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Energy and Chemical Change


Section 15.1 Energy
pages 516522

6. Challenge A 4.50-g nugget of pure gold

absorbed 276 J of heat. The initial temperature was 25.0 C. What was the final temperature?
q T T Tf c m T (0.129 J/g C)(4.50 g) Tf 25.0 C 475 C q (276 J) _ __ cm Tf 5.00 Ti 475 C

Practice Problems
pages 519521

1. A fruit and oatmeal bar contains 142 nutritional

Calories. Convert this energy to calories.


142 Calories 142 kcal 142 kcal 142,000 cal

_
1000 cal 1 kcal

102 C

Section 15.1 Assessment


page 522

2. An exothermic reaction releases 86.5 kJ. How

many kilocalories of energy are released?


86.5 kJ 1 kcal _ 4.184 kJ 20.7 kcal

7. Explain how energy changes from one form to

another in an exothermic reaction. In an endothermic reaction.


Chemical potential energy changes to heat in exothermic reactions and the heat is released. In endothermic reactions, heat is absorbed and changed to chemical potential energy.

3. Challenge Define a new energy unit, named

after yourself, with a magnitude of one-tenth of a calorie. What conversion factors relate this new unit to joules? To Calories?
Unit X
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

0.1 cal 4.184 J 0.4184 J

8. Distinguish between kinetic and potential

1 cal X

(0.1 cal)(4.184 J/cal) 0.001 Calorie

1 cal X

energy in the following examples: two separated magnets; an avalanche of snow; books on library shelves; a mountain stream; a stock-car race; separation of charge in a battery.
Two separated magnets illustrate potential energy. In a snow avalanche, positional potential energy is changing to kinetic energy. Books on a shelf illustrate positional potential energy. As water races down a mountain stream, positional potential energy is changing to kinetic energy. In a stock-car race, chemical potential energy is being changed to kinetic energy. The separation of charge in a battery illustrates electrical potential energy.

(0.1 cal)(1 Cal/1000 cal)

0.0001 Calorie

4. If the temperature of 34.4 g of ethanol increases

from 25.0C to 78.8C, how much heat has been absorbed by the ethanol? Refer to Table 15.2.
q q c m T 34.4 g 53.8C 4.52 103 J 2.44 J/(g C)

5. A 155-g sample of an unknown substance was

heated from 25.0C to 40.0C. In the process, the substance absorbed 5696 J of energy. What is the specific heat of the substance? Identify the substance among those listed in Table 15.2 on page 520.
q c c m T (155 g)(40.0 25.0C) 2.45 J/(g C) q (5696 J) _ ___ m T

9. Explain how the light and heat of a burning

candle are related to chemical potential energy.


Chemical potential energy, contained in the candle, is changed to energy in the form of light and heat and released as the chemical combustion reaction takes place.

The specific heat is very close to the value for ethanol. Solutions Manual Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 15

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10. Calculate the amount of heat absorbed when

15. Challenge If 335 g of water at 65.5C loses

5.50 g of aluminum is heated from 25.0 C to 95.0 C. The specific heat of aluminum is 0.897 J/(g- C).
q q q cm T (0.897 J/(g C))(5.50 g)(95.0 C 345 J 25.0 C)

9750 J of heat, what is the final temperature of the water?


q Tf Tf Tf c q _ cm m Ti 65.5 C T c m (Tf Ti )

9750 J ___ (4.184 J/(g C))(335 g) 58.5 C

11. Interpret Data Equal masses of aluminum,

gold, iron, and silver were left to sit in the Sun at the same time and for the same length of time. Use Table 15.2 on page 520 to arrange the four metals according to the increase in their temperatures from largest increase to smallest.
The temperature change is inversely proportional to the specific heat: aluminum, iron, silver, gold.

Section 15.2 Assessment


page 528

16. Describe how you would calculate the amount

of heat absorbed or released by a substance when its temperature changes.


The heat absorbed or released equals the specific heat of the substance times its mass times its change in temperature.

Section 15.2 Heat


pages 525528

17. Explain why


Hrxn

Practice Problems
page 525

H for an exothermic reaction has a negative value.


Hproducts Hreactants
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

12. A 90.0-g sample of an unknown metal absorbed

and Hproducts < Hreactants

25.6 J of heat as its temperature increased 1.18 C. What is the specific heat of the metal?
q c m c T 90.0 g 1.18 C 25.6 J c

18. Explain why a measured volume of water is an

essential part of a calorimeter.


The water absorbs the energy released. The heat released equals the mass of water multiplied by the change in temperature and by the specific heat.

0.241 J/(g C)

13. The temperature of a sample of water increases

19. Explain why you need to know the specific

from 20.0 C to 46.6 C as it absorbs 5650 J of heat. What is the mass of the sample?
q c m T m 26.6 C 5650 J m 4.184 J/(g C)

heat of a substance in order to calculate how much heat is gained or lost by the substance as a result of a temperature change.
The specific heat of a substance tells you the number of joules that are lost or gained for every degree change in temperature and for every gram of the substance.

50.8 g

14. How much heat is absorbed by a 2.00

103 g granite boulder (cgranite 0.803 J/(g C)) as its temperature changes from 10.0 C to 29.0 C?
q q q c m T 2.00 103 g 19.0 C 0.803 J/(g C) 30,500 J

20. Describe what the system means in thermody-

namics, and explain how the system is related to the surroundings and the universe.
The system is the particular part of the universe that contains the reaction or process that is being studied. The surroundings are everything in the universe except the system. Thus the universe is the system and its surroundings. Solutions Manual

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21. Calculate the specific heat in J/(g C) of an

1. Analyze each of the five regions of the graph,

unknown substance if a 2.50 g sample releases 12.0 cal as its temperature changes from 25.0 C to 20.0 C.
q c cm T q 12 cal)(4.184 J/cal) _ (__ m T (2.50 g)( 5.0 C) 4.02 J/(g C)

which are distinguished by an abrupt change in slope. Indicate how the absorption of heat changes the energy (kinetic and potential) of the water molecules.
From 20 C to 0.0 C, the water molecules in ice gain kinetic energy as shown by the temperature rise. While the temperature remains at 0.0 C, the water molecules gain potential energy as the ice melts to liquid water in an endothermic process. As the temperature rises from 0.0 C to 100 C, the water molecules again gain kinetic energy. At 100 C, the water molecules gain potential energy in an endothermic process as they evaporate to water vapor.

22. Design an Experiment Describe a procedure

you could follow to determine the specific heat of a 45-g piece of metal.
Put a known mass of water into a calorimeter and measure its temperature. Heat a 45-g metal sample to 100 C in boiling water. Put the heated metal sample into the water in the calorimeter and wait until the temperature of the water is constant. Measure the final temperature of the water. Assume no heat is lost to the surroundings. Calculate the specific heat of the metal by equating the quantity of heat gained by the water to the quantity of heat lost by the metal.

2. Calculate the amount of heat required to pass

through each region of the graph (180 g H2O 10 mol H2O, Hfus 6.01 kJ/mol, Hvap 40.7 kJ/mol, c 4.184 J/(g- C)). How does the length of time needed to pass through each region relate to the amount of heat absorbed?
The more heat required, the longer the time in the region. For the region 20 C to 0.0 C, use the equation: q c m T q 4.184 J/(g C) 180 g 1.5 104 J or 15 kJ For the region at 0.0 C, Heat absorbed 20 C 6.01 kJ/mol 10 mol 60 kJ

Section 15.3 Thermochemical Equations


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

pages 529533

Problem-Solving Lab
page 531

Hfus

Time and Temperature Data for Water


Time (mm) 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 Temperature (C) 20 0 0 9 26 42 58 71 83 92 98 100 100 Time (mm) 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 17.0 18.0 19.0 20.0 21.0 22.0 23.0 24.0 25.0 Temperature (C) 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

6.01 kJ/mol

For the region 0.0 C to 100 C, use the equation: q c m T q 4.184 J/(g C) or 75 kJ 180 g 100 C 7.5 10 4J

For the region at 100 C, Heat absorbed

Hvap

40.7 kJ/mol 10 mol 410 kJ

40.7 kJ/mol

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3. Infer What would the heating curve of ethanol

look like? Ethanol melts at 114 C and boils at 78 C. Sketch ethanols curve from 120 C to 90 C. What factors determine the lengths of the flat regions of the graph and the slope of the curve between the flat regions?
From 120 C to 114 C the curve rises linearly. At 114 C it becomes horizontal for a time and then rises linearly again until it reach 78 C where it becomes horizontal again. After a time the curve rises again to 90 C. The lengths of the flat regions depend on the amount of ethanol being heated and the amount of heat being added with time. Those factors and the specific heat of the substance determine the slope of the upward curve between the flat regions.

C2H5OH(l) Hcomb

3O2(g) 1367

0 2CO2(g) + 3H2O(l)

27. Determine Which of the following processes

are exothermic? Endothermic? a. C2H5OH(l) 0 C2H5OH(g)


b. Br2(l) 0 Br2(s) c. C5H12(g)

8O2(g) 0 5CO2(g)

6H2O(l)

d. NH3(g) 0 NH3(l) e. NaCl(s) 0 NaCl(l)


Reactions b, c, and d are exothermic. Reactions a and e are endothermic.

28. Explain how you could calculate the heat

Practice Problems
page 532

released in freezing 0.250 mol water.


multiply 0.250 mol times the molar heat of fusion of water, 6.01 kJ/mol.

23. Calculate the heat required to melt 25.7 g of

solid methanol at its melting point. Refer to Table 15.4.


25.7 g CH3OH 2.58 kJ 3.22 kJ __ __ 1 mol CH3OH 32.04 g CH3OH 1 mol CH3OH

29. Calculate How much heat is liberated by the

combustion of 206 g of hydrogen gas? Hcomb 286 kJ/mol


The molar mass of hydrogen is 2.01 g/mol. 206 g 2.01 g 1 mol 29,300 kJ
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

24. How much heat evolves when 275 g of

286 kJ 1 mol _ _

ammonia gas condenses to a liquid at its boiling point?


275 g NH3 1 mol NH 23.3 kJ __ _
3

30. Apply The molar heat of vaporization of

17.03 g NH3

1 mol NH3

376 kJ

ammonia is 23.3 kJ/mol. What is the molar heat of condensation of ammonia?


23.3 kJ/mol

25. Challenge What mass of methane (CH4) must

Enthalpy

be burned in order to liberate 12,880 kJ of heat? Refer to Table 15.3 on page 529.
m 1 mol CH 891 kJ __ _
4

A H C
31. Interpreting Scientific Illustrations The

12,880 kJ

16.04 g CH4
4

1 mol CH4
4

m m

12,880 kJ 232 g CH4

1 mol CH 16.04 g CH __ _ 1 mol CH4 891 kJ

Section 15.3 Assessment


page 533

reaction A 0 C is shown in the enthalpy diagram at right. Is the reaction exothermic or endothermic? Explain your answer.
The reaction is exothermic because the product (C) has a lower enthalpy than the reactant (A).

26. Write a complete thermochemical equation for

the combustion of ethanol (C2H5OH) ( Hcomb 1367 kJ/mol).


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Practice Problems
pages 537541

34. Show how the sum of enthalpy of formation

32. Use Equations a and b to determine

H for the

following reaction. 2CO(g) 2NO(g) 0 2CO2(g) N2(g) H ? a. 2CO(g) O2(g) 0 2CO2(g) H 566.0 kJ
b. N2(g)

equations produces each of the following reactions. You do not need to look up and include H values. a. 2NO(g) O2(g) 0 2NO2(g)
Formation of NO: N2 Formation of NO2: N2 O2

0 2NO 0 2NO2

O2(g) 0 2NO(g) H

180.6 kJ

2O2

Add the first equation to the second equation reversed. 2CO(g) 2NO(g) 2CO(g) O2(g)

NO is a reactant in the problem, so add the reversed NO formation equation to the NO2 formation equation: 2NO 2NO N2 O2 2O2

0 2CO2(g)
O2(g)

H H

566.0 kJ 180.6 kJ

0 N2

O2

2NO2

0 N2(g)

2NO(g) 0 2CO2(g) N2(g) H 385.4 kJ

0 2NO2 H2O(l) 0 H2SO4(l) 0 H2SO4(l)

b. SO3(g)
H2(g) SO3(g) H2O(l) SO3(g)

33. Challenge for H for the following reaction is

S(s)

2O2(g) 2

1789 kJ. Use this and reaction a to determine H for Reaction b. 4Al(s) 3MnO2(s) 0 2Al2O3(s) 3Mn(s) H 1789 kJ a. 4Al(s) 3O2(g) 0 2Al2O3(s) H 3352 kJ
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

0 S(s) 0 H2(g)
H2O(l)

3 _ O (g)
2

1 _ O (g) 2
2

0 H2SO4(l)

35. Use standard enthalpies of formation from

a. 4Al(s) b. Mn(s) b. Mn(s)


Let x

3O2(g) 0 2Al2O3(s)

3352 kJ

O2(g) 0 MnO2(s) H
O2(g) 0 MnO2(s) H for equation b. H

Table R-11 on page 975, to calculate H for the following reaction. 4NH3(g)
H H
rxn rxn

rxn

?
x kJ

7O2 (g) 0 4NO2(g)


[4Hf (NO2) 6Hf (H2O)]

6H2O(l)
4Hf (NO3)

Add the Equation a to Equation b reversed and tripled. 4Al(s) 3O2(g) 0 2Al2O3(s) 3O2(g) H H 3352 kJ 3x kJ 3Mn(s)

[4(33.18 kJ) 4( 46.11) kJ

6( 285.83 kJ)] H rxn 1398 kJ

36. Determine

3MnO2(s) 0 3Mn(s) 4Al(s) H 3352

3MnO2(s) 0 2Al2O3(s) 3352 3x kJ 3x kJ 1789 kJ

H comb butanoic acid, C3H7COOH(l) 5O2(g) 0 4CO2(g) 4H2O(l). Use data in Table R-11 on page 975 and the following equation. 4C(s) 4H2(g) 534 kJ O2(g) 0 C3H7COOH(l) H
4Hf (CO2)] 4( 394 kJ)] ( 534 kJ)

Because the direction of Equation b was changed, H for equation b x 3352 1789 521 kJ 3

__

H comb [4Hf (H2O) Hf (C3H7COOH) H H


comb comb

[4( 286 kJ 2186 kJ

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37. Challenge Two enthalpy of formation equa-

tions, a and b, combine to form the equation for the reaction of nitrogen oxide and oxygen. The product of the reaction is nitrogen dioxide: 1 NO(g) O (g) 0 NO2(g) Hrxn 2 2 58.1 kJ

The enthalpy of the reaction under standard conditions (1 atm and 298 K) equals the sum of the standard enthalpies of formation of the products minus the sum of the standard enthalpies of formation of the reactants.

40. Describe how the elements in their standard

a. b.

1 1 _ N (g) _ O (g) 0 NO(g) 2


2

states are defined on the scale of standard enthalpies of formations.


Elements in their standard states are assigned enthalpies of formation of zero.

91.3 kJ ?

1 _ N (g) 2
2

O2(g) 0 NO2(g) H

41. Examine the data in Table 15.5 on page 538.

What is Hf for equation b?


Reverse equation. a and change the sign of H f to obtain equation c:

What conclusion can you draw about the stabilities of the compounds listed relative to the elements in their standard states? Recall that low energy is associated with stability.
All compounds listed in Table 15.5 are more stable than their constituent elements.

c. NO(g) 0 1 N2(g)
2

_
2

1 _ O (g) 2
2

Hf

91.3 kJ

Add equations b and c: NO(g) Hrxn 58.1 kJ Hf (b) 1 _ O (g) 0 NO (g)


2 2

42. Calculate Use Hesss law to determine

58.1 kJ 91.3 kJ 58.1 kJ

Hf (c) Hf (b) 91.3 kJ

Hf (b)

H for the reaction NO(g) O(g) 0 NO2(g) H ? given the following reactions. Show your work. a. O2(g) 0 2O(g) H 495 kJ
b. 2O3(g) 0 3O2(g)

427 kJ O2(g) H
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

33.2 kJ

c. NO(g)

O3(g) 0 NO2(g) 199 kJ

Section 15.4 Assessment


page 541

Multiply c by 2: 2NO(g) 2O3(g) 0 2NO2(g) 2( 199 kJ) 398 kJ 2O2(g) H: H: H

38. Explain what is meant by Hesss law and how

it is used to determine H

rxn.

Hesss law says that if two or more equations add up to an overall equation, the H rxn of the overall equation is the sum of the H rxn values of the equations that were combined. The H rxn of a reaction can be determined by choosing equations that contain the species in the overall equation, reversing the equations if necessary, and multiplying them and their H rxn values by whatever factors are necessary. Then add the H rxn values to obtain the value for the overall equation.

Reverse b and change the sign of 3O2(g) 0 2O3(g) H 427 kJ Reverse a and change the sign of 2O(g) 0 O2(g) H 495 kJ

Add the three equations and their H values: 2NO(g) 2O(g) 0 2NO2(g) H 466 kJ This is the equation and H for 2 moles of NO reacting. Divide the equation and H by 2: NO(g) O(g) 0 NO2(g) H 233 kJ

39. Explain in words the formula that can be used

to determine H
H
rxn

rxn

when using Hesss law.


Hf (reactants)

Hf (products)

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43. Interpret Scientific Illustrations Use the

data below to draw a diagram of standard heats of formation similar to Figure 15.15 on page 538, and use your diagram to determine the heat of vaporization of water at 298 K. Liquid water: Hf Gaseous water: Hf 285.8 kJ/mol 241.8 kJ/mol

Ssystem is positive because the systems entropy increases. Entropy increases when a solid or liquid dissolves to form a solution.

d. C10H8(l) 0 C10H8(s)
Ssystem is negative because the systems entropy decreases. Solid particles have less freedom to move around than liquid particles.

Students diagrams will show a line representing liquid water at 285.8 kJ/mol below 0.0 kJ and a line representing gaseous water 241.8 kJ/mol below 0.0 kJ. The heat of vaporization is the energy difference between the two lines or 241.8 kJ ( 285.8 kJ) 44.0 kJ

45. Challenge Comment on the sign of

for the following reaction. Fe(s) Zn2 (aq) 0 Fe2 (aq) Zn(s)

Ssystem

The states of the two reactants are the same on both sides of the equation, so it is impossible from the equation alone to predict the sign of Ssystem.

0 Hf (kJ/mol)

46. Determine whether each of the following reac-

241.8 Hvap 285.8

H2O (g) 44 kJ/mol H2O (l)

tions is spontaneous. a. Hsystem 75.9 kJ, T Ssystem 138 J/K


Ssystem Gsystem Gsystem Gsystem 138 J/K Hsystem 75.9 kJ 75.9 kJ

273 K,

0.138 kJ/K T Ssystem (273 K)(0.138 kJ/K) 37.7 kJ 114 kJ

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Hvap

44.0 kJ/mol

spontaneous reaction

Section 15.5 Reaction Spontaneity


pages 542548

b.

Hsystem Ssystem
Ssystem Gsystem Gsystem

27.6 kJ, T 55.2 J/K


55.2 J/K Hsystem 27.6 kJ 27.6 kJ

535 K,
0.0552 kJ/K

Practice Problems
pages 545548

T Ssystem (535 K)( 0.0552 kJ/K) 29.5 kJ 1.9 kJ

44. Predict the sign of

following changes. a. ClF(g) F2(g) 0 ClF3(g)

Ssystem for each of the


c.

Gsystem

nonspontaneous reaction

Ssystem is negative because the systems entropy decreases. There are more gaseous reactant particles than product particles.

Hsystem Ssystem
Ssystem Gsystem Gsystem Gsystem

365 kJ, T 55.2 J/K


55.2 J/K Hsystem 365 kJ 365 kJ

388 K,
0.0552 kJ/K

b. NH3(g) 0 NH3(aq)
Ssystem is negative because the systems entropy decreases. Aqueous particles have less freedom to move around.

T Ssystem (388 K)( 0.0552 kJ/K) 21.4 kJ 386 kJ

c. CH3OH(l) 0 CH3OH(aq)
Solutions Manual

nonspontaneous reaction

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d.

Hsystem Ssystem
Ssystem Gsystem Gsystem Gsystem

452 kJ, T 55.7 J/K


55.7 J/K Hsystem 452 kJ 452 kJ

165 K,
0.0557 kJ T Ssystem

The systems entropy increases. The system consists of the sugar and tea. Randomness or disorder increases as sugar molecules, which were originally locked into position in the solid structure of the sugar cube, disperse throughout the tea.

(165 K)(0.0557 kJ/K) 9.19 kJ 443 kJ

51. Determine whether the system

Hsystem 20.5 kJ, T 298 K, and Ssystem 35.0 J/K is spontaneous or nonspontaneous.
Ssystem Gsystem 10.1 kJ 35.0 J/K 20.5 kJ 0.0350 kJ/K (298 K)( 0.0350 kJ/K)

nonspontaneous reaction

47. Challenge Given

Hsystem 144 kJ and 36.8 J/K for a reaction, determine Ssystem the lowest temperature in kelvins at which the reaction would be spontaneous.
Gsystem Hsystem T Ssystem

The system is spontaneous.

52. Outline Use the blue and red headings to

For the reaction to be spontaneous: Gsystem < 0: Hsystem T Ssystem < 0 H T>_
system

outline the section. Under each heading, summarize the important ideas discussed.
Students outlines chould include all important ideas expressed in the Section Summary.

Ssystem

T>

144 kJ ___ ( 36.8 J/K)(1 kJ/1000 J)

Writing in Chemistry
page 549

T > 3910 K At any temperature above 3910 K, the reaction is spontaneous.

Write thermochemical equations for the


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Section 15.5 Assessment


page 548

48. Compare and contrast spontaneous and

complete combustion of 1 mol octane (C8H18), a component of gasoline, and 1 mol ethanol 5471 kJ/mol; Hcomb ( Hcomb of C8H18 1367 kJ/mol). Which releases of C2H5OH the greater amount of energy per mole of fuel? Which releases more energy per kilogram of fuel? Discuss the significance of your findings.
C2H5OH(l) 3O2(g) 0 2CO2(g) 1367 kJ/mol C8H18(l) 25/2O2(g) 0 8CO2(g) 5471 kJ/mol 3H2O(l) 9H2O(l) Hcomb Hcomb

nonspontaneous reactions.
A reaction occurs spontaneously only when the temperature, entropy change within the system, and energy exchanged between the system and surroundings cause the entropy of the universe to increase.

49. Describe how a systems entropy changes if

Octane releases the greater amount of energy per mol. 1 mol of ethanol 1 mol of octane 46.07 g/mol 114.23 g/mol

the system becomes more disordered during a process.


The systems entropy increases.

50. Decide Does the entropy of a system increase

1367 kJ 1000 g _ _ _ 1 mol 1 mol 46.07 g 1 kg 29,670 kJ/kg ethanol 1000 g 5471 kJ 1 mol _ _ _ 114.23 g 1 mol 47,890 kJ/kg octane 1 kg

or decrease when you dissolve a cube of sugar in a cup of tea? Define the system, and explain your answer.

Octane is the better fuel based on the mass burned.

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Chapter 15 Assessment
pages 552555

60. Ethanol has a specific heat of 2.44 J/(g C).

What does this mean?


It means that 2.44 J is required to raise the temperature of one gram of ethanol by one degree Celsius.

Mastering Concepts 53. Compare and contrast temperature and heat.


Heat is a form of energy that flows from a warmer object to a cooler object. Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter.

61. Explain how the amount of energy required to

raise the temperature of an object is determined.


The amount of energy required equals the product of the objects specific heat, its mass, and its change in temperature.

54. How does the chemical potential energy of a

system change during an endothermic reaction?


It increases.

55. Describe a situation that illustrates potential

energy changing to kinetic energy.


Student answers will vary. A typical answer is: During an avalanche, the potential energy of snow at a higher altitude is converted to kinetic energy as the snow cascades down a mountain.

Mastering Problems 62. Nutrition A food item contains 124 nutritional Calories. How many calories does the food item contain?
124 Calories 1000 calories __ 1 Calorie 124,000 calories

63. How many joules are absorbed in a process that

56. Cars How is the energy in gasoline converted

absorbs 0.5720 kcal?


0.5720 kcal 4.184 J 1000 cal _ _ 1 kcal cal 2,393 J

and released when it burns in an automobile engine?


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Some is converted to work to move pistons in the engine; much is released as heat.

64. Transportation Ethanol is being used as an

57. Nutrition How does the nutritional Calorie

compare with the calorie? What is the relationship between the Calorie and a kilocalorie?
One nutritional Calorie equals 1000 calories. One nutritional Calorie equals 1 kilocalorie.

additive to gasoline. The combustion of 1 mol of ethanol releases 1367 kJ of energy. How many Calories are released?
1367 kJ 1000 J 1 cal 1 Calorie _ _ _ 4.184 J 1000 cal 1 kJ 327 Calories

65. To vaporize 2.00 g of ammonia 656 calories are 58. What quantity has the units J/(g C)?
specific heat

required. How many kilojoules are required to vaporize the same mass of ammonia?
656 cal 4.184 J 1 kJ _ _ 1 cal 1000 J 2.74 kJ

59. Describe what might happen when the air above

the surface of a lake is colder than the water.


If the air is cool enough, water vapor from the lake might condense and form fog. Heat will be transferred from the warmer water to the cooler air. The air immediately above the water will be slightly warmer than the surrounding air, and the fog might appear to rise off the lake somewhat like steam.

66. The combustion of one mole of ethanol releases

326.7 Calories of energy. How many kilojoules are released?


326.7 Cal 1000 cal 4.184 J 1 kJ _ _ _ 1 Cal 1 cal 1000 J 1367 kJ

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67. Metallurgy A 25.0 g bolt made of an alloy

71. Under what condition is the heat (q) evolved

absorbed 250 joules of heat as its temperature changed from 25.0 C to 78.0 C. What is the specific heat of the alloy?
T c c 78.0 C 25.0 C m T 25.0 g 0.189 J/g C 53.0 C 53.0 C q 250 J _ __

or absorbed in a chemical reaction equal to a change in enthalpy ( H)?


when the reaction is carried out at constant pressure

72. The enthalpy change for a reaction,

H, is negative. What does this indicate about the chemical potential energy of the system before and after the reaction?
The systems chemical potential energy is less after the reaction than before the reaction.

Section 15.2
Mastering Concepts 68. Why is a foam cup used in a student calorimeter rather than a typical glass beaker?
The foam cup is better insulated than a glass beaker, so that a minimal amount of heat is transferred into or out of the calorimeter.

73. What is the sign of

H for an exothermic reaction? An endothermic reaction?


H is negative for an exothermic reaction and positive for an endothermic reaction.

69. Is the reaction shown in Figure 15.23 endo-

thermic or exothermic? How do you know?

Mastering Problems 74. How many joules of heat are lost by 3580 kg granite as it cools from 41.2 C to 12.9 C? The specific heat of granite is 0.803 J/(g C).
T 41.2 C ( 12.9 C) 54.1 C 106 g)(54.1 C)
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Products

Enthalpy

qgranite

[0.803 J/(g C)](3.58 1.56 108 J

H = 233 kJ
Reactants The reaction is endothermic because the enthalpy of the products is 233 kJ higher than the enthalpy of the reactants.

qgranite

75. Swimming Pool A swimming pool

measuring 20.0 m 12.5 m is filled with water to a depth of 3.75 m. If the initial temperature is 18.4 C, how much heat must be added to the water to raise its temperature to 29.0 C? Assume that the density of water is 1.000 g/mL.
Change the dimensions of the pools water from meters to centimeters. 20.0 m 3.75 m 2.00 3.75 103 cm; 12.5 m 102 cm 1.25 103 cm; 103 cm)

70. Give two examples of chemical systems and

define the universe in terms of those examples.


universe system surroundings Student answers will vary. One example: universe my body (the system) everything else (the surroundings); another example: a beaker in which a reaction is going on (the system) everything else (the surroundings)

volume of water (2.00 103 cm)(1.25 (3.75 102 cm) 9.38 108 cm3 9.38 108 mL mass of water 9.38 108 g q T q c m (29.0 C T 18.4 C) 10.6 C 108 g)(10.6 C) (9.38

108 mL)(1.000 g/mL)

[4.184 J/(g C)](9.38 4.16 1010 J

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76. How much heat is absorbed by a 44.7-g piece of

80. The molar enthalpy of fusion of methanol is

lead when its temperature increases by 65.4 C?


q q c m T 44.7 g 65.4 C 377 J 0.129 J/(g C)

3.22 kJ/mol. What does this mean?


It means that 3.22 kJ of energy is required to melt one mole of methanol.

77. Food Preparation When 10.2 g of canola oil

81. Explain how perspiration can help cool your

at 25.0 C is placed in a wok, 3.34 kJ of heat is required to heat it to a temperature of 196.4 C. What is the specific heat of canola oil?
3.34 kJ T q c c m Tf m T 1000 J _ 1 kJ Ti 3340 J 25.0 C 171.4 C

body.
Your body is cooled as it supplies the heat required to vaporize water from your skin.

82. Write the thermochemical equation for the

combustion of methane. Refer to Table 15.3.


196.4 C CH4(g) 2O2(g) 0 CO2(g) 2H2O(l) H 891 kJ

T 10.2 g 171.4 C 1.91 J/(g C)

q 3340 J _ __

78. Alloys When a 58.8g piece of hot alloy is

placed in 125 g of cold water in a calorimeter, the temperature of the alloy decreases by 106.1 C while the temperature of the water increases by 10.5 C. What is the specific heat of the alloy?
q c m T; qwater qalloy

Mastering Problems 83. Use information from Figure 15.24 to calculate how much heat is required to vaporize 4.33 mol of water at 100 C? Phase Changes for Water H2O(g) Hvap = +40.7 kJ
Enthalpy

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4.184 J/(g C) 125 g 10.5 C calloy 58.8 g 106.1 C calloy calloy (4.184 J/g C)(125 g)(10.5 C) ___ (58.8 g)(106.1 C) 0.880 J/(g C)

Hcond = -40.7 kJ H2O(l) Hfus = +6.01 kJ Hsolid = -6.01 kJ H2O(s)

Section 15.3
Mastering Concepts 79. Write the sign of Hsystem for each of the following changes in physical state.
a. C2H5OH(s) 0 C2H5OH(l)
Hsystem is positive. q q mol

Hvap 40.7 kJ/mol 176 kJ

4.33 mol

b. H2O(g) 0 H2O(l)
Hsystem is negative.

84. Agriculture Water is sprayed on oranges

c. CH3OH(l) 0 CH3OH(g)
Hsystem is positive.

during a frosty night. If an average of 11.8 g of water freezes on each orange, how much heat is released?
11.8 g H2O q q mol 1 mole H O __
2

18.0 g

0.656 mol H2O

d. NH3(l) 0 NH3(s)
Hsystem is negative. Solutions Manual

Hsolid ( 6.01 kJ/mol) 3.94 kJ

0.656 mol

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85. Grilling What mass of propane (C3H8) must be

90. How does

burned in a barbecue grill to release 4560 kJ of heat? The Hcomb of propane is 2219 kJ/mol.
mol Hcomb 4560 kJ __ 2219 kJ/mol 2.055 mol

H for a thermochemical equation change when the amounts of all substances are tripled and the equation is reversed?
H is tripled, and its sign is changed.

moles of propane 2.055 mol C3H8

0.0 Hf (kJ/mol)

Al(s), Cl2(g)

44.09 g C3H8/mol C3H8

90.60 g

86. Heating with Coal How much heat is liber-

ated when 5.00 kg of coal is burned if the coal is 96.2% carbon by mass and the other materials in the coal do not react in any way? Hcomb of carbon 394 kJ/mol.
mcarbon mcoal 0.962 1000 g _ 1 kg 4810 g 401 mol C 1000 g (5.00 kg)(0.962)(_) 1 kg mol C q q mol 4810 g C Hcomb ( 394 kJ/mol C) 158,000 kJ

-704

AlCl3 (s)

91. Use Figure 15.25 to write the thermochemical

1 mol _ 12.0 g C

equation for the formation of 1 mol of aluminum chloride (a solid in its standard state) from its constituent elements in their standard states.
Al(s) 3 _ Cl (g) 0 AlCl (s) 2
2 3

704 kJ

401 mol C

87. How much heat is evolved when 1255 g of

1255 g

1 mol 40.7 kJ _ _ 18.02 g 1 mol

2830 kJ

88. A sample of ammonia ( Hsolid

5.66 kJ/mol) liberates 5.66 kJ of heat as it solidifies at its melting point. What is the mass of the sample?
Mass mass of 1 mol ammonia 17.03 g

H H

rxn rxn

H f (products) [1( 2984.0 kJ)]

H f (reactants) [1( 1640.1 kJ)]

1343.9 kJ

93. Use Hesss law and the following thermochem-

Section 15.4
Mastering Concepts 89. For a given compound, what does the standard enthalpy of formation describe?
Standard enthalpy of formation describes the change in enthalpy when one mole of the compound in its standard state is formed from its constituent elements in their standard states.

ical equations to produce the thermochemical equation for the reaction C(s, diamond) 0 C(s, graphite). What is H for the reaction? a. C(s, graphite) O2(g) 0 CO2(g) H 394 kJ
b. C(s, diamond)

O2(g) 0 CO2(g) H

396 kJ
Reverse Equation a, and add to Equation b. CO2(g) 0 C(s, graphite) C(s, diamond) O2(g) H H H 394 kJ 396 kJ 2 kJ

O2(g) 0 CO2(g)

C(s, diamond) 0 C(s, graphite).

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water condenses to a liquid at 100 C?

Mastering Problems 92. Use standard enthalpies of formation from Table R-11 on page 975 to calculate H rxn for the following reaction. P4O6(s) 2O2(g) 0 P4O10(s)

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94. Use Hesss law and the changes in enthalpy for

the following two generic reactions to calculate H for the reaction 2A B2C3 0 2B A2C3. What is H for the reaction?
2A 2B 3 _C 2 3 _C 2
2

0 A2C3 0 B2C3

H H

1874 kJ 285 kJ

spontaneous (a negative value for Gsystem). On the other hand, reaction b has fewer moles of gas on the products side, which means entropy decreases as products form. But because Hsystem is negative for this reaction, it will tend to be spontaneous at lower temperatures.

98. Explain how an exothermic reaction changes

Reverse the second equation and change the sign of its H value. Add the resulting equation to the first equation. Add the H values. The resulting thermochemical equation is 2A B2C3 0 2B A2C3 H 1589 kJ

the entropy of the surroundings. Does the enthalpy change for such a reaction increase or decrease Gsystem? Explain.
The heat released by an exothermic reaction increases the entropy of the surroundings. Such a reaction decreases Gsystem because Hsystem is negative in the equation G system H system T S system.

Section 15.5
Mastering Concepts 95. Under what conditions is an endothermic chemical reaction in which the entropy of the system increases likely to be spontaneous?
Such a reaction is likely to be spontaneous only at higher temperatures.

Mastering Problems 99. Calculate Gsystem for each process, and state if the process is spontaneous or nonspontaneous. a. Hsystem 145 kJ, T 293 K, Ssystem 195 J/K
Ssystem G G
system system

195 J/K H
system

0.195 kJ/K T S
system

96. Predict how the entropy of the system changes


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

for the reaction CaCO3(s) 0 CaO(s) Explain.

CO2(g).

145 kJ

(293K)(0.195 kJ/K)

87.9 kJ nonspontaneous

Because a gaseous product is formed, its likely that the systems entropy increases.

97. Which of these reactions would one expect to

b.

be spontaneous at relatively high temperatures? At relatively low temperatures? a. 2NH3(g) 0 N2(g) 3H2(g) Hsystem 92 kJ
b. 2NO2(g) 0 N2O4(g)

Hsystem 138 J/K


Ssystem G
system

232 kJ, T

273 K, Ssystem

0.138 kJ/K 232 kJ (273K)(0.138 kJ/K)

270 kJ spontaneous

Hsystem Hsystem

58 kJ
c.

c. CaCO3(s) 0 CaO(s)

CO2(g)

178 kJ

Hsystem 15.9 kJ, T = 373 K, Ssystem 268 J/K


Ssystem G
system

268 J/K 15.9 kJ

0.268 kJ/K (373K)( 0.268 kJ/K)

For a spontaneous reaction, Gsystem must be negative as calculated in the expression G system H system T S system. Reactions a and c both have a positive Hsystem. However, both reactions also have more moles of gaseous products than gaseous reactants, which suggests that entropy increases as products form. So, higher temperatures will tend to make these reactions Solutions Manual

84.1 kJ nonspontaneous

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100. Calculate the temperature at which Gsystem

Mixed Review
Heating Curve for Water
100 4

if Hsystem
Ssystem G 0 T H

4.88 kJ and Ssystem


0.0552 kJ/K

55.2 J/K.

55.2 J/K T S

4.88 kJ

T(0.055.2 kJ/K) 88.4 K

4.88 kJ __ 0.0552 kJ/K

Temperature (C)

101. For the change H2O(l) 0 H2O(g),

G0system is 8.557 kJ and system is 44.01 kJ, What is S0system for the change? H0
G 8.557 kJ S H T S 44.01 kJ (298 K) S 0.119 kJ/K

104. Heat was added consistently to a sample of

8.557 kJ 44.01 kJ 298 K

__

102. Is the following reaction to convert copper(II)

water to produce the heating curve in Figure 15.26. Identify what is happening in Sections 1, 2, 3, and 4 on the curve.
Section 1: The kinetic energy of the water (ice) is increasing as the temperature rises. Section 2: Potential energy is increasing as the system absorbs energy in the process of melting. Section 3: The kinetic energy of the water is increasing as the temperature rises.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

sulfide to copper(II) sulfate spontaneous under standard conditions? CuS(s) 2O2(g) 0 718.3 kJ, and S0rxn CuSO4(s). H0rxn 368 J/K. Explain.
G H T S (298 K)( 0.368 kJ/K); G G 718.3 kJ 609 kJ

Yes. The reaction is spontaneous under standard conditions because G0rxn 609 kJ, and a negative G0rxn indicates spontaneity.

Section 4: Potential energy is increasing as the system absorbs energy in the process of evaporating.

105. Bicycling Describe the energy conversions

103. Calculate the temperature at which

34.7 kJ if Hsystem Gsystem and Ssystem 22.2 J/K.


G
system

28.8 kJ

that occur when a bicyclist coasts down a long grade, then struggles to ascend a steep grade.
As the bicyclist coats down a long grade, potential energy of position is converted to kinetic energy of motion. As the bicycle and rider ascend a steep grade, chemical potential energy and kinetic energy are converted to potential energy of position.

system

T S

system

34.7 kJ T 266 K

28.8 kJ

T (0.0222 kJ/K)

106. Hiking Imagine that on a cold day youre plan-

ning to take a thermos of hot soup with you on a hike. Explain why you might fill the thermos with hot water before filling it with hot soup.
The hot water will transfer energy to the thermos in the form of heat, raising the temperature of the thermos to nearly that of the hot soup. Because the temperatures of the thermos and soup are similar, the soup will lose little heat to the thermos when placed inside.

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107. Differentiate between the enthalpy of forma-

110. Calculate Suppose that two pieces of iron,

tion of H2O(l) and H2O(g). Why is it necessary to specify the physical state of water in the following thermochemical equation: CH4(g) 2O2(g) CO2(g) 2H2O(l or g) H = ?
H f for H2O(l) and H2O(g) differ by approximately the enthalpy of vaporization of water. Because water in the liquid state has an enthalpy of formation that differs from that of water in the gaseous state, the enthalpy change for the reaction depends upon the physical states of all reactants and products.

one with a mass exactly twice the mass of the other, are placed in an insulated calorimeter. If the original temperatures of the larger piece and the smaller piece are 90.0 C and 50.0 C, respectively, what is the temperature of the two pieces when thermal equilibrium has been established? Refer to Table R-9 on page 975 for the specific heat of iron.
Let subscript 1 refer to the smaller, cooler piece. Let subscript 2 refer to the larger, hotter piece. Heat lost by the hotter piece cooler piece: q1 q2 T f); T f = final heat gained by

Think Critically 108. Analyze each image in Figure 15.27 in terms of potential energy of position, chemical potential energy, kinetic energy, and heat.
By virtue of its position high on the mountain, the snow has positional potential energy. When the snow slides down the mountain, its positional potential energy changes to kinetic energy of motion. Wood has chemical potential energy stored in its bonds. This energy is being converted to heat, light, and kinetic energy.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

cm 1(T 1 T f) = cm 2(T 2 temperature

Eliminate the specific heat c from this equation: From the problem statement: m2 = 2m1: m 1(T 1 T f) 2m 1(T 2 T f)

Eliminate mass m1 from this equation: (T 1 T f)


1 _(T1 3

2(T 2

T f)
1 _(50 C 3

Solve for the unknown Tf: Tf 2T 2) 2(90 C)) 76.7 C

109. Apply Phosphorous trichloride is a starting

material for the preparation of organic phosphorous compounds. Demonstrate how thermochemical equations a and b may be used to determine the enthalpy change for the reaction described by the equation PCl3(l) Cl2(g) 0 PCl5(s). a. P4(s) 6Cl2(g) 0 4PCl3(l) H 1280 kJ
b. P4(s)

The result is a mass-weighted average of the two temperatures.

111. Predict which of the two compounds,

methane gas (CH4) or methanal vapor (CH2O), has the greater molar enthalpy of combustion. Explain your answer. (Hint: Write and compare the balanced chemical equations for the two combustion reactions.)
CH 4(g) CH 2O(g) 2O 2(g) 0 CO 2(g) O 2(g) 0 CO 2(g) 2H 2O(l) H 2O(l)

10Cl2(g) 0 4PCl5(s) 1774 kJ

Reverse equation a and divide it by 4, yielding equation c. Equation c: PCl3(l) 0 1/4P4(s) 320 kJ 6/4Cl2(g) H

Divide equation b by 4, yielding equation d. Equation d: 1/4P4(s) 444 kJ 10/4Cl2(g) 0 PCl5(s) H values. 124 kJ H

Methane likely has the greater molar enthalpy of combustion The chemical equations for the two reactions reveal that the combustion of one mole of methane yields one mole of carbon dioxide and two moles of water, whereas the combustion of one mole of methanal yields one mole of carbon dioxide and one mole of water. Because

Add equations c and d and their PCl3(l) Cl2(g) 0 PCl5(s) H

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Hf(products) for the combustion of methane has the greater value, its likely that methane has the greater molar enthalpy of combustion.

116. Name the following molecular compounds.

(Chapter 8) a. S2Cl2
disulfur dichloride

Challenge Problem 112. A sample of natural gas is analyzed and found to be 88.4% methane (CH4) and 11.6% ethane (C2H6) by mass. The standard enthalpy of combustion of methane to gaseous carbon dioxide and liquid water is 891 kJ/mol. Write the equation for the combustion of gaseous ethane to carbon dioxide and water. Calculate the standard enthalpy of combustion of ethane using standard enthalpies of formation from Table R-11 on page 975. Using that result and the standard enthalpy of combustion of methane in Table 15.3, calculate the energy released by the combustion of 1 kg of natural gas.
C2H6(g) H0comb 7/2O2(g) 0 2CO2(g) 1599.7 kJ/mol 3H2O(l)

b. CS2
carbon disulfide

c. SO3
sulfur trioxide

d. P4O10
tetraphosphorus decoxide

117. Determine the molar mass for the following

compounds. (Chapter 10) a. Co(NO3)26H2O


molar mass (58.93 g/mol) 2(14.01 g/mol) 12(16.00 g/mol) 12(1.01 g/mol) 291.07 g/mol

1.000 kg of natural gas contains 884 g CH4 and 116 g C2H6. 884 g
1 mol _ 55.2 mol CH4 16.0 g 1 mol 116 g C2H6 _ 3.86 mol C2H6. 30.1 g

b. Fe(OH)3
molar mass 55.85 g/mol 3(16.00 g/mol) 3(1.01 g/mol) 106.88 g/mol

118. What kind of chemical bond is represented by

the dotted lines in Figure 15.28? (Chapter 12)

(55.2 mol CH4) ( 891 kJ/mol)) (3.86 mol C2H6) ( 1599.7 kJ/mol) 55,400 kJ

Cumulative Review 113. Why is it necessary to perform repeated experiments in order to support a hypothesis? (Chapter 1)
Experiments must be repeated to be sure that they yield similar results each time. Hydrogen bonds

114. Phosphorus has the atomic number 15 and an

atomic mass of 31 amu. How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in a neutral phosphorus atom? (Chapter 4)
number of protons 15; number of electrons 15; number of neutrons mass number number of protons 16

119. A sample of oxygen gas has a volume of

20.0 cm3 at 10.0 C. What volume will this sample occupy if the temperature rises to 110 C ? (Chapter 13)
T T V T (383 K)(20.0 cm ) _ _; V2 _ __
1 2 2 1 3

V1

29.1 cm 3

V2

T1

263 K

115. What element has the electron configuration

[Ar]4s13d5? (Chapter 5)
chromium

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120. What is the molarity of a solution made by

dissolving 25.0 g of sodium thiocyanate (NaSCN) )in enough water to make 500 mL of solution? (Chapter 14)
25.0 g
1 mol _ 81.1 g

birds may inadvertently fly into the blades and be destroyed. When windmills are located off shore, fish could be adversely affected by the structures.

0.308 mol; 0.308 mol


0.500 L

0.616M

Document-Based Questions
Cooking Oil A university research group

121. List three colligative properties of solutions.

(Chapter 14)
vapor pressure lowering, boiling point elevations, freezing point elevation

Writing in Chemistry
122. Alternate Fuels Use library and internet

sources to explain how hydrogen might be produced, transported, and used as a fuel for automobiles. Summarize the benefits and drawbacks of using hydrogen as an alternative fuel for internal combustion engines.
Students may write that hydrogen could best be used as an automobile fuel in fuel cells. A large supply of the gas would need to be produced, transported and handled. Much of the technology now used for handling methane and propane gases could be adapted for use with hydrogen. Much of the hydrogen now available is a byproduct of the petrochemical industry. For full-scale use of hydrogen as a fuel for automobiles and for other energy needs, hydrogen would probably be produced by the electrolysis of water using renewable sources of energy such as wind power or solar energy. The only product of the combustion of hydrogen is water, so it is a nonpolluting source of power. However, issues of safe use and handling must be carefully considered.

burned four cooking oils in a bomb calorimeter to determine if a relationship exists between the enthalpy of combustion and the number of double bonds in an oil molecule. Cooking oils typically contain long chains of carbon atoms linked by either single or double bonds. A chain with no double bonds is said to be saturated. Oils with one or more double bonds are unsaturated. The enthalpies of combustion of the four oils are shown in Table 15.7. The researchers calculated that the results deviated by only 0.6% and concluded that a link between saturation and enthalpy of combustion could not be detected by the experimental procedure used.
Data obtained from: http: Heat of Combustion Oils. April 1998. University of Pennsylvania.

Combustion Results for Oils


Types of Oil Soy oil Canola oil Olive oil Extra-virgin olive oil Hcomb (kJ/g 40.81 41.45 39.31 40.98

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

124. Which of the oils tested provided the greatest

amount of energy per unit mass when burned?


canola oil: 41.45 kJ/g

123. Wind Power Research the use of wind as a

125. According to the data, how much energy

source of electrical power. Explain the possible benefits, disadvantages, and limitations of its use.
Students will note that the wind is not a steady source of energy and there will always be a need for a backup. The advantage of wind power is that it is nonpolluting. Many people, however, object to the presence of large numbers of spinning blades that create sound and disturb the natural beauty of the landscape. Another concern is that flocks of migrating

would be liberated burning 0.554 kg of olive oil?


0.554 kg 1000 g/kg 39.31 kJ/g 21,800 kJ

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126. Assuming that 12.2 g of soy oil is burned and

1. In the range of temperatures shown, the vapor-

that all the energy released is used to heat 1.600 kg of water, initially at 20.0 C, what is the final temperature of the water?
Energy released q c m T 4.184 J/(g C) Ti; 74.4 C Tf 1,600 g 20.0 C; Tf T; T 12.2 g 40.81 kJ/g 498 kJ

ization of cyclohexane a. does not occur at all. b. will occur spontaneously. c. is not spontaneous. d. occurs only at high temperatures.
c

498,000 J 74.4 C T Tf

2. What is the standard free energy of


94.4 C

127. Oils can be used as fuels. How many grams of

canola oil would have to be burned to provide the energy to vaporize 25.0 g of water? Hvap 40.7 kJ/mol
25.0 g H2O 1.39 mol 56.6 kJ
1 mol H O _
2

vaporization, G a. 5.00 kJ/mol b. 3.00 kJ/mol c. 3.00 kJ/mol d. 2.00 kJ/mol


a

vap,

of cyclohexane at 300 K?

18.02 g

1.39 mol H2O 56.6 kJ

3. When

40.7 kJ/mol
1g _ 41.45 kJ

1.37 g canola oil

Standardized Test Practice


pages 556557

Multiple Choice Use the graph below to answer Questions 1 to 3.


G for the Vaporization of Cyclohexane as a Function of Temperature

d slope rise _ (6.00 5.00)kJ/mol __ run (290 300)K 1000 J 0.1 kJ/mol K _ 100 J/mol K 1 kJ 0.1 kJ/mol K

7.00 6.00 5.00

4. The metal yttrium, atomic number 39, forms a. b. c. d.


a

G (kJ/mol)

4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 0 290 300 310 320 330 340 350

positive ions. negative ions. both positive and negative ions. no ions at all.

5. Given the reaction 2Al


Temperature (K)

3FeO 0 Al2O3 3Fe, what is the mole-to-mole ratio between iorn (II) oxide and aluminum oxide? a. 2:3 b. 1:1 c. 3:2 d. 3:1
d

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G vap is plotted as a function of temperature, the slope of the line equals S vap and the y-intercept of the line equals H vap. What is the approximate standard entropy of the vaporization of cyclohexane? a. 50.0 J/mol-K b. 10.0 J/mol-K c. 5.0 J/mol-K d. 100 J/mol-K

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SOLUTIONS MANUAL

Use the table below to answer Question 6.


Electronegativity of Selected Elements H 2.20 Li 0.98 Na 0.93 Be 1.57 Mg 1.31 B 2.04 Al 1.61 C 2.55 Si 1.90 N 3.04 P 2.19 O 3.44 S 2.58 F 3.98 Cl 3.16

Use the graph below to answer Question 9.


Pressures of Three Gases at Different Temperatures
1200 1000 Gas C Gas A Gas B

Presure (kPa)

800 600 400 200

6. Which bond is the most electronegative? a. b. c. d.


d

H-H H-C H-N H-O

0 250

260

270

280

290

300

Temperature (K)

9. What is the predicted pressure of Gas B at

7. Element Q has an oxidation number of

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2, while element M has an oxidation number of 3. Which is the correct formula for a compound made of elements Q and M? a. Q2M3 b. M2Q3 c. Q3M2 d. M3Q2
c

310 K? a. 500 kPa b. 600 kPa c. 700 kPa d. 900 kPa


b

Short Answer Use the figure below to answer Questions 11 to 13.


S CI Ar K Ca

8. Wavelengths of light shorter than about

10. Explain why argon is not likely to form a

4.00 10 7 m are not visible to the human eye. What is the energy of a photon of ultraviolet light having a frequency of 5.45 1016 s 1? (Plancks constant is 6.626 10 34 J s.) a. 3.61 10 17 J b. 1.22 10 50 J c. 8.23 1049 J d. 3.81 10 24 J
a (5.45 1016 s
1)(6.626

compound.
Argon already has a full outer energy level (eight valence electrons) and is not likely to form an ion. It does not need to gain or lose any electrons in order to become chemically stable.

11. What is the chemical formula for calcium

chloride? Explain the formation of this ionic compound using the election-dot structures above.
17

10

34

J s)

3.61

10

CaCl2; a calcium atom becomes Ca2 , losing its two valence electrons to two chlorine atoms, which each become Cl .

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12. Use electron-dot models to explain what

charge sulfur will most likely have when it forms an ion.


Sulfur has six valence electrons. Because atoms are more stable when they have 8 valence electrons completing their outer energy levels, sulfur tends to gain two electrons to become the ion S2 .

SAT Subject Test: Chemistry


15. The specific heat of ethanol is 2.44 J/(g

Extended Response Use the information below to answer Questions 13 and 14. A sample of gas occupies a certain volume at a pressure of 1 atm. If the pressure remains constant, heating causes the gas to expand, as shown below.

C). How many kilojoules of energy are required to heat 50.0 g of ethanol from 20.0 C to 68.0 C? a. 10.7 kJ b. 8.30 kJ c. 2.44 kJ d. 1.22 kJ e. 5.86 kJ
a cm T (2.44 J/(g C)) q 1kj _ 10.7 kJ (88.0 C)
1000 J

(50.0 g)

16. If 3.00 g of aluminum foil, placed in an oven

1 atm 1 atm

and heated from 20.0C to 662.0C, absorbs 1728 J of heat, what is the specific heat of aluminum? a. 0.131 J/(g C) b. 0.870 J/(g C) c. 0.897 J/(g C) d. 2.61 J/(g C) e. 0.261 J/(g C)
q cm T q (1728 J) _ __ m T (3.00 g) (642.0 C) 0.897 J/(g C)
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

13. State the gas law that describes why the gas in

the second canister occupies a greater volume than the gas in the first canister.
This is Charless law: at a constant pressure, the volume of a given mass of gas is directly proportional to its kelvin temperature.

14. If the volume in the first container is 2.1 L at

a temperature of 300.0 K, to what temperature must the second canister be heated to reach a volume of 5.4 L? Show your setup and the final answer. T1 _ V1 T2 _ V2 T2 _ 5.4 L
2.1 L

300.0 K _ 2.1 L
T2 T2

(300.0 K)(5.4 L) __ 770 K Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 15 Solutions Manual

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Use the table below to answer Questions 17 and 18.


Density and Electronegativity Data for Elements Elements Aluminum Fluorine Sulfur Copper Magnesium Carbon Density (g/ml) 2.698 1.696 2.070 8.960 1.738 3.513 10
3

18. Which pair is most likely to form an ionic

Electronegativity 1.6 4.0 2.6 1.9 1.3 2.6

bond? a. carbon and sulfur b. aluminum and magnesium c. copper and sulfur d. magnesium and fluorine e. aluminum and carbon
d

17. A sample of metal has a mass of 9.250 g and

occupies a volume of 5.250 mL. Which metal is it? a. aluminum b. magnesium c. carbon d. copper e. sulfur
9.250 g m _ _ V 5.250 mL b 1.762 g/mL

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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