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Preserved fruit and vegetables
EU MARKET SURVEY 2005
PRESERVED FRUIT & VEGETABLES
Compiled for CBI by: Ceres Company
in collaboration with Ir. A.F. Eshuis
DISCLAIMER CBI MARKET INFORMATION TOOLS Although the content of its market information tools has been compiled with the greatest care, the Centre for the Promotion of Imports from developing countries (CBI) is not able to guarantee that the information provided is accurate and/or exhaustive, and cannot be held liable for claims pertaining to use of the information. In the case of the market publications, neither CBI nor the authors of the publications accept responsibility for the use which might be made of the information. Furthermore, the information shall not be construed as legal advice. Original documents should, therefore, always be consulted where appropriate. The information does not release the reader from the responsibility of complying with any relevant legislation, regulations, jurisdiction or changes/updates of same. In the case of the Internet tools, CBI aims at minimising disruption caused by technical errors. However, CBI cannot guarantee that its service will not be interrupted or otherwise affected by technical problems. CBI accepts no responsibility with regard to problems incurred as a result of using this site or any linked external sites. The information provided is aimed at assisting the CBI target group, i.e. exporters and business support organisations (BSOs) in developing countries. It may, therefore, not be used for re-sale, the provision of consultancy services, redistribution or the building of databases, on a commercial basis. For utilization of the CBI market information tools by the CBI target group on a non-commercial basis, the condition applies that CBI is referred to as the source of the information. All other use is prohibited, unless explicitly approved in writing by CBI. Photo courtesy: Joost van Velsen for Ceres Company
TABLE OF CONTENTS
REPORT SUMMARY INTRODUCTION PART A: 1 EU MARKET INFORMATION AND EU MARKET ACCESS REQUIREMENTS
PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS 1.1 Product groups 1.2 Customs/Statistical product classification INTRODUCTION TO THE EU MARKET INDUSTRIAL DEMAND 3.1 Overview of EU food market 3.2 Market segmentation 3.3 Patterns and trends in industrial demand PRODUCTION IMPORTS 5.1 Total EU imports 5.2 Imports by product groups 5.3 The role of developing countries EXPORTS TRADE STRUCTURE 7.1 EU trade channels 7.2 Distribution channels for developing country exporters PRICES 8.1 Price developments 8.2 Sources of price information EU MARKET ACCESS REQUIREMENTS 9.1 Non-tariff trade barriers 9.2 Tariffs and quotas EXPORT MARKETING GUIDELINES: ANALYSIS AND STRATEGY
10 10 12 13 16 16 21 22 27 32 32 43 55 58 63 63 67 68 68 68 69 69 81
PART B: 10
EXTERNAL ANALYSIS: MARKET AUDIT 10.1 Market developments and opportunities 10.2 Competitive analysis 10.3 Sales channel assessment 10.4 Logistics 10.5 Value chain / price structure 10.6 Product profiles INTERNAL ANALYSIS: COMPANY AUDIT 11.1 Product standards, quality, USP and production capacity 11.2 Logistics 11.3 Marketing and sales 11.4 Financing 11.5 Capabilities
87 88 88 89 90 91 93 97 97 98 98 99 100
5 Sales promotion APPENDICES 1 DETAILED HS CODES 2 DETAILED IMPORT/EXPORT STATISTICS 3 USEFUL ADDRESSES 3.1 Standards organizations 3.6 Other useful addresses 4 LIST OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 5 USEFUL INTERNET SITES 101 101 101 103 103 103 106 107 108 100 100 114 121 122 122 122 124 125 126 128 129 Update of EU Market Survey Preserved Fruit and Vegetables (July 2004) 3 .1 SWOT and situation analysis 12.3 Drawing up an offer 13.2 Building up a relationship with a suitable trade partner 13.5 Trade press 3.12 DECISION MAKING 12.1 Matching products and the product range 13.2 Strategic options & objectives 13 EXPORT MARKETING 13.3 Trade associations 3.4 Handling the contract 13.4 Trade fair organizers 3.2 Sources of price information 3.
Czech Republic and Hungary are highlighted. Another trend is that the relationship between ingredients suppliers and industrial users has changed: the industrial user buys not only additives and ingredients from the supplier. An indication of the main application is given for each group: Fruit juices/concentrates Canned vegetables Canned fruit Frozen vegetables Frozen fruit Dried fruit Dried vegetables Provisionally preserved fruit and vegetables Industrial Consumer Consumer Industrial Industrial Consumer and industrial Industrial Industrial Market demand It is difficult to give figures on the industrial demand for preserved fruit and vegetables. ready-meals industry (dried/frozen vegetables). breakfast cereal and bakery industry and packers (dried fruit). After import. eating more snacks in between the usual meals). more convenience meals (ready meals). The main industrial end-users are the beverage industry (fruit juice/concentrate). increased fruit and vegetable consumption (they contain vitamins and natural antioxidants). The Netherlands. The following EU markets are highlighted: Germany. both as an ingredient for industrial use and as consumer products. increasing interest in organic products. on the demand for preserved fruit and vegetables include: increasing preference for safe and healthy food. The larger part of preserved fruit and vegetables is imported as ingredients for the food processing industry. The emphasis of the survey lies on preserved fruit and vegetables for industrial use. Another change is that ingredients stocks held by manufacturers are increasingly minimised and. Italy and Spain. Belgium. the new EU countries Poland. as this segment offers the best market opportunities for suppliers in developing countries. interest in exotic and ethnic food and ‘grazing’ (i. just-in-time delivery has become an important aspect in the European food market. Trends which have an impact on the demand for food products and. United Kingdom. The product groups discussed in this survey are used as industrial or consumer products. jam industry (frozen fruit). or both. soup industry (dried vegetables). consequently. France.REPORT SUMMARY This survey profiles the EU market for selected preserved fruit and vegetables. these ingredients are processed to become consumer products (fruit juice) or used as an ingredient to prepare consumer products (dried vegetables). but also his expertise and experience. These countries are major importers of preserved fruit and vegetables.e. Further. as a consequence. 4 .
frozen fruit and vegetables (Poland). dried vegetables. accounting for 23 percent of total imports by EU member countries (in terms of value) in 2003. China (frozen vegetables. The only two countries in the EU supplying notable volumes of dried fruit are Greece (currants) and France (prunes). Imports In 2003. 32 percent in value was imported from developing countries and 33 percent in volume. dried fruit (6%). the United Kingdom (14%) and The Netherlands (11%). frozen vegetables (12%) and canned fruit (10%). The share of developing countries in imports by EU-25 member countries of selected preserved fruit and vegetables amounted to 25 percent in 2003. dried vegetables (3%) and provisionally preserved fruit & vegetables (2%).9 billion of which 25 percent came from developing countries. provisionally preserved fruit & vegetables) and Thailand (fruit juice/concentrate and canned fruit). in terms of value (31%). followed by Czech Republic (20%) and Hungary (13%). in descending order. One part is supplied as fresh products directly to consumers. The new EU countries imported € 607 million of selected preserved fruit and vegetables during 2003 representing 713 thousand tonnes. representing a value of € 13. Between 2001 and 2003. 5 . In 2003. Poland and Hungary are becoming major suppliers to the EU market. Italian and Spanish orange juice concentrate is shipped solely to the soft drink industry. 17 million tonnes of selected preserved fruit and vegetables were imported into the EU-25. Dried vegetables are mainly produced outside the EU. Poland was the eight largest supplier and Hungary the fifteenth supplier of selected preserved fruit and vegetables to the EU market. EU production of frozen vegetables is estimated at 2 million tonnes. followed by France (14%). Turkey (canned vegetables. import prices were under pressure. canned vegetables. Leading developing country suppliers are Brazil (fruit juice/concentrate). It is important to mention that preserved fruit and vegetables are often imported as a raw material from countries outside the EU. dried fruit and vegetables). canned vegetables (26%). while the other part is supplied as ingredient to the food processing industry. Other important categories were. Less important categories were frozen fruit (8%). as these products are not suitable (different production process) to reconstitute into fruit juice. due to large supplies. frozen sweet corn. processed and packed in EU countries and reexported to other EU countries.Production EU countries are large suppliers of fruit and vegetables. especially for apple juice (Poland and Hungary). Therefore extreme care should be given in interpretation of the figures used in this survey. accounting for 32 percent of imports (in value) by EU-25 member countries. the values of all imported products increased by 9 percent and the import volume increased by 14 percent. Italy (orange and apple juice concentrate). Fruit juices and concentrates were the leading imported product category. of which around one quarter is supplied by Belgium. This implies that in most product groups. Poland was the largest importer of the new EU countries. which grow in temperate zones. Germany is the major import market for preserved fruit and vegetables. Spain (orange juice concentrate) and Germany (apple juice concentrate) are the only countries in the EU that supply considerable amounts of fruit juice concentrate.
please refer to http://www. Leading export destinations were Germany (22% in value).9 billion. For information on current CBI Programmes and training & seminars. France (14% in value) and the United Kingdom (12% in value). accounting for 36 percent. An exporter capable of meeting these requirements will have an improved competitive position in the EU market for preserved fruit and vegetables. used by processors and/or exporters of preserved fruit and vegetables. Opportunities for exporters Market opportunities in the EU for developing country exporters lie in the production of tropical and subtropical products (exotics). a tracking and tracing administration. of total exports in terms of value in 2003. A large part of intra-EU exports consists of re-exports to other EU destinations. This means that a product should be accompanied by complete product specifications according to EU and customer requirements. and for downloading market information and CBI News Bulletins. are produced according to the standards on Good Agricultural Practice. Export destinations outside the EU were USA (4% in value). Intra-EU exports accounted for 80 percent of total exports of selected preserved fruit and vegetables. canned fruit (9%) and frozen fruit (6%). Russia (2% in value) and Switzerland (1% in value). which are hardly or not at all grown in the EU. followed by fruit juice/concentrate (29%). a general trend in the food ingredients sector is that importers and food processors in the EU require increasing documentation in order to guarantee food safety. HACCP) or even ISO certification. information on quality assurance (e. The leading exported product group were canned vegetables. frozen vegetables (14%). and in the production of organically grown products.nl 6 .Exports In 2003.g. the EU exported 13 million tonnes of selected preserved fruit and vegetables.cbi. instructions on how to store and to process. representing a value of € 11. Another positive argument in the export business is that the raw materials. Moreover.
INTRODUCTION This CBI survey consists of two parts: EU Market Information and EU Market Access Requirements (Part A).Non-tariff trade barriers: Product legislation Market requirements: Occupational health and safety Environmentally sound production Packaging. marking and labelling . Market Survey Part A EU Market Information and Market Access Requirements EU Market Information (Chapters 1-8) Product characteristics Introduction to the EU market Consumption and production Imports and exports Trade structure Prices EU Market Access Requirements (Chapter 9) . and Export Marketing Guidelines (Part B).Tariffs and quotas Part B Export Marketing Guidelines: Analysis and Strategy External Analysis (market audit) (Chapter 10) Opportunities & Threats Decision Making (Chapter 12) SWOT and situation analysis: Target markets and segments Positioning and improving competitiveness Suitable trade channels and business partners Critical conditions and success factors (others than those mentioned) Strategic options & objectives Export Marketing (Chapter 13) Matching products and product range Building up a trade relationship Drawing up an offer Handling the contract Sales promotion Internal Analysis (company audit) (Chapter 11) Strengths & Weaknesses 7 .
by matching external opportunities and internal capabilities. and information on trade structure and opportunities for exporters is provided. The major national markets within the EU for those products are highlighted. statistical market information on industrial demand. health & safety and environmental standards. which can be of assistance in successfully achieving the identified export objectives. the exporter should be able to identify suitable target countries. After having read Part A. labelling and social. as well as possible trade channels to export the selected products (Chapter 12). it is important for an exporter to analyse target markets. market segments and target product(s) within these countries. Chapter 13 subsequently describes marketing tools. Part B therefore aims to assist (potential) exporters in developing countries in their export-decision making process. The emphasis of the survey lies on those products. which have to be fulfilled in order to gain market access for the product sector concerned. Starting exporters are advised to read this publication together with the CBI’s Export Planner. After having assessed the external (Chapter 10) and internal environment (Chapter 11). a guide that shows systematically how to set up export activities and the interactive tool on the CBI website ‘Export marketing plan’. In fact. which are of importance to developing country suppliers. Furthermore. It is furthermore of vital importance that exporters comply with the requirements of the EU market in terms of product quality. sales channels or customers. Part B is especially interesting for more experienced exporters starting to export to the EU and exporters looking for new EU markets. The survey is interesting for both starting exporters as well as exporters already engaged in exporting (to the EU market). production and trade.Chapters 1 to 8 of Part A profile the market for selected preserved fruit and vegetables. Chapter 9 subsequently describes the requirements. sales channels and potential customers in order to formulate export marketing and product strategies. 8 . the (potential) exporter should be able to determine whether there are interesting export markets for his company. packaging.
PART A EU MARKET INFORMATION AND EU MARKET ACCESS REQUIREMENTS 9 .
The fruit juice industry in particular uses (frozen) fruit juice concentrate. The best-known and most-consumed fruit juice is orange juice. the juice is restored to its original properties by adding water up to the original juice strength. The best opportunities for exporters in developing countries lie in supplying preserved fruit and vegetable products in the form of ingredients to the food processing industry in EU countries. Preserved fruit and vegetables consist of a range of product groups. the dairy industry also accounts for considerable volumes of fruit juices and concentrates. Apple. which form the basis for popular fruit juices. In this survey.1 Product groups This market survey deals with selected preserved fruit and vegetables for both industrial use and for the consumer and food service market. According to European fruit juice legislation. further to be referred to as ‘selected preserved fruit and vegetables’. In the country of destination. pineapple and grapefruit are other fruit species. or in acting as subcontractors by supplying consumer and food service products.1 PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS 1. which can be subdivided in an extensive range of individual products. Besides the beverage industry (juices and soft drinks). to food processing companies or multiple retail chains under their label. The directive also states that fruit nectar consists partly of fruit juice and partly of added water and sugar. Citrus fruit nectars usually have more than 50 percent fruit juice content 10 . This means that the figures include preserved fruit and vegetables as ingredients for the food processing industry as well as for consumer and food service packing. drinks made from fruit juice can be divided into three segments: • Pure juice: 100 percent fruit with the same strength and consistency as fresh squeezed juice and no preservatives added • Nectars: Base of concentrated juice or a pasteurised purée of fruit pulp to with sugar and water are added. fruit juice consists of juice without the addition of water. The minimum share of fruit juice in the nectar depends on the kind of fruit and varies between 25 percent and 50 percent. to prolong shelf life. The directive has been incorporated in the legislation of all European countries. a selection has been made of product groups and individual products that are important for EU markets and that offer opportunities for exporters in developing countries. water is evaporated from fruit juice. The Eurostat statistics used in this survey do not make a distinction according to application. in order to maintain quality. like canned fruit and vegetables. and diminish the transport and storage costs. The market survey distinguishes the following product groups: Fruit juices and concentrates In the country of origin. According to EU Directive 2001/112/EC. The residue is fruit juice concentrate.
papayas. micro-organisms (yeast. The Netherlands Horticulture Commodity Board’s definition of dried vegetables is used in this survey. cut. Other interesting canned fruit species are lychees. To inactivate bacteria. Fruit juice drinks with low or no sugar content. creating nonfavourable conditions for the growth of bacteria by means of the addition of vinegar or acetic acid. lower calorie content) Although the majority of imports by EU member countries consist of fruit juice concentrates. soup and ready meal industries are the main users of dried vegetables. The sauce. this product group will be referred to as fruit juice/concentrate. bananas. The best-known vine fruit species are raisins. are dried in order to stop the multiplication of micro-organisms. form a growing sector in this market (lower costs. The dried fruit and vegetables described in this survey are whole. most vegetables are dehydrated industrially. dried peas and beans). dates. In vegetables. carrots and olives. Although some vegetables are sun-dried or field-dried. due to their natural acidity. muesli. Please note that in trade statistics for canned vegetables (vegetables preserves sterilised in a closed recipient) vegetables preserved in glass jars are also usually included. Therefore. dairy products and desserts. figs. thus ending the multiplication. Dried fruit can be divided into vine fruit and tree fruit. In fruit products. Simple pasteurisation (heating to approx. the water is removed from the food and from the bacterial cell. apricots and fruit mixes. sweetened with artificial sweeteners. only yeast and moulds will develop. Canned fruit and vegetables To ensure sufficient storage life for fruit and vegetable preserves. 90º C) is sufficient for preservation of fruit products.• Juice drinks: Fruit juice ranging from 6 to approx 50 percent with sugar and water added and often with added flavour and/or artificial sweeteners. bakery products. in the remaining part of the survey. peas. These organisms obtain the water and nutrients they need for growth from the fruit or vegetable in which they grow. sliced. cocktail onions. Vegetable products can also be preserved as 'pickles'. 11 . Canned vegetables mainly consist of tomatoes and of different kinds of beans. carrots. trade figures cannot be split up between fruit juice and fruit juice concentrate. pears and prunes are the most important tree fruits. By drying or dehydrating fruit or vegetables. The most popular pickles are based on gherkins. apricots. tomatoes. The main dehydrated vegetables are onions. sterilisation (heating to at least 121º C) is required. peaches. where there is a lack of natural acidity. resulting in the exclusion of dried leguminous vegetables (for example. carrots. broken or powdered. sweet peppers and celery. mandarins and other citrus fruits Dried fruit and vegetables Fruit and vegetables. but not further prepared. through acidification. The main canned fruit varieties are pineapples. consisting of more than 80 percent of water. peaches. sultanas and currants. etc. garlic. moulds and bacteria) have to be inactivated. bacteria (including dangerous pathogenic bacteria) can also develop. whereas apples. Dried fruit is mainly used as a snack or a constituent for breakfast cereals.
Frozen fruit and vegetables Freezing and deep-freezing is based on the same idea: turning water into ice so that bacteria cannot live and reproduce on the raw food product. In the case of deep-freezing. 1988 a unified coding system was introduced to harmonise the trading classification systems used worldwide and to allow for improved international comparability of foreign trade statistics. When defrosted. Temporarily preserved vegetables are packed in drums (200 litres). bakery products and dairy products. Of course higher transport and storage costs have to be taken into account. cleaned and repacked in smaller volumes in the country of destination. 2002.2 Customs/statistical product specification On January 1. cover preserved fruit and vegetables products discussed in this survey. which damage the food cells. Chapters 7 and 8 and Section IV. 1. Chapter 20 of the Harmonised System. The products are then washed. Frozen fruit is processed into jam. The freezing of fruit and vegetables is increasing in popularity. The two processes are different. but so is the price. this method of preservation (packing in wooden casks or plastic drums. imports by EU member countries of provisionally preserved fruit are small. is based on a ten-digit product classification. The World Customs Organisation (WCO) is introducing alterations to the HS and these were included in the combined nomenclature (CN) as of January 1. Appendix 1 provides a detailed list of HS codes (and corresponding product names) of the product groups covered by this survey. Generally. vegetable preserves and salads. Fruit and vegetables can be blanched before freezing (to inactivate enzymes that might remain active even at very low temperatures. resulting in smaller ice crystals and consequently causing less damage to the food cells. Section II. the Harmonised System (HS). low temperatures are quickly achieved. in a sulphite solution as a preserving agent) is outdated and has for a large part been replaced by freezing. Vegetables such as gherkins and mushrooms can be temporarily preserved in the country of origin. Provisional preservation of fruit still takes place in some East European countries (mainly Bulgaria). 12 . but in this state they are unsuitable for immediate consumption. Provisionally preserved fruit is mainly used as an ingredient in the jam industry. Product groups covering fresh fruit and vegetables are not included in this survey. Not all product groups covered by these chapters deal with preserved fruit and vegetables. the quality of the frozen product is nearly the same as the original fruit. and affect the structure and colour of the product). Provisionally preserved fruit and vegetables In the case of fruit. As EU regulations are strict with respect to sulphite content. resulting in relatively large ice crystals. Frozen vegetables are mainly processed for ready meals. This system. HS codes/product groups printed in bold are specifically discussed in this survey. a part of the proteins. Fruit preserved in this manner generally contains substantial amounts of sulphite. Freezing achieves low temperatures slowly. sugars and vitamins is removed by leaching. The quality of this type of fruit is low.
877 13.0 70.9 68.2 10. 2003 Countries Population million Age 15 – 64 % GDP (€) estimation 2003 Selected EU Countries Germany France UK Belgium The Netherlands Italy Spain New EU countries Poland Estonia Czech Republic Hungary Slovakia Lithuania Latvia Slovenia Cyprus Malta 82.495 25.931 16.8 66. In this survey. Latvia.3 10.2 INTRODUCTION TO THE EU MARKET The European Union (EU) is the current name for the former European Community.3 58.761 9.000 25. Iceland.699 19.5 70.183 14.291 23.4 69. the EU will be referred to as the EU-25. DKr.1 40. Norway and Switzerland – more than 20 million enterprises are active. Estonia.6 2. unless otherwise stated. 13 . Slovakia.8 68.000 and € 255 million respectively.5 24.9 69.3 12.1: Population and GDP of selected and new EU countries.292 11.0 67. SKr € 1 = US$ 1. the average turnover per enterprise of SMEs and large enterprises amounted to € 600.318 24.0 67.6 67.13 38.4 68.884 12.727 10. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) accounted for the lion’s share. UK ₤. Table 2.0 70.0 5.0 0.4 60. Lithuania. Hungary.4 Currencies Exchange (2003) Source: The World Factbook 2003 Within Western Europe – covering 15 EU member countries.3 2.2 70.4 60.407 24. Czech Republic.904 8.455 9.3 67.0 65. Slovenia.3 66.263 €. In 2000.6 1. Since 1 January 1995.149 6. They are Poland. Ten new countries joined the European Union in May 2004. Negotiations are in progress with a number of other candidate member states.4 3. Malta and Cyprus.1 66. Liechtenstein.0 16. the EU has consisted of 15 member states.8 0.
etc. statistical reporting is only compulsory for exporting and importing firms whose trade exceeds a certain annual value. Work is in process in the fields of environmental pollution. In this market survey. Italy. is the harmonisation of rules in the EU countries. The threshold varies considerably from country to country. although figures for trade between the EU and the rest of the world are accurately represented. Until that date. trade within the EU is generally underestimated. but since the removal of the intra-EU borders. CBI’s database on European non-tariff trade barriers at http://www. the internal borders have been removed. In the case of intra-EU trade.cbi. Denmark. Goods produced or imported into one member state can generally be moved around between the other member states without restrictions. the euro (€) became the legal currency within twelve EU member states: Austria. The Netherlands. extreme care must be taken in the qualitative use and interpretation of quantitative data. the information used in this market survey is obtained from a variety of different sources. Belgium. goods. Therefore. A precondition for this free movement is uniformity in the rules and regulations concerning locally produced or imported products. Spain and Portugal.nl/accessguide Monetary unit: Euro On 1 January 1999. please refer to the CBI’s manual ‘Exporting to the European Union’. as also in comparison between different EU countries with regard to market approach. this is no longer the case. Trade figures quoted in this survey must be interpreted and used with extreme caution. Although the European Union is already a fact. both in the summary and throughout the text. The collection of data regarding trade flows has become more difficult since the establishment of the single market on 1 January 1993. the € is the basic currency unit used to indicate value. safety. Luxembourg. As the unification allows free movement of capital. 14 . Germany. Furthermore. For more information about harmonisation of the regulations visit AccessGuide. Greece. quality and education. not all the regulations have yet been harmonised. distribution structure. services and people. In 2002 circulation of euro coins and banknotes replaced national currency in these countries. Statistical bodies like Eurostat cannot depend on the automatic generation of trade figures. Finland. The most recent Eurostat trade statistics quoted in this survey are from the year 2003. health. trade was registered by means of compulsory customs procedures at border crossings. but it is typically about € 100.EU Harmonisation The most important aspect of the process of unification (of former EC countries).000. United Kingdom and Sweden have decided not to participate in the Euro. which affects trade. France. For more information on the EU market. As a consequence. Ireland.
63 0.005 2.639 2.178 0.263 3.326 2003 1.732 1.005 1.257 0.887 0.13 0.275 0.145 1.136 1.2 Exchange rates of EU currencies in US$. France.005 0.125 0.24 0.329 0.036 0.639 0.079 0.382 1. Czech Republic and Hungary. attention is paid to the new EU countries Poland.004 1. Italy.031 0.632 2004 1.06 0.004 0.328 1. while Belgium and The Netherlands are important processing and transit trade countries for preserved fruit and vegetables.941 April 2005 1.022 0.031 0. 2002-2005 Country EU Denmark Sweden UK Poland Estonia Czech Republic Hungary Slovakia Lithuania Latvia Slovenia Cyprus Malta Source: OECD Selected Countries This survey covers Germany.10 1.044 0.50 0.907 0. Currency € Dkr Skr GB₤ PLN EEK CZK HUF SKK LTL LVL SIT CYP MTL 2002 0.754 0.167 0.923 2.896 0. These countries have a sizeable food processing industry and are thus important for exporters in developing countries.12 1.005 0.946 0.833 0.058 15 .035 0. Spain and The Netherlands.360 1.128 2.15 0.006 2. Belgium.072 0.027 0. These countries are the largest importers of selected preserved fruit and vegetables.039 0. The first four countries are also the largest consumer markets in the EU. the United Kingdom.32 0.245 0. Besides the seven selected countries.004 0.084 0.Table 2.
9 11. For example.2 6.4 11.460 5. as preserved fruit and vegetables for the consumer market require extensive investments in marketing and distribution.3 0. forecast to grow to € 690 billion in 2006. dried vegetables. multiple retail chains like Carrefour.1 7. however. Next to producers’ brands like Del Monte and Dole (canned fruit). differences because the food market in Germany is estimated to decline by 4% during this period.940 14. There are.1 Consumer expenditure on food and non-alcoholic beverages in the EU. are rather scarce. 3.950 17. The growth in value is estimated to be only 4 percent. Tropicana and Minute Maid (juices). Iglo and Birds Eye Wall’s (frozen vegetables).2. it is the information given in this chapter. fruit juice and frozen vegetables in consumer packing are sold as branded products. Sainsbury and Rewe sell these products under their own (private) label.600 % change .300 96. Tesco.7 6.4 7.2 11. Data on industrial demand for preserved fruit and vegetables. Bonduelle (canned vegetables). This segment is the most important for exporters in developing countries.1 Overview of the EU food market Canned fruit and vegetables. It is further estimated that the food markets in the ten new EU countries will grow. The total EU food and drink market is estimated at € 666 billion in 2003. Ahold. 2003 and estimated % change 2003/2006 Value 139.4.3 INDUSTRIAL DEMAND Most of the product groups mentioned in this survey are used as ingredients for food processing.420 15.840 24. due to increasing spending power.7 Country Germany France Italy United Kingdom Spain The Netherlands Greece Belgium Austria Sweden Portugal Denmark Finland Ireland 16 . while the food markets in France and Italy are estimated to grow by 3% and 7% respectively. Table 3.0 8. markets like Czech Republic and Slovakia are estimated to grow by 20% and 10% respectively per annum.5 12.760 110. Dried and frozen fruit. As information on consumer products is more readily available. especially in the United Kingdom and France.0 3.800 8. fruit juice concentrates and provisionally preserved fruit and vegetables are mainly used as ingredients for the food processing industry. € million. The remaining markets show a stabilizing trend.920 64. however.4 2.640 14.2 . Trends in consumer products influence demand in the ingredients sector.270 17.470 10. indicating that the food market in the EU-15 countries is stabilizing.550 124. Private label products are usually less expensive than producer’s brands and have established strong market positions.
0 + 6.Poland Hungary Czech Republic Source: Euromonitor.8 23.0 21.821 530 + 2.1 Country Germany Austria Finland Denmark The Netherlands Sweden Spain France United Kingdom Belgium/Luxembourg Ireland Greece Italy Portugal Source: AIJN Price fluctuations.1 11.5 19.8 20. the fruit juice and nectar consumption is characterised by a high per capita consumption in northern European 17 .8 2002 40.6 35.839 8.4 + 5.0 Fruit juice/concentrate After a strong growth during the last decade.1 Dried food 7. 2003 26.864 597 % change Frozen food .0 32.4 23.1 2.1 % change Estimated volume in 2006 4.3 11.770 534 15. 2003 and estimate 2006 Value in 2003 20.1 16.1 24.954 + 3. the main food sectors relevant to preserved fruit and vegetables are outlined as follows: Table 3.7 25.canned fruit + 5.5 23.0 19.5 22.4 + 2.149 1.9 Source: Euromonitor 2003 3.0 31.3 20. thousand tonnes.002 1.5 14.5 35.2 Food sector Food sectors relevant to preserved fruit & vegetables in the EU-15 countries.2 + 3.9 11.6 16.0 21.2 + 3. 2001-2003.8 20.8 3.2 6.3 3. competition from other non-alcoholic drinks and warm/cold weather affect the juice and nectar consumption.1 1.280 7.8 3. Nevertheless.2 32. overall consumption in the EU-15 tends to stabilize as the following table shows: Table 3.0 31.7 22.canned vegetables .2 16.9 15.4 + 3.9 11. € billion.3 24.100 12.7 25.8 24.0 25.0 22.3 Per capita consumption of fruit juices and fruit nectars in the EU-15.0 Volume in 2003 4.7 21.4 22.0 21.2 In the following table.0 1.0. litres 2001 40.0 2.330 2.7 17.5 15.7 10.3 0 6.5 + 5.1 2003 42.frozen vegetables Canned food .0 12.9 .571 566 Estimated value in 2006 21.3 4.
8 7.1 4. Although the image of canned food is sometimes considered old-fashioned.8 5.4 5. Canned fruit As is the case with canned vegetables. Nevertheless. Belgium and in Germany.5 5.8 billion and 6 million tonnes in 2003. peas with carrots and peas are very popular in almost every single EU member country.9 1.countries (in particular Germany) and a low.4 3. as such. Nevertheless. Bonduelle is a French brand. accounting for 37 percent of the overall volume.8 5.8 1.9 6. which is not surprising since Germany has the highest per capita consumption of fruit juice and nectar in Europe. France and the United Kingdom are the only other two countries where fruit juices have a share of over 10 percent of total EU fruit juice sales.9 billion and the canned fruit market was € 1.2 kilograms. consumption and market prospects for canned fruit show large differences between the EU countries 18 . kilograms. Several fruit juice producers are also located in the United Kingdom and these supply substantial amounts of fruit juices. The remaining countries have per capita consumptions ranging between 0.2 6.5 5.4 6.7 – 2. The production of fruit juices is concentrated mainly in Germany. Canned fruit and vegetables The total canned food market in the EU-15 countries was estimated at € 14. HAK and Bonduelle are the leading A brands in The Netherlands. the packaging in glass jars instead of metal cans is still gaining popularity in the EU. but rising. The canned vegetable sector is very fragmented.9 5. 2003 Per capita consumption is the lowest in Ireland with only 0.4 Descending size of per capita consumption of canned vegetables in major EU countries . The canned vegetable market was estimated at € 2. partly because fruit and vegetables in glass are totally visible and stand for a quality product. consumption growth in southern European countries. mainly imported from France.5 4.0 5. followed by Spain in fourth place. accounting for 20 percent and 7 percent respectively of the total canned food market in value in 2003.2 2007 11. canned green beans. canned vegetables are more popular among younger consumers.4 Country France Belgium Germany Sweden The Netherlands Spain United Kingdom Czech Republic Hungary Poland Source: Euromonitor.1 billion.3 3. 2002 and estimated consumption 2007 2002 10. and is. Canned vegetables There are large differences in consumption and market prospects between the EU countries as the following table shows: Table 3.2 2.6 kilograms.
4 Country Denmark Sweden Belgium The Netherlands Germany United Kingdom Finland Slovakia Czech Republic Poland Source: Euromonitor. 19 .5 Descending size of per capita consumption of canned fruit in major EU countries.7 0.5 0.3 2. both in value and volume. kilograms. Considering the imports of dried fruit.Table 3.4 2. Dried fruit Dried fruit is used in consumer or food service packing.7 0. 2004 Market value in € million 707 317 Private label share 50% 70% 60% 50% 20% Developments Consumption under pressure Declining market Mature market Mature market Stabilizing market Germany United Kingdom France 233 Italy 113 Spain 90 Source: Leatherhead Dried fruit and vegetables The dried food consumer market in the EU-15 countries has a value of € 7.9 1.4 2007 4. 2002 and estimated consumption 2007 2002 4. Considering the imports of canned fruit. which are led by Del Monte and Dole.9 1.000 tonnes. mainly consumed as a snack and as an ingredient for breakfast cereals. The volume in the EU-15 is estimated at 530.8 million tonnes in 2003. accounting for more than a quarter of the total imports by EU member countries of dried fruit. prunes. there are no data about the consumer markets for dried fruit and vegetables as these products are mainly used as ingredients for food processing. dates. healthy ready-to-eat snacks and desserts. Table 3. The canned fruit market in the EU-15 is stable to declining.0 1.9 billion and a volume of 3.9 2.0 2. Bakeries and breakfast cereal mixes are one of the largest end users of dried fruit. The market for bakery products in the EU-15 had a value of € 70.5 0. followed by producers’ brands.6 Country Market developments canned fruit in major EU markets.3 billion and a volume of 26.3 3.8 0.1 3. peaches and mixtures are popular varieties of canned fruit in the EU. Unfortunately. 2003 The EU market for canned fruit is largely dominated by private label brands.5 1.9 1. Sultanas.2 3.8 million tonnes in 2003.6 0. apricots and figs are the major imported dried fruit species. other raisins. canned pineapples. sultanas are the most popular (mainly for industrial use) dried fruit in the EU.
7 14.0 2.7 3. tomatoes. In most markets. The market for frozen ready meals is boosted largely through the increasing sales of ethnic ready meals and through a strong growth in frozen pizzas.6 13.7 Country Italy Portugal Hungary Czech Republic Sweden Slovakia Denmark Source: Euromonitor. 20 .3 12.4 2.6 million tons in 2003.4 11. Frozen fruit and vegetables The consumer market for frozen food in the EU-15 countries had a value of € 20 billion and a volume of 4. the ratio is moving towards higher relative usage by the industrial sector.Table 3. 2003 The lowest consumption is measured in United Kingdom with 4.9 2.5 kilograms per capita. kilograms. Frozen vegetables in consumer packing also grew at the expense of vegetables in canned and glass packing.6 11. leek.8 15.7 11.8 Descending size of per capita consumption of frozen processed vegetables in major EU countries. the market for frozen vegetables is expected to grow. A few large multinational companies dominate the soup industry in the EU. kilograms.5 2007 15. accounting for 9. Unox). 2002 and estimated consumption 2007 2002 15. Private labels take an important share of the market for frozen food.3 14. 2002 and estimated consumption 2007 2002 24. muesli. Dried vegetables Dried vegetables are mainly used as ingredients by the dried soup industry. since the main buyer of frozen vegetables is the industry for ready meals and the overall consumption of ready meals has increased. carrots and peas. Table 3. These are Unilever (Knorr.6 13.7 2.4 16.1 10. It uses most types of dried vegetables.5 3. Market leaders in ready meals in the EU are Nestlé and Unilever.6 3. Frozen vegetables The consumer market for frozen processed vegetables had a value of € 1.9 billion and a volume of 566 thousand tonnes in 2003.8 2007 24.2 3.9 1.7 Country Denmark Austria Finland United Kingdom Sweden Germany Belgium Source: Euromonitor. reflecting the growing popularity of ready-to-eat healthy snacks. onions.5 1. and Nestlé (Maggi).9 1. and processed foods using more healthy ingredients like dried fruit.6 11. especially potatoes.5 percent and 12 percent respectively of the total consumer market for frozen food.7 Descending size of per capita consumption of dried food in major EU countries.6 1. 2003 However.
In this sector. catering for an increasing greying population in EU–15 countries. The jam industry uses considerable amounts of frozen fruit to produce jam products and marmalade. 2003).However. schools and universities. but in Spain. muesli and cereals bars. The share of private label is increasing. Fast food outlets showed an increasing expansion in most EU countries. Out-of-home consumption increased as consumers saw their incomes rising. convalescent homes.2 Consumer segment Preserved fruit and vegetables like canned fruit and vegetables. The market is stable in the leading countries (the United Kingdom and Germany). Fruit juice concentrate is reprocessed. the consumption of jam and preserves in the EU amounted to 505 thousand tonnes. to some extent. bakeries. by blenders and mixers. The beverage industry is the largest end-user of fruit juice concentrate. • other food sectors. operate in the following sectors: • beverage industry. The ready-meals industry is a significant end-user of frozen vegetables. the frozen food market is among the more dynamic sectors. • ready-meals industry. which represented an average per capita consumption of 1. frozen vegetables are the most frequently used type of frozen product. In 2003.1 Ingredients segment The food processing industry is the largest segment for preserved fruit and vegetables. Meals-on-wheels is a growing segment in food service. The most important fruit juices in the EU are orange juice and apple juice. 3. The consumer sector of preserved fruit and vegetables consists mainly of branded products and private labels. there is very little information available on market sizes and trends. instant soups (dried). The food service sector also includes company canteens and institutional outlets like hospitals. 21 . mainly at the expense of B and C brands. 3.2. The main products are packet soups (dried) including soup bases.2. The breakfast cereal industry uses substantial amounts of dried fruit in its production of cereals. preserved fruit and vegetables (primarily frozen and dried fruits and vegetables and concentrated juice) are used as ingredients in a wide range of food products. using preserved fruit and vegetables. preserved mushrooms and dried vegetables (mainly for pizzas and pasta dishes). canned soups and. The major food processors. butcheries and deli shops. followed by pineapple juice and grapefruit juice. fruit juice and jam are processed and packed in consumer units and sold through retail outlets to consumers. frozen soups. Preserved mushrooms are also used by this industry.2 Market segmentation The market for preserved fruit and vegetables can be divided into three segments 3. Supermarkets in the EU dominate retail sales at the expense of specialised shops. like pet food (dried vegetables). 3.3 Food service sector The food service sector has been growing during recent years. The soup industry is the largest end-user of dried vegetables.3 kg per year (Euromonitor. As the trade in these products takes place on a business-to-business basis. Food processors use these ingredients to produce end products in consumer packing for the retail sector and in catering packing for the food service sector. frozen vegetables. prisons. into fruit juice or nectar. • breakfast cereal industry. • jam industry. such as greengrocers. • soup industry. Frozen fruit Frozen fruit is mainly used by the jam industry for further processing into jam. confectionery. This industry hardly uses fresh fruit anymore. especially two-person households where both partners are working. baby and infant food.2.
mainly due to disappointing results of bakery products and confectionery. The main trends for packaged food in the seven identified countries are the following: 3. As the demography of Germany changes increasingly towards single households.3. family households are getting smaller because people are having fewer children. since 2002 the markets have tended to grow much more slowly (3-4 percent). This leads towards an increase in sales for breakfast cereals and sweet biscuits. increase the popularity of healthy products like reduced fat products. as consumers use this increasingly as a replacement for breakfast and lunch. being challenged by the success of other types of ready meal. already now the composition of the population is changing. Despite this increase in prosperity. Organic products still account for a small share of the total food consumption in most of the EU markets. Snacks are a growing segment in Germany.3 Patterns and trends in consumer demand The population in the EU is still growing and will continue to grow until about 20 years from now. but will only.The market for preserved fruit and vegetables for industrial use can also be segmented according to whether the products are grown by organic farming or by conventional farming. please check CBI’s Market Survey ‘Organic Food Products’. Due to the recession in Germany and low consumer confidence. Although growth of organic foods reached double digit figures in 2000 and 2001. causing prices to drop. at the very most. We also see a family ‘dilution’. the food market in the EU is highly competitive. bananas and pineapple are important organic products within the segment preserved fruit and vegetables for industrial use. Because of its nature. switch to other products. For more information on organic products. easy to prepare meals. It is estimated that.1 Germany One of the key trends in Germany is towards ready. Prosperity in the EU has increased over recent years. Dried fruits like apricots. organic production is highly suitable for small and medium-sized farmers working in areas. making these people a highly significant consumer group for food suppliers. Dried ready meals are also expected to decline. since consumers are not going to eat more. However. Due to changing eating habits. organic products account for about 10 percent of the total food market. in particular obesity. while in countries like Spain and France the share is between 0. and eating behaviour is related to income and life style. the number of single households in Western Europe is substantial and still increasing. This is particularly important since the demand for organic food is growing in several EU member countries and can offer interesting market opportunities for developing countries’ exporters. which may not be suitable for large-scale food production. although the differences are quite large. the EU will start to show a declining population size.2 France The French packaged food market grew by only 2% in 2004. the French increasingly prefer a cereals breakfast rather than a continental type breakfast. In Denmark and Austria. It shows a rapidly growing number of elderly people combined with a decreasing number of young people. probiotic yoghurts and alternatives for sugar. there is an oversupply. 22 . the market for single-portion products is increasing.3. 3. Concerns about health. In some sectors like organic coffee. Moreover. discounter retailers are growing to the detriment of more traditional and expensive outlets. thereafter. 3.5 and 1 percent.
3. 3.development of well-being concepts in most sectors.3. Private label products were the best performers in 2003. which have continued to grow. Another key factor in the increase in sales of these products is a growing demand for fresh preservative-free products. This lead to impressive growth in value terms of chilled processed food. health and taste variation. meal replacement products. 3. will be the most dynamic product groups for the coming years.increased price-consciousness . 3. It is expected that less developed sectors. is chilled ready meals. ready meals are still perceived as a makeshift solution. Public health has become a major issue. Consumers have less time to spend in the kitchen. as the United Kingdom continues to go down the road of the 24-hours society. the firstmentioned is emerging as the most influential. Pressure of time has also impacted on snack and confectionery sales. Awareness of obesity leads to a growth for low calorie and fat-free products. chilled processed food. like snack bars and ready meals. Sectors such as frozen foods and ready meals are expected to show the highest growth. Nonetheless. however. looking for cheaper distribution channels. Low calorie products boomed in the wake of a predominant diet culture. Belgian consumers appreciate frozen food.3. The number of products and varieties will continue to grow.shift towards out-of-home channels with adopted packaging formats . due to the doubts about the quality of the products available.4 Spain Snack bars. Sales of frozen pizza are expected to continue to fall. ready meals and confectionery saw strong growth in 2004. The trends and developments that impacted demand for packaged food during this period were: . have continued to grow. The Italian packaged food market is extremely fragmented. focussed on values looked for by consumers such as quality. 3. especially chilled ready meals and prepared salads.search for variation .5 Italy Although convenience is becoming more important to Italian consumers. in line with their increasingly hectic lifestyles. Consumers became more price sensitive. taste and convenience. especially obesity. overall growth in packaged food was held back by poorer performances by bakery products and baby food. Private labels continue to gain ground over mid-priced brands and even some prestigious A brands.7 Belgium Belgian consumers traded up to products with more added value during the period under review.3. This product group is seen as being more authentic than frozen or dried products. An exception to this. the ongoing success of pizzas and ready meals reflects the continuing importance of convenience and taste. 23 .3 United Kingdom Convenience appears to be at the forefront of everybody’s mind. due to lack of time or energy to dedicate to food preparation. The Dutch packaged food market is expected to continue registering healthy growth. Sales of convenience foods.3. Within the famous success triangle of health benefits. Most shopping is now done at weekends.3. As in many EU countries. the reduction of spare time leads to changing shopping habits. However.6 The Netherlands The packaged food market registered a growth of 4 percent during 2004.
have intensified interest in organic foods. a group of leading European food retailers launched the EurepGap Protocol in 1999. This is caused by the fact that fruit and vegetables contain vitamins and natural antioxidants. prefried fries. which are grown according to principles laid down in Regulation (EC) 2092/91. Environment-consciousness Food production. producers are encouraged to adopt an approved HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) system.” Fruit and vegetables There is a growing interest in the consumption of fruit and vegetables in the EU food market. sustainable use of natural resources and more environment-friendly production. According to health authorities and scientists the consumption of fruit and vegetables is still too low in most EU countries. which are low in fat and have limited sugar and salt content. frozen pastry. pizza. should be environment-friendly (organic. Organic food Since European consumers have recently experienced several food scares. ready meals (frozen.Recent research into consumer behaviour shows that today’s consumer has the following preferences concerning food and nutrition: Safe food Food products should be safe and eating them should not result in any danger or risk to health. West European consumers have a growing need for convenience meals. less time is left for the preparation of a full meal. Moreover. 24 . Health food Health food refers to food products. fish sticks. should be avoided or at least reduced. The catering sector now also uses semi-processed fruit and vegetables. please refer to the separate CBI EU Market Survey “Organic Food Products. For example. In the scope of the increasing environment-consciousness in the EU. canned soup. preserved vegetables. Please also refer to Chapter 9 of this survey for more information on HACCP. Therefore. including packaging waste.eurep. These factors. which help to prevent heart diseases and cancer. to show their commitment to the quality and safety requirements of the EU food industry. many people are concerned about the safety of food and the effects of intensive farming on the countryside as well as on the environment in general. especially primary growing. As a result. which support the intestinal function. chilled or shelf-stable). spurring the demand for peeled potatoes. The objective of EurepGap (EuroRetailer Produce Working Group for Good Agricultural Practice) is to raise standards for the production of fresh fruit and vegetables by promoting food safety. in short: without artificial fertilizers and pesticide. which have specific health promoting properties and food products with added vitamins and minerals or bacteria. Waste. which are supposed to have properties. the number of single households increases. For more information on the Eurep Group and EurepGap Protocol. A CIAA European Food Safety Survey conducted in 2002 showed that consumers find food safety the 4th largest health concern. see above). combined with the increasing awareness of the importance of diet and nutrition.org Convenience European people (including women) are working more and more in jobs outside their home and have busy social lives. this includes functional foods. please refer to http://www. For more information on organic food.
for exporters of preserved fruit and vegetables. 'Grazing' The modern consumer does not confine himself to the traditional three meals a day (breakfast. This development is also stimulated by the steady population growth of ethnic minority groups. In the past. lunch and dinner). Unilever announced recently that it is going to require that suppliers of agricultural raw materials grow their products according to the principles of sustainable agriculture. cheese sticks and fruit yoghurts.e. have increased considerably as a result of Individually Quick Frozen technology (IQF). distribution and processing. muesli bars. and informative labelling. Tracking and tracing is becoming even more important in production (i. culinary traditions from other continents tend to be more widely accepted by European consumers. instant soups. honest. This has resulted in a discussion in the fruit and vegetable processing industry about “tracking and tracing”. to ensure the organic character of the product. Sales of meals packed in bags. growth. please see chapter 9. Internationalisation As the world is increasingly turning into a global village. ice cream) are manufactured by European food industries from ingredients that are imported as semi-manufactured products (fruit juice concentrate). such as plant material. The food processing industry responds to the demands of consumers for safe. dioxine) consumers increasingly pose questions on the production process and demand open. increasing the demand for ethnic and exotic ingredients. carrying out his own programmes of evaluation and formulation to manufacture his end products. Over the years. one trend in the food industry is very important. the contents of which can be split up into individual portions. With the help of good chain management and control within the chain. growing and processing) of organic products. healthy and tasteful food by tightening their requirements and by placing increasing responsibility for the quality of the food in the hands of their suppliers (importers/exporters).Market developments are closely linked to innovation and many new products have entered the market in recent years. filled croissants. candy bars. jams. storage. which have significantly increased their purchasing power over recent years. mini-pizzas. hamburgers. where fully documented tractability is required from the raw material to the final product. The fruit and vegetable processing industry is increasingly paying attention to chain management and labelling systems. Tracking and tracing As a result of several food scares (BSE.1 of this survey. so it is easier to separate. but is eating smaller bites at more frequent intervals: readyto-eat products or products requiring very little ultimate preparation: take-out foods. This scene has changed in so far that the 25 . Moreover. Advertising for frozen food is increasing in most of the selected European markets. the food manufacturer simply ordered ingredients and additives from his suppliers. Many products containing exotic fruits (like fruit juice drinks. For more information on this Directive. harvest. through which products can be traced back to the producer. the relationship between the ingredients supplier and the food manufacturer has been changing. This technology prevents the product from freezing into one large block. which is now required by the EU General Food Law (Directive (EC) 178/2002). end-product processors are able to supervise all kinds of aspects of fresh fruit and vegetables and products derived from them.
it is recommendable to contact traders and the food ingredients industry in Europe (already maintaining their relation to the food industry) rather than going directly to the food manufacturers. this provides exporters in developing countries with opportunities to catch on to these trends. For starting exporters. For example. but also expertise and experience. Coupled to the need for safe and traceable food ingredients.food manufacturer is increasingly calling on and depending on the ingredients suppliers to carry out this development on his behalf. then shipped to the distribution centre of the retailer in the United Kingdom and from there directly to the retail outlets. the opportunities for exporters in developing countries lie in the following positions in the supply chain: • • • Suppliers of preserved fruit and vegetables ingredients to the food processing industry in the EU countries Suppliers of preserved fruit and vegetables in bulk to packers in the EU. thus requiring short-term call-off from their suppliers. Internationalisation of taste increases demand for exotic ingredients.3. The influence of those ingredients suppliers who can offer experience will increase. Based on the trends as mentioned under 3. beans and peas are harvested in African countries. sorted and washed immediately after harvest. 26 . who pack in consumer and food service units Subcontractors for the food processing industry and retail organisations. processed and packed in consumer packing under the label of a UK retailer. Just-in-time delivery is becoming increasingly important in the European food market. The food manufacturer not only buys additives and ingredients. Opportunities for exporters from developing countries Due to the characteristics of the preserved fruit and vegetable sector. A further change has been the minimisation of ingredient stocks held by manufacturers. These subcontractors process fruit and vegetables and pack them in consumer and food service units according to strict specifications and under their customers’ labels in the EU. increasing demand for convenience products spurs demand for ingredients used in ready-to-eat meals.
ranked on turnover in 2003 and relevant to the preserved fruit and vegetable sector. dairy.000 people. confectionery Confectionery.8 percent of total production value of the food and drinks industry. The sector employs 168.barilla. beverages. spreads Fruit and vegetables.com Cadbury Schweppes Ferrero Barilla United Kingdom Italy Italy 9.com http://www. representing 6 percent of total employees in the food and drinks industry (Source: CIAA).8 billion in 2003. In 2003 the total production value of the food and drink industry was over € 600 billion. The top EU food processors.com Unilever 42.nestle. confectionery Dairy.numico. 27 . 26. cereals Beverages.2 percent compared to 2002 and accounted for 5. This share is relatively low.1 4.com Danone France 13.7 http://www. This was an increase of 1.unilever. because of the fact that the preserved fruit and vegetable sector is a mature industry with a low added value.5 http://www. beverages.danonegroup. baby and infant food Websites http://www.6 million employees.ferrero. biscuits.4 PRODUCTION Preserved fruit and vegetables are part of the EU food and drink industry. cooking products Dairy. beverages.cadburyschweppes. dressings.1 Unknown http://www. were: Company Nestlé Country Switzerland (no EU) The Netherlands/ UK Turnover in € billion 87.6 http://www. accounting for 60 percent of total food and drinks production. Italian products Dietetic food.9 CHF Product groups Cereals.000 companies are active in this sector employing 2.com http://www. Germany and the United Kingdom were the largest food processors in the EU. Apart from the above-mentioned multinational companies with strong pan-European brands. frozen food.com Numico The Netherlands 1. most of the foods processing companies in the EU are small to medium sized (SMEs).com France. The processed fruit and vegetable sector in the EU had a production turnover of € 36.
Due to the high wage levels in the EU, coupled to a high degree of concentration in the retail sector and fierce competition, processing facilities are highly automated and efficient. Economies-of-scale, resulting in lower production costs and an efficient logistical system are necessary to be able to operate profitably. The major developments in the processed fruit and vegetable industry in the EU can be described as follows: - a maturing industry - private label is still gaining momentum - consolidation at the processing side - specialisation: concentration on limited set of activities and outsourcing - alliances: partnerships in the value chain and co-packing for private label suppliers Fruit juice/concentrate In the EU, only Spain and Italy produce notable amounts of orange juice concentrate. Compared to Brazil and the USA, which together account for 90 percent of global production, the production in Europe is small. Moreover, the fruit juice concentrate from Spain and Italy has a different kind of quality, which makes it more suitable for the soft beverages industry and less for the processing of fruit juice and nectar. Germany and Italy are the major EU producers of apple juice concentrate, producing some 70 thousand and 50 thousand tonnes respectively. The production of apple juice concentrate depends to a large extent on the apple harvest, which fluctuates considerably. Table 4.1 Production of unconcentrated orange juice (excl.frozen) in selected EU countries, 2002 – 2003, 1000 tonnes 2002 962,212 563,050 418,321 302,922 153,442 79,609 2003 Not available 554,210 396,466 371,273 Not available 96,043
Country Germany United Kingdom France Spain Poland Belgium Source: Eurostat 2003
Canned vegetables France is by far the largest producer of canned vegetables, accounting for more than 50 percent of total EU production. The Netherlands, Italy and Spain are other important producers of canned vegetables. The French company Bonduelle is a leading EU supplier of canned vegetables and has established a strong branded position on major EU markets. Please note that the figure 4.2 not only refers to canned vegetables, but also to other forms of preservation, like frozen vegetables. Figure 4.1 Production of preserved vegetables (excluding preserved mushrooms and tomatoes) in selected EU countries, 2001-2003, million litres
1200 2001 1000 800 600 400 200 0
nd s et he rla Ki ng do m n Fr an ce It al y Sp Be lg iu m ai
Source:OEITFL/VIGEF Figure 4.2 Production of canned and bottled vegetables (excluding baked beans) in major EU countries, 2001-2003, million litres
1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0
s Ki ng do m n iu m Fr an ce It al y d et he rla Po la n Sp Be lg er m an y nd ai
U ni te d
2001 2002 2003
Source:OEITFL/VIGEF Frozen vegetables Frozen vegetables have become a fierce competitor of canned vegetables. Production of finished products in the EU has been growing steadily from 2001 – 2003, but declined in 2003 according to following figures provide by OEITFL: Figure 4.3 Production of frozen vegetables (excluding mixtures and corn) in selected EU countries, 2001-2003, 1000 tonnes
U ni te d
900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0
Ki ng do m iu m Fr an ce It al y Sp an y et he rla Be lg er m nd s ai n
2001 2002 2003
U ni te d
Source:OEITFL/VIGEF Production technology and quality are constantly improving within the frozen food industry. Research by Unilever has shown that nowadays frozen vegetables are qualitatively comparable to fresh vegetables. The improvements and research development and strong marketing efforts contribute to a positive consumer attitude towards frozen food consumption. Canned fruit Southern European countries are the leading producers of canned fruit in the EU. In descending order, Greece, Spain, France and Italy were the leading producers in 2003. Please note figure 4.4 details the production of preserved fruit. Canned fruit is a segment of preserved fruit production. Figure 4.4
300 2001 250 200 150 100 50 0
s et he rla Ki ng do m n Fr an ce It al y Sp er m Be lg iu m an y nd ai
Production of preserved fruit in selected EU countries, 2001-2003, million litres
U ni te d
counter seasonal products are of interest to EU trade partners.782 9. Poland Poland is a large producer of apples and soft fruit for processing into preserved fruit. The canning industry suffered heavily from the collapse of the Soviet Union. as year round supply is increasingly demanded. pineapples and star fruit. Domestic raw material. peaches. apples. Although the share of Western Europe has increased. particularly apples. oranges. has a relatively high degree of concentration.Dried fruit There are only a few countries in the EU supplying significant amounts of dried fruit. production decreased from 1 million tonnes to 600. a large share of dried vegetables originates outside the EU. with 40 companies. Moreover. supply is still fragmented and quality is fluctuating. Hungary The processing industry is a major outlet for fruit and vegetables grown in Hungary. it is expected that substantial investments will be made in the processing industry.781 12. pears and melons. e. The processing plants are often outdated and there is insufficient cold storage capacity. Therefore these countries are highlighted. 31 . onions and mushrooms. However. e. The deep-freezing industry exports the majority of the products to EU markets. are used to a large extent. after the United States. The juice industry produces more than 500 million litres/annum and.000 tonnes. Total production is about 200. Spain is the only date producing EU member country. apricots and tomatoes.g. Further.000 tonnes. with an annual production fluctuating around 7. grapes. lychees. It should be noted that about two thirds of the companies are in foreign hands. other than potatoes. Production of dried vegetables and mixtures of dried vegetables. French prune production is estimated at about 41. the prospects for the fruit processing industry are positive. Dried vegetables It is not possible to give an overall view of EU production of dried vegetables. In view of this.818 New EU countries Hungary and Poland are the most important of the new EU countries in the trade of preserved fruit and vegetables. as only a few countries publish production figures on this product group. However.g. This is because the quantities are fairly small compared to those of other processed vegetables. exports to the eastern direction are still more important. France is the second largest producer of dried prunes in the world. which also means that much investment took place after privatisation and efficiency was improved. Opportunities for exporters in developing countries Products which grow in tropical or subtropical countries and cannot be grown in the EU offer good opportunities for exporters in developing countries. Greece is a major producer of currants and raisins. accounting for about half of the imports by EU member countries (in terms of volume) of dried vegetables in 2003. in selected EU countries in 2002. mangosteen.585 2. leading to improved quality and infrastructure.000 tonnes of finished products.000 tonnes (FAO 2003). 1000 tonnes: Spain Germany France Hungary 53. including 25 percent sweet corn. mangos.
As was already mentioned in Section 1.2, Chapters 7, 8 and 20 of the Harmonised System, cover preserved fruit and vegetables product groups discussed in this survey. The following HS codes are covered in the Eurostat tables and figures of this chapter and in appendix 2: Product group Fruit juice/concentrate Canned vegetables Canned fruit Frozen vegetables Dried fruit Frozen fruit Dried vegetables Provisionally preserved fruit and vegetables HS code 2009 2001, 2002 and 2005 2008 0710 0803, 0804, 0806 and 0813 0811 0712 0812 and 0711
The tables and figures give the total value and volume of the product groups as mentioned above. Selected products within the product groups are highlighted in this chapter under 5.2 The seven EU countries dealt with in this chapter and the three new EU countries are leading importing countries for preserved fruit and vegetables. As already mentioned in the summary, the opportunities to export consumer products to the EU are limited for exporters in developing countries, as this requires substantial investments in marketing and distribution and detailed knowledge of EU food legislation (labelling requirements). Preserved fruit and vegetables as ingredients for the processing industry in the EU offer better opportunities for exporters in non-EU countries. Where applicable, Poland, Czech Republic and Hungary, being the new EU countries most important trading partners for preserved fruit and vegetables, will be mentioned separately. 5.1 Total imports of selected preserved fruit and vegetables
In 2003, imports by EU member countries of selected preserved fruit and vegetables amounted to € 14 billion or 17 million tonnes, representing an increase by 2.2 percent in value and 10 percent in volume, compared to the preceding year. Developing countries supplied 25 percent of the total import value in 2003. This was 2 percent less compared to 2002 in value; volume increased by almost 11 percent in 2003 compared to 2002 (see appendix 2). Germany was the leading EU importer, accounting for 23 percent of total imports by EU member countries (in terms of value) in 2003, followed by France (14%) and the United Kingdom (14%) and The Netherlands (11%). Together, these countries imported 62 percent of the total imported value in 2003. The Netherlands was by far the major supplier of preserved fruit and vegetables to the EU, accounting for 12 percent of the total supplied value in 2003, followed by Germany and Belgium (9%) and Italy (8%). Of the total imported value by EU member countries, 37 percent was supplied extra-EU.
Leading suppliers of selected preserved fruit and vegetables to the EU, 2001-2003, € 1,000
2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0
nd s n d Fr an ce et he rla er m Be lg Tu rk ey Po la n Ch in a iu m It al y an y Sp Br az ai il
2001 2002 2003
Source: Eurostat, 2003 It should be noted that above mentioned EU countries partly import preserved fruit and vegetables from outside the EU, process these and supply the end product to other EU countries. Table 5.1 Leading new EU suppliers of selected preserved fruit and vegetables to the EU, 2001-2003, € 1,000 / tonnes 2001 value € volume Poland 511,002 693,680 Hungary 223,633 315,515 Source: Eurostat 2003 5.1.1 Germany Germany was the leading EU importer of preserved fruit and vegetables, with imports amounting to € 3.2 billion or 3.8 million tonnes in 2003. Compared to 2002, this represented a decrease by 0.2 percent in value, while imports in terms of volume decreased by 0.1 percent. The major imported product groups in 2003 were: Product group Fruit juice/concentrate Canned vegetables Canned fruit Frozen vegetables Import value in € 1,000 934 792 411 368 Import share in % 29 25 13 11 2002 value € volume 532,209 672,601 239,882 318,139 2003 value € volume 613,146 742,938 239,158 297,521
The above-mentioned product groups accounted for 78 percent of the total import value of selected preserved fruit and vegetables in 2003.
Leading suppliers of selected preserved fruit and vegetables to Germany, 2001-2003, € 1,000
700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0
nd s d Ch in a It al y iu m n Fr an ce Tu rk ey Po la n re ec e ai et he rla Be lg Sp ga ry
2001 2002 2003
The Netherlands supplied a relatively large share of German imports (18%), mainly by transit trade through the port of Rotterdam. Poland increased its importance as a trading partner of Germany and accounted for 12 percent of import value in 2003. Developing countries supplied 20 percent of the imports of selected preserved fruit and vegetables in 2003, which remained the same as in 2002. Germany continues to suffer from a bad depressed economy, high unemployment (11.5% in 2004) and a low consumer confidence. Due to this situation, consumers do not spend their money leading to enormous price pressure and competition in the retail trade. Poland and China continue their increase as suppliers of preserved fruit and vegetables to the German market, as these countries can supply at lower costs than traditional supplying countries like The Netherlands, Italy and Belgium. 5.1.2 France France was the second leading EU importer of preserved fruit and vegetables, accounting for € 2 billion or 2.3 million tonnes in 2003. French imports increased in 2003 by almost 6 percent in terms of value and by 10 percent in terms of volume. The major imported product groups in 2003 were: Product group Fruit juice/concentrate Canned vegetables Frozen vegetables Canned fruit Import value in € 1,000 623 513 283 237 Import share in % 31 26 14 12
These product groups accounted for 83 percent of total import value of selected preserved fruit and vegetables in 2003.
Source: Eurostat, 2003
3 Leading suppliers of selected preserved fruit and vegetables to France.3 United Kingdom The United Kingdom was the third leading EU importer of selected preserved fruit and vegetables. accounting for € 1. the imported value increased by 3.4 million tonnes in 2003. 5. Se rb ia M on t G 35 .000 599 519 250 221 Import share in % 31 27 13 11 These product groups accounted for 82 percent of the total import value of selected preserved fruit and vegetables in 2003. while the imported volume increased by a hefty 28 percent. it is not surprising that the imports showed a healthy growth.1 percent in value. 19 and 14 percent of total value imports. As selected preserved fruit and vegetables are mainly used as ingredients for a wide variety of packaged food. The major imported product groups in 2003 were: Product groups Canned vegetables Fruit juice/concentrate Frozen vegetables Dried fruit Import value in € 1. 2001-2003. Between 2002 and 2003. as the French adopt a more Anglo-Saxon way of eating.000 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 nd s n Ch in a iu m It al y an y Tu rk ey gr o or oc co ai et he rla Be lg er m en e Is ra Sp el 2001 2002 2003 M N Th e Source: Eurostat.9 billion or 3. € 1.Figure 5. Increasingly busy lifestyles are the reasons that French consumers spend less time in the kitchen to prepare food. Spain and The Netherlands were the leading suppliers of selected preserved fruit and vegetables to France accounting for respectively 20. Developing countries supplied 19 percent of the total imports to France in 2003.1. 2003 Belgium. Packaged food sales are therefore expected to grow.
imports decreased by 0. In 2003. as many consumers do not have the time to cook in a traditional sense. € 1. Between 2002 and 2003. 5. Many products in these sectors use preserved fruit and vegetables.6 billion or 1. The Netherlands is an important transit country.4 The Netherlands The Netherlands was the fourth largest importer of selected preserved fruit and vegetables.9 percent in volume.000 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 nd s It al y iu m Fr an ce an y n Tu rk ey re ec e U SA ai et he rla er m Sp Be lg Ir el an d 2001 2002 2003 Source: Eurostat. spurring growth in the snack and confectionery sectors. accounting for € 1. followed by The Netherlands and Belgium. which accounts for the good performance in terms of imports. 2001-2003. have continued to grow.8 million tonnes in 2003. developing countries supplied the United Kingdom with 18 percent of the total imported value of selected preserved fruit and vegetables.4 Leading suppliers of selected preserved fruit and vegetables to the United Kingdom. Especially the bulk imports of fruit concentrates play an important role. as the port of Rotterdam plays a major role in the import of preserved fruit and vegetables into the EU. The major imported product groups in 2003 were: Product group Fruit juice/concentrate Canned vegetables Canned fruit Import value in € 1. Th e N G G 36 .Figure 5.9 percent in value and increased by 6. 2003 The leading supplier to the United Kingdom in 2003 was Italy. Grazing has become a growing trend.1. Sales of convenience foods. especially chilled ready meals and prepared salads.000 852 284 99 Import share in % 54 18 6 These product groups accounted for 78 percent of the total import value of selected preserved fruit and vegetables in 2003.
Developing countries supplied 50 percent of the total imported value during 2003.000 456 197 242 Import share in % 41 18 22 G 37 . this represented a decrease by 2. Compared to 2002.3 percent in volume.2 percent in value and a decrease of 1. a large share of which is further re-exported to the other EU member countries. 5. The increase in volume was most likely caused by positive developments in the fruit juice/concentrates sector.1. The Netherlands is a major importer of this product group and reexports consumer products after processing and packing. imports of selected preserved fruit and vegetables into Belgium amounted to € 1. 2001-2003. which increasingly sources selected preserved fruit and vegetables in low cost countries like Poland and China.1 billion or 1.4 million tonnes. This was mainly caused by the high fruit juice/concentrate imports (orange juice concentrate in bulk vessels to tank farms in the Amsterdam and Rotterdam ports).Figure 5. Prices were negatively influenced by exports to Germany. Thailand and China were among The Netherlands’ leading suppliers in developing countries and took a relatively more important position in Netherlands imports than in EU overall imports.5 Leading suppliers of selected preserved fruit and vegetables to The Netherlands. where it had a far more dominant position than in the other major EU markets. € 1.5 Belgium In 2003.000 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Th ai la nd Ch in a iu m n It al y il Tu rk ey er m Be lg Fr an ce an y Br az U SA Sp ai 2001 2002 2003 Source: Eurostat. The major imported product groups in 2003 were: Product group Fruit juice/concentrate Frozen vegetables Canned vegetables Import value in € 1. 2003 Brazil was by far the leading supplier of selected preserved fruit and vegetables to The Netherlands.
Imports from France increase. 2003 In 2003. Compared to 2002.000 324 184 149 76 71 Import share in % 32 18 15 8 7 These product groups accounted for 80 percent of the total import value of selected preserved fruit and vegetables in 2003. The imports of juices/concentrated from Brazil decreased. Much of the citrus concentrates are re-exported to other EU countries.These product groups accounted for 81 percent of the total import value of selected preserved fruit and vegetables in 2003. Figure 5. imports of selected preserved fruit and vegetables into Italy amounted to € 1 billion or 1million tonnes.6 Leading suppliers of selected preserved fruit and vegetables to Belgium. this represented an increase of 5. Belgium has a large bulk terminal for citrus concentrates in the port of Gent. 5. probably due to sourcing in other exporting countries.6 Italy In 2003. 2001-2003. The import share of Brazil in 2002 (value) was 23 percent. The gloomy economic outlook until 2004 had a negative impact on the confidence of Belgian households and therefore on the consumption of packaged food. Brazil was the leading supplier to Belgium of selected preserved fruit and vegetables (terminal for concentrates in the port of Gent). Th e N G G 38 . followed by France. especially in canned vegetables.7 percent in value and an increase by 11 percent in volume. as Belgian consumers continue to place great value on taste and convenience. The major imported product groups in 2003 were: Product group Canned vegetables Fruit juice/concentrate Frozen vegetables Dried fruit Canned fruit Import value in € 1. hence the large share of fruit concentrate.000 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 s n Fr an ce It al y an y Tu rk ey U SA d Po la n il Br az et he rla er m Sp re ec e nd ai 2001 2002 2003 Source: Eurostat. but dropped during 2003 to 21 percent.1. € 1.
Compared to 2002.Figure 5.000 217 150 103 Import share in % 35 24 16 These product groups accounted for 75 percent of the total import value of selected preserved fruit and vegetables in 2003.2 percent in value but an increase of 3. The major imported product groups in 2003 were: Product group Canned vegetables Fruit juice/concentrate Frozen vegetables Import value in € 1.7 Spain In 2003. The increase in imports was further stimulated by lower than expected Italian harvest of tomatoes. Developing countries supplied 28 percent of total value imports to Italy during 2003. Th e N Au G 39 .1.9 percent in volume.7 Leading suppliers of selected preserved fruit and vegetables to Italy.000 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Ch in a nd s n st ria Fr an ce Tu rk ey iu m an y Sp et he rla er m re ec e Be lg U SA ai 2001 2002 2003 G Source: Eurostat. 2001-2003. this represented a decrease of 1. followed by France and China. 2003 Spain overtook France as the leading supplier of selected preserved fruit and vegetables to Italy during 2003. € 1. packaged food products perceived as being convenient as well as healthy spurred the growth in imports of canned and frozen vegetables. 5. imports of selected preserved fruit and vegetables into Spain amounted to € 628 million or 669 million tonnes. affecting the production of tomato paste. In terms of convenience.
8 Poland In 2003. Although the majority of these outlets are pizzerias. Compared to 2002. € 1. imports of selected preserved fruit and vegetables into Poland amounted to € 188 million or 209 million tonnes. outlets that offer healthy food are opening up in increasing numbers. this represented a decrease of 3. 2003 The leading supplier to Spain in 2003 was France. followed by The Netherlands and Peru. Sales of meal replacement products.1. 2001-2003. In 2003.4 percent in volume.Figure 5. These product groups are important for preserved fruit and vegetables. but an increase of 2.4 percent in value. developing countries supplied Spain with 37 percent of the total imported value of selected preserved fruit and vegetables.000 56 38 30 21 Import share in % 30 20 16 11 These product groups accounted for 77 percent of the total import value of selected preserved fruit and vegetables in 2003. Th e N G M 40 . chilled processed food.000 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Th ai la nd nd s iu m a Po rt ug al Fr an ce It al y Pe ru an y et he rla er m Be lg or oc co Ch in 2001 2002 2003 Source: Eurostat. New EU countries 5. ready meals and confectionery saw a strong growth in 2003. Due to hectic lifestyles of many Spanish consumers. The major imported product groups in 2003 were: Product group Fruit juice/concentrate Canned vegetables Canned fruit Dried fruit Import value in € 1. takeaway and fast food outlets continue to prosper.8 Leading suppliers of selected preserved fruit and vegetables to Spain.
followed by Hungary and Greece. Compared to 2002. The major imported product groups in 2003 were: Product group Fruit juice/concentrate Canned vegetables Canned fruit Frozen vegetables Import value in € 1. 2001-2003. € 1.000 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Th ai la nd a ry n Br az il It al y an y re ec e Is ra ga Ch Sp er m Ir an in ai el 2001 2002 2003 un H G Source: Eurostat. In 2003. this represented an increase in both value and volume by 3 and 15 percent respectively. developing countries supplied Poland with 40 percent of the total imported value of selected preserved fruit and vegetables. imports of selected preserved fruit and vegetables into the Czech Republic amounted to € 122 million or 171 million tonnes. G 41 . 5. 2003 The leading supplier to Poland in 2003 was Brazil.000 32 28 24 14 Import share in % 26 23 20 12 These product groups accounted for 81 percent of the total import value of selected preserved fruit and vegetables in 2003.1.9 Czech Republic In 2003.9 Leading suppliers of selected preserved fruit and vegetables to Poland.Figure 5.
The major imported product groups in 2003 were: Product group Fruit juice/concentrate Canned fruit Canned vegetables Import value in € 1. In 2003.10 Hungary In 2003.10 Leading suppliers of selected preserved fruit and vegetables to The Czech Republic. proximity to the market coupled to low costs are the main reasons. by 30 and 31 percent respectively.000 29 19 13 Import share in % 37 24 16 These product groups accounted for 77 percent of the total import value of selected preserved fruit and vegetables in 2003. As disposable income rises.000 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Th ai la nd d a st ria It al y n an y Po la n ov ak Br az in ai Ch er m Sp ga H un ry ia il 2001 2002 2003 Au Source: Eurostat.Figure 5. Import in terms of value and volume increased substantially. 2003 The leading supplier to the Czech Republic in 2003 was Poland. Poland strengthens its position as leading supplier. 5. G Sl 42 . consumers spend more on food items. Due to a strong economy. compared to 2002.1. the Czech Republic increases its imports of selected fruit and vegetables. developing countries supplied the Czech Republic with 31 percent of the total imported value of selected preserved fruit and vegetables. € 1. followed by China and Austria. 2001-2003. imports of selected preserved fruit and vegetables into Hungary amounted to € 79 million or 87 million tonnes.
2 Imports by product group Fruit juice and concentrate was.1 Fruit juice/concentrate Fruit juice/concentrate was the largest product group (of selected preserved fruit and vegetables) imported by EU countries. th e N et h G Ro m G 43 . 2001-2003. In 2003.2. China (1%). Other leading product groups were canned vegetables (26%). the leading imported product group. Less important groups were dried vegetables (3%) and provisionally preserved fruit & vegetables (2%). Hungary imports increasing quantities of preserved fruit and vegetables to cater for growing consumer demands. developing countries supplied Hungary with 33 percent of the total imported value of selected preserved fruit and vegetables. Thailand (1%). 5. € 1.11 Leading suppliers of selected preserved fruit and vegetables to Hungary. The import share of fruit juice/concentrate from developing countries shows the following picture: 2001 Import share in value Import share in volume 27% 27% 2002 27% 25% 2003 25% 23% The leading suppliers of fruit juice/concentrate to the EU from developing countries (share of total 2003 imports in terms of value) → Brazil (16%). Hungary continues to strengthen its position as an important supplying country to the EU. by far. canned fruit (10%). frozen vegetables (12%).Figure 5. followed by Italy and Poland. frozen fruit (8%) and dried fruit (6%). 5. both in value (32%) and in volume (36%) in 2003.000 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Th ai la nd s ia d It al y an y re ec e Br az Po la n U SA nd an er m er la Sp ai n il 2001 2002 2003 Source: Eurostat. Imports in volume increased constantly during 2001 – 2003 till 6 million tonnes in 2003. Apart from growing a wide variety of fruit and vegetables. accounting for 32 percent of the imports by EU member countries. 2003 The leading supplier to Hungary in 2003 was Brazil.
979 1.432.142. mixtures of juices (20%) and pineapple juice (16%).871 265.140.933 1.507.782 760.682.102 732.285 280. 2001 –2003.140 316.110 169. explaining the country’s high share in total imports by EU member states.625 1.716.Figure 5.104.654 1.542 5.135 Frozen orange juice was the largest product within this product group in 2003.235 246.341 340.368 181.874 305.321 726. 2001-2003.178.785 6.642 2003 value € volume 4.065 485.556 317. The Dutch port of Rotterdam is an important turnover point for fruit juice concentrate.854 283.091. accounting for 35 percent of total (value) imports.967 224.545 250.185 302.047 U ni te d N 701.407 2.578 304.368.132 216.584 837.527 206.493 1.157. accounting for 21 percent of value imports by EU member countries.727 357. € 1.925 264.448 1.403 1. followed by juice of any other single fruit or vegetable (29%).120 808. Germany was the leading importer of this product group.000 233.360.603.027 Leading suppliers The Netherlands Brazil Germany Belgium Spain Italy Poland Source: Eurostat 2003 Th e 747.695 1. € 1.12 Imports of fruit juice/concentrate into the main importing EU countries.000 / tonnes 2001 value € volume Total Extra-EU Developing countries 4.806 699.438 328.606 226. 44 .346.902 906.674 558.088.974 688.109.601 5.922 2.823 D en 785.3 Imports of fruit juice/concentrate into the EU by leading suppliers.000 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 s Ki ng do m Fr an ce It al y st ria iu m n an y nd Sp et he rla er m Be lg m ar k ai 2001 2002 2003 Au G Source: Eurostat 2003 In 2003.027.781 673.349 2.112 932.498 238.866 500.900 926.380.336.254 863.945 372. Table 5.349 2002 value € volume 4.368 1.908 1.
9 Imports of canned vegetables into the main importing EU countries. € 1. Belgium (20%). Belgium juices (10%). Germany (11%).5 percent in value and by 2 percent in volume in 2003 compared to 2002. Italy (13%). Total imports increased by 1.The leading suppliers (share of total year 2003 imports in terms of value) of: frozen orange → The Netherlands (43%). Turkey (4%). Poland (9%) single fruit or vegetable mixtures of → France (21%). Germany (17%). both in value (26%) and in volume (24%) in 2003. India (1%) Figure 5. Italy (11%).2 Canned vegetables Canned vegetables were the second largest product imported into the EU. 5. France (9%). United Kingdom (10%). Brazil (5%) juice juice of any other → The Netherlands (17%). Italy (9%) pineapple juice → The Netherlands (39%). this product originates mainly in Brazil from where it is shipped to The Netherlands and Belgium and often re-exported to other EU destinations. The Netherlands (17%). United kingdom (6%) Although The Netherlands and Belgium are leading suppliers of frozen orange juice. Spain (10%). Germany (12%).000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Ki ng do m s Fr an ce It al y iu m an y n nd Sw ed Sp et he rla er m Be lg m D en ar k ai en 2001 2002 2003 G U ni te d Th e N 45 . The import share of canned vegetables from developing countries shows the following picture: 2001 Import share in value Import share in volume 18% 15% 2002 19% 18% 2003 18% 19% The leading suppliers of canned vegetables to the EU from developing countries (share of total 2003 imports in terms of value) → China (6%). Morocco (2%). 2001 –2003. Peru (3%). Thailand (1%).2.
557 519.977 324.070.247 64.564 202.753 381.292 180. accounting for 22 percent of the imported value by EU member countries.958 51. 20012003.440 469.009 499.844 166.373 253.768 1. Greece (22%).167 4.814 481. € 1.019 1.944 295.064 406. 2003 Tomatoes Within canned vegetables.151. These countries accounted for 70 percent of imports into the EU during 2003.184 2003 value € volume 961.116 79.057.178 83.234 272.959 Total Extra-EU Developing countries Leading suppliers Italy Spain China Portugal Greece Source: Eurostat 2003 873.222 2003 value € volume 3.662 102. € 1.Source: Eurostat 2003 In 2003.487 365.000 / tonnes 2001 value € volume 794.726 383.206 874. Italy (9%) and the Netherlands (8%).577 84.938 205.177 50.197 153.135 104.038 469. Morocco (15%). The Netherlands (13%).180 137.496 Total Extra-EU Developing countries Leading suppliers Italy The Netherlands France Spain Germany Belgium China Source: Eurostat.519 96.537 227.058 111.460 52.424 596.384 225.280 375.266 3.526 686.590.503.116 124.958 93.416 672. prepared or preserved otherwise than by vinegar or acetic acid (HS code 2002) accounted for 27 percent of selected canned vegetables in 2003 by value.140 554.778 70.636 862.056. Germany (7%). followed the United Kingdom (17%).140.234 190. Table 5. France (14%).592 2002 value € volume 3.555.534 69.906 204.835 1.369 647.595 239.238 228.000 / tonnes 2001 value € volume 3.412.030 1.212 91.226 1.039 126.628 284.912 603.455 764.721 84. canned tomatoes is the largest product group Tomatoes.979 93. as the following table shows: Table 5.556 286.445 99.069. Turkey (8%) (HS2005) asparagus → China (38%).601 80.766 812.870 776.863 57.388 1.031 877.666 236.008 351.236 230.512.666 59.588 875. Spain (5%) 46 . 2001-2003.5 Imports of tomatoes.458 457.400 257. prepared or preserved otherwise than by vinegar or acetic acid into the EU by leading suppliers.294 350.138 629.568 55.003 227.558 221. Germany was the leading importer of canned vegetables.827 1. Peru (34%).874 103.516 166.4 Imports of canned vegetables into the EU by leading suppliers.690 946.408 717.542 151.879 157.734 The leading suppliers (share of total year 2003 imports in terms of value) of: tomatoes → Italy (54%).891 368.187. China (8%) olives → Spain (45%).217 181.247 198.037 2002 value € volume 875.405 337.877. Spain (11%).955 180.955 568.873 4.520 214.433 140.124 413.479 348.624 280.
000 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Ki ng do m iu m Fr an ce It al y an y nd s n ai en et he r la Sw ed er m Sp Be lg Ir el an d 2001 2002 2003 G U ni te d Source: Eurostat 2003 Th e N 47 . Belgium (9%). € 1. Figure 5. The import share of frozen vegetables from developing countries showed the following figures: 2001 Import share in value Import share in volume 11% 6% 2002 11% 6% 2003 10% 5% The leading suppliers of frozen vegetables to the EU from developing countries (share of total 2003 imports in terms of value) → China (4%). UK (11%). Pakistan (18%). Germany (20%). The imports in terms of value decreased by 3 percent while imports in volume increased by 16 percent. Turkey (2%). Thailand (13%) → India (23%). Ecuador (1%).sweet corn tropical fruits & nuts cucumbers & gherkins → France (48%). The Netherlands (20%). accounting for 12 percent in value and 19 percent in volume. Germany (18%). Hungary (19%).2. Hungary (8%) Poland supplied 1 percent of total value imports in 2003 and is the only sizeable supplier of the new EU countries to the EU for canned vegetables. South Africa (5%).10 Imports of frozen vegetables into the main EU countries.3 Frozen vegetables Frozen vegetables was the third largest product imported into the EU. 5. Vietnam (5%) → Turkey (23%). 2001 –2003.
The leading importer of frozen vegetables in 2003 was Germany. accounting for 28 percent of the total imports in value. Belgium (11%) and Italy (9%). 5. Indonesia (3%). accounting for 21 percent of imports by EU member countries.10 Imports of canned fruit into the main EU countries. Philippines (1%) Figure 5. South Africa (5%). During 2003. both imports in value and volume increased with 5 percent compared to 2002.2. The Netherlands (7%) and Belgium (6%). both in value (10%) and in volume (9%). Together. Th e N Au 48 .000 Source: Eurostat 2003 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Ki ng do m s n Fr an ce It al y st ria iu m an y nd et he rla er m Be lg Po la n Sp ai d 2001 2002 2003 G U ni te d Germany was the largest importer of canned fruit in 2003.4 Canned fruit Canned fruit was the fourth largest product imported into the EU in 2003. followed by France (16%). 2001 –2003. the United Kingdom (14%). Turkey (2%). France was the second country with 16 percent of import value. these countries accounted for 71 percent of total value imports into the EU in 2003. followed by the United Kingdom (13%). Kenya (3%). China (5%). The import share of canned fruit from developing countries showed the following figures: 2001 Import share in value Import share in volume 32% 36% 2002 32% 38% 2003 33% 42% The leading suppliers of canned fruit to the EU from developing countries (share of total 2003 imports in terms of value) → Thailand (8%). € 1.
The import share of frozen fruit from developing countries showed the following picture: 2001 Import share in value Import share in volume 26% 26% 2002 27% 27% 2003 28% 32% 49 .901 73.781 475.766 244. while volume imports increased by 7.950 753.690 185. the Netherlands (7%).837 83. Kenya (13%).883 159. followed by peaches (18%).362 107.523.808 427.502.387 167.6 Imports of canned fruit into the EU by leading suppliers. 2001-2003.706 159. fruit mixtures (17%).599 168.336 86. USA (4%) fruit → Italy (25%).444 62. Italy (8%).487 119.785 86.148 167. South Africa mixtures (7%) citrus fruit → China (27%).570 Total Extra-EU Developing countries Leading suppliers Germany Spain Italy Greece Thailand The Netherlands South Africa China Source: Eurostat 2003 153.328 182. Austria (9%).771 616.264 116.749 143.Together these countries accounted for 70 percent of the total import in value of canned fruit into the EU in 2004.432 112.325 54.414 522.832 144.383 112.140 149.954 149.740 648.477 572.133 76. Germany (22%). Turkey (11%).437 120.395 112. The Netherlands (9%).442 207.278 Canned pineapple accounted for 21 percent of total value imports in 2003.558 205. € 1.043 1.194 69.776 40. Indonesia (12%).732 664.789 172.008 447.743 148.744 1.000 / tonnes 2001 value € volume 1.334.424 123.385 65.145 187.717 166.396 572.597 148. South Africa (14%).7 percent in 2003.388 78.850 78.448. Germany (7%) peaches → Greece (32%). 5. Spain (22%).192 152. citrus fruit (9%) and apricots (9%). South Africa (7%). Table 5.742 2002 value € volume 1. Morocco (12%). The Netherlands (9%). Greece (15%).379.790 43.925 501. Germany (7%) apricots → Spain (21%). Italy (9%) The new EU countries are not sizeable suppliers of canned fruit to the EU.617 82. Germany (8%).465 1. Value imports increased by 15.207 2003 value € volume 1.269 154. accounting for 8 percent in value and 5 percent in volume in 2003.7 percent compared to 2002.840 77.893 546. The leading suppliers (share of total year 2003 imports in terms of value) of: pineapples → Thailand (36%).124 171.578.377 67.847 30.2.4 Frozen fruit Frozen fruit was the fifth largest product imported into the EU. Spain (23%).
423 87.371 72. Morocco (4%). € 1.906 58. followed by France (15%). 2001 –2003.064 43. Chile (3%).686 49.804 547.450 36. Together these countries accounted for 74 percent of total value imports into the EU Table 5.497 40.973 219.857 681.300 832.11 Imports of frozen fruit into the main EU countries.125 766.985 517.649 225.894 76. 2001-2003.923 207.431 597.202 60.The leading suppliers of frozen fruit to the EU from developing countries (share of total 2003 imports in terms of value) → Serbia Montenegro (11%).050 72.890 102.281 202.987 96.077.470 54.526 53.438 217.734 U ni e te d N D 50 .915 196.000 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Ki ng do m Be lg iu m Fr an ce st ria ds y y k G er m an al er la n ar Sw ed It en m en 2001 2002 2003 et h Au Th Source: Eurostat 2003 Germany remained by far the largest importer of frozen fruit into the EU with 37 percent of total value imports.000 / tonnes 2001 value € volume 2002 value € volume 931.381 100. China (4%).114 284.540 582.268 193.395 117.836 119.7 Imports of frozen fruit into the EU by leading suppliers. Turkey (3%) Figure 5.940 896.798 Total Extra-EU Developing countries Leading suppliers Poland Serbia Montenegro Germany The Netherlands 833. United Kingdom (7%) and Italy (6%).907 251.183 306.268 233. € 1.069 2003 value € volume 1.493 58.465 192. The Netherlands (9%).123 533.
Tunisia (6%).293 22.Belgium China Spain Morocco Chile Source: Eurostat 2003 39. Iran (4%). 2001 –2003 € 1.345 36.777 29.506 50.781 22. The import share of dried fruit from developing countries showed the following figures: 2001 Import share in value Import share in volume 50% 62% 2002 53% 64% 2003 54% 65% The leading suppliers of dried fruit to the EU from developing countries (share of total 2003 imports in terms of value) → Turkey (31%).769 39.375 32.224 32. Chile (4%). South Africa (3%) Figure 5.086 29.211 36.2.682 38.995 11.599 55.456 24.593 9.680 43. The value of imports decreased by 1 percent while the volume increased by 1 percent in 2003 compared to 2002.289 12.000 250 200 2001 2002 2003 150 100 50 0 om ds Fr an ce iu m an y n d y Po la n an It gd Sp er m Be lg m D en ar k al ai U ni te d Source: Eurostat 2003 Th e N et he rl Ki n G 51 .465 5.300 42.603 34.5 Dried fruit Dried fruit was the sixth largest product imported into the EU in 2003.619 32.655 38. both in value (6%) and in volume (4%).233 24.773 26.510 31.880 29.272 16.054 23.546 43.234 18.12 Imports of dried fruit into the main EU countries.
722 77. Tunisia (26%).125 17.271 494. Germany (13%).358 29.652 33. France (7%). Philippines (11%). The Netherlands (7%).279 43.869 36.774 464.437 30. The Netherlands (14%).325 30. The import share of dried vegetables from developing countries showed the following figures: 2001 Import share in value Import share in volume 33% 28% 2002 34% 31% 2003 32% 34% The leading suppliers of dried vegetables to the EU from developing countries (share of total 2003 imports in terms of value) → China (14%).8 Imports of dried fruit into the EU by leading suppliers.787 30. € 1.370 42.374 13. Israel (12%).090 Total Extra-EU Developing countries Leading suppliers Turkey USA France Tunisia Greece Germany Iran Chile The Netherlands Source: Eurostat 2003 840.784 229.598 51.068 239.490 32. Philippines (3%) fruit 5.067 605.616 17.598 55.840 Dried grapes accounted for 39 percent of total value imports in 2003.000 / tonnes 2001 value € volume 2002 2003 value € volume value € volume 889.155 40. 2001-2003.823 614. → Germany (61%).555 646. Vietnam (12%) lychees.612 35.852 16. Serbia Montenegro(2%) 52 . and bananas (1%) Together these products accounted for nearly 80 percent of total value imports in 2003.977 36. South Africa (6%) dates and dried → Turkey (27%). They accounted for 3 percent of total import value and 1 percent of total import volume into the EU.2.644 30.733 23. The leading suppliers (share of total year 2003 imports in terms of value) of: dried grapes → Turkey (42%).550 646. Both import value and volume decreased in 2003.462 26. India (3%).632 611. Greece (10%). dried papayas → Thailand (73%). Iran (8%).277 25. Germany (8%).531 26.787 14.284 259.952 86.293 478. Egypt (3%).203 423. etc. USA (17%).013 30.752 23.2 and 4.250 28.755 12.706 474.605 40. followed by dates and dried figs (23%).122 53.6 Dried vegetables Dried vegetables were the seventh largest product imported into the EU in 2003.028 366.382 22. figs Algeria (6%) dried bananas → France (23%).307 879.890 129. compared to 2002.355 18.608 40.207 470.988 60.371 244. Costa Rica (6%) dried cashew.792 53.709 587.211 18.815 270. India (29%).391 82.266 281.831 49.398 58.919 49. dates (15%).680 395.720 160. Ecuador (22%).071 36.865 138.Table 5. Brazil (4%) dried tamarind → Thailand (45%).166 61.949 30. by 8.5 percent respectively.323 387. Turkey (4%).
209 19.631 2002 value € volume 507.955 200.13 Imports of dried vegetables into the main EU countries.086 36.358 147.314 28.965 68.631 8.442 Source: Eurostat 2003 Th e U ni te d N Ki n 28.061 209. € 1.832 The 32.143 48. 53 .829 8. 2001 –2003.993 267.900 61.326 10.704 Netherlands Spain 17.Figure 5.276 154.732 57.538 23.905 France 56. 2001 – 2003.278 16.940 85. the United Kingdom (12%) France (12%) and Italy (11%).352 Italy 19.387 5. Other leading EU importers were The Netherlands (15%).277 253.494 98.880 14.116 22.000 / tonnes 2001 value € volume 475. accounting for 24 percent of value imports by EU member countries in 2003.765 20.364 24.047 20.708 219.269 USA 44.815 Germany 49.915 Dried onions accounted for 21 percent of the total value imports of dried vegetables into the EU.648 97.409 32.384 23.204 71.679 51.121 2003 value € volume 466.045 17.334 Au 64.325 36.568 78.991 34.724 55.834 170.283 7.031 Total Extra-EU Developing countries Leading suppliers China 69. Table 5. € 1.213 23.503 14.279 43.000 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 ds om d Fr an ce Po la n st ri a iu m an y al an It er m gd Be lg Sp ai n y 2001 2002 2003 et he rl G Source: Eurostat 2003 Germany was the leading importer of dried vegetables.921 229.558 13.290 12.328 17. followed by dried mushrooms (19%).230 7.9 Imports of dried vegetables into the EU by leading suppliers.032 36.
Value imports decreased with 6. Serbia Montenegro (2%). Germany (8%). accounting for 2 percent of value imports and 1 percent in volume imports. Turkey (6%). Serbia Montenegro (11%).000 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 om ds n iu m y Po rt ug al Fr an ce an y er m gd Sp Be lg re ec e G al ai an It 2001 2002 2003 U ni te d Source: Eurostat 2003 Th e N et he rl G Ki n 54 .The leading suppliers of dried vegetables (share of total year 2003 imports in terms of value): dried onions → France (22%). Figure 5. 2001 –2003. Germany (8%) dried → China (34%). India (10%). India (9%). Egypt (13%). USA (16%).2. Morocco (7%). mushrooms Romania (8%) 5. The import share of provisionally preserved fruit and vegetables from developing countries showed the following figures: 2001 Import share in value Import share in volume 2002 42% 41% 2003 42% 45% 43% 39% The leading suppliers of provisionally preserved fruit and vegetables to the EU from developing countries (share of total 2003 imports in terms of value) → China (12%).7 Provisionally preserved fruit and vegetables Provisionally preserved fruit and vegetables was the seventh largest product imported into the EU in 2003.2 percent over 2003 while the import in terms of volume did not change.14 Imports of provisionally preserved fruit and vegetables into the main EU countries. € 1.
Volume.225 29.350 8.885 11.179 Turkey 13.814 218.324 142.324 119.710 19.924 124. accounting for 12 percent of imports by EU member countries.417 24.397 8.003 10.5 billion in 2002 to € 3.018 30.3 The role of the developing countries Between 2002 and 2003.The leading EU importer of provisionally preserved fruit and vegetables in 2003 was Italy.941 2003 value € volume 231.595 Netherlands India 23.576 8. € 1.078 9.380 8.130 103.359 Poland 11.197 140. increased from 3.205 32. followed by Spain (11%).245 33.230 20.940 Source: Eurostat 2003 26.650 31.837 217. however.479 91.962 The 27.591 88.947 5.027 25.837 12.328 15. The import share of developing countries in total EU imports remained rather stable as the following picture shows: 2001 Import share in value Import share in volume 25% 23% 2002 26% 23% 2003 25% 23% 55 .095 25.424 19.9 million tonnes in 2003.10 Imports of provisionally preserved fruit and vegetables into the EU by leading suppliers.610 27. Table 5.784 156.876 25. accounting for 26 percent of imports by EU member countries.6 million tonnes in 2002 to 3.444 115. the leading supplier of provisionally preserved fruit and vegetables was China.742 30. 5. (9%).361 11.134 9. 2001-2003.571 21.000 / tonnes 2001 value € volume Total Extra-EU Developing countries 270.606 232.269 13. followed by Germany (14%).4 billion in 2003.359 14.983 98.688 Spain 36.640 10.722 7.498 Italy 9.670 2002 value € volume 247. imports of selected preserved fruit and vegetables from developing countries decreased on a value basis from € 3.871 27.665 9.246 97.597 29. United Kingdom (11%) and France (11%).395 132.540 34.397 Morocco 18.016 In 2003.584 Leading suppliers China 37.314 26.388 11. India (9%) and Morocco (6%).965 7.307 26.
China (4%). France (19%) and the United Kingdom (18%). Morocco (2%). Together these seven EU countries accounted for 94 percent of value imports from developing countries in 2003. Argentina (1%). 2003 → Brazil (16%). Ecuador (1%) → China (4%). followed by Spain (37%). South Africa (5%). 2001-2003 60% 50% 2001 2002 2003 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% ds iu m Fr an ce an Sp It an y Be lg er m gd Ki n om n ai al G y et he rl Th e Source: Eurostat 2003 The Netherlands remained the leading importer of selected preserved fruit and vegetables from developing countries during 2003 with an import value share of 50 percent. Thailand (2%) Canned fruit → Thailand (8%). Turkey (2%). Turkey (2%). Tunisia (6%). Kenya (3%). China (1%) 24% 18% 33% Fruit juice/concentrate Canned vegetables → China (7%).15 Share of developing countries in selected preserved fruit and vegetables imported into main EU countries as a percentage of total value imports. → Turkey (31%). Turkey (4%). 2003) value. → Serbia Montenegro (11%). Chile (4%). Morocco Frozen vegetables Dried fruit Frozen fruit U ni te d N 10% 54% 28% 56 . China (4%).Figure 5. Thailand (1%). Ecuador (1%). Product groups Main developing country suppliers (share in Share DCs of % of import value supplied by developing total import countries. Germany (20%). Philippines (1%). Italy (28%). Indonesia (3%). Belgium (31%). South Africa (3%). Peru (3%). Iran (4%).
The latter are effectively penetrating the new markets. DCs = Developing countries 32% 42% Source: Eurostat. Serbia Montenegro (2%). 57 . Serbia Montenegro (2%). Turkey (3%) Dried vegetables Provisionally preserved fruit and vegetables → China (14%). India (9%). Morocco (6%).(4%). Egypt (3%). → China (12%).India (3%). 2003 Developing countries are already major exporters of tropical and subtropical products to the new EU countries as can be seen from the figures in this chapter. Chile (3%). especially when many trade barriers are no longer there. Turkey (4%). Turkey (6%). exports can also be realized through trading partners based in the EU-15 countries. Apart from direct dealings with the new EU countries.
€ 1.540.835.251 1. The Netherlands and Belgium are major transit countries for preserved fruit and vegetables.243 1.595 1.509.559.526. Table 6.319 Source: Eurostat.062.678. Germany (11%) and France (8%).241 962. Canned vegetables were the leading exported product group (36% in value).673 2.235 1.797 France 990. accounting for 15 percent each of total value exports. followed by fruit juice/concentrate (26% in value).430 13.218 1.986 1.508.330 2.761.462 1.850 1.992 1.452 1.761.482. These four product groups accounted for 82 percent of the total export value. value exports by EU member countries of selected preserved fruit and vegetables amounted to € 12 billion. an increase of 1 percent compared to 2002.320.654 1.999. France.712.777 2003 value € volume 11. As mentioned in chapter 5.997 2.547 2. These countries together accounted for 77 percent of total EU exports.558.812 2.105. The volume in 2003 was 13 billion tonnes and remained the same as in 2002.971.538 885.637.231 1.626.861.337.834 2.969 2.886 1.578. Leading extra-EU destinations were the USA (4%).171.6 EXPORTS In 2003.208 13.765. mainly consisted of re-exports to the other EU member states. The trade in these products.673 975.469.1 Exports of preserved fruit and vegetables by the major EU exporting countries. receiving 54 percent of total exports by EU member countries.881 2. Belgium.016 1.572. 2001-2003. Russia (2%).477 1.574.548.505.124.498 1.700 2.012.000 / tonnes 2001 value € volume 11.550.729 The 1. 78 percent of the export value was intra-EU oriented.408 1.694 Italy 1. the United Kingdom and The Netherlands. Switzerland and Japan. followed by The Netherlands (13%). the leading destinations for preserved fruit and vegetables were Germany.427 2.965 Netherlands Germany 1. 2003 In 2003.804.336.192 13.315 Total Extra-EU Belgium 1.565.294. The EU member countries exported relatively small amounts of dried fruit and vegetables.906.620 Spain 1.863 2. frozen vegetables (15%) and canned fruit (9%) in value in 2003.400.766.471.015 1.046 1. however. Italy and Spain were the leading EU exporters. 58 .053 2002 value € volume 11.147 1.717.471 1. The values exported by EU countries increased steadily between 2001 and 2003.454.272.711 894.
1 Belgium The large imports and processing of fruit juice/concentrates are responsible for the leading position of Belgium as exporter of selected preserved fruit and vegetables. As the second largest exporter of selected preserved fruit and vegetables.8 billion in 2003. United Kingdom (15%) and The Netherlands (11%). Italy’s exports amounted to € 1. followed by Germany (24%). 6. % of total export value 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Ca nn ed Fr ui t ve ge ta bl e ju ic ve e/ ge co ta nc bl en es tr s at es Fr oz en Ca nn e Fr o d fr ui t ze n D rie fr ui t d fr ui t D rie d ve ge ta bl es 2001 2002 2003 Source: Eurostat. Both export value and volume increased compared to 2002 by 2 and 5 percent respectively. 2001 .1.3 million tonnes.8 billion or 2.1. especially tomato processing.2 Italy Italy is one of the leading producers of fruit and vegetables in the EU. as about 420 thousands tonnes was exported in 2003. Compared to other leading EU exporters of selected preserved fruit and vegetables. France was the largest export market. showing that processed fruit juices/concentrates are mainly re-exported to other EU countries. accounting for 28 percent of value exports. 96 percent of value exports was intra-EU. Exports amounted to € 1. The volume exported was 2. A substantial part of this is processed and exported to other EU countries.Figure 6. 2003 6. This was due to the increasing fruit juice consumption in most EU countries.1 Exports of preserved fruit and vegetables by EU member countries per product group. intra-EU exports are relatively small at 68 percent.2 million tonnes in 2003. 59 .2003.
Germany is traditionally the largest trading partner of The Netherlands. 87 percent in value of Germany’s export was intra-EU. followed by France (12%) and USA (4%). while exports in terms of volume decreased by 3 percent.5 billion or 1.4 The Netherlands The Netherlands was the fourth EU exporter of selected preserved fruit and vegetables.3 billion or 1. with exports amounting to € 1. followed by The Netherlands (18%). Exports amounted to € 1.1. Compared to 2002. 91 percent in value was intra-EU exports. 6. an increase of 8 percent compared to 2002. 6.6 million tonnes in 2003. These countries accounted for 60 percent of total value exports. Tomato paste and tomato sauce form the largest product groups.5 Germany Germany was the fifth EU exporter of selected preserved fruit and vegetables. This represented an increase in value of 5 percent and 9 percent in volume compared to 2002. The USA is the largest non-EU export market. followed by Germany and Italy with 22. France accounted for 14 percent of export value. 60 . France was the largest export market. Processed tomatoes account for 24 percent of total exports. 86 percent was intra-EU exports with Germany as the largest export market (20% in value).Germany was the largest export market. accounting for 38 percent in value of total exports from The Netherlands. These countries accounted for 65 percent of France’s total exports of selected preserved fruit and vegetables.1. accounting for 16 percent of total exports. accounting for 21 percent of export value. accounting for 23 percent of total value exports. followed by United Kingdom (13%) and Belgium (8%).9 million tonnes in 2003. Germany was the largest export market.5 million tonnes in 2003.6 France France was the sixth largest exporter with exports amounting to € 1 billion or 975 thousand tonnes in 2003. 67 percent of Spain’s exports are intra-EU. Compared to 2002.1. with exports amounting to € 1. United Kingdom (11%) and Belgium (9%). (further) processed in The Netherlands and re-exported as ingredient or consumer products to other EU countries. 14 and 8 percent respectively.3 Spain Spain shares the second position with Italy as the largest exporter of selected preserved fruit and vegetables. France is the largest export market in the EU. 6. 6.1. United Kingdom (16%) and Italy (10%). As the home market of The Netherlands is small.8 billion in 2003. followed by Belgium (19%). this represented a decrease of 2 percent in value. while exports in terms of volume increased by 4 percent. Volume was 1. United Kingdom was the second largest export market with 16 percent in value exports. fresh and preserved fruit and vegetables are imported as raw material. this represented a decrease of 1 percent in value.
4 million tonnes. Spain was the largest exporter of canned fruit with a value share of 22 percent in 2003. 61 .1. Intra-EU exports represented 88 percent of total exports. Russia and Japan were the leading export destinations outside the EU. total exports of fruit juice/concentrate amounted to € 3.5 billion or 4. USA.2 billion in 2003 or a volume of 236 thousands tonnes. USA. Compared to 2002. The value exports decreased with 6 percent in 2003 compared to 2002. 78 percent of exports was intra-EU. The Netherlands was the largest exporter of fruit juice/concentrate with a value share of 20 percent. Leading destinations outside the EU were USA. Canned fruit Total exports of canned fruit in 2003 amounted to € 1 billion or 1 million tonnes. value increased by 11 percent. while volume exports declined by 13 percent compared to 2002. The leading export destinations in 2003 were Germany (23% in value).3 billion or 4. Switzerland and Australia were the leading destination outside the EU. This was an increase in value by 1. this represented an increase of 3 percent in value and 33 percent in volume. USA. Product groups Fruit juice/concentrate In 2003. France (10%) and The Netherlands (9%).6 billion or 2. The value remained stable compared to 2002. Japan and Russia were the leading destinations outside the EU. Russia.7 United Kingdom The United Kingdom is a small exporter of selected preserved fruit and vegetables. while the volume decreased with 1. Italy was the largest exporter of canned vegetables with a value share of 27 percent. The leading export destinations in 2003 were Germany (17 % in value). followed by Spain (19%).2 million tonnes. followed by The Netherlands (11%) and Spain (11%). 87 percent of exports were intra-EU oriented. The leading export destinations in 2003 were Germany (25% in value).9 million tonnes. France (16% in value) and the United Kingdom (12% in value). Compared to 2002. United Kingdom (12% in value) and France (10% in value). Belgium was the largest exporter in 2003 with a value share of 41 percent. Canned vegetables In 2003. Russia and Canada.6. 83 percent of exports were intra-EU oriented. France (17 % in value) and the United Kingdom (11% in value). Exports amounted to € 0. Frozen fruit Total exports of frozen fruit amounted to € 730 million or 570 thousand tonnes in 2003. Poland. Ireland was the largest export market. followed by Germany (17%) and Greece (15%). total exports of canned vegetables amounted to € 4. followed by Belgium (17%) and Germany (16%). The leading export destinations in 2003 were Germany (25% in value). while volume decreased with 3 percent. France (19% in value) and the United Kingdom (12% in value). Frozen vegetables Total exports of frozen vegetables in 2003 amounted to € 1. 66 percent of exports were intra-EU oriented.2 percent compared to 2002. accounting for 42 percent of total value exports in 2003.3 percent and 4 percent in volume compared to 2002.
France (15% in value) and The Netherlands (8%). exporting a value of € 750 million and € 382 million respectively. Apple juice was the second largest product exported by Hungary (18 percent) of which 63 percent was exported to Germany. New EU countries Poland and Hungary were the largest exporters of preserved fruit and vegetables in 2003.Poland was the leading exporter with a value share of 35 percent in 2003. followed by Belgium (11%) and The Netherlands (11%). Norway. Japan. China and Russia were the leading destinations outside the EU. of which 50 percent was exported to the Russian Federation and 22 percent to Germany. 62 . Intra-EU exports accounted for 86 percent of total exports. Hungary was a large exporter of sweet corn (33 % of total value exports). Leading destinations in the EU were Germany (23% in value). 54 percent of Poland’s export was apple juice of which 80 percent was exported to Germany.
Specialised fruit processing industries supply semi-manufactured products to the bakery. These products are then repacked or processed for re-export. he is contracting to sell products. with the goal of selling these to the end-product manufacturers. in the case of dried vegetables the processing importers clean. the products do not pass physically through the agents’ hands and often not even through their countries of operation. The former represents the buyers. the dairy industry and the ice cream industry. The agents never actually take possession of a shipment. If an importer sells ‘short’. Processing industry (processing importer) Processing manufacturers/processing importers buy raw materials and semi-finished products to process them further. such as the beverage industry in the case of fruit juice and fruit juice concentrate. The following major business partners can be distinguished for exporters of most preserved fruit and vegetables. It is important that the exporter is aware of the different channels in the market. The trade of preserved fruit and vegetables is pan-European and the trade channels in the different EU countries do not differ greatly. Moreover. By selecting one specific channel and trade partner. such as the food processing industry. often as ingredient from other EU countries and from outside the EU. 63 . The selection of the trade channel and the trade partner depends on the requirements of the final customer. Two types of agents can be distinguished: buying agents and selling agents. grade. Agents Agents are intermediaries executing the buying and selling orders of a customer against a commission (between 2 and 5 percent of the purchasing price).1 TRADE STRUCTURE EU trade channels A large part of the preserved fruit and vegetables used in the EU food industry is imported. Importers Importers buy and sell preserved fruit and vegetables on their own account. For example. prices and users.7 7. Another example is the jam industry. compound houses or reexporters. The latter represents the sellers. Cargill and the compound houses (see below) are examples of leading processing importers in The Netherlands. other trade partners are often automatically included. Preserved fruit and vegetables can reach their final destination by passing through different trade channels. usually the food processing industry. The compound houses supply their compounds in the first place to the beverage industry. dairy and ice-cream industry. mainly to the food processing industry and for re-export. Agents are usually well informed about the current market trends. Most exporters will sell by means of independent traders (importers) or sales agents based in EU countries. reduce the humidity content and bacteria count before selling to the food industry. End-product manufacturers Some end-product manufacturers who need large quantities (on a regular basis) of ingredients purchase their ingredients directly from producers abroad. which he does not yet possess. Importers take ‘long’ or ‘short’ positions in the market depending on their expectations of future price trends. mainly exporters. while taking a ‘long’ position means that he has unsold products in his trading account. which buys substantial amounts of fruit pulp and frozen fruit directly from producers abroad. The processing manufacturers purchase preserved fruit and vegetables either directly or from importers or through the services of an agent.
Tesco (United Kingdom) and Aldi (Germany). The four biggest compound houses or importers (Döhler-Eurocitrus.direct from foreign suppliers. the concentrate is often processed by compound houses.through local agents. The activities of agents/importers are generally limited to responding to spot purchases from stock and searching for products of a different nature or of a special quality. 64 . These packers sometimes function as importers as well. Many importers. retailers have a strong negotiating position due to the many sourcing possibilities between products and suppliers. large supermarket buying groups are Ahold (The Netherlands). is specialised in dried fruit and frozen fruit and vegetables. Retail and food service organisations Retailers carry out the final stage of selling preserved fruit and vegetables to consumers. the food service sectors do not usually import directly from source. For example. New EU countries The food processing industry imports through the following channels: . although they are involved in the juice trade throughout Europe (Amsterdam and Rotterdam serve as the gateways to Europe for Brazilian orange juice concentrate). They supply the food processing industry and supermarkets chains and are financially able to support exclusive contracts and advertising campaigns. Some importers also act as an agent. Many end-product manufacturers use processing importers or agents. Packers These organisations pack goods in standard packs for the European market. The (re) packers keep the goods on stock in their warehouse. as well as to service special requirements. Catz Int. especially foreign owned and large companies . Cargill and Hiwa) and the beverage industry are mostly supplied directly from the source or from tank farms. agents. but buy from wholesalers or importers. Before a large share of the imports is re-exported. as these offer a reference point situated within their own country. Moreover. accounting for a very large share of the total sales.through importers in the present 15 EU countries . The retail sectors hardly ever import directly. or repackers are specialised in more than one product group. In the EU. Because of their much smaller size. most importers trade in preserved fruit and vegetables in consumer packs and catering packs. Metro (Germany). Potential exporters in developing countries should contact importers.Leading importing manufacturers in EU countries are Unilever. pack and/or standardize the product into the basis for the manufacturing of a wide range of products. at their own risk. agents and packers in the EU. and sometimes under their own brand or the private label of a customer. Cadbury Schweppes and Danone. but also in preserved fruit and vegetables for industrial use. There are few agents for juice. SVZ. In the case of jam and canned vegetables. These intermediaries have long established links with their customers and are in a better position (than foreign processors) to know the requirements of the local market and of individual end users. More or less the same trade structure applies to all the products discussed in this survey. Carrefour (France). as well as the practice of private labelling. which mix.
the frozen food industry and other large food manufacturers mostly import directly from source. Some importers also act as an agent. Many importers. and reducing the humidity content and bacteria count for dried products) the products. can differ. are served by intermediaries. the sauce industry (sterilised vegetables). The soup industry (dried vegetables). Often they pack the fruit and vegetables under their manufacturer’s brand or a private label. mostly smaller food manufacturers. however. they function as importer. The type of food industry and the importance of the different channels. the pickles industry (semi-worked pickles). 65 . or repackers trade in more than one product group. Mostly.Figure 7. agents. grading.1 Distribution channels for fruit juice concentrate producer/exporter agent/broker compound house other food industries beverage industry re-exports retailers wholesalers food service consumers More or less the same trade structure applies to the other product groups discussed in this survey. Some. who may or may not repack or reprocess (cleaning. wholesaler and exporter at the same time.
de http://www.iska.3 United Kingdom Gerber Foods importer/producer H.couecou.erik.com canned fruit/veg. dried fruit/veg.lamotte.es 7.fr juices/concentrates http://www.lapulpe.1.arrakis.fr dried fruit http://www.compagnie-alimentaire. tomato products frozen fruit/veg.de http://www.de http://www. http://www.efiltd.uk juices/concentrates http://www.com http://www.4 Spain Export Trading S. http://www.co.netra-agro. preserved fruit/veg.Alimentaire Eurobroker SA Type Importer/producer Importer/producer Importer` Trader Importer Importer/producer Products juices/ concentrates juices/concentrates canned fruit/veg.2 France Bureau Couecou La Pulpe Comp.J.A.eurobroker. http://www.com frozen fruit/veg.uren. juice concentrates Website http://www.2 Distribution channels for other preserved fruit and vegetables producer/exporter importer/agent repacker/processor wholesaler retail and food service sector consumers Selected intermediaries of preserved fruit and vegetables in major EU countries 7.com http://www.de Agent/broker Importer Importer/packer Trader juices/concentrates http://www.wild. Ernst Rickertsen Rudolf Wild GmbH 7. tomato products frozen fruit/veg.fr canned fruit http://www.1 Germany Company Bayernwald GmbH Dohler group Henry Lamotte Schroeder KG. Agent/broker/ Importer 66 . Uren & Sons Importer/producer European Food Ingredients Netra Agro UK Importer/producer Importer 7.gerber.com dried fruit http://www.1.1.1.Figure 7.com preserved fruit/veg.doehler. dried fruit preserved fruit/veg.bayernwald.
A trade fair is a good opportunity for making personal contact between business partners.large importers Dried fruit and vegetables .importing retailers .repackers Canned fruit and vegetables .com http://www. Trader SVZ International Importer/producer 7.com dried fruit/veg.dohler.specialised importers for the food service segment.5 for contact details of trade fairs.riedel. Trade partners in the different product groups can be described as follows: Fruit juices/concentrates .6 The Netherlands Catz International Importer Riedel Drinks Importer/producer Alanheri Trader Dohler-Euro Citrus Importer/producer Van Eeghen Intern.com http://www.catz.1. Some of the importers have an Internet site.com juices/concentrates http://www.2 Distribution channels for developing country exporters Importers represent an interesting distribution channel for developing country exporters of preserved fruit and vegetables. http://www. Trade fairs are also important meeting points for developing countries’ exporters and EU importers.com http://www. international operating importers . juices/concentrates preserved fruit/veg. 67 .1. Importers not only have experience and knowledge of the international market.svz.specialised . juices/concentrates preserved fruit dried fruit/veg. http://www.vaneeghen. multinational companies (Delmonte.italconserve.7.large.moellhausen.alanheri. juices/concentrates dried fruit/veg.smaller importers .require large volumes Frozen fruit and vegetables . where interested parties can find more information on the field in which these importers are active.large. they also have strong relationships with suppliers and buyers all over the world.com 7.nl http://www.nl http://www.5 Italy Italconserve SpA Moellhausen SpA Producer Broker/producer canned fruit/veg. Please refer to Appendix 3. Dole) .
8. .8 PRICES 8.2 Sources of price information Importers and agents in EU countries are the best sources for price information. while Agra Europe publishes prices in the Public Ledger and Fruit and Vegetable Markets. thus putting pressure on prices.1 Price developments Price developments are strongly dependent on a number of factors: .harvest output in the supplying countries in relationship to demand. They are in constant touch with their customers and suppliers and have up-to-date information regarding the current process and pricing trends. Contact details and publication titles can be found in appendix 3. ITC and FAO publish prices for some products. prices for preserved fruit and vegetables are scarcely available in trade magazines and on the Internet.2 68 .negotiations between the different chain partners .the quality of fresh fruit and vegetables aimed at the consumer markets. When quality is not up to standard the products will be diverted to the industry for processing. Contrary to fresh fruit and vegetables.
as well as requirements dealing with environmental issues and social standards. EU legislation also applies to the new countries which became members of the EU as per May 2004. also of feed products. Originally. beverages. consumer health.cbi. Apart from import tariffs and quotas these so-called non-tariff trade barriers play an important role. EU food legislation was primarily product-related. where appropriate. The following articles of the General Food Law are important for exporters in developing countries: 69 . spirits. etc. EU food legislation will not impose direct conditions on the manufacturing processes of exporters in developing countries. then go to ‘quick search’ and select what you need under ‘product group’: prepared foodstuffs. as there are food legislation requirements as well as requirements set by the market itself. legislation on food products has become more complex and stringent. Exporters in developing countries can check relevant non-tariff barriers for preserved fruit and vegetables by going to http://www. the regulation (EC) 178/2002 was adopted. applying to all categories of food products In recent years. fed to food-producing animals. 9. It has. At present. processing and distribution of food. so to say. the protection of animal health and welfare.1 Food legislation Step-by-step food legislation in the EU is being fully harmonised: the same legislation will apply to all EU member states. The main purpose of the General Food Law is to guarantee a high level of protection of human life and health and. an umbrella function over all existing EU food legislation. Regulations Regulations come into force as law directly. but importers will because they want to be sure that they (including their products) meet all relevant legislation. tobacco…… You will find information on EU requirements for product safety.9 9.1 EU MARKET ACCESS REQUIREMENTS Non-tariff trade barriers Exporters in developing countries wishing to penetrate the European Union markets will have to comply with several access requirements. The main topics covered for EU processors and importers are: • General principles and requirements of food legislation • The establishment of the European Food Safety Authority • Procedures in matters of food safety The regulation is commonly known as the General Food Law. It applies to all stages of the production. following new EU policy. it is primarily horizontal legislation.nl/accessguide First you can register. Two forms of EU food legislation can be distinguished: Directives Directives have to be implemented by the member states into their national legislation within a certain period of time. CBI’s database on European non-tariff trade barriers is called AccessGuide. plant health and the environment. In 2002.1.
already regulated through national food laws. Fruit nectar consists partly of fruit juice and partly of water and sugar.Article 11 It states that: food and feed imported into the EU for marketing shall comply with the relevant requirements of food law or conditions recognised by the Community. The core aspects of the General Food Law came into force in January 2005. Explicit rules for food hygiene have already been laid down in the Directive 93/43/EEC. The new regulation states explicitly that foodstuffs cannot be placed on the EU market if they are unsafe. The following sources can also be contacted: • Your trading partner in the EU • The relevant food inspection authority in the EU country concerned • The embassy of the EU member country in your country. flavourings. This was. at least implicitly. it is not an option for producers in developing countries to export this product to EU countries. For detailed information. Strictly spoken. 10 percent of comminuted/crushed/squeezed fruit and they may contain sweeteners. although a product complies with all specific requirements of food legislation. with connected health claims. has become common practice in many EU countries. However. Product regulations differ per species of preserved fruit & vegetables. as to the origin of all ingredients (including batch of production) and the chain of supply. Article 18 This article relates to the traceability of food: a producer or importer putting a product on the market in any EU country should be able to inform a food inspector within a few hours. Although the requirements do not apply to countries outside the EU. European importers will most likely require from suppliers in third countries that they have an accurate tracing system in place. consult AccessGuide in the first place. If specific agreements exist between the EU and your country. the addition of vitamins is still not harmonised within the EU. It states that. These definitions apply in all European countries. Addition of vitamins to fruit juices and fruit nectars. Article 14 This article relates to safety requirements for food. colouring and sometimes added vitamins. Hygiene is defined as all measures to ensure safety and wholesomeness of foodstuffs. Due to the high content of water (90%) in fruit juice drinks. but now there is an EU-wide explicit regulation. Fruit juice is comprised of 100 percent juice i. the requirements apply to food business located in the EU (including importers).e. no additions of water or other ingredients. it is not allowed on the market if a new hazard is found for which no requirements yet exist. Fruit juice drinks (soft drinks based on fruit juice) are not covered in the EU fruit juice directives. Usually they are required to contain a minimum of approx. all food should comply with those requirements. and legislation may vary from country to country. The proportion of fruit juice depends on the kind of fruit and varies between 25 percent and 50 percent. The following EU product legislation is relevant for preserved fruit & vegetables: Fruit juice/concentrate EU Directive 2001/112/EC specifies a definition of fruit juice and nectar. The differences are apparent in regulations about: • Which vitamins are allowed or not 70 .
1 Permitted additives and the maximum concentration thereof Additives Maximum concentration Preserved fruit and vegetables Fruit juice and nectar Fruit juice and nectar Fruit juice Pineapple juice Grape juice E300 E330 E296 E170 ascorbic acid citric acid malic acid calcium carbonate quantum satis1 3 g/l 3 g/l quantum satis1 71 . Refer to the information in AccessGuide on EU legislation on additives and flavourings in food. the more general list of additives applies.6) contains enough acid to block their growth or destroy them more rapidly when heated. Acidity can be natural. to produce a certain effect. before starting to export to these countries. by compiling a list of flavourings used in member states.e. the addition of vitamins is regulated more strictly while in France it is not allowed. sterilisation > 1230 C) or boiling water canner (i. It is therefore always wise to consult experts about the precise conditions. containing the complete list of additives (Annex II). or added. Canned food Apart from hygiene and food safety requirements there is no EU legislation concerning canned foods. Food additives and flavourings are subject to EU legislation. as in most fruit. Whether food should be processed in a pressure canner or autoclave (i.• • • In which products they are allowed or not In which quantity Under what conditions the addition of vitamins should be labelled In general.1. it is important to completely control the elimination of bacteria. Even a taste of food containing this toxin can be fatal to the consumer. which can cause diseases or produce poisonous toxins or deteriorate the product. Regarding the product groups not quoted in the list below. in certain groups of prepared fruit and vegetables. These additives are specified in Table 9. which are allowed to be added to some or to all food products. The EU is currently working also to harmonise the composition of substances that may be used in flavourings. all preceded by the letter E.6) canned food contains too little acidity to prevent the growth of the botulinum bacteria. Food additives and flavourings Food additives are non-nutritive substances. pasteurisation at approximately 950 C) depends on the acidity of the food. However.e. The legislation on application of food additives is harmonised in the EU and approved additives bear identification numbers. When canning food. the UK and Belgium vitaminisation is allowed under certain conditions. but it is too extensive to list here. This harmonisation is expected to be completed in the near future. The most virulent species is the botulinum bacteria. however. which includes a direct link to the consolidated version of the Directives. Table 9. in The Netherlands. Low-acid (pH>4. only specific additives with a maximum concentration may be applied. This is laid down in EU Directive 95/2/EC on food additives other than colours and sweeteners (separate directives exist for colours and sweeteners): which additive may be used in which food product. In Germany. while acid food (pH<4. and up to which concentration.
added to food and drink wares consistent with good production methods. There are Enumbers for different kinds of food additives.Fruit nectar Frozen or deep-frozen raw fruit and vegetables E336 potassium tartrate E270 lactic acid E330 citric acid E300 E301 E302 E330 E331 E332 E333 ascorbic acid sodium ascorbate calcium ascorbate citric acid sodium citrate potassium citrate calcium citrate quantum satis1 5 g/l 5 g/l quantum satis1 Dried fruit Apricots. under the condition that the consumer is not deceived. preservatives. such as bleaching agents. jellifying agents. grapes. plums. peaches. which is not larger than necessary for the goal aimed at. etc. colouring agents. 72 . Source: EU Directive 95/2/EC on food additives The food additives should be mentioned in the list of ingredients on the label of food products in consumer packs either by their full name or by their E-number. brighteners. figs Bananas Others White dried vegetables Canned fruit and vegetables Sulphur dioxide Sulphur dioxide Sulphur dioxide Sulphur dioxide 2000 mg/kg 1000 mg/kg 500 mg/kg 400 mg/kg E260 acetic acid E261 potassium acetate E262 sodium acetate E263 calcium acetate E270 lactic acid E296 malic acid E300 ascorbic acid E301 sodium ascorbate E302 calcium ascorbate E325 sodium lactate E326 potassium lactate quantum satis1 E327 calcium lactate E330 citric acid E331 sodium citrate E332 potassium citrates E333 calcium citrates E334 tartaric acid E335 sodium tartrate E336 potassium tartrate E337 sodium potassium tartrate E509 calcium chloride E575 glucono-deltalactone 1) The quantity of an additive. anti-oxidants.
Soil Association or other EU inspection organisations. must be certified by EU recognised control bodies to confirm that they meet the required EU or specific national standards. according to the volumes of the chemicals that are manufactured or imported. Ecocert. Examples of contaminants currently addressed are nitrates. It is important. but he may however request extensive information and tests from the producer. Contaminants Regulation (EC) No. a three years’ period will be required for registration of new substances! Naturally occurring substances that are not classified as dangerous are exempted from registration. organic farming is defined as: a system of managing agricultural holdings that uses a variety of more environmentally friendly crop farming practices and involves major restrictions on the use of fertilisers and pesticides. but first of all: refer to AccessGuide. cadmium and mercury). including natural substances that are classified as dangerous. You are. to be carried out by EU manufacturers or EU importers. before their products can be offered for sale in EU markets. in a costly procedure based on thorough and complete dossiers. 3-MCPD. however. This especially concerns preservatives and some colouring agents. and therefore can be used only in limited concentrations. Under EU Community rules. Use of the term ‘organic’ is limited in the European Union to products farmed according to the principles of production and the rules of processing defined in the regulation. This point is still under discussion and no final decision has yet been taken. advised to check the up-to-date situation by consulting importers or the relevant national Food Inspection Authority. mycotoxins. The basis of REACH is registration. The only category within preserved fruit and vegetables that might be considered for registration is essential oils. please refer to CBI’s Market Survey ‘Organic Food Products’. for exporters to be aware that agricultural units. Bear in mind that legislation concerning food is continuously changing. which makes it necessary for an exporter to the EU to consult experts on this matter. heavy metals (lead. Please note that requirements and types of contaminants occurring may change by time. For more information on certification. For further details. also the exporting company itself. REACH is an EU Commission proposal (SEC(2003)1172) for a regulation aiming to improve knowledge and information regarding chemical substances. 466/2001 and its amendments lay down threshold limits for contaminants in specific food products.Even when food additives are allowed. NovelfFoods and genetically modified food products 73 . a regulation on chemical substances. The regulation is rather complicated and difficult. sale and import of organic products were established by the passing of Council Regulation EEC 2092/91 and its supplement EC 1804/99. please contact Control Union Certification (formerly known as SKAL). Organic preserved fruit and vegetables The main principles for organic production at farm level and the rules that must be followed for the processing. particularly with regard to protecting human health and the environment. they can be unhealthy for people who suffer from certain diseases or allergies. The proposal is expected to come for the EU parliament no earlier than the end of 2005. Please refer to AccessGuide for the complete text of the regulation and pictures of labels and logos used by various certifying bodies. processors as well as their products. dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs and inorganic tin. Another EU legislation that will become important to producers and processors of flavourings is REACH. At minimum. therefore. The burden rests with the importer.
bacteria. 74 . Although exporters to the EU are not obliged yet to have an HACCP system and their system will not be subject to control by the food inspection service in the importing country. plastic or fabric) risk. The most important products in this category are soya and maize. applied. like other EU legislation. because responsibility is passed along the processing and supply chain. food legislation with regard to HACCP (EU Directive 93/43/EEC). glass. applies only within the external EU boundaries. The HACCP system is applicable to companies which process. and EU food inspectors will not come to your country to inspect your HACCP system. moulds). Hygiene and food safety One of the most important issues in food legislation concerns food processing. However. HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points) The HACCP regulation is also of importance for exporters in developing countries. please refer to CBI’s AccessGuide. Importers sometimes even require exporters to have HACCP implemented. from growing. or operating following a similar principle of quality control. EU legislative authorities cannot impose requirements on producers in foreign countries. in which it should be demonstrated that they are safe. This regulation indicates that new food products are not allowed to be introduced on the EU market before going through an (expensive and) time-consuming procedure. hygiene and food safety. Subsequently. distribute or trade foodstuffs. Processors applying GMO in Europe are still limited to only a few products. All companies involved in food industry and trade in all EU member states are obliged to have an approved HACCP system. maintained and revised on the basis of the HACCP system”. labelling to mention this is compulsory. In fact. microbiological (viruses. All food processors in the EU member countries are legally bound to have an HACCP system or they must be working on implementing an HACCP system. These companies are forced to understand (and act against) the possible hazards associated with food production at all stages. the genetically modified food products were separated from the novel food regulation and arranged in separate legislation on traceability and labelling of genetically modified foods. toxicological (chemical contamination by pesticides or environmental contaminants like heavy metals or dioxin). transport. with the exception of certified organic soya.9% of a GMO ingredient is present in food. The most important aspect is that when more than 0. pack. The EU Directive on Hygiene for Foodstuffs (93/43/EC). Importers of food products in the EU will be legally held responsible for the imported products. in regulation (EC)641/2004. This includes macro-biological (vermin). In fact. which became effective in January 1996. processing. For more information on HACCP. metal. will be a very positive argument in export business. and will require proof from their ingredients suppliers to guarantee food safety for their raw materials. Not EU food inspectors but probably your buyer will ask for confirmation of your HACCP system. having an approved HACCP system. the market for soya consists almost fully of soya that is no longer GMO-free. and other categories of novel foods (foods that have not been legally on the market in any EU country before). stipulates that: “foodstuff companies shall identify each aspect of their activities which has a bearing on the safety of foodstuffs and ensure that suitable safety procedures are established. or physical (wood. treat.Regulation (EC)258/97 on Novel foods and novel food ingredients has set out rules for authorisation and labelling of genetically modified food products. importers in the EU all are obliged to have their HACCP system approved by authorities. until the point of consumption. manufacture and distribution.
Social issues focus mainly on: • General labour conditions Important elements are minimum wages. Compliance with the quality standards demanded by the importer is essential. As environmental legislation is mainly product-based. freedom of labour organisation and basic labour rights. Legislation on food labelling will be discussed in chapter 9. marking and labelling’. as from 2006. pressure from NGOs and media coverage make social issues increasingly important when doing business in the EU. For more information. for some categories of food products. Social market requirements Increasing consumer awareness. Environmental management systems are process-related. Issues can be both product(product legislation and labels) and process-related (process labels and management systems). etc. which are initiated by EU or national authorities. please check the website of the International Labour Organisation (ILO): www. which should be met by the suppliers. Exporters’ products should therefore continue to comply with the legislation of the separate EU member states.It is expected that. to labelling. sickness. Exporters should realize that differences will still exist. This results in standards on the presence of pollutants. These specifications may vary from demands concerning colour. environmental market requirements can go further.and process-related. in order to regulate HACCP. Besides governmental actions (legislation). Environmental market requirements Environmental aspects of products have become a major issue in Europe in recent periods. There are management systems to ensure a certain level of attention for social issues. minimum age of workers. EU will require from exporting countries that they develop their own HACCP legislation. correct and constant quality. there is no EU legislation at all.org • Occupational health and safety Occupational health and safety (OHS) is related to the risks for employees during their work. a strong consumer movement is noticeable in many EU member countries. non-discrimination. see the AccessGuide database. at least for exporting companies. 75 . environmental aspects may play a vital role in preparing for exports to the EU market. On the level of the EU. 9. Both systems are structured along the same approach as ISO.1. maximum working hours. Member states may have their own legislation. as well as its member states. food legislation in the EU is still not completely uniform: member states are free in the implementation of EU directives and. disability and survivor benefits.2 Market requirements Besides requirements.1. product legislation has been developed in order to reduce the negative environmental impact of products. such as hazardous substances in products. Remark: Despite harmonisation efforts. packaging.ilo. The most accepted management system is SA8000 on social accountability and OHSAS 18000 on occupational health and safety. the end-users may have their own specifications. and failure to do so results in goods being refused or only accepted at considerably lower prices for further processing. product labels such as ecolables can be product. Depending on the product in question. OHS goes together with cleaner production options.5 ‘ Packaging. For more information. Occupational and work-related injuries and diseases cause large economic costs through absences from work.
Although voluntary. including organic labelling. not only with regard to quality control but to the entire organization: from purchasing to processing. 76 . ISO 9000 The ISO 9000 standards for quality management (most recent version ISO 9001:2000) provide a framework for standardizing procedures and working methods. Participation in such an Ecolabel scheme is on a voluntary basis. member states and customer standards • Adequate labelling and packaging • Use of materials and production methods • Consumer health and safety HACCP The need for good quality management takes on increasing importance. the ISO 14001 environmental management standard may become a de facto requirement for being able to compete in many regions of the global marketplace. he can comply voluntarily with the following standard: • ISO 14001 This is based on the ISO 9000 series of standards for quality management. it relates also to: • Constant and on-time delivery of products • Traceability of products • Compliance with EU. Quality related market requirements Quality is not only product-related. In the case of preserved fruit and vegetables. acting as an independent third party. EU "organic" labels have been introduced.Environmental labels and management systems The hallmarks for environmentally sound products are normally referred to as Ecolabels. Ecocert (Germany. For more information.1. organic labelling indicates that the product has been certified as being organic. Similarly. and national labels such as the Netherlands Milieukeur. It has been discussed in 9. If a manufacturer wants to indicate to external parties that he is manufacturing in an environmentally sound way. please refer to CBI’s Market Survey ‘Organic Food products’. Internationally. Belgium. the German Blue Angel and the Scandinavian White Swan. The relevance of the ISO 14001 standard for the future can be clearly seen by following the development and adoption of the ISO 9001 and ISO 9002 quality standard. and Italy) and the Soil Association (United Kingdom) and KRAV (Sweden). The organisation SKAL (now part of Control Union Certification) is the holder of the officially registered EKO quality symbol. This hallmark indicates that the product (including its full manufacturing process) has a reduced impact on the environment when compared to similar products. both nationally and internationally. customer pressure is resulting in the ISO 9001 and IS0 9002 quality standard becoming increasingly necessary for doing business around the world. SKAL is a member of IFOAM (International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements). France. applicable throughout Europe. Ecolabels have been developed at various levels. Organic growing and processing.1. One of the main quality aspects is the food safety of the product. which will be discussed below. The EKO quality label is the label in The Netherlands that guarantees the organic origin and quality of agricultural products. Organic labelling In order to make agricultural products from organic sources easily recognisable to consumers. The HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) procedure typically applies to the food-processing industry. Other important EU certifying organisations operating internationally include BCS and Naturland (Germany). can be an important aspect in environmentally aware production. It provides services in the field of inspection and certification.
see CBI AccessGuide. both internal (1-2 per year) and external (2 times per year). Nevertheless. and quality management consultants need to be hired for external audits. but it is a guarantee that you always do things the same way. Attention paid to health and safety prevents costs for work-related injuries and diseases. 77 . However. are needed. SGS.ch Management systems like BRC and several others are gaining increasing interest and growing importance in the food sector.1. absence from work. The certification may be a vital factor in the selection process applied by trade partners in Europe.4 Environmentally sound production Environmentally sound production for food products is important and starts with the growing of crops. regular audits.iso. implementation. procedures. Several measures can be taken to reduce the environmental impact of food processing. you might be confronted with requirements on food processing that are demanded by European buyers. monitoring and documentation thereof. Veritas.1. Consequently. A certificate is only valid for three years. safety and environmental management programmes becomes strongly interwoven with the overall ISO management plan. present in many countries). Your ISO 9000 system has to be certified and regularly audited by an authorized certifying body (like Lloyd's. Therefore. Contrary to product legislation environmental measures in the production process focusing on environmentally sound production (ESP) are not legally compulsory for exporters to the EU. ISO 9000 requires that you exactly describe your processes. Also. during storage and transport and during methods of processing food.3 Occupational health and safety Occupational health and safety (OHS) is related to the risks for employees in specific processes. the use of pesticides and fertilisers during the cultivation of crops. manufacturers who have obtained an ISO 9000 series certificate possess an important asset. 9. health. the company should have a quality manager inhouse who is responsible for the quality management policy. which will draw on the company’s human and financial resources and will add procedures and paper work. a decision to become ISO 9000 certified means a firm commitment. sickness treatment and disability benefits. and then follow these procedures exactly. one has to bear in mind that being certified is not a one-time exercise. In order to maintain the certificate. OHS is more a matter of good housekeeping than high-tech solutions. Please check CBI’s AccessGuide for more information on OHS matters 9. Benefits of ISO 9000 certification Improves image Inspires confidence Increases credibility Generates recognition Enhances acceptability Reduces liability disputes Creates transparency and awareness Enables identification of weaknesses Systematises efforts to increase quality Enables identification of opportunities to increase efficiency Provides an important source for reference and monitoring Enables identification of opportunities to increase customer satisfaction For further information. please check AccessGuide and the website of ISO: http://www.quality control. sales and administration. It does not essentially address product safety and quality. This means that quality.
Various programmes are in operation in the different member states. National governments in Europe are setting legislation in order to protect the local environment.5 Packaging. Germany and the United Kingdom. Most requirements for packaging and packaging materials can be found in the legislation of individual member states.e. the directive sets maximum levels of concentration of heavy metals in packaging and describes requirements specific to manufacturing and composition of packaging. marking and labelling The general trend in Europe is towards facilitating re-use and recycling of packaging through incentives and disincentives. only the national legislation in the country of production is legally binding. However. for each package. However. the importer will be confronted with additional costs. Among other measures. That means that packaging (transport packaging. boxes. and through mandatory or voluntary restraints. including legislation in The Netherlands. 2005. The EU has set new phytosanitary measures for all wooden packaging material that is used for the import of goods into the EU from third countries. drums and similar packing. Exporters in developing countries targeting the European market have to be aware of these legislative requirements and take appropriate measures. or in additional buyers requirements. the implementation may take differing forms. cadmium. but this is still far from complete. crates. namely amending Directive 2004/102/EC and 2005/15/EC. The European legislation which is laid down by means of amendments to Directive 2000/29/EC. such as hazardous substances in products. The maximum concentration of lead. glass jars. box pallets and other loader boards. Besides product legislation. mercury and chromium (VI) in packaging is 100 ppm. In order to harmonise the different forms of legislation.On both EU and national levels product legislation has been developed in order to reduce the negative environmental impact of products. Many EU countries (but not all) now have legislation requiring that packaging for consumer products (such as cans. The EU has a regulation (EU)1935/2004 for materials and articles coming into contact with food products. such as levies and taxes. for one-way packaging) a contribution has to be paid. The Directives require heat treatment or fumigation and marking of wooden packaging materials (including for example packing cases. The background for this legislation is to protect the EU from the introduction of organisms harmful to plants and plant products via wood packaging material. In AccessGuide you find an analysis of EU environmental product legislation. pallets. the EU has issued a directive for packaging and packaging materials (Directive 94/62/EC) in which minimum requirements are regulated. in order to become or remain wellmatched trading partners for European businesses. thus reducing the competitiveness of the exporter. See AccessGuide 78 . pallet collars). surrounding packaging and sales packaging) materials should be limited and re-usable or recyclable. cartons and plastic bottles) is taken back and collected by retailers and producers. This results in standards on the use of pollutants. Otherwise. Please note that.1. entered into force as of March 1. If that is not possible (i. 9. Most of the time. packaging policy does not affect ‘foreign’ manufacturers because importers will be held responsible for the packaging. The requirements refer to the international standard ISPM 15. regarding process legislation. This directive has been transposed into the national legislation of the member states. sensible marketing requires taking the obligations of the importer into consideration. to a central co-ordinating organisation that has taken over the responsibility of collecting and re-processing. standards are being developed for process legislation.
which used to accept simple capping of drums. Some of the larger firms. Fruit juice/concentrate Orange juice concentrate. while one third is packed in glass. including brine). nowadays require approved security seals. although some air permeates gradually through the polyethylene itself. Examples are pallet-size. Products can also be packed deep-frozen in cartons of 20-25 kg or in drums of up to 200 litres. The share of glass as a packaging material is particularly high in The Netherlands (60 percent in 1999). fibreboard corrugated boxes (bag-in-box system) or multi-wall sacks. packed and sealed into sterile packaging under sterile conditions. Importers generally expect the following features of cans: • well-coated inside (especially the seam). shipped in bulk vessels at –200 C under nitrogen (to exclude it from oxygen so as to avoid oxidation). Tropical fruit pulp and purée is still in many cases hot-packed in metal cans of 3-5 kg. containing two or four 5 kg boxes. The can and glass jar industries have reduced the weight of the packaging (both glass and metal) considerably. New bulk-packaging technologies are being developed for liquid foodstuffs that are appropriate for the distribution of these product groups. so that no subsequent heat treatment or refrigeration is needed to preserve them until the pack is opened. Aseptic drums of 200 litres are also used for fruit juice concentrate. but on a small scale. • electronically controlled capping and seaming. 79 . Other concentrates are mainly packed in double polyethylene bags in 200 litre (or 266 kg) drums. Aseptically packed products are sterile items. Still. 425 g and 825 g net weight (product weight. two thirds of the sterilized vegetables purchased consist of cans. while maintaining product sterility. The packaging in glass jars instead of metal cans is still gaining popularity in the EU. Canned fruit and vegetables for the retail market are mainly sold in cans of 225 g. which is by far the leading import product.There are more demands concerning packaging depending on the product group: see below. bag-in-box systems and flexi tanks. but most buyers prefer aseptic bulk packaging. dried tropical fruit is usually packaged in export carton boxes lined with polyethylene. The objective of the new technologies is to achieve economic handling. such as banana purée and mango pulp. Dried vegetables are nowadays mostly packed in polyethylene. Canned fruit and vegetables Canned fruit and vegetables for catering use are often hot-packed in metal cans of 3-5 kg. although in Germany and Belgium the use of glass jars is gaining popularity. Polyethylene liners may be heat-sealed to give an airtight closure. without causing positive pressure due to hydrogen production. partly because fruit and vegetables in glass stand for a quality product. is almost exclusively imported from Brazil. In the catering sector. the metal cans are lighter and stronger than glass jars. It is generally used in the form of a closed bag inside paperboard cartons. • the can structure and seaming should enable a two-year shelf life. Other forms of aseptic pack are used for certain tropical products. Vacuum packaging is also used. Dried fruit and vegetables Bulk-packaged.
The Netherlands Food and Drug Act contains special regulations concerning the labelling of food products. 20 and 25 kg. incl. Frozen fruit and vegetables Frozen fruit and vegetables are mostly packed in paperboard-corrugated cartons of 10. hazelnuts. celery. in the case the products cannot be consumed or prepared properly without these instructions. is gaining popularity. The labels on food products for industrial use in the EU should include the following information (in English or in the language of the importing country): • Product name • Batch code/lot identification • Name address of manufacturer/exporter • Net weight • Recommended storage conditions. contact The Netherlands Horticulture Commodity Board or relevant trade associations. • Usage instructions. • ‘Best before’ date and storage conditions where necessary. spelt. which are in line with the EU Directive 2000/13/EC which harmonized labeling requirements throughout the Community. • Net weight (and leak weight when applicable). 15. there are some exceptions. variety and type. lactose h. macadamia nuts) and products made thereof i. since they reduce handling costs and damage to the product. cereals containing gluten (wheat.Packages suitable for palletisation are gaining in popularity. not all manufacturers possess the equipment to handle this kind of packaging. rye. • An indication of the batch of production. Substances that may cause food allergy and have to be labelled explicitly a. have to be mentioned explicitly on the label (see information below). although packaging in polyethylene also takes place. and products made thereof 80 . soya and products made thereof g. root or leaf. address of the packer/exporter/importer located in the EU. kamut) and products made thereof b. The labels on food products in consumer and food service packing in the EU should be in the language(s) of the country where the product is put on the market and should include the following information: • Product name. eggs and products made thereof d. crustaceans and products made thereof c. The labelling requirements listed below generally apply to all preserved fruit and vegetables specified in this survey. • Name. However. depending on the kind of product or type of fruit or vegetable. pecan nuts. Nevertheless. In the case of frozen vegetables. walnuts. barley. For specified information. which may be specified in code. packaging in octobins. nuts (almonds. which are large paperboard corrugated cartons. pistachio nuts. peanuts and products made thereof f. Brazil nuts. quantitative labelling (in %) is required for those ingredients mentioned in the name of the product or pictured on the label. • A list of ingredients. listed in a specific annex III in the food labelling directive mentioned above. cashew nuts. oat. milk and products made thereof. including food additives. and might by consequence be dangerous to health. fish and products made thereof e. Rectangular boxes are more suitable for palletisation than paper sacks or drums. Packages normally vary between 5 kg and 25 kg. • Country of origin • Substances that can cause food allergy.
which is issued by the appropriate authorities in the respective country.nl http://www. the accompanying documentation must provide details of any treatment the product has undergone and any further information specified in the contract with the importer. sulphur dioxide and sulphite Moreover. • product. companies have to ensure that products conform to acceptable safety standards.2 Tariffs and quotas http://www. The Netherlands and Belgium. all details of labelling should be agreed and specified in consultation with the importer or endproduct supplier (supermarket. wholesaler. who has the correct information regarding the legal requirements. etc.nl http://www.j. Because consumers need to make informed choices about which products to buy. all goods entering the EU are subject to import duties. mustard and products made thereof k. with assessment being executed by qualified experts. The trading environment for preserved fruit and vegetables for some products is liberal. Manufacturers should take into account that consumer protection is a vital issue in this field and that illegal claims will be heavily penalised. In June 2001.net http://www. the higher the tariff. the EU has legislation. please refer to CBI’s AccessGuide. in case of product recall).cbi. Under the EBA initiative.maxhavelaar.cbi. sesame seed and products made thereof l. Regarding the exports of preserved fruit and vegetables in consumer and catering packs. The information would then be collected and managed centrally so that it could be accessed easily (for example. A similar system is already in operation in The Netherlands and Belgium. Imports of preserved fruit and vegetables from a number of developing countries (see Annex 4 of Regulation 2820/98/EC) are subject to reductions on import duties under the GSP scheme. It also intends to improve the effectiveness of special incentives to promote labour and environmental standards. which forbids health claims that cannot be upheld scientifically. The new Regulation complements and fully incorporates the recent "Everything But Arms" (EBA) initiative in favour of the Least Developed Countries.fairtrade. In order to benefit from GSP treatment. a list of permitted health claims (backed by scientific evidence) should be drawn up. quota and import tariffs have been abolished for all product groups. Furthermore. Medical claims are forbidden altogether. except arms and ammunition. The regulation is designed to simplify the GSP regime for sensitive products (products grown and processed within the EU). the European Commission adopted a proposal for revision of the Generalised Scheme of Tariff Preferences (GSP) for the period till the 31st December 2004. exporters have to provide a ‘Form A’ certificate. Information For detailed information about environmental aspects relevant to trade. but the more highly processed the product. The level of tariffs depends on: • country of origin. 81 . Under a proposed plan propagated mainly in the UK.).nl/accessguide In general. Useful Internet sites Max Havelaar Foundation Fairtrade Labelling Organisation CBI AccessGuide 9.
5) Prepare documentary evidence for proof of origin. Table 9.5 21 Italy 10 20 Luxembourg 6 15 Portugal 5/12 19 Spain 7 16 Sweden 6/12 25 The Netherlands 6 19 United Kingdom 5 17. Restrictions still apply to sugar. harmonisation of VAT (tax levied at consumer sales’ level) rates has not yet been achieved.cec. Exporters in Least Developed Countries wishing to benefit from the ‘EBA’ agreement should take the following 5 steps: 1) Establish product classification (CN) 2) Establish product eligibility 3) Check the origin criteria applicable to the product. eliminated as from 1 January 1993 onwards. however these will be lifted during the period leading up to 2007. In order to establish the import tariffs for a particular product. The EU commission established a special helpdesk for exporters from developing countries: http://export-help.4 summarizes the VAT rates in the new EU countries. rice and bananas.5 Commission Source: DGXXI. The import tariffs change frequently and depend on trade agreements between the EU and developing countries and the sensitivity of the product for EU producers.eu. Table 9. These criteria are productdependent (Form A or EUR 1). In most countries the reduced rate applies to food products. October 2004 Reduced Rate Standard Rate Austria 10 20 Belgium 6 21 Denmark 25 Finland 8/17 22 France 5. 4) Check the transport conditions. as direct shipment is a prerequisite for qualification. in theory.for the Least Developed Countries.5 19.3 summarises the VAT rates applied in the different EU-15 member states for foodstuffs in general.int/ This website gives the most up-to-date information regarding import tariffs based on the CN product code.6 Germany 7 16 Greece 8 18 Ireland 13.3 VAT rates (in %) applied to foodstuffs and fruit juices in the EU-15. from the exporters’ country to the port in the EU. European (2004) 82 . please check with your trade partner in the EU. in practice. Table 9. the EU representative office in your country or your embassy in the EU country concerned. Value Added Tax (VAT) Although fiscal borders between EU countries were.
htm information on VAT rates in EU countries EU rules of http://europe. An exporter capable of meeting these requirements will have an improved competitive position in the EU market for preserved fruit and vegetables.Table 9. for less known products.eu. including.g.eu. instructions on how to store and to process. October 2004 Reduced Rate Standard Rate Czech Republic 5 Estonia 5 Cyprus 5 Latvia 5 Lithuania 5/9 Hungary 5/15 Malta 5 Poland 7 Slovenia 8. or even ISO certification.int/ Opportunities for exporters in developing countries are the following: Extensive product documentation A general trend in the food ingredients sector is that importers and food processors in the EU require extensive product documentation in order to guarantee food safety. HACCP HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) certification is expected to become a requirement for processed products from non-EU countries under the General Food Law.int/comm/taxation_customs/taxation/vat/how_vat_works/rates/index _en. clear suggestions for application.eu. European Commission (2004) 19 18 15 18 18 25 18 22 20 19 Useful Internet sites Current http://europe. This means that a product should be accompanied by complete product specifications. 83 .htm GSP Market access database http://mkaccdb.5 Slovak Republic Source: DGXXI. Organic products Healthy. natural and organic products are occupying an increasingly stronger position in the EU.int/comm/taxation_customs/customs/customs_duties/rules_origin/i origin for the ndex_en. HACCP). documentation on tracking and tracing.4 VAT rates (in %) applied to foodstuffs in the new EU countries. since much of their food production is already organic or can easily be changed to organic (see Part B). information on quality assurance (e. Organic production is particularly attractive for growers in developing countries.
Exporters whose processing is certified have a better competitive position to export to EU customers. In Part B you are able to use all information gathered to prepare your strategy to enter the EU market and to draw up an Export Marketing Plan to make your strategy work. All information given in this part and additional information you can get from the different Internet sites mentioned form the basis to work on Part B. This concludes Part A of the survey. 84 .
PART B EXPORT MARKETING GUIDELINES: ANALYSIS AND STRATEGY 85 .
The EMP shows how this strategy will be executed and the actions you should take.Opportunities STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES (Chapter 12) FORMULATION OF OBJECTIVES (Chapter 12) . you will be guided through the different steps to prepare your Market Entry Strategy and the Export Marketing Plan.The Export Marketing Guidelines form a roadmap to conduct market research.time schedule MARKET ENTRY STRATEGY (Chapter 12) .Weaknesses .focusses on potential export markets in the EU INTERNAL ANALYSIS (Chapter 11) .strategy to realise objectives EXPORT MARKETING PLAN (Chapter 13) . The MES spells out your strategy for a period of 3 – 5 years on how you intend to build up a successful export position on EU markets.Strengths .analyses factors within control of the company . to formulate your Market Entry Strategy (MES) and finally to prepare an operational Export Marketing Plan (EMP) for the introduction of your products on EU markets.profitability . In Part B.operational plan to execute strategy 86 . the following steps should be taken: EXTERNAL ANALYSIS (Chapter 10) .focuses on internal capabilities to export to EU markets OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS (Chapter 12 SWOT analysis (Chapter 12) . Schematically.analyses factors outside the control of the company .EU markets and segments .turnover and volumes .trade channels .
you can look for information specifically tailored to your requirements. like pineapple purée. it is much harder to obtain sector-specific information. The following sources are available to conduct desk research for preserved fruit and vegetables: • Internet By far the most important source of information. • Market studies Organisations like CBI and ITC have market studies for preserved fruit and vegetables available.nl/accessguide • Trading conditions General information on trading with EU countries is widely available. • Tariff and non-tariff barriers at EU and national level This information is widely available in a large variety of public documents. importers and products. Food Ingredients Europe and Anuga provide a wealth of information about competitors. others have already assembled and compiled the information. • Trade magazines Trade magazines are valuable sources of current information. extensive market research is necessary.cbi. In some cases. like fruit purées. these studies often refer to preserved fruit and vegetables in general and less to product groups. However. Moreover.10 EXTERNAL ANALYSIS: MARKET AUDIT Market research In order to prepare an external analysis. main Economic activities. Field research is more expensive than desk research.6 for contact details of trade magazines. Please check appendix 3. Field research Field research is the gathering of primary information. Please check with embassies and consulates of EU countries in your country. Much information is freely obtainable. etc. and individual products. please check CBI’s AccessGuide. however. websites of importers of preserved fruit and vegetables give information about product specifications. distribution facilities. packing and processing. • Trade fair catalogues Trade fair catalogues of for example Biofach. the following fields should be explored: • Country information General data about EU countries like population. • Information on the market for preserved fruit and vegetables Market studies are available. 87 . as travelling to EU countries is involved. Please check CBI’s ‘Your guide to market research’ for information on this subject. Further. as trade partners in the EU do not usually publicise information about their conditions. gross national product (GNP). This information is abundantly and freely available. much information can be found on the website of the EU and on CBI’s AccessGuide http://www. To obtain relevant information about preserved fruit and vegetables in EU markets. trends and developments in the preserved fruit and vegetable sector. websites are mentioned. so you can easily check the sites of exhibitors. For non-tariff trade barriers (an important part of the external analysis). Market research consists of two parts: Desk research Desk research is the gathering of secondary information. for more detailed and specific information fees must often be paid. both for organic and traditional products.
can match or even surpass product quality. For example. In the EU. The EU Market Access Requirements. as a potential exporter.Desk research can be complemented by field research. companies like Unilever. It is important for the potential exporter to evaluate why these countries are major suppliers to the EU and. Analysing the import statistics. are equally important: • • • • • • • • Consistent and high product quality according to specifications of importers and food processors Steady supply of products HACCP certified Reliability in supply and honouring agreements with EU trade partners Complete product specifications Good packaging Open communication Certification in the case of organic preserved fruit and vegetables 88 . the right growing conditions. Healthy food is on the rise in the EU. enabling them to choose from a wide variety of ingredient suppliers worldwide. frequent shipping departures to EU ports. indicates the product and packaging requirements with which you should comply in order to enter EU markets successfully. complemented by national brands. it would be a challenge to surpass the requirements customers in the EU require as minimum standards. while retailers look increasingly for year-round instead of seasonal products. as described in Part A of this survey. form the main source in this survey for obtaining a clear picture of the market for preserved fruit and vegetables in six EU countries. whether or not you. Together with information assembled from sources as mentioned in market research. The following instruments. Their buying power is huge. your products might have certain properties relevant to health aspects in food or you might be a supplier of year-round products. it is certainly not the only instrument for outranking competitors. as mentioned by leading importers of preserved fruit and vegetables in The Netherlands. gives a good indication of the major supplying countries for a product group or individual products. proximity to EU markets. 4. Danone have strong positions and brands in the EU markets. 5 and 6. more important. together with the opportunities as described in chapter 8. opposite seasons or combinations of these factors. Nestlé. a favourable exchange rate. as given in chapter 5 and in appendix 1. the following tools are available to the potential exporter: • Trade fairs • Seminars • Visits to importers and agents • Visits to branch organizations • Visits to commercial sections of embassies 10. Although price will always remain a major competitive tool. your products might be well positioned to capture these trends. this trend also applies to the food processors.1 Market development and opportunities The market developments described in chapters 3. In both examples. During field research. In terms of quality.2 Competitive analysis The food ingredients sector is increasingly becoming a global business. logistics and service. Factors enabling countries to be successful exporters to the EU can be a high productivity. Please refer to Chapter 4 on ‘production’. you should be able to get a picture of how the market develops and which opportunities might be available. Not only is food retailing characterised by concentration and consolidation. 10.
This way. the exporter should evaluate the different trade channels for his products and his company. In evaluating the different options. This should be coupled to a good understanding of the above-mentioned problems with which importers are confronted. etc. The disadvantage is that the company has no direct contact with trade partners in the EU and is therefore less informed about market developments. it then should decide on the type of trade partner in the EU. The advantages of this approach are: Direct contact with EU trade partners. price levels. especially for small companies. Based on the characteristics of different types of trading partners. This option is suitable for small companies which cannot fill a full container load and which do not have the financial resources to set up an export department and to invest in EU market visits. The first step is to determine your mode of market entry into the EU: • Direct exports to the EU This way the exporter chooses to export directly to an EU trade partner or partners. resulting in better information about market requirements and trends. 10.The major problems faced by importers in The Netherlands in importing preserved fruit and vegetables from developing countries are the following: • Quality of shipment is not in line with samples sent • Delayed delivery • Exporters want to change agreed payment and delivery terms • Pesticide residues exceed permissible limits • Paperwork and bad communication Exporters who are able to offer their products at a competitive price and who can successfully apply competitive tools as described above are in a good position to outrank competitors. Shortening of the supply chain and better able to be part of an integrated chain Better control over the products to final destinations The disadvantage is that the company has to invest in an export organization and reserve budgets for traveling to trade partners in the EU and to promote its products. When a company has decided that direct exports are the best option. the company sells its products to a locally based export house or trading company.3 Sales channel assessment Based on the trade structure for preserved fruit and vegetables as described in chapter 7. who usually consolidate smaller shipments from several exporters in order to fill a full container load (FCL). and the capabilities of your company the best option should be considered. are: No need to invest in an export organization Possibilities to supply less container loads (LCL) to local export intermediaries. samples and brochures. exporters have another tool to outrank competitors. shipment costs can be reduced. supply and demand situations. as mentioned below. • Indirect exports to the EU In this way. participation in trade fairs. The advantages. which takes care of all the export documentation and formalities. the following should be considered: • Directly to food processing companies Although exporting directly to food processing companies in the EU might seem a 89 . By providing solutions to these problems. This option is suitable for larger size companies which can supply full container loads (FCL) and which have the resources to set up an export department.
For exporters in developing countries this is almost impossible to organise. In assessing the use of trade partners in the EU.4. The advantage of working with agents is that they know their market well. the importer performs a vital role in matching the requirements of food processors (a wide variety of ingredients in smaller quantities) to those of exporters (a limited range of ingredients in larger quantities). the exporter should consider his internal capabilities to handle exports to EU countries. pay clearing and transportation charges and pay VAT duties. This means they do not concern themselves with import procedures. Food processors increasingly focus on their core task to produce and market food products.4 Logistics The logistical requirements depend on the following factors: The requirements of your trade partner in the EU. in order to settle the problem • Through importers As importers buy the products. Duty Paid) delivery terms (Please refer to 10. Direct exports to food-processing companies require a rather sophisticated export department. The type of product. he can easily follow the performances of his products and obtains first-hand information about possible improvements. 10. packing. In case of payment problems. On the other end of the spectrum. their handling stretches from unloading and clearing in the port to final delivery to their customers. The importer’s role expands from purely importing and delivery to a logistic service provider. the following pitfalls should be taken into account: Food processors often require DDP (Delivered. but are represented by knowledgeable partners in EU countries. usually on FOB or CIF terms. • Through agents The use of agents can provide a good alternative for supplying directly to the food processing industry. as the exporter usually does not have the means to check the shipment on the spot and to evaluate the complaints. they leave the stock holding to their suppliers. For sea 90 . Quality complaints are difficult to deal with. As food-processing companies increasingly work with Just-In-Time (JIT) deliveries. but require from suppliers that they deliver the goods anywhere in the EU at their warehouses. know the buyers of food processing companies and generally have easy access to them to settle problems and promote the exporter’s products. a locally based export house will be a good option for small companies with limited finances and only one or two products to sell. In this respect. who can cater to the requirements of food processors in EU countries. He will adjust his assortment to the requirements of his customers and provides services like cleaning.cost effective option. a partner in the EU country who speaks the language and understands the business culture is necessary to communicate with the right persons within the food processing organisations. delivery terms). Exporters in developing countries can still export directly to end customers. because middlemen are bypassed. Many preserved fruit and vegetables have a limited shelf life and should be transported either in chilled or frozen condition. stock keeping and order picking. As the exporter ships and invoices directly to EU customers. a minimum volume to ship and a strong financial position. are familiar with business practices. The hiring of an independent quality surveyor is necessary to evaluate the damage. as they have no EU distribution structure to handle imports.
In dealing with freight forwarders. This puts pressure on price levels. supply and demand and speculation determine prices on a daily basis. it is certainly a very important one. 10. the following trends are visible in prices and margins of preserved fruit and vegetables: • Cost prices for growers. increasing supply and global sourcing of preserved fruit and vegetables all place pressure on process and margins throughout the value chain. but the forwarder is likely to give rebates on the freight rates . • Oversupply situation for some product groups as the markets in the EU are stabilizing. importers and the processing industry are constantly rising. When the exporter does not have his own shipping department.combined containers in case of less container loads (LCLs). 91 .warehousing . Often the container can be loaded at the exporter’s warehouse and unloaded at the customer in the EU. it is not possible to focus on prices for individual products. Retailers and governments alike respond to these concerns by demanding HACCP certification from importers. damage and pilferage . the use of a freight forwarder is recommended. insurance. tracking and tracing systems from growers and exporters. as less handling is involved. Concentration of buying power. the following tips might be useful: .forwarders are paid (partially) by shipping companies .negotiation of freight rates . Due to the diversity in products and packaging in the preserved fruit and vegetables sector. working with one contract partner is not only more efficient. Container shipments are becoming increasingly popular as they provide the following benefits: . packing and marking . Customs formalities.therefore lower insurance premiums when you ship on CIF terms . inspection.arranging and contracting vessel space .ask for their general conditions.transport this means the use of containers that can be chilled or frozen during sea transport.select forwarders who belong to associations . pesticide reduction (Minimum Residue Levels) from growers and strict product specifications from exporters and importers alike. Logistics form an integral part of the delivery terms on which an exporter agrees with his trading partner in the EU.arranging shipping documents. Weather conditions. Full container loads (FCLs) are usually more efficient and cheaper. Food safety is one of the prime concerns for consumers. A freight forwarder performs the following functions: .arranging carriage to and from the port . However.arranging for licenses.less handling.nominate one forwarder from door to door.lower packing costs .give clear and precise shipping instructions .one transporter to deal with . harvests. exporters.5 Price structure Although price is not the only marketing tool for exporting preserved fruit and vegetables to EU markets. The volume to supply. The main reasons are the increasing rules and regulations both at EU and national level.
inland transport Ex works Less: . Although this could be acceptable for individual orders in order to prevent larger losses (stock losses). at best.insurance (110%of selling price) .084.co.uk/commodity o Market News Service (http://www. negotiate lower purchase prices for raw materials and packing materials. Part of his costs depends on the payment and delivery conditions.00 500.interest charges Gross contribution Less: .84 Lc 9.00 200.Faced with increasing costs and. etc.884.00 1.06 ____________ € 98. Prices are determined by market conditions.10 € 0.public-ledger. for example reduction of stocks. more efficient production runs.00 92 . When the market price is lower than the minimum selling price.00 7. based on a Cost. • Try to obtain efficiencies in operations in order to decrease cost prices.handling and loading charges .00 100. Insurance and Freight (CIF) delivery.200. a loss situation occurs. which the exporter agrees with his trading partner in the EU.584.00 ____________ 9. stabilizing selling prices causes margins to decrease. Sources to check for price information (dried fruit) are: o The Public Ledger (http://www. Margins for the exporter depend on his price setting at one side and his cost price on the other side. according to the Incoterms 2000 (see below): Selling price CIF Rotterdam Less: .00 per kg. in the longer term this situation will undermine the financial stability of the company. individual exporters cannot influence the price levels.intracen.00 ____________ 884.fixed cost allocation Net contribution local currency local currency local currency local currency local currency local currency local currency local currency € 100.shipping costs (total costs divided by kilograms of product) FOB Port of loading Exchange FOB amount in local currency: €1 = Lc 100 Less: .com o Foodnews (http://www.00 _____________ 2. At least all variable costs and part of the fixed costs should be covered by the selling price. exporters should: • Have a clear insight into their cost prices for exports to EU markets in order to set a minimum selling price.foodnews.000. the following structure is given.org Export calculation structure In order to prepare an export calculation for a shipment to an importer in The Netherlands.variable costs . € 1.
). Exporters who aim to supply EU markets will invariably be faced with longer payment terms. Usually. Royal 93 . Product name: apricot (Prunus armaniaca L. bulk pack Main varieties: Bebekou. Both currencies should be converted into local currency at the rate of exchange applicable at the time of quoting.iccwbo. The exporter sends his invoice to the importer. the exporter can easily face a period of 6-12 weeks after production of the goods before he receives payment of the invoice. Payment terms Payment terms form an important negotiation tool for the exporter. the exporter has no guarantee that his invoice will be settled. Shipping costs are usually quoted in US$. For full details on the Incoterms.asp Delivery terms in preserved fruit and vegetables depend largely on the type of trade partners in the EU: food-processing companies often demand Delivered Duty paid (DDP) delivery. please check CBI’s Export Planner or visit the ICC’s website: http://www. he can try to induce trade partners to accept his offer. while importers usually require Free on Board (FOB) or Cost. who will pay the invoice by bank transfer. dried.org/incoterms/preambles. Depending on the shipping period. This means less paperwork. which charge high interest rates. only an invoice is sufficient.Usually prices quoted to EU trade partners are in euros (€). 10. Although he can claim retention of title of the goods as long as the shipment has not been paid. Insurance. • Low cost • Quick execution • Simple However. Although payment by letter of credit (L/C) could be negotiated for first-time shipments. The different payment methods and risks attached to them are extensively described in CBI’s Export Planner. in practice he has very little control over his products when they are in the warehouse of his trade partner. trade partners will wait with payment until they have inspected the goods upon arrival in their warehouse against the (approved) samples they received. There is a large difference in DDP on one hand and FOB and CIF deliveries on the other.6 Product profiles PRODUCT PROFILE DRIED APRICOTS 1. The local bank of the exporter can advise the possibilities and the premiums. Delivery terms Delivery terms should be based on the INCOTERMS 2000 issued by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC). FOB and CIF are departure contracts: responsibility for the goods transfers from exporter to importer at the moment the goods cross over the ship’s rail at the port of departure. DDP deliveries are arrival contracts: the exporter is fully responsible for the goods until they arrive at the warehouse of the trade partner anywhere in the EU. This is especially important for countries. By granting credit terms to his trade partner in the EU and by accepting less secure forms of payment. The interest he loses should be calculated into his cost price. Open account payments provide the following advantages for both parties: • No documents are required. Freight (CIF) deliveries. trade partners in the EU usually pay by ‘open account’. Hamidi Other varieties: Peeka. It is therefore strongly advised to take out credit insurance for commercial risks.
Market structure: Harvest and processing according to growing area. texture as mentioned above. soft. small. but there is a growing demand in bakery industry. Minimum labelling: • product name • identification (name and address) of supplier (producer. not leathery. Spain. packer or vendor) • net quantity kg Packaging: Cardboard boxes. 4. France. dried by appropriate methods (sun drying or air drying) to the required dry solids content. Iran. characteristic apricot. 2000 mg/kg Ascorbic acid QS Toxic substances originating from mould growth (e. medium. stalked. Application in jam industry has turned negligible. How to improve the quality: Harvesting: careful picking without damaging the fruits. destoned apricots of commercial varieties. No EU quality standards exist. no off-taste Texture: smooth. Local EU production in Mediterranean area (Italy. but some member states have limited national quality standards for preserved fruit. The product should be prepared from cleaned. because damage will rapidly cause 94 .5 kg (no wooden crates because of risk of splinters in product) 3. easy-bite. preferable with polyethylene liner. 5. and South Africa. Germany. without brown discoloration Flavour/taste: aromatic. usually 10-12. Permitted food additives: Potassium sorbate (as sorbic acid) max .1000 mg/kg Sulphite (as sulphur dioxide) max. Chemical/physical characteristics: No food additives exceeding permitted levels. Sensory characteristics: Colour: dark-yellow to deep-orange. Average prices: US$ 1. The Netherlands. Market requirements: Quality standards: Apricots are distinguished as being sweet/sour and whole/diced. Consumer demand is stable.g.2. Other supply: France. Greece) exclusively for fresh consumption.500 tonne (FOB) Market trends: Dried apricots are mostly consumed by direct eating (often in mixtures with other dried fruits and nuts). Main suppliers: Main supplying country for dried apricots: Turkey (80% of supply to EU). aflatoxin) should be absent. demand throughout the year. UK. Whole apricots are usually graded in large (or jumbo). Italy.
except in the health food sector.5 Cadmium max. pure mango.enzymatic browning.20 ppm Formol number 15 +/. 50:1 Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) min. 5. to eliminate heat resistant spore forming micro-organisms]. caramellisation or other off-taste Consistency: thick-fluid at ambient temperature Appearance: homogeneous puree with small pulp particles. Market requirements: Quality standards: No EU quality standards exist.5g/kg Ratio citric/iso-citric approx. [Product must have been subject during processing to heat treatment of min. 110 0 C during 15 seconds. Carabao 2. Tommy Atkins. Chemical/physical characteristics: Total sugar content (refractometer)min. Product should be prepared from sound ripe fruits.7 +/.3 Total acidity (as citric acid anhydrous) min. Post-harvest treatment: sulphur dioxide treatment in closed room (to maintain the bright orange-yellow color and protect against insects).01 ppm Pulp passed through 1/32" mesh sieve. neither artificial nor natural.0. Any substances in quantities that could be harmful to health should be absent. 50 ppm Ash 0.0. completely free from contamination (including so-called black specks). 0. Apricots that have not had sulphur dioxide treatment will turn dark. 95 . Microbiological quality: General aerobic count max. 16 Bx PH 3. Product should be preserved by appropriate heat treatment. only mechanical and physical processes are permitted during production. These dark colored apricots are not very popular in the EU. keeping the final sulphur dioxide content within permitted levels. even and homogeneous. Totapuri Other varieties: Haden. presence of added citric acid is only allowed when declared quantitatively on the label. Sensory characteristics: Colour: golden-yellow to orange-yellow.4 +/. 100/g Coliform count max. puree. No colouring and preserving agents. 1000/g Yeast and mould count max. and no flavouring substances. typical for the fresh fruit (sweet. Benett. preserved by heat Main varieties: Alphonso. no oxidation. PRODUCT PROFILE MANGO PURĖE 1. may have been added.3 ppm Mercury max. slightly reminiscent of peach).). 0. 25 ppm Beta-carotene min. slightly spicy.200 ppm Phosphorus (as P2O5) 130 +/. 10/g Salmonella absent/25 g Any components and substances originating from micro-organisms in quantities that could be harmful to health must be absent.03 ppm Lead max. no signs of enzymatic or non-enzymatic browning or oxidation Taste/flavour: pleasant. Without added sugar.07 % Potassium 1800 +/. Product name: mango (Mangifera indica L. 0.
new producing countries: Mali. Kenya. The main EU market is still the UK. having traditionally a substantial population of EastAsian origin. Unnecessary high and prolonged heat treatment should be avoided. Importers have strong preference for aseptic product rather than canned puree: because of its better quality (reduced heat damage) and because of trouble in opening cans involving considerable product loss and waste disposal costs.. Demand throughout the year. or hot-pack in hermetically sealed tinplate cans. Average prices: US$ 700. interest for mango processed in food products is also growing: primary application in dairy. Sufficiently strong packaging. 4. incl. 3. other suppliers are Pakistan. depending on growing area. without exposure to excessive sun and/or high temperature.. packer or vendor) • net quantity kg • added citric acid Packaging: Either aseptically packed in bag-in-box or bag-in-drum (bags further to be specified). Main suppliers: No local EU production.to US$ 800. Brazil. cool and dry conditions.per tonne (CIF NL) (fluctuating according to harvest situation). Application in jam industry still negligible. 96 . inner material of food grade quality. How to improve the quality: Primarily important in achieving a good product quality is to follow the above-mentioned requirements. Leading supplying country is India. ice-cream and softdrinks industry. hermetically sealed. The Philippines.Minimum labeling (on smallest unit of packaging): • product name. 5. Market trends: As the EU consumer is becoming more familiar with the fresh mango. Market structure: Growing and production throughout the year. Transport and storage conditions: Ambient. variety • date of production • identification (name and address) of supplier (producer.
national governments and trade partners • Assesses the investments you should make relevant to the above-mentioned subjects 11. USPs’ usually do not refer to one single subject. packaging and shipping requirements by the EU. the second step is to prepare an internal analysis. even when they have financial implications 97 . the exporter should endeavour to look for ways that distinguishes him from his competitors. Trade partners in EU countries generally have a wide choice of suppliers from all parts of the world: they receive up to twenty offers per day from new suppliers looking for their business! In order to stand out from the crowd. quality. might include following subjects: • Process description • Legal requirements (EU and German food laws) • Chain control • Packing • Samples • Transport and storage conditions • Sensorial characteristics • Micro biological characteristics • Chemical characteristics • Residues Based on these requirements. food safety requirements are the leading impetus behind a whole range of product and packaging requirements. Examples of USPs’ for the preserved fruit and vegetables sector could be the following: • Product specifications exceeding the requirements of trade partners • Consistent and high quality of products guaranteed by the exporter • Excellent service. Based on this external analysis. as required by EU importers. in other words to present these USPs’ to potential trade partners in the EU. the exporter should try to draw attention to his company and get noticed by the potential trade partner. packaging and processing and the amount of investments necessary to do so. marketing and sales. the exporter can determine the extent to which he has to adapt his products. finance and human resources) to: Compete effectively with international competitors in supplying EU markets Take advantage of the opportunities that are identified in EU markets Deal with threats that are identified in EU markets Comply with product. logistics. for example Replying within 24 hours to any question or request Open communication On-time delivery Honouring agreements to the letter. The internal analysis: • Assesses the capabilities of your company in different fields (production.11 INTERNAL ANALYSIS: COMPANY AUDIT After the external analysis. Unique Selling Points (USPs’) Although one of the most difficult subjects to achieve. the exporter should have a clear insight into the opportunities and threats of exporting his products to selected EU markets. Product specifications. but are a mix of different subjects which set the exporter apart from his competitors. USP and production capacity As already mentioned in the chapters 3 and 9.1 Product standards.
especially when dealing with government agencies. Supplying the volumes required during the required periods can be an important competitive tool. For example. In order to meet the required shipping date. EU trade partners might have special requirements for ingredients and packing material. • Communication with trade partner in the EU It is of the utmost importance that exporters communicate immediately with their EU trade partners when certain requirements cannot be met. direct or indirect exports. When a company decides on direct exports. 11. It is therefore important to plan production well in advance to ensure the products are available in time for shipment. some export documentation like inspection and insurance certificates must be obtained from external organizations. Marketing and sales form the commercial department responsible for all export activities to EU countries. 11. the responsibilities of both functions are given below: 98 . a certain type of export carton might be required. • Handling of export orders The handling of export orders entails the internal logistics. to production planning.2 Logistics Logistics deal with all matters to ensure a smooth flow of products from production to the final destination in the country of destination. Sufficient time should be allowed to procure the necessary documents.) Depending on the requirements of the EU trade partner. Based on the requirements of EU trade partners. In order to assess marketing and sales functions as part of the internal analysis. Exporters should therefore assess in advance the volumes they could sell to trade partners in the EU and the periods of requirements. • Purchasing of ingredients and packing material As part of the planning of production. invoices. assessment of the following subjects should be made: • Planning of production Trade partners usually work with tight arrival schedules in order to deliver the products to their customers on an agreed date and time. ranging from ordering ingredients and packing material. shipping and Customs agents • Pre-shipment inspection (when required) Please refer to remarks under ‘export documentation’. the exporter should adjust his production capacity to the said requirements. Open and accurate information from the exporter is an important tool in order to be a reliable trade partner for his EU counterpart. Whether to employ different persons for marketing and sales depends entirely on the size of the company and the possibilities to invest in the commercial department. inspection and obtaining of export documentation.Production capacity Trade partners in the EU require a continuous flow of products. availability of containers and shipping space might be a problem. • Agreements with transport providers to the port of shipment. • Availability of containers and shipping space During peak season. an exporter should assure himself that containers and shipping space are available on the required shipping date.3 discusses the market entry modes. etc. which meet their needs throughout the year. This will give the trade partner the opportunity to make alternative arrangements.3 Marketing and sales Chapter 10. Working backwards from these requirements. packing lists. insurance certificates. • Export documentation (certificates. it will be necessary to set up a commercial department to handle export activities to EU countries. It is important that the exporter ensures that this type is available from his supplier.
brochures. travel to EU countries.4 Financing One of the most important subjects to assess in the internal analysis is the company’s financial capability to commence exporting to EU countries.) that are often inherent when commencing exports to new destinations.Marketing • Familiarity with all non-tariff and tariff barriers relevant to the export of the company’s products to the EU • In cooperation with production and finance departments. etc. The company should not only have access to sufficient funds to invest in adaptation of products.) 99 . payment and delivery terms Negotiations with trade partners in the EU Responsibility for the margins made on exports to EU destinations Negotiations with logistic service suppliers (transporters. information) • Human resources (qualified export staff) • Production equipment • Certification (HACCP) • Promotion (participation in EU trade fairs. Moreover. non-payment. The following financial aspects should be assessed in the internal analysis: Investments • Product development (adjustment of products to EU standards) • Packaging Adjustment of content Adjustment of packing material Packaging for long-distance shipments Labelling requirements (barcodes. Please refer to section 10. Customs agents) inspection bodies Although it appears from the above-mentioned description that different employees should occupy these functions. the number of export destinations and the selected trade partners in the EU. etc. where the different modes of market entry are described. like brochures and product specifications • Installation of communication tools like websites and e-mail • Organisation of participating in EU trade fairs • Carry out market research • Preparation of Market Entry Strategy (MES) and Export Marketing Plan (EMP) • In cooperation with sales and finance departments. the capabilities of the staff members concerned. 11. but also its credit facilities should be large enough to cover extended payment terms. adjust products and packaging to comply with EU requirements • Preparation of promotion material. the company should have sufficient financial funds to bear commercial risks (quality problems. packaging and possibly production equipment. a combination of both functions in one position is quite possible. late delivery. Much depends on the complexity of the work.3: sales channel assessment. shipping agents. together with the functions of different trade partners in the EU. prepare annual budgets Sales • • • • • • • • Selection of potential trade partners in the EU Contacts with trade partners Familiarity with all export documentation to ship products to EU markets Familiarity with sales contracts.
handling of documents • Non-payment risks. export calculations. for example credit insurance Miscellaneous costs • Export documentation • Inspection certificates • Stationery for export purposes • Communication expenses Further reference is made to section 10. Italy. This culture refers to items like dress codes. quality problems • Consignment shipping. Exporters who target these countries are advised to communicate in the local language. shipping possibilities. for example with ‘open account’ payment Commercial risks • Claims.5 Capabilities Apart from the subjects mentioned above. Please check section 13. 100 . addressing of your counterpart and business conversations. Spain. This can be an important USP and competitive tool compared to competitors who are less conversant in local languages. invitation to lunches or dinners. Not only will this prevent miscommunication. the following capabilities should be assessed as part of the internal analysis: Languages Although English is widely used in EU countries as the official business language. Portugal and Greece. prices and margins.) but also to knowledge about EU requirements and market developments relevant to preserved fruit and vegetables in the EU. The knowledge is necessary in order to be able to negotiate with your trade partners in the EU at the same level. Ignorance on the part of the exporter is often (mis) used by trade partners to extract more favourable trading conditions at the expense of the exporter. for example payment 60 days after receipt of goods • Local interest rates • Bank charges. 11. for example confirmation of Letter of Credit.4. This knowledge does not only apply to technical matters regarding exports (documentation. it is far less widely spoken in France. You should familiarize yourself with the prevailing business culture in your targeted EU country. for example because of late delivery. making appointments. for example selling price is below cost price • Insurance premiums. where the different payment and delivery terms are discussed. etc. the use of business cards. but also show respect and commitment to local trade partners. Business culture Business culture can differ tremendously from one EU country to the other.2 of this survey for further information on this subject Human resources Knowledge of exporting preserved fruit and vegetables to EU countries is a basic requirement for a company.Payment terms • Credit terms.
the exporter can use the results to prepare a SWOT analysis. 101 . the exporter should evaluate the consequences of improving on his weaknesses and decide whether or not the threats pose manageable obstacles to start exports to the EU. The market segments for preserved fruit and vegetables are very diverse: each segment requires different product standards and a different approach. An example of a SWOT analysis is given below: STRENGTHS • Consistent and high product quality • Strong financial position • Export experience to EU markets • Low interest rates • Excellent infrastructure for shipping • Short distance to EU markets OPPORTUNITIES • Growing demand in The Netherlands. In this analysis he identifies Strengths and Weaknesses of his company compared to competitors and the Opportunities and Threats that he identifies in selected EU markets. 12. the exporter should carefully select the segment in which he can excel and outrank his competitors. • Market segments (for example fruit puree for baby and infant food) It is impossible to be everything to everybody. a solid base will have been formed to roll out to other EU countries. Selection of too many markets leads to diffusion of resources and often leaves only half-baked efforts to establish a durable position. When his strengths and the opportunities.12 DECISION MAKING 12.1 SWOT and situation analysis Based on the outcome of the external and internal analyses. where he will be one of the crowd of suppliers who usually compete on price. To be successful.2 Strategic options & objectives Formulation of objectives After a positive decision to prepare for exporting to the EU. In this way he can fully concentrate his resources to this particular segment: specialisation in niche markets is a far better strategy than going after bulk markets. he might consider a positive decision to continue preparations to commence exporting to EU markets. which he sees in the market. In this way. outweigh his weaknesses and the threats. France and Sweden • Year round shipments • Increasing consumption of exotic fruit WEAKNESSES • Relatively high labour costs • Inefficient production • Substandard packing material • Weak language capabilities • No government assistance in promoting exports • Limited production capacity THREATS • Ever stricter EU rules and regulations • Concentration of buying power • Increasing costs of inspection at port of discharge Based on the SWOT analysis. After gaining experience and establishing regular exports. the exporter can focus his efforts and concentrate his (often limited) resources. the exporter should formulate the following objectives: • Selected EU markets for exports It is advisable to select only one or two EU markets.
• • Profitability Building up export positions in EU markets requires a long-term approach. A good way to solve this problem is to work with different scenarios: o an optimistic scenario. it is possible to calculate your profitability in both scenarios.• Type of trade partner to appoint Depending on the countries selected and the market segments chosen. In this way. A realistic objective will fall within this range. Although the setting of these targets is a difficult exercise when the exporter does not have experience in the selected markets. By working this way. you should think twice before entering EU markets. It is extremely difficult to set objectives for annual turnover. profitability is essential. Annual turnover and volumes per market/per trade partner It is important to set realistic targets for volume and turnover per market and per trade partner. When in the optimistic scenario your profitability is still marginal. where you estimate turnover in the most favourable market conditions o a pessimistic scenario. As with volumes and turnover. they provide a basis for export budgets and for the level of investments needed to achieve these objectives. the company can determine the viability of exports to the EU and can compare the actual results per period compared to the budgeted results. where you estimate turnover in poor market conditions The optimistic and pessimistic scenarios give the lower and upper borders of your turnover objectives. the exporter decides whether direct exports to food processors or working with importers and agents provide the best option. 102 . In order to create a durable position. actual profits realised can be compared to budgeted profits.
2 Building up a relationship with a suitable trading partner A profound knowledge of the prevailing business culture in the country of the trading partner is one of the main keys to a durable relationship.in box of 15 kg . In the above-mentioned example. each fruit in different varieties and in different packing sizes. his company and his products 103 .13 EXPORT MARKETING 13.in drum of 100 kg Apricots Varieties: bebekon hamidi Product: dried Packing: carboard box with p/e liner 10 – 12. 13. but also to have a product range available matching the import requirements from EU partners. In spite of all modern communication tools. Different production processes (dried. questions are purely ritual and over very quickly A British trading partner will give the exporter the opportunity to sell himself. the business culture of the six EU countries mentioned in this survey is described below: • United Kingdom Polite. An example of a product range can be seen in the following table: Product range (width) Strawberries Varieties: senga sengana gorella ostana Product: frozen (IQF) Packing: paper bag with p/e liner of 10 kg carboard box with coating of 15 kg Mango Varieties: alphonso totapuri Product: purée Packing: aseptically filled bag . who think the trading partner is relationship-building. but exports this product in many varieties.1 Matching products and the product range Based on the product specifications as required by his trade partner in the EU. the product range in depth applies. in different forms and in an extensive range of packaging. this is the case when the company exports different types of fruit. Wait till your counterpart assigns you a seat Extremely task-oriented – ‘hello. direct with an understated use of language Treats counterpart as equal but expects respect for achieved status/position. the personal relationship with a trading partner often decides a durable cooperation. However. the exporter is able to determine the extent to which the specifications of his products match the requirements. the exporter should consider not only to sell one product variety in one type of packing. purée. nice to meet you’ and then straight to the point – this may confuse exporters.5 kg A company can export a wide product range. as the initial impression a trading partners gets during this encounter is usually decisive for future cooperation. In order to be attractive to potential trade partners in the EU. When the company concentrates on one product (strawberries). The first meeting with a trading partner in the EU is the most crucial. In order to assist the exporter in the preparations for his first meeting with a EU trading partner. frozen) might also be possible.
first names are not used • 104 . Dutch importers will be quick to ask the price Showing off is frowned upon. Therefore expensive and colourful brochures are often counterproductive: Dutch purchasers think that eventually they pay for all this Dutch purchasers like to work with strict deadlines: ‘when can you get your proposal to me?’ and they expect you to stick to the agreed date France French are formal. religion and private/family matters They expect that their counterparts have their own opinion and voice it. etc. polite and not very direct They like shaking hands. expensive car. however. no flashy and contrasting colours French remain formal to their business partners. they like to come straight to the point. ‘Act normal’ is their way of doing business. your counterpart is probably not empowered to make any decisions Instead they want to gather as much information as possible about your company and your products. being very price conscious. it takes a rather long time to commence business. when the relationship is established they are rather loyal customers Dress correctly and conservatively.He will be interested in the track record/achievements of your company and your products When convinced.). responsibilities are delegated to purchasers They are very task-oriented and do not like extensive social talk. instead they ask you to accompany them to the coffee machine somewhere in the corridor. so they can report back to their superiors French are rather chauvinistic. Dutch people do not like a display of wealth (Rolex watch. even when they do not agree to it They expect counterparts to take initiative and expect assertive communication • The Netherlands They are rather informal and are quick to use first names They treat their counterparts as equal and are friendly in their communication Direct in their approach and they do not like to beat around the bush Often they do not have a secretary to bring coffee. do not talk about politics. they prefer you to conduct the conversation in French and that you are familiar with French culture French buyers can be rather arrogant and can treat you as though they regard you as having a much lower in status than themselves Do not expect to come to business during the first meeting. the building of a relationship between you and your French counterpart is essential before any business can be done Patience is an important virtue in dealing with the French. coffee is offered throughout the day Dutch trading partners expect you to take the initiative in the conversation: what do you have to show or tell me? They like to ask questions and take a pro-active attitude Dutch counterparts are empowered by their organisation to make decisions there is no need to refer to their bosses. both at the beginning and the end of a meeting French companies are very hierarchical. tailor made Saville Row suits. he will be prepared to give it a try on the basis of a trial shipment They get slightly irritated by small talk and formalities and like to get down to business.
company background. Even when you only expect possible problems. etc. expertise and track record are very important elements for Germans in his search for certainties Dress correctly and formally. It is important to speak Spanish. avoid flashy and contrasting colours and expensive watches. French is spoken. Relationship building is important when doing business in Spain. bracelets. For example.• Germany Germans are formal and never use first names They like to be addressed by Herr (Mr.00 hrs. advise your trade partner 105 . Frau (Mrs) or Fraulein (Ms) and their last names. it is also important to check beforehand whether your counterpart has a title: in this case titles should be used also: Herr Doktor Schmidt or Frau Ingenieurin Albrecht German purchasers like to come quickly to the point and are well prepared for the meeting. The use of the French language is very much appreciated and often necessary.00 – 17. they usually inform you how long the meeting will last and the points they want to cover They require detailed planning and concrete arrangements and expect you to adhere to them. Come strictly on time.). Walloon trade partners are similar to the French in their business dealings. here again. English is widely spoken in the Flemish part of Belgium. first names are never used. Although English is increasingly spoken. The Flemish are polite and easy to communicate with. Spain Keep the ‘siesta’ in mind. Business lunches usually take place during this time. In the Flemish part of Belgium. if shipments are going to be delayed. Flemish (similar to the Dutch language) is spoken. never address them by their first names Belgium Be aware of the bi-lingual and bi-cultural situation in Belgium. please inform your trade partner in time. an answer within 24 hours is highly appreciated Timely information in case of problems. German purchasers usually have very tight schedules and many meetings on one day. When asked questions or in case of enquiries. references to check you and your company out. as they want to eliminate uncertainties as much as possible they will ask a lot of details Particularly offer your German counterpart ‘certainties’: assurances. Spain is the only EU country where businesses close between 14. it is not as widespread as in Northern EU countries • • Although there are large cultural differences in dealing with trade partners in different EU countries. rings. They are quite formal. when building up a good relationship trade partners in all the EU countries place particular value on the following aspects: • • Open and prompt communication. Brussels is bi-lingual. they have a lot of influence in scheduling the appointments for their bosses. He will be able to take the necessary measures on his side. guarantees. In the Walloon part. prepare yourself in detail for this meeting: mistakes or inability to reply to questions will not be tolerated and will mean the end of a possible business relationship Try to get friendly with the secretaries.
Before making an offer. like Dun & Bradstreet. Direct criticism should be avoided as this is often taken personally. An offer. the exporter should verify the following items: • Reputation of trade partner Important to check whether the trade partner requesting an offer is well established and has a good reputation.• Reliability is a key issue for building up a durable relationship. the exporter might be requested to make an offer to an importer or directly to a food processor. Western managed companies and multinationals and with older state companies. Written communication is complicated. English and German are the most used foreign languages. social and economic background of the new EU countries in Central and Eastern Europe. Apart from the content. This forms the basis of any business relationship. Sources to check are: Branch organisations in the EU and accession countries (see appendix 3. It is important to discuss matters with the boss. even when the trading conditions are unfavourable to him. There is a difference in dealing with new. reliability forms an important pillar under the integrated chain. which has been accepted by an EU trading partner and does not contain any escape clauses for the exporter is a legally binding document requiring the exporter to deliver. choice of words and the way one speaks is important. Much time should be allowed for explanations. As the supply chains are becoming more integrated and chain partners are becoming more interdependent. which can supply company profiles. ‘Top-down’ communication is very common. as many less relevant sentences are used.3 Drawing up an offer After establishing contacts with potential trade partners in the EU. The information provided is generally extensive. government departments and smaller (family) firms. Building up a relationship with a trading partner in the new EU countries Due to the different cultural. the form. regulations and quality standards 106 . Although telephone and e-mail are important communication tools. In most countries hierarchy plays an important role. It is important to create an atmosphere in which your trade partner feels comfortable to indicate when he has not understood a subject. 13. • Rules. so reports from these organisations can be quite expensive. The preparation of an offer should be carried out with caution.4) Trade registers in the country of the trade partner. However. as his subordinates have no authority to make decisions. for example the Chamber of Commerce Commercial organisations. A formal tone of communication is advisable. please observe the following points when contacting trading partners: Communication is generally less direct and subtler. The essence of a message is often hidden between the lines and can easily lead to miscommunication. the level of proficiency is sometimes low. trading partners in Central and Eastern Europe are more tuned to personal contact. Cofaz and Graydon.
in practice. an offer signed by both parties automatically converts into a sales contract. the validity of the quotation might only be 24 hours. • Full names and addresses of both parties • Product and product specifications • Packaging specifications • Quantity in kgs. The period of validity depends very much on the volatility of market prices. When making an offer. even when accepted by the EU trade partner. The ICC sales contracts contain all the necessary elements and can be used as a sound basis. late/non delivery Inspection procedures Exclusion of Value Added Taxes (VAT) in price quotations Please remember that the general sales conditions of an exporter might conflict with the general purchasing conditions of an importer. 13. fires. A very important element of the quotation. Reference is made to the sales contracts of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC). However. This number can at a later stage be used on contracts. political unrest. litres • Price per kg/litre.4 Handling the contract Once the offer has been accepted by the buyer and reconfirmed by the exporter.It is important to verify whether the exporter can comply with EU and national regulations on products and packaging and the specifications requested by the trade partner. currency and total amount • Delivery terms (Incoterms 2000) • Delivery period • Payment terms • Validity of the quotation. the following elements should be included: • Date of quotation and reference number. In very volatile markets. 107 . A waiver in the offer is quite customary and can be worded as follows: This quote is subject to our confirmation This offer is without any obligations This offer is subject to confirmation by means of a sales contract An offer made without waiver and accepted by the buyer obliges the exporter to deliver the goods according to the quotation • Referral to the general sales conditions of the exporter. The waiver gives the exporter an escape clause not to honour the quotation. a sales contract will be prepared. • Waiver. perils of the sea) Resolution of disputes Delayed payment. General sales conditions apply to all offers and contracts and stipulate items like: Retention of title of the goods (in case of non-payment) Product liability Force majeur (when an exporter cannot supply due to circumstances beyond his control like strikes. payment and shipping documents as easy reference to the consignment in question.
00 Delivery date 10th August 2003 Sales Contract No. as the exporter has the opportunity to present his products to importers. Dried fruit importers BV. an exporter in the preserved fruit and vegetable sector can apply the following tools: • Participation in trade fairs in the EU This is by far the most effective promotion tool. 03/10799 Buyer Dried Fruit Wholesalers 2345 Regent Street Cambridge.000 kg Price/kg € 1.95 Total price € 1. 1234 Origin: Italy Currency: € Quantity 100 boxes Total (kg) 1.An example of an offer/sales contract is given below: Dried Fruit Importers B. agents and food processors from all EU countries. 108 . Havenweg 211 2039 JK Amsterdam The Netherlands Tel. NA 3 4YU United Kingdom Amsterdam.: Fax: E-mail: VAT no: Chamber of Commerce Amsterdam Bank: ING Amsterdam Swiftcode:ING BNL 45 Our ref. The most important trade fairs in the EU are Food Ingredients Europe. 03/10799 Product: Dried prunes in 10 kg boxes Quality: According to our specifications no.5 Sales promotion To promote the exports of his products to markets in the EU. 25th July 2004 Incoterms 2000: DDP Cambridge Payment: 40 days after date of invoice Documents: Invoice Certificate of analysis CMR freight note Our general sales conditions apply. a copy is attached to this contract Please return a countersigned copy of this contract to us before the 30th July 2003 We thank you for this order Yours truly.950.: 03/10799 Confirmation of sale No.V. Seller Dried fruit Wholesalers Buyer Reg Leenes John Curley 13.
good packing ensures that your sample reaches your contact in the EU in top condition. 109 . the exporter should invest time and money to visit EU trade partners. business cards and envelopes is consistent and that good quality paper is used. make sure that the layout. colors and texts of your letterheads. It is advisable to allow additional weeks after a trade fair to follow up on contacts and to make appointments with the most promising trade partners. in order to inform potential trade partners on relevant information of the company. the same rules apply as for company brochures: factual and to-thepoint information is all a trade partner wants to see. Company brochures and product specifications A company brochure should be factual. as these are of little interest to trade partners in the EU. processing equipment. and Biofach (organic food ingredients). Visits to potential trade partners in the EU As personal contacts always work best in any sector. This way. The first thing interested trade partners in the EU will ask for is samples of your products. Please check contact details in appendix 3. turnover and personnel. attention should be given to the packaging. certification. they will inform you about their product specifications and request you to send samples according to these specifications. E-promotion This applies to the use of e-mail and website. during transport is common. markets (both domestic and export). and resulting damage. tracking and tracing systems. organization. Rough handling. Time is at a premium for trade partners in the preserved fruit and vegetable business and they do not want to spend any of it in reading information not relevant to their business. A website forms an easy reference for any EU partner to obtain information about your company.5 of this survey. In designing a website for your company. In sending samples (often by airmail). Be careful not to exaggerate and to ‘walk your talk’ (deliver what you promise). Further reference is made to CBI’s Your image Builder. Company stationery is an important ambassador for your company as it is sent/given to EU trade partners. Company stationery In order to build the right image for your company. a potential trade partner will be able to form an image of your company. invoices. Lengthy stories about the founding family and historic reviews should be omitted. Samples Samples are a very important tool for promoting your products.• • • • • Health Ingredients Europe. Often. Instead information should be given about production capacities.
fruit. other than products of heading 2006 homogenised vegetables potatoes 110 . sweet potatoes and similar edible parts of plants containing 5% or more by weight of starch palm hearts olives sweet peppers salad beetroot (beta vulgaris var. conditiva) red cabbages tropical fruits and tropical nuts Tomatoes. frozen unfrozen orange juice grapefruit juice juice of any other single citrus fruit pineapple juice tomato juice grape juice (including grape must) apple juice juice of any single fruit or vegetable mixtures of juices CANNED VEGETABLES HS code 2001 10 20 00 90 10 90 20 90 30 90 40 90 60 90 65 90 70 90 75 90 85 90 91 2002 10 90 2005 10 20 Description Vegetables. grape must) and vegetable juices. saccharata) yams. nuts and other edible parts of plants. unfermented and not containing added spirit. prepared or preserved otherwise than by vinegar or acetic acid tomatoes. whether or not containing added sugar or other sweetening matter orange juice. CONCENTRATE HS code 200 9 11 19 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Description Fruit juices (incl. whole or in pieces other Other vegetables prepared or preserved otherwise than by vinegar or acetic acid. FRUIT JUICE. prepared or preserved by vinegar or acetic acid: cucumbers and gherkins onions mango chutney fruit of the genus Capsicum other than sweet peppers or pimentos sweet corn (Zea mays var. HS codes printed in bold type indicate that information is given in chapter 5 of this survey. not frozen.APPENDICES 1 DETAILED HS CODES The detailed HS codes are given in sequence of the product groups as mentioned under chapter 5 of this survey.
otherwise prepared or preserved. New Zealand spinach and orache spinach sweet corn olives sweet peppers capsicum or pimenta mushrooms tomatoes artichokes asparagus other frozen vegetables mixtures of vegetables 111 .) other leguminous vegetables spinach. saccharata) other vegetables and mixtures of vegetables Description Fruit. mangisstans. FROZEN VEGETABLES HS code 0710 10 21 22 29 30 40 80 10 80 51 80 59 80 61/69 80 70 80 80 80 85 8095 90 Description Vegetables (uncooked or cooked by steaming or boiling in water).40 51/59 60 70 80 00 90 CANNED FRUIT HS code 2008 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 91 92 99 25 99 26 peas (pisum sativum) beans (vigna spp. whether or not containing added sugar or other sweetening matter or spirit. etc. including nectarines strawberries palm hearts mixtures passion fruit and guaves manga’s.s. nuts and other edible parts of plants. papaya. frozen potatoes peas (pisum sativum) beans (vigna spp.) asparagus olives sweet corn (Zea mays var. not elsewhere specified or included pineapples citrus fruit pears apricots cherries peaches. phaseolus spp... phaseolus spp.
) and truffles potatoes sweet corn tomatoes carrots other vegetables and mixtures of vegetables 112 . uncooked or cooked by steaming or boiling water. lychees. jelly fungi (Tremella spp. fresh or dried dates (fresh and dried) figs pineapples avocados guavas. whether or not containing added sugar or other sweetening matter strawberries raspberries. dried. mulberries. broken or in powder. mangoes and mango steens Grapes.). sliced. wood ears (auricularia spp. blackberries. pineapples. but not further prepared onions mushrooms. mixtures of nuts or dried fruits of this Chapter apricots prunes apples peaches. cut. whole. fresh or dried currants sultanas other dried grapes Fruit. other than that of headings 0801 to 0806. guavas. frozen. sapodillo plums. white or red currants and gooseberries other fruit Description Bananas. jackfruit. loganberries. dried Dates. mangoes and mangosteens. figs. avocados. passion fruit.DRIED FRUIT HS code 0803 00 90 0804 10 00 20 90 30 00 40 00 50 00 2011/91 2012/92 2018/98 0813 10 00 20 00 30 00 40 10 40 30 40 50 40 60 40 70 50 FROZEN FRUIT HS code 0811 10 20 90 Description Fruit and nuts. including plantains. including nectarines pears papaws (papayas) tamarinds cashew apples. carambola and pitahaya mixtures of nuts or dried fruit of this Chapter 0806 DRIED VEGETABLES HS code 0712 2000 3000 90 90 90 90 90 05 11/19 30 50 90 Description Dried vegetables. black.
mango’s. carambola. sapodillo plums. but unsuitable in that state for immediate consumption onions olives capers cucumbers and gherkins other vegetables 10 20 90 10 90 20 90 30 90 40 90 50 90 60 90 70 0711 10 20 30 40 90 113 . lychees. provisionally preserved (for example.PROVISIONALLY PRESERVED FRUIT AND VEGETABLES HS code 0812 Description FRUIT Fruit and nuts. cashew apples. in sulphur water or in other preservative solutions). in sulphur water or in other preservative solutions). pitahaya and tropical nuts VEGETABLES Vegetables provisionally preserved (for example. mangosteens. in brine. by sulphur dioxide gas. but unsuitable in that state for immediate consumption cherries strawberries apricots oranges papaws (papayas) fruit of the species vaccinium myrtillus black currants raspberries guavas. in brine. tamarinds. jackfruit. by sulphur dioxide gas. passion fruit.
257 Lithuania 34. 2003 114 .934.909 231.428 2.568 139.977 312.867 236.816 392.565 Portugal 129.995 295.062 1.480 Poland 200.486.176 1.881 37.634 68.673.174 47.257 151.427 Czech Republic 99.236 597.492 14.302 24.020 336.040 136.981 8.000 / tonnes 2001 value € volume 12.895.515 3.696.055.893.146.023 3.779.764 1.631 44.342 Italy 912.637 294.530 1.456.781.901.615 France 1.291 162.612 1.703.635 328.745 1.060.453 39.967 Denmark 233.077 188.745 27. 2001-2003.120.750 358.698 41.090 1.814.045 Spain 537.065 Belgium 1.499 971.578.954 158.489 3.502 35.964.855 86.434 322.570 16.488 863.252 170.519 204.158 668.325 1.590.842 331.251.525 37.459 Sweden 305.890 29.089 1.136 9.838 Cyprus 13.977 14.030 208. The leading suppliers mentioned in the statistics supplied at least 80 percent of total value imports in 2003.576 400.855 46.982 421.220 1.839 Estonia 22.010.943 952.299 Austria 345.449.937.522 1.592.783 Slovakia 42.117 148.994 34.973 24.355 3.079.254 5.868 4.160 6.792 Source: Eurostat.428 2. Table 1 Imports of selected preserved fruit and vegetables into the EU.133 162.418 2.625 66.643 229.028 27.170 202.149 14.378 5.876.485 26.133 Hungary 57.147 44.233 117.840 79.260 194.192.700 1.134.543.126 41.988 3.003 2003 value € volume 13.528 627.574 495.042 3.086 Ireland 209.601 Latvia 26.001 41.075 1.199 121.808 27.494 29.476 United Kingdom 1.177.450 44.426.402 Finland 133.595.988 161.278.006.504 Luxembourg 39.823 60.676 250.162 3.590 61.435 3.989 144.010.939 3.107.952 Slovenia 41.739.130.397 303.584.830.787.023 158.379 Malta 13.042 239.540 5.324 The Netherlands 1. € 1.762 2002 value € volume 13.196 2.808 17.667 66.912 45.518 199.228.706 3.947 1.437.458 317.221.479 30.425 Total Extra-EU Developing countries Germany 3.422.712 136.641 1.548 139.344 Greece 122.527 5.034 48.781 13.258 22.991 170.642 1.407 169.393.777.646 14.386.543 2.919 46.458.866 68.917 44.239 635. 126.090.267 136.428.971 14.703 3.172 10.2 DETAILED IMPORT/EXPORT STATISTICS The source of the data presented below is Eurostat COMEXT 2003.610 124.428 3.814 13.161 15.699 643.
037 16.470 43.566 216.624 8.725 262.616 0 Total Extra-EU Developing countries Germany The Netherlands France United Kingdom Belgium Italy Austria Spain Denmark Sweden Ireland Poland Greece Finland Portugal Czech Republic Hungary Luxembourg Slovenia Slovakia Lithuania Latvia Estonia Cyprus Malta Table 3 Imports of canned vegetables into the EU.566 260.555 781.748 2003 value € volume 3.695 6.298 93.873 862.611 731.486 3.359 64.948 160.379 937.981 1.886 764.274 13.556 3.320 4.263 204.716.628 4.574 86.782 1.333 9.474 5.420 4.610 296.193.016 99. 2001-2003.514 8.859 236. € 1.678 1.455 812.625 893.500 15.150 283.033 182.594 9.369 776.349 2.884 17.850 598.111 886.417 12.604 324.801 396.766 568.015 498.Table 2 Imports of fruit juice/concentrate into the EU.761 241.019.039 494.896 519.934 339.493 2.705 290.559 14.756 720.484 94.109.411 147.956 55.288 3.938 12.867 42.833 66.031 946.698 57.252 7.877.644 189.075 31.208 44.111 839.138 1.442 98.617 92.427 93.806 25.354 12.490 1.219 970.872 39.424 804.064 77.159 117.155 115 .281 113.624 494.206 61.651 3.790 622.349 8.734 12.725 7.368 933.528 113.482 75.099.956 217.787 184.700 13.503.845 Total EU-25 Extra-EU Developing countries Germany United Kingdom France Italy The Netherlands Belgium Spain Sweden Denmark Ireland 3.360 104.768 647.167 456.070 47.000 / tonnes 2001 value € volume 4.392 216.180 189.829 580.610 401.295 72.264 28.385 176.380.511 40.916 8.671 522.779 31.223 77.675 11.003 49.682.934.958 111.187.933 5.171 288.828 141.210 486.508 11.059.743 896.603.397 285.634 500.363 43.660 42.477 150.164 5.878 255.745 57.549 98.031 79.425 97.366 272.912 1.510 88.631 11.738 65.008 722.070. 2001-2003.955 6.151.268 1.853 22.214.171.1243 2.674 38.360.680 76.417 0 2002 value € volume 4.424.652 519.522 0 2003 value € volume 4.416 717.572 15.927 209.905 67.933 39.331 51.407 2.142.027.020 8.945 37.639 1.680 55.578 88.529 14.516 40.116 185.448 2.000/tonnes 2001 value € volume 2002 value € volume 3.885 135.636 1.710 205.922 2.904 14.377 116.869 10.140 14.866 49.940 49.852 4.681 100.955 453.900 43.730 8.594 30.047 44.408 848.553 6.230.896 3.825.183 33.167 877.417 6.500 47.728 213.386 23.230 523.274 4.214 230.152 4.302 115.509 456.993 74.266 764.583 777.069.802 773.342 773.507.666 261.056.086 561.581 232.555.292 3.091.836 851.851 81.719 61.273 69.145.735 55.826 100.782 181.526 1.282 4.321 34.736 1.615 6.533 163.985 73.293 159.955 596.615 42.218 275.870 791.035 536.739 12.690 672.654 866.118 426.553 11.982 512.386 7.979 5.485 2.222 5.439 257.828 730. € 1.731 64.696 298.336.728.692 7.644.
855 1.425 15.955 39.680 52.886 168.728.703 12.492 279.809 4.733.215 16.760 188.301 18.968 2.798 22.361 37.403 30.596 4.510 9.809 2.507 39.477 16.847 14.469 25.192 6.689 4. 2001-2003.904 1.327 46.593 14.031 35.197 1.981 13.389 5.014 102.285 23.584 3.476 37.685 2.605 282.871 40.882 20.567 9.554 2.121 171.582 34.624 4.955 40.152 13.161 12.369 4.859.797 39.779 14.536 26.543 477.Austria Poland Greece Finland Portugal Czech Republic Luxembourg Slovenia Latvia Slovakia Hungary Lithuania Estonia Malta Cyprus Source: Eurostat.680 1.677 1.238 42.582 Total EU-25 Extra-EU Developing countries Germany France United Kingdom Belgium Italy Spain The Netherlands Sweden Ireland Austria Denmark Greece Portugal Finland Czech Republic Poland Luxembourg Slovenia Malta Cyprus Hungary Slovakia Lithuania Estonia Latvia 116 .593 12.307 9.155 2.762 3.099 38.369.292 3.638 260.477 21.111 191.866 249.729 361.614 49.885 40.740 3.893 13.067 8.327 18.233 18.082 508.539 14.300 6.012 20.732 20.567 162.167 35.630 367.211 339.084 9.559 16.819 31.713 5.421 8.664 2.354 43.855 1.403 27.640 3.971 2.027 33.479 1.776.083 437.670 2.622 14. € 1.630 26.610 70.627 2003 value € volume 1.592 14.231 Imports of frozen vegetables into the EU.563 3.592 14.738 2.416 2.128 37.089 49.976 2.177 135.782 14.629 26.048 3.129 236.400 500.289 275.671 2.076 31.005 258.343 28.948 22.322 767.639 96.673 31.290 178.131 3.387 35.518 5.086 2.930 64.250 3.109 27.924 2.736 1.275 965.551 1.139 68.365 106.051 93.971 3. 2003 Table 4 58.285 126.813 4.146 12.913 33.315 19.425 46.157 317.895 16.280 2.589 32.311 143.303 13.616 2.473 14.208 143.000 / tonnes 2001 value € volume 1.623 81.004 6.268 32.812 21.196 148.707 5.330 498.021 5.073 1.584 20.611 85.782 45.739 2.248 119.358 8.016 15.567 12.314 39.552 29.226 42.026 4.858 53.243 26.031 374.059 19.314.338 4.920 27.134 11.396 15.826 12.175 196.867 3.280 28.551 27.363 60.040 2.392 2002 value € volume 1.837 6.780 13.798 1.657.030 31.811 27.879 39.880 51.951 18.904 196.915 45.188 7.011 24.606 13.237 172.463 15.839 31.319 144.373 148.655 46.145 382.419 401.244 6.203 51.475 3.604 1.257 42.247 9.449 497.939 1.449 4.368 128.248 158.466 8.401 24.500 206.097 13.573 3.739 32.217 5.959 149.913 45.437 53.777 3.176 12.702 593.320 389.462 21.151 1.804 21.183 8.834 23.840 3.605 4.115 10.590 86.215 21.781 38.822 8.662 263.470 3.720 38.306 23.401 42.985 275.
031 26.042 2003 value € 1.944 28.893 546.423 2003 value € volume 1.350 86.748 231.424 491.832 25.535 35.594 8.540 547.111 15.083 49.312 24. € 1.116 25.836 50.473 18.176 54.932 213.859 29.054 19.477 572.716 16.895 44.947 23.940 25.137 14.995 211.431 16.084 6.791 116.086 12.576 47.621 68.808 427.035 8.008 447.284 93.274 47.481 3.399 45.574 189.444 9.566 55.850 2002 value € 931.425 18.281 336.365 2.740 648.116 1.846 131.441 1.637 1.894 24.997 60.467 3.145 22.666 Total EU-25 Extra-EU Developing countries Germany France United Kingdom The Netherlands Belgium Spain Italy Austria Poland Sweden Finland Portugal Czech Republic Greece Hungary Ireland Denmark Slovakia Slovenia Lithuania Estonia Luxembourg Latvia Malta Cyprus Table 6 Imports of frozen fruit into the EU.881 60.387 7.834 117 .433 54.096 55.273 99.000 / tonnes 2001 value € 833.982 20.177 8.505 119.268 350.989 15.523.930 2.573 29.440 37.895 109.767 3.502.955 17.368 13.425 27.520 73.471 1.283 16.465 1.742 391.826 65.994 6.465 30.355 236.258 43.051 71.890 73.316 17.570 411.125 533.750 2.353 69.077.408 52.758 1.890 1.425 20.517 205.085 25. € 1.950 753.696 55.901 16.405 4.899 24.701 81.685 30.014 2.205 21.916 1.907 225.373 21.792 1.779 11.985 217.283 18.438 196.247 78.789 2.966 14.207 394.884 3.086 76.680 20.253 16.955 14.305 72.812 52.342 13.240 97.726 13.974 21.677 118.743 62.723 59.578 46.355 44.605 23.921 75.339 2002 value € volume 1.933 1.841 40.114 403.835 56.652 67.367 201.641 18.788 65.163 2.021 93.253 78.578 86.795 Total EU-25 Extra-EU Developing countries Germany France The Netherlands United Kingdom Italy Belgium Austria Denmark Sweden Spain Poland volume 766.414 522.413 29.173 9. 2001-2003.654 1.023 27.513 184.000 70.586 21.570 8.699 1.123 195.571 7.649 351.135 26.379.555 104.149 12.310 2.635 1.183 284.334.744 1.784 2.821 158.902 218.468 1.732 664.592 72.924 99.914 4.940 681. 2001-2003.093 23.Table 5 Imports of canned fruit into the EU.484 73.962 18.000 / tonnes 2001 value € volume 1.418 21.279 17.463 41.857 597.578.098 63.151 95.996 56.300 582.141 25.129 27.472 1.947 26.696 39.831 24.447 2.866 1.616 26.370 2.510 84.145 492.075 10.240 1.448 18.494 26.126 19.202 18.396 572.724 6.334 1.796 16.957 1.360 50.123 517.925 501.896 14.313 90.331 37.494 195.660 28.431 306.261 92.268 318.164 40.270 490.835 1.854 24.188 8.043 1.643 17.757 45.698 1.448.820 15.771 616.915 312.024 25.781 475.821 114.487 volume 832.804 251.376 volume 896.385 37.063 10.742 31.951 187.644 33.447 51.
269 4.431 2.970 100.386 3.212 5.039 7.566 4.700 6.678 552 585 285 530 123 49 11.439 479 773 707 volume 605.632 646.962 10.749 33.533 8.798 4.890 2.251 4.866 12.686 39.390 456 770 621 volume 611.460 3.551 2.993 22.034 10.399 116.284 149.833 20.346 1.154 9.394 18.536 8.571 1.823 464.283 1.690 68.757 17.049 1.028 220.547 812 490 760 762 190 51 27 17.431 6.629 8.071 893 Total EU-25 Extra-EU Developing countries United Kingdom Germany France Italy The Netherlands Belgium Spain Poland Denmark Sweden Austria Greece Finland Czech Republic Ireland Portugal Slovakia Lithuania Hungary Slovenia Latvia Estonia Luxembourg Cyprus Malta volume 587.757 9.375 10.680 220.112 3.349 4.820 116.692 2.255 1.203 366.854 1.488 11.547 10.819 4.349 4.667 22.426 3.526 10.341 2.271 474.859 1.314 3.257 2.051 63.418 876 674 275 70 43 Imports of dried fruit into the EU.774 423.635 1.650 527 522 260 166 55 37 15.000 / tonnes 2001 value € 840.108 21.132 1.353 44.695 10.226 18.024 2.637 6.075 579 838 870 564 134 33 11.328 11.996 3.068 150.072 35. 2001-2003.740 72.573 38.363 3.859 5.458 25.422 1.108 1.351 13.500 51.756 21.442 4.427 177.436 3.590 7.141 2.049 1.779 3.856 24.786 4.871 21.844 4.419 125.876 3.374 1.815 4.736 1.340 9.296 3.047 4.919 5.848 1.266 222.253 5.190 33.620 46.448 4.140 2.360 113.709 614.324 73.984 75.534 7.200 24.465 5.450 3.131 1.715 1.033 3.415 4.428 75.555 646.943 9.628 2.165 4.282 162.443 57.021 21.370 64.864 21.434 9.922 8.020 119.684 6.080 20.567 67.883 21.307 478.052 1.961 19.144 4.565 168.329 3.155 933 2003 value € 879.125 73.773 5.492 1.740 1.623 20.761 1.362 1.669 1.697 8.610 6.207 470.793 11.598 4.284 2.064 59.247 7.747 35.474 1.550 387.954 12.768 5.098 1.703 9.267 2.625 20.080 1.293 494.909 6.706 147.549 68.495 3. € 1.014 4.137 3.497 4.Finland Czech Republic Lithuania Ireland Slovenia Greece Portugal Hungary Estonia Latvia Slovakia Luxembourg Cyprus Malta Table 7 13.084 7.159 888 819 172 48 11.900 2.174 20.806 3.400 2.483 10.429 5.223 6.646 2.890 3.874 20.894 709 786 638 118 .681 10.608 5.323 395.657 4.117 864 2002 value € 889.
020 2.027 711 673 299 132 153 50.586 7.031 113.376 14.565 11.798 18.955 200.903 2.617 10.198 8.243 8.839 13.095 16.941 65.723 8.375 25.434 1.177 9.493 26.888 25.445 1.323 2.309 850 1.022 17.088 2.Table 8 Imports of dried vegetables into the EU.693 28.107 5.619 19.288 2003 value € volume 231.896 9.287 8.740 31.121 139.924 5.521 26.834 170.137 12.809 14.969 724 774 681 224 154 121 45.606 91.267 5.696 38.309 14.921 229.498 3.358 147.013 51.779 3.395 132.568 3.183 16.818 142.837 88.277 8.335 4.241 2.523 34.186 774 747 265 111 92 45.276 154.091 2.288 5.021 437 621 292 168 180 26 28 Total EU-25 Extra-EU Developing countries Germany The Netherlands United Kingdom France Italy Poland Belgium Austria Spain Hungary Denmark Sweden Ireland Czech Republic Greece Finland Slovakia Portugal Slovenia Lithuania Estonia Luxembourg Latvia Cyprus Malta Table 9 Imports of provisionally preserved fruit and vegetables into the EU.898 2.591 103. € 1.229 12.765 9.092 4.993 267.682 1.160 33.849 3.631 3.723 19.130 119.496 5.223 1.277 253.265 14.032 483 355 273 143 142 49 27 2002 value € volume 507.259 70.717 37.312 2.264 8.853 57.144 61.519 1.924 156.085 60.018 10.208 21.603 4.444 124.110 1.892 1.127 8.336 4.123 56.670 72.636 8.786 45.983 98.498 8.947 14.828 4.321 3.106 474 573 244 157 214 66 45 2003 value € volume 466.985 8.324 217.902 17.313 15.162 25.479 115.342 26.000 / tonnes 2001 value € volume 270.000 / tonnes 2001 value € volume 475.053 2.940 85.648 97.054 8.595 23. € 1.046 1.548 60.326 3.584 4.564 15.392 4.494 98.170 58.137 24.517 3.197 140.654 2.513 3.338 17.374 58.814 8.621 3.814 218.700 4.910 10.994 9.410 13.222 5.130 12.326 5.944 18.631 3.061 209.668 17.156 2.741 3.457 10.013 1.804 23.239 2.341 Total EU-25 Extra-EU Developing countries Italy Germany United Kingdom France Spain The Netherlands Belgium Portugal Greece Austria 119 .282 14.724 55.827 2.033 2.264 17.581 25.939 15. 2001-2003.414 22.767 37.284 42.528 7.256 958 1.484 10.384 2002 value € volume 247.166 25.568 8.831 30.718 9.281 16.261 25.292 29.375 31.953 19.827 7.938 34.520 3.570 3.965 68.661 18.631 125.564 1.671 60.454 24.144 11.784 232.424 40.999 44.208 6.633 2.001 14.087 51.708 219.571 1.481 19.481 25.571 60.246 97.204 71.099 10.094 32.199 57. 2001-2003.078 65.
Ireland Denmark Poland Lithuania Sweden Finland Slovenia Czech Republic Slovakia Luxembourg Malta Estonia Latvia Hungary Cyprus
7,360 2,061 1,672 1,385 953 975 608 1,281 166 531 283 152 160 27 23
5,131 2,126 1,730 1,051 358 827 690 2,336 537 283 230 335 175 83 11
5,324 2,782 1,246 858 1,372 1,014 457 1,270 341 258 193 105 103 479 10
5,144 3,144 1,500 728 579 1,006 645 2,836 1,052 84 217 271 170 869 6
4,876 3,405 1,357 1,299 1,271 973 671 623 395 260 234 170 125 55 15
3,407 2,570 1,587 626 646 1,154 866 1,484 1,551 76 209 147 113 116 10
Exports of selected preserved fruit and vegetables by EU member countries, 2001-2003, € 1,000 / tonnes 2001 value € volume 11,124,208 13,105,812 8,615,327 10,531,314 2,508,881 2,574,498 2002 value € volume 11,861,192 13,337,834 9,143,645 10,625,357 2,717,547 2,712,477 2003 value € volume 11,971,430 13,469,427 9.423,100 10,911,184 2,548,330 2,558,243
Total Intra-EU Extra-EU Leading destinations Belgium Italy Spain The Netherlands Germany France Poland Greece
1,637,694 1,678,620 1,471,729 1,400,965 1,272,797 990,319 603,887 591,746
1,999,700 2,545,654 1,578,452 1,505,986 1,550,538 885,053 791,299 800,461
1,765,850 1,835,886 1,626,408 1,559,235 1,320,241 962,863 675,639 614,882
2,062,997 2,565,462 1,761,251 1,509,016 1,526,711 894,777 829,290 649,977
1,804,471 1,766,992 1,761,231 1,540,147 1,294,595 1,012,969 750,507 470,661
2,171,673 2,336,046 1,906,218 1,572,015 1,482,673 975,315 915,056 452,056
INTERNATIONAL International Organization for Standardization (ISO) E-mail: mailto:email@example.com Internet: http://www.iso.org EUROPEAN UNION Comité Européen de Normalisation (CEN) European Committee for Standardization E-mail: mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org Internet: http://www.cenorm.be BELGIUM Institut Belge de Normalisation (IBN) Belgian Institute for Standardization E-mail: mailto:email@example.com Internet: http://www.ibn.be FRANCE Association Française de Normalisation (AFNOR) French Association for Standardization E-mail: mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org Internet: http://www.afnor.fr GERMANY Deutsches Institut für Normung eV (DIN) German Institute for Standardization E-mail: mailto:email@example.com Internet: http://www.din.de ITALY Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione (UNI) Italian Institute for Standardization E-mail: mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org Internet: http://www.uni.com THE NETHERLANDS Nederlands Normalisatie Instituut (NEN) Netherlands Standardisation Institute E-mail: mailto:email@example.com Internet: http://www.nen.nl UNITED KINGDOM British Standards Institution (BSI) E-mail: mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org Internet: http://www.bsi.org.uk
Sources of price information
INTERNATIONAL FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) Publisher of ‘Monthly Bulletin of Statistics’, ‘Commodity and Market Review’, and ‘Food Outlook’ E-mail: mailto:FAO-HQ@fao.org Internet: http://www.fao.org International Trade Centre (ITC) Publisher of ‘Market News Service for Fruit Juices’ E-mail: mailto:email@example.com Internet: http://www.intracen.org UNITED KINGDOM Agra Europe Ltd. Publisher of ‘The Public Ledger’ and ‘Fruit and Vegetable Markets’ E-mail: mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org Internet: http://www.public-ledger.com http://www.agra-net.com 3.3 Trade associations
EUROPE Association of the Industry of Juices and Nectars from Fruit and Vegetables of the European Union (AIJN) E-mail: mailto:email@example.com Internet: http://www.aijn.org Organisation Européenne des Industries Transformatrices de Fruits et Légumes (OEITFL) Association of European Fruit and Vegetable Processing Industries E-mail: mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org Internet: http://www.oeitfl.org Fédération des Associations de Fabricants de Produits Alimentaires Surgelés de l’UE (FAFPAS) Federation of the Frozen Products’ Producers Association in the EU E-mail: mailto:email@example.com European Federation of Dried Fruit (FRUCOM) (Fédération Européenne de Commerce de Fruits Secs) Telephone: +49 (0)40 3747 190 Fax: +49 (0)40 3747 1926 E-mail: mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org Confederation of the Food and Drink Industries of the EU (CIAA) E-mail: mailto:email@example.com Internet: http://www.ciaa.be
de Waren-Verein Telephone: +49 (0)40 3747 190 Fax: +49 (0)40 3747 1919 ITALY Associazione Italiana Industrie Prodotti Alimentari. Gemüse und Kartoffelverarbeitenden Industrie e.tuinbouw.C.it Internet: http://www. German Association of Fruit and Vegetables Processing Industry Telephone: +49 (0)228 3540 25 Fax: +49 (0)228 3618 89 E-mail: mailto:bogk-vds@t-online. AIPPA Italian Association of Food Industry E-mail: mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org Fédération Nationale des Syndicats de Confituriers et Conserveurs de Fruits French Federation of Fruit Preserving Industry Telephone: +33 (0)1 5391 4491 Fax: +33 (0)1 5391 4470 Syndicat National des Déshydrateurs des Produits Alimentaires French Association of Dried Food Products Industry Telephone: +33 (0)1 5391 4444 Fax: +33 (0)1 5391 4470 GERMANY Bundesverband der Obst-.aiipa. Wholesalers and Exporters Telephone: +32 (0)2 2380 620 Fax: +32 (0)2 2380 408 E-mail: mailto:vegebe@kmonet.I. VIGEF Netherlands Association of Fruit and Vegetables Processing Industry 123 .V.it THE NETHERLANDS Productschap voor de Tuinbouw Netherlands Horticulture Commodity Board E-mail: mailto:email@example.com Internet: http://www.nl Vereniging van de Nederlandse Groenten en Fruitverwerkende Industrie.BELGIUM Verbond van Groentenverwerkende Bedrijven en Industriegroenten Groothandelaars en Exporteurs (VEGEBE) Federation of Processing Industry for Vegetables.A. French Federation of Preserving Cooperations Telephone: +33 (0)1 4326 1447 Fax: +33 (0)1 4326 3520 E-mail: mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org FRANCE Chambre Syndicale Nationale des Industries de la Conserve French Association of Preserving Industry Telephone: +33 (0)1 5391 4444 Fax: +33 (0)1 5391 4470 Fédération Nationale des Conserveries Coopératives et S.
zuidvruchten. Specerijen en Aanverwante Artikelen Netherlands Dried Fruit Trade Association E-mail: mailto:email@example.com Nederlandse Vereniging voor de Handel in Gedroogde Zuidvruchten.anuga.co.hu 3.uk Internet: http://www.nl UNITED KINGDOM British Association of Fruit and Vegetables Processing Industry (BFVCA) Telephone: +44 (0)20 7420 7110 Fax: +44 (0)20 7836 0580 National Dried Fruit Association (NDFTA) Telephone: +44 (0)207 7227 488 Fax: +44 (0)207 7222 009 Food & Drink Federation (members include the British Fruit & Vegetable Canners’ Association) E-mail: mailto:generalenquiries@fdf.E-mail: Internet: mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org Internet: http://www.de Internet: http://www.org.fdf.nl Internet: http://www.uk British Frozen Food Federation Internet: http://www.org. both end products and ingredients Nürnberg Messe GmbH Frequency: annual (February 2006 Nurnberg) E-mail: mailto:email@example.com 124 .uk POLAND Polish Association of Juice & Soft Drinks Producers Telephone: +48 22 3361329 Fax: +48 22 827 1875 E-mail: mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org@sioeckes.4 Trade fair organisers ANUGA Together with the SIAL the leading trade fair for food and beverages in the EU Frequency: biennial (October 2005 Köln) E-mail: mailto:email@example.com HUNGARY Hungarian Juice Association Telephone: +36 84 501503 Fax: +36 84 501500 E-mail: mailto:fazekas.de Bio Fach (Certified organic products) The largest trade fair in the EU for organic products.nl http://www.org.
com Internet: http://www. importers. 3.com SANA A smaller trade fair for food and beverages in Italy Fiere e Comunicazioni Frequency : biennial (September 2005 Bologna) E-mail: mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org Natural Products Europe A smaller trade fair for natural and organic products in The Netherlands New Hope International Media Ltd.com Fruit World International (English.sial.agropress.it SIAL Together with the Anuga.com IFE A smaller trade fair for food and beverages in the United Kingdom Frequency: biennial (March 2007 London) E-mail: mailto:ife@freshrm. Frequency: annual (June 2006 Amsterdam) Internet: http://www.ife. wholesalers. agents and exporters of food and beverage products.com Fruit and Vegetable Markets (English language) Main subjects: fresh and processed fruit and vegetables in the European and worldwide markets E-mail: mailto:email@example.com. French language) Main subjects: fresh fruit and vegetables in worldwide markets E-mail: mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org 125 .5 Trade press Fruit Processing Main subjects: international articles for the fruit processing and juice producing industry E-mail: mailto:email@example.com Internet: http://www. German.co.fruit-processing.com Internet: http://www.Food Ingredients Europe Together with Health Ingredients Europe the largest trade fair for food ingredients in the EU Miller Freeman BV Frequency: biennial.expoeurope.com Internet: http://www.fr Above mentioned fairs are targeted at retailers.agra-net. alternates with Health Ingredients Europe (November 2005 Paris) E-mail: mailto:fi@unmf. the leading trade fair for food and beverages in the EU Frequency: biennial (October 2006 Paris) Internet: http://www.sana.fi-events.com Internet: http://www.uk Internet: http://www.
E-mail: mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org.International Food Ingredients Main subjects: ingredients and additives E-mail: mailto:Aemmens@cmpinformation.org Internet: http://www.de Internet: http://www.ifi-online.V (Germany’s Naturland association for organic agriculture) E-mail: mailto:email@example.com Deutsches Tiefkühlinstitut e.de UnitednatureX Europe / Green Trade Net Office (Green Trade Net is an information network on organic raw materials worldwide) Telephone: +49 (0)228 7215 776 Fax: +49 (0)228 7215 777 Internet: http://www.org GERMANY BCS ÖKO-GARANTIE GMBH (Contact point for organic certification) E-mail: mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org Internet: http://www.org/ IFOAM (International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements) E-mail: mailto:email@example.com Internet: http://www.org EUROPE TransFair International (Fair trade organisation) E-mail: mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org 3.V.de Ecocert (Contact point for organic certification) E-mail: mailto:email@example.com Naturland Verband für naturgemäßen Landbau e.de 126 .naturland.de Internet: http://www.ecocert.org Internet: http://www.de Internet: http://www.ifoam.iccwbo.bcs-oeko.6 Other useful addresses INTERNATIONAL International Chamber of Commerce E-mail: mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org Internet: http://www.
fair trade organisation) E-mail: mailto:email@example.com 127 .nl Internet: http://www.fr Internet: http://www. inspecting and certifying sustainable agricultural production methods and products) E-mail: mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org Internet: http://www.com Stichting Max Havelaar (Max Havelaar Foundation.com Internet: http://www.ecocert.skal.nl/accessguide SKAL (Internationally operating organisation.FRANCE Ecocert (Contact point for organic certification) E-mail: mailto:email@example.com Internet: http://www.nl UNITED KINGDOM Soil Association (IFOAM accredited contact point for organic certification) E-mail: mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org THE NETHERLANDS CBI/AccessGuide (CBI’s database on European non-tariff trade barriers E-mail: mailto:accessguide@cbi.
States Tunisia Cuba Moldova Turkey Djibouti Mongolia Turkmenistan Dominica Montserrat Turks & Caicos Islands Dominican republic Morocco Tuvalu Ecuador Mozambique Uganda East Timor Myanmar Uruguay Egypt Namibia Uzbekistan El Salvador Nauru Vanuatu Equatorial Guinea Nepal Venezuela Eritrea Nicaragua Vietnam Ethiopia Niger Wallis & Futuna Fiji Nigeria Yemen Gabon Niue Zambia Gambia Oman Zimbabwe January 2003 128 . as applied in this market survey. Vincent and Grenadines Central African rep. Mauritania Togo Cook Islands Mauritius Tokelau Costa Rica Mayotte Tonga Côte d'Ivoire Mexico Trinidad & Tobago Croatia Micronesia. Lucia Cape Verde Liberia St. Sri Lanka Burundi Laos St. Marshall Islands Thailand Congo Rep. Rep. rep of South Africa Burkina Faso Kyrghyz Rep. Helena Cambodia Lebanon St.4 LIST OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Please note that the OECD list of developing countries. Areas Angola Guatemala Panama Anguilla Guinea Papua New Guinea Antigua and Barbuda Guinea-Bissau Paraguay Argentina Guyana Peru Armenia Haiti Philippines Azerbaijan Honduras Rwanda Bahrain India Samoa Bangladesh Indonesia São Tomé & Principe Barbados Iran Saudi Arabia Belize Iraq Senegal Benin Jamaica Serbia and Montenegro Bhutan Jordan Seychelles Bolivia Kazakhstan Sierra Leone Bosnia & Herzegovina Kenya Solomon Islands Botswana Kiribati Somalia Brazil Korea. Fed. may include countries that are usually not considered as developing countries. Afghanistan Georgia Pakistan Albania Ghana Palau Islands Algeria Grenada Palestinian Admin. Kitts-Nevis Cameroon Lesotho St. Macedonia Sudan Chad Madagascar Surinam Chile Malawi Swaziland China Malaysia Syria Colombia Maldives Tajikistan Comoros Mali Tanzania Congo Dem.
(Language: English) http://www. then transmitted to MNS subscribers by airmail.int/ Market access database of the EU.nl/agribusiness/landen (Language: English and Dutch) http://www.org Web site of ITC with link to MNS Market News Service. Nature Management and Fishery provides information on policy and statistics on agriculture.foodnavigator. Depending on the product group.com Research and Information Centre on food ingredients and the food ingredients industry. Each Internet review offers direct access to the chosen material and a brief explanation about the link. the MNS product specialist contacts these sources of information to obtain up-to-the-minute data concerning the prices of products. publications and other relevant associations. nature management and fisheries. surveys and other products relevant to the food sector. giving trade barriers to third country suppliers 129 . It also links up to other useful sites in Europe. Moreover. The collected information is then analysed.fruchtsaft. supply and demand and other economic information.com Food Info Net is an Internet site for information and services related to food technology.nl The web site of The Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture.eu. industry suppliers.foodinfonet.intracen. (Language: English) http://www.int/index_en. R&D and manufacturing.minlnv. and non-profit special interest groups. For an overview of information by country. trade and (European) fruit juice associations. it contains links to the fruit juice industry.5 USEFUL INTERNET SITES http://www. (Language: German and English). E-mail or fax.html Website of the European Food Safety Authority http://mkaccdb. http://europe.de Web site of the Association of the German Fruit Juice Industry (VdF) containing information on fruit juices.eu. tabulated and processed in a computer programme specially designed for each product group. The site combines the resources of food companies. This site offers a variety of sites. please refer to http://www.int/ Main website of the EU giving access to all kind of information on EU matters http://efsa.eu. government agencies. (Language: English) http://www. articles. research and academic institutions.minlnv.
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