FOXE'S BOOK OF MARTYRS CHAPTER I - History of Christian Martyrs to the First General Persecutions

Under Nero
Christ our Savior, in the Gospel of St. Matthew, hearing the confession of Simon Peter, who, first of all other, openly acknowledged Him to be the Son of God, and perceiving the secret hand of His Father therein, called him (alluding to his name) a rock, upon which rock He would build His Church so strong that the gates of hell should not prevail against it. In which words three things are to be noted: First, that Christ will have a Church in this world. Secondly, that the same Church should mightily be impugned, not only by the world, but also by the uttermost strength and powers of all hell. And, thirdly, that the same Church, notwithstanding the uttermost of the devil and all his malice, should continue. Which prophecy of Christ we see wonderfully to be verified, insomuch that the whole course of the Church to this day may seem nothing else but a verifying of the said prophecy. First, that Christ hath set up a Church, needeth no declaration. Secondly, what force of princes, kings, monarchs, governors, and rulers of this world, with their subjects, publicly and privately, with all their strength and cunning, have bent themselves against this Church! And, thirdly, how the said Church, all this notwithstanding, hath yet endured and holden its own! What storms and tempests it hath overpast, wondrous it is to behold: for the more evident declaration whereof, I have addressed this present history, to the end, first, that the wonderful works of God in His Church might appear to His glory; also that, the continuance and proceedings of the Church, from time to time, being set forth, more knowledge and experience may redound thereby, to the profit of the reader and edification of Christian faith. As it is not our business to enlarge upon our Savior's history, either before or after His crucifixion, we shall only find it necessary to remind our readers of the discomfiture of the Jews by His subsequent resurrection. Although one apostle had betrayed Him; although another had denied Him, under the solemn sanction of an oath; and although the rest had forsaken Him, unless we may except "the disciple who was known unto the high-priest"; the history of His resurrection gave a new direction to all their hearts, and, after the mission of the Holy Spirit, imparted new confidence to their minds. The powers with which they were endued emboldened them to proclaim His name, to the confusion of the Jewish rulers, and the astonishment of Gentile proselytes.

I. St. Stephen
St. Stephen suffered the next in order. His death was occasioned by the faithful manner in which he preached the Gospel to the betrayers and murderers of Christ. To such a degree of madness were they excited, that they cast him out of the city and stoned him to death. The time when he suffered is generally supposed to have been at the passover which succeeded to that of our Lord's crucifixion, and to the era of his ascension, in the following spring.
Upon this a great persecution was raised against all who professed their belief in Christ as the Messiah, or as a prophet. We are immediately told by St. Luke, that "there was a great persecution against the church which

was at Jerusalem;" and that "they were all scattered abroad throughout the regions of Judaea and Samaria, except the apostles." About two thousand Christians, with Nicanor, one of the seven deacons, suffered martyrdom during the "persecution that arose about Stephen."

II. James the Great
The next martyr we meet with, according to St. Luke, in the History of the Apsotles' Acts, was James the son of Zebedee, the elder brother of John, and a relative of our Lord; for his mother Salome was cousin-german to the Virgin Mary. It was not until ten years after the death of Stephen that the second martyrdom took place; for no sooner had Herod Agrippa been appointed governor of Judea, than, with a view to ingratiate himself with them, he raised a sharp persecution against the Christians, and determined to make an effectual blow, by striking at their leaders. The account given us by an eminent primitive writer, Clemens Alexandrinus, ought not to be overlooked; that, as James was led to the place of martyrdom, his accuser was brought to repent of his conduct by the apostle's extraordinary courage and undauntedness, and fell down at his feet to request his pardon, professing himself a Christian, and resolving that James should not receive the crown of martyrdom alone. Hence they were both beheaded at the same time. Thus did the first apostolic martyr cheerfully and resolutely receive that cup, which he had told our Savior he was ready to drink. Timon and Parmenas suffered martyrdom about the same time; the one at Philippi, and the other in Macedonia. These events took place A.D. 44.

III. Philip
Was born at Bethsaida, in Galilee and was first called by the name of "disciple." He labored diligently in Upper Asia, and suffered martyrdom at Heliopolis, in Phrygia. He was scourged, thrown into prison, and afterwards crucified, A.D. 54.

IV. Matthew
Whose occupation was that of a toll-gatherer, was born at Nazareth. He wrote his gospel in Hebrew, which was afterwards translated into Greek by James the Less. The scene of his labors was Parthia, and Ethiopia, in which latter country he suffered martyrdom, being slain with a halberd in the city of Nadabah, A.D. 60.

V. James the Less
Is supposed by some to have been the brother of our Lord, by a former wife of Joseph. This is very doubtful, and accords too much with the Catholic superstition, that Mary never had any other children except our Savior. He was elected to the oversight of the churches of Jerusalem; and was the author of the Epistle ascribed to James in the sacred canon. At the age of ninety-four he was beat and stoned by the Jews; and finally had his brains dashed out with a fuller's club.

VI. Matthias
Of whom less is known than of most of the other disciples, was elected to fill the vacant place of Judas. He was stoned at Jerusalem and then beheaded.

VII. Andrew
Was the brother of Peter. He preached the gospel to many Asiatic nations; but on his arrival at Edessa he was taken and crucified on a cross, the two ends of which were fixed transversely in the ground. Hence the derivation of the term, St. Andrew's Cross.

VIII. St. Mark
Was born of Jewish parents of the tribe of Levi. He is supposed to have been converted to Christianity by Peter, whom he served as an amanuensis, and under whose inspection he wrote his Gospel in the Greek language. Mark was dragged to pieces by the people of Alexandria, at the great solemnity of Serapis their idol, ending his life under their merciless hands.

IX. Peter
Among many other saints, the blessed apostle Peter was condemned to death, and crucified, as some do write, at Rome; albeit some others, and not without cause, do doubt thereof. Hegesippus saith that Nero sought matter against Peter to put him to death; which, when the people perceived, they entreated Peter with much ado that he would fly the city. Peter, through their importunity at length persuaded, prepared himself to avoid. But, coming to the gate, he saw the Lord Christ come to meet him, to whom he, worshipping, said, "Lord, whither dost Thou go?" To whom He answered and said, "I am come again to be crucified." By this, Peter, perceiving his suffering to be understood, returned into the city. Jerome saith that he was crucified, his head being down and his feet upward, himself so requiring, because he was (he said) unworthy to be crucified after the same form and manner as the Lord was.

X. Paul
Paul, the apostle, who before was called Saul, after his great travail and unspeakable labors in promoting the Gospel of Christ, suffered also in this first persecution under Nero. Abdias, declareth that under his execution Nero sent two of his esquires, Ferega and Parthemius, to bring him word of his death. They, coming to Paul instructing the people, desired him to pray for them, that they might believe; who told them that shortly after they should believe and be baptised at His sepulcher. This done, the soldiers came and led him out of the city to the place of execution, where he, after his prayers made, gave his neck to the sword.

XI. Jude
The brother of James, was commonly called Thaddeus. He was crucified at Edessa, A.D. 72.

XII. Bartholomew
Preached in several countries, and having translated the Gospel of Matthew into the language of India, he propagated it in that country. He was at length cruelly beaten and then crucified by the impatient idolaters.

XIII. Thomas

Called Didymus, preached the Gospel in Parthia and India, where exciting the rage of the pagan priests, he was martyred by being thrust through with a spear.

XIV. Luke
The evangelist, was the author of the Gospel which goes under his name. He travelled with Paul through various countries, and is supposed to have been hanged on an olive tree, by the idolatrous priests of Greece.

XV. Simon
Surnamed Zelotes, preached the Gospel in Mauritania, Africa, and even in Britain, in which latter country he was crucified, A.D. 74.

XVI. John
The "beloved disciple," was brother to James the Great. The churches of Smyrna, Pergamos, Sardis, Philadelphia, Laodicea, and Thyatira, were founded by him. From Ephesus he was ordered to be sent to Rome, where it is affirmed he was cast into a cauldron of boiling oil. He escaped by miracle, without injury. Domitian afterwards banished him to the Isle of Patmos, where he wrote the Book of Revelation. Nerva, the successor of Domitian, recalled him. He was the only apostle who escaped a violent death.

XVII. Barnabas
Was of Cyprus, but of Jewish descent, his death is supposed to have taken place about A.D. 73. And yet, notwithstanding all these continual persecutions and horrible punishments, the Church daily increased, deeply rooted in the doctrine of the apostles and of men apostolical, and watered plentously with the blood of saints.

CHAPTER II - The Ten Primitive Persecutions
The First Persecution, Under Nero, A.D. 67
The first persecution of the Church took place in the year 67, under Nero, the sixth emperor of Rome. This monarch reigned for the space of five years, with tolerable credit to himself, but then gave way to the greatest extravagancy of temper, and to the most atrocious barbarities. Among other diabolical whims, he ordered that the city of Rome should be set on fire, which order was executed by his officers, guards, and servants. While the imperial city was in flames, he went up to the tower of Macaenas, played upon his harp, sung the song of the burning of Troy, and openly declared that 'he wished the ruin of all things before his death.' Besides the noble pile, called the Circus, many other palaces and houses were consumed; several thousands perished in the flames, were smothered in the smoke, or buried beneath the ruins. This dreadful conflagration continued nine days; when Nero, finding that his conduct was greatly blamed, and a severe odium cast upon him, determined to lay the whole upon the Christians, at once to excuse himself, and have an opportunity of glutting his sight with new cruelties. This was the occasion of the first persecution; and the barbarities exercised on the Christians were such as even excited the commiseration of the Romans themselves. Nero even refined upon cruelty, and contrived all manner of punishments for the Christians that the most infernal imagination could design. In particular, he had some sewed up in skins of wild beasts, and then worried by dogs until they expired; and others dressed in shirts made stiff with wax, fixed to axletrees, and set on fire in his gardens, in order to illuminate them. This persecution was general throughout the whole Roman Empire; but it rather increased than diminished the spirit of Christianity. In the course of it, St. Paul and St. Peter were martyred. To their names may be added, Erastus, chamberlain of Corinth; Aristarchus, the Macedonian, and Trophimus, an Ephesians, converted by St. Paul, and fellow-laborer with him, Joseph, commonly called Barsabas, and Ananias, bishop of Damascus; each of the Seventy.

The Second Persecution, Under Domitian, A.D. 81
The emperor Domitian, who was naturally inclined to cruelty, first slew his brother, and then raised the second persecution against the Christians. In his rage he put to death some of the Roman senators, some through malice; and others to confiscate their estates. He then commanded all the lineage of David be put to death. Among the numerous martyrs that suffered during this persecution was Simeon, bishop of Jerusalem, who was crucified; and St. John, who was boiled in oil, and afterward banished to Patmos. Flavia, the daughter of a Roman senator, was likewise banished to Pontus; and a law was made, "That no Christian, once brought before the tribunal, should be exempted from punishment without renouncing his religion." A variety of fabricated tales were, during this reign, composed in order to injure the Christians. Such was the infatuation of the pagans, that, if famine, pestilence, or earthquakes afflicted any of the Roman provinces, it was laid upon the Christians. These persecutions among the Christians increased the number of informers and many, for the sake of gain, swore away the lives of the innocent. Another hardship was, that, when any Christians were brought before the magistrates, a test oath was proposed, when, if they refused to take it, death was pronounced against them; and if they confessed themselves Christians, the sentence was the same.

because he professed Christ. he wrote to the Church at Rome. Dionysius. and beat him in so dreadful a manner that he expired of the bruises two days later. Nicodemus. The sanctity of his conversation and the purity of his manners recommended him so strongly to the Christians in general. 97. Timothy was the celebrated disciple of St. A. never to defraud any man: after which it was their custom to separate. where he zealously governed the Church until A. and reassemble to partake in common of a harmless meal. About this time Alexander. robbery. let the companies of wild beasts. be it so. bishop of Rome. "Now I begin to be a disciple. but. in imitation of Christ's passion. meeting the procession. that when he passed through Asia. severely reproved them for their ridiculous idolatry. I care for nothing. both with his exhortations and preaching of the Word of God. and moved therewith to pity. and about ten thousand other Christians. Paul. and to repeat together a set form of prayer to Christ as a God. lest they should deprive him of that which he most longed and hoped for. that he was appointed bishop of Athens. exhorting them not to use means for his deliverance from martyrdom. Accordingly. as were Quirinus and Hernes. of which none did any thing contrary to the Roman laws worthy of persecution. saying: "I am the wheat of Christ: I am going to be ground with the teeth of wild beasts." In this persecution suffered the blessed martyr. a benevolent Christian of some distinction.D. such as the burning desire that he had to suffer. as the pagans were about to celebrate a feast called Catagogion. being under the most strict custody of his keepers. suffered at Rome during the rage of Domitian's persecution. and all the malice of the devil. who is held in famous reverence among very many. and spears run into their sides. seeing the lamentable slaughter of Christians. never to falsify their word. what time he heard the lions roaring. the latter continued this third persecution with as much severity as his predecessor. with his two deacons. which so exasperated the people that they fell upon him with their clubs. Let fire and the cross. a brave and successful Roman commander. come upon me. 108 In the third persecution Pliny the Second. on the contrary-never to commit theft. "The whole account they gave of their crime or error (whichever it is to be called) amounted only to this-viz. which happened at the time of our Savior's crucifixion. and bishop of Ephesus. the Areopagite. Zenon. This Ignatius was appointed to the bishopric of Antioch next after Peter in succession. and made very particular observations on the great and supernatural eclipse. The Third Persecution. let breaking of bones and tearing of limbs. wrote to Trajan. that he spake. He then travelled to Egypt to study astronomy. Timothy. Eustachius. a Roman nobleman. only may I win Christ Jesus!" And even when he was sentenced to be thrown to the beasts. crowned with thorns. In Mount Ararat many were crucified. certifying him that there were many thousands of them daily put to death." Trajan being succeeded by Adrian. and educated in all the useful and ornamental literature of Greece.The following were the most remarkable among the numerous martyrs who suffered during this persecution. Protasius and Gervasius were martyred at Milan. Under Trajan. so that I may but win Christ. a man learned and famous. he strengthened and confirmed the churches through all the cities as he went. or adultery. was given to the wild beasts to be devoured. It is also said of him. and to bind themselves by an obligation-not indeed to commit wickedness. Ignatius. let the grinding of the whole body. At this period. were martyred. being sent from Syria to Rome. was an Athenian by birth. that I may be found pure bread. Some do say. of visible or invisible things. having come to Smyrna. was by the emperor ordered to join .D. with their families. that he. that they were accustomed on a stated day to meet before daylight.

made a learned apology in their favor before the emperor. condemned. and the executioner. Who hath saved me?" At the stake to which he was only tied. toward the Christians sharp and fierce. being delivered to the wild beasts on account of his faith. carried before the proconsul. with their already wounded feet. sharp shells. and who stayed the persecutions against the Christians. After feasting the guards who apprehended him. the flames. and he never once wronged me. was ordered to be consumed in the pile. At the martyrdom of Faustines and Jovita. on seeing this. Many other similar cruelties and rigors were exercised against the Christians. escaped. who wished to give it Christian burial. and suffered a similar fate." Polycarp answered. 138. Some of the martyrs were obliged to pass. yet. a young man. as he assured them he should stand immovable. at the instigation of the enemies of the Gospel. by whom was moved the fourth persecution. when so great a quantity of blood flowed out as extinguished the fire. The Fourth Persecution. one of the most amiable monarchs that ever reigned. rejected. who happened to be there and Aristides. a philosopher of the same city. "Swear. and ordered him and his whole family to be martyred. he prayed with such fervency. "Eighty and six years have I served him. especially Jews.D. and burnt in the market place. their torments were so many. and after suffering the most excruciating tortures that could be devised. and I will release thee. upon their points. They nevertheless collected his bones and as much of his remains as possible.in an idolatrous sacrifice to celebrate some of his own victories. was struck with admiration. Under Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. But his body. saying. the venerable bishop of Smyrna. etc. however. Polycarp. that he nobly refused it. and relent in their favor. and their patience so great. followed about the year of our Lord 161. bishop of Athens. without touching him. 162 Marcus Aurelius. he desired an hour in prayer. Adrian dying A. was ordered to pierce him with a sword. they were destroyed by the most terrible deaths. wrote an elegant epistle. A. and were astonished at the intrepidity of the sufferers. and the request of his friends. until Quadratus. on their kindling the fagots. a man of nature more stern and severe. and caused them to be decently interred. The cruelties used in this persecution were such that many of the spectators shuddered with horror at the sight. behaved with such astonishing courage that several pagans became converts to a faith which inspired such fortitude. brothers and citizens of Brescia. and exclaimed in a kind of ecstasy. over thorns. but a true Christian. which caused Adrian to relax in his severities. encircled his body. Germanicus. and. although in study of philosophy and in civil government no less commendable. was succeeded by Antoninus Pius. but his faith (being a Christian in his heart) was so much greater than his vanity. beholding them. like an arch. nails.D. hearing that persons were seeking for him.--reproach Christ. which being allowed. a pagan. that his guards repented that they had been instrumental in taking him. the ungrateful emperor forgot the service of this skilful commander. Enraged at the denial. The proconsul then urged him. He was. others were scourged until their sinews and veins lay bare. "Great is the God of the Christians!" for which he was apprehended. how then shall I blaspheme my King. . but was discovered by a child. that Calocerius. but not nailed as usual.

perceived the real nature of truth. A miraculous deliverance immediately ensued. however. were beheaded. and was born A. Januarius. and pressed to death with weights. a pious woman. This affair occasioned the persecution to subside for some time. surrounded by enemies. and were condemned to be scourged. gave Crescens the cynic an opportunity of prejudicing the emperor against the writer of it. who were all Christians. in which he took great delight. the eldest. and wrote a treatise to confuse heresies of all kinds. an illustrious Roman lady. but the behavior of our of its professors disgusting him. Several were beheaded for refusing to sacrifice to the image of Jupiter. who made some excellent apologies for the Christian faith. the rest were defeated. and fixed his habitation upon the Viminal mount. spending a great deal of time in travelling. upon certain severities. that part deserted to the Roman army. and perishing with thirst. but a celebrated cynic philosopher. and occasioned the emperor to publish an edict in favor of the Christians. were apprehended. He was a native of Neapolis. the pagan deities were invoked in vain. Carpus and Papilus. that he resolved on. was murdered by being thrown from a precipice. was a devout Christian. a prodigious quantity of rain fell. and a universal scholar. in particular Concordus. Silvanus. the emperor marched to encounter them. Being commanded to sacrifice to the pagan idols. and attempted the Pythagorean. two worthy Christians. and employed his talents in convincing the Jews of the truth of the Christian rites. Soon after. he applied himself to the Platonic. He wrote an elegant epistle to the Gentiles. and dreaded the loss of his whole army. whom she had educated with the most exemplary piety. where the tortures to which many of the Christians were put. of a considerable family. Justin wrote his first apology in their favor. a person of a vicious life and conversation. which. and the revolted provinces entirely recovered. at least in those parts immediately under the inspection of the emperor. As the pagans began to treat the Christians with great severity. and the most shining virtues. This piece displays great learning and genius. until he took up his abode in Rome. the celebrated philosopher. Felicitatis.D. The second apology of Justin. Vitalis. Enveloped with mountains. yet disgusting to the cynic. when he was thirty years of age. Justin. in Asia. Felix and Philip. he investigated the Stoic and Peripatetic philosophy. suffered martyrdom at Pergamopolis. and Agatonica. his destruction. drawn into an ambuscade. particularly at Lyons. and in the sequel accomplished. About the year 133. for the first time. he entered into frequent contests with Crescens. they refused. fell a martyr in this persecution. and Martial. a deacon of the city of Spolito. almost exceed the powers of description. The mother was beheaded with the same sword as the three latter. He was. the fourth.Metrodorus. afforded a sudden and astonishing relief. . being caught by the men. were commanded to call upon their God for succor. and filling their dykes. and then. upon which Justin. taught many who afterward became great men. and six of his companions. were likewise burnt. a minister. He kept a public school. or thundering legion. 103. She had seven sons. Some of the restless northern nations having risen in arms against Rome. which sentence was executed with all imaginable severity. and then beheaded. and Pionius. Alexander. and his arguments appeared so powerful. was scourged. but we find that it soon after raged in France. It appears that the storm which miraculously flashed in the face of the enemy so intimidated them. in Samaria. when the men belonging to the militine. Justin was a great lover of truth. and the three younger sons. who preached boldly. he became a convert to Christianity. the two next had their brains dashed out with clubs.

Both pagans and Christians buried their dead in these catacombs. of a weak constitution. borne away of angels. and crowned with garlands of flowers. 192 . Commencing with Severus. a Christian lady." "I lift my hands against the gods who took me away at the age of twenty though I had done no harm. low. one above another like berths in a ship. in heaven." "Once I was not." "Being called away. such as: "Live for the present hour. being exposed to all manner of punishments and tortures. red hot plates of brass were placed upon the tenderest parts of his body. Being strengthened by Blandina. horizontal recesses. Sanctus. he went in peace. the good shepherd with the lamb on his shoulder. was at length slain with the sword. curse me not as you pass.The principal of these martyrs were Vetius Agathus. since we are sure of nothing else. so that she was remanded to prison.D. she was suspended on a piece of wood fixed in the ground. and Pothinus. a weak woman. once an apostate. by her earnest prayers. are. Heads are found severed from the body. they were ornamented. Beneath Rome are the excavations which we call the catacombs. and these are not all. vines." "Traveler. received eternal crowns of glory." The most frequent Christian symbols on the walls of the catacombs. of torture. who was ninety years of age. for I am in darkness and cannot answer." "Victorious in peace and in Christ. a ship under full sail. But none of the wild beasts would touch her. When the Christian graves have been opened the skeletons tell their own terrible tale. the venerable bishop of Lyons. ribs and shoulder blades are broken. the inscriptions breathe forth peace and joy and triumph. upon these occasions. put to rest in a dream of peace. either by a single marble slab or several great tiles laid in mortar. On these slabs or tiles. When the Christians. whivch were at once temples and tombs. But the full force of these epitaphs is seen when we contrast them with the pagan epitaphs. containing on either side several rows of long. and exposed as food for the wild beasts. Now I am not. received martyrdom. I know nothing about it. Here are a few: "Here lies Marcia. and the constancy of their faith so enraged the multitude that neither the sex of the one nor the youth of the other were respected. in which some six hundred miles of galleries have been traced. and she. bones are often calcined from fire. she encouraged others. a young man. harps. It has been said that the lives of the early Christians consisted of "persecution above ground and prayer below ground." "Lawrence to his sweetest son. A. In these the dead bodies were placed and the front closed. The Fifth Persecution. When she was again produced for the third and last time. and it is no concern of mine. of Pergamus. Blandina. These galleries are about eight feet high and from three to five feet wide. she was accompanied by Ponticus. at which time. crowns. Attalus. on the day when she and the three other champions were first brought into the amphitheater. a deacon of Vienna. after enduring all the torments heretofore mentioned. he persevered unto death. Blandina. and above all the fish." Their lives are expressed by the Coliseum and the catacombs. Biblias. epitaphs or symbols are graved or painted. for which they. The early Church of Rome might well be called the Church of the Catacombs. anchors. and of fire." Remember when reading these inscriptions the story the skeletons tell of persecution. There are some sixty catacombs near Rome. a youth of fifteen. But despite the awful story of persecution that we may read here.

Speratus and twelve others were likewise beheaded. yet the Gospel shone with resplendent brightness. who were beheaded.D. informs us that if the Christians had collectively withdrawn themselves from the Roman territories. He succeeded the martyr Pothinus as bishop of Lyons. a married lady. than he was dragged before the judge. became a great favorer of the Christians in general. The names of the other prisoners. the sister of Rhais. becoming their convert. and a slave. . Secundulus. pointed him out as an object of resentment to the emperor. but his life was spared. and Satur.D. Asclepiades. or officer. her head was struck off with a sword. The persecutions now extending to Africa. 202. and Secundulus died in prison. an officer belonging to the army. was executed in the same manner as Rhais had been. they ran between. wanting to impose the keeping of Easter there. as an officer. or such as had the care of the wild beasts. the executioner did that office with a sword. She converted her husband and brother.D. 201. which made his first attack upon Perpetua. and the maximus. Cecilia. many were martyred in that quarter of the globe. as was Andocles in France. that he could not swear by the Roman idols. became her convert. at first. the most particular of whom we shall mention. suffered the same fate. particularly two brothers. Felicitas and Perpetua were stripped. Basilides being. and having continued there a considerable time. were Saturninus. 222. bishop of Rome. was born in Greece. though persecuting malice raged. On the day appointed for their execution. suffered many tortures. Saturninus was beheaded. required to take a certain oath. bishop of Lyons. in order to be thrown to a mad bull. were beheaded. catechumen of Carthage. who led them to execution. was beheaded for being a Christian. Saturninus. and was then burnt. the father of the celebrated Origen. the empire would have been greatly depopulated. and ruled his diocese with great propriety. and were severely lashed as they passed. the bishop of Rome. A. but the prejudice and fury of the ignorant multitude prevailing. The hunters being drawn up in two ranks. about A. These executions were in the 205. believe what they heard. but he had no sooner confirmed the same. obsolete laws were put in execution against the Christians. saying. as was Marcella her mother. and speedily afterward beheaded. they were led to the amphitheater. A. 192. Struck with surpsie. Leonidus. firm as an impregnable rock. was married to a gentleman named Valerian. it occasioned some disorders among the Christians. in favor of Christianity. he then darted at Felicitas. and. bishop of Antioch. Many of Origen's hearers likewise suffered martyrdom. who lived in this age. In particular. on the eighth day of March. and Revocatus were ordered to run the gauntlet between the hunters. a married lady. the people could not. Tertullian. Revocatus and Satur were destroyed by wild beasts. Potainiena. as he was a Christian. another Serenus. Those who suffered with her were. a young lady of good family in Rome. he was beheaded.D. A. named Plutarchus and Serenus. The progress of Christianity alarmed the pagans. and stunned her. Victor. Victor. in preference to other places. Perpetua. and Heraclides.D. he wrote a celebrated tract against heresy. and gored her dreadfully. Satur. but Basilides. and they revived the stale calumny of placing accidental misfortunes to the account of its professors. and ordered to attend her execution.Severus. having been recovered from a severe fit of sickness by a Christian. suffered martyrdom in the first year of the third century. withstood the attacks of its boisterous enemies with success. This zeal. Felicitas. but not killing them. of about twenty-two years. committed to prison. Irenaeus. The lady was placed naked in a scalding bath. Irenaeus wrote him a synodical epistle. 187. and. in the name of the Gallic churches. he was a zealous opposer of heresies in general. Rhais had boiled pitch poured upon her head. big with child at the time of her being apprehended. But. refused. It is generally supposed that the account of the persecutions at Lyons was written by himself. destined to suffer upon this occasion. and Revocatus. and received both a polite and a Christian education. Heron. and in A.

and looked upon the murder of a Christian as a merit to themselves. the bishop of Rome. the Church was free from persecution for the space of more than ten years. "I am astonished you should sacrifice to an infamous woman. for the heathen temples began to be forsaken. about this time. whose debaucheries even your own historians record. crept into the Church: the Christians were at variance with each other. and the Christian churches thronged. at the instigation of a pagan priest. and whose life consisted of such actions as your laws would punish. and Urban. the proconsul . Chrysostom.D. and many other Christians. a Grecian. with all their families. Peter." Optimus.D. committed his treasure to the care of this good man. In Cappadocia. 235. not finding as much as his avarice made him expect. 250. He was put into a leather bag. but the manner of his death is not recorded. but the principal we shall give some account of. but in A. was seized upon for being a Christian. during whose reign. numberless Christians were slain without trial. who was deemed a Christian and was partly by his jealousy concerning the amazing increase of Christianity. The heathens in general were ambitious to enforce the imperial decrees upon this occasion. A. the president. He was accordingly seized. was in the time of Maximinus. 249 This was occasioned partly by the hatred he bore to his predecessor Philip. bishop of Rome. did all he could to exterminate the Christians from that province. 249. and buried indiscriminately in heaps. determined to wreak his vengeance on the good prelate. No. A. The martyrs. and it was unfortunate for the Gospel. as we are informed by St.D. 224. Martina. bishop of Rome. The deceased emperor. a Christian prelate. The principal persons who perished under this reign were Pontianus. I shall offer the true God the acceptable sacrifice of praises and prayers.Calistus. The tyrant Maximinus dying. was beheaded for refusing to sacrifice to Venus. thrown into the Tyber. Fabian. who gave offence to the government by collecting the acts of the martyrs. The Seventh Persecution. and the virulence of pride occasioned a variety of factions. But Decius. Under Decius. his successor. a young man. A. Under Maximus. and that of his successor Philip. 232. Calepodius. a native of Cilicia. Julian. had. and dragged until he expired. bishop of Rome. met the same fate A. upon this occasion. Philip. he suffered decapitation.D. 235 A. a Christian minister. Anteros. a violent persecution broke out in Alexandria. a noble and beautiful virgin.D. was martyred.D.D. was succeeded by Gordian. raised by Maximinus. A. Roman senators. without the knowledge of the emperor. without the least decency. amiable for the superior qualities of his body and mind. was the first person of eminence who felt the severity of this persecution. A. and in that condition thrown into the sea. were innumerable. that many errors had. Simplicius. self-interest divided those whom social love ought to have united. Seremianus.D. on account of his integrity. and Hippolitus. together with a number of serpents and scorpions. He said. sometimes fifty or sixty being cast into a pit together. During this persecution. These reasons stimulated Decius to attempt the very extirpation of the name of Christian. 238. senator. Pammachius and Quiritus. and on January 20. The Sixth Persecution. tied to a wild horse.

by which all his bones were broken. being brought before the proconsul as a Christian. but not in the same manner. were seized as Christians. dropped down on the ground. burnt with red-hot irons. Their feet were pierced with nails. 251. Lucian and Marcian. was not more remarkable for her personal and acquired endowments. but found all her efforts were vain. perform the sacrifices. two wicked pagans. After enduring the torments for a time. he determined to gratify his revenge. called to her. for her chastity was impregnable. for these were beheaded. they were dragged through the streets. governor of Sicily. condemned them to be burnt alive. In order to gratify his passions with the greater conveniency. Pursuant to his orders. her beauty was such. "I cannot pay that respect to devils. and Denisa avowing herself to be a Christian. and we are informed. was ordered to sacrifice to the pagan idols. as he could not his passion. Denisa. Aphrodica acquainted Quintian with the inefficacy of her endeavors. and carried before Sabinus. however. why would you buy a moment's ease at the expense of a miserable eternity!" Optimus. Having borne these torments with admirable fortitude. by his order. she was scourged. Lucian answered. and to do everything in their power to rescue them from the snares of the devil. bishop of Gortyna. to make amends for their former errors. The persecution. the martyr. and at length burnt in the fire. suddenly exclaimed. "Their conversion was by the same grace which was given to St. confessing the accusation. they were seized upon. she was beheaded. and she well knew that virtue alone could procure true happiness. the governor of Bithynia. A. "O unhappy wretch. a young woman of only sixteen years of age. On being asked by what authority they took upon themselves to preach.of Asia. calling on their blessed Redeemer. soon after. was seized by order of Lucius. raging at this time. This wretch tried every artifice to win her to the desired prostitution. than he fell into the greatest agonies. enaged to be foiled in his designs. from a zealous persecutor of the Church. and save his venerable person from . 'That the laws of charity and humanity obliged all men to endeavor the conversion of their neighbors. and made many converts. finding that he could not prevail with them to renounce their faith. February 1. 251. a Sicilian lady. On her confessing that she was a Christian. Agatha. Andrew and Paul. Paul. A. changed his lust into resentment. Alexander and Epimachus. and at the same place. became a preacher of the Gospel. two eminent men. exhorted him to obey the imperial mandate.' Lucian having answered in this manner. but scarcely had he given this proof of his frailty. and at length beheaded. than her piety." This speech so much enraged the proconsul that Nichomachus was put to the rack. lived the lives of hermits. Marcian said. After some time spent in this manner. and made many attempts upon her chastity without success. a very infamous and licentious woman. hearing this. the governor of that place. which is only due to the Almighty.D. she there expired on February 5. who beheld this terrible judgment. and subsisted upon bread and water only. though skilful magicians. Trypho and Respicius. he recanted.D. becoming converts to Christianity. were apprehended for being Christians: and. who. she was next laid naked upon live coals. Cyril. that Quintian. torn with iron hooks. and imprisoned at Nice. and then he was sent to be beheaded. that four female martyrs suffered on the same day. intermingled with glass. in a fragment preserved by Eusebius. and expired. he put the virtuous lady into the hands of Aphrodica. which sentence was soon after executed. and then being carried back to prison. Nichomachus. they became zealous preachers. suffered martyrdom by stoning. were beat with staves. scourged. scorched with lighted torches. on hearing this. and expired immediately. of Alexandria. who. nevertheless. torn with hooks. and torn with sharp hooks. ordered the prisoner to be stretched upon a wheel. became enamored of her." The proconsul. who. Nichomachus replied. two companions of Nichomachus. 251.

Julianus. and a man found in the brothel instead of a beautiful lady. and underwent his martyrdom with great fortitude. when they were executed accordingly. for the governor. bishop of Jerusalem. The worthy prelate heard his fiery sentence without emotion. were bound on the backs of camels. During the emperor's absence. walked cheerfully to the place of execution. went to the house. where he died through the severity of his confinement. The good prelate replied that as he had long taught others to save their souls. together with three young men who had been his pupils. A. Didymus. for he was now eighty-four years of age. but soon sending for the bishop. The persecution raged in no place more than the Island of Crete. Alexander.D. that place streamed with pious blood. The first misfortune that happened to Antioch during his mission. at Antioch. treated with great severities. After Gordian's death. and begged that the sentence might fall on her as the guilty person. on refusing to sacrifice to the Roman idols. Malchus. Martianus. Verianus and Marcellinus said. about this time was cast into prison on account of his religion. who. took and plundered this city among others. in the reign of Decius. informed Theodora who he was. and owning that he was a Christian the sentence of death was immediately pronounced against him. was conveyed to prison by some soldiers. and then beheaded. were burnt. was the siege of it by Sapor. Seraion. the emperor Decius having erected a pagan temple at Ephesus. a Christian. after having been tortured. The emperor dissembled his anger at that time. a Christian of a liberal education. Theodora. A. 251. he should only think now of his own salvation. he sharply reproved him for his insolence. Theodora. a beautiful young lady of Antioch. and hid themselves in a cavern. The emperor wishing to win these soldiers to renounce their faith by his entreaties and lenity. and scourged. This order was nobly refused by seven of his own soldiers. became bishop of Antioch. Secundianus. Dionysius. This being effected. being exceedingly active in executing the imperial decrees. and their bodies afterward burnt. On the way. This being refused. and advised her to make her escape in his clothes. came to the judge. Maximianus. which the emperor being informed of at his return. but. Joannes. and absolutely refused to let him come in. Babylas. Didymus was taken before the president. and then thrown into a fire and consumed. and Constantinus. hearing that her deliverer was likely to suffer. lame with the gout. severely scourged. to whom confessing the truth. Also forty virgins. viz. having been accused as a Christian. loaded with chains. king of Persia. "Where are you carrying the innocent?" This interrogatory occasioned them to be seized. and all three. he was committed to prison. having a desire to visit an assembly of Christians. gave them a considerable respite until he returned from an expedition. he commanded all who were in that city to sacrifice to the idols. but was soon totally defeated by Gordian. another Christian. on the demise of Zebinus. having overrun all Syria. and Cronion. Babylas opposed him. . were hanged and decapitated. that her virtue might be sacrificed to the brutality of lust. and they all perished with hunger. an old man. and governed the Church with admirable prudence during the most tempestuous times. where. disguised himself in the habit of a Roman soldier. He acted with inimitable zeal. being first beheaded. and then ordered him to sacrifice to the pagan deities as an expiation for his ofence. and used the Christian inhabitants with greater severity than the rest. after being imprisoned. 237. threw herself at his feet. In the year of our Lord 251. deaf to the cries of the innocent. they escaped.destruction. the mouth of the cave was closed up. and insensible to the calls of justice. was condemned to the stews.D. that emperor came to Antioch. the inflexible judge condemned both.

the Christians met with a respite. they renounced their faith. Gallus.Origen. Origen obtained his enlargement. the elder. So. the lovers were base enough to inform against the ladies. The Eighth Persecution. was seized. his feet placed in the stocks. In this interim. The most eminent martyrs were the following. He is supposed to have been a Greek by birth or by extraction. and persecutions spread from the interior to the extreme parts of the empire. the opinions they had created vanished away like the stars before the sun. was designed in marriage for Armentarius. suffered martyrdom in 258. stretching out his arms over the poor. The suitors. and Gallus. and continued for three years and six months. a gentleman of eminence in Rome. and hence the bishop with six of his deacons. the celebrated presbyter and catechist of Alexandria. who. when the day of his answer was come. a person of rank and opulence. craving three days' respite. He was threatened with fire. he caused a good number of poor Christians to be congregated. at the age of sixty-four. retiring to Tyre. in 253. so to toss and turmoil them. the Christian bishop of Rome. the greedy wolf demanded where this Lawrence had bestowed the substance of the Church: who. promised to declare where the treasure might be had. was beheaded in the same year. 257. he there remained until his death. A. Marcianus. The merciless tyrant. and Lucius. but a distributor also of the Church riches. nor age were regarded. and the happy conclusion of a controversy with some heretics is generally ascribed to his piety and prudence. In the year 258.D. to put to death all the Christian clergy in Rome. the persecutor strictly charged him to stand to his promise. which happened when he was in the sixty-ninth year of his age. bishop of Rome. Under Valerian. but. and his legs extended to the utmost for several successive days. they sealed their martyrdom with their blood. Stephen. that they should wax weary of their profession. With furious face and cruel countenance. a plague broke out in the empire: sacrifices to the pagan deities were ordered by the emperor. as well as the prejudice of the magistrates. They took great pains to persuade the ladies to do the same. Among these were Cornelius. the enraged animal was driven down the steps of the temple. Let us draw near to the fire of martyred Lawrence. . engaging in a war with the Goths. and their tortures and deaths as various and painful. then with the fiery fork of tyranny. and. A. refusing to sacrifice to idols. but when danger appeared. were brought before Junius Donatus. and about that time Saturninus. disappointed in their purpose. Sextus succeeded Stephen as bishop of Rome. with the rake of avarice to scrape to himself the treasure of poor Christians. and tormented by every lingering means the most infernal imaginations could suggest. where. singular wisdom. thrown into a loathsome prison. his successor. First. Then valiant Lawrence. but the fallacy of such arguments being proved by the most able divines. sex.D. Secunda. Most of the errors which crept into the Church at this time arose from placing human reason in competition with revelation. understanding him to be not only a minister of the sacraments. the emperor Decius died. who had the management of the Roman government. Rufina and Secunda were two beautiful and accomplished ladies. 257. the pious orthodox bishop of Toulouse. at the time of the persecution's commencing. being apprehended as Christians. in the month of April. and many fell martyrs to the impetuosity of the rabble. governor of Rome. though neither rank. In the meantime. the younger. by which the worthy martyr's brains were dashed out. a young nobleman. procured an order from the emperor Valerian. who succeeded him. by the apprehension of one soul. laden with fetters. the emperor. Upon a signal given. The martyrs that fell in this persecution were innumerable. having concluded his wars. His great fidelity. Rufina. 257 Began under Valerian. were both Christians. that our cold hearts may be warmed thereby. and uncommon courage distinguished him upon many occasions. and had for some time served in the capacity of a deacon under Stephen. was treated with all the barbarous indignities imaginable. and fastened by the feet to the tail of a bull. daughters of Asterius. for Verinus. to save their fortunes. During this cruel temporizing. promised to himself a double prey.

A terrible plague breaking out in Carthage.D. he returned to Carthage. he was both the pious and polite preacher. and the church in the bishop. and having a considerable fortune. ye have done it unto me. and ye gave me meat: I was thirsty. he lived in the very extravagance of splendor." In A. dressed himself in plain attire. but a roaring lion. he stared. In Africa the persecution raged with peculiar violence. The rigor of the persecution abating. O ye tormentors. bring out the strongest chains. an eminent prelate. on with him: roast him. knowing that unanimity alone could be of service to the Church. turn him: on pain of our high displeasure do every man his office.D. and ye gave me drink: I was a stranger. not a reasonable man. gave him great uneasiness. became the happy instrument of Cyprian's conversion: on which account. and. buffet him with fists. and the grated bed of iron: on the fire with it. and did everything in his power to expunge erroneous opinions. "Kindle the fire (he cried)--of wood make no spare. he wrote thirty pious and elegant letters to his flock. his teeth like a hellhound grinned. and his effects were immediately confiscated. Coecilius. and commenced a life of austerity. bishop of the Christrians. "That the bishop was in the church. gird him with burning plates. So mightily God wrought with his martyr Lawrence. away with him: whip him with scourges. but to Numidia and Mauritania. and with all the accomplishments of the gentleman. In all his transactions he took great care to ask the advice of his clergy. he studied the Scriptures with care and being struck with the beauties of the truths they contained. he ramped.' And again. brain him with clubs. bind the rebel hand and foot. so that unity can only be preserved by a close connexion between the pastor and his flock. in A. it was as usual. and ye took me in. his language easy and elegant. however. jerk him with rods. being greatly admired for his virtues and works." The bishop. Hath this villain deluded the emperor? Away with him. he blended the virtues of a Christian. this meek lamb was laid. and the fire-forks. 'Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren. he was termed Coecilius Cyprian. he sold his estate. that it became not a bed of consuming pain. among whom the following were the most distinguished characters: Cyprian. What more precious jewels can Christ have.' What greater riches can Christ our Master possess. he might be called. 'I was an hungered. After many cruel handlings. so miraculously God tempered His element the fire. he was almost unanimously elected bishop of Carthage. and a pious ornament of the Church. a Christian minister of Carthage. Now. He was soon after made a presbyter. but all was done. and the universal cry of the pagans was. he determined to practise the virtues therein recommended. About the year 246. but several schisms that then crept into the Church. Cyprian to the beasts. 250. The brightness of his genius was tempered by the solidity of his judgment. "Cyprian to the lions. Cyprian was publicly proscribed by the emperor Decius. Previous to his baptism. withdrew from the rage of the populace. distributed the money among the poor. but on his soft bed of down. and for the great love that he always afterward bore for the author of his conversion. Jesteth the traitor with the emperor? Pinch him with fiery tongs. his mouth like a boar formed. under the appellation of Coecilius Cyprian. 248. I will not say on his fiery bed of iron. and his manners graceful and winning: in fine. this being one of his maxims. laid to the charge of the Christians. what tongue is able to express the fury and madness of the tyrant's heart! Now he stamped. bishop of Carthage. than the poor people in whom He loveth to be seen?" O. Subsequent to his baptism. broil him. During his retirement. and the magistrates began to persecute .said: "These are the precious treasure of the Church. on the death of Donatus." The word was no sooner spoken. but a pallet of nourishing rest. he fared as one out of his wits: his eyes like fire glowed. in whom Jesus Christ hath His mansion-place. than those in whom He hath promised to dwell? For so it is written. and when the bed is fire-hot. Cyprian's care not only extended over Carthage. in whom the faith of Christ reigneth. toss him. many thousands received the crown of martyrdom. these are the treasure indeed. His doctrines were orthodox and pure. In his youth he was educated in the principles of Gentilism. and all the dignity of pomp.

A. they were commanded either to sacrifice to Jupiter. A. who had so long and so terribly persecuted the Christians. 260. succeeded him. who was followed by Probus. and gave the money to the poor. and Priscus. succeeded him. a most terrible tragedy was exhibited: three hundred Christians were. Donatilla. making him kneel down as the meanest slave. were burnt for being Christians. had gall and vinegar given them to drink. These are the only martyrs left upon record during this reign. Alexander. He was the first martyr to Aurelian's petulancy.D. .accordingly. Primelus. Augurius and Eulogius. Remus. A. which occasioned an epistle from them to Cyprian. and during all these reigns the Church had peace.D. This not satiating his desire of revenge. three Christians of Palestine. who sold his estate. 257. After having kept him for the space of seven years in this abject state of slavery. in answer to which he vindicates the cause of Christianity. and carried before the new governor. 258. a young gentleman. his sons. Carnious and Numerian. The disciples of Cyprian. This prelate was advanced to the Roman see in 274. by the orders of the proconsul. Montanus. bishop of Tarragon. The Ninth Persecution Under Aurelian. though he was then eighty-three years of age. voluntarily accused themselves of being Christians. were Lucius. but was soon after seized. Unanimously refusing. were then severely scourged. and thus fell one of the most tyrannical emperors of Rome. Fructuosus. Maxima. and during his reign (a few martyrs excepted) the Church enjoyed peace for some years. and treading upon him as a footstool when he mounted his horse. martyred in this persecution. he returned to Carthage. under which torments he expired. as the latter was by Carus: this emperor being killed by a thunder storm. by a stretagem. Victoricus. On the death of this proconsul. worried by wild beasts. which sentence was executed accordingly. and rubbed with salt. A. in Spain. the son of Valerian. placed round a burning limekiln. which sentence was executed on the fourteenth of September. he caused his eyes to be put out. 274 The principal sufferers were: Felix. Julian.D. Gallienus. bishop of Rome. who exiled him to a little city on the Lybian sea. on which account they were sentenced to be devoured by tigers. emperor of Persia. or to be thrown into the kiln. they bravely jumped into the pit. This tyrant. and were immediately suffocated. was taken prisoner by Sapor. Aurelian was succeeded by Tacitus. It is here proper to take notice of the singular but miserable fate of the emperor Valerian. who carried him into his own country. and Donatian. as it was soon put to a stop by the emperor's being murdered by his own domestics.D. Flavian. and there treated him with the most unexampled indignity. and one of the greatest persecutors of the Christians. and at length beheaded. three virgins of Tuburga. a city within a day's journey of Rome. rubbed with lime. tormented on a gibbet. who condemned him to be beheaded. scorched on a gridiron. Agapetus. being beheaded on the twenty-second of December. and Secunda. with a woman of the same place. A pan of coals and incense being prepared. in the same year. Cyprian was brought before the proconsul Aspasius Paturnus. At Utica. was seized as a Christian. and then beheaded at Praeneste. tortured. Malchus. and his two deacons. he soon after ordered his body to be flayed alive. at Byzantium.

A. They were martyred by being tied to posts. he associated Maximian with him in the empire. he offered himself up as the person they were seeking for.D. natives of Rome. from whom St. The enemies of Amphibalus. upon this occasion. every tenth man to be selected from the rest. This happened on the twentysecond of June. The edifice. they were beheaded by a soldier. he commanded that the whole legion should be put to death. 287. to assist him against the rebels of Burgundy. because the men had been raised in Thebias: they were quartered in the east until the emperor Maximian ordered them to march to Gaul. who voluntarily undertook the task of executioner. and of noble descent. where he . and entreated permission to die for Alban. and their parents and whole family became converts to a faith they had before reprobated. with a fire of straw lighted under her. but by the advice of their officers they drew up a loyal remonstrance to the emperor. who had the care of the before-mentioned martyrs. under the command of Mauritius. the wife of the jailer. some remains of which are still visible. In the year 286. Alarmed at these orders. He was originally a pagan. but determined to attempt the propagation of the Gospel in Gaul. where a magnificent church was erected to his memory about the time of Constantine the Great. Alban's. enraged at their perseverance and unanimity. and then he was sentenced to be beheaded. Quintin was a Christian. of Acquitain. and a monastery erected adjoining to it. A. and the church is a noble Gothic structure. in order to sink it. was also converted by them. Their parents were heathens. Obtaining the latter request. in Hertfordshire. king of Mercia. when a second decimation took place. it was thrown into a river. was ordered to be broiled upon a gridiron. or with him. After remaining in this situation for a day and a night. a Christian female. that he ordered the legion to be decimated. The venerable Bede assures us. but converted by a Christian ecclesiastic. their worthy commanders. A. They passed the Alps into Gaul. and likewise he commanded that they should take the oath of allegiance and swear. This bloody order having been put in execution. 287. but it had a contrary effect: for. whom he sheltered on account of his religion. now St. was the first British martyr. after which Lucian went to Beaumaris. to assist in the extirpation of Christianity in Gaul. two brothers. A. would have softened the emperor. but the tutors. and then beheaded. When her body was taken down. a most remarkable affair occurred. named Amphibalus. in order to facilitate his escape. at which the whole army was to assist. September 22. and some Christians were put to death before any general persecution broke out. and put to the sword. they preached together in Amiens. at the saame time. June 22. and at length joined the emperor. and Exupernis. having intelligence of the place where he was secreted. and every tenth man of those living was put to death. their sufferings were put an end to by thrusting lances through their bodies. ordered a general sacrifice. contained none but Christians. Candidus. was rebuilt by Offa. received its name. Alban's. with one Lucian. Zoe. and a native of Rome. the soldiers preserved their fortitude and their principles. consisting of six thousand six hundred and sixty-six men. about this time. at first he showed great favor to the Christians. In the year of Christ 286. Marcus and Marcellianus were twins. This legion was called the Theban Legion. the executioner suddenly became a convert to Christianity.D. but did not suffer from the rage of persecution for many years after.Diocletian mounted the imperial throne. to whom the education of the children was intrusted. a legion of soldiers. 287. and hung upon a tree.D. that. at Verulam. the first Christian king. This. Their constancy at length subdued those who wished them to become pagans. which was accordingly executed by the other troops. Alban. This so greatly enraged Maximian. Faith. each individual of the Theban Legion absolutely refused either to sacrifice or take the oaths prescribed. Great Britain had received the Gospel of Christ from Lucius. The deceit being detected. 284. when the soldiers came. 286. the governor ordered him to be scourged. came to the house of Alban. who cut them to pieces with their swords. Among these were Felician and Primus. it might have been presumed. in France. in Hertfordshire. This second severity made no more impression than the first had done. being destroyed in the Saxon wars. with a large stone tied to it. brought them up as Christians. that is. Maximian. those who remained alive were still inflexible. and having their feet pierced with nails.D.

A. but more particularly in the east. . his body was then torn with wire scourges. 287. poison. Quintin remained in Picardy.D. and Galerius privately ordered the imperial palace to be set on fire. Tired with slaughter. and after he had been thus tortured. A provocation like this was sufficient to call down pagan vengeance upon his head. Racks. Hence many were respited from execution.was martyred. who. commanding the destruction of all other Christian churches and books. and was very zealous in his ministry. Under Diocletian. as the cruel pagans boasted. though they were not put to death. being stimulated by his mother. and as it lasted ten years. their noses slit. daggers. several governors of provinces represented to the imperial court. consisting entirely of Christians. it is impossible to ascertain the numbers martyred. and committed them to the flames. and a plausible pretence given for carrying on the persecution with the greater severities. they seized upon all the sacred books. October 31. as much as possible was done to render their lives miserable. and whole Christian families perished in the flames. to render Christians of all denomination outlaws. never ceased persuading the emperor to enter upon the persecution. and famine. was burnt. where. 303. were made use of in various parts to dispatch the Christians. but execrated the name of the emperor for his injustice. and then burned alive. that the Christians might be charged as the incendiaries.D. but. A city of Phrygia. had the church levelled with the ground. All the Christians were apprehended and imprisoned. the name of Christian was so obnoxious to the pagans that all indiscriminately fell sacrifices to their opinions. Being seized upon as a Christian. at length.D. was occasioned partly by the increasing number and luxury of the Christians. until he had accomplished his purpose. and invention was exhausted to devise tortures against such as had no crime. and being tied together were driven into the sea. No distinction was made of age or sex. which occasioned various martyrdoms. Many houses were set on fire. and an order soon succeeded. severely tortured. The fatal day fixed upon to commence the bloody work. The whole of this transaction was in the presence of Diocletian and Galerius. the persecution began in Nicomedia. and the hatred of Galerius. scourges. crosses. and on which. The persecution became general in all the Roman provinces. he was remanded back to prison. their right eyes put out. A. This was followed by a severe edict. The Tenth Persecution. On the appointed day. or to enumerate the various modes of martyrdom. that being the day in which the Terminalia were celebrated. lighted torches were applied to his sides and armpits. and all the inhabitants perished in the flames. to the church of the Christians. not contented with burning the books. The publication of this edict occasioned an immediate martyrdom. for a bold Christian not only tore it down from the place to which it was affixed. A general sacrifice was commenced. the adopted son of Diocletian. but thinking differently from the votaries of superstition. 303 Under the Roman emperors. A. His body was sunk in the Somme. their limbs rendered useless by dreadful dislocations. who. and their flesh seared in conspicuous places with red-hot irons. and others had stones fastened about their necks. many of them having their ears cut off. he was accordingly seized. and boiling oil and pitch poured on his naked flesh. with a great number of officers and assistants. the impropriety of such conduct. on the morning of which the prefect of that city repaired. was the twenty-third of February. they hoped to put a termination to Christianity. having forced open the doors. swords. commonly called the Era of the Martyrs. and died of the barbarities he had suffered. he was stretched with pullies until his joints were dislocated. a bigoted pagan.

and the jailers were accordingly beheaded. was the first beheaded under this regulation. about this time. and his fortune he spent in relieving the distresses of poor Christians. unmercifully beaten with batoons. they. and immediately moving him to a place of security. and confirming the weak. perform in the daytime. and Victor was thrown into a mill. Remaining still inflexible. he ordered Sebastian to be seized. and he was commanded to offer incense upon it immediately. but this voracious creature and a fierce lioness both refused to touch the prisoners. and Andronicus. which sentence was executed accordingly. and his faith was superior to the most dangerous perils. A. an aged man. being at Tarsus. Fired with indignation at the request.D. He remained a true Christian in the midst of idolatry. Being by order stretched upon the rack. June 14. that the Christians should not either use means again to recover or bury his body. their names were Tarachus. Sebastian. which pious work he could not. his constancy supported him under all afflictions. and dragged through the streets. The Christians. named Alexander. 303. Maximilian. This so enraged the emperor Maximian. and there to be shot to death with arrows. though hungry. the emperor ordered him to be taken to a field near the city. used all his endeavors to bring him back to paganism. Victor was then again put to the rack. Nevertheless. three Christians were brought before him. was brought up a Christian. Maximus. in France.D. The keeper then brought out a large bear. were ordered for execution. he boldly stepped forward. that had that very day destroyed three men. on October 11. several beasts were let loose upon them. and reprehended him for his various cruelties and unreasonable prejudices against Christianity. after which he underwent the tortures with most admirable fortitude. and carried to a place near the palace. he was treated with all manner of cruelties and indignities by the enraged populace. termed the Campus Martius. Probus. in Gaul. Being brought to the amphitheater. he ordered them immediately to be put to death. in a short time effected his recovery. A. or repositories of the dead. This affair coming to the ears of the emperor. a small altar was then brought. Hylas. His father.D. and prepared him for a second martyrdom. unallured by the splendors of a court. He was at length. finding that he had been instructed in the principles of Christianity by the nurse who brought him up. Victor was a Christian of a good family at Marseilles. as soon as he was able to go out. 303. but none of the animals. when his virtues increased with his years. and. consistently with his own safety. During the execution of this order. A. he was conveyed to a dungeon. who ordered him to be bound. his courage was deemed obstinacy. he ordered that it should be thrown into the common sewer. was born at Narbonne. found means to remove it from the sewer. who was present. he placed himself intentionally in the emperor's way as he was going to the temple. and Longinus. they. . seized by the emperor Maximian's decree. 303. governor of Cilicia. As soon as Diocletian had overcome his surprise. a Christian lady named Lucina. and again sent to prison. and at length sacrificed his son to the idols. upon mature consideration. Maximus ordered them to be slain by the sword. After the executioners were tired with inflicting torments on him. the son of Fabius Victor. for. in order to give his body burial. and bury it in the catacombs. he turned his eyes toward heaven. who was a pagan. and crushed to pieces with the stones. and uncontaminated by the hopes of preferment. thought it unlawful to bear arms under a heathen emperor. he spent a great part of the night in visiting the afflicted.It is necessary now to particularize the most conspicious persons who laid down their lives in martyrdom in this bloody persecution. that he ordered the foot with which he had kicked the altar to be immediately cut off. would touch them. Vitus. he converted his jailers. Finding the design of destroying them by the means of wild beasts ineffectual. and afterward became an officer of the emperor's guard at Rome. a Sicilian of considerable family. Some pious Christians coming to the place of execution. Felician. at length. however. and prayed to God to endue him with patience. and with his foot overthrew both altar and idol. perceived signs of life in him. instructed in the principles of Christianity at Milan. and beaten to death. untained by evil examples. Being a third time examined concerning his religion. Refusing to be a pagan. After repeated tortures and exhortations to recant. In his confinement. a celebrated martyr. he persevered in his principles.

Soon after he was ordered to be strangled. who was nearly related to him. Cyprian and Justina were seized upon as Chrisitans. both were beheaded.D. December. . but spikes at the top. loathsome. and pieces of broken glass. were tortured in a similar manner. and felt animated with a powerful spirit of grace. Peter. burnt his books of astrology and magic. his teeth beaten from their sockets. In the course of time he became acquainted with Justina. his face scarified. a native of Palestine. and there starved to death. 303. the governor of Terragona. Cyprian. He received a liberal education in his youth. The conversion of Cyprian had a great effect on the pagan gentleman who paid his addresses to Justina. His four children. and solidity of understanding seldom found in the capriciousness of juvenile years. and the latter chastised. was a native of Natioch. where he died. A. which had not only a fire placed under it. the former was torn with pincers. a eunuch belonging to the emperor. and her breasts burnt in the most shocking manner. January 22. his body torn with hooks. his limbs dislocated. Her sides were accordingly torn by hooks. the high chamberlain of the household to Diocletian. and imprisoned. loaded with irons. the magistrate attempted by the mildest means. a young lady of considerable family and fortune. was remarkable in her youth for sweetness of temper. was deacon of the church of Caesarea at the time of the commencement of Diocletian's persecution. and one belonging to the palace.Romanus. all auditors of Saturninus. the most eminent and paritcular of whom we shall enumerate. and confined ina small. rendered her the admiration of all who knew her. strewed with sharp flints. to be seized. and took great pains to make converts. Victoria. Refusing the honor intended her. These torments neither destroying him. this he undertook. Dacian. etc. Dorotheus. incensed at her behavior. dark dungeon. A pagan gentleman applied to Cyprian. after being variously tormented. Susanna. a noble Roman senator. the niece of Caius. after being tortured. bishop of Rome. Egypt. to distinguish him from Cyprian. put to the rack. Valerius was banished. but she ridiculed the pagan deities with such asperity. until she expired by the violence of the flames. a priest of Albitina. and Vincent the deacon. 304. A. During the persecutions of Diocletian.D. and broiled over a slow fire until he expired. whose birth. a pious Christian. bishop of Carthage. was a Christian of singular modesty and humility. he was joined by Gorgonius. was remanded to prison. another Christian. Eulalia. but soon himself became converted. that the judge. In the year 304. The persecution of Diocletian began particularly to rage in A. and accomplishments. when the persecution reached Spain. They were first tortured and then strangled. beauty. received baptism.D. In his religious labors. after suffering other torments. Dativas. to bring her over to paganism. 304. a Spanish lady of a Christian family. his flesh torn with hooks. was pressed by the emperor Diocletian to marry a noble pagan. and he in a short time embraced Christianity. which ran into his flesh. he was remanded to prison. Thelico. was a Christian. shared the same fate with their father. when many Christians were put to cruel tortures and the most painful and ignominious deaths. He was laid on a gridiron. Being apprehended as a Christian. His body was thrown into the river. November 17. and. 303. a town of Africa. and Vincent was racked. to promote his suit with the beautiful Justina. with some others of less consideration. he was scourged. after which he traveled for improvement through Greece. India. ordered Valerius the bishop. and particularly applied himself to astrology. and perished by the same means. Saturninus. a young lady of Antioch. ordered her to be tortured. known by the title of the magician. and his hair plucked up by the roots. nor changing his resolutions. she was beheaded by the emperor's order. and he was laid on a gridiron. The prisoners being firm in their resolution. Being condemned for his faith at Antioch. his flesh cut with knives.

had not been united together by the bands of wedlock above three weeks. conforting his soul until he expired with the prospect of these glorious rewards it would receive by the tortures suffered in the body. ordered her to be tortured. but the particulars have not been transmitted to us.D. The governor. Philippa." The governor being much incensed at this reply. with red-hot irons. Chionia. Timothy and Maura were crucified near each other. 304. suffered martyrdom. but such as resided in the east felt all the miseries of oppression and lengthened tortures. The consequence was. While in prison. the emperor Diocletian resigned the imperial diadem. and the people in the two governments felt the effects of the dispositions of the two emperors. Maura his wife. and received the conclusion of her martyrdom. "The books shall at least be useless to you. After this. December. who succeeded Caius in that see. a Lycaonian of royal descent. Julitta had boiling pitch poured on her feet. refusing to sacrifice to Jupiter. Carpophorus. as a Christian. Victorius. they were apprehended. when Diocletian's persecution reached Greece. her child was killed before her face. he converted the governor and his family. to which he answered. with Cassice. In this state. we shall enumerate the most eminent. instead of consenting to his wife's entreaties. Amphianus was a gentleman of eminence in Lucia. Timothy. tenderly urged him for her sake to recant. but. which shameful order having been executed. and received the crown of martyrdom in the flames. A. Soon after their execution. in the year 324. While on the rack. Timothy. ordered him to be hung up by the feet. bishop of Assisium. was carried before Arrianus. knowing that he had the keeping of the Holy Scriptures. The governor. when the gag was taken out of his mouth. Galerius ruling in the east. and pushing the idol from him. and was succeeded by Constantius and Galerius. with a weight tied about his neck. Tired with the farce of state and public business. with the plumbetae. Agatho. three sisters. and Severianus. who. Julitta. 305. her sides torn with hooks. Severus. which was executed with great severity. They were burnt. and a gag in his mouth. the former a prince of the most mild and humane disposition and the latter equally remarkable for his cruelty and tyranny. Julitta. that Maura resolved to imitate his courage and fidelity and either to accompany or follow him to glory. bishop of Rome. in order. great virtue. and Eutychia. Sabinus himself was scourged to death. having strongly opposed paying divine honors to Diocletian. Marcellinus. and a scholar of Eusebius. Having exclaimed against the worship of idols. ordered his eyes to be put out. therefore. commanded him to deliver them up to be burnt. and Maura his wife. the governor of Thebais. This punishment was exercised with such excess of cruelty that the pious brothers fell martyrs to its severity. he. These divided the empire into two equal governments. .D. finding that he could make no impression on Irene. of Cappadocia. a man of a pious turn of mind. was a lady of distinguished capacity. and scourged. and all four employed in places of great trust and honor in the city of Rome. ordered her to be exposed naked in the streets. and declared his resolution of dying for the faith. saying. and Constantius in the west. than part with the Word of God. to overcome his fortitude. for those in the west were governed in the mildest manner. were seized upon at Thessalonica. I would sooner deliver them up to be sacrificed.Agrape. Among the many martyred by the order of Galerius. by being beheaded. had his hand cut off by the order of the governor of Tuscany. April 16. March 25. if possible. and uncommon courage. or scourges. a fire was kindled near the city wall. To complete the execution. 304. he greatly blamed her mistaken love. to the ends of which were fastened leaden balls. all of whom suffered martyrdom for the faith. amidst whose flames her spirit ascended beyond the reach of man's cruelty. A. A." His patience under the operation was so great that the governor grew more exasperated. for you shall not see to read them. by a variety of tortures. but more celebrated for her virtues than noble blood. when they were separated from each other by the persecution. a deacon of Mauritania. A.D. Sabinus.D. 304. were martyred about the same time. being apprehended. were brothers. and Irene. after trying in vain to alter her resolution. "Had I children.

bishop of Rome. 308. assisted by Eusebius. He was received into the body of the clergy at Caesarea. but these endeavors being found ineffectual. He copied the greatest part of the works of Origen with his own hand. who reigned in the east. to persevere in their faith. for Thee to stop the course of rivers.D. A. as Thou didst Thy servant Peter. Marcellus. O my God. and. with a stone fastened about his neck.D. he was sent to Amantius. the principal governor of Pannonia. he was apprehended. a bishop. when he preferred the ignominious death of hanging after being an emperor near twenty years. being carried before Matenius. as was Serene. and carried him through the principal towns of the Danube. and ordered him to be heavily ironed. another deacon. and. by order of Maximus Caesar. or to cause a man to walk upon the water. the empress of Diocletian. Proculus. June 4. which she discovered. Agnes. was a man of such extensive learning that he was called a second Origen. the utmost means were used to induce them to renounce Christianity. the governor. Soon after this the persecution abated in the middle parts of the empire. a venerable and pious Christian. Sosius. or a great age. perceiving his constancy. exhorting the people in the most pious terms. several martyrdoms took place. As they were both men of great abilities in their profession. and suffered torture and martyrdom. and died. and an intimate acquaintance of Panteleon's. Peter. Januaries. Being decided in his principles. gave a correct copy of the Old Testament. Maximian endeavored to corrupt his daughter Fausta to murder Constantine her husband. a deacon. Valentine." On pronouncing the last words he immediately sank. suffered the same fate at Rome. as well as in the west. would not touch them. was thrown into a fiery furnace for exhorting some Christians who had been apprehended. In the kingdom of Naples. 311. This sentence being put into execution. in particular. Nicander and Marcian. was martyred November 25. might overcome his resolution. fell a martyr to the miseries he suffered in exile. A. . agreeably to the edicts of various Roman emperors. and Erasmus. Quirinus floated about for some time. and so they were beheaded. which had suffered greatly by the ignorance or negligence of former transcribers. that the hardships of a jail.D. Festus. of a considerable family. was ordered to sacrifice to the pagan deities. were condemned by the governor of Campania to be devoured by the wild beasts. Arriving at length at Sabaria. all. 310. His body was afterwards taken up. two laymen. bishop of Siscia. were apprehended on account of their faith. and Providence at length began to manifest vengeance on the persecutors. Eustratius. deacon of Misene. A. a native of Phoenicia.Hermolaus. and buried by some pious Christians. secretary to the governor of Armina. the people have already seen the proof of Thy power in me. was beheaded for being a Christian. suffered martyrdom for the faith on the same day. and Constantine forced him to choose his own death. a virgin of only thirteen years of age. now Hungary. was martyred in Campania. a reader. flattering himself. where he established a public library and spent his time in the practice of every Christian virtue. a priest. concluded his admonitions with this prayer: "It is no new thing. who loaded him with chains. bishop of Beneventum. exposing him to ridicule wherever he went. Pamphilus. and finding that Quirinus would not renounce his faith. In the year 307. sent him to jail. some occasional tortures and the weight of chains. they were beheaded. however. The savage animals. and Desiderius. being banished on account of his faith. Quirinus. the sixteenth bishop of Alexandria. he ordered him to be cast into a river. on account of being Christians. The governor. and in the same manner as Panteleon. two eminent Roman military officers. O all-powerful Jesus. Eutyches and Acutius. grant me now to lay down my life for Thy sake. January 16.

George. with this inscription: "With this wholesome sign. In hoc vince. and by the emperor's orders was dragged through the streets. behold. his image set up. in his journey drawing toward the city. which then was (and truly) supposed to proceed of this." We shall conclude our account of the tenth and last general persecution with the death of St. nor encounter him in the open field. Which faith when he had once embraced. appearing in the similitude of a cross. sufficiently appointed with strength of men but especially with strength of God. This fiery dragon symbolizes the devil. At the sight whereof when he was greatly astonished. Notwithstanding. Constantine. . George was ordered to be tortured. "In this overcome. the titular saint and patron of England. and revolving many things in his mind. This freedom so greatly provoked the senate that St. in the night season in his sleep. durst not show himself out of the city. being in great doubt and perplexity in himself. and beheaded the next day. Constantine so established the peace of the Church that for the space of a thousand years we read of no set persecution against the Christians. he did ever after most devoutly and religiously reverence. in the south part. moreover. sent by Galerius against him. but in great care and dread in his mind (approaching now near unto Rome) for the magical charms and sorceries of Maxentius. and to carry it in his wars before him. entered his journey coming towards Italy. He was a most bountiful and gracious prince. about the going down of the sun. having a desire to nourish learning and good arts. and celebrated the space of seven days together. and avowed his being a Christian. who was vanquished by St. Thus Constantine. holding in his right hand the sign of the cross. in the market place. understanding of the coming of Constantine. which was about the last year of the persecution. bidding him to make the figuration thereof. and study himself. A. So happy. of Christian parents. wherewith he had vanquished before Severus. which he little deserved. which is associated with this martyr.Constantine was the good and virtuous child of a good and virtuous father. and so should we have the victory. Constantine yet was in no great comfort. The legend of the dragon. taking occasion at the same time to remonstrate against paganism. His mother was named Helena. George seated upon a charging horse and transfixing the monster with his spear. saw a great brightness in heaven. George threw up his command. the true token of fortitude. that is.D. surnamed the Great! For the joy and gladness whereof. and casting up his eyes many times to heaven. I have rescued and delivered our city from the yoke of the tyrant. and by the power of the Lord did ever vanquish them and put them to flight. and consulting with his men upon the meaning thereof. Wherefore. as he should come. daughter of King Coilus. St. George's steadfast faith in Christ. Christ appeared to him with the sign of the same cross which he had seen before. George was born in Cappadocia. and did oftentimes use to read. the citizens who had sent for him before. which he did see with his own eyes in heaven. was promoted in the army of the emperor Diocletian. what help he might have against the operations of his charming. for that he was so great a favorer of the Christian faith. went boldly to the senate house. having. He had marvellous good success and prosperous achieving of all things he took in hand. giving this inscription. and giving proofs of his courage. and also to swear this to be true and certain. and point out the absurdity of worshipping idols. write. born in Britain. with exceeding triumph brought him into the city of Rome. Maxentius. 313. but with privy garrisons laid wait for him by the way in sundry straits. where he was most honorably received. with whom Constantine had divers skirmishes. and trusting more to his devilish art of magic than to the good will of his subjects. and also his soldiers about him. is usually illustrated by representing St. St. which remained unshaken in spite of torture and death." Eusebius Pamphilus doth witness that he had heard the said Constantine himself oftentimes report. so glorious was this victory of Constantine. unto the time of John Wickliffe. During the persecution.

Hence they thought it expedient to complain to the emperor that the Christians were enemies to the state. The persecutions now raged in such a manner that the clergy were driven from Alexandria. by embracing the Christians: that so you with me. Sebastian. governor of Egypt. a native of Lybia. being naturally averse to Christianity. and a priest of Alexandria. many eminent persons in the church and state fell martyrs to the ignorance and ferocity of the pagans. and hence a persecution was raised against the orthodox bishops and clergy. but only offered up prayers to the Almighty God. then his whole family were massacred. general of the Egyptian forces. for which God was my helper. and the great success that had attended those who had refrained from persecuting the Christians. wrote a long letter to the Persian monarch. On account of this mandate.D. the Arians found means to ingratiate themselves into the favor of the emperor Constantinus. He hath likewise so enlarged to me the bounds of the Roman Empire. If a man. the pagan priests. began to publish his errors. In consequence of this appeal. Speaking of his victories over rival emperors of his own time. a Roman officer. 325.D. and the severities practiced by the Arian heretics were as great as those that had been practiced by the pagan idolaters. "I subdued these solely by faith in Christ. and made me triumph over my enemies. in A. A. their churches were shut. and his effects confiscated. and. Constantine the Great being informed of the persecutions in Persia. the great enemies of Persia. and gave orders to persecute them in all parts of his empire. George. were banished. his son and successor in the east. accused of being a Christian. and followed the cross of Christ. After the death of Constantine the Great. but it was renewed in later years when another king succeeded to the throne of Persia. were greatly alarmed. who. and dreaded the loss of that influence they had hitherto maintained over the people's minds and properties. 386. that it extends from the Western Ocean almost to the uttermost parts of the East: for this domain I neither offered sacrifices to the ancient deities. under the authority of the emperor. and carried it on with the most infernal severity. thirty bishops were martyred. who gave me victory in battle. He was assisted in his diabolical malice by Catophonius. and many other Christians cruelly tormented. and other bishops. began a persecution in that city and its environs. easily believed what was said against the Christians. the treasurer.CHAPTER III . Faustinus. Persecution Under Julian the Apostate .Persecutions of the Christians in Persia The Gospel having spread itself into Persia. who worshipped the sun. made his escape. and that sentence was confirmed by the Council of Nice. and they with you. nor made use of charm or divination. the persecution ended for the time. he said. The emperor Sapores. Rejoiced should I be if the throne of Persia found glory also. and their sees filled with Arians.D. In Egypt and Lybia. He was condemned by a council of Lybian and Egyptian bishops. A. The celebrated Athanasius. and Heraclius. the Arian bishop of Alexandria. 318. may enjoy all happiness. Persecutions Under the Arian Heretics The author of the Arian heresy was Arius. in which he recounts the vengeance that had fallen on persecutors. and held a treasonable correspondence with the Romans.

Julian the apostate. being a Christian. in the magistracy. the light of the Gospel spread itself considerably in Scythia. Valentinian succeeded to the empire. 363. lived unmolested. vigilant. and lastly of his head. commencing his pagan injunctions in the year 370. swine were brought to feed therein. The emperor. His father sent him some time after to Nicomedia. Julian succeeded him. that in Palestine many were burnt alive. and the martyr expired under its severities. and even while expiring. and Domitius murdered in a cave. to be instructed in the Christian religion. with a prophetic spirit foretold the death of the emperor. he was firm in the faith. temperate. king of the East Goths. Though he restored the idolatrous worship. likewise devoured the entrails of the martyrs. He was succeeded by Jovian. until his skin and flesh were entirely mangled. having been defeated by the Romans. He studied the rudiments of grammar under the inspection of Mardonius. and Maximus the magician. when that holy man being brought before him. was deprived of his commission. and was an Arian and of an unrelenting and persecuting disposition. The emperor's agents in vain tampered with Basil by means of promises. and the majority of the people continued pagans. died of a wound which he received in his Persian expedition. and corn being put into their bellies. a eunuch. 362. Donatus. but deprived all Christians of offices at court. Julian determined to examine Basil himself. yet he prohibited any Christian from keeping a school or public seminary of learning. but. on June 28. uttered the most horrid blasphemies. The Christians. whither he had fled for refuge. and pious. and great numbers had their brains beaten out with clubs. and in Thrace. several were ripped open. crucifixion and stoning. but his principles were corrupted by the pernicious doctrines of Ecebolius the rhetorician. Biship Basil made himself first famous by his opposition to Arianism. though the two kings who ruled that country. and a heathen of Constantinople. who had the command in the east. burning. He was chaste. and racks. In Arethusa. and remained in prison to undergo some other sufferings. suffered about the same time.This emperor was the son of Julius Constantius. Julian commanded that the body of Basil should be torn every day in seven different parts. he equally opposed paganism. innumerable were the martyrs who suffered by the sword. and the nephew of Constantine the Great. dying the year 361. then of his estate. laborious. Emilianus was burnt at a stake. others were dragged by their feet through the streets naked until they expired. and Hilarinus. was an ally to the Romans. but Athanarich. Enraged at what he heard. but the latter. Artemius. wreaked his vengeance on his Christian subjects. which. a Roman magistrate. or in the army. which had for some years fallen into great disrepute. a hermit. Basil not only continued as firm as ever. bishop of Arezzo.D. who restored peace to the Church. was at war with them. After the decease of Jovian. He recalled all banished pagans. and deprived all the Christian clergy of the privileges granted them by Constantine the Great. by the bishop of Eusebius. some were scalded to death. the emperor did every thing in his power to dissuade him from persevering in the faith. allowed the free exercise of religion to every sect. commander in chief of the Roman forces in Egypt. A. king of the West Goths. and associated to himself Valens. In Alexandria. as many of the particulars have not been handed down to us. he made no public edicts against Christianity. his kinsman. threats. when the emperor came accidentally to Ancyra. A. it is necessary to remark in general. many stoned. but. The persecution raged dreadfully about the latter end of the year 363.D. Fritegern. in the dominions of the former. Many Scythian Goths having embraced Christianity about the time of Constantine the Great. and had no sooner attained the imperial dignity than he renounced Christianity and embraced paganism. Constantius. also Gordian. . which brought upon him the vengeance of the Arian bishop of Constantinople. in devouring the grain. and that he should be tormented in the other life. This inhuman sentence was executed with rigor. Persecution of the Christians by the Goths and Vandals.

returned afterward with an irresistible force. Upon such occasions the city was given up for days to the marching of troops laden with spoils. and then boldly leaped down into the arena. morituri te salutant! "Hail. also rained down upon him from the furious people. fought as furiously as if they were on the field of battle. and called themselves Christians. among whom were often captive kings and conquered generals. When a glatiator had wounded his adversary. for it celebrated the last Roman victory. and the reddened sand covered with a fresh. as was customary on such occasions. and the gladiators. Afterward. turning toward the thousands of angry faces ranged around him. there were bloody combats in the Colosseum. and thus he perished. holding them apart. and with one voice sounded out their greeting. well-formed men in the prime of youth and strength came forward. The show went on. robed figure appeared for a moment among the audience. and driving to the Capitol amid the shouts of the populace." as it was called. the general. If the spectators held out their hands toward him. the defeated man was taken away. Stones. was celebrated at Rome. But suddenly there was an interruption. "Sedition! sedition! down with him!" was then the cry. He was seen to be a man of rough but imposing presence. But if the fatal signal of "thumbs down" was given. and then. . After this had been done the gates in the wall of the arena were thrown open. to recover if possible from his wounds. and trying in vain to be heard. and if he showed any reluctance to present his neck for the death blow. but did no harm to the orthodox Christian churches. He led his forces across the Alps into Italy. and stopping before the emperor. therefore they destroyed all the statues and temples of the heathen gods. Without hesitating an instant he advanced upon two gladiators engaged in a life-and-death struggle. This was to be the last Roman triumph. and the people. and who dragged after them prisoners of war. called upon them in a solemn. For hundreds of years successful generals had been awarded this great honor on their return from a victorious campaign. Caesar. in the midst of the arena. or whatever missiles came to hand. held up their weapons at arm's length. entering Rome in the car of victory. These were his words: "Do not requite God's mercy in turning away the swords of your enemies by murdering each other!" Angry shouts and cries at once drowned his voice: "This is no place for preaching!--the old customs of Rome must be observed!--On. The Last Roman "Triumph" After this fortunate victory over the Goths a "triumph. madly excited by the desperate bravery of those who continued to fight. clean layer. but the man stood between. and laying his hand upon one of them sternly reproved him for shedding innocent blood. bareheaded and with sun-browned face. before his corpse was dragged out at the death gate. armed with swords and spears. Although it had been won by Stilicho. who took the credit. and cried out. he looked up at the eager faces of the spectators. it was the boy emperor. those about to die salute thee!" The combats now began again. shouted their applause. To the wild bravery of the Gothic barbarian he added the courage and skill of the Roman soldier.In religion the Goths were Arians. Alaric had all the qualities of a great general. and a number of tall. where gladiators. A rudely clad. at once stabbed him to death. there was a scornful shout from the galleries. They marched once around the walls. gladiators!" Thrusting aside the stranger. Hoc habet! "He has it!" and awaited the pleasure of the audience to kill or spare. deep-toned voice which resounded through the deep inclosure. The first part of the bloody entertainment was finished. and when they succeeded mercilessly stabbed their antagonists to death with the three-pronged spear. Some carried swords. enraged at the interference of an outsider with their chosen vocation. many had been slain. the bodies of the dead were dragged off with hooks. Ave. Recipe ferrum! "Receive the steel!" Privileged persons among the audience would even descend into the arena. Caesar. and had him lying helpless at his feet. others three-pronged spears and nets. and although driven back for the time. Honorius. the conquered was to be slain. the gladiators would have again attacked each other. with thumbs upward. to better witness the death agonies of some unusually brave victim. the glatiators with nets tried to entangle those with swords.

no other fight of gladiators was ever held there. 586. He was naturally inclined to virtue. in order to prevent the execution of his father's menaces. a king of the Goths. He had died. Killien was born in Ireland. who was approved of by the emperor. the Eutychians determined to wreak their vengeance on Proterius. . and was at length besieged and taken at Asieta. and in his simple-hearted zeal he had tried to convince them of the cruelty and wickedness of their conduct. was the eldest son of Leovigildus. exasperated at this act of rebellion. and received from his parents a pious and Christian education. When the king heard that his son had changed his religious sentiments. he stripped him of the command at Seville. to the Conclusion of the Seventh Century Proterius was made a priest by Cyril. in Germany. burnt it. in Spain. The king. A. 683. Martin. who was well acquainted with his virtues. and the other of the new prelate. who were patronized by the emperor Heraclius. 655. The prince. where he was governor. by means of his wife Ingonda. and who were reverenced by even the thoughtless and combat-loving Romans. Martin was sent to an island at some distance. insulted it. for the city of Alexandria was divided into two factions. The prince took refuge in Seville. in Italy. and his parents bestowed on him an admirable education. before he appointed him to preach. he was sent to Seville. A. bishop of Rome. the enraged king ordered his guards to cut the prince to pieces. Being condemned by the council of Chalcedon for having embraced the errors of Eutyches. He opposed the heretics called Monothelites. but not in vain. and at the feast of Easter refusing to receive the Eucharist from an Arian bishop. was born at Todi.D. from which he fled. Persecutions from About the Middle of the Fifth. an inveterate enemy to the memory and family of his predecessor. The few who knew him told how he had come from the wilds of Asia on a pilgrimage. He did his utmost endeavors to clear the Church from the errors of Arianism. became a convert to the orthodox faith. and that his name was Telemachus-no more. and a good Christian. and many of the orthodox persuasion in Spain declared for him. on which account he was assassinated on July 11. Loaded with chains. On the death of Cyril. bishop of Alexandria. John. and threatened to put him to death unless he renounced the faith he had newly embraced. they knew he was a holy man.D. A. began to put himself into a posture of defence. and Proterius chosen to fill the vacant see. April 13. and joining in this holy work with John. whose example was followed by the greater part of the people in two years after.D. divested of all episcopal marks of distinction. and treated with the greatest scorn and severity. Hermenigildus. bishop of Bergamo. where he was exposed in the most public places to the ridicule of the people. 457. a Gothic prince. the see of Alexandria was filled by Discorus. who was originally an Arian. This occasioned a dangerous insurrection. and from the day Telemachus fell dead in the Colosseum. was a learned man. to visit the churches and keep his Christmas at Rome. for the shock of such a death before their eyes turned the hearts of the people: they saw the hideous aspects of the favorite vice to which they had blindly surrendered themselves. and scattered the ashes in the air. He obtained the Roman pontiff's license to preach to the pagans in Franconia. and thus a very severe persecution commenced: he likewise marched against his son at the head of a very powerful army. and there cut to pieces. he was very successful against the heretics. who fled to the church for sanctuary: but on Good Friday. began to punish all the orthodox Christians who could be seized by his troops. After lying some months in prison. in Lombardy. he was deposed. the governor. a large body of them rushed into the church. This prince. His work was accomplished at the moment he was struck down.D. In one of the commotions. the one to espouse the cause of the old. cut it to pieces. which they punctually performed.His dress showed him to be one of the hermits who vowed themselves to a holy life of prayer and self-denial. and barbarously murdered the prelate. At Wurtzburg he converted Gozbert. after which they dragged the body through the streets. bishop of Milan. A. His spirit had been stirred by the sight of thousands flocking to see men slaughter one another. Martin was condemned at Constantinople.

and see him buried in it. and numbers suffered martyrdom. he made himself master of all the useful and polite literature of that age. then part of the West-Saxon kingdom. and seemed solicitous to gain information on religious subjects. and then proceeded to Saxony. Persecutions from the Early Part of the Eighth. he took boat to the Rhine. took the city of Armorian. was an Englishman. determined to remain on the spot all night. and he was born at Kirton. and placed him in the see of Mentz. A. 755. looked upon as one of the brightest ornaments of this nation. had him removed to Nutscelle. where Gregory II who then sat in Peter's chair. or Winfrith. It was that prince's ambition to be crowned by the most holy prelate he could find. Flora and Mary. he consecrated Lullus. in 752. the latter had him beheaded. and raised churches on the ruins of those superstitious structures. Thither he repaired the day before. as well as a strong inclination to study. and. in Devonshire. and went to Friesland. and Boniface was pitched on to perform that ceremony. for his end was near. Originally his name was Winfred. and killed him and fifty-two of his companions and attendants on June 5. he ordered them to assemble in a new open plain. and father of the German church.D. From which time he began to preach and labor for the salvation of his fellow creatures. the honor of England. poured down upon him and the companions of his mission in the night. in ecclasiastical history. with the consent of the new king. pitching a tent. his countryman. that. During the ministry of this meek prelate. After due study. two ladies of distinction. a seminary of learning in the diocese of Winchester. where he would have a much greater opportunity of attaining improvements than at Exeter. and finding him full of all virtues that compose the character of an apostolic missionary. he recommended the church of Mentz to the care of the new bishop in very strong terms. by the Saracens. to Near the Conclusion of the Tenth Century Boniface. he began to discover a propensity to reflection. near the river Bourde. he was released to attend a synod of bishops in the kingdom of West-Saxons. Having left these orders. in 719. the abbot. his great age and many infirmities lay so heavy on him.Persuading Gozbert that his marriage with his brother's widow was sinful. were martyred in the year 845. Forty-two persons of Armorian in Upper Phyrgia. demolished the temples. obliged him to receive that holy order when he was about thirty years old. Thus fell the great father of the Germanic Church. suffered martyrdom at the same time. having intelligence of this. The next year. and at the same time was not more . and brought up in the Christian faith. He afterwards. A. When he had thus eased himself of his charge. went to Rome. Wolfrad. the Saracens ravaged many parts of the eastern empire. which country had before received the light of the Gospel. where he converted some thousands to Christianity. and is. in Spain. Having a quick genius. gained several considerable advantages over the Christians. and the bishops of his diocese. he came to Thuringia. archbishop of Mentz. and the glory of the age in which he lived. desired he would finish the church at Fuld. received him with great friendship. Passing through Lombardy and Bavaria. he next visited Utrecht. Pepin was declared king of France. Perfectus was born at Corduba. Some pagans. the circumstances of which transactions are as follows: In the reign of Theophilus. When he was only about six years of age. in order to be ready early in the morning. where he converted and baptized several thousands of barbarous natives.D. A day being appointed for confirming a great number of new converts. 689. who were his inveterate enemies. the abbot seeing him qualified for the priesthood. which he did at Soissons. finding that he possessed a bright genius. dismissed him without commission at large to preach the Gospel to the pagans wherever he found them. and faithful disciple.

and embrace Christianity. This transaction happened on the very spot where the church at Greenwich. He had the courage to address the enemy. Paul's by the bishops of London and Lincoln. would not listen to such a proposal. One of the soldiers. and that they would discharge their whole fury upon him. began to direct his thoughts to the conversion of the infidels. and received an education suitable to his illustrious birth. and would have persuaded Alphage to follow their example. as more worthy of their rage than the people: he begged they might be saved. While he was employed in assisting and encouraging the people. After Alphage had governed the see of Canterbury about four years. They accordingly seized him. Adalbert. and despatched him with darts. which so enraged the pagan priests. A. though not until about eighteen years after Dunstan's death in 1006. and then. to which end he repaired to Dantzic. But he. 1012. archbishop of Canterbury. consecrated Alphage to the vacant bishopric. a Bohemian by birth. was descended from a considerable family in Gloucestershire. Canterbury was taken by storm. Publicly declaring Mahomet an impostor. from whence it was. and to persuade the king to purchase their departure out of the kingdom. with great reputation to himself. and left only four monks and 800 laymen alive. bishop of Prague. and thus put the finishing stroke to his martyrdom. after which his body was honorably interred by the Christians. who had been converted by him. and Alphage seemed to inherit their virtues. A. but being found the next day. it was buried in the cathedral of St. when at the point of death. the Danes made an incursion into England. He still remained inflexible with respect to the church treasure. and performed the duties of his office with great assiduity and punctuality.celebrated for his abilities than admired for his piety. as primate of all England. cut off his head. to oblige him to discover the treasure of the church. removed to Canterbury by Ethelmoth. At length he took priest's orders. where he converted and baptized many. upon which they assured him of his life and liberty. now stands. made it his ardent request to God that he might succeed him in the see of Canterbury. When the design of attacking this city was known.D. which accordingly happened. knowing that his pains would be lingering. and benefit to his people. like a good pastor. many of the principal people made a flight from it.D. After his death his body was thrown into the Thames. that the soldiers dragged him out of the camp and beat him unmercifully. and was accordingly executed. he was sentenced to be beheaded. During his confinement they proposed to him to redeem his liberty with the sum of 3000 pounds. They remanded him to prison again. . and put him to severe torments. after being involved in many troubles. tied his hands. 997. so that they put 7236 persons to death. as his death was determined on. which is dedicated to him. confined him six days longer. in 1023. and. leaving only every tenth person alive. archbishop of Canterbury. and destroyed all that came in their way by fire and sword. Persecutions in the Eleventh Century Alphage. A. but exhorted them to forsake their idolatry. the enemy poured into the town. on April 23. 850. where they kept him close prisoner for several months. As Alphage's circumstances would not allow him to satisfy the exorbitant demand. both ecclesiastics and laymen. His parents were worthy Christians. and obliged him to remain on the spot until his church was burnt. insulted and abused him in a rude and barbarous manner. April 19. Dustain had an extraordinary veneration for Alphage. and offer himself to their swords. after which they confined the archbishop in a dungeon. brought him to trial there. The see of Winchester being vacant by the death of Ethelwold. that they fell upon him. to the general satisfaction of all concerned in the diocese. and laid siege to Canterbury.000 pounds. and the monks massacred. they bound him. taking him prisoner with them to Greenwich.D. the archbishop of that province. They then decimated all the inhabitants. with a further sum of 10. actuated by a kind of barbarous compassion. This so greatly incensed the Danes. Dunstan. but the prelate piously persisted in refusing to give the pagans any account of it.

the king of that country. Bolislaus. and made him a canon of his cathedral. as the four bishops were going to cross the Danube. the venerable aspect of the prelate struck them with such awe that they could not perform what they had promised. cousin-german to Stephen. bishop of Cracow. On their return. Andrew. when the soldiers beat them unmercifully. They bore an attack of a shower of stones patiently. Ouvo and Peter. where. Lambert died on November 25. or engage among the secular clergy. A. finding Stanislaus at the altar. he ran into many enormities. but. and at length had the appellation of Cruel bestowed upon him. attended by three prelates. and then determined to visit the Holy Land. many good qualities. Hearing one day that the bishop was by himself. successors of Stephen. he despatched some soldiers to murder him. but. He was at length persuaded to the latter by Lambert Zula. The ambitious prince came into the proposal. The prelate immediately expired on May 8. The new king was at Alba Regalis. Michael. when they came into the presence of Stanislaus. being deposed. in the chapel of St. bishop of Cracow. Stanislaus. snatched a dagger from one of them. Their martyrdoms happened in the year 1045. greatly exasperated at his repeated freedoms. In this view he undertook to go to that prince. was descended from an illustrious Polish family.Gerard. at any rate. Stanislaus remained for some time undetermined whether he should embrace a monastic life. at length determined. full of like zeal for religion. thought it his duty to remonstrate against the enormity of Andrew's crime. finding that they had not obeyed his orders. had. when all concerned in the choice of a successor declared for Stanislaus. he plunged the weapon into his heart. and he succeeded to the prelacy. The piety of his parents was equal to their opulence. he freely displayed to him the enormities of his crimes. Going into Hungary. at a small distance from the town. the second king of Poland. he became acquainted with Stephen. and persuade him to withdraw his promise. when. who made him bishop of Chonad. The soldiers readily undertook the bloody task. they were stopped by a party of soldiers posted there. but Gerard being informed of his impious bargain. and ran furiously to the chapel. stormed at them violently. The king. devoted himself to the service of God from his tender years: entered into a religious house for some time. 1071. but giving away to his passions. who gave him holy orders. and the latter they rendered subservient to all the purposes of charity and benevolence. had then a tender of the crown made him upon condition that he would employ his authority in extirpating the Christian religion out of Hungary. taking a private opportunity. 1079.D. the king. to get the better of a prelate who was so extremely faithful. by nature. Stanislaus alone had the courage to tell him of his faults. son of Ladislaus. and at length despatched them with lances. a Venetian. .

Many. sent by letter. Among these monks was one Dominic." and submitted to be trodden on by the miserable vermin that often filled the papal chair. if possible. the number of the reformed was very great. Disregarding the maxims and the spirit of the Gospel. sex. This Dominic instituted an order.D. excommunicated Waldo and his adherents. At length. The pope. eminent for his piety and learning. 1147. were published in a book written by Bruis. received the appellation of Waldenses or Waldoys. but what could be deduced from the Scriptures themselves. occasioned the first rise of the inquisitors. or rank. In A. from conviction. therefore many who had money were accused of heresy. Peter Waldo. as in the case of Henry. because of Henry of Toulouse. on that account. that they might be obliged to pay for their opinions. who wrote to several princes to banish them from their dominions. the accusation was deemed valid. was called the order of Dominican friars." The kings of the earth. and even anonymous informations. according to their primitive purity. were thought sufficient evidence. without any consideration of age. emperor of Germany. and as they would not admit of any proofs relative to religion. Let the accusers be ever so infamous. named Hildephonsus. at that time." By the year of Christ 1140. the "dark ages. under the guise of Christianity. The proceedings of Waldo and the reformed. under the protection of an earl. became a strenuous opposer of popery. and a candid trial was never granted to the accused. and from him the reformed. and deliver over. they proceeded against whom they pleased. under the title of "Antichrist. gave their power to the "Beast. a native of Lyons. We come now to a period when persecution. and the probability of its increasing alarmed the pope. about the year 1000. and overspread the Christian world with darkness and superstition. finding that these cruel means had not the intended effect. and to endeavor to argue them out of their opinions. who. or of being favorers of heretics. boldly preached Gospel truths. a period most appropriately termed in history. called Berengarians. with the reasons of their separation from the Church of Rome. for Pope Innocent III authorized certain monks as inquisitors. Pope Alexander III being informed by the bishop of Lyons of these transactions. and the whole tenets of the reformers. determined to show the light of the Gospel in its real purity. they were called Henericians. the papal Church. deemed their most eminent preacher. assented to his doctrine. and were. as an accusation was deemed adequate to guilt. to inquire for. The power of the inquisitors was unlimited. in order to blind the people. vexed the Church of God and wasted it for several centuries. the reformed to the secular power. who appeared extremely zealous in the cause of popery. who plainly perceived the pernicious tendency of such errors. the popish party gave them the name of apostolics.CHAPTER IV . and employed many learned men to write against their doctrines. hence began the papal persecutions against the Waldenses. The process was short. and obscure its real brightness. and to disperse those clouds which artful priests had raised about it. sent several learned monks to preach among the Waldenses. arming herself with the power of the sword. from him. or Valdo. To Berengarius succeeded Peer Bruis.Papal Persecutions Thus far our history of persecution has been confined principally to the pagan world. committed more enormities than ever disgraced the annals of paganism. from the face of the earth. Persecution of the Waldenses in France Popery having brought various innovations into the Church. To be rich was a crime equal to heresy. which. The . who preached at Toulouse. The storm of papal persecution first burst upon the Waldenses in France. some few. and the members of this order have ever since been the principal inquisitors in the various inquisitions in the world. and commanded the bishop to exterminate them. The principal among these was Berengarius.

would often pretend not to know them. who was roasted alive by a slow fire. Adrian Chalinski. etc. and burnt to ashes. Going afterward to Mentz. and they were prosecuted accordingly. In the year 1620 also. Nevertheless. The same indulgences were likewise held out to all who entered themselves for the purpose as to such as engaged in crusades to the Holy Land. The cruelty of the Cossacks was so excessive that the Tartars themselves were ashamed of their barbarities. were ordered to be burnt at Paris for asserting that God was no otherwise present in the sacramental bread than in any other bread. If a man on his deathbed was accused of being a follower of Waldo. The martyrdom of Almericus and his pupils did not. Among others who suffered was the Rev. for which he had his right hand and nose cut off. at a town in France. the persecution against the Albigenses was very severe. and then branded on the forehead. He sustained these cruelties with amazing fortitude. . and several eminent noblemen embraced their doctrines. however. for in the third century a learned man. No lawyer dared to plead for his own brother. Raymond. To effect this. in Lorraine. the king of France. when the owners returned. Unable to subdue the earl of Toulouse openly. In 1648 a heavy persecution raged throughout Lithuania and Poland. was called favoring of the heretics. without danger. forced to appear barefooted and bareheaded before his enemies. and bear arms for forty days. and the heir to them defrauded of his inheritance. and his arms and breast torn with pincers. prevent many from acknowledging the justness of his notions. one John Clark set up a bill on the church door. and six of his disciples. his estates were confiscated. earl of Foix. and express orders that the laity should not be permitted to read the sacred Scriptures. the earl of Beziers. having been murdered in the dominions of the earl of Toulouse. named Almericus. hence the bones of many were dug up and burnt. by order of Pope Alexander III. and whose sufferings and mode of death may depict the horrors which the professors of Christianity have endured from the enemies of the Redeemer. made a prisoner. and compelled to subscribe an abject recantation. This was followed by a severe persecution against the Albigenses. earl of Montfort. earl of Toulouse. and promised paradise to all that would come to this war.dearest friends or nearest kindred could not. a little straw. they increased so prodigiously. and had the art to persuade the earl of Toulouse to come to a conference. while the Dominicans took possession of their houses and properties. and. The reformation of papistical error very early was projected in France. that it was idolatry to build altars or shrines to saints and that it was ridiculous to offer incense to them. Among the latter were Raymond. These persecutions were continued for several centuries under different popes and other great dignitaries of the Catholic Church. To convey to those who were confined. They were condemned on the score of religion in the Council of Lateran. and the queen mother. so that the faith of Christ continually increased. and three archbishops raised another formidable army. who inhabited the country of Albi. A friar. which expressly forbids idolatry. after which he was thrown into the fire. and was even sufficiently cool to sing the One hundredth and fifteenth Psalm. called Melden. and their malice even extended beyond the grave. in order to raise forces to act coercively against the Albigenses. he demolished some images. but diffused the light of the Gospel over various other countries. or give them a cup of water. and in time not only spread itself over many parts of France. he sent persons throughout all Europe. as examples to the living. and seeing the purity of the reformed religion. and some were sent to the Holy Land. the pope made the murder a pretense to persecute that nobleman and his subjects. when he was treacherously seized upon. Persecutions of the Albigenses The Albigenses were a people of the reformed religion. serve any one who was imprisoned on account of religion. which he termed a Holy War. wherein he called the pope Antichrist. named Peter. a bigoted Catholic nobleman. that many cities were inhabited by persons only of their persuasion. In the year 1524. The brave earl defended Toulouse and other places with the most heroic bravery and various success against the pope's legates and Simon. For this offence he was repeatedly whipped.

the prince (Coligny). the admiral's sonin-law. was burnt. a schoolmaster in the city of St. the captain and prince of the Protestants. their wives being compelled to stand by and behold the execution. brimstone. A. 1546. and supped with the king at Paris. apprehended at Lyons. who afterward declared he never saw a man meet death more valiantly than the admiral. and Limosin. Michael. and sent to the pope. and gunpowder. Four days after this. was. etc. were burnt for the faith. Antonius.Many persons of the reformed persuasion were. and was then burnt. for saying 'That Mass was useless and absurd'. I do now perceive that I am indeed beloved of my God. by the cardinal of Bourbon. a clergyman of the reformed religion. was committed to the flames at Dijon. It was intended to destroy at one stroke the root of the Protestant tree. On examination. as was also Florent Venote in the same year. A native of Malda was burnt by a slow fire. Bandineus. In the year 1554. since for His most holy sake I am wounded. for saying that Mass was a plain denial of the death and passion of Christ. When they had killed the admiral. which had only before partially suffered in its branches. as Count Rochfoucault. and about the same time. 1545. a schoolmaster of Fera. with the son and daughter of one of them. which soon consumed them. The bodies were thrown into the rivers. and blood ran through the streets with a strong current. So furious was their hellish rage. At Limosin. after dragging him three days through the streets. he then said to Maure. racked. but more particularly at Paris. and sent to Paris. for speaking in favor of the reformed. beaten..D. 1548. Burneius. in several parts of France. and were ordered to execution. scourged. about this time. On the twenty second day of August. as he was coming from the Council.D. and publicly sold them there. in the three first they slew of all ranks and conditions to the number of ten thousand. This imprudent marriage was publicly celebrated at Paris. and they were afterward committed to the flames. and the river appeared presently like a stream of blood. hung him by the heels without the city. August 18. between his sister and the prince of Navarre. they confessed their faith. Clarimontus. A. A. etc. "Salt on. James Cobard. marquis of Ravely. and was soon after slain by Bemjus. Monsieur Blondel.D. sentenced. and executed a few days afterward.D. there he was burnt for the faith by order of the court. for which he was brought to trial. named Stephen Poliot. Lewes Bussius." Although the Vidam advised him to fly. "O my brother. cut off his arms and private members. The savage papists. and children. Herbert. upon a high stage erected for the purpose. The king of France had artfully proposed a marriage. The soldiers were appointed at a certain signal to burst out instantly to the slaughter in all parts of the city. still raging against him. From Paris the destruction spread to all quarters of the realm. were apprehended and committed to the castle of Niverne.D. . that they slew all papists whom they suspected to be not very staunch to their diabolical religion." Their tongues were then cut out. two men of the reformed religion. The Bartholomew Massacre at Paris. yet he abode in Paris. secretary to cardinal de Pellay. Telinius. At Orleans. was apprehended and ordered to be burnt. had his tongue cut out. They dined in great pomp with the bishop. Peter Chapot brought a number of Bibles in the French tongue to France. Francis Bribard. was shot in both arms. they cried. salt on this sinful and rotten flesh. fourteen men were burnt at Malda. and burnt to death. and falling upon the common people. women. a thousand were slain of men. in A. a cripple of Meaux. a rich jeweler. 1572. his deceased mother's minister. being smeared with grease. they threw him out at a window into the street. and. they continued the slaughter for many days. Pluvialius. John de Cadurco. and a man named John English. 1545. where his head was cut off. commenced this diabolical act of sanguinary brutality. A. After him they slew many great and honorable persons who were Protestants. Malda. Soon after. a youth of nineteen years of age. and six thousand at Rouen. by means of the combustible matter with which they were besmeared. 1549.

His countenance was so engaging. who had been bred up as a domestic in the family of the Guises. and making a general confession of his actions. ran to the chiefs of the murderers. awaked by the dreadful uproar. rode on horseback through the streets of Paris. were struck with compassion. others. eight hundred were massacred. The same curelty they practiced at Avaricum. when some of her Protestant domestics rushed in for refuge. when a company of assassins rushed in his chamber. But scarce had she opened her chamber door. were pursued by the soldiers through the several rooms of the palace. written by a sensible and learned Roman Catholic. but he was killed by one Bretanville. two hundred were put into prison. 'Besme! is it done?' Immediately after this. 'Let blood! let blood! bleeding is as wholesome in August as in May. The young wife of Henry of Navarre. Rouen and many other places. all the assurances of friendship. called aloud. Henry. and later brought out by units. 'I consider it as a meritorious action. Bartholomew. and masquerades. running from city to city. Here three hundred were slain in the bishop's house. on the eve of St. At Augustobona. standing at the door until the horrid butchery should be completed. more barbarous. and parents affectionately embracing their children. Many of these were killed in bed with their wives. and Coligny expired at Guise's feet. This wretch thrust his sword into the admiral's breast. we are told that the father. during which. They were headed by one Besme. the young duke of Guise. imprisoned and then barbarously murdered them. were profusely lavished by Catharine. and villages. at twelve o'clock at night. and being afterwards taken by the Protestants. "Count de Teligny also fell a sacrifice. written by his son. crying to his men. men. the rest of the court thought of nothing but festivities. At Lyons. marshal of France. at Toulouse. women. plays. Coligny's daughter. the king of Navarre had his lodgings in the Louvre. and cruelly murdered. being afraid for her consort. Besme was a German. holding up a crucifix in one hand. all the oaths sacred among men. and for her own life. "Tavannes. the ruffians threw the body out of the window. and was murdered at Blois. was solemnized with pomp. the signal was given. and searching diligently for every individual of the reformed Church. the priest said to him. that the ruffians. "The nuptials (says he) of the young king of Navarre with the French king's sister. Here children hanging about their parents. He had married. appears in this place. even to the king's antichamber. who joined the fury of religion to the rage of party. but others. the following interesting narrative. running away naked. an ignorant. in order to hang and quarter him. Immediately all the houses of the Protestants were forced open at once. in order to throw herself at the feet of the king her brother. superstitious soldier. the Rochellers would have brought him. the queen-mother. when they advanced in order to kill him. and also cut him in the face. and all the endearments. about ten months before. flew from her bed.At Meldith. As a corroboration of this horrid carnage. and by the king.' In the memories of the life of this enthusiastic. rushing forward. towns. and children were promiscuously slaughtered and every street was strewed with expiring bodies. Bartholomew's massacre?' to which Tavannes replied. and half dead. 'What! no mention of St. with peculiar propriety. with surprise. seized with horror. being on his deathbed. were pleasant food for the swords and bloodthirsty minds of those who call themselves the Catholic Church. they shut their gates that no Protestants might escape. Admiral Coligny. and . The soldiers immediately followed. through the kingdom. Some priests. pursued them in sight of the princess. and the impious monks would suffer none to be buried. all the friends of Coligny were assassinated throughout Paris. on the people hearing of the massacre at Paris. murdered him. "In the meantime.' Such horrid sentiments can a false spirit of religion inspire! "The king's palace was one of the chief scenes of the butchery. who afterwards framed the Catholic league. and strongly exhorted them to spare neither relations nor friends. At last. alarmed by the uproar jumped out of bed. that will wash away all my sins. at Troys. and all his domestics were Protestants. and a dagger in the other.

concluding now that the whole race of Huguenots was extinct. so that she was covered with blood. The youngest did not receive a single blow. This barbarous queen was fired with a restless ambition.killed one who crept under her bed. and a certain peculiar happiness in the turn of his conversation. 'The pope approves of Coligny's death. "Many of the wretched victims fled to the water side. with the utmost mirth. which looked upon the river. The monarch felt some remorse.e. a young nobleman. . not to go home. undisturbed and serene in the midst of slaughter. but if (which God forbid) the order should be genuine. "SIRE: I have received an order. upon which the king pressed him no farther. These murderers flew at all three. with great indulgence to all who kept it and showed every expression of gladness they could devise! and the man who first carried the news received 1000 crowns of the cardinal of Lorraine for his ungodly message. named Montmorrin. but lie in the Louvre. which deserves to be transmitted to the latest posterity. I have too much respect for your majesty. being wounded with halberds. i. when they all fell. "Some days after this horrid transaction. so that. in order that he might be as a security and pledge for the submission of such Protestants as might effect their escape.' And in two hours after he was murdered. The king saw them from his window. whose deliverance was exceedingly remarkable. had spent the evening until eleven o'clock with the monarch. The like orders were issued from court to the governors of all the provinces in France. One of these. that they appointed a day of high festival. to put to death all the Protestants in my province. with the following inscription: Pontifex. under your majesty's seal. two or three times. and some swam over the Seine to the suburbs of St. in a week's time. I have too much respect for your majesty to obey it. greatly in the king's favor for his comely air. which no one believed. and complaining of the stench of the corpse. 'A dead enemuy smells well. and accused the admiral of a conspiracy. but appearing as if he was dead. Two others. his elder brother. The king himself went to view this shocking spectacle. and had given a loose. "This horrid butchery was not confined merely to the city of Paris. The king also commanded the day to be kept with every demonstration of joy. and a jubilee." At Rome the horrid joy was so great. "Count de la Rochefoucault. in pleasant familiarity. lasted four score and five years. thus wonderfully preserved. looking down from a balcony. Germaine. The count said he must go to his wife. wrote the king the following letter. but said. he replied. not to believe the letter a forgery.' The massacres on St. bid him. the French court endeavored to palliate it by forms of law. His father. while the queen-mother. rather than from the pity of the queen-mother. The parliament was commended to proceed against the memory of Coligny. 'Let him go! I see God has decreed his death. and fired upon them with a carbine that had been loaded for that purpose by one of his pages. and his life. and being touched with a kind of compassion. and she perpetually shifted her party in order to satiate it. Bartholomew's day are painted in the royal saloon of the Vatican at Rome.' "The young king of Navarre was spared through policy. Among these was young La Force (afterwards the famous Marshal de la Force) a child about ten years of age. his politeness. and struck them at random. They pretended to justify the massacre by a calumny. "Very few of the Protestants escaped the fury of their enthusiastic persecutors.. escaped the next day. and his dead body was hanged in chains on Montfaucon gallows. she keeping him prisoner until the king's death. Coligny necem probat. to the sallies of his imagination. encouraged the murderers and laughed at the dying groans of the slaughtered. and lay one upon another. So one of his courtiers advised him to retire. fell at the queen's feet. about one hundred thousand Protestants were cut to pieces in different parts of the kingdom! Two or three governors only refused to obey the king's orders. and he himself were seized together by the Duke of Anjou's soldier. governor of Auvergne.

and then with a sword which they commanded her to draw. yet by famine. pulled out their entrails. Against Rochelle. and cast part into a jakes. they opened his belly. and fled there. which were under the king's promise of protection and safety. entrails. they forced it while in her hands into the bowels of her husband. the king sent almost the whole power of France. were cut off as soon as they delivered themselves up. In this they spared neither age nor sex. and hung feet upwards. and the most loathsome things. The president of Turin. being too numerous for the living to bury. that they left one hundred and thirty-two captains. At every attack. some of them senators. were almost hanged. The Protestants at Rochelle. counting it sport to cut off their arms and legs and afterward kill them. One hundred put into a prison at Orleans. and several towns. even human flesh. Here they found a minister named Cassebonius. whom the assassins bound to a wall to see them. and slay or drown all the Protestants they could find. encouraged thereby. they did very little execution on the inhabitants. Thus they did at the city of Matiscon. of which the world was not worthy. on those promises. Their diet had long been what the minds of those in plenty shudder at. The siege at last was broken up at the request of the duke of Anjou.Many who gave great sums of money for their ransom were immediately after slain. after promising them peace. Those who had fled to the castle. and threw them into the river. and the houses flaming with fire. and part into a river. was first abused by the brutal soldiers. and for the entertainment of their visitors. The dead. and then slew them and him. dung. "Did you ever see men leap so well?" At Penna. which through very rage they gnawed with their teeth. the besiegers met with such an intrepid reception. two hundred and sixty-four were cruelly murdered. though by their assaults. and many women were defiled and murdered there. a minister. who were such as had miraculously escaped the rage of hell. Persons of both sexes and conditions were indiscriminately murdered. slew them. ran upon the Protestants. the . they slew Albiacus. At Anjou. from whence he went to Mere. and breathed their last. with his head and breast in the river: before he was dead. and five and forty at Albia. stood for their lives. when they yielded. became food for vermin and carnivorous birds. with a proportionate number of men. whom they cut open. and threw him into the river. which besieged it seven months. and then carried his heart about the city upon a spear. they often threw the Protestants from a high bridge into the river. after giving a large sum for his life. though it yielded on conditions of safeguard. at the instigation of a villainous monk. the streets ringing with doleful cries. did the like. and pulled down their church. they murdered above one hundred Protestants. on the Lord's Day. seeing how ill they fared who submitted to those holy devils. one hundred were killed. and committed the same outrages for many days together. plundered their houses. defiling the women. suffered his soldiers to fly upon the spoil. entering into Blois. At Samarobridge. At Nonne. At Bordeaux. Many took their coffins into the church yard. plucked out his entrails. dead in the field. the most horrid spectacles were exhibited. and some other cities. stripped of his clothes. even to young children. they destroyed eighteen thousand out of two and twenty. saying. abused before their father. was cruelly beaten with clubs. and then murdering them. The duke of Guise. At Barre great cruelty was used. after promising them safety. One woman. among whom were two sisters. where the populace at the holy inquisitors' satanical suggestion. were destroyed by the furious multitude. who used to urge the papists to slaughter in his sermons. in Maine. to his generals or captains. being dragged from her hiding place with her husband. became at last the only food of those champions for that truth and liberty. Another of the same pious fraternity produced a similar slaughter at Agendicum. which the abandoned soldiers had thrown in. and flowing with blood. laid down in them. and at Antsidor. three hundred were inhumanly butchered.

and prevented them. To prevent the unfortunate victims from leaving the kingdom. Instantly the dragoons were quartered upon the Protestants throughout the realm. being wearied out. yet. expecting every moment to be delivered. thereby depriving them of the means of getting their bread: and they proceeded to such excess in this brutality. "They that take the sword shall perish with the sword." took such an active part in favor of the king. he stabbed the infant. but compelled their women to submit themselves in that crisis of nature to their enemies. whereupon honorable conditions were granted them. This was followed by another injunction. Notwithstanding this. Popish commissioners were appointed to preside over the affairs of the Protestants. except to the king's council. After the miscreants had slain this martyr in his bed. listening to the popish machinations. they went to his wife. about 150. stabbed her in the belly. who was then attended by the midwife. and being caught up by one of the Catholic ruffians. the child came from the dying mother. Montauban and Millau were sacked by soldiers. Instead of cherishing and rewarding that party who had fought for him. easily complied. and filled all France with the like news. with the other subjects of the realm. and at seven years of age. should be born. All that has been related hitherto were only infringements on their established charter. from all private worship. in all this dreadful massacre. and was registered the twenty-second. contrary to all form of law. they thrust a dagger up to the hilt into the poor woman. the Protestants. and then threw it into the river. The tragical sufferings of the Protestants are too numerous to detail. This filled the prisons with innocent victims.000 escaped their vigilance. From the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. and. that the king would no longer suffer any . which was the twentieth. By the fall. all the passages on the frontiers were strictly guarded. in 1789 The persecutions occasioned by the revocation of the edict of Nantes took place under Louis XIV. and condemned others to the galleys or banishment. and emigrated to different countries to relate the dismal narrative. and employs. trades. Protestants were expelled from all offices. and the king. This edict was made by Henry the Great of France in 1598.king's brother. 1685. at least till the child. and there was no appeal from their ordinance. that they would not suffer even the midwives to officiate. who was proclaimed king of Poland. the edict of Nantes. and divine service was to be performed in the presence of a popish priest. but hither they pursued her. to the French Revolution. being Protestants. to make an inquiry in all parishes into whatever the Protestants had said or done for twenty years past. the brutal Catholics. that. and secured to the Protestants an equal right in every respect. and kept them inviolably to the end of his reign. but the treatment of Philip de Deux will give an idea of the rest. she ran into a corn loft. Anxious to be delivered. and then threw her into the street. from suing a Catholic in any court of law. Rochelle was presently fettered with an incredible number of denunciations. he began to issue out proscriptions and restrictions. called the edict of Nismes. whether civil or religious. At this critical juncture. Their children were taken from them to be educated by the Catholics. All those privileges Louis the XIV confirmed to the Protestants by another statute. indicative of his final determination. not more than two ministers of the Gospel were involved in it. he reasoned that the same power which had protected could overturn him. This struck at the root of their civil and religious exercises. heedless of our Lord's admonition. At length the diabolical revocation of that edict passed on the eighteenth of October. privileges. The reformed were prohibited from relieving their own sick or poor. that he was constrained to acknowledge himself indebted to their arms for his establishment on the throne. The midwife entreated them to stay the murder. It is a remarkable interference of Providence. by the good hand of God. On the accession of Louis XIV the kingdom was almost ruined by civil wars. made to embrace popery.

they were most grievously tormented with vermin. they were sentenced to banishment. The sufferings of the ministers and others. they forced many to yield to them. some would have all the ministers detained and forced into popery as well as the laity. and threw every obstacle in their way to delay their escape until the limited time was expired which subjected them to condemnation for life to the galleys. they were exposed to the open air night and day. a little jerkin of red serge. where they practised all sorts of torments in secret. This reason prevailing. slit on each side up to the armholes. Others. with open sleeves that reached not to the elbow. crying. though on actual service. and hunted in the fields. which was a shirt of the coarsest canvas. where they drank the same cup. and other ecclesiastics to animate the soldiers to an execution so agreeable to their Holy Church. until. but their consciences being God's they could not so dispose of them. Sometimes they tied fathers and husbands. which removed by night the executioners who beat and tormented them by day. The guards were doubled at the seaports. or the blows of a cane or rope's end. or be Catholics!" In short. repeating it until they extorted a promise to recant. For the want of sufficient clothing and necessary cleanliness. or viands to refresh them. without any covering but their wretched apparel. They hanged both men and women by their hair or their feet. The papists would not suffer them to dispose of their effects. they demolished their churches and banished their ministers. and smoked them with hay until they were nearly dead. wearied out with torments without death. and in all weathers. they hung them up again and repeated their barbarities. and so glorious to their demon god and their tyrant king. Such as endeavored to escape by flight were pursued in the woods. turn Catholics. by their great knowledge and experience in controversial matters. they stuck them with pins from head to foot. and lanced them with penknives. the council were divided. and once in three years they . and therefore they must resolve to change their religion. were ordered to quit their posts. to sleep on. and if they still refused to sign a recantation.' Instantly the troops seized the gates and avenues of the cities. Some they stripped naked.Huguenots in his kingdom. who endured torments and wants at which human nature must shudder. and told them they must. "Die. and only fifteen days allowed them to depart the kingdom. eighteen inches broad. without delay. seemed to exceed all. Multitudes they imprisoned in the most noisome dungeons. with a troop of missionaries. Chained to the oar. Their wives and children they shut up in monasteries. Others they threw on great fires. they were allowed sick or well. who were sent to the galleys. they would ever be secret and powerful enemies in the bosom of the Church. and pulled them out again. while they ravished their wives and daughters before their eyes. The Protestants replied. On the same day that the edict for revoking the Protestants' charter was published. only a hard board. they practiced every wickedness and horror they could devise to force them to change their religion. they received only the lashes of a scourge. they plucked off all the hair of their heads and beards with pincers. at all seasons. monks. Such as complained to the king were sent to the Bastile. and repair directly to their houses to suffer the like storm. In forming the edict to repeal the edict of Nantes. The bishops and the intendants marched at the head of the dragoons. Instead of a bed. either freely or by force. others were for banishing them. and sometimes with red-hot pincers they dragged them by the nose until they promised to turn. whom they allowed but twenty-four hours to leave Paris. and placing guards in all the passages. because their presence would strengthen the Protestants in perseverance: and if they were forced to turn. and when through weakness of body they fainted under the oar. and cruelly pinched with the cold. and shot at like wild beasts. instead of a cordial to revive them. Hereupon the intendants in every parish (which were popish governors and spies set over the Protestants) assembled the reformed inhabitants. that they 'were ready to sacrifice their lives and estates to the king. nor did any condition or quality screen them from the ferocity of these infernal dragoons: even the members of parliament and military officers. and after offering them the most infamous insults. entered with sword in hand. and the prisons were filled with the victims.

who was his friend. and went into the kitchen. who had fallen asleep. In the meantime his friend and family left the room they had supped in. "Quite the contrary. having been converted by a maidservant. of which dreadful punishment the following is a description. where he had been settled. the father and La Vaisse sat down together on a sofa. Antony left the table. The allowance of provision was as narrow as the sentiments of those who condemned them to such miseries. and the eldest son Mark Antony. which took place as recently as 1761. a young gentleman about 19 years of age. and the victims delivered into the hands of the Turks that preside at the oars. and he is near the point of expiring. they are held so that they cannot stir. On the thirteenth of October. but Lewis. Martyrdom of John Calas We pass over many other individual maretyrdoms to insert that of John Calas. Gober la Vaisse. one woman servant. and shows that neither experience nor improvement can root out the inveterate prejudices of the Roman Catholics. the son of La Vaisse. and the mother in another chair. that. but kept the maid in the family and settled an annuity upon the son. and Peter Calas. the latter of which was divided from the shop by a pair of folding doors. during which there reigns an awful silence throughout the galley. and did all which could constitute the character of a libertine. which was on the same floor. as he was accustomed to do. which were always kept close shaved as a mark of their infamy. Mark Antony was bred to the law. and stretching them upon a great gun. the family consisted of John Calas and his wife. was awakened to attend him with a light. however. the eldest son. Mark Antony Calas. did not express any resentment or ill-will upon the occasion. and seemed determined to destroy himself. from a bar which he had laid across the top of the two . was greatly addicted to gaming. It was now about seven o'clock. which considerably added to the gloom that seemed to oppress him. the younger son Peter in an elbow chair. and lived in good repute. If they refused to hear Mass. the sons. 1761. and had five sons. and. who strip them quite naked. most cruelly beats the wretched victim with a rough cudgel. and La Vaisse the guest. without making any inquiry after Antony. the second son. invited him to supper. hence he grew melancholy. the father. 1761. they were extremely shocked to see Antony hanging in his shirt. became a Roman Catholic. then they apply a most tormenting mixture of vinegar and salt. and honest men. and is an indubitable proof of the bigotry of popery. covered with vermin. whom they educated in the same religion. they were chained side by side to felons and the most execrable villains. The father. and his wife. and went into a bed-chamber. they were sentenced to the bastinado. about five o'clock in the evening. Calas and his wife were Protestants. When Peter Calas and La Vaisse came downstairs into the shop. but could not be admitted to practice. The supper was not long. whose blasphemous tongues were never idle. doomed to die upon the boards of a dark hold. Antony and Peter Calas. who had lived in the family about thirty years. a celebrated advocate of Toulouse. or render them less cruel or inexorable to Protestants. and had married an English woman of French extraction. and Peter. the chains are taken off. one of the sons. on which account his father frequently reprehended him and sometimes in terms of severity. Calas. and then left her. consisting of Calas the father. To this may be added that he led a dissipated life. The Turk who is appointed the executioner. was met by John Calas.had a coarse frock. The maid asked him if he was cold? He answered. or knotty rope's end. but before it was over. continued in conversation together until between nine and ten o'clock. the whole company. and who thinks the sacrifice acceptable to his prophet Mahomet. In October. the father. John Calas was a merchant of the city of Toulouse. except the maidservant who has been already mentioned. as ministers of Christ. when La Vaisse took his leave. until the skin is flayed off his bones. on account of his being a Protestant. I burn". and without the least convenience for the calls of nature. no other person being in the house. On the ground floor of Calas's house was a shop and a warehouse. Nor was it among the least of the horrors they endured. and a little cap to cover their heads. and their treatment when sick is too shocking to relate. and consign him to that most intolerable hospital where thousands under their cruelties have expired. read all the books he could procure relative to suicide. Preparatory to it. and the family and their guest sat down in a room up one pair of stairs. Mr.

He sent for M. or general information. The capitol therefore caused his body to be buried in the middle of St. took the father. came instantly. that. therefore. and one of the interrogatories was. The capitol continued the persecution with unrelenting severity. and the maid. upon the hangman deposing it was impossible Antony should hang himself as was pretended. and without the least disorder: his clothes were also regularly folded up. they presently supposed that the young man was about to change his religion. which brought down Calas the father. being thus left alone. la Marque and Perronet. without the least proof coming in. and put them all into irons on the eighteenth of November. One voted him innocent. The mother. and. and a tomb was raised in the middle of it. and MM. when any of their children were to be hanged for changing their religion: it recites also. they compel them to kneel. the emblem of martyrdom. A few days after the interment of the deceased. perfectly smooth. they took it into their heads he had been murdered. and. having half opened them for that purpose. but found none except the mark of the ligature on the neck. the mob had got a notion that Antony Calas was the next day to have entered into the fraternity of the White Penitents. Mr. and. In the meantime Peter had been sent for La Moire. surgeons. holding in one hand a paper. Stephen's Church. when the Protestants thus hang their children. whether any person had seen Antony Calas kneel before his father when he strangled him: it recites likewise. and set a guard over them. but after long debates the majority was for the torture and wheel. and had been put to death for that reason. Peter the son. Grosle. mother. thought fit to condemn the unhappy father. he found the body quite dead. who supposed he had murdered his son. which immediately took cognizance of the affair. or capitol. and probably condemned the father by way of experiment. and persons were required to give such testimony against it as they were able. the chief magistrate. and bathing it in his tears. with such emotions as it must naturally produce. This was accordingly done and David. La Vaisse. and took it into his head that old Calas had sent for La Vaisse. the majority of the parliament were of the opinion. and servant. a surgeon in the neighborhood. and that the surgeon who had examined the body. went down and mixed in the scene that has been already described. the mother. When the maid discovered what had happened. on which was written "Abjuration of heresy. telling him that he had a son to be hanged. La Moire was not at home. but his apprentice. Upon examination. This recites that La Vaisse was commissioned by the Protestants to be their executioner in ordinary. either because she feared to carry an account of it to her mistress. she continued below. From these dreadful proceedings the sufferers appealed to the parliament. but they continued the prosecution. declared that he had been strangled. was advised by his friends to send for the officers of justice to prevent his being torn to pieces by the Catholic multitude. to the torture." and in the other a palm. and therefore ordered them to be tried by the criminal court of Toulouse. But before this monitory was published. or because she busied herself in doing some good office to her master. who examined the body for marks of violence. As no proof of the supposed fact could be procured. Notwithstanding these innocent appearances. that the prisoners were guilty. they found also the hair of the deceased done up in the usual manner. that Antony died a Roman Catholic.folding doors. the church was hung with white. de la Tour. and that he had received assistance from the father and brother. On discovery of this horrid spectacle. The poor father. all into custody. having by some means heard that Antony Calas was suddenly dead. and by this time a papistical crowd of people were gathered about the house. nor was his shirt either torn or unbuttoned. and laid upon the counter. the capitol thought proper to agree with the opinion of the mob. overwhelmed with grief for the loss of his child. the White Penitents performed a solemn service for him in their chapel. and as the family was Protestant. that La Vaisse had come to perform the office of executioner. . the mother being seized with such terror as kept her trembling in the passage above. and requires evidence of his catholicism. they shrieked out. on the top of which was placed a human skeleton. the capitol had recourse to a monitory. friend. The next day the Franciscans performed a service of the same kind for him. and annulled the sentence of the capitol as irregular. brother. in which the crime was taken for granted. who was embracing the body of his son. a physician.

and particularly of the two Dominicans (Father Bourges and Father Coldagues) who attended him in his last moments. in conscience. but also an exemplary instance of true Christian patience. Soon after. while the tears streamed from their eyes. however. took every possible precaution to be assured of the innocence of the family. the arret was signed which justified the family of Calas. at first. 1762. his purse. Fifty masters of the Court of Requests unanimously declared the whole family of Calas innocent. To persecute for being of a different opinion is as absurd as to persecute for having a different countenance: if we honor God. All Paris ran in crowds to see them come out of prison. who never let slip an opportunity of signalizing the greatness of his character. and clapped their hands for joy. regulated by the Gospel rules. Gospel purity will equally shun superstition and cruelty. but obtained for them a gratuity of 36. and obey the political laws of the state in which we reside. The ninth of March. and though an infidel himself. The Duke de Choiseul. When he saw the executioner prepared to give him the last stroke. therefore. 1765. there are fagots which are to reduce your body to ashes! speak the truth. they suspended. the author of this catastrophe. in the agony. not only assisted this unfortunate family with money. obliged. confess the crime. could only pity and relieve him. put a full confidence in the promises contained in the Holy Scriptures. and that moment the executioner did his office. and charity. and was led to execution in a frame of mind which excited the admiration of all that saw him. who was only banished. and his credit. whose fate. hoping he would. his pen. fortitude. mother. and the mother burnt alive. without daring to judge of the rigor exercised against the father. and to procure salvation in the next. Once convinced. he made a fresh declaration to Father Bourges. but turned his head a little aside.000 livres from the king. and to serve heaven as our consciences. to repair the fatal mistake of the seven judges of Toulouse. but while the words were still in his mouth. and brothers. and found a gentleman who. On the ninth of March. This revision lasted three years. This dreadful example of bigotry employed the pen of Voltaire in deprecation of the horrors of superstition. who came upon the scaffold merely to gratify his desire of being a witness of his punishment and death. and changed their fate. Poor Calas. de Grosne and Bacquancourt acquired by investigating this memorable cause. and accuse the other prisoners. . Young Donat Calas was advised to fly into Switzerland: he went. and it is well known what honor Messrs. Calas made no reply. for more than a month. ran up to him. was the very day on which the innocent and virtuous father of that family had been executed." M. the capitol. to employ his friends. "Wretch. He suffered the torture with great constancy. was condemned to this dreadful punishment alone. and has been a blessed means of abating the rigor of persecution in most European states. he thought himself. one of the brothers. keep sacred the pure doctrines of Christ. and declared that they thought him not only innocent of the crime laid to his charge. The popular outcry against this family was so violent in Languedoc. as the mildness of Christ's tenets teaches only to comfort in this world. and bawled out. an old man of sixty-eight. may direct. that every body expected to see the children of Calas broke upon the wheel. his essay on toleration does honor to his pen. we have an undoubted right to protection instead of persecution. likewise threw himself into the arms of the same person. and recommended them to the benevolent justice of his majesty. and to have the proceedings revised by the king's council.whether he was guilty or not. who.

were the Dominicans and Franciscans: these. for a suspicion only is deemed sufficient cause of condemnation. two secretaries. as judges delegated by him. That all heretics who repented. The inquisition likewise takes cognizance of such as are accused of being magicians. to contradict the report. and the horrid cruelties they exercised compelled multitudes. as the reformed were called by the papists. who declared himself the protector and friend of all the inquisitors. At the head of these inquisitors was one Dominic. a receiver. but the Spanish Inquisition became the most powerful. attempted. is far from being secure. their power was further increased by the emperor Frederic II. the Talmud of the Jews. who differed in opinion from the Roman Catholics. 1. as he had before been the first roving inquisitor. The principal part of the inquisitors' . and of such who read the Bible in the common language. A Protestant has seldom any mercy shown him. carefully to conceal their sentiments. A defence in the Inquisition is of little use to the prisoner. and enter into leagues with sovereign princes. or the Alcoran of the Mahometans. an agent of confiscated possessions. and gave them the most unlimited powers. that he intended to renounce Christianity. not finding these roving inquisitors so useful as he had imagined. and visitors. or judges. and punish. who had been canonized by the pope. 2. against any of the articles of the creed. counsellors. were taught to dread the power of the lords of the Inquisition. After the order for these regular courts. and immediately representing his person: they were permitted to excommunicate. The officers of the Inquisition are three inquisitors. Courts of Inquisition were now erected in several countries. familiars. Pope Innocent III entertained great fear for the Romish Church. upon the most slight information of heresy. and the other inquisitors. a jailer. which comprises all that is spoken. In 1244. The most zealous of all the popish monks. Dominic. apprehend. They were allowed to publish crusades against all whom they deemed heretics. physicians. a fiscal proctor. or persons who were to make inquiry after. arose from a report which had been propagated throughout Europe. and treated the Protestants with the utmost severity. and turn Mahometan. executioners.An Account of the Inquisition When the reformed religion began to diffuse the Gospel light throughout Europe. The principal accusation against those who are subject to this tribunal is heresy. viz.. or sentence to death whom they thought proper. the pope. a messenger. and to show his attachment to popery by cruelty. to join their crusades with their forces. and Dominic became the first regular inquisitor. resolved upon the establishment of fixed and regular courts of Inquisition. and the greater his wealth the greater his danger.CHAPTER V . by the height of bigotry. a magistrate. Upon all occasions the inquisitors carry on their processes with the utmost severity. surgeons. Even the kings of Spain themselves. doorkeepers. the emperor therefore. and the most dreaded of any. therefore. in order to render his authority the more respectable. for the inquisitors of the Roman Catholic persuasion. That all heretics who continue obstinate. or the traditions of the Roman Church. heretics. though arbitrary in all other respects. several assessors. who turns Christian. and published the cruel edicts. In process of time. who are sworn to secrecy. This zeal in the emperor. the first office of Inquisition was established in the city of Toulouse. or written. should be burnt. should be imprisoned for life. and those who most implicitly obeyed the Church of Rome. the pope thought proper to invest with an exclusive right of presiding over the different courts of Inquisition. and punish those who offend them with the most unparalleled cruelty. He accordingly instituted a number of inquisitors. and a Jew. spread themselves into various Roman Catholic countries.

in hopes of obtaining a pardon. and the lowest officers of the Inquisition can make the highest characters tremble. and in either case the effects are confiscated. where they declared by proclamation. The following is an account of an auto da fe. to oblige him to accuse himself. . After judgment. and did not end until nine in the evening. Of these prisoners. and awe those who are the objects of its power into obedience. but every method is taken by threats and tortures. to the palace of the great square. with a book containing the oath by which the kings of Spain oblige themselves to protect the Catholic faith. are no protection from its severities. oh! consider. or of the witnesses against him. be absent from this dreadful scene. great dignity. whose intrepidity in suffering that horrid death was truly astonishing. vengeance is denounced against such as call it in question for if any of its officers are opposed. and. in cavalcade. High birth. as it is esteemed a religious one. kettledrums. The chief inquisitor then descended from the amphitheater. fifty Jews and Jewesses. or act of faith. being protracted by a proclamation of the sentence of the several criminals. plunder each obnoxious individual. the sentence of the prisoners would be put in execution. A prisoner in the Inquisition is never allowed to see the face of his accuser. carrying a cross and the Gospels. she addressed her. The Mass was begun about twelve at noon. was a young Jewess of exquisite beauty. and to wear a yellow cap. he could not. The grand inquisitor's chair was placed in a sort of tribunal far above that of the king. on the thirtieth of June. and his coronation oath obliged him to give a sanction by his presence to all the acts of the tribunal. were sentenced to a long confinement. violently tortured. and seated himself in a chair prepared for that purpose. the maxim of the Inquisition being to strike terror. or eminent employments. under the pretence of zeal. preceded by trumpets. The officers of the Inquisition. and repenting of their crimes. in the following pathetic speech: "Great queen. which ceremony is called an auto da fe. he advanced towards the king's balcony. and having a miter on his head. were ordered to be burned. When the person impeached is condemned. twenty men and women. If the jurisdiction of the Inquisition is not fully allowed. will not your royal presence be of some service to me in my miserable condition? Have regard to my youth. and their banner. that. The whole court of Spain was present on this occasion. After having bowed to the altar. but turned away her eyes. those who oppose them are almost certain to be sufferers for the temerity. Now Mass began. After this followed the burnings of the twenty-one men and women. distinguished rank. The king's near situation to the criminals rendered their dying groans very audible to him. to extirpate heretics. however. marched on the thirtieth of May. which were already separately rehearsed aloud one after the other. or sentenced to death. as she did not dare to speak a word in behalf of a person who had been declared a heretic. and. he is either severely whipped. and went up to it. placed himself near the scaffold. in the midst of which the priest came from the altar.cruelties is owing to their rapacity: they destroy the life to possess the property. a procession is performed to the place of execution. sent to the galleys. and to support with all their power and force the prosecutions and decrees of the Inquisition: a like oath was administered to the counsellors and whole assembly. that I am about to die for professing a religion imbibed from my earliest infancy!" Her majesty seemed greatly to pity her distress. with one renegade Mahometan. Being on the same side of the scaffold where the queen was seated. and by that means corroborate their evidence. performed at Madrid in the year 1682. attended by some of his officers. and but seventeen years of age. Among those who were to suffer. dressed in his cope. having never before been imprisoned.

attended by the surgeon to dress his bruises and adjust the part dislocated. as well as his shoulders. as they term them. and laid him upon his back on a kind of stand. about the year of our Lord 1560. and said he would take lading for London in such ships as the said Nicholas Burton had freighted to lade. invented another lie. and a ring to each foot. that the prisoner either dies under it. through which there ran a rope that caught the end of the chain at his wrists. at each extremity whereof was a pulley. were all drawn tight at the same instant of time. the ropes were drawn in this manner four times successively. citizen sometime of London. by four of the men. At the first time of torturing. elevated a few feet from the floor. and being in the city of Cadiz. after which he was again taken to the dungeon. was again ordered to the torture room. The inquisitors allow the torture to be used only three times. which he sustained (though. which ropes being passed under the scaffold. peaceably and quietly. stretching the end of his rope by means of a roller. were quite dislocated. made to undergo another kind of punishment. The operation commenced by putting an iron collar round his neck.) with equal constancy and resolution. and put under the same regulations. which fastened him to the stand. for the last time. by means of a rope that fastened them together at the wrists. making the blood to gush out at eight different places thus bound at a time. cut through the prisoner's flesh to the bone. His limbs being thus stretched out. An Account of the Cruel Handling and Burning of Nicholas Burton. and suffers the severest pains upon every change of weather. they drew them by degrees nearer each other. in such a manner that the back of each hand touched. crippled and diseased for life. or. that his wrists. in Spain. and there. and merchant. stripped him naked to his drawers. The executioner then. a familiar of the fathers of Inquisition. at the motion of the devil his master. They then placed him with his back against a thick board. and which was turned by an engine. having been instituted much about the same time. This torture was repeated thrice. The Inquisition belonging to Portugal is exactly upon a similar plan to that of Spain. And having no letter to deliver to him. pressed or bruised his stomach in proportion as the ends of the chains were drawn tighter. not yet satisfied with this species of cruelty. attended with keener pains. or familiar. an English Merchant. he was again remanded to the dungeon. Mr. six executioners entered. by which means he spake with him immediately. and stood exactly parallel to each other. as well as to that of Spain in particular. As the prisoner persisted in not making any confession of what the inquisitors required. and here he continued until their auto da fe. which crossing at the breast. Bartholomew.What we have already said may be applied to inquisitions in general. the ropes. following his traffic in the trade of merchandise. then the said promoter. which was . The manner of inflicting the second torture was as follows: they forced his arms backwards so that the palms of his hands were turned outward behind him. but happily survived the cruelties he underwent. or continues always after a cripple. however. both his shoulders became dislocated. Two months after the second torture. terminated at the wrists. from the account of one who suffered it the three respective times. Nicholas Burton. They tortured him in this manner to such a degree. or jail delivery. but during those times it is so severely inflicted. dwelling in the parish of Little St. It is easy to conceive that the pains which immediately succeeded were intolerable. if he would let any. made him immediately undergo the like torture a second time. and the surgeon set the dislocated bones. in the party of Andalusia. who asking for the said Nicholas Burton. they wound two ropes round each thigh. In consequence of this violent contortion. soon set by the surgeons. whose messenger he was. feigned that he had a letter to deliver into his own hands. but the barbarians. there came into his lodging a Judas. After this. which was inflicted twice without any intermission. if possible. when. placed at a distance behind him. when he was discharged. and a considerable quantity of blood issued from his mouth. in Spain The fifth day of November. through holes made for that purpose. They were. The executioners fastened a thick iron chain round his body. which were of a small size. the prisoner being a little recovered. on a given signal. We shall give an ample description of the severe torments occasioned by the torture.

to a place where the said inquisitors sat in judgment which they called auto. Whereof as soon as news was brought to the merchant as well of the imprisonment of his factor. said. and retain an advocate (but all was doubtless to delay him. that they might attach them. and had shown all his letters and writings to the holy house. And immediately after the said sentences given. Notwithstanding they answered nothing. into a more cruel and straiter prison called Triana. and bade them to declare the cause. and to reject their popish traditions. All which time he so instructed the poor prisoners in the Word of God. Afterward. and in the flames of fire. as he had to exhibit into . he sent his attorney into Spain. with a canvas coat. He then well perceiving that they were not able to burden or charge him that he had written. as well Frenchmen as Spaniards. with a great number of other prisoners. were (according to their common usage) seized. into the city of Seville. they conveyed him laden with irons from thence to a city called Seville. where the said fathers of the Inquisition proceeded against him secretly according to their accustomable cruel tyranny. and to demand them. and divers other condemned men for religion. When his attorney was landed at Seville. Which being known unto the officers of the Inquisition. which they did incontinently. and not speak one word to them. This Nicholas Burton by the way. whereupon in divers parts was painted the figure of a huge devil. or done any thing there in that country against the ecclesiastical or temporal laws of the same realm. among which they also rolled up much that appertained to another English merchant. for whose constant faith. and so he was set with another Englishman of Southampton. wherewith he was credited as factor. and he would answer them.) and they forsooth of courtesy assigned him one to frame his supplication for him. that never after he could be suffered to write or speak to any of his nation: so that to this day it is unknown who was his accuser. requiring them that such goods might be delivered into his possession. and therefore they said his senses of feeling were past him. spoken. and on his head a copping tank of the same work. but commanded him with threatening words to hold his peace. His tongue was forced out of his mouth with a cloven stick fastened upon it. they brought the said Nicholas Burton. citizen of Bristol. It happened that after the arrest of Nicholas Burton aforesaid. and other such bills of petition. they were carried from there to the place of execution without the city. that in that short space he had well reclaimed several of those superstitiuous and ignorant Spaniards to embrace the Word of God. and chiefly to protract the time until the sergeant of the Inquisition might come and apprehend the body of the said Nicholas Burton. the twentieth of December.partly to know where he loaded his goods. according to the good talent which God had given him in that behalf. tormenting a soul in a flame of fire. that the tormentors and enemies which stood by. answer was made to him that he must sue by bill. And so they carried him to the filthy common prison of the town of Cadiz where he remained in irons fourteen days amongst thieves. boldly asked them what they had to lay to his charge that they did so arrest him. whose name was John Fronton. that the devil had his soul before he came to the fire. God is praised. embracing death with all patience and gladness. with authority from him to make claim to his goods. and also in the Spanish tongue to utter the same. where they most cruelly burned them. where their sentences and judgments were read and pronounced against them. that he should not utter his conscience and faith to the people. had so cheerful a countenance. and taken into the sequester. as of the arrest made upon his goods. for professing the true Christian religion. immediately all the goods and merchandise which he brought with him into Spain by the way of traffic. upon a scaffold over against the said Inquisition.

gratia plena. he made answer. Immediately upon his coming. he received this answer from them. Dominus tecum. hearing the inquisitors cast out a word. excusing themselves by lack of leisure. did so. when he repaired unto him. when the party had well nigh spent all his money. and repaired thither about the evening. they were resolved to despatch him: it was on this sort: one of the inquisitors. contrary to his expectation. a man very well experienced in these practices. they referred the matter wholly to the bishop. But within two or three days after. demanding for each bill eight reals. that at length they meant good faith. perceived at length that the world went with him far otherwise than he supposed it would have done. suffer a year's imprisonment. but ended it very suspiciously. they bid him say his Ave Maria: Ave Maria. the jailer was forthwith charged with him. an Englishman. At last. where sentence was given. after he had spent four whole months in suits and requests. howbeit he was but one man. to shut him up close in such a prison where they appointed him. And for the space of three or four months this fellow missed not twice a day attending every morning and afternoon at the inquisitors' palace. though they were not his own. called Gasco. and seeing himself. and exhibited them to the court. albeit they stood him in no more stead than if he had put up none at all. of whom. and for that they were occupied in more weighty affairs. Mark Brughes. rather through a little misunderstanding. . Yet for his importunity's sake. than those which he had already presented to the court. four months after. At length. ora pro nobis peccatoribus: by abbreviating whereof. and without any more talk of claiming his goods. for the same righteous cause. and therefore sued the more earnestly for his despatch. it was evident enough (said they) that he did not allow the mediation of saints. because it was needless. and afterward brought him forth upon their stage disguised after their manner.their holy court. The fellow being glad to hear this news. and the determination appertained to the other commissioners as well as unto him. Sancta Maria mater Dei. hoping at the first that he had been called for about some other matter. The same was written word by word as he spake it. was stoned to death by certain young men in the city of Seville. and being thereupon more than half persuaded. and that he was called in for that purpose to talk with the other that was in prison to confer with him about their accounts. willed the party to resort unto him after dinner. that he should lose all the goods which he sued for. and with such answers put him off. he knew what he had to do. and with all speed returned to Seville again with more ample and large letters testimonial. he was brought into the court. et benedictus fructus ventris tui Jesus Amen. but especially to the bishop of Tarracon. suing unto them upon his knees for his despatch. the party could obtain no end of his suit. Thus they picked a quarrel to detain him in prison a longer season. who was at that very time chief of the Inquisition at Seville. and besides this. and bring more sufficient certificates out of England for proof of this matter. Whereupon the party forthwith posted to London. the inquisitors still shifted him off. according to their requests. they commanded him to prison again.' and thus by posting and passing it from one to another. forasmuch as he did not say his Ave Maria after the Romish fashion. and supposing that his goods should be restored unto him. Notwithstanding. was burned in a city in Portugal. benedicta tu in mulieribus. for he should have added moreover. where he began to demand his goods: and because it was a device that well served their turn without any more circumstance. but the booty was so good and great that it was very hard to come by it again. William Hoker. master of an English ship called the Minion. that he of his absolute authority would command restitution to be made thereof. and entered an action against him as a heretic. a young man about the age of sixteen years. being an Englishman. and certificates. and also to no purpose. 'That for himself. that it should be needful for him to talk with the prisoner. that he must show better evidence. cast into a dark dungeon. The party.

The army was then divided into two parts. He accordingly made a breach in the walls with his cannon. and that he knew of no argument which could authorize such a procedure. commanded by the duke of Orleans.Some Private Enormities of the Inquisition Laid Open. That the magistrates and principal inhabitants should pay a thousand crowns per month for the duke's table. consisting of French troops only. together with his whole army. • 2. the magistrates came to offer the keys to the duke of Orleans.000 pistoles. but he told them haughtily that they were rebels. for he had orders to enter the city through a breach. he departed to subdue other places. by two princes. he united great talents with great bravery. was paid as soon as demanded.2000 pistoles. The duke. . before his departure. Of the donatives to be raised by the clergy: The College of Jesuits to pay . headed by the duke of Berwick. and defeated the English at the celebrated battle of Almanza. and upon every house. who equally pretended to the sovereignty. they found that the ecclesiastics were not so willing. and England of the other. the other body. .1000 M. and was the skilful officer. That every house should pay one pistole. leaving a strong garrison at once to overawe and defend. The duke of Berwick. under the command of his lieutenant-general M. which would monthly amount to 18. had ordered that heavy contributions should be levied upon the city in the following manner: • 1. France espoused the cause of one competitor. That every convent and monastery should pay a donative. but when the persons applied to the heads of convents and monasteries. When he had made every necessary regulation here. This gentleman. a natural son of James II who abdicated England. and accomplished gentleman. • Carmelites. de Legal. de Legal sent to the Jesuits a peremptory order to pay the money immediately. M. . The two last contributions to be appropriated to the maintenance of the army. the one consisting of Spaniards and French. though brought up a Roman Catholic. The money levied upon the magistrates and principal inhabitants. as other people. The superior of the Jesuits returned for answer that for the clergy to pay money for the army was against all ecclesiastical immunities. by a Very Singular Occurrence When the crown of Spain was contested for in the beginning of the present century.1000 • Dominicans. de Legal then sent four . proportionable to its riches and rents. commanded the Spanish and French forces. to part with their cash. advanced towards Catalonia. and then entered the city through it. was totally free from superstition. and that he would not accept the keys. • 3. As the troops drew near to the city of Arragon. proceeded to the conquest of Arragon.1000 • Augustins.

who were all familiars of. for. with this sarcastic message. but." This insinuation was meant to terrify the French commander. and read the excommunication deliberately and distinctly. taking warning by what had happened to the Jesuits. ordered four companies of grenadiers to line the street which led to his house. "To convince you of the necessity of paying the money. sent word that the silver images would make admirable substitutes for money. without being of the least benefit to mankind in general. the Inquisition. "The whole wealth of the Dominicans consists only in the silver images of the apostles and saints. for M. says he. they therefore determined to deliver their precious images in a solemn procession. the silver images were. and which it would be sacrilege to remove. upon which the inquisitors drew up the form of excommunication. de Legal. "heresy. or otherwise mutilated. imagined that that very circumstance would be their protection. which are placed in our church. The French commander absolutely refused to release the images. therefore. but the common people were too much afraid of the troops under arms to obey them. de Legal. as large as life. and of being taught logic by dragoons. or even to yourselves." M. de Legal. which they never expected to receive. The secretary punctually performed his commission. hearing these proceedings. The Augustins and Carmelites. The project of raising an insurrection having failed. that they might excite the people to an insurrection. and. and ordered their secretary to go and read it to M. unless he would release their precious silver saints from imprisonment in the mint. The French commander heard it with great patience. prudently went and paid the money. in a mournful manner. or agents dependent on. who sent them to the mint. and a lighted taper in the other. useless and motionless. the inquisitors determined to excommunicate M. of necessity delivered up to M. but the dragoons were much more expeditious in plundering and doing mischief. however. and ordered them to be coined immediately. I have sent four substantial arguments to your college. when they may travel like the apostles. and politely told the secretary that he would answer it the next day. thought proper to adjust the matter amicably. having lighted tapers with them and bitterly crying all the way. they stand up in niches. therefore. than in that of the Dominicans themselves. and circulate for the universal service of mankind. they shall be useful. or do honor to the farcical solemnity. and had not any money whatever to pay the donative. . be beneficial in various places. even from crowned heads. who despatched an express to court to the king's confessor. and would be more in character in his possession. each grenadier was ordered to have his loaded fuzee in one hand. with the silver apostles and saints. but said they should certainly travel and do good. and by that means escaped the study of military arguments. seeing everything going to wreck and ruin. and paid the money before the return of their messenger. hope you will not need any further admonition to direct your conduct." The inquisitors were astonished at this treatment. I will put them in motion. whom the inquisitors imagined would not dare to be so profane as to wish for the possession of the precious idols. who was of their order. The friars did all they could to raise the tumult. drawn from the system of military logic.companies of dragoons to quarter themselves in the college. "For [said he] while you possess them in the manner you do at present. for I intend to have them coined. He. The chief of the Dominicans sent word to the military commander that his order was poor. de Legal. when they come into my possession. than the courier in his journey: so that the Jesuits. de Legal neither feared nor respected the Inquisition. But the Dominicans. so that the troops might either repel force with force. The Dominican friars were accordingly ordered to march to de Legal's house." These proceedings greatly perplexed the Jesuits. before they were melted down. but they were mistaken. heresy.

from whose merciless fangs neither their families nor themselves were secure. or blame. but he lost his life before he became king. for the very intimation of his design procured his destruction. greatly alarmed the archbishop. The inquisitors were all present. but the monarch told them that he could not grant them any redress. de Legal to receive them. and commanded them to accompany his secretary. the holy office of the Inquisition. The inquisitors. as a heretic. as it was the most commodious place in the whole city. but to make this alteration. [said he] I would have punished them. the French secretary told them that they must remove from their present lodgings. and was a prince of great vivacity. son of Philip the Second. Some may suggest. and consequently before he had the power so to do. which was granted. never having before met with any individual who dared to behave so boldly. and said. was granted. that it was impossible for him to send them back again. and heard it with astonishment. but as it is. The inquisitors exclaimed loudly upon this occasion. king of Spain. and among these were sixty beautiful young women. after a great deal of altercation. who desired M. As soon as he entered. by whose assistance alone he could be firmly established in his kingdom. They loudly cried out against de Legal. intended to abolish the Inquisition. that it is strange crowned heads and eminent nobles did not attempt to crush the power of the Inquisition. The secretary went to the Inquisition. where they made the most bitter complaints to the king. when the secretary put them under a strong guard. indeed. that the prisoners had either run away. the Inquisition having committed such atrocious actions. begged that they might be permitted to take their private property. He inveighed publicly against the institution. as the injuries they had received were from his grandfather. and at the same time he published an ecclesiastical censure against all such as should ridicule. He had sense enough to see into the errors of popery. But astonishing as it is. who amounted in the whole to four hundred. superstition hath. without any of the bad ones of his father. that if he ever came to the crown. and reduce the authority of those ecclesiastical tyrants. One prince. instead of his name to put in those of the inquisitors. he read. ridiculed the affected piety of the inquisitors. exactly like that sent by the Inquisition. de Legal's secretary set open all the doors of the Inquisition. M. always overcome common sense. which. "This was a most daring insult against the Catholic faith. de Legal to send the women to his palace. and. de Legal against the inquisitors. and released the prisoners. and insisted upon admittance. Don Carlos possessed all the good qualities of his grandfather. for the French commander wanted to quarter the troops in the Inquisition." But to surprise them still more. which laid the enormity of the inquisitors so open. and grandson of the celebrated emperor Charles V. and they immediately set out for Madrid. and sent them to a place appointed by M. did all he could to expose their atrocious deeds. and custom operated against reason. admirable learning. the excommunication sent by M. therefore. he would abolish the Inquisition. The next morning he ordered four regiments under arms. and even declared. the king of France's troops. in this case. and the most amiable disposition. de Legal ordered his own secretary to prepare a form of excommunication. M.When the secretary of the Inquisition was gone. This discovery. This was that amiable prince Don Carlos. or even by his own officers. "Had it been my own troops. in an audible voice. must now put up with their exposure." In the mean time. who appeared to form a seraglio for the three principal inquisitors. . or were so securely concealed by their friends. and he would take proper care of them. and exterminate its agents. finding how things went. and act as he directed. I cannot pretend to exert any authority. The French commander sent word to the archbishop. and abhorred the very name of the Inquisition.

soon after he was buried. he was permitted to choose the manner of his death. he had too much sense to be a bigot. passing the sentence of death on him himself. determined (as the emperor's whole thoughts were engrossed by a military expedition) to wreak their vengeance on him when dead. shocking to relate. exclusive of several modern tongues. had what was termed an indulgence. Aegidio. cast him into a dungeon. indeed. because they well knew that both the duke of Austria. he was elected into his place. and determined on his destruction. Therefore. he sacrificed the feelings of nature to the force of bigotry. that as the persons in question were heretics. for fear of incurring the anger of the Inquisition.These things were sufficient to irritate the inquisitors against the prince: they. they were condemned to be burnt. Though the monarch had been educated a Roman Catholic. at length raised such a spirit of discontent among the people that the king was under the necessity of removing Don Carlos from court. and cousin to the prince. falling a martyr to the malice of the inquisitors. Aegidio was educated at the university of Alcala. Not content with this. they gained so great an ascendency over the mind of the king. and a legal process being carried on. they petitioned the emperor in his behalf. and acted so much to the satisfaction of every one that his reputation for learning and piety was circulated throughout Europe. Roman-like. and. an intimate acquaintance of the already mentioned Dr. As the greatest part of those who belonged to the cathedral church at Seville. where he took his several degrees. Constantine. and obliged the king likewise to banish Don John. and. In short. had his enemies. The inquisitors now employed all their agents and emissaries to spread abroad the most artful insinuations against the prince. Aegidio Dr. had a most sincere and inviolable attachment to Don Carlos. and when he appeared to it. and did every thing he could to promote the cause of religion. since he gave them countenance. he expired gradually. however. and the prince of Parma. and consequently uncle to the prince. was a man of uncommon natural abilities and profound learning. which was executed accordingly. that. and died in an extreme old age. and these laid a complaint against him to the inquisitors. gave up his only son. When the professor of theology died. accordingly. that is. they pursued even his friends. Some few years after. duke of Austria. together with the prince of Parma. Constantine Dr. the Inquisition loudly exclaimed against him. and therefore sent an immediate order for his enlargement. He soon after visited the church of Valladolid. bent their minds to vengeance. who sent him a citation. the prince himself must necessarily be one. The Persecution of Dr. Returning home he soon after fell sick. The prince. when the veins of his arms and legs were opened. The inquisitors having been disappointed of gratifying their malice against him while living. declaring. nephew to the king. they ordered his remains to be dug out of the grave. and the stupid bigotry of his father. who was absolutely a slave to superstition. The Persecution of Dr. his own brother. which they thought perfectly consonant with true religion. and particularly applied himself to the study of the sacred Scriptures and school divinity. the prince having shown great lenity and favor to the Protestants in the Netherlands. he was acquainted with the . the unfortunate young hero chose bleeding and the hot bath. and many persons belonging to the bishopric of Dortois highly approved of the doctrines of Aegidio. Aegidio.

Constantine had deposited with a woman named Isabella Martin. The process. when the officer was greatly surprised to find what he did not look for. The son. The Life of William Gardiner . and. but remained doubtful in what manner to proceed." After being detained upwards of two years in prison. For these reasons he had many enemies among the Roman Catholics. and all my other writings. and an officer was despatched to the son to demand the chests. A worthy gentleman named Scobaria. but which he knew. He immediately undertook the task. but nevertheless he must fulfill the end of his commission. A treacherous servant gave intelligence of this to the inquisitors. and he frequently preached so forcibly against simony. and perfectly well knew not only the sciences called abstruse. for the young man knew it would be in vain to expostulate. he answered with such precaution that they could not find any explicit charge against him. for if a living of greater value than his own was offered him. now found matter sufficient to form charges against him. and uncontaminated by the errors which had at various times crept into the Romish Church. took umbrage at his doctrines upon that head. and he was so popular that he never preached but to a crowded audience. and I will fetch them to you immediately. told the young man that he was glad these books and papers were produced. or resist. to the officers coming to her house. was carried on against his body. This woman having been informed against as a Protestant. at the ensuing auto da fe. Previous. said. Dr. in the eyes of the Inquisition. Constantine's books and papers. the woman's son had removed away several chests full of the most valuable articles. when he was seized by the inquisitors. however. which put an end to his miseries in this world. supposing the officer only came for Constantine's books. and the soundness of his doctrines a profitable preacher. among these were Dr. and read lectures. which was to carry him and the goods he had embezzled before the inquisitors. I have never departed from the truth of the Gospel. Ecclesiastes. The inquisitors being thus possessed of Constantine's books and writings. When he was brought to a re-examination. and was beginning to expound the Book of Job. but never would take advantage of them. confessed the writing. He had many opportunities of rising in the Church. on the Proverbs. was apprehended. and Hebrew languages. which he did accordingly. Greek. he guessed the whole matter. but those arts which come under the denomination of polite literature. who were not so delicate upon the subject. he preached boldly such doctrines only as were agreeable to Gospel purity. that many of his superiors. after a small process. was publicly burnt. Dr. and asked him if he knew the handwriting? Perceiving it was his own. having erected a school for divinity lectures.Latin. saying. "I know what you come for. which. Being brought to examination. when the following circumstances occurred to determine them. "I am content with what I have". several books. which to him were very valuable. Constantine was seized with a bloody flux. were exceptionable. Constantine's books. Having been fully confirmed in Protestantism by Dr. he would refuse it. and Canticles. however. however." He then fetched Dr. her goods were ordered to be confiscated. they presented one of his papers. Constantine to be reader therein. His eloquence rendered him pleasing. Aegidio. He. but have always kept in view the pure precepts of Christ. and some of them were fully determined on his destruction. as He delivered them to mankind. and justified the doctrine it contained: saying. by portions. appointed Dr. and therefore quietly submitted to his fate. "In that.

at that part of the ceremony in which the people adore the wafer. for they burnt or rather roasted him by slow degrees. (some few escaping) and many innocent persons were tortured to make them confess if they knew any thing of the matter. and among the rest William Gardiner. and trampled it under his feet. a large fire was kindled near a gibbet. he snatched the host from him. with a New Testament in his hand. and a general order issued to apprehend all Englishmen in Lisbon. What I have done is not out of contempt to your royal person. when the truth of the Gospel might be so easily obtained. and behaved with the most engaging affability to all persons with whom he had the least concern. received a tolerable education. and placed himself near the altar. . On the ensuing Sunday he went again to the cathedral church. but in the midst of all his torments he gloried in the deed. to which he replied. attended by multitudes of all ranks of people. or perishing in the attempt. This order was in a great measure put into execution. and. He conversed privately with a few. demanded who was his abetter. to see the ridiculous superstitious and gross idolatries practiced here. "I am an Englishman by birth. placed under the care of a merchant. The erroneous worship which he had seen ran strongly in his mind. however. who stayed during the whole ceremony." Gardiner was sent to prison. and was greatly shocked at the superstitions he saw. the monarch asked him what countryman he was: to which he replied.William Gardiner was born at Bristol. and determined to sacrifice his prudence to his zeal. Being ordered for death. sent to Lisbon to act as factor. of making a reform in Portugal. Gardiner. he was. and one person. by his master. and the Infanta of Spain. have finished him. "My own conscience alone. a person who resided in the same house with Gardiner was treated with unparalleled barbarity to make him confess something which might throw a light upon the affair. and consigned over his merchandise. though he became a martyr upon the occasion. Here he applied himself to the study of the Portuguese language. had not the king called to him to desist. upon the weddingday the bridegroom. At the age of twenty-six years. named Paget. and a merchant by occupation. bride. and then let down near the fire. The king and the court soon appeared. This action amazed the whole congregation. I would not hazard what I have done for any man living. and would. in particular. but I owe that and all other services to God. To this end. he had not. Gardiner was drawn up to the gibbet by pulleys. and was. thinking that he had been stimulated by some other person to act as he had done. God forbid it should. took the inconsiderate. though laudable design. by repeating the blow. paid his debts. Gardiner himself was then tormented in the most excruciating manner. at the same time cautiously avoided giving the least offence to any who were Roman Catholics. he was miserable to see a whole country sunk into such idolatry. and the whole court went to the cathedral church. Yet he bore his sufferings patiently and resigned his soul to the Lord cheerfully. closed his books. at a proper age. a Protestant by religion. wounded Gardiner in the shoulder. hitherto gone into any of the popish churches. but out of an honest indignation. executed his business with assiduity and despatch. but springing towards the cardinal. but not so close as to touch it. whom he knew to be zealous Protestants. drawing a dagger. He. therefore. A marriage being concluded between the king of Portugal's son." The king. and a cardinal began Mass. into his head. Gardiner could hold out no longer. he settled all his worldly affairs. being carried before the king.

" Finding himself. was conducted to a closet. however. after which he visited France. where. and the first place he went to was Paris. Lithgow to go on board. as they imagined them to be Turks. except the person who resided in the same house with him. and silenced the fears of the people. and reported the same to the governor and the other officers. and gave orders that the prisoner should be strictly watched until he (the governor) returned from his devotions. the English fleet. he found himself suddenly surrounded by nine sergeants. where he stayed for some time. and at length arrived at Malaga. of what country he was. The governor only answered by shaking his head. 1620. etc. and his baggage. should be summoned to appear at his examination. and how long he had been in Spain. and detained till the next day when the fleet sailed. to prevent the knowledge reaching the ears of the English merchants then residing in the town. over the northern and western islands. or officers. The admiral would willingly have taken Mr. The morning. The prisoner. Lithgow earnestly begged he might be informed of the cause of such violent treatment. perceiving the cross of England in their colors. he contracted with the master of a French ship for his passage to Alexandria. Lithgow got on shore. Germany. directing. in Spain. namely. discovered the mistake. but was prevented from going by the following circumstances. who threw a black cloak over him. Lithgow was brought before them for examination. "For (said he) your very countenance shows there is some hidden matter in your mind. in passing through a narrow uninhabited street. he rambled. Mr. An Account of the Life and Sufferings of Mr. The next day many persons from on board the fleet came ashore. with the officers. The governor began by asking several questions. unable to extort any thing from the prisoner. and town notary. (which consumed Gardiner) towards the haven. and pay his respects to the admiral. As soon as Mr. and having a natural propensity for travelling. Lithgow was again brought before them. William Lithgow. and did other considerable damage. and that all this should be done with the greatest secrecy. and he was compelled to swear that he would give true answers to such questions as should be asked him. being in the town. and after staying some time returned. He accordingly accepted the invitation. after answering these and other questions. he could not accept the offer. and forcibly conducted him to the governor's house. soon after Gardiner's death. He then prosecuted his travels through Germany and other parts. the seat of all his misfortunes. but having contracted for his passage to Alexandria. . who was detained two years before he could procure his liberty. 1609. that the captain of the town. was kindly received by him. Switzerland. at that time on a cruise against the Algerine rovers. In the evening of the seventeenth of October. These orders were strictly discharged. went on board Sir Robert Mansel's ship. after reciprocal compliments. when very young. he was visited by the town captain. he proceeded towards his lodgings by a private way. a Native of Scotland This gentleman was descended from a good family. whither bound. came to anchor before Malaga. conjured him to tell the truth. having seated themselves. in a short space of time. or was lately come from thence. he. burnt one of the king's ships of war. however. he left him. They then invited Mr. and the governor of Malaga. (being to embark the same night for Alexandria) when. After some little time the governor appeared when Mr. who commanded on that expedition. The Englishmen who were taken up on this occasion were. and patting his cheeks with an air of friendship.. a general accusation was laid against him. which threw the people of the town into the greatest consternation. at the same time. Lithgow. and on the governor's return. all discharged. and Spain. which prudence should direct you to disclose. Among these were several well known by Mr. who inquired whether he had ever been at Seville. During his residence here.It is observable that some of the sparks that were blown from the fire. who. He set out on his travels in the month of March. spent some days together in festivity and the amusements of the town. on which Mr. the alcade major. Lithgow with him to Algiers.

All these credentials. upon which it was agreed that he should be confined in the governor's house with the greatest secrecy. the governor left him in a rage. who said he lied. which was treated by the haughty Spaniards with great contempt. but it was to introduce him to one much more horrible. Besides to sum up the whole. the sergeant and two Turkish slaves released Mr. Thomas. Lithgow endeavor to obviate every accusation laid against him. after seizing all the prisoner's papers. the weight of which was so great that he could neither stand nor sit." In vain did Mr. but the junto seemed surprised at his denying any knowledge of the fitting out of the fleet. which was not only the first. of persons of quality. in order to procure intelligence of the time the Spanish navy was expected from the Indies. they said he came from a council of war.. together with a small quantity of wine. and came directly from England to favor and assist the designs that were projected against Spain. This request they complied with. who. however. inclosed in the waistland. and put the truth past all doubt. the sergeant locked the door. during his confinement in this place. The next day he received a visit from the governor. and being opened. the prisoner quietly complied. testimonials. The other papers consisted of passports. and the prisoner's opinion what were the motives that prevented his accepting an invitation from him to come on shore. He begged permission to send for his cloak bag which contained his papers. or chief judge. thinking it would discover some things of which they were ignorant. who. who promised him his liberty. the names of the English captains in the squadron. "In order to prevent the knowledge of his confinement from reaching his countrymen. consisting of a pound of boiled mutton and a loaf. ordered him again to withdraw. if he would confess being a spy. held that morning on board the admiral's ship. They exclaimed against his familiarity with the officers of the fleet. Lithgow. when the sergeant (after rifling his pockets of eleven ducatoons) stripped him to his shirt. but this was objected to. under the sign manual. and might serve to show his innocence. or preparation for it before his departure from England. setting forth the bearer's intention to travel into Egypt. but all these transactions had been carefully noticed. when they returned with a refreshment of food. He demanded. unusual civilities had passed. was found a license from King James the First. Lithgow to his own private contemplations. and to obtain belief from his prejudiced judges. two canvass bags. they said.The governor proceeded to inquire the quality of the English commander. saying. to a chamber in a remote part of the palace. was for putting him into the town prison. among other things. after having told it over. The alcade. and extended his legs by means of an iron bar above a yard long. seemed rather to confirm than abate the suspicions of these prejudiced judges. 'He should see him no more until further torments constrained him to confess'. and what knowledge he had of the embarkation. and that he had been for that purpose nine months in Seville. and many other English gentlemen. They left him in this condition for some time. in Spanish. in the West Indies. The sergeant immediately took the money to the corregidor. towards the garden. but the best and last of the kind. between whom. . with liberty to search him. ordered him to clothe the prisoner. containing one hundred and thirty-seven pieces of gold. ought to have no credit given to what they say or swear. and be answerable for the consequences". and left Mr. etc. After delivering these articles. particularly the governor. Lithgow from his then confinement. but on his protesting that he was entirely innocent. In the meantime a consultation was held to fix the place where the prisoner should be confined. but was obliged to lie continually on his back. that he was a traitor and a spy. I will take the matter on myself. likewise. and sons of the devil. The answers given to the several questions asked were set down in writing by the notary. "Wherefore (said they) these Lutherans. one of the sergeants went to Mr. About midnight. and searching his breeches he found. They conducted him through several passages. particularly by the corregidor. As it was needless to make any resistance. They upbraided him with being accessory to the burning of the island of St. who said. The cloak bag was accordingly brought. and begged his money. and shut him up close until after supper. with many other advantages. in order to put in execution the orders assigned him. This matter being determined. where they loaded him with irons.

and undergo courageously the grievous trial he had to encounter. to which place a rack had been privately conveyed before. he fell on his knees. it being then the forty-seventh day since his imprisonment. and here they shut him up for that night. entered the place where he lay. that he should permit no person whatever to have access to. together with his weak condition. The prisoner desired he might have an interpreter. and had they continued them a few minutes longer. Lithgow was immediately brought to undergo another examination. where a coach waited." These. he was stripped naked. there appeared in all his answers so exact a conformity with what he had before said." Mr. The encarouador. this is but the earnest of what you shall endure. and the rest walked by the coach side. hunger. not being able to sit. Two of the sergeants rode with him. which lasted from morning until night. or executioner. . which were hastened. which was allowed to strangers by the laws of that country. stop up the holes of the door with double mats: let him have nothing that bears any likeness to comfort. however. pain. that is. pursuant to the instructions given him. during which time he received above sixty different tortures of the most hellish nature. Lithgow still persisting in his innocence. that his sustenance should not exceed three ounces of musty bread. and. that God would be pleased to enable him to be steadfast. In consequence of this he was conducted by the sergeants to the end of a stone gallery. the anguish of which. It is impossible to describe all the various tortures inflicted upon him. upon which the merciless alcade said. (not having the least sustenance for three days) occasioned him to groan bitterly. or commune with him. into whose presence Mr. uttering a short prayer. who had first seized him. and fixed upon the rack. not having had any sleep for two nights." When his irons were off. and without uttering a word. he must have inevitably perished. After a long examination. At daybreak the next morning. Soon after the prison doors were opened. to accuse himself of crimes never committed. arrived the governor and the alcade. and a pint of water every second day. "You are still in my power. In this wretched and melancholy state did poor Lithgow continue without seeing any person for several days. About two o'clock in the morning. but this was refused. but all observed the most profound silence. which put him to very great pains. and into which they laid him at the bottom on his back. the superior court of judicature. that he shall be allowed neither bed. because Christmas holy-days approached. that they declared he had learned them by heart.commanding the keeper. and sometime after heard the opening of the prison doors. in which time the governor received an answer to a letter he had written. conducted him in his irons through the house into the street. in forcing off the bolt. the nine sergeants. and several orders of the like severity. from Madrid. immediately struck off his irons. They drove him to a vinepress house. about a league from the town. were given to render it impossible for his condition to be known to those of the English nation. traitor. and set down the confessions and tortures endured by the delinquent. there not being the least prevarication. They. relative to the prisoner. nor coverlid. he heard the noise of a coach in the street. the bolts being so closely riveted that the sledge hammer tore away half an inch of his heel. nor would they permit him to appeal to Madrid. where the rack was placed. I can set you free if you comply. to whose care he was committed. the office of these gentlemen being to be witness of. "Close up (said he) this window in his room with lime and stone. and melancholy reflections having prevented him from taking any repose. The alcade and notary having placed themselves in chairs. if not. I must deliver you to the alcade. began to put in practice the cruelties devised. Suffice it to say that he lay on the rack for above five hours. pressed him again to make a full discovery. "Villain. pillow. the governor ordered the notary to draw up a warrant for delivering him to the alcade to be tortured. the governor adding.

Lithgow kept until he was almost devoured by vermin. and therefore did not deserve any thanks. that he should finish his life under new tortures. obtained some little mitigation of this part of his punishment. almost starved for want of the common necessaries to preserve his wretched existence. an inquisitor. who must otherwise have miserably perished. had been for some time employed by the governor to translate from the English into the Spanish language. orders were given for a coach to pass every morning before day by the prison. carried with her some refreshments. From this slave Mr." He also expostulated with the governor on the ill return he made to the king of England. and deprive him of all possibility of obtaining the least repose. As a confirmation of this. and reserve him for future punishments. that he was an arch-heretic. The substance of this information was that an English seminary priest. and thousands of the Spaniards found relief.. and his irons being again put on. and he began. In this loathsome prison was poor Mr. (whose subject he was) for the princely humanity exercised towards the Spaniards in 1588. and a Scotch cooper. innocently: . from the humanity of a Turkish slave that attended him. Two days after he had received the above information. or any way molested by them on account of diversity in religion. entered his dungeon. One of the Jesuits said there was no faith to be kept with heretics. So cruel was the governor. but. and at her departure expressed the greatest concern at not being able to give him further assistance. and his mortification was increased by not having the use of his hands or legs to defend himself. having received no other nourishment than a little warm wine. when he could do it with safety. Lithgow if he was a Roman Catholic. that he even ordered the vermin to be swept on him twice in every eight days. adding that he was surprised at being asked such questions. since it was expressly stipulated by the articles of peace between England and Spain that none of the English subjects should be liable to the Inquisition. to fear that they would soon finish him. the prisoner was taken from the rack. and tortured. and a canonical priest. and other articles. he was conducted to his former dungeon. This information greatly alarmed him. The governor admitted the truth of what Mr. who. They crawled about his beard. Lithgow said. accompanied by two Jesuits. addressed himself to Mr. and being seated. Lithgow in the following words: "You have been taken up as a spy. all his books and observations. until Christmas day. and so affected was she at beholding his situation that she wept bitterly. accused of treachery. In the bitterness of his soul he made use of some warm expressions not suited to his circumstances: "As you have almost murdered me (said he) for pretended treason. and contributed every refreshment to him that laid in his power. and that it was commonly said in the governor's house. who then only ruled Scotland. from his being so miserably maimed by the tortures. when their armada was shipwrecked on the Scotch coast. when he received some relief from Mariane. which was given him rather to prevent his dying. not without reason.These cruel persecutors being satisfied for the present. than from any principle of charity or compassion. lips. but replied with a haughty air that the king. This woman having obtained leave to visit him. etc. the governor. eyebrows. consisting of honey. so now you intend to make a martyr of me for my religion. destroyed the vermin. He. Lithgow at length received information which gave him little hopes of ever being released. so that he could scarce open his eyes. etc. raisins. sugar. was actuated more by fear than love. after several idle questions. as we acknowledge. the inquisitor asked Mr. however. The inquisitor then rising. on the contrary. waiting-woman to the governor's lady. He continued in this horrid situation. more especially as they could neither by torture or any other means. that the noise made by it might give fresh terrors and alarms to the unhappy prisoner. and acknowledged the pope's supremacy? He answered that he neither was the one nor did the other. bring him to vary from what he had all along said at his different examinations.

(which might be reasonably expected from the maimed and disjointed condition he was in) he was.(which appears by the account lately received from Madrid of the intentions of the English) yet it was the divine power that brought those judgments upon you. nor even the fear of the cruel sentence he had reason to expect would be pronounced and executed on him." The Jesuits. "Convert." The first effects Mr. to give him such assistance thereto as he might want. supercilious air. (first making the sign of the cross upon his breast). and attempted to stab him. universality. being confirmed by grace. finding their arguments had not the desired effect. that he struck him on the face." This trumpery being ended. to which he answered. therefore you are justly fallen into our hands by their special appointment: thy books and papers are miraculously translated by the assistance of Providence influencing thy own countrymen. and conveyed him to his former dungeon. The next day the two Jesuits returned. etc. To which Mr. whom you have blasphemed we will both save your soul and body. unless he could show substantial reasons to make him alter his opinion. to stand fast to the truth. After these barbarians had glutted themselves for the present. when sentence is pronounced. when the former asked the prisoner what difficulties he had on his conscience that retarded his conversion. and Christ had ever his own Church (however obscure) in the greatest time of your darkness.. and without conversion a member of perdition. O dear brother. they with seeming tears in their eyes. you deserve to be burnt alive. behold. transubstantiation. they again put irons on. returned. and that all other methods would with him be totally ineffectual. and there burnt to ashes. Lithgow replied that he was already resolved. cried out. 'he had not any doubts in his mind. being confident in the promises of Christ. during which time the inquisitor told him he. the intercession of saints. to be carried to Grenada. the great agent and Christ's vicar upon earth. and falling on their knees. as professed in the reformed Catholic Church. On the eighth day after. used many abusive speeches. but above all. and expressing yourself in your writings irreverently of his holiness. for our blessed Lady's sake convert!" To which he answered.' To these words the inquisitor replied. who secretly brought him. "I fear neither death nor fire. and to survive the horrid punishments inflicted on him. after a pedantic display of their seven sacraments. The first part of this sentence was executed with great barbarity that night. "My son. with exercising on the unhappy prisoner the most distinguished cruelties. . but an absurd heretic. boasted greatly of their Church. convert. but by the grace of our lady of Loretto. which he had certainly done had he not been prevented by the Jesuits. and it pleased God to give him strength both of body and mind. after severe menaces. pretended they were sorry from their heart he must be obliged to undergo a terrible death. racks. for the loss of his most precious soul. and having infallible assurance thereby of the Christian faith. The superior." The prisoner then told him that it was not consistent with the nature and essence of religion and charity to convince by opprobrious speeches. but quite altered both in their words and behavior after repeating much of the same kind of arguments as before. her antiquity. all of which Mr. the superior asked him what resolution he had taken. One of the Jesuits said. and putting on a very grave. left him. "Thou art no Christian. would attend. Lithgow felt of the determination of this bloody tribunal was. being the last of their Inquisition. and uniformity. and torments. being prepared for both. with three other ecclesiastics. a sentence to receive that night eleven different tortures. that torments could not shake his constancy. and from this time he never again visited the prisoner. for presumptuously treating the blessed miracle of Loretto with ridicule. and if he did not die in the execution of them. and assuredly believing his revealed will signified in the Gospels. The next morning he received some little comfort from the Turkish slave before mentioned. Lithgow denied: "For (said he) the profession of the faith I hold hath been ever since the first days of the apostles. The inquisitor was so enraged at the replies made by the prisoner. but by arguments deduced from the Scriptures. with other religious orders. they gave the prisoner eight days to consider and resolve whether he would become a convert to their religion. they returned again. after Easter holy-days." In the morning the inquisitor.

and worthy of note. where all proper comforts were given him. that on his refusing to abjure these heretical opinions. Lithgow that he fell ill. While the governor was relating this tragical tale. After a short consultation it was agreed that an information of the whole affair should be sent. restored his money and papers. The time was now so far elapsed. Mr. conjectured it was he. upon an inspection into his writings. which. several were found of a very blasphemous nature. This was accordingly done. which made such an impression on him that he could not rest in his bed. Lithgow attributed his surviving so long in such a wretched situation. with a proper guard. and when the morning came. between his master and the governor. Lithgow's name. on the rack. the English ambassador to the king of Spain. Mr. who being invited to an entertainment by the governor. Lithgow. came the next day ashore. Bosbich. to whom he related the whole of what he had heard pass the preceding evening. That on this account he would gladly have released him. and the horrid situation so truly loathsome. which he licked up in the best manner his strength would permit with his tongue. Lithgow's enlargement. then at Madrid. for he found means to convey some of these fruits to him twice every week. In this anxiety he passed the night. He likewise told him that after it was known the prisoner was innocent. a slave. and described the various sufferings he had endured. that Mr. and his having had some acquaintance with him. in the greatest detestation of Christians. would also end his torments. by the servant's remembering the circumstance of his being a traveller. and Sir Richard Hawkins sent him two double pistoles. highly reflecting on their religion. and made some atonement for the injuries he had received. by putting an end to his life. It happened that a Spanish gentleman of quality came from Grenada to Malaga. Lithgow was attended by a negro woman. Lithgow waited with anxious expectation for the day. and his deliverance obtained from the following circumstances. But his melancholy expectations were. and burning in the fire. without disclosing his intentions to any person whatever. On his return to his master's lodgings he began to revolve in his mind what he had heard. . and all necessary provisions. She brought him every day some victuals. a Flemish youth (servant to the Spanish gentleman) who waited at the table. by express. he was turned over to the Inquisition. according to the maxims of his prophet and parents. Wild immeidately sent for the other English factors. but could not tell Mr. Wild. It fortunately happened that there was at this time a squadron of English ships in the road. and with it some wine in a bottle. During this period Mr. He was directed to the house of a Mr. and three days after was removed to another ship. obtained an order for Mr. who ordered that he should have proper care taken of him. On the departure of the Flemish servant. Lithgow from the time of his being apprehended as a spy. he went into the town. to Sir Walter Aston. his imagination pointed to him the person described. being conversant in the house and family. informed him of what had befallen Mr. and was received with great dislike and surprise by the whole assembly of the bloody Inquisition. The factor presented him with clothes. but that. by direction of the general Sir Robert Mansel. besides which they gave him two hundred reals in silver. who being informed of the past sufferings and present situation of Mr. Lithgow was released from his confinement on the eve of Easter Sunday. and his delivery to the English factor. to whom he related all the paritculars relative to their unfortunate countryman. and the ambassador having presented a memorial to the king and council of Spain. however. bred up from his infancy. who found means to furnish him with refreshments still more amply than the Turk. He was instantly carried in blankets on board the Vanguard. when he was carried from his dungeon on the back of the slave who had attended him. by the interposition of Providence. it gave him great concern. Wild. It is very extraordinary. It was to this slave Mr. This order was directed to the governor of Malaga. Mr. and continued so for upwards of forty days. to the house of one Mr. and received him from the merchants.in his shirt sleeve. by whom he was finally condemned. happily rendered abortive. that this poor slave. should be so affected at the miserable situation of Mr. was struck with amazement and pity at the sufferings of the stranger described. commanded by Sir Richard Hawkins. and inquired for an English factor. In the short slumbers he had. some raisins and figs.

in Hertfordshire. and contrary to the sacred and divine Scripture. Lithgow was presented to him. Notwithstanding that every effort was used. a doctrine which is false. the charge of the inquisitors went on to declare. the chief astronomer and mathematician of his age. to a strange gentleman. the Spanish ambassador. By these means." Summary of the Inquisition . for by his sentence.Before his departure from the Spanish coast. under God. although his majesty and the ministers of state interested themselves in his behalf. that he expressed the deepest concern. After a long and bitter review of Galileo's writings. "That you.. and gave orders that he should be sent to Bath. Mr. to a great share of health and strength. By such secondary means does Providence frequently interfere in behalf of the virtuous and oppressed. or assert. and does not move from the east to the west. and that the earth moves. books. and hazard his own life. "The earth moves. but he lost the use of his left arm and several of the smaller bones were so crushed and broken.. anything that shall give occasion for a like suspicion. and his wants properly supplied from his royal munificence. from which there was no appeal. in a few days. that the sun is the center of the orb of the earth. etc. Mr. who had not the least knowledge of him. where at that time was the king and royal family. too great a share of influence in the English council during the time of that pacific reign. subjected yourself to a strong suspicion of heresy in this Holy Office. indeed. Mr. and although the king was a kind of guarantee for the well performance of them. on whose secrecy depended his own existence. to disclose a thing of so momentous and perilous a nature. the ship weighed anchor. After lying twelve days in the road. and holding to be true. by believing. and his happy delivery. and for a while was in great danger of being put to death. indeed. the cunning Spaniard found means to elude the same. were but mere promises. and that a poor ordinary servant. For making this great discovery Galileo was brought before the Inquisition. His majesty happened to be that day engaged in hunting. when he was just on the brink of destruction. and related the particulars of his sufferings." But immediately after taking this forced oath he is said to have whispered to a friend standing near. I will never more say. to Grenada. after some time.viz. Gondamore. and burnt to ashes. should risk the displeasure of his master. however. with the addition of 1000 Pounds English money. which last was to be paid him by the governor of Malaga. The king was so affected at the narrative. Lithgow was carried on a feather bed to Theobalds. We cannot help making a pause here to reflect how manifestly Providence interfered in behalf of this poor man. but could not obtain any satisfactory answer on that head. he would have been taken. as some atonement for the tortures he had undergone. nor was any ways interested in his preservation. either by word or writing. Lithgow could never obtain any part of his money or effects. but on his return in the evening. Galileo. The Story of Galileo The most eminent men of science and philosophy of the day did not escape the watchful eye of this cruel despotism. and in about two months arrived safe at Deptford. in which many of his most important discoveries were condemned as errors. Galileo. The next morning. was the first who used the telescope successfully in solving the movements of the heavenly bodies. of which this is a most distinguished example. and is not the center of the world. These engagements. as to be ever after rendered useless. money. Mr. and swore that-"For the future. Lithgow was restored from the most wretched spectacle." In order to save his life. have upon account of those things which you have written and confessed. Galileo admitted that he was wrong in thinking that the earth revolved around the sun. promised that all his effects should be restored. Sir Richard Hawkins demanded the delivery of his papers. He had. for all that. when England suffered herself to be bullied into slavish compliance by most of the states and kings in Europe. He discovered that the sun is the center of motion around which the earth and various planets revolve.

its fuller triumph only disclosed its fuller evil. ten miserable beings! We are to recollect that this number was in a country where persecution had for ages abolished all religious differences. amounted to three hundred and nine thousand. and Christianity to the ends of Europe. or hurried to the grave by the death of the victims. and the terror and suffering of human virtue. and with a ghastly mimickry of the crimes of the mother state. it ruled with a rank of influence never before or since possessed by a human scepter. we must look to the time. the popedom was at the summit of mortal dominion. freedom. or condemned to penance.Of the multitudes who perished by the Inquisoition throughout the world. of confinement. there was the tribunal. peace. until within these few years. Each of the seventeen tribunals during a long period burned annually. or the world. to the shame of human reason. no authentic record is now discoverable. It might have spread literature. are beyond all register. fed with many an agony. shall go into captivity: he that killeth with the sword must be killed with the sword. on an average. who has sworn that "He that leadeth into captivity. Rome. thus gleaned of all heresy. In the thirteenth century. declared by the Spirit of God to be at once the offspring and the image of the popedom. the millions of dependent lives made utterly helpless. to all ruin but the mere loss of worthless life. the arrivals of viceroys. But wherever popery had power. even in Spain. to all earthly intents its power was immeasurable for good or evil. teemed with the monstrous and horrid birth of the INQUISITION! . In Spain the calculation is more attainable. the Inquisition could still swell its lists of murders to thirty-two thousand! The numbers burned in effigy. But its nature was hostile. The Netherlands were one scene of slaughter from the time of the decree which planted the Inquisition among them. and the Portuguese Inquisition of Goa was. and taint of blood. and where the difficulty was not to find the stake. and the other popular celebrations were thought imperfect without an auto da fe. it was independent of all kingdoms. punishments generally equivalent to exile. or recorded only before HIM. and of broken hearts." Such was the Inquisition. To feel the force of the parentage. It had been planted even in the east. South America was partitioned into provinces of the Inquisition. But the crowds who perished in dungeons of torture. and. but the offering. Yet. in the hour of its consummate grandeur. confiscation. it was the acknowledged sovereign of body and soul.

and retired to Germany. came to Rome. he received the sentence of exile. Adrian.An Account of the Persecutions in Italy. This so greatly enraged Adrian that he commanded Arnold instantly to leave the city.CHAPTER VI . a Spaniard. for a long time. as a heretic. and a conclave of cardinals. when he was burnt by order of the pope. and to expose the gross errors of the Church of Rome. an Englishman. Arnold. • 2. Encenas. being known. named Arnold. At length. • In pursuing our narrative we shall include the most remarkable persecutions which have happened. By the immediate power of the pope. being occasioned by the following circumstances: A learned man. at length he persuaded the senators and people to give up the point. and diffused the clouds of superstition and bigotry over the human understanding. and still is. The emperor very readily delivered up the unfortunate preacher. and breathed forth such a pure spirit of piety. which caused the whole body of clergy to interpose. and resisted the authority of the pope. to be brought up in the Roman Catholic faith. being hanged. deluded the minds of thousands. The brother of Encenas had been taken up much about the . the first persecutions under the papacy began in Italy. for the senators and some of the principal people took his part. avoided every snare laid for him. The seat of the pontiff. on this account. • 1. The center of popery. The source of the various errors which have spread themselves over other countries. and. requested that the pope would crown him with his own hand. The same fate attended several of his old friends and companions. • 1. This being agreed to. Under the Papacy We shall now enter on an account of the persecutions in Italy. did not comply. and the cruelties which have been practised. Through the power of the Inquisition. • 2. and having read several treatises which they put into his hands. to put Arnold into his hands. at the time that Adrian. • 3. consistent. but having conversed with some of the reformed. at Apulia. and at the same time asked a favor of the emperor. one of his own relations informed against him. and boldly preached against the corruptions and innovations which had crept into the Church. but Arnold. which was. thirsted for his blood. His discourses were so clear. • 3. and suffer Arnold to be banished. By the bigotry of the Italian princes. who soon fell a martyr to Adrian's vengeance. at length. that the senators and many of the people highly approved of. Adrian now laid the city of Rome under an interdict. and made several attempts to get him into his hands. and his body burnt to ashes. In the twelfth century. was pope. however. where he continued to preach against the pope. and admired his doctrines. a country which has been. he became a Protestant. This Adrian complied with. Frederic Barbarossa arriving at the imperial dignity. and an excellent orator of Brescia. was sent to Rome. This.

" To which Faninus replied: "Christ sustained all manner of pangs and conflicts. with some surprise: to which Faninus answered. but as he went along with the magistrate. was in such agonies. but before the time appointed for his execution. on account of their faith. that he renounced his faith. "If the congregation will attend to-morrow. he was sentenced to death. and so far wrought upon his mind. and then scattered about by the wind. and obtained his release. and cast into prison. what I preach are the doctrines of Christ. in order that his wife. a great number of Protestants were put to death in various parts of Italy. and entreated the executioner to put fire to the wood that was to burn him. Being apprehended for this. a learned layman." "What trustee?" said the person who had asked the question. Faninus. freed those who really believe in him from the fear of them. by reading controversial books. He readily submitted. however. and subscribed to several of the superstitious doctrines propogated by the Church of Rome. he was apprehended. until he had returned from his apostasy. he was condemned to be burnt. was apprehended on account of his faith. An Account of the Persecutions of Calabria . which one observing. where he was left several hours before the fire was put to the fagots. might induce him to give up his opinions. he replied. he now openly and strenuously did all he could to make converts to Protestantism. his body was burnt to ashes. "I shall not leave them in distress. giving a sure proof of their sincerity in their martyrdoms. became of the reformed religion. To make amends for his falling off. and paint him out in his proper colors. said. relations. a Protestant gentleman. saying that he scorned life upon such terms. Great endeavors being used by his friends he recanted. he said. Galeacius. just before his death. An information being exhibited against him to the pope. and was pretty successful in his endeavors. children. I will give them a description of Antichrist. Becoming. to a very considerable congregation. having read several controversial writings. and I think I could not commit them to the care of a better. "It is strange you should appear so merry upon such an occasion. he made use of this expression: "I wonder the devil hath let me alone so long. "Jesus Christ is the trustee I mean. and friends visited him in his confinement. retained his constancy of mind. Angelo. Being asked why he would obstinately persist in his opinions. This at length he did. His wife. I have recommended them to the care of an excellent trustee. and leave his wife and children in distress. that he sweated blood and water. Soon after this gentleman's death. One day." On the day of execution he appeared remarkably cheerful. and Galeacius was soon consumed in the flames. and thus. a learned soldier. however. and for those I will forfeit my blood." When he was brought to examination. became a zealous Protestant. This proposal he rejected with disdain." A vast concourse of people attended the next day. he publicly renounced his recantation. with hell and death. but just as Dominicus was beginning his sermon. the weight of a guilty conscience. His horrors were so great that he found them insupportable. and embrace the errors of the Church of Rome. on our accounts. he preached the Gospel in its utmost purity. and friends. relations. by his sufferings. when Jesus Christ himself. These proceedings occasioned his second imprisonment. But he was no sooner free from confinement than his mind felt the heaviest of chains. and took him into custody. but when persuasions and menaces were found ineffectual. who surrounded him. and declared himself fully convinced of the errors of the Church of Rome. Galeacius." He was then strangled." Every method was taken to make him recant for his faith. he found means to escape out of prison. and retiring to Placentia. sensible of his error. and even think myself happy to suffer for the sake of my Redeemer. Dominicus. and retired to Germany. at the conclusion of his sermon. for having a New Testament in the Spanish language in his possession. and agreeable to the order was chained to a stake. which burnt with amazing rapidity and deprived him of sensation in a few minutes. and hanged in the market place. this question was put to him: "Will you renounce your doctrines?" To which he replied: "My doctrines! I maintain no doctrines of my own.same time. a civil magistrate went up to the pulpit. but he had his life offered him if he would recant again. who resided near the castle of St.

To this end he sent Cardinal Alexandrino. that they gave no offence to the Roman Catholics. The same proposals were then made to the inhabitants of La Garde. with their families. a man of very violent temper and a furious bigot. made several wild and barren spots appear with all the beauties of verdure and fertility. by the permission of the nobles of that country. instead of attending Mass. to Calabria. and charged them. The people of St. by telling them that these people were extremely harmless. The Calabrian lords. With not giving wax tapers to their priests as offerings. however. Intelligence of this affair being carried to the pope. together with two monks. as they determined to make a public profession of their faith. quiet. not to be served as he had been at St. they should be deprived both of their properties and lives. they soon. if they would accept of preachers appointed by the pope. during which the Waldenses formed themselves into two corporate towns. With not bowing to images. and thus disappointed the cardinal and his coadjutors. as had previously been offered to those of St. With not going to Mass. many of the Waldenses of Pragela and Dauphiny. for not being able to accuse them of anythying bad which they did do. the other town belonging to the Waldenses. but with this additional piece of artifice: the cardinal assured them that the inhabitants of St. one of the towns built by the Waldenses. as they were honest. and agreed that the pope should appoint them preachers. and all avenues guarded. he determined to exterminate them from Calabria. but the priests of the country exhibited several negative complaints against them. thinking what the . fled into the woods. they founded accusations on what they did not do. of consequence. and cheerfully paid the tithes to the priests. told them that they should receive no injury. Things went on tolerably well after this for a few years. At length they sent to Geneva for two clergymen. Xist had immediately come into his proposals. and that their intentions might be known. Pius the Fourth. Xist. emigrated to Calabria. ought to be the last persons to complain of them. by the most industrious cultivation. for the people of La Garde. With not making any of their boys priests. and industrious. and settling some waste lands. and having assembled the people.In the fourteenth century. he ordered the gates to be locked. This falsehood succeeded. one to preach in each town. whose revenues were considerably increased by their coming into the country. annexing several villages to the jurisdiction of them. where they were to act as inquisitors. These authorized persons came to St. With not going on pilgrimages. With not making any of their girls nuns. Xist. Xist. at which they were ordered to attend. and who. Xist. quieted the priests. where. With not being Roman Catholics. Mass should be publicly said that afternoon. The cardinal then proceeded to La Garde. but if they would not. The Calabrian lords were highly pleased with their new subjects and tenants.

The viceroy himself likewise joined the cardinal. by the cardinal's order. before the Waldenses were properly apprised of their design. which so enraged the cardinal that he wrote to the viceroy of Naples for reinforcements. being naturally of a savage and cruel disposition. that all outlaws. and those who had not felt the rack. the barbarous man took a large sharp knife. Xist were no sooner exterminated. and many were covered over with pitch. and none would be permitted to molest them. Many they shot at a distance. with a view to murder those of the other. at the head of a body of regular forces. having gained his point by deluding the people of one town. for those who remained alive after the rack. if they refused this mercy. when several conflicts happened. and he expired in the greatest agonies. however. One of the monks who attended the cardinal. but. or worship images. in which the half-armed Waldenses performed prodigies of valor. Every one of these bodies were . themselves and families should not be injured. He. and menaces on the other. despatched the soldiers into the woods. and gave them strict orders to spare neither age nor sex. and burnt alive. they did all they could to harass the poor people in the woods. that if they should embrace the Roman Catholic persuasion. The inhabitants of St.cardinal had told them to be the truth. It was offered. The greatest part of the troops being killed in the different rencontres. or embrace the errors of popery. and whipped to death iron rods. said they would exactly follow the example of their brethren at St. Some they caught and hanged up upon trees. by various means. or terrors of mind. in conjunction. the rest were compelled to retreat. Xist like wild beasts. as a terror to the rest. accordingly. however. did not answer the purposes for which they were intended. or ripped them open and left their bodies to be devoured by wild beasts. these worthy people unanimously refused to renounce their religion. to glut the bigoted malice of their merciless persecutors. and children. but their houses and properties should be restored. Several were then. This exasperated the cardinal and viceroy so much. cut down boughs and burnt them. Xist. and the most cruel deaths the certain consequence of their noncompliance. and many were slain on both sides. The troops entered the woods. At length. The cardinal. or birds of prey. and being formed into light companies. women. than those of La Garde engaged the attention of the cardinal and viceroy. (as it was termed) the utmost extremities would be used. and. These barbarities. one Charlin. on condition of making a campaign against the inhabitants of St. Those who were put to the rack were treated with such severity that several died under the tortures. and many fell a prey to their ferocity. and other proscribed persons should be surely pardoned for their respective offences. and boldly declared that no tortures of body. but to kill all they came near. that thirty of them were ordered to be put immediately to the rack. on the contrary. remained equally constant in their faith. A few hid themselves in caves. but famine destroyed them in their retreat. his bowels came out. and cut the throats of fourscore men. stripped stark naked. requested of him that he might shed some of the blood of these poor people with his own hands. and some were hacked to pieces with large knives. The viceroy immediately ordered a proclamation to be made thorughout all the Neapolitan territories. should ever induce them to renounce their God. in particular. but the greatest number they hunted down by way of sport. with as little remorse as a butcher would have killed so many sheep. Notwithstanding the promises on one side. and put to death all they could meet with of the reformed religion. was so cruelly used that his belly burst. they determined to sell their lives as dear as possible. were sent to scour the woods. Xist. to hunt down the inhabitants of St. Many persons of desperate fortunes came in upon this proclamation. and continuing under arms until those people were exterminated. deserters. others were thrown down from the top of a large tower. when his request being granted. and thus all these poor people perished. sent for troops of soldiers.

That they made no offerings or prayers for the dead. embrace idolatrous doctrines which they abhorred. That they did not believe in purgatory. and at length murdered by various means. and stealing the properties of their unhappy subjects. that which seizes the property. the marquis of Butane was ordered to put the finishing stroke to what they had begun. but take the lives. and accept of teachers whom they could not believe. and paid tithes to the Roman clergy. driven from their homes. and shared the same fate as a favorer of heretics. and flourished very much for a considerable time. that the cords pierced their arms and legs close to the bone. Tyranny is of three kinds. who have delighted in tormenting the persons. Many others were put to death by various cruel means. complained to the archbishop of Turin that the Waldenses of the valleys of Piedmont were heretics. "Is the dog yet living? Take him up. or pay money to get the souls of their friends out of it. said. That they did not go to Mass. viz. would tyrannize over the souls of the unhappy victims. That they did not confess. accordingly. if possible. and they died in the most miserable manner. The four principal men of La Garde were hanged. • 3. by acting with such barbarous rigor." when. being remanded to prison. at which time the viceroy passing by. on some affairs of moment which required his presence. and then fixed in different parts of the country. which he at length effected. that which enslaves the person. within a circuit of thirty miles. But the third sort. prescribing and dictating to the mind. and if any Roman Catholic. brutal as this sentence may appear. that there was not a single person of the reformed religion left living in all Calabria. inoffensive in their conversation. and give him to the hogs. for these reasons: • 1. That they did not believe in the doctrines of the Church of Rome. Sixty women were racked so violently. . and the clergyman was thrown from the top of his church steeple.then ordered to be quartered. Account of the Persecutions in the Valleys of Piedmont Many of the Waldenses. and the cardinal being recalled to Rome. robbed of their property. • 2. yet the latter could not be contented. and have been practiced by arbitrary sovereigns in all ages. viz. but wished to give them some distrubance: they. to avoid the persecutions to which they were continually subjected in France. He was terribly mangled. The viceroy being obliged to march back to Naples. he was immediately apprehended. when. Upon these charges the archbishop ordered a persecution to be commenced. and that which prescribes and dictates to the mind. interceded for any of the reformed.. Thus were a great number of inoffensive and harmless people deprived of their possessions. and receive absolution. as it includes the other two sorts. for the Romish clergy not only do torture the body and seize the effects of those they persecute. more compassionate than the rest. • 4. may be called ecclesiastical tyranny: and this is the worst kind of tyranny.. The two first sorts may be termed civil tyranny. where they increased exceedingly. it was executed accordingly. Though they were harmless in their behavior. the quarters placed upon stakes. but not quite killed by the fall. went and settled in the valleys of Piedmont. and many fell martyrs to the superstitious rage of the priests and monks. only because they would not sacrifice their consciences to the superstitions of others. their wounds mortified. torment the minds. and. • 5.

and that they were even monsters in nature. the executioner complied. and supreme lord of Piedmont. faithful. they should not be considered as prisoners of war. The priests. uncleanness. sent twelve very learned and sensible gentlemen into the Piedmontese valleys. by their laws. finding the resolution of the duke. At Revel. said. however. and highly addicted to intemperance. for their children were born with black throats. The priests now had recourse to the most palpable and absurd falsehoods: they assured the duke that he was mistaken in the Waldenses for they were a wicked set of people." . for they well knew. should an individual." the gentlemen said. blasphemy. and not before. or affront the archbishop of Turin. "the priests had told the most gross and ridiculous falsities. "With respect to the children. and sent against them. These gentlemen. when Girard. who are come to ask pardon in the name of the rest. who were directed by priests instead of officers. fall into any of those crimes. inoffensive. looking earnestly at the stone. through his depravity. but Girard assuring him that he had no such design. nor hair on their bodies. and commanded by prelates instead of generals. Philip VII. The duke was not so devoid of common sense as to give credit to what the priests said. and formed themselves into regular bodies. incest. He was not willing to disoblige the pope. but the duke told them. or put to death. and pious: that they abhorred the crimes of which they were accused. determined to interpose his authority. one of the reformed had his bowels torn out. they flew to arms in their own defence.At Turin. teeth in their mouths. Catelin Girard being at the stake. until the patience of the Waldenses being tired out. which partly arose from their being better acquainted with the passes of the valleys of Piedmont than their adversaries. he sent them both messages. the bishop of Turin procured a number of troops. adultery. though they affirmed in the most solemn manner the truth of their assertions. the religion for which I am about to suffer shall have an end. He. nevertheless. that your highness may have an opportunity of personally examining them as much as you please. At length. (continued one of the gentlemen) we have brought twelve of the principal male inhabitants. to examine into the real character of the inhabitants. for having taken up arms without your leave. And to convince your highness of what we have said. which so greatly disturbed his dominions. loyal. and put in a basin before his face. be punished in the most exemplary manner. and conversing with people of every rank among the Waldenses returned to the duke. with four rows of teeth. before the faces of the priests who vilified them. affirming. and many other abominable crimes. thinking that he meant to throw it at somebody. after travelling through all their towns and villages. and gave him the most favorable account of these people. he would. and to preserve their lives from their merciless enemies. industrious. nor would he suffer his country to be depopulated. desired the executioner to give him a stone. but in most of the skirmishes and engagements the Waldenses were successful. that they were harmless. and submitted cheerfully to the flames. and bodies all over hairy. Exasperated at this. and partly from the desperation with which they fought. but tortured to death as heretics. yet he had always found them quiet. but were as fine children as could be seen. by various means. and therefore he determined they should be no longer persecuted. and stop these bloody wars. if they were taken. which he refused. and obedient. that though he was unacquainted with the religious tenets of these people. And we have likewise brought several women. importing that he could not any longer tamely see his dominions overrun with troops. did all they could to prejudice his mind against the Waldenses. though even in their own defence. with children of various ages. "When it is in the power of a man to eat and digest this solid stone. while he himself had not been even consulted upon the occasion. and that." He then threw the stone on the ground. A great many more of the reformed were oppressed. friendly. where they remained in his view until he expired. for they were neither born with black throats. duke of Savoy.

he would have them flayed alive. determining to act not by force. they should send twelve of their principal persons. who was brought up a Roman Catholic. approved of. and these. The Waldenses had enjoyed peace many years. and burnt by order of the parliament of Turin. after accepting the apology of the twelve delegates. He then commanded the priests. a bookseller and stationer of Turin. with all their ministers and schoolmasters. they should enjoy their houses. but they determined now to have the sacred writings complete in their own language. and he hardly knew what persuasion to embrace. At length. with the following propositions: • 1. Pope Paul the third. that the persecution should cease throughout his dominions. The Waldenses had hitherto only had the New Testament and a few books of the Old. the duke withdrew the troops. as we have already mentioned. to be dealt with at discretion. without the least molestation. and live with their families. and. and authorized the proceedings of the parliament of Turin. The commander of the troops soon found the impracticability of conquering them with the number of men he had with him. therefore. and sent a considerable body of troops into the valleys. and resolutely determined to defend themselves. swearing that if the people would not change their religion. That if the Waldenses would come to the bosom of the Church of Rome. as the most pernicious of all heretics. was fully convinced of the errors of the Church of Rome. wavering. ascending the pontifical chair. and to such congregations as they well knew to consist of none but persons of the reformed religion. therefore. On hearing these proceedings. or burnt. he. died. paid him by those pious people. • 2. but having read some treatises written by the reformed clergy. properties. who might be found straying from their places of security. and examining the children. • 3. About the same time. employed a Swiss printer to furnish them with a complete edition of the Old and New Testaments in the Waldensian tongue. yet his mind was. to Turin. The parliament readily agreed. graciously dismissed them. some of the principal Waldenses proposed that their clergy should preach in public. That the pope. He therefore ordered rewards for the taking of any of the Waldenses. with so small a force. and his successor happened to be a very bigoted papist. that every one might know the purity of their doctrines: for hitherto they had preached only in private. . that every skin belonging to those people would cost him the lives of a dozen of his subjects. he fully embraced the reformed religion. and embrace the Roman Catholic religion. was ridiculous. when taken. Among these was Bartholomew Hector. when several were suddenly apprehended and burnt by their order. Terrified at this information. with respect to flaying them alive. however. and gave strict orders. sent word to the duke that the idea of subjugating the Waldenses. and lands. the king of France. a bigoted papist. conversing with the women. that those people were better acquainted with the country than any that were with him. That to prove their obedience. They. A consultation was now held by the parliament of Turin. for some time. the new duke was greatly exasperated. were either flayed alive. and the duke of Savoy. which he did for the consideration of fifteen hundred crowns of gold. he said. when Philip. were well armed. who had attempted to mislead him. and was apprehended. but by stratagem. upon this occasion. in the Waldensian tongue.The duke. in which it was agreed to send deputies to the valleys of Piedmont. immediately to leave the court. the seventh duke of Savoy. that they had secured all the passes. immediately solicited the parliament of Turin to persecute the Waldenses.

for want of objects on whom to exercise it. and to make amends for former neglect by future cruelty. They then solicited a considerable body of troops of the king of France. burnt. to be made converts by dint of hardships. they did not put them to death. After the Waldenses had enjoyed a few years tranquillity. with more avidity than ever. told that prince he was astonished he had not yet either rooted out the Waldenses from the valleys of Piedmont entirely. it unfortunately happened. embraced the errors of popery. Corbis. 1. for he was brought up in the reformed religion. if they should be attacked. The members of the parliament were greatly vexed at this disappointment. and as the Waldenses daily grew more cautious. minister of Angrogne. drowned. remanded the troops.• 4. • 4. whom they put to such exquisite tortures. To each of these propositions the Waldenses nobly replied in the following manner. who were sure to suffer the most cruel deaths. Those who fled had their goods plundered. That they valued the approbation of the King of kings. to the custody and discretion of their worst and most inveterate enemies. These pointed and spirited replies greatly exasperated the parliament of Turin. given to unnatural crimes. stabbed. in which great numbers were hanged. whom they committed to the flames as a heretic. whose business was to examine the prisoners. were three in number. crucified with their heads downwards. and the persecution gradually ceased. that they got hold of Jeffery Varnagle. on which he entered the Piedmontese valleys. That if the Waldenses of the valleys of Piedmont refused to comply with these propositions. an apostate. and their houses burnt to the ground: they were particularly cruel when they caught a minister or a schoolmaster. to kidnap such Waldenses as did not act with proper precaution. If any whom they took seemed wavering in their faith. Thomas Incomel. and turned monk. That their souls were more precious than their bodies. not caring to enter into a war. as are almost incredible to conceive. The most cruel persecutors. • 2. ripped open. the Protestant princes of Germany interposed. in order to exterminate the reformed entirely from the valleys of Piedmont. answering them respectively: • 1. worried by dogs. but sent them to the galleys. persecution should ensue. and should report the affair accordingly to his holiness the pope. He. for as they could only put to death such of the reformed as they caught by chance. upon this occasion. and certain death be their portion. and sent word to the parliament of Turin that he could not spare any troops at present to act in Piedmont. That no considerations whatever should make them renounce their religion. That he could not help looking upon such conduct with a suspicious eye. they continued. their cruelty was obliged to subside. but just as the troops were going to march. That they would never consent to commit their best and most respectable friends. that attended the duke. 2. and began a most furious persecution. Stung by this reflection. The provost of justice. tied to trees. who reigns in heaven. issued express orders for all the Waldenses to attend Mass regularly on pain of death. and pierced with prongs. or compelled them to enter into the bosom of the Church of Rome. the duke determined to act with the greatest severity. The king of France. He was a great libertine. . and that he really thought him a favorer of those heretics. but renounced his faith. etc. a man of a very ferocious and cruel nature. viz. and sordidly solicitous for plunder of the Waldenses. thrown from precipices. who was very anxious for the execution of the Waldenses. as every execution put money in his pocket. more than any temporal authority. in order to show his zeal. This they absolutely refused to do. and unwilling to be misrepresented to the pope. • 3. accordingly. racked to death. with a formidable body of troops. and threatened to send troops to assist the Waldenses. Among these. they were again disturbed by the following means: the pope's nuncio coming to Turin to the duke of Savoy upon business. 3.

sent some bands of armed men to the assistance of their brethren of St. murdering and plundering many of the inhabitants. burnt their houses. immediately opened the door. pursued the ruffians. and fled to a back door. murdering the men. the monks of which. finding they might injure the reformed with impunity. and who perfectly well knew a secret way to the house. and as they laid them down. the bark of trees. The clergyman. did great mischief about the town of St. but you have since learned ill. The guide knocked at the door. seized their properties. The monks of Pignerol having a great inclination to get the minister of a town in the valleys. which the ruffians no sooner perceived than they stabbed the poor gentleman. As the troops of ruffians. These bodies of armed men frequently attacked the ruffians. answered in his own name. and leaving him weltering in his blood. He was kept a considerable time in prison. who had formerly been a servant to the clergyman." These words they both repeated to him. but in vain: for the weapon had touched the vital parts. thou wicked heretic. made a precipitate retreat. and then fastened to the stake to be burnt. were ordered to carry fagots to the stake to burn him. The army now began to plunder and burn the towns and villages wherever they came. followed. which so terrified the monks. etc. he started back. Germain. and seized him. many local barbarities were committed. converted their lands to their own use. Having murdered all his family. The astonished parishioners did all they could to recover him. called St. and being asked who was there. belonging to the monks. but they rushed in. likewise. determined to take him to a convenient place. belonging to the monks. goading him all the way with pikes. but the troops could not force the passes to the Alps. greatly augmented his forces.These three persons were unmerciful to the last degree. Exclusive of the cruelties exercised by the duke. but perceiving the ruffians. and the army. and form themselves into light companies. and seemed determined to rescue their minister. the reformed of Lucerne and Angrogne. retired to the rocks and caves among the Alps. in their different marches. The Roman Catholic inhabitants of the valley of St. and commanded that a general jail-delivery should take place. and drove the Waldenses to the woods. secured as much of their properties as they could. and wherever they came. began to plunder the houses and pull down the churches of the Waldenses. Martin. they made him proceed towards Pignerol. . a town in the valleys. or the Alpine hills. These fellows were conducted by a treacherous person. roots. Not meeting with any opposition. "I formerly taught you well. they seized upon the persons of those unhappy people. that they left the monastery of Pignerol for some time. The duke not thinking himself so successful as he at first imagined he should be. and quitted the valleys. they were sure to be treated with the most barbarous severity. swords. and often put them to the rout. Some Roman Catholic ruffians having seized a minister as he was going to preach. who always repulsed their enemies: but if any fell into the hands of the troops. Germain. where they had nothing to subsist on but wild fruits. to say. by these three persons. to assist in the extermination of the Waldenses. His parishioners having intelligence of this affair. confining the women. hired a band of ruffians for the purpose of apprehending him. being informed of the proceedings. for it is to be understood that the valleys of Piedmont are situated at the foot of those prodigious mountains called the Alps. and he expired as they were carrying him home. he ordered the bands of ruffians. provided the persons released would bear arms. in recompense for the pernicious doctrines thou hast taught us. until they could procure a body of regular troops to guard them." The fire was then put to the fagots. by which he could lead them without alarming the neighborhood. was a monastery. At Pignerol. and burn him. stole their cattle. etc. did all they could to torment the neighboring Waldenses: they destroyed their churches. "Take these. The Waldenses. to join him. not expecting any injury from a person on whom he had heaped favors. and he was speedily consumed. which were gallantly defended by the Waldenses. who had renounced their religion to save their lives. and putting the children to Roman Catholic nurses. the men armed themselves. calling upon the name of the Lord as long as his voice permitted. the blood of the innocent was sure to flow. Germain. committed their ministers to the flames. when two women of the Waldenses. to which he calmly replied. lances. into their power.

Various were the modes by which the Protestants were deprived of life. though greatly against the will of the ecclesiastics. a vast number of men. but on his deathbed he strictly enjoined his son to perform what he intended. and scorning the trappings of idolatry. The duke's son. the prisoner had an iron chain which ran through a great stone fastened to his body. to quit the mountains of the Alps. This resolution he executed. (where they must soon have perished. the bishops. An Account of the Persecutions in Venice While the state of Venice was free from inquisitors. as well as more expensive than he could at first have imagined. and with the reformed of Dauphiny and Pragela. who attended the army and encouraged the war. though the ecclesiastics did all they could to persuade him to the contrary. but they pursuing her. "I will carry this member of that wicked heretic with me into my own country. The duke of Savoy was now tired of the war. and gave a full ratification of peace to the Waldenses. and rowed between two boats to a certain distance at sea. and fearing that the Waldenses. Charles Emmanuel. and to make peace with the Waldenses. but in this he was mistaken. who were the chief gainers. which was first invented upon this occasion. as the winter was coming on. it had cost him great fatigue and anxiety of mind. of which he had just received intelligence. with his face upwards. and many worthy persons were martyred for serving God with purity. and the inoffensiveness of the conversation they used. when thus reinforced. he determined to return to Turin with his army. and apprehend such as they might deem obnoxious persons. and to be as favorable as possible to the Waldenses. These were respectively to furnish bodies of troops. and the Waldenses determined. in the year 1542 sent inquisitors to Venice to make an inquiry into the matter. upwards of a hundred years of age. sunk the greatest part of the wealth that was taken under various pretences. saying. for the pope's nuncio. . A party of the troops found a venerable man. and the best pleased with revenge. but one particular method. For these reasons. and very considerable sums of money. as soon as sentence was passed. we shall describe. and other ecclesiastics. by the treaties they had entered into. and the death of his duchess. The pope being informed of the great increase of Protestantism. together with his granddaughter. It had been much more tedious and bloody than he expected. when she started away and fled from them. and preserve it as a rarity. monks." He then stabbed the man and threw him into a ditch. and he was sunk to the bottom by the weight of the stone. Hence a severe persecution began. in order the more effectually to be able to repel force by force.) and to force the duke's army to evacuate their native valleys. They butchered the poor old man in the most inhuman manner. Before the articles of peace could be ratified. entered into a league with the Protestant powers of Germany. and many converts were made by the purity of the doctrines they professed. the duke himself died.A soldier having caught one of the Waldenses. for he thought the plunder would have dischanged the expenses of the expedition. soon after his return to Turin. succeeded to the dominions of Savoy. and then attempted to ravish the girl. a great number of Protestants fixed their residence there. bit his right ear off. in a cave. when the two boats separated. He was then laid flat upon a plank. of about eighteen. she threw herself from a precipice and perished. according to the last injunctions of his father. The Waldenses. a maiden. would become more powerful than ever.

If any denied the jurisdiction of the inquisitors at Venice, they were sent to Rome, where, being committed purposely to damp prisons, and never called to a hearing, their flesh mortified, and they died miserably in jail. A citizen of Venice, Anthony Ricetti, being apprehended as a Protestant, was sentenced to be drowned in the manner we have already described. A few days previous to the time appointed for his execution, his son went to see him, and begged him to recant, that his life might be saved, and himself not left fatherless. To which the father replied, "A good Christian is bound to relinquish not only goods and children, but life itself, for the glory of his Redeemer: therefore I am resolved to sacrifice every thing in this transitory world, for the sake of salvation in a world that will last to eternity." The lords of Venice likewise sent him word, that if he would embrace the Roman Catholic religion, they would not only give him his life, but redeem a considerable estate which he had mortgaged, and freely present him with it. This, however, he absolutely refused to comply with, sending word to the nobles that he valued his soul beyond all other considerations; and being told that a fellow-prisoner, named Francis Sega, had recanted, he answered, "If he has forsaken God, I pity him; but I shall continue steadfast in my duty." Finding all endeavors to persuade him to renounce his faith ineffectual, he was executed according to his sentence, dying cheerfully, and recommending his soul fervently to the Almighty. What Ricetti had been told concerning the apostasy of Francis Sega, was absolutely false, for he had never offered to recant, but steadfastly persisted in his faith, and was executed, a few days after Ricetti, in the very same manner. Francis Spinola, a Protestant gentleman of very great learning, being apprehended by order of the inquisitors, was carried before their tribunal. A treatise on the Lord's Supper was then put into his hands and he was asked if he knew the author of it. To which he replied, "I confess myself to be the author of it, and at the same time solemnly affirm, that there is not a line in it but what is authorized by, and consonant to, the holy Scriptures." On this confession he was committed close prisoner to a dungeon for several days. Being brought to a second examination, he charged the pope's legate, and the inquisitors, with being merciless barbarians, and then represented the superstitions and idolatries practised by the Church of Rome in so glaring a light, that not being able to refute his arguments, they sent him back to his dungeon, to make him repent of what he had said. On his third examination, they asked him if he would recant his error. To which he answered that the doctrines he maintained were not erroneous, being purely the same as those which Christ and his apostles had taught, and which were handed down to us in the sacred writings. The inquisitors then sentenced him to be drowned, which was executed in the manner already described. He went to meet death with the utmost serenity, seemed to wish for dissolution, and declaring that the prolongation of his life did but tend to retard that real happiness which could only be expected in the world to come.

An Account of Several Remarkable Individuals, Who Were Martyred in Different Parts of Italy, on Account of Their Religion
John Mollius was born at Rome, of reputable parents. At twelve years of age they placed him in the monastery of Gray Friars, where he made such a rapid progress in arts, sciences, and languages that at eighteen years of age he was permitted to take priest's orders. He was then sent to Ferrara, where, after pursuing his studies six years longer, he was made theological reader in the university of that city. He now, unhappily, exerted his great talents to disguise the Gospel

truths, and to varnish over the error of the Church of Rome. After some years residence in Ferrara, he removed to the university of Behonia, where he became a professor. Having read some treatises written by ministers of the reformed religion, he grew fully sensible of the errors of popery, and soon became a zealous Protestant in his heart. He now determined to expound, accordingly to the purity of the Gospel, St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans, in a regular course of sermons. The concourse of people that continually attended his preaching was surprising, but when the priests found the tenor of his doctrines, they despatched an account of the affair to Rome; when the pope sent a monk, named Cornelius, to Bononia, to expound the same epistle, according to the tenets of the Church of Rome. The people, however, found such a disparity between the two preachers that the audience of Mollius increased, and Cornelius was forced to preach to empty benches. Cornelius wrote an account of his bad success to the pope, who immediately sent an order to apprehend Mollius, who was seized upon accordingly, and kept in close confinement. The bishop of Bononia sent him word that he must recant, or be burnt; but he appealed to Rome, and was removed thither. At Rome he begged to have a public trial, but that the pope absolutely denied him, and commanded him to give an account of his opinions, in writing, which he did under the following heads: Original sin. Free-will. The infallibility of the church of Rome. The infallibility of the pope. Justification by faith. Purgatory. Transubstantiation. Mass. Auricular confession. Prayers for the dead. The host. Prayers for saints. Going on pilgrimages. Extreme unction. Performing services in an unknown tongue, etc., etc. All these he confirmed from Scripture authority. The pope, upon this occasion, for political reasons, spared him for the present, but soon after had him apprehended, and put to death, he being first hanged, and his body burnt to ashes, A.D. 1553. The year after, Francis Gamba, a Lombard, of the Protestant persuasion, was apprehended, and condemned to death by the senate of Milan. At the place of execution, a monk presented a cross to him, to whom he said, "My mind is so full of the real merits and goodness of Christ that I want not a piece of senseless stick to put me in mind of Him." For this expression his tongue was bored through, and he was afterward burnt. A.D. 1555, Algerius, a student in the university of Padua, and a man of great learning, having embraced the reformed religion, did all he could to convert others. For these proceedings he was accused of heresy to the pope, and being apprehended, was committed to the prison at Venice. The pope, being informed of Algerius's great learning, and surprising natural abilities, thought it would be of infinite service to the Church of Rome if he could induce him to forsake the Protestant cause. He, therefore, sent for him to Rome, and tried, by the most profane promises, to win him to his purpose. But finding his endeavors ineffectual, he ordered him to be burnt, which sentence was executed accordingly. A.D. 1559, John Alloysius, being sent from Geneva to preach in Calabria, was there apprehended as a Protestant, carried to Rome, and burnt by order of the pope; and James Bovelius, for the same reason, was burnt at Messina. A.D. 1560, Pope Pius the Fourth, ordered all the Protestants to be severely persecuted throughout the Italian states, when great numbers of every age, sex, and condition, suffered martyrdom. Concerning the cruelties practiced upon this occasion, a learned and humane Roman Catholic thus spoke of them, in a letter to a noble lord:

"I cannot, my lord, forbear disclosing my sentiments, with respect to the persecution now carrying on: I think it cruel and unnecessary; I tremble at the manner of putting to death, as it resembles more the slaughter of calves and sheep, than the execution of human beings. I will relate to your lordship a dreadful scene, of which I was myself an eye witness: seventy Protestants were cooped up in one filthy dungeon together; the executioner went in among them, picked out one from among the rest, blindfolded him, led him out to an open place before the prison, and cut his throat with the greatest composure. He then calmly walked into the prison again, bloody as he was, and with the knife in his hand selected another, and despatched him in the same manner; and this, my lord, he repeated until the whole number were put to death. I leave it to your lordship's feelings to judge of my sensations upon this occasion; my tears now wash the paper upon which I give you the recital. Another thing I must mention-the patience with which they met death: they seemed all resignation and piety, fervently praying to God, and cheerfully encountering their fate. I cannot reflect without shuddering, how the executioner held the bloody knife between his teeth; what a dreadful figure he appeared, all covered with blood, and with what unconcern he executed his barbarous office." A young Englishman who happened to be at Rome, was one day passing by a church, when the procession of the host was just coming out. A bishop carried the host, which the young man perceiving, he snatched it from him, threw it upon the ground, and trampled it under his feet, crying out, "Ye wretched idolaters, who neglect the true God, to adore a morsel of bread." This action so provoked the people that they would have torn him to pieces on the spot; but the priests persuaded them to let him abide by the sentence of the pope. When the affair was represented to the pope, he was so greatly exasperated that he ordered the prisoner to be burnt immediately; but a cardinal dissuaded him from this hasty sentence, saying that it was better to punish him by slow degrees, and to torture him, that they might find out if he had been instigated by any particular person to commit so atrocious an act. This being approved, he was tortured with the most exemplary severity, notwithstanding which they could only get these words from him, "It was the will of God that I should do as I did." The pope then passed this sentence upon him.

• 1. That he should be led by the executioner, naked to the middle, through the streets of Rome. • 2. That he should wear the image of the devil upon his head. • 3. That his breeches should be painted with the representation of flames. • 4. That he should have his right hand cut off. • 5. That after having been carried about thus in procession, he should be burnt.
When he heard this sentence pronounced, he implored God to give him strength and fortitude to go through it. As he passed through the streets he was greatly derided by the people, to whom he said some severe things respecting the Romish superstition. But a cardinal, who attended the procession, overhearing him, ordered him to be gagged. When he came to the church door, where he trampled on the host, the hangman cut off his right hand, and fixed it on a pole. Then two tormentors, with flaming torches, scorched and burnt his flesh all the rest of the way. At the place of execution he kissed the chains that were to bind him to the stake. A monk presenting the figure of a saint to him, he struck it aside, and then being chained to the stake, fire was put to the fagots, and he was soon burnt to ashes. A little after the last-mentioned execution, a venerable old man, who had long been a prisoner in the Inquisition, was condemned to be burnt, and brought out for execution. When he was fastened to the stake, a priest held a crucifix to him, on which he said, "If you do not take that idol from my sight, you will constrain me to spit upon it." The priest rebuked him for this with great severity; but he bade him remember the First and Second Commandments, and refrain from idolatry, as God himself had commanded. He was then

gagged, that he should not speak any more, and fire being put to the fagots, he suffered martyrdom in the flames.

An Account of the Persecutions in the Marquisate of Saluces
The Marquisate of Saluces, on the south side of the valleys of Piedmont, was in A.D. 1561, principally inhabited by Protestants, when the marquis, who was proprietor of it, began a persecution against them at the instigation of the pope. He began by banishing the ministers, and if any of them refused to leave their flocks, they were sure to be imprisoned, and severely tortured; however, he did not proceed so far as to put any to death. Soon after the marquisate fell into the possession of the duke of Savoy, who sent circular letters to all the towns and villages, that he expected the people should all conform to go to Mass. The inhabitants of Saluces, upon receiving this letter, returned a general epistle, in answer. The duke, after reading the letter, did not interrupt the Protestants for some time; but, at length, he sent them word that they must either conform to the Mass, or leave his dominions in fifteen days. The Protestants, upon this unexpected edict, sent a deputy to the duke to obtain its revocation, or at least to have it moderated. But their remonstrances were in vain, and they were given to understand that the edict was absolute. Some were weak anough to go to Mass, in order to avoid banishment, and preserve their property; others removed, with all their effects, to different countries; and many neglected the time so long that they were obliged to abandon all they were worth, and leave the marquisate in haste. Those, who unhappily stayed bheind, were seized, plundered, and put to death.

An Account of the Persecutions in the Valleys of Piedmont, in the Seventeenth Century
Pope Clement the Eighth, sent missionaries into the valleys of Piedmont, to induce the Protestants to renounce their religion; and these missionaries having erected monasteries in several parts of the valleys, became exceedingly troublesome to those of the reformed, where the monasteries appeared, not only as fortresses to curb, but as sanctuaries for all such to fly to, as had any ways injured them. The Protestants petitioned the duke of Savoy against these missionaries, whose insolence and ill-usage were become intolerable; but instead of getting any redress, the interest of the missionaries so far prevailed, that the duke published a decree, in which he declared, that one witness should be sufficient in a court of law against a Protestant, and that any witness, who convicted a Protestant of any crime whatever, should be entitled to one hundred crowns. It may be easily imagined, upon the publication of a decree of this nature, that many Protestants fell martyrs to perjury and avarice; for several villainous papists would swear any thing against the Protestants for the sake of the reward, and then fly to their own priests for absolution from their false oaths. If any Roman Catholic, of more conscience than the rest, blamed these fellows for their atrocious crimes, they themselves were in danger of being informed against and punished as favorers of heretics. The missionaries did all they could to get the books of the Protestants into their hands, in order to burn them; when the Protestants doing their utmost endeavors to conceal their books, the missionaries wrote to the duke of Savoy, who, for the heinous crime of not surrendering their Bibles, prayer books, and religious treatises,

sent a number of troops to be quartered on them. These military gentry did great mischief in the houses of the Protestants, and destroyed such quantities of provisions, that many families were thereby ruined. To encourage, as much as possible, the apostasy of the Protestants, the duke of Savoy published a proclamation wherein he said, "To encourage the heretics to turn Catholics, it is our will and pleasure, and we do hereby expressly command, that all such as shall embrace the holy Roman Catholic faith, shall enjoy an exemption, from all and every tax for the space of five years, commencing from the day of their conversion." The duke of Savoy, likewise established a court, called the council for extirpating the heretics. This court was to enter into inquiries concerning the ancient privileges of the Protestant churches, and the decrees which had been, from time to time, made in favor of the Protestants. But the investigation of these things was carried on with the most manifest partiality; old charters were wrested to a wrong sense, and sophistry was used to pervert the meaning of everything, which tended to favor the reformed. As if these severities were not sufficient, the duke, soon after, published another edict, in which he strictly commanded, that no Protestant should act as a schoolmaster, or tutor, either in public or private, or dare to teach any art, science, or language, directly or indirectly, to persons of any persuasion whatever. This edict was immediately followed by another, which decreed that no Protestant should hold any place of profit, trust, or honor; and to wind up the whole, the certain token of an approaching persecution came forth in a final edict, by which it was positively ordered, that all Protestants should diligently attend Mass. The publication of an edict, containing such an injunction, may be compared to unfurling the bloody flag; for murder and rapine were sure to follow. One of the first objects that attracted the notice of the papists was Mr. Sebastian Basan, a zealous Protestant, who was seized by the missionaries, confined, tormented for fifteen months, and then burnt. Previous to the persecution, the missionaries employed kidnappers to steal away the Protestants' children, that they might privately be brought up Roman Catholics; but now they took away the children by open force, and if they met with any resistance, they murdered the parents. To give greater vigor to the persecution, the duke of Savoy called a general assembly of the Roman Catholic nobility and gentry when a solemn edict was published against the reformed, containing many heads, and including several reasons for extirpating the Protestants, among which were the following:

• • • •
Rome.

1. For the preservation of the papal authority. 2. That the church livings may be all under one mode of government. 3. To make a union among all parties. 4. In honor of all the saints, and of the ceremonies of the Church of

This severe edict was followed by a most cruel order, published on January 25, A.D. 1655, under the duke's sanction, by Andrew Gastaldo, doctor of civil laws. This order set forth, "That every head of a family, with the individuals of that family, of the reformed religion, of what rank, degree, or condition soever, none excepted inhabiting and possessing estates in Lucerne, St. Giovanni, Bibiana, Campiglione, St. Secondo, Lucernetta, La Torre, Fenile, and Bricherassio, should, within three days after the publication thereof, withdraw and depart, and be withdrawn out of the said places, and translated into the places and limits tolerated by his highness during his pleasure; particularly Bobbio, Angrogne, Vilario, Rorata, and the county of Bonetti. "And all this to be done on pain of death, and confiscation of house and goods, unless within the limited time they turned Roman Catholics."

the greater part of whom were those concerned in the horrid massacre of the woman. a handsome young woman. some companies belonging to the Irish brigades. and suspended him in the midway. with their families. and through his feet. or women just lain-in. the others told them what they had made a meal of. which would have been scarcely noticed at another time. and at length miserably perished of hunger. Esay Garcino. Several were killed in the fray. A woman. and was left. a Protestant. These they fried. who had been promised pardon and liberty in this world. most of those who refused to go to Mass. The papists. was tied neck and heels. and many perished in the mountains through the severity of the weather. and then cut off her head. "The army (says he) having got footing. especially in a country almost surrounded by mountains. and a very old woman. "This armed multitude being encouraged by the Roman Catholic bishops and monks fell upon the Protestants in a most furious manner. had her nose and hands cut off. which she refusing. who was upon the spot. dead bodies bestrewed the streets. was treated with great indecency and cruelty by several of the troops." Sarah Ratignole des Vignes. Nothing now was to be seen but the face of horror and despair. Martha Constantine. written by a Protestant. they finally fastened a cord around his head. Two old women were ripped open. fled to the mountains. and absolution in the next. and it unfortunately happened. they ordered her to say a prayer to some saints. who first ravished. so that he languished for several days. were not objects of pity on this order for sudden removal. by the addition of a multitude of the neighboring popish inhabitants. and then the respective parts were hung upon a hedge. In the fall the branch of a tree caught hold of the ropes that fastened him. had every limb separated from each other. named Armand. in ridicule. and the popish inhabitants. and who had practiced such an inhuman deception on their companions. being seized by some soldiers. swords were drawn. there were several regiments of French auxiliaries. they crucified with their heads downwards. and the greatest number of those who were under that age were strangled. met with the severest treatment. smugglers. now appeared in the most conspicuous light. without even suffering them to have sufficient clothes to cover them. Some of the soldiers seized a man of Thrassiniere. and dashing out the brains of the children. and then thrown down a precipice. blood stained the floors of the houses. was cut into small pieces. When they had done eating. where they perished. ripped her up. and many. and dragged him about the streets. In one village they cruelly tormented one hundred and fifty women and children after the men were fled. who finding we were the destined prey of the plunderers. a woman of sixty years of age. for assisting to exterminate the Protestants from Piedmont. and ran the points of their swords through his ears. the soldiers. that the winter was remarkably severe and rigorous. saying. and who happily escaped the carnage. and several bands formed of outlaws. drove the people from their habitations at the time appointed. and skirmished with the troops. and things. Exclusive of the duke of Savoy's troops. fell upon us with an impetuous fury. of about eighty years of age.A flight with such speed. groans and cries were heard from all parts. or for want of food. . and then left in the fields upon the snow. and prisoners. in consequence of which a quarrel ensued. who was deformed. beheading the women. Some. refusing to renounce his religion. being murdered by the popish inhabitants. They then tore off the nails of his fingers and toes with red-hot pincers. who remained behind after the decree was published. who were upwards of fifteen years of age. they had minced him. Peter Symonds. tied him to the tail of an ass. and a battle took place. Women with child. Some armed themselves. or shot by the troops who were quartered in the valleys. however. and then killed her by cutting off her breasts. The sudden order affected all. to bleed to death in that manner. who ate them without knowing what they were. for all were included in the command. they thrust a sickle into her belly. In the towns of Vilario and Bobbio. may be conceived as no agreeable task. and set before some of their comrades. however. A particular description of these cruelties is given in a letter. became very numerous. in the midst of winter. which they twisted with a stick in so violent a manner as to wring it from his body.

and several other Protestants. of Vilario. and slices cut from the fleshy parts of his body. the daughter of Peter Fontaine. but missed him.A great number of men. chief elder of the church of Bobbio. Jacob Michelino. The father. and after having been very indecently exposed. so that. his brother. than they murdered the infant. where they first ravished. Magdalen Bertino. if he would renounce his religion. had the flesh sliced from her bones until she expired. and the other being fixed in the ground. and David. was ravished and murdered by the soldiers. of the church of Vilario. . An inhabitant of La Torre. were flayed alive. this he constantly refused. and threw both that and his body into the river." They then took him to the river side. Daniel Revel. and fled toward the woods. chopped off his head. neither stoning. "Will you go to Mass? will you go to Mass?" He still replied in the negative to these interrogatories. Giovanni Rostagnal. nor dragging him through the streets. for the devil keeps him alive. for refusing to change his religion. was stripped stark naked. and hid himself in the Alps. with four of his children. Magdalen. upon the bank of the stream. by the swiftness of his heels. at the death of every child. her head tied between her legs. for refusing to turn papist. she was left in that manner to perish. snatched up the cradle in which her infant son was asleep. at the same moment started from them. he replied as before. however. The soldiers. in the Seventeenth Century Giovanni Pelanchion. and was led through the streets with a soldier on each side of him. and left that and his body unburied. three of them were hacked to pieces before him. at the same instant. was stripped quite naked. hearing that the soldiers were coming toward her house. when she lightened herself by putting down the cradle and child. women. was apprehended. upwards of fourscore years of age. who kept stoning him. and a poor woman. however. Lodwich Durant. will kill him. was cut to pieces in the cave of Castolus. were flung from the rocks. were hung up by means of hooks fixed in their bellies. when the inhuman brute dashed out the child's brains. named Giovanni Andrea Michialm. One of the soldiers then took up the last and youngest by the legs. and holes bored through his hands with the point of a dagger. found the mother in a cave. until he bled to death. and Mary Raymondet. Seven persons. Magdalen Pilot. and fled. a Protestant woman of La Torre. Daniel Seleagio and his wife. their heads were blown to pieces. viz. and Jacob Perrin the elder. and crying out. escaped. a beautiful child of ten years of age. and left to expire in the most excruciating tortures. had the nails of his toes and fingers torn off with red-hot pincers. the soldiers asking him. and continuing the pursuit. had their mouths stuffed with gunpowder. and dashed to pieces. "He is possessed with the devil. At every turning the soldier on his right hand side cut a gash in his flesh. had his nose and ears cut off. Bartholomew Durant. was tied by one leg to the tail of a mule. and the soldier on his left hand side struck him with a bludgeon. Giovanni Durant. and being at length taken to the bridge. Ann Charboniere had one end of a stake thrust up her body. and thrown down one of the precipices. Another girl of about the same age. a schoolmaster of Rorata. and he. they cut off his head on the balustrades. and Paul Reynaud. Jacob Birone. which the soldiers no sooner came to. and then cut her to pieces. saw and pursued her. of the same town. and children. and dragged through the streets of Lucerne. Further Persecutions in the Valleys of Piedmont. He then had a cord tied round his middle. amidst the acclamations of an inhuman mob. they roasted alive at Villa Nova. both saying. the soldiers fired after him. and putting the same question to the father. which being set fire to. a venerable Protestant.

a very pious Protestant. and Bartholomew Frasche had holes made in his heels. had his eyes put out. through which ropes were put. his quarters were placed on four of the principal houses of Lucerne. if possible. But on the third day of the journey she was taken in labor among the mountains. Two poor old blind women. was thrown down a precipice. Lucy. for all three were found dead by her. Daniel Cardon. were cast from a rock. and Joseph Pont was cut through the middle of his body. Baptista Oudri. and dashed to pieces. and dashed to pieces. determined. they cut his head off. to which a priest answered. He bore all his sufferings with the most exemplary patience. and stifled. two very old women. and his whole family. named Judith. an elderly widow. who lived in one of the villages of the Piedmontese valleys. . one in each hand. as did the two other children. with her daughter. named Peter Fine. until he was famished. and having fried his brains. "I would rather renounce life. his wife.Paul Garnier. with Ann Bochardno. Margaret Saretta was stoned to death. and a widow of La Torre. after which they threw his corpse into the street before the prison. a woman far gone in her pregnancy. were burnt alive. and set off towards the Alps. was stabbed. and being divided into four parts. and there stoned to death. and an infant in her arms. was beheaded. was burnt to death. being ill of a fever. and gave his carcass to the dogs. and would give them all present ease. then he was dragged by them to the jail. accordingly took two young children. and herself just expiring. and Joseph Chairet and Paul Carniero were flayed alive. another old man. Margaret Revella. whom they pushed in themselves. and be given to the dogs. accordingly. "For that expression you shall both renounce life. and had a stake driven through her body. Paul Giles. viz. were covered with snow. being asked if he would renounce his religion and turn Roman Catholic. who perished through the extreme inclemency of the weather. Three infant children of a Protestant. and forced them to push each other in until they came to the last man. was shot in the neck: they then slit his nose. a man of ninety. dragged him to prison. being apprehended by some soldiers. Michael Gonet. where his wounds mortified and killed him. of Rocappiata. and then thrown into the river. of which she expired. by the person to whom she related the above particulars. Cypriania Bustia. and plainly evinced. telling him they were practical physicians. replied. several papist ruffians broke into his house. praised God as long as he could speak. and delivered of an infant. on attempting to run away from some soldiers. ate them. were driven into the river. where he continued a considerable time without food.: himself. Giovanni. A tradesman's family. what confidence and resignation a good conscience can inspire. were beheaded. or turn dog". Magdalene de la Piere being pursued by some of the soldiers. sliced his chin. and Mary Pravillerin. were burnt alive. and Michael Bellino. was then flayed alive. Some of the Irish troops having taken eleven men of Garcigliana prisoners. and a beautiful young woman was stripped naked. Daniel Maria. of St. stabbed him." They. and it was devoured by dogs in the most shocking manner. they made a furnace red hot. Antonio Bartina had his head cleft asunder. to escape from such dreadful scenes as everywhere surrounded her: she. which they did by knocking the whole family on the head. and taken. The son and the daughter of a counsellor of Giovanni were rolled down a steep hill together. the wife of Peter Besson. and suffered to perish in a deep pit at the bottom.

was hewn to pieces by soldiers. Here he was visited by several priests. . if he would subscribe to the belief of the following articles: • • • • 1. cut off the heads of both husband and wife. 4. "Turn him off! turn him off!" which the executioner did almost immediately. and did all they could to persuade him to renounce his religion. but this he peremptorily refused. and punish them for the innocent blood they have spilt. to be executed in a place near the convent. "You may kill the body. Purgatory. two of his children were minced before his sight. in the jail of Paysana. The sieur Thomas Margher fled to a cave. The real presence of the host. he said. But he told them he never would embrace idolatry. and put an end to his sufferings in this world. fell upon her with their swords. who depended upon his labor. clove his head asunder. "I would have my wife and children. but with respect to the dreadful spectacles which you have here shown me. and with respect to the distress I may leave them in. "Will you call upon the saints? Will you pray to the saints?" To which he answered "No! No! No!" when one of the soldiers. instead of admiring the virtue of the young woman. and." The monks were so exasperated at this reply that they ordered him to be hanged directly. and put into a dish before him. he is gloriously rewarded in the next. calmly. and cut her to pieces. They then put him in mind of what his wife and children. had his flesh slowly cut from his body into small pieces. they cried to him. was flung into the river. and then gave the flesh of the whole family to the dogs. God is merciful. and he perished with famine. with a broadsword.Francis Gros. Transubstantiation. to consider their souls more than their bodies. and lodged a great many balls in his body. and told him that he might yet have his life. in order that the sight might intimidate him. A soldier. but you cannot prejudice the soul of a true believer. but he still refusing. an elder of the church of Rossana. and his wife was fastened to a post. and will provide for them while they are worthy of his protection. 2. and the priests finding his resolution. being apprehended as a Protestant by the soldiers. a poor peasant of La Torre. On beholding the shocking subjects. when the soldiers shut up the mouth. of Vilario. named Susanna Gacquin. and a widow of near fourscore years of age. His comrades. by the marquis of Pianesta. and the next world before this. and that he was happy at being thought worthy to suffer for the name of Christ. which he absolutely refused to do: some of the soldiers beat him violently with bludgeons to make him comply. the father of a numerous family. that she might behold all these cruelties practiced on her husband and offspring. He was shown the dead bodies. the monks cried. the soldiers amused themselves in standing at a distance. Giovanni Pulhus. with several others. to which he replied. and applauding her for so nobly defending her chastity. would suffer after his decease. several monks attended. and seven children. and shooting at the body as at a mark. several of them fired at him. that God's vengeance will overtake the murderers of those poor people. the son of a clergyman. was ordered. The tormentors at length being tired of exercising their cruelties. for which undoubtedly. and while he was hanging. Daniel Rambaut." Finding the inflexibility of this poor man. Judith Revelin. she made a stout resistance. Paul Clement. Jacob Roseno was ordered to pray to the saints. being apprehended by the monks of a neighboring monastery. who with continual importunities did all they could to persuade him to renounce the Protestant religion and turn papist. attempting to ravish a young woman. 3. When he came to the gallows. committed to prison. pretended to pity his numerous family. where some Protestants had just been executed by the soldiers. were barbarously murdered in their beds. was apprehended. The pope's infallibility. when he was dashed to pieces by the fall. and in the struggle pushed him over a precipice. As he was almost expiring. and the body being afterward cut down. you may rest assured. as well as myself. was carried to the market place of that town.

and only meant to keep up a belief in the fable of purgatory. and then gave his body to be devoured by the dogs. is a shocking union of both blasphemy and idolatry. and Mary Monino had her jaw bones broke and was then left to anguish till she was famished. as God only can pardon our errors. who having beat her cruelly. had his nose slit. Anthony. increased both in fortitude and resignation. a handsome widow. as the saints themselves have occasion for an intercessor in Christ. and was then divided into quarters. That the pope's being infallible was an impossibility. were cut to pieces in the woods. Peter Gabriola. That saying Masses for the dead was ridiculous. was seized by a party of the Irish brigades. • 4. and ravished her. Mary Nigrino. a poor dumb lad who was extremely inoffensive. • 6. with her head downwards towards the water. • 6. or to help each other. and then setting fire to them. and the pope arrogantly laid claim to what could belong to God only.• 5. belonging to the town of Vilario. each quarter being hung upon a tree. That the doctrine of purgatory was more inconsistent and absurd than a fairy tale. and soon after the same ruffians entered the house of Peter Moniriat. as the fate of all is finally decided. as they were unable to assist themselves. • 3. and which afterward ascended into heaven. dragged her to a high bridge which crossed the river. and cut off the legs of the whole family. The priests were so highly offended at M. and that nothing but the most blind superstition could make the Roman Catholics put a confidence in anything so completely ridiculous. that they determined to shake his resolution by the most cruel method imaginable: they ordered one joint of his finger to be cut off every day until all his fingers were gone: they then proceeded in the same manner with his toes. M. the son of Samuel Catieris. they fired at her until she expired. and her daughter who was an idiot. but finding that he bore his sufferings with the most admirable patience. and refusing to renounce his religion. afterward they alternately cut off. hung her by the legs to the bridge. would suffer him to subscribe to any of the articles. blew him up. That to fancy the words of consecration perform what the papists call transubstantiation. That to believe the real presence in the host. Therefore. • 5. a Protestant gentleman of considerable eminence. by converting the wafer and wine into the real and identical body and blood of Christ. we ought to sue to him alone for pardon. leaving them to bleed to death. his understanding. Rambaut's answers to the articles to which they would have had him subscribe. Rambaut told the priests that neither his religion. Mary Pelanchion. is too gross an absurdity for even a child to believe. who was come to the least glimmering of reason. a hand and a foot. and their bodies left to be devoured by wild beasts: Susanna Bales. • 2. nor his conscience. Daniel Benech being apprehended. being seized by a troop of soldiers. as a perfect being. and stripped her naked in a most indecent manner. That masses said for the dead will release souls from purgatory. they hung a great number of little bags of gunpowder about his body. That praying to saints will procure the remission of sins. his ears cut off. and then going into boats. was immured until she perished through . for the following reasons: • 1. That praying to saints for the remission of sins is misplacing adoration. daily. which was crucified. and maintained his faith with steadfast resolution and unshaken constancy they stabbed him to the heart. was cut to pieces by a party of the troops. on the departure of the soul from the body. a widow of Vilario.

until receiving a blow on one of his temples. They then took the husband and hanged him at his own door. A young woman named Judith Mandon. they set fire to the straw and burnt her. where he suffered the most dreadful hardships. named Michael Greve. boldly answered that she valued not any sufferings he could inflict. was carried to La Torre. and being led to the bridge. attempting to escape to the Alps. however. which they promised to do. the poor creature's limbs were beat and mangled in a terrible manner." The priest was highly incensed at what she said. and told her to recant. was asked by a priest if she would renounce the devil and go to Mass. and Andreo Bertino. When they found that their spirits were quite exhausted. and kept stoning him. of shying at rocks. A number of soldiers went to the house of Joseph Garniero. to duck down their heads until they were suffocated. and a pious Protestant. a very old man. was apprehended in the town of La Torre.hunger. the priest ordered a file of musqueteers to draw up and fire upon her. "I was brought up in a religion by which I was always taught to renounce the devil. for. and Giovanni Barolina. Here they hunted them for their diversion. Daniel Michialino had his tongue plucked out. and his bowels carried about on the point of a halbert. or she would suffer cruelly. was mangled in a most shocking manner. The priest then ordered slices of her flesh to be cut off from several parts of her body. Isaiah Mondon. the soldiers hacked them to pieces. and go to Mass. to which she replied. in the very same manner as that barbarous custom which was formerly practiced on Shrove-Tuesday. and her brains were at last dashed out by one of the bludgeons. goading them with their swords. Paul Armand was hacked to pieces. he was tormented by means of brimstone matches being tied between his fingers and toes. but the soldiers and the mob followed on both sides of the river. David Baridona being apprehended at Vilario. she would keep her conscience pure and her faith inviolate. and afterward. to give notice of their approach. for refusing to change her religion and embrace popery. and having shot the wife through the head. was thrown over into the river. David Paglia and Paul Genre. and consequently sunk and was drowned. and sealed her martyrdom with her blood. and willing to stop her tongue. and at length had his belly ripped open. A musket ball entered one of Mrs. and was left to perish in that condition. The lady. in the midst of the winter he was forced to lie on . and sent it immediately to a Roman Catholic nurse. were pursued and overtaken by the soldiers in a large plain. where. only saying to the priest. with a large hammer. as it was termed. and before they entered. by means of pitchforks and stones. being apprehended on account of her faith. By this inhuman proceeding. and left their mangled bodies on the spot. As he could swim very well. until he expired. On finding their intentions. as she was suckling an infant with the other. was fastened to a stake. and sticks thrown at her from a distance. by which she was soon despatched. Garniero's breasts. by having his flesh plucked off with red-hot pincers. which cruelty she bore with the most singular patience. and that they could not afford them any more barbarous sport by running. and set fire to. beat out his brains. Constantia Bellione. refusing to renounce his religion. with each his son. she begged hard that they would spare the life of the infant. an elderly man. A young man of Bobbio. and making them run about until they dropped down with fatigue. they left her body weltering in its blood. and Susanna Calvio running away from some soldiers and hiding herself in a barn. a Protestant lady. when a soldier. "What horrid and lasting torments will you suffer in hell. he swam down the stream. fired in at the window. and in spite of all the torments he could invent. and her husband hanging on the gallows. David Armand was ordered to lay his head down on a block. who was lame. fled from the merciless persecutors to a cleft in a rock. I should be sure to meet him there in a variety of shapes." Exasperated at this expression. for the trifling and temporary pains which I now endure. thinking to escape. with his wife. were thrown into a pool of stagnant water. but should I comply with your desire. and compelled. a child named Daniel Bertino was burnt. he was stunned.

blinded by bigotry. said. and then bowing down. prayed in a most fervent manner to the Almighty. and seized upon him in a violent manner. by which the cave was discovered. Several men. who cut off the woman's breasts. But superstition overcomes every sensation of nature and humanity. goading him with the points of their swords. She dropped down with the wound. and by stealth. of a wavering disposition. heretic. broke into the gentleman's house. Giovanni Salvagiot. Mass idolatry. he delivered them up to the soldiery. lifted their hands and hearts to heaven. was followed by some of the congregation. who. a worthy Protestant. therefore. This he effected. with an intent to renounce his religion and embrace popery. but recovering sufficient strength. some of the inhuman soldiers found him. and. many of which took effect. and absolution a cheat. put their faces close to the ground. bade them prepare to die. This design he communicated to some priests. they drove him towards Lucerne. The troops on the way did all they could to bring him back to his design of recantation. the same evening. who were near at hand." Mary Revol. having been taken prisoners by the earl of St. and having cut them to pieces. and his spirits exhausted by the blows he had received. A Protestant gentleman. one of the duke of Savoy's officers. and implored them. who fell upon and murdered him.the bare stone. It was the custom for two of the men to go when it was necessary. Anthony Guigo. and the only way by which he could procure drink. he was taken. but being soon missed and pursued. received a shot in her back. but to make his escape. where they continued for some weeks in safety. These were. went to Periero. saying. and soon after. and as old acquaintances and neighbors. "There. however. when a number of soldiers. take thy request. he took an opportunity of leaping down it and was dashed to pieces. by the ties of hospitality. therefore. left the mangled bodies and limbs in the cave. told them they could not show any mercy to heretics. which was soon decided. purgatory a farce. and some were even related to each other. fell on his knees. To be revenged. was to put snow in his mouth until it melted. not to murder them. and a day was fixed upon for his public recantation. and implored mercy. a Protestant. Hearing this. and the man's nose. by despatching him. and put an end to her miseries in an instant. but finding their endeavors ineffectual. and one of them stepping up to him shot him through the head with a pistol. Here. passing by a Roman Catholic church. at Bobbio. and not taking off his hat. and Jacob Barrel and his wife. came out. women. the priest hired five desperate ruffians. his food was the roots he could scratch up near his miserable habitation. without any covering. but the desperate ruffians despatched him without the least hesitation. the Protestants all fell prostate. and after having beaten him unmercifully. he implored them to put him out of his misery. procure provisions. as she was walking along the street. however. that the pope was Antichrist. of considerable fortune. retorted with great severity. When coming near a precipice. and patiently waited their fate. who highly commended it. she raised herself upon her knees. This they at last agreed to do. and knowing the fatal obstinacy of the Roman Catholics. by the ties of blood. The papists that assembled upon this occasion were neighbors and intimate acquaintances of the Protestants in the cave. In the meantime. and children secreted themselves in a large cave. They again beat him to make him proceed: when on his knees. Being exceedingly weakened by his manner of living. being nightly provoked by the insolence of a priest. and his conscience tormented him so much night and day that he determined not to recant. The Protestants. a troop of Roman Catholics appeared before it. fired a whole volley of shot at her. Secondo. they beat him violently on the road. so that the papists. Anthony grew fully sensible of his perfidy. A Narrative of the Piedmontese War . for the papists fell upon them with unremitting fury. he fell down in the road. The gentleman was terribly frightened. and lifting her hands towards heaven. and then shot them both through the head. prayed with great sincerity and fervency. and among other things. one day watched.

Though foiled in these two attempts. determined. Captain Gianavel. the marquis of Pianessa determined on a third. infested those parts. and the remainder receiving a continued fire. upon any occasion. while the people as he thought. A great number of the soldiers were killed. and that was owing to the difficulty of approaching it. were lulled into perfect security by his specious behavior. entered Roras. setting forth. and began to murder every person they met with. put himself at the head of a small body of the citizens. who had. to be under the necessity of taking up arms. this was the little commonalty of Roras.' The marquis of Pianessa. and specious conduct. but a band of desperate robbers. which should be still more formidable. nearly depopulated most of the towns and villages. had intelligence of the approach of these troops. and not seeing any to whom they might return it. by keeping up a continual fire.The massacres and murders already mentioned to have been committed in the valleys of Piedmont. and had entered the defile. and waited in ambush to attack the enemy in a small defile. the marquis sent five hundred men to possess themselves of Roras. and loyal subjects to their sovereign. but first he imprudently published another proclamation. though he had lost the defile. Yet. the duke of Savoy. if possible. that he might have the better opportunity of deluding and surprising the Protestants of Roras. as he imagined that he had surmounted all difficulties. When the troops appeared. one of the duke's general officers. and should do so again. and the Protestants being secured by a breastwork. obedient. thought proper to retreat. laid an ambuscade for this body of troops. or any previous notice sent of the purpose of their coming. they had repelled force by force. Here he was successful. which was the only place by which the town could be approached. the Protestants kept up a smart and well-directed fire against them. and compelled them to retire with very considerable loss. to make himself master of it. who. and by means of his men being all complete marksmen. 'That they were sorry. as the men who had attempted to pass the defile were not his troops. but in all other respects. determined to dispute their passage through a fortified pass that led to the richest and best part of the town. however. and. and even rendered a service to their country. a brave Protestant officer. did his endeavors to force the pass. for they had done right.' To give a greater color to his treachery. . The members of this little community then sent a memorial to the marquis of Pianessa. with that view. they professed themselves dutiful. and still kept themselves concealed behind bushes from the sight of the enemy. detached three hundred men to surprise it secretly. which was situated upon a rock. Soon after. therefore. the earl of Christople. One place only had not been assaulted. in spite of the fire from the Protestants. that as it was their custom never to suffer any of the military to enter their little community. however. the very day after this plausible proclamation. was not to be deceived so easily: he. had greatly alarmed them. As the work of blood grew slack in other places. but that the secret approach of a body of troops. without any reason assigned. or sent by him. but being able to bring up only twelve men in front at a time. disowning any knowledge of the second attempt. The Protestant captain Gianavel. The Roman Catholic commander was greatly staggered at this opposition. sent them word in answer. 'That he was perfectly satisfied with their behavior. forced the defile. The inhabitants of Roras. however. when captain Joshua Gianavel. for some time. without distinction of age or sex. as he had for the former. at the head of a small body. and been a terror to the neighboring country. one of the duke of Savoy's officers. he found he should be baffled by the handful of men who opposed him. seven hundred chosen men were sent upon the expedition. He. he then published an ambiguous proclamation seemingly favorable to the inhabitants.

Enraged at the loss of so many of his troops. The Protestants suffered the Roman Catholic troops to gain almost the summit of the rock. he designed that three formidable attacks should be made at the same time. 7. he joined to the militia eight thousand regular troops. 9. Unwilling. unless the people of Roras. a bigoted Roman Catholic. To go to confession. and that any officer who would exterminate them should be rewarded in a princely manner. at length he fell into a decline at Lucerne. finding that all his attempts were frustrated. After each of these signal victories. and therefore proclaimed that ample rewards should be given to any one who would bear arms against the obstinate heretics of Roras. for he fell from a craggy place into a river which washed the foot of the rock. Another body of troops was ordered from the camp at Vilario. When these orders were completed. therefore. 5. he determined to retreat towards Vilario. obtained leave to raise a regiment in the following six towns: Lucerne. To deliver up their ministers. He. to make an attempt upon Roras. which beat them down the precipices. for by attempting a precipitate retreat they fell down. which though hard of access. was easy of descent. as he called them. and compelled to retreat again to the camp at Vilario. and more by the stones. and. and that every artifice he used was only an alarm signal to the inhabitants of Roras. whence he imagined he could pour his troops into the town without much difficulty or opposition. where the subject is placing confidence in God. he thought it the wisest thing to retreat. and usually concluded with the Eleventh Psalm. but afterwards recovered. one party keeping up a well-directed and constant fire. without giving them any opposition. which consisted of one thousand men. by means of the Protestants' ambush fighting. The marquis of Pianessa was greatly enraged at being so much baffled by the few inhabitants of Roras: he. To go to Mass. Bobbio. Several fell sacrifices to their hurry. 10. To ask pardon for taking up arms. • 4. To pay loans for . greatly annoyed the troops as they passed. With this view he ordered all the Roman Catholic militia of Piedmont to be raised and disciplined. determined to attempt their expulsion in such a manner as could hardly fail of success. but these were likewise defeated. to undertake the enterprise. and return thanks to the Almighty for his providential protection. He was taken up senseless. To acknowledge the infallibility of the pope. causing them to kneel down. To pay the expenses of all the expeditions sent against them. Having completed his regiment. To pray to the saints. 2. But in this he met with disappointment. and were dashed to pieces. 6. but to attempt gaining the summit of a rock. for Captain Gianavel having posted his little band here. and Captain Mario himself narrowly escaped with his life. To deliver up their schoolmasters. This stopped the career of the papist troops: many were killed by the musketry. to withdraw his men by the defile at which he had entered. and even pursued their rear until they entered the open country. To wear beards. he laid his plan not to go by the defiles or the passes. or ever appearing in their sight: but when they had almost reached the top they made a most furious attack upon them. Famolas. Captain Gianavel made a suitable discourse to his men. however. on account of the difficulty and danger of the enterprise. and Cavos. therefore. and dividing the whole into three distinct bodies. Borges. and fearful of disgrace if he persisted in attempting what appeared so impracticable. The marquis of Pianessa. determined to act openly. 8. by another pass called Piampra. and a desperate ruffian. to whom he sent an account of his great preparations. and another party rolling down huge stones. where he died. 3. though he was ill of the bruises for a long time. This engaged Captain Mario. would comply with the following conditions: • 1. Begnal.

11. but my consolation is that your power is only a temporary authority over their bodies: you may destroy the mortal part. The marquis of Pianessa wrote a letter to Captain Gianavel. viz. his wife and children should be put to death. Several Protestants. the marquis sent them this laconic epistle: To the Obstinate Heretics Inhabiting Roras You shall have your request. 12. crucified. burned. One hundred and twenty-six suffered in this manner on the first day of their gaining the town. the brave Gianavel sent the following answer. that if the captain would embrace the Roman Catholic religion. or cut to pieces. I would die to preserve them. of all others. my lord. nothing can be more afflicting to me than the thought of their confinement. for the troops sent against you have strict injunctions to plunder. pass. With respect to my wife and children. cut their throats. made their escape. Their estates to be seized. drowned. were filled with an honest indignation. and children they tossed upon spears. . and. The inhabitants of Roras. and burned the houses of the people. To this epistle. • 1. were the most obnoxious to mankind. but if he refused to accede to the proposals made him. Themselves to be murdered. The three armies were then put in motion. and the third by the defile of Lucerne. on being acquainted with these conditions. • Exasperated at this message. Agreeable to the marquis of Pianessa's orders. and released a Protestant prisoner that he might carry it him. and menaces only strengthen me in my faith. and defile. To give up the elders of their church at discretion. from the greatness of the sum. racked to death. and kill. 3. My Lord Marquis. my lord. in answer. dead or alive. or more dreadful to my imagination. minced. and exercise the greatest cruelties. however. 2. women they ripped open. You have them in your power it is true. but what I would prefer to the abjuration of my religion: so that promises lose their effects. they likewise plundered the estates. burn. To give up Captain Gianavel at discretion. Their houses to be burned. I would suffer any torment to rescue them from danger. The troops forced their way by the superiority of numbers. PIANESSA. his wife and children should be immediately released. that even some of his own confidential friends should be tempted to betray him. The contents were. but their immortal souls are out of your reach. and so large a reward should be given to take him. my heart is replete with every sentiment of humanity. and having gained the rocks. I assure you that the purchase of their lives must not be the price of my salvation. he should be indemnified for all his losses since the commencement of the war. the second by the pass of Bagnol. sent word to the marquis that sooner than comply with them they would suffer three things. and himself honorably promoted in the duke of Savoy's army. began to make the most horrid depradations. and the attacks ordered to be made thus: the first by the rocks of Vilario. under the conduct of Captain Gianavel.the delivery of souls from purgatory. There is no torment so great or death so cruel. But having said thus much. or threw from the precipices. than their suffering a violent and cruel death. I keenly feel all the tender sensations of husband and parent. which. or dashed out their brains. whose wife and children were unfortunately made prisoners and sent under a strong guard to Turin. Men they hanged.

viz. etc. Captain Gianavel hearing that a Captain Jahier had collected together a considerable body of Protestants. pointed his gun to the place. but a reinforcement of horse and foot having lately entered the town. that were marching through the open country. wrote him a letter. consequently. In the town they found a prodigious quantity of plunder. The assault was given with great spirit. and burnt all the out houses. from whence they poured musket balls in prodigious numbers. To this end they marched in five respective bodies. Five Protestant officers. Campiglione. This successful attack was made with such skill and spirit that it cost very little to the conquering party. had assaulted the town of Biqueras. he. and five hundred and eleven wounded. and being joined by a great number of other fugitive Protestants. Feline. yet made a masterly retreat. Secondo. which some held over their heads. though himself was shot through the leg in the engagement.and will live hereafter to bear testimony against you for your cruelties. and the town taken. who had fortified the streets and planted themselves in the houses. Gianavel. while others kept up a well-directed fire. The captains. but met with a strong resistance from the Roman Catholic troops. Laurentio. among the sufferers. (inhabited by Roman Catholics) called Garcigliana. and despatched the person who had wounded him. This brave Protestant officer. I therefore recommend them and myself to God. but not being supported as they expected by the other three Protestant captains. to make their approaches with the greater ease. and by agreement were to make the attack at the same time. The next attempt of the Protestant forces was upon St. and came to the place in safety. The Protestant officers perceiving the intent of the enemy. they were repulsed. . retired to the Alps. The Protestants. In the meantime. while the papists suffered a loss of no less than four hundred and fifty killed. dwelling houses. Jahier. towards the open country. on a swift horse. and. by a soldier who had hid himself behind a tree. to secure them from the shots of the enemy from the houses. and put them to the rout without the loss of a man. it was proposed to attack a town. Meeting one day with a body of papist troops near Bibiana. This they removed to a place of safety. they determined to attack the three Protestant parties. under covert. proposing a junction of their forces. a great number of troops were sent to relieve Biqueras from Cavors. passed through two defiles in the woods. and twenty-six wounded. were more exposed to an attack. the captains. with as much justice as possible. The junction being formed. Jahier and Laurentio. Genolet and Benet. which the Protestants knew nothing of.JOSHUA GIANAVEL. and only lost one man in the action. but Gianavel perceiving whence the shot came. and pray for a reformation in your heart. -. advanced. after writing the above letter. to be distributed. and not being at a great distance from each other. Captain Jahier immediately agreed to the proposal. and marched directly to meet Gianavel. attacked them with great fury.. and formed themselves in order of battle. with his followers. they sent a messenger. and which were stored up in the warehouses. which they attacked with great vigor. so that the houses and entrenchments were soon forced. though inferior in numbers. laid a plan to surprise Biqueras. the Protestants having only seventeen killed. but the other three bodies made their approaches through an open country. and different places. When these were united. joined forces with the utmost expedition. churches. Bibiana. The Roman Catholics taking the alarm. however. he harassed the enemy by continual skirmishes. and some other neighboring places. under cover of a great number of planks. Jahier and Laurentio. to inquire the reason. which had been taken from Protestants at various times.

to the relief of their friends on the plain. and compelled to make a retreat. fled with the utmost precipitation. in general immediately left the town. began the assault at Malbec. etc. having information that three hundred of the enemy were to convoy a great quantity of stores. which the Protestants began to attack in form. though they fought with the most obstinate intrepidity. and joined Captain Gianavel with great satisfaction. and then sent the following information and commands to the inhabitants. but these were defeated. which they did with great regularity. for just as they arrived at the spot where the two armies were engaged. the Roman Catholics of Vilario thought it would be folly to attempt to defend the place with the small force they had. and were on the point of flanking the left wing. and forced to retreat to La Torre. detached some troops to defend a defile. That he commanded all male Protestants to leave the town and join him. the papist troops began to prevail. That all who returned to their duty to God. but the Protestants at length were obliged to yield to the superiority of numbers. though with a very inadequate force. on receiving this intelligence. through weakness. The Protestants proceeded on their march. and themselves. The contest was long and bloody. and to proceed. had abjured their faith. but were repulsed with great loss. situated near the town of Vilario. were totally defeated. • 3. That all apostates.. and the troops of La Torre. He. determined to discontinue the assault on Biqueras. . • 1. • 5. As the marquis of Pianessa had removed the army. and but little loss. on their approach. compelled to abandon the pass. The Protestants. The Protestant commanders having called a council of war. provisions. A great number were killed and wounded. The papists being apprised of the design. This design proved to be of the most essential service. whatever their religion might be. with all possible expedition. who had.. Captain Gianavel. he should act by the law of retaliation. determined to attack them on the way. The governor now only thought of defending the place. leaving the town and most of their property to the discretion of the Protestants. taken by the Protestants were very considerable. • 4. Jahier and Laurentio. who through weakness or fear. made a furious sally. unless they renounced their abjuration. and encamped in quite a different part of the country. • 6. and the baggage. The captains. accordingly. whether they belonged to the army or not. etc. should be deemed enemies. resolved to make an attempt upon the town of La Torre. and compelled to seek shelter in the town. from La Torre to the castle of Mirabac. therefore. but after many brave attempts. Captain Gianavel advanced to an advantageous post. should be received as friends. recanted their abjuration and were received into the bosom of the Church. the commanders determined to abandon the enterprise for several reasons. and furious assaults. through which the Protestants must make their approach.The messenger soon returned and informed them that it was not in the power of the three Protestant captains to support their proceedings. particularly. They. on both sides. and could scarce sustain the unequal conflict. military stores. abjured their religion. for the numerous depredations and many cruel murders they had committed. That all women and children. as they were themselves attacked by a very superior force in the plain. That with respect to the Roman Catholics who had borne arms. and put them to death. commanded by Captain Gianavel. That he should attack the town in twenty-four hours. should be safe. and the few. The arrival of these troops turned the scale in favor of the Protestants: and the papist forces. • 2.

the Protestant commanders began a masterly retreat. and now luckily fell again to the possession of the right owners. The papists being informed that Captain Gianavel was at Angrogne with only his own company. and who had exercised. a great number of troops were detached from La Torre and other places: one party of these got on top of a mountain. Biqueras. tied a cord round his head. who were posted on the hill of Angrogne. the most unheard-of cruelties on the Protestants. he prudently retreated with very little loss. was of much more consequence. After the pursuit was over. but finding he could not make himself master of the place. After collecting a tolerable booty. a place inhabited by a number of the most bigoted Roman Catholics. Their design. on the very first attack. They then held a council of war. and were pursued with much slaughter. and strained it until his skull was quite crushed. Captain Jahier. The day after the Protestants were gone with their booty. not bringing up his forces at the time appointed. Thus they secured their persons. proceeded towards that place during the whole. as they passed the defiles. a great quantity of military stores. but disagreeing about the different shares. With this view. beneath which he was posted. but by the way they met with the Protestant forces belonging to the captains. for the failure of the enterprise. Cavors. some straggling papist troops meeting with a poor peasant. He. and that pursuit would be vain. for a very few men could render it inaccessible to a numerous army. having been despatched from Lucerne. hearing of the design against them. not to return empty handed. at that time. He then assaulted the place. during the persecutions. had been plundered from the Protestants. by a forced march. did a great deal of mischief. they began to divide it. who was a Protestant. was providentially frustrated. Captain Gianavel determined to attempt the enterprise himself. The next day they mustered. and the other party intended to possess themselves of the gate of St. their own number too weak. they fell from words to blows. blaming. and then to break down the bridge. reviewed the army.because they found the place itself too strong. retreated in great confusion. and found the whole to amount to four hundred and ninetyfive men. Captain Gianavel and Captain Jahier concerted a design together to make an attack upon Lucerne. they began to plunder the neighboring villages. for one of the popish soldiers imprudently blowing a trumpet before the signal for . On the very same day in which the Protestants were so successful at Crusol. however. The people of Crusol. however. determined if possible to surprise him. and then plundered each other. and their own force was two thousand five hundred. therefore. viz. but were in too much hurry to secure their property. But finding themselves too late. where the Protestants could not come to them. situated on a rock. and planned an easier enterprise: this was to make an attack on the commonalty of Crusol. for the Roman Catholics. some papists marched with a design to plunder and burn the little Protestant village of Rocappiatta. This resolution taken. by which alone provisions from the country could enter. and was close to it by break of day.. though what they took was from their friends. A trivial engagement ensued. His first care was to cut the pipes that conveyed water into the town. as they consisted but of three hundred. It consisted of many rich and valuable articles. Bartholomew. Jahier and Laurentio. fled to a neighboring fortress. and what. or molest their rear. but Captain Jahier. eight hundred troops arrived to the assistance of the people of Crusol. and their cannon not adequate to the task of battering down the walls. etc. indeed. and speedily possessed himself of two of the outposts. the principal part of which. which they might have done. and conducted it with such regularity that the enemy did not choose to pursue them. The papists thought themselves sure of taking Captain Gianavel and every one of his men.

presented it to the duke of Savoy. These being all joined to the remains of the veteran Protestant troops. so that no difficulties could deter him from undertaking an enterprise." Several skirmishes likewise happened between the troops of La Torre and Tagliaretto. but fought with more resolution than the papists. (for great numbers had been lost in the various battles. and companion of. The death of this gentleman was a signal loss to the Protestants. and were repulsed with very considerable loss. Giovanni. named Andrion. or dangers terrify him in its execution. Captain Jahier and his men fought desperately. "I have lost my father. The last of them prevailed. and at length routed them with considerable slaughter. the auxiliary troops. Bartholomew and at the defile by which the enemy must descend from the mountains. and an excellent officer. Some were for plundering the country. as he was a real friend to. Soon after. and carrying it to Turin. These. and the fourth to remain as a body of reserve to act as occasion might require. if possible. who was close behind him. He possessed a most undaunted spirit. Captain Jahier came to Angrogne. A Protestant gentleman. though oppressed by odds. the Protestants were much inferior in numbers. the reformed Church. giving sufficient reasons to excuse his before-mentioned failure. a great number of regulars sent by the marquis of Pianessa. He was pious without affectation. in order to draw the Protestants from their camp. and joined his forces to those of Captain Gianavel. and said. With this view they collected together a large force. that the Roman Catholic troops failed in both attacks. etc. soon after. Captain Gianavel was. skirmishes. leaped into his place. alarmed at the formidable appearance and increased strength of the Protestant forces. Captain Gianavel took the alarm. During the action. three captains. however. when his son. and the morning after the resolution had been taken was appointed to put it into execution. who rewarded him with six hundred ducatoons. with thirty-five of his men. which in general terminated in favor of the latter. and took the command of it himself. others were for patiently waiting till they were attacked. always selecting the most active troops. and resolute in all his undertakings.) composed a respectable army. consisting of the principal part of the garrisons of the Roman Catholic towns. But Captain Jahier himself being killed. of the enemy. named Michelin. and humane without weakness. having formed a junction. and the independent companies. and posted his little company so advantageously at the gate of St. took new courage from misfortunes. and determining not to let their spirits droop attacked a body of popish troops with great intrepidity. of a penetrating genius. and disputing on the most proper mode of proceeding. belonging both to Gianavel and himself. to proceed upon an expedition. when entering a plain near Ossac. active in spirit. The Roman Catholic commanders. and killed the commander-in-chief. To add to the affliction of the Protestants. bold in a field. They. to dislodge them from their encampment. instituted several bands of light troops. and spent several days in calling councils of war. . The Roman Catholic troops were accordingly separated into four divisions.attack was given. but courage. One of the soldiers cut off Captain Jahier's head. which the officers thought proper to encamp near St. a sergeant named Michael Bertino was killed. One day he had put himself at the head of forty-four men. the draft from the Irish brigades. sieges. three of which were to make an attack in different places. and fifty-seven private men. Captain Jahier now made several secret excursions with great success. The sieur John Leger persuaded a great number of Protestants to form themselves into volunteer companies. God is a father to us all. and trying to make themselves master of everything in it. and the Protestant forces. the rest surrendered. wounded in such a manner that he was obliged to keep his bed. determined. fellow soldiers. encamped near the Protestants. meek in a domestic life. and a third party were for assaulting the Protestant camp. raised a regiment of horse. he was suddenly surrounded by a large body of horse.

his men entered. likewise.One of the Roman Catholic officers. continuing without intermission for the space of four hours: for the several companies on both sides relieved each other alternately. His course of life was pious and uniform. previous to the attack. you are now going to enter upon a great action. and many more wounded. by way of retaliation. Soon after the return of this detachment. the pleasure of spilling heretic blood. without any view of emolument to himself. and making a breach in the wall of the convent. but at length the valor of the Protestants prevailed. thus haranged his men: "Fellow-soldiers. . and take all you come near. suffered for their conduct. After having effected this. and the papists were totally defeated. who was indeed a papist. Some of these straggling parties. and the Protestant camp was attacked in three places with inconceivable fury. the honor of showing your loyalty to your sovereign. they made a regular retreat. it would have given them the command of the valleys of Perosa. So. who was so terrified. making his retreat afterward with very little loss. which will bring you fame and riches. St. saw the great number of wounded men brought into that city. The fight was maintained with great obstinacy and perseverance on both sides." This expression being reported to M. During the engagement of the main armies. being hard pressed in the main battle. spread themselves by night in detached parties over the finest corn fields of the Protestants. The motives of your acting with spirit are likewise of the most important nature. into priest's orders. being alarmed in the night by the blazing of the fire among the corn. which. he exclaimed. and resolved on any kind of revenge. driving the garrison into the citadel and burning both town and convent. he sent a very severe and threatening letter to the Syndic. fall on. which he dedicated to the service of his fellow creatures. When the Syndic of Lucerne. pursued the fugitives early in the morning. a Native of Spain Michael de Molinos. however. my brave fellows. Captain Bellin. the Roman Catholic troops. went with a body of light troops. Marolles. The Protestant captain Bellin. "Ah! I thought the wolves used to devour the heretics. but not a bigoted one. the Roman Catholic commander-in-chief at Lucerne. if the papists had carried. a Spaniard of a rich and honorable family. An Account of the Persecutions of Michael de Molinos. and compelled to return to the body of reserve. and Lucerne. from whence they had been detached. and set them on fire in sundry places. kill all you meet. These immediately marched to their assistance. when young. A few days later. and by that means kept up a continual fire during the whole action. but they were repulsed with great loss. for the Protestants. that the fright threw him into a fever. but now I see the heretics eat the wolves. entered. when the papists. attacked the town of La Torre itself. put them to death. give no quarter. namely. and for some time longer held the event doubtful. as they could not reduce the citadel for want of cannon. exasperated at their disgrace. Martino. sent for the body of reserve to come to their support. nor did he exercise those austerities which are common among the religious orders of the Church of Rome. a detachment was sent from the body of reserve to attack the post of Castelas. and he died in a few days. with the loss of upwards of three hundred men killed. and burnt the suburbs of La Torre. and overtaking many. He possessed great natural abilities. and the prospect of plundering the Protestant camp. with a much stronger body of troops. This great battle was fought just before the harvest was got in. but would not accept of any preferment in the Church." After this inhuman speech the engagement began.

One of the society had. No sooner was the book published than it was greatly read. and those who approved of his method in different parts of Europe. and Petrucci. their method was more followed. a second by the general of the Franciscans. who. indeed. and the Jesuits were considered as the accusers. and highly esteemed. that their books were again approved. To do this. Molinos and his followers were given out to be heretics. But those who attached themselves to him with the greatest sincerity were some of the fathers of the Oratory. Ciceri. all contributed to raise the credit. with the new approbation given after so vigorous an accusation by the Jesuits. which was a new declaration made by the pope in their favor. in a short time. he left his own country. and the answers which the Jesuits had written were censured as scandalous. and therefore the sense was expressed in the most easy and familiar style. Caloredi. and the novelty of it. in particular three of the most eminent. Molinos published a book entitled "Il Guida Spirituale. yet Molinos. from the sublime mode of their religion. and this so raised the reputation of the author that his acquaintance was coveted by the most respectable characters. but they were all answered with spirit by Molinos. One of these was by the archbishop of Reggio. They conversed together daily. and by this means a correspondence was settled between Molinos and some distinguished characters in France. who so approved of his religious maxims. opened his mind without reserve to the cardinal. indeed. Molinos had now acquired such reputation. Letters were written to him from numbers of people. but he mixed in them so many rules for the devotions of the Romish Church. so that a correspondence was settled between him. Father Petrucci wrote several treatises relative to a contemplative life.Being of a contemplative turn of mind. and consulted him. and. These disputes occasioned such disturbance in Rome that the whole affair was taken notice of by the Inquisition. Some secular priests. that the Jesuits and Dominicans began to be greatly alarmed. as a sort of oracle. and thought themselves happy in being reckoned among the number of his friends. so that his enemies were unwilling to give him any further disturbance. but his own emolument. In 1675. and Father Petrucci. on many occasions. for he was soon after made bishop of Jesis. namely. and increase the number of the party. it was necessary to decry the author of it. were distinguished by the name of Quietists. who had been divinity-professor both at Salamanca and Rome. Their books were now esteemed more than ever. who so highly approved of Molinos' maxims that he entered into a close connection with him. and settled at Rome. Some passages in the latter were not so cautiously expressed. Molinos and his book." to which were subjoined recommendatory letters from several great personages. he pursued the track of the mystical divines. and notwithstanding the distrust a Spaniard has naturally of a Frenchman. Here he soon connected himself with some of the most distinguished among the literati. with his treatises and letters. and a third by Father Martin de Esparsa. approved of Molinos' book. and determined to put a stop to the progress of this method. and. and being desirous of propagating his sublime mode of devotion. there was less occasion given for censure by his writings than those of Molinos. The behavior of Father Petrucci in his new dignity greatly contributed to increase his reputation. were brought under a severe examination. he obtained a great number of followers. but the rest took care he should not be again seen at Rome. and as heresy is an imputation that makes the strongest impression at Rome. declared themselves openly for it. . Whilst Molinos was thus laboring to propagate his religious mode. They were written chiefly for the use of the nuns. both in Italy and Spain. a man of very great learmning. and having acquired great reputation in Spain. a Jesuit. Books were also written by some of the Jesuits against Molinos and his method. The most distinguished of them was the Cardinal d'Estrees. In the course of the examination both Molinos and Petrucci acquitted themselves so well. as mitigated that censure he might have otherwise incurred. Many of the cardinals also courted his acquaintance. Petrucci's conduct on this occasion was so highly approved that it not only raised the credit of the cause. who was sincere in his principles. that they concurred in assisting him to propagate them. both at Rome and Naples.

He wrote a treatise. he had assented to several things. yet there appeared less zeal in their whole deportment at the exterior parts of the Church ceremonies. were reckoned among the number. though it was said an order was sent to examine the registers of the place where Molinos was baptized. The great reputation acquired by Molinos and Petrucci occasioned a daily increase of the Quietists. To do this he perverted the meaning of some passages in Molinos' books and papers. he intended to erase from their minds a sense of the mysteries of Christianity. but in order to make a full discovery. and that dangerous consequences werre likely to ensue. or in processions. They first objected to his holding a correspondence in different parts of Europe. He therefore went to the inquisitors. in his heart. And because he was a Spaniard. Molinos finding himself attacked with great vigor. This last calumny gained but little credit at Rome. and in the preface to it he declared that he had not written it with any design to engage himself in matters of controversy. together with several of their friends. nor were they so frequently either at confession. commanding him to prosecute Molinos with all possible rigor.but there was room to make exceptions to them. (which was the beginning of the year 1684) Petrucci answered the respective questions put to him with so much judgment and temper that he was soon dismissed. and the most unrelenting malice. They insinuated that he had ill designs. took every necessary precaution to prevent these imputations being credited. but determined not to take any notice. which. not only relative to Molinos. in his heart. All who were thought sincerely devout. failing in their attempts of crushing Molinos' power in Rome." which was likewise approved by some of the most learned of the Romish clergy. The Jesuits. he determined to supply that defect himself. while. said he could prove against him more than was necessary to convince them he was guilty of heresy. they gave out that he was descended from a Jewish or Mahometan race. and was. but also Petrucci. as easily to remove the objections made to some parts of his letter. yet they were still inveterate against him in their hearts. and that he might carry in his blood. and though Molinos' examination was much longer. but of this he was acquitted. there was not sufficient matter for an accusation against him. in the year 1675. an enemy to the Christian religion: that under pretence of raising men to a sublime strain of devotion. but Molinos so clearly explained their meaning that nothing could be made of them to his prejudice. it was generally expected he would have been likewise discharged: but this was not the case. but that it was drawn from him by the earnest solicitations of many pious people. though so strongly attached to Molinos. and related many false and aggravating circumstances relative to the prisoner. At length. They then directed their attention to some suspicious papers found in his chamber. This was printed with his Spiritual Guide. some seeds of those religions which he had since cultivated with no less art than zeal. nor so earnest to procure Masses to be said for their friends. and that. The cardinal. however. When they were brought before the inquisitors. applied to the court of France. and informed them of several particulars. he saw into the secrets of Molinos. he detested. Though the new approbation given to Molinos' book by the Inquisition had checked the proceedings of his enemies. in a short time. or at least affected the reputation of it. . both of whom. when. They were not so assiduous at Mass. after producing the order sent him by the king of France for prosecuting Molinos. If these persons were observed to become more strict in their lives and mental devotions. or in his first education. were put into the Inquisition. yet they strained every nerve to find him guilty of heresy. Though the inquisitors had not any just accusation against him. but that it was only to discover his principles and intentions: that he had found them to be of a bad nature. resolved to sacrifice all that is sacred in friendship to the will of his master. until a proper opportunity should offer of crushing him and his followers. He acknowledged he had lived with him under the appearance of friendship. Finding. they so far succeeded that an order was sent to Cardinal d'Estrees. as the matter of that correspondence could not be made criminal. Cardinal d'Estrees. and determined if possible to ruin him. on the other hand Petrucci so fully explained himself. by these means. entitled "Frequent and Daily Communion.

It was addressed to all prelates. (in all seventy persons) were put into the Inquisition. in which some persons. therefore. In a word. and some of his family. that when they were asked why they had laid aside the use of their beads and their ancient forms. if priests made this use of it. Orders were likewise given to proceed. In order. instead of their beads. the inquisitors sent a circular letter to Cardinal Cibo. copies of it were printed. and that. and the great noise made in consequence of the countess's situation. lest the people might be incensed. during which period all was quiet. that whereas many schools and fraternities were established in several parts of Italy. that. was deemed heretical. if possible. should be kept secret. in the way of justice. . and the storm broke out with the most inveterate vehemence. to discover the most secret thoughts intrusted to them. therefore it was time to give over going to confession. as well as all other orders from the inquisitors. they were much alone. and accused him of being the cause of it. with several others. against those who should be found guilty of these abominable errors. within the space of a month. to disperse it through Italy. It was intended that this. but notwithstanding all their care. the nuns of the Conception. The accusation laid against the clergy was their neglecting to say the breviary. or images. such was the inveteracy of the Jesuits against the Quietists. The Count Vespiniani and his lady. The circular letter sent to Cardinal Cibo. where he continued for some time. as the chief minister. in particular. They blamed the cardinal. and that. under the pretence of leading people into the ways of the Spirit. From this spirited speech. and what she said might lessen the credit of confession. and the other devotions to saints. confessor to the prince Borghese. The Countess Vespiniani exerted herself in a very particular manner on her examination before the inquisitors. were wholly given up to prayer and contemplation. and his secretary laid the fault on both. She said she had never revealed her method of devotion to any mortal but her confessor. that. for the future.In consequence of d'Estree's evidence. she would only make her confession to God. But on a sudden the Jesuits determined to extirpate them. Don Paulo Rocchi. and the rest were accused of going to the Communion without first attending confession. therefore a strict charge was given to dissolve all those societies. and his followers prosecuted their mode without interruption. and often in the exercise of mental prayer. Information of this being given to the Inquisition. who used every method they could to conceal their proceedings from the knowledge of the world. and gave themselves up wholly to solitude and inward prayer. and dispersed in most of the principal towns in Italy. informed them. and that they should be compelled to return to their original form of devotion. and those of several other convents. Molinos was closely confined by the Inquisition. After this a strict inquiry was made into all the nunneries of Rome. their answer was that their directors had advised them so to do. but bound to appear whenever they should be called upon. they sent orders that all books written in the same strain with those of Molinos and Petrucci should be taken from them. instilled into them many abominable heresies. produced but little effect. and to oblige the spiritual guide to tread in the known paths. and to the prayer of quietness. and that it was impossible they should know it without his discovering the secret. and the chief promoters of it confined in a wretched dungeon. to take care that none of that sort should be suffered to have the direction of the nunneries. the inquisitors thought it most prudent to dismiss both her and her husband. and. they neglected all the exterior parts of religion. it was said. when most of their directors and confessors were discovered to be engaged in this new method. but he retorted on them. It was found that the Carmelites. This gave great uneasiness to the inquisitors. upwards of two hundred persons were put into the Inquisition. They were. for most of the Italian bishops were inclined to Molinos' method. Besides those already mentioned. to extirpate Quietism. both discharged. and that method of devotion which had passed in Italy as the most elevated to which mortals could aspire. among whom many were highly esteemed for their learning and piety.

and notwithstanding his arguments totally defeated the force of all. and a wax light in his hand. their leader. who had borne him the greatest respect.During these transactions. a chain was put round his body. and by the assiduity of the Jesuits. Though he had lived in the highest reputation in Rome for some years. he was at length brought again before the inquisitors to answer to a number of articles exhibited against him from his writings. When he left the court he was attended by a priest. On his arrival at the prison he entered the cell allotted for his confinement with great tranquillity. the severity of the punishments overpowered his strength. Molinos suffered great indignities from the officers of the Inquisition. he was several times tortured in the most cruel manner. and on taking leave of the priest. The death of Molinos struck such an impression on his followers that the greater part of them soon abjured his mode. and condemned to imprisonment for life. thus addressed him: "Adieu. were dismissed. until. who had been placed in the Inquisition. . yet he was found guilty of heresy. whether on my side. we shall meet again at the Day of Judgment. As soon as he appeared in court. father." During his confinement. Quietism was totally extirpated throughout the country. or on yours. being generally considered as one of the worst of heretics. and the only comfort he received was from being sometimes visited by Father Petrucci. he was now as much despised as he had been admired. The greater part of Molinos' followers. at length. and then it will appear on which side the truth is. After lying a considerable time in prison. when two friars read aloud the articles of accusation. but a harder fate awaited Molinos. having abjured his mode. and finished his existence. Molinos answered each with great steadiness and resolution.

Wickliffe had long held these religious friars in contempt for the laziness of their lives. and a learned monk published a spirited and plausible treatise. and proved that they were not only a reproach to religion. The pope menaced. which had many advocates. Wickliffe appealed to the pope. and first maintaining that freedom in religious controversy which astonished Europe. and that begging was of Gospel institution. The parliament resolved that King John had done an illegal thing. Oxford. and sometimes one party." was born about the year 1324. His parents designing him for the Church. who subsequently gave it against him from the following cause: Edward III. in the reign of Edward II. had been troublesome neighbors to the university. irritated at seeing so bad a cause so well defended. He published a treatise against able beggary. he removed to Merton College. About this time. and had now a fair opportunity of exposing them. The friars became very fond of a notion that Christ was a common beggar. The first thing which drew him into public notice. prevailed. confessor to Queen Philippi. which was then esteemed one of the most learned societies in Europe. and to seal the pure doctrines of the Gospel with their blood. denominated the "Morning Star of the Reformation. opposed the monk. had withdrawn the tribune. He unfolded a . whatever consequences might follow. and he was soon promoted to the mastership of Baliol College. The university began to consider him one of their first champions. the friars appealing to the pope. he determined to expose them. then king of England. where he established a warden and eleven scholars. but upon his demise. But not meeting with the advantages for study in that newly established house which he expected. His suit at Rome was immediately determined against him. was his defence of the university against the begging friars. Archbishop Islip founded Canterbury Hall. Edward called a parliament. in which he lashed the friars. Feuds were continually fomented. Among these. As there was a degree of flagrant injustice in the affair. Wickliffe was afterward elected to the chair of the divinity professor: and now fully convinced of the errors of the Romish Church. and did it in so masterly a way that he was considered no longer as unanswerable. To this wardenship Wickliffe was elected by the archbishop. and the vileness of its monastic agents. the other. Great Britain has the honor of taking the lead. to stem the time of papal corruption. and given up the rights of the nation. and advised the king not to submit. in Oxford. he was displaced by his successor. at so critical a period. who about this time. but also to human society. Of his extraction we have no certain account. bishop of Ely. which from the time of King John had been paid to the pope.CHAPTER VII .An Account of the Life and Persecutions of John Wickliffe It will not be inappropriate to devote a few pages of this work to a brief detail of the lives of some of those men who first stepped forward. The clergy now began to write in favor of the pope. Stephen Langham. about that period founded by Robert Eaglesfield. This doctrine they urged from the pulpit and wherever they had access. Among the earliest of these eminent persons was John Wickliffe This celebrated reformer. and sometimes. regardless of the bigoted power which opposed all reformation. Wickliffe. and nobody doubted but his opposition to the pope. sent him to Queen's College. from their settlement in Oxford in 1230. was the true cause of his being non-suited at Rome. In public lectures he lashed their vices and opposed their follies. and demonstrated that political and religious liberty are equally the growth of that favored island. that his disciples were beggars also. the scholars to the civil power.

Wickliffe's observant mind penetrated into the constitution and policy of Rome. the translation of the Bible into English. in the eleventh year of his age. The bishops. gained admittance to his bed chamber. but this was laughed at by our reformer. From the patronage of the duke of Lancaster. a gentleman of the court. when. and begged of him to retract. he so overawed the trial. however. accompanied by four of the most eminent citizens of Oxford. a contest arose between two popes. and was at enmity with the clergy. renewed their articles of accusation against him. and by his presence and that of Lord Percy. In this embassy. supported by the papal authority. This prince had very free notions of religion. in his lectures. Urban VI and Clement VII which was the lawful pope. insisted upon bringing Wickliffe to trial. The begging friars. his power began to decline. and the flames . but live to declare the evil deeds of the friars. On these he expatiated with all the keenness of argument. Wickliffe was seized with a violent disorder. He was the first who termed the pope Antichrist. and he was actually undergoing examination at Lambeth. At first he began to loosen the prejudices of the vulgar. they terminated the whole affair in a prohibition to Wickliffe. At this time the administration of affairs was in the hands of the duke of Lancaster. with the metaphysical disquisitions of the age. The question was submitted to the decision of Wickliffe. This was a favorable period for the exertion of Wicliffe's talents: he soon produced a tract against popery. the luxury. which it was feared might prove fatal. and awed by the command of Sir Lewis Clifford. and the enemies of Wickliffe. and in a long frieze gown. he published a tract. About the end of the year. he would turn to the pomp. proposed to apply a large sum. from the riotous behavior of the populace without. who.variety of abuses covered by the darkness of superstition." When Wickliffe recovered. The duke of Lancaster not obtaining to be the sole regent. This soon procured him the clamor of the clergy. going about barefoot. Their superstitions and deceptions were topics that he urged with energy of mind and logical precision. Afterward. than his enemies and the bishops began to persecute him with renewed vigor. and he returned more strongly than ever determined to expose its avarice and ambition. and they who were not able to purchase copies. Five bulls were despatched in consequence by the pope to the king and certain bishops. and compared them with the simplicity of primitive bishops. he determined to send the bishop of Bangor and Wickliffe to remonstrate against these abuses. and it was agreed that the pope should no longer dispose of any benefices belonging to the Church of England. wherein he showed the necessity of it. deprived him of his office. The duke of Lancaster was his friend in this persecution. that they should not proceed to any definitive sentence. collected for the use of the pope. "I shall not die. he mingled opinions in divinity apparently novel. not to preach those doctrines which were obnoxious to the pope. and trappings of the bishops. that the whole ended in disorder.and his tyranny. Wickliffe. he inveighed. surprised at the solemn message. against the pope-his usurpation-his infallibility-his pride-his avarice. and true vicegerent of God. but he was no sooner settled in his parish. procured transcripts of particular Gospels or Epistles. for his soul's sake. who. Having recovered his former situation. with the archbishop of Canterbury. well known by the name of John of Gaunt. but the regency and the people manifested a spirit of contempt at the haughty proceedings of the pontiff. Before this work appeared. and proceeded by slow advances. the unjust things he had asserted of their order. he set about a most important work. and with a stern countenance replied. The exactions of the court of Rome having become very burdensome. earl marshal of England. and the former at that time wanting money to oppose an expected invasion of the French. as he expected. Wickliffe received a good benefice. The zeal of the bishops to suppress the Scriptures greatly promoted its sale. taking advantage of the circumstance. preached more vehemently than before. In the year 1378. raised himself in his bed. From the pope. The usurpations of the court of Rome was a favorite topic. joined to logical reasoning. when Lollardy increased. After the death of Edward III his grandson Richard II succeeded. which was eagerly read by all sorts of people. to that purpose.

earth. This strange opinion was invented by Paschade Radbert. solicited by the archbishop. The court met at the appointed time. and turned him from earth to ashes. now made archbishop of Canterbury. in consequence of which order. But these and all others must know that. as he now does to fight and slay one another?' This severe piece drew upon him the resentment of Urban. The king. either from his banishment. were scattered. fire. but it will spring up and come out of dust and ashes. thinking thereby utterly to extinguish and abolish both the name and doctrine of Wickliffe forever. he was exempt from episcopal jurisdiction. He took up his pen once more. or from some other place where he was secretly kept. Immediately after this transaction. 1381. mercy and charity) a banner to lead us to slay Christian men. and being cited to appear before his former adversary. even in his declining years. and Wickliffe's opinions were so prevalent that it was said if you met two persons upon the road. as the university were determined to support their member. quietly departing this mortal life. which did please him being young. the university became a scene of tumult. when they had brought the Lord unto the grave. determined. as appeared right well in this man. Urban published a bull. Dr. to exert themselves in its cause. that. as a member of the university. Wickliffe returning within short space. that they would at least spare him until he was dead. The primate. which ashes they also took and threw into the river. which generally shared his fate. at least to sit in judgment upon his opinions. Wickliffe could now derive no support from the duke of Lancaster. Barton. slept in peace in the Lord. so there is no keeping down of verity. condemned Wickliffe's doctrines as heretical. and to take up arms against Clement and his adherents in defence of the holy see. where he was parson. It appeared that he was well aged before he departed. but the commons made the king revoke this act as illegal. calling together the heads of the university. Wickliffe is supposed to have retired from the storm. repaired to his parish of Lutterworth.' said he. and published a treatise on the subject. into an obscure part of the kingdom. granted a license to imprison the teacher of heresy. Wickliffe. yet it was in such a way that his enemies considered him as a person below their resentment. and though he lived some time. Wickliffe ventured a step further. thought to make him sure never to rise again. it was a common practice to fasten about the neck of the condemned heretic such of these scraps of Scripture as were found in his possession. and was likely to have involved him in greater troubles than he had before experienced. upon Silvester's day. at this time vice-chancellor of Oxford. the disputes between the two popes continued. and threatened their author with excommunication." Wickliffe had some cause to give them thanks. and water. and wrote against it with the greatest acrimony. he sheltered himself under the plea. for the love of two false priests. And so was he resolved into three elements. however. in the end of the year 1384. "and that the same thing pleased him in his old age. 'will the proud priest of Rome grant indulgences to mankind to live in peace and charity. in which he earnestly called upon all who had any regard for religion. for though . and asserted with amazing boldness. and also give him so long respite after his death. At this period. obtained letters from the king. others as heretical. and asks him boldly: 'How he durst make the token of Christ on the cross (which is the token of peace. and some they condemned as erroneous. William Courteney. who. forty-one years to rest in his sepulchre before they ungraved him. He was struck with the palsy. who had become a subject of the archbishop's determined malice. directing the head of the University of Oxford to search for all heresies and books published by Wickliffe. attacked this doctrine. The publication on this subject was immediately answered by Wickliffe. The seeds. however. This plea was admitted. and to oppress Christiandom worse than Christ and his apostles were oppressed by the Jews? 'When. A war. you might be sure that one was a Lollard. Not much unlike the example of the old Pharisees and sepulchre knights. but providentially he was delivered out of their hands. and affected the doctrine of transubstantiation.kindled. in which the name of religion was so vilely prostituted. and there. as there is no counsel against the Lord. He expostulated with the pope in a very free manner. in his lecture before the University of Oxford. roused Wickliffe's inclination.

with the fruit and success thereof.they dug up his body. yet the Word of God and the truth of his doctrine. burned his bones. . they could not burn. and drowned his ashes.

and. and to make a full and thorough reformation. were not so numerous in Bohemia. some zealous friends of the Gospel applied to Charles. The king. soon broke out again. Huss opposed the decree of the archbishop. he was removed to the university of Prague. who. Two things in particular they were permitted to do. not knowing how to proceed. His parents gave him the best education their circumstances would admit. against whom he inveighed with no small degree of asperity. accordingly banished every one who had been concerned in the application. and was after successively chosen pastor of the Church of Bethlehem. in the year 977. and almost the whole university united to propagate them. In 1398. however. to preach to any congregation. to obtain redress of the pope. and was remarkable for his diligence and application to study. to oblige the pope. to call an ecumenical Council. had so kindled the light of reformation. Being strongly attached to the doctrines of Wickliffe. which occasioned them to send two ministers and four lay-brothers to Rome. but the pontiff was so incensed at this affair that his only reply was. These two eminent reformers were condemned and executed at the instigation of the pope and his emissaries. By virtue of this bull. and his zealous friend and fellow martyr. their request was granted. In these stations he discharged his duties with great fidelity. which was in conformity with the doctrines of Wickliffe. sent to the pope for directions how to act. with some other . so conspicuous for his preaching. After some delay.D. The victims of persecution. king of Bohemia. and having acquired a tolerable knowledge of the classics at a private school. however. to have divine service performed in their own language.CHAPTER VIII . Huss commenced bachelor of divinity.An Account of the Persecutions in Bohemia Under the Papacy The Roman pontiffs having usurped a power over several churches were particularly severe on the Bohemians. a village in Bohemia. giving him commission to prevent the publishing of Wickliffe's doctrines in his province. In A. however. the archbishop condemned the writings of Wickliffe: he also proceeded against four doctors. until after the burning of John Huss and Jerome of Prague. His doctrines spread into Bohemia. and to give the cup to the laity in the Sacrament. Huss. as the reader will perceive by the following short sketches of their lives. finding the reformists daily increasing." The monarch. and became. at length. Jerome of Prague. 1375. for it stimulated the friends of those doctrines to greater zeal. that it was not likely he could long escape the notice of the pope and his adherents. obtained a bull from the pope.. for an inquiry into the abuses that had crept into the Church. The English reformist. The archbishop of Prague. that it began to illumine the darkest corners of popery and ignorance. in Prague. about the year 1380. with great spirit. but by none so particularly as John Huss. where he soon gave strong proofs of his mental powers. The disputes. issued a decree to suppress the further spreading of Wickliffe's writings: but this had an effect quite different to what he expected. who had not delivered up the copies of that divine. the succeeding popes exerting their whole power to impose on the minds of the Bohemians. Wickliffe. and their grievances redressed. at length. notwithstanding their privileges. and were well received by great numbers of people. Dr. viz. aiming to preserve their religious liberties. Persecution of John Huss John Huss was born at Hussenitz. laid a great number of additional restraints upon the religious liberties of the people. "Severely punish those rash and profane heretics. and dean and rector of the university. and the latter. and prohibited them.

of preaching both errors and heresies. rather than curiosity. the queen. on the part of the court of Rome. which they presented to the pope and the prelates of the Council. Three proctors appeared for Dr. in Germany. to encourage him. the cardinals. and. Paletz was afterwards joined by Michael de Cassis. But the cardinal declared Huss contumacious. The streets. protested against these proceedings.members of the university. but the pope replied he never granted any safe-conduct. as also that he would not suffer the kingdom of Bohemia to lie under the accusation of heresy. notwithstanding so severe a decree. the Council acted the part of inquisitors. his native place. Dr. came one Stephen Paletz. and drew up a set of articles against him. and an expulsion in consequence from his church in Prague. and extended the excommunication not only to Huss but to all his friends and followers. but without success. He wrote also many other books. In the month of November. They endeavored to excuse his absence. and was so greatly favored in Bohemia. and clergy. He wrote in defence of Wickliffe's book on the Trinity. Huss desired to be excused from a personal appearance. and it may be said that he passed through Germany in a kind of triumph. I now see my worst friends are in Bohemia. John Huss was summoned to appear at this Council. he immediately took logdings in a remote part of the city. that reading the books of Protestants could not be absolutely forbidden. When it was known that he was in the city he was immediately arrested. This violation of common law and justice was particularly noticed by one of Huss's friends. and excommunicated him accordingly. A short time after his arrival. a general Council was assembled at Constance. and. but the real motive was to crush the progress of the Reformation. and said they were ready to answer in his behalf. The affair being made known to the pope. and committed prisoner to a chamber in the palace. all of which were penned with a strength of argument that greatly facilitated the spreading of his doctrines. to cite John Huss to appear personally at the court of Rome. but permit them to preach the Gospel with freedom in their places of worship. who urged the imperial safe-conduct. the emperor sent him a safeconduct: the civilities. he granted a commission to Cardinal Colonna." As soon as Huss arrived at Constance. had brought together. He was ushered into the town with great acclamations. From this unjust sentence Huss appealed to a future Council. He could not help expressing his surprise at the treatment he received: "I thought (said he) I had been an outcast. of those corrupt times. both from the pulpit and with the pen. nor was he bound by that of the emperor. and the university. that King Winceslaus. were lined with people. and boldly declared against the vices of the pope. desired the pope to dispense with such an appearance. 1414. and even reverence. whom respect. While Huss was in confinement. where he continued to promulgate his new doctrine. Huss before Cardinal Colonna. and appointed four cardinals to examine the process: these commissioners confirmed the former sentence. in order. to answer the accusations laid against him. The proctors appealed to the pope. he retired to Hussenitz. The letters which he wrote at this time were very numerous. and entered an appeal from the sentence of the archbishop. These two declared themselves his accusers. and sometimes the very roads. for the sole purpose of determining a dispute then pending between three persons who contended for the papacy. who was employed by the clergy at Prague to manage the intended prosecution against him. the nobility. which Huss met with on his journey were beyond imagination. . and he compiled a treatise in which he maintained. as was pretended.

"My Lord Jesus Christ was bound with a harder chain than this for my sake. I say. At length his voice was interrupted by the severity of the flames. when our martyr sung a hymn with so loud and cheerful a voice that he was heard through all the cracklings of the combustibles. can know or judge the matter more justly." He then said to the executioner. (said Huss. the bishop said: "Now we commit thy soul unto the devil. "You are now going to burn a goose." If he were prophetic. who can better help the miserable and oppressed than He?" While John Huss. the nobility of Bohemia and Poland strongly interceded for Huss. Who is then a higher Judge than Christ? Who." When the chain was put about him at the stake. with great diligence. neither by any kind oof torment. and who had a swan for his arms. (Huss signifying goose in the Bohemian language:) but in a century you will have a swan which you can neither roast nor boil. degraded him. than that appeal which is made unto Christ. that to appeal is no other thing than in a cause of grief or wrong done by an inferior judge. he said: "My Lord Jesus Christ. who shone about a hundred years after. be it ever so ignominious? Truly I will do it. whether it was lawful for him to appeal unto Christ or no? Whereunto John Huss answered: "Verily I do affirm here before you all. In the meantime. he must have meant Martin Luther. the articles exhibited against him were read: they were upwards of forty in number. with a devout and sober countenance. "do commend into Thy hands. "No. neither by fire. Then." When it was set upon his head. John Huss's answer was this: "I did appeal unto the pope. When he was brought before the Council. which soon closed his existence." When John Huss had spoken these words. and the noise of the multitude. neither can He be deceived. put a paper miter on his head. why should not I then. again wear this light crown. "No. that the least remnant of that man should not be left upon the earth. they cast them into the river Rhine. and what I taught with my lips I now seal with my blood. to implore and require aid at a higher Judge's hand. neither by water. with a smiling countenance." said John Huss. did wear a crown of thorns. on which was painted devils. was speaking and pronouncing those words. which orders were strictly complied with.They condemned the doctrines of Wickliffe. cannot be abolished out of the minds of the godly. it was demanded of him whether he had received absolution of the pope or no? He answered. and even ordered his remains to be dug up and burned to ashes. forasmuch as the law doth determine. "A ringleader of heretics. he said. and why then should I be ashamed of this rusty one?" When the fagots were piled up to his very neck." Which when he saw. who being dead. The flames were now applied to the fagots. I appealed unto the high judge Christ. Accordingly. with this inscription. the bishops appointed by the Council stripped him of his priestly garments. and tended to inflame his adversaries. and that willingly. and chiefly extracted from his writings. or with more equity? when in Him there is found no deceit.) I never preached any doctrine of an evil tendency. for my sake. lifting his eyes towards the heaven. These excellent sentences were esteemed as so many expressions of treason. and so far prevailed as to prevent his being condemned unheard. that there is no more just or effectual appeal. which had been resolved on by the commissioners appointed to try him. he was derided and mocked by all the whole Council. I appealed likewise unto his successor John XXIII: before whom when. by the space of two years. whose memory. O Lord Jesus Christ! my spirit which Thou has redeemed. gathering the ashes together. notwithstanding. the duke of Bavaria was so officious as to desire him to abjure. I could not be admitted by my advocates to defend my cause." "But I. or. Persecution of Jerome of Prague . and the cause of my matter remaining undetermined. for His sake." Then again.

and that Huss was the principal promoter of them. The higher your character is for wisdom. he professed himself an open favorer of Wickliffe. You have swallowed the blackest calumnies against me. who led Jerome in fetters by a long chain. an imperial town. wrote to the Council for directions how to proceed. There is not a misery. as an enemy of the faith. particularly the universities of Paris. The duke of Sultsbach. before you knew what faith I professed: as a persecutor of priests before you could have an opportunity of understanding my sentiments on that head. On his return to Prague. Huss. he thought it most prudent to retire. though unauthorized so to act. He likewise visited several other learned seminaries in Europe. himself riding on horseback. He was seized at Hirsaw by an officer belonging to the duke of Sultsbach. From this place he wrote to the emperor. and finding that his doctrines had made considerable progress in Bohemia. and shifted from one prison to another. made himself master of the English tongue. then at Constance. Jerome. and may be said to be a co-martyr with him. about a mile from Constance. after expressing their obligations to the duke. and sanctity: but still you are men. and that the Council intended to seize him. did not thus escape. who. that I have not experienced. Heidelburg. You have represented me as a heretic. The cause I now plead is not my own cause: it is the cause of men. however the experiment is to be made in my person. was easily convinced he could not be of any service to his friends. he became an assistant to him in the great work of reformation. To my enemies you have allowed the fullest scope of accusation: to me you deny the least opportunity of defence. with great pains. only that he was much longer confined. made little doubt of obtaining thanks from the Council for so acceptable a service. the greater ought your care to be not to deviate into folly. At the latter place he became acquainted with the works of Wickliffe. wisdom. The elector palatine met him on the way. desired him to send the prisoner immediately to Constance. You are a General Council: in you center all this world can communicate of gravity. there is not a want. Cologne and Oxford." . signed by several of the Bohemian nobility. testifying that he had used all prudent means in his power to procure a hearing. he desired that he might plead his own cause. having Jerome now in his power. Accordingly. whom he found there. and educated in that university. if he would give him a safe-conduct. he broke out into the following exclamation: "What barbarity is this! For three hundred and forty days have I been confined in a variety of prisons. He then applied to the Council. and consulting with some of the leaders of his party. Finding that his arrival in Constance was publicly known. it is the cause of Christians. the next day he went to Iberling. Not an hour will you now indulge me in preparing for my trial. Jerome arrived at Constance. At length. however. it is a cause which is to affect the rights of posterity. he set out on his return to Bohemia. and exculpate himself: which being refused him. without knowing my doctrine. who was the companion of Dr. about three months before the death of Huss. where he particularly distinguished himself for his great abilities and learning. On the fourth of April. The Council. and men are seducible by appearances.This reformer. having. After this. being brought before the Council. He had the precaution to take with him a certificate. Jerome was treated nearly in the same manner as Huss had been. was born at Prague. but this was refused. He entered the town privately. he translated many of them into his native language. and proposed his readiness to appear before the Council. with a numerous retinue. 1415. and immediately on his arrival he was committed to a loathsome dungeon. and conducted him into the city. and being a person of uncommon application. but met with an answer no less unfavorable than that from the emperor.

He then touched upon the most defensible doctrines of Wickliffe. that it was only against the abuse of the clergy he complained. and kindle it before my eyes. signifying one-eyed. A hater of the Christian religion. The most bigoted of the assembly were unwilling he should be heard. it was certainly impious that the patrimony of the Church. The trial of Jerome was brought on the third day after his accusation and witnesses were examined in support of the charge. which he began in such an exalted strain of moving elocution that the heart of obdurate zeal was seen to melt. which was the same where Huss had been burnt. and as supported by malice and calumny. 5. and a zealous but liberal Catholic. They had prepared a cap of paper painted with red devils. I had not come to this place. He observed that the greatest and most holy men had been known to differ in points of speculation. secretary to two popes. "This soul in flames I offer Christ. and almost starved for want of common necessaries. which appears almost incredible. should be prostituted to the pride of the eye. and that he could not help saying. to Thee. An enemy to the cardinals. "Our Lord Jesus Christ. He expressed a noble contempt of all his enemies. He entered upon a high encomium of Huss. In going to the place of execution he sang several hymns. for if I had been afraid of it. Jerome was resolved to seal the doctrine with his blood. He laid before the assembly the whole tenor of his life and conduct. In consequence of this." Two days were allowed him in hopes that he would recant. he had not to undergo the ceremony of degradation. A prodigious man! Persecution of Zisca The real name of this zealous servant of Christ was John de Trocznow. and other reproaches to the name and profession of Christianity. however. who would have induced him to retract the cause of virtue and truth. he was. He made an admirable distinction between evidence as resting upon facts. and he suffered death with the most distinguished magnanimity. bore ample testimony of the extraordinary powers and virtues of Jerome whom he emphatically styles. and when they went behind him to set fire to the fagots. and when he came to the spot. and concluded with observing that it was far from his intention to advance anything against the state of the Church of God. it was carried by the majority that he should have liberty to proceed in his defence. but was soon interrupted by the flames. knowing what effect eloquence is apt to have on the minds of the most prejudiced. 3. he sang a hymn. as he had lost an eye. when we consider he had been three hundred and forty days shut up in loathsome prisons. foppish vestments. not to keep it concealed. in which time the cardinal of Florence used his utmost endeavors to bring him over. which was originally intended for the purpose of charity and universal benevolence. Jerome received the same sentence that had been passed upon his martyred countryman. in feasts.This speech had not the least effect." The elegant Pogge. which was reduced under the following heads: 1. in the usual style of popish affectation. and declared he was ready to follow him in the glorious task of martyrdom. 4. he said. in a letter to Leonard Arotin. The prisoner was prepared for his defence. 2. A persecutor of the prelates. and the last words he was heard to say these. He embraced the stake with great cheerfulness. when He suffered death for me a most miserable sinner. with a view to distinguish truth. and for His sake will I wear this cap. deprived of daylight. "Come here. He was a native of Bohemia. But his spirit soared above these disadvantages. An opposer of the pope. and prayed fervently. The trial being over. did wear a crown of thorns upon His head. of a good family and left the court of . Jerome was obliged to hear the charge read. nor was he more at a loss of quotations from the fathers and ancient authors than if he had been furnished with the finest library. under which a man less animated would have sunk. a learned gentleman of Florence." The fire being kindled. That he was a derider of the papal dignity. he said. that of Zisca is a Bohemian word. he knelt down. delivered over to the civil power: but as he was a layman. which being put upon his head. and the mind of superstition seemed to admit a ray of conviction. At length. But they all proved ineffectual.

Our general had now leisure to attend to the work of reformation. and draw his men into action. he returned to the court of Winceslaus. and laid siege to Pilsen with 40. and want began to threaten the emperor. to whom he boldly avowed the deep interest he took in the bloody affront offered to his majesty's subjects at Constance in the affair of Huss. They soon became masters of the fortress. which he strongly fortified. immediately flew to arms. The emperor. they were defeated. by destroying all the monasteries in his way. that he found he must either abandon the siege or defeat his enemy. when many of his troops departed until the return of spring. Winter approaching. and while pointing out the place for an assault. who rendered themselves contemptible in the eyes of the whole army. Winceslaus was succeeded by Sigismond. his brother. Sigismond attacked the fortified camp of Zisca on Mount Tabor. Zisca and his friends. and Zisca withdrew to a craggy hill. Zisca commenced the campaign. and this important fortress was taken. was defeated with dreadful slaughter. In one of these expeditions. but at the approach merely of the Bohemian general. and withdrew his troops from the confines of Turkey. but still desirous of attending the army. He laid siege to the castle of Wisgrade. conducted by Zisca. At Berne in Moravia. and on August 19. and the emperor coming to relieve it. and in the summer of that year a general meeting was held of the friends of religious reformation. the emperor became alarmed. Zisca fortified his camp on a strong hill about forty miles from Prague. harassed in his rear by the enemy. as a preliminary to which Zisca gave up Pilsen and all the fortresses he had taken. resolved. which greatly increased the army of the reformers. He was now totally blind. and sent despatches to treat of peace. defeated the small army the emperor had hastily got together to oppose him. at the castle of Wisgrade. Many other fortresses also fell. Determined to make a desperate effort. and destroyed the town with a barbarity that disgraced the cause in which he fought. he would spread alarm in order to divert them. A fever succeeded. an arrow shot from the wall struck him in the eye. they retreated. The marquis of Misnia was deputed to effect this with a large body of troops. retreated from the siege of Prague. and removed all such as were obnoxious to his government. it tore the eye out with it. The confederate princes undertook the siege of Soisin. repaired to the emperor with arms in their hands. as before. Shortly after. In the year 1418. he encamped before the town of Rubi. the emperor obtained possession of the strong fortress of Prague. with their assistance. who rendered himself odious to the reformers. the Council was dissolved. and in a short time all the southwest part of Bohemia submitted. and whence he so annoyed the emperor in his approaches against the town of Prague. by the same means Zisca had before done: it was blockaded by the latter. to enter into the service of the king of Poland against the Teutonic knights. at the close of the war. Winceslaus lamented it was not in his power to revenge it. but he was much disgusted with the gross ignorance and superstition of the Bohemian clergy. and made a thousand men prisoners. The latter having taken the pass of Muldaw. declared war against the emperor and the pope.000 men. and treating some of the authors of the late disturbances with severity. whence he surprised a body of horse at midnight. but. consisting of 15. The king bid them use their arms properly. to march them into Bohemia. but the event was fatal to the imperialists. 1420. who saw the necessity of a retreat. Zisca took the castle of Prague by the power of money. to attack Zisca in the winter. Sigismond nevertheless advanced with his formidable army.000 Hungarian . When he saw any symptoms of uneasiness in the camp. upon this. and the emperor having lost nearly one third of his army. In the spring of 1421. Having obtained a badge of honor and a purse of ducats for his gallantry. and this stroke of policy first insured to Zisca the confidence of his party. who. and offered to defend him against his enemies. and carried it with great slaughter. fell into a snare.Winceslaus. that no faith was to be kept with heretics. after a severe conflict of five days and nights. and from this moment Zisca is said to have formed the idea of asserting the religious liberties of his country. having summoned the states of the empire to assist him. the alarm-bell of revolt was sounded from one end of Bohemia to the other. he halted. He next took Ausea by assault. being barbed. Sigismond proceeding in a manner that clearly manifested he acted on the Roman doctrine. having done more mischief than good. which he called Mount Tabor. and his life was with difficulty preserved. At Prague it was extracted.

he forbid all the prayers for the dead. The extent of the plain was one continued scene of disorder. well equipped for a winter campaign. Compelled to pass through a part of the country where the plague raged. Like Moses. The river Igla. The marquis flew to its relief with a superior army. and festivals. The ice gave way. the emperor proposed to enter Moravia. In everything Zisca consulted the liberal minded. the latter became reconciled. the magistrates laid their keys at his feet. according to their merits in his cause. until. While the marquis of Misnia penetrated into Upper Saxony. Wherever Sigismond marched. and the intended hostilities were done away. however. or receivers of the Sacraments in both kinds. hoping his presence would quell any uneasiness that might remain after the late disturbance: but he was suddenly attacked by the people. in which Sigismond resolved to make his last effort. the persecution was extremely severe. armed with a pole-axe. requesting him to sheath his sword. After the death of Huss and Jerome. and he and his troop having beaten off the citizens. Zisca. was totally defeated and Aussig capitulated.000 infantry. at . His troops having sung a hymn. he waved his sabre round his head. 1422. which was the sign of battle. Priests were to be preferred according to their merits. and at night. many of the infantry and in a manner the whole body of the cavalry. Zisca now began again to pay attention to the Reformation. and was buried in the great Church of Czaslow. ordered the Roman clergy everywhere to excommunicate such as adopted their opinions. October 6. or rather conducted. Zisca sat down before the strong town of Aussig. in a private interview between Roquesan. whom he acquainted with the treacherous conduct of the Calixtans. sacerdotal vestments. Zisca then went to the assistance of Procop. and. attempted the river. on the side of Hungary. At Prague. and put to death. enraged. Every effort of address was necessary to appease their vengeful animosity. The populace. he died in view of the completion of his labors. after laying eight weeks before it. and no one to be persecuted for religious opinions. or commiserated their fate. effected a retreat to his army.horse and 25. On the thirteenth of January. he was seized with it at the castle of Briscaw. in despite of the pope. Sigismond sent to Zisca. where a monument is erected to his memory. These orders occasioned great contentions between the papists and reformed Bohemians. and prepared for the next campaign. Zisca now returned to Tabor. An alarming disagreement now arose at Prague between the magistrates who were Calixtans. but this he nobly refused. having defended his country against the encroachments of papal tyranny. and whom he compelled to abandon the siege of Pernitz. the two armies met on a spacious plain near Kremnitz. and fell with the liberties of his country. an ecclesiastic of great eminence in Prague. rests in this hallowed place. approached. then frozen opposed their flight. Zisca was solicited to assume the crown of Bohemia. after an obstinate engagement. The Calixtans having sunk into contempt. who. galling their rear. and did nothing without general concurrence. Zisca. which was the cause of a violent persecution against the latter. the Taborites. nine of the chiefs of whom were privately arraigned. Before the marquis had taken the field. guarded. and the affair terminated without any particular consequence. The imperial army fled towards the confines of Moravia. A place of congress being appointed. and name his conditions. sacrificed the magistrates." After the death of Zisca. and the Taborites. in Bohemia. fasts. a young general whom he had appointed to keep Sigismond in check. and the emperor resolved to try his fortune once more with that invincible chief. now entered Prague. in conjunction with the Council of Constance. This army spread terror through all the east of Bohemia. Zisca appeared in the center of his front line. 1424. Zisca. and Zisca. with speedy marches. set out to meet the emperor. without intermission. When his officers had informed him that the ranks were all well closed. Procop was defeated. Mutually tired of the war. and were treated with severity or favor. with this inscription on it-"Here lies John Zisca. and not fewer than two thousand were swallowed up in the water. and departed this life. by a horseman on each side. with his chief officers. and waited for a signal. the pope. willing to give his troops some respite from fatigue. images. situated on the Elbe. This battle is described as a most awful sight. with a determined coolness drew their swords. laden with all the spoils and trophies which the most complete victory could give. The enemy pressing furiously.

have a much worthier husband?" "No. for several popish princes undertook the extirpation. they mutually comforted each other. and publicly excommunicated the reformed Bohemians. when. with the speaker. her husband. and there burnt. and threw twelve senators. the pope came to Florence." Pichel. happened to lodge in the same inn with several priests. the priest ordered the executioner to proceed. "Lose no time in hopes of my recantation. full remission of all sins whatever. of the proscribed people. by way of encouragement. I sincerely pity that poor wretch. and he was set at liberty. a great concourse of people attended. and always to be attended by a body of troops. Pichel. and all kings. among whom was his daughter's husband. Soon after his imprisonment. and personal affection for. should alone employ my whole consideration. prepared to repel force by force. upon the plan of the Inquisition. sir. arming themselves. the reformed being driven to desperation. the student appeared quite terrified. your expectations will be vain. and turn Roman Catholic if he might be saved. apprehended twenty-four Protestants. or however his opinions may differ from yours. but he remained steadfast to the pure doctrines of the reformed Church. princes. that the reformers were to remove from place to place. he nobly said. and. in Silesia. The offer was accepted. and several hundreds were cruelly thrown into each. by which they were to be dragged through the streets. and in the most pathetic manner. instituted a high court of reformers. to take up arms. child. A merchant of Prague. out of the senate-house windows. dukes. The obdurate magistrate sternly replied. This worthy wife threw herself at her father's feet. and ordered the prisoners to be tied with their hands and feet behind them. "Whatever his faults may be. he is a heretic. whose bodies fell upon spears.. and he was committed to prison as a heretic. exciting the emperor of Germany. etc. I glory in the very thoughts of dying for the sake of Christ. the young lady watched her opportunity. The emperor Ferdinand. On the day appointed for execution. to the most wicked person. and of an inviolable attachment to. or at least expulsion. in the most vigorous and effectual manner. at a time like this. whose hatred to the Bohemian Protestants was without bounds." To which she nobly answered. leaped into the waves. Being informed of these proceedings. armed themselves. "Intercede not for him. The popish army prevailing against the Protestant forces at the battle of Cuttenburgh. however. laid an information against him the next morning. a student of the university was committed to the same jail. and in that manner be thrown into the river. to receive them. bedewed them with tears. Many endeavors were used to persuade him to embrace the Roman Catholic faith. a vile heretic. he indiscriminately condemned them to be drowned in the river Abbis. in order to extirpate the whole race. and pardon her husband. The priests taking umbrage at this. being permitted to converse with the merchant. he passed many encomiums upon the martyred John Huss. among whom was Pichel's daughter. attacked the senate-house. (replied she) my affections are fixed upon this. As soon as this was put into execution. continued inflexible." Pichel flew into a violent passion and said." On hearing these words. and promising. his abjuration was taken by a priest. and the Bohemians. the prisoners of the reformed were taken to three deep mines near that town. and embracing the body of her husband. . and offered to abjure his faith. with this difference. so far from having the least idea of following his example. "You are mad! cannot you. if he did but kill one Bohemian Protestant. and his doctrines. and death itself shall not dissolve my marriage vow. On the day appointed for the execution. a name which. he is still my husband. An uncommon instance of conjugal love in a wife. Entering into conversation upon the subject of religious controversy. where they miserably perished. not thinking he had sufficiently oppressed them. a bigoted popish magistrate. As they all owned they were of the reformed religion. and the merchant being drawn through the city was brought to the place of execution. This occasioned a bloody war. after the death of this. which were held up by others of the reformed in the street. who has miserably sacrificed his soul for a few more uncertain years of a troublesome life.length. A priest applying to the merchant to follow the example of the student. going to Breslau. implored him to commisserate her sorrow. when the jailer began to fasten ropes to their feet. both sank together into one watery grave.

during a whole day's entertainment. fled from the place. trying to exhaust his patience. He was beat with cudgels. and they filled a young man's mouth with gunpowder. They made him run the gauntlet between two ranks of them. The winter being far advanced. buried him in the ditch. and secreted themselves. thought proper . they scorched him in various parts of his body. They hung him by the right arm until it was dislocated. His nose was slit. During the whole of these horrid cruelties. and beat him most unmercifully with cudgels. They scourged him with wires. as he was preaching in his pulpit. etc. and then tortured him to death. and from their decision. Burning papers dipped in oil were placed between his fingers and toes. A nobleman and clergyman. He was beat with their fists. that it was a dreadful tribunal indeed. when. and made him the subject of their derision and mockery. hearing of the approach of the high court of reformers and the troops. in the following manner. He was hunted like a wild beast. and soon removed those stones. He was put to the rack. The soldiers gave ear to this with pleasure. and pinched him in most parts of his body. and progressive. "Beneath these stones are the treasures ye seek for. to gain a respite from his torments. and the schoolmaster led them to a ditch full of stones. A slit was made in his right ear." Eager after money. they went to work. They made several incisions in his flesh. A knotted cord was twisted about his forehead in such a manner as to force out his eyes. and then had it set again. he promised to show them where the treasures were hid. until the blood started out of his nose. mouth. They placed him amidst them. This bloody court. for he bore the whole with true Christian fortitude. seized upon a schoolmaster. They pulled off the toe nails of his right foot. and tormenting him daily for a month together. and not to injure him mortally until the last day. They tied him up by the heels with his head downwards. As their principal rage was directed against the clergy. and soon after shot a third. but not finding what they sought after.These reformers consisted chiefly of Jesuits. the next day they robbed and murdered another. The same was repeated with his left arm. until ready to expire with fatigue. suffering the soldiers to murder the Protestants as they pleased. on their arrival. They spit in his face. blew his head to pieces. The same repeated with his left hand. The first victim of their cruelty was an aged minister. by which it may be easily conjectured. Boiling lead was poured upon his fingers. the high court of reformers. He was beat with ropes. and then to make a report of the matter to them afterward. and covered him with the very stones he had made them remove. asked him where the lord of that place and the minister were concealed. however. when the forcing out of his eyes proved his death. Innumerable were the other murders and depredations committed by those unfeeling brutes. Another minister they hung upon a cross beam. pulled his nose. A minister and his wife they tied back to back and burnt. Some of the soldiers ravished the daughters of a worthy Protestant before his face. they beat the schoolmaster to death. systematic. but in vain. with their infernal band of military ruffians. saying. The same was repeated with his toes. made the tour of Bohemia. making their cruelty regular. They whipped him through the town upon an ass. and setting fire to it. A gentleman they hacked into small pieces. there was no appeal. They pulled off the nails of his right hand. The teeth of his upper jaw were pulled out. The same repeated on his left ear. This cruelty not extorting any confession from him. and making a fire under him. He was tied up by the loins. The schoolmaster replied that he could not answer either of the questions. broiled him to death. The soldiers. The same they repeated with his left foot. and where they had hidden their treasures. His flesh was torn with red-hot pincers. in which they seldom examined or saw a prisoner. whom they killed as he lay sick in his bed. The same was repeated with his lower jaw. particular care was taken that his wounds should not mortify. and shocking to humanity were the cruelties which they inflicted on the poor Bohemian Protestants. however. who resided in a Protestant village. they took a pious Protestant minister. attended by a body of troops. and suspended for a considerable time. He was bastinadoed on his feet. bound him with cords. each striking him with a twig. They then stripped him naked.

who were executed in the following order. or friars. and hospitality. or acknowledge they had been in error. which so exasperated one of the noblemen. and alternately to cover him with ice and burning coals. to see the exit of these devoted martyrs. and brought from the places where they were taken. were informed they might send for Jesuits. formerly I have faced him in fields of battle to oppose Antichrist. These. his property seized. Lord Viscount Winceslaus. These examinants asked a great number of unnecessary and impertinent questions. who had been apprehended." Having said a short prayer. as marks of public ignominy. was equally respectable for learning. were apprehended in one night. they could not resist the temptation of feasting their barbarous eyes with a new kind of cruelty. and his quarters distributed in different parts of the city. and in nominating Frederic elector Palatine of the Rhine. and imprisonment during pleasure. attendants. "The Lord hath given. imprisonment for life. for the sake of Christ." Being asked why he could engage in so dangerous a cause as that of attempting . On the morning of the day appointed for the execution. and their names fixed upon a gallows. His temper was so remarkably patient that when his house was broken open. for apprehending all noblemen and gentlemen. saying. and a body of troops were drawn up to attend the tragic scene. This was to strip the minister naked. "The loss of a sepulchre is but a trifling consideration. When that monarch had read their names. which seemed to delight his inhuman persecutors. death. he only said. he told the executioner he was ready. piety. you shall find nothing but the love of religion and liberty. meeting with a Protestant pastor. This proposal they rejected." A gentleman who stood by. The prisoners left the castle with as much cheerfulness as if they had been going to an agreeable entertainment.. but in a different manner. but that no Protestants should be permitted to come near them. in which scaffolds were erected. and the estates of those who were absent from the kingdom were confiscated. priests. The high court of reformers then proceeded to try the fifty. Exclusive of soldiers. themselves were made outlaws. he passed judgment on all. and the unhappy victim expired beneath the torments. a prodigious concourse of people attended. who was naturally of a warm temper. but the sentence was referred to the emperor. monks. "Cut here. and two apostate Protestants were appointed to examine them. to the castle of Prague. Jesuits. instead of a violent death. Twenty being ordered for execution. with great composure." As none of the prisoners would change their religion. which had just suggested itself to the diabolical imagination of one of the soldiers. search my heart. This novel mode of tormenting a fellow creature was immediately put into practice. they were all pronounced guilty. His hand and his head were placed upon the high tower of Prague. He cut off his right hand and his head. viz. etc. opening his breast at the same time. and his parts scattered in different places. and strove all they could to comfort and cheer each other upon the solemn occasion. that he exclaimed. which is sufficient to inspire any one with courage: the fear of death does not trouble me. to be king of Bohemia. Lord Schilik was about fifty years of age. A secret order was soon after issued by the emperor. and an account of the respective accusations against them. as his sentences were of four kinds. who had been principally concerned in supporting the Protestant cause. he smiled with great serenity. and for those I am willing to suffer death. and at one hour. and his estates confiscated. to the number of fifty. who had attained the age of seventy years. crying. but on their way. "Courage. and the Lord hath taken away. "I have God's favor.to return to Prague. When he was told he was to be quartered. and was possessed of great natural and acquired abilities. and then quartered him. to prepare for the awful change they were to undergo. a cannon was fired as a signal to bring the prisoners from the castle to the principal market place. those were the motives for which I drew my sword. and now dare face him on a scaffold. executioners. banishment. my lord!" he replied.

great piety. "I was. therefore. seemed to recover his fortitude. as I die innocent. for God will be my avenger. but if you will kill my body. for God reserved me until these years to be a spectacle to the world. and with a clear conscience. a few minutes since. that if he would only ask pardon. kneeled down." The executioner put this nobleman to considerable pain. "Venerable hairs. and growing calm. The earl of Rugenia was distinguished for his superior abilities. my blessed Redeemer. as king of Bohemia. whom I have frequently offended. but not of the emperor. and to keep our consciences sacred: as we were overcome. God be praised for affording me such comfort." He then went boldly to the block. to this day. I have escaped innumerable perils both by sea and land. his being a Protestant. Almighty God! forgive them. Lord Henry Otto. yet never found so much cruelty as at home. when he first came upon the scaffold. elector Palatine of the Rhine. in Thee have I always trusted. denied the authority of the emperor in that country. who hath often entreated God to take him out of this wicked world. and exclaimed with great energy. saying. but could not until now obtain his desire." He then went to the block." and received the crown of martyrdom with great courage. he would immediately receive it. and unaffected piety. and said. forgave the enemies who caused his death. deem him my king. grey beard. he addressed the principal officer thus: "Behold a miserable ancient man. No. it was severed from his body at one stroke. that I may not be a witness of the further evils which are to attend my country. "We who drew our swords fought only to preserve the liberties of the people. and having taken an oath of allegiance to Frederic. therefore God's will be done. and Africa. seemed greatly confounded. and a promoter of the late war." Then laying down his head." Then approaching the block. to suffer innocently in my native place. O Lord! I commend my spirit. and having walked about for some time. When he came to the place of execution. Asia." He then was silent. than if the emperor had given me life. and only said he wished well to the friends whom he left behind. he met his fate with serenity. "I acted strictly according to the dictates of my conscience. and traversed various barbarous nations. I am better pleased at the sentence of death. they shall still rise up in judgment against you. and disperse my members. greatly discomposed." The fatal stroke was then given. "Thou tyrant Ferdinand. "Almighty God! to Thee I commend my soul. Hence he was free from national prejudices and had collected much knowledge. but." One of the officers told him. My blood is likewise sought by those for whom I. "Into Thy hands. for they know not what they do. he stroked his long. You have long thirsted for my blood. and much experience gained by travel. were. take it. not by our swords. The accusations against this nobleman. Lord Harant was a man of good sense. should I sue for pardon. it might be justly suspected I had committed some crime for which I deserved this condemnation. and. Lord Frederic de Bile suffered as a Protestant. he replied. by making several strokes before he severed the head from the body. but now I feel my spirits revive. "I have travelled through many countries. Sir Gaspar Kaplitz was eighty-six years of age. and wish to lay down life. On the scaffold he said. no. as if addressing himself to the emperor. he said. death no longer appears as the king of terrors. (exclaimed he) I will ask pardon of God. the greater honor now attends ye. and surmounted inconceivable difficulties. and placed upon a pole in a conspicuous part of the city. and admit it to the glory of Thy presence. said to a gentleman who stood near. a crown of martyrdom is your portion. with some asperity. I . When he came upon the scaffold he said. but by our blood. and a sacrifice to himself. and hoped for salvation in the merits of his blessed Redeemer." Kneeling before the block. to whom I never gave any offence. "I shall now be speedily with Christ. "Ask pardon. receive it for the sake of Christ. but seems to invite me to participate of some unknown joys. receive me. acknowledged Frederic to be the only true king of Bohemia. and a period put to the temporary pains of this life. I am now full of years. have hazarded our estates. in consideration of his great age. and my forefathers. your throne is established in blood. and said. as he had visited the principal places in Europe.to support the elector Palatine Frederic against the power of the emperor. for I find that it pleases God to have his truth defended.

and then patiently submitted to martyrdom. to die for His glory. "They may destroy my body. but in time he shall be judged. and the respective parts exposed on poles. at the same time uttering these words. and return to his former faith. He was perfectly resigned to his fate. look on me. for the second he was beheaded. and finished my course. and precision as greatly amazed those who knew his former deficiency in point of capacity. The officer taking notice of his agitation. energy. and will be accepted. I have fought the good fight. No person ever lived more respected or died more lamented than John Shultis." at which words his head was struck off at one blow. "As a dying man." Then taking a gold medal from his neck. if ever King Frederic is restored to the throne of Bohemia. an able student of physic. and receive my soul. he presented it to one of the officers. lest I sleep the sleep of death and lest mine enemies say we have prevailed. and his faculties to improve on death's approach. do your office. The only words he spoke. Tell him. he was quartered. I wore it until death." The executioner obeyed. "I hope my repentance is sincere. and we shall appear as witnesses against him. Christopher Chober. Just before he was beheaded. Jessenius. he cheerfully resigned his neck to the block. piety. pity me. Valentine Cockan. that I commend to my Redeemer". and of heresy in being a Protestant. "Lord. but he paid not the least attention to their exhortations. Dionysius Servius was brought up a Roman Catholic. so. executioner. was a person of considerable fortune and eminence. When upon the scaffold the Jesuits used their utmost endeavors to make him recant. perfectly pious and honest." Soon after he said. said. He accordingly. "I come in the name of God. "The righteous seem to die in the eyes of fools. but cannot injure my soul. Hostialick said. before receiving the fatal stroke. now lettest Thou Thy servant depart in peace. were. I request. and he instantly received the crown of martyrdom. many favors from God. as soon as he stepped upon the scaffold said. at the conclusion of which the executioner might do his duty." Maximilian Hostialick was famed for his learning. but they only go to rest. as if the impending danger refined the understanding. when He thinks proper to present it? Or rather. he expressed himself with such eloquence." He then cheerfully laid down his head and submitted to the fatal blow." He then told the officer he should repeat the Song of Simeon. For the first accusation he had his tongue cut out. for his sake. but of trifling abilities. "Ah! sir. Procopius Dorzecki on the scaffold said.would not be separated from this noble company of martyrs:" so saying. according to Thy word: For mine eyes have seen Thy salvation. I am come. When he first came on the scaffold. . and humanity. and for the third. and last. yet his imagination seemed to grow bright. he seemed exceedingly terrified at the approach of death. ought I not to rejoice that it is his will I should give up a corrupted life for that of immortality!" Dr. of treason in swearing allegiance to the elector Frederic. which was struck when the elector Frederic was crowned king of Bohemia. and that now I willingly lay down my life for God and my king. "We are now under the emperor's judgment. Kneeling down he said. now the sins of my youth crowd upon my mind. being at that time fifty-six years of age. but I hope God will enlighten me. during the whole course of my life. Tobias Steffick was remarkable for his affability and serenity of temper. "I have received. and a few minutes before his death spoke in this singular manner. pardon my sins. but had embraced the reformed religion for some years. Lord Jesus! Thou hast promised that those who come to Thee shall not be cast off. that you will give him this medal. in which case the blood of Christ will wash me from my crimes. was accused of having spoken disrespectful words of the emperor. Behold. ought I not therefore cheerfully to take one bitter cup.

if life should be offered to you on condition of apostasy. was ordered to be executed on a gallows. receiving the crown of martyrdom with great fortitude. "You take away our lives under a pretended charge of rebellion. glut yourselves with blood. sisters. and that he might be plundered of his treasures was the occasion of his being ranked in this illustrious list of martyrs. His great wealth. "Your superstitious faith I abhor." Nathaniel Wodnianskey was hanged for having supported the Protestant cause. was ordered to be hanged. had great hopes of life given him. saying." To which he replied." said Kutnaur. "Sir. and lending money to the elector Frederic. and reject such pernicious overtures. during his whole confinement. he said. "I die. and the election of Frederic to the crown of Bohemia. not for having committed any crime. and appeared impatient to be executed. and. and teach them to imitate that constancy of which I shall leave them an example. which alone can save and arm you against the terrors of death. "Embrace the Roman Catholic faith. and I wish for no other arms against the terrors of death than a good conscience." He had so sooner concluded these words than he was turned off. the Jesuits did all in their power to induce him to renounce his faith. saying. continued steadfast in his faith. . "If you will not adjure your heresy. but suspect me not. He went cheerfully to death. I entreat you to remember Christ. rather endeavor to confirm in their faith your brothers. "Every moment delays me from entering into the Kingdom of Christ. Just before he was turned off. "it is Christ that is the Rock. one of them said. and children. and met his fate with singular resignation." Simeon Sussickey was father-in-law to Kutnaur. but having acquired a fortune by a mechanical employment.When John Kutnaur came to the place of execution. not content with that. seemed to have been his principal crime. and said to his father. Winceslaus Gisbitzkey. to be exhorted to constancy by you. and like him. prayed fervently at the gallows. Finding their endeavors ineffectual. and be satisfied. which made his friends fear for the safety of his soul. seek to destroy our souls. and defending my country and religion." This person not being born independent." The Jesuit turned away." Wodnianskey's own son then approached the gallows. At the gallows. Martin Foster was an ancient cripple. the accusations against whom were. being charitable to heretics." To this the father replied." "You are mistaken. however. but for following the dictates of my own conscience. "The Protestants are impenetrable rocks. it leads to perdition. my son. He. and we are firmly fixed upon Him. but tamper not with our consciences. sarcastically. however. at least repent of your rebellion?" To which Wodnianskey replied. "It is very acceptable. a Jesuit said to him.

elector of Saxony. he has severely noted. 1483. at the expense of Frederic. and he took priest's orders. At Rome he saw the pope and the court. and the excitation of faith by force of prayer. as by the comfort he received in his spirit. where he went through the usual courses of logic and philosophy. and reverenced him highly. with continual invocation of God. superficial. and his occupation that of a miner. He made his profession in the monastery of Erfurt." By these words Luther was not only strengthened. saying. he withdrew himself from the world. and at the age of thirteen was sent to school at Magdeburg. had conference upon divers things. . As soon as he had adjusted the dispute which was the business of his journey. but was also instructed of the full meaning of St. His father's extraction and condition were originally but mean. and impious way of celebrating Mass. being then of the same order. as Luther. as well by the discourse of the old man. and other parts of philosophy. in Thuringia. he accidentally found a copy of the Latin Bible. This raised his curiosity to a high degree: he read it over very greedily. a town of Saxony. For this is the opinion of the apostle. was perfectly acquainted with his merit. he turned himself to the civil law. thy sins are forgiven thee. And so. by little and little. and was created doctor of divinity. In 1501 he was sent to the University of Erfurt. Afterward. November 10. there was a certain aged man in the convent of the Augustines with whom Luther. and retired into the order of the hermits of St. but was diverted from this pursuit by the following accident." And having read the expositions of many upon this place. a friar Augustine. for his great parts and learning. nothing was thought more likely to bring it into immediate repute and credit. however. where he remained four years. declaring that God's express commandment is that every man should particularly believe his sins to be forgiven him in Christ: and further said that this interpretation was confirmed by St.An Account of the Life and Persecutions of Martin Luther This illustrious German divine and reformer of the Church was the son of John Luther and Margaret Ziegler. ethics. especially touching remission of sins. for this university being just founded. and then lectured on Aristotle's physics. after he had been a novice one year.CHAPTER IX . he took a master's degree. that man is freely justified by faith. and thence to Eisenach. as he afterward became a magistrate of rank and dignity. and had an opportunity of observing also the manners of the clergy. "We are justified by faith. which he had read before. In 1512. In this University of Erfurt. he returned to Wittenberg. he then perceived. while a companion was killed by his side. it is probable. in the county of Mansfield. Luther was chosen to go to Rome to maintain their cause. Bernard: "This is the testimony that the Holy Ghost giveth thee in thy heart. Augustine and the schoolmen. Paul. without communicating his purpose to any of his friends. The year after. which article the said aged father opened unto Luther. When twenty. the vanity of those interpretations. reading and comparing the sayings and examples of the prophets and apostles. Thus continued he his study at Erfurt the space of four years in the convent of the Augustines. that. and celebrated his first Mass in 1507. he was struck by lightning so as to fall to the ground. and born at Isleben. Here he employed himself in reading St. at the instigation of his parents. producing the early indications of his future eminence. he was removed from the convent of Erfurt to the University of Wittenberg. he perceived that doctrine most evidently. that by his application and industry he improved the fortunes of his family. who had often heard him preach. than the authority and presence of a man so celebrated. and was amazed to find what a small portion of the Scriptures was rehearsed to the people. but in turning over the leaves of the library. with a view of advancing himself to the bar. of the schoolmen. Walking out into the fields one day. which he had never seen before. whose hasty. who repeateth so many times this sentence. and this affected him so sensibly. Augustine. Luther was early initiated into letters. seven convents of his order having a quarrel with their vicar-general.

in a letter dated August 5. in the judgment of all pious and prudent men. containing a set of propositions directly contrary to them. Luther. but Luther himself disowned having had any hand in that procedure. applied to Leo. and the Psalms. a dispute concerning "justification by faith". anathematized him from the pulpit. therefore. which he cleared up and illustrated in a manner so entirely new. therefore. at the same time. at the church next to the castle of that town. he thought he had the liberty either to approve or disapprove the opinions of St. which are not grounded upon any text. and begged him to forbid. and afterward communicated to Beatus Rhenanus. he employed himself in the business of his calling. and in this manner was he employed. Augustine. than Tetzel. which was. as professor of divinity. 1513. received and observed by the Church of Rome. being naturally warm and active. the Dominican friar. and he was at length accused to Leo X as a heretic. indeed. while the chapter was held. Here then he began in the most earnest manner to read lectures upon the sacred books: he explained the Epistle to the Romans. and sent him. which Bucer. and commissioner for selling them. therefore. in the beginning of which he challenged any one to oppose it either by writing or disputation. This admiration of his holy life much allured the hearts of his auditors. shining in the Church as the bright daylight after a long and dark night. in 1517. 1518. and burnt his thesis publicly at Frankfort. Peter's. and that we ought faithfully to embrace this bountiful gift. and . and it plainly appeared that his words were no lip-labor. Peter's at Rome. begun by Julius. expressly showed that sins are freely remitted for the love of the Son of God. who was present at. but still required very large sums to be finished. Luther's propositions about indulgences were no sooner published. but proceeded from the very heart. these useless. a new day to arise. was determined to declare against them at all adventures. the zeal of his adversaries grew every day more and more active against him. took down in writing. in 1517 published general indulgences throughout all Europe. in the most submissive terms. at Heidelberg. that "there seemed. Tetzel's thesis was also burnt. an explication of his propositions about indulgences. Thomas. The emperor Maximilian was equally solicitous. with the pope about putting a stop to the propagation of Luther's opinions in Saxony. These strange proceedings gave vast offence at Wittenberg. and in the present case unable to contain himself. Leo. and other schoolmen and canonists. though dissuaded from it by his friends. yet. Leo X who succeeded Julius II in March. and appointed persons in different countries to preach up these indulgences. after a long and dark night. that he did not pretend to advance or defend anything contrary to the Holy Scriptures. went to the monastery of St. and here maintained. In 1518. formed a design of building the magnificent Church of St. not without the highest commendations. rash. who. a thesis upon indulgences. In the meantime. when the general indulgences were published in 1517. Bonaventure. troublesome both to the Church and empire. as a most damnable heretic. 1518. April 26. he wrote a letter to that pope.He continued in the University of Wittenberg. wherein he declared. and to receive money for them. a thesis. This letter is dated on Trinity Sunday. in return. or to the canons and decretals of the popes: nevertheless." Luther diligently reduced the minds of men to the Son of God: as John the Baptist demonstrated the Lamb of God that took away the sins of the world. by the Lutherans at Wittenberg. or to the doctrine of the fathers. As soon as he returned therefore from Heidelberg. he had applied himself attentively to the Greek and Hebrew languages. by his authority. and particularly inflamed the pious zeal of Luther. His life was correspondent to his profession. where. Upon the eve of All-saints. and was accompanied with a protestation. he stirred up the clergy of his order against Luther. to show obedience to authority. He did more. in favor of those who contribute any sum to the building of St. maintained and published at Frankfort. and so different from what had been pursued by former commentators. even so Luther. Maximilian. The better to qualify himself for the task he had undertaken. he publicly fixed up.

as well adversaries as others. before his departure. upon an assurance of his safety. was now become not difficult to be attained. but more at enmity with each other's persons. But Luther was soon convinced that he had more to fear from the cardinal's power than from disputations of any kind. caused him at length to publish a formal condemnation of him. Luther. and finding himself protected by the elector. who had fallen a martyr in the work of reformation. In 1519. In the meantime Luther. withdrew from Augsburg upon the twentieth. and the commonalty. to solicit his condemnation. which was condemned by the bishop of Misnia. it may easily be conceived. therefore. where the said Luther. therefore. or to deny him his protection: but things were not now to be carried with so high a hand. that he might be heard before him. considering how these . As to Luther. and was crowned emperor. had orders to require the elector to oblige him to retract. dated June 15. which. and made the elector more able to determine Luther's fate. and carried with him letters from the elector. and he did so accordingly. Many great and learned men had joined themselves to him. the doctrine of Luther spread. sound. whose death greatly altered the face of affairs. to whom he had given power to decide it. barons. shortly after Easter speedeth his journey toward Worms. gentlemen. went into Germany. and who. Miltitius thought it best. well entertained. In the meantime. and answered his adversaries. Luther published a book. Charles V of Spain. a person eminent for his learning and eloquence.dangerous disputes. contrary to the expectation of many. the parties not the least nearer in opinion. knights of the order. While Luther was laboring to excuse himself to the new emperor and the bishops of Germany. after he had set things to rights in the Low Countries. and. But. and desired of Cardinal Cajetan. The elector was also against Luther's going to Rome. owning that the divinity which he taught was the pure. 1520. who had solicited it at Rome. About the end of this year. Upon these addresses. the emperor Maximilian happened to die upon the twelfth of this month. Martin Luther. to try what could be done by fair and gentle means. and to that end came to some conference with Luther. and also letters. He came. as soon as he understood what was transacting about him at Rome. was intrusted by the pope with the execution of it. he had a famous dispute at Leipsic with John Eccius. and published there by Eccius. Indeed the continual importunities of Luther's adversaries with Leo. the pope consented that the cause should be tried before Cardinal Cajetan. constantly stuck to the truth. He arrived here in October. His friends deliberated together. During all these treaties. as the pope's legate in Germany. Miltitius. the pope's chamberlain. The Bohemians about this time sent him a book of the celebrated John Huss. and prevailed greatly. and many persuaded him not to adventure himself to such a present danger. after he had been first accused at Rome upon Maunday Thursday by the pope's censure. used all imaginable means to prevent his being carried thither. priests. and orthodox divinity. assuring him also that he would strictly execute in the empire whatever his holiness should enjoin. he published a formal appeal to the pope. Eccius had gone to Rome. and visited by many earls. therefore. 1520. This was carried into Germany. and he himself received great encouragement at home and abroad. and. defended himself. together with Jerome Alexander. Luther's credit being too firmly established. Luther was lodged. But this dispute ended at length like all others. and sent a challenge to all the inquisitors to come and dispute with him. Besides. in which they exhorted him to constancy and perseverance. January 24. who frequented his lodging until night. was admitted into the cardinal's presence. set off immediately for Augsburg. 1518. continued to teach the same doctrines at Wittenberg. in which he contended for the Communion being celebrated in both kinds. apprehensive of being seized if he did not submit. in a bull. and to obtain a hearing of his cause in Germany. October the twenty-first at Aix-la-Chapelle. appearing before the emperor and all the states of Germany.

and submit thyself?" Martin Luther answered modestly and lowly. Ulm. Affairs were now in great confusion in Germany. which have erred many times. and the pope imprisoned. and another against the order falsely called "The Order of Bishops. answered in this wise: "As touching me. While the princes were thus employed in quarrelling with each other. Nuremberg. The troubles of Germany being not likely to have any end. during which Rome was twice taken. Luther persisted in carrying on the work of the Reformation. While the bull of Leo X executed by Charles V was thundering throughout the empire. to require the assistance of the princes of the empire against the Turks. and your honors. In 1527. this I say and profess as resolutely as I may. and yet not without some stoutness of stomach. for a quarrel arose between the pope and the emperor. Memmingen. abiding there. a schismatic. Strassburg. as by combating the Anabaptists and other fanatical sects. Fourteen cities. henceforward looked upon as a member separated from the Church. require a plain answer. the prolucutor began to repel him thus: "The Emperor's majesty requireth of thee a simple answer. viz. which had like to have put an end to his life. or revoke any part of them. Windsheim. in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. had sprung up and established themselves in several places. Luther was safely shut up in the castle of Wittenberg. where he abode until six o'clock. "I am tied by the Scriptures. and when they had diligently examined the same. without manifest arguments alleged to the contrary by his adversaries. yea. that if I be not convinced by testimonies of the Scriptures (for I believe not the pope. I am resolved and certainly determined to enter Worms. which was afterward corrected by himself and Melancthon. that he might make the people despise their authority as much as possible. besought them not to force or compel him to yield against his conscience. and Christian constancy. that I will not.. Wilt thout maintain all thy books which thou hast acknowledged. God have mercy upon me!" The princes consulted together upon this answer given by Luther. for that the princes were occupied in grave consultations. and Luther entered.beginnings answered not the faith of promise made. and an obstinate and notorious heretic." He published also a translation of the New Testament in the German tongue. Constance. he appeared publicly again at Wittenberg. in 1529. having taken the advantage of his contest with the Church of Rome. . since I am sent for. confirmed with the Holy Scriptures. Then after. and almost smothered for the press that was there. Hereupon I stand and rest: I have not what else to say. Luther now made open war with the pope and bishops. Eccius. and being environed with a great number of people. Luther was suddenly seized with a coagulation of the blood about the heart. Lindow. the emperor was forced to call a diet at Spires. spake in this manner: "Answer now to the Emperor's demand. nor may not revoke any manner of thing. the herald brought him from his lodging to the emperor's court. or no?" Then Luther. and decreed that Martin Luther be. and have been contrary to themselves). and they were not less so in Italy. Who. 1522. but weary at length of his retirement. and. whether thou mindest to defend all thy works as Christian. agreeably to the sentence of the pope. which was dated the eighth of May. after he had been absent about ten months. considering it is not godly or lawful to do anything against conscience. either negative or affirmative. neither his general Councils. the official. Retlingen. he wrote one book against the pope's bull." Before the Diet of Worms was dissolved. Charves V caused an edict to be drawn up. when the princes were set. when he had heard their whole persuasion and advice. without doubting or sophistication. my conscience is so bound and captivated in these Scriptures and the Word of God. which. March 6. turning to the emperor and the nobles. as well by opposing the papists. "Considering your sovereign majesty." The next day. although I knew there were as many devils to resist me as there are tiles to cover the houses in Worms.

"Because. that He gave His only begotten Son. He also published this year a book. Whom the wicked have persecuted. when he had any great business to undertake. however. to which Luther and Melancthon were called. but the deputies drew up an appeal. my health and my redemption. 1529. These were signed by a variety of princes. but died in February 18. In 1533. that there needed but such another entirely to overthrow it. dated at Bibliopolis. the Bible translated by him into German was first printed. which had set once or twice. will devise strange things against it. ." Feeling his fatal hour to approach. This was the famous protestation. and Luther had now nothing else to do. Draw my soul to Thee. the Protestant princes labored to make a firm league and enjoined the elector of Saxony and his allies to approve of what the Diet had done. in his sixty-third year. which gave the name of "Protestants" to the reformers in Germany. O God of Truth! 'God so loved the world." In February. At this meeting Luther was seized with so grievous an illness that there was no hope of his recovery. our Lord Jesus Christ. and returned again in safety. which was put into writing. and with injury afflicted. Luther wrote a consolatory epistle to the citizens of Oschatz. eternal and merciful God! Thou hast manifested unto me Thy dear Son. to compose some differences which had arisen about their boundaries. as also the apology. Nortlingen. but have life everlasting.Kempten. his innocent ghost peaceably was separated from the earthly body. I love Him as my life. under the elector's own hand. But soon after. he was called thither again by the earls of Manfelt. and the pope. I have known Him. I have taught Him." said he. who had suffered some hardships for adhering to the Augsburg confession of faith: and in 1534. So praying. accompanied by Melancthon. S. "Against Masses and the Consecration of Priests. he did not recover. in which he bequeathed his detestation of popery to his friends and brethren. before nine o'clock in the morning. and conducted in a very honorable manner. he paid a visit to his own country. he commended himself to God with this devout prayer: "My heavenly Father. Gal. joined against the decree of the Diet protestation. an assembly was held at Smalkald about matters of religion. 1537. that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish. but was at the same time so very ill that it was feared he would die. Of this. as the old privilege. Weissemburg. may be well esteemed a mighty work. Isny. where he was received by one hundred horsemen. and the Protestants afterwards presented an apology for their "Confession"-that famous confession which was drawn up by the temperate Melancthon. "the Council of Trent. Thou hast redeemed me. As he was carried along he made his will. shows. thrice: "I commend my spirit into Thy hands. maligned. which happened in 1546. That year. he admonished those that were about him to pray to God for the propagation of the Gospel. He said that these fits of sickness often came upon him. Hailbron." After this he said as ensueth. and published April. which he had not seen for many years. and it was published in the year after. In this manner was he employed until his death. A little before he expired.'" Having repeated oftentimes his prayers. or more. but to sit down and contemplate the mighty work he had finished: for that a single monk should be able to give the Church of Rome so rude a shock. After this. he was called to God.

Thus prompted and supported. who examined them by order of the magistracy. and the command given to the elector of Saxony. Those who were taken experienced the most cruel tortures that infernal imaginations could invent. the pope was so terrified at the success of that courageous reformer. in which the Protestants were defeated. and Italy. a formidable army was raised in Germany. in order to repel the impending blow. in the scheme to attempt their extirpation. to assist in carrying on hostilities against the Protestants. being apprehended as Protestants. a rock a bed of down. Priest. and a desperate engagement ensued. were brought to examination. and.General Persecutions in Germany The general persecutions in Germany were principally occasioned by the doctrines and ministry of Martin Luther. and concealment in a dismal wood pass for happiness. On account of her abominations. formed a powerful confederacy. How came you to quit the bosom of the Church at Rome? Voes. and by their constancy evinced that a real Christian can surmount every difficulty. the emperor undertook the extirpation of the Protestants. for this purpose. some years ago. • 4. He permitted the emperor to pledge the abbey lands for five hundred thousand crowns. and the eyes of all Europe were turned on the event of the war. Augustine friars? Voes. and wild roots delicacies. gave the following answers to some questions asked by a priest. He promised to maintain twelve thousand foot. Spain. or during a campaign. He gave the emperor two hundred thousand crowns in ready money. The imperial forces were commanded by the emperor of Germany in person. and the landgrave of Hesse. Charles V. and the elector of Saxony and the landgrave of Hesse both taken prisoners. Were you not both. A great army was raised. the severities of which were such that exile might be deemed a mild fate. answering for himself and the other. The Protestant princes. In what do you believe? . at any rate. for the space of six months. Henry Voes and John Esch. in the meantime. and despite every danger acquire a crown of martyrdom. and five thousand horse. In such times a cave is a palace. Yes. To this end • 1. This fatal blow was succeeded by a horrid persecution. He allowed the emperor to receive one half the revenues of the clergy of the empire during the war. indeed. • 3. At length the armies met. he was particularly enraged himself. Priest. Indeed. Voes. against whom. Priest.CHAPTER X . • 2. that he determined to engage the emperor.

"Think what a sting will remain on your conscience. heretics may go barefoot. Henry Sutphen. Priest. "Let me not be pestered with these men. entertained his supposed guest in a very cordial manner. friar. Middleburg being taken by storm all the Protestants were put to the sword. they led him to the market place that his crimes might be proclaimed. of the town of Schalet. an eloquent and pious preacher." The attendants themselves were so shocked after the civility they had seen. as was Leonard Keyser. as those who attended not content with what he suffered in the flames. Did not Martin Luther seduce you both? Voes. a pious divine. many indignities were offered him. and drowned." Then turning to the executioner. for thus violating the laws of hospitality. After this ceremony was over. I have confessed my sins to God. that is. and said these words in a low tone of voice. "As you have a great reluctance publicly to abjure your faith.Voes. which were. were burned. Peter Spengler. however. and hang him. An officer being sent to put a minister to death. during the execution. "Trouble me not. and George Carpenter. a student of the University of Wertembergh. so that his feet were terribly cut. He seduced us even in the very same manner as Christ seduced the apostles. pretended. was hanged for refusing to recant Protestantism." on which his head was struck off at a single blow. "Take this clergyman. Before he was taken to the banks of the stream which was to become his grave. insisted upon being obeyed. not going to Mass. he made us sensible of the frailty of our bodies. cut and slashed him in a most terrible manner. and compelled to walk barefoot a considerable way. Yes. A friar came to him. he said. and great numbers were burned at Vienna. on account of the war between the emperor and the king of Sweden. went cheerfully to the place of execution. . and John Huglin. two worthy ministers. whisper your confession in my ear." The officer. but perform your duty." To this the gentleman loudly replied. "A horse for a heretic! no no. and the value of our souls. and the decrees of the Councils? Voes. that they hesitated to perform the commands of their master. and soon after suffered with that manly fortitude which becomes Christians when they receive a crown of martyrdom. of a very edifying nature. and concluded with a kind hymn. He desired a horse. that his intentions were only to pay him a visit. he was condemned to be burnt. The persecutions in Germany having subsided many years. was thrown into the river. and consequently the Protestants of Germany espoused his cause. and obtained absolution through the merits of Jesus Christ. Priest. and not believing in transubstantiation. and I will absolve your sins. if they agree with Scripture. Many were murdered at Halle. again broke out in 1630. for the latter was a Protestant prince. and the attendants. They were both condemned to the flames. a Bavarian. but. and the minister said. A Protestant gentleman being ordered to lose his head for not renouncing his religion. In the Old and New Testaments. Do you believe in the writings of the fathers. but his conductors said. Wolfgang Scuch. was taken out of his bed in the middle of the night. As soon as dinner was over. when he came to the clergyman's house. the officer said to some of his attendants. not suspecting the intended cruelty. The minister. This examination was sufficient. he made a most excellent discourse to the people. performed the execrable office of executioners. which greatly exasperated the emperor against them. not making confession. in derision. with reluctance." When he arrived at the place of his destination.

nose.. under Count Tilly in Saxony. and six thousand were drowned in attempting to escape over the river Elbe. ravished the women. tearing with wild horses. ears. breaking the bones. immuring. they made them run about the streets for their diversion. Drawing cords backwards and forwards through the fleshy parts. Tying bags of powder to all parts of the body. having taken that Protestant city by storm. Hanging Protestants up by the legs. yet the inhabitants were as cruelly used as at other places. and all the inhabitants as well as the garrison were put to the sword. smothered the children. Hanging upon hooks by the ribs. the most horrid barbarities and cruel depredations ensued: famine and conflagration marked his progress: for he destroyed all the provisions he could not take with him. cutting off tongues. (which was defended by the Swedes) took it by storm. they set fire to them. and he was consumed in the midst of the flames. pillaged the properties. in the year 1631. Half strangling. fierce cat upon his belly. by which many were choked. crucifying. The cruelties used by the imperial troops. lips.The imperialists having laid siege to the town of Passewalk. The town of Hoxter was taken by the popish army. roasting. Tying cords round the head so tightly that the blood gushed out of the eyes. who not only committed. Putting powder in the mouth and setting fire to it. when stripping all the poor wretches naked. the bodies being consumed in the flames. and then put them all to death. and even the tongue. and mouth. and desolation. drowning. had their ears cropped. burning. put the garrison to the sword. Baking many in hot ovens. Pinching the thumbs in a vice. sawing off the limbs. and surrounding it by lighted straw suffocated them. hanged the townsmen. stabbing. After this fury had subsided.. At Griphenberg. and then surrounding him with his whole library of books. by which the head was shattered to pieces. noses. hacking to pieces. by which they were smoke dried. Fixing weights to the feet. burnt the houses. poverty. stifling. They then pricked and tormented the cat in such a manner that the creature with rage tore his belly open. ears. Forcing the most filthy things down the throat. and drawing up several with pulleys. Hanging. etc. frying. ripping open. arms. stuck his infant son upon the point of a lance. broiling. and committed the most horrid cruelties on the occasion. and fastened a large. the remaining inhabitants were stripped naked. They pulled down the churches. with their heads over a fire. Wherever he came. and being yoked together like oxen were turned adrift. In Hesse-Cassel some of the troops entered an hospital. etc. ravishing. so that the full result of his conquests were murder. A most bloody tragedy was transacted at Magdeburg. Fastening burning matches to the fingers. The enormous cruelties will be a perpetual stain on the memory of Count Tilly. they ravished his wife and daughter before his face. ears. Hanging up by one arm until it was dislocated. and drawing by the heels through the streets. when the imperial forces prevailed. Forcing people to drink until they burst. in which were principally mad women. etc. but even commanded the troops to put them in practice. toes. massacred the ministers. and burnt all the towns before he left them. upwards of twenty thousand persons. Another minister and his family were seized by these inhuman monsters. poisoning. Franhendal surrendered upon articles of capitulation. Rolling sharp wheels over the fingers and toes. legs. or age. the houses even were set on fire. rasping off the flesh. severely scourged. were slain during the carnage. etc. The generals Tilly and Pappenheim. strangling. without distinction of rank. they shut up the senators in the senate chamber. and recovering the persons again repeatedly. by which the person was blown up. racking. tied him on his back upon a table. and at Heidelberg many were shut up in prison and starved. are thus enumerated. Running wires through the nose. Making incisions with bodkins and knives in the skin. and gnawed his bowels. An aged and pious divine they stripped naked. . ears. sex.

etc. and having stripped them all stark naked. Holland. That several Protestant ministers had been dispossessed of their churches. and still more to heighten these differences. while they ravished their children. the Protestants presented to the deputies three additional articles of complaint. • 2. however." The same soldiers met with two countesses. sent deputies to the elector. had. and have got no money. for many years. but treated them with the greatest indecency. if they did not consent to the gratification of their lusts. that the Protestants were forbid to work on popish holy days. all escaped. He then forbade the Protestants to enter the church. which so much exasperated the elector. Crispin. and compelled him to kneel. pulled him from his box. took it into his head not to suffer it any longer. under pretence of their having been originally founded and built by Roman Catholics. that they would treat their Roman Catholic subjects with the greatest severity. The Protestant powers. or else they swore they would cut them to pieces afterward. "You must die because you are heretics. unless he changed his behavior to the Protestants in the Palatinate. as he well knew the impossibility of carrying on a war against the powerful states who threatened him.In Pomerania. the daughters of one of them. peace was at length restored to Germany. at length. until some new disturbances broke out in the Palatinate. been shared equally by the Protestants and Roman Catholics in this manner: the Protestants performed divine service in the nave or body of the church. Though this had been the custom from time immemorial. • 3. the elector of the Palatinate. The aggrieved people applied to the Protestant powers for redress. by this conduct. as the elector. This menace brought him to reason. and put the papists in possession of the whole. divine service ought to be performed only according to the rites of the Church of which he was a member. Prussia. and these were greatly augmented by the following incident: the coach of the Dutch minister standing before the door of the resident sent by the prince of Hesse. had broken an article of the treaty of Westphalia. attempted to surround them. A band of Count Tilly's soldiers meeting a company of merchants belonging to Basel. some of the imperial troops entering a small town. the coachman took not the least notice. however. they ordered them to sing Psalms. that he suppressed the Heidelberg catechism. seized upon all the young women. Many violent disputes took place between the Protestant powers and those of the elector. and considerably prejudiced public business. even in harvest time. that force of arms should compel him to do the justice he denied to their representations. By means and mediation of Great Britain.. at Heidelberg. but ten. and the Roman Catholics celebrated Mass in the choir. which they had kindled for that purpose. together with some young ladies. that as Heidelberg was the place of his residence. this violence to the domestic of a public minister was highly resented by all the Protestant deputies. and girls of upwards of ten years. and threatened. were taking an airing in a landau. to represent the injustice of his proceedings. who. who were returning from the great market of Strassburg. declaring. He therefore agreed that the body of the Church of the Holy Ghost should be restored to the Protestants. • 1. bade the coachman drive on. The soldiers spared their lives. the host was by chance being carried to a sick person. and the courts of Great Britain. to burn their children before their faces in a large fire. and the Protestants remained unmolested for several years. The Protestant deputies at length became so serious as to intimate to the elector. leaving their properties behind. They then took all the married women who had young children. and then placing their parents in a circle. He . under very heavy penalties. which those who attended the host observing. which were thus occasioned: The great Church of the Holy Ghost. and to threaten. The ten who were taken begged hard for their lives: but the soldiers murdered them saying. and the Church of the Holy Ghost the cathedral of his principal city. unanimously agreed to demand satisfaction. That military executions were ordered against all Protestant shoemakers who should refuse to contribute to the Masses of St. which occasioned great inconveniences.

put the Protestant ministers again in possession of the churches of which they had been dispossessed. in other circumstances where Protestant states had no right to interfere. and the chains of papal tyranny. The cause of these poor people not being publicly espoused by such states as could obtain them redress. both by public and private donations. and without provisions. and met with a most humane assistance. . and settled in places where they could enjoy the free exercise of their religion. A great number of these coming into England. and. and live free from the trammels of popish superstition. with scarcely enough clothes to cover them. They went away in the depth of winter. and. ordered. making it his place of residence. in the time of Queen Anne. above thirty thousand Protestants were. were cordially received there. driven from the archbishopric of Salzburg.restored the Heidelberg catechism. He likewise built a new palace there. without hurting their consciences. they emigrated to various Protestant countries. In 1732. and seek an asylum in Protestant states. These things he did through fear. that no person should be molested for not kneeling when the host passed by. he totally abandoned Heidelberg. which was entirely inhabited by Roman Catholics. but to show his resentment to his Protestant subjects. Mannheim became a flourishing place. not having permission to take anything with them. In the meantime the Protestants of Heidelberg sunk into poverty and many of them became so distressed as to quit their native country. allowed the Protestants to work on popish holy days. removing all the courts of justice to Mannheim. being followed by the Roman Catholics of Heidelberg. contrary to the treaty of Westphalia.

and she was condemned to be burnt. but finding her endeavors ineffectual. "That you may know I die a true Christian. was carried to the market of a Dutch village in a fool's coat. saying. and gave them comfort in the mercies of their Redeemer. and many endeavors were made by the monks to persuade him to recant. at least keep the things which you profess secret within your own bosom. when the right foot crossed over t he left. "Dear Wendelinuta. As they could not prevail. a cutler of Brussels. you know not what you say. To which she answered. a tradesman of Antwerp. a learned student. if you will not embrace our faith. This gentleman performed the function of his office with great propriety. and drowned. but the eternal God who is in heaven. He had once. Giles Tilleman. and committed to the flames." He was accordingly beheaded. Perceiving. for after his head was cut off. named Nicholas." When he was sentenced to be burnt." She was then executed. when many thousand fell martyrs to superstitious malice and barbarous bigotry. she said. George Scherter. and bade her kiss and worship God. As soon as the sixteen were beheaded. named Percinal. a fair opportunity of escaping from prison and being asked why he did not avail himself of it. Two Protestant clergymen were burnt at Colen. was apprehended on account of her religion. was tied up in a sack. the body lying a short space of time with the belly to the ground. as they must have answered for my absence." As she positively refused to recant. when several monks. "I worship no wooden god. he fervently thanked God for granting him an opportunity. he desired the principal part of them might be given to the poor. having receive sentence to be beheaded. a learned man. and afterward to be burnt to ashes. though even many of the Roman Catholics themselves reprobated this piece of treacherous and unnecessary cruelty. was a man of great humanity and piety. the magistrate cried out to the executioner. was apprehended and committed to prison for instructing his flock in the knowledge of the Gospel. by accident." This was indeed verified in a most singular manner.An Account of the Persecutions in the Netherlands The light of the Gospel having successfully spread over the Netherlands." The executioner offered to strangle him before the fire was lighted. the pope instigated the emperor to commence a persecution against the Protestants. endeavored to persuade her to recant. had I gone away. as did also the right arm over the left: and in this manner it remained until it was committed to the flames. her goods were confiscated.CHAPTER XI . On his way to the place of execution he said to the spectators. and Justus Insparg was beheaded. exhorted them to repentance. "A small quantity will suffice to consume me." To which the widow replied. a Protestant minister was ordered to attend the execution. but through the before-mentioned Roman Catholic lady. he replied. for having Luther's sermons in his possession. the favor was granted that she should be strangeled before fire was put to the fagots. to glorify His name. In Louviana. first to be beheaded. thrown into the river. by martyrdom. and strive to prolong your life. When she was admitted to the dungeon. a Roman Catholic lady of her acquaintance desired to be admitted to the dungeon in which she was confined. was murdered in prison. a minister of Salzburg. and such laudable examples before him. it suddenly turned upon the back. Sixteen Protestants. unsuccessfully. she did her utmost to perform the task she had undertaken. and Pistorius. "I would not do the keepers so much injury. a pious Protestant widow. among whom the most remarkable were the following: Wendelinuta. "Madam. soon after which he was condemned. but he would not . and promised to exert herself strenuously towards inducing the prisoner to abjure the reformed religion. a great quanity of fagots. While he was in confinement he wrote a confession of his faith. but with the tongue confession is made unto salvation. at the place of execution. Among others he was apprehended as a Protestant. "There is another stroke remaining yet. for with the heart we believe to righteousness. he can never die at a better time than with such excellent precepts in his mouth. I will give you a sign. At the place of execution a monk held a cross to her. you must behead the minister.

and exult in being thought worthy to suffer for the sake of Christ.consent. to be clad in robes of eternal glory. by the visitation of the Lord. telling him that he defied the flames. We are not comfortless in confinement. and sung the Fortieth Psalm. and proved the Scriptural part of his answers from the Gospel. I hope I may be the last martyr to papal tyranny." Scoblant was first brought to his trial. but the power of perseverance. A private execution being determined on. During their confinement they behaved with great fortitude and cheerfulness. accordinly. The judge told him the only alternatives were recantation or death. and the blood already spilt found sufficient to quench the thirst of popish cruelty. was apprehended on account of his faith. was afraid to put him to death publicly. confessing that the hand of God appeared in what had befallen them. and Christ shall bruise the serpent's head. Scoblant is martyred. On his trial. I have with me the God of Abraham. put him in a large tub. we fear not affliction. another Protestant. we patiently submit. immuring. I am not going to throw off this mantle of clay. 1568. glory in our bonds. the rack. answered with a manly fortitude to every charge against him. "They can do me no good. the persecution was carried on throughout all Flanders in a most violent and cruel manner. Some were condemned to perpetual imprisonment. of Isaac. for we have hope. three persons were apprehended in Antwerp. Hues. but to be blessed with fortitude. but most were put to death either by hanging. At the stake he fervently said the Lord's Prayer. In the year 1543 and 1544. soon after died in prison. others to perpetual banishment. and Coomans. an order was given to drown him in prison. On his return to prison. they expressed themselves in the following words: "Since it is the will of the Almighty that we should suffer for His name. but may greatly disturb me.D. Hues. however. The numbers of Protestants being great in that city. by whose celestial brightness I shall be freed from all errors. and the prisoner much respected. and Hues dead. "I am not only willing to die. named Scoblant. and for that reason ordered him to be beheaded in prison. and that the blood of Christ. he was burnt alive. though the flesh may febel against the spirit. that the Church of Christ may have rest here. and shall be my reward. John de Boscane. drowning. and exemplary piety. A. and almost universally beloved for his inoffensive life. "Will you die for the faith you profess?" To which Coomans replied." On the day of execution. when. and be persecuted for the sake of His Gospel. and of Jacob. but Boscane struggling. The executioner." On his trial he freely confessed himself of the reformed religion. about the same time. he gave up the ghost with such composure amidst them. a zealous Protestant. which occasioned his immediate condemnation. John de Buisons. as he was popular through his great generosity. persisting in the profession of his faith. until he expired. and hearken to the council of the old serpent. was. but to suffer the most excruciating . and. the magistrates feared an insurrection. in the city of Antwerp. and wish for no change in our condition. We desire not to be released. Pray unto God to strengthen me to the end. but that which places a crown of martyrdom upon our heads. we are happy in confinement through the promises of God. in which I firmly put my trust. and bowing down before the throne of his providence. yet the truths of the Gospel shall prevent such advice from being taken. upon which occasion Coomans wrote thus to his friends: "I am now deprived of my friends and companions. for we have faith. for we have charity. He is my comfort. he earnestly requested the jailer not to permit any friar to come near him. burning. I hope my salvation is already sealed in heaven. he steadfastly professed himself to be of the reformed religion. and concluded by saying. and are joyful upon the occasion. saying. then commending his soul to God. or burying alive. secretly apprehended. he received sentence of death. the executioner stabbed him with a dagger in several places. he to0ok a pathetic leave of his fellow prisoners. that he hardly seemed sensible of their effects. Be not under apprehensions for us. yet I am not alone. and privately executed at Antwerp. and getting his head above the water. and we forgive our enemies. as his servants will hereafter. hath washed me from my iniquities. we ask not liberty. as I expect every hour to be freed from this tenement of clay. The magistrate. In an epistle to some worthy Protestants. indeed.

have mercy upon my soul. but on the return of the prince and princness through the same hall. Nothing further passed before dinner. received sentence to be put to death in the most exemplary manner. and upon these poor people. The lamentations throughout the United Provinces were general. and passing through the right. after dinner was over. a native of Ranche Compte. yet such was his enthusiasm. the balls entering at the left side. multitudes were murdered in different parts of Flanders.torments for it." The prince of Orange's funeral was the grandest ever seen in the Low Countries. that of father of his people. in particular. the prince only said. in the province of Burgundy. after which my soul shall receive its confirmation from God Himself. fifty-seven of the principal inhabitants were butchered in one day. This murderer. On receiving the wounds. The prince answered that it was one that demanded a passport. on account of the death of the prince of Orange. saying that she did not like his countenance. Having procured firearms. and great numbers were suffered to languish in confinement. and demanded a passport.. "If I was at liberty. in hopes of a reward here and hereafter. observing that the assassin spoke with a hollow and confused voice. who was immediately taken. the assassin. or folly. he coolly said. he watched him as he passed through the great hall of his palace to dinner. and died with the most manly fortitude. standing concealed as much as possible by one of the pillars." Being condemned. undertook to destroy the prince of Orange. in the midst of eternal glory. as he left behind him the character he honestly deserved. . and Christian resignation. I would commit such an action over again. To conclude. being assassinated in the fifty-first year of his age. which he should presently have. for killing an enemy to the king of Spain and an enemy to the Catholic religion. by Beltazar Gerard." and then expired immediately. and perhaps the sorrow for his death the most sincere. The princess of Orange. William of Nassau fell a sacrifice to treachery. and the assassin. in the city of Valence. viz. for refusing to embrace the Romish superstition. "Lord. until they perished through the inclemency of their dungeons. he went cheerfully to the place of execution. that when his flesh was torn by red-hot pincers. asked who he was. wounding in their passage the stomach and vital parts. fired at the prince.

who there. reasoning and contending together divers times. and talk of learned men. in going thitherwards. escaping out of their hands. that he doubted their privy accusations. by long continuance. to give him strength fast to stand in the truth of His Word. and as God's mattock to shake the inward roots and foundation of the pope's proud prelacy. and of life unspotted. which William Tyndale. and maliciously to spill his life. also of divers other controversies and questions upon the Scripture. and accused him secretly to the chancellor. but certain this is (as he himself declared). and others of the bishop's officers. and warning was given to the priests to appear. so the great prince of darkness. and falsely to betray him. read privily to certain students and fellows of Magdalen College some parcel of divinity. departed home. Then Master Tyndale. William Tyndale We have now to enter into the story of the good martyr of God. reviling and rating him as though he had been a dog. and laid to his charge many things whereof no accuser could be brought forth. there resorted to him many times sundry abbots.CHAPTER XII . did use many times to enter communication. insomuch that he. were such that all they that knew him reputed him to be a man of most virtuous disposition. he threatened him grievously. until at length they waxed weary. amongst whom Master Tyndale was also warned to be there. As this grew on. where he. it is uncertain. a knight of Gloucestershire. railing against him in alehouses and other places. And thus continued they for a certain season. together with Master Tyndale siting at the same table. Being now further ripened in the knowledge of God's Word. leaving that university. as by the process of his story here following may appear. spared not to show unto them simply and plainly his judgment. clustering together. the faithful minister of Christ. having a special malice against him.The Life and Story of the True Servant and Martyr of God. It followed not long after this that there was a sitting of the bishop's chancellor appointed. as he was a special organ of the Lord appointed. And whether he had any misdoubt by their threatenings. and was there schoolmaster to his children. and lay plainly before them the open and manifest places of the Scriptures. and when they at any time did vary from Tyndale in opinions. His manners and conversation being correspondent to the same. with divers other doctors. as of Luther and of Erasmus. where he likewise made his abode a certain space. in the University of Oxford. and proceeding in degrees of the schools. cried in his mind heartily to God. began to grudge and storm against Tyndale. As this gentleman kept a good ordinary commonly at his table. he resorted to one Master Welch. When the time came for his appearance before the chancellor. and returned to his master again. and other liberal arts. increasing more and more in learning. the priests of the country. William Tyndale. increased as well in the knowledge of tongues. and confirm his sayings. and great beneficed men. . deans. to confute their errors. removed from thence to the University of Cambridge. with his impious imps. spying his time. was born about the borders of Wales. Thus he. as especially in the knowledge of the Scriptures. Thus Master Tyndale. whereunto his mind was singularly addicted. archdeacons. and bare a secret grudge in their hearts against him. so that he by the way. affirming that his sayings were heresy. or knowledge given him that they would lay some things to his charge. William Tyndale. and in good favor with his master. instructing them in the knowledge and truth of the Scriptures. he would show them in the Book. notwithstanding that the priests of the country were there present. lying then in Magdalen Hall. as he was learned and well practiced in God's matters. and brought up from a child in the University of Oxford. left no way unsought how craftily to entrap him.

" Not long after. familiar acquaintance with Master Tyndale. all the space of his being there. which the Lord had endued him withal. and eftsoons came up to London. But God. saying: "Sir. nor for the profit of His Church. recounted for a learned man. with the good will of his master. he was constrained to leave that country. then bishop of London. and there preached a while. being inflamed with a tender care and zeal of his country. in communing and disputing with him. He was never seen in the house to wear linen about him. to keep me out of the hands of the spirituality. Master Tyndale. he could lack no service. and not bearing that blasphemous saying. what displeasure might grow to you by keeping me. saw that was not best for Tyndale's purpose. departed. a man of his old acquaintance." Master Tyndale. he drove him to that issue. nor drink but small single beer. by all means possible. and bringing with him an oration of Isocrates. insomuch that he understood not only that there was no room in the bishop's house for him to translate the New Testament. and conferring also with John Frith. marking with himself the course of the world. ere many years he would cause a boy that driveth the plough to know more of the Scripture than he did. but also that there was no place to do it in all England. he desired him to speak to the said bishop of London for him. and all his laws. and to go himself with him. and so coming to Master Welch. Master Tyndale happened to be in the company of a certain divine." The grudge of the priests increasing still more and more against Tyndale. which he had translated out of Greek into English. I perceive that I shall not be suffered to tarry long here in this country. the king's comptroller. and willed him moreover to write an epistle to the bishop. which greatly misliked him." So that in fine. saying that he was a heretic. how they boasted themselves. replied. Tyndale thus cast with himself. alderman of London. that he might depart from him. God knoweth. which he also did. Unto whom the doctor said. the answer of whom was this: his house was full. as he had done in the country. studying both night and day.There dwelt not far off a certain doctor. named William Hebilthwait. and laid many things sorely to his charge. he said. for if you shall be perceived to be of that opinion. and delivered his epistle to a servant of his. of his good will. though you would. how. with other things more. This he did. and departed into Germany. Bethinking himself of Cuthbert Tonstal. who had been of old. beholding also the pomp of the prelates. "We were better to be without God's laws than the pope's. Coming to Sir Henry Guilford. that the poor people might read and see the simple plain Word . it will cost you your life. where. And so remained Master Tyndale in London almost a year. and favored him well. unto whom Master Tyndale went and opened his mind upon divers questions of the Scripture: for to him he durst be bold to disclose his heart. and especially of the great commendation of Erasmus. he had more than he could well find: and he advised him to seek in London abroad. Therefore. he desired him. who secretly disposeth the course of things. that the said great doctor burst out into these blasphemous words. and besought him to help him: who the same time took him into his house. Being refused of the bishop he came to Humphrey Mummuth. they never ceased barking and rating at him. "If God spared him life. that he been chancellor to a bishop. and certain other good men. than if the Scripture were turned into the vulgar speech. Tyndale thought with himself no way more to conduce thereunto. that if he might attain unto his service. and set up their authority." and added. "Do you not know that the pope is very Antichrist. "I defy the pope. he took his leave of the realm. neither shall you be able. full of godly zeal. for the which I should be right sorry. so extolleth the said Tonstal for his learning. in his annotations. hearing this. He would eat but sodden meat by his good will. having by God's providence some aid ministered unto him by Humphrey Mummuth. Whereupon. and. who. whom the Scripture speaketh of? But beware what you say. Being so molested and vexed. refused no travail nor diligence. and to seek another place. and especially the demeanor of the preachers. considering in his mind. to reduce his brethren and countrymen of England to the same taste and understanding of God's holy Word and verity. and therefore gave him to find little favor in the bishop's sight. he were a happy man. where the good man. where the said Tyndale lived (as Mummuth said) like a good priest.

that there are so many New Testaments abroad? You promised me that you would buy them all. for I intend to burn and destroy them all at Paul's Cross. I bought all that were to be had." "Now by my troth. Master Tyndale took in hand to translate the Old Testament." quoth More." said." This Augustine Packington went unto William Tyndale. Packington hearing him say so. "How cometh this. as suspected of certain heresies. expounding it in such a sense as it were impossible to gather of the text. whatsoever truth should be taught them. if the right meaning thereof were seen." at which answer the bishop smiled. contrary unto the meaning of the text. said. Tyndale. and therefore all their labor was with might and main to keep it down. that though thou felt in thy heart. the enemies of the truth would quench it. saying. tell me. gentle Master Packington! get them for me. I must disburse money to pay for them. There is beyond the sea. despised how to destroy that false erroneous translation. . who be they that help them thus?" "My lord. they would so delude the unlearned lay people. for so much I told the bishop before he went about it. "I think even the same. and Tyndale had the money. and that hath been." quoth Constantine." The bishop. first setting in hand with the New Testament. wresting the Scripture unto their own purpose. so that they came thick and threefold over into England. and said to him.of God. that the Scriptures of God were hidden from the people's eyes. if it be your pleasure. and so entangle those who reguked or despised their abominations. This man favored Tyndale. or if it were. and thou. or else juggling with the text. and so. For these and such other considerations this good man was stirred up of God to translate the Scripture into his mother tongue. being sore aggrieved. In short space after. and declared the whole matter. to be the cause of all mischief in the Church. and a great many of you: I know they cannot live without help. but I perceive they have printed more since. except the Scriptures were so plainly laid before their eyes in their mother tongue that they might see the meaning of the text. and so you shall be sure. bishop of London.D. and caused them to be newly imprinted. Joye. the bishop of London had the books. but showed the contrary unto the bishop. There are some that succor them with money. or most chiefly. and yet is. "Surely." Then answered Packington. being one of them. where the bishop was. a mercer. "I will tell you truly: it is the bishop of London that hath holpen us. finishing the five books of Moses." After that. for he hath bestowed among us a great deal of money upon New Testaments to burn them. so that if it be your lordship's pleasure. Cuthbert Tonstal. Packington had the thanks. or else I cannot have them: and so I will assure you to have every book of them that is printed and unsold. for I know the Dutchmen and strangers that have brought them of Tyndale. It happened that one Augustine Packington. He perceived that it was not possible to establish the lay people in any truth. being desirous to bring his purpose to pass. which came forth in print about A. When the bishop perceived that. Master More asked of him. and I will pay whatsoever they cost. for the profit of the simple people of his country. our only succor and comfort. I see it will never be better so long as they have letters and stamps: wherefore you were best to buy the stamps too. it fortuned that George Constantine was apprehended by Sir Thomas More. for else. with Sir Thomas More. so that either it should not be read at all. Master Tyndale considered this only. founded without all ground of Scripture. hadst thy part thereof. as they called it. and have them here to sell. communed how that he would gladly buy the New Testaments. and so the matter ended. After this. Tyndale corrected the same New Testaments again. thinking he had God "by the toe. The bishop. who was then chancellor of England. 1525. I pray thee. yet couldst thou not solve their subtle riddles. and traditions of their own making. "Do your diligence. and I promise thee I will show thee favor in all other things whereof thou art accused. he sent for Packington. and wert sure that all were false that they said. with sundry most learned and godly prologues most worthy to be read and read again by all good Christians. "My lord! I can do more in this matter than most merchants that be here. "Constantine! I would have thee be plain with me in one thing that I will ask. for so long the abominable doings and idolatries maintained by the pharisaical clergy could not be espied. upon compact made between them. they would darken the right sense with the mist of their sophistry. and therefore knowest whence it came. was then at Antwerp. either with reasons of sophistry.

and so narrowly. cried out upon it. and comparing it with their own imaginations. that the Testament of Tyndale's translation was inhibited-which was about A. he sailed thitherward. In the registers of London it appeareth manifest how that the bishops and Sir Thomas More having before them such as had been at Antwerp. having dispatched his business at Hamburg. and insatiable covetousness. in his prologue before the first book of Moses. Mistress Margaret Van Emmerson. most studiously would search and examine all things belonging to Tyndale. they said it would make the people to rebel against the king. whereabouts stood the house. The bishops and prelates never rested before they had brought the king to their consent. some that it was not lawful for the lay people to have it in their mother tongue. And to the intent to induce the temporal rulers unto their purpose. showing further what great pains were taken in examining that translation. at his appointment. now it remaineth to be declared. and so was compelled to begin all again. not willing to have that book prosper. that there was not one i therein. The godly books of Tyndale. and had his most abiding in the town of Antwerp. Wherefore if there had been any such default deserving correction. writings. by which he lost all his books.D. that the New Testament in the common tongue should come abroad. a proclamation in all haste was devised and set forth under public authority. a great sweating sickness being at the same time in the town. where he had conference with Luther and other learned men. and copies. wrought great and singular profit to the godly. he supposeth. but utterly to be suppressed. by reason whereof. 1537. and to spread abroad. declareth. they might have translated a great part of the Bible. that it would make them all heretics. So great were then the froward devices of the English clergy (who should have been the guides of light unto the people). which how they brought to pass. if ought were found amiss. and that it was not to be corrected. 1529. All this Tyndale himself. and especially the New Testament of his translation. wherein he desired them that were learned to amend.These books being sent over into England. minding to print the same at Hamburg. their works of darkness should be discerned) began to sir with no small ado. to drive the people from the knowledge of the Scripture. A. in what . and helped him in the translating of the whole five books of Moses. some. but if it lacked a prick over his head. his money and his time. what was his stature. which before were shut up in darkness. But the clergy. added to the latter end a certain epistle. nor yet abide it to be translated of others. after he had continued there a certain season he came down into the Netherlands. So. the translator thereof. that there were a thousand heresies in it. in the house of a worshipful widow. for men of knowledge and judgment to have showed their learning therein. after that they began to come into men's hands. Some said it was not possible to translate the Scriptures into English. from Easter until December. but the ungodly (envying and disdaining that the people should be anything wiser than they and. it had been the part of courtesy and gentleness. they did note it. At what time Tyndale had translated Deuteronomy. to the intent (as Tyndale saith) that the world being kept still in darkness. he returned to Antwerp. where and with whom he hosted. He came in another ship to Hamburg. And not content herewith. Tyndale. they might sit in the consciences of the people through vain superstition and false doctrine. where. how to entangle him in their nets. Master Coverdale tarried for him. which neither they would translate themselves. and to have redressed what was to be amended. and to exalt their own honor above king and emperor. At his first departing out of the realm he took his journey into Germany.D. and to bereave him of his life. fearing lest by the shining beams of truth. it cannot be spoken what a door of light they opened to the eyes of the whole English nation. they proceeded further. that with less labor. showing moreover that they scanned and examined every title and point in such sort. and numbered it unto the ignorant people for a heresy. upon the coast of Holland he suffered shipwreck. When God's will was. to satisfy their ambition.

being eighteen English miles from Antwerp. to the house of Thomas Pointz. which is from thence twenty-four English miles. all which things when they had diligently learned then began they to work their feats. upon a time desired Pointz to walk with him forth of the town to show him the commodities thereof. But after. that through his procurement he lay in the same house of the sait Pointz. and went to Master Tyndale. About noon he came again. "for. being a man of no great stature.a nd other secrets of his study. and very conformable. what resort he had. asked Master Tyndale how he came acquainted with this Philips. Then said Philips. to whom he showed moreover his books. and some of the king's affairs. and coming in." So when it was dinner time. like as he had been a gentleman having a servant with him: but wherefore he came. by means whereof this Henry Philips became acquainted with him. and such things as he named. that he was an honest man. when they had laid him in prison. coming over at the passage between this and Mechlin. who had set officers on either side of the door upon two seats. Master Tyndale divers times was desired forth to dinner and support amongst merchants. "I go forth this day to dinner. comely person. to feel whether the said Pointz might. and in the time of his absence Henry Philips came again to Antwerp. "I lost my purse this morning. Pointz. an Englishman. but put Master Tyndale before. For he had desired Pointz before to help him to divers things. where you shall be welcome. "for." "No. and you shall go with me. a comely fellow. and about the door. who might see who came in the entry. "Master Tyndale! you shall be my guest here this day. and in walking together without the town. asking whether Master Tyndale were within. so that within short space Master Tyndale had a great confidence in him. as well his books as other things. followed behind him. But Pointz. no man could tell. with certain other officers. for lucre of money. and had him also once or twice with him to dinner and supper. whence he brought with him to Antwerp. by which talk Pointz as yet suspected nothing. where he dined. Then came the procurator-general to the house of Pointz. Pointz perceived this to be the mind of Philips. in the street. spake with his wife." said Master Tyndale. the procurator-general. and sent away all that was there of Master Tyndale's. "I have money enough. and further entered such friendship with him. Came thither one out of England." said he. had communication of divers things. Master Tyndale went forth with Philips." said he. whose name was Henry Philips. and would that Pointz should think no less. perceiving that he bare such favor to him. Within three or four days. a tall. was a long narrow entry. so little did Tyndale then mistrust this traitor. that the officers might see that it was he whom they should take. So Master Tyndale. handsomely learned. being in the town of Antwerp. Master Tyndale would have put Philips before him. to the house of Pointz. who kept a house of English merchants. where he had business to do for the space of a month or six weeks. being in the town three or four days. his father being customer of Poole. he required might be of the best. and Philips. had been lodged about one whole year in the house of Thomas Pointz. William Tyndale. and brought him to his lodging. for that he pretended to show great humanity. went before. The said Philips. if he had it." So Master Tyndale took him forty shillings. The officers afterwards told Pointz. for in the wily subtleties of this world he was simple and inexpert. that they pitied to see his simplicity. Then went he forth again and set the officers whom he had brought with him from Brussels. thinking that he was brought acquainted with him by some friend of his.apparel he went. They brought him to the emperor's attorney. and from thence Tyndale was had to the castle of Vilvorde. and at the going forth of Pointz's house. Master Tyndale answered. so that two could not go in front. for he perceived before that Philips was monied. . when the time was past. Philips pointed with his finger over Master Tyndale's head down to him. but Philips would in no wise. help him to his purpose. said no more." Philips went from Antwerp to the court of Brussels. who is the emperor's attorney. having no great confidence in the fellow. which was easy to be had of him. or for what purpose he was sent thither. and be my guest. Pointz went forth to the town of Barois. and desired him to lend him forty shillings. eighteen English miles from Antwerp.

nor would do this day. that I never altered one syllable of God's Word against my conscience. Brought forth to the place of execution. after much reasoning. "Lord! open the king of England's eyes. it is said. crying at the stake with a fervent zeal. and such as was there conversant with him in the Castle that they reported of him. At last. A.Master Tyndale. and the sincerity of his life. he was tied to the stake. the keeper's daughter. pretending it to be full of heresies. he was condemned by virtue of the emperor's decree. and others of his household. As touching his translation of the New Testament. whether it be honor. his keeper. they knew not whom they might take to be one. the which he refused. strangled by the hangman. He had so preached to them who had him in charge. that if he were not a good Christian man. he converted. or riches. made in the assembly at Augsburg. was proffered an advocate and a procurator. at the town of Vilvorde. although he deserved no death. because his enemies did so much carp at it." .D. might be given me. as followeth. and afterwards consumed with fire. 1536. when no reason would serve. "I call God to record against the day we shall appear before our Lord Jesus. if all that is in earth. pleasure. and a loud voice. saying that he would make answer for himself. remaining in prison." Such was the power of his doctrine. he wrote to John Frith. that during the time of his imprisonment (which endured a year and a half).

1521. "it was his destiny that he should settle at Geneva. a work well adapted to spread his fame. in 1534. gave rise to a persecution against the Protestants. except through the duke of Savoy's territories. of which he was the first minister: he was also appointed to be professor of divinity there. with the consent of the people. having greatly displeased the Sorbonne and the parliament. July 10. he chose that road. to which Calvin. and not the other. Calvin returned to Paris in 1534. May 21. and resigned the chapel of Gesine and the rectory of Pont l'Eveque. by reading the Scriptures. designed him at first for the Church. their assent to the confession of faith. He wanted to ujndertake only this last office. 1541. had conceived a dislike to the superstitions of popery." At Geneva. under the direction of Professor Wolmar. and established a French church in that city. Antony Calvin. "This was a particular direction of Providence. and got him presented. After the publication of this work. near Noyon. he made all the people declare. a lady of eminent piety. and when he was wholly intent upon going farther. after having had the honor to be introduced to the queen of Navarre. He was instructed in grammar. by whom he was very kindly received. who. which contained a renunciation of popery.An Account of the Life of John Calvin This reformer was born at Noyon in Picardy. and a consistorial jurisdiction. who discovered many marks of his early piety. was to establish a form of church discipline. of which Calvin furnished the materials. and improved no less in the knowledge of divinity by his private studies. as far as excommunication. invested with power of inflicting censures and canonical punishments." says Bayle. He made a great progress in that science. he proposed to go to Strassburg or Basel. who narrowly escaped being taken in the College of Forteret. and studied philosophy in the College of Montaign under a Spanish professor. which determined him to leave France. 1509. in the Church of Noyon. after his arrival. WShereupon the syndics of Geneva summoned an assembly of the people. readily consented. Calvin retired to Strassburg. upon oath. 1536. to the great satisfaction both of the people and the magistrates. rector of the University of Paris. if I may so speak. where he studied Hebrew: at this time he published his Institutions of the Christian Religion. He next intimated that he could not submit to a regulation which the canton of Berne had lately made. Calvin next wrote an apology for the Protestants who were burnt for their religion in France.CHAPTER XIII . though he himself was desirous of living in obscurity. He retired to Basel. and professor of divinity. In 1527 he was presented to the rectory of Marseville. and would have him study law. This year the reformed met with severe treatment. particularly in his reprehensions of the vices of his companions. It is dedicated to the French king. His father. Meanwhile the people of Geneva entreated him so earnestly to return to them that at last he consented. for refusing to administer the Sacrament. At Bourges he applied to the Greek tongue. learning at Paris under Maturinus Corderius. and another minister should leave the town in a few days. Farel. Francis I. and then went to Paris. but in the end he was obliged to take both upon him. but as the roads were not safe on account of the war. to be one of their ministers. who had raised this first storm against the Protestants. The year following. His father's death having called him back to Noyon. Calvin went to Italy to pay a visit to the duchess of Ferrara. was forced to retire to Xaintonge. in August. to the chapel of Notre Dame de la Gesine. His father afterward changed his resolution. where a speech of Nicholas Cop. . in company with his sole surviving brother. and it was ordered that Calvin. and arrived September 13. From Italy he came back to France. he found himself detained by an order from heaven. and the first thing he did. which he exchanged in 1529 for the rectory of Point l'Eveque. and Calvin. and having settled his private affairs. inclusively. after publishing a treatise against those who believed that departed souls are in a kind of sleep. Calvin therefore was obliged to comply with the choice which the consistory and magistrates made of him. he stayed there a short time.

" "By wishing to mitigate the severity of the punishment. and to bewail those infirmities which cannot be justified. So far from it." The truth is. and used every argument to persuade him to retract his horrible blasphemies. I have taught this pure. cannot be defended. He declared he acted conscientiously." says Turritine. or Unitarianism. that the doctrine of the Trinity is not true-that divine sovereignty is Antiscriptural. he was unwilling that he should be burnt at all." It has been often asserted. is not true. All his proceedings. and Scotland. that did the mischief. without reference to his peculiar sentiments. and suffered him to remain several weeks at Geneva." says he. When in prison. and publicly justified the act. it is certain. "Calvin burnt Servetus!--Calvin burnt Servetus!" is a good proof with a certain class of reasoners. After the death of Luther." "That Calvin was the instigator of the magistrates that Servetus might be burned. through which all my sins are covered. simple Word. in Transylvania. triumphant over all his enemies. although Calvin had some hand in the arrest and imprisonment of Servetus.It has long been the delight of both infidels and some professed Christians. Calvin visited him. I am astonished that any one can be found to disapprove of this proceeding. or in Britain. and for the sake of His death and sufferings. All the other reformers then living approved of Calvin's conduct. This was the extent of Calvin's agency in this unhappy affair. by these very magistrates. before he was arrested. that Calvin was himself once banished from Geneva. "that the severity of the punishment should be remitted. Even the gentle and amiable Melancthon expressed himself in relation to this affair. Nay. But his language. to refer to his agency in the death of Michael Servetus. This action is used on all occasions by those who have been unable to overthrow his opinions. was the cause of his imprisonment. When about to lie down in rest." "We wndeavored to commute the kind of death. According to the measure of grace granted unto me." Bucer did not hesitate to declare. we think. that Calvin possessed so much influence with the magistrates of Geneva that he might have obtained the release of Servetus. Still it should be remembered that the true principles of religious toleration were very little understood in the time of Calvin. Two thousand one hundred and fifty reformed congregations were organized. for Christ's sake. and am persuaded that the Council of Geneva has done right in putting to death this obstinate man.--and Christianity a cheat. it ought to be imputed. when they wish to bring odium upon the opinions of Calvin. "historians neither anywhere affirm. It was the opinion. whether at Geneva. "I have read your statement respecting the blasphemy of Servetus." says Farel to Calvin. We have no wish to palliate any act of Calvin's which is manifestly wrong. Calvin. Calvin exerted great sway over the men of that notable period. This however. felt his death drawing near. he drew up his will. which was then accounted blasphemous." Farel expressly says. as a conclusive argument against his whole system. Calvin acted contrary to the benignant spirit of the Gospel. and to this. in the following manner. with the college of pastors. Germany. he says. With my whole heart I embrace His mercy. that in this instance. rather than to Trinitarianism. So little desirous was Calvin of procuring the death of Servetus that he warned him of his danger. He was influential in France. that "Servetus deserved something worse than death. who would never have ceased his blasphemies. nor does it appear from any considerations. and often opposed their arbitrary measures in vain. in relation to the unhappy affair of Servetus. and that I have no other dependence for salvation than the free choice which is made of me by Him. that he. had he not been desirous of his destruction. It is better to drop a tear over the inconsistency of human nature. by . however. dissuaded from that kind of punishment. Holland. In a letter addressed to Bullinger. but in vain. England. be denied. "I desire. that "Servetus deserved a capital punishment. receiving from him their preachers. It cannot. Italy. saying: "I do testify that I live and purpose to die in this faith which God has given me through His Gospel. "you discharge the office of a friend towards your greatest enemy. Yet he continued to exert himself in every way with youthful energy. that erroneous religious principles are punishable by the civil magistrate. and praise your piety and judgment.

which he followed all his life after. is something so heroical. and after living fifty-five years with the utmost frugality should leave but three hundred crowns to his heirs. When Calvin took his leave of Strassburg. Wisner. made the following assertion: "Much as the name of Calvin has been scoffed at and loaded with reproach by many sons of freedom. which had been assigned to him. the former he accepted. 1564. as any other possessed of his credit would have done. and the revenues of a prebend. that no man has lived to whom the world is under greater obligations for the freedom it now enjoys. by getting him freed from an adultress. He took care indeed of the honor of his brother's family. than John Calvin. by deeds." May 27. there is not an historical proposition more susceptible of complete demonstration than this. in his late discourse at Plymouth. Dr. In all my battles with the enemies of the truth I have not used sophistry. and by expositions of this Scripture. to return to Geneva. on the anniversary of the landing of the Pilgrims. That a man who had acquired so great a reputation and such an authority. but have fought the good fight squarely and directly. but absolutely refused the other. including the value of his library. but he never took any pains to get him preferred to an honorable post. should have had but a salary of one hundred crowns. He carried one of the brothers with him to Geneva.sermons." . Calvin as a Friend of Civil Liberty The Rev. which sold very dear. was the day of his release and blessed journey home. that one must have lost all feeling not to admire. and obtaining leave to him to marry again. but even his enemies relate that he made him learn the trade of a bookbinder. He was in his fifty-fifth year. and refuse to accept more. they wanted to continue to him the privileges of a freeman of their town.

and after treating him with a thousand indignities. sparing neither age nor sex. both in England and Scotland. Prior to the Reign of Queen Mary I Gildas. and then beheaded him. It was much the same in that part of Ireland now called Leinster. In Fifeshire. and burnt as heretics. and the light of the Gospel of Christ was greatly eclipsed and darkened with human inventions. destroyed the churches and murdered the clergy wherever they came: but they could not destroy Christianity. they carried destruction along with them wherever they went. should be delivered over to the secular power. but in A. This act was .CHAPTER XIV . they burned many of the churches. transfixed his body with arrows. burthensome ceremonies and gross idolatry. Andrews. of whom no less than two hundred were massacred in Scotland. went and resided beyond the Severn. but the clergy were the most obnoxious to them. whatever power or influence they might have to molest them in an underhand manner. However. 586. drove them from their posts. Ethelred. the clergy embraced the favorable opportunity. and prevailed upon the king to suffer a bill to be brought into parliament. but the English. In the reign of Edward III the Church of England was extremely corrupted with errors and superstition. In the eighth century. who. 857.D. and took up their quarters at Nottingham. a party of them landed somewhere near Southampton. and engaged in battle with the English at Hertford. being heathens like the Scots and Picts. and among the rest that belonging to the Culdees. the most ancient British writer extant. The piety of these men made them objects of abhorrence to the Danes. who lived about the time that the Saxons left the island of Great Britain. who took Edmund. and obligted them to retire to Northumberland. Neither have we the names of those Christian sufferers transmitted to us. prisoner. has drawn a most shocking instance of the barbarity of those people. these barbarians penetrated into the center of England.D. At first they were repulsed. then called Lollards. wherever they went singled out the Christian priests for destruction. The most dreadful instance of barbarity under the Saxon government. a roving crew of barbarians. In A. landed in different parts of Britain. for those who would not submit to the Saxon yoke. A. they had no authority by law to put them to death. The followers of Wickliffe. at St. and not only robbed the people but burned down the churches. another body of these barbarians landed at Norfolk. was the massacre of the monks of Bangor. and murdered the clergy. there the Danes murdered and burned the priests alive in their own churches.D. under their king. Victory declared in favor of the pagans. because they ridiculed their idolatry. These monks were in all respects different from those men who bear the same name at present. especially those of the clergy. and persuaded their people to have nothing to do with them. on their arrival. The Saxons. by which all Lollards who remained obstinate. and the clergy were so vexed to see them increase. 868. in Scotland. In 870. the Danes.An Account of the Persecutions in Great Britain and Ireland. were become extremely numerous. king of the East Angles.

the first in Britain for the burning of people for their religious sentiments. Then stood he up and beheld the multitude. that every man in this earth is a pilgrim toward bliss. to Canterbury. we will not know. for I have a strange conflict to engage with before I go to supper". though he never in his life go on pilgrimage. it passed in the year 1401. that doth the worship to dead images that is due to God. with holding the doctrines of Wickliffe. and having ate some. or hath affection in one more than in another. requiring the people not to pray for him. in consequence of his attachment to the doctrines of Wickliffe. so long as his life lasted. The first person who suffered in consequence of this cruel act was William Santree. there present. 1473. was accused of heresy. he shall be damned: he that knoweth the holy commandments of God. was accordingly executed in Lincoln's Inn Fields. but to judge him damned in hell. In his written defense Lord Cobham said: "As for images. and keepeth them to his end. and that he that knoweth not. Lord Cobham. but that they were ordained since the belief of Christ was given by sufferance of the Church. Then was he laid upon a hurdle. 1418. As he was come to the place of execution. he was condemned as an obstinate heretic. or putteth such hope or trust in help of them. Giles's field. Thus resteth this valiant Christian knight. in the kingdom of patience. professing the truth with his last breath. desiring Almighty God to forgive his enemies. and having eaten.D. he fell down devoutly upon his knees. "I eat now a very good meal. . where he suffered with great constancy. as though he had been a most heinous traitor to the crown. I understand that they be not of belief. under the altar of God. was brought before the bishop of Norwich. Soon after this. praising the name of God. In August. or Sawtree. it were too long to write. and martyrdom and good living of other saints: and that whoso it be. he returned thanks to God for the bounties of His allgracious providence. he shall be saved. and accursed. desired a little refreshment. having a very cheerful countenance. he said to the people present. Accordingly he was chained to a stake on Tower-hill. exhorting them in most godly manner to follow the laws of God written in the Scriptures. as men now use. being brought to the sheriff's house. who was burnt to death in Smithfield. and he die so). He confessed he did believe everything that was objected against him. requesting that he might be instantly led to the place of execution. suffered great tribulation with the death of their bodies. and so consumed alive in the fire. he doth in that. a priest. among that godly company. as he should do to God. to represent and bring to mind the passion of our Lord Jesus Christ. showing great dolor. we keep the holy commandments of God in his living here (albeit that he go on pilgrimages to all the world. 1419. for His faithful word and testimony.D. and being condemned to be hanged and burnt. a pious man. Sir John Oldcastle. who. or toward pain. "Also I suppose this fully. For this. and to beware of such teachers as they see contrary to Christ in their conversation and living. for which he was condemned as an obstinate heretic." Upon the day appointed. the people. having been accused by some of the priests. And this was done A. for that he departed not in the obedience of their pope. one Badram. and was taken from the hurdle. Sir John Oldcastle. How the priests that time fared. or to any other place. Lord Cobham was brought out of the Tower with his arms bound behind him. on the morning of the day appointed for his execution. and so drawn forth into St. to bear testimony to the truth of those principles which he had professed. which is Jesus Christ. where he was burnt alive. A. blasphemed. or to Rome. and a warrant was granted for his execution. Then was he hanged up by the middle in chains of iron. one Thomas Granter was apprehended in London. In the year 1499. he was accused of professing the doctrines of Wickliffe. accordingly he was brought to the stake at Norwich. and was soon after put into execution. This pious man. the greatest sin of idol worship.

In consequence of this supposition he gave information to the bishop. This was seen by all the people. having refused to pay the priest his fees for the funeral of a child. and the regularity of his manners. a merchant tailor of the city of London. and it is remarkable that the animal did not meddle with any other person whatever.) was condemned by Dr. October 18. his daughter. and burnt alive at Buckingham. in London. a married women. at Norwich. His sentiments were the same as the rest of the Lollards. and being conveyed to the Lollards' Tower. but notwithstanding the innocence of his life. and on the twenty-fifth of October was condemned as a heretic. Paul's. . a bull broke loose from a butcher and singling out the chancellor from all the rest of the company. and Yester. was burnt alive at Salisbury. 1511. archbishop of Canterbury. conjectured he was a Lollard. He was chained to the stake in Smithfield amidst a vast crowd of spectators. a priest. After she had been consumed in the flames. or those who followed the doctrines of Wickliffe. caused his feet to be burnt in a fire until all the flesh came off. but he abode by his first testimony. was obliged to light the fagots that were to burn her father. James Brewster. bishop of London. It appeared that this man kept a shop in Salisbury. September 24. who had formerly recanted. This man was a poor. who had before recanted. In 1507 one Thomas Norris was burnt alive for the testimony of the truth of the Gospel. but his parish priest conversing with him one day. one William Tilfrey. He declared that he was a Lollard. harmless person. This year also one Father Roberts. Thomas Mann was burnt in London. and the people were returning home. but he persisted in his attachment to the truth to the last. was convicted of being a Lollard before the bishop of Lincoln. he gored him through the body. even to the bones. and although he had been weak enough to recant his opinions. Whittenham. was apprehended. as was one Robert Celin. a native of Colchester. 1518. was burnt alive at Amersham. Dr. Much about this time. one John Brown (who had recanted before in the reign of Henry VII and borne a fagot round St. brought before Richard Fitz-James. inoffensive.In 1506. was executed in Smithfield. and Norris was apprehended. A pious woman was burnt at Chippen Sudburne. a plain. Wonhaman. and burnt alive at Ashford. a pious man. in a close called Stoneyprat. William Succling and John Bannister. was there privately murdered by some of the servants of the archbishop. In the year 1517. by order of the chancellor. and that he had always believed the opinions of Wickliffe. bishop of Rochester. Joan Clarke. and was condemned to suffer as a heretic. This was done in order to make him again recant. and were burnt alive in Smithfield. who had been kept in prison two years. for which he was informed against to the bishop. In 1508. Much about this time one Richard Hunn. honest man for speaking against image worship and pilgrimages. Before he was chained to the stake. for denying the real presence in the Sacrament. he was obliged to submit to papal revenge. was apprehended. yet he was now willing to convince the world that he was ready to die for the truth. John Stilincen. In the year 1519. and entertained some Lollards in his house. and sealed his testimony to the truth with his blood. one Lawrence Guale. and at the same time. and on his horns carried his entrails. in the palace of Lambeth. returned again to the profession of the faith. the archbishop Wonhaman.

archbishop of Canterbury. apprehended one Hitten. He was conducted to the stake in Smithfield. when at it. and once every day beaten in the most cruel manner by the archbishop's servants. At last he was condemned. and said. This man had gotten some books in English. he was almost dead. The sheriffs always seized the goods of the martyrs for their own use. until scarcely any flesh was left on his back. A few weeks after Bilney had suffered. but was taken two years afterward. for it is as sweet to me as a bed of roses. until almost all his joints were dislocated. and all this was done to make him recant. and said. and brought back to Coventry. Byfield had been some time a monk. Richard Byfield was cast into prison. Thomas Bilney. was brought before the bishop of London. He suffered greatly during the time of his imprisonment. who had been guilty of no other offence against what was called the holy Mother Church. and. bishop of Rochester. The sufferings this man underwent for the truth were so great that it would require a volume to contain them. crying out. at Chesham in the Pell. and when they had set fire to the fagots. but he repented severely afterward. in the Chapter house. erected for the purpose. ye papists. For this he was brought before the bishop a second time. simple man. I believe". . degraded. and being several times threatened with the stake and flames. but was converted by reading Tyndale's version of the New Testament. so that their wives and children were left to starve. here now may you see a miracle. He was whipped at the post several times. than that of reading Tyndale's translation of the New Testament. who condemned him as an obstinate heretic." Thus he resigned his soul into the hands of his Redeemer. This was a plain. "I have had many storms in this world. Sometimes he was shut up in a dungeon. a priest at Maidstone. and professing a firm belief that his cause was just in the sight of God. For this he was brought before the bishop of London. where he was almost suffocated by the offensive and horrid smell of filth and stagnant water. but now my vessel will soon be on shore in heaven. and several times examined by the archbishop. one of the spectators dashed out his brains with a billet. for his adherence to the doctrines of Luther: this Mr. At first he was weak enough to adjure. had been accused of heresy. a reputable citizen in London. and burnt alive before the door of his own parish church." He stood unmoved in the flames. and condemned to death. and acknowledged the truth. declaring his utter abhorrence of popery. made his escape out of prison. Worham. The next person that suffered was John Tewkesbury. He was then taken to the Lollard's Tower in Lambeth palace. and several other bishops. Robert Silks. "Oh. and these were the last words he was heard to utter. he smiled.During this year. He was then chained to a stake. and endured some whipping. where he was burnt alive. he was weak enough to recant. one Christopher. but afterward repented. where he was burned. Before he went to the stake he confessed his adherence to those opinions which Luther held. at Barnes. and after he had been long tortured in prison. Thomas Harding. professor of civil law at Cambridge. who had been condemned in the bishop's court as a heretic. where he was chained by the neck to the wall. was brought before the bishop of Lincoln. and condemned for denying the real presence in the Sacrament. near Botely. was burnt alive at Newbury. When chained to the stake he embraced the fagots. he was condemned as a heretic. "Jesus. in Berkshire. which were sufficient to render him obnoxious to the Romish clergy. in Surrey. who with his wife. In 1532. for in this fire I feel no more pain than if I were in bed. During the latter end of this year. Westminster. who had married the widow of a gentleman in the Temple. The next person that suffered in this reign was James Baynham. for denying those popish articles which we have already mentioned. At other times he was tied up by the arms. The priests told the people that whoever brought fagots to burn heretics would have an indulgence to commit sins for forty days. a shoemaker. behold! ye look for miracles. and burnt in Smithfield. and Fisher. so that when they brought him out to execution.

For this crime Collins. that this nobleman is ranked among the martyrs. Soon after the execution of Cromwell. where they were burned to ashes. There were some other persons who suffered the same year. with Dr. a monk of great age. did not relate to anything in religion. yet he showed great signs of piety when he was fastened to the stake. with great propriety. was burned alive at Bradford in Wiltshire. who ought to have been sent to a madhouse. Reading standing before him. and accused of heresy. "Peke. Cranmer. one Traxnal. and when the fire was lighted. "He blessed the hungry people with the empty chalice. or whipped at the cart's tail. and he was burned alive. that the papists plotted his destruction. was brought to a scaffold on Tower-hill. Dr. suffered death with his dog in Smithfield. than any man in that age. and after the flames were kindled around him. we think. a madman. for the wind blew the flames away from them. recant. except the good Dr. Sometime before the burning of these men. were both carried to the stake in Smithfield. When brought to the stake in Smithfield. lifted up his dog above his head. He made a short speech to the people. John Frith. died for the truth. after he had drunk the wine. Nicholas Peke was executed at Norwich. earl of Essex. in the county of Suffolk. rejoicing that Christ had counted him worthy to suffer for His name's sake. and William Jerome. such the corruption in Church and state. of whom we shall take notice in the order they lie before us. and his dog. where he was executed with some striking instances of cruelty. But he persisted in his adherence to the truth. occasioned by the anguish of his sufferings. and although he was reputed to be a madman. On July 28. (for the chronology differs) Thomas Cromwell. It is. and then meekly resigned himself to the axe. in derision of the sacrifice of the Mass. in order that he might recant his opinions. an inoffensive countryman. In the year 1533. Spragwell." At the same time was condemned William Letton. was brought before the bishop of London. and for asserting. yet had it not been for his zeal to demolish popery. Both these sufferers endured much torment. a noted martyr.Soon after the death of this martyr. 1540. that the poor madman. To this may be added. because he would not acknowledge the real presence in the Sacrament. Thomas Garnet. and exhorted a young man named Andrew Hewit." and with great violence he spit blood. without paying any regard to the malice of his enemies. Hearne and Dr. and Collins. who suffered with him. Cuthbert Barnes. and believe in the Sacrament. Dr. amidst a vast crowd of spectators. he was so scorched that he was as black as pitch. One Cowbridge suffered at Oxford. to trust his soul to that God who had redeemed it. nor own the papal supremacy over the consciences of men. for although the accusations preferred against him. About the same time one Purderve was put to death for saying privately to a priest. "I despise thee and it also. that the Sacrament should be administered in both kinds. yet such was the force of popish power. The circumstances were as follows: Collins happened to be in church when the priest elevated the host. who was burned at Norwich for speaking against an idol that was carried in procession. In the year 1538. for he did more towards promoting the Reformation." To this he answered. and said. Dr. he might have to the last retained the king's favor. he embraced the fagots. were brought before the ecclesiastical court of the bishop of London. having a long white want in his hand. Reading granted forty days' indulgence for the sufferer. . so that they were above two hours in agony before they expired. and although he was really mad. struck him upon the right shoulder. one Collins. or 1541.

James' Epistles ion English. were both condemned and burnt alive. and most arrant traitors to the land. where he was stoned to death. . "This is God's armor. our Lord and Redeemer. he drank to his fellowsufferers. together with two others." and soon after the fires were lighted. but (said he) I will pray for you. and James Moreton. was sent to Windsor. Thomas Bainard. was thrown into prison. When they were brought to the stake. life. in Him do I trust for salvation. One Thomas Sommers. one of the sufferers. where they were all chained to one stake. they should forfeit land.Being before the bishop of London. cattle. Thus were Christ's people betrayed every way. to be a law forever: that whatsoever they were that should read the Scriptures in the mother-tongue (which was then called "Wickliffe's learning"). that "he would leave that to God." On the thirteenth of July. He is my only Savior. enemies to the crown. a priest. but Sommers threw his over. For. This was carried on by the bishop of Salisbury. for reading some of Luther's books. "Be merry. the bishop of that diocese. from their heirs for ever. desiring the Lord above to receive his spirit. in the said parliament. body. the king made this most blasphemous and cruel act. and their sufferings will be held in everlasting remembrance. the one for reading the Lord's Prayer in English. and now I am a Christian soldier prepared for battle: I look for no mercy but through the merits of Christ. lifteed up his eyes and hands to heaven. except Bonner. Longland. for which he was sent back to the Tower." At these words Eastwood. and then said to the spectators. for after this sharp breakfast I trust we shall have a good dinner in the Kingdom of Christ. which being brought him. and so be condemned for heretics to God. Parsons asked for some drink. Dreadful persecutions were at this time carried on at Lincoln. and lift up your hearts to God. with three others. under Dr. and several articles were tendered to them to subscribe. these men were brought from the Tower to Smithfield. there they were to throw them in the flames. and they were condemned to carry those books to a fire in Cheapside. which they refused. 1541. and their lives bought and sold. which burned their bodies. and there suffered death with a constancy that nothing less than a firm faith in Jesus Christ could inspire. my brethren. but could not hurt their precious and immortal souls. Dr. At Buckingham. and goods. who was the most violent persecutor of any in that age. saying. Barnes was asked whether the saints prayed for us? To this he answered. and the other for reading St. Their constancy triumphed over cruelty. to be examined concerning heresy. Parsons pulled the straw near to him. an honest merchant. Anthony Parsons.

and the fagots being kindled. "Depart from me. call upon our Lady. and was attended by a prodigious number of spectators. Coming out of his country with three companions to seek godly learning. from whose writings and doctrines he strongly attached himself to the Protestant religion. Hamilton was brought before the bishop. He was accordingly led to the place appointed for the horrid tragedy. Amongst whom was Patrick Hamilton. his publicly disapproving of pilgrimages. caused him to be seized. and being brought before him. in consequence of which he was immediately condemned to be burnt. say. and of the king's blood. called abbot of Ferne. a friar. In consequence of this. still continuing to interrupt him by opprobrious language. and thereby bring him over to embrace the principles of the Romish religion. but that it was only done to frighten him. When he arrived at the stake. for examination. either of Germany.CHAPTER XV . after a short examination relative to his religious principles. twenty-three years of age. he kneeled down. and the rapidity of the flames. and several others. "Turn. . but he bore it with Christian magnanimity. the clamor of some wicked men set on by the friars. The greatest part of the multitude would not believe it was intended he should be put to death. they caused it to be subscribed by all those of any note who were present." To whom he replied. which being set on fire took effect. A quantity of gunpowder having been placed under his arms was first set on fire which scorched his left hand and one side of his face. even admitted the subscription of boys who were sons of the nobility. he said to him. that he ordered his sentence to be put in execution on the afternoon of the very day it was pronounced. During his residence here. and. After this he was fastened to the stake. at the same time ordering him to be confined in the most loathsome part of the prison. Martin Luther and Philip Melancthon. he resigned up his soul into the hands of Him who gave it. he committed him a prisoner to the castle. etc. of excellent towardness. with an audible voice: "Lord Jesus. "Wicked man. when the principal articles exhibited against him were. or France. and that his condemnation might have the greater authority. thou heretic. for the dead. so likewise was not this isle of Britain without his fruit and branches. receive my spirit! How long shall darkness overwhelm this realm? And how long wilt Thou suffer the tyranny of these men?" The fire burning slow put him to great torment. he became intimately acquainted with those eminent lights of the Gospel." After which. So anxious was this bigoted and persecuting prelate for the destruction of Mr. he went to the University of Marburg in Germany. Italy. These articles Mr. who frequently cried. but did no material injury. and trouble me not. Andrews (who was a rigid papist) learning of Mr. Hamilton acknowledged to be true. God forgive thee. a Scotchman born of high and noble stock. and to make the number as considerable as possible. for some time prayed with great fervency. ye messengers of Satan. which university was then newly erected by Philip. Landgrave of Hesse. more powder and combustible matter were brought. The archbishop of St. and the fagots placed round him. wherein there were not some branches sprung out of that most fruitful root of Luther. Hamilton. What gave him the greatest pain was. The next morning Mr. prayers to saints. Hamilton's proceedings. he called out. etc. neither did it communicate with the fagots. who was the ringleader. Salve Regina. being prevented from further speech by the violence of the smoke." One Campbell.An Account of the Persecutions in Scotland During the Reign of King Henry VIII Like as there was no place. purgatory.

greater is He that is in us. Whilst consultation was held. when Stratton. Duncan Simson. were brought before the archbishop for examination. "for. a young inoffensive Benedictine. after being some time confined in prison. thus addressed him: "Brother. Let us. for a glorious resurrection to life immortal. therefore. They were all burnt together. the archbishop pronounced the dreadful sentence of death. but was prevented by the officers who attended. Russell. by the same straight way which He hath taken before us. being charged with speaking respectfully of the above Patrick Hamilton. When they arrived at the fatal spot. hoping. two others were apprehended on a suspicion of herresy. for a considerable time. the last day of February. and the poor Benedictine was sentenced to be burnt. was thrown into prison. while they in return made use of very opprobrious language. one of the archbishop's gentlemen. and they cheerfully resigned up their souls to that God who gave them. Their sentence was then put into execution. to burn Friar Forest in some cellar. The year following the martyrdoms of the before-mentioned persons. addressing himself to the spectators. The pain that we are to suffer is short. The next who fell victims for professing the truth of the Gospel." When they arrived at the fatal spot." This advice was taken. They then arose. and. and they were immediately delivered over to the secular power in order for execution. 1539. and prayed for some time with great fervency. Thomas Forret. in confessing himself to a friar. seeing his fellow-sufferer have the appearance of timidity in his countenance. might be defended. namely. and Robert Forrester. "the smoke of Patrick Hamilton hath infected all those on whom it blew. and Death of Mr. through the merits of the great Redeemer. for whose sake we are now going to suffer. The martyrdoms of the two before-mentioned persons. were soon followed by that of Mr." said he. but our joy and consolation shall never have an end. on the Castle-hill at Edinburgh. for it is already destroyed by Him. Sufferings. offered his advice. and both of them deemed heretics. in their way to which. and employ their time in seeking the true light of the Gospel. than burnt. they both kneeled down. strive to enter into our Master and Savior's joy. in full hopes of an everlasting reward in the heavenly mansions. fear not. and the fagots lighted. exhorted them to lay aside their superstitious and idolatrous notions. The next day they were led to the place appointed for them to suffer. George . than He that is in the world. In the course of which Russell. One Henry Forest. with regard to the manner of his execution. Death cannot hurt us. and that the articles for which he was sentenced to die.This steadfast believer in Christ suffered martyrdom in the year 1527. John Lindsay. owned that he thought Hamilton a good man. Killor and Beverage. The examination being over. viz. it was received as evidence. Jerome Russell and Alexander Kennedy. These two persons. They suffered in the year 1534. reasoned learnedly against his accusers. and the poor victim was rather suffocated. after which being fastened to the stake. they cheerfully resigned their souls into the hands of Him who gave them. were David Stratton and Norman Gourlay. 1538. This being revealed by the friar. a priest. being a very sensible man. An Account of the Life. who. a youth about eighteen years of age. had been dean of the Romish Church. a gentleman. and shall be light. they both kneeled down and prayed for some time. two blacksmiths. He would have said more.

in the University of Cambridge. for Professing the Truth of the Gospel About the year of our Lord 1543. James Raveleson. He loved me tenderly.Wishart. having on him for his clothing a frieze gown to the shoes. comely of personage. and that to make their cause appear more odious to the people. and the woman. and assuring themselves that they should sup together in the Kingdom of Heaven that night. and immediately received sentence of death. but the principal matter on which they were condemned was having regaled themselves with a goose on fast day. hating covetousness. temperate. Who Was Strangled and Afterward Burned. polled-headed. he gave away. following him to the place of execution. and died constantly in the Lord. a man of tall stature. courteous. he forbare one meal in three. The accusations laid against these respective persons were as follow: The four first were accused of having hung up the image of St. there was. with her sucking infant. and on the same a round French cap of the best. On these respective accusations they were all found guilty. The four men. when he changed. but she was not suffered. James Raveleson to be burnt. for his charity had never end. she gave him comfort. nor day. Andrews made a visitation into various parts of his diocese. except something to comfort nature. The woman desired earnestly to die with her husband. night. in Scotland. suffered at the same time. after due correction for their malice. He was a man modest. and I him. He had commonly by his bedside a tub of water. new canvas sheets. judged to be of melancholy complexion by his physiognomy. one day in four for the most part. in the which (his people being in bed. to be put into a sack and drowned. and white falling bands and cuffs at his hands. by good exhortation amended them and went his way. his poor boy. noon. Francis. lowly. which. William Anderson. long-bearded. glad to teach. which the archbishop conceived to be done in mockery to his cardinal's cap. And he. with the woman and the child. viz. Robert Lamb. Oh. but James Raveleson was not executed until some days after. Among those the following were condemned to die. which was common to all thieves. and well travelled. Helen Stark was accused of not having accustomed herself to pray to the Virgin Mary. He lay hard upon a puff of straw and coarse. black-haired. that came for a treaty to King Henry. a black millian fustian doublet. In 1543. the archbishop of St. where several persons were informed against at Perth for heresy. lovely. James Hunter. one Master George Wishart. commonly called Master George of Benet's College. that the Lord had left him to me. coarse new canvas for his shirts. yet. desirous to learn. for eating the goose. so that some of his people thought him severe. they commended themselves to God. Every one comforting another. and Helen Stark. to be hanged. and plain black hosen. carved in wood. the candle put out and all quiet) he used to bathe himself. fearing God. . more especially during the time she was in childbed. James Reveleson was accused of having ornamented his house with the three crowned diadem of Peter. and. well spoken after his country of Scotland. that he might have finished what he had begun! for he went into scotland with divers of the nobility. The martyrs were carried by a great band of armed men (for they feared rebellion in the town except they had their men of war) to the place of execution. He taught with great modesty and gravity. but the Lord was his defence. nailing ram's horns on his head. the four men. James Finlayson. and fastening a cow's tail to his rump. and would have slain him. exhorting him to perseverance and patience for Christ's sake.

If it be long prosperous with you. This being related to him. After this the plague abated. but he spent most of his time in private meditation and prayer. and comforted them by his exhortations. Being desirous of propagating the true Gospel in his own country George Wishart left Cambridge in 1544. and the happiness of those of His elect. and the sucking bairn was given to the nurse. This sudden rebuff greatly surprised Wishart. he said that God had almost put an end to that plague. as greatly alarmed the papists. because we must have joy forever. as not to regard death. the judgments that ensue upon the contempt or rejection of it. He chose the east gate for the place of his preaching. after she had commended her children to the neighbors of the town for God's sake. who. yea. the archbishop of St. After this he went into the west of Scotland. Wishart constantly visited those that lay in the greatest extremity. but to judge them the more happy who should then be called. which he went through with such grace and freedom. and the sick without the gate. determined to go there. though. Andrews) one Robert Miln. and on his arrival in Scotland he first preached at Montrose. (at the instigation of Cardinal Beaton. now you yourselves refuse me. that I never minded your trouble but your comfort. said: "God is my witness. and I must leave my innocence to be declared by my God. He went from thence to Montrose. which before they lightly esteemed. the freedom of God's grace to all His people. and retired. after a short pause. and to chase from you His messenger. In consequence of this. He took his text from these words. he. I am not lede by the Spirit of truth. for we shall suddenly meet with joy in the Kingdom of Heaven. but if unlooked-for troubles come upon you. A short time after this Mr. saying: "They are now in troubles. acknowledge the cause and turn to God. and afterwards at Dundee. but shall bring you into it: for God shall send you ministers that shall fear neither burning nor banishment." The woman. The hearts of his hearers were so raised by the divine force of this discourse." At the close of this speech he left the pulpit. and that he was now called to another place. which was gladly received by many. looking sorrowfully on the speaker and the audience." etc. and albeit she had a child sucking on her breast. after that. in the midst of it. So. "Husband. notwithstanding the importunity of his friends to detain him. went to the church where Wishart preached. said. and raged so extremely that it was almost beyond credit how many died in the space of twenty-four hours. a principal man at Dundee. yet this moved nothing in the unmerciful hearts of the enemies. for he was determined not to suffer it. In this last place he made a public exposition of the Epistle to the Romans. but this day. When he took his leave of the people of Dundee. was taken to a place to be drowned." Here he was with joy received by the godly. It began four days after he was prohibited from preaching there.parting from him with a kiss. With the hazard of my life I have remained among you. . in which we must die. your trouble is more grievous to me than it is to yourselves: but I am assured to refuse God's Word. and need comfort. where he sometimes preached. "He sent His word and healed them. Perhaps this hand of God will make them now to magnify and reverence the Word of God. I have offered you the Word of salvation. not knowing whether he should have such comfort again with them. shall not preserve you from trouble. Wishart received intelligence that the plague had broken out in Dundee. so that the healthy were within. for we have lived together many joyful days. But if you turn not at the first warning. In this sermon he chiefly dwelt upon the advantage and comfort of God's Word. whom He takes to Himself out of this miserable world. she sealed up the truth by her death. and in the middle of his discourse publicly told him not to trouble the town any more. who is gracious and merciful. therefore I will not bid you good night. He will visit you with fire and sword. ought to be most joyful unto us both. rejoice. where he preached God's Word.

and it coming to the ears of those who were sick. of Ormistohn. and seeing the priest as he came from the pulpit. by teaching more heedfulness for the time to come." A short time after this he left Montrose. after Wishart had finished his sermon. as he was taken with a sudden sickness. In the meantime the cardinal had provided sixty men armed to lie in wait within a mile and a half of Montrose. In consequence of this the cardinal immediately proceeded to the trial of Wishart. and therefore pray to God with me. Let some of you go to yonder place. The letter came to Wishart's hand by a boy. But Mr. Mr. But Wishart. and returned to his bed. set forward. Cardinal Beaton. . called John Weighton. and the people departed. which they wondering at. applied to the regent to cause him to be apprehended. By the way he lodged with a faithful brother. The priest being terrified. but much good. and saw your gestures. in order to murder him as he passed that way. said. in East Lothian. Soon after his return to Montrose. and proceeded to Edinburgh. which two men hearing they privately followed him. after great persuasion. Wishart answered the respective articles with great composure of mind. the archbishop endeavored to prevail on Mr." Soon after. I am assured there is treason. but something particular striking his mind by the way. and went into the yard. called James Watson of Inner-Goury. confessed his intention. and while he was engaged in the labors of love to the bodies as well as to the souls of those poor afflicted people. he complied. Cardinal Beaton engaged a desperate popish priest. they told Mr. asked him the cause. and tell me what you find. I am assured that my warfare is near at an end. A noise was hereupon raised. While in the yard. for he hath done me no mischief. the laird of Kennier. the cardinal again conspired his death. piercing eye. and they burst in at the gate. "I know I shall end my life by that bloodthirsty man's hands. against whom no less than eighteen articles were exhibited. "My friend." But they still pressing upon him to know something. but it will not be in this manner. causing a letter to be sent him as if it had been from his familiar friend." By this conduct he appeased the people and saved the life of the wicked priest. Andrews. "Whatsoever hurts him shall hurt me." Which doing. and hastily returning. came and asked him where he had been. archbishop of St. and much against his will. fell to his knees. to whom he said. Wishart to recant. having a sharp. "Deliver the traitor to us. Wishart was at the house of Mr. Wishart. Wishart. whereupon he said. said. "I had rather you had been in your beds. and craved pardon. his friends. he said. to kill him. and in so learned and clear a manner as greatly surprised most of those who were present. with a naked dagger in his hand under his gown. who also brought him a horse for the journey. saying "Be plain with us. appearing as though they were ignorant of all. In the middle of the night he got up." On this he with a dejected countenance. they cried. after which he arose. he fell on his knees. The next day they importuned him to tell them. But he would not answer them. we will take him by force". to be in the least moved. took it from him. said to him. After the examination was finished. in which it was desired with all possible speed to come to him. taking the priest in his arms. On the morning of his execution there came to him two friars from the cardinal. with which. in order to propagate the Gospel in that city. I am forbidden of God. Wishart. a priest stood waiting at the bottom of the stairs. "I will tell you. one of whom put on him a black linen coat. which they tied about different parts of his body. that I shrink not when the battle waxeth most hot. being informed that Mr. he returned. Those who attended him. and prayed for some time with the greatest fervency. what would you have?" and immediately clapping his hand upon the dagger. they made the discovery. the attempt to execute which was as follows: one day.It is said that before he left Dundee. accompanied by some honest men. Cockburn. and the other brought several bags of gunpowder. "I will not go. but he was too firmly fixed in his religious principles and too much enlightened with the truth of the Gospel. for we heard your mourning.

As soon as he was fastened to the stake and the fagots lighted. sentence of condemnation was immediately passed on him. he was forced to abandon his charge and abscond. crying out. and at the same time composure of mind. do thine office." Which prediction was soon after fulfilled. Being interrogated by Sir Andrew Oliphant. as now he proudly lolls at his ease. on an information of heresy." He was then fastened to the stake. but it hath in nowise broken my spirit. I pray you to forgive me. I commend my spirit into Thy holy hands. But he was soon apprehended. (though I acknowledge myself a miserable . However. was one Walter Mill. and exceedingly infirm. exhorted the martyr.D. "I beseech thee.As soon as he arrived at the stake. he addressed the spectators as follows: "The cause why I suffer this day is not for any crime. and in his bed murdered him the said year. This steadfast believe in Christ was eighty-two years of age. by the just revenge of God's mighty judgment. The last who suffered martyrdom in Scotland. who was put to death by David Beaton. whence it was supposed that he could scarcely be heard. upon which he fell on his knees and thus exclaimed: "O thou Savior of the world. This person. and at last like a carrion was buried in a dunghill. and he was conducted to prison in order for execution the following day. the first day of March. who. he answered in the negative. in his younger years. like a butcher he lived. here is a token that I forgive thee." After this he prayed for his accusers. A. Andrews." When that he was come to him. be ignominiously thrown down. in the time of Cardinal Beaton. the last day of May. and committed to prison. and burned to powder. To which he replied. forgive them that have. saying. he expressed his religious sentiments with such courage. "This flame occasions trouble to my body." And then he was put upon the gibbet and hanged. indeed. "Come hither to me. "Sir. saying that he would 'sooner forfeit ten thousand lives. and said." To whom he answered. he kissed his cheek. in a few words. whether he would recant his opinions. and on his return was installed a priest of the Church of Lunan in Angus. It was not long after the martyrdom of this blessed man of God. The governor of the castle. from ignorance or an evil mind. and to ask the pardon of God for his offences. But he who now so proudly looks down upon me from yonder lofty place (pointing to the cardinal) shall. Father of heaven. Master George Wishart. brake in suddenly upon him. was slain within his own castle of St. have mercy upon me! Father of heaven. and lay seven months and more unburied. the executioner put a rope round his neck and a chain about his middle. I beseech Christ to forgive them that have ignorantly condemned me. for I am not guilty of your death. than relinquish a particle of those heavenly principles he had received from the suffrages of his blessed Redeemer. ere long. who was burnt at Edinburgh in the year 1558. My heart. 1546. that was his tormentor. by the hands of one Leslie and other gentlemen. When that the people beheld the great tormenting. the bloody archbishop and cardinal of Scotland.' In consequence of this. when he was taken to the place of execution. for the cause of Christ. and like a butcher he died. forged lies of me: I forgive them with all my heart. but. that the said David Beaton. by the Lord stirred up. to be of good cheer. which blew into a flame and smoke. they might not withhold from piteous mourning and complaining of this innocent lamb's slaughter. had travelled in Germany. and said: "Lo. sat down upon his knees. who stood so near that he was singed with the flame. "Alas! alas! slay me not! I am a priest!" And so. as astonished even his enemies. The hangman. and the fagots being lighted immediately set fire to the powder that was tied about him.

that you may be delivered from condemnation. and His mercy. be no longer seduced by the lies of the seat of Antichrist: but depend solely on Jesus Christ." And then added that he trusted he should be the last who would suffer death in Scotland upon a religious account. not doubting but he should be made partaker of his heavenly Kingdom.sinner) but only for the defence of the truth as it is in Jesus Christ. to seal the truth with my life. as I received it from Him. so I willingly and joyfully offer it up to His glory. by His mercy. Thus did this pious Christian cheerfully give up his life in defence of the truth of Christ's Gospel. and I praise God who hath called me. . as you would escape eternal death. which. Therefore.

in his long and lingering affliction. he was condemned. having succeeded by false promises in obtaining the crown. she possessed talents of a very superior nature. by which he bequeathed the English crown to Lady Jane. the daughter of the duke of Suffolk. and her elevation was the signal for the commencement of the bloody persecution which followed. she was not sparing in its exercise. the nobles. the son of the duke of Northumberland. The supporters of Lady Jane Gray were destined to feel its force. the succession of Mary and Elizabeth. on account of their fears that she might marry a foreigner. and. Her partiality to popery also left little doubt on the minds of any. The duke of Northumberland was the first who experienced her savage resentment. on her brother's decease. as must be obvious from her letter to the lords of the council. The king. because he had already signified his opinion that Mary was entitled to assume the reins of government. and brought to the .Persecutions in England During the Reign of Queen Mary The premature death of that celebrated young monarch. under the direction of his counsellors and servants. Alarmed for the condition in which the kingdom was likely to be involved by the king's death. was entirely superseded. was productive of the most serious and fatal effects. whereby she put in her claim to the crown. Lord Chief Justice Hale. and change the religion which had been used both in the days of her father. She was crowned at Westminster in the usual form. and almost all the judges and the principal lawyers of the realm. for Mary. The succession to the British throne was soon made a matter of contention. and the scenes which ensued were a demonstration of the serious affliction in which the kingdom was involved. By this will.FOX'S BOOK OF MARTYRS CHAPTER XVI . though a true Protestant and an upright judge. and in those of her brother Edward: for in all his time she had manifested the greatest stubbornness and inflexibility of temper. the remembrance of his government was more and more the basis of grateful recollection. denoted the advances which were thereby represented to an entire resolution in the management of public affairs both in Church and state. to be queen of England. subscribed their names to this regulation. who had been married to Lord Guilford. from an apprehension of the returning system of popery. and was the granddaughter of the second sister of King Henry. Others objected to Mary's being placed on the throne. was a contemplation which the reflecting mind was compelled to regard with most alarming apprehensions. speedily proceeded to proclaim Lady Jane Gray. perhaps. The very awful prospect. speedily commenced the execution of her avowed intention of extirpating and burning every Protestant. This melancholy event became speedily a subject of general regret. Her reign was of only five days' continuance. who had associated to prevent Mary's succession. which were but too plainly foreseen. duke of Suffolk. occasioned the most extraordinary and wonderful occurrences. as a sanction to the measure. by Charles. alone declined to unite his name in favor of the Lady Jane. was induced to make a will. King Henry. and thereby bring the crown into considerable danger. an endeavor to prevent the consequences. his two sisters. that she would be induced to revive the dormant interests of the pope. and her improvements under a most excellent tutor had given her many very great advantages. Having obtained the sword of authority. advising the measures of Edward. with the chief of the nobility. Within a month after his confinement in the Tower. in the city of London and various other populous cities of the realm. and had been instrumental in promoting. which was soon presented to the friends of Edward's administration. the lord-mayor of the city of London. and the king's council. which had ever existed from the times of our blessed Lord and Savior's incarnation in human shape. The rapid approaches which were made towards a total reversion of the proceedings of the young king's reign. Edward VI. Though young. As his loss to the nation was more and more unfolded. When this happened.

she spoke to the specators in this manner: "Good people. "No. and the face of you." Then she said the Psalm of Miserere mei Deus. and neckerchief. madam. Then said she. and the executioner pressed upon her to help her off with it: but she. great heaviness and discomfort grew more and more to all good men's hearts. Hooper was sent prisoner to the Fleet. and asked her forgiveness. I pray you assist me with your prayers. saying. which doing. in the year of our Lord 1554. and by open proclamation consented to take from others. paaft. wherein she had her book. to suffer as a traitor. perceived already coals to be kindled. "Will you take it off before I lay me down?" And the executioner said. "Yea. Heath put into the see of Worcestor. she laid her head upon the block. Ellen. Bruges. into Thy hands I commend my spirit." and so finished her life. it is to be noted that Judge Morgan. that of His goodness He hath thus given me a time and a respite to repent. I neglected the same. the twelfth day of February. From his varied crimes. and so he ended his life. Thus died Lady Jane. to whom she also gave the important office of lord-chancellor. in a most devout manner throughout to the end. or on my behalf. Mrs. Day. Poynet was displaced to make room for Gardiner to be bishop of Winchester. These things being marked and perceived. to bear me witness. desiring him to let her alone. who gave sentence against her. Miles Coverdale was also excluded from Exeter. whom she forgave most willingly. by her acceptance of the crown at the earnest solicitations of her friends. Dr. unequivocally declared that the queen was disaffected to the present state of religion. that I die a good Christian woman. Ridley was dismissed from the see of London. I do wash my hands thereof in innocency before God. Tonstall was also promoted to the see of Durham. Then the executioner kneeled down. and the consenting thereunto by me: but." Then she tied a handkerchief about her eyes. she turned to Feckenham. They that could dissemble took no great care how the matter went. Vesie placed in that diocese. J. was likewise beheaded. soon after he had condemned her. despatch me quickly. And now. good Christian people. but such. For they were both very young. kneeling down. and yet I thank God. and give to them. and by a law I am condemned to the same. and feeling for the block. and then she untied he gown. two innocents in comparison with them that sat upon them. her husband. The fact against the queen's highness was unlawful." Then she kneeled down. and that I do look to be saved by no other mean. resulting out of a sordid and inordinate ambition. and therefore this plague and punishment is happily and worthily happened unto me for my sins. and also with her frowes. "What shall I do? Where is it? Where is it?" One of the standers-by guiding her therunto. and Bonne introduced. she saw the block." And then. and said. and Dr. "Shall I say this Psalm?" and he said. who helped her off therewith. J. to admit Dr. "Lord. her gloves and handkerchief. but to the wicked great rejoicing.scaffold. and Dr. and on the same day Lord Guilford. one of the duke of Northumberland's sons. Then he desired her to stand upon the straw. "I pray you. but only by the mercy of God in the blood of His only Son Jesus Christ: and I confess that when I did know the Word of God. Story was put out of the bishopric of Chichester. and then she stood up. in English. . I am come hither to die. giving to her a fair handkerchief to put about her eyes. "I pray you all. she said. Then she said. Dr. loved myself and the world. and ignorantly accepted that which others had contrived. he died unpitied and unlamented. about the seventeenth year of her age. fell mad. The Words and Behavior of the Lady Jane upon the Scaffold The next victim was the amiable Lady Jane Gray. The changes. When she first mounted the scaffold. and then stretched forth her body. turned towards her two gentlewomen. while I am alive. which after should be the destruction of many a true Christian. incurred the implacable resentment of the bloody Mary. Dr. which followed with rapidity. good people. and gave her maid. Touching the condemnation of this pious lady. and her book to Mr. whose consciences were joined with the truth. saying. touching the procurement and desire thereof by me. this day:" and therewith she wrung her hands. and in his raving cried out continually to have the Lady Jane taken away from him. good Christian people. who.

" quoth Mr." "That shall be known. and lodged in Newgate among thieves. idolatry. and exhorted the people to beware of the pestilence of popery. Sepulchre's. Woodroofe. "IKf it be so." "But I will pray for you." "Well. and was afterward many years chaplain to the merchant adventurers at Antwerp in Brabant. with his superstition and idolatry. "That which I have preached I will seal with my blood. and so was brought the same day. then said he. Henry. The proclamation of the queen. who. after some time. for that time. was beheaded on Tower-hill. duke of Suffolk. the restless Bonner. the fourth day after his condemnation: about which time many gentlemen and yeomen were condemned. one of the sheriffs. In the number of whom was Lord Thomas Gray. first came to Mr. On King Edward's accession. and. He confirmed in his sermon the true doctrine taught in King Edward's time. when the Gospel and true religion were banished. and the dean and chapter appointed him reader of the divinity lesson there. Rogers answered. Nicholas Ridley. the fourth of February. Rogers had been long and straitly imprisoned. Here he continued until Queen Mary's succession to the throne. When the time came that he should be brought out of Newgate to Smithfield. and Bonner asked what that should be. when once called to answer in Christ's cause. and he there learned the Dutch language. and. and to seek means to succor them. Rogers having preached at Paul's cross. The circumstance of Mr. he was suddenly warned by the keeper of Newgate's wife. Rogers. After Mr. Rogers. Mr. being apprehended not long after in North Wales. "I will never pray for thee. Woodroofe. brother to the said duke. Hence he was again summoned before the council. London John Rogers was educated at Cambridge. and removed to Wittenberg in Saxony. I need not tie my points. for the improvement of learning. bishop of Winchester. . He did so. he stoutly defended it. introduced. Rogers. he was dismissed. gave him a prebend in St. and some in the country. Paul's. hence he married. Mr. and the evil opinion of the Sacrament of the altar. the place of his execution. and hazarded his life for that purpose. and he could not forget a wife and ten children. then bishop of London. and bid to make haste. They were the instruments of his conversion. caused him to be committed to Newgate.On the twenty-first day of the same month. At length being raised and awaked. in the year of our Lord 1555. also. and received the charge of a congregation. and Miles Coverdale. after Queen Mary arrived at the Tower. and very uncharitably entreated. and though he perceived the state of the true religion to be desperate. there to be lodged among thieves and murderers. "Thou art an heretic. Sir Nicholas Throgmorton. Rogers replied that he might speak a few words with his wife before his burning. first to bishop Bonner to be degraded: which being done. often examined." And so was had down. and the Antichrist of Rome. For this he was called to account. and executed for the same. Here he met with the celebrated martyr William Tyndale. but so ably defended himself that. could scarce be awaked. but that could not be obtained of him. to prepare himself for the fire." Then Mr. he left Saxony to promote the work of reformation in England." said Mr. however. and Reader of St. After long imprisonment in his own house. and asked him if he would revoke his abominable doctrine. and superstition." said Mr. and at length unjustly and most cruelly condemned by Stephen Gardiner. Mr. bishop of London. though he might have escaped. being then sound asleep. John Rogers. both voluntary exiles from their country for their aversion to popish superstition and idolatry. Woodroofe said. and he united with them in that translation of the Bible into English. entitled "The Translation of Thomas Matthew. whereof some were executed at London. and commanded to keep his house. Heknew he could not want a living in Germany. Paul's Cathedral. which he faithfully executed for many years. he craved of Bonner but one petition. the fourth day of February." From the Scriptures he knew that unlawful vows may be lawfully broken. "at the Day of Judgment. being Monday in the morning. to prohibit true preaching. But all these things were insufficient to induce him to depart. has been already stated. gave his enemies a new handle against him. very narrowly escaped. Vicar of St.

taught diligently. Shortly after he quitted the university. met him by the way. are the most pure. and heard him. the better to qualify himself for the office of preacher. where he began to add to the knowledge of the Latin. as he went towards Smithfield. counselled him to fly out of the realm." Upon being closely charged with contumacy. In the beginning of King Edward's reign. ten able to go. "My Lord. 1554. with great praises and thanks to God for the same. he departed from Litchfield to a benefice in Leicestershire. he began to preach. wherein he had openly declared Queen Mary to be a bastard) so irritated him that he exclaimed. in the defence and quarrel of the Gospel of Christ. In the afternoon of Sunday. being eleven in number. washing his hands in the flame as he was burning." . "Carry away this frenzied fool to prison. after license obtained. as he was reading in his church to exhort his people. and partly because there was no law broken by hbis preaching. Thence he was orderly called to take a benefice in the city of London. namely. you seek my blood. if he would have recanted. by sending an officer for him. and profited in knowledge and learning very much for that time. Some of his friends. who were chief actors for the queen among them. but soon returned to Cambridge again to his study. towards Smithfield. Saunders. After this he preached at Northhampton. TGhis sorrowful sight of his own flesh and blood could nothing move him. which had been so plentifully offered unto them. as a just plague for the little love which the English nation then bore to the blessed Word of God. to visit his flock. but that he constantly and cheerfully took his death with wonderful patience." The Rev. to get the favor of Henry VIII written and set forth in print. and kept a liberal house. which he refused to do. the study of the Greek and Hebrew tongues. but he utterly refused it. His wife and children. He was the first martyr of all the blessed company that suffered in Queen Mary's time that gave the first adventure upon the fire.by the sheriffs. were highly displeased with him for his sermon. comptroller of the queen's household. Rochester. all the people wonderfully rejoicing at his constancy. and for it kept him among them as a prisoner. a book of true obedience. where he held a residence. A little before his burning. was chosen to go to King's College in Cambridge. and one sucking at her breast. after passing some time in the school of Eaton. (who had before. when God's true religion was introduced. But seeing he was with violence kept from doing good in that place. he said. where he continued three years. his pardon was brought. both the sheriffs. which come the nearest to the order of the primitive Church. but a heretic he meant to prove him. Lawrence Saunders Mr. His treason and sedition the bishop's charity was content to let slip until another time. Saunders to the bishop. and a great number of people. and was so well liked of them who then had authority that they appointed him to read a divinity lecture in the College of Forthringham. nothing meddling with the state. the severe replies of Mr. October 15. he returned towards London. The College of Fothringham being dissolved he was placed to be a reader in the minster at Litchfield. who taught and believed that the administration of the Sacraments. and went to his parents. and all orders of the Church. but boldly uttering his conscience against the popish doctrines which were likely to spring up again in England. saying. All-hallows in Bread-street. saying the Psalm Miserere by the way. The queen's party who were there. perceiving such fearful menacing. After a certain space. and become a better man. they dismissed him. Lawrence Saunders did so. But partly for love of his brethren and friends. And there in the presence of Mr. the bishop of London interrupted him. and all those. the bishop desired him to write what he believed of transubstantiation. and you shall have it: I pray God that you may be so baptized in it that you may ever after loathe blood-sucking. he was burnt to ashes. called Church-langton. After much talk concerning this matter. Sir Richard Southwell. and gave himself up to the study of the Holy Scriptures.

After this good and faithful martyr had been kept in prison one year and a quarter. here also he married his wife. and because out of prison. Bishop of Worcester and Gloucester John Hooper. there was pardon for him. Cardmaker. and sweetly slept in the Lord Jesus. Saunders that he was one of them who marred the queen's realm. After his excommunication and delivery over to the secular power. who used to serve him with shoes. Sentlow." replied the holy martyr. Mr. openly to be examined before the queen's council. as his steward. appointed to see the execution done. and Examination of Mr. came to the prison to degrade him. and stayed until the rest of his fellowprisoners were likewise examined. Mr. sank to the earth and prayed. used continually to preach. he was led to the place of execution. and." Mr. Hooper now prudently left Sir Thomas' house and arrived at Paris. and prayed. both because he found there a fellow-prisoner. Imprisonment. he might have an opportunity of preaching to his parishioners. When they had arrived at Coventry. commencing acquaintance with learned men. Bullinger. as before in his pulpit. came to him. a prison in his own parish of Bread-street." The next day." "Good shoemaker. offered to help forward the Lord's work. that have I taught. was stirred with such fervent desire to the love and knowledge of the Scriptures that he was compelled to move from thence. and his friends in Zurich. but in a short time returned to England. and applied very studiously to the Hebrew tongue. though he exceedingly favored his person and condition and wished to be his friend. Bonner. and was retained by Mr. with some peace and rest unto the Church. and to give us King Edward to reign over this realm. or at least once a day. until Sir Thomas had intelligence of his opinions and religion. student and graduate in the University of Oxford. he was brought by the sheriff of London to the Compter. "Welcome. . and frequently said. 1555. and coming to London. who then repaired homeward. embraced the stake. and was retained in the house of Sir Thomas Arundel. said to Mr. there to be burnt. but seeing such a time and occasion. for I am the most unfit man for this high office. His examination being ended. he repaired again to England in the reign of King Edward VI. most times twice. but my gracious God and dear Father is able to make me strong enough. who were appointed to carry him to the city of Coventry. the day following. at which he rejoiced greatly. a poor shoemaker. and especially at Zurich. in the park. When Mr. "O my good master. moved in conscience. when he passed through France to the higher parts of Germany. When he was come to nigh the place. and said. he then rose up. by Mr. Bullinger. "but such as you have injured the realm. without the city. where. He went in an old gown and a shirt. until the time that he was again molested and sought for. thou cross of Christ! welcome everlasting life!" Fire was then put to the fagots. being the eighth of February. the officer. Saunders then slowly moved towards the fire. John Hooper. At length. Mr. Saunders replied. who was his singular friend. and oftentimes fell flat on the ground. barefooted. that do I believe. The blessed Gospel of Christ is what I hold. and that will I never revoke!" Mr. "I desire thee to pray for me. the bishops at length called him. but if he would recant. which he in no case did favor. The History. in the morning the sheriff of London delivered him to certain of the queen's guard. Hooper had taken his farewell of Mr. thought not to absent himself. he was overwhelmed by the dreadful flames. "Not I. that ever was appointed to it. On the fourth of February. with whom he had much Christian and comfortable discourse. as they did his fellow-prisoners. Hooper also. bishop of London. he was by them free and lovingly entertained. the officers led him out of the place. to the uttermost of his ability. who was a Burgonian. when God saw it good to stay the bloody time of the six articles. God strengthen and comfort you. amongst many other English exiles. both at Basel. that they might lead them all together to prison.

and then maliciously reported that he had recanted. and life is sweet. Bishop Hooper was degraded and condemned. January 28. and praising God that he saw it good to send him among the people over whom he was pastor. Hooper was led through the city to Newgate. he rejoiced very much. Dr. and lodged at one Ingram's house. Mr. Hooper. he corrected sin. in his life exemplary. he continued in prayer ujntil morning. "but God will give us strength. 1554." said Mr. he came to Gloucester. and begin to fry in these fagots?" "Yes. to see whether they would recant. about five o'clock. . as the most melodious sound and tune of Orpheus' harp. he desired that no man should be suffered to come into the chamber. and the Rev. and saluted him. and all the day. accused falsely of owing the queen money." "Doubt not. Doctor. Hooper. and after that he was made bishop of Worcester. for then wouldst thou indeed be blind both in body and soul. for the space of two years and more. yet He hath endued thy soul with the eye of knowledge and of faith. God give thee grace continually to pray unto Him. In that office he continued two years. In his doctrine he was earnest. The people in great flocks and companies daily came to hear his voice. lifting up his eyes and hands to heaven. he spent in prayer. so they tempted him. in the Scriptures perfect. WIth tender entreaties he exhorted him to live. he. Hooper's good friend. for what reason He best knoweth. "True it is. Sir Anthony Kingston. Rogers was treated in like manner. After he had been cited to appear before Bonner and Dr. he wrote an account of his severe treatment during near eighteen months' confinement in the Fleet. At dark. praising God for his constancy. After he had got up in the morning. January 29. he was frequently visited by Bonner and others. "though God hath taken from thee thy outward sight. with the Rev. On February 7." When the mayor waited upon him preparatory to his execution. "Come. Hooper executed the office of a most careful and vigilant pastor. "that death is bitter. was appointed by the queen's letters to attend at his execution. As soon as he saw the bishop he burst into tears. as long as the state of religion in King Edward's time was sound and flourishing." said Dr. except a little time at his meals. and when conversing such as the guard kindly permitted to speak to him. at one time Dr. Having preached before the king's majesty. but alas! consider that the death to come is more bitter. Mary Overy's. that he might be solitary until the hour of execution. "must we two take this matter first in hand. he was soon after made bishop of Gloucester. and sharply inveighed against the iniquity of the world and the corrupt abuses of the Church. had suffered imprisonment at Gloucester for confessing the truth. there to remain until the next day at nine o'clock. The place of his martyrdom being fixed at Gloucester. in tongue eloquent. he was led to the Council. insomuch. Brother Rogers. the church would be so full that none could enter farther than the doors thereof. During the few days he was in Newgate. was conducted to the Compter in Southwark. and after his third examination. and behaved himself so well that his very enemies could find no fault with him. he expressed his perfect obedience. and the life to come is more sweet. Dr. After his first sleep. and in the next year. The same boy.In his sermons." said the bishop. "by God's grace. 1555. Mr. that thou lose not that sight. notwithstanding this secrecy. not long before. Heath. according to his accustomed manner. Rogers. and only requested that a quick fire might terminate his torments." and the people so applauded their constancy that they had much ado to pass. many people came forth to their doors with lights. there to confirm with his death the truth which he had before taught them." said the bishop. that oftentimes when he was preaching. As Christ was tempted. but without avail." The same day a blind boy obtained leave to be brought into Dr. Rogers. at St. in pains indefatigable." said Dr. "Ah! poor boy. Hooper's presence.

being straitly charged not to speak. Now. his strength was gone. he prayed. backwards. until through his interest he obtained the living at Hadley. And he now reigneth. Son of David. was a man of eminent learning. prepared for the faithful in Christ before the foundations of the world. saving that it burnt his hair and scorched his skin a little. until by renewing the fire. vicar of Hadley. as it was market-day. and had been admitted to the degree of doctor of the civil and canon law. In this fire he prayed with a loud voice. and beholding the people. and blood dropped out at his fingers' ends. but the fagots were so few that the flame only singed his upper parts. saying mildly. "If you love my soul. Not only was his word a preaching unto them. When he came to the place appointed where he should die. if he would turn. even as at the first flame. it kindled not speedily. Cranmer. away with it!" The box being taken away. he wiped both his eyes with his hands. and receive my soul!" After the second fire was spent. where he used to preach. have mercy upon me. during the time of his being among them. and not very loud. Rowland Taylor of Hadley Dr. let me have more fire!" and all this while his nether parts did burn. while the fat. neither moving forwards. but he died as quietly as a child in his bed. and was a pretty while also before it took the reeds upon the fagots. His attachment to the pure and uncorrupted principles of Christianity recommended him to the favor and friendship of Dr. resort unto him. as unto their father. Rowland Taylor. "For God's love. "Seeing there is no remedy. The Life and Conduct of Dr. but as one without pain. but all his life and conversation was an example of unfeigned Christian life and true holiness. and many thousand persons were collected. with whom he lived a considerable time. patiently he abode the extremity thereof. but had small power above. good people. and a new fire kindled with fagots. He was void of all pride. which was more extreme than the other two. to look with so cheerful and ruddy a countenance as he did at that time. . "Lord Jesus. he was led forth. The third fire was kindled within a while after. with his pardon from the queen. a few dry fagots were brought. loud voice. so that he was in a manner little more than touched by the fire. nor to any side. have mercy upon me! Lord Jesus receive my spirit!" And these were the last words he was heard to utter." Command was now given that the fire should be kindled. because of the wind. despatch him quickly. he smilingly beheld the stake and preparation made for him. Lord Chandois said. and then knocked still with the other. Then immediately bowing forwards. which was near unto the great elm tree over against the college of priests. water. Within a space after. At the sight whereof he cried. Thus was he three quarters of an hour or more in the fire. In the time of which fire. and being a lowering cold morning. "O Jesus. humble and meek as any child. he said with an indifferent. but the wind having full strength at that place. I doubt not. he would sometimes lift up his eyes towards heaven. and his tongue so swollen that he could not speak. in Suffolk. as a blessed martyr in the joys of heaven. it blew the flame from him.About eight o'clock. 1555. But when he was black in the mouth. he yielded up his spirit. neither was his lowliness childish or fearful. (for there were no more reeds) and those burned at the nether parts. At length it burned about him. and look very cheerfully upon such as he knew: and he was never known. and beholding the people. who mourned bitterly for him. a box was brought and laid before him upon a stool. after he had entered into prayer. yet his lips went until they were shrunk to the gums: and he knocked his breast with his hands until one of his arms fell off. so that none were so poor but they might boldly. Even as a lamb. on February 9. But because there were not more green fagots than two horses could carry. and his hand clave fast in knocking to the iron upon his breast. archbishop of Canterbury. All the way. for whose constancy all Christians are bound to praise God.

His wife also was an honest. he was cited to appear in the arches of Bow-church. grudge or evil will. and sober matron. This Dr. reading and exhorting one another. Bradford. To the poor that were blind. bishop of Winchester of his behavior. bishop of Winchester. Foster. Taylor. and continued in prayer. and answer the complaints that were alleged against him. who equally thanked God that He had provided him with such a comfortable fellow-prisoner. When Gardiner saw Dr. ready to do good to all men. The night after he was degraded his wife came with John Hull. and lord-chancellor. and rejected the advice of his friends to fly beyond sea. Bonner came to degrade him. and immediately informed the lord-chancellor. (here he put off his cap) and speakest against the holy Mass. which is made a sacrifice for the quick and the dead. but Clark forced the Doctor out of the church. Edward VI. or that had many children. set upon a candlestick for all good men to imitate and follow. he would be stout in rebuking the sinful and evildoers. Taylor replied. and never sought to do evil to any. resolved that Mass should be celebrated. "You are Dr. according to his common custom. insomuch that he caused the parishioners to make a general provision for them. But on his demise. bedrid. But if I should be afraid of your lordly looks. at night he was removed to the Poultry Compter. and afterward unto King Edward VI. and diligent provider. After Dr. and answer to your oath made first unto King Henry VIII. for two of his parishioners. reviled him. Taylor heard his abuse patiently. his son?" A long conversation ensued. Taylor had lain some time in prison. discreet. a light in God's house. and were by the gentleness of the keepers permitted to sup with him. time. he. all the days of the most innocent and holy king of blessed memory. strictly forbade. out of blind zeal. and yet but a mortal man. in the parish church of Hadley. and his children well nurtured.but. he escaped not the cloud that burst on so many besdie. in all its superstitious forms. and place required. governing and leadning them through the wilderness of this wicked world. and his son Thomas. Taylor had lain in the Compter about a week on the fourth of February. Taylor. he was a very father. an attorney. He was a man very mild. with such earnest and grave rebukes as became a good curate and pastor. He was a good salt of the earth. and when the bishop said. and he himself (beside the continual relief that they always found at his house) gave an honest portion yearly to the common almsbox. why fear ye not God. Taylor came there. and the keepers were charged to treat him roughly. entering the church. . was committed to the Clink. in which Dr. Stephen Gardiner. brought up in the fear of God and good learning. When Dr. who summoned him to appear. he found the virtuous and vigilant preacher of God's Word. and they both together praised God. and Clark. on Monday before Easter. that he exclaimed: "Thou art a blasphemous heretic! Thou indeed blasphemist the blessed Sacrament. savorly biting the corrupt manners of evil men. When Dr. and the succession of Queen Mary to the throne. a careful patron. a tradesman. Taylor being condemned. void of all rancor. as occasion. "How darest thou look me in the face! knowest thou not who I am?" Dr. Thus continued this good shepherd among his flock. Taylor was so piously collected and severe upon his antagonist. Dr. Dr. the Lord of us all? With what countenance will you appear before the judgment seat of Christ. bringing with him such ornaments as appertained to the massing mummery. but the Doctor refused these trappings until they were forced upon him. celebrated Mass. sick. The doctor upon the receipt of the summons. cheerfully prepared to obey the same. his servant. lame. Mr. so that none was so rich but he would tell them plainly his fault." The bishop afterward committed him into the king's bench. readily forgiving his enemies.

to see him so constant and steadfast. of thirteen years of age (whom. he went to the stake and kissed it. and so they stayed. good Dr. "O my dear father! mother. Taylor was joyful and merry." Then his wife cried. Taylor. where art thou?"-for it was a very dark morning. I am even at home". "It is Aldham Common. with a long white beard. "Dear wife. "Thanked be God. Taylor answered. God shall stir up a father for my children. love. he gave God thanks for His grace. be of good comfort. Count me not dead. joyful in heart. Unto his son Thomas he gave a Latin book. and so did divers others of the company. Taylor! Jesus Christ strengthen thee. But when the people saw his reverend and ancient face. and in the end of that he wrote his testament: "I say to my wife. an inn without Aldgate. that had given him strength to abide by His holy Word. which they had put for him to stand in. and what meaneth it that so much people are gathered hither?" It was answered. .After supper. and glad to die. With tears they prayed together. fear. Dr. and the people have come to look upon you. the place where you must suffer. and said. and without any light led him to the Woolsack. through his much earnest calling upon them to repent. at which sight the sheriff wept apace. my dear wife. His head had been notched and clipped like as a man would clip a fool's. and brought forth Dr. God careth for sparrows. than is any father or husband. When he had prayed. but the sheriff said. I am here". "What place is this. and help thee! the Holy Ghost comfort thee!" with such other like good wishes. to our long home. and kissed one another. suspecting that her husband should that night be carried away. Then came she to him. they burst out with weeping tears. for I shall certainly live. and stood with his back upright against the stake. Taylor's wife. and to my children. which cost the good bishop Bonner had bestowed upon him. with his hands folded together. and let him speak to his wife". "Farewell. masters. I go before. and Elizabeth kneeled down and said the Lord's Prayer. and for the hairs of our heads. saying. Elizabeth cried." On the morrow the sheriff of London with his officers came to the Compter by two o'clock in the morning. and he alighted from his horse and with both hands rent the hood from his head. He spake many notable things to the sheriff and yeomen of the guard that conducted him. Dr. Taylor's own daughter. After they had prayed. here is my father led away. Dr. I pray you. and set himself into a pitch barrel. and he. for I am quiet in my conscience. Dr. The sheriff's men would have led him forth. Taylor had arrived at Aldham Common. and cried. Now. for He hath promised to help. when the sheriff and his company came against St. mother. Botolph's church-porch beside Aldgate. Trust ye therefore in Him by the means of our dear Savior Christ's merits: believe. seeing a great multitude of people. walking up and down. he asked. The Lord gave you unto me. Taylor had brought up of alms from three years old). saying: "God save thee. and shook her by the hand. watched all night in St. the place where he should suffer. and to amend their evil and wicked living. and obey Him: pray to Him." Then he said. and he took his daughter Mary in his arms. and you shall follow after. the other named Mary. containing the notable sayings of the old martyrs. and stayed. and his eyes towards heaven. and you from me: blessed be the name of the Lord! I believe that they are blessed which die in the Lord. and the Lord hath taken me from you. and continually prayed. being left without father or mother. the one named Elizabeth. he rose up and kissed his wife. having her two children. that the one could not well see the other. Botolph's church. and often moved them to weep. Rowland. "Rowland. and never die. as one that ccounted himself going to a most pleasant banquet or bridal." All the way Dr. his wife. I have ever found Him more faithful and favorable. When Dr. Oftentimes also he caused them to wonder and rejoice. "Stay a little. void of all fear.

and Dr. came. and be not afraid of death. receive my spirit. until he came to these words. On coming to the stake. "Merciful Father of heaven! for Jesus Christ. he would have been content if he would have gone only to receive and to confession. he knelt down and read the Fifty-first Psalm. that he should go from that place to Newgate for a time. struck him on the lips: "You knave. and commanded the keeper to lay irons upon him as many as he could bear. Bonner caused William to be brought into a chamber. Nay. Hunter. but William would not do so for all the world." and casting down he head again into the smothering smoke. "speak Latin: I will make thee. Taylor holding up both his hands. and said. I have harm enough. was present. where he began to reason with him. whom he most entirely loved. and saying the Psalm Miserere in English. pronounced sentence upon him. William was sent down to Brentwood. at length one Richard Ponde. where he sat two days and nights. At the two days' end. proimising him security and pardon if he would recant. and thence to Brentwood. as Dr. at which time his brother. one Warwick cruelly cast a fagot at him. obediently followed in living. calling upon God. being descended from religious parents. and cut his face. my Savior's sake. "I am not afraid." answered William. what needed that?" Sir John Shelton standing by. think on the holy passion of Christ. there to be burned. Thou wilt not despise. Then the bishop." At last they kindled the fire. "William. and to his most dear Savior Jesus Christ. with his hands folded together. faithfully and earnestly preached.They then bound him with the chains. "Lord. was threatened to be brought before the bishop. he yielded up his life for the truth. . refusing to receive the communion at Mass. a broken and a contrite heart. during which time he had been before the bishop five times. sealing it with his blood to the praise of God. to whom this valiant young martyr was conducted by a constable. Robert Hunter. sent him to the convict prison. Martyrdom of William Hunter William Hunter had been trained to the doctrines of the Reformation from his earliest youth. then nineteen years of age. a bailiff. until Soyce. the bishop came to him. which struck him on his head. Taylor. He continued in prison three quarters of a year. receive my soul into Thy hands!" So he stood still without either crying or moving. and the corpse fell down into the fire. where he was to be executed. asked him if he would recant. William now cast his psalter into his brother's hand." "Behold. Paul's. if he would become an apostate. calling William." Steadfast in refusing the queen's pardon. who said. and finding him steadfast in the faith. Thus rendered up this man of God his blessed soul into the hands of his merciful Father. About a month afterward. Lord. and finding he was unchangeable. with a crust of brown bread and a cup of water only. which he did not touch. Then said Dr. and having set up the fagots. and made the chain fast about him. who carefully instructed him in the principles of true religion. Lord. February 9. besides the time when he was condemned in the consistory in St. and said. Upon this the bishop commanded his men to put William in the stocks in his gate house. Taylor was speaking. with a halberd struck him on the head until his brains fell out. "O friend. "The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit." he said. and constantly glorified in death. O God." Then he lifted up his hands to heaven. sot hat the blood ran down.

afterward bishop of Bangor. and after that Dr. his servant. whence after his fall he found fewer friends to support him against such as wanted his bishopric by the coming in of Queen Mary. upon whose decease Queen Mary succeeded and with her all kinds of superstition crept in. David's. the bishop of St. in the market-place of which. for which he was called before the bishop of Winchester with Bishop Hooper. and he sent to prison again. being condemned and degraded. before the persecuting bishop of Winchester. etc. but his condemnation was deferred. from which he zealously dissented. patiently standing without emotion. His principal accusers and persecutors. proceeding in his rage. The whole process of this trial was long and tedious. he was accused and examined not for any matter of praemunire. being Saturday next before Passion Sunday. yet it pleased God to remove him from error and idolatry to a knowledge of the truth. Though the good man was altogether unlearned. . Mr. where he continued until February 14. the bishop told him plainly that he must proceed against him by law. Dr. in the reign of King Edward. 1555. Dr. David's in Wales. and at last removed to the castle of Cardiff. But as Rawlins would in no wise recant his opinions. was summoned. and withal very simple. who demanded if he would abjure. among others. seemed to lament the painfulness of the death he had to suffer. so did he maintain his promise. to whom the bishop answered that if he saw him once stir in the pains of his burning. he counselled him by threats and promises. Farrar. on a charge of praemunire in the reign of Edward VI were George Constantine Walter. and after the little boy could read pretty well. Farrar a little before his death. Farrar ably replied to the copies of information laid against him. brought before the Bishop Llandaff. and as he said. living and continuing in the said trade for the space of twenty years at least. He had his son taught to read English. 1555. having in the former reign. the bishop. on which day he would also with them have been condemned. and committed to prison in Chepstow. where he bore a very good name amongst his neighbors. Being brought before the bishop in his chapel. and then was sent into Wales to receive sentence. was not long after brought to the place of execution in the town of Carmathen. March 30. and appealed to Cardinal Pole. and surrendered him to the secular power. Thomas Young. bishop of St. and others. been remarkably zealous in promoting the reformed doctrines. pronounced him a heretic excommunicate. until one Richard Gravell with a staff struck him down. He was six times brought up before Henry Morgan. his father every night after supper. made the boy read a portion of the Holy Scriptures. as well as since the accession of Mary. and exploding the rrors of popish idolatry. he most constantly sustained the torments of the fire. Saunders. Rogers. Delay succeeded delay. where he continued for the space of one whole year. he might then give no credit to his doctrine. White was taken by the officers of the town. coming to Dr. Mr. it is said that one Richard Jones. Farrar had been long unjustly detained in custody under sureties. consisting of fifty-six articles. chanter of the cathedral. and condemn him as a heretic. because he had been promoted by the duke of Somerset. King Edward died. summer and winter. and now and then a part of some other good book. as a man suspected of heresy.Dr. Martyrdom of Rawlins White Rawlins White was by his calling and occupation a fisherman. through the blessed Reformation in Edward's reign. and other commissioners set apart for the abominable work of devastation and massacre. February 4. in the town of Cardiff. Mr. Robert Farrar This worthy and learned prelate. Bradford. on the south side of the market-cross. When he had continued in his profession the space of five years. Concerning his constancy. notwithstanding which. a knight's son. but for his faith and doctrine.

The Rev. no doubt. to whom the bishop used many persuasions. and kissed the ground. but when Mr. Rawlins cried out.Before they proceeded to this extremity. for I remain the same. The various questions put to him he answered with a good conscience. therefore. He then went to study at Cambridge. but the blessed man continued so steadfast in his former profession that the bishop's discourse was to no purpose. addressing himself to the people. for his own glory and to what was best. George Marsh George Marsh. through the advice of his best friends. Mass being ended. saving that once he did. in going toward the stake. blessed with several children. Sir William Nores. "O Lord. receive my spirit!" until he could not open his mouth. At last the extremity of the fire was so vehement against his legs that they were consumed almost before the rest of his body was hurt. born in the parish of Deane. in the face of Rawlins White. Rawlins was carried again to Cardiff. Marsh thought that such a step would ill agree with that profession he had during nine years openly made. Mr. whence he was. to a loathsome prison in the town. In about three weeks the order came from town for his execution. Rawlins was called for again. "is like a godly bishop. no doubt God will hear you. and you pray as you ought. The bishop now caused the definitive sentence to be read. secreted himself. did not Christ say. "This. "Earth unto earth. the bishop of Chester. with the crown of eternal life. a little earth sticking on his face. and is now rewarded. and the false doctrines of the modern Antichrist. conducted to Lathum. he said these words. At length. Marsh answered like a true Protestant that the essence of the bread and wine was . he asked Rawlins if he would now revoke. as he spoke of the Romish doctrines of the Sacraments. boldly to confess the faith of Christ. and in the singing of Psalms." After this. When he came to the place. with others. and in secret prayer begged that God would direct him. he fell down upon his knees. about his twenty-fifth year he married. the straw and reeds cast up a great and sudden flame." but Mr. in the county of Lancaster. until such time as the sinews shrank. there was a stand erected. as it were. earnestly wished him to have flown from "the wrath to come. in which duty he constantly and zealously set forth the truth of God's Word. recommending his children to their care and departed for Smethehills. and became the curate of Rev. "your prayer is not granted. dost thou presume to prove thy false doctrine by Scripture? Look in the text that followeth. which was somewhat long. but he had much struggling. In which flame this good man bathed his hands so long. He. within the precincts of his own house. the sudden sight of them so pierced his heart. the parson of Garpnal. whereon stepped up a priest. his friends and mother. but Rawlins called all the people to witness that he did not bow down to the host. and others. the bishop tried what saying Mass would do. but. "Put fire! set on fire!" which being done. Lawrence Saunders. Sherburn interrogated him upon his belief of the Sacrament of the altar. to your God. "Ah! thou wicked hypocrite. to undergo examination before the earl of Derby. directly over against the stake. Thus died this good old man for his testimony of God's truth. and unto thee I shall return. on his farm until his wife died." said the latter. Mr. which being ended. All this while. wipe his face with one of them. determined by a letter he received. and dust unto dust. pray you. received a good education and trade from his parents. and I will pray to my God. Being come to the altar of his sacrifice. and if your request be godly and right. however. and lived. where his poor wife and children stood weeping. 'Do this in remembrance of me?'" Then some that stood by cried out. and God will strengthen me in support of this truth. he cried with a loud voice. Sherburn. and in rising again. "You find. Coles. Being confined by Dr. he took leave of his mother-in-law and other friends. thou art my mother. the bishop proposed that prayer should be said for his conversion. called Cockmarel. that the tears trickled down his face." After the bishop and his party had done praying. which made the whole body fall over the chains into the fire sooner than it would have done. and the fat dropped away. he was dept from any intercourse with his friends during four months. where he passed his time in prayer." When all things were ready." said White.

excepting once or twice in a month. 1555. and died gloriously patient. and he again cried more earnestly to God for strength that he might not be overcome by the subtleties of those who strove to overrule the purity of his faith. and there celebrated and sang Mass. from thence to Stoniland. was made a priest in the same house. was born at Snow-hill. where he married a wife. he struck and wounded him upon the head. "Father of heaven have mercy upon me!" and so yielded his spirit into the hands of the Lord. and therefore supposed that he had been dead. with their officers. finding him steadfast in the Protestant faith. and returned to Snow-hill. administering and giving the Sacrament of the alter to the people. Kneeling down. for his opinions. Amry and Couper. he suffered great extremity. where he and his wife dwelt together. Upon this. Coles. After he had remained a while he became a professed monk. When he had been a long time tormented in the fire without moving. where he went to school some years.not at all changed. and so obtain eternal death. and served as a secular priest about a quarter of a year. in the county of Cambridge. After that. where he practiced physic and surgery. saying. with pitch and tar in it. and was chained to the post. and is a firebrand in hell. looking upon the same. and fair words from others. and the wind driving it in eddies. and finally settled at Lambeth. nor as one that deserveth to die. but departing from those parts he came to London. having his flesh so broiled and puffed up that they who stood before him could not see the chain wherewith he was fastened. showed Mr. He answered that he would gladly accept the same did it not tend to pluck him from God. that the said 'Marsh was a heretic. which notwithstanding he bore with Christian fortitude. with whom he ever after faithfully and honestly continued. in Suffolk. when seeing a priest. Marsh suffered April 24. and thence went to Brosley. After that. who. Cawdry. burnt as such. many of the people said he was a martyr. Marsh a writing under a great seal. named John Celtham. suddenly he spread abroad his arms." When he came to the place of execution without the city. and to seek his safety.' Mr. This caused the bishop shortly after to make a sermon in the cathedral church. whence the people said. The sheriffs of the city. and a thing made like a firkin. as long as he did not openly deny Christ. who walked all the way with the Book in his hand. Margaret's Church at Westminster. On Palm Sunday he underwent a second examination. lest he lose His everlasting mercy. and being greatly offended in his conscience with the priest for the same. he was remanded to ward. George Marsh. and lay deprived of the consolation of any one (for all were afraid to relieve or communicate with him) until the day appointed came that he should suffer. at length to Tewksbury. who prayed the bishop to stay before it was too late. began to read his sentence. after receiving dreadful threats from some. and taught children about half a year. where he lay two nights without any bed. he then said his prayers. but the latter. and also upon the arm . The bishop then proceeded in the sentence. "This man does not go to his death as a thief. He was committed to a dark dungeon. After marriage he resided at Tewksbury about two years. Marsh much lamented that his fear should at all have induced him to prevaricate. However. near Spittal=Boughton. saying that it was a pardon for him if he would recant. went to the north gate. Marsh. and therein he affirmed. otherwise Branch. and would have exhorted them to stick unto Christ. The fire being unskilfully made. to visit and see his wife. he was generally abroad. Being at home upon Easter Sunday morning. He then went to Ludgate. put off his clothes unto his shirt. and certain injunctions by the authority of Henry VIII he took upon him the habit of a secular priest. upon being again solicited to recant. The priest then prayed for Mr. having a number of fagots under him. but he was interrupted by the chancellor. by reason of a visitation. and took out Mr. and then came to the abby of Ely. deputy chamberlain of Chester. William Flower William Flower. Mr. where he was born. over his head. he began to speak to the people showing the cause of his death. he came over the water from lambeth into St. said he durst not deny his Savior Christ. and Mr. but one of the sheriffs prevented him. He underwent three examinations before Dr. hence.

Flower. upholsterer. Paul's. Cardmaker aside. the bishop assigned him the next day. pronounced the definitive sentence of condemnation. The next morning. his tongue moving in his mouth for a considerable time. April 20. and was bound to . and had wood and reeds set about him. whilst his upper part was little injured. These Mr. and talked with him secretly. He then rose up. who first was an observant friar before the dissolution of the abbeys. and in the meantime to consider well his former answer. Margaret's churchyard. and afterward summoned before bishop Bonner and his ordinary. was heavily ironed. and in King Edward's time appointed to be a reader in St. for the execution of John Cardmaker and John Warne. John Cardmaker. during which Mr. he was brought to the place of martyrdom. the latter offered them the queen's mercy. The people were greatly afflicted. Warne prayed. Warne. knelt down. but he. His speech being now taken from him. King Edward's laws being yet in force. Being come to the stake. cried with a loud voice. after he had sworn him upon a Book. prebendary of the Church of Wells. condemning and excommunicating him for a heretic. John Cardmaker and John Warne May 30. and John Warne. made a confession of his faith. the priest having at the same time in his hand a chalice with the consecrated host therein. with many fair promises. the bishop accordingly proceeded to the sentence. was chained to the stake. and after pronouncing him to be degraded. Articles having been preferred against Mr. 1555. thinking that Mr. and came towards the stake. his hand was held up against the stake. Barlow. Cardmaker would recant at the burning of Mr. with his wood knife. but notwithstanding he lifted up the stump with his other arm as long as he could. his left hand being fastened behind him. John's. Walbrook. and struck off. otherwise called Taylor. 1555. he heartily comforted him. which became sprinkled with blood. for this injudicious zeal. Cardmaker. John Warne. for all the filthiness and idolatry lies in the Church of Rome. the bishop began to exhort him again to return to the unity of his mother the Catholic Church. neither apologizing for having struck the priest. where the bishop. who were brought by the sheriffs to Smithfield. and was cruelly tortured. he prayed to Almighty God. in St. being apprehended in the beginning of Queen Mary's reign. he spoke no more. and went with a bold courage unto the stake and kissed it.and hand. and ordered May 30. suffered together in Smithfield. Fire was then set to him. the sheriffs called Mr. After examination. committed him to the secular power. who earnestly exhorted him to recant his opinions. and put into the gatehouse at Westminster. Warne by the hand. At length Mr. ministered articles and interrogatories to him. Westminster. put off his clothes to his shirt. he was brought to London. and taking Mr. to whom he answered. nor swerving from his faith. and forgave all the world. and he burning therein. bishop of Bath. Mr. Mr. where lying along upon the ground. St. This done. he was examined upon them by Bonner. seeing that all his fair promises and terrible threatenings could not prevail. Thus he endured the extremity of the fire. the Rev. for the few fagots that were brought being insufficient to burn him they were compelled to strike him down into the fire. Cardmaker departed from the sheriffs. with Dr. when brought before the bishop of Winchester. if they would recant. of St. afterward was a married minister. his lower part was consumed in the fire. Mark's eve. to receive sentence if he would not recant. Flower steadfastly rejecting. where the fact was committed: and there coming to the stake. and put in the Fleet prison. "I am persuaded that I am in the right opinion. the bishop ordered him to appear in the same place in the afternoon." The bishop then. The Rev. "O Thou Son of God receive my soul!" three times. On April 24. and made a long prayer in silence to himself. In Mary's reign. and I see no cause to recant.

and with great rejoicings as it seemed. glorifying God in His beloved Son. In education he was erudite. who gave him several hearings. of the diocese of London. and by him were executed. At the stake. a gentleman. gave up his spirit. where they were burnt in one day. This he promised to do. several of Mr. William Bamford. rejoicing. and his fingers consumed with the fire. charging him to repent. which was the twenty-fifth of May. Mr. They were shortly after sent down from London to Essex. sinking down in the fire. and accused for not coming to the church. "God be praised! the Lord strengthen thee. Chamberlain at Colchester. being sent up to be examined. to enjoy the crown of triumph and victory prepared for the elect soldiers and warriors of Christ Jesus in His blessed Kingdom. John Simpson at Rochford. 1555. Bonner. 1555. whether the pains of burning were so great that a man might not collectedly endure it. the fourteenth of June. and poured out his soul unto God. Thomas Watts. in manners. Thus did this good martyr offer his body to the fire. Amen. and . with a multitude of people on every side compassing him about. unto whom after he had spoken many things. and then this blessed martyr of Christ. 1555. Thomas Watts. John Simpson and John Ardeley John Simpson and John Ardeley were condemned on the same day with Mr. for the Lord would revenge his death. and Nicholas Chamberlain. to whom be glory and majesty forever. Haukes was led away to the place appointed for slaughter by Lord Rich. and this came to pass on the fifth of April. Cardmaker! the Lord Jesus receive thy spirit!" And this continued while the executioner put fire to them.the stake. all of the town of Coxhall. he spake to Lord Rich. this good man being mindful of his promise. in Essex. after he had kissed it. mildly and patiently prepared himself for the fire. Thomas Haukes. in whose custody they remained until they were delivered to the sheriff of Essex county. and rejoicing that they were accounted worthy to suffer. and his speech was taken away by violence of the flame. June 10. Thomas Osmond. as usual. so that it was thought that he was gone. Hauke's friends. in defence of the true Gospel of the Savior. terrified by the sharpness of the punishment he was going to suffer. and delivered them to the sheriffs. A great shout followed this wonderful circumstance. Thomas Osmond at Maningtree. was a linen draper. When he had continued long in it. contrary to their previous expectation. when he was brought before Lord Rich. but his preaching availed not. and both had passed through the fire to the blessed rest and peace among God's holy saints and martyrs. his skin drawn together. that he would be a disciple of Antichrist. and. comely. Being consigned over to the bloody bishop. pronounced them obstinate heretics. Carmaker and John Warne. The people seeing this so suddenly done. the fire was kindled. with six others. in person. and Anne Askew Thomas Haukes. after several hearings. and John Ardeley at Railey. A little before death. with much entreaty. was condemned on the ninth of February. suddenly and contrary to all expectation. before he gave up the ghost. and being come to the stake. and of good stature. privately desired that in the midst of the flames he should show them some token. and it was agreed that if the rage of the pain might be suffered. and a sincere Christian. having a strong chain cast about his middle. He had daily expected to be taken by God's adversaries. and other commissioners at Chelmsford. reached up his hands burning in flames over his head to the living God. struck or clapped them three times together. and he resorted to his last revenge-that of condemnation. of Billerica. Not long after. then he should lift up his hands above his head towards heaven. many arguments. cried out.

that on Monday after he should be burned in Smithfield. He continued several years in an honest and thriving way. The night before he was sent to Newgate. where he preached twice a day continually. within three days after. Paul. that she came not thither to deny her Lord and Master. being compassed in with flames of fire. that his presence might prevent the populace from renewing their assaults. who stood behind him. and John Leaf. Bradford was brought into Smithfield. 1555. first to the Tower." Dr. ably he disproved heresies and errors. sweetly he preached Christ crucified. and they also objected against him for preaching. In the afternoon the keeper's wife came up and announced this dreadful news to him. as a blessed sacrifice unto God. Thus he was committed. at Harwich. Mr. The same Sunday in the afternoon. a weeping crowd accompanied him. an immense multitude attended. Notwithstanding this conduct. and he became a fellow of Pembroke Hall. Such as his credit with the keeper of the king's Bench. Bourne. by God's law. It has been recited. A. to learn. Hence he departed from his master. first called him to take the degree of a deacon and gave him a prebend in his cathedral Church of St. quitting the Temple. an Apprentice Rev. knight. upon his promise to return in time. in Lancashire. Bradford still continued diligent in preaching. who made this answer. for the University of Cambridge. leaving behind her a singular example of Christian constancy for all men to follow. with whom he spent all the evening in prayer and godly exercises. John Bradford. he was sent for to the Tower of London. to appear before the Council. until he was suppressed by Queen Mary. The cruelty of the sheriff deserves notice. the university gave him the degree of master of arts. The people welcomed Mr. In this preaching office Mr. with his staff. Sharply he reproved sin. and the latter afterward kept close to him. Paul's Cross. earnestly he persuaded to godly life. to the Poultry Compter. There he was charged with this act of saving Mr. indeed a dagger was thrown at him. Mr. which was called seditious. where the queen then was. that a tumult was occasioned by Mr. and reproved the people sharply for their seditious misdemeanor. but the Lord had elected him to a better function. Bradford. how to further the building of the Lord's temple. and a rumor having been spread that he was to suffer at four the next morning. and at which a pagan would blush. cut his head open. An act now followed of the blackest ingratitude. Bradford. Bucer was wont to reply. at London. Bradford diligently labored for the space of three years. Then Wriotheseley. yet give the poor people barley bread. he was troubled in his sleep by foreboding dreams.William Bamford. Bradford preached at Bow Church in Cheapside. alias Butler. and in this he never failed. or whatsoever else the Lord hath committed unto thee. that he permitted him in an evening to visit a poor. the fifteenth of June. "If thou hast not fine wheat bread. sick person near the steel-yard. Woodroffe. and. After the death of blessed King Edward VI Mr. but in him it excited only thankfulness to God. Bourne's (then bishop of Bath) preaching at St. lord chancellor. and glorious martyr of Christ. Ridley. and afterward became a servant of Sir John Harrington. and assuage the tumult. to speak in his place. When he was removed to Newgate. And thus the good Anne Askew. he was a good Latin scholar. At nine o'clock Mr. Rev. slept in the Lord. unless sickness hindered him. offered Anne Askew the king's pardon if she would recant. . that worthy bishop of London. John Bradford was born at Manchester. Roger Beswick. the indignation of the people placed his life in imminent danger. after his condemnation.D. for his brother-in-law. Martin Bucer first urged him to preach. and when he modestly doubted his ability. 1546. having taken him by the hand as he passed. In a few years after. all dying full of the glorious hope of immortality. then to other prisons. At night half a dozen friends came. In this situation he entreated Mr.

And the day following John Launder. and finally on the twenty-fifth of June. Rev. of whom Thacker only recanted. sprinkled the blood upon the said bill. John Bland. July 12. that. were all burnt together at Canterbury. Rev. Upon Friday before Palm Sunday. Sheriff Woodroffe. within half a year after. he went to the stake. 1555. and Crocker. husbandman. and pricking his hand. as other godly men had done before at the stake. Bradford and John Leaf suffered in Smithfield William Minge. and the other vicar of Rolvenden. and delivered to the secular arm. was struck on the right side with a palsy. and for the space of eight years after. like two lambs. Dirick Carver. without any alteration of their countenances. Humphrey Middleton. of Godstone. at two several stakes. Dirick Carver and John Launder The twenty-second of July. of Christ-church. On the same day were condemned John Frankesh. Nicholas Shetterden. Harpsfield. beseeching God to . brewer. whose name was John Leaf. They both ended this mortal life. Bradford. and underwent several examinations before Dr. had it pleased God to have called him to this trial. and afterward examined and condemned by the bloody bishop. being come to the place. Bland was cited to answer for his opposition to antichristianism. gave a constant testimony to the truth of His holy Gospel. desiring the reader thereof to show the bishop that he had sealed the same bill with his blood already.Mr. an apprentice to Mr. At his coming into the town of Lewes to be burnt. to which may Almighty God conduct us all. Bland. Thacker.) he was unable to turn himself in his bed. (until his dying day. July 12. Nicholas Shetterden. hoping to obtain that prize they had long run for. and before men. fell flat on the ground. John Frankesh. with the three former. and Humphrey Middleton These Christian persons were all burnt at Canterbury for the same cause. he was committed to the Compter in Bread-street. It is reported of him. when they. Dirick Carver was a man whom the Lord had blessed as well with temporal riches as with his spiritual treasures. Surrey. was burnt at Stening. archdeacon of Canterbury. when the bill of his confession was read unto him. thus he became at last a fearful object to behold. Humphrey Gaudy. but in one fire. 1555. The day after Mr. Mr. 1555. he was condemned. the people called to him. 1555. was burnt at Lewes. London. priest. he took a pin. With as great constancy and boldness he yielded up his life in prison. again withstanding the power of the pope. aged twenty-five. the one being parson of Adesham. in the sight of God and His angels. Frankesh and Bland were ministers and preachers of the Word of God. aged forty. and there suffered with a young man of twenty years of age. instead of pen. it is said. died in prison at Maidstone. and as he himself was ready to do. as if it had pleased God to have called him to suffer by fire. Mr. Being delivered to the secular power. like true soldiers of Jesus Christ. tallow-chandler. through the merits of Christ our Savior! We shall conclude this article with mentioning that Mr. and putting off his clothes unto the shirt. of Brighthelmstone.

Colliar. where he perished. steadfast in the faith. These six martyrs and witnesses of the truth were consigned to the flames in Canterbury. and brought before the bishop of Norwich. As soon as he was in. 1555. house. in Essex. Wright and W. Thou hast written. he took the Book. John Newman. near London. he said. he that will not forsake wife. After he had prayed a while. 1555. that he returned. in the name of the king and queen. at St. and to raise his hands to his face. and take up Thy cross and follow Thee. widow of John Warne. which cut his face severely. "O Lord my God. W. to throw in the Book again. and prayed earnestly. but was at last informed against. Laurence. Coker. who influenced him to recant. Alban's. Newman. have mercy upon me. He apprehended them merely on suspicion. knowest that I have forsaken all to come unto Thee. he too. and. is not worthy of Thee! but Thou. he was contrite. caused him to cease singing. and Richard Hook about the same time perished at Chichester. "O Lord. Mr. the bishop afterward gave him a piece of money. Dr. This bribe lay so heavily upon his conscience. On the fifth of July. 1555. threw back the money. the place of their abode. Stere These persons all of Kent. . upon which the sheriff commanded. spread his hands abroad in the flames. but the interference of Providence is here remarkable. on pain of death . 1555. they were condemned. Just as Dr. calling upon the name of Jesus. at the end of August. and on August 26. Bland and Shetterden. Story inhumanly ordered one of the tormentors to throw a fagot at him. of London. Packingham suffered at the same town on the twenty-eigth of the same month. 1555. and a cruel persecutor of the Protestants. upholsterer. August 31. and threw it among the people. And when the fire came to him. Then his Book was thrown into the barrel. cook. Denley to Uxbridge. Denley and Newman were returning one day to Maidstone. and sealed it with his blood at Bury. And immediately the holy martyr began to address the people. he knelt down. when they were met by E. have mercy upon me!" and sprang up in the fire. Story was remarking in jest that he had spoiled a good song. and joyfully died for the glory of his Redeemer. he braved the excruciating fire. W. Lord. John Denley. R.. bishop of Dover.strengthen him in the faith of Jesus Christ. This young man wandered about to escape apprehension. to secure him further in apostasy. and every thing that he hath. was burnt at Saffron Waldon. August 2. August eighth. R. praising and glorifying God. a bigoted justice of the peace in Essex. as he came to the stake. for unto Thee I commend my spirit! and my soul doth rejoice in Thee!" These were the last words of this faithful servant of Christ before enduring the fire. and when he had stripped himself. by Thornton. George Tankerfield. in the reign of Edward VI had been a papist. Hooper. 1555. and consigned to the sheriffs. at the end of August. children. went into a barrel. Like Peter. who sent Mr. Tankerfield was imprisoned in Newgate about the end of February. until he gave up the ghost. Tyrrel. Harpsfield. Dr. pewterer. and repented of his conduct. was burnt at Stratford-le-bow. the pious martyr again changed. but the cruelty of bloody Mary made him suspect the truth of those doctrines which were enforced by fire and torture. were examined at the same time with Mr. and Patrick Packingham Mr. and singing a Psalm. aged twenty-seven. Esq. While suffering in agony. Elizabeth Warne. he cried. martyr. and others. and through Christ Jesus resigned his soul into the hands of his Maker. Mr. James Abbes. H. born at York. Lord. for the same cause.

he continued to exhort and instruct privately. on the same day Wolsey and Pygot perished at Ely. nor would he obey the order for putting away his wife. Mr. of Copdock. they were the admiration of the realm. he was appointed chaplain by Henry VIII and bishop of Rochester. To intimidate the worthy pastor. and lay until the faithful conveyed them away at night. where he received the title of Doctor of Divinity. and afterward removed to Cambridge. and Dr. From this dreadful extremity there was even a degree of mercy in ordering him to the fire. 1555. Bishop Ridley and Bishop Latimer These reverend prelates suffered October 17. Samuel suffered August 31. hanging over the fire. he was in prison chained to a post in such a manner that the weight of his body was supported by the points of his toes: added to this his allowance of provision was reduced to a quantity so insufficient to sustain nature that he was almost ready to devour his own flesh. a severe and bigoted persecutor of the followers of Christ. William Hale also.Rev. and was afterwards translated to the see of London in the time of Edward VI. where he industriously taught the flock committed to his charge. Thomas Fust suffered about the same time with Smith and Tankerfield. he sweetly slept in the Lord Jesus. provost of Eton. He was first persecuted by Mr. Foster. but kept her at Ipswich. where he had a clerkship of ten pounds a year. Smith. and supposed to be dead. and thus to mock the snaguinary expectations of his Catholic persecutors. at Oxford. Suffolk. Mr. coveting the sweet flowers and wholesome juice of the fruitful doctrine. whom he had married in King Edward's reign. where about the same time he joined the ever-blessed company of martyrs. in Essex. Their bodies were thrown out in the common fields as unworthy of burial. Thomas Leyes. he was taken before Dr. but showed the same by his life. Ridley was born in Northumberland. and was afterward removed to Windsor. at Uxbridge. William Andrew of Horseley. He doubted not but that God would give the spectators some token in support of his own cause. His body was thrown into the open air. of Thorp. and died. Robert Samuel This gentleman was minister ofr Bradford. where his aptitude in education raised him gradually until he came to be the head of Pembroke College. with whom they were condemned. for. Dunnings. Mr. this actually happened. surprised him by night with her. He was condemned. falling sick in Lollard's Tower. Stephen Harwood and Mr. and glorious in their deaths. Dr. but his soul was received into the everlasting mansions of his heavenly Creator. Mr. Pillars of the Church and accomplished ornaments of human nature. where Foster. in such pure order that his very enemies could not reprove him in any one jot. After being imprisoned in Ipswich jail. he suddenly rose up. To his sermons the people resorted. and suffered August 8. as a glittering lanthorn to the eyes and senses of the blind. swarming about him like bees. George King. Robert Smith was first in the service of Sir T. July 12. while he was openly permitted to discharge his duty. was imprisoned in Newgate for heresy. Hopton. Essex. 5555. then. was first tauht grammar at Newcastle. amiably conspicuous in their lives. his chancellor. near Ipswich. which he did not only preach. and John Wade. according to the truth in the Gospel. Notwithstanding Mr. bishop of Norwich. Having returned from a trip to Paris. The Rev. were removed to different houses. by warrant. when he was nearly half burnt. moved the remaining parts of his arms and praised God. two of the most sanguinary among the bigots of those days. was sent to Barnet. but God chose to call him to himself by the severe treatment he endured in Newgate. 1555. . Samuel was ejected from his living.

His tender treatment of Dr. Heath, who was a prisoner with him during one year, in Edward's reign, evidently proves that he had no Catholic cruelty in his disposition. In person he was erect and well proportioned; in temper forgiving; in self-mortification severe. His first duty in the morning was private prayer: he remained in his study until ten o'clock, and then attended the daily prayer used in his house. Dinner being done, he sat about an hour, conversing pleasantly, or playing at chess. His study next engaged his attention, unless business or visits occurred; about five o'clock prayers followed; and after he would recreate himself at chess for about an hour, then retire to his study until eleven o'clock, and pray on his knees as in the morning. In brief, he was a pattern of godliness and virtue, and such he endeavored to make men wherever he came. His attentive kindness was displayed particularly to old Mrs. Bonner, mother of Dr. Bonner, the cruel bishop of London. Dr. Ridley, when at his manor at Fulham, always invited her to his house, placed her at the head of his table, and treated her like his own mother; he did the same by Bonner's sister and other relatives; but when Dr. Ridley was under persecution, Bonner pursued a conduct diametrically opposite, and would have sacrificed Dr. Ridley's sister and her husband, Mr. George Shipside, had not Providence delivered him by the means of Dr. Heath, bishop of Worcester. Dr. Ridley was first in part converted by reading Bertram's book on the Sacrament, and by his conferences with archbishop Cranmer and Peter Martyr. When Edward VI was removed from the throne, and the bloody Mary succeeded, Bishop Ridley was immediately marked as an object of slaughter. He was first sent to the Tower, and afterward, at Oxford, was consigned to the common prison of Bocardo, with archbishop Cranmer and Mr. Latimer. Being separated from them, he was placed in the house of one Irish, where he remained until the day of his martyrdom, from 1554, until October 16, 1555. It will easily be supposed that the conversations of these chiefs of the martyrs were elaborate, learned, and instructive. Such indeed they were, and equally beneficial to all their spiritual comforts. Bishop Ridley's letters to various Christian brethren in bonds in all parts, and his disputations with the mitred enemies of Christ, alike proved the clearness of his head and the integrity of his heart. In a letter to Mr. Grindal, (afterward archbishop of Canterbury,) he mentions with affection those who had preceded him in dying for the faith, and those who were expected to suffer; he regrets that popery is re-established in its full abomination, which he attributes to the wrath of God, made manifest in return for the lukewarmness of the clergy and the people in justly appreciating the blessed light of the Reformation. This old practiced soldier of Christ, Master Hugh Latimer, was the son of one Hugh Latimer, of Thurkesson in the county of Leicester, a husbandman, of a good and wealthy estimation; where also he was born and brought up until he was four years of age, or thereabout: at which time his parents, having him as then left for their only son, with six daughters, seeing his ready, prompt, and sharp wit, purposed to train him up in erudition, and knowledge of good literature; wherein he so profited in his youth at the common schools of his own country, that at the age of fourteen years, he was sent to the University of Cambridge; where he entered into the study of the school divinity of that day, and was from principle a zealous observer of the Romish superstitions of the time. In his oration when he commenced bachelor of divinity, he inveighed against the reformer Melancthon, and openly declaimed against good Mr. Stafford, divinity lecturer in Cambridge. Mr. Thomas Bilney, moved by a brotherly pity towards Mr. Latimer, begged to wait upon him in his study, and to explain to him the groundwork of his (Mr. Bilney's) faith. This blessed interview effected his conversion: the persecutor of Christ became his zealous advocate, and before Dr. Stafford died he became reconciled to him. Once converted, he became eager for the conversion of others, and commenced to be public preacher, and private instructor in the university. His sermons were so pointed against the absurdity of praying in the Latin tongue, and withholding the oracles of salvation from the people who were to be saved by belief in them, that

he drew upon himself the pulpit animadversions of several of the resident friars and heads of houses, whom he subsequently silenced by his severe criticisms and eloquent arguments. This was at Christmas, 1529. At length Dr. West preached against Mr. Latimer at Barwell Abbey, and prohibited him from preaching again in the churches of the university, notwithstanding which, he continued during three years to advocate openly the cause of Christ, and even his enemies confessed the power of those talents he possessed. Mr. Bilney remained here some time with Mr. Latimer, and thus the place where they frequently walked together obtained the name of Heretics' Hill. Mr. Latimer at this time traced out the innocence of a poor woman, accused by her husband of the murder of her child. Having preached before King Henry VIII at Windsor, he obtained the unfortunate mother's pardon. This, with many other benevolent acts, served only to excite the spleen of his adversaries. He was summoned before Cardinal Wolsey for heresy, but being a strenuous supporter of the king's supremacy, in opposition to the pope's, by favor of Lord Cromwell and Dr. Buts, (the king's physician,) he obtained the living of West Kingston, in Wiltshire. For his sermons here against purgatory, the immaculacy of the Virgin, and the worship of images, he was cited to appear before Warham, archbishop of Canterbury, and John, bishop of London. He was required to subscribe certain articles, expressive of his conformity to the accustamed usages; and there is reason to think, after repeated weekly examinations, that he did subscribe, as they did not seem to involve any important article of belief. Guided by Providence, he escaped the subtle nets of his persecutors, and at length, through the powerful friends before mentioned, became bishop of Worcester, in which function he qualified or explained away most of the papal ceremonies he was for form's sake under the necessity of complying with. He continued in this active and dignified employment some years. Beginning afresh to set forth his plow he labored in the Lord's harvest most fruitfully, discharging his talent as well in divers places of this realm, as before the king at the court. In the same place of the inward garden, which was before applied to lascivious and courtly pastimes, there he dispensed the fruitful Word of the glorious Gospel of Jesus Christ, preaching there before the king and his whole court, to the edification of many. He remained a prisoner in the Tower until the coronation of Edward VI, when he was again called to the Lord's harvest in Stamford, and many other places: he also preached at London in the convocation house, and before the young king; indeed he lectured twice every Sunday, regardless of his great age (then above sixtyseven years,) and his weakness through a bruise received from the fall of a tree. Indefatigable in his private studies, he rose to them in winter and in summer at two o'clock in the morning. By the strength of his own mind, or of some inward light from above, he had a prophetic view of what was to happen to the Church in Mary's reign, asserting that he was doomed to suffer for the truth, and that Winchester, then in the Tower, was preserved for that purpose. Soon after Queen Mary was proclaimed, a messenger was sent to summon Mr. Latimer to town, and there is reason to believe it was wished that he should make his escape. Thus Master Latimer coming up to London, through Smithfield (where merrily he said that Smithfield had long groaned for him), was brought before the Council, where he patiently bore all the mocks and taunts given him by the scornful papists. He was cast into the Tower, where he, being assisted with the heavenly grace of Christ, sustained imprisonment a long time, notwithstanding the cruel and unmerciful handling of the lordly papists, which thought then their kingdom would never fall; he showed himself not only patient, but also cheerful in and above all that which they could or would work against him. Yea, such a valiant spirit the Lord gave him, that he was able not only to despise the terribleness of prisons and torments, but also to laugh to scorn the doings of his enemies. Mr. Latimer, after remaining a long time in the Tower, was transported to Oxford, with Cranmer and Ridley, the disputations at which place have been already mentioned in a former part of this work. He remained imprisoned until October, and the principal objects of all his prayers were three-that he might stand faithful

to the doctrine he had professed, that God would restore his Gospel to England once again, and preserve the Lady Elizabeth to be queen; all of which happened. When he stood at the stake without the Bocardo gate, Oxford, with Dr. Ridley, and fire was putting to the pile of fagots, he raised his eyes benignantly towards heaven, and said, "God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that ye are able." His body was forcibly penetrated by the fire, and the blood flowed abundantly from the heart; as if to verify his constant desire that his heart's blood might be shed in defence of the Gospel. His polemical and friendly letters are lasting monuments of his integrity and talents. It has been before said, that public disputation took place in April, 1554, new examinations took place in October, 1555, previous to the degradation and condemnation of Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer. We now draw to the conclusion of the lives of the two last. Dr. Ridley, the night before execution, was very facetious, had himself shaved, and called his supper a marriage feast; he remarked upon seeing Mrs. Irish (the keeper's wife) weep, "Though my breakfast will be somewhat sharp, my supper will be more pleasant and sweet." The place of death was on the northside of the town, opposite Baliol College. Dr. Ridley was dressed in a black gown furred, and Mr. Latimer had a long shroud on, hanging down to his feet. Dr. Ridley, as he passed Bocardo, looked up to see Dr. Cranmer, but the latter was then engaged in disputation with a friar. When they came to the stake, Mr. Ridley embraced Latimer fervently, and bid him: "Be of good heart, brother, for God will either assuage the fury of the flame, or else strengthen us to abide it." He then knelt by the stake, and after earnestly praying together, they had a short private conversation. Dr. Smith then preached a short sermon against the martyrs, who would have answered him, but were prevented by Dr. Marshal, the vicechancellor. Dr. Ridley then took off his gown and tippet, and gave them to his brother-in-law, Mr. Shipside. He gave away also many trifles to his weeping friends, and the populace were anxious to get even a fragment of his garments. Mr. Latimer gave nothing, and from the poverty of his garb, was soon stripped to his shroud, and stood venerable and erect, fearless of death. Dr. Ridley being unclothed to his shirt, the smith placed an iron chain about their waists, and Dr. Ridley bid him fasten it securely; his brother having tied a bag of gunpowder about his neck, gave some also to Mr. Latimer. Dr. Ridley then requested of Lord Williams, of Fame, to advocate with the queen the cause of some poor men to whom he had, when bishop, granted leases, but which the present bishop refused to confirm. A lighted fagot was now laid at Dr. Ridley's feet, which caused Mr. Latimer to say: "Be of good cheer, Ridley; and play the man. We shall this day, by God's grace, light up such a candle in England, as I trust, will never be put out." When Dr. Ridley saw the fire flaming up towards him, he cried with a wonderful loud voice, "Lord, Lord, receive my spirit." Master Latimer, crying as vehemently on the other side, "O Father of heaven, receive my soul!" received the flame as it were embracing of it. After that he had stroked his face with his hands, and as it were, bathed them a little in the fire, he soon died (as it appeareth) with very little pain or none. Well! dead they are, and the reward of this world they have already. What reward remaineth for them in heaven, the day of the Lord's glory, when he cometh with His saints, shall declare. In the following month died Stephen Gardiner, bishop of Winchester and lord chancellor of England. This papistical monster was born at Bury, in Suffolk, and partly educated at Cambridge. Ambitious, cruel, and bigoted, he served any cause; he first espoused the king's part in the affair of Anne Boleyn: upon the establishment of the Reformation he declared the supremacy of the pope an execrable tenet; and when Queen Mary came to the crown, he entered into all her papistical bigoted views, and became a second time bishop of Winchester. It is conjectured it was his intention to have moved the sacrifice of Lady Elizabeth, but when he arrived at this point, it pleased God to remove him. It was on the afternoon of the day when those faithful soldiers of Christ, Ridley and Latimer, perished, that Gardiner sat down with a joyful heart to dinner. Scarcely had he taken a few mouthfuls, when he was seized

with illness, and carried to his bed, where he lingered fifteen days in great torment, unable in any wise to evacuate, and burnt with a devouring fever, that terminated in death. Execrated by all good Christians, we pray the Father of mercies, that he may receive that mercy above he never imparted below.

Mr. John Philpot
This martyr was the son of a knight, born in Hampshire, and brought up at New College, Oxford, where for several years he studied the civil law, and became eminent in the Hebrew tongue. He was a scholar and a gentleman, zealous in religion, fearless in disposition, and a detester of flattery. After visiting Italy, he returned to England, affairs in King Edward's days wearing a more promising aspect. During this reign he continued to be archdeacon of Winchester under Dr. Poinet, who succeeded Gardiner. Upon the accession of Mary, a convocation was summoned, in which Mr. Philpot defended the Reformation against his ordinary, Gardiner, again made bishop of Winchester, and soon was conducted to Bonner and other commissioners for examination, October 2, 1555, after being eighteen months' imprisoned. Upon his demanding to see the commission, Dr. Story cruelly observed, "I will spend both my gown and my coat, but I will burn thee! Let him be in Lollard's tower, (a wretched prison,) for I will sweep the king's Bench and all other prisons of these heretics!" Upon Mr. Philpot's second examination, it was intimated to him that Dr. Story had said that the lord chancellor had commanded that he should be made away with. It is easy to foretell the result of this inquiry. He was committed to Bonner's coal house, where he joined company with a zealous minister of Essex, who had been induced to sign a bill of recantation; but afterward, stung by his conscience, he asked the bishop to let him see the instrument again, when he tore it to pieces; which induced Bonner in a fury to strike him repeatedly, and tear away part of his beard. Mr. Philpot had a private interview with Bonner the same night, and was then remanded to his bed of straw like other prisoners, in the coal house. After seven examinations, Bonner ordered him to be set in the stocks, and on the following Sunday separated him from his fellowprisoners as a sower of heresy, and ordered him up to a room near the battlements of St. Paul's, eight feet by thirteen, on the other side of Lollard's tower, and which could be overlooked by any one in the bishop's outer gallery. Here Mr. Philpot was searched, but happily he was successful in secreting some letters containing his examinations. In the eleventh investigation before various bishops, and Mr. Morgan, of Oxford, the latter was so driven into a corner by the close pressure of Mr. Philpot's arguments, that he said to him, "Instead of the spirit of the Gospel which you boast to possess, I think it is the spirit of the buttery, which your fellows have had, who were drunk before their death, and went, I believe, drunken to it." To this unfounded and brutish remark, Mr. Philpot indignantly replied, "It appeareth by your communication that you are better acquainted with that spirit than the Spirit of God; wherefore I tell thee, thou painted wall and hypocrite, in the name of the living God, whose truth I have told thee, that God shall rain fire and brimstone upon such blasphemers as thou art!" He was then remanded by Bonner, with an order not to allow him his Bible nor candlelight. On December 4, Mr. Philpot had his next hearing, and this was followed by two more, making in all, fourteen conferences, previous to the final examination in which he was condemned; such were the perseverance and anxiety of the Catholics, aided by rthe argumentative abilities of the most distinguished of the papal bishops, to bring him into the pale of their Church. Those examinations, which were very long and learned, were all written down by Mr. Philpot, and a stronger proof of the imbecility of the Catholic doctors, cannot, to an unbiased mind, be exhibited. On December 16, in the consistory of St. Paul's Bishop Bonner, after laying some trifling accusations to his charge, such as secreting powder to make ink, writing some private letters, etc., proceeded to pass the awful sentence upon him, after he and the other bishops had urged him by every inducement to recant. He was afterward conducted to Newgate, where the avaricious Catholic keeper loaded him with heavy irons, which

by the humanity of Mr. Macham were ordered to be taken off. On December 17, Mr. Philpot received intimation that he was to die next day, and the next morning about eight o'clock, he joyfully met the sheriffs, who were to attend him to the place of execution. Upon entering Smithfield, the ground was so muddy that two officers offered to carry him to the stake, but he replied: "Would you make me a pope? I am content to finish my journey on foot." Arriving at the stake, he said, "Shall I disdain to suffer at the stake, when my Redeemer did not refuse to suffer the most vile death upon the cross for me?" He then meekly recited the One hundred and seventh and One hundred and eighth Psalms, and when he had finished his prayers, was bound to the post, and fire applied to the pile. On December 18, 1555, perished this illustrious martyr, reverenced by man, and glorified in heaven!

John Lomas, Agnes Snoth, Anne Wright, Joan Sole, and Joan Catmer
These five martyrs suffered together, January 31, 1556. John Lomas was a young man of Tenterden. He was cited to appear at Catnerbury, and was examined January 17. His answers being adverse to the idolatrous doctrine of the papacy, he was condemned on the following day, and suffered January 31. Agnes Snoth, widow, of Smarden Parish, was several times summoned before the Catholic Pharisees, and rejecting absolution, indulgences, transubstantiation, and auricular confession, she was adjudged worthy to suffer death, and endured martyrdom, January 31, with Anne Wright and Joan Sole, who were placed in similar circumstances, and perished at the same time, with equal resignation. Joan Catmer, the last of this heavenly company, of the parish Hithe, was the wife of the martyr George Catmer. Seldom in any country, for political controversy, have four women been led to execution, whose lives were irreproachable, and whom the pity of savages would have spared. We cannot but remark here that, when the Protestant power first gained the ascendency over the Catholic superstition, and some degree of force in the laws was necessary to enforce uniformity, whence some bigoted people suffered privation in their person or goods, we read of few burnings, savage cruelties, or poor women brought to the stake, but it is the nature of error to resort to force instead of argument, and to silence truth by taking away existence, of which the Redeemer himself is an instance. The above five persons were burnt at two stakes in one fire, singing hosannahs to the glorified Savior, until the breath of life was extinct. Sir John Norton, who was present, wept bitterly at their unmerited sufferings.

Archbishop Cranmer
Dr. Thomas Cranmer was descended from an ancient family, and was born at the village of Arselacton, in the county of Northampton. After the usual school education he was sent to Cambridge, and was chosen fellow Jesus College. Here he married a gentleman's daughter, by which he forfeited his fellowship, and became a reader in Buckingham College, placing his wife at the Dolphin Inn, the landlady of which was a relation of hers, whence arose the idle report that he was an ostler. His lady shortly after dying in childbed; to his credit he was re-chosen a fellow of the college before mentioned. In a few years after, he was promoted to be Divinity Lecturer, and appointed one of the examiners over those who were ripe to become Bachelors or Doctors in Divinity. It was his principle to judge of their qualifications by the knowledge they possessed of the Scriptures, rather than of the ancient fathers, and hence many popish priests were rejected, and others rendered much improved.

Oxford. The earl returned. whose two sons were then educating under him. and from this until supper he took the recreation of walking. and in his declaration not only quoted the authority of the Scriptures. and was successful in bringing him over to his opinion. Cranmer. which he delayed. he rose at five in the morning. and though the cardinals Campeius and Wolsey were commissioned from Rome to decide the question. which was . a conversation ensued with Dr. could be easily and speedily decided by the Word of God. Dr. This the man. Gardiner and Dr. Lord Cromwell receiving information of it. The king asked him if he would stand by this bold declaration. Cranmer's book. as he was unwilling to meddle in an affair of such weight. and knowing his own glaring incapacity. whence his holiness drew in his sacred foot. His grace. as if afraid of the issue of the investigation. and this as well in the English courts as in those of any foreign nation. who suggested that the question whether a man may marry his brother's wife or not. Dr. and the ancient writers. sent for Dr. In this function. Cranmer removed to the house of a Mr. Cranmer immediately did. a grocer. Warham's desire. by the king's desire. Bennet. When the pope presented his toe to be kissed. and even had the purity and the interest of the English Church deeply at heart. At that time. the man was sent to the Fleet. the question of Henry VIII's divorce with Catharine was agitated. they purposely protracted the sentence. Cranmer advised that the matter should be referred to the most learned divines of Cambridge and Oxford. defenders of the king in the above suit. in conjunction with the earl of Wiltshire. He ranked high in favor with King Henry. made a snap at it. Fox to consult them. the earl presented Dr. Dr. if any suitors wanted hearing. and entreated his forgiveness. At supper. had called Cranmer an ostler. and others. An ignorant priest. to which replying in the affirmative. had remained undecided above two or three years. This Dr. The pope treated the embassy honorably. Chertsey. Warham. and Dr. who would accommodate him with books. The king. archbishop of Canterbury. from the intrigues of the canonists and civilians. having quitted this transitory life. and his case was told to the archbishop by a Mr. declaring that his learned friends had come to defend it. Cranmer. and by Dr. uneasy at the delay. as customary. at Waltham Abbey. Cressy. and the suit be endlessly protracted. Cranmer was deservedly. contrary to the king's approbation. Dr. overcome by the bishop's good nature. Gardiner (secretary) and Dr. and solicited the priest to question him on any learned subject. His mild and forgiving disposition is recorded in the following instance. Upon the doctor's return to England. previous to which. and spoken very derogatory of his learning. in the country. Cranmer. his majesty sent for him. of which he hazarded the refusal. he would determine their business with such an affability that even the defaulters were scarcely displeased. and a relation of the priest's. and continued in study and prayer until nine: between then and dinner. Dr. again he walked or amused himself until nine o'clock. but maintained that the bishop of Rome had no authority whatever to dispense with the Word of God. Carne. it may be said that he followed closely the charge of St. Indeed. while the king removed to Greenwich. After dinner. Stokesley. Dr. It happened that Dr. and to repair for that purpose to the earl of Wiltshire's. visited the emperor. Upon the pope demanding the cause of their embassy. or see others play. it is affirmed that a spaniel of the earl's attracted by the littler of the pope's toe. Then he would play at chess for an hour. Cressy to lodge. At supper his conversation was lively and entertaining. he devoted to temporal affairs. Upon relating to the king the conversation which had passed on the previous evening with Dr. on account of the plague.He was strongly solicited by Dr. having sent for the offender. While he continued in Cambridge. Capon to be one of the fellows on the foundation of Cardinal Wolsey's college. Paul. he was deputed ambassador to Rome. and at five o'clock he heard the Common Prayer read. of general councils. reasoned with him. Fox. Dr. and opened the tenderness of conscience upon the near affinity of the queen. The affair of divorce. declined. but the king enjoined him to deliver his sentiments in writing. and then entered his study. came to the house of Mr. the earl of Wiltshire and his party refused. the marriage was discussed in most of the universities of Christendom and at home.a nd everything requisite for the occasion. elevated to that eminent station. regretting that a new commission must be sent to Rome. and appointed a day for the discussion. Diligent in duty. and kicked at the offender with the other.

married the beautiful Jane Seymour. boldly waited on the king in person. who had contemplated his fall as inevitable. the removal of every obstacle to the perfection of the Reformation. to the great confusion of his enemies. Upon the king's passing into a law the famous Six Articles. In 1534 the archbishop completed the dearest wish of his heart. with a charge to employ his time better when he returned to his parish. the two former of whom resigned their bishoprics. that her successor Anne Boleyn rejoiced-a lesson this to show how shallow is the human judgment! since her own execution took place in the spring of the following year. It is said. the first child. but the bishop was ever more ready to receive injury than to retaliate in any other manner than by good advice and good offices. Not long after. Gardiner. and Winchester and Dr. stood godfather to Elizabeth. Worcester. These the king himself delivered to Cranmer. The king. and their agreement not to oppose the succession Cranmer was willing to consider at sufficient. however. and archdeacon of Taunton. as there were many who inveighed against the king's conduct. but the monarch would have no other than an entire concession. by the subscription of the nobles and bishops to the king's sole supremacy. was a severe blow to the wavering Protestant cause. and divorced the king from Catharine. but left her with him while on his return to England. performed her coronation. he caused the matter to be deeply investigated. joined to other treasonable charges. when the Six Articles compelled him to return her to her friends for a time. Cranmer shone forth with all the luster of a Christian patiot. when he saw the tide directly adverse to the truth. at Nuremberg. had not Henry. which went nearly again to establish the essential tenets of the Romish creed. he was king's chaplain. the Holy Scriptures were openly exposed to sale. Cranmer was ever the friend of Anne Boleyn. bishop of London. Lenden. he became acquainted with Ossiander. and by his manly and heartfelt pleading. pleased with the subsidy voted by parliament. and married his niece. published the laborious work of the Harmony of the Gospels in 1537. caused the Book of Articles to be passed on his side. Ely. and by his powerful and just arguments induced the parliament to "render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's. a maid of honor to the late queen. and his translation of the Bible was strongly opposed by Stokesley. . These nefarious men. One of the first steps after the divorce was to prevent preaching throughout his diocese. the good friend of Cranmer. and he persisted in the same independent sentiments when before Mary's commissioners in 1555. in a privat einterview with the king. upon the demise of Queen Catharine. At the time that Cranmer was raised to be archbishop. It should be remembered that Ossiander. let them be discharged. though now in opposition to Cranmer. It was considered by the king that Cranmer would be obsequious. and in which he was supported by the bishops of Sarum." During Cranmer's residence in Germany. forgiving Cranmer would have interceded for all remission of publishment. and the king. After a season he sent for her privately. hence the latter married the king to Anne Boleyn. In 1538. (whom he maliciously hated) for assumiong the title of primate of all England. and the places of worship overflowed everywhere to hear its holy doctrines expounded. Though Cranmer received a confirmation of his dignity from the pope. This created much jealousy against Cranmer. having obtained the approbation of his friend Cranmer. with Thornton and Barber. but even now Cranmer. on the day following the beheading of this sacrificed lady. were found by the papers to be the real conspirators. but it was dangerous to oppose the will of the carnal tyrannical monarch. Cranmer now lived in as secluded a manner as possible. and Rochester. The death of Lord Cromwell in the Tower. of the bishop's household. he always protested against acknowledging any other authority than the king's. relative to the dangerous opinion he taught in his family. spoke inimically of Cranmer. 1531. but this narrow measure had rather a political view than a religious one. he was also constituted by the pope the penitentiary general of England. in 1540. and believing firmly the fidelity and assertions of innocence of the accused prelate. Only Bishop Fisher and Sir Thomas More made objection. until the rancor of Winchester preferred some articles against him. Cromwell was much vexed at the lenity displayed. In his new dignity Cranmer agitated the question of supremacy. still revered the sincerity that marked his conduct. The mild. in resisting the doctrines they contained.immediately granted. as derogatory to the supremacy of the king. and she remained with him until the year 1539.

again renewing their plots against Cranmer, fell victims to Henry's resentment, and Gardiner forever lost his confidence. Sir G. Gostwick soon after laid charges against the archbishop, which Henry quashed, and the primate was willing to forgive. In 1544, the archbishop's palace at Canterbury was burnt, and his brother-in-law with others perished in it. These various afflictions may serve to reconcile us to a humble state; for of what happiness could this great and good man boast, since his life was constantly harassed either by political, religious, or natural crosses? Again the inveterate Gardfiner laid high charges against the meek archbishop and would have sent him to the Tower; but the king was his friend, gave him his signet that he might defend him, and in the Council not only declared the bishop one of the best affected men in his realm, but sharpoly rebuked his accusers for their calumny. A peace having been made, Henry, and the French king, Henry the Great, were unanimous to have the Mass abolished in their kingdom, and Cranmer set about this great work; but the death of the English monarch, in 1546, suspended the precedure, and King Edwarrd his successor continued Cranmer in the same functions, upon whose coronation he delivered a charge that will ever honor his memory, for its purity, freedom, and truth. During this reign he prosecuted the glorious Reformation with unabated zeal, even in the year 1552, when he was seized with a severe ague, from which it pleased God to restore him that he might testify by his death the truth of that seed he had diligently sown. The death of Edward, in 1553, exposed Cranmer to all the rage of his enemies. Though the archbishop was among those who supported Mary's accession, he was attainted at the meeting of parliament, and in November adjudged guilty of high treason at Guildhall, and degraded from his dignities. He sent a humble letter to Mary, explaining the cause of his signing the will in favor of Edward, and in 1554 he wrote to the Council, whom he pressed to obtain a pardon from the queen, by a letter delivered to Dr. Weston, but which the letter opened, and on seeing its contents, basely returned. Treason was a charge quite inapplicable to Cranmer, who supported the queen's right; while others, who had favored Lady Jane were dismissed upon paying a small fine. A calumny was now spread against Cranmer that he complied with some of the popish ceremonies to ingratiate himself with the queen, which he dared publicly to disavow, and justified his articles of faith. The active part which the prelate had taken in the divorce of Mary's mother had ever rankled deeply in the heart of the queen, and revenge formed a prominent feature in the death of Cranmer. We have in this work noticed the public disputations at Oxford, in which the talents of Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer shone so conspicuously, and tended to their condemnation. The first sentence was illegal, inasmuch as the usurped power of the pope had not yet been re-established by law. Being kept in prison until this was effected, a commission was despatched from Rome, appointing Dr. Brooks to sit as the representative of his holiness, and Drs. Story and Martin as those of the queen. Cranmer was willing to bow to the authority of Drs. Story and Martin, but against that of Dr. Brooks he protested. Such were the remarks and replies of Cranmer, after a long examination, that Dr. Broks observed, "We come to examine you, and methinks you examine us." Being sent back to confinement, he received a citation to appear at Rome within eighteen days, but this was impracticable, as he was imprisoned in England; and as he stated, even had he been at liberty, he was too poor to employ an advocate. Absurd as it must appear, Cranmer was condemned at Rome, and on February 14, 1556, a new commission was appointed, by which, Thirlby, bishop of Ely, and Bonner, of London, were deputed to sit in judgment at Christ-church, Oxford. By virtue of this instrument, Cranmer was gradually degraded, by putting mere rags on him to represent the dress of an archbishop; then stripping him of his attire, they took off his own gown, and put an old worn one upon him instead. This he bore unmoved, and his enemies, finding that severity only rendered him more determined, tried the opposite course, and placed him in the house of the dean of Christ-church, where he was treated with every indulgence.

This presented such a contrast to the three years' hard imprisonment he had received, that it threw him off his guard. His open, generous nature was more easily to be seduced by a liberal conduct than by threats and fetters. When Satan finds the Christian proof against one mode of attack, he tries another; and what form is so seductive as smiles, rewards, and power, after a long, painful imprisonment? Thus it was with Cranmer: his enemies promised him his former greatness if he would but recant, as well as the queen's favor, and this at the very time they knew that his death was determined in council. To soften the path to apostasy, the first paper brought for his signature was conceived in general terms; this once signed, five others were obtained as explanatory of the first, until finally he put his hand to the following detestable instrument: "I, Thomas Cranmer, late archbishop of Canterbury, do renounce, abhor, and detest all manner of heresies and errors of Luther and Zuinglius, and all other teachings which are contrary to sound and true doctrine. And I believe most constantly in my heart, and with my mouth I confess one holy and Catholic Church visible, without which there is no salvation; and therefore I acknowledge the Bishop of Rome to be supreme head on earth, whom I acknowledge to be the highest bishop and pope, and Christ's vicar, unto whom all Christian people ought to be subject. "And as concerning the sacraments, I believe and worship int he sacrament of the altar the body and blood of Christ, being contained most truly under the forms of bread and wine; the bread, through the mighty power of God being turned into the body of our Savior Jesus Christ, and the wine into his blood. "And in the other six sacraments, also, (alike as in this) I believe and hold as the universal Church holdeth, and the Church of Rome judgeth and determineth. "Furthermore, I believe that there is a place of purgatory, where souls departed be punished for a time, for whom the Church doth godily and wholesomely pray, like as it doth honor saints and make prayers to them. "Finally, in all things I profess, that I do not otherwise believe than the Catholic Church and the Church of Rome holdeth and teacheth. I am sorry that I ever held or thought otherwise. And I beseech Almighty God, that of His mercy He will vouchsafe to forgive me whatsoever I have offended against God or His Church, and also I desire and beseech all Christian people to pray for me. "And all such as have been deceived either by mine example or doctrine, I require them by the blood of Jesus Christ that they will return to the unity of the Church, that we may be all of one mind, without schism or division. "And to conclude, as I submit myself to the Catholic Church of Christ, and to the supreme head thereof, so I submit myself unto the most excellent majesties of Philip and Mary, king and queen of this realm of England, etc., and to all other their laws and ordinances, being ready always as a faithful subject ever to obey them. And God is my witness, that I have not done this for favor or fear of any person, but willingly and of mine own conscience, as to the instruction of others." "Let him that standeth take heed lest he fall!" said the apostle, and here was a falling off indeed! The papists now triumphed in their turn: they had acquired all they wanted short of his life. His recantation was immediately printed and dispersed, that it might have its due effect upon the astonished Protestants. But God counter worked all the designs of the Catholics by the extent to which they carried the implacable persecution of their prey. Doubtless, the love of life induced Cranmer to sign the above declaration: yet death may be said to have been preferable to life to him who lay under the stings of a goaded conscience and the contempt of every Gospel Christian; this principle he strongly felt in all its force and anguish. The queen's revenge was only to be satiated by Cranmer's blood, and therefore she wrote an order to Dr. Pole, to prepare a sermon to be preached March 21, directly before his martyrdom, at St. Mary's, Oxford. Dr. Pole visited him the day previous, and was induced to believe that he would publicly deliver his sentiments in confirmation of the articles to which he had subscribed. About nine in the morning of the day of sacrifice, the queen's commissioners, attended by the magistrates, conducted the amiable unfortunate to St. Mary's

Church. His torn, dirty garb, the same in which they habited him upon his degradation, excited the commiseration of the people. In the church he found a low mean stage, erected opposite to the pulpit, on which being placed, he turned his face, and fervently prayed to God. The church was crowded with persons of both persuasions, expecting to hear the justification of the late apostasy: the Catholics rejoicing, and the Protestants deeply wounded in spirit at the deceit of the human heart. Dr. Pole, in his sermon, represented Cranmer as having been guilty of the most atrocious crimes; encouraged the deluded sufferer not to fear death, not to doubt the support of God in his torments, nor that Masses would be said in all the churches of Oxford for the repose of his soul. The doctor then noticed his conversion, and which he ascribed to the evident working of Almighty power and in order that the people might be convinced of its reality, asked the prisoner to give them a sign. This Cranmer did, and begged the congregation to pray for him, for he had committed many and grievous sins; but, of all, there was one which awfully lay upon his mind, of which he would speak shortly. During the sermon Cranmer wept bitter tears: lifting up his hands and eyes to heaven, and letting them fall, as if unworthy to live: his grief now found vent in words: before his confession he fell upon his knees, and, in the following words unveiled the deep contrition and agitation which harrowed up his soul. "O Father of heaven! O Son of God, Redeemer of the world! O Holy Ghost, three persons all one God! have mercy on me, most wretched caitiff and miserable sinner. I have offended both against heaven and earth, more than my tongue can express. Whither then may I go, or whither may I flee? To heaven I may be ashamed to lift up mine eyes and in earth I find no place of refuge or succor. To Thee, therefore, O Lord, do I run; to Thee do I humble myself, saying, O Lord, my God, my sins be great, but yet have mercy upon me for Thy great mercy. The great mystery that God became man, was not wrought for little or few offences. Thou didst not give Thy Son, O Heavenly Father, unto death for small sins only, but for all the greatest sins of the world, so that the sinner return to Thee with his whole heart, as I do at present. Wherefore, have mercy on me, O God, whose property is always to have mercy, have mercy upon me, O Lord, for Thy great mercy. I crave nothing for my own merits, but for Thy name's sake, that it may be hallowed thereby, and for Thy dear Son, Jesus Christ's sake. And now therefore, O Father of Heaven, hallowed be Thy name," etc. Then rising, he said he was desirous before his death to give them some pious exhortations by which God might be glorified and themselves edified. He then descanted upon the danger of a love for the world, the duty of obedience to their majesties, of love to one another and the necessity of the rich administering to the wants of the poor. He quoted the three verses of the fifth chapter of James, and then proceeded, "Let them that be rich ponder well these three sentences: for if they ever had occasion to show their charity, they have it now at this present, the poor people being so many, and victual so dear. "And now forasmuch as I am come to the last end of my life, whereupon hangeth all my life past, and all my life to come, either to live with my master Christ for ever in joy, or else to be in pain for ever with the wicked in hell, and I see before mine eyes presently, either heaven ready to receive me, or else hell ready to swallow me up; I shall therefore declare unto you my very faith how I believe, without any color of dissimulation: for now is no time to dissemble, whatsoever I have said or written in times past. "First, I believe in God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, etc. And I believe every article of the Catholic faith, every word and sentence taught by our Savior Jesus Christ, His apostles and prophets, in the New and Old Testament. "And now I come to the great thing which so much troubleth my conscience, more than any thing that ever I did or said in my whole life, and that is the setting abroad of a writing contrary to the truth, which now here I renounce and refuse, as things written with my hand contrary to the truth which I thought in my heart, and written for fear of death, and to save my life, if it might be; and that is, all such bills or papers which I have written or signed with my hand since my degradation, wherein I have written many things untrue. And forasmuch as my hand hath offended, writing contrary to my heart, therefore my hand shall first be punished; for when I come to the fire it shall first be burned.

"And as for the pope, I refuse him as Christ's enemy, and Antichrist, with all his false doctrine." Upon the conclusion of this unexpected declaration, amazement and indignation were conspicuous in every part of the church. The Catholics were completely foiled, their object being frustrated, Cranmer, like Samson, having completed a greater ruin upon his enemies in the hour of death, than he did in his life. Cranmer would have proceeded in the exposure of the popish doctrines, but the murmurs of the idolaters drowned his voice, and the preacher gave an order to "lead the heretic away!" The savage command was directly obeyed, and the lamb about to suffer was torn from his stand to the place of slaughter, insulted all the way by the revilings and taunts of the pestilent monks and friars. With thoughts intent upon a far higher object than the empty threats of man, he reached the spot dyed with the blood of Ridley and Latimer. There he knelt for a short time in earnest devotion, and then arose, that he might undress and prepare for the fire. Two friars who had been parties in prevailing upon him to abjure, now endeavored to draw him off again from the truth, but he was steadfast and immovable in what he had just professed, and publicly taught. A chain was provided to bind him to the stake, and after it had tightly encircled him, fire was put to the fuel, and the flames began soon to ascend. Then were the glorious sentiments of the martyr made manifest; then it was, that stretching out his right hand, he held it unshrinkingly in the fire until it was burnt to a cinder, even before his body wa sinjured, frequently exclaiming, "This unworthy right hand." His body did abide the burning with such steadfastness that he seemed to have no more than the stake to which he was bound; his eyes were lifted up to heaven, and he repeated "this unworthy right hand," as long as his voice would suffer him; and using often the words of Stephen, "Lord Jesus, receive my spirit," in the greatness of the flame, he gave up the ghost.

The Vision of Three Ladders
When Robert Samuel was brought forth to be burned, certain there were that heard him declare what strange things had happened unto him during the time of his imprisonment; to wit, that after he had famished or pined with hunger two or three days together, he then fell into a sleep, as it were one half in a slumber, at which time one clad all in white seemed to stand before him, who ministered comfort unto him by these words: "Samuel, Samuel, be of good cheer, and take a good heart unto thee: for after this day shalt thou never be either hungry or thirsty." No less memorable it is, and worthy to be noted, concerning the three ladders which he told to divers he saw in his sleep, set up toward heaven; of the which there was one somewhat longer than the rest, but yet at length they became one, joining (as it were) all three together. As this godly martyr was going to the fire, there came a certain maid to him, which took him about the neck, and kissed him, who, being marked by them that were present, was sought for the next day after, to be had to prison and burned, as the very party herself informed me: howbeit, as God of His goodness would have it, she escaped their fiery hands, keeping herself secret in the town a good while after. But as this maid, called Rose Nottingham, was marvellously preserved by the providence of God, so there were other two honest women who did fall into the rage and fury of that time. The one was a brewer's wife, the other was a shoemaker's wife, but both together now espoused to a new husband, Christ. With these two was this maid aforesaid very familiar and well acquainted, who, on a time giving counsel to the one of them, that she should convey herself away while she had time and space, had this answer at her

hand again: "I know well," saith she, "that it is lawful enough to fly away; which remedy you may use, if you list. But my case standeth otherwise. I am tied to a husband, and have besides young children at home; therefore I am minded, for the love of Christ and His truth, to stand to the extremity of the matter." And so the next day after Samuel suffered, these two godly wives, the one called Anne Potten, the other called Joan Trunchfield, the wife of Michael Trunchfield, shoemaker, of Ipswich, were apprehended, and had both into one prison together. As they were both by sex and nature somewhat tender, so were they at first less able to endure the straitness of the prison; and especially the brewer's wife was cast into marvellous great agonies and troubles of mind thereby. But Christ, beholding the weak infirmity of His servant, did not fail to help her when she was in this necessity; so at the length they both suffered after Samuel, in 1556, February 19. And these, no dobut, were those two ladders, which, being joined with the third, Samuel saw stretched up into heaven. This blessed Samuel, the servant of Christ, suffered the thirty-first of August, 1555. The report goeth among some that were there present, and saw him burn, that his body in burning did shine in the eyes of them that stood by, as bright and white as new-tried silver. When Agnes Bongeor saw herself separated from her prison-fellows, what piteous moan that good woman made, how bitterly she wept, what strange thoughts came into her mind, how naked and desolate she esteemed herself, and into what plunge of despair and care her poor soul was brought, it was piteous and wonderful to see; which all came because she went not with them to give her life in the defence of her Christ; for of all things in the world, life was least looked for at her hands. For that morning in which she was kept back from burning, had she put on a smock, that she had prepared only for that purpose. And also having a child, a little young infant sucking on her, whom she kept with her tenderly all the time that she was in prison, against that day likewise did she send away to another nurse, and prepared herself presently to give herself for the testimony of the glorious Gospel of Jesus Christ. So little did she look for life, and so greatly did God's gifts work in her above nature, that death seemed a great deal better welcome than life. After which, she began a little to stay herself, and gave her whole exercise to reading and prayer, wherein she found no little comfort. In a short time came a writ from London for the burning, which according to the effect thereof, was executed.

Hugh Laverick and John Aprice
Here we perceive that neither the impotence of age nor the affliction of blindness, could turn aside the murdering fangs of these Babylonish monsters. The first of these unfortunates was of the parish of Barking, aged sixty-eight, a painter and a cripple. The other was blind, dark indeed in his visual faculties, but intellectually illuminated with the radiance of the everlasting Gospel of truth. Inoffensive objects like these were informed against by some of the sons of bigotry, and dragged before the prelatical shark of London, where they underwent examination, and replied to the articles propounded to them, as other Christian martyrs had done before. On the ninth day of May, in the consistory of St. Paul's, they were entreated to recant, and upon refusal, were sent to Fulham, where Bonner, by way of a dessert after dinner, condemned them to the agonies of the fire. Being consigned to the secular officers, May 15, 1556, they were taken in a cart from Newgate to Stratford-le-Bow, where they were fastened to the stake. When Hugh Laverick was secured by the chain, having no further occasion for his crutch, he threw it away saying to his fellow-martyr, while consoling him, "Be of good cheer my brother; for my lord of London is our good physician; he will heal us both shortly-thee of thy blindness, and me of my lameness." They sank down in the fire, to rise to immortality! The day after the above martyrdoms, Catharine Hut, of Bocking, widow; Joan Horns, spinster, of Billerica; Elizabeth Thackwel, spinster, of Great Burstead, suffered death in Smithfield.

Crow. favoring the Reformation. How long this poor sufferer remained in prison is uncertain. From these he dissented. On such a day (naming the day) you said. he put his hand in his bosom. At length he was picked up by a Captain Morse. The times of Edward. in preaching upon the Sacrament. Being afterward removed to Oxford. that this frame of mind should be changed. He was fond of useful disputation. the youth replied. In the time of Edward. bound to Antwerp. whose awful situation became every minute more alarming. and was at length expelled the house. so adverse to godly and sincere preaching. Rev. to lade in Lent with fuller's earth. equally in life and in death. After prayer to God. they got upon the mast. Williams. and was drowned. With Crow was a man and a boy. then chancellor of Gloucester. upon the doctor's demanding of whom and where he had learned his heresies. By the testimony of one John Paylor. they were condemned. and a strong memory. that it was to be exercised spiritually by faith. possessed of a lively wit. was appointed for their execution at Stratford-le-Bow. however. "can so easily mock God. and float upon them. he became. "Indeed. expecting the tide should in a few hours set in upon them. which we are about to detail no less than thirteen were doomed to the fire. who had nearly steered away. filled with water. and by this practice qualified himself to become reader in logic in Magralen College. Mr. and hung there for the space of ten hours." Preservation of George Crow and His Testament This poor man. As soon as Crow was got on board. whom Bishop Hooper. but Dowry had not so learned his duty. Palmer became frequently punished for his contempt of prayer and orderly behavior. where his father had been mayor. Julius Palmer This gentleman's life presents a singular instance of error and conversion. as taught by the papists. and he was left alone. and not carnally and really. I learned from you in that very pulpit. of Magdalen College. Chancellor. in the night." Dr. and the money he had lost was more than made good to him. he rose at four in the morning. and he suffer persecution and death in Queen Mary's reign. Williams then bid him recant. and they were ten miles from land. saved his Testament. Each one refusing to subscribe contrary to conscience. Their constancy and faith glorified their Redeemer. are among those events of omnipotence at which we wonder and admire. exercised on this lad. being driven on land." said he. Mr. 1556. calling upon God for succor. the world. Indefatigable in private study. as the boat was useless. which they did. fell off. as he had done. he was a rigid and obstinate papist. On Wednesday. and drew out his Testament. Mr. we learn that when Dowry was brought before Dr. and coveted nothing else. and at ten o'clock at night they were borne away at the mercy of the waves. put to sea. that he was even despised by his own party. May 26. taking him for some fisherman's buoy floating in the sea. and. and the twenty-seventh of June. The tide having abated. Crow's companion died through the fatigue and hunger. Crow proposed to take down the masts. the usual articles were presented him for subscription.Thomas Dowry. of Malden. however. which indeed was wet. 1556. Executions at Stratford-le-Bow At this sacrifice. overcome by cold and exhaustion. and your own conscience. but the boat. . register of Gloucester. Harley. had confirmed in the Lord and the knowledge of his Word. under Mr. when the poor boy. "Though you. We have again to record an act of unpitying cruelty. but not otherwise injured. At Antwerp he was well received. yet will I not do so. and everything was washed out of her. Palmer was born at Coventry. an elegant Latin and Greek scholar.

sir. Her father was a barber. together with one Thomas Askin.He afterwards embraced the doctrines of the Reformation. "thou wilt dwell with me. to call me at the third hour of the day. and it had seized their bodies. was of the parish of Allhallows. fellow prisoner. and pleasant flowers of lusty youth. And if thou wilt set thy mind to marriage. and unmarried. Execution was ordered to follow the sentence. when God should send time." Then said Master Winchcomb. at the eleventh hour of this your old age. and at five o'clock in the same afternoon. "then I perceive one of us twain shall be damned: for we be of two faiths." Sir Richard: "How may that be?" Palmer: "Right well. when their heads had fallen together in a mass as it were by the force of the flames. they continued to cry. so he would with God's grace be ready to surrender and yield up his life also for the same." Palmer: "Sir. even so I trust He hath called. A certain nobleman offered him his life if he would recant. they sung the Thirty-first Psalm. I long for those springing flowers that shall never fade away. and also made ropes for a living: in which she assisted him. that. at a place called the Sand-pits. and were heard to pronounce the name of Jesus. at the age of four and twenty years. For as it hath pleased our merciful Savior. before it be too late. even in my flowers. and give you everlasting life for your portion. When Sir Richard perceived that he would by no means relent: "Well. It is remarkable. "If so. honest woman." Palmer: "O sir. After devoutly praying together. aged twenty-two. and help to stuff and fit thy farm for thee. on the fifteenth. and also learned to knit several articles of apparel. strengthen us! Lord Jesus receive our souls!" until animation was suspended and human suffering was past. according to the Gospel's parable. Askin and one John Guin had been sentenced the day before. I will procure thee a wife and a farm. and Mr. his tongue and lips again moved. blind from her birth. but very modestly and reverently concluded that as he had already in two places renounced his living for Christ's sake. Palmer. without an appearance of enduring pain. well. and certain I am there is but one faith that leadeth to life and salvation. "Lord Jesus. Refusing to communicate with those who maintained ." saith he. and the spectators thought Palmer as lifeless. 1556. to whom be glory and honor forever! Joan Waste and Others This poor. was brought up for final judgment." He was tried on the fifteenth of July. When the fire was kindled. Palmer. I hope that we both shall be saved. Derby." said he. which occasioned his arrest and final condemnation. How sayst thou?" Palmer thanked him very courteously." Sir Richard: "Sayest thou so? Well. or thou shouldst convert me. I would I might have thee but one month in my house: I doubt not but I would convert thee. "Take pity on thy golden years. these three martyrs were fastened to a stake. and will call you. Palmer.

Clark. and we command that they and their writings. Among the latter were J. official of Derby. Archer. however. until they were perfumed and washed with the pope's holy water. J. who had been buried about three or four years. With sophisitcal arguments and threats they endeavored to confound the poor girl. when Mr. February 6. who shall read or conceal their heretical book. in the year 1556. weaver. and caught the coffins. for it was not lawful for such innocent persons as they were. which took place August 1. D. we also condemn their bodies and bones (which in that wicked time of schism. sightless object was taken to a place called Windmill Pit. enclosed as they were in chests. and detesting all desire of murder. the bodies. were rashly buried in holy ground) to be dug up. The trumpery act of citing these dead reformers to appear. was remarkable for the visit of Cardinal Pole to the University of Cambridge. and in reprobation of their Catholic persecutors. and Dr. Foster of Stonc. where she for a time held her brother by the hand. A great post was set fast in the ground. and being degraded from holy orders. One object was also to play the popish farce of trying Martin Bucer and Paulus Phagius.doctrines contrary to those she had learned in the days of the pious Edward. the bishop commanded their bodies to be dug out of their graves. and Peter Finch. and cast far from the bodies and bones of the faithful. abhorring all bloodshed. fifteen martyrs were imprisoned in Canterbury castle. she was called before Dr. Draicot. at his examination. not having had the least effect upon them. and that a gibbet would have as good an effect as the cross. of whom all were either burnt or famished. if any be there found. as well by the common law. or places adjacent. as by our letters of process!" After the sentence thus read. part of which ran in this manner. We have now brought to a close the sanguinary proscriptions of the merciless Mary. and upon Christ to have mercy upon her. the poor. orator of the university. and bound round their centers. and other heresies flourishing in this kingdom. . Justice. but she proffered to yield to the bishop's doctrine. until the glorious light of the everlasting Sun of righteousness beamed upon her departed spirit. The two first of these had not received condemnation. When the fire began to ascend. Mary and St. pronounced orations in honor of their memory. The bishop at first answered that he would. observed upon the utility of carrying lighted candles about on Candlemas-day. etc. for which purpose the churches of St. and she replied that if their consciences would not permit them to answer at God's bar for that truth they wished her to subscribe to. of Cranbrooke. town. unfit to worship God in. and may serve as a specimen of proceedings of this nature: "We therefore pronounce the said Martin Bucer and Paulus Phagius excommunicated and anathematized. were interdicted as vile and unholy places. and then prepared herself for the fire. and J. accompanied by a vast concourse of people.. which seemed to stand in need of much cleansing from heretical preachers and reformed doctrines. that he might as well carry a pitchfork. to put any man to death. as well by the common law. if he would answer for her at the Day of Judgment. calling upon the pitying multitude to pray with her. were carried into the midst of the market place at Cambrdige. Ackworth. to which the chests were affixed with a large iron chain. Alice Potkins. His fulminating discourse being finished. he withdrew his confirmation of his own tenets. the number of which amounted to above EIGHTY-FOUR! The beginning of the year 1557. W. she would answer no more questions. but the others were sentenced to the fire. where they lay. (as pious Dr. a number of condemned books were also launched into the flames. Foster. Michael. in the same manner as if the dead bodies had been alive. sentence of condemnation was passed. and Mr. be publicly burnt. and burnt. was done to the memories of these pious and learned men in Queen Elizabeth's reign. but Dr. Pilkington. the chancellor of Bishop Blaine. as by letters of process. near the town. delivered them into the hands of the secular power. etc. and that their memory be condemned. In November. the day of her martyrdom. 1556. Draicot appointed to preach her condemned sermon. Chittenden. according to the holy canons. on January 26. Draicot reminding him that he might not in any way answer for a heretic. and we interdict all persons whatsoever of this university. Taylor had done in his sermons) that his belief of the real presence of the Sacrament was true. Sentence was then adjudged.

1556. and though a zealous Catholic. On January 22. N. Bardbridge's widow. some of which are too ludicrous and puerile to excite any other sentiment than laughter in these days. and released upon a strong injunction to mind her conduct. for non-attendance. on this account. sawyer. laborer. As in the last sacrifice four women did honor to the truth. Her husband was a bigoted Catholic. White. Fridewide's relics. George. to the utter astonishment and mortification of the disciples of his holiness the pope. nevertheless. was dug out of her grave. and T. we. and at the end of five weeks providentially heard her voice in the dungeon. C. by particular entreaty. lying on straw. so in the following auto da fe we have the like number of females and males. seems to be sensible that he had displeased him. spinster. Clerk. mariner. Bongeor. are willing to render him that honor which his merciful character deserves. at Canterbury. and publicly speaking of his wife's contumacy. Wilson's wife. Munt. of Staplehurst. widow. spinster. she should be almost starved upon three farthings a day. she endeavored to prepare herself for this suffering by living upon twopence halfpenny per day. of Ramsey. in a letter of his to the cardinal. glazier. of Westbarhonlt. who. than by putting soe money in a loaf. and even intermingled with those of the Catholic saint. and he was summoned to Rome. Pepper. Roger Hall. were to be kept from consoling and relieving her. spinster. Dreadful must have been the situation of this poor victim. during a period of nine weeks! . he was strongly suspected of favoring the doctrine of Luther. widow. the following persons were committed to prison: R. R. and a little before his last journey from Rome to England. R. who suffered June 30. Alice Walley (who recanted). her husband wrote to the bishop that if his wife's brother. she was moved to a prison called Monday's Hole. and were J. These persons were brought before Bonner. Jolley. of Dovercourt. perceiving by my last doing that your grace was offended. or the meanest requisites of cleanliness. Pardue. and sticking it on a long pole. spinster. where knowing. however. Her brother sought diligently for her. spinster. Atkin. of Cocksall. Fishcock. Helen Ewire. Allen Simpson. as Protestants. of Halstead." This circumstance verifies the account that the cardinal was a humane man. of Much Holland. I thought it my duty. 1557. S. Of this group we shall more particularly notice Alice Benden. R. her remains were restored to their former cemetery. of Waldon. held once in great esteem in that college. Bongeor. of Rayley. However. before his latter end. and to have given sentence against them. Glover. all of Colchester. Coleman. procured his stay. but could not otherwise relieve her. Marg. W. partly because her bones lay near St. She had been taken up in October. currier. Joan Winseley. R. Feresannes. and partly because he wished to purify Oxford of heretical remains as well as Cambridge. of Horsley Magna. carpenter. Field. but Cardinal Pole was for more merciful measures. mariner. between stone walls. Barcock. Cardinal Pole published a list of fifty-four articles. for he has this expression: "I thought to have them all hither to Fulham. wife of Edward Bender. who would have immediately sent them to execution. F. but Queen Mary. Kent. Warren. Some of the bitter persecutors denounced him to the pope as a favorer of heretics. and buried on a distant dunghill. 1557. containing instructions to the clergy of his diocese of Canterbury. by his command. Persecutions in the Diocese of Canterbury In the month of February. and Benden's wife. C. In the succeeding reign. she might turn. to inform your grace. R. both of Colchester. W. without a change of apparel. she was conveyed to Canterbury Castle. R. Debnam of Debenham. of Wilton. minor. weaver. Barbary Final. R. when she should be removed to the bishop's prison. of Much Bentley. weaver. Agnes Whitlock. and Bonner. before I proceeded further. Rose Allen. laborer.Cardinal Pole also inflicted his harmless rage upon the dead body of Peter Martyr's wife.

that did they eat indeed. in which Plaise was desired to humble himself to the bishop. H. a sincere and shrewd Christian. the day of her burning. as a memorial. knelt down. H. then desired the mayor to silence him. P. After invocation made together. Whether this zealous person died in prison. and being bound with a chain. What did He brake? P. of which the following is a specimen. bishop of Ely. being prepared. H. except the chain. I do believe it was that which He gave them. Dr. John Hullier Rev. then. What did He take? P. offered her liberty if she would go home and be comfortable. being encompassed with the unsparing flames.On March 25 she was summoned before the bishop. three miles from Cambridge. and. and. where. about the end of April. or delivered. Thirlby. Matthew Plaise. but the wind drove the fire directly to his back. Dr. but Mrs. who. At the stake. what He gave them. of Stone. A very long disputation followed. Dr. and was then sent to Tolbooth prison. Harpsfield. After praying. desiring him to give it to her brother. she gave her handkerchief to one John Banks. Fuller. and condemned by Dr. and sent to Cambridge castle: here he lay for a time. thou sayest it was but bread which the disciples did eat. and. refused to swerve from the truth. and to her father she returned a shilling he had sent her. On Maunday Thursday he was brought to the stake: while undressing. and from her waist she drew a white lace. where. and in process of time became curate of Babram. Dr. showing him her contracted limbs and emaciated appearance. he went meekly to the stake. Mary's Church. Kent. Well. what He gave them. she was taken out to be condemned. Dr. opposing the superstition of the papists. he was carried before Dr. A priest named Boyes. and tell him that it was the last band that had bound her. John Hullier was brought up at Eton College. whence. was brought before Thomas. which caused him under the severe . whom he ingeniously teased by his indirect answers. and then committed to the castle prison until the nineteenth of June. Rev. they yielded their souls into the hands of the living Lord. Christ called the bread His body. they were secured to the stake. and exhorted them to believe that there was no other rock than Jesus Christ to build upon. That which He brake. I say. he was brought to St. and other inquisitors. history does not mention. that did they eat indeed. H. and went afterward to Lynn. weaver. The whole of these seven martyrs undressed themselves with alacrity. I say. That which He took. Benden had been inured to suffering. and prayed with an earnestness and Christian spirit that even the enemies of the cross were affected. with rewards. She was however removed from this black hole to the West Gate. bishop of Dover. fire was applied to the reeds and wood. after three months. was executed. he told the people to bear witness that he was about to suffer in a just cause. What as that? P. what dost thou say it is? Plaise. but this he refused. and placed in a pitch barrel.

She endured his rage unmoved. and joyfully continued to read it. of St. After this she took the drink to her mother. Dunning. who very reluctantly complied with the letter of the law. Simon Miller and Elizabeth Cooper In the following month of July. "for (said he) good sister. in earnest prayer. receive my spirit. he suddenly exclaimed. He was burnt on Jesus Green. . abstained from church. as they had been servants and in friendship together. audibly proclaimed that she revoked her former recantation. but he was dead before it became ignited. where he remained until the thirteenth of July. of Much Bentley. and that she was ready to lay down her own life for the same cause. upon their return home. leave being permitted. and venerated by all who admired his piety or detested inhuman bigotry. and Rose Allin. and then. we shall have a joyful and a sweet supper. one of which (the Communion Service) he caught. as the people came out. his wife. who committed him to ward. and cautioned the people to avoid her unworthy example. and arrange his affairs. Rose briefly informed him that they had the Holy Ghost for their adviser. which continued erect. when he had ceased the torture. which was immediately done. March 7. For this a priest brought him before Dr. she shortly after voluntarily entered her parish church during the time of the popish service. but tortured for what she had done by the worm which dieth not. Executions at Colchester It was before mentioned that twenty-two persons had been sent up from Colchester. William Munt. Turning to his company. and. and one of them told him to prove her. her daughter. uttered the cry of "Oh!" upon which Mr. A quantity of books were now thrown into the fire." and meekly resigned his life. At the stake. he pressed the book to his heart. and to his prison. and in returning through the house was met by Tyrrel. he held the lighted candle under her hand. His friends directed the executioner to fire the pile to windward of his face. until the tendons divided from the flesh. This pious sufferer afforded a singular spectacle. She was taken from her own house by Mr. desired her to be of a good courage. who cautioned her to advise her parents to become good Catholics. For a short time they absconded. one Edmund Tyrrel. feeling the fire. "Lord Jesus. husbandman. and. he requested to know of them where he could go to receive the Communion. that he presented the idea of a skeleton figure chained to the stake. but he was suffered to go home. were afterward released. Norwich. (a relation of the Tyrrel who murdered King Edward V and his brother) with the officers. and see what she would do by and by. and came to Norwich. the day of his burning. who upon a slight submission. Munt at that time being very ill. burning it crosswise on the back. requested her daughter to get her some drink. she stood the fiery ordeal without flinching. had recanted. Of these. but returniong again. His remains were eagerly seized by the multitude. during which he loaded her with many opprobrious epithets. proved the power of faith over the flesh. the fire burnt fiercely. Andrews. he remarked that she was willing to burn. Miller. putting his hand behind him towards her. and standing up. Sutton the sheriff. Miller dwelt at Lynn. after which he returned to the bishop's house. He had gunpowder given him. for his flesh was so burnt from the bones. she asked him to begin at her feet or head. Elizabeth Coope. where. for he need not fear that his employer would one day repay him. The day being hot. The unfeeling wretch immediately executed this project. until the fire and smoke deprived him of sight. wife of a pewterer. with Alice. planting himself at the door of one of the churches. Mrs. received the crown of martyrdom. opened it. then even. thanking God for bestowing on him in his last moments this precious gift." Encouraged by this example and exhortation. the poor sufferer.agony to pray the more fervently. and informed them that they must go to Colchester Castle. seizing the young woman by the wrist. which induced the bigoted priest secretly to write to Bonner. with him. entered the house while Munt and his wife were in bed. and at a time when the spectators supposed he was no more. not far from Jesus College. Rose took a candle and a mug.

until it burnt into the flesh deeply. George Eagles. A citation. believe. In all this suffering the poor martyr repined not. who in his old age became a beggar. Saunders. privately made a signal to his men. who were executed with him. during which time Mr. in refusing holy water. who lived near. immediately followed. with the most ignorant and impious effrontery. Rouse's. But for this the bishop summoned Mr. Being condemned for this crime. Glover and others earnestly exhorted Lewest to forfeit the money he was bound in. named William Swallow. John Glover. and who was affected with a leprosy that made him obnoxious even to the animal creation. for she soon became weary of her former sinful life and resolved to abandon the Mass and dilatrous worship. a bailiff. which they placed in the poor man's hand. upon this. Bonner had served a poor blind harper in nearly the same manner. her contempt of the holy water and other ceremonies was so manifest. or take her away'. the ostensible cause of his death was his religion. she began to inquire into the ground of his refusal. T. tailor. for treason could hardly be imagined in praying for the reformation of such an execrable soul as that of Mary. Mrs. held a dagger to the throat of the officer. and requested that he would unfold those rich sources of Gospel knowledge he possessed. and delivered her over to the bishop. Lewest before him as well as his wife. the four parts being sent to Colchester. Joyce Lewes This lady was the wife of Mr. and esteem them. he was cut down before he was at all insensible. "I would with all my heart receive. the former readily submitted. nor did Richard Potts. She had received the Romish religion as true. and honestly reproved her for following too much the vanities of a wicked world. who. she resorted to Mr. to bring a burning coal. then dragged him to the sledge. as it began to be enlightened. her husband being bound for her appearance. Chelmsford. escape the visiting hand of God. She was sent home for a month. was indicted for having prayed that 'God would turn Queen Mary's heart. not from self-vanity. which was given to Mr. and been turned off a short time." The bishop. that she was accused before the bishop for despising the sacramentals.This cruel act of torture does not stand alone on record. hacked off the head. and then by force held it closed. the intestines were burnt. with two robbers. in a fit of passion. The fury of these bigots did not end here. and made him eat it. "If these things were in the Word of God. who had steadily maintained a hope that if every joint of him were to be burnt. but the latter resolutely affirmed. He easily succeeded in convincing her that the mummery of popery and the Mass were at variance with God's most holy Word. and with a common blunt cleaver. Lewes. At the last time the bishop reasoned with her upon the fitness of her coming to Mass. Chelmsford had the honor of retaining his head. which was affixed to a long pole in the market place. replied. until the burning of that pious martyr. whence she was several times brought for examination. of Manchester. who soon found sufficient cause to consign her to a loathsome prison. Mr. he opened his body and tore out the heart. Harwich. and St. until it was buried at night in the churchyard. and lay several days in the street. Though compelled by her husband's violence to go to church. and her conscience. After Eagles had mounted the ladder. that. and then sent him away. nor any part of his laws. after which he caused him to drink it down. Glover impressed upon her the necessity of doing what she did. particularly upon the subject of transubstantiation. Mr. he should not fly from the faith. became restless and alarmed. Lewes. who troubled Eagles in his dying moments. It was to her indeed a word in season. but to the last called upon his Savior. in a manner equally clumsy and cruel. she neither offended God. "If thou wilt believe no more than what is warranted by . rather than subject his wife to certain death. and receiving as sacred the Sacrament and sacramentals of the Holy Ghost. but for the honor and glory of God. he was drawn to the place of execution upon a sledge. In this inquietude. God's judgment not long after fell upon Swallow. at Coventry. but he was deaf to the voice of humanity. addressed to her. In time it was blown down. Bonner. Understanding that his death arose from a refusal to receive the Mass. Lewes. and the body was quartered." said Mrs.

James Austoo. and Christ died for her. When chained to the stake. The case of this lady drew a tear of pity from everyone who had a heart not callous to humanity. by which we have received great joy of God. at the request of her friends. Margery Austoo. or any other. for which most of them afterward were enjoined penance. Richard Roth rejected the seven Sacraments. she had nearly fainted. but I trust to see you in the heavens face to face. Mr. as the under-sheriff. of St. what a crown of glory shall ye receive with Christ in the kingdom of God! O that it had been the good will of God that I had been ready to have gone with you. "I drink to all them that unfeignedly love the Gospel of Christ. but I lie still at the pool's brink. said Amen. and intended to have been sent to his friends at Colchester: "O dear Brethren and Sisters. When she had prayed. but this soon passed away. from its distance. two priests were anxious to visit her. Her friends readily pointed out to her those consolatory passages of Scripture which comfort the fainting heart. the sheriff not being willing to put her to death in his time. she lay a twelvemonth in prison. when she could hold a better communication with the High Priest of souls. And now fare you well. but she refused both their confession and absolution. and Richard Roth. though he had been but just chosen. . When I know that I shall behold the amiable countenance of Christ my dear Savior.Scriptures. "How much reason have you to rejoice in God. when her soul was received int o the arms of the Creator. Barking. London. and every man goeth in before me. the ugly face of death does not much trouble me. and injurious to the cause of God's enemies. and was accused of comforting the heretics by the following letter written in his own blood. had prepared such excellent fuel that she was in a few minutes overwhelmed with smoke and flame. were sentenced for not believing in the presence. Smilingly. When her death warrant came from London. and treat of the Redeemer who taketh away the sins of the world. and in the night I lie in the Coalhouse. Reniger and Mr. she took the cup. O dear hearts in Christ. drank with her. Allhallows. About eight o'clock the sheriff announced to her that she had but an hour to live. After condemnation. will fulfill it unto the end. in this world. she said: "As for death. and she thanked God that her life was about to be devoted to His service. with many bonds. in going to which. The duration of her agony was but short. and the roses of her cheeks were not abated. and we look every day when we shall be condemned. About three o'clock in the morning. she sent for some friends. and wish for the abolition of popery. Bernher led her to the place of execution. apart from Ralph Allerton. for I lie in my lord's Littleease by day. Three times she prayed fervently that God would deliver the land from popery and the idolatrous Mass. Satan began to shoot his fiery darts. whom she consulted in what manner her death might be more glorious to the name of God. thou art in a state of damnation!" Astonished at such a declaration. James Austoo and his wife. The sheriff granted permission for two friends to accompany her to the stake-an indulgence for which he was afterward severely handled. but we abide patiently the Lord's leisure. that He hath given you such faith to overcome this bloodthirsty tyrant thus far! And no doubt He that hath begun that good work in you." Her friends. I think but lightly of. and the press of the people. she was at first cast down. dear brethren and sisters. in fetters and stocks. as well as the sheriff. and the people for the most part. her great weakness. this worthy sufferer ably rejoined that his words were as impure as they were profane. by putting into her mind to doubt whether she was chosen to eternal life. and a great many women of the place. (which had been filled with water to refresh her. for he said that I should be burned within ten days before Easter." The evening before she suffered.) and said. her countenance was cheerful. suffered at Islington the following four professors of Christ: Ralph Allerton. Her hands were extended towards heaven until the fire rendered them powerless. Executions at Islington About the seventeenth of September.

and was unwilling to condemn her. But as for the foolish. he said. Fear it not. who was slain that they might be of the redeemed of God. she had said that she would pledge them of the same cup they drank of. and on September 17. have mercy on me! Christ. Roth accused him of bringing them to secret examination by night. he blessed the hour in which he was born to die for the truth. After declaring her faith to the people. for I have overcome death. with the stocking on. 1557. because they made not themselves ready to suffer with Christ. with the multitude of saints. knelt down. she laid her hand on the stake. At the death of Miller and Elizabeth Cooper. Amen. and September 23. and my spirit . O be joyful even unto death. For these words she was brought to the chanellor. pray. thou cross of Christ. O dear hearts. Amen. because she was an ignorant foolish woman. who would have discharged her upon promising to go to church.) that however great his desire might be to spare her sinful flesh. and rehearsed the Fiftieth Psalm. so justly denominating Bonner the "bloodthirsty tyrant." was not likely to excite his compassion. with your wife and my sister Rose. and at midnight. "Fear not them that kill the body. on coming to the fatal spot. the chancellor urged that he had shown more lenity to her than any other person. (for it was the same stake at which Miller and Cooper were burnt. but directly after again welcomed and embraced it as the "sweet cross of Christ. "RICHARD ROTH. On the following morning he was led to the stake. in that ye have taken oil in your lamps that ye may go in with the Bridegroom. O fare you well. Pray. "Welcome. for the testimony of the Lamb. Suffolk. at eight o'clock in the morning. and cast it into everlasting fire!" As one Cadman placed a fagot against him. prayed. Be strong. he was condemned. and to keep her belief to herself. when he cometh. and said. Therefore give all thanks to God. Resisting every temptation to recant. and the blazing fagots in a short time stifled his last words. you shall be clothed in long white garments upon the mount of Sion. prepared for the horrid sacrifice. pray! "Written by me. and wait you still for the Lord. saith Christ. As she would not consent to this. the angel of the Lord pitcheth his tent round about them that fear him. John Noyes. 1557. whole to the ankle. of Laxfield. Noyes. Lawrence. and they can do nothing unto us before God suffer them." After the tormentors had kindled the fire. September 21. into the everlasting joy with Him.) and she at first wiped it. The chancellor then pronounced the fiery sentence. fire was set to the pile. O tarry you the Lord's leisure. let your hearts be of good comfort. was the wife of Mr. and with Jesus Christ our Savior. 1557. have mercy upon me!" The ashes of the body were buried in a pit. and while trusting only upon the all-sufficient merits of the Redeemer. and pray. he was brought from Eye to Laxfield to be burned. and delivereth them which way he seeth best." Her hand was sooted in doing this. to this she replied. with my own blood. these four martyrs perished at Islington." This letter. how blessed are you in the Lord. "My soul doth magnify the Lord. it could not equal her inclination to surrender it up in so great a quarrel. she said. "O dear hearts. and with them one of his feet. Norwich. who will never forsake us. but fear him that can kill both body and soul."O brother Munt. O dear heart. "Lord. He is at hand. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. she was brought to the stake. aged twenty-two. was taken to Eye. Mr. Cicely Ormes This young martyr. that God hath found you worthy to suffer for His sake! with all the rest of my dear brethren and sisters known and unknown. When the chain enveloped him. (perhaps with more shrewdness than he expected. Edmund Ormes. O blessed virgins. how precious shall your death be in the sight of the Lord! for dear is the death of His saints. a shoemaker. seeing that Jesus Christ will be our help. because he was afraid of the people by day. worsted weaver of St. Yea. they shall be shut out. before mentioned. Mrs. neither go about to take up His cross. ye have played the wise virgins' part. For our lives are in the Lord's hands.

blessed forever. through the information of one Taylor. John Rough This pious martyr was a Scotchman. and looking upwards with the utmost serenity. where he soon heard of a secret society of the faithful. as if he would have torn his garment. Mr. then Lord Protector of England. he travelled up to the duke of Somerset. Rough of being the most pernicious heretic in the country. She uttered no sigh of pain. he came over to England to procure a quantity. he fell upon him. The charges laid against him were. and Newcastle. the archbishop of St. had saved Dr. for a twelve-month before she was taken. and authorized him. during the thirty years he had lived. who afterward sat with Bishop Bonner on the bench. earl of Arran. when in the north. It might be contended that this martyr voluntarily sought her own death. but finding danger there from the religious complexion of the times. The queen's vice-chamberlain conducted Rough and Symson before the Council..doth rejoice in God my Savior. arrived in London. was taken up in the Saracen's Head. The Council wrote to Bonner and he lost no time in this affair of blood. and dost thou blaspheme him after this sort?" This said. she boldly refused his friendly offer of permitting her to temporize. and to convince the Catholics that she meant to more to compromise for her personal security. and on the next (the twentieth) resolved to condemn him. in whose presence they were charged with meeting to celebrate the Communion. boldly accused Mr. and that twice at Rome he had seen the pope born about on men's shoulders with the false-named Sacrament carried before him." Rev. taking a liking to him. and making towards him. Berwick. a member of the society. an emblem of that celestial paradise in which is the presence of God. in return for the kind act he had received. where he remained four years. In three days he had him up. she had recanted. he had never bowed the knee to Baal. At the age of seventeen. After being there sixteen years. it should be noticed. as the chancellor scarcely exacted any other penance of her than to keep her belief to herself. and learning that there was much Gospel freedom in England. with Cuthbert Symson and others. that he. Andrew's induced the provincial of the house to dispense with his habit and order. he entered himself as one of the order of Black Friars. by letter. tore off a piece of . and was in a short time elected their minister. He had been kept out of an inheritance by his friends. rising. to whom he joined himself. he affirmed that. in Edward VI's reign. and on November 10. that she repented of her recantation from the bottom of her heart. caps." Then crossing her hands upon her breast. "Hast thou been at Rome. under the pretext of coming to see a play. yet was more reverence shown to him than to the wafer. for subsistence. was married. who gave him a yearly salary of twenty pounds. "Whoever is ashamed of me on earth. Her courage in such a cause deserves commendation-the cause of Him who has said. He remained in this spiritual employment a year. In consequence of the tide of persecution then setting in. Islington. and seen our holy father the pope. and that he had rejected the service in the Latin tongue. Watson's life. The godly minister reproved him for his malicious spirit. being a priest. Rough. in Scotland. As if to compensate for her former apostasy. where. presenting a true picture of the very Antichrist. which they accounted to be their God. In short. He was afterward removed to a benefice at Hull. for which reason the earl sent him to preach in the freedom of Ayr. and he took this step in revenge for their conduct to him. Her hands continued gradually to rise until the sinews were dried. and in that time God wrought in him a saving knowledge of the truth. he was degraded and condemned. and at Nordon they followed the occupation of knitting hose. in which he remained until the death of Edward VI. of such will I be ashamed in heaven. in which occupation he strengthened them in every good resolution. On December 12. where he married. This ungrateful prelate. Mr. and then they fell. he fled with his wife to Friesland. Rough wanted not arguments to reply to these flimsy tenets. their religious exercises were holden. Lord Hamilton. yet it should seem in this instance as if God had chosen her to be a shining light. Rough. "Ah?" said Bonner. but she was wretched until the chancellor was informed. etc. to preach at Carlisle. at Stirling. Impeded in his business by the want of yarn. she stood the fiery furnace. but yielded her life. and he thus became the earl's chaplain.

Mr. and ten days after the lieutenant asked me if I would not now confess that which they had before asked of me. in my house also he has felt sorrow. Speaking of Mr. With this ornament of the Christian Reformation were apprehended Mr. before the constable of the Tower. as I judge for the space of three hours! "They then asked me if I would confess: I answered as before. Hugh Foxe and John Devinish. I was set upon a rack of iron. for bearing witness of the resurrection of Christ. He was deacon of the little congregation over which Mr. . Sing Hosanna to the Highest with me. I was carried back to my lodging. Cuthbert Symson Few professors of Christ possessed more activity and zeal than this excellent person. no invocations even of God's retributive justice. After being unbound. he said. Then the lieutenant swore by God I should tell. and at whose hand I received the pope's curse. He not only labored to preserve his friends from the contagion of popery. which he cannot detail better than in his own words: "On the thirteenth of December. And thus I commend you to God. where I was greatly assaulted. On the following Thursday. he had the vision of a glorified form. the three were brought before Bonner. Symson has written an account of his own sufferings. I was committed by the Council to the Tower of London. March 19. in the hope of a joyful resurrection!" If this account be duly considered. he ordered the object of his rage to be burnt by half-past five the following morning. Cuthbert Symson. and the recorder of London. 1558. "You see what a personable man he is. and that the day might begin to his own satisfaction. and I forgive all the world." The day before this pious deacon was to be condemned. and to the Word of His grace. after which my two forefingers were bound together. I answered that I would declare nothing. which much encouraged him. through the merits of His dear Son Jesus Christ. what a picture of repeated tortures does it present! But even the cruelty of the narration is exceeded by the patient meekness with which it was endured. to bring us all to His everlasting Kingdom. This he certainly attested to his wife. praise to God. and thus I leave the world. Thrice in one day has he been racked in the Tower. not a complaint of suffering wrongfully! On the contrary. and then of his patience. As I had answered before. Bonner's admiration was excited by the steadfast coolness of this martyr. before the lieutenant and recorder of London. and others. Here are no expressions of malice. he is a man of the greatest patience that ever came before me. with all those who unfeignedly call upon the name of Jesus. The Sunday after I was brought to the same place again. and a forgiving all the world. to Mr.his beard. Amen. if he were not a heretic. and yet never have I seen his patience broken. I praise God for His great mercy shown upon us. They rejected them. I affirm. I was retaken to my lodging. concludes this unaffected interesting narrative. who commanded me to inform them of the names of those who came to the English service. Austen. that. Rough presided as minister. before his death. and the arrow brake. "After enduring the rack twice again. Three weeks after I was sent to the priest. that I had already said as much as I would. so I answered now. desiring God of His endless mercy. Symson in the consistory. and the papistical articles tendered. I was called into the ward-room. 1557. they drew it through so fast that the blood followed. Cholmly. but he labored to guard them against the terrors of persecution. and a small arrow placed between them. and they examined me. in consequence of my refusal. Mr. I answered. while in the stocks in the bishop's coal-house. God forgive my sins! I ask forgiveness of all the world. forgiveness of sin.

were disappointed: the good man. Thomas Carman. summoned up two hundred persons in the town of Aylesham. that nothing more was requisite to procure their discharge. and came forward. whom he compelled to kneel to the cross at Pentecost. and true believers confirmed! Thomas Hudson. Ricarby. As they worshipped together in the same society. went to the stake. a company of decent persons had assembled. unsatiated with this demoniacal act. I thank God. as she met him entering the hall when he was in an ill-humor. This Roger Holland. he abstained from marriage. his companions at the stake urged every promise and exhortation to support him. Floyd. The spot of execution was called Lollard's Pit. gaming. R. at Norwich. and inflicted other punishments. and begged her to give his master a note of hand from him acknowledging the debt. before vespers. far from fearing the smallest personal terror at the approaching pangs of death. Pond. so heavy a blow with his fist. others thought that he wanted further time. who continued in prison seven weeks. twenty-seven of them were carried before Sir Roger Cholmly. "Ask. This priest was rich. Alexander. which he would repay if ever it were in his power. however. his spirit wrestled with God. The Story of Roger Holland In a retired close near a field. They were sent to Newgate. He also gave a woman named Alice Oxes. He struck a poor man for a trifling word. and Roger Holland. he also entreated . than to hear Mass. named Berry. who professed the Gospel. he called early in the morning on a discreet servant in the house. He had received for his master certain money. he then went to church. and the confusion of Antichrist. they were informed by the keeper. To her he revealed the loss his folly had occasioned. joined his fellow-sufferers. two died in prison. was only alarmed thathis Savior's face seemed to be hidden from him. administered baptism. Estland. which proved fatal to the unoffending object. In the meantime. fencing. I am strong! and care not what man can do to me!" With an unruffled countenance he replaced himself under the chain. he fell to the ground. and William Seamen Were condemned by a bigoted vicar of Aylesbury. While they were religiously engaged in praying and expounding the Scripture. The hopes of the enemies of the cross. to the comfort of the godly. named Elizabeth. and lost every groat at dice. and a groan was the only articulation permitted him. 1558. The names of the seven who suffered were. a merchant-tailor of London. in whose death the God of Grace was glorified. and six at Brentford. and lived a life that did honor to her profession. giving himself to dancing. March 28. R. and wanton company.and were all condemned. H. M. J. and it shall be given. hence. at Islington. Southain. that she died with the violence. Holiday. thirteen were burnt. Hudson slipped from under his chains. Without a moment given for repentance. either into France or into Flanders. Therefore he purposed to convey himself away beyond the seas. and. Easy as this condition may seem. Falling upon his knees. seven in Smithfield. Previous to their examination. was first an apprentice with one Master Kemption. and in his return to his lascivious pastime. he was smitten by the hand of God. he was a reprobate. and executed on the twenty-seventh. June 16. twenty-two were committed to Newgate. they rose. to enjoy the more a debauched and licentious life. and with them suffered death. J. With this resolution. these martyrs valued their purity of conscience more than loss of life or property. A great opinion prevailed that he was about to recant. and exclaimed." The martyr rose in an ecstasy of joy. regretted that he had not followed her advice. so they suffered together in Smithfield. banqueting. The Sunday after the death of Queen Mary. and God verified the words of His Son. Berry. without Bishipsgate. After joining together in humble petition to the throne of grace. and possessed great authority. and the other seven were providentially preserved. he was revelling with one of his concubines. with a flail. in Islington. at the Black Boy in Watling Street. to the number of forty. To the great surprise of the spectators. Some of the women made their escape. to the sum of thirty pounds. "Now. and were encircled with their chains. like the priesthood. In him we may behold the difference between the end of a martyr and a persecutor.

the . and would you obtain his favor ever dread to break his laws or offend his majesty. conscious that his imprudence might be his ruin. the young man was attacked by a burning ague. pleased with his change of conduct. thou naughty boy? But I'll soon handle thee well enough for it. should I learn that you do. and was an instrument of conversion to his father and others whom he visited in Lancashire. The following morning he came to see if this punishment had worked any change in his mind. he sent him to Fulham. and. to remove him effectually. Then Roger repaired to London again. in an arbor in his garden. "that you labor to promote the dark kingdom of the devil. One of the rods was worn quite away. gave him forty pounds to commence business with in London. and I will keep the note. "Here. The doctor was soon out f humor at his replies. A fortnight after this. I will immediately show this note to your master. which was part of a sum of money recently left her by legacy. "Dost thou answer my archdeacon thus. that you cast away all your books of popery. Pugson. all of which the young man denied." We must honor the memory of this excellent domestic. to converse with him. with no other allowance than bread and water. here is thy money I borrowed of thee. and causing the unresisting youth to kneel against a long bench. of St. he sent Dr. "is the sum requisite: you shall take the money. his archdeacon. and at the request of his master. but expressly on this condition. and not to remember the sins of your youth. "Elizabeth. with the six others aforesaid. until. And after Roger Holland there was none suffered in Smithfield for the testimony of the Gospel. I also require. and asked him if he thought he went about to damn his soul? "I am persuaded. Flagellations by Bonner When this Catholic hyena found that neither persuasions. Paul's every Sunday. called him peevish boy. Mr. The maid. the last year of Queen Mary. who. that you neither swear nor talk immodestly. lest it would bring the gray hairs to his father with sorrow to a premature grave. came to Thomas. that you abandon all lewd and vicious company. threats. not for the love of the truth. and said unto her. to their spiritual comfort and reformation from popery." said she. he. with a generosity and Christian principle rarely surpassed. and that you read the Scriptures with reverence and fear. and for the friendship. were taken." And soon after they were married. calling upon God for his grace to direct you in his truth. be assured!" Two willow twigs were then brought him. God did not suffer the wish of this excellent domestic to be thrown upon a barren soil. good will. and said." said Thomas. he scourged him until he was compelled to cease for want of breath and fatigue. and came to the maid that lent him the money to pay his master withal. for. to pardon your former offences. procured false witnesses to lay articles against him. that you shall promise me to attend the daily lecture at Allhallows. in a passion that almost prevented articulation. to recompense thee I am not able. nor imprisonment. could produce any alteration in the mind of a youth named Thomas Hinshaw. whose pious endeavors were equally directed to benefit the thoughtless youth in this life and that which is to come. Pray also fervently to God. and during the first night set him in the stocks. So shall God have you in His keeping. refused to answer any interrogatories administered to him. and in their place substitute the Testament and the Book of Service. and game no more. brought him the thirty pounds. God be thanked." These words the doctor conveyed to the bishop. otherwise than to make thee my wife. and the good counsel I have received at thy hands. and the sermon at St. and grant you your heart's desire. His father. within half a year after the licentious Holland became a zealous professor of the Gospel. Many other conflicts did Hinsaw undergo from the bishop. in short.his disgraceful conduct might be kept secret. who. Harpsfield. After this he remained in the congregations of the faithful. which was in the first year of Queen Mary. and finding none. at length. Paul's church-yard. he was removed.

He reproached the poor woman with being a whore. pins.bishop not doubting that he had given him his death in the natural way. Yeoman. in the stocks. and children. and of the Son. After this he wandered from place to place. and thus was led to the orchard. commonly called the Guildhall. took Mr. he came. he travelled from village to village. which he refused to do. and eminently qualified for his sacred function. Amen. John Willes was another faithful person. Richard Yeoman This devout aged person was curate to Dr. with boldness to confess the truth before their adversaries. and substituted a Romish priest. that Yeoman was secreted by his wife. then largely pregnant. in reading the Scriptures. and in this manner subsisted himself. by which act of providence he escaped Bonner's rage. and set in stocks until day. and with a little packet of laces. and set him in the stocks a day and a night. boldly declaring that she would be delivered in the house. when in the stocks. if he were not suffered to go with her. Thus the saints of God sustained hunger and misery. His wife also begged bread for herself and her children. often striking him on the head with a stick. whither he himself went. though he should be torn to pieces by wild horses. and entreated the bishop for her husband. Newall gotten the benefice. This is the last of the twenty-two taken at Islington. and would have indecently pulled the clothes off. his kinsman Robert Rouze being charged to bring him to St. and with an undoubted hope to wait for the crown and reward of eternal felicity. saying he held down his head like a thief. and of the Holy Ghost. selling such things. One day. et Spiritus Sancti. with patience to bear the cross now laid upon them for their trial. spending his time in devout prayer.' Bonner then bade him make the sign of the cross on his forehead. Willes omitted the sign. "might I have a little straw to sit or lie upon. who. et Filii. until he was exhausted. This cruel ferocity arose from the answer of the poor sufferer. He was then permitted to go home with his wife. Coming secretly again to Hadley. and afterward removed to Fulham. by which precarious means they supported themselves. . etc. During this time the good old father abode in a chamber locked up all the day. Information being at length given to Newall. and subscribing to a Latin instrument of little importance. and say. Bonner asked him how he liked his lodging and fare. "in the name of the Father. he however remained ill above a year. he let him go again. 'Not since he had come to years of discretion. but no sooner had Mr. and broke into the room where the object of his search lay in bed with his wife. than he removed Mr. replied. exhorting all men to stand faithfully to God's Word. In nomine Patris. Hinshaw and Willes were confined in Bonner's coal house together. was liberated. Rev. he bade Willes make the sign of the cross. to which Willes made no objection. seizing him by the ears. Yeoman. in a chamber of the town house. nor would he. and in the mean time Queen Mary died. But when he perceived his adversaries lay wait for him. he went into Kent. and repeated the words. more than a year. This producing no signs of recantation. but. Taylor left him the curacy at his departure. where he and Hinshaw remained during eight or ten days. who kept him privately. Bonner's persecuting spirit betrayed itself in his treatment of Willes during his examinations." Just at this time came in Willes' wife. He was the brother of Richard Willes. Dr. he tarried with his poor wife. while the prophets of Baal lived in festivity." Bonner would have the words repeated in Latin. he took him into his orchard. at Hadley." said Willes. Taylor. adding that he defied the pope and popery. and were costily pampered at Jezebel's table. but Yeoman resisted both this act of violence and the attack upon his wife's character. Paul's the next day. "Well enough. and the trouble of a lying-in woman in his palace. having no evident matter to charge him with. attended by the constables. To get rid of the good wife's importunity. and in carding the wool which his wife spun. burnt at Brentford. upon being asked how long it was since he had crept to the cross. knowing the meaning of the words. and filliping him under the chin. At last Justice Moile. Amen. before mentioned.. of Kent. on whom the scourging hand of Bonner fell. and in a small arbor there he flogged him first with a willow rod. earnestly to give themselves unto prayer. his wife. He was then taken out. points. and then with birch.

In the cage also with him was an old man, named John Dale, who had sat there three or four days, for exhorting the people during the time service was performing by Newall and his curate. His words were, "O miserable and blind guides, will ye ever be blind leaders of the blind? Will ye never amend? Will ye never see the truth of God's Word? Will neither God's threats nor promises enter into your hearts? Will the blood of the martyrs nothing mollify your stony stomachs? O obdurate, hard-hearted, perverse, and crooked generation! to whom nothing can do good." These words he spake in fervency of spirit agains tthe superstitious religion of Rome; wherefore Newall caused him forthwith to be attached, and set in the stocks in a cage, where he was kept until Sir Henry Doile, a justice, came to Hadley. When Yeoman was taken, the parson called earnestly upon Sir Henry Doile to send them both to prison. Sir Henry Doile as earnestly entreated the parson to consider the age of the men, and their mean condition; they were neither persons of note nor preachers; wherefore he proposed to let them be punished a day or two and to dismiss them, at least John Dale, who was no priest, and therefore, as he had so long sat in the cage, he thought it punishment enough for this time. When the parson heard this, he was exceedingly mad, and in a great rage called them pestilent heretics, unfit to live in the commonwealth of Christians. Sir Henry, fearing to appear too merciful, Yeoman and Dale were pinioned, bound like thieves with their legs under the horses' bellies, and carried to Bury jail, where they were laid in irons; and because they continually rebuked popery, they were carried into the lowest dungeon, where John Dale, through the jailsickness and evil-keeping, died soon after: his body was thrown out, and buried in the fields. He was a man of sixty-six years of age, a weaver by occupation, well learned in the holy Scriptures, steadfast in his confession of the true doctrines of Christ as set forth in King Edward's time; for which he joyfully suffered prison and chains, and from this worldly dungeon he departed in Christ to eternal glory, and the blessed paradise of everlasting felicity. After Dale's death, Yeoman was removed to Norwich prison, where, after strait and evil keeping, he was examined upon his faith and religion, and required to submit himself to his holy father the pope. "I defy him, (quoth he), and all his detestable abomination: I will in no wise have to do with him." The chief articles objected to him, were his marriage and the Mass sacrifice. Finding he continued steadfast in the truth, he was condemned, degraded, and not only burnt, but most cruelly tormented in the fire. Thus he ended this poor and miserable life, and entered into that blessed bosom of Abraham, enjoying with Lazarus that rest which God has prepared for His elect.

Thomas Benbridge
Mr. Benbridge was a single gentleman, in the diocese of Winchester. He might have lived a gentleman's life, in the wealthy possessions of this world; but he chose rather to enter through the strait gate of persecution to the heavenly possession of life in the Lord's Kingdom, than to enjoy present pleasure with disquietude of conscience. Manfully standing against the papists for the defence of the sincere doctrine of Christ's Gospel, he was apprehended as an adversary to the Romish religion, and led for examination before the bishop of Winchester, where he underwent several conflicts for the truth against the bishop and his colleague; for which he was condemned, and some time after brought to the place of martyrdom by Sir Richard Pecksal, sheriff. When standing at the stake he began to untie his points, and to prepare himself; then he gave his gown to the keeper, by way of fee. His jerkin was trimmed with gold lace, which he gave to Sir Richard Pecksal, the high sheriff. His cap of velvet he took from his head, and threw away. Then, lifting his mind to the Lord, he engaged in prayer.

When fastened to the stake, Dr. Seaton begged him to recant, and he should have his pardon; but when he saw that nothing availed, he told the people not to pray for him unless he would recant, no more than they would pray for a dog. Mr. Benbridge, standing at the stake with his hands together in suchj a manner as the priest holds his hands in his Memento, Dr. Seaton came to him again, and exhorted him to recant, to whom he said, "Away, Babylon, away!" One that stood by said, "Sir, cut his tongue out"; another, a temporal man, railed at him worse than Dr. Seaton had done. When they saw he would not yield, they bade the tormentors to light the pile, before he was in any way covered with fagots. The fire first took away a piece of his beard, at which he did not shrink. Then it came on the other side and took his legs, and the nether stockings of his hose being leather, they made the fire pierce the sharper, so that the intolerable heat made him exclaim, "I recant!" and suddenly he trust the fire from him. Two or three of his friends being by, wished to save him; they stepped to the fire to help remove it, for which kindness they were sent to jail. The sheriff also of his own authority took him from the stake, and remitted him to prison, for which he was sent to the Fleet, and lay there sometime. Before, however, he was taken from the stake, Dr. Seaton wrote articles for him to subscribe to. To these Mr. Benbridge made so many objections that Dr. Seaton ordered them to set fire again to the pile. Then with much pain and grief of heart he subscribed to them upon a man's back. This done, his gown was given him again, and he was led to prison. While there, he wrote a letter to Dr. Seaton, recanting those words he had spoken at the stake, and the articles which he had subscribed, for he was grieved that he had ever signed them. The same day se'night he was again brought to the stake, where the vile tormentors rather broiled than burnt him. The Lord give his enemies repentance!

Mrs. Prest
From the number condemned in this fanatical reign, it is almost impossible to obtain the name of every martyr, or to embellish the history of all with anecdotes and exemplifications of Christian conduct. Thanks be to Providence, our cruel task begins to draw towards a conclusion, with the end of the reign of papal terror and bloodshed. Monarchs, who sit upon thrones possessed by hereditary right, should, of all others, consider that the laws of nature are the laws of God, and hence that the first law of nature is the preservation of their subjects. Maxims of persecutions, of torture, and of death, they should leave to those who have effected sovereignty by fraud or by sword; but where, except among a few miscreant emperors of Rome, and the Roman pontiffs, shall we find one whose memory is so "damned to everlasting fame" as that of Queen Mary? Nations bewail the hour which separates them forever from a beloved governor, but, with respect to that of Mary, it was the most blessed time of her whole reign. Heaven has ordained three great scourges for national sins-plague, pestilence, and famine. It was the will of God in Mary's reign to bring a fourth upon this kingdom, under the form of papistical persecution. It was sharp, but glorious; the fire which consumed the martyrs has undermined the popedom; and the Catholic states, at present the most bigoted and unenlightened, are those which are sunk lowest in the scale of moral dignity and political consequence. May they remain so, until the pure light of the Gospel shall dissipate the darkness of fanaticism and superstition! But to return. Mrs. Prest for some time lived about Cornwall, where she had a husband and children, whose bigotry compelled her to frequent the abominations of the Church of Rome. Resolving to act as her conscience dictated, she quitted them, and made a living by spinning. After some time, returning home, she was accused by her neighbors, and brought to Exeter, to be examined before Dr. Troubleville, and his chancellor Blackston. As this martyr was accounted of inferior intellect, we shall put her in competition with the bishop, and let the reader judge which had the most of that knowledge conducive to everlasting life. The bishop bringing the question to issue, respecting the bread and wine being flesh and blood, Mrs. Prest said, "I will demand of you whether you can deny your creed, which says, that Christ doth perpetually sit at the right hand of His Father, both body and soul, until He come again; or whether He be there in heaven our Advocate, and to make prayer for us unto God His Father? If He be so, He is not here on earth in a piece of

bread. If He be not here, and if He do not dwell in temples made with hands, but in heaven, what! shall we seek Him here? If He did not offer His body once for all, why make you a new offering? If with one offering He made all perfect, why do you with a false offering make all imperfect? If He be to be worshipped in spirit and in truth, why do you worship a piece of bread? If He be eaten and drunken in faith and truth, if His flesh be not profitable to be among us, why do you say you make His flesh and blood, and say it is profitable for body and soul? Alas! I am a poor woman, but rather than to do as you do, I would live no longer. I have said, Sir." Bishop. I promise you, you are a jolly Protestant. I pray you in what school have you been brought up? Mrs. Prest. I have upon the Sundays visited the sermons, and there have I learned such things as are so fixed in my breast, that death shall not separate them. B. O foolish woman, who will waste his breath upon thee, or such as thou art? But how chanceth it that thou wentest away from thy husband? If thou wert an honest woman, thou wouldst not have left thy husband and children, and run about the country like a fugitive. Mrs. P. Sir, I labored for my livingl; and as my Master Christ counselleth me, when I was persecuted in one city, I fled into another. B. Who persecuted thee? Mrs. P. My husband and my children. For when I would have them to leave idolatry, and to worship God in heaven, he would not hear me, but he with his children rebuked me, and troubled me. I fled not for whoredom, nor for theft, but because I would be no partaker with him and his of that foul idol the Mass; and wheresoever I was, as oft as I could, upon Sundays and holydays. I made excuses not to go to the popish Church. B. Belike then you are a good housewife, to fly from your husband the Church. Mrs. P. My housewifery is but small; but God gave me grace to go to the true Church. B. The true Church, what dost thou mean? Mrs. P. Not your popish Church, full of idols and abominations, but where two or three are gathered together in the name of God, to that Church will I go as long as I live. B. Belike then you have a church of your own. Well, let this mad woman be put down to prison until we send for her husband. Mrs. P. No, I have but one husband, who is here already in this city, and in prison with me, from whom I will never depart. Some persons present endeavoring to convince the bishop she was not in her right senses, she was permitted to depart. The keeper of the bishop's prisons took her into his house, where she either spun worked as a servant, or walked about the city, discoursing upon the Sacrament of the altar. Her husband was sent for to take her home, but this she refused while the cause of religion could be served. She was too active to be idle, and her conversation, simple as they affected to think her, excited the attention of several Catholic priests and friars. They teased her with questions, until she answered them angrily, and this excited a laugh at her warmth. "Nay," said she, "you have more need to weep than to laugh, and to be sorry that ever you were born, to be the chaplains of that whore of Babylon. I defy him and all his falsehood; and get you away from me, you do

but trouble my conscience. You would have me follow your doings; I will first lose my life. I pray you depart." "Why, thou foolish woman," said they, "we come to thee for thy profit and soul's health." To which she replied, "What profit ariseth by you, that teach nothing but lies for truth? how save you souls, when you preach nothing but lies, and destroy souls?" "How provest thou that?" said they. "Do you not destroy your souls, when you teach the people to worship idols, stocks, and stones, the works of men's hands? and to worship a false God of your own making of a piece of bread, and teach that the pope is God's vicar, and hath power to forgive sins? and that there is a purgatory, when God's Son hath by His passion purged all? and say you make God and sacrifice Him, when Christ's body was a sacrifice once for all? Do you not teach the people to number their sins in your ears, and say they will be damned if they confess not all; when God's Word saith, Who can number his sins? Do you not promise them trentals and dirges and Masses for souls, and sell your prayers for money, and make them buy pardons, and trust to such foolish inventions of your imaginations? Do you not altogether act against God? Do you not teach us to pray upon beads, and to pray unto saints, and say they can pray for us? Do you not make holy water and holy bread to fray devils? Do you not do a thousand more abominations? And yet you say, you come for my profit, and to save my soul. No, no, one hath saved me. Farewell, you with your salvation." During the liberty granted her by the bishop, before-mentioned, she went into St. Peter's Church, and there found a skilful Dutchman, who was affixing new noses to certain fine images which had been disfigured in King Edward's time; to whom she said, "What a madman art thou, to make them new noses, which within a few days shall all lose their heads?" The Dutchman accused her and laid it hard to her charge. And she said unto him, "Thou art accursed, and so are thy images." He called her a whore. "Nay," said she, "thy images are whores, and thou art a whore-hunter; for doth not God say, 'You go a whoring after strange gods, figures of your own making? and thou art one of them.'" After this she was ordered to be confined, and had no more liberty. During the time of her imprisonment, many visited her, some sent by the bishop, and some of their own will, among these was one Daniel, a great preacher of the Gospel, in the days of King Edward, about Cornwall and Devonshire, but who, through the grievous persecution he had sustained, had fallen off. Earnestly did she exhort him to repent with Peter, and to be more constant in his profession. Mrs. Walter Rauley and Mr. William and John Kede, persons of great respectability, bore ample testimony of her godly conversation, declaring, that unless God were with her, it were impossible she could have so ably defended the cause of Christ. Indeed, to sum up the character of this poor woman, she united the serpent and the dove, abounding in the highest wisdom joined to the greatest simplicity. She endured imprisonment, threatenings, taunts, and the vilest epithets, but nothing could induce her to swerve; her heart was fixed; she had cast anchor; nor could all the wounds of persecution remove her from the rock on which her hopes of felicity were built. Such was her memory, that, without learning, she could tell in what chapter any text of Scripture was contained: on account of this singular property, one Gregory Basset, a rank papist, said she was deranged, and talked as a parrot, wild without meaning. At length, having tried every manner without effect to make her nominally a Catholic, they condemned her. After this, one exhorted her to leave her opinions, and go home to her family, as she was poor and illiterate. "True, (said she) though I am not learned, I am content to be a witness of Christ's death, and I pray you make no longer delay with me; for my heart is fixed, and I will never say otherwise, nor turn to your superstitious doing." To the disgrace of Mr. Blackston, treasurer of the church, he would often send for this poor martyr from prison, to make sport for him and a woman whom he kept; putting religious questions to her, and turning her

answers into ridicule. This done, he sent her back to her wretched dungeon, while he battened upon the good things of this world. There was perhaps something simply ludicrous in the form of Mrs. Prest, as she was of a very short stature, thick set, and about fifty-four years of age; but her countenance was cheerful and lively, as if prepared for the day of her marriage with the Lamb. To mock at her form was an indirect accusation of her Creator, who framed her after the fashion He liked best, and gave her a mind that far excelled the transient endowments of perishable flesh. When she was offered money, she rejected it, "because (said she) I am going to a city where money bears no mastery, and while I am here God has promised to feed me." When sentence was read, condemning her to the flames, she lifted up her voice and praised God, adding, "This day have I found that which I have long sought." When they tempted her to recant, "That will I not, (said she) God forbid that I should lose the life eternal, for this carnal and short life. I will never turn from my heavenly husband to my earthly husband; from the fellowship of angels to mortal children; and if my husband and children be faithful, then am I theirs. God is my father, God is my mother, God is my sister, my brother, my kinsman; God is my friend, most faithful." Being delivered to the sheriff, she was led by the officer to the place of execution, without the walls of Exeter, called Sothenhey, where again the superstitious priests assaulted her. While they were tying her to the stake, she continued earnestly to exclaim "God be merciful to me, a sinner!" Patiently enduring the devouring conflagration, she was consumed to ashes, and thus ended a life which in unshaken fidelity to the cause of Christ, was not surpassed by that of any preceding martyr.

Richard Sharpe, Thomas Banion, and Thomas Hale
Mr. Sharpe, weaver, of Bristol, was brought the ninth day of March, 1556, before Dr. Dalby, chancellor of the city of Bristol, and after examination concerning the Sacrament of the altar, was persuaded to recant; and on the twenty-ninth, he was enjoined to make his recantation in the parish church. But, scarcely had he publicly avowed his backsliding, before he felt in his conscience such a tormenting fiend, that he was unable to work at his occupation; hence, shortly after, one Sunday, he came into the parish church, called Temple, and after high Mass, stood up in the choir door, and said with a loud voice, "Neighbors, bear me record that yonder idol (pointing to the altar) is the greatest and most abominable that ever was; and I am sorry that ever I denied my Lord God!" Notwithstanding the constables were ordered to apprehend him, he was suffered to go out of the church; but at night he was apprehended and carried to Newgate. Shortly after, before the chancellor, denying the Sacrament of the altar to be the body and blood of Christ, he was condemned to be burned by Mr. Dalby. He was burnt the seventh of May, 1558, and died godly, patiently, and constantly, confessing the Protestant articles of faith.With him suffered Thomas Hale, shoemaker, of Bristol, who was condemned by Chcnallor Dalby. These martyrs were bound back to back. Thomas Banion, a weaver, was burnt on August 27, of the same year, and died for the sake of the evangelical cause of his Savior.

J. Corneford, of Wortham; C. Browne, of Maidstone; J. Herst, of Ashford; Alice Snoth, and Catharine Knight, an Aged Woman
With pleasure we have to record that these five martyrs were the last who suffered in the reign of Mary for the sake of the Protestant cause; but the malice of the papists was conspicuous in hastening their martyrdom, which might have been delayed until the event of the queen's illness was decided. It is reported that the

thereby convincing the world that she knew her duty. on his being sent to prison. and excommunication to take place in the regular form. John Corneford. had made blessed election. His father. Brokenbery. and the queen. These five martyrs. and whose mind was influenced by the teachers of false doctrine. alias Knight. But here the awful judgment of an ever-righteous God. so be it. who. received the information of this wedded Delilah. detested by all good men and accursed of God! Though acquainted with these circumstances. Amen. Paul. the bishop. "Beware of images!" and respecting the real presence. to have the satisfaction of adding another page to the black list of papistical sacrifices. Good Lord. recriminated their excommunication in the following words: "In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. and to comfort two children. and suffered joyfully for the testimony of Christ's Gospel. the Son of the most mighty God. and depended on Him who so builds His Church that the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. did not urge their deaths hastily. the bodies of all those blasphemers and heretics that maintain any error against His most holy Word. as usual. whose names are recorded in the Book of Life. to the maintenance of any false church or foreign religion. than she also was suddenly seized with madness. in a relenting moment. Queen Mary died. Among the numberless enormities committed by the merciless and uhnfeeling Bonner. At the queen's decease. and rehearsed to them the articles of her faith. and exhibited an awful and awakening instance of God's power to punish the evil-doer. the Sacramental elements and the idolatry of bending to images. he was fixed secure in eternal hope. and only twenty-four years of age. but by the death of the three instigators of Protestant murder-the chancellor. . many were in bonds: some just taken. As bad men act from little motives. They quoted St. The articles against them were. the archdeacon's implacability exceeded that of his great exemplary. the condemned sheep were liberated. by trade a tailor. became his accuser. would have been left without a protector. and parson of the parish. though he had several persons at that time under his fiery grasp. awfully turned the latter proceeding against themselves. but. which wrought in her a perfect work that terminated in martyrdom. though last. who is "of purer eyes than to behold evil. they urged according to St. who. within six days after. travelled post from London. we do here give into the hands of Satan to be destroyed. in consequence of which the poor man was apprehended. we may place the indulgence shown him to the latter account. She died calling upon the spectators to bear witness that she was a Christian woman. But alas! the very wife of his bosom. was first converted by her son's expounding the Scriptures to her. nor did they pray in vain." fell upon this stone-hearted and perfidious woman. and in a solemn impressive manner. some examined. or have become a burden to the parish." This sentence was openly pronounced and registered. and perfected the number God had selected to bear witness of the truth in this dreadful reign. and lived many years to praise God for their happy deliverance. or do condemn His most holy truth for heresy. John's words. and the Commandments of God. when at the stake. earnestly prayed that their blood might be the last shed. The writs indeed were issued for several burnings. against Thy adversaries. They died gloriously. by which delay he certainly afforded them an opportunity of escape. so that by this Thy just judgment. not least among the saints made meet for immortality through the redeeming blood of the Lamb! Catharine Finlay. to return her good for evil. as if Providence had awarded that it should not be delivered in vain. John Fetty. a creature of the pope. and. O most mighty God. of the parish of Clerkenwell. Bonner. Alice Snoth at the stake sent for her grandmother and godfather.archdeacon of Canterbury. illuminated by the Holy Spirit. This dreadful circumstance had some effect upon the hearts of the ungodly hunters who had eagerly grasped their prey. who fell nearly together." When sentence was about to be read against them. whose heart was hardened against the truth. judging that the sudden death of the queen would suspend the execution. Thy true religion may be known to Thy great glory and our comfort and to the edifying of all our nation. "the things which are seen are temporal. and by the power of His Holy Spirit. they suffered him to remain with his unworthy wife. and others condemned. for no sooner was the injured husband captured by her wicked contriving. and the authority of His holy Catholic and apostolic Church. the murder of this innocent and unoffending child may be ranged as the most horrid.

among others. shifting his positions for the purpose of giving him strength to bear and to lengthen the date of his sufferings. at the same time pointing to the place where he was confined." Irritated by reproach so aptly applied." returned the boy. with bitterness only short of cursing. remained with the Most High. his judge finding him fixed in opinions which militated against those nursed by superstition and maintained by cruelty. thy father is a heretic!" The little champion again rejoined. that leadeth to destruction. Her heart was hardened by the prince of darkness. or the leopard his spots? then may ye also do good. where having him secure. is too often opposed by infinite wisdom? "Broad is the way. a child of the tender age of eight years. when a godly woman came to Dr. and as her strength returned. and few there be that find it. "Why. with a stone put into it. the author of his misery. her inclination to work wickedness returned with it. "Who is thy father?" said the chaplain. an object presented itself to his view. except that of this unprincipled and unfeeling wretch-this miscreant. he replied he wished to see his father. and hope in His goodness. he presented him to others. applied to Bonner for permission to do so. had its hapless father been suspended by his tormentor by the right arm and left leg. as. The interrogating miscreant on this said. and to execrate. which made him indeed feel his tortures with all their force. to what purpose God knoweth. the poor child being asked by the bishop's chaplain the purport of his errand. who died through their cruel imprisonment touching whom. some whose affection would have led them even to sacrifice their own lives. pursuing the horrid dictates of a heart hardened and depraved. that. agreeable to Scripture language. he overlooked her misdeeds." Weighing this text duly with another." how shall we presume to refine away the sovereignty of God by arrainging Jehovah at the bar of human reason. stifling the dictates of honor. Although our afflicted Christian had experienced so much cruelty and falsehood from the woman who was bound to him by every tie both human and divine. she again accused her husband. he asked her if he had any straw or blood in his mouth. eager to execute the behests of a remoseless queen-"My father is no heretic: for you have Balaam's mark. and taken before Sir John Mordant. was scarcely confirmed in her recovery. and it is our bounden duty to walk ever dependent on God. during her calamity endeavoring all he could to procure relief for her malady. desirous of seeing and speaking to its parent. a mother proves. and many there be which go in thereat. which. "as a dog returneth to his vomit. and had a dish of water set by him. "Can the Ethiopian change his skin. and took the undaunted boy into the house." Malice against the saints of the Most High was seated in her heart too firmly to be removed. and covered with the . and in whose sacred Word it is written. and to her may be applied these afflicting and soul-harrowing words. they stripped him to the skin. But. and ever confess His justice." The ways of heaven are indeed inscrutable. with a mild and forbearing spirit. "I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy. upon Richard Smith. I leave to the judgment of the wise. On the first day of the third week of our martyr's sufferings. knight. "John Fetty.We have noticed in the former part of our narratives of the martyrs. alas! she returned again to her sin. who was once more apprehended. and every natural affection. To mark and punish the proceedings of his tormentors. but here. For fifteen days. I will repay. which leadeth unto life. he was sentenced to confinement and torture in Lollard's Tower. in religious matters. to preserve their husbands. Narrow is the way. but what he means thereby. when. "Vengeance is mine. yet. looking up to Him with humble confidence. the indignant and mortified priest concealed his resentment for a moment. there learn to trust.e xcept it were to show that he should look for little other subsistence: which is credible enough. if we consider their like practices upon divers before mentioned in this history. When the unoffending innocent. fainting beneath the stripes inflicted on his tender frame. and soothing her by every possible expression of tenderness: thus she became in a few weeks nearly restored to her senses. and applied their scourges to so violent a degree." This wretched woman. whose baseness and cruelty being equal to his own." This object was his own son. indeed. with energy sufficient to raise admiration in any breast. Upon examination. and where we "cannot unravel. a monster in nature! Neither conjugal nor maternal affection could impress the heart of this disgraceful woman. Here he was put into the painful stocks. who noteth even the fall of a sparrow. and sometimes by both. that are accustomed to do evil. and one of Queen Mary's commissioners. Story to have leave she might bury him. gratitude.

he espied. turned the poor man about. said. who. given up to terrible destruction. Then he immediately after espied also. or else I will spend all I have. "My Lord. the victim of their ungodly wrath was ready to expire under his heavy and unmerited punishment. "Thou art a vile heretic. he was torn from his weeping parent. for a time at least. and conveyed again to the house. which was raised to the utmost by the calm and pointed remarks of this observing Christian. standing by. where the arrow of the wicked cannot wound. (how disgraceful to all dignity. In this bleeding and helpless state was the suffering infant. who mildly taught His followers. where he found the bishop bathing himself before a great fire. was running the race of the wicked. fear is inseparable from little minds. and I will burn thee. The dutiful child. with his dying child. How contrary to the will of our great King and Prophet. that He was. concluded in his dark and wicked mind. and guided every action of the sinner he had hardened. MERCY. hanging about the bishop's bed. "God be here and peace!" "God be here and peace. covered only with his shirt. to say bishop!) liberated from the painful bonds. in the window. a pair of great black beads. in the mansion of eternal bliss shall glorify the Lamb forever and ever. and exulted in what he had done. on his knees implored his blessing." Bonner. and thinking to abash him. I think the hangman is not far off: for the halter (pointing to the beads) is here already!" At which words the bishop was in a marvellous rage. (said Bonner. "Was He handled as cruelly as He is here pictured!" said Fetty. "Alas! Will. at the request of the duke of Northumberland. within the confines of eternity. in trembling amazement. namely." He was accordingly by order of Bonner. made use of the vilest taunts. Fetty said. somewhat fearful that what had been done could not be justified even among the bloodhounds of his own voracious pack. while he exhibited the heart-rending spectacle. undertook at a few hours' . Sands This eminent prelate. even "where there shall be no more sorrowing for the blessed. taken to his father by one of the actors in the horrid tragedy. was the conduct of this sanguinary and false teacher. and this dastardly pampered priest experienced its effects so far as to induce him to assume the appearance of that he was an utter stranger to. that he may pray for you. said. notwithstanding his passion. "And even so cruelly will you handle such as come before you. that it was Christ. The father. and led from Lollard's Tower. His coward soul trembled for the consequences which might ensue. standing in the bishop's chamber. but when he repeated the reproof bestowed on the chaplain. "Yea. as if recovering strength at the sight of his father." "Nay. on account of the nearly murdered child. (said Fetty)." said the bishop. went home with a heavy heart. unto my gown. vice-chancellor of Cambridge. when he came down to Cambridge in support of Lady Jane Grey's claim to the throne. for you are unto God's people as Caiaphas was unto Christ!" The bishop. this vile apostate from his God to Satan! But the archfiend had taken entire possession of his heart. whereupon he said.) that is neither God speed nor good morrow!" "If ye kick against this peace. by the tyrant Bonner. marking his footsteps with the blood of the saints. to release John Fetty. to the chamber of that ungodly and infamous butcher. Then he asked the bishop what it was. then this is not the place that I seek for. on being dismissed. being in a great fury. where he remained a close prisoner. Bonner." said the afflicted parent.blood that flowed from them. from the severities he was enduring in the glorious cause of everlasting truth! whose bright rewards are fixed beyond the boundaries of time. Deliverance of Dr. (said Fetty) you were better to give it to some poor body. my Lord." A chaplain of the bishop. who. as if eager to arrive at the goal of eternal death. a little crucifix. who did not survive many days the cruelties which had been inflicted on him. in mocking wise. who. and which was prompted by an undaunted spirit. and at his first entering the chamber. thought it most prudent to dismiss the father. "What have we here-a player!" While Fetty was thus standing in the bishop's chamber. and he answered. "who hath done this to thee!" the artless innocent related the circumstances that led to the merciless correction which had been so basely inflicted on him.

and grave men as be in this realm. came to him. until he had taken sureties of two gentlemen with him. to be his bedfellow. a stone struck him to the ground." said the keeper. Sands: "I perceive the vain people would set you forward to the fire. "by God's grace!" "Truly. Dr. I have read in the Scriptures of many godly and couretous keepers: may God make you one! if not. As God gave him the text. it is enough to know Christ crucified. the three last verses of Joshua. The sermon was about to be sent to London to be printed. Dr. and had found the same favor from his keeper." Then said the keeper. saying. You are as vain as they. so He gave him also such order and utterance that it excited the most lively emotions in his numerous auditors. being a young man. Bradford. If you do so. they were kept close in prison twenty-nine weeks. like a true friend. With Doctor Sands was imprisoned Mr. Sands' property ensued. Sands at liberty. Sands answered. at length he began to favor the Gospel. ancient. Though Mr. that on a Sunday. in that day. on a religious account. and he hath learned nothing who seeth not the great blasphemy that is in popery. John Fowler. he offered to liberate all the imprisoned Protestants. At his request. On Mary's coronation day the doors of the dungeon were so laxly guarded that it was easy to escape. I will expect God's good will. Mildmay wondered that so learned a man could wilfully incur danger. you shall be assured of. "If I would do as Mr. "I know my years to be young. before a trator-now a great friend. I did but tempt you: what favor I can show you. for he trusted the doctor to walk in the fields alone. Bradford. and the Communion was administered to a great number of communicants. I will yield unto God. the keeper said to Dr. when they had Mass in the chapel. Mitchell. but Dr. Sands administered the Communion to Bradford and to Fowler. and one that utterly dislikes your religion. and Dr. He was the first prisoner that entered the Tower. and was so persuaded in the true religion. knight marshal. and my learning but small. he caused them to go on before. was a perverse papist. and prefer your own judgment before that of so many worthy prelates. This was a rare friendship: but he refused the offer. The keeper of the Marshalsea appointed to every preacher a man to lead him in the street. Mitchell departed. and he was brought to London upon a wretched horse. each one bound in . yet do I think myself much obliged to you". you shall find me a severe keeper. "I know no cause why I should be in prison. He came down armed against Queen Mary." He was as good as his word. and a more appropriate one he could not have chosen. the doctor replied. Sands and the rest of the preachers refused to accept freedom on such terms. and he and Dr. to preach before the duke and the university. by often persuading him. but his shirts and other articles were taken from him. and so Mr. if you. his man was admitted with his Bible. where he met with Mr. he was set at liberty. Thus Fowler was their son begotten in bonds. Saunders in along with him. and not unto man. learned. Sands and nine other preachers were sent to the Marshalsea." quoth the doctor. He was arrested by the queen's order. will stand in your own conceit. afforded him his own clothes as a disguise.notice. namely. By this time popery began to be unsavory. "I love you the better for it. The duke was immediately arrested. Sands had been nine weeks prisoner in the Marshalsea. Various insults he met on the way from the bigoted Catholics. and speak against so good a princess as Mary. their keeper. After they had passed the bridge. Mildmay has done. I trust He will give me strength and patience to bear your hard usage. yet. Holcroft had the queen's warrant. the bishop commanded him not to set Dr." A general plunder of Dr. and was willing to abide the consequence of being found in his place. Sands was compelled by the university to give up his office. I need not fear bonds. To do thus were to make myself guilty. and as he passed through Bishopsgate-street. A Mr. Sands followed conversing together. who was also a prisoner in the King's Bench. After Dr. When Wyat with his army came to Southwark. "Are you resolved to stand to your religion?" "Yes. he put Mr." Dr. To make room for Wyat and his accomplices. and I shall think myself happy if I might die at the stake with you. when news arrived that the duke had returned and Queen Mary was proclaimed. The text he took was such as presented itself in opening the Bible. I cannot with one mouth blow hot and cold in this manner. by the mediation of Sir Thomas Holcroft. and when Mr.

Holcroft immediately after met with two gentlemen of the north. and there took boat. if I may get out. God gave her a son. and said. In taking leave of his hostess. word was suddenly brought that Queen Mary was dead. where Dr. God shall give you a child. and came to a friend's house in London. and there you shall be sure of me. and had a child which died of the plague. Sands was told that two of the guards would that night apprehend Dr. that. Berty's house. to whom he gave an exhortation. Sands having taken an affectionate farewell of him and his other friends in bonds. to Mr. departed. where he waited for a wind to Flanders. When his wife was dead. Sands was sent for by his friends at Strassburg. before that one whole year be past. After that he removed to one James Mower's. rose to the highest distinction in the Church. where he preached. for. by Gardiner's express order. Holcroft much disapproved of. and died in his arms. I will not go forth a bondman. As I cannot benefit my friends. he was a good Protestant and dwelt in Mark-lane. but like a true friend he replied: "Seeing you cannot be altered. I will not tarry six days in this realm. and archbishop of York. Dr. and seeing you have a mind to go over sea. Grindal and he came over to England. He had not been theretwo hours. resolved on the morrow to ride into Essex. and then travelled towards Strassburg. That night Dr. and yield unto you. that Dr. under Queen Elizabeth. Sands was guided to an honest farmer's near the sea. bishop of London. that day twelve-month." This came to pass. Sunday. There he was six days. who dwelt at Milton-Shore. he caused his man Quinton to provide two geldings for him." Dr. and Dr. a shipmaster. Mr. Sir Thomas Holcroft sent for Dr. But as you have dealt friendly with me. If therefore I may not get free forth. and there he heard that strict search was making for him. The next night he went to another friend's house. send me to the Marshalsea again. I will change my purpose. Sands tarried fourteen days. that I think myself most bound unto you. and then removed to one of his acquaintances in Cornhill. After dinner. Mr. Sands answered: "I give God thanks. who had been married eight years without having a child. Sands should not depart out of the realm without license. . you write nothing to me hither. and there was in Peter Martyr's house for the space of five weeks. He was sick of a flux nine months. after a narrow escape. He went by Winchester house. where his wife was. he effected. called William Banks. his wife came to him. he went to Zurich. God shall requite you. and arrived in London the same day that Queen Elizabeth was crowned. friends and cousins to Dr. when he learned that King Philip had sent to apprehend him. Sands to his lodgings at Westminster. before Mr. One thing I require of you. Come of it what will. I will also deal plainly with you. Sands. James Mower brought to him forty or fifty mariners. for this may undo me. And if I be set at liberty. a stranger who was in the Marshalsea prison with him a while. so will I not hurt them. Dr. Scarcely had he arrived at Antwerp. which. His amiable wife at length fell into a consumption. The sixth of May. Sands. Sands. they liked him so well that they promised to die rather than he should be apprehended. he gave her a fine handkerchief and an old royal of gold. where he tarried two days and two nights in a chamber without company. where. He next flew to Augsburg. Sands now conveyed himself by night to one Mr." This answer Mr. a boy. I came a freeman into prison. "Be of good comfort. get you gone as quick as you can. This faithful servant of Christ. while you are there. As they sat at dinner one day. being successively bishop of Worcester. wanting one day.œ500. after he had lived one year. who hath moved your heart to mind me so well. the same day. who offered to be bound for him. to communicate to him all he had done. his father-in-law. the wind served. in Cleveland. nor shall I ever be found unthankful. and tarried there one night. I will set you at liberty. While he was there.

but the princess. the difference of the duration of the two reigns is worthy of notice. and calamities might have been felt in England similar to those under Henry the Great in France. whom she deputed to see the arrest executed. the Princess Elizabeth The preservation of Princess Elizabeth may be reckoned a remarkable instance of the watchful eye which Christ had over His Church. The manner too of her arrest was similar to the mind that dictated it: the three cabinet members. The queen now signified that it was her pleasure she should be committed to the Tower. she treated Elizabeth with a sisterly kindness. being prisoner. On Palm Sunday she was conducted to the Tower. have compelled her to bequeath the kingdom to some Catholic prince. however. but there was no lenity to be expected. and carry palms. Her mind. When she came to the palace garden. she exclaimed. As if Providence had the perpetual establishment of the Protestant faith in view. O God. whom Queen Elizabeth assisted in opposing his priest-ridden Catholic subjects. disgraceful reign. To mortify her the more. "If. and the barge some time stuck fast against the starlings. Though Elizabeth had no concern in the rebellion of Sir Thomas Wyat. Five years and four months was the time of persecution alloted to this weak. yet she was apprehended. and whose principles werre sanctioned and enjoined by the idolatrous tenets of the Romish pontiff. I beseech you that they may be dismissed. At the time of passing under London Bridge the fall of the tide made it very dangerous. and put up their prayers for her preservation. and. which she religiously affirmed to be false. through whom she passed on her way pitied her. as ever landed at these stairs. The contest might have been attended with the horrors incidental to a religious civil war. of national succession. almost nine times that of her merciless sister! Before Mary attained the crown. rudely entered the chamber at ten o'clock at night. but she was disappointed. with nineteen of the Council. and treated as a culprit in that commotion. for which they were the next day turned out of their employments. had a consolation in mind which her sister never could purchase: the people. but the course of grace willed it otherwise. having no friend but Thee alone!" A large number of the wardens and servants of the Tower were arranged in order between whom the princess had to pass. and before Thee. Arrived at court. while that of Elizabeth reckoned a number of years among the highest of those who have sat on the English throne. The charge. A strict order was given in London that every one should go to church. accused her of abetting Wyat's conspiracy. "Here lands as true a subject. physically morose. Mary might have reigned many years in the course of nature. that she might be conveyed without clamor or commiseration to her prison. she hesitated. I speak it. eagerly anxious to meet those of the queen. though afflicted in person. The tragic scene must have been deeply interesting. but this excited no complaisance in the lord in waiting. a step which overwhelmed the princess with the greatest alarm and uneasiness. Failing in this. Her enfeebled state permitted her to be moved only by short stages in a journey of such length to London. without knowing who was her accuser. and prayed that God would preserve her grace. of natural affection. she was informed it was customary to do so. as a sine qua non of the queen's salvation. she was made a close prisoner for a fortnight. though she was extremely ill. and a hundred northern soldiers appointed to guard her day and night. they placed against her the transactions of Sir Peter Carew in the west. When she set her foot on the steps. they could scarcely be induced to let her remain until the following morning. she cast her eyes towards the windows. they would have imbrued their hands in the Protestant blood of Elizabeth. "it is on account of me. Could they have foreseen the short date of Mary's reign. and. but from that period her conduct was altered. In vain she hoped the queen's majesty would not commit her to such a place. her attendants were limited. or seeing anyone who could console or advise her. Upon inquiring the use of this parade. and the most imperious distance substituted. and she was obliged to step in the water to land. who. As it rained fast. to see an amiable and irreproachable princess sent like a lamb to languish in expectation of cruelty and death." said she. The bigotry of Mary regarded not the ties of consanguinity.Queen Mary's Treatment of Her Sister. she was landed at Traitors' Stairs. was at length unmasked by Gardiner. against whom there was no other . was under the dominion of men who possessed not the milk of human kindness." On this the poor men knelt down. in which they were as unsuccessful as in the former.

" replied the princess. "Go to them. and not suffered to look down upon her. The day following. kneeling down. and Sir Henry Benifield appointed in his room. and made him caution Lord Tame to look well to his proceedings. and so God forgive you all. to whom she represented the ill state of her health from a want of proper air and exercise. Lord Tame overruled this indecent stretch of power. and afterwards in the garden. The princess had quite forgotten this trivial circumstance. This measure created considerable alarm in the mind of the princess. who was in every respect a servile tool of Gardiner. Their jealousy was excited by a child of four years. for my truth is such that no one shall have cause to weep for me. "what do you mean? I took you to comfort.charge than her superiority in Christian virtues and acquired endowments. This excited Sir Henry's indignation. she sent for the lord chamberlain and Lord Chandois. as her own servants were superseded by the soldiers. who were placed as guards at her chamber door. as his equivocal character was in conformity with the ferocious inclination of those by whom he was appointed." The next step of her enemies was to procure evidence by means which. in her way to which the people manifested such tokens of loyal affection that Sir Henry was indignant. and served her provision. After having been a whole month in close confinement. Upon representation. The ostensible cause of her removal was to make room for other prisoners. that is. "You sift me narrowly. apologized for having troubled her in such a frivolous matter. tanquim ovis. "Alas!" said Elizabeth. in the present day. which took place on Trinity Sunday. In some villages they rang the bells for joy. procured an order of Council which regulated this petty tyranny more to her satisfaction. her Grace arrived at Lord Tame's house. where she stayed all night." said she. Her attendants openly wept as she proceeded with a dignified step to the frowning battlements of her destination. and he returned a suitable reply. A report now obtained that her Grace was to be taken away by the new constable and his soldiers. May 13. who ought to have been her purveyors. imagining the princess's arrival among them was from a very different cause." The next night her Grace lodged at the house of a Mr. at the command of the constable of the Tower. are accounted detestable. and the father ordered to keep him from the princess's chambers. she entertained an idea that the new keeper of the Tower was commissioned to make away with her privately. under the authority of Sir Henry Benifield and Lord Tame. but the humanity of Lord Tame was not to be frightened. Application being made to the Council. but this harmless demonstration of gladness was sufficient with the persecuting Benifield to order his soldiers to seize and set these humble persons in the stocks." Her own gentlemen. upon the same block. In passing through Windsor. which in the sequel proved to be true. who daily brought flowers to the princess. Dormer. that God has appointed a limit to your proceedings. and Lord Arundel. to extract. not to dismay me. and bestowed on them very liberally the names of rebels and traitors. any matters of accusation which might affect her life. An order of Council was made for her removal to the manor Woodstock. she saw several of her poor dejected servants waiting to see her. however. Many poor prisoners were racked. The child was threatened with a whipping. On the fifth of May the constable was discharged from his office. not however without much alarm at first. He himself came to examine her. and was most nobly entertained. Assured that this project was not in agitation. at which time the prisoners on that side were attended by their keepers. to one of her attendants. were compelled to give place to the common soldiers. her grace's friends. and granted her perfect safety while under his custody. "but of this I am assured. respecting her removal from her house at Ashbridge to Dunnington castle a long while before. like a sheep to the slaughter. and thereby gratify Gardiner's sanguinary disposition. if possible. accompanied by a hundred ruffian-looking soldiers in blue. Elizabeth was with some difficulty admitted to walk in the queen's lodgings. At . who imagined it was preparatory to her undergoing the same fate as Lady Jane Grey. "and say these words from me. Richmond was the first place they stopped at. after the investigation. and here the princess slept.

"There is no need. Sir Henry keeping the keys himself. adding. she obtained permission to write to the queen. and it was presented by one of her gentlemen. all shall be avoided. that. and kneeling down. but the jailer who brought her pen. After much earnest entreaty to the Council. She remained a fortnight strictly guarded and watched. Benifield treated her with the same severity as before. "content yourself. when she left off. leaving her locked up as before.another time. The next day Gardiner came again. "If I have offended. two cushions. "shall watch all night. After the letter. As soon as it was known to the ladies and gentlemen they laughed him to scorn. They stayed with her five or six days. and a foot carpet. but my soldiers. In her journey from Woodstock. and in the night. At length she was permitted to walk in the gardens. removing her on a stormy day. he carried the things away until they were wanted again. whence she was induced to call him her jailer. they shall so do. if the king (Philip) meant to keep the realm in peace. What I have said. Elizabeth spurned this indirect mode of acknowledging herself guilty. "Sir Henry. It may be remarked in this place." Much question arose at this time respecting the propriety of uniting the princess to some foreigner. the Spaniards from this time repeatedly urged to the king that it would do him the highest honor to liberate the Lady Elizabeth." "Well. went up into a chamber. "and am guilty." Lord Tame answered. where she was enclosed. where was appointed for her Grace a chair. considering the great charge he had committed to him. but the bishops wanted a concession that she had offended her majesty. wherein he presumptuously sat and called his man to pull off his boots. Gardiner's visit was to draw from the princess a confession of her guilt. then should I not be thus bolted and locked up within walls and doors. than have my liberty. detesting such a base thought." said she. but the Spaniards." said his lordship. and placing her always under many bolts and locks. as the state of her health rendered medical assistance necessary. your men and all. and be suspected by her majesty. at which the queen seemed moved. nor will I ever speak falsehood!" The bishop and his friends then departed. marvelling much that he would permit such a large company. and spoke flatteringly of the princess' submission and humility. nor was the king impervious to their solicitation. he called to his lordship. The barbarian who suggested the policy of beheading Elizabeth little contemplated the change of condition which his speech would bring about. and directed that all gentlemen and ladies should withdraw home. she would lie in prison all the rest of her life. to show his consequence and disregard of good manners. every day. who had come to Colnbrook. to speak to her. the soldiers keeping guard within and without the walls. in which time she grew much better. "I had rather be in prison with honesty and truth. but under the most severe restrictions. but Elizabeth would not suffer him to be the bearer. to the number of sixty. ink. which I am certain I should have had ere this." said he. When supper was done. and. I will stand to. . came with great submission. before anyone dared to speak with her. as before in the Tower of London. declared that the queen was astonished she would persist in affirming that she was blameless-whence it would be inferred that the queen had unjustly imprisoned her grace. One of the Council had the brutality to urge the necessity of beheading her. where she slept." replied the high-minded Elizabeth. "need or need not. "Then." "Nay. Gardiner further informed her that the queen had declared that she must tell another tale. without the walls were forty during all the time of her imprisonment. and not suffering her old servant. at length the vile Gardiner with three more of the Council. that the fallacy of human reasoning is shown in every moment. and shortly after she was sent for to Hampton court. "God forbid that oiur king and master should consent to such an infamous proceeding!" Stimulated by a noble principle. rather than admit she had done wrong. I crave no mercy but the law. but she was guarded against his subtlety. Doctors Owen and Wendy went to the princess. He also insisted upon carrying it himself to the queen." replied Sir Henry. and begged they would intercede with the king and queen to deliver her from prison. that she might quit the realm with a suitable portion. they then returned to the queen." The next day her Grace took her journey from thence to Woodstock. I wish I were as clear from the peril of my enemies. if anything could have been proved against me. replied. Elizabeth saluted them. and begged her to substitute the word officer. this official prodigal. at which he felt offended. before she could be set at liberty. and paper stood by her while she wrote. He took her out of prison. remarked that she had been for a long time kept in solitary confinement.

intending to speak with Benifield on the subject. inasmuch as it had taken the chief tiger from the den. she left the following lines written with her diamond on the window: . that no man should be admitted to the princess during his absence. fire was apparently put between the boards and ceiling under which she lay. caused several prisoners to be racked. two years had elapsed since they had seen each other. sent a secret writ. not even with a note from the queen. not only from the beginning hitherto. had Mr. The warrant not having the queen's signature. Bridges. and she was set at liberty. she must have perished. and had come within a mile of Woodstock. and to have been friendly to the princess. whatever reports might be circulated to the contrary. to convict her of treasonable practices. When Elizabeth quitted Woodstock. but. This miscreant. While at Woodstock. and rendered the life of the Protestant successor of Mary more secure. Mr." said Elizabeth. "you stiffly still persevere in your truth. if it please your majesty. This event was soon after followed by the happy news of Gardiner's death. under the constraint of being always attended and watched by some of the queen's Council. was going to London: in consequence of which. I humbly beseech your majesty to have a good opinion of me and to think me to be your subject. Benifield. by an order of Council. Edmund Tremaine and Smithwicke were offered considerable bribes to accuse the guiltless princess. who. lieutenant of the Tower. if it please your majesty: I have borne the burden. then. and. upon entering it the princess knelt down. The goodness of God however so ordered it that while Basset was travelling to Woodstock. With a haughty ungraciousness. was in direct contradiction to what she had told Gardiner. and must have arisen from some motive at this time inexplicable. her severe jailer and his men were discharged. at setting out. particularly Mr. It created terror in the mind of the princess. was appointed to assassinate her. Being conducted to the queen's bedchamber. a notorious ruffian. the keeper of Woodstock. In seven days from the time of her return to imprisonment. and having begged of God to preserve her majesty. to you." said the queen. "belike you will to others. Besides." "Why. King Philip is supposed to have been secretly concealed during the interview. however this might be. for which all good and merciful men glorified God. I pray God it may so fall out. Four of her gentlemen were sent to the Tower without any other charge against them than being zealous servants of their mistress." "No. Bridges hastened to her majesty to give her information of it. that she had been unjustly punished.Seven days after the queen sent for Elizabeth at ten o'clock at night. God counteracted in this point the nefarious designs of the enemies of the Reformation. nor can we think the conduct of Elizabeth displayed that independence and fortitude which accompanies perfect innocence. who. It was also reported strongly that one Paul Penny. James Basset was another appointed to perform the same deed: he was a peculiar favorite of Gardiner. she humbly assured her that her majesty had not a more loyal subject in the realm." "I must not say so. neither to the queen nor to others. This was a plot of Winchester's. the imperious queen replied: "You will not confess your offence. but for ever. he left a positive order with his brother. but stand stoutly to your truth. as no admission could be obtained." "If it do not. his brother met the murderer. and must bear it. been as little scrupulous of dark assassination as this pious prelate was. for her private execution. Elizabeth's admitting that she would not say. signed by a few of the Council. as her return to them again was uncertain." They departed without any heartfelt satisfaction on either side. Her life was several times in danger. you will not confess that you have not been wrongfully punished. desired her gentlemen and ladies to pray for her." said the queen. but the latter's intention was frustrated. "I request neither favor nor pardon at your majesty's hands." "Well. and to know her mind. as long as life lasteth. while the princess was in the Tower.

Quoth Elizabeth. who succeeded Bishop Farrar. on account of the accusing spirits of the murdered martyrs. and this last stroke seemed to be awarded. as many of her other secret enemies soon after followed him. his bowels suddenly burst out. the last fortress possessed by the English in France. others followed. The death of Mary was ascribed to several causes. With the life of Winchester ceased the extreme danger of the princess." said Mary. and broke his neck. suffered by perjury. and his wife and nine children reduced to beggary. and therefore he was hung. and at Mr. drawn and quartered. Bradford. After the latter. David's. one of the witnesses before mentioned. In this manner. he terminated his existence. almost literally starved to death. her died. and did not long survive. he was from private pique persecuted by one Fenning. and. was visited for his villainy: while at work.' Cooper denied all such words. and that the detestation in which the character of Mary is holden. the severity of Mr. his food passed through the throat. . because he stopped the cart to let the martyr's children take a last farewell of him. was an indefatigable persecutor of the true Church. Not the blood she had spilled. One day after he had exercised his cruel tyranny upon a number of pious persons at Canterbury. where as he stood on a Sunday looking at his men playing at bowls. and you shall find Calais written there. Grimwood of Hitcham. We earnestly pray that the annals of no country. ordained by Gardiner. he fell down in a fit of the palsy. Sheriff Woodroffe has been noticed-he rejoiced at the death of the saints. Catholic or pagan. was dead. John Cooper. The following harvest. He had just received the cardinal's blessing-he could receive nothing worse. the loss of Calais. which might have obtruded. is to be noticed. stacking up corn. who suborned two others to swear that they heard Cooper say. Bishop Thornton. Suffolk. but the loss of a town excited her emotions in dying. he broke the carman's head. Thus was deliberate perjury rewarded by sudden death! In the case of the martyr Mr. 'If God did not take away Queen Mary. however. fell down a pair of stairs in the cardinal's chamber at Greenwich. but rose again with great violence. but though his treatment had some weight. of Watsam. her cruel sister. his property confiscated. that her fanatical persecution might be paralleled by her political imbecility. bishop of St. was the true source of her sorrow. "when I am dead. he came from the chapterhouse to Borne. who outlived Gardiner but three years. Nothing proved can be. the priests had lulled to rest every misgiving of conscience. prisoner. The Council endeavored to console her in her last moments. Gardiner. who not long after he had been raised to the see of Dover. succeeded another bishop or suffragen. Rogers' execution." Religion caused her no alarm. he was stricken by the visitation of God. "Open my heart. may be a beacon to succeeding monarchs to avoid the rocks of fanaticism! God's Punishment upon Some of the Persecutors of His People in Mary's Reign After that arch-persecutor. may ever be stained with such a repetition of human sacrifices to papal power. and before relief could be obtained. the devil would. but Cooper was a Proestant and a heretic. last of all. suffragan of Dover. Morgan. imagining it was the absence of her husband that lay heavy at her heart. of whom Dr.Much suspected by me. Not long after he was installed in his bishoipric.

Gardiner. and in about half a year he died. the sheriff had him secured. died wretchedly. when I sold his blood for a little money." This awful state visited him in all its loathsomeness. and said that he and other priests had been the cause of his damnation. and like him to seal the cause of Christ with their blood. the true servant of God. was reminded by a bishop of Peter denying his master. One William Maldon. before the fearful stroke of God fell upn the hardened wretch. and made him put his clothes on. Pendleton. he was conveyed to his master's house. Dale. Bonner was put into the Marshalsea. he would say." John Peter. Woodroffe's sheriffalty expired a week. among many others. and others. and blasphemously called his religion heresy. we detail. who is saved by I am damned. in three years after his father's death. a priest of much celebrity. that none could come near him. to distribute among some poor persons. died miserably. "If it be not true. swelling to a prodigious size. "I have denied with Peter. Alexander. and died suddenly in Newgate market. and most of the leading persecutors.." As James Abbes was going to execution. the following occurrence. This cruel minister of the law would go to Bonner. a horrid blasphemer and persecutor. fell down in the street and died on the spot. At the bar. Sir Ralph Ellerker was eagerly desirous to see the heart taken out of Adam Damlip. presenting a striking contrast to his former activity in the cause of blood. he denounced himself in these words: "This has most justly fallen upon me. was instructing himself profitably in reading an English primer one winter's evening. and languished a few days in the most pitable and helpless condition. The man was suddenly seized with lunacy.) at the same time exclaiming. But with more reason may this be said of the Catholic tenets. an avowed enemy of the Protestants in King Edward's reign. named John Powell. he called the profession of the Gospel a doctrine of desperation.Scarcely had Mr. who mangled him dreadfully. upon his death bed. requesting them to rid his prison. when he was struck with a paralytic affection. but no sooner was he alone. who cautioned him not to make a jest of the Word of God. but the wretched man bade him take away such trumpery. and exclaimed as before. cut off his limbs. hung himself in the Tower of London. cast off his clothes and shoes before the people. Scarcely however had the flames reached the martyr. most of the Catholic prelates were imprisoned in the Tower or the Fleet. "The sins of the father. who was wrongfully put to death. and died a miserable spectacle. Of the revilers of God's Word. but never repented with Peter. living at Greenwich in servitude." After the accession of Elizabeth. was consumed by vermin. an indefatigable informer. who betrayed the martyr George Eagles." says the decalogue. for betraying the innocent blood of that just and good man George Eagles. is believed to have been afterward arraigned and hanged in consequence of accusing himself. (as Abbes had done just before. and the good man a lunatic. until Maldon came to . Powell nevertheless continued. "Thus did James Abbes. a servant of the sheriff's interrupted him. When Gardiner heard of the miserable end of Judge Hales. but he forgot that the judge's despondency arose after he had consented to the papistry. the severe keeper of Newgate. but that Abbes was saved. and became so inwardly putrid. in the presence of him he had so cruelly ridiculed. Being tied in a cart. he was so much pestered with heretics! The son of this keeper. if we consider the miserable end of Dr. "shall be visited on the children." Repeating this often. sat by. dissipated his great property. Story. A serving man. When he affirmed anything. than he tore them off. I pray I may rot ere I die. etc. Shortly after Sir Ralph was slain by the French. and ridiculed all that Maldon said. Froling. who was here condemned in the time of Queen Mary by my procurement. and tore his heart out. Ralph Lardyn. just before which a priest came to attend him. son-in-law of Alexander. One Clark. and exhorting the pitying bystanders to adhere steadfastly to the truth. with the crucifix." said Gardiner. "Ah. Gardiner.

was laid upon a hurdle. persecuting rebel was committed to prison. a practice in which he had taken great delight when in power. had a pious Protesant father. which were fastened down upon him. and became an awful warning that God will not always be insulted with impunity. whose name has been so often mtnioned in the preceding pages." etc. going to Louvain. From the duke of Alva. have mercy upon us!" He was struck with the utmost terror of mind. a merchant. to carry fire and sword there among the Protestant brethren. Story. or admit of Queen Elizabeth's supremacy. but conscience one night reproached him so dreadfully. than he hastened to the vessel. Not content with these things. a student in the law. and read aloud. Suddenly the reviler started. in France. Henry Smith. Dr. When Elizabeth came to the throne. should sail to Antwerp and information should be given to Dr. "Lord. and a great freight of popish toys. and the executioner displayed the heart of a traitor. without the Christian service being read over him. He alleged. . "Lord. Thus ended the existence of this Nimrod of England. and this traitorous. he received a special commission to search all ships for contraband goods. and then went under the hatches. and drawn from the Tower to Tyburn. He is supposed to have had a hand in most of the conflagrations in Mary's time. in Gloucestershire. and particularly for English heretical books. Story that he had a quantity of heretical books on board. He was buried in a lane. in whose service the famous duke of Alva was. Story gloried in a commission that was ordered by Providence to be his ruin. It was contrived that one Parker. and to preserve the faithful from his sanguinary cruelty. sought everywhere above. that he was a sworn subject of the king of Spain. and sunk into madness. he was induced to profess Catholicism. was reserved to be cut off by public execution. stripped. obstinately objecting to recant his Anti-christian spirit. Christ have mercy upon us. he openly reviled the Gospel religion he had been brought up in. at Antwerp. Dr. and was even ingenious in his invention of new modes of inflicting torture. he returned with pardons. where after being suspended about half an hour. He was remitted to Bedlam. that in a fit of despair he hung himself in his garters. he was cut down. The doctor being condemned. where he remained a considerable time. crucifixes. by whom he was virtuously educated. have mercy upon us. A prosperous gale brought the ship to England. and exclaimed. of Camben. but unaccountably effected his escape to the continent. though by birth and education an Englishman. While studying law in the middle temple. said the evil spirit could not abide that Christ should have any mercy upon him. he was committed to prison. The latter no sooner heard this. and.certain English Prayers.

a chieftain of great power in the northern part of the island. and that it would be necessary for a parliament to be called in Ireland.CHAPTER XVII . This . the archbishop wrote a second letter to Lord Cromwell. that the clergy were exceedingly illiterate. that several persons of distinction. kings. lord-privy seal. that he himself would vote King Henry VIII as supreme in all matters. He concluded with observing. that the common people were more zealous in their blindness than the saints and martyrs had been in the defence of truth at the beginning of the Gospel. and that it was to be feared that Shan O'Neal. that their isle. or the Holy Island. It was. at that time lord-lieutenant. informing him that Henry VIII having thrown off the papal supremacy in England. therefore. who had hitherto been strenuous papists. but the natural ferocity of the people. to acknowledge emperors. The introduction of the Protestant religion into Ireland may be principally attributed to George Browne. and princes. complaining of the clergy. at the time that Henry VIII was suppressing the religious houses in England. that this prelate had. the people not regarding the king's commission without the sanction of the legislative assembly. the Creed. was determined to do the like in Ireland. and embrace the Protestant religion. to be supreme in their own dominions. and the Ten Commandments. and that he thereupon had appointed him (Archbishop Browne) one of the commissioners for seeing this order put in execution. He had formerly been an Augustine friar. in a speech to his clergy. was decidedly opposed to the king's commission. 1535. by order of Leonard Grey. He observed likewise. A short time after this he received a letter from Thomas Cromwell.Rise and Progress of the Protestant Religion in Ireland. in which he set forth that the bishops of Rome used. and. and was promoted to the mitre on account of his merit. The abject ignorance in which the people were held. that the popes had kept the people in the most profound ignorance. who was consecrated archbishop of Dublin on the nineteenth of March. and their strong attachment to the ridiculous doctrines which they had been taught. in matters both spiritual and temporal. at length undertaken. and the artifices of their priests were so conspicuous. after violent debates. though attended with the most horrid and disastrous consequences. He concluded with saying that whosoever should refuse to vote for this act. Two years after this. in the place of which he caused to be put up the Lord's Prayer. the following year a parliament was summoned to meet at Dublin. made the attempt dangerous. and hinting at the machinations which the pope was then carrying on against the advocates of the Gospel. archbishop of Armagh. an Englishman. At this assembly Archbishop Browne made a speech. the king's supremacy was allowed. but had met with a most violent opposition. but at length. called in the Chronicles Insula Sacra. anciently. with the absurd and superstitious notions they entertained. and the other churches in his diocese. to cause the Irish nobility and gentry to acknowledge Henry as their supreme head. were sufficiently evident to many. would willingly have endeavored to shake off the yoke. and that the king's progenitors had received it from the pope. to pass an act of supremacy. was not a true subject of the king. caused all the relics and images to be removed out of the two cathedrals in Dublin. The archbishop answered that he had employed his utmost endeavors at the hazard of his life. that the archbishop and clergy of Armagh had each despatched a courier to Rome. In pursuance of this advice. and afford that light which until then had been unknown in that island. with an Account of the Barbarous Massacre of 1641 The gloom of popery had overshadowed Ireland from its first establishment there until the reign of Henry VIII when the rays of the Gospel began to dispel the darkness. however. both ecclesiastical and temporal. laid a curse on all those who should own his highness' supremacy: adding. especially from George. This speech greatly startled the other bishops and lords. he. belonged to none but the bishop of Rome. After having enjoyed his dignity about five years.

Lacerianus. in which he saith that the Mother Church of Rome falleth. 1551. Rome hath a great kindness for the duke of Norfolk. the Blessed Virgin. the Mother of Churches' opposers or enemies." Not long after this. dispensing with the sins of our nations. 1538. it was interred. purposely to oppose his highness. rebellions. ran as follows: "I do further declare him or here. and to lay aside their national quarrels. purposely to cherish all evil vices. husband or wife. King Henry VIII taking into consideration the bondage and heavy yoke that his true and faithful subjects sustained. Paul. suppress heresy. nor faith kept with them. son or daughter. which expressly declare that no favor should be shown to heretics. the Blacksmith's Son. friend or acquaintance whatsoever. and great favors for this nation. after further examination and search made. After the accession of Edward VI to the throne of England. Therefore. for the time to come. Part of the royal order for this purpose was as follows: "Whereas. and parish churches. and his holiness' enemies. when. to root them out of their respective dominions. dated May. that they ought to be excommunicated and condemned. is an exact agreement with the doctrines promulgated by the Councils of Lateran and Constance. the Catholic faith is overcome. a Franciscan friar. for gain. or should own the king's supremacy within the Irish nation. which thus dares to trample upon all authority! How besotted the people who regard the injunctions of such a church! In the archbishop's last-mentioned letter. and all others. that either do or shall hold. master or mistress. blasphemy. and kept close prisoner until the king's orders arrived in what manner he should be further dispposed of. Archbishop Browne gave notice of this in a letter dated. uncle or aunt. or vow. idolatry. that they had done amiss in so doing. and the Holy Evangelists. under the jurisdiction of the bishop of Rome. there to be observed within the several bishoprics. I desire your lordship to look well to your noble person. for the glory of the Mother Church. Part of the form of confession. thefts." A short time after this. by their indulgences and pardons. who had in his possession a paper sent from Rome. accursed. was pilloried. Dublin. yet are crafty to cozen the oor common people and to dissuade them from following his highness orders.letter is dated from Dublin. though not scholars. by a solemn oath. an order was directed to Sir Anthony Leger. As a friend. a prophecy of one St. May. But order coming over from England that he was to be hanged. for the time to come. and it was first read in Christ-church. or contrary to the same. in Ireland. and their estates confiscated." This Thady O'Brian. he laid violent hands on himself in the castle of Dublin. have lately found. and directed to O'Neal. Archbishop Browne seized one Thady O'Brian. before the said Sir Anthony. commanding that the liturgy in English be forthwith set up in Ireland. Now both English and Irish begin to oppose your lordship's orders. 1538. of which I have here sworn unto: so God. how several fabulous stories and lying wonders misled our subjects. in Rome. where. the honor of St. he says: "His highness' viceroy of this nation is of little or no power with the old natives. Peter. and the council of the fathers. and your own secureness. acknowledge to their confessors. How abominable a church must that be. and despitefully call you. "A bird may be taught to speak with as much sense as many of the clergy do in this cvountry. or that do or shall obey. our gracious father hereupon dissolved all . dated May. sent over to these Irish papists. whoredoms. St. on Easter day. His body was afterwards carried to Gallows-green. nearest or dearest relations. an Irish bishop of Cashel. cathedrals. as robberies. Dublin. in April. Peter. any of her. help me. Archbishop Browne. our gracious father. These." etc. within forty days. St. Paul. in their Irish tongue. any ecclesiastical or civil power above the authority of the Mother Church. and theirs. which I fear will (if anything will) cause a foreigner to invade this nation. now pope. denouncing a curse on all of them. nephew or niece. father or mother.. the archbishop says. and among other matters. etc. the lord-deputy of Ireland. The country folk here much hate your lordship. who should not. after being hanged up for some time. the pope sent over to Ireland (directed to the archbishop of Armagh and his clergy) a bull of excommunication against all who had. 1538. and others. In this letter were the following words: "His Holiness. and that princes are obliged. 1538. brother or sister. kinsman or kinswoman.

the following wicked scheme was projected by the papists: In the church was left a marble image of Christ. and in its stead laid a sheet of paper. however ludicrous it may appear to the enlightened reader. "See how our Savior's image sweats blood! But it must necessarily do this. convinced that the doctrines of Protestantism emanated from an infernal source. which. holding a reed in his hand. however.priories. On this. Mary had appointed Dr. the mayor of that city. he immediately waited upon Lord Fitz-Walter. were aggravated and rendered more bitter and irreconcilable from that cause. indeed the vulgar of all ranks. Whilst the English service (the Common Prayer) was being read before the lord-lieutenant. and other pretended religious houses. news arrived that Queen Mary was dead. He having arrived at Chester with his commission. The above relation as we before observed. they hastened from the church." etc. the particulars of which are related by historians of good authority. put up the box. she attempted to extend her inhuman persecutions to this island. blood was seen to run through the crevices of the crown of thorns. the archbishop of Dublin. would have directly returned to England to get another commission. Dublin. she opened the box. whilst the mayor was taking his leave. the lord-mayor. Towards the conclusion of the barbarous sway of that relentless bigot. and arrived with it in Dublin. This incident. were terrified at the sight of so miraculous and undeniable an evidence of the divine displeasure. nothing was found in it but a pack of cards. and trickle down the face of the image. On the day after the Common Prayer was first used in Christchurch. more than for sacred learning. and in the meantime let us shuffle the cards. between the English and Irish. Anxious to accomplish the intentions of his "pious" mistress. his lordship said. and by this means the Protestants escaped a most cruel persecution. and answered the ends of the impudent impostors who contrived it. monasteries. 1558. and presented the box to him. was greatly troubled at what she heard. when the doctor taking out of his cloak bag a leathern case. for having thus saved the lives of her Protestant subjects. This startling all the persons present. but waiting for a favorable wind. and that salvation was only to be found in the bosom of their own infallible Church. named John Edmunds. as being but nurseries for vice or luxury. although not always taking their rise from the difference of religious opinions. some of the contrivers of the imposture cried aloud. said to him. the privy-council. not suspecting the trick that had been played him. During the reigns of Elizabeth and James I. Ireland was almost constantly agitated by rebellions and insurrections. abbeys." Immediately many of the lower order of people. Pole (an agent of the bloodthirsty Bonner) one of the commissioners for carrying her barbarous intentions into effect. and having a brother in Dublin. and continually urged to their . but her diabolical intentions were happily frustrated in the following providential manner." Dr. and a great congregation. in September. The popish priests artfully exaggerated the faults of the English government. "We must procure another commission. "Here is a commission that shall lash the heretics of Ireland. But watching her opportunity." The good woman of the house being a Protestant. and the knave of clubs at top. since heresy is come into the church. The doctor. many persons could not resist the conviction that there were many errors and corruptions in the Romish Church. at that time viceroy. but they were awed into silence by this pretended manifestation of Divine wrath. with a crown of thorns on his head. waited upon him. had great influence over the minds of the ignorant Irish. took out the commission. that Queen Elizabeth settled a pension of forty pounds per annum upon the above mentioned Elizabeth Edmunds. so far as to check the progress of the reformed religion in Ireland very materially. being a papist. Pole. We have very few particulars as to the state of religion in Ireland during the remaining portion of the reign of Edward VI and the greater part of that of Mary. which was magnified beyond measure by the bigoted and interested priesthood. is confirmed by historians of the greatest credit. with a pack of cards. who add. and the doctor politely accompanying him downstairs. which being opened.

They also proceeded to build monasteries and nunneries in various parts of the kingdom. by landing forces in the south. ever restless and designing. the Romish clergy erected a new popish university in the city of Dublin." they were assisted by great numbers of the Irish. sought to undermine by secret machinations that government and that faith which they durst no longer openly attack. the public exercise of the popish rites and ceremonies was forbidden. too. But notwithstanding this. and giving every encouragement to the discontented natives to join their standard. Flanders. as soon as the insurrection took place. they disembarked a body of four thousand men at Kinsale. held frequent meetings. This further irritated the papists to put in execution the diabolical plot concerted for the destruction of the Protestants. should be murdered. and the chiefs of the Irish. This closed the transactions of Elizabeth's reign with respect to Ireland. abbots. used to pass to and fro. but the popish priesthood. Lord Mountjoy. in which places these very Romish clergy. 1641. and friars. The naturally ungovernable dispositions of the Irish. The Spaniards. In order that this detested scheme might the more infallibly succeed. vicarsgeneral. the conspiracy was discovered by one Owen O'Connelly. the papists in Ireland had presented a remonstrance to the lords-justice of that kingdom. was with more seeming kindness than they had hitherto shown. that sending troops from England might be attended with greater difficulty. was but little calculated to gain their affections. and the chief conspirators in the principal parts of the kingdom made the necessary preparations for the intended conflict. and Rome. when. an Irishman. soon afterwards. for which most signal service the English Parliament voted him 500 pounds and a pension of 200 pounds during his life. The day preceding that appointed for carrying this horrid design into execution was now arrived. Spain. had promised the conspirators a considerable supply of men and money. which was done the more completely to effect the inhuman and treacherous designs then meditating against them. which we are now going to relate. to which both houses of parliament in England solemnly answered that they would never grant any toleration to the popish religion in that kingdom. bishops. and from thence. demanding the free exercise of their religion. happily. was the twenty-third of October. at this time. for which reason. The design of this horrid conspiracy was that a general insurrection should take place at the same time throughout the kingdom. The day fixed for this horrid massacre. where the detestable plot of 1641 was hatching by the family of the O'Neals and their followers. acted upon by these designing men. but were at length totally defeated by the deputy. priests. assuring them that all Catholics who were slain in the prosecution of so pious an enterprise. their numbers were greatly increased by titular Romish archbishops. A short time before the horrid conspiracy broke out. and a repeal of all laws to the contrary. in 1629. for the metropolis of the kingdom. would be immediately received into everlasting felicity. founder of the Jesuits. The pacific reign of James afforded them the opportunity of increasing their strength and maturing their schemes. and under his successor. drove them into continual acts of barbarous and unjustifiable violence. kept the island in a continual state of turbulence and warfare. an interval of apparent tranquillity followed. In 1601. the most distinguished artifices were practiced by the papists. without exception. Lorraine. The execution of this savage conspiracy was delayed until the approach of winter. the feast of Ignatius Loyola. and it failed not of the success wished for by its malicious and rancorous projectors. Charles I. and his officers. to France. . Cardinal Richelieu.ignorant and prejudiced hearers the lawfulness of killing the Protestants. deans. and commenced what they called "the Holy War for the preservation of the faith in Ireland. and many Irish officers had given the strongest assurances that they would heartily concur with their Catholic brethren. and their behavior in their visits to the Protestants. and that all the Protestants. the French minister. and it must be confessed that the unsettled and arbitrary nature of the authority exercised by the English governors.

They everywhere declared to the common people. underwent the same fate.So very seasonably was this plot discovered. and met the hunted victims at every turn. and the infirm. who was the principal leader here. The wife weeping for her butchered husband. to companions. all connections were dissolved. without opposition. and such other instruments of death as had been prepared for the destruction and extirpation of the Protestants in that part of the kingdom. And where the wretched owners had shut themselves up in the houses. Without provocation. and were blended in one common ruin. and embracing her helpless children. no condition. there to perish by slow and lingering torments. full security. and by repine had made their own. The old. and death was dealt by that hand from which protection was implored and expected. Such was their frenzy. or levelled with the ground. first . the young. Lord M'Guire. but it now remains. The bigoted and merciless papists had no sooner begun to imbrue their hands in blood than they repeated the horrid tragedy day after day. pole-axes. No age. the besiegers. diligence in the great design. have emulated their robust companions in the practice of every cruelty. was pierced with them. living in profound peace. the instant the townspeople appeared. hammers. The very children. wontonly slaughtered. cannot reach to a greater pitch of ferocity than appeared in these merciless barbarians. and to the advancement of the Catholic cause. from the nature of our work. In vain did flight save from the first assault. were massacred by their nearest neighbors. attacked them in a most unmerciful manner. taught by example and encouraged by the exhortation of their parents. was spared. they perished in the flames together with their wives and children. and the Protestants in all parts of the kingdom fell victims to their fury by deaths of the most unheard-of cruelty. who were Protestants. as a signal for the rest to fall on. when covered with wounds. In vain was recourse had to relations. Nay. and every Protestant who fell in their way was immediately murdered. and ought not to be suffered to live any longer among them. no sex. and. and in their lodgings were found swords. the agonies of despair. the astonished English. though encouraged by the utmost license. was seized the same evening in the city. and cruelly derived from no just cause whatever. were. The commodious habitations of the planters were laid in ashes. and the inhabitants of the latter. surrendering on condition of being allowed quarter. and were preparing for defence. as they thought. Nor was the avarice of the Irish sufficient to produce the least restraint on their cruelty. to friends. the vigorous. could not satiate revenge excited without injury. when the day for the execution of the plot was agreed on. dealt their feeble blows on the dead carcasses of the defenceless children of the English. and that the relieving or protecting them was a crime of the most unpardonable nature. The conspirators were in arms all over the kingdom early in the morning of the day appointed. that the lords-justice had but just time to put themselves. and compassionate to those of others. even perverted religion. but the bloody part of the intended tragedy was past prevention. hatchets. Even the weaker sex themselves. or. priests. Thus was the metropolic happily preserved. with his accomplices. which they said would greatly tend to the prosperity of the kingdom. destruction was everywhere let loose. that we proceed to particulars. The papists having besieged the town and castle of Longford. Depraved nature. their priest. in a proper posture of defence. turned loose into the woods. all the tortures which wanton cruelty could invent. that the Protestants were heretics. and friars. The ignorant Irish were more strongly instigated to execute the infernal business by the Jesuits. even death was the slightest punishment inflicted by these monsters in human form. all the lingering pains of body. that the cattle they had seized. Such is the general description of this unparalleled massacre. recommended in their prayers. adding that it was no more sin to kill an Englishman than to kill a dog. naturally tender to their own sufferings. the anguish of mind. with whom they had long maintained a continued intercourse of kindness and good offices. because they bore the name of English. who. and perished by the same stroke. even but a few hours before the city and castle of Dublin were to have been surprised. and the city.

crying out. Afterward. his family. and were either killed. the papists forced Dr. who. with holy water in their hands. one of his clergy. like one of the primitive martyrs just hastening to his crown of glory. that as he was one of the best so he should be the last English bishop found among them. and the rest of his family. and his children. after having solemnly blessed his people. who said Mass in the church the Sunday following. the papists. on pretence of cleansing and purifying it from the stains and pollution of the blood and dead bodies of the heretics. upon the Protestants quitting their holds. or of . promised them quarter. in the most pathetic manner. who were come to congratulate their wicked brethren for their victory over these unhappy creatures. At this interment they discharged a volley of shot. Bedell. his two sons." Adding. and to convey them safe over the Curlew mountains. allowing them only grains for their food. Finding his dissolution at hand. But they did not long enjoy the consolation of living together. by which means. they suffered the most severe hardships. whom he had made a convert to the Church of England. which was with difficulty obtained. those Protestants who survived were brought forth by the White-firars. that is. (it being in the month of December) and the building in which they were confined open at the top. the papists having destroyed most of his papers and his library. as they called the unfortunate Protestants who were inhumanly slaughtered at this very time. others were stabbed or shot. he finished the course of his ministry and life together. The garrison at Sligo was treated in like manner by O'Connor Slygah. Oxford. and being afflicted with a violent ague caught in his late cold and desolate habitation on the lake. It is added. and though the church funeral service was not used at the solemnity. as they saw their own last day approaching. and great numbers knocked on the head with axes provided for the purpose. In the barony of Terawley. Here he remained with his companions some weeks. the popish titular bishop of Kilmore. which was immediately occupied by Dr. attended his remains to the grave. at first telling them that the churchyard was holy ground. he spent the whole of his time in religious exercises. where they were soon destroyed. with some of the chief of the Protestants whom he had protected. situated in a lake near the sea. and then seized on all the goods and effects belonging to the persecuted bishop. Dr. and he would have given the world a greater proof of it. and exhorted them to patience. But he first imprisoned them in a most loathsome jail. After having addressed his little flock. that this wicked company of White-friars went. compelled above forty English Protestants. in solemn procession. but he did not long survive this kindness. to Roscommon. as the season was cold. The greatest part of them were stripped naked. into a ruinous castle. They continued in this situation until the seventh of January. He was at this time in the seventy-first year of his age. called Lochwater. to the hard fate of either falling by the sword. the good prelate was forcibly dragged from his episcopal residence. and is now in the library of Emanuel College. leave was at last granted. Happily his great Hebrew manuscript was preserved. it soon threw him into a fever of the most dangerous nature. The bishop was courteously received into the house of Dennis O'Sheridan. who had the highest veneration for him while living. and should be no longer defiled with heretics: however. had he printed all he wrote. fell into the hands of the Irish. His learning was very extensive. when they were all released. Requiescat in pace ultimus Anglorum. to sprinkle the river. all of them daily expecting to be put to death. Swiney. he received it with joy. who had fled from their habitations to escape the diabolical cruelties committed by the papists. the better to fit and prepare himself and his sorrowful companions for their great change. when some papists were merry over their cups. His friends and relations applied to the intruding bishop for leave to bury him. as nothing but certain death was perpetually before their eyes. He had gathered a vast heap of critical expositions of Scripture. (for fear of the Irish papists) yet some of the better sort. on the seventh day of February 1642. some time after. some of whom were women and children. after which his followers murdered all the rest. all which with a great trunk full of his manuscripts. "May the last of the English rest in peace. or precipitated over the bridge into a swift river. at the instigation of the friars. some of whom they hanged. At Kilmore.ripping open the belly of the English Protestant minister. bishop of that see. Scarce any of his writings were saved. Soon after this. During his residence here. had charitably settled and supported a great number of distressed Protestants. Bedell. he.

In the same part of the country. and children. women. he immediately burnt the records of the county. from the loss of blood. and their arms and head on the other. In this position. and thrown to dogs and swine. Such was the savage ferocity of these barbarians. others burnt. Nor did the more tender sex escape the least particle of cruelty that could be projected by their merciless and furious persecutors. he ordered the wife and children of the governor to be hanged before his face. that even unborn infants were dragged from the womb to become victims to their rage. were slack in their pace. and so cruel were their tormentors that they would not suffer them to pray before they robbed them of their miserable existence. And to complete his horrid barbarities. Many of these poor wretches. and in this dreadful manner were they deprived of their existence. but no sooner had that base villain got possession of the place than he ordered his followers to murder the people. In one place one hundred and forty English. put them to the most excruciating torments. and the beasts being set on full gallop by their riders. And to increase the horrid scene. or natural infirmities. desired to speak with the governor. they pricked them with their swords and pikes. which was broken in the middle. Great numbers were fastened to horses' tails. by the naked weapons of their inexorable persecutors. at least four thousand persons were drowned in different places. he immediately compelled him to hear Mass. Upwards of one thousand men.. Many others were put to deaths of the most horrid nature. and such as attempted to reach the shore were knocked on the head. the wretched victims were dragged along until they expired. Great numbers were also murdered at the castle of Tullah. legs. and partly by suffocation. and their bodies being cut open. and many of them buried alive. and such as could have been invented only by demons instead of men. were all murdered on the same spot. who tore to pieces the arms and upper parts of the body. M'Guire. . and at the castle of Moneah not less than one hundred were all pput to the sword. while another set on furious dogs. and if any. women. which were kept there. through fatigue. and in the most severe weather. when being admitted. in different companies. These choosing the latter. In the castle of Lisgool upwards of one hundred and fifty men. drove them like beasts to the spot fixed on for their destruction. etc. and afterwards sunk down and perished together. were fastened with their backs to strong posts. At the town of Issenskeath they hanged above a hundred Scottish Protestants. where. Some of them were laid with the center of their backs on the axle-tree of a carriage. and being stripped to their waists. with their legs resting on the ground on one side. going to the castle of that town. one of the savages scourged the wretched object on the thighs. partly by hanging. into the deep. besides massacring at least one hundred of the inhabitants. some being hanged. were all burnt together. Others were hung on lofty gibbets. He then demanded 1000 pounds of the governor. Some.drowning in the sea. and to swear that he would continue to do so. the inhuman monsters cut off their right breasts with shears. and there compelled to throw themselves into the water. after first stripping them. in particular. some shot. and to strike terror on the multitude. after being driven for many miles stark naked. Many women. by shooting them in the water. were put to deaths of the most cruel nature. they finished their lives. the innocent offsprings were taken from them. they first waded up to their chins. which. The inhuman papists. until. which was immeidately done with the greatest cruelty. having received. which. which was delivered up to M'Guire on condition of having fair quarter. they would oblige the husband to be a spectator before suffering himself. to Portadown bridge. of course. were accordingly forced. with their children in their arms. showing them no more mercy than they did to the English. and a fire being kindled under them. were driven. Many unhappy mothers were hung naked in the branches of trees. and children. they expired. they murdered some by the way. of all ages. and in this position they were left. endeavored to save themselves by swimming to the shore but their merciless persecutors prevented their endeavors taking effect. when thrown into the water.

named Campbell. threw it to its mother. The whole county was one common scene of butchery. were conducted. that rage and malice could invent. They forced one man to go to Mass. to the great affliction of their parents. and dashed out their brains before her face. In Kilkenny all the Protestants. and several other horrid cruelties. when some of them were barbarously mangled. all fell victims to their rage. or drowned. as. bid him preach. These bloody villains showed so much favor to some as to despatch them immediately. the inhabitants. After committing these. but they would by no means suffer them to pray. Some of them sat in the stocks until they confessed where their money was. that she had scarce a whole bone left. a girl about six years of age. without exception. and in that manner left him. and afterwards about twelve hundred more in that county. and the disgrace of human nature. then slit his cheeks to his ears. and then setting fire to it. The rest were either hanged. they forced twenty-four Protestants into a house. which consisted of about two hundred families. where they kept them together. they took her child. and many thousands perished. and left on the highways to perish at leisure. and expressed the greatest satisfaction at having thus murdered and exposed the unhappy Protestants. an infant. perhaps. putting heavy bolts on their legs. proceeded cheerfully on their journey. fire. shot. for several weeks. in a short time. others were hanged. were put to death. they butchered them all in the most cruel manner. where they were all forced into the river. who. and the papists. from that consideration. suddenly clasped one of the chief of the papists in her arms. among whom twenty-two were burnt together in one house. counterfeiting their outcries in derision to the others. burned them together. treating them with derision during their sufferings. and after ripping up its belly. At length they were released. Others they imprisoned in filthy dungeons.Other companies they took under pretence of safe conduct. and after having dashed out the brains of their child. for his mouth was wide enough. Among other acts of cruelty they took two children belonging to an Englishwoman. In Killyman they massacred forty-eight families. They sawed another asunder. At Casel they put all the Protestants into a loathsome dungeon. threw it to the swine. cut the throat of his wife. they took the heads of seven Protestants. . They put a gag into the minister's mouth. with their heads above the earth. and others the most cruel deaths. famine. water. to Portadown bridge. At a town called Lisnegary. and drowned. and she was drowned. in the greatest misery. and some were buried in the ground upright. by order of Sir Phelim O'Neal. finding no probability of escaping. there to languish until it perished. They beat an Englishwoman with such savage barbarity. and children. and keeping them there until they were starved to death. and laying a leaf of a Bible before it. but when the treacherous papists had got them to a convenient spot. One hundred and fifteen men. and among them that of a pious minister. In Kilmore. after which they threw her into a ditch. They served many other children in the like manner. was never before thought of. and some of them in so cruel a manner. after which they put them to death. by sword. They did several other things by way of derision. and held him so fast that they were both drowned together. but not satisfied with this. all of which they fixed up at the market cross. women. One woman. after which they threw the mother into a river. to increase their misery. In the county of Antrim they murdered nine hundred and fifty-four Protestants in one morning. after which they ripped open his body. who greedily devoured it.

In one place they compelled a young man to kill his father. pole-axes. and that his sword had pricked the white skins of the Protestants. with a branch at top. chests. when they hesitated not to commit blasphemy against God and His most holy Word. they should hear the like sermon. "Your soul to the devil.It is impossible to conceive the pleasure these monsters took in excercising their cruelty. while the other hung straight. after stripping them naked. and then immediately hanged him. which being set on fire. where they were drowned. "We know you love a good lesson. They obliged many young men to force their aged parents to a river. to be safely conducted to Galway. pleasing spectacles to their bloodthirsty persecutors. pews. dashed them in the faces of the Protestants. and then said they had burnt hell-fire. they all perished in the flames. in particular. by one Edmund Burke and his soldiers. were dragged through bogs until they expired. and children. . In another they forced a woman to kill her husband. and Bibles belonging to it. and several were drowned. and after wetting them with dirty water. who immediately followed his example. a popish priest. In the church at Powerscourt they burnt the pulpit. In the county of Tipperary upwards of thirty Protestants. there to wander out their miserable existence. and fastened to the trunk. and one of the legs was turned up. In one place they burnt two Protestant Bibles. But it is no wonder they should thus treat the innocent Christians. Many were stripped naked. they stripped stark naked. and expired. Fifty or sixty were placed together in one house. and when they had slain a number of them they would boast. and in that wretched posture left until they perished. At a place called Glaslow. that if they came tomorrow." Some of the Protestants they dragged by the hair of their heads into the church. and boast that it was English blood. and other weapons. and being fastened to horses by ropes placed round their middles. and turning heretics. fifteen of whom were ministers." One of these miscreants would come into a house with his hands imbued in blood. men. In Munster they put to death several ministers in the most shocking manner. When any one of them had killed a Protestant. and in that manner turned them into the fields. murdered them with stones. prevailed on forty Protestants to be reconciled to the Church of Rome. where they stripped and whipped them in the most cruel manner. which principally supported the weight of the body. which they did by immediately cutting their throats. They took other Bibles. and afterward shot him through the head. here is an excellent one for you. telling them. They had no sooner done this than they told them they were in good faith. then obliged the son to kill her. when they butchered them they would say. pricked him with swords and darts until he fell down. One. women. upon covenant. and cut off the hands of the Protestants. and driving him before them. In this dreadful and uneasy posture did they remain as long as life would permit. by sending them out of the world. who. and murdered the whole. that the devil was beholden to them for sending so many souls to hell. but that inhuman monster by the way drew his sword. In Queen's County great numbers of Protestants were put to the most shocking deaths. with some others. others would come and receive a gratification in cutting and mangling the body. In some places they plucked out the eyes. as an intimation of his design to the rest. fell into the hands of the papists. even to the hilt. saying. and mothers to cut the throats of their children. others were run through the body with pikes. were. Over this branch hung one arm. come to-morrow. swords. at the same time. Some were hung by the feet to tenterhooks driven into poles. some of whom they stabbed. and to increase the misery of those who fell into their hands. after which they left it exposed to be devoured by dogs. and that they would prevent their falling from it. wives to assist in hanging their husbands. Others were fastened to the trunk of a tree. and you shall have as good a sermon as this. In the county of Mayo about sixty Protestants.

The like horrid barbarities with those we have particularized. and held until the fourth of March. the latter of whom was hanged by the neck with the hair of its mother's head. with her child. if possible. (though by methods attended with such excessive barbarities as perhaps not to be equalled) soon got possession of the castle of Newry. when Sir Phelim O'Neal. They hung many by the arms to branches of trees. and most of the churches converted into prisons. notwithstanding which. it amounted to one hundred and fifty thousand. women. in one place. . in their flight from the county of Armagh. and before they were half dead. in his examination. the barbarians cut them in pieces with their swords. taken upon oath before the king's commissioners. in which posture they left them until they expired. and suffered greatly from these merciless savages. and many others were hanged. happily exclipsed the power of the Irish savages. and then gathered together many hundreds of those innocent people. and an inveterate enemy to the Protestants. Several were hanged on windmills. and the Protestants for a time lived in tranquillity. were practiced on the wretched Protestants in almost all parts of the kingdom. Others. and the town of Inniskillin. And had it not been for the resolution and uncommon bravery of the garrisons in the city of Londonderry.At Clownes seventeen men were buried alive. at several times. The revenues of the city of Dublin were seized. both men. and. lived at this time near Armagh. the Irish forced thither at different times. they cut and hacked in various parts of their bodies. five children. the governor. whom they inhumanly slaughtered at Glynwood. The siege of Drogheda began on the thirtieth of November. By his orders they were again persecuted in various parts of the kingdom. flushed and grown insolent with success. the Irish first burnt all their houses. with a weight to their feet. an infant about a twelve-month old. when they treacherously fell on them by the way. Nor did the cathedral of Armagh escape the fury of those barbarians. These desperate wretches. One poor woman they hanged on a gibbet. assisted by the Lord Viscount Moore. declared that the Irish papists owned to him. 12. it being maliciously set on fire by their leaders. And to extirpate. that they. for in a parliament held at Dublin in the year 1689. on pretence of allowing them a guard and safe conduct to Colerain. as often as the Irish renewed their attacks they were vigorously repulsed by a very unequal number of the king's forces. when an estimate was afterward made of the number who were sacrificed to gratify diabolical souls of the papists.000 Protestants. 1641. and children. where they murdered all the Protestants. and others by the middle. and the bridge broken down. and to the furious popish party that governed him. and an Englishman. As the river Bann was not fordable. This person. but all must have been given up to King James. defenceless Protestants. made themselves masters of Dundalk. burned. the very race of those unhappy Protestants. and a few faithful Protestant citizens under Sir Henry Tichborne. and in that manner finished its short but miserable existence. where they miserably perished. which being properly divided in the most capital parts of the kingdom. and. and a servant maid. young and old. and then proceeded to Drogheda. where the king's stores and ammunition were lodged. a bigoted papist. and afterward thrown into a ditch. and burnt to the ground. and left them wallowing in their blood to perish where they fell. 1642. invested in the earl of Tyrconnel. great numbers of the Protestant nobility. with as little difficulty. and inhumanly murdered them. But it now remains that we proceed to the particulars that followed. clergy. his wife. Maxwell. Dr. and with pikes and swords violently thrust about one thousand into the river. were attainted of high treason. In the reign of King James II they were again interrupted. In the county of Tyrone no less than three hundred Protestants were drowned in one day. The government of the kingdom was. The garrison of Drogheda was in no condition to sustain a siege. who lived in or near Armagh. had destroyed. were all hanged together. a great number of unarmed. at that time. In the meantime ten thousand troops were sent from Scotland to the remaining Protestants in Ireland. and otherwise put to death. rector of Tyrone. there had not one place remained for refuge to the distressed Protestants in the whole kingdom. and gentry of Ireland. They afterward took the town of Ardee. and the Irish miscreants under him were forced to retire.

reduced them to a state of subjection. 1689. making it all only seven thousand three hundred and sixty-one fighting men. viz. and these became at last so heavy that for a considerable time before the siege was raised a pint of coarse barley. through mere hunger and want. at Newton. They are received also into English families. And they were. would be sufficient. a few spoonfuls of starch. The year following. or attempting to fight their way through the Irish. having been continued upwards of three months. that their stores of corn and other necessaries. the flower of the Irish army. before the walls of the town. And it is remarkable. The Irish. by twenty thousand papists. As the calamities of the besieged were great. Butler. and half a regiment of Lord Mountjoy's disciplined soldiers. The besieged hoped. But notwithstanding all this. all of whom (even women and children) were forcibly driven from the country thirty miles round. they were upon the point of being reduced to this alternative. 1690. that when their long-expected succors arrived from England. become quiet and civilized. and they gave up all farther attempts to persecute the Protestants. for many years past. either to preserve their existence by eating each other. and mountains. and lived on the depredation of their neighbors. and the siege was raised on the thirty-first of July. before he left the country. They trade in our cities. By hunger. with the principal part of the inhabitants. and were thus exposed to the continual fire both of the Irish army from without and the shot of their friends from within. in the morning seized the prey. The city was not properly circumstanced to sustain a siege. King James II but they were totally defeated by his successor King William the Third. a small quantity of greens. reduced to such extremities that they ate dogs. or Crown-Castle. the Protestant interest at present stands upon a much stronger basis than it did a century ago. . The day before the siege of Londonderry was raised the Inniskillers engaged a body of six thousand Irish Roman Catholics. or fell dead in the streets. their seven thousand three hundred and sixty-one fighting men were reduced to four thousand three hundred. in which they have ever since continued. and the advantages of civil government. Their miseries increasing with the siege. who formerly led an unsettled and roving life. dispirited the papists. bogs. and are employed in our manufactories. pined and languished away. at length. who had fled thither for shelter. have. and inhumanly reduced to the sad necessity of continuing some days and nights without food or covering. and mice. and treated with great humanity by the Protestants. with a very moderate proportion of horse flesh. in the woods. so likewise were the terrors and sufferings of their Protestant friends and relations. which must have infallibly produced their destruction. But the succors from England happily arriving put an end to their affliction. and the fatigues of war. and at night divided the spoil. of whom near five thousand were slain. they who. with the defeat at Londonderry. were reckoned a week's provision for a soldier. That monarch.The remarkable siege of Londonderry was opened on the eighteenth of April. This. but by the continuance of the siege their wants increased. the defenders consisting of a body of raw undisciplined Protestants. at which time they had only nine lean horses left with a pint of meal to each man. one fourth part of whom were rendered unserviceable. the Irish took up arms in favor of the abdicated prince. at first. These succors were most happily brought by the ship Mountjoy of Derry. cats. They taste the sweets of English society. and the Phoenix of Colerain. many.

was bestowed upon them as a term of reproach. testifying of. and of the way that he was to go forth. Persecutions. about the year 1624. It is not our business to inquire whether people of similar sentiments had any existence in the primitive ages of Christianity: perhaps. that they did not deserve such treatment. with their hearts as well as their mouths. who had his first existence in Leicestershire. as a separate body. beyond his years. did of old time. if not before he came to it. and other country business. the children of the light living by the life of the Word. and among them he sojourned until his more ample ministry came upon him. at present. in consequence of their apparent convulsions which they labored under when they delivered their discourses. Anna. "calling people to repentance. and to which whoever comes is greater than John: that is. and by the highway-side. in this nation. That they have been treated by several writers in a very contemptuous manner is certain. and thus his time was employed for some years. they had not. solid. The appellation Quakers. who waited for the consolation of Israel night and day. that the first leader of them. and Simeon. with no other companion than his Bible. streets. to begin it. and these he sought out in the neighboring counties." He directed his course northward. without which there is no coming into the Kingdom of God. so that the Lord was his leader indeed. It is not our business. directing them to the light of Christ within . both for its innocency and solitude. At this time he taught. but we are to write of them not as what they were. and was particularly inclined to the solitary occupation of a shepherd. that very well suited his mind in several respects. and many pious and good men joined him in his ministry. who brought him up in the national religion: but from a child he appeared religious. and to return to the Lord. as Protestant dissenters they are included under the description of the toleration act." said Swell. as Zacharias. and that life is the light of men. if any. and exhort them. and Sufferings of the Quakers In treating of these people in a historical manner. endeavoring to bring them from self-performances. by which the Word begets them again to God. was a man of obscure birth. in whose tenets he had been brought up. and life in men too. and forerunning of the Gospel times. but what they now are. "He fasted much. which was to be found in the light as it was obeyed in the manifestation of it in man: for in the Word was life. which is the generation and new birth. and uncommonly knowing in divine things. but this much is certain. In the year 1646. which way soever his mind turned. to inquire whether the sentiments of these people are agreeable to the Gospel. fairs. as the light is obeyed. an employment. as before observed. and encouraging them to wait in patience. he had his particular exercise and service shown to him. and in 1647. short of few.The Rise." He made great numbers of converts to his opinions. "and some there were. Accordingly several meetings were gathering in those parts. and was an example of silence. the time of the Kingdom. in some respects. and observing. George Fox was descended of honest and respected parents.CHAPTER XVIII . "and in every place where he came. because they imagined they were the effect of divine inspiration. Life in the Word. we shall endeavor to furnish out a complete narrative. but in a solitary manner he walked through several towns and villages. sometimes in markets." "He visited the most retired and religious people in those parts. That they differ from the generality of Protestants in some of the capital points of religion cannot be denied. than John's dispensation. These were drawn forth especially to visit the public assemblies to reprove. and was a just emblem of his after ministry and service. Progress. reform. still." says Penn. which was not that of the Kingdom. light in men. and joining these to what have been said by the Friends themselves. "and walked often in retired placed. "he had a visitation of the great work of God in the earth. that their knowledge and worship of God might stand in the power of an endless life. he travelled into Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire. without any set purpose of visiting particular places. In speaking of this man we shall deliver our own sentiments in a historical manner. we are obliged to have recourse to much tenderness. in a public ministry. is equally certain. he entirely forsook the national Church." In the year 1652. and to feel the power of it to stir in their hearts. and turning them to the light of Christ within them. To these he was sent. He was brought up to husbandry. and yet. but the consummation of the legal.

and to eschew the evil. to visit them with a living call to repentance. and seek not the honor that cometh from God only?" etc. they are fined and imprisoned for refusing to take an oath. and for their plain speeches to the magistrate. such as. of men and women from their families. and in those parts they brought over many proselytes. to assemble or meet together under pretence of worshipping God. entitled. except it be in some parochial church. their first separate meeting in London was held in the house of Robert Dring. examine. and Fifth Monarchy Men. besides. or good-night. Under favor of the then toleration. for not paying their tithes. "Swear not at all. that our innocency may be cleared up. etc. having published a proclamation. and meeting in the streets. and an extraordinary impulse of the Holy Spirit. children. Oliver Cromwell. that they should not suffer for their opinions as long as they lived peaceably. were moved to speak. and to consider their ways by. that had left wives. beaten. . "And this consider. nor might they bend the knee to anyone. in the county jails. "A declaration from the harmless and innocent people of God. being often set in the stocks. where women. and had in many places set up meetings or assemblies. "London. and fighters in the world. chapel. by consent of the persons there inhabiting. We beseech thee and thy council to read these following lines in tender bowels. They placed the basis of religion in an inward light. yet the Quakers are exposed upon other accounts. etc. 1660. but his promises were very little regarded afterward. that thou mayest live forever in the fear of God. etc. high or low. for removing the ground of jealousy and suspicion. they published the declaration referred to in their address." "How can ye believe. for by that time they spread themselves into all parts of the kingdom. concerning wars and fightings. and for your good. One of them in a letter to the protector. for disturbing the public assemblies. particularly in Lancashire. and thy council. without distinction. and amongst them several magistrates. about ten hundred. or in private houses. houses. as well as men. they opened their meetings at the Bull and Mouth.. all meetings in other places being declared to be unlawful and riotous. which receive honor one of another. stoned. against all sedition. and places of public resort. the Quakers thought it expedient to address the king thereon. from both magistrates and people in the kingdom.. In 1654. whipped and imprisoned. called Quakers. Their zeal transported them to some extravagancies. different from the fashion of the times. the the language of thou and thee. which laid them still more open to the lash of their enemies. Upon the suppression of Venner's mad insurrection. in Watling-street. and required them to speak to the people. But these coercive methods rather forwarded than abated their zeal." They were not without opposition in the work they imagined themselves called to." It was presented to the king the twenty-first day of the eleventh month. and others of the better sort. who exercised various severities opn them throughout the next reign. nor would they call any man master on earth. Several texts of Scripture they quoted in defence of these singularities. and he promised them upon his royal word. They scrupled bidding people good-morrow.." On the twenty-eighth of the same month. and lands. we desire that our meetings may not be broken up. They apprehended the Lord had forbidden them to pull off their hats to anyone. Both men and women went in a plain and simple dress. 16th day. They neither gave nor accepted any titles of respect or honor. though there are no penal laws in force obliging men to comply with the established religion. to see.them. in and about this city. some of them have been whipped for vagabonds. the government. but that all may come to a fair trial. which they did in the following words: "O King Charles! "Our desire is. and the adjacent parts. even in supreme authority. in Aldersgate-street. and compassion for our souls. but they were still exposed to great persecutions and trials of every kind. eleventh month. and to do the good and acceptable will of God. represents. forbidding the Anabaptists. though honest men of good report. Quakers. we are about four hundred imprisoned. plotters. 1660.

the unlawfulness of taking an oath. the said persons do assemble in great numbers in several parts of the kingdom. of whom several were banished to the plantations. merely for religion's sake. the jail of . and upon occasion of the Ryehouse plot in 1682. that their meetings were daily broken up by men with clubs and arms. an act was passed against them. or maintain in writing or otherwise. which doing." On the accession of James II they addressed that monarch honestly and plainly. and for the third shall abjure the realm. Six hundred of them. which says that more than four thousand two hundred Quakers were imprisoned. the year before this. or if they shall assemble for religious worship. which they held unlawful. and trampled under foot until the blood gushed out. to the discouraging trade and husbandry. the suburbs. the preamble to which set forth. wherein "appealing to the Searcher of all hearts. we wish thee all manner of happiness. 1661-2. to the apparent hazard of their lives. of the age of fifteen. and contrary to the Word of God. therefore we hope thou wilt grant us the same liberty which thou allowest thyself." This act had a most dreadful effect upon the Quakers. they shall for the first offence forfeit five pounds. In short. that if any such persons. telling him: "We are come to testify our sorrow for the death of our good friend Charles. they began to enjoy some rest from their troubles. and of them five hundred were in and about London. because they could not swear. for refusing the oath of allegiance. and that now there remain one thousand three hundred and eighty-three. under all these calamities. and our joy for thy being made our governor. and more than three hundred near it. by his dispensing power. "That whereas several persons have taken up an opinion that an oath. in his address to the king. separating themselves from the rest of his majesty's subjects. which gave rise to their meeting in the open streets. to them one of glad release. George Fox. is unlawful. even before a magistrate. Yet. for the second. and whereas. who is sovereign Lord and King of men's consciences. or persuade others to do it. many under sentence of praemunire. not from any disaffection to the government. both men and women. under pretence of religious worship. Their petition was rejected. and instead of granting them relief. many houses. acquaints him that three thousand and sixty-eight of their friends had been imprisoned since his majesty's restoration. that they want air. for no other cause. set forth. and impoverishing great numbers of quiet and industrious people. Besides. and the public congregations and usual places of divine worship. shall refuse to take an oath when lawfully tendered. in London. that they had less leisure to attend the meetings of other dissenters. and therefore take this occasion humbly to beseech his majesty to compassionate their suffering friends. they behaved with patience and modesty towards the government. ten pounds. for they were swelled to an enormous amount. "that of late above one thousand five hundred of their friends. A relation was printed. though it was well known and notorious that these conscientious persons were far from sedition or disaffection to the government. shops. They. granted liberty to the dissenters. wer ein prison. much less to avenge themselves for the injuries they received from others: that they continually pray for the king's safety and preservation. the Quakers gave such full employment to the informers. thought proper to declare their innocence of that sham plot. in an address to the king." When James. with whom the jails are so filled. but from a persuasion that all oaths were unlawful.In 1661 they assumed courage to petition the House of Lords for a toleration of their religion. and indeed it was high time. and fields are ransacked. and to the endangering an infection in divers places. and for a dispensation from taking the oaths. and their friends thrown into the water. but for the exercise of a tender conscience in the worship of Almighty God. after the twenty-fourth of March. no more than we." they say. be it therefore enacted. or a belief that they were less obliged by an affirmation. corn. or be transported to the plantations: and the justices of peace at their open sessions may hear and finally determine in the affair. and. barns. in a petition to James for a cessation of their sufferings. and this. and cattle swept away. Three hundred and fifty have died in prison since the year 1680. and the goods. to the number of five or more. of which two hundred are women. and that swearing upon the most solemn occasions was forbidden in the New Testament. several of whom were dead in the jails. "their principles do not allow them to take up defensive arms. We are told thou art not of the persuasion of the Church of England. says an account published at that time. signed by twelve witnesses.

They spare neither widow nor fatherless. others had no cattle to till the ground. and the settlement of Pennsylvania taking place soon after. under pretence of serving the king and the Church. all evidence must be upon oath. and two thirds of their estates seized for the king. in the present age. A universal liberty of conscience took place. whereby great numbers have been confined in prison without regard to age. but they are of vast service to the community. were. By their wise regulations. will not take an oath in a court of justice. During the reign of King James II these people were. and others. The informers are both witnesses and prosecutors. but of that we shall take more notice hereafter. by reason of long imprisonment. within these two years sometimes with near twenty in a room. they not only do honor to themselves. Penn. to the ruin of great numbers of sober families. extravagant. or Gough's history of them. and in this new colony the natural rights of mankind were. Great violences. for twenty pounds a month. The seizing for 20 pounds a month has amounted to many thousands. commonly called Quakers: a people which arose at that time in England some of whom sealed their testimony with their blood. but they cannot prosecute a criminal. by persecutions on the conventicle-act. and many confined to holes and dungeons. and others. and cultivated the arts of honest industry. and merciless informers. amounting to four hundred and sixty." With this petition they presented a list of their friends in prison. have been made upon people's goods and estates. so he invited people of all denominations to come and settle with him. The principal points upon which their conscientious nonconformity rendered them obnoxious to the penalties of the law. through the intercession of their friend Mr. in the United States About the middle of the seventeenth century. if they do not issue out warrants upon their informations. These Friends are. and woful havoc and spoil. are disabled to do so any more. Our religious assemblies have been charged at common law with being rioters and disturbers of the public peace. and several who have employed some hundreds of poor people in manufactures. because. As the whole colony was the property of Mr. whereby several have been suffocated. that as the Friends. treated with greater indulgence than ever they had been before. There they enjoyed the blessings of a peaceful government. For an account of the above people. Commonly Called Quakers. Penn. nor corn for feed or bread. much persecution and suffering were inflicted on a sect of Protestant dissenters. also on qui tam writs. . nor tools to work with. by a company of idle. a very harmless. They were now become extremely numerous in many parts of the country. and justices of the peace have been threatened with the forfeiture of one hundred pounds. have died of malignant fevers within a few days. outrageous distresses. for the first time. so their affirmation is permitted in all civil affairs. and on other processes. many of them went over to America. inoffensive body of people. Some had not a bed to rest on. in the English courts of justice. established. see Sewell's. commonly called Quakers. in the several counties. An Account of the Persecutions of Friends. nor have they so much as a bed to lie on. and making great waste and spoil. It may be necessary here to observe. who have been taken out sick. the said informers and bailiffs in some places breaking into houses.Newgate has been crowded.

" to a single person: and their disuse of the custom of uncovering their heads. and sometimes even in the places appointed for the public national worship. the practice of which they judged inconsistent with the command of Christ: • "Love your enemies. there is a cursed sect of heretics. and the order of God. were sometimes distrained to several times the value of the demand. reproaching and reviling magistrates and ministers. Numbers were not only cruelly beaten and whipped in a public manner. Their use of the proper and Scriptural language. imprisonment. speaking evil of dignities." Matt." Matt. 5:44. 5:34.• 1. and more particularly to Besse's Collection of their sufferings. and even death. "At a General Court Held at Boston. and a considerable number were transported. constancy. would extend beyond the limits of this work: we shall therefore refer. who take upon them to be immediately sent from God. and shall confine our account here mostly to those who sacrificed their lives. • 6. Many of the fines and penalties exacted of them. and infallibly assisted by the Spirit. • 4. fines. which they esteemed a Jewish ceremony. abrogated by the coming of Christ. Numerous and repeated were the persecutions against them. Many were sentenced to banishment. • 7. after inserting copies of some of the laws of the country where they suffered. and sometimes for transgressions or offences which the law did not contemplate or embrace. to speak and write blasphemous opinions. or pulling off their hats. of publishing what they believed to be the doctrine of truth. lately risen up in the world. in a manner most agreeable to their consciences. Their constant obedience to the command of Christ: "Swear not at all. cruel beatings. despising government. Their refusal to pay tithes. by their disposition of mind. seeking to . The Christian resolution of assembling publicly for the worship of God. Their testimony against wars and fighting. and obliged to depend on the assistance of their friends. were not only unreasonable and exorbitant. and other corporal punishments. banishment. 1656" "Whereas. • 3. but some were branded and others had their ears cut off. and evinced. To relate a particular account of their persecutions and sufferings." and "thee. the Fourteenth of October. for that information. which are commonly called Quakers. like criminals. in the Church and commonwealth. but as they could not consistently pay them. The necessity many found themselves under. whippings. Great numbers were long confined in loathsome prisons. • 2. whereby many poor families were greatly distressed. exposed them to much persecution and suffering. to the histories already mentioned. • 5. by way of homage to man. Some were banished on pain of death. which consisted in prosecutions. patience. Their conscientious noncompliance in the preceding particulars. Their refusal to pay rates or assessments for building and repairing houses for a worship which they did not approve. that they were influenced by a sense of religious duty. and four were actually executed by the hands of the hangman. "thou. as we shall here relate. in which some ended their days in consequence thereof. and faithful perseverance.

until he give in sufficient security to the content of the governor. are hereby empowered to issue out his or their warrants to commit such master or commander to prison. and by authority of this court. shall pay for such book or writing. or vessel. that what master or commander of any ship. or indirectly. and shall by warrant from any magistrate be committed to prison. or any one or more of the magistrates. as is usual with the Quakers. it is ordered that whosoever shall from henceforth bring. as aforesaid. to be severely whipped. shall revile the persons of the magistrates or ministers. "And it is hereby further enacted. any Quaker or Quakers. be it ordered and enacted. within this jurisdiction. being sentenced by the court of Assistants to banishment. or cause to be paid. such person or persons shall be severely whipped or pay the sum of five pounds. or in his or her house and shall not immediately deliver the same to the next magistrate. any Quakers' books or writings. directly." "At a General Court Held at Boston. or one or more of the magistrates. who have power to determine the same. and to prevent the like mischief. shall be forthwith committed to the House of Correction. or ketch. on his refusal so to do. or cause to be brought. every such person shall forfeit the sum of one hundred pounds to the country. four pounds. and whosoever shall disperse or conceal any such book or writing. if any person shall knowingly import into any harbor of this jurisdiction. there to continue. "Lastly. being legally convicted. or other blasphemous heretics. and. the fine of one hundred pounds to the treasurer of the country. or any of the magistrates. or shall come into this jurisdiction from any parts adjacent. he hath liberty to clear himself by his oath. and it be found with him or her. they shall be committed to the House of Correction until there be convenient passage to send them out of the land. or good security for it. shall henceforth entertain and conceal any such Quaker or Quakers. and gain proselytes to their pernicious ways: this court taking into consideration the premises. at their entrance. into this jurisdiction. and. except it appear he want true knowledge or information of their being such. pink. and none suffered to converse or speak with them. if notwithstanding they again defend and maintain the said Quakers' heretical opinions. "And it is ordered. and if any person or persons within this jurisdiction. "This is a true copy of the court's order. SEC. which shall be no longer than necessity requires. during the time of their imprisonment. 1657" "As an addition to the late order. if they shall persist in the same. shall henceforth bring into any harbor. or other blasphemous heretics. and by the master thereof be kept constantly to work. it is hereby ordered. being legally proved against him or them the sum of five pounds. shall forfeit or pay five pounds. and there to continue until the said sum be satisfied to the treasurer as foresaid. for default of good payment. there to remain until the penalty be satisfied and paid. for the dispersing or concealing of any such book or writing. any known Quaker or Quakers. every such person shall forfeit to the . creek. concerning their devilish opinions. knowing them so to be. that if any persons within this colony shall take upon them to defend the heretical opinions of the Quakers. when sufficient proof to the contrary is wanting: and. or other blasphemous heretics. shall give in sufficient security to the governor. that what person or persons soever. shall pay. doth hereby order. the Fourteenth of October. in reference to the coming or bringing of any of the cursed sect of the Quakers into this jurisdiction. ship. in that case. as by their means is wrought in our land. that what Quaker soever shall arrive in this country from foreign parts. bark. and shall again defend it the second time. "And it is hereby further ordered and enacted. "And the commander of any ketch. as attests "EDWARD RAWSON.turn the people from the faith. or cove. shall be cast into prison. or any of their books or papers. shall be fined for the first time forty shillings. and. the governor. to carry them back to the place whence he brought them.

allowed and approved by all orthodox professors of truth. and the tenets and practices of Quakers. to disseminate their principles amongst us. and endeavoring to disaffect others to civil government and Church order. he or she. that all and every Quaker arising from among ourselves. and by withdrawing from orderly Church fellowship. adhereing to. etc. being convicted to be of the aforesaid sect. prohibiting their coming into this jurisdiction. who is not an inhabitant of. they have not been deferred from their impious attempts to undermine our peace." "An Act Made at a General Court. or by taking up their abusive and destructive practices. on pain of death. denying civil respect to equals and superiors. after they have once suffered what the law requires.. and then. the Twentieth of October. and instead thereof. until they be sent away at their own charge. shall be committed to close prison for one month. but is found within this jurisdiction. And that every inhabitant of this jurisdiction. manifesting thereby their complying with those. to the next magistrate. "For prevention thereof. Held at Boston. until she be sent away at her own charge. 1658" Whereas. insinuating themselves into the minds of the simple. lately risen. unless they choose voluntarily to depart this jurisdiction. that shall presume to come into this jurisdiction. commonly called Quakers. there is a pernicious sect. she shall be alike used as aforesaid. whereby divers of our inhabitants have been infected. frequently meeting by themselves. by any constable. or rebellion against the government. until the forfeiture be fully satisfied and paid. or approving of any known Quaker. or selectman. "And it is further ordered. that are opposite to the orthodox received opinions of the godly. commissioner. in opposition to our Church order. or such as are at least affected to the order and government of church and commonwealth. upon conviction before the said court of Assistants. every such male Quaker shall. or condemning the practice and proceedings of this court against the Quakers. "And being convicted to be of the sect of the Quakers. "And for every Quaker. in manner aforesaid. they shall have their tongues bored through with a hot iron. and so also for her coming again. that has suffered the law here. shall be dealt with. made upon the experience of their arrogant and bold obtrusions. either by taking up. "EDWARD RAWSON. and do take upon them to change and alter the received laudable customs of our nation. or the stirring up mutiny. and shall be committed to prison as aforesaid.country forty shillings for every hour's entertainment and concealment of any Quaker or Quaker. and kept at the House of Correction at work. "And it is further ordered. and conveyed from constable to constable. that if any Quaker or Quakers shall presume. and suffer the like punishment as the law provides against foreign Quakers. whose actions tend to undermine the civil government. and withdrawing from the Church assemblies. and in opposition thereunto. whose design is to overthrow the order established in Church and state: every such person. that shall a third time herein again offend. and every woman Quaker. as aforesaid. who by word and writing have published and maintained many dangerous and horrid tenets. shall be apprehended without warrant. and hazard our ruin. viz. in giving civil respects to equals. and be kept at the House of Correction close to work. notwithstanding all former laws. sedition. and for the second offence. where they shall have legal trial. Sec. shall have his other ear cut off. publishing. and also to destroy the order of the churches. shall be sentenced to banishment. there to remain (without bail) until the next court of Assistants. or defending the horrid opinions of the Quakers. or reverence to superiors. and instead thereof. shall give bond for their good behavior and appear . where no magistrate is at hand. have one of his ears cut off. shall be severely whipped. who shall commit the said person to close prison. and be kept at work in the House of Correction. by denying all established forms of worship. for the first offence. until he can be sent away at his own charge. of the cursed sect of the Quakers. to come into this jurisdiction. frequenting meetings of their own. that any person or persons. this court doth order and enact.

words. but we think. endured incredible hardships in providing for themselves a home in the wilderness. and hearken to your sentence of death. on pain of death. Marmaduke Stevenson. prohibiting the people called Quakers. This sentence was passed also on Mary Dyar. they shall be sentenced to banishment. continuing obstinate. and Nicholas Davis. and then said. and shall commit any such person to prison. on the twentieth of October. to visit and build up their friends in the faith. their conduct admits of much palliation. and William Edrid. "Give ear. were sent for by the court of Assistants. though their lives were at stake. But it was not long before they were taken and put again into prison at Boston. and Marmaduke Stevenson." It appears there were also laws passed in both of the then colonies of New Plymouth and New Haven. of Yorkshire. These coming to Boston." Sentence of death was also passed upon Marmaduke Stevenson. Yet. if tried by the more enlightened and liberal views of the present day. And. "EDWARD RAWSON" "Boston. could not yet resolve (not being free in mind) to depart that jurisdiction. where John Endicot and others were assembled. And so they went to Salem. notwithstanding. to depart this jurisdiction. and there stripped. And further. under severe penalties. that they had made several laws to keep the Quakers from amongst them. whipped. merchant. September 12. In the next month. these three were brought into court. and fined. his following words. though they departed the town of Boston. by an order of the court and council. until he come to trial as aforesaid. in consequence of which. as appears from the following warrant: "You are required by these. nor banishment upon pain of death. that they are Quakers: wherefore. September. whither he intended to go. upon pain of death. they had now three persons. with a threefold cord whip. And as she stood before the prison. and there sentenced to banishment. who. some underwent considerable suffering. that he or they desired not the death of any of them.at the next court. had been imprisoned. a sentence was pronounced against them. 1659. Then Robinson was brought into the street. according to their law. are found within this jurisdiction. they sometimes adopted measures. Thus. We have no disposition to justify the Pilgrims for these proceedings. speaking with one Christopher Holden. And being called to the bar. and some places thereabouts. a countryman. or any part thereof. if they or any of them. and Nicholas Davis. Endicot commanded the keeper to pull off their hats. must at once be pronounced altogether unjustifiable. and refusing to retract and reform the aforesaid opinions. Then he and the other prisoners were shortly after released. without more ado were. from coming into those places. she was also taken into custody. Mary Dyar. after the fourteenth of this present month." Though Mary Dyar and Nicholas Davis left that jurisdiction for that time. And any one magistrate. on pain of death. Mary Dyar. and banished. who. which. had forfeited their lives. The two first who were executed were William Robinson. would keep them from amongst them. who were both at Boston. being looked upon as a teacher. of London. presently to set at liberty William Robinson. which they had purchased at so dear a rate. upon information given him of any such person. was also condemned to be whipped severely. and to protect themselves in the undisturbed enjoyment of rights. Several others were imprisoned. considering the circumstances of the age in which they lived. and neither whipping. who was come thither to inquire for a ship bound for England. and in the Dutch settlement at New Amsterdam. in the beginning of September. mentioned hereafter. and that they must answer it at their peril. and chains locked to their legs. because it appeared by their own confession. But William Robinson. The fathers of New England. the executioner gave him twenty stripes. now New York. nor cutting off ears. But shall they be condemned without . and the constable was commanded to get an able man to do it. where the jailer held him. Mary Dyar returned also. and having his hands put through the holes of the carriage of a great gun. according to his discretion. nor imprisoning. and actions. yet Robinson and Stevenson. he said. shall cause him to be apprehended.

This right was claimed by rulers. it is but just to say. and it is to them more than to any other class of men on earth. that imperfect as were their views of the rights of conscience. then. the world is indebted for the more rational views that now prevail on the subject of civil and religious liberty. At the same time. the sins of all Christendom. and is sanctioned by the names of Lord Bacon and Montesquieu. It is unjust. . As well might you condemn them for not understanding and acting up to the principles of religious toleration. and though this cannot justify. to 'press upon one poor persecuted sect. and which were common to Christians of all other denominations? Every government then in existence assumed to itself the right to legislate in matters of religion. it certainly furnishes an extenuation of their conduct. they were nevertheless far in advance of the age to which they belonged. and to restrain heresy by penal statutes.' The fault of our fathers was the fault of the age.mercy for not acting up to principles which were unacknowledged and unknown throughout the whole of Christendom? Shall they alone be held responsible for opinions and conduct which had become sacred by antiquity. and many others equally famed for their talents and learning. admitted by subjects.

with all its bells ringing. that I carried the peace of God along with me. with much of the Valley of Humiliation and the Shadow of Death. While he was still a young man he married a good woman who bought him a library of pious books which he read with assiduity. While he was in jail he was solaced by the two books which he had brought with him. They were far above my reach. shamed and fallen. his little blind daughter. The particular acts that troubled his conscience were dancing. Before he was thirty years old he had become a leading Baptist preacher. The death of his comrade close beside him deepened his tendency to serious thoughts. ringing the church bells. He was at one time quite assured that he had sinned the unpardonable sin against the Holy Ghost. and particularly. the work of God in the hearts. I begged of God that His will be done. His conscience was still further awakened through the persecution of the religious body of Baptists to whom he had joined himself. 'Wilt thou leave thy sins and go to Heaven. and there were times when he seemed almost insane in his zeal and penitence. on account of the wretched condition of the prisons of those days.' After he had realized that Christ was his Righteousness. it is a book of Victory." His hardships were genuine. which said. "Before I went down to the justice. To this confinement was added the personal grief of being parted from his young and second wife and four small children." In his vision was ever the Celestial City. Only in that matter did I commit the thing to God. But. for I was not without hopes that my imprisonment might be an awakening to the saints in the country. and often wounded. he wrote: "As I was going forth of the doors. I had much ado to bear saying to them. and he now worked this theme out in fascinating detail. His home was Elstow. as they sat at the door in the sun." In his youth he was a member of the parliamentary army for a year. three years after the first. His father was a tinker and he was brought up to the same trade. on his feelings-"now did the Chains fall off my legs indeed. He was arrested for preaching without license. Then came his turn for persecution.CHAPTER XIX . in England. and a great Burden upon his Back. And verily at my return I did meet my God sweetly in the prison. it was not until his second and shorter one. or have thy sins and go to Hell?'" At about this time he overheard three or four poor women in Bedford talking." . using the rural scenery of England for his background. above all. thus confirming his earnestness and increasing his love of religious controversies. the Bible and Fox's "Book of Martyrs. yet in the end "more than conqueror through Him that loved us. The "Pilgrim's Progress" is truly the rehearsal of Bunyan's own spiritual experiences.An Account of the Life and Persecutions of John Bunyan This great Puritan was born the same year that the Pilgrim Fathers landed at Plymouth. "Their talk was about the new birth. Once when he was leaving the doors of the courthouse where he himself had been defeated." His had been Doubting Castle and Sloughs of Despond. It was while playing the latter game one day that "a voice did suddenly dart from Heaven into my soul. likeable boy with a serious and almost morbid side to his nature. the splendid city of London for his Vanity Fair." Although he wrote some of his early books during this long imprisonment." which was published three years later. He had fought Apollyon constantly. a Book in his hand. He was a lively. and the saints and villains of his own personal acquaintance for the finely drawn characters of his allegory. He himself had been the 'man cloathed in Rags. with his Face from his own House. In an earlier tract he had thought briefly of the similarity between human life and a pilgrimage. and playing cat. as we should say. All during his young manhood he was repenting for the vices of his youth and yet he had never been either a drunkard or immoral. near Bedford. and that this did not depend on "the good frame of his Heart"-or. that he composed his immortal "Pilgrim's Progress.

" He has been his own Greatheart. His last illness was due to exposure upon a journey in which he was endeavoring to reconcile a father with his son. It was perhaps two centuries later before literary critics began to realize that this story." During the later years of his life. a church yard in London. Bunyan indeed "showed how to build a princely throne on humble truth." In his helpful and unselfish personal life he was apostolic." it has been said that. for while it tells little of living the Christian life in the family and community. It was timely. and it was not long before it was devoutly laid beside their Bibles and perused with gladness and with profit. in homely language. for they were still burning martyrs in Vanity Fair while he was writing. to many. Bunyan remained in Bedford as a venerated local pastor and preacher. dauntless guide to pilgrims. who saw in it only an addition to the worldly literature of his day. There is no doubt but that the "Pilgrim's Progress" has been more helpful than any other book but the Bible. He was also a favorite speaker in the non-conformist pulpits of London. of which of one of them. so full of human reality and interest and so marvelously modeled upon the English of the King James translation of the Bible. "If the 'Pilgrim's Progress' had never been written it would be regarded as the finest allegory in the language.His book was at first received with much criticism from his Puritan friends. He was buried in Bunhill Fields. His end came on the third of August. is one of the glories of English literature. "The Holy War. It is enduring. He became so national a leader and teacher that he was frequently called "Bishop Bunyan. . but there was not much then for Puritans to read. it does interpret that life so far as it is an expression of the solitary soul. 1688. In his later years he wrote several other allegories.

with attempts at wounding and slaying. had risen for sixty years at four o'clock in the morning. He preached twice each day. Seldom in all his life did he feel any pain. The father of Wesley was a preacher. and amid the most bitter persecutions. He ascribed it. She also used to dress the children in their best on the days when they were to have the privilege of learning their alphabet as an introduction to the reading of the Holy Scriptures. . What was more irritating was the heaping up of slander and abuse by the writers of the day. and during the latter part of his course there. telling them from the tiles about the nursery fireplace. these Germans impressed him by their composure and entire resignation to God. The Wesley fellowship. and often thrice or four times. or anxiety. in Epworth rectory. He and his brother Charles were sent by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel to Georgia. the fifteenth of nineteen children of Charles and Suzanna Wesley. which after his death grew into the great Methodist Church. She was a woman of deep piety and brought her little ones into close contact with the Bible stories. Only at times was there any interference on the part of the civil power. When he found it necessary to ordain preachers. fond of games and particularly of dancing. under God. and for fifty years had preached every morning at five. The two Wesleys faced all these dangers with amazing courage. and Wesley's mother was a remarkable woman in wisdom and intelligence. care." an organization of serious-minded students.An Account of the Life of John Wesley John Wesley was born on the seventeenth of June. It has been estimated that he traveled every year forty-five hundred English miles. Young Wesley was a gay and manly youth. in a great tempest. The name "Methodist" soon attached to them. His religious nature deepened through study and experience. The successes won by Methodist preaching had to be gained through a long series of years. It was noted by John Wesley in his diary that. These books are now all forgotten. was one of the founders of the "Holy Club. when the English people on board lost all self-possession. members of the association recently renewed by the labors of Count Zinzendorf. What he accomplished borders upon the incredible. He also marked their humility under shameful treatment. Upon their passage they fell into the company of several Moravian brethren. Wesley had been in his youth a high churchman and was always deeply devoted to the Established Communion. but it was not until several years after he left the university and came under the influence of Luther's writings that he felt that he had entered into the full riches of the Gospel. 1703. the separation of his followers from the established body became inevitable. It was on his return to England that he entered into those deeper experiences and developed those marvelous powers as a popular preacher which made him a national leader. In nearly every part of England it was met at the first by the mob with stonings and peltings. was characterized by an almost military perfection of organizaton. mostly upon horseback. England. He was associated at this time also with George Whitefield. Upon entering his eighty-fifth year he thanked God that he was still almost as vigorous as ever.CHAPTER XX . At Oxford he was a leader. because of the particular organizing power of their leader and the ingenious methods that he applied. and with a calmness equally astonishing. the tradition of whose marvelous eloquence has never died. to the fact that he had always slept soundly. where both of them developed their powers as preachers.

when it had lost sight of Christ the Redeemer to a renewed Christian life. John Wesley was of but ordinary stature. both by their depth and their penetration of thought. By preaching the justifying and renewing of the soul through belief upon Christ. His industry has been named already. faithful Christians. circuit preaching. He planned for the mental culture of his traveling preachers and local exhorters. which was not grasped by his mighty mind through the aid of his Divine Leader? To him it was granted to arouse the English Church. Wesley brought sinners to repentance throughout three kingdoms and over two hemispheres. or aught else--which was not attempted by John Wesley. He died in 1791 after a long life of tireless labor and unselfish service. to traveling. he lifted many thousands of the humbler classes of the English people from their exceeding ignorance and evil habits. His fervent spirit and hearty brotherhood still survives in the body that cherishes his name. He published also the best matured of his sermons and various theological works. He had an open brow. to Wesley. His untiring effort made itself felt not in England alone. and made them earnest. and by their purity and precision of style. He was the bishop of such a diocese as neither the Eastern nor the Western Church ever witnessed before. Persistent. and a fresh complexion. The annual conference. Even in doctrinal controversies he exhibited the greatest calmness. and tranquillity of spirit were his most prominent traits of character. but in America and in continental Europe. but the activity stirred up in other portions of Protestant Europe we must trace indirectly. field preaching. and to preaching. His features were very handsome even in old age. excite our admiration. home missions. at least. He himself prepared books for popular use upon universal history. steadfastness. an eagle nose. He was kind and very liberal. church history. John Wesley apportioned his days to his work in leading the Church. His manners were fine. These. They introduced a new era in the hymnology of the English Church. established in 1744. Wesley was untiring in his efforts to disseminate useful knowledge throughout his denomination. it is estimated that he preached more than forty thousand sermons. Bible readings. to studying (for he was an incessant reader). acquired a governing power only after the death of Wesley. Christian tracts and literature. laborious love for men's souls. Charles Wesley rendered the society a service incalculably great by his hymns. Not only the germs of almost all the existing zeal in England on behalf of Christian truth and life are due to Methodism. What is there in the circle of Christian effort--foreign missions. a clear eye. and natural history. . and yet of noble presence. and for schools of instruction for the future teachers of the Church. In the last fifty-two years of his life.The entire management of his ever-growing denomination rested upon Wesley himself. and in choice company with Christian people he enjoyed relaxation. In this Wesley was an apostle of the modern union of mental culture with Christian living.

and even on the tower of Mange. was asked. kept them down completely until the year 1814.CHAPTER XXI ." replied he. M. as these atrocities provoked the troops to unite in defence of the people. the Catholics at Nismes in particular. armed men ran through the city." being the reply. . a monster fired at the lad. A man named Astuc was wounded and thrown into the aqueduct. Etienne and the celebrated M. The Protestants. was cut to pieces with a sickle. a terrible vengeance was retaliated upon the Catholic party that had used arms. M. especially the toleration exercised by Napoleon Bonaparte. and to send in their adhesion to the senate. A line of distinction was instantly traced between men of different religious opinions. One of the murderer's compansions said. Boucher. and obliged to give proofs of their religion before their lives were granted. In a quarter of an hour. a Protestant seventy years of age. Nismes then presented a frightful spectacle. M. were among the first to unite in the general joy. and several of the Protestant departments sent addresses to the throne. the white flag floated on the public buildings. one dangerously. Blacher. Baudon fell under the repeated strokes of bayonets and sabers. a third received four saber wounds. "You might as well have killed a lamb. and was taken home dreadfully mangled. The Arrival of King Louis XVIII at Paris This was known at Nismes on the thirteenth of April. "to kill four Protestants for my share. by Louis XIV until a very short period previous to the commencement of the late French Revolution. which the zealots broke open. de la Fayette were among the first persons who interested themselves with the court of Louis XVI in removing the scourge of persecution from this injured people. During the Years 1814 and 1820 The persecution in this Protestant part of France continued with very little intermission from the revocation of the edict of Nantes. Such was the opposition on the part of the Catholics and the courtiers. young Pyerre. the inhabitants of the south of France. but unfortunately. "Catholic or Protestant?" "Protestant. only escaped death by repeatedly declaring he was a Catholic. was shot as he was looking out of his window." However.Persecutions of the French Protestants in the South of France. 1814. which with other circumstances. that the Protestants were freed from their alarms. Rebaut St. M. Previously to this. and destroyed their dwelling. that it was not until the end of the year 1790. another elector wounded. Froment was again at Nismes at the moment." "I have sworn. carrying some food to his brother. on the splendid monuments of antiquity. had taken up arms. and his body was also thrown into the water. and this will count for one. and Madame Vogue were at their country house. when the unexpected return of the ancient government rallied them all once more round the old banners. the blindness and fury of the sixteenth century rapidly succeeded the intelligence and philanthropy of the nineteenth. three electors wounded. a young man only seventeen years of age. In the year 1785. and the legislative body. where they massacred both. beyond the city walls. the spirit of the old Catholic Church was again to regulate each person's share of esteem and safety. The citizens that fled were arrested by the Catholics upon the roads. fired from the corners of the streets. when many bigots being ready to join him. and attacked all they met with swords and forks. and he fell. the white cockade was seen in every direction. whose commerce had suffered materially during the war.

and made signs sufficiently intelligible when the minister passed. but this was prevented by the mayor of Nismes. for having. and were not even permitted to appear without their parents. if the Duchess d'Angouleme would give a prince to France. stating that there ought to be in France but one God. The Catholic Arms at Beaucaire In May. 1815. they were not murdered. and at length it was found convenient to accuse them of political crimes." These Catholics applied to the English off Marseilles for assistance." In consequence of this superstitious frenzy. Ruland. Paris. with a false translation. The bigots of Nismes. This project was converted into a public religious vow. and make black puddings of the blood of Calvin's children. exhibited one of these models in his window. counsellor of the Cour Royale of Nismes. was printed by his approval. and the people declared that he ought to resign his office. and with reluctance. Towards the conclusion of the carnival. "All the Huguenots must be killed. In this they were imitated by the Catholics of several towns. one king. "We will wash our hands in Protestant blood. was desired by many persons at Nismes. Baron. ten . A dreadful song presented to the prefect. they were directly assured it would be of no use to them. it is said that at Alais women were advised and insigated to poison their Protestant husbands. a federative association. and burn them in effigy. When the mobs met with Protestants. and had a great run before he saw the extent of the rror into which he had been betrayed. M. ran about the streets crying Vivent les Boubons. The History of the Silver Child About this time. When they arose in the mornin it was not uncommon to find gibbets drawn on their doors or walls. In the meanwhile a large party of Catholic zealots were in arms at Beaucaire. and pointed out the insruments by which they hoped and designed to exterminate them. they sang verses. They could no longer appear in public without insults and injuries. and in the streets the Catholics held cords already soaped before their eyes. a plan had even been formed to make a caricature of the four ministers of the place. whose imaginations were inflamed by these proceedings. he appeared in public with the prefect M. but cruelly treated. and the most atrocious songs were sung under his window. as if those shouts were to justify every excess. At dark their families shut themselves up in their apartments. "so as to alarm the inhabitants. formed the plan of dedicating to God a silver child. which was the subject of conversation both in public and private. and obtained the grant of one thousand muskets. when potatoes were thrown at him. or to perform them ungraciously. M. even succeeded in procuring an address to be presented to the king. and amidst repeated cries of Vive le Roi. but this federation terminated here after an ephemeral and illusory existence of fourteen days. according to order.The difference of religion was now to govern everything else. and even Catholic domestics who had served Protestants with zeal and affection began to neglect their duties. Grenoble. a Protestant. Persons of rank were heard to say in the public streets. or "the Bourbons forever. Castletan was a Protestant." The citizens who came to the promenades for air and refreshment from the close and dirty streets were chased with shouts of Vive le Roi. they seized them. and one faith. in the country dialect. whilst persons. and in the midst of the cries of Vive le Roi! the discordant sounds of A bas le Maire. that none of the accursed race may remain. The sixtythird regiment of the line was publicly censured and insulted." Still. Protestant children could no longer mix in the sports of Catholics. A figure representing a Protestant preacher was also hung up on a public crossway. were heard. a Catholic. similar to that of Lyons. and danced round them with barbarous joy. If Protestants referred to the charter. the absence of the Protestants was charged on them as a proof of their disloyalty. it is true. and Montpelier. protected Protestants. At the fetes and spectacles that were given at the public expense. and who soon pushed their patroles so near the walls of Nismes. down with the mayor. and that they had only been managed to be more effectually destroyed. Small gallows or models were handed about. but even then stones were thrown against their windows. the burden of which was. In fact. the Protestants seemed to be as sheep destined for the slaughter. this time their children must be killed. and a man who lived opposite to one of the pastors. Avignon.

this garrison of about five hundred men consented to capitulate. some laborers. He was met on returning from work in the fields. who prevented them from coming to extremes by granting them an armistice. Guiret. Massacre and Pillage at Nismes Nismes now exhibited a most awful scene of outrage and carnage. "Are you a Protestant?" they exclaimed.' Three men and an old woman were left on the premises: at the sight of the second company two of the men fled. . In a word. covered with clothes or rags of all colors. he resumed his natural character. after eating. but met Ladet. and but very few could re-enter the yard before the garrison gates were again closed. undesired but unopposed. omelet. they presented a most hideous and appealling spectacle. Rey. 'they should be thought merciful. nearly all were killed or wounded. General Gilly. but white and green. but this was publicly contradicted by two of the pastors at Nismes." A musket being discharged at him. then. and he fell. The next day. that the party was determined to kill him. They then ate their salad. It was marked not only by the fervor of the Revolution but by the subtlety of the league. In the open place in the front of the barracks. or leap into the adjoining gardens. sabers. The country houses of Messrs. were massacred in the course of a few days. but towards evening the advanced guard of the banditti.' they said. was soon sent against these partizans. and marched out sad and defenceless. bringing in a salad which the depredators had ordered him to cut. and being a powerful and courageous man advanced and exclaimed. she hesitated. and peace and party spirit seemed to have been subdued. however. entered the city. Five individuals of the family of Chivas. and the inhabitants treated with wanton barbarity. but insisted that he must be conducted to the prison at Nismes. and suffered him to expire in the most dreadful agonies. Seeing. whilst the new commissioners had only to proclaim the cessation of hostilities and the complete establishment of the king's authority. These were again forced in an instant. the rabble commenced a tremendous fire on their confiding and unprotected victims. took leave by announcing the arrival of their comrades. he fell wounded. In vain. had been pillaged. etc. upon Imbert la Plume. forks. Two parties had glutted their savage appetites on the farm of Madame Frat: the first. though many of the Protestants had fled to the Convennes and the Gardonenque. and while living they mutilated his body. On recovering her senses. Cezaire." "Repeat. entered. the old valet de ferme. "Are you a Catholic?" said the banditti to the old woman. seeing the house open and deserted. The prefect of the Gard. To consummate their work. decorated with cockades. pistols and reaping hooks. and discovered the half consumed body of Ladet. 'compared with whom. General Gilly had left the department several days: the troops of the line left behind had taken the white cockade. but he was not dead. she stole out of the house. to the amount of several hundreds. but when about fifty had passed. commonly called Trestaillon. In vain she endeavored to persuade him to fly. The chief promised him his life. not white. to glut the vengeance they had so long premeditated. and stealing what they thought proper. Darbaud Jouques. bands from Beaucaire joined Trestaillon in this city. this banditti was joined by the city armed mob. and waited further orders. all husbands and fathers. and was instantly knocked down with a musket. M. the monsters lighted a fire with straw and boards. after the expiration of Napoleon's reign of a hundred days. attached to a cannon of which they had possession. drew it along. and all were massacred who could not climb over roofs. Another party committed a dreadful murder at St. and breaking the furniture. drinking. "Yes. and stained with the blood of the Protestants whom they had murdered on their route. It was not until after eight days that his relatives were apprised of his death. had the audacity to assert that Ladet was a Catholic. intoxicated with wine. even at Nismes. no despatches arrived to calm and regulate the public mind. your Pater and Ave. and will long remain a blot upon the history of the second restoration. death met them in every place and in every shape. headed by Jaques Dupont. and this Catholic massacre rivalled in cruelty and surpassed in treachery the crimes of the September assassins of Paris. but not dead. and several others. however. and yet when Louis XVIII had returned to Paris. attempting to palliate the crimes of the Catholics. armed with muskets. etc. no commissioners appeared. the husband of Suzon Chivas. and then passing a cord round it. and the Jacobinical butcheries of Lyons and Avignon.thousand cartouches. To save the effusion of blood. threw their living victim into the flames." Being terrified. "I am. As they marched without order or discipline. "You are brigands-fire!" Four of them fired.

"this will set fire to your house. he was pointed out partaking of a frugal breakfast with the family. and had seen a Protestant who had taken refuge there. six armed men. and the house of Mrs. was killed by some of the natonal guards of Rusau. M. and on the first of August they butchered them without opposition. who lived on a litle farm at the windmills. stopped for a moment. His eldest daughter was knocked down with the butt end of a musket. Truphemy ordered him to go along with him. three thousand francs in silver. but were threatened with a similar fate. adding. They dragged the coffins out. he had never served the emperor. peaceable and harmless. and on one occasion. said. at several visits was robbed of seven thousand francs. was literally cut in pieces. you shall be the eighth." No reply could be made to these arguments. adding. when he pleaded the sacrifices he had made. Feline." Pierre Courbet. In vain this outraged widow collected the bones of her ancestors and replaced them: they were again dug up. after several useless efforts. and scattered the contents over the adjacent grounds. and one of them appearing affected. is already in the other world. was robbed of thirty-two thousand francs in gold. which contained the relics of her family. who were smiths. threatening the wretched peasants. Mrs. After some time the wretches departed. and the same hands that set fire to the houses of the rich. F. was received at Nismes. and the crime was so public. in the presence of a large crowd. and her goods destroyed. and had retired on a pension. they attacked even the sanctuary of the dead. shouting Vive le Roi. a silk weaver. . and if you say a word. two of the party. attracted by the firing approached. and. a silk manufacturer. and amidst the unavailing cries and tears of his wife and four young children. The number of murders on this day could not be ascertained. was not abandoned. Several persons. If murder some time after. Paul Heraut. A party of these bigots visited the widow Perrin. drapyery. surrounded the house of Monot. The widows Rivet and Bernard were forced to sacrifice enormous sums. and praise his amiable and virtuous qualities. but soon renewed with fresh vigor and effect. and artfully ordered him to cry Vive l'Empereur he refused. In vain did the women and children of the house intercede for his life. but in spite of proclamations. and shot at his own door. On the thirtieth of July. Truphemy not knowin him. He was marched to the Esplanade and shot. the father of a family. and a new prefect arrived to carry them into effect. or whatever they sold. Royal Decree in Favor of the Persecuted At length the decree of Louis XVIII which annulled all the extraordinary powers conferred either by the king. He was a man of an excellent character. Saussine. a carpenter. "will finish you. the princes. for my share. and a poignard was held at the breast of his wife while the mob plundered her apartments. "Look. became less frequent for a few days. that the commander of the party restored to the family the pocketbook and papers of the deceased. "Your friend. the butcher. Didier had her dwelling sacked and nearly demolished to the foundation. in this persecution at Nismes. was such as would have disgraced any savages ever heard of. headed by Truphemy. or subordinate agents. The murderers only abandoned the corpse to return to Heraut's house and secure everything valuable. was torn from his loom by an armed band. and the laws were now to be administered by the regular organs. and this. Bourillon.The merciless treatment of the women. One person saw six bodies at the Cours Neuf. a stocking weaver." said a bandit. On the following day tumultuous crowds roamed about the city and suburbs. The small shopkeepers were continually exposed to visits and demands of provisions. Jacques Combe. Some women met them. and nine were carried to the hospital. M. Lecointe was ravaged. had been at work in the house the day before. About noon on the same day." brandishing his sword. who had been a lieutenant in the army. and several bales of silk. Salle d'Hombro. having committed every species of devastation. pointing to his pipe. pillage and forced contributions were actively enforced. M. the work of destruction. "I have killed seven to-day." Truphemy placed him in the middle of his troop. they were reluctantly left spread over the surface of the fields. and tore up the vines of the cultivator. and had never served the emperor Napoleon. first by Truphemy and then by the others.

Petition of the Protestant Refugees To these reproaches it is proper to oppose the petition which the Protestant refugees in Paris presented to Louis XVIII in behalf of their brethren at Nismes. "Your majesty has been deceived if there has not been placed before you the picture of the horrors which make a desert of your good city of Nismes." etc. Monstrous Outrage Upon Females At Nismes it is well known that the women wash their clothes either at the fountains or on the banks of streams. the fugitives. and Robespierre. the word "charter" was never once used in it. in pretended obedience to your orders. when armed peasants introduced themselves. Not content with these modes of torment. a single act of your will would restore to political existence a city interesting for its population and its manufactures. on the contrary. but were assailed on their departure. calumnious and inflammatory publications charged the Protestants with raising the proscribed standard in the communes. Those Protestants who remained were deprived of all their civil and religious rights. Those who were employed in selling tobacco were deprived of their licenses. received constant accessions. they were received with the assurances of peace. as persons who had surpassed Danton. instead of being reduced. one of these was obliged to change his residence. professing the reformed religion. "We lay at your feet. The Protestant deacons who had the charge of the poor were all scattered. in doing mischief. was hawked about the streets. kneeling . or perform the functions of his ministry under cover of the night. Arrests and proscriptions are continually taking place. was set up for five months. were increased. and stifles the complaints of our fellow citizens. Misled peasants. Hundreds after this were dragged to prison without even so much as a written order. and difference of religious opinions is the real and only cause. Desolation reigned in the sanctuary and in the city. Attacked without reason. On the fifteenth of July.broke the looms of the weaver. Save us. Fear paralyzes the hearts. had assembled at the command of a commissioner appointed by your august nephew. even by a just resistance. and almost totally massacred. We place before your eyes all the documents that have reached us. There is a large basin near the fountain. our fortunes have been placed in his hands. Terror has driven from our city the most respectable inhabitants. the city filled with strangers. stamped with the crown and the arms of the Bourbons. You nephew has beheld our children under his banners. afforded their enemies the fatal pretext for calumny. the Protestants have not. 1815. Of five pastors only two remained. we venture to raise our voice in their behalf. and though an official newspaper. and. and invoking the fallen Napoleon. and the houses of the principal inhabitants. In your name our fellow citizens are slaughtered. the mayor. Our national guard was disarmed. Although ready to attack us. Marat. and the white flag immediately waved on our edifices. The armed bands. bearing the title of the Journal du Gard. sire. and could only venture to admnister the consolations of religion. and as having prostituted their daughters to the garrison to gain it over to Napoleon. where numbers of women may be seen every day. and even the advocates and huissiers entered into a resolution to exclude all of "the pretended reformed religion" from their bodies. were attacked and plundered.. and their property laid waste. etc. we learned your majesty's entrance into Paris. We subjoin the list. our acute sufferings. only weeping from rage and regret that they had no more victims to devour. The garrison capitulated. while it was influenced by the prefect. Placed in a more secure situation. sire! extinguish the brand of civil war. and the vender was adorned with the medal of the police. The calumniated Protestants are the defenders of the throne. and stole the tools of the artisan. represented the suffering Protestants. instead of returning. One of the first numbers. and their friends who sheltered them were deemed rebellious. The public tranquillity had not been disturbed." An extract from this article. as unworthy the protection of the laws and the favor of the monarch. of course. and other functionaries. Demand an account of their conduct from the chiefs who had brought our misfortunes upon us. as "Crocodiles.

and murder peaceable citizens. The members of the Reformed Church were filled with terror. etc. asked. this house was attacked. To carry their outrage to the highest possible degree. This spot became the scene of the most shameful and indecent practices. especially. from relating the most aggravating circumstances. with heavy blows." says M. another Protestant. and their cries rent the air. however. organized by his own orders. The surgeons who attended on those women who are dead. a national guard of several hundred men. as he said. At the village of Milhaud. used words in their proclamations. Duran. The Catholic rabble turned the women's petticoats over their heads. We now quit Nismes to take a view of the conduct of the persecutors in the surrounding country. that of his friend was seized and destroyed. the Catholics might not be offended or disturbed. "I have seen.. and their subjection to a newly invented species of chastisement. a tailor. arrest. under the eye of the Catholic mayor. Teulon escaped with his life. were occupied as well as they could in providing for their own personal safety. "a Catholic advocat. to the bleeding body this battoir or battledore. the hay and wood burnt. Often was death demanded as a commutation of this ignominious punishment. and apply. Hermet. the valuable furniture removed or destroyed. with very few exceptions. which. the agonies which they must have endured. whilst their houses were pillaged. were permitted to plunder. Gilles was the scene of the most unblushing villainy. troops. was the man they wanted. Murder and robbery. but with encouragement and approbation. In the canton of Vauvert. I have seen them raise the garments of females. who boldly declared that. where there was a consistory church. and beating the clothes with heavy pieces of wood in the shape of battledores. that. the inhabitants were frequently forced to pay large sums to avoid being pillaged. The Protestants. and to the cries of Vive le Roi! St." Nevertheless. and though all the property of the latter was respected. the anniversary of St. In the communes of Beauvoisin and Generac similar excesses were committed by a handful of licentious men. several who were in a state of pregnancy were assailed in this manner. had deposited some of his effects with a Catholic neighbor. "Good. and. they beat them until the blood streamed from their bodies. so disgraceful to France and the Catholic religion. This officer had. one of a party doubting whether M. continued. the administrative authorities. but he laughed and walked away. The scandalous nature of these outrages prevented many of the sufferers from making them public. M. the local authorities were distinguished for their zeal and forwardness in supporting their employers. and armed mobs. and. and. by the Catholic magistrates. and the corpse of a child. and by honestly employing it they might have restored tranquillity. the sixteenth of July. however. at his disposal. accompanying the assassins of the fauxbourg Bourgade. eighty thousand francs were extorted. is most strictly true. It was with great difficulty that M. . The mayor was appealed to. but never had recourse to actions to stop the enormities of the persecutors. This. etc. After the re-establishment of the royal government. arm a battoir with sharp nails in the form of fleur-de-lis. Picherol. for nails being placed in the wood of the battoirs in the form of fleur-de-lis. taken up and dragged round a fire made by the populace. it is true. buried in the garden. can attest. the most wealthy of the inhabitants. would not avail at Madame Teulon's: On Sunday. not merely with impunity. At Clavison the mayor prohibited the Protestants the practice of singing the Psalms commonly used in the temple. however horrible. At the same village. to which they gave a name which my pen refuses to record. instead of taking part in the election of deputies. national guards. her house and grounds were ravaged. and so fastened them as to continue their exposure. "Is he a Protestant?" this he acknowledged. but refused with a malignant joy. during the progress of these horrors and obscenities. etc. and he was instantly murdered. and were winked at. Bartholomew. on the twenty-fourth.. under pretence of rebellion." said they. were disarmed.at the edge of the water. nonpayment of contributions. It would be wearisome to read the lists of the crimes that occurred during many months. Outrages Committed in the Villages. concealment of arms. they intended to make a general massacre. by the marks of their wounds. near Nismes. The cries of the sufferers-the streams of blood-the murmurs of indignation which were suppressed by fear-nothing could move them. the agents of government had a powerful force under their command.

called the Temple by the Protestants. the Catholics made a splendid procession through the town. Ribot. when he proceeded towards the church. The Protestant church which had been closed. commenced without any improvement in the principles or measures of the government. Continue to act as you have hitherto done. and forget what they owe to the best of kings and the charter. 1816. I have the honor to salute you with respect. and the service was concluded amidst noise. dances. and imprisoned. From the captain of these chasseurs. or excite his impatience. who honorably and zealously protected them. matters were still worse. Stones were thrown in and fell among the worshippers. threats. and time and your conduct will convince the Catholics to the contrary: should any tumult occur similar to that of Saturday last inform me." Another letter to this worthy pastor from the Marquis de Montlord. and this was followed by corresponding presumption on the part of the people. and to read the instructions he had received from the government to this effect publicly. Mamert was repeatedly visited by these robberies. the Protestants were attacked. but nothing could disturb his firmness. and if the agitators prove incorrigible. my dear sir. when the service in commemoration of the death of Louis XVI was celebrated. the pastor. and of the sense I entertain of the moderation with which they have met the provocations of the evil-disposed at Sommieres. who they pretend do not love the king. and concluded the day by plundering their houses. Several houses in the Quartier St. "I deeply lament the prejudices of the Catholics against the Protestants. In the commune of Anguargues. and their wrecks burnt in the streets amidst songs. by day they insulted them. still the congregation remained calm and attentive. brigands. Charles were sacked. and in that of Fontanes. Further Account of the Proceedings of the Catholics at Nismes The excesses perpetrated in the country it seems did not by any means divert the attention of the persecutors from Nismes. On retiring many would have been killed but for the chasseurs of the garrison. and ascended the pulpit. from the entry of the king in 1815. and disturbers of public tranquillity. and public worship performed on the morning of the twenty-fourth of December. the most savage shouts were raised against him. On the arrival of foreign troops at Sommieres. M. I will do my duty and inform the government of their proceedings. on the twentieth of January. women. it was discovered that some persons had carried off the clapper of the bell. and at Montmiral. After divine service had been suspended for six months at Nismes. about ten miles from Nismes. to encourage him to unite with all good men who believe in God to obtain the punishment of the assassins. the pretended search for arms was resumed. the Catholics broke all terms with the Protestants. he was surrounded. As the hour of service approached. 1816. a number of men. for daring to celebrate the return of a king who had sworn to preserve religious liberty and to maintain the charter. and in the night broke open their doors. and when . Ribot soon after received the following letter: January 2. At the appointed time. SUVAL DE LAINE. On examining the belfry. beaten. or marked them with chalk to be plundered or burnt. the National Guards fired at the white flag suspended from the windows of the Protestants. and outrage. and threatened to prevent the worship. 1816. and soldiers were quartered on them at six francs per day until they produced the articles in demand. 1815. which continued until evening and was succeeded by the plunder of the Protestants. was converted into barracks for the Austrians. he entered the house of prayer. Adieu. as lately as the sixteenth of June. and shouts of Vive le Roi! The mayor appeared. some of the women seized him by the collar. St.At Sommieres. October. Notwithstanding this. the church. those who did not possess muskets were even compelled to buy them on purpose to surrender them up. and children collected at the house of M. was received on the sixth of January. but the merry multitude pretended not to know him. was re-opened. a procession being formed. assure the consistory of my esteem. I preserve my reports of these acts.

and mounted on an alder tree planted against the garden wall.' said another. 'spare me! What have I done? Why would you murder me for nothing?' I was on the point of crying out and menacing the murderers with vengeance. Some national guards arrived at the moment. Durand.' he said. and on opening my window I distinguished horrible imprecations mingled with cries of Vive le Roi! I roused an officer who lodged in the house. holding jwith one of those wretches the following dialogue: Satellite. On the following day crowds came to inspect and insult the deceased. In answer to my inquiries I was told the massacre was general. and sabers. the unhappy supplicant. and anxious for my wife I returned home. I crept along in the shadow of the wall. and every occupation was left to go and gaze upon the victims. A few troops rallied round the Count La Garde. and the greater part half naked." This horrid purpose would have been executed had it not been for General La Garde. opened my door. Crowds were advancing through the suburbs. Trestaillon reviewed his satellites. uttering the most horrid imprecations. who was wrung with distress at the sight of the evil which had arrived at such a pitch. every preparation seemed to announce a night of carnage. fell to rise no more. and gained the Boulevarde. The backs of the assassins were towards the tree. a Catholic advocate. M. but as you have so often deceived me. Durand verified this account by his oath upon the trial of one of the murderers. By the noise I was convinced that persons followed. struck in the loins and the head. "Come along. We went out together. and four years after the event. and closed it. Chancel.' Five or six muskets were fired instantly. for this time not a single man shall escape. gave the following account: "It was near midnight. 'It will be better. and encouraging them to re-open their temple so long shut up. my wife had just fallen asleep. and that he might retire. General La Garde declared that he would answer with his head for the . But firing and shouts were immediately audible. and added to the confusion that was now spreading through the city. unless they are all to go I will not stir. the officers retired to the barracks.' said a third. The generale sounded at eleven o'clock. sticks. What a scene! a man on his knees imporing mercy from wretches who mocked his agony. Attack Upon the Protestant Churches Some time before the death of General La Garde. they told him. 'his presence was unnecessary.' 'He sings still. when we were disturbed by a distant noise. 'a dead man. and that the ringing of the bell should be omitted. leaving a small aperture through which I could watch the movements of the party whose arms shone in the moonlight. 'to finish him and put him out of his misery.' During the sixteenth of Oc tober. A day after a massacre was always observed as a sort of fete. the discharge of several fusils terminated my suspense. orders for assembling and signals for attack were circulated with regularity and confidence. he now felt that not a moment could be lost. without one exception.' said one.he ventured to remonstrate. and I again retired and shut the door. and M. and almost every object was nearly as distinct as day. then. It was not until ten o'clock at night that he perceived the danger. I shut my door gently. drums seemed crossing the town in every direction. they retired immediately. uttering some deep and dismal groans. I descended and approached the dying man. entered. are to be killed. M. 'I see. a furious crowd was pressing on vowing extermination. I will cheerfully join. and at the former place honored the members of the Protestant consistory with an interview. I said it probably announced the arrival or departure of some troops of the garrison. Chancel retired to put on his uniform as captain of the Pompiers. muskets. the father of four children. that many had been already killed in the suburbs. and other cities in the south." This was Louis Lichare. "If all the Protestants. I was writing by her side. They stopped. and it was agreed that the small one should be preferred on this occasion. and the groans ceased. and urged them on to the perpetration of crimes. promising them protection. 'In the name of my wife and children. the commandant of the department. I had not long to deliberate. They have two churches at Nismes. The moon shone bright." Trestaillon. reloading their pieces. Of this M. Director of the Public Works. the duke d'Angouleme had visited Nismes. and loaded him with abuse. What could all this mean! To quiet her alarm. and the streets were filling with ruffians. In a few moments some armed men appeared conducting a prisoner to the very spot where I was concealed. armed with knives.

but fainted immediately on his arrival. and a number of persons entered. though known to everyone. The temple being opened only as a matter of form. and they began to assemble silently and cautiously. and some of his flock. as well as others through which the fugitives had to pass. open. in case of his death. his mother received a blow on the head. that. this pastor wished to be the only victim. and he was obliged to do it himself. the number of Protestants more or less ill treated on this occasion amounted to between seventy and eighty. was surrounded by murderers. an officer in the royal troops of the line. a calm that succeeded was of short duration. At length the sound of martial music was heard. "at the bottom of the pulpit. and exclaimed. Chasseur commenced the prayers. A villain seized his bridle. On a sudden the minister was interrupted by a violent noise. I am about to die with my husband and my daughter. and in compliance with the orders of the duke d'Angouleme. . they attempted in vain to sing the Forty-second Psalm. and save yourselves!" Their first impression was a fear of treachery. exclaimed." added others. and ten for my share. Olivier Desmond. but." Through these ominous sounds M. but the friendly sentinels at the door advised him to remain besieged with the rest. and set off on a gallop to his hotel. caused the house to resound with shrieks and groans. a sergeant in the national guard. attempted to leave the church. was pursued and assailed with stones. The national guards refused to act. Juillerat pursued his course. between seventy and eighty years of age. mingled with Vive le Roi! but the gendarmed succeeded in excluding these fanatics. to remain with their families. On his way to the place he passed numerous groups who regarded him with ferocious looks. and amidst their naked sabers conducted him to his house." "Yes. who had driven the mob before them. and that none might dare to accuse the Protestants of the crime. son of a pastor. he gave orders to the gendarmerie to protect the Protestants. and voices from without called to the beseiged. Murder of General La Garde At length a check was put to these excesses by the report of the murder of Count LaGarde. you make me retire!" He immediately fired. I said. and upon the steps of the church. I awaited their approach." M. they put their fists in his face." said some. mounted his horse. The voice of the pastors who endeavored to console their flock. The door was opened. and crying. we shall be slain at the altar of our God. receiving an account of this tumult. vowing their worship should not be performed. but when he gained the temple the sexton had not the courage to open the door. "Open. and several wounded and dragged along the streets. It was agreed that M. As the worshippers arrived they found strange persons in possession of the adjacent streets." He was preserved by the firmness of some officers. was inaudible. raising his voice above the rest. though such was his conviction of danger that he entreated his wife. One woman was shamefully whipped. and cried. "to give them the last blow. I remembered that it was the anniversary of my marriage. The murderer was Louis Boissin. who had assisted at drivine service with his wife at his side and his child in his arms. "and neither women nor children must be spared. As soon as the general found himself wounded. "Ah. Oliver. I will go and get my musket. "Down with the Protestants! kill them! kill them!" At ten o'clock the church being nearly filled.J. it might be known from what quarter the blow came. Three quarters of an hour rolled heavily away. and without cursing our murderers. and heaven will open to receive us and our unhappy brethren. and closing the doors. but they were soon assured that a detachment returning from Mass was drawn up in front of the church to favor the retreat of the Protestants. M. The noise and tumult without now redoubled. Juillerat. another presented the muzzle of a pistol close to his body. "Wretch." One wretch. uttering the most dreadful cries. and of their increasing numbers. with my daughter in my arms. and he effected his escape. my husband at length joined and sustained me. After six years of happiness." said Madame Juillerat. but this street. and many of them escaped among the ranks of the soldiers. the victims of a sacred duty. On recovering. "This is the time. I blessed the Redeemer. was soon filled again. and the blows of the populace trying to break open the doors. "Kill the chief of brigands. they made a bulwark round him with their bodies. Juillerat Chasseur should perform the service. who. and her life was some time in danger. and entered one of the streets. The venerable pastor. M.safety of his congregation. The Protestants privately informed each other that worship was once more to be celebrated at ten o'clock. to disperse a crowd. "I placed myself. he prevented the surgeon from searching his wound until he had written a letter to the government. no person endeavored to arrest him. and the fanatical crowd took every advantage of the absence of General La Garde. among whom was his own son.

which some persons at first censured and despised. On a sudden the shouts and cries of Vive le Roi! redoubled: a man arrived. Catholics. M. the system of forced conversions to Catholicism was making regular and fearful progress. he approached the tribunal-he came to depose against the prisoners-he was admitted as a witnesshe raised his hand to take the oath! Seized with horror at the sight. but in this sate of their proceedings. 'I will not consent to see that wretch admitted to give evidence in a court of justice in the city which he has . and fulfilled their wishes with a zeal. and the synods. In the meanwhile. but the mass of the people had been indulged in licentiousness too long to be restrained even by the murder of the representative of their king. and that the fanatics would not. a letter appeared.' The ministers of the three denominations in London. the closets were ransacked. the whole would have become the prey of the flames. rather than take the deposition of that notorious and sanguinary monster. to their great dismay. operated as decisive and involuntary acknowledgments of the importance of that interference. the fanatics openly ascribed the murder of the general to his own self-devotion. several unfortunate persons persecuted by the faction were upon trial. and examine with impartiality the nature and extent of the evils they were desirous to relieve. the report of these cruel persecutions carried on against our Protestant brethren in France. In the evening they again repaired to the temple. and the clothes prepared for distribution. were stolen. upon one occasion felt himself compelled to break up the court. and the declarations of tolerance which it elicited from the French government. and even caressed and rewarded for their crimes. and whilst Protestants in France suffered the most cruel and degrading pains and penalties for alleged trifling crimes. and now the persecutors of the Protestants made this spontaneous act of humanity and religion the pretext for charging the sufferers with a treasonable correspondence with England. requested one of their brethren to visit the scenes of persecution. the dismal noise of their blows carried terror into the bosom of the Protestant families sitting in their houses in tears. in vain they persuaded me to resume my seat.' Three thousand francs were offered for the apprehension of Boissin. Madier de Mongau. my colleagues followed me. His return furnished abundant and incontestable proof of a shameful persecution. borne in triumph-it was the horrible Truphemy. but the rooms which contained the archives of the church. the books torn up or carried away. and the edifice itself a heap of ruins. Many innocent Protestants had been condemned to the galleys and otherwise punished for supposed crimes. but it was well known that the Protestants dared not arrest him. caressed. 'that iw as the will of God. the murderers and plunderers were still left unpunished. During these transactions. prudence. were providentially secured. the minister's robes rent in pieces. The contents of the poor box. Rev. as well as the more cautious march of the Catholic persecutors. and president of the cour d'assizes of the Gard and Vaucluse. anxious not to be misled. "of the Palace of Justice. materials for an appeal to the British Parliament. Truphemy: "In a hall.The probable death of this general produced a small degree of relaxation on the part of their enemies. opposite that in which I sat. Perhaps the virtuous indignation expressed by some of the more enlightened Catholics against these abominable proceedings. were acquitted. put through the stern voice of public opinion in England and elsewhere produced a resultant suspension of massacre and pillage. and guilty of numerous and horrid murders. sent some time before to England by the duke of Wellington. and said. Clement Perot undertook this difficult task. judge of the cour royale of Nismes. and with hatchets broke open the door. and had it not been for the numerous patrols on foot. appluaded. stating that 'much information existed on the events of the south. had no small share in restraining them. 'No!' exclaimed I. above all praise. covered with blood. and two hundred soldiers were often unable to restrain the people. upon the oaths of wretches the most unprincipled and abandoned. every deposition tending to their crimination was applauded with the cries of Vive le Roi! Three times the explosion of this atrocious joy became so terrible that it was necessary to send for reinforcements from the barracks. I rushed from my seat. Interference of the British Government To the credit of England. Foreign interference was now found eminently useful. and a printed report which was circulated through the continent." says he. and entered the hall of council. and devotedness. and which first conveyed correct information to the inhabitants of France. and some calm. produced such a senation on the part of the government as determined them to interfere.

These words penetrated the dungeons of the condemned. the Protestants appeared at night in the same order and armed in the same manner as their enemies.filled with murders. so long resigned. They unanimously determined that they would die fighting in their own defense. He an accuser! he a witness! No. they obtained the pardon of an enemy who now trembled while he menaced. The king granted a full and free pardon. the witness trembled. in the palace. but the Protestants remained silent and firm in the posts they had chosen. without waiting for these reinforcements. with their usual noise and fury." Ultimate Resolution of the Proestants at Nismes With respect to the conduct of the Protestants. he carried the prayers of innocence and misery to the foot of the throne.' These words were repeated out of doors. . Those. they gave another couragious advocate the resolution to espouse the cause of the persecuted. who for four years had filled others with terror. who dictated calumny after they had taught him murder. and their alarm was heightened when they heard that the inhabitants of the Cevennes. were marching to their assistance. never will I consent to see this monster rise. persuaded of the danger of their brethren. the factious who guided the tongue of Truphemy as they had directed his arm. Everything was immediately changed. I cannot admit that he should kill his victims by his testimonies no more than by his poignards. This firm attitude apprised their butchers that they could no longer murder with impunity. now felt it in their turn. pushed to extremities by their persecutors. But. the factious also trembled. found in despair. there he asked if the evidence of a Truphemy was not sufficient to annul a sentence. but the effusion of blood was prevented by the efforts of some worthy citizens distinguished by their rank and fortune. By sharing the dangers of the Protestant population. They trembled at the force which men. Three days these dangerous and ominous meetings continued. these highly outraged citizens. The others paraded the Boulevards. and inspired hope. his hand still reeking with blood. to take a sacrilegious oath. felt at length that they had only to choose the manner in which they were to perish. on the steps of which he has murdered the unfortunate Bourillon. in the presence of magistrates.

who were at Ava. Judson was accompanied by his wife. when a student in Williams College. the first missionaries of the American Board sailed for the Orient. the conclusion of this letter will . in 1813. This step necessarily sundered their connection with the body which had sent them forth. so Judson was dispatched to England to confer with the London Society as to the feasibility of the two organizations cooperating in sending and sustaining the candidates. "I commence this letter with the intention of giving you the particulars of our captivity and sufferings at Ava. There was much perplexity concerning plans and finances. overtaken by a thunderstorm. reached the conclusion that only immersion was valid. The account of the sufferings of the missionaries was written by Mrs. and left them wholly destitute of support. Rice returned to America to report this condition of affairs to the Baptist brethren. an unbelieving soul objected upon the floor of the legislature. 1826. When a charter for the Board was applied for. Judson. Judson was the occasion of the organization of two great missionary societies. or whether they must apply to a British society. 1810. in some way Mr. On the long voyage out. Price. Mr. if opportunity offered. So Mr. In 1824 war broke out between the British East India Company and the emperor of Burma. "Rangoon. and were reabptized by Carey soon after their arrival in Calcutta. and Mrs. At last sufficient money was raised. where Adoniram Judson joined them. Rice were led to revise their convictions with reference to the proper mode of baptism. and is given in her own words. June 29. offering themselves as missionaries and asking whether they might expect support from a society in this country. Judson and Dr. Dr. that this was a commodity such that the more of it was sent abroad the more remained at home. and in February.The Beginnings of American Foreign Missions Samuel J. alleging in opposition to the petition that the country contained so limited a supply of Christianity that none could be spared for export. In response to this appeal the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions was formed. gathered about him a group of fellow students. "My beloved Brother. and Mrs. Four of these sent a petition to the Massachusetts Congregational Association at Bradford. who was blessed with a more optimistic make. These young men went later to Andover Theological Seminary. and eagerly planned to accept the responsibility thrust upon them. and resolved. to go themselves as missionaries. How long my patience will allow my reviewing scenes of disgust and horror. the capital of the Burman Empire. One day in 1806 four of them. The Persecution of Doctor Judson After laboring for some time in Hindustan Dr. May 26. They passed the time in prayer for the salvation of the world. Judson finally established themselves at Rangoon in the Burman Empire. They looked upon the situation as the result of an act of Providence. Judson and Mr. Mills. all feeling the burden of the great heathen world. but was aptly reminded by another. Accordingly the Baptist Missionary Union was formed. This "haystack prayer meeting" has become historic. but this scheme came to nothing. took refuge in the shelter of a haystack. having married Ann Hasseltine shortly before sailing. 1812. when the war commenced. Mr. were immediately arrested and confined for several months.CHAPTER XXII . and Mrs.

nor intimated a wish to see me. where part of the troops. a messenger came to inform us that Rangoon was taken by the English. the numerous horses. Consequently. and should not be molested. We were allowed to proceed quietly on. and the queen. and surrounded by a fleet of gold war boats. and had much more reason to fear than the rest of us. I had kept a journal of everything that had transpired from our arrival at Ava. Price was out of favor at court. and who was on his way thither. was one of the most beautiful objects in the procession. G. perhaps. The saupwars of the provinces bordering on China. under the command of the celebrated Bandoola. but found the king's manner toward him very different from what it formerly had been. and where a banquet was prepared for their refreshment. entered the garden in which we had taken our seats. we found that Dr. The white elephant. "On the twenty-third of May. all the members of the royal family. one of which was instantly despatched the other side of the river to hail us. but concluded it was from political motives. All the riches and glory of the empire were on this day exhibited to view. and most of the officers of government. they. that 'the few foreigners residing at Ava had nothing to do with the war. The number and immense size of the elephants. in which was a mixture of fear and joy. who had previously been appointed viceroy of Rangoon. thus endeavoring to convince the government that we had really nothing to do with the present war. the other side of the river. "The first certain intelligence we received of the declaration of war by the Burmese. who informed him he need not give himself any uneasiness. Mr. "I dare not attempt a description of that splendid day.determine. who had replied. essentially affect us. immediately returned to our house. Soon after his majesty had taken possession of the new palace. were sent off in three or four days. Mr. I may say. a young merchant residing at Ava. and great variety of vehicles of all descriptions. dressed in their robes of state. in order to come and take possession of the new palace in the customary style. The king and queen alone were unadorned. As we proceeded on our journey. when the news of . The intelligence produced a shock. with the remainder of his troops. and the masons had made considerable progress in raising the building. Your brother visited at the palace two or three times. We were a little alarmed at this. we met Bandoola himself. had encamped. when he had informed the messenger that we were Americans. the king. now made no inquiries after me. but destroyed it at the c ommencement of our difficulties. An army of ten or twelve thousand men. when majesty with all its attendant glory entered the gates of the golden city. and amid the acclamations of millions. Gouger. took possession of the palace. J. gaily equipped. who were living in their own houses. went to Prince Thar-yar-wadee. all the materials for building a brick house were procured. out of the palace enclosure. far surpassed anything I have ever seen or imagined. an order was issued that no foreigner should be allowed to enter. excepting Lansago.' "The government were now all in motion. under the command of the Kyee-woon-gyee. and were going to Ava in obedience to the command of his Majesty. and commencing missionary operations as occasion offered. and that suspicion rested on most of the foreigners then at Ava. and we wnt on with our school. who had hitherto expressed wishes for my speedy arrival. about a hundred miles this side of Ava. hand in hand. "In two or three weeks after our arrival. the king's most influential brother. I made no effort to visit at the palace. as he had mentioned the subject to his majesty. returned to Amarapora. richly adorned with gold and jewels. and ornamented with the insignia of their office. though almost daily invited to visit some of the branches of the royal family. seated on his golden barge. and make all necessary inquiries. "For several weeks nothing took place to alarm us. we thought our most prudent course lay in prosecuting our original intention of building a house. and began to consider what was to be done. not English. however. 1824. just as we had concluded worship at the Doctor's house. dressed in the simple garb of the country. We all. and would not. was on our arrival at Tsenpyoo-kywon. and were to be joined by the Sakyer-woon-gyee. Mr. Under these circumstances. all the viceroys and high officers of the kingdom were assembled on the occasion. queen. "On our arrival at the capital. was then with us. preached every Sabbath.

Poor fellows! said we. (said I.its attack reached him. one of whom read the order of the king. the instrument of torture. as were the Burmese. and had minuted down every occurrence since our arrival in the country. and ran-the little Burman children were screaming and crying-the Bengalee servants stood in amazement at the indignities offered their master-and the hardened executioner. and loosen the ropes.' said the lady of Woongyee. and a 'son of the prison. (white strangers. threw him on the floor. and imploring fortitude and strength to suffer whatever awaited me. When this work of destruction was finished.' 'Where is the teacher?' was the first inquiry. the unfeeling wretches again threw their prisoner on the ground. 'Stay. I destroyed all my letters. just as we were prearing for dinner. to their suspicious minds.' said the officer. "The whole neighborhood had collected-the masons at work on the brick house threw down their tools. in rushed an officer. 'send four white strangers to manage the affairs of my house. No doubt was entertained of the defeat of the English. but were allowed to return to their houses. or the Bengal government. but had no correspondence with English officers. for the magistrate of the place had come into the veranda. but instead of succeeding.' 'Take her too. where strict inquiry was made relative to all they knew. and drew the cords still tighter. placed a guard of ten ruffians. Judson to the death prison. I went out and submitted to the examination of the magistrate. we knew to be an executioner. They answered that they had always written to their friends in America. a form of speech always used when about to arrest a criminal. however. with an imploring look. to Moung Ing to follow after. What a night was now before me! I retired into my room. the soldiers singing and dancing. passed our house.' Mr.' "On the eighth of June. and submit to his examination. journals. where the governor of the city and the officers were collected. was a sufficient evidence that the missionaries were in the pay of the English.) to row my boat. would be so alarmed as to flee on board their ships and depart. who. 'six kala pyoo. to commit Mr. by orders on Bengal. with a hellish joy. Judson. you will probably never dance again. "The officer and his gang proceeded on to the courthouse. and writings of every kind. G it was found that Mr. "At length Mr.' and 'to me. In vain I begged and entreated the spotted face to take the silver. I gave the money. 'Bring for me. for few if any ever saw again their native home. Price were summoned to a court of examination. But previously to going out. to make some further attempt to mitigate the torture of Mr. as I understand they are trusty servants. then ordered the gates of the compound to be shut. But the consolation of retirement was not long allowed me. . in an angry tone. to whom he gave a strict charge to keep me safe. Judson fast. holding a black book. of our mode of receiving money. Judson presented himself. Judson. And so it proved.' The war boats. In examining the accounts of Mr. Price had taken money of him to a considerable amount. and continually called me to come out. begged they would let me remain until further orders. etc. of the state of the country. and exhibiting gestures of the most joyful kind. this circumstance. who inquired very minutely of everything I knew. from his spotted face. accompanied by one. The scene was now shocking beyond description.' said the officer. before there would be time to secure them as slaves. the only fear of the king was that the foreigners hearing of the advance of the Burmese troops. It was thus represented to the king. 'You are called by the king. whom.' said a wild young buck of the palace. bound Mr. drew tight the cords. Judson. with a dozen Burmans. I caught hold of his arm. and immediately departed. After their examination. and produced the small cord. The great point seemed to be whether they had been in the habit of making communications to foreigners. The spotted man instantly seized Mr. Judson and Dr. no person be allowed to go in or out. and very probably spies. when a few rods from the house. and endeavored to obtain consolation from committing my case to God. ordered the immediate arrest of the 'two teachers. Mr. the door closed-and Moung Ing saw no more. I knew not whither. and departed. and dragged him off. so as almost to prevent respiration. into which he was soon hurled.) I will give you money. Ignorant. in high glee. they were not put in confinement as the Englishmen had been. but he spurned my offers. J. 'she also is a foreigner. and Dr. lest they should disclose the fact that we had correspondents in England.

'two hundred tickals. Judson crawled to the door of the prison-for I was never allowed to enter-gave me some directions relative to his release. if they would release the servants. and endeavored to intimidate them by threatening to complain of their conduct to higher authorities on the morrow. horrid situation-and the affecting scene which ensued. relative to the means. he concluded to take it. and give him food. I endeavored to soften the feelings of the guard by giving them tea and cigars for the night. who has the entire direction of prison affairs. This had the desired effect. I sent a message to the governor of the city. I sent Moung Ing to ascertain the situation of your brother. my dear brother. by those iron-hearted jailers. or we will pull you out. He told me it was not in his power to release them from prison or irons. and whose countenance at the first glance presented the most perfect assemblage of all the evil passions attached to human nature. After much debate. but seemed resolved to annoy me as much as possible. the missionaries. all conspired to make it by far the most distressing night I had ever passed. and all the white foreigners. You may well imagine. for my admittance into prison. was entirely at his disposal-that our future comfort must depend on my liberality in regard to presents-and that these must be made in a private way and unknown to any officer in the government! 'What must I do. or they would break the house down. promising to relieve the teachers from their most painful situation. Finding me resolved in disregarding their orders. and he immediately sent orders to the guards. and fastened to a long pole. though nature was almost exhausted. as they were not in my possession. The note was returned with this message-She 'did not understand it'-which was a polite refusal to interfere. but the sensations. He hesitated for some time. 'Depart. and had nothing to do with the war. requesting her to use her influence for the release of the teachers. who could not endure to see us enjoy the poor consolation of meeting in that miserable place. He soon returned. there was his head officer. and prevented my obtaining any quiet sleep. for fear I should make my escape. but before we could make any arrangement. but fearing to lose the sight of so much money. together with the other foreigners. I begged and entreated the magistrate to allow me to go to some member of government to state my case. and confined them in the stocks in a very painful position. to prevent their moving! The point of my anguish now was that I was a prisoner myself. that myself. and endeavored to convince me. were confined in the death prison. who had paid an equal sum. but that he could make their situation more comfortable. "The next morning. and many severe threatenings. "I then procured an order from the governor. and asked me what I wanted.' The same evening. my entire uncertainty of the fate of Mr. they again. without threatening as they did the night before. who were Americans. with three pairs of iron fetters each. The day dragged heavily away. took me aside. But the idea of your brother being stretched on the bare floor in irons and confinement. harshly repeated. to allow me to visit him with a present. and begged he would not insist on the other articles. Judson. produced by meeting your brother in that wretched. Judson. I was ordered to depart. to permit my going into town. and the dreadful carousings and almost diabolical language of the guard. (about a hundred dollars. but dared not on account of the queen. our house being two miles from the prison-I could not easily return. and confined in an open shed in the prison . but called the head man to the window. My unprotected. that sleep was a stranger to my eyes.' I had taken money with me in the morning. haunted my mind like a spectre. if still living. with the intelligence that Mr. The governor received me pleasantly. and barred the doors. and particularly that of the teachers. and could make no efforts for the release of the missionaries. and promised to make them all a present in the morning. desolate state. The guard instantly ordered me to unbar the doors and come out. I obstinately refused to obey. with whom I must consult. I could not endure this. they consented. but he said he did not dare to consent. with whom I had been intimate. The officer. and two pieces of handkerchiefs. 'to obtain a mitigation of the present sufferings of the two teachers?' 'Pay to me. I retired to an inner room with my four little Burman girls. so that they allowed me to remain inside of my room.) two pieces of fine cloth.' said he. "On the third day. as well as the prisoners. though I afterwards ascertained that she had an anxious desire to assist us. they took the two Bengalee servants. and peace and composure to my mind."It was now dark. Mr. I will not attempt to describe. who proved to be one of the city writers.' said I. I stated to him the situation of the foreigners. In vain I pleaded the order of the governor for my admittance. I next wrote a note to one of the king's sisters. were taken out of the common prison. This I offered to the writer. and another dreadful night was before me.

But this is all the silver you have?' I could not tell a falsehood: 'The house is in your possession. "The following morning. she said. which was the cause of my making the inquiry. She was lolling on her carpet as I entered. "'Where is your silver. partly by artifice. came to take possession of all we had. gave them chairs to sit on. who was in future our steady friend. 'This money.' said one of them. opened the present I had brought. during our long imprisonment. 'and perhaps he will restore it. 'I am not the king. and is it right they should be treated thus?' 'The king does as he pleases. I felt obliged for this information. and jewels?' said the royal treasurer. I should not have ventured on such a step.' replied I. alone entered the house. innocent of crime. and came to Ava in obedience to the king's command. Chief Woon. I treated them civilly. 'I will present your petition. But the next day Mr. unprotected female-what would you do?' With a slight degree of feeling. with whom should I deposit silver?' "They next ordered my trunk and drawers to be examined. presents from my beloved brother. 'Your case is not singular. (the name of a priest's dwelling) and for our support while teaching the religion of Christ. was presented to the officers. The secretary only was allowed to accompany me in this search. by secreting as many little articles as possible. Prince Tharyawadees.' said I. and sent here for the purpose of building a kyoung.' I returned to the house. on their return. "My next object was to get a petition presented to the queen. But my mind in a dreadful state of agitation. Here I was allowed to send them food. and to us they were of unspeakable value. with her attendants around her. and the silver weighed. all the foreigners are treated alike. Judson was in prison. And had it been possible to procure money from any other quarter. and obtain their release. and partly through their ignorance. and took a list only. the royal treasurer. . I sought to present it through the medium of her brother's wife. what can I do?' 'You can state their case to the queen. 'search for yourselves.' 'But it is singular. by the disciples of Christ. in irons. as I knew. which were of inestimable value. if the war should be protracted. as it would be disgraceful to take clothes partly worn into the possession of his majesty. and cause my being thrown into prison. but no person being admitted into the palace.inclosure. I begged they would not take our wearing apparel. lest it should be discovered. Everything nice or curious. They assented. thrown into prison. attended by forty or fifty followers. They saw I was deeply affected. by saying that it was painful for them to take possession of property not their own. have nothing to do with war or politics. together with considerable silver. The officers.' said I. and coolly replied. medicines. stated our distresses and our wrongs. 'I have no gold or jewels. for their decision. we should be in a state of starvation without it. but was not permitted to enter again for several days. come again to-morrow. gold. 'What do you want?' but in a bold. tea and sweetmeats for their refreshment. politely informed me.' I replied. yet respectful manner. with considerable hope. Is it suitable that you should take it? (The Burmans are averse to taking what is offered in a religious point of view. and you a solitary. your husband. and justice obliges me to say that they conducted the business of confiscation with more regard to my feelings than I should have thought it possible for Burmese officers to exhibit. earnest. they are ministers of religion. was taken and carried to the palace. She partly raised her head. Gouger's property. they should visit our house on the morrow. and Koung-tone Myoo-tsa. that the speedy release of the missionaries was at hand. and I in distress. and accordingly made preparations to receive them.) 'We will state this circumstance to the king. their attendants were ordered to remain outside. who was in disgrace with his majesty. 'was collected in America. I had visited her in better days. I took a present of considerable value. The three officers. 'Place yourself in my situation-were you in America. My little work table and rocking chair. which met hjis view. They left also many articles. 'the teachers are Americans. They have never done any thing to deserve such treatment. which was a sufficient reason for giving me a cold reception. to the amount of fifty thousand dollars. etc. and apologized for what they were about to do. and did the same with the books. and begged her assistance. I waited not for the usual question to a suppliant.' said she. whether it should be taken or retained.' The trunk was produced. I rescued from their grasp. But now times were altered: Mr. and received particular marks of her favor.' 'Have you not deposited silver with some person of your acquaintaince?' 'My acquaintances are all in prison. but here is the key of a trunk which contains the silver-do with it as you please. but they were compelled thus to do by order of the king. with one of the royal secretaries. and mats to sleep on.

the poor fellow who carried the communications was beaten and put in the stocks. consisted in the awful uncertainty of our final fate. I was permitted to make a little bamboo room in the prison inclosures.' This was an allusion to the idea of his being a spy. and in order to be near the prison. My prevailing opinion was that my husband would suffer violent death. "The situation of the prisoners was now distressing beyond description. where Jesus reigns. unless removed from that noisome place. been taken by the jailers. 'and put this property by itself. in five pairs of fetters each. was the coldest part of the year. looked more like the dead than the living. were neither 'few nor small. and where I was sometimes allowed to spend two or three hours. medicines. where he could be much by himself. I felt assured he would not live long. But the point. I was not allowed to enter. to hear what had been the fate of my petition. and this continued but a short time. there are an immense number of books. "Some months after your brother's imprisonment. It so happened that the two months he occupied this place. when he would have suffered much in the open shed he had previously occupied. We attempted to communicate by writing."As soon as they had finished their search and departed. "For two or three months following. by his wife's coolly saying. I was subject to continual harassments. But the consolations of religion. become a slave. who would dare to intercede for me? With a heavy heart I departed. and found I had lost ocnsiderable influence. I sometimes obtained permission to go to the door for five minutes. "After continuing in the inner prison for more than a month. we found nothing in his house. Shall we take them. pillow. I hastened to the queen's brother. in the tyrannic hands of some unfeeling monster. offering him money. or let them remain?' 'Let them remain.' It taught me to look beyond this world. "You. and how much pleasure I have hitherto experienced from retrospect. and the circumstance cost me about ten dollars. can judge from the above circumstances. when. as I thought at once it was only a prelude to greater evils. if he is found innocent. The teachers will not die: let them remain as they are. and his mat. who know my strong attachment to my friends. After the birth of your little niece. partly through my ignorance of police management and partly through the insatiable desire of every petty officer to enrich himself through our misfortunes. for fear of the consequences. "The officers who had taken possession of our property. 'Judson is a true teacher. of which we have only taken a list. to that rest. but her majesty replied. previously gained. my dear brother. happy rest. Here I incessantly begged the governor to give me an order to . alas! all my hopes were dashed. I made daily applications to the governor. the acme of my distresses. but all that I gained was permission for the foreigners to eat their food outside. her father one morning sent me word that he and all the white prisoners were put into the inner prison. and oppression never enters.' said the king. but was harshly refused admittance. presented it to his majesty. saying. as he formerly had been. I removed from our house and put up a small bamboo room in the governor's inclosure. and for the ten days following notwithstanding my daily efforts. There were above a hundred prisoners shut up in one room. I was unable to visit the prison and the governor as before.' My expectations had been so much excited that this sentence was like a thunderbolt to my feelings. your brother was taken with a fever. This was to me a dreadful shock. In addition to this money. which he refused. for it shall be restored to him again. 'I stated your case to the queen. attempted to enter the prison gate. and after being successful for a few days. but what belongs to priests. trunks of wearing apparel. When Maria was nearly two months old. from incessant perspiration and loss of appetite. and languish out a miserable though short existence. To effect this. to communicate the sad tidings to your brother. It was at the commencement of the hot season. The white prisoners. besides two or three days of agony. and that I should. in these trying circumstances. for he was not so forward to hear my petitions when any difficulty occurred. without a breath of air excepting from the cracks in the boards. For the truth at one glance assured me that if the queen refused assistance.. that peaceful. it was discovered. of course. that his little room had been torn down. how intense were my sufferings. when my heart sickened at the wretchedness exhibited. and on my way home. which was nearly opposite the prison gate. etc.

Take care of yourself.' continued he. I obtained a guide from the governor and was conducted directly to the prison-yard. when he would send me in a cart. and concluded the old woman had deceived me. I was very agreeably disappointed. I took two or three trunks of the most valuable articles. all times of the day. together with the dreadful heat and dust. J. and set off for that never to be forgotten place. but for what purpose. he knew not. one of the servants came running. J. But what was my disappointment on my arriving at the courthouse. to allow me to go in and out. about half a mile. and the probability of their future fate. You can do nothing more for your husband. I used to carry Mr. For when I left him to go to my room. but did not wish to tell me. J's food myself. it was with the greatest difficulty that I could persuade the under jailer to open the gate. for they were to be carried to Amarapora. "The day was dreadfully hot. which. then another. instantly removed into a little bamboo hovel. to administer medicines