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Structure Applied Science

Structure Applied Science

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The Aim and Structure of Applied Research Author(s): Ilkka Niiniluoto Source: Erkenntnis (1975-), Vol. 38, No. 1 (Jan.

, 1993), pp. 1-21 Published by: Springer Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20012453 . Accessed: 14/10/2011 01:18
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The distinction is notoriously basic and applied between research vague, use in science cases it is based its frequent In most studies and in science policy. despite on such pragmatic or the type and intentions of the investigator factors as the knowledge institute. the validity of the distinction of research Sometimes is denied This altogether. that there are two ways of distinguishing between basic and paper suggests systematically by research: (i) in terms applied to the structure reference applied sense): should that define the aims of inquiry, and (ii) claims. An knowledge type of important norms" research aims at results that are expressed by "techical (in von Wright's to achieve Af and you believe if you wish B, then you you are in a situation of the relevant This conception philosophy, of "design and ethics of sciences" science. allows us to re-evaluate many issues of the "utilities"

do X.

in the history,








have mostly been concerned with sciences which explain Philosophers and interpret the world; now it is time to pay attention also to sciences which change the world. This remark may sound a little pathetic, but it conveys an important truth. The most of science in our age - both influential philosophers - have within the analytical and hermeneutical traditions usually their analyses of the aims and methods of inquiry upon grounded models by such basic sciences as mathematics, provided physics, bi? and sociology. Much less attention has been ology, history, psychology, devoted to fields like applied mathematics, computer science, aeroplane forest technology, engineering, dairy science, agricultural chemistry, veterinary medicine, sport medicine, pharmacy, nursing science, logop social policy studies, household edics, didactics, homiletics, economics, science, peace research, and future studies. library science, military This neglect by philosophers of course with some notable excep? tions1- is both surprising and harmful in many ways. In the first place, the students of the more exotic "practical sciences" may of course learn important lessons about science by reading Carnap, Hempel,
Erkenntnis ?







1993 Kluwer

1993. 1-21, Academic Publishers.


in the Netherlands.

fied by OECD uses the results of research to while development of knowledge. to contextual of an and location. Secondly. clear that conceptions of the basic sciences founded upon the model would do justice to the peculiar characteristics of the applied sciences.3 problem-solving of basic and applied its frequent use.5 2. But it is by no means Ruse. This fact . develop "new products. to separate basic and applied research appeal Most of the attempts features that may vary in time to pragmatic factors. by the instrumen? and Marxists. artefacts. within R&D. pursuit and means of production". basic research is defined as "the systematic pursuit of new scientific and ap? without the aim of specific practical application". among them Dewey. methods.6 First. the distinction Thirdly. applied to distinguish basic and applied the failure (or refusal) Fourthly. knowledge with the aim of obtaining plied research as "the pursuit of knowledge a specific goal". Apel. and sociologists historians of science astray research has led many as the "ideology" of "pure in their criticisms of what they regard science". despite in a vague and confusing way within science research is often presented instrumentalism among together with the fashionable policy. the converse error has been committed Secondly. An extreme expression of this trend is the claim that is to be identified with the techniques of practical the Scientific Method in Operations Research. if it were applied. talist philosophers by many pragmatists (represented and Habermas)2 who treat all science as Bemal.. PRAGMATIC OR SYSTEMATIC DIFFERENCE? between basic and applied research was codi? The standard distinction research is defined as the in 1966.has led to an the category of makers drift". i.without any specification question. But the basic-applied distinction whose aims are in the "aims" of research .4 whereby "epistemic policy seems to fading away or melting into that of fundamental research research. Examples of such factors include the knowledge has in his or her mind a individual scientist ("the applied researcher .2 ILKKA NIINILUOTO and other important authorities. in is systematic between The distinction research and development in their products: knowledge the sense that it is couched as a difference is vaguely based upon vs.e.

research is pure curiosity. as their weighted truthlike combination. and explanatory power as epistemic a scientific realist does not claim that they constitute the inten? utilities. The success of this activity thus depends on the amount and the correctness of the obtained information about the world.e.8. information. that the It is no wonder applied research on another. therefore. Basic science can thereby be as the attempt to maximize characterized the "epistemic of utilities" truth and information . to ask whether important they could be replaced by some non-pragmatic division. BASIC SCIENCE AND EPISTEMIC UTILITIES as the activity of the Basic or fundamental research can be understood scientific community to produce new scientific knowledge by means of the scientific method. nature. ambiguous. In this paper. the primary realism. the inten? tions of the funding institutions ("applied research is financed because of its economic utility"). society) is like. what the world (i. man. Criteria of this sort are vague.THE AIM AND STRUCTURE OF APPLIED RESEARCH 3 of basic personal motives ("the motive possible practical application"). and (ii) the structure or logical form of the knowledge validity claims. with as good justification as possible.10 In treating truth. tional goals of individual scientists or the motives of funding institutions. and universities. Knowledge about the current state dynamically developing and the regularities of the world also allows us to explain and understand reality. culture.or. that of applied research utility"). research sites ("basic research is done in the business schools. industrial laboratories"). mission-oriented research leads to practical applications research in the short run"). and rationality of inquiry. . ness.9 According task of basic science is the so far best results of science give us the elements of a cognitive: world view. I look for a systematic in two di? distinction rections: (i) the "utilities" that define the aims.7 The same activity may be classified as basic research on one criterion. and the speed of utilization ("strategic basic in the long run. 3. applied research in the polytechnics. of these distinctions if often doubted or denied. should provide answers to cogni? This knowledge tive problems: it should describe.. with and incompatible each other. It is. progress. This description of basic research the course of scientific follows to realism.

and sociologists of science have been keen to show Many historians that real-life scientific work does not always fit the picture drawn by realism.g. ILKKA NIINILUOTO virtues which define the success and they are the cognitive force in the sense that of inquiry.4 Rather. of "pure" or the arguments against the "false ideology" Secondly. A norm is shown to be invalid only if its violation is not punished the normative force of the sanction.g. religious.13 However. does not lead to any sanction. to promote the cognitive goals of realism. as we is research there is a sense in which shall see (Section 9).14 The word 'technology' may also refer to the products . religious. only or economic to moral. sampling and experimental so that they tend statistical methods) have been designed techniques. the study between medical technologies to applied rather than basic science of such topics belongs and. or bias if someone is found to be guilty of fraud. But. as a criticism of scientific a normative do not of behavior violating command examples norm: for example.e. nationalist. they seem to involve two flaws. normatively in the same way as basic research.. the credibility of his or her arguments grounds. factors. manipulation on political. sexist. standard methods of scientific inquiry (e. But ation. political. the criminal acts do not disprove criminal disprove law. realism. the Indeed. They also have normative progress or theory may appeal the arguments for or against a scientific hypothesis to its cognitive status in the light of the available evidence . applied to epistemic utilities and restricted not "value free" (i. when uncovered and ethical norms of science: this is not the case with the methodological of data. e. First..not. or economic or at least seriously weakened within the scientific will be demolished community.. languages) descriptive 4. or against a hypothesis in favor racist.12 To disprove by the associated it should be shown that their viol? utilities of basic science. epistemic in public. TECHNOLOGY AND PRACTICAL UTILITIES and social artefacts By technology Imean the design and use of material as tools in the interaction with and the transformation which function of of reality. choices of the value-laden science often involve examples "objective" or social policies.11 These studies have given us valuable (in the realist's sense!) new information about scientific practice.

- quirement of practical applicability to basic science relevant utilities with simplicity or manageability.g. the linguistic products of scientific research. and social aspects. i. theory of relativity) nomical efficiency may also have independent indirect social effects. 'development' is a name for science-based technology. effects on the material and unintended and social reality. and practical social sciences are often mentioned basic science and technology. such a theory has a truth value of our opinions.and therefore they value-laden. As applied science for their correctness.. theory of evolution. It is important to emphasize here the crucial difference the between a scientific hypothesis or a new technological to "accept" decisions to develop tool.THE AIM AND STRUCTURE OF APPLIED RESEARCH 5 this activity. medical sci? sciences. can (and should!) be assessed also in terms of their eco? technologies (relation of costs and effects) and their ergonomical aesthetic. the power of an engine). they are intended to create new powers of action. e. ethi? (man-nature relations). The purpose of increasing as a tool. and thereby to increase man's positive and possibilities free? dom. APPLIED SCIENCE and forestry sciences. and negotiations. the basic "technological relative to utility" is effectiveness the intended use (e. Hence. applied sciences. agricultural new artificial entities are inherently in the world . even though the accept? ance of a scientific theory (e. interests.e.g. ecological (man-tool relations). 5. cal. In this sense.. nuclear power plants. Engineering agricultural as examples of ences. tools and artefacts Unlike are not true or false.g. functions the value of the results produced knowledge of such applied sciences and practical utilities. can be evaluated both in terms of epistemic aims at knowledge.. Therefore. On the other hand. Rather. Falling between they which is intended to be useful for the specific produce new knowledge the effectiveness of some human activity. suggests that besides the epistemic and applied science is also concerned The choice of the simplest among . or missiles means in effect the introduction of fertilizers. informativeness. their rationality depends on the balance of their practi? cal utilities and disutilities. Besides creating new resources the use of tools consumes and has intended possibilities..15 its products should be assessed But the re? truthlikeness. The decisions and use. Hence.

to make the calculations easier or practically possible. The interplay of epistemic and practical utilities can also be illustrated terms.. Suppose we are interested in the health in decision-theoretic linear and and a choice has to be made between risks of radiation. models.17 it were applied. It is true that "practice the pragmatic success of a theory in guiding human action theory". nor will be. and thereby to treat all natural science as to instrumentalism. and it has not clarified the crucial between value. Further. it of applied science implies only its potential pragmatic a theoretical for an edu? that someone makes may happen proposal cational reform.e. To issue of how a piece of knowledge may have instrumental the analysis of applied science in terms of its these questions. in applied science which is not. But if the model will be implemented the public and workers safety standards. with the interest of protecting to give then the loss function could be transformed in nuclear facilities. approach to try to uncover is not sufficient. .is since there is a conceptual utilities here. is a fallible indicator of its cognitive virtues. in the direction of lower risk estimates.16 Beside provided by applied science epistemic utility. But the truth of a theory success: e. higher penalties so far has not yet helped to understand the relations Our discussion basic and applied research. the knowledge to have instrumental value for the associated human activity.. but this proposal In this sense. If the problem is purely theoretical. is expected calls the "technical science is thus governed by what Habermas Applied to the world.18 quadratic dose-response could be equated with its distance model then the loss of a mistaken in the adoption of from truth. practical superfluous is a criterion of a connection between them. approxi? to quantitative and simplifications laws mations may be introduced even at the expense of their truthlikeness. reasons. is to commit oneself It might be objected that the double assessment and by epistemic . i.g. but it is necessary aims or utilities the logical form of its typical products.6 equally human well ILKKA NIINILUOTO if it will be used as a resource in supported hypotheses. to be justifiable by economic is often assumed action. But to extend this conception interest" of controlling basic natural science as well. cashed cognitive progress out in practice. it is possible that there is is actually never implemented. which would have its claimed effect.

descriptive science: EXPLANATION AND PREDICTION Basic sciences with sentences are descriptive in the sense that they primarily describe. (3)). that event of type Assume opportunity A has occurred in a certain situation b. singular and general facts about true and seek to establish theories which the world. there are good explanatory some useful Further.THE AIM AND STRUCTURE OF APPLIED RESEARCH 7 6. basic research also provides to give scientific explanations. (e. has predictive power.g. which is able to pro? duce reliable predictions about future events. power theory of evolution). meteorology. The structure of this predictive can be used for both For example. They express or types of events. A scientific theory. Hence.19 argument probability p). Then laws (1) and (2) allow us or probabilistic to construct deterministic arguments with explanatory as the explanandum: A fulfilling (3) X causes A in situation B X occurred in situation b The situation b is of type B in b. the same laws of celestial mechanics future ones. of . and social statistics are examples of applied sciences which have predictive power as their central epistemic utility. explaining past eclipses and predicting sciences are often considered Predictive the basic type of applied science. In spite arguments predictive the structural and predictive similarity of explanatory theories without much (cf. Practical astronomy. Human cultures have been interested in successful prediction for various practical reasons. A between properties lawlike (nomic) connections or probabilistic causal typical result of basic research is a deterministic law of the form (1) X causes A in situation B or (2) By X tends to cause (with probability p) A in situation B. in the indicative mood. Then the occurrence of A in this situation can be predicted (certainly or with is again (3). A occurred Laws of form (1) and (2) can also be used for prediction. Suppose an event of type X has occurred in a situation b of type B. its descriptive the function..

not very successful attempts have been made alternative views. i. enhances human art and skill (Greek techne. to engineering.e.e. of a misleading of such fields science (and science education) gives picture as engineering. or to smuggle into inquiry moral or political valuations. This move since the distinction..8 ILKKA NIINILUOTO "models" for prediction may be so simplified or idealized that they are not taken seriously as premises of explanation. legal order). architec? and social planning economic environmental. painting.g. it is the nature of design science in more detail. SCIENCE to generalize the observations of Section It would be a serious mistake the 6 to the claim that the basic-applied distinction coincides with is seductive. explanatory-predictive to be the account has almost universally been accepted descriptive model of science. an aero? thus ranges from city. (I think Simon's to distinguish important account is ambiguous here. openly bring Simon's is Herbert insightful book The Sci? important exception of He argues that the traditional model the Artificial (1969). which are concerned with design i. i. forest) or artefacts (e. natural systems (e. planning. An ences and to function".g. but "how things ought to be in order to attain goals.e.20 But the supporters of the descrip? since they seem to tive ideal have liked to knock out these proposals. crafts. to formulate Some . human body. the production.. and law. and the fine arts. discussing it clearly from scientific design. preparation. business.with a sciences are two subtypes of descriptive science predictive difference which is only pragmatic 7. economics. (OR) provides methods Operations or satisfactory solutions to design problems (e.g.22 This concept of design plane. explanatory .) Scientific design is a species of design.. medicine.21 in the broad sense includes all "artificial" Let us say that design or manipulation of human activities. which would allow also for a special kind of "norma? tive science" or "critical science". and Still. Then research aiming at knowledge that is useful for the activity of design i. and the activity of solving design problems by using scientific methods for Research scientific knowledge.. architecture.. industrial design. ture.e. DESIGN in nature.. Latin ars)23 may be called design science. game finding optimal Before . education. not how things are..

Design science produces knowledge which may then be applied within scientific design. the art These . design science is the activity of generating instru? mental knowledge for the production and manipulation of natural and artificial systems. More to distinguish it is important generally..g.. linear programming). is the result of the "scientification" of art.. manage? design ment.g. agriculture). (e. the latter is concerned with the use of scientific knowledge methods for the solving of practical problems of action (e. scientific theory. which separates from distinctions other a profession the related practice (e. or development. technology. in engin? eering or business). The former is a part of knowledge produc? and tion. art or skill needed in this practice farming. where a scientist may play the role of a consult.g. In this sense.24 each can be clarified by Table 1. (e.THE AIM AND STRUCTURE OF APPLIED RESEARCH 9 PROFESSION medicine man physician PRACTICE therapy healing nursing ART medicine SCIENCE medical science art of nursing pharmacy nursing science pharmacology pharmacist preparation of medical drugs farming agriculture design of mechanical works warfare farmer art of farming agricultural science engineer engineering engineering science soldier strategy art of war military science peace-making politician administrator social worker merchant tradesman teacher athlete politics politics peace research political science social service commerce trade teaching sporting social policy art of trading policy science economics didactics athletics didactics sport science Table 1.g. On the other hand.. applied science from the applications of science. a farmer). decision theory.

science). involving accorded the use of that ability to make lucky shots which is commonly it has consolidated its position by dint of the title of art or craft. while others like straight-edge. and the best skiing styles. In the dialogue Phi knowledge background he pointed out that some crafts use "numbering.25 suddenly become champions of design science is given Another way of illustrating the conception Plato was well aware that some arts require more in Fig. meas? lebus (55d-56c). keep record of this activity.10 ILKKA NIINILUOTO "scientification" design science mechanization" Fig. agricultural one and the same person may simultaneously act in a Sometimes and do research about his or her own practice: a physician profession and write a doctoral may heal patients.. the building of ships and houses employs and plummet). instruments compass. navigation. uring.g. 1. and music. The fact that today sport science of the associated design of skies. warfare.g. medic? ine. and a design science aiming at improving the art (e. But it is nevertheless dissertation using possible between the practice of an art and the research distinction conceptual science. or "experience are based on "guesswork" and rule of thumb. does not mean "scientists". arts or technologies have been based upon all human Originally skills and "rules of thumb" of the of the practical consisting expertise . the effective studies the sliding properties training of male and that the skiing female skiers. The latter class of arts include. and exactness than others. when industrious practice". 1. Already of farming).. and weighing" (e. Plato said. to make a its results.

This process started already in the ancient times with the arts of counting. biology.such as nursing science . arguing. architecture. the scientification of professional activities. von Wright's concept of technical is a factual statement about the relation between means norm. about their identity by the conception of gain illumination science. and judging warfare. logic. knowledge serves some art has been collected into systematic bodies of rules. Secondly. Later the operation of strategy. agriculture.26 First. Their later development has followed two and the scientification patterns which may be called the mechanization of practices or arts. Pharmacology is an example of an empirical design science tests the efficacy of medical drugs. In this sense.which. geometry. you ought to heat it. sport). I believe.g. 1). the emergence of the first guide books of arithmetic. These observations give us new insight into the history of science. its results should be some statements (Fig. could they. military and law. tools of war? masters: which fare. which and ends: (4) Both If you want the antecedent to make and a hut habitable. in Euclid's Elements rical constructions is a classical exposition of design science. building. psy? philosophy may but many practical disciplines have been created chology. at the same time constitute knowledge1} The solution can be found in G. such rules is put in scientific tests . H. The standard view that all scientific disciplines have emerged from be true for some basic sciences (physics. But rules. as normative are usually thought to lack truth values. .THE AIM AND STRUCTURE OF APPLIED RESEARCH 11 or employed they have presupposed knowledge only at the level of everyday experience. architecture.. sociology). norm the consequent of such a conditional . medical measuring. the treatment of rules for geomet? practice (cf. design which 8. How to the scientification of kinds of rules of action in the imperative mood. TECHNICAL NORMS If a design science is expected to contribute human practices. then. medicine.and a design science is created of the background through the "scientification" knowledge serving a Table 1).with care. human activities have become more and more effective inventions through new mechanical (e.27 This process con? through tinues in our age with new disciplines .

to the valuation in the antecedent mitment that technical norms of the type (5) express Hence. want A'). If your aim is to build safe aeroplanes. to heal a patient with If you want you use this treatment. of a person. cause of A cause of A cause of A it has no truth value. that you are in a situation B. may have stronger or weaker quent to the conse? (6) You should (ought to) do X.12 ILKKA NIINILUOTO are descriptive the former about the wants or preferences statements. respectively) norm if doing X is (7) a necessary a sufficient probabilistic in situation B. the latter about the existence of a "technical ought" for him. Examples If (6) is read in the imperative mood. Therefore. However. for you to do X. The technical norm (4) is true if and only if heating the hut is it habitable. which corresponds categorical forms of (5). . It is rational It is profitable for you to do X. you should If you want to increase the productivity use these fertilizers. (5) If you want A. The normative statement. singular statements these symptoms. we may propose the typical structure or logical form of the knowledge by provided from sciences of Table 1 are easy to find: design science. proposed an "objective" the truth or falsity of (5) is technical norms is different: and general feature of the world. which does not presuppose any com? of (5). The conditional quents conse? or recommendation (5) (with alternative can be defined to be true if and only given by (6). which some its truth presupposes inference". use this material. and you believe then you ought to do X. treated as a descriptive statement. If (6) is is a consequence of "practical as a premise valuation ('you of the form (6) can hardly be the case with to be the theorems of any science. should of fields.28 condition for making necessary a technical norm is a statement of the form More generally.

In order piece of iron is heated above 770?C. knowledge In many cases.THE AIM AND STRUCTURE OF APPLIED RESEARCH 13 If we wish risk of war). then this if we observe X in situation B. Then technical norms are supported "from below" by building up a simplified model of the and experimental tests to situation. Support "from above" means the derivation of a technical norm from statements by basic research. heat it above 770?C. lower interest so There are two ways in which a technical norm may be supported. law of the form (1) or (2). trying to find the optimal methods as a general rule. assume that More generally. cause X. 'X factor X is not manipulable by law can be used for predictions: expect A as well. to increase the probability of peace (reduce a disarmament to be programme ought we should the ac? cepted. I If a magnetized is demagnetized. there is not available any general theory from which a technical norm can be deduced. But ifX may can be converted to a technical aim A. we may be chosen by us. but is chosen by nature. and investigate the dependences of producing the desired effects. however. . using trial-and-error procedures between the most important variables. in this precise science: its sense. to speak. then it to demagnetize iron. to avoid unemployment. Magnetism i If the temperature of iron exceeds 770?C. be applied Design is derivable from the results of the descriptive basic sciences. If we want rates. then we should bring about the science can. Bunge (1966) has provided descriptive a good example of this process: given above the temperature of iron disappears 770?C. then the causal law norm (5): if we want to achieve the is of type B. a technical norm with When the result is expressed some empirical support is obtained. and the situation a causal basic research has established causes A in situation B\ If the cause us. it is not magnetic. from above and from below.

DESIGN SCIENCE. tive design that the border between and It should be emphasized descriptive science splits many scientific disciplines. is irrelevant the Sun and Earth' between place moon to human possibilities. they are true or false statements. But scientists are already speculating relation the causal factor X in a law about making planets habitable. so to speak . was.14 descriptive science ILKKA NIINILUOTO technology predictive science design science development scientific problem-solving I-1-1-1 basic research applied research Fig. Basic research about S tries to sociology of S.31 Then descriptive of 5. descriptive or will be.applied dichotomy distinction. the research of S includes at least the history of S. meteorology to useful technical norms . 2. medicide. and the economics some systematic the present state of S and to establish describe regu? . Astronomy the human manipulability about can? are today predictive since their regularities sciences.in this we may larities about S way. we have found that the border between In one sense. science contains only a part Design jurisprudence. the practical kernel. e. nursing Design sciences science itself which is the object of "science studies". but what ought to be so that we can attain given goals. and design science may depend on the pragmatic question predictive and of causal factors.. ETHICS.30 Let S be some activity design .g. however. Nevertheless. because technical norms are not applied statements about the world. in an objective be supported by theories and experiments fashion. and can.the rule 'If you want not be transformed in an eclipse.or which can be studied by science. These are summarized in a sense suggests that in Fig. which conclusions is less fundamental than the descrip? the old basic . speak about basic research and life sciences. in principle. They don't tell us what is. 9. social sciences.of these discipines. POLITICS basic sciences and predictive differ from explanatory sciences in a systematic way. Whether within technical . 2. sciences. the psychology of S. S might be farming.

But as a conditional statement. business economics profits. where X can be brought about by us. design relevance. with symptoms B.32 accept their conditional in this the same time. not require a commitment to the value premise of its antecedent. At those who sense. For a militarist and a pacifist may both agree on the truth of the example. How is the value A in a technical norm chosen? some design the answer is straightforward: sciences. of military conditional recommendations studies. peace research tries to reduce the risk of military conflicts. purposes only upon two further conditions: (i) ations that are (excatly or at least approximately) 'X causes A on the stage reached basic research. . a person the tools (tech? In the case of medicine aims at promoting at maximizing health. as medicine For example. unlike science has to satisfy a special condition of social norm (5).g. the content and desirability of Still. A technical norm is binding only for disagree value premise. design science seems to radically differ from the "positivistic" ideal of "value a technical norm does neutral" science. and social policy studies promote the welfare of society. the overall value commitment. these aims may be put into question within philosophy and ethics: the philosophy of medicine discusses the definition social of health. even if they sharply about their relevance. the "health" of society. mental abnormality). in spite of value-neutrality to applied science ismorally responsible for contributing nical norms) he or she has created. business ethics and environmental philosophy ethics the legitimate goals of human actions towards other agents or nature. Aims of this kind are so tightly fixed with the professional of these sciences goals and the self-identity as if forgetting that they often present their conclusions categorically. drug use. takes it for granted that a patient must be technical norms of the form 'If you want to heal a person healed.THE AIM AND STRUCTURE OF APPLIED RESEARCH 15 in B' is manipulable by us depends human technology. and (ii) the goal A should be at least potentially for some social acceptable or "auditory". by This conclusion already suggests that. use treatment X" may be expressed simply by 'Use treatment X for patients with symptoms B\ Such a move becomes if it is denied a that the "symptoms" B constitute only problematic "disease" (e. A technical is useful for practical there are in fact situ? of type B. group As technical norms contain evaluative and normative terms..

cases. we in fact bring in an an economic that B must be kept constant. presuppose a technical norm should to eliminate such hidden valuations. or to invent a new type of the need to reject the idea of basic science . that should include among its antecedent A all the relevant valuations ac? of the recommended concern the direct and indirect consequences and has not always been respected. about poli? about valuations. where If two lyzed into their elements by the concept of technical norm. . reasons: (a) (b) (c) the relevant goals Ax or A2 about the current situation Bx or B2 about the underlying causal mechanism disagreement tween X& B and A. this requirement tion X. 'Do XXV and 'Do X2\\ groups of experts advocate conflicting policies their disagreement may be due to at least three separate respectively. has led to a justified criticism of the dangers ciency "instrumental reason".36 of science does not imply crisis" of modern the "legitimation However.16 ILKKA NIINILUOTO In many debate.34 There is one further. issues.and the latter tend to be concealed factual and evaluative assumptions under the guise of "neutral" experts. ket economy. socialist) policy that the economic system itself must not be interfered with. but (a) is a difference cies concerning and society often contain both energy. A=to improve gross national product. Therefore.33 disagreement disagreement about be? in principle solvable by empirical (b) and (c) are factual disputes.35 For example. environment. Here so that the goal A includes all the relevant value assump? be formulated to preserve the mar? tions (e. That science has been utilized with a very narrow scope and distorted applied effi? content of human valuations (usually only technical and economic in the short run). 10. CONCLUDING REFLECTIONS As a technical norm it is not true that "the aim justifies the means". and to avoid such and such side effects). Disputes research.. ate factors X and the unchanging situation B.g. assumption in a capitalist recommendation country may (resp. the choice of A involves a political Policy can be ana? the experts differ in their recommendations. rather subtle way in which a technical norm a distinction In making the manipul? between may involve valuations.

Is the attempt to establish design sciences. to live with his or her "clients" and helps the researcher where goes It also thereby shows that the "in them elicit their own preferences. a city). human patients) are legitimate he highly controversial what goals and means from a moral point of view. in spite of all these diffi? still a worthwhile think so today. The last point illustrates the fact that.. enterprise? Many professions with hope that the making of their practice and education obviously "scientific" would given them a higher status in society. the alleged crementalist" criticism of planning impossi? reason for is not a sufficient subject and object) bility of separating rejecting the idea of instrumental rationality. planning officer over the citizens. even Utopian changes in the prevailing order).g. a democratic intention" of The concept of design science community. itmay be very hard to find any approximately economy.. Dreyfus that skill based upon rules belongs argues and "advanced beginners". without it or the scientist accepts uncritically questioning his or her moral without in producing understanding responsibility social engineering tools for reaching A).. technosystem) true and lawlike regularities. and emancipatory proposes only research (where the goal A is critical of the status quo and proposes radical.38 the concept technical norm shows how But. thus covers also the so-called participatory planning or action research. The ments to design science seems to come from the argu? real challenge of Hubert L. science may be.37 The concept of design science covers in fact a whole variety of different They include cases of blind technocratic approach (where possibilities. And for many situations it may (e.39 .e. piecemeal (where the goal A small reforms to the social system). animals. Dreyfus. theories (i. with aims and standards differing from other forms of inquiry. it may be an immensely complex affair to give a correct and sufficiently detailed description of its present state. For some systems involving both material and human elements (e.THE AIM AND STRUCTURE OF APPLIED RESEARCH 17 science. the goal A need not be a demand imposed "from above" by a bureaucratic it may express the "we Instead. on the other hand. For many difficult applied extremely systems (e. whose criticism of artificial intelligence and expert systems is directly applicable to know-how by represented technical norms..g. in a social design science. culties. the goal A. while the true "expert" only to "novices" acts by "intuitive on action-guiding without reliance intelligence" rules.g.

NOTES 1 account is due to Herbert Simon In my view. This term basic research to Elzinga (1985). surprisingly sharp between science and technology. Mitcham and Mackey (1983). 8 See Levi (1967). See Ackoff (1962) and the criticism inNiiniluoto (1984a). or cannot. (1984a). 7 of Basic to my queries Commission about the basic-applied After distinction. 12 see von Wright For norms. This terminology to the cognitive relative basic research is also "strategic" goals of inquiry. (1984b). Habermas See Longino 19 Cf. 1974). 10 Some realists would take explanation to be more fundamental notion than truth. but finds no difference Janus-faced dichotomies. Ch. Rapp (1984a). Useful discussions have been presented (see Gasparski by Polish praxeologists et al. 11. 6 Cf. Sintonen (1990). 5 is Latour with many A recent example who operates (1987). 2 3 4 For Bernai. p. be improved by their "scientification". where does not appreciate the fact that curiosity-oriented row's technologies. (cf. (1974). Niiniluoto (1984a). (1969) between explanation and prediction. Section interesting 7 below). (1985b). Niiniluoto. Ch. example Loughlin (1987). and the Finnish papers (1985a) and (1987b). 1983). Chs. See Niiniluoto science have been developed (1984a). My (cf. (1971) (1989). 221. is to analyse and to classify human skills into those which can. Stegm?ller . 1983) seems 10). that Irvine and Martin An of this drift is the distinction example between pure curiosity-oriented (1984) make the knowledge base for tomor? the latter provides and strategic research research. listening to include in Finland in 1989) decided of Education Research by the Ministry (appointed within within volume "basic research" all publicly funded research (about 40 percent of the R&D in Finland). A special philosophers on applied in Synthese 81:3 (1989). Niiniluoto 15 16 17 18 Ch. 9 See Popper (1963). 14 Cf. Niiniluoto (1987a). nice see Niiniluoto is due (1990a).18 ILKKA NIINILUOTO The important issue. 12. See. 10-12. 1983) and analytical of technology issue (see Rapp. The work on the Finalization science was published to me inconclusive Thesis 1984a. 11 norms of the Mertonian of the criticism See. Cf. own ideas about applied since 1983. Leplin (1984) and Tuomela (1985).. See Niiniluoto (1984a).. the most (1969) (cf. 13 on drug use in Restivo and of research the interesting for example. 262. Skolimowski (1966).g. and Niiniluoto on the symmetry See Rescher (1990) and Niiniluoto (1992). e. p. which remains to be settled in further philosoph? ical and empirical work. Cf. (1963. Mulkay's against (1979) summary science. Sch?fer.

then you ought decision criterion system concepts criteria. your belief is B. 31 The design science to scientific research of "science" corresponding (as a subsystem as a whole) is nothing else than "methodology".g. technical norms). (as a method) the birth that of science See vonWright (1963. 21 on "design" See Simon sense of industrial in the narrower (1982). Niiniluoto of this observation to auditory-relative (1985b) for the relevance concep? My much tions of truth. legal dogmatics) (1985b). (1967). p. and your favourite is C. entirely by etc. for the people" "science 38 Cf. (1990b). 33 A fourth factor is the choice of the criterion of rationality (e. 1988).. philosophy. Appendix. Niiniluoto (1984b). However. complication such as with the weaker and 'rational' in (6) arises conclusions from the problem that can be defined formal 'profitable' by several different of (6) and (7) could be given in (Bayesian) decision Sharper formulations theory. Bayes-rule. For a the gold medalist of javelin at the Olympic Games in his Master's in physical Thesis education about javelin throwing. Bunge always 23 For the concepts of techne and ars. (e. hypothesis be mentioned Tapio Korjus. (1984b). Habermas that a science about the norms valid in (1971) and Held (1980).g. Note a given society See Niiniluoto may be descriptive.. that wrote "behaviouralism": were if the hypothesis to accept true. 22 see Bunge For such a broad concept of design. See Levi (1980). .. 27 I am not theoretical 28 29 that such practical became sciences before suggesting disciplines in Greece: the scientification science of a practice presupposes has already been invented. history. 35 A remark to this effect has been made. 30 A to do X\ For the suggestion that the so-called are really technical "technological imperatives" see Niiniluoto norms.e. 26 Cf. e. a technical norm is generalized where to a statement of the form 'If your value system is V. that technology is based upon science. 7. For comments see Niiniluoto design. with a hidden value antecedent.THE AIM AND STRUCTURE OF APPLIED RESEARCH 19 20 Cf. Savage called a scientific criticism 25 But it might Soeul (1988). J. 24 This distinction is denied by the view L. in the context of ecological theories. Yrj? Haila..g. Another to science science related is science policy studies. to design reduced since these activities should also be investigated science. science are suggesting library science. by Dr. is always a decision to act as see Levi of behaviouralism. Lindblom and Cohen (1979). rationality that disciplines or nursing such as future studies. sociology. 34 36 37 See Held (1980) and vonWright (1986). psychology. design 32 Cf. minimax). (1987) on the new standards of "validity" in the and Loughlin See. Restivo movements. own experience is that some scientists fear that the idea of design is too science or technocratic tied with instrumental I am not by any means values. see Mitcham (1979). I don't assume with (1979). Laudan that (1987) has suggested norms are "hypothetical in science methodological imperatives" (i. 39 See Dreyfus and Dreyfus (1986).

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