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ABOUT THE FIRM

ABOUT THE FIRM Punjab State Power Corporation Ltd. (POWERCOM) Starting with the modest installed capacity of

Punjab State Power Corporation Ltd. (POWERCOM)

Starting with the modest installed capacity of 62 MW, the PSEB (from which POWERCOM unbundled)grew up by leaps and bounds. Envisaged with an

aim to produce power required for multitude of uses in state of Punjab, POWERCOM generated 37222 million units during 2008-09 , which is more than 2006-07 by 2238 Million Units resulting of 6.40% increase in two years. It has its thermal power plants situated in Ropar, Bathinda and Lehra Mohabbat and hydel projects in form of Ranjit Sagar Dam, Shanan Power House, Anandpur Sahib Hydel project, Mukerian Hydel Project Stage 1 and U.B.D.C. (Upper Bari Doab Canal) Hydro Electric Power House. The Corporation has an ambitious plan to add sufficient generating capacity in the State in order to bridge the gap between demand and supply. A beginning was made in this regard by improving the performance of the existing units.

..TRAINING

REPORT

SUBMITTED BY-: PARDEEP DIXIT

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ABOUT THE

TRAINING

I had my training in 66

KV Substation located in sector 71, Mohali. Commissioned in 2- 2-2011, this substation has incoming from 220 KV Substation located in Mohali phase 1. It basically has a step down distribution 66/11 KV transformer and is responsible for supply to 11 kv substation located in 3B1 Mohali, Mattur village, 3B2 and Phase7.Training basically included of being part of work culture in substation, information about all the parts present in substation, their uses and intricacies involved.From these substations the power reaches our home through distribution transformers.

SUBSTATION

A substation is a part of an electrical generation,

KV Substation located in sector 71, Mohali. Commissioned in 2- 2-2011, this substation has incoming fromgeneration, transmission, and distribution system. Substations transform voltage from high to low, or the reverse, or perform any of several other important functions. Electric power may flow through several substations between generating plant and consumer, and its voltage may change in several steps. A substation that has a step-up transformer increases the voltage while decreasing the current, while a step-down " id="pdf-obj-1-9" src="pdf-obj-1-9.jpg">

and

distribution system.

Substations

transform

from high to low, or

the

reverse,

or

perform any

of

several

other

important functions. Electric power may flow through several substations between generating plant and consumer, and its voltage may change in several steps.

A substation that has a step-up transformer increases the voltage while decreasing the current, while a step-down

transformer decreases the voltage while increasing the current for domestic and commercial distribution.

NEED OF SUBSTATIONS

1. For efficient and reliable power distribution

  • 2. To improve power factor whenever needed

  • 3. It is practically unfeasible to control and keep an eye on the power supply of large region, so we need substations controlling smaller regions.

  • 4. It houses vrios protection devices such as lightening arresters,circuit breakers,isolators.

  • 5. With number of substations ,fault isolation,detection and correction becomes convenient

VARIOUS PARTS PRESENT IN 66 KV SUBSTATION

  • DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER 66/11 KV, 20 MVA by IMP

  • CURRENT TRANSFORMER

  • VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER

  • SULPHUR HEXAFLOURIDE CIRCUIT BREAKERS

  • ISOLATOR

  • RELAYS(STATIC AND ELECTROMAGENTIC)

  • LIGHTENING ARRESTERS

  • BATTERY ROOM

TRANSFORMER

It

is

a

static electric device which

transforms electric

energy from one circuit to another through magnetic

medium without

any

change

in frequency. Because a

transformer works on the principle of electromagnetic induction,

TRANSFORMER It is a static electric device which transforms electric energy from one circuit to another

it

must be used with

an

input source

voltage that varies in amplitude.

Transformer can be

Step

Up

or Step

Down

depending

on

requirement

at

the

receiving

end.

On the basis of location these are of

two types-:

1. Power Transformer- These are designed to have maximum efficiency at full load. These are basically used at the generating end such as various power generating plants. These are Step Up transformers. Voltage is stepped up to minimize losses occurring in the long transmission line given by

H = I^2*R*T

2. Distribution Transformer- These are designed to have maximum efficiency at half of a load. These are widely used in the substations to step down the high voltage coming from power transformers present in power plants.

On the basis of construction these are of following type

1. Core Type- These have L or U type laminations. Material used- silicon steel Joints of different laminations are alternative. Alternative joints are to provide path to flux so that flux continues to pass through laminations. Laminations are insulated to reduce eddy current losses. Thickness of L type laminations- 0.35 mm

2. Shell Type- In this, laminations shapes are of E and I types. Thickness of laminations 0.35 mm Laminations are placed inverted to each other to provide continuous flux flow

Used in remote and hilly areas

Parts of a Transformer-:

CORE

Transformers have silicon steel cores for flow of magnetic field. This keeps the field more concentrated around the wires, so that the transformer is more compact. The core of a power transformer must be designed so that it does not reach magnetic saturation. Carefully designed gaps are sometimes placed in the magnetic path to help prevent saturation. Practical transformer cores are always made of many stamped pieces of thin steel. The high resistance between layers reduces eddy currents in the cores that waste power by heating the core. These are common in power and audio circuits. A typical laminated core is made from E- shaped and I-shaped pieces, leading to the name "EI transformer".

WINDINGS

Used in remote and hilly areas Parts of a Transformer-: CORE Transformers have <a href=silicon steel cores for flow of magnetic field. This keeps the field more concentrated around the wires, so that the transformer is more compact. The core of a power transformer must be designed so that it does not reach magnetic saturation. Carefully designed gaps are sometimes placed in the magnetic path to help prevent saturation. Practical transformer cores are always made of many stamped pieces of thin steel. The high resistance between layers reduces eddy currents in the cores that waste power by heating the core. These are common in power and audio circuits. A typical laminated core is made from E- shaped and I-shaped pieces, leading to the name "EI transformer". WINDINGS The winding material depends on the application. Small power and signal transformers are wound with insulated solid copper wire, often enameled. Larger power transformers may be wound with wire, copper or aluminum rectangular conductors, or strip conductors for very heavy currents. Windings on both primary and secondary of a power transformer may have taps to allow adjustment of the voltage ratio; taps may be connected to automatic on-load tap changer switchgear for voltage regulation of distribution circuits. " id="pdf-obj-5-19" src="pdf-obj-5-19.jpg">

The winding material depends on the application. Small power and signal transformers are wound with insulated solid copper wire, often enameled. Larger power transformers may be wound with wire, copper or aluminum rectangular conductors, or strip conductors for very heavy currents. Windings on both primary and secondary of a power transformer may have taps to allow adjustment of the voltage ratio; taps may be connected to automatic on-load tap changer switchgear for voltage regulation of distribution circuits.

INSULATION The conductor material must have insulation to ensure the current travels around the core, andtransformer oil that provides further insulation and acts as a cooling medium. COOLING High-power or high-voltage transformers are bathed in transformer oil - a highly-refined mineral oil that is stable at high temperatures. Large transformers to be used indoors must use a non-flammable liquid. Today, nontoxic, stable silicone- based oils or fluorinated hydrocarbons may be used, where the expense of a fire-resistant liquid offsets additional building cost for a transformer vault. The oil cools the transformer, and provides part of the electrical insulation between internal live parts. It has to be stable at high temperatures so that a small short or arc will not cause a breakdown or fire. To improve cooling of " id="pdf-obj-6-2" src="pdf-obj-6-2.jpg">

INSULATION

The conductor material must have insulation to ensure the current travels around the core, and not through a turn-to-turn short- circuit. In power transformers, the voltage difference between parts of the primary and secondary windings can be quite large. Layers of insulation are inserted between layers of windings to prevent arcing, and the transformer is immersed in transformer oil that provides further insulation and acts as a cooling medium.

COOLING

High-power or high-voltage transformers are bathed in transformer oil - a highly-refined mineral oil that is stable at high temperatures. Large transformers to be used indoors must use a non-flammable liquid. Today, nontoxic, stable silicone- based oils or fluorinated hydrocarbons may be used, where the expense of a fire-resistant liquid offsets additional building cost for a transformer vault.

INSULATION The conductor material must have insulation to ensure the current travels around the core, andtransformer oil that provides further insulation and acts as a cooling medium. COOLING High-power or high-voltage transformers are bathed in transformer oil - a highly-refined mineral oil that is stable at high temperatures. Large transformers to be used indoors must use a non-flammable liquid. Today, nontoxic, stable silicone- based oils or fluorinated hydrocarbons may be used, where the expense of a fire-resistant liquid offsets additional building cost for a transformer vault. The oil cools the transformer, and provides part of the electrical insulation between internal live parts. It has to be stable at high temperatures so that a small short or arc will not cause a breakdown or fire. To improve cooling of " id="pdf-obj-6-22" src="pdf-obj-6-22.jpg">

The oil cools the transformer, and provides part of the electrical insulation between internal live parts. It has to be stable at high temperatures so that a small short or arc will not cause a breakdown or fire. To improve cooling of

large power transformers, the oil-filled tank may have radiators through which the oil circulates by natural convection. Very large or high-power transformers (with capacities of millions of watts) may have cooling fans, oil pumps. Oil transformers ar equipped with Buchholz relays.

BUCHHOLZ RRELAY

Buchholz relay is a safety device mounted on oil-filled power transformers and reactors, equipped with an external overhead oil reservoir called a conservator. On a slow accumulation of gas, due perhaps to slight overload, gas produced by decomposition of insulating oil accumulates in the top of the relay and forces the oil level down. A float switch in the relay is used to initiate an alarm signal.If an arc forms, gas accumulation is rapid, and oil flows rapidly into the conservator. This flow of oil operates a switch attached to a vane located in the path of the moving oil. This switch normally will operate a circuit breaker to isolate the apparatus before the fault causes additional damage. Buchholz relays have

a test port to allow the accumulated gas to be withdrawn for testing. Flammable gas found in the relay indicates some internal fault such as overheating or arcing, whereas air found in the relay may only indicate low oil level or a leak .

OTHER PARTS

Transformer also has a temperature measuring devices in it. It measures temperature of both primary and secondary winding and of transformer oil. This proves of great use especially in summer season.

It

also

has

a

motor

for

circulation

of

transformer

oil.

It

automates

the

It also has a motor for circulation of transformer oil. It automates the oil With level

oil

With

level

time,it

in

turns

transformer.

pink

due

to

moisture and hass to be replaced manually.

INSTRUMENT

It also has a motor for circulation of transformer oil. It automates the oil With level
It also has a motor for circulation of transformer oil. It automates the oil With level

TRANSFO

RMERS

Instrument transformers (ITs) are designed to transform voltage or current from the high values in the transmission and distribution systems to the low values that can be utilized by low voltage metering devices. Depending on the requirements for those applications, the IT design and construction can be quite different. Generally, the metering ITs require high accuracy in the range of normal operating voltage and current. During a disturbance, such as system fault or overvoltage

transients, the output of the IT is used by a protective relay to initiate an appropriate action (open or close a breaker, reconfigure the system, etc.) to sort the disturbance and protect the rest of the power system. Instrument transformers are the most common and economic way to detect a disturbance.

transients, the output of the IT is used by a protective relay to initiate an appropriatemagnetic core, and a secondary winding. A primary objective of current transformer design is to ensure that the primary and secondary circuits are efficiently coupled, so that the secondary current bears an accurate relationship to the primary current. The most common design of CT consists of a length of wire wrapped many times around a silicon steel ring passed over the circuit being measured. The CT's primary circuit therefore consists of a single 'turn' of conductor, with a secondary of many " id="pdf-obj-9-4" src="pdf-obj-9-4.jpg">

CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Current transformer (CT) is used for measurement of electric currents. When current in a circuit is too high to directly apply to measuring instruments, a current transformer produces a reduced current accurately proportional to the current in the circuit, which can be conveniently connected to measuring and recording instruments. A current transformer also isolates the

measuring instruments from what may be very high voltage in the monitored circuit. Current transformer has a primary winding, a magnetic core, and a secondary winding. A primary objective of current transformer design is to ensure that the primary and secondary circuits are efficiently coupled, so that the secondary current bears an accurate relationship to the primary current.

The most common design of CT consists of a length of wire wrapped many times around a silicon steel ring passed over the circuit being measured. The CT's primary circuit therefore consists of a single 'turn' of conductor, with a secondary of many

hundreds of turns. The primary winding may be a permanent part of the current transformer, with a heavy copper bar to carry current through the magnetic core. Shapes and sizes can vary depending on the end user or switchgear manufacturer.

From construction point of view, there are two types of current transformers which are commonly used in laboratories and panels. These are:-

1. Clamp-On or Clip-On 2. Bar Type

1. Clamp-On or Clip-On:- It is a Current Transformer in which the core can be opened with the help of clamp and the conductor can be inserted in the core. A single conductor acts as a primary and secondary is wound on the core. An ammeter connected across the secondary winding of the transformer which measure the current flowing to the conductor directly. It is a portable instrument and generally used in laboratories for testing purposes.

2. Bar-Type:- A Bar-Type current transformer has a circular ring type core over which secondary is wound. An ammeter is connected across the secondary. When a bar conductor or bus bar is inserted through it, the ammeter measure current flowing

through bar conductor directly. These are generally used with instruments placed on panels or used with

through bar conductor directly. These are generally used with instruments placed on panels or used with the protective relays.

POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER

The potential transformer are basically step-down transformers. The connections of voltmeter when used in conjuction with the potential transformer for measurement of high A.C. voltages. The voltage to be measured is applied across the primary winding which has a large no. of turns is coupled magnetically to the primary winding. Turn ratio is so adjusted that the secondary voltage is 110V when full rated primary voltage is applied to primary.

Potential transformers are used to operate voltmeter, the potential coils of wattmeter and relays from high voltage lines. The design of potential transformer is quite similar to that of power transformer. But the loading capacity of a potential transformer is very small in comparison to that of power transformer. The loading of a potential transformer some time is only a few volt amperes. These transformers are made shell type because this condition develops a high degree of accuracy.

For medium voltages i.e. upto 6.6 KV the potential transformer are usually of dry type, between 6.6 KV to 1.1 KV they may be either dry or oil immersed but for voltage more than 11 KV they always oil immersed type. An out of door type oil immersed voltage transformer having ratio 66000/110.

The working of a potential transformer is essentially the same as that of a P.T. is very small and consequently the exciting currents almost of the same order as that of secondary current. Whereas in power transformers exciting current is very small fraction of secondary load current.

USE OF C.T. AND P.T. FOR POWER MEASUREMENT

For measurement of power or energy in a high voltage power system, both C.T. and P.T. are used. P.T. is used to step down the system voltage and C.T. is used to step down the system current up to the required level. P.T. is connected in parallel and C.T. is connected in series. The potential coil of wattmeter is connected across the secondary of P.T. and current coil is connected across the secondary of C.T. Wattmeter or Energy meter so connected measure the power or energy of the circuit directly.

ISOLATORS A disconnector or isolator switch is used to make sure that an electrical circuit canelectrical distribution and industrial applications where machinery must have its source of driving power removed for adjustment or repair. High-voltage isolation switches are used in electrical substations to allow isolation of apparatus such as circuit breakers and transformers, and transmission lines, for maintenance. Often the isolation switch is not intended for normal control of the circuit and is only used for isolation. In some designs the isolator switch has the additional ability to earth the isolated circuit thereby providing additional safety. Such an arrangement would apply to circuits which inter- connect power distribution systems where both end of the circuit need to be isolated. CIRCUIT BREAKERS A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and, by interrupting continuity, to immediately " id="pdf-obj-13-2" src="pdf-obj-13-2.jpg">

ISOLATORS

A disconnector or isolator switch is used to make sure that an electrical circuit can be completely de-energised for service or maintenance. Such switches are often found in electrical distribution and industrial applications where machinery must have its source of driving power removed for adjustment or repair. High-voltage isolation switches are used in electrical substations to allow isolation of apparatus such as circuit breakers and transformers, and transmission lines, for maintenance. Often the isolation switch is not intended for normal control of the circuit and is only used for isolation.

In some designs the isolator switch has the additional ability to earth the isolated circuit thereby providing additional safety. Such an arrangement would apply to circuits which inter- connect power distribution systems where both end of the circuit need to be isolated.

CIRCUIT BREAKERS

A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and, by interrupting continuity, to immediately

discontinue electrical flow. Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then has to be replaced, a circuit breaker can be reset (either manually or automatically) to resume normal operation. Circuit breakers are made in varying sizes, from small devices that protect an individual household appliance up to large switchgear designed to protect high voltage circuits feeding an entire city.

The circuit breaker must detect a fault condition; in low-voltage circuit breakers this is usually done within the breaker enclosure. Circuit breakers for large currents or high voltages are usually arranged with pilot devices to sense a fault current and to operate the trip opening mechanism. The trip solenoid that releases the latch is usually energized by a separate battery, although some high-voltage circuit breakers are self-contained with current transformers, protection relays, and an internal control power source.

Once a fault is detected, contacts within the circuit breaker must open to interrupt the circuit; some mechanically-stored energy (using something such as springs or compressed air) contained within the breaker is used to separate the contacts, although some of the energy required may be obtained from the fault current itself. Small circuit breakers may be manually operated; larger units have solenoids to trip the mechanism, and electric motors to restore energy to the springs.

The circuit breaker contacts must carry the load current without excessive heating, and must also withstand the heat of the arc produced when interrupting (opening) the circuit. Contacts are made of copper or copper alloys, silver alloys, and other highly conductive materials. Service life of the contacts is limited by the erosion of contact material due to arcing while interrupting

the current. Miniature and molded case circuit breakers are usually discarded when the contacts have worn, but power

circuit

breakers and high-voltage circuit breakers have

replaceable contacts.

When a current is interrupted, an arc is generated. This arc must be contained, cooled, and extinguished in a controlled way, so that the gap between the contacts can again withstand the voltage in the circuit. Different circuit breakers use vacuum, air, insulating gas, or oil as the medium in which the arc forms.

SF6 CIRCUIT BREAKERS

. These breakers are available for indoor or outdoor applications, the latter being in the form of breaker poles housed in ceramic insulators mounted on a structure.

Current interruption in a high-voltage circuit-breaker is obtained by separating two contacts in a medium, such as SF 6 , having excellent dielectric and arc quenching properties. After contact separation, current is carried through an arc and is interrupted when this arc is cooled by a gas blast of sufficient intensity.

Gas blast applied on the arc must be able to cool it rapidly so that gas temperature between the contacts is reduced from 20,000 K to less than 2000 K in a few hundred microseconds, so that it is able to withstand the transient recovery voltage that is applied across the contacts after current interruption. Sulphur hexafluoride is generally used in present high-voltage circuit- breakers (of rated voltage higher than 52 kV).

Into the 1980s, the pressure necessary to blast the arc was generated mostly by gas heating using arc energy. It is now possible to use low energy spring-loaded mechanisms to drive high-voltage circuit-breakers up to 800 kV.

DISADVANTAGES OF SF6 CIRCUIT BREAKERS

  • 1. SF 6 is the most potent greenhouse gas that the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has evaluated. It has a global warming potential that is 23,900 times worse than CO 2 .

  • 2. When an arc is formed in SF 6 gas small quantities of lower order gases are formed. Some of these byproducts are toxic and can cause irritation to eyes and respiratory system.

  • 3. SF 6 is heavier than air so care must be taken when entering low confined spaces due to the risk of oxygen displacement

LIGHTENING ARRESTER

The lightning arresters provide protection against atmospheric lightening. A lightning arrester is a protective device, which conducts the high voltage surges on the power system to the ground.

It consists of a spark gap in series with a non-linear resistor. One end of the diverter is connected to the terminal of the equipment to be protected and the other end is effectively grounded. The length of the gap is so set that normal voltage is not enough to cause an arc but a dangerously high voltage will break down the air insulation and form an arc. The property of the non-linear

resistance is that its resistance increases as the voltage (or current) increases and vice-versa.

The action of the lightning arrester or surge diverter is as under:

(i) Under normal operation, the lightning arrester is off the line i.e. it conducts no current to earth or the gap is non-conducting

(ii) On the occurrence of over voltage, the air insulation across the gap breaks down and an arc is formed providing a low resistance path for the surge to the ground. In this way, the excess charge on the line due to the surge is harmlessly conducted through the arrester to the ground instead of being sent back over the line.After the surge is over, the resistor offers high resistance to make the gap non-conducting.

JUMPER and TOWER

In a straight run line, one terminal pole is provided after very 1km so as to

JUMPER and TOWER In a straight run line, one terminal pole is provided after very 1km

facilitate

sagging.

Sagging of a line means

The

short

length

of

conductor

used

to

connect line conductor on one side of terminal

pole

to

the

line

conductor on the other side of terminal poleis known as

jumper.

A jumper is made of same material and has same current carrying capacity as that of line conductor. With a suitable clamp for HV lines, jumpers are arranged in such a way that under maximum deflection condition, there is maximum clearance of 0.3m between line jumpers and other metallic parts.

COUPLING CAPACITOR AND WAVE TRAP

These

instruments

are

not

used

for electrical supply.

Coupling capacitor is used for communication. It takes place conversion between two Sub Stations. Wave Trap is also for communication. It receives the sound below 20 hertz frequency and left the sound above 20 hertz frequency. This reaches the sound one Sub-Station to another Sub-Station and communication takes place.

CAPACITOR BANKS

Shunt capacitor banks are used to improve the quality of the electrical supply and the efficient operation of the power system. Studies show that a flat voltage profile on the system can significantly reduce line losses. Shunt capacitor banks are relatively inexpensive and can be easily installed anywhere on the network. Shunt capacitor banks (SCB) are mainly installed to provide capacitive reactive compensation/power factor correction. The use of SCBs has increased because they are relatively inexpensive,easy and quick to install and can be deployed virtually anywhere in the network. Its installationhas other beneficial effects on the system such as: improvement of

the voltage at the load, better voltage regulation (if they were adequately designed), reduction of losses and reduction or postponement of investments in transmission.The main disadvantage of SCB is that its reactive power output is proportional to the square of the voltage and consequently when the voltage is low and the system need them most, they are the least efficient.

RELAYS

A Relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays are used to protect electrical circuits from overload or faults; in modern electric power systems these functions are performed by digital instruments still called "protective relays".

ELECTROMAGENTIC RELAYS

The core of the electromagnetic relay is an electromagnet, formed by winding a coil around an iron core. When the coil is energized by passing current through it, the core in turn becomes magnetized, attracting a pivoting iron armature. As the armature pivots, it operates one or more sets of contacts, thus affecting the circuit. When the magnetic charge is lost, the armature and contacts are released. Demagnetization can cause a leap of voltage across the coil, damaging other components of the device when turned off. Therefore, the electromagnetic relay usually makes use of a diode to restrict the flow of the charge,

with the cathode connected at the most positive end of the coil.The electromagnetic relay is capable of controlling an output of higher power than the input.

STATIC RELAY

The conventional relay type of electromagnet relays can be replaced by static relays which essentially consist of electronic circuitry. Static relays are superior to electro-magnetic relays.

1. The moving parts and the contacts are largely eliminated. The only moving element in a static relay is the final tripping contact. 2. More precise and high speed operation.

Static relay consists of DC supply required for energizing the circuitry of the static relay. This is obtained from DC batteries. It then compares the actual quantity with the pre-set quantity. For example in an over-current relay it will compare the actual current supplied by CT with the pre-determined set current over which tripping is required. By using the gate circuits conditions of operation of relays are set and relay can only be operated when requisite conditions are satisfied. The actual tripping of relay can be achieved by firing the SCR i.e. silicon controlled rectifier.

DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

Another common form of protection for high voltage apparatus such as transformers and power lines is current

differential. This type of protection works on the basic theory of Kirchhoff's current law which states that the sum of the currents entering a node will equal zero. It is important to note the direction of the currents as well as the magnitude, as they are vectors. It requires a set of current transformers (smaller transformers that transform currents down to a level which can be measured) at each end of the power line, or each side of the transformer. The current protection relay then compares the currents and calculates the difference between the two.

As an example, a power line from one substation to another will have a current differential relay at both substations which communicate with each other. In a healthy condition, the relay at substation A may read 500 amps (power exporting) and substation B will read 500 amps (power importing). If a path to earth or ground develops there will be a surge of current. As supply grids are generally well interconnected the fault in the previous example will be fed from both ends of the power line. The relay at substation A will see a massive increase in current and will continue to export. Substation B will also see a massive increase in current, however it will now start to export as well. In turn the protection relay will see the currents travelling in opposite directions (180 degrees phase shift) and instead of cancelling each other out to give a summation of zero it will see a large value of current. The relays will trip the associated circuit breakers. This type of protection is called unit protection, as it only

protects what is between the current transformers. It is important to note that generally the higher the currents in the lines the larger the differential current required for the relay to see it as a fault.