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• Gather knowledge on effluent treatment methods. • Sort out the advantages of each method. • Study the chemistry of each method. • Study the cost of treatment method. • Study the space consumption of each method.
Effluent in the man-made sense is generally considered to be pollution, such as the outflow from a sewage treatment facility or the wastewater discharge from industrial facilities.
From the very beginning of human civilization nature serves human being a lot. As a mother nature care human. Nature recovers a lot of pollution from the very beginning of earth. As the energy transfer from one stage to another by means of different action, results no wastage of energy, similarly there was no word as wastage to environment. Actually when wastages can not be controlled by the environment then that wastages are termed as pollutants. When a zone’s pollutants concentration begins to get high then we call that zone as polluted.
Characteristics of wastewater to be discharged into the environment.
(stipulated by the Dept. of Environment, Government Of Bangladesh)
PH BOD COD TSS TDS OIL & GREASE COLOUR
6-9 < 50 PPM or mg/L < 200 PPM or mg/L <100 PPM or mg/L < 2,500 PPM or mg/L < 10 PPM or mg/L CLEAN
TEMPERATURE < 30 0C
In the case of Bangladesh near about 550 wet processing industries are present and 80% of these are cotton dyeing industry, on the other hand according to world bank report more than 700 wet processing units are needed to feed the fabric in the garments industries as a result it may raised about to 90 percentage will be cotton based wet processing industry, so a large amount of effluent will be produced from cotton dyeing industry. For these reasons effluent treatment planning is a burning question for a wet processing unit.
Biochemical Oxygen demand (BOD):
Biochemical oxygen demand is the oxygen demand by the micro organism. It can be measured in two ways. 4. Dilution method 5. Manometric method
Dissolved Oxygen (DO)
The amount of oxygen present in a certain amount of water is dissolved state is known as Dissolved Oxygen (DO).
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD):
Chemical oxygen demand is the oxygen demand by the chemicals present in the waste water.
The basis for the COD test is that nearly all organic compounds can be fully oxidized to carbon dioxide with a strong oxidizing agent under acidic conditions.
Potassium dichromate is a strong oxidizing agent under acidic conditions. (Acidity is usually achieved by the addition of sulfuric acid.) The reaction of potassium dichromate with organic compounds is given by:
Where d = 2n/3 + a/6 - b/3 - c/2. Most commonly, a 0.25 N solution of potassium dichromate is used for COD determination, although for samples with COD below 50 mg/L, a lower concentration of potassium dichromate is preferred.
Total suspended Solids (TSS):
Total amount of suspended solids present in raw effluent
Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
Total amount of dissolved solids present in raw effluent as a homogenous mixture.
Dyes are complex organic compounds which are refractory in aerobic treatment systems. And again these are not harmful to the environment.
Temperature of water is a very important factor for aquatic life. It controls the rate of metabolic and reproductive activities, and determines which aquatic species can survive. Different aquatic species require different quantity of DO to survive in the water. Temperature inversely affects the rate of transfer of gaseous oxygen into dissolved oxygen. On the other hand at higher temperature the metabolic rate of aquatic plants and animals increases producing an increase in oxygen demand
Oils and Grease
The term oil and grease, as commonly used, includes the fat, oils, waxes, and other related constituents found in wastewater. If the wastewater contains oils and fat, it forms a layer at the top surface of the wastewater.
Types of effluent treatment methods
• The physico-chemical method. • The biological method. • The combine method.
Comfit Composite Knit Ltd.
Basic characteristics of raw effluent
Sl NO 1. 2. 3. 4. CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS PARAMETERS UNIT AMOUNT pH 8.2 Suspended solids mg/L 200-400 Biological Oxygen mg/L 180 Demand (BOD) Chemical Oxygen mg/L 417 Demand (COD) PHYSICAL CHARECTERISTICS Color Brown to black Odour Not distinct Temperature 48
5. 6. 7.
FLOW CHART FOR A BIOLOGICAL EFFLIENT TREETMENT PLANT
EFFLUENT FROM WET PROCESSING UNIT SCREENING& STORAGE TANK
SLUDGE RETURN TANK
LAMELLA CLARIFICATION SLUDGE DEPOSITION DISCHARGE INTO ENVIORNMENT
Screen is the synonyms of filtration. Here action is nothing but the filtration or separation of suspended solid from the liquor or raw effluent. Separately three screening chamber is used to filter suspended solid. Drain from two different units has a net of iron having 1 sq. inches of each hole. It separates the different foreign materials like bulk of trees, leaves, polyethylene bag etc. picture will describe better. To treat 100 cubic meter per hour, here three screening chamber are used. Suspended solid which can pass through the first filter are finally filtered here. The screen has around 250-300 slits per sq inches. This screening system has automatic wiping action with four wipers or brush. Cotton fibers, yarns with the liquor are deposited on the screen and raw effluent passes through the slits. This is a simple filtering method. The screen is curved around 90 degree angle (ie, quarter part of circle). Curved screen provide a strong control of wiping by rotating wiper.
Raw effluent is stored after screening in the storage tank. There are two storage tanks. Delivery of raw effluent from storage tank is carried out by means of submergible pump. It has an automatic lifting plan to deliver raw effluent into the next section of ETP. This automation is programmed according to the effluent load in the storage tank which ensures an uniform flow of effluent for every section. The pump gets off automatically after lifting a certain volume of effluent which is varied according to effluent load. In each turn this lifting pump arrangement is allowed to discharge 50 cubic meter of stored effluent. In between two storage tanks there is a bipass channel. Through which stored effluent can pass from one store to another. Bi-pass is used when any of the lifting pumps is off for maintenance.
The effluents from different stages like scouring, dyeing, soaping etc. are mixed homogeneously here. That’s why it is also termed as Homogenizing chamber. Here temperature of effluent is decreased In this ETP two vertical agitator and flow jet are used homogenize to mix the effluent The volume of effluent treated is 2000 cubic meter. Here no cooling mechanism is added as this chamber possess 200 sq meter of open area which is directly in contact with air. Again the effluent is treated here for 20 hours which is another reason for the effluent being cooled
In cotton dyeing industry effluent is always alkaline then water in nature. So it is required to reduce the pH value. For reducing, acid dozing is essential according to the pH and effluent character. Here in this ETP no acid dozing is required for neutralizing. As the effluent possesses a standard value of pH i.e., 8.2 where as the standard value of pH is 6-9 (Recommended by DOE) for treated effluent. But there is a pipe line for acid dozing. If the pH value rises than the limit 8.9 then automated acid dozing will be started. This automation is controlled at panel board. In panel board there is an alarm to inform operator. However from the beginning of ETP they did not need to apply acid for neutralization. This due to their high liquor ratio at every stage of wet processing and washing water, rinsing water, dyeing water etc. are directly discharged to ETP. It should be informed that they use a lot of water for rinsing purpose. In neutralization tank effluent is kept for 6 minutes and volume of effluent is 10 cubic meter.
Sludge return tank:
Effluent flows from neutralization tank to sludge return tank by means of two pumps. This addition of sludge return is a beneficial step for environment. And quality of treatment results best by means of bacteria. If the sludge does not return then a significant amount of bacteria may die . It should be noted that manufacturer demanded that sludge is a poor food for bacteria then the polymeric compounds found in effluent. As knit dyeing process possesses less BOD, that’s why sludge returning is essential. But bacterial treatment can not degrade dyes totally.
In aeration tank basically aeration is occurred by means atmospheric air. Air from atmosphere is firstly filtered then blower sucks them and flows air to the aeration tank through 860 diffusers. There are three blowers are used to perform their function. Every blower is running for 16 hours in the set of two. And every blower pauses blowing for 8 hours every day. Usually two blowers are running all the time to blow 1500 cubic meter of fresh air per hour. 860 diffusers are uniformly distributed around the 470 sq meter area.
This aeration does nothing but increase the quantity of dissolve oxygen. 4700cubic meter effluent is treated here for 47 hours, it’s a huge time. During this time oxidative chemicals are liked to fill up their oxygen demand from the water. It also fills up the demand of oxygen by the bacteria.
The bacterial action:
COHNS + O2 + Bacteria
+ TSP & UREA
CO2 + NH3 + Energy + Other end Products
COHNS + O2 + Bacteria
C5H7NO2 (new bacteria)
CO2 + NH3 + 2H2O
Treated effluent directly goes to the ozonization chamber and the sludge goes to sludge return tank through pump and pipe arrangement. Here sludge is recycled. If the sludge concentration rises at 70% then the sludge is deposited at sludge tank. The concentration of sludge is measured regularly from the liquid of aeration tank delivery.
Sludge Distribution Tank
Picture: Marooned line shows the path of sludge returning to a temporary sludge tank from where sludge is delivering to sludge returning tank or to sludge tank. The passage for sludge is under grounded. Magenta arrow shows the pipe to sludge retuning tank. Green arrow shows the under grounded drain to the ozonization chamber.
It is a new technique for discoloration. Ozone gas is prepared at first then it is passes through the effluent without sludge The chemistry of this principle is very simple. We know that pie bond is responsible for hue in dyes. By means of ozone gas this pie bond is broken down. Following chemical reaction may describe better.
R-C=C-R + O3
Results of Effluent Treatment (biological)
PH BOD COD TSS TDS OIL & GREASE COLOUR
7.9 16 42 <100 PPM or mg/L < 2,500 PPM or mg/L < 10 PPM or mg/L colorless
Advantages of biological method:
• • • • • • It possesses a low maintenance cost. It can process colorless water. It is highly modernized with the latest technology. Its mechanism is simple enough. Theoretically it is simple as well as practically. It is best for the effluent treatment plan for any kinds of textile industries.
Disadvantages of biological method:
• • • • • It has a very high fixed cost around 50000000 tk rather than the physico chemical method Treatment through this method possesses a huge area. Non-biodegradable chemicals can not treat here. Its maintenance needs skilled professionals. Dyer needs to select chemicals with respect to its effluent treatment.
ACS TEXTILES (Bangladesh) Ltd.
Basic characteristics of raw effluent
Sl NO 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. pH
CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS PARAMETERS UNIT AMOUNT 11.8 mg/L Oxygen mg/L mg/L 178.8 416 850 Brown to black Not distinct 65 degree
Suspended solids Biological Demand(BOD)
Chemical Oxygen Demand(COD) Color Odour Temperature
Collection tank Reaction tank FeSO 4 & CaO Sludg e tank PE Primary clarifier Primary clarifier
Blower room and control room.
Top View of the plant
• The effluent from the dyeing and finishing is first drained into the screening chamber. This chamber performs few physical filtrations. There is a series of netted filters positioned serially. For removing solid particles including suspended solids, yarn, fibers flocks, thickeners, etc, this process is important. After passing through these filters the effluent is free from solid bodies
Picture: X-section of three filters from side and below shows X-section from front side This chamber has a capability to keep the flowing effluent for two minutes as it has a volume of 2 cubic meters. The very first netted filter is made of M.S.Bar rod which is then followed by the second filter made of the same material having a hole of 4 square centimeter and the last is a filter made of stainless still having five holes per square centimeter.
• We know oil is lighter than the water. Here 25.6 cubic meter of raw effluent without suspended solid is flowed for 20.5 minute. It is almost a huge time to layer up oil on surface of effluent around area 16 sq meters. Effluent passes to collection tank under the 1 feet of liquid surface. As a result only liquid water and its colloidal solution can pass to collection tank but not the oil. Special feature of this oil separation chamber is its time of staying in this chamber, which is allowed oil to float on the surface
• The proper mixing of effluents of different types. It’s a cylindrical tank of 20 m diameter and 2.5 meter surface water depth. So the volume effluent carrying is 800.75 cubic meter • Effluent is treated here for 10 hour 40 minutes • Air at 1260 m3 per hour. 585 diffusers are used to supply air • dissolved oxygen’s quantity is increasing to meet the Chemical oxygen demand
• In chemical mixing tanks 1.66 ppm of ferrous sulphate solution, 0.5 ppm of lime solution and 0.0016 ppm (1.6 µgm / L) of poly electrolyte solutions are prepared to react with effluent solution • BOD is removing & discoloration is occurred.
• Here lime reacts as follow • Then ferrous sulphate
• Principle is so simple coagulation and flocculation then to sediment. CaO leads to form calcium hydroxide at first • It is then followed to react with ferrous sulphate to form ferric hydroxide. • Ferric hydroxide is working as coagulants. The function of coagulant is to adsorb polymers to form an insoluble salt. As a result all the dyes pigments, chemicals are going to be coagulated. After coagulation these insoluble salts are liked to be precipitated on the ground at a slow rate. • To accelerate their precipitation polyelectrolyte is employed here. Polyelectrolyte does nothing but the flock formation of coagulants
• There is some specific affinity of polymer segments for the particles surface, so that adsorption and coagulation can occur. Some interactions are: • Hydrophobic bond: responsible for the adsorption of non-polar segments on to hydrophobic surface. • Hydrogen bond: polymeric molecules have suitable H-bond sites. • Dipole crystal field effects: polar segments of the polymer chain may interact with the electrostatic field at a crystal surface.
• • Primary clarifier is used to sediment sludge and discharge clear water without color. As we discussed above that coagulation and flocculation removed all organic compounds used to sediment sludge and discharge clear water without color. This chambers bottom is sloped down around 45 degree to sediment sludge easily. Later a significant amount of sludge is pumped out to the sludge tank. . Here the delivery effluent is alkaline and a fewer hot than the atmospheric temperature
• • •
Aeration chamber and secondary clarifier
• • In aeration chamber acid is given to neutralize the solution with stirring The inlet pH of the effluent is 11.8. to neutralize its alkalinity around 7 liters of 33% concentrated hydrochloric acid per cubic meter is used. After neutralization its pH comes down to 7.16 . Aeration tank has an open area around 490.625 sq. meter and its volume for effluent capacity is 2060.625 cubic meter. Effluent is treated here for 23 hour which is a huge time. So temperature is naturally fall down easily.
If any sludge remains in the effluent they are allowed to sediment again in the secondary clarifier. From aeration tank neutralized effluent is entered to the secondary clarifier Volume of effluent is 212 cubic meters which is kept here for 2 hour 52 minutes. Its time is sufficient enough to sediment sludge. The ground of secondary sludge is sloped down around 15 degree. Here treated effluent is also passing by means of over flowing. From here treated effluent is directly discharged to the cannel. Sludge from here is also passes to sludge tank by means of pumping arrangement.
• In sludge tank there is a sand filtration system in which 2 feet of sand layer is kept and above that sand sludge is deposited • At the ground of tank there is a pipe arrangement with filtration which allows effluent without sludge passing to the collection tank which is treated again
Results of Effluent Treatment (physico-chemical)
• • • • • Chemical cost per day = 21,600 tk Power cost per day= 156 tk Man power cost per day= 1500 tk. Total = 23256 tk per day. They processed 1800 cubic meter per day so cost per cubic meter= 12.92 tk
Advantages of physico-chemical method
• • • • • • • • • • This process posses a very low fixed cost which is around 80,00,000 tk. Discharge effluent is colorless. Effluent is 100% pollutant free. Non-biodegradable chemicals can treat here. Its maintenance does not demand highly skill professionals. It is applicable from all kinds of textile industries. It is very simple in technology. Dyer does not need to select chemicals with respect to its effluent treatment. It occupies minimal spaces around 15 kathas. It possesses less treatment duration rather than biological treatment method which is around 50hours.
Disadvantages of physicochemical method
• Treatment cost is very high around 12.92 tk per cubic meter. Cost will be equivalent with its fixed cost within 396 days (14 months) from its installation. Economically it brings loss. This method is not that much modernized. It is chemical based for this reason treatment efficiency is highly depended on its chemicals strength.
Comparisons in between raw effluent character of knit & woven wet processing unit
• • •
pH is defined as the negative logarithm of the activity of H+ ions: pH = -log [H+] So according to pH definition it is totally depending on the liquor. As knit wet processing involves relatively high liquor ratio due to the exhaust dyeing method, it must possesses low pH rather than the woven wet processing BOD from woven wet process is much higher than the knit wet process. Because the woven grey fabric is need to desize and the sizes are strongly responsible for biological oxygen demand by the bacteria in hydrosphere. However knit wet process possesses a significant value of BOD due to the biodegradable chemicals COD is the chemical oxygen demands by the chemicals present in effluent. In woven wet process it is also higher in value than the knit wet process. Same philosophy of liquor is applicable for the difference between COD value of this two wet processes. Temperature of two different wet process units are differing here because in woven wet process a few rinse water is discharged to ETP maximum are like to drain directly. But in knit wet process that we visited for project is like to mix all kinds of rinse water with the dye drop liquor and souring drop liquor. This temperature faults are not the processing faults this is individual treatment plant’s technical fault
• Cost comparison: Physicochemical method possesses a high maintenance cost of chemicals, which is too high and not economically viable. This method can not inspire investor to run this plan. If it is possible then in future we must work for recycle of this water to wet processing unit. This solution may inspire this method from the economical point of view for a long run
• • • • • • • • •
Space comparison Space in between two methods biological treatment method possesses higher space consumption than the physico-chemical method. How ever space consumption is depending on the plant designer it can vary from person to person. Minimization of raw effluent: As the treatment costs increases with the increase of volume of effluent, so it is better to minimize the effluent loads. a) Reducing pollution Compounds that contribute to the aquatic toxicity of textile effluent include salt, metals, surfactants, toxic organic chemicals, biocides and toxic anions. Some methods of reducing the use of these compounds are to: Reduce metal content through careful pre-screening of chemicals and dyes for metal content and using alternatives where possible. Eliminate galvanized plumbing as reactions with brass fittings can take place in the presence of acids, alkalis or salt and lead to the release of zinc. Reduce the amount of salt in the effluent by optimizing recipes, using low-salt dyes, reusing dye baths and optimizing dyeing temperatures. Use biodegradable surfactants such as linear alcohol ethoxylates. Replace chlorinated solvents with unchlorinated alternatives. Replace the use of biocides with ultraviolet light as a disinfectant for cooling towers.
b) Sizing: As far as environmental pollution is concerned synthetic sizes are better than starch-based sizes. The advantages of this are a reduced pollution load as synthetic sizes have lower BOD levels, and they can be recycled for reuse. Ensure that only the minimum required size is added onto the yarn. This reduces chemical consumption as well as the pollution load to drain during c) Desizing: Chlorinated desizing must be avoid. d) Scouring: Incoming raw material should be screened for toxic chemicals, as these will be removed during the scouring process. Detergents must be easily biodegradable e) Bleaching: Replace the use of chlorites and hypochlorites with hydrogen peroxide. Ensure that bleaching is carried out efficiently. Recycle bleach wash water for scouring. It must be noted that recycling the liquor of scoring-bleaching may possible. f) Mercerizing: NaOH solution can be stored to reuse with sufficient amount caustic and water again. g) Batch dyeing: Careful selection of dyes is important. Dyes should have high fixation/exhaustion, low toxicity, absence of metals, and be appropriate for the end use. Correct and efficient application procedures must be used and right-first-time production should be achieved. The main areas for waste minimization in batch dyeing include: • Using low liquor ratios. • Using automated dye and chemical dosing systems. Reusing dye baths, rinse water and softening baths. • Optimizing pH and salt for each recipe. • Avoiding the use of auxiliaries that reduce or retard exhaustion. • Using bi-reactive dyes. • Using the newer low-salt reactive dyes. • Avoiding the addition of more chemicals to offset the effects of other chemicals. • Replacing the acetic acid in neutralizing after dyeing with formic acid or dilute hydrochloric acid (acetic acid adds to the COD of effluent).
h) Continuous dyeing: The main waste minimization strategies in continuous dyeing are to: • Maximize dye fixation. • Minimize wash - off. • Minimize the number of times a dye bath has to be dropped and cleaned due to a color change by careful scheduling. • Use automated color kitchens to minimize the working losses and discards. • Improve washing efficiency through the installation of flow restrictors to control water volumes. Use counter current washing procedures. • Optimize dosing of chemicals through monitoring of relevant parameters such as pH, absorbance, turbidity etc. • Machine: Now a day’s so many low liquor dyeing machines are available. These can dye fabric even at 1:1 THENCE JET FLOW DYEING machine is an example (from HK). Recently THIES is widely use for exhaust dyeing it consumes M:L is around 1:5 • j) Printing: Pollutants associated with printing include suspended solids, solvents, foam, color and metals, and in general, large volumes of water are consumed during the washing-off stages. The main areas of waste minimization in printing include raw material conservation, product substitution, process and equipment modifications, material handling, and scheduling and waste recovery. Other options include: • Waste minimization in the design stages can eliminate the need for dyes containing metals. • Careful selection of surfactants. • Reducing air emissions by replacing solvents with water-based alternatives. • Routine and careful maintenance of printing equipment. • Training employees in the practices of good housekeeping.
• • •
Reusing water from washing the print blanket. Reusing left over print paste if possible. Removing excess paste from drums, screens and pipes by dry techniques (wiping with a squeegee etc.) before washing with water. This reduces the color load discharged to drain. • Careful scheduling to prevent expiration of print pastes before use. • Investigating alternatives to urea as this increases the nitrogen in the effluent Ethylene glycol may use here. j) Finishing: • Design fabrics such that the need for chemical finishes is minimized. Use mechanical alternatives to chemical finishes. • Use low add-on methods. • Minimize volatile chemical use. • Install automated chemical dispensing systems. Train employees in good housekeeping practices. • Use formaldehyde-free cross-linking agents. • Investigate the use of spray application of finishes as these have a low add-on and require no residual dumping at the end of a run
At present wet processing industry in Bangladesh are under pressure to install ETP. For financial and space constraints, it is difficult to meet the deadline of installation. From our findings, we like to state that it may not be necessary to use all methods to meet the permissible limit of the parameters set by the Department of Environment. One suitable method may be good enough to fulfill the requirements
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