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RUSSIAN FEDERAL COMMITTEE
FOR HIGHER EDUCATION
BASHKIR STATE UNIVERSITY
SHARIPOV R. A.
CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS
AND THEORY OF RELATIVITY
the manual
Ufa 1997
2
UDC 517.9
Sharipov R. A. Classical Electrodynamics and Theory of
Relativity: the manual / Publ. of Bashkir State University —
Ufa, 1997. — pp. 163. — ISBN 5-7477-0180-0.
This book is a manual for the course of electrodynamics and
theory of relativity. It is recommended primarily for students
of mathematical departments. This defines its style: I use el-
ements of vectorial and tensorial analysis, differential geometry,
and theory of distributions in it.
In preparing Russian edition of this book I used computer
typesetting on the base of /
/
o-T
E
X package and I used cyrillic
fonts of Lh-family distributed by CyrTUG association of Cyrillic
T
E
X users. English edition is also typeset by /
/
o-T
E
X.
This book is published under the approval by Methodic Com-
mission of Mathematical Department of Bashkir State University.
Referees: Chair of Algebra and Geometry of Bashkir State
Pedagogical University (BGPI),
Prof. V. A. Baikov, Ufa State University for
Aviation and Technology (UGATU).
ISBN 5-7477-0180-0 c _ Sharipov R.A., 1997
English Translation c _ Sharipov R.A., 2003
3
CONTENTS.
CONTENTS. ....................................................................... 3.
PREFACE. .......................................................................... 5.
CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETO-
STATICS. ..................................................................... 7.
¸ 1. Basic experimental facts and unit systems. ...................... 7.
¸ 2. Concept of near action. ................................................ 13.
¸ 3. Superposition principle. ................................................ 15.
¸ 4. Lorentz force and Biot-Savart-Laplace law. .................. 18.
¸ 5. Current density and the law of charge conservation. ..... 21.
¸ 6. Electric dipole moment. ............................................... 24.
¸ 7. Magnetic moment. ....................................................... 26.
¸ 8. Integral equations of static electromagnetic field. ........... 31.
¸ 9. Differential equations of static electromagnetic field. ...... 41.
CHAPTER II. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS. ......... 43.
¸ 1. Maxwell equations. ...................................................... 43.
¸ 2. Density of energy and energy flow for electromagnetic
field. ........................................................................... 46.
¸ 3. Vectorial and scalar potentials of electromagnetic
field. ........................................................................... 54.
¸ 4. Gauge transformations and Lorentzian gauge. ............... 56.
¸ 5. Electromagnetic waves. ................................................ 59.
¸ 6. Emission of electromagnetic waves. ............................... 60.
CHAPTER III. SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY. ..... 68.
¸ 1. Galileo transformations. ............................................... 68.
4
¸ 2. Lorentz transformations. .............................................. 73.
¸ 3. Minkowsky space. ........................................................ 77.
¸ 4. Kinematics of relative motion. ...................................... 82.
¸ 5. Relativistic law of velocity addition. .............................. 90.
¸ 6. World lines and private time. ........................................ 91.
¸ 7. Dynamics of material point. ......................................... 95.
¸ 8. Four-dimensional form of Maxwell equations. ............. 100.
¸ 9. Four-dimensional vector-potential. .............................. 107.
¸ 10. The law of charge conservation. ................................ 112.
¸ 11. Note on skew-angular and curvilinear
coordinates. ............................................................. 115.
CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM
IN THEORY OF RELATIVITY. .............................. 119.
¸ 1. Principle of minimal action for particles and fields. ...... 119.
¸ 2. Motion of particle in electromagnetic field. .................. 124.
¸ 3. Dynamics of dust matter. ........................................... 128.
¸ 4. Action functional for dust matter. ............................... 133.
¸ 5. Equations for electromagnetic field. ............................. 141.
CHAPTER V. GENERAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY. ... 145.
¸ 1. Transition to non-flat metrics and curved Minkowsky
space. ....................................................................... 145.
¸ 2. Action for gravitational field. Einstein equation. .......... 147.
¸ 3. Four-dimensional momentum conservation law
for fields. .................................................................. 153.
¸ 4. Energy-momentum tensor for electromagnetic field. ..... 155.
¸ 5. Energy-momentum tensor for dust matter. .................. 157.
¸ 6. Concluding remarks. .................................................. 160.
REFERENCES. ............................................................... 162.
CONTACTS. ................................................................... 163.
PREFACE.
Theory of relativity is a physical discipline which arose in
the beginning of XX-th century. It has dramatically changed
traditional notion about the structure of the Universe. Effects
predicted by this theory becomes essential only when we describe
processes at high velocities close to light velocity
c = 2.998 10
5
km/sec.
In XIX-th century there was the only theory dealing with such
processes, this was theory of electromagnetism. Development of
theory of electromagnetism in XIX-th century became a premise
for arising theory of relativity.
In this book I follow historical sequence of events. In Chapter I
electrostatics and magnetostatics are explained starting with first
experiments on interaction of charges and currents. Chapter II is
devoted to classical electrodynamics based on Maxwell equations.
In the beginning of Chapter III Lorentz transformations are
derived as transformations keeping form of Maxwell equations.
Physical interpretation of such transformation requires uniting
space and time into one four-dimensional continuum (Minkowsky
space) where there is no fixed direction for time axis. Upon
introducing four-dimensional space-time in Chapter III classical
electrodynamics is rederived in the form invariant with respect to
Lorentz transformations.
In Chapter IV variational approach to describing electromag-
netic field and other material fields in special relativity is con-
sidered. Use of curvilinear coordinates in Minkowsky space and
appropriate differential-geometric methods prepares background
for passing to general relativity.
6
In Chapter V Einstein’s theory of gravitation (general rela-
tivity) is considered, this theory interprets gravitational field as
curvature of space-time itself.
This book is addressed to Math. students. Therefore I paid
much attention to logical consistence of given material. References
to physical intuition are minimized: in those places, where I
need additional assumptions which do not follow from previous
material, detailed comment is given.
I hope that assiduous and interested reader with sufficient
preliminary background could follow all mathematical calculations
and, upon reading this book, would get pleasure of understanding
how harmonic is the nature of things.
I am grateful to N. T. Ahtyamov, D. I. Borisov, Yu. P. Ma-
shentseva, and A. I. Utarbaev for reading and correcting Russian
version of book.
November, 1997;
November, 2003. R. A. Sharipov.
CHAPTER I
ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS
¸ 1. Basic experimental facts and unit systems.
Quantitative description of any physical phenomenon requires
measurements. In mechanics we have three basic quantities and
three basic units of measure: for mass, for length, and for time.
Quantity Unit Unit Relation
in SI in SGS of units
mass kg g 1 kg =10
3
g
length m cm 1 m=10
2
cm
time sec sec 1 sec =1 sec
Units of measure for other quantities are derived from the
above basic units. Thus, for instance, for measure unit of force
due to Newton’s second law we get:
(1) N = kg m sec
−2
in SI,
(2) dyn = g cm sec
−2
in SGS.
Unit systems SI and SGS are two most popular unit systems
in physics. Units for measuring mechanical quantities (velocity,
acceleration, force, energy, power) in both systems are defined in
quite similar way. Proportions relating units for these quantities
CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.
8 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.
can be derived from proportions for basic quantities (see table
above). However, in choosing units for electric and magnetic
quantities these systems differ essentially.
Choice of measure unit for electric charge in SGS is based on
Coulomb law describing interaction of two charged point.
Coulomb law. Two charged points with charges of the same
sign are repulsing, while points with charges of opposite signs are
attracting with force proportional to
quantities of their charges and in-
verse proportional to square of dis-
tance between them:
(1.1) F ∼
Q
1
Q
2
r
2
.
Measure unit of charge in SGS is
chosen such that coefficient in for-
Fig. 1.1
mula (1.1) is equal to unity. Hence
we have the following relation:
unit of charge in SGS = dyn
1/2
cm= g
1/2
cm
3/2
sec
−1
.
Coulomb law itself then is written in form of the equality
(1.2) F =
Q
1
Q
2
r
2
.
Force F defined by the relationship (1.2) is very strong. How-
ever, in everyday life it does not reveal itself. This is due to the
screening. The numbers of positive and negative charges in nature
are exactly balanced. Atoms and molecules, which constitute all
observable matter around us, have the same amount of positive
and negative charges. Therefore they are electrically neutral in
§ 1. BASIC FACTS AND UNIT SYSTEMS. 9
whole. Force (1.2) reveals itself in form of chemical links only
when atoms are pulled together.
Electric current arises as a result of motion of charged points.
This occurs in metallic conductor, which usually have lengthy
form (form of wire). Current in such conductor is determined by
the amount of charge passing through it within the unit of time.
Therefore for unit of current we have:
unit of current in SGS = unit of charge in SGS sec
−1
=
= g
1/2
cm
3/2
sec
−2
.
Let’s consider straight conducting rod of the length l. Current
in it leads to misbalance of charges in its ends. Charges of definite
sign move to one end of the rod, while lack of these charges in
the other end of the rod is detected as the charge of opposite
sign. Then Coulomb force (1.2) arises that tends to recover
balance of charges in electrically neutral rod. This means that
in such rod current could not flow in constant direction during
long time. Another situation we have with conductor of the
form of ring or circuit. Here current does not break the balance
of charges. Direct current can flow in it during unlimitedly
long time. Circular conductor itself thereby remains electrically
neutral and no Coulomb forces arise.
In spite of absence of Coulomb forces, in experiments the inter-
action of two circular conductors with currents was detected. This
interaction has other nature, it is not due to electrical, but due to
magnetic forces. The magnitude of magnetic forces depends es-
sentially on the shape and mutual arrangement of circular conduc-
tors. In order to reveal quantitative characteristics for magnetic
forces one should maximally simplify the geometry of conduc-
tors. For this purpose they are deformed so that each possesses
straight rod-shaped part of sufficiently big length l. These rod-
10 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.
shaped parts are arranged par-
allel to each other with the dis-
tance r between them. In the
limit, when l is much larger than
r, this configuration of conduc-
tors can be treated as a pair
of infinitely long parallel conduc-
tors. In experiments it was found
Fig. 1.2
that such conductors do interact
according to the following law.
Ampere law. Force of inter-
action of two infinite parallel
conductors with currents per unit
length of them is proportional ti the values of currents in them
and inverse proportional to the distance between them:
(1.3)
F
l

I
1
I
2
r
.
Two co-directed currents attract each other, while opposite di-
rected currents repulse each other.
The unit of current in SGS was already introduced above.
Therefore coefficient of proportionality in formula (1.3) is unique
quantity that should be determined in experiment. Here is the
measure unit for this coefficient: sec
2
cm
−2
. It coincides with
inverse square of velocity. Therefore formula (1.3) in SGS is
written as
(1.4)
F
l
=
2
c
2
I
1
I
2
r
.
Constant c in (1.4) is a velocity constant. The value of this
constant is determined experimentally:
(1.5) c ≈ 2.998 10
10
cm/sec.
§ 1. BASIC FACTS AND UNIT SYSTEMS. 11
As we shall see below, constant c in (1.5) coincides with velocity
of light in vacuum. Numeric coefficient 2 in (1.4) is introduced
intentionally for to provide such coincidence.
In SI measure unit of current 1 A (one ampere) is a basic unit.
It is determined such that formula (1.3) is written as
(1.6)
F
l
=
2 µ
0

I
1
I
2
r
.
Here π = 3.14 . . . is exact (though it is irrational) mathematical
constant with no measure unit. Constant µ
0
is called magnetic
susceptibility of vacuum. It has the measure unit:
(1.7) µ
0
= 4π 10
−7
N A
−2
.
But, in contrast to constant c in (1.5), it is exact constant. Its
value should not be determined experimentally. One could choose
it to be equal to unity, but the above value (1.7) for this constant
was chosen by convention when SI system was established. Due
to this value of constant (1.7) current of 1 ampere appears to
be in that range of currents, that really appear in industrial and
household devices. Coefficient 4π in denominator (1.6) is used in
order to simplify some other formulas, which are more often used
for engineering calculations in electric technology.
Being basic unit in SI, unit of current ampere is used for
defining unit of charge of 1 coulomb: 1C = 1A 1sec. Then
coefficient of proportionality in Coulomb law (1.1) appears to be
not equal to unity. In SI Coulomb law is written as
(1.8) F =
1
4πǫ
0
Q
1
Q
2
r
2
.
Constant ǫ
0
is called dielectric permittivity of vacuum. In con-
trast to constant µ
0
in (1.7) this is physical constant determined
experimentally:
(1.9) ǫ
0
≈ 8.85 10
−12
C
2
N
−1
m
−2
.
12 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.
Constants (1.5), (1.7), and (1.9) are related to each other by the
following equality:
(1.10) c =
1
_
ǫ
0
µ
0
≈ 2.998 10
8
m/sec.
From the above consideration we see that SGS and SI systems
differ from each other not only in the scale of units, but in for-
mulas for two fundamental laws: Coulomb law and Ampere law.
SI better suits for engineering calculations. However, derivation
of many formulas in this system appears more huge than in SGS.
Therefore below in this book we use SGS system.
Comparing Coulomb law and Ampere law we see that electrical
and magnetic forces reveal themselves in quite different way.
However, they have common origin: they both are due to electric
charges. Below we shall see that their relation is much more
close. Therefore theories of electricity and magnetism are usually
united into one theory of electromagnetic phenomena. Theory of
electromagnetism is a theory with one measurable constant: this
is light velocity c. Classical mechanics (without Newton’s theory
of gravitation) has no measurable constants. Newton’s theory of
gravitation has one constant:
(1.11) γ ≈ 6.67 10
−8
cm
3
g
−1
sec
−2
.
This theory is based on Newton’s fourth law formulated as follows.
Universal law of gravitation. Two point masses attract
each other with the force proportional to their masses and in-
verse proportional to the square of distance between them.
Universal law of gravitation is given by the same formula
(1.12) F = γ
M
1
M
2
r
2
§ 2. CONCEPT OF NEAR ACTION. 13
in both systems: in SGS and in SI.
According to modern notion of nature classical mechanics and
Newton’s theory of gravitation are approximate theories. Cur-
rently they are replaced by special theory of relativity and general
theory of relativity. Historically they appeared as a result of
development of the theory of electromagnetism. Below we keep
this historical sequence in explaining all three theories.
Exercise 1.1. On the base of above facts find quantitative re-
lation of measure units for charge and current in SGS and SI.
¸ 2. Concept of near action.
Let’s consider pair of charged bodies, which are initially fixed,
and let’s do the following mental experiment with them. When
we start moving second body apart from first one, the distance r
begins increasing and consequently force of Coulomb interaction
(1.2) will decrease. In this situation we have natural question:
how soon after second body starts moving second body will feel
change of Coulomb force of interaction? There are two possible
answers to this question:
(1) immediately;
(2) with some delay depending on the distance between bodies.
First answer is known as concept of distant action. Taking this
concept we should take formula (1.2) as absolutely exact formula
applicable for charges at rest and for moving charges as well.
Second answer is based on the concept of near action. Ac-
cording to this concept, each interaction (and electric interaction
among others) can be transmitted immediately only to the point
of space infinitesimally close to initial one. Transmission of any
action to finite distance should be considered as a process of
successive transmission from point to point. This process always
leads to some finite velocity of transmission for any action. In
14 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.
the framework of the concept of near action Coulomb law (1.2) is
treated as approximate law, which is exact only for the charges
at rest that stayed at rest during sufficiently long time so that
process of transmission of electric interaction has been terminated.
Theory of electromagnetism has measurable constant c (light
velocity (1.5)), which is first pretender for the role of transmission
velocity of electric and magnetic interactions. For this reason
electromagnetic theory is much more favorable as compared to
Newton’s theory of gravitation.
The value of light velocity is a very large quantity. If we settle
an experiment of measuring Coulomb force at the distances of the
order of r ≈ 10 cm, for the time of transmission of interaction we
would get times of the order of t ≈ 3 10
−10
sec. Experimental
technique of XIX-th century was unable to detect such a short
interval of time. Therefore the problem of choosing concept could
not be solved experimentally. In XIX-th century it was subject for
contests. The only argument against the concept of distant action
that time, quite likely, was its straightness, its self-completeness,
and hence its scarcity.
In present time concept of near action is commonly accepted.
Now we have the opportunity for testing it experimentally in the
scope of electromagnetic phenomena. Let’s study this concept
more attentively. According to the concept of near action, process
of transmitting interaction to far distance exhibits an inertia.
Starting at one point, where moving charge is placed, for some
time this process exist in hidden form with no influence to both
charges. In order to describe this stage of process we need to
introduce new concept. This concept is a field.
Field is a material entity able to fill the whole space and able
to act upon other material bodies transmitting mutual interaction
of them.
The number of fields definitely known to scientists is not big.
There are only four fundamental fields: strong field, weak field,
CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.
§ 3. SUPERPOSITION PRINCIPLE. 15
electromagnetic field, and gravitational field. Strong and weak
fields are very short distance fields, they reveal themselves only
in atomic nuclei, in collisions and decay of elementary particles,
and in stellar objects of extremely high density, which are called
neutron stars. Strong and weak interactions and fields are not
considered in this book.
There are various terms using the word field: vector field, tensor
field, spinor field, gauge field, and others. These are mathematical
terms reflecting some definite properties of real physical fields.
¸ 3. Superposition principle.
Let’s apply concept of near action to Coulomb law for two
charged points. Coulomb force in the framework of this concept
can be interpreted as follows: first charge produces electric field
around itself, and this field acts upon other charge. Result of such
action is detected as a force F applied to second charge. Force
is vectorial quantity. Let’s denote by F vector of force and take
into account the direction of this vector determined by verbal
statement of Coulomb law above. This yields
(3.1) F = Q
1
Q
2
r
2
−r
1
[r
2
−r
1
[
3
.
Here r
1
and r
2
are radius-vectors of points, where charges Q
1
and
Q
2
are placed. Let’s consider vector E determined as the ratio
E = F/Q
2
. For this vector from formula (3.1) we derive
(3.2) E = Q
1
r
2
−r
1
[r
2
−r
1
[
3
.
Vector E depends upon the position of first charge and upon
its value. It depends also on the position of second charge, but
it doesn’t depend on the value of second charge. One can take
16 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.
vector E for quantitative measure of electric field produced by first
charge Q
1
at the point r
2
, where second charge is placed. Vector
E can be determined by formula (3.2) or it can be measured
experimentally. For this purpose one should place test charge q
to the point r
2
and one should measure Coulomb force F acting
upon this test charge. Then vector E is determined by division of
F by the value of test charge q:
(3.3) E = F/q.
Now consider more complicated situation. Suppose that
charges Q
1
, . . . , Q
n
are placed at the points r
1
, . . . , r
n
. They
produce electric field around them, and this field acts upon test
charge q placed at the point r. This action reveals as a force F
applied to the charge q. Again we can define vector E of the form
(3.3) and take it for the quantitative measure of electric field at
the point r. This vector is called vector of intensity of electric
field or simply vector of electric field at that point.
Generally speaking, in this case one cannot be a priori sure
that vector E does not depend on the quantity of test charge q.
However, there is the following experimental fact.
Superposition principle. Electric field E at the point r
produced by a system of point charges Q
1
, . . . , Q
n
is a vectorial
sum of electric fields that would be produced at this point by each
charge Q
1
, . . . , Q
n
separately.
Superposition principle combined with Coulomb law leads to
the following formula for the intensity of electric field produced
by a system of point charges at the point r:
(3.4) E(r) =
n

i=1
Q
i
r −r
i
[r −r
i
[
3
.
§ 3. SUPERPOSITION PRINCIPLE. 17
Using superposition principle, one can pass from point charges
to continuously distributed charges. Suppose that the number of
point charges tends to infinity: n → ∞. In such limit sum in
formula (3.4) is replaced by integral over 3-dimensional space:
(3.5) E(r) =
_
ρ(˜r)
r −˜r
[r −˜r[
3
d
3
˜r.
Here ρ(˜r) is spatial density of charge at the point ˜r. This value
designates the amount of charge per unit volume.
In order to find force acting on test charge q we should invert
formula (3.3). As a result we obtain
(3.6) F = q E(r).
Force acting on a charge q in electric field is equal to the product
of the quantity of this charge by the vector of intensity of field at
the point, where charge is placed. However, charge q also produces
electric field. Does it experience the action of its own field ? For
point charges the answer to this question is negative. This fact
should be treated as a supplement to principle of superposition.
Total force acting on a system of distributed charges in electric
field is determined by the following integral:
(3.7) F =
_
ρ(r) E(r) d
3
r.
Field E(r) in (3.7) is external field produced by external charges.
Field of charges with density ρ(r) is not included into E(r).
Concluding this section, note that formulas (3.4) and (3.5) hold
only for charges at rest, which stayed at rest for sufficiently long
time so that process of interaction transmitting reached the point
of observation r. Fields produced by such systems of charges are
called static fields, while branch of theory of electromagnetism
studying such fields is called electrostatics.
18 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.
¸ 4. Lorentz force and Biot-Savart-Laplace law.
Ampere law of interaction of parallel conductors with currents
is an analog of Coulomb law for magnetic interactions. Accord-
ing to near action principle, force F
arises as a result of action of mag-
netic field produced by a current in
first conductor upon second conduc-
tor. However, parallel conductors
cannot be treated as point objects:
formula (1.4) holds only for l ≫ r.
In order to get quantitative measure
Fig. 4.1
vt
of magnetic field at some point r
let’s consider current I
2
in (1.4) as
a flow of charged particles of charge
q each, and each moving along con-
ductor with constant velocity v. If we denote by ν the number
of such particles per unit length of conductor, then in the whole
length l we would have N = ν l particles. Then during time in-
terval t we would have n = ν v t particles passing through a fixed
cross-section of the conductor. They carry charge amounting to
Q = q ν v t. Therefore for current I
2
in second conductor we get
I
2
= Q/t = q ν v.
Upon calculating force acting on a segment of conductor of the
length l by formula (1.4) we should divide it by the number of
particles N contained in this segment. Then for the force per each
particle we derive
(4.1) F =
2
c
2
I
1
I
2
l
r N
=
2
c
2
I
1
q v
r
.
Formula determines (4.1) qualitative dependence of F on q and
on v: each charged particle moving in magnetic field experiences
§ 4. LORENTZ FORCE AND . . . 19
a force proportional to its charge q and to the magnitude of its
velocity vector v = [v[, i. e. we have proportionality
(4.2) F ∼ q v.
Force and velocity both are vectorial quantities. Simplest way to
relate two vectors F and v is to use vector product of v with
some third vectorial quantity H:
(4.3) F =
q
c
[v, H(r)].
Here c is scalar constant equal to light velocity. Vectorial quantity
H(r) is a quantitative measure of magnetic field at the point r.
It is called intensity of magnetic field at that point. Scalar factor
1/c in (4.3) is used for to make H to be measured by the same
units as intensity of electric field E in (3.6). Force F acting on
a point charge in magnetic field is called Lorentz force. Total
Lorentz force acting on a charge in electromagnetic field is a sum
of two components: electric component and magnetic component:
(4.4) F = q E+
q
c
[v, H].
Formula (4.4) extends formula (3.6) for the case of general electro-
magnetic fields. It holds not only for static but for time-dependent
(non-static) fields. Surely the above derivation of formula (4.4) is
empiric. Actually, one should treat formula (4.4) as experimental
fact that do not contradict to another experimental fact (1.4)
within theory being developed.
Let’s turn back to our conductors. Formula (4.3) can be
interpreted in terms of currents. Each segment of unit length of
a conductor with current I in magnetic field H experiences the
force
(4.5)
F
l
=
I
c
[τ, H]
20 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.
acting on it. Here τ is unit vector tangent to conductor and di-
rected along current in it. Total force acting on circular conductor
with current I is determined by contour integral
(4.6) F =
_
I
c
[τ(s), H(r(s))] ds,
where s is natural parameter on contour (length) and r(s) is
vector-function determining shape of contour in parametric form.
Let’s consider the case of two parallel conductors. Force F now
can be calculated by formula (4.5) assuming that first conductor
produces magnetic field H(r) that acts upon second conductor.
Auxiliary experiment shows that vector H is perpendicular to
the plane of these two parallel conductors. The magnitude of
magnetic field H = [H[ can be determined by formula (4.1):
(4.7) H =
2
c
I
1
r
.
Here r is the distance from observation point to the conductor
producing field at that point.
Magnetic field produced by conductor with current satisfies
superposition principle. In particular, field of infinite straight
line conductor (4.7) is composed by fields produced by separate
segments of this conductor. One cannot measure magnetic field of
separate segment experimentally since one cannot keep constant
current is such separate segment for sufficiently long time. But
theoretically one can consider infinitesimally small segment of
conductor with current of the length ds. And one can write
formula for magnetic field produced by such segment of conductor:
(4.8) dH(r) =
1
c
[I τ, r −˜r]
[r −˜r[
3
ds.
§ 5. CURRENT DENSITY AND . . . 21
Here τ is unit vector determining spatial orientation of infinitesi-
mal conductor. It is always taken to be directed along current I.
In practice, when calculating magnetic fields produced by circular
conductors, formula (4.8) is taken in integral form:
(4.9) H(r) =
_
1
c
[I τ(s), r −˜r(s)]
[r −˜r(s)[
3
ds.
Like in (4.6), here s is natural parameter on the contour and ˜r(s)
is vectorial function determining shape of this contour. Therefore
τ(s) = d˜r(s)/ds. The relationship (4.8) and its integral form (4.9)
constitute Biot-Savart-Laplace law for circular conductors with
current.
Biot-Savart-Laplace law in form (4.8) cannot be tested exper-
imentally. However, in integral form (4.9) for each particular
conductor it yields some particular expression for H(r). This
expression then can be verified in experiment.
Exercise 4.1. Using relationships (4.6) and (4.9), derive the
law of interaction of parallel conductors with current in form (1.4).
Exercise 4.2. Find magnetic field of the conductor with cur-
rent having the shape of circle of the radius a.
¸ 5. Current density
and the law of charge conservation.
Conductors that we have considered above are kind of ideal-
ization. They are linear, we assume them having no thickness.
Real conductor always has some thickness. This fact is ignored
when we consider long conductors like wire. However, in some
cases thickness of a conductor cannot be ignored. For example, if
we consider current in electrolytic bath or if we study current in
plasma in upper layers of atmosphere. Current in bulk conductors
can be distributed non-uniformly within volume of conductor.
CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.
22 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.
The concept of current density j is best one for describing such
situation.
Current density is vectorial quantity depending on a point of
conducting medium: j = j(r). Vector of current density j(r)
indicate the direction of charge transport at the point r. Its
magnitude j = [ j [ is determined by the amount of charge passing
through unit area perpendicular to vector j per unit time. Let’s
mark mentally some restricted domain Ω within bulk conducting
medium. Its boundary is smooth closed surface. Due to the
above definition of current density the amount of charge flowing
out from marked domain per unit time is determined by surface
integral over the boundary of this domain, while charge enclosed
within this domain is given by spatial integral:
Q =
_

ρ d
3
r, J =
_
∂Ω
¸
j, n
_
dS. (5.1)
Here n is unit vector of external normal to the surface ∂Ω
restricting domain Ω.
Charge conservation law is one more fundamental experimental
fact reflecting the nature of electromagnetism. In its classical
form it states that charges cannot appear from nowhere and
cannot disappear as well, they can only move from one point to
another. Modern physics insert some correction to this statement:
charges appear and can disappear in processes of creation and
annihilation of pairs of elementary particles consisting of particle
and corresponding antiparticle. However, even in such creation-
annihilation processes total balance of charge is preserved since
total charge of a pair consisting of particle and antiparticle is
always equal to zero. When applied to integrals (5.1) charge
conservation law yields:
˙
Q = −J. This relationship means that
decrease of charge enclosed within domain Ω is always due to
§ 5. CURRENT DENSITY AND . . . 23
charge leakage through the boundary and conversely increase of
charge is due to incoming flow through the boundary of this
domain. Let’s write charge conservation law in the following
form:
(5.2)
d
dt
_ _

ρ d
3
r
_
+
_
∂Ω
¸
j, n
_
dS = 0.
Current density j is a vector depending on a point of conducting
medium. Such objects in differential geometry are called vector
fields. Electric field E and magnetic field H are other examples
of vector fields. Surface integral J in (5.1) is called flow of vector
field j through the surface ∂Ω. For smooth vector field any surface
integral like J can be transformed to spatial integral by means of
Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula. When applied to (5.2), this yields
(5.3)
_

_
∂ρ
∂t
+ div j
_
d
3
r = 0.
Note that Ω in (5.3) is an arbitrary domain that we marked men-
tally within conducting medium. This means that the expression
being integrated in (5.3) should be identically zero:
(5.4)
∂ρ
∂t
+ div j = 0.
The relationships (5.2) and (5.4) are integral and differential
forms of charge conservation law respectively. The relationship
(5.4) also is known as continuity equation for electric charge.
When applied to bulk conductors with distributed current j
within them, formula (4.6) is rewritten as follows:
(5.5) F =
_
1
c
[ j(r), H(r)] d
3
r.
24 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.
Biot-Savart-Laplace law for such conductors also is written in
terms of spatial integral in the following form:
(5.6) H(r) =
_
1
c
[ j(˜r), r −˜r]
[r −˜r[
3
d
3
˜r.
In order to derive formulas (5.5) and (5.6) from formulas (4.6)
and (4.8) one should represent bulk conductor as a union of linear
conductors, then use superposition principle and pass to the limit
by the number of linear conductors n →∞.
¸ 6. Electric dipole moment.
Let’s consider some configuration of distributed charge with
density ρ(r) which is concentrated within some restricted domain
Ω. Let R be maximal linear size of the domain Ω. Let’s choose
coordinates with origin within this domain Ω and let’s choose
observation point r which is far enough from the domain of
charge concentration: [r[ ≫R. In order to find electric field E(r)
produced by charges in Ω we use formula (3.5):
(6.1) E(r) =
_

ρ(˜r)
r −˜r
[r −˜r[
3
d
3
˜r.
Since domain Ω in (6.1) is restricted, we have inequality [˜r[ ≤ R.
Using this inequality along with [r[ ≫ R, we can write Taylor
expansion for the fraction in the expression under integration in
(6.1). As a result we get power series in powers of ratio ˜r/[r[:
(6.2)
r −˜r
[r −˜r[
3
=
r
[r[
3
+
1
[r[
2

_
3
r
[r[

_
r
[r[
,
˜r
[r[
_

˜r
[r[
_
+. . . .
Substituting (6.2) into (6.1), we get the following expression for
§ 6. ELECTRIC DIPOLE MOMENT. 25
the vector of electric field E(r) produced by charges in Ω:
(6.3) E(r) = Q
r
[r[
3
+
3
¸
r, D
_
r −[r[
2
D
[r[
5
+. . . .
First summand in (6.3) is Coulomb field of point charge Q placed
at the origin, where Q is total charge enclosed in the domain Ω.
It is given by integral (5.1).
Second summand in (6.3) is known as field of point dipole
placed at the origin. Vector D there is called dipole moment. For
charges enclosed within domain Ω it is given by integral
(6.4) D =
_

ρ(˜r) ˜r d
3
˜r.
For point charges dipole moment is determined by sum
(6.5) D =
n

i=1
Q
i
˜r
i
.
For the system of charges concentrated near origin, which is
electrically neutral in whole, the field of point dipole
(6.6) E(r) =
3
¸
r, D
_
r −[r[
2
D
[r[
5
is leading term in asymptotics for electrostatic field (3.4) or
(3.5) as r → ∞. Note that for the system of charges with
Q = 0 dipole moment D calculated by formulas (6.4) and (6.5)
is invariant quantity. This quantity remains unchanged when
we move all charges to the same distance at the same direction
without changing their mutual orientation: ˜r →˜r +r
0
.
26 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.
Exercise 6.1. Concept of charge density is applicable to point
charges as well. However, in this case ρ(r) is not ordinary function.
It is distribution. For example point charge Q placed at the point
r = 0 is represented by density ρ(r) = Qδ(r), where δ(r) is Dirac’s
delta-function. Consider the density
(6.7) ρ(r) =
¸
D, gradδ(r)
_
=
3

i=1
D
i
∂δ(r)
∂r
i
.
Applying formula (5.1), calculate total charge Q corresponding to
this density (6.7). Using formula (6.4) calculate dipole moment
for distributed charge (6.7) and find electrostatic field produced
by this charge. Compare the expression obtained with (6.6) and
explain why system of charges described by the above density (6.7)
is called point dipole.
Exercise 6.2. Using formula (3.7) find the force acting on
point dipole in external electric field E(r).
¸ 7. Magnetic moment.
Let’s consider situation similar to that of previous section.
Suppose some distributed system of currents is concentrated in
some restricted domain near origin. Let R be maximal linear
size of this domain Ω. Current density j(r) is smooth vector-
function, which is nonzero only within Ω and which vanishes at
the boundary ∂Ω and in outer space. Current density j(r) is
assumed to be stationary, i. e. it doesn’t depend on time, and it
doesn’t break charge balance, i. e. ρ(r) = 0. Charge conservation
law applied to this situation yields
(7.1) div j = 0.
§ 7. MAGNETIC MOMENT. 27
In order to calculate magnetic field H(r) we use Biot-Savart-
Laplace law written in integral form (5.6):
(7.2) H(r) =
_

1
c
[ j(˜r), r −˜r]
[r −˜r[
3
d
3
˜r.
Assuming that [r[ ≫ R, we take Taylor expansion (6.2) and
substitute it into (7.2). As a result we get
(7.3)
H(r) =
_

[ j(˜r), r]
c [r[
3
d
3
˜r +
+
_

3
¸
r, ˜r
_
[ j(˜r), r] −[r[
2
[ j(˜r), ˜r]
c [r[
5
d
3
˜r + . . . .
Lemma 7.1. First integral in (7.3) is identically equal to zero.
Proof. Denote this integral by H
1
(r). Let’s choose some
arbitrary constant vector e and consider scalar product
(7.4)
¸
H
1
, e
_
=
_

¸
e, [ j(˜r), r]
_
c [r[
3
d
3
˜r =
_

¸
j(˜r), [ r, e]
_
c [r[
3
d
3
˜r.
Then define vector a and function f(˜r) as follows:
a =
[r, e]
c [r[
3
, f(˜r) =
¸
a, ˜r
_
.
Vector a does not depend on ˜r, therefore in calculating integral
(7.4) we can take it for constant vector. For this vector we derive
28 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.
a = gradf. Substituting this formula into the (7.4), we get
(7.5)
¸
H
1
, e
_
=
_

¸
j, gradf
_
d
3
˜r =
=
_

div(f j) d
3
˜r −
_

f div j d
3
˜r.
Last integral in (7.5) is equal to zero due to (7.1). Previous inte-
gral is transformed to surface integral by means of Ostrogradsky-
Gauss formula. It is also equal to zero since j(˜r) vanishes at the
boundary of domain Ω. Therefore
(7.6)
¸
H
1
, e
_
=
_
∂Ω
f
¸
j, n
_
dS = 0.
Now vanishing of vector H
1
(r) follows from formula (7.6) since e
is arbitrary constant vector. Lemma 7.1 is proved.
Let’s transform second integral in (7.3). First of all we denote
it by H
2
(r). Then, taking an arbitrary constant vector e, we form
scalar product
¸
H
2
, e
_
. This scalar product can be brought to
(7.7)
¸
H
2
, e
_
=
1
c [r[
5
_

¸
j(˜r), b(˜r)
_
d
3
˜r,
where b(˜r) = 3
¸
r, ˜r
_
[r, e] − [r[
2
[˜r, e]. If one adds gradient of
arbitrary function f(˜r) to b(˜r), this wouldn’t change integral
in (7.7). Formulas (7.5) and (7.6) form an example of such
invariance. Let’s specify function f(˜r), choosing it as follows:
(7.8) f(˜r) = −
3
2
¸
r, ˜r
_ ¸
˜r, [r, e]
_
.
CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.
§ 7. MAGNETIC MOMENT. 29
For gradient of function (7.8) by direct calculations we find
gradf(˜r) = −
3
2
¸
˜r, [r, e]
_
r −
3
2
¸
r, ˜r
_
[r, e] =
= −3
¸
r, ˜r
_
[r, e] −
3
2
_
r
¸
˜r, [r, e]
_
−[r, e]
¸
r, ˜r
__
.
Now let’s use well-known identity [a, [b, c]] = b
¸
a, c
_
−c
¸
a, b
_
.
Assuming that a = ˜r, b = r, and c = [r, e], we transform the
above expression for gradf to the following form:
(7.9) gradf(˜r) = −3
¸
r, ˜r
_
[r, e] −
3
2
[˜r, [r, [r, e]]].
Right hand side of (7.9) contains triple vectorial product. In order
to transform it we use the identity [a, [b, c]] = b
¸
a, c
_
−c
¸
a, b
_
again, now assuming that a = r, b = r, and c = e:
gradf(˜r) = −3
¸
r, ˜r
_
[r, e] −
3
2
¸
r, e
_
[˜r, r] +
3
2
[r[
2
[˜r, e].
Let’s add this expression for gradf to vector b(˜r). Here is
resulting new expression for this vector:
(7.10) b(˜r) = −
3
2
¸
r, e
_
[˜r, r] +
1
2
[r[
2
[˜r, e].
Let’s substitute (7.10) into formula (7.7). This yields
¸
H
2
, e
_
=
_

−3
¸
r, e
_ ¸
r, [ j(˜r), ˜r]
_
+[r[
2
¸
e, [ j(˜r), ˜r]
_
2 c [r[
5
d
3
˜r.
Note that quantities j(˜r) and ˜r enter into this formula in form of
30 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.
vector product [ j(˜r), ˜r] only. Denote by M the following integral:
(7.11) M =
_

[˜r, j(˜r)]
2 c
d
3
˜r.
Vector M given by integral (7.11) is called magnetic moment for
currents with density j(˜r). In terms of M the above relationship
for scalar product
¸
H
2
, e
_
is written as follows:
(7.12)
¸
H
2
, e
_
=
3
¸
r, e
_ ¸
r, M
_
−[r[
2
¸
e, M
_
[r[
5
.
If we remember that e in formula (7.12) is an arbitrary constant
vector, then from (7.3) and lemma 7.1 we can conclude that the
field of point magnetic dipole
(7.13) H(r) =
3
¸
r, M
_
r −[r[
2
M
[r[
5
is leading term in asymptotical expansion of static magnetic field
(4.9) and (5.6) as r →∞.
Like electric dipole moment D of the system with zero total
charge Q = 0, magnetic moment M is invariant with respect
to displacements r → r + r
0
that don’t change configuration of
currents within system. Indeed, under such displacement integral
(7.11) is incremented by
(7.14) △M =
_

[r
0
, j(˜r)]
2 c
d
3
˜r = 0.
Integral in formula (7.14) is equal to zero by the same reasons as
in proof of lemma 7.1.
§ 8. INTEGRAL EQUATIONS . . . 31
Exercise 7.1. Consider localized system of currents j(r) with
current density given by the following distribution:
(7.15) j(r) = −c [M, gradδ(r)].
Verify the relationship (7.1) for the system of currents (7.15) and
find its magnetic moment M. Applying formula (5.6), calculate
magnetic field of this system of currents and explain why this sys-
tem of currents is called point magnetic dipole.
Exercise 7.2. Using formula (5.5), find the force acting upon
point magnetic dipole in external magnetic field H(r).
Exercise 7.3. By means of the following formula for the torque
/=
_
1
c
[r, [ j(r), H]] d
3
r
find torque / acting upon point magnetic dipole (7.15) in homo-
geneous magnetic field H = const.
¸ 8. Integral equations
for static electromagnetic field.
Remember that we introduced the concept of flow of vector
field through a surface in considering charge conservation law (see
integral J in (5.1)). Now we consider flows of vector fields E(r)
and H(r), i. e. for electric field and magnetic field:
c =
_
S
¸
E, n
_
dS, H =
_
S
¸
H, n
_
dS. (8.1)
Let S be closed surface enveloping some domain Ω, i. e. S =
∂Ω. Electrostatic field E is determined by formula (3.5). Let’s
32 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.
substitute (3.5) into first integral (8.1) and then let’s change order
of integration in resulting double integral:
(8.2) c =
_
ρ(˜r)
_
∂Ω
¸
r −˜r, n(r)
_
[r −˜r[
3
dS d
3
˜r.
Inner surface integral in (8.2) is an integral of explicit function.
This integral can be calculated explicitly:
(8.3)
_
∂Ω
¸
r −˜r, n(r)
_
[r −˜r[
3
dS =
_
0, if ˜r ,∈ Ω,
4π, if ˜r ∈ Ω.
Here by Ω = Ω ∪ ∂Ω we denote closure of the domain Ω.
In order to prove the relationship (8.3) let’s consider vector
field m(r) given by the following formula:
(8.4) m(r) =
r −˜r
[r −˜r[
3
.
Vector field m(r) is smooth everywhere except for one special
point r = ˜r. In all regular points of this vector field by direct
calculations we find div m = 0. If ˜r ,∈ Ω special point of the field
m is out of the domain Ω. Therefore in this case we can apply
Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula to (8.3):
_
∂Ω
¸
m, n
_
dS =
_

div md
3
r = 0.
This proves first case in formula (8.3). In order to prove second
case, when ˜r ∈ Ω, we use tactical maneuver. Let’s consider spher-
ical ǫ-neighborhood O = O
ǫ
of special point r = ˜r. For sufficiently
small ǫ this neighborhood O = O
ǫ
is completely enclosed into the
§ 8. INTEGRAL EQUATIONS . . . 33
domain Ω. Then from zero divergency condition div m = 0 for
the field given by formula (8.4) we derive
(8.5)
_
∂Ω
¸
m, n
_
dS =
_
∂O
¸
m, n
_
dS = 4π.
The value of last integral over sphere ∂O in (8.5) is found by direct
calculation, which is not difficult. Thus, formula (8.3) is proved.
Substituting (8.3) into (8.2) we get the following relationship:
(8.6)
_
∂Ω
¸
E, n
_
dS = 4π
_

ρ(r) d
3
r.
This relationship (8.6) can be formulated as a theorem.
Theorem (on the flow of electric field). Flow of electric field
through the boundary of restricted domain is equal to total charge
enclosed within this domain multiplied by 4π.
Now let’s consider flow of magnetic field H in (8.1). Static
magnetic field is determined by formula (5.6). Let’s substitute
H(r) given by (5.6) into second integral (8.1), then change the
order of integration in resulting double integral:
(8.7) H =
_ _
∂Ω
1
c
¸
[ j(˜r), r −˜r], n(r)
_
[r −˜r[
3
dS d
3
˜r.
It’s clear that in calculating inner integral over the surface ∂Ω
vector j can be taken for constant. Now consider the field
(8.8) m(r) =
[ j, r −˜r]
c [r −˜r[
3
.
34 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.
Like (8.4), this vector field (8.8) has only one singular point r = ˜r.
Divergency of this field is equal to zero, this fact can be verified
by direct calculations. As appears in this case, singular point
makes no effect to the value of surface integral in (8.7). Instead
of (8.3) in this case we have the following formula:
(8.9)
_
∂Ω
1
c
¸
[ j, r −˜r], n(r)
_
[r −˜r[
3
dS = 0.
For ˜r ,∈ Ω the relationship (8.9) follows from div m = 0 by
applying Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula. For ˜r ∈ Ω we have the
relationship similar to the above relationship (8.5):
(8.10)
_
∂Ω
¸
m, n
_
dS =
_
∂O
¸
m, n
_
dS = 0.
However, the value of surface integral over sphere ∂O in this case
is equal to zero since vector m(r) is perpendicular to normal
vector n at all points of sphere ∂O. As a result of substituting
(8.9) into (8.7) we get the relationship
(8.11)
_
∂Ω
¸
H, n
_
dS = 0,
which is formulated as the following theorem.
Theorem (on the flow of magnetic field). Total flow of mag-
netic field through the boundary of any restricted domain is equal
to zero.
Let r(s) be vectorial parametric equation of some closed spatial
curve Γ being the rim for some open surface S, i. e. Γ = ∂S. Open
surface S means that S and Γ have empty intersection. By S we
§ 8. INTEGRAL EQUATIONS . . . 35
denote the closure of the surface S. Then S = S ∪ Γ. Taking
s for natural parameter on Γ, we define circulation for electric
and magnetic fields in form of the
following contour integrals:
(8.12)
e =
_
Γ
¸
E, τ
_
ds,
h =
_
Γ
¸
H, τ
_
ds.
Substituting (3.5) into (8.12) and
changing the order of integration in
Fig. 8.1
Γ
n
S
n
n
resulting double integral, we get the
following equality for circulation of electric field:
(8.13) e =
_
ρ(˜r)
_
Γ
¸
r(s) −˜r, τ(s)
_
[r(s) −˜r[
3
ds d
3
˜r.
Due to (8.13) we need to consider vector field (8.4) again. For
˜r ,∈ Γ, taking into account Γ = ∂S and applying Stokes formula,
we can transform contour integral in (8.13) to surface integral:
(8.14)
_
Γ
¸
r(s) −˜r, τ(s)
_
[r(s) −˜r[
3
ds =
_
S
¸
rot m, n
_
dS = 0.
Values of integral (8.14) at those points ˜r ∈ Γ are of no matter
since when substituting (8.14) into integral (8.13) such points
constitute a set of zero measure.
Vanishing of integral (8.14) for ˜r ,∈ Γ follows from rot m = 0,
this equality can be verified by direct calculations. Singular point
r = ˜r of vector field (8.4) is unessential since surface S, for which
CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.
36 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.
Γ is a boundary, can be deformed so that ˜r ,∈ S. The result of
substituting (8.14) into (8.13) can be written as an equation:
(8.15)
_
∂S
¸
E, τ
_
ds = 0.
Theorem (on the circulation of electric field). Total circula-
tion of static electric field along the boundary of any restricted
open surface is equal to zero.
Formula like (8.15) is available for magnetic field as well. Here
is this formula that determines circulation of magnetic field:
(8.16)
_
∂S
¸
H, τ
_
ds =
4 π
c
_
S
¸
j, n
_
dS.
Corresponding theorem is stated as follows.
Theorem (on the circulation of magnetic field). Circulation of
static magnetic field along boundary of restricted open surface is
equal to total electric current penetrating this surface multiplied
by fraction 4 π/c.
Integral over the surface S now is in right hand side of formula
(8.16) explicitly. Therefore surface spanned over the contour Γ
now is fixed. We cannot deform this surface as we did above
in proving theorem on circulation of electric field. This leads to
some technical complication of the proof. Let’s consider ε-blow-
up of surface S. This is domain Ω(ε) being union of all ε-balls
surrounding all point r ∈ S. This domain encloses surface S and
contour Γ = ∂S. If ε →0, domain Ω(ε) contracts to S.
Denote by D(ε) = R
3
¸ Ω(ε) exterior of the domain Ω(ε) and
then consider the following modification of formula (5.6) that
§ 8. INTEGRAL EQUATIONS . . . 37
expresses Biot-Savart-Laplace law for magnetic field:
(8.17) H(r) = lim
ε→0
_
D(ε)
1
c
[ j(˜r), r −˜r]
[r −˜r[
3
d
3
˜r.
Let’s substitute (8.17) into integral (8.12) and change the order of
integration in resulting double integral. As a result we get
(8.18) h = lim
ε→0
_
D(ε)
_
Γ
1
c
¸
[ j(˜r), r(s) −˜r], τ(s)
_
[r(s) −˜r[
3
ds d
3
˜r.
In inner integral in (8.18) we see vector field (8.8). Unlike vector
filed (8.4), rotor of this field is nonzero:
(8.19) rot m =
3
¸
r −˜r, j
_
(r −˜r) −[r −˜r[
2
j
c [r −˜r[
5
.
Using Stokes formula and taking into account (8.19), we can
transform contour integral (8.18) to surface integral:
_
Γ
1
c
¸
[ j(˜r), r(s) −˜r], τ(s)
_
[r(s) −˜r[
3
ds =
=
_
S
3
¸
r −˜r, j(˜r)
_ ¸
r −˜r, n(r)
_
−[r −˜r[
2
¸
j(˜r), n(r)
_
c [r −˜r[
5
dS.
Denote by ¯ m(˜r) vector field of the following form:
¯ m(˜r) =
3
¸
˜r −r, n(r)
_
(˜r −r) −[˜r −r[
2
n(r)
c [˜r −r[
5
.
38 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.
In terms of the field ¯ m(˜r) formula for h is written as
h = lim
ε→0
_
D(ε)
_
S
¸
¯ m(˜r), j(˜r)
_
dS d
3
˜r.
Vector field ¯ m(˜r) in this formula has cubic singularity [˜r − r[
−3
at the point ˜r = r. Such singularity is not integrable in R
3
(if
we integrate with respect to d
3
˜r). This is why we use auxiliary
domain D(ε) and limit as ε →0.
Let’s change the order of integration in resulting double integral
for circulation h. This leads to formula
_
S
_
D(ε)
¸
¯ m(˜r), j(˜r)
_
d
3
˜r dS =
_
S
_
D(ε)
¸
gradf(˜r), j(˜r)
_
d
3
˜r dS,
since vector field ¯ m(˜r) apparently is gradient of the function f(˜r):
(8.20) f(˜r) = −
¸
˜r −r, n(r)
_
c [˜r −r[
3
.
Function f(˜r) vanishes as ˜r → ∞. Assume that current density
also vanishes as ˜r → ∞. Then due to the same considerations as
in proof of lemma 7.1 and due to formula (7.1) spatial integral in
the above formula can be transformed to surface integral:
(8.21) h = lim
ε→0
_
S
_
∂D(ε)
f(˜r)
¸
j(˜r), ˜ n(˜r)
_
d
¯
S dS.
Let’s change the order of integration in (8.21) then take into
account common boundary ∂D(ε) = ∂Ω(ε). Outer normal to the
§ 8. INTEGRAL EQUATIONS . . . 39
surface ∂D(ε) coincides with inner normal to ∂Ω(ε). This coin-
cidence and explicit form of function (8.20) lead to the following
expression for circulation of magnetic field h:
(8.22) h = lim
ε→0
_
∂Ω(ε)
¸
j(˜r), ˜ n(˜r)
_
c
_
S
¸
˜r −r, n(r)
_
[˜r −r[
3
dS d
¯
S.
Let’s denote by V (˜r) inner integral in formula (8.22):
(8.23) V (˜r) =
_
S
¸
˜r −r, n(r)
_
[˜r −r[
3
dS.
Integral (8.23) is well-known in mathematical physics. It is called
potential of double layer. There is the following lemma, proof of
which can be found in [1].
Lemma 8.1. Double layer potential (8.23) is restricted func-
tion in R
3
¸ S. At each inner point ˜r ∈ S there are side limits
V
±
(˜r) = lim
r→±S
V (r),
inner limit V

(˜r) as r tends to ˜r ∈ S from inside along normal
vector n, and outer limit V
+
(˜r) as r tends to ˜r ∈ S from outside
against the direction of normal vector n. Thereby V
+
− V

= 4π
for all points ˜r ∈ S.
In order to calculate limit in formula (8.22) we need to study
the geometry of ε-blow-up of the surface S. On Fig. 8.2 below
we see cross-section of the domain Ω(ε) obtained from the surface
S shown on Fig. 8.1. For sufficiently small ε boundary of the
domain Ω(ε) is composed of three parts:
(8.24) ∂Ω(ε) = S
0
∪ S
+
∪ S

.
40 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.
Surface S
0
is a part of ε-blow-up of the contour Γ Area of this
surface S
0
satisfies the relationship
(8.25) S
0
∼ επL as ε →0,
where L is length of contour
Γ. Surfaces S
+
and S

are ob-
tained as a result of normal shift
of surface S to the distance ε
along normal vector n, and to
the same distance against nor-
mal vector n.
Fig. 8.2
S
0
S

S
n
n S
+
Substituting (8.24) into (8.22)
we break surface integral over
∂Ω(ε) into three parts. Since
double layer potential and func-
tion [ j(˜r)[ are restricted, we get
the relationship
(8.26) lim
ε→0
_
S
0
V (˜r)
¸
j(˜r), ˜ n(˜r)
_
c
d
¯
S = 0.
For other two summand we also can calculate limits as ε →0:
(8.27)
_
S
±
V (˜r)
¸
j(˜r), ˜ n(˜r)
_
c
d
¯
S −→±
_
S
V
±
(r)
¸
j(r), n(r)
_
c
dS.
We shall not load reader with the proof of formulas (8.24), (8.25)
and (8.27), which are sufficiently obvious. Summarizing (8.26)
and (8.27) and taking into account lemma 8.1, we obtain
(8.28) h =

c
_
S
¸
j(r), n(r)
_
dS.
§ 9. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS . . . 41
This relationship (8.28) completes derivation of formula (8.16)
and proof of theorem on circulation of magnetic field in whole.
Exercise 8.1. Verify the relationship div m = 0 for vector
fields (8.4) and (8.8).
Exercise 8.2. Verify the relationship (8.19) for vector field
given by formula (8.8).
Exercise 8.3. Calculate gradf for the function (8.20).
¸ 9. Differential equations
for static electromagnetic field.
In ¸ 8 we have derived four integral equations for electric and
magnetic fields. They are used to be grouped into two pairs.
Equations in first pair have zero right hand sides:
_
∂Ω
¸
H, n
_
dS = 0,
_
∂S
¸
E, τ
_
ds = 0. (9.1)
Right hand sides of equations in second pair are non-zero. They
are determined by charges and currents:
(9.2)
_
∂Ω
¸
E, n
_
dS = 4π
_

ρ d
3
r,
_
∂S
¸
H, τ
_
ds =
4 π
c
_
S
¸
j, n
_
dS.
Applying Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula and Stokes formula, one
can transform surface integrals to spatial ones, and contour inte-
grals to surface integrals. Then, since Ω is arbitrary domain and
42 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.
S is arbitrary open surface, integral equations (9.1) and (9.2) can
be transformed to differential equations:
div H = 0, rot E = 0, (9.3)
div E = 4πρ, rot H =

c
j. (9.4)
When considering differential equations (9.3) and (9.4), we should
add conditions for charges and currents being stationary:
∂ρ
∂t
= 0,
∂j
∂t
= 0. (9.5)
The relationship (7.1) then is a consequence of (9.5) and charge
conservation law.
Differential equations (9.3) and (9.4) form complete system
of differential equations for describing stationary electromagnetic
fields. When solving them functions ρ(r) and j(r) are assumed to
be known. If they are not known, one should have some additional
equations relating ρ and j with E and H. These additional
equations describe properties of medium (for instance, continuous
conducting medium is described by the equation j = σ E, where σ
is conductivity of medium).
CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.
CHAPTER II
CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS
¸ 1. Maxwell equations.
Differential equations (9.3) and (9.4), which we have derived
in the end of Chapter I, describe fields generated by stationary
charges and currents. They are absolutely unsuitable if we are
going to describe the process of haw electromagnetic interaction is
transmitted in space. Note that the notion of field was introduced
within framework of the concept of near action for describing
the object that transmit interaction of charges and currents. For
static fields this property is revealed in a very restrictive form,
i. e. we use fields only to divide interaction of charges and currents
into two processes: creation of a field by charges and currents is
first process, action of this field upon other currents and charges
is second process. Dynamic properties of the field itself appears
beyond our consideration.
More exact equations describing process of transmitting elec-
tromagnetic interaction in its time evolution were suggested by
Maxwell. They are the following ones:
div H = 0, rot E = −
1
c
∂H
∂t
, (1.1)
div E = 4πρ, rot H =

c
j +
1
c
∂E
∂t
. (1.2)
44 CHAPTER II. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS.
It is easy to see that equations (1.1) and (1.2) are generalizations
for the (9.3) and (9.4) from Chapter I. They are obtained from
latter ones by modifying right hand sides. Like equations (9.3)
and (9.4) in Chapter I, Maxwell equations (1.1) and (1.2) can be
written in form of integral equations:
_
∂Ω
¸
H, n
_
dS = 0,
_
∂S
¸
E, τ
_
ds = −
1
c
d
dt
_
S
¸
H, n
_
dS,
(1.3)
_
∂Ω
¸
E, n
_
dS = 4π
_

ρ d
3
r,
_
∂S
¸
H, τ
_
ds =
4 π
c
_
S
¸
j, n
_
dS +
1
c
d
dt
_
S
¸
E, n
_
dS.
(1.4)
Consider contour integral in second equation (1.3). Similar
contour integral is present in second equation (1.4). However,
unlike circulation of magnetic field, circulation of electric field
(1.5) e =
_
∂S
¸
E, τ
_
ds
possess its own physical interpretation. If imaginary contour
Γ = ∂S in space is replaced by real circular conductor, then
electric field with nonzero circulation induces electric current in
conductor. The quantity e from (1.5) in this case is called electro-
motive force of the field E in contour. Electromotive force e ,= 0
in contour produce the same effect as linking electric cell with
§ 1. MAXWELL EQUATIONS. 45
voltage e into this contour. Experimentally it reveals as follow:
alternating magnetic field produces electric field with nonzero cir-
culation, this induces electric current in circular conductor. This
phenomenon is known as electromagnetic induction. It was first
discovered by Faraday. Faraday gave qualitative description of
this phenomenon in form of the following induction law.
Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. Electromo-
tive force of induction in circular conductor is proportional to the
rate of changing of magnetic flow embraced by this conductor.
Faraday’s induction law was a hint for Maxwell when choosing
right hand side in second equation (1.1). As for similar term in
right hand side of second equation (1.2), Maxwell had written it
by analogy. Experiments and further development of technology
proved correctness of Maxwell equations.
Note that charge conservation law in form of relationship (5.4)
from Chapter I is a consequence of Maxwell equations. One
should calculate divergency of both sides of second equation (1.2):
div rot H =

c
div j +
1
c
∂ div E
∂t
,
then one should apply the identity div rot H = 0. When combined
with the first equation (1.2) this yields exactly the relationship
(5.4) from Chapter I.
Equations (1.1) and (1.2) form complete system for describ-
ing arbitrary electromagnetic fields. In solving them functions
ρ(r, t) and j(r, t) should be given, or they should be determined
from medium equations. Then each problem of electrodynam-
ics mathematically reduces to some boundary-value problem or
mixed initial-value/boundary-value problem for Maxwell equa-
tions optionally completed by medium equations. In this section
46 CHAPTER II. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS.
we consider only some very special ones among such problems.
Our main goal is to derive important mathematical consequences
from Maxwell equations and to interpret their physical nature.
¸ 2. Density of energy and energy flow
for electromagnetic field.
Suppose that in bulk conductor we have a current with density
j, and suppose that this current is produced by the flow of charged
particles with charge q. If ν is the number of such particles per
unit volume and if v is their velocity, then j = q ν v. Recall that
current density is a charge passing through unit area per unit
time (see ¸ 5 in Chapter I).
In electromagnetic field each particle experiences Lorentz force
determined by formula (4.4) from Chapter I. Work of this force
per unit time is equal to
¸
F, v
_
= q
¸
E, v
_
. Total work produced
by electromagnetic field per unit volume is obtained if one multi-
plies this quantity by ν, then w = q ν
¸
E, v
_
=
¸
E, j
_
. This work
increases kinetic energy of particles (particles are accelerated by
field). Otherwise this work is used for to compensate forces of
viscous friction that resist motion of particles. In either case
total power spent by electromagnetic field within domain Ω is
determined by the following integral:
(2.1) W =
_

¸
E, j
_
d
3
r.
Let’s transform integral (2.1). Let’s express current density j
through E and H using second equation (1.2) for this purpose:
(2.2) j =
c
4 π
rot H−
1
4 π
∂E
∂t
.
§ 2. DENSITY OF ENERGY AND ENERGY FLOW . . . 47
Substituting this expression (2.2) into formula (2.1), we get
(2.3) W =
c
4 π
_

¸
E, rot H
_
d
3
r −
1
8 π
_


∂t
¸
E, E
_
d
3
r.
In order to implement further transformations in formula (2.3)
we use well-known identity div [a, b] =
¸
b, rot a
_

¸
a, rot b
_
.
Assuming a = H and b = E, for W we get
W =
c
4 π
_

div[H, E] d
3
r +
c
4 π
_

¸
H, rot E
_
d
3
r −
d
dt
_

[E[
2
8 π
d
3
r.
First integral in this expression can be transformed by means of
Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula, while for transforming rot E one can
use Maxwell equations (1.1):
(2.4) W +
_
∂Ω
c
4 π
¸
[E, H], n
_
dS +
d
dt
_

[E[
2
+[H[
2
8 π
d
3
r = 0.
Let’s denote by S and ε vectorial field and scalar field of the form
S =
c
4 π
[E, H], ε =
[E[
2
+[H[
2
8 π
. (2.5)
The quantity ε in (2.5) is called density of energy of electromag-
netic field. Vector S is known as density of energy flow. It also
called Umov-Pointing vector. Under such interpretation of quan-
tities (2.5) the relationship (2.4) can be treated as the equation
of energy balance. First summand in (2.4) is called dissipation
power, this is the amount of energy dissipated per unit time at
the expense of transmitting it to moving charges. Second sum-
mand is the amount of energy that flows from within domain Ω to
48 CHAPTER II. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS.
outer space per unit time. These two forms of energy losses lead
to diminishing the energy stored by electromagnetic field itself
within domain Ω (see third summand in (2.4)).
Energy balance equation (2.4) can be rewritten in differential
form, analogous to formula (5.4) from Chapter I:
(2.6)
∂ε
∂t
+ div S +w = 0.
Here w =
¸
E, j
_
is a density of energy dissipation. Note that in
some cases w and integral (2.1) in whole can be negative. In such
a case we have energy pumping into electromagnetic field. This
energy then flows to outer space through boundary of the domain
Ω. This is the process of radiation of electromagnetic waves from
the domain Ω. It is realized in antennas (aerials) of radio and
TV transmitters. If we eliminate or restrict substantially the
energy leakage from the domain Ω to outer space, then we would
have the device like microwave oven, where electromagnetic field
is used for transmitting energy from radiator to beefsteak.
Electromagnetic field can store and transmit not only the
energy, but the momentum as well. In order to derive momentum
balance equations let’s consider again the current with density j
due to the particles with charge q which move with velocity v.
Let ν be concentration of these particles, i. e. number of particles
per unit volume. Then j = q ν v and ρ = q ν. Total force acting
on all particles within domain Ω is given by integral
(2.7) F =
_

ρ Ed
3
r +
_

1
c
[ j, H] d
3
r.
In order to derive formula (2.7) one should multiply Lorentz force
acting on each separate particle by the number of particles per
unit volume ν and then integrate over the domain Ω.
§ 2. DENSITY OF ENERGY AND ENERGY FLOW . . . 49
Force F determines the amount of momentum transmitted
from electromagnetic field to particles enclosed within domain Ω.
Integral (2.7) is vectorial quantity. For further transformations of
this integral let’s choose some constant unit vector e and consider
scalar product of this vector e and vector F:
(2.8)
¸
F, e
_
=
_

ρ
¸
E, e
_
d
3
r +
_
1
c
¸
e, [ j, H]
_
d
3
r.
Substituting (2.2) into (2.8), we get
(2.9)
¸
F, e
_
=
_

ρ
¸
E, e
_
d
3
r +
1
4 π
_

¸
e, [rot H, H]
_
d
3
r −

1
4 π c
_

¸
e, [∂E/∂t, H]
_
d
3
r.
Recalling well-known property of mixed product, we do cyclic
transposition of multiplicands in second integral (2.9). Moreover,
we use obvious identity [∂E/∂t, H] = ∂ [E, H] /∂t − [E, ∂H/∂t].
This yields the following expression for
¸
F, e
_
:
¸
F, e
_
=
_

ρ
¸
E, e
_
d
3
r +
1
4 π
_

¸
rot H, [H, e]
_
d
3
r −

1
4 π c
d
dt
_

¸
e, [E, H]
_
d
3
r +
1
4 π c
_

¸
e, [E, ∂H/∂t]
_
d
3
r.
Now we apply second equation of the system (1.1) written as
CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.
50 CHAPTER II. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS.
∂H/∂t = −c rot E. Then we get formula
(2.10)
¸
F, e
_
+
d
dt
_

¸
e, [E, H]
_
4 π c
d
3
r =
_

ρ
¸
E, e
_
d
3
r +
+
_

¸
rot H, [H, e]
_
+
¸
rot E, [E, e]
_
4 π
d
3
r.
In order to transform last two integrals in (2.10) we use the
following three identities, two of which we already used earlier:
(2.11)
[a, [b, c]] = b
¸
a, c
_
−c
¸
a, b
_
,
div [a, b] =
¸
b, rot a
_

¸
a, rot b
_
,
rot [a, b] = a div b −b div a −¦a, b¦.
Here by curly brackets we denote commutator of two vector
fields a and b (see [2]). Traditionally square brackets are used
for commutator, but here by square brackets we denote vector
product of two vectors. From second identity (2.11) we derive
¸
rot H, [H, e]
_
= div [H, [H, e]] +
¸
H, rot [H, e]
_
.
In order to transform rot[H, e] we use third identity (2.11):
rot[H, e] = −e div H−¦H, e¦. Then
¸
H, rot [H, e]
_
= −
¸
H, e
_
div H+
3

i=1
H
i
3

j=1
e
j
∂H
i
∂r
j
=
= −
¸
H, e
_
div H+
1
2
¸
e, grad[H[
2
_
.
§ 2. DENSITY OF ENERGY AND ENERGY FLOW . . . 51
Let’s combine two above relationships and apply first identity
(2.11) for to transform double vectorial product [H, [H, e]] in
first of them. As a result we obtain
¸
rot H, [H, e]
_
= div
_
H
¸
H, e
__
−div
_
e [H[
2
_


¸
H, e
_
div H+
1
2
¸
e, grad[H[
2
_
.
But div
_
e [H[
2
_
=
¸
e, grad[H[
2
_
. Hence as a final result we get
(2.12)
¸
rot H, [H, e]
_
= −
¸
H, e
_
div H+
+ div
_
H
¸
H, e
_

1
2
e [H[
2
_
.
Quite similar identity can be derived for electric field E:
(2.13)
¸
rot E, [E, e]
_
= −
¸
E, e
_
div E+
+ div
_
E
¸
E, e
_

1
2
e [E[
2
_
.
The only difference is that due to Maxwell equations div H = 0,
while divergency of electric field E is nonzero: div E = 4πρ.
Now, if we take into account (2.12) and (2.13), formula (2.10)
can be transformed to the following one:
¸
F, e
_

_
∂Ω
¸
E, e

n, E
_
+
¸
H, e

n, H
_
4 π
dS +
+
_
∂Ω
([E[
2
+[H[
2
)
¸
e, n
_
8 π
dS +
d
dt
_

¸
e, [E, H]
_
4 π c
d
3
r = 0.
Denote by σ linear operator such that the result of applying this
52 CHAPTER II. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS.
operator to some arbitrary vector e is given by formula
(2.14) σ e = −
E
¸
E, e
_
+H
¸
H, e
_
4 π
+
[E[
2
+[H[
2
8 π
e.
Formula (2.14) defines tensorial field σ of type (1, 1) with the
following components:
(2.15) σ
i
j
=
[E[
2
+[H[
2
8 π
δ
i
j

E
i
E
j
+H
i
H
j
4 π
.
Tensor σ with components (2.15) is called tensor of the density
of momentum flow. It is also known as Maxwell tensor. Now let’s
define vector of momentum density p by formula
(2.16) p =
[E, H]
4 π c
.
In terms of the notations (2.15) and (2.16) the above relationship
for
¸
F, e
_
is rewritten as follows:
(2.17)
¸
F, e
_
+
_
∂Ω
¸
σ e, n
_
dS +
d
dt
_

¸
p, e
_
d
3
r = 0.
Operator of the density of momentum flow σ is symmetric, i. e.
¸
σ e, n
_
=
¸
e, σ n
_
. Due to this property and because e is
arbitrary vector we can rewrite (2.17) in vectorial form:
(2.18) F +
_
∂Ω
σ ndS +
d
dt
_

pd
3
r = 0.
This equation (2.18) is the equation of momentum balance for
electromagnetic field. Force F, given by formula (2.7) determines
§ 2. DENSITY OF ENERGY AND ENERGY FLOW . . . 53
loss of momentum stored in electromagnetic field due to transmit-
ting it to moving particles. Second term in (2.18) determines loss
of momentum due to its flow through the boundary of the domain
Ω. These two losses lead to diminishing the momentum stored
by electromagnetic field within domain Ω (see third summand in
(2.18)).
The relationship (2.18) can be rewritten in differential form.
For this purpose we should define vectorial divergency for tensorial
field σ of the type (1, 1). Let
(2.19) µ = div σ, where µ
j
=
3

i=1
∂σ
i
j
∂r
i
.
Then differential form of (2.18) is written as
(2.20)
∂p
∂t
+ div σ +f = 0,
where f = ρ E + [ j, H]/c is a density of Lorentz force, while
vectorial divergency is determined according to (2.19).
Thus, electromagnetic field is capable to accumulate within
itself the energy and momentum:
c =
_

[E[
2
+[H[
2
8 π
d
3
r, P =
_

[E, H]
4 π c
d
3
r. (2.21)
It is also capable to transmit energy and momentum to material
bodies. This confirms once more our assertion that electromag-
netic field itself is a material entity. It is not pure mathematical
abstraction convenient for describing interaction of charges and
currents, but real physical object.
Exercise 2.1. Verify that relationships (2.11) hold. Check on
the derivation of (2.12) and (2.13).
54 CHAPTER II. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS.
¸ 3. Vectorial and scalar potentials
of electromagnetic field.
In section 2 we have found that electromagnetic field possess
energy and momentum (2.21). This is very important conse-
quence of Maxwell equations (1.1) and (1.2). However we have
not studied Maxwell equations themselves. This is system of four
equations, two of them are scalar equations, other two are vecto-
rial equations. So they are equivalent to eight scalar equations.
However we have only six undetermined functions in them: three
components of vector E and three components of vector H. So
observe somewhat like excessiveness in Maxwell equations.
One of the most popular ways for solving systems of algebraic
equations is to express some variable through other ones by
solving one of the equations in a system (usually most simple
equation) and then substituting the expression obtained into other
equations. Thus we exclude one variable and diminish the number
of equations in a system also by one. Sometimes this trick
is applicable to differential equations as well. Let’s consider
Maxwell equation div H = 0. Vector field with zero divergency is
called vortex field. For vortex fields the following theorem holds
(see proof in book [3]).
Theorem on vortex field. Each vortex field is a rotor of some
other vector field.
Let’s write the statement of this theorem as applied to mag-
netic field. It is given by the following relationship:
(3.1) H = rot A.
Vector field A, whose existence is granted by the above theorem,
is called vector-potential of electromagnetic field.
§ 3. VECTORIAL AND SCALAR POTENTIALS . . . 55
Let’s substitute vector H as given by (3.1) into second Maxwell
equation (1.1). This yields the equality
(3.2) rot E +
1
c

∂t
rot A = rot
_
E+
1
c
∂A
∂t
_
= 0.
Vector field with zero rotor is called potential field. It is vector
field E + (∂A/∂t)/c in formula (3.2) which is obviously potential
field. Potential fields are described by the following theorem (see
proof in book [3]).
Theorem on potential field. Each potential field is a gradi-
ent of some scalar field.
Applying this theorem to vector field (3.2), we get the relation-
ship determining scalar potential of electromagnetic field ϕ:
(3.3) E+
1
c
∂A
∂t
= −gradϕ.
Combining (3.1) and (3.3), we can express electric and magnetic
fields E and H through newly introduced fields A and ϕ:
(3.4)
E = −gradϕ −
1
c
∂A
∂t
,
H = rot A.
Upon substituting (3.4) into first pair of Maxwell equations
(1.1) we find them to be identically fulfilled. As for second pair of
Maxwell equations, substituting (3.4) into these equations, we get
(3.5)
−△ϕ −
1
c

∂t
div A = 4 π ρ,
graddiv A−△A+
1
c

∂t
gradϕ +
1
c
2

2
A
∂t
2
=
4 π j
c
.
56 CHAPTER II. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS.
In deriving (3.5) we used relationships
(3.6)
div gradϕ = △ϕ,
rot rot A = graddiv A−△A.
Second order differential operator △ is called Laplace operator. In
rectangular Cartesian coordinates it is defined by formula
(3.7) △ =
3

i=1
_

∂r
i
_
2
=

2
∂x
2
+

2
∂y
2
+

2
∂z
2
.
In order to simplify the equations (3.5) we rearrange terms in
them. As a result we get
(3.8)
1
c
2

2
ϕ
∂t
2
−△ϕ = 4 π ρ +
1
c

∂t
_
1
c
∂ϕ
∂t
+ div A
_
,
1
c
2

2
A
∂t
2
−△A =
4 π j
c
− grad
_
1
c
∂ϕ
∂t
+ div A
_
.
Differential equations (3.8) are Maxwell equations written in
terms of A and ϕ. This is system of two equations one of
which is scalar equation, while another is vectorial equation. As
we can see, number of equations now is equal to the number of
undetermined functions in them.
¸ 4. Gauge transformations and Lorentzian gauge.
Vectorial and scalar potentials A and ϕ were introduced in
¸ 3 as a replacement for electric and magnetic fields E and H.
However, fields A and ϕ are not physical fields. Physical fields
E and H are expressed through A and ϕ according to formulas
(3.4), but backward correspondence is not unique, i. e. fields A
CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.
§ 4. GAUGE TRANSFORMATIONS . . . 57
and ϕ are not uniquely determined by physical fields E and H.
Indeed, let’s consider transformation
(4.1)
˜
A = A+ gradψ,
˜ ϕ = ϕ −
1
c
∂ψ
∂t
,
where ψ(r, t) is an arbitrary function. Substituting (4.1) into
formula (3.4), we immediately get
˜
E = E,
˜
H = H.
This means that physical fields E, H determined by fields
˜
A, ˜ ϕ
and by fields A, ϕ do coincide. Transformation (4.1) that do not
change physical fields E and H is called gauge transformation.
We use gauge transformations (4.1) for further simplification of
Maxwell equations (3.8). Let’s consider the quantity enclosed in
brackets in right hand sides of the equations (3.8):
(4.2)
1
c
∂ϕ
∂t
+ div A =
1
c
∂ ˜ ϕ
∂t
+ div
˜
A+
_
1
c
2

2
ψ
∂t
2
−△ψ
_
.
Denote by the following differential operator:
(4.3) =
1
c
2

2
∂t
2
−△.
Operator (4.3) is called d’Alambert operator or wave operator.
Differential equation u = v is called d’Alambert equation.
Using gauge freedom provided by gauge transformation (4.1),
we can fulfill the following condition:
(4.4)
1
c
∂ϕ
∂t
+ div A = 0.
58 CHAPTER II. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS.
For this purpose we should choose ψ solving d’Alambert equation
ψ = −
_
1
c
∂ ˜ ϕ
∂t
+ div
˜
A
_
.
It is known that d’Alambert equation is solvable under rather
weak restrictions for its right hand side (see book [1]). Hence
practically always we can fulfill the condition (4.4). This condition
is called Lorentzian gauge.
If Lorentzian gauge condition (4.4) is fulfilled, then Maxwell
equations (3.8) simplify substantially:
ϕ = 4 π ρ, A =
4 π j
c
. (4.5)
They look like pair of independent d’Alambert equations. How-
ever, one shouldn’t think that variables A and ϕ are completely
separated. Lorentzian gauge condition (4.4) itself is an additional
equation requiring concordant choice of solutions for d’Alambert
equations (4.5).
D’Alambert operator (4.3) is a scalar operator, in (4.5) it acts
upon each component of vector A separately. Therefore operator
commutates with rotor operator and with time derivative as
well. Therefore on the base of (3.4) we derive
E = −4π gradρ −

c
2
∂j
∂t
, H =

c
rot j. (4.6)
These equations (4.6) have no entries of potentials A and ϕ.
They are written in terms of real physical fields E and H, and
are consequences of Maxwell equations (1.1) and (1.2). However,
backward Maxwell equations do not follow from (4.6).
§ 5. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. 59
¸ 5. Electromagnetic waves.
In previous Chapter we considered static electromagnetic fields.
Such fields are uniquely determined by static configuration of
charges and currents (see formu-
las (3.5) and (5.6) in Chapter I ).
They cannot exist in the absence
of charges and currents. How-
Fig. 5.1
z
H
0
x
k
A
0
E
0
y
ever, as we shall see just below,
Maxwell equations have nonzero
solutions even in the case of iden-
tically zero currents and charges
in the space. Let’s study one of
such solutions. We choose some
right-oriented rectangular Carte-
sian system of coordinates and
take some constant vector k directed along x-axis (see Fig. 5.1).
Then we choose another constant vector A
0
directed along y-axis
and consider the following two functions:
A = A
0
sin(k x −ω t), ϕ = 0. (5.1)
Here k = [k[. Suppose ρ = 0 and j = 0. Then, substituting (5.1)
into (4.4) and into Maxwell equations (4.5), we get
(5.2) k
2
= [k[
2
=
ω
c
.
It is not difficult to satisfy this condition (5.2). If it is fulfilled,
then corresponding potentials (5.1) describe plane electromag-
netic wave, ω being its frequency and k being its wave-vector,
which determines the direction of propagation of that plane wave.
Rewriting (5.1) in a little bit different form
(5.3) A = A
0
sin(k(x −c t)),
60 CHAPTER II. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS.
we see that the velocity of propagating of plane electromagnetic
wave is equal to constant c (see (1.5) in Chapter I).
Now let’s substitute (5.1) into (3.4) and calculate electric and
magnetic fields in electromagnetic wave:
E = E
0
cos(k x −ω t), E
0
= [k[ A
0
,
H = H
0
cos(k x −ω t), H
0
= [k, A
0
], (5.4)
[E
0
[ = [H
0
[ = [k[ [A
0
[.
Vectors k, E
0
, and H
0
are perpendicular to each other, they form
right triple. Wave (5.4) with such vectors is called plane linear
polarized electromagnetic wave. Vector E
0
is taken for polarization
vector of this wave. Wave
E = E
0
cos(k x −ω t) +H
0
sin(k x −ω t),
H = H
0
cos(k x −ω t) −E
0
sin(k x −ω t)
is called circular polarized wave. It is superposition of two linear
polarized waves. Natural light is also electromagnetic wave. It
has no fixed polarization, however it is not circular polarized as
well. Natural light is a superposition of numerous plane linear
polarized waves with chaotically distributed polarization vectors.
¸ 6. Emission of electromagnetic waves.
Plane wave (5.4) is an endless wave filling the whole space. It
is certainly kind of idealization. Real electromagnetic waves fill
only some restricted part of the space. Moreover, they are not
eternal in time: there are sources (radiators) and absorbers of
electromagnetic fields. Formula (5.4) is an approximate descrip-
tion of real electromagnetic field in that part of space which is far
apart from radiators and absorbers.
§ 6. EMISSION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. 61
In this section we consider process of generation and radiation
of electromagnetic waves. Usually radiator is a system of charges
and currents, which is not static. We describe it by means of
functions ρ(r, t) and j(r, t). Let’s consider Maxwell equations
transformed to the form (4.5). These are non-homogeneous differ-
ential equations. Their solutions are not unique: to each solution
already found one can add arbitrary solution of corresponding
homogeneous equations. However, if we assume ρ(r, t) and j(r, t)
to be fast decreasing as r → ∞ and apply similar condition to
ϕ(r, t) and A(r, t), then we restrict substantially the freedom in
choosing solutions of the equations (4.5). In order to find one
of such solutions we need fundamental solution of d’Alambert
operator. This is distribution of the form:
(6.1) u(r, t) =
c

θ(t) δ(c
2
t
2
−[r[
2
),
where θ and δ are Heaviside theta-function and Dirac delta-
function respectively. Function (6.1) satisfies d’Alambert equation
with distribution in right hand side:
u = δ(t)δ(r).
In physics such objects are called Green functions. Knowing
fundamental solution (6.1) of d’Alambert operator, now we can
write solution for the equations (4.5) in form of contractions:
ϕ = 4π u ∗ ρ, A =

c
u ∗ j. (6.2)
Here ∗ denotes contraction of two distributions, see [1]. Due to
the properties of this operation from charge conservation law (see
formula (5.4) in Chapter I) we derive Lorentzian gauge condition
(4.4) for scalar and vectorial potentials (6.2). For smooth and
62 CHAPTER II. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS.
sufficiently fast decreasing functions ρ(r, t) and j(r, t) potentials
(6.2) are reduced to the following two integrals:
(6.3)
ϕ(r, t) =
_
ρ(˜r, t −τ)
[r −˜r[
d
3
˜r,
A(r, t) =
_
j(˜r, t −τ)
c [r −˜r[
d
3
˜r.
Here the quantity τ = τ(r, ˜r) is called time delay. It is determined
by the ratio τ = [r − ˜r[/c. Potentials (6.3) are called retarded
potentials.
Retarded potentials have transparent physical interpretation.
Scalar potential ϕ at the point r at time instant t is a superposi-
tion of contributions from charges at various points of the space,
the contribution from the point ˜r being determined not by charge
density at present time instant t, but at previous time instant
t − τ. Time delay τ is exactly equal to the time required for the
signal spreading with light velocity c from the source point ˜r to
get to the observation point r. Similar time delay is present in
formula for vector potential A.
Note that fundamental solution of d’Alambert equation is not
unique. For example there is a solution obtained from (6.1)
by changing τ for −τ. Such solution corresponds to advanced
potentials. However, in physics advanced potentials have no
meaning, since they would break causality principle.
Let’s consider system of charges located in some small domain
Ω surrounding the origin. Let R be maximal linear size of
this domain Ω. Using formulas (6.3), we calculate we calculate
electromagnetic field of the system of charges at the point r which
is far distant from the domain Ω, i. e. [˜r[ ≤ R ≪[r[. Due to these
inequalities the ratio ˜r/[r[ is small vectorial quantity. Therefore
§ 6. EMISSION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. 63
we have the following asymptotic expansions for [r −˜r[ and t −τ:
(6.4)
[r −˜r[ = [r[ −
¸
r, ˜r
_
[r[
+. . . ,
t −τ = t −
[r[
c
+
¸
r, ˜r
_
[r[ c
+. . . .
The ratio [r[/c in (6.4) determines the time required for electro-
magnetic signal to get from the domain Ω to the observation point
[r[. Posterior terms in the series for t − τ are estimated by small
quantity R/c. This is the time of propagation of electromagnetic
signal within domain Ω.
Denote t

= t −[r[/c and let t − τ = t

+ θ. For the quantity θ
we have the estimate [θ[ ≤ R/c. Then let’s consider the following
Taylor expansions for ρ and j:
(6.5)
ρ(˜r, t −τ) = ρ(˜r, t

) +
∂ρ(˜r, t

)
∂t
θ +. . . ,
j(˜r, t −τ) = j(˜r, t

) +
∂j(˜r, t

)
∂t
θ +. . . .
The condition R ≪[r[ is not sufficient for the expansions (6.5) to
be consistent. Use of expansions (6.5) for approximating ρ(˜r, t−τ)
and j(˜r, t −τ) is possible only under some additional assumptions
concerning these functions. Denote by T some specific time for
which functions ρ and j within domain Ω change substantially. In
case when one can specify such time T, the following quantities
are of the same order, i. e. equally large or equally small:
(6.6)
ρ ≈ T
∂ρ
∂t
≈ . . . ≈ T
n

n
ρ
∂t
n
,
j ≈ T
∂j
∂t
≈ . . . ≈ T
n

n
j
∂t
n
.
CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.
64 CHAPTER II. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS.
Now (6.5) can be rewritten as follows:
(6.7)
ρ(˜r, t −τ) = ρ(˜r, t

) +T
∂ρ(˜r, t

)
∂t
θ
T
+. . . ,
j(˜r, t −τ) = j(˜r, t

) +T
∂j(˜r, t

)
∂t
θ
T
+. . . .
Correctness of use of expansions (6.7) and (6.5) is provided by
additional condition R/c ≪T. This yields θ/T ≪1.
The condition R/c ≪ T has simple meaning: the quantity
ω = 2π/T is a frequency of radiated electromagnetic waves, while
λ = 2πc/ω = c T is a wavelength. Hence condition R/c ≪ T
means that wavelength is mach greater than the size of radiator.
Suppose that both conditions R ≪c T and R ≪[r[ are fulfilled.
Let’s calculate retarded vector potential A in (6.3) keeping only
first term in the expansion (6.5):
(6.8) A =
_

j(˜r, t

)
[r[ c
d
3
˜r +. . . .
In order to transform integral in (6.8) let’s choose some arbitrary
constant vector e and consider scalar product
¸
A, e
_
. Having
defined vector a and function f(˜r) by the relationships
a =
e
c[r[
= gradf, f(˜r) =
¸
a, ˜r
_
,
we make calculations analogous to that of (7.5) in Chapter I:
(6.9)
_

¸
j, gradf
_
d
3
˜r =
_

div(f j) d
3
˜r −
_

f div j d
3
˜r =
=
_
∂Ω
f
¸
j, n
_
dS +
_

f
∂ρ
∂t
d
3
˜r =
_

∂ρ(˜r, t

)
∂t
¸
e, ˜r
_
[r[ c
d
3
˜r.
§ 6. EMISSION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. 65
Since e is arbitrary vector, for vector potential A from (6.9) we
derive the following formula:
(6.10) A =
_

∂ρ(˜r, t

)
∂t
˜r
[r[ c
d
3
˜r +. . . =
˙
D
[r[ c
+. . . .
Here
˙
D =
˙
D(t

) is time derivative of dipole moment D of the
system of charges at time instant t

.
In a similar way, keeping only initial terms in the expansions
(6.4) and (6.5), for scalar potential ϕ in (6.3) we find
(6.11) ϕ =
_

ρ(˜r, t

)
[r[
d
3
˜r +. . . =
Q
[r[
+. . . ,
where Q is total charge enclosed within domain Ω. This charge
does not depend on time since domain Ω is isolated and we have
no electric current in outer space.
Let’s compare the expressions under integration in (6.10) and
(6.11) taking into account (6.6). This comparison yields
[A[ ≈
R
c T
ϕ.
The estimate R/(c T) ≪ 1 following from R ≪ c T means that
vectorial potential is calculated with higher accuracy than scalar
potential. Hence in calculating ϕ one should take into account
higher order terms in expansions (6.4) and (6.5). Then
(6.12)
ϕ =
Q
[r[
+
_

∂ρ(˜r, t

)
∂t
¸
r, ˜r
_
[r[
2
c
d
3
˜r+
+
_

ρ(˜r, t

)
[r[
¸
r, ˜r
_
[r[
2
d
3
˜r +. . . .
66 CHAPTER II. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS.
Calculating integrals in formula (6.12), we transform it to
(6.13) ϕ =
Q
[r[
+
¸
˙
D, r
_
[r[
2
c
+
¸
D, r
_
[r[
3
+. . . .
Potentials (6.10) and (6.13) are retarded potentials of the
system of charges in dipole approximation. Dependence of ρ and j
on time variable t lead to the dependence of D on t

in them. Let’s
consider asymptotics of of these potentials as r → ∞. Thereby
we can omit last term in (6.13). Then
ϕ =
Q
[r[
+
¸
˙
D, r
_
[r[
2
c
+. . . , A =
˙
D
[r[ c
+ . . . . (6.14)
Now on the base of formulas (3.4) and (6.14) we find
asymptotics of electric and magnetic fields at far distance from
the system of charges. In calculating rot A and gradϕ we take
into account that t

= t −[r[/c in argument of
˙
D(t

) is a quantity
depending on r. This dependence determines leading terms in
asymptotics of E and H:
E =
[r, [r,
¨
D]]
[r[
3
c
2
+. . . , H = −
[r,
¨
D]
[r[
2
c
2
+. . . . (6.15)
Vectors E and H (more precisely, leading terms in their asymp-
totics) are perpendicular to each other and both are perpendicular
to vector r. This situation is similar to that of plane wave. How-
ever, in present case we deal with spherical wave being radiated
from the origin. The magnitude of fields [E[ ≃ [H[ decreases as
1/[r[, which is slower than for static Coulomb field. Using formula
(2.5), one can find the density of energy flow for waves (6.15):
(6.16) S =
[[r,
¨
D][
2
4π [r[
5
c
3
r +. . . .
§ 6. EMISSION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. 67
For modulus of vector S we have [S[ ∼ 1/[r[
2
. This means that
total flow of energy through the sphere of arbitrarily large sphere
is nonzero. So we have real radiation of electromagnetic energy.
The amount of radiated energy is determined by second time
derivative of dipole moment. Therefore this case is called dipole
approximation in theory of radiation.
Exercise 6.1. Applying formula (6.16), find angular distribu-
tion of the intensity for dipole radiation. Also find total intensity
of dipole radiation.
Exercise 6.2. Particle with charge q is moving along circular
path of radius R with constant velocity v = ωR for infinitely long
time (ω is angular velocity). Calculate retarding potentials and
find angular distribution for intensity of electromagnetic radiation
of this particle. Also find total intensity of such cyclotronic radia-
tion.
Exercise 6.3. Assume that charge density ρ is zero, while cur-
rent density j is given by the following distribution:
(6.17) j(r, t) = −c [M(t), gradδ(r)]
(compare with (7.16) in Chapter I). Find retarding potentials (6.2)
for (6.17). Also find angular distribution and total intensity for
magnetic-dipole radiation induced by current (6.17).
CHAPTER III
SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY
¸ 1. Galileo transformations.
Classical electrodynamics based on Maxwell equations histor-
ically was first field theory. It explained all electromagnetic
phenomena and predicted the existence of electromagnetic waves.
Later on electromagnetic waves were detected experimentally and
nowadays they have broad scope of applications in our everyday
life. However, along with successful development of this theory,
some difficulties there appeared. It was found that classical elec-
trodynamics contradicts to relativity principle. This principle in
its classical form suggested by Galileo and Newton states that
two Cartesian inertial coordinate systems moving with constant
velocity with respect to each other are equivalent. All physi-
cal phenomena in these two systems happen identically and are
described by the same laws.
Let’s consider two such Cartesian inertial coordinate systems
(r, t) and (˜r,
˜
t). Suppose that second system moves with velocity
u relative to first one so that coordinate axes in motion remain
parallel to their initial positions. The relation of radius-vectors of
points then can be written in form of the following transforma-
tions known as Galileo transformations:
t =
˜
t, r = ˜r +u
˜
t. (1.1)
§ 1. GALILEO TRANSFORMATIONS. 69
First relationship (1.1) means that watches in two systems are
synchronized and tick synchronously. Let ˜r(
˜
t) be trajectory of
some material point in coordinate system (˜r,
˜
t). In first coordi-
nate system this trajectory is given by vector r(t) = ˜r(
˜
t) + u
˜
t.
Differentiating this relationship, due to
˜
t = t in (1.1) we get
∂r
∂t
=
∂˜r

˜
t
+u, v = ˜ v +u. (1.2)
Last relationship in (1.2) is known as classical law of velocity
addition. Differentiating (1.2) once more, we find the relation for
accelerations of material point in these two coordinate systems:

2
r
∂t
2
=

2
˜r

˜
t
2
, a = ˜ a. (1.3)
According to Newton’s second law, acceleration of material point
is determined by force F acting on it and by its mass ma = F.
From (1.3) due to relativity principle we conclude that force F
is invariant quantity. It doesn’t depend on the choice of inertial
coordinate system. This fact is represented by the relationship
(1.4) F(˜r +u
˜
t, ˜ v +u) =
˜
F(˜r, ˜ v).
Now let’s consider charged particle with charge q being at
rest in coordinate system (˜r,
˜
t). In this coordinate system it
produces Coulomb electrostatic field. In coordinate system (r, t)
this particle is moving. Hence it should produce electric field and
magnetic field as well. This indicate that vectors E and H are
not invariant under Galileo transformations (1.1). Even if in one
coordinate system we have pure electric field, in second system we
should expect the presence of both electric and magnetic fields.
70 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.
Therefore transformation rules for E and H analogous to (1.4) for
F should be written in the following form:
(1.5)
E(˜r +u
˜
t,
˜
t) = α(
˜
E(˜r,
˜
t),
˜
H(˜r,
˜
t), u),
H(˜r +u
˜
t,
˜
t) = β(
˜
E(˜r,
˜
t),
˜
H(˜r,
˜
t), u).
Due to superposition principle, which is fulfilled in both coordi-
nate systems, functions α and β are linear and homogeneous with
respect to
˜
E and
˜
H. Therefore (1.5) is rewritten as
(1.6)
E(r, t) = α
1
˜
E(˜r,
˜
t) +α
2
˜
H(˜r,
˜
t),
H(r, t) = β
1
˜
E(˜r,
˜
t) +β
2
˜
H(˜r,
˜
t),
where α
1
, α
2
, β
1
, β
2
are some linear operators which depend on
u only. Vectors E and H determine the action of electromagnetic
field upon charges in form of Lorentz force (see formula (4.4) in
Chapter I). Substituting (1.6) into that formula and taking into
account (1.2) and (1.4), we get
(1.7)

1
˜
E+qα
2
˜
H+
q
c
[˜ v +u, β
1
˜
E]+
+
q
c
[˜ v +u, β
2
˜
H] = q
˜
E+
q
c
[˜ v,
˜
H].
The relationship (1.7) is an identity with three arbitrary parame-
ters: ˜ v,
˜
E,
˜
H. Therefore we can equate separately terms bilinear
with respect to ˜ v and
˜
E. This yields [˜ v, β
1
˜
E] = 0, hence β
1
= 0.
Now let’s equate terms bilinear with respect to ˜ v and
˜
H. This
yields [˜ v, β
2
˜
H] = [˜ v,
˜
H]. Hence β
2
= 1. And finally we should
equate terms linear with respect to
˜
H and
˜
E. This yields the
following formulas for operators α
1
and α
2
:
α
2
˜
H = −
1
c
[u,
˜
H], α
1
= 1.
CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.
§ 1. GALILEO TRANSFORMATIONS. 71
Now, if we substitute the above expressions for operators α
1
, α
2
,
β
1
, β
2
into formula (1.6), we get the relationships
E =
˜
E−
1
c
[u,
˜
H], H =
˜
H. (1.8)
The relationships (1.8) should complete Galileo transforma-
tions (1.1) in electrodynamics. However, as we shall see just
below, they cannot do this mission in non-contradictory form.
For this purpose, let’s transform Maxwell equations written as
(1.1) and (1.2) in Chapter II to coordinate system (˜r,
˜
t). For
partial derivatives due to transformations (1.1) we have

∂r
i
=

∂˜ r
i
,

∂t
=


˜
t

3

k=1
u
k

∂˜ r
k
. (1.9)
Now, combining (1.8) and (1.9), we derive
div H = div
˜
H,
div E = div
˜
E+
1
c
¸
u, rot
˜
H
_
,
rot H = rot
˜
H
rot E = rot
˜
E+
1
c
¦u,
˜
H¦ −
1
c
u div
˜
H,
∂H
∂t
=

˜
H

˜
t
−¦u,
˜
H¦,
∂E
∂t
=

˜
E

˜
t
−¦u,
˜
E¦ +
1
c
[u, ¦u,
˜
H¦] −
1
c
[u, ∂
˜
H/∂
˜
t ].
Here by curly brackets we denote commutator of vector fields (see
[2]). Thereby vector u is treated as constant vector field.
72 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.
When substituting the above expressions into Maxwell equa-
tions we consider the case of zero charges and currents: ρ = 0,
j = 0. This yields the following equations:
div
˜
H = 0,
div
˜
E = −
1
c
¸
u, rot
˜
H
_
,
rot
˜
H =
1
c

˜
E

˜
t

1
c
¦u,
˜
E¦+
+
1
c
2
[u, ¦u,
˜
H¦] −
1
c
2
[u, ∂
˜
H/∂
˜
t ],
rot
˜
E = −
1
c

˜
H

˜
t
.
Only two of the above four equations coincide with original
Maxwell equations. Other two equations contain the entries
of vector u that cannot be eliminated.
This circumstance that we have found is very important. In the
end of XIX-th century it made a dilemma for physicists. The way
how this dilemma was resolved had determined in most further
development of physics in XX-th century. Indeed, one had to
make the following crucial choice:
(1) to admit that Maxwell equations are not invariant with
respect to Galileo transformations, hence they require the
existence of some marked inertial coordinate system where
they have standard form given in the very beginning of
Chapter II;
(2) or to assume that formulas (1.1) are not correct, hence
relativity principle claiming equivalence of all inertial co-
ordinate systems is realized in some different way.
§ 2. LORENTZ TRANSFORMATIONS. 73
First Choice had lead to ether theory. According to this theory,
marked inertial coordinate system is bound to some hypothetical
matter, which was called ether. This matter has no mass, no
color, and no smell. It fills the whole space and does not reveal
itself otherwise, but as a carrier of electromagnetic interaction.
Specified properties of ether look quite unusual, this makes ether
theory too artificial (not natural). As a compromise this theory
was admitted for a while, but later was refuted by experiments of
Michaelson and Morley, who tried to measure the Earth velocity
relative to ether (ether wind).
Second choice is more crucial. Indeed, refusing formulas (1.1),
we refuse classical mechanics of Newton in whole. Nevertheless
the development of science went through this second choice.
¸ 2. Lorentz transformations.
Having refused formulas (1.1), one should replace them by
something else. This was done by Lorentz. Following Lorentz,
now we replace Galileo transformations (1.1) by general linear
transformations relating (r, t) and (˜r,
˜
t):
c t = S
0
0
c
˜
t +
3

k=1
S
0
k
˜ r
k
, r
i
= S
i
0
c
˜
t +
3

k=1
S
i
k
˜ r
k
. (2.1)
In (2.1) we introduced c as a factor for time variables t and
˜
t in
order to equalize measure units. Upon introducing this factor all
components of matrix S appear to be purely numeric quantities
that do not require measure units at all. It is convenient to denote
c t by r
0
and treat this quantity as additional (fourth) component
of radius-vector:
(2.2) r
0
= ct.
74 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.
Then two relationships (2.1) can be united into one relationship:
(2.3) r
i
=
3

k=0
S
i
k
˜ r
k
.
In order to have invertible transformation (2.3) one should assume
that det S ,= 0. Let T = S
−1
. Then inverse transformation for
(2.3) is written as follows:
(2.4) ˜ r
i
=
3

k=0
T
i
k
r
k
.
By their structure transformation (2.3) and (2.4) coincide with
transformations of coordinates of four-dimensional vector under
the change of base. Soon we shall see that such interpretation
appears to be very fruitful.
Now the problem of deriving Lorentz transformations can be
formulated as problem of finding components of matrix S in (2.3).
The only condition we should satisfy thereby is the invariance
of Maxwell equations with respect to transformations (2.3) upon
completing them with transformations for ρ, j, E and H.
For the beginning let’s consider the case with no currents and
charges, i. e. the case ρ = 0, j = 0. Instead of Maxwell equations
let’s study their differential consequences written in form of the
equations (4.6) in Chapter II:
E = 0, H = 0. (2.5)
Invariance of (2.5) under the transformations (2.3) and (2.4) is
necessary (but possibly not sufficient) condition for invariance of
Maxwell equations from which the equations (2.5) were derived.
§ 2. LORENTZ TRANSFORMATIONS. 75
Further we need the following formula for d’Alambert operator
used in the above equations (2.5):
(2.6) =
3

i=0
3

j=0
g
ij

∂r
i

∂r
j
.
Here by g
ij
we denote components of matrix
(2.7) g
ij
= g
ij
=
_
_
_
1 0 0 0
0 −1 0 0
0 0 −1 0
0 0 0 −1
_
_
_
.
It is easy to see that inverse matrix g
ij
for (2.7) has the same
components, i. e. g
ij
= g
ij
.
From (2.3) and (2.4) we derive the following transformation
rules for first order differential operators:

∂r
i
=
3

k=0
T
k
i

∂˜ r
k
,

∂˜ r
i
=
3

k=0
S
k
i

∂r
k
. (2.8)
Substituting (2.8) into formula (2.6), we get
=
3

p=0
3

q=0
˜ g
pq

∂˜ r
p

∂˜ r
q
,
where matrices g
ij
and ˜ g
pq
are related by formula
(2.9) ˜ g
pq
=
3

i=0
3

j=0
T
p
i
T
q
j
g
ij
.
76 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.
In terms of inverse matrices g
pq
and ˜ g
pq
this relationship (2.9) can
be rewritten as follows:
(2.10) g
ij
=
3

p=0
3

q=0
T
p
i
T
q
j
˜ g
pq
.
Theorem 2.1. For any choice of operator coefficients α
1
, α
2
,
β
1
, and β
2
in formulas (1.6) the invariance of the form of equations
(2.5) under the transformations (2.3) and (2.4) is equivalent to
proportionality of matrices g and ˜ g, i. e.
(2.11) ˜ g
ij
= λg
ij
.
Numeric factor λ in formula (2.11) is usually chosen to be equal
to unity: λ = 1. In this case from (2.10) and (2.11) we derive
(2.12) g
ij
=
3

p=0
3

q=0
T
p
i
T
q
j
g
pq
.
In matrix form this relationship (2.12) looks like
(2.13) T
t
g T = g.
Here g is a matrix of the form (2.7), while by T
t
in (2.13) we
denote transposed matrix T.
Definition 2.1. Matrix T satisfying the relationship (2.13) is
called Lorentzian matrix.
It is easy to check up that the set of Lorentzian matrices form
a group. This group is usually denoted by O(1, 3). It is called
matrix Lorentz group.
§ 3. MINKOWSKY SPACE. 77
From the relationship (2.13) for Lorentzian matrix we derive
the equality (det T)
2
= 1. Hence det T = ±1. Lorentzian matrices
with unit determinant form the group SO(1, 3), it is called special
matrix Lorentz group.
If i = j = 0, from (2.12) we obtain the following formula
relating components of Lorentzian matrix T:
(2.14) (T
0
0
)
2
−(T
1
0
)
2
−(T
2
0
)
2
−(T
3
0
)
2
= 1.
Inequality [T
0
0
[ 1 is immediate consequence of the relationship
(2.14). Hence T
0
0
1 or T
0
0
−1. Lorentzian matrix with T
0
0
1
is called orthochronous. The set of orthochronous Lorentzian ma-
trices form orthochronous matrix Lorentz group O
+
(1, 3). Intersec-
tion SO
+
(1, 3) = SO(1, 3)∩O
+
(1, 3) is called special orthochronous
matrix Lorentz group.
Exercise 2.1. Prove theorem 2.1 under the assumption that
transformation (1.6) given by operator coefficients α
1
, α
2
, β
1
, and
β
2
is invertible.
¸ 3. Minkowsky space.
In previous section we have found that each Lorentzian matrix
from group O(1, 3) determines some transformation (2.1) pre-
serving the form the equations (2.5). In deriving this fact we
introduced notations (2.2) and united space and time into one
four-dimensional “space-time”. Let’s denote it by M. Four-
dimensional space M is basic object in special theory of relativity.
Its points are called events. The space of events is equipped with
quadratic form g with signature (1, 3). This quadratic form is
called Minkowsky metric. Thereby inertial coordinate systems are
interpreted as Cartesian coordinates for which Minkowsky metric
has canonical form (2.7).
CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.
78 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.
Equivalence principle. All physical laws in any two inertial
coordinate systems are written in the same form.
Let’s choose some inertial coordinate system. This choice
determines separation of event space M into geometric space V
(space of points) and time axis T:
(3.1) M = T ⊕V.
Matrix of Minkowsky metric in chosen coordinate system has
canonic form (2.7). Therefore geometric space V is orthogonal to
time axis T with respect to Minkowsky metric g. Restriction of
this metric to V is negative quadratic form. Changing its sign,
we get positive quadratic form. This is standard Euclidean scalar
product in V .
Now let’s consider another inertial coordinate system. Like
(3.1), it determines second expansion of M into space and time:
(3.2) M =
˜
T ⊕
˜
V .
In general time axes T and
˜
T in expansions (3.1) and (3.2) do
not coincide. Indeed, bases of these two coordinate systems are
related to each other by formula
(3.3) ˜ e
i
=
3

j=0
S
j
i
e
j
,
where S is Lorentzian matrix from (2.3). For base vector ˜ e
0
directed along time axis
˜
T from (3.3) we derive
(3.4) ˜ e
0
= S
0
0
e
0
+S
1
0
e
1
+S
2
0
e
2
+S
3
0
e
3
.
In general components S
1
0
, S
2
0
, and S
3
0
in Lorentz matrix S are
nonzero. Therefore vectors ˜ e
0
and e
0
are non-collinear. Hence
T ,=
˜
T.
§ 3. MINKOWSKY SPACE. 79
Non-coincidence of time axes T ,=
˜
T for two inertial coordinate
systems leads to non-coincidence of geometric spaces: V ,=
˜
V .
This fact lead to quite radical conclusion when we interpret
it physically: observers in two such inertial systems observe two
different three-dimensional geometric spaces and have two different
time ticks. However, in our everyday life this difference is very
small and never reveals.
Let’s calculate how big is the difference in the rate of time ticks
for two inertial coordinate systems. From (2.4) we get
(3.5)
˜
t = T
0
0
t +
3

k=1
T
0
k
c
r
k
.
Let t → +∞. If Lorentzian matrix T is orthochronous, then
T
0
0
> 0 and
˜
t → +∞. If matrix T is not orthochronous, then
t → +∞ we get
˜
t → −∞. Transformations (2.4) with non-
orthochronous matrices T invert the direction of time exchanging
the future and the past. It would be very intriguing to have such
a feature in theory. However, presently in constructing theory of
relativity one uses more realistic approach. So we shall assume
that two physically real inertial coordinate systems can be related
only by orthochronous Lorentz matrices from O
+
(1, 3).
Restriction of the set of admissible Lorentz matrices from
O(1, 3) to O
+
(1, 3) is due to the presence of additional structure
in the space of events. It is called polarization. Let’s choose some
physical inertial coordinate system. Minkowsky metric in such
system is given by matrix of canonical form (2.7). Let’s calculate
scalar square of four-dimensional vector x in Minkowsky metric:
(3.6) g(x, x) = (x
0
)
2
−(x
1
)
2
−(x
2
)
2
−(x
3
)
2
.
By value of their scalar square g(x, x) in Minkowsky metric g
80 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.
vectors of Minkowsky space M are subdivided into three parts:
(1) tome-like vectors, for which g(x, x) is positive;
(2) light vectors, for which g(x, x) = 0;
(3) space-like vectors, for which g(x, x) is negative.
Coordinates of light vectors satisfy the following equation:
(3.7) (x
0
)
2
−(x
1
)
2
−(x
2
)
2
−(x
3
)
2
= 0.
It is easy to see that (3.7) is the equation of cone in four-
dimensional space (see classification of quadrics in [4]). This cone
(3.7) is called light cone.
Time-like vectors fill interior of
light cone, while space-like vectors
fill outer space outside this cone.
Interior of light cone is a union of
Fig. 3.1
past
future
two parts: time-like vectors with
x
0
> 0 are directed to the future,
others with x
0
< 0 are directed to
the past. Vector directed to the
future can be continuously trans-
formed to any other vector directed
to the future. However, it cannot
be continuously transformed to a
vector directed to the past without
making it space-like vector or zero vector at least once during
transformation. This means that the set of time-like vectors is
disjoint union of two connected components.
Definition 3.1. Geometric structure in Minkowsky space M
that marks one of two connected components in the set of time-
like vectors is called polarization. It is used to say that marked
component points to the future.
§ 3. MINKOWSKY SPACE. 81
Let e
0
, e
1
, e
2
, e
3
be orthonormal base in Minkowsky metric*.
In the space M with polarization one can consider only those
such bases for which unit vector of time axis e
0
is directed to the
future. Then transition from one of such bases to another would
be given by orthochronous matrix from group O
+
(1, 3).
Definition 3.2. Four-dimensional affine space M equipped
with metric g of signature (1, 3) and equipped with orientation**
and polarization is called Minkowsky space.
According to special theory of relativity Minkowsky space,
which is equipped with orientation and polarization, is proper
mathematical model for the space of real physical events. Now
we can give strict mathematical definition of inertial coordinate
system.
Definition 3.3. Orthonormal right inertial coordinate system
is orthonormal right coordinate system in Minkowsky space with
time base vector directed to the future.
It is easy to verify that any two inertial coordinate systems as
defined above are related to each other by Lorentz transforma-
tion with matrix S from orthochronous Lorentz group SO
+
(1, 3).
Let’s choose one of such coordinate systems and consider related
expansion (3.1). It is clear that e
0
∈ T, while linear span of
spatial vectors e
1
, e
2
, e
3
defines subspace V . Taking orthonormal
base e
1
, e
2
, e
3
for the standard of right bases in V , we equip
this three-dimensional space with orientation. This is concor-
dance with the fact that geometric space that we observe in our
everyday life possesses orientation distinguishing left and right.
* i. e. base for which Minkowsky metric has the form (2.7).
** remember that orientation is geometric structure distinguishing left and
right bases (see [4]).
82 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.
Exercise 3.1. By analogy with definition 3.3 formulate the
definition of skew-angular inertial coordinate system.
¸ 4. Kinematics of relative motion.
Galileo transformations are used in mechanics for describing
physical processes as they are seen by two observers representing
two inertial coordinate systems. Lorentz transformations, which
we have derived from the condition of invariance of electrodynam-
ical equations (2.5), are designed for the same purpose. However,
this is not immediately clear when looking at formulas (2.3) and
(2.4). Therefore we shall bring these formulas to the form more
convenient for studying their physical nature.
Let’s fix two inertial coordinate systems related by Lorentz
transformation (2.1). First one is related with orthonormal base
e
0
, e
1
, e
2
, e
3
in Minkowsky space and with the expansion (3.1).
Second is related with the base ˜ e
0
, ˜ e
1
, ˜ e
2
, ˜ e
3
and with the
expansion (3.2). If time axes are parallel e
0
= ˜ e
0
, then Lorentz
matrix S in (2.3) is reduced to orthogonal matrix O ∈ SO(3)
relating two right orthonormal bases e
1
, e
2
, e
3
and ˜ e
1
, ˜ e
2
, ˜ e
3
. It
has the following blockwise-diagonal shape:
(4.1) S =
_
_
_
_
1 0 0 0
0 O
1
1
O
1
2
O
1
3
0 O
2
1
O
2
2
O
2
3
0 O
3
1
O
3
2
O
3
3
_
_
_
_
.
Thus, in case if T |
˜
T two inertial coordinate systems differ only
in directions of spatial axes. They do not move with respect to
each other.
Now let’s consider the case T ∦
˜
T. Hence e
0
,= ˜ e
0
. Let H be
linear span of vectors e
0
and ˜ e
0
. Denote by W intersection of
subspaces V and
˜
V from (3.1) and (3.2):
H = Span(e
0
, ˜ e
0
), W = V ∩
˜
V . (4.2)
§ 4. KINEMATICS OF RELATIVE MOTION. 83
Lemma 4.1. Two-dimensional subspaces H and W in (4.2) are
perpendicular to each other in Minkowsky metric g. Their inter-
section is zero: H ∩W = ¦0¦, while direct sum of these subspaces
coincides with the whole Minkowsky space: H ⊕W = M.
Proof. Subspace H is two-dimensional since it is linear span
of two non-collinear vectors. Subspaces V and
˜
V are three-
dimensional and V ,=
˜
V . Hence their sum V +
˜
V coincides with
M, i. e. dim(V +
˜
V ) = 4. Applying theorem on the dimension of
sum and intersection of two subspaces (see [4]), we get
dim(W) = dimV + dim
˜
V −dim(V +
˜
V ) = 3 + 3 −4 = 2.
In order to prove orthogonality of H and W we use orthogonal-
ity of T and V in the expansion (3.1) and orthogonality of
˜
T and
˜
V in (3.2). Let y be an arbitrary vector in subspace W. Then
y ∈ V . From V ⊥ T we get y ⊥ e
0
. Analogously from y ∈
˜
V we
get y ⊥ ˜ e
0
. Now from orthogonality of y to both vectors e
0
and
˜ e
0
we derive orthogonality of y to their linear span: y ⊥ H. Since
y is arbitrary vector in W, we have W ⊥ H.
Now let’s prove that H ∩ W = ¦0¦. Let’s consider an arbitrary
vector x ∈ H ∩ W. From x ∈ H and x ∈ W due to orthogonality
of H and W, which is already proved, we get g(x, x) = 0. But
x ∈ W ⊂ V , while restriction of Minkowsky metric to subspace
V is negative quadratic form of signature (0, 3). Therefore from
g(x, x) = 0 we derive x = 0. Proposition H ∩ W = ¦0¦ is proved.
From H ∩ W = ¦0¦ we conclude that sum of subspaces H and
W is direct sum and dim(H+W) = 2+2 = 4. Hence H⊕W = M.
Lemma is proved.
Now let’s return back to considering pair of inertial coordinate
systems with bases e
0
, e
1
, e
2
, e
3
and ˜ e
0
, ˜ e
1
, ˜ e
2
, ˜ e
3
. There is the
expansion (3.4) for vector ˜ e
0
. Let’s write it as follows:
(4.3) ˜ e
0
= S
0
0
e
0
+v.
84 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.
Here v = S
1
0
e
1
+ S
2
0
e
2
+ S
3
0
e
3
∈ V . Since matrix S is or-
thochronous and since ˜ e
0
,= e
0
, we have
S
0
0
> 1, v ,= 0. (4.4)
For any real number a > 1 there exists a number α > 0 such that
a = cosh(α). Let’s apply this observation to S
0
0
in (4.3):
(4.5) S
0
0
= cosh(α).
From (4.3), from (4.5), and from orthogonality of vectors e
0
and
v in Minkowsky metric we obtain
1 = g(˜ e
0
, ˜ e
0
) = (S
0
0
)
2
g(e
0
, e
0
) +g(v, v) = cosh
2
(α) −[v[
2
.
Using this equality we can find Euclidean length of vector v in
three-dimensional subspace V :
(4.6) [v[ = sinh(α), where α > 0.
Let’s replace vector v by vector of unit length h
1
= v/[v[ and
rewrite the relationship (4.3) as follows:
(4.7) ˜ e
0
= cosh(α) e
0
+ sinh(α) h
1
.
Due to (4.7) vector h
1
is linear combination of vectors e
0
and ˜ e
0
,
hence h
1
∈ H. But h
1
∈ V as well. Therefore h
1
∈ V ∩H. Vectors
e
0
and h
1
are perpendicular to each other, they form orthonormal
base in two-dimensional subspace H:
g(e
0
, e
0
) = 1, g(h
1
, h
1
) = −1. (4.8)
From (4.8) we conclude that restriction of Minkowsky metric to
subspace H is metric with signature (1, 1).
CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.
§ 4. KINEMATICS OF RELATIVE MOTION. 85
Now we need another vector from subspace H. Let’s determine
it by the following relationship:
(4.9)
˜
h
1
= sinh(α) e
0
+ cosh(α) h
1
.
It is easy to check that vectors ˜ e
0
and
˜
h
1
form another orthonor-
mal base in subspace H. Transition matrix relating these two
bases has the following form:
(4.10) S
L
=
_
cosh(α) sinh(α)
sinh(α) cosh(α)
_
.
Matrix (4.10) is called the matrix of Lorentzian rotation.
There is four-dimensional version of matrix (4.10). Indeed,
vector h
1
∈ V is perpendicular to subspace W ⊂ V . Therefore we
have the expansion of subspace V as a direct sum:
V = Span(h
1
) ⊕W.
Let’s choose two vectors h
2
and h
3
forming orthonormal base
in subspace W and complementing h
1
up to an orthonormal
right base in V . Then four vectors e
0
, h
1
, h
2
h
3
constitute
orthonormal right base in M with time vector e
0
directed to
the future. Transition matrix relating this base with the base
˜ e
0
,
˜
h
1
, h
2
h
3
has the following blockwise-diagonal form:
(4.11) S
L
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
cosh(α) sinh(α) 0 0
sinh(α) cosh(α) 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
.
86 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.
Transition from base e
0
, e
1
, e
2
e
3
to base e
0
, h
1
, h
2
h
3
is given
by a matrix of the form (4.1). This is because their time vectors
do coincide. In a similar way transition from base ˜ e
0
,
˜
h
1
, h
2
h
3
to base ˜ e
0
, ˜ e
1
, ˜ e
2
˜ e
3
is given by a matrix of the same form
(4.1). Ultimate change of base e
0
, e
1
, e
2
e
3
for another base
˜ e
0
, ˜ e
1
, ˜ e
2
˜ e
3
then can be done in three steps.
Theorem 4.1. Each Lorentzian matrix S ∈ SO
+
(1, 3) is a
product of three matrices S = S
1
S
L
S
2
, one of which S
L
is a
matrix of Lorentzian rotation (4.11), while two others S
1
and S
2
are matrices of the form (4.1).
In order to clarify physical meaning of Lorentz transformations
let’s first consider transformations with matrix S of the form
(4.11). Let ct = r
0
, r
1
, r
2
, r
3
be coordinates of some vector
r ∈ M in the base e
0
, h
1
, h
2
, h
3
. By c
˜
t = ˜ r
0
, ˜ r
1
, ˜ r
2
, ˜ r
3
we denote
coordinates of the same vector in the base ˜ e
0
,
˜
h
1
, h
2
h
3
. For
matrix S of the form (4.11) formula (2.3) leads to relationships
(4.12)
t = cosh(α)
˜
t +
sinh(α)
c
˜ r
1
,
r
1
= sinh(α) c
˜
t + cosh(α) ˜ r
1
,
r
2
= ˜ r
2
,
r
3
= ˜ r
3
.
Let ˜ r
1
, ˜ r
2
, ˜ r
3
be coordinates of radius-vector of some point A
which is at rest in inertial coordinate system with base ˜ e
1
, ˜ e
2
, ˜ e
3
.
Then ˜ r
1
, ˜ r
2
, ˜ r
3
are constants, they do not depend on time
˜
t in
this coordinate system. Upon calculating coordinates of this point
A in other inertial coordinate system by means of formulas (4.12)
its first coordinate r
1
appears to be a function of parameter
˜
t.
We use first relationship (4.12) in order to express parameter
˜
t
§ 4. KINEMATICS OF RELATIVE MOTION. 87
through time variable t in second coordinate system:
(4.13)
˜
t =
t
cosh(α)

tanh(α)
c
˜ r
1
.
Substituting (4.13) into other three formulas (4.12), we get
(4.14)
r
1
= r
1
(t) = c tanh(α) t + const,
r
2
= r
2
(t) = const,
r
3
= r
3
(t) = const .
From (4.14) we see that in second coordinate system our point A
is moving with constant velocity u = c tanh(α) in the direction of
first coordinate axis.
In contrast to parameter α in matrix (4.11), parameter u
has transparent physical interpretation as magnitude of relative
velocity of one coordinate system with respect to another. Let’s
express components of matrix (4.11) through u:
cosh(α) =
1
_
1 −
u
2
c
2
, sinh(α) =
u
c
1
_
1 −
u
2
c
2
.
Let’s substitute these formulas into (4.12). As a result we get
t =
˜
t +
u
c
2
˜ r
1
_
1 −
u
2
c
2
, r
1
=
u
˜
t + ˜ r
1
_
1 −
u
2
c
2
,
(4.15)
r
2
= ˜ r
2
, r
3
= ˜ r
3
.
88 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.
Denote for a while by r and ˜r the following two three-
dimensional vectors in subspaces V and
˜
V :
(4.16)
r = r
1
h
1
+r
2
h
2
+r
3
h
3
,
˜r = ˜ r
1
˜
h
1
+ ˜ r
2
h
2
+ ˜ r
3
h
3
.
Then we define linear map θ : V →
˜
V determined by its action
upon base vectors h
1
, h
2
, and h
3
:
θ(h
1
) =
˜
h
1
, θ(h
2
) = h
2
, θ(h
3
) = h
3
.
This map θ is orientation preserving isometry, since it maps right
orthonormal base of subspace V to right orthonormal base in
subspace
˜
V . Using above notations (4.16) and the map θ, we can
write formulas (4.15) in vectorial form:
(4.17)
t =
˜
t +
¸
θu, ˜r
_
c
2
_
1 −
[u[
2
c
2
,
θr =
θu
˜
t +
¸
θu, ˜r
_
[u[
2
θu
_
1 −
[u[
2
c
2
+˜r −
¸
θu, ˜r
_
[u[
2
θu.
Here u = u h
1
is vector of relative velocity of second coordinate
system with respect to first one. Formulas (4.17) are irrespective
to the choice of bases in subspaces V and
˜
V . Therefore they are
applicable to Lorentz transformations with special matrix of the
form (4.11) and to arbitrary Lorentz transformations with matrix
S = S
1
S
L
S
2
(see theorem 4.1).
§ 4. KINEMATICS OF RELATIVE MOTION. 89
Very often the sign of map θ realizing isomorphism of subspaces
V and
˜
V in formulas (4.17) is omitted:
(4.18)
t =
˜
t +
¸
u, ˜r
_
c
2
_
1 −
[u[
2
c
2
,
r =
u
˜
t +
¸
u, ˜r
_
[u[
2
u
_
1 −
[u[
2
c
2
+˜r −
¸
u, ˜r
_
[u[
2
u.
Formulas (4.18) represent “conditionally three-dimensional” un-
derstanding of Lorentz transformations when vectors r and ˜r
treated as vectors of the same three-dimensional Euclidean space,
while t and
˜
t are treated as scalar parameters. However, accord-
ing to modern paradigm four-dimensional Minkowsky space is real
physical entity, not purely mathematical abstraction convenient
for shortening formulas (compare (2.3) and (4.17)).
When writing formulas (4.17) and (4.18) in components we
should expand vectors r and u in the base of one coordinate sys-
tem, while vector ˜r is expanded in the base of another coordinate
system. Thereby the difference in the shape of these two formulas
completely disappears.
Exercise 4.1. Using expansions (4.16) for vectors r and ˜r, de-
rive the following formulas:
˜ r
1
=
¸
θu, ˜r
_
[u[
, ˜ r
2
h
2
+ ˜ r
3
h
3
= ˜r −
¸
θu, ˜r
_
[u[
2
θu.
Combining these formulas with (4.15), derive formulas (4.17).
90 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.
¸ 5. Relativistic law of velocity addition.
Classical law of velocity addition was first consequence that we
obtained from Galileo transformations:
(5.1) v = ˜ v +u,
see formulas (1.2). Replacing Galileo transformations by Lorentz
transformations, now we should derive new relativistic law of
velocity addition.
Suppose that vector-function ˜r(
˜
t) describes the motion of a
point A in inertial coordinate system (˜r,
˜
t) and suppose that this
coordinate system moves with velocity u with respect to other
inertial coordinate system (r, t). For passing to coordinate system
(r, t) we use Lorentz transformation given by formulas (4.18). As
a result we get two functions
(5.2)
t(
˜
t) =
˜
t +
¸
u, ˜r(
˜
t)
_
c
2
_
1 −
[u[
2
c
2
,
r(
˜
t) =
u
˜
t +
¸
u, ˜r(
˜
t)
_
[u[
2
u
_
1 −
[u[
2
c
2
+˜r(
˜
t) −
¸
u, ˜r(
˜
t)
_
[u[
2
u.
Let’s calculate first derivatives of functions (5.2):
(5.3a)
dt
d
˜
t
=
1 +
¸
u, ˜ v
_
c
2
_
1 −
[u[
2
c
2
,
§ 6. WORLD LINES AND PRIVATE TIME. 91
(5.3b)
dr
d
˜
t
=
u +
¸
u, ˜ v
_
[u[
2
u
_
1 −
[u[
2
c
2
+ ˜ v −
¸
u, ˜ v
_
[u[
2
u.
By ˜ v we denote the velocity of the point A in coordinates (˜r,
˜
t):
˜ v =
˙
˜r(
˜
t) =
d˜r
d
˜
t
.
In a similar way by v we denote the velocity of this point in other
coordinates (r, t). To calculate v we divide derivatives:
(5.4) v =
dr
dt
= ˙ r(t) =
_
dr
d
˜
t
___
dt
d
˜
t
_
.
Substituting (5.3a) and (5.3b) into (5.4), we get formula
(5.5) v =
u +
¸
u, ˜ v
_
[u[
2
u
1 +
¸
u, ˜ v
_
c
2
+
˜ v −
¸
u, ˜ v
_
[u[
2
u
1 +
¸
u, ˜ v
_
c
2
_
1 −
[u[
2
c
2
.
Formula (5.5) is relativistic law of velocity addition. It is mach
more complicated than classical law given by formula (5.1). How-
ever, in the limit of small velocities [u[ ≪c formula (5.5) reduces
to formula (5.1).
Exercise 5.1. Derive relativistic law of velocity addition from
formula (4.17). Explain why resulting formula differs from (5.5).
¸ 6. World lines and private time.
Motion of point-size material object in arbitrary inertial coor-
dinate system (r, t) is described by vector-function r(t), where t
CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.
92 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.
is time variable and r is radius-vector of point. Four-dimensional
radius-vector of this material point has the following components:
(6.1) r
0
(t) = ct, r
1
(t), r
2
(t), r
3
(t).
Vector-function with components (6.1) determines parametric line
in Minkowsky space M, this line is called world line of material
point. Once world line is given, motion of material point is
described completely. Let’s differentiate four-dimensional radius-
vector (6.1) with respect to parameter t. As a result we get
four-dimensional vector tangent to world line:
(6.2) K = (c, ˙ r
1
, ˙ r
2
, ˙ r
3
) = (c, v
1
, v
2
, v
3
).
Last three components of this vector form velocity vector of
material point. Velocity of most material objects is not greater
than light velocity: [v[ < c. When applied to vector K in (6.2)
this means that tangent-vector of world line is time-like vector:
(6.3) g(K, K) = c
2
−[v[
2
> 0.
Definition 6.1. Smooth curve in Minkowsky space is called
time-like curve if tangent-vector of this curve is time-like vector
at each its point.
World lines for most material objects are time-like curves.
Exception are world lines of photons (light particles) and world
lines of other elementary particles with zero mass. For them
[v[ = c, hence we get g(K, K) = 0.
World line have no singular points. Indeed, even if g(K, K) =
0, tangent vector K in (6.2) is nonzero since K
0
= c ,= 0.
Let’s consider world line of material point of nonzero mass.
§ 6. WORLD LINES AND PRIVATE TIME. 93
For this line we have the condition (6.3) fulfilled, hence we can
introduce natural parameter on this line:
(6.4) s(t) =
t
_
t
0
_
g(K, K) dt.
Integral (6.4) yields invariant parameter for world lines. For any
two points A and B on a given world line the quantity s(B)−s(A)
does not depend on inertial coordinate system used for calculating
integral (6.4). This quantity is called interval length of the arc
AB on world line.
Theorem 6.1. Straight line segment connecting end points of
an arc on smooth time-like curve is a segment of time-like straight
line. Its interval length is greater than interval length of corre-
sponding arc.
Let A and B be two successive events in the “life” of material
point of nonzero mass. The answer to the question what time in-
terval separates these two events depend on the choice of inertial
coordinate system from which we observe the “life” of this ma-
terial point. So this answer is relative (not invariant). However,
there is invariant quantity characterizing time distance between
two events on world line:
(6.5) τ =
s(B) −s(A)
c
.
This quantity τ in formula (6.5) is called interval of private time
on world line.
Concept of private time determine microlocal concept of time
in theory of relativity. According to this concept each material
point lives according to its own watch, and watches of different
material points are synchronized only in very rough way: they
94 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.
count time from the past to the future. This rough synchroniza-
tion is determined by polarization in Minkowsky space. Exact
synchronization of watches is possible only when material points
come to immediate touch with each other, i. e. when their world
lines intersect. However, even after such exact synchronization
in the point of next meeting watches of tho material points will
show different times. This difference is due to different ”life
paths” between two meetings.
Concept of private time is illustrated by so-called twins prob-
lem, well-known from science fiction. Suppose that one of twins
goes to far-away travel in interstellar spacecraft, while his brother
stays on the Earth. Which of them will be older when they meet
each other on the Earth in the end of space voyage.
The answer is: that one who stayed on the Earth will be older.
World lines of twins intersect twice. Both intersections occur on
the Earth, one before travel and other after travel. Its known that
Coordinate system associated with the Earth can be taken for
inertial coordinate system with high degree of accuracy (indeed,
acceleration due to rotation of the Earth around its axis and due
to orbital rotation around the Sun is not sensible in our everyday
life). Therefore world line of twin stayed on the Earth is straight
line. World line of twin in spacecraft is curved. In the beginning
of travel he accelerates reaching substantial velocity comparable
with light velocity in the middle of the path. Then he experiences
backward acceleration in order to brake before reaching target
point of his travel. Then he accelerates and brakes again in his
back way to the Earth. According to theorem 6.1 interval length
of curved world line connecting two events is shorter than interval
length of straight world line connecting the same two events.
Hence twin stayed on the Earth will be older.
Exercise 6.1. Remember proof of the fact that the length of
curved line connecting two points A and B in Euclidean space is
§ 7. DYNAMICS OF MATERIAL POINT. 95
greater than the length of straight line segment AB. By analogy
to this proof find the proof for theorem 6.1.
¸ 7. Dynamics of material point.
Motion of material point in theory of relativity is described by
its world line in Minkowsky space. Let’s choose natural parameter
on world line and consider four-dimensional tangent vector
(7.1) u(s) =
dr(s)
ds
,
where r(s) is four-dimensional radius vector of events on world
line. Vector u is (7.1) is called vector of 4-velocity. It is time-like
vector and it is unit vector in Minkowsky metric: g(u, u) = 1.
Upon choosing some inertial coordinate system we can write
components of 4-velocity vector explicitly:
(7.2) u =
1
_
c
2
−[v[
2
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
c
v
1
v
2
v
3
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
.
Here v
1
, v
2
, v
3
are components of three-dimensional velocity
vector v. Note that components u
0
, u
1
, u
2
, u
3
of 4-velocity vector
are absolute numbers (without measure unit). It is easy to see
from (7.2). Upon multiplying u by scalar mc with the measure
unit of momentum we get vector of 4-momentum
(7.3) p =
m
_
1 −
[v[
2
c
2
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
c
v
1
v
2
v
3
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
for material point with mass m. Vector p plays important role
in physics since there is fundamental law of nature: the law of
conservation of 4-momentum.
96 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.
Momentum conservation law. Vector of 4-momentum of
material point which do not experience external action remains
unchanged.
According to the law just stated, for particle that do not
experience external action we have p = const. Hence u = const.
Integrating the equation (7.1), for r(s) we derive
r(s) = r
0
+us.
Conclusion: in the absence of external action material point moves
uniformly along straight line.
External actions causing change of 4-momentum of material
point are subdivided into two categories:
(1) continuous;
(2) discrete.
Continuous actions are applied to material particle by external
fields. They cause world line to bend making it curved line. In
this case p ,= const. Derivative of 4-momentum with respect to
natural parameter s is called vector of 4-force:
(7.4)
dp
ds
= F(s).
Vector of 4-force in (7.4) is quantitative characteristic of the
action of external fields upon material particle. It is determined
by parameters of particle itself and by parameters of external
fields at current position of particle as well. We know that
vector of 4-velocity u is unit vector, therefore g(p, p) = m
2
c
2
.
Differentiating this relationship with respect to s and taking into
account that components of matrix (2.7) are constant, we find
(7.5) g(u, F) = 0.
§ 7. DYNAMICS OF MATERIAL POINT. 97
The relationship (7.5) means that vector of 4-force is perpendicu-
lar to vector of 4-velocity in Minkowsky metric, i. e. force vector
is perpendicular to world line of particle.
Choosing some inertial coordinate system, we can replace nat-
ural parameter s in (7.5) by time variable t of this coordinate
system. Then, taking into account (7.3), from (7.4) we derive
(7.6)
dp
i
dt
=
_
c
2
−[v[
2
F
i
, where i = 1, 2, 3.
Now, if we denote by f three-dimensional vector with compo-
nents f
i
=
_
c
2
−[v[
2
F
i
, then for three-dimensional vector of
momentum from (7.6) we obtain differential equation
(7.7)
dp
dt
= f .
The equation (7.7) is treated as relativistic analog of Newton’s
second law. Instead of classical formula p = mv relating momen-
tum and velocity vectors here we have the following relationship:
(7.8) p =
mv
_
1 −
[v[
2
c
2
.
In order to write (7.8) in classical form we introduce the quantity
(7.9) m
v
=
m
_
1 −
[v[
2
c
2
.
Constant m is called mass at rest, while m
v
in (7.8) is called
dynamic mass of moving particle. Now p = m
v
v, and Newton’s
second law is written as follows:
(7.10) (m
v
v)

t
= f .
98 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.
Formulas (7.9) and (7.10) are the very ones which are in mind
when one says that mass in theory of relativity depends on
velocity. It seems to me that such terminology is not so good.
In what follows we shall mostly use four-dimensional invariant
equation (7.4) and, saying mass, we shall imply mass at rest.
Discrete external actions appear
in those situations when 4-momen-
tum of material particle changes
abruptly in jump-like manner. Such
situation arise in particle collisions,
particle confluence, and particle de-
cay. Collision of particles corre-
Fig. 7.1
p
2
p
k
p
1
˜ p
n
˜ p
1
˜ p
2
spond to that point in Minkowsky
space where world lines of two or
several particles come together. Af-
ter collision particles can simply fly
out from that point. But if these
are molecules of ingredients in chemical reaction, then after col-
lision we would have new molecules of reaction products. In a
similar way in collisions of atomic nuclei nuclear reactions occur.
Let’s consider simultaneous collision of k particles. Denote by
p
1
, . . . , p
k
their 4-momenta just before the collision. Suppose that
as a result of collision he have n new particles created from initial
ones. Denote by ˜ p
1
, . . . , ˜ p
n
4-momenta of outgoing particles just
after the collision. If k = 1 this is particle decay process, while if
n = 1 we have particle confluence into one composite particle.
Momentum conservation law. Total 4-momentum of ingo-
ing particles before collision is equal to total 4-momentum of out-
going particles after collision:
(7.11)
k

i=1
p
i
=
n

i=1
˜ p
i
.
CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.
§ 7. DYNAMICS OF MATERIAL POINT. 99
As an example we consider process of frontal collision of two
identical particles of mass m leading to creation of one particle of
mass M. Suppose that velocities of initial particles are equal by
magnitude but opposite to each other:
p
1
=
m
_
1 −
[v[
2
c
2
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
c
v
1
v
2
v
3
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
, p
2
=
m
_
1 −
[v[
2
c
2
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
c
−v
1
−v
2
−v
3
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
.
For 4-momentum of resulting particle we have
˜ p
1
=
M
_
1 −
[w[
2
c
2
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
c
w
1
w
2
w
3
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
.
Applying momentum conservation law (7.11) to this situation, we
get w = 0 and additionally we obtain
(7.12) M =
2 m
_
1 −
[v[
2
c
2
.
From (7.12) we see that mass at rest of resulting composite
particle is greater than sum of rest masses of its components:
M > m+m. Conclusion: the low of mass conservation is fulfilled
approximately only in the limit of small velocities [v[ ≪c.
Let’s multiply zeroth component of 4-momentum of material
particle by c. Resulting quantity has the measure unit of energy.
Let’s denote this quantity by E:
(7.13) E =
mc
2
_
1 −
[v[
2
c
2
.
100 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.
The quantity (7.13) is called kinetic energy of moving particle.
Writing relationship (7.11) for zeroth components of colliding
particles, we get energy conservation law:
(7.14)
k

i=1
E
i
=
n

i=1
˜
E
i
.
Thus, 4-momentum conservation law for collision includes both
energy conservation law (7.14) and the law of conservation for
three-dimensional momentum.
Note that for zero velocity v = 0 the above quantity (7.13)
does not vanish, but takes nonzero value
(7.15) E = mc
2
.
This quantity is known as rest energy of material particle. For-
mula (7.15) is well-known. It reflects very important fact absent
in classical physics: the ability of energy to mass and mass to
energy conversion. In practice conversion of energy to mass is
realized in particle confluence (see M > m+m in formula (7.12)).
Converse phenomenon of particle decay yields mass defect (mass
decrease). Lost mass is realized in additional amount of kinetic
energy of outgoing particles. Total conversion of mass to en-
ergy is also possible. This happens in process of annihilation,
when elementary particle meets corresponding antiparticle. Large
amount of energy released in annihilation is scattered in form of
short-wave electromagnetic radiation.
¸ 8. Four-dimensional form of Maxwell equations.
Starting from electromagnetic equations E = 0 and H = 0
in previous sections we have constructed and described Lorentz
transformations preserving form of these equations. We also have
§ 8. FOUR-DIMENSIONAL FORM . . . 101
given geometric and physical interpretation of Lorentz transfor-
mations and even have described dynamics of material points on
the base of new relativistic notion of space and time. Now time
has come to remember that equations E = 0 and H = 0
are not primary equations of electrodynamics, they were derived
from Maxwell equations. To have complete picture we should we
should write Maxwell equations in four-dimensional form. Let’s
begin with second pair of these equations containing charges and
currents (see equations (1.2) in Chapter II. Let’s modify them:
1
c
∂E
∂t
−rot H = −

c
j, −div E = −4πρ.
Then rewrite these equations in components using Levi-Civita
symbol for to express rotor (see [3]):
(8.1)
∂E
p
∂r
0

3

q=1
3

k=1
ε
pqk
∂H
k
∂r
q
= −

c
j
p
,

3

q=1
∂E
q
∂r
q
= −4π ρ.
Here we used notation r
0
= ct associating time variable with
zeroth component of radius-vector in Minkowsky space.
Using Levi-Civita symbol and components of vector H, we can
construct skew-symmetric 3 3 matrix with elements
(8.2) F
pq
= −
3

k=1
ε
pqk
H
k
.
102 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.
Due to (8.2) we can easily write explicit form of matrix F:
(8.3) F
pq
=
_
_
0 −H
3
H
2
H
3
0 −H
1
−H
2
H
1
0
_
_
.
Let’s complement the above matrix (8.3) with one additional line
and one additional column:
(8.4) F
pq
=
_
_
_
_
_
0 −E
1
−E
2
−E
3
E
1
0 −H
3
H
2
E
2
H
3
0 −H
1
E
3
−H
2
H
1
0
_
_
_
_
_
.
Additional line and additional column in (8.4) are indexed by
zero, i. e. indices p and q run over integer numbers from 0 to 3.
In addition, we complement three-dimensional vector of current
density with one more component
(8.5) j
0
= ρc.
By means of (8.4) and (8.5) we can rewrite Maxwell equations
(8.1) in very concise four-dimensional form:
(8.6)
3

q=0
∂F
pq
∂r
q
= −

c
j
p
.
Now let’s consider first pair of Maxwell equations (see equations
(1.1) in Chapter II). In coordinates they are written as
∂H
p
∂r
0
+
3

q=1
3

k=1
ε
pqk
∂E
k
∂r
q
= 0,
3

q=1
∂H
q
∂r
q
= 0. (8.7)
§ 8. FOUR-DIMENSIONAL FORM . . . 103
The structure of the equations (8.7) is quite similar to that of
(8.1). However, their right hand sides are zero and we see slight
difference in signs. Main difference is that components of vectors
E and H have exchanged their places. To exchange components
of vectors E and H in matrix (8.4) we need four-dimensional
analog of Levi-Civita symbol:
ε
pqks
= ε
pqks
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0, if among p, q, k, s there
are at least two equal num-
bers;
1, if (p q k s) is even permuta-
tion of numbers (0 1 2 3);
−1, if (p q k s) is odd permuta-
tion of numbers (0 1 2 3).
Let’s define matrix G by the following formula for its components:
(8.8) G
pq
= −
1
2
3

k=0
3

s=0
3

m=0
3

n=0
ε
pqks
g
km
g
sn
F
mn
.
Here g is matrix (2.7) determining Minkowsky metric. Matrix G
with components (8.8) can be expressed in explicit form:
(8.9) G
pq
=
_
_
_
_
_
0 −H
1
−H
2
−H
3
H
1
0 E
3
−E
2
H
2
−E
3
0 E
1
H
3
E
2
−E
1
0
_
_
_
_
_
.
The structure of matrix (8.9) enable us to write remaining two
104 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.
Maxwell equations (8.7) in concise four-dimensional form:
(8.10)
3

q=0
∂G
pq
∂r
q
= 0.
Usage of both matrices F and G in theory is assumed to be too
excessive. For this reason equations (8.10) are written as
(8.11)
3

q=0
3

k=0
3

s=0
ε
pqks
∂F
ks
∂r
q
= 0.
Matrix F
ks
is obtained from F
mn
by means of standard index
lowering procedure using matrix (2.7):
(8.12) F
ks
=
3

m=0
3

n=0
g
km
g
sn
F
mn
.
Four-dimensional form of Maxwell equations (8.6) and (8.11)
gives a hint for proper geometric interpretation of these equations.
Matrix (8.4) defines tensor of the type (2, 0) in Minkowsky space.
This tensor is called tensor of electromagnetic field. Tensorial
interpretation of matrix (8.4) immediately yields transformation
rules, which were lacking so far:
(8.13) F
pq
=
3

m=0
3

n=0
S
p
m
S
q
n
˜
F
mn
.
These relationships (8.13) determine transformation rules for com-
ponents of vectors E and H. Before now we express these rules in
undetermined form by the relationships (1.6). For special Lorentz
§ 8. FOUR-DIMENSIONAL FORM . . . 105
matrices (4.11) vectors of electric and magnetic fields E and H in
two inertial coordinate systems are related as follows:
E
1
=
˜
E
1
, E
2
=
˜
E
2
+
u
c
˜
H
3
_
1 −
u
2
c
2
, E
3
=
˜
E
3

u
c
˜
H
2
_
1 −
u
2
c
2
,
H
1
=
˜
H
1
, H
2
=
˜
H
2

u
c
˜
E
3
_
1 −
u
2
c
2
, H
3
=
˜
H
3
+
u
c
˜
E
2
_
1 −
u
2
c
2
.
According to theorem 4.1, general Lorentz matrix is a product
of special Lorentz matrix of the form (4.11) and two matrices of
spatial rotation in tree-dimensional space. The latter ones can be
excluded if one writes Lorentz transformation in “conditionally
three-dimensional” vectorial form:
(8.14)
E =
¸
u,
˜
E
_
[u[
2
u +
˜
E−
¸
u,
˜
E
_
[u[
2
u −
1
c
[u,
˜
H]
_
1 −
[u[
2
c
2
,
H =
¸
u,
˜
H
_
[u[
2
u +
˜
H−
¸
u,
˜
H
_
[u[
2
u +
1
c
[u,
˜
E]
_
1 −
[u[
2
c
2
.
From (8.13) we derive the following rule for transforming co-
variant components of the tensor of electromagnetic field:
(8.15) F
pq
=
3

m=0
3

n=0
T
m
p
T
n
q
˜
F
mn
.
CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.
106 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.
This relationship (8.15) provides invariance of the form of Maxwell
equations (8.11) under Lorentz transformation (2.3). In order to
verify this fact it is sufficient to apply relationships (2.8) for
transforming derivatives and then remember well-known property
of four-dimensional Levi-Civita symbol ε
pqks
:
(8.16)
3

a=0
3

b=0
3

c=0
3

d=0
T
p
a
T
q
b
T
k
c
T
s
d
ε
abcd
= det T ε
pqks
.
The condition of invariance of Maxwell equations (8.6) with re-
spect to Lorentz transformations leads to the following transfor-
mation rule for components of four-dimensional current density:
(8.17) j
p
=
3

m=0
S
p
m
˜
j
m
.
In (8.17) it is easy to recognize the transformation rule for com-
ponents of four-dimensional vector. In case of special Lorentz
matrix of the form (4.11), taking into account (8.5), one can write
the above relationship (8.17) as follows:
ρ =
˜ ρ +
u
c
2
˜
j
1
_
1 −
u
2
c
2
, j
1
=
u˜ ρ +
˜
j
1
_
1 −
u
2
c
2
,
(8.18)
j
2
=
˜
j
2
, j
3
=
˜
j
3
.
Remember that here u = c tanh(α) is a magnitude of relative
velocity of one inertial coordinate system with respect to another.
§ 9. FOUR-DIMENSIONAL VECTOR-POTENTIAL. 107
In vectorial form relationships (8.18) are written as
(8.19)
ρ =
˜ ρ +
¸
u,
˜
j
_
c
2
_
1 −
[u[
2
c
2
,
j =
u ˜ ρ +
¸
u,
˜
j
_
[u[
2
u
_
1 −
[u[
2
c
2
+
˜
j −
¸
u,
˜
j
_
[u[
2
u.
In such form they give transformation rule for charge density ρ
and three-dimensional current density j under Lorentz transfor-
mations with arbitrary Lorentz matrix.
Exercise 8.1. Prove the relationship (8.16), assuming T to be
an arbitrary 4 4 matrix.
Exercise 8.2. Using (2.12), derive the relationship (8.15) from
(8.12) and (8.13).
Exercise 8.3. Using (8.15), (8.16) and (2.8), transform Max-
well equations (8.11) from one inertial coordinate system to an-
other. Verify that the form of these equations is invariant.
Exercise 8.4. Using (8.13), (8.17) and (2.8), transform Max-
well equations (8.6) from one inertial coordinate system to another.
Verify that the form of these equations is invariant.
¸ 9. Four-dimensional vector-potential.
Due to special structure of Maxwell equations one can intro-
duce vector-potential A and scalar potential ϕ. This was done in
108 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.
¸ 3 of Chapter II. Here are formulas for components of E and H:
(9.1)
E
p
= −
∂ϕ
∂r
p

1
c
∂A
p
∂t
,
H
p
=
3

q=1
3

k=1
ε
pqk
∂A
k
∂r
q
,
(see formulas (3.4) in Chapter II). Denote A
0
= ϕ and consider
four-dimensional vector A with components A
0
, A
1
, A
2
, A
3
. This
is four-dimensional vector-potential of electromagnetic field. By
lowering index procedure we get covector A:
(9.2) A
p
=
3

q=0
g
pq
A
q
.
Taking into account relationships (2.7) for components of matrix
g
pq
, from formula (9.2) we derive
A
0
= A
0
, A
1
= −A
1
,
(9.3)
A
2
= −A
2
, A
3
= −A
3
.
Moreover, let’s write explicitly covariant components for the ten-
sor of electromagnetic field:
(9.4) F
pq
=
_
_
_
_
_
0 E
1
E
2
E
3
−E
1
0 −H
3
H
2
−E
2
H
3
0 −H
1
−E
3
−H
2
H
1
0
_
_
_
_
_
.
§ 9. FOUR-DIMENSIONAL VECTOR-POTENTIAL. 109
Due to (9.3) and (9.4) first relationship (9.1) can be written as
(9.5) F
0q
=
∂A
q
∂r
0

∂A
0
∂r
q
.
In order to calculate other components of tensor F
pq
let’s ap-
ply (8.2) and second relationship (9.1). Thereby let’s take into
account that F
pq
= F
pq
and A
p
= −A
p
for p, q = 1, 2, 3:
(9.6) F
pq
= −
3

k=1
ε
pqk
H
k
=
3

k=1
3

m=1
3

n=1
ε
pqk
ε
kmn
∂A
n
∂r
m
.
Further transformation of (9.6) is based on one of the well-known
contraction identities for Levi-Civita symbol:
(9.7)
3

k=1
ε
pqk
ε
kmn
= δ
m
p
δ
n
q
−δ
m
q
δ
n
p
.
Applying (9.7) to (9.6), we get
(9.8) F
pq
=
3

m=1
3

n=1

m
p
δ
n
q
−δ
m
q
δ
n
p
)
∂A
n
∂r
m
=
∂A
q
∂r
p

∂A
p
∂r
q
.
Combining (9.8) and (9.5), we obtain the following formula for all
covariant components of the tensor of electromagnetic field:
(9.9) F
pq
=
∂A
q
∂r
p

∂A
p
∂r
q
.
In essential, formula (9.9) is four-dimensional form of the rela-
tionships (9.1). It unites these two relationships into one.
Remember that vectorial and scalar potentials of electromag-
netic field are not unique. They are determined up to a gauge
110 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.
transformation (see formula (4.1) in Chapter II). This uncertainty
could be included into transformation rule for component of four-
dimensional potential A. However, if we assert that A
0
, A
1
, A
2
,
A
3
are transformed as components of four-dimensional vector
(9.10) A
p
=
3

q=0
S
p
q
˜
A
q
,
and A
0
, A
1
, A
2
, A
3
are obtained from them by index lowering
procedure (9.2), then we find that quantities F
pq
defined by
formula (9.9) are transformed exactly by formula (8.15), as they
actually should.
From (9.10) one can easily derive explicit transformation
formulas for scalar potential ϕ and for components of three-
dimensional vector-potential A. For special Lorentz transforma-
tions with matrix (4.11) they are written as follows:
ϕ =
˜ ϕ +
u
c
˜
A
1
_
1 −
u
2
c
2
, A
1
=
u
c
˜ ϕ +
˜
A
1
_
1 −
u
2
c
2
,
(9.11)
A
2
=
˜
A
2
, A
3
=
˜
A
3
.
Note that one can rederive transformation rules for components
of electric and magnetic fields (see ¸ 8 above). However, we shall
not do it now.
In case of Lorentz transformations with arbitrary Lorentz ma-
trix the relationships (9.11) should be written in vectorial form:
(9.12a) ϕ =
˜ ϕ +
¸
u,
˜
j
_
c
_
1 −
[u[
2
c
2
,
§ 9. FOUR-DIMENSIONAL VECTOR-POTENTIAL. 111
(9.12b) A =
u
c
˜ ϕ +
¸
u,
˜
A
_
[u[
2
u
_
1 −
[u[
2
c
2
+
˜
A−
¸
u,
˜
A
_
[u[
2
u.
Theorem 9.1. Each skew-symmetric tensor field F of type
(0, 2) in four-dimensional space satisfying differential equations
(8.11) is determined by some covector field A according to the
above formula (9.9).
Proof. Each skew-symmetric tensor field F of type (0, 2)
in four-dimensional space can be identified with pair of three-
dimensional vector fields E and H depending on additional pa-
rameter r
0
= ct. In order to do this one should use (9.4). Then
equations (8.11) are written as Maxwell equations for E and H:
div H = 0, rot E = −
1
c
∂H
∂t
.
Further construction of covector field A is based on considerations
from ¸ 3 of Chapter II, where three-dimensional vector-potential
and scalar potential were introduced. Then we denote A
0
= ϕ
and thus convert three-dimensional vector-potential into four-
dimensional vector. And the last step is index lowering procedure
given by formula (9.2).
Choice of vector field A in formula (9.9), as we noted above,
has gauge uncertainty. In four-dimensional formalism this fact is
represented by gauge transformations
(9.13) A
k
→A
k
+
∂ψ
∂r
k
,
where ψ — is some arbitrary scalar field. Formula (9.13) is four-
dimensional version of gauge transformations (4.1) considered
112 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.
in Chapter II. It is easy to verify that gauge transformations
(9.13) do not break transformation rules (9.10) for contravariant
components of vector A.
Exercise 9.1. Prove theorem 9.1 immediately in four-dimen-
sional form without passing back to three-dimensional statements
and constructions.
¸ 10. The law of charge conservation.
Earlier we have noted that charge conservation law can be
derived from Maxwell equations (see ¸ 1 in Chapter II). To prove
this fact in four-dimensional formalism is even easier. Let’s
differentiate the relationship (8.6) with respect to r
p
and add one
more summation with respect to index p:
(10.1)
3

p=0
3

q=0

2
F
pq
∂r
p
∂r
q
= −

c
3

p=0
∂j
p
∂r
p
.
Double differentiation in (10.1) is symmetric operation, while
tensor of electromagnetic field F
pq
, to which it is applied, is
skew-symmetric. Therefore the expression under summation in
left hand side of (10.1) is skew-symmetric with respect to indices
p and q. This leads to vanishing of double sum in left hand side
of formula (10.1). Hence we obtain
(10.2)
3

p=0
∂j
p
∂r
p
= 0.
The equality (10.2) is four-dimensional form of charge conserva-
tion law. If we remember that j
0
= cρ and r
0
= ct, we see that
this equality coincides with (5.4) in Chapter I.
Conservation laws for scalar quantities (those like electric char-
ge) in theory of relativity are expressed by equations analogous
CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.
§ 10. THE LAW OF CHARGE CONSERVATION. 113
to (10.2) in form of vanishing of four-dimensional divergencies for
corresponding four-dimensional currents. For vectorial quantities
corresponding current densities are tensors. Thus the law of con-
servation of 4-momentum for fields is represented by the equation
(10.3)
3

p=0
∂T
qp
∂r
p
= 0.
Tensor T
qp
in (10.3) playing the role of current density of 4-mo-
mentum is called energy-momentum tensor.
Theorem 10.1. For any vector field j in n-dimensional space
(n 2) if its divergency is zero
(10.4)
n

p=1
∂j
p
∂r
p
= 0,
then there is skew-symmetric tensor field ψ of type (2, 0) such that
(10.5) j
p
=
n

q=1
∂ψ
pq
∂r
q
.
Proof. Choosing some Cartesian coordinate system, we shall
construct matrix ψ
pq
of the following special form:
(10.6) ψ
pq
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
0 . . . 0 ψ
1n
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 . . . 0 ψ
n−1 n
−ψ
1n
. . . −ψ
n−1 n
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
.
114 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.
Matrix (10.6) is skew-symmetric, it has (n −1) independent com-
ponents. From (10.5) for these components we derive
(10.7)
∂ψ
kn
∂r
n
= j
k
, where k = 1, . . . , n −1,
n−1

k=1
∂ψ
kn
∂r
k
= −j
n
.
Let’s define functions ψ
kn
in (10.7) by the following integrals:
(10.8)
ψ
kn
=
r
n
_
0
j
k
(r
1
, . . . , r
n−1
, y) dy+
+
1
n − 1
r
k
_
0
j
n
(r
1
, . . . , y, . . . , r
n−1
, 0) dy.
It is easy to verify that functions (10.8) satisfy first series of
differential equations (10.7). Under the condition (10.4) they
satisfy last equation (10.7) as well. Thus, theorem is proved.
Theorem 10.1 can be easily generalized for arbitrary tensorial
currents. Its prove thereby remains the same in most.
Theorem 10.2. For any tensorial field T of type (m, s) in the
space of dimension n 2 if its divergency is zero
n

p
m
=1
∂T
p
1
... p
m
q
1
... q
s
∂r
p
m
= 0,
§ 11. NOTE ON COORDINATES. 115
then there is tensorial field ψ of type (m + 1, s) skew-symmetric
in last pair of upper indices and such that
T
p
1
... p
m
q
1
... q
s
=
n

p
m+1
=1
∂ψ
p
1
... p
m
p
m+1
q
1
... q
s
∂r
p
m+1
.
Exercise 10.1. Verify that the equation (10.4) provides last
equation (10.7) to be fulfilled for the functions (10.8).
Exercise 10.2. Clarify the relation of theorem 10.1 and theo-
rem on vortex field in case of dimension n = 3.
¸ 11. Note on skew-angular and
curvilinear coordinates.
In previous three sections we have managed to write in four-
dimensional form all Maxwell equations, charge conservation law,
and the relation of E, H and their potentials. The relationships
(8.6), (8.11), (9.9), (9.13), (10.2), which were obtained there, pre-
serve their shape when we transfer from one rectangular Cartesian
coordinate system to another. Such transitions are interpreted as
Lorentz transformations, they are given by Lorentz matrices.
However, all these relationships (8.6), (8.11), (9.9), (9.13), (10.2)
possess transparent tensorial interpretation. Therefore they can
be transformed to any skew-angular Cartesian coordinate system
as well. Thereby we would have minor differences: the shape
of matrix g would be different and instead of ε
pqks
in (8.11) we
would require volume tensor with components
(11.1) ω
pqks
= ±
_
−det ˆ g ε
pqks
.
116 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.
Matrix g
pq
in skew-angular coordinate system is not given by
formula (2.7), here it is arbitrary symmetric matrix determining
quadratic form of signature (1, 3). Therefore differential equations
E = 0 and H = 0, which we are started from, have not their
initial form. They are written as F
pq
= 0, where d’Alambert
operator is given by formula (2.6) with non-diagonal matrix g
ij
.
In arbitrary skew-angular coordinate system none of axes
should have time-like direction. Therefore none of them can
be interpreted as time axis. Three-dimensional form of electrody-
namics equations, even if we could write them, would not have
proper physical interpretation in such coordinate system. In par-
ticular, interpretation of components of tensor F
pq
as components
of electric and magnetic fields in formula (8.4) would not be
physically meaningful.
Tensorial form of four-dimensional electrodynamics equations
enables us to make one more step toward increasing arbitrariness
in the choice of coordinate system: we can use not only skew-
angular, but curvilinear coordinates as well. To make this step we
need to replace partial derivatives by covariant derivatives:
(11.2)

∂r
p
→∇
p
(see [3] for more details). Connection components required for
passing to covariant derivatives (11.2) are determined by compo-
nents of metric tensor. The latter ones in curvilinear coordinate
system do actually depend on r
0
, r
1
, r
2
, r
3
:
(11.3) Γ
k
ij
=
1
2
3

s=0
g
ks
_
∂g
sj
∂r
i
+
∂g
is
∂r
j

∂g
ij
∂r
s
_
.
No we give list of all basic equations, which we derived above, in
§ 11. NOTE ON COORDINATES. 117
covariant form. Maxwell equations are written as follows:
(11.4)
3

q=0

q
F
pq
= −

c
j
p
,
3

q=0
3

k=0
3

s=0
ω
pqks

q
F
ks
= 0.
Here components of volume tensor ω
pqks
are given by formula
(11.1). Tensor of electromagnetic field is expressed through four-
dimensional vector-potential by formula
(11.5) F
pq
= ∇
p
A
q
−∇
q
A
p
,
while gauge uncertainty in the choice of vector-potential itself is
described by the relationship
(11.6) A
k
→A
k
+∇
k
ψ,
where ψ is arbitrary scalar field. Charge conservation law in
curvilinear coordinates is written as
(11.7)
3

p=0

p
j
p
= 0.
Instead of formula (2.6) for D’Alambert operator here we have
(11.8) =
3

i=0
3

j=0
g
ij

i

j
.
Dynamics of material point of nonzero mass m ,= 0 is described
118 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.
by ordinary differential equations of Newtonian type:
˙ r = u, ∇
s
u =
F
mc
. (11.9)
Here dot means standard differentiation with respect to natural
parameter s on world line, while ∇
s
is covariant derivative with
respect to the same parameter.
Exercise 11.1. Using symmetry of Christoffel symbols (11.3)
with respect to lower pair of indices i and j, show that the re-
lationship (11.5) can be brought to the form (9.9) in curvilinear
coordinate system as well.
CHAPTER IV
LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM
IN THEORY OF RELATIVITY
¸ 1. Principle of minimal action
for particles and fields.
Dynamics of material points in theory of relativity is described
by their world lines. These are time-like lines in Minkowsky space.
Let’s consider some world line corre-
Fig. 1.1
A
B
sponding to real motion of some particle
under the action of external fields. Let’s
fix two points A and B on this world
line not too far from each other. Then
consider small deformation of world line
in the range between these two points
A and B. Suppose that we have some
coordinate system in Minkowsky space
(either Cartesian, or curvilinear, no mat-
ter). Then our world line is given in
parametric form by four functions
(1.1) r
0
(s), r
1
(s), r
2
(s), r
3
(s),
where s is natural parameter. Then deformed curve can be given
CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.
120 CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . .
by the following four functions:
(1.2) ˆ r
i
(s) = r
i
(s) +h
i
(ε, s), i = 0, . . . , 3.
Here s is original natural parameter on initial non-deformed world
line (1.1), while h
i
(ε, s) are smooth functions which are nonzero
only within the range between points A and B. Note that
functions h
i
(ε, s) in (1.2) depend on additional parameter ε which
is assumed to be small. Moreover, we shall assume that
(1.3) h
i
(ε, s) →0 as ε →0.
Thus, in (1.2) we have whole family of deformed lines. This family
of lines is called variation of world line (1.1). Due to (1.3) we
have the following Taylor expansion for h
i
(ε, s):
(1.4) h
i
(ε, s) = ε h
i
(s) +. . . .
Under the change of one curvilinear coordinate system for an-
other quantities h
i
(s) are transformed as components of four-
dimensional vector. This vector is called vector of variation of
world line, while quantities
(1.5) δr
i
(s) = εh
i
(s)
are called variations of point coordinates. It is clear that they
also are transformed as components of four-dimensional vector.
Due to formulas (1.4) and (1.5) parametric equations of deformed
curves (1.2) are written as follows:
(1.6) ˆ r
i
(s) = r
i
(s) +δr
i
(s) +. . . .
By this formula we emphasize that terms other than linear with
respect to small parameter ε are of no importance.
§ 1. PRINCIPLE OF MINIMAL ACTION . . . 121
By varying functions h
i
(ε, s) in (1.2) and by varying parameter
ε in them we can surround segment of initial world line by a
swarm of its variations. Generally speaking, these variations do
not describe real dynamics of points. However, they are used
in statement of minimal action principle. Within framework of
Lagrangian formalism functional of action S is usually introduced,
this is a map that to each line connecting two points A and B put
into correspondence some real number S.
Principle of minimal action for particles. World line con-
necting two points A and B describes real dynamics of material
point if and only if action functional S reaches local minimum on
it among other lines being its small variations.
Action functional S producing number by each line should de-
pend only on that line (as geometric set of points in M), but
it should not depend on coordinate system (r
0
, r
1
, r
2
, r
3
) in M.
By tradition this condition is called Lorentz invariance, though
changes of one curvilinear coordinate system by another form
much broader class of transformations than Lorentz transforma-
tions relating two rectangular Cartesian coordinate systems in
Minkowsky space.
Action functional in most cases is integral. For single point of
mass m in electromagnetic field with potential A it is written as
(1.7) S = −mc
s
2
_
s
1
ds −
q
c
s
2
_
s
1
g(A, u) ds.
Here q is electric charge of particle, while u = u(s) is vector of
its 4-velocity (unit tangent vector of world line). First integral
in (1.7) yields action for free particle (in the absence of exter-
nal fields), second integral describes interaction of particle with
electromagnetic field.
122 CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . .
If we consider system of N particles, then we should write
integral (1.7) for each of them and we should add all these
integrals. And finally, in order to get the action functional for
total system of field and particles we should add integral of action
for electromagnetic field itself:
(1.8)
S =
N

i=1
_
_
_
−m
i
c
s
2
(i)
_
s
1
(i)
ds −
q
i
c
s
2
(i)
_
s
1
(i)
g(A, u) ds
_
_
_


1
16 π c
V
2
_
V
1
3

p=0
3

q=0
F
pq
F
pq
_
−det g d
4
r.
Last integral in (1.8) deserves special consideration. This is
four-dimensional volume integral over the domain enclosed be-
tween two three-dimensional hyper-
surfaces V
1
and V
2
. Hypersurfaces
Fig. 1.2
past
V
1
V
2
future
V
1
and V
2
are space-like, i. e. their
normal vectors are time-like vectors.
These hypersurfaces determine the
fissure between the future and the
past, and over this fissure we inte-
grate in (1.8). Thereby change of
field functions (here these are com-
ponents of vector-potential A) when
passing from V
1
to V
2
reflects evolution of electromagnetic field
from the past to the future.
Electromagnetic field is described by field functions. Therefore
variation of field is defined in other way than that of particles.
Suppose that Ω is some restricted four-dimensional domain en-
closed between hypersurfaces V
1
and V
2
. Let’s consider four
smooth functions h
i
(ε, r) = h
i
(ε, r
0
, r
1
, r
2
, r
3
) being identically
§ 1. PRINCIPLE OF MINIMAL ACTION . . . 123
zero outside the domain Ω and vanishing for ε = 0. Let’s define
(1.9)
ˆ
A
i
(r) = A
i
(r) +h
i
(ε, r)
and consider Taylor expansion of h
i
at the point ε = 0:
(1.10) h
i
(ε, r) = ε h
i
(r) +. . . .
The following functions determined by linear terms in the above
Taylor expansions (1.10)
(1.11) δA
i
(r) = ε h
i
(r)
are called variations of field functions for electromagnetic field.
Deformation of vector-potential (1.9) now can be written as
(1.12)
ˆ
A
i
(r) = A
i
(r) +δA
i
(r) +. . . .
Principle of minimal action for fields. Field functions de-
termine actual configuration of physical fields if and only if they
realize local minimum of action functional S in class of all varia-
tions with restricted support*.
The condition of minimum of action for actual field configura-
tion and for actual world lines of particles, as a rule, is not used.
In order to derive dynamical equations for fields and particles it is
sufficient to have extremum condition (no matter minimum, max-
imum, or saddle point). For this reason minimal action principle
often is stated as principle of extremal action.
Exercise 1.1. Verify that h
i
(s) in (1.4) are transformed as
components of vector under the change of coordinates.
* Variations with restricted support are those which are identically zero
outside some restricted domain Ω.
124 CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . .
Exercise 1.2. Prove that under gauge transformations (11.6)
from Chapter III action functional (1.8) is transformed as follows:
(1.13) S →S −
N

i=1
_
q
i
c
ψ(r(s
2
(i))) −
q
i
c
ψ(r(s
1
(i)))
_
.
Explain why terms added to action functional in (1.13) are not
sensitive to variation of word lines (1.2).
¸ 2. Motion of particle in electromagnetic field.
In order to find world line of relativistic particle in external
electromagnetic field we shall apply particle version of extremal
action principle to functional (1.8). Let’s choose one of N par-
ticles in (1.8) and consider deformation (1.6) of its world line.
When we substitute deformed world line into (1.8) in place of
initial non-deformed one the value of last integral remains un-
changed. Thereby in first term containing sum of integrals only
one summand changes its value, that one which represent the par-
ticle we have chosen among others. Therefore writing extremity
condition for (1.8) we can use action functional in form of (1.7).
The value of (1.7) for deformed world line is calculated as follows:
(2.1) S
def
= −mc
s
2
_
s
1
_
g(K, K) ds −
q
c
s
2
_
s
1
g(A, K) ds.
Formula (2.1) visually differs from formula (1.7) because s is
natural parameter on initial world line, but it is not natural
parameter on deformed line. Here tangent vector
(2.2) K(s) =
dˆr(s)
ds
= u(s) +ε
d
ˆ
h(s)
ds
+. . .
§ 2. MOTION OF PARTICLE . . . 125
is not unit vector. Therefore first integral (1.7) is rewritten as
length integral (see (6.4) in Chapter III). In second integral (1.7)
unit tangent vector is replaced by vector K.
Let’s write in coordinate form both expressions which are under
integration in (2.1) taking into account that we deal with general
curvilinear coordinate system in Minkowsky space:
(2.3)
_
g(K, K) =
¸
¸
¸
_
3

i=0
3

j=0
g
ij
(ˆ r(s)) K
i
(s) K
j
(s),
g(A, K) =
3

i=0
A
i
(ˆr(s)) K
i
(s).
Let’s substitute (2.2) into (2.3) and take into account (1.2) and
the expansion (1.4). As a result for the expressions (2.3) we get
the following power expansions with respect to small parameter ε:
_
g(K, K) =
_
g(u, u) +
ε
_
g(u, u)
_
3

i=0
u
i
(s)
dh
i
(s)
ds
+
+
1
2
3

i=0
3

j=0
3

k=0
∂g
ij
∂r
k
u
i
(s) u
j
(s) h
k
(s)
_
+. . . ,
g(A, K) = g(A, u) +ε
3

i=0
A
i
(r(s))
dh
i
(s)
ds
+

3

i=0
3

k=0
∂A
i
∂r
k
u
i
(s) h
k
(s) +. . . .
When substituting these expansions into (2.1) we should remem-
126 CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . .
ber that u is unit vector. Then for S
def
we get
S
def
= S −ε
s
2
_
s
1
3

k=0
_
mc u
k
(s) +
q
c
A
k
(r(s))
_
dh
k
(s)
ds
ds −
−ε
s
2
_
s
1
3

k=0
_
q
c
3

i=0
∂A
i
∂r
k
u
i
+
mc
2
3

i=0
3

j=0
∂g
ij
∂r
k
u
i
u
j
_
h
k
(s) ds +. . . .
Let’s apply integration by parts to first integral above. As a result
we get the expression without derivatives of functions h
k
(s):
S
def
= S −ε
3

k=0
_
mc u
k
(s) +
q
c
A
k
(r(s))
_
h
k
(s)
s
2
s
1
+

s
2
_
s
1
3

k=0
d
ds
_
mc u
k
(s) +
q
c
A
k
(r(s))
_
h
k
(s) ds −
−ε
s
2
_
s
1
3

k=0
_
q
c
3

i=0
∂A
i
∂r
k
u
i
+
mc
2
3

i=0
3

j=0
∂g
ij
∂r
k
u
i
u
j
_
h
k
(s) ds +. . . .
Remember that function h
k
(s) vanish at the ends of integration
path h
k
(s
1
) = h
k
(s
2
) = 0 (see ¸ 1). This provides vanishing of
non-integral terms in the above formula for S
def
.
Now in order to derive differential equations for world line of
particle we apply extremity condition for S. It means that term
linear with respect to ε in power expansion for S
def
should be
CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.
§ 2. MOTION OF PARTICLE . . . 127
identically zero irrespective to the choice of functions h
k
(s):
(2.4)
d
ds
_
mc u
k
(s) +
q
c
A
k
(r(s))
_
=
=
q
c
3

i=0
∂A
i
∂r
k
u
i
+
mc
2
3

i=0
3

j=0
∂g
ij
∂r
k
u
i
u
j
.
Let’s calculate derivative in left hand side of (2.4). Then let’s
rearrange terms so that those with mc factor are in left hand
side, while others with q/c factor are in right hand side:
mc
_
du
k
ds

1
2
3

i=0
3

j=0
∂g
ij
∂r
k
u
i
u
j
_
=
q
c
3

i=0
_
∂A
i
∂r
k

∂A
k
∂r
i
_
u
i
.
Now in right hand side of this equation we find tensor of electro-
magnetic field (see formula (9.9) in Chapter III). For transforming
left hand side of this equation we use formula (11.3) from Chap-
ter III. As a result we get the following equation for world line:
(2.5) mc
_
du
k
ds

3

i=0
3

j=0
Γ
i
kj
u
i
u
j
_
=
q
c
3

i=0
F
ki
u
i
.
In left hand side of the equation (2.5) we find covariant derivative
with respect to parameter s along world line:
(2.6) mc ∇
s
u
k
=
q
c
3

i=0
F
ki
u
i
.
Comparing (2.6) with the equations (11.9) from Chapter III, we
128 CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . .
get formula for the vector of four-dimensional force acting on a
particle with charge q in electromagnetic field:
(2.7) F
k
=
q
c
3

i=0
F
ki
u
i
.
Suppose that we have rectangular Cartesian coordinate system
in Minkowsky space. Then we can subdivide F into spatial and
temporal parts and can calculate components of three-dimensional
force vector: f
i
=
_
c
2
−[v[
2
F
i
(see formula (7.6) in Chap-
ter III). Upon easy calculations with the use of formulas (7.2) and
(9.4) from Chapter III for force vector f we get
(2.8) f = q E+
q
c
[v, H].
This formula (2.8) is exactly the same as formula for Lorentz force
(see (4.4) in Chapter I). Thus formula (2.7) is four-dimensional
generalization of formula for Lorentz force. Orthogonality condi-
tion for 4-force and 4-velocity (see (7.5) in Chapter III) for (2.7) is
fulfilled due to skew symmetry of tensor of electromagnetic field.
Exercise 2.1. Prove that gauge transformation of action func-
tional (1.13) does not change dynamic equations of material point
in electromagnetic field (2.6).
Exercise 2.2. Verify that the relationship (7.5) from Chap-
ter III holds for Lorentz force.
¸ 3. Dynamics of dust matter.
Differential equation (2.6) describes motion of charged particles
in electromagnetic field. If the number of particles is not large,
then we can follow after the motion of each of them. When
describing extremely large number of particles continual limit is
§ 3. DYNAMICS OF DUST MATTER. 129
used, particles are replaced by continuous medium modeling their
collective behavior. Simplest model describing large number of
non-colliding particles is a model of dust cloud. In this model
Fig. 3.1 Fig. 3.2
particles of cloud move regularly (not chaotically). Their world
lines can be modeled by regular family of lines filling the whole
space (see Fig. 3.1).
Another model is a model of ideal gas. Here particles also
do not collide each other, i. e. their world lines do not intersect.
However, their motion is chaotic (see Fig. 3.2). Therefore if we
fill the whole space with their world lines, they would intersect.
Besides two models considered mentioned above, there are
models describing liquids and solid materials. Points of liquid
and solid media move regularly (as on Fig. 3.1). However, in
these media interaction of particles is essential. Therefore when
describing such media one should either use detailed microscopic
analysis and get macroscopic parameters by statistical averaging,
or should use some heuristic assumptions based on experiment.
In this book we consider only most simple model of dust cloud.
In this case one should assume Minkowsky space to be filled by
regular family of world lines. Some of them are world lines of real
130 CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . .
particles, others are imaginary ones obtained by extrapolation in
continual limit. Therefore at each point of M we have unit vector
u, this is tangent vector to world line passing through this point.
This means that dynamics of dust cloud can be described by
vector field u(r).
Apart from vector field u, below we need scalar parameter ν(r)
which means the density of dust cloud. We define it as follows.
Let’s choose some small fragment of three-dimensional hypersur-
face in M orthogonal to vector u(r) at the point r. The number
of dust particles whose world lines cross this fragment is propor-
tional to its three-dimensional volume: N = ν(r) V , parameter
ν(r) is coefficient of proportionality. Parameter ν(r) has measure
unit of concentration, it can be treated as concentration of par-
ticles in small fragment of dust cloud near the point r measured
in that inertial coordinate system for which particles of this small
fragment are at rest. By means of ν(r) and u(r) we compose new
four-dimensional vector
(3.1) η(r) = c ν(r) u(r).
Vector (3.1) is called four-dimensional flow density for particles
in cloud. If we choose some inertial coordinate system, then
η
0
/c is interpreted as concentration of particles in dust cloud,
while other three components of four-dimensional vector η form
three-dimensional vector of flow density.
Suppose that dust cloud is formed by identical particles with
mass m and charge q. Then four-dimensional current density
vector can be represented as follows:
(3.2) j(r) = q η(r).
By analogy with (3.2) one can define mass flow density vector:
(3.3) µ(r) = mη(r).
§ 3. DYNAMICS OF DUST MATTER. 131
Total number of particles in cloud is fixed. This conservation law
is written as the following equality for η:
(3.4)
3

p=0

p
η
p
= 0.
From (3.4) and (3.2) one can derive charge conservation law in
form of the relationship (11.7) from Chapter III. Taking into
account (3.3), we get rest mass conservation law:
(3.5)
3

p=0

p
µ
p
= 0.
Rest mass conservation law here is fulfilled due to the absence of
collisions when heavy particles can be produced from light ones
(see ¸ 7 in Chapter III).
Let’s consider dynamics of particles composing dust cloud.
Vector field u is constituted by tangent vectors to world lines
of dust particles. Therefore these world lines can be determined
as integral curves of vector field u, i. e. by solving the following
system of ordinary differential equations:
(3.6)
dr
i
ds
= u
i
(r(s)), i = 0, . . . , 3.
Having determined world line of particle from differential equa-
tions, we know vector of its 4-velocity u(s). Now let’s calculate
covariant derivative of vector u(s) with respect to parameter s:
(3.7) ∇
s
u
p
=
du
p
(s)
ds
+
3

k=0
3

n=0
Γ
p
nk
u
k
(s) u
n
(s).
132 CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . .
Calculating derivative du
p
/ds in (3.7) we take into account (3.6)
and the equality u(s) = u(r(s)). As a result we get
(3.8)
du
p
(s)
ds
=
3

k=0
u
k
∂u
p
∂r
k
.
Substituting (3.8) into (3.7), we derive the following formula:
(3.9) ∇
s
u
p
=
3

k=0
u
k

k
u
p
.
Right hand side of (3.9) is covariant derivative of vector field u(r)
along itself (see more details in [3]). Substituting (3.9) into the
equations of the dynamics of material point, we get:
(3.10) ∇
u
u =
F
mc
.
Here F = F(r, u) is some external force field acting on particles
of dust matter. For example in the case of charged dust in
electromagnetic field the equation (3.10) looks like
(3.11)
3

k=0
u
k

k
u
p
=
q
mc
2
3

k=0
F
pk
u
k
.
In contrast to the equations (11.9) from Chapter III, which
describe dynamics of separate particle, here (3.10) are partial
differential equations with respect to components of vector field
u(r). They describe dynamics of dust cloud in continual limit.
The equation for scalar field ν(r) is derived from conservation law
§ 4. ACTION FUNCTIONAL FOR DUST MATTER. 133
(3.4) for the number of particles. Combining these two equations,
we obtain a system of differential equations:
(3.12)
3

k=0
u
k

k
u
p
=
F
p
mc
,
3

k=0
u
k

k
ν = −ν
3

k=0

k
u
k
.
System of partial differential equations (3.12) yields complete
description for the dynamics of dust cloud.
Model of dust matter cam be generalized a little bit. We can
consider mixture of particles of different sorts. For each sort of
particles we define its own vector field u(i, r) and its own scalar
field of concentration ν(i, r). Then formulas (3.2) and (3.3) for j
and µ are generalized as follows:
j(r) =
n

i=1
q(i) η(i, r), µ(r) =
n

i=1
m(i) η(i, r).
Here η(i, r) = c ν(i, r) u(i, r). Each pair of fields u(i, r) and ν(i, r)
satisfies differential equations (3.12). We can derive mass and
charge conservation laws from these equations.
¸ 4. Action functional for dust matter.
Let’s study the dynamics of dust matter in electromagnetic
field within framework of Lagrangian formalism. Fort this purpose
we need to pass to continual limit in action functional (1.8).
For the sake of simplicity we consider dust cloud with identical
particles. Omitting details of how it was derived, now we write
CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.
134 CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . .
ultimate formula for action functional (1.8) in continual limit:
(4.1)
S = −m
V
2
_
V
1
_
g(η, η)
_
−det g d
4
r−

q
c
2
V
2
_
V
1
g(η, A)
_
−det g d
4
r−

1
16π c
V
2
_
V
1
3

p=0
3

k=0
F
pk
F
pk
_
−det g d
4
r.
Instead of deriving formula (4.1) from (1.8) we shall verify this
formula indirectly. For this purpose we shall derive dynamical
equation (3.11) from principle of extremal action applied to action
functional (4.1).
For describing dust matter in (4.1) we have chosen vector field
η(r) defined in (3.1). Other two fields u(r) and ν(r) can be
expressed though vector field η(r):
c ν = [η[ =
_
g(η, η) , u =
η
c ν
. (4.2)
Dealing with variation of vector field η(r) we should always
remember that components of this field are not independent
functions. They satisfy differential equation (3.4). In order
to resolve tis equation (3.4) we use slightly modified version of
theorem 10.1 from Chapter III.
Theorem 4.1. Let M be some n-dimensional manifold, where
n ≥ 2, equipped with metric g
ij
. For each vector field η with zero
§ 4. ACTION FUNCTIONAL FOR DUST MATTER. 135
divergency with respect to metric connection
(4.3)
n

p=1

p
η
p
= 0
there is skew-symmetric tensor field ϕ of type (2, 0) such that the
following relationships are fulfilled
(4.4) η
p
=
n

q=1

q
ϕ
pq
.
Proof. Writing relationships (4.3), we use well-known for-
mula for components of metric connection, see formula (11.3) in
Chapter III. As a result we get
n

p=1

p
η
p
=
n

p=1
∂η
p
∂r
p
+
n

p=1
n

s=1
Γ
p
ps
η
s
=
n

p=1
∂η
p
∂r
p
+
+
1
2
n

p=1
n

s=1
n

k=1
g
pk
_
∂g
pk
∂r
s
+
∂g
ks
∂r
p

∂g
ps
∂r
k
_
η
s
.
Note that last two derivatives of metric tensor in round brackets
are canceled when we sum over indices p and k. This is because
g
pk
is symmetric. Hence
(4.5)
n

p=1

p
η
p
=
n

p=1
∂η
p
∂r
p
+
1
2
n

p=1
n

s=1
n

k=1
g
sk
∂g
ks
∂r
p
η
p
=
=
n

p=1
∂η
p
∂r
p
+
1
2
n

p=1
tr
_
g
−1
∂g
∂r
p
_
η
p
.
136 CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . .
For further transforming of this expression (4.5) we use well
known formula for logarithmic derivative of determinant:
(4.6)
∂ ln [ det g[
∂r
p
= tr
_
g
−1
∂g
∂r
p
_
.
Substituting (4.6) into (4.5), we transform (4.5) so that
(4.7)
n

p=1

p
η
p
=
1
_
[ det g[
n

p=1
∂(η
p
_
[ det g[)
∂r
p
.
Let’s carry out analogous calculations for right hand side of (4.4)
taking into account skew symmetry of the field ϕ
pq
and symmetry
of connection components Γ
k
pq
. These calculations yield
(4.8)
n

q=1

q
ϕ
pq
=
1
_
[ det g[
n

q=1
∂(ϕ
pq
_
[ det g[)
∂r
q
.
Denote j
p
=
_
[ det g[ η
p
and ψ
pq
=
_
[ det g[ ϕ
pq
. Now on the
base of (4.7) and (4.8) it is easy to understand that proof of
theorem 4.1 is reduced to theorem 10.1 from Chapter III.
Remark. Generally speaking, theorem 10.2 has no direct
generalization for the case of spaces with metric. It is generalized
only for metric spaces with zero curvature tensor R
s
kpq
= 0.
Let’s define deformation of the field η in a way similar to that
we used for vector-potential A in ¸ 1:
(4.9) ˆ η
p
(r) = η
p
(r) +ε ζ
p
(r) +. . . .
Both fields ˆ η and η satisfy differential equation (3.4). Hence
vector field ζ defined in (4.9) also satisfy this equation. Let’s
§ 4. ACTION FUNCTIONAL FOR DUST MATTER. 137
apply theorem 4.1 to vector field ζ:
(4.10) ζ
p
=
3

k=0

k
ϕ
pk
.
Theorem 4.1 does not specify tensor field ϕ
pk
in (4.10), this can
be any skew-symmetric tensor field. However, we choose it in very
special form as follows:
(4.11) ϕ
pk
= η
p
h
k
−h
p
η
k
.
This choice can be motivated by the following theorem.
Theorem 4.2. For any two vector fields ζ and η, where η ,= 0,
both satisfying differential equation (3.4) there is vector field h
such that vector field ζ is given by formula
ζ
p
=
3

k=0

k

p
h
k
−h
p
η
k
).
Our choice (4.11) leads to the following expression for the field ˆ η:
(4.12) ˆ η
p
(r) = η
p
(r) +ε
3

k=0

k

p
h
k
−h
p
η
k
) +. . . .
Quantities h
i
(r) in (4.12) are chosen to be smooth functions being
nonzero only within some restricted domain Ω in Minkowsky
space.
When substituting (4.12) into action functional (4.1) we use
the following expansion for
_
g( ˆ η, ˆ η) :
_
g( ˆ η, ˆ η) =
_
g(η, η) +
ε
_
g(η, η)
3

p=0
3

q=0
η
p

k
ϕ
pk
+. . . .
138 CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . .
We have analogous power expansion for the expression under
second integral in formula (4.1):
g( ˆ η, A) = g(η, A) +ε
3

p=0
3

k=0
A
p

k
ϕ
pk
+. . . .
Substituting these two expansions into (4.1), we take into account
(4.2). For the action S
def
this yields
(4.13)
S
def
= S −ε m
_

3

p=0
3

k=0
u
p

k
ϕ
pk
_
−det g d
4
r−

ε q
c
2
_

3

p=0
3

k=0
A
p

k
ϕ
pk
_
−det g d
4
r +. . . .
Further in order to transform the above expression (4.13) we
use Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula. In the space equipped with
metric this formula is written as follows:
(4.14)
_

3

k=0

k
z
k
_
−det g d
4
r =
_
∂Ω
g(z, n) dV.
Here z
0
, z
1
, z
2
, z
3
are components of smooth vector field z,
while n is unit normal vector for the boundary of the domain
Ω. In order to transform first integral in formula (4.13) we take
z
k
=

3
p=0
u
p
ϕ
pk
. Then in right hand side of (4.14) we obtain
3

k=0

k
z
k
=
3

p=0
3

k=0
u
p

k
ϕ
pk
+
3

p=0
3

k=0

k
u
p
ϕ
pk
.
§ 4. ACTION FUNCTIONAL FOR DUST MATTER. 139
Right hand side of (4.14) vanishes since ϕ
pk
do vanish on the
boundary of Ω. Hence we have the equality
_

3

p=0
3

k=0
u
p

k
ϕ
pk
_
−det g d
4
r =

_

3

p=0
3

k=0

k
u
p
ϕ
pk
_
−det g d
4
r.
In a similar way we transform second integral in (4.13). In whole
for the action S
def
we get the following expression
(4.15)
S
def
= S +ε m
_

3

p=0
3

k=0

k
u
p
ϕ
pk
_
−det g d
4
r +
+
ε q
c
2
_

3

p=0
3

k=0

k
A
p
ϕ
pk
_
−det g d
4
r +. . . .
Extremity of action S means that linear part with respect to ε
in formula (4.15) should vanish:
_

3

p=0
3

k=0
_
m∇
k
u
p
+
q
c
2

k
A
p
_
ϕ
pk
_
−det g d
4
r = 0.
Let’s substitute formula (4.11) for ϕ
pk
into the above equality.
Then it is transformed to the following one
_

3

p=0
3

k=0
_
m∇
k
u
p
+
q
c
2

k
A
p
_
η
p
h
k
_
−det g d
4
r =
140 CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . .
=
_

3

p=0
3

k=0
_
m∇
k
u
p
+
q
c
2

k
A
p
_
η
k
h
p
_
−det g d
4
r.
Let’s exchange indices k and p in second integral. Thereafter
integrals can be united into one integral:
(4.16)
_

3

k=0
3

p=0
_
m∇
k
u
p
−m∇
p
u
k
+
q
c
2

k
A
p


q
c
2

p
A
k
_
η
p
h
k
_
−det g d
4
r = 0.
Now let’s take into account that in resulting equality h
k
= h
k
(r)
are arbitrary smooth functions vanishing outside the domain Ω.
Therefore vanishing of integral (4.16) means vanishing of each
summand in sum over index k in the expression under integration:
(4.17)
3

p=0
_
m∇
k
u
p
−m∇
p
u
k
+
q
c
2
F
kp
_
η
p
= 0.
Here we used the relationship (11.5) from Chapter III. It re-
lates tensor of electromagnetic field and four-dimensional vector-
potential.
In order to bring the equation (4.17) just derived to its ultimate
form we use the relationships (4.2), which relate vector field η
and vector field u: η
p
= c ν u
p
. Since u is unit vector, we have
(4.18)
3

p=0
u
p

k
u
p
= 0.
CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.
§ 5. EQUATIONS FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD. 141
Taking into account (4.18), we bring (4.17) to the following form:
(4.19)
3

p=0
u
p

p
u
k
=
q
mc
2
3

p=0
F
kp
u
p
.
Now it is easy to see that (4.19) exactly coincides with the equa-
tion (3.11), which we have derived earlier. This result approves
the use of the action (4.1) for describing charged dust matter in
electromagnetic field.
Exercise 4.1. Prove that for any skew-symmetric tensor field
ϕ
pq
vector field η determined by formula (4.4) has zero divergency,
i. e. is satisfies differential equation (3.4).
Exercise 4.2. Prove theorem 4.2. For this purpose use the
following fact known as theorem on rectification of vector field.
Theorem 4.3. For any vector field η ,= 0 there exists some
curvilinear coordinate system r
0
, r
1
, r
2
, r
3
such that η
0
= 1,
η
1
= 0, η
2
= 0, η
3
= 0 in this coordinate system.
Exercise 4.3. Prove theorem 4.3 on rectification of vector field.
Exercise 4.4. Derive Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula (4.14) for
the space equipped with metric on the base of the following integral
relationship in standard space R
n
:
_

∂f(r)
∂r
i
d
n
r =
_
∂Ω
f(r) dr
1
. . . dr
i−1
dr
i+1
. . . dr
n
.
¸ 5. Equations for electromagnetic field.
In this section we continue studying action functional (4.1).
This functional describes dust cloud composed of particles with
142 CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . .
mass m and charge q in electromagnetic field. In previous section
we have found that applying extremal action principle to S with
respect to the field η one can derive dynamical equations for
velocity field in dust cloud. Now we shall apply extremal action
principle to S with respect to vector-potential A. Deformation of
vector-potential is defined according to (1.9), (1.10), (1.11), (1.12):
(5.1)
ˆ
A
i
(r) = A
i
(r) +εh
i
(r) +. . . .
For components of tensor of electromagnetic field we derive
(5.2)
ˆ
F
ij
= F
ij
+ε (∇
i
h
j
−∇
j
h
i
) +. . . .
When substituting (5.2) into action functional (4.1) we carry out
the following calculations:
3

p=0
3

k=0
ˆ
F
pk
ˆ
F
pk
=
3

i=0
3

j=0
3

p=0
3

k=0
ˆ
F
pk
ˆ
F
ij
g
pi
g
kj
=
=
3

p=0
3

k=0
F
pk
F
pk
+ 2 ε
3

p=0
3

k=0
F
pk
(∇
p
h
k
−∇
k
h
p
) +. . . .
Taking into account skew symmetry of tensor F
pk
, this expansion
can be simplified more and can be brought to the form
3

p=0
3

k=0
ˆ
F
pk
ˆ
F
pk
=
3

p=0
3

k=0
F
pk
F
pk
+ 4 ε
3

p=0
3

k=0
F
pk

p
h
k
+. . . .
Analogous calculations in substituting (5.1) into (4.1) yield
g(η,
ˆ
A) = g(η, A) +ε
3

k=0
η
k
h
k
+. . . .
§ 5. EQUATIONS FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD. 143
As a result for deformation of action functional (4.1) we get
S
def
= S −
εq
c
2
_

3

k=0
η
k
h
k
_
−det g d
4
r −

ε
4π c
_

3

p=0
3

k=0
F
pk

p
h
k
_
−det g d
4
r +. . . .
Let’s transform second integral in the above expansion for S
def
by means of Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula (4.14). For this purpose
let’s choose z
p
=

3
k=0
F
pk
h
k
and take into account vanishing of
h
k
on the boundary of the domain Ω. Then for S
def
we get
S
def
= S +ε
_

3

k=0
_


k
c
2
+
3

p=0

p
F
pk
4π c
_
h
k
_
−det g d
4
r +. . . .
Extremal action principle means that linear in ε part of the above
expansion for S
def
should vanish. Note also that Ω is an arbitrary
domain and h
k
(r) are arbitrary functions within Ω. This yield
the following equations for the tensor of electromagnetic field:
(5.3)
3

p=0

p
F
pk
=
4π q
c
η
k
.
Remember that η(r) is related to current density by means of
(3.2). Then (5.3) can be written as
(5.4)
3

p=0

p
F
kp
= −

c
j
k
.
144 CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . .
It is easy to see that (5.4) are exactly Maxwell equations written
in four-dimensional form (see (11.4) in Chapter III). Another pair
of Maxwell equations written in four-dimensional form
3

q=0
3

k=0
3

s=0
ω
pqks

q
F
ks
= 0
is a consequence of the relationship F
pq
= ∇
p
A
q
− ∇
q
A
p
(see
formula (11.5) in Chapter III).
Exercise 5.1. Which form will have differential equations (5.3)
if we consider dust cloud composed by particles of several sorts
with masses m(1), . . . , m(N) and charges q(1), . . . , q(N) ? Will
this change differential equations (5.4) ?
CHAPTER V
GENERAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY
¸ 1. Transition to non-flat metrics
and curved Minkowsky space.
Passing from classical electrodynamics to special theory of re-
lativity, in previous two chapters we have successively geometrized
many basic physical concepts. Having denoted r
0
= ct and com-
bining r
0
with components of three-dimensional radius-vector in
inertial coordinate system, we have constructed four-dimensional
space of events (Minkowsky space). This space appears to be
equipped with metric of signature (1, 3), which is called Min-
kowsky metric. Thereby inertial coordinate systems are inter-
preted as orthonormal bases in Minkowsky metric.
In four-dimensional formalism dynamics of material point is
described by vectorial differential equations, while Maxwell equa-
tions for electromagnetic field are written in tensorial form. Due
to this circumstance in previous two chapters we managed to
include into consideration skew-angular and even curvilinear co-
ordinate systems in Minkowsky space. Thereby we got explicit
entries of metric tensor components g
ij
, metric connection com-
ponents Γ
k
ij
, and covariant derivatives ∇
i
in all our equations.
Next step in this direction is quite natural. One should keep
the shape of all equations and pass from flat Minkowsky metric
146 CHAPTER V. GENERAL RELATIVITY.
to metric of signature (1, 3) with nonzero curvature tensor:
(1.1) R
k
qij
=
∂Γ
k
jq
∂r
i

∂Γ
k
iq
∂r
j
+
3

s=0
Γ
k
is
Γ
s
jq

3

s=0
Γ
k
js
Γ
s
iq
.
This crucial step was first made by Einstein. Theory he had dis-
covered in this way later was called Einstein’s theory of gravitation
or general theory of relativity.
Definition 1.1. Four-dimensional affine space equipped with
orientation, polarization, and with metric of signature (1, 3) and
nonzero curvature (1.1) is called curved Minkowsky space.
In non-flat Minkowsky space we loose some structures available
in flat case. In such space there are no coordinates for which
Minkowsky metric is given by matrix (2.7) from Chapter III, i. e.
here we have no inertial coordinate systems. This is substantial
loss, but it is not catastrophic since dynamic equation for material
points and Maxwell equations rewritten in vectorial and tensorial
form are not bound to inertial coordinate systems.
Geodesic lines in curved Minkowsky space do not coincide
with affine straight lines. Therefore affine structure becomes
excessive restriction in general relativity. As appears, one can
give up topologic structure of flat space R
4
as well. Even in
two-dimensional case, as we know, apart from deformed (curved)
plain, there are surfaces with more complicated topology: sphere,
torus and sphere with several handles glued to it (see [5]). In
multidimensional case these objects are generalized in concept of
smooth manifold (see details in [2], [5], and [6]).
Smooth manifold M of dimension n is a topologic space each
point of which has a neighborhood (a chart) identical to some
neighborhood of a point in R
n
. In other words M is covered by a
family of charts U
α
, each of which is diffeomorphic to some open
set V
α
in R
n
. Such chart maps (chart diffeomorphisms) define
§ 2. ACTION FOR GRAVITATIONAL FIELD. 147
local curvilinear coordinate systems within their chart domains
U
α
. At those points of manifold M, where two chart domains are
overlapping, transition functions arise. They relate one curvilinear
coordinate system with another:
(1.2)
˜ r
i
= ˜ r
i
(r
1
, . . . , r
n
), where i = 1, . . . , n,
r
i
= r
i
(˜ r
1
, . . . , ˜ r
n
), where i = 1, . . . , n.
According to definition of smooth manifold, transition functions
(1.2) are smooth functions (of class C

). Transition functions
determine transition matrices S and T:
T
i
j
=
∂˜ r
i
∂r
j
, S
i
j
=
∂r
i
∂˜ r
j
. (1.3)
Presence of transition matrices (1.3) lead to full-scale theory of
tensors, which is almost literally the same as theory of tensors
for curvilinear coordinates in R
n
(see [3]). The only difference
is that here we cannot choose Cartesian coordinates at all. This
is because in general there is no smooth diffeomorphic map from
manifold M to R
n
.
Definition 1.1. Four-dimensional smooth manifold equipped
with orientation, polarization, and with metric of signature (1, 3)
is called generalized Minkowsky space or Minkowsky manifold.
¸ 2. Action for gravitational field.
Einstein equation.
Space of events in general relativity is some smooth Minkowsky
manifold M. This circumstance provides additional arbitrariness
consisting in choosing M and in choosing metric on M. Nonzero
curvature described by tensor (1.1) is interpreted as gravitational
field. Gravitational field acts upon material bodies and upon
CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.
148 CHAPTER V. GENERAL RELATIVITY.
electromagnetic field enclosed within M. This action is due to
the presence of covariant derivatives in dynamic equations. The
magnitude of gravitational field itself should be determined by
presence of matter in M in form of massive particles or in form of
electromagnetic radiation, i. e. we should have backward relation
between geometry of the space and its content.
In order to describe backward relation between gravitational
field and other physical fields we use Lagrangian formalism and
extremal action principle. Let’s start from action functional (4.1)
in Chapter IV. It is sum of three integrals:
(2.1) S = S
mat
+S
int
+S
el
.
First integral S
mat
is responsible for material particles in form of
dust cloud, second integral describes interaction of dust cloud and
electromagnetic field, third term in (2.1) describes electromagnetic
field itself. In order to describe gravitational field one more
summand in (2.1) is added:
(2.2) S = S
gr
+S
mat
+S
int
+S
el
.
This additional term is chosen in the following form:
(2.3) S
gr
= −
c
3
16πγ
V
2
_
V
1
R
_
−det g d
4
r.
Here γ gravitational constant same as in Newton’s universal law
of gravitation (see formula (1.11) in Chapter I). Scalar quantity R
in (2.3) is scalar curvature determined by curvature tensor (1.1)
according to the following formula:
(2.4) R =
3

q=0
3

k=0
3

j=0
g
qj
R
k
qkj
.
§ 2. ACTION FOR GRAVITATIONAL FIELD. 149
Ricci tensor is an intermediate object relating curvature tensor
(1.1) and scalar quantity (2.4). Here are its components:
(2.5) R
qj
=
3

k=0
R
k
qkj
.
Ricci tensor is symmetric (see [3]). Scalar curvature R is obtained
by contracting Ricci tensor and metric tensor g
qj
with respect to
both indices q and j. This fact is obvious due to (2.5) and (2.4).
Note that sometimes in the action for gravitational field (2.3)
one more constant parameter Λ is added:
S
gr
= −
c
3
16πγ
V
2
_
V
1
(R + 2 Λ)
_
−det g d
4
r.
This parameter is called cosmological constant. However, accord-
ing to contemporary experimental data the value of this constant
is undetectably small or maybe is exactly equal to zero. Therefore
further we shall use action S
gr
in form of (2.3).
Note also that metric tensor describing gravitational field enters
in implicit form into all summand in (2.2). Therefore we need
not add special terms describing interaction of gravitational field
with material particles and electromagnetic field. Moreover, such
additional terms could change the form of dynamical equations for
matter and form of Maxwell equations for electromagnetic field
thus contradicting our claim that these equations are the same in
general and in special relativity.
Now let’s begin with deriving dynamical equations for grav-
itational field. For this purpose we consider deformation of
components of metric tensor given by the following relationship:
(2.6) ˆ g
ij
(r) = g
ij
(r) +ε h
ij
(r) +. . . .
150 CHAPTER V. GENERAL RELATIVITY.
Functions h
ij
(r) in (2.6) are assumed to be smooth functions
vanishing outside some restricted domain Ω ⊂ M. Deformation of
matrix g
ij
lead to deformation of inverse matrix g
ij
:
(2.7)
ˆ g
ij
= g
ij
−ε h
ij
+. . . =
= g
ij
−ε
3

p=0
3

q=0
g
ip
h
pq
g
qj
+. . . .
Let’s differentiate the relationship (2.7) and let’s express partial
derivatives through covariant derivatives in resulting formula:
(2.8)
∂ˆ g
ij
∂r
k
=
∂g
ij
∂r
k
−ε
∂h
ij
∂r
k
+. . . =
∂g
ij
∂r
k
−ε ∇
k
h
ij
+

3

p=0
Γ
p
ki
h
pj

3

p=0
Γ
p
kj
h
ip
+. . . .
In (2.8) we used covariant derivatives corresponding to non-
deformed metric g
ij
. Now on the base of (2.8) we calculate
the following combination of derivatives:
(2.9)
∂ˆ g
kj
∂r
i
+
∂ˆ g
ik
∂r
j

∂ˆ g
ij
∂r
k
=
∂g
kj
∂r
i
+
∂g
ik
∂r
j

∂g
ij
∂r
k

−ε
_

i
h
kj
+∇
j
h
ik
−∇
k
h
ij
−2
3

p=0
Γ
p
ij
h
pk
_
+. . . .
Let’s use the relationships (2.6) and (2.8) in calculating defor-
mation of connection components. For this purpose let’s apply
well-known formula to
ˆ
Γ
p
ij
(see formula (11.3) in Chapter III):
ˆ
Γ
p
ij
= Γ
p
ij
+
ε
2
3

k=0
g
pk
(∇
i
h
kj
+∇
j
h
ik
−∇
k
h
ij
) +. . . .
§ 2. ACTION FOR GRAVITATIONAL FIELD. 151
This expansion for
ˆ
Γ
p
ij
can be written in symbolic concise form
(2.10)
ˆ
Γ
p
ij
= Γ
p
ij
+ε Y
p
ij
+. . .
by introducing the following quite natural notation:
(2.11) Y
p
ij
=
1
2
3

k=0
g
pk
(∇
i
h
kj
+∇
j
h
ik
−∇
k
h
ij
) .
Now let’s substitute the expansion (2.10) into the formula (1.1)
for curvature tensor. This yields
(2.12)
ˆ
R
k
qij
= R
k
qij

_

i
Y
k
jq
−∇
j
Y
k
iq
_
+. . . .
Upon contracting (2.12) with respect to one pair of indices we get
similar expansion for deformation of Ricci tensor:
(2.13)
ˆ
R
qj
= R
qj

3

k=0
_

k
Y
k
jq
−∇
j
Y
k
kq
_
+. . . .
We multiply (2.13) by g
qj
using formula (2.6). Then we carry out
complete contraction with respect to both indices q and j. This
yields deformation of scalar curvature:
ˆ
R = R +ε
3

j=0
3

q=0
_
R
qj
h
qj
+
3

k=0
g
qj
(∇
k
Y
k
jq
−∇
j
Y
k
kq
)
_
+. . . .
Let’s introduce vector field with the following components:
Z
k
=
3

j=0
3

q=0
_
Y
k
jq
g
qj
−Y
j
jq
g
qk
_
.
152 CHAPTER V. GENERAL RELATIVITY.
Then we can rewrite deformation of scalar curvature
ˆ
R as
(2.14)
ˆ
R = R +ε
3

j=0
3

q=0
R
qj
h
qj

3

k=0

k
Z
k
+. . . .
When substituting (2.14) into action integral (2.3) we should note
that second sum in (2.14) is exactly covariant divergency of vector
field Z. Components of Z are smooth functions vanishing outside
the domain Ω. Therefore integral of such sum is equal to zero:
_

3

k=0

k
Z
k
_
−det g d
4
r =
_
∂Ω
g(Z, n) dV = 0.
This follows from Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula (see (4.14) in
Chapter IV). Hence for deformation of S
gr
we get
S
def
= S
gr

ε c
3
16πγ
_

3

j=0
3

q=0
_
R
qj

R
2
g
qj
_
h
qj
_
−det g d
4
r+. . . .
In deriving this formula we also used the following expansion:
(2.15)
_
−det ˆ g =
_
−det g
_
1 −ε
3

j=0
3

q=0
g
qj
h
qj
2
_
+. . . .
It follows from (2.6). Now we shall not calculate deformations of
other three terms in (2.2) in explicit form. This will be done in
¸ 4 and ¸ 5 below. However, we introduce notation
(2.16) S
m.f.
= S
mat
+S
int
+S
el
.
Here S
m.f.
denotes overall action for all material fields other than
gravitation. The number of terms in the sum (2.16) could be much
§ 3. CONSERVATION LAW . . . 153
more than three, if one consider more complicated models for
describing matter. But in any case action of gravitational field is
excluded from this sum since gravitational field plays exceptional
role in general relativity. Now we shall write deformation of the
action (2.16) in the following conditional form:
(2.17) S
def
= S
m.f.
+
ε
2c
_

3

q=0
3

j=0
T
qj
h
qj
_
−det g d
4
r +. . . .
Then extremity condition for total action (2.2) is written as
(2.18) R
qj

R
2
g
qj
=
8πγ
c
4
T
qj
.
This equation (2.18) is known as Einstein equation. It is ba-
sic equation describing dynamics of metric tensor g
ij
in general
theory of relativity.
Exercise 2.1. Derive the relationships (2.7) and (2.15) from
the expansion (2.6) for deformation of tensor g
ij
.
¸ 3. Four-dimensional momentum
conservation law for fields.
Tensor T in right hand side of Einstein equation (2.18) is called
energy-momentum tensor for material fields. It is determined
by the relationship (2.17) and comprises contributions from all
material fields and their interactions. In the model of dust matter
in electromagnetic field tensor T is composed of three parts (see
formula (2.16)).
Energy-momentum tensor is related with 4-momentum conser-
vation law for material fields. In order to derive this conservation
law we use well-known Bianchi identity:
(3.1) ∇
k
R
p
sij
+ ∇
i
R
p
sjk
+ ∇
j
R
p
ski
= 0.
154 CHAPTER V. GENERAL RELATIVITY.
More details concerning Bianchi identity (3.1) can be found in [2]
and [6]. Let’s contract this identity with respect to i and p:
(3.2) ∇
k
R
sj
+
3

p=0

p
R
p
sjk
−∇
j
R
sk
= 0.
Here we used skew symmetry of curvature tensor with respect
to last pair of indices (see [3]). Let’s multiply (3.2) by g
sj
and
contract it with respect to double indices s and j. Upon slight
transformation based on skew symmetry R
ps
ij
= −R
sp
ij
we get
(3.3)
3

s=0

s
R
s
k

1
2

k
R = 0.
Now let’s raise index j in the equation (2.18), then apply covariant
differentiation ∇
j
and contract with respect to double index j:
(3.4)
3

j=0

j
R
j
q

1
2

q
R =
8πγ
c
4
3

j=0

j
T
j
q
.
Comparing (3.3) and (3.4), we get the following equation for
energy-momentum tensor of material fields:
(3.5)
3

j=0

j
T
j
q
= 0.
The equation (3.5) expresses 4-momentum conservation law for
the whole variety of material fields. It is usually written in the
following form with raised index q:
(3.6)
3

j=0

j
T
qj
= 0.
Energy-momentum tensor is symmetric therefore the order of
indices q and j in (3.6) is unessential.
CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.
§ 4. ENERGY-MOMENTUM TENSOR . . . 155
¸ 4. Energy-momentum tensor
for electromagnetic field.
Energy-momentum tensor for whole variety of material fields
is defined by the relationship (2.17). By analogy with (2.17) we
define energy-momentum tensor for electromagnetic field:
(4.1) S
def
= S
el
+
ε
2c
_

3

q=0
3

j=0
T
qj
h
qj
_
−det g d
4
r +. . . .
Basic fields in the action S
el
are covariant components of vector-
potential A
i
(r). Covariant components of tensor of electromag-
netic field are defined by formula
(4.2) F
ij
= ∇
i
A
j
−∇
j
A
i
=
∂A
j
∂r
i

∂A
i
∂r
j
(see also formula (11.5) in Chapter III). Ultimate expression in
right hand side of (4.2) has no entry of connection components
Γ
k
ij
. Therefore covariant components F
ij
are not changed by
deformation of metric (2.6). Upon raising indices we get
ˆ
F
pk
=
3

i=0
3

j=0
ˆ g
pi
ˆ g
kj
F
ij
and, using this formula, for contravariant components F
pq
of
tensor of electromagnetic field we derive the expansion
(4.3)
ˆ
F
pk
= F
pk

3

i=0
3

j=0
(h
pi
g
kj
+g
pi
h
kj
) F
ij
+. . . .
156 CHAPTER V. GENERAL RELATIVITY.
Substituting
ˆ
F
pk
and ˆ g into action functional S
el
, we get
S
def
= −
1
16π c
V
2
_
V
1
3

p=0
3

k=0
F
pk
ˆ
F
pk
_
−det ˆ g d
4
r
Then, taking into account (4.3) and (2.15), we derive formula
S
def
= S
el

ε
16π c
_

3

q=0
3

j=0
_
3

p=0
3

i=0
2 F
pq
g
pi
F
ij


1
2
3

p=0
3

i=0
F
pi
F
pi
g
qj
_
h
qj
_
−det g d
4
r +. . . .
Comparing this actual expansion with expected expansion (4.1)
for S
def
, we find components of energy-momentum tensor for
electromagnetic field in explicit form:
(4.4) T
qj
= −
1

3

p=0
3

i=0
_
F
pq
g
pi
F
ij

1
4
F
pi
F
pi
g
qj
_
.
Raising indices q and j in (4.4), for contravariant components of
energy-momentum tensor T we derive
(4.5) T
qj
= −
1

3

p=0
3

i=0
_
F
pq
g
pi
F
ij

1
4
F
pi
F
pi
g
qj
_
.
By means of formula (4.5) one can calculate covariant divergency
for energy-momentum tensor of electromagnetic field:
(4.6)
3

s=0

s
T
ps
= −
1
c
3

s=0
F
ps
j
s
.
§ 5. ENERGY-MOMENTUM TENSOR . . . 157
Formula (4.6) shows that 4-momentum conservation law for sepa-
rate electromagnetic field is not fulfilled. This is due to momen-
tum exchange between electromagnetic field and other forms of
matter, e. g. dust matter.
Exercise 4.1. Verify the relationship (4.6). For this purpose
use well-known formula for commutator of covariant derivatives
(∇
i

j
−∇
i

j
)A
k
= −
3

s=0
R
s
kij
A
s
and properties of curvature tensor (see details in [3]).
Exercise 4.2. Calculate components of energy-momentum
tensor (4.5) in inertial coordinate system for flat Minkowsky met-
ric. Compare them with components of Maxwell tensor, with den-
sity of energy, and with vector of energy flow for electromagnetic
field (see formulas (2.5) and (2.15) in Chapter II).
¸ 5. Energy-momentum tensor
for dust matter.
Let’s consider energy-momentum tensor related with last two
terms S
mat
and S
int
in the action (2.16). They contain entries of
vector field η whose components satisfy differential equation
(5.1)
3

p=0

p
η
p
= 0,
see (3.4) in Chapter IV. This circumstance differs them from com-
ponents of vector-potential A. Metric tensor g
ij
enters differential
equation (5.1) through connection components Γ
k
ij
of metric con-
nection. Therefore by deformation of metric g
ij
→ ˆ g
ij
one cannot
treat η
p
as metric independent quantities.
158 CHAPTER V. GENERAL RELATIVITY.
In order to find truly metric independent variables for dust
matter we use formula (4.7) from Chapter IV and rewrite differ-
ential equation (5.1) as follows:
3

p=0
∂(η
p
_
−det ˆ g )
∂r
p
= 0.
Denote ˆ η
p
= η
p
_
−det g . These quantities ˆ η
p
can be treated as
metric independent ones since differential constraint for them is
written in form of the equation that does not contain metric:
(5.2)
3

p=0
∂ˆ η
p
∂r
p
= 0.
Expressing η
p
through ˆ η
p
, for action functional S
int
describing
interaction of dust matter and electromagnetic field we get
(5.3) S
int
= −
q
c
2
V
2
_
V
1
3

p=0
ˆ η
p
A
p
d
4
r.
It is easy to see that integral (5.3) does not depend on metric
tensor. Therefore action functional S
int
makes no contribution to
overall energy-momentum tensor.
Now let’s express η
p
through ˆ η
p
in action functional S
mat
for
dust matter. As a result we get formula
(5.4) S
mat
= −m
V
2
_
V
1
¸
¸
¸
_
3

p=0
3

q=0
g
pq
ˆ η
p
ˆ η
q
d
4
r.
The dependence of this functional on metric tensor is completely
determined by explicit entry of g
pq
under square root sign in right
§ 5. ENERGY-MOMENTUM TENSOR . . . 159
hand side of (5.4). Therefore power extension for S
mat
is easily
calculated on the base of the expansion (2.7):
S
def
= S
mat
+
ε
2
_

_
3

p=0
3

q=0

p
η
q
_
g(η, η)
_
h
pq
_
−det g d
4
r +. . . .
Let’s compare this expansion with expected expansion for S
def
:
S
def
= S
mat
+
ε
2c
_

3

p=0
3

q=0
T
pq
h
pq
_
−det g d
4
r +. . . .
By this comparison we find explicit formula for components of
energy-momentum tensor for dust matter:
(5.5) T
pq
=
mc η
p
η
q
_
g(η, η)
= mc
_
g(η, η) u
p
u
q
.
Contravariant components of energy-momentum tensor (5.5)
are obtained by raising indices p and q:
(5.6) T
pq
=
mc η
p
η
q
_
g(η, η)
= mc
_
g(η, η) u
p
u
q
.
Using collinearity of vectors u and η (see formula (3.1) in Chap-
ter IV) and recalling that u is unit vector, we can bring formula
(5.6) to the following simple form:
(5.7) T
pk
= mc u
p
η
k
.
Formula (5.7) is convenient for calculating covariant divergency of
energy-momentum tensor for dust matter:
(5.8)
3

s=0

s
T
ps
=
q
c
3

s=0
F
ps
η
s
.
160 CHAPTER V. GENERAL RELATIVITY.
Now, applying formula (3.2) from Chapter IV, we can transform
formula (5.8) and write it as follows:
(5.9)
3

s=0

s
T
ps
=
1
c
3

s=0
F
ps
j
s
.
Let’s compare (5.9) with analogous formula (4.6) for energy-
momentum tensor of electromagnetic field. Right hand sides of
these two formulas differ only in sign. This fact has transparent
interpretation. It means that in our model the overall energy-
momentum tensor for matter
T
m.f.
= T
mat
+T
el
satisfies differential equation (3.6). This fact is in complete
agreement with 4-momentum conservation law.
Another important conclusion, which follows from of (4.6) and
(5.9), is that 4-momentum conservation law for the whole variety
of material fields can be derived from dynamical equations for
these fields. Therefore this law is valid also in special relativity,
where Einstein equation (2.18) is not considered and where in
general case for flat Minkowsky metric it is not fulfilled.
Exercise 5.1. Derive the relationship (5.8) on the base of equa-
tions (3.4) and (4.19) from Chapter IV.
¸ 6. Concluding remarks.
Event space in general theory of relativity is some Minkowsky
manifold M with Minkowsky metric of signature (1, 3). This
metric is determined by material content of the space according
to Einstein equation (2.18). However, topology of the manifold
M has great deal of arbitrariness. This manifold can have local
singularities at the points with extremely high concentration of
§ 6. CONCLUDING REMARKS. 161
matter. Such objects are called black holes. Moreover, global
topology of M also can be nontrivial (other than topology of R
4
).
In contemporary physics most popular models of M include big
bang in the very beginning of times. According to these models
in far past times our Universe M was extremely small, while
density of matter in it was extremely high. In further evolution
our Universe was expanding up to its present size. Will this
expansion last infinitely long or it will change for contraction?
This problem is not yet solved. The answer to this question
depends on estimates of total amount of matter in the Universe.
In this book we cannot consider all these fascinating problems
of modern astrophysics and cosmology. However, I think the
above theoretical material makes sufficient background for to
continue studying these problems e. g. in books [2], [7], and [8].
I would like also to recommend the book [9] of popular genre,
where these problems are discussed in commonly understandable
and intriguing manner.
CopyRight c _Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.
REFERENCES
1. Vladimirov V. S. Equations of mathematical physics, Nauka
publishers, Moscow, 1981.
2. Dubrovin B. A., Novikov S. P., Fomenko A. T. Modern geome-
try, vol. I, Nauka publishers, Moscow, 1986.
3. Sharipov R. A. Course of differential geometry, Publication of
Bashkir State University, Ufa, 1996.
4. Sharipov R. A. Course of linear algebra and multidimensional
geometry, Publication of Bashkir State University, Ufa, 1996.
5. Borisovich Yu. G., Bliznyakov N. M., Izrailevich Ya. A.,
Fomenko T. N. Introduction to topology, Nauka publishers,
Moscow, 1995.
6. Kobayashi Sh., Nomizu K. Foundations of differential geometry,
Interscience publishers, New York, London, 1963.
7. Landau L. D., Lifshits E. M. Course of theoretical physics,
vol. II, Field theory, Nauka publishers, Moscow, 1988.
8. Bogoyavlensky O. I. Methods of qualitative theory of dynamical
systems in astrophysics and in gas dynamics, Nauka publishers,
Moscow, 1980.
9. Davis P. Superforce. The search for a grand unified theory of
nature, Symon and Schuster publishers, New York, 1984.
CONTACTS
Address:
Ruslan A. Sharipov,
Math. Department,
Bashkir State University,
Frunze street 32,
450074, Ufa, Bashkortostan,
Russia
Phone:
7-(3472)-23-67-18
7-(3472)-23-67-74 (FAX)
Home address:
Ruslan A. Sharipov,
Rabochaya street 5,
450003, Ufa, Bashkortostan,
Russia
E-mails:
R Sharipov@ic.bashedu.ru
r-sharipov@mail.ru
ra sharipov@hotmail.com

2

UDC 517.9 Sharipov R. A. Classical Electrodynamics and Theory of Relativity: the manual / Publ. of Bashkir State University — Ufa, 1997. — pp. 163. — ISBN 5-7477-0180-0.

This book is a manual for the course of electrodynamics and theory of relativity. It is recommended primarily for students of mathematical departments. This defines its style: I use elements of vectorial and tensorial analysis, differential geometry, and theory of distributions in it. In preparing Russian edition of this book I used computer typesetting on the base of AMS-TEX package and I used cyrillic fonts of Lh-family distributed by CyrTUG association of Cyrillic TEX users. English edition is also typeset by AMS-TEX. This book is published under the approval by Methodic Commission of Mathematical Department of Bashkir State University. Referees: Chair of Algebra and Geometry of Bashkir State Pedagogical University (BGPI), Prof. V. A. Baikov, Ufa State University for Aviation and Technology (UGATU).

ISBN 5-7477-0180-0 English Translation

c Sharipov R.A., 1997 c Sharipov R.A., 2003

3

CONTENTS. CONTENTS. ....................................................................... 3. PREFACE. .......................................................................... 5. CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS. ..................................................................... 7. § 1. § 2. § 3. § 4. § 5. § 6. § 7. § 8. § 9. Basic experimental facts and unit systems. ...................... 7. Concept of near action. ................................................ 13. Superposition principle. ................................................ 15. Lorentz force and Biot-Savart-Laplace law. .................. 18. Current density and the law of charge conservation. ..... 21. Electric dipole moment. ............................................... 24. Magnetic moment. ....................................................... 26. Integral equations of static electromagnetic field. ........... 31. Differential equations of static electromagnetic field. ...... 41.

CHAPTER II. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS. ......... 43. § 1. Maxwell equations. ...................................................... § 2. Density of energy and energy flow for electromagnetic field. ........................................................................... § 3. Vectorial and scalar potentials of electromagnetic field. ........................................................................... § 4. Gauge transformations and Lorentzian gauge. ............... § 5. Electromagnetic waves. ................................................ § 6. Emission of electromagnetic waves. ............................... 43. 46. 54. 56. 59. 60.

CHAPTER III. SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY. ..... 68. § 1. Galileo transformations. ............................................... 68.

§ 4........... Four-dimensional form of Maxwell equations... § 8. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM IN THEORY OF RELATIVITY.. ............ § 4................ 163.............. CHAPTER V.. Four-dimensional vector-potential................ 119.... Kinematics of relative motion. ........... 147................. § 2....... Lorentz transformations.............. § 7..4 § 2.. Einstein equation..... ...................................... CONTACTS........ § 9........ .. Energy-momentum tensor for electromagnetic field........................... 95.... 90............. Motion of particle in electromagnetic field................ Action functional for dust matter................... 124........................................................... § 5.. § 3....................... Relativistic law of velocity addition.. 141.................. ..... GENERAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY.................. .... 157.................. ... 145... § 5... .......... § 3........ § 3. ..................... Dynamics of material point... .. Note on skew-angular and curvilinear coordinates......................... Four-dimensional momentum conservation law for fields... 107......... 145..... REFERENCES.. Energy-momentum tensor for dust matter................ .......... Transition to non-flat metrics and curved Minkowsky space... CHAPTER IV.. § 11................ 73........... .. § 4.... ........ Minkowsky space.. 82.... ....... 100....... .... 162.................. § 5...... 155... . ...... Principle of minimal action for particles and fields...... ........... § 10........... § 2................ 91... Equations for electromagnetic field.. The law of charge conservation......... Dynamics of dust matter..... ...................................... 133............................ 115... ...... § 1................. 119...... ...... World lines and private time..... Concluding remarks......... ......... 160......... § 6..... 77.......................... . ...... 153... Action for gravitational field......... 128......... 112............................ . ................. § 6.............. § 1..

It has dramatically changed traditional notion about the structure of the Universe. In the beginning of Chapter III Lorentz transformations are derived as transformations keeping form of Maxwell equations.998 · 105 km/sec. Development of theory of electromagnetism in XIX-th century became a premise for arising theory of relativity. Physical interpretation of such transformation requires uniting space and time into one four-dimensional continuum (Minkowsky space) where there is no fixed direction for time axis. Theory of relativity is a physical discipline which arose in the beginning of XX-th century. In XIX-th century there was the only theory dealing with such processes.PREFACE. Upon introducing four-dimensional space-time in Chapter III classical electrodynamics is rederived in the form invariant with respect to Lorentz transformations. . In Chapter IV variational approach to describing electromagnetic field and other material fields in special relativity is considered. Chapter II is devoted to classical electrodynamics based on Maxwell equations. Use of curvilinear coordinates in Minkowsky space and appropriate differential-geometric methods prepares background for passing to general relativity. In Chapter I electrostatics and magnetostatics are explained starting with first experiments on interaction of charges and currents. In this book I follow historical sequence of events. this was theory of electromagnetism. Effects predicted by this theory becomes essential only when we describe processes at high velocities close to light velocity c = 2.

A. Yu. where I need additional assumptions which do not follow from previous material. D. Borisov. upon reading this book. I hope that assiduous and interested reader with sufficient preliminary background could follow all mathematical calculations and. Ahtyamov. Mashentseva. I. I am grateful to N. P. 2003.6 In Chapter V Einstein’s theory of gravitation (general relativity) is considered. and A. 1997. T. November. This book is addressed to Math. R. detailed comment is given. References to physical intuition are minimized: in those places. would get pleasure of understanding how harmonic is the nature of things. November. I. Utarbaev for reading and correcting Russian version of book. Therefore I paid much attention to logical consistence of given material. students. Sharipov. this theory interprets gravitational field as curvature of space-time itself. .

for length. Unit systems SI and SGS are two most popular unit systems in physics. for instance. 1997. In mechanics we have three basic quantities and three basic units of measure: for mass. energy. Quantitative description of any physical phenomenon requires measurements. power) in both systems are defined in quite similar way. for measure unit of force due to Newton’s second law we get: (1) N = kg · m · sec−2 in SI. Basic experimental facts and unit systems. force. Thus. Quantity mass length time Unit in SI kg m sec Unit in SGS g cm sec Relation of units 1 kg = 103 g 1 m = 102 cm 1 sec = 1 sec Units of measure for other quantities are derived from the above basic units.A. . Units for measuring mechanical quantities (velocity. Proportions relating units for these quantities CopyRight c Sharipov R. acceleration. and for time. 2003.CHAPTER I ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS § 1.. (2) dyn = g · cm · sec−2 in SGS.

ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS. Coulomb law itself then is written in form of the equality (1.1) F ∼ Q1 Q2 . However. r2 Fig. This is due to the screening. r2 Force F defined by the relationship (1. which constitute all observable matter around us. can be derived from proportions for basic quantities (see table above). have the same amount of positive and negative charges. Coulomb law. Atoms and molecules. while points with charges of opposite signs are attracting with force proportional to quantities of their charges and inverse proportional to square of distance between them: (1. The numbers of positive and negative charges in nature are exactly balanced. 1. Therefore they are electrically neutral in . Choice of measure unit for electric charge in SGS is based on Coulomb law describing interaction of two charged point.1 Measure unit of charge in SGS is chosen such that coefficient in formula (1. in everyday life it does not reveal itself. However.2) is very strong. in choosing units for electric and magnetic quantities these systems differ essentially. Hence we have the following relation: unit of charge in SGS = dyn 1/2 · cm= g 1/2 · cm3/2 · sec−1 . Two charged points with charges of the same sign are repulsing.8 CHAPTER I.2) F = Q1 Q2 .1) is equal to unity.

In order to reveal quantitative characteristics for magnetic forces one should maximally simplify the geometry of conductors.2) arises that tends to recover balance of charges in electrically neutral rod. Then Coulomb force (1. For this purpose they are deformed so that each possesses straight rod-shaped part of sufficiently big length l. These rod- . 9 whole. In spite of absence of Coulomb forces. The magnitude of magnetic forces depends essentially on the shape and mutual arrangement of circular conductors. Force (1. Current in such conductor is determined by the amount of charge passing through it within the unit of time. which usually have lengthy form (form of wire).§ 1. Current in it leads to misbalance of charges in its ends. while lack of these charges in the other end of the rod is detected as the charge of opposite sign. This occurs in metallic conductor. Direct current can flow in it during unlimitedly long time. Therefore for unit of current we have: unit of current in SGS = unit of charge in SGS · sec−1 = = g 1/2 · cm 3/2 · sec−2 .2) reveals itself in form of chemical links only when atoms are pulled together. Here current does not break the balance of charges. Charges of definite sign move to one end of the rod. This means that in such rod current could not flow in constant direction during long time. This interaction has other nature. it is not due to electrical. in experiments the interaction of two circular conductors with currents was detected. BASIC FACTS AND UNIT SYSTEMS. Electric current arises as a result of motion of charged points. Circular conductor itself thereby remains electrically neutral and no Coulomb forces arise. Another situation we have with conductor of the form of ring or circuit. but due to magnetic forces. Let’s consider straight conducting rod of the length l.

(1. Therefore formula (1.3) The unit of current in SGS was already introduced above.10 CHAPTER I. The value of this .5) c ≈ 2. 1. In the limit.3) in SGS is written as 2 I1 I2 F = 2 .4) is a velocity constant. constant is determined experimentally: (1. when l is much larger than r. Ampere law. In experiments it was found that such conductors do interact according to the following law. while opposite directed currents repulse each other.2 conductors with currents per unit length of them is proportional ti the values of currents in them and inverse proportional to the distance between them: F I1 I2 ∼ . Therefore coefficient of proportionality in formula (1.998 · 1010 cm/sec. shaped parts are arranged parallel to each other with the distance r between them.3) is unique quantity that should be determined in experiment. Here is the measure unit for this coefficient: sec 2 · cm−2 . (1. It coincides with inverse square of velocity. Force of interaction of two infinite parallel Fig. this configuration of conductors can be treated as a pair of infinitely long parallel conductors.4) l c r Constant c in (1. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS. l r Two co-directed currents attract each other.

which are more often used for engineering calculations in electric technology. . Then coefficient of proportionality in Coulomb law (1. Constant µ0 is called magnetic susceptibility of vacuum. Numeric coefficient 2 in (1.7) µ0 = 4π · 10−7 N · A−2 .6) is used in order to simplify some other formulas.7) this is physical constant determined experimentally: (1.9) ǫ0 ≈ 8.§ 1. But.5). It is determined such that formula (1. it is exact constant.5) coincides with velocity of light in vacuum.14 . In SI Coulomb law is written as (1. l 4π r Here π = 3. One could choose it to be equal to unity. Being basic unit in SI.3) is written as (1.85 · 10−12 C 2 · N−1 · m−2 .7) current of 1 ampere appears to be in that range of currents. is exact (though it is irrational) mathematical constant with no measure unit.7) for this constant was chosen by convention when SI system was established.4) is introduced intentionally for to provide such coincidence. 11 As we shall see below.8) F = 1 Q1 Q2 . Due to this value of constant (1.1) appears to be not equal to unity. in contrast to constant c in (1. unit of current ampere is used for defining unit of charge of 1 coulomb: 1C = 1A · 1sec. It has the measure unit: (1. In contrast to constant µ0 in (1. Coefficient 4π in denominator (1. . BASIC FACTS AND UNIT SYSTEMS. . constant c in (1.6) F 2 µ0 I1 I2 = . that really appear in industrial and household devices. Its value should not be determined experimentally. 4πǫ0 r2 Constant ǫ0 is called dielectric permittivity of vacuum. but the above value (1. In SI measure unit of current 1 A (one ampere) is a basic unit.

derivation of many formulas in this system appears more huge than in SGS. This theory is based on Newton’s fourth law formulated as follows. Therefore theories of electricity and magnetism are usually united into one theory of electromagnetic phenomena. Comparing Coulomb law and Ampere law we see that electrical and magnetic forces reveal themselves in quite different way.12) F =γ M1 M2 r2 . Classical mechanics (without Newton’s theory of gravitation) has no measurable constants. they have common origin: they both are due to electric charges.5). However. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.998 · 108 m/sec.10) c= 1 ǫ0 µ0 ≈ 2. Constants (1. SI better suits for engineering calculations.11) γ ≈ 6.7). Newton’s theory of gravitation has one constant: (1.12 CHAPTER I. However. but in formulas for two fundamental laws: Coulomb law and Ampere law. From the above consideration we see that SGS and SI systems differ from each other not only in the scale of units. Universal law of gravitation. Theory of electromagnetism is a theory with one measurable constant: this is light velocity c.9) are related to each other by the following equality: (1. Below we shall see that their relation is much more close. Therefore below in this book we use SGS system.67 · 10−8 cm3 · g−1 · sec−2 . (1. Two point masses attract each other with the force proportional to their masses and inverse proportional to the square of distance between them. and (1. Universal law of gravitation is given by the same formula (1.

the distance r begins increasing and consequently force of Coulomb interaction (1. Taking this concept we should take formula (1.2) will decrease. Historically they appeared as a result of development of the theory of electromagnetism. each interaction (and electric interaction among others) can be transmitted immediately only to the point of space infinitesimally close to initial one. § 2. In this situation we have natural question: how soon after second body starts moving second body will feel change of Coulomb force of interaction ? There are two possible answers to this question: (1) immediately. Transmission of any action to finite distance should be considered as a process of successive transmission from point to point. which are initially fixed.2) as absolutely exact formula applicable for charges at rest and for moving charges as well. This process always leads to some finite velocity of transmission for any action. CONCEPT OF NEAR ACTION. In . Below we keep this historical sequence in explaining all three theories. According to modern notion of nature classical mechanics and Newton’s theory of gravitation are approximate theories. (2) with some delay depending on the distance between bodies. According to this concept. When we start moving second body apart from first one.§ 2.1. 13 in both systems: in SGS and in SI. Concept of near action. Second answer is based on the concept of near action. Exercise 1. First answer is known as concept of distant action. Currently they are replaced by special theory of relativity and general theory of relativity. Let’s consider pair of charged bodies. and let’s do the following mental experiment with them. On the base of above facts find quantitative relation of measure units for charge and current in SGS and SI.

5)). Theory of electromagnetism has measurable constant c (light velocity (1. Now we have the opportunity for testing it experimentally in the scope of electromagnetic phenomena. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.14 CHAPTER I. for some time this process exist in hidden form with no influence to both charges.2) is treated as approximate law. In XIX-th century it was subject for contests. where moving charge is placed. . Field is a material entity able to fill the whole space and able to act upon other material bodies transmitting mutual interaction of them. If we settle an experiment of measuring Coulomb force at the distances of the order of r ≈ 10 cm. was its straightness. process of transmitting interaction to far distance exhibits an inertia. for the time of transmission of interaction we would get times of the order of t ≈ 3 · 10−10 sec. Starting at one point. its self-completeness. quite likely. and hence its scarcity. In present time concept of near action is commonly accepted. which is first pretender for the role of transmission velocity of electric and magnetic interactions. In order to describe this stage of process we need to introduce new concept. According to the concept of near action. which is exact only for the charges at rest that stayed at rest during sufficiently long time so that process of transmission of electric interaction has been terminated. Therefore the problem of choosing concept could not be solved experimentally. 1997. This concept is a field. 2003. The value of light velocity is a very large quantity. the framework of the concept of near action Coulomb law (1. CopyRight c Sharipov R.A. There are only four fundamental fields: strong field. Let’s study this concept more attentively. The only argument against the concept of distant action that time. weak field.. For this reason electromagnetic theory is much more favorable as compared to Newton’s theory of gravitation. The number of fields definitely known to scientists is not big. Experimental technique of XIX-th century was unable to detect such a short interval of time.

Strong and weak interactions and fields are not considered in this book. This yields (3.2) E = Q1 r2 − r1 . One can take . There are various terms using the word field: vector field. but it doesn’t depend on the value of second charge. spinor field. These are mathematical terms reflecting some definite properties of real physical fields. and others. and gravitational field. § 3. Strong and weak fields are very short distance fields. It depends also on the position of second charge. gauge field. Let’s consider vector E determined as the ratio E = F/Q2 . Coulomb force in the framework of this concept can be interpreted as follows: first charge produces electric field around itself. Let’s denote by F vector of force and take into account the direction of this vector determined by verbal statement of Coulomb law above. Let’s apply concept of near action to Coulomb law for two charged points.1) F = Q1 Q2 r2 − r1 . in collisions and decay of elementary particles. where charges Q1 and Q2 are placed. which are called neutron stars. |r2 − r1 |3 Here r1 and r2 are radius-vectors of points. tensor field. Result of such action is detected as a force F applied to second charge.§ 3. |r2 − r1 |3 Vector E depends upon the position of first charge and upon its value. Superposition principle. SUPERPOSITION PRINCIPLE. they reveal themselves only in atomic nuclei. and this field acts upon other charge.1) we derive (3. Force is vectorial quantity. and in stellar objects of extremely high density. For this vector from formula (3. 15 electromagnetic field.

For this purpose one should place test charge q to the point r2 and one should measure Coulomb force F acting upon this test charge. Superposition principle combined with Coulomb law leads to the following formula for the intensity of electric field produced by a system of point charges at the point r: n (3. Vector E can be determined by formula (3.3) and take it for the quantitative measure of electric field at the point r. This vector is called vector of intensity of electric field or simply vector of electric field at that point. However.16 CHAPTER I. . . in this case one cannot be a priori sure that vector E does not depend on the quantity of test charge q. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS. . Now consider more complicated situation. . rn .3) E = F/q. They produce electric field around them. Electric field E at the point r produced by a system of point charges Q1 . . . . This action reveals as a force F applied to the charge q. . . Again we can define vector E of the form (3. Qn separately.4) E(r) = i=1 Qi r − ri . Suppose that charges Q1 . and this field acts upon test charge q placed at the point r. . Then vector E is determined by division of F by the value of test charge q: (3. . Superposition principle. . . . Qn are placed at the points r1 . vector E for quantitative measure of electric field produced by first charge Q1 at the point r2 . there is the following experimental fact. .2) or it can be measured experimentally. Qn is a vectorial sum of electric fields that would be produced at this point by each charge Q1 . . Generally speaking. |r − ri |3 . where second charge is placed.

7) F= ρ(r) E(r) d3 r. Field E(r) in (3. Fields produced by such systems of charges are called static fields. one can pass from point charges to continuously distributed charges.§ 3. Force acting on a charge q in electric field is equal to the product of the quantity of this charge by the vector of intensity of field at the point.4) and (3. r |r − ˜|3 r Here ρ(˜) is spatial density of charge at the point ˜. Total force acting on a system of distributed charges in electric field is determined by the following integral: (3. 17 Using superposition principle.3). while branch of theory of electromagnetism studying such fields is called electrostatics.6) F = q E(r). charge q also produces electric field. Does it experience the action of its own field ? For point charges the answer to this question is negative.7) is external field produced by external charges. This fact should be treated as a supplement to principle of superposition. This value r r designates the amount of charge per unit volume. which stayed at rest for sufficiently long time so that process of interaction transmitting reached the point of observation r.4) is replaced by integral over 3-dimensional space: (3. SUPERPOSITION PRINCIPLE. As a result we obtain (3. Concluding this section. . Suppose that the number of point charges tends to infinity: n → ∞.5) hold only for charges at rest. Field of charges with density ρ(r) is not included into E(r). where charge is placed. In such limit sum in formula (3. note that formulas (3.5) E(r) = ρ(˜) r r−˜ 3 r d ˜. In order to find force acting on test charge q we should invert formula (3. However.

Then for the force per each particle we derive (4. Upon calculating force acting on a segment of conductor of the length l by formula (1.1 q each. In order to get quantitative measure of magnetic field at some point r let’s consider current I2 in (1. If we denote by ν the number of such particles per unit length of conductor. § 4. Then during time interval t we would have n = ν v t particles passing through a fixed cross-section of the conductor. Lorentz force and Biot-Savart-Laplace law.4) as a flow of charged particles of charge Fig.1) F = 2 I1 q v 2 I1 I2 l = 2 . Ampere law of interaction of parallel conductors with currents is an analog of Coulomb law for magnetic interactions. They carry charge amounting to Q = q ν v t. force F arises as a result of action of magnetic field produced by a current in first conductor upon second conducvt tor. According to near action principle. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.4) holds only for l ≫ r.1) qualitative dependence of F on q and on v: each charged particle moving in magnetic field experiences . parallel conductors cannot be treated as point objects: formula (1. However. 4.18 CHAPTER I. then in the whole length l we would have N = ν l particles. Therefore for current I2 in second conductor we get I2 = Q/t = q ν v. c2 r N c r Formula determines (4. and each moving along conductor with constant velocity v.4) we should divide it by the number of particles N contained in this segment.

Scalar factor 1/c in (4. H]. Actually. H] l c .§ 4. Vectorial quantity H(r) is a quantitative measure of magnetic field at the point r.6). LORENTZ FORCE AND .2) F ∼ q v.4) F = qE+ q [v. Let’s turn back to our conductors. Total Lorentz force acting on a charge in electromagnetic field is a sum of two components: electric component and magnetic component: (4. 19 a force proportional to its charge q and to the magnitude of its velocity vector v = |v|.4) within theory being developed. Force and velocity both are vectorial quantities.5) I F = [τ .4) is empiric.3) F= q [v. c Here c is scalar constant equal to light velocity.3) can be interpreted in terms of currents.4) as experimental fact that do not contradict to another experimental fact (1. Simplest way to relate two vectors F and v is to use vector product of v with some third vectorial quantity H: (4. Each segment of unit length of a conductor with current I in magnetic field H experiences the force (4. we have proportionality (4. Formula (4.4) extends formula (3. c Formula (4. It is called intensity of magnetic field at that point.6) for the case of general electromagnetic fields. one should treat formula (4. H(r)]. . . It holds not only for static but for time-dependent (non-static) fields. e. Surely the above derivation of formula (4. Force F acting on a point charge in magnetic field is called Lorentz force. i.3) is used for to make H to be measured by the same units as intensity of electric field E in (3.

Force F now can be calculated by formula (4.7) H= 2 I1 . And one can write formula for magnetic field produced by such segment of conductor: (4. c r Here r is the distance from observation point to the conductor producing field at that point. 3 c |r − ˜| r . c where s is natural parameter on contour (length) and r(s) is vector-function determining shape of contour in parametric form. Auxiliary experiment shows that vector H is perpendicular to the plane of these two parallel conductors. In particular. Magnetic field produced by conductor with current satisfies superposition principle. Here τ is unit vector tangent to conductor and directed along current in it.6) F= I [τ (s). The magnitude of magnetic field H = |H| can be determined by formula (4. acting on it. But theoretically one can consider infinitesimally small segment of conductor with current of the length ds. H(r(s))] ds.5) assuming that first conductor produces magnetic field H(r) that acts upon second conductor. r − ˜] ds.8) dH(r) = r 1 [I τ .1): (4. One cannot measure magnetic field of separate segment experimentally since one cannot keep constant current is such separate segment for sufficiently long time. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS. field of infinite straight line conductor (4. Total force acting on circular conductor with current I is determined by contour integral (4. Let’s consider the case of two parallel conductors.20 CHAPTER I.7) is composed by fields produced by separate segments of this conductor.

This fact is ignored when we consider long conductors like wire. formula (4. Find magnetic field of the conductor with current having the shape of circle of the radius a. Current in bulk conductors can be distributed non-uniformly within volume of conductor. if we consider current in electrolytic bath or if we study current in plasma in upper layers of atmosphere.A. when calculating magnetic fields produced by circular conductors. Exercise 4. here s is natural parameter on the contour and ˜(s) r is vectorial function determining shape of this contour. .8) cannot be tested experimentally. For example.2. .9) for each particular conductor it yields some particular expression for H(r).8) and its integral form (4. .9) r constitute Biot-Savart-Laplace law for circular conductors with current. This expression then can be verified in experiment. Biot-Savart-Laplace law in form (4. we assume them having no thickness. 1997. Exercise 4.9).8) is taken in integral form: (4. in some cases thickness of a conductor cannot be ignored.6). It is always taken to be directed along current I.4). However.9) H(r) = r 1 [I τ (s). In practice. 21 Here τ is unit vector determining spatial orientation of infinitesimal conductor. c |r − ˜(s)|3 r Like in (4. Current density and the law of charge conservation. Therefore τ (s) = d˜(s)/ds. Real conductor always has some thickness. CopyRight c Sharipov R. CURRENT DENSITY AND . 2003. Conductors that we have considered above are kind of idealization. r − ˜(s)] ds. in integral form (4.§ 5.1.6) and (4. The relationship (4. Using relationships (4. They are linear.. derive the law of interaction of parallel conductors with current in form (1. § 5. However.

In its classical form it states that charges cannot appear from nowhere and cannot disappear as well.22 CHAPTER I. When applied to integrals (5. Here n is unit vector of external normal to the surface ∂Ω restricting domain Ω. they can only move from one point to another. Charge conservation law is one more fundamental experimental fact reflecting the nature of electromagnetism. Due to the above definition of current density the amount of charge flowing out from marked domain per unit time is determined by surface integral over the boundary of this domain. Let’s mark mentally some restricted domain Ω within bulk conducting medium.1) Q= Ω ρ d3 r. Vector of current density j(r) indicate the direction of charge transport at the point r. J= ∂Ω j. Its boundary is smooth closed surface. Current density is vectorial quantity depending on a point of conducting medium: j = j(r). However. Its magnitude j = | j | is determined by the amount of charge passing through unit area perpendicular to vector j per unit time. The concept of current density j is best one for describing such situation. This relationship means that decrease of charge enclosed within domain Ω is always due to . Modern physics insert some correction to this statement: charges appear and can disappear in processes of creation and annihilation of pairs of elementary particles consisting of particle and corresponding antiparticle. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS. while charge enclosed within this domain is given by spatial integral: (5.1) charge ˙ conservation law yields: Q = −J. even in such creationannihilation processes total balance of charge is preserved since total charge of a pair consisting of particle and antiparticle is always equal to zero. n dS.

∂t The relationships (5. Current density j is a vector depending on a point of conducting medium.3) is an arbitrary domain that we marked mentally within conducting medium.2) d dt Ω ρ d3 r + ∂Ω j. n dS = 0. When applied to (5. Let’s write charge conservation law in the following form: (5. formula (4.3) Ω ∂ρ + div j ∂t d3 r = 0. The relationship (5.1) is called flow of vector field j through the surface ∂Ω. Electric field E and magnetic field H are other examples of vector fields.4) also is known as continuity equation for electric charge. For smooth vector field any surface integral like J can be transformed to spatial integral by means of Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula. c .3) should be identically zero: (5. H(r)] d3 r. Such objects in differential geometry are called vector fields.2). CURRENT DENSITY AND .5) F= 1 [ j(r).6) is rewritten as follows: (5. .§ 5. Surface integral J in (5. Note that Ω in (5.2) and (5.4) ∂ρ + div j = 0. When applied to bulk conductors with distributed current j within them. This means that the expression being integrated in (5. . this yields (5. 23 charge leakage through the boundary and conversely increase of charge is due to incoming flow through the boundary of this domain.4) are integral and differential forms of charge conservation law respectively.

we get the following expression for . Let R be maximal linear size of the domain Ω.6) and (4. Let’s consider some configuration of distributed charge with density ρ(r) which is concentrated within some restricted domain Ω. r 3 c |r − ˜| r In order to derive formulas (5. Biot-Savart-Laplace law for such conductors also is written in terms of spatial integral in the following form: (5.8) one should represent bulk conductor as a union of linear conductors.1) E(r) = Ω ρ(˜) r r−˜ 3 r d ˜..1).5) and (5. Let’s choose coordinates with origin within this domain Ω and let’s choose observation point r which is far enough from the domain of charge concentration: |r| ≫ R.5): (6. In order to find electric field E(r) produced by charges in Ω we use formula (3. Substituting (6. we can write Taylor expansion for the fraction in the expression under integration in r (6. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.1) is restricted. § 6. |r| |r| − ˜ r |r| + . r − ˜] 3 d ˜.24 CHAPTER I. we have inequality |˜| ≤ R. As a result we get power series in powers of ratio ˜/|r|: (6. r Using this inequality along with |r| ≫ R.2) r 1 r r r−˜ = + · 3 · |r − ˜|3 r |r|3 |r|2 |r| r r ˜ .6) H(r) = r r 1 [ j(˜). Electric dipole moment..6) from formulas (4. then use superposition principle and pass to the limit by the number of linear conductors n → ∞. r |r − ˜|3 r Since domain Ω in (6.1).2) into (6. .

For charges enclosed within domain Ω it is given by integral (6.1).5) as r → ∞.6) E(r) = 3 r. which is electrically neutral in whole. D r − |r|2 D r + + .3) is Coulomb field of point charge Q placed at the origin. . r r r For point charges dipole moment is determined by sum n (6. Vector D there is called dipole moment.4) and (6. Second summand in (6.. 3 |r| |r|5 First summand in (6. ELECTRIC DIPOLE MOMENT. It is given by integral (5. where Q is total charge enclosed in the domain Ω. Note that for the system of charges with Q = 0 dipole moment D calculated by formulas (6. 25 the vector of electric field E(r) produced by charges in Ω: (6.5) is invariant quantity. r r . D r − |r|2 D |r|5 is leading term in asymptotics for electrostatic field (3. the field of point dipole (6.5) D= i=1 r Qi ˜i .4) or (3.3) E(r) = Q 3 r.4) D= Ω ρ(˜) ˜ d3 ˜.§ 6.3) is known as field of point dipole placed at the origin.. For the system of charges concentrated near origin. This quantity remains unchanged when we move all charges to the same distance at the same direction without changing their mutual orientation: ˜ → ˜ + r0 .

Using formula (6. § 7. and it doesn’t break charge balance.7) find the force acting on point dipole in external electric field E(r). Charge conservation law applied to this situation yields (7. Current density j(r) is smooth vectorfunction.1). ρ(r) = 0.1.7) is called point dipole. Consider the density 3 (6. i. Concept of charge density is applicable to point charges as well.2.1) div j = 0.6) and explain why system of charges described by the above density (6. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.4) calculate dipole moment for distributed charge (6. ∂ri Applying formula (5. Let’s consider situation similar to that of previous section. Let R be maximal linear size of this domain Ω. Exercise 6. which is nonzero only within Ω and which vanishes at the boundary ∂Ω and in outer space. e. For example point charge Q placed at the point r = 0 is represented by density ρ(r) = Q δ(r). grad δ(r) = i=1 Di ∂δ(r) . Compare the expression obtained with (6.26 CHAPTER I. It is distribution.7). Suppose some distributed system of currents is concentrated in some restricted domain near origin. i. where δ(r) is Dirac’s delta-function. Magnetic moment. Exercise 6. However. it doesn’t depend on time. .7) and find electrostatic field produced by this charge. e. in this case ρ(r) is not ordinary function.7) ρ(r) = D. Current density j(r) is assumed to be stationary. Using formula (3. calculate total charge Q corresponding to this density (6.

6): (7.2). therefore in calculating integral r (7. . Proof. ˜] 3 r r r r d ˜ + .. r] − |r|2 [ j(˜). [ r. r c |r − ˜|3 r Assuming that |r| ≫ R.4) H1 . e] 3 r d ˜. For this vector we derive .3) is identically equal to zero. c |r|3 f (˜) = a.§ 7. e = Ω e. [ j(˜). ˜ [ j(˜). r 5 c |r| Lemma 7. ˜ . r c |r|3 Then define vector a and function f (˜) as follows: r a= [r.1. e] . we take Taylor expansion (6. Let’s choose some arbitrary constant vector e and consider scalar product (7.. 27 In order to calculate magnetic field H(r) we use Biot-SavartLaplace law written in integral form (5. r r Vector a does not depend on ˜. MAGNETIC MOMENT.3) + Ω Ω [ j(˜). First integral in (7.2) and substitute it into (7.4) we can take it for constant vector. r] 3 r d ˜+ r c |r|3 3 r.2) H(r) = Ω r r 1 [ j(˜). Denote this integral by H1 (r). As a result we get H(r) = (7. r − ˜] 3 d ˜. r] 3 r d ˜= r c |r|3 Ω j(˜).

. It is also equal to zero since j(˜) vanishes at the r boundary of domain Ω. Substituting this formula into the (7. This scalar product can be brought to (7. r r r where b(˜) = 3 r. First of all we denote it by H2 (r). Previous integral is transformed to surface integral by means of OstrogradskyGauss formula. this wouldn’t change integral r r in (7. If one adds gradient of r r r arbitrary function f (˜) to b(˜). we get H1 . e]. b(˜) d3 ˜. a = grad f . e = (7. e = ∂Ω f j.5) and (7.6) since e is arbitrary constant vector. Then.1 is proved.6) form an example of such invariance. Formulas (7.6) H1 . grad f d3 ˜ = r f div j d3 ˜. 1997. we form scalar product H2 . taking an arbitrary constant vector e. Let’s specify function f (˜).3). 2003.1). e] − |r|2 [˜. r CopyRight c Sharipov R. Lemma 7. ˜ r 2 ˜.28 CHAPTER I. e] .8) f (˜) = − r 3 r.7).4).5) is equal to zero due to (7. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS. e = 1 c |r|5 Ω j(˜).7) H2 . n dS = 0. r Ω div(f j) d3 ˜ − r Last integral in (7. ˜ [r. [r.A. Let’s transform second integral in (7. Therefore (7. Now vanishing of vector H1 (r) follows from formula (7. e .5) = Ω Ω j. . choosing it as follows: r (7.

r 2 Right hand side of (7. c − c a. ˜] + |r|2 e. [b. e [˜. b again.10) b(˜) = − r 1 3 r.9) contains triple vectorial product. ˜ [r. [r. b = r. ˜] 3 r r r r d ˜. r r 2 2 Here is Let’s add this expression for grad f to vector b(˜). r resulting new expression for this vector: (7. and c = [r. r] + |r|2 [˜. e] = r r 2 2 3 r r = −3 r. [ j(˜). Assuming that a = ˜. r r 2 2 Let’s substitute (7. ˜ [r. c]] = b a. [r. and c = e: grad f (˜) = −3 r. we transform the r above expression for grad f to the following form: (7. e [˜. e r. e] − r r 3 [˜. [b. Now let’s use well-known identity [a. [ j(˜). e]]].10) into formula (7. e] − [r. 29 For gradient of function (7. ˜ 2 . e].7). ˜ [r. MAGNETIC MOMENT. In order to transform it we use the identity [a. [r. This yields H2 . e]. e] r. ˜ [r. now assuming that a = r. e] − r r ˜. c − c a. r 5 2 c |r| Note that quantities j(˜) and ˜ enter into this formula in form of r r . e] − r r 3 3 r. b = r. e] r − r. e = Ω −3 r.9) grad f (˜) = −3 r. [r.§ 7. e].8) by direct calculations we find grad f (˜) = − r 3 3 ˜. c]] = b a. b . r] + |r|2 [˜.

3) and lemma 7.11) is incremented by (7.14) is equal to zero by the same reasons as in proof of lemma 7. . In terms of M the above relationship r for scalar product H2 . Indeed. r 2c Integral in formula (7.1 we can conclude that the field of point magnetic dipole (7.14) △M = Ω [r0 .30 CHAPTER I. magnetic moment M is invariant with respect to displacements r → r + r0 that don’t change configuration of currents within system.12) H2 . |r|5 If we remember that e in formula (7. Denote by M the following integral: r r (7. then from (7. Like electric dipole moment D of the system with zero total charge Q = 0. M − |r|2 e. M .6) as r → ∞. e = 3 r. M r − |r|2 M |r|5 is leading term in asymptotical expansion of static magnetic field (4.1.11) is called magnetic moment for currents with density j(˜). under such displacement integral (7. j(˜)] 3 r d ˜ = 0. j(˜)] 3 r r d ˜.12) is an arbitrary constant vector.11) M= Ω [˜.9) and (5. e is written as follows: (7. ˜] only. vector product [ j(˜). ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS. e r. r 2c Vector M given by integral (7.13) H(r) = 3 r.

. § 8. H= S H. for electric field and magnetic field: (8. Exercise 7.1. e. grad δ(r)].5). Integral equations for static electromagnetic field. By means of the following formula for the torque M= 1 [r. H]] d3 r c find torque M acting upon point magnetic dipole (7. . i.3. Consider localized system of currents j(r) with current density given by the following distribution: (7. Now we consider flows of vector fields E(r) and H(r).15) and find its magnetic moment M.§ 8.6). Exercise 7. Let S be closed surface enveloping some domain Ω. Verify the relationship (7.15) in homogeneous magnetic field H = const. Let’s .1)). Using formula (5. 31 Exercise 7.15) j(r) = −c [M.2. Remember that we introduced the concept of flow of vector field through a surface in considering charge conservation law (see integral J in (5.1) E= S E. n dS. i. Electrostatic field E is determined by formula (3. INTEGRAL EQUATIONS . e. find the force acting upon point magnetic dipole in external magnetic field H(r). S = ∂Ω. Applying formula (5. n dS. calculate magnetic field of this system of currents and explain why this system of currents is called point magnetic dipole. [ j(r).1) for the system of currents (7.5).

when ˜ ∈ Ω.3): m. This proves first case in formula (8.2) E= ρ(˜) r ∂Ω r − ˜. r |r − ˜|3 r Inner surface integral in (8.5) into first integral (8. r 4π. n dS = ∂Ω Ω div m d3 r = 0. if ˜ ∈ Ω.3). Therefore in this case we can apply Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula to (8. In order to prove second case. In order to prove the relationship (8.4) m(r) = r−˜ r . In all regular points of this vector field by direct r calculations we find div m = 0. n(r) r dS = |r − ˜|3 r 0. substitute (3. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS. n(r) r dS d3 ˜.3) let’s consider vector field m(r) given by the following formula: (8.1) and then let’s change order of integration in resulting double integral: (8.2) is an integral of explicit function. if ˜ ∈ Ω.3) ∂Ω r − ˜. Let’s consider spherr ical ǫ-neighborhood O = Oǫ of special point r = ˜.32 CHAPTER I. r Here by Ω = Ω ∪ ∂Ω we denote closure of the domain Ω. |r − ˜|3 r Vector field m(r) is smooth everywhere except for one special point r = ˜. For sufficiently r small ǫ this neighborhood O = Oǫ is completely enclosed into the . we use tactical maneuver. This integral can be calculated explicitly: (8. If ˜ ∈ Ω special point of the field r m is out of the domain Ω.

which is not difficult. The value of last integral over sphere ∂O in (8.6) ∂Ω E.2) we get the following relationship: (8. n dS = 4π Ω ρ(r) d 3 r. n(r) dS d 3 ˜. .3) into (8. . c |r − ˜|3 r .8) m(r) = [ j. n dS = ∂O m. Now consider the field (8. 33 domain Ω. r − ˜] r .1).1). Now let’s consider flow of magnetic field H in (8. n dS = 4π.6) can be formulated as a theorem. Thus. Flow of electric field through the boundary of restricted domain is equal to total charge enclosed within this domain multiplied by 4π.6) into second integral (8. r − ˜]. r c |r − ˜|3 r It’s clear that in calculating inner integral over the surface ∂Ω vector j can be taken for constant.§ 8.5) is found by direct calculation. Substituting (8. INTEGRAL EQUATIONS .3) is proved. then change the order of integration in resulting double integral: (8. This relationship (8. Then from zero divergency condition div m = 0 for the field given by formula (8. Static magnetic field is determined by formula (5. Theorem (on the flow of electric field).7) H= ∂Ω r r 1 [ j(˜).6). formula (8.4) we derive (8. Let’s substitute H(r) given by (5.5) ∂Ω m.

ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS. e. r Divergency of this field is equal to zero. As appears in this case. As a result of substituting (8. n dS = ∂O m.8) has only one singular point r = ˜.11) ∂Ω H. the value of surface integral over sphere ∂O in this case is equal to zero since vector m(r) is perpendicular to normal vector n at all points of sphere ∂O. n dS = 0.9) into (8. Total flow of magnetic field through the boundary of any restricted domain is equal to zero.34 CHAPTER I. n dS = 0. n(r) dS = 0.7). this vector field (8. r − ˜]. Instead of (8. i. Γ = ∂S. Like (8.9) follows from div m = 0 by r applying Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula. Theorem (on the flow of magnetic field). which is formulated as the following theorem. Let r(s) be vectorial parametric equation of some closed spatial curve Γ being the rim for some open surface S.7) we get the relationship (8. By S we . For ˜ ∈ Ω we have the r relationship similar to the above relationship (8.9) ∂Ω r 1 [ j. singular point makes no effect to the value of surface integral in (8. c |r − ˜|3 r For ˜ ∈ Ω the relationship (8.3) in this case we have the following formula: (8. However.4).10) ∂Ω m. Open surface S means that S and Γ have empty intersection. this fact can be verified by direct calculations.5): (8.

Values of integral (8.14) for ˜ ∈ Γ follows from rot m = 0.A. e= n Γ Fig. . we get the following equality for circulation of electric field: (8.12) h= Γ Γ H. we define circulation for electric and magnetic fields in form of the n following contour integrals: n S E. 1997. τ ds.4) again.13) we need to consider vector field (8.1 (8. Substituting (3. .4) is unessential since surface S.12) and changing the order of integration in resulting double integral. Taking s for natural parameter on Γ.§ 8.14) at those points ˜ ∈ Γ are of no matter r since when substituting (8.13) such points constitute a set of zero measure. r this equality can be verified by direct calculations.14) Γ r(s) − ˜. Then S = S ∪ Γ. r we can transform contour integral in (8. 8.13) e= ρ(˜) r Γ r(s) − ˜.14) into integral (8. For ˜ ∈ Γ. INTEGRAL EQUATIONS .13) to surface integral: (8. for which r CopyRight c Sharipov R. τ (s) r ds d 3 ˜. taking into account Γ = ∂S and applying Stokes formula. . 2003.5) into (8.. Vanishing of integral (8. Singular point r = ˜ of vector field (8. τ (s) r ds = |r(s) − ˜|3 r S rot m. 35 denote the closure of the surface S. n dS = 0. τ ds. r |r(s) − ˜|3 r Due to (8.

ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.16) explicitly. We cannot deform this surface as we did above in proving theorem on circulation of electric field. Corresponding theorem is stated as follows. Formula like (8. Denote by D(ε) = R3 \ Ω(ε) exterior of the domain Ω(ε) and then consider the following modification of formula (5. Total circulation of static electric field along the boundary of any restricted open surface is equal to zero. Γ is a boundary.16) ∂S H.15) is available for magnetic field as well. The result of r substituting (8. Integral over the surface S now is in right hand side of formula (8. This domain encloses surface S and contour Γ = ∂S. Theorem (on the circulation of magnetic field).6) that . τ ds = 4π c S j. This is domain Ω(ε) being union of all ε-balls surrounding all point r ∈ S. Circulation of static magnetic field along boundary of restricted open surface is equal to total electric current penetrating this surface multiplied by fraction 4 π/c.15) ∂S E. Therefore surface spanned over the contour Γ now is fixed. can be deformed so that ˜ ∈ S. Here is this formula that determines circulation of magnetic field: (8.14) into (8. n dS. Theorem (on the circulation of electric field). τ ds = 0. Let’s consider ε-blowup of surface S.36 CHAPTER I. This leads to some technical complication of the proof. domain Ω(ε) contracts to S. If ε → 0.13) can be written as an equation: (8.

r 3 c |r − ˜| r ε→0 D(ε) Let’s substitute (8.8). τ (s) ds = c |r(s) − ˜|3 r Γ = S 3 r − ˜. r(s) − ˜]. r c |r(s) − ˜|3 r ε→0 D(ε) Γ In inner integral in (8.§ 8. n(r) r r r dS. j (r − ˜) − |r − ˜|2 j r r r . j(˜) r r r − ˜.12) and change the order of integration in resulting double integral. we can transform contour integral (8. τ (s) ds d 3 ˜.17) H(r) = lim 1 [ j(˜). As a result we get (8.17) into integral (8. rotor of this field is nonzero: (8.19) rot m = 3 r − ˜. . r(s) − ˜].18) we see vector field (8. r − ˜] 3 r r d ˜. n(r) − |r − ˜|2 j(˜). c |r − ˜|5 r Denote by m(˜) vector field of the following form: r m(˜) = r 3 ˜ − r. 5 c |r − ˜| r Using Stokes formula and taking into account (8. . n(r) (˜ − r) − |˜ − r|2 n(r) r r r .4).19).18) h = lim r r 1 [ j(˜).18) to surface integral: r r 1 [ j(˜). Unlike vector filed (8. INTEGRAL EQUATIONS . 37 expresses Biot-Savart-Laplace law for magnetic field: (8. 5 c |˜ − r| r .

n(r) r .21) h = lim f (˜) j(˜). r r ˜ r S ∂D(ε) ε→0 Let’s change the order of integration in (8. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.1) spatial integral in the above formula can be transformed to surface integral: (8. This leads to formula m(˜). j(˜) d 3 ˜ dS = r r r S D(ε) S D(ε) grad f (˜). r r r ε→0 D(ε) S Vector field m(˜) in this formula has cubic singularity |˜ − r|−3 r r at the point ˜ = r. r r r since vector field m(˜) apparently is gradient of the function f (˜): r r (8. n(˜) dS dS. Let’s change the order of integration in resulting double integral for circulation h. This is why we use auxiliary r domain D(ε) and limit as ε → 0. c |˜ − r|3 r Function f (˜) vanishes as ˜ → ∞.38 CHAPTER I.20) f (˜) = − r ˜ − r. j(˜) d 3 ˜ dS. Assume that current density r r also vanishes as ˜ → ∞.1 and due to formula (7. Outer normal to the . In terms of the field m(˜) formula for h is written as r h = lim m(˜). Such singularity is not integrable in R3 (if r we integrate with respect to d 3 ˜). j(˜) dS d 3 ˜.21) then take into account common boundary ∂D(ε) = ∂Ω(ε). Then due to the same considerations as r in proof of lemma 7.

22) we need to study the geometry of ε-blow-up of the surface S. .1. n(˜) r ˜ r c ∂Ω(ε) S ε→0 ˜ − r.23) is well-known in mathematical physics. 8.24) ∂Ω(ε) = S0 ∪ S+ ∪ S− .2 below we see cross-section of the domain Ω(ε) obtained from the surface S shown on Fig. . n(r) r dS dS. 39 surface ∂D(ε) coincides with inner normal to ∂Ω(ε). Double layer potential (8.22) h = lim j(˜). |˜ − r|3 r Integral (8.23) is restricted funcr tion in R3 \ S. In order to calculate limit in formula (8. There is the following lemma.23) V (˜) = r S ˜ − r.20) lead to the following expression for circulation of magnetic field h: (8. This coincidence and explicit form of function (8. . INTEGRAL EQUATIONS .§ 8. proof of which can be found in [1]. Lemma 8. Thereby V+ − V− = 4π r for all points ˜ ∈ S. and outer limit V+ (˜) as r tends to ˜ ∈ S from outside against the direction of normal vector n.1. On Fig. n(r) r dS. 8. At each inner point ˜ ∈ S there are side limits V± (˜) = lim V (r). r r→±S r r inner limit V− (˜) as r tends to ˜ ∈ S from inside along normal r r vector n. |˜ − r|3 r Let’s denote by V (˜) inner integral in formula (8. For sufficiently small ε boundary of the domain Ω(ε) is composed of three parts: (8.22): r (8. It is called potential of double layer.

.2 (8. n(˜) r ˜ r dS = 0. which are sufficiently obvious.24).1.25) and (8.40 CHAPTER I. ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.25) n S0 ∼ επL as ε → 0. Substituting (8.27) and taking into account lemma 8.24) into (8.28) h= 4π c S j(r).27). Surface S0 is a part of ε-blow-up of the contour Γ Area of this surface S0 satisfies the relationship (8.26) and (8. we get r the relationship j(˜). Since double layer potential and function | j(˜)| are restricted.26) lim V (˜) r S0 ε→0 For other two summand we also can calculate limits as ε → 0: (8. 8. Surfaces S+ and S− are obtained as a result of normal shift of surface S to the distance ε along normal vector n. Summarizing (8. (8.27) S± V (˜) r j(˜). c We shall not load reader with the proof of formulas (8. n(r) dS. n(˜) r ˜ r dS −→ ± c S V± (r) j(r).22) we break surface integral over ∂Ω(ε) into three parts. c n S S− S0 Fig. we obtain (8. n(r) dS. and to the same distance against normal vector n. S+ where L is length of contour Γ.

1) ∂Ω H. 41 This relationship (8.2) H. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS . § 9.16) and proof of theorem on circulation of magnetic field in whole. Differential equations for static electromagnetic field. τ ds = ∂S 4π c S j. n dS. ∂S E.8).20). Exercise 8.2.§ 9. In § 8 we have derived four integral equations for electric and magnetic fields. (9. Equations in first pair have zero right hand sides: (9. Then.19) for vector field given by formula (8. since Ω is arbitrary domain and . .28) completes derivation of formula (8. They are determined by charges and currents: E. n dS = 4π ∂Ω Ω ρ d 3 r. Exercise 8. Verify the relationship (8. and contour integrals to surface integrals. one can transform surface integrals to spatial ones. Right hand sides of equations in second pair are non-zero.3. Verify the relationship div m = 0 for vector fields (8. Applying Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula and Stokes formula. τ ds = 0.4) and (8. n dS = 0. Calculate grad f for the function (8.8). Exercise 8. . They are used to be grouped into two pairs.1.

When solving them functions ρ(r) and j(r) are assumed to be known. div E = 4πρ. one should have some additional equations relating ρ and j with E and H. continuous conducting medium is described by the equation j = σ E. integral equations (9. These additional equations describe properties of medium (for instance.4) div H = 0. rot E = 0.1) then is a consequence of (9.A.3) and (9. 1997.. where σ is conductivity of medium).42 CHAPTER I.1) and (9.4).5) and charge conservation law. c When considering differential equations (9. ∂t The relationship (7. ∂t ∂j = 0. . ELECTROSTATICS AND MAGNETOSTATICS.3) and (9.2) can be transformed to differential equations: (9.4) form complete system of differential equations for describing stationary electromagnetic fields. we should add conditions for charges and currents being stationary: (9. 2003. CopyRight c Sharipov R. 4π rot H = j. If they are not known.3) (9.5) ∂ρ = 0. Differential equations (9. S is arbitrary open surface.

rot E = − rot H = 1 ∂H .2) div H = 0.3) and (9. For static fields this property is revealed in a very restrictive form.4). i. More exact equations describing process of transmitting electromagnetic interaction in its time evolution were suggested by Maxwell. e. which we have derived in the end of Chapter I. Note that the notion of field was introduced within framework of the concept of near action for describing the object that transmit interaction of charges and currents. we use fields only to divide interaction of charges and currents into two processes: creation of a field by charges and currents is first process. Maxwell equations. Dynamic properties of the field itself appears beyond our consideration. c c ∂t .1) (1. They are absolutely unsuitable if we are going to describe the process of haw electromagnetic interaction is transmitted in space. c ∂t 1 ∂E 4π j+ . describe fields generated by stationary charges and currents. They are the following ones: (1. action of this field upon other currents and charges is second process. Differential equations (9.CHAPTER II CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS § 1. div E = 4πρ.

Consider contour integral in second equation (1. Like equations (9. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS. circulation of electric field (1. n dS. τ ds = − ∂S 1 d c dt S H. 1 d c dt S H.4) ∂Ω Ω ρ d3 r. It is easy to see that equations (1. n dS. τ ds = ∂S 4π c S j.4) in Chapter I. n dS = 4π (1.3) and (9.2) are generalizations for the (9. (1.5) in this case is called electromotive force of the field E in contour. Electromotive force e = 0 in contour produce the same effect as linking electric cell with . Maxwell equations (1. n dS = 0.1) and (1.5) e= ∂S E.4) from Chapter I. then electric field with nonzero circulation induces electric current in conductor. However. τ ds possess its own physical interpretation. Similar contour integral is present in second equation (1.3).1) and (1.3) and (9. They are obtained from latter ones by modifying right hand sides.2) can be written in form of integral equations: H.3) ∂Ω E. The quantity e from (1. E.4). unlike circulation of magnetic field.44 CHAPTER II. If imaginary contour Γ = ∂S in space is replaced by real circular conductor. n dS + E.

Experimentally it reveals as follow: alternating magnetic field produces electric field with nonzero circulation. In this section .1) and (1. Faraday gave qualitative description of this phenomenon in form of the following induction law. t) and j(r.1). Then each problem of electrodynamics mathematically reduces to some boundary-value problem or mixed initial-value/boundary-value problem for Maxwell equations optionally completed by medium equations.2) this yields exactly the relationship (5. Note that charge conservation law in form of relationship (5.2): div rot H = 1 ∂ div E 4π div j + . This phenomenon is known as electromagnetic induction. Faraday’s induction law was a hint for Maxwell when choosing right hand side in second equation (1. Experiments and further development of technology proved correctness of Maxwell equations. In solving them functions ρ(r.4) from Chapter I is a consequence of Maxwell equations. Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. t) should be given. When combined with the first equation (1.§ 1. It was first discovered by Faraday. Maxwell had written it by analogy. MAXWELL EQUATIONS. One should calculate divergency of both sides of second equation (1. As for similar term in right hand side of second equation (1. c c ∂t then one should apply the identity div rot H = 0. Electromotive force of induction in circular conductor is proportional to the rate of changing of magnetic flow embraced by this conductor. Equations (1. this induces electric current in circular conductor. or they should be determined from medium equations. 45 voltage e into this contour.4) from Chapter I.2).2) form complete system for describing arbitrary electromagnetic fields.

Otherwise this work is used for to compensate forces of viscous friction that resist motion of particles. we consider only some very special ones among such problems. then w = q ν E. Let’s express current density j through E and H using second equation (1. Let’s transform integral (2.1). § 2. Work of this force per unit time is equal to F. If ν is the number of such particles per unit volume and if v is their velocity. j . j d3 r.4) from Chapter I.2) for this purpose: (2. Recall that current density is a charge passing through unit area per unit time (see § 5 in Chapter I). In electromagnetic field each particle experiences Lorentz force determined by formula (4. Total work produced by electromagnetic field per unit volume is obtained if one multiplies this quantity by ν. 4π 4 π ∂t . CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS. v = E. then j = q ν v. v = q E. Our main goal is to derive important mathematical consequences from Maxwell equations and to interpret their physical nature. and suppose that this current is produced by the flow of charged particles with charge q. In either case total power spent by electromagnetic field within domain Ω is determined by the following integral: (2. This work increases kinetic energy of particles (particles are accelerated by field).1) W = Ω E.2) j= c 1 ∂E rot H − . Density of energy and energy flow for electromagnetic field.46 CHAPTER II. Suppose that in bulk conductor we have a current with density j. v .

4) is called dissipation power.1). . 4π ε= |E|2 + |H|2 . E] d3 r + c 4π Ω H.5) S= c [E.5) is called density of energy of electromagnetic field. rot a − a. n dS + 4π dt Ω |E|2 + |H|2 3 d r = 0. while for transforming rot E one can use Maxwell equations (1. we get (2.4) can be treated as the equation of energy balance. 8π Let’s denote by S and ε vectorial field and scalar field of the form (2. this is the amount of energy dissipated per unit time at the expense of transmitting it to moving charges. H]. rot H d3 r − 1 8π Ω ∂ E. 8π First integral in this expression can be transformed by means of Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula. for W we get W = c 4π Ω div[H. It also called Umov-Pointing vector. DENSITY OF ENERGY AND ENERGY FLOW . rot b . 8π The quantity ε in (2. b] = b.3) W = c 4π Ω E.2) into formula (2. 47 Substituting this expression (2.§ 2. E d3 r. . First summand in (2. H]. Vector S is known as density of energy flow. Second summand is the amount of energy that flows from within domain Ω to .5) the relationship (2. Assuming a = H and b = E.1): (2. rot E d3 r − d dt Ω |E|2 3 d r.4) W+ ∂Ω d c [E.3) we use well-known identity div [a. Under such interpretation of quantities (2. ∂t In order to implement further transformations in formula (2.

outer space per unit time. If we eliminate or restrict substantially the energy leakage from the domain Ω to outer space. Electromagnetic field can store and transmit not only the energy.1) in whole can be negative.7) F= Ω ρ E d3 r + Ω 1 [ j. i. j is a density of energy dissipation. c In order to derive formula (2. analogous to formula (5. These two forms of energy losses lead to diminishing the energy stored by electromagnetic field itself within domain Ω (see third summand in (2. e. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS. then we would have the device like microwave oven. Energy balance equation (2. . This is the process of radiation of electromagnetic waves from the domain Ω. where electromagnetic field is used for transmitting energy from radiator to beefsteak. This energy then flows to outer space through boundary of the domain Ω. ∂t Here w = E. H] d3 r.4) from Chapter I: (2. Then j = q ν v and ρ = q ν. It is realized in antennas (aerials) of radio and TV transmitters.48 CHAPTER II. In order to derive momentum balance equations let’s consider again the current with density j due to the particles with charge q which move with velocity v.4)). number of particles per unit volume. Total force acting on all particles within domain Ω is given by integral (2. Let ν be concentration of these particles. In such a case we have energy pumping into electromagnetic field. but the momentum as well. Note that in some cases w and integral (2.4) can be rewritten in differential form.7) one should multiply Lorentz force acting on each separate particle by the number of particles per unit volume ν and then integrate over the domain Ω.6) ∂ε + div S + w = 0.

H] d3 r. we use obvious identity [∂E/∂t. e = Ω ρ E. H] d3 r. [H. [rot H. DENSITY OF ENERGY AND ENERGY FLOW . e = Ω ρ E.1) written as CopyRight c Sharipov R.2) into (2. Integral (2. ∂H/∂t]. 49 Force F determines the amount of momentum transmitted from electromagnetic field to particles enclosed within domain Ω.8). H] d3 r + e. . .. Now we apply second equation of the system (1. we do cyclic transposition of multiplicands in second integral (2. H] = ∂ [E. e d3 r + 1 4πc Ω 1 4π Ω e. This yields the following expression for F. e d3 r + 1 4π Ω rot H. . ∂H/∂t] d3 r. H] /∂t − [E. e] d3 r − 1 4πc Ω − 1 d 4 π c dt Ω e. For further transformations of this integral let’s choose some constant unit vector e and consider scalar product of this vector e and vector F: (2. c Substituting (2.9) − Ω ρ E. e d3 r + 1 e.8) F.§ 2.A. e : F. 2003. [ j.7) is vectorial quantity. [∂E/∂t. Recalling well-known property of mixed product.9). 1997. e = (2. [E. we get F. Moreover. H] d3 r − e. [E.

Here by curly brackets we denote commutator of two vector fields a and b (see [2]). = − H. e] = − H. e] + rot E. b] = b. e]] + H. e div H + 2 . In order to transform rot[H. rot a − a. [H. From second identity (2. b . e] . Traditionally square brackets are used for commutator. [H. grad |H|2 . Then 3 3 H.10) + Ω d dt Ω e. but here by square brackets we denote vector product of two vectors. rot b . rot [H.11): rot[H. e] = −e div H − {H. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS. rot [a. e div H + i=1 Hi j=1 ej ∂H i = ∂rj 1 e. e}. e] we use third identity (2. (2. c]] = b a. rot [H. two of which we already used earlier: [a. e d3 r + rot H. H] 3 d r= 4πc Ω ρ E.11) div [a. [H. b}. ∂H/∂t = −c rot E. 4π In order to transform last two integrals in (2. Then we get formula F. e] = div [H. [b. c − c a. e] 3 d r. [E. [E.50 CHAPTER II. e + (2.11) we derive rot H. b] = a div b − b div a − {a.10) we use the following three identities.

. e] = − E. e n. H] 3 d r = 0. 51 Let’s combine two above relationships and apply first identity (2. e − div e |H|2 − 1 − H. 4πc Ω + ∂Ω (|E|2 + |H|2 ) e. . e − 1 e |H|2 . e] = − H. e div E + (2. if we take into account (2.12) and (2. grad |H|2 .§ 2. e div H + (2.13). [H. Hence as a final result we get rot H. H dS + 4π e. e div H + e. [E. e]] in first of them. n d dS + 8π dt Denote by σ linear operator such that the result of applying this . 2 But div e |H|2 = e. e − ∂Ω E. [E. E + H. 2 Quite similar identity can be derived for electric field E: rot E. [H. [H. while divergency of electric field E is nonzero: div E = 4πρ. grad |H|2 . 2 The only difference is that due to Maxwell equations div H = 0. e] = div H H. e n. Now. e − 1 e |E|2 .10) can be transformed to the following one: F.11) for to transform double vectorial product [H.12) + div H H. As a result we obtain rot H. formula (2. DENSITY OF ENERGY AND ENERGY FLOW .13) + div E E.

16) the above relationship for F. e + ∂Ω σ e. σ n . σ e. e is rewritten as follows: (2. n = e.18) is the equation of momentum balance for electromagnetic field.14) defines tensorial field σ of type (1. e. e |E|2 + |H|2 + e.17) in vectorial form: (2.15) and (2. Operator of the density of momentum flow σ is symmetric.16) p= [E. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS. given by formula (2. e d3 r = 0.14) σe = − E E.18) F+ ∂Ω σ n dS + d dt Ω p d3 r = 0. It is also known as Maxwell tensor. 8π 4π Tensor σ with components (2. 1) with the following components: (2. 4π 8π Formula (2. Due to this property and because e is arbitrary vector we can rewrite (2. n dS + d dt Ω p.15) is called tensor of the density of momentum flow. 4πc In terms of the notations (2. Now let’s define vector of momentum density p by formula (2.52 CHAPTER II. operator to some arbitrary vector e is given by formula (2.17) F. i.15) i σj = |E|2 + |H|2 i E i Ej + H i Hj δj − . Force F.7) determines . H] . e + H H. This equation (2.

18) can be rewritten in differential form. 4πc It is also capable to transmit energy and momentum to material bodies. Check on the derivation of (2. . 8π P= Ω [E. The relationship (2. ∂ri Then differential form of (2. This confirms once more our assertion that electromagnetic field itself is a material entity.18) determines loss of momentum due to its flow through the boundary of the domain Ω.1.19) µ = div σ.18)).§ 2.19). while vectorial divergency is determined according to (2. electromagnetic field is capable to accumulate within itself the energy and momentum: (2. 1).13). It is not pure mathematical abstraction convenient for describing interaction of charges and currents. H]/c is a density of Lorentz force. These two losses lead to diminishing the momentum stored by electromagnetic field within domain Ω (see third summand in (2. For this purpose we should define vectorial divergency for tensorial field σ of the type (1.11) hold. H] 3 d r.20) ∂p + div σ + f = 0. Verify that relationships (2.18) is written as (2.21) E= Ω |E|2 + |H|2 3 d r. Thus. DENSITY OF ENERGY AND ENERGY FLOW .12) and (2. ∂t where f = ρ E + [ j. . Let 3 (2. where µj = i=1 i ∂σj . 53 loss of momentum stored in electromagnetic field due to transmitting it to moving particles. but real physical object. Exercise 2. . Second term in (2.

Vector field A.1) H = rot A. Vectorial and scalar potentials of electromagnetic field. In section 2 we have found that electromagnetic field possess energy and momentum (2. Each vortex field is a rotor of some other vector field. . This is system of four equations. two of them are scalar equations. Vector field with zero divergency is called vortex field. other two are vectorial equations. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS. So observe somewhat like excessiveness in Maxwell equations. However we have only six undetermined functions in them: three components of vector E and three components of vector H. One of the most popular ways for solving systems of algebraic equations is to express some variable through other ones by solving one of the equations in a system (usually most simple equation) and then substituting the expression obtained into other equations. whose existence is granted by the above theorem. Sometimes this trick is applicable to differential equations as well. Theorem on vortex field. However we have not studied Maxwell equations themselves. For vortex fields the following theorem holds (see proof in book [3]). It is given by the following relationship: (3. So they are equivalent to eight scalar equations.21). § 3.2). This is very important consequence of Maxwell equations (1.1) and (1.54 CHAPTER II. Let’s consider Maxwell equation div H = 0. is called vector-potential of electromagnetic field. Let’s write the statement of this theorem as applied to magnetic field. Thus we exclude one variable and diminish the number of equations in a system also by one.

§ 3. VECTORIAL AND SCALAR POTENTIALS . . .

55

Let’s substitute vector H as given by (3.1) into second Maxwell equation (1.1). This yields the equality (3.2) rot E + 1 ∂A 1 ∂ rot A = rot E + c ∂t c ∂t = 0.

Vector field with zero rotor is called potential field. It is vector field E + (∂A/∂t)/c in formula (3.2) which is obviously potential field. Potential fields are described by the following theorem (see proof in book [3]). Theorem on potential field. Each potential field is a gradient of some scalar field. Applying this theorem to vector field (3.2), we get the relationship determining scalar potential of electromagnetic field ϕ: (3.3) E+ 1 ∂A = − grad ϕ. c ∂t

Combining (3.1) and (3.3), we can express electric and magnetic fields E and H through newly introduced fields A and ϕ: (3.4) E = − grad ϕ − H = rot A. Upon substituting (3.4) into first pair of Maxwell equations (1.1) we find them to be identically fulfilled. As for second pair of Maxwell equations, substituting (3.4) into these equations, we get 1 ∂ div A = 4 π ρ, c ∂t 4πj 1 ∂2A 1 ∂ grad ϕ + 2 2 = . grad div A − △A + c ∂t c ∂t c − △ϕ − 1 ∂A , c ∂t

(3.5)

56

CHAPTER II. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS.

In deriving (3.5) we used relationships (3.6) div grad ϕ = △ϕ, rot rot A = grad div A − △A.

Second order differential operator △ is called Laplace operator. In rectangular Cartesian coordinates it is defined by formula
3

(3.7)

△=
i=1

∂ ∂ri

2

=

∂2 ∂2 ∂2 + 2 + 2. ∂x2 ∂y ∂z

In order to simplify the equations (3.5) we rearrange terms in them. As a result we get 1 ∂2ϕ 1 ∂ 1 ∂ϕ − △ϕ = 4 π ρ + + div A , c2 ∂t2 c ∂t c ∂t 4πj 1 ∂ϕ 1 ∂2A − △A = − grad + div A . 2 ∂t2 c c c ∂t

(3.8)

Differential equations (3.8) are Maxwell equations written in terms of A and ϕ. This is system of two equations one of which is scalar equation, while another is vectorial equation. As we can see, number of equations now is equal to the number of undetermined functions in them. § 4. Gauge transformations and Lorentzian gauge. Vectorial and scalar potentials A and ϕ were introduced in § 3 as a replacement for electric and magnetic fields E and H. However, fields A and ϕ are not physical fields. Physical fields E and H are expressed through A and ϕ according to formulas (3.4), but backward correspondence is not unique, i. e. fields A
CopyRight c Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.

§ 4. GAUGE TRANSFORMATIONS . . .

57

and ϕ are not uniquely determined by physical fields E and H. Indeed, let’s consider transformation ˜ A = A + grad ψ, 1 ∂ψ , ϕ=ϕ− ˜ c ∂t Substituting (4.1) into

(4.1)

where ψ(r, t) is an arbitrary function. formula (3.4), we immediately get ˜ E = E,

˜ H = H.

˜ ˜ This means that physical fields E, H determined by fields A, ϕ and by fields A, ϕ do coincide. Transformation (4.1) that do not change physical fields E and H is called gauge transformation. We use gauge transformations (4.1) for further simplification of Maxwell equations (3.8). Let’s consider the quantity enclosed in brackets in right hand sides of the equations (3.8): (4.2) 1 ∂ϕ ˜ 1 ∂ϕ ˜ + div A = + div A + c ∂t c ∂t 1 ∂2ψ − △ψ . c2 ∂t2

Denote by (4.3)

the following differential operator: = 1 ∂2 − △. c2 ∂t2

Operator (4.3) is called d’Alambert operator or wave operator. Differential equation u = v is called d’Alambert equation. Using gauge freedom provided by gauge transformation (4.1), we can fulfill the following condition: (4.4) 1 ∂ϕ + div A = 0. c ∂t

However. . They are written in terms of real physical fields E and H. This condition is called Lorentzian gauge.2). and are consequences of Maxwell equations (1.5) it acts upon each component of vector A separately. then Maxwell equations (3.4) itself is an additional equation requiring concordant choice of solutions for d’Alambert equations (4. However.4) is fulfilled.5). D’Alambert operator (4.8) simplify substantially: (4.6) E = −4π grad ρ − 4π ∂j .1) and (1. one shouldn’t think that variables A and ϕ are completely separated. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS.3) is a scalar operator.58 CHAPTER II. backward Maxwell equations do not follow from (4. c ∂t It is known that d’Alambert equation is solvable under rather weak restrictions for its right hand side (see book [1]). Hence practically always we can fulfill the condition (4. c They look like pair of independent d’Alambert equations. If Lorentzian gauge condition (4. c2 ∂t H= 4π rot j.6). c These equations (4. A= 4πj .4) we derive (4.5) ϕ = 4 π ρ.4). For this purpose we should choose ψ solving d’Alambert equation ψ=− 1 ∂ϕ ˜ ˜ + div A .6) have no entries of potentials A and ϕ. Lorentzian gauge condition (4. in (4. Therefore operator commutates with rotor operator and with time derivative as well. Therefore on the base of (3.

then corresponding potentials (5.2). In previous Chapter we considered static electromagnetic fields. 59 § 5. Let’s study one of z such solutions. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. Rewriting (5.1) into (4.1). . 5.3) A = A0 sin(k(x − c t)). Then we choose another constant vector A0 directed along y-axis and consider the following two functions: (5. However. as we shall see just below. we get (5. 5.1) A = A0 sin(k x − ω t). substituting (5. Suppose ρ = 0 and j = 0.6) in Chapter I ).1) in a little bit different form (5.1 sian system of coordinates and take some constant vector k directed along x-axis (see Fig. ϕ = 0. Electromagnetic waves. A0 k x Maxwell equations have nonzero solutions even in the case of idenH0 tically zero currents and charges in the space. We choose some right-oriented rectangular CarteFig. ω being its frequency and k being its wave-vector. y They cannot exist in the absence E0 of charges and currents. If it is fulfilled.5) and (5.§ 5.2) k 2 = |k|2 = ω . which determines the direction of propagation of that plane wave.4) and into Maxwell equations (4. Then. c It is not difficult to satisfy this condition (5. Here k = |k|.5).1) describe plane electromagnetic wave. Such fields are uniquely determined by static configuration of charges and currents (see formulas (3.

Now let’s substitute (5. however it is not circular polarized as well. A0 ]. It is certainly kind of idealization. (5.5) in Chapter I). Formula (5. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS. |E0 | = |H0 | = |k| |A0 |.4) is an endless wave filling the whole space. Vector E0 is taken for polarization vector of this wave. we see that the velocity of propagating of plane electromagnetic wave is equal to constant c (see (1.60 CHAPTER II. they are not eternal in time: there are sources (radiators) and absorbers of electromagnetic fields. Wave (5. Vectors k.1) into (3. Emission of electromagnetic waves.4) is an approximate description of real electromagnetic field in that part of space which is far apart from radiators and absorbers. E0 = |k| A0 . and H0 are perpendicular to each other. E0 . It is superposition of two linear polarized waves. Natural light is a superposition of numerous plane linear polarized waves with chaotically distributed polarization vectors. § 6. Moreover.4) and calculate electric and magnetic fields in electromagnetic wave: E = E0 cos(k x − ω t). Real electromagnetic waves fill only some restricted part of the space. Wave E = E0 cos(k x − ω t) + H0 sin(k x − ω t). H0 = [k. It has no fixed polarization. H = H0 cos(k x − ω t) − E0 sin(k x − ω t) is called circular polarized wave.4) H = H0 cos(k x − ω t).4) with such vectors is called plane linear polarized electromagnetic wave. they form right triple. Natural light is also electromagnetic wave. Plane wave (5. .

which is not static. t) and A(r.5).1) u(r.4) for scalar and vectorial potentials (6. We describe it by means of functions ρ(r. Knowing fundamental solution (6. For smooth and . t) and j(r. t) and j(r. Function (6.4) in Chapter I) we derive Lorentzian gauge condition (4. now we can write solution for the equations (4.§ 6.1) satisfies d’Alambert equation with distribution in right hand side: u = δ(t)δ(r).5) in form of contractions: (6. then we restrict substantially the freedom in choosing solutions of the equations (4. In order to find one of such solutions we need fundamental solution of d’Alambert operator. see [1].2) ϕ = 4π u ∗ ρ. Their solutions are not unique: to each solution already found one can add arbitrary solution of corresponding homogeneous equations. 2π where θ and δ are Heaviside theta-function and Dirac deltafunction respectively. t) = c θ(t) δ(c2 t2 − |r|2 ). However. In physics such objects are called Green functions. t). EMISSION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. These are non-homogeneous differential equations. Let’s consider Maxwell equations transformed to the form (4. This is distribution of the form: (6.2). A= 4π u ∗ j. t) to be fast decreasing as r → ∞ and apply similar condition to ϕ(r.5). c Here ∗ denotes contraction of two distributions. if we assume ρ(r. Due to the properties of this operation from charge conservation law (see formula (5. t).1) of d’Alambert operator. Usually radiator is a system of charges and currents. 61 In this section we consider process of generation and radiation of electromagnetic waves.

i. Time delay τ is exactly equal to the time required for the r signal spreading with light velocity c from the source point ˜ to get to the observation point r.3). t − τ ) 3 r d ˜. Therefore r . r c |r − ˜| r ρ(˜.3) A(r. we calculate we calculate electromagnetic field of the system of charges at the point r which is far distant from the domain Ω. the contribution from the point ˜ being determined not by charge r density at present time instant t. t − τ ) 3 r d ˜. t) and j(r. in physics advanced potentials have no meaning.1) by changing τ for −τ . However. It is determined r by the ratio τ = |r − ˜|/c. Let’s consider system of charges located in some small domain Ω surrounding the origin. ˜) is called time delay. sufficiently fast decreasing functions ρ(r. t) = (6. Retarded potentials have transparent physical interpretation. r |r − ˜| r Here the quantity τ = τ (r. but at previous time instant t − τ .3) are called retarded r potentials. Due to these r inequalities the ratio ˜/|r| is small vectorial quantity. Using formulas (6. t) = j(˜. Similar time delay is present in formula for vector potential A. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS. |˜| ≤ R ≪ |r|. Potentials (6. since they would break causality principle. Such solution corresponds to advanced potentials.62 CHAPTER II. e. t) potentials (6. Scalar potential ϕ at the point r at time instant t is a superposition of contributions from charges at various points of the space. For example there is a solution obtained from (6.2) are reduced to the following two integrals: ϕ(r. Note that fundamental solution of d’Alambert equation is not unique. Let R be maximal linear size of this domain Ω.

the following quantities are of the same order. e. For the quantity θ we have the estimate |θ| ≤ R/c. Then let’s consider the following Taylor expansions for ρ and j: ρ(˜. t′ ) + r r ∂ρ(˜. ≈ Tn n. . . i..5) j(˜. t − τ ) is possible only under some additional assumptions r concerning these functions.. ∂t The condition R ≪ |r| is not sufficient for the expansions (6. Denote by T some specific time for which functions ρ and j within domain Ω change substantially. t′ ) r θ + ...A. ˜ r + . ∂t ∂t ∂nj ∂j ≈ . 2003...5) to be consistent.§ 6. t − τ ) = ρ(˜. In case when one can specify such time T . .5) for approximating ρ(˜.6) j≈T ∂ρ ∂nρ ≈ . t−τ ) r and j(˜. Use of expansions (6. Denote t′ = t − |r|/c and let t − τ = t′ + θ. This is the time of propagation of electromagnetic signal within domain Ω. ≈ Tn n ... t′ ) r θ + .. 63 we have the following asymptotic expansions for |r − ˜| and t − τ : r |r − ˜| = |r| − r (6.4) t−τ =t− r. .. ∂t ∂j(˜. equally large or equally small: ρ≈T (6. t′ ) + r r (6. 1997. ˜ r |r| + + . c |r| c The ratio |r|/c in (6. t − τ ) = j(˜.4) determines the time required for electromagnetic signal to get from the domain Ω to the observation point |r|.. ∂t ∂t CopyRight c Sharipov R. . Posterior terms in the series for t − τ are estimated by small quantity R/c. EMISSION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. |r| r...

t′ ) θ r + . t′ ) e.7) j(˜.. This yields θ/T ≪ 1.3) keeping only first term in the expansion (6.64 CHAPTER II. .5) can be rewritten as follows: ρ(˜.5) in Chapter I: j. t′ ) + T r r (6. ∂t T Correctness of use of expansions (6. The condition R/c ≪ T has simple meaning: the quantity ω = 2π/T is a frequency of radiated electromagnetic waves. ∂t T ∂j(˜.5): (6. t − τ ) = j(˜. r r we make calculations analogous to that of (7. t′ ) θ r + .5) is provided by additional condition R/c ≪ T .. n dS + Ω ∂ρ 3 d ˜= r f ∂t Ω . . Let’s calculate retarded vector potential A in (6. Having defined vector a and function f (˜) by the relationships r a= e = grad f.. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS.. Suppose that both conditions R ≪ c T and R ≪ |r| are fulfilled. grad f d3 ˜ = r (6. while λ = 2πc/ω = c T is a wavelength. t′ ) 3 r d ˜+ . r |r| c In order to transform integral in (6. r ∂t |r| c = ∂Ω f j. ˜ 3 r d ˜. ˜ .9) Ω Ω div(f j) d3 ˜ − r Ω f div j d3 ˜ = r r ∂ρ(˜.7) and (6.8) A= Ω j(˜. e .. t − τ ) = ρ(˜. c|r| f (˜) = a. Hence condition R/c ≪ T means that wavelength is mach greater than the size of radiator. Now (6. t′ ) + T r r ∂ρ(˜.. .8) let’s choose some arbitrary constant vector e and consider scalar product A.

r 2 |r| |r| .6). ...§ 6.5).11) ϕ= Ω ρ(˜.4) and (6.12) + Ω Q + |r| Ω r ∂ρ(˜..3) we find (6. . t′ ) r. ˜ 3 r d ˜+ . = + .. keeping only initial terms in the expansions (6.9) we derive the following formula: (6. ˜ 3 r d ˜+ r 2c ∂t |r| r ρ(˜. This comparison yields |A| ≈ R ϕ.. EMISSION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES.10) and (6... r |r| |r| where Q is total charge enclosed within domain Ω. t′ ) r. t′ ) ˜ 3 r d ˜+ . In a similar way.10) A= Ω ˙ r D ∂ρ(˜. This charge does not depend on time since domain Ω is isolated and we have no electric current in outer space.4) and (6..11) taking into account (6. = + ... t′ ) 3 r Q d ˜+ . Then ϕ= (6. . r ∂t |r| c |r| c ˙ ˙ Here D = D(t′ ) is time derivative of dipole moment D of the system of charges at time instant t′ . Hence in calculating ϕ one should take into account higher order terms in expansions (6. for scalar potential ϕ in (6. 65 Since e is arbitrary vector. for vector potential A from (6.5). Let’s compare the expressions under integration in (6. cT The estimate R/(c T ) ≪ 1 following from R ≪ c T means that vectorial potential is calculated with higher accuracy than scalar potential.

in present case we deal with spherical wave being radiated from the origin. However. ... D] + . one can find the density of energy flow for waves (6.10) and (6.13). This situation is similar to that of plane wave.5). . . . 4π |r|5 c3 . D]|2 r + . Dependence of ρ and j on time variable t lead to the dependence of D on t′ in them.. In calculating rot A and grad ϕ we take ˙ into account that t′ = t − |r|/c in argument of D(t′ ) is a quantity depending on r. r Q + .13) are retarded potentials of the system of charges in dipole approximation. Then (6. |r| c Now on the base of formulas (3. Let’s consider asymptotics of of these potentials as r → ∞. Calculating integrals in formula (6. . . The magnitude of fields |E| ≃ |H| decreases as 1/|r|.4) and (6.15): (6. + + 2c |r| |r| |r|3 Potentials (6... r Q + + . [r.66 CHAPTER II... which is slower than for static Coulomb field.13) ϕ= ˙ D. 2 c2 |r| Vectors E and H (more precisely. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS. This dependence determines leading terms in asymptotics of E and H: (6.15) E= ¨ [r.14) ϕ= ˙ D. 3 c2 |r| H=− ¨ [r.16) S= ¨ |[r. Thereby we can omit last term in (6.12). |r| |r|2 c A= ˙ D + .....14) we find asymptotics of electric and magnetic fields at far distance from the system of charges. leading terms in their asymptotics) are perpendicular to each other and both are perpendicular to vector r. Using formula (2. r D. we transform it to (6.. D]] + .

17) j(r. The amount of radiated energy is determined by second time derivative of dipole moment. EMISSION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. Find retarding potentials (6. t) = −c [M(t). Exercise 6.16) in Chapter I). find angular distribution of the intensity for dipole radiation. Applying formula (6. Particle with charge q is moving along circular path of radius R with constant velocity v = ωR for infinitely long time (ω is angular velocity). Assume that charge density ρ is zero. 67 For modulus of vector S we have |S| ∼ 1/|r|2 .2) for (6. Therefore this case is called dipole approximation in theory of radiation. . while current density j is given by the following distribution: (6.17).1. Calculate retarding potentials and find angular distribution for intensity of electromagnetic radiation of this particle.17).§ 6. So we have real radiation of electromagnetic energy. Also find total intensity of such cyclotronic radiation.3. Exercise 6. This means that total flow of energy through the sphere of arbitrarily large sphere is nonzero.16). Exercise 6. grad δ(r)] (compare with (7. Also find angular distribution and total intensity for magnetic-dipole radiation induced by current (6.2. Also find total intensity of dipole radiation.

It explained all electromagnetic phenomena and predicted the existence of electromagnetic waves. Later on electromagnetic waves were detected experimentally and nowadays they have broad scope of applications in our everyday life. However. t).1) ˜ t = t. Let’s consider two such Cartesian inertial coordinate systems (r. t) and (˜. some difficulties there appeared. along with successful development of this theory. Galileo transformations. r . Classical electrodynamics based on Maxwell equations historically was first field theory. ˜ r = ˜ + ut.CHAPTER III SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY § 1. This principle in its classical form suggested by Galileo and Newton states that two Cartesian inertial coordinate systems moving with constant velocity with respect to each other are equivalent. Suppose that second system moves with velocity r ˜ u relative to first one so that coordinate axes in motion remain parallel to their initial positions. It was found that classical electrodynamics contradicts to relativity principle. All physical phenomena in these two systems happen identically and are described by the same laws. The relation of radius-vectors of points then can be written in form of the following transformations known as Galileo transformations: (1.

Even if in one coordinate system we have pure electric field.1) we get Differentiating this relationship.3) due to relativity principle we conclude that force F is invariant quantity. According to Newton’s second law.1). t). In first coordir ˜ ˜ nate system this trajectory is given by vector r(t) = ˜(t) + ut. It doesn’t depend on the choice of inertial coordinate system.2) ∂r ∂˜ r + u. 69 First relationship (1. Last relationship in (1. r Now let’s consider charged particle with charge q being at rest in coordinate system (˜. . due to t (1. Hence it should produce electric field and magnetic field as well.§ 1.2) once more. This fact is represented by the relationship (1. v). In this coordinate system it r ˜ produces Coulomb electrostatic field. v + u) = F(˜. 2 ˜ ∂t ∂t ˜ a = a. we find the relation for accelerations of material point in these two coordinate systems: (1. GALILEO TRANSFORMATIONS.1) means that watches in two systems are synchronized and tick synchronously. acceleration of material point is determined by force F acting on it and by its mass m a = F. In coordinate system (r.2) is known as classical law of velocity addition. t) this particle is moving. Differentiating (1. r˜ ˜ = t in (1. t).4) ˜ r ˜ ˜˜ F(˜ + ut. in second system we should expect the presence of both electric and magnetic fields. This indicate that vectors E and H are not invariant under Galileo transformations (1. From (1. Let ˜(t) be trajectory of r ˜ some material point in coordinate system (˜. = ˜ ∂t ∂t ˜ v = v + u.3) ∂ 2˜ r ∂2r = 2.

H]. we get q ˜ ˜ ˜ qα1 E + qα2 H + [˜ + u.. H]. t) = α(E(˜.5) ˜ r ˜ ˜ r ˜ ˜˜ E(˜ + ut. r ˜ r ˜ ˜ r ˜ ˜˜ H(˜ + ut. t) + β2 H(˜. Substituting (1. where α1 .70 CHAPTER III. β2 H] = [˜ . H(˜. α1 = 1. Therefore (1. Therefore we can equate separately terms bilinear ˜ ˜ ˜ with respect to v and E. t). t) + α2 H(˜. H].4) in Chapter I). This yields [˜ . Therefore transformation rules for E and H analogous to (1. E. Vectors E and H determine the action of electromagnetic field upon charges in form of Lorentz force (see formula (4. hence β1 = 0. α2 . r Due to superposition principle. v ˜ ˜ Now let’s equate terms bilinear with respect to v and H. t) = β1 E(˜. H. t).5) is rewritten as (1.7) is an identity with three arbitrary parame˜ ˜ ˜ ters: v. And finally we should v ˜ ˜ equate terms linear with respect to H and E. t). Hence β2 = 1. β2 H] = q E + [˜ . 1997. This yields the following formulas for operators α1 and α2 : 1 ˜ ˜ α2 H = − [u. SPECIAL RELATIVITY. functions α and β are linear and homogeneous with ˜ ˜ respect to E and H. c CopyRight c Sharipov R.7) The relationship (1. t). u). This ˜ v ˜ yields [˜ . c c (1. t) = α1 E(˜. β1 E]+ v c q ˜ ˜ q v ˜ v + [˜ + u.2) and (1. .4). β1 E] = 0. β1 . β2 are some linear operators which depend on u only. which is fulfilled in both coordinate systems. t).6) into that formula and taking into account (1.4) for F should be written in the following form: (1. t) = β(E(˜.A.6) ˜ r ˜ ˜ r ˜ E(r. 2003. u). H(˜. ˜ r ˜ ˜ r ˜ H(r. t).

˜ ∂t c c ∂t Here by curly brackets we denote commutator of vector fields (see [2]). we derive ˜ div H = div H. GALILEO TRANSFORMATIONS. H} − u div H.§ 1. = − uk ˜ ∂t r ∂ t k=1 ∂˜k 3 (1. let’s transform Maxwell equations written as (1.9) Now.9). 1 ˜ u. H]. c c ˜ ∂H ∂H ˜ − {u. we get the relationships (1. c ˜ H = H. if we substitute the above expressions for operators α1 . they cannot do this mission in non-contradictory form. ∂ H/∂ t ]. For this purpose.8) and (1. t). as we shall see just below. {u.8) should complete Galileo transformations (1.8) ˜ ˜ 1 E = E − [u. β1 .1) in electrodynamics. c . 71 Now. ∂ri ∂˜ r ∂ ∂ ∂ . H}. rot H .1) we have ∂ ∂ = i. α2 . However. E} + [u. The relationships (1.1) and (1. For r ˜ partial derivatives due to transformations (1. Thereby vector u is treated as constant vector field.2) in Chapter II to coordinate system (˜.6). β2 into formula (1. = ˜ ∂t ∂t ˜ ∂E ∂E 1 1 ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ = − {u. H}] − [u. ˜ div E = div E + ˜ rot H = rot H 1 ˜ 1 ˜ ˜ rot E = rot E + {u. combining (1.

When substituting the above expressions into Maxwell equations we consider the case of zero charges and currents: ρ = 0. ˜ c ∂t Only two of the above four equations coincide with original Maxwell equations. H}] − 2 [u. rot H . 1 ˜ ˜ div E = − u. This circumstance that we have found is very important. E}+ rot H = ˜ c ∂t c 1 1 ˜ ˜ ˜ + 2 [u. hence relativity principle claiming equivalence of all inertial coordinate systems is realized in some different way. c ˜ 1 ∂E 1 ˜ ˜ − {u. Indeed. ∂ H/∂ t ]. (2) or to assume that formulas (1. j = 0. In the end of XIX-th century it made a dilemma for physicists. hence they require the existence of some marked inertial coordinate system where they have standard form given in the very beginning of Chapter II.1) are not correct. Other two equations contain the entries of vector u that cannot be eliminated. c c ˜ rot E = − ˜ 1 ∂H . . SPECIAL RELATIVITY. The way how this dilemma was resolved had determined in most further development of physics in XX-th century. This yields the following equations: ˜ div H = 0. {u. one had to make the following crucial choice: (1) to admit that Maxwell equations are not invariant with respect to Galileo transformations.72 CHAPTER III.

this makes ether theory too artificial (not natural). t): r ˜ 3 3 0 ˜ Sk r k . LORENTZ TRANSFORMATIONS. marked inertial coordinate system is bound to some hypothetical matter. refusing formulas (1. t) and (˜. . Second choice is more crucial. and no smell. Nevertheless the development of science went through this second choice. It fills the whole space and does not reveal itself otherwise.1) we introduced c as a factor for time variables t and t in order to equalize measure units. This was done by Lorentz. Lorentz transformations. According to this theory. It is convenient to denote c t by r0 and treat this quantity as additional (fourth) component of radius-vector: (2. k=1 i ˜ r i = S0 c t + k=1 i ˜ Sk r k . we refuse classical mechanics of Newton in whole. but as a carrier of electromagnetic interaction.1) by general linear transformations relating (r. Upon introducing this factor all components of matrix S appear to be purely numeric quantities that do not require measure units at all. Having refused formulas (1.2) r0 = ct. one should replace them by something else. which was called ether.1) 0 ˜ c t = S0 c t + ˜ In (2. but later was refuted by experiments of Michaelson and Morley. no color. 73 First Choice had lead to ether theory. Indeed. As a compromise this theory was admitted for a while.§ 2.1). Specified properties of ether look quite unusual. (2. who tried to measure the Earth velocity relative to ether (ether wind).1). Following Lorentz. This matter has no mass. § 2. now we replace Galileo transformations (1.

e.3) ri = k=0 i Sk r k .5) E = 0. E and H.3) and (2. By their structure transformation (2.3).4) coincide with transformations of coordinates of four-dimensional vector under the change of base.3) and (2. ˜ In order to have invertible transformation (2.4) is necessary (but possibly not sufficient) condition for invariance of Maxwell equations from which the equations (2. j. Soon we shall see that such interpretation appears to be very fruitful.5) under the transformations (2.5) were derived.3) one should assume that det S = 0. Then two relationships (2. H = 0. The only condition we should satisfy thereby is the invariance of Maxwell equations with respect to transformations (2. Then inverse transformation for (2.6) in Chapter II: (2.1) can be united into one relationship: 3 (2. the case ρ = 0. Instead of Maxwell equations let’s study their differential consequences written in form of the equations (4. Now the problem of deriving Lorentz transformations can be formulated as problem of finding components of matrix S in (2. . For the beginning let’s consider the case with no currents and charges.74 CHAPTER III. Let T = S −1 . j = 0.3) upon completing them with transformations for ρ. i. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.3) is written as follows: 3 (2.4) ri = ˜ k=0 i Tk r k . Invariance of (2.

8) into formula (2.6). i. ∂rk Substituting (2.7) g ij It is easy to see that inverse matrix gij for (2. 0 −1 0 0 0 −1 (2. ∂˜p ∂˜q r r where matrices g ij and g pq are related by formula ˜ 3 3 (2.9) g pq = ˜ i=0 j=0 Tip Tjq g ij .8) Tik k=0 ∂ . e.6) = i=0 j=0 g ij ∂ ∂ .§ 2. From (2.4) we derive the following transformation rules for first order differential operators: ∂ = ∂ri 3 (2. 75 Further we need the following formula for d’Alambert operator used in the above equations (2. .5): 3 3 (2. ∂ri ∂rj Here by g ij we denote components of matrix 1 0 = gij =  0 0   0 0 0 −1 0 0  . LORENTZ TRANSFORMATIONS. ∂˜k r ∂ = ∂˜i r 3 k Si k=0 ∂ .3) and (2.7) has the same components. gij = g ij . we get 3 3 = p=0 q=0 g pq ˜ ∂ ∂ .

4) is equivalent to proportionality of matrices g and g.76 CHAPTER III.13) we denote transposed matrix T . In terms of inverse matrices gpq and gpq this relationship (2.11) g ij = λ g ij . Matrix T satisfying the relationship (2. In this case from (2.11) is usually chosen to be equal to unity: λ = 1.12) looks like (2. In matrix form this relationship (2. This group is usually denoted by O(1. ˜ (2. i.1. and β2 in formulas (1. e. It is called matrix Lorentz group. Definition 2.7). .10) gij = p=0 q=0 Tip Tjq gpq . It is easy to check up that the set of Lorentzian matrices form a group. Here g is a matrix of the form (2. β1 .13) T t g T = g.11) we derive 3 3 (2.1.12) gij = p=0 q=0 Tip Tjq gpq . ˜ Theorem 2. α2 .13) is called Lorentzian matrix.3) and (2. SPECIAL RELATIVITY. ˜ Numeric factor λ in formula (2.10) and (2.5) under the transformations (2. while by T t in (2. 3).9) can ˜ be rewritten as follows: 3 3 (2.6) the invariance of the form of equations (2. For any choice of operator coefficients α1 .

and β2 is invertible. 3) determines some transformation (2. 0 Inequality |T0 | 1 is immediate consequence of the relationship 0 0 0 (2.14). 1997. 3). Minkowsky space. CopyRight c Sharipov R. If i = j = 0. MINKOWSKY SPACE. Fourdimensional space M is basic object in special theory of relativity. 3) is called special orthochronous matrix Lorentz group.12) we obtain the following formula relating components of Lorentzian matrix T : (2. This quadratic form is called Minkowsky metric.14) 3 0 1 2 (T0 )2 − (T0 )2 − (T0 )2 − (T0 )2 = 1. The space of events is equipped with quadratic form g with signature (1. β1 . 3). Its points are called events.. Intersection SO+ (1. Lorentzian matrix with T0 1 is called orthochronous.7).A. The set of orthochronous Lorentzian matrices form orthochronous matrix Lorentz group O+ (1. α2 . Thereby inertial coordinate systems are interpreted as Cartesian coordinates for which Minkowsky metric has canonical form (2.5).6) given by operator coefficients α1 .1 under the assumption that transformation (1. Let’s denote it by M . 77 From the relationship (2. § 3. it is called special matrix Lorentz group. 3) = SO(1. Lorentzian matrices with unit determinant form the group SO(1. 3). Hence T0 1 or T0 −1. Hence det T = ±1. Prove theorem 2.2) and united space and time into one four-dimensional “space-time”. 3)∩O+ (1.1.13) for Lorentzian matrix we derive the equality (det T )2 = 1. In deriving this fact we introduced notations (2. . Exercise 2. 2003.1) preserving the form the equations (2. from (2.§ 3. In previous section we have found that each Lorentzian matrix from group O(1.

it determines second expansion of M into space and time: (3. we get positive quadratic form.1) M = T ⊕ V.1). . Matrix of Minkowsky metric in chosen coordinate system has canonic form (2. S0 . SPECIAL RELATIVITY. Hence ˜ T = T. Indeed.1) and (3. Changing its sign. 2 3 1 In general components S0 . Let’s choose some inertial coordinate system. and S0 in Lorentz matrix S are ˜ nonzero.4) 0 1 2 3 ˜ e 0 = S0 e 0 + S0 e 1 + S0 e 2 + S0 e 3 . Therefore vectors e0 and e0 are non-collinear. All physical laws in any two inertial coordinate systems are written in the same form. ˜ In general time axes T and T in expansions (3.3).78 CHAPTER III.3) we derive (3. Like (3. Equivalence principle. bases of these two coordinate systems are related to each other by formula 3 (3.7). Now let’s consider another inertial coordinate system. ˜ where S is Lorentzian matrix from (2. Restriction of this metric to V is negative quadratic form.2) do not coincide. This is standard Euclidean scalar product in V .2) ˜ ˜ M =T ⊕V. This choice determines separation of event space M into geometric space V (space of points) and time axis T : (3. For base vector e0 ˜ directed along time axis T from (3. Therefore geometric space V is orthogonal to time axis T with respect to Minkowsky metric g.3) ˜ ei = j=0 j Si e j .

presently in constructing theory of relativity one uses more realistic approach.4) with nonorthochronous matrices T invert the direction of time exchanging the future and the past. then 0 ˜ T0 > 0 and t → +∞. Let’s calculate how big is the difference in the rate of time ticks for two inertial coordinate systems. in our everyday life this difference is very small and never reveals. Minkowsky metric in such system is given by matrix of canonical form (2. If Lorentzian matrix T is orthochronous. Let’s choose some physical inertial coordinate system. If matrix T is not orthochronous. 3) to O+ (1.4) we get 3 (3. x) in Minkowsky metric g . 79 ˜ Non-coincidence of time axes T = T for two inertial coordinate ˜ systems leads to non-coincidence of geometric spaces: V = V . Transformations (2. 3) is due to the presence of additional structure in the space of events. It is called polarization.6) g(x. c Let t → +∞. So we shall assume that two physically real inertial coordinate systems can be related only by orthochronous Lorentz matrices from O+ (1. x) = (x0 )2 − (x1 )2 − (x2 )2 − (x3 )2 . This fact lead to quite radical conclusion when we interpret it physically: observers in two such inertial systems observe two different three-dimensional geometric spaces and have two different time ticks. However. It would be very intriguing to have such a feature in theory. 3). Restriction of the set of admissible Lorentz matrices from O(1.5) 0 ˜ t = T0 t + k=1 0 Tk k r . Let’s calculate scalar square of four-dimensional vector x in Minkowsky metric: (3. From (2. then ˜ t → +∞ we get t → −∞. However. By value of their scalar square g(x.7). MINKOWSKY SPACE.§ 3.

7) is the equation of cone in fourdimensional space (see classification of quadrics in [4]). others with x0 < 0 are directed to the past. vectors of Minkowsky space M are subdivided into three parts: (1) tome-like vectors. for which g(x.80 CHAPTER III. Geometric structure in Minkowsky space M that marks one of two connected components in the set of timelike vectors is called polarization. while space-like vectors future fill outer space outside this cone. Time-like vectors fill interior of light cone. It is used to say that marked component points to the future. Vector directed to the future can be continuously transpast formed to any other vector directed to the future. Interior of light cone is a union of two parts: time-like vectors with x0 > 0 are directed to the future. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.1.7) (x0 )2 − (x1 )2 − (x2 )2 − (x3 )2 = 0. However. for which g(x.7) is called light cone. Definition 3. for which g(x. x) = 0. This cone (3.1 be continuously transformed to a vector directed to the past without making it space-like vector or zero vector at least once during transformation. It is easy to see that (3. (2) light vectors. (3) space-like vectors. . This means that the set of time-like vectors is disjoint union of two connected components. x) is positive. Coordinates of light vectors satisfy the following equation: (3. it cannot Fig. x) is negative. 3.

Now we can give strict mathematical definition of inertial coordinate system. . In the space M with polarization one can consider only those such bases for which unit vector of time axis e0 is directed to the future. Then transition from one of such bases to another would be given by orthochronous matrix from group O+ (1. e3 for the standard of right bases in V . * i.2. It is easy to verify that any two inertial coordinate systems as defined above are related to each other by Lorentz transformation with matrix S from orthochronous Lorentz group SO+ (1. Orthonormal right inertial coordinate system is orthonormal right coordinate system in Minkowsky space with time base vector directed to the future. e2 .1). It is clear that e0 ∈ T . e2 . Definition 3. According to special theory of relativity Minkowsky space. 3). while linear span of spatial vectors e1 . which is equipped with orientation and polarization. e1 . 81 Let e0 . 3).3. is proper mathematical model for the space of real physical events. e3 defines subspace V .§ 3. base for which Minkowsky metric has the form (2. 3) and equipped with orientation** and polarization is called Minkowsky space. we equip this three-dimensional space with orientation. MINKOWSKY SPACE. e. This is concordance with the fact that geometric space that we observe in our everyday life possesses orientation distinguishing left and right. e2 . Definition 3. e3 be orthonormal base in Minkowsky metric*.7). Taking orthonormal base e1 . ** remember that orientation is geometric structure distinguishing left and right bases (see [4]). Four-dimensional affine space M equipped with metric g of signature (1. Let’s choose one of such coordinate systems and consider related expansion (3.

First one is related with orthonormal base e0 .3) is reduced to orthogonal matrix O ∈ SO(3) ˜ ˜ ˜ relating two right orthonormal bases e1 . Therefore we shall bring these formulas to the form more convenient for studying their physical nature. are designed for the same purpose. e3 . Kinematics of relative motion.5).1). e2 . e3 in Minkowsky space and with the expansion (3. Let H be ˜ linear span of vectors e0 and e0 . e3 and e1 . ˜ W =V ∩V.1) and (3. then Lorentz matrix S in (2.3) and (2. ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ Second is related with the base e0 . e1 . e3 and with the ˜ expansion (3. § 4.2): ˜ H = Span(e0 . e2 . Denote by W intersection of ˜ subspaces V and V from (3. However. which we have derived from the condition of invariance of electrodynamical equations (2. SPECIAL RELATIVITY. Let’s fix two inertial coordinate systems related by Lorentz transformation (2. Hence e0 = e0 . Lorentz transformations.2).1)  0 O2 O2 O2  . Exercise 3.82 CHAPTER III. Galileo transformations are used in mechanics for describing physical processes as they are seen by two observers representing two inertial coordinate systems. ˜ ˜ Now let’s consider the case T ∦ T . e2 . By analogy with definition 3.2) . e2 . If time axes are parallel e0 = e0 . in case if T T two inertial coordinate systems differ only in directions of spatial axes.1. this is not immediately clear when looking at formulas (2. (4.3 formulate the definition of skew-angular inertial coordinate system.4). They do not move with respect to each other. 1 2 3 0 3 O1 3 O2 3 O3 ˜ Thus. e1 . e0 ).1). It has the following blockwise-diagonal shape: 1 0 0 0  1 1 1  0 O1 O2 O3   S= (4.

Then V ˜ y ∈ V . From x ∈ H and x ∈ W due to orthogonality of H and W . . we get ˜ ˜ dim(W ) = dim V + dim V − dim(V + V ) = 3 + 3 − 4 = 2. Hence H ⊕W = M . Now from orthogonality of y to both vectors e0 and ˜ ˜ e0 we derive orthogonality of y to their linear span: y ⊥ H. 83 Lemma 4. e3 . Lemma is proved.§ 4. we have W ⊥ H. we get g(x. Since y is arbitrary vector in W . i. e1 . which is already proved. Analogously from y ∈ V we get y ⊥ e0 . Subspaces V and V are three˜ . But x ∈ W ⊂ V . e. Their intersection is zero: H ∩ W = {0}. Applying theorem on the dimension of sum and intersection of two subspaces (see [4]). Therefore from g(x. Let’s consider an arbitrary vector x ∈ H ∩ W . dim(V + V ) = 4. There is the ˜ expansion (3. In order to prove orthogonality of H and W we use orthogonal˜ ity of T and V in the expansion (3. Now let’s prove that H ∩ W = {0}. 3). Hence their sum V + V coincides with ˜ dimensional and V = V ˜ M . while direct sum of these subspaces coincides with the whole Minkowsky space: H ⊕ W = M . e1 . e3 and e0 . Proof. Subspace H is two-dimensional since it is linear span ˜ of two non-collinear vectors. Proposition H ∩ W = {0} is proved. KINEMATICS OF RELATIVE MOTION. Let y be an arbitrary vector in subspace W . Let’s write it as follows: (4. x) = 0 we derive x = 0. From H ∩ W = {0} we conclude that sum of subspaces H and W is direct sum and dim(H +W ) = 2+2 = 4.4) for vector e0 . e2 . while restriction of Minkowsky metric to subspace V is negative quadratic form of signature (0.2). x) = 0.3) 0 ˜ e0 = S0 e0 + v.1. Now let’s return back to considering pair of inertial coordinate ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ systems with bases e0 .2) are perpendicular to each other in Minkowsky metric g. e2 .1) and orthogonality of T and ˜ in (3. Two-dimensional subspaces H and W in (4. From V ⊥ T we get y ⊥ e0 .

1 2 3 Here v = S0 e1 + S0 e2 + S0 e3 ∈ V . they form orthonormal base in two-dimensional subspace H: (4.3) as follows: (4.5). 2003. v) = cosh2 (α) − |v|2 . From (4. from (4. CopyRight c Sharipov R.8) g(e0 . For any real number a > 1 there exists a number α > 0 such that 0 a = cosh(α). Let’s replace vector v by vector of unit length h1 = v/|v| and rewrite the relationship (4.7) ˜ e0 = cosh(α) e0 + sinh(α) h1 . e0 ) = (S0 )2 g(e0 . 1). Let’s apply this observation to S0 in (4. Vectors e0 and h1 are perpendicular to each other.3). v = 0. 1997.8) we conclude that restriction of Minkowsky metric to subspace H is metric with signature (1. we have Since matrix S is or- (4. e0 ) = 1. where α > 0. hence h1 ∈ H. e0 ) + g(v. h1 ) = −1.5) 0 S0 = cosh(α). g(h1 . From (4. But h1 ∈ V as well. .4) 0 S0 > 1.7) vector h1 is linear combination of vectors e0 and e0 . and from orthogonality of vectors e0 and v in Minkowsky metric we obtain 0 1 = g(˜0 . ˜ thochronous and since e0 = e0 .6) |v| = sinh(α).3): (4.84 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY. e ˜ Using this equality we can find Euclidean length of vector v in three-dimensional subspace V : (4.. Therefore h1 ∈ V ∩H. ˜ Due to (4.A.

Transition matrix relating this base with the base ˜ ˜ e0 .  0   1  (4. vector h1 ∈ V is perpendicular to subspace W ⊂ V . KINEMATICS OF RELATIVE MOTION. h1 .11) . h2 h3 has the following blockwise-diagonal form:   sinh(α)  SL =    0  0  cosh(α) sinh(α) cosh(α) 0 0 0 0 1 0 0  0   . Therefore we have the expansion of subspace V as a direct sum: V = Span(h1 ) ⊕ W.§ 4. h2 h3 constitute orthonormal right base in M with time vector e0 directed to the future.10) SL = sinh(α) sinh(α) . 85 Now we need another vector from subspace H. Indeed. There is four-dimensional version of matrix (4. cosh(α) Matrix (4. Then four vectors e0 . Transition matrix relating these two bases has the following form: cosh(α) (4. Let’s determine it by the following relationship: (4. ˜ ˜ It is easy to check that vectors e0 and h1 form another orthonormal base in subspace H.10) is called the matrix of Lorentzian rotation. Let’s choose two vectors h2 and h3 forming orthonormal base in subspace W and complementing h1 up to an orthonormal right base in V . h1 .10).9) ˜ h1 = sinh(α) e0 + cosh(α) h1 .

r1 . Upon calculating coordinates of this point A in other inertial coordinate system by means of formulas (4. r3 be coordinates of radius-vector of some point A ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ which is at rest in inertial coordinate system with base e1 . r2 . e2 e3 then can be done in three steps. they do not depend on time t in ˜ ˜ ˜ this coordinate system.12) ˜ its first coordinate r1 appears to be a function of parameter t. h2 h3 . h2 h3 is given by a matrix of the form (4. e2 e3 is given by a matrix of the same form (4.11).12) in order to express parameter t . h3 . e1 . ˜ We use first relationship (4. h1 . e2 e3 for another base ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ e0 . e2 e3 to base e0 .12) sinh(α) 1 r . Transition from base e0 .1). Ultimate change of base e0 .1). r3 be coordinates of some vector ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ r ∈ M in the base e0 . In a similar way transition from base e0 . r1 .1).11) formula (2. This is because their time vectors ˜ ˜ do coincide. SPECIAL RELATIVITY. e2 .3) leads to relationships ˜ t = cosh(α) t + (4. h1 . 3) is a product of three matrices S = S1 SL S2 . By ct = r0 .86 CHAPTER III. Let ct = r0 . r2 .11). h2 . r3 are constants. h2 h3 ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ to base e0 . h1 .1. one of which SL is a matrix of Lorentzian rotation (4. r2 . ˜ Let r1 . r2 . ˜ r2 = r2 . e1 . e1 . Each Lorentzian matrix S ∈ SO+ (1. ˜ c ˜ r1 = sinh(α) c t + cosh(α) r1 . h1 . while two others S1 and S2 are matrices of the form (4. ˜ Then r1 . In order to clarify physical meaning of Lorentz transformations let’s first consider transformations with matrix S of the form (4. For matrix S of the form (4. e3 . ˜ r3 = r3 . e1 . Theorem 4. r3 we denote ˜ ˜ coordinates of the same vector in the base e0 .

˜ r3 = r3 . In contrast to parameter α in matrix (4. ˜ ˜ ˜ ut + r 1 u2 1− 2 c r1 = .§ 4.11) through u: cosh(α) = 1 u 1− 2 c 2 .14) we see that in second coordinate system our point A is moving with constant velocity u = c tanh(α) in the direction of first coordinate axis. From (4. ˜ cosh(α) c Substituting (4.15) r2 = r2 . r3 = r3 (t) = const . parameter u has transparent physical interpretation as magnitude of relative velocity of one coordinate system with respect to another. KINEMATICS OF RELATIVE MOTION.13) ˜ t= tanh(α) 1 t − r . . sinh(α) = u c 1 u2 1− 2 c . (4.13) into other three formulas (4.12).11). t= u2 1− 2 c (4. Let’s express components of matrix (4. Let’s substitute these formulas into (4. As a result we get ˜ u ˜ t + 2 r1 c . 87 through time variable t in second coordinate system: (4.12).14) r2 = r2 (t) = const. we get r1 = r1 (t) = c tanh(α) t + const.

16) r = r1 h1 + r2 h2 + r3 h3 . Denote for a while by r and ˜ the following two threer ˜ dimensional vectors in subspaces V and V : (4.16) and the map θ. ˜ r θu. θ(h2 ) = h2 .88 CHAPTER III. |u|2 Here u = u h1 is vector of relative velocity of second coordinate system with respect to first one. Therefore they are applicable to Lorentz transformations with special matrix of the form (4.1). Using above notations (4. we can write formulas (4. since it maps right orthonormal base of subspace V to right orthonormal base in ˜ subspace V . θ(h3 ) = h3 .17) are irrespective ˜ to the choice of bases in subspaces V and V . SPECIAL RELATIVITY. Formulas (4.17) θr = θu. |u|2 1− 2 c θu. and h3 : ˜ θ(h1 ) = h1 . . ˜ ˜ r ˜ ˜ ˜ Then we define linear map θ : V → V determined by its action upon base vectors h1 . This map θ is orientation preserving isometry.15) in vectorial form: ˜ t+ t= (4. ˜ r θu 2 |u| |u| c2 2 ˜ θu t + +˜− r 1− θu. ˜ = r1 h1 + r2 h2 + r3 h3 . h2 .11) and to arbitrary Lorentz transformations with matrix S = S1 SL S2 (see theorem 4. ˜ r 2 c .

§ 4.17)). . |u|2 1− 2 c u. ˜ while t and t are treated as scalar parameters.1. derive formulas (4. ˜ r u 2 |u| |u|2 c2 u. while vector ˜ is expanded in the base of another coordinate r system. ˜ r θu. Using expansions (4.18) in components we should expand vectors r and u in the base of one coordinate system. KINEMATICS OF RELATIVE MOTION. ˜ r . ˜ r 2 c .17). according to modern paradigm four-dimensional Minkowsky space is real physical entity. Exercise 4. |u| r2 h2 + r3 h3 = ˜ − ˜ ˜ r θu.17) is omitted: ˜ t+ t= (4. However.15). Thereby the difference in the shape of these two formulas completely disappears. ˜ r u.18) r= u. When writing formulas (4. not purely mathematical abstraction convenient for shortening formulas (compare (2.16) for vectors r and ˜.17) and (4.3) and (4. 89 Very often the sign of map θ realizing isomorphism of subspaces ˜ V and V in formulas (4. 2 |u| ˜ ut+ +˜− r 1− Formulas (4. der rive the following formulas: r1 = ˜ θu. |u|2 Combining these formulas with (4.18) represent “conditionally three-dimensional” understanding of Lorentz transformations when vectors r and ˜ r treated as vectors of the same three-dimensional Euclidean space.

˜(t) r ˜ u |u|2 1− |u| c2 2 ˜ ut+ + ˜(t) − r˜ u. t) we use Lorentz transformation given by formulas (4. SPECIAL RELATIVITY. § 5.18). Relativistic law of velocity addition. Classical law of velocity addition was first consequence that we obtained from Galileo transformations: (5. As a result we get two functions ˜ t+ ˜ t(t) = (5.2).1) ˜ v = v + u. |u|2 1− 2 c u.3a) dt = ˜ dt .90 CHAPTER III. see formulas (1. v 2 c .2) ˜ r(t) = u. Replacing Galileo transformations by Lorentz transformations. t) and suppose that this r ˜ coordinate system moves with velocity u with respect to other inertial coordinate system (r. Suppose that vector-function ˜(t) describes the motion of a r ˜ point A in inertial coordinate system (˜. ˜(t) r˜ u.2): 1+ ˜ u. For passing to coordinate system (r. |u|2 1− 2 c (5. now we should derive new relativistic law of velocity addition. t). ˜(t) r ˜ c2 . |u|2 Let’s calculate first derivatives of functions (5.

Explain why resulting formula differs from (5.4). t). Motion of point-size material object in arbitrary inertial coordinate system (r. World lines and private time. Derive relativistic law of velocity addition from formula (4. v = ˜(t) = ˜ dt In a similar way by v we denote the velocity of this point in other coordinates (r. 91 (5. v ˜ u v− u 2 |u| |u|2 + v= ˜ ˜ u.3b) into (5. v 1+ 1+ 2 2 c c u+ |u|2 .1). 2003. t): d˜ r ˙ ˜ r˜ . v u. 1997. § 6. we get formula ˜ ˜ u.3b) dr = ˜ dt u+ ˜ u. It is mach more complicated than classical law given by formula (5. WORLD LINES AND PRIVATE TIME. Exercise 5. To calculate v we divide derivatives: (5. t) is described by vector-function r(t).. v u. ˜ dt Substituting (5.5) is relativistic law of velocity addition.1).3a) and (5.4) v= dr ˙ = r(t) = dt dr ˜ dt dt .A.5) 1− Formula (5. in the limit of small velocities |u| ≪ c formula (5. v u 2 |u| |u| c2 2 ˜ +v− 1− ˜ u. |u|2 ˜ r ˜ By v we denote the velocity of the point A in coordinates (˜. .5). However. c2 (5.17). v u.1.§ 6. where t CopyRight c Sharipov R.5) reduces to formula (5.

World line have no singular points. Definition 6. Exception are world lines of photons (light particles) and world lines of other elementary particles with zero mass. r1 (t). Let’s consider world line of material point of nonzero mass.1) determines parametric line in Minkowsky space M . Velocity of most material objects is not greater than light velocity: |v| < c. Indeed. r2 (t). v 2 .92 CHAPTER III. hence we get g(K. r1 .3) g(K. even if g(K. this line is called world line of material point. . When applied to vector K in (6. v 3 ). Smooth curve in Minkowsky space is called time-like curve if tangent-vector of this curve is time-like vector at each its point.2) this means that tangent-vector of world line is time-like vector: (6. SPECIAL RELATIVITY. Let’s differentiate four-dimensional radiusvector (6. v 1 .1) with respect to parameter t. K) = 0. Four-dimensional radius-vector of this material point has the following components: (6. Once world line is given. K) = c2 − |v|2 > 0. As a result we get four-dimensional vector tangent to world line: (6. motion of material point is described completely. ˙ ˙ ˙ Last three components of this vector form velocity vector of material point.1) r0 (t) = ct.1.2) is nonzero since K 0 = c = 0. tangent vector K in (6. r3 (t).2) K = (c. For them |v| = c. is time variable and r is radius-vector of point. K) = 0. r2 . r3 ) = (c. Vector-function with components (6. World lines for most material objects are time-like curves.

5) is called interval of private time on world line.4) yields invariant parameter for world lines. there is invariant quantity characterizing time distance between two events on world line: (6. 93 For this line we have the condition (6.3) fulfilled. This quantity is called interval length of the arc AB on world line.4) s(t) = t0 g(K. and watches of different material points are synchronized only in very rough way: they . For any two points A and B on a given world line the quantity s(B)−s(A) does not depend on inertial coordinate system used for calculating integral (6. Theorem 6. Its interval length is greater than interval length of corresponding arc.5) τ= s(B) − s(A) . c This quantity τ in formula (6. Let A and B be two successive events in the “life” of material point of nonzero mass. However. According to this concept each material point lives according to its own watch.§ 6. hence we can introduce natural parameter on this line: t (6.1. The answer to the question what time interval separates these two events depend on the choice of inertial coordinate system from which we observe the “life” of this material point. Concept of private time determine microlocal concept of time in theory of relativity. Integral (6. WORLD LINES AND PRIVATE TIME.4). So this answer is relative (not invariant). Straight line segment connecting end points of an arc on smooth time-like curve is a segment of time-like straight line. K) dt.

Hence twin stayed on the Earth will be older. acceleration due to rotation of the Earth around its axis and due to orbital rotation around the Sun is not sensible in our everyday life). even after such exact synchronization in the point of next meeting watches of tho material points will show different times. Suppose that one of twins goes to far-away travel in interstellar spacecraft. Its known that Coordinate system associated with the Earth can be taken for inertial coordinate system with high degree of accuracy (indeed. count time from the past to the future. Exact synchronization of watches is possible only when material points come to immediate touch with each other. However. Concept of private time is illustrated by so-called twins problem. According to theorem 6. World line of twin in spacecraft is curved. World lines of twins intersect twice. SPECIAL RELATIVITY. Which of them will be older when they meet each other on the Earth in the end of space voyage. The answer is: that one who stayed on the Earth will be older. e. Remember proof of the fact that the length of curved line connecting two points A and B in Euclidean space is . while his brother stays on the Earth.1 interval length of curved world line connecting two events is shorter than interval length of straight world line connecting the same two events. Then he experiences backward acceleration in order to brake before reaching target point of his travel. i. well-known from science fiction. Exercise 6.94 CHAPTER III. one before travel and other after travel. Then he accelerates and brakes again in his back way to the Earth. Therefore world line of twin stayed on the Earth is straight line.1. This difference is due to different ”life paths” between two meetings. In the beginning of travel he accelerates reaching substantial velocity comparable with light velocity in the middle of the path. This rough synchronization is determined by polarization in Minkowsky space. Both intersections occur on the Earth. when their world lines intersect.

v 3 are components of three-dimensional velocity vector v. DYNAMICS OF MATERIAL POINT. Upon choosing some inertial coordinate system we can write components of 4-velocity vector explicitly: (7. ds where r(s) is four-dimensional radius vector of events on world line.1) is called vector of 4-velocity. v 2 .§ 7. u3 of 4-velocity vector are absolute numbers (without measure unit). 95 greater than the length of straight line segment AB. § 7. Note that components u0 . Dynamics of material point. It is time-like vector and it is unit vector in Minkowsky metric: g(u. Motion of material point in theory of relativity is described by its world line in Minkowsky space. By analogy to this proof find the proof for theorem 6. . Vector u is (7.2). u) = 1. Vector p plays important role in physics since there is fundamental law of nature: the law of conservation of 4-momentum. It is easy to see from (7. Let’s choose natural parameter on world line and consider four-dimensional tangent vector dr(s) .3) p= m 1− c v1 v2 v3 |v|2 c2 for material point with mass m. u1 . u2 .1.2) u= 1 c2 − |v|2 c v1 .1) u(s) = (7. v2 v3 Here v 1 . Upon multiplying u by scalar mc with the measure unit of momentum we get vector of 4-momentum (7.

Vector of 4-momentum of material point which do not experience external action remains unchanged. ds Vector of 4-force in (7. Continuous actions are applied to material particle by external fields. p) = m2 c2 .1). In this case p = const. Momentum conservation law. . It is determined by parameters of particle itself and by parameters of external fields at current position of particle as well. we find (7. Hence u = const. Conclusion: in the absence of external action material point moves uniformly along straight line. F) = 0. (2) discrete. Differentiating this relationship with respect to s and taking into account that components of matrix (2.5) g(u. We know that vector of 4-velocity u is unit vector.4) is quantitative characteristic of the action of external fields upon material particle. for r(s) we derive r(s) = r0 + u s. They cause world line to bend making it curved line. External actions causing change of 4-momentum of material point are subdivided into two categories: (1) continuous. therefore g(p. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.96 CHAPTER III. According to the law just stated. Derivative of 4-momentum with respect to natural parameter s is called vector of 4-force: (7.7) are constant. for particle that do not experience external action we have p = const.4) dp = F(s). Integrating the equation (7.

6) we obtain differential equation (7. DYNAMICS OF MATERIAL POINT.10) (mv v)′ = f . t . then for three-dimensional vector of momentum from (7.3).8) is called dynamic mass of moving particle. Instead of classical formula p = mv relating momentum and velocity vectors here we have the following relationship: (7. Now.7) is treated as relativistic analog of Newton’s second law. taking into account (7.7) dp = f. while mv in (7. i.5) means that vector of 4-force is perpendicular to vector of 4-velocity in Minkowsky metric. e.8) in classical form we introduce the quantity (7. Constant m is called mass at rest. In order to write (7. force vector is perpendicular to world line of particle.9) mv = m |v|2 1− 2 c . from (7. 3. dt The equation (7.5) by time variable t of this coordinate system. 97 The relationship (7.4) we derive (7. 2. Then. if we denote by f three-dimensional vector with components f i = c2 − |v|2 F i . Now p = mv v. and Newton’s second law is written as follows: (7. where i = 1.6) dpi = dt c2 − |v|2 F i .§ 7.8) p= mv |v|2 1− 2 c . we can replace natural parameter s in (7. Choosing some inertial coordinate system.

. Denote by p1 . we shall imply mass at rest. Momentum conservation law.. CopyRight c Sharipov R. . particle confluence. saying mass. . In what follows we shall mostly use four-dimensional invariant equation (7. Discrete external actions appear p2 ˜ in those situations when 4-momenp1 ˜ tum of material particle changes abruptly in jump-like manner. SPECIAL RELATIVITY. If k = 1 this is particle decay process. . Formulas (7. In a similar way in collisions of atomic nuclei nuclear reactions occur. .1 out from that point. Collision of particles correspond to that point in Minkowsky pk p2 space where world lines of two or several particles come together. . But if these are molecules of ingredients in chemical reaction.4) and. pk their 4-momenta just before the collision. 2003. 7. Suppose that as a result of collision he have n new particles created from initial ˜ ˜ ones. then after collision we would have new molecules of reaction products. Such pn ˜ situation arise in particle collisions. Let’s consider simultaneous collision of k particles. and particle dep1 cay. pn 4-momenta of outgoing particles just after the collision.98 CHAPTER III. It seems to me that such terminology is not so good.9) and (7. while if n = 1 we have particle confluence into one composite particle.A. Denote by p1 . . Total 4-momentum of ingoing particles before collision is equal to total 4-momentum of outgoing particles after collision: k n (7. 1997. . After collision particles can simply fly Fig.10) are the very ones which are in mind when one says that mass in theory of relativity depends on velocity.11) i=1 pi = i=1 ˜ pi . .

−v 2 −v 3 p1 = p2 = For 4-momentum of resulting particle we have M 1− |w|2 c2 c w1 . w2 w3 ˜ p1 = Applying momentum conservation law (7. we get w = 0 and additionally we obtain (7.11) to this situation. Suppose that velocities of initial particles are equal by magnitude but opposite to each other: m |v|2 1− 2 c c v1 . From (7. . Conclusion: the low of mass conservation is fulfilled approximately only in the limit of small velocities |v| ≪ c.12) we see that mass at rest of resulting composite particle is greater than sum of rest masses of its components: M > m + m. v2 v3 m 1− |v|2 c2 c −v 1 . DYNAMICS OF MATERIAL POINT. 99 As an example we consider process of frontal collision of two identical particles of mass m leading to creation of one particle of mass M . Resulting quantity has the measure unit of energy.13) E= mc2 |v|2 1− 2 c .§ 7.12) M= 2m |v|2 1− 2 c . Let’s multiply zeroth component of 4-momentum of material particle by c. Let’s denote this quantity by E: (7.

In practice conversion of energy to mass is realized in particle confluence (see M > m + m in formula (7.14) and the law of conservation for three-dimensional momentum. 4-momentum conservation law for collision includes both energy conservation law (7. This quantity is known as rest energy of material particle.15) E = mc2 . Large amount of energy released in annihilation is scattered in form of short-wave electromagnetic radiation.14) i=1 Ei = i=1 ˜ Ei . The quantity (7.15) is well-known. Total conversion of mass to energy is also possible. Writing relationship (7. we get energy conservation law: k n (7.100 CHAPTER III.11) for zeroth components of colliding particles. Starting from electromagnetic equations E = 0 and H = 0 in previous sections we have constructed and described Lorentz transformations preserving form of these equations. Thus. when elementary particle meets corresponding antiparticle.13) is called kinetic energy of moving particle. but takes nonzero value (7. § 8. Four-dimensional form of Maxwell equations. Note that for zero velocity v = 0 the above quantity (7. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.13) does not vanish. Formula (7. It reflects very important fact absent in classical physics: the ability of energy to mass and mass to energy conversion. We also have . This happens in process of annihilation. Converse phenomenon of particle decay yields mass defect (mass decrease).12)). Lost mass is realized in additional amount of kinetic energy of outgoing particles.

§ 8. FOUR-DIMENSIONAL FORM . . .

101

given geometric and physical interpretation of Lorentz transformations and even have described dynamics of material points on the base of new relativistic notion of space and time. Now time has come to remember that equations E = 0 and H = 0 are not primary equations of electrodynamics, they were derived from Maxwell equations. To have complete picture we should we should write Maxwell equations in four-dimensional form. Let’s begin with second pair of these equations containing charges and currents (see equations (1.2) in Chapter II. Let’s modify them: 1 ∂E 4π − rot H = − j, c ∂t c

− div E = −4πρ.

Then rewrite these equations in components using Levi-Civita symbol for to express rotor (see [3]): ∂E p − ∂r0 q=1 (8.1)
3 3 3

εpqk
k=1

∂H k 4π = − jp, ∂rq c


q=1

∂E q = −4π ρ. ∂rq

Here we used notation r0 = ct associating time variable with zeroth component of radius-vector in Minkowsky space. Using Levi-Civita symbol and components of vector H, we can construct skew-symmetric 3 × 3 matrix with elements
3

(8.2)

F pq = −
k=1

εpqk H k .

102

CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.

Due to (8.2) we can easily write explicit form of matrix F : F pq 0 =  H3 −H 2  −H 3 0 H1  H2 −H 1  . 0

(8.3)

Let’s complement the above matrix (8.3) with one additional line and one additional column:  0 −E 1 −E 2 −E 3   E1 −H 3 0 H2    (8.4) F pq =  2 . E H3 0 −H 1  E3 −H 2 H1 0 Additional line and additional column in (8.4) are indexed by zero, i. e. indices p and q run over integer numbers from 0 to 3. In addition, we complement three-dimensional vector of current density with one more component (8.5) j 0 = ρc.

By means of (8.4) and (8.5) we can rewrite Maxwell equations (8.1) in very concise four-dimensional form:
3

(8.6)
q=0

∂F pq 4π p =− j . q ∂r c

Now let’s consider first pair of Maxwell equations (see equations (1.1) in Chapter II). In coordinates they are written as (8.7) ∂H p + ∂r0 q=1
3 3

εpqk
k=1

∂E k = 0, ∂rq

3 q=1

∂H q = 0. ∂rq

§ 8. FOUR-DIMENSIONAL FORM . . .

103

The structure of the equations (8.7) is quite similar to that of (8.1). However, their right hand sides are zero and we see slight difference in signs. Main difference is that components of vectors E and H have exchanged their places. To exchange components of vectors E and H in matrix (8.4) we need four-dimensional analog of Levi-Civita symbol:   0,          = 1,        −1,   
3 3

εpqks = εpqks

if among p, q, k, s there are at least two equal numbers; if (p q k s) is even permutation of numbers (0 1 2 3); if (p q k s) is odd permutation of numbers (0 1 2 3).

Let’s define matrix G by the following formula for its components: 1 2
3 3

(8.8)

Gpq = −

εpqks gkm gsn F mn .
k=0 s=0 m=0 n=0

Here g is matrix (2.7) determining Minkowsky metric. Matrix G with components (8.8) can be expressed in explicit form:  0  H1  = 2 H H −H 1 0 −E 3 E
2

−H 2 E3 0 −E 1

(8.9)

Gpq

3

−H 3  −E 2   . E1  0

The structure of matrix (8.9) enable us to write remaining two

4) immediately yields transformation rules. For special Lorentz .13) F pq = These relationships (8. Tensorial interpretation of matrix (8. Before now we express these rules in undetermined form by the relationships (1. Maxwell equations (8.13) determine transformation rules for components of vectors E and H. For this reason equations (8.6). m=0 n=0 (8.12) Fks = m=0 n=0 gkm gsn F mn . ∂rq Matrix Fks is obtained from F mn by means of standard index lowering procedure using matrix (2.4) defines tensor of the type (2. ∂rq Usage of both matrices F and G in theory is assumed to be too excessive. which were lacking so far: 3 3 p q ˜ Sm Sn F mn . Four-dimensional form of Maxwell equations (8. Matrix (8.10) are written as 3 3 3 (8. 0) in Minkowsky space.6) and (8.7): 3 3 (8. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.11) q=0 k=0 s=0 εpqks ∂Fks = 0.10) q=0 ∂Gpq = 0.7) in concise four-dimensional form: 3 (8. This tensor is called tensor of electromagnetic field.104 CHAPTER III.11) gives a hint for proper geometric interpretation of these equations.

. u2 1− 2 c u ˜ ˜ H 2 − E3 c H2 = .11) vectors of electric and magnetic fields E and H in two inertial coordinate systems are related as follows: ˜ E1 = E1.A. E |u| c u+ . u ˜ ˜ E2 + H 3 c E2 = .§ 8. .1. u2 1− 2 c u ˜ ˜ E3 − H 2 c E3 = .15) Fpq = CopyRight c Sharipov R. E 1 ˜ ˜ u − [u. |u|2 |u|2 1− 2 c From (8. 105 matrices (4. H 1 ˜ ˜ u + [u. 2003.14) ˜ u. According to theorem 4. E= |u|2 |u|2 1− 2 c (8.11) and two matrices of spatial rotation in tree-dimensional space. E] H− ˜ 2 u. H |u| c H= u+ . . general Lorentz matrix is a product of special Lorentz matrix of the form (4. u2 1− 2 c ˜ H 1 = H 1. FOUR-DIMENSIONAL FORM . H] E− ˜ 2 u. 1997. u2 1− 2 c u ˜ ˜ H 3 + E2 c H3 = . m=0 n=0 (8. The latter ones can be excluded if one writes Lorentz transformation in “conditionally three-dimensional” vectorial form: ˜ u.13) we derive the following rule for transforming covariant components of the tensor of electromagnetic field: 3 3 m n ˜ Tp Tq Fmn ..

6) with respect to Lorentz transformations leads to the following transformation rule for components of four-dimensional current density: 3 (8. j u ˜1 j c2 .16) The condition of invariance of Maxwell equations (8. In case of special Lorentz matrix of the form (4.3).18) j 2 = ˜2 . a=0 b=0 c=0 d=0 (8.11). taking into account (8. one can write the above relationship (8. . SPECIAL RELATIVITY.15) provides invariance of the form of Maxwell equations (8. In order to verify this fact it is sufficient to apply relationships (2. j In (8.5). u2 1− 2 c j1 = uρ + ˜1 ˜ j u2 1− 2 c .17) as follows: ρ+ ˜ ρ= (8. j j 3 = ˜3 .106 CHAPTER III. Remember that here u = c tanh(α) is a magnitude of relative velocity of one inertial coordinate system with respect to another.17) jp = m=0 p Sm ˜m . This relationship (8.17) it is easy to recognize the transformation rule for components of four-dimensional vector.11) under Lorentz transformation (2.8) for transforming derivatives and then remember well-known property of four-dimensional Levi-Civita symbol εpqks : 3 3 3 3 p q k s Ta Tb Tc Td εabcd = det T εpqks .

transform Maxwell equations (8. Using (8. (8. FOUR-DIMENSIONAL VECTOR-POTENTIAL. Verify that the form of these equations is invariant. derive the relationship (8.8). transform Maxwell equations (8.15).8). 107 In vectorial form relationships (8.4. Using (2. Prove the relationship (8. Using (8. Exercise 8.12). Verify that the form of these equations is invariant. This was done in .§ 9.12) and (8. Exercise 8.18) are written as ρ+ ˜ ρ= (8. § 9.6) from one inertial coordinate system to another.16).13).15) from (8.11) from one inertial coordinate system to another. Exercise 8. ˜ j 2 c . ˜ j u. Exercise 8.3.17) and (2.1. |u|2 1− 2 c u.13).19) j= u. assuming T to be an arbitrary 4 × 4 matrix. ˜ j u 2 |u| |u|2 c2 u.2. |u|2 uρ + ˜ +˜− j 1− In such form they give transformation rule for charge density ρ and three-dimensional current density j under Lorentz transformations with arbitrary Lorentz matrix. (8. Four-dimensional vector-potential.16) and (2. Due to special structure of Maxwell equations one can introduce vector-potential A and scalar potential ϕ.

4) Fpq .2) Ap = q=0 gpq Aq . (9. A2 = −A2 .1) Hp = q=1 k=1 1 ∂Ap ∂ϕ − .2) we derive A0 = A0 . −H 1  0 (9.108 CHAPTER III. from formula (9. This is four-dimensional vector-potential of electromagnetic field. Taking into account relationships (2. § 3 of Chapter II. p ∂r c ∂t 3 3 εpqk ∂Ak . let’s write explicitly covariant components for the tensor of electromagnetic field:  0  −E 1  =  −E 2 −E 3 E1 0 H3 −H 2 E2 −H 3 0 H1 E3  H2   . A2 .3) Moreover. Denote A0 = ϕ and consider four-dimensional vector A with components A0 . A1 . By lowering index procedure we get covector A: 3 (9. A1 = −A1 . A3 = −A3 . SPECIAL RELATIVITY.4) in Chapter II).7) for components of matrix gpq . ∂rq (see formulas (3. A3 . Here are formulas for components of E and H: Ep = − (9.

8) Fpq = ∂An ∂Aq ∂Ap = − . ∂rp ∂rq In essential. we get 3 3 m n m n (δp δq − δq δp ) m=1 n=1 (9. Thereby let’s take into account that Fpq = F pq and Ap = −Ap for p.6). 2. Applying (9.1) can be written as (9. 3: 3 3 3 3 (9. we obtain the following formula for all covariant components of the tensor of electromagnetic field: (9. They are determined up to a gauge . FOUR-DIMENSIONAL VECTOR-POTENTIAL.§ 9.1).8) and (9. ∂rm Further transformation of (9. formula (9.2) and second relationship (9. Remember that vectorial and scalar potentials of electromagnetic field are not unique. m p ∂r ∂r ∂rq Combining (9.9) Fpq = ∂Aq ∂Ap − . 109 Due to (9. ∂r0 ∂rq In order to calculate other components of tensor Fpq let’s apply (8.9) is four-dimensional form of the relationships (9. q = 1.1).3) and (9.6) is based on one of the well-known contraction identities for Levi-Civita symbol: 3 (9. It unites these two relationships into one.7) to (9.7) k=1 m n m n εpqk εkmn = δp δq − δq δp .6) Fpq = − k=1 εpqk H k = k=1 m=1 n=1 εpqk εkmn ∂An .5).5) F0q = ∂Aq ∂A0 − .4) first relationship (9.

A1 . we shall not do it now. From (9. ˜ j c . A3 are obtained from them by index lowering procedure (9. Note that one can rederive transformation rules for components of electric and magnetic fields (see § 8 above).15). if we assert that A0 .11) they are written as follows: ϕ+ ˜ ϕ= (9. as they actually should.9) are transformed exactly by formula (8. This uncertainty could be included into transformation rule for component of fourdimensional potential A. then we find that quantities Fpq defined by formula (9. A3 are transformed as components of four-dimensional vector 3 (9.11) should be written in vectorial form: ϕ+ ˜ (9. A1 . However. For special Lorentz transformations with matrix (4. |u|2 1− 2 c u ˜1 A c . u2 1− 2 c . ˜ A3 = A3 .12a) ϕ= u.110 CHAPTER III. and A0 . transformation (see formula (4. A2 . A2 .1) in Chapter II).10) Ap = q=0 p ˜ Sq Aq . In case of Lorentz transformations with arbitrary Lorentz matrix the relationships (9.10) one can easily derive explicit transformation formulas for scalar potential ϕ and for components of threedimensional vector-potential A. However.2).11) ˜ A2 = A2 . u2 1− 2 c u ϕ + A1 ˜ ˜ c 1 A = . SPECIAL RELATIVITY.

And the last step is index lowering procedure given by formula (9. Then we denote A0 = ϕ and thus convert three-dimensional vector-potential into fourdimensional vector. A ˜ u. 2) in four-dimensional space can be identified with pair of threedimensional vector fields E and H depending on additional parameter r0 = ct. 2) in four-dimensional space satisfying differential equations (8.11) are written as Maxwell equations for E and H: div H = 0. +A− |u|2 Theorem 9. ∂rk where ψ — is some arbitrary scalar field. has gauge uncertainty. where three-dimensional vector-potential and scalar potential were introduced. Proof.13) Ak → Ak + ∂ψ .13) is fourdimensional version of gauge transformations (4. Then equations (8. Formula (9.§ 9. Choice of vector field A in formula (9.1) considered . In order to do this one should use (9. A u u ϕ+ ˜ 2 c |u| 1− |u|2 c2 ˜ u.2). Each skew-symmetric tensor field F of type (0. FOUR-DIMENSIONAL VECTOR-POTENTIAL. In four-dimensional formalism this fact is represented by gauge transformations (9.9). c ∂t Further construction of covector field A is based on considerations from § 3 of Chapter II.1.12b) A= ˜ u.11) is determined by some covector field A according to the above formula (9. 111 (9.4).9). rot E = − 1 ∂H . Each skew-symmetric tensor field F of type (0. as we noted above.

1 immediately in four-dimensional form without passing back to three-dimensional statements and constructions. Exercise 9.1).112 CHAPTER III.4) in Chapter I. Hence we obtain 3 (10. Earlier we have noted that charge conservation law can be derived from Maxwell equations (see § 1 in Chapter II). It is easy to verify that gauge transformations (9. Let’s differentiate the relationship (8. SPECIAL RELATIVITY. in Chapter II.13) do not break transformation rules (9.6) with respect to rp and add one more summation with respect to index p: 3 3 (10. 1997. Therefore the expression under summation in left hand side of (10. Conservation laws for scalar quantities (those like electric charge) in theory of relativity are expressed by equations analogous CopyRight c Sharipov R. If we remember that j 0 = cρ and r0 = ct. To prove this fact in four-dimensional formalism is even easier. we see that this equality coincides with (5.10) for contravariant components of vector A.2) is four-dimensional form of charge conservation law. while tensor of electromagnetic field F pq . 2003.1. ∂rp Double differentiation in (10.. This leads to vanishing of double sum in left hand side of formula (10. ∂rp The equality (10.A. The law of charge conservation. to which it is applied. . is skew-symmetric.2) p=0 ∂j p = 0.1) is skew-symmetric with respect to indices p and q.1) p=0 q=0 ∂ 2 F pq 4π =− ∂rp ∂rq c 3 p=0 ∂j p . Prove theorem 9. § 10.1) is symmetric operation.

. ∂rq Proof.. .6) ψ pq   =   . 0 . . .3) playing the role of current density of 4-momentum is called energy-momentum tensor.§ 10. 0 ψ 1n . . ..1. −ψ n−1 n   .. Choosing some Cartesian coordinate system.5) jp = q=1 ∂ψ pq . ∂rp Tensor T qp in (10..  ψ n−1 n  . 113 to (10. . . For vectorial quantities corresponding current densities are tensors. (n Theorem 10. . we shall construct matrix ψ pq of the following special form:  0 . Thus the law of conservation of 4-momentum for fields is represented by the equation 3 (10.4) p=1 ∂j p = 0. 0  (10. ∂rp then there is skew-symmetric tensor field ψ of type (2. 0) such that n (10. THE LAW OF CHARGE CONSERVATION. For any vector field j in n-dimensional space 2) if its divergency is zero n (10.2) in form of vanishing of four-dimensional divergencies for corresponding four-dimensional currents. . .3) p=0 ∂T qp = 0. 0 −ψ 1n . .

∂rk Let’s define functions ψ kn in (10. n − 1.7) by the following integrals: rn ψ kn = (10.. Matrix (10. . .7) as well. . Under the condition (10.. Theorem 10. . . From (10. it has (n − 1) independent components. . rn−1 . y) dy+ rk 1 + n−1 j n (r1 .8) 0 j k (r1 . . qpm s = 0. . y.4) they satisfy last equation (10.7) n−1 k=1 ∂ψ kn = −j n . ∂Tq11.1 can be easily generalized for arbitrary tensorial currents.2. . . Theorem 10.5) for these components we derive ∂ψ kn = j k . 0 It is easy to verify that functions (10. s) in the space of dimension n 2 if its divergency is zero n pm p . theorem is proved. 0) dy.. rn−1 . . . . Its prove thereby remains the same in most. For any tensorial field T of type (m. . . ∂rpm =1 .8) satisfy first series of differential equations (10. where k = 1. ..6) is skew-symmetric.114 CHAPTER III. SPECIAL RELATIVITY.7). ∂rn (10. Thus.

6). The relationships (8.2).11). (9.11) we would require volume tensor with components (11.8).2) possess transparent tensorial interpretation... In previous three sections we have managed to write in fourdimensional form all Maxwell equations. (10. which were obtained there.4) provides last equation (10. Verify that the equation (10. H and their potentials. ˆ .13).2. qs m+1 . Tq11. (10. all these relationships (8. (8.. and the relation of E. qpm = s pm+1 1 m ∂ψq1 . However. Thereby we would have minor differences: the shape of matrix g would be different and instead of εpqks in (8. they are given by Lorentz matrices.1) ω pqks = ± − det g εpqks .. Clarify the relation of theorem 10.7) to be fulfilled for the functions (10.13).. ∂rpm+1 =1 p . charge conservation law. (9. s) skew-symmetric in last pair of upper indices and such that n p .. Such transitions are interpreted as Lorentz transformations.11).§ 11.. 115 then there is tensorial field ψ of type (m + 1. NOTE ON COORDINATES. § 11.9). Exercise 10. (8. Note on skew-angular and curvilinear coordinates. p p Exercise 10..9).6). (9. Therefore they can be transformed to any skew-angular Cartesian coordinate system as well.1.1 and theorem on vortex field in case of dimension n = 3. preserve their shape when we transfer from one rectangular Cartesian coordinate system to another. (9.

in . Matrix gpq in skew-angular coordinate system is not given by formula (2. 3). Therefore none of them can be interpreted as time axis. r3 : Γk ij 1 = 2 3 (11. r1 .4) would not be physically meaningful. Connection components required for passing to covariant derivatives (11. but curvilinear coordinates as well.2) ∂ → ∇p ∂rp (see [3] for more details).6) with non-diagonal matrix g ij .2) are determined by components of metric tensor. They are written as F pq = 0. have not their initial form. In particular. SPECIAL RELATIVITY. Therefore differential equations E = 0 and H = 0. r2 . interpretation of components of tensor F pq as components of electric and magnetic fields in formula (8.7).3) g ks s=0 ∂gis ∂gij ∂gsj + − ∂ri ∂rj ∂rs . would not have proper physical interpretation in such coordinate system. here it is arbitrary symmetric matrix determining quadratic form of signature (1. where d’Alambert operator is given by formula (2. In arbitrary skew-angular coordinate system none of axes should have time-like direction. Three-dimensional form of electrodynamics equations. even if we could write them. which we are started from. To make this step we need to replace partial derivatives by covariant derivatives: (11. Tensorial form of four-dimensional electrodynamics equations enables us to make one more step toward increasing arbitrariness in the choice of coordinate system: we can use not only skewangular.116 CHAPTER III. which we derived above. The latter ones in curvilinear coordinate system do actually depend on r0 . No we give list of all basic equations.

1). Charge conservation law in curvilinear coordinates is written as 3 (11. q=0 k=0 s=0 Here components of volume tensor ω pqks are given by formula (11. Instead of formula (2. Dynamics of material point of nonzero mass m = 0 is described . Tensor of electromagnetic field is expressed through fourdimensional vector-potential by formula (11. where ψ is arbitrary scalar field.§ 11.5) Fpq = ∇p Aq − ∇q Ap .8) = i=0 j=0 g ij ∇i ∇j .6) for D’Alambert operator here we have 3 3 (11. 117 covariant form.7) p=0 ∇p j p = 0. c ω pqks ∇q Fks = 0.4) q=0 3 3 3 4π p j . NOTE ON COORDINATES. Maxwell equations are written as follows: 3 ∇q F pq = − (11.6) Ak → Ak + ∇k ψ. while gauge uncertainty in the choice of vector-potential itself is described by the relationship (11.

Using symmetry of Christoffel symbols (11.5) can be brought to the form (9.118 CHAPTER III. by ordinary differential equations of Newtonian type: (11.1. show that the relationship (11. mc Here dot means standard differentiation with respect to natural parameter s on world line.3) with respect to lower pair of indices i and j.9) ˙ r = u.9) in curvilinear coordinate system as well. . while ∇s is covariant derivative with respect to the same parameter. Exercise 11. ∇s u = F . SPECIAL RELATIVITY.

Suppose that we have some coordinate system in Minkowsky space (either Cartesian.CHAPTER IV LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM IN THEORY OF RELATIVITY § 1. or curvilinear. Let’s fix two points A and B on this world line not too far from each other. 2003. r2 (s).1) r0 (s). Let’s consider some world line corresponding to real motion of some particle B under the action of external fields. 1997. r3 (s). Principle of minimal action for particles and fields. 1. These are time-like lines in Minkowsky space.A. Dynamics of material points in theory of relativity is described by their world lines. no matFig.. r1 (s). Then consider small deformation of world line A in the range between these two points A and B.1 ter). Then deformed curve can be given CopyRight c Sharipov R. Then our world line is given in parametric form by four functions (1. where s is natural parameter. .

s) are smooth functions which are nonzero only within the range between points A and B. s). This family of lines is called variation of world line (1. .5) δri (s) = εhi (s) are called variations of point coordinates. in (1. s) = ε hi (s) + . . LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM .2) we have whole family of deformed lines. Thus.2) are written as follows: (1. . we shall assume that (1. .3) hi (ε. s) in (1.5) parametric equations of deformed curves (1. . This vector is called vector of variation of world line. ˆ Here s is original natural parameter on initial non-deformed world line (1. . It is clear that they also are transformed as components of four-dimensional vector. .4) hi (ε. . . . Note that functions hi (ε. . Due to (1. Under the change of one curvilinear coordinate system for another quantities hi (s) are transformed as components of fourdimensional vector. Due to formulas (1. i = 0. while hi (ε.1). 3.3) we have the following Taylor expansion for hi (ε.4) and (1.2) ri (s) = ri (s) + hi (ε.1). s): (1. ˆ By this formula we emphasize that terms other than linear with respect to small parameter ε are of no importance.2) depend on additional parameter ε which is assumed to be small. s) → 0 as ε → 0.120 CHAPTER IV. . while quantities (1.6) ri (s) = ri (s) + δri (s) + . by the following four functions: (1. Moreover. .

second integral describes interaction of particle with electromagnetic field. . though changes of one curvilinear coordinate system by another form much broader class of transformations than Lorentz transformations relating two rectangular Cartesian coordinate systems in Minkowsky space. s) in (1. However.2) and by varying parameter ε in them we can surround segment of initial world line by a swarm of its variations. s1 Here q is electric charge of particle.7) S = −mc s1 q ds − c s2 g(A. these variations do not describe real dynamics of points. but it should not depend on coordinate system (r0 . Action functional in most cases is integral. 121 By varying functions hi (ε. Generally speaking. this is a map that to each line connecting two points A and B put into correspondence some real number S. World line connecting two points A and B describes real dynamics of material point if and only if action functional S reaches local minimum on it among other lines being its small variations. . Principle of minimal action for particles. they are used in statement of minimal action principle. r1 .§ 1.7) yields action for free particle (in the absence of external fields). r3 ) in M . . For single point of mass m in electromagnetic field with potential A it is written as s2 (1. r2 . By tradition this condition is called Lorentz invariance. u) ds. while u = u(s) is vector of its 4-velocity (unit tangent vector of world line). First integral in (1. PRINCIPLE OF MINIMAL ACTION . Action functional S producing number by each line should depend only on that line (as geometric set of points in M ). Within framework of Lagrangian formalism functional of action S is usually introduced.

u) ds − 1 − 16 π c Fpq F pq V1 p=0 q=0 − det g d4 r.7) for each of them and we should add all these integrals. Thereby change of field functions (here these are comFig. r1 . . This is four-dimensional volume integral over the domain enclosed between two three-dimensional hyperfuture surfaces V1 and V2 . . r0 . If we consider system of N particles. their normal vectors are time-like vectors. These hypersurfaces determine the V1 fissure between the future and the past past. e. r3 ) being identically . 1. And finally. Therefore variation of field is defined in other way than that of particles. and over this fissure we integrate in (1. in order to get the action functional for total system of field and particles we should add integral of action for electromagnetic field itself:   N s2 (i) s2 (i) S= i=1 (1. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . r) = hi (ε. Let’s consider four smooth functions hi (ε.8). Electromagnetic field is described by field functions.8)  −mi c qi ds − c 3 s1 (i) V2 3 s1 (i)  g(A. then we should write integral (1. r2 . Suppose that Ω is some restricted four-dimensional domain enclosed between hypersurfaces V1 and V2 .2 ponents of vector-potential A) when passing from V1 to V2 reflects evolution of electromagnetic field from the past to the future. Last integral in (1. i.122 CHAPTER IV. Hypersurfaces V2 V1 and V2 are space-like.8) deserves special consideration.

1. * Variations with restricted support are those which are identically zero outside some restricted domain Ω. .9) now can be written as (1. . Deformation of vector-potential (1. as a rule. .§ 1. is not used. r) and consider Taylor expansion of hi at the point ε = 0: (1. r) = ε hi (r) + . PRINCIPLE OF MINIMAL ACTION . The following functions determined by linear terms in the above Taylor expansions (1. . Exercise 1. Verify that hi (s) in (1. Field functions determine actual configuration of physical fields if and only if they realize local minimum of action functional S in class of all variations with restricted support*. .12) ˆ Ai (r) = Ai (r) + δAi (r) + .10) (1.10) hi (ε. . Let’s define (1. The condition of minimum of action for actual field configuration and for actual world lines of particles. 123 zero outside the domain Ω and vanishing for ε = 0.4) are transformed as components of vector under the change of coordinates.9) ˆ Ai (r) = Ai (r) + hi (ε. For this reason minimal action principle often is stated as principle of extremal action. Principle of minimal action for fields. In order to derive dynamical equations for fields and particles it is sufficient to have extremum condition (no matter minimum. . or saddle point). . maximum. .11) δAi (r) = ε hi (r) are called variations of field functions for electromagnetic field.

ds ds .. . When we substitute deformed world line into (1.124 CHAPTER IV. Here tangent vector (2. .7) because s is natural parameter on initial world line. Therefore writing extremity condition for (1. Thereby in first term containing sum of integrals only one summand changes its value. s1 Formula (2. Exercise 1. Prove that under gauge transformations (11. § 2.8) and consider deformation (1.2) K(s) = ˆ dh(s) dˆ(s) r = u(s) + ε + .. but it is not natural parameter on deformed line.1) visually differs from formula (1.8). LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM .13) S→S− i=1 qi qi ψ(r(s2 (i))) − ψ(r(s1 (i))) .8) in place of initial non-deformed one the value of last integral remains unchanged.2. that one which represent the particle we have chosen among others.13) are not sensitive to variation of word lines (1.1) Sdef = −mc s1 q g(K. c c Explain why terms added to action functional in (1.6) from Chapter III action functional (1.8) is transformed as follows: N (1.2). In order to find world line of relativistic particle in external electromagnetic field we shall apply particle version of extremal action principle to functional (1. K) ds − c s2 g(A. Let’s choose one of N particles in (1. The value of (1. K) ds.6) of its world line.7) for deformed world line is calculated as follows: s2 (2.8) we can use action functional in form of (1. Motion of particle in electromagnetic field.7).

.§ 2. In second integral (1. 125 is not unit vector. r g(A.1) taking into account that we deal with general curvilinear coordinate system in Minkowsky space: 3 3 g(K.3) and take into account (1.2) and the expansion (1.3) we get the following power expansions with respect to small parameter ε: ε g(u. . As a result for the expressions (2. r Ai (ˆ(s)) K i (s). i=0 j=0 k=0 3 ∂gij i u (s) uj (s) hk (s) ∂rk Ai (r(s)) dhi (s) + ds g(A. ∂rk When substituting these expansions into (2. . MOTION OF PARTICLE .4) in Chapter III). .7) unit tangent vector is replaced by vector K. Let’s write in coordinate form both expressions which are under integration in (2. K) = g(A. u) + 3 3 3 ui (s) i=0 dhi (s) + ds + . K) = + 1 2 g(u.. K) = i=0 Let’s substitute (2.1) we should remem- . u) 3 g(K.4). K) = (2.3) 3 i=0 j=0 gij (ˆ(s)) K i (s) K j (s). . Therefore first integral (1. ..2) into (2.7) is rewritten as length integral (see (6. u) + ε i=0 3 3 +ε i=0 k=0 ∂Ai i u (s) hk (s) + .

. As a result we get the expression without derivatives of functions hk (s): 3 s2 Sdef = S − ε k=0 s2 3 q m c uk (s) + Ak (r(s)) hk (s) c + s1 +ε s1 k=0 s2 3 d q m c uk (s) + Ak (r(s)) hk (s) ds − ds c 3 i=0 −ε s1 k=0 q c ∂Ai i mc u + ∂rk 2 3 3 i=0 j=0 ∂gij i j k u u h (s) ds + .126 CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . . ∂rk Remember that function hk (s) vanish at the ends of integration path hk (s1 ) = hk (s2 ) = 0 (see § 1). 2003. . . . It means that term linear with respect to ε in power expansion for Sdef should be CopyRight c Sharipov R. Now in order to derive differential equations for world line of particle we apply extremity condition for S.. . .A. . This provides vanishing of non-integral terms in the above formula for Sdef . Then for Sdef we get s2 3 Sdef = S − ε s1 k=0 s2 3 m c uk (s) + q Ak (r(s)) c 3 3 dhk (s) ds − ds −ε s1 k=0 q c 3 i=0 ∂Ai i mc u + ∂rk 2 i=0 j=0 ∂gij i j k u u h (s) ds + . ∂rk Let’s apply integration by parts to first integral above. 1997. ber that u is unit vector.

6) with the equations (11.9) from Chapter III. Now in right hand side of this equation we find tensor of electromagnetic field (see formula (9.4) = q c 3 i=0 ∂Ai i mc u + ∂rk 2 3 3 i=0 j=0 ∂gij i j u u . As a result we get the following equation for world line: (2.3) from Chapter III.9) in Chapter III). ∂rk Let’s calculate derivative in left hand side of (2. 127 identically zero irrespective to the choice of functions hk (s): d q m c uk (s) + Ak (r(s)) = ds c (2.6) m c ∇s uk = Fki ui . .5) mc duk − ds 3 3 Γi u i u j kj i=0 j=0 = q c 3 Fki ui . i=0 Comparing (2. while others with q/c factor are in right hand side: 1 duk − ds 2 3 3 mc i=0 j=0 ∂gij i j u u ∂rk = q c 3 i=0 ∂Ai ∂Ak − ∂rk ∂ri ui . MOTION OF PARTICLE .4). i=0 In left hand side of the equation (2.5) we find covariant derivative with respect to parameter s along world line: q c 3 (2.§ 2. Then let’s rearrange terms so that those with m c factor are in left hand side. we . For transforming left hand side of this equation we use formula (11. .

13) does not change dynamic equations of material point in electromagnetic field (2.5) in Chapter III) for (2.1. i=0 Suppose that we have rectangular Cartesian coordinate system in Minkowsky space. Prove that gauge transformation of action functional (1.2) and (9. When describing extremely large number of particles continual limit is . Thus formula (2. .6) describes motion of charged particles in electromagnetic field.6). Upon easy calculations with the use of formulas (7. then we can follow after the motion of each of them. Orthogonality condition for 4-force and 4-velocity (see (7.6) in Chapter III). . LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . Dynamics of dust matter.4) in Chapter I). c This formula (2. Verify that the relationship (7.8) is exactly the same as formula for Lorentz force (see (4.8) f = qE+ q [v.7) is four-dimensional generalization of formula for Lorentz force. Then we can subdivide F into spatial and temporal parts and can calculate components of three-dimensional force vector: f i = c2 − |v|2 F i (see formula (7.2.4) from Chapter III for force vector f we get (2. Exercise 2. Exercise 2. get formula for the vector of four-dimensional force acting on a particle with charge q in electromagnetic field: (2. H]. § 3.7) q Fk = c 3 Fki ui .7) is fulfilled due to skew symmetry of tensor of electromagnetic field. If the number of particles is not large. Differential equation (2.5) from Chapter III holds for Lorentz force.128 CHAPTER IV.

Therefore when describing such media one should either use detailed microscopic analysis and get macroscopic parameters by statistical averaging. Points of liquid and solid media move regularly (as on Fig. However. they would intersect.1 Fig. DYNAMICS OF DUST MATTER. 3. Simplest model describing large number of non-colliding particles is a model of dust cloud. or should use some heuristic assumptions based on experiment.1). there are models describing liquids and solid materials. particles are replaced by continuous medium modeling their collective behavior. In this model Fig.2). e. Here particles also do not collide each other. Their world lines can be modeled by regular family of lines filling the whole space (see Fig. Another model is a model of ideal gas. 3. 3. 3. Besides two models considered mentioned above. 129 used. Therefore if we fill the whole space with their world lines.1). in these media interaction of particles is essential. 3.§ 3. However. Some of them are world lines of real . In this book we consider only most simple model of dust cloud. their motion is chaotic (see Fig. their world lines do not intersect. i.2 particles of cloud move regularly (not chaotically). In this case one should assume Minkowsky space to be filled by regular family of world lines.

it can be treated as concentration of particles in small fragment of dust cloud near the point r measured in that inertial coordinate system for which particles of this small fragment are at rest. By means of ν(r) and u(r) we compose new four-dimensional vector (3. We define it as follows.2) j(r) = q η(r).1) is called four-dimensional flow density for particles in cloud. Therefore at each point of M we have unit vector u. Apart from vector field u. By analogy with (3. Parameter ν(r) has measure unit of concentration. Let’s choose some small fragment of three-dimensional hypersurface in M orthogonal to vector u(r) at the point r. Vector (3.1) η(r) = c ν(r) u(r). . then η 0 /c is interpreted as concentration of particles in dust cloud. Suppose that dust cloud is formed by identical particles with mass m and charge q.130 CHAPTER IV.2) one can define mass flow density vector: (3. below we need scalar parameter ν(r) which means the density of dust cloud. while other three components of four-dimensional vector η form three-dimensional vector of flow density.3) µ(r) = m η(r). If we choose some inertial coordinate system. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . This means that dynamics of dust cloud can be described by vector field u(r). parameter ν(r) is coefficient of proportionality. particles. Then four-dimensional current density vector can be represented as follows: (3. this is tangent vector to world line passing through this point. others are imaginary ones obtained by extrapolation in continual limit. . The number of dust particles whose world lines cross this fragment is proportional to its three-dimensional volume: N = ν(r) V . .

4) p=0 ∇p η p = 0. e. i = 0. we know vector of its 4-velocity u(s). by solving the following system of ordinary differential equations: (3. Therefore these world lines can be determined as integral curves of vector field u. . This conservation law is written as the following equality for η: 3 (3. nk k=0 n=0 .4) and (3. Rest mass conservation law here is fulfilled due to the absence of collisions when heavy particles can be produced from light ones (see § 7 in Chapter III). ds Having determined world line of particle from differential equations. DYNAMICS OF DUST MATTER. Vector field u is constituted by tangent vectors to world lines of dust particles. i. . .6) dri = ui (r(s)). 3. Now let’s calculate covariant derivative of vector u(s) with respect to parameter s: (3.§ 3.2) one can derive charge conservation law in form of the relationship (11. 131 Total number of particles in cloud is fixed. we get rest mass conservation law: 3 (3. From (3.3). Let’s consider dynamics of particles composing dust cloud.7) ∇s up = dup (s) + ds 3 3 Γp uk (s) un (s). Taking into account (3.5) p=0 ∇p µp = 0.7) from Chapter III. .

9) from Chapter III.10) are partial differential equations with respect to components of vector field u(r). Substituting (3.9) ∇s up = k=0 uk ∇k up .7) we take into account (3. we derive the following formula: 3 (3.9) into the equations of the dynamics of material point. Calculating derivative dup /ds in (3. Right hand side of (3.11) k=0 uk ∇k up = q mc2 3 Fpk uk . here (3.10) looks like 3 (3.10) ∇u u = F . k=0 In contrast to the equations (11. which describe dynamics of separate particle.132 CHAPTER IV. They describe dynamics of dust cloud in continual limit.7). For example in the case of charged dust in electromagnetic field the equation (3. The equation for scalar field ν(r) is derived from conservation law . ∂rk Substituting (3.9) is covariant derivative of vector field u(r) along itself (see more details in [3]). we get: (3.6) and the equality u(s) = u(r(s)). .8) into (3. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . mc Here F = F(r.8) uk k=0 ∂up . As a result we get dup (s) = ds 3 (3. . u) is some external force field acting on particles of dust matter.

For the sake of simplicity we consider dust cloud with identical particles. Fort this purpose we need to pass to continual limit in action functional (1. Combining these two equations.12) k=0 3 Fp . ACTION FUNCTIONAL FOR DUST MATTER. Each pair of fields u(i. r) and ν(i. Omitting details of how it was derived. 2003. Action functional for dust matter.§ 4. r) satisfies differential equations (3.A. r). 133 (3. r). We can derive mass and charge conservation laws from these equations.2) and (3. µ(r) = i=1 m(i) η(i. r) and its own scalar field of concentration ν(i.8).12). r) = c ν(i. Let’s study the dynamics of dust matter in electromagnetic field within framework of Lagrangian formalism. System of partial differential equations (3. r). Model of dust matter cam be generalized a little bit.4) for the number of particles.3) for j and µ are generalized as follows: n n j(r) = i=1 q(i) η(i.. Here η(i. we obtain a system of differential equations: 3 uk ∇k up = (3. mc 3 uk ∇k ν = −ν k=0 k=0 ∇k uk . For each sort of particles we define its own vector field u(i.12) yields complete description for the dynamics of dust cloud. We can consider mixture of particles of different sorts. § 4. 1997. r). r) u(i. Then formulas (3. . now we write CopyRight c Sharipov R.

134

CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . .

ultimate formula for action functional (1.8) in continual limit:
V2

S = −m
V1 V2

g(η, η)

− det g d4 r−

(4.1)

q − 2 c

g(η, A) − det g d4 r−
V1 V2 3 3

1 − 16π c

Fpk F pk
V1 p=0 k=0

− det g d4 r.

Instead of deriving formula (4.1) from (1.8) we shall verify this formula indirectly. For this purpose we shall derive dynamical equation (3.11) from principle of extremal action applied to action functional (4.1). For describing dust matter in (4.1) we have chosen vector field η(r) defined in (3.1). Other two fields u(r) and ν(r) can be expressed though vector field η(r): (4.2) c ν = |η| = g(η, η) , u= η . cν

Dealing with variation of vector field η(r) we should always remember that components of this field are not independent functions. They satisfy differential equation (3.4). In order to resolve tis equation (3.4) we use slightly modified version of theorem 10.1 from Chapter III. Theorem 4.1. Let M be some n-dimensional manifold, where n ≥ 2, equipped with metric gij . For each vector field η with zero

§ 4. ACTION FUNCTIONAL FOR DUST MATTER.

135

divergency with respect to metric connection
n

(4.3)
p=1

∇p η p = 0

there is skew-symmetric tensor field ϕ of type (2, 0) such that the following relationships are fulfilled
n

(4.4)

ηp =
q=1

∇q ϕpq .

Proof. Writing relationships (4.3), we use well-known formula for components of metric connection, see formula (11.3) in Chapter III. As a result we get
n n

∇p η p =
p=1 p=1 n n n

∂η p ∂η p + Γp η s = + ∂rp p=1 s=1 ps ∂rp p=1 g pk ∂gks ∂gps ∂gpk + − ∂rs ∂rp ∂rk ηs .

n

n

n

+

1 2 p=1 s=1

k=1

Note that last two derivatives of metric tensor in round brackets are canceled when we sum over indices p and k. This is because g pk is symmetric. Hence
n n

∇p η p = (4.5)
p=1 n p=1

1 ∂η p + p ∂r 2 p=1 s=1
n

n

n

n

g sk
k=1

∂gks p η = ∂rp

=

∂η p 1 ∂g + tr g −1 p ∂rp 2 p=1 ∂r p=1

ηp .

136

CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . .

For further transforming of this expression (4.5) we use well known formula for logarithmic derivative of determinant: (4.6) ∂ ln | det g| ∂g = tr g −1 p p ∂r ∂r .

Substituting (4.6) into (4.5), we transform (4.5) so that
n

(4.7)
p=1

∇p η =

p

1

n

∂(η p

| det g| p=1

| det g|) . ∂rp

Let’s carry out analogous calculations for right hand side of (4.4) taking into account skew symmetry of the field ϕpq and symmetry of connection components Γk . These calculations yield pq
n

(4.8)
q=1

∇q ϕ

pq

=

1 | det g|

n q=1

∂(ϕpq

| det g|) . ∂rq

Denote j p = | det g| η p and ψ pq = | det g| ϕpq . Now on the base of (4.7) and (4.8) it is easy to understand that proof of theorem 4.1 is reduced to theorem 10.1 from Chapter III. Remark. Generally speaking, theorem 10.2 has no direct generalization for the case of spaces with metric. It is generalized s only for metric spaces with zero curvature tensor Rkpq = 0. Let’s define deformation of the field η in a way similar to that we used for vector-potential A in § 1: (4.9) η p (r) = η p (r) + ε ζ p (r) + . . . . ˆ

ˆ Both fields η and η satisfy differential equation (3.4). Hence vector field ζ defined in (4.9) also satisfy this equation. Let’s

4) there is vector field h such that vector field ζ is given by formula 3 ζp = k=0 ∇k (η p hk − hp η k ).11) leads to the following expression for the field η: 3 (4. both satisfying differential equation (3.1) we use ˆ ˆ the following expansion for g(η. . we choose it in very special form as follows: (4.11) ϕpk = η p hk − hp η k . Theorem 4. .12) into action functional (4. 137 apply theorem 4. .1 to vector field ζ: 3 (4.2. However. When substituting (4. this can be any skew-symmetric tensor field. η) = g(η. Theorem 4. η) + ε g(η.1 does not specify tensor field ϕpk in (4. . ACTION FUNCTIONAL FOR DUST MATTER. η) : ˆ ˆ g(η.10) ζp = k=0 ∇k ϕpk .12) are chosen to be smooth functions being nonzero only within some restricted domain Ω in Minkowsky space. η) 3 3 ηp ∇k ϕpk + .§ 4. . For any two vector fields ζ and η. This choice can be motivated by the following theorem. ˆ Our choice (4. p=0 q=0 . where η = 0. Quantities hi (r) in (4.10). .12) η p (r) = η p (r) + ε ˆ k=0 ∇k (η p hk − hp η k ) + .

13) − εq c2 3 Ω p=0 k=0 3 up ∇k ϕpk − det g d4 r− Ap ∇k ϕpk Ω p=0 k=0 − det g d4 r + . .14) we obtain p=0 3 3 3 3 3 ∇k z k = k=0 p=0 k=0 up ∇k ϕpk + p=0 k=0 ∇k up ϕpk . z 3 are components of smooth vector field z. .1). Then in right hand side of (4. We have analogous power expansion for the expression under second integral in formula (4. For the action Sdef this yields 3 3 Sdef = S − ε m (4. In order to transform first integral in formula (4. z 1 .14) Ω k=0 ∇k z k − det g d4 r = ∂Ω g(z. . A) = g(η.1): 3 3 ˆ g(η. Substituting these two expansions into (4. . n) dV. .138 CHAPTER IV. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . In the space equipped with metric this formula is written as follows: 3 (4. A) + ε p=0 k=0 Ap ∇k ϕpk + . Here z 0 . Further in order to transform the above expression (4.2).13) we take z k = 3 up ϕpk . z 2 . . . while n is unit normal vector for the boundary of the domain Ω. .13) we use Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula. we take into account (4. .

.§ 4.11) for ϕpk into the above equality. ACTION FUNCTIONAL FOR DUST MATTER. In a similar way we transform second integral in (4. Let’s substitute formula (4.15) should vanish: 3 3 m∇k up + Ω p=0 k=0 q ∇k Ap ϕpk c2 − det g d4 r = 0. .14) vanishes since ϕpk do vanish on the boundary of Ω. Then it is transformed to the following one 3 3 m∇k up + Ω p=0 k=0 q ∇k Ap η p hk c2 − det g d4 r = . 139 Right hand side of (4. In whole for the action Sdef we get the following expression 3 3 Sdef = S + ε m (4. Extremity of action S means that linear part with respect to ε in formula (4. Hence we have the equality 3 3 up ∇k ϕpk Ω p=0 k=0 3 3 − det g d4 r = − Ω p=0 k=0 ∇k up ϕpk − det g d4 r.15) + εq c2 Ω p=0 k=0 3 3 ∇k up ϕpk − det g d4 r + ∇k Ap ϕpk Ω p=0 k=0 − det g d4 r + .13). .

which relate vector field η and vector field u: η p = c ν up . Since u is unit vector.2). It relates tensor of electromagnetic field and four-dimensional vectorpotential.17) just derived to its ultimate form we use the relationships (4. Therefore vanishing of integral (4.16) means vanishing of each summand in sum over index k in the expression under integration: 3 (4. Let’s exchange indices k and p in second integral. Now let’s take into account that in resulting equality hk = hk (r) are arbitrary smooth functions vanishing outside the domain Ω. In order to bring the equation (4. . c2 Here we used the relationship (11.5) from Chapter III.A. . 3 3 = Ω p=0 k=0 m∇k up + q ∇k Ap η k hp c2 − det g d4 r.17) p=0 m ∇k up − m ∇p uk + q Fkp η p = 0. . Thereafter integrals can be united into one integral: 3 3 m∇k up − m∇p uk + (4. 1997. we have 3 (4.140 CHAPTER IV. 2003.18) p=0 up ∇k up = 0. CopyRight c Sharipov R..16) Ω k=0 p=0 q ∇k Ap − c2 − q ∇p Ak η p hk c2 − det g d4 r = 0. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM .

4) has zero divergency. which we have derived earlier.1). η 1 = 0. EQUATIONS FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD.1. This functional describes dust cloud composed of particles with . Theorem 4.17) to the following form: 3 (4.4. Exercise 4. i. r1 . For any vector field η = 0 there exists some curvilinear coordinate system r0 . Equations for electromagnetic field. drn . dri−1 dri+1 . Exercise 4. § 5. . is satisfies differential equation (3. Exercise 4.4). .3 on rectification of vector field.19) p=0 up ∇p uk = q mc2 3 Fkp up . Prove that for any skew-symmetric tensor field ϕpq vector field η determined by formula (4.2. . r2 . we bring (4.14) for the space equipped with metric on the base of the following integral relationship in standard space Rn : ∂f (r) n d r= ∂ri Ω ∂Ω f (r) dr1 .1) for describing charged dust matter in electromagnetic field. Prove theorem 4.18). This result approves the use of the action (4. η 2 = 0. e. 141 Taking into account (4.3.19) exactly coincides with the equation (3. η 3 = 0 in this coordinate system. Derive Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula (4. For this purpose use the following fact known as theorem on rectification of vector field. p=0 Now it is easy to see that (4. Prove theorem 4. r3 such that η 0 = 1. Exercise 4.2.11). .§ 5. In this section we continue studying action functional (4.3.

Deformation of vector-potential is defined according to (1.1) we carry out the following calculations: 3 3 3 3 3 3 ˆ ˆ Fpk F pk = p=0 k=0 3 3 i=0 j=0 p=0 k=0 3 3 ˆ ˆ Fpk Fij g pi g kj = F pk (∇p hk − ∇k hp ) + . A) = g(η. . mass m and charge q in electromagnetic field. Analogous calculations in substituting (5.11). p=0 k=0 = p=0 k=0 Fpk F pk + 2 ε Taking into account skew symmetry of tensor F pk . this expansion can be simplified more and can be brought to the form 3 3 3 3 3 3 ˆ ˆ Fpk F pk = p=0 k=0 p=0 k=0 Fpk F pk + 4 ε p=0 k=0 F pk ∇p hk + . . (1.1) ˆ Ai (r) = Ai (r) + εhi (r) + . .12): (5. .142 CHAPTER IV. . . . . . In previous section we have found that applying extremal action principle to S with respect to the field η one can derive dynamical equations for velocity field in dust cloud. Now we shall apply extremal action principle to S with respect to vector-potential A. . LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . . . .2) into action functional (4. (1. (1.1) into (4.10). A) + ε k=0 η k hk + . . For components of tensor of electromagnetic field we derive (5. .9).1) yield 3 ˆ g(η. . .2) ˆ Fij = Fij + ε (∇i hj − ∇j hi ) + . When substituting (5.

. c .3) p=0 ∇p F pk = 4π q k η .1) we get εq c2 3 3 Sdef = S − ε 4π c 3 η k hk Ω k=0 − det g d4 r − − F pk ∇p hk Ω p=0 k=0 − det g d4 r + . EQUATIONS FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD. c Remember that η(r) is related to current density by means of (3. Note also that Ω is an arbitrary domain and hk (r) are arbitrary functions within Ω.§ 5. Extremal action principle means that linear in ε part of the above expansion for Sdef should vanish. . . 143 As a result for deformation of action functional (4.14). Let’s transform second integral in the above expansion for Sdef by means of Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula (4.3) can be written as 3 (5. Then for Sdef we get 3 Sdef = S + ε Ω k=0 − qη k ∇p F pk + 2 c 4π c p=0 3 hk − det g d4 r + . For this purpose 3 let’s choose z p = k=0 F pk hk and take into account vanishing of hk on the boundary of the domain Ω.2). . . Then (5.4) p=0 ∇p F kp = − 4π k j . This yield the following equations for the tensor of electromagnetic field: 3 (5. .

It is easy to see that (5.1. m(N ) and charges q(1).144 CHAPTER IV. .4) in Chapter III). Which form will have differential equations (5. .4) are exactly Maxwell equations written in four-dimensional form (see (11. LAGRANGIAN FORMALISM . . Another pair of Maxwell equations written in four-dimensional form 3 3 3 ω pqks ∇q Fks = 0 q=0 k=0 s=0 is a consequence of the relationship Fpq = ∇p Aq − ∇q Ap (see formula (11. .5) in Chapter III). Exercise 5. . .4) ? . .3) if we consider dust cloud composed by particles of several sorts with masses m(1). . . . q(N ) ? Will this change differential equations (5.

In four-dimensional formalism dynamics of material point is described by vectorial differential equations. ij Next step in this direction is quite natural. Due to this circumstance in previous two chapters we managed to include into consideration skew-angular and even curvilinear coordinate systems in Minkowsky space. metric connection components Γk . which is called Minkowsky metric. Thereby inertial coordinate systems are interpreted as orthonormal bases in Minkowsky metric. One should keep the shape of all equations and pass from flat Minkowsky metric . and covariant derivatives ∇i in all our equations. This space appears to be equipped with metric of signature (1.CHAPTER V GENERAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY § 1. we have constructed four-dimensional space of events (Minkowsky space). Transition to non-flat metrics and curved Minkowsky space. Having denoted r0 = ct and combining r0 with components of three-dimensional radius-vector in inertial coordinate system. Passing from classical electrodynamics to special theory of relativity. 3). while Maxwell equations for electromagnetic field are written in tensorial form. in previous two chapters we have successively geometrized many basic physical concepts. Thereby we got explicit entries of metric tensor components gij .

146

CHAPTER V. GENERAL RELATIVITY.

to metric of signature (1, 3) with nonzero curvature tensor: (1.1)
k Rqij = 3 3 ∂Γk ∂Γk jq iq − + Γk Γs − Γk Γs . is jq js iq ∂ri ∂rj s=0 s=0

This crucial step was first made by Einstein. Theory he had discovered in this way later was called Einstein’s theory of gravitation or general theory of relativity. Definition 1.1. Four-dimensional affine space equipped with orientation, polarization, and with metric of signature (1, 3) and nonzero curvature (1.1) is called curved Minkowsky space. In non-flat Minkowsky space we loose some structures available in flat case. In such space there are no coordinates for which Minkowsky metric is given by matrix (2.7) from Chapter III, i. e. here we have no inertial coordinate systems. This is substantial loss, but it is not catastrophic since dynamic equation for material points and Maxwell equations rewritten in vectorial and tensorial form are not bound to inertial coordinate systems. Geodesic lines in curved Minkowsky space do not coincide with affine straight lines. Therefore affine structure becomes excessive restriction in general relativity. As appears, one can give up topologic structure of flat space R4 as well. Even in two-dimensional case, as we know, apart from deformed (curved) plain, there are surfaces with more complicated topology: sphere, torus and sphere with several handles glued to it (see [5]). In multidimensional case these objects are generalized in concept of smooth manifold (see details in [2], [5], and [6]). Smooth manifold M of dimension n is a topologic space each point of which has a neighborhood (a chart) identical to some neighborhood of a point in Rn . In other words M is covered by a family of charts Uα , each of which is diffeomorphic to some open set Vα in Rn . Such chart maps (chart diffeomorphisms) define

§ 2. ACTION FOR GRAVITATIONAL FIELD.

147

local curvilinear coordinate systems within their chart domains Uα . At those points of manifold M , where two chart domains are overlapping, transition functions arise. They relate one curvilinear coordinate system with another: (1.2) ri = ri (r1 , . . . , rn ), where i = 1, . . . , n, ˜ ˜ ri = ri (˜1 , . . . , rn ), where i = 1, . . . , n. r ˜

According to definition of smooth manifold, transition functions (1.2) are smooth functions (of class C ∞ ). Transition functions determine transition matrices S and T : (1.3) Tji = ∂˜i r , ∂rj
i Sj =

∂ri . ∂˜j r

Presence of transition matrices (1.3) lead to full-scale theory of tensors, which is almost literally the same as theory of tensors for curvilinear coordinates in Rn (see [3]). The only difference is that here we cannot choose Cartesian coordinates at all. This is because in general there is no smooth diffeomorphic map from manifold M to Rn . Definition 1.1. Four-dimensional smooth manifold equipped with orientation, polarization, and with metric of signature (1, 3) is called generalized Minkowsky space or Minkowsky manifold. § 2. Action for gravitational field. Einstein equation. Space of events in general relativity is some smooth Minkowsky manifold M . This circumstance provides additional arbitrariness consisting in choosing M and in choosing metric on M . Nonzero curvature described by tensor (1.1) is interpreted as gravitational field. Gravitational field acts upon material bodies and upon
CopyRight c Sharipov R.A., 1997, 2003.

148

CHAPTER V. GENERAL RELATIVITY.

electromagnetic field enclosed within M . This action is due to the presence of covariant derivatives in dynamic equations. The magnitude of gravitational field itself should be determined by presence of matter in M in form of massive particles or in form of electromagnetic radiation, i. e. we should have backward relation between geometry of the space and its content. In order to describe backward relation between gravitational field and other physical fields we use Lagrangian formalism and extremal action principle. Let’s start from action functional (4.1) in Chapter IV. It is sum of three integrals: (2.1) S = Smat + Sint + Sel .

First integral Smat is responsible for material particles in form of dust cloud, second integral describes interaction of dust cloud and electromagnetic field, third term in (2.1) describes electromagnetic field itself. In order to describe gravitational field one more summand in (2.1) is added: (2.2) S = Sgr + Smat + Sint + Sel .

This additional term is chosen in the following form: (2.3) Sgr c3 =− 16πγ
V2

R
V1

− det g d4 r.

Here γ gravitational constant same as in Newton’s universal law of gravitation (see formula (1.11) in Chapter I). Scalar quantity R in (2.3) is scalar curvature determined by curvature tensor (1.1) according to the following formula:
3 3 3 k g qj Rqkj . q=0 k=0 j=0

(2.4)

R=

149 Ricci tensor is an intermediate object relating curvature tensor (1.1) and scalar quantity (2. Therefore we need not add special terms describing interaction of gravitational field with material particles and electromagnetic field.§ 2. Scalar curvature R is obtained by contracting Ricci tensor and metric tensor g qj with respect to both indices q and j. Note that sometimes in the action for gravitational field (2. Here are its components: 3 (2.6) g ij (r) = g ij (r) + ε hij (r) + . according to contemporary experimental data the value of this constant is undetectably small or maybe is exactly equal to zero. Moreover. Ricci tensor is symmetric (see [3]). Therefore further we shall use action Sgr in form of (2.3). Now let’s begin with deriving dynamical equations for gravitational field. This parameter is called cosmological constant. such additional terms could change the form of dynamical equations for matter and form of Maxwell equations for electromagnetic field thus contradicting our claim that these equations are the same in general and in special relativity.4). For this purpose we consider deformation of components of metric tensor given by the following relationship: (2. ACTION FOR GRAVITATIONAL FIELD.5) and (2. . This fact is obvious due to (2. Note also that metric tensor describing gravitational field enters in implicit form into all summand in (2. ˆ .3) one more constant parameter Λ is added: Sgr c3 =− 16πγ V2 (R + 2 Λ) V1 − det g d4 r. . .5) Rqj = k=0 k Rqkj .4). However.2).

3) in Chapter III): ij ε ˆ Γp = Γp + ij ij 2 3 g pk (∇i hkj + ∇j hik − ∇k hij ) + . .8) we calculate the following combination of derivatives: ∂ˆkj g ∂ˆik g ∂ˆij g ∂gkj ∂gik ∂gij + − = + − − ∂ri ∂rj ∂rk ∂ri ∂rj ∂rk (2.. ..7) and let’s express partial derivatives through covariant derivatives in resulting formula: ∂gij ∂hij ∂gij ∂ˆij g = −ε + . Now on the base of (2. k=0 . Functions hij (r) in (2. . . .9) − ε ∇i hkj + ∇j hik − ∇k hij − 2 p=0 3 Γp hpk ij + . Let’s differentiate the relationship (2..7) 3 3 = gij − ε p=0 q=0 gip hpq gqj + .150 CHAPTER V.. .6) and (2. = − ε ∇k hij + k k k ∂r ∂r ∂r ∂rk (2.8) in calculating deformation of connection components. .8) +ε p=0 3 3 Γp hpj + ε ki p=0 Γp hip + . Deformation of matrix g ij lead to deformation of inverse matrix gij : ˆ gij = gij − ε hij + . = (2.8) we used covariant derivatives corresponding to nondeformed metric gij . . . For this purpose let’s apply ˆ well-known formula to Γp (see formula (11. Let’s use the relationships (2. GENERAL RELATIVITY. . kj In (2. . .6) are assumed to be smooth functions vanishing outside some restricted domain Ω ⊂ M .

We multiply (2.10) p ˆ Γp = Γp + ε Yij + . 151 ˆ This expansion for Γp can be written in symbolic concise form ij (2.13) by gqj using formula (2.. This yields deformation of scalar curvature: 3 3 3 ˆ R=R+ε j=0 q=0 Rqj hqj + k=0 k k g qj (∇k Yjq − ∇j Ykq ) + . Upon contracting (2.6).1) for curvature tensor. . .§ 2. . .10) into the formula (1.12) k k k ˆk Rqij = Rqij + ε ∇i Yjq − ∇j Yiq + . ACTION FOR GRAVITATIONAL FIELD. . . k=0 Now let’s substitute the expansion (2.13) ˆ Rqj = Rqj + ε k=0 k k ∇k Yjq − ∇j Ykq + . . ij ij by introducing the following quite natural notation: (2. Then we carry out complete contraction with respect to both indices q and j.11) p Yij = 1 2 3 g pk (∇i hkj + ∇j hik − ∇k hij ) .. . Let’s introduce vector field with the following components: 3 3 j k Yjq g qj − Yjq g qk . . This yields (2.12) with respect to one pair of indices we get similar expansion for deformation of Ricci tensor: 3 (2. j=0 q=0 Zk = .

.. The number of terms in the sum (2. When substituting (2.3) we should note that second sum in (2.14) ˆ R=R+ε j=0 q=0 Rqj hqj + ε k=0 ∇k Z k + . Components of Z are smooth functions vanishing outside the domain Ω. It follows from (2. This follows from Ostrogradsky-Gauss formula (see (4.6). denotes overall action for all material fields other than gravitation.2) in explicit form.14) in Chapter IV). Therefore integral of such sum is equal to zero: 3 ∇k Z k Ω k=0 − det g d4 r = ∂Ω g(Z. we introduce notation (2.16) Sm. = Smat + Sint + Sel .152 CHAPTER V. n) dV = 0. .16) could be much . GENERAL RELATIVITY. Here Sm.15) − det g = ˆ − det g 1−ε j=0 q=0 gqj hqj 2 + . In deriving this formula we also used the following expansion: 3 3 (2.f..14) is exactly covariant divergency of vector field Z. . . ˆ Then we can rewrite deformation of scalar curvature R as 3 3 3 (2. Hence for deformation of Sgr we get Sdef = Sgr − ε c3 16πγ 3 3 Rqj − Ω j=0 q=0 R gqj hqj 2 − det g d4 r + . . .14) into action integral (2. This will be done in § 4 and § 5 below. However. .f. Now we shall not calculate deformations of other three terms in (2.

. Derive the relationships (2.18) is called energy-momentum tensor for material fields. . Energy-momentum tensor is related with 4-momentum conservation law for material fields. Tensor T in right hand side of Einstein equation (2. . 2 c This equation (2. if one consider more complicated models for describing matter. Four-dimensional momentum conservation law for fields. In the model of dust matter in electromagnetic field tensor T is composed of three parts (see formula (2. 153 more than three.1. .6) for deformation of tensor g ij .1) p p p ∇k Rsij + ∇i Rsjk + ∇j Rski = 0.17) and comprises contributions from all material fields and their interactions.2) is written as (2.18) Rqj − R 8πγ gqj = 4 Tqj . Now we shall write deformation of the action (2.16) in the following conditional form: (2. Exercise 2. It is determined by the relationship (2. In order to derive this conservation law we use well-known Bianchi identity: (3.18) is known as Einstein equation.§ 3.f. . It is basic equation describing dynamics of metric tensor gij in general theory of relativity.15) from the expansion (2. But in any case action of gravitational field is excluded from this sum since gravitational field plays exceptional role in general relativity. . + ε 2c 3 3 Tqj hqj Ω q=0 j=0 − det g d4 r + .7) and (2. CONSERVATION LAW .17) Sdef = Sm.16)). § 3. Then extremity condition for total action (2.

.1) can be found in [2] and [6]. The equation (3. More details concerning Bianchi identity (3.5) expresses 4-momentum conservation law for the whole variety of material fields.6) is unessential.3) and (3. Let’s multiply (3.3) 1 s ∇s Rk − ∇k R = 0.154 CHAPTER V. 2 s=0 3 Now let’s raise index j in the equation (2.2) ∇k Rsj + p=0 p ∇p Rsjk − ∇j Rsk = 0.4) 8πγ 1 j ∇j Rq − ∇q R = 4 2 c j=0 3 3 j ∇j Tq . It is usually written in the following form with raised index q: 3 (3. Energy-momentum tensor is symmetric therefore the order of indices q and j in (3.5) j=0 j ∇j Tq = 0. Here we used skew symmetry of curvature tensor with respect to last pair of indices (see [3]). Let’s contract this identity with respect to i and p: 3 (3. 2003. we get the following equation for energy-momentum tensor of material fields: 3 (3. j=0 Comparing (3.4).18).2) by g sj and contract it with respect to double indices s and j.A. CopyRight c Sharipov R. . GENERAL RELATIVITY.6) j=0 ∇j T qj = 0. Upon slight ps sp transformation based on skew symmetry Rij = −Rij we get (3. 1997. then apply covariant differentiation ∇j and contract with respect to double index j: (3.

Basic fields in the action Sel are covariant components of vectorpotential Ai (r).5) in Chapter III). . 155 § 4. ENERGY-MOMENTUM TENSOR . . Energy-momentum tensor for electromagnetic field. Ultimate expression in right hand side of (4.§ 4. . .2) has no entry of connection components Γk . Covariant components of tensor of electromagnetic field are defined by formula (4. . . . for contravariant components F pq of tensor of electromagnetic field we derive the expansion 3 3 (4.2) Fij = ∇i Aj − ∇j Ai = ∂Aj ∂Ai − j i ∂r ∂r (see also formula (11. By analogy with (2. Therefore covariant components Fij are not changed by ij deformation of metric (2. .6). Energy-momentum tensor for whole variety of material fields is defined by the relationship (2.17). using this formula.3) ˆ F pk = F pk + ε i=0 j=0 (hpi g kj + g pi hkj ) Fij + . Upon raising indices we get 3 3 ˆ F pk = i=0 j=0 g pi g kj Fij ˆ ˆ and. .17) we define energy-momentum tensor for electromagnetic field: ε 2c 3 3 (4.1) Sdef = Sel + Tqj hqj Ω q=0 j=0 − det g d4 r + .

.4).6) s=0 ∇s T ps = − 1 c 3 F ps js . ˆ Substituting F pk and g into action functional Sel .156 CHAPTER V. . we derive formula Sdef = Sel − ε 16π c 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 2 Fpq g pi Fij − − p=0 i=0 Ω q=0 j=0 3 Fpi F pi gqj hqj p=0 i=0 − det g d4 r + . s=0 .4) Tqj = − 1 4π 3 3 p=0 i=0 1 Fpq g pi Fij − Fpi F pi gqj . Comparing this actual expansion with expected expansion (4. taking into account (4. for contravariant components of energy-momentum tensor T we derive (4. we get ˆ Sdef 1 =− 16π c V2 3 3 ˆ Fpk F pk V1 p=0 k=0 − det g d4 r ˆ Then. we find components of energy-momentum tensor for electromagnetic field in explicit form: (4.1) for Sdef .5) T qj = − 1 4π 3 3 p=0 i=0 1 F pq gpi F ij − Fpi F pi g qj . 4 Raising indices q and j in (4. 4 By means of formula (4.5) one can calculate covariant divergency for energy-momentum tensor of electromagnetic field: 3 (4.3) and (2.15). . GENERAL RELATIVITY.

4) in Chapter IV.6) shows that 4-momentum conservation law for separate electromagnetic field is not fulfilled.5) in inertial coordinate system for flat Minkowsky metric. dust matter. ENERGY-MOMENTUM TENSOR . Exercise 4.5) and (2. Verify the relationship (4.1) p=0 ∇p η p = 0. Exercise 4. Energy-momentum tensor for dust matter. Therefore by deformation of metric gij → gij one cannot ˆ treat η p as metric independent quantities.2. For this purpose use well-known formula for commutator of covariant derivatives 3 (∇i ∇j − ∇i ∇j )Ak = − s=0 s Rkij As and properties of curvature tensor (see details in [3]). Metric tensor gij enters differential equation (5. . and with vector of energy flow for electromagnetic field (see formulas (2. § 5. see (3. with density of energy. Compare them with components of Maxwell tensor. . Let’s consider energy-momentum tensor related with last two terms Smat and Sint in the action (2. They contain entries of vector field η whose components satisfy differential equation 3 (5.6).15) in Chapter II). .1. This is due to momentum exchange between electromagnetic field and other forms of matter. g. This circumstance differs them from components of vector-potential A.§ 5.16). 157 Formula (4. Calculate components of energy-momentum tensor (4.1) through connection components Γk of metric conij nection. e.

∂rp ˆ Denote η p = η p − det g .2) p=0 ∂ ηp ˆ = 0. As a result we get formula V2 3 3 (5. for action functional Sint describing ˆ interaction of dust matter and electromagnetic field we get (5. ∂rp Expressing η p through η p . GENERAL RELATIVITY.3) Sint q =− 2 c V2 3 η p Ap d4 r. In order to find truly metric independent variables for dust matter we use formula (4. ˆ Now let’s express η p through η p in action functional Smat for dust matter.1) as follows: 3 p=0 ∂(η p − det g ) ˆ = 0.7) from Chapter IV and rewrite differential equation (5.3) does not depend on metric tensor. ˆ V1 p=0 It is easy to see that integral (5. Therefore action functional Sint makes no contribution to overall energy-momentum tensor. These quantities η p can be treated as ˆ metric independent ones since differential constraint for them is written in form of the equation that does not contain metric: 3 (5.158 CHAPTER V. ˆ ˆ The dependence of this functional on metric tensor is completely determined by explicit entry of gpq under square root sign in right .4) Smat = −m V1 p=0 q=0 gpq η p η q d4 r.

ENERGY-MOMENTUM TENSOR . η) = mc g(η.6) T pq = mc η p η q g(η.7) T pk = mc up η k .7): Sdef = Smat + ε 2 Ω 3 3 m ηp ηq g(η.8) s=0 ∇s T ps = q c 3 F ps ηs . we can bring formula (5. η) up uq . .1) in Chapter IV) and recalling that u is unit vector.4). By this comparison we find explicit formula for components of energy-momentum tensor for dust matter: (5. . . Contravariant components of energy-momentum tensor (5. Therefore power extension for Smat is easily calculated on the base of the expansion (2. .§ 5. .7) is convenient for calculating covariant divergency of energy-momentum tensor for dust matter: 3 (5. . s=0 . p=0 q=0 Let’s compare this expansion with expected expansion for Sdef : Sdef = Smat + ε 2c 3 3 Tpq hpq Ω p=0 q=0 − det g d4 r + . Using collinearity of vectors u and η (see formula (3.6) to the following simple form: (5.5) are obtained by raising indices p and q: (5. η) = mc g(η. η) hpq − det g d4 r + . η) up uq .5) Tpq = mc ηp ηq g(η. 159 hand side of (5. Formula (5. . .

19) from Chapter IV. where Einstein equation (2.8) on the base of equations (3.9) s=0 ∇s T ps 1 = c 3 F ps js .f.160 CHAPTER V.9). This fact has transparent interpretation.8) and write it as follows: 3 (5. § 6.6) for energymomentum tensor of electromagnetic field. Exercise 5. Therefore this law is valid also in special relativity. s=0 Let’s compare (5.6) and (5. GENERAL RELATIVITY. This metric is determined by material content of the space according to Einstein equation (2. Concluding remarks. topology of the manifold M has great deal of arbitrariness.18). is that 4-momentum conservation law for the whole variety of material fields can be derived from dynamical equations for these fields. we can transform formula (5.1.4) and (4. It means that in our model the overall energymomentum tensor for matter Tm.6). = Tmat + Tel satisfies differential equation (3. which follows from of (4. This manifold can have local singularities at the points with extremely high concentration of . Now.2) from Chapter IV. 3). This fact is in complete agreement with 4-momentum conservation law. Another important conclusion. However. Derive the relationship (5.9) with analogous formula (4. Event space in general theory of relativity is some Minkowsky manifold M with Minkowsky metric of signature (1.18) is not considered and where in general case for flat Minkowsky metric it is not fulfilled. applying formula (3. Right hand sides of these two formulas differ only in sign.

A. In further evolution our Universe was expanding up to its present size. However. Moreover. CopyRight c Sharipov R. According to these models in far past times our Universe M was extremely small. Such objects are called black holes. CONCLUDING REMARKS. [7]. while density of matter in it was extremely high. 2003.§ 6. . I would like also to recommend the book [9] of popular genre. where these problems are discussed in commonly understandable and intriguing manner.. g. 161 matter. Will this expansion last infinitely long or it will change for contraction ? This problem is not yet solved. The answer to this question depends on estimates of total amount of matter in the Universe. global topology of M also can be nontrivial (other than topology of R4 ). 1997. In contemporary physics most popular models of M include big bang in the very beginning of times. I think the above theoretical material makes sufficient background for to continue studying these problems e. and [8]. In this book we cannot consider all these fascinating problems of modern astrophysics and cosmology. in books [2].

N. Fomenko A. Ufa. Vladimirov V. 1963. Nauka publishers. 1980. Bliznyakov N. I. 5. Sharipov R. 2. Moscow. 1986. Dubrovin B. Fomenko T. Kobayashi Sh.. S. Davis P. Course of differential geometry. A.. London. A. Field theory. 1984. Modern geometry. Equations of mathematical physics.. New York. Publication of Bashkir State University.. Bogoyavlensky O. 1988. Nauka publishers. 8. Superforce. 9. Introduction to topology. M. Borisovich Yu. T. vol.. Moscow.REFERENCES 1. Foundations of differential geometry. Ufa. Methods of qualitative theory of dynamical systems in astrophysics and in gas dynamics.. A. P. II. Nauka publishers. I. Symon and Schuster publishers. Lifshits E. Interscience publishers. Sharipov R.. G. 1996. New York. Moscow. 3. 6. 1981. A. Publication of Bashkir State University. Moscow. Course of linear algebra and multidimensional geometry. Nomizu K. The search for a grand unified theory of nature. 1995. M. 1996. 4. vol. Izrailevich Ya. Landau L. Nauka publishers. . Nauka publishers. Course of theoretical physics. D. Novikov S. Moscow. 7.

com . Rabochaya street 5.ru r-sharipov@mail. Sharipov. Math. Sharipov. 450074. Ufa.ru ra sharipov@hotmail. Ufa. Department. Frunze street 32.CONTACTS Address: Ruslan A. Bashkortostan. Bashkortostan.bashedu. 450003. Russia Phone: 7-(3472)-23-67-18 7-(3472)-23-67-74 (FAX) Home address: Ruslan A. Bashkir State University. Russia E-mails: R Sharipov@ic.

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