You are on page 1of 84

Mosannef hossain bhuiya

Report On Industrial Training


Sinha Knitting LTD.
COURSE NO : TEX-500 .

• NAME OF THE STUDENT :-

• MOSANNEF HOSSAIN BHUIYA


• ROLL: 03.02.06.039

SUPERVISED BY :-
* PROF. DR. MD. MUSTAFIZUR RAHMAN.
HEAD, DEPARTMENT OF TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY.
* ABU SAYEED MD. ATIQUZZAMAN.
Asst. Prof., DEPARTMENT OF TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY.

4TH YEAR 2ND SEMESTER, SPRING – 2007


DEPARTMENT OF TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY
Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 1
Mosannef hossain bhuiya

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Industrial training is very much essential just after finishing the


theoretical course. It is a great opportunity to take the challenge of
doing something for a technologist. For this manner I am grateful to
all helping me to do this program. I am grateful to Almighty to give
this opportunity to learn practical knowledge.

Firstly, I am very much thankful to our head of the department Prof.


Dr. Md. Mustafizur Rahman for his encouragement and valuable
suggestions for constant improvement of the report. I would also like
to thank Prof. Dr. Md. Mahbubul Haque & Mr.Abu Sayeed Md.
Atiquzzaman for all necessary information delivery as well as for
help.

I would like to express my sincere gratitude & appreciation to Mr.


Sorwar Mohi Alam, Director (Technical),Sinha Textile Group.

Finally I want to thank Mr. Joynul Abedin, Assistant Manager , Knit


Dyeing department for his enormous support as well as Manager &
Production Officers for helping to get proper information about every
section during industrial training.

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 2


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

♦INTRODUCTION:-

Textile technology education is based on industrial ground. Theoretical background is not


sufficient so, industrial training is an essential part of study to make a technologist technically
sound in this field. Industrial training provides us that opportunity to gather practical
knowledge.

Sinha Textile Group is a truly integrated undertaking. The textile division has the capability to
offer a complete product range for the export & domestic textile markets. The goal of the
textile division is to become the preferred partner for sourcing high quality fabrics & clothing
from Bangladesh. With high advanced technology & an emPhasis on developing local human
resources, the textile division has the potential to make an important contribution to the
nation’s growing ready made garments export sector.

The rational behind the existing structure & future expansion of the textile division is to
capture value added at each stage of the textile manufacturing process. Despite Bangladesh’s
lack of indigenous cotton production capability, SKL has leveraged Bangladesh’s labor cost
advantage & export competitiveness to maximum level.

GENERAL INFORMATION

•NAME OF FACTORY: Sinha Knitting Ltd. (SKL).

•OWNER OF THE MILL: Mr. Anisur Rahman Sinha.

•LOCATION OF MILL: Kanchpur, Sonargaon, Narayanganj.

•HEAD OFFICE: House No. 363, road no: 02 New DOHS, Mohakhali, Dhaka-1206.

•COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION: 1997.

•BUSSINESS LINE: Manufacturing & Marketing of high quality


Knitted fabric.

•TOTAL PRODUCTION: 9 to 10 ton per day.

•VISION: Building a true marketing led enterprise with motivated workforce, innovative
vision, strong revenue based product portfolio, customer satisfaction & understand of global
market.

•MISSION: Each of the activities must benefit & add value to the common wealth of our
society. We firmly believe that, in the final analysis we are accountable to each of the
constituents with whom we interact; namely our employees, our customers, our business
associates, our fellow, citizens & our shareholders.
Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 3
Mosannef hossain bhuiya

ORGANOGRAM OF SKL DYEING

OIC

Manager/D.G.M(Production)

Asset Manager Production Asset Manager Production Asset Manager Production

Administrative Maint(13) LAB(12) Store(18)


Section (19) 1 X Maint Officer 1 X SPO 1X store Offer
1 X Admin officer 2 X SAE(Elec) 1 X PO 1X ASO (D&C)
(Common with knitting 2 X SAE(Mech) 1 X APO(QC) 1X SK. (D&C)
division) 3 X Fitter 3 X ATO/ lab asst. 4X SK (Fabrics)
1X computer operator(MIS) 5 X Helper 6 X Lab helper 3X S.Helper(D&C)
4 X TK 8X S Helper (Del)
13 X floor Cleaners/
sweeper

Batch Prep(15) QC Sec (33)


3 X Supervisor 1XQC Incharge
12 X Helper 3XQCO
10XQCI
19XHelper

Dyeing(84) Finishing(122)
Sample Sec(4)
1 X In Charge
3 X helper

A-shift(28) B-shift(28) C-shift(28)


2 × PO 2 × PO 2 × PO
2 × Sr.OP 2 × Sr.OP 2 × Sr.OP
15 ×M/c Operators 15 ×M/c Operators 15 ×M/c Operators
9 × Helpers 9 × Helpers 9 × Helpers

A-shift(42) B-shift(40) C-shift(40)


1 × PO 1 × PO 1 × PO
4 x APO(General-2) 2 x APO(General-2) 2 x APO(General-2)
9 x OP 9 x OP 9 x OP
28 × Helpers 28 × Helpers 28 × Helpers

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 4


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

LAY OUT OF SKL:


SINHA KNITTING LIMITED
KANCHPUR, NARAYANGANJ
(DYEING DIVISION)
PLANT LAYOUT

S.D.B-2 Control Room


Chemical
Store Slitting Padder
M/C M/C
5 KW 7 KW

Entry / exit Extracto


Finishing r
M/C

Toilet S.D.B-1 Control Room M.D.B S.D.B-3

M/C# M/C# M/C# GNS M/C# M/C#


Sampl
Actual Load = 01 02 03
e
04 05
17.5 7.5 7.5 52 52
276.5 KW KW 5 KW KW
5 KW
KW KW KW

Dyeing

M/C# M/C# M/C# M/C# M/C# M/C# M/C#


Bangl
Sampl 12 11 10 09 08 07 06
a
e
M/C
5 KW 17.5 17 10 10 7.5 15 53
5 KW
KW KW KW KW KW KW KW

Boiler Room
5.5 KW

SINHA KNITTING LIMITED


Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 5
Boiler Room
5.5 KW
Mosannef hossain bhuiya

KANCHPUR, NARAYANGANJ
SOUTH
(DYEING DIVISION)
LAYOUT OF FINISHING SECTION

COLLAR
MDB
NEW STENTER 6’ X 8’
25’
133’ X 22’
24’
Delivery

TUBE
30’
Entry / Exit
TUBETEX COMP
22’ CALENDER
27’ X 8’ 16’
71’ 16’ X 14’

OPEN
30’ Brushing 19’ SLITTING 13’ 20’
COMPECTOR
M/C 12’ X 13’
57’ X 17’

BOILER
AREA : 182’ X 72’
10’x10’

PRODUCT VARIATION
Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 6
Mosannef hossain bhuiya

● Name of product mix :

The product , which are available in knit dyeing floor are given below :
→ Single jersey / Single jersey with lycra. .
→ Polo pique, Lacost ( Single / Double) .
→ Rib - ( 1x1), (2x2), (8x2), (9x2), (9x1) .
→ Lycra Rib , Drop needle fabric .
→ Interlock .
→ Grey mélange .
→ Stripe ( S/J, rib, interlock, grey mélange )

For cotton / Blend / CVC fabric :-


→ S/J without lycra -

Fabric G.S.M Yarn Count


110 - 120 40 S – 36 S
120 - 130 36 S - 32 S
130 - 140 32 S – 28 S
140 - 150 28 S
150 - 160 26 S
170 - 210 24 S

→ Rib without lycra -

Fabric G.S.M Yarn Count


180 - 190 36 S - 32 S
190 - 200 30 S
200 - 215 28 S
215 - 230 26 S
230 - 250 24 S
250 - 300 24 S

→ Interlock without lycra -

Fabric G.S.M Yarn Count


200 - 220 34 S
220 - 230 32 S
230 - 250 30 S
250 - 300 26 S

→ Lacost ( S/L, D/L ) without lycra -

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 7


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

Fabric G.S.M Yarn Count


180 - 190 30 S
190 - 210 28 S
210 - 230 26 S
230 – 250 26 S

→ 40D Lycra Rib -

Fabric G.S.M Yarn Count


230 - 240 32 S
240 - 250 30 S
250 - 280 26 S
280 - 300 24 S

→ 40D Lycra S/J -

Fabric G.S.M Yarn Count


180 - 190 34 S
190 - 210 32 S
210 - 220 30 S
220 – 240 28 S
240 - 250 26 S

KNITTING

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 8


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

Process flow chart of knitting:

Yarn in cone form


Feeding the yarn cone in the creel

Feeding the yarn in the feeder via trip-tape positive feeding arrangement and
tension devices

Knitting

Withdraw the rolled fabric and weighting

Inspection

Numbering

Raw materials for knitting:


Type of yarn Count
20S ,24S, 26S, 28S, 30S, 32S, 34S, 36S ,40S,
Cotton
45S
Polyester 70D, 100D,150D
Spandex yarn 20D,40D, 70D
Grey Mélange (C-90% V-10%) 24S, 26S
Ecru Mélange (C-85% V-15%) 24S, 26S, 28S
Cotton Mélange (100%) 24S, 26S, 28S
PC (65%Polyester & 35% cotton) 24S, 26S, 28S, 30S
CVC(60% Polyester & 40% Cotton) 24S, 26S, 28S, 30S

Source of yarn for knitting:

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 9


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

• Sinha rotor Spinning Ltd.


• Arif textile
• HK Spinning
• Padma Textile
• Prime Textile
• Kader Synthetic
• Shohagpur Textile
• Jamuna Spinning
• Shamim Spinning
• Amber Textile
• Yasmeen spinning
• Square Textile

Lycra :
CREORA
Made in Korea
Type # H-100 (20D)

This fibre contains less than 1% di-methylacetamide( DMAC) which can be released during
processing.

FABRIC TYPES:
1) Single Jersey
a) Single jersey (Plain)
b) Single lacoste
c) Double lacoste
d) Polo pique
e) Fleece fabric
2) Double jersey
a) Rib fabric
i) 1x1 Rib
ii) 2x1 Rib
iii) 2x2 Rib
iv) Lycra Rib
v) Flat Back Rib
b) Interlock Fabric
i) Plain interlock
ii) Drop needle interlock

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 10


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

3) Back Brush.
4) Collar and Cuff
i) Plain Collar or Solid collar
ii) Shaving Collar.
iii) Jacquard Collar.
iv) Tipping Collar.
v) Race Collar.
vi) Stripe Collar.
5) Different decorative single and double jersey fabric.

MACHINE DESCRIPTION:

Knitting division is divided into four sections


i) Flat knitting section
ii) Circular knitting section
iii) Inspection section
iv) Store section

i) Flat knitting Section:


Generally collar and cuff of knitted garments is produced in this section there are 51 flat
knitting machines of the same type. There specifications of the machines are given below:

Run time
M/C PRODUCTION
No M/C BRAND M/C MODEL DIA GA TOTAL CAPACITY (HOURS)
ORIGIN UGE NEEDL
(IN E
INCH) IN COLLAR IN CUFF

1 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313 54 14 740X2 450 Pcs 1200Pcs 24


2 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313 54 14 740X2 450 Pcs 1200Pcs 24
3 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313 54 14 740X2 450 Pcs 1200Pcs 24
4 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313 54 14 740X2 450 Pcs 1200Pcs 24
5 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313J 40 14 560X2 450 Pcs 1200Pcs 24
6 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313J 40 14 560X2 450 Pcs 1200Pcs 24
7 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313J 40 14 560X2 450 Pcs 1200Pcs 24
8 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313J 40 14 560X2 450 Pcs 1200Pcs 24
9 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313J 40 14 560X2 450 Pcs 1200Pcs 24
10 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313J 40 14 560X2 450 Pcs 1200Pcs 24
11 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313J 40 14 560X2 450 Pcs 1200Pcs 24
Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 11
Mosannef hossain bhuiya

12 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313J 40 14 560X2 450 Pcs 1200Pcs 24


13 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313J 40 14 560X2 450 Pcs 1200Pcs 24
14 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313J 40 14 560X2 450 Pcs 1200Pcs 24
15 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313J 40 14 560X2 450 Pcs 1200Pcs 24
16 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313J 40 14 560X2 450 Pcs 1200Pcs 24
17 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313J 40 14 560X2 450 Pcs 1200Pcs 24
18 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313J 40 14 560X2 450 Pcs 1200Pcs 24
19 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313J 40 14 560X2 450 Pcs 1200Pcs 24
20 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313J 40 14 560X2 450 Pcs 1200Pcs 24
21 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313J 40 14 560X2 450 Pcs 1200Pcs 24
22 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313J 40 14 560X2 450 Pcs 1200Pcs 24
23 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313J 40 14 560X2 450 Pcs 1200Pcs 24
24 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313J 40 14 560X2 450 Pcs 1200Pcs 24
25 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313J 40 14 560X2 450 Pcs 1200Pcs 24
26 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313J 40 14 560X2 450 Pcs 1200Pcs 24
27 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313J 40 14 560X2 450 Pcs 1200Pcs 24
28 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313J 40 14 560X2 450 Pcs 1200Pcs 24
29 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313J 40 14 560X2 450 Pcs 1200Pcs 24
30 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313J 40 14 560X2 450 Pcs 1200Pcs 24
31 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313J 40 14 560X2 450 Pcs 1200Pcs 24
32 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313J 40 14 560X2 450 Pcs 1200Pcs 24
33 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313J 40 14 560X2 450 Pcs 1200Pcs 24
34 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313 40 14 560X2 300 Pcs 600Pcs 24
35 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313 40 14 560X2 300 Pcs 600Pcs 24
36 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313 40 14 560X2 300 Pcs 600Pcs 24
37 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313 40 14 560X2 300 Pcs 600Pcs 24
38 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313 40 14 560X2 300 Pcs 600Pcs 24
39 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH-313 40 14 560X2 300 Pcs 600Pcs 24
40 STOLL GERMA CMT211 84 14 1180X2 800 Pcs 1600Pcs 24
NY
41 STOLL GERMA CMT211 84 14 1180X2 800 Pcs 1600Pcs 24
NY
42 STOLL GERMA CMS311 72 14 1180X2 600 Pcs 1200Pcs 24
NY
43 STOLL GERMA CMS311 72 14 1180X2 600 Pcs 1200Pcs 24
NY
44 JAMES TAIWAN LY-101 40 14 560X2 300 Pcs 600Pcs 24
45 JAMES TAIWAN LY-101 40 14 560X2 300 Pcs 600Pcs 24
46 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH323D 60 14 560X2 750 Pcs 1400Pcs 24
47 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH323D 60 14 560X2 750 Pcs 1400Pcs 24
48 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH323D 60 14 560X2 750 Pcs 1400Pcs 24
49 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH323D 60 14 560X2 750 Pcs 1400Pcs 24
50 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH323D 60 14 560X2 750 Pcs 1400Pcs 24
51 KAUOHENG TAIWAN KH323D 60 14 560X2 750 Pcs 1400Pcs 24

ii) Circular knitting Section:


Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 12
Mosannef hossain bhuiya

This section contains 66 circular knitting machines of different types and made by different
manufacturers. In this section body fabrics for knitwear’s are produced. Specifications of the
machines are given below:

Type M/C Brand Name Origin Dia. Gauge Quantity


No in
inch
1 FUKAHAMA TAIWAN 20 24 1
2 ORIZIO ITALY 20 24 1
Single jersey, 3 FUKAHAMA TAIWAN 21 24 1
P.K, 4 FUKAHAMA TAIWAN 22 24 2
Lacoste 5 ORIZIO ITALY 22 24 2
With 6 MAYER GERMANY 23 24 2
Full Feeder 7 ORIZIO ITALY 24 24 4
Lycra attachment. 8 FUKAHAMA TAIWAN 24 24 1
9 ORIZIO ITALY 25 24 2
10 ORIZIO ITALY 26 24 3
11 FUKAHAMA TAIWAN 26 24 2
12 MAYER GERMANY 28 24 2
13 FUKAHAMA TAIWAN 30 24 4
14 ORIZIO ITALY 30 24 2
15 MAYER GERMANY 32 24 2
16 MAYER GERMANY 34 24 2
17 MAYER GERMANY 36 24 2

Type M/C Brand Name Origin Dia. Gauge Quantity


No in
inch
1 FUKAHAMA TAIWAN 18 16 1
Rib 2 ORIZIO ITALY 30 16 1
with 3 HUPTER TAIWAN 30 18 1
lycra 4 ORIZIO ITALY 30 20 2
5 HUPTER ITALY 34 18 1
6 HUPTER ITALY 36 18 1
7 FUKAHAMA TAIWAN 36 18 1

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 13


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

Type M/C No Brand Name Origin Dia. Gauge Quantity


in
inch
1 PAILUNG TAIWAN 30 20 1
Rib & 2 PAILUNG TAIWAN 32 20 1
Interlock 3 PAILUNG TAIWAN 34 20 1
4 PAILUNG TAIWAN 36 20 1

Type M/C No Brand Name Origin Dia. Gauge Quantity


in
inch
1 FUKAHAMA TAIWAN 26 22 1
INTER- 2 FUKAHAMA TAIWAN 28 22 2
LOCK 3 FUKAHAMA TAIWAN 30 22 2
4 FUKAHAMA TAIWAN 34 22 1
5 FUKAHAMA TAIWAN 38 22 1

Type M/C No Brand Name Origin Dia. Gauge Quantity


in
inch
ENGG 1 MAYER GERMANY 30 24 2
-STRIPE 2 ORIZIO ITALY 30 24 2

Type M/C No Brand Name Origin Dia. Gauge Quantity


in
inch
POLAR 1 ORIZIO ITALY 30 20 4
FLEECE 2 HUPTER TAIWAN 30 18 2

Type M/C No Brand Name Origin Dia. Gauge Quantity


in
inch
JACQUA- 1 MAYER GERMANY 30 22 2
RD

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 14


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

3) Fabric inspection section:


There is one machine in cloth inspection section. Specification of this machine is given
below:

Type Cloth Inspection Machine


Country China
Model No YX-2400 A
Manufacturing date 2005
Speed 32 m/min

REMARKS:
Production runs with the help of mechanical fitters. For any kind of mechanical
fault of any machine the fix and work under technical in charge. Production officers take
account of daily production by running after the supervisor and workers so on.

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 15


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

PRODUCTION PLANNING AND OPERATIONS OF


KNITTING DIVISION

PROCESS DEFINITION:

Knitting is the interlocking of one or more yarns through a series of loops. The
length wise columns of stitches, corresponding to the warp in woven cloth, are called
WALES; the cross wise rows of stitches, corresponding to the filling in woven cloth, are
called COURSES, FILLING KNITS (WEFT KNITS) are those fabrics in which the courses
are composed of a single strand of yarn, while warp knits are those in which the Wales are
composed of single strand of yarn. GAUGE corresponds to the yarn in a woven fabric, and is
defined as the number of needles of yarns in half inches of cloth. The higher the gauge, the
more compact and finer is the cloth.

DESCRIPTION OF PRODUCTION PROCESS:

In every mill, there maintains a sequences in production processing. It is also followed in this
mill where we were in industrial attachment. The process sequences are in list below:

1) Firstly, knitting manager gets a production shit from the merchandiser as


accordance as consumer requirements then he informs or orders production
officer about it.
2) Production officer informs technical in charge and knows about machine in
which the production will be running.
3) Technical in charge calls for leader of mechanical fitter troops, they two take
decision about machine for production considering machine condition,
production capacity, maintenance complexity, etc.
4) Production officer with experienced mechanical fitter adjusts required stitch
length and grey GSM for required final GSM.
5) Supervisor checks daily production regularity and make operator conscious
about finishing tin due time.
6) Operators operate machine in high attention as if there were no faults in the
fabrics. If he thinks or sure about any fabric fault, then he calls for the
mechanical fitters in duty. Mechanical fitter then fixes it if he can or he informs
technical in charge. Then he comes in spot.
7) After required production and final inspection in 4-point system, they sent in
dyeing section.

PROCESS REQUIREMENTS:

We have already discussed there are basically three kinds of machine which is used to
produce knit fabric and these are:

1. Circular knitting machine (Single Jersey Machines).


2. Circular knitting machine (Double Jersey Machines).
3. Flat knitting machine.
Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 16
Mosannef hossain bhuiya

PRODUCTION PARAMETERS:
1. Machine Diameter;
2. Machine rpm (revolution per minute);
3. No. of feeds or feeders in use;
4. Machine Gauge;
5. Count of yarn;
6. Required time (M/C running time);
7. Machine running efficiency.

CONSIDERABLE POINTS TO PRODUCE KNIT FABRICS:

When a buyer orders for fabric then they mention some points related to production and
quality. Before production of knitted fabric, these factors are needed to consider. Those are as
follows-

- Type of Fabric or design of Fabric.


- Finished G.S.M.
- Yarn count
- Types of yarn (combed or carded)
- Diameter of the fabric.
- Stitch length
- Color depth.
G.S.M.
It is technical term that indicates the weight of the fabric per square meter.
Point considered while setting grey GSM:
- Enzyme level
- Color
- Suided or non- suided

Changing of GSM:

 Major control by VDQ pulley.


 Minor control by stitch length adjustment.
 Altering the position of the tension pulley changes the G.S.M. of the fabric. If pulley
moves towards the positive directive then the G.S.M. is decrease. And in the reverse
direction G.S.M will increase.

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 17


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

FACTORS THAT SHOULD BE CHANGED IN CASE OF FABRIC DESIGN ON


QUALITY CHANGE:

a) Cam setting
b) Set of needle
c) Size of loop shape

EFFECT OF STITCH LENGTH ON COLOR DEPTH:


If the depth of color of the fabric is high loop length should be higher because in
case of fabric with higher loop length is less compact. In dark shade dye take up% is high so
GSM is adjusted then. Similarly in case of light shade loop length should be relatively
smaller.

METHODS OF INCREASING PRODUCTION:

By the following methods the production of knitted fabric can be increased –

1. By increasing m/c speed:


Higher the m/c speed faster the movement of needle and ultimately production will be
increased. But it has to make sure that excess tension is not imposed on yarn because of this
high speed.

2. By increasing the number of feeder:


If the number of feeder is increased in the circumference of cylinder, then the number
of courses will be increased in one revolution at a time.

3. By using machine of higher gauge:


The more the machine gauge, the more the production is. So by using machine of
higher gauge production can be increased.
4. By imposing automation in the m/c:
a) Quick starting & stopping for efficient driving system.
b) Automatic m/c lubrication system for smoother operation.
c) PHoto electric fabric fault detector.
5. By imposing other developments:
a) Using creel-feeding system.
b) Applying yarn supply through plastic tube that eliminates the possibilities
of yarn damage.
c) Using yarn feed control device.

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 18


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

.Production calculation:

1. Production/shift in kg at 100% efficiency:

RPM × No. of Feeder × No. of Needle × SL(mm) × 60 × 12


=
10 × 2.54 × 36 × 840 × 2.2046 × Yarn count
RPM × No. of Feeder × No. of Needle × SL(mm)
=
3527.80 × Yarn count

2. Production/shift in meter:

Course / min .
=
Course / cm
RPM × No. of Feeder × 60 × 12 × Efficiency
=
Course / cm × 100

3. Fabric width in meter:

Total no. of wales


=
Wales / cm × 100
Total no. of Needles knitting
=
Wales / cm × 100

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 19


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

QUALITY ASSURANCE SYSTEM


OF KNITTING DIVISION:
INTRODUCTION TO QUALITY ASSURANCE SYSTEM:
After collecting fabric rolls from different machines, these fabrics need to inspect thoroughly
by the quality inspectors to assure required quality before dyeing. Quality assurance of knitted
grey fabric is described here.
SOME POINTS ARE NEEDED TO MAINTAIN FOR HIGH QUALITY FABRIC:
1) Brought good quality yarn.
2) Machines are oiled and greased accordingly.
3) G.S.M, Stitch length, Tensions are controlled accurately.
4) Machines are cleaned every shift and servicing is done after a month.
5) Grey Fabrics are checked by 4 point grading system.

LIST OF EQUIPMENT FOR QUALITY CONTROL:


The list of equipments to assure quality:-
1) Inspection m/c.
2) Electronic balance
3) GSM cutter.
4) Measuring tape.
5) Scissors.
6) Indication sticker.

QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCEDURE:

Body & rib inspection:


All rolls are kept in front of the inspection m/c time to time and are inspected over the
inspection m/c visually in a pre-set speed against light. For any major or minor faults like
thick-thin, barre mark, fall out, contamination, fly, holes, oil lines, needle line, slubs etc
are recorded in inspection report to classify the fabric based on the four point system.
Collar & cuff inspection:
Collar& cuff are inspected visually under the light box, any major or minor fault in
collar/cuff like having wrong ply, hole, needle line, slubs, wrong design, first round
problem etc properly counted and recorded.

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 20


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

QUALITY STANDARD:
SKL maintains the ISO: 9001:2000 standards in case of quality. Therefore, the four point
system is followed to inspect the body & rib fabric. The defects found and points given
against are recorded in the inspection sheet. Following table shows the four point grading
system followed by inspection at SKL

Four point grading system


Size of defects Penalty
3 inches or less 1 point
Over 3 inch but not over 6 inch 2 point
Over 6 inch but not over 9 inch 3 point
Over 9 inch 4 point

Relationship between knitting parameter:


1. Stitch length increase with the increase of GSM.
2. If stitch length increase then fabric width increase and WPI decrease.
3. If machine gauge increase then fabric width decrease.
4. If yarn count increase (courser) then fabric width increase.
5. If shrinkage increases then fabric width decrease but GSM and WPI increase.
6. For finer gauge, finer count yarn should use.
7. Grey GSM should be less than finish GSM.

Faults and their causes in knitting:

Hole mark:
Causes:
⇒ Buckling of the needle latch
⇒ Buckling the sinker
⇒ Higher G.S.M

Star mark:
Causes:
⇒ Buckling of the needle latch.
⇒ Yarn tension variation during production.
⇒ Low G.S.M.

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 21


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

Oil spot/Grease spot:


Causes:
⇒ Excess oil/Grease use.
⇒ Jamming of needle & sinker.

Patta:
Causes:
⇒ Yarn comes from different lot.
⇒ Faulty cam use in the m/c.

Needle mark:
Causes:
⇒ Faulty needle use in the m/c.

Sinker mark:
Causes:
⇒ Faulty sinker use in the m/c

Fabric Shrinkage:
Causes:
⇒ Yarn twist. Twist Shrinkage
⇒ Knitting tension.
⇒ Fabric G.S.M. ` G.S.M. Shrinkage

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 22


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

GREY FABRIC INSPECTION


KNITTED FABRIC INSPECTION AND GRADING
BASED ON THE FORTY POINTS SYSTEM

The inspection and grading of fabric quality is one of the important functions of Quality
Control in the grey or finished state, the grading of fabric is a difficult task, taking two
primary considerations: as the frequency of effects and the seriousness of defects.

The grading has two primary functions: First, to classify the fabrics according to
standard qualities based on the end-use and costumer demands and second, to supply
information as to the qualities actually being produced.

The Knitted fabric can be classified into three levels of quality, each one have a
number of points for defects as follows.
The First quality level 40 points per 100 Linear Yards.
The Second quality level (40 – 80) points per 100 Linear Yards.
The Third quality level 80 points or more per 100 Linear Yards.

General Instructions for the final inspections: -

1- All pieces will be graded on the base of 40 points per 100 Linear yards Mapping will
be done on each piece to insure proper grading. Do not count more than 4 points per
one yard.
2- All defects must be recorded and marked in final inspection and an accurate account
of points made to insure proper grading.
3- All fabric must meet specifications.
4- At the end of each piece of fabric, the inspector will add up total points and decide
whether the piece can be shipped as first quality or not, reworked, placed in lower
quality, or cut and upgraded for shipment. Fifteen yards or more can be shipped as first
quality.

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 23


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

5- The quality control supervisor must approve the grading of all quality levels and
check the lower quality.
6- Major or unsightly defects in the first and last yard of a roll or piece will be cut. All
defects of one yard length or more will be cut out of the piece. Defects within the first
2 inches or the last 2 inches of a piece will not be cut out or counted in the grading.

7- Open defects on the back of fabric such as drops, runs and hanging picks are to be
included in the grading of fabric.
8- Pieces can be connected together, once each piece must be the same shade.
9- All defects such as runs that extend more than a yard in length will be cut out.
10- Fabric up to 70 inches will be allowed a bow of not more than 1 inch and a Bias of not
more than 2 inches.
11- Defects within one inch of the fabric edge will not be counted except on tubular
fabrics. All defects will be counted in tubular goods.

Grading procedure: -

1. All open defects or major defects counted with 4 points per defect.
2. Surface defects over 9 inch length counted with 4 points per defect.
3. Surface defects 6 to 9 inches length counted with 3 points per defect.
4. Surface defects 3 to 6 inches length counted with 2 points per defect.
5. Surface defects up to 3 inches length counted with one point per defect.
6. Running defects, such as tucks, needle lines, barre, crack marks, are judgment defects

Function or purpose of batch section:


- To receive the grey fabric roll from knitting section or other source.
- To perform the grey inspection.
- Turn the grey fabric if require.
- To prepare the batch of fabric for dyeing according to the following criteria –
• Order sheet (Received from buyer)
• Dyeing shade (color or white, light or dark)
• M/C capacity
• M/C available
• Type of fabrics(100% cotton, PET, PC, CVC)

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 24


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

• Other
- To send the grey fabric to the dyeing floor with batch card.
- To keep records for every fabrics before dyeing.

Proper batching criteria:


- To use maximum capacity of existing dyeing m/c.
- To minimize the washing time or preparation time & m/c stoppage time.
- To keep the no of batch as less as possible for same shade.
- To use a particular m/c for dyeing same shade.

Batch management:
Primarily batching is done by dyeing manager taking the above criteria under
consideration. Batch section in charge receives this primary batch plan from dyeing manager.
Some time planning is adjusted according to m/c condition or emergency.

M/Cs in batch section:


M/c no : 01
Machine Name : Turning m/c
Origin : Local
Capacity : 10 ton to 16 ton per day

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 25


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

DYEING
Sequence of operations for each product:-

For Cotton Knitted fabric -

Fabric receiving

Fabric inspection

Batching

Scouring & Bleaching

Dyeing

After treatment & Softening

Fixing

Dewatering/ Squeezing

Drying

Compacting

Final Inspection

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 26


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

Machine Description for Dyeing Section:


M/c No: 01

Brand Name : FONGS Model:-WINCH GN 18 2T (AtmosPheric)


Origin : Hong kong
Capacity : 600 Kg
No. of Nozzle : 03
Max. Operating Temperature : 950 C
Max. Operating Presser : .75 Bar
Manufacturing Year : 1996 Fong’s

M/c No: 02

Brand Name : FONGS Model:-WINCH DW 2T (AtmosPheric)


Origin : Hong kong
Capacity : 300 Kg
No. of Nozzle : 02
Max. Operating Temperature : 950 C
Max. Operating Presser : .75 Bar
Manufacturing Year : 1996 Fong’s

M/c No: 03

Brand Name : FONGS Model:-WINCH DW 3T (AtmosPheric)


Origin : Hong kong
Capacity : 500 Kg
No. of Nozzle : 03
Max. Operating Temperature : 950 C
Max. Operating Presser : .75 Bar
Manufacturing Year : 1996 Fong’s
M/c No: 04

Brand Name : Tecninox


Origin : Portugal
Capacity : 1000 Kg
No. of Nozzle : 05
Max. Operating Temperature :1050 C
Max. Operating Presser : 1.5 Bar
Manufacturing Year : 1997

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 27


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

M/c No: 05

Brand Name : Tecninox


Origin : Portugal
Capacity : 1000 Kg
No. of Nozzle : 05
Max. Operating Temperature :1050 C
Max. Operating Presser : 1.5 Bar
Manufacturing Year : 1997

M/c No: 06

Brand Name : Tecninox


Origin : Portugal
Capacity : 1200 Kg
No. of Nozzle : 05
Max. Operating Temperature :1050 C
Max. Operating Presser : 1.5 Bar
Manufacturing Year : 1997

Dyeing M/c No: 07

Brand Name : GATSON COUNTRY (high temperature high pressure)


Origin : USA
Capacity : 500 Kg
No. of Nozzle : 02
Max. Operating Temperature :1400 C
Max. Operating Presser :5 Bar
Manufacturing Year : 1996

Dyeing M/c No: 08

Brand Name : FONGS Model:-WINCH DW 3T (AtmosPheric)


Origin : Hong kong
Capacity : 500 Kg
No. of Nozzle : 03
Max. Operating Temperature : 950 C
Max. Operating Presser : .75 Bar
Manufacturing Year : 1996 Fong’s

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 28


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

Dyeing M/c No: 09

Brand Name : FONGS Model:-WINCH DW 3T (AtmosPheric)


Origin : Hong kong
Capacity : 500 Kg
No. of Nozzle : 03
Max. Operating Temperature : 950 C
Max. Operating Presser : .75 Bar
Manufacturing Year : 1996 Fong’s

Dyeing M/c No: 10

Brand Name : FONGS Model:-WINCH DW 3T (AtmosPheric)


Origin : Hong kong
Capacity : 500 Kg
No. of Nozzle : 03
Max. Operating Temperature : 950 C
Max. Operating Presser : .75 Bar
Manufacturing Year : 1996 Fong’s

Dyeing M/c No: 11

Brand Name : FONGS Model:-WINCH DW 3T (AtmosPheric)


Origin : Hong kong
Capacity : 500 Kg
No. of Nozzle : 03
Max. Operating Temperature : 950 C
Max. Operating Presser : .75 Bar
Manufacturing Year : 1996 Fong’s

Dyeing M/c No: 12

Brand Name : FONGS Model:-WINCH DW 3T (AtmosPheric)


Origin : Hong kong
Capacity : 500 Kg
No. of Nozzle : 03
Max. Operating Temperature : 950 C
Max. Operating Presser : .75 Bar
Manufacturing Year : 1996 Fong’s

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 29


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

Dyeing M/c No: 13(sample)

Brand Name : tecninox(HTHP)


Origin : portugal
Capacity : 15 Kg
No. of Nozzle : 01
Max. Operating Temperature : 1000 C
Max. Operating Presser : .1.5 Bar
Manufacturing Year : 1996

Dyeing M/c No: 14(sample)

Brand Name : tecninox(HTHP)


Origin : portugal
Capacity : 15 Kg
No. of Nozzle : 01
Max. Operating Temperature : 1000 C
Max. Operating Presser : .1.5 Bar
Manufacturing Year : 1996

Dyeing M/c No: 15(sample)

Brand Name : FONGS Model:-Winch GNS 1 T


Origin : Hong Kong
Capacity : 10 Kg
No. of Nozzle : 01
Max. Operating Temperature : 950 C
Max. Operating Presser :0.75 Bar
Manufacturing Year : 1996

Dyeing M/c No: 16(Washing)

Origin : local
Capacity : 15 Kg
No. of Nozzle : 02
Max. Operating Temperature : 850 C
Max. Operating Presser :1
Manufacturing Year : 1998

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 30


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

Raw materials for dyeing:

Raw materials used in the dyeing section are:


1. Grey fabrics
2. Dyes
3. Chemicals.

Grey fabrics:
Following types of gray fabrics are dyed:
 Single jersey
 Single jersey with lycra
 Polo pique
 Single laquest
 Fleece
 Interlock
 Interlock with lycra
 Rib
 Rib with lycra
 Different types of collar & cuff
Dyes:

No Dyes name Type Source Origin


1 Kemifix Red XF-3B Reactive Dye N/A India
2 Kemifix Yellow XF-RL Reactive Dye N/A India
3 Kemifix Red XF-6B Reactive Dye N/A India
4 Kemifix Yellow XF-4G Reactive Dye N/A India
5 Kemifix Blue XF-2R Reactive Dye N/A India
6 Kemifix Orange XF-2RL Reactive Dye N/A India
7 Kemifix BLACK GR Reactive Dye India
8 Kemifix TURQ. Blue-G Reactive Dye India
9 Remazol Yellow RR Reactive Dye Dyestar Germany
10 Remazol Red RR Reactive Dye Dyestar Germany
11 Remazol Blue RR Reactive Dye Dyestar Germany
12 Remazol Br Blue RR Reactive Dye Dyestar Germany
(SPL)

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 31


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

13 Remazol Blue RGB Reactive Dye Dyestar Germany


14 Remazol T/Blue G Reactive Dye Dyestar Germany
15 Remazol Navy RGB Reactive Dye Dyestar Germany
16 Remazol Red 3BS Reactive Dye Dyestar Germany
17 Drimarin Yellow CL-2R Reactive Dye Clariant
18 Drimarin Red HF2B Reactive Dye Clariant
19 Drimrin Blue CL-2RL Reactive Dye Clariant
20 Drimarin Navy CL-GN Reactive Dye Clariant
21 Drimarin Red CL5B Reactive Dye Clariant
22 Drimarin Navy CLBN Reactive Dye Clariant
23 Drimarin Orange CL3R Reactive Dye Clariant
24 Drimarin Yellow CL3GL Reactive Dye Clariant
25 Drima. Turquis Blue Reactive Dye Clariant
CLB
26 Drima. Turquis Blue Reactive Dye Clariant
K2B
27 Imcozin Black VB Reactive Dye Impo color Germany
28 Imcozin Red 3BF Reactive Dye Impo color Germany
29 Imcozin Yellow E3R Reactive Dye Impo color Germany
30 Imcozin Blue V3R Reactive Dye Impo color Germany
31 Imcozin T. Blue VG Reactive Dye Impo color Germany
32 Imcozin Br. Orange V3R Reactive Dye Impo color Germany
33 Ciba Yellow FN2R Reactive Dye Swiss Color Switzerland
34 Ciba Red FB Reactive Dye Swiss Color Switzerland
35 Ciba Blue FNR Reactive Dye Swiss Color Switzerland
36 Ciba Navy Blue NFB Reactive Dye Swiss Color Switzerland
37 Ciba Red FN3F Reactive Dye Swiss Color Switzerland
38 Ciba Yellow F4G Reactive Dye Swiss Color Switzerland
39 Levafix Blue CA Reactive Dye Dyestar Germany
40 Levafix Rubine CA Reactive Dye Dyestar Germany
41 Levafix Amber CA Reactive Dye Dyestar Germany
42 Terasil Yellow W4G Disperse Swiss Color Switzerland
43 Terasil G. Yellow W3R Disperse Swiss Color Switzerland
44 Terasil Navy WRS Disperse Swiss Color Switzerland
45 Terasil Red W4BS Disperse Swiss Color Switzerland
46 Terasil Blue WBLS Disperse Swiss Color Switzerland
47 Terasil Black WNS Disperse Swiss Color Switzerland
48 Terasil Black BFE Disperse Swiss Color Switzerland
49 Taicon Yellow HW-T Disperse
50 Taicon Brown XF-T Disperse
51 Taicon Crimson XF-T Disperse
52 Taicon Red XF-T Disperse
53 Taicon Navy Blue HWT Disperse

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 32


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

Chemicals:
Detergent:
1. Jet
2. ladiquest 1097
3. NSR
Levelling Agent:
1. ladiquest 1097
Sequestering Agent:
2. EMG
3. Heptol EMP
Anticreasing Agent:
1. Drivol PAMN
2. Biovine-109
Stabilizer:
1. Lanapex HPXT
2. STZM
Anti-foam:
1. Antimussol-HTS
Per-oxide Killer
1. OEM (oxygyme)
Enzyme:
1. Bio-polish AOL
Softener:
1. PBD (colour)
2. Tubiyal-1112 (white)
Dispersing Agent:
1. Palagel SFD
Buffering Agent:
1. Eulysin S
Reducing Agent:
1. Hydrose
Acid:
1. Acetic Acid
2. Hydrochloric Acid
Salt:
1. Gluber Salt
2. Common Salt

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 33


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

Fixing Agent:
1. Soda Ash

Alkali:
1. Caustic soda
2. Soda ash
Bleaching Agent:
1. Hydrogen per oxide
Brightner:
1. Uvitex BHV(for cotton fabric)
2. Uvitex EBF (For polyester fabric)
3. Bluton BBV(For polyester fabric)
Bioscouring Agent:
1. Scorgyme

Dyeing Parameter:
A. PH Check during Wet Processing:

- Bleaching bath Ph : 10.5 - 11


- Neutralization / After bleaching Ph : 5.5 – 6.5
- Initial dye bath Ph : 5.5 – 6.5
- After salt addition Ph : 6.5 – 7.5
- After alkali addition Ph : 10.5 – 11.2
- After dyeing Ph : 5.0 – 6.0
- Fixation bath Ph : 4.5 – 5.5
- Softener bath Ph : 4.0 -5.0 ( for color)
: 5.5 – 6.0 (for white)
B. Fixation Time:

- For light shade : 30 – 40 min


- For medium shade : 45 – 50 min
- For deep shade : 50 – 60 min

C. M: L ratio : 1:6 – 1:9


D. The amount of Glaubers’ salt and Soda ash on the basic shade percentage:

Shade % Glaubers’ salt Soda ash


0.0010 - 0.2 20 g/l 5 g/l
0.2 - 1 40 10
1 – 2.5 60 15
2.5 - 4 70 20
4-8 80 20
Above 8 100 20

For some spacific color:

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 34


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

Name Red ≤ 4% Navy ≤ 4% Black ≤ 4%


Mixed alkali
Glauber’s salt (g/l) 80 80 100
Soda ash 5 5 5
Caustic soda 1 1 1

E. Fixation is done for medium and deep shade

F. Reduction clearing is done for medium and deep shade in case of PET/CO dyeing.

Wet processing recipes:


Pre treatment bio-scouring
Action Chemicals Quantity(g/L) Temp. (ºc) Time (Minute)
1 Fabric load & Stitching RT 30
2 Water load RT 3
3 Runtime RT 10
4 Drain RT 3
5 Desired water loading M:L = 1:12 RT 5
6 Temperature Raising RT to 50 5
7 Anti-creasing Biovine-109 0.3 50
10
8 Sequestering EMG 0.3 50
9 making alkaline medium Soda Ash 0.4 50 2
10 Applying wetting Agent Jet 0.3 50
1
11 Applying bio-scouring agent Scourgyme 0.8 50
12 Temperature Raising 50 to 55 1
13 Runtime 55 20
14 chemical addition Jet 0.8 55
1
15 chemical addition Ladquest-1097 0.5 55
16 Temperature Raising 55 to 80 5
17 Detergency 80 20
18 Cooling to 70ºc 80 to 70 10
19 Hot Rinsing 70 5
20 Temperature Raising to 90ºc 80 to 90 7
21 Hot wash 90 20
22 Cooling to 70ºc 90 to 70 20
23 Hot Rinsing 70 to 60 5
24 Drain 60 2
25 Desired water loading M:L = 1:12 45 5
26 Temperature Raising 45 to 65 0.5
27 Acid Addition Acetic Acid 0.4 45 to 65 0.5
28 Runtime 65 10
29 Clod Rinsing 5 to RT 5
30 Drain RT 2

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 35


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 50 100 150 200 250

Time-temperature diagram for bio-scouring/ half bleaching

Pre treatment Full scouring


Time
Action Chemicals Quantity(g/L) Temp. (ºc) (Minute)
1 Fabric load & Stitching RT 30
2 Water load RT 3
3 Runtime RT 10
4 Drain RT 3
5 Desired water loading M:L = 1:12 RT 5
6 Temperature Raising RT to 50 5
7 Anti-creasing Biovine-109 0.3 50 10
8 Temperature Raising 50 to 70 5
9 Sequestering EMG 0.3 70
15
10 Applying wetting Agent Jet 0.7 70
11 cooling to 50 70 to 50 20
Ladquest-
12
Detergent applying 1097 1 50
13 Scouring Agent Applying Caustic Soda 3 50 1
14 Stabilizing Agent applying STZM 0.3 50
15 Oxidizing Agent applying H2O2 2.5 50
16 Temperature Raising 50 to 95 12
17 Scouring & Bleaching action 95 65
18 Cooling to 70ºc 95 to 70 25
19 Hot Rinsing 70 to 60 5
20 Drain 60 2
21 Desired water loading M:L = 1:12 45 5
22 Temperature Raising to 90ºc 45 to 90 10
23 Hot wash 90 20
24 Cooling to 70ºc 90 to 70 20
25 Hot Rinsing 70 5
26 Drain 60 2
27 Desired water loading M:L = 1:12 45 5
28 Temperature Raising 70 to 90 4
29 Detergency Agent applying Jet 0.5 90 15
30 Cooling to 70ºc 90 to 70 20
31 Hot Rinsing 70 5
32 Drain 70 2
Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 36
Mosannef hossain bhuiya

33 Desired water loading M:L = 1:12 45 5


34 Acid Addition Acetic Acid 0.4 45 to 65 4
35 Acid treating 60 20
OEM
36
Per-oxide killer Applying (Oxygyme) 0.5 55 20
37 Hot Rinsing 60 5
38 Drain 60 2
Total Time 385

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 100 200 300 400 500

For White Fabric


Temp. Time
Action Chemicals Quantity(g/L) (ºc) (Minutes)
1 Fabric load & Stitching RT 30
2 Water load RT 3
3 Runtime RT 10
4 Drain RT 3
5 Desired water loading M:L = 1:12 RT 5
6 Temperature Raising RT to 50 5
7 Anti-creasing Biovine-109 0.3 50 10
8 Temperature Raising 50 to 70 5
9 Sequestering EMG 0.3 70
15
10 Applying wetting Agent Jet 0.7 70
11 cooling to 50 70 to 50 20
12 Detergent applying Ladquest-1097 1 50
13 Scouring Agent Applying Caustic Soda 3 50
1
14 Stabilizing Agent applying STZM 0.8 50
15 Oxidizing Agent applying H2O2 5 or 7 50
16 Temperature Raising 50 to 110 14
17 Scouring & Bleaching action 110 45
18 Cooling to 70ºc 95 to 70 25
19 Hot Rinsing 70 to 60 5
Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 37
Mosannef hossain bhuiya

20 Drain 60 2
21 Desired water loading M:L = 1:12 45 5
Optical brightening agent OBBHT
22
Applying (Taiwan) 0.5% to 1% 60 30
23 Hot Rinsing 60 5
24 Drain 60 2
25 Desired water loading M:L = 1:12 45 5
26 Temperature Raising to 90ºc 45 to 90 10
27 Hot wash 90 20
28 Cooling to 70ºc 90 to 70 20
29 Hot Rinsing 70 5
30 Drain 60 2
31 Desired water loading M:L = 1:12 45 5
32 Temperature Raising 70 to 90 4
33 Detergency Agent applying Jet 0.5 90 15
34 Cooling to 70ºc 90 to 70 20
35 Hot Rinsing 70 5
36 Drain 70 2
37 Desired water loading M:L = 1:12 45 5
38 Acid Addition Acetic Acid 0.4 45 to 65 4
39 Acid treating 60 20
OEM
40
Per-oxide killer Applying (Oxygyme) 0.5 55 20
41 Hot Rinsing 60 5
42 Drain 60 2
Total
Time 409

120

100

80

60

40

20

0
0 100 200 300 400 500

Time temperature diagram

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 38


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

BIO POLISH
After bleaching if bio polish is recommended then Acid’s Ph is checked, as if it must be in
between 4 to 4.5. The recipe is provided below:
Time
Action Chemicals Quantity(g/L) Temp. (ºc) (Minute)
1 Bio polishing Bio polish AOL 1 45 60
2 Checking hairiness 30
3 Rinsing 45 5
4 Drain 2

Dyeing recipes for dark shades


For dark shades after bio scouring, following recipe is applied
Time
Action Chemicals Quantity(g/L) Temp. (ºc) (Minute)
1 Rinsing RT 10
2 Desired Water RT 5
3 Anti creasing Biovine-109 1 RT
Wetting & leveling agent ladiquest-
4 applying 1097 1 RT 10
5 Sequestering EMG 0.5 RT
common
6 Salt Salt 80 RT 10
7 Run time for salt 10
8 Dyes addition Dyes X% RT 2
RT to 60 (3ºc /
9 Temp. Increase min) 10
10 dyeing runtime 60 20
11 Soda addition Soda ash 15 60 10
12 soda runtime 60 20
13 Fixation & shade matching 60 to 80 45
14 Hot rinsing 70 5
15 Drain 70 2
16 Desired Water 45 10
17 temperature raising to 60ºc 45 to 60 10
18 soaping NSR 1 70 to 95 20
19 Shade matching 95 10
20 Cooling to 70ºc 95 to 70 15
21 Hot rinsing 70 10
22 cold rinsing RT 5
23 Drain RT 2
24 Desired Water RT 5
25 temperature raising to 60ºc RT to 60 5
26 Neutralizing Acetic Acid 1 60 15
27 Hot rinsing 60 10
28 cold rinsing RT 5
29 Drain RT 2
Total time 283

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 39


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Time-temperature diagram

For light /critical shade:


First of all full scouring and bleaching has done then it is followed by the methods below,

Time
c Action Chemicals Quantity(g/L) Temp. (ºc) (Minute)
1 Rinsing RT 10
2 Desired Water RT 5
3 Anti creasing Biovine-109 1 RT
Wetting & leveling agent ladiquest-
4 applying 1097 1 RT 10
5 Sequestering EMG 0.5 RT
8 Dyes addition Dyes X% RT 2
RT to 60 (1ºc /
9 Temp. Increase min) 30
10 dyeing runtime 60 10
common
6 Salt Salt 30 60 10
7 Run time for salt 60 10
60 to 85 (1ºc /
8 Migration Dyeing min) 35
9 Cooling to 45ºc 85 to 45 40
12 Soda addition Soda ash 5 45 10

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 40


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

13 soda runtime 45 to 60 20
14 Fixation & shade matching 60 to 80 65
15 Hot rinsing 70 5
16 Drain 70 2
17 Desired Water 45 10
18 temperature raising to 60ºc 45 to 60 10
19 Neutralizing Acetic Acid 1 60 15
20 Hot rinsing 60 10
21 cold rinsing RT 5
22 Drain RT 2
23 Desired Water 45 10
24 soaping jet 1 60 to 80 20
25 Shade matching 80 10
27 Hot rinsing 70 10
28 cold rinsing RT 5
29 Drain RT 2

Total time 373

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
0 100 200 300 400

Time-temperature diagram for light shade

Softening Methods:
Time
Action Chemicals Quantity(g/L) Temp. (ºc) (Minute)
1 Desired Water RT 5
2 For acidic medium Acetic acid 0.2 RT 3
3 Softening PBD 1 RT 10
4 Drain RT 2
5 Fabric un loading RT 15

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 41


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

Polyester-Cotton Blend Dyeing process:


Shade – Navy Buyer: zara
Fabric Quality – Flat Knit Grey GSM – 190
Finish GSM – 210 M: L – 1: 8

Polyester part dyeing:

Dyeing Program: Polyester Light 135 process.

Dyeing Recipe:
Pretreatment

Detergent – JET : 1 g/l


Sequestering Agant – EMG : 1 g/l
Anti-creaser – biovine-109 : 2.5 g/l
Stabilizer – STZM : 0.3 g/l
Antifoam – Antimussol – HTS : 0.2 g/l
Alkali – Causti Soda : 2 g/l
Bleaching Agent – H2O2 : 3 g/l

Neutralization:

Acid – Acetic Acid : 1 g/l

Soaping:

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 42


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

Soaping Agent – JET : 0.7.5 g/l

Dyeing:

Dispersing Agent – Satanal – WS : 1 g/l


Buffer – Etasan – S : 1.5 g/l

Taicon Yellow HWT : 0.114 %


Taicon Crimson XTF : 0.093 %
Taicon Navy Blue HWT : 1.728 %

Reduction Clearing:

Caustic Soda : 2 g/l


Hydrose - : 2 g/l

Neutralization:

Acid – Acetic Acid : 1 g/l

Soaping:

Soaping Agent – JET : 0.7.5 g/l

Cotton Part Dyeing:

Dyeing Program: 02; Cotton Dk Isothermal Process:

Pretreatment:

Detergent – Sandaclean PCLF : 1 g/l

Neutralization:

Acid – Acetic Acid : 1 g/l


Dyeing:

Sequestering Agant – LadiQuest 1097 : 2 g/l


Anti-creaser – Drivol PAM-N : 2 g/l
Levelling Agent – Drimagen E2R : 2 g/l
Antifoam – Antimussol – HTS : 0.2 g/l

Remazol Yellow RGB : 0.88 %


Remazol Red RGB : 0.929 %
Kemifix Navy SPW : 2.04 %

Electrolyte – Gluber Salt : 80 g/l


Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 43
Mosannef hossain bhuiya

Alkali – Soda ash : 5 g/l


Caustic Soda : 1 g/l

Neutralization:

Acid – Acetic Acid : 1 g/l

Soaping:

Soaping Agent – Dekol SN : 0.7.5 g/l

Fixing:

Acid – Acetic Acid : 0.3 g/l


Fixing – Cyclonol ERL : 0.75 g/l

Softner:

Acid – Acetic Acid : 0.45 g/l


Cationic softner – Cerenine – KWL : 1.25 g/l
Cationic softner – Basosft F- Euk : 0.75 g/l

Common faults in knit dyeing


Fabric faults creating during dyeing:
 Crack, rope & crease marks:
• Causes:
 Poor opening of the fabric rope
 Shock cooling of synthetic material
 Incorrect process procedure
 Higher fabric speed

• Remedies:
 Pre-Heat setting
 Lower rate rising and cooling the temperature
 Reducing the m/c load
 Higher liquor ratio
 Running at a slightly higher nozzle pressure

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 44


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

 Fabric distortion and increase in width:


• Causes:
 Too high material speed
 Low liquor ratio
• Remedies:
 By decreasing both nozzle pressure & winch speed
 Pilling:
• Causes:
 Too high mechanical stress on the surface of the fabric
 Excess speed during processing
 Excess foam formation in the dye bath
• Remedies:
 By using of a suitable chemical lubricant
 By using antifoaming agent
 By turn reversing the Fabric before dyeing

 Running problem:
a. Ballooning:
• Causes:
 Seam joining with too densely sewn

• Remedies:
 By cutting a vertical slit of 10-15 cm in length for escaping the air.

b. Intensive foaming:
• Causes:
 Pumping a mixture of air and water

• Remedies:
 By using antifoaming agent

Dyeing faults & their remedies:


 Uneven dyeing:
• Causes:
 Uneven pretreatment (uneven scouring, bleaching & mercerizing)
 Uneven heat-setting in case of synthetic fibres
Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 45
Mosannef hossain bhuiya

 Quick addition of dyes and chemicals


 Lack of control of dyeing m/c
• Remedies:
 By ensuring even pretreatment
 By ensuring even heat-setting in case of synthetic fibres
 By slow addition of dyes and chemicals
 Proper controlling of dyeing m/c
 Shade variation (Batch to batch): Batch to batch shade variation is
common in exhaust dyeing which is not completely avoidable. Even though, to
ensure a consistent batch to batch production of shade the following matters
should be controlled carefully-
 Use standard dyes and chemicals
 Maintain the same liquor ratio
 Follow the standard pretreatment procedure
 Maintain the same dyeing cycle
 Identical dyeing procedure should be followed for the same depth of
the shade
 Make sure that the operators add the right bulk chemicals at the same
time and temperature in the process.
 The Ph, hardness and sodium carbonate content of supply water should
check daily.

 Dye spot:
• Causes:
 Improper mixing of dyestuff in the solution, in right amount of water, at
the temperature.
• Remedies:
 We should pass the dissolved dyestuff through a fine stainless steel
mesh strainer when adding it to the chemical tank, so that the large un-
dissolved particles are removed.

 Patchy dyeing:
• Causes:
 Uneven heat in the machine.
 Improper impregnation of dye liquor due to the low wetting property of
the fabric.
 Dye migration during intermediate dyeing.
• Remedies:
 By proper pretreatment.
 By adding extra wetting agent.
 Heat should be same throughout the dye liquor.

 Specky dyeing:
Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 46
Mosannef hossain bhuiya

• Causes:
 Excessive foam in the dye bath.
 Fall of water droplets on fabric surface before or after dyeing.
 In sufficient after treatment.
• Remedies:
 By using antifoaming agent.
 Sufficient after treatment.
 By using a good wetting agent in the dye bath.

Dyeing machine shortdescription

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 47


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

FINISHING
Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 48
Mosannef hossain bhuiya

Machine Description for Finishing Section:


Finishing section is consisting of two lines. They are –

A. Tube line
B. Open line

A. The machine that are used for open line are given bellow –

- Slitting and Dewatering machine


- Stenter machine
- Compector machine

B. The machines that are used for tube line are given bellow –.

- Dewatering machine
- Dryer
- Compector machine

Tube Line:
Machine no: 01

Machine name : Dewatering machine


Brand name : SHANKU HYDRO EXTRACTOR
Origin : TAIWAN
Speed : 400- 600 rpm

Machine name: 02

Machine name : Dryer machine


Brand name : Kiefer dryer machine
Origin : Germany
Speed : 6 – 40 m/min
Conveyor belt speed : 30 m/min
Over feed : 2 -20 % as required

Machine name: 03

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 49


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

Machine name : Compactor machine


Brand name : Tubetex
Origin : USA
Speed : 15 – 30 m/min
Over feed : 2 - 8 % m/min
Temperature : 100 – 1500C

Open line

Machine no: 01

Machine name : Slitting & Dewatering machine


Brand name : Bianco Slitting machine
Origin : Italy
Speed : 30 – 80 m/min
Over feed : 0 -10 % as required

Machine no: 02

Machine name : Stenter machine


Brand name : Brockner Stenter machine
Origin : Germany
Speed : 5 - 30 m/min
Over feed : 2 -10 % as required
Burner (Gas) : 4*2
Blower : 4*2
Temperature range : 100 - 2200C
GSM Control : By over feed
Manufacturing Year : 1996

Machine no: 03
Machine name : Stenter machine
Brand name : Brockner Stenter machine
Origin : Germany
Speed : 5 - 30 m/min
Over feed : 2 -10 % as required
Burner (Gas) : 5*2
Blower : 5*2
Temperature range : 100 - 2200C
GSM Control : By over feed
Padder roller : Single
Padder Presser range : 3 - 7 bar
Manufacturing Year : 1996

Machine no: 04

Machine name : Open Compactor machine


Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 50
Mosannef hossain bhuiya

Brand name : Tubetex


Origin : USA
Speed : 15 - 20 m/min
Over feed : 4.5 - 6.5 % as required
Temperature range : 100 - 1200C

Other M/C in finishing section:

Machine name : Suiding machine


Brand name : Marino Crosta
Origin : Italy
Brush Speed : 850 – 1200 r.p.m
Brush roller : 06 (Pile roller -3, counter Pile roller – 03)
Drum speed : 65 – 120 r.p.m

QUALTY ASSURANCE DEPARTMENT


Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 51
Mosannef hossain bhuiya

The Quality assurance department is assigned to maintain consistently uniform quality of the
material in process and various stages of its manufacturing.

OBJECTS OF QUALITY CONTROL:

- Research or analysis.
- Selection of raw materials.
- Process control and development.
- Product testing.
- Specification test.
- Should be given economic requirements.
- Quality assurance and so on.

● The way to bulk production :

In this topic we are going to discuss about the role & responsibilities of testing
laboratory from where it is possible to get a direction of doing bulk production of dyed fabric.
Here, we tried to present the way by which standard samples are being brought in the factories
& principle work done with the sample before bulk production of it.
Firstly, when a buyer goes to a factory with an order, he/she gives a standard sample of
fabric or mentions on the book which represents the demand of the buyer.
The type of fabric, the color of fabric everything include to their demand. This is the object of
an industry to produce the product with complete satisfaction of buyers.
The laboratory dyeing techniques & procedure are given below –

LABORATORY WORK

1. Development of lab dip

2. Physical test

3. Chemical test

4. Purity test (dyes and chemicals)

Development of lab dip:

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 52


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

Receiving standard swatch

Spectrophotometer reading

Recipe start up software

Start up recipe given

Manual dispersion (pipatting) Auto dispersion machine

Pot dyeing
Pot dyeing

Unload
Unload

Normal wash
Normal wash

Acid wash
Acid wash

Hot wash
Hot wash

Cold Rinsing
Cold Rinsing

Drying
Drying

4. Purity test
Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 53
Mosannef hossain bhuiya

Purity tests of dyes and chemicals are not done in the lab because of the good will of the
supplier. But still for dyes, especially newly introduced dyes, the sample is dyed with the new
one and then compared with previous samples by visual observation and then they check new
sample’s absorbency, strength, and fastness.

→ Colour measurement of standard samples :-

Color measurement is mainly done for the purpose of shade matching as perfectly
as possible. Shade matching of the produced sample with the standard one is compulsory.
Color measurement can be done by two methods –

Color measurement

Manual method Instrumental method

In manual method, the std. sample’s color is measured by comparing it with previously
produced samples of different tri-chromatic color combination. The sample with which the
color of the std. matched, that sample’s color recipe is being taken for shade matching .This
method’s accuracy completely depends on the vision of the person related to it but person
must be needed gather experience about color matching.

The instrumental method is more reliable if it is operated accurately to do the work of color
measurement. “Spectrophotometer” interfaced with a PC is used for shade matching .This
instrument works with the principle of reflectance measurement of light at different wave
length. When the standard sample is being subjected under spectrophotometer, then the
instrument suggest a recipe with required tri-chromatic colors within the tolerance limit of
color difference. In this way, color measurement of the standard sample is carried out for the
purpose of shade matching.

PREPARATION AND STORAGE OF STOCK DYES AND CHEMICALS:

Preparation of Concentration of stock dye soln -

Normally 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2% stock solution of dyes are
prepared in beakers for daily used.

Preparation of Concentration of stock chemical soln -

Similarly 25% salt and 25% soda stock solutions are prepared in beakers for daily use.

DYES AND CHEMICALS MEASURING FORMULA FOR LABORATORY:


Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 54
Mosannef hossain bhuiya

The amount of dye solution (ml) is calculated as follow -

Fabric weight x Shade %


Amount of dye soln (ml) = -------------------------------------------
Concentration of stock dye soln %

Example –

In recipe, Fabric wt. = 5gm


Shade % = 2%

[If used 0. 5 % stock soln of dyes ] then ,

5X2
n
Amount of dye sol (ml) = --------- = 20ml .
0. 5

The amount of chemical soln (ml) is measured as follow -

Fabric wt. * M : L * g/l


Amount of chemical soln (ml) = --------------------------------------
1000 * Conc. of stock soln %

Example –

In recipe, Fabric wt. = 5 gm


Salt = 20 g/l
M: L = 10

[ if taken 25 % stock soln of salt ] then ,

5 x 10 x 20
Amount of chemical soln (ml) = --------------------- = 4 ml
1000 x 0.25

QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM:


Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 55
Mosannef hossain bhuiya

Q.C

On-Line Off-Line

Off-line Tests:

All the Off-line tests for finished fabrics can be grouped as follows,

1) Physical test

a. GSM
b. Spirality test
c. Shrinkage test
d. Pilling test

2) Chemical test or Color fastness test

a. Fastness to perspiration.
b. Fastness to light and perspiration.
c. Fastness to rubbing and crocking.
d. Fastness to wash.
e. Fastness to light.

On-Line Tests:

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 56


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

1) For Pretreatment -

- pH test.
- Absorbency test.
- Fabric width measure.
- Whiteness test.
- Water quality test.

2) For Dyeing -

- Shade matching check.


- pH check.
- Wash fastness Check.
- GSM checking

3) Machine checking.

QUALITY STANDARD:

In SKL is mainly followed AATCC, Oeko-Tex Standard and ISO methods. Selection of the
method depends on the buyer requirements. Most of the American buyers prefer AATCC and
Oeko-Tex method. For the European buyers ISO method is followed.

SKL, is certified by Oeko-Tex Standard 100 and ISO 9001:2000

Shortly described about Oeko-Tex stdandard 100:

Oeko-Tex std. 100 certificates are designed by the International Association for Research &
Testing considering the consumer safety & environment protection for the purchase of
textiles. This certificate ensures “Confidence in Textiles - tested for harmful substances” &
show to the consumer that goods bought by them are free from any hazards to health such as ,
f. Formaldehyde.
g. Toxic pesticides.
h. Penta Chloro Phenol.
i. Heavy metal traces.
j. Azo dyes which release carcinogenic amines.
k. Halogen carriers.
l. Chlorine bleaching.
m. PH of the aqueous extract.
Oeko-Tex std. 100 from ecological point on textile substrates (Yarn, Fabric, garments etc.)
marked by textile manufacturers. This does not depend solely on the dyestuffs. It also depends
on the processing conditions, various chemicals & other auxiliaries used in the manufacture of
such a substrate.

So, Oeko-Tex std. 100 is not a quality label, it is just only ensures the safety of the textile
goods and eco-labeled.
Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 57
Mosannef hossain bhuiya

These products tested in foreign countries and it is done by the buyers.

SCOPE OF QUALITY CONTROL AND TESTING:

The scope of quality control testing in SKL LTD. is good. It has the following ability for
quality control & testing,

1. ICI pilling tester.


2. Perspiration tester.
3. Spectroflash.
4. Data color – dispenser.
5. Data color – mixture station.
6. Data color solution maker.
7. Washing machine.
8. Dryer.
9. Smart dyer.
10. Smart dryer.
11. Rota wash.
12. Padding mangle.
13. Observer

Machine name : ICI Pilling Tester


Machine function : Measurement of fabric surface
Deterioration
Origin : England
Model : M227A
Manufacturer : SDL ATLAS
Manufacturing year : 2005

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 58


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

ICI Pilling Tester

1. Remove any fibres or fluff from the empty boxes of the test machine by light brushing,
vacuum cleaning or using a compressed air gun and inspect the cork linings for wear or
damage.

2. Turn on the mains switch on the machine. Before testing switch off the test switch to stop
all motion of the boxes. Place four mounted specimens into each box and close the lids
securely.

3. Set the machine to run for the required number or revolutions. This number of revolutions
must be agreed by the buyer.

4. Select the number of revolutions using the blue “prog” key on the counter located on the
front of the instrument. Using the small grey buttons increase the figure shown on the
display until the required number is shown. Press the small red button on the counter face
to set. The pre-set number of revolutions will be displayed on the LED display. When
testing commences the LED will count up to the pre-set number. The machine will then
stop. If the same number of cycles is needed for the next test, simply press the small red
button on the counter to reset. If not, follow the above procedure to change the pre-set
count.

5. Care should be taken when the boxes are rotating to avoid injury to personnel.

6. The red emergency stop button can be pressed at any time to stop the test. The test can
then be resumed from where it left off by pressing the “start” button.

7. After the set number of revolutions, the machine will automatically stop. Remove the
tubes from the machine. To remove the specimens from the tubes carefully remove the
samples using a small pair of scissors.

8. When removing the specimen from the tube, special care must be taken not to damage the
tubes.

9. The sample fabric is then rated with the bobbin taster scale according to the procedure
written previously.

Machine name : Perspiration Tester


Machine function : Fastness to perspiration.
Origin : UK
Manufacturer : SDL ATLAS
Manufacturing year : 2004

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 59


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

Perspiration tester

To test color fastness to perspiration, specimens (fabric, yarn or fiber) in contact with multi
fiber fabric are treated in two different solutions. One solution is acid and one solution is
alkaline. Then the sample is put in a beaker and placed inside the machine at temperature of
37 degree Celsius for 48 hours. Then the sample fabric is rated using the grey scale.

Solutions should be made up immediately prior to use as the chemicals can degrade over time.

 Alkaline solution (makes 1 Litre)

1.1 g of l-histidine-mono-hydrochloride monohydrate


(C6H9O2N3.HCl.H2O)

And

1.1 g of disodium hydrogen-Ortho-Phosphate dihydrate


(Na2HPO4.2H2O)

The solution is brought to Ph 8.0 with 0.1 mol sodium hydroxide solution.

 Acid solution (makes 1 Litre)

2.5 g of l-histidine-mono-hydrochloride monohydrate


(C6H9O2N3.HCl.H2O)

And

2.2 g of sodium dihydrogen-Ortho-Phosphate dihydrate


(NaH2PO4.2H2O)

The solution is brought to pH 5.5 with 0.1 mol sodium hydroxide solution.

Machine name : Spectro Photometer


Machine function : Data Color
Model : SF 600X

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 60


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

Spectro Photometer

SpectroPhotometry involves the use of a spectroPhotometer. A spectroPhotometer is a


Photometer (a device for measuring light intensity) that can measure intensity as a function of
the color, or more specifically, the wavelength of light.

For automatic color matching there are two software that are used,

1. Color tools.
2. DCI match.
In DCI color match the machine is first calibrated by a white and a color tiles. Then here the
color is selected or retrieved. For having the percentage of different colors for the selected
shades these soft wares are used.

After dyeing the sample with the sample dyeing machine the specimen is putted again into the
spectro-Photometer for the assessment of the shade.
The software then gives a clear of the shade. If the shade does not match then it shows the
reason also for taking further step.

Brand name : Data Color Auto Dispensing


Machine function : Color dispersion
Origin : Taiwan
Model : Auto lab TF-40
Manufacturer : Logic Art
Manufacturing year : 2005

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 61


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

Auto Dispensing Machine Stock Solution Platform

In this machine color is mixed automatically with the help of computer. There are 40 bottles
for color mixing and automatic pipetting. The percentage of color and chemicals are given
into the computer and then it is automatically mixed. This machine helps to consume time and
labor.
Brand name : Data Color Mixture Station.
Machine function : Mixture Making
Origin : Taiwan
Model : Auto lab SPS
Manufacturer : Logic Art
Manufacturing year : 2005

Data Color Mixture Station.

This machine is used for making mixture. Solutions are taken into a beaker and then putted
on the machine. The mixing is done with the help of two magnets and one of the magnets is

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 62


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

electric magnet. In this machine six beakers can be placed at a time. It saves time and
manpower with an
Efficiency of 100%.

Brand name : Data Color Solution Maker


Machine function : Making Solution.
Origin : Taiwan
Model : Auto lab SPS
Manufacturer : Logic Art
Manufacturing year : 2005

Nozzle
Solution Maker

With the help of this machine it is possible to make solution with a very less time and
accuracy. There are two water tanks on the top which can supply hot and cold water according
to the program through the nozzles. Required amount of chemicals are first taken into the
beaker and then it is placed on the silver plate just under the nozzles. Hot or cold water is
mixed through the nozzles and the solution is mixture with the help of magnets.

Machine name : Washing Machine


Machine function : Shrinkage Test
Origin : Italy
Model : KM-150-WD
Manufacturer : Kelvinator

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 63


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

Washing machines

These are very basic washing machines used in house hold activities. For the shrinkage test
these are used.

For shrinkage and spirallity test, two sample fabrics of 60 inches length and width are taken.
These two samples are then seamed together and in one side two lines are drawn in both the
directions at a distance of 50 inches each.

Seam line

50 inch

It is then taken into the washing machine and at temperature of 60 degree it is washed. After
that the measurements of the lines and seam movement is taken again.

Seam movement

47 inch

The line distance is reduced to 47 inches.

(50-47) X 100
Shrinkage percentage is = %=6%
50
Machine name : Dryer
The acceptable range for shrinkage test is 5%
Machine function : Drying
Origin : Taiwan
Model
Mosannef hossain : R-364
bhuiya (Textile engineer)
Manufacturer : Rapid
Manufacturing year: 2003.
Mosannef hossain bhuiya

DRYER
This machine performs drying of ample fabric right after dyeing by the sample dyer .Fabric is
dyed at a temperature of 120-130 degree.
Machine name : Dyeing Testing
Machine function : Sample Dyeing
Origin : Taiwan
Model : SD-16P
Manufacturer : Smart Dry
Capacity : 16 pots
No of Machine :2
Manufacturing year : 2003.

SAMPLE DYEING MACHINE

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 65


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

Machine name : Rota Wash


Machine function : Fastness to Washing
Origin : England
Model : M228A
Manufacturer : SDL ATLAS
Manufacturing year: 2003.

Rota Wash

The M228 Rota wash wheel is suitable for color fastness testing according to many standards
and methods, including ISO, AATCC, IWSTM, Marks and Spencer and Next.
The unit uses water as the heating medium and can be used in different configurations of pot
numbers and capacities. If 1200ml pots are purchased, an adaptor is supplied to enable these
to be fitted to the carrier.

For testing color fastness to wash fabric is kept for 30 min at temperature of 60 degree along
with malty fiber. Time, temperature and cooling system is automatic.

Machine name Dyeing Testing (High


:
Temperature)
Machine function : Sample Dyeing
Origin : Hong Kong
Model : SDM2-12-140
Manufacturer : FONGS
Manufacturing year : 2003.

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 66


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

SAMPLE DYEING

It is also a sample dyeing machine but with less capacity. It has got 12 pots. It also used for
fastness test and it has an automatic cooling and heating.

Machine name : Padding Mangle


Machine function : Pigment Dyeing
Origin : India
Model : PM
Manufacturing year : 2002.

PADDING MANGLE

This is also a sample dyeing machine for pigment dyeing. The fabric is first dipped into the
dyeing solution and then padded through the rollers. After that the fabric is dried. Temperature
120-130 degree and time is 2 min.

Machine name : Observer


Machine function : Light Source for observation
Model : CAC 60
Manufacturer : Verivide
This observer is placed at a dark room. It consists of for\ur light source and these are
1. D65
2. TL84
3. F
4. UV
Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 67
Mosannef hossain bhuiya

Here D65 is always used for color matching. Sometimes buyer demands a match by the TL84
also. So D65 and TL84 are used. Here white shades are observed by UV light.

Normally in SKL metamerism is not seen. In case of samples with combination colors,
metamerism is observed but single shades are free from this problem. Sometimes metemarism
is observed due to the position variation of the two fabrics.

Machine name : Crock Meter


Machine function : Fastness to Rubbing
Origin : England
Model : M238AA
Manufacturer : SDL ATLAS
Manufacturing year : 2002.

Crock meter

The AATCC Crock meter is the official instrument of the American Association of Textile
Chemists and Colorists. The Crock meter tests the transference of color from the surface of
one material to another by either wet or dry rubbing. Test conditions are controlled and
reproducible through the use of standard pressure and motion.

1. The rubbing arm is attached to the hook.


2. Center a piece of abrasive paper, abrasive side up, on the base of the Crock meter.
The paper’s long dimension should be in the direction of the rubbing.
3. The specimen is placed flat and face-up on the abrasive paper. The specimen’s long
dimension should be in the direction of the rubbing.
4. A piece of test cloth is centered over the finger so that the weave is parallel with the
direction of rubbing. Wrap the sides of the cloth evenly around the finger, making sure
the cloth is smooth and taut over the finger’s rubbing area.
5. The covered finger is then lowered onto the test specimen.
6. The cycle counter is reset.

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 68


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

7. The handle is turned at the rate


of one turn per second for ten times. (Each back and forth motion of the arm equals
one stroke and at a speed of 1 stroke/second.)
8. After 10 strokes the specimen is removed and compared with the gray scale.
The acceptable range is normally 3.

SPECIAL FEATURES OF SAMPLE DYEING MACHINE:

• It is contain 16 pots and 16 samples can be dyed at the same time.


• Maximum 15 gm of sample can be dyed / pot.
• Auto time and temperature control.
• Speed controller unit.
• IR heating system.
• Good movement of liquor.

M/c maintenance: Wash by Cold acetic acid two or three times in a day.

PROCEDURE OF LAB DIP:

For 100% cotton fabric (all in method) -

• Fabric weight measured by electric balance.


• Calculate the recipe.
• Keep the fabric in the pot.
• Then required amount of dyes, water, salt, soda and other chemicals are
taken to the pot by pipe ting .
• Start the program for dyeing. The dyeing time and temperature depend on
types of dyes being used.

Program – 1: For light shade


Fixed temp. = 600c
Time = 60 min.

Program – 2: For dark shade


Fixed temp. = 800c
Time = 60 min.
• After finished the dyeing time then cold wash two times.
• Acid wash for neutralization.
• Then soaping by required soap solution for 10 min. at 950c.

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 69


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

• Cold wash then drying the lab dip and compare with the standard.

For Polyester/cotton blend fabric (all in method) -

• Fabric weight measured by electric balance.


• Calculate the recipe for polyester part.
• Keep the fabric in the pot.
• Then required amount of dyes, water, dispersing agent, acetic acid and
sodium acetate are taken to the pot by pipetting.
• Start the program for dyeing. The dyeing time and temperature are carried
out for 30 min. at 1300c.
• After finished the dyeing time then cold wash two times.
• Then reduction clearing by hydrose, caustic & detergent for
20 min at 700c.
• Cold wash then drying and match with the standard sample.
Again,

Calculate the recipe for cotton part.

Keep the fabric in the pot.

Then required amount of dyes, water, salt, soda and other chemicals are
taken to the pot by pipetting .
• Start the program for dyeing. The dyeing time and temperature depends on
what types of dyes are being used.
Program – 1:
Fixed temp. = 600c
Time = 60 min.
Program – 2 :
Fixed temp. = 800c
Time = 60 min.
• Then soaping by required soap solution for 10 min. at 950c.
• Cold wash then drying the lab dip and compare with the standard sample.
RANGE OF SALT AND SODA ACCORDING TO THE SHADE %:

Shade % Crystal salt ( g/L) Soda ash ( g/L )

0- 0.1 20 10
0.1 – 0.5 30 15
0.5 – 1 40 20
1–2 50 20
2–3 60 20
3-4 70 20
4-5 80 20
5-6 100 25

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 70


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

QUALITY CONTROL STANDARD VALUES:

Wash fastness test by ROTAWASH:

Standard value: For color change, grey scale = 4.5


For color staining, grey scale = 4.5

Rubbing fastness test by Crocking meter.

Standard value: For dry fabric staining value, grey scale = 4.5
For wet fabric staining value, grey scale = 4

G.S.M test:

At first, Cut the fabric by G.S.M cutter and then it is weighted by electric balance.

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 71


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

Inventory
Inventory is stock or store of good. Inventory management is a vital part for any factory
because smooth production as well as cost of storage depends on it.

SCOPE OF INVENTORY CONTROL:

- Raw materials inventories


- In process inventories
- Finished good inventories
- Maintenance, repair and operational inventories
- Miscellaneous inventories

FUNCTION OF INVENTORY:

- To smooth production requirement


- To meet anticipate demand
- To protect against stock outs
- To take advantages of order cycles
- To take advantages of quality discounts

PROCUREMENT SYSTEM:
`
- Dyes (mostly used like Dyechufix, Remazol, Levafix dyes) and chemicals (regular
items like Sequestering agent, Anti creasing agent, Caustic, Stabilizer etc.) are
imported from CHINA, GERMANY & INDIA.
- Some dyes (from Clarient) and chemicals (from BASF) are collected by direct
purchase through indent.
- Crystal salt and Soda ash is purchase from local distributor.

INVENTORY STORE SYSTEM FOR RAW MATERIAL:


In SKL LTD, there are different inventory systems for different raw materials.

Grey Fabric Store:


All the grey fabrics are stored in the fabric store near the batch section. Different types of
fabric are listed in the sheet according to fabric types, quantity and consumer’s requirement.

Dyes and Chemicals store:


There is a different store for dyes and chemicals. Varies types of dyes and chemicals are
stored here according to dyes and chemicals companies. Different types of dyes and chemicals
are listed in a sheet. In the sheet the stored quantity of dyes and chemicals are also included.

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 72


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

Every day the sheet is updated and a copy of this sheet is supplied to the dyeing manager, dye
house and lab section.

Finished goods store:


In SKL supplies its finished dyed fabrics to its garments section. So, dyed finished
fabrics are stored for short time in the finishing section. All the delivered fabrics are noted on
the tally khata according to the lot no, quantity, fabrics diameter, buyer's name, color &
considering other technical parameters.

Spares part store:


In SKL required amount of spares of different machines are stored in the mechanical
store room. All the spares are listed in a sheet which is controlled by the mechanical &
maintenance personnel. Spares are arranged in the store room according to there size, quantity
& requirements. There are shelves in the store room to keep the small spare parts.
STORE CAPACITY:

Items Amount
Dyes 7-8 tons
Chemicals 30-35 tons
Yarn storage 300 tons
Grey fabric 120 tons
Finished fabric 200 tons

FREQUENCY OF INVENTORY CONTROL:

- Daily inventory control


- Monthly inventory control
- Yearly inventory control

RE-ORDER POINT:

The re-order point is stated in terms of level of inventory at which an order should be placed
for replenishing the current stock of inventory. Re order quantity depends on the lead time of
the product with some additional safety period. It also depends on the store capacity of
factory. For example if the lead time of a product is two month then normally re ordering
quantity may be for two and half months.

REMARKS:

SKL has individual stores for raw materials, finished goods, etc. There is not enough
space to store the finished goods. It requires increasing the store area. In SKL the store for
inventory control is satisfactory. Sometimes, they fluctuate from ideal process otherwise they
are okay.

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 73


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL

BASIC PROCEDURE OF PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL:

A planned work brings success. With out planning nothing is complete within the required
time. So planning has its own importance which is intolerable. Planning gives a scheduled
task and control completes it successfully. But production planning and control is not an easy
task. Its basic working procedure is as follows-

• Taking order from marketing division.


• Analyzing the orders.
• Planning for knitting the fabric.
• Planning for dyeing the fabric.
• Planning for finishing the fabric.

It is only a basic procedure. It may change according to the type of order. Sometimes the order
is placed only for finishing the materials or only for dyeing the goods. Then some steps are
minimizing for planning.

• Taking order from marketing division:

Marketing division supplied fabric orders to the planning and control division by a
specific format.

• Analyzing the orders:

After getting the fabric order, this section analyzes the orders according to buyers order
quantity, type of orders (i.e. type of fabric, color to be dyed etc.), delivery date etc. This
section plans for required quantity of fabric to be knitted (order quantity + 10% of the
order quantity), knitting balance, fabric to be dyed, dyeing balance, RFD (ready for
delivery), RFD balance, delivery fabric & delivery balance etc.

• Planning for knitting:

This section plans for knitting production. It selects m/c for knitting the fabric, no of m/c
to be used, type of yarn used, from which source yarn will be collected, required GSM,
width etc. It also gives delivery date of knitted fabric.

• Planning for dyeing the fabric:

Production planning for dyeing is called “Batch plan”. Batch plan is prepared according to
the batch no, fabric construction, color, width, GSM and priority of delivery etc and
written in a batch card.
Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 74
Mosannef hossain bhuiya

• Planning for finishing the fabric:

Finishing schedule are same as the dyeing. After dyeing, materials go to the finishing
section with the batch plan. Finishing data is written to the batch card and is informed to
the planning section. However, this section always forces to all the departments to finish
all the work within the delivery time given by the buyers. Thus, it plays a very important
role in the success of the company.

COST ANALYSIS

COSTING OF THE PRODUCT:

Costing system mainly describe how the cost of the final product is fixed by the company or
top managements. As it is a garments manufacturing factory, so according to the buyer or
customer requirements of final garments, merchandiser give the consumption of the fabric
with specifications. Then it is calculated how much dyestuffs & chemicals are required for
processing. After that, the final cost is fixed including some profit. Then the unit price is
offered to the buyer for their approval.

COSTING OF A PRODUCT INCLUDES:


• Yarn cost
• Knitting cost
• Dyes & chemicals cost
• Cost of dyeing
• Cost of finishing
• Cost of cutting ,sewing, accessories etc
• Cost of printing (If any)
• Labor cost (direct & indirect)
• Factory cost
• Office & administrative cost
• Sales and caring cost
• Others cost
• Profit, etc.

REMARKS:
Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 75
Mosannef hossain bhuiya

The costing of the product is most secret matter of the industry. They are not
interested to flash the cost related data. So we could not collect the price of the product.

UTILITY SEVICE

UTILITY SERVICES

SKL is a big project. So, it required adequate utility services without the factory can’t run.
Here the following utility services are available-

- Water
- Electricity
- Steam
- Gas
- Compress air

WATER:

WATER TREATMENT PLANT


Water Treatment Plant for Sinha knitting Ltd. is illustrated below. Here for knit wet
processing SKL is like to use clarified water generally and soft water for the case of critical
shade.

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 76


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

The plant processes 200 cubic meters per hour. The chief source of water is the surface water.
By using various pump and pipe arrangement surface water is carrying to the WTP. Water is
collected at 10 ft depth from the surface. First of all 5 ppm of hypochlorite per cubic meter is
added to the water raw water then 60 to 150 ppm of ferrous sulphate and 0.1 ppm of
polyelectrolyte is added to per cubic meter of raw water.

The water flow direction is clear at the picture. Here water flow through the first hollow
cylinder and moves under the cylinder then it passes through the second to third by means of
over flow. A few sludge is sediment at second cylinder and a lot of sludge is sediment at the
third. From third cylinder water is passing to the filter chamber is also followed by the over
flow of water. At the second cylinder water stayed for a little time as its volume is poor
enough than the third that’s why few sludge is estimated over there. In filtration chamber
water is kept for a long duration like 22 hours which is allowed to sediment a lot of sludge
remaining in the treated water. At the out late of filtration chamber there is a stone filtration
and fabric filtration system has applied. After filtration chamber water is kept at collection
tank. This water is clarified water. It is directly used for knit dyeing. And for boiler and woven
dyeing water is allowed to pass through a carbon screening chamber and a softener. For water
softening geolyte is used that means sodium permutit.

STANDERD WATER QUALITY FOR DYE HOUSE:

Parameter Permissible concentration


Color Color less
Smell No bed smell
Water Hardness <5 ppm
PH value 7-8 (Neutral)
Dissolve solid < 1 ppm
Inorganic salt < 500 ppm
Iron(Fe) < 0.1 ppm
Manganese(Mn) < 0.01 ppm
Copper (Cu) <0.005 ppm
Nitrate(NO3) < 50 ppm
Nitrate(NO2) < 5 ppm

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 77


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

ELECTRICITY:

In SKL there are 6 generators for electricity supply and they supply current through bus bars
to different sections.
TYPES OF MODEL MANF.NO BRAND RATING(KW ORIGIN
MACHINE NO )
Generator -01 G3412 7DB0094 CATERPILLA 380 USA
4 R
Generator – G3412 7DB0114 CATERPILLA 390 USA
02 0 R
Generator – G3412 AFE00362 CATERPILLA 360 USA
03 R
Generator-04 G3412 5NA1100 CATERPILLA 360 USA
7 R
Generator-05 G3412 5NA0959 CATERPILLA 385 USA
3 R
Generator – D3412 5NA0957 CATERPILLA 360 USA
06 5 R
Generator – D3406 5N18- CATERPILLA 166 USA
06 458H461 R
0
Total 2401

GENERATORS

Boiler:

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 78


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

The equipment used for producing steam is called steam generator or boiler. The boiler used
for producing steam is a fire tube type boiler. Fire tube type is mainly used in small plant
requiring small quantity of steam and where floor area is limited.
Here, gas is fed to the burner which run by thermo motor and produce flame. The flame
produces hot flue gases, which pass through the tubes that are surrounded by water. This
water is supplied from the soft water tank to the feed water tank, which is situated above the
boiler. The heat energy of the flue gas is transfer to water which is converted into steam. This
steam is supplied to the whole plant. The spent gases are then discharged to the atmosphere
through chimney.

TYPES MODEL MANF.NO. MANF. ORIGIN CAPACIT


OF NO. Y
MACHINE (KG/DAY)
Boiler-01 RFB 80A/10.45/E/ THERMA INDIA 8000
80A/10.54/ 2-96 X
E
Boiler-02 80A/10.54/ THERMA INDIA 8000
7 X

BOILERS
Compress air:

In the compressor section following machines are used

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 79


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

TYPES OF MODEL NO. MANF.NO. MANF. ORIGIN CAPACIT


MACHINE Y
(Ltr/sec)

Compressor GA 55VSD API-572545 ATLASCOPC BELGIUM 171.7


O
Compressor GA 55VSD API-573595 ATLASCOPC BELGIUM 171.7
O
Compressor GA 55VSD API573596 ATLASCOPC BELGIUM 171.7
O
Compressor GA 55VSD API574726 ATLASCOPC BELGIUM 171.7
O
Air dryer FD 245A CAQ 258835 ATLASCOPC BELGIUM
O
Air dryer FD 260 CAQ 124083 ATLASCOPC BELGIUM 260
O

COMPRESSORS
Gas:

SKL uses natural gas from Titas Gas Transmission Company. Gas is used as the fuel of Boiler,
Generator and also used for heating dryer, Stenter and compactor m/cs etc.

EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT


Effluent treatment plant of Sinha Textile group is based on combined method, ie biological
and physicochemical treatment is accomplished together. This plant can treat 350 cubic
meter of raw effluent per hour. The raw character of this plant is described below,

Basic characteristics of raw effluent

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 80


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

Sl CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS
NO
PARAMETERS UNIT AMOUNT

1. pH 11.8
2. Suspended solids mg/L 378.8
3. Biological Oxygen Demand(BOD) mg/L 416
4. Chemical Oxygen Demand(COD) mg/L 850

PHYSICAL CHARECTERISTICS
5. Color Brown to black
6. Odour Not distinct
7. Temperature 40

First of all raw effluent is allowed to pass through the screening chamber. Here the filtration
system to separate the suspended solids. Then it is allowed to keep in collection tank for 1 hrs
and then to the equalization tank for 12 hrs. Here effluent is mixed properly. After the
equalization tank effluent is followed to treat at flocculation chamber for 2 hrs. Here 1.66 ppm
of ferrous sulPhate solution, 0.5 ppm of lime solution and 0.0016 ppm (1.6 µgm / L) of poly
electrolyte solutions are prepared to react with effluent solution. These solutions are flowed to
effluent continuously. After the flocculation chamber treated effluents are allowed to sediment
the sludge. Effluent without sludge is passed by over flow and the sludge is separated by
pumping action described in picture. This chamber is known as clarification-1. Then the
effluent is followed to the FAB-1 & FAB-2 here the biological action is going on. There are
bio reactors (is a plastic residence for bacteria) those are used to keep bacteria. FAB means
fluidus attached bed. And here the aeration is carried on by means of blower diffuser
arrangement. After this chamber

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 81


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

there are another clarifier used to sediment sludge. All the sludge goes to central sludge tank
where centrifugal action is applied for de-watering sludge. And the sludge is kept in bag to
sludge store. Treated water from second clarifier is directly discharged to the river finally.

COMPLIENCE

Sinha Textile group is maintaining a lot of compliance issues since its starting. There is a
hospital inside factory. Also there are schools, collage and quarters for all kinds of employee.
For fire issue there is a fire brigade truck and a fire team is employed. There is an ambulance
per 6 units. To control fire problems there is a dry powder spray cylinder after every 15 meters
in floor. There is a day care centre for ladies operators. In salary they are paying ceremony
bonuses, health bonuses and a lot. In one word it can be an ideal compliance industry.

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 82


Mosannef hossain bhuiya

To inspire students they facilitate different training programs for the students. It is not only
facilitating for the student of textile faculty but also for the Electrical, Mechanical, Business
and chemistry faculty.

CONCLUSION
Industrial training is an important and essential part of education as through this training we
learn all the implementations of the processes which we have studied theoretically. It gives us
an opportunity to compare the theoretical knowledge with practical facts and thus develop our
knowledge and skills. This industrial training also gives us an opportunity to enlarge our
knowledge of textile administration, production planning, procurement system, production
process, and machineries and teach us to adjust with the industrial life.

I have found myself fortunate to have my industrial training at SKL. It has a huge production
capacity with a very efficient production team. SKL has a very good, well equipped and
modern laboratories and producing a wide range of color. During my training period I have
Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 83
Mosannef hossain bhuiya

noticed that SKL is very concern about their quality and they rarely have any quality
complain. The management of SKL is very organized, pre-active and co-operative.

At the end of the day I realized that industrial training make my knowledge’s application
practically and make me confident to face any problem of my job sector.

Mosannef hossain bhuiya (Textile engineer) 84