the current in the system? 195 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.25 in. What is the concentration in ppm (assume uniform mixing and no losses)? Problem 47 A 1inch valve is opened at the base of a water storage tank.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 196 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com .
35 1552.5) Solution 2 Use equation (228): 82 85 90 90 10 10 10 10 SPLtotal 10 log 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 93. the area of the hood is required in ft2: A = πd2 = 4 π ( 8 /12 ) 4 2 = 0.5 cfm Q A) = 2 ( ) 197 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.9 dB = = Solution 3 First.com .75 = 4005 A Q = 4005 = 3486 cfm df (1 + Fh ) 4 12 0.0 ) + 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Solutions to Study Problems 17 Solutions to Study Problems Solution 1 Use equation (198): π 12 2 SPh 1.35 ft 2 Next. rearranging equation (181) and substituting the appropriate values provides: = V (10 x 2 + = 150 10 (1.95(1 + 0.
com .125/µ F C1 C2 Cn 60 µ F 40 µ F 12 µ F Cseries = 8 µ F For capacitors in parallel use equation (301): C parallel = C1 + C2 + + Cn = 60 µ F + 40 µ F + 12 µ F = 112 µ F Solution 5 Use equation (68) with n = 4 and k = 2. 198 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.78cm 3cm 0. = Ckn Solution 6 n! 4! = = 6 k !(n − k )! 2!(4 − 2)! Both are true.87e −0.18 = 18% = = Io Since I is 18% of I o .Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Solution 4 For capacitors in series use equation (300): 1 Cseries = 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + + = + + = 0. the attenuation is 82%. See Section 1.4 Solution 7 Rearranging equation (268) leads to: −1 I = Be − µ x 1.
However.32% 199 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.5 (i.22 is desired..5 − 0.9 σ Now.com . 000 = $3.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Solution 8 Using the rules in section 1.0132 = 1. 767 n 5 (1 + i ) − 1 (1 + 0.e. so subtract the zscore from 0.3. z = X − µ 110 − 85. going to a zscore table (see Section 13). simplify as follows: ( −10 z y ) ( zy ) 3 −2 2 4 −5 100 z 100 z 6 y − 100 zy −24 = 4 z −5 y −20 = = y 24 Solution 9 Use equation (78) to find the answer to this question: i 0.03 = F A = $20.22 10.4868.22 is .03) − 1 Solution 10 Use equation (221): Size2 RPM 2 6 2500 Q2 = Q1 = 2000 = 1406 cfm 8 1500 Size1 RPM 1 3 3 Solution 11 First calculate the zscore.8 = = 2. The formula for the zscore is given in equation (58). find the area under the curve from 0 to 2. the value beyond z = 2.4868 = 0. ½ of 1) and the answer is: 0.
the Lift Index indicates this lifting task would not be hazardous for a majority of healthy industrial workers.2 ft/sec 2 Solution 13 Use equation (71): R ( t ) e= e = − λt − 7 failures 2weeks 52 weeks = 0.com .Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Solution 12 Rearranging equation (108): m = W 3980 lbs = = 123.0 ppm Use equation (307): = LI L 20 lbs = = 0.89 RWL 22. Solution 14 Use equation (217): = C0 e−tN C = Solution 15 15 ACH ) ( 750 ppm ) e( 20/60 hr )(= 5.6slugs g 32.76 Based on this calculation. the power supply system has a reliability of only about 76% so there is about a 24% probability of electrical system failure in a two week period.5 lbs Therefore. Solution 16 Substituting values into equation (279) leads to: 200 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.
5= 490 mi 2 /hr 2 mi v 2 = 490 mi 2 /hr 2 v = 22.6 Pα 1.0 4 12 Solution 20 Use equation (172): 201 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.72 ) = 1423 cfm Q = 2.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety PG r = = 4π EL 1/2 ( 500 W )( 20 ) = 8.35 ) = = NR = 1.45 dB/ft A 6 ⋅12 1. so substitute values into the equation to find: 12.28 ft/m ) = 29.1 mph Solution 18 Equation (239) provides the solution in dB/ft.4 12.9 m )( 3.9 m 4π (10W/m 2 ) 1/2 (8.com .6 ( 2 ⋅ 6 + 2 ⋅12 )( 0.4 Solution 19 Use equation (196): π 8 2 = 4005Ce A SPh 4005 ( 0.3 ft Solution 17 Using equation (121) and solving for v: v 2 vo 2 + 2as = = v2 ( 20 mi/hr ) 2 + 2 ( 30 mi/hr 2 ) ⋅1.
7 Btu/hrft 2 Use equation (286): 1/2 1 4Φ 1 4 ( 0.25 .96 T + 460 29.5 ppm = = 202 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. multiply the TLV by the reduction factor to determine the adjusted TLV: TLV permitted − day 0.5 16 Next.92 75 + 460 29.com .5 = x x = 0.0x106 cm = 10 km 10−3 π ( 5x107 ) φ π EL 1/2 Solution 24 First calculate the reduction factor for one day based on the hours worked using equation (94): = RFday 8 24 − h 8 24 − 8.6 mg/m3 .75 F1 F2 + + 3 TLV1 TLV2 176 mg/m 434 mg/m3 Solution 22 Use equation (150): (T1 − T2 ) q = k= A ( x1 − x2 ) Solution 23 ( 0.91( 50 ppm ) 45.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 530 BP 530 29.5 ) = 1.92 Solution 21 Substituting into equation (91) yields: TLVmix = 1 1 = = 317.10 df = ⋅ = ⋅ = 0.91 h 16 8.4 ) 2 2 rNHZ= −a = − ( 0.45 Btu/hrft o F) ( 212 − 70 F) = o ( 4 /12 ft ) 191.
3 dB T i =1 Use equation (273): E2 = = PD 3770 Solution 28 ( 500 V/m ) = 2 3770 Ω 66.com .068fibers/mL Use equation (232): Leq = 10 log Leq = 10 log Solution 27 Li 1 N 10 10 ti ∑ T i =1 85 90 82 1 N 10 = ∑ 10 ⋅ 3 + 1010 ⋅ 2 + 1010 ⋅ 3 86.3mW/cm 2 Use equation (227): d 5 ft SPL2 = 20 log 1 = SPL1 + 92 dB+20log = 80 dB 20 ft d2 Solution 29 Substituting the given data into equation (105) leads to: 203 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Solution 25 Applying equation (101) and substituting leads to: EAc = = Casb 1000Vs Solution 26 mm ) (88f/mm )( 385= 2 2 1000 ⋅ 500 L 0.
take equation (81) and multiply each side of the equation by the molecular weight (MW).1 cm/sec 18 ( 0.0 2 2 204 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.73ft ⋅ atm/lb mole ⋅ R ) ⋅ ( 460 + 85F) Use equation (285): DL = a 2 + φ 2 r 2 = L = 12 + (10−4 ) (1.041 lbs/ft 3 3 ( 0.0012 g/cm3 ) = 58.0130 cm ) 2 (1.com .0 x105 ) = cm D 10. to provide: MW ⋅ P ⋅ Vol MW ⋅ n ⋅ R ⋅ T = This can be rearranged to: MW ⋅ n MW ⋅ P = R ⋅T Vol MW ⋅ n The term is the density (ρ): Vol MW ⋅ P = ρ ⋅ R ⋅ T Which can be rearranged to solve for d: ρ= MW ⋅ P R ⋅T Selecting the appropriate value for R (based on the units desired) : ρ Solution 31 17.95atm = 0.03 ⋅ 0.000182 g/cmsec ) 2 Solution 30 First.15 − 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 2 gd p ( ρ p − ρ a ) VTS = = 18η ( 980 cm/sec ) ( 0.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Solution 32 Use equation (45) to solve this problem.6 14.8 ( x − xi ) 116. = = = 187.8 2 429 85.9 n −1 So. Solution 33 First.2 7.E .8 474.8 15.8 ∑(x − x ) i =1 i n 2 10. 10.com .9 psi is the standard deviation of this data.9 ftlbs 2 2 2 205 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. and speed in mph to ft/sec. convert weight in pounds to slugs. xi 75 82 n=5 101 93 78 Sum x x − xi 10.4 231.8 3.0 51. 225 lbs miles ft 1hr 32. and then use equation (118) to calculate kinetic energy. The following table assists with the calculation.2 ft/sec 2 5 hr 5280 mile 3600 sec 2 mv K .2 7.8 60.
7: A + (A · B) = A.65 mile 60 min hr 206 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. Solution 35 Since this is for air.65v 0. use equation (170): = 4005 VP 4005 1.2E06 events per year. = 0.5 mR/hr I Io 10 10 B 3 Solution 38 Equation (313) uses an air speed in ft/min.6 (Ta − 95 ) C 5 miles 5280 ft 1 hour C= 0. use equation (264): 1 1 = = 500 mR/hr = 0. so the wind speed must be converted from mph to ft/min.2 4387 cfm V = = Solution 36 Rearrange equation (88) as follows: = mg / m3 Solution 37 500 )( 60 ) ( ppm )( MW ) (= = 24.45 24.45 1227mg/m3 For tenthvalue layer calculations. so event C has a frequency of 1.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Solution 34 Apply the rules of Boolean algebra presented in section 1.com 0.6 −1378 ( 40 − 95) = Btu/hr .
86 psi/ft C1.85 = Ptotal 50 ft )(1.87 1.67 ∑ y Y −Y = 2.33 0. the method is typically used for larger data sets. and then multiply that by the total length. not nominal.00 x2 1.67 0.00 1. Note: Although this sample problem only uses three data pairs.00 1.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety This is a significant amount of cooling. use equation (148) to calculate the friction loss per foot.00 9.78 4.52 ( 500 gal ) = = Pd = 1. that requires the average of the X and Y values.00 14. Solution 40 Use equation (62).com .33 5.99 ( 4.99 indicates a very strong positive relationship between the data.00 8. Here the nominal value for the hose diameter is used since no actual diameter was specified. 4. 207 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction. respectively.67 y2 4. Solution 39 First.85 4.33 1.86 psi/ft ) (= 93psi Note: Generally you want to use the actual.11 2.85 ( 2in )4.78 0.0 = 0.85 d 4.00 3. value of the pipe or hose diameter. = X −X x 1. These are easily found to be 4.0 ) A linear correlation coefficient of 0.52Q1.87 (130 )1.00 = r ∑ xy = ( ∑ x 2 )( ∑ y 2 ) 8.67 )(14.00 xy 2.33 and 4.
but the final concentration (C 2 ) is embedded in this form of the equation.375= ) − 1.5 − 2500 ⋅ C2 = 0.wc = = 1. G − Q ' C2 Q' − ( ln = t2 − t1 ) V G − Q ' C1 1.00061)(1.5 − 2500 ⋅ C2 = e 10125 1. = T 8 = ( L −85) 2 3 8 = 16 hours (82−85) 2 3 Solution 42 Rearranging equation (183) and substituting leads to: = Fh VPd 1.000050 ) 2500 1.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Solution 41 Since question is concerned with ACGIH requirements.375 = C2 ( 0.5 − 2500 ⋅ C2 2500 ln 1.wc he Solution 43 Use equation (204).00061 1.000050 ) =30 − 0 ) − 10125 ( ( 30 − 0 ) − 1.76 0.5 − 2500 ( 0.5 − 2500 ( 0. so solve for C 2 .50 in.com .85 in. equation (242) is the appropriate equation to use.0006 600 ppm = 208 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.5 −2500 0.
find the area of the flow by the area of a circle: 209 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.72 ft 3 = 754 ppm x 106 ( 25ft )( 75ft )( 9 ft ) Solution 47 Use equation (133) and substitute the value for the height and the gravitational acceleration (32.2 ft/sec2 ) (= 35. the inverse of the density shows ethylene occupies 12.414 kHz = 2 f1 = 2 kHz Solution 45 Combining equations (160) and (161) provides: TP TP2 + hL = 1 hL = TP − TP2 = (1.25 in.wc 1 Solution 46 First.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Solution 44 The upper cutoff frequency is given by equation (249): f2 = 2 f1 = ) = 2 ⋅ (1.72 ft3/lb.wc ) = 0. Then using equation (84) leads to: = ppm Vcontam = x 106 Vair 12.3 in.9 ft/sec Next.wc ) − ( 0.com .414 kHz 2.2 ft/sec2) to find the velocity: = V = 2 ghv 20 ft ) ( 2 ) ( 32.95 in.828 kHz The center frequency is given by equation (251): f c = 2 ⋅1.
Solution 48 Use equation (260): = Ai ( 0.9ft/sec ) = 0.Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety A = πd2 = 4 π (1/12 ) 4 2 = 0.0397 moles 63.96 mCi A = = Solution 49 t 5 hr First calculate the number of moles of HNO 3 : 2.5 )13 hr 0.5 ) T1/2 1.0132 M 3. use equation (97) to find the pH: − log10 H − log10 [ 0.0 liters Finally. if desired.0132] = pH =+ = 1.01grams/mole Then calculate the molarity of the solution: = M 0.196 ft 3 /sec This can easily be converted to gpm.0397 moles = 0.5grams = 0.com .00545 ft 2 The volumetric flow is given by equation (135): Q1 = A ⋅ V = ( 0.00545ft 2 ) ( 35.25 mCi ( 0.88 Solution 50 Use equation (293): = I V 120 volts = = 2 amps R 60 ohms 210 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.
Applied Mathematics for Industrial Hygiene and Safety 211 © 2011 Professional Safety Instruction professionalsafetyinstruction.com .