CORPORATION CODE

OF THE

PHILIPPINES

CORPORATION CODE (BP 68, effective May 1, 1980)
GENERAL PROVISIONS Q: What is a corporation? A: An artificial being created by operation of law having the right of succession, and the powers, attributes and properties expressly authorized by law and incident to its existence. (Sec. 2) Q: What are the attributes of a corporation? A: 1. It is an artificial being; 2. It is created by operation of law; 3. It enjoys the right of succession; and 4. It has the powers, attributes and properties expressly authorized by law or incident to its existence. Q: What are the theories on the formation of a corporation? A: Q: What are the significance of the doctrine of separate personality? A:

1.

Liability for acts or contracts – the acts of the stockholders do not bind the corporation unless they are properly authorized. The obligations incurred by a corporation, acting through its authorized agents are its sole liabilities. The obligations of the corporation are not the obligations of its shareholders and members and vice-versa. (Cease v. CA, L-33172, October 18, 1979) Right to bring actions – may bring civil and criminal actions in its own name in the same manner as natural persons. (Art. 46, Civil Code) Right to acquire and possess property – property conveyed to or acquired by the corporation is in law the property of the corporation itself as a distinct legal entity and not that of the stockholders or members. [Art. 44(3), Civil Code]

2.

3.
1. Concession Theory or Fiat Theory –
Means that a corporation was conceived as an artificial person owing existence through creation by a foreign power. It has without any existence until it has received the imprimatur of the state acting according to law, through the SEC. (Tayag v. Benguet Consolidated, Inc., L-23276, November 29, 1968)

2. Theory

of corporate enterprise or economic unit – The corporation is not merely an artificial being, but more of an aggregation of persons doing business, or an underlying business unit. (However, this doctrine is being used in support of other doctrines.) Theory – Treats a corporation as “ the reality of the group as a social and legal entity, independent of State recognition and concession”. (Tayag v. Benguet Consolidated, Inc., L-23276, November 29, 1968)

Note: The interest of the shareholder in the properties of the corporation is inchoate only. The interest of the shareholder on a particular property becomes actual, direct and existing only upon the liquidation of the assets of the corporation and the same property is assigned to the shareholder concerned.

Q: Are corporate property stockholders or members?

owned

by

A: No. Stockholders or members are in no legal sense the owners of corporate property which is owned by the corporation as a distinct person.

3. Genossenschaft

4.

Acquisition of court of jurisdiction – service of summons may be made on the president, general manager, corporate secretary, treasurer or in-house counsel. (Sec. 11, Rule 14, Rules of Court). Changes in individual membership – corporation remains unchanged and unaffected in its identity by changes in its individual membership.

5.

UNIVERSITY e Derecho Civil

OF

SANTO TOMAS Facultad d

1

UST GOLDEN NOTES 2009
Q: What are the constitutional guarantees to which a corporation is entitled? A: GR: No. Since a corporation is a mere legal fiction, it cannot be held liable for a crime committed by its officers, since it does not have the essential element of malice; in such case the responsible officers would be criminally liable. (People v. Tan Boon Kong, 54 Phil.607) XPN: An officer of a corporation can be held criminally liable for acts or omissions done in behalf of the corporation only where the law directly makes the person who fails to perform the act in the prescribed manner expressly liable criminally. (Sia v. People of the Philippines, L-30896, April 28, 1983) Q: In a complaint filed against XYZ Corporation, Luzon Trading Corporation alleged that its President & General Manager, who is also a stockholder, suffered mental anguish, fright, social humiliation and serious anxiety as a result of the tortuous acts of XYZ Corporation. In its counterclaim, XYZ Corporation claimed to have suffered moral damages due to besmirched reputation or goodwill as a result of Luzon Trading Corporation's complaint. May Luzon Trading Corporation recover moral damages based on the allegations in the complaint? A: No. A corporation, being an artificial person which has no feelings, emotions or senses, and which cannot experience physical suffering or mental anguish, is not entitled to moral damages. May XYZ Corporation recover moral damages? A: Yes. When a juridical person has a good reputation that is debased, resulting in social humiliation, moral damages may be awarded. Moreover, goodwill can be considered an asset of the corporation. (1998 Bar Question) Q: What is the doctrine of piercing the veil of corporate fiction? A: It is the doctrine that allows the State to disregard the notion of separate personality of corporation for justifiable reason/s. Q: What are the tests in piercing the corporate veil? A: 1. 2. 3. 4. Fraud Test Control Test Alter-ego or Instrumentality Test Objective Test

a.

Due process - It cannot be deprive of life and property without due process of law. (Albert v. University Publishing, L9300, April 18, 1958)

b. c.

Equal protection of the law (Smith, Bell & Co. v. Natividad, 40 Phil. 136) Protection against unreasonable searches and seizures. (Stonehill v. Diokno, L-19550, June 19, 1967)
Note: A corporation is not entitled to invoke the right against self-incrimination. (Bataan Shipyard v. PCGG, L75885, May 27, 1987)

Q: Is a corporation entitled to moral damages? A: GR: A corporation is not entitled to moral damages because it has no feelings, no emotions, no senses. (ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation v CA, G.R. No. 128690 January 21, 1999 and Phillip Brothers Oceanic, Inc, G.R. No. 126204, November 20, 2001 ) XPN: The corporation may recover moral damages under item 7 of Article 2219 of the New Civil Code because said provision expressly authorizes the recovery of moral damages in cases of libel, slander, or any other form of defamation. Article 2219(7) does not qualify whether the injured party is a natural or juridical person. Therefore, a corporation, as a juridical person, can validly complain for libel or any other form of defamation and claim for moral damages. (Filipinas Broadcasting Network, Inc. v. AMEC-BCCM G.R. No. 141994, January 17, 2005) Q: Is a corporation liable for torts? A: Yes whenever a tortuous act is committed by an officer or agent under the express direction or authority of the stockholders or members acting as a body, or, generally, from the directors as the governing body. (PNB v. CA, L-27155, May 18, 1978) Q: Is a corporation liable for crimes? A:

2

CORPORATION CODE
5. Non-payment of separation benefits Test

OF THE

PHILIPPINES

Q: What are the requisites of the control test? A:

1.

2.

3.

Control, not mere majority or complete stock control, but complete domination, not only of finances but of policy and business practice in respect to the transaction attacked such that the corporate entity as to this had at that time, will or existence of its own; Such control must have been used by the defendant to commit fraud or wrong, to perpetuate the violation of a statutory or other positive legal duty, or dishonest or unjust act in contravention of plaintiffs legal right; and The control and breach of duty must proximately cause the injury or unjust loss complained of. (Concept Builders, Inc. v. National Labor Relations Commission, G.R. No. 108734, May 29, 1996)

corporation owns. After a few years, S lost his corporate positions but he refused to return the motor vehicle claiming that as a stockholder with a substantial equity share, he owns that portion of the corporate assets now in his possession. Is the contention of S valid? Explain. A: No. The contention of S is not valid. The Ford Expedition is owned by the corporation. The corporation has a legal personality separate and distinct from that of its stockholder. What the corporation owns is its own property and not the property of any stockholder even how substantial the equity share that stockholder owns. (2000 Bar Question) Q: What are the cases when the doctrine of piercing the veil of corporate fiction may be used to disregard the personality of the corporation? A:

a.

Q: What are the effects of piercing the veil? A: Courts will look at the corporation as an aggregation of persons undertaking the business as a group.
Note: When the veil of corporate fiction is pierced in proper cases, the corporate character is not necessarily abrogated. It continues for legitimate objectives. The decision applies only for that particular case. (Reynoso IV v. CA, G.R. Nos. 116124-25, November 22, 2000)

Where the corporation is a mere alter ego or business conduit of a person; or b. `Where the corporation is so organized and controlled and its affairs are so conducted as to make it merely an instrumentality, agency, conduit or adjunct of another person.
Note: Fraud is not an element in these cases.

Q: Is the alleged control of a proprietor over a corporation enough in order that the separate juridical personality of a corporation to be disregarded? A: No. The alleged control of a corporation was not evident in any particular corporate acts of the corporation wherein the proprietor using the corporation executed acts and powers directly involving the corporation. For the separate juridical personality of a corporation to be disregarded, the wrongdoing must be clearly and convincingly established. (Matuguina Integrated Wood Products, Inc. v. CA, G.R. No. 98310, October 24, 1996) Q: Nine individuals formed a private corporation pursuant to the provisions of the Corporation Code of the Philippines (Batas Pambansa Blg. 68). Incorporator S was elected director and president-general manager. Part of his emolument is a Ford Expedition, which the

Q: Plaintiffs filed a collection action against "X" Corporation. Upon execution of the court's decision, "X" Corporation was found to be without assets. Thereafter plaintiffs filed an action against its present and past stockholder "Y" Corporation which owned substantially all of the stocks of "X" corporation. The two corporations have the same board of directors and "Y" Corporation financed the operations of "X" corporation. May "Y" Corporation be held liable for the debts of "X" Corporation? Why? A: Yes, "Y" Corporation may be held liable for the debts of "X" Corporation. The doctrine of piercing the veil of corporation fiction applies to this case. The two corporations have the same board of directors and "Y" Corporation owned substantially all of the stocks of "X" Corporation, which facts justify the conclusion that the latter is merely an extension of the personality of the former, and that the former controls the policies of the latter. Added to this is the fact that "Y" Corporation controls the finances of "X" Corporation which is merely an adjunct, business conduit or alter ego of "Y"

UNIVERSITY e Derecho Civil

OF

SANTO TOMAS Facultad d

3

UST GOLDEN NOTES 2009
Corporation. (Commissioner of Internal Revenue v. Norton & Harrison Company, L-17618, August 31, 1964) (2001 Bar Question) Q: What are the requisites in Alter Ego or Instrumentality Rule? A: CUP
When management is not agreed upon, every partner is an agent of the partnership Power to do business and manage its affairs is vested in the BOD/BOT

1.

Control, not mere majority or complete stock control, but complete domination, not only of finances but of policy and business practice; Such control must have been used by the defendant to commit fraud or wrong, to perpetrate the violation of a statutory or other positive duty, or dishonest and unjust act in contravention of plaintiff’s legal rights; Such control and breach of duty must proximately cause the injury or unjust loss complained of. (Velarde v Lopez, Inc. G.R. No. 153886, January 14, 2004) between

2.

Effect of Mismanagement A partner as such can sue The suit against a a co-partner who member of the BOD or mismanages BOT who mismanages must be in the name of the corporation Extent of liability to Third persons Partners are liable Stockholders are liable personally and subsidiarily only to the extent of the (sometimes solidarily) for shares subscribed by partnership debts to third them whether paid or persons not. XPN: Limited partner Right of Succession No right of succession Has right of succession Transferability of SH’s interest Partner cannot transfer his Stockholder has the interest in the partnership right to transfer his without the consent of all shares without prior the other existing consent of the other partners. stockholders unless the right of first refusal is embodied in the articles of incorporation. Term of existence May be established for May not be formed for a any period of time term in excess of 50 stipulated by the partners years. May be extendible to not more than 50 years in any one instance Firm Name In a limited partnership it May adopt any name is required by law to add provided: the word “Ltd.” to its name 1. it is not identical or deceptively similar to any registered firm name; 2. not contrary to existing law. Dissolution May be dissolved at any Can only be dissolved time by the will of any or with the consent of the all of the partners. State Death, civil interdiction Death or insolvency of and insolvency of a shareholders can’t partner dissolves the dissolve the corporation. partnership. Governing Law Governed by the Civil Governed by the Code Corporation Code

3.

Q: What are the distinctions partnership and corporation?

PARTNERSHIP CORPORATION As to creation Created by mere Created by law or by agreement of the parties operation of law Commencement of juridical personality from the moment of from the date of meeting of minds of the issuance of the partners certificate of incorporation by the SEC Number of Incorporators May be organized by at Requires at least 5 least two persons incorporators but not more than 15 XPN: corporation sole Powers GR: May exercise any May exercise only such power authorized by the powers as may be partners. granted by law and its articles of incorporation, XPN: Acts which are implied therefrom or contrary to: law, incidental thereto. morals, good customs, public order, public policy Management

4

CORPORATION CODE
Q: What are the advantages and disadvantages of a business corporation? A: Advantages 1. Limited liability; 2. Shareholders are not general agents of the business; 3. Easy transferability of shares; 4. Continuity of existence; 5. Its credit is strengthened by such continuity of existence; 6. Standardized methods for the creation, organization, management and dissolution under corporation code; 7. Centralized management in the BOD/BOT; 8. Feasibility of great undertakings; 9. The corporation has legal capacity to act as a legal unit. Disadvantages 1. Relatively complicated in formation and management; 2. Entails high cost of formation and operation; 3. Limited liability of shareholder serves as a limitation to corporate creditor because shareholders are not personally liable; 4. There is ordinarily lack of personal element in view of the transferability of shares; 5. There is greater degree of governmental control and supervision that in any other forms of business organizations; 6. In large corporations, holding rights have become largely theoretical because of the use of proxies and widespread ownership; 7. Stockholders have little voice in the conduct of the business; 8. In large group, management and control has been separated from ownership; 9. Double taxation on corporate system. Q: Give the similarities between a partnership and a corporation. A: 1. 2. 3. 4. Has juridical personality separate and distinct from that of the individuals composing it; Can act only through agents; Organization composed of an aggregate of individuals; XPN: corporation sole; Distributes its profits to those who contribute capital; XPN: The case of an industrial partner who also shares in partnership profits;

OF THE
5. 6.

PHILIPPINES
Can only be organized where there is a law authorizing its organization; Both are taxable as corporation, subject to income taxation.

Q: May a corporation enter into a contract of partnership? A: GR: Corporations have no power to enter into partnership. Reason: Public policy. In a partnership, the corporation would be bound by the acts of the persons who are not its duly appointed and authorized agents and officers, which would be entirely inconsistent with the policy of the law that the corporation shall manage its own affairs separately and exclusively. XPN: The SEC allowed corporations to enter into partnerships with other corporations and individuals provided: a. The authority to enter into partnership relation is expressly conferred by the Charter or the AOI and the nature of the business venture to be undertaken by the partnership is in line with the business authorized by the charter or the AOI. (SEC Opinions, Feb. 29, 1980, Dec. 1, 1993, and Feb. 23, 1994.); b. The partnership must be a limited partnership and the corporation must be a limited partner; c. If it is a foreign corporation, it must obtain a license to transact business in the country. Q: Does a defective incorporation result into a partnership? A: The answer depends on whether or not there is a clear intent to participate in the management of the business affairs on the part of the investor. Parties who intends to participate or has actually participated in the business affairs of the proposed corporation would be considered as partners under a de facto partnership. On the other hand, parties who took no part notwithstanding their subscriptions do not become partners with other subscribers. (Pioneer Insurance v. CA, G.R. No. 84197, July 28, 1989) Q: May a corporation enter into a joint venture? A: Yes. It may enter into a joint venture with another where the nature of that venture is in line with the business authorized by its charter.

UNIVERSITY e Derecho Civil

OF

SANTO TOMAS Facultad d

5

Stock Corporation – With capital stock divided into shares and is authorized to distribute to holders thereof of such shares dividends or allotments of the surplus profits on the basis of the shares held. The ostensible partner manages its business operations. liabilities and damages incurred or arising as a result thereof. Has no juridical personality and can sue or be sued only in the name of the ostensible partner. 2. As to number of components a. Public– Organized for the government of a portion of a State. Has juridical personality and may sue or be sued under its firm name 5.R. Corporation by estoppel – A group of persons assumes to act as a corporation knowing it to be without authority to do so. 1989) b. b. organized or existing under Philippine law. cities & municipalities) b. and enters into a transaction with a third person on the strength of such appearance. 7. Has a common fund. (E. Q: What are the classes of corporation? A: 1. Has none. Domestic corporation – Formed. December 15. Liquidation may. 6. Non-stock corporation – Does not issue stocks and does not distribute dividends to their members As to legal status a. Liquidation thereof can only be done by the ostensible partner. 75875. 4. (Sec. All general partners have the right of management. Corporation created by special law – Directly created by Congress through special law. Q: What are the distinctions between joint account and partnership? A: JOINT ACCOUNT Has none and is conducted In the name of the ostensible partner. No. 3.Formed. b.g. 6 . by agreement. or the old Corporation law. to elect a majority of the directors of such other corporation. b. De facto – There exist a flaw in its incorporation but there is colorable compliance with the requirements of law. It cannot be permitted to deny its existence in an action under said transaction. As to existence of stocks a. PARTNERSHIP Has a firm name. Sanitary Wares Manufacturing Corporation. Parent or Holding Corporation –Has the power either directly or indirectly through another corporation. De jure – Organized in accordance with requirements of a law. Foreign corporation . be entrusted to a partner or partners.21) As laws of incorporation a.UST GOLDEN NOTES 2009 (Aurbach v. G. As to functions a. Corporation sole – Consisting of 1 person or member only. c. Corporation by prescription – Not formally organized as such but has been duly recognized by immemorial usage as a corporation. They are liable as general partners for all debts. As to the manner of creation a. Private – Formed for some private purpose. organized or existing under any laws other than those of the Philippines and whose laws allow Filipino citizens and corporation to do business in its own country or state. As to relationship with other corporation a. Corporation created under a general law – Created under the Corporation Code. b. Aggregate – Consisting of more than 1 member. c.

(1998 Bar Question) Q: Can private corporations be created by specific legislative act? A: No. OF THE PHILIPPINES Q: What is the nationality of a corporation organized and incorporated under the laws of a foreign country. and 5. deacons and the like and are established for the furtherance of religion and for perpetuating the rights of a church. INC. disregarding the fiction. by such other corporation.They are those mentioned in the Articles of Incorporation as originally forming and composing the corporation and who are signatories thereof. Control Test – Determined by the nationality of the controlling stockholders or members. (NPC v. 1. An affiliation exists between a holding or parent company and its subsidiary. Lay corporation – All corporations other than ecclesiastical. Incorporation Test . Special Types of Corporation See discussion on educational and religious corporations. the corporation will follow the nationality of the controlling members or stockholders. Majority must be residents of the Philippines. 2. which created the NEW AGRIX. Ecclesiastical Corporation – composing entirely of spiritual persons like bishops. 4. since the corporation will then be considered as one and the same. 3. Incorporators . of its members. As to purpose a. violates Sec. b. Q: What are the tests in determining the nationality of corporations? A: 1. Not less than 5 but not more than 15. What are the components of a corporation? A: 9.4.CORPORATION CODE b. but owned 100% by Filipinos? A: Under the control test of corporate nationality. Affiliated – One related to another by owning or being owned by common management or by a long-term lease of its properties or other control device. and the new stocks of the corporation were to be issued to the old investors and stockholders of the insolvent Agrix upon proof of their claims against the abolished corporation. c. 3. Eleemosynary or charitable corporation – Created not for private gain or profit but for charitable purposes for the administration of charitable trust d. this foreign corporation is of Filipino Nationality. Subsidiary – A majority of its directors can be elected. Each must own or subscribe to at least one share.D. that is. Q: What are the qualifications of incorporators? A: 1.Determined by the state of incorporation. Where there are grounds for piercing the veil of corporate entity. Philippine Veterans Bank. UNIVERSITY e Derecho Civil OF SANTO TOMAS Facultad d 7 . Grandfather Rule – Nationality is attributed to the percentage of equity in the corporation used in nationalized or partly nationalized area. 1990) Q. This test is applied in times of war. c. Natural person. and that the National Development Corporation was merely required to extend a loan to the new corporation. P. Note: If at least 60% of the capital is owned by Filipino then the corporation is of Philippine nationality. whether as stockholders or members 2. 2. since the new corporation was neither owned nor controlled by the government. Civil corporation – Not for the purpose of charity but for benefit. Article XIV of the 1973 Constitution which prohibits the formation of a private corporation by special legislative act. regardless of the nationality of the stockholders. pecuniary or otherwise. or between two corporations owned or controlled by a third.10) Q: Who can be incorporators? A: GR: Only natural persons can be incorporators. 1717. (Sec. Corporators – Those who compose a corporation. 8. directly or indirectly. Of legal age.

Rural Banks Act of 1992. Q: What is paid-up capital? A: The portion of the authorized capital stock which has been subscribed and actually paid.A. acting alone or with others. 7. unissued shares of a corporation formed or to be formed. 5. Q: What is authorized capital stock? A: Amount fixed in the Articles of Incorporation to be subscribed and paid by the stockholders of the corporation. (SRC) Q: Are promoters agents of a corporation? A: No.. Promoters are not agents of the corporation before it comes into existence. dividends and management. profits. incorporator of rural bank CORPORATORS Not necessarily an incorporator Not signatory of the Articles of Incorporation Cease to be a corporator by sale of his shares No limit between 8 . (Sec. they become agents of the corporation. 3 R. Q: What is subscribed capital stock? A: The portion of the authorized capital stock that has been subscribed but not yet fully paid and therefore still unissued. Upon incorporation. XPN: When engaged in a business which is partly or wholly nationalized where majority must be residents Not necessarily Q: What is a share of stock? A: It is an integral unit of a capital stock which represents proportionate interest to the corporation’s assets. Q: What is legal capital? A: Is the portion of the paid in capital arising from the issuance of capital stock which cannot be returned to the stockholders in any form during the lifetime of the corporation. 6. or afterwards and upon which the corporation is to conduct its operations. Promoter . Members – Corporators of a corporation which has no capital stock. Subscriber – persons who have agreed to take and pay for original. the practice is for the BOD to pass a resolution ratifying the contracts entered into by the incorporators with the promoter. Underwriter – a person who guarantees on a firm commitment and/ or declared best effort basis the distribution and sale of securities of any king by another company. Note: An incorporator can be corporator. at the organization of the corporation. Then. Q: What is outstanding capital stock? A: Refers to the total shares of stock issued to subscribers or stockholders. Originally forms part of the corporation Filipino citizenship is not a requirement. An incorporator remains to be an incorporator even if he will later on ceases to be a corporator or shareholder. either in money. whether or not fully or 3.UST GOLDEN NOTES 2009 XPN: When otherwise allowed by law. e. or property o services.A person who. Q: What is stated capital? A: The capital stock divided into no par value shares. Q: What is capital stock? A: The amount fixed in the articles of incorporation to be subscribed and paid in or secured to be paid in by the stockholders.g. 8799) Q: What are the distinctions corporators and incorporators? A: INCORPORATORS Necessarily a corporator Signatory of the Articles of Incorporation Does not cease to be an incorporator upon sale of his shares 5 to 15 natural persons XPN: in case of cooperative. 4. where incorporated cooperatives are allowed to be incorporators of rural banks. takes initiative in founding and organizing the business or enterprise of the issuer and receives consideration therefor. Non-residents may be incorporators because the law only requires the majority to be residents of the Philippines. Stockholders – Owners of shares of stock in a stock corporation.

Note: A corporation cannot sell less than the par value but a shareholder may sell the same less than the par value because it is his. Participating preferred shares – Entitled to participate with the common shares in excess distribution. Non-participating preferred shares – Not entitled to participate with the common shares in excess distribution. Q: What are retained earnings? A: Represent the cumulative balance of periodic earnings. b. 4. Shares in escrow Q: What are par value shares? A: Shares with a value fixed in the articles of incorporation and the certificates of stock. 6) Q: What are common shares? A: These are ordinarily and usually issued stocks without extraordinary rights and privileges. Q: What is book value? A: The amount per share that each shareholder would receive if the corporation were liquidated without incurring any further expenses and if assets were sold and liabilities liquidated at their recorded amounts. 5.00. Par value shares 2. No par value shares 3. they are deemed fully paid and non-assessable.CORPORATION CODE partially paid except treasury shares so long as there is a binding subscription agreement. No par value shares cannot have an 2. Q: What are the limitations on no par value shares? A: 1. Q: What is market value? A: The price at which shares of capital stock are bought and sold by investors in the market. Redeemable shares 6. dividends distributions. Q: What is additional paid in capital? A: Is the portion in capital representing excess over the par or stated value. Q: What are the kinds of preferred shares? A: 1. Non-voting shares 10. The entire consideration for its issuance issued price of less than P5. fundamental errors and other capital adjustments. They cannot be issued as preferred stocks. The par value fixes the minimum issue price of the shares. Voting shares 9. and entitle the shareholder to a pro rata division of profits. The preference only applies once dividends are declared. The articles of incorporation must state the fact that it issued no par value shares as well as the number of said shares. 6. Q: Are holders of preferred shares creditors? A: No. Once issued. constitutes capital so that no part of it should be distributed as dividends. Q: What are the kinds or classifications of share? A: 1. trust companies. (Sec. OF THE PHILIPPINES A: Shares having no par value but have issued value stated in the certificate or articles of incorporation. Preferred shares as to assets – Shares which gives the holder preference in the distribution of the assets of the corporation in case of liquidation. Treasury shares 7. Convertible shares 11. public utilities and building and loan association. 3. OF Q: What are no par value shares? UNIVERSITY e Derecho Civil SANTO TOMAS Facultad d 9 . Preferred shares 5. Q: What are preferred shares? A: These entitle the shareholder to some priority on dividends and asset distribution. They cannot be issued by banks. Holders thereof cannot compel the corporation to give them dividends. insurance companies. and a. Fractional share 13. Watered stock 12. Founder’s share 8. Common shares 4.

Cannot participate in dividends because dividends cannot be declared by the corporation itself. d. Q: What are founders' shares? A: Shares classified as such in the articles of incorporation which may be given special preference in voting rights and dividend payments. regardless of the existence of unrestricted retained earnings (Sec. They may be re-issued or sold again as b. To pay dissenting or withdrawing stockholders entitled to payment for their shares. 4. To eliminate fractional shares. Corporations issuing redeemable shares with mandatory redemption features are required to set up and maintain a sinking fund. (Sec. a. sufficient assets in its books to cover debts and liabilities inclusive of capital stock. 2. 9) Q: What are the other means for a corporation to reacquire treasury shares? Q: What are redeemable shares? A: These are shares of stocks issued by a corporation which said corporation can purchase or take up from their holders as expressly provided for in the articles of incorporation and certificates of stock representing said shares. Redemption. Q: What are treasury shares? A: Shares that have been earlier issued as fully paid and have thereafter been acquired by the corporation by purchase. there can be no watering of stock because such watering contemplates an original issuance of shares. donation. To collect or compromise unpaid indebtedness to the corporation. 2. it must be made up in a later year before any dividend may be paid on the common shares in the later year.UST GOLDEN NOTES 2009 2. c. unless otherwise provided in the Code (Sec. a. But if an exclusive right to vote and be voted for as director is granted. 6). after such redemption. Redemption cannot be made if it will cause insolvency of the corporation. 3. Issuance of redeemable shares must be expressly provided in the articles of incorporation. Note: When treasury shares are sold below its par or issued value. (Sec. 8). long as they are held by the corporation as treasury shares. 8) Q: Can a corporation purchase its own shares? A: GR: Corporation cannot purchase its own shares except out of current retained earnings. The terms and conditions affecting said shares must be stated both in the articles A: 1. and 5. The amount if URE equivalent to the cost of treasury shares being held shall be restricted from being declared and issued as dividends. 3. and redemption or through some lawful means. Close corporation. Preferred shares as to dividends– Shares which are entitled to receive dividends on said share to the extent agreed upon before any dividends at all are paid to the holders of common stock. provided that the corporation has. Q: What are the limitations on redeemable shares? A: 1. Q: What are the limitations on treasury shares? A: b. It cannot be represented during stockholder’s meetings. XPN: Redeemable shares may be redeemed. Redeemable shares may be deprived of voting rights in the articles of incorporation. Q: What are unrestricted retained earnings? A: These are surplus profits not subject to encumbrance. 6 par. Non-cumulative preferred shares – There is no need to make up for undeclared dividends of incorporation and in the certificates of stock. 4. Cumulative preferred shares – If a dividend is omitted in any year. this privilege is subject to 10 .

d. Includes stocks: a. a. Assumption of corporate powers Q: What is the nature and status of de facto corporation? A: The existence of a de facto corporation shall not be inquired into collaterally in any private suit to which such corporation may be a party. In comparison with a corporation by estoppel where the stockholders are liable as general partners. An attempt in good faith to incorporate under such law . or services. Hence. stock dividends. Q: What are shares in escrow? A: Subject to an agreement by virtue of which the share is deposited by the grantor or his agent with A: Where the articles of incorporation do not provide for any distinction of the shares of stock. Issued as stock dividend when there are no sufficient retained earnings to justify it. and writings by incorporators. Q: What is the doctrine of equality of shares? The law only authorizes the denial of voting rights in the case of redeemable shares and preferred shares. which give the corporation its existence. property. INCORPORATION AND ORGANIZATION OF PRIVATE CORPORATION Q: What is incorporation? A: It is the performance of conditions. Issued for a consideration other than cash. A valid law under which the corporation is organized. when such voting rights are denied. Q: What are non-voting shares? A: Shares without right to vote. b. These redeemable and preferred shares. 20) Note: However. stockholders in a de facto corporation are liable as a de jure corporation. Q: What is a watered stock? A: A stock issued not in exchange for its equivalent either in cash. the fair valuation of which is less than its par or issued value. Q: What is a fractional share? A: A share with a value of less than one full share. as long as it exists. b. XPN: Otherwise restricted by the articles of incorporation.CORPORATION CODE approval by the SEC. Q: Are classes of shares infinite? A: Shares with a right to vote. deeds. c. up to the extent of their share holdings. and the official acts. 6 par. Q: What is the term of corporate existence? UNIVERSITY e Derecho Civil OF SANTO TOMAS Facultad d 11 . GR: Stockholder may demand conversion at his pleasure. acts. 7) Q: What are voting shares? OF THE PHILIPPINES a third person to be kept by the depositary until the performance of certain condition or the happening of a certain event contained in the agreement.Issuance of a certificate of incorporation by the SEC c. Such inquiry may be made by the Solicitor General in a quo warranto proceeding. Issued without consideration. stock certificate and not contrary to law. (Sec. all shares issued by the corporation are presumed to be equal and enjoy the same rights and privileges and are also subject to the same liabilities. There can be other classifications as long as they are indicated in the AOI. a de facto corporation enjoys all attributes of a corporation until the State questions its existence. 6) Q: What are the requisites of a de facto corporation? A: A: Yes. (Sec. Issued as fully paid when the corporation has received a lesser sum of money than its par or issued value. 6) Q: What are convertible shares? A: A share that is changeable by the stockholder from one class to another at a certain price and within a certain period. shall nevertheless be entitled to vote on the following fundamental matters (Sec. provided that there shall always be a class or series of shares which have complete voting rights. (Sec. and cannot exceed 5 years from the date of approval. share. certification or records.

Medicine and Allied Professions c. 8. 4. Ownership of private lands (Art. Extension must comply with procedural requirements for amendment of AOI. 5. repair. B. Up to Forty Percent (40%) Foreign Equity 1.5 M (Sec. 3. for after dissolution by expiration of the corporate term corporation ceases ipso facto. Utilization of Marine Resources (Art. Sec. 26 of RA 6938). Cooperatives (Ch. Should not be made earlier than 5 years prior to the original or subsequent expiry dates unless there are justifiable reasons for earlier extension to be determined by SEC. 2. Sec. 11 of the Constitution. Sec. repair. 8 of the Constitution). Sec. 2. 4. Should be made before the expiry date. Manufacture. 4 of RA 5487). Accountancy. Exploration. Private Security Agencies (Sec.UST GOLDEN NOTES 2009 A: GR: A corporation shall exist for a period not exceeding fifty (50) years from the date of incorporation XPN: unless sooner dissolved or unless said period is extended. 5 of PD 449). C. 6 of RA 5980 as amended by RA 8556). Zero percent (0%) Foreign Equity 1. 2 of the Constitution). Ch. Q: When must the amendment be made? A: Before the expiration of corporate term. 5 of RA 7183). Sec. 5. Manufacture. Manufacture of firecrackers and other pyrotechnic devices (Sec. It is only required that at least 25% of the subscribed capital must be paid. stockpiling and/or distribution of biological. Art. etc. development and utilization of natural resources (Art. 3 of RA 7076). Q: What businesses are nationalized and partly nationalized? 12 . 10. As provided by special law b. 16 of CA 146). 5 of PD 129 as amended by RA 8366). 2. Investment houses regulated by the SEC (Sec. Practice of all professions a. 5 of RA 8762). Mass Media except recording. Law b. 6. 9. 3. XII. 4 of RA 9182). (Sec. Retail trade enterprises with paidup capital of less than US$2. That no extension can be made earlier than five (5) years prior to expiration date unless there are justifiable reasons as may be determined by the SEC. XII. II. 22 of CA 141. Q: Is it required that each subscriber pay 25% of each subscribed share? A: No. Extension shall not exceed 50 years. Q: What are the capital stock requirements? A: GR: No minimum authorized capital stock as long as the paid-up capital is not less than P5. 11. Ownership/establishment and administration of educational Q: What are the limitations on extension of corporate term? A: 1. Cockpits (Sec. III. Up to Sixty Percent (60%) Foreign Equity 1. XII.00 XPN: a. Sec. XII. Provided. Small-scale Mining (Sec. 11) A: A. 7. Financing companies regulated by the SEC (Sec. 000. 7 of the Constitution. Sec. As provided by corporation code . stockpiling and/or distribution of nuclear weapons (Art. Note: Extension may be made for periods not exceeding (50) years in any single instance by an amendment of the articles of incorporation. 3. chemical and radiological weapons and anti-personnel mines (Various treaties to which the Philippines is a signatory and conventions supported by the Philippines). Sec. 2. Operation and management of public utilities (Art. 4.that at least 25% of the authorized capital stock has been subscribed and at least 25% of the total subscription must be paid. 2 of the Constitution).

Other matters as are not inconsistent with law and which the incorporators may deem necessary and convenient. purchase or otherwise. Ownership of condominium units where the common areas in the condominium project are co-owned by the owners of the separate units or owned by a corporation (Sec. Purpose/s. 7. nationalities and residences of incorporators. Private recruitment. Contracts for the supply of materials. Contracts for the construction and repair of locally-funded public works (Sec. indicating the primary and secondary purposes. LOI 630) except: a. 8. Up to Twenty Percent (20%) Foreign Equity 1.” 5. Advertising (Art. The corporate name shall contain the word “Corporation” or its abbreviation “Corp. Sec. 1 of RA 5183) Project Proponent and Facility Operator of a BOT project requiring a public utilities franchise (Art. rice and corn and the by-products thereof (Sec. XII. the amount of its authorized capital stock. 7. Culture. The proposed name is identical or deceptively or confusingly similar to that of any existing corporation. 2. 27 of PD 442). If non-stock. confusing or contrary to existing laws. by barter. 1. Q: Define Articles of Incorporation. whether for local or overseas employment (Art. If a stock corporation. 2a of RA 7718). and 11. For limited partnership. 8. which shall not be less than 25% of total subscription. 18). and the amounts subscribed and paid by each of the original subscribers which shall not be less than 25% of authorized capital stock. Names.Sec. Sec. Names. and between the corporation and its stockholders. 10. 15 of RA 8762). and b.”.” or “Incorporated”. D. The partnership name shall contain the word “Company” or “Co. processing. Patently deceptive. 11 of the Constitution. (Sec. Number of directors or trustees. or “Inc.CORPORATION CODE institutions (Art. OF THE PHILIPPINES Q: What are the contents of AOI? A: NaPuP. A: Articles of Incorporation (AOI) is one that defines the charter of the corporation and the contractual relationships between the State and the corporation. Up to Thirty Percent (30%) Foreign Equity 1. residences. nationalities. 4. Up to Twenty-Five Percent (25%) Foreign Equity 1. 4 of the Constitution). of rice and corn and acquiring. and residences of the persons who shall act as directors or trustees until the first regular ones are elected and qualified. Place of principal office. projects which are foreign funded or assisted and required to undergo international competitive bidding (Sec. Private radio communications network (RA 3846). F. Name of corporation. 14) Q: What are the corporate name? A: limitations in adopting 5. the par value of each share. If the name or surname of a person is used as part of a corporate or partnership name. the names. E. 5 of RA 4726). infrastructure/development projects covered in RA 7718. 5. 1 of CA 541). milling. Sec. 3. 6. the word “Limited” or “Ltd. nationalities. the amount of capital. and amount paid by each contributor. production.TIDUA-ONO 1. 9. 3. 11 of the Constitution). Names. 2. number of shares. number of shares and in case the shares are par value shares. Contracts for the construction of defense-related structures (Sec. name of treasurer elected by subscribers. which shall not be less than 5 nor more than 15. XIV. 6. the stockholders and the State. Any other name protected by law. 7. 5 of PD 194. 6. (Sec. goods and commodities to GOCC. 2a of RA 7718). 2. 1 of CA 541. 4. or 3. Term of existence.” Shall be included. Sec. the consent of said person or his heirs must be submitted except if that UNIVERSITY e Derecho Civil OF SANTO TOMAS Facultad d 13 . XVI. agency or municipal corporation (Sec. trading excepting retailing.

7. 5. (Sec. Names of the original directors. 5. Names of original subscribers to the capital stock of the corporation and their subscribed and paid up capital. Banks. and its character is in no respect changed. The original and amended articles together shall contain all provisions 14 . AOI and By-laws. Vote or written assent of stockholders representing 2/3 of the outstanding capital stock or 2/3 of members. partner or a declared national hero. G. Q: Is it necessary that the approval of SEC be express? A: No. Registration data sheet. 93073. shall be submitted to the SEC. Certification under oath by corporate secretary and a majority of the BOD/BOT stating the fact that said amendment/s have been duly approved by the required vote of the stockholders or members. 3. Examples: 1. That is upon issuance of amended certificate of incorporation. 2. 17 (2)] Q: When does corporate existence commence? A: From the date the SEC issues a certificate of incorporation under its official seal. 8. Q: What are the amendment of AOI? A: requirements for the 1. 3. 2. Must be approved by SEC. Thus amendment may also take effect from the date of filing with SEC if not acted upon within 6 months from the date of filing for a cause not attributable to the corporation. d. shall be indicated by underscoring the change/s made. is it considered a new corporation? A: No. Trust companies and other financial intermediaries. 6. and h. Approved by majority of BOD/BOT. b. 1992) Q: What are the basic requirements for a stock corporation? A: 1. Q: What is the content of a treasurer’s affidavit? A: That at least 25% of the authorized capital stock of the corporation has been subscribed. except to correct mistakes. Favorable endorsement from proper government agency in case of special corporations. (SC Memorandum Circular 14) Q: If a corporation changes its corporate name. The name of a dissolved firm shall not be allowed to be used by other firms within 3 years after the approval of the dissolution of the corporation by SEC. Proof of payment of subscription like Bank Certificate of Deposit if the paid-up capital is in cash. and at least 25% of the total subscription has been fully paid in actual cash and/or property. e. Other corporations governed by special laws [Sec. 3.R. Banking and quasi-banking institutions. Building and loan associations. f. 16). 6. Must be accompanied by a favorable recommendation of the appropriate government agency in cases of: a. member. implied approval of SEC is also allowed. Educational institutions. The amendment must be for legitimate purposes and must not be contrary to other provisions of the Corporation Code and Special laws. Name verification slip. Such articles. December 21. Such paid-up capital being not less than P 5. 4. 19) Q: When does amendment of AOI take effect? A: Upon approval by the SEC.UST GOLDEN NOTES 2009 person is a stockholder. it is the same corporation with a different name. Treasurer’s affidavit. Names of incorporators. (Republic Planter’s Bank v CA. required by law to be set out in the articles of incorporation. 2. c. 4. unless allowed by the last stockholders representing at least majority of the outstanding capital stock of the dissolved firm. Q: What are the provisions of AOI that cannot be amended? A: Those matters referring to accomplished facts. No. Insurance companies. as amended. (Sec.000. g. Public utilities.

(SEC Opinions. Nov. and 6. He must not have been convicted by final judgment of an offense punishable by imprisonment for period exceeding 6 years or a violation of the Corporation Code. Must own at least 1 share of the capital stock. Q: What are the disqualifications? A: 1. Must be a natural person. Treasurer elected by the original subscribers. 3. Failure to organize and commence business within 2 years from incorporation – its corporate powers ceases and the corporation shall be deemed dissolve. Note: The above shall not be applicable if it is due to causes beyond the control of the corporation as determined by SEC. the SEC shall give the incorporators a reasonable time within which to correct or modify the objectionable portions of the AOI or amendment. immoral. Must be a member of the non-stock corporation. BOARD OF DIRECTORS/TRUSTEES/OFFICERS Q: What are director/trustee? A: A. or contrary to government rules and regulations. Other qualifications as may be prescribed in Special laws or regulations or in the bylaws of the corporation. If such is not substantially in accordance with the form prescribed. Note: A person who does not own a stock at the time of his election or appointment does not disqualify him as director if he becomes a shareholder before assuming the duties of his office. 23). 17) OF THE PHILIPPINES A: No. The Treasurer’s Affidavit concerning the amount of capital stock subscribed and/or paid is false 4. the qualifications of a B. Majority of the directors/trustees must be residents of the Philippines (Sec. Members who contributed to the initial capital of the non-stock corporation. Witnesses to and acknowledgement with AOI. Trustee 1. Conviction by final judgment of an offense punishable by imprisonment exceeding 6 years. 2. The purpose/s of the corporation are patently unconstitutional. He must be of legal age. (Sec. Note: What is material is the legal title. Continuous inoperation for at least 5 years – ground for the suspension or revocation of corporate franchise or certificate of incorporation. 3. 1987 & April 5. (Sec. 22) Q: What are the common requirements of a director and trustee? A: 1. Q: Is the dissolution or revocation due to failure to operate or inoperation automatic? UNIVERSITY e Derecho Civil OF SANTO TOMAS Facultad d 15 . Ownership of stock shall stand in his name on the books of the corporation. 17 (1)] Q: What is the effect of non-use of corporate charter and continuous inoperation of a corporation? A: 1. illegal.CORPORATION CODE 4. Q: What are the grounds for the rejection or disapproval of AOI or amendment thereto by the SEC? A: 1. 4. 2. 5. 2. committed within 5 years prior to the date of his election (Sec. SEC is of the opinion that there should be proper proceedings for the revocation of AOI in compliance with due process. 1990) Q: Is there an automatic rejection of the AOI or any amendment thereto? A: No. 27). The required percentage of ownership of the capital stock to be owned by Filipino citizens has not been complied with. Director 1. 2. not beneficial ownership of the stock as appearing on the books of the corporation. [Sec. 3. 9.

1989). 1979) Reason: The disqualification of a competition from being elected to the board is a reasonable exercise of corporate authority. This is applicable to a going concern where there is no break in the exercise of the duties of the officers and directors. 3. They were the ones. 1922) Q: What are the consequences of business judgment rule? A: 1. who as highranking officers and directors. In case of close corporations. directors must be elected every year. materially interfere with his exercise of independent judgment in carrying out his responsibilities as a director in any corporation. Q: Is a provision in the by-laws of the corporation declaring a person engaged in a competing business ineligible for nomination for elections to the board of directors valid? A: Yes. Violation of the Corporation Code committed within 5 years prior to his election or appointment. G. is independent of management and free from any business or other relationship which could. Dec. 2. the directors and officers shall hold over until their successors are elected. (SEC Opinion. the will of the majority controls in corporate affairs. (Sec. a partnership. 1997) Q: Who is an independent director? A: He is a person who. Directors and officers acting within such business judgment cannot be held personally liable for such acts. 16 . signed the Board resolution retrenching the private respondents on the feigned ground of serious business losses that had no basis apart from an unsigned and unaudited profit and loss statement which had no evidentiary value whatsoever. 15. This is indicative of bad faith on the part of petitioners for which they can be held jointly and severally liable with the corporation for all the money claims of the illegally Note: In case the contracted manager is another corporation. April 11. In case of a contracted manager which may be an individual. SEC. Resolutions and transactions entered into by the Board within the powers of the corporation cannot be reversed by the courts not even on the behest of the stockholders. apart from his fees and shareholdings. there are times when solidary liabilities may be incurred such as in this case where it is undisputed that petitioners had a direct hand in the illegal dismissal of respondent employees. acting through its directors. (Gokongwei v.R. Q: Who shall exercise corporate powers? A: GR: The BOD/BOT. provided that before such nominee is disqualified. XPN: If no election is held. In case of an Executive Committee duly authorized in the by-laws. if the articles of incorporation so provide. No. 23) XPNs: 1. Q: What is business judgment rule? A: Under this rule. CA. 44 applies. April 21.. or another corporation. the special rule in Sec. and contracts intra vires entered into by the board of directors are binding on the corporation and courts will not interfere unless such contracts are so unconscionable and oppressive as to amount to a wanton destruction of rights of the minority. 2. the stockholders may manage the business of the corporation instead by a board of directors. are its sole liabilities. officers and employees. 108905. L-16977. he should be given due process to show that he is not covered by the disqualification. or could reasonably be perceived to. (Grace Christian High School v. Q: What is the term of office of BOD/BOT? A: GR: The regular director shall hold office for 1 year until their successors are elected and qualified. October 23. L-45911. Q: May a director or officer be held solidarily liable for the illegal dismissal of an employee? A: Yes it was held that “while the general rule is that obligations incurred by a corporation.UST GOLDEN NOTES 2009 2. Estoppel does not set in to legitimize what is wrongful. Malabon Sugar Co. Q: Is permanent representation allowed in the BOD? A: No. (Ingersoll v.

as a matter of sound corporate practice. and Such other officers as may be provided in the by-laws. the owners of the majority of the outstanding capital stock or majority of the members entitled to vote. A transferee of stock cannot vote if his transfer is not registered in the stock and transfer book of the corporation. must be a resident Secretary – Need not be a director unless required by the by-laws. as many votes as the number of directors to be elected multiplied by the number of his shares shall equal. 6. 5. 25 (2)] Q: Who are corporate officers? A: President – Must be a director at the time the assumes office not at the time of appointment. 24) 2.CORPORATION CODE terminated respondent employees. Cumulative voting is allowed in non-stock corporations only if the same is provided in the AOI. (Sec. NLRC. Q: When is cumulative voting allowed? A: Cumulative voting is allowed in the election of directors of stock corporations. Cumulative voting by distribution . 25).121434. [Sec. Treasurer – May or may not be a director. The candidates receiving the highest number of votes shall be declared elected. 1897 of the Civil Code provides that “it is wellknown principle of law that an agent who acts in behalf of a disclosed principal within the scope of his authority cannot be held liable to third persons. 1997) Note: Art. 3. Where the articles of incorporation provides for classification of shares pursuant to Sec. Holders of stock declared delinquent by the board of directors for unpaid subscription are not entitled to vote or to a representation at any stockholder’s meeting. 4. 3. XPN: The election of officers which shall require the vote of a majority of all the members of the board. No. non-voting shares are not entitled to vote except as provided for in the last paragraph of Sec.” (Uichico v. 3. UNIVERSITY e Derecho Civil OF SANTO TOMAS Facultad d 17 .6.a stockholder may cumulate his shares by multiplying the number of his shares by the number of directors to be elected and distribute the same among as many candidates as he shall see fit. (Sec. Q: How is election of BOD/BOT made? A: 1. No delinquent stock shall be voted. G. The election must be by ballot if requested. Note: Every decision of at least a majority of the directors or trustees present at a meeting at which there is quorum shall be valid as a corporate act. Treasury shares have no voting rights as long as they remain in the treasury. A stockholder cannot be deprived in the articles of incorporation or in the by-laws of his statutory right to use any of the methods of voting in the election of directors.R. 6. Q: What is the required number of BOD/BOT to constitute quorum? A: GR: Majority of the number of directors or trustees. 2. Cumulative voting for one candidate – a stockholder is allowed to concentrate his votes and give one candidate.” OF THE PHILIPPINES Q: What are the limitations on the stockholder’s right to vote? A: 1. Q: What are the different methods of voting? A: 1. 4. XPN: If AOI or the by-laws provide for a greater number. 2. must be a resident and citizen of the Philippines. 5. Preferred or redeemable shares may be deprived of the right to vote unless otherwise provided in the Code. At a meeting of stockholder or members called for the election of directors or trustees. June 2. Straight Voting – every stockholder may vote such number of shares for as many persons as there are directors to be elected. Fractional shares of stock cannot be voted. there must be present either in person or by representative authorized to act by written proxy.

1996) Q: May 2 or more corporate positions be held concurrently by the same person? A: Yes. (Pasricha v Don Luis Dison Realty Inc. No. G. except that no one shall act as president and secretary or president and treasurer at the same time. 4. Reason: They are in a position to verify the truthfulness and correctness of the allegations in the petition. he immediately presented the Secretary’s Certificate confirming her authority to represent the company. N. 136409. February 13. Upon complaint filed with the SEC.R. The General Manager or Acting General Manager. which one is controlling? A: In determining whether the filing of an action was authorized by the BOD. it held that a manager could be removed by mere resolution of the board of directors. Corporation "A" passed a board resolution removing "X" from his position as manager of said corporation. The Chairperson of the Board of Directors. 96551. 3.R. Although the general manager/treasurer initially failed to show that he had the capacity to sign the verification and institute the case on behalf of the corporation. "X" alleged that he could only be removed by the affirmative vote of the stockholders representing 2/3 of the Q: What are the distinctions between a corporate officer and a corporate employee? A: CORPORATE OFFICER Position is provided for in CORPORATE EMPLOYEE Employed by the action 18 . there must be cause for removal. No. all corporations duly organized pursuant thereto are required to file with the SEC the names. G. Q: What are the requisites for removal of directors or trustees? A: 1. Previous notice to the stockholders or members of the intention to remove a director. 2008) Note: A board resolution appointing an attorney-in-fact to represent the corporation in the pre-trial is not necessary where the by-laws authorizes an officer of the corporation to make such appointment. Personnel Officer. G.R.A. 1993) the by-laws or under the Corporation Code. v CA. On motion for reconsideration. It must take place either at a regular meeting or special meeting of the stockholders or members called for the purpose. G. RTC acting as a special commercial court has jurisdiction over intracorporate controversies. November 4. 102300 March 17. If the director was elected by the minority. 28) Q: In 1999. A vote of the stockholders representing 2/3 of outstanding capital stock or 2/3 of members. it is the list of directors in the latest general information sheet as filed with the SEC which is controlling. 2. By express mandate of the Corporation Code. (Premium Marble Resources. March 14. v. when confronted with such question. No. Inc. of the managing officer of the corporation.. XPN: The following officials or employees of the company can sign the verification and certification without need of a board resolution: 1.R. (Sec. Q: In case where there are 2 lists of BOD submitted to SEC. The by-laws of "A" corporation provides that the officers are the president. vice-president. The President of a corporation. 151413. Chua. 2008) Q: May a suit be dismissed by virtue of lack of authority of the general manager/treasurer to sign the certificate of non-forum shopping from the BOD at the time of filing the complaint but subsequently designated by the board as the corporation’s attorney-in-fact? A: No. (Citibank.UST GOLDEN NOTES 2009 Q: Can the president of a corporation sign the verification and certification of non-forum shopping without the approval of the Board of Directors? A: GR: Only individuals vested with authority by a valid board resolution may sign the certificate of non-forum shopping on behalf of a corporation. 3. 4. An Employment Specialist in a labor case. nationalities and residences of the directors and officers elected. 2. LA has jurisdiction in case of labor disputes. (Cagayan Valley Drug Corporation v CIR. treasurer and secretary. and 5. No.

Vacancies filled up by stockholders or members. unless: a. Q: Give the rules on contracts entered into by directors/trustees of or officers. The contract is not fraudulent. 65) 5. When their compensation is fixed in the bylaws. The presence of such director/trustee in the board meeting approving the contract was not necessary to constitute a quorum.CORPORATION CODE outstanding capital stock. 33) Valid. XPN: 1. (2001 Bar Question) Q: What are the ways in filling up of vacancies in the board? A: 1. Agreeing or stipulating in a contract to hold himself liable with the corporation. (Sec. Stockholders' approval is necessary only for the removal of the members of the Board. or (d) increase in the number of directors. (Sec. there was previous authorization by the board of directors. death. Why? A: No. 2. failing to file objections with the secretary. For the removal of a corporate officer or employee. 32). Willfully and knowingly voting for and assenting to patently unlawful acts of the corporation. exceeding 20% of the outstanding capital stock). When granted by the vote of stockholders representing at least a majority of the outstanding capital stock at a regular or special meeting. (c) grounds other than removal or expiration of term (e. 31) 4. 29) Note: A director elected to fill vacancy shall serve the unexpired term. By virtue of a specific provision of law. The contract is fair and reasonable under the circumstances. UNIVERSITY e Derecho Civil OF SANTO TOMAS Facultad d 19 . or. 31) 3. 2. Contracts which are entered into by the corporation with one or more of its own directors/trustees. In the case of an officer. (Sec. (Sec. c. as such directors exceed 10% of the net income before income tax of the corporation during the preceding year. A: 1. d. (Sec. The contract is fair and reasonable under the circumstances. 3. 30) Q: What are the instances when directors are personally liable? A: GR: Directors and officers are not solidarily liable with the corporation. Acquiring any personal or pecuniary interest in conflict of duty. if it is due to causes other than those specified above. having knowledge thereof. (Sec. Consenting to the issuance of watered stocks. Contracts entered into between corporations with interlocking directors (interest of said directors is “substantial”. if it is due to (a) removal. (Sec. or officers. Is "X's" contention legally tenable. 2. When they are also officers of the corporation. and b. 29) OF THE PHILIPPINES 1. (Sec. XPN to XPN: In no case shall the total yearly compensation of directors. b.(Sec. provided that: a. the vote of the Board of Directors is sufficient for the purpose. XPN: AGIWAL Voidable. or 6. meaning. Vacancies filled up by the remaining directors constituting a quorum. The vote of such director/trustee in the board meeting approving the contract was not necessary for the approval of the contract. Q: What is the doctrine of limited liability? A: Shields the corporators from corporate liability beyond their agreed contribution to the capital or shareholding in the corporation. Gross negligence or bad faith in directing the affairs of the corporation. Q: How are directors compensated? A: GR: They shall be entitled as such directors to reasonable per diems only. (b) expiration of term. 31) 2. resignation) where the remaining directors do not constitute a quorum.g.

32 must be present with respect to the corporation in which he has nominal interest.UST GOLDEN NOTES 2009 Note: If the interlocking director’s interest in one corporation or corporations is “nominal” (not exceeding 20% of the outstanding capital stock) and in the other substantial. had obtained a 20 . some of the checks it issued to its beverage distributors and employees bounced. 34) which: a. on behalf of Patio Investments. In October 2003. Schiera informed Malyn that she found a location for a second cafe in Taguig City. This loan was secured by the assets of Patio Investments and personally guaranteed by Schiera and Jaz." Thus. Malyn learned about Fort Patio Cafe located in Taguig City and that its development was undertaken by a new corporation known as Fort Patio. Inc. 32 of the Corporation Code. from PBCom Bank. alleging that the two directors had breached their fiduciary duties by misappropriating money and assets of Patio Investments in the operation of Fort Patio Cafe. Patio Cafe began experiencing financial reverses.00. then all the first 3 conditions prescribed in Sec. 34) (2005 Bar Question) Q: Suppose that the by-laws of "X" Corporation. has all the authority of the board to the extent provided in the board resolution or by-laws. and c. The contract is fair and reasonable under the circumstances. The corporation is financially able to undertake. 000. director "A" acquired claims which overlapped with "X's" claims and were necessary for the development and operation of "X's" mining properties. What happens if director "A" is able to consummate his mining claims over and above that of the corporation's claims? (2001 Bar Question) A: "A" should account to the corporation for the profits which he realized from the transaction. loan of P500. b. It is in violation of Sec. a director shall refund to the corporation all the profits he realizes on a business opportunity (Sec. Q: Malyn. a mining firm. Did Schiera and Jaz violate the principle of corporate opportunity? Explain. From its nature. He grabbed the business opportunity from the corporation. where both Schiera and Jaz are directors. is in line with corporations business and is of practical advantage to it. That full disclosure of the adverse interest of the director/ trustee involved is made at such meeting. The corporation has an interest or a reasonable expectancy. Malyn also found that Schiera and Jaz. (Sec. provides that "The directors shall be relieved from all liability for any contract entered into by the corporation with any firm in which the directors may be interested. Where any of the first two conditions is absent. 34) Q: What is an executive committee? A: A body created by the by-laws and composed of some members of the board which.. a close corporation formed to run the Patio Cafe. Sometime in April 2004. Malyn then filed a corporate derivative action before the Regional Trial Court of Makati City against Schiera and Jaz. provided: 1. mortgaged its assets and used the proceeds of the loan to acquire a coffee shop through a corporation they formed. Is the by-law provision valid? Why? A: No. for the purpose of opening Fort Patio Cafe. In 2000. Q: What is doctrine of corporate opportunity? A: Unless his act is ratified by stockholders representing 2/3 of the outstanding capital stock. said contract must be ratified by the vote of the stockholders representing at least 2/3 of the outstanding capital stock or 2/3 of the members in a meeting called for the purpose. (Sec. subject to the statutory limitations. consequently. because they used Patio Investments to obtain a loan. 2. A: Sciera and Jaz violated the principle of corporate opportunity. Malyn objected because of the dire financial condition of the corporation. (2005 Bar Question) Note: The rule shall be applied notwithstanding the fact that the director risked his own funds in the venture. Schiera and Jaz are the directors of Patio Investments. an al fresco coffee shop in Makati City.

2. To adopt and use of corporate seal. b. (ii) candidate and (iii) partisan political activity. 5. Amendment. 3. Express Powers . (Sec. Filling up of board vacancies. To enter into merger or consolidation. 4. and administrative regulations 2. Q: Is the right of first refusal over the shares of a public utility whose capitalization must be 60% Filipino owned granted to a foreign corporation under a joint venture agreement violative of the Anti-Dummy Law? A: No. cultural. To establish pension. repeal or adoption of by-laws. 10. civic or similar purposes. Donation must bear a reasonable relation to the corporation’s interest and not be so remote and fanciful. 8. Matters needing stockholder approval. and its Articles of Incorporation or Charter. Of succession. No law disqualifies a person from purchasing shares in a landholding corporation even if the latter will exceed the allowed foreign equity. d. Amendment or repeal of any resolution of the Board which by its express terms is not amendable or repealable. Must be for valid purposes including public welfare. pledge. cultural. To sue and be sued. convey. To purchase. retirement. Cash dividend declaration. what the law disqualifies is the corporation from owning land. Note: An executive committee can only be created by virtue of a provision in the by-laws and that in the absence of such by-law provision. To adopt its by-laws. take or grant. charitable. scientific. To make reasonable donations for public welfare. 3. 9. and other plans for the benefit of its directors. 1993) OF THE 6. the board of directors cannot simply create or appoint an executive committee to perform some of its functions. Q: What are the requisites for a valid donation? A: a. scientific. 4. Q: Can a corporation with shareholdings acquire real property? foreign 1.Granted by law. hold. 2. for non-stock corporations: admit members 7. provided that the capital stock of the corporation is 60% owned by the Filipinos. 3. Inherent/Incidental Powers – Not expressly stated but are deemed to be within the capacity of corporate entities. (ii) candidate and (iii) partisan political activity. Must not be an aid in any (i) political party. c. UNIVERSITY e Derecho Civil OF SANTO TOMAS Facultad d 21 . Q: What are the general powers of corporation? A: SUSUCO-ABSP-MEDPO 1. Corporation Code. mortgage and deal with real and personal property. receive.CORPORATION CODE Must be provided for in the by laws and composed of not less than 3 members of the board appointed by the board. (SEC Opinion. Implied/Necessary Powers – Exists as a necessary consequence of the exercise of the express powers of the corporation or the pursuit of its purposes as provided for in the Charter A: Yes. lease. civic or similar purposes. and 5. To exercise other powers essential or necessary to carry out its purposes. hospital. Q: When does the power to sue and be sued commence? A: Upon issuance by SEC of Certificate of Incorporation. May act by a majority vote of all of its members. PHILIPPINES Q: What are the limitations on the powers of the executive committee? A: It cannot act on the following: 1. To amend its Articles of Incorporation. sell. provided that no donation is given to any (i) political party. charitable. trustees. securities and bonds. 35) POWERS OF CORPORATION Q: What are corporation? A: the kinds of powers of For stock corporations: issue and sell stocks to subscribers and treasury stocks. Sept 27. officers and employees – basis of which is the labor code 11. hospital. Donation must be reasonable.

8. Written notice of the proposed action and of the time and place of the meeting shall be addressed to each stockholder or member at his place of residence as shown on the books of the corporation and deposited to the addressee in the post office with postage prepaid. 5. XPN: Such guaranty may be given in the accomplishment of any object for which the corporation was created. corporation act as surety or Q: What are the procedural requirements in extending/ shortening corporate term? A: 1. or increase bonded indebtedness. Incur. it is for a legitimate purpose. Written notice of the proposed increase or diminution of the capital stock and of the time and place of the stockholder’s meeting at which the proposed increase or diminution of the capital stock must be addressed to each stockholder at his place of residence as shown on the books of the corporation and deposited to the addressee in the post office with postage prepaid. setting forth: 22 . or served personally 4. there is an unrestricted retained earnings. 2. dispose. 2. Increase or decrease corporate stock. 4. bank cannot acquire real property except for business purposes or when they acquired the land in the course of business. Copy of the amended AOI shall be submitted to the SEC for its approval. 2. In case of Special Corporation. Special Law – Banking laws. (Sec. 3. or served personally. Purchase or acquire own shares provided: a. create. Majority vote of the BOD or BOT. A certificate in duplicate must be signed by a majority vote of the directors of the corporation and countersigned by the chairman and the secretary of the stockholder’s meeting. 37-44) the specific powers of a Power to increase or decrease capital stock Q: What are the procedural requirements in increasing or decreasing capital stock? A: 1. same with the acquisition of a condo unit 2. Majority vote of the BOD. Enter into management contract with another corporation (not with an individual or a partnership-within general powers) whereby one corporation undertakes to manage all or substantially all of the business of the other corporation for a period not longer than 5 years for any one term. 37) Note: Any dissenting stockholder may exercise his appraisal right in case of shortening or extending corporate term (Sec. or when the particular transaction is reasonably necessary or proper in the conduct of its business. 37) May be used as means to voluntarily dissolve a corporation Q: Can a guarantor? A: GR: No. 6. lease. 60% of the corporation must be owned by the Filipinos. (Secs. b. 3. 4. Sell. Power to declare dividends out of unrestricted retained earnings. Power to extend or shorten corporate term. Constitutional Limitations – cannot acquire public lands except by lease. 2/3 of the SH representing outstanding capital stock or by at least 2/3 of the members in case of non-stock corporation. Invest corporate funds in another corporation or business for other purpose other than primary purpose. a favorable recommendation of appropriate government agency. 5. 3. With regard to private land. encumber all or substantially all of corporate assets. SH representing 2/3 of the outstanding capital stock. 7. Q: What are corporation? A: 1.UST GOLDEN NOTES 2009 Power to extend or shorten corporate term Q: What are the limitations as to acquisition of real property? A: 1.

Stockholders representing at least 2/3 of the outstanding capital stock or by at least 2/3 of the members in case of non-stock corporation. By increasing/decreasing the number of shares and retaining the par value. Q: What is meant by substantially all of corporate assets? A: If the corporation would be rendered incapable of continuing the business or accomplishing the purpose for which it was incorporated. and the amount paid by each on his subscription in cash or property. Note: No treasurer’s affidavit in case of decrease in capital stock. c. Q: What are the procedural requirements? A: 1. 2. 40) Note: After such authorization or approval by the stockholders the board may. Majority vote of the BOD or BOT. the names. lease. exchange. That the foregoing requirements have been complied with. mortgage. Corporation need not exhaust its original capital before increasing capital stock. in its discretion. nationalities and residences of the persons subscribing. The amount of stock represented at the meeting. Q: What shall be the basis of the required 25% subscription? A: It shall be based on the additional amount by which the capital stock increased and not on the total capital stock as increased. abandon such SLEMPO. d. create or increase bonded indebtedness Q: What is bonded indebtedness? A: it is a long term Indebtedness secured by real or personal property. nevertheless. If an increase of the capital stock. pledge or other disposition (SLEMPO) of all or substantially all of corporate assets. the amount of capital stock or number of no par stock subscribed by each. Sell. Note: The increase or decrease in the capital stock or the incurring. b. The amount of increase or diminution of the capital stock. or the amount of capital stock or number of shares of no par stock allotted to each stockholder if such increase is for the purpose of making effective stock dividend authorized. 40) Q: What is the additional requirement with respect to the increase of capital stock? A: The application to be filed with the SEC shall be accompanied by the sworn statement of the treasurer of the corporation. (Sec. The requirements are basically the same as the requirements for increase and decrease of capital stock as it likewise requires the same approvals by the directors and the stockholders. showing that at least 25% of the amount subscribed has been paid either in cash or property or that there has been transferred to the corporation property the valuation of which is equal to 25% of the subscription. Note: Nature of indebtedness determines if it needs stockholder’s approval. (Sec. Incur. By increasing/decreasing the number of shares and increasing/decreasing the par value. creating or increasing bonded indebtedness shall require prior approval of the SEC. or served personally. Q: When may the corporation forgo the ratification by SH / members? A: Q: What are the ways of increasing/ decreasing the capital stock? A: UNIVERSITY e Derecho Civil OF SANTO TOMAS Facultad d 23 . Written notice of the proposed action and of the time and place of the meeting addressed to each stockholder or member at his place of residence as shown on the books of the corporation and deposited to the addressee in the post office with postage prepaid. the amount of capital stock or number of shares of no par stock actually subscribed. 3. and The vote authorizing the increase or diminution of the capital stock OF THE PHILIPPINES a. b. e. By increasing/decreasing the par value of existing shares without increasing/decreasing the number of shares. c.CORPORATION CODE a.

Q: What are the instances where corporation may acquire its own shares? A: g. f. the corporation cannot acquire its own shares XPN: SEC Opinion. Invest corporate funds in another corporation or business for other purpose other than primary purpose Q: What are the requirements? A: 1. the stockholders at the time of declaration of dividends (not at the time of payment). Merger or consolidation. In case of stock dividend. a. Unrestricted retained earnings. e. 3. If the purchase was in fraud of creditors. c. 1992. Express or implied assumption of liabilities.UST GOLDEN NOTES 2009 a. Power to declare dividends out of unrestricted retained earnings (URE) Q: What are the requirements? A: 1. Condition of the corporate affairs warrants it. Interest of creditors not impaired. To collect or compromise an indebtedness to the corporation. arising out of unpaid subscription. Written notice.If the purchaser becomes a continuation of the seller. To effect a decrease of capital stock. Majority vote of the BOD or BOT. Resolution of the board. when there is a deadlock in the management of the business GR: In the absence of statutory authority. 2. Redeemable shares regardless of existence of retained earnings. In close corporations. 2. not violative of the trust fund doctrine. The capital of the corporation must not be impaired. If there is violation of the Bulk Sales Law. resolution of the board with the concurrence of 2/3 of outstanding capital. If the proceeds of the sale or other disposition of such property and assets are to be appropriated for the conduct of the remaining business. To eliminate fractional shares out of stock dividends. The acquisition is for a legitimate corporate purpose. c. that is. Transaction is designed and carried out in good faith 5. b. Power to acquire own shares Q: What are the requirements? A: 1. Stockholders representing at least 2/3 of the outstanding capital stock or by at least 2/3 of the members in case of non-stock corporation 3. 3. imposed the following conditions on its exercise: 1. Q: What is the effect of transfer of all or substantially all of assets of one corporation to another corporation? A: GR: The transferee corporation of all or substantially all of the assets of the transferor corporation shall not be liable for the debts of the transferor corporation. If there is no record date. Q: Who are entitled to receive dividends? A: The stockholders of record date in so far as the corporation is concerned. October 12. 2. 2. in a delinquency sale and to purchase delinquent shares sold during said sale. 2. 5. Legitimate and proper corporate objective is advanced. d. 4. To acquire treasury shares. To pay dissenting stockholders. XPNs: 1. b. If sale is necessary in the usual and regular course of business. 24 . There is unrestricted retained earnings [URE]. 4. If the transaction does not cover all or substantially all of the assets. 3. Note: Investment of a corporation in a business which is in line with its primary purpose requires only the approval of the board.

Q: What are the sources of dividends? A: GR: Dividends can only be declared and aid out of actual and bona fide unrestricted retained earnings. Corporation is prohibited under any loan agreement with any financial institution or creditor from declaring dividends without its/his consent and such consent has not yet been secured c. d. It cannot be declared as dividend unless the asset is sold. OF THE PHILIPPINES Q: What if there is a wrongful or illegal declaration of dividends? A: The Board of Directors is liable. Treasury shares – Can declared as property dividends. Cash 2. b.can be a source of dividends. A: CASH DIVIDENDS Part of general fund Results in cash outlay Not subject to levy STOCK DIVIDENDS Part of capital No cash outlay Once issued. XPN to the XPN: a. Reduction surplus . Cash dividends due on delinquent stock shall first be applied to the unpaid balance on the subscription plus cost and expenses. Stockholders are entitled to dividends PRO-RATA based on the total number of shares and not on the amount paid on shares.Where a corporation sold its real property. No dividends can be declared out of capital except only in two instances: 1. and 2. in such a case then the mortgagee or pledgee is entitled to receive the dividends. be UNIVERSITY e Derecho Civil OF SANTO TOMAS Facultad d 25 .CORPORATION CODE Q: In case of mortgaged or pledged shares? A: GR: The mortgagor or the pledgor has the right to receive the dividends. That they be declared only as stock dividends and not cash. and 3. 2. f. The right to dividends is based on duly recorded stockholdings. The stockholders should return the dividends to the corporation (solutio indebiti).Increase in the value of a fixed asset as a result of its revaluation. the income derived therefrom may be availed of for dividend distribution. Revaluation surplus . Stock/Property Note: Stock dividends are withheld from the delinquent stockholder until his unpaid subscription is fully paid. c. can be Q: When may corporation declare dividends? A: GR: Even if there are existing profits. Definite corporate expansion projects approved by the board of directors b. at a gain. which is not being used for business. Paid-in surplus . Q: What are the rules regarding other sources of dividends? A: a. Q: Distinguish cash and stock dividends. The retention is necessary under special circumstances obtaining in the corporation. such as when there is a need for special reserve for probable contingencies.Dividends can be declared out of the amount received in excess of the par value of shares when (SEC Opinion): 1. There is no impairment of capital. e. No creditors are prejudiced. XPN: When the mortage or pledge is recorded in the books of the corporation. Rule on paid-in surplus is applicable. XPN: Stock corporations are prohibited from retaining surplus profits in excess of 100% of their paid-in capital stock. Liquidating dividends. BOD has discretion to determine WON dividends are declared. Gain from sale of real property . Q: What are the forms of dividends? A: 1. Dividends from investments in Wasting Asset Corporation.

v. exploration or utilization of natural resources. or members in case of a 26 . of both the managing and the managed corporation. If received by corporation: not subject to tax Cannot be revoked after announcement Applied to the unpaid balance of delinquent shares 2. 2/3 members when: a. (PPI) approved two resolutions in a special stockholders' meeting: a) Resolution increasing the authorized capital stock of PPI. b. (Nielson & Co.UST GOLDEN NOTES 2009 levied by corporate creditors because they’re part of corporate capital Declared by the board with the concurrence of the stockholders representing at least 2/3 of the outstanding capital stock at a regular/special meeting Corporate capital is increased No debt is created by its declaration Not subject to tax either received by individual or a corporation Declared only by the board of directors at its discretion (majority of the quorum only. 21763. it may be entered for such periods as may be provided by the pertinent laws or regulations. No. Stockholders representing the same interest in both of the managing and the managed corporation own or control more than 1/3 of the total outstanding capital stock entitled to vote of the managing corporation. Lepanto Consolidated Mining Co. not majority of all the board) Does not increase the corporate capital Its declaration creates a debt from the corporation to each of its stockholders If received by individual: subject to tax. Power to enter into management contract Q: What are the requirements? A: 1. development. Can be revoked despite announcement but before issuance Can be withheld until payment of unpaid balance of delinquent shares GR: Management contract shall be entered into for a period not longer than 5 years for any one term. Are the resolutions binding on the corporation and its stockholders including Jimmy Morato. December 17. the directors' approval. While these resolutions were approved by the stockholders. What remedies.. Majority of the members of the BOD of the managing corporation also constitute a majority of the BOD of the managed corporation.R. the new shares from the proposed capital stock increase in favor of outside investors who are nonstockholders. Inc. and which the corporation may not dissipate. at a meeting duly called for the purpose Contract must be approved by the stockholders of the managed corporation owning at least 2/3 of the outstanding capital stock entitled to vote. the dissenting stockholder? A: No. does not exist. Inc. and b) Resolution authorizing the Board of Directors to issue. 1966). which is required by law in such case.. for cash payment. Contract must be approved by the BOD or BOT and by the stockholders owning at least the majority of the outstanding capital stock. if any. The resolutions are not binding on the corporation and its stockholders including Jimmy Morato. are available to Morato? Q: May stock dividends be issued to a person who is not a stockholder in payment of services rendered? A: No. Q: What is provided for by the trust fund doctrine? A: The subscribed capital stock of the corporation is a trust fund for the payment of debts of the corporation which the creditors have the right to look up to satisfy their credits. The sole dissenter was Jimmy Morato who owned 1% of the stock. Q: The stockholders of People Power. G. The foregoing resolutions were approved by stockholders representing 99% of the total outstanding capital stock. Only stockholders are entitled to payment of stock dividends. The creditors may sue the stockholders directly for the latter’s unpaid subscription. XPN: In cases of service contracts or operating agreements which relate to the exploitation. nonstock corporation.

4. Injunction. not when the contract is already executed. 3. The SEC may suspend or revoke the certificate of registration 2. Derivative suit 3. Q: What is the binding effect of by-laws? A: A. Creditors a. and When the act was ratified. or b. (Sec 45) Note: Ultra vires acts apply only in executory contracts. Under the Doctrine of apparent authority. Executed contract – courts will not set aside or interfere with such contracts. and Executory contracts apparently authorized but ultra vires – the principle of estoppel shall apply. Must be reasonable. as well as any and all actions taken by the Board of Directors thereunder. by its AOI and those that are not implied or necessary or incidental to the exercise of the powers so conferred. Executory contracts – no enforcement even at the suit of either party (void and unenforceable). e. c. If it is provided in the by-laws. State a. f.They have the force of contract between the members themselves. (1998 Bar Question) Q: What are ultra vires acts? A: Those powers that are not conferred to the corporation by law. Must not impair obligations and contracts or property rights of stockholders. Q: What are the distinctions between ultra vires acts and illegal acts? A: ULTRA VIRES ACT Not necessarily unlawful. morals. public policy. 2. govern and control its own actions. Stockholders a. 4. d. Must not be contrary to morals and public policy. other pertinent laws and regulations. Q: In case of conflict between the by-laws and the articles of incorporation which prevails? A: The AOI prevails because the by-laws is intended merely to supplement the former. 3. Q: What are the requisites for the validity of bylaws? A: a. BY-LAWS Q: What are by-laws? A: Rules and regulations or private laws enacted by the corporation to regulate. Nullification of contract in fraud of creditors Q: When does the act of the officers bind the corporation? A: 1. or b.CORPORATION CODE A: Jimmy Morato can petition the Securities and Exchange Commission to declare the two (2) resolutions. affairs and concerns and of its stockholders or members and directors and officers in relation thereto and among themselves in their relation to it. If the act requires board approval. Obtain a judgment of forfeiture. OF THE PHILIPPINES Q: What are the remedies in case of ultra vires act? A: 1. against law. Must be consistent with the charter or articles of incorporation. Must be consistent with the Corporation Code. and public order Cannot be ratified Cannot bind the parties UNIVERSITY e Derecho Civil OF SANTO TOMAS Facultad d 27 . Partly executed and partly executory – principle of “no unjust enrichment at expense of another” shall apply. As to members and corporation . Q: What are the effects of an ultra vires act? A: 1. b. but outside the powers of the corporation Can be ratified Can bind the parties if wholly or partly executed ILLEGAL ACTS Unlawful. null and void. 2. Must be of general application and not directed against a particular individual.

Reason: By-laws have no extra-corporate force and are not in the nature of legislative enactments so far as third persons are concerned. b. The form for proxies of stockholders and members and the manner of voting them. Sec. d. In case of stock corporations. management and control of its affairs. It shall be kept in the principal office of the corporation and subject to the inspection of the stockholders ore members during office hours d. Executed incorporation before BY-LAWS For the internal government of the corporation but has the force of a contract between the corporation and the stockholders/ members. 2. In all cases. Such other matters as may be necessary for the proper or convenient transaction of its corporate business and affairs. g. 47) Q: Is a corporation automatically dissolved. Time for holding the annual election of directors or trustees and the mode or manner of giving notice thereof. Copy thereof.incorporation a.incorporation – It shall be approved and signed by all the incorporators and submitted to the SEC. it failed to adopt a code of by-laws? A: No. duly certified by the BOD or BOT countersigned by the secretary of the corporation. c. and between the stockholders and members. duties and compensation of directors or trustees. By-laws shall be signed by the stockholders or members voting for them. f. together with AOI. Time and manner of calling and conducting regular or special meetings of the stockholder or members. place and manner of calling and conducting regular or special meetings of directors or trustees. Vote of the majority of the stockholders representing the outstanding capital stock or members. Time. j. 1. The qualification. Post . The incorporators must be given chance to explain their neglect or omission and remedy the same. and between the corporation and the State. if within 1 month after receipt of the official notice of the issuance of the certificate of incorporation by the SEC. May be executed after incorporation. h. officers and employees. Q: Give the procedures in adopting by-laws. or 2/3 of the members in case of non-stock corporations Power to amend/repeal articles cannot be delegated by the e. the manner of issuing certificates. c.They are not bound to know the by-laws which are merely provisions for the government of a corporation and notice to them will not be presumed. b. (Sec. 46) Q: What are the contents of by-laws? A: a. The required quorum in meeting of stockholders or members and the manner of voting therein. A: The By-laws may be adopted before or after incorporation. the By-laws shall be effective only upon the issuance by the SEC of a certification that the by-laws are not inconsistent with the AOI. Pre . B. shall be filed with the SEC and shall be attached with the original AOI.UST GOLDEN NOTES 2009 They are binding only upon the corporation and on its members and those having direction. Amended by a majority of the directors/ trustees and stockholders representing 2/3 of the outstanding capital stock. Q: What are the distinctions between AOI and By-laws? A: AOI Essentially a contract between the corporation and the stockholders/ members. (Sec. 46 allows the filing of the by-laws simultaneously with the Articles of Incorporation May be amended by a majority vote of the BOD and majority vote of outstanding capital stock or a majority of the member in non-stock corporation Power to amend or repeal by-laws or adopt new bylaws may be delegated by 28 . Manner of election or appointment and the term of office of all officers other than directors or trustees. Penalties for violation of the by-laws i. between the stockholders/ member inter se. As to third persons .

Any time necessary. 48) MEETINGS Q: What are the requirements for a valid meeting whether stockholders/members or the board? A: Note: Whenever for any cause. (Sec. 2. Presided by the president unless otherwise provided in the by-laws (Sec. repealing or adopting new by-laws? A: 1. Any time upon the call of the president. Provided. if within the powers or authority of the corporation. the SEC. Within the period provided in the by- Q: Where will stockholders/members meeting be held? A: May be held anywhere in or outside of the Philippines. shall vote at a regular or special meeting. upon petition of any stockholder or member on showing of good cause. the meeting shall be held in the city or municipality where the principal office of the corporation is located. may issue an order to the petitioning stockholder or member directing him to call a meeting of the corporation by giving proper notice Q: Where will stockholders/members meeting be held? A: Whether regular or special. in the principal office of the corporation. Required quorum (Secs. The date fixed in the by-laws. In the absence of provision in the by-laws – 1 day prior to the scheduled meeting 1. Within the period provided in the by-laws 2. 54). or 2. 4. If there is no date in the bylaws – any date in April as determined by the board. Within the period provided in the bylaws 2. If no provision in the by-laws – 1 week prior to the meeting 2. 3. Required notice (Sec. (Sec. and if practicable.CORPORATION CODE stockholders/ members to the board of directors/ trustees the 2/3 of the outstanding capital stock or 2/3 of the members in the case of nonstock corporation OF THE PHILIPPINES laws 2. If there is no date in the by-laws – shall be held monthly 1. UNIVERSITY e Derecho Civil OF SANTO TOMAS Facultad d 29 . or 2. that such power delegated to the board shall be considered as revoked whenever stockholders owning at least majority of the outstanding capital stock or members. (Sec. 52 & 53) Q: When will stockholders/members meeting be held? A: DATE OF MEETING 1. shall be valid even if the meeting be improperly held or called. or 2. As provided in the by-laws REQUIRED WRITTEN /VERBAL NOTICE 1. or deemed REQUIRED WRITTEN NOTICE 1. By the board only after due delegation by the stockholders owning 2/3 of the outstanding capital stock/members. Within the period provided in the by-laws 2. 53) Q: What is the required quorum? A: A. or 2. 53 for BOD/BOT) No meeting can be validly held unless there is notice. there is no person authorized to call the meeting. Quorum in meetings of Stockholders GR: Shall consist of the stockholders representing majority of the outstanding capital stock or a majority of the members in the case of non-stock corporation. However it may be waived. Q: When will BOD/BOT meetings be held? A: DATE OF MEETING 1. 1. In the absence of provision in the bylaws – 2 weeks prior to the meeting. Call by authorized person. 51) Note: All proceedings had and any business transacted at any meeting of the stockholders or members. 1. Annually on date fixed in the by-laws. If no provision in the bylaws – 1 day prior to the scheduled meeting 1. provided all the stockholders or members of the corporation are present or duly represented at the meeting. unless the by-laws provide otherwise. Amendment may be made by stockholders together with the Board – by majority vote of directors and owners of at least a majority of the outstanding capital stock/members. As provided in the by-laws Q: What are the ways of amending. 50 for stockholders/members) and (Sec.

G. 131394. B. (Memo. provided: 1. XPN: When the sequestered shares in the name of the private individuals or entities are shown. Q: Do executors. Directors must express their intent on teleconferencing. (Sec. Proper identification of those attending. (Sec. whether it be founder’s shares or common shares. 3. 55) Q: What are the rules in voting when there is joint ownership of stock? A: 1. Mar 28. prima facie. majority of the outstanding capital stock is insufficient to constitute a quorum. the consent of ALL the co-owners shall be necessary. 2. A different quorum may be provided for in the by-laws 2. In the instant case. the remedy is for the stockholder to fill the vacancy Q: Do pledgors.UST GOLDEN NOTES 2009 XPN: 1. XPN: If expressly given by the pledgor or mortgagor such right in writing which is recorded on the corporate books. No. Shares of stock owned jointly by 2 or more persons GR: In order to vote the same. and those listed in the stock and transfer book. 57) Q: Who has the right to vote sequestered shares? A: GR: The stockholder of record is entitled to vote. to have been: 1. 2. There is no violation of the Anti-Wire Tapping Act (RA 4200) because all the parties to the board meeting are aware that all the communications are recorded. presence of the stockholders representing 2/3 of the outstanding capital stock is necessary for such purpose. and mortgagors of shares of stocks have the right to attend and vote at meetings of stockholders? A: GR: Yes. (Sec. Originally government shares. CA.R. “quorum is based on the totality of the shares which have been subscribed and issued. or Q: What should be the basis of quorum for a stockholders’ meeting—the outstanding capital stock as indicated in the articles of incorporation or that contained in the company’s stock and transfer book? A: As held. Quorum in meetings of Board GR: Quorum is 1/2+1 of the total numbers of the board as fixed in the AOI. receivers. XPN: If there is a written proxy. Note: The quorum is the same even if there is vacancy in the board If the required quorum is not satisfied because of the vacancy in the board. as long as they are duly appointed by the court in behalf of the stockholders or members without need of any written proxy. signed by all the co-owners. No.” (Lanuza v. XPN: A different quorum may be provided for in the by-laws. and other legal representatives have the right to attend and vote at meetings of stockholders? A: Yes. 56) Q: Do treasury shares have voting rights? A: Treasury shares shall have no voting right as long as such shares remain in the treasury. The corporation code provides for certain resolutions that must be approved by at least 2/3 of the outstanding capital stock. two figures are being pitted against each other— those contained in the articles of incorporation. authorizing one or some of them or any other person to vote such shares. The corporate secretary must safeguard the integrity of the meeting by recording it. in which case. Shares are owned in an “and/or” capacity by the holders – any one of the joint owners can vote thereof or appoint a proxy. 15. Cir. 2005) Q: Is teleconferencing or video-conferencing valid? A: Yes under RA 8792. 11/20/01) 30 .

who thereby acquires for a period of time the voting rights (and/or any other rights) over such shares. General proxy –A general discretionary power to attend and vote at annual meeting. (Sec. XPN: Said proxy is coupled with interest even if though it may appear by its terms to be irrevocable. it shall be valid only for the meeting for which it is intended.R. 5. Election of the BOD/BOT. No. Q: How and when is a proxy revoked? A: A proxy may be revoked in writing. and in return. 25). AND 4. The proxy shall be filed within 5 days before the scheduled meeting with the corporate secretary. Sandiganbayan. Directors must always act in person. Voting in case of joint ownership of 3. Continuing proxy – Is not limited to a specific meeting and it continues for a certain period but not more that 5 years at any one time. Q: What is the extent of authority of a proxy? A: a. It must be in writing and notarized. UNIVERSITY e Derecho Civil SANTO TOMAS Facultad d 31 . Sept. 2003) Q: What is a proxy? A: A written authorization given by one person to another so that the second person can act for the first such as that given by the shareholder to someone else to represent him and vote his shares at a shareholders’ meeting. Unless otherwise provided (continuing in nature) in the proxy. 3. GR: One who has given a proxy the right to vote may revoke the same at anytime. The right to vote is inseparable from the right of ownership of stock. orally or by conduct. By-laws may prescribe the form of proxy. trust certificates are given to the stockholder/s. the government shall vote the shares. 9. a proxy must have been given by the person who is the legal owner of the stock and is entitled to vote. Q: What are the requirements for a valid proxy? A: 1. Pledge or mortgage of shares. 4.CORPORATION CODE 2. 1991) Q: What is the duration of proxy? A: 1. By-laws may provide for a shorter duration of a continuing proxy. 2. (SEC Opinion. to be valid. (Sec. 2.58). Q: What are the specific limitations on VTA? A: 1. No proxy shall be valid and effective for a period longer than 5 years at any one time. 15. to the trust agreement. 2. subject. Specific proxy – Refers to one where the authority granted the proxy holder is merely for a particular meeting on a specific date. VTA can be entered into for a period not exceeding 5 years at any one time except when it is a condition in a loan agreement but shall automatically expire upon full payment of the loan. 2. directors cannot do so.58 BP 68 as amended by Sec.20 SRC) Note: Stockholders or members may attend and vote in their meetings by proxy (Sec. July. and shall specify the terms and conditions thereof. (Republic of the Philippines v. Proxies shall be in writing and shall be signed by the stockholders or members. As provided for in its by-laws. Limited proxy – Restrict the authority to vote to specified matters only and may direct the manner in which the vote shall be cast b. In such cases. stock. which are transferable like stock certificates. 59) OF Q: Is the power to appoint a proxy a personal right? A: Yes. Purchased with public funds or those affected with public interest. Therefore. OF THE PHILIPPINES 3. (Sec. G. Voting by trustee under VTA. Q: When may the right to vote by proxy be exercised? A: 1. 152154. Q: What is a voting trust? A: It is an agreement whereby one or more stockholders transfer their shares of stocks to a trustee.

A certified copy of such agreement shall be filed with the corporation and with the SEC. Proxy need not be notarized Proxy can only act at a specified stockholder’s meeting (if not continuing) No cancellation of the certificate shall be made A proxy can only vote in the absence of the owners of the stock 7. Purchase treasury shares from the corporation. A new certificate shall be issued in the name of the trustee/s stating that they are issued pursuant to the VTA. Execution and notarization of the VTA stating the terms and conditions thereof. 59) is given. The voting trustee or trustees may vote by proxy unless the agreement provides otherwise. or 3. it is ineffective and unenforceable. Acquires shares from existing shareholders by sale or any other contract. other rights as well The trust may vote in person or by proxy unless the agreement provides otherwise The agreement must be notarized Trustee is not limited to act at any particular meeting The share certificate shall be cancelled and transferred to the trustee A trustee can vote and exercise all the rights of the stockholder even when the latter is present May not be revoked for the duration The voting right is divorced from the ownership of stocks An agreement must not exceed 5 years at any one time except when the same is made a condition of a loan. 4. and the voting trust certificates as well as the certificates of stock in the name of the trustee or trustees shall thereby be deemed canceled and new certificates of stock shall be reissued in the name of the transferors. Note: Unless expressly renewed. Q: What is a subscription contract? A: It is a contract for the acquisition of unissued stock in an existing corporation or a corporation still to be formed. that it is made pursuant to said VTA. 58 it cannot exceed 5 years at any one time STOCKS Q: How does one become a shareholder in a corporation? A: A person becomes a shareholder the moment he: 1. 59) May be revoked anytime unless coupled with interest The right to vote is inherent in or inseparable from the right to ownership of stock A proxy is usually of shorter duration although under Sec. No VTA shall be entered into for the purpose of circumventing the law against monopolies and illegal combinations in restraint of trade or used for purposes of fraud. all rights granted in a voting trust agreement shall automatically expire at the end of the agreed period. The trustee/s shall execute and deliver to the transferors voting trust certificates. 2.UST GOLDEN NOTES 2009 Q: What are the procedural requirements for VTA to be valid? A: 1. otherwise. Enters into a subscription contract with an existing corporation (he is a stockholder upon acceptance of the corporation of his offer to subscribe whether the consideration is fully paid or not). The transfer shall be noted in the books of the corporation. It is considered as such Q: What are the distinctions between a voting trust agreement and proxy? A: VOTING TRUST The agreement is irrevocable Trustee acquires legal title to the shares of the transferring stockholder The trustee votes as owner rather than as mere agent Qualifies as a director Not only right to vote PROXY Revocable anytime except one with interest Proxy has no legal title to the shares of the principal The proxy holder votes as agent Not qualified director to be a Only right to vote is given 32 . 6. 2. The proxy must vote in person 3. The certificate/s of stock covered by the VTA shall be cancelled. 5. (Sec. which shall be transferable in the same manner and with the same effect as certificates of stock. (Sec.

XPN: Q: Janice rendered some consultancy work for XYZ Corporation. but not for future services or services yet to be performed. not covered by the Statute of Frauds Subscription price are considered assets of the corporation. written or oral. Labor or services actually rendered to the corporation. Prior corporate obligations. in a Q: What is the Doctrine of Individuality of Subscription? A: A subscription is one entire and indivisible whole contract. 2. (Sec. Amounts transferred from unrestricted retained earnings to stated capital (in case of declaration of stock dividends). Incorporation of said corporation fails to materialize within said period or within a longer period as may be stipulated in the contract of subscription. and 2. Can XYZ Corporation issue shares of stock to pay for the services of Janice as its consultant? Discuss your answer. [Sec. Cash. 60) Q: What are contracts? A: the kinds of subscription OF THE PHILIPPINES fulfillment of the terms of the sale and registration thereof in the books of the corporation The corporation may rescind or cancel the contract for nonfulfillment of the contract by the buyer Creditors may not proceed against the buyer for the unpaid price as there is no privity of contract between them In purchase amounting to more than 500 pesos. the Statute of Frauds shall apply Purchase price does not become assets of the corporation unless fully paid has not fully paid the subscription Cannot be released from his subscription unless all stockholders agree thereto and no creditor is thereby prejudiced Corporate creditors may proceed against the subscriber for his unpaid subscription in case the assets f the corporation are not sufficient to pay their claims May be in any form. (Sec. 62(3]) (2005 Bar Question) Q: What are the distinctions subscription and purchase? A: Subscription May be made before or after incorporation Subscriber becomes a stockholder even if he Purchase May be made only after incorporation Buyer does not become a stockholder until the 1. A: The corporation can issue shares of stock to pay for actually performed services to the corporation. 61) XPN to XPN: When creditors will be prejudiced thereby. 5. It cannot be divided into portions. and therefore. Pre-incorporation subscription – entered into before the incorporation and irrevocable for a period of six (6) months from the date of subscription unless all other subscribers consent or if the corporation failed to materialize. Q: What are valid considerations subscription agreement? A: 1. 3. 6. Post-incorporation subscription – entered into after incorporation. (Sec. Outstanding shares in exchange for stocks in the event of reclassification or conversion. hence. All of the other subscribers consent to the revocation. Note: Promissory notes or future services are not valid considerations. creditors may go after them 1.CORPORATION CODE notwithstanding the fact that the parties refer to it as purchase or some other contract. 4. provided that no pre-incorporation subscription may be revoked after the submission of the articles of incorporation to the SEC. between UNIVERSITY e Derecho Civil OF SANTO TOMAS Facultad d 33 . express or implied. Property. 61) 2. 64) Q: What is the rule on pre-incorporation subscription agreements? A: GR: Subscription of shares of stock of a corporation still to be formed shall be irrevocable for a period of at least 6 months from date of subscription. It cannot also be revoked after filing the Articles of Incorporation with the SEC (Sec. Her compensation included shares of stock therein.

Indorsement by the owner and his agent. then the subscription of no par value shares must be paid in full instead of 25% thereof. they are deemed fully paid and non-assessable. is it valid? A: Only insofar as the parties to the transfer are concerned. Q: How are shares of stock transferred? A: 1. The “unpaid claim” refers to the unpaid subscription on the shares transferred and not to any other indebtedness that the transferor may have to the corporation. 1935) Q: What if the transfer is not recorded. and. Delivery of the certificate. 34 . the following must be strictly complied with: a. 124535. (Sec.R. a bona fide purchaser who relied on the endorsed certificates and believed him to be the owner thereof. 13) Since no-par value shares are deemed fully paid and non-assessable and the holder of such shares shall not be liable to the corporation or to its creditors in respect thereto. the transfer must be recorded in the books of the corporation (Rural Bank of Lipa v. Such is duly recorded in the books of the corporation. G. September 28. Can "A" claim the shares of stocks from "X"? Explain. the corporation has the right to refuse to recognize any transfer of shares which has not been duly registered in the stock and transfer book. No. Q: Is a stockholder entitled to the shares of stock subscribed although not fully paid? A: Yes. in all of its assets remaining after payment of its debt. (Sec. 63) Q: "A" is the registered owner of Stock Certificate No. 000011. Q: Who are required to pay their subscription in full? A: 1. He entrusted the possession of said certificate to his best friend "B" who borrowed the said endorsed certificate to support B's application for passport (or for a purpose other than transfer). a. on dissolution. b. November 2. how much must be subscribed and paid-up upon incorporation? A: 25% of the total number of shares must be subscribed.UST GOLDEN NOTES 2009 Q: In case of no-par value shares. L- 42091. there must be due registration with the Register of Deeeds (Chua Guan v. It is the property of the corporation itself (monetary value). Non-resident foreign subscribers upon incorporation must pay in full their subscriptions unless their unpaid subscriptions are guaranteed by a surety bond or by an assumption by a resident stockholder through an affidavit of liability. If not represented by the certificate (such as when the certificate has not yet been issued or where for some reason is not in the possession of the stockholder). Note: registration in the stock and transfer book is not necessary if the conveyance is by way of chattel mortgage. 2. SHARES OF STOCK It is an interest or right which an owner has in the management of the corporation. As long as the shares are not considered delinquent. Samahan. However. 63) Q: When may the corporation validly refuse to register the transfer of shares? A: No shares of stock against which the corporation holds any unpaid claim shall be transferable in the books of the corporation. Court of Appeals. In case of no-par value shares. 2001). they are entitled to all rights granted to it whether or not the subscribed capital stocks are fully paid. But "B" sold the certificate to "X". (Sec. Note: Hence. c. Q: What are the distinctions between capital stock from shares of stock? A: CAPITAL STOCK The amount paid in or secured to be paid in by the stockholders upon which the corporation is to conduct its operation. To be valid to third parties. The stockholder may own the shares even if he is not holding a certificate of stock. and its surplus profits. If represented by a certificate. By means of deed of assignment: and b. 2.

all unpaid subscriptions become payable on demand. al. 70) 3. March 26. Would your answer be the same if "A" lost the stock certificate in question or if it was stolen from him? A: Yes. If no rate of interest is fixed in the by-laws. The certificate of stock covering said shares have been duly endorsed by "A" and entrusted by him to "B". (Sec. no payment is made. No. "One who has lost any movable or has been unlawfully deprived thereof. without necessity of any prior call. or.CORPORATION CODE A: No. UNIVERSITY e Derecho Civil OF SANTO TOMAS Facultad d 35 . (China Banking Corporation v. Call whenever required must be made by the Board. Q: When will the share become delinquent? A: If within 30 days from the date of payment specified in the contract of subscription or from the date stated in the call made by the board. G. Collection from cash dividends and withholding of stock dividends. "A" cannot claim the shares of stock from "X". By his said acts. 67) 2. on the date specified on the call made by the BOD.R. or in the absence of such date. if no date of payment has been specified. "A" has a right to claim the certificate of stock from the thief who has no right or title to the same. without need of demand or call. when insolvency supervenes upon a corporation and the court assumes jurisdiction to wind it up. Extra-judicial sale at public auction – this remedy is available upon failure of the stockholder to pay the unpaid subscription or balance thereof within the grace period of 30 days from the date specified in the contract of subscription. such rate shall be deemed to be the legal rate. on the date specified in the subscription contract. unless a different rate of interest is provided in the by-laws. NCC) (2001 Bar Question) Q: What if there is no certificate of stock. "A" is now estopped from claiming said shares from "X". In the case where the certificate of stock was lost or stolen from "A". (Sec." (Art. from the date stated in the call made by the BOD. Judicial action. and at the rate of interest fixed in the by-laws. transferred by deed of OF THE PHILIPPINES Q: What is the effect of failure to pay the subscription on the date it is due? A: It shall render the entire balance due and payable and shall make the SH liable for interest at the legal rate on such balance.. may recover it from the person in possession of the same. 2. c. 1997) Q: What are the remedies of corporations to enforce payment of stocks? A: 1. et. or. (Sec. a bona fide purchaser who relied on the endorsement by “A” of the certificate of stock. (Sec. b. Court of Appeals. Q: Will the unpaid balance accrue interest? A: Subscribers for stock shall pay to the corporation interest on all unpaid subscriptions from the date of subscription. Q: What does the term unpaid claim mean (for purposes of declaring the shareholder of delinquent? A: It refers to any unpaid subscription. 117604. how can shares be transferred? A: It can be sale/assignment. (Sec. and are at once recoverable. and not to any indebtedness which a subscriber or stockholder may owe the corporation arising from any other transaction. Notices of call – The stockholders are given notice of the board resolution by the corporate secretary. 66) Q: What is the procedure for collection and delinquency sale? A: 1. if so required by. all stocks covered by said subscription shall thereupon become delinquent and shall be subject to sale unless the BOD orders otherwise. Since the shares were already transferred to "B". 64) Q: When should the balance of the subscription be paid? A: It should be paid: a. 43) Q: When may a certificate of stock be issued? A: It shall be issued until the full amount of his subscription together with interest and expenses has been paid. 559. either personally or by registered mail.

(2008 Bar Question) Q: Who is the highest bidder in a public auction sale of delinquent sale? A: The one who offers to pay the full amount of the balance of the subscription together with accrued interest. can Ace Cruz compel JP Development Corporation to issue to him the stock certificate corresponding to the P25. Before the stocks are declared delinquent. will be sold at public auction. Sale – such number of shares as may be necessary to pay the amount due on subscription.UST GOLDEN NOTES 2009 3.000 shares of stock. Note: If the delinquent stockholder is a director. 2008. to take a stipulated amount of stocks or bonds.000 paid by him? A: No. 43 par. Q: What are the distinctions between underwriting agreement and stock subscription agreement? A: 4. Q: What is an underwriting agreement? A: It is an agreement between a corporation and a third person. Note: Notice shall state the amount due on each subscription plus accrued interest. JP Development Corporation declared a cash dividend on October 15. To representation at any stockholders' meeting. he is entitled to the exercise of all his rights including the right to receive cash dividends. for the smallest number of shares.000 shares of stock of JP Development Corporation. Delinquent stockholder shall not be entitled to any of the rights of a stockholder but he shall still be entitled to receive dividends. 5. On December 1.000 and promised to pay the balance before December 31. (Sec. 67-70) Q: When may discontinued? delinquency sale be A: If the delinquent SH pays the unpaid balance plus interest. The stock certificates will be issued only if and when the full amount of his subscription together with interests if any has been paid. or 2. costs. Q: What are the effects of stock delinquency? A: Deprives the stockholder the right: 1. if such securities are not taken by those to whom they are first offered. If the stockholders concerned do not pay within thirty days from the date specified in the contract of subscription or in the call. specified in the underwriting agreement. A: Ace is entitled to be paid in cash dividends to the extent of his 100. plus interest and other amounts due. 2008. Q: Are delinquent shares entitled to dividends? A: Yes. To be voted for. costs and expenses on or before the date specified for the sale or when the BOD orders otherwise. for a certain compensation. 1) Q: Ace Cruz subscribe to 100. Notice of delinquency served on the subscribers either personally or registered mail and publication in a newspaper of general circulation in the province or city where principal office is located once a week for two consecutive weeks. provided that any cash dividends due on delinquent stocks shall first be applied to the unpaid balance on the subscription plus costs and 36 . (Secs. Note: The highest bidder is the person offering to pay full amount of the balance on the subscription and other amount that are due for the smallest number of shares or fraction of a share. expenses while stock dividends shall be withheld from the delinquent stockholder until his unpaid subscription is fully paid. time and place of the sale which shall not be less than 30 days nor more than 60 days from the date the stocks become delinquent. by which the latter agrees. 2008. To be entitled to vote. all the stocks covered by the subscription shall be declared delinquent and shall be subject to sale under Sec. He paid P25. Shares of stock become delinquent if the stockholder fails to pay within 30 days from the date provided in the subscription contract. and the date. he shall continue be a director but he cannot run for re-election. and expenses of sale. 2008. which has a par value of P1 per share. For how many shares is Ace Cruz entitled to be paid cash dividends? Explain.68. payable on December 1. termed the “underwriter”. or 3.

2/3 of Outstanding Stock along with majority of the board: a. 75) 7. on the 3. Extending and Shortening Corporate Term c. Q: What are the limitations stockholder’s right to vote? b. A: a. c. 6) Fractional shares of stock cannot be voted unless they constitute at least one full share. 41) OF UNIVERSITY e Derecho Civil SANTO TOMAS Facultad d 37 . 81) 8. Corporate mergers or consolidation. b. (Sec. 2. STOCKHOLDERS Q: What are the rights of a stockholder? A: 1. Underwriters are usually allowed a commission. For quorum in electing members of the board by cumulative voting. (Sec. (Sec. 32 are lacking. d. Where stockholders of managed corporation own more than 1/3 of outstanding capital stock entitled to vote of the managing corporation are also the majority of the board of managed corporation. 1987) Q: Give the summary of vote requirements for stockholders A: 1. Amendment to by-laws. (Sec. d. they may still vote in instances specified in the code. b. c. 5. (Sec. To file a derivative actions. (SEC Opinion January 8. Increasing / Decreasing capital stock / bonded indebtedness. however. Where the articles of incorporation provides for classification of shares pursuant to Sec. Voluntary dissolution of the corporation whether or not creditors are prejudiced. He becomes a stockholder of the company and is liable to pay the amount due on the stock. To participate proportionately in the distribution of the corporate assets upon corporate liquidation following the dissolution and winding up. Pre-emptive right. The right to vote of non-voting stockholders may be limited or broadened to the extent specified in the AI or by-laws. (Sec. 10.6. 122) 9. 39) 5. Preferred or redeemable shares may be deprived of the right to vote unless otherwise provided in the Code. Ratification of contract with director or officer where first two requisites of Sec. (Sec. (Sec. There is no commission. To receive his proportionate share of the profits of the corporation by way of dividends. Delegation to the board to amend. Approval of management contract. b. non-voting shares are not entitled to vote except as provided for in the last paragraph of Sec. Revocation of delegated authority to the board of directors to amend or repeal or adopt new by-laws. substantially all of corporate assets. 4. b. (Sec. Investment of corporate funds in another corporation or for a purpose other than main purpose. To financial statements. e. 43) 4. 74 par. Adoption of original by-laws. (Sec. Appraisal right. repeal of bylaws. 58) 2. 2) 6. To approve the declaration of stock dividends.6. Majority of outstanding stock a. such 2/3 vote is required to approve management contract. adoption of new by-laws. To inspect corporate books and records. c. Issuance of stock dividends. Amendment of AOI. Removal of directors. h. To the issuance of a certificate of stock upon compliance with the conditions which entitle him to one. d. 43) 3. To vote at the stockholders’ meetings either in person or by proxy.CORPORATION CODE UNDERWRITING AGREEMENT The signers obligate themselves to take the shares of stock which cannot be sold. In pure underwriting agreement. the signer can refuse to become a stockholder/ member of the company in pursuance of his contract with the promoter. Sale or disposition of all. OF THE PHILIPPINES f. g. repeal by-laws or adopt new by-laws. 2/3 of outstanding stocks a. Majority of Outstanding stocks with majority of the board a. STOCK SUBSCRIPTION AGREEMENT The obligation of the signer to the purchasers and to the public is absolute. Grant of compensation to members of the board.

UST GOLDEN NOTES 2009 d. 63) Stock held in escrow cannot be voted until the performances of a certain condition or the happening of a certain event as contained in the agreement. the Board may fix a reasonable time within which the stockholders may exercise the right. SEC. Not extend to shares to be issued in good faith with the approval of the stockholders representing 2/3 of the outstanding capital stock. Q: What is a pre-emptive right? A: It is the right of SH to subscribe to the issuance or disposition of shares in proportion to their respective shareholding so that their interest in the corporation will be maintained. Note: Includes not only new shares in pursuance of an increase of capital stock but would cover the issue of previously unissued shares which form part of the existing capital stock as well as treasury shares. (SEC Opinion) c. although contractually they each have bound themselves to vote in accordance with the decision of the majority in the pool. (Benito v. 1983) f. Q: When is the pre-emptive right not available? A: a. This does not involve a transfer of stocks but is merely a private agreement. July 25. (Sec. Would "A" have a pre-emptive right to 200 of the new issue of 1000 shares? Why? A: Yes. "A" is a stockholder of record holding 200 shares in "X" Corporation. the directors thought of raising additional capital and Q: When are pooling agreements valid? A: As long as they do not limit the discretion of the BOD in the management of corporate affairs or work any fraud against stockholders not party to the contract. Recently. At its inception. d. entered into by and between 2 or more stockholders to make their shares vote in the same manner. After complying with the requirements of the law on increase of capital stock.000. e. Assume that stockholder "A" presently holds 200 out of the 1000 original shares. Q: ABC Corporation has an authorized capital stock of One Million (P1. "A" would have a pre-emptive right to 200 of the new issue of 1000 shares. L-56655. To shares to be issued in compliance with laws requiring stock offerings or minimum stock ownership by the public. (Sec. Treasury shares have no voting rights as long as they remain in the treasury (Sec. each stockholder has the pre-emptive right to all issues of shares made by the corporation in proportion to the number of shares he holds on record in the corporation. This usually relates to election of directors where parties often provide for arbitration in case of disagreement. 67) A transferee of stock cannot vote if his transfer is not registered in the stock and transfer book of the corporation. also known as voting agreement. However. 57) Holders of stock declared delinquent by the board of directors for unpaid subscription are not entitled to vote or a representation at any stockholder’s meeting. (Sec. corporate purposes or in payment of a previously contracted debt. only 40.000 preferred shares. Q: Suppose that "X" Corporation has already issued the 1000 originally authorized shares of the corporation so that its Board of Directors and stockholders wish to increase "X's" authorized capital stock. It does not apply to shares that are being reoffered by the corporation after they were initially offered together with all the shares. the Corporation offered for subscription all the common shares.00) Pesos divided into 50. Shall not take effect if denied in the Articles of Incorporation or an amendment thereto.000. (SEC 2000 Opinion). g. When should stockholder "A" exercise the preemptive right? A: Pre-emptive right must be exercised in accordance with the Articles of Incorporation or the By-Laws. When the Articles of Incorporation and the By-Laws are silent. b.000 shares were subscribed. in exchange for property needed for 38 .000 common shares and 50. "X" issued an additional 1000 shares of the same value. 100) Note: Parties thereto remain the legal owners of their stocks with the right to vote them. before said shares are offered to a non-stockholder. According to the Corporation Code. Q: What is a pooling agreement? A: This is an agreement.

Mr. Alternative answer: No. passed a resolution authorizing additional issuance of shares of stocks without notice nor approval of the stockholders. Datu and Tan v.000 shares? A: Yes. has pre-emptive right to the remaining 10. at what price will the shares be offered? A: The shares will be offered to existing stockholders. It is a right available to SH to be offered the shares of another SH before it is offered to other party. The objective is to preserve and maintain unimpaired and undiluted the SH’s relative and proportionate voting strength and control. DX’s contention is tenable. including the reissuance of treasury shares in proportion to their respective shareholdings. and only when the corporation or the other stockholders do not or fail to exercise their option. Is his contention tenable? Explain briefly. the stockholder may not exercise appraisal right because the matter that he dissented from is not one of those where right of appraisal is available under the Corporation Code.000 preferred shares because they were not offered before by the corporation for subscription. a stockholder. He.CORPORATION CODE decided to offer to the public all the authorized shares of the Corporation at their market value. Q: What is the right of first option? A: A right that grants to the corporation the right to buy the shares at a fixed price and only valid if made on reasonable terms and consideration. Mr.000 shares. a stockholder holding 4. in proportion to their respective shareholdings. have pre-emptive rights to the remaining 10. a stockholder holding 4. is the offering stockholder at liberty to dispose of his shares to third parties. The facts in those cases happened during the regime of the old Corporation Law. X. X have pre-emptive rights to the 50.000 shares because these shares have already been offered at incorporation and he chose not to subscribe to them. The ruling in Benito v.000 preferred shares.000 shares. SEC to the effect that preemptive right applies only to issuance of shares in connection with an increase in capital is no longer a valid rule under the Corporation Code. Alternative answer: Yes. All stockholders of a stock corporation shall enjoy pre-emptive right to subscribe to all issues or disposition of shares of any class. it is the corporation that offers the shares to stockholders. Assuming that the existing stockholders are entitled to pre-emptive rights. All stockholders of a stock corporation shall enjoy pre-emptive right to subscribe to all issues or disposition of shares of any class.000 shares. Assuming a stockholder disagrees with issuance of new shares and the pricing for shares. under terms and considerations which are reasonable. therefore. (2004 Bar Question) Q: What is the right of first refusal? A: A stockholder who may wish to sell or assign his shares must first offer the shares to the corporation or to the other existing stockholders of the corporation. enjoy pre-emptive right to subscribe to all issues of shares of any class. The right to be exercised must be indicated in the AOI and printed in the stock certificate. In right of first refusal. X. objected to the issuance.39 of the Corporation Code. Inc. who are entitled to pre-emptive right. X has preemptive right over the 50. Would Mr. it is the SH who shall offer his shares to the other SH before the same are offered to the public or non-stockholders. Q: What is the difference between pre-emptive right and right of first refusal? A: In pre-emptive right. It is exercised with or without a provision in the AOI. X does not have pre-emptive right over the remaining 10. has waived his right thereto and the corporation may offer them to anyone. may the stockholder invoke appraisal rights and demand payment for shareholdings? the the his his OF THE PHILIPPINES A: No. Under Sec. DX. in proportion to their respective shareholdings. Q: Is there pre-emptive right on the re-issuance of treasury shares? UNIVERSITY e Derecho Civil OF SANTO TOMAS Facultad d 39 .. Inc. at a price fixed by the Board of Directors. X would have pre-emptive rights to the 50. Mr. Mr.000 preferred shares? A: Yes. (1999 Bar Question) Q: The Board of Directors of ABC. contending that it violated his right of pre-emption to the unissued shares. Would Mr. all stockholders of ABC. a domestic corporation. A: Yes. which shall not be less than the par value of such shares.

No. 120138. The stockholder cannot take the law on to his hands. unless palpably unreasonable under the circumstances. Jr. 4. It is subject to limitations under special laws. Note: The shareholder must either exercise the right and increase the investment. 39 when pre-emptive right does not exist. Q: What books are required to be kept by a corporation? A: 1. If the corporate secretary refuses to comply. the corporation shall be granted the right to buy-back the shares. otherwise such entry shall be void. entries made by the Chairman or President are invalid. A: Their ownership of the assets and property of the corporation whether this ownership or interest 40 . assign or dispose of his shares in the corporation to first obtain the consent of the board of directors or other stockholders of the corporation is void as it unduly restrains the exercise of the stockholder of his right to transfer. February 20. 5. Court of Appeals. beneficial or quasi-ownership. (SEC Opinion. 4. allows restrictions on transfer of shares in the articles of incorporation if the same is necessary and convenient to the attainment of the objective for which the company was incorporated. 1995) Q: What is inspection? the basis of SH’s right of Q: What are the limitations on the right of inspection of a stockholder? A: 1. 4. 3. sale or transfer of stocks. It is valid only on reasonable terms and consideration. 2. Amount paid and unpaid on all stocks and the date of payment of any installment. the stockholder may rightfully bring suit to compel performance. Q: What is a buy-back agreement? A: This exists in situations when shares are given or assigned to officers or employees under the condition that should they resign or be terminated from employment. All stocks in the name of the stockholders alphabetically arranged. Secrecy of Bank Deposits. A provision that requires any stockholder who wishes to sell. 1997) Q: Who may make proper entries? A: The obligation and duty to make entries on the STB falls on the Corporate Secretary. Q: Is a provision stating that the consent of the board must be obtained before transfer of shares valid? A: No. When a corporation reacquires its own shares which thereby become treasury shares. 2. Hence. 3. v. Alienation. (Torres. 2. be termed equitable. G. 3. The inspection should only be for a purpose germane to his interest as a SH. It should be done during reasonable office hours on business days. ex.UST GOLDEN NOTES 2009 A: Yes. Q: May a provision in the articles of incorporation validly grant a right of first refusal in favor of other stockholders? A: Yes. or dispose of the right by sale or it will lapse and the shareholder’s proportionate interest will be diluted. The right does not extend to trade secrets. The re-issuance of treasury shares is not among the exception provided by Sec. September 5. It must be exercised in good faith. as a matter of policy. It is predicated upon the necessity of selfprotection. Book for the minutes of SH and BOD meetings Record of transactions Stock and transfer book Other books required to be kept Q: What are the contents of a stock and transfer book? A: 1.R. 6. Other entries as the by-laws may prescribe. It should follow the formalities that may be required in the by-laws. Q: Who is authorized to make entries in the stock and transfer book? A: The corporate secretary. Q: May pre-emptive right be waived by the stockholder? A: Yes when the stockholder fails to exercise his pre-emptive right after being notified and given an opportunity to avail of such right. the SEC. all shareholders are entitled to pre-emptive right when the corporation reissues or sells these treasury shares.

In case of sale. 5. Must have dissented from the proposed corporate act so such dissenting stockholder must be present in the SH meeting where the corporate act was proposed. Existence of unrestricted retained earnings or surplus profits. terminate his rights. (Sec. The award shall be paid by the corporation within thirty (30) days after such award is made No payment shall be made to any dissenting 2. v. The findings of the majority of the appraisers shall be final. Extending or shortening the term of corporate existence. 3. UNIVERSITY e Derecho Civil OF SANTO TOMAS Facultad d 41 . transfer. In cases of close corporations. In case of merger or consolidation f. Such failure shall be deemed to be a waiver of his appraisal right.R. Make a written demand on the corporation within 30 days after the date on which the vote was taken for payment of the fair value of his shares. the withdrawing stockholder and the corporation cannot agree on the fair value of the shares. mortgage. 1997) Q: What is the probative value of the stock and transfer book? A: The stock and transfer book is the best evidence of the transactions that must be entered or stated therein. lease. 81) Q: In what instances may the right of appraisal be exercised? A: In case any amendment to the articles of incorporation which has the effect of: a. and the third by the two thus chosen. at the option of the corporation. Q: What are the rules in case of disagreement on the fair value of shares? A: If within a period of sixty (60) days from the date the corporate action was approved by the stockholders. (Sec. Authorizing preferences in any respect superior to those of outstanding shares of any class. Q: What is appraisal right? A: The right to withdraw from the corporation and demand payment of the fair value of his shares after dissenting from certain corporate acts involving fundamental changes in corporate structure. or b.R. 37) g. When the dissenting stockholder fails to submit his certificates of stock representing his shares for notation thereon that such shares are dissenting shares. July 13. However. (Sec. If the dissenting stockholder fails to make a written demand on the corporation within 30 days after the date on which the vote was taken for payment on the fair value of his shares. Failure to make the the OF THE PHILIPPINES demand within such period shall be deemed a waiver of the appraisal right. Within ten (10) days after demanding payment for his shares. (Sec. Court of Appeals. When the shares of the dissenting stockholder are transferred and the certificates covering said shares are consequently cancelled. 3. Court of Appeals. G. Jr.CORPORATION CODE (Torres. and e. it shall be determined and appraised by three (3) disinterested persons one of whom shall be named by the stockholder. exchange. certificate of stock of said shares shall be cancelled and acquired as treasury shares. 4. within 10 days after demand for payment for his shares. Extension or shortening of the term of the corporation. G. No. d. another by the corporation. the entries are considered prima facie evidence only and may be subject to proof to the contrary (Bitong v. 42) h. September 5. Q: What are the requirements for successful exercise of appraisal right? A: 1. 86) His failure to do so shall. 120138. 123553. Q: When will the dissenting stockholder lose his right of appraisal? A: 1. a dissenting stockholder shall submit the certificates of stock representing his shares to the corporation for notation thereon that such shares are dissenting shares. 2. In case of investment of corporate funds in another corporation or business or for any other purpose. After payment. 199). No. XPN: In case of a close corporation which only requires that it has assets and the payment of the fair value of the shares to the dissenting SH will not result to its insolvency. pledge or other disposition of all or substantially all of the corporate property and assets as provided in the Code. or c. Changing or restricting the rights of any stockholder or class of shares.

unless the refusal of the stockholder to receive payment was unjustified. provided. Q: What is the effect of the transfer from the dissenting stockholder? A: 1. (Sec. Will the transferee acquire the right of the transferor to demand from the corporation the payment of the fair value of the shares? A: No. The rights of the transferor as a dissenting stockholder shall cease. shall be suspended. all rights accruing to such shares. except the right of such stockholder to receive payment of the fair value thereof. If the SEC determines that such stockholder is not entitled to the appraisal right. his voting and dividend rights shall immediately be restored. his status as a stockholder shall thereupon be restored. the wrongdoing or harm having been caused to the corporation and not to the particular stockholder bringing the suit. He has exhausted intra-corporate remedies. Q: What are the requisites of a derivative action? A: 1. The transfer of shares is an abandonment by the dissenting stockholder of his appraisal right. The cause of action actually devolves on the corporation. when the fair value ascertained by the appraisers is approximately the same as the price which the corporation may have offered to pay the stockholder. Note: In the case of an action to recover such fair value. and All dividend distributions which would have accrued on such shares shall be paid to the transferee. If such demand for payment is withdrawn with the consent of the corporation. Q: What is the effect of the demand and termination of right? A: From the time of demand for payment of the fair value of a stockholder's shares until either the abandonment of the corporate action involved or the purchase of the said shares by the corporation. The party bringing suit should be a shareholder as of the time of the act or transaction complained of. (Sec. 2. Q: Who bears the cost of appraisal? A: GR: Costs of appraisal shall be borne by the corporation XPN: The costs shall be borne by the stockholder. including voting and dividend rights.83) Q: When will the right to payment of the fair value be lost? A: It ceases in the following instances: 1. or has control of the corporation. his right as a dissenting stockholder shall cease and the transferee shall have all the rights of a regular stockholder and all dividend distributions which would have accrued on such shares shall be paid to the transferee.UST GOLDEN NOTES 2009 stockholder unless the corporation has unrestricted retained earnings in its books to cover such payment Upon payment by the corporation of the agreed or awarded price. and all dividend distributions which would have accrued on his shares shall be paid to him. The transferee shall have all the rights of a regular stockholder. if the dissenting stockholder is not paid the value of his shares within 30 days after the award. If the proposed corporate action disapproved by the SEC where such approval is necessary. the stockholder shall forthwith transfer his shares to the corporation. because upon transfer of the shares of the dissenting stockholder. or the ones to be sued. 2. Q: What are derivative actions? A: Those brought by one or more stockholders/members in the name and on behalf of the corporation to redress wrongs committed against it. 85) 42 . 4. or protect/vindicate corporate rights whenever the officials of the corporation refuse to sue. (Sec. and 3. 3. Q: A dissenting stockholder transfers his shares of stock and his certificate of stock bearing the notation that such shares are dissenting shares. 2. If the proposed corporate action is abandoned or rescinded by the corporation. 84) Note: In such instances. all costs and expenses shall be assessed against the corporation. 3. are consequently cancelled.

For purposes of taxation. 1992) Q: What are individual actions? A: Those brought by the shareholder in his own name against the corporation when a wrong is directly inflicted against him. No. The situs may be the place where it is located or at the domicile of the owner even though the domicile of the owner.R. 198 SCRA 73 that to grant to the corporation concerned the right of withdrawing or dismissing the suit. in all of its assets remaining after the payment of its debt. It merely gives rise to an additional cause of action for damages against the erring directors. 104 of R. it was held in Conmart (Phils. Here. such a demand would be futile. situs is the state in which they are permanently kept regardless of the domicile of the owner or where the corporation was organized. Should the motion be granted or denied? Reason briefly. Second. 1998) Personal injury suffered by the stockholders cannot disqualify them from filing a derivative suit on behalf of the corporation. and. March 3. since the directors who comprise the majority (namely BB. (see also sec. 123553. (Bitong v. No. vs SEC. G. The requisites for a valid derivative suit exist in this case. the holders of majority shares of MOP Corporation. Young. No.R. G. 8424) b.CORPORATION CODE Note: A person who is merely holding in trust the shares of stock in her name cannot file a derivative suit. AA appears to be a stockholder at the time of the alleged misappropriation of corporate funds.) Inc. CC. G. SEC. In their capacity as members of the Board of Directors.A. the corporate counsel filed a Motion to Dismiss in the name of the MOP Corporation. In this connection. 2001) OF THE PHILIPPINES committed the breach of trust against the interests of the corporation would be to emasculate the right of the minority stockholders to seek redress for the corporation. the suit is brought on behalf and for the benefit of MOP Corporation. that MOP Corporation is the corporation in whose behalf and for whose benefit the derivative suit is brought. 4. for alleged misappropriation of corporate funds. The complaint averred. Q: What are representative actions? A: These brought by the stockholder in behalf of himself and all other stockholders similarly situated when a wrong is committed against a group of stockholders. 95696. The stockholder may own the share even if he is not holding a certificate of stock Q: What are the distinctions between shares of stock from certificates of stock? A: SHARE OF STOCK Unit of interest corporation in a CERTIFICATE OF STOCK Evidence of the holder’s ownership of the stock and of his right as a shareholder and of his extent specified therein. Q: What is the nature of a certificate of stock? A: A certificate of stock is the paper representative or tangible evidence of the stock itself and of the various interests therein. DD and EE are the ones guilty of the wrong complained of. the majority stockholders adopted a resolution authorizing MOP Corporation to withdraw the suit. Pursuant to said resolution. No. July 13. (Gochan v. March 12. To register the chattel mortgages over the shares of stock the situs is UNIVERSITY e Derecho Civil OF SANTO TOMAS Facultad d 43 .R. 131889. Third. except when corporation is domiciled elsewhere. (Tan v. It is an incorporeal intangible property or It may be issued by the corporation even if the subscription is not fully paid. It is concrete and tangible It may be issued only if the subscription is fully paid. Situs is generally the state where the corporation has its domicile a. and EE. filed a suit against BB. inter alia. A: No. since she is not a stockholder in her own right. a minority stockholder. First. Q: AA. Filing such action as a derivative suit even by a lone stockholder is one of the protections extended by law to minority stockholders against abuses of the majority. at the instance of the majority stockholders and directors who themselves are the persons alleged to have Q: What are shares of stock? A: It is an interest or right which an owner has in the management of the corporation and its surplus profits. AA was exempt from exhausting his remedies within the corporation and did not have a demand on the Board of Directors for the latter to sue. on dissolution. DD. Court of Appeals. CC.

issue all of the shares of a particular class in the form of uncertificated securities and subject to a condition that investors may not require the corporation to issue a certificate in respect of any shares recorded in their name.. by specific rule or regulation. Note: The SEC may. allow corporations to provide in their AOI and by-laws for the use of uncertified securities. For purposes of execution. until it is entered and noted upon the books of the corporation and that such sale is absolutely void and hence as good as non-existent. registered owners or transferor’s creditor may have under the law.UST GOLDEN NOTES 2009 the duty/promise in which the corporation has its principal place of business. in the absence of provisions in their by-laws to the contrary. a corporation whose shares of stock are registered pursuant to the Code or listed on a stock exchange may: a. Court of Appeals. or record the transfer of some or all of its shares into the name of said shareholders. it is the corporate secretary’s duty and obligation to register transfers of stocks. 1995) Q: What is the rule on right to issuance? A: A corporation may now. even when coupled with endorsement and delivery of the covering stock certificates. shall not be valid. December 12. under Sec. they do not afford the same protection to a holder in good faith and for value who receives them in the course of their being negotiated. June 30. Q: Why is a stock certificate not negotiable? A: Because the holder thereof takes it without prejudice to such rights or defenses as the Q: May a stockholder bring suit to compel the corporate secretary to register valid transfer of stocks? To be valid and binding on the corporation and third parties. 112438-39. or b. it is the domicile of the corporation. is the attachment or mortgage of shares of stock required to be registered in the corporation’s stock and transfer book? A: Yes. the par value of each of which is covered by such payment. either as: a. Payment pro-rata to each and all the entire number of shares subscribed for. G.2 of RA 8799 (May 2000) also known as the Securities Regulation Code) Q: What are the special rules on registered or listed shares? A: Notwithstanding Sec. 1955) Note: A sale of shares of stock. Republic. issue shares to. Inc. L-16236-38.1 of the Securities Regulation Code. except as between the parties. except only when the circumstances 44 . Q: Is a stock certificate negotiable? A: No. except insofar as such rights or defenses are subject to the limitations imposed by the principles governing estoppel. as far as third parties and the corporation is concerned. L-4818. b. (Chemphil Export and Import Corporation v. coupled with delivery. c. (Sec. and that the ownership of the true owner would be preferred. If so provided in its articles of incorporation and by-laws. February 28. investors or. 63 of the Corporation Code. (Baltazar v. Note: An attachment or mortgage of shares of stock need not be registered in the corporations stock and transfer book inasmuch as a chattel mortgage over shares of stock does a “transfer of shares” and that only absolute transfers of shares of stock are required to be recorded in the corporation’s stock and transfer book in order to have “force and effect as against third persons”. It is regarded as quasi-negotiable in the sense that it may be transferred by endorsement. Lingayen Gulf Electric Power Co. 1965) Q: What is the rule on illegal transfer? A: Since certificates of stock are only quasinegotiable. (De los Santos v. If so resolved by its BOD and agreed by a shareholder.R. apply payments made by subscribers-stockholders. securities intermediary in the form of uncertificated securities. 43. Q: What are uncertificated shares? A: Security evidenced by electronic or similar records. and c. Nos. The use of uncertificated securities shall be without prejudice to the rights of the securities intermediary subsequently to require the corporation to issue a certificate in respect of any shares recorded in its name.43. Full payment for the corresponding number of shares of stock.

The corporate secretary shall verify the same. and no contest was presented within 1 year from the last publication. 1999) Q: What is the procedure for the issuance of new certificate of stock for certificate that was lost. but sold and endorsed to another person. It would be an internal matter for the corporation to find measures in ascertaining who are the real owners of stock for purposes of liquidation. (a) May the corporation be made liable by the aggrieved party? (b) Who will have a better right over the shares. A notice shall also be published once a week for 3 consecutive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation. If after 1 year from the last publication. the corporation cannot be made liable. b. Q: What is the rule with regard to lost or destroyed Certificates? A: While Sec. It would be otherwise if the transferee’s title to the shares has no prima facie validity or is uncertain. the old certificates shall be cancelled and new ones be issued. The only legal limitation imposed by Sec. Q: A stockholder claimed that his stock certificate was lost. and no contest has been presented to said corporation regarding said certificate. the corporation issued a new certificate of stock in lieu of the supposed lost certificate. PX assigned 100 shares of stock registered in his name in favor of his wife and his children. Except in cases of fraud. The corporation may be compelled by mandamus to register in the shares of stock in the name of the assignee. No. the right to make such contest has been barred and said corporation already cancelled in its books the certificate which have been lost. and name of the corporation that issued it. After expiration of 1 year form he date of the last publication. the cancellation of the stock certificates in PX's name. The stockholder immediately sold his shares and endorsed the replacement certificate to a buyer. They then brought the deed of assignment to the proper corporate officers for registration with the request for the transfer in the corporation's stock and transfer books of the assigned shares. Exception to the 1 year period: if the registered owner files a bond or other security effective for period of 1 year. The officers of the Corporation denied the request on the ground that another heir is contesting the validity of the deed of assignment. bad faith. 73 of the Corporation Code. stolen. 3. no contest has been presented or made against the issuance of new certificate. and the issuance of new stock certificates in the names of his wife and his children as the new owners. endorsee of the replacement certificate has a better right to the shares. It is well-settled that unless proven otherwise. The alleged claim of another heir of PX is not sufficient to deny the issuance of new certificates of stock to his wife and children. the STB of the corporation is the best evidence to establish stock ownership. January 28. provided that the corporation is certain as to the real owner of the shares to whom the new certificate shall be issued. destroyed or stolen? A: 1. Q: Four months before his death. The registered owner must make an affidavit in triplicate stating the OF THE PHILIPPINES circumstances as to how it was lost. It turned out that the original certificate was not lost. the same admits of exceptions. The UNIVERSITY e Derecho Civil OF SANTO TOMAS Facultad d 45 . the endorsee of the original certificate or the endorsee of the replacement certificate? A: a. May the Corporation be compelled by mandamus to register the shares of stock in the names of the assignees? Explain briefly. (SEC Opinion. After going through with the procedure for the issuance of lost certificate. or negligence on the part of the corporation and its officers. no action may be brought against any corporation which have issued certificates of stock in lieu of those lost. 73 of the Corporation Code appears to be mandatory. in which case. number of shares represented by the certificate. 2. A: Yes. serial number of the certificate. such that a corporation may voluntarily issue a new certificate in lieu of the original certificate of stock which has been lost without complying with the requirements under Sec. new certificate may be issued even before expiration of 1 year but still upon the discretion of the corporation. stolen or destroyed. 63 of the Corporation Code is when the Corporation holds any unpaid claim against the shares intended to be transferred. or destroyed pursuant to the procedure prescribed by law.CORPORATION CODE showed that the true owner was guilty of negligence in causing the loss.

(Sec. Board of each corporation shall draw up a plan of merger or consolidation. liabilities. Liability to the corporation for unpaid subscription. (Sec. in the present articles of surviving corporation. Terms and mode of carrying it out c. and consolidating corporations are extinguished. 76) Q: What is consolidation? A: One where a new corporation is created. 43) Liability for failure to create corporation. 6. (Sec. 60) Liability for watered stock. The same shall be submitted for approval by the stockholders or members of each such corporation at separate corporate meetings duly called for the purpose. Their distinctions are as follows: Merger All of the constituent corporations involved are dissolved except one No new corporation is created The surviving corporation acquires all the assets. fraud or negligence present. But if Board Q: What are the obligations of stockholders? A: 1. 3. and capital stock of all constituent corporations Consolidation All consolidated corporations are dissolved without exception A single new corporation emerges All assets. b. 73 par. 46 .UST GOLDEN NOTES 2009 stolen. setting forth: a. either personally or by registered mail. Q: When will the issuance of new certificate of stock in lieu of the one lost be suspended? A: a. what may the corporation do? A: The corporation may file an interpleader proceeding to compel the parties to litigate among themselves. (Sec. or the articles of the new corporation to be formed in case of consolidation. 67-70) Liability to the corporation for interest on unpaid subscription if so required by the by-laws. (Sec. or destroyed and issued in lieu thereof new certificate. and capital stock of all consolidated corporations are transferred to the new corporation Q: What is the procedure for merger or consolidation? A: 1. 3. 4. 66) Liability to the creditors of the corporation for unpaid subscription. (Sec. liabilities. 65) Liability for dividends unlawfully paid. Notice should be given to all stockholders or members at least two (2) weeks prior to date of meeting. or 2/3 of the members of a non-stock corporation shall be required. Q: What is merger? A: One where a corporation absorbs the other and remains in existence while others are dissolved. 76) 5. 4. or if an action is pending in court regarding the ownership of the lost certificate. Dissenting stockholders may exercise the right of appraisal. if any. 2. Q: May the corporation be sued for the issuance of new certificates of stock? A: No action shall prosper against the corporation for the issuance of new certificates unless there is bad faith. Q: What if there are oppositions on the issuance of new certificates. (Secs. Statement of changes. 5. 2) Q: What are the distinctions between merger and consolidation? A: In both merger and consolidation. (Sec. if a contest has been presented to the corporation. Plan for merger or consolidation shall be approved by majority vote of each board of the concerned corporations at separate meetings. 10) MERGER AND CONSOLIDATION 2. 2 or more corporations are involved and merged or consolidated into one corporation. (Sec. Affirmative vote of 2/3 of the outstanding capital stock in case of stock corporations. Names of corporations involved (constituent corporations) b.

setting forth: a. public utilities.80 of the Corporation Code which does not make any distinction as to the assets and liabilities of the absorbed corporation that the surviving corporation would inherit.. Should not eliminate free and healthy competition 3. In the case of merger or consolidation of banks or banking institutions. 1998. trust companies. If the SEC is not satisfied. or before or after the approval thereof by the SEC. etc. educational institutions and other special corporations governed by special laws. insurance companies. Any amendment to the plan must be approved by the same votes of the board members of trustees and stockholders or members required for the original plan. The merger does not become effective until and unless approved by the Securities and Exchange Commission. In stock corporation. If SEC is satisfied that the merger or consolidation is legal. A case was filed against a customer to collect on the promissory note issued by him after the date of the merger agreement. 10. Articles of Merger or Articles of Consolidation shall be executed by each of the constituent corporations. need the prior approval of the respective government agency concerned. the said receivable would still belong to the surviving corporation under Sec. A: Whether the receivable was incurred by the absorbed corporation before or after the merger agreement. properties and liabilities of the absorbed corporation. building and loan associations. the favorable recommendation of the appropriate government agency shall first be obtained. (1999 Bar Question) Q: What are the limitations on corporate combinations? A: 1. building and loan associations. Should not create monopolies 2. 9. Should not create illegal combinations such as banks combined with insurance companies UNIVERSITY e Derecho Civil OF SANTO TOMAS Facultad d 47 . As a result of the merger. 6. (Secs. Before the approval by the SEC of the merger. as the case may be. it shall issue the Certificate of Merger or the Certificate of Incorporation. The customer raised the defense that while the receivables as of the date of the merger agreement were transferred to the surviving corporation. Q: Two corporations agreed to merge. There is no need for the absorbed corporation to undertake dissolution and winding up procedure. What would happen to the absorbed corporation? Must the absorbed corporation OF THE PHILIPPINES undertake dissolution and the winding up procedures? Explain your answer. insurance companies. A: No. Pending the approval of the merger by the Securities and Exchange Commission. Special corporations like banks. respectively 8. in non-stock. those receivables which were created after the merger agreement remained to be owned by the absorbed corporation. signed by president or VP and certified by secretary or assistant secretary. A: No. number of shares or members voting for and against such plan. giving due notice to all the corporations concerned. They then executed an agreement specifying the surviving corporation and the absorbed corporation. the number of members c. the absorbed corporation is automatically dissolved and its assets and liabilities are acquired and assumed by the surviving corporation. it shall set a hearing. the surviving corporation acquired all the rights.CORPORATION CODE abandons the plan to merge or consolidate. may the surviving corporation already institute suits to collect all receivables due to the absorbed corporation from its customers? Explain your answer. Four copies of the Articles of Merger or Consolidation shall be submitted to the SEC for approval. Under the agreement of merger dated November 5. the number of shares outstanding. As to each corporation. such right is extinguished. Plan of merger or consolidation b. After such approval. These receivables would be distributed to the stockholders conformably with the dissolution and liquidation procedures under the New Corporation Code? Discuss the merits of this argument. 7. 76-79) Q: When shall the merger or consolidation become effective? A: Upon issuance by the SEC of the certificate of merger and consolidation. the surviving corporation has no legal personality with respect to receivables due to the absorbed corporation.

Voluntary 6. except where the transferee expressly or impliedly agreed otherwise. Q: What are the modes of dissolution of a corporation? A: 1. Equity Transfers . Cessation of Corporate Existence for All Purposes – Upon the expiration of the 3 year-winding up period. this is without being subject to giving them the same positions. Assets-Only Transfers . Creation of a New Corporation – The stockholders are not prevented from conveying their respective shareholdings toward the creation of a new corporation to continue the business of the old. However. 1996) LIQUIDATION and DISSOLUTION Q: What is meant by dissolution? A: It is the extinguishment of the franchise of a corporation and the termination of its corporate existence. Q: What is a spin-off? A: It has the opposite effect of merger or consolidation. 1. Transfer of Legal Title to corporate property Dissolution results in the transfer of legal title to properties in the stockholder who become co-owners thereof. The validity of spin-offs depends upon valid business cause and good faith. Hence. No. because employment agreements or contracts are liabilities. Confesor. Employees Union-PTGWO v. 3.The transferee is not liable for the debts and liabilities of the transferor. Business-Enterprise Transfers . G. is there a need to obtain a new title or sign a deed of sale between the two corporations? A: No.The purchaser is only interested in the raw assets and properties of the business. except where the transferee expressly or impliedly agrees to assume such debts. whereby a department. 111262. 2. All liabilities of the absorbed corporation are acquired by the surviving 48 . R. it may sell said property even without obtaining a new title or signing a deed of sale. those interested may reincorporate by re re-filing the new Articles of Incorporation and by-laws. The transferee is liable for the debts and liabilities of his transferor. (San Miguel Corp.The purchaser’s interest goes beyond the assets of the business enterprise. Continuation of a Body Corporation – The corporation continues as a body corporate for 3 years for purposes of winding up or liquidation. Q: What happens to the employees of the absorbed corporation? Is the surviving corporation duty-bound to absorb the former’s employees? A: Yes. the corporation ceases to exist for all purposes. 5. The transferee is not liable for the debts and liabilities of his transferor. Reincorporation of Dissolved CorporationThough dissolved a corporation cannot be revived. The primary interest is essentially to obtain the earning capability of the venture. Q: What if there are properties under the absorbed corporation’s name and the surviving corporation wants to sell the same. On Continuation of Corporate Business – The corporation ceases as a body corporate to continue the business for which it was established. September 19. division or portions of the corporate business enterprise is sold-off or assigned into a new corporation that will arise by the process which may constitute it into a subsidiary of the original corporation. 2. 3. What the purchaser has actually purchased is the ability to elect the members of the board of the corporation who run the business. The surviving corporation acquires the property without need of further act.UST GOLDEN NOTES 2009 Q: What are consolidation? A: the effects of merger or corporation. Q: What are the types of acquisitions and transfers? A: 1. 4.

A voluntary dissolution may be effected by amending the AOI to shorten its corporate term pursuant to the provisions of the Code. A copy of the amended AOI shall be submitted to the SEC. except the surviving or consolidated corporation which shall continue to exist. No need for a board resolution. In case of a corporation sole. (Sec. OF THE PHILIPPINES As an additional requirement. Such petition must be signed by majority of the board of directors or trustees 3. the corporation shall be deemed dissolved without any further proceedings. a judgment shall be rendered dissolving the corporation and directing such disposition of its assets as justice requires.115).CORPORATION CODE a. By order of the SEC upon a verified petition and after proper notice and hearing on the ground of serious misrepresentation as to what the corporation can do or is doing to the great prejudice of or damage to the general public. 4. (Secs. This merely needs the affidavit of the presiding elder. Majority vote of the board of directors or trustees. 11). and the material allegations of the petition are true. (Sec. b. d. Where no creditors are affected Procedure: 1. Q: Name three (3) methods by which a stock corporation may be voluntarily dissolved. Explain each method. 79 and 80) Expiration of the corporate term (Sec. Must also be verified by the president or secretary or one of its directors 4. Continuous inoperation for a period of at least 5 years. a verified declaration of dissolution (Sec. by submitting to the SEC for approval. Revocation or forfeiture of the franchise or certificate of incorporation due to its misuse or non-use pursuant to quo warranto proceedings filed by the Solicitor General. the SEC requires to submit the final audited financial statement not older than 60 days before the application for shortening the corporate term. Failure to file by-laws within the required period but. The dissolution was resolved upon by the affirmative vote of the stockholders representing at least 2/3 of the outstanding capital stock or at least 2/3 of the members at a meeting duly called for that purpose. d. e. A: 1. Such copy shall be filed with SEC. f. 5. 119) By shortening the corporate term . and 2. 2. c. SEC will give it the opportunity to explain such failure an not automatically dissolve the corporation. 118) Where creditors are affected Procedure: 1. Resolution duly adopted by the affirmative vote of the stockholders owning at least 2/3 of the outstanding capital stock or at least 2/3 of the members at a meeting duly called for that purpose. A copy of the resolution authorizing the dissolution shall be certified by a majority of the board of directors or trustees and countersigned by the secretary of the corporation. 3. 22) b. This Is done by a majority vote of OF UNIVERSITY e Derecho Civil SANTO TOMAS Facultad d 49 . Failure to organize and commence transaction of its business within 2 years from date of incorporation. Filing a petition for dissolution with the SEC 2. according to a SEC Opinion. and may appoint a receiver to collect such assets and pay the debts of the corporation. c. Upon approval of the amended AOI of the expiration of the shortened term. If there is no sufficient objection. By merger or consolidation. (Sec. whereby the constituent corporations automatically cease upon issuance by the SEC of the certificate of merger or consolidation. e. subject to the provisions of the Code on liquidation. Involuntary a. Voluntary Dissolution where no creditors are affected.

As shortened. 122) Liquidation by trustees to whom the assets of the corporation had been conveyed. Liquidation by a duly appointed receiver. the corporation is authorized and empowered to convey all of its properties to trustees for the benefit of stockholders. It is contrary to the idea of winding up the affairs of the corporation. was dissolved ipso facto upon the expiration of its original term. 4. arguing that since the corporate life of XYZ Q: The Securities and Exchange Commission approved the amendment of the articles of incorporation of GHQ Corporation shortening its corporate life to only 25 years in accordance with Sec. Inc. 1997. Inc. (Sec. Dissolution by shortening of the corporate term.120 of the Corporation Code. (Sec. 1967) 2. it could no longer opt to renew the lease. (2004 Bar Buestion) Q: What is liquidation? A: It is the process by which all the assets of the corporation are converted into liquid assets (cash) in order to facilitate the payment of obligations to creditors. except only for purposes connected with its winding up or liquidation. the corporation continued its business operations until May 30. 209 SCRA.. XYZ Corp. over a piece of real estate for a term of 20 years. This is done by amendment of the articles of incorporation. 1997. of varying nature but mostly money claims filed by creditors. Prior to said date. ABC. creditors. 3. (Sec. L-18805. renewable for another 20 years. and upon affirmative vote of stockholders representing at least 2/3 of the outstanding capital stock. (Board of Liquidators v. 119) Liquidation by the corporation itself or its board of directors. After conveyance of corporate property. none of which was expected to be completed or resolved within five years from May 30. all interests the corporation had in the said property terminates. (2002 Bar Question) Q: What are the effects of dissolution of a corporation? A: 1. Upon winding up of the corporate affairs.UST GOLDEN NOTES 2009 the directors. and resolution of at least 2/3 vote of stockholders. Four years after the term of XYZ Corporation expired. objected to the proposed extension. This Is done by a petition for dissolution which must be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission. 3. provided that XYZ's corporate term is extended in accordance with law. If the creditors had sought your professional help at that time about whether or not their cases could be 50 . A: XYZ Corporation’s contention is not meritorious based on the ruling of the Supreme Court in PNB v. It shall be continued as a corporate body for 3 years after dissolution. any asset distributable to any creditor or stockholder or member who is unknown or cannot be found shall be escheated to the city or municipality where such assets are located. 122) Corp. verified by the president or secretary. 122). (Sec. 2. has been instituted by the Office of the Solicitor General. notified ABC. and the remaining balance if any is to be distributed to the stockholders. and legal title shall vest in the transferee. CFI of Rizal. 5. had expired. It ceased to be a body corporate for the purpose of continuing the business for which it was organized.. Kalaw. signed by a majority of the members of the board of directors. Q: XYZ Corporation entered into a contract of lease with ABC.. August 14. Extending the lease is not an act to wind up or litigate XYZ’s affairs. 2. members. submitted to the Securities and Exchange Commission. and other interested persons. the last day of its corporate existence. for the purpose of liquidation but not for continuing the business for which it was established. Q: What are the modes of liquidation? A: 1. countered that withstanding the lapse of its corporate term it still has the right to renew the lease because no quo warranto proceedings for involuntary dissolution of XYZ Corp. meritorious? Explain briefly. XYZ Corp. 3. Distribution of its assets or property shall be done only after payment of all its debts and liabilities. XYZ Corp. Inc. but still within the period allowed by the lease contract for the extension of the lease period. that it is exercising the option to extend the lease. there were a number of pending civil actions. At any time during said 3 years. Is the contention of XYZ Corp. Voluntary dissolution where creditors are affected.

G. its counsel who prosecuted and represented the interest of the corporation may be considered as trustee of said corporation. The foreign corporation transacting business in the Philippines without a license to do business shall not be permitted to maintain or intervene in any action. CA. A: The prime property of "X" Corporation can be liquidated among the five stockholders after the property has been conveyed by the corporation to the five stockholders.R. CA. through its president condone penalties and charges after it had been placed under receivership? A: No. suit or proceeding in any court or administrative agency. (Sec. such authority being reposed in the receiver. including pending choses of action. 1997. by assigning or transferring the property to one stockholder with the obligation on the part of said stockholder to pay the other four stockholders the amount/s in proportion to the value of the stockholding of each. (Republic v. after the determination of the value of the property. G.CORPORATION CODE pursued beyond May 30. or 3. The appointment of receiver operates to suspend the authority of a corporation and of its directors and officers over its property and effects. No. (Clemente v. February 24. By physical division or partition based on the proportion of the values of their stockholdings. By selling the property to a third person and dividing the proceeds among the five stockholders in proportion to their stockholdings. L-39050. Pending suits for or against the corporation which were initiated prior to the expiration of the 3-year period shall continue. How would the said property be liquidated among the five stockholders of said corporation? Discuss two methods of liquidation.R. Q: May the corporation. The Corporation is not actually dissolved upon the expiration of its corporate term. Q: May a foreign corporation be sued in the Philippines? A: Yes. 104726 February 11. (Yam v. The creditors of the corporation who were not paid may follow the property of the corporation that may have passed to its stockholders unless barred by prescription or laches or disposition of said property in favor of a purchaser in good faith. 1999) FOREIGN CORPORATION Q: What is a foreign corporation? A: It is a corporation formed. 123) Q: May a foreign corporation sue in the Philippines? A: No. 1995) 4. 1997. February 24. of a trustee to enable it to prosecute and OF THE PHILIPPINES defend suits by or against the corporation beyond the 3-year period. (Doctrine of Quasi-Estoppel By Acceptance of Benefits) UNIVERSITY e Derecho Civil OF SANTO TOMAS Facultad d 51 . the last day of the corporate existence of GHQ Corporation. (2000 Bar Question) Q: "X" Corporation shortened its corporate life by amending its articles of incorporation. and whose laws allow Filipino citizens and corporation to do business in its own country or state. Marsman. organized or existing under any law other than those of the Philippines. A corporation which has a pending action which cannot be finished within the 3-year period is authorized to convey all its property. by dividing or partitioning it among themselves in any two of the following ways: 1. New actions may still be filed against the trustee of the corporation even after the expiration of the 3-year period but before the affairs of said corporation have been finally liquidated or settled by the trustee. Where no trustee is appointed. (Gelano v. 1981). 44 SCRA 430) 3. Any foreign corporation transacting business in the Philippines whether or not with a license. L-39050. The directors may also be permitted to continue as trustees to complete the liquidation. what would have been your advice? A: The cases can be pursued even beyond May 30. may be sued against/before Philippine courts or administrative tribunals on any valid cause of action recognized under Philippines laws. (2001 Bar Question) Q: What are the consequences if the liquidation is not terminated within the 3-year period? A: 1. Co. March 27. at least with respect to the matter in litigation (Gelano v. There is still the period for liquidation or winding up. CA . It has no debts but owns a prime property located in Quezon City. 1981) 2. No. or 2. 82407. CA.

No. summons shall then be served through SEC. September 29. Insurance companies Public utility Educational institutions Other corporation declared to be vested with public interest. Within 60 days from issuance of license. stockholders are liable as directors. (San Juan Structural and Steel Fabricators. Mining companies. 3. v. By-laws and Certificate of Stock). G. Banks. Inc. 5. 4. 3. b. 4. Q: What are the requisites for obtaining license to do business? A: 1. When they manage. 1998) CLOSE CORPORATION Q: What cannot be a close corporation? A: 1. If a single or isolated transaction is incidental and casual transaction. Q: What are the requirements for close corporations? A: 1. the purpose and object of its organization. Court of Appeals. the corporation should deposit at least P100. There is no need to call a meeting to elect directors. and contemplates to some extent the performance of acts or works or the exercise of some functions normally incident to and in progressive prosecution of. Under the Substance Test. as an impartial person will have all the powers of a duly elected director (not a receiver).UST GOLDEN NOTES 2009 Q: What constitutes “doing business” in the Philippines for foreign corporations? A: Under the Continuity Test. a foreign corporation is doing business in the country if it is continuing the body or substance of the enterprise of business for which it was organized. Stock exchanges. Q: What are the characteristics of a close corporation? A: 1. 6. Q: Does an “isolated transaction” by a foreign corporation qualify as “doing business” in the Philippines? A: It depends. However. Oil companies. The Articles of Incorporation must state that the number of stockholders shall not exceed 20. 000. it cannot qualify as doing business” since it lacks the element of continuity. Q: What is the remedy in case of deadlocks in a close corporation? A: The SEC may be asked to intervene and the SEC may perform such actions that may be necessary under the circumstances including the appointment of a provisional director who. The stockholders themselves can directly manage the corporation and perform the functions of directors without need of election a. The foreign corporation should file a verified application containing and together with the following: 2. 2. said single act or transaction constitutes “doing business” in the Philippines. The stocks cannot be listed in the stock exchange nor publicly offered. The Articles of Incorporation must contain restriction on the transfer of issued stocks (which must appear in the Articles of Incorporation. An agreement that if it ceases to transact business or if there is no more resident agent. 2. where a single or isolated transaction is not merely incidental or casual but indicates the foreign corporation’s intention to do business in the Philippines. 5. Note: The corporation is not a close even if the shares belong to less than twenty if not all the requisites are present.00 (cash. doing business implies a continuity of commercial dealings and arrangements. a special power of attorney should also be submitted for such purpose.R. 3. Designated resident agent (who will receive summons and notices for the corporation. Oath of Reciprocity. property or bond) for the benefit of creditors subject to further deposit every six months. Certificate under Oath of the authorized official of the foreign corporation’s country that allows Filipino citizens and corporations to do business in said country. 129459. 8. Restrictions on the transfer must not be more than onerous than granting the existing SH or corporation the option to purchase the shares. 7. 52 .

90) Q: What are the rules regarding conversion? A: 1. industry and agriculture chambers or any combination thereof. (SEC Opinion. (Sec. religious.A member is entitled to one (1) vote. 60 Assets are distributed according to interest Capital stock is divided into shares Officers are elected directly by BOD Stockholders may vote personally or by proxy Assets are distributed to the stockholders after payment of corporate obligations NON-STOCK Not organized for profit Governed by BOT Membership is nontransferable. However. b. Right to transfer membership . Q: What is a non-stock corporation? A: It is a corporation organized primarily for charitable. trustees or officers. fraternal. NON-STOCK CORPORATION OF THE PHILIPPINES burdened with limitation that it can’t be dispensed unless these limitations were complied with c. Right to vote . Despite the presence of the requisites.CORPORATION CODE 2. including the number of votes. such right may be broadened. 1989) b.87 which prohibits distribution of income as dividends to members. the corporation shall not be deemed a close corporation if at least 2/3 of the voting stocks or voting rights belong to a corporation which is not a close corporation. Q: What are the distinctions between a stock corporation and a non-stock corporation? A: STOCK Organized for profit Governed by BOD Membership is transferable Right to resort to cumulative voting BOD: not more than 15 Place of meeting: within the city or municipality where the place of business is located Term of BOD: 1 year Right to vote can be denied except in cases stated in Sec. The stockholders are liable for tort. It must be provided in the by-laws BOT: more than 15 but divisible by 3 Any place outside the place of business but must be within the Philippines Term of BOT: 3 years but on a staggered basis Right to vote may be denied as provided in the by-laws Assets are distributed as provided by law No capital stock divided into shares Officers are elected by the members Members may vote by email Assets are distributed to members provided: a. literary. the Articles on Incorporation or BY-laws may provide for their transferability. 1995) 2. c.89) thus. Propert ies received but Members are called “corporators” Termination: according to stockholders Q: What the rights of members? A: a. This would violate Sec. It Is personal. trade. by way of exception. It cannot be organized for political purposes. educational. Obligat ions and duties were paid. (Sec. However. March 20. the BY-laws of a non-stock corporation may provide for the desired voting rights of members. Giving the members shares is tantamount to distribution of its assets or income. Plan of dissolution must be approved by the majority vote of BOT and 2/3 members Members are called “members” Termination: governed by the AOI 3. a member cannot transfer his membership (and the rights arising therefrom) in a non stock corporation. limited or denies in the Articles of Incorporation or BY-Laws. (SEC Opinion. A non-stock corporation cannot be converted into a stock corporation through mere amendment of its Article of Incorporation. October 10.As a general rule. The income of which cannot be distributed as dividends to its members. A non-stock corporation can be converted into a stock corporation only if the UNIVERSITY e Derecho Civil OF SANTO TOMAS Facultad d 53 .

November 27. 1994) Q: How is a corporation sole dissolved? A: By filing a verified declaration of dissolution stating: 1. The unused contributions of members cannot be offset against the balance of receivables because this would amount to distribution of the capital of the corporation. (SEC Opinion. constituting the sect in the Philippines. 3. without condition for their return on dissolution. Assets held for charitable. Members of Non-stock Corporation are not entitled to distribution of capital. (SEC Opinion. However. etc. (Roman Catholic Apostolic Church v. L-8451. shall be conveyed to one or more organizations engaged in similar activities as dissolved corporation. Reason for dissolution. May 13. 1985) Q: What is the nationality of a corporation sole? A: A corporation sole does not have any nationality but for purposes of applying nationalization laws. Q: What is the order of distribution of assets on dissolution of non-stock corporations? A: 1. Land Registration Commission. December 20. sect or church. shall be delivered back to their givers. 94) Q: Can a non-stock corporation offset unused contributions of members against the balance of receivables from the same members? A: No. The name of the corporation. Its rights and liabilities will remain. 3. 2. the Roman Catholic Church can acquire lands in the Philippines even if it is headed by the Pope. Authorization for the dissolution by the particular religious denomination. nationality is determined not by the nationality of its but by the nationality of its members. August 8. Thus. 1957) Note: The opinion of the SEC is that for registered corporation sole. Assets held subject to return on dissolution. there is a resulting new corporation. All its creditors shall be paid. (Sec.UST GOLDEN NOTES 2009 members dissolve it first and then organize a stock corporation. They are only entitled to distribution of capital upon dissolution when it is provided for in the Articles of Incorporation or by-laws.. and 4. Names and addressed of the persons who will supervise the dissolution and winding up. 2. 4. religious purposes. All other assets shall be distributed to members. 3. constitute at least 60% Filipinos (SEC Opinion. as provided for in the Articles or By-laws. 1992) A stock corporation may be converted into a non-stock corporation by mere amendment provided all the requirements are complied with. it can acquire lands if its members 54 .