Repository on Maternal Child Health

Catalogue of Available Resources
August 2011

National Child Health Resource Centre (NCHRC)
National Institute of Health and Family Wefare (NIHFW) [Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document. Baba Gang Nath Marg, Munirka, New Delhi-110067pany name] Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document.]

Content
Title Introduction Key Features Topics and Themes AV Gallery Topics
Maternal Health Newborn Child Health Immunization Nutrition Diseases General Information 1 – 23 24 – 66 67 – 91 92 – 115 116 – 136 137 – 160

Page i ii iii – v vi

Themes

Policy, Program, Guidelines Technical Publications Training Scientific Article Statistical Information

Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION

Efficient management of ‘health information’ is imperative for informed decision making and attaining effective outcomes of programs. It is also one of the essential blocks for strengthening health systems of a country. Under the mandate of MDG 4 and 5 to reduce child mortality and maternal mortality, several initiatives have been undertaken by the Government and non government organizations to improve the status of Maternal Child Health in India, including the most recent National Rural Health Mission. This has generated an abundant resource of valuable information; however this information lies scattered or remains within the parent organizations and is often inaccessible to the public and other stakeholders. The Repository on Maternal Child Health is an attempt to mitigate this problem and improve management of maternal child health information.

This Repository is a virtual guide to Child Health and related Maternal Health information relevant to Public Health in India. It is a one-stop access to efficiently search, organize and share latest information. Its advantages include:      Collection and management of Child Health & related Maternal Health information at a single place. Platform for effective sharing and exchange of information. Improved visibility of child health issues. Prevent duplication of efforts (and waste of resources) for similar issues Informed decisions for better coherence between program needs and outcomes.

i

Chapter 2: KEY FEATURES

The Repository on Maternal Child Health is a virtual guide to Child Health and related Maternal Health information relevant to Public Health in India. It is a one-stop access to efficiency search, organize and share latest information. Some of its Key features include:            Free/Open access to all users Child health information focuses on children in the age group 0 to 5 years, that is, the newborn, infant and young child age group Maternal health information focuses on the perinatal period that is, late pregnancy (beyond 28 weeks), labour, delivery, and post-partum period Relevance of information from the public health perspective Updated information with emphasis on resource materials published from the year 2000 onwards Categorization of all information into specific Topics and Themes Abstract, Keywords, Source and Year of Publication for each information/resource material along with photograph of the cover page Access to related documents indexed with the similar keywords by using the ‘link keywords’ Multiple ways to Search Thesaurus developed for a standardized vocabulary of Keywords Access to the full text document/resource material through link to the source website or PDF document (wherever possible) with due acknowledgement to the contributing organization.

ii

Chapter 3: TOPICS AND THEMES

The Repository contains Child Health information and Maternal Health information relevant from public health perspective in India. The Child health information focuses on children in the age group 0 to 5 years, that is, the newborn, infant and young child age group while Maternal health information focuses on the perinatal period that is, late pregnancy (beyond 28 weeks), labour, delivery, and post-partum period. The information in the Repository has been classified into broad TOPICS which are given below:
     

Maternal health Newborn and child health Immunization Nutrition Diseases General Information

Each topic has been further categorized into five (5) specific THEMES as described below: Policies, programs, guidelines This includes all documents showcasing Policies, Guidelines, Programs, Frame-works, Vision Statements and Plans developed by the Government of India and Non government agencies (including WHO, UNICEF, other International donor organizations). This theme would especially be useful for those involved in strategic planning and policy development. This theme has been indicated in the catalogue by the following color:
iii

Technical publications This theme is a broad segment comprising of Reports (of programs, research studies, events, monitoring & evaluations), Advocacy, Field experiences, Innovations, Case studies, Process documents, and important Government Circulars and Orders. The resources under this category would adhere to needs of a gamut of child health and public health professionals for program/project development and management, research and advocacy. This theme has been indicated in the catalogue by the following color:

Trainings This section comprises various resource materials developed to enhance the capacity of health personnel working across different levels of health care (including grass root level workers). It contains training materials like Facilitator’s Guide, Manuals, Handbooks, Workbooks, Flipcharts, Modules, etc. and would be especially helpful to those working at district level and below. This theme has been indicated in the catalogue by the following color:

Scientific articles This theme contains primary and secondary research articles (with emphasis on systematic reviews) relevant to the topics in Indian settings and published in peer reviewed journals. Letters, Personal opinions and Editorials have not been included. This theme would usually interest policy makers/analysts and those involved in academic and research activities. This theme has been indicated in the catalogue by the following color:
iv

Statistical information This section provides information derived from surveys, modeling techniques, evaluation studies, etc conducted by the national and international agencies on the child health and related maternal health indicators. This theme would be useful to a wide range of personnel including those involved in research, policy making, and monitoring evaluation activities. This theme has been indicated in the catalogue by the following color:

v

Chapter 4: AV Gallery

This gallery comprises of Audio-Visual aids (IEC/BCC materials), Printed material (Brochures, Leaflets, Posters), and Media news developed to inform and educate the health care beneficiaries including the communities, families and individuals. This section would be beneficial for those involved in health promotion activities. It is divided into the following two categories: Posters       Maternal Health Newborn Child Health Immunization Nutrition Diseases General Information

Flipcharts       Maternal Health Newborn Child Health Immunization Nutrition Diseases General Information

vi

REPOSITORY ON MATERNAL CHILD HEALTH
TOPIC: MATERNAL HEALTH
Themes Policy, Program, Guidelines Titles Basic Delivery Kit Guide Abstract Prepared by PATH in 2001, this guide provides information on the design, development, distribution and promotion of the single-use, disposable delivery kit containing essential components for a clean delivery at home by the birth attendants and for women delivering alone. Government Guidelines -Guidelines for Antenatal Care and Skilled Attendance at Birth by ANMs/LHVs/SNs (NEW) Revised and updated by the MOHFW in the year 2010 (initial publication in 2005), this guideline provides comprehensive, evidence-based information to reorient the Auxiliary Nurse Midwives (ANMs), Staff Nurses (SNs), and Lady Health Visitors (LHVs) to provide skilled care during pregnancy and childbirth. The chief objective is to strengthen and operationalize the 24X7 PHCs and designated FRUs in handling Basic and Comprehensive Obstetric Care including Care at Birth. Government Guidelines -Guidelines for Operationalising First Referral Units Government Guidelines -Guidelines for Operationalising a Primary 1 This guideline has been developed by the Maternal Health Division MoHFW, to help the states to plan for and operationalise First Referral Units (FRUs) at the district level for providing Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care under the RCH II Program. This guideline has been developed by the Maternal Health Division MoHFW, to help the states to plan for and operationalise at least 50% of Primary Health Centres as MoHFW 2005 MoHFW 2004 MoHFW 2010 PATH 2001 Organization Year

Health Centre for providing 24-hour Delivery and Newborn Care under RCH-II Government Guidelines -Guidelines for Operationalizating SBA Training in RCH II

24-hour functional units for providing round the clock delivery services and newborn care under the RCH II program.

This guideline has been developed by the Maternal Health Division of MOHFW in 2007 for program managers and in-charges of training institutes at district and state level to standardize planning of SBA training, ensure its effective management, and to help these personnel identify their specific roles and responsibilities in conducting this training. MoHFW 2007

Government Guidelines -Guidelines for Pregnancy Care and Management of Common Obstetric Complications by Medical Officers Government Guidelines -Operational Guidelines on Maternal and Newborn Health (NEW)

Developed by the MOHFW in 2005, this evidence based guideline provides guidance to the medical officers working at the level of PHCs and CHCs regarding pregnancy care and management of common obstetric complications as mandated under RCHII. Developed by the NHSRC of MoHFW in 2010, these guidelines specify the package of maternal and child health services to be provided at each level of health facility along with their quality parameters, proposes a supervisory structure and an external system of assessment to ensure the delivery of these services, and describes the institutional linkages and community support required to enable the states and districts develop outcome based plans for reducing maternal and newborn mortality. NHSRC, MoHFW 2010 MoHFW 2005

Guidelines on 8 Key Evidence Based Practices During

Prepared by the Government of Rajasthan in coordination with ARTH, UNICEF AND UNFPA, this document examines the research evidence on 8 key practices during 2

Labour

labor and delivery care, and provides evidence based recommendations on interventions required to support processes of normal birth

Operational guidelines for Yashoda/Mamta: An enabling intervention for quality maternal and newborn care at the facility level

Developed by NIPI in 2010, this guideline provides a standardized framework to facilitate the expansion of the Yashoda/Mamta intervention in the 4 states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Rajasthan. Yashoda/Mamta is a non-medical, voluntary support worker placed at hospitals with high delivery load to create a congenial environment for the mother and the newborn in the facility, and to counsel the mother about good newborn care practices at home NIPI 2010

Pregnancy, Childbirth, Postpartum and Newborn care: A Guide for Essential Practice

Developed by the WHO in 2003, this manual provides evidence-based guidance to health care professionals to enable them provide high quality routine and emergency care during pregnancy, delivery and in the postpartum period, and outlines the key preventive measures required for reducing the incidence of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality WHO 2003

Standards for Maternal and Neonatal Care

A set of user-friendly leaflets developed as part of the WHO’s Integrated Management of Pregnancy and Childbirth Care (IMPAC) package to improve the health and survival of women and their newborn babies during pregnancy, childbirth and the postnatal period. Standards for health facilities have been prescribed to enable provision of minimum essential care for all mothers and newborns WHO 2006

Working with Individuals, Families and Communities to Improve Maternal and Newborn Health

This WHO document published in 2003 gives a framework for the interventions at the level of individuals, families and communities to improve and increase their control over maternal and newborn health, as well as to increase the access and utilization of quality health services, particularly those provided by the skilled 3 WHO 2003

attendants Technical Publication Accelerating Progress Towards Achieving Maternal and Child Health Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 in South-East Asia A report of the WHO SEARO sponsored high-level consultation of member countries of South East Asia region held in 2008 at Ahmedabad. The objective of the meeting was to review progress and identify barriers to achieving MDGs 4 & 5, share information on evidence-based best practices and interventions, and agree on multi-sectoral framework for accelerating and sustaining the achievement of MDGs 4&5 Activities by State Health Societies in Orissa, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan under Norway India Partnership Initiative (NIPI): Program Update 2009 Baseline Survey on Child and Related Maternal Health Care: Bihar (NIPI Report) This program update of 2009 describes briefly the various activities undertaken by the four State Health Societies of Orissa, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan under the NIPI program. The focus of NIPI program is on improving newborn and child health in the five NRHM states which contribute to 60% of the total child mortality Findings from the baseline survey conducted in 2008-09 in the three districts of Bihar where the Norway India Partnership Initiative (NIPI) is working to reduce infant mortality and to improve maternal health. The survey was conducted to evaluate the status of child and related maternal health in these districts, identify gaps in the existing service delivery mechanism, assess the needs and opportunities, and develop benchmark indicators for project implementation Baseline Survey on Child and Related Maternal Health Care: Madhya Pradesh (NIPI Report) Findings from the baseline survey conducted in 2008-09 in the three districts of Madhya Pradesh where the Norway India Partnership Initiative (NIPI) is working to reduce infant mortality and to improve maternal health. The survey was conducted to evaluate the status of child and related maternal health in these districts, identify 4 NIPI 2009 NIPI 2009 NIPI 2009 WHO 2008

gaps in the existing service delivery mechanism, assess the needs and opportunities, and develop benchmark indicators for project implementation

Baseline Survey on Child and Related Maternal Health Care: Orissa (NIPI Report)

Findings from the baseline survey conducted in 2008-09 in the three districts of Orissa where the Norway India Partnership Initiative (NIPI) is working to reduce infant mortality and to improve maternal health. The survey was conducted to evaluate the status of child and related maternal health in these districts, identify gaps in the existing service delivery mechanism, assess the needs and opportunities, and develop benchmark indicators for project implementation NIPI 2009

Baseline Survey on Child and Related Maternal Health Care: Rajasthan (NIPI Report)

Findings from the baseline survey conducted in 2008-09 in the three districts of Rajasthan where the Norway India Partnership Initiative (NIPI) is working to reduce infant mortality and to improve maternal health. The survey was conducted to evaluate the status of child and related maternal health in these districts, identify gaps in the existing service delivery mechanism, assess the needs and opportunities, and develop benchmark indicators for project implementation NIPI 2009

Baseline survey on child and related maternal health care: Consolidated report of 4 NIPI States

Consolidated report of the baseline survey conducted in 2008-09 in the four states of Orissa, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan where the Norway India Partnership Initiative (NIPI) is working to reduce infant mortality and to improve maternal health. The survey was conducted to evaluate the status of child and related maternal health, identify gaps in the existing service delivery mechanism, assess the needs and opportunities, and develop benchmark indicators for project implementation NIPI 2009

5

Beyond Survival: Integrated Delivery Care Practices for Long-term Maternal and Infant Nutrition, Health and Development Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness: A Matrix of Shared Responsibilities

This document by WHO PAHO focuses on 3 key practices for continuum of maternal newborn care at the community level – delayed cord clamping, skin-to-skin contact, and early initiation of exclusive breastfeeding. It reviews the existing evidence on the nutritional and health benefits of these interventions followed by discussion on the feasibility of their implementation This document is a programmatic cum advocacy tool in 2001 outlining the plans and actions that can be implemented at various levels (policy maker, facility, provider, community, family, woman) to prevent delays and help ensure the safety and wellbeing of the mother and her newborn throughout pregnancy, labor, childbirth, and the postpartum period

Pan American Health Organization 2009

USAID

2001

Community Level Interventions to Prevent and Treat Anemia: A Review of Evidence from India

A part of the evidence review series published by VISTAAR project of USAID in 2008 to help make evidence-based decisions regarding Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and Nutrition (MNCHN) interventions. This document outlines the review on community-level interventions for anemia prevention and treatment, summarizes the selected interventions, and shares the recommendations and evidence gaps identified by a technical expert group after analysis of the interventions USAID 2008

Concurrent Assessment of Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) Scheme in Selected States of India, 2008

This report prepared by UNFPA summarizes the results of a survey conducted in 2008 to evaluate awareness and utilization of JSY services by the beneficiaries in the five states (Bihar, MP, Rajasthan, Orissa, and UP), the involvement of ASHAs and mobilization of the pregnant women for institutional deliveries, and the programme and financial management aspects of JSY UNFPA 2008

Concurrent Evaluation of the Reach, Effectiveness and Impact of the Mukhya Mantri

This document presents the top line findings and key recommendations from a study conducted by Indiaclen and PFI in 2009 with support from USAID’s MCH STAR 6 MCHSTAR 2009

Janani Shishu Swasthya Abhiyan (MMJSSA-JSY) in Jharkhand: An Indiaclen and PFI Study Coverage Evaluation Survey 2002 for IPPI, Routine Immunization and Maternal Care: National Report Coverage Evaluation Survey: All India Report 2005

initiative to evaluate the reach, effectiveness and impact of the Mukhya Mantri Janani Shishu Swasthya Abhiyan, which was launched by the Govt. of Jharkhand in 2005

A report prepared by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare in 2002 on the nation-wide survey conducted to evaluate the coverage and people’s response to Intensified Pulse Polio Immunization, Routine Immunization, and different components of Maternal Care This survey conducted by UNICEF in 2005 assesses the coverage, accessibility and availability of routine immunization services and maternal health services (ANC, delivery care, PNC) across all the States and Union Territories of India, and evaluates the availability/use of iodized salt and initiation of breast feeding and colostrum feeding. It also identifies key problems in delivery of these services UNICEF 2005 MoHFW 2002

Coverage Evaluation Survey: All India Report 2006

This survey conducted by UNICEF in 2006 assesses the coverage, accessibility and availability of routine immunization services and maternal health services (ANC, delivery care, PNC) across all the States and Union Territories of India, and evaluates the availability/use of iodized salt and initiation of breast feeding and colostrums feeding. It also identifies key problems in delivery of these services UNICEF 2006

Coverage Evaluation Survey: All India Report 2009

This Survey conducted by UNICEF in 2009 assesses the impact of NRHM strategies on coverage levels of maternal, newborn and child-health services including immunization among women and children. Employing a two-stage sampling procedure, the survey covered all the States and Union Territories of India and was conducted between November 2009 and January 2010 7 UNICEF 2009

Demographic, Programmatic,

Published by Pathfinder International in 2009, this working paper is based on a

and Socioeconomic Correlates study conducted in Matlab (a rural sub-district of Bangladesh) to investigate the of Maternal Mortality in association between maternal mortality and demographic, programmatic and Matlab, Bangladesh socioeconomic factors using longitudinal data on nearly 143,000 pregnancy outcomes collected during the period 1982-2002 Developing Regional Experts in Essential Maternal and Newborn care: The MNH Program Experience This report published by JHPIEGO describes the Maternal and Neonatal Health (MNH) Program initiative to develop groups of regional experts in maternal and newborn health in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, summarizes the lessons learned and recommendations to inform similar initiatives, and presents the selected achievements for improving the quality of healthcare for women and newborns Essential Delivery Care Practices for Maternal and Newborn Health and Nutrition Prepared by USAID and WHO PAHO in 2007, this document advocates for evidencebased, cost-effective, safe and simple practices like active management of third stage of labour, optimal timing of cord clamping, early initiation of breastfeeding and skin-to-skin care contact to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality, and improve newborn and infant survival, health and nutrition Increasing Media Awareness on Maternal and Child Health Issues: Report of a Regional Workshop Report of a regional workshop conducted by WHO SEARO to familiarize media personnel on key issues related to maternal and child health, and to identify the activities that could be done by them to help the cause of maternal and child health within respective member countries Key Elements of Postpartum Care at the Community Level Based on WHO Guidelines This paper developed by the CATALYST consortium on request of USAID, provides information on basic postpartum care for the normal mother and newborn at the community level and is based on the WHO guidelines. It does not give information 8

USAID

2009

JHPIEGO

2004

WHO/USAID

2007

WHO – SEARO

2005

USAID

on the management of complications Making pregnancy safer: the critical role of the skilled attendant A joint statement by the WHO, ICM and FIGO in 2004 advocating for the presence of a skilled attendant for all women along the entire continuum of care during pregnancy, childbirth and the immediate postnatal period in resource-constrained settings. It also defines the skills/abilities required by a skilled attendant, coupled with their education and training needs and the need for an enabling environment Maternal Health in India Developed by USAID’s MCH-STAR initiative, this factsheet summarizes the status of maternal health in India, lists the interventions that work, and advocates actions for improving their status Maternal and Newborn Care Practices among the Urban Poor in Indore, India: Gaps, Reasons and Potential Program Options Based on a study undertaken by the Urban Health Resource Centre (UHRC), this report funded by USAID and printed in 2007 describes the maternal-newborn care practices and care of infants aged 2-4 months (feeding practices, morbidity status, immunization status and nutritional status) in urban slum dwellings of Indore city in Madhya Pradesh under the Urban Health Program run by UHRC. It also identifies various factors facilitating and hindering optimal practices and suggests options for improvement Meeting of development partners: Maternal and newborn health with a focus on country implementation This document describes the proceedings of a meeting organized in 2006 by the WHO and SIDA. The meeting was held to explore better ways of coordinating partner’s efforts, support member countries to implement evidence-based, costeffective interventions and accelerate progress in achieving the MDGs related to maternal and newborn health and survival Monitoring and Evaluation of Maternal and Newborn Health and Services at the 9 Report of a technical consultation organized by the WHO in 2006 to improve processes involved in effective monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of maternal and WHO 2006 WHO 2006 USAID 2007 MCH-STAR WHO 2004

District Level

newborn health at the district level. The meeting focused on sharing of innovative programs/experiences of M&E, analysis of requirements, development of an integrated approach, and drafting recommendations on how to move ahead

Monitoring emergency obstetric care: A handbook

A handbook developed by the WHO in 2009 which summarizes the indicators that can be used to assess, monitor and evaluate the availability, use and quality of Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC) at the programmatic level. It describes each indicator and how it is constructed and used, their acceptable levels (if appropriate), the background of the indicator, data collection, analysis and interpretation, and suggestions for supplementary studies WHO 2009

Operationalizing FRU’s: Paving the way ahead

A brief summary of the achievements, key findings and recommendations of the project undertaken by PHFI and partners to provide technical assistance to the Government of Jharkhand for operationalizing First Referral Units in the state MCH-STAR

Postpartum care of the mother and newborn: a practical guide

This WHO report details the needs of women and their newborn during the postpartum period, the health challenges faced by them during the period, and the response of the health care system to these needs and challenges. It attempts to bring together evidence and the arguments for good practice in this field WHO

Saving Women’s Lives: Clinical and Community Action to Address Postpartum Hemorrhage Saving the lives of children under age 5: State of the World’s Mothers 2007

Published in 2009, this document provides information about an integrated package of Clinical and Community Action Model developed by Pathfinder International to address the full spectrum of clinical and social causes of post-partum hemorrhage morbidity and mortality in low-resource settings This eighth annual report on ‘State of the World’s Mothers’ published by Save the Children in 2007 focuses on deaths of children under the age of 5 years and brings to attention low-cost solutions with greatest potential to save the lives of mother 10 Save the Children 2007 Pathfinder International 2009

and children. It also tracks the progress of different countries on mother-child survival indicators

Shaping policy for Maternal and Newborn health: A compendium of case studies

Published by the JHPIEGO in 2003, this compendium of case studies describes successful approaches taken by the civil society and non-governmental organizations in influencing national policy in maternal and newborn health. Each case study presents a strategy for achieving or influencing policy change, details of the implementation process, and a discussion of results JHPIRGO 2003

Short Programme Review: Child Health Programme in Rajasthan 2010

Report of a 5-day participatory workshop conducted by WHO India and IIHMR Jaipur with support from UNOPS-NIPI in September 2010, to assess the status of child health program in Rajasthan. Based on a package developed at the global level, this initiative known as the Short Program Review-Child Health (SPR-CH), reviews the goals, objectives, interventions and activities of child health program along the continuum of care process, identifies areas requiring strengthening, and recommends actions to decision-makers for improving program effectiveness IIHMR 2010

The Global Campaign for the Health Millennium Development Goals 2010: Putting the Global strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health into action

This report of 2010 by the Global Campaign for the Health Millennium Development Goals provides an update on the efforts being made by countries and institutions in putting the Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health into action. This Global Strategy was launched at a special event during the MDG summit in September 2010 by the Secretary-General of the United Nations USAID 2010

11

The State of the World’s Children 2009: Maternal and Newborn Health

The 2009 annual report by UNICEF focuses on maternal and neonatal health. It analyzes the status, trend and causes of maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity in the world, explores the successful programs and policies for creating a supporting environment and continuum of care across time and location, and advocates strengthening of health systems and partnerships for improving maternal and neonatal health UNICEF 2009

Tracking progress in Maternal, Newborn and Child Survival: The 2008 Report

This report was developed by the ‘Countdown to 2015’ collaboration to track coverage of interventions needed to attain MDGs 4 and 5 (and parts of MDGs 1, 6, and 7) in 68 priority countries of the world bearing the highest burden of maternal and child mortality. It also takes stock of progress in maternal and child survival, identifies gaps in knowledge, and proposes new actions to achieve these MDGs UNICEF 2008

WHO Antenatal care randomized trial: Manual for the implementation of the new model

This manual describes the principles, overview and components of the WHO antenatal care model (with lower number of ANC visits compared to the standard model), the findings of a multi-centre RCT of this model and results from an earlier systematic review. It also provides guidance on how to conduct the four-visit schedule of the new model for the management of pregnant women who do not have evidence of any complication or risk factor WHO 2002

Why are Maternal Mortality Rates Lower in the MCH-FP Area of Matlab, Bangladesh? The Role of Pregnancy Outcomes

Published in 2009, this study by Pathfinder International compares maternal mortality in the Maternal Child Health-Family Planning project (MCH-FP) in Matlab (a rural sub-district of Bangladesh) and government-served Comparison Areas to assess the impact of the project on maternal mortality, and, if so, the extent to which differences between the areas in pregnancy outcomes and their case-fatality rates explain the maternal mortality difference 12 Pathfinder International 2009

Women on the front lines of Health Care: State of the World’s Mothers 2010

The eleventh annual report on the ‘State of the World’s Mothers’ published by Save the Children in 2010 focuses on the critical shortage of health workers and shows how investments in training and deploying female health workers have paid-off in terms of lives saved and illnesses averted. It points to the availability of low-cost, low-tech solutions that could save millions more lives, provided they were more widely available and used Save the Children 2010

Training

Child anaemia training module

A training module for the frontline health workers of Government of UP and Jharkhand developed with assistance from A2Z Micronutrient Project. This module provides basic information about child and maternal anemia in UP/Jharkhand, and builds capacity of these workers to effectively deliver the service components including counseling to the clients and their family members USAID

Counselling for maternal and newborn health: A handbook for building skills

This handbook was developed by the WHO in 2008 to strengthen counselling and communication skills of health care providers and help them to effectively convey to women, families and communities the key issues surrounding pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum and postnatal care WHO 2008

Government Training – Asha Prashikshako ke liye Prashikshak Guide: Bhag 1 (HINDI)

Published by the NHSRC, MoHFW in 2010, these notes in Hindi language are designed for the use of trainers responsible for training ASHA and her facilitators in Modules 6 and 7. The notes have been organized in three parts. This first part reviews the key functions of ASHA and the skills she is expected to gain in the field of maternal and newborn health (Module 6), and child health and nutrition (Part A of Module 7). NHSRC 2010

Government Training –

This manual for a 2-day training course was developed by the MoHFW in 13

NIHFW

2010

Foundation course for reorientation in Basic Emergency (Essential) Obstetric Care: Trainees Manual

collaboration with NIHFW and Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM) in 2010 to complement the ongoing SBA training programme. Aimed at improving and updating existing knowledge and skills of service providers (Medical Officers, Staff nurses, ANMs) in providing Basic Essential Obstetric Care, the course is divided into nine modules to help the health care provider understand the complications of child birth and their possible solutions

Government Training – Notes for ASHA Trainers: Part 1

Published by the NHSRC, MoHFW in 2010, these notes are designed for the use of trainers responsible for training ASHA and her facilitators in Modules 6 and 7. The notes have been organized in three parts. This first part reviews the key functions of ASHA and the skills she is expected to gain in the field of maternal and newborn health (Module 6), and child health and nutrition (Part A of Module 7). NHSRC 2010

Government Training-- A handbook for Auxiliary Nurse Midwives, Lady Health Visitors and Staff Nurses (NEW) Government Training-- Life saving anesthetic skills for Emergency Obstetric Care: Log book for trainees

Revised and updated by the MOHFW in the year 2010 (initial publication in 2005), this handbook for Auxiliary Nurse Midwives (ANMs), Lady Health Visitors (LHVs) and Staff Nurses (SNs) contains information on the check-lists and case studies on the skills that the Skilled Birth Attendant (SBA) is expected to master to provide quality care during pregnancy and child birth Developed by the MOHFW and AIIMS, this logbook is part of a training to equip the MBBS doctors with necessary skills and competencies to manage cases requiring life saving emergency obstetric care at the FRUs through a short course. It would also assist the trainers in assessing performance of participants and identifying their deficiencies to improve them during the training period MoHFW MoHFW 2010

Government Training-Trainer's Guide for

Revised and updated by the MOHFW in the year 2010 (initial publication in 2005), this guide is designed to support systematic and methodological training of 14 MoHFW 2010

Conducting Training of Auxiliary Nurse Midwives, Lady Health Visitors and Staff Nurses (NEW) Infection prevention practices in Emergency Obstetric Care

Auxiliary Nurse Midwives (ANMs), Lady Health Visitors (LHVs) and Staff Nurses (SNs) in provision of skilled care during pregnancy and child birth. It provides instructions for the trainer on how to plan and operationalize the health facility for conducting the SBA training, how to conduct each session and use appropriate teaching aids This booklet by Engender Health describes the aseptic practices recommended in specific Emergency Obstetric Care procedures and provides information on options and acceptable modifications to routine practice during emergency Engender Health 2003

Maternal anemia training module

A training module for the frontline health workers of Government of Jharkhand developed with assistance from A2Z Micronutrient Project. The aim of this one day training is to develop the capacity of front line workers in Jharkhand to effectively deliver services for the control of maternal anemia A2Z, USAID Micronutrien t Project

Training Curriculum for Traditional Birth Attendants

This document developed by RACHNA and USAID provides guidance to the trainers about the preparation, curriculum and the activities required during the training of Traditional Birth Attendants on improving maternal and newborn health RACHNA and USAID 2002

Scientific Articles

A study for assessing birth preparedness and complication readiness intervention in Rewa District of Madhya Pradesh

A study conducted by the Department of Community Medicine, S.S Medical College, Madhya Pradesh in 2008-09 with support from NIHFW to assess the status of birth preparedness and complication readiness interventions in the Rewa district of MP. Using cluster sampling technique, the survey evaluated the availability of resources, the knowledge and skills of health providers, and awareness and knowledge of pregnant women and families regarding birth preparedness NIHFW 2009

A systematic review of inequalities in the use of maternal health care in developing countries:

A systematic review published in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization in 2007 to assess the extent of variation in the use of key maternal health care interventions in developing countries according to women’s place of residence and 15 WHO 2007

examining the scale of the problem and the importance of context Alternative strategies to reduce maternal mortality in India: a cost-effectiveness analysis (NEW)

her socio-economic status. It further analyses these variations depending upon the strength of evidence and investigates their contextual circumstances Published in PLoS Medicine in 2010, this article estimates the health and economic outcomes of various strategies to reduce maternal mortality in India. Using computer-based modeling that simulates women through pregnancy and child birth, the researchers estimated the effect of various strategies (family planning, safe abortion, access to obstetric care, etc) on clinical outcomes (pregnancies, deliveries, live births, etc), costs and cost-effectiveness in India BIOMED PLoS Medicine 2010

BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth Stillbirth Series (Part 4): Reducing stillbirths: screening and monitoring during pregnancy and labour BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth Stillbirth Series (Part 5): Reducing stillbirths: interventions during labour

This is the fourth article of the BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth Stillbirth Series 2009. This systematic review analyzes the available published evidence for the impact of 14 screening and monitoring interventions in pregnancy on stillbirth, including identification and management of high-risk pregnancies, advanced monitoring techniques, and monitoring of labour This fifth article of the BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth Stillbirth Series 2009 systematically reviews evidence for eight interventions delivered during childbirth. These interventions include care primarily provided at secondary and tertiary level large teaching/research hospitals with surgical capacity, that are of potential benefit for perinatal health and prevention of stillbirths Journal BMC Pregnancy & Child Birth Journal BMC Pregnancy & Child Birth

2009

2009

BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth Stillbirth Series 2009 (Part 1): 3.2 million stillbirths: epidemiology and overview of the evidence review

This first article of the BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth Stillbirth Series 2009 outlines issues in the availability and quality of data related to stillbirths, and the global epidemiology of stillbirths. It further describes the methodology and framework used for the subsequent systematic reviews of interventions and strategies to prevent stillbirths 16 Journal BMC Pregnancy & Child Birth

2009

BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth Stillbirth Series 2009 (Part 2): Reducing stillbirths: behavioural and nutritional interventions before and during pregnancy

This second article of the BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth Stillbirth Series 2009 systematically reviews evidence for non-clinical interventions (behavioural and nutritional interventions) with a biologically plausible impact on stillbirth incidence that can be delivered via reproductive health or ANC services before or during pregnancy. The review focuses on interventions targeting socially mediated risk factors for stillbirth and which can be delivered in low and middle income countries at the community level Journal BMC Pregnancy & Child Birth

2009

BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth Stillbirth Series 2009 (Part 3): Reducing stillbirths: prevention and management of medical disorders and infections during pregnancy BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth Stillbirth Series 2009 (Part 6): Delivering interventions to reduce the global burden of stillbirths: improving service supply and community demand Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program in Rajasthan

This third article of the BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth Stillbirth Series 2009 systematically reviews evidence for 16 antenatal interventions to address the known clinical risk factors for stillbirths that are treatable or preventable during antenatal period. The risk factors such as infections, malaria, lack of access to health facilities and poor antenatal care were reviewed. This last article of the BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth Stillbirth Series 2009 systematically reviews evidence for community and health systems approaches to improve uptake and quality of antenatal and intrapartum care for reducing stillbirths. It further synthesizes programme and policy recommendations for how best to deliver evidence-based interventions at the community and the facility levels, across the continuum of care. A community-based cross-sectional survey conducted in 2004 in a rural area of Rajasthan as a field exercise by the participants of a Field Epidemiology Training Program to estimate the immunization coverage under the Universal Immunization Program and the reasons for their failure, and to evaluate the status of antenatal care and delivery practices including immunization coverage of Tetanus toxoid. 17 Indian Journal of Pediatrics Journal BMC Pregnancy & Child Birth Journal BMC Pregnancy & Child Birth

2009

2009

2006

Community-based Interventions for Improving Perinatal and Neonatal Health Outcomes in Developing Countries: A Review of the Evidence

Published in 2005, this systematic review of community-based antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal trials (both RCTs and quazi-randomized trials) aims to identify interventions with sufficient evidence of success for inclusion in community-based neonatal care programs in developing countries, to identify gaps in knowledge, and to suggest priority areas for future research and program learning. Indian Journal of Pediatrics

2005

Comparison of domiciliary and institutional delivery care practices in rural Rajasthan, India

A retrospective cross-sectional study published in 2009 to assess key childbirth practices, compare the roles of care providers attending domiciliary and institutional deliveries, and to estimate care provider-preferences and costs incurred by families seeking maternal and newborn care in rural Rajasthan, India. Journal of Health Population and Nutrition 2009

Direct cost of maternity-care services in south Delhi: a community survey (NEW)

Published in the Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition in 2009, this article documents the findings of a community survey conducted in Delhi to estimate the direct maternity care expenses for women who recently delivered in southern part of the city, and explore its socio-demographic associations. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition 2009

Emergency Obstetric Care and Referral: Experience of Two Midwife-led Health Centres in Rural Rajasthan, India Lancet Maternal Survival Series 2006 (Part 1) Maternal mortality: who, when, where, and why

This article documents the experience of two Primary Health Centers from the interior rural areas of Rajasthan where trained nurse-midwives are providing skilled maternal and newborn care round the clock, and its result in terms of maternal and neonatal deaths. This first article of the Lancet Maternal Survival Series 2006 provides systematic global estimate of the burden, geographical distribution, timing and major causes of maternal deaths occurring worldwide, along with the factors responsible for inequalities in the risk of maternal deaths. 18 LANCET 2006 ARTH 2009

Lancet Maternal Survival Series 2006 (Part 2) Strategies for Reducing Maternal Mortality: Getting on with What Works

The second article of the Lancet Maternal Survival Series 2006 describes the research-informed strategic choices available for reducing maternal mortality, advocates the primary care/health centre intrapartum-care strategy backed up by access to referral-level facilities as the best bet to bring down high maternal mortality, and discusses the delays and priority issues for safe motherhood programming. LANCET 2006

Lancet Maternal Survival Series 2006 (Part 3) - Going to Scale with Professional Skilled Care

The third article of the Lancet Maternal Survival Series 2006 describes the obstacles/gaps to the expansion of quality maternal care, the importance of training, deployment and retention of health workers for improving coverage of care, and advocates teams of providers as an efficient option for scaling up coverage of maternal care. LANCET 2006

Lancet Maternal Survival Series 2006 (Part 4) Mobilizing Financial Resources for Maternal Health

This fourth article of the Lancet Maternal Survival Series 2006 explains the case for investment in maternal health, considers ways to channelize financial resources for maternal health within countries, and examines the limitations and successes of financial mechanisms and alternative methods in improving quality of care and ensuring access to the poor. LANCET 2006

Maternal Healthcare Financing: Gujarat’s Chiranjeevi Scheme and its Beneficiaries

Chiranjeevi Scheme is a public-private partnership developed by the state of Gujarat to provide institutional delivery, specifically emergency obstetric care for the poor. This case study explores the targeting of the scheme, its coverage, socio economic profile of the beneficiaries, and to assess financial protec¬tion offered by the scheme in one of the initial pilot districts. 19 Journal of Health Population and Nutrition

2009

Maternal health situation in India: a case study

This case study published in 2009 evaluates the status of maternal health in India including the national maternal health programs, trends in maternal mortality, the healthcare-delivery system at different levels, and the recent innovative strategies. It also identifies reasons for limited success and suggests measures to rectify them.

Journal of Health Population and Nutrition - Vol. 27, No. 2

2009

National estimates for maternal mortality: an analysis based on the WHO systematic review of maternal mortality and morbidity

Published in 2005 in the journal BMC Public Health, this article analyzes the nationally representative estimates of maternal mortality across the globe derived from a systematic review conducted earlier by the WHO (to provide standardized data on incidence/prevalence of maternal morbidity and mortality), and evaluates the association between study-specific and country-specific variables with the existing maternal mortality estimates using regression modeling. BMC Public Health 2005

Pregnancy-related Deaths in Rural Rajasthan, India: Exploring Causes, Context, and Care-seeking Through Verbal Autopsy The effect of maternal– newborn ill-health on households: Impact on economic growth of investing in maternal–newborn health (Part 3)

Published in 2009, this verbal autopsy study identifies the major causes of death among women of reproductive age group in rural Rajasthan, describes their careseeking patterns, and assesses the influence of social, economic and gender factors on the care-seeking behaviour. A series of papers developed through a joint effort of three Geneva based WHO departments in 2006 to evaluate the actual impact and costs of maternal and newborn ill-health and death at the individual, familial and societal level, and their impact on poverty. This particular paper provides a systematic review of the evidence of the impact on economic growth of investments in maternal-newborn health.

Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition - Vol. 27, No. 2

2009

WHO

2006

The effect of maternal– newborn ill-health on

A series of papers developed through a joint effort of three Geneva based WHO 20

WHO

2006

households: economic vulnerability and social implications (Part 1)

departments in 2006 to evaluate the actual impact and costs of maternal and newborn ill-health and death at the individual, familial and societal level, and their impact on poverty. This particular paper reviews evidence base on economic vulnerability and social implications in relation to maternal-newborn ill health, and highlights major gaps in this evidence base.

The effect of maternal– newborn ill-health on households: the costs of maternal newborn illness and mortality (Part 2)

A series of papers developed through a joint effort of three Geneva based WHO departments in 2006 to evaluate the actual impact and costs of maternal and newborn ill-health and death at the individual, familial and societal level, and their impact on poverty. This particular paper provides a systematic review of the estimation of the cost of illness related to maternal–newborn ill-health. WHO 2006

Statistical Publication

Antenatal care in developing countries. Promises, achievements and missed opportunities: An analysis of trends, levels and differentials Baseline Survey on Child and Related Maternal Health Care: Bihar (NIPI Report)

Published in 2003, this paper prepared by WHO and UNICEF provides a detailed report of the trends in antenatal care in the developing countries during the period 1990-2000, with analysis of their achievements and missed opportunities. The data was usually obtained from household surveys and does not give information on the content and quality of services. Findings from the baseline survey conducted in 2008-09 in the three districts of Bihar where the Norway India Partnership Initiative (NIPI) is working to reduce infant mortality and to improve maternal health. The survey was conducted to evaluate the status of child and related maternal health in these districts, identify gaps in the existing service delivery mechanism, assess the needs and opportunities, and develop benchmark indicators for project implementation. 21 2009 WHO 2003

Baseline Survey on Child and Related Maternal Health Care: Madhya Pradesh (NIPI Report)

Findings from the baseline survey conducted in 2008-09 in the three districts of Madhya Pradesh where the Norway India Partnership Initiative (NIPI) is working to reduce infant mortality and to improve maternal health. The survey was conducted to evaluate the status of child and related maternal health in these districts, identify gaps in the existing service delivery mechanism, assess the needs and opportunities, and develop benchmark indicators for project implementation. 2009

Baseline Survey on Child and Related Maternal Health Care: Orissa (NIPI Report)

Findings from the baseline survey conducted in 2008-09 in the three districts of Orissa where the Norway India Partnership Initiative (NIPI) is working to reduce infant mortality and to improve maternal health. The survey was conducted to evaluate the status of child and related maternal health in these districts, identify gaps in the existing service delivery mechanism, assess the needs and opportunities, and develop benchmark indicators for project implementation. 2009

Baseline Survey on Child and Related Maternal Health Care: Rajasthan (NIPI Report)

Findings from the baseline survey conducted in 2008-09 in the three districts of Rajasthan where the Norway India Partnership Initiative (NIPI) is working to reduce infant mortality and to improve maternal health. The survey was conducted to evaluate the status of child and related maternal health in these districts, identify gaps in the existing service delivery mechanism, assess the needs and opportunities, and develop benchmark indicators for project implementation. 2009

Baseline survey on child and related maternal health care: Consolidated report (NIPI Report)

Consolidated report of the baseline survey conducted in 2008-09 in the four states of Orissa, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan where the Norway India Partnership Initiative (NIPI) is working to reduce infant mortality and to improve maternal health. The survey was conducted to evaluate the status of child and related maternal health, identify gaps in the existing service delivery mechanism, 22 2009

assess the needs and opportunities, and develop benchmark indicators for project implementation. Coverage Evaluation Survey: All India Report 2005 This survey conducted by UNICEF in 2005 assesses the coverage, accessibility and availability of routine immunization services and maternal health services (ANC, delivery care, PNC) across all the States and Union Territories of India, and evaluates the availability/use of iodized salt and initiation of breast feeding and colostrum feeding. It also identifies key problems in delivery of these services. Coverage Evaluation Survey: All India Report 2006 This survey conducted by UNICEF in 2006 assesses the coverage, accessibility and availability of routine immunization services and maternal health services (ANC, delivery care, PNC) across all the States and Union Territories of India, and evaluates the availability/use of iodized salt and initiation of breast feeding and colostrums feeding. It also identifies key problems in delivery of these services. Fact sheet All States This factsheet developed by NHSRC compares state-wise data on vital indicators and other indicators related to Child Health, Maternal Health, Family Planning and TB. The comparative data has been derived from NFHS III, SRS 2005 & 2007, SRS Bulletins and from Census 2001. Tracking progress in Maternal, Newborn and Child Survival: India 2008 report The ‘India Countdown to 2015’ chart of 2008 gives graphical information on the progress of specific interventions for Nutrition, Child Health, Maternal & Newborn Health, Water & Sanitation, Health policies, Health systems and Equity issues, based on the latest data from the country. 2008 NHSRC UNICEF 2006 UNICEF 2005

23

TOPIC: NEWBORN CHILD HEALTH

Themes Policy, Program, Guidelines

Titles Government Guidelines -Guidelines for Antenatal Care and Skilled Attendance at Birth by ANMs/LHVs/SNs (NEW)

Abstract Revised and updated by the MOHFW in the year 2010 (initial publication in 2005), this guideline provides comprehensive, evidence-based information to reorient the Auxiliary Nurse Midwives (ANMs), Staff Nurses (SNs), and Lady Health Visitors (LHVs) to provide skilled care during pregnancy and childbirth. The chief objective is to strengthen and operationalize the 24X7 PHCs and designated FRUs in handling Basic and Comprehensive Obstetric Care including Care at Birth.

Organization

Year

MoHFW

2010

Government Guidelines -Guidelines for Operationalizating SBA Training in RCH II

This guideline has been developed by the Maternal Health Division of MOHFW in 2007 for program managers and in-charges of training institutes at district and state level to standardize planning of SBA training, ensure its effective management, and to help these personnel identify their specific roles and responsibilities in conducting this training. MoHFW 2007

Government Guidelines -Operational Guidelines on Maternal and Newborn Health (NEW)

Developed by the NHSRC of MoHFW in 2010, these guidelines specify the package of maternal and child health services to be provided at each level of health facility along with their quality parameters, proposes a supervisory structure and an external system of assessment to ensure the delivery of these services, and describes the institutional linkages and community support required to enable the states and districts develop outcome based plans for reducing maternal and newborn mortality. 24 NHSRC, MoHFW 2010

Guidelines on 8 key evidence based practices during labour

Prepared by the Government of Rajasthan in coordination with ARTH, UNICEF AND UNFPA, this document examines the research evidence on 8 key practices during labor and delivery care, and provides evidence based recommendations on interventions required to support processes of normal birth.

Integrated health facility assessment manual: Using local planning to improve the quality of child care at health facilities Kangaroo Mother Care: A Practical Guide

Developed by USAID under its global project BASICS for child survival, this manual outlines the key steps for planning and conducting an integrated assessment at the outpatient health facilities in developing countries. It is designed to be a local-level planning tool for primary health care programs planning to integrate child health services. This document developed by the WHO in 2003 describes the method of Kangaroo Mother Care for the care of stable low-birth-weight and preterm infants. It provides guidance to the health professionals and decision makers on how to organize services at the referral level, and on what is needed to provide effective kangaroo mother care. Available at NCHRC: CH0122 Available at NCHRC: CH0122 2003 USAID

Kangaroo Mother Care: An Alternative to Conventional Care

This protocol developed by AIIMS in 2008 provides an overview of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC), its components, clinical benefits and easy application for care of low birth weight babies in different settings. It further details the process of initiation of KMC and explains the procedure for giving KMC appropriately.

AIIMS (WHO Collaborating Centre for Newborn care)

2008

Kangaroo Mother Care: Clinical practice guidelines

Published by the KMC India Network in 2004 with support from Save the Children and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, this clinical practice guideline provides information on the components and benefits of Kangaroo Mother Care, the eligibility criteria and preparation before starting the procedure, and the various 25 WHO 2004

activities to be performed for the procedure and during follow-up. Newborn Health Policy and Planning Framework: Overview for Policy Makers (Part I) Developed by the WHO in 2005, this framework is to provide assistance to countries with a high burden of neonatal mortality and morbidity in developing strategies for improving newborn health that are integrated with the maternal and child health plans. Part 1 of the framework provides an overview of the process of developing the newborn health component of a health strategy. Operational guidelines for Yashoda/Mamta: An enabling intervention for quality maternal and newborn care at the facility level Developed by NIPI in 2010, this guideline provides a standardized framework to facilitate the expansion of the Yashoda/Mamta intervention in the 4 states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Rajasthan. Yashoda/Mamta is a non-medical, voluntary support worker placed at hospitals with high delivery load to create a congenial environment for the mother and the newborn in the facility, and to counsel the mother about good newborn care practices at home. Sepsis in the Newborn This is a protocol developed by AIIMS in 2008 on neonatal sepsis, the main cause of neonatal mortality in India. It gives guidance for diagnosis, investigations and effective management of sepsis in newborns including supportive care, antimicrobial therapy and adjunctive therapy. Standards for maternal and neonatal care A set of user-friendly leaflets developed as part of the WHO’s Integrated Management of Pregnancy and Childbirth Care (IMPAC) package to improve the health and survival of women and their newborn babies during pregnancy, childbirth and the postnatal period. Standards for health facilities have been prescribed to enable provision of minimum essential care for all mothers and newborns. WHO 2006 NIPI 2010 WHO 2005

Newborn WHO Collaborating Centre

2008

26

The Healthy Newborn: A reference manual for program managers

Developed by CARE and CDC, this reference manual for the program managers gives an overview of the global newborn health issues, provides information on systematic approach to analyzing data, identifying problems and selecting interventions, and outlines the principles for effectively implementing newborn health interventions along with the different intervention packages. CARE / CDC

Working with individuals, families and communities to improve Maternal and Newborn health

This WHO document published in 2003 gives a framework for the interventions at the level of individuals, families and communities to improve and increase their control over maternal and newborn health, as well as to increase the access and utilization of quality health services, particularly those provided by the skilled attendants. WHO 2003

Technical Publication

A Closer Look at Child Mortality Among Adivasis in India Accelerating Progress Towards Achieving Maternal and Child Health Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 in South-East Asia

A health policy research working paper from the World Bank in 2010 which analyzes data from the National Family Health Survey 2005 (NFHS 3) to present age-specific patterns of child mortality among the tribal population (adivasi population) in India. A report of the WHO SEARO sponsored high-level consultation of member countries of South East Asia region held in 2008 at Ahmedabad. The objective of the meeting was to review progress and identify barriers to achieving MDGs 4 & 5, share information on evidence-based best practices and interventions, and agree on multi-sectoral framework for accelerating and sustaining the achievement of MDGs 4 & 5. WHO SouthEast Asia Region 2008 World Bank 2010

Achieving the Millennium Development Goals: The Role

A health policy research working paper from the World Bank in 2003 analyzing the data from the Demographic and Health Surveys to evaluate determinants of three 27

World Bank

2003

of Infrastructure

child health outcomes related to the MDGs – the infant mortality rate, the child mortality rate, and the prevalence of malnutrition.

Activities by State Health Societies in Orissa, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan under Norway India Partnership Initiative (NIPI): Program Update 2009 Addis Ababa declaration for Global Newborn Health

This program update of 2009 describes briefly the various activities undertaken by the four State Health Societies of Orissa, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan under the NIPI program. The focus of NIPI program is on improving newborn and child health in the five NRHM states which contribute to 60% of the total child mortality. A declaration made by the Healthy Newborn Partnership during the Addis Ababa conference in 2004 urging all partners and countries to strengthen activities and develop a multi-pronged approach for achieving 50% reduction in neonatal mortality by 2015. The Healthy Newborn Partnership advocates improvements in newborn health care, particularly in settings where newborn deaths are common. Population and Health Infoshare 2009

2004

Baseline Survey on Child and Related Maternal Health Care: Bihar (NIPI Report)

Findings from the baseline survey conducted in 2008-09 in the three districts of Bihar where the Norway India Partnership Initiative (NIPI) is working to reduce infant mortality and to improve maternal health. The survey was conducted to evaluate the status of child and related maternal health in these districts, identify gaps in the existing service delivery mechanism, assess the needs and opportunities, and develop benchmark indicators for project implementation. NIPI 2009

Baseline Survey on Child and Related Maternal Health Care: Consolidated Report (NIPI Report)

Consolidated report of the baseline survey conducted in 2008-09 in the four states of Orissa, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan where the Norway India Partnership Initiative (NIPI) is working to reduce infant mortality and to improve maternal health. The survey was conducted to evaluate the status of child and related maternal health, identify gaps in the existing service delivery mechanism, 28 NIPI 2009

assess the needs and opportunities, and develop benchmark indicators for project implementation. Baseline Survey on Child and Related Maternal Health Care: Madhya Pradesh (NIPI Report) Findings from the baseline survey conducted in 2008-09 in the three districts of Madhya Pradesh where the Norway India Partnership Initiative (NIPI) is working to reduce infant mortality and to improve maternal health. The survey was conducted to evaluate the status of child and related maternal health in these districts, identify gaps in the existing service delivery mechanism, assess the needs and opportunities, and develop benchmark indicators for project implementation. Baseline Survey on Child and Related Maternal Health Care: Orissa (NIPI Report) Findings from the baseline survey conducted in 2008-09 in the three districts of Orissa where the Norway India Partnership Initiative (NIPI) is working to reduce infant mortality and to improve maternal health. The survey was conducted to evaluate the status of child and related maternal health in these districts, identify gaps in the existing service delivery mechanism, assess the needs and opportunities, and develop benchmark indicators for project implementation. Baseline Survey on Child and Related Maternal Health Care: Rajasthan (NIPI Report) Findings from the baseline survey conducted in 2008-09 in the three districts of Rajasthan where the Norway India Partnership Initiative (NIPI) is working to reduce infant mortality and to improve maternal health. The survey was conducted to evaluate the status of child and related maternal health in these districts, identify gaps in the existing service delivery mechanism, assess the needs and opportunities, and develop benchmark indicators for project implementation. Beyond survival: Integrated delivery care practices for long-term maternal and infant Nutrition, Health and This document by WHO PAHO focuses on 3 key practices for continuum of maternal newborn care at the community level – delayed cord clamping, skin-to-skin contact, and early initiation of exclusive breastfeeding. It reviews the current evidence on 29 NIPI 2009 NIPI 2009 NIPI 2009

Pan American Health 2007

Development

the nutritional and health benefits of these interventions followed by discussion on the feasibility of their implementation.

Organization

Birth preparedness and complication readiness: A matrix of shared responsibilities

This document is a programmatic cum advocacy tool developed in 2001 outlining the plans and actions that can be implemented at various levels (policy maker, facility, provider, community, family, woman) to prevent delays and help ensure the safety and well-being of the mother and her newborn throughout pregnancy, labor, childbirth, and the postpartum period. 2001

Book of Proceedings: Technical Advisory Group Consultation for improving Newborn and Child Survival in India

This document summarizes the proceedings of the 3-day technical advisory group consultation meeting organized by Save the Children in November 2010. The meeting was held to develop a strategic plan for India on newborn and child survival using a participatory approach among a cross-section of leading experts from government and non-government organizations, academia and civil society organizations. Save the Children 2010

CLICS: Final evaluation report

The final evaluation report of the USAID funded CLICS project (Community Led Initiatives for Child Survival) conducted by Aga Khan Foundation USA. Based on the principles of social franchising and community participation, this project was implemented in 67 villages of Maharashtra by the Department of Community Medicine, MGIMS Sevagram. CLICS 2008

CLICS: Capacity building of Village Coordination Committee

This document gives a brief description of the USAID funded CLICS project (Community Led Initiatives for Child Survival) including its basic framework and objectives, the various capacity building activities undertaken to empower the Village Coordination Committee in the project, and discuss the lessons and CLICS

30

sustainability issues likely to affect and impact similar programs. Child health in India Developed by USAID’s MCH-STAR initiative, this factsheet summarizes the status of child health in India, lists the interventions that work, and advocates actions for improving their status. Community-based interventions that improve newborn health outcomes: a review of evidence in South Asia A series of evidence reviews prepared by USAID-funded Vistaar project team in 2008 to assist the national government in making evidence-based decisions regarding Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and Nutrition (MNCHN) interventions. This paper reviews the community-based interventions for improving newborn health. The process involved identification of relevant interventions through electronic/grey literature search, selection of interventions using predefined criteria, and review of the selected interventions by a group of technical experts. Community-level interventions to prevent and treat anaemia: A Review of Evidence from India A series of evidence reviews prepared by USAID-funded Vistaar project team in 2008 to assist the national government in making evidence-based decisions regarding Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and Nutrition (MNCHN) interventions. A part of the evidence review series published by VISTAAR project of USAID in 2008 to help make evidence-based decisions regarding Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and Nutrition (MNCHN) interventions. This document outlines the review on community-level interventions for anemia prevention and treatment, summarizes the selected interventions, and shares the recommendations and evidence gaps identified by a technical expert group after analysis of the interventions USAID 2008 USAID 2008 MCH-STAR

31

Coverage Evaluation Survey: All India Report 2009

This Survey conducted by UNICEF in 2009 assesses the impact of NRHM strategies on coverage levels of maternal, newborn and child-health services including immunization among women and children. Employing a two-stage sampling procedure, the survey covered all the States and Union Territories of India and was conducted between November 2009 and January 2010. UNICEF 2009

Developing regional experts in essential Maternal and Newborn care: The MNH Program Experience

This report published by JHPIEGO describes the Maternal and Neonatal Health (MNH) Program initiative to develop groups of regional experts in maternal and newborn health in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, summarizes the lessons learned and recommendations to inform similar initiatives, and presents the selected achievements for improving the quality of healthcare for women and newborns. JHPIEGO 2004

Dhaka resolution for Global Newborn Health, Dhaka, Bangladesh 3-5 February 2003

A declaration made by the Healthy Newborn Partnership during the Dhaka conference in 2003 urging all partners and countries to strengthen efforts for reducing neonatal deaths across the globe with particular focus on Asian region. The Healthy Newborn Partnership advocates improvements in newborn health care, particularly in settings where newborn deaths are common. 2003

Entry into this World: Who Should Assist? Birth Attendants and Newborn Health

Published by BASICS II project of the USAID, this document advocates for upgrading the skills of the existing Skilled Birth Attendants (SBAs) in managing both the mother and the baby, to supply them with the necessary resources, and implement suitable interventions to achieve the required behaviors in the community for improving newborn health BASICS II / USAID 2004

Essential Delivery Care Practices for Maternal and

Prepared by USAID and WHO PAHO in 2007, this document advocates for evidencebased, cost-effective, safe and simple practices like active management of third 32

WHO/USAID

2007

Newborn Health and Nutrition

stage of labour, optimal timing of cord clamping, early initiation of breastfeeding and skin-to-skin care contact to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality, and improve newborn and infant survival, health and nutrition.

First Meeting of the SouthEast Asia Region Expert Group on Child Health and Development

A report of the first meeting of the South-East Asia Region Expert Group on Child health and development held in 2008 by WHO-SEARO. The meeting aimed to develop a regional strategy for action, apprise the group about the proposed Integrated Control of Diarrhea and Respiratory Infections Program, and plan for the upcoming high-level consultation meet to accelerate progress for MDGs 4 & 5. WHO SEARO 2008

Home visits for the newborn child: a strategy to improve survival

This joint statement by the WHO and UNICEF in 2009 advocates for home visits in the baby’s first week of life to improve newborn survival. It gives evidence-based recommendations regarding the rationale behind home visits including its timing and frequency, the role of health care provider and their tasks during home visits, the program components required by countries for implementing this strategy, and the type of support offered by the WHO and UNICEF in implementing the strategy. WHO 2009

Household to Hospital Continuum of Maternal and Newborn Care

A policy brief developed by the ACCESS program of USAID in 2005 advocating for continuum of maternal newborn care from the community to the facility. It describes the need to strengthen maternal newborn care in the community, ways to develop linkages between the community and the facility, and various activities required for strengthening the process of continuum of care USAID 2005

Identifying priorities for child health research to achieve Millennium Development Goal 4:Consultation Proceedings

This document describes the proceedings of a consultation meeting organized by the WHO in 2009 to identify research issues of highest priority and their sources of support in order to accelerate work towards achieving the MDG 4. The Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) methodology was used to identify priority 33

WHO 2009

research questions in areas of main causes of under-5 deaths, and also for priority setting in health research investments. Improving Maternal, Newborn and Child Health in the South-East Asia Region Developed on the eve of the World Health Day 2005, this report by WHO SEARO gives an overview of the maternal, newborn and under-5 child health status in the 11 member countries of the region, the diverse challenges faced by them, and the efforts underway to overcome these challenges. Improving neonatal health in South-East Asia Region: Report of Regional Consultation Increasing media awareness on Maternal and Child health issues: Report of a regional workshop Integrating Essential Newborn Care into countries’ policies and programs A report of the South-East Asia Regional Consultation jointly organized by the WHO SEARO, USAID and WHO-CC for Newborn Health, AIIMS in 2002. During the consultation experts discussed policy and strategies for reducing neonatal mortality in the region. Report of a regional workshop conducted by WHO SEARO to familiarize media personnel on key issues related to maternal and child health, and to identify the activities that could be done by them to help the cause of maternal and child health within respective member countries. A policy brief produced in 2003 through collaboration between the Population Reference Bureau and Save the Children’s Saving Newborn Lives initiative. This document outlines SNL’s experiences for improving newborn health in different countries, and advocates integration of newborn care into the existing safe motherhood and child survival programs for improved newborn survival. Investing to Save Newborn Lives This document estimates the costs of implementing the package of 16 evidencebased interventions for improved neonatal survival, and advocates for additional Save the Children / Population Reference Bureau Investing to Save Newborn 34 2006 2003 WHO -SEARO 2005 WHO SEARO 2002 WHO-SEARO 2005

investment for reducing newborn deaths regionally and globally. Maternal and Newborn Care Practices among the Urban Poor in Indore, India: Gaps, Reasons and Potential Program Options Based on a study undertaken by the Urban Health Resource Centre (UHRC), this report funded by USAID and printed in 2007 describes the maternal-newborn care practices and care of infants aged 2-4 months (feeding practices, morbidity status, immunization status and nutritional status) in urban slum dwellings of Indore city in Madhya Pradesh under the Urban Health Program run by UHRC. It also identifies various factors facilitating and hindering optimal practices and suggests options for improvement. Maternal and Newborn Health and Nutrition Practices in Select Districts of Jharkhand (Part 3) A series of technical reports developed by the Vistaar Project of USAID documenting the results of survey conducted in selected districts of Jharkhand in 2008-09. This report describes the findings of a baseline survey conducted in five (5) districts of the state to assess the knowledge and practices of pregnant and recently delivered women regarding antenatal, delivery, postnatal, newborn and infant care, the levels of anemia, and the nutritional status of children. Maternal and Newborn Health and Nutrition Practices in Select Districts of Jharkhand (Part 4) A series of technical reports developed by the Vistaar Project of USAID documenting the results of survey conducted in selected districts of Jharkhand in 2008-09. This report describes the findings of a baseline survey conducted in eight (8) districts of the state to assess the knowledge and practices of pregnant and recently delivered women regarding antenatal, delivery, postnatal, newborn and infant care, the levels of anemia, and the nutritional status of children. Meeting of development partners: Maternal and newborn health with a focus on country implementation This document describes the proceedings of a meeting organized in 2006 by the WHO and SIDA. The meeting was held to explore better ways of coordinating partner’s efforts, support member countries to implement evidence-based, cost35

Lives

USAID 2007

USAID Vistaar Project 2008

USAID Vistaar Project 2008

WHO 2006

effective interventions and accelerate progress in achieving the MDGs related to maternal and newborn health and survival. Monitoring and Evaluation of Maternal and Newborn Health and Services at the District Level Report of a technical consultation organized by the WHO in 2006 to improve processes involved in effective monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of maternal and newborn health at the district level. The meeting focused on sharing of innovative programs/experiences of M&E, analysis of requirements, development of an integrated approach, and drafting recommendations on how to move ahead. Neonatal mortality and newborn care in India Developed by USAID’s MCH-STAR initiative, this factsheet summarizes the status of neonatal health in India, lists the interventions that work, and advocates actions for improving their status. Newborn Care: an overview This working paper was published by the UNICEF ROSA in 2004 to document and analyze evidence-based practices and programs that have been successful in improving newborn health in the South Asia region. Newborn Survival: Time for action An advocacy paper developed by the Healthy Newborn Partnership in 2002 urging for substantial reduction in neonatal mortality by adopting proven, cost-effective newborn care practices and services at the family and the community level. Newborn care at the community level The second part of a series of five advocacy documents prepared by CARE on child health and nutrition in India. This document on briefly describes the burden of neonatal deaths and its specific causes, and the different strategies that can be used to reduce the burden of these deaths with management at the community level. CARE 2002 UNICEF 2004 MCH-STAR WHO 2006

36

Postpartum Care of the Mother and Newborn: A Practical Guide

This WHO report details the needs of women and their newborn during the postpartum period, the health challenges faced by them during the period, and the response of the health care system to these needs and challenges. It attempts to bring together evidence and the arguments for good practice in this field. WHO

Qualitative research to improve newborn care practices

Developed in 2004 by Saving Newborn Lives initiative of Save the Children, this document provides guidance on how to conduct qualitative research and plan a BCC strategy to improve newborn care practices. It gives information on evidencebased best practices, methods of identifying practices/constraints and target audience, how to assess decision making, and procedures of qualitative research including data analysis and BCC planning and programming. Save the Children 2004

Reaching out to the Child: An Integrated Approach to Child Development

Developed by the World Bank in 2004, this report draws on the results of five specially commissioned studies to analyze varied aspects of children’s development in diverse poverty contexts, both in quantitative and qualitative terms. It provides an overview of the child health status, identifies reasons for limited impact of interventions, and suggests recommendations and framework for an integrated approach to child health. World Bank 2004

Reducing incidence of Low Birth Weight using a community based life cycle strategy: study protocol

This document is the protocol of a quasi-experimental study conducted in Ranchi district of Jharkhand state which aims to evaluate the effectiveness of life-cycle based community level behavioral interventions in reducing the incidence of low birth weight and improving maternal and child health. Developed in 2006, the study and protocol is led by a group of NGOs including CINI, Krishi Gram Vikas Kendra and Social Initiatives Group of ICICI Bank. HETV Health Education to Villages 2006

37

Saving the lives of children under age 5: State of the World’s Mothers 2007

This eighth annual report on ‘State of the World’s Mothers’ published by Save the Children in 2007 focuses on deaths of children under the age of 5 years and brings to attention low-cost solutions with greatest potential to save the lives of mother and children. It also tracks the progress of different countries on mother-child survival indicators. Save the Children 2007

Shaping policy for Maternal and Newborn health: a compendium of case studies

Published by the JHPIEGO in 2003, this compendium of case studies describes successful approaches taken by the civil society and non-governmental organizations in influencing national policy in maternal and newborn health. Each case study presents a strategy for achieving or influencing policy change, details of the implementation process, and a discussion of results. JHPIEGO 2003

Short Programme Review: Child Health Programme in Bihar 2011

A report of the 5 -day participatory workshop conducted by WHO India and IIHMR Jaipur with support from UNOPS-NIPI and UNICEF in March 2011, to assess the status of child health program in Bihar. Based on a package developed at the global level, this initiative known as the Short Program Review-Child Health (SPR-CH) involves the state program managers and reviews the goals, objectives, interventions and activities of child health program along the continuum of care process, identifies areas requiring strengthening, and recommends actions to decision-makers for improving program effectiveness. IIHMR Jaipur 2011

Short Programme Review: Child Health Programme in Karnataka 2011

A report of the 3-day participatory workshop conducted by WHO India and IHMR Bangalore with support from UNICEF in February 2011, to assess the status of child health program in Karnataka. Based on a package developed at the global level, this initiative known as the Short Program Review-Child Health (SPR-CH) involves the state program managers and reviews the goals, objectives, interventions and activities of child health program along the continuum of care process, identifies 38 IHMR Bangalore 2011

areas requiring strengthening, and recommends actions to decision-makers for improving program effectiveness.

Short Programme Review: Child Health Programme in Rajasthan 2010

A Report of the 5-day participatory workshop conducted by WHO India and IIHMR Jaipur with support from UNOPS-NIPI in September 2010, to assess the status of child health program in Rajasthan. Based on a package developed at the global level, this initiative known as the Short Program Review-Child Health (SPRCH)involves the state program managers and reviews the goals, objectives, interventions and activities of child health program along the continuum of care process, identifies areas requiring strengthening, and recommends actions to decision-makers for improving program effectiveness. IIHMR Jaipur 2010

State of India’s Newborns

Developed by NNF and Saving Newborn Lives in partnership with MOHFW and other partners in 2004, this report summarizes the key elements of the epidemiology of newborn health and survival in India, traces the evolution of newborn care initiatives in the Government and non-Government sectors, projects a vision for improved newborn health for near future, and analyses core issues critical to an accelerated march towards that vision. Save the Children 2004

State of the India’s Newborns – a synopsis

This synopsis of the State of the India’s Newborns report (2004) was prepared by the NNF in partnership with the MOHFW, UNICEF, WHO SEARO, World Bank and Save the Children.

Save the Children

2004

39

State of the World’s Children 2008: Child Survival

The 2008 annual report by UNICEF focuses on Child Survival. It analyzes the status, trend and causes of under-5 mortality and morbidity in the world, the important lessons learned from evolving health care systems, and advocates strengthening of community partnerships, continuum of care and health systems for achieving the MDG 4 goal. UNICEF 2008

State of the World’s Newborns

Prepared by Saving Newborn Lives initiative of Save the Children in 2001, this document provides the first ever global report on newborn health using data from 163 countries. The report reviews the burden and causes of neonatal mortality, summarizes the cost-effective and feasible interventions available, and outlines the different steps required to reduce neonatal mortality. Save the Children 2001

The Components of Essential Newborn Care

Developed by the global child survival program BASICS II of USAID, this brief describes the components of Essential Newborn Care, criteria for prioritizing them, and strategies used in operationalising them in order to have a positive impact on reducing neonatal and infant mortality. USAID 2004

The Economic Benefits of Investing in Child Health

An advocacy paper produced by the World Bank in 2003 outlining the theory and the evidence on the economic impact of investing in child health. It also identifies several interventions and programs that could significantly contribute to improved child health, particularly in the areas of nutrition, communicable disease prevention and control, and education. World Bank 2006

40

The Global Campaign for the Health Millennium Development Goals 2010: Putting the Global strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health into action The Healthy Newborn Partnership: Improving Newborn Survival and Health Through Partnership, Policy, and Action The Need for a Focus on Child Health and Nutrition

This report of 2010 by the Global Campaign for the Health Millennium Development Goals provides an update on the efforts being made by countries and institutions in putting the Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health into action. This Global Strategy was launched at a special event during the MDG summit in September 2010 by the Secretary-General of the United Nations. A document published by Saving Newborn Lives initiative of Save the Children and the Population Reference Bureau in 2004 describing briefly the genesis and growth of the Healthy Newborn Partnership, and how it has helped focus attention on newborn health issues through activities of advocacy, information exchange, and joint action at various levels. The first part of a series of five advocacy documents prepared by CARE on child health and nutrition in India. This document provides an overview of the magnitude of child mortality and highlights malnutrition as the major contributory factor for child deaths, thus urging the need for community based interventions. CARE Save the Children / Population Reference Bureau 2004 2010

The State of Asia-Pacific’s Children 2008: Child Survival

The first annual report on Asia Pacific region developed by UNICEF in 2008 to examine trends in child survival and health in the region and its four sub-regions, identify the challenges, and outline the broad agenda of actions required to accelerate progress in the region towards the Millennium Development Goals. UNICEF 2008

The State of the World's Children 2006: Excluded and Invisible

The 2006 annual report by UNICEF focuses on the world’s vulnerable children who are generally excluded and invisible in programs, policy, legislation, statistics and news stories. These children include those living in poorest countries, deprived communities and those facing discrimination, children caught up in armed conflicts UNICEF 2006

41

or affected by HIV/AIDS, and children who suffer abuses.

The State of the World's Children 2007: Women and Children

The 2007 annual report by UNICEF focuses on gender equality. It analyzes the status and causes of gender discrimination across a woman’s life cycle and across regions, explores equality issues in three distinct areas (household, employment, political sphere), and advocates the steps for eliminating gender discrimination and empowering women. UNICEF 2007

The State of the World’s Children 2009: Maternal and Newborn Health

The 2009 annual report by UNICEF focuses on maternal and neonatal health. It analyzes the status, trend and causes of maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity in the world, explores the successful programs and policies for creating a supporting environment and continuum of care across time and location, and advocates strengthening of health systems and partnerships for improving maternal and neonatal health. UNICEF 2009

Tracking Progress in Maternal, Newborn and Child Survival: The 2008 Report

This report was developed by the ‘Countdown to 2015’ collaboration to track coverage of interventions needed to attain MDGs 4 and 5 (and parts of MDGs 1, 6, and 7) in 68 priority countries of the world bearing the highest burden of maternal and child mortality. It also takes stock of progress in maternal and child survival, identifies gaps in knowledge, and proposes new actions to achieve these MDGs. UNICEF 2008

Wheel of Change: Children and Young People’s Participation in South Asia

This document developed by UNICEF in 2004 describes the range and nature of various children and young people’s participatory initiatives taken in the South-Asia region, and draws out lessons learned for future investment in strengthening 42 UNICEF 2004

partnerships with relevant organizations in this field.

Training

Care of the Baby at Birth During 1 Hour after Birth (Module 1)

A series of nine training modules developed by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Training and Research in Newborn Care, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, to complement the in-service training and pre-service education of nurses/ANMs/LHVs on essential newborn care. This first module describes the needs of a newborn baby at birth and during the first hour of delivery, and the evidence-based practices. Neonatal Division AIIMS/WHO

Counseling for Maternal and Newborn Health: A Handbook for Building Skills

This handbook was developed by the WHO in 2008 to strengthen counselling and communication skills of health care providers and help them to effectively convey to women, families and communities the key issues surrounding pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum and postnatal care. WHO 2008

Essential newborn nursing for small hospitals in resource restricted settings: Facilitator’s Guide

Developed by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Training and Research in Newborn Care, AIIMS, New Delhi in 2004, this guide facilitates knowledge enhancement and capacity building of trainers for conducting participatory learning program on essential newborn care for the nursing personnel working in resource restricted settings. WHO 2004

43

Essential newborn nursing training modules (Module 2): Thermal protection

A series of nine training modules developed by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Training and Research in Newborn Care, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, to complement the in-service training and pre-service education of nurses/ANMs/LHVs on essential newborn care. This second module highlights the importance of temperature regulation in a newborn baby, the factors contributing to heat loss and how they can be prevented. Neonatal Division AIIMS/WHO

Essential newborn nursing training modules (Module 3): Kangaroo Mother Care

A series of nine training modules developed by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Training and Research in Newborn Care, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, to complement the in-service training and pre-service education of nurses/ANMs/LHVs on essential newborn care. The third module of the series describes the procedures and benefits of Kangaroo Mother Care, and provides guidance on how to counsel and support mothers for doing the process. Neonatal Division AIIMS/WHO

Essential newborn nursing training modules (Module 4): Feeding of normal and low birth weight babies

A series of nine training modules developed by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Training and Research in Newborn Care, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, to complement the in-service training and pre-service education of nurses/ANMs/LHVs on essential newborn care. This fourth module describes the advantages and proper method of breastfeeding, methods of feeding low birth weight babies, feeding problems and how to manage them. Neonatal Division AIIMS/WHO

Essential newborn nursing training modules (Module 5): Resuscitation of the newborn baby

A series of nine training modules developed by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Training and Research in Newborn Care, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, to complement the in-service training and pre-service education of nurses/ANMs/LHVs on essential newborn care. The fifth module provides information on the assessment of newborn baby at the time of delivery,

Neonatal Division AIIMS/WHO

44

resuscitation (if required) utilizing standard equipments, and the aftercare.

Essential newborn nursing training modules (Module 6): Common procedures

A series of nine training modules developed by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Training and Research in Newborn Care, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, to complement the in-service training and pre-service education of Neonatal Division AIIMS/WHO nurses/ANMs/LHVs on essential newborn care. This sixth module provides information about the technique for intramuscular injection, preparation of common medication, recording of weight and temperature, initiating oxygen therapy and intravenous access, insertion of feeding tube, and emergency triaging and safe transport of sick neonates.

Essential newborn nursing training modules (Module 7): Prevention of infection, housekeeping and waste disposal

A series of nine training modules developed by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Training and Research in Newborn Care, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, to complement the in-service training and pre-service education of nurses/ANMs/LHVs on essential newborn care. This seventh module describes the importance and requirements of infection control in a hospital including housekeeping and disinfection routines, and the methods for safe disposal of hospital waste. Neonatal Division AIIMS/WHO

Essential newborn nursing training modules (Module 8): Care of normal at risk and sick neonates

A series of nine training modules developed by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Training and Research in Newborn Care, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, to complement the in-service training and pre-service education of nurses/ANMs/LHVs on essential newborn care. This eighth module describes the evidence-based practices for routine care of newborn babies including advice and 45 Neonatal Division AIIMS/WHO

support to mothers, and the identification and management of at-risk and sick babies.

Essential newborn nursing training modules (Module 9): Common equipments & trouble shooting

A series of nine training modules developed by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Training and Research in Newborn Care, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, to complement the in-service training and pre-service education of nurses/ANMs/LHVs on essential newborn care. This ninth module provides information about the handling, usage and routine maintenance of neonatal equipments including their sterilization. Neonatal Division AIIMS/WHO

Facilitator's Guide for Training Yashoda/Mamta

This document developed by NIHFW and NIPI provides comprehensive information to be used for reference by the facilitators involved in the training of Yashoda/Mamta. Yashoda/Mamta is a non-medical, voluntary support worker placed at hospitals with high delivery load to create a congenial environment for the mother and the newborn in the facility, and to counsel the mother about good newborn care practices at home. NIPI - UNOPS

Government Training -Foundation course for reorientation in Basic Emergency (Essential) Obstetric Care: Trainees Manual

This manual for a 2-day training course was developed by the MoHFW in collaboration with NIHFW and Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM) in 2010 to complement the ongoing SBA training programme. Aimed at improving and updating existing knowledge and skills of service providers (Medical Officers, Staff nurses, ANMs) in providing Basic Essential Obstetric Care, the course is divided into nine modules to help the health care provider understand the complications of child birth and their possible solutions. 46 NIHFW, MoHFW 2010

Government Training – Asha Prashikshako ke liye Prashikshak Guide: Bhag 1 (HINDI)

Published by the NHSRC, MoHFW in 2010, these notes in Hindi language are designed for the use of trainers responsible for training ASHA and her facilitators in Modules 6 and 7. The notes have been organized in three parts. This first part reviews the key functions of ASHA and the skills she is expected to gain in the field of maternal and newborn health (Module 6), and child health and nutrition (Part A of Module 7). NHSRC, MoHFW 2010

Government Training – Notes for ASHA Trainers: Part 1

Published by the NHSRC, MoHFW in 2010, these notes are designed for the use of trainers responsible for training ASHA and her facilitators in Modules 6 and 7. The notes have been organized in three parts. This first part reviews the key functions of ASHA and the skills she is expected to gain in the field of maternal and newborn health (Module 6), and child health and nutrition (Part A of Module 7). NHSRC, MoHFW 2010

Government Training-- A handbook for Auxiliary Nurse Midwives, Lady Health Visitors and Staff Nurses (NEW) Government Training-Facilitator’s Guide for conducting training for ANMs, LHVs and Staff Nurses as a Skilled Birth Attendant

Revised and updated by the MOHFW in the year 2010 (initial publication in 2005), this handbook for Auxiliary Nurse Midwives (ANMs), Lady Health Visitors (LHVs) and Staff Nurses (SNs) contains information on the check-lists and case studies on the skills that the Skilled Birth Attendant (SBA) is expected to master to provide quality care during pregnancy and child birth. This guide was developed by the MOHFW in 2006 in an effort to create a standardized training package for residential training of ANMs, LHVs and staff nurses in the practice of skilled attendance at birth and management of emergency obstetric and newborn complications. It informs the trainer about the training strategy, its objectives, method with content and schedule, and evaluation process. MoHFW 2006 MoHFW 2010

47

Government Training-Navjaat Shishu Suraksha Karyakram - Basic Newborn Care and Resuscitation Program: Training Manual (Hindi) (NEW)

Navjaat Shishu Suraksha Karyakram is a one-day training program on Basic Newborn Care and Resuscitation aimed at developing skills of health workers (especially the birth attendants at delivery) to address birth asphyxia and other causes of early neonatal mortality. Developed by the MoHFW in 2009 with the help of IAP and the Department of Pediatrics AIIMS, this manual provides information on the resuscitation and care of newborn baby at birth, thermal protection, prevention of infection, feeding of normal and LBW babies, and transport of babies. NIHFW / NCHRC 2009

Government Training-Navjaat Shishu Suraksha Karyakram - Basic Newborn Care and Resuscitation Program: Facilitator’s Guide (NEW)

Navjaat Shishu Suraksha Karyakram is a one-day training program on Basic Newborn Care and Resuscitation aimed at developing skills of health workers (especially the birth attendants at delivery) to address birth asphyxia and other causes of early neonatal mortality. Developed by the MoHFW in 2009 with the help of IAP and the Department of Pediatrics AIIMS, this module provides the trainers with a list of procedures and guidelines on how to conduct the training in a standardized and quality manner. NIHFW / NCHRC 2009

Government Training-Navjaat Shishu Suraksha Karyakram - Basic Newborn Care and Resuscitation Program: Training Manual (NEW)

Navjaat Shishu Suraksha Karyakram is a one-day training program on Basic Newborn Care and Resuscitation aimed at developing skills of health workers (especially the birth attendants at delivery) to address birth asphyxia and other causes of early neonatal mortality. Developed by the MoHFW in 2009 with the help of IAP and the Department of Pediatrics AIIMS, this manual provides information on the resuscitation and care of newborn baby at birth, thermal protection, prevention of infection, feeding of normal and LBW babies, and transport of babies. NIHFW / NCHRC 2009

48

Government Training-- Skilled Birth Attendance (SBA): Trainers Guide for conducting training of Auxiliary Nurse Midwives, Lady Health Visitors and Staff Nurses (NEW) Managing Programmes to improve Child Health: Facilitators Guide

Revised and updated by the MOHFW in the year 2010 (initial publication in 2005), this guide is designed to support systematic and methodological training of Auxiliary Nurse Midwives (ANMs), Lady Health Visitors (LHVs) and Staff Nurses (SNs) in provision of skilled care during pregnancy and child birth. It provides instructions for the trainer on how to plan and operationalize the health facility for conducting the SBA training, how to conduct each session and use appropriate teaching aids. Developed by the WHO in 2009, this training material for the program managers aims to provide them with the essential knowledge and skills required for improving management of child health programmes, with focus on improving coverage with effective interventions. It covers two major steps of the implementation planning cycle – development of an implementation plan, and how to manage implementation. This Facilitators guide informs the trainers about the training schedule, topics, methodology and the tools to be used for training the program managers during the training period. WHO 2009 MoHFW 2010

Managing Programmes to improve Child Health: Introduction (Module 1)

Developed by the WHO in 2009, this training material for the program managers aims to provide them with the essential knowledge and skills required for improving management of child health programmes, with focus on improving coverage with effective interventions. It covers two major steps of the implementation planning cycle – development of an implementation plan, and how to manage implementation. This first module of a set of three modules describes the purpose of training, the global child health status, recommended evidence-based child health interventions and packages, principles of delivery of these interventions, and definitions of specific terms. WHO 2009

49

Managing Programmes to improve Child Health: Managing implementation (Module 3)

Developed by the WHO in 2009, this training material for the program managers aims to provide them with the essential knowledge and skills required for improving management of child health programmes, with focus on improving coverage with effective interventions. It covers two major steps of the implementation planning cycle – development of an implementation plan, and how to manage implementation. This last module of a set of three modules describes how to advocate for child health and mobilize resources, manage supervision and monitor progress of activities according to the implementation plan. WHO 2009

Managing Programmes to improve Child Health: Planning implementation (Module 2)

Developed by the WHO in 2009, this training material for the program managers aims to provide them with the essential knowledge and skills required for improving management of child health programmes, with focus on improving coverage with effective interventions. It covers two major steps of the implementation planning cycle – development of an implementation plan, and how to manage implementation. This second module of a set of three modules describes the preparation for developing an implementation plan, steps for reviewing implementation status, how to decide targets, indicators and monitoring of activities, and components of work-plan and budget. WHO 2009

Managing Programmes to improve Child Health: Workbook

Developed by the WHO in 2009, this training material for the program managers aims to provide them with the essential knowledge and skills required for improving management of child health programmes, with focus on improving coverage with effective interventions. It covers two major steps of the implementation planning cycle – development of an implementation plan, and how to manage implementation. This Workbook, to be used along with the set of three modules, would help the managers acquire practical skills related to the training. WHO 2009

50

Managing newborn problems: a guide for doctors, nurses and midwives

This guide was developed by the WHO in collaboration with other partners in 2003 as part of Integrated Management of Pregnancy and Childbirth series (IMPAC). It provides a full range of updated, evidence-based norms and standards for the health care providers to help them in rapid assessment and treatment of sick newborn babies so as to give high quality care during the newborn period. WHO/ UNFPA/ UNICEF 2003

Qualitative research to improve Newborn care practices Training Curriculum for Traditional Birth Attendants

Developed by Saving Newborn Lives initiative of Save the Children, this guide provides a ready reference tool for conducting qualitative research and planning a behaviour change communications strategy to improve newborn care practices. This document developed by RACHNA and USAID provides guidance to the trainers about the preparation, curriculum and the activities required during the training of Traditional Birth Attendants on improving maternal and newborn health.

Save the Children

2004

RACHNA and USAID

2002

Training Module on Delivery of Home-Based Post-Natal Care for Newborns and Mothers by ASHA: Facilitator's Manual (NEW)

Developed in 2010 by a collaborative effort of the Department of Pediatrics AIIMS, NNF, INCLEN, NIHFW and NIPI, this training module is aimed at providing ASHAs the essential skills for delivering quality health services to the mothers and newborns at home/in the community during pregnancy, childbirth and postnatal period under the Home-Based Post-Natal Care model. This guide informs the trainers about the training schedule, topics, methodology and the tools to be used for training ASHAs during the 5 day training. NIHFW / NCHRC (English) 2010

51

Training Module on Delivery of Home-Based Post-Natal Care for Newborns and Mothers by ASHA: Organizer's Manual (NEW)

Developed in 2010 by a collaborative effort of the Department of Pediatrics AIIMS, NNF, INCLEN, NIHFW and NIPI, this training module is aimed at providing ASHAs the essential skills for delivering quality health services to the mothers and newborns at home/in the community during pregnancy, childbirth and postnatal period under the Home-Based Post-Natal Care model. This manual for the organizers of the 5 day training of ASHAs describes the concept of HBPNC, the process of organizing trainings including its duration, venue, modules and methodology, and the process of organizing Training of Trainers. NIHFW / NCHRC (English) 2010

WHO child growth standards: training course on child growth assessment (Module 1)

Training course of 5 modules designed by the WHO in 2008 as a tool for the application of the new Child Growth Standards by the healthcare provider. The new standards establish breastfed infants as the model for growth and development and show what growth can be achieved with recommended feeding and health care. The first module gives introduction to the training course, and briefly explains the content of other modules and their learning objectives. WHO 2008

WHO child growth standards: training course on child growth assessment (Module 2)

Training course of 5 modules designed by the WHO in 2008 as a tool for the application of the new Child Growth Standards by the healthcare provider. The new standards establish breastfed infants as the model for growth and development and show what growth can be achieved with recommended feeding and health care. This second module of the series of 5 modules provides training on how to recognize signs of malnutrition, how to measure and record weight and height, and how to calculate different anthropometric indicators. WHO 2008

52

WHO child growth standards: training course on child growth assessment (Module 3)

Training course of 5 modules designed by the WHO in 2008 as a tool for the application of the new Child Growth Standards by the healthcare provider. The new standards establish breastfed infants as the model for growth and development and show what growth can be achieved with recommended feeding and health care. This third module of the series of 5 modules provides information on the use of growth charts to identify normal growth for a given child, and how to interpret different growth indicators. WHO 2008

WHO child growth standards: training course on child growth assessment (Module 4)

Training course of 5 modules designed by the WHO in 2008 as a tool for the application of the new Child Growth Standards by the healthcare provider. The new standards establish breastfed infants as the model for growth and development and show what growth can be achieved with recommended feeding and health care. This fourth module of the series of 5 modules provides information on how to inform mother/carer about the results of growth assessment, how to interview them to identify cause of malnutrition, and how to counsel them for appropriate feeding practices. WHO 2008

WHO child growth standards: training course on child growth assessment (Module 5)

Training course of 5 modules designed by the WHO in 2008 as a tool for the application of the new Child Growth Standards by the healthcare provider. The new standards establish breastfed infants as the model for growth and development and show what growth can be achieved with recommended feeding and health care. This last module is a photo-booklet with pictures of different forms of malnutrition. WHO 2008

53

Scientific Articles

A financial road map to scaling up essential child health interventions in 75 countries

Published in 2007 in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, this article estimates the additional financial resources required in 75 countries to scale up priority interventions to universal coverage by 2015 in order to reduce child mortality and morbidity within the context of MDG 4. A costing model was developed to estimate the financial costs for each intervention, country and year, and the model includes both the investment cost and the running cost. WHO 2007

BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth Stillbirth Series (Part 4): Reducing stillbirths: screening and monitoring during pregnancy and labour BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth Stillbirth Series (Part 5): Reducing stillbirths: interventions during labour

This is the fourth article of the BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth Stillbirth Series 2009. This systematic review analyzes the available published evidence for the impact of 14 screening and monitoring interventions in pregnancy on stillbirth, including identification and management of high-risk pregnancies, advanced monitoring techniques, and monitoring of labour. This fifth article of the BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth Stillbirth Series 2009 systematically reviews evidence for eight interventions delivered during childbirth. These interventions include care primarily provided at secondary and tertiary level large teaching/research hospitals with surgical capacity, that are of potential benefit for perinatal health and prevention of stillbirths. Journal BMC Pregnancy & Child Birth 2009 Journal BMC Pregnancy & Child Birth 2009

BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth Stillbirth Series 2009 (Part 1): 3.2 million stillbirths: epidemiology and overview of the evidence review

This first article of the BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth Stillbirth Series 2009 outlines issues in the availability and quality of data related to stillbirths, and the global epidemiology of stillbirths. It further describes the methodology and framework used for the subsequent systematic reviews of interventions and strategies to prevent stillbirths.

Journal BMC Pregnancy & Child Birth 2009

54

BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth Stillbirth Series 2009 (Part 2): Reducing stillbirths: behavioural and nutritional interventions before and during pregnancy

This second article of the BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth Stillbirth Series 2009 systematically reviews evidence for non-clinical interventions (behavioural and nutritional interventions) with a biologically plausible impact on stillbirth incidence that can be delivered via reproductive health or ANC services before or during pregnancy. The review focuses on interventions targeting socially mediated risk factors for stillbirth and which can be delivered in low and middle income countries at the community level. Journal BMC Pregnancy & Child Birth 2009

BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth Stillbirth Series 2009 (Part 3): Reducing stillbirths: prevention and management of medical disorders and infections during pregnancy BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth Stillbirth Series 2009 (Part 6): Delivering interventions to reduce the global burden of stillbirths: improving service supply and community demand Care-seeking behavior and out-of-pocket expenditure for sick newborns among urban poor in Lucknow, northern India: a prospective follow up study

This third article of the BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth Stillbirth Series 2009 systematically reviews evidence for 16 antenatal interventions to address the known clinical risk factors for stillbirths that are treatable or preventable during antenatal period. The risk factors such as infections, malaria, lack of access to health facilities and poor antenatal care were reviewed. This last article of the BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth Stillbirth Series 2009 systematically reviews evidence for community and health systems approaches to improve uptake and quality of antenatal and intrapartum care for reducing stillbirths. It further synthesizes programme and policy recommendations for how best to deliver evidence-based interventions at the community and the facility levels, across the continuum of care. Published in the BMC Health Services and Research in 2009, this prospective follow up study carried out in two urban public hospitals in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, assesses the distribution of neonatal illnesses and different health providers sought for these illnesses, the distribution of out-of-pocket expenditure by type of illness and type of health provider sought, and the socio-economic distribution of illnesses, Journal BMC Pregnancy & Child Birth 2009 Journal BMC Pregnancy & Child Birth 2009

BioMed Central 2009

55

care-seeking behavior and out-of-pocket expenditure.

Childbirth Practices in Rural Rajasthan, India: Implications for Neonatal Health and Survival Community-Based Interventions for Improving Perinatal and Neonatal Health Outcomes in Developing Countries: A Review of the Evidence Countdown to 2015: Tracking Donor Assistance to Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health Countdown to 2015: Tracking Intervention Coverage for Child Survival

A qualitative community based study conducted in rural Rajasthan to explore family, community and provider practices during labor and childbirth with special focus on practices likely to influence newborn health outcomes. Published in 2005, this systematic review of community-based antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal trials (both RCTs and quazi-randomized trials) aims to identify interventions with sufficient evidence of success for inclusion in community-based neonatal care programs in developing countries, to identify gaps in knowledge, and to suggest priority areas for future research and program learning. A scientific article tracking the official development assistance or funding offered to developing countries across the world in 2003 and 2004 for maternal, newborn and child health. The article reports donor spending on the specific theme accounting for just 2% of gross aid disbursements to developing countries. The first report of the Child Survival Countdown monitors worldwide progress in child survival to achieve the MDG 4. This article reviews the coverage of key childsurvival interventions in 60 countries with the world’s highest numbers/rates of child mortality, and highlights country-specific improvements and missed opportunities. 56 LANCET 2006 LANCET 2006 Pediatrics 2005 2008

Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants

Published by the Cochrane Collaboration in 2009, this systematic review of controlled trials examines whether early skin to- skin contact (starting less than 24 hours of birth) for mothers and their healthy full-term or late preterm newborn infants has any beneficial or adverse effects on lactation, maternal-infant behavior, and infant physiology. Cochrane Library 2009

Effect of Community-based Newborn-care Intervention Package Implemented through Two Service-delivery Strategies in Sylhet District, Bangladesh: A Clusterrandomised Controlled Trial Formula Milk versus Maternal Breast Milk for Feeding Preterm or Low Birth Weight Infants Gowning by Attendants and Visitors in Newborn Nurseries for Prevention of Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality Growth performance of affluent Indian children is similar to that in developed countries

Published in 2008, this article describes a community based cluster randomized control trial conducted in Bangladesh in 2003-2005 to evaluate the effect of a newborn care intervention package delivered through two different strategies, namely home care and community care on neonatal mortality. LANCET 2008

A Cochrane review published in 2008 to evaluate the effect of feeding with formula milk compared with maternal breast milk on the rates of growth and developmental outcomes in low birth weight or preterm infants. A Cochrane review published in 2009 to assess the effects of the wearing of an overgown by attendants and visitors on the incidence of infection and death in infants in newborn nurseries.

Cochrane review

2008

Cochrane review 2009

A cross sectional study published in the Bulletin of the WHO in 2002 evaluating whether children aged 12-23 months belonging to affluent families in South Delhi had growth performance similar to that in developed countries, and to identify socio-economic factors hindering optimal growth in these children. WHO 2002

57

Home-based neonatal care: Summary and applications of the field trial in rural Gadchiroli, India (1993 to 2003) Impact assessment of India Population Project (IPP-VIII) on Child Health in Metropolitan cities of India

This article summarizes the objectives, study design, processes and results of the field trial conducted in rural Gadchiroli on Home-based neonatal care (HBNC), and evaluates its effect on neonatal mortality. It also discusses issues pertaining to scaling up of the strategy at national level, its integration with the primary health care services, its limitations, and its cost and cost-effectiveness. Published in the journal Health and Population Perspectives and Issues in 2008, this article describes the findings of an end line evaluation of the India Population Programme (IPP-VIII) carried out by the National Institute of Medical Statistics during the year 2001-2002, with special focus on child health indicators. The Govt. of India had implemented this World Bank assisted seven-year program in 1993 in the four metropolitan cities of the country with an aim to provide quality integrated health care services to the urban poor. HPPI 2008 Journal of Perinatology 2005

Impact of Counseling on Care Seeking Behavior in Families with Sick Children: Cluster Randomized Trial in Rural India Impact of an integrated nutrition and health programme on neonatal mortality in rural northern India

A community-based cluster randomized trial conducted in 2002 in rural areas of Rajasthan to assess whether training doctors in counseling improves care seeking behavior of families with sick children.

British Medical Journal (BMJ) 2004

Published in the Bulletin of World Health Organization in 2008, this study evaluates the impact of a community-based package of maternal and newborn interventions facilitated by a non-governmental organization and implemented at scale using the existing government infrastructure through an integrated nutrition and health programme. The evaluation conducted in two rural districts of Uttar Pradesh, looks primarily at reduction in neonatal mortality. WHO 2008

58

Interventions to Prevent Hypothermia at Birth in Preterm and/or Low Birth Weight Infants Kangaroo Mother Care to Reduce Morbidity and Mortality in Low Birth Weight Infants Lancet Child Survival Series 2003 (Part 1) : Where And Why Are 10 Million Children Dying Every Year?

Published in 2010, this Cochrane review assesses the efficacy and safety of interventions designed for the prevention of hypothermia in preterm and/or low birth weight infants and applied within 10 minutes after birth in the delivery suite, compared with routine thermal care. A Cochrane review published in 2003 to review the evidence for the use of Kangaroo Mother Care in LBW infants as an alternative to conventional care after the initial common period of stabilization with conventional care. The first paper of the Lancet Child Survival Series published in 2003 gives an estimate of global child deaths across different regions and the distribution of causes of death that vary substantially for each country; emphasizing the need to expand understanding of child health epidemiology at a country level rather than in geopolitical regions.

Cochrane review 2010

Cochrane review

2003

WHO 2003

Lancet Child Survival Series 2003 (Part 2) : How Many Child Deaths Can We Prevent This Year?

This second article of the Lancet Child Survival Series 2003 reviews the evidence for interventions to reduce under-5 child mortality for each of the major direct and underlying causes of death. It documents the effectiveness of each intervention, the current level of coverage with these interventions, and evaluates the number of child deaths that could be prevented with universal coverage. 2003

Lancet Child Survival Series 2003 (Part 3) : Reducing child mortality: can public health deliver?

The third article of the Lancet Child Survival Series 2003 highlights the importance of an efficient delivery system of public health services to reduce child mortality. It also discusses the essential aspects of delivery systems including the need for data at the sub national level to support health planning, regular monitoring of provision and use of health services, and of intervention coverage, and the need to achieve LANCET 2003

59

high and equitable coverage with selected interventions.

Lancet Child Survival Series 2003 (Part 4) : Applying an equity lens to child health and mortality: more of the same is not enough

This fourth article of the Lancet Child Survival Series 2003 analyzes the gaps in child mortality between rich and poor countries as well as between wealthy and poor children within most countries, outlines the successful approaches for reducing inequities, advocates for regular monitoring of inequities with increased accountability, and prioritizes equity in child survival interventions and the delivery strategies as the essential element for reducing child mortality. LANCET 2003

Lancet Child Survival Series 2003 (Part 5) : Knowledge into action for child survival

The last article of the Lancet Child Survival Series 2003 advocates for leadership, strong health systems, targeted human and financial resources, and a modified health system for translating current knowledge into effective action to reduce child mortality and ensuring benefit for poor children and mothers. LANCET 2003

Lancet Neonatal Survival Series 2005 (Part 1) : 4 million neonatal deaths: When? Where? Why? Lancet Neonatal Survival Series 2005 (Part 2) : Evidence Based, Cost Effective Interventions: How Many Newborn Babies Can We Save?

The first article of the Lancet Neonatal Survival Series 2005 provides new and systematic global estimates of the timing, geographical distribution and the major direct causes of 4 million neonatal deaths occurring worldwide every year In this second article of the Lancet Neonatal Survival Series 2005, low-cost interventions with proven efficacy for neonatal survival were identified, combined into packages for scaling up in the health systems according to different service delivery modes, and their effect on neonatal mortality modeled at varying levels of coverage. 60

LANCET 2005

LANCET 2005

Lancet Neonatal Survival Series 2005 (Part 3) : Systematic scaling up of neonatal care in countries Lancet Neonatal Survival Series 2005 (Part 4) : A call for action

This third article of the Lancet Neonatal Survival Series 2005 describes the processes and actions required at the national and international level for scaling up newborn care in countries with high burden of neonatal mortality, along with the steps to strengthen their health systems and promote equity of health services. The fourth article of the Lancet neonatal survival series 2005 calls for immediate action in improving neonatal survival by implementing effective low-cost interventions, improving care during delivery and postnatal home visits, raising community awareness, and increasing funding and accountability for national and global commitments. LANCET 2005 LANCET 2005

Low Birth Weight and Preterm Neonates: Can They be Managed at Home by Mother and a Trained Village Health Worker?

This article analyzes the data retrospectively from the intervention arm of the Gadchiroli field trial and compares it with the pre-intervention phase to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of HBNC in the management of LBW/preterm neonates. Feasibility was assessed by coverage and by quality of care indicators, while effectiveness was evaluated by change in case fatality rate and in the incidence of co-morbidities in LBW/preterm neonates. Journal of Perinatology 2005

Management of birth asphyxia in home deliveries in rural Gadchiroli: The effect of two types of birth attendants and of resuscitating with mouth-to-mouth, tube-mask or bag–mask

This article analyzes the impact of home-based neonatal care (in rural Gadchiroli) on birth asphyxia by comparing the effectiveness of two types of workers and three methods of resuscitation used in home delivery. Effect on birth asphyxia was measured by its incidence, its case fatality rate, and asphyxia-specific mortality rate. Journal of Perinatology 2005

61

Neonatal Vitamin A supplementation for prevention of mortality and morbidity in infancy: Systematic review of randomised controlled trials Neonatal and infant mortality in the ten years (1993 to 2003) of the Gadchiroli field trial: Effect of home-based neonatal care

Published in the British Medical Journal in 2009, this systematic review was conducted to evaluate the effect of prophylactic vitamin A supplementation given during the neonatal period on infant mortality and morbidity, and its early adverse effects. The study found no convincing evidence of reduced risk of infant mortality and possibly morbidity. This article assesses the impact of the field trial of home-based neonatal care (HBNC) in Gadchiroli on neonatal and infant mortality during 10 years (1993 to 2003), and also estimates the contribution of the individual components in the intervention package on the observed effect. The impact was measured by comparing change in mortality indicators from the baseline period to the last 2 years of intervention.

British Medical Journal 2009

Journal of Perinatology 2005

Pilot testing of WHO child Growth standards in Chandigarh: implications for India’s child health programmes Reduced incidence of neonatal morbidities: Effect of Home-based neonatal care in rural Gadchiroli, India

Published in the Bulletin of WHO in 2009, this article compares the prevalence of underweight as calculated from Indian Academy of Paediatrics growth curves (based on the Harvard scale) and the new WHO Child Growth Standards in a randomly selected sample of children from ICDS centers located in Chandigarh, Punjab. This article reports the effect of home-based neonatal care on neonatal morbidities in the intervention arm of the field trial of home-based neonatal care (HBNC) in Gadchiroli by comparing the early vs late periods, and the possible explanation for this effect. Journal of Perinatology 2005 WHO 2009

62

The Executive Summary of the Lancet Neonatal Survival Series

This document gives the executive summary of the four articles included in the Lancet Neonatal Survival Series 2005. The goal of this series is to inform global policy and provide a framework for practical action in countries so that proven interventions for newborn survival reach the families in greatest need. LANCET 2005

The effect of maternal– newborn ill-health on households: Impact on economic growth of investing in maternal–newborn health (Part 3) The effect of maternal– newborn ill-health on households: economic vulnerability and social implications (Part 1)

A series of papers developed through a joint effort of three Geneva based WHO departments in 2006 to evaluate the actual impact and costs of maternal and newborn ill-health and death at the individual, familial and societal level, and their impact on poverty. This particular paper provides a systematic review of the evidence of the impact on economic growth of investments in maternal-newborn health. A series of papers developed through a joint effort of three Geneva based WHO departments in 2006 to evaluate the actual impact and costs of maternal and newborn ill-health and death at the individual, familial and societal level, and their impact on poverty. This particular paper reviews evidence base on economic vulnerability and social implications in relation to maternal-newborn ill health, and highlights major gaps in this evidence base. WHO 2006 WHO 2006

The effect of maternal– newborn ill-health on households: the costs of maternal newborn illness and mortality (Part 2)

A series of papers developed through a joint effort of three Geneva based WHO departments in 2006 to evaluate the actual impact and costs of maternal and newborn ill-health and death at the individual, familial and societal level, and their impact on poverty. This particular paper provides a systematic review of the estimation of the cost of illness related to maternal–newborn ill-health. WHO 2006

63

The incidence of morbidities in a cohort of neonates in rural Gadchiroli, India: Seasonal and temporal variation and a hypothesis about prevention Validation of Developmental Assessment Tools for Anganwadis (DATA) Why do neonates die in rural Gadchiroli, India (Part I): Primary causes of death assigned by neonatologist based on prospectively observed records

A prospective observational study nested in the first year of the field trial of homebased neonatal care (HBNC) in rural Gadchiroli to estimate the incidence of neonatal morbidities and associated risk of death in newborns cared at home, to assess the variation in incidence by season and day of life, and to identify the scope for prevention of morbidities and suggest a hypothesis for prevention. In this article the authors aimed to develop, standardize, and partly validate a developmental scale for toddlers (1.6 to 3 years) attending Anganwadis in India. This scale was used to identify toddlers at risk or with developmental delay. This article analyzes the primary causes of death among home-cared rural neonates in the first year of the field trial of home-based neonatal care (HBNC) in rural Gadchiroli, by using prospectively kept health records of neonates and a neonatologist’s clinical judgment. Journal of Perinatology 2005

Indian Pediatrics

2009

Journal of Perinatology 2005

Statistical Information

Baseline survey on child and related maternal health care: Consolidated report (NIPI Report)

Consolidated report of the baseline survey conducted in 2008-09 in the four states of Orissa, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan where the Norway India Partnership Initiative (NIPI) is working to reduce infant mortality and to improve maternal health. The survey was conducted to evaluate the status of child and related maternal health, identify gaps in the existing service delivery mechanism, assess the needs and opportunities, and develop benchmark indicators for project implementation. NIPI 2009

64

Baseline survey on child and related maternal health care: Orissa (NIPI Report)

Findings from the baseline survey conducted in 2008-09 in the three districts of Orissa where the Norway India Partnership Initiative (NIPI) is working to reduce infant mortality and to improve maternal health. The survey was conducted to evaluate the status of child and related maternal health in these districts, identify gaps in the existing service delivery mechanism, assess the needs and opportunities, and develop benchmark indicators for project implementation. NIPI 2009

Baseline survey on child and related maternal health care: Revised report Bihar (NIPI Report)

Findings from the baseline survey conducted in 2008-09 in the three districts of Bihar where the Norway India Partnership Initiative (NIPI) is working to reduce infant mortality and to improve maternal health. The survey was conducted to evaluate the status of child and related maternal health in these districts, identify gaps in the existing service delivery mechanism, assess the needs and opportunities, and develop benchmark indicators for project implementation. NIPI 2009

Baseline survey on child and related maternal health care: Revised report Madhya Pradesh (NIPI Report)

Findings from the baseline survey conducted in 2008-09 in the three districts of Madhya Pradesh where the Norway India Partnership Initiative (NIPI) is working to reduce infant mortality and to improve maternal health. The survey was conducted to evaluate the status of child and related maternal health in these districts, identify gaps in the existing service delivery mechanism, assess the needs and opportunities, and develop benchmark indicators for project implementation. NIPI 2009

Baseline survey on child and related maternal health care: Revised report Rajasthan (NIPI)

Findings from the baseline survey conducted in 2008-09 in the three districts of Rajasthan where the Norway India Partnership Initiative (NIPI) is working to reduce infant mortality and to improve maternal health. The survey was conducted to evaluate the status of child and related maternal health in these districts, identify gaps in the existing service delivery mechanism, assess the needs and NIPI 2009

65

opportunities, and develop benchmark indicators for project implementation.

Fact Sheet all States

This factsheet developed by NHSRC compares state-wise data on vital indicators and other indicators related to Child Health, Maternal Health, Family Planning and TB. The comparative data has been derived from NFHS III, SRS 2005 & 2007, SRS Bulletins and from Census 2001.

Tracking Progress in Maternal, Newborn and Child Survival: India 2008 report

The ‘India Countdown to 2015’ chart of 2008 gives graphical information on the progress of specific interventions for Nutrition, Child Health, Maternal & Newborn Health, Water & Sanitation, Health policies, Health systems and Equity issues, based on the latest data from the country. 2008

66

TOPIC: IMMUNIZATION

Themes Policy, Program, Guidelines

Titles Anthropometric Indicators Measurement Guide

Abstract Developed by the Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project with financial support from USAID in 2003, this guide describes the anthropometric indicators used for assessment and monitoring of nutritional status of infants and young children. It outlines the importance of specific indicators, the steps for collecting data, the equipments & methods of measurement, comparison of data with the reference standard, and the technique of data analysis.

Organization

Year

AED

2003

Government Guidelines -National Guidelines on Infant and Young Child Feeding

This document outlines the National Guideline on Infant and Young Child Feeding developed by the Department of Women and Child Development to advocate the cause and improvement of child nutrition, disseminate the correct norms of breastfeeding and complementary feeding at all levels, and help plan efforts for raising awareness and commitment for achieving optimal feeding practices. Department of Women and Child Development

2004

Government Guidelines -Operational guidelines for Nutrition Rehabilitation Centers (NRC)

This guideline by the Govt. of Orissa provides operational guidance for setting up Nutrition Rehabilitation Center for the institutional care and management of malnourished children. It gives information on the infrastructure and equipment needs of the centre, criteria for admission, training requirement, types of services, mechanism of monitoring and follow-up, and financial arrangements. NRHM 2008

Government Guidelines-Operational guidelines for Pustikar Diwas: A child

Developed by the Department of Health and Family Welfare Govt. of Orissa, this document provides guidance for operationalising a fixed day (on the 15th day of every month and known as ‘Pustikar Diwas’) at the Block PHC/CHC level to ensure 67 NRHM 2009

survival initiative

effective management, treatment and referral of severely malnourished children less than five years of age. This initiative has been started in collaboration with the State’s Women and Child Development Department.

Government Policy -- Review of the policy regarding micronutrients – Iron Folic Acid Government Policy -- Revised policy guidelines on National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme Government Policy -- Vitamin A Supplementation Programme in Children

A government circular issued in April 2007 by the Child Health division of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare detailing the approved national policy on Iron Folic Acid (IFA) supplementation in the country. It informs about the dosages and duration of IFA supplementation to be followed for the different age groups The Revised Policy Guidelines on NIDDCP of 2006 describes the magnitude of IDD in the country, the major achievements of the ongoing national programme, and the various aspects of the program in respect of new IDD survey guidelines suggested by ICMR including biochemical testing. A government circular issued in November 2006 by the Child Health division of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare regarding the revised national policy on Vitamin A supplementation Programme for children in the country. An attached note details the revised policy to be followed regarding prevention of Vitamin A deficiency, administration of its supplementation dose, and treatment of its deficiency. MoHFW 2006 MoHFW 2006 MOHFW 2007

Guidelines for Designing Evaluations of Community Based Nutrition Promotion Programs Guidelines for the Inpatient Treatment of Severely

This document published by the World Bank in 2007 provides guidance for evaluating the planning, technical and operational implementation and impact of community based nutrition programs. World Bank 2007

A guideline developed by the WHO in 2003 to provide practical help for the people 68

WHO

2003

Malnourished Children

responsible for dietary management and medical treatment of severely malnourished children.

Guiding Principles for Feeding Non-Breastfed Children 6-24 Months of Age

Published by the WHO in 2005, this document provides guidance on appropriate feeding of breastfed infants from six months onwards. It gives the recommendations along with the scientific rationale on issues related to quality, quantity, safety, hygiene and feeding during and after illness for such infants and young children. WHO 2005

Guiding principles for feeding infants and young children during emergencies

This document published by the WHO in 2004 provides guidance on the feeding of infants and young children during emergencies together with the explanation and significance of each of the working principles, their implication, and suggested actions to help prevent increased morbidity and mortality. WHO 2004

HIV and infant feeding: A guide for health care managers and supervisors

Based on new scientific and epidemiological information, this document published by the WHO in 2003 provides guidance to health-care managers and supervisors on issues regarding organization of infant and young child feeding services in the context of HIV, including areas of special concern. WHO 2003

HIV and infant feeding: Framework for priority action

Based on new scientific and epidemiological information, this framework published by the WHO in 2003 recommends priority actions to be taken at policy level regarding the infant and young child feeding under special circumstances associated with HIV/AIDS. This document encourages use of appropriate feeding practices and of scaling up interventions to reduce HIV transmission. WHO 2003

HIV and infant feeding: Guidelines for decision

Based on new scientific and epidemiological information, this document published by the WHO in 2003 provides guidance to decision-makers on issues requiring 69

WHO

2003

makers

consideration in relation to infant and young child feeding in the context of HIV, and to highlight areas of special concern on which policy decisions need to be adapted for local use.

Management of severe malnutrition: a manual for physicians and other senior health workers

Developed by the WHO in 1999 for health personnel working at the central and district level including physicians, nurses, and midwives, this manual provides guidelines on the evaluation, initial treatment, rehabilitation and follow-up of severely malnourished children below the age of 5 years in hospitals and health centers. It also briefly discusses the management of malnutrition in emergencies and management of malnutrition in adolescents and adults. WHO 1999

The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative: Revised, Updated and Expanded for Integrated Care

The Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) is a global effort launched by the WHO and UNICEF in 1991 to implement practices that protect, promote and support breastfeeding. Its resource materials for training have been revised, updated and expanded in 2009 to provide integrated care. This package now includes five sections: Section 1: Background and Implementation Section 2: Strengthening and Sustaining the BFHI, a course for decision-makers Section 3: Breastfeeding Promotion and Support in a Baby-Friendly Hospital, a 20hour course for maternity staff Section 4: Hospital Self Appraisal and Monitoring Section 5: External Assessment and Reassessment WHO / UNICEF

What are the options? Using formative research to adapt global recommendations on HIV and infant feeding to the

Published by the WHO in 2004, this document provides guidance to program managers, researchers, and policy makers on how to conduct formative research to establish the range of replacement feeding options and breast-milk feeding options in the context of HIV and infant feeding that may be acceptable, feasible, 70 WHO 2004

local context

affordable, sustainable and safe (AFASS) in different settings.

Technical Publication

A consensus call to national child health programs: Drop Mixed-Feeding Asia Pacific Conference on Breastfeeding and National Convention of BPNI 2003

Developed by the South Asia Breastfeeding Partners' Forum-4 in 2007, this document summarizes the recommendations on the policy and programme implications requiring attention to stop mixed feeding by HIV positive mothers. Summary report of the First Asia Pacific Conference on Breastfeeding held in New Delhi, India in December 2003 which was attended by representatives of 38 countries. The theme of the conference was ‘Infant and Young Child Feeding: From Policy to Practice’. BPNI 2003 IBFAN Asia 2008

Assessment of Status of Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) in practice, policy and program: Achievements and Gaps. BPNI WBW Action Folder 2002

A report on the workshop held in 2005 to discuss the nation-wide assessment conducted by BPNI to identify achievements and gaps in the existing policy, program and practices in reference to Infant and Young Child Feeding. The report was finalized after a consensus process involving key stakeholders. BPNI 2005

Developed on the eve of the World Breastfeeding Week 2002, this document advocates the importance of mother’s health including women’s right to humane and non-invasive birthing practices, and describes the actions required to improve the health status of mothers. BPNI 2002

BPNI WBW Action Folder 2003

Developed on the eve of World Breastfeeding Week 2003, this document describes the challenges of globalization, and also the opportunities provided by it for protecting, promoting and supporting breast feeding. BPNI 2003

71

BPNI’s 3 years Report

This report provides a quick view of the work BPNI had done during the period of 3 years (April 2003 to March 2006) to impact on the nutrition, health, development, and survival of infants and young children. BPNI 2006

Beyond survival: Integrated delivery care practices for long-term maternal and infant Nutrition, Health and Development Breaking the law and undermining breastfeeding – Series 1

This document by WHO PAHO focuses on 3 key practices for continuum of maternal newborn care at the community level – delayed cord clamping, skin-to-skin contact, and early initiation of exclusive breastfeeding. It reviews the current evidence on the nutritional and health benefits of these interventions followed by discussion on the feasibility of their implementation. An advocacy paper published by BPNI explaining the laws/legislation and the prohibited actions under ‘The IMS Act’. The first part of the series describes the activities undertaken by the baby food companies to market their product and how these actions violate the IMS Act. BPNI 2005 WHO-PAHO 2007

Breast milk: A Critical Source of Vitamin A for Infants and Young Children Breastfeeding and brain development

A technical publication on the recommended feeding and dietary practices for improving Vitamin A status in the mother, newborn baby, and the growing infant, and the various actions that can be taken at different levels to promote it. An information sheet prepared by IBFAN Asia Pacific and BPNI in 2005 summarizing the studies conducted globally to indicate positive correlation between breastfeeding and brain/cognitive development of the infants. BPNI/IBFAN 2008 LINKAGES 2000

Breastfeeding and family foods: Loving and Healthy

Published by BPNI on the eve of World Breastfeeding Week 2005, this brochure gives information on the importance of continued breastfeeding after six months of age along with timely introduction of complimentary foods, the correct process and BPNI 2005

72

the types of food to be introduced, and the IMS Act. Breastfeeding: A Vital Emergency Response Published by BPNI on the eve of World Breastfeeding Week 2009, this brochure explains the vital role played by breastfeeding as a lifeline for infants in emergencies, brings forth the challenges in protecting breastfeeding in emergencies and assesses India’s readiness to take on the challenge. BPNI 2009

Breastfeeding: The First Hour Save One Million Babies

Published by BPNI on the eve of World Breastfeeding Week 2007, this brochure informs about the benefits of early initiation of breastfeeding, the steps and actions required to promote it, and its usefulness in improving child survival. BPNI 2007

Challenging Assumptions: Breastfeeding and HIV/AIDS

A policy brief by PATH summarizes the benefits of breastfeeding by HIV Positive mothers in reducing the risk of HIV transmission in breastfed children, and advocates increased adoption of WHO guidelines on infant feeding and HIV. PATH 2008

Child and Maternal Nutrition in India

Developed by USAID’s MCH-STAR initiative, this factsheet summarizes the status of child and maternal nutrition in India, lists the interventions that work, and advocates actions for improving their status. USAID

Childhood Obesity and Non Communicable Diseases: ICMR-CIHR Workshop

Report of the 2 day joint workshop conducted by ICMR and Canadian Institutes of Health Research in 2009 on the causes and prevention of childhood obesity. The main themes of discussion were epidemiologic transition & its consequences, early origins of obesity, the obesogenic environment and public health interventions. ICMR 2009

Community based strategies for breastfeeding promotion

Published by the WHO in 2003, this review examines the role of communities and community-based resource persons (interventions) in promoting and supporting 73

LINKAGES

2003

and support in developing countries

optimal breastfeeding practices in developing countries. Based on a review of the literature and an analysis of three projects, it assesses the impact of these interventions, the mechanisms through which behaviours can be changed, and the factors that are necessary to maximize and sustain the benefits of interventions.

Community-Level Interventions to Prevent and Treat Anemia: A Review of Evidence from India

A series of evidence reviews prepared by USAID-funded Vistaar project team in 2008 to assist the national government in making evidence-based decisions regarding Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and Nutrition (MNCHN) interventions. A part of the evidence review series published by VISTAAR project of USAID in 2008 to help make evidence-based decisions regarding Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and Nutrition (MNCHN) interventions. This document outlines the review on community-level interventions for anemia prevention and treatment, summarizes the selected interventions, and shares the recommendations and evidence gaps identified by a technical expert group after analysis of the interventions. USAID 2008

Defining the issues for Vitamin A

This document developed by the A2Z Project in 2007 reviews the existing evidence and the gaps related to Vitamin A supplementation in children and women of reproductive age group, the methods of assessing its status, the strategies to prevent and control its deficiency, and the barriers to scale up sustainable interventions. AED 2007

Evidence for the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding

Developed in 1998 by the WHO/UNICEF, this document summarizes the practices necessary to support breastfeeding along with review of evidence for the efficacy of the ‘Ten Steps to successful breastfeeding’, to act as a tool for both advocacy and education. These Ten Steps are the foundation of their Baby Friendly Hospital WHO 1998

74

Initiative (BFHI). Exclusive Breastfeeding: The Gold Standard A brochure by BPNI on the eve of World Breastfeeding Week 2004 emphasizing the importance of exclusive breast feeding as a safe, sound and sustainable strategy for improving child survival, and promoting it as the societal norm for normal babies as well as in special conditions of LBW babies and HIV positive mothers. Facts for Feeding: Birth, initiation of breastfeeding, and the first seven days after birth ‘Facts for Feeding’ is a series of publication from the LINKAGES project of USAID on the recommended feeding and dietary practices to improve nutritional status at various stages of life cycle. This document developed in 2003 summarizes the recommended practices/processes to be followed at the time of birth, initiation of breastfeeding, and during the first seven days after birth. First Regional Workshop on Promoting Child Survival, Nutrition and Health by Achieving Optimal IYCF Practices Global response to contamination of powdered infant formula with E Sakazakii Government Circular-Government order for revised norms for monitoring and evaluation mechanism at the Ministry of Women & Development (MWCD) in May 2009 informing about the revised norms for Child strengthening monitoring and evaluation mechanism under the centrally sponsored Development (MWCD) A copy of the Government order issued by the Ministry of Women and Child 75 A technical publication developed by BPNI summarizing different actions taken by various government and UN agencies across the globe against contamination of powdered infant formula with Enterobacter sakazakii. BPNI 2007 Summary report of the First Regional Workshop of the Northern states of India held in New Delhi in June 2006 for Promoting Child Survival, Nutrition and Health by achieving optimal IYCF practices. BPNI 2006 LINKAGES 2003 BPNI 2004

2009

State Government/UT administration level under ICDS Scheme Government Circular-Guidelines for provision of Pre-school Education Kits for Anganwadi Centers under ICDS Scheme Government Circular-Project: meeting with the State Secretaries and Directors of eight states to discuss the project preparation and related issues Government Report-Minutes of the first quarterly review meeting during 200910 for the monitoring of the ICDS Training Programme Government Report-Implementation Completion report of World Bank Assisted

ICDS Scheme.

A Government order issued by the MWCD in May 2009 informing the States and the Union Territories about the revised guideline for provision of Pre-school Education kit for Anganwadi centers under the ICDS Scheme.

Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD)

2009

Minutes of a meeting convened by the MWCD in October 2009 to discuss the ICDS-IV Project. Ministry of Women & Child Development (MWCD)

Proposed IDA assisted ICDS-IV preparation of the project implementation plans (PIPs) and related issues under the

2009

Minutes of the first quarterly review meeting conducted by the MWCD in August 2009 to review the implementation of the ICDS Training Programme during 20082009.

Ministry of Women & Child Development (MWCD) Ministry of Women & Child Development (MWCD)

2009

A report published by the Government of India in 2006 evaluating Phase III of the World Bank assisted Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Project. The project was implemented in 1999 in the 5 states of Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Uttar 76

2006

ICDS-III/WCD Project: Evaluation report by Govt. of India IBFAN Asia Position Statement on HIV and Infant Feeding Improving Complementary Feeding Practices: A Review of Evidence from South Asia

Pradesh, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, and envisaged strengthening and improvement in service quality in existing blocks while introducing ICDS services in new blocks especially those in disadvantaged rural areas, tribal areas and hard to reach areas. A position paper developed by IBFAN and BPNI in 2008 outlining their recommendations on infant feeding and HIV. The recommendations are based on latest research findings and protocols. A series of evidence reviews prepared by USAID-funded Vistaar project team in 2008 to assist the national government in making evidence-based decisions regarding Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and Nutrition (MNCHN) interventions. A part of the evidence review series published by VISTAAR project of USAID in 2008 to help make evidence-based decisions regarding Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and Nutrition (MNCHN) interventions. This document outlines the review on interventions for improving complementary feeding practices in the community, summarizes the selected interventions, and shares the recommendations and evidence gaps identified by a technical expert group after analysis of the interventions. USAID 2008 IBFAN /BPNI 2008

Improving Performance of Community-Level Health and Nutrition Functionaries: A Review of Evidence in India

A series of evidence reviews prepared by USAID-funded Vistaar project team in 2008 to assist the national government in making evidence-based decisions regarding Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and Nutrition (MNCHN) interventions. A part of the evidence review series published by VISTAAR project of USAID in 2008 to help make evidence-based decisions regarding Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and Nutrition (MNCHN) interventions. This document outlines the review on interventions for improving the performance of communitylevel health and nutrition functionaries (ANMs, AWWs, ASHAs), summarizes the 77 USAID 2008

selected interventions, and shares the recommendations and evidence gaps identified by a technical expert group after analysis of the interventions. India protects Breastfeeding An advocacy paper by BPNI summarizing the actions prohibited under the Infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding Bottles and Infant Foods (Regulation of Production, Supply and Distribution) Amendment Act, 2003, also known as 'The IMS Act of 2003'. India’s Undernourished Children: A call for reform and action A discussion paper produced by the World Bank in 2005 which explores the dimensions of child undernutrition in India, examines the effectiveness of the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) program in addressing it, and discusses a number of actions that can be taken to bridge the gap between the policy intentions of ICDS and its actual implementation. Infant feeding and HIV: A regional colloquium for the Asia Pacific A report produced by BPNI/IBFAN summarizing the deliberations and outcomes of the colloquium held in 2003 which was attended by agencies/experts from the HIV/AIDS and infant feeding fields from 29 countries, to work on common strategies and actions to ensure the survival of young children in the context of growing HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Asia Pacific region. Infant feeding in emergency situations: a report from the National Convention of BPNI Report from the National Convention of BPNI held in 2005 on ‘Infant feeding in Emergency situations’. It includes relevant background information, brief proceedings of the scientific session held during the national convention on the topic, views of several stakeholders, reports from the four states who faced natural disasters, and recommendations from the scientific session as agreed by all participants. BPNI 2005 BPN / IBFAN 2003 World Bank 2005 BPNI 2009

78

Introducing the new WHO child growth standards: Report of a Regional Workshop 2006

A report of the regional workshop held by WHO SEARO at Bangkok, Thailand in 2006 to orient the member countries to the new WHO Child Growth Standards, identify challenges and opportunities in adapting the new standards based on the existing growth monitoring practices, and formulate a draft framework for action plans for adapting the new standards in individual countries. WHO 2006

Micronutrients, Health and Development: Evidence based Programs, the 2nd International Meeting of the Micronutrient Forum Mother Support: Going for the Gold

Report of the 2nd International Meeting of the Micronutrient Forum held in Beijing, China in May 2009. The theme of the conference was to discuss the current status of evidence-based micronutrient programs and different strategies on how to scale them up. Sight and Life 2009

Published by BPNI on the eve of World Breastfeeding Week 2008, this brochure gives information about the importance and actions required to support a breastfeeding mother at the level of family, healthcare facility, workplace, government/legislation, and in emergency or crisis. BPNI 2008

Nutrition Essentials

The fourth part of a series of five advocacy documents prepared by CARE on child health and nutrition in India. This document describes the burden of malnutrition, the importance of each nutrient with its sources and deficiency disorders, and strategies to ensure adequate nutrition in pregnant women, lactating mothers, newborn babies, young infants and children. CARE

Relactation: A review of experience and recommendations for practice

A document published by the WHO in 1998 reviewing evidence regarding relactation and restoration of breastfeeding, and informs the health workers about how to assist women and children in need of such help. WHO 1998

79

Repositioning Nutrition as central to development: A strategy for large scale action

A report developed by the World Bank in 2006 summarizing the importance of nutrition as an investment for development, the causes and impact of malnutrition, the main interventions for improving nutrition along with identified areas of gap, the challenges for scaling up programs for under nutrition and micronutrient malnutrition, and proposes steps for future action. World Bank 2006

Review Meeting with the States on IDA assisted ICDSIV/Reform project

Minutes of the meeting held by the MWCD in April 2008 with the eight States selected under the ICDS-IV/Reform Project to review the progress in the preparation of the State Project Implementation Plans (SPIPs) and the District Annual Plans (DAPs)

Ministry of Women & Child Development (MWCD)

2008

Severe malnutrition: Report of a consultation to review current literature

Report of a consultation organized by the WHO in 2004 with the objective to review new evidence in relation to the WHO guidelines for infants aged less than 6 months and make appropriate changes if required, assess the guidelines in relation to the care of severely malnourished children with HIV/AIDS, and identify a research agenda for inpatient care of such children. WHO 2004

South Asia Breastfeeding Partners Forum 4: A report

Report of the South Asia Breastfeeding Partners Forum-4 held in New Delhi, India in December 2007. The theme of the conference was ‘Save Babies: Support Women to Breastfeed’. IBFAN 2007

South Asia Breastfeeding Partners Forum 5: A report

Report of the South Asia Breastfeeding Partners Forum-5 held in Thimphu, Bhutan in October 2008. The theme of the conference was “Protecting, Promoting and Supporting Breastfeeding: Assess, Analyse and Act” IBFAN 2008

Status of Infant and Young Child Feeding in 49 Districts

Report of the study conducted by BPNI in 2003 to evaluate infant and young child feeding practices and behavior, and systematically monitor the implementation of 80

BPNI

2003

of India Status of infant and young child feeding in Uttarakhand

the IMS Act in the selected districts across 25 states of India. A quantitative study conducted by BPNI in 2006 to evaluate the status of infant and young child feeding practices in Uttarkhand, to assess the barriers to optimal feeding practices, and to investigate the knowledge and skills of health care providers and support provided by them on infant feeding practices in hospitals. BPNI 2006

Strengthening ICDS for reduction of child malnutrition

This report summarizes the presentations and the discussions at a national consultation organized by the MWCD and the World Bank in May 2006 to review Ministry of Women & Child to introduce substantial changes in the program’s design and implementation in Development order to transform it into an intervention that effectively addresses the principal (MWCD) causes of malnutrition. the characteristics and impact of the ICDS Scheme, and invite suggestions on how A technical publication from IBFAN and BPNI in 2006 summarizing the available scientific evidence on the role of exclusive breastfeeding in reducing the risk of childhood obesity. IBFAN/BPNI 2006

2006

Tackling obesity in its infancy

The IMS Act: Making it Known to People

An advocacy brochure on ‘The Infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding Bottles and Infant Foods Act 1992’ amended to ‘The IMS Act’ in 2003 to inform the readers about the actions prohibited under the Act, and where to report in case of any violation of rules by the food companies. BPNI 2006

The Law To Protect, Promote And Support Breastfeeding

Published by BPNI this book attempts to explain in simple words the basic provisions of the infant milk substitutes, feeding bottles and infant foods (regulation of production, supply and distribution) amendment act. BPNI 2008

81

The State of Breastfeeding in 33 Countries: Tracking Infant and Young Child Feeding policies and programmes worldwide (NEW)

Published by BPNI/IBFAN-Asia in 2010, this report summarizes the assessment of Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) policies and programmes carried out in 33 countries using the tool World Breastfeeding Trends Initiatives (WBTi). The tool analyzes 10 areas of action of the Global Strategy for IYCF and documents 5 optimal IYCF practices (as recommended by WHO) at the national level through participatory approach, and helps each country to identify the gaps and build consensus to bridge them. IBFAN 2010

The State of the World’s Breastfeeding: South Asia Report

Prepared by IBFAN Asia in 2007, this consolidated report provides information on the initiatives taken by the eight South Asian countries to implement the ‘Global strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding’. It gives a detailed analysis of the feeding practices, policies and programmes in these countries, along with background information on the status of child malnutrition and child survival. IBFAN 2007

Thematic workshop on Information, Education & Communication (IEC) & dissemination of findings of Social Assessment Study Timely Initiation of Breastfeeding within 1st Hour of Birth

Proceedings of a workshop organized by the MWCD and the World Bank in 2008 to orient key stakeholders from the eight states (included under the ICDS-IV/Reform Project) on the concepts of IEC and BCC, provide inputs on various aspects of planning, implementation and monitoring for the IEC component of the PIPs, and share findings from the Social Assessment Study conducted as part of the project. A publication from IBFAN in 2007 describing the available scientific evidence on the benefits of timely initiation of breastfeeding within the first hour of birth, the factors affecting mother’s decision to initiate breastfeeding, and the actions needed to support her. IBFAN 2007 Ministry of Women & Child Development (MWCD)

2008

World Breastfeeding Trends

Prepared by Public Health Resource Network (PHRN) and BPNI in 2008, this report evaluates the progress made by India on the ten indicators of policy and 82

Public Health Resource Network

2008

Initiative: India Report 2008

programmes under the framework of action in the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding, using the World Breastfeeding Trends Initiative (WBTi) of IBFAN Asia.

(PHRN)/BPNI

World Breastfeeding Week 2009: Breastfeeding- A vital emergency response

Developed by the World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (WABA) on the eve of World Breastfeeding Week 2009, this document briefly describes the importance of breastfeeding during emergencies, the challenges to protect and support it, and the actions that can be taken for preparedness and response. WABA 2009

Training

Behavior Change Communication for improved Infant Feeding: Training of Trainers for negotiating sustainable behavior change Breastfeeding Counseling: A training course (Trainer's Guide)

Developed by LINKAGES in 2004, this module aims to train community health workers in BCC skills to improve infant feeding, and train the trainers to deliver such trainings. It includes a community training module for training Community Health Workers in BCC skills and infant feeding knowledge, and a training of trainers (TOT) module to be used in combination with the community module. This manual is part of the Breastfeeding counseling course developed by the WHO/UNICEF in 1993 for the health workers. The document provides detailed instructions to the trainers on how to conduct each session of training. It includes description of the teaching methods, exercises together with suggested answers, practical guidelines, summary boxes, forms, lists, and the checklists. WHO 1993 LINKAGES 2004

Breastfeeding Counseling: A training course (Director’s guide)

This guide is part of the Breastfeeding Counseling course developed by the WHO/UNICEF in 1993 for the health workers. The document provides guidance to the course directors on how to plan and conduct a training of health workers to enable them develop clinical and interpersonal skills for supporting optimal breastfeeding practices. It includes the course outline, instructions for necessary 83 WHO 1993

preparations, and a description of the facilities, materials, and equipment needed. Breastfeeding Counseling: A training course (Participants' manual) This manual is part of the Breastfeeding Counseling course developed by the WHO/UNICEF in 1993 for the health workers. The document provides useful information to the participants to enable them develop clinical and interpersonal skills for supporting optimal breastfeeding practices. The information is given in the form of practical guidelines, summary boxes, forms, lists and checklists. Formative research and TIPs training report: Linkages project A report on a workshop conducted by CRS and LINKAGES in 2003 to enhance the capacity of workers in facilitating formative research in project sites under the Safe Motherhood and Child Survival program, so as to explore the factors influencing infant, children and maternal feeding practices in their areas. Published by MoHFW, the guide informs the trainer of the requirements, teaching methods and assessment techniques to train health workers in immunization. WHO/ UNICEF 2005 2003 WHO 1993

HIV and Infant feeding counseling tools: Reference guide WHO child growth standards: training course on child growth assessment (Module 1)

Training course of 5 modules designed by the WHO in 2008 as a tool for the application of the new Child Growth Standards by the healthcare provider. The new standards establish breastfed infants as the model for growth and development and show what growth can be achieved with recommended feeding and health care. The first module gives introduction to the training course, and briefly explains the content of other modules and their learning objectives. WHO 2008

WHO child growth standards: training course on child growth assessment (Module

Training course of 5 modules designed by the WHO in 2008 as a tool for the application of the new Child Growth Standards by the healthcare provider. The new standards establish breastfed infants as the model for growth and development and 84 WHO 2008

2)

show what growth can be achieved with recommended feeding and health care. This second module of the series of 5 modules provides training on how to recognize signs of malnutrition, how to measure and record weight and height, and how to calculate different anthropometric indicators.

WHO child growth standards: training course on child growth assessment (Module 3)

Training course of 5 modules designed by the WHO in 2008 as a tool for the application of the new Child Growth Standards by the healthcare provider. The new standards establish breastfed infants as the model for growth and development and show what growth can be achieved with recommended feeding and health care. This third module of the series of 5 modules provides information on the use of growth charts to identify normal growth for a given child, and how to interpret different growth indicators. WHO 2008

WHO child growth standards: training course on child growth assessment (Module 4)

Training course of 5 modules designed by the WHO in 2008 as a tool for the application of the new Child Growth Standards by the healthcare provider. The new standards establish breastfed infants as the model for growth and development and show what growth can be achieved with recommended feeding and health care. This fourth module of the series of 5 modules provides information on how to inform mother/carer about the results of growth assessment, how to interview them to identify cause of malnutrition, and how to counsel them for appropriate feeding practices. WHO 2008

WHO child growth standards: training course on child growth assessment (Module 5)

Training course of 5 modules designed by the WHO in 2008 as a tool for the application of the new Child Growth Standards by the healthcare provider. The new standards establish breastfed infants as the model for growth and development and show what growth can be achieved with recommended feeding and health care. WHO 2008

85

This last module is a photo-booklet with pictures of different forms of malnutrition.

Scientific Articles

A systematic review of maternal obesity and breastfeeding intention, initiation and duration Algorithms for Converting Estimates of Child Malnutrition Based on the NCHS Reference into Estimates Based on the WHO Child Growth Standards Breastfeeding knowledge and practices amongst mothers in a rural population of north India: a community-based study Comparison of Ready-to-Use therapeutic food with cereal legume-based Khichri among malnourished children

Published in the journal BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth in 2007, this systematic review of observational studies (except case studies and clinical papers) analyses the relationship between maternal overweight/obesity, and breastfeeding intention, initiation and duration of breastfeeding. This paper published in 2008 provides algorithms for converting estimates of child malnutrition based on the NCHS reference into estimates based on the new WHO growth standards. Developed using simple linear regression analysis, the algorithms are aimed to help assist reanalysis of older data with the WHO Standards and make it comparable. WHO 2008 BioMed central 2007

Published in the Journal of Tropical Pediatrics in 2008, this observational study carried out in rural population of Haryana aims to identify the different patterns/practices of breastfeeding among mothers of infants aged 0-6 months, assess their breastfeeding knowledge, and identify various variables influencing the practices and the knowledge. Published in 2009 in the Journal of Indian Pediatrics, this preliminary trial with cross-over design conducted in urban middle to low socioeconomic neighborhoods of Delhi compares the acceptability and energy intake of ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) with cereal legume-based khichri among children in the age group of 6 to 36 months. Journal of Indian Pediatrics Journal of Tropical Pediatrics

2008

2009

86

Comparison of the WHO Child Growth Standards and the CDC 2000 Growth Charts

Published in 2007, this article compares the WHO and CDC child growth curves for weight-for-age, length/height-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height and BMI, and evaluate the growth performance of healthy breast-fed infants according to the two standards. WHO / CDC 2007

Comparison of the World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards and the National Center for Health Statistics/WHO international growth reference: implications for child health programmes Developmental readiness of normal full-term infants to progress from exclusive breastfeeding to the introduction of complementary foods

Published by the journal Public Health Nutrition in 2006, this article compares the growth patterns and malnutrition estimates based on the new WHO Child Growth Standards and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)/WHO international growth reference, and discuss implications for child health programmes. It includes secondary analysis of longitudinal data for comparing growth patterns and data from cross-sectional surveys for comparing malnutrition estimates among children under 5 years. WHO 2006

Developed by the LINKAGES project of USAID in 2001, this document describes the literature reviews undertaken to provide evidence for the best age (4 to 6 months or 6 months) of introducing complementary foods into the diet of a breastfed human infant. The reviews do not focus on health outcomes associated with discontinuing exclusive breastfeeding at a particular age, but rather on the biologic/developmental readiness in terms of four functions: gastrointestinal, immunologic, oral motor and maternal reproductive processes related to continuation of breast milk. LINKAGES 2001

Field-testing the WHO Child Growth Standards in Four Countries

Published in 2007, this article presents the results of a field testing multinational study conducted to evaluate the validity of the WHO growth standards against clinician assessments of children’s attained linear growth and size. WHO 2007

87

Growth of Healthy Infants and the Timing, Type, and Frequency of Complementary Foods

Published in 2002, this article analyzes data from a WHO multinational longitudinal study to explore the associations between the timing of introduction of complementary foods, the types of foods, and the frequency of both breast-feeding and complementary foods on the growth pattern in breast-fed infants particularly between 4 and 6 months of age. WHO 2002

Impact of an integrated nutrition and health programme on neonatal mortality in rural northern India

Published in the Bulletin of World Health Organization in 2008, this study evaluates the impact of a community-based package of maternal and newborn interventions facilitated by a non-governmental organization and implemented at scale using the existing government infrastructure through an integrated nutrition and health programme. The evaluation conducted in two rural districts of Uttar Pradesh, looks primarily at reduction in neonatal mortality. WHO 2008

Interventions for promoting the initiation of breastfeeding

Published by the Cochrane Collaboration in 2005 and updated in 2008, the objectives of this systematic review of RCTs were to identify and describe health promotion activities which aim to encourage women to breastfeed, to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of different types of such activities in terms of changes in the number of women who initiate breastfeeding, and to report any other beneficial or adverse effects. Cochrane Library

Lipid profile of term infants on exclusive breastfeeding and mixed feeding: A comparative study Maternal and Child Undernutrition 1: Global and

A prospective comparative study conducted in a tertiary care hospital comparing the lipid profiles of exclusively breastfed and mixed-fed term healthy infants in the first 6 months of life.

Europeon Journal of Clinical Nutrition

2007

This is the first article of the Lancet 2008 series of five papers on Maternal and Child Undernutrition. This article estimates the magnitude of maternal and child 88

LANCET

2008

regional exposures and health consequences Maternal and Child Undernutrition 2: Consequences for adult health and human capital

undernutrition and its short-term consequences in terms of child mortality and disease burden, as measured by disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). The second article of the Lancet 2008 series of five papers on Maternal and Child Undernutrition reviews the evidence for long-term consequences of undernutrition in terms of impact on adult human capital (height, school achievement, economic productivity, birthweight of the offspring) and the risk of long-term/chronic disease in adults. LANCET 2008

Maternal and Child Undernutrition 3: What works? Interventions for maternal and child undernutrition and survival Maternal and Child Undernutrition 4: Effective action at National level

This is the third article of the Lancet 2008 series of five papers on Maternal and Child Undernutrition. It summarizes the evidence about interventions with proven effectiveness in reducing undernutrion and nutrition-related outcomes, assesses their applicability in low and middle income countries, and estimates the potential benefit of implementing these effective interventions. This is the fourth article of the Lancet 2008 series of five papers on Maternal and Child Undernutrition. This article reviews evidence from systematic reviews and best practice reports to evaluate measures taken to reduce undernutrition in countries with the highest burden, identifies seven key challenges for addressing the problem at the national level, and describes the strategies to overcome these challenges. LANCET 2008 LANCET 2008

Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding

Published by the Cochrane Collaboration in 2002 and updated in 2006, this systematic review of controlled trials and observational studies assesses the effects of exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months versus exclusive breastfeeding for 3-4 months with mixed breastfeeding thereafter through six months, on child’s health, Cochrane Library 2002

89

growth and development, and on maternal health. The optimal duration of Exclusive Breastfeeding: A systematic review A systematic review published by the WHO in 2002 to assess the effect of exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months vs exclusive breastfeeding for 3–4 months with mixed breastfeeding (introduction of complementary liquid or solid foods with continued breastfeeding) thereafter through 6 months, on child health, growth, and development. Use of new World Health Organization child growth standards to assess how infant malnutrition relates to breastfeeding and mortality Published in the Bulletin of World Health Organization in 2010, this study compares the prevalence of malnutrition using the WHO’s child growth standards versus the National Center for Health Statistics growth reference by secondary analysis of a large dataset obtained from a multi-country RCT conducted in Ghana, Peru and India. It also examines the relationship between exclusive breastfeeding and malnutrition, and determines the diagnostic accuracy of nutritional status indicators for predicting infant deaths. WHO 2010 WHO 2002

Statistical Information

Fact Sheet All States

This factsheet developed by NHSRC compares state-wise data on vital indicators and other indicators related to Child Health, Maternal Health, Family Planning and TB. The comparative data has been derived from NFHS III, SRS 2005 & 2007, SRS Bulletins and from Census 2001. NHSRC

Nutrition in India: National Family Health Survey (NFHS 3) India 2005-06

This report produced by the International Institute of Population Sciences (IIPS) in 2009 provides evidence of the poor nutritional status of young children, women, and men in India, and the lack of improvement in their status over time. The findings of this report are based on the data from NFHS 3. 90 IIPS 2009

Tracking Progress in Maternal, Newborn and Child Survival: India 2008 Report

The ‘India Countdown to 2015’ chart of 2008 gives graphical information on the progress of specific interventions for Nutrition, Child Health, Maternal & Newborn Health, Water & Sanitation, Health policies, Health systems and Equity issues, based on the latest data from the country. 2008

91

TOPIC: NUTRITION

Themes Policy, Program, Guidelines

Titles Anthropometric Indicators Measurement Guide

Abstract Developed by the Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project with financial support from USAID in 2003, this guide describes the anthropometric indicators used for assessment and monitoring of nutritional status of infants and young children. It outlines the importance of specific indicators, the steps for collecting data, the equipments & methods of measurement, comparison of data with the reference standard, and the technique of data analysis.

Organization

Year

AED

2003

Government Guidelines -National Guidelines on Infant and Young Child Feeding

This document outlines the National Guideline on Infant and Young Child Feeding developed by the Department of Women and Child Development to advocate the cause and improvement of child nutrition, disseminate the correct norms of breastfeeding and complementary feeding at all levels, and help plan efforts for raising awareness and commitment for achieving optimal feeding practices. Department of Women and Child Department

2004

Government Guidelines -Operational guidelines for Nutrition Rehabilitation Centers (NRC)

This guideline by the Govt. of Orissa provides operational guidance for setting up Nutrition Rehabilitation Center for the institutional care and management of malnourished children. It gives information on the infrastructure and equipment needs of the centre, criteria for admission, training requirement, types of services, mechanism of monitoring and follow-up, and financial arrangements NRHM 2008

Government Guidelines-Operational guidelines for Pustikar Diwas: A child survival initiative

Developed by the Department of Health and Family Welfare Govt. of Orissa, this document provides guidance for operationalising a fixed day (on the 15th day of every month and known as ‘Pustikar Diwas’) at the Block PHC/CHC level to ensure 92 NRHM 2009

effective management, treatment and referral of severely malnourished children less than five years of age. This initiative has been started in collaboration with the State’s Women and Child Development Department. Government Policy -- Review of the policy regarding micronutrients – Iron Folic Acid A government circular issued in April 2007 by the Child Health division of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare detailing the approved national policy on Iron Folic Acid (IFA) supplementation in the country. It informs about the dosages and duration of IFA supplementation to be followed for the different age groups Government Policy -- Revised policy guidelines on National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme The Revised Policy Guidelines on NIDDCP of 2006 describes the magnitude of IDD in the country, the major achievements of the ongoing national programme, and the various aspects of the program in respect of new IDD survey guidelines suggested by ICMR including biochemical testing. Government Policy -- Vitamin A Supplementation Programme in Children A government circular issued in November 2006 by the Child Health division of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare regarding the revised national policy on Vitamin A supplementation Programme for children in the country. An attached note details the revised policy to be followed regarding prevention of Vitamin A deficiency, administration of its supplementation dose, and treatment of its deficiency Guidelines for Designing Evaluations of Community Based Nutrition Promotion Programs Guidelines for the Inpatient Treatment of Severely Malnourished Children This document published by the World Bank in 2007 provides guidance for evaluating the planning, technical and operational implementation and impact of community based nutrition programs. A guideline developed by the WHO in 2003 to provide practical help for the people responsible for dietary management and medical treatment of severely 93 World Bank 2007 MOHFW 2006 MOHFW 2006 MOHFW 2007

WHO

2003

malnourished children. Guiding Principles for Feeding Non-Breastfed Children 6-24 Months of Age Published by the WHO in 2005, this document provides guidance on appropriate feeding of breastfed infants from six months onwards. It gives the recommendations along with the scientific rationale on issues related to quality, quantity, safety, hygiene and feeding during and after illness for such infants and young children. Guiding principles for feeding infants and young children during emergencies This document published by the WHO in 2004 provides guidance on the feeding of infants and young children during emergencies together with the explanation and significance of each of the working principles, their implication, and suggested actions to help prevent increased morbidity and mortality. HIV and infant feeding: A guide for health care managers and supervisors Based on new scientific and epidemiological information, this document published by the WHO in 2003 provides guidance to health-care managers and supervisors on issues regarding organization of infant and young child feeding services in the context of HIV, including areas of special concern. HIV and infant feeding: Framework for priority action Based on new scientific and epidemiological information, this framework published by the WHO in 2003 recommends priority actions to be taken at policy level regarding the infant and young child feeding under special circumstances associated with HIV/AIDS. This document encourages use of appropriate feeding practices and of scaling up interventions to reduce HIV transmission. HIV and infant feeding: Guidelines for decision makers Based on new scientific and epidemiological information, this document published by the WHO in 2003 provides guidance to decision-makers on issues requiring consideration in relation to infant and young child feeding in the context of HIV, and 94 WHO 2003 WHO 2003 WHO 2003 WHO 2004 WHO 2005

to highlight areas of special concern on which policy decisions need to be adapted for local use. Management of severe malnutrition: a manual for physicians and other senior health workers Developed by the WHO in 1999 for health personnel working at the central and district level including physicians, nurses, and midwives, this manual provides guidelines on the evaluation, initial treatment, rehabilitation and follow-up of severely malnourished children below the age of 5 years in hospitals and health centers. It also briefly discusses the management of malnutrition in emergencies and management of malnutrition in adolescents and adults. The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative: Revised, Updated and Expanded for Integrated Care The Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) is a global effort launched by the WHO and UNICEF in 1991 to implement practices that protect, promote and support breastfeeding. Its resource materials for training have been revised, updated and expanded in 2009 to provide integrated care. This package now includes five sections: Section 1: Background and Implementation Section 2: Strengthening and Sustaining the BFHI, a course for decision-makers Section 3: Breastfeeding Promotion and Support in a Baby-Friendly Hospital, a 20hour course for maternity staff Section 4: Hospital Self Appraisal and Monitoring Section 5: External Assessment and Reassessment Published by the WHO in 2004, this document provides guidance to program managers, researchers, and policy makers on how to conduct formative research to establish the range of replacement feeding options and breast-milk feeding options in the context of HIV and infant feeding that may be acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable and safe (AFASS) in different settings. WHO 2004 WHO 1999

WHO / UNICEF

2006

What are the options? Using formative research to adapt global recommendations on HIV and infant feeding to the local context

95

Technical Publications

A consensus call to national child health programs: Drop Mixed-Feeding

Developed by the South Asia Breastfeeding Partners' Forum-4 in 2007, this document summarizes the recommendations on the policy and programme implications requiring attention to stop mixed feeding by HIV positive mothers IBFAN Asia 2008

Asia Pacific Conference on Breastfeeding and National Convention of BPNI 2003

Summary report of the First Asia Pacific Conference on Breastfeeding held in New Delhi, India in December 2003 which was attended by representatives of 38 countries. The theme of the conference was ‘Infant and Young Child Feeding: From Policy to Practice’. BPNI 2003

Assessment of Status of Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) in practice, policy and program: Achievements and Gaps. BPNI WBW Action Folder 2002

A report on the workshop held in 2005 to discuss the nation-wide assessment conducted by BPNI to identify achievements and gaps in the existing policy, program and practices in reference to Infant and Young Child Feeding. The report was finalized after a consensus process involving key stakeholders Developed on the eve of the World Breastfeeding Week 2002, this document advocates the importance of mother’s health including women’s right to humane and non-invasive birthing practices, and describes the actions required to improve the health status of mothers BPNI 2002 BPNI 2005

BPNI WBW Action Folder 2003

Developed on the eve of World Breastfeeding Week 2003, this document describes the challenges of globalization, and also the opportunities provided by it for protecting, promoting and supporting breast feeding. BPNI 2003

BPNI’s 3 years Report

This report provides a quick view of the work BPNI had done during the period of 3 years (April 2003 to March 2006) to impact on the nutrition, health, development, and survival of infants and young children. BPNI 2006

96

Beyond survival: Integrated delivery care practices for long-term maternal and infant Nutrition, Health and Development

This document by WHO PAHO focuses on 3 key practices for continuum of maternal newborn care at the community level – delayed cord clamping, skin-to-skin contact, and early initiation of exclusive breastfeeding. It reviews the current evidence on the nutritional and health benefits of these interventions followed by discussion on the feasibility of their implementation. WHO-PAHO 2007

Breaking the law and undermining breastfeeding – Series 1

An advocacy paper published by BPNI explaining the laws/legislation and the prohibited actions under ‘The IMS Act’. The first part of the series describes the activities undertaken by the baby food companies to market their product and how these actions violate the IMS Act. BPNI 2005

Breast milk: A Critical Source of Vitamin A for Infants and Young Children

A technical publication on the recommended feeding and dietary practices for improving Vitamin A status in the mother, newborn baby, and the growing infant, and the various actions that can be taken at different levels to promote it. LINKAGES 2000

Breastfeeding and brain development

An information sheet prepared by IBFAN Asia Pacific and BPNI in 2005 summarizing the studies conducted globally to indicate positive correlation between breastfeeding and brain/cognitive development of the infants. BPNI / IBFAN 2008

Breastfeeding and family foods: Loving and Healthy

Published by BPNI on the eve of World Breastfeeding Week 2005, this brochure gives information on the importance of continued breastfeeding after six months of age along with timely introduction of complimentary foods, the correct process and the types of food to be introduced, and the IMS Act. BPNI 2005

Breastfeeding: A Vital Emergency Response

Published by BPNI on the eve of World Breastfeeding Week 2009, this brochure explains the vital role played by breastfeeding as a lifeline for infants in emergencies, brings forth the challenges in protecting breastfeeding in emergencies 97 BPNI 2009

and assesses India’s readiness to take on the challenge Breastfeeding: The First Hour Save One Million Babies Published by BPNI on the eve of World Breastfeeding Week 2007, this brochure informs about the benefits of early initiation of breastfeeding, the steps and actions required to promote it, and its usefulness in improving child survival. Challenging Assumptions: Breastfeeding and HIV/AIDS A policy brief by PATH summarizes the benefits of breastfeeding by HIV Positive mothers in reducing the risk of HIV transmission in breastfed children, and advocates increased adoption of WHO guidelines on infant feeding and HIV. Child and Maternal Nutrition in India Developed by USAID’s MCH-STAR initiative, this factsheet summarizes the status of child and maternal nutrition in India, lists the interventions that work, and advocates actions for improving their status. Childhood Obesity and Non Communicable Diseases: ICMR-CIHR Workshop Report of the 2 day joint workshop conducted by ICMR and Canadian Institutes of Health Research in 2009 on the causes and prevention of childhood obesity. The main themes of discussion were epidemiologic transition & its consequences, early origins of obesity, the obesogenic environment and public health interventions. Community based strategies for breastfeeding promotion and support in developing countries Published by the WHO in 2003, this review examines the role of communities and community-based resource persons (interventions) in promoting and supporting optimal breastfeeding practices in developing countries. Based on a review of the literature and an analysis of three projects, it assesses the impact of these interventions, the mechanisms through which behaviours can be changed, and the factors that are necessary to maximize and sustain the benefits of interventions. Community-Level Interventions to Prevent and A series of evidence reviews prepared by USAID-funded Vistaar project team in 98 USAID 2008 LINKAGES 2003 ICMR 2009 USAID PATH 2008 BPNI 2007

Treat Anemia: A Review of Evidence from India

2008 to assist the national government in making evidence-based decisions regarding Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and Nutrition (MNCHN) interventions. A part of the evidence review series published by VISTAAR project of USAID in 2008 to help make evidence-based decisions regarding Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and Nutrition (MNCHN) interventions. This document outlines the review on community-level interventions for anemia prevention and treatment, summarizes the selected interventions, and shares the recommendations and evidence gaps identified by a technical expert group after analysis of the interventions.

Defining the issues for Vitamin A

This document developed by the A2Z Project in 2007 reviews the existing evidence and the gaps related to Vitamin A supplementation in children and women of reproductive age group, the methods of assessing its status, the strategies to prevent and control its deficiency, and the barriers to scale up sustainable interventions. AED 2007

Evidence for the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding

Developed in 1998 by the WHO/UNICEF, this document summarizes the practices necessary to support breastfeeding along with review of evidence for the efficacy of the ‘Ten Steps to successful breastfeeding’, to act as a tool for both advocacy and education. These Ten Steps are the foundation of their Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI). WHO 1998

Exclusive Breastfeeding: The Gold Standard

A brochure by BPNI on the eve of World Breastfeeding Week 2004 emphasizing the importance of exclusive breast feeding as a safe, sound and sustainable strategy for improving child survival, and promoting it as the societal norm for normal babies as well as in special conditions of LBW babies and HIV positive mothers. BPNI 2004

99

Facts for Feeding: Birth, initiation of breastfeeding, and the first seven days after birth

‘Facts for Feeding’ is a series of publication from the LINKAGES project of USAID on the recommended feeding and dietary practices to improve nutritional status at various stages of life cycle. This document developed in 2003 summarizes the recommended practices/processes to be followed at the time of birth, initiation of breastfeeding, and during the first seven days after birth. LINKAGES 2003

First Regional Workshop on Promoting Child Survival, Nutrition and Health by Achieving Optimal IYCF Practices Global response to contamination of powdered infant formula with E Sakazakii Government Circular-Government order for revised norms for monitoring and evaluation mechanism at the State Government/UT administration level under ICDS Scheme Government Circular-Guidelines for provision of Pre-school Education Kits for Anganwadi Centers under ICDS Scheme Government Circular-Proposed IDA assisted ICDS-IV Project: meeting with the State Secretaries and Directors of eight states to

Summary report of the First Regional Workshop of the Northern states of India held in New Delhi in June 2006 for Promoting Child Survival, Nutrition and Health by achieving optimal IYCF practices. A technical publication developed by BPNI summarizing different actions taken by various government and UN agencies across the globe against contamination of powdered infant formula with Enterobacter sakazakii. A copy of the Government order issued by the Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD) in May 2009 informing about the revised norms for strengthening monitoring and evaluation mechanism under the centrally sponsored ICDS Scheme. MOWCD 2009 BPNI 2007 BPNI 2006

A Government order issued by the MWCD in May 2009 informing the States and the Union Territories about the revised guideline for provision of Pre-school Education kit for Anganwadi centers under the ICDS Scheme. Minutes of a meeting convened by the MWCD in October 2009 to discuss the preparation of the project implementation plans (PIPs) and related issues under the ICDS-IV Project. 100 MOWCD 2009 MOWCD 2009

discuss the project preparation and related issues Government Report-Minutes of the first quarterly review meeting during 200910 for the monitoring of the ICDS Training Programme Government Report-Implementation Completion report of World Bank Assisted ICDS-III/WCD Project: Evaluation report by Govt. of India

Minutes of the first quarterly review meeting conducted by the MWCD in August 2009 to review the implementation of the ICDS Training Programme during 20082009. A report published by the Government of India in 2006 evaluating Phase III of the World Bank assisted Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Project. The project was implemented in 1999 in the 5 states of Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, and envisaged strengthening and improvement in service quality in existing blocks while introducing ICDS services in new blocks especially those in disadvantaged rural areas, tribal areas and hard to reach areas. MOWCD 2006 MOWCD 2009

IBFAN Asia Position Statement on HIV and Infant Feeding

A position paper developed by IBFAN and BPNI in 2008 outlining their recommendations on infant feeding and HIV. The recommendations are based on latest research findings and protocols IBFAN / BPNI 2008

Improving Complementary Feeding Practices: A Review of Evidence from South Asia

A series of evidence reviews prepared by USAID-funded Vistaar project team in 2008 to assist the national government in making evidence-based decisions regarding Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and Nutrition (MNCHN) interventions. A part of the evidence review series published by VISTAAR project of USAID in 2008 to help make evidence-based decisions regarding Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and Nutrition (MNCHN) interventions. This document outlines the review on interventions for improving complementary feeding practices in the community, summarizes the selected interventions, and shares the recommendations and evidence gaps identified by a technical expert group after 101 USAID 2008

analysis of the interventions. Improving Performance of Community-Level Health and Nutrition Functionaries: A Review of Evidence in India A series of evidence reviews prepared by USAID-funded Vistaar project team in 2008 to assist the national government in making evidence-based decisions regarding Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and Nutrition (MNCHN) interventions. A part of the evidence review series published by VISTAAR project of USAID in 2008 to help make evidence-based decisions regarding Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and Nutrition (MNCHN) interventions. This document outlines the review on interventions for improving the performance of communitylevel health and nutrition functionaries (ANMs, AWWs, ASHAs), summarizes the selected interventions, and shares the recommendations and evidence gaps identified by a technical expert group after analysis of the interventions. India protects Breastfeeding An advocacy paper by BPNI summarizing the actions prohibited under the Infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding Bottles and Infant Foods (Regulation of Production, Supply and Distribution) Amendment Act, 2003, also known as 'The IMS Act of 2003'. India’s Undernourished Children: A call for reform and action A discussion paper produced by the World Bank in 2005 which explores the dimensions of child undernutrition in India, examines the effectiveness of the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) program in addressing it, and discusses a number of actions that can be taken to bridge the gap between the policy intentions of ICDS and its actual implementation. Infant feeding and HIV: A regional colloquium for the Asia Pacific A report produced by BPNI/IBFAN summarizing the deliberations and outcomes of the colloquium held in 2003 which was attended by agencies/experts from the HIV/AIDS and infant feeding fields from 29 countries, to work on common strategies 102 BPNI / IBFAN 2003 Word Bank 2005 BPNI 2005 USAID 2008

and actions to ensure the survival of young children in the context of growing HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Asia Pacific region. Infant feeding in emergency situations: a report from the National Convention of BPNI Report from the National Convention of BPNI held in 2005 on ‘Infant feeding in Emergency situations’. It includes relevant background information, brief proceedings of the scientific session held during the national convention on the topic, views of several stakeholders, reports from the four states who faced natural disasters, and recommendations from the scientific session as agreed by all participants. Introducing the new WHO child growth standards: Report of a Regional Workshop 2006 A report of the regional workshop held by WHO SEARO at Bangkok, Thailand in 2006 to orient the member countries to the new WHO Child Growth Standards, identify challenges and opportunities in adapting the new standards based on the existing growth monitoring practices, and formulate a draft framework for action plans for adapting the new standards in individual countries. Making Gains in Nutrition and Health: Micronutrients Lead the Way Developed by the USAID in 2000, this document advocates the importance of micronutrients on child survival with particular emphasis on Vitamin A, Iron and Iodine, briefly describes the epidemiology of their deficiency states, and suggests actions/solutions for improving micronutrient health along with case studies from different countries. Micronutrients, Health and Development: Evidence based Programs, the 2nd International Meeting of the Micronutrient Forum Report of the 2nd International Meeting of the Micronutrient Forum held in Beijing, China in May 2009. The theme of the conference was to discuss the current status of evidence-based micronutrient programs and different strategies on how to scale them up. Sight and Life 2009 USAID 2000 WHO 2006 BPNI 2005

103

Mother Support: Going for the Gold

Published by BPNI on the eve of World Breastfeeding Week 2008, this brochure gives information about the importance and actions required to support a breastfeeding mother at the level of family, healthcare facility, workplace, government/legislation, and in emergency or crisis. BPNI 2008

Nutrition Essentials

The fourth part of a series of five advocacy documents prepared by CARE on child health and nutrition in India. This document describes the burden of malnutrition, the importance of each nutrient with its sources and deficiency disorders, and strategies to ensure adequate nutrition in pregnant women, lactating mothers, newborn babies, young infants and children. CARE

Relactation: A review of experience and recommendations for practice Repositioning Nutrition as central to development: A strategy for large scale action

A document published by the WHO in 1998 reviewing evidence regarding relactation and restoration of breastfeeding, and informs the health workers about how to assist women and children in need of such help. A report developed by the World Bank in 2006 summarizing the importance of nutrition as an investment for development, the causes and impact of malnutrition, the main interventions for improving nutrition along with identified areas of gap, the challenges for scaling up programs for under nutrition and micronutrient malnutrition, and proposes steps for future action. World Bank 2006 WHO 1998

Review Meeting with the States on IDA assisted ICDSIV/Reform project

Minutes of the meeting held by the MWCD in April 2008 with the eight States selected under the ICDS-IV/Reform Project to review the progress in the preparation of the State Project Implementation Plans (SPIPs) and the District Annual Plans (DAPs). MOWCD 2008

Severe malnutrition: Report of a consultation to review

Report of a consultation organized by the WHO in 2004 with the objective to review 104

WHO

2004

current literature

new evidence in relation to the WHO guidelines for infants aged less than 6 months and make appropriate changes if required, assess the guidelines in relation to the care of severely malnourished children with HIV/AIDS, and identify a research agenda for inpatient care of such children.

South Asia Breastfeeding Partners Forum 4: A report

Report of the South Asia Breastfeeding Partners Forum-4 held in New Delhi, India in December 2007. The theme of the conference was ‘Save Babies: Support Women to Breastfeed’. IBFAN 2007

South Asia Breastfeeding Partners Forum 5: A report

Report of the South Asia Breastfeeding Partners Forum-5 held in Thimphu, Bhutan in October 2008. The theme of the conference was “Protecting, Promoting and Supporting Breastfeeding: Assess, Analyse and Act” IBFAN 2008

Status of Infant and Young Child Feeding in 49 Districts of India

Report of the study conducted by BPNI in 2003 to evaluate infant and young child feeding practices and behavior, and systematically monitor the implementation of the IMS Act in the selected districts across 25 states of India. BPNI 2003

Status of infant and young child feeding in Uttarakhand

A quantitative study conducted by BPNI in 2006 to evaluate the status of infant and young child feeding practices in Uttarkhand, to assess the barriers to optimal feeding practices, and to investigate the knowledge and skills of health care providers and support provided by them on infant feeding practices in hospitals. BPNI 2006

Strengthening ICDS for reduction of child malnutrition

This report summarizes the presentations and the discussions at a national consultation organized by the MWCD and the World Bank in May 2006 to review the characteristics and impact of the ICDS Scheme, and invite suggestions on how to introduce substantial changes in the program’s design and implementation in order to transform it into an intervention that effectively addresses the principal 105 MOWCD 2006

causes of malnutrition. Tackling obesity in its infancy A technical publication from IBFAN and BPNI in 2006 summarizing the available scientific evidence on the role of exclusive breastfeeding in reducing the risk of childhood obesity. The IMS Act: Making it Known to People An advocacy brochure on ‘The Infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding Bottles and Infant Foods Act 1992’ amended to ‘The IMS Act’ in 2003 to inform the readers about the actions prohibited under the Act, and where to report in case of any violation of rules by the food companies. The Law To Protect, Promote And Support Breastfeeding Published by BPNI this book attempts to explain in simple words the basic provisions of the infant milk substitutes, feeding bottles and infant foods (regulation of production, supply and distribution) amendment act. The State of Breastfeeding in 33 Countries: Tracking Infant and Young Child Feeding policies and programmes worldwide (NEW) Published by BPNI/IBFAN-Asia in 2010, this report summarizes the assessment of Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) policies and programmes carried out in 33 countries using the tool World Breastfeeding Trends Initiatives (WBTi). The tool analyzes 10 areas of action of the Global Strategy for IYCF and documents 5 optimal IYCF practices (as recommended by WHO) at the national level through participatory approach, and helps each country to identify the gaps and build consensus to bridge them. The State of the World’s Breastfeeding: South Asia Report Prepared by IBFAN Asia in 2007, this consolidated report provides information on the initiatives taken by the eight South Asian countries to implement the ‘Global strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding’. It gives a detailed analysis of the feeding practices, policies and programmes in these countries, along with 106 IBFAN 2007 IBFAN 2010 BPNI 2008 BPNI 2006 IBFAN / BPNI 2006

background information on the status of child malnutrition and child survival. Thematic workshop on Information, Education & Communication (IEC) & dissemination of findings of Social Assessment Study Proceedings of a workshop organized by the MWCD and the World Bank in 2008 to orient key stakeholders from the eight states (included under the ICDS-IV/Reform Project) on the concepts of IEC and BCC, provide inputs on various aspects of planning, implementation and monitoring for the IEC component of the PIPs, and share findings from the Social Assessment Study conducted as part of the project. Timely Initiation of Breastfeeding within 1st Hour of Birth A publication from IBFAN in 2007 describing the available scientific evidence on the benefits of timely initiation of breastfeeding within the first hour of birth, the factors affecting mother’s decision to initiate breastfeeding, and the actions needed to support her. World Breastfeeding Trends Initiative: India Report 2008 Prepared by Public Health Resource Network (PHRN) and BPNI in 2008, this report evaluates the progress made by India on the ten indicators of policy and programmes under the framework of action in the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding, using the World Breastfeeding Trends Initiative (WBTi) of IBFAN Asia. World Breastfeeding Week 2009: Breastfeeding- A vital emergency response Developed by the World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (WABA) on the eve of World Breastfeeding Week 2009, this document briefly describes the importance of breastfeeding during emergencies, the challenges to protect and support it, and the actions that can be taken for preparedness and response. WABA 2009 PHRN / BPNI 2008 IBFAN 2007 MOWCD 2008

Trainings

Behavior Change Communication for improved Infant Feeding: Training of Trainers for negotiating

Developed by LINKAGES in 2004, this module aims to train community health workers in BCC skills to improve infant feeding, and train the trainers to deliver such 107 LINKAGES 2004

sustainable behavior change

trainings. It includes a community training module for training Community Health Workers in BCC skills and infant feeding knowledge, and a training of trainers (TOT) module to be used in combination with the community module.

Breastfeeding Counseling: A training course (Trainer's Guide)

This manual is part of the Breastfeeding counseling course developed by the WHO/UNICEF in 1993 for the health workers. The document provides detailed instructions to the trainers on how to conduct each session of training. It includes description of the teaching methods, exercises together with suggested answers, practical guidelines, summary boxes, forms, lists, and the checklists. WHO 1993

Breastfeeding Counseling: A training course (Director’s guide)

This guide is part of the Breastfeeding Counseling course developed by the WHO/UNICEF in 1993 for the health workers. The document provides guidance to the course directors on how to plan and conduct a training of health workers to enable them develop clinical and interpersonal skills for supporting optimal breastfeeding practices. It includes the course outline, instructions for necessary preparations, and a description of the facilities, materials, and equipment needed. WHO 1993

Breastfeeding Counseling: A training course (Participants' manual)

This manual is part of the Breastfeeding Counseling course developed by the WHO/UNICEF in 1993 for the health workers. The document provides useful information to the participants to enable them develop clinical and interpersonal skills for supporting optimal breastfeeding practices. The information is given in the form of practical guidelines, summary boxes, forms, lists and checklists. WHO 1993

Formative research and TIPs training report: Linkages project

A report on a workshop conducted by CRS and LINKAGES in 2003 to enhance the capacity of workers in facilitating formative research n project sites under the safe motherhood and child survival program, so as to explore the factors influencing 2003

108

infant, children and maternal feeding practices in their areas. HIV and Infant feeding counseling tools: Reference guide A reference guide developed in 2005 by WHO/UNICEF and USAID (as part of a package of tools) to help health workers counsel HIV positive mothers on infant feeding issues. The guide contains an overview of the other tools and the counselling process, in addition to technical information on HIV and infant feeding for the counselors WHO child growth standards: training course on child growth assessment (Module 1) Training course of 5 modules designed by the WHO in 2008 as a tool for the application of the new Child Growth Standards by the healthcare provider. The new standards establish breastfed infants as the model for growth and development and show what growth can be achieved with recommended feeding and health care. The first module gives introduction to the training course, and briefly explains the content of other modules and their learning objectives. WHO child growth standards: training course on child growth assessment (Module 2) Training course of 5 modules designed by the WHO in 2008 as a tool for the application of the new Child Growth Standards by the healthcare provider. The new standards establish breastfed infants as the model for growth and development and show what growth can be achieved with recommended feeding and health care. This second module of the series of 5 modules provides training on how to recognize signs of malnutrition, how to measure and record weight and height, and how to calculate different anthropometric indicators. WHO child growth standards: training course on child growth assessment (Module 3) Training course of 5 modules designed by the WHO in 2008 as a tool for the application of the new Child Growth Standards by the healthcare provider. The new standards establish breastfed infants as the model for growth and development and show what growth can be achieved with recommended feeding and health care. 109 WHO 2008 WHO 2008 WHO 2008 WHO / UNICEF 2005

This third module of the series of 5 modules provides information on the use of growth charts to identify normal growth for a given child, and how to interpret different growth indicators. WHO child growth standards: training course on child growth assessment (Module 4) Training course of 5 modules designed by the WHO in 2008 as a tool for the application of the new Child Growth Standards by the healthcare provider. The new standards establish breastfed infants as the model for growth and development and show what growth can be achieved with recommended feeding and health care. This fourth module of the series of 5 modules provides information on how to inform mother/carer about the results of growth assessment, how to interview them to identify cause of malnutrition, and how to counsel them for appropriate feeding practices. WHO child growth standards: training course on child growth assessment (Module 5) Training course of 5 modules designed by the WHO in 2008 as a tool for the application of the new Child Growth Standards by the healthcare provider. The new standards establish breastfed infants as the model for growth and development and show what growth can be achieved with recommended feeding and health care. This last module is a photo-booklet with pictures of different forms of malnutrition. WHO 2008 WHO 2008

Scientific Articles

A systematic review of maternal obesity and breastfeeding intention, initiation and duration

Published in the journal BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth in 2007, this systematic review of observational studies (except case studies and clinical papers) analyses the relationship between maternal overweight/obesity, and breastfeeding intention, initiation and duration of breastfeeding. BioMed Central 2007

Algorithms for Converting Estimates of Child Malnutrition Based on the

This paper published in 2008 provides algorithms for converting estimates of child malnutrition based on the NCHS reference into estimates based on the new WHO 110

WHO

2008

NCHS Reference into Estimates Based on the WHO Child Growth Standards Breastfeeding knowledge and practices amongst mothers in a rural population of north India: a community-based study

growth standards. Developed using simple linear regression analysis, the algorithms are aimed to help assist reanalysis of older data with the WHO Standards and make it comparable. Published in the Journal of Tropical Pediatrics in 2008, this observational study carried out in rural population of Haryana aims to identify the different patterns/practices of breastfeeding among mothers of infants aged 0-6 months, assess their breastfeeding knowledge, and identify various variables influencing the practices and the knowledge. Journal of Indian Pediatrics

2008

Comparison of Ready-to-Use therapeutic food with cereal legume-based Khichri among malnourished children

Published in 2009 in the Journal of Indian Pediatrics, this preliminary trial with cross-over design conducted in urban middle to low socioeconomic neighborhoods of Delhi compares the acceptability and energy intake of ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) with cereal legume-based khichri among children in the age group of 6 to 36 months. Journal of Indian Pediatrics

2009

Comparison of the WHO Child Growth Standards and the CDC 2000 Growth Charts

Published in 2007, this article compares the WHO and CDC child growth curves for weight-for-age, length/height-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height and BMI, and evaluate the growth performance of healthy breast-fed infants according to the two standards. WHO / CDC 2007

Comparison of the World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards and the National Center for Health Statistics/WHO international growth

Published by the journal Public Health Nutrition in 2006, this article compares the growth patterns and malnutrition estimates based on the new WHO Child Growth Standards and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)/WHO international growth reference, and discuss implications for child health programmes. It includes secondary analysis of longitudinal data for comparing growth patterns and data from cross-sectional surveys for comparing malnutrition estimates among children 111 WHO 2006

reference: implications for child health programmes Developmental readiness of normal full-term infants to progress from exclusive breastfeeding to the introduction of complementary foods

under 5 years.

Developed by the LINKAGES project of USAID in 2001, this document describes the literature reviews undertaken to provide evidence for the best age (4 to 6 months or 6 months) of introducing complementary foods into the diet of a breastfed human infant. The reviews do not focus on health outcomes associated with discontinuing exclusive breastfeeding at a particular age, but rather on the biologic/developmental readiness in terms of four functions: gastrointestinal, immunologic, oral motor and maternal reproductive processes related to continuation of breast milk. LINKAGES 2001

Field-testing the WHO Child Growth Standards in Four Countries Growth of Healthy Infants and the Timing, Type, and Frequency of Complementary Foods

Published in 2007, this article presents the results of a field testing multinational study conducted to evaluate the validity of the WHO growth standards against clinician assessments of children’s attained linear growth and size. Published in 2002, this article analyzes data from a WHO multinational longitudinal study to explore the associations between the timing of introduction of complementary foods, the types of foods, and the frequency of both breast-feeding and complementary foods on the growth pattern in breast-fed infants particularly between 4 and 6 months of age. WHO 2002 WHO 2007

Impact of an integrated nutrition and health programme on neonatal mortality in rural northern India

Published in the Bulletin of World Health Organization in 2008, this study evaluates the impact of a community-based package of maternal and newborn interventions facilitated by a non-governmental organization and implemented at scale using the existing government infrastructure through an integrated nutrition and health programme. The evaluation conducted in two rural districts of Uttar Pradesh, looks 112 WHO 2008

primarily at reduction in neonatal mortality. Interventions for promoting the initiation of breastfeeding Published by the Cochrane Collaboration in 2005 and updated in 2008, the objectives of this systematic review of RCTs were to identify and describe health promotion activities which aim to encourage women to breastfeed, to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of different types of such activities in terms of changes in the number of women who initiate breastfeeding, and to report any other beneficial or adverse effects. Lipid profile of term infants on exclusive breastfeeding and mixed feeding: A comparative study Maternal and Child Undernutrition 1: Global and regional exposures and health consequences Maternal and Child Undernutrition 2: Consequences for adult health and human capital This is the first article of the Lancet 2008 series of five papers on Maternal and Child Undernutrition. This article estimates the magnitude of maternal and child undernutrition and its short-term consequences in terms of child mortality and disease burden, as measured by disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). The second article of the Lancet 2008 series of five papers on Maternal and Child Undernutrition reviews the evidence for long-term consequences of undernutrition in terms of impact on adult human capital (height, school achievement, economic productivity, birthweight of the offspring) and the risk of long-term/chronic disease in adults. Maternal and Child Undernutrition 3: What This is the third article of the Lancet 2008 series of five papers on Maternal and Child Undernutrition. It summarizes the evidence about interventions with proven 113 LANCET 2008 LANCET 2008 A prospective comparative study conducted in a tertiary care hospital comparing the lipid profiles of exclusively breastfed and mixed-fed term healthy infants in the first 6 months of life. Cochrane Library

Europeon Journal of Clinical Nutrition

2007

LANCET

2008

works? Interventions for maternal and child undernutrition and survival Maternal and Child Undernutrition 4: Effective action at National level

effectiveness in reducing undernutrion and nutrition-related outcomes, assesses their applicability in low and middle income countries, and estimates the potential benefit of implementing these effective interventions. This is the fourth article of the Lancet 2008 series of five papers on Maternal and Child Undernutrition. This article reviews evidence from systematic reviews and best practice reports to evaluate measures taken to reduce undernutrition in countries with the highest burden, identifies seven key challenges for addressing the problem at the national level, and describes the strategies to overcome these challenges. LANCET 2008

Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding

Published by the Cochrane Collaboration in 2002 and updated in 2006, this systematic review of controlled trials and observational studies assesses the effects of exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months versus exclusive breastfeeding for 3-4 months with mixed breastfeeding thereafter through six months, on child’s health, growth and development, and on maternal health. Cochrane Library 2002

The optimal duration of Exclusive Breastfeeding: A systematic review

A systematic review published by the WHO in 2002 to assess the effect of exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months vs exclusive breastfeeding for 3–4 months with mixed breastfeeding (introduction of complementary liquid or solid foods with continued breastfeeding) thereafter through 6 months, on child health, growth, and development. WHO 2002

Use of new World Health Organization child growth standards to assess how infant malnutrition relates to

Published in the Bulletin of World Health Organization in 2010, this study compares the prevalence of malnutrition using the WHO’s child growth standards versus the National Center for Health Statistics growth reference by secondary analysis of a large dataset obtained from a multi-country RCT conducted in Ghana, Peru and 114 WHO 2010

breastfeeding and mortality

India. It also examines the relationship between exclusive breastfeeding and malnutrition, and determines the diagnostic accuracy of nutritional status indicators for predicting infant deaths.

Statistical Information

Fact Sheet All States

This factsheet developed by NHSRC compares state-wise data on vital indicators and other indicators related to Child Health, Maternal Health, Family Planning and TB. The comparative data has been derived from NFHS III, SRS 2005 & 2007, SRS Bulletins and from Census 2001. NHSRC

Nutrition in India: National Family Health Survey (NFHS 3) India 2005-06

This report produced by the International Institute of Population Sciences (IIPS) in 2009 provides evidence of the poor nutritional status of young children, women, and men in India, and the lack of improvement in their status over time. The findings of this report are based on the data from NFHS 3. IIPS 2009

Tracking Progress in Maternal, Newborn and Child Survival: India 2008 Report

The ‘India Countdown to 2015’ chart of 2008 gives graphical information on the progress of specific interventions for Nutrition, Child Health, Maternal & Newborn Health, Water & Sanitation, Health policies, Health systems and Equity issues, based on the latest data from the country. 2008

115

TOPIC: DISEASES – Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI)

Themes Scientific Articles

Titles Comparative impact assessment of child pneumonia interventions

Abstract Using country-specific pneumonia burden estimates and the costs of intervention provided by the WHO, this article compares the cost-effectiveness of various interventions to reduce pneumonia mortality in children less than 5 years through risk reduction, immunization and case management.

Organization

Year

WHO

2009

Factors determining the outcome of children hospitalized with severe pneumonia Technical Publication Pneumonia: The forgotten killer of children

A case-control study conducted to identify factors influencing both mortality and morbidity among children less than 5 years of age hospitalized with severe pneumonia (as defined by WHO) using a standard protocol for case management. BioMedCentral 2009

Prepared by WHO/UNICEF in 2006, this report examines the epidemiological evidence on the burden and distribution of pneumonia in children, assesses the current levels and trends in knowledge, treatment and prevention, and suggests actions with cost estimation for reducing child mortality due to pneumonia. UNICEF 2006

Standardization of interpretation of chest radiographs for the diagnosis of pneumonia in children

Developed by an international working group for the WHO in 2001, this document describes the process of standardizing the radiological diagnosis of pneumonia in children. The objective is to standardize collection of comparable data when measuring pneumonia disease burden or estimating the impact of various interventions in reducing the burden of pneumonia. It also describes an elaborate process for digitizing chest radiographs. WHO 2001

116

TOPIC: DISEASES -- Diarrhoea
Themes Policies, Programs and Guidelines Titles Clinical management of acute diarrhoea Abstract A joint statement issued by the WHO/UNICEF in 2004 advocating two evidencebased strategies for the management of acute diarrhoea – low osmolarity oral rehydration salt (ORS) and zinc supplementation. This document also recommends various actions to be taken at the level of mothers/caregivers, health workers, countries, and WHO/UNICEF/other partners for the management of acute diarrhoea. Generic protocols for (i) hospital-based surveillance to estimate the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children, and (ii) a community-based survey on utilization of healthcare services for gastroenteritis in children Government Policy -- Use of Zinc as an Alternate Therapy in the Treatment of Diarrhoea A government circular issued in November 2006 by the Child Health division of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare regarding the new policy of administering Zinc in the national programme as an adjunct to ORS in the management of diarrhoea in children older than 2 months. An attached note also describes the minutes of an expert committee meeting (held in January 2006) that discussed the role of Zinc and recommended its usage as an adjunct therapy. MoHFW 2006 These two protocols have been developed by the WHO in 2002 to provide guidance for hospital based surveillance of paediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis, and how to conduct survey on utilization of healthcare services for paediatric gastroenteritis at the community level. Both protocols provide information on the main procedures and suggested forms for data collection. WHO 2002 WHO / UNICEF 2004 Organization Year

117

The treatment of diarrhoea: a manual for physician and other senior health workers

Published by the WHO in 2005, this manual for physicians and other senior health workers describes the principles and practices of treating infectious diarrhea (including cholera and dysentery), especially in young children. It includes revised guidelines for the management of acute diarrhea in children including the use of low osmolarity ORS formulation and zinc supplementation. WHO 2005

Scientific Articles

Cost effectiveness of Zinc as Adjunct Therapy for Acute Childhood Diarrhea in Developing Countries

This article published in the Bulletin of the WHO in 2004 analyzes the incremental costs, effects and cost-effectiveness of zinc used as adjunct therapy to standard treatment of acute childhood diarrhea with ORS. With United Republic of Tanzania as the reference settings, a decision tree was used to model the expected costs and the expected clinical outcomes. WHO 2004

Directing Diarrhoeal disease research towards disease burden reduction

Published in the Journal of Health and Population Nutrition in 2009, this article describes the process of priority setting of research options to address the burden of childhood diarrhoeal diseases. The systematic strategy developed by the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) was used for the priority-setting exercise. Journal of Health and Population Nutrition

2009

Effect of Zinc Supplementation Started during Diarrhea on Morbidity and Mortality in Bangladeshi Children: Community Randomised Trial Hand washing for preventing diarrhoea

Published in the British Medical Journal in 2002, this article describes a prospective, cluster randomised controlled trial conducted in Bangladesh to evaluate the effect of providing daily zinc for 14 days (in addition to oral rehydration therapy) on the morbidity and mortality in children aged 3-47 months with diarrhea. British Medical Journal 2002

Published by the Cochrane Collaboration in 2008, this systematic review of RCTs (including cluster randomized trials) evaluates the effects of interventions to 118

Cochrane Library

2008

promote hand washing on the episodes of diarrhoea in children and adults. Oral rehydration versus intravenous therapy for treating dehydration due to gastroenteritis in children: A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials Oral zinc for treating diarrhoea in children This systematic review of RCTs published in 2004 in the journal BMC Medicine compares the effectiveness and safety of Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) with Intravenous Therapy (IVT) for the treatment of dehydration secondary to acute gastroenteritis in children. The review updates and expands on an earlier systematic review by including evidence from all studies irrespective of the language of publication and the income status of countries. This systematic review of RCTs published by the Cochrane Collaboration in 2008 evaluates the effectiveness of oral zinc supplementation compared to placebo in the treatment of acute or persistent diarrhoea (including dysentery) in children aged between 1 month and 5 years. Recent diarrheal illness and risk of lower respiratory infections in children under the age of 5 years Reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution for treating dehydration caused by acute diarrhoea in children An article analyzing time-to-event data of two large child studies from Brazil and Ghana to explore if the presence of diarrhea increases the risk of ALRI among children in low income settings. Published by the Cochrane Collaboration in 2002 with a reprint in 2009, this systematic review of RCTs compares the effectiveness of the reduced osmolarity Oral Rehydration Salt solution (total osmolarity 250 mmol/L or less with reduced sodium) with the WHO recommended ORS solution for the treatment of acute diarrhoea in children. The effect of oral rehydration solution and recommended home fluids on diarrhoea mortality This systematic review (of both clinical and community-based studies) published in the International Journal of Epidemiology in 2010 assesses the effectiveness of ORS and the Recommended Home Fluids (RHF) on diarrhoea morbidity and mortality in 119 Cochrane Library 2002 Cochrane Library 2008 BMC Medicine 2004

International Journal of Epidemiology

2009

International Journal of Epidemiology

2010

children aged less than 5 years. The effectiveness estimates were then correlated with achieved coverage levels to estimate the effect of each intervention on diarrhoea-specific mortality. Therapeutic Effects of Oral Zinc in Acute and Persistent Diarrhea in Children in Developing Countries: Pooled Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials Zinc and Copper Supplementation in Acute Diarrhea in Children: A Double-blind Randomized Controlled Trial Zinc for the treatment of diarrhea: Effect on diarrhoea morbidity mortality and incidence of future episodes A systematic review published in the International Journal of Epidemiology in 2010 examines the effectiveness of zinc given as a treatment/therapy of diarrhoea in children for reducing diarrhea specific mortality and subsequent pneumonia mortality. The review was limited to RCT’s conducted in low and middle income countries. International Journal of Epidemiology Published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 2000, this article pools the results of all the published and unpublished randomized controlled trials of the effects of supplementary oral zinc in children aged less than 5 years with acute or persistent diarrhea, and explores the effect of giving supplemental zinc given along with oral rehydration therapy during recovery in children. A double blind RCT conducted to evaluate the efficacy of zinc and copper supplementation when given with standard treatment to children (6-59 months) with acute watery or bloody diarrhea. BioMedCentr al Medicine 2009 AJCN 2000

2010

Technical Publication

An Integrated Approach to Confronting Diarrheal Disease

A fact sheet published by PATH in 2008 emphasizing for renewal of global and national level commitment to reduce under-5 child mortality due to diarrheal diseases. The document advocates for tapping existing low cost solutions and using an integrated approach for the treatment and prevention of diarrheal diseases. PATH 2008

120

Diarrheal Disease Advocacy: Findings from a Scan of the Global Funding and Policy Landscape Diarrheal disease: Solutions to defeat a global killer

Commissioned by PATH in 2008, this document reviews the global policy environment, funding landscape and best practices in diarrheal disease advocacy to identify the gaps in this subject and suggests repositioning diarrhea as central to child survival for attaining the MDG 4. A document by PATH with focus on reducing diarrheal deaths among children through low cost life saving initiatives and citing experiences and models from around the world that have been successful in this endeavor. PATH PATH 2008

Diarrhoea: Why children are still dying and what can be done

This report published by the WHO/UNICEF in 2009 examines the latest available data on the global burden and distribution of childhood diarrhea, analyses the progress of countries in reducing its burden, and sets out a 7-point strategy for comprehensive diarrhoea control that includes a treatment package to reduce child deaths, and a prevention package to reduce the number of cases for years to come. WHO 2009

Pediatric Zinc as treatment for diarrhea

An information brochure developed by USAID informing about the research and development activities regarding current recommendation of using zinc supplementation during diarrhea in children. USAID

Rational use of antibiotics for pneumonia

A white paper published in 2009 by India Clen Task Force with support from USAID’s MCH-STAR initiative advocating for rational use of antibiotics in the treatment of community acquired pneumonia in children less than 5 years of age after appropriate needs assessment and selection. The recommendations were based on the existing published evidence. Indian Clen Task Force 2009

Trainings

Diarrhoea treatment

A generic guide published by USAID and its partners in 2005 to train/guide the 121

HETV – Health

2005

guidelines: including new recommendations for the use of ORS and Zinc supplementation for clinicbased healthcare worker Guidelines for New Diarrhea Treatment Protocols for Community- Based Healthcare Workers

clinic-based health workers for the promotion and implementation of the improved strategy for clinical management of diarrhea, including the low osmolarity ORS and Zinc supplementation.

Education to Villagers

A generic guide developed by USAID and its partners in 2005 to train and guide community health workers regarding the use of new and improved ORS along with Zinc supplementation for the treatment of diarrhea in children. In addition this document will also provide information on when to refer children with severe diarrhea and dehydration. USAID 2005

Guidelines for the Management of Acute Diarrhea

This guideline has been developed by CDC in 2008 to inform healthcare providers regarding the assessment, principles of treatment and specific treatment of patients (including children) presenting with acute diarrhea in post-disaster situations. CDC 2008

122

TOPIC: DISEASES – HIV/AIDS

Themes Policies, Programs and Guidelines

Titles Government Guidelines -Guidelines for HIV care and treatment in children

Abstract Developed in 2006 by NACO and IAP with support from Clinton foundation, UNICEF and WHO, this manual provides guidance to pediatricians prescribing ART as well as the team in the ART centers on the practical issues regarding care and treatment of HIV in infants and children. It also covers the management of opportunistic infections associated with HIV.

Organization

Year

NACO

2006

Government Policy -- Policy framework for children and AIDS: India

Developed by the MoWCD and NACO in 2007, this document provides a rightsbased policy framework for government departments working for the welfare of children to collaborate and establish a mechanism to coordinate the efforts of different stakeholders working to reduce the medical and socioeconomic impact of HIV in children. MoWCD / NACO 2007

Management of HIV Infection and Antiretroviral Therapy in Infants and Children: A Clinical Manual The Framework: for the protection, care and support of orphans and vulnerable children living in a world with HIV and AIDS

Developed by the WHO SEARO and UNICEF ROSA, this manual provides guideline to health care providers, program managers and planners on the appropriate and rational use of anti-retroviral therapy in infants and children in resource limited settings of South and South-East Asia. Developed by a group of multi-sectoral stakeholders in 2004, this framework provides a common agenda to senior leaders and decision makers around the world to enable them influence policies, programs and resources for the benefit of orphans and vulnerable children affected by HIV and AIDS. Its key strategies include capacity strengthening of affected families, mobilizing and supporting communitybased responses, ensuring access to essential services for these children, improving 123 UNICEF 2004 WHO / UNICEF 2006

policy and legislation, and raising awareness at all levels through advocacy and social mobilization.

Technical Publication

A parrot on your shoulder: a guide for people starting to work with orphans and vulnerable children Barriers to services for children with HIV Positive parents

A briefing note developed by the International HIV/AIDS Alliance in 2004 to assist stakeholders working with orphans and other vulnerable children in engaging these children in a more meaningful dialogue through their active participation. International HIV/AIDS Alliance 2004

National overview of a qualitative study conducted in six high HIV prevalent states of the country in 2006-7 coordinated by UNICEF, NACO and the Ministry of Women and Child Development. This study evaluated the barriers to utilization of health services and the benefits by children of HIV positive parents, and outlines the steps that can be taken to overcome these barriers. UNICEF 2007

Challenging assumptions: Breastfeeding and HIV/AIDS

An advocacy document developed by PATH discussing the benefits of breastfeeding in light of the risk of perinatal HIV transmission. Recommendations include increasing adoption of World Health Organization guidelines on infant feeding and HIV, and extending advice and support to HIV positive lactating mothers during the first two years of life. PATH 2008

Growing up together: Experiences of care and support for children affected by HIV/AIDS in India

A report developed by the International HIV/AIDS Alliance based on a thematic workshop held in 2002, which explains the right-based approach to working with children affected and infected with HIV/AIDS through their active participation, discusses the impact of the disease on children at different age groups (0-5, 6-12 and 13-18 years) and their needs, describes some successful field experiences and case studies, and proposes a policy agenda for further action. 124 AIDS Alliance 2002

HIV/AIDS: Implications for child health and nutrition

The last part of a series of five advocacy documents prepared by CARE on child health and nutrition in India. This document describes the burden of HIV/AIDS in children, the maternal to child transmission process and ways to prevent it, the recommended method of feeding and the drugs for treatment. CARE

Prevention of Mother-ToChild Transmission of HIV in Asia: Practical Guidance for Programs

Published in 2002 by the LINKAGES project with support from USAID, this document reviews the mechanisms, timing, and risk factors for Mother-to-Child Transmission (MTCT) of HIV/AIDS, discusses the issues around the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric AIDS, and describes programmatic issues and experience with the five core interventions to prevent MTCT. LINKAGES / USAID 2002

Safeguarding investment in PMTCT Programs by incorporating Essential Newborn Care Supporting community action on AIDS in developing countries: Care and psychosocial support

Published in 2004 by the LINKAGES project with support from USAID, this document advocates for integration of Essential Newborn Care into the Prevention of Motherto-Child Transmission programs for developing a comprehensive strategy to prevent HIV infection in infants and children. A series of 6 booklets developed by the International HIV/AIDS Alliance in 2006 focusing on how programs can strengthen the capacity of children, families and community to respond to the needs of children affected by HIV/AIDS. This particular series provides information on the emotional and psychosocial needs of children suffering from HIV/AIDS and how these can be supported. International HIV/AIDS Alliance LINKAGES / USAID 2004

2006

Supporting community action on AIDS in developing countries: Education

A series of 6 booklets developed by the International HIV/AIDS Alliance in 2006 focusing on how programs can strengthen the capacity of children, families and community to respond to the needs of children affected by HIV/AIDS. This particular series provides information on how HIV/AIDS affects children’s education International HIV/AIDS Alliance 2006

125

and how programs can support their education and training. Supporting community action on AIDS in developing countries: Health and nutrition A series of 6 booklets developed by the International HIV/AIDS Alliance in 2006 focusing on how programs can strengthen the capacity of children, families and community to respond to the needs of children affected by HIV/AIDS. This particular series provides information on the special health and nutrition needs of children living with HIV/AIDS and the various strategies to address them. Supporting community action on AIDS in developing countries: Livelihoods and economic strengthening A series of 6 booklets developed by the International HIV/AIDS Alliance in 2006 focusing on how programs can strengthen the capacity of children, families and community to respond to the needs of children affected by HIV/AIDS. This particular series provides an overview of the impact of HIV/AIDS on increasing the poverty of families and their children, and the different measures which can be taken to alleviate them. Supporting community action on AIDS in developing countries: Overview A series of booklets developed by the International HIV/AIDS Alliance in 2006 focusing on how programs can strengthen the capacity of children, families and community to respond to the needs of children affected by HIV/AIDS. This document provides an overview of all the 6 booklets covered in the series including their principles and strategies. Supporting community action on AIDS in developing countries: Protection A series of 6 booklets developed by the International HIV/AIDS Alliance in 2006 focusing on how programs can strengthen the capacity of children, families and community to respond to the needs of children affected by HIV/AIDS. This particular series provides information on different strategies which are needed at the program level to improve protection of children suffering from HIV/AIDS. International HIV/AIDS Alliance International HIV/AIDS Alliance International HIV/AIDS Alliance 2006 International HIV/AIDS Alliance

2006

2006

2006

126

Supporting community action on AIDS in developing countries: Social inclusion

A series of 6 booklets developed by the International HIV/AIDS Alliance in 2006 focusing on how programs can strengthen the capacity of children, families and community to respond to the needs of children affected by HIV/AIDS. This particular series provides information on how HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination impacts on children and the different strategies to overcome it. International HIV/AIDS Alliance

2006

Trainings

HIV and Infant feeding counseling tools: Reference guide

A reference guide developed in 2005 by WHO/UNICEF and USAID (as part of a package of tools) to help health workers counsel HIV positive mothers on infant feeding issues. The guide contains an overview of the other tools and the counselling process, in addition to technical information on HIV and infant feeding for the counselors. WHO / UNICEF 2005

TOPIC: DISEASES – IMNCI

Themes Policies, Programs and Guidelines

Titles Government Guidelines -Operational guidelines for implementation of Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI) IMNCI Students Handbook

Abstract Developed by the MOHFW to uniformly implement the IMNCI programme nationwide as a part of NRHM/RCH-II, this guideline provide complete information about the IMNCI package and its components, the institutional arrangements for its implementation at the national, state and district level, the training needs and the funding arrangements for the training. Developed by the MOHFW and WHO India, this Handbook for students describes the rationale for evidence-based syndromic approach of IMNCI, its components and 127

Organization

Year

MoHFW

MoHFW IMNCI

2003

principles, and the outpatient and hospital management of children less than 5 years of age including their assessment, referral, counselling, treatment and followup.

Scientific Articles

How Much Does Quality of Child Care Vary Between Health Workers with Differing Durations of Training? An Observational Multicountry Study

This multi-country observational study compares the clinical performance of health workers with longer duration of pre-service IMCI training and shorter duration of IMCI training. The performance was compared on the assessment, classification and the management of sick children according to IMCI guidelines. LANCET 2008

Trainings

Government Training-- FIMNCI Participant’s Manual (Module 1 - 3) (REVISED)

Facility-based Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (F-IMNCI) is the integration of facility-based care package with the IMNCI package which has been developed to train health workers in managing newborn and childhood illnesses at the facility level/inpatient care (in addition to the community level/outpatient care).These modules are developed by the MoHFW in collaboration with WHO and UNICEF in 2009 Module 1: It describes the process of rapid screening of a sick child including immediate emergency treatment where required. Module 2: It includes care of newborn baby at birth and in the postnatal ward, management of sick newborn baby and LBW baby, and the principles of transporting sick babies who require referral. Module 3: It provides guidance on the management of children aged 2 months to 5 years presenting with cough or breathing difficulty, diarrhoea, fever, severe MoHFW / WHO / UNICEF 2009

128

anaemia and severe acute malnutrition.

Government Training-Facility Based IMNCI (FIMNCI): Facilitators Guide (NEW)

Facility-based Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (F-IMNCI) is the integration of facility-based care package with the IMNCI package which has been developed to train health workers in managing newborn and childhood illnesses at the facility level/inpatient care (in addition to the community level/outpatient care). It was developed by the MoHFW in collaboration with WHO and UNICEF in 2009. This facilitator’s guide provides guidelines to the trainers on how to train health workers on the assessment, classification, treatment, referral, counseling of mothers, and follow-up of sick newborns and sick young children. MoHFW 2009

Government Training-- IMNCI Facilitator Guide – I (Sick Young Infant age upto 2 months)

Published by the MoHFW with support from the WHO and the UNICEF, this First part of the Facilitator’s guide provides guidelines to the trainers on how to train health workers on the assessment, classification, treatment, referral, counseling of mothers, and follow-up of sick young infants upto 2 months of age at the community level/outpatient care, under the strategy of Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI). MoHFW 2009

Government Training-- IMNCI Facilitator Guide – II (Sick Child age 2 months upto 5 years)

Published by the MoHFW with support from the WHO and the UNICEF, this Second part of the Facilitator’s guide provides guidelines to the trainers on how to train health workers on the assessment, classification, treatment, referral, counseling of mothers and follow-up of sick children aged 2 months to 5 years at the community level/outpatient care, under the strategy of Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI). MoHFW 2009

129

Government Training-- IMNCI Participant’s Manual (Module 1): Introduction

Published by the MOHFW in 2003 with support from the WHO and the UNICEF, this module is the first in the series of nine modules developed for training health workers on the strategy of Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI). It gives information about the rationale for using syndromic approach for case management under IMNCI, the principles and components of integrated care, the complete process of case management, and the purpose of the training. NCHRC 2003

Government Training-- IMNCI Participant’s Manual (Module 2): Assess and Classify the Sick Young Infant Age upto 2 Months

Published by the MOHFW in 2003 with support from the WHO and the UNICEF, this module is the second in the series of nine modules developed for training health workers on the strategy of Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI). It gives information on how to assess and classify young infants till 2 months of age for possible bacterial infections, jaundice and diarrhoea, how to assess malnutrition and feeding problems, and the importance and assessment of breastfeeding and immunization status. NCHRC 2003

Government Training-- IMNCI Participant’s Manual (Module 3): Identify Treatment for the Sick Young Infant

Published by the MOHFW in 2003 with support from the WHO and the UNICEF, this module is the third in the series of nine modules developed for training health workers on the strategy of Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI). It provides information on how to identify treatment for a sick infant till 2 months of age based upon assessment and classification of the condition, to determine if urgent referrals are required, and if so, then what appropriate pre-referral treatments should be given. NCHRC 2003

130

Government Training-- IMNCI Participant’s Manual (Module 4): Treat the Young Infant and Counsel the Mother

Published by the MOHFW in 2003 with support from the WHO and the UNICEF, this module is the fourth in the series of nine modules developed for training health workers on the strategy of Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI). It gives information on how to select appropriate oral drugs and dosages for a sick infant till 2 months of age, how to teach the mother to continue giving treatment at home including counseling skills, and how to treat local infections and promote breastfeeding. NCHRC 2003

Government Training-- IMNCI Participant’s Manual (Module 5): Assess and Classify the Sick Child Age 2 Months up to 5 Years

Published by the MOHFW in 2003 with support from the WHO and the UNICEF, this is the fifth module in the series of nine modules developed for training health workers on the strategy of Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI). This module gives information on the assessment and classification of cough or breathing difficulty, diarrhoea, fever, measles and ear problem in children aged 2 months to 5 years, and how to check for malnutrition, anemia, immunization status, and prophylactic Vitamin A & iron folic acid supplementation status. NCHRC 2003

Government Training-- IMNCI Participant’s Manual (Module 6): Identify Treatment for the Sick Child

Published by the MOHFW in 2003 with support from the WHO and the UNICEF, this is the sixth module in the series of nine modules developed for training health workers on the strategy of Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI). It provides information on how to identify treatment for a sick child aged 2 months to 5 years based upon assessment and classification of the condition, to determine if urgent referrals are required, and if so, then what appropriate pre-referral treatments should be given. NCHRC 2003

131

Government Training-- IMNCI Participant’s Manual (Module 7): Treat the Child

Published by the MOHFW in 2003 with support from the WHO and the UNICEF, this is the seventh module in the series of nine modules developed for training health workers on the strategy of Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI). This module provides information on how to select appropriate oral drugs and dosages for the treatment of specific conditions in a sick child aged 2 months to 5 years, how to teach the mother to continue giving treatment at home, and how to treat local infections and to treat severe conditions where referral not possible. NCHRC 2003

Government Training-- IMNCI Participant’s Manual (Module 8): Counsel the Mother

Published by the MOHFW in 2003 with support from the WHO and the UNICEF, this is the eighth module in the series of nine modules developed for training health workers on the strategy of Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI). It provides information on how to assess and identify feeding problems in a sick child aged 2 months to 5 year, how to advice and counsel mother about feeding and increasing fluids during illness, and when to come back for follow-up. NCHRC 2003

Government Training-- IMNCI Participant’s Manual (Module 9): Follow-up

Published by the MoHFW in 2003 with support from the WHO and the UNICEF, this is the last module in the series of nine modules developed for training health workers on the strategy of Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI). This module provides information on the management of follow-up visit of a sick child aged 2 months to 5 years, and further assessment and treatment. NCHRC 2003

Government Training-- IMNCI Photo-booklet

Developed by MoHFW, WHO and UNICEF, this Photo-booklet for Physicians contains 86 photographs of different conditions/diseases which act as an important tool for facilitating training and skill upgradation of health professionals regarding

MoHFW / WHO / UNICEF

2003

132

case management of sick children under IMNCI.

Government Training-- IMNCI Physician Chart Booklet

A chart booklet designed by MOHFW India and WHO/UNICEF to help the physicians in identification, assessment, diagnosis/classification and treatment of sick children upto 5 yrs of age, and to give them information on mother counseling and follow-up care. MoHFW 2003

Government Training-IMNCI: Facilitators guide for follow up visit

Prepared by the MOHFW, WHO and UNICEF, this guide provides information regarding the methods and processes for undertaking training of IMNCI supervisors who have to conduct follow-up visits (after training of health workers) to ensure effective implementation of the IMNCI program. MoHFW / WHO / UNICEF

Government Training-IMNCI: Supervisor module for follow-up visit

Prepared by the MOHFW, WHO and UNICEF, this guide provides an overview of the schedule and activities for follow-up visit of the supervisor following IMNCI training of health workers. The purpose of the follow-up visit is to reinforce the IMNCI skills, supervise working of health worker and help in solving their problems, strengthen logistic support, and improve record keeping and information system. MoHFW / WHO / UNICEF

Government Training-Teacher's Guide for IMNCI training of students

These guidelines for teachers training medical students in IMNCI focuses on the outpatient management of common causes of neonatal and child mortality and can be used in Primary Health Care setting. It describes the teaching methods, course structure and schedule, the list of instructional materials and supplies, daily activities, the process of monitoring clinical sessions and methods for assessing students. MoHFW 2009

133

Management of Neonatal and Childhood illness in disasters: Training module for Health Workers

Adapted from IMNCI and prepared by the IAP Disaster management group with support from WHO India, this manual describe the steps to be followed by a health worker in the management of a sick child up to 5 years of age in health camps or in the community during disasters. WHO / IAP 2005

TOPIC: DISEASES – Malaria

Themes Policies, Programs and Guidelines

Titles Government Guidelines -Action plan for scaling up Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLIN) for malaria control in India Government Guidelines -Guidelines for ITNS and LLINS

Abstract Published by the MOHFW in 2009, this document details the planning, procurement, distribution process, quality control checks and monitoring and evaluation of the strategy of scaling up of Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLIN). It is one of the key strategies under the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) towards control of malaria in India. Developed by the GOI under the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme, this document provides guidance on the usage, storage and transport of the Insecticide Treated Bed nets (ITNs) or Long Lasting Impregnated Bednets (LLINs) for better and effective protection against mosquitoes and other insects like cockroaches, bedbugs, houseflies, fleas, etc.

Organization

Year

MoHFW

2009

National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) MoHFW 2008

Government Guidelines -Guidelines for clinical

Developed by the MOHFW under the NVBDCP, this document provides guidance to 134

management of Dengue Fever, Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever and Dengue Shock Syndrome Government Guidelines -Guidelines for containment of Chikungunya and Dengue epidemic outbreaks Government Guidelines -Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of Malaria in India

physicians regarding the process for diagnosis (both clinical and laboratory) and clinical management of Dengue Fever, Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever and Dengue Shock Syndrome.

Developed by MOHFW under the NVBDCP, this document provides information on actions that need to be taken at the community level and by the local authorities to control an epidemic Chikungunya and/or Dengue. It also describes the diagnosis, treatment and surveillance of the disease. Developed by the MOHFW with the collaborative effort of the NVBDCP and the National Institute of Malaria Research in 2009, this manual for medical professionals gives guidance on the current methods of diagnosis and treatment of uncomplicated malaria, and the specific antimalarials for severe malaria based on the national drug policy of 2008. MoHFW 2009 MoHFW

Government Guidelines -Guidelines for establishing sentinel surveillance hospitals and management of severe malaria cases Government Guidelines -Guidelines on the use of larvivorous fish for vector control

Developed by the MOHFW in 2009 under the NVBDCP, this policy has been formulated for developing hospitals in high malaria endemic districts into sentinel surveillance hospitals to obtain information on details of severe malaria cases and their pattern. It also provides information on the clinical features of severe malaria, its treatment and management of complications. This guideline has been prepared by the GOI under the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme to guide the states in the use of larvivorous fish for vector control. National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) MoHFW 2009

135

Operational manual for implementation of Malaria Programme 2009

Developed by GOI in 2008 under the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme, this operational manual brings out guidelines for planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the malaria control programme at the district level. It also provides the norms for malaria control activities in India along with specific action that is required to be taken in high malaria burden districts. National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP)

2008

TOPIC: DISEASES – Measles

Themes Scientific Articles

Titles Vitamin A for treating measles in children

Abstract Published by the Cochrane Collaboration in 2005 and updated in 2009, this systematic review of RCTs determines the evidence whether oral Vitamin A is beneficial in preventing mortality, pneumonia and other secondary infections in children under the age of 15 years with measles.

Organization

Year

Cochrane Library

2005

136

TOPIC: GENERAL INFORMATION

Themes Policies, Programs and Guidelines

Titles Advocacy Tools and Guidelines: Promoting Policy Change

Abstract Prepared by CARE in 2001, this manual is designed to familiarize program managers with key advocacy concepts and techniques, and suggests a framework to help them identify policy goals, create a plan of action, and build their case for influencing policy change.

Organization

Year

CARE

2001

Government Guidelines -Guidelines for Department of Family Welfare Supported NGO Schemes

Developed by the MOHFW in 2003, this document contains guidelines of ‘The Mother NGO (MNGO) Scheme’ and ‘The Service NGO (SNGO) Scheme’ run by the Department of Family Welfare, and gives the indicative service delivery guidance for different RCH components along with illustrative formats and checklists that can be used under the two schemes. MoHFW 2003

Government Guidelines -Guidelines for Operationalising First Referral Units Government Guidelines -Guidelines for Operationalising a Primary Health Centre for Providing 24-Hour Delivery and Newborn Care under RCH-II Government Guidelines --

Developed by the MOHFW in 2004, this document provides guidance to the States in planning for operationalising the FRUs for strengthening emergency obstetric and child health care, and help them to determine the type and quantum of assistance required while planning implementation of RCH-II. Developed by MOHFW in 2005, this document provides guidance to states to select PHCs for providing 24 hour services and operationalization of 50% of the PHCs and all the CHCs as 24-hour delivery and newborn care services PHCs to increase the percentage of institutional deliveries for reduction of maternal mortality and availability of emergency care for sick children to reduce infant mortality. This guideline has been developed by the Maternal Health Division of MOHFW in 137 MoHFW 2007 MoHFW 2005 MoHFW 2004

Guidelines for operationalizating SBA training in RCH II

2007 for program managers and in-charges of training institutes at district and state level to standardize planning of SBA training, ensure its effective management, and to help these personnel identify their specific roles and responsibilities in conducting this training.

Government Guidelines -Guidelines for setting up blood storage centers at First Referral Units

Developed by the MOHFW in 2003, this manual comprises of 3 parts – the first part provides guidance on the requirements and responsibilities of Blood Storage Centres, the second part details the Standard Operating Procedures to be followed by laboratory personnel in conducting the actual tests of cross matching and transfusion, and the third part is a guide to rational use of blood, blood products and substitutes by clinicians. MoHFW 2003

Government Guidelines -Guidelines for the operationalisation of Mobile Medical Unit (in Northeastern States, Himachal Pradesh and J&K) Government Guidelines -Guidelines on Accredited Social Health Activitists (ASHA)

With an aim of improving access to health care services under NRHM, this document was developed by the MOHFW to provide guidelines for the operationalisation of Mobile Medical Units across the country, with special focus on difficult to reach tribal and hilly areas in North-eastern States, Himachal Pradesh and J&K. This guideline developed by the MOHFW provides guidance on the role, responsibilities, profile, selection procedure, training modality, compensation package, and the monitoring and evaluation indicators for ASHAs under NRHM. MoHFW MoHFW

138

Government Guidelines -Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS) For SubCentres

This guideline developed by the MOHFW in 2006 under NRHM, prescribes standards for a Sub-health Centre (or a Sub-centre which is the first contact point between the primary health care system and the community) in order to provide basic health care services to the community and achieve/maintain an acceptable standard of quality of care. Keeping in view the resources available with respect to functional requirement for Sub-centres, a set of minimum standards had been prepared related to infrastructure, manpower, instruments, equipments, drugs, transport and other facilities, etc. MoHFW 2006

Government Guidelines -Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS) for Primary Health Centres

This guideline developed by the MOHFW in 2006 under NRHM, prescribes standards for a Primary Health Centre or a PHC (covering 20,000 to 30,000 populations with 6 beds) in order to provide health care that is quality oriented and sensitive to the needs of the community. Keeping in view the resources available with respect to functional requirement for PHCs, a set of minimum standards had been prepared related to infrastructure, manpower, instruments, equipments, drugs, transport and other facilities, etc. MoHFW 2006

Government Guidelines -Infection Management & Environment Plan (IMEP) for Reproductive and Child Health Programme (Phase – II) Government Guidelines -Janani Suraksha Yojana: Guidelines for Implementation

Developed by MOHFW in 2004 under RCH II program, this document on health care waste management describes planning for the maintenance of sanitary conditions, use of appropriate disinfection and sterilization techniques, provision of potable water and clean air for all operations, and nosocomial infection control, as the basic infrastructural requirements for delivery of RCH services in the country. Developed by the MOHFW, this guideline describes the vision, strategy and features of the Janani Suraksha Yojana program under NRHM, its implementation plan at different levels, the financial arrangements, and mechanisms for monitoring, MoHFW MoHFW 2004

139

evaluation and reporting. Government Guidelines -Monthly Village Health Nutrition Day: Guidelines for ANMs/AWWs/ASHAs/PRIs Government Guidelines -National Rural Health Mission: Framework for Implementation (2005-2012) Government Guidelines -Project Implementation Plan for Vulnerable Groups Under RCH II This guideline by the MOHFW describes the importance of conducting monthly Village Health Nutrition Day, defines the required relevant procedures and logistics, the role of each cadre of health worker including supervisors, and the various activities that should be conducted on the day. This guideline by the MoHFW describes the broad framework for implementation of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) including its goals & components, core strategies, expected outcomes and timelines. Developed by the MOHFW in 2004, this guideline describes the rationale, objectives and the strategy for monitoring and evaluation of Project Implementation Plans (PIPs) for Vulnerable Groups as well as PIPs for Tribal Health and Urban Slum Health in order to improve the health status of vulnerable population by ensuring accessibility and availability of quality primary health care and family welfare services to them. Government Guidelines-Reproductive & Child Health Phase II Program – National Program Implementation Plan Developed by the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, this document on Reproductive and Child Health Phase II Program is divided into three parts: Document 1 gives a summary and overview of the policy context in which RCH Phase II has been designed, its strategic direction, the lessons from RCH Phase I, and the institutional and financial arrangements. Document 2 describes the principles and evidence base that underpins the strategic decisions and priorities of RCH Phase II. RCH II Program NPIP MoHFW 2004 MoHFW 2005 MoHFW 2007

2005

140

Document 3 is the National Level RCH Phase II Program Logical Framework Also given is the Finance & Accounts Manual (Annexure A) which attempts to streamline the process of financial management in the program. Government Policy -- Broad Framework for Preparation of District Health Action Plans Developed by the MOHFW in 2006, this document provides a broad framework for the preparation of District Health Action Plans under the NRHM. After a brief introduction about the program, the manual provides information on financial planning and ways to optimize resources under the District Health Action Plan, how to conduct situational analysis using primary and secondary data and ways to involve community in planning, and process of defining the objectives, work plans, and monitoring evaluation plans. Government Policy -Infection management and Environment plan: Policy framework Prepared by MOHFW in 2007 with support from DFID and the World Bank, this document gives a broad overview and generic guidance to central and state level institutions on the type of systems and processes to be established for infection control and bio-medical waste management in healthcare facilities under NRHM and RCH II. Government Policy -National Health Policy 2002 The second National Health Policy formulated in 2002 summarizes the key successful health initiatives and achievements in public health over the last five decades, analyzes the current health scenario in the country, and outlines the objectives and goals including the prescriptions for achieving the policy goals. Government Policy -National Population Policy 2000 A policy framework developed by GOI for advancing goals and prioritizing strategies during the next decade to meet the reproductive and child health needs of the country, and to achieve net replacement levels by 2010 (and stable population by 141 Population Commission 2000 MoHFW 2002 MoHFW 2007 MoHFW 2006

2045). Simultaneously it addresses issues of child survival, maternal health and contraception, while increasing outreach and coverage of a comprehensive package of RCH services by all the stakeholders (govt., industry & voluntary non-government sector). Guidelines Nursing and Midwifery Workforce Planning Published by the WHO in 2010, this guideline provides practical approaches/tools to facilitate development of knowledge and skills in the planning of nursing and midwifery workforce. It aims to explain what workforce planning is, how it can help to deliver key services delivery goals, and how planning leads to provision of better care. Mamata Diwas (Village Health & Nutrition Day): Operational guidelines Under NRHM the Village Health and Nutrition Day is planned to provide comprehensive Maternal and Child health and nutrition services, and ensure early registration, identification and referral of high risk children and pregnant women. In Orissa this initiative is known as ‘Mamata Diwas’. These guidelines issued by the Govt. of Orissa provides information on the objectives and operational framework of the initiative, summarizes the health topics for discussion, describes the roles/responsibilities of health workers, the state level training strategy, and the mechanisms for monitoring evaluation, reporting, and financial arrangements. NRHM Orissa 2009 WHO 2010

Technical Publications

A concurrent evaluation of Phase II of the NRHM BCC campaign

A report on the study conducted by Population Foundation of India in 2009 with support from USAID’s MCH-STAR initiative to evaluate the second phase of Behavior Change Communication (BCC) Campaign under NRHM. The evaluation determined the extent of the campaign’s reach, visibility and exposure among the target audiences, and gave recommendations to inform MOHFW for future large scale campaigns. 142 Population Foundation of India 2009

CLICS: A survey for the Community, by the Community CLICS: Health is a song away for Meerabai

A case study developed by CLICS citing example of how young girls from the community were engaged to conduct village survey for developing the village health plan, and how this encouraged community participation. A case study by CLICS citing experience and efforts of a woman president of a Village Coordination Committee to improve the health status of the village including establishment of a clinic. USAID USAID

CLICS: Kiran Clinics are a boon in Wardha villages

A brief description of the activities and achievements of community run health clinics (Kiran Clinics) managed by the Village co-ordination committee (VCC), an initiative led by the CLICS program. USAID

CLICS: Kishori Panchayats guide teenage girls in the right direction

A summary of activities performed by groups of adolescent girls (Kishori panchayats) in the villages of Wardha under the CLICS program. Related to promotion of health, education, cultural values and sanitation, these activities help adolescent girls in developing life skills and self esteem. USAID

CLICS: Male involvement improves women’s and children's health CLICS: Reaching for the sky: Women's Self-Help Group fosters growth CLICS: Safeguarding the community’s health- The

A case study developed by CLICS citing example of how a farmer’s development forum (kisan vikas manch) was formed and used for sensitizing men towards women and children’s health issues. This case study developed by CLICS describeing the dual role of Self Help Groups in providing women with alternative credit income and also acting as a platform for empowering and capacity building of women to deliver health messages. A summary of the work/experiences of a trained health worker (known as Doot) selected from amongst the community by the CLICS Program to provide primary 143 USAID USAID

USAID

village doot

care to the people living in villages and deal with their health issues, especially those of the women and children.

CLICS: Teach them to climb mountains: Empowering adolescents in the community CLICS: Village leader becomes walking encyclopaedia on health CLICS: Working Together To Improve Health: ANMs Redefine Their Role in the Community Child health in the State PIPs 2008-09: Mapping Technical Assistance Needs

A case study of a worker from a woman’s Self-help Group describing the increased social awareness and confidence building measures for adolescent population brought about by the activities of CLICS. A case study by CLICS citing experience and efforts of a village leader to improve the community’s knowledge on health and hygiene in the village. A brief summary of the experiences of two ANMs from the community on the improved synergy in service delivery with the help of initiatives taken by CLICS program, and the support given by CLICS Doot in performing their regular activities. A technical document developed by the NHSRC in 2008 which analyzes the Program Implementation Plans 2008-09 submitted by different states under NRHM, compares it with the findings of the Joint Review Mission, and builds upon the results to define the Technical assistance requirement of the states NHSRC 2008 USAID USAID USAID

Community case management essentials: Treating childhood illnesses in the community

Published in 2010 with funding from USAID, this guide for Program Managers describes the basics of the Community case management strategy, and the process of designing and management of such a program. Community case management is a strategy to deliver lifesaving curative interventions for common childhood illnesses, particularly in areas with little access to facility-based services. USAID 2010

Concurrent evaluation of the reach and effectiveness of second phase of the NRHM

A group of four questionnaires developed for in-depth interview of women, men, fathers/mothers-in-law and the village functionary as part of evaluation of the 144

Population Foundation of India

2009

BCC campaign: Questionnaires

second phase of Behavior Change Communication (BCC) Campaign under NRHM. This study was conducted by Population Foundation of India in 2009 with support from USAID’s MCH-STAR initiative

Emergency access and management rules for Maternal and Child Health Fund (Hindi)

‘Mother and child health emergency fund’ is an initiative to provide financial support to the community/family to help them access quality treatment for the mother (during pregnancy or postpartum period) and/or children (till 18 years of age) through the formation of Self help groups. This document in Hindi provides information about the objectives and advantages of this initiative, the process of forming Self help groups, and its rules and regulations for smooth functioning.

Evaluation of ASHA Programme. ASHA – Which way forward? (NEW)

Synthesized and published in 2011 by the National Health Systems Resource Centre (NHSRC) MoHFW, this report provides a comprehensive evaluation of the ASHA programme in the country using a mixed method approach. The ASHA programme is one of the key components of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). This evaluation report covers three key domains – a) Governance, Institutions, Expectations and Perceptions: an overview of the programme, policy framework, institutional environment, and perception, interaction and contribution of different stakeholders b) Understanding ASHA and programme dynamics: profile of ASHA, selection process and support system, training process and training systems, and community and beneficiary perceptions of ASHA role c) Outcomes of programme: knowledge and skill levels of ASHA, measurable outcomes and outputs in terms of changes in health behavior, service utilization and response to childhood illness, and the relationship between contexts, 145 NHSRC 2011

mechanisms and outcomes. Government Report – NRHM Common Review Mission: Fourth Report (2010) (NEW) The Common Review Mission (CRM) has been set up as part of the National Rural Health Mission’s (NRHM) Steering Group’s mandate of review and concurrent evaluation. The Fourth CRM covered 14 states and one Union Territory during the second and third week of December 2010 and evaluated the existing health delivery systems through 11 key parameters. This report of the Fourth CRM was synthesized and published by the National Health Systems Resource Centre, the technical support institution of NRHM. Government Report-- Child Budgeting in India A booklet developed in 2007 by the Ministry of Women and Child Development and UNICEF analyzing the budgetary allocations for children under the Union Budget for the past 5 years. It represents an important policy analytical tool that helps in taking stock of development and investments for children, and helps in identifying child development areas which are neglected. Government Report-Directory of Innovations in the Health Sector Under NRHM decentralized planning/implementation and flexibility to states/local governments has resulted in a number of innovations being taken across states many of which address locally identified gaps in the program. Developed by the MOHFW in 2009 with support from DFID and other partners, this document compiles a list of such innovations, lists the key features of selected innovations through a desk review, and identifies ‘promising’ innovations for a full-scale evaluation to assess their scalability and replicability across States. Government Report-- Fifth Joint Review Mission (JRM-5): Reproductive and Child Health Program Phase II The Joint Review Mission (JRM) is conducted twice every year to review the progress in the implementation of the Program Implementation Plans (PIPs) under the RCH II program. It is led by the MOHFW and joined by the Development 146 MoHFW 2008 DFID 2009 DWCD / UNICEF 2007 MoHFW 2011

Partners and State Governments. This aide memoire summarizes the findings and agreed actions of the Fifth JRM conducted in January-February 2008 based on the review of field visits to the 5 states of Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and review of the PIPs at the national and the state levels. Government Report-- First Joint Review Mission (JRM-1): Reproductive and Child Health Program Phase II The Joint Review Mission (JRM) is conducted twice every year to review the progress in the implementation of the Program Implementation Plans (PIPs) under the RCH II program. It is led by the MOHFW and joined by the Development Partners and State Governments. This aide memoire summarizes the findings and agreed actions of the First JRM conducted in February-March 2006 based on the review of secondary data from the States, review of field visits to Assam, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh, and review of the state PIPs at the national level. Government Report-- Fourth Joint Review Mission (JRM-4): Reproductive and Child Health Program Phase II The Joint Review Mission (JRM) is conducted twice every year to review the progress in the implementation of the Program Implementation Plans (PIPs) under the RCH II program. It is led by the MOHFW and joined by the Development Partners and State Governments. This aide memoire summarizes the findings and agreed actions of the Fourth JRM conducted in July-August 2007 based on the review of field visits to the 4 states of Assam, Bihar, Maharashtra and Orissa, and review of the PIPs at the national and the state levels. Government Report-- Mid Term Review (MTR): Reproductive and Child Health Program Phase II The Mid Term Review (MTR) of RCH II program evaluated the progress made during 2005-2008 towards implementing the ‘paradigm shift’ envisaged in its design and in six thematic areas. It was led by the MoHFW and joined by the Development Partners and State Governments. This aide memoire summarizes the findings and agreed actions of the MTR held in September-December 2008 based on the analysis of provisional data from DLHS-3, review of innovations and progress in the thematic 147 MoHFW 2008 MoHFW 2007 MoHFW 2006

areas based on field visits to 6 states of Assam, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, and review of the PIPs at the national and the state levels. Government Report-Millennium Development Goals: India Country Report 2005 A status report published by the Central Statistical Organization of GOI in 2005 assessing the progress on MDGs looking beyond the numbers to analyze why improvements in health have been slow, and suggests what steps must be taken to accelerate progress. Weak and inequitable health system is reported as the key obstacle for attaining the MDGs. Government Report-- NRHM Common Review Mission: Second Report (2008) The Common Review Mission (CRM) has been set up as part of the National Rural Health Mission’s (NRHM) Steering Group’s mandate of review and concurrent evaluation. This is the report of the Second CRM process conducted in NovemberDecember 2008 covering the states of Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Mizoram, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh. Government Report-- NRHM Common Review Mission: Third Report (2009) The Common Review Mission (CRM) has been set up as part of the National Rural Health Mission’s (NRHM) Steering Group’s mandate of review and concurrent evaluation. The Third CRM cover 14 states and 3 Union Territories during the first and second weeks of November, 2009 to review the progress made on 22 key areas of the NRHM. Government Report-- NRHM Common Review Mission: First report (2007) The Common Review Mission (CRM) has been set up as part of the National Rural Health Mission’s (NRHM) Steering Group’s mandate of review and concurrent evaluation. This is the report of the First CRM process conducted in November 2007 covering the states of Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar 148 MoHFW 2007 MoHFW 2009 MoHFW 2008 GoI / UNICEF 2005

Pradesh and West Bengal. Government Report-- Second Joint Review Mission (JRM-2): Reproductive and Child Health Program Phase II The Joint Review Mission (JRM) is conducted twice every year to review the progress in the implementation of the Program Implementation Plans (PIPs) under the RCH II program. It is led by the MOHFW and joined by the Development Partners and State Governments. This aide memoire summarizes the findings and agreed actions of the Second JRM conducted in September-October 2006 based on the review of field visits to the 18 NRHM focus states and review of the PIPs at the national and the state levels. Government Report-- Sixth Joint Review Mission (JRM-6): Reproductive and Child Health Program Phase II The Joint Review Mission (JRM) is conducted twice every year to review the progress in the implementation of the Program Implementation Plans (PIPs) under the RCH II program. It is led by the MOHFW and joined by the Development Partners and State Governments. This aide memoire summarizes the findings and agreed actions of the Sixth JRM conducted in May-July 2009 based on the review of field visits to the 4 states of Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, and review of the PIPs at the national and the state levels. Government Report-- Third Joint Review Mission (JRM-3): Reproductive and Child Health Program Phase II The Joint Review Mission (JRM) is conducted twice every year to review the progress in the implementation of the Program Implementation Plans (PIPs) under the RCH II program. It is led by the MOHFW and joined by the Development Partners and State Governments. This aide memoire summarizes the findings and agreed actions of the Third JRM conducted in January-February 2007 based on the review of field visits to the 3 states of Madhya Pradesh, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, and review of the PIPs at the national and the state levels. Improving Performance of Community-Level Health and A series of evidence reviews prepared by USAID-funded Vistaar project team in 149 MoHFW 2007 MoHFW 2009 MoHFW 2006

USAID

2008

Nutrition Functionaries: A Review of Evidence in India

2008 to assist the national government in making evidence-based decisions regarding Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and Nutrition (MNCHN) interventions. A part of the evidence review series published by VISTAAR project of USAID in 2008 to help make evidence-based decisions regarding Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and Nutrition (MNCHN) interventions. This document outlines the review on interventions for improving the performance of communitylevel health and nutrition functionaries (ANMs, AWWs, ASHAs), summarizes the selected interventions, and shares the recommendations and evidence gaps identified by a technical expert group after analysis of the interventions.

Improving access, service delivery and efficiency of the public health system in rural India: mid-term evaluation of the National Rural Health Mission

Published in 2009, this report presents the findings of a mid-term evaluation of the functioning of the National Rural Health Mission undertaken by an International Advisory Panel. The evaluation was carried out in the three high-focus states of Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh, and relied on a mix of inputs: empirical analysis of primary and secondary data (new and existing datasets), detailed interviews of health workers at various levels, documentation of key innovations, challenges and successes, and inputs from subject experts working at the national level. Centre on Globalization and Sustainable Development , The Earth Institute at Columbia University

2009

Making a difference: Indicators to improve children’s environmental health

A summary report of the WHO commissioned study for developing a set of indicators on children’s environmental health that outlines the principles and concepts behind the choice of indicators, presents simplified models of each issue highlighting the key factors of concern, and lists the core indicators that should be developed in each case. WHO 2003

Rapid Assessment of the District Health Profile: PHRN Orissa

A report on the rapid assessment undertaken in 5 districts of Orissa in 2009 to understand the gaps in different community level processes of public health 150 PHRN 2009

programmes and take up selected pilot interventions, and based on the findings to give suggestions to the district level public health authority for initiating similar approach to address communitization agenda of NRHM. Public Health Resource Network (PHRN) is a civil society initiative to support NRHM. Reducing incidence of Low Birth Weight using a community based life cycle strategy: study protocol This document is the protocol of a quasi-experimental study conducted in Ranchi district of Jharkhand state which aims to evaluate the effectiveness of life-cycle based community level behavioral interventions in reducing the incidence of low birth weight and improving maternal and child health. Developed in 2006, the study and protocol is led by a group of NGOs including CINI, Krishi Gram Vikas Kendra and Social Initiatives Group of ICICI Bank. Role of Village Health Committees in Improving Health and Nutrition Outcomes: A Review of Evidence from India A series of evidence reviews prepared by USAID-funded Vistaar project team in 2008 to assist the national government in making evidence-based decisions regarding Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and Nutrition (MNCHN) interventions. A part of the evidence review series published by VISTAAR project of USAID in 2008 to help make evidence-based decisions regarding Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and Nutrition (MNCHN) interventions. This document outlines the review on the role of Village Health Committees in improving health and nutrition, summarizes analysis of the interventions. The Global Campaign for the Health Millennium Development Goals 2010: Putting the Global strategy for Women’s and Children’s This report of 2010 by the Global Campaign for the Health Millennium Development Goals provides an update on the efforts being made by countries and institutions in putting the Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health into action. This Global Strategy was launched at a special event during the MDG summit in 151 Global Campaign for the Health Millennium Development Goals the selected interventions, and shares the recommendations and evidence gaps identified by a technical expert group after USAID 2008 HETV – Health Education to Villagers

2006

2010

Health into action The Millennium Development Goals Report 2011

September 2010 by the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Based on a master set of data compiled by an Inter-Agency and Expert Group of the United Nations Secretariat, this report published in 2011 reviews the progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) through a series of statistical indicators identified as appropriate for assessing progress. United Nations 2011

Traditional herbal remedies for Primary Health Care

This monograph developed by the WHO in 2010 describes the rich resources and the benefits of traditional herbal remedies in the prevention and treatment of diseases. It provides information about traditional remedies/traditional usage of herbs in curing simple ailments in order to facilitate its usage at the level of Primary Health Care. WHO 2010

World Development Report 2004

The World Development Report 2004 focuses on basic services, particularly health, education, water, and sanitation, seeking ways of making them work for poor people. Citing powerful examples of pro-poor services, the document recommends institutional changes to strengthen relationship between policymakers, providers and citizens to ensure accountability. World Bank 2004

Trainings

Behavior Change Communication Materials Database- Health, Nutrition and Population Programme Government Training – Asha Prashikshako ke liye Prashikshak Guide: Bhag 1 (HINDI)

A database of BCC materials compiled by CARE. CARE 2008

Published by the NHSRC, MoHFW in 2010, these notes in Hindi language are designed for the use of trainers responsible for training ASHA and her facilitators in Modules 6 and 7. The notes have been organized in three parts. This first part 152 NHSRC, MoHFW 2010

reviews the key functions of ASHA and the skills she is expected to gain in the field of maternal and newborn health (Module 6), and child health and nutrition (Part A of Module 7). Government Training – Notes for ASHA Trainers: Part 1 Published by the NHSRC, MoHFW in 2010, these notes are designed for the use of trainers responsible for training ASHA and her facilitators in Modules 6 and 7. The notes have been organized in three parts. This first part reviews the key functions of ASHA and the skills she is expected to gain in the field of maternal and newborn health (Module 6), and child health and nutrition (Part A of Module 7). Government Training-Guidelines for operationalizing SBA Training in RCH II This guideline was developed in 2008 by the MOHFW for the State/District Program Managers, Trainers and In-charges of the identified training institutes to standardize planning of SBA trainings at various levels with focus on coverage and quality, ensure its effective management, and help these personnel identify their specific roles. Government Training-Handbook for Field NGOs: An almanac for managers, supervisors and field workers Developed by the MOHFW in 2007 under the RCH II program, this handbook is designed for use by the Mother Non Government Organizations (Mother NGO) as a reference guide to train Field NGO staff in issues pertaining to program management and facilitating service delivery. It explains in detail the basic concepts of program management, and the steps for carrying out field activities. Government Training-- Life saving anesthetic skills for emergency obstetric care: Log book for trainees A training course developed by the MOHFW and Department of Anesthesia & Intensive Care AIIMS to provide MBBS doctors with necessary skills and competencies to manage cases requiring life saving emergency obstetric care at the First Referral Units. It consists of two parts – the first part gives information about the course content, methodology, the learning materials and assessment, and the 153 MoHFW MoHFW 2007 MoHFW 2008 NHSRC, MoHFW 2010

second part gives details of record keeping of procedures carried out under supervision. Government Training-Reading Material for ASHA Book No 1 Published by the MOHFW in 2006, this book is the first in the series of seven modules developed for training of ASHAs under NRHM. This book describes the job responsibilities of ASHAs for improving access and utilization of services for health, nutrition, drinking water and sanitation, and gives information regarding registration of pregnant women, Janani Suraksha Yojana, breast feeding, infant nutrition, immunization and diarrhoea. Government Training-Reading Material for ASHA Book No 2: Maternal and Child health Published by the MoHFW in 2006, this book is the second in the series of seven modules developed for training of ASHAs under NRHM. It provides information on maternal and child health topics including menstrual cycle, fertility, care of a pregnant woman, methods for preventing unwanted pregnancy and access of safe abortion services, newborn care, infant and young child nutrition, and care/advice for childhood illnesses. Government Training-Reading Material for ASHA Book No 3: Family planning, RTI/STIs, HIV/AIDS and ARSH Published by the MOHFW in 2006, this book is the third in the series of seven modules developed for training of ASHAs under NRHM. It provides information on ways and methods to prevent unwanted pregnancy including the merits/side effects of each method, causes and methods of preventing HIV/AIDS, counseling and advice for family planning, reproductive tract infections, and adolescent reproductive health. Government Training-Reading Material for ASHA Book No 4: National Health Programmes, AYUSH and Published by the MOHFW in 2006, this book is the fourth in the series of seven modules developed for training of ASHAs under NRHM. It provides information about the various National Health Programmes to enable ASHAs facilitate 154 MoHFW 2006 MoHFW 2006 MoHFW 2006 MoHFW 2006

management of minor ailments

community participation and improved access of services, the remedies available in the AYUSH system of medicine, and treatment/care in TB, malaria, animal bite, wounds and burns.

Government Training-Reading Material for ASHA Book No 5: About ASHA

Published by the MOHFW in 2008, this book is the fifth in the series of seven modules developed for training of ASHAs under NRHM. This book covers topics related to development of life skills in ASHAs in order to strengthen her role as a health activist in the community. MoHFW 2008

Government Training-Reading Material for ASHA Book No 6: Maternal and Newborn Health (NEW)

Published by the National Health Systems Resource Centre (NHSRC), MoHFW in 2010, this book is the sixth in the series of seven manuals developed for training ASHAs under NRHM. This refresher module builds on the existing knowledge of ASHA and aims to develop new skills in the healthcare of mothers and children. The areas covered include the role, activities, outcomes and skills required by ASHA, topics related to maternal health (pregnancy diagnosis, its complications, safe delivery, care during delivery, post partum care), and newborn health (care at delivery, essential newborn care, breastfeeding and schedule of home visits). NHSRC, MoHFW 2010

Government Training-Reading Material for ASHA Book No 7: Child Health and Nutrition (NEW)

Published by the National Health Systems Resource Centre (NHSRC), MoHFW in 2010, this book is the last in the series of seven manuals developed for training of ASHAs under NRHM. This refresher module builds on the existing knowledge of ASHA and aims to develop new skills in the healthcare of mothers and children. The areas covered include infant and young child feeding, assessment of malnutrition, management of simple childhood diseases, immunisation, assessment and management of LBW babies and neonatal sepsis, and topics of women's reproductive health. NHSRC, MoHFW 2010

155

Managing Programmes to improve Child Health: Facilitators Guide

Developed by the WHO in 2009, this training material for the program managers aims to provide them with the essential knowledge and skills required for improving management of child health programmes, with focus on improving coverage with effective interventions. It covers two major steps of the implementation planning cycle – development of an implementation plan, and how to manage implementation. This Facilitators guide informs the trainers about the training schedule, topics, methodology and the tools to be used for training the program managers during the training period. WHO 2009

Managing Programmes to improve Child Health: Introduction (Module 1)

Developed by the WHO in 2009, this training material for the program managers aims to provide them with the essential knowledge and skills required for improving management of child health programmes, with focus on improving coverage with effective interventions. It covers two major steps of the implementation planning cycle – development of an implementation plan, and how to manage implementation. This first module of a set of three modules describes the purpose of training, the global child health status, recommended evidence-based child health interventions and packages, principles of delivery of these interventions, and definitions of specific terms. WHO 2009

Managing Programmes to improve Child Health: Managing implementation (Module 3)

Developed by the WHO in 2009, this training material for the program managers aims to provide them with the essential knowledge and skills required for improving management of child health programmes, with focus on improving coverage with effective interventions. It covers two major steps of the implementation planning cycle – development of an implementation plan, and how to manage implementation. This last module of a set of three modules describes how to advocate for child health and mobilize resources, manage supervision and monitor WHO 2009

156

progress of activities according to the implementation plan. Managing Programmes to improve Child Health: Planning implementation (Module 2) Developed by the WHO in 2009, this training material for the program managers aims to provide them with the essential knowledge and skills required for improving management of child health programmes, with focus on improving coverage with effective interventions. It covers two major steps of the implementation planning cycle – development of an implementation plan, and how to manage implementation. This second module of a set of three modules describes the preparation for developing an implementation plan, steps for reviewing implementation status, how to decide targets, indicators and monitoring of activities, and components of work-plan and budget. Managing Programmes to improve Child Health: Workbook Developed by the WHO in 2009, this training material for the program managers aims to provide them with the essential knowledge and skills required for improving management of child health programmes, with focus on improving coverage with effective interventions. It covers two major steps of the implementation planning cycle – development of an implementation plan, and how to manage implementation. This Workbook, to be used along with the set of three modules, would help the managers acquire practical skills related to the training. Model Injection CentreTraining Manual (Hindi) This manual was developed by IPEN to train participants in safe injection practices and appropriate disposal of injection waste under the program ‘evaluation of behavior related to injection practices in India. Understanding Health Management Information Systems: HMIS Managers Manual (draft version) (NEW) A set of four manuals, prepared and published jointly by the MoHFW and HMIS division of National Health Systems Resource Centre in 2011, to be used as a tool for decentralized health planning and management. This third manual (draft 157 NHSRC 2011 IPEN WHO 2009 WHO 2009

version) is important for HMIS Managers who access databases to download data and analyze it. Understanding Health Management Information Systems: HMIS Resource Person Manual (draft version) (NEW) A set of four manuals, prepared and published jointly by the MoHFW and HMIS division of National Health Systems Resource Centre in 2011, to be used as a tool for decentralized health planning and management. This fourth manual (draft version) is important for those involved in designing and development of HMIS software, or involved in constructing training programme or evaluating HMIS systems. Understanding Health Management Information Systems: Health Programme Manager’s Manual (NEW) A set of four manuals, prepared and published jointly by the MoHFW and HMIS division of National Health Systems Resource Centre in 2011, to be used as a tool for decentralized health planning and management. This second manual is important for Programme Managers working at different levels of health system, and deals with the use of indicators, and understanding and troubleshooting of data quality issues. Understanding Health Management Information Systems: Service Provider’s Manual (NEW) A set of four manuals, prepared and published jointly by the MoHFW and HMIS division of National Health Systems Resource Centre in 2011, to be used as a tool for decentralized health planning and management. This first manual is meant for all health workers working in the system and gives information about the different aspects of data elements. NHSRC 2011 NHSRC 2011 NHSRC 2011

158

Scientific Articles

A rapid appraisal of Sahiya (ASHA) in Jharkhand

Published in the journal Health and Population Perspectives and Issues in 2008, this article aims to assess the functioning of Sahiya program in Jharkhand including acceptability of these health workers in the community and their linkages with other health workers (ANMs and AWWs). In Jharkhand, the community level health worker introduced under NRHM is known as Sahiya instead of ASHA. Health and Population Perspectives and Issues

2008

An appraisal of Janani Sahyogi Yojana in the state of Madhya Pradesh

Published in the journal Health and Population Perspectives and Issues in 2008, this article reviews the functioning of the Janani Sahyogi Yojana programme in the four districts of Madhya Pradesh. This state level programme was launched to increase the availability of delivery and newborn care services for Below Poverty Line (BPL) families through the Private Service providers. Health and Population Perspectives and Issues

2008

Community-based health programmes: role perceptions and experiences of female peer facilitators in Mumbai’s urban slums Reproductive and Child Health inequities in Chandigarh Union Territory of India

Published in 2009 in the Health Education Research journal, this study utilizes qualitative methods to explore the role perceptions and experiences of female peer facilitators involved in a community-based maternal and newborn health intervention in urban slum areas of Mumbai in Maharashtra. Health Education Research journal 2009

This study published in the Journal of Urban Health in 2007 describes the findings of a household survey (using the multi-indicator cluster sampling technique) conducted in the Union Territory of Chandigarh to estimate the access of reproductive and child health services to people living in urban, rural and slum areas. Journal of Urban Health 2007

Statistical Information

Fact Sheet All States

This factsheet developed by NHSRC compares state-wise data on vital indicators and other indicators related to Child Health, Maternal Health, Family Planning and TB. The comparative data has been derived from NFHS III, SRS 2005 & 2007, SRS 159 NHSRC

Bulletins and from Census 2001. Fact Sheets NFHS-3 These fact sheets have been developed based on the National Family Health Survey 3. They present provisional information on the key indicators and trends for India and the 29 states in the areas of Marriage and Fertility, Family Planning, and Maternal and Child Health. National Health Profile 2005 Developed by the Central Bureau of Health Information MOHFW in 2005, this document compiles key information regarding India’s overall health status, health expenditures, infrastructure and human resources in health. It brings out major trends in past years and provides updated information and comparative account of health situation existing in different states. Nutrition in India: National Family Health Survey (NFHS 3) India 2005-06 This report produced by the International Institute of Population Sciences (IIPS) in 2009 provides evidence of the poor nutritional status of young children, women, and men in India, and the lack of improvement in their status over time. The findings of this report are based on the data from NFHS 3. Tracking progress in Maternal, Newborn and Child Survival: India 2008 report The ‘India Countdown to 2015’ chart of 2008 gives graphical information on the progress of specific interventions for Nutrition, Child Health, Maternal & Newborn Health, Water & Sanitation, Health policies, Health systems and Equity issues, based on the latest data from the country. Countdown to 2015 – Maternal, Newborn & Child Survival IIPS 2009 CBHI / MoHFW 2005 NFHS 2009

2008

160

“If you have knowledge, let others light their candles in it”
Margaret Fuller

Repository on Maternal Child Health
Website:

www.childhealthindiainfo.com

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful