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chemical methods of recovering gold:
- mercury – amalgamation of gold. - cyanide leaching – dissolving gold. - chlorine leaching – dissolving gold. - Haber Gold Process leaching – 2000s research in New Jersey.
- iGoli chlorine leaching – 2000s research in South Africa. - iodine leaching – dissolving gold. - tincture of iodine leaching – 2000s research in Japan. - bromine leaching – dissolving gold. - bromine leaching – 1990s research in Indiana. - thiocyanate leaching – dissolving gold. - thiosulphate leaching - dissolving gold. - thiourea leaching – dissolving gold. - nitric acid attack – liberating gold from sulphides. - aqua regia – dissolving gold. - borax – smelting gold.
biochemical methods of recovering gold:
- bioleaching – 1980s research in Wales and California. - biooxidation – 1980s research in British Columbia and California. - gold-binding proteins – 2000s research in Washington State. - phytomining – 2000s research in New Zealand.
oleophilic methods of recovering gold:
- agglomeration – 1980s research in Australia and China. - oleophilic adhesion – 1980s research in Alberta. - froth floatation – 1930s research in Idaho and USSR. - gold-paraffin floatation – 1990s research in Brazil using candle wax.
magnetic methods of recovering gold:
- magnetic coated gold – 1980s research in Colorado with iron carbonyl.
gravitational methods of recovering gold:
gold sluices - some are able to catch very fine gold
- riffled sluices – 1960s-1970s research in China and USSR. - flat bar riffles – 1980s research in Yukon, 1990s in Mongolia. - angle-iron riffles – 1980s research in Canada. - expanded metal grating riffles – 1980s research in Canada. - expanded metal mesh riffles – 1980s research in Canada. - McCann’s small sluice – 1980s research in California.
- Damn Fine Sluice – 1990s research in New Mexico. - Popandson sluice – 2000s research in USA. - Loewen electrostatic sluice – 2000s research in Alberta. - Cleangold® sluice – 1990s research in Oregon. - hydraulic riffles – 1980s research in New Zealand and Canada.
gold jigs - recover nuggets as well as some fine gold
- simple jigs – 1970s research in China. - Pan-American (PAN-AM) duplex jig – Alaska tests. - Cleaveland/IHC jig – 1980s research in USA and Holland. - Gekko in-line pressure jig (IPJ) – 1990s research in Australia. - Kelsey centrifugal jig – 1980s research in Australia.
gold centrifuges - rather good at catching very fine gold
- Knudsen bowl – Alaska tests. - Gilkey bowl – Alaska tests. - Neffco bowl – 1970s research in Utah. - Yunxi bowl – 1960s-90s research in Yunnan. - Knelson bowl – 1980s research in British Columbia. - Falcon C bowl – 1980s research in British Columbia. - Falcon SB bowl – 1990s research in British Columbia. - Itomak bowl – 1990s research in Novosibirsk. Knelson concentrator Falcon concentrator Falcon Superbowl
Itomak concentrator Multi-gravity sep.
- Younge horizontal centrifuge – 1980s research in British Columbia. - Axzia-Mozley MGS centrifuge – 1980s research in Cornwall.
gold helix - thanks to Archimedes screw
- helix wheel (gold wheel) – 1900s research in Colorado. - helix cylinder – 1980s research in British Columbia. - helix belt – 2000s research in Canada and USA.
gold tables - old devices, getting better
- Wilfley shaking tables – 1890s research in Colorado. - shaking tables – 1960s-1970s research in China. - shaking tables – 1960s research in USSR. - BGS shaking table – 1990s research in UK. - Gemeni table – 1980s research in Colorado.
Lashley ASAT Elutriation tower – 1980s research in New Mexico. read the posts and post a question! send us an EMAIL and we will be pleased to hear from you..remarkable at catching fine gold! .quite good at catching fine gold .pinched sluice – historical usage.Osterberg E-tower (Quick Gold Separator) – 1980s research in California.very useful. elutriation towers . . .Ecologic E-tower (Ecologic Concentrator) – 2000s research in New Zealand. IF YOU KNOW A METHOD TO ADD. . join the ALASKA GOLD FORUM. elutriated sludge tanks . .Bartles crossbelt – 1970s research in Cornwall.dewater or catch fine gold! . . ..Pyramid E-tank (Pyramid Jig) – 1990s research in California. .Mark-7 Reichert spirals – 1980s research in USA.reflux classifier – 2000s research in Australia.Goltron machine – 1990s research in Utah. . .Reichert cone – 1960s research in Australia. especially as a cone . .Humphrey spirals – 1940s research in Colorado. and maybe better! ..Bartles-Mozley orbital tables – 1970s research in Cornwall. pinched sluices . gold spirals .Visman Compound Water Cyclone (CWC) – 1970s research in Yukon. Where to find out more.Graefe E-tank (Keene Hydromatic Jig) – 1980s research in California.not jigs. compound water cyclones .U-Tech reverse polarity table – 1990s research in Arizona. have a look at the references on gold recovery listed below.Lemmon vanner – 1980s research in the Yukon. vibrating belts (vanners) . .Duke E-tank – 1970s research in Georgia.may catch fine gold rather well! . PLEASE EMAIL US!.
World Placer Journal – 2007. must be already liberated from the matrix. strictly controlled and virtually eliminated in industrial and recreational placer mining in the west. the resulting lumps of amalgam are retrieved by squeezing out excess mercury through a fine fabric or chamois leather. and mercury is ineffective at recovering gold <70μ . Mercury has been eliminated amongst placer mining companies in the former Soviet Union and is highly restricted. Russian Federation. mercury use by companies and recreational miners has become strictly controlled and in some regions banned and eliminated. Figure 14. Soft bead of HgAu amalgam ready for firing off the mercury to leave gold. with the increased recognition of the harmful impact of mercury on human health and ecosystems. Companies shun mercury for six interlocking reasons: human health of employees and local people. Kyrgyzstan and Mongolia.g. Yet mercury is prevalent in large placer gold mines in South/Central America. sluice. Muller mill = edge mill) to capture gold and leave amalgam in the milled residue. and adding Hg to devices to recover gold lost to the tailings. Africa and China. Kazakhstan.31]. Until 50 years ago. Hg-centrifuge (forced amalgamator) or other device to assist the capture of gold. Australia. must be clean enough.5mm .mn Operation Mercury is sourced from on-site recycling of waste plus mercury from traders from Hg mines (e.mine. Canada. GOLD RECOVERY BY MERCURY AMALGAMATION Mercury is ineffective at amalgamating with gold smaller than 70μ or larger than 1.30. legal prohibition. Mercury is added in four situations: adding Hg to a milling device (e. Mercury amalgamation is effective only for gold particles larger than 60-70μ . environmental protection.g. After amalgamation. (photo: Peter Appel of GEUS) Figure 13. MERCURY-GOLD AMALGAM Mercury amalgamation typically recovers in excess of 90% of the gold content of a placer gravel or placer concentrate. Mercury has been virtually eliminated in industrial placer gold mines in the USA. adding Hg to a pan. centrifuge. Spain and USA) . and to a lesser degree for recovery of placer gold also. In Mongolia some is sold by panners recovering mercury [29. preconditions apply: the gold mercury mercury the gold the gold particle must have a clean surface available. New Zealand. Since then. The amalgam paste is retrieved by hand and the mercury driven off by heating to leave a residue of impure gold containing traces of mercury.g. viable alternatives to mercury now exist. adding Hg to concentrate to recover gold without the time and trouble of upgrading the concentrate further. mercury (Hg) was the method-ofchoice for industrial-scale recovery of hardrock gold. Volume 7. For mercury amalgamation to be effective. (compiler: Robin Grayson) 75 . pages 66-161. must be put in direct contact with the gold particle. Adoption by placer gold miners Mercury amalgamation is entrenched as the ‘global norm’ for gold recovery from concentrates by artisanal placer gold miners. OR has its surface exposed to adhere to the mercury. insurance risks and liabilities. 1: Mercury – amalgamation of gold www. China and Kyrgyzstan) and Hg waste exporters (e.
Adoption by placer gold miners The author is unaware of the cyanide leaching being used at large-scale placer gold mines. Figure 16. Brazil.31% Au recovery. Philippines and China. Volume 7. GOLD RECOVERY BY CYANIDE LEACHING Cyanide can dissolve (leach) >90% of very fine gold.  (compiler: Robin Grayson) 76 . The zinc dust method. sourced from specialised manufacturers. Columbia. but also successful in tests on placer gold concentrates in Alaska by Cleland Conwell . Yet for small-scale and artisanal mining. first removes oxygen from the cyanide solution and then mixes in a fine zinc powder and recovers the fine gold precipitate (<50μ) on a precoat filter. but is too slow for leaching larger gold. It leaches gold that – due to flatness. (photo: Jőrgen Hartwig of Projekt-Consult) Figure 15. agitated leaching – very weak cyanide solution is added to vats that are agitated by paddles or by blowing in compressed air to keep the material in suspension.g.85% Au recovery.05%. Cyanide leaching can be by different methods: percolation leaching – very weak cyanide solution percolates down through a vat of concentrate. CYANIDE LEACHING Cyanide leaching has been used to recover gold since the 1890s but only since the 1960s with the advent of heap leaching has cyanide become the method-of-choice for leaching gold from milled hardrock. 2: Cyanide – chemical leaching of gold www. and has potential for leaching gold from placer concentrates. The cyanide solution must be kept strongly alkaline to prevent the generation of highly toxic hydrogen cyanide gas. leaching fine gold from mercury-laden tailings of edge mills. and then precipitates it as easy-to-recover gold. asphalt or tarpaulin. Cyanide has risks if handled carelessly or gains access to streams or wells. usually 0. or precipitation by zinc dust – 99% recovery. the solid gold is recovered by a choice of methods. such as traditional methods tested on placer gold concentrates in Alaska : absorption by activated carbon – 99.mn Operation The sodium cyanide (NaCN) is either in a dry solid or liquid form. A Chinese operation near Zuunkharaa in north Mongolia. clay. cyanide leaching is now widespread for hardrock ores and ‘difficult’ lateritic ores in Peru. Marcello Veiga noted that for a 0. and heap leaching – very weak cyanide solution percolates down through crushed/milled ore heaped in a ‘heap basin’ lined with leach-proof materials e.020. Cyanidation uses a very weak cyanide solution to dissolve (‘leach’) fine gold into solution. pages 66-161.mine. and must be kept strongly alkaline (pH 10-11). Ecuador. 1st stage – leaching gold into solution A weak cyanide solution is prepared. as typified by the Merill-Crowe process. absorption by ion-exchange resin – 96.21mm gold particle to dissolve in cyanide took over 60 hours! 2nd stage – recovering gold from solution Having leached the gold and dissolved it into solution as gold cyanide complexaqueous. A problem is cyanide vapour rising from ponds. small size or attached quartz – is lost by simple gravitational devices or mercury. Such concerns have triggered the gold industry to seek cost-effective alternatives  Coarse gold typical of most placers takes too long to leach.World Placer Journal – 2007. Commonly used for ground hardrock ore.
as noted by WWF-Guianas (www.World Placer Journal – 2007. using a plastic rod to stir. Yet. Operation The floor is sealed. Shortly after. Only in 2001 was this addressed by Mintex’s ‘iGoli method’. as for cleaning swimming pools. Later chlorination found favour in large gold mining operations in Australia and the USA but has now largely disappeared . ferrosulphate or sodium nitrate. and can challenge mercury. pages 66-161. If not slightly acid then the acid was completely used. and a tap plus plastic garden hose kept ready to flush spillages of bleach and acid. The filtrate includes leached gold as gold chlorideaqueous. a basic version of chlorination could replace amalgamation and cyanide. especially if the concentrate has calcite or dolomite as vein material. Preparation – removal of carbonates The first task is to dissolve carbonates as they can interfere with leaching gold.wwfguianas. Zinc often has cadmium (Cd) as impurity that is toxic if released. Then the bucket is stood for several hours to settle. The concentrate is put in a lidded plastic bucket and 15% HCl added to submerge the concentrate. To precipitate the gold from the pregnant solution. and the bleach gently stirred in. as discussed in a later section [37-40]. stirring the concentrate with the pole. Volume 7. oxalic acid. and surplus water gently tipped away. hydrochloric acid – 30% HCl strength. A long handle cut from a plastic sweeping brush is ideal. Chlorination is safer and simpler than cyanide. the lidded bucket is stirred again and left overnight to allow the process to terminate. However bleach (sodium hypochorite solution) forms comparatively stable trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) claimed to be carcinogenic and posing other health risks . 1st stage – leaching gold into solution A plastic pole is used to make a hollow in the concentrate.mine. zinc metal (chunks. Gold is dissolved (‘leached’) by attack by nascent chorine to form gold chloride (AuCl2) in solution: goldsolid + sodium hypochloriteaqueous + hydrochloric acidaqueous = gold chlorideaqueous + sodium chlorideaqueous + waterliquid 2nd stage – recovering gold from solution The liquid is decanted from the bucket and filtered. rubber apron. When dissolution seems over. notably to leach gold from residues of Hg amalgamation. The foaming is carbon dioxide CO2 gas liberated when HCl dissolves carbonate. Next day the acidity is checked by pH paper (litmus test). Frothing and foaming may push off the lid causing spills. limestone) or coatings. A stock of STRONG 30% HCl is added to water to produce 15% dilute HCl. rocks (e. although some artisanal placer miners may be doing so. and the following account is based largely on their report . Figure 17. 3: Chlorine – chemical leaching of gold www. The operators must be trained and clad in rubber gloves. Training and precautions are ESSENTIAL. Training and precautions are ESSENTIAL. laboratory eye-protectors and rubber boots. Chlorination can dissolve (leach) about 90% of gold <300μ but is too slow for leaching larger gold. so more 15% HCl is added until the process is complete.org). Two common chemicals are required: bleach – 14-16% sodium hypochlorite NaOCl (household bleach) but products often have additives that may interfere with the process. bars or powder). taking MAXIMUM precautions. chorination had been largely forgotten. Adoption by placer gold miners Chlorination is a neglected method for recovering gold from placer concentrates and the author is unaware of any companies using this method. the 30% HCl is poured in.  (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY CHLORINATION 77 .mn Chlorine had been used to recover gold for a couple of hundred years. Sodium metabisulphate was used by WWF-Guianas .g. several methods are available: sodium metabisulphate. By the 1970s.
and overall cost of processing is same or less.World Placer Journal – 2007. but it has potential for placer gold recovery. processing rates are significantly faster. similar to the cyanide method in the recovery of hardrock gold. such as the well-known MerrillCrowe and carbon methods. the HGP uses essentially the same gold-capturing method as the cyanide method in order to recover the gold by precipitation. hardrock ore – the rock is first crushed and milled to 80-120 mesh (130-200μ) – an advantage over using cyanide that typically requires milling to at least 200 mesh (74μ).com) says the chemicals used are “readily available”.mn Operation The Haber gold process (HGP) is. in many respects. effective with more types of gold ore.com) Figure 138. placer ore – with placers there is no requirement to mill the ore. The tested ores responded much faster with the HGP. A mobile test unit for the Haber Gold Process (HGP). Having rapidly and efficiently leached the gold into solution. HABER GOLD PROCESS The Haber gold process (HGP) was developed by Norman Haber of New Jersey for hardrock gold ores. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY HGP LEACHING – generalised 146 . Haber Inc (www. Initial progress has been very encouraging and publication of detailed results is awaited with interest. but acting faster and without raising any significant environmental issues.habercorp. Figure 139. 66: HGP leaching – 2000s research in New Jersey www. (photo: courtesy of Haber Inc – www. as the commercial gold content is ‘free’ gold. Reagent costs are similar to cyanide but the costs of the HGP are claimed to be “an order of magnitude lower” than for a cyanide system. claims the following advantages of HGP leaching over cyanide leaching: routinely recovers more gold. The Haber Gold Process should be effective at recovering fine gold in the tailings of conventional wash-plants. Adoption by placer gold miners The Haber gold process (HGP) is undergoing commercialisation trials in Ghana for applications to combat and replace mercury usage by thousands of artisanal and small-scale gold miners (ASM). The HGP is a chemical leaching process using a non-toxic lixiviant (extracting solution) of proprietary composition. for a spherical gold particle of 200μ diameter has hydraulic equivalence to a spherical magnetite particle twice this diameter and a quartz particle several times this diameter.habercorp. Recovery of placer gold by the Haber gold process (HGP) based on information from Haber Inc. Both methods rely on chemicallybased gold extraction technology that makes use of a lixiviant (extracting solution) to leach gold into solution from the ore. The Haber Gold Process should be effective for placer concentrates screened at 1mm or even 5mm. Haber Inc. About 100 tons of different types of gold ore have been processed in small-scale HGP pilot plants which are claimed to extract gold in bulk in “significantly less time” than with cyanide.mine. Volume 7. Therefore it seems highly likely that HGP will prove effective at recovering gold less than 200μ in size. pages 66-161.
67: iGoli chlorine leaching – 2000s research in South Africa www. Any fumes that may form are scrubbed in the attached vessel using sodium hydroxide solution.39. Recovery of placer gold by the iGoli mercury-free gold extraction process [38.1% gold.9% gold product. The iGoli process is designed to leach gold from >0. 2nd stage – precipitating gold from solution Once the gold has dissolved. a gold powder of up to 99% purity is obtained that may be turned into a gold disc just by hitting it with a hammer [38. Gold is leached by attack by nascent chorine to form gold chloride (AuCl2) in solution: goldsolid + sodium hypochloriteaqueous + hydrochloric acidaqueous = gold chlorideaqueous + sodium chlorideaqueous + waterliquid Leaching the gold usually takes a number of hours. A batch is added to the reaction vessel where the gold is dissolved (leached) by a mixture of pool acid (dilute hydrochloric acid) and bleach (sodium hypochlorite). and uses a mixture of pool acid (dilute hydrochloric acid). The iGoli process is a modern version of chlorination.mine. pages 66-161. The pregnant solution is mixed with sodium metabisulphite in the precipitation vessel and manually stirred.mintex. Volume 7. as chlorine in the leach would attack mild steel and other metals. 3rd stage – waste treatment The solid waste from the iGoli process is neutralised using lime or limestone with apatite added if necessary to destroy or precipitate base metals and ferrometals.187].World Placer Journal – 2007. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY IGOLI CHORINE LEACHING 147 . If properly done.co. In some placers and a few hardrock ores. Figure 140.39. Assessment of concentrate Tests by Mintex show that concentrates from different areas require slightly different recipes for the iGoli process. but is gaining interest in South Africa and elsewhere among artisanal and smallscale miners as an alternative to mercury amalgamation.39. the contents of the reaction chamber are filtered to remove the solids.187].1% gold concentrate to produce 99. Use of plastics allows transparent vessels allowing the operator to witness the progress. Mintek SSMB requires a 2-kilo sample of concentrate containing at least 1gram/ton to determine the optimum recipe . carbonates are present in such abundance that they interfere with leaching gold and have to be first removed .za). The feed is of finely screened concentrate with a grade of >0.mn The ‘iGoli Mercury-free Gold Extraction Process’ was invented during the lat few years by the Small Scale Mining and Beneficiation Division (SSMB) of Mintek in South Africa (www. bleach (sodium hypochlorite) and sodium metabisulphate to leach and recover metallic gold [38.187]. Operation 1st stage – leaching gold into solution The process equipment is made of PVC and other plastics. Adoption by placer gold miners The iGoli process is new.
mine. Unlike chlorination. The gold so dissolved is recovered by adding mercury which reduces the gold in solution to a metallic state whereupon it forms an amalgam that is then washed free. Volume 7. the gold is recovered in a furnace.com) has a good account of the pros and cons of iodine leaching. free iodine and potassium nitrate able to “completely dissolve all tellurides and selenides. Pritchard of Idaho and patented in 1907 (US #861. but is too slow for leaching larger gold. This is treated with nitric acid (see patent for details) and the gold precipitated is recovered by filtration. GOLD RECOVERY BY IODINE LEACHING Iodine can dissolve (leach) >90% of gold smaller than about 75μ. recreational miners or artisanal miners doing so. Operation The Harrison method in outline is as follows. plus nitric acid to prevent the formation of insoluble gold salts. Harrison of Detroit and patented in 1942 (US #2. Then 0. Adoption by placer gold miners Iodine leaching is a neglected method for recovering placer gold and the author is unaware of any companies. The Prichard method of iodine leaching was invented by Loius M. The Harrison method of iodine leaching was invented by George D. Figure 18. High rates of recycling of iodine can be achieved although requiring additional plant layout. It was said to be effective with placer concentrates and difficult ores such as platinum ores and gold telluride ores. hydroiodic acid. Fortunately iodine is a good lixiviant for gold so only very low concentrations of iodine are required.e-goldprospecting.World Placer Journal – 2007. and gold recovery is sometimes only 25%. This is filtered and the residue washed in a concentrated solution of potassium iodide to dissolve insoluble silver iodide. silver and base metals.759) as a safer alternative to in-situ cyanide leaching. This residue is filtered off and to it is added a hot solution of four parts concentrated nitric acid and one part water to prevent the gold becoming colloidal.9 kilos of iodine crystals added. But the Prichard method is unsatisfactory in failing to precipitate colloidal gold. First a test batch of 0. Three methods are noted below. (compiler: Robin Grayson) 78 .823). until no yellow precipitate remains. potassium iodide.535) and uses an excess of iodine dissolved in potassium iodide in aqueous solution. and the iodine regenerated for re-use by electrochemical oxidation. E-goldprospecting (www. The lixiviant is an aqueous solution of iodine and potassium iodide.8 kilos of solid potassium iodide are added to four litres of water and then 1. and sulphides of gold present”. then dwindled with the rise in popularity of cyanide leaching and mercury amalgamation. The ore is added to the leachate and agitated for an hour to form a pregnant solution. 1st stage – leaching gold into solution To prepare the leachate.45 litres of concentrated nitric acid is added in small steps with agitation. The water is agitated until all the crystals dissolve. After cooling for 30 minutes. An updated tincture method of iodine leaching was invented in 2006  and is dealt with in a later section.557. Some gold and other precious metals remain in the filtrate. recycling of leachate is of paramount importance for commercial viability of the method. 2nd stage – recovering gold from solution Mercury is added to the pregnant solution to form amalgams of gold. pages 66-161. 4: Iodine – chemical leaching of gold www. The gold leached by the iodine is recovered by activated charcoal. The wash water is thoroughly mixed with the filtered pregnant solution.43 kilos of ore is reduced to a <50-75μ powder and leached without any preliminary roasting step. The leachate consists of water. 3. and the high cost of iodine. An in-situ method of iodine leaching of gold ore was invented by Kent McGrew and Jack Murphy of Wyoming and patented in 1985 (US #4.mn Iodine leaching had been widely used to recover gold in the late 1800s and early 1900s.304.
1st stage – leaching gold into solution Bromine and sodium bromide are sourced from specialised suppliers. Engelhardt of South Dakota and patented in 1893 (US #509. recreational miners or artisanal miners doing so. Elemental bromine is particularly hazardous and extremely difficult to store or transport safely.723). Adding acid increases the solubility of bromine from 2-3%vol to 13-15%vol and the process shortened. By putting sludge into solution with sodium or calcium hyposulphite. Schaeffer of New York State and patented in 1882 (US #267. Gold is recovered by filtering the pregnant solution through coke or charcoal. The Engelhardt method of bromine leaching was invented by Ernest C. The Fink and Putnam method of bromine leaching was invented by Colin G.047) and uses “perbromide of iron” in aqueous solution to leach the gold as gold bromide in solution in a vat heated close to boiling point. but is too slow for leaching larger gold.25 grams/litre to maintain acidity. The reactive mixture is allowed to stand for a further ten minutes for leaching to finish.368) and uses bromine in dilute hydrochloric acid to leach the gold as gold bromide in solution.198). several methods are available: sodium metabisulphate. lead and zinc must be removed first by ferric salts. bars or powder). In tests 23carat gold leaf dissolved in barely four minutes. Silver bromide forms as sludge.4 grams/litre.” Adoption by placer gold miners Bromine leaching is a neglected method for recovering placer gold . Bromine in aqueous solution is used to leach the gold as gold bromide in solution over 24 hours. The Schaeffer method of bromine leaching was invented by Charles A.mine. First the ore is finely powdered and preferably roasted. The leachate is prepared by adding sodium chloride @ 100 grams/litre. zinc metal (chunks. MacArthur of Scotland and patented in 1889 (US #411. The MacArthur method of bromine leaching was invented by John S.283. silver can be precipitated by adding calcium sulphide. practically all of the free and combined bromine is recovered. sodium bromide @ 1gram/litre and finally chlorine @ 1. They discovered leaching gold in aqueous bromine solutions is accelerated by chloride and bromide ions. Bromine is a highly corrosive fuming liquid generating a suffocating vapour. Operation The Fink and Putnam method in outline is as follows. Volume 7. The powered ore is added to water in a leach tank. Sodium bromide is more stable and cheaper. copper.mn Bromine was fairly popular for recovering gold in the late 1800s and early 1900s but declined in the face of competition from cyanide and mercury amalgamation. pages 66-161. Some bromine leaching methods are outlined below. Throughout the first 15 minutes.1% was lost to the tailings. then the “perbromide of iron” is regenerated using bromine. Figure 19.World Placer Journal – 2007. Carbonates need not be removed as bromine solvents can dissolve gold in the presence of carbonates. 5: Bromine – chemical leaching of gold www. oxalic acid. making this method hazardous. According to the patent. and the author is unaware of any companies. GOLD RECOVERY BY BROMINE LEACHING Bromine can dissolve (leach) >90% of gold smaller than about 75μ. and only 11. The gold is recovered by precipitation by adding oxalic acid or iron sulphate to the pregnant solution. sulphuric acid is added @ 1. “Except for losses due to vaporisation and solution left in the tailings. (compiler: Robin Grayson) 79 . Fink and Garth Louis Putnam of New York and patented in 1942 (US #2. 2nd stage – recovering gold from solution To recover the gold from the pregnant solution. ferrosulphate or sodium nitrate. The leach is reused until exhausted. Silver. The solvent power of the barren liquid is restored by either adding chlorine or a hypochlorite and a mineral acid.
620. At least 99. as is usual. Shin of Great Lakes Chemical Corporation in Indiana and patented in 1990 (US #4.5-1. (compiler: Robin Grayson) 134 . the final thickener being fed with an aqueous washing medium. The ore is reduced to a fine powder and leached without any preliminary roasting step. but is too slow for leaching larger gold. to recover the gold. The acid-treated sphagnum moss is packed in a column and the pregnant gold solution passed through in the manner of a typical ion-exchange column. The sphagnum peat moss (live and dead) is chopped and screened to retain the 75μ to 1.585). pages 66-161. 3rd stage – final recovery of gold for sale The sphagnum moss is incinerated in a muffle furnace at 750°C to recover the metallic gold. Sodium bromide is more stable and cheaper. 2nd stage – recovering gold from solution The pregnant gold solution can be passed through ion exchange columns.0M HCl (10 grams of dried sieved moss per 100mL HCl) and then rinsed with deionised water until the filtrate reaches pH4. as elemental bromine is particularly hazardous and extremely difficult to store or transport safely. using perbromides with desirable characteristics such as high bromine levels. This enables water to pass through.936. Experiments prove acid-treated sphagnum peat moss is able to recover about 32 milligrams of gold per gram of moss dry-weight when it is then at maximum capacity. 1st stage – leaching gold into solution Bromine is sourced from specialised suppliers as sodium bromide. An innovative alternative invented by Ahmad Dadgar and Charles C. It may yet help to revive interest in bromide leaching. This recovers gold by passing the pregnant gold solution through acid-washed Sphagnum peat moss in a suitable contacting apparatus. The process is very rapid (10-20 minutes) and is indifferent to temperature variation in the range of 20 to 50°C. Solids collect in the bottom of the final thickener as tailings. while the liquid fraction is a pregnant gold solution. GOLD RECOVERY BY DADGAR METHOD OF BROMINE LEACHING Bromine can dissolve (leach) >90% of gold smaller than about 75μ. The resulting slurry overflows from the first leach tank to the second leach tank and overflows again to a thickener. 55: Bromine leaching – 1990s research in Indiana www.mn The Dadgar method of bromine leaching was invented by Ahmad Dadgar and co-workers of Great Lakes Chemical Corporation in Indiana and patented in 1997 (US #5. low bromine vapour pressure and stability even in freezing conditions. The powdered ore is delivered as a continuous feed to the first of two cascade agitated leach tanks where it is mixed with an aqueous bromide solution. Figure 118.910).5mm fraction. Operation The Dadgar method in outline is as follows. Volume 7.World Placer Journal – 2007. Solids produce a sludge that passes through a countercurrent washing system of several thickeners.mine. Adoption by placer gold miners The Dadgar method has potential for recovering fine placer gold from concentrates but awaits field tests and promotion to placer companies.9% of the gold contained in the leachate can be recovered by the sphagnum moss. recreational miners and artisanal miners. The screened moss is washed with a protic acid such as 0.
Bio-oxidation of sulphides is accomplished by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. 6: Thiocyanate – chemical leaching of gold www. The leach solution is introduced to the milled ore and leaching takes from days to months in a heaped leach facility. Residual solids depleted in gold may be subjected to additional metal recovery operations or to further treatment for disposal in an appropriate manner.704). Marchbank and David Dreisinger of Canada and patented in 1988 (US #5. Preparation – oxidation of sulphides The ore is finely powdered by milling and added to a heap leach facility. Sulfobocillus thermosulfidooxidans. The leach solution may contain a large molar ratio of ferric iron to thiocyanate. Christopher Fleming. The thiocyanate is sourced from specialised suppliers. 2nd stage – recovering gold from solution The pregnant thiocyanate leach solution contains dissolved gold in the form of gold-thiocyanate complex. The Wan-LeVier method of thiocyanate leaching was invented by Rong Yu Wan and K.942 and #5. The Barrick method of thiocyanate leaching was invented by Kenneth T. The leachate is extremely acidic. and the pregnant solution directed to an agitated trough where potassium sulphide is added to precipitate silver sulphide that is recovered by settling and filtering. Thomas.127. This is because thiocyanate leaching requires an extremely acidic environment and breaking down the sulphides in the ore generates highly acidic solutions.World Placer Journal – 2007. The Kendall method of thiocyanate leaching was invented by Edward E.564 and #671. The residual cyanide in the thiocyanate leach solution is converted to thiocyanate for further leaching. Sedula.736). The supernatant liquid is directed to a reaction tank for gold recovery using comminuted zinc metal. Kendall of New York State and patented in 1899 and 1901 (US #625. but is too slow for leaching larger gold.e-goldprospecting.246.785. and the rise of cyanide leaching. GOLD RECOVERY BY THIOCYANATE LEACHING Thiocyanate can dissolve (leach) >90% of gold smaller than about 75μ. #5.559. The precious metal is removed from the pregnant thiocyanate solution by transferring the precious metals to precious metal-cyanide complex and then loading this onto absorbent material. Marc LeVier of Colorado and a patent was applied for in 2004 (US #0197249ki).294. acidity and temperature. or hours in a heated pressurised autoclave.244. Acid thiocyanate solution is used to leach precious metals as a precious metal-thiocyanate complex. Figure 20. Metallospheara or Acidianus brierley as in US patents #5. Bio-oxidation takes about 90 days – much faster than with cyanide leaching as acidic products are not a problem. Ammonium or potassium thiocyanate is used to leach silver and gold.332. 1st stage – leaching gold into solution The leach solution is first conditioned to adjust the concentration and molar ratio of dissolved thiocyanate and dissolved ferric iron. Operation The Wan-LeVier method is summarised as follows. #5. (compiler: Robin Grayson) 80 . Leptospirillum ferrooxidans. Andrew R. E-goldprospecting (www. Thiocyanate leaching is particularly effective on difficult sulphide-rich refractory hardrock gold ore.mn Thiocyanate leaching was invented in the 1890s but was largely ignored due to the popularity of iodine and bromine leaching. and the pregnant solution is removed for further processing to recover the dissolved gold. pages 66-161.834.486. Volume 7.mine. #5. recreational miners or artisanal miners doing so. the patent assigned to Barrick Gold Corporation of Toronto. ranging from pH 1 to 3. Adoption by placer gold miners Thiocyanate leaching is a neglected method for recovering placer gold and the author is unaware of any companies.com) has a good account of thiocyanate leaching.493.
variable results and difficulty of controlling the process efficiently. but is too slow for leaching larger gold. and the pregnant solution is removed for further processing to recover the dissolved gold. it was only in the 1970s that it was subjected to detailed study. Hypo consumption may be as much as 30 kilos per ton or ore. and then ammonia added to make the leachate strongly alkaline (10 to 10. In practice.070. iron or copper. Instead gold is recovered by cementation method using zinc. The preferred oxidising agent is copper ions. but can be cut to 13 kilos/ton by adding reducing agents as chelates. Adding more oxidising agent is unnecessary for a Cubearing ore. In spite of this. avoidable by adding sulphite ions to regenerate the thiosulphate and prevent silver precipitating too early as insoluble silver sulphide. Thiosulphate leaching is by sodium thiosulphate Na2S2O3.mine. Figure 54. Activated carbon or resins are ineffective for recovering the gold from the pregnant leach solution. 24: Thiosulphate leaching – 1970s research in Canada www. large or small. The ammonia and copper are catalyst-like for they are neither produced nor consumed but recycled. Genik-Sas-Berezowsky.5H2O (‘hypo’) is usually supplied in powder form sourced from specialised manufacturers. Christopher Fleming. Copper ions must also be present as essential oxidising agent. For three decades thiosulphate leaching has been heralded as being close to challenging cyanide leaching . Under controlled conditions. gold recovery from suitable ores can exceed 90%. A solution of hypo is prepared. A breakthrough seems tantalisingly close as shown by the patent awarded to Jinxing Ji. cyanide cannot leach gold from refractory ores without a preliminary step . being relatively cheap.5H2O in the presence of an oxidising agent to dissolve (‘leach’) fine gold as a strong complex [Au(S2O3)2]3-. while ammonia may escape Hypo tends to be unstable. In contrast. environmentally less hazardous and capable of leaching gold from difficult refractory hardrock ores such as carbonaceous or Carlin types. thiourea leaching uses ferric iron (Fe3+) whereas cyanide leaching uses oxygen direct from the air. pages 66-161. It has been the subject of four to five US patents every year since the late 1970s and the focus of hundreds of research papers. Although hypo had been known since the early 1900s to be useful in leaching gold. Na2S2O3.983) assigned to Placer Dome Inc.5pH). Verner Sefton and Lynton Gormely of Canada in 1978 (US #4.World Placer Journal – 2007. leading to a patent being awarded to Roman N. Paul West-Sells and Ralph Hackl of Canada and patented in 2006 (US #7. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY THIOSULPHATE LEACHING 99 .mn Thiosulphate leaching has the potential to replace cyanide leaching.182) assigned to Sherritt Gordon Mines Ltd. copper may precipitate cupric sulphide that inhibits leaching. thiosulphate leaching has not yet been properly commercialised. Operation 1st stage – leaching gold into solution Sodium thiosulphate pentahydrate Na2S2O3. Thiosulphate can leach >90% of gold smaller than about 75μ. and then to precipitate easy-to-recover gold.066. an essentially non-toxic colourless crystalline compound that is more familiar as the pentahydrate. The thiosulphate method uses a solution of hypo Na2S2O3. The milled ore is added to the thiosulphate leach with a pulp density of 40 to 45% solids. In contrast. The main deterrent is the uncertain technology. Volume 7. 2nd stage – recovering gold from solution The pregnant thiosulphate leach solution contains dissolved gold in the form of gold-thiosulphate complex. Adoption by placer gold miners The author is unaware of thiosulphate leaching being used at large-scale placer gold mines.5H2O known as sodium hyposulphite or ‘hypo’ as used with silver in traditional photography.
sodium peroxide. thiourea must be present in excess. May cause irreversible effects. Gloves. and then precipitate it as easy-to-recover gold. Thiourea leaching can proceed four or five times faster than cyanide leaching. A weak solution of thiourea is prepared. May be fatal if swallowed. and the first stage is the oxidation of thiourea to form formamidine disulphide: 2CS(NH2)2 + 2Fe3+ = C2S2(NH)2(NH2)2+ 2Fe2++ 2H+ The role of the formamidine is to oxidise the gold to form a gold-thiourea complex: + 2+ 2Au + C2S2(NH)2(NH2)2 + 2CS(NH2)2 + 2H = 2Au(CS(NH2)2) carcinogen and probable human carcinogen. such as those typical of placer gold. and has potential for leaching gold from placer concentrates. In theory. it being the most effective compared to alternatives such as hydrogen peroxide. May cause skin ulcers. Adoption by placer gold miners The author is unaware of thiourea leaching being used at large-scale placer gold mines. pages 66-161. for it forms a fine grained sticky coating which can inhibit the leaching of gold. The overall equation for thiourea leaching is: 2Au + 4CS(NH2)2 + 2Fe3+ = 2Au(CS(NH2)2++ 2Fe2+ To drive the equation to the right. Known animal Operation Thiourea is usually supplied in powder form sourced from specialised manufacturers. The main deterrent is the uncertain technology. cyanide leaching uses oxygen as an oxidising agent direct from the air. The sulphur is a potential problem to the success of the thiourea method. May cause allergic skin reaction. the formamidine breaks down irreversibly to cyanamide and elemental sulphur.” An end product is cyanamide that contains the cyanide radical and reacts with acids to form a highly toxic gas. 7: Thiourea – chemical leaching of gold www. In contrast. large or small. variable results and difficulty of controlling the process efficiently.World Placer Journal – 2007. supplying about 50% of the ligands to the complexation” and due to this thiourea leaching of gold is faster than cyanide leaching . Figure 21. (compiler: Robin Grayson) 81 . May affect fertility.mn Thiourea has been heralded for decades as an alternative to cyanide. potassium permanganate and formamidine disulphide.  Thiourea CS(NH2)2 is an organic compound that is classed by INCHEM/WHO as. Sufficient ferric iron (Fe3+) should already be liberated and available to make the addition of more oxidising agent either limited or unnecessary for a highly oxidised hardrock ore. ferric iron (Fe3+) is used as an oxidising agent. In a final step. liver damage. safety glasses. “formamidine acts as an oxidiser as well as a complexing agent. Handle as a carcinogen. Volume 7. ozone. In thiourea leaching of gold. and “the ratio of complexing and oxidising agents must be carefully adjusted’ to avoid excessive oxidation of the thiourea solution and consequent excessive use of reagents . making thiourea more effective at dissolving large gold particles. GOLD RECOVERY BY THIOUREA LEACHING Thiourea can dissolve (leach) >90% of gold smaller than about 150μ. good ventilation. but as yet few if any industrial operations have proved to be a commercial success. thiourea can be used to recover gold from milled hardrock. Importantly. Protect against spills and the spread of dust.mine. Cyanamide is toxic if swallowed. but is too slow for leaching larger gold. The thiourea method uses a weak solution of thiourea in the presence of an oxidising agent to dissolve (‘leach’) fine gold into solution. “toxic. harmful to the skin and is an eye irritant. or in a typical placer ore.
Prater of Utah invented a nitric acid method of recovering base metals and gold. Figure 23. The operator must have special training and wear protective clothing and eye-protection in accordance with local regulations and international norms.mine. Adoption by placer gold miners The nitric acid method does not appear to be being used by placer mining companies but is being used by artisanal placer gold miners in parts of South America and elsewhere .307).3% gold recovery in laboratory conditions. This method adds nitric acid continuously to decompose pyrite and arsenopyrite to liberate copper. gold but its effect on <100μ gold needs study. However the patented process is complex and it does not seem to have become commercialised. concentrated nitric acid into the pan of dry concentrate. However if mercury is present. achieving 99. Then the operator uses a long-handled pot to pour hot.V. (compiler: Robin Grayson) 82 . but achieves only 80% gold recovery. NITRIC ACID CLEANING Hot concentrated nitric acid (HNO3) helps to recover fine gold from concentrates.793. The operator refrains from leaning forward and must wear protective clothing and eye-protectors. These limitations were overcome by Rein Raudsepp. patented in 1974 (US #3. Nitric acid has been used in gold recovery for at least 150 years as a minor process step. but a second operative should be within 10 metres to respond to any emergency. It appears over 90% of gold of 100μ to 300μ is recoverable. Ernest Peters and Morris J. The brown fumes are of nitrogen oxides and are EXTREMELY TOXIC and even trace amounts cause severe lung problems.World Placer Journal – 2007. a magnet removes the magnetite (Fe3O4). but tests are needed to confirm what percentage of <100μ can be recovered. acidresistant.429) assigned to Kennecott Copper. The concentrate is dried by placing it in a heat-resistant metal pan on a stove. The ‘acid site’ must be out-of-doors in a well-lit fenced off area away from other people. Queneau and John D. and requires the feed to be <53μ. The process is exceedingly dangerous. Extremely toxic fumes being generated by hot concentrated nitric acid poured onto dry concentrate. Beattie of Vancouver whose nitric acid method was patented in 1987 (US #4. 8: Nitric acid – chemical cleaning of gold www. Immediately reaction starts. the operator steps back and vacates the area BEFORE heavy brown fumes appear. However. Paul B. After a short time in the atmosphere the brown fumes disintegrate into harmless nitrogen and oxygen. Artisanal miners in Kyrgyzstan (photo: Peter Appel of GEUS) Figure 22. Volume 7. from previous processing. GOLD RECOVERY BY NITRIC ACID CLEANING Nitric acid cleans gold and aids recovery of >90% of 100-300μ.mn Operation The concentrate must be dry and as free of magnetite as possible. Only one operator is needed. After a few seconds the brown fumes are completely broken down to harmless nitrogen. It should not be attempted if raining. snowing or in high wind. The concentrate is put in a heat-resistant. After being allowed to cool. from contamination or from native mercury or cinnabar. if the process is carried out outdoors in an open place then the brown fumes are blown away after a few minutes. pan on a small stove inside the ‘acid site’ and warmed up. Peter Appel of the DenmarkGreenland Geological Survey noted the method being used by artisanal gold miners in Kyrgyzstan to liberate gold from sulphide ores . gold etc.647. pages 66-161. then potentially explosive chemicals may form. All non-essential personnel must be excluded to minimise exposure to risk.
shorinternational. Never stopper an aqua regia bottle for chlorine may build up and explode it. or days or weeks later. Volume 7. The two acids mix quietly – avoid splashes. The fuming and yellow colour of aqua regia are due to the reaction of nitric acid HNO3 with hydrogen chloride form water H20 plus two chemicals that are yellowish and volatile .D.in solution: 3+ Au aq + 4Cl-aq = AuCl4-aq This is an equilibrium reaction favouring formation of chloraurate anions. Dangerous fumes of nitrogen oxides are generated.com. The contents of the reaction vessel are vacuum filtered. It results in a removal of gold ions from solution and allows further oxidation of gold by the nitric acid. but in combination are very aggressive in dissolving gold. or outside. even if the reaction vessel is gently warmed and gently agitated. Operation This text is based on recovering gold from scrap by Shor International www.shorinternational. such as drop-bydrop from a bottle set on a shelf above the reaction flask. gold may be oxidized by free chlorine in the aqua regia.nitrosyl chloride NOCl and chlorine Cl2.chemical leaching of gold www. and only after a hazard analysis has been prepared. and the gold precipitated from the pregnant solution as described in www. (compiler: Robin Grayson) 83 . When bubbling ceases and no more brown fumes are produced then a little hydrochloric acid is added. When reaction has ceased.com. Neither of the acids in aqua regia can dissolve gold. if ever. In addition. Aqua regia is a mixture of three to four volumes of concentrated hydrochloric acid to one volume of concentrated nitric acid. Figure 24. forming gold ions (Au3+). which will actually dissolve a virtually undetectable amount of gold.mn Aqua regia was invented by Iranian alchemist Abu Musa Jabir ebn Hayyan about 800 A. aggressive liquid and must only be used by a trained chemist following strict precautions in a properly equipped laboratory or outside space.World Placer Journal – 2007. Both acids emit acrid fumes. The aqua-regia is added slowly. 9: Aqua regia . GOLD RECOVERY BY AQUA REGIA LEACHING Aqua regia can dissolve (leach) 90-100% of gold even as large as 1mm. No heat is evolved when mixing but the aqua regia at once starts to emit chlorine gas slowly for several days. A few recreational miners do use aqua regia but it has not become popular . Adoption by placer gold miners Aqua regia is rarely. The process is repeated with more aqua regia until no bubbling or brown fumes are seen. The aqua regia is used immediately. fuming. but is too aggressive for mining use. It is a corrosive. being heavier than air they require either a very good fume hood. All the gold has now been dissolved. This followed from his discovery of hydrochloric acid upon mixing common salt with sulphuric acid.mine. and so more gold is dissolved. Typically 1-2 kilos of scrap are put in an empty 6-litre Ehrlenmeyer flask under a fully ventilated fume hood. protect eyes and work in the open or under a fume hood. the pregnant solution is poured off into a glass or plastic container. pages 66-161. Nitric acid HNO3 is a powerful oxidizer. leaving the solid residue in the reaction vessel. used by placer gold miners. The newly-formed nitrosyl chloride decomposes to nitric oxide NO and chlorine. A further spurt of activity may occur if the original hydrochloric acid has been exhausted. or for the process to be done outside. Ausolid + 3NO3-aq + 6H+aq = Au3+aq + 3NO2 gas + 3H2Oliquid Hydrochloric acid HCl supplies chloride ions (Cl-) in large amounts which attack the gold to produce chloraurate anions AuCl4.
org [46. Adoption by placer gold miners ‘Early smelting’ assisted by borax has been used for many years by small-scale gold miners in the Benguet area north of Manila in the Philippines as an alternative to mercury or cyanide. The mixture of borax and heavy mineral is heated by a blow torch. The milled ore is then subjected to gravitational separation to produce a black sand concentrate with visible gold.mn Operation The artisanal method of ‘early smelting’ is reported by Peter Appel from the Philippines. Smelting assisted by borax is common among recreational and industrial gold miners in North America. Russia and Mongolia upon concentrates that are clean.World Placer Journal – 2007. Flux (1-2 parts) is added to the concentrate (1 part) and mixed well. The flux is of anhydrous borax Na2B4O7 (5 parts). But ‘early smelting’ is advocated for recreational miners by www. Elsewhere borax-assisted smelting is sometimes used by artisanal miners.100°C and the heat kept until the mixture is molten and a bright yellow white.48]. (compiler: Robin Grayson) 84 . Borax depresses the melting point of gold.47].47. #70 silica sand SiO2 (40 parts). GOLD RECOVERY BY SMELTING WITH BORAX Smelting with borax can recover fine gold. The ‘early smelting’ method of recreational miners is described at www. a few drops of water are added. The ingredients are mixed and stored in a container and kept dry. The entire process only takes a few minutes.nuggethunters. but usually only from a clean concentrate. The plastic bag in put in a pottery bowl serving as a crucible. The ore is screened or milled at 2mm and the black sand soaked in acidic acid for couple of days to help break down sulphides. The molten gold is heavier than the other heavy minerals which float off as slag to leave a nice gold pellet. Figure 26. Figure 25. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland) BORAX SMELTING ‘Early smelting’ is possible on unclean concentrate to recover fine gold that might be lost if upgrading were to be attempted by amalgamation or gravitational means. The concentrate (one part) is dried carefully and then mixed in a very small plastic bag only a few centimetres in size with borax (three parts). The mixture is fired by the acetylene torch up to 1. (photo: Peter Appel of GEUS. and outlined below. but only after mercury amalgamation or cyanide leaching.org [46. pages 66-161. soda ash Na2CO3 (10 parts) and sodium nitrate NaNO3 (20 parts) as oxidizer. The blow torch is gasoline fuelled. The heating continues until first the borax melts and later the gold melts. The molten material is poured into a cast-iron mould. After mixing. 10: Borax – early smelting of gold www.47] for recovering fine gold from concentrates that are not particularly clean. requiring special clothes and care [46.mine. and positioned tilted on a few pieces of charcoal. Smelting concentrate to recover gold in the Philippines. The mixture is spooned into the crucible and dampened with rubbing alcohol. is very cheap and already used by the artisanal miners for burning amalgam.nuggethunters. Volume 7. then carefully dried. Hardrock ore is first crushed and milled.
the Snow Mould basidiomycete and some Fusarium species.wikipedia.378. bacteria – Chromobacterium violatum. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY BIOLEACHING 106 . The Geobiotics method of bioleaching was invented by Dennis Kleid. by the oxidative decarboxylation of the glycine in a process stimulated by methionine or other methyl-group donors: NH2CH2COOH J HCN + CO2 + 4[H] bacteria producing glycine in bulk. by adding lime or phosphate buffer. Eventually a simplified version may be acceptable. often with the gold (I) ion – [Au+][CN-]2. Bioleaching can dissolve (leach) >90% of gold smaller than about 75μ. Biosorption is “automatic and immediate” even if the microbes are dead. The method is suitable for ores of grades as low as 0. cyanogena. or in-situ bioleaching – blasted ore in situ. flourescens. heap bioleaching – milled ore in a heap.World Placer Journal – 2007. aided by flocculants. The pond is kept strongly alkaline.497. 30: Bioleaching – 1980s research in Wales and California www. and fungi –notably Marasmius oreades (‘Fairy Rings’). The culture pond is fitted with a pumping system to permit harvesting and recirculation of the growth media. It met with greater success. cepacia). Following guidance of the patent. Bioleaching may be done in three settings: tank bioleaching – milled ore in a tank. manganese. certain Pseudomonas species (aeruginosa.437. Advantages are: economic: simple and cheap. Each species has particular tolerance of physical and chemical conditions.778) with limited success. environmental: the microbes are natural and easy to cultivate. Operation This text is based on the Geobiotics method of bioleaching as presented in US patent #5.437). annual yields of 40 dry tons per hectare are possible. The sludge of living and dead microbes is harvested and the biosorbed gold recovered.org/wiki/Bioleaching. violaceous. environmental: Sulphuric acid and H+ ions can leak and turn surface water and groundwater acidic. Cyanopora paradoxa and Cyanidium caldarium. Oxidation of gold to gold-cyanide complexes commences once the microbes contact the ore. Pooley of Wales and patented in 1987 (US #4. awarded in 1995 (US #5. sulphur. Figure 66. Chromobacterium flavum. Mass cultivation of the chosen micro-organisms is undertaken in outdoor ponds in a sunlit site close to the ore body.378. An introductory account can be read at: http://en. The culture pond is lined with plastic or concrete and the water body is 10-30m wide and 20-50m deep. nitrogen. An interesting approach is to co-culture microbes: Adoption by placer gold miners Bioleaching has not been adopted by placer gold miners as it poses too many challenges. micro-organisms liberating methionine in bulk. William Kohr and Francis Thiobodeau of California who applied for a patent in 1992. blue-green cyanobacteria – Anacystis nidulans. nitrificans). economic: bacterial leaching process is very slow. and the microbes are sprayed onto the ore from the pond at the time of maximal cyanide production. and few technicians required. fluorescens.02 Troy ounces per ton. but is too slow for leaching larger gold. Algae are the most convenient. The fluid with microbes and biosorbed gold is pumped into a settling pond or tank at least 3m deep and allowed to settle. Disadvantages are: Suitable microbes include: Cyanogenesis is the same in all these microbes. mesentericus. Volume 7. certain Bacillus species (pyocyaneus. liquifaciens. same bacteria able of absorbing gold-cyanide ion complexes. and algae able to produce cyanide from a glycine substrate. and heavy metals such as iron. trace elements and ions. zinc and arsenic be leached by acid mine drainage. and nutritional requirements including phosphorous. aureofaciens. algae – Chlorella vulgaris. pH7-10.mn Bioleaching is the extraction of metal from its ore by means of microbes.mine. The Pooley method of bioleaching was invented by Frederick D. pages 66-161. iron.
The coarse fraction is stacked in a heap.332.081) and assigned to GB Biotech Inc of British Columbia. Care is needed in the heap design to ensure fine materials do not plug the voids essential for aeration and liquid flow. Wright and Albert Bruynsteyn of British Columbia. The Oxidor column reactor for testing and evaluating refractory ores was invented by Andrew Carter of Texas and patented in 2002 (US #6. Suitable cultures include the following species of bacteria. pages 66-161. Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillium ferrooxidans. The testing and evaluation can be accelerated using a device such as the Oxidor column reactor. Figure 67. Plugging results in starvation of nutrients. Adoption by placer gold miners Biooxidation is inappropriate to placer gold ores as sulphides are rare and gold is in the form of free particles. During the 1980s. Biooxidation can oxidise sulphide ores sufficient for leaching. The Kohr biooxidation method was invented by William J. The Hackl biooxidation method was invented by Ralph P. Volume 7. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY BIOOXIDATION 107 . patented in 1991 (US #4.246. Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans. assigned to Oxidor Corporation.mine. Typically 180 to 600 days is required to oxidise the iron and sulphur in the ore.493). Biooxidation has a choice of settings: tank biooxidation . The bacteria suspension is used to inoculate ore stacked in the open air resting on a pad system. Kohr of California. Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. Metallosphera sedula and Leptospirillium ferrooxidans.for refractory ores of relatively high grade heap biooxidation . offering a low-cost means of preparing refractory hardrock ores to make them responsive to leaching such as cyanide leaching.World Placer Journal – 2007. Adequate air flow is essential to cool the heap from the exothermic effects of biooxidation. Operation The ore is first batch tested to determine if biooxidation is effective. 31: Biooxidation – 1980s research in British Columbia and California www.for refractory ores of relatively low grade. A bacterial culture is developed that can grow in high acidity and high metal content. The cultures are subjected to increasing concentrations of dissolved arsenic and low pH to raise their tolerance. This puts pressure on cashflow. carbon dioxide and oxygen and uneven distribution of the bacteria.575) and assigned to Biotech Inc of California. and requires a specific carbondeactivating microbial assemblage (US #5. Batch testing may require six months due to the time required for the bacteria to adapt to the substrate and the time gap between inoculation of the ore and its oxidation. This liberates the encapsulated gold making it accessible to leaching. Biooxidation research continues unabated and a few milestone patents are outlined below.573.498. Refractory sulphide ore is crushed and separated into a fine and coarse fraction. either alone or in combination: Thiobacillus thiooxidans. The method cultures of at least three species of bacteria Thiobacillus thiooxidans. increased the mine footprint and adds to production costs.486) and polymer agglomeration may be beneficial (US #5.987. Alternatively biooxidation can be assisted by forming particulates that are then heaped (US #5. for leaching by cyanide must first be treated with lime to raise the pH substantially. After biooxidation the resulting oxidised ore is highly acidic and. causing the solubilisation of iron as ferric (III) ion and sulphide as sulphate ion. patented in 1995 (US #5. and a concentrate produced from the fine fraction.031).244. Hackl.mn Biooxidation oxidises both iron and sulphur under acidic conditions. biooxidation became the focus of intense research effort. Frank W.559). Biooxidation of carbonaceous and carbonaceoussulphidic ores is difficult.
World Placer Journal – 2007. GBP-assisted floatation using GBPs modified to form a hydrophobic reagent. In a very different test. However the speed of advance in parallel subjects such as immunology and microbiology may lead to sudden breakthroughs. 69: Gold-binding proteins – 2000s in research in Washington www. 3μ gold beads were coated with GBP antibodies and bound to magnetic beads to form a complex. or rather “binding ligands to gold”. pages 66-161. However in the author’s opinion this result should be treated with caution for gold itself is hydrophobic and the merit of adding C5 hydrophobic tails is not demonstrated. The patent draws attention to strains of Escherichia coli cells that express an extra-cellular GBP domain will bind small particles of gold. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY GOLD-BINDING PROTEINS (GBPs) 149 . The patent stretches the meaning of GBPs to embrace all “gold-specific non-naturally occurring binding ligand to gold” in a protein. GBP-assisted microbial extraction and transport is envisaged for recovering sub-micron gold (<1μ). carbohydrate.875. hydrophobic agent or any combination of these. Being magnetic. A “magnetic mineral binding agent including a gold-specific protein” is added to a sample to form a complex of magnetic mineral and gold. yet to be Figure 142. GBP-assisted microbial recovery of sub-micron gold (<1μ). the complex was pulled to the wall of a microcentrifuge in a magnetic field while the other material settled to the bottom of the tube. antibody. A magnetic field is applied and the complex removed from the liquid. peptide. and then the Escherichia coli can be induced to follow a chemical gradient of attractants such as ribose sugar to lead them to a recovery destination. chelating agent. such as: GBP-enabled magnetic separation to recovering extremely fine gold particles from magnetite-rich slurry. Recovery of gold by gold-binding proteins is not yet commercial but may eventually become so. oligonucleotide. The patent is highly innovative but broad-brush in character and the methods it proposes are not yet commercial. protein fragment. Volume 7. GBP-assisted floatation – a GBP is modified to form a hydrophobic reagent by reacting with valeric anhydride to form a GBP with C5 hydrophobic tails (C5-GBP).mn Gold-binding proteins (GBPs) have recently been recognised as having potential applications in recovering fine gold and in gold exploration.mine. The patent envisages many types of gold recovery mechanisms involving GBP. magnetic agent. A research team at the University of Washington led by Clement Furlong with funding from Placer Dome Inc investigated gold-binding proteins and registered a patent in 2005 (US #6. Adoption by placer gold miners Gold-binding proteins (GBPs) have demonstrated as being commercially viable.254). GBPs are proteins that have a high specificity and affinity for gold . gold was bound to natural magnetite by means of a reagent with both gold-andmagnetite-binding-domains to form a complex that could be separated by magnetic methods. In a lab test. polypeptide. A laboratory experiment showed C5-GBP bound to extremely fine gold (“micron gold”) could reside at the oil-water interface. Operation GBP-enabled magnetic separation of extremely fine gold particles from magnetite-rich slurry.
massey. shoots and leaves. fine gold in laterites. Not only is a ‘ground cover’ of plants produced. When the crop reaches maturity.htm. Volume 7. and gold recovery from difficult placers.nz/staff/rhaverka/Phytomining. PHYTOMINING Phytomining is a still largely experimental. mercury and other metals in the ash. Recovery of placer gold by the Ecologic ‘gold concentrator’ based on manufacturer’s information. the plants absorbing the valuable metals front the soil – and so a new scientific line of investigation emerged for which term ‘phytomining’ has been coined. The plants absorb the solutions with the metals and bioaccumulate the metals in their roots. Researchers at Massey University in New Zealand are testing the use of common crops such as rapeseed to soak up toxic contaminants from soil at abandoned gold mining sites. (photo: courtesy of Dr. such as a natural placer or more likely an expanse of gold-rich tailings. Research is investigating plants able to grow on toxic soils polluted by mine waste or from natural high toxic metal anomalies. is first planted with a plant capable of absorbing gold in solution and storing it (‘bioaccumulation’).mine. Small-scale field trials of gold phytomining trial in Brazil. Adoption by placer gold miners Phytomining is making rapid progress. After a few days or weeks. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY ECOLOGIC E-TOWER 150 .g. the crop is harvested and processed by incineration to recover gold. but also some plants absorbed such large amounts of toxic metals that ‘bioremediation’ is sometimes possible by cropping the plants to remove the metals. Chris Anderson of Massey University http://ite.ac. The next step has been very recent – to investigate if valuable metals can be mined by cropping such plants. and to return the land to safe agricultural use.World Placer Journal – 2007. The plant species needs to be a fast-growing and high-biomass species.massey.mn Operation The gold-bearing soil. such as cyanide that may be broken down in the soil. The idea is that the gold harvested during the operation covers the cost of clean-up and provides revenue for the education and training of the communities to create sustainable incomes by farming the land. The author suggests several routes to commercialisation may emerge: phyto-reclamation as an incentive to cleaning up tailings. The first experimental success was as commercial production of nickel metal from plants grown on soils with abnormally high concentrations of nickel.htm) Figure 143. Figure 144. The lixiviant chemical may be toxic to animals and man but harmless to the crop.nz/staff/rhaverka/Phytomining.ac. Recently there has been some success by New Zealand researchers with gold recovery from crops of plants grown on soils with high gold content [189-192] see: http://ite. lixiviant chemicals capable of dissolving gold are applied to the soil that make some of the gold (plus any mercury) and other toxic metals soluble. pages 66-161. 70: Phytomining – 2000s research in New Zealand www. e.
such as fine gold in laterites (as in much of South America. Yet it might allow high % gold recovery from ‘difficult’ placers. Australia and parts of Kazakhstan.585. continue to enter the agglomerate particles until the operator considers the target gold concentration has been reached.548) and assigned to BP Australia. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY AGGLOMERATION . making CGA appropriate for placer tailings with fine gold that would otherwise be lost. In China. patented in 1990 (US #4.mn Operation The slurry is piped into a special reactor. Recent work in Turkey shows high % recovery is possible for gold between 53μ and 300μ . Mongolia and China). The second step is to add the coal agglomerate to the gold-bearing slurry in the special reactor.976. Figure 68. Gavin Ewin and David Mainwaring in 1986 (US #4. The gold particles. Adoption by placer gold miners Early success in recovering placer gold with CGA did not lead to its adoption by placer gold miners. In theory gold particles will agglomerate with oil. pages 66-161. due to their oleophilic nature. Flowsheet for placer gold recovery by CGA.generalised 108 . Coal-gold agglomeration (CGA) makes use of gold being hydrophobic (resists water-wetting) and oleophilic (easily wetted by oils). The team then tried CGA for low-grade hardrock ores with <1 gram/ton of gold. 32: Agglomeration – 1980s research in Australia and China www. lab experiments by Kotze and Petersen achieved 85% gold recovery from artificial gold-slurry mixtures [77-82].781). The first step is to create coal-oil agglomerates about 5mm in diameter using coal dust bound by kerosene. In Africa. Volume 7. CGA began with BP plc in Australia who built a pilot plant processing 1 ton/hour of placer gold concentrate. Then the gold enriched oil-saturated activated carbon particles are agitated and the agglomerated gold is mechanically separated. Figure 69. The gold is then separated from the ash. but in practice gold grades are so low that there is not enough gold to form oil-gold agglomerates. comminuted coal dust) to either agglomerate with the gold or to act as a carrier of the gold particles. Here the hydrophobic-oleophilic properties of gold induce the fine gold to agglomerate into oil-saturated activated carbon particles.mine. CGA only works with fine gold. So for CGA to work it is first necessary to use another hydrophobic material (in this case. Coal-gold agglomeration (CGA) can recover 90% of gold in the range 53-300μ . the coal and oil incinerating to leave gold and ash. A CGA pilot by Envi-Tech Inc under the CanadaAlberta MDA project in 1993/94 indicated gold recovery from agglomeration-adsorption technology may be 9599% but no results seem to have been published. light gas oil or fuel oil. Zhao Bing and colleagues found CGA had “many advantages” over cyanide and claimed 88% recovery of gold in amalgamation tailings. Africa. Finally gold is recovered from the agglomerates by burning them. A patent was awarded to Mark Cadzow. and for milled hardrock ore.World Placer Journal – 2007. without the use of mercury or cyanide. Agglomerates smaller than 500μ seem to be more effective in recovering gold. (drawing: Robin Grayson) COAL-GOLD AGGLOMERATION Agglomeration ‘snowballs’ extremely fine gold with coaly or oily material to produce large particles that can then be recovered easily by floatation. Graham Elkes.
The scraper also removes some or all of the sticky coating. for which Royer Luckenbach of New York was awarded two patents in 1923 and a third in 1931 (US #1. candle tar. Placer ore is screened at 2. The belt is coated in a thin sticky (‘tacky’) coating of oil.5mm fraction is subjected to oleophilic adhesion. Conversely magnetite and quartz are oleophobic and hydrophilic. Hardrock ore is milled to 2. At the end.511.792. oleophilic adhesion became the standard means of recovering diamonds on grease tables and grease belts.5mm – a major advantage over froth floatation that requires much finer milling. pages 66-161.291. and his patents mention an extraordinary range of suitable oils.5mm. Adoption by placer gold miners Oleophilic adhesion does not appear to be being used by placer gold mining companies. a Frue vanner) to which gold particles would be attracted and remain attached even when the belt inverts over an end roller where black sand and quartz are shed as tailings. Figure 70. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY OLEOPHILIC ADHESION . Rather than scraping the belt to collect the adhering oleophilic particles. and a roller reapplies a sticky smear of oil. This weakens surface tension and sinks ‘float gold’. Oleophilic adhesion was formerly known as the ‘contact method of ore concentration’.World Placer Journal – 2007. 33: Oleophilic adhesion – 1980s research in Alberta www. Luckenbach suggests a flexible resin binder such as rubber is added to the coating to make it waterproof. grease or wax.85]. The ‘greasy belt’ is an endless rubber belt moving between rollers.g. and proven to be naturally hydrophobic [84. Volume 7.5mm feed to create a slurry of about 25% solids by volume. Gold in the oversize is separated in a simple device such as sluice. Water is added to the <2.698 and US #2. The slurry issues as a thin stream onto the moving endless belt and the gold adheres to the sticky coating by oleophilic adhesion. grease or wax but not so liquid that it might drip free when the moving belt inverts on passing over the end roller. artisanal miners or recreational miners in spite of its apparent simplicity. The gold is removed from the moving inverted belt by a scraper. US #1. the belt is squeezed between rollers or alternatively be blown or shaken off.478.237 and US 1. horse grease. bitumen and lard. Recovery of placer gold by the oleophilic adhesion is unclear and the graph is highly conjectural. The patents propose a sticky coating of oil. grease or wax.189.mine. in spite of requiring less water and less grinding. Luckenbach added sodium silicate to the smear as a wetting agent to deter settling of magnetite and other gangue minerals. The inverted belt passes across a roller that applies a fresh sticky coating and then turns ‘right-way-up’ over its end roller to again capture oleophilic particles from slurry. coal tar. one of which is a drive roller. Operation The text is adapted from the account of the greasy belt described by Royer Luckenbach in his patents. Gold is ideal being oleophilic. Yet gold recovery by oleophilic adhesion failed to challenge froth floatation.544). ease of regenerating oils/greases/waxes and general simplicity.447) but not for gold recovery. the water and gangue minerals are shed as tailings whereas the gold and other oleophilic particles remain stuck to the inverted belt from which they are removed by a scraper. grease or wax being smeared on an endless belt (e. Hydrophilic particles are wetted by adding a trace of wetting agent such as sodium silicate (see patents) or liquid non-frothing detergent.mn Oleophilic adhesion is the selective adhesion of a mineral to a surface coated in oil. In contrast. The <2. The Kruyer method was invented by Jan Kruyer of Alberta and patented in 1983 (US #4. greases and waxes – including candle wax.generalised 109 .928.448.461) and rather than using a sticky solid belt uses a sticky mesh belt. The Lurgi method was invented by Ernst Bierbrauer of Germany and patented in 1940 and 1942 (US #2.
But placer gold is often irregular in shape (due to natural leaching) – even porous – and is often remarkably flat.54]. and paradoxically it is these factors that make gravitational settling difficult yet froth floatation easier. Today froth floatation is a widely used method for recovering many types of minerals including gold. froth floatation is a neglected method for recovering placer gold and the author is unaware of any commercial placer operations using this method. The Soviet Union appears to have operated the world’s only full-scale floatation circuit for placer gold. Gold recoveries were 47-76% – the less slimes then the better the floatation . by stimulating frothing by ‘frothing agents’ and by controlling pH. It processed 300 tons of solids per day and although the gold recovery was “satisfactory” the floatation circuit was deemed uneconomic at the then prevailing low gold price. The gold particles attach themselves to the meniscus of the rising bubbles.27]. the need to recycle effluent and the challenge of floating placer gold due its depressed hydrophobicity. The feed consists of finely milled hardrock ore. Adoption by placer gold miners In 1916 Lang suggested that the platy shape of placer gold in black sand of the Pacific Coast of North America should make it amenable to recovery by floatation . Froth floatation can separate >90% of gold <150μ. Operation For placer ore.53. buoyancy and floatability due to impurities and coatings. chromite. The resulting froth is then removed and the gold recovered by either gravity settling or chemical means. Contemporary tests in the Soviet Union with similar reagents on clean-up tailings and <150μ fraction of placer ores yielded 75-90% recovery at concentration ratios of 25:1 to 42:1 [3.mn Froth floatation of gold is possible due to gold’s surface hydrophobicity – “the antithesis of gravity concentration"  and therefore froth floatation can recover up to 100% of very fine to moderately fine gold (<150μ). by stimulating wetting by ‘wetting agents’. and 100% recovery possible for <120μ with a retention time of only 5 minutes. In the floatation tank. Volume 7. the slurry is agitated and air bubbles injected. The first paper on froth floatation of gold appeared as late as 1914 . Slurry is made by adding water.mine. or else fine tailings or placer concentrate. deterrents are the cost of reagents. Figure 27. 11: Froth floatation – 1930s research in Idaho and USSR www. but is too slow for leaching >300μ gold. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY FROTH FLOATATION 85 . Regarding placer gold. much the same as cyanide leaching. a six-cell floatation circuit in the 1930s that scavenged both ‘fine’ and ‘minute’ gold from gravity tailings aboard a bucket-line dredge [2. the process is most appropriate to gold recovery from fine tailings or from concentrate. by controlling the collectors using ‘conditioners’. Floatation tests of Soviet Union coastal marine sands achieved 70-100% recovery of 75-125μ gold [2. fluorspar and coal.27].World Placer Journal – 2007. Research resumed in the 1970s in China  where 78-99% recovery was attained with rougher concentration ratios of several hundred . Today. A graph by Wang and Poling shows >95% recovery was possible for “coastal type gold” <150μ with a retention time of 15 minutes.52]. The first research report on placer gold floatation was by Arthur Fahrenwald in 1933  and 1937 saw publication of floatation recovery of placer gold on Idaho gold dredges [3. platinum. pages 66-161. and fed continuously into a floatation tank. This is due to gold being hydrophobic – and by selectively enhancing this tendency by adding chemicals known as ‘collectors’. Reagents were amyl xanthate and Aerofloat-15 plus either pine oil or cresylic acid frother.
These results are encouraging considering the number of untried variables that await investigation that may be capable of greatly improving the gold recovery sufficient to challenge mercury amalgamation.com/html/gold-paraffin_process. In theory at pH 3 the gold particles should be negative and paraffin globules positive. and pieces of paraffin wax are added and allowed to melt. The slurry is heated in a container to 70°C. Attempts were made to obtain an electrostatic attraction between the gold particles and the paraffin globules by controlling the acidity at pH 3. pages 66-161. the gold particles being hydrophobic adhere to the globules (droplets) of paraffin wax whereas black sand and quartz do not.mn The gold-paraffin wax process was developed in Brazil as a clean non-polluting method for recovering gold as an alternative to mercury amalgamation . Operation This account is based on the bench experiments of Hamelmann and Lins in Brazil . 56: Gold-paraffin wax floatation – 1990s research in Brazil www. The selected hydrophobic material is paraffin-wax which is non-toxic. The gold-paraffin wax method is described at www. Brazil. Figure 119. The CETEM researchers succeeded in achieving gold recoveries of 40-50% by the gold-paraffin wax method .World Placer Journal – 2007. The CETEM researchers found that the greater the volume of paraffin wax compared to the volume of the sample then the greater the gold recovery by the goldparaffin wax method. By this simple means. Adoption by placer gold miners The gold-paraffin wax method requires further experimentation to improve % gold recovery sufficient to justify interest by placer gold miners. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY GOLD-PARAFFIN WAX FLOATATION – results of CETEM experiments 135 . The solidified gold-containing paraffin is removed from the surface of the aqueous phase and further processed to remove the gold.mine.html. the paraffin globules rise to the surface to form a low-density paraffin phase above the water phase. When the stirring ceases. The temperature of the slurry is maintained at 70°C. and is currently being assessed by Eco-Minex in Mongolia. low-cost and widely available. The gold-paraffin wax process as developed by Christina Hamelmann and Fernando Lins of CETEM. The concentrate used in the tests was from Minas Gerais with a gold grade of 11 grams/ton. exploits the preference for gold particles to adhere to hydrophobic materials and thereby can be separated from slurry. The gold is locked in the paraffin when it solidifies as a floating solid. Volume 7. The researchers also found xanthate as a gold collector enhanced gold recovery. just 2 degrees centigrade above the melting point of the paraffin-wax used (about 68°C). A mechanical stirrer disperses the melted paraffin to encourage it to contact the particles in the slurry.egoldprospecting. and some improvement in gold recovery was achieved at pH 3 suggesting that this mechanism was occurring. The concentrate is finely divided and made into aqueous slurry of 25-30% solids. Recovery by the experimental gold-paraffin wax method that merits further investigation. as the isoelectric point for gold is pH 2 and pH 3-5 for paraffin .
having first removed magnetite and other magnetic minerals to then selectively make the gold particles magnetic and remove them by magnetic means. James K. Of interest is that the Kindig and Turner method requires no water at all.229. but at higher temperatures the iron carbonyl is liable to coat other minerals beside gold particles.209) and assigned it to Hazen Research Inc. Adoption by placer gold miners This 'making gold magnetic' process unsuitable for artisanal miners. Colorado.500 gauss. However. making it of potential value in enabling large-scale placer gold recovery in arid regions. but seems to have merit for large-scale placer mining operations – particularly in dry deserts as the process requires no water. the method has not been tested on gold <100μ and therefore further research is warranted. Magnetic minerals are removed as fully as possible.3% of placer gold from Clear Creek. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY MAGNETIC COATING GOLD PARTICLES 110 . Generally a reaction time of from half an hour to an hour is adequate. Next they put the non-magnetic placer into a rotating kiln with iron carbonyl vapour in an inert nitrogen atmosphere.mn A rather unexpected way to recover placer gold is. First they removed the magnetite and suchlike using magnetic separators. After the treatment.98% gold recovery.966 and #4. The objective is to cause the decomposition of the iron carbonyl to form a magnetic skin on the gold particles but not on the other particles present. storage and use regarding risk of fire and risk of acute poisoning. gas composition etc.World Placer Journal – 2007. type of carbonyl used. and later on their tests were getting 99. Fe(CO)5 Fe + 5CO Iron carbonyl Fe(CO)5 is a straw-yellow liquid that is cheap. Colorado gained patents in clean coal technology having discovered that by warming coal with iron carbonyl vapour the pyrite became magnetic and could then be removed more easily (US #3.209.5 to 4 kilos of carbonyl are added per ton of feed.000 gauss.3% of placer gold from the Vulture placer in Arizona. the magnetic coated gold is removed by dry magnetic separators such as a low to medium separator with a magnetic drum having field strengths of up to about 2. at 110-130°C. Iron carbonyl liquid is sourced from specialist suppliers and stringent precautions are applied during transport. Recovery of placer gold by the iron carbonyl method according to the original patent. but unfortunately it requires special precautions as it is not only flammable but is also toxic if inhaled.000 gauss or induced roll separators up to about 11. Operation This text is based on the Kindig and Turner method presented in US patent #4. Important variables include the temperature. Typically about 0. The higher the temperature the more complete is the gold recovery. then 76. 34: Magnetic coated gold – 1980s research in Colorado www. Figure 71. The dry non-magnetic fraction is fed to a rotating kiln serving as a reaction vessel to bring the material into direct contact with iron carbonyl vapours in the presence of a gas such as nitrogen that is inert to the reaction. The iron carbonyl selectively attaches itself to the gold particles and decomposes to make a magnetic coat of iron for the gold particles.229.5-93. The inventors recovered 93.mine. electromagnetic drum separators up to about 7.175. Kindig and Ronald L. pages 66-161. Kindig and Turner then adapted the method for placer gold with good results and they were awarded a patent in 1980 (US #4.924). The placer ore is either dry-screened or else wetscreened and then dried.938. Volume 7. pressure. Turner of Golden.
(compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY SIMPLE RIFFLED SLUICES – China tests Figure 30. In China.6mm. but the results showed gold recovery starts to falter at 2mm. But the results were poor compared to the Yukon tests on expanded metal riffles a decade later. is only 90% by 0. (photo: Robin Grayson) Figure 28. Again it is unclear what type of expanded metal riffles were tested or the size of the feed. placer scientists in the 1970s achieved similar results with expanded metal riffles .World Placer Journal – 2007. Volume 7. 12: Riffled sluices – 1960s-70s research in China and Soviet Union www. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY SIMPLE RIFFLED SLUICES – Soviet Union tests 86 . Poor performance of simple riffled sluices . and collapsed to 60% at 0. RUSSIAN EXPANDED METAL RIFFLES Some early scientific tests on gravitational recovery of gold by simple sluices were in China and the Soviet Union. In the Soviet Union. The results were encouraging compared to the dismal performance of flat bar riffles traditional in the Soviet Union in the 1970s and that are still favoured in the Russian Federation and Mongolia.mine. pages 66-161.2mm. It is unclear what type of riffles were tested or the size of the feed.mn Sluice-boxes with expanded metal mesh riffles freshly installed in a Soviet bucket-line dredge in Mongolia. placer scientists of the Minerals Processing Laboratory of the Kunming Institute of Metallurgy in Yunnan Province in the 1970s determined the percentage gold recovery of conventional riffles . Poor performance of simple riffled sluices . Figure 29.
Tsevel Delgertsoo in 1991-95 at four placer gold mines – about 25 tests in all. Adoption by placer gold miners Slanted bar riffles on square-ribbed black rubber mats are the norm for placer gold mines in the former Soviet Union and Mongolia. For clay-rich sands the slant may reach 45°. They have been popular for at least 70 years.”  Vortices cease after a few hours choked with sediment. Volume 7.000m3) and sampling tails every 15 minutes across the sluice. When slanting 15° upstream. Slanting downstream produces a slower vortex with its eye closer to the centre. 1980s tests in the Yukon. for gravels and gold to enter the riffles” and “the turbulence… …destroys effective vertical segregation. Each set of riffles is slotted into the sluice-box and bedded down on the black rubber mat. Flat bar riffles are commonly used in conjunction with a Siberian-style PgSh wash-plant typified by violent surging and wide fluctuation in flow and density of slurry. Fine gold was not fully tested – it was often present but lost. Lacking a lip. Recovery was 60-70% for medium to large gold. Performance was inferior to Hungarian riffles. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY SLANTED FLAT BAR RIFFLED SLUICE – Mongolia tests 111 . Slanted flat bar riffles on ribbed rubber matting at a placer mine in the Zaamar Goldfield of Mongolia. with the ends of the mats either butted together or slightly overlapping. a 30° slant is preferred. measuring the volume washed in an 8-hour shift (1-2. tested by Mrs. This helps to stimulate vortices and shields metalwork from damage and abrasion from stones. pages 66-161. flat bar riffles choked with sand faster than if slanting 15° downstream.mine. Recovery of placer gold by slanted flat bar riffled sluice on ribbed rubber matting. black rubber mats are laid on the floor of the sluice box. yet washing continues for an 8-hour shift. Generally the riffle sets are orientated with the riffles slanted down-sluice. and the vortex launches material at a lower angle. Careful panning was done in a gold room. The riffle sets are secured by metal or wooden chocks. This “severely reduces the opportunity Figure 72. For clean sands. (photo: Jeanie Barnett of GSA) FLAT BAR RIFFLES Flat bar riffles consist of flat metal bars inclined across a sluice box to trap black sand and gold. 1990s research in Mongolia Operation First.mn Flat bar riffles – 1980s research in Yukon. Tsevel Delgertsoo. imbricated down-slope. Canada Flat bar riffles on unbacked NomadTM matting were slanted at various angles to the sluice-box floor in tests by Randy Clarkson and Owen Peer . 35: www. Flat bar riffles are less strong than angle iron (Hungarian riffles) and more prone to bending. About 6-20 riffles are welded to side bars to create a ‘riffle set’. 1990s tests in Mongolia Slanted flat bar riffles on ribbed rubber matting were tested by a Soviet team led by Ms. Each test consisted of panning to estimate the headgrade. a flat bar riffle is less able to guide sand into a vortex.World Placer Journal – 2007. and sand exits its vortex instead of being led into the next vortex. Sometimes the riffles are slanted upstream to act as a nugget catcher. Figure 73. In Mongolia the flat bar riffles are severely slanted at 30-45° to the sluice-box floor.
angle and spacing. the sluice-box is tilted at 1-m fall per 4-m length of sluice to ensure the angle iron riffles can generate large distinct vortices.World Placer Journal – 2007.mine. Figure 75. vast amounts of black sand are shed to produce a gold concentrate). ANGLE-IRON RIFFLES A set of 1-inch riffled sluices being made ‘on the spot’ at the Sharin Gol mine of Polymet Potala Ltd in Mongolia The welder has ensured each riffle has a 15° tilt. tilted 15° upstream. By the time of the Yukon tests  the term had become synonymous with ‘angle iron riffles’ set across the width of a sluice-box. A very large concentration ratio is possible (i. Adoption by placer gold miners Angle-iron riffles are the norm in North America and common in most of the world but not everywhere.e. and spaced 2 inches apart. and 85% of 150μ gold.mn Operation To comply with the Yukon tests. 36: Angle-iron (Hungarian) riffles – 1980s research in Canada www. and included gold tracers. Its other flat side obstructs the flow to retain the vortex and trap heavies. Instinctively the NomadTM matting is laid with its smooth side downwards. About 6-20 riffles are welded to side bars to create a ‘riffle set’. Recovery of placer gold in lab tests by James Hamilton and George Poling  (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY ANGLE-IRON RIFFLES ON UNBACKED NOMAD MATTING – British Columbia tests 112 .8m3/hour per metre width. Figure 74. the angle-iron riffles are 1-inch high with a ½ to 1-inch wide lip. Volume 7. gold radiotracers. The Yukon tests showed angle iron riffles maintain the captured black sand in a loose state for a long time. so continuing to be able to recover gold. 1980s tests in British Columbia and Yukon. subject to control of the feed and the riffle size. Many artisanal miners use basic ‘Hungarian’ riffles of wood.3mm gold. but there is recent anecdotal evidence that putting the smooth side uppermost either makes no difference or is slightly better (source – Zooka of Alaska Gold Forum). Each riffle set is slotted in the sluice-box and pressed down on the NomadTM matting. The angle iron is positioned with one of its flat sides uppermost to act as a short slick plate and splitter to guide the bottom flow into the vortex. The riffle sets are secured by metal or wooden chocks. Canada Lab tests using gold tracer in the University of British Columbia by James Hamilton and George Poling  showed angle-iron riffles if on unbacked NomadTM matting can recover >90% of >0. Slurry is fed at 48. Tests in the Yukon by Randy Clarkson and Owen Peer  confirmed the findings. This enables clean-ups to be needed only once every 24 hours. pages 66-161. flume observation tanks and testing performance of sluice-boxes of placer mines [86-90]. For best results. In Siberia and Mongolia. inclined flat bar riffles is the norm. First a roll of unbacked NomadTM matting is cut to size and unrolled on the floor of the sluice box. (photo: Robin Grayson) The origin of the term ‘Hungarian riffles’ is unclear and predates World War II. If several pieces of matting are used then their ends are closely butted together to avoid a ‘step’.
36 continued: Angle-iron (Hungarian) riffles – 1980s research in Canada www. on backed NomadTM matting . on backed NomadTM matting .mn Figure 76. Volume 7. pages 66-161. Recovery of placer gold by 3 x3-inch angle-iron riffles @ 6-inch spacing. Recovery of placer gold by 2x2-inch angle-iron riffles @ 4-inch spacing.World Placer Journal – 2007. (compiler: Robin Grayson) ANGLE-IRON RIFFLES ON BACKED NOMAD MATTING – Yukon field tests Figure 77. (compiler: Robin Grayson) ANGLE-IRON RIFFLES ON BACKED NOMAD MATTING – Yukon field tests 113 . Recovery of placer gold by 1½x2-inch angle-iron riffles @ 4-inch spacing on backed NomadTM matting .mine. (compiler: Robin Grayson) ANGLE-IRON RIFFLES ON BACKED NOMAD MATTING – Yukon field tests Figure 78.
a British subject at the Risdon Iron and Locomotive Works in San Francisco. the sluice is tilted at 50 to 106cm per 4-m length of sluice to ensure the grating can generated many small and distinct vortices. “the applications that this product Adoption by placer gold miners Raised expanded metal riffles of grating type are used worldwide by placer miners. EXPANDED METAL GRATING RIFFLES Raised expanded metal grating suitable for using as large expanded metal riffles. He applied for a patent in 1897.org/emma/literature.mn Operation To comply with the Yukon tests. Figure 79. The grating is inserted with the raised lips facing upstream to serve as riffles. dominates would be used when designing something that requires a walking surface. It was only in the 1980s that the effectiveness as riffles was proved by scientific tests.naamm. Expanded metal grating riffles can maintain the captured black sand in a loose state for a long time. Each equates to a ‘riffle set’.php. According to Vincent Ruth of Continental Wire Cloth. but there is recent anecdotal evidence that putting the smooth side uppermost either makes no difference or is slightly better (source – Zooka of Alaska Gold Forum). (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY RAISED EXPANDED METAL GRATING ON BACKED NOMAD MATTING – Yukon tests 114 . 37: Expanded metal grating riffles – 1980s research in Canada www. type 4lbs/ft2 (4. shed vast amounts of black sand to achieve a gold-rich concentrate). 1980s tests in Yukon. butted together with no overlap. awarded 1900 (US #652. If several pieces of matting are used then their ends are closely butted together to avoid a ‘step’. The grating has to be ‘Raised (R) = Standard (S)’ and not ‘Flattened (F)’.mine. This enables cleanups to be needed only once every 24 hours. “similar deposition and vortex patterns” and the mesh developed “smaller and more numerous vortices”. both displayed. The first innovative use of expanded metal as riffles in a sluice was by Robert Hodgson Postlethwaite.” Figure 80.e.900). Expanded metal riffles achieve a very large concentration ratio (i. The riffles are “coarse” 4lbs/ft2 raised expanded metal grating identical to 4. so continuing to be able to recover gold.World Placer Journal – 2007.0 grating) on backed NomadTM matting . and secured by metal or wooden chocks. A sheet of expanded metal grating is cut to fit snugly in the sluice box. In flume tests. (photo: Robin Grayson) Expanded metal grating was invented in the early 1880s. Several sections may be fitted into a sluice box. as do flat bar riffles and angle-iron (Hungarian) riffles. First a roll of unbacked NomadTM matting is cut to size and unrolled on the floor of the sluice box. downloadable: www. pages 66-161. Volume 7.0# grating of the Expanded Metal Manufacturers Association (EMMA) 'standards'. Canada Randy Clarkson and Owen Peer  tested relatively “coarse” 4lbs/ft2 expanded metal grating and finer 1-10H expanded metal mesh. They observed that the grating remained firmly in place whereas the mesh warped off the NomadTM matting causing “excessive scour”. Instinctively the NomadTM matting is laid with its smooth side downwards. Recovery of placer gold by expanded metal grating.
World Placer Journal – 2007, Volume 7, pages 66-161.
38: Expanded metal mesh riffles – 1980s research in Canada
To comply with the University of British Columbia tests, the sluice is tilted at 50 to 106cm per 4-m length to ensure the mesh can generate many small and distinct vortices. First, a roll of unbacked NomadTM matting is cut to size and unrolled on the floor of the sluice box. If several pieces of matting are used then their ends are closely butted together to avoid a ‘step’. Instinctively the NomadTM matting is laid with its smooth side downwards, but there is recent anecdotal evidence that putting the smooth side uppermost either makes no difference or is slightly better (source – Zooka of Alaska Gold Forum). A roll of raised expanded metal mesh type 1-10H is unrolled and cut to fit the sluice box, and secured by metal or wooden chocks. Several sections may be butted together with no overlap. Each equates to a ‘riffle set’. The mesh is inserted with the raised lips facing upstream to serve as riffles. When unrolling the mesh, flatten it. Keep the sluice narrow to reduce warping. Clamping too tight may compress the NomadTM matting and warp the mesh. Tying the mesh to the floor of the sluice-box inhibits warping but prolongs cleanups; quick release bolts are better. Expanded metal riffles achieve a very large concentration ratio (i.e. shed vast amounts of black sand to achieve a gold-rich concentrate), as do flat bar riffles and angle iron (Hungarian) riffles. Expanded metal 1-10H mesh can maintain the captured black sand in a loose state for a long time, so continuing to be able to recover gold. This enables cleanups to be needed only once every 24 hours.
Raised expanded metal mesh suitable for using as small expanded metal riffles. (photo: Robin Grayson)
EXPANDED METAL MESH RIFFLES
Expanded metal mesh seems to have been used for riffles a little later than grating. It was only in the 1980s the effectiveness of mesh was proved by scientific tests. 1980s tests in British Columbia, Canada James Hamilton and George Poling  tested 1-10H expanded metal mesh. The mesh is ‘Raised (R) = Standard (S)’, not ‘Flattened (F)’. The riffles are 1-10H raised expanded metal mesh identical to the 1-10H expanded metal mesh manufactured by Continental Wire Cloth Inc of Calgary. Their product 110H has not changed since the early 1980s according to Vincent Ruth, see: www.cwcloth.com/expanded.htm. Of concern is the susceptibility of 1-10H mesh to lose gold by the mesh warping to permit scouring of the matting beneath. Even a small surge is likely to cause gold losses for, as pointed out by Randy Clarkson and Owen Peer  the live sorting crescent is so shallow it is vulnerable to being ejected. The cause of scouring is due to the ease of warping of the mesh, plus two variables:
a surge of water, due to too much or too little water; and/or a surge of changed slurry, due to too much or too little solids.
Adoption by placer gold miners
Expanded metal riffles of mesh worldwide amongst placer gold miners. are popular
Recovery of placer gold by expanded metal mesh, type 1-10H on unbacked NomadTM matting. (compiler: Robin Grayson from Poling and Hamilton )
GOLD RECOVERY BY RAISED EXPANDED METAL MESH ON UNBACKED NOMAD MATTING – B.C. tests
World Placer Journal – 2007, Volume 7, pages 66-161.
38 continued: Expanded metal mesh riffles –research in Canada and USA
The superiority of NomadTM matting in recovering placer gold compared to close weave matting. (compiler: Robin Grayson)
GOLD RECOVERY BY SMALL SLUICE WITH DIFFERENT MATTING – Zooka Tests
Recovery by expanded metal mesh (type 1-10H ?) on backed NomadTM matting. (compiler: Robin Grayson from Clarkson 1989 )
GOLD RECOVERY BY RAISED EXPANDED METAL MESH ON BACKED NOMAD MATTING – Yukon tests
Inability of expanded metal mesh (type 1-10H?) to retain medium-coarse placer gold. (compiler: Robin Grayson from Clarkson 1989 )
GOLD RECOVERY BY RAISED EXPANDED METAL MESH ON BACKED NOMAD MATTING – Yukon tests
World Placer Journal – 2007, Volume 7, pages 66-161.
39: McCann’s small sluice – 1980s research in California
Feed is best screened at 2.5 to 5mm, although the manufacturer says no pre-screening is required. Pay gravel is fed by trowel either dry or wet into the feed hopper and the device will process about 136 kilos/hour of solids. Rather than the wash water being added from above, the wash water is added from three holes in the rear of the hopper. The resultant slurry passes through a static screen in the base of the hopper with shaped holes encourage a steady outflow. Upon escaping from the hopper, the slurry encounters wash-water flowing over a deflector plate. The slurry and wash-water flow over a perforated plate that has numerous small holes through which dense fine particles fall into a quiet zone of slowly moving water that is where most of the fine gold tends to be caught. Larger particles pass down the main sluice lined with rubber vgroove riffles capture 90-98% of the visible gold, assisted by a section of fine expanded metal mesh and a single “shaped riffle”. The manufacturer recommends adding a heavy duty HFBE vibrator to assist recovery of fine gold. Tailings water flows into a filter bag at the end of the sluice that retains the tailings and the cleaned water fills a heavy duty 5-gallon water bucket. From here the water is recirculated many times an hour by a small submersible pump (capacity 1.89m3/hour) requiring 1.5 amps at 12 volts allowing 20-30 hours use on a car battery.
General arrangement, details omitted. (drawing: Robin Grayson)
McCANN’s SMALL SLUICE
McCann’s sluice was invented by John C. McCann of California and patented in 1985 (US #4,525,270). This was among the most outstanding innovations to the sluice made by recreational miners in North America and elsewhere who, since sometime before the 1970s, have been making incremental improvements to their small sluices in an effort to recover more fine gold. By the 1980s the innovative surge had become quite remarkable. McCann’s sluice is a complete wash-plant satisfying a litany of wishes of recreational miners:
small, lightweight, portable device; minimises water use by recycling; minimises energy consumption; has a good concentration ratio of 1,000:1; has an adjustable slope; maintains a steady flow; recovers 90-98% of visible gold; and recovers 60-80% of gold particles as fine as 30-40μ.
McCann’s sluice removes technical justification for mercury. Yet in over two decades since the device was patented and thousands sold to recreational gold miners worldwide, the device has been overlooked by researchers using public funds in efforts to improve large gold sluices for companies [90,91] and gold sluices for artisanal miners [21,26,92].
Adoption by placer gold miners
McCann’s wash-plant is made by Micro-Sluice Gold Products of Wisconsin, USA (www.micro-sluice.com) and marketed as the Micro-Sluice, with over 3,700 units sold in 16 countries over the last 20 years. The device is popular with recreational gold miners and has potential for artisanal miners especially in arid regions.
Recovery of placer gold by McCann’s small sluice, according to the original patent. (compiler: Robin Grayson)
GOLD RECOVERY BY McCANN’s SMALL SLUICE
World Placer Journal – 2007, Volume 7, pages 66-161.
57: Damn Fine SluiceTM (DFS) – 1990s research in New Mexico
The Damn Fine SluiceTM (DFS) was invented by Phil Hontz of New Mexico in the 1990s. The device was never patented as it had been discussed widely on internet forums and is a direct descendant of earlier innovations based on the research on larger sluices in the Yukon tests by Owen Poor and Randy Clarkson  and more particularly the sluices tested by James Hamilton and George Poling  that had raised expanded metal mesh riffles on unbacked NomadTM matting (miner’s moss). These sluices achieved >90% gold recovery down to about 150μ nominal diameter. The Damn Fine SluiceTM is a considerable advance on these earlier sluices in being able to recover >90% gold recovery down to about 50μ nominal diameter, although rigorous testing does not appear to have been done. The DFS is manufactured by the Damn Fine Equipment Co (www.damnfinesluice.com). This is part of relentless effort by recreational miners in North America to recover fine gold using small sluices for small dredges, high bankers and clean-ups. The Damn Fine SluiceTM consists of a smooth slick plate followed by a section of tiny raised expanded metal mesh fitted on matting, all set in a short sluice-box. The unit is about 1.19m long and 25cm wide, and weighs 3.63 kilos. It includes a pair of adjustable legs to aid setting up. The DFS is an in-stream sluice, with a flared intake (‘fixed wings’) to help funnel water into the mouth of the sluice and to aid stability. The first section is a long slick plate to encourage laminar flow to guide heavy particles into a section of tiny raised expanded metal riffles clamped on “heavy duty” unbacked NomadTM matting. The DFS, being an in-stream sluice, lacks a hopper and screen, and has no means of recirculating water. Nor is it designed to catch gold nuggets.
The DFS is an in-stream sluice, positioned in shallow fast-flowing water. If necessary rocks are arranged to form a temporary dam or weir to ensure flow is adequate and fast. The legs are adjusted to ensure the DFS is sloping downstream and yet is level across its width. Pay gravel is screened at about 2mm and the oversize discarded after checking for nuggets. The undersize is put on the leading edge of the slick-plate, a small quantity at a time. The pay gravel is swept through the sluice by the water current. After the small mound of pay gravel has been cleared by this means a fresh mound is added. The current causes the pay gravel to spread out across the width of the slick plate to assume laminar (non-turbulent) flow consisting of a bottom-hugging traction carpet of black sand overlain by a traction carpet of lights. The traction carpet of black sand is pulled into the vortices (rollers) of the riffles and the gold burrows into the underlying layer of NomadTM matting. The lighter minerals and surplus black sand are swept out as tailings. Eventually the NomadTM matting becomes hard packed. Clean-up is rapid, as the riffles are easily removed by turning the wing-nuts on the ends of bolts that secure them, and the matting is lifted clear. The riffles, matting and sluice-box are then flushed clean into a bowl or suchlike if needs be with a few drops of detergent added to founder any float gold. Later the contents of the bowl are cleaned by panning, tabling or other means.
Adoption by placer gold miners
The outstanding success of the DFS in recovering fine placer gold led to its immediate and continuing popularity among recreational miners and has inspired many other devices such as the PopandSon sluice.
Recovery of placer gold by Damn Fine SluiceTM according to reports by many users. (compiler: Robin Grayson)
GOLD RECOVERY BY DAMN FINE SLUICETM - generalised
World Placer Journal – 2007, Volume 7, pages 66-161.
72: PopandSon sluice – 2000s research in USA
Initial testing with chunky tungsten powder as tracer suggested by Steve Bryce (Zooka of AGF) indicated high percentage gold recovery at fast flows and feeds. Using 100-200 mesh placer gold tracer run over 88.9cm of style #3/16 raised expanded mesh clamped on unbacked NomadTM matting resting on ribbed rubber mat and sloped at 16mm per metre length, achieved nearly 100% recovery. At a steeper slope of 36.5mm per metre, gold recovery was 95-97%. The steeper slope allowed a much higher feed rate. The test sluice has two sections of sluice liner, each about 43cm long. The top section is the primary test bed, and the end section is to scavenge gold in the tailings of the top section. For recovery of 100-200 mesh gold (74149μ) the best performance of the top section was 9294% using style #3/16 expanded metal mesh, but fell to 86% using style #1/2 expanded metal mesh. For 200-325 mesh gold (44-74μ) at a gentle slope of 16mm per metre length, the recovery was only 65% in the top section but 85% for both sections. Steve and Jason Gaber suggest a “fairly large drop-off in
Carrying a standard over-the shoulder PopandSon sluice in the Gobi Desert of Mongolia. (photo: Robin Grayson)
The large, medium and tiny raised expanded metal mesh in a ‘standard’ PopandSon sluice. (photo: Robin Grayson)
RANGE OF RIFFLE SIZES
The PopandSon sluice was invented in 2005 by Steve and Jason Gaber (PopandSonminers of Alaska Gold Forum AGF) in Washington State. The PopandSon sluice is a development of the innovative Damn Fine SluiceTM (DFS) invented by Phil Hontz of New Mexico and made by the Damn Fine Equipment Co (www.damnfinesluice.com) in the 1990s. The DFS is a simple cheap device consisting of a smooth slick plate followed by a section of tiny raised expanded metal mesh fitted on matting, all set in a short sluice-box. This is part of relentless effort by recreational miners in North America to recover fine gold using small sluices for small dredges, high bankers and clean-ups. Steve and Jason Gaber conducted bench tests with tungsten (W) powder and gold (Au) tracers  in a version of the PopandSon sluice consisting of an aluminium sluice-box lined with simple thin ribbed rubber followed by unbacked NomadTM matting with style #3/16 aluminium raised expanded metal mesh fitted on top.
recovery efficiency somewhere below 200 mesh (44 microns)”.
Experimental work is limited to narrow sluices (6.5 inches = 165mm) for recreational miners and clean-ups. Yet the PopandSon sluice might be scaled-up for industrial wash-plants if four issues are solved: a) screening feed to about 2mm; b) preventing warping; c) preventing surging; and d) reducing water – for each m3 of loose placer water usage is very high – 19.6m3 for steep angle.
Adoption by placer gold miners
Expanded metal riffles of tiny mesh are increasingly popular amongst recreational placer gold miners, and have potential for artisanal miners and mining companies.
Recovery of placer gold by the PopandSon sluice based on bench tests with gold and tungsten tracers . (compiler: Robin Grayson)
GOLD RECOVERY BY POPANDSON SLUICE
barefootscureamerica.” The patent suggests vinyl (PVC) to be a suitable material. and therefore catches negatively electrostatic fine gold particles by a combination of electrostatic attraction and gravitational settling. Little has been published on the gold recovery achieved. typically “ten feet in length and is four inches wide with one-and-one-half-inch high sides. particularly in wet recovery of fine placer gold. polyvinyl chloride PVC) than is positively electrostatic when immersed in water.g. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY LOEWEN’s ELECTROSTATIC SLUICE 151 . Placer pay gravel is first screened to say 15mm and gold recovered by sluices. ‘Differential Charging Recovery Systems’ (DCRS) were invented by Robert Barefoot of Calgary and patented in 1990 (US #4. The material has transverse ribs that serve as riffles and the gold is trapped in the intervening grooves.182). as most of the gold will settle out in the first three feet of the sluice. DCRS turning screened pay gravel into watery slurry in which a positive electrostatic charge was induced in the water droplets and gold particles by subjecting the slurry to high-velocity spinning in a cyclone-like surge tank.209) and is refreshingly simple. The device consists of a simple inclined gravitational sluice. Figure 145.” Feeding the sluice too quickly with slurry would cause the grooves to plug. Two examples are noted below. and some are noted at www. Gold is recovered in a wet sluice lined by ribbed plastic (e. Loewen of Alberta and patented in 2006 (US #7. pages 66-161. Adoption by placer gold miners The Lowen electrostatic sluice is very new and has yet to be marketed to placer gold miners. The system failed to be commercialised for many reasons.mn Electrostatics has been found to be useful in assisting gravitational recovery of placer gold for over a century by means of drywashers and related waterless equipment. Alternatively milled hardrock ore is screened <1mm and fed directly into the feed hopper of the Loewen electrostatic sluice. Tailings are screened <1mm and fed into the feed hopper of the Loewen electrostatic sluice. The patent does not specify the preferred flow rate at which “the gold can be observed settling out during the process. especially water having a pH value between 4 and 8. DCRS is somewhat dauntingly complicated and one version depends on mercury amalgamation.com.012.mine. Then the contents are flushed into a ‘clean-up pail’ and its contents are allowed to settle and the water decanted to leave a rich gold concentrate. Recovery of placer gold by Loewen electrostatic sluice according to the patent and diverse assumptions. The Loewen electrostatic sluice was invented by Wayne W.012.” After the batch feed has been exhausted. “a good ratio would be nine parts water to one part [screened feed]. jigs or similar gravitational devices. Electrostatics has received little attention in waterbased gravitational recovery of gold. Yet there is a significant amount of anecdotal evidence that electrostatics are helpful. Operation This text is based on the Loewen electrostatic sluice as presented in US patent #7. 71: Loewen electrostatic sluice – 2000s research in Alberta www. other than generalised comments that dry methods usually recover less than wet. The patent claimed “highly efficient recovery of the invisible gold (less than 320 mesh)” using a 180 tons/day mobile test unit.975.209. the sluice is allowed to run clean. Volume 7.” The inclined sluice is lined with “a material which incurs a positive charge when immersed in water. Water is added to the feed to make it very thin slurry.World Placer Journal – 2007. Then the positively charged gold particles encounter negatively charged surfaces and are forced to settle by the strong force of electrical attraction and the relatively weaker force of gravity.
Cleaning too frequently renders excessive the further upgrading required. Tests briefly mentioned in the paper by Lars Hylander and David Plath  claim 60-70% recovery of gold “down to 0. Adoption by placer gold miners The innovative Cleangold® sluice has great potential for placer gold recovery by artisanal miners. Figure 122. hold and accumulate ferromagnetic minerals in corduroy-like ridges that serve as riffles capable of trapping very fine gold.508). Several different versions are produced by Cleangold LLC equating to a gold pan. Cleangold LLC recommends a little black sand is brought from elsewhere to fire up the sluice. substituted by a set of corduroy-like ribs of magnetite held by the magnetic fields. Care is needed to decide when the sluice needs to be cleaned. (photo: Robin Grayson) Figure 121. Guianas  and Philippines [36. Cleaning the sluice takes only a few seconds using a plastic scraper to scrape the concentrate into a plastic bin.cleangold. Recovery of placer gold by Cleangold® sluice according to tests reported by Hylander and Plath . and in a second pass a recovery of “a further 60-70% of the remaining fines”. CLEANGOLD® SLUICE The Cleangold® sluice was invented by David Plath of Oregon and patented in 1999 (US #5. 88%.com). If magnetite is rare.005mm” at first pass. including most of the very fine gold. and cleaning too infrequently risks the sluice being over-full of gold and other extremely heavy minerals whereupon its effectiveness may suffer. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY CLEANGOLD® SLUICE . The equipment is new and is currently penetrating artisanal markets in Surinam . Overall the Cleangold® sluice is a low-cost. It appears to be superior to mercury in recovering very fine gold. 58: www. pages 66-161. a trough and a sluice insert (www.’ It is clear the Cleangold® sluice can recover at least 95% of gold present.23. 170. Positive comments have been made in several independent reports. recreational miners and by mining companies. sluicing and amalgamation [22. The Cleangold® sluice uses magnetic strips embedded in a non-magnetic rubberised sheet inserted in a plain aluminium sluice to attract. after attracting magnetic particles to create corduroy-like ridges that trap fine gold. Gold particles are actively trapped by the fluidised bed – not by the magnetic fields but by the fluidised bed being a thixotropic carpet in which heavy particles such as gold are trapped and burrow down by gravity alone.mine.mn Cleangold® sluice with magnetic riffles – 1990s research in Oregon Operation The Cleangold® sluice creates a fluidised bed of black sand held in position by complex magnetic fields trapping a carpet of magnetite.927.169-173]. and appears capable of recovering a significant proportion of extremely fine gold. 91% and 98% recovery. This suggests four permutations for the overall result – 84%. Volume 7.generalised 137 .World Placer Journal – 2007.171]. the magnetic fields attract and hold on the otherwise smooth floor of the Cleangold® sluice a carpet of magnetite particles from the black sand. A Cleangold® sluice. After a few minutes. highly efficient appropriate technology solution to upgrading gold and is capable of recovering much fine gold lost by panning. Normal riffles are redundant.
South America. Ochir LG Ltd (BritishDutch-Mongolian www. Lindsay Guy Herron of Queenstown invented compact hydraulic riffles patented in New Zealand (NZ #216. Alaska (USA). but of the 200 or so wash-plants more than a dozen now have hydraulic riffles including: Cold Gold Mongolia Ltd (New Zealand). Exiting the boil box. filed 1986. Finally the slurry passes over an end section of raised expanded metal mesh that catches gold from the tails and helps to verify that the system is functioning properly. G&U Gold Ltd. A set of hydraulic metal riffles showing the manifold supplying the elutriation water under pressure. Australia and doubtless elsewhere. This keeps the bed loose and fluidised indefinitely.588. lapsed 1993). This set was manufactured by PAuSE Ltd in New Zealand. They are unlikely to be as efficient as tuned conventional sluices in recovering fine gold. The Yukon tests on hydraulic riffles were limited and the author is unaware of any other tests.World Placer Journal – 2007. The slurry first enters a boil box that serves as a nugget trap. so gold particles continue to fall into the black sand and accumulate. HYDRAULIC METAL RIFFLES Hydraulic riffles appeared over a century ago. Gatshuurt Ltd.5m3/hour of clean water injected at 15-35kpa pressure from a manifold. where the trap shape ensures turbulence to prevent clogging with fines. Jump Ltd. Higher throughput is by two or more sluices in parallel. Recovery of placer gold by hydraulic riffles one of NZ-style. The slurry continues over a second slick plate that encourages more density stratification and passes over the second set of hydraulic riffles to recover more gold.327.mn Operation Washed pay gravel screened at 25mm is fed into the sluice box at a rate of about 25m3/hour of solids.mine. lapsed 1997) and the United States (US #4. the other unknown. that rely on the formation of vortices. (compiler: Robin Grayson from Clarkson 1989 ) GOLD RECOVERY BY HYDRAULIC RIFFLES WITHOUT MATTING – Yukon tests 118 . awarded 1989. Randy Clarkson noted “…unlike conventional riffles Adoption by placer gold miners Hydraulic riffles are popular in New Zealand.863. Volume 7. pages 66-161. hydraulic riffles performed well at “extremely low feed rates” and “low water flows” but at high feed rates are “only suitable for coarse gold recovery (nugget traps)”. the slurry passes over a slick plate to calm the slurry and engender laminar flow to allow the slurry to stratify with heavies concentrating near the bottom. assisted by 9-13. The hydraulic riffles rest on unbacked NomadTM matting to assist capture of gold. 40: Hydraulic riffles – 1980s research in New Zealand and Canada www. In their modern form they began in New Zealand in the 1970-80s. In the Yukon tests.com). Gazar Holdings Ltd. Hydraulic riffles inject pressurised clean water into the black sand from below. hydraulic riffles rely primarily on the settling velocity of gold” [86-90]. Figure 89. After the slick plate the stratified slurry crosses the first set of hydraulic riffles where 32-48 m3/hour of clean water is injected 15-35kpa pressure from a manifold into the black sand to maintain a fluidised bed that traps the gold. Mongolia. (photo: Robin Grayson) Figure 88. the adoption of hydraulic riffles has been slow. and Barmash JSC. In Mongolia. and have spread to the Yukon (Canada). A typical sluice box for hydraulic riffles is short and wide. but have the overriding advantage of compactness for ease of low-cost mobile mining.ochirlg. contrasting with the long and narrow sluice box for conventional riffles.
although a few are seen in remote mines and are occasionally used for upgrading concentrates. In China in the 1960s-70s experiments by placer scientists of the Minerals Processing Laboratory of the Kunming Institute of Metallurgy in Yunnan Province determined the percentage gold recovery of simple jigs . On the downstroke. pages 66-161.3mm. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY SIMPLE JIGS – China tests 87 . and too bulky to easily make into a mobile land-based processing unit. The suction plus gravity pulls dense particles down to the bottom of the jig bed where coarse gold and gold nuggets accumulate as ‘jig bed concentrate’ awaiting cleanout during batch discharge. and the upper part of the jig bed becomes a hard layer – the dilatant state. demanding too much space on dredges where space is a premium.27]. Figure 32. Resting on the jig screen are large heavy particles (e. 13: Simple jigs – 1960s-1970s research in China www. is only 90% by 0. The water is pushed up by some means. water is pulled downwards by suction. Figure 31. Poor performance of simple jigs [3. water consumption is high to very high – a serious problem for land-based units if water is scarce and demanding large tailings ponds for water storage and recirculation.mn Operation The pay gravel is first disaggregated. and collapses to 50% at 0. Volume 7. water erupts through the holes in the jig screen from the hutch below.8mm.World Placer Journal – 2007. while lights are swept away as tailings. The slurry feed passes across the jig bed that rests on the jig screen. Although easy to build and simple to operate. particularly in wash-plants on-board dredges. On the upstroke. usually a rubber diaphragm inserted in the hutch as a pulsator – pushing up (upstroke) and sucking down (downstroke).mine. Gold recovery falters at 0. The smaller particles become sufficiently agitated to become a fluidised bed like quicksand – the thixotropic state. adapted from Nio 1978 ) SIMPLE JIGS A simple jig consists of a square jig cell comprised of a lower water-filled chamber (hutch) covered by a jig screen above which slurry is introduced. but have virtually disappeared with the advent of more modern jigs. A simple square jig is typical of most jigs in exhibiting a mix of continuous discharge of fine gold and batch discharge of coarse gold. Adoption by placer gold miners Simple square jigs used to be fairly popular in placer gold mining. At the same time.1mm. but the layer of smaller particles on or near the jig bed are pushed upwards – allowing Stokes Law to operate. the erupting water intermingles with the jig bed. and high % recovery of fine gold recovery is difficult to achieve. and causes all of the jig bed to be ‘jigged’ – the steel balls may slightly rise and fall. Small square jigs are often arranged in series (to increase recovery) or in parallel (to increase capacity). Finer gold is flushed through the jig screen into the bottom of the hutch to be tapped off the bottom as ‘hutch concentrate’ continuous discharged via a spigot.g. The loosened heavies fall rapidly to burrow into the protective jig bed. either hydraulic or mechanical. The drive is significant. simple square jigs are unsuitable for efficient placer gold mining: the jig’s footprint is large. Overhead view of a conventional 2x4 cell rectangular jig. size-sorted and oversize rejected in a screening plant. (drawing: Robin Grayson. steel balls) that constitute the jig bed.
whereas others focus on maximising throughput. The Little CamelTM has seven spirals but other makes vary from one to seven. and Keith B.110. Tailings are discharged over the lip of the rotating pan. artisanal miners. Industrial-scale gold wheels appeared in the 1980s led by PMX Industries . Johnny Hilmer Kleven of California invented a method of increasing the washing capacity to 1. material must be limited to keep it fluidised. Adoption by placer gold miners Gold wheels are popular worldwide with recreational miners. Figure 40.30 mm.152 and US #4. The gold wheel was invented by Henry Earle of Denver and patented in 1911 (US #987. (photo: Avista Ltd of Bishkek) Figure 39. By arranging two to six gold wheels. The 7-spiral Little CamelTM has a wheel 16. Water is supplied by a header tank or 12-volt submersible pump.308 and US #4. for fine gold. A cup of concentrate is added every 10-15 seconds to a point on the gold wheel.036).5-2. Cleland was awarded patents in 1983 and 1984 for solving how to build large wheels with 60-100 helical riffles converging on a single central port (US #4.267. To enhance gold recovery: pre-screen the concentrate to <0. Rotation is by a 12-volt motor. add a teaspoon of normal sand. adaptable to a car battery. Avista geologist using a gold wheel in near-freezing conditions. pages 66-161. and to cut surface tension.866). The best gold wheels are of moulded polypropylene plastic for lightness and smoothness.15 to 0. The speed is critical and can be controlled between 15 to 22 rpm. Yet the gold wheel’s popularity is uneven and the reason unclear.desfox. Many makers exist in the USA and in South America. patented in 1977 and 1978 (US #4. Recovery of placer gold by helix wheels (gold wheels)  (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY GOLD WHEELS – generalised 91 .783). Africa. commonly called a spiral panning machine.mine. pre-screen to 0.5 inches across. a gold wheel is a rotating tilted pan with spiral ribs (‘riffles’) on its upper surface. is a flattened Archimedes screw with the helix no longer turning inside a cylinder but spiralling smaller and smaller to a central discharge hole. and he later invented a single multi-step wheel that accomplishes the same (US #4. add a little Cascade or Jet-Dry antispotting agent (not detergent). Gold particles are trapped by the riffles and migrate to an exit hole in the centre for recovery. if it clogs with black sand. prospectors and companies for upgrading concentrate. HELIX WHEEL The helix wheel (gold wheel).6 mm. 17: Helix wheel (gold wheel) – 1900s research in Colorado www. China and Russian Federation. Volume 7. Production of large gold wheels ceased after a decade.206). and added via a perforated pipe to gently flush concentrate across the face of the pan.0 tons/hour.World Placer Journal – 2007.389.com).008. The modern small portable gold wheel was invented by Angus Nicholls in the USA and his Little CamelTM gold wheel is still made by Camel Mining Inc (www.mn Operation Using the Little CamelTM as an example. Some gold wheels are designed to recover fine gold.406.
com Miniature helix cylinders gained and retain a niche in the recreational mining market as small-scale placer gold recovery units: Dixie Doodlebug – famous machine. Good examples include the truck-mounted helix cylinder patented by Loyd Harris of Oregon in 1979 (US #4. according to the original patent. but little has been published apart from the review by Michael Silva . In contrast. Both are long cylindrical drums tilted to cause slurry fed in at the raised end to discharge at the lower end. Brosseuk’s helix cylinder followed earlier innovations during the 1970s and 1980s.World Placer Journal – 2007. 52: Brosseuk’s helix cylinder – 1980s research in British Columbia www. Externally a helix cylinder resembles a scrubber (blind trommel).com Figure 112.goldenboyinc.extrac-tec.584) and marketed as ‘The Gold Machine’ and has been the most successful helix cylinder for use in largescale placer gold mining.178. the slurry landing on the helical riffles. Recovery of placer gold by Brosseuk’s helix cylinder. such as the PMX helix and the TRI-R helix. notably: The Gold Machine (Brosseuk’s helix cylinder). Volume 7.108. A helix cylinder can vary from a small cylinder (1ft diameter and 5ft long) for upgrading of concentrates to a large cylinder (8ft diameter and 40ft long) as a rougher.043).com  Gold Screw – www.goldscrew.mine. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY BROESSEUK’s HELIX CYLINDER 130 . THE GOLD MACHINE Brosseuk’s helix cylinder was invented by Raymond Brosseuk of British Columbia. each spiralling round and round along the length of the cylinder to produce an Archimedes screw .desfox. Today several types of large helix cylinders are made in North America for placer gold recovery.com) Figure 111. pages 66-161. production ceased Mountain Goat – www. ideal for prospecting and evaluating deposits. Adoption by placer gold miners Tests of helix cylinders in the 1980s in North American placer mines  later led to some uptake worldwide. But the interior of a helix cylinder is lined by transverse riffles that are helical.com Gold ClaimerTM Rotary Riffle – production unclear Golden Boy Rotary Separator – www. the lighter particles and wash water override the riffles to continue along the floor of the cylinder to emerge as a continuous discharge of tailings. Heavies are caught in the grooves between the riffles and being inside an Archimedes screw are carried up the length of the helix by the rotation of the riffles to the lip of the cylinder where they disgorge as a continuous discharge of concentrate.238) and a helix cylinder patented by Richard and Isabelle Tice of Washington State in 1982 (US #4. patented in 1992 (US #5.339. One of the smaller portable helix cylinders invented by Raymond Brosseuk. (photo: courtesy of www.extrac-tec. precursor of the HPC helix belt – www. The pipe discharges about midway along the cylinder.mn Operation Feed is introduced as slurry via a slurry pipe inserted at the front end of the helix cylinder.
mn Operation Pay gravel is dumped in a hopper that feeds a scrubbing/screening trommel that is an integral part of the Extrac-TEC HPC wash-plant. The helix belt. The bed-profile. and prevents surging and so flow is steady down the sluice and optimized for gold recovery. and the first patent was granted in 1993 according to the company website. The washed undersize is fed as slurry to the helix belt. according to information from the manufacturer.extrac-tec. According to the company (www. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY THE EXTRAC-TEC HPC HELIX BELT – generalised 155 . water flow and belt speed are configured to produce the solids density desired (0. (photo: courtesy of Extrac-TEC www. Adoption by placer gold miners The Extrac-TEC HPC wash-plant with its helix belt has become widely available over the last few years. Mexico and USA. China. Development began in 1986.mine. and early versions were sold in Canada. Any heavies escaping over a rib are trapped and re-processed by the next rib. inclination. Water and lights travel down the central valley of the helix belt by spilling over each rib (riffle) sequentially. heavies are inexorably hauled up the slope by tangential motion of the ribs (riffles). 75: Helix belt – 2000s research in Canada and USA www. Figure 154. unique to the Extrac-TEC HPC systems.1 to 40% by weight). 13mm or 25mm. characteristics of the reverse helix. Arriving at the bottom end of the helix belt. The helix belt is tilted at a gentle angle sufficient to ensure water and lights fed onto it are washed down-slope. “…independent analyses showed recovery efficiency close to 95%”. A high concentration ratio is achieved and so the final concentrate is reasonably clean. Screening is at 6mm.World Placer Journal – 2007.com) fresh patents were filed in 2003 for the more advanced ‘Generation-2’ version using the helix belt. Material ascending the helix belt of the HPC-10 wash-plant. The helix belt ensures concentrate fed to the sluice is properly pre-concentrated. Arriving at the top end of the helix belt. From 1999-2002 the company focused on using the HPC technology for its own placer operations in Canada such as in Anderson Creek in the Yukon. helix cylinder and helix wheel (gold wheel) are three different classes of Archimedes screw used for heavy mineral separation. The belt’s motion and water flow cause heavies to settle on the helix belt. and the manufacturer claims that gold recovery is increased “down to 40 microns”. Once settled on the helix belt. This reduces water consumption. pages 66-161. and some are operational in most continents. the first prototype was completed in 1988. The helix belt has ribs that serve as riffles arranged in a helix. HPC HELIX BELT The Extrac-TEC HPC helix belt is called by the makers a “transverse spiral concentration belt”. The profile of the helix belt is sagged into a bow-shaped gutter-like trough that is gently tilting to drain the tailings down the trough. the lights discharge as tailings. Recovery of placer gold by the Extrac-TEC HPC helix belt. the heavies continuously discharge into the concentrate sluice.extrac-tec.com) Figure 153. The helix belt rotates as a reverse helix that functions as an Archimedes screw. Volume 7. whereas the settled heavies are hauled up the trough by the moving riffles. The device is a highly innovative form of Archimedes screw.
The shaking motion has a slow westward stroke and rapid return eastward stroke – often with a bump. high water usage. A key factor is that miners like to see the gold separating. Today shaking tables are made in the USA. based on comments of the British Geological Survey . and useful amounts of 30μ gold. This induces settled particles to crawl in a juddering manner westward along the table with the thin film of slurry. bulky size. UK.675). Motive Traction Pty Ltd .World Placer Journal – 2007. a spray bar introduces clean ‘wash water’ along the north edge of the table. Disadvantages include: low capacity. Meanwhile. and still able to recover >70% of 50μ gold. Deister and Emil Deister of Indiana (US #1. (photo: courtesy of the manufacturer. and need for having a stable. Australia. such as the Deister table  patented by William F. The feed is screened to <3mm and fed into a small hopper above the north-east corner of the shaking table. sending a thin film of clean water southward to encounter the riffles and the westward flowing slurry. The thinfilm needs a large surface area and therefore some sort of table shape is essential.com. 18: Wilfley shaking table – 1890s research in Colorado www.www.mine.5 strokes per second. Adoption by placer gold miners Wilfley shaking tables remain popular amongst placer gold miners in many regions of the world. Thailand and elsewhere. A shaking table can recover >90% of gold from 3mm down to about 70μ. Shaking tables are thin-film devices whereby heavy particles are induced to settle from a flowing film of slurry while light particles are washed away as tailings. Many thousands of Wilfley tables were made and are still manufactured.motive-traction. allowing the operator to see exactly what is happening. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY WILFLEY SHAKING TABLE – generalised 92 .au) Figure 41. The feed fan outs towards the edge of the table. A set of low riffles aligned east-west guide the heavies ever westward to fall off the south-west corner of the table into a hopper as a continuous discharge. WILFLEY SHAKING TABLE The Wilfley shaking table was invented by Arthur R. A Wilfley shaking table made in Australia. China. Russia. Figure 42. ranging from small laboratory tables to production tables 7x15ft in size. pages 66-161. Colorado and patented in 1897 (US #590. The device proved enormously popular being able to consistently recover fine particles of dense minerals and with a high concentration ratio. Wilfley of Denver. Recovery of placer gold by Wilfley shaking table. The wash water mixes with the slurry and overrides the riffles taking the lighter particles with it to spill over the southern edge as a continuous discharge of tailings.642.mn Operation The points of the compass are used for clarity in describing the operation of the Wilfley shaking table. The shaking is usually very rapid with a frequency of 4 to 5. and to decide where to subdivide the fan into distinct streams each dominated by a particular mineral. where it is mixed with clean water.843). The shaking displacement is usually half to one inch to-and-fro. Volume 7. Dozens of variations emerged. The resulting slurry is introduced to the north-east corner of the shaking table and begins to spread southwards as a thin film.
chinagold. surface texture and purity. forward velocity and return velocity. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY TRADITIONAL SHAKING TABLES – China tests 93 . New Zealand. California. Africa.org. placer scientists of the Minerals Processing Laboratory of the Kunming Institute of Metallurgy in Yunnan Province determined the percentage gold recovery of conventional shaking tables . presence of other minerals (light or heavy) attached to the gold.motive-traction.co. frequency.com. shaking varies in amplitude. length. China. 19: Shaking tables – 1960s-1970s research in China www. but the results showed gold recovery starts to falter at 0. pages 66-161. flatness.E.uk Australia – Motive Traction Pty Ltd Inc of New South Wales www.html Figure 44. Recovery of placer gold by traditional shaking table of uncertain type. Manufacturers of shaking tables are numerous and widely spread. Chinese-built shaking tables of traditional design recovering gold from slurry fed from a ball mill at a Chinese-owned hardrock gold mine in Bayanhogor Aimag in Mongolia.au USA – Outokumptechnology Inc of Florida www. Central America. Mongolia and the Russian Federation.placer. They can be seen in action in Alaska. riffles vary in height. Yukon. plastic. and may by to-and-fro or orbital. rubber or fibreglass. (photo: Robin Grayson) CHINESE SHAKING TABLES For over a century shaking tables have remained popular in China as elsewhere for clean-up of concentrate from placer gold wash-plants and milled hardrock ore. Decks are of wood or fibreglass. These results are disappointing. the fineness of the feed.5mm and is only 90% by 0. spacing and orientation. A key factor for many miners is that they see the gold separating. dilution of the feed.com China – China National Gold Corporation (CNGC) www. and a modern shaking table if operated carefully performs significantly better. and the problem of any traces of oil or grease.outokumptechnology. and collapsed to 75% at 0. and fed to the shaking table as either slurry or spooned into a small hopper on the corner of the shaking table where water is added to produce the desired slurry.2mm.com Thailand – Dove Engineering www.1mm. nature of other particles present. In the 1970s. South America. Volume 7. S.mine. and a vast range of shaking tables existed by the 1970s. deck coverings include linoleum. Asia.World Placer Journal – 2007. Even for a particular shaking table there are many critical variables.mn Operation Typically the concentrate is screened at 3mm. bearing in mind the chronic performance of simple jigs and sluices at that time.dovemining. width.holmanwilfley. Shaking tables operate as a thin-film separator. Figure 43. It is unclear what type of shaking tables were tested or the size of the feed. results of tests in China . for instance: United Kingdom – Holman-Wilfley Ltd of England www. However in the 1970s the observed performance of shaking tables in the China tests would have been considered acceptable. such as the gold particles’ size. Adoption by placer gold miners Shaking tables are popular amongst placer gold miners in many regions of the world. Alberta. Australia. British Columbia.
A key factor for many miners is that they see the gold separating.World Placer Journal – 2007. is often leached and porous so its density is reduced. Adoption by placer gold miners Shaking tables are popular amongst placer gold miners in many regions of the world. little has been published their ability to recover gold of different size or flatness.mine. For instance the feed is assumed to have been screened at 3mm as is standard practice. Recovery of placer gold by Soviet shaking tables in the Soviet Union. gold being so dense. acicular” . not porous. (photo: Robin Grayson) SOVIET SHAKING TABLE In spite of the popularity of the Wilfley shaking table and its derivatives. Studies on the ability of shaking tables to recover tin (cassiterite SnO2) led people to assume a shaking table would perform better with gold. Figure 45. and later by the British Geological Survey . Recovery fell to only 80% for 150μ gold. The performance was less good than expected for placer gold by western users of shaking tables. 20: Shaking tables – 1960s research in the Soviet Union www. and gold is often so flat its settling velocity is less than expected. especially placer gold. (compiler: Robin Grayson.mn Operation Government-funded placer scientists in the Soviet Union undertook intensive tests during the 1960s and 1970s on the ability of shaking tables to recover gold . and demonstrate the adverse effect on recovery if the gold particles are porous or flat. after Zamyatin and Konyukova ) GOLD RECOVERY BY TRADITIONAL SHAKING TABLES – Soviet Union tests 94 . Figure 46. It is not quite clear what the English translation should be. This assumption is dubious. Shaking table of traditional Soviet design at the Sharin Gol Mine of Polymet Potala Ltd in Mongolia. cassiterite is typically not leached. It is unclear what the parameters of the Soviet tests were. Many reports affirm shaking tables are “effective” or “successful” in recovering gold of this or that size or shape. pages 66-161. yet rarely mention the amount of gold lost. The results cast doubt on the ability of shaking tables to perform well at recovering fine placer gold in industrialscale operations. rendering it impossible to interpret the results. lumpy” . with four sizes of placer gold described as “laminar. Only in the Soviet Union and China does it seem proper scientific tests were conducted on the ability of traditional shaking tables to recover gold. gold is markedly hydrophobic making it prone to float on a shaking table. but if screened at say 5mm then performance would have been compromised. the Soviet scientists appraised a conventional Soviet-made shaking table. probably modelled closely on Wilfley or Deister tables. Recovery fell to only 80% for 90μ gold and under 60% for 50μ gold. The performance was poor. In a second test. Again it is not entirely clear what the correct English translation should be. with >90% recovery only possible for 300μ gold and larger. with >90% recovery only possible for 150μ gold and larger. the Soviet scientists tested a conventional Soviet-made shaking table. for gold. Volume 7. In one test. not hydrophobic and not flat. Conversely. with five sizes of placer gold described as “porous. 55% for 100μ gold and under 35% for 50μ gold.
(compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY BGS SHAKING TABLE – based on UK tests 142 . 63: BGS shaking table – 1990s research in United Kingdom www. even pressure water supply was available. around 30µ in size. and a well controlled. Adoption by placer gold miners For recreational gold miners the BGS shaking table offers a simple rapid means of upgrading concentrates in the field rather than “bringing them home” as well as removing any temptation to resort to mercury. Laboratory examination of the concentrates showed that significant amounts of gold had been recovered from ores and tailings and substantial amounts were very fine-grained. construct and test a cheap. using bicycle gears and chains plus rubber bands made from car tyre inner tubes. Hand cranking at a comfortable one turn per second translates into five bumps per second – enough to operate the shaking table. (photo: Robin Grayson) Figure 131. simple shaking table that could be produced for use by small-scale miners in developing countries. Field trials show the BGS shaking table to be an effective device. lightweight. Laboratory examination revealed most of the gold was only around 40µ in size and grains as small as 10µ had been recovered.mn Operation The BGS shaking table is compact and light enough to be carried over the shoulder by a strong individual. the table was set up on large flat benches. If desired the crank can be modified to be powered by a bicycle. For artisanal gold miners the BGS shaking table is small.mn). The task was to design. pages 66-161. Recovery of placer gold by the hand-cranked BGS shaking table. the table was easily set up and adjusted to a stable configuration and heavy mineral concentrates were readily recovered. motor cycle or a motor. Top view of the Mongolian home-made version of the handcranked BGS shaking table. Rebound from the bump is by means of a rubber band.sam.World Placer Journal – 2007. . However the BGS laboratory trials were carried out in almost perfect conditions: the samples were washed and deslimed prior to tests. Volume 7. The drive is hand cranked – one turn of the handle translates into five bumps to the table via an eccentric cam. The BGS shaking table is being evaluated by recreational gold miners in North America and by the Support for Artisanal Mining (SAM) project in Mongolia (www. The table is manually driven.mine. Its use is more difficult in adverse conditions where material to be processed is muddy. A hand lens showed much fine-grained gold had been recovered. tested under laboratory conditions . Trials at Acupan in the Philippines were problematical and it was far more difficult to set up the table in a stable configuration. BGS SHAKING TABLE The BGS shaking table was developed by the British Geological Survey (BGS) as part of the DFID/BGS Technology Development Research (TDR) project R6226 ‘Mitigation of mining-related mercury pollution hazards’. Under optimum conditions. BGS laboratory trials showed the BGS shaking table is as good as – and probably slightly more effective than – the commercial Wilfley shaking table for in recovering fine-grained gold. it seems that the BGS shaking table can be expected to routinely recover almost all moderately fine gold (100µ to 1mm) and probably >90% of very fine gold down to 50µ. BGS trials at Kias Creek in the Philippines were successful. transportable. stability is a problem and water pressure is variable. Figure 132. affordable and offers a possible alternative to mercury for upgrading concentrates. either electric or diesel.
mine. The device is an innovative shaking table designed to recover fine gold to directly produce a clean smeltable concentrate to produce dore bars.61. according to the original patent and testing [161. and a flowmeter is required to maintain the correct rate of flow. Water usage is substantial and has to be at constant pressure. but is also significantly more expensive. It appears to be significant better than other shaking tables.gravityrecovery. Volume 7. The GemeniTM table is claimed by the maker . a direct drive system has a geared motor driving a crank connected to the table deck. The room height has to be correspondingly high. Locally-made copy-cats are made in some parts of South America and perhaps elsewhere. to be capable of producing a very clean gold concentrate from gold-bearing black-sand concentrates when fed <1mm material.162]. The feed density requires constant checking with a pulp meter. pages 66-161. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY GEMENITM TABLE 131 . and a bump stop system provides a fine tuning mechanism.World Placer Journal – 2007. Figure 114. TM GEMENITM TABLE A Gemeni table showing streaks of black sand and yellow streaks of gold.334). Often the cleaned concentrate is good enough to do so. It is designed to be used inside a building with a solid floor to which the unit is then securely bolted.com) The GemeniTM table was invented by Henry W. (photos: courtesy of MD Technologies Ltd – www. the conservatism of most placer companies and slightly more demanding housing and skill.162]. The feed size must be <1mm. Adoption by placer gold miners The GemeniTM table is now seen in most placer gold mining regions of the world. The switch to the GemeniTM table has been slow and incomplete. and confirmed by users and researchers [3. perhaps due to the higher capital cost. Recovery is excellent down to about 40-50μ .mn Operation Feed properties are critical to the success of a GemeniTM table. Rodgers of Colorado and patented in 1986 (US #4. 53: GemeniTM table – 1980s research in Colorado www. best achieved by positioning a small header tank three metres above the table deck. It is important to be securely fastened to the floor. and ideally the feed should have been passed through a magnetic separator remove any tramp metal. In modern models. as all the drive motion must be transferred to the table deck to achieve good performance. The water should be filtered to remove suspended solids and organic material.758. Recovery of placer gold by GemeniTM table. Figure 113. the crank has a sprung connection system. The GemeniTM table is made of fibreglass supported on a steel frame. Table tuning is by adjusting a single screw. To absorb overrun.
magnetite separator and gold gravity concentrator. This is aided by the magnetite particles delivering additional magnetism by aligning their magnetic poles to produce long chains. According to U-Tech.www.html The U-TechTM RP-4 table has a 12x48inch cleaning deck.200 lbs and requires 60-80 gallons of water/minute.goldequipment. weighs 60lb and fits in a large car boot. The unit includes a pretreatment feed sluice tray described as a “sluice box moulded into deck”. and “demonstrated to move one micron size dry particles”. An optional deck screen added to the U-TechTM RP-4 table operates as a combined shaker screen. Water is added to the RP-4 table at a rate of 8-14 gallons/minute via a water distribution bar. by using spring steel plates instead of linear sliding bearings. Figure 136.mn Operation The feed is concentrate screened at <¾-inch.com/gold-mining-equipment-warranty. The RP-16-D gravity concentrating table weighs about 2. according to the original patent and maker’s website. but in spite of the claimed advantages of the U-TechTM RP table they have not yet begun to seriously challenge the entrenched position of the traditional shaking tables or the advanced types of shaking table such as the GemeniTM table. “we have users claiming the U- Adoption by placer gold miners Reverse polarity RP tables gained some popularity in North America. The tailings leaving the table pass a ‘tails nugget trap’ before exiting as a continuous discharge.World Placer Journal – 2007. pages 66-161. 115/220v. A special feature is spinning rare earth magnets positioned underneath the deck surface. USA . also “we have users claiming the U-TECH heavy mineral concentrators are saving down to -500 particle size". The U-TechTM RP-4 is driven by a HP motor. Volume 7. The RP table is built by UTech Co. in Arizona.mine. The slurry spreads across the table – a very smooth 1-piece riffled deck and launder tray moulded from ABS plastic (truck bed liner material). TECH heavy mineral concentrators are saving down to one micron” and. Recovery of placer gold by U-Tech reverse polarity table. 8.goldequipment. U-Tech claims the RP-4 table “saves down to 1 micron (Lab Test)” www.com/goldmining-equipment-concentrating-table-RP-4. By reversing the magnetic polarity of magnetite at about 800 cycles/minute (elliptical polarization of the magnetite) magnetite rises to the surface and is then more easily washed into the tails by the transverse flow of water.308. AC 60 Hz.835). Central Mineral Laboratory in Ulaanbaatar.6 Amp to produce a smoother reciprocating motion than possible with a conventional shaking table. (photo: Davasambuu of the Swiss-funded Support for Artisanal Mining project) Figure 135. The RP table has a reverse polarity spinning magnet system under the table top that aids separation of black sands. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY U-TECHTM REVERSE POLARITY TABLE 144 . 65: U-TechTM reverse polarity table – 1990s research in Arizona www. REVERSE POLARITY TABLE The U-TechTM reverse polarity (RP) table was invented by Darvin Wade of North Virginia and patented in 2001 (US #6. “will recover 99% of microscopic gold from your magnetite concentrates and is designed to run continuously".html Larger units such as the RP-16 table can process >8 tons/hour (4 tons of black sands) of sand-sized feed. U-Tech RP-4 shaking table. Side view of the drive mechanism.
goldfieldeng. The manufacturers claim it is “fastest. However test results have yet to be published. Figure 134.com) designed to recover not only fine gold but a full range of gold sizes including nuggets to directly produce a clean smeltable concentrate.19mm gold in the nugget trap.mine.19mm) is routed to a carpeted nugget trap. (photo: courtesy of Goldfield International – www. The GoltonTM table is unique in having a coarse side and a fines side. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY GOLTRONTM MACHINE . <1. and that the unit is capable of achieving “gold recovery down to minus 400-mesh” (37μ).42mm). single phase at 50/60 hertz. Undersize is re-screened on a fine wet vibrating screen of 35-mesh (0. based on information issued by the manufacturer. Oversize re-screened material (>0. to vibrate the table and/or screens.mn Operation Gold-bearing black-sand concentrates as coarse as 35mm is fed into the variable feed-rate hopper of the GoltonTM unit.World Placer Journal – 2007. Gold is recovered in three locations: Figure 133. Volume 7.42mm) is directed to the fines side of the GoltonTM table. It seems to be the only shaking table set-up capable of catching everything from nuggets to fine gold.generalised 143 . or advanced tables such as the GemeniTM table.19mm apertures. system that does not rely on chemicals or amalgamation” to separate fine gold.42-1. but little information has been published. while the undersize re-screened material (<0. pages 66-161. The feed rate is 150lbs/hour of solids and 300-600 gallons/hour of water. most efficient The GoltonTM unit has a power requirement of 110/220 volts.com) The GoltronTM unit is a recent innovation by Goldfield International of Utah (www.42mm) is directed to the ‘coarse side’ of the GoltonTM table. Feed properties are less critical than for conventional tables.19mm gold on the ‘fine side’ of the GoltonTM table.19mm gold on the ‘coarse side’ of the GoltonTM table.goldfieldeng. The manufacturer claims that recovery efficiencies are excellent. 64: GoltronTM machine – 1990s research in Utah www. Adoption by placer gold miners The GoltronTM Unit is new and is gaining some acceptance by placer gold miners at least in North America. GOLTRONTM MACHINE >1. View of a Goltron ready for action. In seems possible that upgraded concentrate from a GoltronTM table may be pure enough for direct smelting to produce dore bars. Oversize (>1. The GoltonTM variable feedrate hopper contains an auger that dispenses steady amounts of feed onto a coarse wet vibrating screen with 1. 0. Recovery of placer gold by the Goltron machine.
ideally 100μ. pages 66-161.922) but allowed to lapse in 1996. BARTLES-MOZLEY MULTI-DECK TABLES The Bartles-Mozley multi-deck concentrator consists of 40 fibreglass decks (tables) each 3.mine. Each deck is riffled and connected by ½-inch plastic formers that define the pulp channel. and encounters transverse riffles “10 to 100 thousandths of an inch high. feed is stopped and the decks tilted slightly to drain. spaced apart by 1 to 3 inches” [patent]. low power consumption. The slurry flows down the deck sloping 1.358). Figure 64. The slurry is fine enough to be termed slime. and sold worldwide. (drawing: Robin Grayson). The author is unaware of it having ever being applied to recovery of very fine gold. [75. the feed being spread across the width of the deck by means of a manifold with twelve discharge holes. Mozley of Cornwall patented a variant in the UK and then in 1981 the United States (US #4. Volume 7.148.World Placer Journal – 2007. according to Michael Silva . After more than a decade its popularity collapsed due to competition from new centrifuges (e. “and in some cases as small as 1 micron” . suspended by cables. The device soon became “probably the most widely used slimes table today”  due to its high throughput. A modern variant was patented by Paul Marriot of Cornwall in 1989 (US #5. The feed consist of slurry of 15-35% solids that have been finely screened. low labour requirement. although it has potential. The orbital horizontal motion energises the light particles to inhibit them settling and they remain suspended in the flowing film of water that overrides the riffles to discharge as tailings. Richard H. Figure 63. then tilted steeply to allow the concentrates to be flushed into a collection sump. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY BARTLES-MOZLEY ORBITAL TABLES – generalised 104 . After running for about 35 minutes. KnelsonTM bowl and FalconTM C bowl) and better chemical leaching. The deck and its riffles undergo an orbital horizontal motion imparted by an out-of-balance electric motor.251.5°.3° to 2.mn Operation This account is based on Silva’s description of the Bartles-Mozley multi-deck concentrator . and assigned to the National Research Development Corporation. 29: Bartles-Mozley multi-deck tables – 1970s research in Cornwall www.8 to 3 Hz.6ft x 5ft arranged in two sections of 20 decks each. Gold recovery by Bartles-Mozley orbital tables. The feed pipe tops up a feed box from where a flexible pipe conveys feed to each deck. The 40-deck unit is able to process about 20 tons/hour of solids. The tables are then returned to the original orientation and processing recommences. Layout simplified from the patent. The orbital horizontal motion has a large amplitude of 5 to 18 cm at a frequency of 0. and low water consumption.g. Good recovery is from 100μ to 5μ. small footprint. Adoption by placer gold miners The Bartles-Mozley separator was intended primarily for hardrock mills and tin recovery. Several types of multi-deck concentrators existed. Meanwhile high density particles settle on the table and remain restrained by the riffles.76].
A sister device to a pinched sluice is the Wright impact plate invented by Douglas Charles Wright of New South Wales and patented in 1978 (US #4. Most pinched sluices are used to recover mineral sands [63-66] and are a neglected device in gold recovery. Slurry rushing down the sluice gets crowded. to have two potential applications that are quite different and should not be confused: traditional application – producing an underflow. middlings flow and a tailings flow. This could assist in creating a traction carpet of dense particles at the base of the slurry. generalised information compiled from fragmentary sources. and in theory this would assist in the ejection of low density particles and the burrowing down of tiny gold particles. Recovery of placer gold by pinched sluices.078. Some pinched sluices have permanent magnets installed beneath them to encourage magnetite and other magnetic particles to join the underflow. The floor and walls of the pinched sluice must be free of obstructions to achieve laminar flow. Laminar flow permits gravitational settling and stratification of slurry. Figure 48.mine. after Michael Priester. in the opinion of the author. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY PINCHED SLUICES – generalised 95 . The author suggests it is possible that gold particles may continue to be crowded and upgraded – experiments are required. A pinched sluice should incorporate: a means to adjust the inclination of the sluice. A pinched sluice appears. More research is warranted. the slurry is forced to deepen. middlings flow and tailings flow. A pinched sluice is a small sluice that tapers towards the discharge end. wear on the floor and walls may be severe. and a means to adjust the angle and position of ‘splitters’. and additional application – controlling surges in the feed rate. yet the middlings need to be recirculated. Adoption by placer gold miners Pinched sluices are rarely seen in placer gold mines in spite of their obvious potential. Pinched sluices cannot exceed about 70% recovery of heavy minerals. and the crowded denser particles gravitate towards the bottom forcing the lighter particles to rise above them. 21: Pinched sluice – historical usage www. A pinched sluice is a low cost way to produce concentrate. (drawing: Robin Grayson. As a result the slurry discharge is stratified – a very dense ‘underflow’ of valuable concentrate. Slurry is fed by gravity from a trommel or screen via a chute into the head of the pinched sluice or arrives by pipe fed by a slurry pump.de) Pinched sluices (fanned sluices) have been used for centuries . Figure 47. and a replaceable liner such as smooth rubber or wear-resistant material is advisable.World Placer Journal – 2007.projekt-consult. PINCHED SLUICE General outline of a pinched sluice. pages 66-161. The discharge is divided by splitters into separate streams – concentrate flow. Volume 7. Projekt-consult – www. In compelling the slurry to converge to a ‘pinchpoint’.997).mn Operation Feed is screened at 100μ to 1mm and should have no more than 5% clays . a medium density middle flow (‘middlings’) and a low density upper flow (‘tails’). as this is the limit of the pinching mechanism .
The slurry becomes progressively crowded. magnetite – terminal Settling Velocity cut from 2. The cones are stacked in series to repeat the benefit of crowding. Suppose the slurry fluid attains 2g/cm3. cyclones and slurry pumps. Consistent recovery of gold particles >45μ have been reported .au) Figure 49.mn Operation Feed is pre-screened as cones are unable to concentrate particles >0. and the lighter particles such as quartz become increasingly vulnerable to ejection from the ever-denser slurry. cutting the terminal Settling Velocity of all particles even more. according to Erik Spiller and Thomas Feree [67. Example of Reichert cones. The increased packing of suspended particles increases the overall density of the lower slurry. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY REICHERT CONES 96 .68]. Multiple stages of upgrading are achieved. 22: Reichert cone – 1960s research in Australia www. USA. REICHERT CONES The Reichert cone was invented by Ernst Reichert of Queensland who applied for an Australian patent in 1966 and was awarded a US patent in 1968 (US #3. Figure 50.com. a sand and gravel company recovered gold with Reichert cones while selling gravel. (photo: courtesy of Dale Henderson of the manufacturer Roche Mining – www. but needs screens. and recovery falls if clay is >5% of the feed. Adoption by placer gold miners Reichert cones have not gained much foothold in placer gold miners.4cm/sec.3 to 2. Water consumption is less than for sluices or jigs . laminated with polyurethane.7cm/sec.6-9.8 to 7.310). pages 66-161. The 3. Volume 7. By repeated crowding.5mm. and flows to the central hole. Stacks of cones are mounted in circular frames over 6 metres tall. Recovery of placer gold by Reichert cones. the free settling regime becomes a hindered settling regime.5-metre cone processes up to 350 tons/hour.3cm/sec. Gold concentrate is removed by annular slots in the cone. then: quartz – terminal Settling Velocity cut from 0. then dispenses with their side walls to create a single cone with a central discharge hole. The cone is of lightweight structural glass reinforced plastic (GRP).379. gold was recovered using a Reichert cone in conjunction with a conventional shaking table.World Placer Journal – 2007.1-9.9 to 0.rochemt. In Snake River Idaho. The cone is sensitive to changes in slurry feed density (55-70% solids) Slurry feed is poured into the cone evenly around its circumference. The device packs pinched sluices in a circle. Gold recovery >85% was noted by Thomas Ferree . At the Snake River in Idaho. The unit has no moving parts and very low operating costs. due to all the particles converging upon the central hole.mine. The flow is free of edge-effects without side walls. with 44% of recovered gold being <75μ. gold – terminal Settling Velocity cut from 7. They have been used in Queensland by a 20m3/hour plant to recover fine gold from tailings.
and rapid wear of the rubber lining and irregular wash water distribution caused production problems . (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY HUMPHREY SPIRALS 97 . The heavier particles are recovered as concentrate from discharge outlets on the inside of the channel. 1924 and 1939 (US #629. small footprint.700.469). 23: Humphrey spirals – 1940s research in Colorado www. good recovery of fine gold and ease of visually checking to see if material is separating properly. slope of the channel and the positioning and number of discharge outlets and supplementary-water intakes.145. very heavy and difficult to adjust. Early production models were of cast iron sections and required numerous pipes for supplementary-water intake and discharge outlets making it a rather complicated. Key variables are the cross section of the channel. The Humphrey spiral was invented by Ira B. the chute twisted into typically six windings (turns).431. Early models were difficult for placer miners due to the weight and the need not only close screening and a steady feed of slurry. the diameter of the spiral.559 and US #2. As well as the feed being finely screened. with the solids screened to 3mm or preferably to 1-2mm. Recovery of placer gold by Humphrey spirals. according to diverse fragmentary sources.431. As a consequence the heavy particles spiral along the inside walls of the channel. The basic Humphrey spiral is 3 metres tall with 5-6 windings of the channel and is capable of processing 0.590. but were very rarely used in placer gold recovery. Humphrey spiral illustrated on the front page of the classic ‘Tools for Mining Book’ by Michael Priester and colleagues  HUMPHREY SPIRALS Modern spirals began with Frank Pardee of Pennsylvania who was awarded patents in 1899. Adoption by placer gold miners Humphrey spirals enjoyed great popularity for coal cleaning and mineral sand recovery. Upon slowing. long life. Humphrey of Denver USA who applied for US patents in 1943 and was awarded patents in 1947 (US #2.560) and 1955 (US #2.926 and US #2. while the faster lighter particles spiral further out towards the outer rim of the channel.World Placer Journal – 2007. Advantages include low cost. Volume 7.mine. The heaviest particles fall to the bottom of the channel where their velocity is retarded by friction. care is required to ensure that the feed rate and feed consistency is maintained as constant as possible to ensure satisfactory results The slurry descends the chute of the Humphrey spiral. Separation precision can be improved by adding additional water during the sorting process. the number of windings (revolutions).mn Operation Feed is slurry of 25-35% solids. Figure 52.315). the heavy particles are less affected by centrifugal forces generated by the spiral flow of slurry than are the lighter faster particles that are less retarded by friction.812 tons/day of concentrate depending on the design of the channel and the particle size. Later Humphrey spirals were of lightweight material and more compact being a double helix.516. Figure 51. pages 66-161. US # 1. The later model 7 Reichert spirals gained a stronger niche amongst placer mining companies for fine gold recovery.
The mark-7 model has no moving parts. Arizona and Colorado USA. and proved effective at scavenging for fine gold from washed sand concentrates at sand pits [164-166]. inhibiting gold loss if slurry surges or fluctuates). But the take-up of spirals by placer gold miners has been low. Figure 116. At the bottom of the ‘helter-skelter run’.World Placer Journal – 2007. MARK-7 REICHERT SPIRALS concentrate stream – taken for further upgrading. and the stream of dense particles is constrained to follow the axis of the channel. Volume 7. the stream of heavy concentrate is collected via a take-off port on the final turn of the spiral. three other streams are collected at the bottom of the spiral: Figure 115. the spirals contoured to separate particles of a particular range of densities. Over 20 models exist. Recovery of placer gold by mark7 Reichert spirals. As well as the concentrate stream. according to the cassiterite and placer gold tests [164-166].mine. tailings stream – discarded. (photo: courtesy of John Strain) Reichert spirals were developed in Australia in the 1960s by using lightweight materials and reassessing the hydrodynamics of the Humphrey spiral. Reichert spirals are made of lightweight fibreglass. For production. middlings stream – recycled (acts as buffer. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY OF REICHERT SPIRALS – based largely on recovery of cassiterite 132 . 54: www. the mark-7 is easier to operate and requires less water. Compared to the traditional Humphrey spirals. This simplification dispenses with a large amount of expensive tubing. Compared with earlier spirals.163-166]. The channel’s cross-section has a continuously variable profile that takes its deep axis outward during the descent. An exception is gold placers that are fine wellwashed sand of high energy coasts and large swift rivers.mn Mark-7 Reichert spirals – 1980s research in California. and can operate 24 hours a day. either discarded or recycled. being seen only as a valuable processing stage rather than a key component of a washplant. 365 days a year. a material that permitted many improvements and variations. for many years. identical spirals are mounted on the same column as a double or triple helix to increase the capacity from ‘one-start’ to ‘two-start’ or ‘three-start’. all the concentrate off-take ports are eliminated from the spiral except on its final turn. Mark 7 Reichert spirals installed on a mobile placer gold washplant in the USA. and eliminates the need for the addition of any top-up wash water. Adoption by placer gold miners Mark-7 Reichert spirals proved to be successful in recovering moderately fine placer gold in California. a spiral is mounted vertically on a support column. water stream – low in solids. Arizona and Colorado Operation The feed is screened at <2mm and poured as slurry in the spiral channel and helter-skelter down the spiral with the denser particles settling as dense basal slurry or traction carpet. pages 66-161. Mark-7 Reichert spirals have been produced since 1982 and its spirals are designed to recover cassiterite particles with a density of 6 to 7g/cm3 and it then proved effective at recovering fine gold in tests in North America [61. For tests.
Adoption by placer gold miners Since the award patent in 1976.mn Operation The inventor claims the pay gravel need not be screened as blockage by large stones are easily removed. and the oversize could be fed into a conventional small wash-plant parked alongside. This is an order of magnitude less water than a Yukon-style sluice needs to process the same volume of pay gravel. no ragging. The material should be dry or moist and should not be wetted by spray-bars. 95% recovery is normal.g. The pile of gravel in the tank cavitates from below due to contact with injected water. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY DUKE’s ELUTRIATED SLUDGE TANK 100 . The settled heavy concentrate can be a continuous discharge from near the base of the E-tank (e. adapted from Duke’s patent) Figure 55.g. Unlike an E-tower. Graefe’s E-tank). or remains in the tank as a lag deposit to await batch discharge (e. Duke’s E-Tank on a flat-bed truck. etc. 25: Duke’s E-sludge tank – 1970s research in Georgia www. the water requirement is very low – each tank is about a metre wide but a tank requires a mere 7. The slurrified basal gravel is free to stratify (dense material at the bottom) and creeps along the base of the tank tilted at about 12°. Unlike a jig. Water is injected into the base of the tank by means of a manifold of perforated water pipes. A manifold injects water to slurrify the base of the mound of dryish pay-gravel. the author has been unable to trace any record of Duke’s E-tank being used by placer gold miners. pages 66-161. The inventor recommends a set of six units be mounted in parallel on a flat-bed truck. The slowly discharging sluggish porridge-like slurry travels down a chute tilted at 15-35° and the dense lower material is trapped by slots. and the slurry is not watery enough for classic ‘hindered settling regime’. DUKE’s E-SLUDGE TANK Duke’s E-tank was invented by Arthur Duke of Georgia USA and patented in 1976 (US #3. Graefe’s E-tank and Pyramid’s E-tank. There is no jig screen. Duke’s E-tank). in spite of its potential. no jigging). front-end loader. and that recovered gold can be as small as 8μ! However no tests are published. collectively able to process about 130m3/hour of loose pay gravel. The stratified slurry flows down the floor of the tank to the right. Unlike a jig. Yet dry screening to reject >10-15cm oversize would surely be advantageous. Each unit has a rectangular hopper-shaped tank in which pay gravel is dumped by a conveyor. Elutriated sludge tanks (E-tanks) is a term coined by the author  for devices that inject water from below into a tank containing a bed of pay gravel that is quite thick (say >10 cm) to create a fairly stiff slurry just watery enough to stimulate gravitational settling of dense particles and rising of low-density particles.e. Etower or sluice.787). at a pressure of 5-35psi but typically 5-10psi. Volume 7. an E-tank contains slurry throughout. Instead the contents resemble a thixotropic quicksand. according to the original patent. creating stiffish slurry that undergoes density stratification. discharging in a ‘recovery box’ where dense basal slurry is trapped in slots. Recovery of placer gold by Duke’s E-tank. (drawing: Robin Grayson.6m3/hour of water to process about 22m3/hour of loose pay gravel per hour. Figure 56.World Placer Journal – 2007. the E-tank’s contents remain as porridge-like slurry from top to bottom. According to the inventor.951.mine. no hutch chamber and slurry is not pulsed upwards (i. Gold-separating devices classed as E-tanks include Duke’s E-tank.
the device can recover 100% of gold as fine as 70μ.3-5mm falling to 2 tons/hour for 3575μ.’ This is a misnomer as it lacks the key features of a jig. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY GRAEFE’s ELUTRIATED SLUDGE TANK (Keene Hydromatic Jig) 119 . Cut-away side view of Graefe’s E-tank showing the injection water rising from below. Batch discharge is rather cumbersome. Screening can be ½-¾ inch but finer screening aids gold recovery. falling slightly to a very impressive 93% of 30μ gold. Gold larger than 75μ sinks to the bottom of the tank to await batch discharge. But <75μ gold is carried towards the spillway lip and so a skimmer plate is welded on to prevent it escaping.World Placer Journal – 2007.8m3/hour) is required to process coarse material. Graefe’s E-tank is a complete wash-plant.523. (drawing: Robin Grayson) Figure 90. Although ideal for recreational and artisanal miners it is difficult to envisage how it might be scaled up for industrial mining. Water is injected via a manifold in the base of the tank at 1 to 8 psi – the larger the gravel the higher the pressure. but small.6-1. Members of the Alaska Gold Forum (AGF) are re-evaluating the device and it may yet enjoy a revival at least amongst recreational miners. Adoption by placer gold miners Graefe’s E-tank was marketed as the ‘Keene Hydromatic Jig’ to recreational miners but manufacture ceased after a decade or so. GRAEFE’s E-TANK Graefe’s E-tank was invented by Ralph Graefe of California and patented in 1985 (US #4.2-0. Pay gravel is spaded into a hopper-screen above the tank. and only 1-2 gallons/minute (0.989). 41: Graefe’s E-tank – 1980s research in California www.mn Operation The unit is wheeled by the operator. The test results show a 60° slope to the walls of the tank recover far more fine gold than a 45° slope. The tank is progressively tilted more and more steeply to discharge its upper contents as tailings. Rights were transferred to Keene Engineering Inc who sold it as the ‘Keene Hydromatic Jig. According to test results in Ralph Graefe’s patent. A little additional water is required from a hand-held spray bar to inhibit hard-cake from forming. Placer gold recovery by Graefe’s E-tank. according to the original patent. Figure 91. but is vibrated at 180 cycles/second to prevent ‘hard-cake’ and to ensure that particles are distributed throughout the depth of the slurry by density. Then the residual concentrate flushed out with water by opening the bung in the discharge pipe in the base of the tank.mine. and “…can operate on as little as 10 gallons of water per minute. pages 66-161.5m3/hour) to process fine material. Graefe’s E-tank is an elutriated sludge tank that not only has its contents slurrifed by injecting water from below. Volume 7. The Keene website says “…up to 4 cubic yards” of material can be processed per hour. not by size. The finer the material then the less the throughput 8 tons/hour for 0.” The patent states 7-8 gallons/minute (1.
and for the finest gold 114 litres/hour for 0.389. electric motor mounted above the tank. pages 66-161. Adoption by placer gold miners The Pyramid E-tank seems to have enjoyed a brief period of moderate interest from recreational miners in North America but then swiftly vanished into obscurity. The device is innovative in slurrifying by rotary stirring. Figure 123. Rather the invention belongs to a family of gravitation devices termed ‘elutriated sludge tanks’ (E-tanks) that seem particularly suited to recovering very fine gold . while the lights spiral upward. The advert stresses it differs from hutch jigs and diaphragm jigs.725 litres/hour for a throughput of 4 tons of solids. ragging. Recovery of placer gold by Pyramid E-tank based on claims of the manufacturer’s advertisement. Manufacture ceased and an advert is the sole source of data. Once the pressurized water is added. It is unclear if any such devices are still in use in spite of their clear potential for fine gold recovery. As with other E-tanks. Volume 7. A concentration ratio as large as 2000:1 is possible and the concentrate is removed from the bottom of the tank via a concentrate tap as a batch discharge. The gold and other heavy particles spiral down. little water is required. down to very fine gold (<100μ) requiring 454 litres/hour for a throughput of 0. The Pyramid E-tank lacks jig screen. Continuous operation is possible with automatic feeders. Model #T50 consists of a circular tank tapering from 22-inch diameter at the top to 18-inch diameter at the bottom. The blades are simple metal bars welded at intervals along a central solid metal bar that acts as the drive axle turned by a 110-volt A. the barren tailings are bled through the tank wall via drain taps at two levels. the stirrer blades are able to begin to rotate – how fast a rotation is unclear.C. patented in 1983 (US #4. Figure 124. hutch chamber or vertical jig motion.mine. The Pyramid Rotary Jig® is here termed the ‘Pyramid E-tank’. but it seems to be an elaboration of the ‘Heavy Mineral Separator’ invented by Laurence H. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY PYRAMID E-TANK (Pyramid rotary jig) – generalised 138 . This seems to be in thixotropic sludge-like slurry.World Placer Journal – 2007. When the tank is full of sediment. Water consumption varies with the gold size to be recovered – 2mm gold requires 2. 59: www.5 tons of solids. (drawing: Robin Grayson based on advert by the manufacturer) PYRAMID E-TANK The Pyramid E-tank was invented in the early 1990s by Pyramid Industries of California and marketed as the Pyramid Rotary Jig®. The taper is said to be significant. Konvalin of California.309).9 tons. pressurised water injected from below – how much pressure is unclear. After several minutes of operation. jig bed.mn Pyramid E-tank (Pyramid rotary jig®) – 1990s research in California Operation The tank is first filled with screened material – how much screening is unclear. Then the tank is refilled and the process repeated “over and over again” until an “ultra-rich concentrate” is achieved.
The continuous arrival of new particles from above into the teeter zone causes particles to become increasingly crowded and then only hindered settling can occur The hindered settling means that dense only dense particles can get to the base of the teeter bed. 2-inch or 4inch diameter column either near its base or part-way up. Recovery of placer gold from black sand concentrate by Lashley’s ASAT E-tower. Volume 7. 2-inch and 4inch) for lab tests. Adoption by placer gold miners E-towers became popular for a while among placer gold companies and recreational miners in North America but currently there seems to be neither manufacturers nor R&D interest. MIRL built a lab scale E-tower and ran hundreds of successful tests on placer material. Rising up inside the column. de-sliming clean-ups and full-scale production . As a result the teeter bed becomes vertically stratified with the densest particles at its base overlain by lighter particles The lighter particles are vulnerable to ejection with the rising water as tailings whereas the heavier particles are protected from scouring away by the carpet of lighter particles resting upon them. and can recover 50% of <10μ in field experiments which is significantly better than most other recovery devices. according to diverse reports. However there are many types of E-tower and a systematic classification is long overdue. Extremely dense particles such as gold fall through the teeter zone to accumulate in the bottom of the device as a lag deposit to await batch discharge Fairly dense particles accumulate as a hovering fluidised mass (teeter bed) in the teeter zone. <0. to test and improve the recovery rate of -100 screen mesh gold in the Alaskan placer deposits.410).g. at a controlled rate as determined by experiments. Figure 94. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY ASAT’s E-TOWER 121 . the water enters a teeter zone characterised by hindered settling. Walter Lashley of ASAT invented a superior form of elutriation tower (E-tower) in the 1980s that attracted considerable attention for its ability to recover fine gold. pages 66-161. and in doing so they eject upwards less dense particles. Today elutriation towers use a rising column of water and typically use a teeter (hindered settling) for recovery.mine. Finely screened concentrate (e.620).110]. and much of the findings were published [109. and awareness among miners is very low.692. After processing many spoonfuls of material. 43: Lashley’s ASAT E-tower – 1980s research in New Mexico www. Variants of E-towers relevant to simple recovery of fine placer gold include the ‘Gold Funnel’ of Rodney Charles Christensen of California patented in 1997 (US #5. In the late 1980s ASAT continued the research and built ASAT towers of several sizes (1-inch. Over 120 units were installed on several mining projects in the USA and Mexico and reported to have worked very well.2mm) is spooned into the tower from above and falls through the rising water down as far as the teeter zone. Operation Clean water is introduced into a 1-inch. Around 1968 the United States Bureau of Mines began a Heavy Metals Program and awarded a research contract to the Minerals Industry Research Laboratory (MIRL) of the University of Alaska. the enriched gold concentrate is siphoned off from the device. During the early 1990s an environmental mining equipment R&D group took over the testing on the Etowers from Walter Lashley and did considerable field tests and is reported to have made vast improvements on ASAT’s original design.mn An early elutriation tower was invented by Lewis Jennings of New York and patented in 1849 (US #8.World Placer Journal – 2007. An advanced form of ASAT E-tower is capable of recovering <5μ gold in a controlled environment in a lab.
For ‘hovering’. The device causes black sand to fluidise and particles to hover. Siphoning of tailings.mn Operation Clean water is introduced into a 4-inch diameter column near its base. Adoption by placer gold miners Osterberg’s E-tower gained some popularity in North America among recreational gold miners but production eventually ceased in spite of the clear potential of the device. The author suggests that Osterberg’s device is a multiple E-tower with many rising columns jetting upward. then through a disc of felted. the enriched gold concentrate is siphoned off from the device. (adapted by Robin Grayson from the patent) OSTERBERG’s E-TOWER Osterberg’s E-tower was invented by Daniel Osterberg of California. fibrous synthetic polymer. Slackening is by the water escaping from the constricted space in the flow distributor. 44: Osterberg’s E-tower – 1980s research in California www. The device is undergoing technical evaluation by Megan Rose (Gold_Tutor) and details are posted on the Colorado Prospectors’ Forum . The patent suggests the fluidised bed be stirred gently at the start to encourage gold to fall to the bottom. Figure 96. Screened concentrate is spooned into the tower from above. The upwelling water must decelerate for black sand to hover as a fluidised bed. the water passes through a distributor in a sequence designed to create a non-turbulent up-flow: through a perforated plate secured to a bottom ring. then through a screen with openings so fine that upward flow is substantially unaffected in its lateral uniformity. displacing lighter particles upward.359). Osterberg’s E-tower seems capable of achieving high percentage fine gold recovery and merits testing. The water rises with enough velocity to nonturbulently fluidise the concentrate yet without ejecting particles with the overflow of wash water. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY OSTERBERG’s E-TOWER 122 . Photos posted by Megan Rose (Gold_Tutor)  suggest the device is not a teetered bed settler as hindered settling seems minor. and marketed as the Quick Gold Separator. Volume 7. and finally through a coarse screen. the water velocity has to slacken upwards – impossible in a cylinder is of uniform diameter. Once inside. Figure 95. After processing many spoonfuls of material. the deceleration being due to the rising non-turbulent plumes of wash water have more width once free of the flow distributor. patented in 1984 (US #4. each decelerating once free of the flow distributor. The dense gold particles remain behind and more concentrate is spooned into the top of the column.451.mine. tentatively based on diverse reports. If a teetered bed E-tower then hovering is accompanied by hindered settling in the teetering fluidised bed.World Placer Journal – 2007. The upper portion of the fluidised bed is deemed to be depleted of gold and is siphoned off as tailings. pages 66-161. at 2 gallons/minute. Recovery of placer gold from black sand concentrate by Osterberg’s E-tower.
recreational miners and placer companies. (compiler: Robin Grayson) HYPOTHETICAL GOLD RECOVERY BY REFLUX CLASSIFIER 153 . In practice a reflux classifier is most advantageous for the <1mm fraction.) REFLUX CLASSIFIER The ‘modern’ reflux classifier was invented by Kevin Galvin of New South Wales who applied for an Australian patent in 2000 (application 09/890. Commercialisation is by Ludowici Mineral Processing Equipment Pty Ltd – www. pages 66-161. Other particles fail to settle and continue upwards to escape as tailings. The ‘modern’ reflux classifier follows innovations such as the 'Method and apparatus for cleaning sand or grading sand…' patented in 1947 by A. Intuitively feed would be screened into fractions (e.World Placer Journal – 2007.487) and was awarded a USA patent in 2004 (US 6. Hypothetical recovery of gold by the reflux classifier’ based on work by Zhou and colleagues .241).839). The ensuing friction slows the dense fine particles and they slide down the plates back into the E-tower.197]. Figure 149. The plates are inclined at about 70° degrees – shallow enough to ensure dense particles hit the plates.ludomin. Feed is introduced towards the top of the E-tower and begins to fall through the water column. Morris (US #2. Generalised layout of a modern reflux classifier (drawing: Robin Grayson. This is opposed by the up welling of injected fluidisation water and a wobbling ‘teetered’ mass of fluidised particles results. To ensure fine gold will settle yet quartz remain in suspension the ratio of plate length to plate-plate gap is as great as 200:1 (‘aspect ratio) [195. More than one set of lamella is possible. 73: Reflux classifier – 2000s research in Australia www. This inhibit heavy particles escaping with the overflow water.com/products/reflux_classifier. A reflux classifier is a combination of E-tower and lamella settler.814.426. >1mm.htm. only the densest and heaviest particles reaching the bottom as final concentrate. far more than the 40:1 used to separate coal from mineral matter. Adoption by placer gold miners The modern reflux classifier may prove to have major applications for recovering fine placer gold for artisanal gold miners. redrawn from article by Zhou et al 2006 . enabling fine particles to be “removed or classified in a more concentrated form" and is more tolerance of feed fluctuations. but a set of lamella caps the E-tower as an ‘inclined section’ for best results [194-199]. as the reflux classifier has yet to be tested with fine gold. Volume 7. the trajectories of the densest fine particles fail to clear the top of the plates and so these particles collide with the plates.g. 1-2. The rising column of water lifts the finest particles (including very fine gold) and up well between the inclined plates of the lamella. Figure 150. yet steep enough to ensure particles slide down it .5-5mm) each directed to a different reflux classifier.B. In the inclined section.5mm and 2. The device will process feed up to 5mm size.mine.mn Operation This account is conjectural.
nz). ECOLOGIC CONCENTRATOR The Ecologic concentrator is an innovative type of elutriation tower (E-tower) recently developed by Ecologics Ltd of New Zealand (www. Marketed as the Ecologic ‘gold concentrator’. Water is supplied by the innovative pedal-powered Ecologics water pump patented worldwide in 2006 (WO #2006071127). for the high-energy Newtonian setting regime needed to catch nuggets and eject large quartz is also capable of flushing out fine gold and flat gold with the tailings. in spite of the turbulent up-flow.mn Operation A trowel-full of pay gravel is put on the static simple screen that sits on top of the conical device. Generalised test results have been published in South Africa . This is technically challenging. Figure 152. Both pump and concentrator can use water that is clayey or silty. large and small.World Placer Journal – 2007. 74: Ecologic E-tower – 2000s research in New Zealand www. It is then upgraded by panning or other means. The material on the screen is swashed from below by agitated water and the fines fall though the screen. Recovery of placer gold by the Ecologic ‘gold concentrator’ based on manufacturer’s information. The device is stopped to gather the concentrate settled in the bottom the cone. Volume 7.ecologics. this is an up-welling mass of energetic water pumped in pulses via a flexible plastic pipe from Ecologic’s pedal-powered water pump. Black sand and gold fall to the bottom of the cone. less so if clayey.2% of the gold reported to the tailings. The inventor considers coarse gold recovery is 95% and fine gold recovery 80-90%. while fine light particles are swept out. In some field tests only 0.nz) Figure 151.mine. Water is introduced violently from the bottom of the device.co. pages 66-161. The pulsing action keeps the water in the cone agitated and causes it to continuously spill over the rim of the top of the cone. Rather than a delicately balanced teeter. Adoption by placer gold miners The Ecologic ‘gold concentrator’ is marketed worldwide to artisanal placer gold miners and interest is being shown by some recreational miners. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY ECOLOGIC E-TOWER 154 . the device is a remarkable ‘catch-all’ able to catch all shapes and sizes of gold particles. Washed oversize remains on the screen and is checked for nuggets then discarded.ecologics. Oblique views of Ecologic’s ‘Gold Concentrator’ showing the simple screen (photo: Ecologics Ltd – www.co. by flushing out with a little water. About 100 litres of water are re-circulated until it becomes too contaminated. The device can process up to 2m3/hour of easy-to-dig pay gravel.
although they may be still being made in the Russian Federation. and it is concluded by the author that as yet – in spite of considerable research – the theoretical basis for CWC is not firmly established and this is an impediment to developing a device that consistently produces good results in terms of fine gold recovery and concentration ratio. Unfortunately the Alaska tests did not produce a high concentration ratio. jig or centrifuge. light particles report to the OVERFLOW.mine. Volume 7. CWCs were developed to maximise concentration by particle density.56.673) Figure 57. 13mm).’ CWCs are potentially excellent gold recovery devices by virtue of low cost. The lightest particles are continuously discharged from the top of the CWC with the overflow.720). Yukon and Alaska) and Soviet Union  In spite of early success in recovering placer gold.72. VISMAN’s COMPOUND WATER CYCLONE Visman’s compound water cyclone (CWC) was invented by Jan Visman of Alberta and patented in 1965 (US #3. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY COMPOUND WATER CYCLONES – Alaska tests 101 . Instead it uses the energy of pumped inflowing slurry ‘guided’ by the internal shape of the device to achieve centrifugal concentration.73]. 40-50 g). Results of tests are variable. The slurry pressure induces the slurry to slam against the internal wall of the cyclone. A gold particle’s residence time in a CWC is a mere second  before being ejected in the underflow.353. Cross-section of Visman’s compound water cyclone (CWC). The densest particles. Manufacture has ceased in the west. (drawing: Robin Grayson from US patent #3. and no moving parts.g. Recovery of placer gold by CWCs in tests in Alaska by the Minerals Industry Research Laboratory [56. are continuously discharged as concentrate from the base of the CWC with the underflow. and spin vigorously while subjected to high g forces (e. R&D on compound water cyclones did not produce fully reliable CWCs for placer gold mines.673) and reissued in 1967 (US Re#26.g. and internally have long ‘vortex finders.73]. then pumped as slurry into a CWC at a controlled rate. They are of squat shape due to their wide-angled cones.72. rather than replacing say a sluice.World Placer Journal – 2007. Adoption by placer gold miners Experiments on placer gold recovery by CWCs have been conducted from the early 1970’s to recent times in North America (British Columbia. Research on the ability of compound water cyclones to recover placer gold began in the Yukon in the 1970s  and continued in the 1980s in British Columbia  and Alaska [11. 26: Visman’s compound water cyclone – 1970s research in the Yukon www.mn Operation Feed is passed through a fine mesh screen (e. ease of operation. pages 66-161. fine and coarse.353. Figure 58. It is unclear how separation is achieved so rapidly. and therefore the compound water cyclone can be inserted into a wash-plant as a useful but non-essential stage. Dense particles report to the UNDERFLOW.
The moving belt passes through a ‘cleaning zone’ where middlings are washed off the belt. 28: Bartles’ crossbelt – 1970s research in Cornwall www. and assigned to Bartles (Carn Brea) Ltd of Cornwall. An orbital shaking motion of 250-400 rpm is imparted to the moving belt by a rotating weight. Slurry is fed to the device at a rate of about 500 kilos per hour of solids. Lights fail to settle on the belt due to the action of the orbital shear and so flow off the sides of the belt. moving along with the belt.060. The Bartles crossbelt is “particularly effective” for recovering material from 20 to 150μ and “consistently outperforms conventional fine sands and slimes tables” . (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY BARTLES’ CROSSBELT 103 .5° to 3°. the belt travelling forward at a rate of 3-8mm per second. according to Silva 1986 . The invention is an alternative to a shaking table but manufacture ceased a decade ago.World Placer Journal – 2007. and sold worldwide. therefore allowing distinct cuts to be made between the gold concentrate and the middlings. The orbital shear is closely controlled and adjusted to optimise recovery. Layout simplified from the patent. The Bartles crossbelt consists of a 2.mn Operation The feed consist of 15-35% solids that have been finely screened. The heavies remain on the belt to be discharged over the roller when the belt starts to turn upside down. made possible by the belt assembly being freely suspended by four wires from a supporting frame. ideally 150μ. Figure 62. made possible by the sides of the belt gently sloping sideward at 1. Heavies settle on the belt and remain on it.44m wide endless PVC belt that passes over a pair of rollers. Figure 61.mine.482). A unique feature of the belt is its central longitudinal ridge from which the belt slopes slightly to its sides. The orbital shaking motion is induced by an out-of-balance rotating drive shaft driven by an infinitely variable D. one being the drive roller. (drawing: Robin Grayson). although it has potential. pages 66-161. electric motor. Adoption by placer gold miners The Bartles crossbelt was intended primarily for hardrock mills and tin recovery. Volume 7. BARTLES’ CROSSBELT The Bartles crossbelt is a vanner invented by Richard Owen Burt of Cornwall and patented in the UK and then in 1977 in the United States (US #4. The author is unaware of it having ever being applied to recovery of very fine gold. The slurry is introduced via a feed box to about half the length of the central ridge of the belt. Gold recovery by Bartles’ crossbelt. The slurry is fine enough to be termed slime. The belt is much wider than conventional tables and this allows a greater spreading area for valuable products.C.
the material “. by introducing some gentle vibration to the slowly moving belt and this generally enhances gold recovery. This comment is intriguing as it suggests that Ammen’s belt may be more disposed to recover flat gold than is possible with most other devices.” The belt is of extremely smooth white rubber belting from a food machinery manufacturer. pages 66-161. volume and direction. notably gold recovery from milled hardrock ore. but it merits further study. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY LEMMON’s VANNER – Lizard River tests. Volume 7. As the belt travels upward. A gently inclined endless belt can recover gold. then the slurry will flow down the belt to topple off as tailings over the end roller. The belt is driven by a gear-reducer motor with an autotransformer. Adoption by placer gold miners The author is unaware of vanners or belt concentrators being used by company-scale placer gold miners at present. VANNER Lemmon’s vanner was invented by Norvel Lemmons of Arkansas and patented in 1989 (US #4.018). 51: Lemmon’s vanner – 1980s research in the Yukon www. Strictly speaking.mn Operation A good example of the operation of a vanner in recovering placer gold is of the home-made belt concentrator devised by C. Ammen’s belt proved was effective in recovering “99. so that you have a downward flow of water as the material moves upward. Such devices are used by artisanal gold miners in South America and perhaps elsewhere. a fine water spray is played on the belt. Tests on Liard River placers in the Yukon achieved recoveries “consistently above 95% and some approached 99%” for placer gold of 20-250μ. Light particles pour off the bottom roller as tailings. The unit has a hand-held water hose allowing the operator to vary the water pressure.especially when the gold appears in the form of flat particles (platelets)”. Figure 109.99%” of “fine gold” that was put as tracer in sand fed to the device. Ammen .. If the belt is driven upslope and slurry poured on it. Figure 110. giving a range of speeds.World Placer Journal – 2007.. Yukon 129 . However it is unclear if Lemmons’ vanner was commercialised.826. The gangue washes down while the gold particles stick to the belt with great tenacity .is sifted A vanner is a vibrating endless belt moving upslope taking heavies with it to discharge at the top end as valuable concentrate. Experiments to recover placer gold with other types of vanner were made in Alaska  and elsewhere but none were successfully commercialised.W. Recovery of placer gold by Lemmon’s vanner. At this point. onto the belt about midway between top and bottom. The device is “a smooth rubber belt moving uphill at a rather slow pace. to be classed as a vanner then belt should be vibrating but it is unclear if the motor vibrates the belt significantly or not. Vanners are a simple but marked improvement. Meriting investigation is that gold particles grip tenaciously to certain synthetic surfaces due to electrostatic charges. (drawing: Robin Grayson). Meanwhile dense particles such as gold will cling to the belt by friction and be hauled with the belt to the top roller where they topple into a concentrate bin. according to the original patent.mine.
206 and #1.336) and similar patents in the USA in 1981 and 1982 (US #4. "…this vortex keeps particles of low specific gravity in suspension and they are ultimately carried along through a succession of annular compartments.” and so are ejected as tailings. rotates at 140-170 rpm and processes 8 tons/hour (4m3).mine.130) entitled ‘Method and Apparatus for Extraction of Gold From Placer Gravel’ and ‘Placer Mineral Concentrator and Process’. In this account the device is termed a horizontal centrifuge to clarify its distinctive character – a spinning cylinder with its interior wall equipped with two sets of riffles – one set of longitudinal riffles running its entire length.golddredger. riffles and in doing so forms a vortex area between adjacent longitudinal riffles…" and.www.153. This flow "…shears over the longitudinal Younge’s horizontal centrifuge in an innovative wash-plant by Roger Wagner. The increasing tilt of the riffles in their curved ascent causes the water and lighter particles to cascade back down to the floor. 7. presumably due to lack of awareness of its considerable advantages regarding fine gold recovery and low water usage. The cylinder has a high rotation speed and so the diameter of the cylinder can be rather small: 5ft long 16-inch diameter cylinder.110... The pay gravel is pre-washed by intense focussed spray bars in the feed hopper. pages 66-161. The slurry falls on the floor of the spinning cylinder. Figure 98. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY YOUNGE’S HORIZONTAL CENTRIFUGE 123 . YOUNGE’s HORIZONTAL CENTRIFUGE Younge’s horizontal centrifuge was invented by Earl G.743 and #4. Some scrubbers may unwittingly be centrifuges. The simplest horizontal centrifuge is a scrubbercentrifuge – a scrubber rotating so fast the material is not only scrubbed but also spun so fast it attains a significant degree of density classification.347.World Placer Journal – 2007. The heavies remain pinned against the wall of the spinning cylinder by enhanced g forces. with six 1.265.com) Figure 97. and is lifted up the wall by the rising longitudinal riffles. Recovery of placer gold by Younge’s horizontal centrifuge.375-inch high annular riffles. according to the original patent.5ft long 20-inch diameter cylinder.25-inch high longitudinal riffles and three 1. Younge of Langley in British Columbia for which he was granted patents in Canada in 1981 and 1983 (CA #1. (photo: Leonard Leeper . but only a little water is used and no water is added in the device itself. with five 1. 45: www. a major advantage over other types of wash-plant.mn Younge’s horizontal centrifuge – 1980s research in British Columbia Operation Pay gravel is introduced into the slightly raised feed end. The compartments between the longitudinal riffles fill with solids and the ejected water flows into the next compartment. rotates at 128 rpm and processes 20 tons/hour (10m3). Volume 7.75-inch high longitudinal riffles and four 2-inch high annular riffles. and at right angles to them a second set of riffles forming annular rings around the wall. Adoption by placer gold miners Younge’s horizontal centrifuge is occasionally seen at placer gold mines in North America but does not seem to have gained wide acceptance. The horizontal centrifuge needs a 50:50 mix of solids and water.
and also Kazakhstan. model KG 0. large and small. Knudsen. Depending on the model they can processing 2-15m3 of solids. Slurry screened at <3mm is fed via a slurry pipe to discharge at the ‘far wall’ of the spinning bowl. Khabarovsk edge of the Magadan and Amur areas. Injection of fluidisation water helps prevent packing. Water is added via a hand-held spray to create slurry that flows down a slurry pipe to discharge close to the bottom of the inside of the bowl. The rotor rotates at 500-650 rpm to slam the slurry against the wall of the bowl. Here the slurry collides with a raised discharge plate that has six oblique tangential extensions to help fling the solids to reach the base of the riffled wall of the centrifuge. again differing from most western bowls. The larger ItomakTM bowls resembles the Chinese Yunxi and SLS bowls that spin round a horizontal axis. the Urals. The bowl rotates in the horizontal plane. Vietnam. GoldkatchaTM etc – whose bowls spin round a vertical axis. based on information from the manufacturer. are stopped for batch discharge of concentrate. Recovery of placer gold by Itomak centrifuge bowl. The bowl is riffled and spins tilted in smaller models and horizontally with the larger models.185. unlike western bowl centrifuges – KnelsonTM.1 and KG-1.1. and are installed in Western Siberia. such as the rotary mechanism being above the water when at rest.com.itomak. Mining Altai. FalconTM. in YakutyaSakha. Figure 130. The smallest ItomakTM concentrator.World Placer Journal – 2007. at the placer gold mine of Polymet Polata Ltd at Sharin Gol in Mongolia.0) are distinctive and probably unique amongst centrifugal bowl concentrators in that the bowl is tilted out of the vertical and the centrifuge therefore spins around an inclined axis of rotation.1 and KG-1.0. The larger ItomakTM models are designed for the final stage of a wash-plant. pages 66-161.mn Operation The smaller ItomakTM models (KG-0.250 rpm in model KG-01 and 700 rpm in the somewhat larger model KG-1.186]. Mongolia and South Africa. ItomakTM bowls. Concentrate screened at <2mm is fed manually into the hopper above the centrifuge. a company spun out of a Novosibirsk scientific centre: www. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY ITOMAKTM BOWL – Novosibirsk tests 141 . The horizontal attitude has some advantages. The top cover is removed to display the tilted riffled bowl. Krasnoyarsk. The smaller ItomakTM models (KG-0. NeffcoTM. Hakasya.mine. 62: ItomakTM bowl – 1990s research in Novosibirsk www. Tanzania. The rotor rotates at 1. Buriatia. Injection of fluidisation water helps prevent packing of the riffles. (photo: Robin Grayson) Figure 129. ITOMAKTM BOWL The ItomakTM bowl is a novel centrifugal concentrator developed by SMA ITOMAK [184. Volume 7. Adoption by placer gold miners Itomaks have been used in placer mining since 1996.0) are for upgrading.
mine. Rotation is very fast to achieve 50 to 300g and this slams the concentrate against the wall and induces density stratification of the slurry.World Placer Journal – 2007. Guyana – Falcon SB2500. Upon rising up the outwardly sloping wall. Recovery of fine gold by the Falcon and Knelson bowls are somewhat similar [125.934). (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY FALCONTM SB BOWL – based on recovery of tungsten tracer 140 . Figure 128. pages 66-161.180183]. The new SB bowl was tested on a placer gold deposit in British Columbia and patented in 1995 (US #5. Venezuela – Falcon SB2500. Mexico – Falcon SB750.462.140. Lukarasi Project. Promotora Minera Salemex SA de CV. and the lower two-thirds of the wall are a smooth ‘migration zone’. Tanzania – Falcon SB750. plus an SB750. showing the smooth lower separation area overlain by a riffled upper separation area.796. Looking down a Falcon SB bowl. Sunshine Fields Corp.145. USA – Falcon SB2500 in automated 1° recovery. Alaska – Falcon SB2500 in1° recovery. acting as a ‘retention zone’.000 or more and so the volume of concentrate is low. The Falcon SB achieves a concentration ratio of 1. However the upper third of the wall bears horizontal riffles with pores for water injection in the intervening grooves. Guyana – Falcon SB250. according to lab experiments with tungsten tracer .net) Figure 127. The fluidised bed enables the Falcon SB to process and retain particles in the concentrate bed in preference to lighter minerals that are ejected as continuously discharging tailings. FALCONTM SB BOWL The FalconTM Superbowl (SB) was invented by Steve McAlister to complement the original FalconTM B bowl. Umico Ltd.513) [125.134. 51: FalconTM SB bowl – 1990s research in British Columbia www. and Montezuma Aggregates. and Apollo Gold.153]. plus a Falcon SB750 cleaning table tails. This is based on the elutriated centrifugal bowl patented 50 years before by Arnold Nesbitt McNicol in Australia (AU #17487/34 and AU #22055/35).concentrators. The floor of the Superbowl has an impeller. Recently Falcons have been awarded a patent for continuous discharge (US #6. the stratified slurry passed over a concentrate bed fluidised from behind by back-pressure water.mn Operation The feed is screened at 2-6mm and fed as slurry from above via a slurry pipe that discharges near the bottom of the bowl where it is flung by an impeller towards the wall. Nolan Gold Mine. (photo: Falcon Concentrators Inc – www. Garraway Resources. A typical operating cycle is 2 to 4 hours. Recovery by FalconTM Super Bowl. Philippines – Falcon SB250. Falcon Superbowls are occasionally used to recover gold as a by-product of sand and gravel mining: Teichert Aggregates. Periodically the feed is stopped to permit the concentrate to be rinsed out of the bowl as a batch discharge. Volume 7. California – Falcon SB2500 cleaning jig tails. 142. Adoption by placer gold miners Falcon Superbowls are occasionally used in washplants in placer gold operations: Crescent Mining.
modified from the patent. The percentage recovery of very fine gold is high. The feed is driven by the high apparent gravity up the lower part of the centrifuge is gently conical. experiments continue to deepen understanding of the device  – www. Figure 107. (drawing: Robin Grayson) FALCONTM C BOWL The FalconTM C bowl is the original Falcon invented by Steve McAlister after noting fine gold in the sand/slime stream of gravel mines in British Columbia. Recovery by FalconTM C bowl. but has been superseded by the Falcon SB bowl in placer gold operations. Rising up the outwardly tapering wall of the migration zone.824.mine. Within this zone. and users claims. A prototype was tested in 1981. Adoption by placer gold miners The Falcon C bowl was originally designed to recover placer gold. the device is fitted with an AutoPAC that controls the rpm of the rotor and feed valve and automates a 90-minute cycle time interrupted by a mere 30-40 seconds for automatic water flushing of concentrate down the hollow drive shaft.mn Operation The feed is screened at say 2mm and fed either dry or as slurry from above via a feed pipe that delivers the feed in an ‘impeller zone’ near the bottom of the bowl. Volume 7. Generalised view of a FalconTM C bowl. the flowing film becomes highly stratified with the gold against the wall and the lighter particles and liquid forming a superficial layer. and termed the ‘migration zone’. The FalconTM C bowl has a very smooth inner wall. according to lab experiments with gold tracer. tapering outwards at 8-14°. Rotation is very fast to attain 20 to 300g .431) [152-155]. the flowing film enters the cylindrical upper part of the centrifuge termed the ‘retention zone’. the FalconTM C bowl uses high apparent gravity to induce density stratification in a thin flowing film. By 1986 the first commercial FalconTM was operational and patented in 1989 (US #4. but the concentration ratio is low. Therefore the concentrate is not rich enough for smelting and the device is best used as a pre-concentrator and for upgrading tailings.net. pages 66-161. Here the feed is flung tangentially to the foot of the wall by the high apparent gravity of the spinning bowl plus the action of the impeller. Although largely eclipsed by later versions. Figure 108. Since 1990.concentrators. The impeller reduces the energy needed to rotate the bowl and helps to drive the slurry. It differs fundamentally radically from the KnelsonTM C bowl by NOT having riffles or elutriation water and so lacks pores and has no water jacket.World Placer Journal – 2007. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY FALCONTM C BOWL – based on recovery of gold tracer 128 . Rather than trapping gold in a fluidised bed maintained by water injection. 50: FalconTM C bowl – 1980s research in British Columbia www. Gold arriving in the retention zone displace lighter particles that are liberated into the jacket-like discharge chamber to be ejected as tailings.
Initial test recovery was disappointing with a trommel-jig washing plant. enabling uninterrupted operation. (photo: KnelsonTM Inc – www. Pay gravels sampled in the harsh winter and trucked to Ulaanbaatar to determine grade using a 3-inch KnelsonTM bowl fitted with a vibrating sluice and spray bar .983. discharge may be continuous.5-inch KnelsonTM bowls yielded recoveries of 9899. Setbacks occurred in 1997-99 with the failure of Java Gold Inc at this mine using KnelsonTM concentrators – due to management not technology . Bryan Knelson continued innovating. Black sand is dislodged to make room. full-scale mining – Howley Mine of Metana Minerals NL in Western Australia.254) and mercury recovery (US #5. (compiler: Robin Grayson) Figure 106.608. Partial success. according to lab experiments with tungsten tracer . with ceramic bowl ready to insert. pilot mining – Toson Terrace Mine in Zaamar Goldfield. lab testing – Ikh Alt Mine in Zaamar Goldfield. Mongolia. notably continuous discharge (US#5. permitting reworking of a million m3 of jig tailings despite high clay content. including lack of mobility of the wash-plants. KNELSONTM BOWL The KnelsonTM bowl is a centrifugal bowl inside a water jacket.040) as an advance on the elutriated centrifugal bowl patented 50 years before by Arnold Nesbitt McNicol in Australia (AU #17487/34 and AU #22055/35).mine.338.mn Operation Gold is recovered in an inner bowl in a centrifugal field with an apparent gravitational field of 60g.156). By injecting pressurised water into the inner bowl maintains a fluidised bed of black sand into which gold particles can burrow. being superior to Russian-style sluices.World Placer Journal – 2007. pages 66-161. KnelsonTM bowls increased gold recovery by 35%. KnelsonTM concentrators proved very effective in test mining . He patented the device in 1986 (US #4. Coarse gold recovery had been 40-70% with sluice boxes and jigs.368. The KnelsonTM bowl became a popular subject for theses [131-137] and tests [138-148].776.com) Figure 105. 49: KnelsonTM bowl – 1980s research in British Columbia www.541). gaining more patents in 1988 (US #4. Adoption by placer gold miners The KnelsonTM bowl did not become widely popular in placer gold recovery due to cost and need to pre-screen: lab testing – Bajo Cauca and El Bagre placers in Antioquia. A 3-inch KnelsonTM concentrator. full-scale mining – Akrokeri-Ashanti Ltd (AAGM) in Ghana. elutriated water being injected under pressure via holes to prevent packing of the black sand trapped in the riffles of the bowl wall. Fine gold recovery had been low.knelsongravitysolutions. Volume 7. . The KnelsonTM bowl was invented by Bryan Knelson of British Columbia in the 1970s [129. the operation being stopped to permit the flushing out of concentrate. 127 . Later patents cover refinements.9% of fine placer gold . GOLD RECOVERY BY KNELSONTM BOWL – based on recovery of tungsten tracer Recovery of placer gold by KnelsonTM bowl. but mine closed due to various factors. Columbia. Mongolia.833) and 1991 (US#4.130]. In larger models. Basic models have batch discharge (manual or automatic). Tests with 3-inch and 7.
The bowl is near-parallel sided. Recovery of cassiterite by the Yunxi bowl and its successor the SLS bowl according to Jie Xiao . MozleyTM MGS bowl and KelseyTM centrifugal jig. 127]. and commercial tests showed 55-60% recovery of cassiterite from <10μ tailings with an upgrading ratio of 10 .6m respectively. The heavies remain on the bowl wall as concentrate to await batch discharge. Tin ore is first screened to <74μ and a suitable slurry prepared. Adjusting the operating parameters enables high recovery of 1μ cassiterite . sloping 35° to its discharge end. 51g and 30g for bowls of diameters of 40cm. The amount of enhanced gravity is 102 g. The Yunxi bowl is a short centrifuge that rotates on a horizontal axis. 80cm and 1. FalconTM bowls. However the author has found no evidence of either the Yunxi bowl or its successor the SLS bowl being used in gold recovery. Using the SL-600 Separator on cassiterite slimes. Sun [123. discharging and restarting are automatically controlled. tungsten and iron ore plants in China . Figure 104. For three decades the Yunxi bowl remained radically different from other bowl centrifuges until the birth of the Russian ItomakTM bowl.mine.124]. while the lighter particles are ejected as a continuous discharge of tailings. In the late 1980s the Yunxi bowl spawned the SLtype separator (SLS) with “injection flowing film The author has not seen a description of how the Yunxi bowl operates. Volume 7. pages 66-161. all designed to recover fine and ultrafine cassiterite particles as a continuous discharge. (compiler: Robin Grayson) CASSITERITE RECOVERY BY YUNXI BOWL – China tests 126 . After a period. 48: Yunxi bowl – 1960-1990s research in Yunnan www. e. until the advent of the KnelsonTM bowl. after Y. The SLS bowl has six models with capacities from 110 kilos to 12 tons/hour. The bowl’s rotation is adjustable from 83 g to a phenomenal 1. The slurry is gravity fed into the rotating Yunxi bowl and the heavies are slammed on the inside wall of the centrifuge. Adoption by placer gold miners About 1. (drawing: Robin Grayson) The Yunxi bowl was developed by the Yunnan Tin Corporation in the early 1960s in China for recovering extremely fine cassiterite (SnO2) . over 20 years the Yunxi bowl was the world’s best centrifuge for recovering fine minerals. YUNXI BOWL Generalised arrangement of an 80cm diameter Yunxi bowl.500 g. A limitation is the low capacity. Operation Figure 103. The fast rotation creates a stratified bed of moving particles that climbs the wall to the rim where they are dislodged by a high pressure water jet.000 Yunxi bowls were installed in tin. The stopping. For decades unknown in the west.g. the most suitable size range for cassiterite recovery was 3-37 µm [125.World Placer Journal – 2007.mn centrifugation IFFC” [125-127]. about 30 tons/day for an 80cm bowl . the device is stopped for batch discharge of concentrate.
World Placer Journal – 2007. A few mines use Neffco bowls in parallel as the core of their primary wash-plants. The Neffco bowl is made by Neffco Mining. according to manufacturer’s information and comments by users. Utah – www. To clean concentrates. The end result is that a high percentage of heavies are driven to the bottom of the bowl. Slurry is fed down the central tube to the bottom of the bowl and works its way to the sidewall. The rpm is fixed. 27: Neffco bowl – 1970s research in Utah www. The bowl and its spiral groove drag the water and induce the water to spin. uses a ½hp motor.neffcomining. Some recreational miners in Alaska use Neffco bowls aboard small offshore dredges. The Neffco bowl runs full of water as it spins. when part of a complete wash-plant. rotates twice per second.mine. As the slurry spirals down. Figure 60. He began experimenting with centrifugal recovery of flour gold in 1976 and by 1980 had invented the novel Neffco bowl – it has a single long riffle groove that spirals downwards.com. The 24-inch Neffco bowl will run 1-8 tons per hour of solids. pages 66-161. then preferably to <100 Tyler mesh as larger solids may block the groove. To achieve capacity. the heavies end up at the bottom of the groove while the lighter particles escape upwards and out the top. Recovery of placer gold by Neffco bowl.3 to 1. and – presumably because of the escape of large high sphericity gold – a long length of expanded metal sluice is used to scavenge the tailings. plus a sluice to catch the round gold that escapes. But there are reports of very rounded gold particles sometimes flowing (rolling?) straight out of the unit although these can be caught before or afterwards with a standard sluice (source: Zooka of AGF). Examining the inside of a Neffco bowl.5 inches below the rim and at the rim. of Salt Lake City. for instance in a longish water trough.000 to 1. recovers “better than 95% of the of the flour gold in most materials we have tested”. The maker claims the Neffco bowl. The slurry is continually swept down the spiral groove. with less water for finer cuts. and the second captures about 5% extra. The water level is maintained 1. If feed is dry it must first be thoroughly wetted. “It Figure 59. showing the spiral riffles. (photo: courtesy of DanfromNY on the Alaska Gold Forum) The Neffco bowl was invented by Larry Neff of Utah. Volume 7.5mm. and control is exerted by altering the water input (source: Zooka). uses 125 gallons per minute of water and is claimed to be able to capture 500-mesh gold (25μ). NEFFCO BOWL looks like a reverse auger as the groove appears to auger down to the bottom of the bowl” (source: PopandSonminers). The drag of the water may aid heavies to move to the sidewall and lights to spiral up.mn Operation Feed material is screened at 0. Other bowls have grooves in rings. mainly for cleaning concentrate. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY NEFFCO BOWL – generalised 102 . Adoption by placer gold miners The Neffco bowl is fairly popular among placer gold miners in North America. Periodically the bowl is stopped for batch discharge. often 4 or more bowls are run in parallel. The Neffco bowl achieves a concentration ratio of 2. material is run through two bowls in series. Anecdotal evidence indicates the Neffco bowl is capable of recovering fine gold.
and the amalgam is then subjected to firing and retorting to separate and recover the gold and recycle the mercury. ‘flat’ and ‘flour’ gold by adding mercury to a spinning bowl to centrifugally press gold into mercury. pouring into the middle of the bottom of the bowl.111 of 1932). 90% at the 2nd stage and 99% at the 3rd stage. Gilkey of Washington State during the 1960s.560 of 1923). The feed slurry is introduced under a small head of gravity via a central feed delivery pipe. To minimise flouring. Many forced amalgamators were invented and patented. and the feed density has to be strictly controlled at 20% solids [59. (redrawn from James Anderson  by Robin Grayson) Figure 37. The Gilkey bowl was one of the last of the ‘forced amalgamators’ that had been popular for over a century to recover ‘fine’.mine. The basic version is a symmetrical steel bowl with open mouth upwards. the Taber amalgamator (US #1.60]. pages 66-161. such as the McKlellar amalgamator (US #1.60] in the 1970s but manufacture then ceased.866. dynamically balanced around a drive spindle below the bowl. and the Lorentsen machine (US #1. The tailings are ejected from the spinning rim of the bowl as a continuous discharge and the risk of mercury being accidentally lost is high so the tailings discharge is immediately intercepted by a mercury trap.457. The Gilkey bowl achieves 60% gold recovery at the 1st pass. the slurry first hits a ‘striking surface at the bottom of the sidewall. A 6-inch Gilkey bowl. and only advanced versions patented. Next the screened feed slurry is introduced. The bowl is then rotated to drive the mercury into the channel. From here the slurry is forced to slam into the sidewall. showing the flow of the slurry feed and redirection by the ‘striking surface’ to minimise flouring of mercury. The gold is then recovered from the mercury by squeezing through a fine cloth to retain the Au-Hg amalgam as a paste. After a period the feed is shut off and then the power shut off to slowly bring the spinning bowl to rest. a little less than the capacity of the mercury channel in the side-wall. Then the slurry flows up the inner wall of the spinning bowl to cross the rotating mercury held in the recess of the channel.003. The gold particles in the film of slurry crossing the mercury are forced to amalgamate. A few Gilkey bowls may still be in use in parts of Africa and South America. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY GILKEY BOWL – Alaska tests 90 . Adoption by placer gold miners The Gilkey bowl and other ‘centrifugal forced amalgamators’ were popular on large gold dredges in North America. The Gilkey bowl was a focus of research of the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory in Alaska [59. Part of the inner wall is a broad cylindrical channel that holds the mercury.118 of 1911). Volume 7.World Placer Journal – 2007. mercury is poured into the stationary bowl. GILKEY BOWL The Gilkey bowl was invented by Walter W. 16: Gilkey bowl – Alaska tests www. Figure 38.mn Operation First. . and loss of mercury.
” This was solved by Knudsen Bowl showing the central feed pipe. The climbing film of slurry is impeded by concentric ribs of tough rubber riffles. aluminium: resistant to wear. easy to use.” Optimum recovery of gold >65 Tyler mesh (about >0. The slurry is flung sideward to slam against the spinning wall. With <3/8 inch gravel “the rocks could not be washed out of the riffles with a high-pressure hose and had to be removed by pulling them out of the rubber riffles with a pair of pliers. The Knudsen bowl has particular advantages: bowl of non-magnetizable material e.675). rubber riffles and 3 struts that enable the position of each blade to be adjusted. KNUDSEN BOWL limiting the feed to <1/8th inch.g. with lockable lever speed control. Figure 36.mine. cheap. Volume 7. pages 66-161.mn Operation Pre-screened feed enters from above via a slurry pipe that discharges in the centre of the spinning bowl about 1inch from the base. screening the feed at minus 250 mesh (e. The need for fine pre-screening makes the Knudsen bowl unsuitable for wash-plants. ensuring a person watches the feed rate. but it has merit for upgrading if two or even three bowls are put in series. and separation helped by “…agitation resulting from the wobbling action of the bowl and by the kneading action of the soft flexible rubber ribs of the riffle member”. Adoption by placer gold miners The Knudsen bowl was used worldwide. The rotation speed has to be at least 80 rpm or “…the bowl started dumping large quantities of slurry directly onto the ground and drive mechanism. The wall slopes outward to create a gradient of g forces increasing upwards. attaching a good small test sluice to the outlet of the bowl. The Knudsen bowl is typically 12 to 36-inch in diameter and mounted on a vertical drive shaft. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY KNUDSEN BOWL – Alaska tests 89 .2mm.g. tough rubber riffles as liner. (photo: Steve Gaber of the Alaska Gold Forum) Figure 35. It eclipsed the first rubber-riffled centrifuge – the Ainlay bowl invented by Thomas Ainlay of Nebraska and patented in 1928 and 1932 (US #1. Victoria. easily and quickly removed. adding 2 variable speed v-belt pulleys. completely and quickly cleaned.658.853.58] show the inventor’s instructions to be in error. enabling precise adjustment of the bowl’s rpm. Tasmania and New Zealand suggest Knudsen bowls lose about 20% gold. durable and ease of adding mercury. The Knudsen bowl recovers 100% of gold >0. notably in North America and New Zealand. Tests by ‘Dredger’ of Alaska Gold Forum in New South Wales.272. plummeting to 70% for 100μ gold. Light particles climb the riffles to escape as tailings.58].2mm) is at 105 rpm with 68 gallons/minute of water and a pulp density of 5-20% solids. and copycats in Africa and South America. 15: Knudsen bowl – Alaska tests www.249). The Knudsen bowl was invented by George Knudsen of California and patented in 1942 (US #2. according to Alaska tests [57. The Knudsen survives being rugged.World Placer Journal – 2007. checking tailings with a x40 to x80 binocular microscope. mainly invisible fine gold whose recovery can be much improved by: using a binocular microscope to detect and monitor fine gold. Dense particles slam in the grooves between the riffles. Lab tests by Mark Anthony [57. and easily. a second pass). and cleaning the bowl regularly. inducing the slurry to climb the wall.874 and #1.
Figure 102. J1800 KCJ – largest commercial unit. Lighter particles overflow the chamber as tailings. limiting their time at terminal velocity to maintain a high rate of separation.au) KELSEY CENTRIFUGAL JIG The Kelsey centrifugal jig was invented by Christopher G. (photo: courtesy of Dale Henderson of makers Roche Mining – www. up to 50 times gravity. particularly of very fine minerals.World Placer Journal – 2007.rochemt. J1300 MkII KCJ – smallest commercial unit. It performed well with fine flat placer gold from offshore Alaska  but is not seen in placer gold mines. at a frequency and amplitude set by the operator. The shockwaves repeatedly stop the particles. The pulsing is via pulse arms connected to pads to work against the jig’s flexible diaphragm. pulsing frequency. This stimulates denser minerals to move towards the bed and so be collected after passing through the screen into an inner chamber and discharged via small holes. pages 66-161. 47: Kelsey centrifugal jig – 1980s research in Australia www. ragging density. jig control variables – rotational speed (induced gravity field).au). pulse amplitude (distance travelled during each pulse stroke). coal etc . and rate of adding hutch water.” Hindered settling is accentuated by the centrifugal force together with the pulsing of the ragging bed. According to the maker. The level of dilation impacts on the amount of material able to pass to concentrate. Kelsey of Australia and patented in Australia in 1985 (PH9037. PG0122) and 1990 in the USA (US #4. and automatic screen cleaning was introduced in 1999. platinum. feed density. results in a major improvement in separation efficiency.666). feed size. by significantly reducing the effect of forces that hinder fine particle separation. and density difference between minerals. feed-related variables – feed type. 5-60 tons/hour. and accentuating differences in acceleration between particles of different density. The Kelsey centrifugal jig maximises its effectiveness and efficiency by combining the pulsation principle of a jig with the high apparent gravitational field of a centrifuge. “the ability to change the Figure 101. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY KELSEY CENTRIFUGAL JIG 125 .898. A model J1800 Kelsey centrifugal jig. The main models and operating variables are: J200 KCJ – lab test unit. Separation of particles of similar size and shape but different density slows at their terminal velocity. according to the patent and test on Alaska Gulf placers . ragging size distribution and depth.mn Operation The slurry feed is 25-40% solids and enters a chamber consisting of a circular screen mounted vertically. cassiterite. “Water contained within the concentrate hutches presses against the diaphragm. jig set-up variables – screen aperture size. thus dilating the ragging bed.” The pulsed shockwaves have two effects: dilating the ragging bed to allow minerals to enter it. Volume 7. monazite sand. Water injected into the inner chamber subjects the slurry to a jig-like pulsation force to alternately expand and compress the particle bed.com. Adoption by placer gold miners The Kelsey centrifugal jig is used to recover hardrock gold.mine. 15-100 kg/hour of solids. Recovery of placer gold by Kelsey centrifugal jig. plus a particle bed.rochemt. Geo Logics Inc developed the device. feed rate. The first commercial sale was of a labsized machine in 1989. 2-30 tons/hour. ragging type.com. In 2001 Geo Logics was bought by Roche Mining who continues to make the jig (www. The chamber rotates at 30-45 rpm to create a force of up to 50g. apparent gravitational field.
The ragging is a 25mm thick carpet of lead shot covering the 2-3mm holes of the jig screen. The jig bed is pulsed by a central drive shaft driven by the central drive ram at the unit’s base. based on information from the manufacturer. and all particles are raised to the same height regardless of particle density. A slurry pump drives the entire system. New Zealand. During the dilation phase. The spreading motion. So the ‘heavies’ drop towards the jig bed and are trapped in the separation interface on the top of the jig bed. Guinea and Peru. gold separation occurs by density. GEKKOTM IN-LINE PRESSURE JIG A skid-mounted IPJ at a placer gold mine in Australia. The jig is pressurised.gekkos. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY GEKKOTM IN-LINE PRESSURE JIG . 60: GekkoTM in-line pressure jig – 1990s research in Australia www. The innovation was intended for recovery of low-grade high volume placer gold. rather than fixed. and allows jigs to be arranged in series if so desired. About 20 are installed at placer gold mines. and completely filled with water and slurry. In the suction phase. The IPJ has a moveable. The IPJ 1500 uses about 200 kilos of lead shot and Gekko has begun making ‘synthetic’ ragging. (photo: courtesy of Nigel Grigg of Gekko – www.mine. North Korea. causes the slurry to slow to a velocity incapable of holding so much suspended solids. Nuggets stay on the jig screen awaiting batch discharge. Figure 126. treating up to five times more for same area of jig screen. as well as adjust the stroke duration via electronic control of the hydraulic drive. jig screen. later for hard rock grinding circuits [174-178].World Placer Journal – 2007. heavies are drawn through the ragging and screen to fall into the hutch – drawn off by a spigot as a continuous discharge. and unimpeded large circular area available for it.mn Operation The maximum feed for a standard IPJ is 25mm – remarkably large.079. plus segregation by differences in size and shape. Volume 7. Entering the distributor. Placer applications include tin (New South Wales) and diamonds onshore and offshore in Namibia and South Africa. sealed. The lack of a water surface is a deterrent to flour gold floating away. The negligible pressure drop ensures a 15-metre head to pump tailings up to a settling area. Jigging is a sawtooth pulse rather than simple pulse. the slurry is turned around upwards to spread out in the deceleration chamber. in Australia. The trommel or shaking screen can be low as the slurry is lifted to the jig by slurry pump. Figure 125.567).generalised 139 . Recovery of placer gold by Gekko in-line pressure jig. Adoption by placer gold miners Many IPJs are in hardrock gold mills. The jig is very compact. Water demand is lower than for most other jigs. The slurry is pumped along a feed pipe into the top of the jig.com) The GekkoTM in-line pressure jig (IPJ) was invented by Alexander Gray of Victoria who was awarded patents in 1995 in Australia (AU #W095/26. pages 66-161.232) and 2000 in the USA (US #6. The pulsing achieves episodic ‘quicksand’ (thixotropic) conditions. Papua New Guinea. and the operator can select the upstroke and downstroke speeds independently. The operator can dictate the height the jig bed rises and falls.
pages 66-161. a famous bucket-line gold dredge off the coast of Alaska. When integrated into a skid-mounted wash-plant the units are semi-mobile [107. IHC marketed its jigs for large tin dredges. and low concentration ratio. 2 and 3-modules were installed in placer gold mines in Alaska. The trapezoidal primary jigs can be clustered in a compact 12-cell star with a single central feed – a major advantage aboard large dredges.mn Operation Feed is screened to <12. Placer gold recovery extrapolated from recovery of placer tin. IHC developed the Cleaveland jig further as a circular array of trapezoidal jigs with sawtooth jigging motion. Several winterised gold bucket-line dredges with IHC jigs operated in NE China. Figure 93.World Placer Journal – 2007. a compact star-pattern of jigs with the slurry introduced at the centre . In land-based placer gold mining. gaining a reputation for recovering >90% of moderately fine gold.ihcholland. while small gold is produced as a continuous discharge with black sand via spigots at the bottom of the hutches of the jigs.413). The jig screen of the primary jig produces tailings of <6mm that report as slurry to a “second stage”. The jig is an innovative circular jig intended for large tin dredges. Mongolia and elsewhere.5mm and pumped as slurry to the narrow end of the primary jig bed of the IHC jig plant. Indonesia. A “third stage” is sometimes added to the series. pontoons and dry land [98-105]. Ghana. 2-cell and 3-cell trapezoidal jigs otherwise the wash-plant is too bulky and trucking placer becomes excessive . Columbia. as claimed in IHC technical literature.com) Figure 92. Failure to gain wider popularity is attributed to the high price. IHC made vast research into jigs led by the Mineral Technological Institute (MTI) in the Netherlands [94-97].310. IHC Holland of the Netherlands and Alluvial Dredges Ltd (ADL) of Scotland and Australia made Cleaveland-type jigs. a small secondary jig who jig screen in turn produces tailings of <4mm that are recycled back to the primary jig. The trapezoidal shape of the jig bed widens towards the tailings end to counteract and minimise the unwanted acceleration in cross-flow typical of a normal type of jig. After the tin price collapsed.108]. Coarse gold and nuggets remain on the jig screens for recovery as a batch discharge at clean-up. Adoption by placer gold miners IHC trapezoidal jigs were installed on the Bema Dredge. Peru. hardrock gold and diamonds on dredges. Volume 7. IHC jig-plants of 1. Indonesia. bulkiness.mine. An IHC jig plant recovering fine gold in Sumatra. (photo: IHC Holland – www. 42: Cleaveland jig and IHC jig – 1980s research in USA and Holland www. IHC JIG PLANT The Cleaveland jig was invented by Norman Cleaveland of New Mexico and patented in 1982 (US #4.  (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY IHC TRAPEZOIDAL JIGS DERIVED FROM CLEAVELAND CIRCULAR JIGS 120 . the optimum configurations are 1-cell. a motion now emulated in most jigs. limited mobility. IHC marketed the ‘IHC trapezoidal jig’ for recovery of placer gold. The short-lived fierce upward stroke prevents the loss of fine gold by suppressing the phase of hindered settling is suppressed.
Gold particles burrow in the black sand down into the heavy ragging. The upstroke of the lower hutch pushes more water through the screen than replaced in the downstroke – compensated by inlets injecting water in the upper hutch.html USA – Goldfield Engineering Co.graymfg. Gold particles too big to pass though the jig screen remain stranded on the screen awaiting recovery when jigging stops for cleaning the screen – a batch discharge. and stroke frequency – 120 to 200 cycles per minute. saving 50% of energy in jigging. Tennessee www.: . Standard 42inch x 42inch cells (about 1m x 1m) have seven variables : amount of ragging – typically 425lbs (193 kilos) per cell.World Placer Journal – 2007.com China – China National Gold Corporation (CNGC) www. gold and diamonds. Nevada www.ird-jigs.5m3 per hour per jig cell. 14: Pan-American duplex jigs – Alaska tests www.3 to 4.g.com USA – Delta Mining & Mnfr Co of Nashville. USA – IRD of Carson City. Less dense particles are flung up and swept away with the tailings. Each cell is underlain by a conical hutch of two parts joined by an annular diaphragm of flexible rubber to allow up-anddown oscillation of the lower hutch. The downstroke extends the diaphragm.chinagold. and can be seen in action in Alaska. and Africa but are rare in Russia and Mongolia Pan-Am duplex jigs are made in many regions. hutch water added – 2.graymfg. Yukon.com/mineral. Adoption by placer gold miners Pan-Am duplex jigs are fairly popular in many regions. stroke length – ¾ inch to 1½ inch (19 to 38mm). By the late 1930s the Pan-Am jig was widely used on dredges for recovery of alluvial cassiterite (SnO2 tin ore).com Thailand – Dove Engineering www. (photo: courtesy of the manufacturer. feed pulp density – 30% to 60% (w/w).mine. e. Small gold is sucked down into the upper hutch to fall and settle on the bottom of the lower hutch for continuous discharge with black sand via a spigot. compressing the black sand into a dilatant (‘hardpacked’) state.com/mineral. Volume 7.www. Good recovery of gold by Pan-Am duplex jigs during tests by MIRL in Alaska .html) Figure 33.org. Dense particles remain. pages 66-161.75mm) steel shot. sucking water down from the upper hutch and down through the static screen to suck the ragging and its blanket of black sand. so fluidising the sand into a thixotropic (‘loose’) state. A duplex of Pan-American jigs. PAN-AM DUPLEX JIGS In the early 1930s the engineers of the Bulolo Gold Dredging Company designed the Pan-American placer jig (Pan-Am jig) that is compact and tolerates wave motion in small dredge ponds or even open sea. The Pan-Am jig is a balanced pair of jig cells known as a duplex jig. forcing water up into the upper hutch and up through the static screen to lift in the ragging and its blanket of black sand.placer.html Figure 34. Delta Mining & Manufacturing Co of Nashville. feed rate – 20 yd3 to 30yd3 per hour (15 to 23m3 per hour). Utah www. Tennessee .mn Operation The upstroke of the rocker arm lifts the lower hutch and compresses the diaphragm.goldfieldeng. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY PAN-AMERICAN DUPLEX JIGS 88 .dovemining. South America. of Lindon. type of ragging – typically 3/16 inch (4.
the coarse fraction being subjected to conventional gravitational separation. Then dissolution declines and full leaching of gold from a saturated gold solution might take six hours. To dissolve the gold. and a component of emergency survival kits to disinfect wounds and to sanitize surface water for drinking.back to iodine I2. The regenerated tincture of iodine can once again dissolve gold. the tincture method of iodine leaching is fully explained. and methods of precipitating gold from streams and seawater – most is quackery.ions. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY TINCTURE OF IODINE LEACHING 148 . It is now possible to precipitate gold. 68: tincture of iodine leaching – 2000s research in Japan www. 2nd stage – recovering gold from solution To recover the dissolved gold from the pregnant solution.+ ILab experiments show an hour is sufficient for the tincture of iodine to leach most of the gold – faster than cyanide can. and 84% gold from a hardrock sample in the Kitakami mountains of northern Japan. and is dark brown due to the presence of I3. the ore is milled very finely before being subjected to leaching 1st stage – leaching gold into solution The fine ore is added to a little water in a tank and kept agitated by stirring.World Placer Journal – 2007.9% gold from a stream sediment sample. the fine fraction being subjected to leaching.ions reacts to form the stable gold-iodine complex: 2Au + 3I3. Tincture of iodine is usually 10% elemental iodine in ethanol. Nakao . then dwindled with the rise in popularity of cyanide leaching and mercury amalgamation and the high cost of iodine. Tincture of iodine is stirred in. The gold appears as colloidal gold and next as fine-grained particles. repeatable and verifiable. a mixture closely akin to ‘tincture of iodine’. Figure 141. These are an effective oxidant and in the presence of I.mine. it is important to regenerate the tincture of iodine. ascorbic acid C6H8O6 is added – a chemical familiar as vitamin C. Volume 7. Nakao of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) of Japan: ‘A trial of extracting gold from stream sediment and high Au/Ag ore using halogen-containing organic system’ . To precipitate the gold from solution. The gold is removed by filtration. composed of iodine I2. Adoption by placer gold miners It seems possible that tincture of iodine may become popular among recreational and artisanal gold miners for fine gold recovery. Operation Tincture of iodine is obtained from a lab supplier.mn Iodine leaching had been widely used to recover gold in the late 1800s and early 1900s. the pay gravel is finely screened. Recovery of placer gold by tincture of iodine and vitamin C in tests by Hiroyasu Murakami and Y. Advances prior to 2000 are dealt with in Section 4. ascorbic acid is added to reduce the iodine: I2 J 2IThis reaction results in a deficiency in I3 causing the tincture to lose its dark brown colour and become a poor solvent. Deposition starts when the tank is diluted by about 70% water by volume. The Japanese researchers recovered 79. as invented in 2006 Hiroyasu Murakami and Y. If hardrock.2[AuI4]. pages 66-161. In contrast. If placer ore. a halogen-containing organic system (HOS) is used. In the last 25 years much has been claimed about ‘secret’ lixiviant formulations. Hydrogen peroxide H2O2 is added to oxidise the iodide I. Iodine being expensive. sodium iodide NaI and ethanol C2H5OH.
natcogroup. efficient use of energy. The screened feed is prepared as slurry with 25 to 35% solids. copper. However. Today re-branded as the Axsia-Mozley MGS. zero maintenance and sealed-for-life lubrication. the retention time of the slurry can be increased or decreased accordingly. MGS C902 – medium-capacity. 30 tons/hour of solids. part of the NATCO Group of Houston USA. The slurry is piped into the MGS centrifuge via a tube. (compiler: Robin Grayson) GOLD RECOVERY BY MOZLEY MGS CENTRIFUGE – generalised 124 . The larger MGS models have special features: a proprietary gearbox drive that gives: improved reliability. Adoption by placer gold miners The Axsia-Mozley Multi-Gravity Separator is being used for the separation of ores of gold.World Placer Journal – 2007. better capacity than some other ultra-fine separators.mine. The slurry is decelerated by a circular device that spreads the slurry across the internal wall of the cylinder. Recovery of gold by the Axsia-Mozley Multi-Gravity Separator. pages 66-161. Additional cleaning water is added to assist the removal of slimes and enrichment of the concentrate. MGS MeGaSep™ – large-capacity. tantalum. Schematic cutaway diagram of an Axsia-Mozley Multi-Gravity Separator MGS. By lowering or steepening the angle of inclination (‘tilt’) of the centrifuge.964. zinc. the device is manufactured by Axsia Mozley of Cornwall. The cylinder is lined with a few special riffles. a stratifying mechanism separates the denser particles from the lighter particles. Within the cylinder. tin. (diagram: courtesy of Ian Daniels of the manufacturer Axsia Mozley Ltd . The device is a gently inclined cylinder that rotates to create an apparent gravitational field of 8g to 22g. The Axsia-Mozley MGS combines the high apparent gravity of a centrifuge with the principle of a shaking table [113-116].5mm. along with the discharge rate of the concentrate. and requires no chemicals or physical reagents. Key advantages of the Axsia-Mozley MGS are: fine to ultra-fine separation (down to 2μ). lead and coal. The cylinder also pulsates along its shaft in the manner of a shaking table. MOZLEY MGS CENTRIFUGE The Mozley ‘Multi-Gravity Separator’ was invented by Richard Mozley of Cornwall and patented in 1990 (US #4. silver. The exact degree of screening is unclear. Figure 100. the author has not seen any reports of the MGS being used in placer gold recovery.mn Operation The feed requires fine screening. The Axsia-Mozley Multi-Gravity Separator is manufactured in 3 models: MGS C900 – compact lab unit. minimum maintenance or supervision. the MeGaSep has hydraulic fluid drive.www. 1 ton/hour of solids. based on incomplete information [113-116]. 46: Mozley MGS centrifuge – 1980s research in Cornwall www.845) after applying for a UK patent in 1986. A differential scraper mechanism enables a longer residence time for the slurry. 3 tons/hour of solids. remote power pack and simple control technology. but seems to be about 0. Volume 7.com) Figure 99.
Methods for recovering fine placer gold. Kristina Shafer.se/publication. volume 6.pdf?OpenElement 2. Maneval and Daniel E. pages 47-56. O.mine. Wenqian Wang and George W. pages 1-21. Walsh (1984). Lars Hylander and Markus Meili (2005). Gold recovery on mats in Mongolia – the term ‘matadoring’. volume 6.pdf 22. UNIDO/UBC/CETEM.ca/publications/tech/fine_gold_recovery_sluiceboxes. Gold recovery in wooden trays in Russia – the term 'lotoking'. Download: www. Dharma Rao.geology. Nottingham. John M. Mineral Industry Research Laboratory (MIRL) Publication #76: University of Alaska at Fairbanks. Field Investigation of Hydrocyclones for the Recovery of Fine Gold. Donald M. David R.mn 16.html 10.yk. Download: www.ca/pdf/veiga_01.G.mn 17. E. Eoin H. England.pdf 8. Prepared for Canada/Yukon Economic Development Agreement. Poling (1983). pages 1-36. PowerPoint Presentation. Download: www. Robin Grayson (2006). pages 36-41. 3. Lars D. pages 22-35. 17 slides.mn 14.edu/sme/Mirlpub. Daniel E. Randy Clarkson and Owen Peer (1990).gov/usbmak/ic8517. Read: http://imcg.J. D.uu. Robin Grayson (2006).10 from: www.mine. World Placer Journal. volume 6. 4. Improving the simple sluice box. Kluwer Academic Publishers. The Concentration of Auriferous Sands and Conglomerates. West (1971).ac. 52 pages. (English translation is available from Geological Survey of Canada). Indian and Northern Affairs Canada.D. Introducing new technologies for abatement of global mercury pollution in Latin America. Gold recovery in cones in Laos – the term ‘dulanging’. Yukon. Download: www. Zamyatin. volume 6. Download: www. Chugunov (1975). Mineral Industry Research Laboratory (MIRL). Robin Grayson (2006). Peter W. 31 pages.facome. 260 pages. and Economics of Placers. Hausen (2000).uaf.tms. A Study of Factors Suspected of Influencing the Settling Velocity of Fine Gold Particles. Gold recovery in gold pans – the term ‘panning’. Lancaster.W. How to Mine and Prospect for Placer Gold. World Placer Journal.mn 18. Robin Grayson (2006). Rio de Janeiro. Fine Gold Recovery of Selected Sluicebox Configurations.geology.uaf.html 11. Overseas Geology Series. Download: www. A. Ramsay (1993).geus. N. Download: http://doc. 13. Veiga (1997). Download: www. Clive. International Journal of Mineral Processing. Appel (2005). Download: www. Bureau of Mines publication.nsf/ProductLookupItemID/JOM-0004-14/$FILE/JOM-0004-14F. Evans and Michael T. page 14.F. $10. World Placer Journal. Stewart and P. Hylander and David Plath (2006). (1983). World Placer Journal. hardcover. 34 pages.List of References 1.org/ezMerchant/prodtms. June 1984. World Placer Journal.P.xml?id=88550 23.mine.pdf 20. Download: http://opus. University of British Columbia. USA. Characterizing the Textural Features of Gold Ores for Optimising Gold Extraction. Download: www. University of Alaska at Fairbanks. UK. P. Chimed-Erdene Baatar (2006). Alluvial Mining: The Geology.uqam. David Plath (2002). Styles (1997). pages 77-80. Journal of Mining (JOM) volume 52. World Placer Journal.mn 19.bgs. A Review of Gold Particle-size and Recovery Methods.dk/publications/bull/nr7/nr7_p77-80.gov. Marcello M.ca/publications/tech/analysis_sluice. British Geological Survey BGS.wr. Novel solution to reduce or eliminate mercury pollution from artisanal and small scale gold mining. Poling and James Frederick Hamilton (1986). Publication OF 84-14. Mitchell. volume 76. Information Circular #8517.uk 5/6. 21.yk. MMRRI Final Report. Small-scale mining – hazards and opportunities in Kyrgyzstan and Mongolia. Dharma Rao (1988). 96 pages. volume 39. [ABSTRACT] Abstracts of 8th International Conference on Mercury as a Global Pollutant. Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (CIMM) Bulletin. volume 6.usgs.00 from www. U. 508 pages.html 12.edu/sme/Mirlpub. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology. Technology. volume 35.gov.mn 15. $5. George W. PA. volume 6. pages 119-136. pages 42-51.mine. Keyworth. MacDonald. Northern Affairs: Yukon Region.pdf 9. iv +77 pages. Phase III. Gold recovery in buckets in Kyrgyzstan – the term ‘bucketing’. Sammikova and A. Lopatin. Chimed-Erdene Baatar (2006). Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin #7.V.mine. The Rise and Fall of Mercury: Converting a Resource to Refuse After 500 Years of Mining and Pollution. Publisher: Chapman & Hall. Technical Report #WC/97/14. An Analysis of Sluicebox Riffle Performance. 7. 94 pages. Nedra Press: Moscow. Report for the Klondyke Placer Miners Association. J. CleangoldTM in the Guianas. Gold recovery in bowls in Mongolia – the term ‘bowling’.mine. New Era Engineering Corporation. Download: www. . Walsh and P. Download: www.
cx:81/3wdev/CD3WD/APPRTECH/G10TOE/INDEX. A. 43. Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA).dnr. Evans and Michael T. volume 6. View: www. 537 pages. Minjin Batbayar and Robin Grayson (2000). Costa Rica.pdf . Comparison of different gold recovery methods with regard to pollution control and efficiency. Kozin and V.mine.bgs. The iGoli mercury-free gold extraction process.mn 30.e-goldprospecting. Mercury-Free Gold mining Technologies: Possibilities for Adoption in the Guianas. Download: www. Super Clorox. 27-29th November 2006. Gold Leaching using Thiourea. Non-ferrous Metals (China). A review of gold leaching in acid thiourea solutions. Technical Mission to the Artisanal Gold Mines in Upper Guinea. The iGoli mercury-free gold extraction method. 32. Andrew Bamber and Patience Singo (2006). 1. San Pedro. Clean. Prospector's Paradise website.mn 29. 31. Clive J. Prospector's Paradise website.htm 27.K. Conwell (1980). Rickford Vieira (2004). Download: www.dggs. Nakao (2006). Joachim Dejean. Publisher: MAIK Nauka Interperiodica. volume 77.HTM 26. Marcello M. Prospector's Paradise website. Environmental hazard in Lake Baikal watershed posed by mercury placer in Mongolia.prospectorsparadise. 5 pages. Baatar Tumenbayar. volume 27. volume 4. 28.J.F. CCOP-GSJ/AIST-GAI CASM-Asia Workshop on the State-of-the-Art of Science and Technology to Protect the Environment and People.The Gold Miners Book – BAT Best Available Techniques for Placer Gold Miners. Jinshan Li and Jan Miller (2006). Sidney Mahkatsi (2006). Urban Health and Development Bulletin. DFD contract #R6226. Weqian Wang (1979). British Geological Survey (BGS) Report #WC/97/061. Bern Klein.esdm. David Plath. The iGoli mercury-free gold extraction process. pages 177-214. Cleland N. Purchase: www.prospectorsparadise. 16 slides. Indonesia. Conrado R. Styles (1997). A Study on Methods for Fine Placer Gold Processing. GATE. Download: www. Baatar Tumenbayar and Robin Grayson (2001). www. The design. View: www.ac. Baatar Tumenbayar (2003). A.ca/~gmp/countries/guinea/Guinea%20Veiga%20Blacksmith%202006%20report%20v%204%20final.com/html/leaching.html 35. Marcello M. Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy Review. South Africa. A. Baker. San Pedro.html 42. Costa Rica. Eco-Minex International Ltd. Miscellaneous Publication #29. World Placer Journal volume 1. Blacksmith Institute and UNIDO Report. Mongolia. View: www.com/html/super_clorox.com/html/gold_leaching_using_thiourea. Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry. Download: http://web.pdf 36. E. Manuscript from Rob Guest of Mintek’s Small Scale Mining and Beneficiation Division (SSMB). 13 pages. Acids and Bases.pdf 24. Randy F.K. Manual for Training Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Miners: Removal of Barriers to Introduction of Cleaner Artisanal Gold Mining and Extraction Technologies. Gillian Davis. Technical Paper #1 by WWF-Guianas Regional Program Office.pdf 41.prospectorsparadise. Robin Grayson (2010). 8 pages.html 45. Williams (no date). Cheick Santigui Camara.700 pages. View: www. Abstract of 6th International Conference on 'Mercury as Global Pollutant' held in Minamata.org/Documents/Salvador/33-Cleangold-Plath. View: http://sleekfreak.dim.id/makalah/2006_murakami_CCOP. Download: http://web.uvic.ak.uvic.pdf 25.html 44. Williams (no date). Anon (2007). 38.go. Mitchell. Costa Rica. pages 6-12. page 62. Rivera (2007). San Pedro. 15-19th October 2001. Hiroyasu Murakami and Y. pages 15731592. Veiga. pages1-6.wwfguianas. Benthin (1993). volume 35. 27 pages plus Appendices. Extraction of Gold from ores and concentrates by leaching with the use of cyanides and alternative reagents. Patrick Schein.K. Shefa Siegel. construction and testing of a simple shaking table for gold recovery: laboratory testing and field trials. Madagascar. Download: www.ath. Gold recovery from placer concentrates by cyanidation. Williams (no date). Paper presented to the Communities and Small-scale Mining (CASM Annual General Meeting.org/technicalpapers/mercfreetech. 79 pages. 39.co. Bandung. Halide Leaching and Recovery. Hylander. Thomas Hentschel and B.za 40.mintek.mine. 33. Veiga. Tools for Mining.Download: http://casmsite. Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys. Action Research on Mercury in the Boroo Area. pages 134-159. pages 52-61. Global Mercury Project. 11-15th November 2006 held in Antsirabe. Djibril Kamara and Amadou Diouf (2006). 76 pages. Lars D. Metcalf. United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO).state. Stephen M. Download: www. Sidney Mahkatsi and Rob Guest (2003).uk/dfid-kar-geoscience/database/reports/colour/WC97061_COL.com/html/acids. Miranda. A trial of extracting gold from stream sediment and high Au/Ag ore using halogen-containing organic system. Mercury pollution in North Mongolia. Vieweg-Verlag. L. 14 pages. Japan. Techniques and Processes for Small Scale Mining. Michael Priester. Melekhin (2004). Jenny •hlander and Ana T.us/pubs/ 34. PowerPoint presentation. Anon (2000).ca/~gmp/documents/documents. Sofie Lucke. 37.
Alaska USA. W. Joseph Kuo-Hua Wang (1977).pdf 60. W. Min.gov/ak/jrmic/docs/usbm/cr/AuBeachSands/CR_AuBeachSands. Andersen (1975). View: www. University of Alaska at Fairbanks. 55. Konyukova (1970). Papers presented at a Short Course on Gravity Separation Technology. held at Fairbank.idahogeology. Division of Geology and Mines. Journal of Mineral Processing. 120 pages. Daniel E. Minerals Engineering. Minerals Engineering. The Poormans Method of Smelting Gold. B. 64 pages. Institute of Mining and Metallurgy London (IMM). Daniel E.com/html/smelting. P. Staley and R. Colorado. Gravity separation of gold – then and now. Studies on pinched sluice concentration: Part2 – Characterization of flow over a pinched sluice. 52. 32 pages. Special Publication #87. Chapter 8 in: Innovation in Physical Separation Technologies.S. Newton.org/products/ 53. Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Conference on Alaskan Placer Mining. Evaluation of the 4-inch Compound Water Cyclone as a Fine Placer Gold Concentrator Using a Radiotracer Technique.L.N. Michael Richard Mark Anthony (1986).html 57. H.K.00 from: www.nuggethunters. and Sci. Energy Research Laboratories Report ERP/ERL #75 (CF) – 41 (IR). Mineral Industry Research Laboratory (MIRL) Contract Report MT-2: University of Alaska at Fairbanks. Arizona).nuggethunters. Soviet Zolotoprom. Fahrenwald.ca. Canada. 73 pages. Subasinghe (1989). 59. #53140. volume 5. View: www. .L. Spiral and a Compound Water Cyclone in a Placer Gold Recovery Plant. Erik Spiller (1983). Jeyadevan and G. British Columbia. pages 85-98. Master of Science thesis. Tjoe Hauw Nio (1978). Nuggethunter. Zamyatin and A. Reno. 10 pages. 78 pages. (Phoenix. Edmonton. Studies on pinched sluice concentration: Part 1 – The effects of operating variables and sluice geometry on the performance of pinched sluices. A Thesis. 260 pages. #23. 97 pages. Floatation Test at Mount Morgan. 56. Vancouver. Study of a Static Screen.html 49. Ersayýn (2002). A metallurgical study of Idaho placer sand.L. Tsvet. Thomas J.html 61. USA. 5th Annual RMS-ROSS Seminar on Placer Gold Mining. volume 15. Parameter Impact on the Performance Ability of the Centrifugal Forced Amalgamator. pages 437-446. 66. thesis. volume 29. Þ. Michael Richard Mark Antony (1995). The Reichert cone concentrator. 27th June issue. Download: www. pages 49-54. held 13-17th October 1978 at the University of Nevada.uaf. Flotation of placer gold. volume 43. Metal.V. Walsh (1988). Download: www. Alberta. volume 16. Anon (undated). J. 64.46. Black sand of the Pacific Coast.K. M. Jan Visman and N. Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology. Mines and Resources. 63. Department of Energy.T. 65. pages 46-49.. volume 14. Shaffer (1939). 71. Press. Slavnin (1936). Nuggethunter. Lang (1916). Mineral Industry Research Laboratory (MIRL) Contract Report MT-1: University of Alaska at Fairbanks. 68. 58. 67. J. E. Order: www. View: www. Dhoma Rao and Donald J. Centrifugal Amalgamation in Dredge Recovery Systems. 50.P. 64 pages. Laboratory and Field Testing of the Knudsen Bowl Concentrator. Extracting various sizes of gold from sands on a concentrating table. Minerals Engineering. State of Alaska Department of Natural Resources. 51.20.prospectorsparadise.gov/cgs/geologic_resources/gold/SP87.E. Yukon Territory.50 from: www. Mineral Industry Research Laboratory (MIRL) Report #70. 54. Floatation of Gold from River Sand and Black Sand. $10. Mineral dressing by IHC jigs. Williams (no date).html 47. Fairbanks. Þ. Press. pages 811-813. pages 135174. Phase II Report. Cecil Urlich (1985). Ferree (1981). Mineral Industry Research Laboratory (MIRL) Publication #73: University of Alaska at Fairbanks. The effect of solid parameters in a pinched sluice concentrator. pages 31-50. Þ. Jig. 72.org/smelting.edu/sme/Mirlpub. Soviet Journal of Non-Ferrous Metals.P. Costa Rica. Walsh. Investigation and Evaluation of the Knudsen Bowl Concentrator. Cook (1987). California Department of Conservation. William James Anderson (1975). Ergün & S. Pamphlet #51. held on 10th February 1983 in Denver. A. Canada. Smelting Gold. Characterization of flow on a pinched sluice and its effect on separation. Slavnin (1938). 69.edu/sme/Mirlpub. G. Ersayýn (1998). Flotation of gold from concentrate tailings.W. Compound Water Cyclones: Recovery of Micron Size Precious Metals from an Ancient Beach Deposit at Sombrio Point. Application of Compound Water Cyclones for the Processing of Placer Sand from Burwash Creek. Arthur W. University of Alaska. Min. O..consrv. University of Fairbanks at Alaska. Motherwell (1914). Aylmore and D.G. Fahrenwald (1933). Melting and Smelting.pdf 62. Arthur W. 3-4. volume 15. Mining Sci. Ergün and S. Paper in: Gravity Separation Technology.uaf.html 48. $2. Paper presented at the National Western Mining Conference.M. Michael Silva (1986). Idaho Bureau of Mines and Geology. Anon (undated). Placer Gold Recovery Methods. Prospector's Paradise website.M. 70. pages 423-435. Ergün and S. $10. Thiosulfate Leaching of Gold . an innovation for a fine gold recovery system. Ersayýn (2002).E. G.blm. Vancouver Island. D. 7 pages.org/Poormans-Smelting. volume 2.a Review. Muir (2001). volume 3.
edu/sme/Mirlpub. Kotze and F.geology. Alaska. New Era Engineering.W.html 96. Minerals Engineering. A. Download: www. October.yk. Cape Town. PhD thesis. McDonald (editor) (1990). Thin Film Concentrating Devices and the Bartles-Mozley Concentrator in Particular. Coal Indaba ‘98. Report for Klondike Placer Miners Association. 79. Petersen and W.O.yk. 1-2nd November 1999. 80. Good Practice in the Design and Operation of Large Sluice Boxes. Moses and F. Randy Clarkson (1990). E. Progress Report for Project on Mercury-free Recovery of Gold (Coal Agglomeration Process . IHC Jigs in Gravity Concentration. Gold Recovery Project (Phase 1). World Dredging & Marine Construction. Flotation as separation technique in the coal gold agglomeration process. The use of coal-oil mixtures to recover free gold through agglomeration. Whitehorse. Randy Clarkson (1990).W. Cilingir (2005).00 from: www. Mort J. L. Short Course on Gravity Concentration Technology.pdf 91. Paper submitted to Extraction Metallurgy Africa ’99. Coal-oil assisted flotation for the gold recovery. 74. Northern Affairs Program. July 1984. Donkers (1984). Sen. 75. Walsh and P. Petersen (1998). Download: www.ca/ publications 92. Yukon. 5-7th August 1998. Petersen (1999). 85.yk. Michael T. Seyrankaya and Y. South Africa.yk. Effect of operating parameters on the performance of the Coal-Gold-Agglomerate process. IHC Holland NV. 76. The use of nuclear tracers to evaluate the gold recovery efficiency of sluices.M.html 73. Petersen (2000). Lopantin et al (1971).W. Sannikova published encouraging results of Soviet tests on placer gold recovery using “wide cone cyclones” (MIRL Report #70 by Daniel Walsh). volume 18. UDSM (2002).gov. Simpson and E. pages 255-264. Report for Klondyke Miners Association.ca/publications/tech/placerrecovery. volume 141.ca/publications/tech/gold_loss. Chile. Sponsored by: Alaska Women in Mining. 97. F.W. Johannesburg. Evaluation of Yukon sluicing operations using radiotracer gold: KPMA Gold Recovery Project update. 81. W.geology. University of British Columbia. Yukon. Kotze and F. University of Nevada.W. Mineral Industry Research Laboratory (MIRL) Report #69. pages 1-11. F. Randy Clarkson (1990). Some aspects of gold recovery with IHC jigs. Whitehorse. April 1994. V. 95. Report for Klondike Placer Miners Association. 94.pdf 87. published by the British Geological Survey (BGS). Poling (1973). University of Alaska at Fairbanks.M.a viable process for clean small scale mining. Chris Mills and R. Tjoe Hauw Nio and Jack M. Northern Affairs Program. 17th Annual Mineral Processing Symposium.M. Chris Mills (1978). Ottawa. Walsh (editors and compilers) Proceedings of the 12th Annual Alaskan Conference on Placer Mining. Tjoe Hauw Nio (1988). Daniel E.gov.uaf. Reno. 12 pages.J. Fine Gold Recovery of Selected Sluice Box Configurations. 17-18th November 1998. Alaska. Mining Magazine. Spectroscopic studies of organic acid absorption on copper oxides and on gold. Kotze (1998).gov.P. Coal-gold agglomeration . $6. and School of Mineral Engineering UAF. 78. Chemical Engineering Department. The Use of Radiotracers to Determine Gold Losses at Klondike Placer Mines. 89. The evolution and current application of the MKII Cleaveland Circular Jig to alluvial gold recovery. Report of Contract YEDAMR-001. 82.edu/sme/Mirlpub. Charles H.pdf 88. 39 pages. Yukon. Canadian Institute of Mining Engineers Bulletin #? pages 53-61. Coelho and George W. iv + 93 pages.G. pages 1086-1092. Paper presented at Colloid Symposium. Pages 36-40 in: Daniel E. E. pages 29-37. Tanzania. Thin Film Concentrating Devices and the Bartles-Mozley Concentrator. Styles. S. 49 pages. In 1976. Journal of Minerals Engineering. Funded by the Canada/Yukon Economic Development Agreement (YEDA).$10. South Africa. Steadman (2002). Randy Clarkson (1989). BGS Commissioned Report CR/02/029N prepared for DFID KAT Project R7120 ‘Recovering the Gold of the Developing World’. Johannesburg.00 from: www. Placer Gold Recovery Research. A. Tjoe Hauw Nio (1985).gov. 86.CGA).uaf. 16 pages + 11 pages of figures. Floatation of Oxidized Copper Minerals: an Infrared Spectroscopic Study. Download: www. Petersen and W. Burt (1979). Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (CIMM) Bulletin. Study of the compound water cyclone's concentrating efficiency of free gold from placer material. 93. Download: www.geology. Tjoe Hauw Nio and Henk van Muijen (1985). 77. 77 pages. Pages 68-77 in: Cathy Farmer and Daniel E. Alaska Miners Association. 90. Coelho (1972). 4th International Conference on Clean Technologies for the Mining Industry held 13-15th May 1998 at Santiago. pages 32-39. Held 22-24th March 1990 in Fairbanks. 83. Richardson (1984). Man’kov and N. Kotze (1998). IHC Holland NV. The coal gold agglomeration (CGA) process to recover free gold. Dharma Rao (1988). Held 28-29th March 1984 in Fairbanks. 42 pages + Appendix of 2 pages and 19 figures.geology. Placer Miners of Alaska. Randy Clarkson (1990). 13 pages. South Africa. W. University of Dar-Es-Salaam. Final Summary.ca/publications/tech/ the_use_radio. Walsh and M. 84.M. Northern Affairs Program. Susan Wray (editors and compilers) Proceedings of the 6th Annual Conference on Alaskan Placer Mining. volume 13. Yukon. Whitehorse. Gold Losses at Klondyke Placer Mines. J. Notes on IHC jigs in gravity concentration. Mining and Recovery of Placer Minerals. Paper presented at International Congress on ‘Dredge Mining .
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Liming Huang. Montreal. Recovering gold from high density gangues with Knelson Concentrators. Frederick C. Jie Xiao (1998). Download: www.knelsongravitysolutions. Chile.6cm Knelson Concentrator by use of synthetic feeds. Download: www. Laurentian University in Sudbury. Camborne School of Mines & Minerals Engineering Journal. 310 pages [Chinese text]. pages 123-128. 127. Injection-Flowing Film Centrifugation separation of fine and ultrafine refractory slimes. Xiang Ren. Y. The performance of the Knelson and Falcon centrifuges for fine gold concentration.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk1/tape11/PQDD_0023/NQ50209.Eng. England.collectionscanada. Evandro Costa e Silva. 142. PhD thesis. 139. Quan Li. Download: http://www. Methods of Ore Dressing Abroad.the Experience of the CVRD Research Center. Ling and Byrn Harris (1996). 244 pages. Download: www. 135. D.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk1/tape8/PQDD_0032/MQ50673. Caceres. Mc. July 1997. Bo Zhang (1997). Mozley International Symposium 1997 Falmouth. Guyana Geology and Mines Commission Report. Cecil Urlich (1984). Rickford Vieira (2000). The Knelson Concentrato: metamorphosis from crude beginning to sophisticated worldwide acceptance. Jinghong Ling (1998). 'Minerals Engineering '92' Conference in Vancouver.com. McGill University. Testing Requirements and Insight for Gravity Gold Circuit Design. 124. Joly. McGill University. Ph. Download: www. McGill University. 131.Gold. 131 pages. 132. Ontario.pdf 126. pages C126-C132. Liming Huang (1996). University of British Columbia.collectionscanada. Pages 349-355 in: Turgut Yalcin (editor) Innovations in Mineral Processing. 138. A Study of a Variable Speed 3-inch Knelson Concentrator. Application Sheet.pdf 133. Gravity separation.pdf 134. 129. Mc. Montreal. Beijing. Woodcock (1994). Development and Economic Application of Knelson Concentrators in Low Grade Alluvial Gold Deposits. A Study of a Variable Speed 3-inch Knelson Concentrator. Andre R. Dandois (1997).5-inch Knelson Concentrator in the Geologically Defined Proto-Mahdia.concentrators. A. Centrifugal Concentrators – a New Era in Gravity Concentration . Sanchez. Montreal.rochemt. held at Roturua 18-21st March 1990. P. Byron Knelson (1992). 10 pages. Evaluation of a 7.collectionscanada. 6 pages. Metallurgy Press. Download: www. 128 pages. British Columbia. AusIMM Annual Conference: ‘The Mineral Industry of New Zealand’.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk1/tape11/PQDD_0029/MQ50677.com/sites/knelsongravity/files/ reports/report20s. Master of Engineering Thesis.net 141. Defining overload conditions for 7. Rche Mining. Metallurgical Industry Press. 514 pages. Ancia. Laplante. 230 pages. Download: www. Montreal. Anon (2002). In: M. X. J. 4th Annual RMS-ROSS Seminar on Placer Gold Mining. A new centrifugal separator for recovering minerals from fine and ultrafine sizes. Mineral Technologies (MT). Y. Nilce Alvestdas dos Santos and Vanessa de Macedo Torres (1999). 6-8th June 1994. Retrospect and Prospect of Gravity Separation. Transactions of the Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. A Study of the Knelson Concentrator. G. Putz (1994). Download: http://knelsongravity. Upgrading of Gold Gravity Concentrates.pdf 137. 77 pages.pdf 144.122. Master of Engineering Thesis. volume 105. Comparison of the Knelson and Falcon Centrifugal Separators. 140. Laplante (2000). 7/8 pages 21-26.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk2/ftp02/NQ29960. Goffaux and J.xplorex. Lu (1994). Castro (editors) Clean Technology for the Mining Industry. Fan (1991).pdf 125.collectionscanada. 12 pages. 128. PhD thesis McGill University. McGill University. 7 pages. 143. J. F. Master of Engineering thesis. A comparison of Knelson Concentrator and Jig peformance for gold recovery. Paper presented at the Randol Gold and Silver Forum. Canada. Section C. Use of a Knelson Unit to Quantify Gravity Recoverable Gold in an Ore. Rickford Vieira (1997). Master of Engineering Thesis.au 123.Gill University. Frederique Vincent (1997). PhD thesis. Richard M. thesis. Vancouver. McGill University.collectionscanada. Montreal. On request: www. Master of Engineering Report.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk1/tape11/PQDD_0032/MQ50680. Vergara and S. An investigation of the gravity recovery of gold. 9 pages. Testing a New Gold Centrifugal Concentrator[Falcon Superbowl]. M. China. 244 pages. .com 130.Gill University. 136. Frenay (1996). 1994. (Chinese). Vancouver 2000. Sun (1982). Application of the Knelson concentrator to small-scale mining in the Atacama region. Yumin Zhang and De Liu (1994). Andre R. Byron Knelson and Ron Edwards (1990). Jinghong Ling (1998). Frenay and P. 229 pages. Kelsey Centrifugal Jig . Recovery of Fine Gold by Knelson Hydrostatic Cone and Compound Water Cyclone Technologies. September 2000. University of Conception: Chile.
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