# CHAPTER 1

Representation of Signals
1.1 1.2 Introduction Periodic Signals and Fourier Series 1.2.1 Periodic signals 1.2.2 Fourier series 1.2.3 Convergence of Fourier series and Gibbs phenomenon 1.3 Aperiodic Signals and Fourier Transform 1.3.1 Fourier transform 1.3.2 Dirichlet conditions 1.4 1.5 Properties of the Fourier Transform Unified Approach to Fourier Transform 1.5.1 Unit impulse (Dirac delta function) 1.5.2 Impulse response and convolution 1.5.3 Signum function and unit step function 1.6 Correlation Functions 1.6.1 Cross-correlation functions 1.6.2 Autocorrelation function 1.7 Hilbert Transform 1.7.1 Properties of the Hilbert transform 1.8 Bandpass Signals 1.8.1 Pre-envelope 1.8.2 Complex envelope 1.9 Bandpass (BP) Systems Appendix A1.1: Tabulation of sinc ( λ ) Appendix A1.2: Fourier transform of Rx p y p ( τ ) Appendix A1.3: Complex envelope of the output of a BP System References 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.19 1.22 1.24 1.29 1.31 1.49 1.49 1.60 1.69 1.78 1.78 1.85 1.95 1.100 1.104 1.107 1.111 1.119 1.122 1.124 1.127 1.130

17 2.3.6 Some Useful Probability Models 2.4.28 2.13 2.3.CHAPTER 2 PROBABILITY AND RANDOM VARIABLES 2.2 Continuous random variables Appendix A2.53 2.4 Transformation of Variables 2.23 2.3 2.2 Functions of two random variables 2.1 2.2 Introduction Basics of Probability 2.5.22 2.1 Terminology 2.2 Probability density function 2.5 Statistical Averages 2.36 Appendix A2.3.48 2.5 2.75 2. 2.78 ) Function Table Appendix A2.3 Joint distribution and density function 2.2 Probability of an event 2.5 Statistical independence 2.5.37 2.1 Variance 2.2: Q ( 2.3 2. σ2 X ( ) is a valid PDF 2.80 2.50 2.1 2.59 2.4.27 2.4 Conditional density 2.1 Distribution function 2.6.1 Functions of one random variable 2.1 Discrete random variables 2.13 2.63 2.59 2.81 References .2 Covariance 2.3.1: Proof of Eq.3: Proof that N m X .2.3 Random Variables 2.19 2.6.3.2.

72 3.30 3.10 Narrowband Noise 3.4 Introduction Definition of a Random Process Stationarity Ensemble Averages 3.61 3.26 3.8 3.50 3.4.1 Properties of ACF 3.16 3.6 Systems with Random Signal Excitation Power Spectral Density 3.1 3.64 3.10.78 3.2 3.1 Properties of Power Spectral Density 3.28 3.7 3.3 3.46 3.CHAPTER 3 Random Signals and Noise 3.1 Representation of narrowband noise 3.1 3.41 3.5 3.4 Sine wave plus narrowband noise Appendix A3.4.9 Cross Spectral Density Gaussian Process Electrical Noise 3.8 3.31 3.37 3.66 3.9.10.82 .10.13 3.1 Properties of Narrowband Noise: Some proofs References 3.1 White noise 3.10.2 Properties of narrowband noise 3.3 3.3 PDF of the envelope of narrowband noise 3.2 Cross-correlation 3.74 3.6.

36 4.2 Time domain description of VSB 4.97 4.1: Analysis of ED with Tone Modulation References .2.3 DSB-LC modulation (or AM) 4.71 4.106 4.3.4.68 4.11 Envelope Detection of VSB+C Superheterodyne Receiver 4.1 Generation of AM 4.1 4.CHAPTER 4 LINEAR MODULATION 4.9.5 4.41 4.1 Frequency discrimination method 4.9 Demodulation of SSB Vestigial SideBand (VSB) Modulation 4.111 Appendix A4.14 4.8 4.2 Coherent Demodulation 4.2.1 4.29 4.9.52 4.80 4.3 Carrier recovery for coherent demodulation 4.7 Envelope Detector Theory of Single Sideband Generation of SSB Signals 4.2.5 4.7.2 Generation of DSB-SC 4.86 4.32 4.6 4.4 Generation of AM and DSB-SC signals 4.25 4.42 4.5 4.1 Tone modulation 4.7.1 Modulation 4.3.47 4.64 4.80 4.92 4.2 Spectra of AM Signals 4.64 4.57 4.10 4.1 Frequency domain description of VSB 4.2 Phase discrimination method 4.2 Introduction DSB-SC Modulation 4.4.

1 Narrowband FM 5.1 FM-to-AM conversion 5.30 5.2 WBFM: Indirect and direct methods 5.2: The ratio detector Appendix A5.1: Foster-Seely discriminator A5.5 Phase Modulation Generation of FM 5.5.8.91 5.77 5.68 5.2 WBFM 5.2.82 5.77 5.14 5.2 Two-channel (stereo) FM Appendix A5.5: Modulation techniques in TV References 5.2.15 5.3.19 5.13 5.36 5.1 Monophonic FM reception 5.61 5.49 5.3.3 Tone Modulation 5.37 5.6.2.1 5.5.4 5.6.1 NBFM 5.3 Zero-crossing detection 5.2 WideBand FM (WBFM) 5.19 5.8.85 5.49 5.6.76 5.6 Demodulation of FM 5.97 .4 FM demodulation using PLL 5.2: Phase Shift Discriminator A5.4: RMS Bandwidth of WBFM Appendix A5.57 5.73 5.37 5.1 NarrowBand FM (NBFM) 5.8 Bandpass Limiter (BPL) Broadcast FM 5.71 5.63 5.CHAPTER 5 Angle Modulation 5.71 5.3: Multitone FM Appendix A5.2 Introduction Bandwidth of FM 5.7 5.86 5.6.2 Phase shift discriminator 5.1: Table of Bessel Functions Appendix A5.1 5.21 5.2.

80 6.13 6.3.2 Quantization noise 6.1 6.41 6.3 Non-uniform quantization and companding 6.6 6.63 6. DPCM AND DM 6.3 Introduction The PCM system Sampling 6.9 6.26 6.7.92 Appendix A6.26 6.7 Encoding Electrical waveform representation of binary sequences Bandwidth requirements of PCM 6.4 Undersampling and the problem of aliasing 6.1 6.31 6.64 6.65 6.9.61 6.2 Polar format 6.9 Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM) Delta Modulation 6.3.7.3.1 Ideal impulse sampling 6.4.4 6.CHAPTER 6 DIGITAL TRANSMISSION OF ANALOG SIGNALS: PCM.3 Flat topped sampling 6.4.4.2 Sampling with a rectangular pulse train 6.3 Bipolar format 6.4 Quantization 6.59 6.62 6.97 References 6.70 6.3.81 6.9.4 Manchester format 6.5 6.1 Uniform quantization 6.7.1: PSD of a waveform process with discrete amplitudes 6.1 Linear Delta Modulation (LDM) 6.8 6.11 6.2 Adaptive delta modulation 6.1 Unipolar format 6.99 .56 6.2 6.4 6.2 6.7.

33 7.8 7.6 Receiver Model: Angle Modulation Calculation of FOM 7.2.14 7.2 Figure-of-merit 7.6.2 7.3.2 Introduction Receiver Model and Figure of Merit: Linear Modulation 7.1: PSD of noise for angle modulated signals References .7 7.4 Envelope Detection 7.21 7.59 7.13 7.22 7.3.1 Large predetection SNR 7.49 7.8 Pre-Emphasis and de-Emphasis in FM Noise Performance of a PCM System 7.1 DSB-SC 7.1 Receiver model 7.2 SSB 7.8 7.1 7.2 Weak predetection SNR 7.2 7.2.3 7.1 Large predetection SNR 7.1 7.4.12 7.22 7.CHAPTER 7 Noise Performance of Various Modulation Schemes 7.4.2 Weak predetection SNR 7.5 7.3 Coherent Demodulation 7.6.11 7.40 7.63 Appendix A7.