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P. 1

Classical Mechanics - Marion, Thornton5.0

|Views: 6,255|Likes: 28Published by FRANCISCO C.N. SANTOS

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01/05/2016

text

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- Particle Kinematics
- 1.1 Introduction
- 1.2 Single Particle Kinematics
- 1.2.1 Motion in conﬁguration space
- 1.2.2 Conserved Quantities
- 1.3 Systems of Particles
- 1.3.1 External and internal forces
- 1.3.2 Constraints
- Systems
- 1.3.4 Kinetic energy in generalized coordinates
- 1.4 Phase Space
- 1.4.1 Dynamical Systems
- 1.4.2 Phase Space Flows
- 2.1 Lagrangian Mechanics
- 2.1.1 Derivation for unconstrained systems
- 2.1.2 Lagrangian for Constrained Systems
- 2.1.3 Hamilton’s Principle
- 2.1.4 Examples of functional variation
- 2.1.5 Conserved Quantities
- 2.1.6 Hamilton’s Equations
- 2.1.7 Velocity-dependent forces
- Two Body Central Forces
- 3.1 Reduction to a one dimensional prob-
- 3.1.1 Reduction to a one-body problem
- 3.1.2 Reduction to one dimension
- 3.2 Integrating the motion
- 3.2.1 The Kepler problem
- 3.2.2 Nearly Circular Orbits
- 3.3 The Laplace-Runge-Lenz Vector
- 3.4 The virial theorem
- 3.5 Rutherford Scattering
- Rigid Body Motion
- 4.1 Conﬁguration space for a rigid body
- 4.1.1 Orthogonal Transformations
- 4.1.2 Groups
- 4.2 Kinematics in a rotating coordinate
- 4.3 The moment of inertia tensor
- 4.3.1 Motion about a ﬁxed point
- 4.3.2 More General Motion
- 4.4 Dynamics
- 4.4.1 Euler’s Equations
- 4.4.2 Euler angles
- 4.4.3 The symmetric top
- Small Oscillations
- 5.1 Small oscillations about stable equi-
- 5.1.1 Molecular Vibrations
- 5.1.2 An Alternative Approach
- 5.2 Other interactions
- 5.3 String dynamics
- 5.4 Field theory
- Hamilton’s Equations
- 6.1 Legendre transforms
- 6.2 Variations on phase curves
- 6.3 Canonical transformations
- 6.4 Poisson Brackets
- 6.5 Higher Diﬀerential Forms
- 6.6 The natural symplectic 2-form
- 6.6.1 Generating Functions
- 6.7 Hamilton–Jacobi Theory
- 6.8 Action-Angle Variables
- Perturbation Theory
- 7.1 Integrable systems
- 7.2 Canonical Perturbation Theory
- 7.2.1 Time Dependent Perturbation Theory
- 7.3 Adiabatic Invariants
- 7.3.1 Introduction
- 7.3.2 For a time-independent Hamiltonian
- 7.3.3 Slow time variation in H(q,p,t)
- 7.3.4 Systems with Many Degrees of Freedom
- 7.3.5 Formal Perturbative Treatment
- 7.4 Rapidly Varying Perturbations
- 7.5 New approach
- Field Theory
- 8.1 Noether’s Theorem
- ijk and cross products
- A.1 Vector Operations
- A.1.1 δij and ijk
- The gradient operator

In section 6.1 we discussed a reinterpretation of the diﬀerential* df* as an

example of a more general diﬀerential 1-form, a map* ω* :*M×**R*n

*→**R*.

We saw that the* {**dx*i** }** provide a basis for these forms, so the general

1-form can be written as* ω* = i*ω*i(*x*)*dx*i. The diﬀerential* df* gave an

example. We deﬁned an exact 1-form as one which is a diﬀerential of

some well-deﬁned function* f*. What is the condition for a 1-form to be

exact? If* ω* = *ω*i*dx*i is* df*, then* ω*i =* ∂f/∂x*i =* f*,i, and

*ω*i,j =* ∂ω*i

*∂x*j

=* ∂*2

*f
*

*∂x*i*∂x*j

=* ∂*2

*f
*

*∂x*j*∂x*i

=* ω*j,i*.
*

Thus one necessary condition for* ω* to be exact is that the combination

*ω*j,i*−**ω*i,j = 0. We will deﬁne a 2-form to be the set of these objects

which must vanish. In fact, we deﬁne a diﬀerential k-form to be a

map

*ω*(k)

:*M×**R*n

*×···×**R*n

k times

*→**R
*

which is linear in its action on each of the*R*n

and totally antisymmetric

in its action on the* k* copies, and is a smooth function of* x ∈M*. At a

*6.5. HIGHER DIFFERENTIAL FORMS
*

161

given point, a basis of the* k*-forms is3

*dx*i1*∧**dx*i2*∧···∧**dx*ik :=

P∈Sk

(** −**1)P

*dx*iP 1*⊗**dx*iP 2*⊗···⊗**dx*iP k*.
*

For example, in three dimensions there are three independent 2-forms

at a point,* dx*1* ∧**dx*2,* dx*1* ∧**dx*3, and* dx*2* ∧**dx*3, where* dx*1* ∧**dx*2 =

*dx*1* ⊗**dx*2* −**dx*2* ⊗**dx*1, which means that, acting on* u* and* v*,* dx*1* ∧
*

*dx*2(* u, v*) =* u*1*v*2*−**u*2*v*1. The product** ∧** is called the wedge product

or exterior product, and can be extended to act between* k*1- and

*k*2-forms so that it becomes an associative distributive product. Note

that this deﬁnition of a* k*-form agrees, for* k* = 1, with our previous

deﬁnition, and for* k* = 0 tells us a 0-form is simply a function on** M**.

The general expression for a* k*-form is

*ω*(k)

=

i1<...

*ω*i1...ik(*x*)*dx*i1*∧···∧**dx*ik*.
*

Let us consider some examples in three dimensional Euclidean space

*E*3

, where there is a correspondance we can make between vectors and

1- and 2-forms. In this discussion we will not be considering how the

objects change under changes in the coordinates of* E*3

, to which we will

return later.

*k* = 0: As always, 0-forms are simply functions,* f*(*x*),* x ∈E*3

.

*k* = 1: A 1-form* ω* = *ω*i*dx*i can be thought of, or associated with, a

vector ﬁeld*
*

*A*(*x*) = *ω*i(*x*)ˆ*e*i. Note that if* ω* =* df*,* ω*i =* ∂f/∂x*i,

so*
*

*A* =*
*

* **f*.

*k* = 2: A general two form is a sum over the three independent wedge

products with independent functions* B*12(*x*)*,B*13(*x*)*,B*23(*x*). Let

3

Some explanation of the mathematical symbols might be in order here. Sk is the

group of permutations on k objects, and (** −**1)P

is the sign of the permutation P,

which is plus or minus one if the permutation can be built from an even or an odd

number, respectively, of transpositions of two of the elements. The tensor product

** ⊗**of two linear operators into a ﬁeld is a linear operator which acts on the product

space, or in other words a bilinear operator with two arguments. Here dxi

an operator on

*×**R*n

which maps the pair of vectors ( u, v) to uivj.

162

*CHAPTER 6. HAMILTON’S EQUATIONS
*

us extend the deﬁnition of* B*ij to make it an antisymmetric ma-

trix, so

*B* =

i

*B*ij*dx*i*∧**dx*j =

i,j

*B*ij*dx*i*⊗**dx*j*.
*

As we did for the angular velocity matrix Ω in (4.2), we can

condense the information in the antisymmetric matrix* B*ij into

a vector ﬁeld*
*

*B* = *B*iˆ*e*i, with* B*ij = * *ijk*B*k. Note that this

step requires that we are working in* E*3

rather than some other

dimension. Thus* B* = ijk* *ijk*B*k*dx*i*⊗**dx*j.

*k* = 3: There is only one basis 3-form available in three dimensions,

*dx*1* ∧**dx*2* ∧**dx*3. Any other 3-form is proportional to this one,

and in particular* dx*i*∧**dx*j*∧**dx*k =* *ijk*dx*1*∧**dx*2*∧**dx*3. The most

general 3-form* C* is simply speciﬁed by an ordinary function* C*(*x*),

which multiplies* dx*1*∧**dx*2*∧**dx*3.

Having established, in three dimensions, a correspondance between

vectors and 1- and 2-forms, and between functions and 0- and 3-forms,

we can ask to what the wedge product corresponds in terms of these

vectors. If*
*

*A* and*
*

*C* are two vectors corresponding to the 1-forms* A* =

*A*i*dx*i and* C* = *C*i*dx*i, and if* B* =* A ∧C*, then

ij

*A*i*C*j*dx*i*∧**dx*j =

ij

(*A*i*C*j*−**A*j*C*i)*dx*i*⊗**dx*j =

ij

*B*ij*dx*i*⊗**dx*j*,
*

so* B*ij =* A*i*C*j*−**A*j*C*i, and

*B*k = 1

2

* *kij*B*ij = 1

2

* *kij*A*i*C*j** −** 1

2

* *kij*A*j*C*i =

* *kij*A*i*C*j*,
*

so

*
B* =

*A ×
*

*C,
*

and the wedge product of two 1-forms is the cross product of their

vectors.

If* A* is a 1-form and* B* is a 2-form, the wedge product* C* =* A ∧B* =

*C*(*x*)*dx*1*∧**dx*2*∧**dx*3 is given by

*C* =* A ∧B* =

i

j

*A*i* B*jk

* *jk *B*

*dx*i*∧**dx*j*∧**dx*k

* *ijk*dx*1*∧**dx*2*∧**dx*3

*6.5. HIGHER DIFFERENTIAL FORMS
*

163

=

i

*A*i*B*

j

* *jk * *ijk

symmetric under* j ↔k
*

*dx*1*∧**dx*2*∧**dx*3

= 1

2

i

*A*i*B*

jk

* *jk * *ijk*dx*1*∧**dx*2*∧**dx*3 =

i

*A*i*B* *δ*i *dx*1*∧**dx*2*∧**dx*3

=*
*

*A ·
*

*Bdx*1*∧**dx*2*∧**dx*3*,
*

so we see that the wedge product of a 1-form and a 2-form gives the

dot product of their vectors.

The exterior derivative

We deﬁned the diﬀerential of a function* f*, which we now call a 0-

form, giving a 1-form* df* = *f*,i*dx*i. Now we want to generalize the

notion of diﬀerential so that* d* can act on* k*-forms for arbitrary* k*. This

generalized diﬀerential

*d* :* k*-forms** →**(

is called the exterior derivative. It is deﬁned to be linear and to act

on one term in the sum over basis elements by

*d*(*f*i1...ik(*x*)*dx*i1* ∧···∧**dx*ik) = (*df*i1...ik(*x*))*∧**dx*i1*∧···∧**dx*ik

=

j

*f*i1...ik,j*dx*j*∧**dx*i1*∧···∧**dx*ik*.
*

Clearly some examples are called for, so let us look again at three

dimensional Euclidean space.

*k* = 0: For a 0-form* f*,* df* = *f*,i*dx*i, as we deﬁned earlier. In terms

of vectors,* df ∼
*

* **f*.

*k* = 1: For a 1-form* ω* = *ω*i*dx*i,* dω* = i*dω*i*∧**dx*i = ij* ω*i,j*dx*j*∧
*

*dx*i = ij (*ω*j,i*−**ω*i,j)*dx*i*⊗**dx*j, corresponding to a two form with

*B*ij =* ω*j,i* −**ω*i,j. These* B*ij are exactly the things which must

vanish if* ω* is to be exact. In three dimensional Euclidean space,

we have a vector*
*

*B* with components* B*k = 1

2

* *kij(*ω*j,i*−**ω*i,j) =

* *kij*∂*i*ω*j = (*
*

* ×** ω*)k, so here the exterior derivative of a 1-form

gives a curl,*
*

*B* =*
*

* ×** ω*.

164

*CHAPTER 6. HAMILTON’S EQUATIONS
*

*k* = 2: On a two form* B* = i*dx*i*∧**dx*j, the exterior derivative

gives a 3-form* C* =* dB* = k

i*dx*k*∧**dx*i*∧**dx*j. In three-

dimensional Euclidean space, this reduces to

*C* =

k

i

(*∂*k* *ij *B* )* *kij*dx*1*∧**dx*2*∧**dx*3 =

k

*∂*k*B*k*dx*1*∧**dx*2*∧**dx*3*,
*

so* C*(*x*) =*
*

* ·**
*

*B*, and the exterior derivative on a 2-form gives the

divergence of the corresponding vector.

*k* = 3: If* C* is a 3-form,* dC* is a 4-form. In three dimensions there

cannot be any 4-forms, so* dC* = 0 for all such forms.

We can summarize the action of the exterior derivative in three dimen-

sions in this diagram:

*f
*

*ω*(1)

*∼**
A
*

*ω*(2)

*∼**
B
*

*ω*(3)

¹

¹

¹

*d
*

*d
*

*d
*

* **f
*

* ×**A
*

* ·**B
*

Now that we have* d* operating on all* k*-forms, we can ask what

happens if we apply it twice. Looking ﬁrst in three dimenions, on a 0-

form we get* d*2

*f* =* dA* for*
*

*A ∼ f*, and

*f ∼ × f*.

But the curl of a gradient is zero, so* d*2

= 0 in this case. On a one form

*d*2

*A* =* dB*,*
*

*B ∼ ×
*

*A* and* dB ∼ ·B* =

*A*). Now we have

the divergence of a curl, which is also zero. For higher forms in three

dimensions we can only get zero because the degree of the form would

be greater than three. Thus we have a strong hint that* d*2

might vanish

in general. To verify this, we apply* d*2

to* ω*(k)

= *ω*i1...ik*dx*i1*∧···∧**dx*ik.

Then

*dω* =

j

i1

(*∂*j*ω*i1...ik)*dx*j*∧**dx*i1*∧···∧**dx*ik

*d*(*dω*) =

j

i1

(* ∂* *∂*j

symmetric

*ω*i1...ik)* dx* *∧**dx*j

antisymmetric

*∧**dx*i1*∧···∧**dx*ik

= 0*.
*

This is a very important result. A* k*-form which is the exterior deriva-

tive of some (*k −*1)-form is called exact, while a

*6.5. HIGHER DIFFERENTIAL FORMS
*

165

derivative vanishes is called closed, and we have just proven that all

exact* k*-forms are closed.

The converse is a more subtle question. In general, there are* k*-

forms which are closed but not exact, given by harmonic functions

on the manifold** M**, which form what is known as the cohomology of

locally every closed form can be written as an exact one.4

The precisely

stated theorem, known as Poincar´e’s Lemma, is that if* ω* is a closed

*k*-form on a coordinate neighborhood* U* of a manifold* M*, and if* U
*

is contractible to a point, then* ω* is exact on* U*. We will ignore the

possibility of global obstructions and assume that we can write closed

*k*-forms in terms of an exterior derivative acting on a (*k −*1)-form.

Coordinate independence of* k*-forms

We have introduced forms in a way which makes them appear depen-

dent on the coordinates* x*i used to describe the space** M**. This is not

what we want at all5

. We want to be able to describe physical quan-

tities that have intrinsic meaning independent of a coordinate system.

If we are presented with another set of coordinates* y*j describing the

same physical space, the points in this space set up a mapping, ideally

an isomorphism, from one coordinate space to the other,* y* =* y*(* x*). If

a function represents a physical ﬁeld independent of coordinates, the

actual function* f*(*x*) used with the* x* coordinates must be replaced by

4

An example may be useful. In two dimensions, the 1-form ω =** −**yr−2

dx +

xr−2

dy satisﬁes dω = 0 wherever it is well deﬁned, but it is not well deﬁned at the

origin. Locally, we can write ω = dθ, where θ is the polar coordinate. But θ is

not, strictly speaking, a function on the plane, even on the plane with the origin

removed, because it is not single-valued. It is a well deﬁned function on the plane

with a half axis removed, which leaves a simply-connected region, a region with no

holes. In fact, this is the general condition for the exactness of a 1-form — a closed

1-form on a simply connected manifold is exact.

5

Indeed, most mathematical texts will ﬁrst deﬁne an abstract notion of a vector

in the tangent space as a directional derivative operator, speciﬁed by equivalence

classes of parameterized paths on** M**. Then 1-forms are deﬁned as duals to these

vectors. In the ﬁrst step any coordinatization of

basis of the vector space

. While this provides an elegant coordinate-independent

way of deﬁning the forms, the abstract nature of this deﬁnition of vectors can be

unsettling to a physicist.

166

*CHAPTER 6. HAMILTON’S EQUATIONS
*

another function ˜

*f*(*y*) when using the* y* coordinates. That they both de-

scribe the physical value at a given physical point requires* f*(*x*) = ˜

*f*(*y*)

when* y* =* y*(*x*), or more precisely6

*f*(*x*) = ˜

*f*(*y*(*x*)). This associated

function and coordinate system is called a scalar ﬁeld.

If we think of the diﬀerential* df* as the change in* f* corresponding

to an inﬁnitesimal change* dx*, then clearly* d*˜

*f* is the same thing in

diﬀerent coordinates, provided we understand the* dy*i to represent the

same physical displacement as* dx* does. That means

*dy*k =

j

*∂y*k

*∂x*j

*dx*j*.
*

As* f*(*x*) = ˜

*f*(*y*(*x*)) and ˜

*f*(*y*) =* f*(*x*(*y*)), the chain rule gives

*∂f
*

*∂x*i

=

j

*∂* ˜

*f
*

*∂y*j

*∂y*j

*∂x*i

*, ∂* ˜

*f
*

*∂y*j

=

i

*∂f
*

*∂x*i

*∂x*i

*∂y*j

*,
*

so

*d*˜

*f* =

k

*∂* ˜

*f
*

*∂y*k

*dy*k =

ijk

*∂f
*

*∂x*i

*∂x*i

*∂y*k

*∂y*k

*∂x*j

*dx*j

=

ij

*∂f
*

*∂x*i

*δ*ij*dx*j =

i

*f*,i*dx*i =* df.
*

We impose this transformation law in general on the coeﬃcients in our

*k*-forms, to make the* k*-form invariant, which means that the coeﬃcients

are covariant,

˜*ω*j =

i

*∂x*i

*∂y*j

*ω*i

˜*ω*j1...jk =

i1,i2,...,ik

k

=1

*∂x*i

*∂y*jl

*ω*i1...ik*.
*

6

More elegantly, giving the map x** →** y the name φ, so y = φ(x), we can state

the relation as f = ˜

f** ◦**φ.

*6.5. HIGHER DIFFERENTIAL FORMS
*

167

Integration of* k*-forms

Suppose we have a* k*-dimensional smooth “surface”* S* in** M**, parame-

terized by coordinates (*u*1*, ···,u*k). We deﬁne the integral of a

*ω*(k)

=

i1<...

*ω*i1...ik*dx*i1*∧···∧**dx*ik

over* S* by

S

*ω*(k)

=

i1,i2,...,ik

*ω*i1...ik(*x*(*u*))

k

=1

*∂x*i

*∂u*

*du*1*du*2*···**du*k*.
*

We had better give some examples. For* k* = 1, the “surface” is

actually a path Γ :* u →x*(

Γ

*ω*i*dx*i =

umax

umin

*ω*i(*x*(*u*))*∂x*i

*∂u du,
*

which seems obvious. In vector notation this is Γ

*
A · d r*, the path

integral of the vector*
A*.

For* k* = 2,

S

*ω*(2)

=

* B*ij

*∂x*i

*∂u
*

*∂x*j

*∂v dudv.
*

In three dimensions, the parallelogram which is the image of the rect-

angle [*u,u*+*du*]** ×**[

has an area equal to the magnitude of

“*d
*

*S*” =

*∂ x
*

*∂u × ∂ x
∂v
*

*dudv
*

and a normal in the direction of “*d
*

*S*”. Writing* B*ij in terms of the

corresponding vector*
*

*B*,* B*ij =* *ijk*B*k, so

S

*ω*(2)

=

S

* *ijk*B*k

*∂ x
∂u
*

i

*∂ x
∂v
*

j

*dudv
*

=

S

*B*k

*∂ x
*

*∂u × ∂ x
∂v
*

k

*dudv* =

S

*
B ·d
*

*S,
*

168

*CHAPTER 6. HAMILTON’S EQUATIONS
*

so * ω*(2)

gives the ﬂux of*
*

*B* through the surface.

Similarly for* k* = 3 in three dimensions,

* *ijk

*∂ x
∂u
*

i

*∂ x
∂v
*

j

*∂ x
∂w
*

k

*dudvdw
*

is the volume of the parallelopiped which is the image of [*u,u* +* du*]*×
*

[*v,v*+*dv*]** ×**[

=

* *ijk*ω*123

*∂x*i

*∂u
*

*∂x*j

*∂v
*

*∂x*k

*∂w dudvdw* =

* ω*123(*x*)*dV.
*Notice that we have only deﬁned the integration of

submanifolds of dimension* k*, not over other-dimensional submanifolds.

These are the only integrals which have coordinate invariant meanings.

We state7

a marvelous theorem, special cases of which you have seen

often before, known as Stokes’ Theorem. Let* C* be a* k*-dimensional

submanifold of** M**, with

Then Stokes’ theorem says

C

*dω* =

∂C

*ω.
*

(6.11)

This elegant jewel is actually familiar in several contexts in three

dimensions. If* k* = 2,* C* is a surface, usually called* S*, bounded by a

closed path Γ =* ∂S*. If* ω* is a 1-form associated with*
*

*A*, then Γ*ω* =

Γ

*
A ·d
*

* *.* dω* is the 2-form* ∼**
*

* ×**
*

*A*, and S* dω* = S

*
*

* ×**
A
*

*·**d
*

*S*, so

we see that this Stokes’ theorem includes the one we ﬁrst learned by

that name. But it also includes other possibilities. We can try* k* = 3,

where* C* =* V* is a volume with surface* S* =* ∂V* . Then if* ω ∼
*

*B* is a

two form, S* ω* = S

*
B ·d
*

*S*, while* dω ∼
*

* ·**
*

*B*, so V* dω* = *
*

* ·**
*

*BdV*,

so here Stokes’ general theorem gives Gauss’s theorem. Finally, we

could consider* k* = 1,* C* = Γ, which has a boundary* ∂C* consisting

of two points, say* A* and* B*. Our 0-form* ω* =* f* is a function, and

Stokes’ theorem gives8 Γ*f* =* f*(*B*)*−**f*(*A*), the “fundamental theorem

of calculus”.

7

For a proof and for a more precise explanation of its meaning, we refer the reader

to the mathematical literature. In particular [10] and [3] are advanced calculus texts

which give elementary discussions in Euclidean 3-dimensional space. A more general

treatment is (possibly???) given in [11].

8

Note that there is a direction associated with the boundary, which is induced

*6.6. THE NATURAL SYMPLECTIC 2-FORM
*

169

Aula 5 Distr. Binomial

Aula 4 Probabilidade

Aula 3 Descritiva

Aula 2 Descritiva.ii

Aula 1 Descritiva.I

Relatório II

Experimento I

1 - APOSTILA - RETIFICADORES NÃO CONTROLADOS

EDUCAÇÃO A DISTÂNCIA E FORMAÇÃO DE PROFESSORES

Aula 8 Estimacao.da.Proporcao

Aula-7-Aproximacao Da Binomial Pela Normal

Aula 6 Distr. Normal

Aula 5 Distr. Binomial

Aula-4-Probabilidade

Aula-9-Nocoes.Teste.Hipotese.I

Aula-2-Descritiva.II

Aula-1-Descritiva.I

Aula-3-Descritiva

MONOGRAFIA.DIDATICA

MONOGRAFIA.DIDATICA

Livro-facinio Do Universo

Relatorio Exp 07

Mecânica Quantica

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