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With advancements in digital communication technology and the growth of computer power and storage, the difficulties in ensuring individuals’ privacy become increasingly challenging. The degrees to which individuals appreciate privacy differ from one person to another. Various methods have been investigated and developed to protect personal privacy. Encryption is probably the most obvious one, and then comes steganography.
Steganography is an old art which has been in practice since time unknown. Steganography, from the Greek, means covered or secret writing and is thus the art of hiding messages inside innocuous cover carriers, e.g. images, audio, video, text, or any other digitally represented code or transmission, in such a manner that the existence of the embedded messages is undetectable. The hidden message may be plaintext, ciphertext, or anything that can be represented as a bit stream. Encryption lends itself to noise and is generally observed while steganography is not observable.
Steganography and cryptography, though closely related, they are not the same. The former has the intent to hide the existence of the message whereas the later scrambles a message to absolute illegibility.
The goal of steganography is to avoid drawing suspicion to the transmission of a hidden message. It hide messages inside other harmless messages in a way that does not allow any enemy to even detect that there is a second secret message present. If suspicion is raised, then this goal is defeated. Discovering and rendering useless such covert messages is another art form known as steganalysis.
This approach of information hiding technique has recently become important in a number of application areas. Digital audio, video, and pictures are increasingly furnished with distinguishing but
imperceptible marks, which may contain a hiding copyright notice or serial number or even help to prevent unauthorized copying directly.
Military communications system make increasing use of traffic security technique which, rather than merely concealing the content of a message using encryption, seek to conceal its sender, its receiver or its very existence. Similar techniques are used in some mobile phone systems and schemes proposed for digital elections.
Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one, apart from the sender and intended recipient, suspects the existence of the message, a form of security through obscurity.
Figure: The different embodiment disciplines of Information Hiding. The arrow indicates an extension and bold face indicates the focus of this study. Intuitively, this work makes use of some nomenclature commonly used by steganography and watermarking communities. The term “cover image” is used throughout this thesis to describe the image designated to carry the embedded bits. An image with embedded data, payload, is described as “stego-image” while “steganalysis” or “attacks” refer to different image processing and statistical analysis approaches that aim to break steganography algorithms. People use to confuse steganography with cryptography, which is wrong.
Steganography and cryptography, though closely related, they are altogether different. The former hides the existence of the message, while the latter scrambles a message so that it cannot be understood (Sellars, 1999). But the two techniques must not be perceived as mutually exclusive and if used together can prove more powerful. As we have said of steganography, the embedded data is not necessarily encrypted; hidden message may be plaintext, ciphertext, or anything that can be represented as a bit stream. Embedding encrypted message could be more secure and effective.
Figure 1: General scheme of steganography
1.2 Steganography vs. Cryptography
Basically, the purpose of cryptography and steganography is to provide secret communication. However, steganography is not the same as cryptography. Cryptography hides the contents of a secret message from a malicious people, whereas steganography even conceals the existence of the message. Steganography must not be confused with cryptography, where we transform the message so as to make it meaning obscure to a malicious people who intercept it. Therefore, the definition of breaking the system is different . In cryptography, the system is broken when the attacker can read the secret message. Breaking a steganographic system need the attacker to detect that steganography has been used and he is able to read the embedded message. In cryptography, the structure of a message is scrambled to make it meaningless and unintelligible unless the decryption key is available. It makes no attempt to disguise or hide the encoded message. Basically, cryptography offers the ability of transmitting information between persons in a way that prevents a third party from reading it. Cryptography can also provide authentication for verifying the identity of someone or something.
Table below shows a comparision between the three techniques. Criterion/ Method Carrier Steganography Watermarking Cryptography any digital media mostly image/audio files usually text based. but hides it inside a cover-image so it cannot be seen. A message in ciphertext.In contrast. he would still require the cryptographic decoding key to decipher the encrypted message. the steganography system is defeated. steganography prevents an unintended recipient from suspecting that the data exists. even if an attacker were to defeat the steganographic technique and detect the message from the stego-object. Furthermore. the security of classical steganography system relies on secrecy of the data encoding system. The resulting stego-image can be transmitted without revealing that secret information is being exchanged. It is possible to combine the techniques by encrypting message using cryptography and then hiding the encrypted message using steganography. might arouse suspicion on the part of the recipient while an “invisible” message created with steganographic methods will not. In other word. for instance. Once the encoding system is known. In addition. steganography does not alter the structure of the secret message. with some extensions to image files plain text changes the structure necessary blind Secret data payload watermark no changes to the structure Key Detection blind optional usually 5 .
The message is more important than the cover.. The cover is more important than the message. i. data protection cipher-text robustness cryptanalysis Always de-ciphered N/A Flexibility History free to choose any suitable cover very ancient except its digital version N/A modern era 6 .e. cover choice is restricted modern era full retrieval of data Objective Result Concern Type of attacks Visibility Fails when Relation to cover secrete communication stego-file delectability/ capacity steganalysis never it is detected not necessarily related to the cover. original cover or watermark is needed for recovery Authentication full retrieval of data usually achieved by cross correlation Copyright preserving watermarkedfile robustness image processing sometimes It is removed/ replaced usually becomes an attribute of the cover image.informative.
Figure 2: Different steganography fields Our work is Data Hiding (protection against detection). We have used the cover object as digital image and stego object(secret data) as the text file. 7 .
1 DIGITAL IMAGES A digital image is defined for the purposes of this document as a raster based. To a computer. In 8-bit color images. intended for display on a computer monitor or for transformation into another format. such as a printed page. 24. 2-dimensional. each pixel is represented as a single byte. The most commonly used media are text. or pixels. Digital images are typically stored in 32-.or 8-bit per pixel files. an image is an array of numbers that represent light intensities at various points.CHAPTER 2 DIGITAL IMAGE STEGANOGRAPHY Steganography can also be classified a on the basis of carrier media. (such as GIF files). audio and video. A typical 32 bit picture of width=n pixels and height = m pixels can be represented by an m x n matrix of pixels. These pixels make up the image's raster data. So here Digital Images are used as the carrier media. rectangular array of static data elements called pixels. 8 . image. 2.
some suitable compression technique is applied to reduce the size. although instead of displaying it as a color. 32 bit refers to the image having an "alpha channel". The three 8 bit parts . Based on the kind of compression employed a given image format can be classified as lossy or lossless. Since raw image files are quite large.red-R. An alpha channel is like an extra color. Lossy compression is used mostly with JPEG files and may not maintain the original image's integrity despite providing high 9 .constitute 24 bits which means that a pixel should have 24 bits. IMAGE FORMATS There are several image formats in use nowadays.Figure 3: Matrix and bits representation of an image file. it is rendered translucently (see-through) with the background. blue-B and green-G .
buttons. Being an uncompressed file format. 3. which was developed by the Aldus Corp. suitable for images with few distinctive colors (e.. It is a lossless format using LZW (Lempel. Obviously it would infect any data embedded in the image. It is not lossless when utilizing the new JPEG tag that allows for JPEG compression. We discuss here all these formats briefly: 1. TIFF and GIF etc are example lossless formats. 10 . It is limited to only 8-bit (256) color images. and CompuServe introduced this format for transmitting graphical images over phone lines via modems. Lossless compression does maintain the original image data exactly but does not offer such high compression rates as lossy compression. borders etc. BMP. graphics drawing). BMP. in the 1980's. It supports simple animation. PNG.g. UNISYS Corp.compression. stores many different types of images ranging from monochrome to true color. GIF . GIF and PNG. BMP. it requires high storage. Some commonly used formats are JPEG. GIF format is also used for nonphotographic type images. There is no major advantage over JPEG though the quality of original image is retained.Ziv Welch) compression. the last two types of images are also called palette images. TIFFTagged Im age File Format (TIFF). e. It is not as user-controllable as claimed. a form of Huffman Coding. 2.g. TIFF. It is capable of storing truecolor bitmap images and used in MS Paint and Windows wallpapers etc.This is a system standard graphics file format for Microsoft Windows and hence proprietary and platform dependent. The Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) is a lossless format that uses the LZW algorithm which is modified slightly for image scan line packets (line grouping of pixels).
PNG is the most flexible image format for web because it can save images in 8-bit. except the PNG format is 11 . It was designed to replace the older and simpler GIF format. JPEGs must be stored in 24-bit and no lower while PNG. which means that an image can be compressed and decompressed without any loss of the image quality. but it does not support animation. We have choosen PNG image file format as our carrier media because of the following advantages: 1. 24-bit and 32-bit colours which is not possible with GIF and JPEG file formats. It is a lossy type of format which allows user to set the desired level of quality/compression.s can be stored in 8-bit. By far one of the most common image formats. 5. 2. For example.A creation of Joint Photographic Expert Group was voted as international standard in 1992.(Portable Network Graphic) is a lossless image format. or 32-bit.4. it is primarily used for photographs. properly pronounced "ping". Similarly. It takes advantage of limitations in the human vision system (HVS) to achieve high rates of compression. PNG is compressed using any number of pre-compressed filters and is then decompressed when viewed similar to JPEG format. JPEGs are extremely popular since they compress into a small file size and retain excellent image quality. JPEG . PNG uses a lossless compression method. Like GIF you can make transparent images for buttons and icons. 24-bit. reading is faster than writing. PNG . GIF can only store only 8-bit or lower bit depths. The compression is asymmetric. and enhanced quality platform-independent Web graphics. The PNG format was created in December 1994 and was endorsed by The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) for its faster loading.
PNG. Intelligent attacks or anticipated manipulations such as filtering and resampling should not mutilate the embedded data. This allows an image to have up to 256 different levels of partial transparency..lossless. For data consistency. 4. if it has been specified.2 STEGANOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES The following restrictions and features should be kept in mind during the embedding process: It is important that the embedding occur without significant degradation or loss of perceptual quality of the cover. original data of the cover rather than header or wrapper must be used for embedding. While.s compression engine typically compresses images 5-25% better than GIF. 12 . Correct gamma value enables a picture to display properly on different platform without losing its quality during transformation. Metadata for Searching and Indexing as keywords and other text strings (compressed or otherwise) can be incorporated to enable search engines to locate the image on web. 3. Four main factors that characterize the data hiding techniques in steganography: Hiding Capacity: the size of information that can be hidden relative to the size of the cover. JPEG does not support transparency. PNG can store a variable transparency value known as alpha channel transparency. PNG can also store the gamma value of an image on the platform it was created which can enable a display system to present the image on its correct gamma value. 2..
The idea of 13 . Each one of these has its own merits and demerits. that will attract less attention). 3. Tamper Resistance: refers to the difficulty for an attacker to alter or forge a message once it has been embedded. The most common techniques of data hiding in images are: 1. The problem is its vulnerability to image manipulation. LSB embedding is simple.noisy. redundant etc. random. Thus both the sender and the receiver must have this secret. Advantage is that it is very easy to implement. 2. popular and many techniques use these methods. Digital data can be embedded in many ways into the images. non-random (looking for . Least significant bit (LSB) insertion: LSB techniques embed the message bits directly into the leastsignificant bit plane of the cover image in a deterministic sequence.g. Disadvantage is it is very easy to detect and get the message. Public Key Steganography This method requires the pre-existence of a shared secret key to designate pixels which should be tweaked. Robustness: the ability of embedded data to remain intact if the stego-image undergoes transformations. This results in a change with too low an amplitude to be human-perceptible. e. Perceptual Transparency: It is important that the embedding occur without significant degradation or loss of perceptual quality of the cover. sequential. Appending data bytes at the end of carrier: The secret data bytes are appended at the end of the carrier media such as image and the carrier media is then compressed to its original size to reduce the suspects of having secret data. areas of the image.
than LSB techniques.t work since the eavesdropper can use the public key to sabotage the whole affair. or some image processing. The Spread-Spectrum Image Steganography (SSIS) hides the data within noise which is then added to the cover. The image must be analyzed in advance for the information to determine appropriate regions to place the message data so that it is camouflaged in the environment. 1999). The phenomenon of camouflage is manifestation of this human weakness. such as Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). Masking and filtering techniques: This techniques embed information to perceptually significant areas of the image.referred to as the masker (Lin & Delp. cropping. 14 . The noise is of the type usually incurred during the image acquisition process. Transform domain based embedding: Transform Embedding Techniques embed the data by modulating coefficients in a transform domain. 4.private/public key pair doesn. The decoding process involves image restoration techniques and error control coding. Modifying the transform coefficients provides more robustness to the compression (especially to lossy). 5. or Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). Such a noise is imperceptible to humans if kept to limited extent. Masking refers to the phenomenon were a signal can be imperceptible to an observer in the presence of another signal . The use of significant parts make these techniques very robust. Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) (used in JPEG compression).
CHAPTER 3 DETAILED IMAGE STEGANOGRAPHY WORK BASED ON LSB INSERTION Flow Diagram- Message (Text File) Encoding Program Image (Cover File) Image (Embedded within the text message file) Transmission Channel Decoding Program Message (Text file) 15 .
Graphics2D. WritableRaster and java. The overall change to the image is so minor that it can't be seen by the human eye. LSB embedding techniques embed data bits in the least significant bits of the image under the assumption that the resultant change would be highly imperceptible due to obvious limitations of HVS. They are easily used with the newly introduced ImageIO class of Java 1.imageio. BufferedImage: A bufferedImage is something to be comfortable with when dealing with images.image.image.0 as 16 .awt. LSB insertion algorithm can be applied in two ways: 1 First LSB algorithm 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 Here only the last bit of the pixel is modified to hide the data.java. javax. 1 Second LSB algorithm 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 Here last two bits are subjected to change to increase the amount of data to be hidden.Probably the most popular.awt. java.awt.5. Eventually the picture quality is less than our first LSB algorithm. It is implemented highly because of its simplicity and good picture quality. This uses the java classes java.DataBufferByte.BufferedImage.ImageIO.awt. Steps of LSB insertion algorithm (Using java) Step 1: The carrier image called the cover object is converted to array of bits. A significant amount of information can be embedded without visible loss of quality of the cover image.image.
but as far as this program is concerned. Graphics2D: A class which has been around for a long time as far as Java is concerned. that are representing pixels. This class also allows for an easy switch from image space to user space. which has methods to access the buffer of an image more directly. ImageIO: A useful class to handle IO operations on images.well as containing methods for accessing the raster and buffer of the image. As well as allowing a way to reach the renderable area of the image. WritableRaster: This by definition is the process of rendering an image pixel by pixel. and allows access to some of the more in depth aspects of graphics/images. This class has much to offer. Figure 4: Accessing bits of an image 17 . which makes image editing much easier. DataBufferByte: The form of a byte array buffer for an image. the read() and write() methods will be sufficient. which is necessary when modifying or reading certain bytes of an image. which comes in handy when you need to access the bytes of an image. Allows for creating editable areas in a new image or an image which already exists. WritableRaster is a sub-class of Raster itself.
BufferedReader and FileReader classes. the file is stored in a String. For reading the file it uses StringBuffer.Step 2: The secret message text file called the stego object is read and its characters/ bytes are converted to ascii values and then to array of bits. The String is converted array of bits by converting all characters to ascii value and doing some bit operations. After reading the file. Figure 5: Accessing the Bits of a Text File. Step 3: Now the text bytes are embedded in the carrier image bytes. Here is a carrier image byte: 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 The decimal value of this byte is 106 When we change one LSB from 0 to 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 18 .
One bit of the secret data bit is inserted to the LSB of the image byte. But if we change some bits other than LSB. The length of the text in binary form is calculated beforehand. the steganographic information (the stego) has two parts: the size of the binary message. The decimal value changes to 107. In other words. there will be a significant chane in value and can be marked with human eye. followed by the message itself. This change will affect a little bit in some of the colour of a pixel which cannot be marked with human eye. That’s why we are replacing the LSB of the image byte with the secret data bytes. 19 . So one byte of the secret data requires 8 bytes of the image. and hidden in the image before the text.
All those hidden bytes are collected and finally written to a new text file and saved. So to accommodate 32 bits of the size of data(integer).Figure 6: Inserting the Text Bits into the Image. After that hidden bytes are constructed by shift left operation and inserting hidden bytes. Size of message 32 bytes Message Step 4: The message de-embedded/ extracted from the image. Because size of data is an integer and integer takes 4 bytes or 32 bits in java. Extracting the text from the modified image involves copying the LSB of the modified image’s bytes and recombining them into bytes in a text file as shown in the figure. 20 . First 32 bytes of the image consists of the size of the secret data. it require 32 bytes as each bit will be inserted to LSB first 32 bytes of data.
png and the second one is outputImage. 21 .png which contains the text information. The first image is original image dolphin. The change in picture cannot be detected with human eye.Figure 7: Extracting text from modified image Figure 8: Constructing hidden Bytes array by shift left operation Here we can see two images.
to the human eye.1 ADVANTAGES OF LSB ALGORITHM The advantages of LSB are its simplicity to embed the bits of the message directly into the LSB plane of cover-image and many techniques use these methods.Original image. the resulting stego-image will look identical to the cover-image. This allows high perceptual transparency of LSB. The advantages of LSB techniques are: Popularity Easy to understand and comprehend High perceptual transparency. Low degradation in the image quality 22 .png Embedded stego image.outputImage. Therefore.png 3. Modulating the LSB does not result in a human-perceptible difference because the amplitude of the change is small.Dolphin.
Examples are WebStego. 3. The message size must be smaller than the image. Stego.2 DISADVANTAGES However. cropping. Another weakness is an attacker can easily destruct the message by removing or zeroing the entire LSB plane with very little change in the perceptual quality of the modified stego-image. then the method is not success. for the hiding capacity. It is very sensitive to any kind of filtering or manipulation of the stego-image. Scaling. the size of information to be hidden relatively depends to the size of the coverimage. So the disadvantages are: Low robustness to malicious attacks Vulnerable to accidental or environmental noise Low temper resistance 23 . rotation. S-Tools etc. and thus decreases the bandwidth required to transmit the stego-image. A large capacity allows the use of the smaller cover-image for the message of fixed size. Therefore. or lossy compression to the stego-image will destroy the message. if this method causes someone to suspect something hidden in the stego-image. More and more commercial software available which follow this approach. addition of noise. On the other hand. there are few weaknesses of using LSB.
If password is not known then simply clicking on EXIT BUTTON the application will terminate. 24 . a user will be directed to the main page of the application.CHAPTER 4 SCREENSHOTS 1. By giving correct password and pressing ENTER BUTTON. Start Page It contains a password field to authenticate user.
HELP. EXIT.To terminate application.Contains information about mentor and developer.The secret message file is encoded/ embedded with the image file.2. ABOUT US. 25 . Main Interface This interface contains the functionalities: ENCODE.The message is de-embedded from the modified image file.To know about the applications. DECODE.
26 . ENCODE BUTTON to start encoding.3. Third textbox is for the name of output image which contains the secret message. Second text Field with browse button to browse the secret message file. This will open filechooser to select a file. CANCEL BUTTON to cancel the encoding operation. ENCODE INTERFACE This interface contains A text field with browse button to browse an image cover.
27 . Successful encoding information After successful encoding the dialog box will displayed showing name of the output image and the resultant image will be opened with the windows default image viewer.4.
DECODE INTERFACE This interface contains First textbox with a browse button to browse the image file containing the secret message.5. 28 . Only the supported file formats will be displayed in the file chooser.
After the successful decoding of the image the secret text file is saved and the file will be displayed using notepad. Successful decode message After successful decoding process the information will be displayed in a dialog box showing the output file secret text file name and the size of the file. 29 .6.
7. About Us screen shot 8. A screenshot of file chooser 30 .
. Attaching a stego file to an e-mail message is the simplest example in this application area. In this case you need a "key negotiation" before you start communication.1 Confidential communication and secret data storing The "secrecy" of the embedded data is essential in this area. embedded) data (C) Strengthening of the secrecy of the encrypted data In practice.e. 5. Then. the following areas. Steganography provides us with: (A) Potential capability to hide the existence of confidential data (B) Hardness of detecting the hidden (i.CHAPTER 5 STEGANOGRAPHY APPLICATIONS Steganography is applicable to. you (or your party) use an extracting program (another component) to recover the embedded data by the same key ( "common key" in terms of cryptography). Historically. The area differs in what feature of the steganography is utilized in each system. But you and your party must do a 31 . you must first select a vessel data according to the size of the embedding data. you embed the confidential data by using an embedding program (which is one component of the steganography software) together with some key. when you use some steganography. steganography have been approached in this area. The vessel should be innocuous. but not limited to. When extracting.
You are recommended to embed only 25% or less (for PNG / BMP output) of the maximum capacity. We have a model of "Anonymous Covert Mailing System. Qtech Hide & View program embeds data in an extremely fragile manner. (A) Choose a large vessel." The most novel point among others is 32 . larger the better. The embedded data can rather be fragile than be very robust. There is an easy method that has no key-negotiation. Especially. and no one can detect your communication. In this method you don't need to send anything to your party. 5. or only 3% of the vessel size (for JPEG output). However. You may follow the following. (B) Discard the original vessel after embedding. compared with the embedding data." Actually. embedded data are fragile in most steganography programs.2 Protection of data alteration We take advantage of the fragility of the embedded data in this application area. Each secrecy based application needs an embedding process which leaves the smallest embedding evidence. So. e-mailing is not a completely secret communication method."sending-and-receiving" action that could be noticed by a third party. For example." There is some other communication method that uses the Internet Webpage. it leaves some latent embedding evidence even if the vessel has a very large embedding capacity. this fragility opens a new direction toward an information-alteration protective system such as a "Digital Certificate Document System. in the case of Qtech Hide & View.
Today. 33 . an ordinary Web distribution scheme is not suited for a "case-by-case" and "selective" distribution. music companies release new albums on their Webpage in a free or charged manner. We have developed a prototype of an "Access Control System" for digital content distribution through Internet." If it is implemented. you will be very happy about it. For example. 5. altered. people can send their "digital certificate data" to any place in the world through Internet. So. it is easily detected by the extraction program. alter. which you think it is okay to provide others if they really need it. nor tamper such certificate data. Of course it is always possible to attach digital content to e-mail messages and send to the customers. The following steps explain the scheme. but is "explained" to publicize the content. A steganographic scheme can help realize a this type of system. digital contents are getting more and more commonly distributed by Internet than ever before. in this case. If you have some valuable content. If forged. However.that "no authentication bureau is needed. And if you can issue a special "access key" to extract the content selectively. all the contents are equally distributed to the people who accessed the page.3 Access control system for digital content distribution In this area embedded data is "hidden". No one can forge. or tampered. and if it is possible to upload such content on the Web in some covert manner. But it will takes a lot of cost in time and labor.
In this mechanism the most important point is. and embed the whole folders in some large vessel according to a steganographic method using folder access keys. We have already developed such a selective extraction program to implement the system. Media data (photo picture. for instance. The contact information to the owner (post mail address. etc.. (3) The owner may receive an access-request from a customer who watched that Webpage. and upload the embedded vessel (stego data) on his/her own Webpage. music. etc. 5. e-mail address. but unifying two types of data into one is the most important.(1) A content owner classify his/her digital contents in a folderby-folder manner. We have a downloadable demo program on the other page. a "selective extraction" is possible or not. movie. A photo picture.) have some association with other information. the owner may (or may not) creates an access key and provide it to the customer (free or charged).) will be posted there. (2) On that Webpage the owner explains the contents in depth and publicize worldwide.4 Media Database systems In this application area of steganography secrecy is not important. phone number. 34 . In that case. may have the following.
However. metadata can easily be transferred from one system to another without hitch. You can sort the pictures and put a couple of annotation words to each photo. You can either send the embedded picture to your 35 . these are annotated beside the each picture in the album. quick to shoot. all the annotation data are lost. the annotation data in such software are not unified with the target pictures. Therefore. you can make a search by keywords for the target picture.. easy to use. Steganography can solve this problem because a steganography program unifies two types of data into one by way of embedding operation. So.g. They are cheap in price. annotation data) in a media database system (a photo album software) are separated from the media data (photo data) in the database managing system (DBMS)." This is a big problem. In this situation it is very hard to find a specific shot in the piles of pictures. When you want to find a specific picture. Recently. This problem is technically referred to as "Metadata (e. when you transfer the pictures to a different album software. They eventually made people feel reluctant to work on annotating each picture. most home PC's are stuck with the huge amount of photo files. you can embed all your good/bad memory (of your sight-seeing trip) in each snap shot of the digital photo.(1) The title of the picture and some physical object information (2) The date and the time when the picture was taken (3) The camera and the photographer's information Formerly. Each annotation only has a link to the picture. Now. “Photo album software" may help a little. Specifically. almost all cameras are digitalized.
2000). It will be a step to a "semantic movie retrieval system.friend to extract your memory on his/her PC. a keyword based movie-scene retrieving system will be implemented. embedding the patient’s information in the image could be a useful safety measure and helps in solving such problems. 1998). for instance a unique ID can be embedded into an image to analyze the network traffic of particular users (Johnson &Jajodia.. companies’ safe circulation of secret data. 2003). as encryption is prohibited in some countries (Frontline Defenders. copyright control of materials.. Miaou (Miaou et al. and also checksum embedding (Chang et al. A link must be maintained between the image data and the personal information. TCP/IP packets. Thus. identity cards. e. one of which was in Medical Imaging Systems where a separation was considered necessary for confidentiality between patients’ image data or DNA sequences and their captions. patient’s name. Other applications are videoaudio synchronization. e.. 2002). where individuals’ details are embedded in their photographs (Jain & Uludag. physician..g. In (Petitcolas.g. or you may keep it silent in your own PC to enjoy extracting the memory ten years after. 2006a) and (Bender et al.. Steganography would provide an ultimate guarantee of authentication that no other security tool may ensure. the author demonstrated some contemporary applications.2000). address and other particulars." Steganography is also employed in various useful applications. for human rights organizations. 2000) present an LSB embedding technique for electronic patient 36 . enhancing robustness of image search engines and smart IDs. If a "motion picture steganography system" has been developed in the near future. TV broadcasting.
The decoder program to be implemented on the mobile phone has been written with a version of Java language specifically used for small devices. many methods have been presented. which is a language for creating web pages for the WAP). 2007). The importance of both these technologies has resulted in the creation of a new technology for establishing wireless Internet connection through mobile phone. In the meanwhile. a method for hidden exchange of data has been presented by using steganography on WML pages (WML stands for Wireless Markup Language. A pixel value difference between an original image and its JPEG version is taken to be a number conversion base. The main idea in this method is hiding encoded data in the ID attribute of WML document tags. considering the importance of the issue of data security and especially establishing hidden communications. known as Wireless Application Protocol (WAP).In this paper. the Japanese firm Fujitsu is developing technology to encode data into a printed picture that is invisible to the human eye. 37 . The coder program in this method has been implemented using the Java language. but can be decoded by a mobile phone with a camera as exemplified in Figure (BBC News.records based on bi-polar multiple-base data hiding. steganography is a relatively new method. However. which is called J2ME (Java 2 Micro Edition). Inspired by the notion that steganography can be embedded as part of the normal printing process. Mobile phone and Internet technologies have progressed along each other.
Mobile cameras can see the coded data and retrieve it. then embed into the Hue domain to which human eyes are not sensitive.Figure 9: Fujitsu exploitation of steganography (BBC News. The basic idea is to transform the image colour scheme prior to printing to its Hue. HSV. users will be able to use their cellular phones to capture encoded data. 38 . Hence. 2007) shows a sketch representing the concept Figure 10: Displays the application of deployment into a mobile phone The process takes less than one second as the embedded data is merely 12 bytes. Saturation and Value components. Fujitsu charges a small fee for the use of their decoding software which sits on the firm's own servers.
business cards and printed media such as magazines and pamphlets” (Frith. 39 . 2007). or to replace barcodes.This application can be used for “doctor’s prescriptions. food wrappers. billboards.
LSB algorithm can be changed to random LSB algorithm for better security. Also size of hidden data is significant. . Secret information is encoding in a manner such that the very existence of the information is concealed. There have been a multitude of public domain tools. Very fewer techniques have been developed in this field. detection of covert communications that utilize images has become an important issue. Given this fact. So there is a very little chance of suspecting of the presence of hidden message. 40 . The past few years have seen an increasing interest in using images as cover media for steganographic communication. We mainly used this algorithm for its simplicity and also there is very negligible change in image after embedding text. This LSB algorithm can be changed in many ways very easily to increase security. We have used mainly the png file format for the carrier cover image.CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION Steganography is the art and science of hiding information such that its presence cannot be detected and a communication is happening. It is like a modulation technique. We can use these techniques along with some modification to enhance this algorithm for more security and versatility. We have acquired some basic idea about the steganographic techniques. In this tutorial we have reviewed some fundamental notions related to steganography and steganalysis. albeit many being adhoc and naive. available for image based steganography.
In our technique.CHAPTER 7 SCOPE FOR THE FUTURE WORK Steganography is an old art which has been in practice since time unknown. Future work should take this into account. The LSB algorithm can also be modified in various ways to increase the security of the data. So we have to apply some more algorithms for the security purpose. Tempering can be cropping. it is very difficult to detect or suspect the presence of the secret message because a very little change occurs which cannot be detected by human eye. perceptual transparency. So some more work to be done on these so that the stego image will be temper resistant. Some of these are outlined below: Four main factors. blurring of the image or resizing the image. We mainly concentrated on the hiding capacity. viz. In this context we are currently working on a new method that will use random embedding in a novel way. robustness and tamper resistance. of these some are blurred but many pose a clear picture of our future directions. So no one can suspect the presence of message. were identified elsewhere to characterize the data hiding techniques in steganography. By tempering the coded image. 41 . But if suspected then the message can be decoded. Blue print of the method is almost ready. hiding capacity. This research has opened new avenues for us and scores of new ideas have now sprouted. As far as perceptual transparency is concerned it was beyond the scope of this thesis. our secret data may be lost. This aspect promises greater room for research. So this operation may lead to the loss of data.
Hence the worst-case limit has been set. 42 . multiplication and division etc can now be applied to images. has made image manipulation a lot easier. We have used only LSB insertion technique in our algorithm. patchwork techniques etc so that the best case is identified. We mainly dealt with PNG picture as these were not specifically investigated in any of the works at least known to us. The technique we employed was a sort of worst case. All these give rise to scores of new ideas to develop novel steganographic and steganalytic methods. In future the other techniques will be using to enhance security. The future research on the robustness of PNG images should be extended to the more robust embedding techniques like. Similarly magnifier can now be employed on images conveniently. The operations will be faster if we will compress the image without the loss of data and also the quality. the JAI. One interesting java API. i. The dyadic and monadic image operations are now a lot easier and binary operations of addition subtraction.e. masking. We have to compress the image so as to decrease the suspect and also for easy send and receive operation. These need to be explored. LSB technique with sequential embedding. SSIS.
Techniques for Games. . Java Prog. Sencar. Investigation of inherent robustness of png images for lsb steganography by Khizar Hayat Khan. Information hiding Using steganography by Muhalim Mohamed Amin. . Mohd Rozi Katmin. Stego Draft #1 (7th June 09) . Jesus Maria Minguet. . Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (Spain).CHAPTER 8 REFERENCES . Husrev T. Java Art Chapter 6. New approach in steganography by integrating different LSB algorithms and applying randomization concept to enhance Data security A. . and Nasir Memon.Karthic . SLSB: Improving the Steganographic Algorithm LSB by Juan Jose Roque. . III CSE Kalasalingam university Krishnankoil. 43 . Mazleena Salleh . Steganoflage: A New Image Steganography Algorithm by Abbas Cheddad. Subariah Ibrahim . Image Steganography: Concepts and Practice by Mehdi Kharrazi.
2007) shows a sketch representing the concept 4 7 9 15 17 17 19 21 21 39 39 Displays the application of deployment into a mobile phone 44 .CHAPTER 9 APPENDIX List of Figures Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 General scheme of steganography Different steganography fields Matrix and bits representation of an image file Flow Diagram of PDS Steganography Accessing bits of an image Accessing the Bits of a Text File Inserting the Text Bits into the Image Extracting text from modified image Constructing hidden Bytes array by shift left operation Fujitsu exploitation of steganography (BBC News.
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