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RAKHI K CHANDRAN RINIL M G ROSHNI VERGHEESE SHAINY NARAYANAN SUCHITHRA K R
4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
The heart beat rate is the number of times the persons heart beat in one minute. Digital heart beat counter count the pulse continuously and automatically. It have the following features:A piezoelectric accelerometer as sensor. A blinking LED for visual indication of persons pulse. Counts are automatic and displayed on a 2 seven segment display. Continuous monitoring can be done. Counting can be done from remote place. Works off AC mains or batteries.
persons heart forces his blood to flow throw the arteries. Arteries throb in synchronisation with the beating of heart. Throbbing can be felt at wrist. Electronically this throbbing is sensed with an accelerometer, which convert it in to electrical signal. Counter section count the number of pulses for 10 seconds and display it for 5 seconds.
The function of heart is to maintain a constant circulation of blood throughout the body. This is acheived by rhythmic contraction of it’s muscle. It is the sequence of events which occur in the heart during a single beat. The rate of heart is 72 beats per minute . Time taken for 1 beat is 0.8 seconds. It appears in two phases 1. Systole - A period of contraction. 2. Diastole – A period of relaxation.
is the throbbing sensation felt over the walls of arteries. Pulse rate is almost the same as heart rate . The wrist is the common site where pulse is usually felt, which is referred as radial pulse. Bradycardia occurs when the pulse rate is below 60. Tachycardia occurs when pulse rate is above 100. During sleep pulse rate is 40 BPM.
An accelerometer measures the instantaneous acceleration of the object on which accelerometer is bounded. It transduce the acceleration which results from the vibration to corresponding analog signal. Here we use piezoelectric type accelerometer is used.
Here we use high input impedance pre-amplifier. An instrumentation amplifier is used as a pre-amplifier. Three CA3140 op-amp IC’s unitedly act as an instrumentation amplifier. Instrumentation amplifier is used because it greatly enhanced CMRR .
•LOW PASS FILTER
The output signal from the instrumentation amplifier gets adulterated with some harmonics of 50 Hz AC power frequency, along with some other frequency components from surroundings. A sallen key low pass filter is used to reduce all these interferences.
•AMPLIFIER & PULSE INDICATOR
This amplifier section is used to drive the LED’s. The LED’s blink in synchronization with heart beat pulse. One LED blink at the time of systole and another LED blink at the time of diastole.
•PULSE AMPLIFIER & MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR
Pulse amplifier amplifies the LPF output. In two monostable multivibrators, one designed for 15 seconds and the other with time delay 10seconds. The monostable multivibrator helps to stay the display for 5 seconds.
•INVERTER & 2-INPUT OR GATE
The inverter, inverts the output of monostable multivibrator and is used to enable the counter IC’s. The OR gate prevent the triggering of monostable multivibrator, while the display stays constant.
•DIGITAL COUNTER & SEVEN SEGMENT DISPLAY
Digital counter count the number of pulses for 10seconds. The counter IC here used is CD4033. The counter gets incremented with each pulse. The seven segment display displays the number of pulses of 10 seconds.
The total circuit can be divided in to 4 sections as follows: Pre-amplifier Low Pass Filter Pulse Monitor Pulse Counter with digital readouts
The heart of the circuit is a piezo-electric accelerometer . The sensor outputs an electrical charge, directly proportional to magnitude of throbbing of artries. • This charge gives a voltage of order of few millivolts across very high impedance of the piezo-electric crystal. • Hence a high input impedance pre-amplifier is used. • The IC1,IC2,IC3 together act as preamplifier.
•LOW PASS FILTER
The amplified output voltage from IC3(CA3140) of instrumentation amplifier is given to IC4 through resistor R10. The op-amp IC4 along with resistors R10 and R12 and capacitors C4 and C5 forms unity gain Sallen key LPF. The upper cut frequency is approximately 1.5Hz.
Apart of IC4 output is fed to a RC LPF comparing R14 and C7 to pin 3 of op-amp IC5. The RC filter enhance the steepness of previous filter response. The additional stage amplification is for drive LED1 and LED2.
The gain of this stage is approximately 22.
•PULSE COUNTER & DIGITAL READ OUT
CMOS decade counters IC9(CD4033) and IC10(CD4033) in tandem form the two digit decimal counter. The counters, count the number of pulses from LPF output. The output of first monostable multivibrator IC8, ( whose pulse width is 10 seconds) is given to clock enable pin of IC10. Pulse from the LPF, trigger both IC8 and IC9 simultaneously. The output of IC8 remains high for 10 seconds and output of IC9 for 15 seconds.
The counter counts for 10 seconds. After 10 seconds output of IC8 goes low, hence output counter stops countings and will high for next 5 seconds. During this 5 seconds, OR gate prevent any other pulse on triggering IC8. Hence the counter output stay on last count.
Here we use a center tapped transformer (9-0-9,500mA). The transformer is rectified by a full wave bridge rectifier comprising diodes D3 through D6. The output of rectifier is filtered by using a capacitor filter . This filtered output is given to fixed voltage regulators 7805(+5V) and 7905(-5V). Regulators 7805,7905 provide +5V and -5V regulated supply to circuit. Capacitors C16 and C17 bypasses any ripple present in regulated supply.
•TELEPHONE PIEZO BUFFER
•THE PIEZO-ELECTRIC ACCELEROMETER SENSOR
•CONSTRUCTION OF THE SENSOR
Instead of commercial accelerometer, self constructed accelerometer is used. It is constructed by using a ceramic piezo buzzer element. The diameter of the brass plate and silver layer of the piezo buzzer plate is used in this project are around 27mm and 18mm respectively. One of the two wire of 2 core shielded earphone cable is connected to white silver layer sprayed over the piezo element, and other wire to brass plate. Mount the mass centrally over the white silver layer.
It count the pulses automatically and continuously. Monitoring of the heart beat rate of a person from a remote place is also possible . Besides its rate, some other qualities of the pulse reflect the state of the cardiovascular system. These are its rhythm, fullness and shape of the pulse wave. The signal out from the LPF/amplifier IC5 maybe fed to a DAS system for monitoring all these characteristic. Low cost. Simplicity of the circuit.
Due to the absence of desired value of resistors, the time on which the counter, counts the pulse, can’t be accurately set for 10 seconds. Due to large number of discrete components, it is very difficult to troubleshoot in case of any failure.
In this fast moving world even wasting one minute is not imaginable . This is how we came to the idea of DIGITAL HEART BEAT COUNTER which gives the opportunity to count heart beat pulse automatically. As time moves we can find digital heart beat counter in every house, as heart diseases are common among the people. And digital heart beat counter helps in detecting small variations in heart rate.