2

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About Type Setting

-

Daw Khin Si

Proofer

-

Sara Htun

Book Layout

-

U Khin Moung

Cover Design

-

Myint Zaw

( all photos and references are copyrighted by
their respective owners.)

First Edition - September, 1997.
&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

3

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4

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15-7-1997

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5

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6

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&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

7

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

8

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)
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9

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

10

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

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cspjf rwfE;dk oljzpfojzifh t&m&m wGif xk;H ykeH nf;emrsm; ñTejf yum OD;aqmifraI y;vmoljzpf\/
&TDOuúmonf rdrd\q&mjzpfaom trwfBuD; \avQmufxm;csufrsm;ukd em,lvsuf
trwfBu;D \ MuyfrwfrjI zifh opöm&Sad emufvu
dk af emufygrsm;ESit
hf wl csw
D ufc&hJ m zkrYd ,f
&S&d mokYd a&mufvmMuavonf/
rsuf&nfprf;prf;ESifh rdfrd\tjzpfoepfukd ajymjyaomarmifawmfBuD; &TDOuúmukd
jrif&aomtcg zkdYr,f crsmvnf; 0rf;enf;yufvufjzpf&&Sm\/ armifBuD; Ouúmtm;
vkt
d yfaom tultnDay;&efrmS rdrw
d m0ef jzpfayonf/ aMuuG0J rf;enf;rI tylr;D vQH
avmifNrKd ujf cif;cHae&aom &TOD uúmtm; zkrYd ,fu ]]armifBu;D Muif&m? &TOD uúmESi?hf rif;acgirf mS
bvnf;ruG?J wbwnf;ukd ....tuk&d if;aZ? nD&if;&efo?l vlb
Y u
Hk Re;f rSm? jzpfvmS a&av?
a'vQiw
f pfaMumif;? irif;acgiEf iS hf armifBu;D Muif&m &TOD uúmrSm &Sad vmuwGif 0dyguaf [mif;}}
ponfjzifh a&S;uHMur®m 0dyguq
f ;dk aMumifh armifBu;D OuúmESihf tif;0rif;acgiw
f Ydk þokjYd zpf&
[efwyl gonf[k w&m;jy\/ xkad emuf qufvufí zkrYd ,fu rdbay;pm;í ,lxm;&aom
rif;acgio
f nf rdr\
d i,fvifjzpfojzifh olt
Y aMumif;ukd rdrt
d odq;Hk jzpfygaMumif;/ rif;acgif
taMumif;ukd ajym&ygvQif ]]rif;acgio
f x
H (D oaE¨)? npf&eT ;f a&av? ausmif;wGirf 0if? odrjf yif
rvm;? olrY ,m;ukd ? avmbrsm;}} olwpfO;D jzpfygaMumif; oDwif; oDvapmifx
h ed ;f olvnf;
r[kwaf Mumif; ponfjzifh rif;acgi\
f &ufpufMurf;MuKwyf ?Hk aumufusppf Of;vJ ykw
H u
Ydk dk
ajymjyum armifBu;D Ouúmtm; ESpo
f rd phf um;qkad vonf/
zkrYd ,fonf rdrcd spaf om armifBu;D &TOD uúmtm; a&T? aiG? Opöm? rsKk ;d &dum© wku
Yd dk vko
d
avmufykHí ay;\/ rif;OuúmwkdYvnf; ESri,f zkdr,fxHrS ]]a&T aiG Opöm? rsm;pGm
vufaqmif? ukeaf tmif&Ny;D ? &Srd mS xif&mS ;? uk;d apmfymG ;[k? &Sr;f om;eDaZ? ,if;&yfjynf}}
okdY OD;wnfcsDwufcJhMuavonf/
armif a wmf r if ; Ouú m onf t½I H ; uk d & if 0 ,f y k d u f í rd r d j ynf & G m rS a0;&mok d Y
xGufcGmoGm;&avNyD; jzpfaMumif;ukd aryef;ukH;Mum;od&aomtcg ,lusKH;r&pdwf

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

11

aomuBu;D pGmjzifh xGuaf jy;p&m vrf;uk&d mS rd\/ okaYd omf ajy;p&m vrf;aygu?f vrf;pukd
rawGU&awmh/
rdred ef;aqmif\teD;tyg;wGif oGm;vmapmifMh uyfaeolrsm;ukd awGU&\/ rif;acgi\
f
bufawmfom; rsm;jzpf[efwo
l nf/ [krd mS onfrmS tvSr;f uGmaomae&mrsm;rS zsuq
f ;D
vk,ufaeMuoHrsm; vkvMk um;rd\/ rif;acgi\
f bufawmfom;rsm;yif jzpf[efwo
l nf/
þrif;onf rdrw
d \Ydk toufpnf;pdrt
f ;dk tdrjf ynf&mG ukd zsuq
f ;D ypfaom rif;jzpf\/ ,ckrrd \d
cspv
f ifrif;Ouúmonf b,fqw
D iG af &mufaeavonfrod/ cspaf om om;awmfonfvnf;
b,fokdYa&mufí b,fykHjzpfaeavonfukdrod&/ om;\zcifonfvnf;aumif;? om;
awmfonfvnf;aumif; ewfjynfewfeef;okyYd if <ujref;MuavNyaD vm/ qifu
h mqifu
h m
0if a &muf v maom yl a qG ; jcif ; ? pk d ; &d r f x d w f v ef Y j cif ; wk f d Y u k d aryef ; uk H ; rS m
tazmfjyKae&&Smavonf/
aryef;ukH;um; ]]bkef;pnfocif arhcspfvifESifh udk,fwGif &efol? t,lwZpf?
rif;olnpfvnf;? rku
d rf u
dk rf rJ ?J bkiH &JwiG ?f azmfvnf;ray:? watmfvv
J ?J cH&Nrv
J ?Ydk rif;\r,m;
rif;\om;vnf;? ig;yg;&efol? zsuf,lr<uif;? ukd,fxD;<uif;í? qifjrif;NcD;rSm? oDpD
aom0fav}}[k rcsdaom ESvkH;om;\usdefqkdcsufrsm;ukdom pOfqufrjywfa&&Gwf
jrnfwrf;ae&&Sm\/ jrpfig;oG,frS vQHqif;vmaom a&tvsOfuJhokdYaom rsuf&nf
wko
Yd nfvnf; aryef;uk;H \rsuv
f ;Hk wkrYd S tqufrjywf pD;usaeawmh\/
oleY ef;aqmifteD;tyg;ü &wko;Hk axGv;Hk yif opfo;D 0vH yef;reftrsK;d rsK;d jzifh om,m
wifw
h ,fpmG wnf&adS eaom O,smOfawmf? a&uefawmfwrYdk mS aysm&f iT Mf unfe;l p&m/ xkOd ,smOf
awmfa&uefawmfwüYdk tcgrvyf usupf m;Muaom aus;iSut
f aygi;f wkrYd mS vnf; aomif;
aomif;oJoJ zkrd armifEw
HS u
JG m aysm&f iT jf rL;wl;pGm usupf m;NrJ usupf m;vsuf aus;iSurf sm;pGm
tcsKUfd rmS vnf; tcgrvifh a<u;&ifo
h aH usmf om;ukad c:í jrL;aysmyf s0H v
J su/f txD;usef
aryef;uk;H crsmrSmrl aysmjf rLaeMuaom aus;iSuw
f u
Ydk dk Munhu
f m awG;rdiI af i;armvku
d ?f
rsu&f nfwawGawG pD;usvmvku
d Ef iS hf xkt
d cku
d w
f iG yf if wku
d pf nfwu
dk af rmif;wkYd toHudk
Mum;&í txdww
f vefY vSr;f Munhv
f u
dk af omtcg ajy;vTm;pk½;Hk aeMuaom rif;acgi\
f
wyfrsm;ukad wGU&\/ rif;acgi\f trwfwpfO;D eSihf ud,
k &f aH wmfwyfom;tcsKUd vnf; aryef;uk;H
xHa&mufvmMuavonf/
aryef;ukH; xdwfxdwfvefYvefY jzpfaeykHukd awGUjrifaom wref trwfonf
]]bk&ifrif;acgix
f H ocifr vku
d af pcsiyf gonf}} [k csKo
d mpGmyif avQmufwifajymqk\
d /
aryef;uk;H uvnf; olo
Y m;awmfudk awGUyg&ap[k &Scd ;dk awmif;yef\/

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

12

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

okdYaomf wreftrwfu ,cktcg om;awmfukd awGUcGifhr&Ekdifao;yg/ bk&if
rif;acgiu
f om;awmftm; 0wfpm;aqmifa,mifrsm; ay;xm;ygonf/ okyYd gí bk&ifrif;acgif
xH ocifrvkduf&ef jyifqifxm;ygrnfhtaMumif; avQmufxm;í trwfwrefjyefoGm;
avonf/ aryef;uH;k rSm bk&ifrif;acgi\
f vufcyk w
f iG ;f ua&jzpfaeNyD r[kwyf gavm/
+ +
+
uk;d apmfzmG ;ESihf
&wemhy&l m?
r[me*&
jynfrtMum;?
ESpyf g;tqD;? rGeaf wmifBu;D wnf/h
pdr;f pdr;f jra&mif? qifacgi;f awmif[?k
vrf;azmifc&D;? wufvwfNy;D rS?
t&Sjd ynfjrwf? a&Tjynf&yfu?dk
nD;ñTw½f adk o? &Scd ;dk vD\/
(yrl? yk'd -f 37^'kr?l yk'd -f 7)
rif;OuúmESifh trwfBuD;vusfmwkdYonf zkdYr,fESifh cGJcJhNyDaemuf? ñkdYrIdif;&Daom
½kd;rawmifBuD;&Sd&mokdY aemufvkdufaemufygrsm;ESifhtwl csDcJhMu\/ vrf;c&D;wGif
edrdwfvu©Pmrsm;ukd jrif&Mum;&ojzifh om;awmf Oy&monf &efolvufcsufjzifh
txufewf&mG okYd wufomG ;&avNy[
D k rif;Ouúm ,kMH unfpw
d cf sxm;vku
d f avonf/
rif;OuúmwkdYonf pdrf;pdrf;jraom ,kd;&TDawmif? zkd;acgifawmif? ñkdUñkdUrIdfif;aom
ykd;&TDawmif? teef;oZif wkdY a0a0qmqmyGifhvef;&m ,kd;Zifawmif? qifacgif;awmif
wnf;[laom ½k;d r\ awmifig;qifw
h u
Ydk dk wa&GUa&TU wufvmMu\/ qifacgi;f awmifoYdk
wufcJh&m vrf;c&D;wGif &yfwefYí bkd;awmf? crnf;awmfwkdY vTrf;rkd;BuD;pkd;cJh&m
]]t&Sjd ynfjrwf? a&Tjynf&yf}} &S&d mokYd a&mf&rf;vsuf rif;Ouúmonf OD;ñGw½f adk o &Scd ;dk
avonf/ þredrrhf jrifh awmifig;qifw
h Ydk wnf&&dS m e,fajronfum; &Sr;f apmfbmG ;uk;d OD;wkYd
tkycf sKy&f m ]]oQr;f om;&yfNr?D uufp&D}} ESihf ]]&wemyl&m? r[me*&? jynfrBu;D }}wkYd
tMum;&Sd us,jf yefaY om ajrjcm;? e,fjcm;jzpfavonf/
rif;OuúmwkdYvnf; qifacgif;awmif\ ajrmufbufzsm;ü ausmufwkH;-ausmuf
om;wkjYd zifh NrKd UwnfMu\/ NrKd U? jy? wHcg;? &ifwm;? usK;H ajrmif; ponfh NrKd Ut*Fgrsm;ESijhf ynhpf pHk mG

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

13

ckdifckdifcHhcHhwnfxm;NyD;? &efolYab;rS umuG,fa&;twGuf vrf;auGUvrf;0wkdYü
ql;ajimihfusKH;rsm; csxm;jcif;? rsm;pGmaom wkH;armif;BuD;rsm; qifxm;jcif;wkdYukd
jyKvyk x
f m;Mu\/ O,smOfrsm;wnfí a&uefrsm;vnf; wl;azmfMu\/ xkad emuf &Jruf
tiftm;wk;d yGm;ap&ef Akv
d 0f ifcjH cif;jyKavonf/
]]vlowif; vlcsif;aqmif}}qkdonfh pum;twkdif; odef;Zukrif;\ om;awmf
&T D O uú m onf a,muf z awmf r if ; acgif \ taumuf B uH r I a Mumif h rd r d j ynf & G m uk d
ypfíxGuaf jy;cJ&h aMumif;? ,ckqifacgi;f awmifajrmuf zsm;wGif NrKd Ujywnfí aexkid af Mumif;
owif;pum;onf &Sr;f jynf? &Sr;f &Gmrsm;ü ysUH EUHS omG ;avonf/ taMumif; trsK;d rsK;d jzifh
&Sr;f wkjYd ynf&mG rsm;okYd a&mufaeMuaom ode;f Zukrif;\vla[mif;rsm;? ode;f Zukrif;ESihf
om;awmf &TDOuúmukd Munfñkdolrsm;onfvnf; wzGJzGJ0ifa&mufvmMuavonf/
xkt
d xJwiG f trwfarmifñv
dk nf; yg0ifavonf/
trwfarmifñkdonf rif;Ouúm\ om;csif;wpfOD;jzpfayonf/ ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm
uGu
J mG oGm;Ny;D aemuf ,ckjyefawGU&aomtcg &Sr;f rif;\ykid ef ufwiG f rdrv
d rl sm;ESihf aus;vuf
wnfaxmifum aus;pm;wpfO;D jzpfaeonfudk awGU&\/ rif;Ouúmonf trwfarmifñu
dk dk
zuf v J w uif ; qD ; Bud K \/ trwf a rmif ñ k d u vnf ; a&T a iG v uf a qmif y PÖ m rsm;
qufoNyD;rif;acgif\ vkyf&yftcsKdUukd ajymjy\/ rif;acgifonf &Srf;jynf? ,Gef;jynf?
ponfwkdYukd ppfcsDwufpOfu &du©mjywfvyfacgif;yg;ojzifh atmufjynfatmufe,frS
rifaMumif usm;usm; ESiphf pfonf ajrmufjrm;pGmwku
Yd dk ol&aJ umif;r[kw[
f q
k u
dk m &Sr;f e,fü
qefEiS ahf &mif;pm;aMumif;? rdro
d nf yifvQiv
f nf; qefEiS ahf &mif;pm;jcif;ukd cH&aMumif;?
xkdYaMumifh rdrdonf &Srf;jynf? &Srf;e,fü ckdvIHum rdrdvlrsm; ESifhtwl aus;vuf
xlaxmifaejcif;jzpfaMumif;? ajymjyavonf/
xkdYaemuf rif;Ouúmu &Srf;wkdY\ e,fy,frsm;taMumif;ukd ajymjyyg&ef
wku
d w
f eG ;f ar;jref;ojzifh armifño
dk nf ]]ode;f wef zk;d jrwf? aZmwd&of[?k tjrwfvxm;?
ywåjrm;okdY? vlrsm;ocif? igwkdYoQifrSm? &ifcGifaeSmif;rGD;? pHoD;nufjym? rdukr®m
[k}}trnfwGifausmfapmaom orD;awmf wpfyg;&SdaMumif;rS tpcsDí &Srf;wkdY\
e,fy,frsm;taMumif;ukd ajymjyav\/
ZrÁL'Dyg\ e,fedrdwfjzpfaom tmoE¨wkdif;ac: &Srf;apmfbGm;ukd;OD;wkdY tkyfpkd;&m
e,fy,fonf us,0f ef;vSaMumif;/ uwfp&D? odeu
f seD *&? oif;wG?J xkem? *ifa*,paom
aus;vufNrKd U&mG aygi;f rsm;pGm wkYd tqufrjywfwnf&adS Mumif;/ apmfbmG ;uk;d OD;wk\
Yd ocif?
jynf&Sifrif;pkd;pH&m aejynfawmfonf tifusDNrdKU jzpfaMumif;/ xkdNrdKUonf urÇmtpu

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

14

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

r[mor®wrif;tm; ewfa'0grsm; zefqif;ay;aom NrKd Uuo
hJ Ydk tpp t&m&m jynfph zHk UHGNzKd ;aom
NrKd UawmfjzpfaMumif;wku
Yd dk ajymjy\/ xkjYd yif &Sr;f bk&ifrmS pdejf zL ac: om;awmfwpfyg; ESihf
"durk m® rSm acsmarmvSyaom rsuEf mS ? ,OfEak Mumh&iS ;f aom uk,
d cf E¨mESihf Munhef nf;rGev
f ?S
orifrokdY ? <u<utnD? [oFmNcDokdY ? wkd;wDwkd;uG}}[eftrlt&m wifhw,fvSaom
wpfyifwidk ef ef;oljzpfaMumif;jzifh ed*;Hk csKyaf jymjyavonf/
trwfarmifñ\
dk owif;pum;ukd Mum;&aom rif;Ouúmonf &Sr;f bk&iforD;awmf
rdurk m® tay:ü pdw0f ifpm;rdavonf/ rif;Ouúm\trlt&mukd owdynmESijfh ynhpf aHk om
trwfBu;D vusmf uvnf; tuJcwfvu
dk rf \d / xkt
d cku
d w
f iG yf if &Sr;f bk&if\ apwrefwpfO;D
rif;Ouúmwkx
Yd H a&mufvmavonf/
&Sr;f bk&ifonf rif;Ouúmwkt
Yfd aMumif;ukd Mum;odNy;D jzpf\/ okaYd omf olpY w
d x
f üJ
oHo,&Sdaeav onf/ rif;om;Ouúmonf tu,fíppf½IH;ojzifh ajy;vmcJhaomf
olx
Y cH 0dk ifvmaumif;\/ okjYd zpfygvsuf olx
Y v
H mí rMum;ravQmuf? olv
Y ufatmufoYdk
0ifa&mufrvmjcif;rSm &efjyKvídk yifavm/ þoHo,yaysmufapjcif;iSm rif;Ouúmwkx
Yd H
wrefwpfO;D apvTwv
f u
dk jf cif;jzpf\/ &Sr;f rif;\apwrefa&mufvmaomtcg t&m&mukd
ajrmfjrifwwfaomtrwfBu;D onf &Sr;f bk&ifvufatmufoYkd 0ifa&mufcv
dk jHIcif;jzifh bk&ifo
h rD;
awmfukd rif;Ouúm &Ekid rf nfr[kw[
f k pOf;pm;rd\/ xkjYd yif rdrw
d o
Ydk nf &Sr;f wkEYd iS hf ppfcif;p&m
BuKH vmygu Ekid af jc&Srd nf? r&Srd nfudk odEidk &f ef tifusND rKd UEiS hf ywf0ef;usif &Sr;f e,fy,fwiG ;f okYd
okH;Budrfwkdifwkdif trSwf rxif 0ifa&mufaxmufvSrf; tuJcwfNyD;jzpf\/ xkdYaMumifh
trwfBu;D u &Sr;f bk&ifah pwreftm; þokYd jyefMum;vku
d af vonf/
odef;Zukrif;onf wpf&mhwpfyg;aom rif;wkdY\ocif? aersKd;EG,fbk&ifrif;jrwf
jzpfaMumif;/ rif;om;&TD Ouúmonf ode;f Zukrif;ukd qufcaH om om;awmfjzpfaMumif;/
,ck &efolrsKd;ig;yg;u aESmifh,SufzsufqD; ckdufukd t&yftaeroifhao;í acwå
a&Smifwrd ;f um þae&mokYd a&mufvmjcif;jzpfaMumif;? þokaYd &mufvm&mwGif toQihf
orD;awmf\ owif;ukMd um;od&í Muifbufawmftjzpf ajrm§ ufpm;vkyd gaMumif;? tu,fí
tcGirhf &ygu ESpjf ynhw
f pfjynf rdwt
f Munf rjzpfb?J &efppfBu;D pGm jzpfz,
G &f ydS gaMumif;ukd
bk&ift
h m; avQmufxm;&ef jyefMum;vku
d \
f /
&Sr;f bk&ifonf rif;Ouúmwk\
Yd jyefMum;csuu
f dk wreftrwfxrH S Mum;od&aomtcg
a'gotrsuf acsmif;acsmif;xGuíf qifacgi;f awmifoYdk ppfcs&D ef jyifqifavonf/ qifwyf?
jrif;wyf? ajconfwyf? av;wyf ponhw
f yfaygi;f rsm;pGmukd ]]txyftxyf MumES,x
f yfv?Ydk
Mumcsyt
f oGi?f rGr;f rGr;f zsio
f nf? ppfvQipf pfr}} ppfAsL[mjzefu
Y si;f cefcY íJG ppfoBl u;D ua&SUzsm;?

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

15

om;awmfped jf zLu tv,f? rdru
d aemufq;Hk rSaeí csv
D mMu\/
txyfxyfcsDwufvmaom &Srf;wyfwkdY\ toHukdMum;&aomtcg? ppfukdrvkd
vm;aom rif;Ouúm onf pk;d &draf MumifMh urI jzpfay:&jyef\/ ok&Yd mwGif ESv;Hk &nf? vuf½;Hk &nf
pG,pf jHk ynh0f aom trwfBu;D vuf,mu ]]"r®ynwf? usr;f ESiu
hf yG íf }} &efot
l m; wku
d cf u
dk f
jcif;onf rw&m;rIr[kw[
f k &TOD uúmtm; ñTejf yqk;H rum &JwcH eG f atmifveH u
D dk vTiw
hf ifí?
&Sr;f wku
Yd dk ckcw
H u
dk cf u
dk &f ef rdr\
d ppfonfrsm;tm; tvsit
f jref uGyu
f pJ rD aH vonf/trwf
Bu;D onf rdr\
fd ppfO;D pD; Akv
d rf ;ª ukd oif&h m? oif&h mü wyfrsm; cs&yfxm;ap\/ &Sr;f wkeYd ;D vm
onfEiS w
hf pfNyKd ief uf wk;H armif;Bu;D rsm;ukd jzKwcf sjcif;? ql;wGi;f Bu;D rsm;&S&d mokYd ppfjrLjcif;
rsm;jyKum &eforl sm;ukd NyKd uyJG supf ;D ap\/ rNyKd ruGJ wufvmolrsm;ukv
d nf; toifch s&yf
xm;aom rif;Ouúm\wyfrsm;u usm;&Jrsm;uJo
h Ydk wku
d cf u
dk Mf u\/ okjYd zifh aemufq;Hk ü
&Sr;f bk&if\wyfrsm;onf ok;H pkuíJG aemufqw
k x
f u
G f ajy;Mu&avonf/ rif;Ouúm\
ppfonfrsm;onf ]]bk&ifo
h rD;awmf rdurk m® ukd rif;Ouúm tm; vma&mufqufo&rnf/
rquf o ygu bk & if h a ejynf a wmf wk d i f a tmif vma&muf wk d u f c k d u f r nf } }[k
&Sr;f wyfom;rsm; Mum;avmufatmif a<u;aMumf atmf[pfvu
dk Mf u\/
rdurk m® onf rdrad Mumifh crnf;awmfEiS hf jynfojl ynfom;rsm; 'kua© wGUae&aMumif;ukd
odaomtcg crnf;awmfxH oGm;a&mufí? þokaYd vQmufxm;avonf/ ]]crnf;awmf
bk&m;? uk,
d cf E¨mü a&m*ga0'em pGu
J yfvmygu aysmufuif;aprnfh oufqidk &f m aq;0g;udk
rS0D &J ygonf/ ,ck]]acsmufcsm;jynf&mG ? uReYf aMumifo
h mvQi?f 0DqmñI;d yg;? iwfrw
G ,
f mS ;í?
wkid ;f um;&Gmjynf? ysuv
f wfrnf}} uJo
h Ydk jzpfaeygonf/ xkaYd Mumifh wpfjynfrif;om;xHoYdk
bk&m;uReaf wmfr uk,
d w
f idk f oGm;a&mufawGUqíHk jyóemudk ajz&Si;f yg& ap}} [k yefMum;
avQmufxm;av\/
cspforD;awmftm; wpfaeYwpf&ufrQ rsufaphatmufu taysmufrcHcsifatmif
jrwfE;dk awmfrv
l S aom &Sr;f bk&ifonf orD;awmfu pGepYf eG pYf m;pm; oGm;vkad &;ESichf iG ahf y;yg&ef
awmif;cHvmaomtcg? cGiahf y;vkpd w
d f r&So
d nhjf yif acsmufcsm;ylyefr?I pk;d &draf MumifMh urI
wko
Yd nf &ifwiG ;f ü vIid ;f vk;H rsm;yrm x<uvmMu\/ okyYd gaomfvnf; rª;rwfjynfow
l u
Ydk kd
iJu
h u
G af xmufxm;&rnfjzpfojzifh orD;awmftm; tcGiahf y;um oGm;a&;? vma&;twGuf
tpp vkad vao;r&Sad tmif pDraH qmif&u
G af y;awmfral vonf/
rdurk m® onf aumif;pGm 0wfpm;qif,ifNy;D vQif aemufvu
dk af emufyg ta>ct&Hrsm;?
ukd,f&Hawmf rsm;ESif a&Txrf;pifpD;vsuf ppfwvif;ukd jzwfausmfí rif;Ouúm&Sd&m
qifacgi;f awmifoYdk vmcJah vonf/ rdurk m® vmaMumif; Mum;odNy;D aom trwfBu;D vusmf ESihf

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

16

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

a&TOuúmwkdYvnf; xkdufxkdufwefwef BudKqkd&ef jyifqifxm;Mu\/ trwfBuD;u
&Srf;bk&ifonf þokdYorD;awmftm; vTGwfvkdufjcif;rSm oabm½kd;jzifh aumif;aom
vTwjf cif;vnf; jzpfEidk \
f / ]]xufay:uysm;? xJrmS rQm;ESi}hf } r½k;d om;roifah vsmaf om tBuH
tpnfjzifh vTw
G v
f u
dk jf cif;vnf; jzpfEidk \
f / rnfoyYdk if jzpfap/ ,ck &TOD uúmrSm rdurk m® tm;
Muifbufawmf tjzpf odr;f yku
d &f awmhrnfjzpfonf/ xkrd Qru OD;&D;awmf &Sr;f bk&ifah e&mokYd
vku
d yf gaexkid &f awmhrnfjzpf\/ xkaYd Mumifh t&m&mü ynmowd&&dS rnfjzpfaMumif;wku
Yd dk
&TOD uúmtm; BuKd wifowday; ajymMum;xm; avonf/
rif;OuúmESifh rdukr®mwkdYonf ]]oifq&m&SD;quf? tusKd;zufvkdY? rysufESvkH;?
BuKd ;eS,x
f ;Hk }} cJMh uol rsm;jzpfojzifh ESpOf ;D om; qkaH wGUvu
dk Mf uonfEiS hf wpfNyKd ief uf wpfO;D
tay:wpfO;D ñTwEf ;l o'´gjrwfE;dk pGmjzifh a&TarwåmaESmifBuKd ;txyfxyf &pfzUJG rMd uavonf/
armifr,fEpS yf g;wko
Yd nf ,k,MuifempGm pum;ES;D aeSm ajymqkñ
d EdS idI ;f MuNy;D aemuf? rdurk m® u
rdr&d yfXmefoYdk &TOD uúmvku
d cf yhJ g&ef ac:\/ xkaYd Mumifh trwfBu;D vusmf onf &TOD uúmESihf
rdurk m® wkt
Yd m;]] &wem&efatmif}}qifajymifBu;D ay:ü xD;jzLok;H vufr;dk í pD;ap\/ &Jruf
Akdvfygtaygif;wkdYtm; armifESHESpfyg;ukd NcH&Hapí wifhw,fcrf;em;pGm &Srf;NrdKUawmfokdY
csw
D ufvm&m rdurk m® pH&m eef;aqmifoYdk a&mufMuavonf/
&Srf;bk&ifonf orD;awmfwkdY a&mufvmaMumif; Mum;&aomtcg oHwpfOD;
apvTwíf orufawmftm; awGUvadk Mumif; trdeaYf wmf&v
dS u
dk o
f jzifh &TOD uúmonf bk&ifh
a&SUawmfokdY 0ifcJhavonf/ OD;&D;awmf bk&ifu orufawmf wpfjynfrif;onf
rdrw
d idk ;f jynfü qufvufaexkid rf nfqydk gu rdrw
d Ydk uk;d uG,af om ]]r[musb
D &k m;}}ukd
ylaZmfí acgi;f xufcsu
D m used o
f pömqk&d rnfjzpfaMumif; rdeMYf um;avonf/ rif;Ouúmu
rdrw
d Ydk rif;rsK;d wGif ab;bk;d pOfquf þtpOftvmrsK;d r&Scd ahJ Mumif;/ rdrw
d rYdk mS &wemok;H yg;ukd
ukd;uG,fol rsm;om jzpfaMumif; jyefvnfajymMum;aomtcg &Srf;bk&if\pdwfxJü
þrif;om;onf igw
h idk ;f jynfudk tkypf ;dk vkíd vmjcif;jzpfrnf[k txifrmS ;um rif;Ouúmtm;
uGyfrsufypf&ef trdefYcs\/ rª;rwfwkdYu roifhavsmf aMumif; twefwef wm;jrpf
avQmufxm;aomfvnf; vlowform; tmPmom;av;a,mufvufoYdk rif;Ouúmtm;
tyfvkdufavonf/
xkt
d jzpftysuu
f kd owifvnf;Mum;? jrifvnf;jrif&aom rdurk m® onf rdred ef;aqmif
rS ajy;xGuv
f mum tmPmom;rsm;ukd wGe;f xk;d z,f&mS ;í rif;Ouúm\vufudk qGaJ c:vsuf
crnf;awmf bk&ifBu;D a&SUarSmufoYdk 0ifa&mufcMhJ uavonf/
rdukr®monf pkd;&drfylyefpdwfjyif;pGmjzifh crnf;awmftm; þokdY avQmufxm;\/

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

17

crnf;awmfb&k m;? orufawmf wpfjynfrif;ukd owf&efapckid ;f jcif;rSm tjynfjynfrif;wk\Yd
uJh&JUjcif;ukdcH&NyD;? crnf;awmf\ *kPfoa&npfEGrf;p&mtaMumif; jzpfygonf/
orufawmftm; om;awmft&if;uJhokdY oabmxm;oifhvS ygonf/ crnf;awmf\
tvkq
d E´twkid ;f orufawmf wpfjynfrif;ukd ac:aqmifvmcJNh y;D rS owfrnfqjdk cif; rSm
vk;H 0roifrh avsmyf g/ ol\usi½hf ;dk usiphf Of r[kwo
f nfudk rjyKvyk v
f o
dk jzifh crnf;awmf
&efNiKd ;zGUJjcif;rSmvnf; w&m;rnfr[kwyf g/ rif;wumwko
Yd nf taqGcifyeG ;f jzpfaom rif;wk\Yd
wkdif;jynfrsm;okdY oGm;a&mufvnf ywfMuaomtcg xkdjynfrif;wkdY ukd;uG,faom
bk&m;ukdylaZmfí usdefopömqkdMu&onf[kvnf; rMum;zl; yg ponfponfjzifh
xdwv
f efpY ;dk &drpf w
d f a'gopdw?f 0rf;enf;pdww
f Ydk aygi;f pyfvsuf OD;zsm;acgi;f xdyo
f w
Ydk idk f
0Sew
f ufz;Hk vTr;f cHae&aom rdurk m® onf oEÅmvufzsm;wku
Yd dk ezl;xufwiG f wif,u
S u
f m
wwGwfwGwf avQmufxm;&Smavonf/
orD;awmf\oem;pzG,f tjzpfoepfukd jrif&aom bk&ifBuD;onf Muifemjcif;
jyif;pGmjzihf rif;Ouúmtm; ao'Pfrv
S w
G af p orD;awmftvku
d s jzpfap[k trdeaYf wmfrw
S f
\/ orD;awmfwv
Ydk nf; crnf;awmftm; uefawmhí rdrw
d eYkd ef;aqmifoYdk jyefcMhJ uav
onf/
............... oQrf;ocifukd?
rsK;d yifErS ? tvSoZl m?
ukr®mñGwfEl;? yefxGmjyKaomf?
............. rif;&Jausmfonf?
ESpaf zmfwu
l ?G eDp&D onf?
xdfrf;jrm;wvnf yD;vwfwnfhav/
(yrl? tykd'f-113)
rdurk m® onf crnf;awmfrif;Bu;D tm; rif;OuúmESihf rdrw
d \Ydk xdr;f jrm;r*FvmyGo
J bifudk
qif,if usif;yay;ygrnfhtaMumif; avQmufxm;awmif;yef\/ bk&ifBuD;vnf;
orD;awmfEiS hf orufawmfw\
Ydk xdrjf rm;r*Fvmobifudk ckepf&ufwidk w
f idk f Ncrd Nhf crd o
hf o
J J
Bu;D us,pf nfum;pGm usi;f yay;awmfr\
l / r*Fvm obifü rª;rwfjynfol tm;vk;H tm;
wufa&mufap&ef aqmfMuvsuf xrif;[if;vsm? t&ufaopmr<uif; vkdavao;
r&Sad tmif auR;arG;\/
r*Fvmobif tcrf;tem;ü toifhpD&if cif;usif;xm;onfh rif;r@yfwGif
pHaeMuaom crnf;awmf ESihf r,fawmfwt
Ydk m; rdurk m® ESihf &TOD uúmwko
Yd nf aqGrsK;d &if;csmrsm;

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

18

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

pkHnDpGm NcH&HvsufyefxGmOD;csuefawmh Mu\/
uef a wmh M uNyD ; aomf bk & if B uD ; wk d Y \ ½k d ; &m xk H ; pH t wk d i f ; ao&nf O D ; uk d
jzLpifoef&Y iS ;f aom ykvif; wGif xnfíh armifr,fEpS yf g;wku
Yd ocifb&k m;
aomufvwfjim;av ....../
rdcifawmf&if;?
aomufygrif;av ......./
(yrl? tykd'f-116)
[k avQmufxm;wifqufMu\/ xkdaemuf pm;awmfyGJrsm;jzihf r,fawmfcrnf;
awmfwt
Ydk m; armifr,fEpS yf g;ud,
k w
f idk ½f adk opGm qufuyf auR;arG;jyKpMk u\/ r,fawmf
crnf;awmfwu
Ydk vnf; bdou
d q
f rk eG pf um;rsm; >rufMum; cs;D jri§ ahf wmfrMl uavonf/
rif;OuúmESihf rif;ukrm® wk\
Yd r*FvmobifBu;D Ny;D ajrmufaomtcg rif;Ouúmtm;
om;&if;uJhokdY apmifha&Smufvmaom trwfBuD;tm; &Srf;bk&ifBuD;onf pm;aus;
pm;vufrsm; cs;D jri§ íhf orD;awmf ]]qif;jr jzL}}ESihf xdr;f jrm;ay;\/ rif;Ouúmwk\
Yd ppfoBl u;D
Akv
d rf ;ª tm;vnf; ord;D awmf]]yef;jrol}}ESihf xdr;f jrm;ay;avonf/
armifpHazmf

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

19

Mur®m0dyguf aemufykd;wuf
]]-- ab;cifBuD;pGm? tavmrmvQif? wnfvSmavmif;Muuf? xkdNrdKUxuf0,f?
jzL&GufjzefYMuKef;? ig;a,mufqkH;wGif? rSm;ñId;BuHoD;? eef;usBuD;um;? rdxufru?
jynfyjynfwiG ;f ? "m;wpif;rQ? r&S&d wnf?h useaumufiif? ylqmtifEiS ?hf aqGvifEpS rf nf?
tdraf xmifcsníf ? pnfobifBu;D ? orD;vSpmG ? yef;eDvmuk?d tmomrufruf? avmbwufí?
&uf&uf,lNyD;? rwfBuD;acgifzsm;? rwfESpfyg;ukd? NidK;xm;BuD;pGm? zsufqD; vSmonf?
rdämus
p ifhnpfnL;wJhav}}
(&ckid rf if;orD;{csi;f ? &rf;NAo
J &ufacsmif;ayrl tyk'd f 23rS) ouú&mZf 536-ck? at'D
1273 ckESpfrSm eef;usBuD;eef;wufvma&/ olwufvmpGmeefY wkdif;jynftNcDteDu
rtD;rcsr;f jzpfvmyga&/ tcGet
f wkwf wdw;dk aumufaw/
uif;cGef qdycf eG f &DceG w
f u
d dk aumufaw/ oXD;ol<u,fwOd pöm"e½kUd udk zsuq
f ;D ypf
aw/ vk,uf odr;f yku
d af w/ rif;rsK;d EG,½f Udk uadk v; ESyd pf ufñiS ;f yef;a&/ rª;rwfwu
d v
dk J
tjypftemtqmuk&d mS zGyD s,f zrf;qD;csKyaf ESmifvaD &? v,f,mrSm [da&pyg;qef&w
D u
d dk
jrif;pm;yD;a&/ xifa&ykid f ,rf;um;a&rif;/ a,;ZleefY jynfow
l pfv;Hk qif;&JraJG w'ku©
yifv,f0v
D muwf&a&/ wkid ;f jynfu qlyu
G v
f ma&/ bk&iftay: rSm jynfow
l rd ek ;f wD;rIudk
bk&ifu odvma&tcg bk&ifa& aMumuf&UHG wek v
f yI v
f ma&/ a,Zl;eefY aejynfawmfupNy;D
aus;vufZeyk'yf grusef "m;vSaH v;jrm; tm;vk;H ukd odr;f qnf;vku
d af v/ "m;qkv
d Ydk [if;
oifp&m"m;ukad wmif cserf xm;/ oHCmawmfwrd mS acgi;f &dwaf w oifwek ;f "m;ukd todr;f cH
&uwfaw/ acgi;f &dwv
f adk u rif;Bu;D eef;awmfuv
dk m;Ny;D ,if;rSm &dwcf &a&/ a,Ny;D au

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

20

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

jyefvmvwfz/d t*kajymjy cpGma& &ckid jf ynfavmif;Muufacwf ajcmufqufajrmufjzpfaw
eef;usBu;D bk&ifacwf tNct
D eDjzpfyga&/
eef;usBu;D a& ,if;ykid Ef idk x
f ufuvl jyKwwfaw bk&ifBu;D jzpfyga&/ a'avmuf&m
vm;qkad u? trwfBu;D pnfobif\ orD; yef;eDvmukd vkcd siv
f aYdk wmif;,rf;vDa&/yef;
eDvma& vSyacsmarmol uvdeYf arwpfa,muf jzpfeaD &twGuf bk&ifrif;jrwf \ab;u
vTwyf gpq
D Ndk y;D au ]]yef;eDvmausmufa&m*gjzpfeaD &}}vkYd avQmufaw/ tumt&Hvyk f
Ny;D xm;a&/ nOfch g vlot
D avmif;wpfavmif;udk &Smys,o
f rD;ykid f vkyNf y;D au tavmif;ukd
rD;wkdufaw/ yef;eDvmukd tjcm;wpfeD&mrSm 0Sufxm;vkdufaw/ yef;eDvmoDys,fvkdY
vljrifojl rif rD;oN*KØ [jf ya&/
,if;ykdifeDvkdY Mumvma&tcg ....a'udpöukd bk&ifu rdvm;avmufys,fqkdcgrS
trwfBu;D vuf,m eE´oo
l m;eJY yef;eDvmukd yD;pm;vku
d af w/
,if;r*Fvmaqmifyu
JG pnfw;D oHudk Mum;a&cg bk&ifu rD;jref;pkpH rf;a&/ yef;eDvmeJY
vuf,m eE´oo
l m;eJY orufwufyw
JG ;D pGmyg bk&m;vkYd avQmufwifvYdk odvma&/
a,cg ,if;trwfBuD; ESpfa,mufvkH;½kdU ykdifqkdifa& Opöm"ewdukd odrf;,la&?
trwfBu;D ½kUd udk zrf;qD;vku
d af w? yef;eDvmukv
d J odr;f ,la&/ a,Ny;D au ,if;edupNy;D
bk&ifrif;jrwfudk rwkid rf Mum;bJ pnfrwD;&qkNd y;D au trdex
Yf w
k w
f m;jrpfvu
dk af w/
a'udpu
ö a'avmufeYJ usv
D m;pGmr[kwo
f ;D / pnfobiftrwfeYJ vuf,meE´
ol½Udk u orufwuf yGJ zsuq
f ;D cH&vkYd t&Suw
f uGJ jzpf&a&/a,ZleefY eef;usBu;D tay:
&efNiKd ;zGUJ xm;vku
d af w/ ]]eDvOD ;D ....av/ rk;d aumif;wke;f &GmOD;oD;eef&Y m}} NiKd ;vDa&/
pnfobifeJY vuf,meE´ol½kdUa& rª;rwfwdjynfolwdeefY aqG;aEG;wkdifyifa&/
qD;0g;rEÅmefuRrf;usif vdr®ma&oQifi,fpdwåeJY oQifi,fem&' nDtpfukdESpfyg;½kdUbufukd
csO;f uyfuwfaw/ &Siif ,fEpS yf g;u trwf Bu;D ESpaf ,muf\pum;ukd vufcv
H u
dk af w/
trwfBuD;½kdU tvkdus jzpf&pDar/ pdwf&mcsuwfvD/
oQiif ,fEpS yf g;u avmif;Muufwpfzufurf; aygi;f wkwaf csmif;zsm;ukd uR½J idk ;f [ef
aqmifNy;D eDvaD &/ ,if;taMumif;ukd eef;usBu;D odatmif]]toQirf if;Bu;D bk&m; uReaf wmf
½kUd bufrmS uR½J idk ;f ESpaf umif a&mufeD yga&/ ,if;uR½J idk ;f ESpaf umifudk ESrd ef if;yD;awmfryl g
bk&m;}}vkYd avQmufvaD &/
eef;usBu;D uvJ]]udprö [d tD;-tD;aoQev
D u
D wf? igb&k ifrif;jrwfu,
dk af wmfwidk f
qk;H rar/ a'ykid f pGmukd qk;H rcsipf mG vJ MumeDys,.f ..[J...[J}}vkYd tm;&0rf;om jzpfvaD &/
eef;usBu;D a& uR½J idk ;f ukd ESrd ef if;zkYd rxGucf ifrmS t&ufw0aomufaw/ &Jq;D wif

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

21

a&/ Ny;D au pD;awmfqifudk pD;yemaygi;f wkwzf ufudk xGuaf w/ uR½J idk ;f [da&awmukd
a&mufpmG eefY uR½J idk ;f ESpaf umifu tNyKd i&f yfNy;D au Munhef aD &/ uR½J idk ;f ESpaf umifudk jrifpmG eJY
½k;d ½k;d uRrJ [kw/f emem½kyzf efqif;xm;a& uRyJ gvm;/ emem½kyzf efqif;xm;pGmuvJ tjcm;vl
ur[kwf igq
h &mwdum;*k? Zmykid yf sizf aYdk v;csihf igawmh'u
k y© s,.f ..rjzpf/ xGuNf y;D rSvw
G zf /Ydk
ukid ;f ...vlb
Y 0u eDNy;D au us;D aoQ wpfaumifvyk v
f u
dk af r}}
eef;usBu;D a& olwwfxm;a& emem½kyt
f wwfeefY pD&ifxm;a&qD;ukd pm;vku
d f
aw/ qD;vk;H aoQ 0rf;xJuadk &mufpmG eefY vltjzpfu us;D aoQjzpfvm;a&/
us;D aoQ ykid zf efqif;Ny;D au ysv
H m;pGmeJY oQiif ,fEpS yf g;u pGeif u
S v
f yk yf s,f vku
d af w/
rif;Bu;D u pGeaf ,mifzefqif;a&/ a,au oQiif ,f½Udk u ode;f iSuv
f yk Nf y;D au vku
d af w/
vGwfzkdYvrf;ukd rjrifa&cg rif;BuD;u orifa,mifzefqif;jyefa&/ oQifi,f½kdUu
usm;[efzefqif; Ny;D au vku
d af w/ orifa,mifzefqif;vkNYd y;D auavh vGwv
f rf;rjrifa&
twGuf qifyidk zf efqif;a&/ oQiif ,f½Udk u qifEpS af umif[ef zefqif;ys,f vku
d jf yefa&/
,if ; u rif ; BuD ; u vG w f v rf ; rjrif j zpf v ma&/ vl y k d i f j yef z ef q if ; NyD ; au
vl a wmxJ 0 if N yD ; a&/ a,tcg oQ i f i ,f ½ k d U u "m;uk d qG J N yD ; au vk d u f c G y f a w/
oQiif ,f½Udk "m;csuaf Mumifh rif;Bu;D \ vuf,mzufem; jywfxu
G v
f m;a&/
oGD;'&J oH'&J jzpfeDa& eef;usBuD;a& aumif;aumif;aMumufvefYNyD;au
iSuaf oQyidk zf efqif;vkYd toQi"f E¨o
D m&q&mawmfausmif;wku
d x
f J 0ifvNYdk y;D a&/
]]toQib
f &k m; wynfah wmfudk u,fygb&k m;}}
aMumuftm;wBu;D eJY q&mawmfudk zufxm;vDa&/
q&mawmfu ]]z,fyg}}
rif;ukd vufz,fypfvu
dk af w/ a,Ny;D au]]ukdif; rif;BuD; &efoludk ZmvufeufeJY wm;qD;zkdYvJ/ acgif;&dwf"m;awmifrS
vufrSmr[d/ rif;BuD; odrf;xm;vkdYav/ wpfckavh r[dyJeJY &efoludk wm;qD;vkdY
&zkv
Yd m;....ajymygO;D }}
]]toQib
f &k m; em;u pDuseaD & oG;D okwzf Ydk yk0gacswpfyf idk ;f pGeyYf g bk&m;}}
]]yk0g...[kwv
f m;/ rif;Bu;D odr;f xm;vkYd ausmif;rSmvJr[d/ tdrw
f rd mS vJ r[dpmG
rodvm;/ uGr;f xkwzf Ydk yk0gaoQwpfyidk ;f awmifrrS [d rif;Bu;D / tm;vk;H odr;f xm;a&av}}
q&mawmfu rif;BuD;tvkdukd rjznfhyD;/ a,Zl;eefY q&mawmfbufrSm eDvkdY
igt
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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

22

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&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

23

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

24

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

25

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

26

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

27

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

28

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h wef; jrifrh m;xif&mS ;cJMh uonf/
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,if;,Ofaus;rI wkdYonfyif &ckdiftrsKd;om;wpf&yfvkH;\ ½kd;&m,Ofaus;rIjzpfonf/
ppfawGtygt0if &ckid af jrmufyidk ;f wpfcv
k ;Hk ukd "n0wD[ak c:onf/ oHwaJG wmifuw
k Ef iS hf
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Ydk nf 'Gg&m0wDwiG f yg0ifonf/
0wDav;&yfwo
Ydk nf ½k;d &m"avhwiG f tcsKUd wn
l rD rI sm;&SMd uaomfvnf; a0g[m&ok;H pGrJ I

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

29

ESihf ajymykq
H ydk Hk av,lavodr;f uGjJ ym;jcm;em;Muonf/ &ckid af jrmufyidk ;f \ ajymykq
H ydk o
Hk nf
vQm&if;oHygonf/ &ckid af wmif ykid ;f onf vQmzsm;oHjzpfonf/ jrefrmpum;ESirfh sm;aomtm;jzifh
wlonf/ tv,fyidk ;f wGiyf gaom &r®m0wDEiS hf arC0wDw\
Ydk pum;onf pmoHayoHrsK;d
jzpfonf/ a&S;a[mif;jrefrmpum;[k qkEd idk yf gonf/ azmfjyyg a0g[m&rsm;onf &ckid jf ynfe,f
wGif 0wDwpf&yfEiS hf wpf&yftac:ta0: uGjJ ym;aom om"ursm;yif jzpfonf/
"n0wD
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trif? trd
tcif
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d ;Hk onf/ &G,w
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ok;H onf/ rmefatmifom;wko
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qkid &f iS u
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tajzwjcm;r[kwyf g/ ckw&f mwjcm; &S&mwjcm;r[kwyf g/ tar;EGm;ausmif;om; tajz
bk&m;avmif;pum;&So
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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

30

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

tbukd wMuonf/ tHMh oonht
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Y nft
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[lownf;/
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f l &ckid o
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wwfMuonf/ y&d,m,fryg rm,mrokH;bJ wJhwkd;ajymwwfMuonf/ ½kd;½kd;om;om;
oabmjzLtlpif;yGiyhf iG v
hf if;vif; ajym avh&adS yonf/ i½kyaf xmif;ukd Buo
H umavmif;í
ajymwwforl sm;r[kwaf cs/ rsm;rsm;ajymí enf;enf;vkyf oludk ½IUH cswwfMuonf/ pum;
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pum; ajymzefrsm;u pum;xJu Zmwdjy[k ajymavh&MdS uonf/ ajymzefrsm; pum;aygh
ysuf om;r&Su[
f íl ok;H avh&MdS uonf/
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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

31

vlo&d iS Mf um; pdeaf c:vu
dk jf cif;vnf; rnfayonf/
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rmefatmifjrat;

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

32

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

ywåjrm;a'0D apmrJusD
(1)
rdz&k m;apmrJuso
D nf &ckid o
f rkid ;f wGif bk&m;'g,u
d mrwpfO;D tjzpf xif&mS ;oljzpfonf/
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H \ ywåjrm;a'0D apmrJusD bk&m;orkid ;f pmtky?f
&r®m0wDr*¾Zif; trSwf (2)rS 0wD'idk ;f \ uREyfk o
f ad om pk;d rJusD aqmif;yg;? &ckid ñ
f eG zYf ;l
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toQipf uúdE(´ &ckid jf ynf)\ jynfwiG rf uk#d f "mwfO;D &mZf orkid ;f pmtkyw
f Ydk ü uGjJ ym;aom
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apmrJus\
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d f jzpfay:vmygonf/
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ouú&mZf 875 ckepS w
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f iG f rJusrD wkYd tysKd

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

33

wpfpo
k nf xif;acG? [if;cl;? ig;&Sm&efomG ;cJMh uaMumif; (pm-16) acsmif;wpfzufurf;
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MuufOvk;H cefY ausmufew
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h &hJ m &&Sad Mumif;? ausmuferD mS
olrsm;ukid v
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f Qif &T&J pJT dk aomta&mifjzifh awmufajymifaeaMumif;
(pm-17)jzifh zwf½o
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wnfxm;jcif;jzpfaMumif;ukv
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J Re;f okYd

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

34

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

oGm;a&mufavhvmoifah omfvnf; tcGirhf omí roGm;jzpfcyhJ g/

(2)
txufazmfjyyg pmtky?f aqmif;yg;rsm;ukd zwf½o
I &d &dS orQEiS hf apmrJuso
D rkid ;f ukd
qifjcifaqG;aEG; wifjyoGm;rnfjzpfygonf/ OD;&mZfawmfapwDjrwfBuD;tm; bk&if
rif;zavmif;onf aumZmouú&mZf 941 ckEpS rf S 953 ckEpS x
f d (12)ESpS w
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wm0efay;tyfcyhJ gonf/
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(yef;&Htwwf) ü uRrf;usifwwfajrmufMuaMumif;rSm orkdif;ukdrsufajcrjywfolwkdif;
todyif jzpfayonf/ okdYjzpfay&m OD;&mZfawmfapwD wnfpOfumvu &rf;NAJuRef;rS
yef;&Hq&mtcsKUd okrYd [kwf trsm;pk okrYd [kwf tm;vk;H eD;yg;rSm apwDwnf&mwGif yg0ifchJ
onfom jzpfygonf/

(3)
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vma&mufcJhMurnf jzpfaomfvnf; ESpf&Snfvrsm; wnfxm;&rnfhtajctaeukd
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f m
Ekid yf gonf/

(4)
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orD;i,fapmrJusDtygt0if om;orD; rdom;pkESifhtwl a&aygufacsmif;aus;&GmokdY
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f pfO;D

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

35

vnf; jzpfaumif;jzpfEidk yf gonf/ xko
d Ydk a&ayguaf csmif;aus;&GmwGif aexkid &f if; OD;&mZf
awmifapwD Xmyemydwyf JG usi;f ycge;D ouú&mZf 953 ckEpS cf efw
Y iG f apmrJuso
D nf ig;oJ?h
ywåjrm;&? bk&ifah &Tem;awmfoaYdk yguMf um; rdz&k m;tajrm§ ufc&H jcif;vnf; jzpfEidk yf gonf/

(5)
apmrJusrD mS i,fpOfuyif OD;&mZfawmfapwD wnfxm;&mü vkyt
f m;yg0if ukov
dk jf yK
&if; bmomw&m;tay: av;av;eufeuf ouf0if,MHk unfol wpfO;D jzpfayonf/ rdz&k m;
jzpfvmaomtcg OD;&mZfawmfapwDtm; rok;d ouFe;f uyfv&ª ef &ufvyk af eMuonfh t,o
r*F b
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ayao;onf/ ¤if;jyif ajrilqaH wmf&iS b
f &k m;ukd jyKjyifwnfxm;jcif; /rdrZd mwda'ojzpfaom
&rf;NAu
J Re;f ü apwDyx
k ;kd rsm; wnfxm;jcif;wkaYd Mumihf ¤if;bk&m;apwDrsm;rS orkid ;f oufao
rsm;tjzpf ,aeYtxd xifxif&mS ;&Sm;wnf&dS aeygao;onf/

(6)
pma&;olonf atmufygtaxmuftxm; tcsKUd tay:o;Hk oyfNy;D txufygtwdik ;f
qifjcifum aumufcsuq
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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

36

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

37

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dS nf/

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

38

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

39

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

40

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

41

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2 ay 6vufr
3 ay

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d &k m;ukd
bk&ifrif;jrwf\ OD;xdyaf y:wiG f wifNy;D uwdopömjyK&\/ rif;usiw
hf &m; q,fyg;ESit
hf nD
wkid ;f jynfudk tkycf sKyyf grnf/ Ak'o
¨ moemawmfudk cs;D jri§ yhf grnf[k usr;f opömused q
f Mdk u&
onf/ okEYd iS x
fh b
dk &k m;ukd r[mused b
f &k m; (jrwfaom opömqkjd cif;[k t"dymÜ ,f&onf)
okrYd [kwf ]]eef;wufb&k m;}}[kl ac:Muonf/ ,if;r[mused b
f &k m;rsm;ukd a0omvDacwf

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

42

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

wGif oGe;f vkyaf Mumif; okawoDwYdk wifjyxm;Ny;D jzpfonf/ ,if;r[mused b
f &k m;wkEYd iS hf
þrif;0wfwefqmESihf bk&m;\vuf&mwkrYd mS vGepf mG wlaejcif;/
(5) &ckid rf *¾Zif;? trSw(f 13)wGif &ckid rf *¾Zif;aumfrwDrS wifjyonhf þqif;wkawmf
\ ykaH wmfEiS w
hf uG atmufyguAsmwkjYd zifh azmfusL;xm;onfrmS ]]rif;0wfwefqm? pkv
H ifpmG ESihf
vuf&majrmufb?d a0omvdrS
oD&pd uú? qif;wkawmf}}[lí azmfjyxm;jcif;/
(6) q&mBu;D OD;OD;omxGe;f ESihf okawoDrsm;uvnf; a0omvDacwf vuf&mjzpf
aMumif; tqk;H tjzwfay;cJjh cif;/
okEYd iS þ
hf rif;0wfwefqmESihf ausmufb&k m;rSm a0omvDacwfwiG f xkqpfu;dk uG,cf hJ
aMumif; ajymEkid yf gonf/
(Z) xl;jcm;ay:vGif? &ckdifjynfwpfcGif
,ck oQpaf omif;bk&m; odraf wmf&dS a0omvDacwfrS ausmufqpfqif;wkawmfudk
bk&m;zl;vmol wkid ;f yDwad omreó jzpfvsu&f NdS y/D qGr;f ? yef;? qDr;D rsm; ylaZmfaeMuNy/D
tcsKUd u ZrÁLywdrif;cRw[
f ef xkqpfu;dk uG,cf o
hJ nf[k qkMd uonf/ trSet
f m;jzifh þokYd
r[kwaf y/ r[mwkid ;f pjEm´ ;rif;u r[mrkeb
d &k m;ukd ruk#d af wmfqufuyfv'ª ge;f ouJo
h Ydk
ax&0g'usr;f *efEiS t
hf nD &nf&,
G íf xkqpfjcif;jzpfonf/ ax&0g' yd#uwfawmfvm'DC
edum,f? r[m0*¾ygVad wmfwiG f jrwfpmG bk&m;onf vljY ynfavmu&Sd y&dowfav;yg;wkYd
jzpfonfh rif;y&dowf? ykPmÖ ;y&dwo
f wf? olaX;y&dwo
f wf? &[ef;y&dwo
f wfEiS hf aumif;
uifbkHu ewfy&dwfowfav;yg;jzpfaom pwkr[m&mZfewfy&dowf?wm0wðom
ewfy&dwo
f wf? rmefewfy&dowf? jA[®my&dowfrsm;okYd <ua&mufum w&m;a[mMum;
jcif;rsm; jyKvyk af Mumif; azmfjyxm;ygonf/ xkjYd yif jrwfpmG bk&m;onf rif;y&do
f wf (cwå,
d
yl&o
d ) tpnf;ta0;okYd <ua&mufNy;D w&m;a[mMum;onht
f cg rif;uJo
h Ydk rif;y&dowfrsm;
awGUjrif&ygonf/ (rif;y&dowfokdY bk&m;&Sif<u&mwGif jrwfpGmbk&m;\ toGiftjyifrSm
ouFe;f awmf0wf½v
Hk suEf iS hf yuwdtcsK;d tpm;yko
H @meftwkid ;f <uoGm;jcif;omjzpfygonf)
xkaYd Mumifh ax&0g'usr;f ESit
hf nD jrwfpmG bk&m;onf rif;y&dowfoYdk <ua&mufNy;D
w&m;a[mpOf tcsed u
f mvuyif rif;(bk&if)rsm;pGm awGU&jrif&rnfh yko
H @mefudk &nfreS ;f í
rif;0wfwefqmpkv
H ifpmG ESihf qif,ifvsuf qif;wkawmfrsm; jyKvyk u
f ;dk uG,cf MhJ uaMumif;
okEYd iS hf þbk&m;ukd ]]cwå,
d yk&o
d }} ykaH wmf[k qkEd idk yf gonf/

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

43

þqif;wkawmftm; oQpaf omif;bk&m; odraf wmfBu;D wGif omru ajrmufO;D wpfciG ?f
&ckdifjynf wpf0ef;vkH;üvnf; *kPfusufoa&ukd aqmifvsuf &ckdiforkdif; *kPf&nf?
a0omvDacwfü ppfreS af om Ak'o
¨ moemawmfukd cH,Nl y;D pOfqufrjywf xGe;f ajymifae
vdrrhf nf[k wifjyvku
d yf gownf;/
armifa'0(ajrmufOD;)

&ckid jf refrm y@dwq
f &mBu;D OD;OD;omxGe;f tm; þaqmif;yg;jzifh *kPjf yKuefawmh
yg\/
usrf;ukd;pm&if;
1/ pE´rmvmvuFm&(toQi)f &ckid &f mZ0ifopfusr;f y-'k (1293)
2/ wifvidI f (uk)d (armfvNrKd iw
f uúov
dk )f qif;wkawmfEiS hf rif;ajrmufwefqm?
jrpfrc "r®pmo0Pf r*¾Zif;(1992-ck? {Ny)D
3/ OD;omxGef;(OD;)
]]ajymjycsufrSwfpk}}
4/ OD;omxGef;(OD;)
ajrmufOD;NrdKUbk&m;orkdif;(1940)
5/

San Tha Aung (U)

Buddhist Art of Ancient Arakan(1979)

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

44

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

oufolZmESifU pE´ok"r®&mZmrif;
oufoZl mtaMumif;ukd azmfjyMu&mü &ckid &f mZ0if wpfapmifEiS w
hf pfapmif uGv
J aGJ e
Muonfudk awGU&ayonf/ tif;apmuf&mZ0ifü e&ywdrif;Bu;D pk;d pHpOf taemufrZÑrd a'o
yqmjynfrS rif;acgi;f a&mif\om;awmf ESma&mifpo
D nf aemifawmf pmvaomusLukd ykeu
f ek f
í ta&;edro
hf jzifh ESrawmf oufoZl mESit
fh wl xGuaf jy;í &ckid o
f aYdk &mufvmaMumif;ESihf
a&;om;xm;onf/
q&mirnf;&mZ0ifü yqmrif;\ om;awmf oufoZl monf pE´o"k r®&mZm rif;vuf
xuf &ckid jf ynfoYdk a&mufvmaMumif; azmfjyxm;onf/ &rf;NAaJ wmifausmif; q&mawmfu
e&ywdBu;D rif;vufxufwiG f a&muf&cdS ahJ om yqmrif;\om;awmf ESma&mifpo
D nf pE´
ok"r®&mZmrif;ukd ykeu
f ef&m ta&;edro
hf jzifh upäye'Djrpfnmzsm;okYd xGuaf jy;vGwaf jrmufchJ
onf/ okaYd omf om;awmfEpS Of ;D ESiahf emufygtcsKUd udk zrf;qD;rdí uGyrf sucf o
hJ nf/ useaf e
aomolrsm;ukd opöma&wku
d Nf y;D av;ukid pf pfonftjzpf wm0efay;tyfxm;cJo
h nf/ olwYdk
tm; &ckid w
f u
Ydk uref[ak c:aMumif; azmfjya&;om;xm;onf/
þtaMumif;ukyd if orkid ;f q&mBu;D rpöwm[maA;u ¤if;\jrefrmEkid if o
H rkid ;f pmtkyf
wGif &ckid af &;&mtcef;ü a&;om;azmfjyxm;cJo
h nf/ ol\a&;om;csurf mS csmcsK*smonf
ol\tpfudk tl&efZuftm;ykeu
f ef&m ta&;edrf o
hf jzifh c&pfouú&mZf 1660-ckEpS w
f iG f &ckid f
jynfoYdk xGuaf jy;cJ&h onf/ olt
Y m; &ckid b
f &k if pE´o"k r®&mZmrif;onf vIu
d v
f pJS mG vufcNH y;D
ruúmokYd oabFmjzihf ykaYd y;&ef uwdjyKco
hJ nf/ csmcsL*smwGif vSyaom orD;awmfwpfyg;
yg&o
dS nf/ ¤if;jyif &wemypön;f rsm;pGmwku
Yd dk ukvm;tkwrf sm;jzifh o,faqmif,cl o
hJ nf/

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

45

pE´o"k r®&mZmrif;onf csmcsL*smü ygvmaom a&TaiG&wemrsm;ukd wyfrufco
hJ nf/
¤if;jyif csmcsL *sm\orD;awmfuydk g odr;f yku
d v
f cdk o
hJ nf/ ,if;aMumifh orD;awmfrsm;teuf
tBu;D qk;H orD;tm; vufquf ay;&ef bk&ifuawmif;qkcd o
hJ nf/ csmcsL*smu &cdik b
f &k ifrmS
bmomtm;jzifv
h nf;aumif;? vlrsK;d tm;jzifh vnf;aumif;? rwlí xdr;f jrm;ray;Ekid af Mumif;
jiif;qefcahJ vonf/ csmcsL*smonf &ckid x
f ;D eef;ukd odr;f yku
d &f eftwGuf ajrmufO;D &Sd rlqvif
rsm;ukd pnf;½kH;cJhonf/ þtaMumif;ukd bk&ifuod&Sdojzifh BudKwifESdyfuGyfEkdifcJhonf/
csmcsL*smtm; zrf;qD;uGyrf sucf o
hJ nf/ om;awmfrsm;ukd axmifoiG ;f tusO;f csxm;cJo
h nf/
csmcsL*sm\a&TaiG&wemrsm;ESihf orD;awmfrsm;ukd odr;f yku
d cf o
hJ nf/ aemufwpfEpS cf efY Mum
aomtcg rlqvifwo
Ydk nf x<ucJMh uonf/ ,if;aMumifh aomif;use;f olrsm;ukd ESrd ef if;cJh
onf/ zrf;qD;xm;aom csmcsL*sm\om;awmfrsm;ESihf orD;awmfrsm;ukd ao'Pfay;cJo
h nf/
useaf eaom rlqvifrsm;ukd opöma&wku
d Nf y;D bk&ifw
h yfrawmfwiG f av;ukid pf pfonftjzpf
trIxrf;apcJo
h nf/ þtaMumif;udk tl&efZuf bk&ifMum;odapaomtcg vufpm;acsonfh
oabmjzifh &ckid yf idk ef ,fajrjzpfaom ppfwaumif;NrKd Uudk r*kw
d yfrawmftm; odr;f yku
d af pcJh
onf/ wpfqufwnf;yif b*Fvm;bk&ifcH csm&Dceftm; &mrl;ukd odr;f yku
d af pcJo
h nf/zrf;
qD;&rdaom &ckid v
f rl sK;d rsm;ukv
d nf; uRet
f jzpfa&mif;csapcJo
h nf/ ,if;aMumifh 1666ckEpS f
rSpNy;D &ckid yf idk ef ,fajrjzpfaom b*Fvm;a'oonf r*kb
d &k ifrsm;vufatmufoYkd usa&muf
cJhavonf/
rpöwmbmeD,m\ r*kdtifyg,mtwGif; c&D;wpfaxmufpmwrf;wGif csmcsL*sm
taMumif; a&;om;xm;onfrmS rif;om;csmcsL*smESiahf emufygrsm;onf &ckid jf ynfoYdk xGuf
ajy;cJMh uonf/ xkv
d pl t
k m; &ckid b
f &k if pE´o"k r®&mZmrif;u vIu
d v
f pJS mG vufccH o
hJ nf/ rsm;jym;
vSpmG aom a&TaiG&wemrsm;ukd &ckid b
f &k ifonf ,cifwpfcgrS rjrifz;l í vkcd sipf w
d af y:ayguf
cJo
h nf/ csmcsL*sm\orD;udv
k nf; vufxyfciG ahf wmif;cJo
h nf/ csmcsL*smu xku
d pd rö mS bmom
jcm;jzpfí rjzpfEkdifaMumif; jiif;qefcJhonf/ ,if;aMumifh &ckdifbk&ifonf csmcsL*smESifh
aemufvu
dk af emufygrsm;ukd 3-&uftwGi;f &ckid jf ynfrS xGuo
f mG ;&eftrdeYf ay;cJo
h nf/
xkt
d cg csmcsK*smonf ol\aemufygrsm;ESihf ajrmufO;D &Sd rlqvifrsm;ukd pnf;½k;H Ny;D bk&iftm;
ykeu
f efco
hJ nf/ bk&if\ wyfrawmfu ESrd ef if;&m csmcsL*smrSm aemufygtcsKUdEiS hf vGwaf jrmufchJ
onf/ zrf;qD;&rdaom csmcsL*sm\buf awmfrsm;ukd ao'Pfay;cJo
h nf/ csmcsL*sm\orD;
awmfEiS hf &wemypön;f rsm;ukd bk&iford ;f ,lco
hJ nf/ useaf e aomrdom;pkrsm;ukd axmifoiG ;f
tusOf;csxm;cJhonf/ aemufwpfESpfMumaomtcg bk&if\Muif,mawmf tygt0if
csmcsL*sm\rdom;pktm;vk;H udk uGyrf sucf ahJ vonf/

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

46

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

csmcsL*smtaMumif;ukd rpöwm 'Avl,ltuf'DZ,fu ¤if;\jrefrmEkdifiHorkdif;
pmtkyw
f iG f atmufyg twkid ;f a&;om;azmfjycJo
h nf/
&ckid jf ynfwiG f pE´o"k r®&mZmbk&if tkypf ;dk aepOfü tdE,
d´ Ekid if H {u&mZfrif;oQmvf*sm[ef
ewf&mG pHí use&f pfaom om;awmfav;yg; eef;vkyjJG zpfco
hJ nf/ xko
d m;awmfav;yg;wGif
tl&efZufqadk om om;awmfu tEkid &f Ny;D xD;eef;&&Scd o
hJ nf/ nDawmfEpS yf g;jzpfaom 'g&mESihf
rl&'fwrYdk mS uGyrf sucf cH &hJ onf/ usen
f aD wmf csmcsL*smrSm aemufvu
dk af emufyg vl(200)
cefEY iS t
hf wl &ckid jf ynfoYdk xGuaf jy;cJo
h nf/ xkv
d pl rk mS &ckid jf ynfrw
S pfqifh ruúmoko
Yd mG ;&ef
&nf&G,fcsuf&SdcJhonf/ ¤if;wkdYtm; pE´ok"r®&mZmrif;onf MunfjzLpGmjzifhvufcH
NyD;aexkdif&efae&mrsm; ay;xm;cJhonf/ ajrmufOD;NrdKUwGif csmcsL*smwkdYvlpkonf
&Spv
f Mumatmifaexkid cf hJ aomfvnf; ruúmokYd oGm;a&mufa&;udprö mS rjzpfEidk b
f J &Sad eonf/
csmcsL*sm\orD;tBu;D qk;H &Seb
f b
D t
D m; pE´o"k r®b&k ifEiS hf vufqufay;cJo
h nf/
aemufrMumrD csmcsL*smESiahf emufygrsm;u ykeu
f efx<ucJMh uonf/ &ckid b
f &k ifu ESrd ef if;&m
olykefrsm;ta&;edrfhí ajrmufbuf awmifwef;a'ookdY xGufajy;cJhMuonf/ okdYaomf
rMumjrifrh D csmcsL*smtm; zrf;qD;rdí ao'Pfay;cJo
h nf/ csmcsL*s\ om;rsm;ukv
d nf;
acgi;f jzwfowfNf y;D rdom;pk0if trsK;d orD;rsm;ukd tpmiwfxm;í aoqk;H apcJo
h nf[ak &;
om;xm;onf/
csmcsL*smtaMumif;ukd orkdif;q&mBuD; rpöwmaz,mu a&;om;xm;onfrSm
csmcsL*smESifhtaygif; ygrsm;onf &ckdifjynfokdY pE´ok"r®rif;vufxuf a&muf&SdcJhonf/
olwo
Ydk nf &ckid jf ynfrw
S pfqifh ruúmoko
Yd mG ;vkd Muonf/ &ckid b
f &k ifu csmcsL*sm\orD;
wpfa,muftm; vufxyfcGifhawmif;cJhonf/ csmcsL*smu vufrcHbJ jiif;qefcJhonf/
¤if;jyif bk&iftm;vkyfBuHNyD; xD;eef;vk&efBuHpnfcJhonf/ þtBuHtpnfukd bk&ifu
od&Sdojzifh csmcsL*smtm; zrf;qD;NyD; uGyfrsufapcJhonf/ orD;awmfrsm;ukd zrf;qD;NyD;
bk&ifa&SUawmfokdY oGif;aponf/ orD;awmfav;OD;teuf wpfOD;rSm bk&ifa&SUwGif
rdru
d ,
kd u
f o
dk wfí aoqk;H oGm;onf/ ESpOf ;D rSm tqdyaf omufíaoqk;H cJo
h nf/ aemufq;Hk
useo
f rD;wpfO;D ukd bk&ifu odr;f yku
d x
f m;cJo
h nf/ okaYd omf rMumrD ¤if;rSmvnf; aoqk;H
oGm;onf[k a&;om;xm;cJo
h nf/
*kPx
f ;l aqmif ausmufpm0efq&mBu;D OD;pHa&Tbu
k 1921 ckEpS f ESpcf sKyt
f pD&ifcH
pmukd ausmufpm rif;Bu;D rpöwm trfcsupf 'f al &mqmvfxH ay;ykcYd o
hJ nf/ xkt
d pD&ifc&H mü
csmcsL*smtaMumif;ukd atmufyg twkid ;f a&;om;azmfjycJyh gonf/
c&pfouú&mZf 1660-jynfEh pS w
f iG f csmcsL*smonf ol\aemufygrsm;ESit
hf wl &ckid b
f &k if

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

47

pE´o"k r®rif; xH ck0d ifco
hJ nf/ olwt
Ydk m; &ckid af &wyfwiG f trIxrf;aeMuaom ay:w*l w
D u
Ydk
*Rwaf vSrsm;jzifh tdE,
d´ Ekid if rH S ac:,cl jhJ cif;jzpfonf/ pE´o"k r®rif;onf ¤if;wkt
Yd m; 0rf;om
tm;&pGmvufcNH y;D rif;om;wk\Yd taqmifta,mifuadk y;tyfNy;D ajrmufO;D NrKd UwiG f aexkid cf iG hf
ay;cJo
h nf/ csmcsL*smonf &ckid b
f &k iftm; r*kx
d ;D eef;ukd &&Sad &;twGuf ulnaD y;&ef arwåm
&yfccH o
hJ nf/ &ckid b
f &k ifuvnf; tultnDay;rnf[k uwdu0wfjyKcahJ vonf/ csmcsL*sm
onf rdro
d rD;tBu;D qk;H ESihf pE´o"k r®&mZmrif;ukd vufqufay;Ny;D r[mrdwt
f jzpf ckid rf m
atmifaqmif&u
G cf o
hJ nf/ &ckid b
f &k ifonf tcrf;tem;Bu;D pGmjyKvyk íf vufxyfyu
JG dk qifEcJT hJ
onf/ xkt
d cg &ckid pf mqkw
d pfO;D u r*krd if;orD;\ tvSbUJG udk pmzGUJ qcdk o
hJ nfh uAsmrsm;rSm
,aeYxd &ckid pf maywGif oufoZl m\tvSbUJG tjzpf xif&mS ;aeao;onf/ oufoZl m\
tvSbUJG uAsmukd aqmif;yg;aemufq;Hk wGif azmfjyxm;ygonf/
pE´o"k r®&mZmrif;onf uwdtwkid ;f r*kx
d ;D eef;ukd odr;f Ny;D csmcsL*smtm; xD;eef;wif
&eftwGuf &ckid u
f ek ;f wyfEiS hf a&wyfrsm;ukd b*Fvm;e,frw
S pfqifh tdE,
d´ okYd csw
D ufapcJh
onf/ csw
D ufvmaom &ckid u
f ek ;f wyfudk b*Fvm;a'oü r*kb
d &k if\wyfr;ª rm*sLvm
OD;aqmifaomwyfu ntcsed w
f iG f 0ifa&mufwu
dk af vonf/ &ckid pf pfonfrsm;onf rarQmf
vifb
h t
J wku
d cf cH &hJ í taotaysmufrsm;cJo
h nf/ tiftm;rrQí a&SUorYdk wk;d Ekid b
f J wyfacguf
jyef cJ&h onf/ þtaMumif;ukd csmcsL*smMum;odaomtcg rdr\
d r*ked ef;&rIrmS vk;H 0ukeq
f ;Hk
cJah Mumif; odc&hJ onf/ okaYd omf bk&ifvyk v
f adk om csL*smonf &ckid b
f &k if xD;eef;ukv
d &k ef
BupH nfco
hJ nf/ xkt
d But
H pnfudk bk&ifo&d o
dS jzifh vku
d íf zrf;qD;&m csLcsm*smESihf aemufyg
rsm;onf &ckid jf ynfajrmufyidk ;f awmifwef;a'ookYd xGuaf jy;vGwaf jrmufcMhJ uonf/
pE´o"k r®rif;onf rdr\d aus;Zl;ukd rodbJ rku
d rf u
dk ½f idk ;f ½kid ;f BupH nfcahJ om csmcsL*smudk
rsm;pGmtrsuf xGucf o
hJ nf/ xGuaf jy;cJah om csmcsL*smESihf tzGUJ0ifrsm;tm; vku
d v
f zH rf;qD;cJ&h m
csmcsL*smeSio
fh m;rsm;ukd zrf;qD;&rdco
hJ jzifh tm;vk;H ukd ao'Pfay;cJo
h nf/ csmcsL*sm\ r,m;
ESihf orD;rsm;ukd bk&if\Muif,mawmf eSit
hf wl aexkid af pcJo
h nf/ csmcsL*sm\ useaf eaom
aemufvu
dk rf sm;ukd bk&ifw
h yfrawmfü av;ukid pf pfonftjzpf ceft
Y yfxm;cJo
h nf/ olwu
Ydk dk
uref[ak c:Muonf/ urefppfonfw\
Ydk wm0efrmS eef;awmfvNHk cKH a&;ESihf bk&if\uk,
d &f H
awmf wyfom;tjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmif&onf/
c&pfouú&mZf 1663-ckEpS w
f iG f urefppfonfrsm; wpfcak om nOft
h csed üf eef;awmf
ukd rD;½IUd Muonf/ bk&ifEiS hf rdz&k m;rsm; vGwaf jrmufcahJ omfvnf; ajrmufO;D NrKd Upm; raemoD[
rSm rD;avmifí toufq;Hk ½I;H cJ&h onf/ pE´o"k r®&mZmbk&ifonf trsuaf 'gorsm;pGmxGuíf
urefppfonftm;vk;H ukd zrf;qD;apNy;D uGyrf sucf o
hJ nf/

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

48

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

csmcsL*smtaMumif;ukd &ckdif&mZ0ifrsm;ü wpfapmifwpfrsKd;azmfjyMuouJhokdY
taemufwkdif;orkdif; ynm&Sifrsm;vnf; wpfOD;wpfrsKd;pD a&;om;cJhMuonf/ okdYaomf
csmcsL*smonf xD;eef;vkyw
JG iG f ta&;edríhf &ckid b
f &k if pE´o"k r®&mZmrif;xH ck0d ifcahJ Mumif;ukd
wnDwnGww
f nf; a&;om;cJMh uonf/ ,if;aMumifh &ckid &f mZ0iftcsKUdf u csmcsL*smonf
e&ywdrif;vufxuf a&mufcahJ Mumif; a&;om;csurf mS rjzpfEidk af cs/ pE´o"k r®&mZmrif;
vufxufom jzpfEidk af yonf/
tb,faMumifq
h adk omf e&ywdrif;Bu;D onf aumZmouú&mZf 1000 rS 1007
ckEpS x
f d (7)ESpf ajrmufO;D xD;eef;ukd pk;d pHco
hJ nf/ ¤if;rSm c&pfouú&mZfEiS q
hf v
dk Qif 1638
rS 1645 xdjzpfonf/ csmcsL*sm &ckdifjynfokdYa&muf&Sdaom c&pfouú&mZfrSm 1660
jynfEpS jf zpfojzihf pE´o"k r®&mZmrif; tkypf ;dk pOfEiS o
hf m uku
d n
f aD yonf/ xkrd if;onf c&pf
ouú&mZf (1652 rS 1674)ESpx
f d ESpaf ygi;f 22ESpw
f idk af tmif ajrmufO;D xD;eef;ukt
d yk pf ;dk aom
rif;wpfyg;jzpfonf/ oufoZl mrSmvnf; pE´o"k r®&mZmrif;tm;qufoaom csmcsL*sm\
orD;tBu;D qk;H bDbo
D mjzpfoifyh gonf/ okrYd o
S m r*krd if;orD;\ tvSbUJGuzdk UGq
J &dk m a&mufyg
rnf/ ,if;aMumifh oufoZl mqko
d nfrmS r*krd if;om; csmcsL*sm\orD;jzpfNy;D pE´o"k r®&mZm
rif;\ Muif&mawmfwpfO;D jzpfaMumif;ESihf xkrd if;orD;\ tvStyukd zGUJ qx
dk m;onhf uAsmukd
yif oufoZl mtvSzUJG [k ac:qo
dk ifah Mumif; a&;om;vku
d &f ayonf/

oufolZm\ tvSzGJUuAsmrsm;
1/ ausmq
f ef;jym;í? bk&m;&Siyf if?h bke;f awmfyiG o
hf m;? aemufciG rhf ZÑrd ? a'opk;d
atmif? rif;acgiaf &mifvQi?f jynfaxmif&n
S v
f sm;? tkv
d wfjim;í? om;Mo&o?
wvaomusL? rif;rlaomcg? usi&hf mroif?h vifíh jynfo?l vlww
Ydk nD? ESa&mif
pDEiS ?hf wlNy;D ppfruf? ykeu
f ek f zsuíf ? ajy;xGuo
f mG ;&m? oufoZl mvnf;?
aemufygwnD? ESa&mifpED iS ?hf wlNyrD uGm? &JAv
dk yf gEiS ?hf rwf&m crf;em;? om;r,m;
wk?Yd ajy;oGm;0ifajrmuf? uRecf aH &mufonf? vQaH wmufpufa&Tawmf0,faomf/
2/ pufa&Tawmfa&mif? xGe;f vQaH jymifom;? jynfaxmifaemufrmS ? yqmwkrd if;?
0ifvmvQi;f aomf? jznhw
f if;odr;f jref;f ? &meef;wnfaqmuf? 0rf;ajrmufMunfjzL?
Muifawmfríl ? &eforl rSw?f ynwf avjim;? odr;f jref;xm;onf? bk&m;qk,l
arQmfacsaomf/

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

49

3/ bk&m;qk,?l arQmaf wmfríl ? oufoZl maoG;? taxG;tBu;D ? rif;orD;uk?d xHe;D
ruGm?apyg awmfxm;? rdórH sm;ESi?hf rsu0f g;pDr?H jrwHaxGaxG? a&TaiG'*Fg;?
a&aomf rsm;\? wkid ;f om;jynfo?l vl&[ef; tm;? oem;awmfr?l wkb
Yd ek ;f vl\?
jzpfval 0csm? pMumajymif&eT ;f ? wifx
h ;l qef;onf? &H0ef;aqmfrsm; a&Tvn
S afh omf/
4/ &H0ef;aqmfa&T? aysmpf aH eí? wifah xGvpS mG ? od*gF a&mif&eT ;f ? vGex
f ;l qef;onf?
a&Teef;Ouif;? oyifxuf? aeoGiaf &SUw?l xGuaf wmfsru
l ? vQv
H al jymif0if;?
&mrif;Asm'dw?f xkw
d q
H yd \
f ? bke;f &dyaf wmifonf? vGecf sr;f Munfom? aemuf
jynfveG af usm?f &mZmarmfcg? 'g*gjynfaxmif? waqmifo&l wef? rif;yxefw?Ydk
&Tiv
f eG Mf unfpmG ? oku
d rf mS ed'ge;f ? used ;f cef;okaYd vQmuf? uRecf aH &mufom;? þ
ausmif; vsm;ukd? a&Tem;avQmufqifh? armfuGef;qifonf? 0ef;usifausmf
qef;jym;vSnhfaomf/
5/ rvQr;f xifí? xdyjf yifO;D pGe;f ? va&mifxeG ;f ok?Yd wku
Yd Re;f tm;vk;H ud,
k af &mif
zk;H onf? wif½h ;Hk 0ifajymif? vSxw
G af cgirf ?l jzLa&mifjymxGm;?a&Ttom;ESihf ? jrvm;
pdeo
f ,
G ?f vuk,
d Ef ,
S o
f ?Ydk Muifz,
G v
f q
S if?h ajcmufjypfviG íhf ? vSjcift
h &nf?
ajcmufxyf jynfvnf;? &Srd nfrxif? jrifvQif ud,
k v
f ;Hk ? oufq;Hk wdr;f rwf?
cE¨mjywfvrd ?hf ewfvnf;rwl? vlvnf;ru? b,f'geaMumif?h tvSoYdk pifveG f
oenf;/
6/ nOfah rSmifwiG üf ? tjyifqahJ v;? 0if;a&mifajy;om;? i,faoG;&Sed ;f &Sed ;f ?qifjrpdr;f
ukd ? cyford ;f &Siv
f ?l ESv;Hk rlvrd ?hf rOöLyef;jrwf? yGiahf &mifvw
T o
f ?Ydk rdjrwfajymcif?
oufv;Hk MuifrQ? OuFK'½k? wGirf o
I nm? jra*g,mESi?hf jyKAmÁ &yfaqmif/ awmifnm
ZrÁL? uRe;f av;qlwif?h &Siv
f Nl yKd ib
f uf? &rnfcuf\? NzKd ;jywfa&mifo,
G f aomf
wm ES,o
f ?Ydk EIid ;f qG,rf avQm?f tpkay:wiG ?f oauúmf a'0? EIwu
f jywfjywf?
oHcsKv
d w
T o
f nf? o,fewf oifu
h dk befoenf;/
7/ nOfah rSmifwiG üf ? tjyifqahJ v;? 0if;a&mifajy;om;? i,faoG;&Sed ;f &Sed ;f ? qif;jr
pdr;f ukd ? cyford ;f &Siv
f ?l ESv;Hk rlvrd ?hf rOöLyef;jrwf? yGiahf &mifvw
T o
f ?Ydk rdjrwfajymcif?
oufv;Hk MuifrQ? OuFL'½k? wGirf o
I nm? jra*g,mESi?hf jyKAmÁ &yfaqmif/ awmifnm

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

50

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)
ZrÁL? uRe;f av;qlwif?h &Siv
f Nl yKd ib
f uf?&rnfcuf\? NzKd ;jywfa&mifo,
G ?f aomf
wmES,o
f ?Ydk EIid ;f qG,rf avQm?f tpkay:wiG ?f oauúmf a'0? EIwu
f jywfjywf?
oHcsKd vTwo
f nf? o,fe,f oifu
h dk befoenf;/
7/ vSpHwifhí? auoQifhjrESpf? xkH;uspfvspfESifh? a&opfrGrf;zsif;? jrKaw0if;rQ?
tqif;a&Ta&mif?cef;vk;H ajymifom;? wefaqmiftwl? xGm;jymjzLvQi?f rd;k ol
ewf&yf? EIid ;f rpyfwnf?h ajcmufxyfwcH eG ?f vSwif[
h efEiS ?hf ,k*efxyd zf sm;? b,f
odMum;onf? rSwo
f m; aemifwYdk &efoenf;/
a&Tckdifausmf

rSDjirf;jyKaompmtkyfrsm;
1/ &ckid &f mZ0ifppfusr;f ('kw,
d tky-f &rf;jynfah wmifausmf q&mawmf)
2/ "n0wD&mZ0ifopf yJc;l rif;ausmif;q&mawmfO;D y@d?
3/ &ckid rf [m&mZ0ifawmfBu;D OD;omxGe;f atmif NrKd Ua[mif;NrKd U/
4/ 1921 ckEpS f a&S;a[mif;okawoetpD&ifcpH m? OD;pHa&Tb?k *kPx
f ;l aqmif
ausmufpm0ef/
5/ jrefrmEkid if o
H rkid ;f rpö[maA;?
6/ jrefrmEkid if o
H rkid ;f rpöwm 'Avl,t
l ufp'f ZD ,f/

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

51

a0omvDacwf pD;yGm;a&;ESifh tuRefYtjrif
&ckdiforkdif;ü a0omvDacwfonf pmay,Ofaus;rI tEkynm]]jrwftjrKaw
&wemcJ}}rsm; xGef; awmufa0qmcJhonf/ &ckdif,Ofaus;rI okw&wemokduf[líyif
okawoDrsm;wifpm;okH;EIef;Muonf/
pmay,Ofaus;rI tEkynmqkdonfrSm tajccHpD;yGm;a&; taqmufttkHESifh
ukid ;f uRe;f rSD uRe;f ukid ;f rSD tjyeftvSef wpfcEk iS w
hf pfck uGi;f qufrsm;ozG,f qufpyf
aygif;ul;ae&um; a0omvDacwf,Ofaus; rI e,fy,fwGif t"dutcef;u@rS
yg0ifco
hJ nfh a0omvDacwf pD;yGm;a&;taMumif;ukd tuReo
f o
d rQ avhvmwifjyvku
d f
&ygonf/
(u) a0omvDacwfESifh &wemrkd;
a0omvDacwfü pD;yGm;a&; zGUH NzKd ;wk;d wuf&jcif;rSm &wemrk;d &GmoGe;f jcif;onfvnf;
taMumif ; wpf
&yf j zpf a csonf [ k
ork d i f ; tqk d t &vnf ; aumif ; ?
pum;tpOftvmtm;jzifv
h nf;aumif; wpfqifh od&&dS yg onf/ &ckid f rif;orD;{csi;f wGif
]]½ku
d w
f idk x
f ed BYf uKd ;? rk;d vnf; &wem? &GmumumvQi?f rnfomausmrf eG ;f ? O'ge;f axmifvmT ;?
pjE´m;[k? BuD;tm;ajr§mufpnf? ukd;qufwnfonf? vlYjynfbkef;[def;? pl;wnfhav}}
[lívnf;aumif; ]]ab;awmfpjE´m;? ukd;quftm;ukd? odMum;ay;o? vSHysHvSESifh?
rk;d vnf;&wem? &GmonfxefBuKd ;? ausmv
f rT ;f [k;d onf? wefc;dk wnfyh s?H arT;uRev
f ;Hk ajy;?
{vJ,
h if,ih{f ;}} [lívnf;aumif; a0omvDacwfwpfavQmuf &wemrk;d rsm;pGm &Gmonf[k
qkdygonf/

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

52

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

wpfzef r[m0dwd HouvuFmwGifvnf; ]]pkdifumrysuf? þukd;qufum;?
aomif;uGuaf usmf Mum;? pE´m;&m;[k? rjcm;avbJ? jzpfavNr\J ? rvGMJ uyg? ESpaf ygi;f rSmum;?
wpf&majcmufq,f? ckepf0,fvQif? tu,faeus? rSwfMuukefavmh? rmCay;quf?
vSv
H ufeufjzif?h pOfv
h ufuRe;f vk;H ? wkwcf eG u
f sK;H vsu?f yufuek ;f vGe[
f ;dk ? xdex
Yf ed BYf uKd ;vsu?f
rd;k &wem? &GmumumvQi?f awZmwufNzKd ;? Bu;D wefc;dk onf? vlrsK;d ½k"d ñTwv
f w
S nf;}}[lí
a0omvDacwf pE´&m; (pjE´m;)rif;ukd;qufü &wemrkd;&GmoGef;cJhonf[k uAsmvuFm
pmaywkjYd zifh rSww
f rf;wifxm;cJo
h nfudk awGU&ygonf/
xkdYjyif pVpjE´m;rif;vufxuf "r®aZ,smtrwfBuD; a&;pyfoDukH;cJhaom
pjE´m;bGJUwGifvnf; ]]jzL aqmifavqGqG? &jim;&wem? xD;jzLumau? &mZmvlYxG#f?
tkrd if;jrwfav}} [lí &wemrk;d &GmoGe;f cJh aMumif; od&ygonf/
pjEm´ ;rif;rsm; vufxufü a0omvDacwfwiG f &wemrk;d rsm;pGm &GmoGe;f cJo
h nfudk
&ckid 0f Zd mÆ a&usr;f ESihf &mZyku
H sr;f 'kw,
d wGw
J iG f atmufygtwkid ;f azmfjyxm;ygonf/
(1)oD&doD'ga'0oQif&aoh? (2)oD&dok"r®mvuFm&oQif&aoh? (3)oD&dacrm0&
oQi&f aoh? (4)oD&o
d 'k Ad Á oQi&f aoh? (5)oD&o
d rk *FvoQi&f aoh? (6)oD&ad &0woQif &aoh?
(7)oD&t
d aemr'óoQi&f aoh tp&Sad om ok;H usyd o
f ;Hk yg;&aohwo
Ydk nf a0omvDNrKd Uawmf
ta&SUbuf aZmf*sDajrmifESifh anmifcsKdifajrmifwkdYqkH&m OrifokH;q,fawmifwGif tkwf*l
wpfckpDwkdYjzifh oDwif;okH;Muum *E¨m&DxGuf&yfvrf;ukd BudK;pm;cJhMuonf/ xGuf&yf
ayguaf omtcg pjEm´ ;rif;aejynfawmfü rif;ud;k qufwidk af tmif &wemrk;fd &GmoGe;f aponf/
wcsKdUaom &aohrsm;rSm aq;0dZÆmrsm;jzpfMuonf[k qkdonf/ xkdpOftcg &wemrkd;
&GmoGe;f apaom &aohwt
Ydk m; ½kyw
f ?k qif;wk? wHqyd cf wfEydS íf ylaZmfMuonf[k qk\
d /
(Orifo;Hk q,fwrYdk mS ,cktcg opfyifBu;D rsm; ayguaf &mufNyKd ysuu
f m ,aeYwidk f a0omvD
&Gm ta&SUbufü&Syd gao;onf)
þodYk a0omvDacwfwpfavQmufwiG f &wemrk;d &GmoGe;f cJo
h nf[k orkid ;f rsm;u
qkx
d m;onfudk awGU&ayonf/
(c) &ckdifbk&ifrsm; pD;yGm;a& tajrmftjrif
pjE´m;rif;rsm; vufxufü a0omvDonf EkdifiHpD;yGm;a&;ü vQrf;vQrf;awmuf
xG e f ; awmuf a umif ; rG e f c J h \ / tajccH Z pf j rpf u k d NcH K i k H a vh v mqef ; ppf M unh f y gu
a0omvDacwfwGif EkdifiHwumESifh ukefpnful;oef; a&mif;0,fa&;xGef;um;cJhonfukd
awGU&ayonf/ *kdtm? rvf'kdufuRef;? oD&dvuFm? b*Fvm;? plrwå&m? *smAm? w½kwf?

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

53

tdE,
d´ paom Ekid if rH sm;ESihf a&mif;a&;0,fwm rsm;jym;cJah vonf/ Ekid if jH cm;ukeo
f nfrsm;onf
&ckid jf ynfrx
S u
G af om qefpyg;? qif? uRe;f ? ysO;f uwk;d ? ysO;f r? csw
d ?f rJe,f? ysm;za,mif;?
csnfxnf? 0g;*Grf; ponfwkdYukd tjrwfwEkd; 0,f,lMuonf/ t"duykdYukefrSm
qefpyg;jzpfonf/
a0omvDNrKd Uawmf\ trnftjynft
h pku
H yif ]]a0omvDausmufavSum;}} [lí
qkd½kd;&SdcJhayonf/ wpfrkdifcefY &Snfvsm;aom ausmufavSum; oabFmqdyfcHwpfck
aqmufvyk af y;xm;jcif;uyifvQif yifv,f &yfjcm; wkid ;f jynfrsm;ESihf ul;oef;a&mif;0,f&ef
qGaJ qmifzw
d af c:aeoa,mif jzpfaeayonf/ txl;xl; tjym;jym;aom aumufyo
J vJwYdk
ayg<u,f 0 &ma'o[k l trnf & onf h a0omvD t m; ausmuf a vS u m
oabFmqdyfcH&Sdjcif;uyif ukefonftaygif;wkdY pkaygif;aexkdif&m t&yf[lívnf;
teuft"dymÜ ,fwpfrsK;d zGiq
hf Mdkuao;onf/ &ckid o
f rkid ;f tqkt
d & pjEm´ ;rif;rsm;vufxufwiG f
ESpfpOf yifv,ful; &GufoabFmBuD; rsm; wpfaomif;cefY a0omvDNrdKUawmfokdY
vma&muful;oef;a&mif;0,fMu&onf[k odygonf/ okdYjzpfí a0omvDNrdKUawmfrSm
,if;acwf ,if;tcsdefu EkdifiHwum &GufoabFmBuD;rsm;jzifh t0iftxGuf rpJ
]]ysm;yef;cwfrQ}} pnfum;cJhayvdrfhrnf/ urÇmYtqifhtwef;rD oabFmqdyfBuD; jzpf
cJhayvdrfhrnf/
Ekid if w
H pfEidk if H pD;yGm;a&; zGUH NzKd ;wk;d wufjcif;rSm Ekid if u
H dk tkycf sKyo
f nfh bk&ifrsm;\
tajrmftjrif Bu;D rm; rItay: rlwnfygonf/ &ckid b
f &k ifrsm;onf Ekid if w
H umaps;uGurf sm;ukd
pl;prf;pavhvmEkid &f ef oHrsm;? taxmufawmfrsm;ukd vQKUfd 0u
S af pvTwNf y;D 0,fvt
dk m;ESihf
a&mif ; vk d t m;? aps;EI e f ; tajctae? Ek d i f i H a &;tae txm; ponf r sm;uk d
vQKUd 0u
S af pvTwx
f m;onfh oHrsm;ESihf taxmufawmfrsm;xHrS &&So
d nfh aps;EIe;f toD;oD;ukd
ñIEd idI ;f Ny;D aemuf Ekid if aH wmf\ qefpyg;aps;EIe;f ukd wkid ;f jynfoYdk aMunm&onf/ Ekid if jH cm;okYd
wifykdYa&mif;csrnfh aps;EIef;rSm twuftus&Sdaomfvnf; jynfwGif;aps;EIef;ukdum;
ykHaoowfrSwfxm;onf/
qefpyg;a&mif;0,fa&;vkyif ef;um; Bu;D us,o
f nfEiS t
fh rQ pnf;urf;pepfvnf;
usevS o nf / &S i f b k & if u wk d u f ½ k d u f x d e f ; csKyf x m;onf / ok d Y w ap bk & if o nf
rdrdwpfOD;wnf;aom oabmjzifh y&rf;ywm aqmif&Gufonf[k rrSwf,loifhyg/
&ck d i f e ef ; pOf e ef ; quf \ r[mOya'jzpf a om ]]rEk " r® o wf u srf ; }}vmES i f h tnD
aqmif&u
G jf cif;omjzpfonf/
a0omvDacwfu pjEm´ ;rif;rsm;onf Ekid if jH cm;ukeo
f nfrsm;\ &if;ES;D jrK§ yEf rHS w
I u
Ydk dk

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

54

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

qGaJ qmifEidk &f ef tvkiYd mS wHcg;zGiphf ;D yGm;a&;pepf(aps;uGupf ;D yGm;pepf)ukd usio
hf ;Hk Muonf/
EkdifiHjcm;&GufoabFmBuD;rsm; t0if txGuf aumif;rGefap&ef wpfrkdifcefY&Snfaom
ausmufavSum; oabFmqdycf w
H pfcu
k dk pDraH qmufay; xm;jcif;jzifv
h nf; Ekid if w
H umESihf
ul;oef;a&mif;0,frIxGef;um;apjyefonf/ (ausmufavSum; oabFmqdyf cHrSm
a0omvD N rd K Uawmf a [mif ; \ taemuf b uf rk d i f 0 uf c ef Y t uG m eE´ e 'D a c:
&rf;acsmif;jrpfurf;yg;ay:ü wnf&Sdaom yDyif&if;aus;&GmwGif ausmufavSum;
t<uif;tuserf sm;ukd ,aeYxufwidk af vhvmawGU&dS Ekid yf gao;onf/ ¤if;jyif tcgtm;avsmpf mG
cGijhf yKxm;aom taumufceG u
f if;vGwcf iG hf pepfrmS vnf; wkid ;f wpfyg;om ukeo
f nfrsm;
txl;ESpfNcdKufonfh pD;yGm;a&;rufvkH;wpfckjzpfawmhonf/ a0omvDbk&ifrsm; onf
tjyifNrdKU½kd;twGif;üom xGef,ufpkdufysKd;apNyD; usDawmfrsm;ukdvnf; cHwyfESifh
NrKd U½;dk twGi;f üom wnfaqmufjcif;\ &nf&,
G cf surf mS tu,fí NrKd Uawmfudk &eforl sm;
0kdif;&HydwfqkdYvmygu NrdKUawmfol NrdKUawmfom;rsm; qefa&pyg; &du©mrsm; rjywf
vyfap&efjzpfayonf/ a0omvDacwfwiG f a&T'*Fg; aiG'*Fg;? Bu;D i,f vwf wku
Yd dk cyfEydS f
tok;H jyKapjcif;jzifh ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&; vG,u
f al ponf/
xkdYjyif &ckdifbk&ifrsm;onf pkdufysKd;a&;? arG;jrLa&;? EkdifiHawmfumuG,fa&;?
aomufa&okH;a& &&Sda&;wkdYtwGuf &nf&G,fí qnfajrmif;tif;tkdifrsm;ukd wnf
aqmufay;xm;jyefonf/ þokdYvQif &ckdifbk&if rsm;onf rdrdwkdYNrdKU&Gma'oukd zGHUNzdK;
wk;d wufap&ef rnfrQ tajrmftjrifBu;D rm;pGm aqmif&u
G cf o
hJ nfudk rSe;f qEkid yf gonf/
(*) a0omvDacwfu xif&Sm;aom qnfawmfrsm;
a0omvDb&k ifrsm;onf pD;yGm;a&;\t"duusaom pku
d yf sK;d a&;twGuf qnfajrmif;?
tif ; ? tk d i f rsm;uk d acwf r D í enf ; pepf u seaom Ad o k u mvuf & mrsm;jzif h
pD r H a qmuf v k y f x m;Muonf / xif & S m ;aom qnf a jrmif ; rsm;rS m &E´ e 'D ac:
ausmufqnfawmfBu;D ? aZmf*saD jrmifqnf? anmifcsKid af jrmifqnf? yef;acsmif; ajrmif;qnf?
Muyf p yf q nf ? rusm;qnf ? r&T D a jrmif ; qnf ? o&uf q nf ? tawmif a wmf q nf ?
o&ufwpfyif qnf? tif;usKH;qnf? awmif&if;qnf? vuúmqnf? qvif;yef;qnf?
wbufqnf (tif;&Snfqnf)? zkdYawmifqnf ponfwkdYukd awmifxyfawmifMum;wkdYü
ydwq
f nfNy;D pDrw
H nfaqmufco
hJ nfudk awGU&aYON/F
þuJo
h Ydk qnf? ajrmif;? acsmif;uefrsm;udk aqmufvyk &f ef NrKd Upm;? &Gmpm;rsm;xHrS
qifq
h Ndk y;D jynforl sm; uvnf; ('kid ;f ust
D pkrYd sm;) rdrw
d \
Ydk ½k;d om;aom todw&m;jzifh

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

55

wnfaqmufay;jcif;jzpfygonf/ a&S;&ckdif BuD;rsm;onf qnfawmfrsm;ukd rdrdwkdY\
pD ; yG m ;a&;twG u f
t"d u aomh c suf w pf c k t jzpf
tav;xm;um
wnfaqmufcJhjcif;vnf;jzpfygonf/
(C) &wemrkd;ESifh ywfoufí tuRefYtjrif
a0omvD a cwf w pf a vQ m uf v k H ; wG i f &wemrk d ; rsm;pG m &G m oG e f ; cJ h o nf [ k
orkdif;rsm;tqkdt& od&yg onf/ ,if;ESifhywfoufí tuRefYtjrifukd ajym&vQif
a0omvDpjE´m;rif;rsm;onf wHcg;zGifhpD;yGm;a&; pepf (aps;uGufpD;yGm;a&;pepf)ukd
usio
hf ;Hk jcif;/ Ekid if w
H um ukeo
f nfrsm;tm; tcgtm;avsmpf mG cGijhfyKxm;aom taumuftcGef
uif;vGwjf cif; pepfrmS vnf; wkid ;f wpfyg; ukeo
f nfrsm; txl;ESpNf cKd uo
f nfh pD;yGm;a&;
rufv;Hk wpfcjk zpfjcif;? qefpyg;pdu
k yf sK;d &ef oifw
h ifrh Qwaom &moDOwk&ídS qefpyg; pku
d yf sK;fd
jzpfxGef;jcif;? pkdufysKd;vkyfukdif&eftwGufvnf; vkdtyfaoma&ukd jznfhqnf;ay;Ekdif&ef
qnfajrmif;? wmwrHrsm; toif&h dS aejcif;? Ekid if jH cm;&Guo
f abFmBu;D rsm; tcsed rf a&G; 0ifxu
G f
oGm;vmEkid &f ef oabFmqdycf aH umif;rGejf cif;? a&mif;a&;0,fwm vG,u
f al p&ef a&T'*Fg;?
aiG'*Fg;tBu;D tvwf? ti,frsm;ukd t&G,t
f pm; (5)rsK;d cyfEydS t
f ok;H jyKaeNyjD zpfjcif;wkaYd Mumifh
jynfov
l x
l rk mS csr;f om<u,f0Muyku
H dk qkv
d o
dk avm[k awG;awmrdygonf/
wpfaMumif;uvn;f a0omvDonf b*Fvm;yifv,f urf;ajcwGif ta&;ygaom
ukeo
f ,
G pf cef; wpfcjk zpfcjhJ cif;? ta&SUwidk ;f Ekid if rH sm;ESihf tdE,
d´ jynfwYdk ul;oef;a&mif;0,frw
I iG f
tcsuftcsmusonfh Mum;pcef; yifv,fqdyfurf;NrdKUwpfckjzpfcJhjcif;? a0omvDrif;
wku
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I dk rsm;pGmtm;ay; jcif;? Ekid if u
H t
dk yk cf sKyo
f nfh bk&ifrsm;\
pD;yGm;a&; tajrmftjrifBuD;rm;jcif;? qefpyg;a&mif;0,fa&;vkyfief; pnf;pepfusejcif;
wkaYd Mumifh pjEm´ ;rif;rsm;vufxufu a0omvDjynfow
l rYdk mS &wemrk;d &GmouJo
h Ydk wpfaeY
wpfjcm;pD;yGm;Opöm &wemrsm; csr;f om<u,f0vmyku
H dk wifpm;ñTe;f qkad vovm;[k pOf;pm;
rdygonf/ trSew
f u,f &wemrk;d &Gmonf r&Gmonfuadk wmh tuRet
Yf aeESihf twwf
rqkEd idk af wmhyg/ rnfoq
Ydk adk p ,if;tcsed u
f a0omvDjynfow
l rYdk mS csr;f om<u,f0cJrh nfum;
ajrBuD;vufcwfrvGJyg/
xkt
d csed u
f ]]a0omvDNrKd Uawmfonfum; wm0wd o
H mewfjynf\ vSywifw
h ,fjcif;
ukyd if jyuf&,f jyKEidk o
f nhNf rKd U}} [lí qk½d ;dk &Scd ahJ yonf/ rZÑrd a'owpfvmT ;wGif aevkv
d vkd
xGe;f um;pnfyifcahJ om NrKd Uawmf jzpfco
hJ nf/ wpfenf;tm;jzifh &ckid ,
f Ofaus;rIr@dKi}f }
jrwftjrKaw &wemcJ}} [k wifpm;ñTe;f qkEd idk yf gonf/ ompGXmeDa0omvDum; MuufysrH us

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

56

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

pnfum;cJrh nfum; trSeyf if/
a&S;&ckdifBuD;rsm;\ av;pm;pHwifxkdufaom &ckdifh,Ofaus;rI r@Kdifjzpfaom
&ckid ,
hf Ofaus;rI\ txifu& Adou
k mvuf&mrGerf sm;ESihf jynhv
f Qx
H nf0gaeaom txl;xl;
tjym;jym;aom aumufyo
J vJwYdk ayg<u,f&m a'o[ktrnf&aom ukeo
f nftaygi;f wkYd
pkaygi;f aexkid &f mt&yf[íl trnfaqmifaom ul;oef;a&mif;0,frjI zifh vQr;f vQr;f awmuf
cJah om a0omvDNrKd Uawmfonfum; wpfacwfwpfcsed u
f ,Ofaus;rItqift
h wef;onf
urÇmt
Y qift
h wef;rD xdyw
f ef;wGif &Scd ahJ yonf/ a0omvDom; tmZmenf pmr&Dw\
Ydk
owåd Aswu
då u
dk m; b*Fvm;a&jyiftESUH ajcqefjY ycJMh uonf/
okaYd omf at'D 327-ckwikd f pjEm´ ;rif;(a'GpjEm´ ;)rSonf at'D 818ckEpS f irifixkH
(apma&Txl;)xd ESpfaygif; 490ausmfwkdifatmif eef;ouf&SnfMumcJhaom a0omvD
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vsu&f MdS uonf/ a0omvDum; tedp0ö &ocFg&mw&m;ukd rvGeq
f efEidk f awmhygwum;/
a&S;&ckid Bf u;D rsm;\ pHwifxu
dk af om ,Ofaus;rI tarGtESprf sm;ukd xde;f odr;f &efrmS
&ckid w
f pfrsK;d om; vk;H wk\
Yd orkid ;f ay;wm0efwpf&yf[k cH,o
l ihaf yownf;/
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usrf;ukd;
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d bapmjzLrif;orD;
{;csif;(1970-ck Ek0d ifbm)
2/OD;pHomatmifa&; ]]tmeE´mpjE}´ } (&Sp&f mpk &ckid af 0omvDrif;) (1975-ck?
rwfv)
3/&ckid jf ynfe,fjynfoaYl umifprD S xkwaf 0aom jynfe,fjzpfpOforkid ;f ? yxrwGJ
orkid ;f u@ (1984-ck)
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awmfBu;D }}aqmif;yg;? &ckid w
f efaqmif aqmif;yg;rsm;pmtky(f 1-8-94 aeYxw
k )f
5/OD;xGe;f a&Tcidk (f r[m0dZmÆ )xkwaf 0aom ]]&ckid pf mqkad wmfrsm;}}pmtky(f 1991-xkw)f

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

57

&ckdifbk&if r[morw\ bdodufyGJawmf
&ckid af jrmufO;D NrKd Uawmfonf wpfcsed u
f &ckid w
f idk ;f jynf? &ckid v
f rl sK;d wk\Yd *kPo
f wif;ukd
tvGefxif&Sm; apcJhaom NrdKUawmfwpfNrdKUjzpfonf/ taemufEkdifiHrS okawoDrsm;u
wk;d wufom,mpnfyifcrf;em;csr;f omaMumif; cs;D rGr;f cJMh uonf/ ajrmufO;D NrKd Uawmfudk
&ckid b
f &k ifrif;apmrGeo
f nf &ckid o
f uú&mZf (792)ck? c&pf(1430)ckEpS w
f iG f wnfaxmifco
hJ nf/
e&dEo
´ ?l r[m&mZolqadk om ynm&SEd pS Of ;D ukd NrKd Uawmfwnf&ef Bu;D rª;apcJo
h nf/ e&dEo
´ o
l nf
jynfov
l x
l b
k ufrS tBu;D trª;jzpfNy;D r[m&mZolonf bk&ifbufrS tBu;D trª;jzpfonf/
NrdKUawmfrwnfrDuyif tdrf? vrf;? acsmif;? ul;wkdY? wHwm;? awmawmif? NrdKU½kd;? jy?
eef;awmf ponfwkdYukd jynfhpkHpGm wHqdyfcyfcJhonf/ ,ckacwfykHpH (Plan) qGJonhf
oabmtwkid ;f yif jzpfonf/ rif;apmrGeo
f nf eef;NrKd Uawmfudk 0kid ;f &Hí NrKd Uaygi;f (23)NrKd Uwnf&ef
qk;H jzwfco
hJ nf/ rif;ukd oufw?dk jynfuadk xmifymG ; qkad ompum;jzifh ]]igaovQif aoygap?
igw
h idk ;f jynf igv
h rl sK;d touf&n
S w
f nfwv
hH Qif aumif;Ny}D } [k qkíd rif;apmrGeo
f nf wkid ;f
jynfEiS hf vlrsK;d twGuf toufupdk eG u
Yf m ajrmufO;D NrKd Uawmfudk wnfaxmifcahJ vonf/
ajrmufOD;NrdKUawmfonf rif;apmrGefvufxuf ykHpH(Plan) cscJhonfhtwkdif;
Ny;D aumif;orQNy;D pD;cJh í <uif;use&f pfonfrsm;vnf; <uif;use&f pfcahJ vonf/ rif;apmrGef
ewf&GmpHawmfrlNyD;onfaemufykdif; pkd;pHaom &ckdifbk&ifrsm;u qufvufí jyKjyif
wnfaqmufcMhJ uonf/ &nfreS ;f onftwkid ;f Ny;D onft
h csed w
f iG u
f m; ajrmufO;D NrKd Uawmf
onf urÇmausmfNrdKUwpfNrdKU jzpfcJhayNyD/
ajrmufOD;NrdKUawmfwGif aumZmouú&mZf (792)ckrS (1146)ckxd? c&pf(1430)rS

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

58

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

(1784)ckESpfwGif &ckdifwkdY\ aemufqkH;bk&ifjzpfaom ]]ta*¾gyknaZm&mZ}} bGJUcH
]]&ckid b
f &k ifr[morw}} rif;vkyt
f yk cf sKyf cJo
h nf/ r[morwbk&ifonf yd#uwfusr;f *ef
avmuDuse;f *efEiS hf ynm&yfrsm;pGmukd wwfuRr;f onfh owåAd swEdå iS hf jynfph o
Hk jl zpfonf/
ajrmuf O D ; Nrd K Uawmf w G i f oD & d o k " r® & mZm ac: rif ; [&D vuf x uf r S p í
aemufyidk ;f umvrsm;onf umv0dyw
Ü (då qkw,
f w
k af omtcsed )f rsm;ESio
hf m &ifqidk cf &hJ onf/
tkycf sKyaf om rif;rsm;onfvnf; wm&Snw
f mrsm; tkycf sKyEf idk jf cif;r&S/d wkid ;f jynfvx
l v
k nf;
NiKd jiifyifyef;pGm 'kuq
© if;&Judk om cHpm;vmcJMh u&onf/ xkt
d csed w
f iG f t&nftcsi;f jynh0f aom
r[morw&mZm tavmif;tvsmjzpf aom ]]owkd;atmif}}\ *kPfowif;xifay:
ausmaf Zm vmaomaMumifh &ckid jf ynfojl ynfom;ESiw
hf uG &ckid jf ynf&dS &[EÅm? ykPmÖ ;ynm&Sd
taygi;f wkYd pka0;wkid yf ifNf y;D ]]owk;d atmif}} tm; rif;jyKawmfryl g[t
k Burd Bf urd f awmif;yef
avQmufxm;Muonfh ]]owkd;atmif}}onf &ckdifbk&if ]]r[morw&mZm}} tjzpf
twGufvufcHawmfrlcJhavonf/
r[morwum; rif;rsKd;rif;EG,fr[kwf tvGefawmfíom? jynfoljynfom;wkdY
tm;ukd;avmufí om jynfoltm;vkH;u wnDwñGwfwnf; oabmwlqkH;jzwf
wifajrm§ ufccH &hJ aom tvGex
f ;l qef;aom &ckid b
f &k ifwpfyg;yifjzpfonf/ rsuaf rSmufacwf\
a&S U ajy;[k y if q k d a vmuf o nf / jynf o l r sm;\ wif a jr§ m uf jcif ; uk d cH & oam
r[morwrif;onf 1145-ck uqkev
f qef;(15)&uf Mumoyaw;aeY nae(4)csuw
f ;D
ausmf (pufem&Dr[kwyf g/ a&S;a[mif; &ckid ef m&D wpfrsK;d omjzpfygonf) rum&v*fpef;?
ar"keüf we*FaEG? Ak'[
¨ ;l ? u&u#fü aomMum/ "Eküpae/ uk&H moDü Mumoyaw;?
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f iG f t*FgN*Kd [&f adS om r*Fvm tcgawmfwiG f tacgiw
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bdodufyGJawmf
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k af wmf&?H tpk? Akv
d rf if;? wyfuif;? vuf0jJ ref? vuf,mjref? trwfynm&S?d ajriluRe;f pm;?
ykPÖm;ynm&SdeE´&? omoemykdifq&mawmf? odef;ckd a&mufbkef;BuD;?(odef;ckd=oD[kdVf
=oD&dvuFm) okdufwwfavmufay? aA'ifokH;ykH wpfzufurf;ul;&aom &aoh
]]pwdp0H wD}} wkYd yg0ifMuonf/
r[morwbk&ifu ]]þ"n0wD &ckid jf ynfBu;D ü aevozG,t
f vGeyf nmtjrifEiS hf
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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

59

rif;rluek af omfvnf; bdou
d rf cHaomrif; rsm;omvQif rsm;ívm\/ ]]&[ef;rSmodum© ?
rif ; rS m bd o d u f } } cH r S o mvQ i f rif ; rnf & monf / tbd o d u f r cH u rif ; rrnf /
tbdodufrcHaom rif;wkdYonf/ ]]o'dolypm}}rQomrif;jzpfonf/tbdodufcHrSrkcsrif;
jzpf&monf/ xkdYaMumifh a&ajroeif; rif;[lu rcRwfbdodufcH&monf/ tbdodufcH
uvnf; bGUJ wq
H yd ef mrawmfcH NrJ jzpfonf/ &ckid b
f &k ifrsm;tbdou
d rf cHonfrmS MumNyjD zpfí
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l nf/
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a&muf & S d a eMuaom ynm&S d t aygif ; vnf ; a&S ; xk H ; pH r ysuf acwf E S i h f v nf ; tnD
bdou
d yf aJG wmfudk qufvufppD OfMuonf/
bdou
d ef ef;awmf
bdou
d yf aJG wmfudk a&S;rif;wkv
Yd ufxuf ajreef;awmfwiG rf cH? 108-awmif&adS om
ajrwGif a&ozef; om;jzifh aqmuftyfaom bdou
d ef ef;awmfwiG o
f m tbdou
d cf aH wmfrl
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opfyifrsKd;? wHcGefBuD;? N*dK[f½kyf? ewf½kyf? cif;usif;omatmif? 108-awmifajrwGif
bdodufeef;awmf topfaqmufvkyfí cHawmfrloifhrnf/ ESpfrsKd;wkdYwGif xl;qef;pGm
wefqmqiftyfaom r@myfBu;D ukd aqmufí ¤if;r@myfwiG f a&ozef;om;tajc? taygi?f
trSw
D uJ&dS aom Burd t
f if;ysOpf &D ifí bdou
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h ,fpmG Nc&H t
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f nf/ &mZbdaouusr;f wGif

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

60

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

yv’it
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tvkH;tavsmif;xifpGm xkvkyf&onf/ 4-rsufESmpvkH;ü jcaoFh½kyf(4)pD;apmifhae[ef
xkvkyf&onf/ &mZyv’ifxm;&majrukd okH;awmifESifh wpfrkdufjrifh&onf/ ajrjyif ü
wifhw,fjcif;ukd jyKwwfaom ae&mtxl;ukd yv’if[kac:onf/ {u&mZfrif;\
ae&mawmfonf oH[m oeyv’iaf c:\/ tjcm;ae&mrsm;xuf txl;vkyaf qmif&rnf
jzpfonf/
xD;jzLawmf
&mZyv’ifawmfukd tv,fA[kdjyKí vuf,mbufawmfu ueuú'gefxD;awmf?
wrG w f x D ; awmf ? ,mOf x D ; awmf ? Mu0S e f ; xD ; awmf ? (ok d Y r [k w f ) y'k r ® x D ; awmf ?
ork'Z´ mxD;awmf? ,Ofx;D awmf? MuiSe;f xD; awmf[al om xD;awmf(4)pif;ukd pku
d x
f &l onf/
&mZyv’ifawmf\ vuf0Jawmfbufuvnf; ueuú'gef xD;awmf? orku©xD;awmf?
0doBuKH x;D awmf? ol&,
d xD;awmf? [laom xD;awmf (4)pif;ukd pku
d x
f &l rnf/ pkpak ygi;f
xD;awmf (8)pif; pku
d x
f x
l m;&onf/ t½k;d t&Guu
f dk a&Tjzifh rGr;f vsuv
f yk &f onf/
tif;ysOfawmf
tif ; ysOf a wmf u k d bd o d u f o G e f ; awmf & &ef ae&mtjzpf j yKvk y f M u&onf /
a&ozef;om;jzifh jyKvyk &f onf/ a&ozef;om;ukd tajctaygi;f trS(D wJu)J ygatmif ckid cf phH mG
jyKvk y f & ef oOö m vD a e&mawmf r S m uJ h o k d Y Bud r f r suf u G i f ; cwf & uf v k y f & onf /
tbd o d u f c H & ef t wG u f ¤if ; tif y sOf a wmf o nf Mum&T D ; (Mum½k y f a &;)aom
tif;ysOaf wmfjzpf&rnf/ Muma&;jc,f&müvnf; a&ozef;om;wGif a&;jc,fro
S mr[kw?f
ysOfjzL? ydwfjzL? ydwfEk ponfh tcsKd;oihfawmf&mwGif a&;jc,fEkdifonf/ a&;jc,fNyD;a&
ozef;om;oihfatmif (vSatmif) Budrfjcif;\atmuf? txuftvkd&Sd&mrsm;wGif
uyfvTrf;&onf/ xkdtxnfrsm;ukd okH;aqmifvkduvnf; tbdodufoGef;NyD;aomf
tok;H jyKEidk o
f nf/
tif;ysOfa&;enf;
tem;a&ok;H aMumif;eSihf av;axmifw
h cH g;? wHcg;av;rsuEf mS ? ok;H azwmifyrmPukid
qefrek n
Yf uf jzifh a&;om;pD&ifNy;D vQif tv,fwiG f y'krm® Muma&;onf/ erEÅ"mwfoufqif
aom rsOf;aMumif;rsm;rSm? tzkdtruyfvsuf tcif;tusif;yg jyKvkyf&onf/ enf;

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61

tzko
d ufoufom wGo
J ;Hk aom xk;H a[mif;enf; rsm;ukd tok;H jyK&onf/ Muma&;ykaH &;[ef
um; tv,fA[kcd suu
f ídk yGichf sy(f 8)ck&adS om 'kw,
d yef;xyf? ¤if;enf;qifu
h m&Haom
yGichf sy(f 8)ckEiS hf 'kw,
d yef;xyf? ¤if;qifu
h m&Haom yGichf sy(f 8)ck&adS om wwd,yef;xyf?
þokeYd nf;jzifh yef;xyf(8)Burd w
f idk w
f idk ?f yGichf sy(f 8)ckpED iS hf yGichf syaf ygi;f (64)csyf ta&twGu&f dS
atmif a&;&\/
{u&mZfrif;jrwf pHy,fawmfrlovsuf bdodufcH&rnfjzpf\/ MumyGifh (64)csyf
qkdaomfvnf; ]]qifjzL onfawmaMumifh}} qkdouJhokdY yGifhcsyf(100)jyKvkyfvQifvnf;
Mumy'krm® jzpf\/ (64)csyaf tmuf ravsmv
h sif Ny;D onfomwnf;/

bdodufrif;cHawmfypönf;rsm;
bdou
d cf yH aJG wmfü yg0ifaom ypön;f rsm;ukd ,cifa&SUu rif;wkt
Yd ok;H jyk Kco
hJ nfyh \
JG
ok;H pkwpfprk Qom ok;H pGjJ cif;jzpfonf/
om;NrD;,yf
urÇmOD;tpuyif vlwiG f or®w? om;aumifwiG f auo&mZmjcaoF?h ig;wGif ig;eE´m?
iSuw
f iG f Oa'gi;f rif;wdo
Yk nf rif;jyKMuonf/
jcaoFo
h nfum; om;wumwk\Yd rif;jzpfí twkr&Sad om om;&J? om;jrwfjzpfonf/
oD[moeyv’ifwGifvnf; jcaoFh½kyfukd tokH;jyKonf/ om;NrD;,yfonfvnf; auo
&mZmjcaoF\
h tNr;D (Nr;D 'ke;f ? y'ke;f )ukv
d yk &f onf/ &wempDaom om;Nr;D ,yf\ t½k;d
twkdif;twm yrmPt&Snfonf vufopf (28)opfjyKvkyf&onf/ (14)vufrausmf
cef&Y rfdS nf/ jcaoF½h yk (f ref0ifaeaomjcaoF)h ukd ajrmufO;D acwfü tok;H jyKcMhJ uonfudk awGU
&onf)
,yfEpS pf if;
]]arm&0dow? [wåuESi?hf 0gVADZed? trnf[o
d m;? vQn
H ;D a&mif0if;,yfEpS pf if;}}
(O*¾gp-H \eef;yGihf armfueG ;f rS? O*¾gpo
H nf OuúmysrH [kwyf g)[lonftwkid ;f oD;Nr;D ,yftjzpf
auo&mZmjcaoFo
h m;Nr;D ,yftjyif Oa'gi;f om;Nr;D ,yfvnf; yg&rnf/ ,yft½k;d rsm;onf
EGJUEGJUñGwfñGwf&Sd&rnf/ &TD(a&T)ywåjrm;pDjc,faom t½kd;jzpfonf/ xkdpGt½kd;onf wvH
(4)awmifrQomjzpfonf/ þ,yfudk rif;csi;f wko
Yd nf "g;xpfvufwifí cg;wGif t½k;d ukd
axmufí bk&if\rsuEf mS eHyg;ESpzf ufudk vDo,
G (f av&atmif)rdatmif nifnifomom

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

62

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

cwf&aom ,yfjzpfonf/
xD;av;yg;ESihf tMum;tMum; ,yfrm;csyfvsuf
,yfrm;[lonfrmS vnf; ,yf0idk ;f ? ,yf&n
S w
f u
Ydk dk qkv
d o
dk nf/ &ckid pf mqkd O*¾gp\
H
eef;yGiahf rmfueG ;f rsm;wGif ]]xD;av;yg;ESifh tMum;tMum;? ,yfrm;csyv
f su?f pOfqufo;Hk nD?
q,f h o k H ; vD } } [l o nf E S i f h t nD vuf 0 J ? vuf , mxD ; jzLawmf ( 4)pif ; tMum;
aqmuf p k d u f x m;tyf o nh f ,yf r sm;jzpf o nf / xD ; jzLawmf t ½k d ; ES i f h
oifah tmifvyk af qmif&onf/ txl;tqef; &wemrsm;jzifh pDjc,f&onf/
,yfrsm;ESihfywfoufí pma&;ol udk,fawGUwpfckukd a&;yg&ap/ pma&;olwkdY
yvuf0NrdKUe,fodkY c&D;a&mufckduf? yvuf0NrdKUe,f&Sd &ckdifvlrsKd;rsm;wGif ]]tHa[myGJ}}
jyKvyk u
f si;f yaeMuonfudk awGU&onf/ ¤if;yGw
J iG f ,yfrm;[kac:aom ,yfwpfrsK;d ukyd g
okH;pGJMuonfukd awGU&onf/ xkda'oü 0kdif;0kdif;pufpuf ,yfukd ,yf0kdif;[kac:í
4axmifjh yKvyk x
f m;aom ,yfudk ,wfrm;[k ac:Muonfudk awGU&onf/ tHa[myGJ ü
¤if;,yf0idk ;f ,yfrmESprf sK;d pvk;H ukd &Tm;(,yfcyf)Muonf/
oif;uspfawmf
ZrÁL&pf&(DT a&T)pifjzifNh y;D aom ywåjrm;Mu,fjzifh pDjc,faom ruk#d af wmf]]v0kid ;f ? t0ef;}}
ozG , f w if h w,f p G m ezl ; jyif ü &pf y wf a om oif ; uspf a wmf u k d bk & if r if ; jrwf
qifjref;awmfrl&onf/
ruk#d o
f &zl
ruk#d Ef iS hf o&zlw\
Ydk xl;jcm;yko
H nf tenf;i,fom&So
d nf/ ruk#d üf txG#rf &S?d
o&zl ü txG # f & S d &S d o nf r Qomxl ; jcm;onf / þruk d # f u k d v nf ;
a&S ; xk H ; pH t wk d i f ; aomf v nf ; aumif ; ? ,if ; xuf v G e f í aomf vnf ; aumif ; ?
qif,ifjyKvyk &f onf/ ZrÁL&pf&(DT a&T)ukd vky&f onf/
NcDeif;
NcDeif;[lonf NcD(ajc)ü eif;&aom zdeif;í xm;&aom (zdeyf)ukd ac:onf/
bk&ifrif;jrwfp;D awmf rl&ef a&Tjzifjh yKvyk &f onf/

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63

oefvsuf
oefvsuu
f dk bk&ifrif;jrwfu,
kd w
f idk f ukid &f ef? wpfzufomG ;? ESpzf ufomG ; ponfjzihf
BudKuf&mtoGm; jyKvkyfEkdifonf/ &TD(a&T)jzifh rGrf;rHí a&T? &J? trsuf&wem pDaom
t½k;d ESijhf yKvyk &f onf/
ukd,f0wfawmfESifh tuFsD
txl;xl;aom &wemwkdYjzifh pDjc,ftyfaom jzLvSpGmaom ukd,f0wfawmf
tqif;ckepfyg;&Sad om ri,frBu;D aom tuFs aD wmfwu
Ydk dk bk&ifrif;jrwf 0wfqif&onf/
vufaumufawmf
bk&ifrif;\ vufaumufawmfukd Mu,f(9)vkH;(ukd;vkH;)pDí &TD(a&T)piftwdukd
jyKvyk &f onf/
em;yef;
em;yef;tqDwiG f qGaJ om em;oG,yf ef;uk;H jzpfonf/
vnf&b
JG ,uf
vkdif(vnf) &GJb,ufawmfukd bk&ifrif;jrwf 0wfqif&ef a&SUusrf;vmtwkdif;
aomfvnf;aumif;? xl;qef;í aomfvnf;aumif;jyKvyk &f onf/
pvG,af wmf
rdrd\tusifhukd t"d|mefaqmufwnfvkdaomaMumifh pvG,fawmfwif&onf/
opfowå0gwo
Ydk nf rdr\
d vuf,mbufrS tpmrsm;uko
d mpm;í vuf0b
J ufrS tpmukd
rpm;/ þuJo
h Ydk uwdNro
J uJo
h Ydk tukov
dk u
f dk MuOfz,ft[
hH k opfowå0gudk twk,íl
&od(&aoh)wkYd opfeufta&ukd aqmifuek o
f nf/ þokb
Yd &k ifrif;jrwfrpS í rif;nDrif;om;?
rª;awmfrwfawmfwkdYrSm rdrdtusifht"d|mef usifhokH;aqmufwnfvkdí pvG,fawmf
qifjref;Muonf/ (,ckacwf &ckid Of ykoo
f nfrsm;? Oykow
f b
H ufywfjcif;onfvnf; p
vG,q
f if,ifí usiahf om a&S;a[mif; &ckid x
f ;Hk pHtusiw
hf pfcyk ifjzpfonf/
&T(D a&T)aiGpaom &wemwkjYd zifh rif;polww
Ydk iG f jyKvyk o
f nhf pvG,w
f o
Ydk nf
= rª;Bu;D rwfBu;D t*¾r[maoemywdwrYdk mS pvG,(f 18)oG,/f

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64

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

= tdraf &SUrif;rSm (21)oG,/f
= &DNr&D iS (f a&ajr&h iS )f rif;wkrYd mS (24)oG,af om pvG,w
f u
Ydk kd qifjref;&onf/
þpvG,fwifaom olwkdYrSm rdrdwdkY a&SUtpOftvmtusifhrsm;ukd rdrdwkdYtavsmuf
usifh&onf/ pvG,fqifjcif;aMumifh rdrdwkdY tusifhtvkduf &DNrDoQifwkdYrSmvnf;
uk o k d v f w &m;yG m ;rsm;rnf / ok d Y r S wk d i f ; Ek d i f i H o m,mpnf y if r nf / bk & m;ocif
omoemxGe;f vif;rnf pvG,w
f ifjcif;onf/ wefqmqifjcif; omrmefr[kw/f tusihf
t"d|mefEiS w
hf uG tusK;d twkid ;f rod&o
dS nf/
tvkH;pkHaom rif;wkdY\ wefqmqif,ifjcif;wkdYjzifh odMum;rif;\toa&uJhokdY
wifw
h ,fpmG qif,if &onf/ a&SU,cif&NdS y;D aom &mZbdaou use;f vmtwkid ;f xufyif
vGeíf aomfvnf; qif,ifawmfrt
l yf onf/
&T'D @(ac:)awmifr;DT (awmifa0S;)awmf
awmifr;DT awmfudk &Dozef;om;jzifjh yKvyk &f onf/ awmifr;DT awmfwiG f opfajzmif&h rnf?
yk;d uku
d rf yg&? trsut
f zkuif;&rnf? t&Sno
f nf bk&ifrif;jrwf\ ezl;qHawmfEiS t
hf nD
jzpf&rnf/ iGDtqif;(aiGtqif;) jyKvkyfNyD; &TD(a&T)EG,f jc,fovsufjyKvkyf&onf/
txl;xl;aom t½kyrf sm;vnf; xkvyk yf g0ifonf/ &T(D a&T)jr? ywåjrm;rsm;vnf; pDjc,f&onf/
&mZbdodufjyKvkyf&mwGif vuf,mawmfu (13)pif;? vuf0Jawmfu (13)pif;
cif;usi;f jyKvyk &f onf/
r*Fvmwef;xl;
uvyfNc(D ajc)uJo
h Ydk vkyaf qmifaom twifawmfudk r*Fvmwef;xl;[lí ac:onf/
,cifu usD;NcD (aus;ajc)(okdYr[kwf) awmifZvyfyef;o@mefjyKvkyfMuonf/ ¤if;ukd
uGrf;cGuf? aomuf&D(aomufa&) awmfwifí tcefYoifh&m cif;usif;vkyfaqmifonf/
r*FvmtusKdf;iSmjzpfonf/ &TDjzifhjyKvkyf&onf/ oif;avQm jzpfap? jcL;yef;jcL;EG,f
tajymuftjcnfEiS jfh zpfap jyKvyk &f onf/
c½koif;
vuf,m&pf c½koif;(4)vk;H yg&onf/ &wemjzifh pDjc,f&onf/

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65

a&Tu&m;
ewfyo&ef ruef;o@mefcu
G t
f xl;yifjzpfonf/
vufow
k yf 0g
a&Ta&miftqif;&Sad om vufow
k yf 0gudk jyKvyk &f onf/
Oaygif;
a&TcGuf/ / a&Tom;twdudk jyKvyk &f onf/
a&T[if;csKd/ / iG(D aiG)om;twdudk jyKvyk &f onf/
a&Tt;dk /
/ a&Tom;twdudk jyKvyk &f onf/
aMu;tkd;/ / ajrtkd;/
axG;cH/ / a&Tom;twdudk jyKvyk &f onf/
a&Tzvm;/ / a&aomuf&ef a&Tom;twdudk jyKvyk &f onf/
uGr;f avmif;// (uGr;f cGu?f uGr;f tpf? uGr;f *g) uGr;f xnf&h ef jzpfonf/
tvHwcH eG af wmf(7)yg;
tvHwcH eG af wmfrsm;ukd aumif;aomaeY? eu©ww
f üYdk pD&ifjyKvyk &f onf/ tvHrsm;wGif
1/ aea&mifEiS w
hf al omta&mif(ol&,
d a&mif) tvH?
2/ jzLaom ta&miftvH
3/ 0gaom ta&miftvH
4/ rSnahf om ta&miftvH
5/ pdr;f aom ta&miftvH
6/ eDaom ta&miftvH
7/ jymaom ta&mif tvHrsm;ukd jyKvyk &f onf/
¤if;tvHrsm;wGifvnf;
1/ arsmuf½kyf
2/ *VKe½f yk f
3/ bDv;l ½kyf
4/ jcaoF½h yk f
5/ Oa'gi;f ½kyf

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

66

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)
6/ qif½kyf
7/ e*g;½kyrf sm;ukd jyKvyk yf g0if&onf/

a&Teef;awmfudk jyKjyifjcif;
a&Teef;awmfudk pE´mokre&mZmrif;vufxuf rD;oifah vmifonfudk aemufrif;wkYd
vufxuf rvkyjf zpfc/hJ tkwyf Eéuo
f m pku
d x
f El idk cf o
hJ nf/ tkwjf rpfrcsEidk cf /hJ ,ckvufxufü
wnfaqmuf&m tkwef ef;oD[m oeyv’if eef;OD;jymó'fomNy;D ygonf/ ]],if;wGirf m&bif
OD;uif&mZyv’i}f } wnfxm;onf/
þ"n0wD &ckid jf ynfü ]]eef;yko
H rkid ;f }}rsm;rSm oHwNJG rKd Uü ]]'obmwdu}} nDaemif
rif;jyKaomtcg odMum;ewfrif;onf nOfhoef;acgif,HwGif udk,fwkdifxifvsuf
eef;ykzH efqif;í jzpfonftwkid ;f aqmufvyk o
f nfh eef;ykrH [mrked jrwfpmG bk&m; wum
awmf&if;pE´o&l ,
fd &mZmvufxuf eef;yk?H 'o&mZmrif; vufxufeef;ykEH iS hf ajrmufO;D NrKd U
awmfwiG f rif;apmrGef rif;bmwkv
Yd ufxuf eef;ykw
H o
Ydk nf a&SUusr;f *efEiS t
fh nD wnfvyk f
aom eef;ykjH zpfonf/
,Mwm? ,m,D? tif;tkid f ½kyw
f rk sm;jzifh aumif;rGeo
f nf/ ,if;twkid ;f ,ckeef;awmf
ukd wnfvyk rf nf/ a&Teef;jyó'f&mZyv’if OD;uifawmfonf/ pma[mif; pmwrf;xk;H pH
ESirhf nDrñGw&f o
dS nfudk xk;H pHEiS hf ajymif;jyifMu&rnf/ a&SUOya' xk;H wrf;&mZ0ifvm&So
d nfom
oifhjrwfonf/ tcrf;tem; tokH;taqmif pD&ifcefYxm;rIrSm y"mejzpfí xkH;pHOya'
rysufr,Gif;? om;awmftpOf? ajr;awmftquf? jrpfawmftñTefY? qif;oufvsuf
ajymif;jyifoifo
h nfrsm;ukd ajymif;jyifoifo
h nfyif/ urÇmOD;xk;H pH&o
dS nf/ urÇmtvwfwiG f
jzpfaom xkH;pHvnf;&Sdonf/ w&m;pnf? acgif;avmif; xm;í jynfoljynfom;wkdY
cwfxkd;&onhf xkH;pHrsm; vnf; ,ckumvay:xGef;aomfvnf; aemifrif;wkdYrSD&ef
xk;H pHOya'yifjzpfonf/
&mZyv’ifxkH;pHtwkdif;twm Oya'orSm &ckdifynm&Sd O*¾gpHpyfqkdaom eef;yGifh
armfueG ;f awmfrsm; ESit
hf nD ,cktXk ef ef;OD;uif&mZ]]yv’i}f }awmfudk ajymif;jcif;jzpfonf/
bkef;uHyg&rDBuD;jrwfawmfrlonfESifh avsmfpGm twkdif;xuftvGefjzpfapvkdaomaMumifh
ajymif;awmfrljcif;jzpfonf/ a&S;xkH;pHrusjyKvkyfcJhonfh taetxm;ukd odfrf;í
a&SUuqif;vwfonhf xk;H pHtaetxm;ESiahf vsmaf tmif ajymif;jcif;omjzpfonf/
ajreef;jymom'fawmfwiG f oD[moeyv’i?f aemufyw
JG ufprkwf aqmifawmfwiG f
y'krm® oe&mZ yv’iaf wmfudk vkyaf qmif&rnf/ ]]&mZyv’if vky½f ;dk xk;H pHpmwrf;a[mif;}}

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

67

twkid ;f jzpfonf/
oBuFeaf wmfac:jcif;
oBueF af wmfac:jcif;onf NrKd UawmfwiG ;f rSm ac:jcif;? NrKd Uawmfjyifoifah wmf&mrSmac:jcif;
xkH;pH&Sdonf/ ,if;ESpfrsKd;wGif tcrf;tem; BuD;BuDk;us,fus,f oBuFefac:awmfrlvQif
NrdKUjyifoifhawmf&mrSm ac:awmfrl onf/ tcrf;tem;BuD;BuD;us,fus,fr[kwfvQif
a&TNrKd Uawmf twGi;f rSmyif oBueF af c:awmfro
l nf/ ,cktcg tuRe½f Udk &ckid jf ynfBu;D wGiu
f m;
umv0dyw
Ü t
då cgBu;D BuKH BuKd uaf eaomaMumifh tcrf;tem;Bu;D Bu;D us,u
f s,Ef iS hf rcHawmf
rlNy/D toift
h wifah vsmpf mG aom cHawmfrrl nf[k bk&ifred aYf wmfral omf a&S;xk;H pHwiG f ok;H pk
wpfpak vsmeh nf;í jyKvyk v
f Qif oifjh rwfvyS gonf[k avQmufMuí qk;H jzwfjyKvyk Mf uonf/
bGUJ wHqyd ef mrHawmf
rif;{u&mZf\ wHqyd ef mrHawmf (emrnf? trnfawmf)? rdz&k m;Bu;D \ wHqyd ef mrH
awmf? Zmwmawmfrsm;ukv
d nf; jyKvyk íf bdou
d o
f eG ;f jyKtyfEiS ;f &onf/ ywåjrm;taqmif
ta,mifrsm;rSvnf; a&S;xk;H pHta[mif; twkid ;f pD&if&onf/ rif;{u&mZfemrHawmf Zmwm
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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

68

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

69

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f &d pämef
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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

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&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

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&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

74

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

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k w
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t&Sifaumov’(*a0oD)

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

75

&ckdifrI yef;csD[ef
&ckid ,
f Ofaus;rI &ckid pf mayrsm;ukd vufvrS ;f rDoavmuf avhvmrdonf/ pmay
oufoufavhvmíum; auseyfEpS o
f uftm;&jcif;r&Syd g/
okEYd iS t
hf cgtm;vyfwidk ;f 0goemxk&H m taygi;f toif;rsm;ESihf a&S;tarGtESpjf zpfaom
taqmuftOD;? ½kyv
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avhvmqnf;yl;rdonf/ txl;ojzifh uREyfk rf mS rdr0d goemyg&m yef;cst
D Ekynmjzifh a&S;a[mif;
vuf&mrsm;ukd yef;csu
D m;jzifh rSww
f rf;wifavh&o
dS nf/
wpfcgwpfcg vGepf mG vSytcsK;d usNy;D tHMh op&maumif;í vufzsm;cgavmufatmif
vuf&majrmufaom ½kyyf rHk sm;ESiv
hf nf; BuKH awGUMu&onf/ &ckid ,
f Ofaus;rItEkvuf&m
½kyv
f ;Hk ½ky<f ursm;onf avhvmrSww
f rf;wifaeolrsm;tm; euf½idI ;fpmG ñIUd ,zl rf;pm;aeMu
ovm;[kyif xifrw
S &f onf/ tzrf;cH&olrsm;tzkv
Yd nf; ½ke;f xGuv
f w
G af jrmufjcif;iSm rpGr;f
omawmhay/ avhvmonht
f ykid ;f rSmvnf; pepfwus&&dS ef avhvmolrsm;tzkYd c&D;rayguf
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d t
dk yfaom a&S;&ckid rf l yef;csD
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&efvt
dk yfvmojzifh atmufygtwkid ;f &SmazGMunho
f nf/

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

76

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)

ukd;uG,fonfhbmom
pum;-toHae toHxm;
pmay-ta&;tom;
vlraI &;&m-tusiphf ½ku
d f
qif,if-xkH;-zGJU-wD;-u
aqmufvyk Af o
d u
k m vufrt
I Ekynm ponfwjYdk zpfMuonf/ þokYd cGjJ crf;vku
d f
onfEiS hf a&S;yef;csED iS hf ywfoufaomtaMumif;t&mvk&d if;ukd &SmBu&H efvrf;p
pwif&&SNd yjD zpf&m? yef;csyD nmonf qif,if? xk;H -zGUJ -qk-d wD;-u aqmufvyk f
a&; Adou
k m? vufrI ynm paom taMumif;t&mrsm;ESifh qufpyfaeaMumif;
odvm&NyjD zpfonf/
wpfzef a&S;yef;csED iS hf ywfoufaom tusK;H 0ifaeonfah e&mrsm;ukd odaomfvnf;
avhvmenf;? avhvm[efudk cGjJ crf;Munh&f jyefonf/ xkaYd Mumifh a&S;a[mif;,Ofaus;rI
vuf&mwpfcck Ek iS hf BuKH widk ;f BuKH widk ;f atmufygtpDtpOftwkid ;f aqmif&u
G &f jyefonf/
(1)
yef;csrD supf jd zifh yef;cs½D aI xmifrh S Munf½h jI cif;?
(2)
t&Su
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JG ;l ,ljcif;?
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G Mf unhjf cif;?
(c) rvkv
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þae&mrSm tok;H 0ifaeonf/ a&S;a[mif;yef;cst
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aysmufr&Sm) ajrxnfp? a<uxnfp? aMu;p? oHp? ausmufw;Hk ausmufcJ tydik ;f tusK;d
tptersm; tok;H rjyKbJ ausmckid ;f ypfí r&ay/
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yef;uGurf sm; t½kyrf sm;onfvnf; qufpyfay:vmrnfjzpfonf/ ¤if;ukMd unhNf y;D acwfEiS hf

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

77

vlaerIpepfwu
Ydk dk cefrY eS ;f &eftwGuf vrf;yGio
hf mG ;NyjD zpfonf/
yef;csyD nmonf urÇmay:&v
dS rl sK;d wkid ;f \ tEkynmwkw
Yd iG f t"duaomhcsuyf nm&yf
Bu;D wpf&yfjzpfonf/ ykaH zmfa&;qGjJ cif; ( Design)ukd urÇmOD;vlom;rSpí ,aeYxufwidk f
tok;H jyKvmcJMh uonf/
,aeYurÇmay:&dS wkid ;f jynfwidk ;f ? vlrsK;d wkid ;f rSm rdrw
d \
Ydk ud,
k yf idk ,
f Ofaus;rIrsm;ukd
vGwfvGwfvyfvyfazmfxkwfaeMuonf/ xkdYaMumifh uRekfyfwkdY &ckdifvlrsKd;wkdYonfvnf;
rdrw
d Ydk ud,
k yf idk ,
f Ofaus;rIudk vGwv
f yfpmG azmfxw
k Ef idk o
f nf/
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vTr;f rk;d rIaMumifh rdrw
d u
Ydk ,
kd yf idk ,
f Ofaus;rIudk avhvmrIUtm;enf;aeMuonf/ arhxm;Mu
onfqv
dk nf; rrSm;ay/
wHigEiS hf eD;wHig rkq;dk ESihf eD;rkq;dk qko
d uJo
h Ydk eD;pyf&mbufyg oGm;&onfrmS rSeu
f ef
aom ed,mrwpfcjk zpfaeonf/ þodEYk iS hf rdrb
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h m tjcm;tawG;rsm;jzifh
vGiahf rsmaeMuonf/ rdrb
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d 0\ Zpfjrpfudk &SmBuMH u&rnf/
rdru
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kd u
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f Ofaus;rIEiS hf teD;pyfq;Hk jzpfatmif ysK;d axmifjyKpak vhusiahf y;&ef
vkt
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f \
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qif,ifx;Hk zGUrJ rI sm;xJrS ½kyv
f ;Hk ½ky<f ursm;ukd &ckid rf yI ef;cs[
D efEiS hf tjyKoabmjzifh ykaH zmfvu
dk Mf u
ygvQif acwftqufqufwrd jf rK§ yaf ysmufu,
G af eaom ½k;d &m"avhrsm; uGi;f uGi;f Bu;D ay:
ayguv
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ausmf o m G e f Y
rSDSjirf;
1/ &ckdifa&S;a[mif;,Ofaus;rIvuf&mrsm;?
&ckdifwefaqmifr*¾Zif;? pmrsufESm(32)½I
2/ ajrmufOD;vrf;ñTef? 1988?

OD;OD;omxGef;a&;onf/
twGJ1? trSwf 5? 1955-56
&ckid jf ynfe,fjynfoaYl umifp?D
ppfawGNrdKUrS jyKpkonf/
3/ ajrmufO;D NrKd Ue,f jzpfpOforkid ;f pmrsuEf mS (269) NrdKUe,frSwfwrf;jyKpka&;aumfrwD
ajrmufOD;NrdKUe,fygwD,lepf(1982)
4/ tuReo
f ad om &ckifd af &S;a[mif;yef;csD
yef;csrD if;ñk?d &ckid rf *¾Zif;trSw(f 14)
5/ "n0wD? a0omvD? av;NrKd U? ajrmufO;D paomae&mtESUHtjym;oko
Yd mG ;a&mufavhvmcsuf
rsm;/

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

78

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

6/ &ckid ñ
f eG zYf ;l 1968
ajrom;r[kwfbJ ausmufom;ay:wGif a<u&nfokwfyef;csDvuf&m tykdif;tp
"mwfykHtjzLa&mif a<u&nfay:wGif tpdrf;a&mifjzifh aumufaMumif;yef;csDqGJxm;onf/
aumufaMumif; yef;cs\D vuf&mrSm tufjcif;? vku
d jf cif;? acsmjf cif;? r&Sb
d J &J0phH mG qGx
J m;aom
aumufaMumif;vuf&mukd awGU&&dS onf/ aus;iSuEf iS hf yef;cufrmS vGepf mG yem&Ny;D [yfrd
onf/
awGU&adS omae&m &wemykaH pwD Murf;cif; rif;carmif;aumZm(975),ckvuf&rdS mS
þa<u&nfow
k v
f uf&mudk ajrmufO;D a&S;a[mif;okawoejywku
d o
f Ydk ajymif;a&TUxm;Ny;D
jzpfonf/

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

79

rif;jym;NrdKUe,frS awGU&Sd&aom
a0omvDacwf(jyifNyD;) taxmuftxm;rsm;
rif;jym;NrKd Uonf &ckid jf ynfe,f\ NrKd UawmfppfawGNrKd UrS ta&SUajrmuft&yf rkid (f 40)ausmf
uGma0;Ny;D tOöee'Dac:av;NrKd Ujrpfü jrpf0usaom taemufbufurf;ezl;ay:ü wnf&adS om
NrdKUwpfNrdKUjzpfonf/
þNrKd Uwnf&&dS mt&yfa'o a&S;u used ;f uRe;f wkid ;f (okrYd [kw)f used ;f wku
d t
f jzpfjzihf
xif&mS ;cJo
h nf/ &ckid jf ynfudk t*Fvyd rf if;wkYd odr;f ,lNy;D onfah emufwiG u
f m; þa'oukd
e,fyidk ½f ;Hk pku
d &f mtjzpf owfrw
S v
f suf at'D (1867)ckEpS rf S pwifí ]rif;jym;NrKd U}[lí
owfrw
S af c:wiG v
f mcJMh uonfrmS ,aeYtxdyifjzpfayonf/
rif;jym;NrdKUe,fonf taemufbufwGif aygufawmNrdKUe,f? ta&SUbufwGif
apwkw&å mNrKd Ue,f ajrmufbufwiG f ajrmufO;D NrKd Ue,fEiS hf awmifbufwiG f ajrykNH rKd Ue,fwjYdk zifh
e,ferdwcf si;f xdpyfvsuf wnf&o
dS nf/
þokeYd ,ferdww
f nf&&dS m rif;jym;NrKd Ue,ftwGi;f ü a&S;tcgu ta&;ygxif&mS ;cJo
h nfh
uRe;f Bu;D ok;H uRe;f ukd awGU&&dS onf/ ,if;wkrYd mS used ;f uRe;f MuyfpifuRe;f ESifh awmwef;uRe;f
wkdYjzpfMuayonf/
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d Re;f wküYd a&S;&ckid b
f &k ifrsm; vufxuftcgu wnfxm;ud;k uG,cf MhJ uaom
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hf jcm;
aomorkid ;f qkid &f m½ky<f uif;rsm;ukd txifu&awGU&&dS ay&m? ,if;wku
Yd dk avhvmMunh½f jI cif;

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

80

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

tm;jzifh &ckid w
f jYkd zwfoef;vmcJMh uonfh a0omvD? av;NrKd U? ajrmufO;D tp&Sad om acwfBu;D
rsm;\ orkid ;f pOftcsKUd uydk if od&&dS rnfjzpfayonf/
txl;ojzifh rif;jym;NrKd Ue,fü at'D (327 rS 818)xd xGe;f um;cJah om a0omvDacwf
ESihf ywfoufonft
h axmuftxm;rsm;;ukd rif;jym;NrKd U used ;f awmifwef;wpfciG w
f iG v
f nf;
aumif;? rif;jym;NrdKUe,f MuyfpifuRef; ptif;&Gma[mif;teD;0ef;usifwGifvnf;aumif;?
rif;jym;NrKd Ue,f zko
H macsmif;&Sd tk;d ykaH wmif&mG 0ef;usiw
f iG v
f nf;aumif; toD;oD;awGU&EdS idk f
onfjzpfojzifh þaqmif;yg;ü ,if;wk\Yd taMumif;ukd oufaocHorkid ;f ½ky<f uif;"mwfyrHk sm;
ESit
hf wl a&;om;azmfjyvku
d af ytH/h
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vGecf ahJ om q,fEpS af usmf umvu rif;jym;NrKd Ue,f\ taemufbufused ;f awmif
ZD0mS "mwfawmfwnf&&dS mt&yf awmifatmufajc&if;rS ausmufpmwpfcsyu
f dk &&Scd o
hJ nf/
xkad usmufpmukd q&mOD;atmifrif;u ausmufpm&&So
d x
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h nf/
tqkyd gausmufpmudk zwf½&I eftwGuf q&mBu;D OD;pHomatmif&&dS m &efuek Nf rKd UoYdk ay;ykaYd p
cJo
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ausmufpmudk wpfzefq&mOD;atmifrif;u jyefvnf&,lNy;D ,ckrif;jym;NrKd U (NrKd Urawmif
ausmif;)ü odr;f qnf;vsux
f m;&So
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k jf cif;uku
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cefrY eS ;f í at'D (5)&mpk a&;xk;d pmjzpfaMumif;ukd cefrY eS ;f ajymqkcd o
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dk af umif;rIrsm;ukd
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wGiv
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d u
l

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

81

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

82

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

83

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

84

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

85

"m;aoG;xm;ojzifh pmvk;H rsm;rSm ysupf ;D vsu&f adS eonf/ okawoDtaygi;f wkt
Yd prS tqk;H
od&adS tmif zwf½o
I ifyh gonf/
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xkt
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awmifwef;olaX;uke;f &Gm\taemufbufwnfw
h nfh ,ciford af [mif;ae&mwpfcrk S pwlyg
wpfqu
l dk &&Scd MJh uonf/
þpwlygudk ,if;rSo,f,v
l mNy;D rif;jym;NrKd U &wemhArd mefausmif;üxm;&Scd o
hJ nf/
xkpd wlygudk pma&;olomG ;a&mufí Munf½h cI phJ Ofu pwlygrmS atmufajcxufjcrf;uGaJ eNy;D
tay:üvnf; yJah eonhaf e&mrsm;ukd jrifawGUc&hJ onf/
,if;ukd bke;f awmfBu;D ausmif;rS q&mawmfEiS w
hf umwcsKUd u t*Fawjzifh jyefvnf
zk;H tkyrf rG ;f rHNy;D xD;awmftopf wyfqifjcif;? atmufajcukAwk;H ukd jyKjyifjcif;ESihf ,if;ukd
aq;jzLokwv
f suf ,cktcg bke;f awmfBu;D ausmif;\ txuford üf uk;d uG,x
f m;&Sad eonf/
pwlygudk topfrrG ;f rHjyKvyk x
f m;onft
h wGuf e*kv
d uf&mESihf uGmjcm;vsu&f adS eonf/
,ckrrG ;f rHjc,foxm;aom pwlyg\ tjrifrh mS (3-ay 11-vufr)&So
d nf/
1-8/ usdef;awmif0ef;usifrS a0omvDacwfaiG'*Fg;
a&S;&ckid jf ynfukd a&S;&ckid rf if;rsm; tkypf ;dk cJph Oftcgu þused ;f uRe;f a'oü vlaerI
&Scd o
hJ nfjzpfay&m ,if;ü tkycf sKyrf t
I wkid ;f twmt& used ;f uRe;f pm;rsm;ukd ceft
Y yfí tkycf sKyf
apcJo
h nf/ vlaerIt& &yf&mG rsm;wnfaxmifí þ0ef;usiüf aexkid cf MhJ uonfjzpfay&m
,cif&mG a[mif;ae&mwkrYd S &ckid rf if;rsm; oGe;f vkycf wfEydS cf ahJ om aiG'*Fg;trsm;tjym;ukyd if
þa'orS &&Scd MhJ uonf/
þwGif a0omvDacwf\ taxmuftxm;jzpfaom (0D&pjE)´ rif;\ '*Fg;tcsKUd udk
þa'orS &&Scd zhJ ;l Muonf[k od&&dS onf/
rif;jym;NrKd Ue,fjzpfpOforkid ;f (NrKd Ue,fyuprS xkwaf 0onf/) pm-111
2-u/ rif;jym;NrdKUe,f MuyfpifuRef;rS ptif;&Gma[mif;
MuyfpifuRe;f onf rif;jym;NrKd U\awmifbuf(3)rkid af usmt
f uGm MuyfpifawmifarmfrS
pí awmifwef;onf ajrykNH rKd Ue,f tiltxd us,jf yef&Y n
S v
f sm;onf/
þuRef;ü a0omvDacwfESifhywfoufí taxmuftxm;rsm;ukd rif;jym;NrdKUrS

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

86

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

awmifbuf(16)rkid af usmu
f mG a0;onfh MuyfpifuRe;f (ptif;&Gma[mif;)ae&mü awGU&&dS onf/
,if;a'orSawGU&Sd&aom a0omvDacwfrS (pwlygrsm;)ESifh tjcm;taxmuftxm;rsm;
taMumif;ukd qufvufwifjyvkad yonf/
2-c/ i&HUrif;"mwfukef;awmfrS pwlygrsm;
i&HUrif;"mwfawmfwnf&&dS mrSm ptif;&Gma[mif;rS taemufawmifbuf(3)zmvkcH efY
uGma0;aomae&mjzpfonf/ uke;f awmf\tjrifrh mS (ay 70)cefjY rifah yvdrrhf nf/ uke;f awmf\
tv,füum; OmPfawmf (26-ay)jrifah om i&HUrif;"mwfawmfwpfql wnf&o
dS nf/
þ"mwfawmfwnf&&dS m uke;f ajrxufü ,cifu pwlyg(4)ql &Scd o
hJ nf[q
k o
dk nf/
,cktcg (3)qlwnf;om &Sad wmhonf/ wpfqal om pwlygrmS ajrykNH rKd Ue,f 0ufacgi;f aus;&Gm
rS usio
f efwpfO;D u pwlygudk o,faqmifomG ;Ny;D xkczJG suq
f ;D ypfonf[k od&onf/
,ckþuke;f awmfü use&f adS eaom pwlyg(3)ql\ taMumif;ukd tpDpOftwkid ;f
azmfjyaytH/h
"mwfawmf\taemufawmifaxmifUrS pwlyg
þpwlygrmS tjrif(h 4 ay 3 vufr)&So
d nf/ atmufajcukAtjrifo
h nf (13-vufr)
&SNd y;D ,if;tay:ü (5-vufr)cefY jrifah om(Square Platform)tem;azmif;&pfudk jyKvyk f
xm;onf/ ,if;\ pwk&ef;rsuEf mS jyifay:wiG f qvif'gyu
Hk dk qifx
h m;onf/ tv,fü
(4-ay 3-vufr)ywfvnf&adS om ouFe;f qD;yg&o
dS nf/ ouFe;f qD;\atmufazmif;&pf
i,fürl ykw;D aph tvk;H (33)vk;H ukd xkqpfxm;onf/ ,if;\atmuftem;azmif;&pf rsuEf mS
jyifüum; Mumyef;wkjYd zifh wefqmqifxm;onf/ Mumyef;ta&twGurf mS (12)ck&o
dS nf/
pwlyg (qvif'g)\atmufajcüvnf; azmif;&pfwyfqifxm;Ny;D azmif;&pfrsuEf mS
jyifü Mumyef;csyrf sm;jzifh jc,fv,
S x
f m;onf/ Mumyef;csyEf pS cf t
k Mum; tv,fonf csKid hf
aeaomyko
H @mefudk ay:viG af ponf/ tqkyd g Mumyef;csyt
f a&twGurf mS tay:EiS ahf tmuf
onf (21)ckp&D MdS uonf/ Mumyef;csyrf sm;wk\Yd Mum;wpfcpk üD rl vIid ;f wGeiYf ,frsm;ay:viG v
f suf
&Sad eonf/ okaYd omf txufEiS ahf tmufrmS wpfvpJG &D MdS uonf/
Mumacgi;f avmif;arSmuf\ xdyzf sm;wGif xD;tjzpf (5-vufr)jrifah om xkcReyf u
Hk dk
awGU&onf/ okaYd omf jynfph jHk cif;um; r[kwaf o;ay/ atmufajcukArsuEf mS jyifuu
kd m;
rSeaf bmiftuGuw
f pfuu
G f ay:atmif xkvyk x
f m;onf/ þpwlygü oD;jcm;xGi;f vkyx
f m;
aom atmufajczdeyfukd rawGU&ay/ pwlygy(Hk 8)½Iyg/

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

87

"mwfawmf\taemufajrmufaxmifUrS pwlyg
þpwlyg\OmPfawmftjrifrh mS (3-ay 8-vufr)&So
d nf/ atmufcH ukArsuEf mS jyif\
tjrifo
h nf (10-vufr)&SNd y;D ,if;tay:ü (5)vufrjrifah om(Square Platrorm) tem;
azmif;&pfudk jyKvyk x
f m;onf/ tv,fü ouFe;f pD;yg&NdS y;D ywfvnfrmS (3 ay 11 vufrcG)J
&Sdonf/
xko
d uFe;f pD;atmufazmif;&pfywfvnfwiG f ykw;D aphtvk;H (35)vk;H jzifh pDwef;xkqpf
xm;onf/ ,if;ykw;D aphatmuf rsuEf mS jyifwiG u
f m; Mum½k;d MumEG,rf sm;ukd wpfcEk pS w
f pfck
eabxyfjc,frIef;xm;onf/ tv,fwGif Bud*HtuGufi,fuav;rsm; ay:vGifvsuf
&So
d nf/ txl;ojzifh atmufajcMum½k;d EG,u
f dk ESpx
f yfjyKvyk x
f m;onft
h wGuf rsuEf mS jyifrS
wGaJ vmif;usae[efudk ykrd adk y:viG af ponf/
qvif'g\ atmufajcrsuEf mS jyifüum; tv,fcsKid ahf eNy;D azmif;&pfrsuEf mS jyifEpS cf k
ukd jyKvyk x
f m;onf/ okaYd omf atmufajc\azmif;&pfrsuEf mS jyifonf tay:\rsuEf mS jyifxuf
Bu;D rm;onf/ xkrd suEf mS jyifwüYdk vnf; Mumcsyv
f mT rsm;ukd xkqpfxm;onf/ atmufrMS um
csyv
f mT onf tay:rMS umcsyx
f uf t&G,Bf u;D onf/
pwlyg\atmufajcukArsuEf mS jyifüum; rSeaf bmifxq
k pfí rSejf ywif;ESpcf k ay:viG f
aeonf/ atmufco
H ;D jcm;zdeyfudk rawGU&&dS ay/
tay:acgi;f avmif;arSmuf\ xdyüf um; xD;tjzpf MumoD;&pfrsm;jzifh wefqmqif
xm;onf/ MumoD;ta&twGurf mS (21)ckww
d &d o
dS nf/ okaYd omf jynfph jHk cif;r[kwb
f J ,if;
tay:rS tñTerYf mS ysupf ;D aejcif;ukd awGU&onf/
txl;ojzifh þpwlyg\atmufajc ukArStptay:MumoD;&pfEiS hf ud,
k x
f nf[ef
taetxm;rSm q&mBu;D OD;pHomatmifa&;om;wifjycJo
h nfh (Buddhist Art of Ancient
f S yk(H 12)wGif azmfjyxm;aom rD;acsmif;0rS &&So
d nfph wlyg\ yko
H @mefEiS hf
Arakan) pmtkyr
tcsK;d tpm;rSm vGepf mG rSqifwal eonfudk awGU&&dS onf/
rD;acsmif;0rS pwlygürI atmufczH ed yfEiS x
hf ;D wkrYd mS tjynft
h pkyH g&NdS y;D þpwlygrmS
atmufczH ed yfEiS hf xD;awmfjynfph jHk cif;r&So
d nfom uGmjcm;onf/
"mwfawmf\ajrmufbufrS pwlyg
þpwlyg\tjrifrh mS (3-ay 3-vufr)&So
d nf/ atmufajcukAtjrifo
h nf (9)vufr
&SNd y;D ,if;tay:ü (5)vufrjrifah om tem;azmif;&pfudk jyKvyk x
f m;onf/ xkt
d em;azmif;
&pfrsuEf mS jyifay:ü (qvif'g) yku
H dk qifx
h m;onf/ qvif'g\ ok;H ykw
H pfyt
Hk ay:yidk ;f wGif

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

88

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

ouFe;f pD;yg&NdS y;D ,if;rSm (4-ay)ywfvnf&o
dS nf/
qvif'g\ ykaH tmufajcrsuEf mS jyifav;ckü eH&u
H yfvP
dk rf ck rf sm; xGi;f vkyx
f m;Ny;D
,if;txJü Ak'q
¨ if;wki,fav;qlu tjyiforYkd suEf mS rlí yv’iif ,fwpfcpk aD y:wiG f xkid af e
Mu[efjzpfonf/
þAk'q
¨ if;wki,frsm; xkid af eMu[efrmS wpfcEk iS w
hf pfcrk wlbJ ta&SUbufwiG f "r®
pMumrkj' mESihf awmifbufwiG f blrzd órkj'mwkYd toD;oD;jzpfMuonf/
ouFe;f qD;\atmuftem;wGiu
f m; yef;rsm;ukd xkqpfxm;onf/ acgi;f avmif;
arSmufy\
Hk xdyjf yifonf ajymifacsmvsu&f adS eNy;D þpwlygudk xkqpfcphJ Ofuyif xD;awmfudk
rxnfch [
hJ k ,lq&ayonf/
atmufajcukArsuEf mS jyifüum; rsuEf mS ukd tjyifox
Ydk w
k Nf y;D ESmarmif;auG;ñTwf
xm;aom qif½kyfrsm;ukd rsufESmjyifav;ckxkqpfxm;onf/ wpfzefrsufESmjyif\
axmifw
h pfcpk üD vnf; jcaoF[
h k ,lq&aom wd&pämefrsm;u ab;apmif;xkid af e[efudk
awGU&&dS onf/ pwlyg"mwfy(Hk i)½Iyg/
2-*/ ptif;&Gma[mif; bkef;awmfBuD;ausmif;rS pwlygrsm;/
qufvufNy;D ptif;&Gma[mif;&Gm\ ta&SUajrmuft&yf bke;f awmfBu;D ausmif;wGif
awGU&&dS aom pwlyg(3)qluv
dk nf; qufvufí wifjyygrnf/
yxrpwlyg
þpwlygrmS i&HUrif;"mwfawmf\ ajrmufbufwiG &f adS eaom pwlyguo
hJ yYdk if qvif'g
rsuEf mS jyifav;ckpvk;H ü vkP
d rf ck x
f iG ;f xkxm;Ny;D ,if;txJü ude;f 0yfpyH g,af eMuaom
Ak'q
¨ if;wki,frsm; yg&o
dS nf/ toD;oD; Ak'q
¨ if;wki,frsm;\ rkj' mrSmvnf; ,cifpwlyguo
hJ Ydk
yif &Sad yvdrrhf nf/
txl;ojzifh þpwlygrmS xuf0ufjcrf;uGo
J mG ;onht
f jyif ouFe;f qD;rSpí tay:
ykid ;f wpfcv
k ;Hk ysupf ;D aeonfudk awGU&&dS onf/
þpwlyg\atmufajcukArsuEf mS jyifwüYdk rl rSeaf bmiftuGurf sm;ukd xkqpfxm;
onf/ ,if;rSeaf bmiftuGu\
f atmuftem;wGirf l wpfrx
l ;l jcm;aom t½kyif ,fuav;
rsm; yg&o
dS nf/ þt½kyif ,fuav;rSm vuftyk cf síD &Scd ;dk aeMu[efjzpfayonf/ þt½kyf
rsm;\ aemufüjzefu
Y sux
f m;aom tawmifrsm;vnf; yg&o
dS nf/ þt½kyrf sm;ukd eD;eD;uyf
uyf avhvmMunho
f nft
h cg (vluEd &é )D t½kyrf sm; jzpfz,
G &f o
dS nf[k ,lq&onf/

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

89

rsuEf mS jyifwpfcpk \D tv,fü (2)½kyEf iS ahf xmifw
h pfcpk üD (1)½kypf pk ak ygi;f pwlygtem;
av;bufü t½ky(f 12)½kyyf g&o
dS nf/
'kwd, pwlyg
þpwlyg\tjrifrh mS (2 ay 11 vufr)&So
d nf/ awGU&&dS aom pwlygrsm;teuf
ti,fq;Hk aom pwlygjzpfayonf/
þpwlyg\ (Square Platform) tem;azmif;&pfrSm ay:vGifrIr&SdonfhtwGuf
ukArsuEf mS jyifEiS hf wpfqufwnf;&Sad eovkd jrif&onf/
qvif'g\tv,fwnfw
h nfw
h iG f ouFe;f qD;yg&NdS y;D ywfvnfrmS (1 ay 5 vufr)
&So
d nf/ tay:acgi;f avmif;arSmuf\ axmifph eG ;f wpfjcrf;rSm ysupf ;D vsu&f adS eonf/ þpwl
ygrmS pif;vk;H acsmjzpfNy;D xD;awmfuv
dk nf;aumif;? atmufco
H ;D oefY zdeyfuv
dk nf;aumif;
rawGU&Sd&ay/
wwd, pwlyg
þpwlygrmS tjrif(h 3 ay 8 vufr)&So
d nf/ atmufcu
H Ak tjrifo
h nf (1ay 4vufr)
&SNd y;D ,if;tay:ü (6 vufr)jrifah om tem;azmif;&pfyg&o
dS nf/
qvif'gykHukd tem;azmif;&pf rsufESmjyifwGif qifhxm;NyD; tv,fwnfhwnfhü
(3 ay 11 vufr)ywfvnf&adS om ouFe;f qD;yg&o
dS nf/ ukArsuEf mS jyiftv,fwnfw
h nfh
wGif a'giv
f u
dk af bmifwpfck xGi;f xkxm;onf/ pwlyg\xdyyf idk ;f axmifph eG ;f wpfae&mESihf
ukAaxmifph eG ;f wpfae&mwkrYd mS ysupf ;D vsu&f o
dS nf/ txufyg pwlygrsm;uJo
h yYdk if xD;ESifh
atmufczH ed yfcu
Hk kd rawGU&&dS ay/ pwlyg"mwfyHk (Z)½Iyg/
txufwiG f wifjycJo
h nfh pwlygrsm;\ tajctaeukd q&mBu;D OD;pHomatmifu
jynhpf o
Hk nf[q
k adk om rD;acsmif;0rS awGU&&dS onfph wlygEiS hf EIid ;f ,SOw
f u
dk q
f idk Mf unhv
f u
dk o
f nfh
tcg ptif;&Gma[mif;rS ,ckrsujf rifawGU&&dS aom pwlygrsm;rSm jynfph o
Hk nf[k rqkEd idk af o;ay/
tb,faMumifrh l ptif;&Gma[mif;rS pwlygrsm;rSm xD;awmfjynfrh pkjH cif;ESihf atmufczH ed yfwYdk
rawGU&&dS í jzpfayonf/
þonfrmS vnf; ptif;&Gma[mif;rS pwlygrsm;\ xD;awmfEiS ahf tmufcaH usmufjym;
zdeyfwrYdk mS ysupf ;D qk;H yg;cJ&h aomaMumifh jzpfz,
G &f o
dS nf/ ESpaf ygi;f (1400)ausmMf umjrifch o
hJ nf
ESit
hf nD jzpfysujf cif;oabmrS ,if;wkrYd mS vGwNf irfd ;f Ekid cf v
hJ rd rhf nfr[kwaf y/ wpfae&mrS
wpfae&m a&TUajymif;o,f,&l mwGif xD;awmfrmS ysupf ;D &vG,u
f o
l nf/ atmufczH ed yf

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

90

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

ausmufjym;wkrYd mS tvGwjf zpfonft
h wGuf aysmufq;Hk ysupf ;D &efv,
G u
f íl jzpfayonf/
a&S;,cifu þpwlygrsm;ü atmufcaH usmufjym;zdeyf&cdS o
hJ nfqjdk cif;ESiyhf wfoufí
oufaocHzed yfausmufjym;wpfcu
k u
dk m; ,aeYxw
d idk ;f ptif;&Gma[mif; &GmxJü awGUjrifEidk f
ygao;onf/
xkad Mumifh txufazmfjyyg ptif;&Gma[mif;rS ,ckawGU&&dS aom pwlygrsm;ü atmufcH
ausmufjym;zdeyfwu
Ydk m; ,cifu olaY e&mESio
hf l vku
d af vsmnDaxG wifw
h ,fpmG &Scd MhJ uay
vdrrhf nfudk wGucf suEf idk af yonf/
2-C/ ptif;&Gma[mif;rS tjcm;taxmuftxm;rsm;
ptif;&Gma[mif;wnfae&m obm0onf ta&SUbufwGif awmifESifhajrmuf
oG,w
f ef;aeaom awmifjrifBh u;D eSihf taemufbufwiG f awmifEiS ahf jrmufo,
G w
f ef;aeMu
onfh awmifwef;ESpcf t
k Mum;wGif wnf&adS om &Gmjzpfayonf/
,cktcg ,if;teD;rS acsmif;i,fonf wdrfaumvsuf &SdaeNyDjzpfonfhtwGuf
oGm;vm&mü cufcaJ om ae&mwpfcjk zpfaeonf/ vGecf ahJ om ESpaf ygi;f (1400)ausmu
f rl
þacsmif;rSm us,jf yefeY uf½idI ;f aom acsmif;wpfcv
k nf; jzpfz,
G &f m&So
d nf/
txl;ojzifh þa'owpf0u
dk üf awmifwef;ESpcf t
k Mum; ydwq
f jYdk zpfay:aeaom i&HU
rif;tif;ESihf olZmtif;wku
Yd dk ,ckwidk jf rifawGU&ayonf/ i&HUrif;tif;rSm tvsm;ay ESpaf xmif
ausmcf efEY iS hf teHay wpfaxmifih g;&mausmf us,0f ef;vdrrhf nf[k cefrY eS ;f &onf/ þa'oü
apwDa[mif;wkYd NyKd ysu&f mrS Ak'q
¨ if;wki,frsm;ukd &&Scd MhJ uonf/ wpfcak om qif;wkysuf
OD;awmfrmS (a0omvDacwf)[efudk awGU&cdS &hJ onf/ 10-10-94 aeYu pma&;olavhvm
a&mufcphJ Ofu v,fxeG &f mrS &&Scd ahJ om aMu;jzifh jyKvyk x
f m;onft
h ½kyw
f pf½yk u
f dk jrifawGUchJ
&onf/ tqkyd gt½kyrf mS ewf½yk w
f pf½yk jf zpfaeayonf/ ewf½yk \f tjrifrh mS (3'or 5)vufr
&SNd y;D xkid af eykjH zpfonf/ nm'k;l wpfzufudk axmifNy;D nmvufudk ,if;tay:ü arSmufí
csxm;onf/ tjcm;ajcwpfzufurdk l wifyv’iaf cG ykpH cH sxm;Ny;D b,fvufudk ,if;'l;ay:
ü &G&u
G av; wifxm;onf/ OD;awmfü qHpu
k av;rsm;ozG,f tpkuav;rsm;ESihf OD;aoQmif
udk wefqmqifxm;onf/ em;rSt,yfonf yck;H ay:EiS hf xdpyfvsuw
f nf&o
dS nf/
wpfzef &Gm\ bke;f awmfBu;D ausmif;teD; uGi;f jyifrS vGecf ahJ omq,fEpS cf efu
Y ajrBu;D
xJrS vufwpfqyk t
f &G,f ,if;xufBu;D aom t&G,&f o
dS nfh cJv;Hk rsm;ukv
d nf; &&Scd MhJ u
onf/ ,if;cJv;Hk rsm;rSm tajrmufqeftjzpf tok;H jyKco
hJ nf[k ,lq&onf/
txl;ojzifh a'oajympum;t& þ0ef;usiüf ausmif;awmf&m? eef;&muke;f ponfh

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

91

ae&mrsm;vnf; &Sad eao;onf/ ,if;wko
Yd nf a0omvDacwfEiS hf uif;uGmEkid cf MhJ uvdrrhf nf
r[kwfaMumif;rSef;q&ayonf/
3-u/ tkd;ykHawmif&GmrS pwlygwpfql
tk;d ykaH wmif&mG onf zko
H macsmif;zsm;wGif wnf&adS om &Gmwpf&mG jzpfonf/ zko
H macsmif;
rSm rif;jym;NrKd U ta&SUajrmuft&yf (6)rkid af usmt
f uGm yef;ajrmif;Bu;D acsmif;rS tpjyKí tauGU
taumufrsm;pGmjzifh oGm;vm&aomacsmif;jzpfonf/
tk;d ykaH wmif&mG rSm rif;jym;NrKd UEiS hf tajzmifw
h idk ;f vQif (12)rkid cf efo
Y ma0;uGmaomfvnf;
a&vrf;jzifh oGm;vm&onht
f wGuf rkid (f 20)cefY uGma0;aeayonf/
þ&Gmü pwlygwpfqal wGU&cdS ahJ Mumif;ukd &ckid o
f rkid ;f 0goem&Sif rif;jym;NrKd U pku
d yf sK;d a&;
bPfrS vufaxmufrefae*sm udpk ñ
H eG aYf jymjyí pma&;olo&d cdS &hJ onf/
xkaYd Mumifh 29-7-95 aeYu zko
H macsmif; (ausmufarmf&mG ) Zmwd ukad rmifom'k;d \
c&D;vrf;ñTeyf aYdk qmifraI Mumifh rk;d &moDxrJ mS yif cufcufccJ J a&muf&cdS o
hJ nf/
tk;d ykaH wmif&mG rSm pnfrsuEf mS uJo
h Ydk nDnmaomay (80)cefjY rifo
h nfh awmifuek ;f ay:
wGif wnf&adS om &Gmi,fwpf&mG jzpfayonf/ þ&GmwnfaeykrH mS vnf; obm0taetxm;
onf ptif;&Gma[mif;wnfaeykEH iS hf toGiw
f o
l nf/ &Gmonf ta&SUtaemufo,
G w
f ef;ae
aom awmifwef;ESpfcktMum;wGif wnf&SdaeNyD; &Gm\ajrmufbufüus,fjyefYaom
(i&pfrtif;)wnf&Sdonf/
tk;d ykaH wmif&mG OD;ausmw
f if\ ykaYd qmifjyorIaMumifh pwlyguadk vhvmawGUjrifc&hJ onf/
pwlygwnf&o
dS nfah e&mrSm tk;d ykaH wmif&mG rS taemufawmifbufwiG w
f nf&NdS y;D ,if;okYd
(15)rdepfcefY oGm;vm&onf/ pwlygwnf&Sdonfh awmifuykef;ukd (ausmif;awmif)[k
ac:aMumif;od&onf/ þausmif;awmfü a&S;u(bm;rJb
h m;u&m;)wkaYd exkid cf o
hJ nf[v
k nf;
wpfqifhMum;od&onf/
txl;ojzifh pwlygrmS þuke;f awmfwiG f wnf&adS eaom apwDysurf S xGuv
f monf
[kqMdk uonf/ apwDxrJ mS vnf; ausmufpmwpfcu
k dk &&Scd o
hJ nf[o
k &d onf/ ,if;udpk ma&;
olzwf½&I ef ajymjyonft
h cg ,cktcg ajrykNH rKd Ue,f yifuyfawmifarmfq&mawmf OD;0do'k ¨
xH&Sdaeonf[kqkdonf/
þukef;awmfrS awGU&Sd&aom pwlygrSm xufjcrf;uGJaeonfhtjyif ouFef;pD;
atmufyidk ;f qvif'gudk rawGU&awmhay/ ouFe;f pD;rS ,if;tay:yidk ;f ukd awGU&&dS aomfvnf;
xufjcrf;uGaJ eNy/D xD;awmfrmS vnf; ysupf ;D aeNy/D

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

92

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

avhvmrIt& þpwlyg\atmufajcukAtjrifo
h nf (14-ay 5 vufrcG)J &So
d nf/
,if;tay:ü (3 ay 5 vufr)jrifah om tem;azmif;&pfyg&o
dS nf/ usK;d yJyh supf ;D aeaom
ouFe;f qD;tay:yidk ;f ESihf xD;awmfwu
Ydk dk cefrY eS ;f wGuq
f vQif þpwlygrmS (4)ayausmcf eft
Y jrifh
&Sv
d rd rhf nf[k cefrY eS ;f &onf/
þpwlyg\rsuEf mS jyifonf ,cifwifjycJo
h nfh pwlygrsm;\rsuEf mS jyifrsm;avmuf
ajyjypfacsmarGUjcif;r&Sb
d J Murf;wrf;rIudk azmfjyvsu&f adS eayonf/
4-u/ ed*kH;
txufwiG w
f ifjycJo
h nfh taxmuftxm;rsm;ukd tajccHí atmufygorkid ;f tcsuf
tvufrsm;ukd aumufcsucf sEidk af yonf/
used ;f uRe;f t&yfü awGU&&dS aom ausmufpmonfvnf;aumif;? pwlygapwDi,f
onfvnf;aumif;? aiG'*Fg;onfvnf;aumif;? at'D(5)&mpkukd &nfñTef;vsuf&Sday&m
xkt
d csed u
f mvonf a0omvDacwfwiG f usa&mufojzifh xkad 'owküYd a0omvDacwfuyif
bmomuk;d uG,rf I ul;oef;a&mif;0,frw
I Ydk &Scd MhJ uayvdrrhf nf/ ,if;ESiq
hf ufpyfí used ;f uRe;f
wpfciG üf vlaerIonf at'D (5)&mpkuyif xif&mS ;pGm&Sad eMurnf jzpfayonf/
wpfzef ptif;&Gma[mif;a'orS pwlygtrsm;tjym;ESihf ewf½yk if ,f? Ak'q
¨ if;wkrsm;
tjyif tjcm;taxmuftxm;rsm;ukd awGU&cdS &hJ Ny;D jzpfay&m pwlygu;dk uG,rf o
I nf a0omvD
acwfüom xGe;f um;cJo
h nft
h avsmuf bmoma&;ud;k uG,jf cif;ESit
hf wl vlaerIwo
Ydk nf
þa'oü&Scd MhJ uonf/ tjcm;aom a0omvDacwf\tjcif;t&mwko
Yd nfvnf; þ0ef;usiüf
jzpfysucf ahJ yvdrrhf nf/
tvm;wl zko
H macsmif;zsm;&Sd tk;d ykaH wmif&mG teD;rS awGU&&dS aom pwlygonfvnf;
xked nf;wlpmG at'D(5)&mpkxufaemufrusru
D yif xkad 'oü bmoma&;uk;d uG,rf EI iS hf
twl vlaerI&adS ecJah Mumif; jyoaeonf/

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

93

xkaYd Mumifh rif;jym;NrKd Ue,fwpf0u
dk o
f nf a&S;a0omvDacwfu rif;aejynfNrKd Uawmf
wpfckr[kwfaomfjim;vnf; awGY&Sd&aom a0omvDacwf taxmuftxm;rsm;ukd
axmuf½v
I Qif ta&SUbufwiG v
f nf;aumif;? taemufbufwiG v
f nf;aumif;? awmifbuf
wGiv
f nf;aumif; tESUH tjym;txift&Sm;awGU&cdS &hJ onfjzpfí a0omvDacwf at'D(5)&mpk
uyifvQif rif;jym;NrKd Uü bmomuk;d uG,rf ?I ul;oef;a&mif;0,fr?I vlaerIw&Ydk adS ecJNh yjD zpfaMumif;
ukd rSw,
f El idk Mf urnf jzpfayownf;/
rif;jym;rif;odef;ZH
10-8-95
usrf;ukd;
1/ U San Tha Aung: Buddhist Art Of Ancient Arakan.
2/ Oung Hla Thein. A Visit to Miniature Stupas of Sa-ong
(Rakhine State Magazine, 84)

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

94

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

aESmif;acwfpmqkd&Sif OD;umpH\
usdef;awmfoQifbk&m;
oHxD;awmfwif vuFmwpfyk'f
,ckazmfjyvwåUH aom used ;f awmfoQib
f &k m; oHx;D awmfwif vuFma&;zGUJ co
hJ rl mS
rif;jym;NrKd Ue,fudk wGrd qkw&f mG Zmwdjzpfol OD;umpH(0umpH)yif jzpfayonf/
þpmqko
d nf aeSmif;acwfpm&if;0if pmqk&d iS w
f pfO;D jzpfayonf/ pmqko
d nf vuFm?
&wk? omjcif;wku
Yd dk a&;pyfou
D ;Hk &mü xifay:co
hJ w
l pfO;D vnf;jzpfayonf/ pmqkad &;om;cJh
onfh pmaypm&if;ü raemfomjcif;? iSuo
f rufwufvuFmESifh used ;f awmf&iS f oHx;D awmfwif
orkid ;f vuFmwkrYd mS xif&mS ;Muonf/
iSuo
f rufwufvuFmuku
d m; q&mOD;atmifrif;u 1980 jynfEh pS f Zefe0g&v
D xkwf
trSw(f 10) &ckid jf ynfe,fpmapmifwiG f a&;om;wifjycJNh y;D jzpfayonf/
1984-ckEpS af vmufu pma&;olEiS hf pma&;q&m orkid ;f okawoD rif;jym; rif;odP;f
xGP;f wko
Yd nf a&Tused ;f awmifb&k m;orkid ;f ukd jyKpck phJ Ofu pmayrsm;ukd pkaqmif;avhvmcJh
onft
h cg rif;jym;NrKd U aps;a[mif;ykid ;f &yfuu
G af e Xmaea[mif; vuFmrS used ;f awmfoQif
bk&m; oHx;D awmfvuFmjzpfaeNy;D OD;umpH\vuf&mjzpfaMumif; od&&dS onf/
OD;apmomu ,cifayrla[mif;rS wpfqifhul;,lxm;aom pmjzpfaeayonf/
,if;ukd þpmapmif\ (pma[mif;aya[mif;u@)rS wpfqif&h [ef;oQiv
f l jynfot
l rsm;
zwf½aI vhvmjcif;tvkiYd mS þokYd azmfjytyfayonf/

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

95

a&Tusdef;awmf&Sifbk&m; a&TcsoHxD;awmfwifvuFm (1270)
]]earmwó-b*0awm? t&[awm? or®mor®K'ó
¨ }}
oknav;ck? t&if;jyKí? pwk'´g&m? ,lZemonf? urÇmb'´? ay:OD;pum;?
xufzsm;jA[®m? oufusvmS í? r[myx0D? ajrqDoum? t&omaMumif?h a&mif0guif;jywf?
psmefvufvGwfrS? t&yfwyg;? oGm;vm;tHhiSm? ra&mufvmí? vGefpGmaMumufjim;?
uk;d a,mufom;wk?Yd vkv
d m;rjywf? awmifw
h vwfaomf? xGe;f ay:vm&? ol&,
d ESihf pE´mabmr?
Ak'*¨ ½k ?k bm&Pkaom&m? oDwmav;pif;? jrpfrif;ig;jzm? yOömork'?´ owåyr®aw? vnfonf
a&mifpdk ? jrifrh &dk af evponf eu©w?f av;&yfuRe;f Bu;D ? &Hq;D wifw
h ,f? uRe;f i,fEpS af xmif?
jrm;ajrmifpMu0Vm? Mur®mtavsmuf? ayguo
f nfo
h ajy? aumif;onf edrw
d ?f wdwEf iS hf
aumuf,?l ZrÁLaomif;uGu?f tv,fcsuw
f iG ?f wk;d wufor®m? r[mor®w? rif;vS&mZm?
vufxufcg0,f? ZrÁLajrwGi;f ? rsm;zsi;f jzpfvm? 'Dygay:xeG ;f ? a&Tused ;f uRe;f vQi?f trnfwiG f
jim;? NrKd Urif;jym;uk?d ykid u
f m;csKyrf ;dk ? tkypf ;dk or®m? rif;jzpfvmS í? aMumfjimcyif;? owif;Bu;D vS?
oif;parT;BuKd i?f &eHv
Y idI o
f nf? e,fyidk 0f efaxmuf? o'´gayguíf ? Munfavmufoabm? raem
t[dw?f aZmpdw&f iT jf rL;? a&S;OD;rSev
f ?S pvG,&f í? OD;vSazmfZ?H trSeOf uúX? &JvpS rG ;f tif?
owå&d iS [
f ?k bGUJ rnfwiG u
f ? pk;d &rI0rf;? armifomyef;vQi?f NrKd Uyidk yf ifwnf;? xkjYd yifwyg;? aiG"m;
vnf;&? Ouú|rl? &mZmpnf;pdrf? wif;rwdrfonf? *kPfodrfcwfESdyf? ykvdyftifpyawåmf?
armifzaxmfu? csiahf omfwEk idI ;f ? ajrwkid ;f t&m? vGev
f rd m® jim;? bk&m;wumBu;D jcm;oD;rSef
0if? ig;a,mufyifudk ? azmfjyvkt
d ?Hh ukov
dk &f iT jf rL;? xGe;f OD;csi;f atmif? vkyaf qmifav&m?
xGe;f jzLyg\/ wjzma&mif;0,f? qko
d nfaumif;pHO;D ? vlaygi;f pkEiS ?hf aumif;rIarQmu
f ;dk ? jrwfE;dk
onfavsmuf? o'¨gayguíf ? NrKd UaemufuvQi?f used af wmf&iS u
f ?kd wpfcgjyifrnf? Buo
H nfuyif?
vl&iS t
f rsm;? NrKd UwiG ;f om;vnf;? tm;&0rf;om? bk&m;rSmrl? aumif;pGmEkid t
f ?hH t&Snw
f ahH tmif?
vkyaf qmifuv
Hk ?Hk a&TcswaHk omf? "mwfawmfajymifajymif? ajcmufo,
G af &mifvQi?f vQypf pfoiG f
ok?Yd ESpv
f zdk ,
G yf if? zl;&vsiu
f ? NrKd UvQiv
f nf;ykid ?f aiG"m;ukid u
f ? csiEhf idI n
f rD Q? cefaY 0iSí? 'kw,
d
bk?H ay;wkaH va,Smif;? vlaygi;f rsm;pGm? tk;d ao&Gmawmifyw
k Bf u;D ? jcm;oD;rSecf if? ac:wiG f
awGUrqkwf? t[kwfrSefpGm? tao&GmESifh? *grav;&yf? ,lwkHvwfí? ac:rSwfumv?
pdMwrmo? wefcl;v[k? qef;pykPÖrD? tnDjynfhbd? xkdonhhfae&m? &GmBuD;&Gmi,f?
used ;f ywfvnfyif? ruwGio
f nf? rsm;vQiaf omif;atmif;? &Gmvlaygi;f ESihf taMumif;vnf;yg?
þawmifrmS ü? vkyBf u&H jim;? tusK;d tm;aMumif?h aemifeAd LÁ wm? a&mufvykd gonf? rSepf mG rcRwf
&apaom0f/
rcRwfa&muf&m? Zr®Lcsm0,f? r[maAm"d? wkr[dom;? rkedig;ql? yGifhawmfrlcsif;?

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

96

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

edALÁ ul;&m? wku
Yd Re;f om0,f? qdyn
f majzmifw
h ef;? raumufveG ;f wnf;? rsm;uRe;f "dywd?
[donfrwl? ZrÁLOD;pGef;? a&Tusdef;uRef;0,f? ajymif&Tef;omoem? awmufxGef;ygonf?
&u©myl&? NrKd U"nuk?d omuD,rif;? tkypf ;dk jcif;aMumif?h owif;aumif;vS? pE´o&l ,
d ? wGib
f d
rif;ausm?f vufxufawmf0,f? pHaysmw
f b
Hk ?d om0wåu
d ? <ubdwu
Hk ?dk rIid ;f ñkjd rjr? ok;H vlq
Y &m?
ousbek ;f acgi?f ausmufawmfawmifü? rsm;ajrmifoC
H m? a>c&HygEiS ?hf r[my&ar? &yfwefaY e
vsu?f jzefu
Y suNf y;D rS? orEÅpu©K? arQmMf unf½h aI omf? tEkig;&m? jzpfaomcgvQi?f rSeyf ifrck s?
þXmewGif? arm&tppf? igvQifjzpf\? aemifüem*wf? ig\"mwfvQif? vlewftñTefY?
jzpfvwåUH [?k oHjy&Tiv
f ef;? rdecYf eG ;f Asm'dw?f "mwfwq
H yd v
f Qi?f a&TawmifciG o
f ?Ykd Munhv
f Qi½f w
I ?
arQm½f u
I rl? w,lZem? &Sad v&mwGi?f umum*D&?d awmif0,f[\
d ? Zmwdus;D om;? ig;&m
tm;vQi?f a&mufavusiaf omf? tkwt
f ifcyif;? rSw
D if;aeaxG? oref;aywnf;? pm;onf
rsm;pGm? ukev
f wf&mvQi?f iwfonfyifwnf;? r&Tiaf omtm;? wjcm;Xmae? a0;&yfajrok?Yd
ESpv
f 0Ydk rf;om? 0pGm&Smpm;? oGm;tHah vm[k? ajyma[mwkid yf if? aus;rif;&Siu
f ? pdww
f iG &f iT t
f m;?
roGm;rvku
d ?f þawmifüvQi?f EIu
d Nf cKd uaf ysmyf u
dk ?f usew
f v
Hk u
dk u
f ? aoav&pf\/
xku
d wvSp?f aemufEpS ef m*gw?f þae&yfü? used ;f vwfc&hJ m? used ;f awmifomwGi?f
used ;f awmif&iS rf ?l ewfvw
l um? uk;d uG,&f mvdr?hf jzpfavydr[
hf ?k ESpo
f rd &hf iT v
f ef;? rdecYf eG ;f
Asm'dwf? cyfwHqdyfvQif? wefckd;jrifonf? a&mifwifNydK;jyuf? zdwfvsufvlvl? jzLjzL0g0g?
eDjyma&mifarmif;? xGuv
f u
dk af &Smif;onf? aomif;cGiu
f Re;f vk;H ausmaf paomf/
aomif;uRe;f ZrÁL? cyford ;f vlw?Ydk rSw,
f al paMumif;? vuFmavmif;&m? &u©myl&?
NrKd U"nESi?hf &Snx
f Ekid b
f ?d om0wåv
d Qi?f jynfciG rf eD;? jcm;oD;rSeu
f ?dk &mZN*Kd [Ef iS ?hf wlvo
dk mvGe;f ?
a&Tusdef;uRef;0,f? &G,frSef;wlpGm? uRef;wumxuf? omykdifwufí? aAGcsufjzpfbd?
*D&"d r®wm? xkad wmifrmS ü? a&T0gwEk? aus;ok0rif;? r,Gi;f wZpf? jzpfavaomcg? aoav
&mwGi?f aemifvmude;f 0if? vQm&if;"mwfvQi?f wnfvwfusiu
f ? a&mifxifvif;vif;? ajymif
ajymif0if;í? cyif;rsm;zsif? usdef;awmf&Sif[k? ac:wGifemr? bGJUrnf&í? xkdupOfvm? ckwkdif
omvQif? wGifvmjzpfbd? ESpfodrfhapiSm? rsm;pGmaomif;aomif;? xD;wifaMumif;ukd?
taygi;f cyif;? odap&Si;f tH?h Bu&H if;rlv? NrKd UwiG ;f uvQi?f tvª&iS w
f nf;? *kPw
f if[;D [D;?
oHxD;wumr? rdarvSrSm? vufcig;&m? xD;awmfrSmvQif? wifygwkHvkd? NrdKUykdifqkdu? xkdxkd
0ef;,m? wpf&mwpfb?Hk wifavwkjH im;? NrKd UwiG ;f tm;vnf;? ajcmufyg;t&om? abmZOfrmS ay?
þawmif0,fü? vªz,
G rf sm;pGm? aumif;&omvQi?f vªavusi\
f ? xkv
d siNf y;D u? 'kw,
d bk?H
wifwaHk vyg? tonf&mG awGUrqkw?f t[kwrf eS Nf y;D ? awmifyBYkd u;D eSi?hf jcm;onf;tk;d onf?
a0;&yfaywnf;? woG,w
f pfaMumif;? vlaygi;f rsm;pGm? oHwef;&GmvQi?f nDnmpku
H ? wwd,

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

97

bk?H wifwaHk vajrmuf? awmif0,fa&muf\/ xkad emuf pwkw?¬ awmfpw
G bk?H uswaHk v
jim;? uif;qdyfom;vQif? &Tiftm;oHcsKd? vGrf;csif;qkdí? omvkd&Tifys? xkd&yfuvQif? wifonf
yifvnf;? xkjd yifvv
S ?S yOörbk?H uswaHk vjim;? Al;yifom;vnf;? aomif;aomif;vnf;aMumf?
aMumfjimwkv
H pf? wifonfjzpf\/wvSpo
f nf;tl? aps;usrv
l Qi?f aysmo
f w
l xl;? uckejf rL;vsu?f
MunfE;l ? &Tiv
f ef;? tHrh cef;wnf;? pdw0f rf;nDrQ? q|rbk?H wifwaHk vjim;? xk&d yfom;vnf;?
tm;&0rf;om? xkad wmifrmS twd? ysUH EUHS o&d m? tif;rSmrajy? oku
d 0f ifay\/ ac:avomjcif;?
iajytif;vQi?f oHñiS ;f om,m? xko
d nf&mG rSm? rde;f ra,mufsm;? vltrsm;vnf;? tm;&0rf;
om? nDnmNy;D rS? q|rbk?H wifygw\
Hk /
e0uk;d bk?H bk&m;*kPu
f fdk ? tm½kjH yKap? wifayaomavQmuf xGe;f awmufa&mif0g?
wif;r&GmESi?hf wjzmwyg;? &yfjcm;iwefysi?f xk&d yfwiG ;f 0,f? 0if;0if;ajymifajymif? ausmif;wpf
aqmifEiS ?hf jrwfacgiw
f oD;? ax&fBu;D odum© ? þq&mvQi?f 0gawmfBu;D vS? xkad usmif;uvQi?f
ajrmufciG Of wå&m? arQmMf unfyh gaomf? "mwfawmfta&mif? 0if;ajymifxed x
f ed ?f w&Sed &f edS v
f Qi?f
jrifvwfusiu
f ? wifumq,fw?Hk aZwkaH vjim;? pGeu
Yf m;q,fw
h pf? wif;jynfo
h m;blawmif?
vkyaf qmifav&m? vlwumwk?Yd nDnmjzjz? yAÁwac:? aqmifxyd af y:ü? tkwaf tmfot
J ?l
azG;azG;jzLí? oligcyif;? vif;cGi;f Ako
H ?H wl&,
d moHñiS ;f ? r,Gi;f oHvQi?f wD;rIwu
f siu
f ?
wifygwkHvkd? "mwfawmfukdvnf;? xkdonfrSefuif;? r,Gif;ausmufpD? zdwfvQHnDu?
r[Da&mif&edS ?f 0&Zde?f (pde0f ZD)vkv
d ?dk pufpuf,adk omf? ESpv
f zdk ,
G af vQmuf? awmufonfvif;
vif;? ta&mifcsi;f om;? ajcmufyg;tpk?H uGejf rL;yku
H m;? tm½kpH w
d ñ
f w
G ?f rjywfaeYn? *kPrf eS ;f
qvsu?f vkyMf u&jcif;? tusK;d tm;aMumif?h pHpm;wkb
H ?d bkw
H o
k o
d m? ewfw&Ydk mG u? jref;<u
vmrnf? y&arocif? aus;Zl;&Sio
f nf? yifuahH umfatmuf? yv’iaf yguíf ? a&mufonfppf
ppf? yg,jf rpfow
k o
f if? atmifjrifawmfr?l wpfqjl zpfx? rdawå,su?dk zl;&awGUBuKH ? twlqíHk ?
yknausmo
f ?J tvªay;Ny;D ? c&D;r*¾i?f ykw
Yd ifaypG? {jrom,m? w&m;omuk?d Mum;emNy;D aomf?
{[dac:í? &Spaf bmify&dum© ? tpkyH gvsu?f 0#dorÇ'd gav;yg;? ajcmufyg;todOmPf? &Sppf Of
ormywf? uif;vGwfudavom? &Sif;&Sif;uGmí? acrmtrSef? jrwfedAÁmefokdY? rkcsvsifpGm?
a&mufvdk aom0f/
armifrSef;atmif(usdef;ajr)

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

98

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

tOÆee'DrS Asm'dyf0if NydKif;wkdifbk&m;orkdif;
NyKd i;f wkid "f mwf(ac:)yg;ysO;f awmf"mwfonfum; tOöee'Dav;NrKd Ujrpf\ ta&SUbufurf;
ay:wiG f wnf&o
dS nf/
av;NrKd Ujrpfonf &ckid jf ynfe,f\ ta&SUbufyidk ;f wGif wnf&NdS y;D csi;f awmifwef;Bu;D
\ txufyikd ;f a'o rwlyND rKd Uajrmufbuf ]]bkew
f vm}} a&wHceG rf S pD;qif;onf[o
k &d
onf/ ,if;jrpfrmS ajrmufraS wmifopYdk ;D qif;um &ckid jf ynf ppfawGNrKd U&dS b*Fvm;yifv,fatmf
ESiahf jrykNH rKd U&dS ]][efwm}}yifv,fatmf &ifciG x
f o
J Ydk wk;d 0ifomG ;ayonf/
(tOöee'D)av;NrKd Ujrpfonf ,cifb&k ifah ejynfawmfrsm; xGe;f um;cJo
h nfh (yOöm? Ncyd ?f
ae&Oö&mawmifi?l avmif;Muuf)ponfh NrKd Uav;NrKd Uudk taMumif;jyKí av;NrKd Ujrpf[k trnfwiG f
aMumif;od&onf/
NyKd i;f wkid "f gwo
f nf ay(500)cefjY rifrh m;aom rOöLyAÁwawmifxufwiG f wnf&NdS y;D
xif&mS ;onfh "mwfawmfwpfqjl zpfonf/ onf"mwfawmfwnfae&mrSm ,cktcg rif;jym;NrKd U
ESirhf idk (f 20)cefu
Y mG a0;Ny;D av;NrKd Ujrpf\ ta&SUbufurf;ESihf (3)zmvkcH efu
Y mG a0;aom ,ck
yef;ajrmif;a'owpf0u
dk üf usa&mufonf/
onf"mwfawmfawmifwef;rSm ajrmufrSawmifokdY oG,fwef;NyD; &Snfvsm;aom
awmifwef;? awmifp,
G rf sm;&So
d nf/ awmifbuft&yfwiG u
f m; uaygw*D&ad wmifwef;ESihf
qufE,
G Nf y;D *D0g"mwfEiS o
hf pöuAE¨0rax&fusiphf Of*l wku
Yd v
dk nf;awGU&&dS ayrnf/
,cifb&k ifah ejynfawmfrsm; xGe;f um;cJo
h nf(h yk&ed ?f ae&Oö&m? awmifi?l avmif;Muuf)
ponfh NrKd Uawmfa[mif;ae&mrsm;onfvnf; onf"mwfawmfEiS u
hf m; ra0;vSay/ ,if;

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

99

"mwfawmfwnf&adS om rOöLyAÁwawmifonf þa'owpf0u
dk üf jrifrh m;Ny;D xk;H jzLjzLapwD
awmfBu;D udk ta0;uyif zl;jrifEidk af yonf/ pdr;f vef;pkjd ynfaeaom v,fuiG ;f Bu;D rsm;ESihf
ñIrd idI ;f rIid ;f awmifwef;Bu;D rsm;jzifh yPm&vsuf wnf&adS eayonf/
ajrmufO;D NrKd U\ta&SUbuf (4)rkid cf efo
Y muGma0;Ny;D yef;ajrmif;Bu;D acsmif;ESihf av;NrKd Ujrpf
Mum;wGif wnf&o
dS nf/ aEG&moDEiS ahf qmif;&moDwiG f &yfa0;&yfe;D rS bk&k m;zl;vmolrsm;ESihf
pnfum;vsu&f adS yonf/ rk;d &moDwiG u
f m; bk&m;zl;vma&muforl sm; enf;yg;ayonf/
þaqmif;yg;üum; Asm'dw"f mwfawmf arGawmfrsm;ESihf qufE,
G af eonhf NyKd i;f wkid f
bk&m;orkid ;f ukd azmfjyvkad yth/Hh
jrwfAk'¨ Asm'dyf
&ckid ?f "n0wDjynf&h iS ?f pE´o&l ,
d rif;onf Ak'j¨ rwfpmG bk&m;&Siu
f dk zl;ajrmfvadk om
aMumifh raempdwjf zifh "d|mefyifzh w
d cf ahJ vonf/
ouú&mZf(123)ckEpS w
f iG f aumif;uifc&D; jymom'f,OfyspH ;D Ny;D &[EÅm(500)Nc&H v
H suf
a'opm&D <ucsaD wmfrcl ahJ vonf/
bk&m;&Sio
f nf ausmufawmfawmifxuf0,f t&yf&pS rf suEf mS ukd Munfah wmfral v
í NyKH ;awmfro
l nfudk nDawmftmeE´mu jrifaomtcg ar;awmfral v\/ xkt
d cg bk&m;&Sif
u rdrEd pk Ofb0u usiv
f nfczhJ ;l aom t&yfa'orsm;ukd vufñ;dI ñTeu
f m aemifwiG jf zpfxeG ;f
vmrnfh Asm'dwaf wmf (248)qludk Asm'dwpf um; cyfEydS af wmfrcl ahJ vonf/
onfAsm'dwaf wmfxw
J iG f NyKd i;f wkid "f mwfwpfqv
l nf; yg0ifí þokrYd ed MYf um;cJah y&m
]]rOöLyAÁwawmifxuf0,f igonf ykPmÖ ;wpfZpfjzpfz;l cJo
h nf/ igveG af wmfro
l nf
&Sad omf vuf,myg;½k;d awmf"mwfudk ,lNy;D apwDwnft?hH ,if;apwDudk NyKd i;f wkid ;f "mwfawmf
[k trnfwiG v
f wåUH }}[k rdeaYf wmfrcl ahJ yonf/
(Asm'dyaf wmf 248 qlwiG f r[mjrwfrek t
d ygt0if jzpfayonf/)
"mwfawmfysHEUHS a&muf&dS
Ak'j¨ rwfpmG bk&m;&Sio
f nf ouú&mZf (148)ckEpS w
f iG f y&deAd mÁ efjyKcahJ vonf/ ckepf&uf
MumíravmifuRr;f bJ use&f pfaom "mwfawmfarGawmf &Sppf &Gwf (32)oku
d u
f dk &Spjf ynf
axmifrif;rsm;tm; a'geykPmÖ ;u cGaJ 0ay;í yifah qmifMuavonf/
Ak'j¨ rwfpmG bk&m;&Si\
f "mwfawmfarGawmfrsm;ukd rm*"wkid ;f rS tZmwowfrif;u
ud;k uG,v
f adk yonf/ uk;d uG,&f jcif;iSm tEÅ&m,ftoG,o
f ,
G f umuG,rf ?I wk;d wufom

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

100

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

,m0ajymvkad omaMumiffh wjcm;wkid ;f jynfrsm;rS yifah qmifí ajrxJapwDjzifh uk;d uG,cf ahJ v
onf/
ouú&mZf (218)ckepfwiG f yg#vdyw
k jf ynf&h iS f oD&"d r®maomu(taomu)rif;Bu;D
onf rdru
d ;dk uG,v
f ídk tZmwowf\ ajrxJapwDudk azmufxiG ;f Ny;D "mwfawmfarGawmf
tm;vk;H udk yifah qmifcahJ vonf/
xkdYaemuf taomurif;BuD;\ avQmufxm;csuft& &Sifr[mwdórax&fESifh
&SiAf mulvrax&fEpS yf g;ukd trª;xm;Ny;D Ak'j¨ rwfpmG Asm'dycf yfEydS cf o
hJ nfh ae&mrsm;wGif apwD
wnf&ef "mwfawmfarGawmfrsm;jzifh &ckid jf ynfoYdk <ua&mufcahJ yonf/
,if;tcsed w
f iG f &ckid jf ynfü ol&,
d puúrif;Bu;D (bDpD 272-316)ESihf rdz&k m;½kpw
d mwkYd
u xkt
d &Sijf rwfrsm;ukd 0rf;omtm;&pGmjzifh BuKd qydk ifah qmifMuavonf/ xkt
d cg bk&ifBu;D
ESihf rdz&k m;wku
Yd &[ef;ESpyf g;ukd trª;xm;Ny;D ouú&mZf(222)ckEpS w
f iG f "mwfawmfarGawmf
rsm;ESihf bk&m;&SiAf sm'dwcf yfEydS cf ahJ om a'orsm;wGif "mwfawmf (247)qludk wnfxm;cJah y
onf/
,if;okYd wnfxm;pOfu EGm;vm;Oóbvnfwpfarmh&adS om ausmufapwDi,f
xdyw
f iG f "mwfawmfarGawmfrsm;ukd XmyemxnfNh y;D wnfxm;uk;d uG,cf MhJ uonf/
"n0wDa0omvDacwf jyKjyifrrG ;f rH
NyKd i;f wkid "f mwfawmfonfum; Ak'j¨ rwfpmG bk&m;&Si\f "mwfarGjrwfawmfrsm;ESihf wnfchJ
aomapwDwpfqjl zpfonf/ omoemawmfysUH EUHS a&muf&adS &;twGuf taomurif;Bu;D u
OD;pD;aqmif&Gufum OmPfawmfxkxnfrsm; BuD;rm;vsuf&Sdayonf/ a0omvDacwf
ausmufavScg;NrKd UawmfwiG f pk;d pHaeaom r[mwkid ;f pjEm´ ;rif;Bu;D (at'D 327-382)rdz&k m;
okybma'0DEiS q
hf ufvufjyKjyifrrG ;f rHcMhJ uonf/
av;NrdKY ajrmufO;D acwfjyKjyifrrG ;f rH
av;NrKd Uacwf yxryk&ed Nf rKd Uawmfü pk;d pHaeaom aumvd,bk&if (at'D 11181123)ESihf rdz&k m;ukrm® &Dwu
Ydk "mwfawmfrsm;ukd jyKjyifrrG ;f rHcMhJ uonf/
onfrif;jrwfum; NyKd i;f wkid "f mwfawmfoYkd bk&m;zl;olrsm; oGm;a&;vma&; tqif
ajyap&ef av;NrKd Ujrpfurf;ezl;rS awmifajcokaYd &mufatmif vrf;rBu;D wpfcu
k dk azmufvyk f
cJhonf/
,if;vrf;rBu;D ukd ,ckwidk af wGUjrifEidk o
f nf/ okaYd omfvnf; v,fajrwk;d csUJ raI Mumifh

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

101

wpfyidk ;f wpfusK;d yJah eayNy/D awmifxyd üf "mwfawmf\ taemufbufawmifwpfjcrf; NyKd us
rnfudk pk;d &dro
f jzifh ckid cf efaY tmif jyKjyifEidk cf ahJ yonf/
ajrmufO;D acwf (at'D 1570-1593)ckEpS f b0&Sirf if;zavmif;ESihf rdz&k m;&Siv
f wfwYdk
u jyKjyifrrG ;f rHum pE´0Zd ,&mZm at'D (1710-1731)ESihf rdz&k m; ra&T*w
l u
Ydk vnf;xyfrH
jyKjyifrrG ;f rHcMhJ uonf/
ajrmufOD;acwf aemufydkif;tajctae
ouú&mZf (1146)ckEpS w
f iG f ajrmufO;D acwfuek q
f ;Hk Ny;D &ckid ef ef;qufjywfc&hJ onf/
xkaYd emufbmoma&;ukd tav;xm;rnft
h ajctaeray;onft
h wGuf "mwfawmfrmS NcKH E,
G f
ydwaf ygi;f rsm;jzifh awmvm;? NcKH vm;? apwDvm;[kyif cGjJ cm;rodEidk o
f nfh tajctaeokYd
qkdufa&mufcJhonf/
,if;okYd t*Fvyd t
f yk cf sKypf Ofumvü ,if;"mwfawmfudk a'owpf0u
dk (f 32)&GmrS ylaZmf
uk;d uG,cf o
hJ nf/ ajrmufO;D NrKd Ue,f *kPu
f Re;f aus;&GmrS ysv
H eG af wmfrcl ahJ om q&mawmfBu;D
rSm "mwfawmfjzpfajrmufa&; OuúXtjzpf aqmif&u
G Nf y;D (32)&GmrS wum? wumrrsm;ESihf
wpfBurd f jyKjyifrrG ;f rHcahJ yonf/
(jyKjyifrrG ;f rHonf&h ufuadk wmh wdu
f spmG rod&ay/)
,if;okjYd yKjyifNy;D (1320)ck 0gqv
dk qef; 13 &uf nOft
h csed [
f k xif&onf/ (obm0
'Pfavm? rormrlavm wdusrod&ay/) "mwfawmfrmS wpf0ufcefNY yKfd usomG ;í ,if;txJ
rS ajrpkid ?f ajrcJ? ausmufw;Hk Bu;D rsm;ESihf Ak'½¨ yk yf mG ;awmfrsm;rSm awmifatmufoYdk wcsKUd aysmuf
qk;H í wpfo,
G jf zpfc&hJ ayonf/
okjYd zifh NyKd i;f wkid "f mwfawmfBu;D ukd jyefvnfwnfaqmuf&ef a*gyutoif;rS tvª
aiGrsm; aumufcHNyD; (1974)ckESpfwGif topfwzef jyefvnfwnfaqmufEkdifcJhonf/
okdYaomfvnf; oHxD;awmfrSm "mwfawmfxdyfay:okdY ra&muf&SdcJhay/ 1981 ckESpfrSom
a*gyutoif;rS Bu;D rª;í Zmwfy?JG usiyf ?JG vGeq
f yJG JG ponfh aysmyf JG &Tiyf rJG sm;jzifh jyefvnfí
xD;awmfudk "mwfawmfxyd af y:oYdk ta&mufwifay;Ekid o
f nf/
,if;aemufyifkd ;f wGif a*gyutoif;rS pdw0f ifwpm;? *½kwpku
d jf zpfrvmonft
h wGuf
xk;H jzLa&mifyif rvif;Ekid af wmhay/ okjYd zifh ,if;a'o&Sd pdwx
f ufoefaom vli,fwcsKUd u
(1992)ck oBueF (f 3)&uftwGi;f jyKjyifrrG ;f rHEidk cf ahJ yonf/
xkUd aemuf (1992)ckEpS w
f iG f oku
d o
f rm;rsm;rSm "mwfawmfxrJ S ajrpkid af jrcJrsm;ukd
tjyifox
Ydk w
k yf pfNy;D Xmyemawmfrsm;ukd arTaeSmuf&mS azG[ef&adS yonf/ okjYd zifh "mwfawmfrmS

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

102

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

ajrom;r&Sw
d hJ tcGo
H mjzpfaeayNy/D 1993-ckEpS f a*gyutoif;ESihf vli,frsm;pkaygi;f Ny;D
"mwfawmfxo
J Ydk ajrpkid ?f ajrcJrsm; jyefvnfxnfo
h iG ;f Ny;D "mwfawmftv,fuv
kd nf; NyKd i;f
opfv;Hk Bu;D rsm;jzifh axmufxm;usm;uefxm;ayonf/
,if;odjYk zifh oku
d o
f rm;rsm;\ avmb&r®uaf Mumifh "mwfawmfrmS Burd zf efrsm;pGm
'kuo
© o
H &mvnfc&hJ ayonf/ oku
d o
f rm;rsm;\ vufcsuaf Mumifh "mwfawmfarGawmfwcsKUd
rSm oku
d w
f ;l &if; ysupf ;D cJ&h ayonf/
rsufarSmufvuf&m tajctae
NyKd i;f wkid "f mwfawmfrS (15)aycefY a0;aomawmifbuft&yfwiG f apwDwpfqu
l kd
vnf;aumif;? tm½kHcH"r®m½kHBuD;twGif;&Sd 0d&wdXwko'¨armbk&m;rSm OmPfawmf 5ay
8vufr)&Sd Ak'q
¨ if;wkawmfwpfq?l ausmufñq
dk if;wkawmfwpfq(l av;NrKd Uacwfvuf&m
jzpf)ausmufñw
dk iG f xGi;f xkxm;aom bDv;l pkw
H w
JG pfc?k odraf wmf&ma[mif;ESihf ajcawmf
&mwpfcu
k v
dk nf; xm;&Sad yonf/
(1992-ckEpS )f ,if;"mwfawmfudk oku
d o
f rm;rsm; azmufxiG ;f pOfu 0Sux
f m;cJ&h m
(yef;ajrmif;? xGu0f uef)rS &&Scd o
hJ nfh aMu;qif;wk Ak'½¨ yk yf mG ;awmfwpfq(l a&S;acwfvuf&m
r[kw)f ukd vnf;aumif; a*gyutoif;rS xde;f odrf ;f ylaZmfxm;&Sad yonf/
okjYd zihf ,if;"mwfoYdk &yfa0;&yfe;D rS Ak'b
¨ mom0ifrsm; vma&mufz;l ajrmf Munfño
dk '´g
yGm;Ekid af yonf/
txufüazmfjycJah om orkid ;f um; tOöee'D (av;NrKd Ujrpf)wGif rOöLyAÁwawmifxuf
ü Ak'"¨ mwfawmfarGawmfrsm;jzifh wnfcahJ om Asm'dwaf wmf0if NyKd i;f wkid "f mwfawmfwpfql
jzpfaMumif; orkid ;f xif&mS ;ayonfwnf;/
ckdifapmodPf;(yef;ajrmif;)
rSDjirf;ukd;um;pm&if;rsm;
- OD;omxGe;f ? OD;? qHawmf&iS o
f rkid ;f /
- t&Sipf uúEd ?´ jynfwiG rf uk#d ?f "mwfO;D &mZforkid ;f /
- xGef;a&Tckdif(ppfawGaumvdyf)&ckdifeef;quf? NrdKUquforkdif;
- OuúX? "mwfawmfa*gyutoif;? pm&Gupf mwrf;rsm;/

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

103

&ckdifuAsm jyóem
owå0gwidk ;f rSm jyify½kyt
f m½kx
H w
d rdG u
I dk wkUH jyefa&pHepf[yd ga&/ vlrmS ykv
d mpGmu
tqifhjrifhwkHUjyefrIpHepfjzpfaw bmompum;yg/ bmompum;a& vlom;wdMum;rSm
qufo,
G af &;ud&,
d mjzpfaw? todtjrifzyD;a& ud&,
d mjzpfaw/ bmompum;qkpd mG
vlt
Y zGUJ tpnf;wpfcrk mS orkid ;f t&aumif;ta&;yga& vlryI o
Hk @mefwpfct
k jzpf vIy&f mS ;
ajymif;vJeaD &/ ajympGmukd rSwzf Ydk vkt
d yfawvkYd odjrifvma& orkid ;f wauGUrmS pmt&G;D tom;
pyga&/ tajymeeft
Y &G;D Zmol,ifav/ ,Si;f eDpmG yg&m/
orkid ;f rSm vlrsK;d wdtjzpf pkpnf;vmuwfawpGmrSm bmompum;avh tNccD w
H pfcsuf
yga&/ ,if;bmompum;eefY trsK;d om;pmyDzUG NH zKd ;vma&/ ,if;pmyDu bmompum;ukd
wjyefzGHUNzdK;us,fjyefYpDa&/
pmyDupd rö mS uAsmtaMumif;ukd t"duajymygar/ uAsmqkpd mG bmompum;\ tñTeYf
tzl;jzpfawvkYd pmyDynmoQi½f Ukd u qku
d wfaw/ ]]pmyDtEkynmrSm tjrifq
h ;Hk yko
H @mefa&
uAsmjzpfaw}} vkYd *smref'óeynm&SiBf u;D ]]uef}Y } uawmifajymca&/ uAsmudpq
ö pdk mG
bmompum;udpjö zpfaw/ &ckid pf myDzUHGNzKd ;wk;d wufa&;twGuf &ckid u
f Asma&/ aumif;ta&;
Bu;D a& tcef;u ygeaD &/ jyóemu &ckid u
f Asmqkpd mG Zmav? Zmcsiu
hf dk &ckid u
f AsmvkYd
ac:zaYdk v;/ *EÅ0if &ckid u
f Asmu ,Si;f yga&/ atedrsuaf rSmufumvrSm &ckid u
f Asmqkpd mG
ZmuAsmwduadk jympGmavvkYd rde;f zkYd uszaYdk ,/ uReaf wmf½Udk rmS wifjyzkYd toif[
h ed &D ygz/Ydk

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

104

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

rI[
d if;cl;apmifvm;uwfar
]]tarsav a&mufrav
rI[
d if;avhc;l pl;avhp;l
tpl;av;xGif eDav;0if
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f adk v;a&muf rk;d av;aomuf}}
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f ;D em;rSmyef
eHe&H u
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f dk wkv
Yd pYdk m;
pm;aumif;,ifv
h m; atmifausmZf H
tkH;....tmrcH}}
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rkav;yGm;au ukumú ;xD;eefY
wHceG 'f ufpeG f MuufvQmvdyv
f uf
jymom'fwifAs,?f qGr;f awmfMuufv}Ydk }
at;csiw
hf &d ckid u
f Asmwdjzpfaw/
&cdik u
f Re;f om; awmom;awmifom; wd&w
G q
f adk & &ckid u
f Asmwdyg/ a'uAsmwdrmS
xl;jcm;csuu
f Zmav/ &cdik w
f ed pD OfajymeDa& bmompum;ukd wku
d ½f u
dk o
f ;Hk xm;pGm jzpfaw/
um&efygcsiyf g/ rygcsief /D &ckid v
f D &ckid t
f ajym e&Do;Hk xm;pGm wG&d yga&/
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d if;cl;&ef oGm;Murnf}}
]]pm;aumif;ovm; atmifausmZf }H } vkYd pmpum;eefrY &G;D yg/ ated&ckid rf mS &D;eD
uwfo;D a& uAsmwcsKUd / &ckid t
f ajymbmmpum;rok;H a& uAsmwd/ ,if;uAsmwd twwf
ynmaumif;au aemiftESpw
f pfq,fEpS q
f ,frmS &ckid u
f Asmpm&if;rSm yg[zd rYdk [kwyf g/
ygzq
Ydk adk u ArmuAsmtefaomfavmf*sD (Anthalogy) xJu&dk m a&mufvyD gz/Ydk
&ckid b
f mompum;? &ckid pf myDudk pdw0f ifpm;a& Ekid if jH cm;om bmomaA'ygarmu©
wpfa,mufu &cdidk o
f m;uAsmq&mwpfa,mufudk rsuaf rSmuf&ckid u
f Asmwd vkcd siaf &?
toHzrf;,lvm;zkYd awmif;qkad &ygz/d uReaf wmf½Udk u yD;vku
d yf gAs,u
f Asmxd/ ,if;csix
hf rJ mS
ated&ckid o
f m;wd rok;H ? rajyma&a0g[m&wd? aemufqufw]d ]ypön;f }}wdygeaD &? uAsmvD
uav; &ckid v
f rD [kw/f ,if;ykid q
f adk u ArmuAsmukd &ckid o
f eH efq
Y pdk mG &mjzpfygz/Ydk &ckid u
f Asm
jzpfrvmyg/
atcsi&hf ckid u
f Asm r[kwyf gvq
Ydk adk u uReaf wmf½Udk baZmifcpH m;&ygzaYdk v;/ olu
bmomaA'ynm&Sit
f eDeefaY jympGmjzpfvYdk 0rf;enf;yufvufjzpf&zk/Yd a,auavh jiif;vku
Yd

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

105

r&yg/ uk,
d ½f Udk u,
dk w
f idk u
f uk,
d b
hf mompum;ukd wefz;dk rxm;vk?Yd rok;H vkjYd zpfawudp/ö
uk,
d phf myDorkid ;f vrf;udk uk,
d ½f Udk rjrifpmG ? olu
Y dk aus;Zl;awmifwif&zko
Yd ;D /
a,wGuef efY ated&ckid u
f Asmukd Zmykid zf efw;D uwfzaYdk v; t"dutusq;Hk tcsuu
f
&ckid b
f mompum;ukd ok;H &zkjYd zpfyga&/ &ckid b
f mompum;qkpd mG a& a'ed&ckid w
f d ajymeDa&
bmompum;jzpfyga&/
ateduAsmTrend rSm t"duxl;jcm;csuu
f Zmav;qkad u trsK;d om;uAsmwkid ;f
a& tajyme&Dbufudk wjznf;jznf;yg;ygvwfaw uyfygvwfawqkpd mG yg/ Ekid if w
H umrSm
yGjJ ywf vm;ygAs,/f tajymeeft
Y &D;pGm uAsmrSm xyfusvm;ygAs,?f ArmuAsmwdrmS avh
tm;vk;H ykid f tajyme&Dtajympum;yg/
tajyme&Dqpdk mG Zmav? vlxo
k ;Hk bmompum;ukd &nfñeT ;f pGmjzpfyga&/ vlxo
k ;Hk
bmompum; eef&Y ;D &zkjYd zpfyga&/ &ckid w
f o
d ;Hk a&? ajyma& edpOkd pf um;eefY uAsm&D;&ygz/Ydk
ated&;D eDuwfaw &ckid u
f Asmqkpd mG wdrmS rsuaf rSmuf &ckid pf um;r[kwaf wpGmwd
trsm;Bu;D wGed &D a&/ &ckid pf um;xJrmS r[da&]]onf}} ? ü? wGi?f \/ aom}} wdruefruef
ukd uAsmwdrmS pdwyf suaf umif;xref;wGed &D a&/ a'csiw
hf &d ckid pf um;rSm r[dyg/ r[da&pGm
wdudk ZmjzpfvYdk xnfo
h ;Hk edeu
f wfav? ta*gi[
hf ed pD mG wdudk ZmjzpfvYdk rok;H 0Hu
h wfav;/
&ckid u
f AsmzGUH NzKd ;zkt
Yd wGu?f &ckid pf um; zGUH NzKd ;zkt
Yd wGuf &ckid u
f Asmwd &ckid yf idk &f ;DG zkv
Yd dk
tyfaw/
]]uR;D }}qkad & pum;wpfv;Hk / &ckid o
f m;uk,
d yf idk /f aumif;vSa&/ oH&n
S jf zpfaw/
pl;&Sa&oabmaqmifa&/ ]]uR;D a&vla0'em}} uavh,if;ykid Af s,/f uReaf wmf½UdkajymeDuwf?
Mum;eDuwf&a& pum;vk;H ? &ckid u
f AsmpmyDpmG rwG&d au pmxufyx
D ufwifzYdk tvkyu
f dk
tol½Udk vyk zf aYdk v;/ pmyDorm; uAsmq&mwdvyk &f zkyYd / bmomaA'orm;u rSww
f rf;wif?
bmompum;vk;H ausmuf½idk ;f wk;H aoQwu
d dk oG;D a&tvky?f yef;yifaoQwd ysK;d yemyGiahf tmif
vkyzf t
Ydk vky/f uAsmq&mrSm bmompum;eefyY wfoufNy;D ,if;wm0ef[d yga&/ atcsiu
hf dk
orkid ;f q&mrvkyEf idk /f olt
Y vkyrf [kwyf g/ a,twGuef efY &ckid pf myD&iS o
f efa&;rSm uAsmtcef;
u@ukd avQmw
h u
G rf &yg/
tajyme&Dqadk u tqef;ykid jf zpfeyD gz?Ydk tajyme&Dudk ArmuAsmq&mwdxufapmNy;D
au t,if;qk;H ok;H ca& &ckid u
f Asmq&ma& OuúmysjH zpfyga&/ q,fEh pS &f moD&wkrmS tajym
e&Daumif;aumif;wGEd idk yf ga&/ wHy;dk oHomMum;í Muufrsm;aomaomwGe?f armifurvm?
vdyjf ymyl;vm[efoYdk (uqke)f
ESi;f vnf;wa0a0ESi?hf 0D;&yfajra[0EÅm? avñSi;f vmcg? arvGr;f &mukd ? armifawmf

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

106

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

rod(0guRwf)
armifaMumifh rBuo
H mwnf;? aexkid af omf raysmyf u
dk ?f xrif;a& pmr0ifygonf?
ylqmaoG;avjzpfí (wefaqmifrek ;f )
Ouúmyst
H ajyme&Do;Hk ca&? Ekid if w
H umrSm tajyme&DArmuAsmrSm tajyme&D uReaf wmf
½kUd u uk,
d rf ajyma& pum;eefY &G;D uwfaw/
uAsmqkpd mG bmompum; tñGet
Yf zl;yg/ bmompum;xJu txd,q
S ;Hk pum;vk;H
eefY acwfNyKd icf pH m;rIeefaY ygi;f Ny;D au trsK;d om;uAsmukd zefw;D &ygz/Ydk ateDY &ckid u
f Asmwd
rSm bmompum; tvStñGew
Yf u
d adk vh rwG&d ? &ckid o
f m;wdrajyma& &ckid rf qefa& &ckid f
r[kwaf w vDow
H d a0g[m&wdudk wGed &D pGm &Suzf aYdk umif;? &ifv;D zkaYd umif;yga&/
pmtky&f mS ;wJh onfajrrSm
0g;awmawG yde;f yde;f xyfvYdk
tJ'D 0g;awGudk puúLvkyf
tJ'D puúLawGay:rmS
Nird ;f csr;f vSywJh av;NrKd Uorkid ;f opfudk
b,fola&;yghrvJ/
(armifcidk af tmif)
&ckdifwefaqmifr*¾Zif; trSwf(18)rSm &SdqkH;uyga& tzGifhuAsm]]av;NrdKU}}xJu
aemufq;Hk tyk'd jf zpfyga&/ &ckid cf pH m;rIxufjrufauavh &ckid u
f Asmr[kwyf g/ 0rf;enf;rdyg
,ifh/
jyKjyifciG v
hf w
T ?f raygi;f pyfu
rsK;d Zmwftrke;f ? rk;d okcYd sKe;f vsuf
qufx;Hk rajz? ajzvnf;rusi;f
jrifrvif;u? r&Si;f urÇmarSmifawmhr,f/
(oQit
f ek ;f )
&ckid rf *¾Zif;(18)rSmyga& tzGiu
hf Asmyg/ &ckid u
f Asmr[kwyf g/
a0omvDwJh
emrnfausm[
f ;dk ? &ckid rf sK;d \
jrwfE;dk zG,&f m a&S;NrKd Uawmf/
rif;eDcidk f (armifawm)
uAsmrSm ]wJ}h av;yg ]\} avhyga&? pdwn
f pfryd g,if/h &ckid rf *¾Zif; trSw(f 17)u

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

107

tzGiu
hf Asmyg/
upäye'D? rIe&f rD idI ;f jy
jrpftvSay? Munfah vvSav
ESi;f rk;d a0vsu?f awmifajrwpf0u
dk f
iSuw
f pfou
kd v
f nf;? 0Jvu
dk yf sv
H u
dk f
aw;qkdvkdufESifh
ocif&ifrmS yDwjd zmbd
trd&ckid af jrompGav/
taemufom;(ppfawG)
rkead jrr*¾Zif;(trSw2f )xJu uAsmyg? vSyg,if?h &ckid u
f Asmjzpfrvmyg/ &ckid v
f rD [d
yg/ acwfprf;aemufqufwJG aiGwm&Dr*¾Zif;yg uAsmykpH yH g/ ppfawGño
dk efq
Y adk u a'ykid u
f Asm
wdudk EkEak oQeefY vSatmif&;DG wwfyg,if/h &ckid u
f Asmu r[kwyf gum/
BuKH ,ufyif;pdaoQ? xkwjf ypGmyg&m/ &ckid u
f Asmvrf;rSm tm;&zkaYd umif;pGm[dyga&/
&ckid w
f efaqmifrmS &ckid u
f AsmoyfoyfygvmpGm/ o[m,r*¾Zif;(trSwf 2) eefY ajrmufO;D
r*¾Zif;(1)rSm &ckdifuAsmwdukd wav;wpm;eD&myD;pGmu 0rf;omtm;&zkdYaumif;yga&/
uReaf wmf½Udk uawmh &ckid u
f Asm*kPo
f u
d m© [d[d acwfrrDS w
DS eD&m&pDcsiyf ga&/
uAsmqkpd mG bmompum;tñGet
Yf zl;jzpfawtwGuf uAsmq&maumif;wpfa,muf
jzpfzYdk bmompum;uRr;f usi&f zkYd tm½kcH pH m;rIxufjruf&zkjYd zpfyga&/ jrefrmEkid if rH mS xdyw
f ef;
uAsmq&mBuD; rif;ok0Pfa& bmomaA'ynmoQifyg/ aZmf*sDav;,if;ykdifygAs,f/
ocifu,
dk f awmfridI ;f a& bmomaA'ynmoQif r[kwaf uavh vlxo
k ;Hk bmompum;ukd
aumif ; uRrf ; usif y ga&/ jref r muAsm? jref r mpmyD zG H U N zd K ;wk d ; wuf r I t wG u f
ol½Udk BuKd ;yrf;ca&pGmwdudk avhvmwGEd idk yf ga&/ rm,maumhpuD;a& ½koQm;bmompum;
tm;aumif;csuu
f dk vlxo
k ;Hk tajyme&DeefaY ygi;f yem ½koQm;;uAsmwacwfaxmifcyga&/
]]uAsmqkpd mG bmompum; tEkynm/ taumif;qk;H bmompum;a& vuf[b
d 0
uvma&/ txdcu
dk Ef idk q
f ;Hk bmompum;a& b0ukd yDjyifatmif o½kyaf zmfxm;a& bmom
pum;&mjzpfaw}}
]]acwfo
f ;Hk vlxo
k ;Hk bmompum;eefY ajymyg&;DG yg/ uAsmbmompum;ukd vlxek m;
vnf&ygz}Ydk }
]]uAsmtaMumif;}}pmwrf;rSm acwfopfw½kwfuAsm acgif;aqmif tkdufcsifhu
,if;ykid af jymxm;a&/ uReaf wmf½Udk jiif;zk[
Yd yd gzv
Ydk m;/

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

108

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

a0g0h pS w
f rif;u ]]jruf&u
G w
f }d } Leaves of Grass uAsmpmtkyef efY pca& acwfopf
tar&duefuAsm &Dp;D aMumif;av;aomh ,if;ykid yf gAsm,f/ vlxb
k mompum;? tajyme&D
tm;aumif; xufjrufaw tm½kcH pH m;rI/
a,wGuef efY &ckid u
f Asmorm;wda& &ckid b
f mompum;ukd tok;H uRr;f usizf v
Ydk ydk ga&/
rdrb
d mompum;ukd wwfoed m;vnfzYdk vkyd ga& (&ckid pf um;ajymwwfpmG ukd qkv
d pdk mG r[kw)f
a,wGuef efY &ckid u
f Asmorm;wda& &ckid b
f mompum;ukd rdrb
d mompum; ruRr;f
usiaf u rdrv
d rl sK;d uAsmZmykid jf zpfygzaYdk v; &ckid b
f mompum;ukd pm&Gux
f uf uGeyf sLwm
xuf wifNy;D au cefcY efn
Y m;nm; ajymifajymifajrmufajrmuf&;D Ekid zf Ydk vkyd ga&/
&ckid u
f AsmeefY ywfoufNy;D au ajrmufO;D ? o[m, &ckid ñ
f eG zYf ;l ½kUd rmS xkw
d ykid ;f a'u
ykid ;f zwf&a& pmwrf;wpfapmif wG&d yga&/ ]aemifat;} &G;D a& ]&ckid u
f Asmjzpfay:w;dk wuf
rIpmwrf;yg/ apwemrSeaf & zGUJ pnf;ykaH umif;yga&/ ,Sm;,Sm;yg;yg; xGuv
f ma& pmwrf;yg?
ta&;tBu;D qk;H wpfcsuu
f jyóemyg/ &ckid u
f AsmvkYd owfrw
S af w abmifjzpfyga&? &ckid f
r*¾Zif;rSmyga& uAsmwda& &ckid u
f AsmvkYd abmifcwfr&yg? qku
d wfygzAYdk sm,fvYdk assume
vkyv
f rYdk &yg/ ]&ckid u
f Asm}qkad & t"dymÜ ,fziG chf su[
f Nd y;D om; a0g[m&e,fy,fa& odyyHÜ nm
e,fyg/ wdus&yga&/
&ckid rf *¾Zif;rSm &ckid u
f Asm [kwpf mG av;yga&/ r[kwpf mG av;yga&/ r[kwpf mG rsm;yg
a&/ ,if;ykid yf gAsm,f/ &ckid w
f efaqmifrmS avh ,if;ykid yf gAsm,f/ Mum;rSmajymca& &cdik w
f ef
aqmif trSw(f 18)rSm yg[ad & armifcidk af tmif &D;a& tzGiu
hf Asm]]av;NrKd U}}taMumif;t&m?
tm½kcH pH m;rI? twwfynmwpfcak vh ajymzkrYd [d? &ckid u
f AsmvkYd vk;H 0rowfrw
S Ef idk yf g/
&ckid u
f xGuaf w r*¾Zif;pmrsuEf mS wdrmS ygwidk ;f &ckid u
f AsmvkYd rajymEkid af &ykid ?f &ckid f
om;wd&;DG wkid ;f &ckid u
f AsmvkYd rajymekid yf g/ &ckid rf *¾Zif;uAsm ok;H oyfcsuu
f dk &ckid u
f AsmvkYd
ajympGma& trSm;Bu;D wpfcyk g/ &ckid u
f Asm t"dymÜ ,fziG chf suv
f rJG mS ;vmEkid yf ga&/
&ckid b
f mompum;ukd rok;H ? &ckid v
f ?D &ckid t
f ajyme&Drygau &ckid u
f Asmr[kwyf g/
&ckid u
f AsmrSm yifrESv;Hk tdraf & &ckid b
f mompum;jzpfyga&/ rsuaf rSmuf&ckid v
f x
l o
k ;Hk
bmompum;? ,if;pum;tajyme&Dudk uAsmrSm wku
d ½f u
dk o
f ;Hk rS&m &ckid u
f Asmjzpfygz/Ydk aemuf
tcsuw
f u
d tm½kcH pH m;rI? tvuFm? edrw
d yf u
Hk pd w
ö yd g/ uAsmtwwfynmudpw
ö yd g/
&ckid f *EÅ0ifuadk vhvm? &ckid af us;vufuAsmwduadk vhvm? ArmuAsm? Ekid if w
H um
uAsmwduadk vhvm? rkq;dk pkid o
f if t,ltqeefY &ckid u
f Asm *kPo
f u
d m© ukd Bu;D jrifh atmifvyk f
vm;&ygz/Ydk cspaf u BuKd ;pm;uwfygar/
a0a0(ppfawG)

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

109

xl;jcm;xif&Sm;a& &ckdifrif;wcsKdY
(&ckid o
f [m,toif; aiG&wk txdr;f trSwf pmapmifu Some Outstanding Monarchs of Arakan by Aung Zan ukd bmomjyefyga&)
&ckid jf ynf\orkid ;f aMumif;a& aumif;aumif;&Snv
f sm;yga&/ &ckid o
f rkid ;f rSww
f rf;wdrmS
&ckdifjynf\ orkdif;ukd rm&,k(bDpD-3000)uyifpa&vkdY azmfjyyga&/ wcsKdUuqkdau
'Gg&m0wDNrKd Ua[mif;(oHw)JG u rif;om;wpfyg;jzpfaw 0goak '0u pa&vkaYd wmifrS azmfjyuwf
yga&/ a'ykid &f n
S v
f sm;a& orkid ;f wpfavQmufrmS tajrmftjrifBu;D a& rif;aumif;rif;jrwfwd
pk;d pHca&ykid f rif;qk;d rif;npfw?d eef;vkb&k ifwv
d nf; [dcd pGmygAsm,f/ &ckid o
f m;½kUd a& ud,
k hf
bk&if uk,
d o
hf cifwu
d dk ousrsK;d EG,u
f qif;oufvmpGmjzpfawvkYd tpOftvmrSw,
f l
uwfyga&/ ousqpdk mG tif't
dk m&d,efZmpfjrpfyg/ atydik rf w
S ,
f rl eI efY ,kMH unftm;xm;rI½Udk
aygi;f pyfjcif;jzifh tcsi;f csi;f nDnw
G o
f ;DG pnf;yem vGwv
f yfaw wkid ;f jynfwpfcu
k dk wnf
aqmufxal xmifvmuwfpmG at'D 1784 txdygAsm,f/
&ckid o
f rkid ;f rSww
f rf;wdt
f & xl;jcm;xif&mS ;a& rif;wcsKUd½Udk taMumif;ukd a'aqmif;yg;
eefY wifjyzkYd &nf&,
G yf ga&/
a'rif;wda& pdw"f mwfprG ;f &nf jrifrh m;xufjrufpmG eefY &ckid jf ynfBu;D ukd Bu;D us,f
xif&Sm;atmif zefqif;tkyfpkd;cuwfaw rif;jrwfwdjzpfyga&/ a'rif;jrwfwdudk
ol½Udk \0if;vuf awmufya&vky&f yfwt
d wGuf xm0&atmufro
d wd&eDuwf&ygvrd ahf r/
1/ rm&,krif;(bDpD 3000)
oufvrl sK;d acgi;f aqmif\orD; £E´rm½keefY uydv0wftZÆKe&aoh½Udk \om;awmfjzpf

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

110

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

yga&/ rm&,krif;a& yxr"n0wDudk wnfaqmufcoljzpfyga&/ ous½Udk \ acgi;f aqmif
rm&,ka& ukvm;wefjrpf0rS ;f rSm rl&if;eDxidk o
f l qHyifaumufaumuf tom;rJr?J tyifww
dk dk
eefY ausmufacwfaeSmif;vlom;wdudk atmifEidk cf yga&/ ,if;rl&if; eDxidk o
f ½l Udk udk &ckid o
f rkid ;f
wdrmS bDv;l wdvYdk azmfjyyga&/
&Sda[mif;&ckdifjynf\ yxrqkH;aom rif;tjzpf rm&,kukd owfrSwfuwfyga&/
rm&,krif; wnfaxmifca& yxr"n0wDNrKd Ue&D mukd t*k&ckid jf ynf ajrmufbuf yvuf0
tem;u ausmufyef;awmif; eDvmyef;awmif;rSm wGEd idk yf ga&/
2/ pE´ol&d,rif; (bDpD 582-554)
r[mrkeb
d &k m;tem;u &Sad [mif;NrKd Uawmf wwd, "n0wDudk wnfaxmifca&rif;
jzpfyga&/ a*gwrAk'¨ uk,
d af wmfwidk f &ckid jf ynfudk <ucsv
D mpGm a'pE´o&l ,
d rif;vufxufrmS
yg/ bk&m;oQif oDwif;ok;H eDa& umvtwGi;f rSm ½kyyf mG ;awmf r[mrkeu
d dk oGe;f vkyyf ga&/
,if;½kyyf mG ;awmfjrwfudk tpGjJ yKvYdk &ckid jf ynfudk ]]½kyyf mG ;awmfjrwfow
D if;ok;H &ma'o}}
vkYd arma&Upaf umavhpu
f emrnfwyfcpGmyg/
3/ a'GifpjE´m;rif; (at'D 370-425)
a'rif;\bGUJ awmfudk orkid ;f rSm r[mwkOd ;f pjEm´ ;vkv
Yd nf; azmfjyyga&/ ol&,
d auwk
rif;\ om;awmfyg/ bk&ifpE´o&l ,
d ukd qufcaH & 25-qufajrmufrif;jzpfyga&/ a0omvD
\ yxrqk;H rif;vnf; jzpfyga&/ a'rif;vufxufawmfa& aumif;aumif;tD;csr;f wnfNird f
<u,f0csr;f omyga&/ ,if;twGuef efY tmeE´pjEa´ usmufpmrSm a'rif;vufxuf a0omvD
ukd (ewfjynf\vSywifw
h ,fjcif;ukyd if jyuf&,fjyKEidk af vmufatmif vSywifw
h ,faom
NrdKUawmf)vkdY urÜnf;xkd;cpGm jzpfyga&/
4/ tmeE´pjE´rif; (at'D 720)
ajrmufO;D NrKd U? oQpaf omif;ykx;dk awmfrmS ausmufpmwkid Bf u;D wpfcu
k dk a'edxufwidk f
wGdjrifEkdifuwfyga&/ ,iff;ausmufpmukd ooFu½kdufbmomeefY &GD;xkd;xm;pGmyg/
,if;ausmufpmukd &G;D xk;d coltjzpf tmeE´pjEr´ if; xif&mS ;&jcif;jzpfyga&/
ausmufpmrSm azmfjyxm;csuft& tmeE´pjE´rif;a& tdrfeD;csif;ekdifiHwdjzpfaw
b*Fvm;? oD&v
d uFm? tdE,
d´ ½kUd txd tmPmpufus,jf yefcY aMumif; od&&dS yga&/ Ak'b
¨ mom
ukd txl;ouf0if,MHk unfojl zpfawtwGuf ukov
dk af umif;rIrsm;pGmjyKvyk cf yga&/ &ckid jf ynf

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

111

a& ax&0g'Ak'b
¨ momxGe;f um;a& wkid ;f jynfwpfcjk zpfaMumif; rSww
f rf;wifxm;cjcif;a&
a'tmeE´pjEa´ usmufpm\ wefz;dk rjzwfEidk af om aus;Zl;jyKcsuw
f pf&yfjzpfyga&/
5/ aumvd,rif;(at'D 1118)
yk&ed rf if;quf? q|rajrmufrif;jzpfyga&/ tdE,
d´ ? yk*eH efY ,k;d ',m;(xkid ;f ) ½kUd txd
a'rif ; \emrnf x if & S m ;ausmf a pmyga&/ avmif ; Muuf a wmif a rmf a wmif b ,H u
ausmufaqmifrmS &G;D xk;d ca& atrif;\ ausmufpmukd atedxufwidk w
f jdG rifzwf½EI idk yf goad &/
6/ 'o&mZmrif; (at'D 1123)
aumvd,rif;\ om;awmfjzpfyga&/ 'kw,
d yk&ed rf if;qufudk wnfaxmifov
l nf;
jzpfyga&/ taemf&xmeefY tavmif;pnfo½l Udk usL;ausmrf aI Mumifh ,k,
d iG ;f ysupf ;D eDa& r[m
rke½d yk yf mG ;awmfudk pE´o&l ,
d rif;vufxufawmfutwkid ;f jyKjyifrrG ;f rHca&rif;tjzpf orkid ;f
rSm xif&mS ;yga&/
7/ tavmrmjzLrif;(at'D 1250)
avmif;Muufrif;quf\ yxrqk;H rif;jzpfyga&/ OmPfynmjynhpf <Hk u,f0a& rif;wpf
yg;yg/ eef;usm;bke;f Bu;D ausmif;&Sd Ak'½¨ yk yf mG ;awmfwpfq\l aemufuek ;f awmfxufrmS atrif;
a& oD[Vdk (f oD&v
d uFm)ukd bk&m;zl;<ucspD aD &vkYd urÜn;f rSww
f rf;[dyga&/
8/ &ckdifrif;xD; (at'D 1283)
&ckid o
f rkid ;f rSm eef;ouft&Snq
f ;Hk rif;yg/ w&m;rQwrI? OmPfynmxufjrufr?I tajrmf
tjrifBu;D rI½Udk twGux
f if&mS ;yga&/ oufawmfcek pfEpS rf mS eef;pHNy;D au oufawmf 113ESpf
rSm ewf&mG pHyga&/ ysLwpfoed ;f rif;vkv
Yd nf; ausmMf um;yga&/ b*Fvm;uyif {&m0wDjrpf0rS ;f
taemufbuftxd MoZmjyefEY UHS cyga&/ emrnfausmf ]]avmuom&ysKUd }}ukd &G;D zGUJ pyfqcdk pGm
a'rif;vufxufawmfrmS jzpfyga&/
9/ rif;apmrGef (at'D 1430)
avmif;Muufacwf aemufq;Hk rif;jzpfyga&/ jrefrm½kUd 0ifa&mufwu
dk cf u
dk af wtwGuf
b*Fvm;ukd wdr;f a,Smifc&yga&/ rif;apmrGerf [dpOfumvrSm &ckid jf ynfa& t0bk&ifeefY
rGeb
f &k if &mZm"d&mZf½UdkMum;rSm ppfwvif;jzpfcyga&/ a*gpv
l wef\ tultnDeefY rif;apmrGef

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

112

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

a& avmif;Muufx;D eef;ukd jyef&yga&/ aemufyikd ;f (1433-ckEpS )f rSm NrKfd Uawmfudk avmif;Muuf
ueDyem ykrd v
dk NHk cKH pw
d cf s&a& ajrmufO;D okYd &TaD jymif;,lcyga&/ ajrmufO;D rif;qufudk pwif
wnfaxmifcpGm atrif;apmrGeyf g/
10/ rif;c&D(ac:)e&EktvDcif (at'D 1433)
rif;apmrGe\
f nDawmfyg/ aemifawmf(rif;apmrGe)f b*Fvm;rSm a&mufepD Of &efol rGe?f
jrefrmwdudk 24-ESpw
f idk w
f idk f ajymufusm;ppfqifEw
JT u
dk yf 0JG ifecD ol jzpfyga&/
plvwefwyfrsm;\ wyfr;ª tlvcD efvufwiG ;f u aemifawmfudk u,fwifcpGmvnf;
atrif;c&D;yifjzpfyga&/ atrif;\ eef;pHoufu 26-ESpyf g/
11/ bapmjzLrif; (at'D 1450)
rif;c&D\om;awmfyg/ rlqvifwdvTrf;rkd;xm;a& b*Fvm;u ppfwaumif;ukd
atmifEidk cf oljzpfyga&/ bapmjzLrif;a& av;onfawmfBu;D wpfO;D vnf;jzpfyga&/ tm;cGeAf v
oefprG ;f oljzpfvYdk ppfyw
JG rd mS Bu;D 0gav;wpfvufudk ukid pf aJG vh[yd ga&/ av;twwfrmS
ajymifajrmufawtwGuf umvDrm&Sm;qkad &bGUJtrnfuv
dk nf; ykid q
f idk yf ga&/ (umvDrm)qkpd mG
b*FvDpum;eefY(av;)ukdac:pGmyg/
rif;apmrGev
f ufxufu b*Fvm;vufoYdk qk;H ½I;H ca&e,fy,fwu
d dk atrif;vuf
xufrmS jyef&,lEidk cf yga&/ emrnfausmpf mqku
d 0dBu;D wpfqjl zpfaw z'lrif;ñkad & atrif;
vufxufu trwfynm[dBd u;D jzpfyga&/ bapmjzLrif;\vufxufawmf taMumif;ukd
pmqkd z'l;rif;ñkdu pyfqkd&GD;om;rSwfwrf;jyKcyga&/ pmqkdBuD;\vuf&muawmhcg
]]&ckid rf if;orD; {csi;f }}jzpfyga&/
a'{csi;f a& &ckid pf myDrmS *EÅ0ifajrmufvuf&mrGew
f pfcyk gAsm,f/
12/ ppfwaumif;rif;bif(ac:) bk&ifrif;AmBuD; (at'D 1531)
ajrmufO;D rif;quf 12-qufajrmufrif;yg/ tdref ;D csi;f Ekid if ½H Udk \ usL;ausmrf &I efudk
umuG,zf t
Ydk wGuf bk&ifrif;AmBu;D a& ajrmufO;D aejynfawmfudk wHwidk ;f txyfxyf um&H
cyga&/ ppfwaumif;okdY ppfcsDyemb*Fvm; t&SdzufwpfcGifvkH;ukd atmifjrifNyD;au
*g,m(tdE,
d´ )txd NcpD MumjzefcY yga&/
Ak'b
¨ mom0ifrif;wpfyg;jzpfawtwGuf tdE,
d´ u Ak'"¨ mwfraDG wmfwu
d dk &ckid jf ynfoYdk
yifah qmif,v
l mNy;D au Bu;D us,x
f if&mS ;aom oQpaf omif;ykx;dk awmfBu;D ukd wnfxm;;uk;d

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

113

uG,af wmfryl ga&/ atykx;dk awmfBu;D a& &Sad cwf"n0wDeefY a0omvD½Udk u pwlygwu
d dk
ykw
H ,
l yl em twdtuswnfaqmufxm;pGmjzpfyga&/ b*Fvm;ukd atmifjrifrI txdrf ;f trSwf
tjzpf wnfxm;pGmjzpfv]Ydk ]&efatmifaZ,s}}vkv
Yd nf; bGUJ rnfawmf[yd ga&/
atrif;vufxufrmS taemufEidk if w
H ed efY yxrqk;H ukepf nfu;l oef;qufo,
G rf I
jyKvyk cf yga&/ ay:w*l v
D rl sK;d wduv
dk nf; Munf;wyf? &Dwyf½Udk rmS cefx
Y m;tok;H cscyga&/
bk&ifrif;AmBuD;rSm (ZmabmufoQm;)qkda& *kPfxl;aqmifbGJU emrawmf[dauvnf;
&ckid jf ynf a& r*kt
d ifyg,m\ vufatmufct
H cGeq
f ufwidk ;f jynfwpfcrk [kwcf yg/
Munf;wyfeefY &Dwyf½Udk udk wnfaqmufNy;D au &ckid jf ynfudk yifv,fjyifwpf½;dk rSm
pGr;f &nftxufjruf t0if;vufq;Hk ? wkid ;f jynfwpfcjk zpfvmatmif bk&ifrif;AmBu;D jyKpw
k nf
axmifawmfrlyga&/
13/ rif;zavmif; (at'D 1571 )(qDukE´m;oQm;)
rif;Ambk&if\ txD;G qk;H om;awmfjzpfyga&/
ajrmufO;D acwfrmS wefc;dk txufjrufq;Hk rif; wpfyg;vnf; jzpfyga&/
taemufb*Fvm;u r*kw
d u
d dk wku
d x
f w
k Nf y;D au ppfwaumif;eefY 'uúmukd rdr\
d
bke;f tmPmpufatmufoYkd jyefvnford ;f oGi;f cyga&/ atrif;vufxufawmfa& tvGef
tD;csr;f om,mzGUH NzKd ;<u,f0yga&/ bk&ifrif;zavmif;a& wpfwidk ;f jynfv;Hk u apwDb&k m;
ykx;dk wdudk rGr;f rHjyifqifwnfaqmufawmfrcl yga&/
14/ rif;&mZmBuD; (at'D 1593)
rif;&mZmBu;D \ ykid ef ufe,fajra& [l;*vdjrpf0uyif oHviG jf rpf0txd us,0f ef;yg
a&/ &ckid jf ynf\ wefc;dk t[det
f 0g tjrifrh m;qk;H a&muf[cd pGm a'rif;vufxufrmS yg/ yJc;l ukd
pnf;½k;H atmifjrifNy;D au e,fpyfudk jzwfausmv
f Ydk jrefrmjynfudk wku
d cf u
dk v
f muwfaw
usL;ausmo
f l ,k;d ',m;wdudk atmifatmifjrifjrif wku
d x
f w
k yf pfEidk cf yga&/ ppfwaumif;
NrKd Upm; om;awmf rif;rmefBu;D eefY qif'u
d Re;f (Sundwip Island)u ay:w*l v
D rl sK;d qDbwf
&Sef*GifZmvyf(Sebastian Gonsales) ½kdU yl;aygif;ykefukefrIukdvnf; ESdrfeif;Ekdifcyga&/
aemufwpfcg *kt
d mNrKd Upm; ay:w*l v
D rl sK;d 'Giaf [½ke;f 'DtmZmAD'dk (Don Hierome do Azvedo)u
aejynfawmfudk wku
d cf u
dk u
f sL;ausmv
f mrIuv
kd nf; ESrd ef if;atmifjrifawmfryl ga&/
a'ta&;tcif;rSm ay:w*l w
D yfr;ª 'Gi?f z&ifpw
d ?f 'D? eDaeYpf usq;Hk yga&? OD;&mZfawmif
tem;u wku
d yf u
JG awmh &DaMumif;ppfqifro
I rkid ;f rSm tBu;D us,q
f ;Hk jzpfyga&/

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

114

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

rif;&mZmBu;D vufxufrmS Ekid if jH cm;a&;ay:vpD D Adou
k mBu;D uawmhcg trwfynm[d
r[mynmausmjf zpfyga&/ bk&ifrif;&mZmBu;D ukd r[mynmausmu
f odraf rGUeuf,idI ;f a&
OmPfynmtajrmftjrifeefY pnf;½k;H odr;f oGi;f yem bk&ifudk Ekid if OH ;D aoQmiftjzpfxm;vkYd wpdwf
wykid ;f vTwaf wmftyk cf sKyaf &;pepf (Semiparlimentary)ukd csrw
S t
f aumiftxnf azmfc
yga&/
r[mynmausmf trwfBu;D a& bk&ifrif;bifuyif rif;&mZmBu;D ½kt
Yd xd rif;ig;quf
wkid w
f idk f trIawmfxrf;aqmifcNy;D au toufoQpq
f ,ft&G,rf mS tedpaö &mufyga&/
15/ rif;carmif;(at'D -1612) [lpdefoQm;
aemifawmfb&k ifrmefBu;D \ axmifxm;ykeu
f efru
I dk rif;om;b0uyif rif;carmif;
ESrd Ef iS ;f czl;yga&/ ,if;cgu r*kv
fd ufatmufcH taemufb*Fvm;ukv
d nf;oGihf tBurd af ygi;f
rsm;pGm 0ifwu
dk zf ;l cyga&/ Munf;wyft&mrSm tiftm;omvGeaf & r*k½d Udk a& rif;carmif;\
&Dwyfuu
dk scg r,SOEf idk u
f wfyg/ b*Fgvo
D rkid ;f q&m½kUd u rif;carmif;ukd aumif;aumif;
aMumufzaYdk umif;a& ppfb&k ifwpfyg;tjzpf azmfjyrSww
f rf;jyKuwfyga&/
bk&ifrif;carmif;a& 'gh½kdUeefY r[mrdwfjyKyem ay:wl*DusL;ausmfol½kdUukd wkduf
xkwyf pfcyga&/ atmufjrefrmjynf qdyu
f rf;NrKd U oHvsiu
f v
dk nf; wku
d cf u
dk af tmifjrif yga&/
owådajymifajrmufaw bk&ifwpfyg;jzpfauvnf; rif;carmif;a& wpfcgwpfvDrSm
&ufpufMurf;MuKww
f wfyga&/ a'p½ku
d q
f ;dk aMumifh olq
Y &mocif Ouúmyst
H rwfudk crnf;
awmfrif;&mZmBu;D u trsuaf wmf,yS ga&/
Ouúmysq
H pdk mG q,fEh pS &f moDOwk½UdkeefaY usmMf um;a& trwfpmqkad wmfBu;D yg/ rif;om;
ukd Ekid Ef idk ef if;eif; ryJjyh if rqk;H rEkid v
f Ydk rif;&mZmBu;D u trwfBu;D Ouúmysu
H dk r[mrkeb
d &k m;
rSm bk&m;uRet
f jzpf vª'ge;f tjypfy;D awmfryl ga&/
16/ bk&ifoD&dok"r®&mZm (at'D 1622)
bk&ifrif;carmif;\om;awmfyg/ bk&ifrif;biftquf aemufq;Hk rif;jzpfyga&/ a'rif;
eef;wuf eef;&a&tcgrSm ppfwaumif;em;u 'D,ef;*g;(Dianga) rSm[da& ay:wl*D
ukeo
f ,
G pf cef;wpfcu
k dk pD;eif;wku
d cf u
dk zf Ydk pDpOfyga&/ t&Sb
d ufwidk ;f jynfwu
d dk c&D;vSnv
hf m
a& c&pf,efbek ;f Bu;D refe&dwu
f a'tpDtpOfufdk odvm;cvkYd ajrmufO;D a&TNrKd Uawmfudk
tjyif; vku
d v
f mvwfyga&/ a&mufawcg tpDtpOfudk zsuo
f rd ;f ypfzYkd bk&ifudk ajymqkd
azsmif;zsEidk v
f u
dk yf ga&/ aemufyikd ;f rSm bk&ifeefY &if;ES;D uRr;f 0ifvm;yem refe&dwu
f olt
Y wGd

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

115

tBuKH ? aqG;aEG;ajymqkrd w
I u
d dk pydeb
f mompum;eefY rSww
f rf;&G;D om;yga&/
OmPfynmBu;D rm;a& rif;wpfyg;jzpfawtwGuf bk&ifo&D o
d "k r®&mZma& rdr\
d
e,fajrtwGi;f ckv
d eHI x
D idk u
f wfaw ay:w*l w
D u
d dk Ekid Ef idk ef if;eif; udik w
f ,
G x
f ed ;f csKyx
f m;
Ekid yf ga&/ ay:w*l u
D vnf; bk&ifb
h ek ;f &dyaf tmufrmS aumif;aumif;rGerf eG ef x
D idk yf em e,fpyf
a'owdudk apmifah ,Smufy;D cuwfyga&/
17/ pE´0dZ,&mZmrif;
&ckid jf ynforkid ;f rSm pE´0Zd ,&mZmrif;pGm xl;jcm;xif&mS ;ca& aemufq;Hk rif;ygAsm,f/
21 ESpw
f m umvywfv;Hk &ckid jf ynfBu;D udk Bu;D us,jf rifjh rwfatmif zefqif;pk;d pHawmfryl ga&/
b*Fvm;ukd ppfcsyD em r*kt
dk ifyg,mxJudk a&muf[v
d m;ca& &ckid ef ,fajrwdudk jyefvnf
awmif;qk&d ,lEidk cf yga&/ (1666 ckEpS rf mS ppfwaumif;pGm r*kv
d ufatmufukd a&mufvm;c
yga&/)
bk&ifw
h yfrawmfo;Hk tajrmufBu;D wpfvufrmS &G;D xk;d xm;a& urÜn;f pmt& bk&if
pE´0Zd ,&mZma& 'uúmukd csw
D ufwu
dk cf u
dk cf a&vkq
Yd ydk ga&/ bk&ifrif;bifvufxufu
usio
hf ;Hk a& wpdww
f ykid ;f vTwaf wmftyk cf sKyaf &;pepfudk eef;vkb&k if wpfyg;jzpfaw e&ywd
u zsuo
f rd ;f ypfyem oufO;D qHyikd pf epfudk jyefvnfazmfaqmifyga&/ ,if;vky&f yfaMumifh
tkycf sKyaf &;ykid ;f rSm *,ufxvmvwfaw ,k,
dk iG ;f ysupf ;D rIwu
d dk &yfwv
hH m;atmif pE´0Zd ,
&mZmrif; toDtBuD BuKd ;yrf;c&yga&/
bk&ifrif;bif\tkycf sKyaf &;pepfudk zsuo
f rd ;f ypfpmG a& &ckid o
f l &ckid o
f m;½kUd twGuf
txdempDa& xk;d ESucf suw
f pf&yfyg/ ,if;jzpf&yfaMumifh &ckid jf ynho
f jl ynfom;wd pdw"f mwf
,kd,Gif;ysufNydKc&yga&/
,if;jzpf&yfa& 1784 rSm &ckid jf ynfBu;D ukd bk;d awmfb&k m; vufatmuft,ify,if
a&muf&v
dS m;pDzt
Ydk wGuf wGe;f tm;wpf&yfjzpfcyga&/
bmomjyefol

aemifat;(taemuf)
tukd;tum;
1/ &ckid -f a'guw
f mazmfcsrrf m
2/ ppfawGc½kid f a*Zufw;D ,m; twGJ (u)rpöwm tm-bD?prmhwf
3/ &Sad cwf &ckid jf ynf? Ak't
¨ Ekynm-pHomatmif
4/ &ckid &f mZ0if-OD;omxGe;f atmif? ajrmufO;D

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

116

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

5/ ½kyyf mG ;awmfjrwf&&dS ma'o? arma&Upaf umavhpf
6/ &ckdif-yifv,fatmf,Ofaus;rI-arma&Upfaumavhpf
7/ b*Fvm;ukd usL;ausmo
f rl m*frh sm;-*sreD rD [
dk efa*gch sf
bmomjyeforl w
S cf suf
ajrmufO;D NrKd Uq&m OD;ausmaf usmv
f (S a&Tcidk af usm-f ajrmufO;D ) \ vrf;ñTecf sut
f &
ataqmif;yg;rSmyga& rif;wd\eef;pHcEk pS o
f uú&mZfwu
d dk &mZuúroacFyusr;f t& ouú&mZf
NzKd jcif;rsm; tygt0if tm;vk;H ñIEd idI ;f xm;csurf mS yl;wGyJ g Z,m;twkid ;f jzpfcyga&/
1/ rm&,krif;
(bDpD 3325-3263)
2/ pE´o&l ,
d rif;
(bDpD 580-528)
3/ a'Gipf jEm´ ;rif;
(at'D 327-382)
4/ tmeE´pjEr´ if;
(at'D 720-729)
5/ aumvd,rif;
(at'D 1118-1123)
6/ 'o&mZmrif;
(at'D 1123-1139)
7/ tavmrmjzLrif;
(at'D 1250-1256)
8/ rif;xD;
(at'D 1283-1389)
9/ rif;apmrGef
(at'D 1430-1433)
10/ rif;c&D
(at'D 1433-1459)
11/ bapmjzLrif;
(at'D 1459-1482)
12/ bk&ifrif;bif
(at'D 1531-1553)
13/ rif;zavmif;
(at'D 1571-1593)
14/ rif;&mZmBu;D
(at'D 1593-1612)
15/ rif;carmif;
(at'D 1612-1622)
16/ bk&ifo&D o
d "k r®&mZm (at'D 1622-1638)
17/ pE´0Zd ,&mZmrif;
(at'D 1710-1731)

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

117

&ckdifbk&if\ axmufvSrf;a&;rsm;
&ckdifbk&if½kdUonf owif;&,lrItwGuf oli,fawmfrsm;ukdvnf; rGD;pyfconf/
owif;&,lorl sm;ukd vQKUd 0u
S t
f rnfoauFwtjzpf eacgi;f (ESmacgi;f )[k tok;H jyKMuonf/
eacgi;f onf olo
Y bm0t& vuf[ef? Nc[
D ef? rsupf [
d ef? AZ[ef paom Murf;wrf;aom
MoVm&du½kyf [efrsm;ukd rjy&bJ tvGeEf ;l nHo
h rd rf pdG mG teHUrsm;ukd pdppfEidk o
f uJo
h Ydk
axmufvrS ;f a&; ynmonfvnf; tvGeEf ;l nHo
h rd rf pdG mG yif rdro
d v
d o
dk nfudk odatmif
jyKvyk &f rnfh ynm&yfwpfcjk zpfonf/ &ckid pf pfusr;f ? &mZ0ifusr;f ? oHo0Pfusr;f ponfrsm;
ü axmufvrS ;f a&;trnfoauFwtjzpf ESmacgi;f ukd tok;H jyKMuonfudk wG&d onf/
Oyrm
]]jynfEmS acgi;f ukd r&Snpf &D m}}
]][lonfum;? toQifrif;\ rsufpdjzpfaom tpkHtprf;wGif xnfhawmfrlaom
olwdkYukd}}
ponfjzifh &ckid pf pfusr;f ? tkycf sKyaf &;usr;f rsm;wGif qkx
d m;onfukd awGU&onf/
&ckid b
f &k if½Udk onf axmufvrS ;f pkpH rf;a&;tm;ukd tvGeu
f s,jf yefpY mG tok;H jyKcuwf
onfudk ay:w*l ?D 'wfcsf rSww
f rf;½kUd üvnf; wGUd &onf/ ol½Udk&ckid o
f Ydk qefpyg;0,fzYdk vmuwf
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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

118

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

119

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

120

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

121

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

122

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

123

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

124

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

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jzpfap tusK;d aus;Zl;rsm;ukd r&Ekid af wmhacs/
þausmufpmonf tapmykid ;f u &SEd iS Nhf y;D aom pjEr´ if;rsm;tquftEG,jf zpf[efwl

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

125

onfh od C
H ESiphf í ol&pjEE´ iS t
hf qk;H owfaom rif;qufopfwpfc\
k orkid ;f udk rdwq
f uf
ay;jcif;yifjzpfaMumif; awGU&onf/
tmeE´pjE´aemufykdif;&mpk0ufcefYtMum? at'D 788-9ü r[mwkdOf;pjE´rif;onf
rif;qufopfudk wnfaxmifonfqadk om &ckid &f mZ0ifvm azmfjycsuEf iS u
hf u
dk n
f aD eonf/
&ckid &f mZ0ifvm rif;trnfrsm;rSm þausmufpmrS rif;trnfrsm;ESihf qifwal eayonf/
eef;pH&mt&yfa'o? xif&mS ;aomtrnfrsm;? uG,v
f eG Nf y;D olrsm;\ trnfrsm;ukd jrefrm
trnftjzpf ajymif;vku
d rf aI Mumifh uGjJ ym;oGm;[ef&o
dS nf/ ok&Yd mwGif a&S;a[mif;½ky0f w¬K
taxmuftxm;rsm;? jyifytaxmuftxm;rsm;ukd tajcjyKvQif orkdif;qkdif&mtcsuf
tvufrsm; uku
d n
f aD eaMumif; awGU&jyefonf/ xkaYd Mumifrh [mwkOd ;f pjEr´ if;onf a&S;a0om
vDNrdKUawmfa[mif;ae&mü a0omvDNrdKUukd jyefvnfwnfaxmifcJhonfqkdonfrSmvnf;?
,if;a'orS(8)&mpkaemufyidk ;f ½kyv
f ;Hk ½ky<f ursm;awGU&rdS t
I & ckid v
f aHk p\/ ,if;rif; qufrS
xif&Sm;aom plVwkdOf;pjE´bk&ifonf at'D (953)ckESpfwGif b*Fvm;pjE´rif;qufrS
N*äj
pD Er´ if;\ MoZmBu;D xGm;aecsed f ppfwaumif;okYd ppfcsx
D u
G cf ahJ Mumif; tqk&d o
dS nf/ xkrd S
jyefa&mufNy;D rMumrD tcsed w
f iG f w½kwjf ynf okrYd [kwf waumif;jynfoYkd xGucf mG cJ\
h /
xkaYd emuf rdrad 'ookYd jyefra&mufEidk af wmhojzifh rdz&k m;acgiBf u;D pE´ma'0Donf NrKd Uvrl sK;d pkEpS f
OD;ESifh wpfqufwnf;vufqufcJhjyefonf/ þonfrSm awmifay:ae vlrsKd;pkwkdYtm;
,Ofaus;aom NrKd UjyokaYd &mufapjcif;ESit
hf wl wkid ;f jynfü ½Iyaf xG;aom tajymif;tvJudk
jzpfay:apcJ&h avonf/ wpfzefwidk ;f jynfudk &Sr;f vlrsK;d rsm;ESihf ysLvlrsK;d wku
Yd usL;ausmf
wku
d cf u
dk cf &hJ m a0omvDudk pGev
Yf w
T cf &hJ \/ wpfcsed w
f nf;rSmyif yJc;l rS rGew
f o
Ydk nf &ckid jf ynf
awmifyidk ;f ukd (18)ESpMf um odr;f yku
d x
f m;Mu\/ xkrd w
S pfqifh NrKd Uawmfopf yOöm(Pyinsa)ukd
oufvrl sK;d wk\
Yd tultnDjzifh jyefvnfwnfaqmufEidk cf MhJ uonf/
11-&mpktpykid ;f cefrY S tpjyKí &ckid jf ynfonf jrefrmqefvmawmh\/ &mZ0ifrS rif;wkYd
\ bGUJ trnfrsm;ukd jrefrmtrnftjzpf rMumcPok;H vmjcif;? ausmufpmrsm;wGif &ckid f
trnfrsm;ukd awGU&jdS cif;wkYd &Sv
d monf/ a0omvDonf ½ky0f w¬Ktaxmuftxm;rsm;t&
tdE,
fd´ \t&dyt
f aiGUrsm; use&f adS o;aomfvnf; wjznf;jznf;ESihf vufawGUwiG f jrefrmjynf
tv,fyidk ;f ESihf tquftoG,rf sm;jym;vmawmhonf/
&Spaf omif;bk&m;ausmufpmtvkt
d & od C
H pjEb
´ &k ifonf tmeE´pjEb
´ &k ifu at'D
729 ckEpS w
f iG f rSww
f rf;wifouJo
h Ydk aqmif&u
G cf ahJ om rif;wpfyg;yifjzpfayonf/ &ckid jf ynf
onf at'D (11)&mpktv,fyidk ;f wGif yk*b
H &k if tEk½'k g¨ u yxrjrefrmEkid if aH wmfudk xlaxmif
&mü zdtm;ay;rIaMumifh wkid ;f jynfwiG f txdemcJ&h jyef\/

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

126

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

jrefrm&mZ0ifEiS hf &ckid &f mZ0ifEpS cf pk vk;H wGif &ckid jf ynfoYdk tEk½'k m¨ bk&ifusL;ausmrf u
I dk
azmfñeT ;f xm;\/ ok&Yd mwGif &ckid jf ynfrmS uk,
d yf idk t
f yk cf sKycf iG &hf Ekid if t
H jzpf wnf&adS o;onfudk
um; rjiif;Ekid af cs/ taemufbufwiG f ygv(Palas)ESihf 0gref (Varmans)wk\
Yd Ncrfd ;f acsmufrI
aMumifh ta&SUb*Fvm;pjEr´ if;qufrmS usq;Hk Ny;D (okrYd [kw)f usq;Hk vkqq
J jJ zpfae\/ at'D
1013-23 ckEpS w
f iG f ukv
d m(Cola)\½kww
f &uf0ifa&mufraI Mumifh ta&SUb*Fvm;pjEr´ if;
qufrmS tiftm;csed aYJ pcJ&h onfrmS xif&mS ;av\/ xkaYd Mumifh &ckid jf ynfEiS hf a&aMumif;ul;oef;
a&mif;0,fru
I dk taESmift
h ,Sujf zpfc[
hJ ef&o
dS nf/
xkaYd Mumifh &Spaf omif;bk&m;ausmufpm\ ajrmufbufrsuEf mS onf bk&ifwpfyg;u
rdr\d rif;qufudk rSww
f rf;wifxm;jcif;jzpf&m? a&S;u&Scd zhJ ;l aom pjEr´ if;qufr[kwcf yhJ gvQif
xkrd if;qufonf (8)&mpkuek cf ge;D ywf0ef;usiu
f tmPmjyef&um? a0omvDNrKd Uawmfudk
jyefvnfwnfaqmufEidk cf íhJ rEkid ef if;Ekid af om tajctaersm;atmufwiG f &mpk(2)pkMumatmif
pDrt
H yk cf sKycf ahJ Mumif; awGU&onf/ xkb
d &k ifrmS eef;qufwiG f eef;vsmtjzpf w&m;0if&cGi&hf dS
olyifjzpf&m? yk*rH if;usL;ausmrf I eef;vkb&k ifw\Ydk BuKd ;yrf;rIrsm;ukd wefjyefErdS ef if;Ny;D aemuf
yOömNrKd UawmfopfwiG f tkypf ;dk cJah Mumif; ,lq&ayonf/
þausmufpmonf a0omvDNrKd Uawmfa[mif;u tultnDawmif;cHo?H tdE,
d´ qef
aom rif;qufwpfc\
k aemufq;Hk yifo
h uf½u
dI o
f jH zpfNy;D jrefrmEkid if \
H aemufq;Hk vufusef
ouú#ausmufpmvnf;jzpfayonf/
atmifo&l ausmf (&u©Kd if)

(Pamela Gutman; Ancient Arakan, volume 1, Text pp-68-74)

jyefygonf/

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

ukd bmom

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

127

pma[mif; yDa[mif; u@

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

128

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

ausmuf½kd;&mZ0if
earmwó b*0awm t&[awm or®mor®K'ó
¨
ausmufiEGm;'kid ;f yk?H a&SmufyyHk ifuyf? eHwpyfrmS ? rjywfoal ygi;f aevwåUH? csi;f ESiu
hf &if?
rsm;zsiw
f ½k;d ? awmif½;dk wpfciG ?f ukid ;f ,mjyifrmS ? rD;vQif xkcd gavmifvwåUH ? ausmufuakd umuf
csi;f ? aumif;wvif;vnf;? cwfvsiaf jymifajymif? ½k;d a&TawmifrmS ? rD;vQix
f cdk gavmifvwåUH ?
pdaEŽyk yf mG ;? jrwfu,
dk pf m;vnf; ? bk&m;ok;H qljzpfvwåUH ? xko
d nfuus;D ? ausmufvrd Bhf u;D í?
c&D;jyefqkyf? b&*kwftrSef? oabFmysHESifh? trSefcsufcsif;? ckESpfrif;vnf;? tjyif;xkdcg?
wifvwåHU? ukvm;ukd&Sm? ausmufawmf&GmrSm? xkdcgw½kyfawGUvwåHU? bl;oD;awmifrSm?
rif;acgiu
f v
k m;? Bu;D zm;tHah vmuf? wku
d Bf u;D aqmufí? tykwx
f cdk g? aevwåUH ? vufqu
D ef
rSm ? a&mifvQx
H rd n
f ;D ? MumjrifBh u;D vnf;? tNy;D xkcd g? ajrxJüom ay:vwåUH / awmifO;D wcGi?f
*sD&mjyifrSm? vGifwD;xkdcg jzpfvwåHU? olrif;igrif;? tcsif;csif;vnf; ppfBuD;xkdcg jzpfvwåHU?
eef;wGif;7-&uf? eef;jyif 3-&uf? 10-&ufwkdifatmif? "m;rkd;xkdcg &GmvwåHU? *päye'D?
xkjd rpf&rD mS ? aoG;eDxcdk gjzpfvwåUH ? r[mrked Bu;d bdpufawmf? xko
d a&mfcsucf si;f ? wHwidk ;f wGi;f
rSm 3-ESpjf ynfah wG? 0ufi,fu;l avmuf? aoG;acsmif;ayguaf tmif jzpfvwåUH/ yg;awmfeaH ,mif?
uRNJ caH wmifrmS ? vlu<dk urf;qD;ykv
Yd wåUH / bk&m;Bu;D eHa,mif? ukeaf bmifacsmif;0? vrf;r&bJ?
&Sv
d wåUH? ajrmufuadk jy;vnf;? arsmufBu;D aqmifajcmifah eSmifvwåUH? awmifuadk jy;vnf;? qwf
BuD;N*dKwifcwfvwåHU? ta&SUukdajy;vnf; ta&SU"m;pmjzpfvwåHU? taemufudkajy;vnf;
taemufuRev
f smjzpfvwåUH ? om;ukt
d rd&mS rwG?d trdwpf&mG ajy;vwåUH ? ysK&d ,
G u
f uk?d rde;f r
ysKw
d ?Ydk vko
d nfpMHk um;? abmf&,
G rf sm;ESi?hf aojim;acsmifrmS ? jzpfvwåUH ? uRaJ jc&meSi?hf EGm;ajc&m
uk?d ae&mjrufz;Hk ? wkid ;f vk;H Nird ;f &dy?f a&G;pDppfo?Ydk ok;H ESpaf phatmif? rjrif&bJaevwåUH ? &rf;NAJ

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

129

oHawmif? uRe;f rmefatmifrmS ? wpfaumifuRx
J ;D usev
f wåUH ? &ckid jf ynfwiG ?f uyÜwifrmS ?
usev
f sit
f xD;? wom;rdvsi?f xkw
d iG u
f wefusev
f wåUH ? ajrmufO;D 0oJ? wjyifwv
J nf;jzpf
vwåUH ? 'kid ;f usb
D &k m;ay:? avSravSmb
f aJ &mufvwåUH / usq
D ,fusu
D ?dk vli,fwpfa,muf
pm;vwåUH / ausmif;q,fausmif;ukd &Siif ,fwpfa,muf pm;vwåUH / ukvm;? ykZeG ?f xkwo
f ;Hk
wefudk vTev
f wåUH /
ukvm;acgi;f xuf trmeufvnf;ayguv
f wåUH / eef;jzLaxmifaomif;? ol&aJ umif;
onf ay:vwåUH / eef;rxkcd g ysuv
f wåUH / us;D ESiZhf &uf? a&m,Sux
f cdk g? rZÑrD modYk ysv
H wåUH /
a&Tw*d rHk mS ? 0kid ;f tku
H v
k m;a&mufvwåUH / bk&m;ajc&if; ppfwvif;vnf;jzpfvwåUH / ouú&mZf
80-ude;f jyK? pGe;f ig;ckrmS ? jrif&maumufusKid ?f a&Tyef;ckid rf mS ? ajcmuf&mtdraf jcvGwv
f rd n
® /f
urf;acsmif;awmif&if;apwD&if;rSm? use<f uif; 20 vGwv
f rd n
® /f upäye'Djrpfpv
D uf,m?
urf;awmfomrm? w&mvlAv
dk ?f olawmfoal umif; vGwv
f wåUH /
uRe;f 0,fajcmuf&monf? aiGptrSeaf Mu; rwefvnf;jzpfvwåUH ? pyg;w&m,yfMu&m
onf? olwjYdk yifrmS 80-'*Fg;jzpfvwåUH ? acgi;f aygi;f tusF D pufcsaD omufq?H vS&efum;qef;
tqef;xkcd gay:vwåUH ? tusF v
D ufwdk vlysKu
d spD m;rsm;vwåUH ? tysKrd rS?D tusF rD Nr?J rde;f uav;
wkaYd y:vjJ yKcsi?f olwv
Ydk Qi?f om;viftcsi;f ayvwåUH ? 15-ESpw
f idk yf if? ra&mufcif? om;vifxdk
cgaevwåUH / tcsKUd aomfu? xkrd ed rYf wkYd ? jzLqGMunfvif? oDv&Si?f vlvsit
f rsK;d ? opfacguq
f ;dk
í? vrf;½k;d ukyd pf? acgi;f uk&d w
d v
f ?Ydk ykw;D pdyv
f ?Ydk aroDvvnf; ay:xrsm;pGm vifrmS bke;f Bu;D
jzpfvwåUH /
bke;f Bu;D pdww
f dk remvkd &Gmukd ESpo
f if;cGv
J wåUH / &Gmwpf&mG rSm awGUumoem;? a'go
yGm;au? vlrsm;awG? q,ftdrfwoif;uGJvwåHU? teD;pkdYpkdYbkef;BuD;aqmifodkY uGJvwåHU/
bke;f Bu;D a,mifa,mif ausmif;waqmifEiS hf ay:vwåUH / bke;f Bu;D rw&m;? nqGr;f pm;vnf;
rsm;vwåUH / i,fou
l o
dk m tjrifx
h m;? Bu;D olum;atmuf? taxmufrawmf? vltadk tmufu
aevwåUH / acgi;f aygi;f ukcd Rw?f ajrrSmpGyv
f ?Ydk t0wfrvkjH zpfvwåUH /
xydecf em;wif rdr&® iT v
f nf;rsm;vwåUH / em;a#mif;r0wf? ajccsi;f pGyíf ? ajccsi;f xkcd g
0wfvwåUH txufucdk se&f ifczH csu?f tysKv
d ufwjdk zpfvwåUH / ppfawGNrKd U0if? wefwidk ;f jyifu?
oHoabFmBu;D cHvwåUH ? tdraf xmifreS ?f 10/ vlysKid g;usy?f rvGwx
f cdk g aumufvwåUH ? ausmif;
rif;Bu;D ocifov
D &Siu
f dk aiGvsiif g;usyf aumufvwåUH /
yOöi;f armif&iS f ausmif;vQit
f Nr?J ESpu
f sycf u
JG dk rvGx
J cdk g aumufvwåUH? &yf&mG vnfywf
arwåm&yfvYdk bk;d olawmfudk aiGawmfEpS u
f sycf aJG umufvwåUH / wjynfw&Gm aps;rSmvmí?
a&mif;um;azmuf0,f ukeo
f ,
G v
f yk o
f l xkrd Qvu
l ?dk aiGjzLig;usyf aumufvwåUH / a&mif;ol

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

130

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

um;rsm; 0,f,&l mS ;? xkid ;f um;tv,f jzpfvwåUH /
ukvm;xHrmS ? aiGvsiu
f yGm;? yGm;awmhtykid ?f rqyfEidk ?f tykid u
f v
k m;odr;f vwåUH ?
awmifuatmufcsif;jym;ukdqif;? tjcm;uvlvnf; t,lvTJvkdY awmifBudKawmifMum;
a&mufvwåUH / tcsKUd orl sm;r,m;ukd ypf? om;ukyd pfv?Ydk uk,
d v
f w
G t
f NraJ &SmifvwåUH /
&ckid &f u©jynf"nrSm? rdrr® sm;pkcg ukvm;&GmodYk rysux
f cdk g oGm;vwåUH? wcsKUdrrd ® t½kyv
f S
ESihf &onftvk?d ukvm;ukv
d nf; tdro
f v
l ifom;jyKvwåUH ? trdr&mrm? brSmukvm; &aom
om;uk?d ukvm;xHoYdk oGi;f vwåUH / ukvm;jynfrmS pdaE´r[d? [efvnf;wvk?d ykPmÖ ;ausmf
wvkd uefBu;D ul;vwåUH / uHEiS hf bk&m;twlxm;? ykPmÖ ;ae&m[kwv
f wåUH / ukvm;jynfrmS
[dEL´ ykPmÖ ;pk;d vwåUH / ouú&mZfrmS 1200 ESiahf &mufvm 80 ckEpS 0f ,fwiG f pE´mrif;aumif;?
xD;jzLaqmif;? rif;avmif;xkcd g ay:vrd n
® /f
rif;avmif;&mZm? vmaomcg? *päye'D? ajrmufqaD csmufMum;? awmifawmMum;u?
vS"H m;ukid ,
f ?l qifjzLok;H pD;? avmif;rif;Bu;D vnf; wpD;qifEiS hf wifvrd n
® /f wpD;qifrmS
"m;pusfmESifh vSHpusfmvnf;ygvdr®nf/
wpD;qifrmS ? yd#uwfo;Hk yk?H tukerf usef wifí ygvrd n
® /f rif;aumif;&mZm?
vmaomcgu *päye'D? jrpfpu
D rf;xuf vusmf bufrmS ? us;D jzL&Gmu? pE´rnf&? xkrd rd u
® dk
eef;rawmifnm wifvrd n
® /f ¤if;rif;um; touf 80 a&Svrd n
® /f
þpmrludk q&mOD;Aode;f xHraS y;ykaYd om Avmpmtkyv
f ufa&;rI rifu;l rS 12-1094 Ak'[
¨ ;l aeY eHeuf 7;30em&DwiG f ul;,l&&Syd gonf/
"n0wD ausmuf½kd;&mZ0ifawmfBuD; (vufa[mif;)
Ak?H rH? oH? e
ouú&mZfocsmF ? axmifEh pS &f mESihf ?a&mufvmS ckepfq,f? ajcmufc0k ,fü? AsKid ;f jzLvnf
csi;f ,Suv
f rd n
® ?f us;D rJus;D jzL? &efcsi;f rlum;? us;D jzLxkcd g? ,rkEmé arsmygvrd n
® ?f us;D jzL
axmifaomif;? taygi;f xkcd g? zk;d acgiaf wmifuarQmv
f rd n
® /f rif;um;tvGw?f jynfOygwf
vnf;jzpfvrd n
® /f
aom? owå? tX? e0 jynfBu;D tk;d ES,q
f v
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a&mufvmS ckepfq,f? &Spcf 0k ,fü? a&m*EÅ&? jzpfxuyfBu;D ? awGUvrd n
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f ,f? ESpcf 0k ,fü? wkid ;f jynfr@dKi?f

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

131

&ckid jf ynfBu;D ysupf ;D xkcd g pm;&dum© aMumihyf v
l rd n
® /f Ekid if w
H idk ;f om; &dum© &Sm;í vlrsm;xkcd g
ylvrd n
® /f
uRaJ jc&mESihf EGm;ajc&mukd ajrZmjrufBu;D zk;H vdrn
® /f vlwu
Ydk ,
kd rf mS a&m*gx;l qef;?
temqef;udk ? aq;usr;f r0if rSnu
hf sirf &? jzpfvrd n
® /f bke;f Bu;D rw&m;? nqGr;f pm;vnf;
rsm;vdrn
® /f bke;f Bu;D a,mifaqmif ausmif;waqmifEiS hf ? aevdrn
® ?f bk&m;um;atmuf
arsmufum;t|uf? jzpfysu{f uef? wkid ;f Ekid if rH mS ? rusiv
hf al umif;? olawmfaumif;vnf;
rsm;vdrn
® /f oli,fuw
dk if? bk&ifrif;jrwf? ½k;H ukt
d yfrif;jrwfemrnfrn
S v
hf rd n
® /f acgi;f qHx;Hk
ESihf acgi;f wk;H jynfudk zsuv
f rd n
® /f orm;a,mifa,mif? wkw"f m;aqmifí? vlavSmifval jymif
rsm;vdr®nf/
Bu;D um;vsif a&Tcu
J m;aiG? rawGr,Gi;f ? jzpfwxkaH wG? rsK;d av;yg;vnf; a&mvdrn
® /f
wkid ;f &ckid rf mS pk;d ykid rf w&m; ? rif;um;ESpv
f ;Hk ? Burd rf ;D tk;H okYd jzpfvrd n
® /f ouú&mZfocsmF axmifh
ESp&f mESihf a&mufvm&Spq
f ,f av;ck0,fü? Z&ufvmoHr;dk BuKd ;oHoYdk Mum;vdrn
® /f
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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

132

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

133

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f csu?f

&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

134

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

135

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

136

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

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&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

146

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

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&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

149

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

150

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151

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

152

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

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&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

153

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

154

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

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&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

156

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

157

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

158

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

159

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&ckdifom;BuD;pmay

160

&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

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&ckdifñGefYzl; trSwf(4)

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