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RUSSIAN FEDERAL COMMITTEE

FOR HIGHER EDUCATION

BASHKIR STATE UNIVERSITY

SHARIPOV R. A.

CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS

AND THEORY OF RELATIVITY

the manual

Ufa 1997

2

UDC 517.9

Sharipov R. A. Classical Electrodynamics and Theory of

Relativity: the manual / Publ. of Bashkir State University —

Ufa, 1997. — pp. 163. — ISBN 5-7477-0180-0.

This book is a manual for the course of electrodynamics and

theory of relativity. It is recommended primarily for students

of mathematical departments. This deﬁnes its style: I use el-

ements of vectorial and tensorial analysis, diﬀerential geometry,

and theory of distributions in it.

In preparing Russian edition of this book I used computer

typesetting on the base of /

/

o-T

E

X package and I used cyrillic

fonts of Lh-family distributed by CyrTUG association of Cyrillic

T

E

X users. English edition is also typeset by /

/

o-T

E

X.

This book is published under the approval by Methodic Com-

mission of Mathematical Department of Bashkir State University.

Referees: Chair of Algebra and Geometry of Bashkir State

Pedagogical University (BGPI),

Prof. V. A. Baikov, Ufa State University for

Aviation and Technology (UGATU).

ISBN 5-7477-0180-0 c _ Sharipov R.A., 1997

English Translation c _ Sharipov R.A., 2003

3

CONTENTS.

CONTENTS. ....................................................................... 3.

PREFACE. .......................................................................... 5.

CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETO-

STATICS. ..................................................................... 7.

¸ 1. Basic experimental facts and unit systems. ...................... 7.

¸ 2. Concept of near action. ................................................ 13.

¸ 3. Superposition principle. ................................................ 15.

¸ 4. Lorentz force and Biot-Savart-Laplace law. .................. 18.

¸ 5. Current density and the law of charge conservation. ..... 21.

¸ 6. Electric dipole moment. ............................................... 24.

¸ 7. Magnetic moment. ....................................................... 26.

¸ 8. Integral equations of static electromagnetic ﬁeld. ........... 31.

¸ 9. Diﬀerential equations of static electromagnetic ﬁeld. ...... 41.

CHAPTER II. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS. ......... 43.

¸ 1. Maxwell equations. ...................................................... 43.

¸ 2. Density of energy and energy ﬂow for electromagnetic

ﬁeld. ........................................................................... 46.

¸ 3. Vectorial and scalar potentials of electromagnetic

ﬁeld. ........................................................................... 54.

¸ 4. Gauge transformations and Lorentzian gauge. ............... 56.

¸ 5. Electromagnetic waves. ................................................ 59.

¸ 6. Emission of electromagnetic waves. ............................... 60.

CHAPTER III. SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY. ..... 68.

¸ 1. Galileo transformations. ............................................... 68.

4

¸ 2. Lorentz transformations. .............................................. 73.

¸ 3. Minkowsky space. ........................................................ 77.

¸ 4. Kinematics of relative motion. ...................................... 82.

¸ 5. Relativistic law of velocity addition. .............................. 90.

¸ 6. World lines and private time. ........................................ 91.

¸ 7. Dynamics of material point. ......................................... 95.

¸ 8. Four-dimensional form of Maxwell equations. ............. 100.

¸ 9. Four-dimensional vector-potential. .............................. 107.

¸ 10. The law of charge conservation. ................................ 112.

¸ 11. Note on skew-angular and curvilinear

coordinates. ............................................................. 115.

CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM

IN THEORY OF RELATIVITY. .............................. 119.

¸ 1. Principle of minimal action for particles and ﬁelds. ...... 119.

¸ 2. Motion of particle in electromagnetic ﬁeld. .................. 124.

¸ 3. Dynamics of dust matter. ........................................... 128.

¸ 4. Action functional for dust matter. ............................... 133.

¸ 5. Equations for electromagnetic ﬁeld. ............................. 141.

CHAPTER V. GENERAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY. ... 145.

¸ 1. Transition to non-ﬂat metrics and curved Minkowsky

space. ....................................................................... 145.

¸ 2. Action for gravitational ﬁeld. Einstein equation. .......... 147.

¸ 3. Four-dimensional momentum conservation law

for ﬁelds. .................................................................. 153.

¸ 4. Energy-momentum tensor for electromagnetic ﬁeld. ..... 155.

¸ 5. Energy-momentum tensor for dust matter. .................. 157.

¸ 6. Concluding remarks. .................................................. 160.

REFERENCES. ............................................................... 162.

CONTACTS. ................................................................... 163.

PREFACE.

Theory of relativity is a physical discipline which arose in

the beginning of XX-th century. It has dramatically changed

traditional notion about the structure of the Universe. Eﬀects

predicted by this theory becomes essential only when we describe

processes at high velocities close to light velocity

c = 2.998 10

5

km/sec.

In XIX-th century there was the only theory dealing with such

processes, this was theory of electromagnetism. Development of

theory of electromagnetism in XIX-th century became a premise

for arising theory of relativity.

In this book I follow historical sequence of events. In Chapter I

electrostatics and magnetostatics are explained starting with ﬁrst

experiments on interaction of charges and currents. Chapter II is

devoted to classical electrodynamics based on Maxwell equations.

In the beginning of Chapter III Lorentz transformations are

derived as transformations keeping form of Maxwell equations.

Physical interpretation of such transformation requires uniting

space and time into one four-dimensional continuum (Minkowsky

space) where there is no ﬁxed direction for time axis. Upon

introducing four-dimensional space-time in Chapter III classical

electrodynamics is rederived in the form invariant with respect to

Lorentz transformations.

In Chapter IV variational approach to describing electromag-

netic ﬁeld and other material ﬁelds in special relativity is con-

sidered. Use of curvilinear coordinates in Minkowsky space and

appropriate diﬀerential-geometric methods prepares background

for passing to general relativity.

6

In Chapter V Einstein’s theory of gravitation (general rela-

tivity) is considered, this theory interprets gravitational ﬁeld as

curvature of space-time itself.

This book is addressed to Math. students. Therefore I paid

much attention to logical consistence of given material. References

to physical intuition are minimized: in those places, where I

need additional assumptions which do not follow from previous

material, detailed comment is given.

I hope that assiduous and interested reader with suﬃcient

preliminary background could follow all mathematical calculations

and, upon reading this book, would get pleasure of understanding

how harmonic is the nature of things.

I am grateful to N. T. Ahtyamov, D. I. Borisov, Yu. P. Ma-

shentseva, and A. I. Utarbaev for reading and correcting Russian

version of book.

November, 1997;

November, 2003. R. A. Sharipov.

CHAPTER I

ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS

¸ 1. Basic experimental facts and unit systems.

Quantitative description of any physical phenomenon requires

measurements. In mechanics we have three basic quantities and

three basic units of measure: for mass, for length, and for time.

Quantity Unit Unit Relation

in SI in SGS of units

mass kg g 1 kg =10

3

g

length m cm 1 m=10

2

cm

time sec sec 1 sec =1 sec

Units of measure for other quantities are derived from the

above basic units. Thus, for instance, for measure unit of force

due to Newton’s second law we get:

(1) N = kg m sec

−2

in SI,

(2) dyn = g cm sec

−2

in SGS.

Unit systems SI and SGS are two most popular unit systems

in physics. Units for measuring mechanical quantities (velocity,

acceleration, force, energy, power) in both systems are deﬁned in

quite similar way. Proportions relating units for these quantities

CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.

8 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.

can be derived from proportions for basic quantities (see table

above). However, in choosing units for electric and magnetic

quantities these systems diﬀer essentially.

Choice of measure unit for electric charge in SGS is based on

Coulomb law describing interaction of two charged point.

Coulomb law. Two charged points with charges of the same

sign are repulsing, while points with charges of opposite signs are

attracting with force proportional to

quantities of their charges and in-

verse proportional to square of dis-

tance between them:

(1.1) F ∼

Q

1

Q

2

r

2

.

Measure unit of charge in SGS is

chosen such that coeﬃcient in for-

Fig. 1.1

mula (1.1) is equal to unity. Hence

we have the following relation:

unit of charge in SGS = dyn

1/2

cm= g

1/2

cm

3/2

sec

−1

.

Coulomb law itself then is written in form of the equality

(1.2) F =

Q

1

Q

2

r

2

.

Force F deﬁned by the relationship (1.2) is very strong. How-

ever, in everyday life it does not reveal itself. This is due to the

screening. The numbers of positive and negative charges in nature

are exactly balanced. Atoms and molecules, which constitute all

observable matter around us, have the same amount of positive

and negative charges. Therefore they are electrically neutral in

§ 1. BASIC FACTS AND UNIT SYSTEMS. 9

whole. Force (1.2) reveals itself in form of chemical links only

when atoms are pulled together.

Electric current arises as a result of motion of charged points.

This occurs in metallic conductor, which usually have lengthy

form (form of wire). Current in such conductor is determined by

the amount of charge passing through it within the unit of time.

Therefore for unit of current we have:

unit of current in SGS = unit of charge in SGS sec

−1

=

= g

1/2

cm

3/2

sec

−2

.

Let’s consider straight conducting rod of the length l. Current

in it leads to misbalance of charges in its ends. Charges of deﬁnite

sign move to one end of the rod, while lack of these charges in

the other end of the rod is detected as the charge of opposite

sign. Then Coulomb force (1.2) arises that tends to recover

balance of charges in electrically neutral rod. This means that

in such rod current could not ﬂow in constant direction during

long time. Another situation we have with conductor of the

form of ring or circuit. Here current does not break the balance

of charges. Direct current can ﬂow in it during unlimitedly

long time. Circular conductor itself thereby remains electrically

neutral and no Coulomb forces arise.

In spite of absence of Coulomb forces, in experiments the inter-

action of two circular conductors with currents was detected. This

interaction has other nature, it is not due to electrical, but due to

magnetic forces. The magnitude of magnetic forces depends es-

sentially on the shape and mutual arrangement of circular conduc-

tors. In order to reveal quantitative characteristics for magnetic

forces one should maximally simplify the geometry of conduc-

tors. For this purpose they are deformed so that each possesses

straight rod-shaped part of suﬃciently big length l. These rod-

10 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.

shaped parts are arranged par-

allel to each other with the dis-

tance r between them. In the

limit, when l is much larger than

r, this conﬁguration of conduc-

tors can be treated as a pair

of inﬁnitely long parallel conduc-

tors. In experiments it was found

Fig. 1.2

that such conductors do interact

according to the following law.

Ampere law. Force of inter-

action of two inﬁnite parallel

conductors with currents per unit

length of them is proportional ti the values of currents in them

and inverse proportional to the distance between them:

(1.3)

F

l

∼

I

1

I

2

r

.

Two co-directed currents attract each other, while opposite di-

rected currents repulse each other.

The unit of current in SGS was already introduced above.

Therefore coeﬃcient of proportionality in formula (1.3) is unique

quantity that should be determined in experiment. Here is the

measure unit for this coeﬃcient: sec

2

cm

−2

. It coincides with

inverse square of velocity. Therefore formula (1.3) in SGS is

written as

(1.4)

F

l

=

2

c

2

I

1

I

2

r

.

Constant c in (1.4) is a velocity constant. The value of this

constant is determined experimentally:

(1.5) c ≈ 2.998 10

10

cm/sec.

§ 1. BASIC FACTS AND UNIT SYSTEMS. 11

As we shall see below, constant c in (1.5) coincides with velocity

of light in vacuum. Numeric coeﬃcient 2 in (1.4) is introduced

intentionally for to provide such coincidence.

In SI measure unit of current 1 A (one ampere) is a basic unit.

It is determined such that formula (1.3) is written as

(1.6)

F

l

=

2 µ

0

4π

I

1

I

2

r

.

Here π = 3.14 . . . is exact (though it is irrational) mathematical

constant with no measure unit. Constant µ

0

is called magnetic

susceptibility of vacuum. It has the measure unit:

(1.7) µ

0

= 4π 10

−7

N A

−2

.

But, in contrast to constant c in (1.5), it is exact constant. Its

value should not be determined experimentally. One could choose

it to be equal to unity, but the above value (1.7) for this constant

was chosen by convention when SI system was established. Due

to this value of constant (1.7) current of 1 ampere appears to

be in that range of currents, that really appear in industrial and

household devices. Coeﬃcient 4π in denominator (1.6) is used in

order to simplify some other formulas, which are more often used

for engineering calculations in electric technology.

Being basic unit in SI, unit of current ampere is used for

deﬁning unit of charge of 1 coulomb: 1C = 1A 1sec. Then

coeﬃcient of proportionality in Coulomb law (1.1) appears to be

not equal to unity. In SI Coulomb law is written as

(1.8) F =

1

4πǫ

0

Q

1

Q

2

r

2

.

Constant ǫ

0

is called dielectric permittivity of vacuum. In con-

trast to constant µ

0

in (1.7) this is physical constant determined

experimentally:

(1.9) ǫ

0

≈ 8.85 10

−12

C

2

N

−1

m

−2

.

12 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.

Constants (1.5), (1.7), and (1.9) are related to each other by the

following equality:

(1.10) c =

1

_

ǫ

0

µ

0

≈ 2.998 10

8

m/sec.

From the above consideration we see that SGS and SI systems

diﬀer from each other not only in the scale of units, but in for-

mulas for two fundamental laws: Coulomb law and Ampere law.

SI better suits for engineering calculations. However, derivation

of many formulas in this system appears more huge than in SGS.

Therefore below in this book we use SGS system.

Comparing Coulomb law and Ampere law we see that electrical

and magnetic forces reveal themselves in quite diﬀerent way.

However, they have common origin: they both are due to electric

charges. Below we shall see that their relation is much more

close. Therefore theories of electricity and magnetism are usually

united into one theory of electromagnetic phenomena. Theory of

electromagnetism is a theory with one measurable constant: this

is light velocity c. Classical mechanics (without Newton’s theory

of gravitation) has no measurable constants. Newton’s theory of

gravitation has one constant:

(1.11) γ ≈ 6.67 10

−8

cm

3

g

−1

sec

−2

.

This theory is based on Newton’s fourth law formulated as follows.

Universal law of gravitation. Two point masses attract

each other with the force proportional to their masses and in-

verse proportional to the square of distance between them.

Universal law of gravitation is given by the same formula

(1.12) F = γ

M

1

M

2

r

2

§ 2. CONCEPT OF NEAR ACTION. 13

in both systems: in SGS and in SI.

According to modern notion of nature classical mechanics and

Newton’s theory of gravitation are approximate theories. Cur-

rently they are replaced by special theory of relativity and general

theory of relativity. Historically they appeared as a result of

development of the theory of electromagnetism. Below we keep

this historical sequence in explaining all three theories.

Exercise 1.1. On the base of above facts ﬁnd quantitative re-

lation of measure units for charge and current in SGS and SI.

¸ 2. Concept of near action.

Let’s consider pair of charged bodies, which are initially ﬁxed,

and let’s do the following mental experiment with them. When

we start moving second body apart from ﬁrst one, the distance r

begins increasing and consequently force of Coulomb interaction

(1.2) will decrease. In this situation we have natural question:

how soon after second body starts moving second body will feel

change of Coulomb force of interaction? There are two possible

answers to this question:

(1) immediately;

(2) with some delay depending on the distance between bodies.

First answer is known as concept of distant action. Taking this

concept we should take formula (1.2) as absolutely exact formula

applicable for charges at rest and for moving charges as well.

Second answer is based on the concept of near action. Ac-

cording to this concept, each interaction (and electric interaction

among others) can be transmitted immediately only to the point

of space inﬁnitesimally close to initial one. Transmission of any

action to ﬁnite distance should be considered as a process of

successive transmission from point to point. This process always

leads to some ﬁnite velocity of transmission for any action. In

14 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.

the framework of the concept of near action Coulomb law (1.2) is

treated as approximate law, which is exact only for the charges

at rest that stayed at rest during suﬃciently long time so that

process of transmission of electric interaction has been terminated.

Theory of electromagnetism has measurable constant c (light

velocity (1.5)), which is ﬁrst pretender for the role of transmission

velocity of electric and magnetic interactions. For this reason

electromagnetic theory is much more favorable as compared to

Newton’s theory of gravitation.

The value of light velocity is a very large quantity. If we settle

an experiment of measuring Coulomb force at the distances of the

order of r ≈ 10 cm, for the time of transmission of interaction we

would get times of the order of t ≈ 3 10

−10

sec. Experimental

technique of XIX-th century was unable to detect such a short

interval of time. Therefore the problem of choosing concept could

not be solved experimentally. In XIX-th century it was subject for

contests. The only argument against the concept of distant action

that time, quite likely, was its straightness, its self-completeness,

and hence its scarcity.

In present time concept of near action is commonly accepted.

Now we have the opportunity for testing it experimentally in the

scope of electromagnetic phenomena. Let’s study this concept

more attentively. According to the concept of near action, process

of transmitting interaction to far distance exhibits an inertia.

Starting at one point, where moving charge is placed, for some

time this process exist in hidden form with no inﬂuence to both

charges. In order to describe this stage of process we need to

introduce new concept. This concept is a ﬁeld.

Field is a material entity able to ﬁll the whole space and able

to act upon other material bodies transmitting mutual interaction

of them.

The number of ﬁelds deﬁnitely known to scientists is not big.

There are only four fundamental ﬁelds: strong ﬁeld, weak ﬁeld,

CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.

§ 3. SUPERPOSITION PRINCIPLE. 15

electromagnetic ﬁeld, and gravitational ﬁeld. Strong and weak

ﬁelds are very short distance ﬁelds, they reveal themselves only

in atomic nuclei, in collisions and decay of elementary particles,

and in stellar objects of extremely high density, which are called

neutron stars. Strong and weak interactions and ﬁelds are not

considered in this book.

There are various terms using the word ﬁeld: vector ﬁeld, tensor

ﬁeld, spinor ﬁeld, gauge ﬁeld, and others. These are mathematical

terms reﬂecting some deﬁnite properties of real physical ﬁelds.

¸ 3. Superposition principle.

Let’s apply concept of near action to Coulomb law for two

charged points. Coulomb force in the framework of this concept

can be interpreted as follows: ﬁrst charge produces electric ﬁeld

around itself, and this ﬁeld acts upon other charge. Result of such

action is detected as a force F applied to second charge. Force

is vectorial quantity. Let’s denote by F vector of force and take

into account the direction of this vector determined by verbal

statement of Coulomb law above. This yields

(3.1) F = Q

1

Q

2

r

2

−r

1

[r

2

−r

1

[

3

.

Here r

1

and r

2

are radius-vectors of points, where charges Q

1

and

Q

2

are placed. Let’s consider vector E determined as the ratio

E = F/Q

2

. For this vector from formula (3.1) we derive

(3.2) E = Q

1

r

2

−r

1

[r

2

−r

1

[

3

.

Vector E depends upon the position of ﬁrst charge and upon

its value. It depends also on the position of second charge, but

it doesn’t depend on the value of second charge. One can take

16 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.

vector E for quantitative measure of electric ﬁeld produced by ﬁrst

charge Q

1

at the point r

2

, where second charge is placed. Vector

E can be determined by formula (3.2) or it can be measured

experimentally. For this purpose one should place test charge q

to the point r

2

and one should measure Coulomb force F acting

upon this test charge. Then vector E is determined by division of

F by the value of test charge q:

(3.3) E = F/q.

Now consider more complicated situation. Suppose that

charges Q

1

, . . . , Q

n

are placed at the points r

1

, . . . , r

n

. They

produce electric ﬁeld around them, and this ﬁeld acts upon test

charge q placed at the point r. This action reveals as a force F

applied to the charge q. Again we can deﬁne vector E of the form

(3.3) and take it for the quantitative measure of electric ﬁeld at

the point r. This vector is called vector of intensity of electric

ﬁeld or simply vector of electric ﬁeld at that point.

Generally speaking, in this case one cannot be a priori sure

that vector E does not depend on the quantity of test charge q.

However, there is the following experimental fact.

Superposition principle. Electric ﬁeld E at the point r

produced by a system of point charges Q

1

, . . . , Q

n

is a vectorial

sum of electric ﬁelds that would be produced at this point by each

charge Q

1

, . . . , Q

n

separately.

Superposition principle combined with Coulomb law leads to

the following formula for the intensity of electric ﬁeld produced

by a system of point charges at the point r:

(3.4) E(r) =

n

i=1

Q

i

r −r

i

[r −r

i

[

3

.

§ 3. SUPERPOSITION PRINCIPLE. 17

Using superposition principle, one can pass from point charges

to continuously distributed charges. Suppose that the number of

point charges tends to inﬁnity: n → ∞. In such limit sum in

formula (3.4) is replaced by integral over 3-dimensional space:

(3.5) E(r) =

_

ρ(˜r)

r −˜r

[r −˜r[

3

d

3

˜r.

Here ρ(˜r) is spatial density of charge at the point ˜r. This value

designates the amount of charge per unit volume.

In order to ﬁnd force acting on test charge q we should invert

formula (3.3). As a result we obtain

(3.6) F = q E(r).

Force acting on a charge q in electric ﬁeld is equal to the product

of the quantity of this charge by the vector of intensity of ﬁeld at

the point, where charge is placed. However, charge q also produces

electric ﬁeld. Does it experience the action of its own ﬁeld ? For

point charges the answer to this question is negative. This fact

should be treated as a supplement to principle of superposition.

Total force acting on a system of distributed charges in electric

ﬁeld is determined by the following integral:

(3.7) F =

_

ρ(r) E(r) d

3

r.

Field E(r) in (3.7) is external ﬁeld produced by external charges.

Field of charges with density ρ(r) is not included into E(r).

Concluding this section, note that formulas (3.4) and (3.5) hold

only for charges at rest, which stayed at rest for suﬃciently long

time so that process of interaction transmitting reached the point

of observation r. Fields produced by such systems of charges are

called static ﬁelds, while branch of theory of electromagnetism

studying such ﬁelds is called electrostatics.

18 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.

¸ 4. Lorentz force and Biot-Savart-Laplace law.

Ampere law of interaction of parallel conductors with currents

is an analog of Coulomb law for magnetic interactions. Accord-

ing to near action principle, force F

arises as a result of action of mag-

netic ﬁeld produced by a current in

ﬁrst conductor upon second conduc-

tor. However, parallel conductors

cannot be treated as point objects:

formula (1.4) holds only for l ≫ r.

In order to get quantitative measure

Fig. 4.1

vt

of magnetic ﬁeld at some point r

let’s consider current I

2

in (1.4) as

a ﬂow of charged particles of charge

q each, and each moving along con-

ductor with constant velocity v. If we denote by ν the number

of such particles per unit length of conductor, then in the whole

length l we would have N = ν l particles. Then during time in-

terval t we would have n = ν v t particles passing through a ﬁxed

cross-section of the conductor. They carry charge amounting to

Q = q ν v t. Therefore for current I

2

in second conductor we get

I

2

= Q/t = q ν v.

Upon calculating force acting on a segment of conductor of the

length l by formula (1.4) we should divide it by the number of

particles N contained in this segment. Then for the force per each

particle we derive

(4.1) F =

2

c

2

I

1

I

2

l

r N

=

2

c

2

I

1

q v

r

.

Formula determines (4.1) qualitative dependence of F on q and

on v: each charged particle moving in magnetic ﬁeld experiences

§ 4. LORENTZ FORCE AND . . . 19

a force proportional to its charge q and to the magnitude of its

velocity vector v = [v[, i. e. we have proportionality

(4.2) F ∼ q v.

Force and velocity both are vectorial quantities. Simplest way to

relate two vectors F and v is to use vector product of v with

some third vectorial quantity H:

(4.3) F =

q

c

[v, H(r)].

Here c is scalar constant equal to light velocity. Vectorial quantity

H(r) is a quantitative measure of magnetic ﬁeld at the point r.

It is called intensity of magnetic ﬁeld at that point. Scalar factor

1/c in (4.3) is used for to make H to be measured by the same

units as intensity of electric ﬁeld E in (3.6). Force F acting on

a point charge in magnetic ﬁeld is called Lorentz force. Total

Lorentz force acting on a charge in electromagnetic ﬁeld is a sum

of two components: electric component and magnetic component:

(4.4) F = q E+

q

c

[v, H].

Formula (4.4) extends formula (3.6) for the case of general electro-

magnetic ﬁelds. It holds not only for static but for time-dependent

(non-static) ﬁelds. Surely the above derivation of formula (4.4) is

empiric. Actually, one should treat formula (4.4) as experimental

fact that do not contradict to another experimental fact (1.4)

within theory being developed.

Let’s turn back to our conductors. Formula (4.3) can be

interpreted in terms of currents. Each segment of unit length of

a conductor with current I in magnetic ﬁeld H experiences the

force

(4.5)

F

l

=

I

c

[τ, H]

20 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.

acting on it. Here τ is unit vector tangent to conductor and di-

rected along current in it. Total force acting on circular conductor

with current I is determined by contour integral

(4.6) F =

_

I

c

[τ(s), H(r(s))] ds,

where s is natural parameter on contour (length) and r(s) is

vector-function determining shape of contour in parametric form.

Let’s consider the case of two parallel conductors. Force F now

can be calculated by formula (4.5) assuming that ﬁrst conductor

produces magnetic ﬁeld H(r) that acts upon second conductor.

Auxiliary experiment shows that vector H is perpendicular to

the plane of these two parallel conductors. The magnitude of

magnetic ﬁeld H = [H[ can be determined by formula (4.1):

(4.7) H =

2

c

I

1

r

.

Here r is the distance from observation point to the conductor

producing ﬁeld at that point.

Magnetic ﬁeld produced by conductor with current satisﬁes

superposition principle. In particular, ﬁeld of inﬁnite straight

line conductor (4.7) is composed by ﬁelds produced by separate

segments of this conductor. One cannot measure magnetic ﬁeld of

separate segment experimentally since one cannot keep constant

current is such separate segment for suﬃciently long time. But

theoretically one can consider inﬁnitesimally small segment of

conductor with current of the length ds. And one can write

formula for magnetic ﬁeld produced by such segment of conductor:

(4.8) dH(r) =

1

c

[I τ, r −˜r]

[r −˜r[

3

ds.

§ 5. CURRENT DENSITY AND . . . 21

Here τ is unit vector determining spatial orientation of inﬁnitesi-

mal conductor. It is always taken to be directed along current I.

In practice, when calculating magnetic ﬁelds produced by circular

conductors, formula (4.8) is taken in integral form:

(4.9) H(r) =

_

1

c

[I τ(s), r −˜r(s)]

[r −˜r(s)[

3

ds.

Like in (4.6), here s is natural parameter on the contour and ˜r(s)

is vectorial function determining shape of this contour. Therefore

τ(s) = d˜r(s)/ds. The relationship (4.8) and its integral form (4.9)

constitute Biot-Savart-Laplace law for circular conductors with

current.

Biot-Savart-Laplace law in form (4.8) cannot be tested exper-

imentally. However, in integral form (4.9) for each particular

conductor it yields some particular expression for H(r). This

expression then can be veriﬁed in experiment.

Exercise 4.1. Using relationships (4.6) and (4.9), derive the

law of interaction of parallel conductors with current in form (1.4).

Exercise 4.2. Find magnetic ﬁeld of the conductor with cur-

rent having the shape of circle of the radius a.

¸ 5. Current density

and the law of charge conservation.

Conductors that we have considered above are kind of ideal-

ization. They are linear, we assume them having no thickness.

Real conductor always has some thickness. This fact is ignored

when we consider long conductors like wire. However, in some

cases thickness of a conductor cannot be ignored. For example, if

we consider current in electrolytic bath or if we study current in

plasma in upper layers of atmosphere. Current in bulk conductors

can be distributed non-uniformly within volume of conductor.

CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.

22 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.

The concept of current density j is best one for describing such

situation.

Current density is vectorial quantity depending on a point of

conducting medium: j = j(r). Vector of current density j(r)

indicate the direction of charge transport at the point r. Its

magnitude j = [ j [ is determined by the amount of charge passing

through unit area perpendicular to vector j per unit time. Let’s

mark mentally some restricted domain Ω within bulk conducting

medium. Its boundary is smooth closed surface. Due to the

above deﬁnition of current density the amount of charge ﬂowing

out from marked domain per unit time is determined by surface

integral over the boundary of this domain, while charge enclosed

within this domain is given by spatial integral:

Q =

_

Ω

ρ d

3

r, J =

_

∂Ω

¸

j, n

_

dS. (5.1)

Here n is unit vector of external normal to the surface ∂Ω

restricting domain Ω.

Charge conservation law is one more fundamental experimental

fact reﬂecting the nature of electromagnetism. In its classical

form it states that charges cannot appear from nowhere and

cannot disappear as well, they can only move from one point to

another. Modern physics insert some correction to this statement:

charges appear and can disappear in processes of creation and

annihilation of pairs of elementary particles consisting of particle

and corresponding antiparticle. However, even in such creation-

annihilation processes total balance of charge is preserved since

total charge of a pair consisting of particle and antiparticle is

always equal to zero. When applied to integrals (5.1) charge

conservation law yields:

˙

Q = −J. This relationship means that

decrease of charge enclosed within domain Ω is always due to

§ 5. CURRENT DENSITY AND . . . 23

charge leakage through the boundary and conversely increase of

charge is due to incoming ﬂow through the boundary of this

domain. Let’s write charge conservation law in the following

form:

(5.2)

d

dt

_ _

Ω

ρ d

3

r

_

+

_

∂Ω

¸

j, n

_

dS = 0.

Current density j is a vector depending on a point of conducting

medium. Such objects in diﬀerential geometry are called vector

ﬁelds. Electric ﬁeld E and magnetic ﬁeld H are other examples

of vector ﬁelds. Surface integral J in (5.1) is called ﬂow of vector

ﬁeld j through the surface ∂Ω. For smooth vector ﬁeld any surface

integral like J can be transformed to spatial integral by means of

Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula. When applied to (5.2), this yields

(5.3)

_

Ω

_

∂ρ

∂t

+ div j

_

d

3

r = 0.

Note that Ω in (5.3) is an arbitrary domain that we marked men-

tally within conducting medium. This means that the expression

being integrated in (5.3) should be identically zero:

(5.4)

∂ρ

∂t

+ div j = 0.

The relationships (5.2) and (5.4) are integral and diﬀerential

forms of charge conservation law respectively. The relationship

(5.4) also is known as continuity equation for electric charge.

When applied to bulk conductors with distributed current j

within them, formula (4.6) is rewritten as follows:

(5.5) F =

_

1

c

[ j(r), H(r)] d

3

r.

24 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.

Biot-Savart-Laplace law for such conductors also is written in

terms of spatial integral in the following form:

(5.6) H(r) =

_

1

c

[ j(˜r), r −˜r]

[r −˜r[

3

d

3

˜r.

In order to derive formulas (5.5) and (5.6) from formulas (4.6)

and (4.8) one should represent bulk conductor as a union of linear

conductors, then use superposition principle and pass to the limit

by the number of linear conductors n →∞.

¸ 6. Electric dipole moment.

Let’s consider some conﬁguration of distributed charge with

density ρ(r) which is concentrated within some restricted domain

Ω. Let R be maximal linear size of the domain Ω. Let’s choose

coordinates with origin within this domain Ω and let’s choose

observation point r which is far enough from the domain of

charge concentration: [r[ ≫R. In order to ﬁnd electric ﬁeld E(r)

produced by charges in Ω we use formula (3.5):

(6.1) E(r) =

_

Ω

ρ(˜r)

r −˜r

[r −˜r[

3

d

3

˜r.

Since domain Ω in (6.1) is restricted, we have inequality [˜r[ ≤ R.

Using this inequality along with [r[ ≫ R, we can write Taylor

expansion for the fraction in the expression under integration in

(6.1). As a result we get power series in powers of ratio ˜r/[r[:

(6.2)

r −˜r

[r −˜r[

3

=

r

[r[

3

+

1

[r[

2

_

3

r

[r[

_

r

[r[

,

˜r

[r[

_

−

˜r

[r[

_

+. . . .

Substituting (6.2) into (6.1), we get the following expression for

§ 6. ELECTRIC DIPOLE MOMENT. 25

the vector of electric ﬁeld E(r) produced by charges in Ω:

(6.3) E(r) = Q

r

[r[

3

+

3

¸

r, D

_

r −[r[

2

D

[r[

5

+. . . .

First summand in (6.3) is Coulomb ﬁeld of point charge Q placed

at the origin, where Q is total charge enclosed in the domain Ω.

It is given by integral (5.1).

Second summand in (6.3) is known as ﬁeld of point dipole

placed at the origin. Vector D there is called dipole moment. For

charges enclosed within domain Ω it is given by integral

(6.4) D =

_

Ω

ρ(˜r) ˜r d

3

˜r.

For point charges dipole moment is determined by sum

(6.5) D =

n

i=1

Q

i

˜r

i

.

For the system of charges concentrated near origin, which is

electrically neutral in whole, the ﬁeld of point dipole

(6.6) E(r) =

3

¸

r, D

_

r −[r[

2

D

[r[

5

is leading term in asymptotics for electrostatic ﬁeld (3.4) or

(3.5) as r → ∞. Note that for the system of charges with

Q = 0 dipole moment D calculated by formulas (6.4) and (6.5)

is invariant quantity. This quantity remains unchanged when

we move all charges to the same distance at the same direction

without changing their mutual orientation: ˜r →˜r +r

0

.

26 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.

Exercise 6.1. Concept of charge density is applicable to point

charges as well. However, in this case ρ(r) is not ordinary function.

It is distribution. For example point charge Q placed at the point

r = 0 is represented by density ρ(r) = Qδ(r), where δ(r) is Dirac’s

delta-function. Consider the density

(6.7) ρ(r) =

¸

D, gradδ(r)

_

=

3

i=1

D

i

∂δ(r)

∂r

i

.

Applying formula (5.1), calculate total charge Q corresponding to

this density (6.7). Using formula (6.4) calculate dipole moment

for distributed charge (6.7) and ﬁnd electrostatic ﬁeld produced

by this charge. Compare the expression obtained with (6.6) and

explain why system of charges described by the above density (6.7)

is called point dipole.

Exercise 6.2. Using formula (3.7) ﬁnd the force acting on

point dipole in external electric ﬁeld E(r).

¸ 7. Magnetic moment.

Let’s consider situation similar to that of previous section.

Suppose some distributed system of currents is concentrated in

some restricted domain near origin. Let R be maximal linear

size of this domain Ω. Current density j(r) is smooth vector-

function, which is nonzero only within Ω and which vanishes at

the boundary ∂Ω and in outer space. Current density j(r) is

assumed to be stationary, i. e. it doesn’t depend on time, and it

doesn’t break charge balance, i. e. ρ(r) = 0. Charge conservation

law applied to this situation yields

(7.1) div j = 0.

§ 7. MAGNETIC MOMENT. 27

In order to calculate magnetic ﬁeld H(r) we use Biot-Savart-

Laplace law written in integral form (5.6):

(7.2) H(r) =

_

Ω

1

c

[ j(˜r), r −˜r]

[r −˜r[

3

d

3

˜r.

Assuming that [r[ ≫ R, we take Taylor expansion (6.2) and

substitute it into (7.2). As a result we get

(7.3)

H(r) =

_

Ω

[ j(˜r), r]

c [r[

3

d

3

˜r +

+

_

Ω

3

¸

r, ˜r

_

[ j(˜r), r] −[r[

2

[ j(˜r), ˜r]

c [r[

5

d

3

˜r + . . . .

Lemma 7.1. First integral in (7.3) is identically equal to zero.

Proof. Denote this integral by H

1

(r). Let’s choose some

arbitrary constant vector e and consider scalar product

(7.4)

¸

H

1

, e

_

=

_

Ω

¸

e, [ j(˜r), r]

_

c [r[

3

d

3

˜r =

_

Ω

¸

j(˜r), [ r, e]

_

c [r[

3

d

3

˜r.

Then deﬁne vector a and function f(˜r) as follows:

a =

[r, e]

c [r[

3

, f(˜r) =

¸

a, ˜r

_

.

Vector a does not depend on ˜r, therefore in calculating integral

(7.4) we can take it for constant vector. For this vector we derive

28 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.

a = gradf. Substituting this formula into the (7.4), we get

(7.5)

¸

H

1

, e

_

=

_

Ω

¸

j, gradf

_

d

3

˜r =

=

_

Ω

div(f j) d

3

˜r −

_

Ω

f div j d

3

˜r.

Last integral in (7.5) is equal to zero due to (7.1). Previous inte-

gral is transformed to surface integral by means of Ostrogradsky-

Gauss formula. It is also equal to zero since j(˜r) vanishes at the

boundary of domain Ω. Therefore

(7.6)

¸

H

1

, e

_

=

_

∂Ω

f

¸

j, n

_

dS = 0.

Now vanishing of vector H

1

(r) follows from formula (7.6) since e

is arbitrary constant vector. Lemma 7.1 is proved.

Let’s transform second integral in (7.3). First of all we denote

it by H

2

(r). Then, taking an arbitrary constant vector e, we form

scalar product

¸

H

2

, e

_

. This scalar product can be brought to

(7.7)

¸

H

2

, e

_

=

1

c [r[

5

_

Ω

¸

j(˜r), b(˜r)

_

d

3

˜r,

where b(˜r) = 3

¸

r, ˜r

_

[r, e] − [r[

2

[˜r, e]. If one adds gradient of

arbitrary function f(˜r) to b(˜r), this wouldn’t change integral

in (7.7). Formulas (7.5) and (7.6) form an example of such

invariance. Let’s specify function f(˜r), choosing it as follows:

(7.8) f(˜r) = −

3

2

¸

r, ˜r

_ ¸

˜r, [r, e]

_

.

CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.

§ 7. MAGNETIC MOMENT. 29

For gradient of function (7.8) by direct calculations we ﬁnd

gradf(˜r) = −

3

2

¸

˜r, [r, e]

_

r −

3

2

¸

r, ˜r

_

[r, e] =

= −3

¸

r, ˜r

_

[r, e] −

3

2

_

r

¸

˜r, [r, e]

_

−[r, e]

¸

r, ˜r

__

.

Now let’s use well-known identity [a, [b, c]] = b

¸

a, c

_

−c

¸

a, b

_

.

Assuming that a = ˜r, b = r, and c = [r, e], we transform the

above expression for gradf to the following form:

(7.9) gradf(˜r) = −3

¸

r, ˜r

_

[r, e] −

3

2

[˜r, [r, [r, e]]].

Right hand side of (7.9) contains triple vectorial product. In order

to transform it we use the identity [a, [b, c]] = b

¸

a, c

_

−c

¸

a, b

_

again, now assuming that a = r, b = r, and c = e:

gradf(˜r) = −3

¸

r, ˜r

_

[r, e] −

3

2

¸

r, e

_

[˜r, r] +

3

2

[r[

2

[˜r, e].

Let’s add this expression for gradf to vector b(˜r). Here is

resulting new expression for this vector:

(7.10) b(˜r) = −

3

2

¸

r, e

_

[˜r, r] +

1

2

[r[

2

[˜r, e].

Let’s substitute (7.10) into formula (7.7). This yields

¸

H

2

, e

_

=

_

Ω

−3

¸

r, e

_ ¸

r, [ j(˜r), ˜r]

_

+[r[

2

¸

e, [ j(˜r), ˜r]

_

2 c [r[

5

d

3

˜r.

Note that quantities j(˜r) and ˜r enter into this formula in form of

30 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.

vector product [ j(˜r), ˜r] only. Denote by M the following integral:

(7.11) M =

_

Ω

[˜r, j(˜r)]

2 c

d

3

˜r.

Vector M given by integral (7.11) is called magnetic moment for

currents with density j(˜r). In terms of M the above relationship

for scalar product

¸

H

2

, e

_

is written as follows:

(7.12)

¸

H

2

, e

_

=

3

¸

r, e

_ ¸

r, M

_

−[r[

2

¸

e, M

_

[r[

5

.

If we remember that e in formula (7.12) is an arbitrary constant

vector, then from (7.3) and lemma 7.1 we can conclude that the

ﬁeld of point magnetic dipole

(7.13) H(r) =

3

¸

r, M

_

r −[r[

2

M

[r[

5

is leading term in asymptotical expansion of static magnetic ﬁeld

(4.9) and (5.6) as r →∞.

Like electric dipole moment D of the system with zero total

charge Q = 0, magnetic moment M is invariant with respect

to displacements r → r + r

0

that don’t change conﬁguration of

currents within system. Indeed, under such displacement integral

(7.11) is incremented by

(7.14) △M =

_

Ω

[r

0

, j(˜r)]

2 c

d

3

˜r = 0.

Integral in formula (7.14) is equal to zero by the same reasons as

in proof of lemma 7.1.

§ 8. INTEGRAL EQUATIONS . . . 31

Exercise 7.1. Consider localized system of currents j(r) with

current density given by the following distribution:

(7.15) j(r) = −c [M, gradδ(r)].

Verify the relationship (7.1) for the system of currents (7.15) and

ﬁnd its magnetic moment M. Applying formula (5.6), calculate

magnetic ﬁeld of this system of currents and explain why this sys-

tem of currents is called point magnetic dipole.

Exercise 7.2. Using formula (5.5), ﬁnd the force acting upon

point magnetic dipole in external magnetic ﬁeld H(r).

Exercise 7.3. By means of the following formula for the torque

/=

_

1

c

[r, [ j(r), H]] d

3

r

ﬁnd torque / acting upon point magnetic dipole (7.15) in homo-

geneous magnetic ﬁeld H = const.

¸ 8. Integral equations

for static electromagnetic ﬁeld.

Remember that we introduced the concept of ﬂow of vector

ﬁeld through a surface in considering charge conservation law (see

integral J in (5.1)). Now we consider ﬂows of vector ﬁelds E(r)

and H(r), i. e. for electric ﬁeld and magnetic ﬁeld:

c =

_

S

¸

E, n

_

dS, H =

_

S

¸

H, n

_

dS. (8.1)

Let S be closed surface enveloping some domain Ω, i. e. S =

∂Ω. Electrostatic ﬁeld E is determined by formula (3.5). Let’s

32 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.

substitute (3.5) into ﬁrst integral (8.1) and then let’s change order

of integration in resulting double integral:

(8.2) c =

_

ρ(˜r)

_

∂Ω

¸

r −˜r, n(r)

_

[r −˜r[

3

dS d

3

˜r.

Inner surface integral in (8.2) is an integral of explicit function.

This integral can be calculated explicitly:

(8.3)

_

∂Ω

¸

r −˜r, n(r)

_

[r −˜r[

3

dS =

_

0, if ˜r ,∈ Ω,

4π, if ˜r ∈ Ω.

Here by Ω = Ω ∪ ∂Ω we denote closure of the domain Ω.

In order to prove the relationship (8.3) let’s consider vector

ﬁeld m(r) given by the following formula:

(8.4) m(r) =

r −˜r

[r −˜r[

3

.

Vector ﬁeld m(r) is smooth everywhere except for one special

point r = ˜r. In all regular points of this vector ﬁeld by direct

calculations we ﬁnd div m = 0. If ˜r ,∈ Ω special point of the ﬁeld

m is out of the domain Ω. Therefore in this case we can apply

Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula to (8.3):

_

∂Ω

¸

m, n

_

dS =

_

Ω

div md

3

r = 0.

This proves ﬁrst case in formula (8.3). In order to prove second

case, when ˜r ∈ Ω, we use tactical maneuver. Let’s consider spher-

ical ǫ-neighborhood O = O

ǫ

of special point r = ˜r. For suﬃciently

small ǫ this neighborhood O = O

ǫ

is completely enclosed into the

§ 8. INTEGRAL EQUATIONS . . . 33

domain Ω. Then from zero divergency condition div m = 0 for

the ﬁeld given by formula (8.4) we derive

(8.5)

_

∂Ω

¸

m, n

_

dS =

_

∂O

¸

m, n

_

dS = 4π.

The value of last integral over sphere ∂O in (8.5) is found by direct

calculation, which is not diﬃcult. Thus, formula (8.3) is proved.

Substituting (8.3) into (8.2) we get the following relationship:

(8.6)

_

∂Ω

¸

E, n

_

dS = 4π

_

Ω

ρ(r) d

3

r.

This relationship (8.6) can be formulated as a theorem.

Theorem (on the ﬂow of electric ﬁeld). Flow of electric ﬁeld

through the boundary of restricted domain is equal to total charge

enclosed within this domain multiplied by 4π.

Now let’s consider ﬂow of magnetic ﬁeld H in (8.1). Static

magnetic ﬁeld is determined by formula (5.6). Let’s substitute

H(r) given by (5.6) into second integral (8.1), then change the

order of integration in resulting double integral:

(8.7) H =

_ _

∂Ω

1

c

¸

[ j(˜r), r −˜r], n(r)

_

[r −˜r[

3

dS d

3

˜r.

It’s clear that in calculating inner integral over the surface ∂Ω

vector j can be taken for constant. Now consider the ﬁeld

(8.8) m(r) =

[ j, r −˜r]

c [r −˜r[

3

.

34 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.

Like (8.4), this vector ﬁeld (8.8) has only one singular point r = ˜r.

Divergency of this ﬁeld is equal to zero, this fact can be veriﬁed

by direct calculations. As appears in this case, singular point

makes no eﬀect to the value of surface integral in (8.7). Instead

of (8.3) in this case we have the following formula:

(8.9)

_

∂Ω

1

c

¸

[ j, r −˜r], n(r)

_

[r −˜r[

3

dS = 0.

For ˜r ,∈ Ω the relationship (8.9) follows from div m = 0 by

applying Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula. For ˜r ∈ Ω we have the

relationship similar to the above relationship (8.5):

(8.10)

_

∂Ω

¸

m, n

_

dS =

_

∂O

¸

m, n

_

dS = 0.

However, the value of surface integral over sphere ∂O in this case

is equal to zero since vector m(r) is perpendicular to normal

vector n at all points of sphere ∂O. As a result of substituting

(8.9) into (8.7) we get the relationship

(8.11)

_

∂Ω

¸

H, n

_

dS = 0,

which is formulated as the following theorem.

Theorem (on the ﬂow of magnetic ﬁeld). Total ﬂow of mag-

netic ﬁeld through the boundary of any restricted domain is equal

to zero.

Let r(s) be vectorial parametric equation of some closed spatial

curve Γ being the rim for some open surface S, i. e. Γ = ∂S. Open

surface S means that S and Γ have empty intersection. By S we

§ 8. INTEGRAL EQUATIONS . . . 35

denote the closure of the surface S. Then S = S ∪ Γ. Taking

s for natural parameter on Γ, we deﬁne circulation for electric

and magnetic ﬁelds in form of the

following contour integrals:

(8.12)

e =

_

Γ

¸

E, τ

_

ds,

h =

_

Γ

¸

H, τ

_

ds.

Substituting (3.5) into (8.12) and

changing the order of integration in

Fig. 8.1

Γ

n

S

n

n

resulting double integral, we get the

following equality for circulation of electric ﬁeld:

(8.13) e =

_

ρ(˜r)

_

Γ

¸

r(s) −˜r, τ(s)

_

[r(s) −˜r[

3

ds d

3

˜r.

Due to (8.13) we need to consider vector ﬁeld (8.4) again. For

˜r ,∈ Γ, taking into account Γ = ∂S and applying Stokes formula,

we can transform contour integral in (8.13) to surface integral:

(8.14)

_

Γ

¸

r(s) −˜r, τ(s)

_

[r(s) −˜r[

3

ds =

_

S

¸

rot m, n

_

dS = 0.

Values of integral (8.14) at those points ˜r ∈ Γ are of no matter

since when substituting (8.14) into integral (8.13) such points

constitute a set of zero measure.

Vanishing of integral (8.14) for ˜r ,∈ Γ follows from rot m = 0,

this equality can be veriﬁed by direct calculations. Singular point

r = ˜r of vector ﬁeld (8.4) is unessential since surface S, for which

CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.

36 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.

Γ is a boundary, can be deformed so that ˜r ,∈ S. The result of

substituting (8.14) into (8.13) can be written as an equation:

(8.15)

_

∂S

¸

E, τ

_

ds = 0.

Theorem (on the circulation of electric ﬁeld). Total circula-

tion of static electric ﬁeld along the boundary of any restricted

open surface is equal to zero.

Formula like (8.15) is available for magnetic ﬁeld as well. Here

is this formula that determines circulation of magnetic ﬁeld:

(8.16)

_

∂S

¸

H, τ

_

ds =

4 π

c

_

S

¸

j, n

_

dS.

Corresponding theorem is stated as follows.

Theorem (on the circulation of magnetic ﬁeld). Circulation of

static magnetic ﬁeld along boundary of restricted open surface is

equal to total electric current penetrating this surface multiplied

by fraction 4 π/c.

Integral over the surface S now is in right hand side of formula

(8.16) explicitly. Therefore surface spanned over the contour Γ

now is ﬁxed. We cannot deform this surface as we did above

in proving theorem on circulation of electric ﬁeld. This leads to

some technical complication of the proof. Let’s consider ε-blow-

up of surface S. This is domain Ω(ε) being union of all ε-balls

surrounding all point r ∈ S. This domain encloses surface S and

contour Γ = ∂S. If ε →0, domain Ω(ε) contracts to S.

Denote by D(ε) = R

3

¸ Ω(ε) exterior of the domain Ω(ε) and

then consider the following modiﬁcation of formula (5.6) that

§ 8. INTEGRAL EQUATIONS . . . 37

expresses Biot-Savart-Laplace law for magnetic ﬁeld:

(8.17) H(r) = lim

ε→0

_

D(ε)

1

c

[ j(˜r), r −˜r]

[r −˜r[

3

d

3

˜r.

Let’s substitute (8.17) into integral (8.12) and change the order of

integration in resulting double integral. As a result we get

(8.18) h = lim

ε→0

_

D(ε)

_

Γ

1

c

¸

[ j(˜r), r(s) −˜r], τ(s)

_

[r(s) −˜r[

3

ds d

3

˜r.

In inner integral in (8.18) we see vector ﬁeld (8.8). Unlike vector

ﬁled (8.4), rotor of this ﬁeld is nonzero:

(8.19) rot m =

3

¸

r −˜r, j

_

(r −˜r) −[r −˜r[

2

j

c [r −˜r[

5

.

Using Stokes formula and taking into account (8.19), we can

transform contour integral (8.18) to surface integral:

_

Γ

1

c

¸

[ j(˜r), r(s) −˜r], τ(s)

_

[r(s) −˜r[

3

ds =

=

_

S

3

¸

r −˜r, j(˜r)

_ ¸

r −˜r, n(r)

_

−[r −˜r[

2

¸

j(˜r), n(r)

_

c [r −˜r[

5

dS.

Denote by ¯ m(˜r) vector ﬁeld of the following form:

¯ m(˜r) =

3

¸

˜r −r, n(r)

_

(˜r −r) −[˜r −r[

2

n(r)

c [˜r −r[

5

.

38 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.

In terms of the ﬁeld ¯ m(˜r) formula for h is written as

h = lim

ε→0

_

D(ε)

_

S

¸

¯ m(˜r), j(˜r)

_

dS d

3

˜r.

Vector ﬁeld ¯ m(˜r) in this formula has cubic singularity [˜r − r[

−3

at the point ˜r = r. Such singularity is not integrable in R

3

(if

we integrate with respect to d

3

˜r). This is why we use auxiliary

domain D(ε) and limit as ε →0.

Let’s change the order of integration in resulting double integral

for circulation h. This leads to formula

_

S

_

D(ε)

¸

¯ m(˜r), j(˜r)

_

d

3

˜r dS =

_

S

_

D(ε)

¸

gradf(˜r), j(˜r)

_

d

3

˜r dS,

since vector ﬁeld ¯ m(˜r) apparently is gradient of the function f(˜r):

(8.20) f(˜r) = −

¸

˜r −r, n(r)

_

c [˜r −r[

3

.

Function f(˜r) vanishes as ˜r → ∞. Assume that current density

also vanishes as ˜r → ∞. Then due to the same considerations as

in proof of lemma 7.1 and due to formula (7.1) spatial integral in

the above formula can be transformed to surface integral:

(8.21) h = lim

ε→0

_

S

_

∂D(ε)

f(˜r)

¸

j(˜r), ˜ n(˜r)

_

d

¯

S dS.

Let’s change the order of integration in (8.21) then take into

account common boundary ∂D(ε) = ∂Ω(ε). Outer normal to the

§ 8. INTEGRAL EQUATIONS . . . 39

surface ∂D(ε) coincides with inner normal to ∂Ω(ε). This coin-

cidence and explicit form of function (8.20) lead to the following

expression for circulation of magnetic ﬁeld h:

(8.22) h = lim

ε→0

_

∂Ω(ε)

¸

j(˜r), ˜ n(˜r)

_

c

_

S

¸

˜r −r, n(r)

_

[˜r −r[

3

dS d

¯

S.

Let’s denote by V (˜r) inner integral in formula (8.22):

(8.23) V (˜r) =

_

S

¸

˜r −r, n(r)

_

[˜r −r[

3

dS.

Integral (8.23) is well-known in mathematical physics. It is called

potential of double layer. There is the following lemma, proof of

which can be found in [1].

Lemma 8.1. Double layer potential (8.23) is restricted func-

tion in R

3

¸ S. At each inner point ˜r ∈ S there are side limits

V

±

(˜r) = lim

r→±S

V (r),

inner limit V

−

(˜r) as r tends to ˜r ∈ S from inside along normal

vector n, and outer limit V

+

(˜r) as r tends to ˜r ∈ S from outside

against the direction of normal vector n. Thereby V

+

− V

−

= 4π

for all points ˜r ∈ S.

In order to calculate limit in formula (8.22) we need to study

the geometry of ε-blow-up of the surface S. On Fig. 8.2 below

we see cross-section of the domain Ω(ε) obtained from the surface

S shown on Fig. 8.1. For suﬃciently small ε boundary of the

domain Ω(ε) is composed of three parts:

(8.24) ∂Ω(ε) = S

0

∪ S

+

∪ S

−

.

40 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.

Surface S

0

is a part of ε-blow-up of the contour Γ Area of this

surface S

0

satisﬁes the relationship

(8.25) S

0

∼ επL as ε →0,

where L is length of contour

Γ. Surfaces S

+

and S

−

are ob-

tained as a result of normal shift

of surface S to the distance ε

along normal vector n, and to

the same distance against nor-

mal vector n.

Fig. 8.2

S

0

S

−

S

n

n S

+

Substituting (8.24) into (8.22)

we break surface integral over

∂Ω(ε) into three parts. Since

double layer potential and func-

tion [ j(˜r)[ are restricted, we get

the relationship

(8.26) lim

ε→0

_

S

0

V (˜r)

¸

j(˜r), ˜ n(˜r)

_

c

d

¯

S = 0.

For other two summand we also can calculate limits as ε →0:

(8.27)

_

S

±

V (˜r)

¸

j(˜r), ˜ n(˜r)

_

c

d

¯

S −→±

_

S

V

±

(r)

¸

j(r), n(r)

_

c

dS.

We shall not load reader with the proof of formulas (8.24), (8.25)

and (8.27), which are suﬃciently obvious. Summarizing (8.26)

and (8.27) and taking into account lemma 8.1, we obtain

(8.28) h =

4π

c

_

S

¸

j(r), n(r)

_

dS.

§ 9. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS . . . 41

This relationship (8.28) completes derivation of formula (8.16)

and proof of theorem on circulation of magnetic ﬁeld in whole.

Exercise 8.1. Verify the relationship div m = 0 for vector

ﬁelds (8.4) and (8.8).

Exercise 8.2. Verify the relationship (8.19) for vector ﬁeld

given by formula (8.8).

Exercise 8.3. Calculate gradf for the function (8.20).

¸ 9. Diﬀerential equations

for static electromagnetic ﬁeld.

In ¸ 8 we have derived four integral equations for electric and

magnetic ﬁelds. They are used to be grouped into two pairs.

Equations in ﬁrst pair have zero right hand sides:

_

∂Ω

¸

H, n

_

dS = 0,

_

∂S

¸

E, τ

_

ds = 0. (9.1)

Right hand sides of equations in second pair are non-zero. They

are determined by charges and currents:

(9.2)

_

∂Ω

¸

E, n

_

dS = 4π

_

Ω

ρ d

3

r,

_

∂S

¸

H, τ

_

ds =

4 π

c

_

S

¸

j, n

_

dS.

Applying Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula and Stokes formula, one

can transform surface integrals to spatial ones, and contour inte-

grals to surface integrals. Then, since Ω is arbitrary domain and

42 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.

S is arbitrary open surface, integral equations (9.1) and (9.2) can

be transformed to diﬀerential equations:

div H = 0, rot E = 0, (9.3)

div E = 4πρ, rot H =

4π

c

j. (9.4)

When considering diﬀerential equations (9.3) and (9.4), we should

add conditions for charges and currents being stationary:

∂ρ

∂t

= 0,

∂j

∂t

= 0. (9.5)

The relationship (7.1) then is a consequence of (9.5) and charge

conservation law.

Diﬀerential equations (9.3) and (9.4) form complete system

of diﬀerential equations for describing stationary electromagnetic

ﬁelds. When solving them functions ρ(r) and j(r) are assumed to

be known. If they are not known, one should have some additional

equations relating ρ and j with E and H. These additional

equations describe properties of medium (for instance, continuous

conducting medium is described by the equation j = σ E, where σ

is conductivity of medium).

CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.

CHAPTER II

CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS

¸ 1. Maxwell equations.

Diﬀerential equations (9.3) and (9.4), which we have derived

in the end of Chapter I, describe ﬁelds generated by stationary

charges and currents. They are absolutely unsuitable if we are

going to describe the process of haw electromagnetic interaction is

transmitted in space. Note that the notion of ﬁeld was introduced

within framework of the concept of near action for describing

the object that transmit interaction of charges and currents. For

static ﬁelds this property is revealed in a very restrictive form,

i. e. we use ﬁelds only to divide interaction of charges and currents

into two processes: creation of a ﬁeld by charges and currents is

ﬁrst process, action of this ﬁeld upon other currents and charges

is second process. Dynamic properties of the ﬁeld itself appears

beyond our consideration.

More exact equations describing process of transmitting elec-

tromagnetic interaction in its time evolution were suggested by

Maxwell. They are the following ones:

div H = 0, rot E = −

1

c

∂H

∂t

, (1.1)

div E = 4πρ, rot H =

4π

c

j +

1

c

∂E

∂t

. (1.2)

44 CHAPTER II. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS.

It is easy to see that equations (1.1) and (1.2) are generalizations

for the (9.3) and (9.4) from Chapter I. They are obtained from

latter ones by modifying right hand sides. Like equations (9.3)

and (9.4) in Chapter I, Maxwell equations (1.1) and (1.2) can be

written in form of integral equations:

_

∂Ω

¸

H, n

_

dS = 0,

_

∂S

¸

E, τ

_

ds = −

1

c

d

dt

_

S

¸

H, n

_

dS,

(1.3)

_

∂Ω

¸

E, n

_

dS = 4π

_

Ω

ρ d

3

r,

_

∂S

¸

H, τ

_

ds =

4 π

c

_

S

¸

j, n

_

dS +

1

c

d

dt

_

S

¸

E, n

_

dS.

(1.4)

Consider contour integral in second equation (1.3). Similar

contour integral is present in second equation (1.4). However,

unlike circulation of magnetic ﬁeld, circulation of electric ﬁeld

(1.5) e =

_

∂S

¸

E, τ

_

ds

possess its own physical interpretation. If imaginary contour

Γ = ∂S in space is replaced by real circular conductor, then

electric ﬁeld with nonzero circulation induces electric current in

conductor. The quantity e from (1.5) in this case is called electro-

motive force of the ﬁeld E in contour. Electromotive force e ,= 0

in contour produce the same eﬀect as linking electric cell with

§ 1. MAXWELL EQUATIONS. 45

voltage e into this contour. Experimentally it reveals as follow:

alternating magnetic ﬁeld produces electric ﬁeld with nonzero cir-

culation, this induces electric current in circular conductor. This

phenomenon is known as electromagnetic induction. It was ﬁrst

discovered by Faraday. Faraday gave qualitative description of

this phenomenon in form of the following induction law.

Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. Electromo-

tive force of induction in circular conductor is proportional to the

rate of changing of magnetic ﬂow embraced by this conductor.

Faraday’s induction law was a hint for Maxwell when choosing

right hand side in second equation (1.1). As for similar term in

right hand side of second equation (1.2), Maxwell had written it

by analogy. Experiments and further development of technology

proved correctness of Maxwell equations.

Note that charge conservation law in form of relationship (5.4)

from Chapter I is a consequence of Maxwell equations. One

should calculate divergency of both sides of second equation (1.2):

div rot H =

4π

c

div j +

1

c

∂ div E

∂t

,

then one should apply the identity div rot H = 0. When combined

with the ﬁrst equation (1.2) this yields exactly the relationship

(5.4) from Chapter I.

Equations (1.1) and (1.2) form complete system for describ-

ing arbitrary electromagnetic ﬁelds. In solving them functions

ρ(r, t) and j(r, t) should be given, or they should be determined

from medium equations. Then each problem of electrodynam-

ics mathematically reduces to some boundary-value problem or

mixed initial-value/boundary-value problem for Maxwell equa-

tions optionally completed by medium equations. In this section

46 CHAPTER II. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS.

we consider only some very special ones among such problems.

Our main goal is to derive important mathematical consequences

from Maxwell equations and to interpret their physical nature.

¸ 2. Density of energy and energy ﬂow

for electromagnetic ﬁeld.

Suppose that in bulk conductor we have a current with density

j, and suppose that this current is produced by the ﬂow of charged

particles with charge q. If ν is the number of such particles per

unit volume and if v is their velocity, then j = q ν v. Recall that

current density is a charge passing through unit area per unit

time (see ¸ 5 in Chapter I).

In electromagnetic ﬁeld each particle experiences Lorentz force

determined by formula (4.4) from Chapter I. Work of this force

per unit time is equal to

¸

F, v

_

= q

¸

E, v

_

. Total work produced

by electromagnetic ﬁeld per unit volume is obtained if one multi-

plies this quantity by ν, then w = q ν

¸

E, v

_

=

¸

E, j

_

. This work

increases kinetic energy of particles (particles are accelerated by

ﬁeld). Otherwise this work is used for to compensate forces of

viscous friction that resist motion of particles. In either case

total power spent by electromagnetic ﬁeld within domain Ω is

determined by the following integral:

(2.1) W =

_

Ω

¸

E, j

_

d

3

r.

Let’s transform integral (2.1). Let’s express current density j

through E and H using second equation (1.2) for this purpose:

(2.2) j =

c

4 π

rot H−

1

4 π

∂E

∂t

.

§ 2. DENSITY OF ENERGY AND ENERGY FLOW . . . 47

Substituting this expression (2.2) into formula (2.1), we get

(2.3) W =

c

4 π

_

Ω

¸

E, rot H

_

d

3

r −

1

8 π

_

Ω

∂

∂t

¸

E, E

_

d

3

r.

In order to implement further transformations in formula (2.3)

we use well-known identity div [a, b] =

¸

b, rot a

_

−

¸

a, rot b

_

.

Assuming a = H and b = E, for W we get

W =

c

4 π

_

Ω

div[H, E] d

3

r +

c

4 π

_

Ω

¸

H, rot E

_

d

3

r −

d

dt

_

Ω

[E[

2

8 π

d

3

r.

First integral in this expression can be transformed by means of

Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula, while for transforming rot E one can

use Maxwell equations (1.1):

(2.4) W +

_

∂Ω

c

4 π

¸

[E, H], n

_

dS +

d

dt

_

Ω

[E[

2

+[H[

2

8 π

d

3

r = 0.

Let’s denote by S and ε vectorial ﬁeld and scalar ﬁeld of the form

S =

c

4 π

[E, H], ε =

[E[

2

+[H[

2

8 π

. (2.5)

The quantity ε in (2.5) is called density of energy of electromag-

netic ﬁeld. Vector S is known as density of energy ﬂow. It also

called Umov-Pointing vector. Under such interpretation of quan-

tities (2.5) the relationship (2.4) can be treated as the equation

of energy balance. First summand in (2.4) is called dissipation

power, this is the amount of energy dissipated per unit time at

the expense of transmitting it to moving charges. Second sum-

mand is the amount of energy that ﬂows from within domain Ω to

48 CHAPTER II. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS.

outer space per unit time. These two forms of energy losses lead

to diminishing the energy stored by electromagnetic ﬁeld itself

within domain Ω (see third summand in (2.4)).

Energy balance equation (2.4) can be rewritten in diﬀerential

form, analogous to formula (5.4) from Chapter I:

(2.6)

∂ε

∂t

+ div S +w = 0.

Here w =

¸

E, j

_

is a density of energy dissipation. Note that in

some cases w and integral (2.1) in whole can be negative. In such

a case we have energy pumping into electromagnetic ﬁeld. This

energy then ﬂows to outer space through boundary of the domain

Ω. This is the process of radiation of electromagnetic waves from

the domain Ω. It is realized in antennas (aerials) of radio and

TV transmitters. If we eliminate or restrict substantially the

energy leakage from the domain Ω to outer space, then we would

have the device like microwave oven, where electromagnetic ﬁeld

is used for transmitting energy from radiator to beefsteak.

Electromagnetic ﬁeld can store and transmit not only the

energy, but the momentum as well. In order to derive momentum

balance equations let’s consider again the current with density j

due to the particles with charge q which move with velocity v.

Let ν be concentration of these particles, i. e. number of particles

per unit volume. Then j = q ν v and ρ = q ν. Total force acting

on all particles within domain Ω is given by integral

(2.7) F =

_

Ω

ρ Ed

3

r +

_

Ω

1

c

[ j, H] d

3

r.

In order to derive formula (2.7) one should multiply Lorentz force

acting on each separate particle by the number of particles per

unit volume ν and then integrate over the domain Ω.

§ 2. DENSITY OF ENERGY AND ENERGY FLOW . . . 49

Force F determines the amount of momentum transmitted

from electromagnetic ﬁeld to particles enclosed within domain Ω.

Integral (2.7) is vectorial quantity. For further transformations of

this integral let’s choose some constant unit vector e and consider

scalar product of this vector e and vector F:

(2.8)

¸

F, e

_

=

_

Ω

ρ

¸

E, e

_

d

3

r +

_

1

c

¸

e, [ j, H]

_

d

3

r.

Substituting (2.2) into (2.8), we get

(2.9)

¸

F, e

_

=

_

Ω

ρ

¸

E, e

_

d

3

r +

1

4 π

_

Ω

¸

e, [rot H, H]

_

d

3

r −

−

1

4 π c

_

Ω

¸

e, [∂E/∂t, H]

_

d

3

r.

Recalling well-known property of mixed product, we do cyclic

transposition of multiplicands in second integral (2.9). Moreover,

we use obvious identity [∂E/∂t, H] = ∂ [E, H] /∂t − [E, ∂H/∂t].

This yields the following expression for

¸

F, e

_

:

¸

F, e

_

=

_

Ω

ρ

¸

E, e

_

d

3

r +

1

4 π

_

Ω

¸

rot H, [H, e]

_

d

3

r −

−

1

4 π c

d

dt

_

Ω

¸

e, [E, H]

_

d

3

r +

1

4 π c

_

Ω

¸

e, [E, ∂H/∂t]

_

d

3

r.

Now we apply second equation of the system (1.1) written as

CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.

50 CHAPTER II. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS.

∂H/∂t = −c rot E. Then we get formula

(2.10)

¸

F, e

_

+

d

dt

_

Ω

¸

e, [E, H]

_

4 π c

d

3

r =

_

Ω

ρ

¸

E, e

_

d

3

r +

+

_

Ω

¸

rot H, [H, e]

_

+

¸

rot E, [E, e]

_

4 π

d

3

r.

In order to transform last two integrals in (2.10) we use the

following three identities, two of which we already used earlier:

(2.11)

[a, [b, c]] = b

¸

a, c

_

−c

¸

a, b

_

,

div [a, b] =

¸

b, rot a

_

−

¸

a, rot b

_

,

rot [a, b] = a div b −b div a −¦a, b¦.

Here by curly brackets we denote commutator of two vector

ﬁelds a and b (see [2]). Traditionally square brackets are used

for commutator, but here by square brackets we denote vector

product of two vectors. From second identity (2.11) we derive

¸

rot H, [H, e]

_

= div [H, [H, e]] +

¸

H, rot [H, e]

_

.

In order to transform rot[H, e] we use third identity (2.11):

rot[H, e] = −e div H−¦H, e¦. Then

¸

H, rot [H, e]

_

= −

¸

H, e

_

div H+

3

i=1

H

i

3

j=1

e

j

∂H

i

∂r

j

=

= −

¸

H, e

_

div H+

1

2

¸

e, grad[H[

2

_

.

§ 2. DENSITY OF ENERGY AND ENERGY FLOW . . . 51

Let’s combine two above relationships and apply ﬁrst identity

(2.11) for to transform double vectorial product [H, [H, e]] in

ﬁrst of them. As a result we obtain

¸

rot H, [H, e]

_

= div

_

H

¸

H, e

__

−div

_

e [H[

2

_

−

−

¸

H, e

_

div H+

1

2

¸

e, grad[H[

2

_

.

But div

_

e [H[

2

_

=

¸

e, grad[H[

2

_

. Hence as a ﬁnal result we get

(2.12)

¸

rot H, [H, e]

_

= −

¸

H, e

_

div H+

+ div

_

H

¸

H, e

_

−

1

2

e [H[

2

_

.

Quite similar identity can be derived for electric ﬁeld E:

(2.13)

¸

rot E, [E, e]

_

= −

¸

E, e

_

div E+

+ div

_

E

¸

E, e

_

−

1

2

e [E[

2

_

.

The only diﬀerence is that due to Maxwell equations div H = 0,

while divergency of electric ﬁeld E is nonzero: div E = 4πρ.

Now, if we take into account (2.12) and (2.13), formula (2.10)

can be transformed to the following one:

¸

F, e

_

−

_

∂Ω

¸

E, e

_¸

n, E

_

+

¸

H, e

_¸

n, H

_

4 π

dS +

+

_

∂Ω

([E[

2

+[H[

2

)

¸

e, n

_

8 π

dS +

d

dt

_

Ω

¸

e, [E, H]

_

4 π c

d

3

r = 0.

Denote by σ linear operator such that the result of applying this

52 CHAPTER II. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS.

operator to some arbitrary vector e is given by formula

(2.14) σ e = −

E

¸

E, e

_

+H

¸

H, e

_

4 π

+

[E[

2

+[H[

2

8 π

e.

Formula (2.14) deﬁnes tensorial ﬁeld σ of type (1, 1) with the

following components:

(2.15) σ

i

j

=

[E[

2

+[H[

2

8 π

δ

i

j

−

E

i

E

j

+H

i

H

j

4 π

.

Tensor σ with components (2.15) is called tensor of the density

of momentum ﬂow. It is also known as Maxwell tensor. Now let’s

deﬁne vector of momentum density p by formula

(2.16) p =

[E, H]

4 π c

.

In terms of the notations (2.15) and (2.16) the above relationship

for

¸

F, e

_

is rewritten as follows:

(2.17)

¸

F, e

_

+

_

∂Ω

¸

σ e, n

_

dS +

d

dt

_

Ω

¸

p, e

_

d

3

r = 0.

Operator of the density of momentum ﬂow σ is symmetric, i. e.

¸

σ e, n

_

=

¸

e, σ n

_

. Due to this property and because e is

arbitrary vector we can rewrite (2.17) in vectorial form:

(2.18) F +

_

∂Ω

σ ndS +

d

dt

_

Ω

pd

3

r = 0.

This equation (2.18) is the equation of momentum balance for

electromagnetic ﬁeld. Force F, given by formula (2.7) determines

§ 2. DENSITY OF ENERGY AND ENERGY FLOW . . . 53

loss of momentum stored in electromagnetic ﬁeld due to transmit-

ting it to moving particles. Second term in (2.18) determines loss

of momentum due to its ﬂow through the boundary of the domain

Ω. These two losses lead to diminishing the momentum stored

by electromagnetic ﬁeld within domain Ω (see third summand in

(2.18)).

The relationship (2.18) can be rewritten in diﬀerential form.

For this purpose we should deﬁne vectorial divergency for tensorial

ﬁeld σ of the type (1, 1). Let

(2.19) µ = div σ, where µ

j

=

3

i=1

∂σ

i

j

∂r

i

.

Then diﬀerential form of (2.18) is written as

(2.20)

∂p

∂t

+ div σ +f = 0,

where f = ρ E + [ j, H]/c is a density of Lorentz force, while

vectorial divergency is determined according to (2.19).

Thus, electromagnetic ﬁeld is capable to accumulate within

itself the energy and momentum:

c =

_

Ω

[E[

2

+[H[

2

8 π

d

3

r, P =

_

Ω

[E, H]

4 π c

d

3

r. (2.21)

It is also capable to transmit energy and momentum to material

bodies. This conﬁrms once more our assertion that electromag-

netic ﬁeld itself is a material entity. It is not pure mathematical

abstraction convenient for describing interaction of charges and

currents, but real physical object.

Exercise 2.1. Verify that relationships (2.11) hold. Check on

the derivation of (2.12) and (2.13).

54 CHAPTER II. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS.

¸ 3. Vectorial and scalar potentials

of electromagnetic ﬁeld.

In section 2 we have found that electromagnetic ﬁeld possess

energy and momentum (2.21). This is very important conse-

quence of Maxwell equations (1.1) and (1.2). However we have

not studied Maxwell equations themselves. This is system of four

equations, two of them are scalar equations, other two are vecto-

rial equations. So they are equivalent to eight scalar equations.

However we have only six undetermined functions in them: three

components of vector E and three components of vector H. So

observe somewhat like excessiveness in Maxwell equations.

One of the most popular ways for solving systems of algebraic

equations is to express some variable through other ones by

solving one of the equations in a system (usually most simple

equation) and then substituting the expression obtained into other

equations. Thus we exclude one variable and diminish the number

of equations in a system also by one. Sometimes this trick

is applicable to diﬀerential equations as well. Let’s consider

Maxwell equation div H = 0. Vector ﬁeld with zero divergency is

called vortex ﬁeld. For vortex ﬁelds the following theorem holds

(see proof in book [3]).

Theorem on vortex ﬁeld. Each vortex ﬁeld is a rotor of some

other vector ﬁeld.

Let’s write the statement of this theorem as applied to mag-

netic ﬁeld. It is given by the following relationship:

(3.1) H = rot A.

Vector ﬁeld A, whose existence is granted by the above theorem,

is called vector-potential of electromagnetic ﬁeld.

§ 3. VECTORIAL AND SCALAR POTENTIALS . . . 55

Let’s substitute vector H as given by (3.1) into second Maxwell

equation (1.1). This yields the equality

(3.2) rot E +

1

c

∂

∂t

rot A = rot

_

E+

1

c

∂A

∂t

_

= 0.

Vector ﬁeld with zero rotor is called potential ﬁeld. It is vector

ﬁeld E + (∂A/∂t)/c in formula (3.2) which is obviously potential

ﬁeld. Potential ﬁelds are described by the following theorem (see

proof in book [3]).

Theorem on potential ﬁeld. Each potential ﬁeld is a gradi-

ent of some scalar ﬁeld.

Applying this theorem to vector ﬁeld (3.2), we get the relation-

ship determining scalar potential of electromagnetic ﬁeld ϕ:

(3.3) E+

1

c

∂A

∂t

= −gradϕ.

Combining (3.1) and (3.3), we can express electric and magnetic

ﬁelds E and H through newly introduced ﬁelds A and ϕ:

(3.4)

E = −gradϕ −

1

c

∂A

∂t

,

H = rot A.

Upon substituting (3.4) into ﬁrst pair of Maxwell equations

(1.1) we ﬁnd them to be identically fulﬁlled. As for second pair of

Maxwell equations, substituting (3.4) into these equations, we get

(3.5)

−△ϕ −

1

c

∂

∂t

div A = 4 π ρ,

graddiv A−△A+

1

c

∂

∂t

gradϕ +

1

c

2

∂

2

A

∂t

2

=

4 π j

c

.

56 CHAPTER II. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS.

In deriving (3.5) we used relationships

(3.6)

div gradϕ = △ϕ,

rot rot A = graddiv A−△A.

Second order diﬀerential operator △ is called Laplace operator. In

rectangular Cartesian coordinates it is deﬁned by formula

(3.7) △ =

3

i=1

_

∂

∂r

i

_

2

=

∂

2

∂x

2

+

∂

2

∂y

2

+

∂

2

∂z

2

.

In order to simplify the equations (3.5) we rearrange terms in

them. As a result we get

(3.8)

1

c

2

∂

2

ϕ

∂t

2

−△ϕ = 4 π ρ +

1

c

∂

∂t

_

1

c

∂ϕ

∂t

+ div A

_

,

1

c

2

∂

2

A

∂t

2

−△A =

4 π j

c

− grad

_

1

c

∂ϕ

∂t

+ div A

_

.

Diﬀerential equations (3.8) are Maxwell equations written in

terms of A and ϕ. This is system of two equations one of

which is scalar equation, while another is vectorial equation. As

we can see, number of equations now is equal to the number of

undetermined functions in them.

¸ 4. Gauge transformations and Lorentzian gauge.

Vectorial and scalar potentials A and ϕ were introduced in

¸ 3 as a replacement for electric and magnetic ﬁelds E and H.

However, ﬁelds A and ϕ are not physical ﬁelds. Physical ﬁelds

E and H are expressed through A and ϕ according to formulas

(3.4), but backward correspondence is not unique, i. e. ﬁelds A

CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.

§ 4. GAUGE TRANSFORMATIONS . . . 57

and ϕ are not uniquely determined by physical ﬁelds E and H.

Indeed, let’s consider transformation

(4.1)

˜

A = A+ gradψ,

˜ ϕ = ϕ −

1

c

∂ψ

∂t

,

where ψ(r, t) is an arbitrary function. Substituting (4.1) into

formula (3.4), we immediately get

˜

E = E,

˜

H = H.

This means that physical ﬁelds E, H determined by ﬁelds

˜

A, ˜ ϕ

and by ﬁelds A, ϕ do coincide. Transformation (4.1) that do not

change physical ﬁelds E and H is called gauge transformation.

We use gauge transformations (4.1) for further simpliﬁcation of

Maxwell equations (3.8). Let’s consider the quantity enclosed in

brackets in right hand sides of the equations (3.8):

(4.2)

1

c

∂ϕ

∂t

+ div A =

1

c

∂ ˜ ϕ

∂t

+ div

˜

A+

_

1

c

2

∂

2

ψ

∂t

2

−△ψ

_

.

Denote by the following diﬀerential operator:

(4.3) =

1

c

2

∂

2

∂t

2

−△.

Operator (4.3) is called d’Alambert operator or wave operator.

Diﬀerential equation u = v is called d’Alambert equation.

Using gauge freedom provided by gauge transformation (4.1),

we can fulﬁll the following condition:

(4.4)

1

c

∂ϕ

∂t

+ div A = 0.

58 CHAPTER II. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS.

For this purpose we should choose ψ solving d’Alambert equation

ψ = −

_

1

c

∂ ˜ ϕ

∂t

+ div

˜

A

_

.

It is known that d’Alambert equation is solvable under rather

weak restrictions for its right hand side (see book [1]). Hence

practically always we can fulﬁll the condition (4.4). This condition

is called Lorentzian gauge.

If Lorentzian gauge condition (4.4) is fulﬁlled, then Maxwell

equations (3.8) simplify substantially:

ϕ = 4 π ρ, A =

4 π j

c

. (4.5)

They look like pair of independent d’Alambert equations. How-

ever, one shouldn’t think that variables A and ϕ are completely

separated. Lorentzian gauge condition (4.4) itself is an additional

equation requiring concordant choice of solutions for d’Alambert

equations (4.5).

D’Alambert operator (4.3) is a scalar operator, in (4.5) it acts

upon each component of vector A separately. Therefore operator

commutates with rotor operator and with time derivative as

well. Therefore on the base of (3.4) we derive

E = −4π gradρ −

4π

c

2

∂j

∂t

, H =

4π

c

rot j. (4.6)

These equations (4.6) have no entries of potentials A and ϕ.

They are written in terms of real physical ﬁelds E and H, and

are consequences of Maxwell equations (1.1) and (1.2). However,

backward Maxwell equations do not follow from (4.6).

§ 5. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. 59

¸ 5. Electromagnetic waves.

In previous Chapter we considered static electromagnetic ﬁelds.

Such ﬁelds are uniquely determined by static conﬁguration of

charges and currents (see formu-

las (3.5) and (5.6) in Chapter I ).

They cannot exist in the absence

of charges and currents. How-

Fig. 5.1

z

H

0

x

k

A

0

E

0

y

ever, as we shall see just below,

Maxwell equations have nonzero

solutions even in the case of iden-

tically zero currents and charges

in the space. Let’s study one of

such solutions. We choose some

right-oriented rectangular Carte-

sian system of coordinates and

take some constant vector k directed along x-axis (see Fig. 5.1).

Then we choose another constant vector A

0

directed along y-axis

and consider the following two functions:

A = A

0

sin(k x −ω t), ϕ = 0. (5.1)

Here k = [k[. Suppose ρ = 0 and j = 0. Then, substituting (5.1)

into (4.4) and into Maxwell equations (4.5), we get

(5.2) k

2

= [k[

2

=

ω

c

.

It is not diﬃcult to satisfy this condition (5.2). If it is fulﬁlled,

then corresponding potentials (5.1) describe plane electromag-

netic wave, ω being its frequency and k being its wave-vector,

which determines the direction of propagation of that plane wave.

Rewriting (5.1) in a little bit diﬀerent form

(5.3) A = A

0

sin(k(x −c t)),

60 CHAPTER II. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS.

we see that the velocity of propagating of plane electromagnetic

wave is equal to constant c (see (1.5) in Chapter I).

Now let’s substitute (5.1) into (3.4) and calculate electric and

magnetic ﬁelds in electromagnetic wave:

E = E

0

cos(k x −ω t), E

0

= [k[ A

0

,

H = H

0

cos(k x −ω t), H

0

= [k, A

0

], (5.4)

[E

0

[ = [H

0

[ = [k[ [A

0

[.

Vectors k, E

0

, and H

0

are perpendicular to each other, they form

right triple. Wave (5.4) with such vectors is called plane linear

polarized electromagnetic wave. Vector E

0

is taken for polarization

vector of this wave. Wave

E = E

0

cos(k x −ω t) +H

0

sin(k x −ω t),

H = H

0

cos(k x −ω t) −E

0

sin(k x −ω t)

is called circular polarized wave. It is superposition of two linear

polarized waves. Natural light is also electromagnetic wave. It

has no ﬁxed polarization, however it is not circular polarized as

well. Natural light is a superposition of numerous plane linear

polarized waves with chaotically distributed polarization vectors.

¸ 6. Emission of electromagnetic waves.

Plane wave (5.4) is an endless wave ﬁlling the whole space. It

is certainly kind of idealization. Real electromagnetic waves ﬁll

only some restricted part of the space. Moreover, they are not

eternal in time: there are sources (radiators) and absorbers of

electromagnetic ﬁelds. Formula (5.4) is an approximate descrip-

tion of real electromagnetic ﬁeld in that part of space which is far

apart from radiators and absorbers.

§ 6. EMISSION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. 61

In this section we consider process of generation and radiation

of electromagnetic waves. Usually radiator is a system of charges

and currents, which is not static. We describe it by means of

functions ρ(r, t) and j(r, t). Let’s consider Maxwell equations

transformed to the form (4.5). These are non-homogeneous diﬀer-

ential equations. Their solutions are not unique: to each solution

already found one can add arbitrary solution of corresponding

homogeneous equations. However, if we assume ρ(r, t) and j(r, t)

to be fast decreasing as r → ∞ and apply similar condition to

ϕ(r, t) and A(r, t), then we restrict substantially the freedom in

choosing solutions of the equations (4.5). In order to ﬁnd one

of such solutions we need fundamental solution of d’Alambert

operator. This is distribution of the form:

(6.1) u(r, t) =

c

2π

θ(t) δ(c

2

t

2

−[r[

2

),

where θ and δ are Heaviside theta-function and Dirac delta-

function respectively. Function (6.1) satisﬁes d’Alambert equation

with distribution in right hand side:

u = δ(t)δ(r).

In physics such objects are called Green functions. Knowing

fundamental solution (6.1) of d’Alambert operator, now we can

write solution for the equations (4.5) in form of contractions:

ϕ = 4π u ∗ ρ, A =

4π

c

u ∗ j. (6.2)

Here ∗ denotes contraction of two distributions, see [1]. Due to

the properties of this operation from charge conservation law (see

formula (5.4) in Chapter I) we derive Lorentzian gauge condition

(4.4) for scalar and vectorial potentials (6.2). For smooth and

62 CHAPTER II. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS.

suﬃciently fast decreasing functions ρ(r, t) and j(r, t) potentials

(6.2) are reduced to the following two integrals:

(6.3)

ϕ(r, t) =

_

ρ(˜r, t −τ)

[r −˜r[

d

3

˜r,

A(r, t) =

_

j(˜r, t −τ)

c [r −˜r[

d

3

˜r.

Here the quantity τ = τ(r, ˜r) is called time delay. It is determined

by the ratio τ = [r − ˜r[/c. Potentials (6.3) are called retarded

potentials.

Retarded potentials have transparent physical interpretation.

Scalar potential ϕ at the point r at time instant t is a superposi-

tion of contributions from charges at various points of the space,

the contribution from the point ˜r being determined not by charge

density at present time instant t, but at previous time instant

t − τ. Time delay τ is exactly equal to the time required for the

signal spreading with light velocity c from the source point ˜r to

get to the observation point r. Similar time delay is present in

formula for vector potential A.

Note that fundamental solution of d’Alambert equation is not

unique. For example there is a solution obtained from (6.1)

by changing τ for −τ. Such solution corresponds to advanced

potentials. However, in physics advanced potentials have no

meaning, since they would break causality principle.

Let’s consider system of charges located in some small domain

Ω surrounding the origin. Let R be maximal linear size of

this domain Ω. Using formulas (6.3), we calculate we calculate

electromagnetic ﬁeld of the system of charges at the point r which

is far distant from the domain Ω, i. e. [˜r[ ≤ R ≪[r[. Due to these

inequalities the ratio ˜r/[r[ is small vectorial quantity. Therefore

§ 6. EMISSION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. 63

we have the following asymptotic expansions for [r −˜r[ and t −τ:

(6.4)

[r −˜r[ = [r[ −

¸

r, ˜r

_

[r[

+. . . ,

t −τ = t −

[r[

c

+

¸

r, ˜r

_

[r[ c

+. . . .

The ratio [r[/c in (6.4) determines the time required for electro-

magnetic signal to get from the domain Ω to the observation point

[r[. Posterior terms in the series for t − τ are estimated by small

quantity R/c. This is the time of propagation of electromagnetic

signal within domain Ω.

Denote t

′

= t −[r[/c and let t − τ = t

′

+ θ. For the quantity θ

we have the estimate [θ[ ≤ R/c. Then let’s consider the following

Taylor expansions for ρ and j:

(6.5)

ρ(˜r, t −τ) = ρ(˜r, t

′

) +

∂ρ(˜r, t

′

)

∂t

θ +. . . ,

j(˜r, t −τ) = j(˜r, t

′

) +

∂j(˜r, t

′

)

∂t

θ +. . . .

The condition R ≪[r[ is not suﬃcient for the expansions (6.5) to

be consistent. Use of expansions (6.5) for approximating ρ(˜r, t−τ)

and j(˜r, t −τ) is possible only under some additional assumptions

concerning these functions. Denote by T some speciﬁc time for

which functions ρ and j within domain Ω change substantially. In

case when one can specify such time T, the following quantities

are of the same order, i. e. equally large or equally small:

(6.6)

ρ ≈ T

∂ρ

∂t

≈ . . . ≈ T

n

∂

n

ρ

∂t

n

,

j ≈ T

∂j

∂t

≈ . . . ≈ T

n

∂

n

j

∂t

n

.

CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.

64 CHAPTER II. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS.

Now (6.5) can be rewritten as follows:

(6.7)

ρ(˜r, t −τ) = ρ(˜r, t

′

) +T

∂ρ(˜r, t

′

)

∂t

θ

T

+. . . ,

j(˜r, t −τ) = j(˜r, t

′

) +T

∂j(˜r, t

′

)

∂t

θ

T

+. . . .

Correctness of use of expansions (6.7) and (6.5) is provided by

additional condition R/c ≪T. This yields θ/T ≪1.

The condition R/c ≪ T has simple meaning: the quantity

ω = 2π/T is a frequency of radiated electromagnetic waves, while

λ = 2πc/ω = c T is a wavelength. Hence condition R/c ≪ T

means that wavelength is mach greater than the size of radiator.

Suppose that both conditions R ≪c T and R ≪[r[ are fulﬁlled.

Let’s calculate retarded vector potential A in (6.3) keeping only

ﬁrst term in the expansion (6.5):

(6.8) A =

_

Ω

j(˜r, t

′

)

[r[ c

d

3

˜r +. . . .

In order to transform integral in (6.8) let’s choose some arbitrary

constant vector e and consider scalar product

¸

A, e

_

. Having

deﬁned vector a and function f(˜r) by the relationships

a =

e

c[r[

= gradf, f(˜r) =

¸

a, ˜r

_

,

we make calculations analogous to that of (7.5) in Chapter I:

(6.9)

_

Ω

¸

j, gradf

_

d

3

˜r =

_

Ω

div(f j) d

3

˜r −

_

Ω

f div j d

3

˜r =

=

_

∂Ω

f

¸

j, n

_

dS +

_

Ω

f

∂ρ

∂t

d

3

˜r =

_

Ω

∂ρ(˜r, t

′

)

∂t

¸

e, ˜r

_

[r[ c

d

3

˜r.

§ 6. EMISSION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. 65

Since e is arbitrary vector, for vector potential A from (6.9) we

derive the following formula:

(6.10) A =

_

Ω

∂ρ(˜r, t

′

)

∂t

˜r

[r[ c

d

3

˜r +. . . =

˙

D

[r[ c

+. . . .

Here

˙

D =

˙

D(t

′

) is time derivative of dipole moment D of the

system of charges at time instant t

′

.

In a similar way, keeping only initial terms in the expansions

(6.4) and (6.5), for scalar potential ϕ in (6.3) we ﬁnd

(6.11) ϕ =

_

Ω

ρ(˜r, t

′

)

[r[

d

3

˜r +. . . =

Q

[r[

+. . . ,

where Q is total charge enclosed within domain Ω. This charge

does not depend on time since domain Ω is isolated and we have

no electric current in outer space.

Let’s compare the expressions under integration in (6.10) and

(6.11) taking into account (6.6). This comparison yields

[A[ ≈

R

c T

ϕ.

The estimate R/(c T) ≪ 1 following from R ≪ c T means that

vectorial potential is calculated with higher accuracy than scalar

potential. Hence in calculating ϕ one should take into account

higher order terms in expansions (6.4) and (6.5). Then

(6.12)

ϕ =

Q

[r[

+

_

Ω

∂ρ(˜r, t

′

)

∂t

¸

r, ˜r

_

[r[

2

c

d

3

˜r+

+

_

Ω

ρ(˜r, t

′

)

[r[

¸

r, ˜r

_

[r[

2

d

3

˜r +. . . .

66 CHAPTER II. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS.

Calculating integrals in formula (6.12), we transform it to

(6.13) ϕ =

Q

[r[

+

¸

˙

D, r

_

[r[

2

c

+

¸

D, r

_

[r[

3

+. . . .

Potentials (6.10) and (6.13) are retarded potentials of the

system of charges in dipole approximation. Dependence of ρ and j

on time variable t lead to the dependence of D on t

′

in them. Let’s

consider asymptotics of of these potentials as r → ∞. Thereby

we can omit last term in (6.13). Then

ϕ =

Q

[r[

+

¸

˙

D, r

_

[r[

2

c

+. . . , A =

˙

D

[r[ c

+ . . . . (6.14)

Now on the base of formulas (3.4) and (6.14) we ﬁnd

asymptotics of electric and magnetic ﬁelds at far distance from

the system of charges. In calculating rot A and gradϕ we take

into account that t

′

= t −[r[/c in argument of

˙

D(t

′

) is a quantity

depending on r. This dependence determines leading terms in

asymptotics of E and H:

E =

[r, [r,

¨

D]]

[r[

3

c

2

+. . . , H = −

[r,

¨

D]

[r[

2

c

2

+. . . . (6.15)

Vectors E and H (more precisely, leading terms in their asymp-

totics) are perpendicular to each other and both are perpendicular

to vector r. This situation is similar to that of plane wave. How-

ever, in present case we deal with spherical wave being radiated

from the origin. The magnitude of ﬁelds [E[ ≃ [H[ decreases as

1/[r[, which is slower than for static Coulomb ﬁeld. Using formula

(2.5), one can ﬁnd the density of energy ﬂow for waves (6.15):

(6.16) S =

[[r,

¨

D][

2

4π [r[

5

c

3

r +. . . .

§ 6. EMISSION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. 67

For modulus of vector S we have [S[ ∼ 1/[r[

2

. This means that

total ﬂow of energy through the sphere of arbitrarily large sphere

is nonzero. So we have real radiation of electromagnetic energy.

The amount of radiated energy is determined by second time

derivative of dipole moment. Therefore this case is called dipole

approximation in theory of radiation.

Exercise 6.1. Applying formula (6.16), ﬁnd angular distribu-

tion of the intensity for dipole radiation. Also ﬁnd total intensity

of dipole radiation.

Exercise 6.2. Particle with charge q is moving along circular

path of radius R with constant velocity v = ωR for inﬁnitely long

time (ω is angular velocity). Calculate retarding potentials and

ﬁnd angular distribution for intensity of electromagnetic radiation

of this particle. Also ﬁnd total intensity of such cyclotronic radia-

tion.

Exercise 6.3. Assume that charge density ρ is zero, while cur-

rent density j is given by the following distribution:

(6.17) j(r, t) = −c [M(t), gradδ(r)]

(compare with (7.16) in Chapter I). Find retarding potentials (6.2)

for (6.17). Also ﬁnd angular distribution and total intensity for

magnetic-dipole radiation induced by current (6.17).

CHAPTER III

SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY

¸ 1. Galileo transformations.

Classical electrodynamics based on Maxwell equations histor-

ically was ﬁrst ﬁeld theory. It explained all electromagnetic

phenomena and predicted the existence of electromagnetic waves.

Later on electromagnetic waves were detected experimentally and

nowadays they have broad scope of applications in our everyday

life. However, along with successful development of this theory,

some diﬃculties there appeared. It was found that classical elec-

trodynamics contradicts to relativity principle. This principle in

its classical form suggested by Galileo and Newton states that

two Cartesian inertial coordinate systems moving with constant

velocity with respect to each other are equivalent. All physi-

cal phenomena in these two systems happen identically and are

described by the same laws.

Let’s consider two such Cartesian inertial coordinate systems

(r, t) and (˜r,

˜

t). Suppose that second system moves with velocity

u relative to ﬁrst one so that coordinate axes in motion remain

parallel to their initial positions. The relation of radius-vectors of

points then can be written in form of the following transforma-

tions known as Galileo transformations:

t =

˜

t, r = ˜r +u

˜

t. (1.1)

§ 1. GALILEO TRANSFORMATIONS. 69

First relationship (1.1) means that watches in two systems are

synchronized and tick synchronously. Let ˜r(

˜

t) be trajectory of

some material point in coordinate system (˜r,

˜

t). In ﬁrst coordi-

nate system this trajectory is given by vector r(t) = ˜r(

˜

t) + u

˜

t.

Diﬀerentiating this relationship, due to

˜

t = t in (1.1) we get

∂r

∂t

=

∂˜r

∂

˜

t

+u, v = ˜ v +u. (1.2)

Last relationship in (1.2) is known as classical law of velocity

addition. Diﬀerentiating (1.2) once more, we ﬁnd the relation for

accelerations of material point in these two coordinate systems:

∂

2

r

∂t

2

=

∂

2

˜r

∂

˜

t

2

, a = ˜ a. (1.3)

According to Newton’s second law, acceleration of material point

is determined by force F acting on it and by its mass ma = F.

From (1.3) due to relativity principle we conclude that force F

is invariant quantity. It doesn’t depend on the choice of inertial

coordinate system. This fact is represented by the relationship

(1.4) F(˜r +u

˜

t, ˜ v +u) =

˜

F(˜r, ˜ v).

Now let’s consider charged particle with charge q being at

rest in coordinate system (˜r,

˜

t). In this coordinate system it

produces Coulomb electrostatic ﬁeld. In coordinate system (r, t)

this particle is moving. Hence it should produce electric ﬁeld and

magnetic ﬁeld as well. This indicate that vectors E and H are

not invariant under Galileo transformations (1.1). Even if in one

coordinate system we have pure electric ﬁeld, in second system we

should expect the presence of both electric and magnetic ﬁelds.

70 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.

Therefore transformation rules for E and H analogous to (1.4) for

F should be written in the following form:

(1.5)

E(˜r +u

˜

t,

˜

t) = α(

˜

E(˜r,

˜

t),

˜

H(˜r,

˜

t), u),

H(˜r +u

˜

t,

˜

t) = β(

˜

E(˜r,

˜

t),

˜

H(˜r,

˜

t), u).

Due to superposition principle, which is fulﬁlled in both coordi-

nate systems, functions α and β are linear and homogeneous with

respect to

˜

E and

˜

H. Therefore (1.5) is rewritten as

(1.6)

E(r, t) = α

1

˜

E(˜r,

˜

t) +α

2

˜

H(˜r,

˜

t),

H(r, t) = β

1

˜

E(˜r,

˜

t) +β

2

˜

H(˜r,

˜

t),

where α

1

, α

2

, β

1

, β

2

are some linear operators which depend on

u only. Vectors E and H determine the action of electromagnetic

ﬁeld upon charges in form of Lorentz force (see formula (4.4) in

Chapter I). Substituting (1.6) into that formula and taking into

account (1.2) and (1.4), we get

(1.7)

qα

1

˜

E+qα

2

˜

H+

q

c

[˜ v +u, β

1

˜

E]+

+

q

c

[˜ v +u, β

2

˜

H] = q

˜

E+

q

c

[˜ v,

˜

H].

The relationship (1.7) is an identity with three arbitrary parame-

ters: ˜ v,

˜

E,

˜

H. Therefore we can equate separately terms bilinear

with respect to ˜ v and

˜

E. This yields [˜ v, β

1

˜

E] = 0, hence β

1

= 0.

Now let’s equate terms bilinear with respect to ˜ v and

˜

H. This

yields [˜ v, β

2

˜

H] = [˜ v,

˜

H]. Hence β

2

= 1. And ﬁnally we should

equate terms linear with respect to

˜

H and

˜

E. This yields the

following formulas for operators α

1

and α

2

:

α

2

˜

H = −

1

c

[u,

˜

H], α

1

= 1.

CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.

§ 1. GALILEO TRANSFORMATIONS. 71

Now, if we substitute the above expressions for operators α

1

, α

2

,

β

1

, β

2

into formula (1.6), we get the relationships

E =

˜

E−

1

c

[u,

˜

H], H =

˜

H. (1.8)

The relationships (1.8) should complete Galileo transforma-

tions (1.1) in electrodynamics. However, as we shall see just

below, they cannot do this mission in non-contradictory form.

For this purpose, let’s transform Maxwell equations written as

(1.1) and (1.2) in Chapter II to coordinate system (˜r,

˜

t). For

partial derivatives due to transformations (1.1) we have

∂

∂r

i

=

∂

∂˜ r

i

,

∂

∂t

=

∂

∂

˜

t

−

3

k=1

u

k

∂

∂˜ r

k

. (1.9)

Now, combining (1.8) and (1.9), we derive

div H = div

˜

H,

div E = div

˜

E+

1

c

¸

u, rot

˜

H

_

,

rot H = rot

˜

H

rot E = rot

˜

E+

1

c

¦u,

˜

H¦ −

1

c

u div

˜

H,

∂H

∂t

=

∂

˜

H

∂

˜

t

−¦u,

˜

H¦,

∂E

∂t

=

∂

˜

E

∂

˜

t

−¦u,

˜

E¦ +

1

c

[u, ¦u,

˜

H¦] −

1

c

[u, ∂

˜

H/∂

˜

t ].

Here by curly brackets we denote commutator of vector ﬁelds (see

[2]). Thereby vector u is treated as constant vector ﬁeld.

72 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.

When substituting the above expressions into Maxwell equa-

tions we consider the case of zero charges and currents: ρ = 0,

j = 0. This yields the following equations:

div

˜

H = 0,

div

˜

E = −

1

c

¸

u, rot

˜

H

_

,

rot

˜

H =

1

c

∂

˜

E

∂

˜

t

−

1

c

¦u,

˜

E¦+

+

1

c

2

[u, ¦u,

˜

H¦] −

1

c

2

[u, ∂

˜

H/∂

˜

t ],

rot

˜

E = −

1

c

∂

˜

H

∂

˜

t

.

Only two of the above four equations coincide with original

Maxwell equations. Other two equations contain the entries

of vector u that cannot be eliminated.

This circumstance that we have found is very important. In the

end of XIX-th century it made a dilemma for physicists. The way

how this dilemma was resolved had determined in most further

development of physics in XX-th century. Indeed, one had to

make the following crucial choice:

(1) to admit that Maxwell equations are not invariant with

respect to Galileo transformations, hence they require the

existence of some marked inertial coordinate system where

they have standard form given in the very beginning of

Chapter II;

(2) or to assume that formulas (1.1) are not correct, hence

relativity principle claiming equivalence of all inertial co-

ordinate systems is realized in some diﬀerent way.

§ 2. LORENTZ TRANSFORMATIONS. 73

First Choice had lead to ether theory. According to this theory,

marked inertial coordinate system is bound to some hypothetical

matter, which was called ether. This matter has no mass, no

color, and no smell. It ﬁlls the whole space and does not reveal

itself otherwise, but as a carrier of electromagnetic interaction.

Speciﬁed properties of ether look quite unusual, this makes ether

theory too artiﬁcial (not natural). As a compromise this theory

was admitted for a while, but later was refuted by experiments of

Michaelson and Morley, who tried to measure the Earth velocity

relative to ether (ether wind).

Second choice is more crucial. Indeed, refusing formulas (1.1),

we refuse classical mechanics of Newton in whole. Nevertheless

the development of science went through this second choice.

¸ 2. Lorentz transformations.

Having refused formulas (1.1), one should replace them by

something else. This was done by Lorentz. Following Lorentz,

now we replace Galileo transformations (1.1) by general linear

transformations relating (r, t) and (˜r,

˜

t):

c t = S

0

0

c

˜

t +

3

k=1

S

0

k

˜ r

k

, r

i

= S

i

0

c

˜

t +

3

k=1

S

i

k

˜ r

k

. (2.1)

In (2.1) we introduced c as a factor for time variables t and

˜

t in

order to equalize measure units. Upon introducing this factor all

components of matrix S appear to be purely numeric quantities

that do not require measure units at all. It is convenient to denote

c t by r

0

and treat this quantity as additional (fourth) component

of radius-vector:

(2.2) r

0

= ct.

74 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.

Then two relationships (2.1) can be united into one relationship:

(2.3) r

i

=

3

k=0

S

i

k

˜ r

k

.

In order to have invertible transformation (2.3) one should assume

that det S ,= 0. Let T = S

−1

. Then inverse transformation for

(2.3) is written as follows:

(2.4) ˜ r

i

=

3

k=0

T

i

k

r

k

.

By their structure transformation (2.3) and (2.4) coincide with

transformations of coordinates of four-dimensional vector under

the change of base. Soon we shall see that such interpretation

appears to be very fruitful.

Now the problem of deriving Lorentz transformations can be

formulated as problem of ﬁnding components of matrix S in (2.3).

The only condition we should satisfy thereby is the invariance

of Maxwell equations with respect to transformations (2.3) upon

completing them with transformations for ρ, j, E and H.

For the beginning let’s consider the case with no currents and

charges, i. e. the case ρ = 0, j = 0. Instead of Maxwell equations

let’s study their diﬀerential consequences written in form of the

equations (4.6) in Chapter II:

E = 0, H = 0. (2.5)

Invariance of (2.5) under the transformations (2.3) and (2.4) is

necessary (but possibly not suﬃcient) condition for invariance of

Maxwell equations from which the equations (2.5) were derived.

§ 2. LORENTZ TRANSFORMATIONS. 75

Further we need the following formula for d’Alambert operator

used in the above equations (2.5):

(2.6) =

3

i=0

3

j=0

g

ij

∂

∂r

i

∂

∂r

j

.

Here by g

ij

we denote components of matrix

(2.7) g

ij

= g

ij

=

_

_

_

1 0 0 0

0 −1 0 0

0 0 −1 0

0 0 0 −1

_

_

_

.

It is easy to see that inverse matrix g

ij

for (2.7) has the same

components, i. e. g

ij

= g

ij

.

From (2.3) and (2.4) we derive the following transformation

rules for ﬁrst order diﬀerential operators:

∂

∂r

i

=

3

k=0

T

k

i

∂

∂˜ r

k

,

∂

∂˜ r

i

=

3

k=0

S

k

i

∂

∂r

k

. (2.8)

Substituting (2.8) into formula (2.6), we get

=

3

p=0

3

q=0

˜ g

pq

∂

∂˜ r

p

∂

∂˜ r

q

,

where matrices g

ij

and ˜ g

pq

are related by formula

(2.9) ˜ g

pq

=

3

i=0

3

j=0

T

p

i

T

q

j

g

ij

.

76 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.

In terms of inverse matrices g

pq

and ˜ g

pq

this relationship (2.9) can

be rewritten as follows:

(2.10) g

ij

=

3

p=0

3

q=0

T

p

i

T

q

j

˜ g

pq

.

Theorem 2.1. For any choice of operator coeﬃcients α

1

, α

2

,

β

1

, and β

2

in formulas (1.6) the invariance of the form of equations

(2.5) under the transformations (2.3) and (2.4) is equivalent to

proportionality of matrices g and ˜ g, i. e.

(2.11) ˜ g

ij

= λg

ij

.

Numeric factor λ in formula (2.11) is usually chosen to be equal

to unity: λ = 1. In this case from (2.10) and (2.11) we derive

(2.12) g

ij

=

3

p=0

3

q=0

T

p

i

T

q

j

g

pq

.

In matrix form this relationship (2.12) looks like

(2.13) T

t

g T = g.

Here g is a matrix of the form (2.7), while by T

t

in (2.13) we

denote transposed matrix T.

Deﬁnition 2.1. Matrix T satisfying the relationship (2.13) is

called Lorentzian matrix.

It is easy to check up that the set of Lorentzian matrices form

a group. This group is usually denoted by O(1, 3). It is called

matrix Lorentz group.

§ 3. MINKOWSKY SPACE. 77

From the relationship (2.13) for Lorentzian matrix we derive

the equality (det T)

2

= 1. Hence det T = ±1. Lorentzian matrices

with unit determinant form the group SO(1, 3), it is called special

matrix Lorentz group.

If i = j = 0, from (2.12) we obtain the following formula

relating components of Lorentzian matrix T:

(2.14) (T

0

0

)

2

−(T

1

0

)

2

−(T

2

0

)

2

−(T

3

0

)

2

= 1.

Inequality [T

0

0

[ 1 is immediate consequence of the relationship

(2.14). Hence T

0

0

1 or T

0

0

−1. Lorentzian matrix with T

0

0

1

is called orthochronous. The set of orthochronous Lorentzian ma-

trices form orthochronous matrix Lorentz group O

+

(1, 3). Intersec-

tion SO

+

(1, 3) = SO(1, 3)∩O

+

(1, 3) is called special orthochronous

matrix Lorentz group.

Exercise 2.1. Prove theorem 2.1 under the assumption that

transformation (1.6) given by operator coeﬃcients α

1

, α

2

, β

1

, and

β

2

is invertible.

¸ 3. Minkowsky space.

In previous section we have found that each Lorentzian matrix

from group O(1, 3) determines some transformation (2.1) pre-

serving the form the equations (2.5). In deriving this fact we

introduced notations (2.2) and united space and time into one

four-dimensional “space-time”. Let’s denote it by M. Four-

dimensional space M is basic object in special theory of relativity.

Its points are called events. The space of events is equipped with

quadratic form g with signature (1, 3). This quadratic form is

called Minkowsky metric. Thereby inertial coordinate systems are

interpreted as Cartesian coordinates for which Minkowsky metric

has canonical form (2.7).

CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.

78 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.

Equivalence principle. All physical laws in any two inertial

coordinate systems are written in the same form.

Let’s choose some inertial coordinate system. This choice

determines separation of event space M into geometric space V

(space of points) and time axis T:

(3.1) M = T ⊕V.

Matrix of Minkowsky metric in chosen coordinate system has

canonic form (2.7). Therefore geometric space V is orthogonal to

time axis T with respect to Minkowsky metric g. Restriction of

this metric to V is negative quadratic form. Changing its sign,

we get positive quadratic form. This is standard Euclidean scalar

product in V .

Now let’s consider another inertial coordinate system. Like

(3.1), it determines second expansion of M into space and time:

(3.2) M =

˜

T ⊕

˜

V .

In general time axes T and

˜

T in expansions (3.1) and (3.2) do

not coincide. Indeed, bases of these two coordinate systems are

related to each other by formula

(3.3) ˜ e

i

=

3

j=0

S

j

i

e

j

,

where S is Lorentzian matrix from (2.3). For base vector ˜ e

0

directed along time axis

˜

T from (3.3) we derive

(3.4) ˜ e

0

= S

0

0

e

0

+S

1

0

e

1

+S

2

0

e

2

+S

3

0

e

3

.

In general components S

1

0

, S

2

0

, and S

3

0

in Lorentz matrix S are

nonzero. Therefore vectors ˜ e

0

and e

0

are non-collinear. Hence

T ,=

˜

T.

§ 3. MINKOWSKY SPACE. 79

Non-coincidence of time axes T ,=

˜

T for two inertial coordinate

systems leads to non-coincidence of geometric spaces: V ,=

˜

V .

This fact lead to quite radical conclusion when we interpret

it physically: observers in two such inertial systems observe two

diﬀerent three-dimensional geometric spaces and have two diﬀerent

time ticks. However, in our everyday life this diﬀerence is very

small and never reveals.

Let’s calculate how big is the diﬀerence in the rate of time ticks

for two inertial coordinate systems. From (2.4) we get

(3.5)

˜

t = T

0

0

t +

3

k=1

T

0

k

c

r

k

.

Let t → +∞. If Lorentzian matrix T is orthochronous, then

T

0

0

> 0 and

˜

t → +∞. If matrix T is not orthochronous, then

t → +∞ we get

˜

t → −∞. Transformations (2.4) with non-

orthochronous matrices T invert the direction of time exchanging

the future and the past. It would be very intriguing to have such

a feature in theory. However, presently in constructing theory of

relativity one uses more realistic approach. So we shall assume

that two physically real inertial coordinate systems can be related

only by orthochronous Lorentz matrices from O

+

(1, 3).

Restriction of the set of admissible Lorentz matrices from

O(1, 3) to O

+

(1, 3) is due to the presence of additional structure

in the space of events. It is called polarization. Let’s choose some

physical inertial coordinate system. Minkowsky metric in such

system is given by matrix of canonical form (2.7). Let’s calculate

scalar square of four-dimensional vector x in Minkowsky metric:

(3.6) g(x, x) = (x

0

)

2

−(x

1

)

2

−(x

2

)

2

−(x

3

)

2

.

By value of their scalar square g(x, x) in Minkowsky metric g

80 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.

vectors of Minkowsky space M are subdivided into three parts:

(1) tome-like vectors, for which g(x, x) is positive;

(2) light vectors, for which g(x, x) = 0;

(3) space-like vectors, for which g(x, x) is negative.

Coordinates of light vectors satisfy the following equation:

(3.7) (x

0

)

2

−(x

1

)

2

−(x

2

)

2

−(x

3

)

2

= 0.

It is easy to see that (3.7) is the equation of cone in four-

dimensional space (see classiﬁcation of quadrics in [4]). This cone

(3.7) is called light cone.

Time-like vectors ﬁll interior of

light cone, while space-like vectors

ﬁll outer space outside this cone.

Interior of light cone is a union of

Fig. 3.1

past

future

two parts: time-like vectors with

x

0

> 0 are directed to the future,

others with x

0

< 0 are directed to

the past. Vector directed to the

future can be continuously trans-

formed to any other vector directed

to the future. However, it cannot

be continuously transformed to a

vector directed to the past without

making it space-like vector or zero vector at least once during

transformation. This means that the set of time-like vectors is

disjoint union of two connected components.

Deﬁnition 3.1. Geometric structure in Minkowsky space M

that marks one of two connected components in the set of time-

like vectors is called polarization. It is used to say that marked

component points to the future.

§ 3. MINKOWSKY SPACE. 81

Let e

0

, e

1

, e

2

, e

3

be orthonormal base in Minkowsky metric*.

In the space M with polarization one can consider only those

such bases for which unit vector of time axis e

0

is directed to the

future. Then transition from one of such bases to another would

be given by orthochronous matrix from group O

+

(1, 3).

Deﬁnition 3.2. Four-dimensional aﬃne space M equipped

with metric g of signature (1, 3) and equipped with orientation**

and polarization is called Minkowsky space.

According to special theory of relativity Minkowsky space,

which is equipped with orientation and polarization, is proper

mathematical model for the space of real physical events. Now

we can give strict mathematical deﬁnition of inertial coordinate

system.

Deﬁnition 3.3. Orthonormal right inertial coordinate system

is orthonormal right coordinate system in Minkowsky space with

time base vector directed to the future.

It is easy to verify that any two inertial coordinate systems as

deﬁned above are related to each other by Lorentz transforma-

tion with matrix S from orthochronous Lorentz group SO

+

(1, 3).

Let’s choose one of such coordinate systems and consider related

expansion (3.1). It is clear that e

0

∈ T, while linear span of

spatial vectors e

1

, e

2

, e

3

deﬁnes subspace V . Taking orthonormal

base e

1

, e

2

, e

3

for the standard of right bases in V , we equip

this three-dimensional space with orientation. This is concor-

dance with the fact that geometric space that we observe in our

everyday life possesses orientation distinguishing left and right.

* i. e. base for which Minkowsky metric has the form (2.7).

** remember that orientation is geometric structure distinguishing left and

right bases (see [4]).

82 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.

Exercise 3.1. By analogy with deﬁnition 3.3 formulate the

deﬁnition of skew-angular inertial coordinate system.

¸ 4. Kinematics of relative motion.

Galileo transformations are used in mechanics for describing

physical processes as they are seen by two observers representing

two inertial coordinate systems. Lorentz transformations, which

we have derived from the condition of invariance of electrodynam-

ical equations (2.5), are designed for the same purpose. However,

this is not immediately clear when looking at formulas (2.3) and

(2.4). Therefore we shall bring these formulas to the form more

convenient for studying their physical nature.

Let’s ﬁx two inertial coordinate systems related by Lorentz

transformation (2.1). First one is related with orthonormal base

e

0

, e

1

, e

2

, e

3

in Minkowsky space and with the expansion (3.1).

Second is related with the base ˜ e

0

, ˜ e

1

, ˜ e

2

, ˜ e

3

and with the

expansion (3.2). If time axes are parallel e

0

= ˜ e

0

, then Lorentz

matrix S in (2.3) is reduced to orthogonal matrix O ∈ SO(3)

relating two right orthonormal bases e

1

, e

2

, e

3

and ˜ e

1

, ˜ e

2

, ˜ e

3

. It

has the following blockwise-diagonal shape:

(4.1) S =

_

_

_

_

1 0 0 0

0 O

1

1

O

1

2

O

1

3

0 O

2

1

O

2

2

O

2

3

0 O

3

1

O

3

2

O

3

3

_

_

_

_

.

Thus, in case if T |

˜

T two inertial coordinate systems diﬀer only

in directions of spatial axes. They do not move with respect to

each other.

Now let’s consider the case T ∦

˜

T. Hence e

0

,= ˜ e

0

. Let H be

linear span of vectors e

0

and ˜ e

0

. Denote by W intersection of

subspaces V and

˜

V from (3.1) and (3.2):

H = Span(e

0

, ˜ e

0

), W = V ∩

˜

V . (4.2)

§ 4. KINEMATICS OF RELATIVE MOTION. 83

Lemma 4.1. Two-dimensional subspaces H and W in (4.2) are

perpendicular to each other in Minkowsky metric g. Their inter-

section is zero: H ∩W = ¦0¦, while direct sum of these subspaces

coincides with the whole Minkowsky space: H ⊕W = M.

Proof. Subspace H is two-dimensional since it is linear span

of two non-collinear vectors. Subspaces V and

˜

V are three-

dimensional and V ,=

˜

V . Hence their sum V +

˜

V coincides with

M, i. e. dim(V +

˜

V ) = 4. Applying theorem on the dimension of

sum and intersection of two subspaces (see [4]), we get

dim(W) = dimV + dim

˜

V −dim(V +

˜

V ) = 3 + 3 −4 = 2.

In order to prove orthogonality of H and W we use orthogonal-

ity of T and V in the expansion (3.1) and orthogonality of

˜

T and

˜

V in (3.2). Let y be an arbitrary vector in subspace W. Then

y ∈ V . From V ⊥ T we get y ⊥ e

0

. Analogously from y ∈

˜

V we

get y ⊥ ˜ e

0

. Now from orthogonality of y to both vectors e

0

and

˜ e

0

we derive orthogonality of y to their linear span: y ⊥ H. Since

y is arbitrary vector in W, we have W ⊥ H.

Now let’s prove that H ∩ W = ¦0¦. Let’s consider an arbitrary

vector x ∈ H ∩ W. From x ∈ H and x ∈ W due to orthogonality

of H and W, which is already proved, we get g(x, x) = 0. But

x ∈ W ⊂ V , while restriction of Minkowsky metric to subspace

V is negative quadratic form of signature (0, 3). Therefore from

g(x, x) = 0 we derive x = 0. Proposition H ∩ W = ¦0¦ is proved.

From H ∩ W = ¦0¦ we conclude that sum of subspaces H and

W is direct sum and dim(H+W) = 2+2 = 4. Hence H⊕W = M.

Lemma is proved.

Now let’s return back to considering pair of inertial coordinate

systems with bases e

0

, e

1

, e

2

, e

3

and ˜ e

0

, ˜ e

1

, ˜ e

2

, ˜ e

3

. There is the

expansion (3.4) for vector ˜ e

0

. Let’s write it as follows:

(4.3) ˜ e

0

= S

0

0

e

0

+v.

84 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.

Here v = S

1

0

e

1

+ S

2

0

e

2

+ S

3

0

e

3

∈ V . Since matrix S is or-

thochronous and since ˜ e

0

,= e

0

, we have

S

0

0

> 1, v ,= 0. (4.4)

For any real number a > 1 there exists a number α > 0 such that

a = cosh(α). Let’s apply this observation to S

0

0

in (4.3):

(4.5) S

0

0

= cosh(α).

From (4.3), from (4.5), and from orthogonality of vectors e

0

and

v in Minkowsky metric we obtain

1 = g(˜ e

0

, ˜ e

0

) = (S

0

0

)

2

g(e

0

, e

0

) +g(v, v) = cosh

2

(α) −[v[

2

.

Using this equality we can ﬁnd Euclidean length of vector v in

three-dimensional subspace V :

(4.6) [v[ = sinh(α), where α > 0.

Let’s replace vector v by vector of unit length h

1

= v/[v[ and

rewrite the relationship (4.3) as follows:

(4.7) ˜ e

0

= cosh(α) e

0

+ sinh(α) h

1

.

Due to (4.7) vector h

1

is linear combination of vectors e

0

and ˜ e

0

,

hence h

1

∈ H. But h

1

∈ V as well. Therefore h

1

∈ V ∩H. Vectors

e

0

and h

1

are perpendicular to each other, they form orthonormal

base in two-dimensional subspace H:

g(e

0

, e

0

) = 1, g(h

1

, h

1

) = −1. (4.8)

From (4.8) we conclude that restriction of Minkowsky metric to

subspace H is metric with signature (1, 1).

CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.

§ 4. KINEMATICS OF RELATIVE MOTION. 85

Now we need another vector from subspace H. Let’s determine

it by the following relationship:

(4.9)

˜

h

1

= sinh(α) e

0

+ cosh(α) h

1

.

It is easy to check that vectors ˜ e

0

and

˜

h

1

form another orthonor-

mal base in subspace H. Transition matrix relating these two

bases has the following form:

(4.10) S

L

=

_

cosh(α) sinh(α)

sinh(α) cosh(α)

_

.

Matrix (4.10) is called the matrix of Lorentzian rotation.

There is four-dimensional version of matrix (4.10). Indeed,

vector h

1

∈ V is perpendicular to subspace W ⊂ V . Therefore we

have the expansion of subspace V as a direct sum:

V = Span(h

1

) ⊕W.

Let’s choose two vectors h

2

and h

3

forming orthonormal base

in subspace W and complementing h

1

up to an orthonormal

right base in V . Then four vectors e

0

, h

1

, h

2

h

3

constitute

orthonormal right base in M with time vector e

0

directed to

the future. Transition matrix relating this base with the base

˜ e

0

,

˜

h

1

, h

2

h

3

has the following blockwise-diagonal form:

(4.11) S

L

=

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

cosh(α) sinh(α) 0 0

sinh(α) cosh(α) 0 0

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

.

86 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.

Transition from base e

0

, e

1

, e

2

e

3

to base e

0

, h

1

, h

2

h

3

is given

by a matrix of the form (4.1). This is because their time vectors

do coincide. In a similar way transition from base ˜ e

0

,

˜

h

1

, h

2

h

3

to base ˜ e

0

, ˜ e

1

, ˜ e

2

˜ e

3

is given by a matrix of the same form

(4.1). Ultimate change of base e

0

, e

1

, e

2

e

3

for another base

˜ e

0

, ˜ e

1

, ˜ e

2

˜ e

3

then can be done in three steps.

Theorem 4.1. Each Lorentzian matrix S ∈ SO

+

(1, 3) is a

product of three matrices S = S

1

S

L

S

2

, one of which S

L

is a

matrix of Lorentzian rotation (4.11), while two others S

1

and S

2

are matrices of the form (4.1).

In order to clarify physical meaning of Lorentz transformations

let’s ﬁrst consider transformations with matrix S of the form

(4.11). Let ct = r

0

, r

1

, r

2

, r

3

be coordinates of some vector

r ∈ M in the base e

0

, h

1

, h

2

, h

3

. By c

˜

t = ˜ r

0

, ˜ r

1

, ˜ r

2

, ˜ r

3

we denote

coordinates of the same vector in the base ˜ e

0

,

˜

h

1

, h

2

h

3

. For

matrix S of the form (4.11) formula (2.3) leads to relationships

(4.12)

t = cosh(α)

˜

t +

sinh(α)

c

˜ r

1

,

r

1

= sinh(α) c

˜

t + cosh(α) ˜ r

1

,

r

2

= ˜ r

2

,

r

3

= ˜ r

3

.

Let ˜ r

1

, ˜ r

2

, ˜ r

3

be coordinates of radius-vector of some point A

which is at rest in inertial coordinate system with base ˜ e

1

, ˜ e

2

, ˜ e

3

.

Then ˜ r

1

, ˜ r

2

, ˜ r

3

are constants, they do not depend on time

˜

t in

this coordinate system. Upon calculating coordinates of this point

A in other inertial coordinate system by means of formulas (4.12)

its ﬁrst coordinate r

1

appears to be a function of parameter

˜

t.

We use ﬁrst relationship (4.12) in order to express parameter

˜

t

§ 4. KINEMATICS OF RELATIVE MOTION. 87

through time variable t in second coordinate system:

(4.13)

˜

t =

t

cosh(α)

−

tanh(α)

c

˜ r

1

.

Substituting (4.13) into other three formulas (4.12), we get

(4.14)

r

1

= r

1

(t) = c tanh(α) t + const,

r

2

= r

2

(t) = const,

r

3

= r

3

(t) = const .

From (4.14) we see that in second coordinate system our point A

is moving with constant velocity u = c tanh(α) in the direction of

ﬁrst coordinate axis.

In contrast to parameter α in matrix (4.11), parameter u

has transparent physical interpretation as magnitude of relative

velocity of one coordinate system with respect to another. Let’s

express components of matrix (4.11) through u:

cosh(α) =

1

_

1 −

u

2

c

2

, sinh(α) =

u

c

1

_

1 −

u

2

c

2

.

Let’s substitute these formulas into (4.12). As a result we get

t =

˜

t +

u

c

2

˜ r

1

_

1 −

u

2

c

2

, r

1

=

u

˜

t + ˜ r

1

_

1 −

u

2

c

2

,

(4.15)

r

2

= ˜ r

2

, r

3

= ˜ r

3

.

88 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.

Denote for a while by r and ˜r the following two three-

dimensional vectors in subspaces V and

˜

V :

(4.16)

r = r

1

h

1

+r

2

h

2

+r

3

h

3

,

˜r = ˜ r

1

˜

h

1

+ ˜ r

2

h

2

+ ˜ r

3

h

3

.

Then we deﬁne linear map θ : V →

˜

V determined by its action

upon base vectors h

1

, h

2

, and h

3

:

θ(h

1

) =

˜

h

1

, θ(h

2

) = h

2

, θ(h

3

) = h

3

.

This map θ is orientation preserving isometry, since it maps right

orthonormal base of subspace V to right orthonormal base in

subspace

˜

V . Using above notations (4.16) and the map θ, we can

write formulas (4.15) in vectorial form:

(4.17)

t =

˜

t +

¸

θu, ˜r

_

c

2

_

1 −

[u[

2

c

2

,

θr =

θu

˜

t +

¸

θu, ˜r

_

[u[

2

θu

_

1 −

[u[

2

c

2

+˜r −

¸

θu, ˜r

_

[u[

2

θu.

Here u = u h

1

is vector of relative velocity of second coordinate

system with respect to ﬁrst one. Formulas (4.17) are irrespective

to the choice of bases in subspaces V and

˜

V . Therefore they are

applicable to Lorentz transformations with special matrix of the

form (4.11) and to arbitrary Lorentz transformations with matrix

S = S

1

S

L

S

2

(see theorem 4.1).

§ 4. KINEMATICS OF RELATIVE MOTION. 89

Very often the sign of map θ realizing isomorphism of subspaces

V and

˜

V in formulas (4.17) is omitted:

(4.18)

t =

˜

t +

¸

u, ˜r

_

c

2

_

1 −

[u[

2

c

2

,

r =

u

˜

t +

¸

u, ˜r

_

[u[

2

u

_

1 −

[u[

2

c

2

+˜r −

¸

u, ˜r

_

[u[

2

u.

Formulas (4.18) represent “conditionally three-dimensional” un-

derstanding of Lorentz transformations when vectors r and ˜r

treated as vectors of the same three-dimensional Euclidean space,

while t and

˜

t are treated as scalar parameters. However, accord-

ing to modern paradigm four-dimensional Minkowsky space is real

physical entity, not purely mathematical abstraction convenient

for shortening formulas (compare (2.3) and (4.17)).

When writing formulas (4.17) and (4.18) in components we

should expand vectors r and u in the base of one coordinate sys-

tem, while vector ˜r is expanded in the base of another coordinate

system. Thereby the diﬀerence in the shape of these two formulas

completely disappears.

Exercise 4.1. Using expansions (4.16) for vectors r and ˜r, de-

rive the following formulas:

˜ r

1

=

¸

θu, ˜r

_

[u[

, ˜ r

2

h

2

+ ˜ r

3

h

3

= ˜r −

¸

θu, ˜r

_

[u[

2

θu.

Combining these formulas with (4.15), derive formulas (4.17).

90 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.

¸ 5. Relativistic law of velocity addition.

Classical law of velocity addition was ﬁrst consequence that we

obtained from Galileo transformations:

(5.1) v = ˜ v +u,

see formulas (1.2). Replacing Galileo transformations by Lorentz

transformations, now we should derive new relativistic law of

velocity addition.

Suppose that vector-function ˜r(

˜

t) describes the motion of a

point A in inertial coordinate system (˜r,

˜

t) and suppose that this

coordinate system moves with velocity u with respect to other

inertial coordinate system (r, t). For passing to coordinate system

(r, t) we use Lorentz transformation given by formulas (4.18). As

a result we get two functions

(5.2)

t(

˜

t) =

˜

t +

¸

u, ˜r(

˜

t)

_

c

2

_

1 −

[u[

2

c

2

,

r(

˜

t) =

u

˜

t +

¸

u, ˜r(

˜

t)

_

[u[

2

u

_

1 −

[u[

2

c

2

+˜r(

˜

t) −

¸

u, ˜r(

˜

t)

_

[u[

2

u.

Let’s calculate ﬁrst derivatives of functions (5.2):

(5.3a)

dt

d

˜

t

=

1 +

¸

u, ˜ v

_

c

2

_

1 −

[u[

2

c

2

,

§ 6. WORLD LINES AND PRIVATE TIME. 91

(5.3b)

dr

d

˜

t

=

u +

¸

u, ˜ v

_

[u[

2

u

_

1 −

[u[

2

c

2

+ ˜ v −

¸

u, ˜ v

_

[u[

2

u.

By ˜ v we denote the velocity of the point A in coordinates (˜r,

˜

t):

˜ v =

˙

˜r(

˜

t) =

d˜r

d

˜

t

.

In a similar way by v we denote the velocity of this point in other

coordinates (r, t). To calculate v we divide derivatives:

(5.4) v =

dr

dt

= ˙ r(t) =

_

dr

d

˜

t

___

dt

d

˜

t

_

.

Substituting (5.3a) and (5.3b) into (5.4), we get formula

(5.5) v =

u +

¸

u, ˜ v

_

[u[

2

u

1 +

¸

u, ˜ v

_

c

2

+

˜ v −

¸

u, ˜ v

_

[u[

2

u

1 +

¸

u, ˜ v

_

c

2

_

1 −

[u[

2

c

2

.

Formula (5.5) is relativistic law of velocity addition. It is mach

more complicated than classical law given by formula (5.1). How-

ever, in the limit of small velocities [u[ ≪c formula (5.5) reduces

to formula (5.1).

Exercise 5.1. Derive relativistic law of velocity addition from

formula (4.17). Explain why resulting formula diﬀers from (5.5).

¸ 6. World lines and private time.

Motion of point-size material object in arbitrary inertial coor-

dinate system (r, t) is described by vector-function r(t), where t

CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.

92 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.

is time variable and r is radius-vector of point. Four-dimensional

radius-vector of this material point has the following components:

(6.1) r

0

(t) = ct, r

1

(t), r

2

(t), r

3

(t).

Vector-function with components (6.1) determines parametric line

in Minkowsky space M, this line is called world line of material

point. Once world line is given, motion of material point is

described completely. Let’s diﬀerentiate four-dimensional radius-

vector (6.1) with respect to parameter t. As a result we get

four-dimensional vector tangent to world line:

(6.2) K = (c, ˙ r

1

, ˙ r

2

, ˙ r

3

) = (c, v

1

, v

2

, v

3

).

Last three components of this vector form velocity vector of

material point. Velocity of most material objects is not greater

than light velocity: [v[ < c. When applied to vector K in (6.2)

this means that tangent-vector of world line is time-like vector:

(6.3) g(K, K) = c

2

−[v[

2

> 0.

Deﬁnition 6.1. Smooth curve in Minkowsky space is called

time-like curve if tangent-vector of this curve is time-like vector

at each its point.

World lines for most material objects are time-like curves.

Exception are world lines of photons (light particles) and world

lines of other elementary particles with zero mass. For them

[v[ = c, hence we get g(K, K) = 0.

World line have no singular points. Indeed, even if g(K, K) =

0, tangent vector K in (6.2) is nonzero since K

0

= c ,= 0.

Let’s consider world line of material point of nonzero mass.

§ 6. WORLD LINES AND PRIVATE TIME. 93

For this line we have the condition (6.3) fulﬁlled, hence we can

introduce natural parameter on this line:

(6.4) s(t) =

t

_

t

0

_

g(K, K) dt.

Integral (6.4) yields invariant parameter for world lines. For any

two points A and B on a given world line the quantity s(B)−s(A)

does not depend on inertial coordinate system used for calculating

integral (6.4). This quantity is called interval length of the arc

AB on world line.

Theorem 6.1. Straight line segment connecting end points of

an arc on smooth time-like curve is a segment of time-like straight

line. Its interval length is greater than interval length of corre-

sponding arc.

Let A and B be two successive events in the “life” of material

point of nonzero mass. The answer to the question what time in-

terval separates these two events depend on the choice of inertial

coordinate system from which we observe the “life” of this ma-

terial point. So this answer is relative (not invariant). However,

there is invariant quantity characterizing time distance between

two events on world line:

(6.5) τ =

s(B) −s(A)

c

.

This quantity τ in formula (6.5) is called interval of private time

on world line.

Concept of private time determine microlocal concept of time

in theory of relativity. According to this concept each material

point lives according to its own watch, and watches of diﬀerent

material points are synchronized only in very rough way: they

94 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.

count time from the past to the future. This rough synchroniza-

tion is determined by polarization in Minkowsky space. Exact

synchronization of watches is possible only when material points

come to immediate touch with each other, i. e. when their world

lines intersect. However, even after such exact synchronization

in the point of next meeting watches of tho material points will

show diﬀerent times. This diﬀerence is due to diﬀerent ”life

paths” between two meetings.

Concept of private time is illustrated by so-called twins prob-

lem, well-known from science ﬁction. Suppose that one of twins

goes to far-away travel in interstellar spacecraft, while his brother

stays on the Earth. Which of them will be older when they meet

each other on the Earth in the end of space voyage.

The answer is: that one who stayed on the Earth will be older.

World lines of twins intersect twice. Both intersections occur on

the Earth, one before travel and other after travel. Its known that

Coordinate system associated with the Earth can be taken for

inertial coordinate system with high degree of accuracy (indeed,

acceleration due to rotation of the Earth around its axis and due

to orbital rotation around the Sun is not sensible in our everyday

life). Therefore world line of twin stayed on the Earth is straight

line. World line of twin in spacecraft is curved. In the beginning

of travel he accelerates reaching substantial velocity comparable

with light velocity in the middle of the path. Then he experiences

backward acceleration in order to brake before reaching target

point of his travel. Then he accelerates and brakes again in his

back way to the Earth. According to theorem 6.1 interval length

of curved world line connecting two events is shorter than interval

length of straight world line connecting the same two events.

Hence twin stayed on the Earth will be older.

Exercise 6.1. Remember proof of the fact that the length of

curved line connecting two points A and B in Euclidean space is

§ 7. DYNAMICS OF MATERIAL POINT. 95

greater than the length of straight line segment AB. By analogy

to this proof ﬁnd the proof for theorem 6.1.

¸ 7. Dynamics of material point.

Motion of material point in theory of relativity is described by

its world line in Minkowsky space. Let’s choose natural parameter

on world line and consider four-dimensional tangent vector

(7.1) u(s) =

dr(s)

ds

,

where r(s) is four-dimensional radius vector of events on world

line. Vector u is (7.1) is called vector of 4-velocity. It is time-like

vector and it is unit vector in Minkowsky metric: g(u, u) = 1.

Upon choosing some inertial coordinate system we can write

components of 4-velocity vector explicitly:

(7.2) u =

1

_

c

2

−[v[

2

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

c

v

1

v

2

v

3

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

.

Here v

1

, v

2

, v

3

are components of three-dimensional velocity

vector v. Note that components u

0

, u

1

, u

2

, u

3

of 4-velocity vector

are absolute numbers (without measure unit). It is easy to see

from (7.2). Upon multiplying u by scalar mc with the measure

unit of momentum we get vector of 4-momentum

(7.3) p =

m

_

1 −

[v[

2

c

2

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

c

v

1

v

2

v

3

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

for material point with mass m. Vector p plays important role

in physics since there is fundamental law of nature: the law of

conservation of 4-momentum.

96 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.

Momentum conservation law. Vector of 4-momentum of

material point which do not experience external action remains

unchanged.

According to the law just stated, for particle that do not

experience external action we have p = const. Hence u = const.

Integrating the equation (7.1), for r(s) we derive

r(s) = r

0

+us.

Conclusion: in the absence of external action material point moves

uniformly along straight line.

External actions causing change of 4-momentum of material

point are subdivided into two categories:

(1) continuous;

(2) discrete.

Continuous actions are applied to material particle by external

ﬁelds. They cause world line to bend making it curved line. In

this case p ,= const. Derivative of 4-momentum with respect to

natural parameter s is called vector of 4-force:

(7.4)

dp

ds

= F(s).

Vector of 4-force in (7.4) is quantitative characteristic of the

action of external ﬁelds upon material particle. It is determined

by parameters of particle itself and by parameters of external

ﬁelds at current position of particle as well. We know that

vector of 4-velocity u is unit vector, therefore g(p, p) = m

2

c

2

.

Diﬀerentiating this relationship with respect to s and taking into

account that components of matrix (2.7) are constant, we ﬁnd

(7.5) g(u, F) = 0.

§ 7. DYNAMICS OF MATERIAL POINT. 97

The relationship (7.5) means that vector of 4-force is perpendicu-

lar to vector of 4-velocity in Minkowsky metric, i. e. force vector

is perpendicular to world line of particle.

Choosing some inertial coordinate system, we can replace nat-

ural parameter s in (7.5) by time variable t of this coordinate

system. Then, taking into account (7.3), from (7.4) we derive

(7.6)

dp

i

dt

=

_

c

2

−[v[

2

F

i

, where i = 1, 2, 3.

Now, if we denote by f three-dimensional vector with compo-

nents f

i

=

_

c

2

−[v[

2

F

i

, then for three-dimensional vector of

momentum from (7.6) we obtain diﬀerential equation

(7.7)

dp

dt

= f .

The equation (7.7) is treated as relativistic analog of Newton’s

second law. Instead of classical formula p = mv relating momen-

tum and velocity vectors here we have the following relationship:

(7.8) p =

mv

_

1 −

[v[

2

c

2

.

In order to write (7.8) in classical form we introduce the quantity

(7.9) m

v

=

m

_

1 −

[v[

2

c

2

.

Constant m is called mass at rest, while m

v

in (7.8) is called

dynamic mass of moving particle. Now p = m

v

v, and Newton’s

second law is written as follows:

(7.10) (m

v

v)

′

t

= f .

98 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.

Formulas (7.9) and (7.10) are the very ones which are in mind

when one says that mass in theory of relativity depends on

velocity. It seems to me that such terminology is not so good.

In what follows we shall mostly use four-dimensional invariant

equation (7.4) and, saying mass, we shall imply mass at rest.

Discrete external actions appear

in those situations when 4-momen-

tum of material particle changes

abruptly in jump-like manner. Such

situation arise in particle collisions,

particle conﬂuence, and particle de-

cay. Collision of particles corre-

Fig. 7.1

p

2

p

k

p

1

˜ p

n

˜ p

1

˜ p

2

spond to that point in Minkowsky

space where world lines of two or

several particles come together. Af-

ter collision particles can simply ﬂy

out from that point. But if these

are molecules of ingredients in chemical reaction, then after col-

lision we would have new molecules of reaction products. In a

similar way in collisions of atomic nuclei nuclear reactions occur.

Let’s consider simultaneous collision of k particles. Denote by

p

1

, . . . , p

k

their 4-momenta just before the collision. Suppose that

as a result of collision he have n new particles created from initial

ones. Denote by ˜ p

1

, . . . , ˜ p

n

4-momenta of outgoing particles just

after the collision. If k = 1 this is particle decay process, while if

n = 1 we have particle conﬂuence into one composite particle.

Momentum conservation law. Total 4-momentum of ingo-

ing particles before collision is equal to total 4-momentum of out-

going particles after collision:

(7.11)

k

i=1

p

i

=

n

i=1

˜ p

i

.

CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.

§ 7. DYNAMICS OF MATERIAL POINT. 99

As an example we consider process of frontal collision of two

identical particles of mass m leading to creation of one particle of

mass M. Suppose that velocities of initial particles are equal by

magnitude but opposite to each other:

p

1

=

m

_

1 −

[v[

2

c

2

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

c

v

1

v

2

v

3

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

, p

2

=

m

_

1 −

[v[

2

c

2

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

c

−v

1

−v

2

−v

3

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

.

For 4-momentum of resulting particle we have

˜ p

1

=

M

_

1 −

[w[

2

c

2

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

c

w

1

w

2

w

3

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

.

Applying momentum conservation law (7.11) to this situation, we

get w = 0 and additionally we obtain

(7.12) M =

2 m

_

1 −

[v[

2

c

2

.

From (7.12) we see that mass at rest of resulting composite

particle is greater than sum of rest masses of its components:

M > m+m. Conclusion: the low of mass conservation is fulﬁlled

approximately only in the limit of small velocities [v[ ≪c.

Let’s multiply zeroth component of 4-momentum of material

particle by c. Resulting quantity has the measure unit of energy.

Let’s denote this quantity by E:

(7.13) E =

mc

2

_

1 −

[v[

2

c

2

.

100 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.

The quantity (7.13) is called kinetic energy of moving particle.

Writing relationship (7.11) for zeroth components of colliding

particles, we get energy conservation law:

(7.14)

k

i=1

E

i

=

n

i=1

˜

E

i

.

Thus, 4-momentum conservation law for collision includes both

energy conservation law (7.14) and the law of conservation for

three-dimensional momentum.

Note that for zero velocity v = 0 the above quantity (7.13)

does not vanish, but takes nonzero value

(7.15) E = mc

2

.

This quantity is known as rest energy of material particle. For-

mula (7.15) is well-known. It reﬂects very important fact absent

in classical physics: the ability of energy to mass and mass to

energy conversion. In practice conversion of energy to mass is

realized in particle conﬂuence (see M > m+m in formula (7.12)).

Converse phenomenon of particle decay yields mass defect (mass

decrease). Lost mass is realized in additional amount of kinetic

energy of outgoing particles. Total conversion of mass to en-

ergy is also possible. This happens in process of annihilation,

when elementary particle meets corresponding antiparticle. Large

amount of energy released in annihilation is scattered in form of

short-wave electromagnetic radiation.

¸ 8. Four-dimensional form of Maxwell equations.

Starting from electromagnetic equations E = 0 and H = 0

in previous sections we have constructed and described Lorentz

transformations preserving form of these equations. We also have

§ 8. FOUR-DIMENSIONAL FORM . . . 101

given geometric and physical interpretation of Lorentz transfor-

mations and even have described dynamics of material points on

the base of new relativistic notion of space and time. Now time

has come to remember that equations E = 0 and H = 0

are not primary equations of electrodynamics, they were derived

from Maxwell equations. To have complete picture we should we

should write Maxwell equations in four-dimensional form. Let’s

begin with second pair of these equations containing charges and

currents (see equations (1.2) in Chapter II. Let’s modify them:

1

c

∂E

∂t

−rot H = −

4π

c

j, −div E = −4πρ.

Then rewrite these equations in components using Levi-Civita

symbol for to express rotor (see [3]):

(8.1)

∂E

p

∂r

0

−

3

q=1

3

k=1

ε

pqk

∂H

k

∂r

q

= −

4π

c

j

p

,

−

3

q=1

∂E

q

∂r

q

= −4π ρ.

Here we used notation r

0

= ct associating time variable with

zeroth component of radius-vector in Minkowsky space.

Using Levi-Civita symbol and components of vector H, we can

construct skew-symmetric 3 3 matrix with elements

(8.2) F

pq

= −

3

k=1

ε

pqk

H

k

.

102 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.

Due to (8.2) we can easily write explicit form of matrix F:

(8.3) F

pq

=

_

_

0 −H

3

H

2

H

3

0 −H

1

−H

2

H

1

0

_

_

.

Let’s complement the above matrix (8.3) with one additional line

and one additional column:

(8.4) F

pq

=

_

_

_

_

_

0 −E

1

−E

2

−E

3

E

1

0 −H

3

H

2

E

2

H

3

0 −H

1

E

3

−H

2

H

1

0

_

_

_

_

_

.

Additional line and additional column in (8.4) are indexed by

zero, i. e. indices p and q run over integer numbers from 0 to 3.

In addition, we complement three-dimensional vector of current

density with one more component

(8.5) j

0

= ρc.

By means of (8.4) and (8.5) we can rewrite Maxwell equations

(8.1) in very concise four-dimensional form:

(8.6)

3

q=0

∂F

pq

∂r

q

= −

4π

c

j

p

.

Now let’s consider ﬁrst pair of Maxwell equations (see equations

(1.1) in Chapter II). In coordinates they are written as

∂H

p

∂r

0

+

3

q=1

3

k=1

ε

pqk

∂E

k

∂r

q

= 0,

3

q=1

∂H

q

∂r

q

= 0. (8.7)

§ 8. FOUR-DIMENSIONAL FORM . . . 103

The structure of the equations (8.7) is quite similar to that of

(8.1). However, their right hand sides are zero and we see slight

diﬀerence in signs. Main diﬀerence is that components of vectors

E and H have exchanged their places. To exchange components

of vectors E and H in matrix (8.4) we need four-dimensional

analog of Levi-Civita symbol:

ε

pqks

= ε

pqks

=

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

0, if among p, q, k, s there

are at least two equal num-

bers;

1, if (p q k s) is even permuta-

tion of numbers (0 1 2 3);

−1, if (p q k s) is odd permuta-

tion of numbers (0 1 2 3).

Let’s deﬁne matrix G by the following formula for its components:

(8.8) G

pq

= −

1

2

3

k=0

3

s=0

3

m=0

3

n=0

ε

pqks

g

km

g

sn

F

mn

.

Here g is matrix (2.7) determining Minkowsky metric. Matrix G

with components (8.8) can be expressed in explicit form:

(8.9) G

pq

=

_

_

_

_

_

0 −H

1

−H

2

−H

3

H

1

0 E

3

−E

2

H

2

−E

3

0 E

1

H

3

E

2

−E

1

0

_

_

_

_

_

.

The structure of matrix (8.9) enable us to write remaining two

104 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.

Maxwell equations (8.7) in concise four-dimensional form:

(8.10)

3

q=0

∂G

pq

∂r

q

= 0.

Usage of both matrices F and G in theory is assumed to be too

excessive. For this reason equations (8.10) are written as

(8.11)

3

q=0

3

k=0

3

s=0

ε

pqks

∂F

ks

∂r

q

= 0.

Matrix F

ks

is obtained from F

mn

by means of standard index

lowering procedure using matrix (2.7):

(8.12) F

ks

=

3

m=0

3

n=0

g

km

g

sn

F

mn

.

Four-dimensional form of Maxwell equations (8.6) and (8.11)

gives a hint for proper geometric interpretation of these equations.

Matrix (8.4) deﬁnes tensor of the type (2, 0) in Minkowsky space.

This tensor is called tensor of electromagnetic ﬁeld. Tensorial

interpretation of matrix (8.4) immediately yields transformation

rules, which were lacking so far:

(8.13) F

pq

=

3

m=0

3

n=0

S

p

m

S

q

n

˜

F

mn

.

These relationships (8.13) determine transformation rules for com-

ponents of vectors E and H. Before now we express these rules in

undetermined form by the relationships (1.6). For special Lorentz

§ 8. FOUR-DIMENSIONAL FORM . . . 105

matrices (4.11) vectors of electric and magnetic ﬁelds E and H in

two inertial coordinate systems are related as follows:

E

1

=

˜

E

1

, E

2

=

˜

E

2

+

u

c

˜

H

3

_

1 −

u

2

c

2

, E

3

=

˜

E

3

−

u

c

˜

H

2

_

1 −

u

2

c

2

,

H

1

=

˜

H

1

, H

2

=

˜

H

2

−

u

c

˜

E

3

_

1 −

u

2

c

2

, H

3

=

˜

H

3

+

u

c

˜

E

2

_

1 −

u

2

c

2

.

According to theorem 4.1, general Lorentz matrix is a product

of special Lorentz matrix of the form (4.11) and two matrices of

spatial rotation in tree-dimensional space. The latter ones can be

excluded if one writes Lorentz transformation in “conditionally

three-dimensional” vectorial form:

(8.14)

E =

¸

u,

˜

E

_

[u[

2

u +

˜

E−

¸

u,

˜

E

_

[u[

2

u −

1

c

[u,

˜

H]

_

1 −

[u[

2

c

2

,

H =

¸

u,

˜

H

_

[u[

2

u +

˜

H−

¸

u,

˜

H

_

[u[

2

u +

1

c

[u,

˜

E]

_

1 −

[u[

2

c

2

.

From (8.13) we derive the following rule for transforming co-

variant components of the tensor of electromagnetic ﬁeld:

(8.15) F

pq

=

3

m=0

3

n=0

T

m

p

T

n

q

˜

F

mn

.

CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.

106 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.

This relationship (8.15) provides invariance of the form of Maxwell

equations (8.11) under Lorentz transformation (2.3). In order to

verify this fact it is suﬃcient to apply relationships (2.8) for

transforming derivatives and then remember well-known property

of four-dimensional Levi-Civita symbol ε

pqks

:

(8.16)

3

a=0

3

b=0

3

c=0

3

d=0

T

p

a

T

q

b

T

k

c

T

s

d

ε

abcd

= det T ε

pqks

.

The condition of invariance of Maxwell equations (8.6) with re-

spect to Lorentz transformations leads to the following transfor-

mation rule for components of four-dimensional current density:

(8.17) j

p

=

3

m=0

S

p

m

˜

j

m

.

In (8.17) it is easy to recognize the transformation rule for com-

ponents of four-dimensional vector. In case of special Lorentz

matrix of the form (4.11), taking into account (8.5), one can write

the above relationship (8.17) as follows:

ρ =

˜ ρ +

u

c

2

˜

j

1

_

1 −

u

2

c

2

, j

1

=

u˜ ρ +

˜

j

1

_

1 −

u

2

c

2

,

(8.18)

j

2

=

˜

j

2

, j

3

=

˜

j

3

.

Remember that here u = c tanh(α) is a magnitude of relative

velocity of one inertial coordinate system with respect to another.

§ 9. FOUR-DIMENSIONAL VECTOR-POTENTIAL. 107

In vectorial form relationships (8.18) are written as

(8.19)

ρ =

˜ ρ +

¸

u,

˜

j

_

c

2

_

1 −

[u[

2

c

2

,

j =

u ˜ ρ +

¸

u,

˜

j

_

[u[

2

u

_

1 −

[u[

2

c

2

+

˜

j −

¸

u,

˜

j

_

[u[

2

u.

In such form they give transformation rule for charge density ρ

and three-dimensional current density j under Lorentz transfor-

mations with arbitrary Lorentz matrix.

Exercise 8.1. Prove the relationship (8.16), assuming T to be

an arbitrary 4 4 matrix.

Exercise 8.2. Using (2.12), derive the relationship (8.15) from

(8.12) and (8.13).

Exercise 8.3. Using (8.15), (8.16) and (2.8), transform Max-

well equations (8.11) from one inertial coordinate system to an-

other. Verify that the form of these equations is invariant.

Exercise 8.4. Using (8.13), (8.17) and (2.8), transform Max-

well equations (8.6) from one inertial coordinate system to another.

Verify that the form of these equations is invariant.

¸ 9. Four-dimensional vector-potential.

Due to special structure of Maxwell equations one can intro-

duce vector-potential A and scalar potential ϕ. This was done in

108 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.

¸ 3 of Chapter II. Here are formulas for components of E and H:

(9.1)

E

p

= −

∂ϕ

∂r

p

−

1

c

∂A

p

∂t

,

H

p

=

3

q=1

3

k=1

ε

pqk

∂A

k

∂r

q

,

(see formulas (3.4) in Chapter II). Denote A

0

= ϕ and consider

four-dimensional vector A with components A

0

, A

1

, A

2

, A

3

. This

is four-dimensional vector-potential of electromagnetic ﬁeld. By

lowering index procedure we get covector A:

(9.2) A

p

=

3

q=0

g

pq

A

q

.

Taking into account relationships (2.7) for components of matrix

g

pq

, from formula (9.2) we derive

A

0

= A

0

, A

1

= −A

1

,

(9.3)

A

2

= −A

2

, A

3

= −A

3

.

Moreover, let’s write explicitly covariant components for the ten-

sor of electromagnetic ﬁeld:

(9.4) F

pq

=

_

_

_

_

_

0 E

1

E

2

E

3

−E

1

0 −H

3

H

2

−E

2

H

3

0 −H

1

−E

3

−H

2

H

1

0

_

_

_

_

_

.

§ 9. FOUR-DIMENSIONAL VECTOR-POTENTIAL. 109

Due to (9.3) and (9.4) ﬁrst relationship (9.1) can be written as

(9.5) F

0q

=

∂A

q

∂r

0

−

∂A

0

∂r

q

.

In order to calculate other components of tensor F

pq

let’s ap-

ply (8.2) and second relationship (9.1). Thereby let’s take into

account that F

pq

= F

pq

and A

p

= −A

p

for p, q = 1, 2, 3:

(9.6) F

pq

= −

3

k=1

ε

pqk

H

k

=

3

k=1

3

m=1

3

n=1

ε

pqk

ε

kmn

∂A

n

∂r

m

.

Further transformation of (9.6) is based on one of the well-known

contraction identities for Levi-Civita symbol:

(9.7)

3

k=1

ε

pqk

ε

kmn

= δ

m

p

δ

n

q

−δ

m

q

δ

n

p

.

Applying (9.7) to (9.6), we get

(9.8) F

pq

=

3

m=1

3

n=1

(δ

m

p

δ

n

q

−δ

m

q

δ

n

p

)

∂A

n

∂r

m

=

∂A

q

∂r

p

−

∂A

p

∂r

q

.

Combining (9.8) and (9.5), we obtain the following formula for all

covariant components of the tensor of electromagnetic ﬁeld:

(9.9) F

pq

=

∂A

q

∂r

p

−

∂A

p

∂r

q

.

In essential, formula (9.9) is four-dimensional form of the rela-

tionships (9.1). It unites these two relationships into one.

Remember that vectorial and scalar potentials of electromag-

netic ﬁeld are not unique. They are determined up to a gauge

110 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.

transformation (see formula (4.1) in Chapter II). This uncertainty

could be included into transformation rule for component of four-

dimensional potential A. However, if we assert that A

0

, A

1

, A

2

,

A

3

are transformed as components of four-dimensional vector

(9.10) A

p

=

3

q=0

S

p

q

˜

A

q

,

and A

0

, A

1

, A

2

, A

3

are obtained from them by index lowering

procedure (9.2), then we ﬁnd that quantities F

pq

deﬁned by

formula (9.9) are transformed exactly by formula (8.15), as they

actually should.

From (9.10) one can easily derive explicit transformation

formulas for scalar potential ϕ and for components of three-

dimensional vector-potential A. For special Lorentz transforma-

tions with matrix (4.11) they are written as follows:

ϕ =

˜ ϕ +

u

c

˜

A

1

_

1 −

u

2

c

2

, A

1

=

u

c

˜ ϕ +

˜

A

1

_

1 −

u

2

c

2

,

(9.11)

A

2

=

˜

A

2

, A

3

=

˜

A

3

.

Note that one can rederive transformation rules for components

of electric and magnetic ﬁelds (see ¸ 8 above). However, we shall

not do it now.

In case of Lorentz transformations with arbitrary Lorentz ma-

trix the relationships (9.11) should be written in vectorial form:

(9.12a) ϕ =

˜ ϕ +

¸

u,

˜

j

_

c

_

1 −

[u[

2

c

2

,

§ 9. FOUR-DIMENSIONAL VECTOR-POTENTIAL. 111

(9.12b) A =

u

c

˜ ϕ +

¸

u,

˜

A

_

[u[

2

u

_

1 −

[u[

2

c

2

+

˜

A−

¸

u,

˜

A

_

[u[

2

u.

Theorem 9.1. Each skew-symmetric tensor ﬁeld F of type

(0, 2) in four-dimensional space satisfying diﬀerential equations

(8.11) is determined by some covector ﬁeld A according to the

above formula (9.9).

Proof. Each skew-symmetric tensor ﬁeld F of type (0, 2)

in four-dimensional space can be identiﬁed with pair of three-

dimensional vector ﬁelds E and H depending on additional pa-

rameter r

0

= ct. In order to do this one should use (9.4). Then

equations (8.11) are written as Maxwell equations for E and H:

div H = 0, rot E = −

1

c

∂H

∂t

.

Further construction of covector ﬁeld A is based on considerations

from ¸ 3 of Chapter II, where three-dimensional vector-potential

and scalar potential were introduced. Then we denote A

0

= ϕ

and thus convert three-dimensional vector-potential into four-

dimensional vector. And the last step is index lowering procedure

given by formula (9.2).

Choice of vector ﬁeld A in formula (9.9), as we noted above,

has gauge uncertainty. In four-dimensional formalism this fact is

represented by gauge transformations

(9.13) A

k

→A

k

+

∂ψ

∂r

k

,

where ψ — is some arbitrary scalar ﬁeld. Formula (9.13) is four-

dimensional version of gauge transformations (4.1) considered

112 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.

in Chapter II. It is easy to verify that gauge transformations

(9.13) do not break transformation rules (9.10) for contravariant

components of vector A.

Exercise 9.1. Prove theorem 9.1 immediately in four-dimen-

sional form without passing back to three-dimensional statements

and constructions.

¸ 10. The law of charge conservation.

Earlier we have noted that charge conservation law can be

derived from Maxwell equations (see ¸ 1 in Chapter II). To prove

this fact in four-dimensional formalism is even easier. Let’s

diﬀerentiate the relationship (8.6) with respect to r

p

and add one

more summation with respect to index p:

(10.1)

3

p=0

3

q=0

∂

2

F

pq

∂r

p

∂r

q

= −

4π

c

3

p=0

∂j

p

∂r

p

.

Double diﬀerentiation in (10.1) is symmetric operation, while

tensor of electromagnetic ﬁeld F

pq

, to which it is applied, is

skew-symmetric. Therefore the expression under summation in

left hand side of (10.1) is skew-symmetric with respect to indices

p and q. This leads to vanishing of double sum in left hand side

of formula (10.1). Hence we obtain

(10.2)

3

p=0

∂j

p

∂r

p

= 0.

The equality (10.2) is four-dimensional form of charge conserva-

tion law. If we remember that j

0

= cρ and r

0

= ct, we see that

this equality coincides with (5.4) in Chapter I.

Conservation laws for scalar quantities (those like electric char-

ge) in theory of relativity are expressed by equations analogous

CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.

§ 10. THE LAW OF CHARGE CONSERVATION. 113

to (10.2) in form of vanishing of four-dimensional divergencies for

corresponding four-dimensional currents. For vectorial quantities

corresponding current densities are tensors. Thus the law of con-

servation of 4-momentum for ﬁelds is represented by the equation

(10.3)

3

p=0

∂T

qp

∂r

p

= 0.

Tensor T

qp

in (10.3) playing the role of current density of 4-mo-

mentum is called energy-momentum tensor.

Theorem 10.1. For any vector ﬁeld j in n-dimensional space

(n 2) if its divergency is zero

(10.4)

n

p=1

∂j

p

∂r

p

= 0,

then there is skew-symmetric tensor ﬁeld ψ of type (2, 0) such that

(10.5) j

p

=

n

q=1

∂ψ

pq

∂r

q

.

Proof. Choosing some Cartesian coordinate system, we shall

construct matrix ψ

pq

of the following special form:

(10.6) ψ

pq

=

_

_

_

_

_

_

0 . . . 0 ψ

1n

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

0 . . . 0 ψ

n−1 n

−ψ

1n

. . . −ψ

n−1 n

0

_

_

_

_

_

_

.

114 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.

Matrix (10.6) is skew-symmetric, it has (n −1) independent com-

ponents. From (10.5) for these components we derive

(10.7)

∂ψ

kn

∂r

n

= j

k

, where k = 1, . . . , n −1,

n−1

k=1

∂ψ

kn

∂r

k

= −j

n

.

Let’s deﬁne functions ψ

kn

in (10.7) by the following integrals:

(10.8)

ψ

kn

=

r

n

_

0

j

k

(r

1

, . . . , r

n−1

, y) dy+

+

1

n − 1

r

k

_

0

j

n

(r

1

, . . . , y, . . . , r

n−1

, 0) dy.

It is easy to verify that functions (10.8) satisfy ﬁrst series of

diﬀerential equations (10.7). Under the condition (10.4) they

satisfy last equation (10.7) as well. Thus, theorem is proved.

Theorem 10.1 can be easily generalized for arbitrary tensorial

currents. Its prove thereby remains the same in most.

Theorem 10.2. For any tensorial ﬁeld T of type (m, s) in the

space of dimension n 2 if its divergency is zero

n

p

m

=1

∂T

p

1

... p

m

q

1

... q

s

∂r

p

m

= 0,

§ 11. NOTE ON COORDINATES. 115

then there is tensorial ﬁeld ψ of type (m + 1, s) skew-symmetric

in last pair of upper indices and such that

T

p

1

... p

m

q

1

... q

s

=

n

p

m+1

=1

∂ψ

p

1

... p

m

p

m+1

q

1

... q

s

∂r

p

m+1

.

Exercise 10.1. Verify that the equation (10.4) provides last

equation (10.7) to be fulﬁlled for the functions (10.8).

Exercise 10.2. Clarify the relation of theorem 10.1 and theo-

rem on vortex ﬁeld in case of dimension n = 3.

¸ 11. Note on skew-angular and

curvilinear coordinates.

In previous three sections we have managed to write in four-

dimensional form all Maxwell equations, charge conservation law,

and the relation of E, H and their potentials. The relationships

(8.6), (8.11), (9.9), (9.13), (10.2), which were obtained there, pre-

serve their shape when we transfer from one rectangular Cartesian

coordinate system to another. Such transitions are interpreted as

Lorentz transformations, they are given by Lorentz matrices.

However, all these relationships (8.6), (8.11), (9.9), (9.13), (10.2)

possess transparent tensorial interpretation. Therefore they can

be transformed to any skew-angular Cartesian coordinate system

as well. Thereby we would have minor diﬀerences: the shape

of matrix g would be diﬀerent and instead of ε

pqks

in (8.11) we

would require volume tensor with components

(11.1) ω

pqks

= ±

_

−det ˆ g ε

pqks

.

116 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.

Matrix g

pq

in skew-angular coordinate system is not given by

formula (2.7), here it is arbitrary symmetric matrix determining

quadratic form of signature (1, 3). Therefore diﬀerential equations

E = 0 and H = 0, which we are started from, have not their

initial form. They are written as F

pq

= 0, where d’Alambert

operator is given by formula (2.6) with non-diagonal matrix g

ij

.

In arbitrary skew-angular coordinate system none of axes

should have time-like direction. Therefore none of them can

be interpreted as time axis. Three-dimensional form of electrody-

namics equations, even if we could write them, would not have

proper physical interpretation in such coordinate system. In par-

ticular, interpretation of components of tensor F

pq

as components

of electric and magnetic ﬁelds in formula (8.4) would not be

physically meaningful.

Tensorial form of four-dimensional electrodynamics equations

enables us to make one more step toward increasing arbitrariness

in the choice of coordinate system: we can use not only skew-

angular, but curvilinear coordinates as well. To make this step we

need to replace partial derivatives by covariant derivatives:

(11.2)

∂

∂r

p

→∇

p

(see [3] for more details). Connection components required for

passing to covariant derivatives (11.2) are determined by compo-

nents of metric tensor. The latter ones in curvilinear coordinate

system do actually depend on r

0

, r

1

, r

2

, r

3

:

(11.3) Γ

k

ij

=

1

2

3

s=0

g

ks

_

∂g

sj

∂r

i

+

∂g

is

∂r

j

−

∂g

ij

∂r

s

_

.

No we give list of all basic equations, which we derived above, in

§ 11. NOTE ON COORDINATES. 117

covariant form. Maxwell equations are written as follows:

(11.4)

3

q=0

∇

q

F

pq

= −

4π

c

j

p

,

3

q=0

3

k=0

3

s=0

ω

pqks

∇

q

F

ks

= 0.

Here components of volume tensor ω

pqks

are given by formula

(11.1). Tensor of electromagnetic ﬁeld is expressed through four-

dimensional vector-potential by formula

(11.5) F

pq

= ∇

p

A

q

−∇

q

A

p

,

while gauge uncertainty in the choice of vector-potential itself is

described by the relationship

(11.6) A

k

→A

k

+∇

k

ψ,

where ψ is arbitrary scalar ﬁeld. Charge conservation law in

curvilinear coordinates is written as

(11.7)

3

p=0

∇

p

j

p

= 0.

Instead of formula (2.6) for D’Alambert operator here we have

(11.8) =

3

i=0

3

j=0

g

ij

∇

i

∇

j

.

Dynamics of material point of nonzero mass m ,= 0 is described

118 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.

by ordinary diﬀerential equations of Newtonian type:

˙ r = u, ∇

s

u =

F

mc

. (11.9)

Here dot means standard diﬀerentiation with respect to natural

parameter s on world line, while ∇

s

is covariant derivative with

respect to the same parameter.

Exercise 11.1. Using symmetry of Christoﬀel symbols (11.3)

with respect to lower pair of indices i and j, show that the re-

lationship (11.5) can be brought to the form (9.9) in curvilinear

coordinate system as well.

CHAPTER IV

LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM

IN THEORY OF RELATIVITY

¸ 1. Principle of minimal action

for particles and ﬁelds.

Dynamics of material points in theory of relativity is described

by their world lines. These are time-like lines in Minkowsky space.

Let’s consider some world line corre-

Fig. 1.1

A

B

sponding to real motion of some particle

under the action of external ﬁelds. Let’s

ﬁx two points A and B on this world

line not too far from each other. Then

consider small deformation of world line

in the range between these two points

A and B. Suppose that we have some

coordinate system in Minkowsky space

(either Cartesian, or curvilinear, no mat-

ter). Then our world line is given in

parametric form by four functions

(1.1) r

0

(s), r

1

(s), r

2

(s), r

3

(s),

where s is natural parameter. Then deformed curve can be given

CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.

120 CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . .

by the following four functions:

(1.2) ˆ r

i

(s) = r

i

(s) +h

i

(ε, s), i = 0, . . . , 3.

Here s is original natural parameter on initial non-deformed world

line (1.1), while h

i

(ε, s) are smooth functions which are nonzero

only within the range between points A and B. Note that

functions h

i

(ε, s) in (1.2) depend on additional parameter ε which

is assumed to be small. Moreover, we shall assume that

(1.3) h

i

(ε, s) →0 as ε →0.

Thus, in (1.2) we have whole family of deformed lines. This family

of lines is called variation of world line (1.1). Due to (1.3) we

have the following Taylor expansion for h

i

(ε, s):

(1.4) h

i

(ε, s) = ε h

i

(s) +. . . .

Under the change of one curvilinear coordinate system for an-

other quantities h

i

(s) are transformed as components of four-

dimensional vector. This vector is called vector of variation of

world line, while quantities

(1.5) δr

i

(s) = εh

i

(s)

are called variations of point coordinates. It is clear that they

also are transformed as components of four-dimensional vector.

Due to formulas (1.4) and (1.5) parametric equations of deformed

curves (1.2) are written as follows:

(1.6) ˆ r

i

(s) = r

i

(s) +δr

i

(s) +. . . .

By this formula we emphasize that terms other than linear with

respect to small parameter ε are of no importance.

§ 1. PRINCIPLE OF MINIMAL ACTION . . . 121

By varying functions h

i

(ε, s) in (1.2) and by varying parameter

ε in them we can surround segment of initial world line by a

swarm of its variations. Generally speaking, these variations do

not describe real dynamics of points. However, they are used

in statement of minimal action principle. Within framework of

Lagrangian formalism functional of action S is usually introduced,

this is a map that to each line connecting two points A and B put

into correspondence some real number S.

Principle of minimal action for particles. World line con-

necting two points A and B describes real dynamics of material

point if and only if action functional S reaches local minimum on

it among other lines being its small variations.

Action functional S producing number by each line should de-

pend only on that line (as geometric set of points in M), but

it should not depend on coordinate system (r

0

, r

1

, r

2

, r

3

) in M.

By tradition this condition is called Lorentz invariance, though

changes of one curvilinear coordinate system by another form

much broader class of transformations than Lorentz transforma-

tions relating two rectangular Cartesian coordinate systems in

Minkowsky space.

Action functional in most cases is integral. For single point of

mass m in electromagnetic ﬁeld with potential A it is written as

(1.7) S = −mc

s

2

_

s

1

ds −

q

c

s

2

_

s

1

g(A, u) ds.

Here q is electric charge of particle, while u = u(s) is vector of

its 4-velocity (unit tangent vector of world line). First integral

in (1.7) yields action for free particle (in the absence of exter-

nal ﬁelds), second integral describes interaction of particle with

electromagnetic ﬁeld.

122 CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . .

If we consider system of N particles, then we should write

integral (1.7) for each of them and we should add all these

integrals. And ﬁnally, in order to get the action functional for

total system of ﬁeld and particles we should add integral of action

for electromagnetic ﬁeld itself:

(1.8)

S =

N

i=1

_

_

_

−m

i

c

s

2

(i)

_

s

1

(i)

ds −

q

i

c

s

2

(i)

_

s

1

(i)

g(A, u) ds

_

_

_

−

−

1

16 π c

V

2

_

V

1

3

p=0

3

q=0

F

pq

F

pq

_

−det g d

4

r.

Last integral in (1.8) deserves special consideration. This is

four-dimensional volume integral over the domain enclosed be-

tween two three-dimensional hyper-

surfaces V

1

and V

2

. Hypersurfaces

Fig. 1.2

past

V

1

V

2

future

V

1

and V

2

are space-like, i. e. their

normal vectors are time-like vectors.

These hypersurfaces determine the

ﬁssure between the future and the

past, and over this ﬁssure we inte-

grate in (1.8). Thereby change of

ﬁeld functions (here these are com-

ponents of vector-potential A) when

passing from V

1

to V

2

reﬂects evolution of electromagnetic ﬁeld

from the past to the future.

Electromagnetic ﬁeld is described by ﬁeld functions. Therefore

variation of ﬁeld is deﬁned in other way than that of particles.

Suppose that Ω is some restricted four-dimensional domain en-

closed between hypersurfaces V

1

and V

2

. Let’s consider four

smooth functions h

i

(ε, r) = h

i

(ε, r

0

, r

1

, r

2

, r

3

) being identically

§ 1. PRINCIPLE OF MINIMAL ACTION . . . 123

zero outside the domain Ω and vanishing for ε = 0. Let’s deﬁne

(1.9)

ˆ

A

i

(r) = A

i

(r) +h

i

(ε, r)

and consider Taylor expansion of h

i

at the point ε = 0:

(1.10) h

i

(ε, r) = ε h

i

(r) +. . . .

The following functions determined by linear terms in the above

Taylor expansions (1.10)

(1.11) δA

i

(r) = ε h

i

(r)

are called variations of ﬁeld functions for electromagnetic ﬁeld.

Deformation of vector-potential (1.9) now can be written as

(1.12)

ˆ

A

i

(r) = A

i

(r) +δA

i

(r) +. . . .

Principle of minimal action for ﬁelds. Field functions de-

termine actual conﬁguration of physical ﬁelds if and only if they

realize local minimum of action functional S in class of all varia-

tions with restricted support*.

The condition of minimum of action for actual ﬁeld conﬁgura-

tion and for actual world lines of particles, as a rule, is not used.

In order to derive dynamical equations for ﬁelds and particles it is

suﬃcient to have extremum condition (no matter minimum, max-

imum, or saddle point). For this reason minimal action principle

often is stated as principle of extremal action.

Exercise 1.1. Verify that h

i

(s) in (1.4) are transformed as

components of vector under the change of coordinates.

* Variations with restricted support are those which are identically zero

outside some restricted domain Ω.

124 CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . .

Exercise 1.2. Prove that under gauge transformations (11.6)

from Chapter III action functional (1.8) is transformed as follows:

(1.13) S →S −

N

i=1

_

q

i

c

ψ(r(s

2

(i))) −

q

i

c

ψ(r(s

1

(i)))

_

.

Explain why terms added to action functional in (1.13) are not

sensitive to variation of word lines (1.2).

¸ 2. Motion of particle in electromagnetic ﬁeld.

In order to ﬁnd world line of relativistic particle in external

electromagnetic ﬁeld we shall apply particle version of extremal

action principle to functional (1.8). Let’s choose one of N par-

ticles in (1.8) and consider deformation (1.6) of its world line.

When we substitute deformed world line into (1.8) in place of

initial non-deformed one the value of last integral remains un-

changed. Thereby in ﬁrst term containing sum of integrals only

one summand changes its value, that one which represent the par-

ticle we have chosen among others. Therefore writing extremity

condition for (1.8) we can use action functional in form of (1.7).

The value of (1.7) for deformed world line is calculated as follows:

(2.1) S

def

= −mc

s

2

_

s

1

_

g(K, K) ds −

q

c

s

2

_

s

1

g(A, K) ds.

Formula (2.1) visually diﬀers from formula (1.7) because s is

natural parameter on initial world line, but it is not natural

parameter on deformed line. Here tangent vector

(2.2) K(s) =

dˆr(s)

ds

= u(s) +ε

d

ˆ

h(s)

ds

+. . .

§ 2. MOTION OF PARTICLE . . . 125

is not unit vector. Therefore ﬁrst integral (1.7) is rewritten as

length integral (see (6.4) in Chapter III). In second integral (1.7)

unit tangent vector is replaced by vector K.

Let’s write in coordinate form both expressions which are under

integration in (2.1) taking into account that we deal with general

curvilinear coordinate system in Minkowsky space:

(2.3)

_

g(K, K) =

¸

¸

¸

_

3

i=0

3

j=0

g

ij

(ˆ r(s)) K

i

(s) K

j

(s),

g(A, K) =

3

i=0

A

i

(ˆr(s)) K

i

(s).

Let’s substitute (2.2) into (2.3) and take into account (1.2) and

the expansion (1.4). As a result for the expressions (2.3) we get

the following power expansions with respect to small parameter ε:

_

g(K, K) =

_

g(u, u) +

ε

_

g(u, u)

_

3

i=0

u

i

(s)

dh

i

(s)

ds

+

+

1

2

3

i=0

3

j=0

3

k=0

∂g

ij

∂r

k

u

i

(s) u

j

(s) h

k

(s)

_

+. . . ,

g(A, K) = g(A, u) +ε

3

i=0

A

i

(r(s))

dh

i

(s)

ds

+

+ε

3

i=0

3

k=0

∂A

i

∂r

k

u

i

(s) h

k

(s) +. . . .

When substituting these expansions into (2.1) we should remem-

126 CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . .

ber that u is unit vector. Then for S

def

we get

S

def

= S −ε

s

2

_

s

1

3

k=0

_

mc u

k

(s) +

q

c

A

k

(r(s))

_

dh

k

(s)

ds

ds −

−ε

s

2

_

s

1

3

k=0

_

q

c

3

i=0

∂A

i

∂r

k

u

i

+

mc

2

3

i=0

3

j=0

∂g

ij

∂r

k

u

i

u

j

_

h

k

(s) ds +. . . .

Let’s apply integration by parts to ﬁrst integral above. As a result

we get the expression without derivatives of functions h

k

(s):

S

def

= S −ε

3

k=0

_

mc u

k

(s) +

q

c

A

k

(r(s))

_

h

k

(s)

s

2

s

1

+

+ε

s

2

_

s

1

3

k=0

d

ds

_

mc u

k

(s) +

q

c

A

k

(r(s))

_

h

k

(s) ds −

−ε

s

2

_

s

1

3

k=0

_

q

c

3

i=0

∂A

i

∂r

k

u

i

+

mc

2

3

i=0

3

j=0

∂g

ij

∂r

k

u

i

u

j

_

h

k

(s) ds +. . . .

Remember that function h

k

(s) vanish at the ends of integration

path h

k

(s

1

) = h

k

(s

2

) = 0 (see ¸ 1). This provides vanishing of

non-integral terms in the above formula for S

def

.

Now in order to derive diﬀerential equations for world line of

particle we apply extremity condition for S. It means that term

linear with respect to ε in power expansion for S

def

should be

CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.

§ 2. MOTION OF PARTICLE . . . 127

identically zero irrespective to the choice of functions h

k

(s):

(2.4)

d

ds

_

mc u

k

(s) +

q

c

A

k

(r(s))

_

=

=

q

c

3

i=0

∂A

i

∂r

k

u

i

+

mc

2

3

i=0

3

j=0

∂g

ij

∂r

k

u

i

u

j

.

Let’s calculate derivative in left hand side of (2.4). Then let’s

rearrange terms so that those with mc factor are in left hand

side, while others with q/c factor are in right hand side:

mc

_

du

k

ds

−

1

2

3

i=0

3

j=0

∂g

ij

∂r

k

u

i

u

j

_

=

q

c

3

i=0

_

∂A

i

∂r

k

−

∂A

k

∂r

i

_

u

i

.

Now in right hand side of this equation we ﬁnd tensor of electro-

magnetic ﬁeld (see formula (9.9) in Chapter III). For transforming

left hand side of this equation we use formula (11.3) from Chap-

ter III. As a result we get the following equation for world line:

(2.5) mc

_

du

k

ds

−

3

i=0

3

j=0

Γ

i

kj

u

i

u

j

_

=

q

c

3

i=0

F

ki

u

i

.

In left hand side of the equation (2.5) we ﬁnd covariant derivative

with respect to parameter s along world line:

(2.6) mc ∇

s

u

k

=

q

c

3

i=0

F

ki

u

i

.

Comparing (2.6) with the equations (11.9) from Chapter III, we

128 CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . .

get formula for the vector of four-dimensional force acting on a

particle with charge q in electromagnetic ﬁeld:

(2.7) F

k

=

q

c

3

i=0

F

ki

u

i

.

Suppose that we have rectangular Cartesian coordinate system

in Minkowsky space. Then we can subdivide F into spatial and

temporal parts and can calculate components of three-dimensional

force vector: f

i

=

_

c

2

−[v[

2

F

i

(see formula (7.6) in Chap-

ter III). Upon easy calculations with the use of formulas (7.2) and

(9.4) from Chapter III for force vector f we get

(2.8) f = q E+

q

c

[v, H].

This formula (2.8) is exactly the same as formula for Lorentz force

(see (4.4) in Chapter I). Thus formula (2.7) is four-dimensional

generalization of formula for Lorentz force. Orthogonality condi-

tion for 4-force and 4-velocity (see (7.5) in Chapter III) for (2.7) is

fulﬁlled due to skew symmetry of tensor of electromagnetic ﬁeld.

Exercise 2.1. Prove that gauge transformation of action func-

tional (1.13) does not change dynamic equations of material point

in electromagnetic ﬁeld (2.6).

Exercise 2.2. Verify that the relationship (7.5) from Chap-

ter III holds for Lorentz force.

¸ 3. Dynamics of dust matter.

Diﬀerential equation (2.6) describes motion of charged particles

in electromagnetic ﬁeld. If the number of particles is not large,

then we can follow after the motion of each of them. When

describing extremely large number of particles continual limit is

§ 3. DYNAMICS OF DUST MATTER. 129

used, particles are replaced by continuous medium modeling their

collective behavior. Simplest model describing large number of

non-colliding particles is a model of dust cloud. In this model

Fig. 3.1 Fig. 3.2

particles of cloud move regularly (not chaotically). Their world

lines can be modeled by regular family of lines ﬁlling the whole

space (see Fig. 3.1).

Another model is a model of ideal gas. Here particles also

do not collide each other, i. e. their world lines do not intersect.

However, their motion is chaotic (see Fig. 3.2). Therefore if we

ﬁll the whole space with their world lines, they would intersect.

Besides two models considered mentioned above, there are

models describing liquids and solid materials. Points of liquid

and solid media move regularly (as on Fig. 3.1). However, in

these media interaction of particles is essential. Therefore when

describing such media one should either use detailed microscopic

analysis and get macroscopic parameters by statistical averaging,

or should use some heuristic assumptions based on experiment.

In this book we consider only most simple model of dust cloud.

In this case one should assume Minkowsky space to be ﬁlled by

regular family of world lines. Some of them are world lines of real

130 CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . .

particles, others are imaginary ones obtained by extrapolation in

continual limit. Therefore at each point of M we have unit vector

u, this is tangent vector to world line passing through this point.

This means that dynamics of dust cloud can be described by

vector ﬁeld u(r).

Apart from vector ﬁeld u, below we need scalar parameter ν(r)

which means the density of dust cloud. We deﬁne it as follows.

Let’s choose some small fragment of three-dimensional hypersur-

face in M orthogonal to vector u(r) at the point r. The number

of dust particles whose world lines cross this fragment is propor-

tional to its three-dimensional volume: N = ν(r) V , parameter

ν(r) is coeﬃcient of proportionality. Parameter ν(r) has measure

unit of concentration, it can be treated as concentration of par-

ticles in small fragment of dust cloud near the point r measured

in that inertial coordinate system for which particles of this small

fragment are at rest. By means of ν(r) and u(r) we compose new

four-dimensional vector

(3.1) η(r) = c ν(r) u(r).

Vector (3.1) is called four-dimensional ﬂow density for particles

in cloud. If we choose some inertial coordinate system, then

η

0

/c is interpreted as concentration of particles in dust cloud,

while other three components of four-dimensional vector η form

three-dimensional vector of ﬂow density.

Suppose that dust cloud is formed by identical particles with

mass m and charge q. Then four-dimensional current density

vector can be represented as follows:

(3.2) j(r) = q η(r).

By analogy with (3.2) one can deﬁne mass ﬂow density vector:

(3.3) µ(r) = mη(r).

§ 3. DYNAMICS OF DUST MATTER. 131

Total number of particles in cloud is ﬁxed. This conservation law

is written as the following equality for η:

(3.4)

3

p=0

∇

p

η

p

= 0.

From (3.4) and (3.2) one can derive charge conservation law in

form of the relationship (11.7) from Chapter III. Taking into

account (3.3), we get rest mass conservation law:

(3.5)

3

p=0

∇

p

µ

p

= 0.

Rest mass conservation law here is fulﬁlled due to the absence of

collisions when heavy particles can be produced from light ones

(see ¸ 7 in Chapter III).

Let’s consider dynamics of particles composing dust cloud.

Vector ﬁeld u is constituted by tangent vectors to world lines

of dust particles. Therefore these world lines can be determined

as integral curves of vector ﬁeld u, i. e. by solving the following

system of ordinary diﬀerential equations:

(3.6)

dr

i

ds

= u

i

(r(s)), i = 0, . . . , 3.

Having determined world line of particle from diﬀerential equa-

tions, we know vector of its 4-velocity u(s). Now let’s calculate

covariant derivative of vector u(s) with respect to parameter s:

(3.7) ∇

s

u

p

=

du

p

(s)

ds

+

3

k=0

3

n=0

Γ

p

nk

u

k

(s) u

n

(s).

132 CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . .

Calculating derivative du

p

/ds in (3.7) we take into account (3.6)

and the equality u(s) = u(r(s)). As a result we get

(3.8)

du

p

(s)

ds

=

3

k=0

u

k

∂u

p

∂r

k

.

Substituting (3.8) into (3.7), we derive the following formula:

(3.9) ∇

s

u

p

=

3

k=0

u

k

∇

k

u

p

.

Right hand side of (3.9) is covariant derivative of vector ﬁeld u(r)

along itself (see more details in [3]). Substituting (3.9) into the

equations of the dynamics of material point, we get:

(3.10) ∇

u

u =

F

mc

.

Here F = F(r, u) is some external force ﬁeld acting on particles

of dust matter. For example in the case of charged dust in

electromagnetic ﬁeld the equation (3.10) looks like

(3.11)

3

k=0

u

k

∇

k

u

p

=

q

mc

2

3

k=0

F

pk

u

k

.

In contrast to the equations (11.9) from Chapter III, which

describe dynamics of separate particle, here (3.10) are partial

diﬀerential equations with respect to components of vector ﬁeld

u(r). They describe dynamics of dust cloud in continual limit.

The equation for scalar ﬁeld ν(r) is derived from conservation law

§ 4. ACTION FUNCTIONAL FOR DUST MATTER. 133

(3.4) for the number of particles. Combining these two equations,

we obtain a system of diﬀerential equations:

(3.12)

3

k=0

u

k

∇

k

u

p

=

F

p

mc

,

3

k=0

u

k

∇

k

ν = −ν

3

k=0

∇

k

u

k

.

System of partial diﬀerential equations (3.12) yields complete

description for the dynamics of dust cloud.

Model of dust matter cam be generalized a little bit. We can

consider mixture of particles of diﬀerent sorts. For each sort of

particles we deﬁne its own vector ﬁeld u(i, r) and its own scalar

ﬁeld of concentration ν(i, r). Then formulas (3.2) and (3.3) for j

and µ are generalized as follows:

j(r) =

n

i=1

q(i) η(i, r), µ(r) =

n

i=1

m(i) η(i, r).

Here η(i, r) = c ν(i, r) u(i, r). Each pair of ﬁelds u(i, r) and ν(i, r)

satisﬁes diﬀerential equations (3.12). We can derive mass and

charge conservation laws from these equations.

¸ 4. Action functional for dust matter.

Let’s study the dynamics of dust matter in electromagnetic

ﬁeld within framework of Lagrangian formalism. Fort this purpose

we need to pass to continual limit in action functional (1.8).

For the sake of simplicity we consider dust cloud with identical

particles. Omitting details of how it was derived, now we write

CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.

134 CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . .

ultimate formula for action functional (1.8) in continual limit:

(4.1)

S = −m

V

2

_

V

1

_

g(η, η)

_

−det g d

4

r−

−

q

c

2

V

2

_

V

1

g(η, A)

_

−det g d

4

r−

−

1

16π c

V

2

_

V

1

3

p=0

3

k=0

F

pk

F

pk

_

−det g d

4

r.

Instead of deriving formula (4.1) from (1.8) we shall verify this

formula indirectly. For this purpose we shall derive dynamical

equation (3.11) from principle of extremal action applied to action

functional (4.1).

For describing dust matter in (4.1) we have chosen vector ﬁeld

η(r) deﬁned in (3.1). Other two ﬁelds u(r) and ν(r) can be

expressed though vector ﬁeld η(r):

c ν = [η[ =

_

g(η, η) , u =

η

c ν

. (4.2)

Dealing with variation of vector ﬁeld η(r) we should always

remember that components of this ﬁeld are not independent

functions. They satisfy diﬀerential equation (3.4). In order

to resolve tis equation (3.4) we use slightly modiﬁed version of

theorem 10.1 from Chapter III.

Theorem 4.1. Let M be some n-dimensional manifold, where

n ≥ 2, equipped with metric g

ij

. For each vector ﬁeld η with zero

§ 4. ACTION FUNCTIONAL FOR DUST MATTER. 135

divergency with respect to metric connection

(4.3)

n

p=1

∇

p

η

p

= 0

there is skew-symmetric tensor ﬁeld ϕ of type (2, 0) such that the

following relationships are fulﬁlled

(4.4) η

p

=

n

q=1

∇

q

ϕ

pq

.

Proof. Writing relationships (4.3), we use well-known for-

mula for components of metric connection, see formula (11.3) in

Chapter III. As a result we get

n

p=1

∇

p

η

p

=

n

p=1

∂η

p

∂r

p

+

n

p=1

n

s=1

Γ

p

ps

η

s

=

n

p=1

∂η

p

∂r

p

+

+

1

2

n

p=1

n

s=1

n

k=1

g

pk

_

∂g

pk

∂r

s

+

∂g

ks

∂r

p

−

∂g

ps

∂r

k

_

η

s

.

Note that last two derivatives of metric tensor in round brackets

are canceled when we sum over indices p and k. This is because

g

pk

is symmetric. Hence

(4.5)

n

p=1

∇

p

η

p

=

n

p=1

∂η

p

∂r

p

+

1

2

n

p=1

n

s=1

n

k=1

g

sk

∂g

ks

∂r

p

η

p

=

=

n

p=1

∂η

p

∂r

p

+

1

2

n

p=1

tr

_

g

−1

∂g

∂r

p

_

η

p

.

136 CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . .

For further transforming of this expression (4.5) we use well

known formula for logarithmic derivative of determinant:

(4.6)

∂ ln [ det g[

∂r

p

= tr

_

g

−1

∂g

∂r

p

_

.

Substituting (4.6) into (4.5), we transform (4.5) so that

(4.7)

n

p=1

∇

p

η

p

=

1

_

[ det g[

n

p=1

∂(η

p

_

[ det g[)

∂r

p

.

Let’s carry out analogous calculations for right hand side of (4.4)

taking into account skew symmetry of the ﬁeld ϕ

pq

and symmetry

of connection components Γ

k

pq

. These calculations yield

(4.8)

n

q=1

∇

q

ϕ

pq

=

1

_

[ det g[

n

q=1

∂(ϕ

pq

_

[ det g[)

∂r

q

.

Denote j

p

=

_

[ det g[ η

p

and ψ

pq

=

_

[ det g[ ϕ

pq

. Now on the

base of (4.7) and (4.8) it is easy to understand that proof of

theorem 4.1 is reduced to theorem 10.1 from Chapter III.

Remark. Generally speaking, theorem 10.2 has no direct

generalization for the case of spaces with metric. It is generalized

only for metric spaces with zero curvature tensor R

s

kpq

= 0.

Let’s deﬁne deformation of the ﬁeld η in a way similar to that

we used for vector-potential A in ¸ 1:

(4.9) ˆ η

p

(r) = η

p

(r) +ε ζ

p

(r) +. . . .

Both ﬁelds ˆ η and η satisfy diﬀerential equation (3.4). Hence

vector ﬁeld ζ deﬁned in (4.9) also satisfy this equation. Let’s

§ 4. ACTION FUNCTIONAL FOR DUST MATTER. 137

apply theorem 4.1 to vector ﬁeld ζ:

(4.10) ζ

p

=

3

k=0

∇

k

ϕ

pk

.

Theorem 4.1 does not specify tensor ﬁeld ϕ

pk

in (4.10), this can

be any skew-symmetric tensor ﬁeld. However, we choose it in very

special form as follows:

(4.11) ϕ

pk

= η

p

h

k

−h

p

η

k

.

This choice can be motivated by the following theorem.

Theorem 4.2. For any two vector ﬁelds ζ and η, where η ,= 0,

both satisfying diﬀerential equation (3.4) there is vector ﬁeld h

such that vector ﬁeld ζ is given by formula

ζ

p

=

3

k=0

∇

k

(η

p

h

k

−h

p

η

k

).

Our choice (4.11) leads to the following expression for the ﬁeld ˆ η:

(4.12) ˆ η

p

(r) = η

p

(r) +ε

3

k=0

∇

k

(η

p

h

k

−h

p

η

k

) +. . . .

Quantities h

i

(r) in (4.12) are chosen to be smooth functions being

nonzero only within some restricted domain Ω in Minkowsky

space.

When substituting (4.12) into action functional (4.1) we use

the following expansion for

_

g( ˆ η, ˆ η) :

_

g( ˆ η, ˆ η) =

_

g(η, η) +

ε

_

g(η, η)

3

p=0

3

q=0

η

p

∇

k

ϕ

pk

+. . . .

138 CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . .

We have analogous power expansion for the expression under

second integral in formula (4.1):

g( ˆ η, A) = g(η, A) +ε

3

p=0

3

k=0

A

p

∇

k

ϕ

pk

+. . . .

Substituting these two expansions into (4.1), we take into account

(4.2). For the action S

def

this yields

(4.13)

S

def

= S −ε m

_

Ω

3

p=0

3

k=0

u

p

∇

k

ϕ

pk

_

−det g d

4

r−

−

ε q

c

2

_

Ω

3

p=0

3

k=0

A

p

∇

k

ϕ

pk

_

−det g d

4

r +. . . .

Further in order to transform the above expression (4.13) we

use Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula. In the space equipped with

metric this formula is written as follows:

(4.14)

_

Ω

3

k=0

∇

k

z

k

_

−det g d

4

r =

_

∂Ω

g(z, n) dV.

Here z

0

, z

1

, z

2

, z

3

are components of smooth vector ﬁeld z,

while n is unit normal vector for the boundary of the domain

Ω. In order to transform ﬁrst integral in formula (4.13) we take

z

k

=

3

p=0

u

p

ϕ

pk

. Then in right hand side of (4.14) we obtain

3

k=0

∇

k

z

k

=

3

p=0

3

k=0

u

p

∇

k

ϕ

pk

+

3

p=0

3

k=0

∇

k

u

p

ϕ

pk

.

§ 4. ACTION FUNCTIONAL FOR DUST MATTER. 139

Right hand side of (4.14) vanishes since ϕ

pk

do vanish on the

boundary of Ω. Hence we have the equality

_

Ω

3

p=0

3

k=0

u

p

∇

k

ϕ

pk

_

−det g d

4

r =

−

_

Ω

3

p=0

3

k=0

∇

k

u

p

ϕ

pk

_

−det g d

4

r.

In a similar way we transform second integral in (4.13). In whole

for the action S

def

we get the following expression

(4.15)

S

def

= S +ε m

_

Ω

3

p=0

3

k=0

∇

k

u

p

ϕ

pk

_

−det g d

4

r +

+

ε q

c

2

_

Ω

3

p=0

3

k=0

∇

k

A

p

ϕ

pk

_

−det g d

4

r +. . . .

Extremity of action S means that linear part with respect to ε

in formula (4.15) should vanish:

_

Ω

3

p=0

3

k=0

_

m∇

k

u

p

+

q

c

2

∇

k

A

p

_

ϕ

pk

_

−det g d

4

r = 0.

Let’s substitute formula (4.11) for ϕ

pk

into the above equality.

Then it is transformed to the following one

_

Ω

3

p=0

3

k=0

_

m∇

k

u

p

+

q

c

2

∇

k

A

p

_

η

p

h

k

_

−det g d

4

r =

140 CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . .

=

_

Ω

3

p=0

3

k=0

_

m∇

k

u

p

+

q

c

2

∇

k

A

p

_

η

k

h

p

_

−det g d

4

r.

Let’s exchange indices k and p in second integral. Thereafter

integrals can be united into one integral:

(4.16)

_

Ω

3

k=0

3

p=0

_

m∇

k

u

p

−m∇

p

u

k

+

q

c

2

∇

k

A

p

−

−

q

c

2

∇

p

A

k

_

η

p

h

k

_

−det g d

4

r = 0.

Now let’s take into account that in resulting equality h

k

= h

k

(r)

are arbitrary smooth functions vanishing outside the domain Ω.

Therefore vanishing of integral (4.16) means vanishing of each

summand in sum over index k in the expression under integration:

(4.17)

3

p=0

_

m∇

k

u

p

−m∇

p

u

k

+

q

c

2

F

kp

_

η

p

= 0.

Here we used the relationship (11.5) from Chapter III. It re-

lates tensor of electromagnetic ﬁeld and four-dimensional vector-

potential.

In order to bring the equation (4.17) just derived to its ultimate

form we use the relationships (4.2), which relate vector ﬁeld η

and vector ﬁeld u: η

p

= c ν u

p

. Since u is unit vector, we have

(4.18)

3

p=0

u

p

∇

k

u

p

= 0.

CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.

§ 5. EQUATIONS FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD. 141

Taking into account (4.18), we bring (4.17) to the following form:

(4.19)

3

p=0

u

p

∇

p

u

k

=

q

mc

2

3

p=0

F

kp

u

p

.

Now it is easy to see that (4.19) exactly coincides with the equa-

tion (3.11), which we have derived earlier. This result approves

the use of the action (4.1) for describing charged dust matter in

electromagnetic ﬁeld.

Exercise 4.1. Prove that for any skew-symmetric tensor ﬁeld

ϕ

pq

vector ﬁeld η determined by formula (4.4) has zero divergency,

i. e. is satisﬁes diﬀerential equation (3.4).

Exercise 4.2. Prove theorem 4.2. For this purpose use the

following fact known as theorem on rectiﬁcation of vector ﬁeld.

Theorem 4.3. For any vector ﬁeld η ,= 0 there exists some

curvilinear coordinate system r

0

, r

1

, r

2

, r

3

such that η

0

= 1,

η

1

= 0, η

2

= 0, η

3

= 0 in this coordinate system.

Exercise 4.3. Prove theorem 4.3 on rectiﬁcation of vector ﬁeld.

Exercise 4.4. Derive Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula (4.14) for

the space equipped with metric on the base of the following integral

relationship in standard space R

n

:

_

Ω

∂f(r)

∂r

i

d

n

r =

_

∂Ω

f(r) dr

1

. . . dr

i−1

dr

i+1

. . . dr

n

.

¸ 5. Equations for electromagnetic ﬁeld.

In this section we continue studying action functional (4.1).

This functional describes dust cloud composed of particles with

142 CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . .

mass m and charge q in electromagnetic ﬁeld. In previous section

we have found that applying extremal action principle to S with

respect to the ﬁeld η one can derive dynamical equations for

velocity ﬁeld in dust cloud. Now we shall apply extremal action

principle to S with respect to vector-potential A. Deformation of

vector-potential is deﬁned according to (1.9), (1.10), (1.11), (1.12):

(5.1)

ˆ

A

i

(r) = A

i

(r) +εh

i

(r) +. . . .

For components of tensor of electromagnetic ﬁeld we derive

(5.2)

ˆ

F

ij

= F

ij

+ε (∇

i

h

j

−∇

j

h

i

) +. . . .

When substituting (5.2) into action functional (4.1) we carry out

the following calculations:

3

p=0

3

k=0

ˆ

F

pk

ˆ

F

pk

=

3

i=0

3

j=0

3

p=0

3

k=0

ˆ

F

pk

ˆ

F

ij

g

pi

g

kj

=

=

3

p=0

3

k=0

F

pk

F

pk

+ 2 ε

3

p=0

3

k=0

F

pk

(∇

p

h

k

−∇

k

h

p

) +. . . .

Taking into account skew symmetry of tensor F

pk

, this expansion

can be simpliﬁed more and can be brought to the form

3

p=0

3

k=0

ˆ

F

pk

ˆ

F

pk

=

3

p=0

3

k=0

F

pk

F

pk

+ 4 ε

3

p=0

3

k=0

F

pk

∇

p

h

k

+. . . .

Analogous calculations in substituting (5.1) into (4.1) yield

g(η,

ˆ

A) = g(η, A) +ε

3

k=0

η

k

h

k

+. . . .

§ 5. EQUATIONS FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD. 143

As a result for deformation of action functional (4.1) we get

S

def

= S −

εq

c

2

_

Ω

3

k=0

η

k

h

k

_

−det g d

4

r −

−

ε

4π c

_

Ω

3

p=0

3

k=0

F

pk

∇

p

h

k

_

−det g d

4

r +. . . .

Let’s transform second integral in the above expansion for S

def

by means of Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula (4.14). For this purpose

let’s choose z

p

=

3

k=0

F

pk

h

k

and take into account vanishing of

h

k

on the boundary of the domain Ω. Then for S

def

we get

S

def

= S +ε

_

Ω

3

k=0

_

−

qη

k

c

2

+

3

p=0

∇

p

F

pk

4π c

_

h

k

_

−det g d

4

r +. . . .

Extremal action principle means that linear in ε part of the above

expansion for S

def

should vanish. Note also that Ω is an arbitrary

domain and h

k

(r) are arbitrary functions within Ω. This yield

the following equations for the tensor of electromagnetic ﬁeld:

(5.3)

3

p=0

∇

p

F

pk

=

4π q

c

η

k

.

Remember that η(r) is related to current density by means of

(3.2). Then (5.3) can be written as

(5.4)

3

p=0

∇

p

F

kp

= −

4π

c

j

k

.

144 CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . .

It is easy to see that (5.4) are exactly Maxwell equations written

in four-dimensional form (see (11.4) in Chapter III). Another pair

of Maxwell equations written in four-dimensional form

3

q=0

3

k=0

3

s=0

ω

pqks

∇

q

F

ks

= 0

is a consequence of the relationship F

pq

= ∇

p

A

q

− ∇

q

A

p

(see

formula (11.5) in Chapter III).

Exercise 5.1. Which form will have diﬀerential equations (5.3)

if we consider dust cloud composed by particles of several sorts

with masses m(1), . . . , m(N) and charges q(1), . . . , q(N) ? Will

this change diﬀerential equations (5.4) ?

CHAPTER V

GENERAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY

¸ 1. Transition to non-ﬂat metrics

and curved Minkowsky space.

Passing from classical electrodynamics to special theory of re-

lativity, in previous two chapters we have successively geometrized

many basic physical concepts. Having denoted r

0

= ct and com-

bining r

0

with components of three-dimensional radius-vector in

inertial coordinate system, we have constructed four-dimensional

space of events (Minkowsky space). This space appears to be

equipped with metric of signature (1, 3), which is called Min-

kowsky metric. Thereby inertial coordinate systems are inter-

preted as orthonormal bases in Minkowsky metric.

In four-dimensional formalism dynamics of material point is

described by vectorial diﬀerential equations, while Maxwell equa-

tions for electromagnetic ﬁeld are written in tensorial form. Due

to this circumstance in previous two chapters we managed to

include into consideration skew-angular and even curvilinear co-

ordinate systems in Minkowsky space. Thereby we got explicit

entries of metric tensor components g

ij

, metric connection com-

ponents Γ

k

ij

, and covariant derivatives ∇

i

in all our equations.

Next step in this direction is quite natural. One should keep

the shape of all equations and pass from ﬂat Minkowsky metric

146 CHAPTER V. GENERAL RELATIVITY.

to metric of signature (1, 3) with nonzero curvature tensor:

(1.1) R

k

qij

=

∂Γ

k

jq

∂r

i

−

∂Γ

k

iq

∂r

j

+

3

s=0

Γ

k

is

Γ

s

jq

−

3

s=0

Γ

k

js

Γ

s

iq

.

This crucial step was ﬁrst made by Einstein. Theory he had dis-

covered in this way later was called Einstein’s theory of gravitation

or general theory of relativity.

Deﬁnition 1.1. Four-dimensional aﬃne space equipped with

orientation, polarization, and with metric of signature (1, 3) and

nonzero curvature (1.1) is called curved Minkowsky space.

In non-ﬂat Minkowsky space we loose some structures available

in ﬂat case. In such space there are no coordinates for which

Minkowsky metric is given by matrix (2.7) from Chapter III, i. e.

here we have no inertial coordinate systems. This is substantial

loss, but it is not catastrophic since dynamic equation for material

points and Maxwell equations rewritten in vectorial and tensorial

form are not bound to inertial coordinate systems.

Geodesic lines in curved Minkowsky space do not coincide

with aﬃne straight lines. Therefore aﬃne structure becomes

excessive restriction in general relativity. As appears, one can

give up topologic structure of ﬂat space R

4

as well. Even in

two-dimensional case, as we know, apart from deformed (curved)

plain, there are surfaces with more complicated topology: sphere,

torus and sphere with several handles glued to it (see [5]). In

multidimensional case these objects are generalized in concept of

smooth manifold (see details in [2], [5], and [6]).

Smooth manifold M of dimension n is a topologic space each

point of which has a neighborhood (a chart) identical to some

neighborhood of a point in R

n

. In other words M is covered by a

family of charts U

α

, each of which is diﬀeomorphic to some open

set V

α

in R

n

. Such chart maps (chart diﬀeomorphisms) deﬁne

§ 2. ACTION FOR GRAVITATIONAL FIELD. 147

local curvilinear coordinate systems within their chart domains

U

α

. At those points of manifold M, where two chart domains are

overlapping, transition functions arise. They relate one curvilinear

coordinate system with another:

(1.2)

˜ r

i

= ˜ r

i

(r

1

, . . . , r

n

), where i = 1, . . . , n,

r

i

= r

i

(˜ r

1

, . . . , ˜ r

n

), where i = 1, . . . , n.

According to deﬁnition of smooth manifold, transition functions

(1.2) are smooth functions (of class C

∞

). Transition functions

determine transition matrices S and T:

T

i

j

=

∂˜ r

i

∂r

j

, S

i

j

=

∂r

i

∂˜ r

j

. (1.3)

Presence of transition matrices (1.3) lead to full-scale theory of

tensors, which is almost literally the same as theory of tensors

for curvilinear coordinates in R

n

(see [3]). The only diﬀerence

is that here we cannot choose Cartesian coordinates at all. This

is because in general there is no smooth diﬀeomorphic map from

manifold M to R

n

.

Deﬁnition 1.1. Four-dimensional smooth manifold equipped

with orientation, polarization, and with metric of signature (1, 3)

is called generalized Minkowsky space or Minkowsky manifold.

¸ 2. Action for gravitational ﬁeld.

Einstein equation.

Space of events in general relativity is some smooth Minkowsky

manifold M. This circumstance provides additional arbitrariness

consisting in choosing M and in choosing metric on M. Nonzero

curvature described by tensor (1.1) is interpreted as gravitational

ﬁeld. Gravitational ﬁeld acts upon material bodies and upon

CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.

148 CHAPTER V. GENERAL RELATIVITY.

electromagnetic ﬁeld enclosed within M. This action is due to

the presence of covariant derivatives in dynamic equations. The

magnitude of gravitational ﬁeld itself should be determined by

presence of matter in M in form of massive particles or in form of

electromagnetic radiation, i. e. we should have backward relation

between geometry of the space and its content.

In order to describe backward relation between gravitational

ﬁeld and other physical ﬁelds we use Lagrangian formalism and

extremal action principle. Let’s start from action functional (4.1)

in Chapter IV. It is sum of three integrals:

(2.1) S = S

mat

+S

int

+S

el

.

First integral S

mat

is responsible for material particles in form of

dust cloud, second integral describes interaction of dust cloud and

electromagnetic ﬁeld, third term in (2.1) describes electromagnetic

ﬁeld itself. In order to describe gravitational ﬁeld one more

summand in (2.1) is added:

(2.2) S = S

gr

+S

mat

+S

int

+S

el

.

This additional term is chosen in the following form:

(2.3) S

gr

= −

c

3

16πγ

V

2

_

V

1

R

_

−det g d

4

r.

Here γ gravitational constant same as in Newton’s universal law

of gravitation (see formula (1.11) in Chapter I). Scalar quantity R

in (2.3) is scalar curvature determined by curvature tensor (1.1)

according to the following formula:

(2.4) R =

3

q=0

3

k=0

3

j=0

g

qj

R

k

qkj

.

§ 2. ACTION FOR GRAVITATIONAL FIELD. 149

Ricci tensor is an intermediate object relating curvature tensor

(1.1) and scalar quantity (2.4). Here are its components:

(2.5) R

qj

=

3

k=0

R

k

qkj

.

Ricci tensor is symmetric (see [3]). Scalar curvature R is obtained

by contracting Ricci tensor and metric tensor g

qj

with respect to

both indices q and j. This fact is obvious due to (2.5) and (2.4).

Note that sometimes in the action for gravitational ﬁeld (2.3)

one more constant parameter Λ is added:

S

gr

= −

c

3

16πγ

V

2

_

V

1

(R + 2 Λ)

_

−det g d

4

r.

This parameter is called cosmological constant. However, accord-

ing to contemporary experimental data the value of this constant

is undetectably small or maybe is exactly equal to zero. Therefore

further we shall use action S

gr

in form of (2.3).

Note also that metric tensor describing gravitational ﬁeld enters

in implicit form into all summand in (2.2). Therefore we need

not add special terms describing interaction of gravitational ﬁeld

with material particles and electromagnetic ﬁeld. Moreover, such

additional terms could change the form of dynamical equations for

matter and form of Maxwell equations for electromagnetic ﬁeld

thus contradicting our claim that these equations are the same in

general and in special relativity.

Now let’s begin with deriving dynamical equations for grav-

itational ﬁeld. For this purpose we consider deformation of

components of metric tensor given by the following relationship:

(2.6) ˆ g

ij

(r) = g

ij

(r) +ε h

ij

(r) +. . . .

150 CHAPTER V. GENERAL RELATIVITY.

Functions h

ij

(r) in (2.6) are assumed to be smooth functions

vanishing outside some restricted domain Ω ⊂ M. Deformation of

matrix g

ij

lead to deformation of inverse matrix g

ij

:

(2.7)

ˆ g

ij

= g

ij

−ε h

ij

+. . . =

= g

ij

−ε

3

p=0

3

q=0

g

ip

h

pq

g

qj

+. . . .

Let’s diﬀerentiate the relationship (2.7) and let’s express partial

derivatives through covariant derivatives in resulting formula:

(2.8)

∂ˆ g

ij

∂r

k

=

∂g

ij

∂r

k

−ε

∂h

ij

∂r

k

+. . . =

∂g

ij

∂r

k

−ε ∇

k

h

ij

+

+ε

3

p=0

Γ

p

ki

h

pj

+ε

3

p=0

Γ

p

kj

h

ip

+. . . .

In (2.8) we used covariant derivatives corresponding to non-

deformed metric g

ij

. Now on the base of (2.8) we calculate

the following combination of derivatives:

(2.9)

∂ˆ g

kj

∂r

i

+

∂ˆ g

ik

∂r

j

−

∂ˆ g

ij

∂r

k

=

∂g

kj

∂r

i

+

∂g

ik

∂r

j

−

∂g

ij

∂r

k

−

−ε

_

∇

i

h

kj

+∇

j

h

ik

−∇

k

h

ij

−2

3

p=0

Γ

p

ij

h

pk

_

+. . . .

Let’s use the relationships (2.6) and (2.8) in calculating defor-

mation of connection components. For this purpose let’s apply

well-known formula to

ˆ

Γ

p

ij

(see formula (11.3) in Chapter III):

ˆ

Γ

p

ij

= Γ

p

ij

+

ε

2

3

k=0

g

pk

(∇

i

h

kj

+∇

j

h

ik

−∇

k

h

ij

) +. . . .

§ 2. ACTION FOR GRAVITATIONAL FIELD. 151

This expansion for

ˆ

Γ

p

ij

can be written in symbolic concise form

(2.10)

ˆ

Γ

p

ij

= Γ

p

ij

+ε Y

p

ij

+. . .

by introducing the following quite natural notation:

(2.11) Y

p

ij

=

1

2

3

k=0

g

pk

(∇

i

h

kj

+∇

j

h

ik

−∇

k

h

ij

) .

Now let’s substitute the expansion (2.10) into the formula (1.1)

for curvature tensor. This yields

(2.12)

ˆ

R

k

qij

= R

k

qij

+ε

_

∇

i

Y

k

jq

−∇

j

Y

k

iq

_

+. . . .

Upon contracting (2.12) with respect to one pair of indices we get

similar expansion for deformation of Ricci tensor:

(2.13)

ˆ

R

qj

= R

qj

+ε

3

k=0

_

∇

k

Y

k

jq

−∇

j

Y

k

kq

_

+. . . .

We multiply (2.13) by g

qj

using formula (2.6). Then we carry out

complete contraction with respect to both indices q and j. This

yields deformation of scalar curvature:

ˆ

R = R +ε

3

j=0

3

q=0

_

R

qj

h

qj

+

3

k=0

g

qj

(∇

k

Y

k

jq

−∇

j

Y

k

kq

)

_

+. . . .

Let’s introduce vector ﬁeld with the following components:

Z

k

=

3

j=0

3

q=0

_

Y

k

jq

g

qj

−Y

j

jq

g

qk

_

.

152 CHAPTER V. GENERAL RELATIVITY.

Then we can rewrite deformation of scalar curvature

ˆ

R as

(2.14)

ˆ

R = R +ε

3

j=0

3

q=0

R

qj

h

qj

+ε

3

k=0

∇

k

Z

k

+. . . .

When substituting (2.14) into action integral (2.3) we should note

that second sum in (2.14) is exactly covariant divergency of vector

ﬁeld Z. Components of Z are smooth functions vanishing outside

the domain Ω. Therefore integral of such sum is equal to zero:

_

Ω

3

k=0

∇

k

Z

k

_

−det g d

4

r =

_

∂Ω

g(Z, n) dV = 0.

This follows from Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula (see (4.14) in

Chapter IV). Hence for deformation of S

gr

we get

S

def

= S

gr

−

ε c

3

16πγ

_

Ω

3

j=0

3

q=0

_

R

qj

−

R

2

g

qj

_

h

qj

_

−det g d

4

r+. . . .

In deriving this formula we also used the following expansion:

(2.15)

_

−det ˆ g =

_

−det g

_

1 −ε

3

j=0

3

q=0

g

qj

h

qj

2

_

+. . . .

It follows from (2.6). Now we shall not calculate deformations of

other three terms in (2.2) in explicit form. This will be done in

¸ 4 and ¸ 5 below. However, we introduce notation

(2.16) S

m.f.

= S

mat

+S

int

+S

el

.

Here S

m.f.

denotes overall action for all material ﬁelds other than

gravitation. The number of terms in the sum (2.16) could be much

§ 3. CONSERVATION LAW . . . 153

more than three, if one consider more complicated models for

describing matter. But in any case action of gravitational ﬁeld is

excluded from this sum since gravitational ﬁeld plays exceptional

role in general relativity. Now we shall write deformation of the

action (2.16) in the following conditional form:

(2.17) S

def

= S

m.f.

+

ε

2c

_

Ω

3

q=0

3

j=0

T

qj

h

qj

_

−det g d

4

r +. . . .

Then extremity condition for total action (2.2) is written as

(2.18) R

qj

−

R

2

g

qj

=

8πγ

c

4

T

qj

.

This equation (2.18) is known as Einstein equation. It is ba-

sic equation describing dynamics of metric tensor g

ij

in general

theory of relativity.

Exercise 2.1. Derive the relationships (2.7) and (2.15) from

the expansion (2.6) for deformation of tensor g

ij

.

¸ 3. Four-dimensional momentum

conservation law for ﬁelds.

Tensor T in right hand side of Einstein equation (2.18) is called

energy-momentum tensor for material ﬁelds. It is determined

by the relationship (2.17) and comprises contributions from all

material ﬁelds and their interactions. In the model of dust matter

in electromagnetic ﬁeld tensor T is composed of three parts (see

formula (2.16)).

Energy-momentum tensor is related with 4-momentum conser-

vation law for material ﬁelds. In order to derive this conservation

law we use well-known Bianchi identity:

(3.1) ∇

k

R

p

sij

+ ∇

i

R

p

sjk

+ ∇

j

R

p

ski

= 0.

154 CHAPTER V. GENERAL RELATIVITY.

More details concerning Bianchi identity (3.1) can be found in [2]

and [6]. Let’s contract this identity with respect to i and p:

(3.2) ∇

k

R

sj

+

3

p=0

∇

p

R

p

sjk

−∇

j

R

sk

= 0.

Here we used skew symmetry of curvature tensor with respect

to last pair of indices (see [3]). Let’s multiply (3.2) by g

sj

and

contract it with respect to double indices s and j. Upon slight

transformation based on skew symmetry R

ps

ij

= −R

sp

ij

we get

(3.3)

3

s=0

∇

s

R

s

k

−

1

2

∇

k

R = 0.

Now let’s raise index j in the equation (2.18), then apply covariant

diﬀerentiation ∇

j

and contract with respect to double index j:

(3.4)

3

j=0

∇

j

R

j

q

−

1

2

∇

q

R =

8πγ

c

4

3

j=0

∇

j

T

j

q

.

Comparing (3.3) and (3.4), we get the following equation for

energy-momentum tensor of material ﬁelds:

(3.5)

3

j=0

∇

j

T

j

q

= 0.

The equation (3.5) expresses 4-momentum conservation law for

the whole variety of material ﬁelds. It is usually written in the

following form with raised index q:

(3.6)

3

j=0

∇

j

T

qj

= 0.

Energy-momentum tensor is symmetric therefore the order of

indices q and j in (3.6) is unessential.

CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.

§ 4. ENERGY-MOMENTUM TENSOR . . . 155

¸ 4. Energy-momentum tensor

for electromagnetic ﬁeld.

Energy-momentum tensor for whole variety of material ﬁelds

is deﬁned by the relationship (2.17). By analogy with (2.17) we

deﬁne energy-momentum tensor for electromagnetic ﬁeld:

(4.1) S

def

= S

el

+

ε

2c

_

Ω

3

q=0

3

j=0

T

qj

h

qj

_

−det g d

4

r +. . . .

Basic ﬁelds in the action S

el

are covariant components of vector-

potential A

i

(r). Covariant components of tensor of electromag-

netic ﬁeld are deﬁned by formula

(4.2) F

ij

= ∇

i

A

j

−∇

j

A

i

=

∂A

j

∂r

i

−

∂A

i

∂r

j

(see also formula (11.5) in Chapter III). Ultimate expression in

right hand side of (4.2) has no entry of connection components

Γ

k

ij

. Therefore covariant components F

ij

are not changed by

deformation of metric (2.6). Upon raising indices we get

ˆ

F

pk

=

3

i=0

3

j=0

ˆ g

pi

ˆ g

kj

F

ij

and, using this formula, for contravariant components F

pq

of

tensor of electromagnetic ﬁeld we derive the expansion

(4.3)

ˆ

F

pk

= F

pk

+ε

3

i=0

3

j=0

(h

pi

g

kj

+g

pi

h

kj

) F

ij

+. . . .

156 CHAPTER V. GENERAL RELATIVITY.

Substituting

ˆ

F

pk

and ˆ g into action functional S

el

, we get

S

def

= −

1

16π c

V

2

_

V

1

3

p=0

3

k=0

F

pk

ˆ

F

pk

_

−det ˆ g d

4

r

Then, taking into account (4.3) and (2.15), we derive formula

S

def

= S

el

−

ε

16π c

_

Ω

3

q=0

3

j=0

_

3

p=0

3

i=0

2 F

pq

g

pi

F

ij

−

−

1

2

3

p=0

3

i=0

F

pi

F

pi

g

qj

_

h

qj

_

−det g d

4

r +. . . .

Comparing this actual expansion with expected expansion (4.1)

for S

def

, we ﬁnd components of energy-momentum tensor for

electromagnetic ﬁeld in explicit form:

(4.4) T

qj

= −

1

4π

3

p=0

3

i=0

_

F

pq

g

pi

F

ij

−

1

4

F

pi

F

pi

g

qj

_

.

Raising indices q and j in (4.4), for contravariant components of

energy-momentum tensor T we derive

(4.5) T

qj

= −

1

4π

3

p=0

3

i=0

_

F

pq

g

pi

F

ij

−

1

4

F

pi

F

pi

g

qj

_

.

By means of formula (4.5) one can calculate covariant divergency

for energy-momentum tensor of electromagnetic ﬁeld:

(4.6)

3

s=0

∇

s

T

ps

= −

1

c

3

s=0

F

ps

j

s

.

§ 5. ENERGY-MOMENTUM TENSOR . . . 157

Formula (4.6) shows that 4-momentum conservation law for sepa-

rate electromagnetic ﬁeld is not fulﬁlled. This is due to momen-

tum exchange between electromagnetic ﬁeld and other forms of

matter, e. g. dust matter.

Exercise 4.1. Verify the relationship (4.6). For this purpose

use well-known formula for commutator of covariant derivatives

(∇

i

∇

j

−∇

i

∇

j

)A

k

= −

3

s=0

R

s

kij

A

s

and properties of curvature tensor (see details in [3]).

Exercise 4.2. Calculate components of energy-momentum

tensor (4.5) in inertial coordinate system for ﬂat Minkowsky met-

ric. Compare them with components of Maxwell tensor, with den-

sity of energy, and with vector of energy ﬂow for electromagnetic

ﬁeld (see formulas (2.5) and (2.15) in Chapter II).

¸ 5. Energy-momentum tensor

for dust matter.

Let’s consider energy-momentum tensor related with last two

terms S

mat

and S

int

in the action (2.16). They contain entries of

vector ﬁeld η whose components satisfy diﬀerential equation

(5.1)

3

p=0

∇

p

η

p

= 0,

see (3.4) in Chapter IV. This circumstance diﬀers them from com-

ponents of vector-potential A. Metric tensor g

ij

enters diﬀerential

equation (5.1) through connection components Γ

k

ij

of metric con-

nection. Therefore by deformation of metric g

ij

→ ˆ g

ij

one cannot

treat η

p

as metric independent quantities.

158 CHAPTER V. GENERAL RELATIVITY.

In order to ﬁnd truly metric independent variables for dust

matter we use formula (4.7) from Chapter IV and rewrite diﬀer-

ential equation (5.1) as follows:

3

p=0

∂(η

p

_

−det ˆ g )

∂r

p

= 0.

Denote ˆ η

p

= η

p

_

−det g . These quantities ˆ η

p

can be treated as

metric independent ones since diﬀerential constraint for them is

written in form of the equation that does not contain metric:

(5.2)

3

p=0

∂ˆ η

p

∂r

p

= 0.

Expressing η

p

through ˆ η

p

, for action functional S

int

describing

interaction of dust matter and electromagnetic ﬁeld we get

(5.3) S

int

= −

q

c

2

V

2

_

V

1

3

p=0

ˆ η

p

A

p

d

4

r.

It is easy to see that integral (5.3) does not depend on metric

tensor. Therefore action functional S

int

makes no contribution to

overall energy-momentum tensor.

Now let’s express η

p

through ˆ η

p

in action functional S

mat

for

dust matter. As a result we get formula

(5.4) S

mat

= −m

V

2

_

V

1

¸

¸

¸

_

3

p=0

3

q=0

g

pq

ˆ η

p

ˆ η

q

d

4

r.

The dependence of this functional on metric tensor is completely

determined by explicit entry of g

pq

under square root sign in right

§ 5. ENERGY-MOMENTUM TENSOR . . . 159

hand side of (5.4). Therefore power extension for S

mat

is easily

calculated on the base of the expansion (2.7):

S

def

= S

mat

+

ε

2

_

Ω

_

3

p=0

3

q=0

mη

p

η

q

_

g(η, η)

_

h

pq

_

−det g d

4

r +. . . .

Let’s compare this expansion with expected expansion for S

def

:

S

def

= S

mat

+

ε

2c

_

Ω

3

p=0

3

q=0

T

pq

h

pq

_

−det g d

4

r +. . . .

By this comparison we ﬁnd explicit formula for components of

energy-momentum tensor for dust matter:

(5.5) T

pq

=

mc η

p

η

q

_

g(η, η)

= mc

_

g(η, η) u

p

u

q

.

Contravariant components of energy-momentum tensor (5.5)

are obtained by raising indices p and q:

(5.6) T

pq

=

mc η

p

η

q

_

g(η, η)

= mc

_

g(η, η) u

p

u

q

.

Using collinearity of vectors u and η (see formula (3.1) in Chap-

ter IV) and recalling that u is unit vector, we can bring formula

(5.6) to the following simple form:

(5.7) T

pk

= mc u

p

η

k

.

Formula (5.7) is convenient for calculating covariant divergency of

energy-momentum tensor for dust matter:

(5.8)

3

s=0

∇

s

T

ps

=

q

c

3

s=0

F

ps

η

s

.

160 CHAPTER V. GENERAL RELATIVITY.

Now, applying formula (3.2) from Chapter IV, we can transform

formula (5.8) and write it as follows:

(5.9)

3

s=0

∇

s

T

ps

=

1

c

3

s=0

F

ps

j

s

.

Let’s compare (5.9) with analogous formula (4.6) for energy-

momentum tensor of electromagnetic ﬁeld. Right hand sides of

these two formulas diﬀer only in sign. This fact has transparent

interpretation. It means that in our model the overall energy-

momentum tensor for matter

T

m.f.

= T

mat

+T

el

satisﬁes diﬀerential equation (3.6). This fact is in complete

agreement with 4-momentum conservation law.

Another important conclusion, which follows from of (4.6) and

(5.9), is that 4-momentum conservation law for the whole variety

of material ﬁelds can be derived from dynamical equations for

these ﬁelds. Therefore this law is valid also in special relativity,

where Einstein equation (2.18) is not considered and where in

general case for ﬂat Minkowsky metric it is not fulﬁlled.

Exercise 5.1. Derive the relationship (5.8) on the base of equa-

tions (3.4) and (4.19) from Chapter IV.

¸ 6. Concluding remarks.

Event space in general theory of relativity is some Minkowsky

manifold M with Minkowsky metric of signature (1, 3). This

metric is determined by material content of the space according

to Einstein equation (2.18). However, topology of the manifold

M has great deal of arbitrariness. This manifold can have local

singularities at the points with extremely high concentration of

§ 6. CONCLUDING REMARKS. 161

matter. Such objects are called black holes. Moreover, global

topology of M also can be nontrivial (other than topology of R

4

).

In contemporary physics most popular models of M include big

bang in the very beginning of times. According to these models

in far past times our Universe M was extremely small, while

density of matter in it was extremely high. In further evolution

our Universe was expanding up to its present size. Will this

expansion last inﬁnitely long or it will change for contraction?

This problem is not yet solved. The answer to this question

depends on estimates of total amount of matter in the Universe.

In this book we cannot consider all these fascinating problems

of modern astrophysics and cosmology. However, I think the

above theoretical material makes suﬃcient background for to

continue studying these problems e. g. in books [2], [7], and [8].

I would like also to recommend the book [9] of popular genre,

where these problems are discussed in commonly understandable

and intriguing manner.

CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.

REFERENCES

1. Vladimirov V. S. Equations of mathematical physics, Nauka

publishers, Moscow, 1981.

2. Dubrovin B. A., Novikov S. P., Fomenko A. T. Modern geome-

try, vol. I, Nauka publishers, Moscow, 1986.

3. Sharipov R. A. Course of diﬀerential geometry, Publication of

Bashkir State University, Ufa, 1996.

4. Sharipov R. A. Course of linear algebra and multidimensional

geometry, Publication of Bashkir State University, Ufa, 1996.

5. Borisovich Yu. G., Bliznyakov N. M., Izrailevich Ya. A.,

Fomenko T. N. Introduction to topology, Nauka publishers,

Moscow, 1995.

6. Kobayashi Sh., Nomizu K. Foundations of diﬀerential geometry,

Interscience publishers, New York, London, 1963.

7. Landau L. D., Lifshits E. M. Course of theoretical physics,

vol. II, Field theory, Nauka publishers, Moscow, 1988.

8. Bogoyavlensky O. I. Methods of qualitative theory of dynamical

systems in astrophysics and in gas dynamics, Nauka publishers,

Moscow, 1980.

9. Davis P. Superforce. The search for a grand uniﬁed theory of

nature, Symon and Schuster publishers, New York, 1984.

CONTACTS

Address:

Ruslan A. Sharipov,

Math. Department,

Bashkir State University,

Frunze street 32,

450074, Ufa, Bashkortostan,

Russia

Phone:

7-(3472)-23-67-18

7-(3472)-23-67-74 (FAX)

Home address:

Ruslan A. Sharipov,

Rabochaya street 5,

450003, Ufa, Bashkortostan,

Russia

E-mails:

R Sharipov@ic.bashedu.ru

r-sharipov@mail.ru

ra sharipov@hotmail.com

2

UDC 517.9 Sharipov R. A. Classical Electrodynamics and Theory of Relativity: the manual / Publ. of Bashkir State University — Ufa, 1997. — pp. 163. — ISBN 5-7477-0180-0.

This book is a manual for the course of electrodynamics and theory of relativity. It is recommended primarily for students of mathematical departments. This deﬁnes its style: I use elements of vectorial and tensorial analysis, diﬀerential geometry, and theory of distributions in it. In preparing Russian edition of this book I used computer typesetting on the base of AMS-TEX package and I used cyrillic fonts of Lh-family distributed by CyrTUG association of Cyrillic TEX users. English edition is also typeset by AMS-TEX. This book is published under the approval by Methodic Commission of Mathematical Department of Bashkir State University. Referees: Chair of Algebra and Geometry of Bashkir State Pedagogical University (BGPI), Prof. V. A. Baikov, Ufa State University for Aviation and Technology (UGATU).

ISBN 5-7477-0180-0 English Translation

c Sharipov R.A., 1997 c Sharipov R.A., 2003

3

CONTENTS. CONTENTS. ....................................................................... 3. PREFACE. .......................................................................... 5. CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS. ..................................................................... 7. § 1. § 2. § 3. § 4. § 5. § 6. § 7. § 8. § 9. Basic experimental facts and unit systems. ...................... 7. Concept of near action. ................................................ 13. Superposition principle. ................................................ 15. Lorentz force and Biot-Savart-Laplace law. .................. 18. Current density and the law of charge conservation. ..... 21. Electric dipole moment. ............................................... 24. Magnetic moment. ....................................................... 26. Integral equations of static electromagnetic ﬁeld. ........... 31. Diﬀerential equations of static electromagnetic ﬁeld. ...... 41.

CHAPTER II. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS. ......... 43. § 1. Maxwell equations. ...................................................... § 2. Density of energy and energy ﬂow for electromagnetic ﬁeld. ........................................................................... § 3. Vectorial and scalar potentials of electromagnetic ﬁeld. ........................................................................... § 4. Gauge transformations and Lorentzian gauge. ............... § 5. Electromagnetic waves. ................................................ § 6. Emission of electromagnetic waves. ............................... 43. 46. 54. 56. 59. 60.

CHAPTER III. SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY. ..... 68. § 1. Galileo transformations. ............................................... 68.

§ 4........... Four-dimensional form of Maxwell equations... § 8. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM IN THEORY OF RELATIVITY.. ............ § 4................ 163.............. CHAPTER V.. Four-dimensional vector-potential................ 119.... Kinematics of relative motion. ........... 147................. § 2....... Lorentz transformations.............. § 7..4 § 2.. Einstein equation..... ...................................... CONTACTS........ § 9........ .. Energy-momentum tensor for electromagnetic ﬁeld........................... 95.... 90............. Motion of particle in electromagnetic ﬁeld................ Action functional for dust matter................... 124........................................................... § 5.. § 3....................... Relativistic law of velocity addition.. 141.................. ..... GENERAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY.................. .... 157.................. ... 145... § 5... .......... § 3........ § 3. ..................... Dynamics of material point... .. Note on skew-angular and curvilinear coordinates......................... Four-dimensional momentum conservation law for ﬁelds... 107......... 145..... REFERENCES.. Energy-momentum tensor for dust matter................ .......... Transition to non-ﬂat metrics and curved Minkowsky space... CHAPTER IV.. § 11................ 73........... .. § 4.... ........ Minkowsky space.. 82.... ....... 100....... .... 162.................. § 5...... 155... . ...... Principle of minimal action for particles and ﬁelds...... ........... § 10........... § 2................ 91... Equations for electromagnetic ﬁeld.. The law of charge conservation......... Dynamics of dust matter..... ...................................... 133............................ 115... ...... § 1................. 119...... ...... World lines and private time..... Concluding remarks......... ......... 160......... § 6..... 77.......................... . ...... 153... Action for gravitational ﬁeld......... 128......... 112............................ . ................. § 6.............. § 1..

It has dramatically changed traditional notion about the structure of the Universe. In the beginning of Chapter III Lorentz transformations are derived as transformations keeping form of Maxwell equations.998 · 105 km/sec. Development of theory of electromagnetism in XIX-th century became a premise for arising theory of relativity. Physical interpretation of such transformation requires uniting space and time into one four-dimensional continuum (Minkowsky space) where there is no ﬁxed direction for time axis. Theory of relativity is a physical discipline which arose in the beginning of XX-th century. In XIX-th century there was the only theory dealing with such processes.PREFACE. Upon introducing four-dimensional space-time in Chapter III classical electrodynamics is rederived in the form invariant with respect to Lorentz transformations. . In Chapter IV variational approach to describing electromagnetic ﬁeld and other material ﬁelds in special relativity is considered. Chapter II is devoted to classical electrodynamics based on Maxwell equations. Use of curvilinear coordinates in Minkowsky space and appropriate diﬀerential-geometric methods prepares background for passing to general relativity. In Chapter I electrostatics and magnetostatics are explained starting with ﬁrst experiments on interaction of charges and currents. In this book I follow historical sequence of events. this was theory of electromagnetism. Eﬀects predicted by this theory becomes essential only when we describe processes at high velocities close to light velocity c = 2.

A. Yu. where I need additional assumptions which do not follow from previous material. D. Borisov. upon reading this book. I hope that assiduous and interested reader with suﬃcient preliminary background could follow all mathematical calculations and. Ahtyamov. Mashentseva. I. I am grateful to N. P. 2003.6 In Chapter V Einstein’s theory of gravitation (general relativity) is considered. and A. 1997. T. November. This book is addressed to Math. R. detailed comment is given. References to physical intuition are minimized: in those places. would get pleasure of understanding how harmonic is the nature of things. November. I. Utarbaev for reading and correcting Russian version of book. Therefore I paid much attention to logical consistence of given material. students. Sharipov. this theory interprets gravitational ﬁeld as curvature of space-time itself. .

for length. Unit systems SI and SGS are two most popular unit systems in physics. for instance. 1997. In mechanics we have three basic quantities and three basic units of measure: for mass. energy. Quantitative description of any physical phenomenon requires measurements. power) in both systems are deﬁned in quite similar way. for measure unit of force due to Newton’s second law we get: (1) N = kg · m · sec−2 in SI. Basic experimental facts and unit systems. force. Thus. Quantity mass length time Unit in SI kg m sec Unit in SGS g cm sec Relation of units 1 kg = 103 g 1 m = 102 cm 1 sec = 1 sec Units of measure for other quantities are derived from the above basic units.A. . Units for measuring mechanical quantities (velocity. Proportions relating units for these quantities CopyRight c Sharipov R. acceleration. and for time. 2003.CHAPTER I ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS § 1.. (2) dyn = g · cm · sec−2 in SGS.

ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS. Coulomb law itself then is written in form of the equality (1.1) F ∼ Q1 Q2 . However. r2 Fig. This is due to the screening. r2 Force F deﬁned by the relationship (1. which constitute all observable matter around us. can be derived from proportions for basic quantities (see table above). have the same amount of positive and negative charges. Coulomb law. Atoms and molecules. while points with charges of opposite signs are attracting with force proportional to quantities of their charges and inverse proportional to square of distance between them: (1. The numbers of positive and negative charges in nature are exactly balanced. 1. Therefore they are electrically neutral in . Choice of measure unit for electric charge in SGS is based on Coulomb law describing interaction of two charged point.1 Measure unit of charge in SGS is chosen such that coeﬃcient in formula (1. in everyday life it does not reveal itself. However.2) is very strong. in choosing units for electric and magnetic quantities these systems diﬀer essentially. Hence we have the following relation: unit of charge in SGS = dyn 1/2 · cm= g 1/2 · cm3/2 · sec−1 . Two charged points with charges of the same sign are repulsing.8 CHAPTER I.2) F = Q1 Q2 .1) is equal to unity.

In order to reveal quantitative characteristics for magnetic forces one should maximally simplify the geometry of conductors.2) arises that tends to recover balance of charges in electrically neutral rod. Then Coulomb force (1. For this purpose they are deformed so that each possesses straight rod-shaped part of suﬃciently big length l. These rod- . 9 whole. In spite of absence of Coulomb forces. The magnitude of magnetic forces depends essentially on the shape and mutual arrangement of circular conductors. Force (1. Current in such conductor is determined by the amount of charge passing through it within the unit of time. which usually have lengthy form (form of wire).§ 1. Current in it leads to misbalance of charges in its ends. while lack of these charges in the other end of the rod is detected as the charge of opposite sign. This occurs in metallic conductor. Direct current can ﬂow in it during unlimitedly long time. Therefore for unit of current we have: unit of current in SGS = unit of charge in SGS · sec−1 = = g 1/2 · cm 3/2 · sec−2 .2) reveals itself in form of chemical links only when atoms are pulled together. Here current does not break the balance of charges. Charges of deﬁnite sign move to one end of the rod. This means that in such rod current could not ﬂow in constant direction during long time. This interaction has other nature. it is not due to electrical. in experiments the interaction of two circular conductors with currents was detected. BASIC FACTS AND UNIT SYSTEMS. Electric current arises as a result of motion of charged points. Circular conductor itself thereby remains electrically neutral and no Coulomb forces arise. Another situation we have with conductor of the form of ring or circuit. but due to magnetic forces. Let’s consider straight conducting rod of the length l.

(1. Therefore formula (1.3) The unit of current in SGS was already introduced above.10 CHAPTER I. The value of this .5) c ≈ 2. 1. In the limit.3) in SGS is written as 2 I1 I2 F = 2 .4) is a velocity constant. constant is determined experimentally: (1. when l is much larger than r. Ampere law. In experiments it was found that such conductors do interact according to the following law. while opposite directed currents repulse each other.2 conductors with currents per unit length of them is proportional ti the values of currents in them and inverse proportional to the distance between them: F I1 I2 ∼ . Therefore coeﬃcient of proportionality in formula (1.998 · 1010 cm/sec. shaped parts are arranged parallel to each other with the distance r between them.3) is unique quantity that should be determined in experiment. Here is the measure unit for this coeﬃcient: sec 2 · cm−2 . (1. It coincides with inverse square of velocity. Force of interaction of two inﬁnite parallel Fig. this conﬁguration of conductors can be treated as a pair of inﬁnitely long parallel conductors.4) l c r Constant c in (1. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS. l r Two co-directed currents attract each other.

which are more often used for engineering calculations in electric technology. . Then coeﬃcient of proportionality in Coulomb law (1. Constant µ0 is called magnetic susceptibility of vacuum. Numeric coeﬃcient 2 in (1.7) µ0 = 4π · 10−7 N · A−2 .6) is used in order to simplify some other formulas.7) this is physical constant determined experimentally: (1.9) ǫ0 ≈ 8.§ 1. But.5). It is determined such that formula (1. it is exact constant.5) coincides with velocity of light in vacuum.14 . In SI Coulomb law is written as (1. l 4π r Here π = 3. One could choose it to be equal to unity. Being basic unit in SI.3) is written as (1.85 · 10−12 C 2 · N−1 · m−2 .7) current of 1 ampere appears to be in that range of currents. is exact (though it is irrational) mathematical constant with no measure unit.7) for this constant was chosen by convention when SI system was established.4) is introduced intentionally for to provide such coincidence. 11 As we shall see below.8) F = 1 Q1 Q2 . Due to this value of constant (1.1) appears to be not equal to unity. in contrast to constant c in (1. unit of current ampere is used for deﬁning unit of charge of 1 coulomb: 1C = 1A · 1sec. It has the measure unit: (1. In contrast to constant µ0 in (1. Coeﬃcient 4π in denominator (1. . BASIC FACTS AND UNIT SYSTEMS. . constant c in (1.6) F 2 µ0 I1 I2 = . that really appear in industrial and household devices. Its value should not be determined experimentally. 4πǫ0 r2 Constant ǫ0 is called dielectric permittivity of vacuum. but the above value (1. In SI measure unit of current 1 A (one ampere) is a basic unit.

derivation of many formulas in this system appears more huge than in SGS. This theory is based on Newton’s fourth law formulated as follows. Therefore theories of electricity and magnetism are usually united into one theory of electromagnetic phenomena. Comparing Coulomb law and Ampere law we see that electrical and magnetic forces reveal themselves in quite diﬀerent way.12) F =γ M1 M2 r2 . Classical mechanics (without Newton’s theory of gravitation) has no measurable constants. they have common origin: they both are due to electric charges.5). However. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.998 · 108 m/sec.10) c= 1 ǫ0 µ0 ≈ 2. Constants (1. SI better suits for engineering calculations.11) γ ≈ 6.7). Newton’s theory of gravitation has one constant: (1.12 CHAPTER I. However. but in formulas for two fundamental laws: Coulomb law and Ampere law. From the above consideration we see that SGS and SI systems diﬀer from each other not only in the scale of units. Universal law of gravitation. Theory of electromagnetism is a theory with one measurable constant: this is light velocity c.9) are related to each other by the following equality: (1. Below we shall see that their relation is much more close. Therefore below in this book we use SGS system.67 · 10−8 cm3 · g−1 · sec−2 . (1. Two point masses attract each other with the force proportional to their masses and inverse proportional to the square of distance between them. and (1. Universal law of gravitation is given by the same formula (1.

the distance r begins increasing and consequently force of Coulomb interaction (1. Taking this concept we should take formula (1.2) will decrease. Historically they appeared as a result of development of the theory of electromagnetism. each interaction (and electric interaction among others) can be transmitted immediately only to the point of space inﬁnitesimally close to initial one. § 2. In this situation we have natural question: how soon after second body starts moving second body will feel change of Coulomb force of interaction ? There are two possible answers to this question: (1) immediately. Transmission of any action to ﬁnite distance should be considered as a process of successive transmission from point to point. which are initially ﬁxed.2) as absolutely exact formula applicable for charges at rest and for moving charges as well. This process always leads to some ﬁnite velocity of transmission for any action. CONCEPT OF NEAR ACTION. In . Below we keep this historical sequence in explaining all three theories. According to modern notion of nature classical mechanics and Newton’s theory of gravitation are approximate theories. (2) with some delay depending on the distance between bodies. According to this concept. When we start moving second body apart from ﬁrst one.§ 2.1. 13 in both systems: in SGS and in SI. Concept of near action. Second answer is based on the concept of near action. Exercise 1. First answer is known as concept of distant action. Currently they are replaced by special theory of relativity and general theory of relativity. Let’s consider pair of charged bodies. and let’s do the following mental experiment with them. On the base of above facts ﬁnd quantitative relation of measure units for charge and current in SGS and SI.

5)). Theory of electromagnetism has measurable constant c (light velocity (1. Now we have the opportunity for testing it experimentally in the scope of electromagnetic phenomena. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.14 CHAPTER I. for some time this process exist in hidden form with no inﬂuence to both charges.2) is treated as approximate law. In XIX-th century it was subject for contests. where moving charge is placed. . Field is a material entity able to ﬁll the whole space and able to act upon other material bodies transmitting mutual interaction of them. If we settle an experiment of measuring Coulomb force at the distances of the order of r ≈ 10 cm. was its straightness. process of transmitting interaction to far distance exhibits an inertia. for the time of transmission of interaction we would get times of the order of t ≈ 3 · 10−10 sec. Starting at one point. its self-completeness. quite likely. and hence its scarcity. In present time concept of near action is commonly accepted. which is ﬁrst pretender for the role of transmission velocity of electric and magnetic interactions. In order to describe this stage of process we need to introduce new concept. According to the concept of near action. which is exact only for the charges at rest that stayed at rest during suﬃciently long time so that process of transmission of electric interaction has been terminated. Therefore the problem of choosing concept could not be solved experimentally. 1997. This concept is a ﬁeld. 2003. The value of light velocity is a very large quantity. the framework of the concept of near action Coulomb law (1. CopyRight c Sharipov R.A. There are only four fundamental ﬁelds: strong ﬁeld. Let’s study this concept more attentively. The only argument against the concept of distant action that time. weak ﬁeld.. For this reason electromagnetic theory is much more favorable as compared to Newton’s theory of gravitation. The number of ﬁelds deﬁnitely known to scientists is not big. Experimental technique of XIX-th century was unable to detect such a short interval of time.

Strong and weak interactions and ﬁelds are not considered in this book. This yields (3.2) E = Q1 r2 − r1 . One can take . There are various terms using the word ﬁeld: vector ﬁeld. but it doesn’t depend on the value of second charge. spinor ﬁeld. These are mathematical terms reﬂecting some deﬁnite properties of real physical ﬁelds. and others. and gravitational ﬁeld. § 3. Strong and weak ﬁelds are very short distance ﬁelds. It depends also on the position of second charge. gauge ﬁeld. Let’s consider vector E determined as the ratio E = F/Q2 . Coulomb force in the framework of this concept can be interpreted as follows: ﬁrst charge produces electric ﬁeld around itself. Let’s denote by F vector of force and take into account the direction of this vector determined by verbal statement of Coulomb law above. Let’s apply concept of near action to Coulomb law for two charged points.1) F = Q1 Q2 r2 − r1 . in collisions and decay of elementary particles. where charges Q1 and Q2 are placed. which are called neutron stars. |r2 − r1 |3 Here r1 and r2 are radius-vectors of points. tensor ﬁeld. Result of such action is detected as a force F applied to second charge.§ 3. |r2 − r1 |3 Vector E depends upon the position of ﬁrst charge and upon its value. Superposition principle. SUPERPOSITION PRINCIPLE. they reveal themselves only in atomic nuclei. and this ﬁeld acts upon other charge.1) we derive (3. Force is vectorial quantity. and in stellar objects of extremely high density. For this vector from formula (3. 15 electromagnetic ﬁeld.

For this purpose one should place test charge q to the point r2 and one should measure Coulomb force F acting upon this test charge. Superposition principle combined with Coulomb law leads to the following formula for the intensity of electric ﬁeld produced by a system of point charges at the point r: n (3. Vector E can be determined by formula (3.3) and take it for the quantitative measure of electric ﬁeld at the point r. This vector is called vector of intensity of electric ﬁeld or simply vector of electric ﬁeld at that point. However.16 CHAPTER I. . . in this case one cannot be a priori sure that vector E does not depend on the quantity of test charge q. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS. . Now consider more complicated situation. . rn .3) E = F/q. They produce electric ﬁeld around them. Electric ﬁeld E at the point r produced by a system of point charges Q1 . . . . This action reveals as a force F applied to the charge q. . . Again we can deﬁne vector E of the form (3. Qn separately.4) E(r) = i=1 Qi r − ri . Suppose that charges Q1 . and this ﬁeld acts upon test charge q placed at the point r. . Then vector E is determined by division of F by the value of test charge q: (3. . Superposition principle. . . . Qn are placed at the points r1 . vector E for quantitative measure of electric ﬁeld produced by ﬁrst charge Q1 at the point r2 . there is the following experimental fact. .2) or it can be measured experimentally. Qn is a vectorial sum of electric ﬁelds that would be produced at this point by each charge Q1 . . Generally speaking. |r − ri |3 . where second charge is placed.

7) F= ρ(r) E(r) d3 r. Field E(r) in (3. Fields produced by such systems of charges are called static ﬁelds. one can pass from point charges to continuously distributed charges.§ 3. Force acting on a charge q in electric ﬁeld is equal to the product of the quantity of this charge by the vector of intensity of ﬁeld at the point.4) and (3. r |r − ˜|3 r Here ρ(˜) is spatial density of charge at the point ˜. Total force acting on a system of distributed charges in electric ﬁeld is determined by the following integral: (3. 17 Using superposition principle.3). while branch of theory of electromagnetism studying such ﬁelds is called electrostatics.6) F = q E(r). charge q also produces electric ﬁeld. Does it experience the action of its own ﬁeld ? For point charges the answer to this question is negative.7) is external ﬁeld produced by external charges. This fact should be treated as a supplement to principle of superposition. This value r r designates the amount of charge per unit volume. which stayed at rest for suﬃciently long time so that process of interaction transmitting reached the point of observation r.4) is replaced by integral over 3-dimensional space: (3. SUPERPOSITION PRINCIPLE. As a result we obtain (3. Concluding this section. . Suppose that the number of point charges tends to inﬁnity: n → ∞.5) hold only for charges at rest. Field of charges with density ρ(r) is not included into E(r). where charge is placed. In such limit sum in formula (3. note that formulas (3.5) E(r) = ρ(˜) r r−˜ 3 r d ˜. In order to ﬁnd force acting on test charge q we should invert formula (3. However.

Then for the force per each particle we derive (4. Upon calculating force acting on a segment of conductor of the length l by formula (1.1 q each. In order to get quantitative measure of magnetic ﬁeld at some point r let’s consider current I2 in (1. If we denote by ν the number of such particles per unit length of conductor. § 4. Then during time interval t we would have n = ν v t particles passing through a ﬁxed cross-section of the conductor. Lorentz force and Biot-Savart-Laplace law.4) as a ﬂow of charged particles of charge Fig.1) F = 2 I1 q v 2 I1 I2 l = 2 . Ampere law of interaction of parallel conductors with currents is an analog of Coulomb law for magnetic interactions. They carry charge amounting to Q = q ν v t. force F arises as a result of action of magnetic ﬁeld produced by a current in ﬁrst conductor upon second conducvt tor. According to near action principle. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.4) holds only for l ≫ r.1) qualitative dependence of F on q and on v: each charged particle moving in magnetic ﬁeld experiences . parallel conductors cannot be treated as point objects: formula (1. However. 4.18 CHAPTER I. then in the whole length l we would have N = ν l particles. Therefore for current I2 in second conductor we get I2 = Q/t = q ν v. c2 r N c r Formula determines (4. and each moving along conductor with constant velocity v.4) we should divide it by the number of particles N contained in this segment.

Scalar factor 1/c in (4. H]. Actually. H] l c .§ 4. Vectorial quantity H(r) is a quantitative measure of magnetic ﬁeld at the point r.6). LORENTZ FORCE AND .2) F ∼ q v.4) F = qE+ q [v. Let’s turn back to our conductors. Total Lorentz force acting on a charge in electromagnetic ﬁeld is a sum of two components: electric component and magnetic component: (4. 19 a force proportional to its charge q and to the magnitude of its velocity vector v = |v|.4) within theory being developed. Force and velocity both are vectorial quantities.5) I F = [τ .4) is empiric.3) F= q [v. c Here c is scalar constant equal to light velocity.3) can be interpreted in terms of currents.4) as experimental fact that do not contradict to another experimental fact (1. Simplest way to relate two vectors F and v is to use vector product of v with some third vectorial quantity H: (4. Each segment of unit length of a conductor with current I in magnetic ﬁeld H experiences the force (4. we have proportionality (4. Formula (4.4) extends formula (3. c Formula (4. It is called intensity of magnetic ﬁeld at that point.6) for the case of general electromagnetic ﬁelds. one should treat formula (4. H(r)]. . . It holds not only for static but for time-dependent (non-static) ﬁelds. e. Surely the above derivation of formula (4. Force F acting on a point charge in magnetic ﬁeld is called Lorentz force. i.3) is used for to make H to be measured by the same units as intensity of electric ﬁeld E in (3.

Force F now can be calculated by formula (4.7) H= 2 I1 . And one can write formula for magnetic ﬁeld produced by such segment of conductor: (4. c r Here r is the distance from observation point to the conductor producing ﬁeld at that point. 3 c |r − ˜| r . c where s is natural parameter on contour (length) and r(s) is vector-function determining shape of contour in parametric form. Auxiliary experiment shows that vector H is perpendicular to the plane of these two parallel conductors. In particular. Magnetic ﬁeld produced by conductor with current satisﬁes superposition principle. Here τ is unit vector tangent to conductor and directed along current in it.6) F= I [τ (s). The magnitude of magnetic ﬁeld H = |H| can be determined by formula (4. acting on it. But theoretically one can consider inﬁnitesimally small segment of conductor with current of the length ds. H(r(s))] ds.5) assuming that ﬁrst conductor produces magnetic ﬁeld H(r) that acts upon second conductor. r − ˜] ds.8) dH(r) = r 1 [I τ .1): (4. One cannot measure magnetic ﬁeld of separate segment experimentally since one cannot keep constant current is such separate segment for suﬃciently long time. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS. ﬁeld of inﬁnite straight line conductor (4. Total force acting on circular conductor with current I is determined by contour integral (4. Let’s consider the case of two parallel conductors.20 CHAPTER I.7) is composed by ﬁelds produced by separate segments of this conductor.

This fact is ignored when we consider long conductors like wire. formula (4. Find magnetic ﬁeld of the conductor with current having the shape of circle of the radius a. Current in bulk conductors can be distributed non-uniformly within volume of conductor. if we consider current in electrolytic bath or if we study current in plasma in upper layers of atmosphere.A. when calculating magnetic ﬁelds produced by circular conductors. Exercise 4. here s is natural parameter on the contour and ˜(s) r is vectorial function determining shape of this contour. .8) cannot be tested experimentally. For example.2. .9) for each particular conductor it yields some particular expression for H(r).8) and its integral form (4. .9) r constitute Biot-Savart-Laplace law for circular conductors with current. This expression then can be veriﬁed in experiment. Biot-Savart-Laplace law in form (4. we assume them having no thickness. 1997. Exercise 4.9).8) is taken in integral form: (4. in some cases thickness of a conductor cannot be ignored.6). It is always taken to be directed along current I.4). However.9) H(r) = r 1 [I τ (s). In practice. 21 Here τ is unit vector determining spatial orientation of inﬁnitesimal conductor. c |r − ˜(s)|3 r Like in (4. Current density and the law of charge conservation. Therefore τ (s) = d˜(s)/ds. Real conductor always has some thickness. CopyRight c Sharipov R. CURRENT DENSITY AND . 2003. Conductors that we have considered above are kind of idealization. r − ˜(s)] ds. in integral form (4.§ 5.1.6) and (4. The relationship (4. Using relationships (4. They are linear.. derive the law of interaction of parallel conductors with current in form (1. § 5. However.

In its classical form it states that charges cannot appear from nowhere and cannot disappear as well.22 CHAPTER I. When applied to integrals (5. Here n is unit vector of external normal to the surface ∂Ω restricting domain Ω. they can only move from one point to another. Charge conservation law is one more fundamental experimental fact reﬂecting the nature of electromagnetism. Due to the above deﬁnition of current density the amount of charge ﬂowing out from marked domain per unit time is determined by surface integral over the boundary of this domain. Let’s mark mentally some restricted domain Ω within bulk conducting medium.1) Q= Ω ρ d3 r. Vector of current density j(r) indicate the direction of charge transport at the point r. J= ∂Ω j. Its boundary is smooth closed surface. Current density is vectorial quantity depending on a point of conducting medium: j = j(r). However. Its magnitude j = | j | is determined by the amount of charge passing through unit area perpendicular to vector j per unit time. The concept of current density j is best one for describing such situation. This relationship means that decrease of charge enclosed within domain Ω is always due to . Modern physics insert some correction to this statement: charges appear and can disappear in processes of creation and annihilation of pairs of elementary particles consisting of particle and corresponding antiparticle. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS. while charge enclosed within this domain is given by spatial integral: (5.1) charge ˙ conservation law yields: Q = −J. even in such creationannihilation processes total balance of charge is preserved since total charge of a pair consisting of particle and antiparticle is always equal to zero. n dS.

∂t The relationships (5. Current density j is a vector depending on a point of conducting medium.3) is an arbitrary domain that we marked mentally within conducting medium.2) d dt Ω ρ d3 r + ∂Ω j. n dS = 0. When applied to (5. Let’s write charge conservation law in the following form: (5. formula (4.3) Ω ∂ρ + div j ∂t d3 r = 0. The relationship (5.1) is called ﬂow of vector ﬁeld j through the surface ∂Ω. Electric ﬁeld E and magnetic ﬁeld H are other examples of vector ﬁelds.4) also is known as continuity equation for electric charge. For smooth vector ﬁeld any surface integral like J can be transformed to spatial integral by means of Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula. c .3) should be identically zero: (5. H(r)] d3 r. Such objects in diﬀerential geometry are called vector ﬁelds.2). CURRENT DENSITY AND .5) F= 1 [ j(r).6) is rewritten as follows: (5. .§ 5. Surface integral J in (5. Note that Ω in (5.2) and (5.4) ∂ρ + div j = 0. When applied to bulk conductors with distributed current j within them. This means that the expression being integrated in (5. . this yields (5. 23 charge leakage through the boundary and conversely increase of charge is due to incoming ﬂow through the boundary of this domain.4) are integral and diﬀerential forms of charge conservation law respectively.

we get the following expression for . Let R be maximal linear size of the domain Ω.6) and (4. Let’s consider some conﬁguration of distributed charge with density ρ(r) which is concentrated within some restricted domain Ω. r 3 c |r − ˜| r In order to derive formulas (5. Biot-Savart-Laplace law for such conductors also is written in terms of spatial integral in the following form: (5.8) one should represent bulk conductor as a union of linear conductors.1) E(r) = Ω ρ(˜) r r−˜ 3 r d ˜..1).5) and (5. Let’s choose coordinates with origin within this domain Ω and let’s choose observation point r which is far enough from the domain of charge concentration: |r| ≫ R.5): (6. In order to ﬁnd electric ﬁeld E(r) produced by charges in Ω we use formula (3. Substituting (6. we can write Taylor expansion for the fraction in the expression under integration in r (6. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.1) is restricted. § 6. |r| |r| − ˜ r |r| + . r − ˜] 3 d ˜.24 CHAPTER I. we have inequality |˜| ≤ R. As a result we get power series in powers of ratio ˜/|r|: (6. r Using this inequality along with |r| ≫ R.2) r 1 r r r−˜ = + · 3 · |r − ˜|3 r |r|3 |r|2 |r| r r ˜ .6) H(r) = r r 1 [ j(˜). Electric dipole moment..6) from formulas (4. then use superposition principle and pass to the limit by the number of linear conductors n → ∞. r |r − ˜|3 r Since domain Ω in (6.1).2) into (6. .

For charges enclosed within domain Ω it is given by integral (6.1).5) as r → ∞.6) E(r) = 3 r. which is electrically neutral in whole. D r − |r|2 D r + + .3) is Coulomb ﬁeld of point charge Q placed at the origin. . r r r For point charges dipole moment is determined by sum n (6. Vector D there is called dipole moment.4) and (6. Second summand in (6.. 3 |r| |r|5 First summand in (6. ELECTRIC DIPOLE MOMENT. It is given by integral (5. where Q is total charge enclosed in the domain Ω. Note that for the system of charges with Q = 0 dipole moment D calculated by formulas (6. 25 the vector of electric ﬁeld E(r) produced by charges in Ω: (6.5) is invariant quantity. r r . D r − |r|2 D |r|5 is leading term in asymptotics for electrostatic ﬁeld (3. the ﬁeld of point dipole (6.5) D= i=1 r Qi ˜i .4) or (3.3) E(r) = Q 3 r.4) D= Ω ρ(˜) ˜ d3 ˜.§ 6.3) is known as ﬁeld of point dipole placed at the origin.. For the system of charges concentrated near origin. This quantity remains unchanged when we move all charges to the same distance at the same direction without changing their mutual orientation: ˜ → ˜ + r0 .

Using formula (6. § 7. and it doesn’t break charge balance.7) ﬁnd the force acting on point dipole in external electric ﬁeld E(r). Charge conservation law applied to this situation yields (7. Current density j(r) is smooth vectorfunction.1). ρ(r) = 0.1.7) is called point dipole. Consider the density 3 (6. i. Concept of charge density is applicable to point charges as well.2.1) div j = 0.6) and explain why system of charges described by the above density (6. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.4) calculate dipole moment for distributed charge (6. ∂ri Applying formula (5. Let’s consider situation similar to that of previous section. Let R be maximal linear size of this domain Ω. Exercise 6. which is nonzero only within Ω and which vanishes at the boundary ∂Ω and in outer space. e. For example point charge Q placed at the point r = 0 is represented by density ρ(r) = Q δ(r). grad δ(r) = i=1 Di ∂δ(r) . Compare the expression obtained with (6.26 CHAPTER I. It is distribution.7). Suppose some distributed system of currents is concentrated in some restricted domain near origin. i. where δ(r) is Dirac’s delta-function. Magnetic moment. Exercise 6. However. it doesn’t depend on time. .7) and ﬁnd electrostatic ﬁeld produced by this charge. e. in this case ρ(r) is not ordinary function.7) ρ(r) = D. Current density j(r) is assumed to be stationary. Using formula (3. calculate total charge Q corresponding to this density (6.

6): (7.2). therefore in calculating integral r (7. . Proof. ˜] 3 r r r r d ˜ + .. r] − |r|2 [ j(˜). [ r. r c |r − ˜|3 r Assuming that |r| ≫ R.4) H1 . e] 3 r d ˜. For this vector we derive .3) is identically equal to zero. c |r|3 f (˜) = a.§ 7. e = Ω e. [ j(˜). ˜ [ j(˜). r 5 c |r| Lemma 7. ˜ . r c |r|3 Then deﬁne vector a and function f (˜) as follows: r a= [r.1. e] . we take Taylor expansion (6. Let’s choose some arbitrary constant vector e and consider scalar product (7.. 27 In order to calculate magnetic ﬁeld H(r) we use Biot-SavartLaplace law written in integral form (5. r r Vector a does not depend on ˜. MAGNETIC MOMENT.3) + Ω Ω [ j(˜). First integral in (7.2) and substitute it into (7.4) we can take it for constant vector. r] 3 r d ˜+ r c |r|3 3 r.2) H(r) = Ω r r 1 [ j(˜). Denote this integral by H1 (r). As a result we get H(r) = (7. r − ˜] 3 d ˜. r] 3 r d ˜= r c |r|3 Ω j(˜).

. It is also equal to zero since j(˜) vanishes at the r boundary of domain Ω. Substituting this formula into the (7. This scalar product can be brought to (7. r r r where b(˜) = 3 r. First of all we denote it by H2 (r). Previous integral is transformed to surface integral by means of OstrogradskyGauss formula. this wouldn’t change integral r r in (7. If one adds gradient of r r r arbitrary function f (˜) to b(˜). we get H1 . e]. b(˜) d3 ˜. a = grad f . e = (7. e = ∂Ω f j.5) and (7.6) since e is arbitrary constant vector. Then.1 is proved.6) form an example of such invariance. Formulas (7.6) H1 . grad f d3 ˜ = r f div j d3 ˜. 1997. we form scalar product H2 . taking an arbitrary constant vector e. Let’s specify function f (˜).3). 2003.1). e] − |r|2 [˜. r CopyRight c Sharipov R. Lemma 7. ˜ r 2 ˜.28 CHAPTER I. e] .8) f (˜) = − r 3 r.7).4).5) is equal to zero due to (7. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS. e = 1 c |r|5 Ω j(˜).7) H2 . n dS = 0. r Ω div(f j) d3 ˜ − r Last integral in (7. ˜ [r. [r.A. Let’s transform second integral in (7. Therefore (7. Now vanishing of vector H1 (r) follows from formula (7. e .5) = Ω Ω j. . choosing it as follows: r (7.

r 2 Right hand side of (7. c − c a. ˜] + |r|2 e. [b. e [˜. b again.10) b(˜) = − r 1 3 r.9) contains triple vectorial product. ˜ [r. [r. b = r. ˜] 3 r r r r d ˜. r r 2 2 Here is Let’s add this expression for grad f to vector b(˜). r resulting new expression for this vector: (7. and c = [r. r] + |r|2 [˜. e] = r r 2 2 3 r r = −3 r. [ j(˜). Assuming that a = ˜. r r 2 2 Let’s substitute (7. ˜ [r. c]] = b a. [r. and c = e: grad f (˜) = −3 r. we transform the r above expression for grad f to the following form: (7. e [˜. e r. e] − r r 3 [˜. [b. Now let’s use well-known identity [a. [ j(˜). e]]].10) into formula (7. e] − [r. 29 For gradient of function (7. ˜ 2 . e].7). ˜ [r. MAGNETIC MOMENT. In order to transform it we use the identity [a. [r. This yields H2 . e]. e] r. ˜ [r. now assuming that a = r. e] − r r ˜. c − c a. r 5 2 c |r| Note that quantities j(˜) and ˜ enter into this formula in form of r r . e] − r r 3 3 r. b = r. e] r − r. e = Ω −3 r.9) grad f (˜) = −3 r. [r.§ 7. e].8) by direct calculations we ﬁnd grad f (˜) = − r 3 3 ˜. c]] = b a. b . r] + |r|2 [˜.

3) and lemma 7.11) is incremented by (7.14) is equal to zero by the same reasons as in proof of lemma 7. . In terms of M the above relationship r for scalar product H2 . Indeed. r 2c Integral in formula (7.1 we can conclude that the ﬁeld of point magnetic dipole (7.14) △M = Ω [r0 .30 CHAPTER I. magnetic moment M is invariant with respect to displacements r → r + r0 that don’t change conﬁguration of currents within system.12) H2 . |r|5 If we remember that e in formula (7. Denote by M the following integral: r r (7. then from (7. Like electric dipole moment D of the system with zero total charge Q = 0. M − |r|2 e. M .6) as r → ∞. e = 3 r. M r − |r|2 M |r|5 is leading term in asymptotical expansion of static magnetic ﬁeld (4.1.11) is called magnetic moment for currents with density j(˜). under such displacement integral (7. j(˜)] 3 r d ˜ = 0. j(˜)] 3 r r d ˜.12) is an arbitrary constant vector.11) M= Ω [˜.9) and (5. e is written as follows: (7. ˜] only. vector product [ j(˜). ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS. e r. r 2c Vector M given by integral (7.13) H(r) = 3 r.

. § 8. H= S H. for electric ﬁeld and magnetic ﬁeld: (8. Exercise 7.1. e. grad δ(r)].5). Integral equations for static electromagnetic ﬁeld. By means of the following formula for the torque M= 1 [r. H]] d3 r c ﬁnd torque M acting upon point magnetic dipole (7. . i.3. Consider localized system of currents j(r) with current density given by the following distribution: (7. Now we consider ﬂows of vector ﬁelds E(r) and H(r).15) and ﬁnd its magnetic moment M.§ 8.6). Exercise 7. Let S be closed surface enveloping some domain Ω. Verify the relationship (7.15) in homogeneous magnetic ﬁeld H = const. Let’s .1)). Using formula (5. 31 Exercise 7.15) j(r) = −c [M.2. Remember that we introduced the concept of ﬂow of vector ﬁeld through a surface in considering charge conservation law (see integral J in (5.1) E= S E. n dS. i. Electrostatic ﬁeld E is determined by formula (3. INTEGRAL EQUATIONS . e. ﬁnd the force acting upon point magnetic dipole in external magnetic ﬁeld H(r). S = ∂Ω. Applying formula (5. n dS. calculate magnetic ﬁeld of this system of currents and explain why this system of currents is called point magnetic dipole. [ j(r).1) for the system of currents (7.5).

when ˜ ∈ Ω.3): m. This proves ﬁrst case in formula (8.2) E= ρ(˜) r ∂Ω r − ˜. r |r − ˜|3 r Inner surface integral in (8.5) into ﬁrst integral (8. r 4π. n dS = ∂Ω Ω div m d3 r = 0. if ˜ ∈ Ω.3). Therefore in this case we can apply Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula to (8. In order to prove second case. In order to prove the relationship (8.4) m(r) = r−˜ r . In all regular points of this vector ﬁeld by direct r calculations we ﬁnd div m = 0. n(r) r dS = |r − ˜|3 r 0. substitute (3. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS. n(r) r dS d3 ˜.3) let’s consider vector ﬁeld m(r) given by the following formula: (8.1) and then let’s change order of integration in resulting double integral: (8.2) is an integral of explicit function. if ˜ ∈ Ω.3) ∂Ω r − ˜. Let’s consider spherr ical ǫ-neighborhood O = Oǫ of special point r = ˜.32 CHAPTER I. r Here by Ω = Ω ∪ ∂Ω we denote closure of the domain Ω. |r − ˜|3 r Vector ﬁeld m(r) is smooth everywhere except for one special point r = ˜. For suﬃciently r small ǫ this neighborhood O = Oǫ is completely enclosed into the . we use tactical maneuver. This integral can be calculated explicitly: (8. If ˜ ∈ Ω special point of the ﬁeld r m is out of the domain Ω.

which is not diﬃcult. The value of last integral over sphere ∂O in (8.6) ∂Ω E.2) we get the following relationship: (8. n dS = 4π Ω ρ(r) d 3 r. n(r) dS d 3 ˜. .3) into (8. . c |r − ˜|3 r .8) m(r) = [ j. n dS = ∂O m. Now consider the ﬁeld (8. 33 domain Ω. r − ˜] r .1).1). Now let’s consider ﬂow of magnetic ﬁeld H in (8. n dS = 4π.6) can be formulated as a theorem. Thus. Flow of electric ﬁeld through the boundary of restricted domain is equal to total charge enclosed within this domain multiplied by 4π.6) into second integral (8. r − ˜]. r c |r − ˜|3 r It’s clear that in calculating inner integral over the surface ∂Ω vector j can be taken for constant.§ 8.5) is found by direct calculation. Substituting (8. INTEGRAL EQUATIONS .3) is proved. then change the order of integration in resulting double integral: (8. This relationship (8. Then from zero divergency condition div m = 0 for the ﬁeld given by formula (8. Static magnetic ﬁeld is determined by formula (5. Theorem (on the ﬂow of electric ﬁeld).7) H= ∂Ω r r 1 [ j(˜).6). formula (8.4) we derive (8. Let’s substitute H(r) given by (5.5) ∂Ω m.

ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS. e. r Divergency of this ﬁeld is equal to zero. As appears in this case. As a result of substituting (8. n dS = ∂O m.8) has only one singular point r = ˜.11) ∂Ω H. the value of surface integral over sphere ∂O in this case is equal to zero since vector m(r) is perpendicular to normal vector n at all points of sphere ∂O. n dS = 0.9) into (8. Total ﬂow of magnetic ﬁeld through the boundary of any restricted domain is equal to zero.34 CHAPTER I. n dS = 0. n(r) dS = 0.7). this vector ﬁeld (8. r − ˜]. Instead of (8. i. Γ = ∂S. Like (8.9) follows from div m = 0 by r applying Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula. Theorem (on the ﬂow of magnetic ﬁeld). which is formulated as the following theorem. Let r(s) be vectorial parametric equation of some closed spatial curve Γ being the rim for some open surface S.7) we get the relationship (8. By S we . For ˜ ∈ Ω we have the r relationship similar to the above relationship (8.9) ∂Ω r 1 [ j. singular point makes no eﬀect to the value of surface integral in (8. c |r − ˜|3 r For ˜ ∈ Ω the relationship (8.3) in this case we have the following formula: (8. However.4).10) ∂Ω m. Open surface S means that S and Γ have empty intersection. this fact can be veriﬁed by direct calculations.5): (8.

Values of integral (8.14) for ˜ ∈ Γ follows from rot m = 0.A. e= n Γ Fig. . we get the following equality for circulation of electric ﬁeld: (8.12) h= Γ Γ H. we deﬁne circulation for electric and magnetic ﬁelds in form of the n following contour integrals: n S E. 1997. τ ds.4) again.13) we need to consider vector ﬁeld (8.1 (8. Substituting (3. .4) is unessential since surface S.12) and changing the order of integration in resulting double integral. Taking s for natural parameter on Γ.§ 8.14) at those points ˜ ∈ Γ are of no matter r since when substituting (8.13) such points constitute a set of zero measure. r this equality can be veriﬁed by direct calculations.14) Γ r(s) − ˜. Then S = S ∪ Γ. r we can transform contour integral in (8. 8.13) e= ρ(˜) r Γ r(s) − ˜.14) into integral (8. For ˜ ∈ Γ. INTEGRAL EQUATIONS .13) to surface integral: (8. for which r CopyRight c Sharipov R. τ (s) r ds d 3 ˜. taking into account Γ = ∂S and applying Stokes formula. . 2003.5) into (8.. Vanishing of integral (8. Singular point r = ˜ of vector ﬁeld (8. τ (s) r ds = |r(s) − ˜|3 r S rot m. 35 denote the closure of the surface S. n dS = 0. τ ds. r |r(s) − ˜|3 r Due to (8.

ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.16) explicitly. We cannot deform this surface as we did above in proving theorem on circulation of electric ﬁeld. Corresponding theorem is stated as follows. Formula like (8. Denote by D(ε) = R3 \ Ω(ε) exterior of the domain Ω(ε) and then consider the following modiﬁcation of formula (5. Total circulation of static electric ﬁeld along the boundary of any restricted open surface is equal to zero. Γ is a boundary.16) ∂S H.15) is available for magnetic ﬁeld as well. The result of r substituting (8. Integral over the surface S now is in right hand side of formula (8. This domain encloses surface S and contour Γ = ∂S. Theorem (on the circulation of magnetic ﬁeld).6) that . τ ds = 4π c S j. This is domain Ω(ε) being union of all ε-balls surrounding all point r ∈ S. Circulation of static magnetic ﬁeld along boundary of restricted open surface is equal to total electric current penetrating this surface multiplied by fraction 4 π/c.15) ∂S E. Therefore surface spanned over the contour Γ now is ﬁxed. can be deformed so that ˜ ∈ S. Here is this formula that determines circulation of magnetic ﬁeld: (8.14) into (8. n dS. Theorem (on the circulation of electric ﬁeld). τ ds = 0. Let’s consider ε-blowup of surface S.36 CHAPTER I. This leads to some technical complication of the proof. domain Ω(ε) contracts to S. If ε → 0.13) can be written as an equation: (8.

r 3 c |r − ˜| r ε→0 D(ε) Let’s substitute (8.8). τ (s) ds = c |r(s) − ˜|3 r Γ = S 3 r − ˜. r(s) − ˜]. r c |r(s) − ˜|3 r ε→0 D(ε) Γ In inner integral in (8.§ 8. n(r) r r r dS. j (r − ˜) − |r − ˜|2 j r r r . j(˜) r r r − ˜.12) and change the order of integration in resulting double integral. we can transform contour integral (8. τ (s) ds d 3 ˜.17) H(r) = lim 1 [ j(˜). As a result we get (8.17) into integral (8. rotor of this ﬁeld is nonzero: (8.19) rot m = 3 r − ˜. . r(s) − ˜].18) we see vector ﬁeld (8. r − ˜] 3 r r d ˜. n(r) − |r − ˜|2 j(˜). c |r − ˜|5 r Denote by m(˜) vector ﬁeld of the following form: r m(˜) = r 3 ˜ − r. 5 c |r − ˜| r Using Stokes formula and taking into account (8. . n(r) (˜ − r) − |˜ − r|2 n(r) r r r .4).19).18) h = lim r r 1 [ j(˜).18) to surface integral: r r 1 [ j(˜). Unlike vector ﬁled (8. INTEGRAL EQUATIONS . 37 expresses Biot-Savart-Laplace law for magnetic ﬁeld: (8. 5 c |˜ − r| r .

n(r) r .21) h = lim f (˜) j(˜). r r ˜ r S ∂D(ε) ε→0 Let’s change the order of integration in (8. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.1) spatial integral in the above formula can be transformed to surface integral: (8. This leads to formula m(˜). j(˜) d 3 ˜ dS = r r r S D(ε) S D(ε) grad f (˜). r r r ε→0 D(ε) S Vector ﬁeld m(˜) in this formula has cubic singularity |˜ − r|−3 r r at the point ˜ = r. r r r since vector ﬁeld m(˜) apparently is gradient of the function f (˜): r r (8. n(˜) dS dS. Let’s change the order of integration in resulting double integral for circulation h. This is why we use auxiliary r domain D(ε) and limit as ε → 0. c |˜ − r|3 r Function f (˜) vanishes as ˜ → ∞.38 CHAPTER I.20) f (˜) = − r ˜ − r. j(˜) d 3 ˜ dS. Assume that current density r r also vanishes as ˜ → ∞.1 and due to formula (7. Outer normal to the . In terms of the ﬁeld m(˜) formula for h is written as r h = lim m(˜). Such singularity is not integrable in R3 (if r we integrate with respect to d 3 ˜). j(˜) dS d 3 ˜.21) then take into account common boundary ∂D(ε) = ∂Ω(ε). Then due to the same considerations as r in proof of lemma 7.

22) we need to study the geometry of ε-blow-up of the surface S. .1. n(˜) r ˜ r c ∂Ω(ε) S ε→0 ˜ − r.23) is well-known in mathematical physics. 8.24) ∂Ω(ε) = S0 ∪ S+ ∪ S− .2 below we see cross-section of the domain Ω(ε) obtained from the surface S shown on Fig. . n(r) r dS dS. 39 surface ∂D(ε) coincides with inner normal to ∂Ω(ε). Double layer potential (8.22) h = lim j(˜). |˜ − r|3 r Integral (8.23) is restricted funcr tion in R3 \ S. In order to calculate limit in formula (8. There is the following lemma.23) V (˜) = r S ˜ − r.20) lead to the following expression for circulation of magnetic ﬁeld h: (8. This coincidence and explicit form of function (8. . INTEGRAL EQUATIONS .§ 8. proof of which can be found in [1]. Lemma 8. Thereby V+ − V− = 4π r for all points ˜ ∈ S. and outer limit V+ (˜) as r tends to ˜ ∈ S from outside against the direction of normal vector n.1. On Fig. n(r) r dS. 8. At each inner point ˜ ∈ S there are side limits V± (˜) = lim V (r). r r→±S r r inner limit V− (˜) as r tends to ˜ ∈ S from inside along normal r r vector n. |˜ − r|3 r Let’s denote by V (˜) inner integral in formula (8. For suﬃciently small ε boundary of the domain Ω(ε) is composed of three parts: (8.22): r (8. It is called potential of double layer.

.2 (8. n(˜) r ˜ r dS = 0. which are suﬃciently obvious.24).1.25) and (8.40 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.25) n S0 ∼ επL as ε → 0. Substituting (8.27) and taking into account lemma 8.24) into (8.28) h= 4π c S j(r).27). Surface S0 is a part of ε-blow-up of the contour Γ Area of this surface S0 satisﬁes the relationship (8.26) and (8. we get r the relationship j(˜). Since double layer potential and function | j(˜)| are restricted.26) lim V (˜) r S0 ε→0 For other two summand we also can calculate limits as ε → 0: (8. 8. Surfaces S+ and S− are obtained as a result of normal shift of surface S to the distance ε along normal vector n. Summarizing (8. (8.27) S± V (˜) r j(˜). c We shall not load reader with the proof of formulas (8. n(r) dS. n(˜) r ˜ r dS −→ ± c S V± (r) j(r).22) we break surface integral over ∂Ω(ε) into three parts. c n S S− S0 Fig. we obtain (8. n(r) dS. and to the same distance against normal vector n. S+ where L is length of contour Γ.

1) ∂Ω H. 41 This relationship (8.2) H. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS . § 9.16) and proof of theorem on circulation of magnetic ﬁeld in whole. Diﬀerential equations for static electromagnetic ﬁeld. τ ds = ∂S 4π c S j. n dS. ∂S E.8).20). Exercise 8.2.§ 9. In § 8 we have derived four integral equations for electric and magnetic ﬁelds. (9. Equations in ﬁrst pair have zero right hand sides: (9. Then.19) for vector ﬁeld given by formula (8. since Ω is arbitrary domain and . .28) completes derivation of formula (8. They are determined by charges and currents: E. n dS = 4π ∂Ω Ω ρ d 3 r. Exercise 8. Verify the relationship (8. and contour integrals to surface integrals. one can transform surface integrals to spatial ones. Right hand sides of equations in second pair are non-zero.3. Verify the relationship div m = 0 for vector ﬁelds (8. Applying Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula and Stokes formula. τ ds = 0.4) and (8. n dS = 0. Calculate grad f for the function (8.8). Exercise 8. . They are used to be grouped into two pairs.1.

When solving them functions ρ(r) and j(r) are assumed to be known. div E = 4πρ. one should have some additional equations relating ρ and j with E and H. continuous conducting medium is described by the equation j = σ E. integral equations (9. These additional equations describe properties of medium (for instance.4) div H = 0. rot E = 0.1) then is a consequence of (9.A.3) and (9. 1997.. where σ is conductivity of medium).42 CHAPTER I.1) and (9.4).5) and charge conservation law. c When considering diﬀerential equations (9. ∂t The relationship (7. ∂t ∂j = 0. . ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.3) and (9.2) can be transformed to diﬀerential equations: (9.4) form complete system of diﬀerential equations for describing stationary electromagnetic ﬁelds. we should add conditions for charges and currents being stationary: (9. 2003. CopyRight c Sharipov R. 4π rot H = j. If they are not known.3) (9.5) ∂ρ = 0. Diﬀerential equations (9. S is arbitrary open surface.

rot E = − rot H = 1 ∂H .2) div H = 0.3) and (9. For static ﬁelds this property is revealed in a very restrictive form.4). i. More exact equations describing process of transmitting electromagnetic interaction in its time evolution were suggested by Maxwell. e. which we have derived in the end of Chapter I. Note that the notion of ﬁeld was introduced within framework of the concept of near action for describing the object that transmit interaction of charges and currents. we use ﬁelds only to divide interaction of charges and currents into two processes: creation of a ﬁeld by charges and currents is ﬁrst process. Maxwell equations. Dynamic properties of the ﬁeld itself appears beyond our consideration. c c ∂t .1) (1. They are absolutely unsuitable if we are going to describe the process of haw electromagnetic interaction is transmitted in space. c ∂t 1 ∂E 4π j+ . describe ﬁelds generated by stationary charges and currents. They are the following ones: (1. action of this ﬁeld upon other currents and charges is second process. Diﬀerential equations (9.CHAPTER II CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS § 1. div E = 4πρ.

Consider contour integral in second equation (1. Like equations (9. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS. circulation of electric ﬁeld (1. n dS. τ ds = − ∂S 1 d c dt S H. 1 d c dt S H.4) ∂Ω Ω ρ d3 r. It is easy to see that equations (1. n dS. τ ds = ∂S 4π c S j.4) in Chapter I. n dS = 4π (1.3) and (9.2) are generalizations for the (9. (1.5) in this case is called electromotive force of the ﬁeld E in contour. Electromotive force e = 0 in contour produce the same eﬀect as linking electric cell with . Maxwell equations (1. n dS = 0.1) and (1.5) e= ∂S E.4) from Chapter I. then electric ﬁeld with nonzero circulation induces electric current in conductor. However. τ ds possess its own physical interpretation. Similar contour integral is present in second equation (1.3).1) and (1.3) and (9. They are obtained from latter ones by modifying right hand sides.2) can be written in form of integral equations: H.3) ∂Ω E. The quantity e from (1. E.4). unlike circulation of magnetic ﬁeld.44 CHAPTER II. If imaginary contour Γ = ∂S in space is replaced by real circular conductor. n dS + E.

Experimentally it reveals as follow: alternating magnetic ﬁeld produces electric ﬁeld with nonzero circulation. In this section .1) and (1. Faraday gave qualitative description of this phenomenon in form of the following induction law. t) and j(r.1). Then each problem of electrodynamics mathematically reduces to some boundary-value problem or mixed initial-value/boundary-value problem for Maxwell equations optionally completed by medium equations.2) this yields exactly the relationship (5. Note that charge conservation law in form of relationship (5.2): div rot H = 1 ∂ div E 4π div j + . This phenomenon is known as electromagnetic induction. Faraday’s induction law was a hint for Maxwell when choosing right hand side in second equation (1. Experiments and further development of technology proved correctness of Maxwell equations. In solving them functions ρ(r.4) from Chapter I is a consequence of Maxwell equations. Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. t) should be given. When combined with the ﬁrst equation (1.§ 1. It was ﬁrst discovered by Faraday. Maxwell had written it by analogy. MAXWELL EQUATIONS. One should calculate divergency of both sides of second equation (1. As for similar term in right hand side of second equation (1. c c ∂t then one should apply the identity div rot H = 0. Electromotive force of induction in circular conductor is proportional to the rate of changing of magnetic ﬂow embraced by this conductor. Equations (1. this induces electric current in circular conductor. or they should be determined from medium equations. 45 voltage e into this contour.4) from Chapter I.2).2) form complete system for describing arbitrary electromagnetic ﬁelds.

Otherwise this work is used for to compensate forces of viscous friction that resist motion of particles. we consider only some very special ones among such problems. then w = q ν E. Let’s express current density j through E and H using second equation (1. Let’s transform integral (2.1). § 2. Work of this force per unit time is equal to F. If ν is the number of such particles per unit volume and if v is their velocity. j . j d3 r.4) from Chapter I.2) for this purpose: (2. Recall that current density is a charge passing through unit area per unit time (see § 5 in Chapter I). In electromagnetic ﬁeld each particle experiences Lorentz force determined by formula (4. Total work produced by electromagnetic ﬁeld per unit volume is obtained if one multiplies this quantity by ν. 4π 4 π ∂t . CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS. v = E. then j = q ν v. v = q E. Our main goal is to derive important mathematical consequences from Maxwell equations and to interpret their physical nature. and suppose that this current is produced by the ﬂow of charged particles with charge q. In either case total power spent by electromagnetic ﬁeld within domain Ω is determined by the following integral: (2. This work increases kinetic energy of particles (particles are accelerated by ﬁeld).1) W = Ω E.2) j= c 1 ∂E rot H − . Density of energy and energy ﬂow for electromagnetic ﬁeld.46 CHAPTER II. Suppose that in bulk conductor we have a current with density j. v .

4) is called dissipation power.1). . 4π ε= |E|2 + |H|2 . E] d3 r + c 4π Ω H.5) S= c [E.5) is called density of energy of electromagnetic ﬁeld. rot a − a. n dS + 4π dt Ω |E|2 + |H|2 3 d r = 0. while for transforming rot E one can use Maxwell equations (1. we get (2.4) can be treated as the equation of energy balance. 8π Let’s denote by S and ε vectorial ﬁeld and scalar ﬁeld of the form (2. this is the amount of energy dissipated per unit time at the expense of transmitting it to moving charges. H]. rot H d3 r − 1 8π Ω ∂ E. 8π First integral in this expression can be transformed by means of Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula. for W we get W = c 4π Ω div[H. It also called Umov-Pointing vector. DENSITY OF ENERGY AND ENERGY FLOW . rot b . 8π The quantity ε in (2. b] = b.3) W = c 4π Ω E.2) into formula (2. 47 Substituting this expression (2.§ 2. E d3 r. . First summand in (2. H]. Vector S is known as density of energy ﬂow. Second summand is the amount of energy that ﬂows from within domain Ω to .5) the relationship (2. Assuming a = H and b = E.1): (2. rot E d3 r − d dt Ω |E|2 3 d r.4) W+ ∂Ω d c [E.3) we use well-known identity div [a. Under such interpretation of quantities (2. ∂t In order to implement further transformations in formula (2.

outer space per unit time. If we eliminate or restrict substantially the energy leakage from the domain Ω to outer space. Electromagnetic ﬁeld can store and transmit not only the energy.1) in whole can be negative.7) F= Ω ρ E d3 r + Ω 1 [ j. i. j is a density of energy dissipation. c In order to derive formula (2. analogous to formula (5. These two forms of energy losses lead to diminishing the energy stored by electromagnetic ﬁeld itself within domain Ω (see third summand in (2. e. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS. then we would have the device like microwave oven. Energy balance equation (2. . This is the process of radiation of electromagnetic waves from the domain Ω. where electromagnetic ﬁeld is used for transmitting energy from radiator to beefsteak. This energy then ﬂows to outer space through boundary of the domain Ω. ∂t Here w = E. H] d3 r.4) from Chapter I: (2. Then j = q ν v and ρ = q ν. It is realized in antennas (aerials) of radio and TV transmitters.48 CHAPTER II. In order to derive momentum balance equations let’s consider again the current with density j due to the particles with charge q which move with velocity v.4)). number of particles per unit volume. Total force acting on all particles within domain Ω is given by integral (2. Let ν be concentration of these particles. In such a case we have energy pumping into electromagnetic ﬁeld. but the momentum as well. Note that in some cases w and integral (2.4) can be rewritten in diﬀerential form.7) one should multiply Lorentz force acting on each separate particle by the number of particles per unit volume ν and then integrate over the domain Ω.6) ∂ε + div S + w = 0.

H] d3 r. we use obvious identity [∂E/∂t. e = Ω ρ E. H] d3 r. [H. [rot H. DENSITY OF ENERGY AND ENERGY FLOW . e = Ω ρ E.1) written as CopyRight c Sharipov R.2) into (2. Integral (2. ∂H/∂t]. 49 Force F determines the amount of momentum transmitted from electromagnetic ﬁeld to particles enclosed within domain Ω.8). H] d3 r + e. . .. Now we apply second equation of the system (1. we do cyclic transposition of multiplicands in second integral (2. H] = ∂ [E. e d3 r + 1 4πc Ω 1 4π Ω e. This yields the following expression for F. e d3 r + 1 4π Ω rot H. . ∂H/∂t] d3 r. H] /∂t − [E. e] d3 r − 1 4πc Ω − 1 d 4 π c dt Ω e. For further transformations of this integral let’s choose some constant unit vector e and consider scalar product of this vector e and vector F: (2. c Substituting (2.9) − Ω ρ E. e d3 r + 1 e.8) F.§ 2.A. e : F. 2003. [ j.7) is vectorial quantity. [∂E/∂t. Recalling well-known property of mixed product.9). 1997. e = (2. [E. we get F. Moreover. H] d3 r − e. [E.

Here by curly brackets we denote commutator of two vector ﬁelds a and b (see [2]). = − H. e] = − H. e] + rot E. b] = b. e]] + H. e div H + 2 . In order to transform rot[H. rot a − a. [H. From second identity (2. b . e] . Traditionally square brackets are used for commutator. [H. grad |H|2 . Then 3 3 H.10) + Ω d dt Ω e. but here by square brackets we denote vector product of two vectors. rot b . rot [H.11): rot[H. e] = −e div H − {H. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS. rot [a. e div H + i=1 Hi j=1 ej ∂H i = ∂rj 1 e. e}. e] we use third identity (2. (2. c]] = b a. rot [H. two of which we already used earlier: [a. e d3 r + rot H. H] 3 d r= 4πc Ω ρ E.11) div [a. [H. b}. ∂H/∂t = −c rot E. 4π In order to transform last two integrals in (2. Then we get formula F. e] = div [H. [b. c − c a. e] 3 d r. [E. [E.50 CHAPTER II. e + (2.11) we derive rot H. b] = a div b − b div a − {a.10) we use the following three identities.

. e] = − E. e n. H] 3 d r = 0. 51 Let’s combine two above relationships and apply ﬁrst identity (2. e − div e |H|2 − 1 − H. 4πc Ω + ∂Ω (|E|2 + |H|2 ) e. . e − 1 e |H|2 . e] = − H. e div E + (2. if we take into account (2.12) and (2. grad |H|2 .§ 2. e div H + (2.13). [H. Hence as a ﬁnal result we get rot H. H dS + 4π e. e div H + e. [E. e]] in ﬁrst of them. n d dS + 8π dt Denote by σ linear operator such that the result of applying this . 2 But div e |H|2 = e. e − ∂Ω E. [E. E + H. 2 Quite similar identity can be derived for electric ﬁeld E: rot E. [H. [H. while divergency of electric ﬁeld E is nonzero: div E = 4πρ. grad |H|2 . 2 The only diﬀerence is that due to Maxwell equations div H = 0. e] = div H H. e n. Now. e − 1 e |E|2 .10) can be transformed to the following one: F.11) for to transform double vectorial product [H.12) + div H H. As a result we obtain rot H. formula (2. DENSITY OF ENERGY AND ENERGY FLOW .13) + div E E.

16) the above relationship for F. e + ∂Ω σ e. σ n . σ e. e is rewritten as follows: (2. n = e.18) is the equation of momentum balance for electromagnetic ﬁeld.14) deﬁnes tensorial ﬁeld σ of type (1. e. e |E|2 + |H|2 + e.17) in vectorial form: (2.15) and (2. Operator of the density of momentum ﬂow σ is symmetric.16) p= [E. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS. given by formula (2. e d3 r = 0.14) σe = − E E.18) F+ ∂Ω σ n dS + d dt Ω p d3 r = 0. It is also known as Maxwell tensor. 8π 4π Tensor σ with components (2. 1) with the following components: (2. 4π 8π Formula (2. Due to this property and because e is arbitrary vector we can rewrite (2. n dS + d dt Ω p.15) is called tensor of the density of momentum ﬂow. 4πc In terms of the notations (2. Now let’s deﬁne vector of momentum density p by formula (2.52 CHAPTER II. operator to some arbitrary vector e is given by formula (2.17) F. i.15) i σj = |E|2 + |H|2 i E i Ej + H i Hj δj − . Force F.7) determines . H] . e + H H. This equation (2.

18) can be rewritten in diﬀerential form. 4πc It is also capable to transmit energy and momentum to material bodies. Check on the derivation of (2. . 8π P= Ω [E. The relationship (2. ∂ri Then diﬀerential form of (2. This conﬁrms once more our assertion that electromagnetic ﬁeld itself is a material entity.18) determines loss of momentum due to its ﬂow through the boundary of the domain Ω.1.19) µ = div σ.18)).§ 2.19). while vectorial divergency is determined according to (2. electromagnetic ﬁeld is capable to accumulate within itself the energy and momentum: (2. 1).13). It is not pure mathematical abstraction convenient for describing interaction of charges and currents. H]/c is a density of Lorentz force. These two losses lead to diminishing the momentum stored by electromagnetic ﬁeld within domain Ω (see third summand in (2. For this purpose we should deﬁne vectorial divergency for tensorial ﬁeld σ of the type (1.11) hold. H] 3 d r.20) ∂p + div σ + f = 0. Verify that relationships (2.18) is written as (2.21) E= Ω |E|2 + |H|2 3 d r. Thus. DENSITY OF ENERGY AND ENERGY FLOW .12) and (2. ∂t where f = ρ E + [ j. . Let 3 (2. where µj = i=1 i ∂σj . 53 loss of momentum stored in electromagnetic ﬁeld due to transmitting it to moving particles. but real physical object. Exercise 2. . Second term in (2.

Vector ﬁeld A.1) H = rot A. Vectorial and scalar potentials of electromagnetic ﬁeld. In section 2 we have found that electromagnetic ﬁeld possess energy and momentum (2. Each vortex ﬁeld is a rotor of some other vector ﬁeld. . This is system of four equations. two of them are scalar equations. Vector ﬁeld with zero divergency is called vortex ﬁeld. other two are vectorial equations. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS. So observe somewhat like excessiveness in Maxwell equations. However we have only six undetermined functions in them: three components of vector E and three components of vector H. One of the most popular ways for solving systems of algebraic equations is to express some variable through other ones by solving one of the equations in a system (usually most simple equation) and then substituting the expression obtained into other equations. whose existence is granted by the above theorem. Sometimes this trick is applicable to diﬀerential equations as well. Theorem on vortex ﬁeld. However we have not studied Maxwell equations themselves. For vortex ﬁelds the following theorem holds (see proof in book [3]). It is given by the following relationship: (3. So they are equivalent to eight scalar equations.21). § 3.2). This is very important consequence of Maxwell equations (1.1) and (1.54 CHAPTER II. Let’s consider Maxwell equation div H = 0. is called vector-potential of electromagnetic ﬁeld. Let’s write the statement of this theorem as applied to magnetic ﬁeld. Thus we exclude one variable and diminish the number of equations in a system also by one.

§ 3. VECTORIAL AND SCALAR POTENTIALS . . .

55

Let’s substitute vector H as given by (3.1) into second Maxwell equation (1.1). This yields the equality (3.2) rot E + 1 ∂A 1 ∂ rot A = rot E + c ∂t c ∂t = 0.

Vector ﬁeld with zero rotor is called potential ﬁeld. It is vector ﬁeld E + (∂A/∂t)/c in formula (3.2) which is obviously potential ﬁeld. Potential ﬁelds are described by the following theorem (see proof in book [3]). Theorem on potential ﬁeld. Each potential ﬁeld is a gradient of some scalar ﬁeld. Applying this theorem to vector ﬁeld (3.2), we get the relationship determining scalar potential of electromagnetic ﬁeld ϕ: (3.3) E+ 1 ∂A = − grad ϕ. c ∂t

Combining (3.1) and (3.3), we can express electric and magnetic ﬁelds E and H through newly introduced ﬁelds A and ϕ: (3.4) E = − grad ϕ − H = rot A. Upon substituting (3.4) into ﬁrst pair of Maxwell equations (1.1) we ﬁnd them to be identically fulﬁlled. As for second pair of Maxwell equations, substituting (3.4) into these equations, we get 1 ∂ div A = 4 π ρ, c ∂t 4πj 1 ∂2A 1 ∂ grad ϕ + 2 2 = . grad div A − △A + c ∂t c ∂t c − △ϕ − 1 ∂A , c ∂t

(3.5)

56

CHAPTER II. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS.

In deriving (3.5) we used relationships (3.6) div grad ϕ = △ϕ, rot rot A = grad div A − △A.

**Second order diﬀerential operator △ is called Laplace operator. In rectangular Cartesian coordinates it is deﬁned by formula
**

3

(3.7)

△=

i=1

∂ ∂ri

2

=

∂2 ∂2 ∂2 + 2 + 2. ∂x2 ∂y ∂z

In order to simplify the equations (3.5) we rearrange terms in them. As a result we get 1 ∂2ϕ 1 ∂ 1 ∂ϕ − △ϕ = 4 π ρ + + div A , c2 ∂t2 c ∂t c ∂t 4πj 1 ∂ϕ 1 ∂2A − △A = − grad + div A . 2 ∂t2 c c c ∂t

(3.8)

Diﬀerential equations (3.8) are Maxwell equations written in terms of A and ϕ. This is system of two equations one of which is scalar equation, while another is vectorial equation. As we can see, number of equations now is equal to the number of undetermined functions in them. § 4. Gauge transformations and Lorentzian gauge. Vectorial and scalar potentials A and ϕ were introduced in § 3 as a replacement for electric and magnetic ﬁelds E and H. However, ﬁelds A and ϕ are not physical ﬁelds. Physical ﬁelds E and H are expressed through A and ϕ according to formulas (3.4), but backward correspondence is not unique, i. e. ﬁelds A

CopyRight c Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.

§ 4. GAUGE TRANSFORMATIONS . . .

57

and ϕ are not uniquely determined by physical ﬁelds E and H. Indeed, let’s consider transformation ˜ A = A + grad ψ, 1 ∂ψ , ϕ=ϕ− ˜ c ∂t Substituting (4.1) into

(4.1)

where ψ(r, t) is an arbitrary function. formula (3.4), we immediately get ˜ E = E,

˜ H = H.

˜ ˜ This means that physical ﬁelds E, H determined by ﬁelds A, ϕ and by ﬁelds A, ϕ do coincide. Transformation (4.1) that do not change physical ﬁelds E and H is called gauge transformation. We use gauge transformations (4.1) for further simpliﬁcation of Maxwell equations (3.8). Let’s consider the quantity enclosed in brackets in right hand sides of the equations (3.8): (4.2) 1 ∂ϕ ˜ 1 ∂ϕ ˜ + div A = + div A + c ∂t c ∂t 1 ∂2ψ − △ψ . c2 ∂t2

Denote by (4.3)

the following diﬀerential operator: = 1 ∂2 − △. c2 ∂t2

Operator (4.3) is called d’Alambert operator or wave operator. Diﬀerential equation u = v is called d’Alambert equation. Using gauge freedom provided by gauge transformation (4.1), we can fulﬁll the following condition: (4.4) 1 ∂ϕ + div A = 0. c ∂t

However. . They are written in terms of real physical ﬁelds E and H. This condition is called Lorentzian gauge.2). and are consequences of Maxwell equations (1.5) it acts upon each component of vector A separately. then Maxwell equations (3.4) itself is an additional equation requiring concordant choice of solutions for d’Alambert equations (4. However.4) is fulﬁlled.5). D’Alambert operator (4.8) simplify substantially: (4.6) E = −4π grad ρ − 4π ∂j .1) and (1. one shouldn’t think that variables A and ϕ are completely separated. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS.3) is a scalar operator.58 CHAPTER II. backward Maxwell equations do not follow from (4. c ∂t It is known that d’Alambert equation is solvable under rather weak restrictions for its right hand side (see book [1]). Hence practically always we can fulﬁll the condition (4. c They look like pair of independent d’Alambert equations. If Lorentzian gauge condition (4. c2 ∂t H= 4π rot j.6). c These equations (4. A= 4πj .4) we derive (4.5) ϕ = 4 π ρ.4). For this purpose we should choose ψ solving d’Alambert equation ψ=− 1 ∂ϕ ˜ ˜ + div A .6) have no entries of potentials A and ϕ. Lorentzian gauge condition (4. in (4. Therefore operator commutates with rotor operator and with time derivative as well. Therefore on the base of (3.

then corresponding potentials (5.2). In previous Chapter we considered static electromagnetic ﬁelds. 59 § 5. Let’s study one of z such solutions. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. Rewriting (5.1) into (4.1). . 5.3) A = A0 sin(k(x − c t)). Then we choose another constant vector A0 directed along y-axis and consider the following two functions: (5. However. as we shall see just below. we get (5. 5.1) A = A0 sin(k x − ω t). substituting (5. Suppose ρ = 0 and j = 0.6) in Chapter I ).1) in a little bit diﬀerent form (5.1 sian system of coordinates and take some constant vector k directed along x-axis (see Fig. ϕ = 0. Electromagnetic waves. A0 k x Maxwell equations have nonzero solutions even in the case of idenH0 tically zero currents and charges in the space. We choose some right-oriented rectangular CarteFig. ω being its frequency and k being its wave-vector. y They cannot exist in the absence E0 of charges and currents. If it is fulﬁlled.5) and (5.§ 5.2) k 2 = |k|2 = ω . which determines the direction of propagation of that plane wave.4) and into Maxwell equations (4. Then. c It is not diﬃcult to satisfy this condition (5. Here k = |k|.5).1) describe plane electromagnetic wave. Such ﬁelds are uniquely determined by static conﬁguration of charges and currents (see formulas (3.

Now let’s substitute (5. however it is not circular polarized as well. A0 ]. It is certainly kind of idealization. (5.5) in Chapter I). Formula (5. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS. |E0 | = |H0 | = |k| |A0 |.4) is an endless wave ﬁlling the whole space. Vector E0 is taken for polarization vector of this wave. we see that the velocity of propagating of plane electromagnetic wave is equal to constant c (see (1.60 CHAPTER II. they are not eternal in time: there are sources (radiators) and absorbers of electromagnetic ﬁelds. Wave (5. Vectors k.1) into (3. Emission of electromagnetic waves.4) is an approximate description of real electromagnetic ﬁeld in that part of space which is far apart from radiators and absorbers. E0 = |k| A0 . and H0 are perpendicular to each other. E0 . It is superposition of two linear polarized waves. Natural light is a superposition of numerous plane linear polarized waves with chaotically distributed polarization vectors. § 6. Moreover.4) and calculate electric and magnetic ﬁelds in electromagnetic wave: E = E0 cos(k x − ω t). Real electromagnetic waves ﬁll only some restricted part of the space. Wave E = E0 cos(k x − ω t) + H0 sin(k x − ω t). H0 = [k. It has no ﬁxed polarization. H = H0 cos(k x − ω t) − E0 sin(k x − ω t) is called circular polarized wave.4) H = H0 cos(k x − ω t).4) with such vectors is called plane linear polarized electromagnetic wave. they form right triple. Natural light is also electromagnetic wave. Plane wave (5. .

which is not static. t) and A(r.5).1) u(r.4) for scalar and vectorial potentials (6. We describe it by means of functions ρ(r. Knowing fundamental solution (6. For smooth and . t) and j(r. t) and j(r. Function (6.4) in Chapter I) we derive Lorentzian gauge condition (4. now we can write solution for the equations (4.§ 6.1) satisﬁes d’Alambert equation with distribution in right hand side: u = δ(t)δ(r).5) in form of contractions: (6. then we restrict substantially the freedom in choosing solutions of the equations (4. In order to ﬁnd one of such solutions we need fundamental solution of d’Alambert operator. see [1].2) ϕ = 4π u ∗ ρ. Their solutions are not unique: to each solution already found one can add arbitrary solution of corresponding homogeneous equations. 2π where θ and δ are Heaviside theta-function and Dirac deltafunction respectively. t) = c θ(t) δ(c2 t2 − |r|2 ). However. In physics such objects are called Green functions. t). EMISSION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. These are non-homogeneous diﬀerential equations. Let’s consider Maxwell equations transformed to the form (4. This is distribution of the form: (6.2). A= 4π u ∗ j. t) to be fast decreasing as r → ∞ and apply similar condition to ϕ(r.5). c Here ∗ denotes contraction of two distributions. if we assume ρ(r. Due to the properties of this operation from charge conservation law (see formula (5. t).1) of d’Alambert operator. Usually radiator is a system of charges and currents. 61 In this section we consider process of generation and radiation of electromagnetic waves.

i. Time delay τ is exactly equal to the time required for the r signal spreading with light velocity c from the source point ˜ to get to the observation point r.3). t − τ ) 3 r d ˜. Therefore r . r c |r − ˜| r ρ(˜.3) A(r. we calculate we calculate electromagnetic ﬁeld of the system of charges at the point r which is far distant from the domain Ω. the contribution from the point ˜ being determined not by charge r density at present time instant t. t − τ ) 3 r d ˜. t) and j(r. in physics advanced potentials have no meaning.1) by changing τ for −τ . However. It is determined r by the ratio τ = |r − ˜|/c. Let’s consider system of charges located in some small domain Ω surrounding the origin. ˜) is called time delay. suﬃciently fast decreasing functions ρ(r. t) = (6. Retarded potentials have transparent physical interpretation. r |r − ˜| r Here the quantity τ = τ (r. but at previous time instant t − τ .3) are called retarded r potentials. Due to these r inequalities the ratio ˜/|r| is small vectorial quantity. Using formulas (6. t) = j(˜. Similar time delay is present in formula for vector potential A. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS. |˜| ≤ R ≪ |r|. Potentials (6. since they would break causality principle. Such solution corresponds to advanced potentials.62 CHAPTER II. e. t) potentials (6. Scalar potential ϕ at the point r at time instant t is a superposition of contributions from charges at various points of the space. For example there is a solution obtained from (6.2) are reduced to the following two integrals: ϕ(r. Note that fundamental solution of d’Alambert equation is not unique. Let R be maximal linear size of this domain Ω.

the following quantities are of the same order. e. For the quantity θ we have the estimate |θ| ≤ R/c. Then let’s consider the following Taylor expansions for ρ and j: ρ(˜. t′ ) + r r ∂ρ(˜. ≈ Tn n. . . i..5) j(˜. t − τ ) is possible only under some additional assumptions r concerning these functions.. ∂t The condition R ≪ |r| is not suﬃcient for the expansions (6. Denote by T some speciﬁc time for which functions ρ and j within domain Ω change substantially. t′ ) r θ + ...A. ˜ r + . ∂t ∂t ∂nj ∂j ≈ . 2003...5) to be consistent.§ 6. t − τ ) = ρ(˜. In case when one can specify such time T . .5) for approximating ρ(˜.6) j≈T ∂ρ ∂nρ ≈ . t−τ ) r and j(˜. Use of expansions (6. Denote t′ = t − |r|/c and let t − τ = t′ + θ. This is the time of propagation of electromagnetic signal within domain Ω. ≈ Tn n ... t′ ) r θ + .. 63 we have the following asymptotic expansions for |r − ˜| and t − τ : r |r − ˜| = |r| − r (6.4) t−τ =t− r. .. ∂t ∂j(˜. equally large or equally small: ρ≈T (6. t′ ) + r r (6. 1997. ˜ r |r| + + . c |r| c The ratio |r|/c in (6. t − τ ) = j(˜.4) determines the time required for electromagnetic signal to get from the domain Ω to the observation point |r|.. ∂t ∂t CopyRight c Sharipov R. . Posterior terms in the series for t − τ are estimated by small quantity R/c. EMISSION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. |r| r...

t′ ) θ r + . t′ ) e.7) j(˜.. This yields θ/T ≪ 1.3) keeping only ﬁrst term in the expansion (6.64 CHAPTER II. .5) can be rewritten as follows: ρ(˜.5) in Chapter I: j. t′ ) + T r r (6. ∂t T Correctness of use of expansions (6. The condition R/c ≪ T has simple meaning: the quantity ω = 2π/T is a frequency of radiated electromagnetic waves. ∂t T ∂j(˜.5): (6. t − τ ) = j(˜. r r we make calculations analogous to that of (7. t′ ) θ r + .5) is provided by additional condition R/c ≪ T .. n dS + Ω ∂ρ 3 d ˜= r f ∂t Ω . . Let’s calculate retarded vector potential A in (6. Having deﬁned vector a and function f (˜) by the relationships r a= e = grad f.. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS.. Suppose that both conditions R ≪ c T and R ≪ |r| are fulﬁlled. grad f d3 ˜ = r (6. while λ = 2πc/ω = c T is a wavelength. t′ ) 3 r d ˜+ . r |r| c In order to transform integral in (6. r ∂t |r| c = ∂Ω f j. ˜ 3 r d ˜. ˜ .9) Ω Ω div(f j) d3 ˜ − r Ω f div j d3 ˜ = r r ∂ρ(˜.7) and (6.8) A= Ω j(˜. e .. t − τ ) = ρ(˜. c|r| f (˜) = a. Hence condition R/c ≪ T means that wavelength is mach greater than the size of radiator. Now (6. t′ ) + T r r ∂ρ(˜.. .8) let’s choose some arbitrary constant vector e and consider scalar product A.

r 2 |r| |r| .6). ...§ 6.5).11) ϕ= Ω ρ(˜.4) and (6.12) + Ω Q + |r| Ω r ∂ρ(˜..3) we ﬁnd (6. . t′ ) r. ˜ 3 r d ˜+ . = + .. keeping only initial terms in the expansions (6.9) we derive the following formula: (6. ˜ 3 r d ˜+ r 2c ∂t |r| r ρ(˜. This comparison yields |A| ≈ R ϕ.. EMISSION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES.10) and (6... r |r| |r| where Q is total charge enclosed within domain Ω. t′ ) r. t′ ) ˜ 3 r d ˜+ . In a similar way.10) A= Ω ˙ r D ∂ρ(˜. This charge does not depend on time since domain Ω is isolated and we have no electric current in outer space.4) and (6..11) taking into account (6. = + ... t′ ) 3 r Q d ˜+ . Then ϕ= (6. . r ∂t |r| c |r| c ˙ ˙ Here D = D(t′ ) is time derivative of dipole moment D of the system of charges at time instant t′ . Hence in calculating ϕ one should take into account higher order terms in expansions (6. for scalar potential ϕ in (6. 65 Since e is arbitrary vector. for vector potential A from (6.5). Let’s compare the expressions under integration in (6. cT The estimate R/(c T ) ≪ 1 following from R ≪ c T means that vectorial potential is calculated with higher accuracy than scalar potential.

in present case we deal with spherical wave being radiated from the origin. However. ... D] + . one can ﬁnd the density of energy ﬂow for waves (6.10) and (6.13). This situation is similar to that of plane wave.5). . . . 4π |r|5 c3 . D]|2 r + . Dependence of ρ and j on time variable t lead to the dependence of D on t′ in them.. In calculating rot A and grad ϕ we take ˙ into account that t′ = t − |r|/c in argument of D(t′ ) is a quantity depending on r. r Q + .13) are retarded potentials of the system of charges in dipole approximation. Then (6. |r| c Now on the base of formulas (3. Let’s consider asymptotics of of these potentials as r → ∞. Calculating integrals in formula (6. . . The magnitude of ﬁelds |E| ≃ |H| decreases as 1/|r|.4) and (6.15): (6. + + 2c |r| |r| |r|3 Potentials (6... r Q + + . [r.66 CHAPTER II... which is slower than for static Coulomb ﬁeld.13) ϕ= ˙ D. 2 c2 |r| Vectors E and H (more precisely. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS. This dependence determines leading terms in asymptotics of E and H: (6.15) E= ¨ [r.14) ϕ= ˙ D. 3 c2 |r| H=− ¨ [r.16) S= ¨ |[r. Thereby we can omit last term in (6.12). |r| |r|2 c A= ˙ D + .....14) we ﬁnd asymptotics of electric and magnetic ﬁelds at far distance from the system of charges. leading terms in their asymptotics) are perpendicular to each other and both are perpendicular to vector r. Using formula (2. r D. we transform it to (6.. D]] + .

17) j(r. The amount of radiated energy is determined by second time derivative of dipole moment. EMISSION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. Find retarding potentials (6. t) = −c [M(t). Exercise 6.16) in Chapter I). ﬁnd angular distribution of the intensity for dipole radiation. Applying formula (6. Particle with charge q is moving along circular path of radius R with constant velocity v = ωR for inﬁnitely long time (ω is angular velocity). Assume that charge density ρ is zero. 67 For modulus of vector S we have |S| ∼ 1/|r|2 .2) for (6. Therefore this case is called dipole approximation in theory of radiation. . while current density j is given by the following distribution: (6.17).1. Calculate retarding potentials and ﬁnd angular distribution for intensity of electromagnetic radiation of this particle.17).§ 6. So we have real radiation of electromagnetic energy. Also ﬁnd total intensity of such cyclotronic radiation.3. Exercise 6. This means that total ﬂow of energy through the sphere of arbitrarily large sphere is nonzero.16). Exercise 6. grad δ(r)] (compare with (7. Also ﬁnd angular distribution and total intensity for magnetic-dipole radiation induced by current (6.2. Also ﬁnd total intensity of dipole radiation.

It explained all electromagnetic phenomena and predicted the existence of electromagnetic waves. Later on electromagnetic waves were detected experimentally and nowadays they have broad scope of applications in our everyday life. However. t).1) ˜ t = t. Let’s consider two such Cartesian inertial coordinate systems (r. t) and (˜. some diﬃculties there appeared. along with successful development of this theory. Galileo transformations. r . Classical electrodynamics based on Maxwell equations historically was ﬁrst ﬁeld theory. ˜ r = ˜ + ut.CHAPTER III SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY § 1. This principle in its classical form suggested by Galileo and Newton states that two Cartesian inertial coordinate systems moving with constant velocity with respect to each other are equivalent. Suppose that second system moves with velocity r ˜ u relative to ﬁrst one so that coordinate axes in motion remain parallel to their initial positions. It was found that classical electrodynamics contradicts to relativity principle. All physical phenomena in these two systems happen identically and are described by the same laws. The relation of radius-vectors of points then can be written in form of the following transformations known as Galileo transformations: (1.

Even if in one coordinate system we have pure electric ﬁeld.1) we get Diﬀerentiating this relationship.3) due to relativity principle we conclude that force F is invariant quantity. According to Newton’s second law.1). t). In ﬁrst coordir ˜ ˜ nate system this trajectory is given by vector r(t) = ˜(t) + ut. It doesn’t depend on the choice of inertial coordinate system.2) ∂r ∂˜ r + u. 69 First relationship (1. Last relationship in (1. r Now let’s consider charged particle with charge q being at rest in coordinate system (˜. . due to t (1. Hence it should produce electric ﬁeld and magnetic ﬁeld as well.§ 1.2) once more. This fact is represented by the relationship (1. v). In this coordinate system it r ˜ produces Coulomb electrostatic ﬁeld. v + u) = F(˜. 2 ˜ ∂t ∂t ˜ a = a. we ﬁnd the relation for accelerations of material point in these two coordinate systems: (1. GALILEO TRANSFORMATIONS.1) means that watches in two systems are synchronized and tick synchronously. acceleration of material point is determined by force F acting on it and by its mass m a = F. In coordinate system (r.2) is known as classical law of velocity addition. t) this particle is moving. Diﬀerentiating (1. r˜ ˜ = t in (1. t).4) ˜ r ˜ ˜˜ F(˜ + ut. in second system we should expect the presence of both electric and magnetic ﬁelds. This indicate that vectors E and H are not invariant under Galileo transformations (1. From (1. Let ˜(t) be trajectory of r ˜ some material point in coordinate system (˜. = ˜ ∂t ∂t ˜ v = v + u.3) ∂ 2˜ r ∂2r = 2.

H]. we get q ˜ ˜ ˜ qα1 E + qα2 H + [˜ + u.. H]. t) = α(E(˜.5) ˜ r ˜ ˜ r ˜ ˜˜ E(˜ + ut. r ˜ r ˜ ˜ r ˜ ˜˜ H(˜ + ut. t) + β2 H(˜. Substituting (1. where α1 .70 CHAPTER III. β2 H] = [˜ . H(˜. α1 = 1. Therefore (1. Therefore we can equate separately terms bilinear ˜ ˜ ˜ with respect to v and E. t). t) + α2 H(˜. H].4) in Chapter I). This yields [˜ . Therefore transformation rules for E and H analogous to (1. E. Vectors E and H determine the action of electromagnetic ﬁeld upon charges in form of Lorentz force (see formula (4. hence β1 = 0. α2 . r Due to superposition principle. v ˜ ˜ Now let’s equate terms bilinear with respect to v and H. t) = β1 E(˜. H. t).5) is rewritten as (1.7) is an identity with three arbitrary parame˜ ˜ ˜ ters: v. And ﬁnally we should v ˜ ˜ equate terms linear with respect to H and E. t). Hence β2 = 1. β2 H] = q E + [˜ . 1997. This yields the following formulas for operators α1 and α2 : 1 ˜ ˜ α2 H = − [u. SPECIAL RELATIVITY. functions α and β are linear and homogeneous with ˜ ˜ respect to E and H. c CopyRight c Sharipov R.7) The relationship (1. t). u). This ˜ v ˜ yields [˜ . c c (1. t) = α1 E(˜. β1 E]+ v c q ˜ ˜ q v ˜ v + [˜ + u.2) and (1. .4). β1 E] = 0. β1 . β2 are some linear operators which depend on u only. which is fulﬁlled in both coordinate systems. t).6) into that formula and taking into account (1.4) for F should be written in the following form: (1. t) = β(E(˜.A.6) ˜ r ˜ ˜ r ˜ E(r. 2003. u). H(˜. ˜ r ˜ ˜ r ˜ H(r. t).

˜ ∂t c c ∂t Here by curly brackets we denote commutator of vector ﬁelds (see [2]). we derive ˜ div H = div H. GALILEO TRANSFORMATIONS. H} − u div H.§ 1. = − uk ˜ ∂t r ∂ t k=1 ∂˜k 3 (1. let’s transform Maxwell equations written as (1.9) Now.9). 1 ˜ u. H]. c c ˜ ∂H ∂H ˜ − {u. we get the relationships (1. c ˜ H = H. if we substitute the above expressions for operators α1 . they cannot do this mission in non-contradictory form. ∂ H/∂ t ]. For this purpose.8) and (1. t). as we shall see just below. {u.8) should complete Galileo transformations (1.8) ˜ ˜ 1 E = E − [u. β1 .1) in electrodynamics. c . 71 Now. ∂ri ∂˜ r ∂ ∂ ∂ . H}. rot H .1) we have ∂ ∂ = i. α2 . However. E} + [u. The relationships (1.1) and (1. For r ˜ partial derivatives due to transformations (1. Thereby vector u is treated as constant vector ﬁeld.2) in Chapter II to coordinate system (˜.6). β2 into formula (1. = ˜ ∂t ∂t ˜ ∂E ∂E 1 1 ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ = − {u. H}] − [u. ˜ div E = div E + ˜ rot H = rot H 1 ˜ 1 ˜ ˜ rot E = rot E + {u. combining (1.

When substituting the above expressions into Maxwell equations we consider the case of zero charges and currents: ρ = 0. ˜ c ∂t Only two of the above four equations coincide with original Maxwell equations. H}] − 2 [u. rot H . 1 ˜ ˜ div E = − u. This circumstance that we have found is very important. E}+ rot H = ˜ c ∂t c 1 1 ˜ ˜ ˜ + 2 [u. hence relativity principle claiming equivalence of all inertial coordinate systems is realized in some diﬀerent way. c ˜ 1 ∂E 1 ˜ ˜ − {u. Indeed. ∂ H/∂ t ]. (2) or to assume that formulas (1. j = 0. In the end of XIX-th century it made a dilemma for physicists. hence they require the existence of some marked inertial coordinate system where they have standard form given in the very beginning of Chapter II.1) are not correct. Other two equations contain the entries of vector u that cannot be eliminated. c c ˜ rot E = − ˜ 1 ∂H . . SPECIAL RELATIVITY. The way how this dilemma was resolved had determined in most further development of physics in XX-th century. This yields the following equations: ˜ div H = 0. {u. one had to make the following crucial choice: (1) to admit that Maxwell equations are not invariant with respect to Galileo transformations.72 CHAPTER III.

this makes ether theory too artiﬁcial (not natural). t): r ˜ 3 3 0 ˜ Sk r k . LORENTZ TRANSFORMATIONS. marked inertial coordinate system is bound to some hypothetical matter. refusing formulas (1. t) and (˜. . Second choice is more crucial. and no smell. Nevertheless the development of science went through this second choice. It ﬁlls the whole space and does not reveal itself otherwise.1) we introduced c as a factor for time variables t and t in order to equalize measure units. This was done by Lorentz. Lorentz transformations. According to this theory. It is convenient to denote c t by r0 and treat this quantity as additional (fourth) component of radius-vector: (2. k=1 i ˜ r i = S0 c t + k=1 i ˜ Sk r k . we refuse classical mechanics of Newton in whole. but as a carrier of electromagnetic interaction.1) by general linear transformations relating (r. Upon introducing this factor all components of matrix S appear to be purely numeric quantities that do not require measure units at all. Having refused formulas (1.2) r0 = ct. one should replace them by something else. which was called ether.1) 0 ˜ c t = S0 c t + ˜ In (2. but later was refuted by experiments of Michaelson and Morley. no color. 73 First Choice had lead to ether theory. Indeed. As a compromise this theory was admitted for a while.§ 2.1). Speciﬁed properties of ether look quite unusual. (2. who tried to measure the Earth velocity relative to ether (ether wind).1). Following Lorentz. This matter has no mass. § 2. now we replace Galileo transformations (1.

e.3) ri = k=0 i Sk r k .5) E = 0. E and H.3) and (2. By their structure transformation (2.3).4) coincide with transformations of coordinates of four-dimensional vector under the change of base.3) and (2. ˜ In order to have invertible transformation (2.4) is necessary (but possibly not suﬃcient) condition for invariance of Maxwell equations from which the equations (2. j. Soon we shall see that such interpretation appears to be very fruitful.5) under the transformations (2.5) were derived.3) one should assume that det S = 0. Then two relationships (2. H = 0. The only condition we should satisfy thereby is the invariance of Maxwell equations with respect to transformations (2. Then inverse transformation for (2.6) in Chapter II: (2.1) can be united into one relationship: 3 (2. the case ρ = 0. Instead of Maxwell equations let’s study their diﬀerential consequences written in form of the equations (4. Now the problem of deriving Lorentz transformations can be formulated as problem of ﬁnding components of matrix S in (2. . For the beginning let’s consider the case with no currents and charges.74 CHAPTER III. Let T = S −1 . j = 0.3) upon completing them with transformations for ρ. i. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.3) is written as follows: 3 (2.4) ri = ˜ k=0 i Tk r k . Invariance of (2.

8) into formula (2.6). i. ∂rk Substituting (2.7) g ij It is easy to see that inverse matrix gij for (2. 0 −1 0 0 0 −1 (2. ∂˜p ∂˜q r r where matrices g ij and g pq are related by formula ˜ 3 3 (2.9) g pq = ˜ i=0 j=0 Tip Tjq g ij .8) Tik k=0 ∂ . e.6) = i=0 j=0 g ij ∂ ∂ .§ 2. From (2.4) we derive the following transformation rules for ﬁrst order diﬀerential operators: ∂ = ∂ri 3 (2. 75 Further we need the following formula for d’Alambert operator used in the above equations (2. .5): 3 3 (2. ∂ri ∂rj Here by g ij we denote components of matrix 1 0 = gij = 0 0 0 0 0 −1 0 0 . LORENTZ TRANSFORMATIONS. ∂˜k r ∂ = ∂˜i r 3 k Si k=0 ∂ .3) and (2.7) has the same components. gij = g ij . we get 3 3 = p=0 q=0 g pq ˜ ∂ ∂ .

4) is equivalent to proportionality of matrices g and g.76 CHAPTER III.13) we denote transposed matrix T . In terms of inverse matrices gpq and gpq this relationship (2.11) g ij = λ g ij . Matrix T satisfying the relationship (2. In this case from (2.11) is usually chosen to be equal to unity: λ = 1.12) looks like (2. In matrix form this relationship (2. This group is usually denoted by O(1. ˜ (2. i.1. and β2 in formulas (1. e. It is called matrix Lorentz group. Deﬁnition 2.7). .10) gij = p=0 q=0 Tip Tjq gpq . It is easy to check up that the set of Lorentzian matrices form a group. Here g is a matrix of the form (2. β1 .13) T t g T = g.11) we derive 3 3 (2.1.12) gij = p=0 q=0 Tip Tjq gpq . ˜ Theorem 2. α2 .13) is called Lorentzian matrix.3) and (2. SPECIAL RELATIVITY. ˜ Numeric factor λ in formula (2.10) and (2.5) under the transformations (2. while by T t in (2. 3).9) can ˜ be rewritten as follows: 3 3 (2.6) the invariance of the form of equations (2. For any choice of operator coeﬃcients α1 .

and β2 is invertible. 3) determines some transformation (2. 0 Inequality |T0 | 1 is immediate consequence of the relationship 0 0 0 (2.14). 1997. 3). Minkowsky space. CopyRight c Sharipov R. If i = j = 0. MINKOWSKY SPACE. Fourdimensional space M is basic object in special theory of relativity. 3) is called special orthochronous matrix Lorentz group.12) we obtain the following formula relating components of Lorentzian matrix T : (2. This quadratic form is called Minkowsky metric.14) 3 0 1 2 (T0 )2 − (T0 )2 − (T0 )2 − (T0 )2 = 1. The space of events is equipped with quadratic form g with signature (1. β1 . 3). Its points are called events.. Intersection SO+ (1. Lorentzian matrix with T0 1 is called orthochronous.7).A. The set of orthochronous Lorentzian matrices form orthochronous matrix Lorentz group O+ (1. α2 . Thereby inertial coordinate systems are interpreted as Cartesian coordinates for which Minkowsky metric has canonical form (2.5).6) given by operator coeﬃcients α1 .1 under the assumption that transformation (1. Let’s denote it by M . 77 From the relationship (2. § 3. it is called special matrix Lorentz group. 3) = SO(1. Lorentzian matrices with unit determinant form the group SO(1. 3). Hence T0 1 or T0 −1. Hence det T = ±1. Prove theorem 2.2) and united space and time into one four-dimensional “space-time”. 3)∩O+ (1.1.13) for Lorentzian matrix we derive the equality (det T )2 = 1. In deriving this fact we introduced notations (2. . Exercise 2. 2003.1) preserving the form the equations (2. from (2.§ 3. In previous section we have found that each Lorentzian matrix from group O(1.

it determines second expansion of M into space and time: (3. we get positive quadratic form.1) M = T ⊕ V.1). . Matrix of Minkowsky metric in chosen coordinate system has canonic form (2. S0 . SPECIAL RELATIVITY. Hence ˜ T = T. Indeed.1) and (3. Changing its sign. 2 3 1 In general components S0 . Let’s choose some inertial coordinate system. and S0 in Lorentz matrix S are ˜ nonzero.4) 0 1 2 3 ˜ e 0 = S0 e 0 + S0 e 1 + S0 e 2 + S0 e 3 . Therefore vectors e0 and e0 are non-collinear. All physical laws in any two inertial coordinate systems are written in the same form. ˜ In general time axes T and T in expansions (3.3).78 CHAPTER III.3) we derive (3. Like (3. Equivalence principle. bases of these two coordinate systems are related to each other by formula 3 (3.7). Now let’s consider another inertial coordinate system. ˜ where S is Lorentzian matrix from (2. Restriction of this metric to V is negative quadratic form.2) do not coincide. This is standard Euclidean scalar product in V .2) ˜ ˜ M =T ⊕V. This choice determines separation of event space M into geometric space V (space of points) and time axis T : (3. For base vector e0 ˜ directed along time axis T from (3. Therefore geometric space V is orthogonal to time axis T with respect to Minkowsky metric g.3) ˜ ei = j=0 j Si e j .

presently in constructing theory of relativity one uses more realistic approach.4) with nonorthochronous matrices T invert the direction of time exchanging the future and the past. then 0 ˜ T0 > 0 and t → +∞. Let’s calculate how big is the diﬀerence in the rate of time ticks for two inertial coordinate systems. in our everyday life this diﬀerence is very small and never reveals. Minkowsky metric in such system is given by matrix of canonical form (2. If Lorentzian matrix T is orthochronous. Let’s choose some physical inertial coordinate system. If matrix T is not orthochronous. 3) to O+ (1.4) we get 3 (3. x) in Minkowsky metric g . 79 ˜ Non-coincidence of time axes T = T for two inertial coordinate ˜ systems leads to non-coincidence of geometric spaces: V = V . Transformations (2. 3) is due to the presence of additional structure in the space of events. It is called polarization.6) g(x. c Let t → +∞. So we shall assume that two physically real inertial coordinate systems can be related only by orthochronous Lorentz matrices from O+ (1. x) = (x0 )2 − (x1 )2 − (x2 )2 − (x3 )2 . This fact lead to quite radical conclusion when we interpret it physically: observers in two such inertial systems observe two diﬀerent three-dimensional geometric spaces and have two diﬀerent time ticks. However. It would be very intriguing to have such a feature in theory. 3). Restriction of the set of admissible Lorentz matrices from O(1.5) 0 ˜ t = T0 t + k=1 0 Tk k r . Let’s calculate scalar square of four-dimensional vector x in Minkowsky metric: (3. From (2. then ˜ t → +∞ we get t → −∞. However. By value of their scalar square g(x.7). MINKOWSKY SPACE.§ 3.

7) is the equation of cone in fourdimensional space (see classiﬁcation of quadrics in [4]). others with x0 < 0 are directed to the past. vectors of Minkowsky space M are subdivided into three parts: (1) tome-like vectors. for which g(x.80 CHAPTER III. Geometric structure in Minkowsky space M that marks one of two connected components in the set of timelike vectors is called polarization. while space-like vectors future ﬁll outer space outside this cone. Time-like vectors ﬁll interior of light cone. It is used to say that marked component points to the future. Vector directed to the future can be continuously transpast formed to any other vector directed to the future. Interior of light cone is a union of two parts: time-like vectors with x0 > 0 are directed to the future. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.1.7) (x0 )2 − (x1 )2 − (x2 )2 − (x3 )2 = 0. However. for which g(x.7) is called light cone. Deﬁnition 3. for which g(x. x) = 0. This cone (3.1 be continuously transformed to a vector directed to the past without making it space-like vector or zero vector at least once during transformation. It is easy to see that (3. (2) light vectors. (3) space-like vectors. . This means that the set of time-like vectors is disjoint union of two connected components. x) is positive. Coordinates of light vectors satisfy the following equation: (3. it cannot Fig. x) is negative. 3.

Now we can give strict mathematical deﬁnition of inertial coordinate system. . In the space M with polarization one can consider only those such bases for which unit vector of time axis e0 is directed to the future. Then transition from one of such bases to another would be given by orthochronous matrix from group O+ (1. e3 for the standard of right bases in V . * i.2. It is easy to verify that any two inertial coordinate systems as deﬁned above are related to each other by Lorentz transformation with matrix S from orthochronous Lorentz group SO+ (1. Orthonormal right inertial coordinate system is orthonormal right coordinate system in Minkowsky space with time base vector directed to the future. e2 .1). It is clear that e0 ∈ T . e2 . Deﬁnition 3. According to special theory of relativity Minkowsky space. 3). while linear span of spatial vectors e1 . which is equipped with orientation and polarization. e1 . 81 Let e0 . 3).3. is proper mathematical model for the space of real physical events. e3 deﬁnes subspace V .§ 3. base for which Minkowsky metric has the form (2. 3) and equipped with orientation** and polarization is called Minkowsky space. we equip this three-dimensional space with orientation. MINKOWSKY SPACE. e. This is concordance with the fact that geometric space that we observe in our everyday life possesses orientation distinguishing left and right. e2 . Deﬁnition 3. e3 be orthonormal base in Minkowsky metric*.7). Taking orthonormal base e1 . ** remember that orientation is geometric structure distinguishing left and right bases (see [4]). Four-dimensional aﬃne space M equipped with metric g of signature (1. Let’s choose one of such coordinate systems and consider related expansion (3.

First one is related with orthonormal base e0 .3) is reduced to orthogonal matrix O ∈ SO(3) ˜ ˜ ˜ relating two right orthonormal bases e1 . Therefore we shall bring these formulas to the form more convenient for studying their physical nature. are designed for the same purpose. e3 . Kinematics of relative motion.5).1). e2 . e3 in Minkowsky space and with the expansion (3. Let H be ˜ linear span of vectors e0 and e0 . e3 and e1 . ˜ W =V ∩V.1) and (3. then Lorentz matrix S in (2.3) and (2. ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ Second is related with the base e0 . e1 . e3 and with the ˜ expansion (3. § 4.2): ˜ H = Span(e0 . e2 . Denote by W intersection of ˜ subspaces V and V from (3. However. which we have derived from the condition of invariance of electrodynamical equations (2. SPECIAL RELATIVITY. Let’s ﬁx two inertial coordinate systems related by Lorentz transformation (2. Hence e0 = e0 . Lorentz transformations.2).1) 0 O2 O2 O2 . Exercise 3.82 CHAPTER III. Galileo transformations are used in mechanics for describing physical processes as they are seen by two observers representing two inertial coordinate systems. ˜ ˜ Now let’s consider the case T ∦ T . e2 . By analogy with deﬁnition 3.2) . e2 . If time axes are parallel e0 = e0 . in case if T T two inertial coordinate systems diﬀer only in directions of spatial axes.1. this is not immediately clear when looking at formulas (2. (4.3 formulate the deﬁnition of skew-angular inertial coordinate system.4). They do not move with respect to each other. 1 2 3 0 3 O1 3 O2 3 O3 ˜ Thus. e1 . e0 ).1). It has the following blockwise-diagonal shape: 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 O1 O2 O3 S= (4.

Then V ˜ y ∈ V . From x ∈ H and x ∈ W due to orthogonality of H and W . . we get ˜ ˜ dim(W ) = dim V + dim V − dim(V + V ) = 3 + 3 − 4 = 2. Hence H ⊕W = M . Now from orthogonality of y to both vectors e0 and ˜ ˜ e0 we derive orthogonality of y to their linear span: y ⊥ H. 83 Lemma 4. e3 . Lemma is proved.§ 4. we have W ⊥ H. we get g(x. Since y is arbitrary vector in W . i. e1 . which is already proved. Analogously from y ∈ V we get y ⊥ e0 . Subspaces V and V are three˜ . But x ∈ W ⊂ V . e. Their intersection is zero: H ∩ W = {0}. Applying theorem on the dimension of sum and intersection of two subspaces (see [4]). Therefore from g(x. Let’s consider an arbitrary vector x ∈ H ∩ W . dim(V + V ) = 4. There is the ˜ expansion (3. In order to prove orthogonality of H and W we use orthogonal˜ ity of T and V in the expansion (3. Now let’s prove that H ∩ W = {0}. 3). Hence their sum V + V coincides with ˜ dimensional and V = V ˜ M . while direct sum of these subspaces coincides with the whole Minkowsky space: H ⊕ W = M . e1 . e3 and e0 . Proof. Subspace H is two-dimensional since it is linear span ˜ of two non-collinear vectors. Proposition H ∩ W = {0} is proved. KINEMATICS OF RELATIVE MOTION. Let y be an arbitrary vector in subspace W . Let’s write it as follows: (4. x) = 0 we derive x = 0. From H ∩ W = {0} we conclude that sum of subspaces H and W is direct sum and dim(H +W ) = 2+2 = 4.4) for vector e0 . e2 . while restriction of Minkowsky metric to subspace V is negative quadratic form of signature (0.2). x) = 0.3) 0 ˜ e0 = S0 e0 + v.1. Now let’s return back to considering pair of inertial coordinate ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ systems with bases e0 .2) are perpendicular to each other in Minkowsky metric g. e2 .1) and orthogonality of T and ˜ in (3. Two-dimensional subspaces H and W in (4. From V ⊥ T we get y ⊥ e0 .

1 2 3 Here v = S0 e1 + S0 e2 + S0 e3 ∈ V . they form orthonormal base in two-dimensional subspace H: (4.3) as follows: (4.5). 2003. v) = cosh2 (α) − |v|2 . From (4. from (4. CopyRight c Sharipov R.8) g(e0 . For any real number a > 1 there exists a number α > 0 such that 0 a = cosh(α). Let’s replace vector v by vector of unit length h1 = v/|v| and rewrite the relationship (4.7) ˜ e0 = cosh(α) e0 + sinh(α) h1 . e0 ) = (S0 )2 g(e0 . 1). Let’s apply this observation to S0 in (4. Vectors e0 and h1 are perpendicular to each other.3). v = 0. 1997.8) we conclude that restriction of Minkowsky metric to subspace H is metric with signature (1. we have Since matrix S is or- (4. e0 ) = 1. where α > 0. hence h1 ∈ H. e0 ) + g(v. h1 ) = −1.5) 0 S0 = cosh(α). g(h1 . From (4. But h1 ∈ V as well. .4) 0 S0 > 1.7) vector h1 is linear combination of vectors e0 and e0 . and from orthogonality of vectors e0 and v in Minkowsky metric we obtain 0 1 = g(˜0 . ˜ thochronous and since e0 = e0 .6) |v| = sinh(α).3): (4.84 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY. e ˜ Using this equality we can ﬁnd Euclidean length of vector v in three-dimensional subspace V : (4.. Therefore h1 ∈ V ∩H. ˜ Due to (4.A.

Transition matrix relating this base with the base ˜ ˜ e0 . 0 1 (4. vector h1 ∈ V is perpendicular to subspace W ⊂ V . KINEMATICS OF RELATIVE MOTION. h1 .11) . h2 h3 has the following blockwise-diagonal form: sinh(α) SL = 0 0 cosh(α) sinh(α) cosh(α) 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 . Therefore we have the expansion of subspace V as a direct sum: V = Span(h1 ) ⊕ W.§ 4. h2 h3 constitute orthonormal right base in M with time vector e0 directed to the future.10) SL = sinh(α) sinh(α) . 85 Now we need another vector from subspace H. Indeed. There is four-dimensional version of matrix (4. cosh(α) Matrix (4. Then four vectors e0 . Transition matrix relating these two bases has the following form: cosh(α) (4. Let’s determine it by the following relationship: (4. ˜ ˜ It is easy to check that vectors e0 and h1 form another orthonormal base in subspace H.10) is called the matrix of Lorentzian rotation. Let’s choose two vectors h2 and h3 forming orthonormal base in subspace W and complementing h1 up to an orthonormal right base in V . h1 .10).9) ˜ h1 = sinh(α) e0 + cosh(α) h1 .

r1 . Upon calculating coordinates of this point A in other inertial coordinate system by means of formulas (4. r3 be coordinates of radius-vector of some point A ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ which is at rest in inertial coordinate system with base e1 . r2 . e2 e3 then can be done in three steps. they do not depend on time t in ˜ ˜ ˜ this coordinate system.12) ˜ its ﬁrst coordinate r1 appears to be a function of parameter t. h2 h3 . h2 h3 is given by a matrix of the form (4. e2 e3 is given by a matrix of the same form (4.11).12) in order to express parameter t . h3 . e1 . ˜ We use ﬁrst relationship (4. h1 . e2 e3 for another base ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ e0 . e2 e3 to base e0 .12) sinh(α) 1 r . Transition from base e0 .1). Ultimate change of base e0 .1). r3 be coordinates of some vector ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ r ∈ M in the base e0 . In a similar way transition from base e0 . r1 .1).11) formula (2. This is because their time vectors ˜ ˜ do coincide. SPECIAL RELATIVITY. e2 .3) leads to relationships ˜ t = cosh(α) t + (4. h1 . 3) is a product of three matrices S = S1 SL S2 . By ct = r0 .86 CHAPTER III. Let ct = r0 . r2 .11). h2 . r3 are constants. h2 h3 ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ to base e0 . h1 .1. one of which SL is a matrix of Lorentzian rotation (4. r2 . ˜ Let r1 . r2 . ˜ r2 = r2 . e1 . e1 . Each Lorentzian matrix S ∈ SO+ (1. ˜ c ˜ r1 = sinh(α) c t + cosh(α) r1 . h1 . while two others S1 and S2 are matrices of the form (4. ˜ Then r1 . In order to clarify physical meaning of Lorentz transformations let’s ﬁrst consider transformations with matrix S of the form (4. For matrix S of the form (4. e3 . ˜ r3 = r3 . e1 . Theorem 4. r3 we denote ˜ ˜ coordinates of the same vector in the base e0 .

˜ r3 = r3 . In contrast to parameter α in matrix (4. ˜ ˜ ˜ ut + r 1 u2 1− 2 c r1 = .§ 4.11) through u: cosh(α) = 1 u 1− 2 c 2 .14) we see that in second coordinate system our point A is moving with constant velocity u = c tanh(α) in the direction of ﬁrst coordinate axis. From (4. ˜ cosh(α) c Substituting (4.15) r2 = r2 . r3 = r3 (t) = const . parameter u has transparent physical interpretation as magnitude of relative velocity of one coordinate system with respect to another. KINEMATICS OF RELATIVE MOTION.13) ˜ t= tanh(α) 1 t − r . . sinh(α) = u c 1 u2 1− 2 c . (4.13) into other three formulas (4.12).11). t= u2 1− 2 c (4. Let’s express components of matrix (4. Let’s substitute these formulas into (4. As a result we get ˜ u ˜ t + 2 r1 c . 87 through time variable t in second coordinate system: (4.12).14) r2 = r2 (t) = const. we get r1 = r1 (t) = c tanh(α) t + const.

16) r = r1 h1 + r2 h2 + r3 h3 . Denote for a while by r and ˜ the following two threer ˜ dimensional vectors in subspaces V and V : (4.16) and the map θ. ˜ r θu. θ(h2 ) = h2 .88 CHAPTER III. |u|2 Here u = u h1 is vector of relative velocity of second coordinate system with respect to ﬁrst one. Therefore they are applicable to Lorentz transformations with special matrix of the form (4.1). Using above notations (4. we can write formulas (4. since it maps right orthonormal base of subspace V to right orthonormal base in ˜ subspace V . θ(h3 ) = h3 .17) are irrespective ˜ to the choice of bases in subspaces V and V . SPECIAL RELATIVITY. Formulas (4.17) θr = θu. |u|2 1− 2 c θu. and h3 : ˜ θ(h1 ) = h1 . . ˜ ˜ r ˜ ˜ ˜ Then we deﬁne linear map θ : V → V determined by its action upon base vectors h1 . This map θ is orientation preserving isometry.15) in vectorial form: ˜ t+ t= (4. ˜ r θu 2 |u| |u| c2 2 ˜ θu t + +˜− r 1− θu. ˜ = r1 h1 + r2 h2 + r3 h3 . h2 .11) and to arbitrary Lorentz transformations with matrix S = S1 SL S2 (see theorem 4. ˜ r 2 c .

§ 4.17)). . |u|2 1− 2 c u. ˜ while t and t are treated as scalar parameters.1. derive formulas (4. ˜ r u 2 |u| |u|2 c2 u. while vector ˜ is expanded in the base of another coordinate r system. ˜ r θu. Using expansions (4.18) in components we should expand vectors r and u in the base of one coordinate system. KINEMATICS OF RELATIVE MOTION. ˜ r . ˜ r 2 c .17). according to modern paradigm four-dimensional Minkowsky space is real physical entity. Exercise 4. |u| r2 h2 + r3 h3 = ˜ − ˜ ˜ r θu.17) is omitted: ˜ t+ t= (4. However.15). Thereby the diﬀerence in the shape of these two formulas completely disappears. ˜ r u.18) r= u. When writing formulas (4. not purely mathematical abstraction convenient for shortening formulas (compare (2.16) for vectors r and ˜.17) and (4.3) and (4. 89 Very often the sign of map θ realizing isomorphism of subspaces ˜ V and V in formulas (4. 2 |u| ˜ ut+ +˜− r 1− Formulas (4. der rive the following formulas: r1 = ˜ θu. |u|2 Combining these formulas with (4.18) represent “conditionally three-dimensional” understanding of Lorentz transformations when vectors r and ˜ r treated as vectors of the same three-dimensional Euclidean space.

˜(t) r ˜ u |u|2 1− |u| c2 2 ˜ ut+ + ˜(t) − r˜ u. t) we use Lorentz transformation given by formulas (4. SPECIAL RELATIVITY. § 5.18). Relativistic law of velocity addition. Classical law of velocity addition was ﬁrst consequence that we obtained from Galileo transformations: (5. As a result we get two functions ˜ t+ ˜ t(t) = (5.2).1) ˜ v = v + u. |u|2 1− 2 c u.3a) dt = ˜ dt .90 CHAPTER III. see formulas (1. v 2 c .2) ˜ r(t) = u. Replacing Galileo transformations by Lorentz transformations. t) and suppose that this r ˜ coordinate system moves with velocity u with respect to other inertial coordinate system (r. Suppose that vector-function ˜(t) describes the motion of a r ˜ point A in inertial coordinate system (˜. ˜(t) r˜ u.2): 1+ ˜ u. For passing to coordinate system (r. |u|2 1− 2 c (5. now we should derive new relativistic law of velocity addition. t). ˜(t) r ˜ c2 . |u|2 Let’s calculate ﬁrst derivatives of functions (5.

Explain why resulting formula diﬀers from (5.4). t). Motion of point-size material object in arbitrary inertial coordinate system (r. World lines and private time. Derive relativistic law of velocity addition from formula (4. v = ˜(t) = ˜ dt In a similar way by v we denote the velocity of this point in other coordinates (r. 91 (5. v ˜ u v− u 2 |u| |u|2 + v= ˜ ˜ u.3b) into (5. v 1+ 1+ 2 2 c c u+ |u|2 .1). 2003. t): d˜ r ˙ ˜ r˜ . v u. 1997. § 6. we get formula ˜ ˜ u.3b) dr = ˜ dt u+ ˜ u. It is mach more complicated than classical law given by formula (5. WORLD LINES AND PRIVATE TIME. Exercise 5. To calculate v we divide derivatives: (5. t) is described by vector-function r(t).. v u. ˜ dt Substituting (5.5) is relativistic law of velocity addition.1).3a) and (5.4) v= dr ˙ = r(t) = dt dr ˜ dt dt .A.5) 1− Formula (5. in the limit of small velocities |u| ≪ c formula (5. v u 2 |u| |u| c2 2 ˜ +v− 1− ˜ u. |u|2 ˜ r ˜ By v we denote the velocity of the point A in coordinates (˜. .5). However. c2 (5.17). v u.1.§ 6. where t CopyRight c Sharipov R.5) reduces to formula (5.

World line have no singular points. Deﬁnition 6. Exception are world lines of photons (light particles) and world lines of other elementary particles with zero mass. r1 (t). Let’s consider world line of material point of nonzero mass.1) determines parametric line in Minkowsky space M . Velocity of most material objects is not greater than light velocity: |v| < c. Indeed. r2 (t). v 2 .92 CHAPTER III. hence we get g(K. r1 .3) g(K. even if g(K. this line is called world line of material point. . When applied to vector K in (6. v 3 ). Smooth curve in Minkowsky space is called time-like curve if tangent-vector of this curve is time-like vector at each its point.2) this means that tangent-vector of world line is time-like vector: (6. SPECIAL RELATIVITY. Let’s diﬀerentiate four-dimensional radiusvector (6. v 1 .1) with respect to parameter t. K) = 0. Four-dimensional radius-vector of this material point has the following components: (6. Once world line is given. K) = c2 − |v|2 > 0. As a result we get four-dimensional vector tangent to world line: (6. motion of material point is described completely. ˙ ˙ ˙ Last three components of this vector form velocity vector of material point.1) r0 (t) = ct.1.2) is nonzero since K 0 = c = 0. tangent vector K in (6. r3 (t).2) K = (c. For them |v| = c. is time variable and r is radius-vector of point. K) = 0. r2 . r3 ) = (c. Vector-function with components (6. World lines for most material objects are time-like curves.

5) is called interval of private time on world line.4) yields invariant parameter for world lines. there is invariant quantity characterizing time distance between two events on world line: (6. 93 For this line we have the condition (6.3) fulﬁlled. This quantity is called interval length of the arc AB on world line.4) s(t) = t0 g(K. and watches of diﬀerent material points are synchronized only in very rough way: they . For any two points A and B on a given world line the quantity s(B)−s(A) does not depend on inertial coordinate system used for calculating integral (6. Theorem 6. Its interval length is greater than interval length of corresponding arc.5) τ= s(B) − s(A) . c This quantity τ in formula (6. Let A and B be two successive events in the “life” of material point of nonzero mass. However. According to this concept each material point lives according to its own watch.§ 6. hence we can introduce natural parameter on this line: t (6.1. The answer to the question what time interval separates these two events depend on the choice of inertial coordinate system from which we observe the “life” of this material point. Concept of private time determine microlocal concept of time in theory of relativity. Integral (6. WORLD LINES AND PRIVATE TIME.4). So this answer is relative (not invariant). Straight line segment connecting end points of an arc on smooth time-like curve is a segment of time-like straight line. K) dt.

Hence twin stayed on the Earth will be older. acceleration due to rotation of the Earth around its axis and due to orbital rotation around the Sun is not sensible in our everyday life). even after such exact synchronization in the point of next meeting watches of tho material points will show diﬀerent times. Suppose that one of twins goes to far-away travel in interstellar spacecraft. Its known that Coordinate system associated with the Earth can be taken for inertial coordinate system with high degree of accuracy (indeed. count time from the past to the future. Exact synchronization of watches is possible only when material points come to immediate touch with each other. However. Concept of private time is illustrated by so-called twins problem. According to theorem 6. World line of twin in spacecraft is curved. World lines of twins intersect twice. SPECIAL RELATIVITY. Which of them will be older when they meet each other on the Earth in the end of space voyage. The answer is: that one who stayed on the Earth will be older. e. Remember proof of the fact that the length of curved line connecting two points A and B in Euclidean space is . while his brother stays on the Earth.1 interval length of curved world line connecting two events is shorter than interval length of straight world line connecting the same two events. Then he experiences backward acceleration in order to brake before reaching target point of his travel. i. well-known from science ﬁction. Exercise 6.94 CHAPTER III. one before travel and other after travel. Then he accelerates and brakes again in his back way to the Earth. Therefore world line of twin stayed on the Earth is straight line.1. This diﬀerence is due to diﬀerent ”life paths” between two meetings. In the beginning of travel he accelerates reaching substantial velocity comparable with light velocity in the middle of the path. This rough synchronization is determined by polarization in Minkowsky space. Both intersections occur on the Earth. when their world lines intersect.

v 3 are components of three-dimensional velocity vector v. DYNAMICS OF MATERIAL POINT. Upon choosing some inertial coordinate system we can write components of 4-velocity vector explicitly: (7. ds where r(s) is four-dimensional radius vector of events on world line.1) is called vector of 4-velocity. v 2 .§ 7. u3 of 4-velocity vector are absolute numbers (without measure unit). 95 greater than the length of straight line segment AB. § 7. Note that components u0 . Dynamics of material point. It is time-like vector and it is unit vector in Minkowsky metric: g(u. Motion of material point in theory of relativity is described by its world line in Minkowsky space. By analogy to this proof ﬁnd the proof for theorem 6. . Vector u is (7.2). u) = 1. Vector p plays important role in physics since there is fundamental law of nature: the law of conservation of 4-momentum. It is easy to see from (7. Let’s choose natural parameter on world line and consider four-dimensional tangent vector dr(s) .3) p= m 1− c v1 v2 v3 |v|2 c2 for material point with mass m. u1 . u2 .1.2) u= 1 c2 − |v|2 c v1 .1) u(s) = (7. v2 v3 Here v 1 . Upon multiplying u by scalar mc with the measure unit of momentum we get vector of 4-momentum (7.

Vector of 4-momentum of material point which do not experience external action remains unchanged. ds Vector of 4-force in (7. Continuous actions are applied to material particle by external ﬁelds. p) = m2 c2 .1). In this case p = const. Momentum conservation law. . It is determined by parameters of particle itself and by parameters of external ﬁelds at current position of particle as well. we ﬁnd (7. Hence u = const. Conclusion: in the absence of external action material point moves uniformly along straight line. F) = 0. (2) discrete. Diﬀerentiating this relationship with respect to s and taking into account that components of matrix (2.5) g(u. We know that vector of 4-velocity u is unit vector.4) is quantitative characteristic of the action of external ﬁelds upon material particle. for r(s) we derive r(s) = r0 + u s. They cause world line to bend making it curved line. External actions causing change of 4-momentum of material point are subdivided into two categories: (1) continuous. therefore g(p. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.96 CHAPTER III. According to the law just stated. Derivative of 4-momentum with respect to natural parameter s is called vector of 4-force: (7.7) are constant. for particle that do not experience external action we have p = const.4) dp = F(s). Integrating the equation (7.

6) we obtain diﬀerential equation (7. DYNAMICS OF MATERIAL POINT.10) (mv v)′ = f . t . then for three-dimensional vector of momentum from (7.3).8) is called dynamic mass of moving particle. Instead of classical formula p = mv relating momentum and velocity vectors here we have the following relationship: (7. Now.7) is treated as relativistic analog of Newton’s second law. taking into account (7.7) dp = f. while mv in (7. i.5) means that vector of 4-force is perpendicular to vector of 4-velocity in Minkowsky metric. e.8) in classical form we introduce the quantity (7. Constant m is called mass at rest. In order to write (7. force vector is perpendicular to world line of particle.9) mv = m |v|2 1− 2 c . from (7. 3. dt The equation (7.5) by time variable t of this coordinate system. 97 The relationship (7.4) we derive (7. 2. Then. if we denote by f three-dimensional vector with components f i = c2 − |v|2 F i . Now p = mv v. and Newton’s second law is written as follows: (7. where i = 1.6) dpi = dt c2 − |v|2 F i .§ 7.8) p= mv |v|2 1− 2 c . we can replace natural parameter s in (7. Choosing some inertial coordinate system.

. Denote by p1 . we shall imply mass at rest. Momentum conservation law.. CopyRight c Sharipov R. . particle conﬂuence. saying mass. . In what follows we shall mostly use four-dimensional invariant equation (7. Discrete external actions appear p2 ˜ in those situations when 4-momenp1 ˜ tum of material particle changes abruptly in jump-like manner. SPECIAL RELATIVITY. If k = 1 this is particle decay process. . Formulas (7. In a similar way in collisions of atomic nuclei nuclear reactions occur. .1 out from that point. Collision of particles correspond to that point in Minkowsky pk p2 space where world lines of two or several particles come together. . But if these are molecules of ingredients in chemical reaction.4) and. pk their 4-momenta just before the collision. 2003. 7. Suppose that as a result of collision he have n new particles created from initial ˜ ˜ ones. then after collision we would have new molecules of reaction products. Such pn ˜ situation arise in particle collisions. Let’s consider simultaneous collision of k particles. and particle dep1 cay. pn 4-momenta of outgoing particles just after the collision.98 CHAPTER III. It seems to me that such terminology is not so good.9) and (7. while if n = 1 we have particle conﬂuence into one composite particle.A. Denote by p1 . . Total 4-momentum of ingoing particles before collision is equal to total 4-momentum of outgoing particles after collision: k n (7. 1997. . After collision particles can simply ﬂy Fig.10) are the very ones which are in mind when one says that mass in theory of relativity depends on velocity.11) i=1 pi = i=1 ˜ pi . .

−v 2 −v 3 p1 = p2 = For 4-momentum of resulting particle we have M 1− |w|2 c2 c w1 . w2 w3 ˜ p1 = Applying momentum conservation law (7. we get w = 0 and additionally we obtain (7.11) to this situation. Suppose that velocities of initial particles are equal by magnitude but opposite to each other: m |v|2 1− 2 c c v1 . From (7. . Conclusion: the low of mass conservation is fulﬁlled approximately only in the limit of small velocities |v| ≪ c.12) we see that mass at rest of resulting composite particle is greater than sum of rest masses of its components: M > m + m. v2 v3 m 1− |v|2 c2 c −v 1 . DYNAMICS OF MATERIAL POINT. 99 As an example we consider process of frontal collision of two identical particles of mass m leading to creation of one particle of mass M . Resulting quantity has the measure unit of energy.13) E= mc2 |v|2 1− 2 c .§ 7.12) M= 2m |v|2 1− 2 c . Let’s multiply zeroth component of 4-momentum of material particle by c. Let’s denote this quantity by E: (7.

In practice conversion of energy to mass is realized in particle conﬂuence (see M > m + m in formula (7.14) and the law of conservation for three-dimensional momentum. 4-momentum conservation law for collision includes both energy conservation law (7. This quantity is known as rest energy of material particle.15) E = mc2 . Large amount of energy released in annihilation is scattered in form of short-wave electromagnetic radiation.14) i=1 Ei = i=1 ˜ Ei . The quantity (7.15) is well-known. Total conversion of mass to energy is also possible. Writing relationship (7. we get energy conservation law: k n (7.100 CHAPTER III.11) for zeroth components of colliding particles. Starting from electromagnetic equations E = 0 and H = 0 in previous sections we have constructed and described Lorentz transformations preserving form of these equations. Thus. when elementary particle meets corresponding antiparticle.13) is called kinetic energy of moving particle. but takes nonzero value (7. § 8. Four-dimensional form of Maxwell equations. Note that for zero velocity v = 0 the above quantity (7. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.13) does not vanish. Formula (7. It reﬂects very important fact absent in classical physics: the ability of energy to mass and mass to energy conversion. We also have . This happens in process of annihilation. Converse phenomenon of particle decay yields mass defect (mass decrease).12)). Lost mass is realized in additional amount of kinetic energy of outgoing particles.

§ 8. FOUR-DIMENSIONAL FORM . . .

101

given geometric and physical interpretation of Lorentz transformations and even have described dynamics of material points on the base of new relativistic notion of space and time. Now time has come to remember that equations E = 0 and H = 0 are not primary equations of electrodynamics, they were derived from Maxwell equations. To have complete picture we should we should write Maxwell equations in four-dimensional form. Let’s begin with second pair of these equations containing charges and currents (see equations (1.2) in Chapter II. Let’s modify them: 1 ∂E 4π − rot H = − j, c ∂t c

− div E = −4πρ.

Then rewrite these equations in components using Levi-Civita symbol for to express rotor (see [3]): ∂E p − ∂r0 q=1 (8.1)

3 3 3

εpqk

k=1

∂H k 4π = − jp, ∂rq c

−

q=1

∂E q = −4π ρ. ∂rq

Here we used notation r0 = ct associating time variable with zeroth component of radius-vector in Minkowsky space. Using Levi-Civita symbol and components of vector H, we can construct skew-symmetric 3 × 3 matrix with elements

3

(8.2)

F pq = −

k=1

εpqk H k .

102

CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.

Due to (8.2) we can easily write explicit form of matrix F : F pq 0 = H3 −H 2 −H 3 0 H1 H2 −H 1 . 0

(8.3)

Let’s complement the above matrix (8.3) with one additional line and one additional column: 0 −E 1 −E 2 −E 3 E1 −H 3 0 H2 (8.4) F pq = 2 . E H3 0 −H 1 E3 −H 2 H1 0 Additional line and additional column in (8.4) are indexed by zero, i. e. indices p and q run over integer numbers from 0 to 3. In addition, we complement three-dimensional vector of current density with one more component (8.5) j 0 = ρc.

**By means of (8.4) and (8.5) we can rewrite Maxwell equations (8.1) in very concise four-dimensional form:
**

3

(8.6)

q=0

∂F pq 4π p =− j . q ∂r c

Now let’s consider ﬁrst pair of Maxwell equations (see equations (1.1) in Chapter II). In coordinates they are written as (8.7) ∂H p + ∂r0 q=1

3 3

εpqk

k=1

∂E k = 0, ∂rq

3 q=1

∂H q = 0. ∂rq

§ 8. FOUR-DIMENSIONAL FORM . . .

103

The structure of the equations (8.7) is quite similar to that of (8.1). However, their right hand sides are zero and we see slight diﬀerence in signs. Main diﬀerence is that components of vectors E and H have exchanged their places. To exchange components of vectors E and H in matrix (8.4) we need four-dimensional analog of Levi-Civita symbol: 0, = 1, −1,

3 3

εpqks = εpqks

if among p, q, k, s there are at least two equal numbers; if (p q k s) is even permutation of numbers (0 1 2 3); if (p q k s) is odd permutation of numbers (0 1 2 3).

**Let’s deﬁne matrix G by the following formula for its components: 1 2
**

3 3

(8.8)

Gpq = −

**εpqks gkm gsn F mn .
**

k=0 s=0 m=0 n=0

**Here g is matrix (2.7) determining Minkowsky metric. Matrix G with components (8.8) can be expressed in explicit form: 0 H1 = 2 H H −H 1 0 −E 3 E
**

2

−H 2 E3 0 −E 1

(8.9)

Gpq

3

−H 3 −E 2 . E1 0

The structure of matrix (8.9) enable us to write remaining two

4) immediately yields transformation rules. For special Lorentz .13) F pq = These relationships (8. Tensorial interpretation of matrix (8. Before now we express these rules in undetermined form by the relationships (1. Maxwell equations (8.13) determine transformation rules for components of vectors E and H. For this reason equations (8.6). m=0 n=0 (8.12) Fks = m=0 n=0 gkm gsn F mn . ∂rq Matrix Fks is obtained from F mn by means of standard index lowering procedure using matrix (2.4) deﬁnes tensor of the type (2. ∂rq Usage of both matrices F and G in theory is assumed to be too excessive. which were lacking so far: 3 3 p q ˜ Sm Sn F mn . Four-dimensional form of Maxwell equations (8. Matrix (8.10) are written as 3 3 3 (8. 0) in Minkowsky space.6) and (8.7): 3 3 (8. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.11) q=0 k=0 s=0 εpqks ∂Fks = 0.10) q=0 ∂Gpq = 0.7) in concise four-dimensional form: 3 (8. This tensor is called tensor of electromagnetic ﬁeld.104 CHAPTER III.11) gives a hint for proper geometric interpretation of these equations.

. u2 1− 2 c u ˜ ˜ H 2 − E3 c H2 = .11) vectors of electric and magnetic ﬁelds E and H in two inertial coordinate systems are related as follows: ˜ E1 = E1.A. E |u| c u+ . u ˜ ˜ E2 + H 3 c E2 = .§ 8. .1. u2 1− 2 c u ˜ ˜ E3 − H 2 c E3 = .15) Fpq = CopyRight c Sharipov R. E 1 ˜ ˜ u − [u. |u|2 |u|2 1− 2 c From (8. 105 matrices (4. H 1 ˜ ˜ u + [u. 2003.14) ˜ u. According to theorem 4. E= |u|2 |u|2 1− 2 c (8.11) and two matrices of spatial rotation in tree-dimensional space. E] H− ˜ 2 u. H |u| c H= u+ . . general Lorentz matrix is a product of special Lorentz matrix of the form (4. u2 1− 2 c ˜ H 1 = H 1. FOUR-DIMENSIONAL FORM . H] E− ˜ 2 u. 1997. u2 1− 2 c u ˜ ˜ H 3 + E2 c H3 = . m=0 n=0 (8. The latter ones can be excluded if one writes Lorentz transformation in “conditionally three-dimensional” vectorial form: ˜ u.13) we derive the following rule for transforming covariant components of the tensor of electromagnetic ﬁeld: 3 3 m n ˜ Tp Tq Fmn ..

6) with respect to Lorentz transformations leads to the following transformation rule for components of four-dimensional current density: 3 (8. j u ˜1 j c2 .16) The condition of invariance of Maxwell equations (8. In case of special Lorentz matrix of the form (4.3).18) j 2 = ˜2 . a=0 b=0 c=0 d=0 (8.11). taking into account (8. one can write the above relationship (8. . SPECIAL RELATIVITY.15) provides invariance of the form of Maxwell equations (8. In order to verify this fact it is suﬃcient to apply relationships (2. j In (8.5). u2 1− 2 c j1 = uρ + ˜1 ˜ j u2 1− 2 c .17) as follows: ρ+ ˜ ρ= (8. j j 3 = ˜3 .106 CHAPTER III. Remember that here u = c tanh(α) is a magnitude of relative velocity of one inertial coordinate system with respect to another.17) jp = m=0 p Sm ˜m . This relationship (8.17) it is easy to recognize the transformation rule for components of four-dimensional vector.11) under Lorentz transformation (2.8) for transforming derivatives and then remember well-known property of four-dimensional Levi-Civita symbol εpqks : 3 3 3 3 p q k s Ta Tb Tc Td εabcd = det T εpqks .

transform Maxwell equations (8. Using (8. (8. FOUR-DIMENSIONAL VECTOR-POTENTIAL. Verify that the form of these equations is invariant. derive the relationship (8.8). transform Maxwell equations (8.15).8). 107 In vectorial form relationships (8.4. Using (2. Prove the relationship (8. Using (8. Exercise 8.12). Verify that the form of these equations is invariant. This was done in .§ 9.12) and (8. Exercise 8.18) are written as ρ+ ˜ ρ= (8. § 9.6) from one inertial coordinate system to another.16).13).15) from (8.11) from one inertial coordinate system to another. Exercise 8. ˜ j 2 c . ˜ j u. Exercise 8.3.17) and (2.1. |u|2 1− 2 c u.13).19) j= u. assuming T to be an arbitrary 4 × 4 matrix. ˜ j u 2 |u| |u|2 c2 u.2. |u|2 uρ + ˜ +˜− j 1− In such form they give transformation rule for charge density ρ and three-dimensional current density j under Lorentz transformations with arbitrary Lorentz matrix. (8. Four-dimensional vector-potential.16) and (2. Due to special structure of Maxwell equations one can introduce vector-potential A and scalar potential ϕ.

4) Fpq .2) Ap = q=0 gpq Aq . (9. A2 = −A2 .1) Hp = q=1 k=1 1 ∂Ap ∂ϕ − .2) we derive A0 = A0 . −H 1 0 (9.108 CHAPTER III. from formula (9. This is four-dimensional vector-potential of electromagnetic ﬁeld. Taking into account relationships (2. § 3 of Chapter II. p ∂r c ∂t 3 3 εpqk ∂Ak . let’s write explicitly covariant components for the tensor of electromagnetic ﬁeld: 0 −E 1 = −E 2 −E 3 E1 0 H3 −H 2 E2 −H 3 0 H1 E3 H2 . A2 .3) Moreover. Denote A0 = ϕ and consider four-dimensional vector A with components A0 . A1 . By lowering index procedure we get covector A: 3 (9. A1 = −A1 . A3 = −A3 . SPECIAL RELATIVITY.4) in Chapter II).7) for components of matrix gpq . ∂rq (see formulas (3. A3 . Here are formulas for components of E and H: Ep = − (9.

8) Fpq = ∂An ∂Aq ∂Ap = − . ∂rp ∂rq In essential. we get 3 3 m n m n (δp δq − δq δp ) m=1 n=1 (9. Thereby let’s take into account that Fpq = F pq and Ap = −Ap for p.6). 2. Applying (9.1) can be written as (9. 3: 3 3 3 3 (9. we obtain the following formula for all covariant components of the tensor of electromagnetic ﬁeld: (9. They are determined up to a gauge . FOUR-DIMENSIONAL VECTOR-POTENTIAL.§ 9.1).8) and (9. ∂rm Further transformation of (9. formula (9.2) and second relationship (9. Remember that vectorial and scalar potentials of electromagnetic ﬁeld are not unique. m p ∂r ∂r ∂rq Combining (9.9) Fpq = ∂Aq ∂Ap − . 109 Due to (9. ∂r0 ∂rq In order to calculate other components of tensor Fpq let’s apply (8.9) is four-dimensional form of the relationships (9. q = 1.1).3) and (9.6) is based on one of the well-known contraction identities for Levi-Civita symbol: 3 (9. It unites these two relationships into one.7) to (9.7) k=1 m n m n εpqk εkmn = δp δq − δq δp .6) Fpq = − k=1 εpqk H k = k=1 m=1 n=1 εpqk εkmn ∂An .5).5) F0q = ∂Aq ∂A0 − .4) ﬁrst relationship (9.

A1 . we shall not do it now. From (9. ˜ j c . A3 are obtained from them by index lowering procedure (9. Note that one can rederive transformation rules for components of electric and magnetic ﬁelds (see § 8 above).15). if we assert that A0 .11) they are written as follows: ϕ+ ˜ ϕ= (9. as they actually should.9) are transformed exactly by formula (8. This uncertainty could be included into transformation rule for component of fourdimensional potential A. then we ﬁnd that quantities Fpq deﬁned by formula (9. A3 are transformed as components of four-dimensional vector 3 (9.11) should be written in vectorial form: ϕ+ ˜ (9. A1 . However. For special Lorentz transformations with matrix (4. |u|2 1− 2 c u ˜1 A c . u2 1− 2 c . ˜ A3 = A3 .12a) ϕ= u.110 CHAPTER III. and A0 . transformation (see formula (4. A2 . A2 .1) in Chapter II).10) Ap = q=0 p ˜ Sq Aq . In case of Lorentz transformations with arbitrary Lorentz matrix the relationships (9.10) one can easily derive explicit transformation formulas for scalar potential ϕ and for components of threedimensional vector-potential A. However.2).11) ˜ A2 = A2 . u2 1− 2 c u ϕ + A1 ˜ ˜ c 1 A = . SPECIAL RELATIVITY.

And the last step is index lowering procedure given by formula (9. Then we denote A0 = ϕ and thus convert three-dimensional vector-potential into fourdimensional vector. A ˜ u. 2) in four-dimensional space can be identiﬁed with pair of threedimensional vector ﬁelds E and H depending on additional parameter r0 = ct. 2) in four-dimensional space satisfying diﬀerential equations (8.11) are written as Maxwell equations for E and H: div H = 0. +A− |u|2 Theorem 9. ∂rk where ψ — is some arbitrary scalar ﬁeld. has gauge uncertainty. where three-dimensional vector-potential and scalar potential were introduced. Proof.13) Ak → Ak + ∂ψ .13) is fourdimensional version of gauge transformations (4. Then equations (8. Formula (9.§ 9. Choice of vector ﬁeld A in formula (9.1) considered . In order to do this one should use (9. A u u ϕ+ ˜ 2 c |u| 1− |u|2 c2 ˜ u.2). Each skew-symmetric tensor ﬁeld F of type (0. FOUR-DIMENSIONAL VECTOR-POTENTIAL. In four-dimensional formalism this fact is represented by gauge transformations (9.9). c ∂t Further construction of covector ﬁeld A is based on considerations from § 3 of Chapter II.1.12b) A= ˜ u.11) is determined by some covector ﬁeld A according to the above formula (9. 111 (9.4).9). rot E = − 1 ∂H . Each skew-symmetric tensor ﬁeld F of type (0. as we noted above.

1 immediately in four-dimensional form without passing back to three-dimensional statements and constructions. Exercise 9.1).112 CHAPTER III.4) in Chapter I. Hence we obtain 3 (10. Earlier we have noted that charge conservation law can be derived from Maxwell equations (see § 1 in Chapter II). It is easy to verify that gauge transformations (9. Let’s diﬀerentiate the relationship (8. SPECIAL RELATIVITY. in Chapter II.13) do not break transformation rules (9.6) with respect to rp and add one more summation with respect to index p: 3 3 (10. 1997. Therefore the expression under summation in left hand side of (10. Conservation laws for scalar quantities (those like electric charge) in theory of relativity are expressed by equations analogous CopyRight c Sharipov R. If we remember that j 0 = cρ and r0 = ct. To prove this fact in four-dimensional formalism is even easier. we see that this equality coincides with (5.10) for contravariant components of vector A.2) is four-dimensional form of charge conservation law. while tensor of electromagnetic ﬁeld F pq . 2003.1. ∂rp Double diﬀerentiation in (10.. This leads to vanishing of double sum in left hand side of formula (10. ∂rp The equality (10.A. The law of charge conservation. to which it is applied. . is skew-symmetric.2) p=0 ∂j p = 0.1) is skew-symmetric with respect to indices p and q.1) p=0 q=0 ∂ 2 F pq 4π =− ∂rp ∂rq c 3 p=0 ∂j p . Prove theorem 9. § 10.1) is symmetric operation.

. ∂rq Proof.. .6) ψ pq = . 0 . . .3) playing the role of current density of 4-momentum is called energy-momentum tensor.§ 10. 0 ψ 1n . . ..1. −ψ n−1 n .. Choosing some Cartesian coordinate system.5) jp = q=1 ∂ψ pq . ∂rp Tensor T qp in (10.. ψ n−1 n . 113 to (10. . . For vectorial quantities corresponding current densities are tensors. (n Theorem 10. . we shall construct matrix ψ pq of the following special form: 0 . Thus the law of conservation of 4-momentum for ﬁelds is represented by the equation 3 (10.4) p=1 ∂j p = 0. 0 (10. ∂rp then there is skew-symmetric tensor ﬁeld ψ of type (2. 0) such that n (10. THE LAW OF CHARGE CONSERVATION. For any vector ﬁeld j in n-dimensional space 2) if its divergency is zero n (10.2) in form of vanishing of four-dimensional divergencies for corresponding four-dimensional currents. . .3) p=0 ∂T qp = 0. 0 −ψ 1n . .

∂rk Let’s deﬁne functions ψ kn in (10. n − 1.7) by the following integrals: rn ψ kn = (10.. Matrix (10. . .7) as well. . Under the condition (10.. Theorem 10. . . From (10. it has (n − 1) independent components. . rn−1 . y) dy+ rk 1 + n−1 j n (r1 .8) 0 j k (r1 . . qpm s = 0. . y.4) they satisfy last equation (10.7) n−1 k=1 ∂ψ kn = −j n . ∂Tq11.1 can be easily generalized for arbitrary tensorial currents.2. . . Theorem 10.5) for these components we derive ∂ψ kn = j k . 0 It is easy to verify that functions (10. s) in the space of dimension n 2 if its divergency is zero n pm p . theorem is proved. 0) dy.. rn−1 . . . . Its prove thereby remains the same in most. For any tensorial ﬁeld T of type (m. . . ∂rpm =1 .8) satisfy ﬁrst series of diﬀerential equations (10. where k = 1. ..6) is skew-symmetric.114 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.7). ∂rn (10. Thus.

6). The relationships (8.2).11). (9.11) we would require volume tensor with components (11.8).2) possess transparent tensorial interpretation... In previous three sections we have managed to write in fourdimensional form all Maxwell equations. (10. which were obtained there.4) provides last equation (10. Verify that the equation (10. H and their potentials. ˆ .13).2. qs m+1 . Tq11. (10. all these relationships (8. (8.. and the relation of E. qpm = s pm+1 1 m ∂ψq1 . However. Thereby we would have minor diﬀerences: the shape of matrix g would be diﬀerent and instead of εpqks in (8. they are given by Lorentz matrices.1) ω pqks = ± − det g εpqks .. Clarify the relation of theorem 10.7) to be fulﬁlled for the functions (10.13).. ∂rpm+1 =1 p . charge conservation law. (9. s) skew-symmetric in last pair of upper indices and such that n p .. Such transitions are interpreted as Lorentz transformations.11).§ 11.. 115 then there is tensorial ﬁeld ψ of type (m + 1. NOTE ON COORDINATES. § 11.9). Exercise 10. (8. Note on skew-angular and curvilinear coordinates. p p Exercise 10..9).6). (9. Therefore they can be transformed to any skew-angular Cartesian coordinate system as well.1.1 and theorem on vortex ﬁeld in case of dimension n = 3. preserve their shape when we transfer from one rectangular Cartesian coordinate system to another. (9.

in . Matrix gpq in skew-angular coordinate system is not given by formula (2. 3). Therefore none of them can be interpreted as time axis. r3 : Γk ij 1 = 2 3 (11. r1 .4) would not be physically meaningful. Connection components required for passing to covariant derivatives (11. but curvilinear coordinates as well.2) ∂ → ∇p ∂rp (see [3] for more details).6) with non-diagonal matrix g ij .2) are determined by components of metric tensor. They are written as F pq = 0. have not their initial form. In particular. SPECIAL RELATIVITY. Therefore diﬀerential equations E = 0 and H = 0. r2 . interpretation of components of tensor F pq as components of electric and magnetic ﬁelds in formula (8.7).3) g ks s=0 ∂gis ∂gij ∂gsj + − ∂ri ∂rj ∂rs . would not have proper physical interpretation in such coordinate system. here it is arbitrary symmetric matrix determining quadratic form of signature (1. where d’Alambert operator is given by formula (2. In arbitrary skew-angular coordinate system none of axes should have time-like direction. Three-dimensional form of electrodynamics equations. even if we could write them. which we are started from. To make this step we need to replace partial derivatives by covariant derivatives: (11. Tensorial form of four-dimensional electrodynamics equations enables us to make one more step toward increasing arbitrariness in the choice of coordinate system: we can use not only skewangular.116 CHAPTER III. which we derived above. The latter ones in curvilinear coordinate system do actually depend on r0 . No we give list of all basic equations.

1). Charge conservation law in curvilinear coordinates is written as 3 (11. q=0 k=0 s=0 Here components of volume tensor ω pqks are given by formula (11. Instead of formula (2. Dynamics of material point of nonzero mass m = 0 is described . Tensor of electromagnetic ﬁeld is expressed through fourdimensional vector-potential by formula (11. where ψ is arbitrary scalar ﬁeld.§ 11.5) Fpq = ∇p Aq − ∇q Ap .8) = i=0 j=0 g ij ∇i ∇j .6) for D’Alambert operator here we have 3 3 (11. 117 covariant form.7) p=0 ∇p j p = 0. c ω pqks ∇q Fks = 0.4) q=0 3 3 3 4π p j . NOTE ON COORDINATES. Maxwell equations are written as follows: 3 ∇q F pq = − (11.6) Ak → Ak + ∇k ψ. while gauge uncertainty in the choice of vector-potential itself is described by the relationship (11.

Using symmetry of Christoﬀel symbols (11.5) can be brought to the form (9.118 CHAPTER III. by ordinary diﬀerential equations of Newtonian type: (11.1. show that the relationship (11. mc Here dot means standard diﬀerentiation with respect to natural parameter s on world line.3) with respect to lower pair of indices i and j.9) ˙ r = u.9) in curvilinear coordinate system as well. . while ∇s is covariant derivative with respect to the same parameter. Exercise 11. ∇s u = F . SPECIAL RELATIVITY.

Suppose that we have some coordinate system in Minkowsky space (either Cartesian.CHAPTER IV LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM IN THEORY OF RELATIVITY § 1. or curvilinear. Let’s ﬁx two points A and B on this world line not too far from each other. 2003. r2 (s).1) r0 (s). Let’s consider some world line corresponding to real motion of some particle B under the action of external ﬁelds. 1997. r3 (s). Principle of minimal action for particles and ﬁelds. 1. These are time-like lines in Minkowsky space.A. Dynamics of material points in theory of relativity is described by their world lines. no matFig.. r1 (s). Then consider small deformation of world line A in the range between these two points A and B.1 ter). Then deformed curve can be given CopyRight c Sharipov R. Then our world line is given in parametric form by four functions (1. where s is natural parameter. .

s) are smooth functions which are nonzero only within the range between points A and B. s). This family of lines is called variation of world line (1. .5) δri (s) = εhi (s) are called variations of point coordinates. in (1. s) = ε hi (s) + . . LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM .2) we have whole family of deformed lines. Thus.2) are written as follows: (1. . we shall assume that (1. .3) hi (ε. s) in (1.5) parametric equations of deformed curves (1. . This vector is called vector of variation of world line. ˆ Here s is original natural parameter on initial non-deformed world line (1. . It is clear that they also are transformed as components of four-dimensional vector. .4) hi (ε. . . . Note that functions hi (ε. . Due to (1. Under the change of one curvilinear coordinate system for another quantities hi (s) are transformed as components of fourdimensional vector. Due to formulas (1. i = 0. while hi (ε.1). 3.3) we have the following Taylor expansion for hi (ε.4) and (1.2) ri (s) = ri (s) + hi (ε.1). s): (1. ˆ By this formula we emphasize that terms other than linear with respect to small parameter ε are of no importance.2) depend on additional parameter ε which is assumed to be small. s) → 0 as ε → 0.120 CHAPTER IV. . while quantities (1.6) ri (s) = ri (s) + δri (s) + . by the following four functions: (1. Moreover. .

second integral describes interaction of particle with electromagnetic ﬁeld. . though changes of one curvilinear coordinate system by another form much broader class of transformations than Lorentz transformations relating two rectangular Cartesian coordinate systems in Minkowsky space. s) in (1. However.2) and by varying parameter ε in them we can surround segment of initial world line by a swarm of its variations. s1 Here q is electric charge of particle.7) S = −mc s1 q ds − c s2 g(A. these variations do not describe real dynamics of points. but it should not depend on coordinate system (r0 . Action functional in most cases is integral. 121 By varying functions hi (ε. Generally speaking. this is a map that to each line connecting two points A and B put into correspondence some real number S. World line connecting two points A and B describes real dynamics of material point if and only if action functional S reaches local minimum on it among other lines being its small variations. . Principle of minimal action for particles. they are used in statement of minimal action principle. r1 .§ 1.7) yields action for free particle (in the absence of external ﬁelds). r3 ) in M . . For single point of mass m in electromagnetic ﬁeld with potential A it is written as s2 (1. r2 . By tradition this condition is called Lorentz invariance. u) ds. while u = u(s) is vector of its 4-velocity (unit tangent vector of world line). First integral in (1. PRINCIPLE OF MINIMAL ACTION . Action functional S producing number by each line should depend only on that line (as geometric set of points in M ). Within framework of Lagrangian formalism functional of action S is usually introduced.

u) ds − 1 − 16 π c Fpq F pq V1 p=0 q=0 − det g d4 r.7) for each of them and we should add all these integrals. Thereby change of ﬁeld functions (here these are comFig. r1 . . This is four-dimensional volume integral over the domain enclosed between two three-dimensional hyperfuture surfaces V1 and V2 . . r0 . If we consider system of N particles. their normal vectors are time-like vectors. These hypersurfaces determine the V1 ﬁssure between the future and the past past. e. r3 ) being identically . 1. And ﬁnally. Therefore variation of ﬁeld is deﬁned in other way than that of particles. and over this ﬁssure we integrate in (1. in order to get the action functional for total system of ﬁeld and particles we should add integral of action for electromagnetic ﬁeld itself: N s2 (i) s2 (i) S= i=1 (1. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . r) = hi (ε. Let’s consider four smooth functions hi (ε.8). Electromagnetic ﬁeld is described by ﬁeld functions.8) −mi c qi ds − c 3 s1 (i) V2 3 s1 (i) g(A. then we should write integral (1. r2 . Suppose that Ω is some restricted four-dimensional domain enclosed between hypersurfaces V1 and V2 .2 ponents of vector-potential A) when passing from V1 to V2 reﬂects evolution of electromagnetic ﬁeld from the past to the future. Last integral in (1. i.122 CHAPTER IV. Hypersurfaces V2 V1 and V2 are space-like.8) deserves special consideration.

1. * Variations with restricted support are those which are identically zero outside some restricted domain Ω. .9) now can be written as (1. . Deformation of vector-potential (1. as a rule. .§ 1. is not used. r) and consider Taylor expansion of hi at the point ε = 0: (1. r) = ε hi (r) + . PRINCIPLE OF MINIMAL ACTION . The following functions determined by linear terms in the above Taylor expansions (1. . Exercise 1. Verify that hi (s) in (1. Field functions determine actual conﬁguration of physical ﬁelds if and only if they realize local minimum of action functional S in class of all variations with restricted support*. .12) ˆ Ai (r) = Ai (r) + δAi (r) + .10) (1.10) hi (ε. . Let’s deﬁne (1. The condition of minimum of action for actual ﬁeld conﬁguration and for actual world lines of particles. 123 zero outside the domain Ω and vanishing for ε = 0.4) are transformed as components of vector under the change of coordinates.9) ˆ Ai (r) = Ai (r) + hi (ε. For this reason minimal action principle often is stated as principle of extremal action. Principle of minimal action for ﬁelds. In order to derive dynamical equations for ﬁelds and particles it is suﬃcient to have extremum condition (no matter minimum. . or saddle point). . maximum. .11) δAi (r) = ε hi (r) are called variations of ﬁeld functions for electromagnetic ﬁeld.

ds ds .. . When we substitute deformed world line into (1.124 CHAPTER IV. Here tangent vector (2. .7) because s is natural parameter on initial world line. Therefore writing extremity condition for (1. Thereby in ﬁrst term containing sum of integrals only one summand changes its value. s1 Formula (2. Exercise 1. Prove that under gauge transformations (11. § 2.8) and consider deformation (1.2) K(s) = ˆ dh(s) dˆ(s) r = u(s) + ε + .. but it is not natural parameter on deformed line.1) visually diﬀers from formula (1.8). LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM .13) S→S− i=1 qi qi ψ(r(s2 (i))) − ψ(r(s1 (i))) .8) in place of initial non-deformed one the value of last integral remains unchanged.2. that one which represent the particle we have chosen among others.13) are not sensitive to variation of word lines (1.1) Sdef = −mc s1 q g(K. c c Explain why terms added to action functional in (1.6) from Chapter III action functional (1.8) is transformed as follows: N (1.2). In order to ﬁnd world line of relativistic particle in external electromagnetic ﬁeld we shall apply particle version of extremal action principle to functional (1. K) ds − c s2 g(A. Let’s choose one of N particles in (1. The value of (1. K) ds.6) of its world line.7) for deformed world line is calculated as follows: s2 (2.8) we can use action functional in form of (1. Motion of particle in electromagnetic ﬁeld.7).

.§ 2. In second integral (1. 125 is not unit vector. r g(A.1) taking into account that we deal with general curvilinear coordinate system in Minkowsky space: 3 3 g(K.3) and take into account (1.2) and the expansion (1.3) we get the following power expansions with respect to small parameter ε: ε g(u. . As a result for the expressions (2. r Ai (ˆ(s)) K i (s). i=0 j=0 k=0 3 ∂gij i u (s) uj (s) hk (s) ∂rk Ai (r(s)) dhi (s) + ds g(A. ∂rk When substituting these expansions into (2. . MOTION OF PARTICLE .4) in Chapter III). .7) unit tangent vector is replaced by vector K. Let’s write in coordinate form both expressions which are under integration in (2. K) = g(A. u) + 3 3 3 ui (s) i=0 dhi (s) + ds + . K) = + 1 2 g(u.. K) = i=0 Let’s substitute (2.1) we should remem- . u) 3 g(K.4). K) = (2.3) 3 i=0 j=0 gij (ˆ(s)) K i (s) K j (s). . Therefore ﬁrst integral (1. ..2) into (2.7) is rewritten as length integral (see (6. u) + ε i=0 3 3 +ε i=0 k=0 ∂Ai i u (s) hk (s) + .

. As a result we get the expression without derivatives of functions hk (s): 3 s2 Sdef = S − ε k=0 s2 3 q m c uk (s) + Ak (r(s)) hk (s) c + s1 +ε s1 k=0 s2 3 d q m c uk (s) + Ak (r(s)) hk (s) ds − ds c 3 i=0 −ε s1 k=0 q c ∂Ai i mc u + ∂rk 2 3 3 i=0 j=0 ∂gij i j k u u h (s) ds + .126 CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . . ∂rk Remember that function hk (s) vanish at the ends of integration path hk (s1 ) = hk (s2 ) = 0 (see § 1). 2003. . . . It means that term linear with respect to ε in power expansion for Sdef should be CopyRight c Sharipov R. Now in order to derive diﬀerential equations for world line of particle we apply extremity condition for S.. . .A. . This provides vanishing of non-integral terms in the above formula for Sdef . Then for Sdef we get s2 3 Sdef = S − ε s1 k=0 s2 3 m c uk (s) + q Ak (r(s)) c 3 3 dhk (s) ds − ds −ε s1 k=0 q c 3 i=0 ∂Ai i mc u + ∂rk 2 i=0 j=0 ∂gij i j k u u h (s) ds + . ∂rk Let’s apply integration by parts to ﬁrst integral above. 1997. ber that u is unit vector.

6) with the equations (11.9) from Chapter III. Now in right hand side of this equation we ﬁnd tensor of electromagnetic ﬁeld (see formula (9.4) = q c 3 i=0 ∂Ai i mc u + ∂rk 2 3 3 i=0 j=0 ∂gij i j u u . As a result we get the following equation for world line: (2.3) from Chapter III.9) in Chapter III). ∂rk Let’s calculate derivative in left hand side of (2. 127 identically zero irrespective to the choice of functions hk (s): d q m c uk (s) + Ak (r(s)) = ds c (2.6) m c ∇s uk = Fki ui . .5) mc duk − ds 3 3 Γi u i u j kj i=0 j=0 = q c 3 Fki ui . i=0 Comparing (2. while others with q/c factor are in right hand side: 1 duk − ds 2 3 3 mc i=0 j=0 ∂gij i j u u ∂rk = q c 3 i=0 ∂Ai ∂Ak − ∂rk ∂ri ui . MOTION OF PARTICLE .4). i=0 In left hand side of the equation (2.5) we ﬁnd covariant derivative with respect to parameter s along world line: q c 3 (2.§ 2. Then let’s rearrange terms so that those with m c factor are in left hand side. we . For transforming left hand side of this equation we use formula (11. .

13) does not change dynamic equations of material point in electromagnetic ﬁeld (2.5) in Chapter III) for (2.1. i=0 Suppose that we have rectangular Cartesian coordinate system in Minkowsky space. Prove that gauge transformation of action functional (1.2) and (9. When describing extremely large number of particles continual limit is . Thus formula (2. .6) describes motion of charged particles in electromagnetic ﬁeld.6). Upon easy calculations with the use of formulas (7. then we can follow after the motion of each of them. Orthogonality condition for 4-force and 4-velocity (see (7.6) in Chapter III). . LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . Dynamics of dust matter.4) in Chapter I). c This formula (2. Verify that the relationship (7.8) is exactly the same as formula for Lorentz force (see (4.8) f = qE+ q [v.7) is four-dimensional generalization of formula for Lorentz force. Then we can subdivide F into spatial and temporal parts and can calculate components of three-dimensional force vector: f i = c2 − |v|2 F i (see formula (7.2.4) from Chapter III for force vector f we get (2. Exercise 2. Exercise 2. get formula for the vector of four-dimensional force acting on a particle with charge q in electromagnetic ﬁeld: (2. H]. § 3.7) q Fk = c 3 Fki ui .7) is fulﬁlled due to skew symmetry of tensor of electromagnetic ﬁeld. If the number of particles is not large. Diﬀerential equation (2.5) from Chapter III holds for Lorentz force.128 CHAPTER IV.

Therefore when describing such media one should either use detailed microscopic analysis and get macroscopic parameters by statistical averaging. Points of liquid and solid media move regularly (as on Fig. However. they would intersect.1 Fig. DYNAMICS OF DUST MATTER. 3. Simplest model describing large number of non-colliding particles is a model of dust cloud. or should use some heuristic assumptions based on experiment.1). there are models describing liquids and solid materials. particles are replaced by continuous medium modeling their collective behavior. In this model Fig.2). e. Here particles also do not collide each other. Their world lines can be modeled by regular family of lines ﬁlling the whole space (see Fig. Another model is a model of ideal gas. 3. 3. 3. Besides two models considered mentioned above. 129 used. Therefore if we ﬁll the whole space with their world lines.1). in these media interaction of particles is essential. 3.§ 3. However. Some of them are world lines of real . In this book we consider only most simple model of dust cloud. their motion is chaotic (see Fig. their world lines do not intersect. i.2 particles of cloud move regularly (not chaotically). In this case one should assume Minkowsky space to be ﬁlled by regular family of world lines.

it can be treated as concentration of particles in small fragment of dust cloud near the point r measured in that inertial coordinate system for which particles of this small fragment are at rest. By means of ν(r) and u(r) we compose new four-dimensional vector (3. We deﬁne it as follows.2) j(r) = q η(r).1) is called four-dimensional ﬂow density for particles in cloud. Therefore at each point of M we have unit vector u. Apart from vector ﬁeld u. By analogy with (3. Parameter ν(r) has measure unit of concentration. Let’s choose some small fragment of three-dimensional hypersurface in M orthogonal to vector u(r) at the point r. Vector (3.1) η(r) = c ν(r) u(r). . then η 0 /c is interpreted as concentration of particles in dust cloud. Suppose that dust cloud is formed by identical particles with mass m and charge q.130 CHAPTER IV.2) one can deﬁne mass ﬂow density vector: (3. below we need scalar parameter ν(r) which means the density of dust cloud. while other three components of four-dimensional vector η form three-dimensional vector of ﬂow density.3) µ(r) = m η(r). If we choose some inertial coordinate system. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . This means that dynamics of dust cloud can be described by vector ﬁeld u(r). parameter ν(r) is coeﬃcient of proportionality. particles. Then four-dimensional current density vector can be represented as follows: (3. this is tangent vector to world line passing through this point. others are imaginary ones obtained by extrapolation in continual limit. . The number of dust particles whose world lines cross this fragment is proportional to its three-dimensional volume: N = ν(r) V . .

4) p=0 ∇p η p = 0. e. i = 0. we know vector of its 4-velocity u(s). by solving the following system of ordinary diﬀerential equations: (3. Therefore these world lines can be determined as integral curves of vector ﬁeld u. . This conservation law is written as the following equality for η: 3 (3. nk k=0 n=0 .4) and (3. Rest mass conservation law here is fulﬁlled due to the absence of collisions when heavy particles can be produced from light ones (see § 7 in Chapter III). ds Having determined world line of particle from diﬀerential equations. DYNAMICS OF DUST MATTER. Vector ﬁeld u is constituted by tangent vectors to world lines of dust particles. i. . .6) dri = ui (r(s)). 3. Now let’s calculate covariant derivative of vector u(s) with respect to parameter s: (3.§ 3.2) one can derive charge conservation law in form of the relationship (11. 131 Total number of particles in cloud is ﬁxed. we get rest mass conservation law: 3 (3. From (3.3). Let’s consider dynamics of particles composing dust cloud.7) ∇s up = dup (s) + ds 3 3 Γp uk (s) un (s). Taking into account (3.5) p=0 ∇p µp = 0.7) from Chapter III. .

9) from Chapter III.10) are partial diﬀerential equations with respect to components of vector ﬁeld u(r). Substituting (3.9) ∇s up = k=0 uk ∇k up .7) we take into account (3. we derive the following formula: 3 (3.9) into the equations of the dynamics of material point. Calculating derivative dup /ds in (3. Right hand side of (3.11) k=0 uk ∇k up = q mc2 3 Fpk uk . here (3.10) looks like 3 (3.10) ∇u u = F . k=0 In contrast to the equations (11. which describe dynamics of separate particle.132 CHAPTER IV. They describe dynamics of dust cloud in continual limit.7). For example in the case of charged dust in electromagnetic ﬁeld the equation (3. The equation for scalar ﬁeld ν(r) is derived from conservation law . ∂rk Substituting (3.9) is covariant derivative of vector ﬁeld u(r) along itself (see more details in [3]). we get: (3.6) and the equality u(s) = u(r(s)). .8) into (3. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . mc Here F = F(r.8) uk k=0 ∂up . As a result we get dup (s) = ds 3 (3. . u) is some external force ﬁeld acting on particles of dust matter.

For the sake of simplicity we consider dust cloud with identical particles. Fort this purpose we need to pass to continual limit in action functional (1. Combining these two equations.12) k=0 3 Fp . ACTION FUNCTIONAL FOR DUST MATTER. Each pair of ﬁelds u(i. r) and ν(i. Omitting details of how it was derived. 2003. Action functional for dust matter.§ 4. r) satisﬁes diﬀerential equations (3.A. r). 133 (3. r). We can derive mass and charge conservation laws from these equations.2) and (3. µ(r) = i=1 m(i) η(i. r) and its own scalar ﬁeld of concentration ν(i.8).12). r) = c ν(i. Let’s study the dynamics of dust matter in electromagnetic ﬁeld within framework of Lagrangian formalism. System of partial diﬀerential equations (3. r). Model of dust matter cam be generalized a little bit.4) for the number of particles.3) for j and µ are generalized as follows: n n j(r) = i=1 q(i) η(i.. Here η(i. we obtain a system of diﬀerential equations: 3 uk ∇k up = (3. mc 3 uk ∇k ν = −ν k=0 k=0 ∇k uk . For each sort of particles we deﬁne its own vector ﬁeld u(i.12) yields complete description for the dynamics of dust cloud. We can consider mixture of particles of diﬀerent sorts. § 4. 1997. r). r) u(i. Then formulas (3. . now we write CopyRight c Sharipov R.

134

CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . .

**ultimate formula for action functional (1.8) in continual limit:
**

V2

S = −m

V1 V2

g(η, η)

− det g d4 r−

(4.1)

q − 2 c

g(η, A) − det g d4 r−

V1 V2 3 3

1 − 16π c

Fpk F pk

V1 p=0 k=0

− det g d4 r.

Instead of deriving formula (4.1) from (1.8) we shall verify this formula indirectly. For this purpose we shall derive dynamical equation (3.11) from principle of extremal action applied to action functional (4.1). For describing dust matter in (4.1) we have chosen vector ﬁeld η(r) deﬁned in (3.1). Other two ﬁelds u(r) and ν(r) can be expressed though vector ﬁeld η(r): (4.2) c ν = |η| = g(η, η) , u= η . cν

Dealing with variation of vector ﬁeld η(r) we should always remember that components of this ﬁeld are not independent functions. They satisfy diﬀerential equation (3.4). In order to resolve tis equation (3.4) we use slightly modiﬁed version of theorem 10.1 from Chapter III. Theorem 4.1. Let M be some n-dimensional manifold, where n ≥ 2, equipped with metric gij . For each vector ﬁeld η with zero

§ 4. ACTION FUNCTIONAL FOR DUST MATTER.

135

**divergency with respect to metric connection
**

n

(4.3)

p=1

∇p η p = 0

**there is skew-symmetric tensor ﬁeld ϕ of type (2, 0) such that the following relationships are fulﬁlled
**

n

(4.4)

ηp =

q=1

∇q ϕpq .

Proof. Writing relationships (4.3), we use well-known formula for components of metric connection, see formula (11.3) in Chapter III. As a result we get

n n

∇p η p =

p=1 p=1 n n n

∂η p ∂η p + Γp η s = + ∂rp p=1 s=1 ps ∂rp p=1 g pk ∂gks ∂gps ∂gpk + − ∂rs ∂rp ∂rk ηs .

n

n

n

+

1 2 p=1 s=1

k=1

Note that last two derivatives of metric tensor in round brackets are canceled when we sum over indices p and k. This is because g pk is symmetric. Hence

n n

∇p η p = (4.5)

p=1 n p=1

1 ∂η p + p ∂r 2 p=1 s=1

n

n

n

n

g sk

k=1

∂gks p η = ∂rp

=

∂η p 1 ∂g + tr g −1 p ∂rp 2 p=1 ∂r p=1

ηp .

136

CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . .

For further transforming of this expression (4.5) we use well known formula for logarithmic derivative of determinant: (4.6) ∂ ln | det g| ∂g = tr g −1 p p ∂r ∂r .

**Substituting (4.6) into (4.5), we transform (4.5) so that
**

n

(4.7)

p=1

∇p η =

p

1

n

∂(η p

| det g| p=1

| det g|) . ∂rp

Let’s carry out analogous calculations for right hand side of (4.4) taking into account skew symmetry of the ﬁeld ϕpq and symmetry of connection components Γk . These calculations yield pq

n

(4.8)

q=1

∇q ϕ

pq

=

1 | det g|

n q=1

∂(ϕpq

| det g|) . ∂rq

Denote j p = | det g| η p and ψ pq = | det g| ϕpq . Now on the base of (4.7) and (4.8) it is easy to understand that proof of theorem 4.1 is reduced to theorem 10.1 from Chapter III. Remark. Generally speaking, theorem 10.2 has no direct generalization for the case of spaces with metric. It is generalized s only for metric spaces with zero curvature tensor Rkpq = 0. Let’s deﬁne deformation of the ﬁeld η in a way similar to that we used for vector-potential A in § 1: (4.9) η p (r) = η p (r) + ε ζ p (r) + . . . . ˆ

ˆ Both ﬁelds η and η satisfy diﬀerential equation (3.4). Hence vector ﬁeld ζ deﬁned in (4.9) also satisfy this equation. Let’s

4) there is vector ﬁeld h such that vector ﬁeld ζ is given by formula 3 ζp = k=0 ∇k (η p hk − hp η k ).11) leads to the following expression for the ﬁeld η: 3 (4. both satisfying diﬀerential equation (3.1) we use ˆ ˆ the following expansion for g(η. . we choose it in very special form as follows: (4.11) ϕpk = η p hk − hp η k . Theorem 4. .12) into action functional (4. 137 apply theorem 4. .1 to vector ﬁeld ζ: 3 (4.2. However. When substituting (4. this can be any skew-symmetric tensor ﬁeld. η) = g(η. Theorem 4. η) + ε g(η.1 does not specify tensor ﬁeld ϕpk in (4. . ACTION FUNCTIONAL FOR DUST MATTER. η) : ˆ ˆ g(η.10) ζp = k=0 ∇k ϕpk .12) are chosen to be smooth functions being nonzero only within some restricted domain Ω in Minkowsky space. η) 3 3 ηp ∇k ϕpk + .§ 4. . For any two vector ﬁelds ζ and η. This choice can be motivated by the following theorem. ˆ Our choice (4. p=0 q=0 . where η = 0. Quantities hi (r) in (4.10). .12) η p (r) = η p (r) + ε ˆ k=0 ∇k (η p hk − hp η k ) + .

13) − εq c2 3 Ω p=0 k=0 3 up ∇k ϕpk − det g d4 r− Ap ∇k ϕpk Ω p=0 k=0 − det g d4 r + . .14) we obtain p=0 3 3 3 3 3 ∇k z k = k=0 p=0 k=0 up ∇k ϕpk + p=0 k=0 ∇k up ϕpk . z 3 are components of smooth vector ﬁeld z. .1). Then in right hand side of (4. We have analogous power expansion for the expression under second integral in formula (4. For the action Sdef this yields 3 3 Sdef = S − ε m (4. In order to transform ﬁrst integral in formula (4. z 1 .14) Ω k=0 ∇k z k − det g d4 r = ∂Ω g(z. . A) = g(η.1): 3 3 ˆ g(η. Substituting these two expansions into (4. . n) dV. .138 CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . In the space equipped with metric this formula is written as follows: 3 (4. A) + ε p=0 k=0 Ap ∇k ϕpk + . Here z 0 . Further in order to transform the above expression (4.2).13) we take z k = 3 up ϕpk . z 2 . . . while n is unit normal vector for the boundary of the domain Ω. .13) we use Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula. we take into account (4. .

.§ 4.11) for ϕpk into the above equality. ACTION FUNCTIONAL FOR DUST MATTER. In a similar way we transform second integral in (4. Let’s substitute formula (4.15) should vanish: 3 3 m∇k up + Ω p=0 k=0 q ∇k Ap ϕpk c2 − det g d4 r = 0. .14) vanishes since ϕpk do vanish on the boundary of Ω. Then it is transformed to the following one 3 3 m∇k up + Ω p=0 k=0 q ∇k Ap η p hk c2 − det g d4 r = . 139 Right hand side of (4. In whole for the action Sdef we get the following expression 3 3 Sdef = S + ε m (4. Extremity of action S means that linear part with respect to ε in formula (4. Hence we have the equality 3 3 up ∇k ϕpk Ω p=0 k=0 3 3 − det g d4 r = − Ω p=0 k=0 ∇k up ϕpk − det g d4 r.15) + εq c2 Ω p=0 k=0 3 3 ∇k up ϕpk − det g d4 r + ∇k Ap ϕpk Ω p=0 k=0 − det g d4 r + .13). .

which relate vector ﬁeld η and vector ﬁeld u: η p = c ν up . Since u is unit vector.2). It relates tensor of electromagnetic ﬁeld and four-dimensional vectorpotential.17) just derived to its ultimate form we use the relationships (4. Therefore vanishing of integral (4.16) means vanishing of each summand in sum over index k in the expression under integration: 3 (4. Let’s exchange indices k and p in second integral. Now let’s take into account that in resulting equality hk = hk (r) are arbitrary smooth functions vanishing outside the domain Ω. In order to bring the equation (4. . c2 Here we used the relationship (11.5) from Chapter III.A. . 3 3 = Ω p=0 k=0 m∇k up + q ∇k Ap η k hp c2 − det g d4 r.17) p=0 m ∇k up − m ∇p uk + q Fkp η p = 0. . Thereafter integrals can be united into one integral: 3 3 m∇k up − m∇p uk + (4. 1997. we have 3 (4.140 CHAPTER IV. 2003.18) p=0 up ∇k up = 0. CopyRight c Sharipov R..16) Ω k=0 p=0 q ∇k Ap − c2 − q ∇p Ak η p hk c2 − det g d4 r = 0. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM .

4) has zero divergency. which we have derived earlier.1). η 1 = 0. EQUATIONS FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD.1. This functional describes dust cloud composed of particles with . Theorem 4.17) to the following form: 3 (4.4. Exercise 4. i. r1 . For any vector ﬁeld η = 0 there exists some curvilinear coordinate system r0 . Equations for electromagnetic ﬁeld. drn . dri−1 dri+1 . Exercise 4. § 5. . is satisﬁes diﬀerential equation (3. Exercise 4.4). .3 on rectiﬁcation of vector ﬁeld.19) p=0 up ∇p uk = q mc2 3 Fkp up . Prove that for any skew-symmetric tensor ﬁeld ϕpq vector ﬁeld η determined by formula (4.2. . r2 . we bring (4.14) for the space equipped with metric on the base of the following integral relationship in standard space Rn : ∂f (r) n d r= ∂ri Ω ∂Ω f (r) dr1 .1) for describing charged dust matter in electromagnetic ﬁeld. Prove theorem 4.18). This result approves the use of the action (4. η 2 = 0. e. 141 Taking into account (4.3.19) exactly coincides with the equation (3. η 3 = 0 in this coordinate system. Derive Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula (4. For this purpose use the following fact known as theorem on rectiﬁcation of vector ﬁeld. p=0 Now it is easy to see that (4. Prove theorem 4. r3 such that η 0 = 1. Exercise 4.2.11). .§ 5. In this section we continue studying action functional (4.3.

Deformation of vector-potential is deﬁned according to (1.1) we carry out the following calculations: 3 3 3 3 3 3 ˆ ˆ Fpk F pk = p=0 k=0 3 3 i=0 j=0 p=0 k=0 3 3 ˆ ˆ Fpk Fij g pi g kj = F pk (∇p hk − ∇k hp ) + . A) = g(η. . mass m and charge q in electromagnetic ﬁeld. Analogous calculations in substituting (5.11). p=0 k=0 = p=0 k=0 Fpk F pk + 2 ε Taking into account skew symmetry of tensor F pk . this expansion can be simpliﬁed more and can be brought to the form 3 3 3 3 3 3 ˆ ˆ Fpk F pk = p=0 k=0 p=0 k=0 Fpk F pk + 4 ε p=0 k=0 F pk ∇p hk + . . (1.1) ˆ Ai (r) = Ai (r) + εhi (r) + . .12): (5. .142 CHAPTER IV. . . . . . In previous section we have found that applying extremal action principle to S with respect to the ﬁeld η one can derive dynamical equations for velocity ﬁeld in dust cloud. Now we shall apply extremal action principle to S with respect to vector-potential A. . LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . . . .2) into action functional (4. (1. (1.1) into (4.10). A) + ε k=0 η k hk + . . For components of tensor of electromagnetic ﬁeld we derive (5. .9).1) yield 3 ˆ g(η. . .2) ˆ Fij = Fij + ε (∇i hj − ∇j hi ) + . When substituting (5.

. c .3) p=0 ∇p F pk = 4π q k η .1) we get εq c2 3 3 Sdef = S − ε 4π c 3 η k hk Ω k=0 − det g d4 r − − F pk ∇p hk Ω p=0 k=0 − det g d4 r + . EQUATIONS FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD. c Remember that η(r) is related to current density by means of (3. Note also that Ω is an arbitrary domain and hk (r) are arbitrary functions within Ω.§ 5. Extremal action principle means that linear in ε part of the above expansion for Sdef should vanish. . . 143 As a result for deformation of action functional (4.14). Let’s transform second integral in the above expansion for Sdef by means of Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula (4.3) can be written as 3 (5. Then for Sdef we get 3 Sdef = S + ε Ω k=0 − qη k ∇p F pk + 2 c 4π c p=0 3 hk − det g d4 r + . For this purpose 3 let’s choose z p = k=0 F pk hk and take into account vanishing of hk on the boundary of the domain Ω.2). . . Then (5.4) p=0 ∇p F kp = − 4π k j . This yield the following equations for the tensor of electromagnetic ﬁeld: 3 (5. .

It is easy to see that (5.1. m(N ) and charges q(1).144 CHAPTER IV. .4) in Chapter III). Which form will have diﬀerential equations (5. .4) are exactly Maxwell equations written in four-dimensional form (see (11. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . Another pair of Maxwell equations written in four-dimensional form 3 3 3 ω pqks ∇q Fks = 0 q=0 k=0 s=0 is a consequence of the relationship Fpq = ∇p Aq − ∇q Ap (see formula (11. .5) in Chapter III). Exercise 5. . .4) ? . .3) if we consider dust cloud composed by particles of several sorts with masses m(1). . . . q(N ) ? Will this change diﬀerential equations (5.

In four-dimensional formalism dynamics of material point is described by vectorial diﬀerential equations. ij Next step in this direction is quite natural. Due to this circumstance in previous two chapters we managed to include into consideration skew-angular and even curvilinear coordinate systems in Minkowsky space. metric connection components Γk . which is called Minkowsky metric. Thereby inertial coordinate systems are interpreted as orthonormal bases in Minkowsky metric. One should keep the shape of all equations and pass from ﬂat Minkowsky metric . and covariant derivatives ∇i in all our equations. This space appears to be equipped with metric of signature (1.CHAPTER V GENERAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY § 1. we have constructed four-dimensional space of events (Minkowsky space). Transition to non-ﬂat metrics and curved Minkowsky space. Having denoted r0 = ct and combining r0 with components of three-dimensional radius-vector in inertial coordinate system. Passing from classical electrodynamics to special theory of relativity. 3). while Maxwell equations for electromagnetic ﬁeld are written in tensorial form. in previous two chapters we have successively geometrized many basic physical concepts. Thereby we got explicit entries of metric tensor components gij .

146

CHAPTER V. GENERAL RELATIVITY.

**to metric of signature (1, 3) with nonzero curvature tensor: (1.1)
**

k Rqij = 3 3 ∂Γk ∂Γk jq iq − + Γk Γs − Γk Γs . is jq js iq ∂ri ∂rj s=0 s=0

This crucial step was ﬁrst made by Einstein. Theory he had discovered in this way later was called Einstein’s theory of gravitation or general theory of relativity. Deﬁnition 1.1. Four-dimensional aﬃne space equipped with orientation, polarization, and with metric of signature (1, 3) and nonzero curvature (1.1) is called curved Minkowsky space. In non-ﬂat Minkowsky space we loose some structures available in ﬂat case. In such space there are no coordinates for which Minkowsky metric is given by matrix (2.7) from Chapter III, i. e. here we have no inertial coordinate systems. This is substantial loss, but it is not catastrophic since dynamic equation for material points and Maxwell equations rewritten in vectorial and tensorial form are not bound to inertial coordinate systems. Geodesic lines in curved Minkowsky space do not coincide with aﬃne straight lines. Therefore aﬃne structure becomes excessive restriction in general relativity. As appears, one can give up topologic structure of ﬂat space R4 as well. Even in two-dimensional case, as we know, apart from deformed (curved) plain, there are surfaces with more complicated topology: sphere, torus and sphere with several handles glued to it (see [5]). In multidimensional case these objects are generalized in concept of smooth manifold (see details in [2], [5], and [6]). Smooth manifold M of dimension n is a topologic space each point of which has a neighborhood (a chart) identical to some neighborhood of a point in Rn . In other words M is covered by a family of charts Uα , each of which is diﬀeomorphic to some open set Vα in Rn . Such chart maps (chart diﬀeomorphisms) deﬁne

§ 2. ACTION FOR GRAVITATIONAL FIELD.

147

local curvilinear coordinate systems within their chart domains Uα . At those points of manifold M , where two chart domains are overlapping, transition functions arise. They relate one curvilinear coordinate system with another: (1.2) ri = ri (r1 , . . . , rn ), where i = 1, . . . , n, ˜ ˜ ri = ri (˜1 , . . . , rn ), where i = 1, . . . , n. r ˜

According to deﬁnition of smooth manifold, transition functions (1.2) are smooth functions (of class C ∞ ). Transition functions determine transition matrices S and T : (1.3) Tji = ∂˜i r , ∂rj

i Sj =

∂ri . ∂˜j r

Presence of transition matrices (1.3) lead to full-scale theory of tensors, which is almost literally the same as theory of tensors for curvilinear coordinates in Rn (see [3]). The only diﬀerence is that here we cannot choose Cartesian coordinates at all. This is because in general there is no smooth diﬀeomorphic map from manifold M to Rn . Deﬁnition 1.1. Four-dimensional smooth manifold equipped with orientation, polarization, and with metric of signature (1, 3) is called generalized Minkowsky space or Minkowsky manifold. § 2. Action for gravitational ﬁeld. Einstein equation. Space of events in general relativity is some smooth Minkowsky manifold M . This circumstance provides additional arbitrariness consisting in choosing M and in choosing metric on M . Nonzero curvature described by tensor (1.1) is interpreted as gravitational ﬁeld. Gravitational ﬁeld acts upon material bodies and upon

CopyRight c Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.

148

CHAPTER V. GENERAL RELATIVITY.

electromagnetic ﬁeld enclosed within M . This action is due to the presence of covariant derivatives in dynamic equations. The magnitude of gravitational ﬁeld itself should be determined by presence of matter in M in form of massive particles or in form of electromagnetic radiation, i. e. we should have backward relation between geometry of the space and its content. In order to describe backward relation between gravitational ﬁeld and other physical ﬁelds we use Lagrangian formalism and extremal action principle. Let’s start from action functional (4.1) in Chapter IV. It is sum of three integrals: (2.1) S = Smat + Sint + Sel .

First integral Smat is responsible for material particles in form of dust cloud, second integral describes interaction of dust cloud and electromagnetic ﬁeld, third term in (2.1) describes electromagnetic ﬁeld itself. In order to describe gravitational ﬁeld one more summand in (2.1) is added: (2.2) S = Sgr + Smat + Sint + Sel .

**This additional term is chosen in the following form: (2.3) Sgr c3 =− 16πγ
**

V2

R

V1

− det g d4 r.

Here γ gravitational constant same as in Newton’s universal law of gravitation (see formula (1.11) in Chapter I). Scalar quantity R in (2.3) is scalar curvature determined by curvature tensor (1.1) according to the following formula:

3 3 3 k g qj Rqkj . q=0 k=0 j=0

(2.4)

R=

149 Ricci tensor is an intermediate object relating curvature tensor (1.1) and scalar quantity (2. Therefore we need not add special terms describing interaction of gravitational ﬁeld with material particles and electromagnetic ﬁeld.§ 2. Scalar curvature R is obtained by contracting Ricci tensor and metric tensor g qj with respect to both indices q and j. Note that sometimes in the action for gravitational ﬁeld (2. Here are its components: 3 (2.6) g ij (r) = g ij (r) + ε hij (r) + . according to contemporary experimental data the value of this constant is undetectably small or maybe is exactly equal to zero. Moreover. Ricci tensor is symmetric (see [3]). Therefore further we shall use action Sgr in form of (2.3). Now let’s begin with deriving dynamical equations for gravitational ﬁeld. This parameter is called cosmological constant. such additional terms could change the form of dynamical equations for matter and form of Maxwell equations for electromagnetic ﬁeld thus contradicting our claim that these equations are the same in general and in special relativity.4). For this purpose we consider deformation of components of metric tensor given by the following relationship: (2. ACTION FOR GRAVITATIONAL FIELD.5) and (2. . This fact is obvious due to (2. Note also that metric tensor describing gravitational ﬁeld enters in implicit form into all summand in (2. ˆ .3) one more constant parameter Λ is added: Sgr c3 =− 16πγ V2 (R + 2 Λ) V1 − det g d4 r. . .5) Rqj = k=0 k Rqkj .4). However.2).

3) in Chapter III): ij ε ˆ Γp = Γp + ij ij 2 3 g pk (∇i hkj + ∇j hik − ∇k hij ) + . .8) we calculate the following combination of derivatives: ∂ˆkj g ∂ˆik g ∂ˆij g ∂gkj ∂gik ∂gij + − = + − − ∂ri ∂rj ∂rk ∂ri ∂rj ∂rk (2.. ..7) and let’s express partial derivatives through covariant derivatives in resulting formula: ∂gij ∂hij ∂gij ∂ˆij g = −ε + . Now on the base of (2. k=0 . Functions hij (r) in (2. . . .9) − ε ∇i hkj + ∇j hik − ∇k hij − 2 p=0 3 Γp hpk ij + . Let’s diﬀerentiate the relationship (2..7) 3 3 = gij − ε p=0 q=0 gip hpq gqj + .150 CHAPTER V.. .6) and (2. = − ε ∇k hij + k k k ∂r ∂r ∂r ∂rk (2.8) in calculating deformation of connection components. .8) +ε p=0 3 3 Γp hpj + ε ki p=0 Γp hip + . Deformation of matrix g ij lead to deformation of inverse matrix gij : ˆ gij = gij − ε hij + . = (2.8) we used covariant derivatives corresponding to nondeformed metric gij . . . For this purpose let’s apply ˆ well-known formula to Γp (see formula (11. Let’s use the relationships (2. GENERAL RELATIVITY. . kj In (2. . .6) are assumed to be smooth functions vanishing outside some restricted domain Ω ⊂ M .

We multiply (2.10) p ˆ Γp = Γp + ε Yij + . 151 ˆ This expansion for Γp can be written in symbolic concise form ij (2.13) by gqj using formula (2.. This yields deformation of scalar curvature: 3 3 3 ˆ R=R+ε j=0 q=0 Rqj hqj + k=0 k k g qj (∇k Yjq − ∇j Ykq ) + . Upon contracting (2.6).1) for curvature tensor. . .§ 2. . .10) into the formula (1.12) k k k ˆk Rqij = Rqij + ε ∇i Yjq − ∇j Yiq + . ACTION FOR GRAVITATIONAL FIELD. . . k=0 Now let’s substitute the expansion (2.13) ˆ Rqj = Rqj + ε k=0 k k ∇k Yjq − ∇j Ykq + . . ij ij by introducing the following quite natural notation: (2. Then we carry out complete contraction with respect to both indices q and j.11) p Yij = 1 2 3 g pk (∇i hkj + ∇j hik − ∇k hij ) .. . Let’s introduce vector ﬁeld with the following components: 3 3 j k Yjq g qj − Yjq g qk . . This yields (2.12) with respect to one pair of indices we get similar expansion for deformation of Ricci tensor: 3 (2. j=0 q=0 Zk = .

.. The number of terms in the sum (2. When substituting (2.3) we should note that second sum in (2.14) ˆ R=R+ε j=0 q=0 Rqj hqj + ε k=0 ∇k Z k + . Components of Z are smooth functions vanishing outside the domain Ω. It follows from (2. This follows from Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula (see (4.6). denotes overall action for all material ﬁelds other than gravitation.2) in explicit form.14) in Chapter IV). Therefore integral of such sum is equal to zero: 3 ∇k Z k Ω k=0 − det g d4 r = ∂Ω g(Z. we introduce notation (2.16) Sm. = Smat + Sint + Sel .152 CHAPTER V. n) dV = 0. .16) could be much . GENERAL RELATIVITY. Here Sm.15) − det g = ˆ − det g 1−ε j=0 q=0 gqj hqj 2 + . In deriving this formula we also used the following expansion: 3 3 (2.f..14) is exactly covariant divergency of vector ﬁeld Z. . . ˆ Then we can rewrite deformation of scalar curvature R as 3 3 3 (2. Hence for deformation of Sgr we get Sdef = Sgr − ε c3 16πγ 3 3 Rqj − Ω j=0 q=0 R gqj hqj 2 − det g d4 r + . . .14) into action integral (2. This will be done in § 4 and § 5 below. However. .f. Now we shall not calculate deformations of other three terms in (2.

. Derive the relationships (2.18) is called energy-momentum tensor for material ﬁelds. . Energy-momentum tensor is related with 4-momentum conservation law for material ﬁelds. Tensor T in right hand side of Einstein equation (2. . 2 c This equation (2. if one consider more complicated models for describing matter. Four-dimensional momentum conservation law for ﬁelds. In the model of dust matter in electromagnetic ﬁeld tensor T is composed of three parts (see formula (2. 153 more than three.1. .6) for deformation of tensor g ij .1) p p p ∇k Rsij + ∇i Rsjk + ∇j Rski = 0.17) and comprises contributions from all material ﬁelds and their interactions.2) is written as (2.18) Rqj − R 8πγ gqj = 4 Tqj . Now we shall write deformation of the action (2.16) in the following conditional form: (2. Exercise 2. It is determined by the relationship (2. In order to derive this conservation law we use well-known Bianchi identity: (3.18) is known as Einstein equation.§ 3.f. . It is basic equation describing dynamics of metric tensor gij in general theory of relativity.15) from the expansion (2. But in any case action of gravitational ﬁeld is excluded from this sum since gravitational ﬁeld plays exceptional role in general relativity. . + ε 2c 3 3 Tqj hqj Ω q=0 j=0 − det g d4 r + .7) and (2. CONSERVATION LAW .17) Sdef = Sm.16)). § 3. Then extremity condition for total action (2.

.1) can be found in [2] and [6]. The equation (3. More details concerning Bianchi identity (3.5) expresses 4-momentum conservation law for the whole variety of material ﬁelds.6) is unessential.3) and (3. Let’s multiply (3.3) 1 s ∇s Rk − ∇k R = 0.154 CHAPTER V. 2 s=0 3 Now let’s raise index j in the equation (2.2) ∇k Rsj + p=0 p ∇p Rsjk − ∇j Rsk = 0.4) 8πγ 1 j ∇j Rq − ∇q R = 4 2 c j=0 3 3 j ∇j Tq . It is usually written in the following form with raised index q: 3 (3. Energy-momentum tensor is symmetric therefore the order of indices q and j in (3.5) j=0 j ∇j Tq = 0. Here we used skew symmetry of curvature tensor with respect to last pair of indices (see [3]). Let’s contract this identity with respect to i and p: 3 (3. 2003. we get the following equation for energy-momentum tensor of material ﬁelds: 3 (3. j=0 Comparing (3.4).18).2) by g sj and contract it with respect to double indices s and j.A. CopyRight c Sharipov R. . GENERAL RELATIVITY.6) j=0 ∇j T qj = 0. Upon slight ps sp transformation based on skew symmetry Rij = −Rij we get (3. 1997. then apply covariant diﬀerentiation ∇j and contract with respect to double index j: (3.

Basic ﬁelds in the action Sel are covariant components of vectorpotential Ai (r).5) in Chapter III). . 155 § 4. ENERGY-MOMENTUM TENSOR . . Energy-momentum tensor for electromagnetic ﬁeld. Ultimate expression in right hand side of (4.§ 4. . .2) has no entry of connection components Γk . Covariant components of tensor of electromagnetic ﬁeld are deﬁned by formula (4. . . . for contravariant components F pq of tensor of electromagnetic ﬁeld we derive the expansion 3 3 (4.2) Fij = ∇i Aj − ∇j Ai = ∂Aj ∂Ai − j i ∂r ∂r (see also formula (11. By analogy with (2. Therefore covariant components Fij are not changed by ij deformation of metric (2. .6). Energy-momentum tensor for whole variety of material ﬁelds is deﬁned by the relationship (2.17). using this formula.3) ˆ F pk = F pk + ε i=0 j=0 (hpi g kj + g pi hkj ) Fij + . Upon raising indices we get 3 3 ˆ F pk = i=0 j=0 g pi g kj Fij ˆ ˆ and. .17) we deﬁne energy-momentum tensor for electromagnetic ﬁeld: ε 2c 3 3 (4.1) Sdef = Sel + Tqj hqj Ω q=0 j=0 − det g d4 r + .

.4).6) s=0 ∇s T ps = − 1 c 3 F ps js . ˆ Substituting F pk and g into action functional Sel .156 CHAPTER V. . we derive formula Sdef = Sel − ε 16π c 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 2 Fpq g pi Fij − − p=0 i=0 Ω q=0 j=0 3 Fpi F pi gqj hqj p=0 i=0 − det g d4 r + . s=0 .4) Tqj = − 1 4π 3 3 p=0 i=0 1 Fpq g pi Fij − Fpi F pi gqj . Comparing this actual expansion with expected expansion (4. taking into account (4. for contravariant components of energy-momentum tensor T we derive (4. we get ˆ Sdef 1 =− 16π c V2 3 3 ˆ Fpk F pk V1 p=0 k=0 − det g d4 r ˆ Then. we ﬁnd components of energy-momentum tensor for electromagnetic ﬁeld in explicit form: (4.1) for Sdef .5) T qj = − 1 4π 3 3 p=0 i=0 1 F pq gpi F ij − Fpi F pi g qj . 4 Raising indices q and j in (4. 4 By means of formula (4.5) one can calculate covariant divergency for energy-momentum tensor of electromagnetic ﬁeld: 3 (4.3) and (2.15). . GENERAL RELATIVITY.

4) in Chapter IV.6) shows that 4-momentum conservation law for separate electromagnetic ﬁeld is not fulﬁlled.5) in inertial coordinate system for ﬂat Minkowsky metric. dust matter. ENERGY-MOMENTUM TENSOR . Exercise 4.5) and (2. Verify the relationship (4.1) p=0 ∇p η p = 0. Exercise 4. Energy-momentum tensor for dust matter. Therefore by deformation of metric gij → gij one cannot ˆ treat η p as metric independent quantities.2. For this purpose use well-known formula for commutator of covariant derivatives 3 (∇i ∇j − ∇i ∇j )Ak = − s=0 s Rkij As and properties of curvature tensor (see details in [3]). Metric tensor gij enters diﬀerential equation (5. . and with vector of energy ﬂow for electromagnetic ﬁeld (see formulas (2. § 5. see (3. with density of energy. Compare them with components of Maxwell tensor. . Let’s consider energy-momentum tensor related with last two terms Smat and Sint in the action (2. They contain entries of vector ﬁeld η whose components satisfy diﬀerential equation 3 (5.6).15) in Chapter II). .1. This is due to momentum exchange between electromagnetic ﬁeld and other forms of matter. g. This circumstance diﬀers them from components of vector-potential A.§ 5.16). 157 Formula (4. Calculate components of energy-momentum tensor (4.1) through connection components Γk of metric conij nection. e.

∂rp ˆ Denote η p = η p − det g .2) p=0 ∂ ηp ˆ = 0. As a result we get formula V2 3 3 (5. for action functional Sint describing ˆ interaction of dust matter and electromagnetic ﬁeld we get (5. ∂rp Expressing η p through η p . GENERAL RELATIVITY.3) Sint q =− 2 c V2 3 η p Ap d4 r. In order to ﬁnd truly metric independent variables for dust matter we use formula (4. ˆ Now let’s express η p through η p in action functional Smat for dust matter.1) as follows: 3 p=0 ∂(η p − det g ) ˆ = 0.7) from Chapter IV and rewrite diﬀerential equation (5.3) does not depend on metric tensor. ˆ V1 p=0 It is easy to see that integral (5. Therefore action functional Sint makes no contribution to overall energy-momentum tensor. These quantities η p can be treated as ˆ metric independent ones since diﬀerential constraint for them is written in form of the equation that does not contain metric: 3 (5.158 CHAPTER V. ˆ ˆ The dependence of this functional on metric tensor is completely determined by explicit entry of gpq under square root sign in right .4) Smat = −m V1 p=0 q=0 gpq η p η q d4 r.

ENERGY-MOMENTUM TENSOR . η) = mc g(η.6) T pq = mc η p η q g(η.7) T pk = mc up η k .7): Sdef = Smat + ε 2 Ω 3 3 m ηp ηq g(η.8) s=0 ∇s T ps = q c 3 F ps ηs . we can bring formula (5. η) up uq . .1) in Chapter IV) and recalling that u is unit vector.4). By this comparison we ﬁnd explicit formula for components of energy-momentum tensor for dust matter: (5. . . Contravariant components of energy-momentum tensor (5. Therefore power extension for Smat is easily calculated on the base of the expansion (2. .§ 5. .7) is convenient for calculating covariant divergency of energy-momentum tensor for dust matter: 3 (5. . s=0 . p=0 q=0 Let’s compare this expansion with expected expansion for Sdef : Sdef = Smat + ε 2c 3 3 Tpq hpq Ω p=0 q=0 − det g d4 r + . Using collinearity of vectors u and η (see formula (3.6) to the following simple form: (5.5) are obtained by raising indices p and q: (5. η) = mc g(η. η) hpq − det g d4 r + . η) up uq .5) Tpq = mc ηp ηq g(η. 159 hand side of (5. Formula (5. . .

19) from Chapter IV. where Einstein equation (2.8) on the base of equations (3.9) s=0 ∇s T ps 1 = c 3 F ps js .f.160 CHAPTER V.9). This fact has transparent interpretation.8) and write it as follows: 3 (5. § 6.6) for energymomentum tensor of electromagnetic ﬁeld. Exercise 5. Therefore this law is valid also in special relativity. s=0 Let’s compare (5.6) and (5. GENERAL RELATIVITY. This metric is determined by material content of the space according to Einstein equation (2. Concluding remarks. topology of the manifold M has great deal of arbitrariness.18). is that 4-momentum conservation law for the whole variety of material ﬁelds can be derived from dynamical equations for these ﬁelds. we can transform formula (5.1.4) and (4. It means that in our model the overall energymomentum tensor for matter Tm.6). = Tmat + Tel satisﬁes diﬀerential equation (3. which follows from of (4. This manifold can have local singularities at the points with extremely high concentration of . Now.2) from Chapter IV. 3). This fact is in complete agreement with 4-momentum conservation law. Another important conclusion. However. Derive the relationship (5.9) with analogous formula (4. Event space in general theory of relativity is some Minkowsky manifold M with Minkowsky metric of signature (1.18) is not considered and where in general case for ﬂat Minkowsky metric it is not fulﬁlled. applying formula (3. Right hand sides of these two formulas diﬀer only in sign.

A. In further evolution our Universe was expanding up to its present size. However. Moreover. CopyRight c Sharipov R. According to these models in far past times our Universe M was extremely small. Such objects are called black holes. CONCLUDING REMARKS. [7]. while density of matter in it was extremely high. 2003.§ 6. . I would like also to recommend the book [9] of popular genre. where these problems are discussed in commonly understandable and intriguing manner.. g. 161 matter. Will this expansion last inﬁnitely long or it will change for contraction ? This problem is not yet solved. The answer to this question depends on estimates of total amount of matter in the Universe. global topology of M also can be nontrivial (other than topology of R4 ). 1997. In contemporary physics most popular models of M include big bang in the very beginning of times. I think the above theoretical material makes suﬃcient background for to continue studying these problems e. and [8]. In this book we cannot consider all these fascinating problems of modern astrophysics and cosmology. in books [2].

N. Fomenko A. Ufa. Vladimirov V. 1963. Nauka publishers. 1980. Bliznyakov N. I. 5. Sharipov R. 2. Moscow. 1986. Dubrovin B. Fomenko T. Kobayashi Sh.. S. Davis P. Course of diﬀerential geometry. A.. London. A. Field theory. 1984. Modern geometry. Equations of mathematical physics.. New York. Publication of Bashkir State University.. Bogoyavlensky O. 1988. Nauka publishers. 8. Superforce. 9. Introduction to topology. M. Borisovich Yu. T. vol.. Moscow.REFERENCES 1. Foundations of diﬀerential geometry. Ufa. Methods of qualitative theory of dynamical systems in astrophysics and in gas dynamics.. A. P. II. Nauka publishers. I. Symon and Schuster publishers. Lifshits E. Interscience publishers. Sharipov R.. G. 1996. New York. Moscow. 3. 6. 1981. A. Publication of Bashkir State University. Moscow. Course of linear algebra and multidimensional geometry. Nomizu K. The search for a grand uniﬁed theory of nature. 1995. M. 1996. 4. vol. Izrailevich Ya. Landau L. Nauka publishers. . Nauka publishers. Course of theoretical physics. D. Novikov S. Moscow. 7.

com . Rabochaya street 5.ru r-sharipov@mail. Sharipov. Math. Sharipov. 450074. Ufa.ru ra sharipov@hotmail. Ufa. Department. Frunze street 32.CONTACTS Address: Ruslan A. Bashkortostan. Bashkortostan.bashedu. 450003. Russia Phone: 7-(3472)-23-67-18 7-(3472)-23-67-74 (FAX) Home address: Ruslan A. Bashkir State University. Russia E-mails: R Sharipov@ic.

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