LM.UiTM.FKE(O).08 LM.UiTM.FKE(O).08/02(Pindaan1)


Chicken Feeder System Using Microcontroller
Marks Allocated Marks Obtained

Description I. Research Methodology (Will be filled by Project Coordinator) Attendance  Seminars II. a) Proposal (Will be filled by Project Supervisor) Abstract The abstract should consist of the following elements: Brief overview of the project scope.  Summary of the proposed project. ummary Introduction The introduction part should: should: Outline brief overview of the project and identify the encountered problems.  Describe the methods already available in solving the problem  Describe the proposed approach to be implemented in the project. Methodology  Describe the approach in the project.  May involve the following followings:- Simulation, Design, hardware construction, analysis and proposed f field tests. Plan schedules (Gantt Chart) for both semesters. Conclusions  Discuss on the (expected) results of the method used and its usefulness. Total Marks Sub Total Part II: III. Work Progress (Will be filled by Project Supervisor) Creativity/ideas Logbook Sub Total Part III:


1 15





d) e)

10 20 100 50 20 20 40

Total: ………../ 100 marks Supervisor’s Signature Name: Coordinator’s Signature Date:

Title: Automatic Chicken Feeder System Using Microcontroller. 1.0 Introduction Although we are moving towards develop nation status by 2020, agriculture is still relevant. Nowadays, farming and breeding are as important as the other crucial sectors. Year by year the numbers of entrepreneurs that get involve in commercialize chicken breeding increases. Nowadays, government also encourages people to make small business as an alternative to increase their income and at the same time improving our economy status [1]. When people do this as a commercial purpose, they need to determine the suitable size of the chicken cage. The specific size of the chicken cage is needed in order to cater to the total number of the chickens. For commercial purposes, usually people allocate more than 5000 chickens in some big cages. Most people usually have less than 2000 chicken one cage [2]. That would be considers as a small business. Another aspect also needs to be considered is the method of feeding the chicken. The method can be done in two ways whether by manually or automatically. As we know before the development of technology and ICT people were used to the conventional method to feed chickens which is by filling containers with grains and foods manually. The main problem by doing this method is we need to continuously provide the food, be alert and conscious on the food remaining in cages all by ourselves. The sufficient amount of the food provided also cannot be determined clearly. It is such a waste and non-economical. Breeders also find that it is difficult to manage their business effectively because they need to be around the cages every now and then to monitor the poultry. Nowadays, the automatic feeding system is available in the market. This method is actually better than manual. But, there are also some problems and weakness need to be overcome and solved. Firstly, the automation, the computerized method is suitable and caters more to the commercial purpose. This is because the needs of high investment for equipment and devices. We also need precise manual guide and knowledgeable, skilled people to operate the machine. Second, more workspace is needed to put and assembly the automatic system.

Therefore, an automatic chicken feeder system is proposed to provide the food effectively and also to control chickens feeding time. This controller system provides an efficient solution for exact quantity of the food distribution, fixed feeding time and hassle free automatic feeding in order to help breeders. User can set desired time and save it to microcontroller’s memory. As the consequences, the feeder will feed the chicken automatically as what has been set. 2.0 Literature Review Manual chicken feeder The manual feeder system consist the various type of the container. Manual system needs human to refill the container with grain and it must be done constantly. The time to feed the chicken also cannot be determined exactly, usually two times per day. The system does not have any electronic system; it only consists of plastic container. This container can be get with various sizes and shape such as circle, vertical etc. The size is determined by what amount can be hold by container. The vertical size container is around 30 – 50cm. The containers need to hang up to avoid the chicken scrape the grain. The figure 2 shows two type of the container. This container only can holds grain with amount around 2 - 18 kilogram [18].

Galvanized Chick Feeder with anti waste holes Figure 2: The type of manual feeder

Durable Plastic chicken feeder

Automatic chicken feeder These automatic systems consist of the expensive hardware, the manual guide to use and also use more electricity. Most of the automatic system use motor to provide movement. The container will move through the feeder and fill up with grain with a specific amount. This system very useful but required a lot a money to use it. The maintenance also needed to make it functionally. The feeder will move around the cage and will fill up by the grain. These systems only operate during the feeding time. The benefit for this system, it is not required human to go to the plate to fill the grain. But this system still needs a human to control the machine. The more work space is also needed to place this machine. The figure 3 show the automatic chicken feeder that use for nowadays.

Figure 3: The type of automatic feeder system

3.0 The Automatic Chicken Feeder System Using Microcontroller The block diagram of the system is shown in figure 5. The main component of the system consists: 1) Microcontroller (PIC) 2) Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) 3) Switch 4) Motor The input of the system is determined by the switch. Switches are used to interface between the user and the microcontroller. These switches provide to user to enter the desired time. The microcontroller will be read the signal from the switch and store as the input. This paper proposes a new chicken feeder system by using microcontroller. It is an alternative method to replace the conventional technique. This system will be use the microcontroller to replace human energy [3]. The function of the microcontroller is to control this automatic chicken feeder which will solve all the problems regarding chicken feeding process. The microcontrollers are connected with switch, LCD and stepper motor. Microcontroller receives the input from the switch and then will be process the data to feed the chicken. It also helps the user by display the current operation and time simultaneously using LCD. Another output of the system is a stepper motor. This motor is selected because it can easily perform to control the chicken feeder. Figure 4 show how the stepper motor will be use. The size of the casing can be determined depends on the amount of chicken take every day. This system is different with the other automatic system. Most of the automatic systems require more space to operate and also costly.

LCD Switch


Stepper motor with gear Figure 4: The casing with the stepper motor

3.1 The System Operation The significant of this project is to maintain the schedule for chicken feeding in a specific time. It will help people to feed the chicken with exact and sufficient amount. The system will be operated according to the time that has been set. Then, breeders do not have to worry if they forgot to feed the chicken or if they want to leave the chicken for a few days. The microcontroller will do it for them. In order to do that, we need the second part that is software part. The software part contains the assembly language. Once the system is on, the program will be initialize the output, input port and the LCD. Then, the program will scan the switch whether it is pressed or not. User can choose the time needed to feed the chicken. Then system will be run 24 hours and the food will be feed. Once the system needs to feed the chicken, the microcontroller will set the motor ON to feed the chicken. The amount of food feed depends on the delay set in the software. This system it does not require person to monitor because all process will be performed by the microcontroller. The breeder can leave the system for the whole days, and for minimum of three days. Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)




Figure 5: Block diagram of the whole system


Initialize the LCD, input & output ports

Read user setting

Is the switch is press


Yes System run

Delay 1


Is it time to feed? Yes Turn on the motor

Delay 2

Turn off the motor


Figure 6: The flowchart of the system

4.0 Project Methodology This project has been conducted by do some literature review such as survey on the internet what people have done before about the chicken feeder. The information about chicken feeder also came out by reading from newspaper. Besides that, the discussion with the people that involve in chicken feeder also been done. This project requires a lot of information regarding the process that involves in existing feeding system. For example, we need to find out the appropriate feeding duration and so on so forth [2]. After we gather all the data and information then only the system can be built and constructed. This project will be conducted by using two separate parts which are software and hardware parts. It is important to know about the feature and components of the controller in order to control it [4]. Microcontroller acts as the time controller whereby it distinguishes the appropriate feeding time to poultry. The project consists of two different parts that are interrelated to each other. The first part that must be highly considered is the hardware. The specifications of the system need to be determined according the problem statement. This system will act like human to feed the chicken. The controller circuit needs the motor to replace the human energy. For this, we need the microcontroller to control the motor such PIC. The name PIC initially referred to "Programmable Interface Controller", but shortly thereafter was renamed "Programmable Intelligent Computer" [4]. All the PIC’s that are produced by Microchip Company have a specific instruction that need to be study carefully and attentively [5, 21]. Another component is the LCD [6]. An alphanumeric LCD will be used in this system to display the time to feed the chicken. “How to use Intelligent LCD” proposed by Julyan Ilett [7] is one of the resources article needed to be studied in order to control the LCD. The LCD will be embedded to the microcontroller to complete the system. There are other components needed to build up the system such as resistor, capacitor, resonator, voltage regulator, keypad and battery as a main supply. Once the system is built up, the software for controlling can design. The PIC microcontroller need to program in order to make it function in the circuit. The way to program the PIC can be done by various ways such as using C programming [8, 15], assembly language [9, 19, 20] and BASIC language [16, 17]. By using C program, the instruction can be simple and not complex [10, 22].

This instruction is needed to initialize the LCD. The LCD has the specific command to make it function [7]. The Instructions that will be use in the microcontroller can be developed by using MPLAB Integrated Development Environment (IDE) [11, 14]. The function of this software is to compile the assembly language into the machine code. We know that the C programming can be used to program PIC [8]. Then, the compiler for C programming is going to be used and need to select. The compiler that can be used for compiling task is the mikroC for PIC [12]. As we know C Programming comprises of the high level language. It takes much more memory in the PIC. Therefore, the PIC that has more memory should be used in this case. Once all the software and hardware part is built up, the simulation part can be run to test whether it is function or not. In order to save cost and reduce hardware failures, hardware can be simulated by using the software Proteus Virtual System Modeling (VSM) that provided by the company Labcenter Electronic [13]. This software can be used to simulate almost all of the microcontroller functions. We can key in the instruction codes and the system will work accordingly as what have been saved and coded. The simulation must indicate the software and hardware to make it function properly. Then we can be built up the system on the PCB board. The unique instruction will be burn in into the PIC. The assembly language is designed compatibility with the hardware. The hardware and software will be test simultaneously. Output and input ports are determined by the hardware assembly. The software need to be burn in many times to test the hardware. The voltage and current can measure by using oscilloscope. The output can be monitor and must be stable with the different amount of the grain. The graph and table be describing the result. The result from the testing can be use to write the thesis and technical paper. All the information will be use during the presentation. The preparation for the presentation will be included all the software and hardware part. Once the thesis is already finish, then can be submitted. There are a few limitations and disadvantages in this project. This project only focuses on feeding the chicken meanwhile water, temperature and environment are not to be considered. Otherwise, size of the container also limited to a specific amount of grain. For example the container only can support 1kg of grain in a time. More amount of grain need bigger container.

5.0 Conclusion As a conclusion, the system is expected to provide the food to the chickens and poultry for the whole days without constantly human monitoring. This system offers more benefit and user friendly. It is expected to run in less power consumption during operation and low cost to setup and controls. References [1] “Kempen Ternak Ayam Kampong”, Utusan Malaysia online, 15/04/1998 [2] Ismail Muda, Private communication, Self Business, 2008 [3] Tim Wilmshurst, “Designing Embedded System with PIC Microcontroller”, 1st Edition, Elsevier Ltd., 2007. [4] “PIC Microcontroller”, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PIC_microcontroller/ [5] Julio Sanchez, Maria P.Canton., “Microcontroller Programming The Microchip PIC®”, CRC Press, 2007. [6] “Liquid Crystal Display”, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LCD_display [7] Julyan Ilett, “How to Use intelligent LCD”, Everyday Practical Electronic Magazines,Vol 36 No 2, February 1997. [8] Jivan S.Parab, Vinod G.Shelake, “Exploring C for Microcontroller”, Springer, 2007. [9] Nebojsa Matic, “The PIC Microcontroller”, http://www.mikroe.com/en/books/picbook/picbook.htm [10] Mike Hibbett, “C for PICs”, Everyday Practical Electronic, November 2007 [11] “MPLAB Integrated Development Environment”, http://www.microchip.com/stellent/idcplg?IdcService=SS_GET_PAGE&nodeId= 1406&dDocName=en019469&redirects=mplab

[12] “mikroC for PIC”, http://www.mikroe.com/en/ [13] “The VSM Advantage”, http://www.labcenter.co.uk/index.cfm. [14] Mike Hibbett, “An Introduction to MPLAB”, Everyday Practical Electronic, June 2007. [15] Dogan Ibrahim, “Advance PIC Microcontroller Projects in C” Elsevier, 2008 [16] “Programming PIC microcontroller in BASIC”, http://www.mikroe.com/en/books/picbasicbook/00.htm [17] Dogan Ibrahim, “PICBASIC Projects 30 Projects Using PIC BASIC and PIC BASIC PRO”, Elsevier, 2006 [18] “Home Farm Fowls”, http://www.homefarmfowls.co.uk/feeders.html [19] D.W. Smith, “PIC in Practice”, ELSEVIER, 2006 [20] Sid Katzen, “The Quintessential PIC Microcontroller”, Springer-Verlag, November 8, 2000 [21] "PIC® Microcontroller Overview", http://www.microchip.com/stellent/idcplg?IdcService=SS_GET_PAGE&nodeId= 2120&param=en022594 [22] Muhammad Ali Mazidi, Rolin D.McKinlay, Danny Causey, “PIC Microntroller and Embedded Systems using Assembly and C for PIC18”, Prentice Hall, 2008

Semester July 2008 – November 2008 and December 2008 – April 2009
Task/Month Literature review Design the controller circuit and feeder casing Design the software for controlling processing Learn how to program the PIC Perform Simulation Build electronic controller and developed controlling software Build casing Hardware & software testing Writing thesis Prepare Technical paper & presentation Submit thesis JULY AUGUST SPETEMBER OCTOBER NOVEMBER DECEMBER JANUARY FEBRUARY MAC APRIL

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