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How to Repair Briggs and Stratton Engines

How to Repair Briggs and Stratton Engines

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MICROFICHE REFERENCE LIBBRARY

4 project of Volunteers in Asia

Bow to Repair Briggs
5;~: Paul Sub1 ished

h Stratton

Encti

Dempsey

by: TAB Books Blue Ridge Summit Pennsylvania 17214 are $ 4.95.

USA

Paper copies

Available from: TAB Books Blue Ridge Summit Pennsylvania 17214 Reproduced by permission

USA of TAB Books.

Reproduction of this microfiche document in any form is subject to the same restrictions as those of the original document.

TAB

BOOKS/No.

1087

$4.95

A step-by-stepguide to understanding, tuning, adjusting, repairing, and overhauling.

By Paul Dempsey

Now you can maintain and repair any Briggs & Stratton small gasoline engine! Everything you need to know is here in do-iiyourselfer’s language, from simple tune-up and carburetor reg.airs to the serious business of replacing main bearings and resizing cylinder bores. You’ll quickly see how an engine works, how each systemignition, fuel, lubrication, and cooling-contrib&e to the proper operation of an engine. And where possib!e. adjustment and repair procedures appear in step-by-step order. Special emphasis is given to unique Briggs & Stratton features: the Pulsa- and Vacu-Jet carburetors, the starter clutch, and the vertical-pull starter. And, while Briggs & Stratton engines are workhorses, intended to perform with maximum reliability, they can be made into screamers. Indeed, Briggs & Stratton dominates four-cycle go-cart racing, and given the right preparation, run with the better two cycles. For readers who are interested, material is included on hop-up techniques. Paul Dempsey is a master mechanic and veteran engine/ automotive journalist. He is the author of manjl of the related titles appearing below.

(No. 1067-$7.95 paper; $12.95 hard) How To Repair Small Gasoline Engines-2nd Edition (No. 91746.95 paper; $11.95 hard) Do-It-Yourselfer’s Guide to Chainsaw Use & Repair (No. 89245.95 paper; $8.95 hard) l%e Complete Handbook of Lawnmower Repair (No. 76747.95 paper)
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paper: $8.95 hard)

-SO PUBLlSHERS OF MODERN AUTOMOTIVE SERIES s MODERN AIRCRAFT SERIE:

LUE RIOGE~SUMMIT. PA. 17214 end for FREE TAB Catalog describing over 600 current titles in print.

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849 Vega No. 846 Tke Biqycle#s Bible No. 817 How to Repair Diesel Engines No. 767Complete Handbook of LawnmowevRepair No. Van. 705 Tke Co. 967Hour to Repair Li# Tnccks No. 966 How to Convert Your Car. 651 Tke CompleteMini&ke Handbook No.apleteSntn+mobileRepair Handbook No.Other TAB books by tbe author: No. 946 Step-3y-Step Guide to Ford/Mercu~/Lincoln Engine Maintenance Repair No. 976 Moped Repair Handbook . 668 Modem Guide to Auto Tuneup & Emission Cont~uiSe&tirs No. 727 Compbte G&e to Outboard Motor Sepvice& Repair No. 917Htno to Repair Small Gasoline Engines-2nd Edition No. IX Pickup to Diesel No. 769 Motor&? Repair Handbook No.

17214 .A By Paul Dempsey I BLUE RIDGE SUMMIT. PA.

Paul. 1. How to repair Bnggs & Stratton engines. includes index. . Spark ignition-Maintanance and repair. Cover courtesy of Srfggs & Stratton. I. without express permission of the publisher.434’028 ISBN o-8306-9873-6 ISBN 0-8306-1087-l pbk. is prohibited. No liability is assumed with respect to the use of the information herein. lntemat combustion engines. Tale. 78-10470 TJK789D43 621. Library of Congnss Cataloging in Publication Data (Revised) Dempsey.FIRST EDITION FIRST PRINTING-OCTOBER 1978 Copyright 0 1970 by TAB WOKS Printed in the United States of America Reproduction or publication of the content in any manner.

Special emphasis is given to the unique characteristics of Briggs & Stratton technology. divided into steps that are easy to follow. With this in mind. and given the right preparation. that is. and the vertical pull Starter. the P&a-Jet and Vacu-Jot carburetors. Briggs & Stratton engines dominate four cycle go-cart racing. These procedures extend to all phases of the work. the engine and each of its support systems-ignition. lubrication. and as muchas possible. from simple tune-up and carburetor repairs to the serious businessof replacingmainbeatings andresising cylinder bores. fuel. and cooling-is described in functional terms. run with the better two cycle engines. For readers who are interested. Indeed. While Briggs & Stratton engines are workhorses intended to perform their humble tasks with maximum reliability and decades between overhauls. they can be made into screamers. An old mechaniconce remarked that he could repair only what he understood. Paul Dempsey . some material is incbded on hop-up techniques. the starter clutch. The material is organizedby subjectand by enginemodel.This book describesrepair and maintenanceprocedures for all current and many obsolete Briggs & Stratton engines.

L .

...................66 Automatic Chokes ...... .........................................................................................76 73 ....................... Engine Protection ..................................S ................ ..............16 Engine fdentfffcation................. ..............................$dze Engine ..........51 Srfggs 8 Stratton Carburetors .......................... .........................................................................................SES Nomenclature.......................................... ............. ...................74 Centrifugal Governors ................ . ........ ...................................i .57 ................................... ............................................. ... 14 ....................................... 9 IGNITION The Magneto ..26 19 lYzE::s 45 The Throttle Velue and Idle Port............................................... ... .............................9 Th&T...47 Troubleshooting the Carburetor .......................................................................19 Sdggs & Stratton Magneto Types ....t1 .. 49 QOVERNORS Pneumatic Governors ..........................

.................. .............___.. ...... ..............135 .....................129 Engine Teardown........................................................................................-................ .............155 Piston ” 159 clan~~::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::~~:::::::::::::::::..................139 Cylinder Head..................... Connecttna Rod ... 125 Symptoms ot Engine Trouble...................... ...:l72 125 INDM 177 . .............65 Elect& Starters............................. ............ ............... ...... ............ ....................... ........95 CHARGING SYSTEMS 139 Storage Batteries...................... ....................... ......... ....... .....................13t ........... .........STARTERS 05 Mechanical Starters ........................................................122 ENGINE WORK Engine Modifcation......... .Valves .......... ..._... ...........‘ ............109 k?emators ...................__.................. ......................113 The Nicad System....._....125 Overhauling vs Rebuilding............... ........146 Flange or Sase ...._.. ..................................................____.................................. ........151 Camshaft..........................................

sometimescalled the rod eye. end for accessibility. Timing gears synchronize valve action to piston movement. or intake stroke. The rod is madeof ahuninumandhas no bushingsor bearings. This example. Briggs & Stratton has confined itself to single-cylinder. fuel and air rush past the open intake valve to till the 9 .CHAPTE During its lengthy histciry. four-stroke-cycle engines. NOMENCLATURE Figure l-l ilhrstrates a very simple single-cylinder engine. As the piston falls. The piston. The c~nneCt. similar to Briggs engines. Figure l-2A depicts the first. and crankpin produce the engine power. or big. THEFOUR-CYCLE ENGINE Four-stroke-cycle enginesrequire four up-and-downstrokes of the piston (or two crankshaft revolutions) to complete one cycle of operation. The rod smallend. The piston slides up and down in the cylinder bore and is linked to the crankshaftby meansof a connectingrod. air-cooled. is detachedfrom the piston by retracting the piston pin. has a single cylinder and is cooled by air moving over tins cast into the cylinder barrel and head. Displae ments have ranged from five to thirty-two cubic inches.ug is split at the lower. rod.

trapping the fuel and air above the piston (Fig. the intake valve closes. continues past BDC and up to top dead center (TDC). igniting the com10 . the spark plug fires. This is the compressionstroke and the prelude to combustion. l-1. or the lower limit of its stroke. Engine nomenciarure. CRANKCASE cylinder. Just before the piston reaches TDC.XYWHEEL Jj/ MAIN6EiRINGS lg. l-2B). The piston reaches bottom dead center (BDC). As the piston climbs in the bore. and impeked by the inertia stored in the flywheel and crankshaft.

Ifthe bore and stroke dimensionsare in inches. l-2D). Those exhaust gases that are at higher than atmospheric pressure escapepast the open valve.7854 x Number of Cylinders = Displacement. Thus a ten-cubic-inchBriggs & 11 . It is useful to remember that one cubic inch equals 16. Near BDC the exhaust valve opens and the cylinder blows down (Fig. andthe stroke. of the cylinder. the valves and piston must operate in phase and be reasonably gastight to hold compression.387 cubic centimeters. or the diameter of the cylinder. it forces the heavier residues out m front of it.26 cubic centimeters. As the piston rounds BDC. the more powerful andfuel-hungry the engine. purging the cylinder for the next cycle that begins with the intake stroke. This power stroke converts chemical energy into mechanicalmotion by burning the gasoline’s hydrogen andcarbon. . While Briggs & Stratton continues to use the inch system.mixed with the air’s oxygen. ENGINE POWER ‘Zhebore. and the ignition spark must occur at the right time. within the limits of r-pm. Thus an 11-cubic inch engine displaces 180. the displacementis expressed in cubic centimeters.pressed mixture. is calculatedby the following formula: Bore x Bore x Stroke x 0.or swept volume. are the basicenginedimensions(Fig. This conversionof chemical energy to mechanicalmotion is the purpose of the engine. The swept volume of the cylinder. For the engine to run properly. l-2C). represenfing the volume of air the engine should“inhale” during the intake stroke. it must be cranked fast enough to create a vacuum on the intake stroke. The greater the displacement. or the distancethe piston travels from bottom to top deadcenters. some competitors have not. These dimensionsdetermine the displacement. but do not include the clearancevolume abovethe piston at top deadcenter. All things being equal. The piston is driven down by the explosion in the power stroke (Fig. volumetric efficiencies and compression ratios tend to be relatively constant among small engines. displacementis expressedin cubic inches. l-3). and if in millimeters. Displacement is important because it is an index to engine power.

l-2. (Courtesy Tecumseh ‘Products Co. The four-stroke cycle: A-intake. C-power. or expansion.Fig. D-exhaust.) 12 . 5-compression.

Piston bore and stroke. Horsepower dependspartiaEyupon crankshaftrevolutions per minute. However. volumetric efficiency.87 cc) should outwork a 144 cubic centimeter Tecumseh engine. but do not include the clearance volume above the Diston at top dead center. or swept volume. l-3. smallindustrial and utility enginesare governed very conservatively Fig. These dimensions determinethe displacement.387 = 163. Besides engine displacement. of the cylinder.Stratton engine (equivalent to 10 x 16. 13 . andcompressionratio. engine power is related to horsepower.

Comprsssion ratio. the greater the energy released’against the face of the pi&l ENGINE PROlECflON cooling Brings13 Stratton enginesare fan cooled The ftywheel doubles as a centrifugal fan: air is sucked into the flywheel hub area through the inlet screenand expeIled into the sheet metal shroud by impeller 14 . to prevent the blade tips from exceeding the speed of sound The volumetric efficiency is a theoretical measure of how well the cyhnder fills during the intake stroke. the higher the compression ratio. l-4). to increase durability and.Fg. in the case of rotary lawnmowers. Within limits set by the shape of the combustion chamber and the propert sity of gasolineto explode spontaneously. The compressionratio is a measure of how much“squeeze” is put on the air-fuel mixture before ignition. This ratio is the volume of the cylinder with the piston at bottom dead center divided by the volume at top dead center (Fig. l-4.

But splash systems are sensitive. by meansof a slinger (Fig. on engines with a INLET SCREEN KEEP AREAS WITHIN HEAVY LINE CLEAN OF ALL DEBRIS CYLINDER-HEAD COOLING FINS FQ. (Courtesy Briggs & Stratton Corp. With the engine on a level surface. Carbon deposits on the tins respond best to wire brushing. In winter use lOW-300r lOW-40. Dust accmntiations on the screen can be washed off with detergent and water. a tilter is impracticaland the oil must be changedat frequent intervals. The shroud conductsthe air stream over the cylinder head cooling fins. lubrication oil is stored in the crankcaseand distributed about by meansof a dipper hung below the connectingrod. l-5.low-30 or lOW-40). and is available at airports. Since no pump is fitted.) 15 .bladescast in the flywheel rim (Fig. where engine power is increasedby a factor of five. 3-6). It is important that the inlet screen and fins be clean. dilute 1OWor low-30 10% with kerosene. Inlet screen and cooling fins. although you can use oven cleaner on iron parts.Use grade SE30 for summer operation (or if the straight weight is not available. I-5). the oil should reach the top thread of the filler plug boss or. rhe Briggs system has proved adequate in go-cart racing. Under normal conditions Briggs recommend 25 hours between oil changes. The s!inger is driven by the camshaft. Below 0 degrees Fahrenheit. Qnk Hydroseal works on both aluminum and iron. While splashlubrication is considered primitive. or on aluminumengines.

smokes the exhaust. or a number andletter.but little or no air should enter. The breather (a kind of check valve) must be functional and the crankcase should be airtight. 16 . N vas used to distinguish iron.and can blow a seal. With early models. ENGINE iDENTlFBCATlON All engines carry a number plate on the flywheel shroud or have the number stamped indelibly on the shroud. dipstick. Because a splash system does not control the amount of oil thrownabout. the crankcasemust be kept under a slight vacuum. l-6. the fill mark.~M be able to escape.Oil vapor I. Early Briggs slingers are supported on afuminum die castings (A). but was cast in iron. If the crankcase is at atmospheric pressure.Fii. late production slingers ride on a shwt-steel bracket (8). The number represented engine displacementin cubicinches. Some ahnninumengines were identified with the letter B. even when new) will ruin the crankshaft and connecting rod. Thus a 6B engine was cast aluminumanddisplacedsix cubic inches: a 6N engine had an identical bore and stroke. UnderMing (and these engines use oil. Overfilling costs power. it was sufficient to identify the engine by number alone. oil will be driven past the piston rings and into the combustion chamber.

rewind. The third digit after the displacement identifies the type of main bearings and whether reduction gears or auxiliary power takeoffs are fitted. Zero. impulse.2.Briggs & Stratton continues the practice of reserving the first slot in the identification number for displacement. You can determine the displacement by measuring the bore and stroke and plugging these values into the equation given under “Engi ?e Power. to comparethe parts he selectsagainstthe originals.the original number plate is lost. intended perhaps for the long rumored twin cylinder. and cylinder construction.3. but has expanded the code to encompassdesign variations unheard of twenty years ago. and 9 refer to carburetor options on vertical crank blocks. 7. and 8 are open at present.” This will at ’ least give your parts supplier a clue to identifying your engine. Numbers 1. As sometimeshappens. The final digit represents the type of starter-rope. 6. ignition hardware. Be sure. numbers 5. The first digit after the displacement is the design series and refers to the over-ahconfiguration. . or the shroud has been replaced by another. however. AC or DC. and 4 meana horizontal crank engine with carburetor and governor variants.

three adjustments. are housed under the flywheel and cammed open by the crankshaft. Magnets are sometimes mouhtedin a rotor. The timing is fixed. but Briggs & Stratton engines have two and. accounting for more than 80% of an engine’s malfunctions. Other designs have the points mounted outside the flywheel where they are triggered by the camshaft. some understanding of the mechanismis necessary for the mechanic. a part that turns with the flywheel. Since most engine failure involves the magneto. THEMAGNETO Briggs & Stratton engines are sparked by magnetos. devices that combinethe function of a high voltage generator and an ignition coil. 19 . but is distinct from it. on the more sophisticated designs. The magnets are cast into the outer rim of the flywheel. The movable contact in this and most other Briggs & Stratton designsis driven by a plunger to isolate it from side forces developedby the crankshat?cam. or contact points. all of which are Critical.CHAPTER 2 IGNITIQ The ignition system is the most troubiesome part of an engine. Competitive engiies do not have this feature. Figure 2-1 illustrates the magneto assembly used on most Briggs & Stratton engines. In this case the breaker.

The movable contact in this and most other Briggs 8 Stratton designs is driven by a plunger to isolate it from side forces developed by the crankshaft cam. 2-l. side of the magneto. Current that would arc across the points is momentarily stored in the condenser. Figure 2-2 pictures the wiring of the low voltage. is a kind of ho!ding tank. the condenser discharges through the primary windings to grotmdt 20 . Magneto nomenclature. Current tlows from the coii windings through ground (the enginecastings) and back through ground to the points and coil windings. or primary. The condenser. When the points are closed. or capacitor. the primary circuit is complete. When the points open. When the points close. Competitive enginesdo not have this feature.Fig. the circxuit broken and no ptihnary is current flows.

a transformation takes place and electric current is generated. (Courtesy Fichtel & Sachs. However. task and The of boosting primary voltage and delivering it to the spark plug is accomplishedby the secondary circuit.OOOV preferably 10.OOOV. The greater the distance. For that we need at least 6. primary current is insufficient to light the spark plug. One end of the secondary is grounded and the other connects to the spark plug by way of the higintension lead. At running speed. The intensity of the current dependsuponhow rapidly the fields move (which is why the crankshaft must be turned 90 rpm or so to start the engine). and upon the distancebetween the coi! and nx2gnets. Each of the flywheel magnets is surrounded by a swarming force field.) 21 . primary current is on the order of 2A with an electrical pressure of about 17OV.Current is generated by the interaction between magneticforce and the primary windings. When these fields pass through the primary windings. is impressed over the coil’s primary winding (Fig. Iron acts as a kind of lens for the magnetic lines of force. SHADED AREAS = MAGNETS & + + = GROUNDS = CONTACT POINTS = CONDENSER = EDGE DISTANCE = POINT GAP a b Fig. The secondary winding. the less ef6cient the magneto. Current flow is accompaniedby a magnetic field at right angles to the conductor. The field can be concentrated by looping the conductor over a soft iron core. 2-2. Primary circuit schematic. 2-3). consisting of several thousand turns of hair-fine wire. or armature.

The three most common causes of magneto trouble are a malfunctioningsparkplug. The secondary winding is therefore subjected to the classicvoltage generating situation. the contact points should break at the moment of peak primary current. and upon the efficiency of the magnetic coupling. malfunctioningpoints. Hold the metal end of the lead % to 3116of an inch from the block. cutting through the secondarywindings. As far as mechanicsare concerned. You shouid see a spark leap between the lead and the block each time the contact points bre. or a malfunctioning flyviheel Spark Plug Replacement The 6rst step in troubleshooting any single-cylinder engineis to replacethe spark plug with one known to be geod. a moving magneticfield. 22 . Briggs & Stratton coils are wound with a sixty to one ratio. The greater the number of secondary windings relative to the primary. current is interrupted and the field around the primary windingscollapses. 2-2. Smaller Briggs engines are sparked by magnetos with fixed edge distances that can only be disturbed by warped flywheel keys or battered keyways. then crank the engine. or dimension “a” in Pig. large engines with remote point chambers fire each second revolution. the greater the voltage.?r. How much voltage is generated in the secondary winding depends uponthe ratio of turns between the secondaryandprimary windings. this ratio gives 10.OOOV the spark at plug from a primary input of 170V. The field faIts in upon itself. On small engines with self-contained magnetos. Primary current peakswhen the flywheel magnetis centered over the coil armature. Magnetosfor the large engineshave edge distanceswhich can be varied. For the magneto to function properly. Subtractingfor coil inefficiency. The quality of the spark can be tested by disconnectingthe high tension lead from the spark plug terminal. the spark occurs once for every flywheel revolution. Current is prcportionaky decreased because some energy is lost in the operation of converting one form of energy to another.this position is usually described as a function of edge distance.Since the secondary winding is impressed over the primary winding.

b c -y&es would be immune to tirmng changes in the field. The gap-the distance between the side and center electrode-is 0. Increasing the spark plug gapcauses the points to break ear!y. worn electrodes-other malfunctions escape the eye. Even new spark plugs may not function in a single-cylinder engine.“ U. do not have the intensity needed for reliable ignition. (Courtesy Tecumseh Products Co. it would appear that +hns. 2-3. While some forms of plug failure are obvious-carbon fouling. White. A healthy magneto delvers a thick blue spark that soundslike a miniature thunderclap. A typical ignition coil in cutaway. Unfortunately. but the familiar. or those that are tinted red. Many mechanicsprefer to use a wire gauge. cracked insulators.030 in. 23 . decreasingthe gap retards timing.a. replacethe spark plug with one that you know is good.SECONDARY GROUNDLEAD TERMINAL FOR PRIMARY AND SECONDARY Fig. advancingthe timing.) The spark shouid be as regular as a pulse beat and should be strong. this is not true. Even if you are satisfied with the appearance of the spark. spindly sparks. for aI Briggs & Stratton engines in production. Since the timing-the moment the spark occurs relative to piston position-is fixed during manufacture.

020 in. Dirt will cause‘he plug to overheat and may unseat it enough to firecut a channel through the threads. Used point sets. Gap adjustments are made by bending the side electrode closer to. not a substitute for new points and a new condenser. the point-plunger oil seal has failed. Wipe any dirt accumulationfrom the gasket surface around the spark plug port. Replace these parts before you install new points. and should meet square. When you are finished. An oily mist is more or less inevitable. but puddlesof oil mean that the upper main bearing seal or. can be salvaged by filing the oxidation from the contacts. depending upon the magneto. Set the points with a clean feeler gauge-wiping the gauge leaf with your fingers is 24 . should have no more than a few pinholes. the contacts should be bright. ruining the &inder head. or farther away from.” All Briggs & Stratton engineshavea point gap speciticationof 0. Specificinstallation procedures are describedunder the various magneto types. at least those which are only superficially pitted. particularly under the stationary contact. Here it is enough to say that the point chamber shouldbe relatively free of oil. the center electrode. The point gap is measuredat the widest extension of the points when the movable arm is “on the cam. F’ttt the spark p&g in by hand to prevent crossthreading. Any oil that is present should be wiped up. filing points is an rexzdient to get the engine running. However.flat bladedgaugecan bejust as accurate if held deadparallel between the electrodes. Oil is an insulator and will break the ground circuit. and torque to specification: Cylinder Head Material Thread Size Aluminum Cast-Iron 14mm 15 to 22 R-lbs 26 to 30 ft-lbs 18mrtl Yeinch _____-____ 32 to 38 ft-lbs 35 to 43 ft-lbs Points Replacement The contact points are preternaturally sensitive-point sets that appearnormal may refuse to fire or miss at speed.

almostguaranteedto make starting difticult. As a further precaution, buff the points with a business card after installation. On nine cubic inch and larger engines, it is sometimes necessary to register the moment of point separation. This is not as easy asit sounds,particularly if the contacts are worn. The quickest way to determine:the moment of separationis to close the point contacts aver 2 s*Jii of cel!o$xe Turn tl?efIywhee1in the normal direction of rotation. When the cellophane flutters free, the points have opened. The error involved, the thickness of the cellophane, is doubled at the piston since the camshaft and the point contacts operate at half crankshaft speed. A more accurate method of determining the instant of point separationisto use anohmmeter, or one of the “buzz boxes” soldfor this purposeby motorcycle and snowmobiledealers. Clip one leadto the movablepoint arm, the other to a good ground. Dependingupon the sensitivity of the instrument, it may be necessary to disconnect the coil primary lead at the point set. The points open when the ohmmeter deflects toward infinity or the buzzer goes silent. flywheel Repair Remove the cooling shro+rdby taking out the bolts passing through the crankcaseand cylinder head. It is neither necessarynor desirable to undo all of the cylinder head bolts. The flywheel is mountedon the crankshaft stub by meansof a nut or lockwasher, or on engineswiih rewind or impulse starters, by meansof a threaded starter clutch and spring washer. Large cast-iron flywheels have enough tin strength to tolerate wedging with wooden blocks. Smaller cast-aluminumflywheels are fragile and should be held with a strap wrench availablefrom plumbing supply houses or with the appropriate Briggs & Stratton holding fixture. Figure 2-4.ikustrates these tools. Flywheel nuts can be removed with a deep-well socket. With the exception of the % inch nuts used on rope-start engines, all crankshafts have right hand threads. Turn overhand and left to loosen. Starter clutch assembkes respond best to the Briggs & Stratton tool number 19114 (Fig. 2-4). While this tool is a necessity for a seriousmechanic,it is possible to remove andinstall the starter clutch with a hardwood block and hammer. Remove the four self25

HOLDER

Fii. 24. Abroruesta~Ier-clutch wrench is a necessity for fhl) ~~TIOUS mechanic, s&$iy tlywheel hofder can be improvided. is? %%+y Briggs 8 of

tapping screws and the screen. Using the scret’tv for purchase, lugs tap the clutch assembly counterclockwise to loosen. The &wheel mates to the crankshaft by meansof a taper and key. Someforce is required to separate tbe parts, particularly if the flywheel is aluminum. Briggs & Strarton insists that one of five factory pullers be used to remove The various flywheels. These pullers thread into holes cast into the flywheel hub. To savetime, most mechanics, prefer to use a flywheel knocker ,fFii. 2-5). The knocker is a heavy steel bar, threaded like the flywheel nut, or smooth bor ta match the starter clutch. It is held againstthe flywheel andgiven a sharp hammer blow. Sometimesit is belpfd to pry against the inner edge of the flywheel with a screwdriver as the knocker is struck. While effective, flywheel knockers are brutal tools and can seriousiy damage the crankshaft. Excessive force will buckle the erankpin,anda glancingblow on the knocker can snapthe crankshaft end Repeatedpounding can even scramble the flywheel magnets. Once the flywheel is off, inspect the hub for cracks and for evidenceof keyway wallow. Do the samefor the crankshaft. If either is damaged,replace the part, since no repair is practical or safe. By the same token, replace a deformed key with an identical key from Briggs & Stratton (Fig. 2-6). Do not substitute a steel key for the 26

Fg. 2-5. A flywheel knocker in use.

originaJaknninumone. The key is a kind of safety valve protecting the crankshaft and the flywheel from driveline shock, and to serve this purpose. must be soit and malleable. Upon installation, torque the flywheel nut to specification. Starter clutches are tightened by “elbow torqometer” since the special tool cannotbe adaptedto a torque wrench. Tighten the clutch until it binds solid with the flywheel, signalingthat the spring washer

SHEAREDKEY

Fg.2-6. Keydamageafffxtstheedgedistanceand impossibia

canmakestartingdifficultor

27

The primary lead. __ Internal Point Set Magneto The magneto shown in Fig. 2-7B. Only the coil and optional kill switch are outside of the Bywheel. an arrangement that doubles point wear sincethere is one sparkper revolution (larger magnetossparkat half engine speed). making certain it is centered over the flywheel. Briggs & Stratton engines are fitted with any of three magnetotypes.has fully collapsed. represented by the heavy black line in the upper center of Fig.020 of an inch regardless of the point style. 2-7& later models feature the integral point-and-condenser set in Fig. The ground strap on the movable breaker arm routes over the post and not. you insert the lead into the condenserstud and thread the spring over it until the last coil of the spring passesthrough the wire. 2-7B). Without this tool. 2-l has crankshaft-driven points. is secured to the condenserstationary contact with a coil spring. many are not. At least two flywheels have been used on the small (under nine cubic inch) engines. Two point sets have been used: early production engines employ a remotely mounted condenser (Fig. Turn the crankshaftto fully open the points. neither one of which is magnetically compatible with the other. as one might suppose. Assembling the current type is a little tricky. Points and Condenser After the spark plug. Each replacement point set is packagedwith an assemblytool. While many parts of a given magneto type are interchangeable. The magneto in Fig. BRIGGS STRATTON & MAGNETO TYPES Aside from an under-the-crankcasedesign seen on a few vertical shaft models. Turn the spring with a smallpair of pliers. a plastic thimble usedto compressthe spring. tuck the condenser lead well clear of the flywheel. 2-l is the most popular of all Briggs &Stratton types. When servicing the early type. Install the cooling shroud. Sincepoint closure is signaled 28 . the contact point assembly is the most vulnerable part of the system. Point gap is 0.under it.

resting the gauge flat on the contact surfaces.020 inch feeler gauge between the contacts. the full-open position is not difficult to tind.Pig. (Courtesy Briggs 8 Stratton Corp. If the adjustment is correct. Point sets are secured by a single screw: the older version used a condenser (A). The early point set. the one with the separate 29 . current production combines the condenser and the detachable stationary contact point (6).) by a flat ground on the crankshaft. 2-7. Insert a clean 0. you will be consciousof a slight drag as you withdraw the gauge.

If these measuresfail to uncover the problem. 2-8B). or by passinga strip of cardboardbetween the contacts. assumethat the coil is defective. The air gap-the running clearance between the flywheel rim and the ends of the coil armature-is critical. coil The coil may be removed from the engine and checked on a Mere-0-Tronic machineor the equivalent. adjusts by loosening the bracket screw and moving the bracket (Fig. If not. The current design adjusts by loosening the condenserclampscrew a half turn and levering the condenserwith a screwdriver (Fig. and trace out the kill switch circuit. clean the points again.condenser.008 of an inchfor coils with two legs and 0. dabbing a bit of gasket sealant over the exit notch for the coil and kill switch leads. Install the key in the tmhhaft and lower the flywheel into place. Even a tingerprint can prevent ignition. Do not cut yourself on the governor vane. check the ftywheei wiring for shorts. Tighten the clamp and check. Although mechanicssometimes set the air gap with a postcard. After adjustment. Lightly grease the crankshaft cam surface with bigb temperature lubricant. Assemble the dust cover. Unscrew the sparkplug. spin the flywheel by hand. l Loosen the armature holddown screws. 30 . l Bring the armature into tight contact with the shim. Each flywheel revolution shouldproduce a healthy spark. connect the high tensionlead. 2-8A). l Tighten the holddown screws and extract the shim. The armature shouldbe in place during this test.014 of an inch for the three-legged variety. Too wide a gap compromisesmagneto efficiency. andwith the spark plug resting on the cylinder. too narrow a gap may allow the flywheel to rub the armature. Use shim stock of the appropriate thickness (availableat auto parts stores) and follow this procedure: l Turn the flywheel magnets away from the coil. l Insert the shim stock between the armature ends and the flywheel. this method is only approximate. l Turn the flywheel by hand to detect possible rubbing. clean the points with tighter fluid. The specificationis 0.

2-8.SCREW DRIVER SCREIlDRIVER FQ. Point gap adjustment: the early point set is held by a screw (A). the later WI&II by a screw and clamp (6). 31 .) You may find that it is impossible to maintain the specified air gap because of shall distortion or main-bearing wear. (Courtesy Brtggs 8 Stratton Corp. Make the necessary repairs and recheck.

coil. 233000. coil. and point plunger.300400. and 320400 engines. 300400. andpoint plunger. 243000. 2WtY.Models 19D and 23D are distik guished by detail differences in the flywheel.243000.) External Point Set Magneto This magneto. Models 19D and 23D are distinguishedby detail differences in the flywheel. To disassemble. l Remove the upper mounting screw (Fig.233000. 2-9. 2-10). and 320400.follow this procedure: l Turn flywheel until the points open. combines flywheel ma&nets with an external point-and-condenserset (Fig.Fii. (Courtesy Riggs 8 Stratton Corp. 2-9). 32 . flywheel magneto with external points found on Models 193000.Kl. used on the 193000. 200000. l Lii off the condenser. leaving it dangling from the breaker krminal screw.

243000. 233000. 2-11. gapping the points at 0. Disconnect the coil lead at the breaker assembly. reverse the above operation. The seal is fragile and must be carefully worked over the plunger. flywheel. Timing. ignition coil. and 320400consists of aligningarrows on the coil bracket andflywheel at the instant of point break. together with the retainer plate and eyelet.200000. The timing drill for models 193000. Remove the breaker assembly.020 of an inch. (Courtesy Briggs 8 33 . This seal. Sincethe flywheel is keyed internally to the crankshaft. c Position the @wheel over the crankshaft stub.300400. To replace the coil. allowing no independentmotion between the parts.) Fig. l l l l l NUP Stratton Corp. 0 Slack off the locknut and breaker point screw. canbe retrofitted to earlier engines to guard from oil contamination. Set the point gap at 0.020 of an inch. and contact point cover and folIow this procedure: Turn the crankshaft until the points are fully open.Remove the lower mounting screw. Removethe cooling shroud. Install the breaker assemblycover. 2-10. Late model engines incorporate the oil sealpictured in Fig. Oil Seal. The breaker-point screw determines the point gap. filling the primary wire exit notch with sealant to ke-p dust and moisture out. the coil bracket must be moved to match the arrows.

l Turn the flywheel to bring the magnets away from the armature bracket. If the arrows do not match.Fig. . again exercising care not to turn the crankshaft. 2-13). (Courtesy Briggs & Stratton Corp. For accuracy. Insert the key. l Lightly tighten the coil holddown screws.” l Check the arrow alignment (Fig. l 34 . you may proceed: l Torque the nut 115 ft-lb on model 193000 and 200000 engines. l Lightly tighten the flywheel. The oil-seal assembly. If the arrows match. and match the arrows as follows: l Loosen the armature bracket screws a few turns. Remove the flywheel and tighten the armature bracket screws in the X-pattern. Assurrhg that the arrows now match. l Install the flywheel and key one more time.) Align tbe flywheel and crankshaft keyways. then proceed to torque the flywheel nut as describedbelow. 0 Turn the flywheel clockwise until the points break. l Mount the flywheel and key. 2-11. l Gently tap the armature until the arrows match. and 145 ft-lb on the others. you must remove the flywheel without disturbing the crankshaft in the process.use a timing indicator as described under “Points Replacement.

~~~ ~~ ~~~ Fq. & Stratton Corp. FLYWHEEL KEY SCREW SHOULD BE FINGER TIGHT. 2-12.) . FLYWHEEL NUT MAY BE PUT ON LOOSELY. Timing models 19D and 23D. (Courtesy EGG.rPOSITION FLYWHEEL ON CRANKSHAFT TAPER..

l Turn the crankshah until the points just break (Fig.010.014 inch shim between the armature legs and flywheel rim (Fig. 2-12A). l 36 .ALIGNMENT AkROWS 1 UC. 2-12B). the flywh 3ei can be rocked a few degrees without turning the crankshaft. Turn the crankshaf! to open the points to their widest extension.020 of an inch.) Insert a 0. 2-13. l Withdraw the shi. With the attaching hardware loose. l Install the key. l Replacethe cooling shroud and contact point cover. l Position the flywheel over the crankshaft stub. See “Points Replacement” for further information.n andpull the flywheel through a iew turns to see that it clears the armature legs. With the key removed. l Set the point gap at 0. As noted previously. and contact point cover and proceed as follows: . The tuning drill establishes the edge distance by ‘ynchronizing the flywheel magnets with the coil armature at the moment of point separation. models 19D and 23D employ an externally mountedflywheel key held againstthe flywheel hub with a capscrew. To tune the magneto. These differences in design require a different timing procedure from the other external point set magnetos. tightening the holddown screw with your lingers (Fig. MOUNTING SCREWS Fig. the flywheel. (Courtesy Briggs & Stratton Corp. l Lightly tighten the flywheel nut. remove the shroud. the flywheel can be turned independentlyof the crankshaft. Aligning the armature bracket arrow to the flywheel arro’w. Press the armature down tightly on the shim. l Tighten the coil holddown screws. 2-14).0.

Undo the breaker shah nut. turning it counterclockwise until it is flush with the end of the breaker shaft. Becomefamiliar with the disassemblyprocedure illustrated in Fig. Adjusting the armature air gap. l l l l l l Fig. together with the breaker plate. is matched with the coil armature. The rotor is mounted concentrically with the flywheel and. 2-14. Torque the flywheel nut: model 19D to 115 h-lb. the Magna-Maticis uniquein the complexity of its point set andin its use of a magnetbearing rotor in place of the usualflywheel magnets(Fig. 191000. releasing tension on the movable-point arm. 2-1X). and 231000. Remove the breaker shaft nut and lockwasher. Points. l Magna-Matic Used on models 9.) 37 . * Tighten the key holddown screw. 2-16 before proceeding as follows: Remove the terminal screw. Lightly tap the nut to free the point set from the tapered breaker shaft. 14. 19. Once you have determined point opening. for tuning purposes.. 23. (Courtesy Briggs & Stratton Corp. Remove the spring screw. Lii out the movable point arm. The crankshaft does not move during this operation. Remove the dust cover and rotate the crankshaft tc openthe points to their maximum extension (this step will savetime uponreassembly). rock the flywheel counterclockwise to align the inner edge of the leadingcoil armature with the flywheel insert (Fig. 2-15). model 23D to 145 f&lb.

HIDH TEMSIOH LEAD,

b

CAY GEAR--+

E
Fig. 2-15. The Magna-Matic, Briggs B Stratton’s most complex, powerful mag neto.

1

If the point chamber is oily, or if there is a telltale splatter of burnt oil under the contacts, remove the oil seal Pry the seal out with an icepick. To reassemble the Magna-Matic with new contact points, proceed as follows: l Press in a new oil seal, metal side out. Careful mechanics wipe the seal bore with laquer thinner and coat the seal’s outside diameter with liquid silicone (a thin coat is sticient). l Position the breaker plate over the insulating plate with the detent on the underside of the breaker plate alignedwith the

matching hole in the insulaung plate (Fig. 2-17). Improper assembly will warp the breaker plate, causing point misalignment. l Snug the breaker plate screw down firmly enough to hold the plate in position, but not so tightly that the plate cannot be moved. l Turn the eccentric screw (Fig. 2-16) to bring the left hand edge of the breaker plate pai I!4 with the left side of the breaker box (Fig. 2-18). l Turn the breaker shaft clockwise to the limit of its travel. . Holding the shaft againstits stop, slip the movablepoint arm over the shaft. Place the lockwasher over the end of the shaft and tighten the shaft nut. l lirstali the terminal and spring screws. l Unless the crankshaft has been moved, the breaker points should be on the cam, in their full open position. l Turn the eccentric screw to obtain 0.020 of an inch gap between the contacts. Check the point gap with a clean feeler gauge.

SULATING PLATE

LEADWIRE CDNDENSER WIRE LEAC

STEELWASHER PLATESCREW CONDENSER

Fg. 2-16. Disassembly procedure for the Magna-Matic. (Courtesy Briggs & stratton Corp.)

39

MUST FIT TOGETffER Ft. Z-17. Alignment of detent in breaker plate and hole in insulating plate. (Courlesy Briggs & Stratton Corp.)

= Tighten the breaker plate screw and recheck the point gap. l Turn the flywheel to close the points, and draw a business card between them to wipe off any contamination. l Check for ignition spark. Rotor. The rotor is mounted under the flywheel where it is secured to the crankshaft by either of two locking arrangements.

Fig. 2-18. Insulating plate shwkf be parallel with the left-hand edge of breaker box. ~cowtesv Btfggs % Stratton Corp.)

a condition that causes hard starting and early spark plug failure.~ armature. Fiie 2-20 makes these operations clear.249. gently pry it from behind. Separating the clamp and rotor on the bench weakens the rotor magnets. The clamp forms part of the magnetic circuit.025 of an inch clearance between it and the mainbearing supportto allow the crankshaft to “float.Formerly a setscrew. (Courtesy Briggs 8 atton Gorp. lockscrew. and crankshaftkey was used (Fig. its jaws ground andshapedto slip past L. Timing. is useful. 2-19B). the clamp must remain on the rotor. In extreme cases. however. must be installed with 0. Older rotors are located by a setscrew and hole in the crankshaft (A). Thanksto the setscrew. disengagethe locking devicesand slip the rotor off the crankshaft taper if the rotor refuses to move.1 41 . the early production rotor alignsitself automaticallyupon reassembly. turning the crankshaftfor new purchase. Rotor tim5ngis relatively fixed. I cumnt prcduction rotors employ a pinch clamp (B). The current rotor. 2-19A). All the mechanicneed be concerned with is the timing.a smal!gear puller. To remove the rotor.” The break in the clamp shouldbe centeredbetweenthe rotor slots. The initial factory timing can be trusted so long as the armature has not been removed 1. current production rotors are held by a pinch clamp and crankshaft key (Fig. when the rotor is detachedfrom the crankshaft.

adjust the point gap to 0. (Courtesy Briggs 8 Stratton Corp. Current production rotor positioned 0. The arrow stamped in the IetI side of the coil armature should be matched to the number corresponding to the engine model number (Fig. With all the precision that you can muster. Replacing these parts.025 inch from main bearing case. however. Turn the crankshaft in the normal direction of rotation l l l through point closing. proceed as follows: Turn the fiywheel to open the points to their maximum extension. If you must time either rotor style.020 of an inch. 2-21).) 42 . point arm.and so long as the original cam and crankshaft are used. Refer to ‘*Points Replacement” for instructions. 2-20. At this Fg.or hot. may change the timing. Turn the crankshaft until the lamp indicates that the points have just separated. You may have to rock the crankshafta few degreesineither direction to pinpoint the moment when the points are no longer electrically conductive. l l l Connecta timing lamp between ground and the movable.

once the clips are disengaged. the small insulated wire connects to the point set. The rounded side of the coil facesoutward. the high tension lead is knotted on the coil side of the backing plate. about half an inch from the coil. the coil can be slipped off the segment for replacement purposes. The coil is secured to the main armature assemblywith spring clips and. The usual test apparatusrequires that the coil remain mounted on the armature segment. l If the rotor and armature are out of sync. loosen the three armature holddown screws and turn the armature as necessary. (Courtesy Sriggs & Stratton Qm.Fig. (This operation will not upset the air gap between the rotor and armature. toward the flywheel. However. On model 9 engines.) l Retighten the screws and turn the engine through to check the timing. 43 . and the high tension lead goes to the spark plug. The coil has three electrical connections: the paired and twisted uninsulated wires go to ground. Coil.) position. Aligning arrow with engine model number. the appropriate mark on the rotor should match with the arrow on the armature. lifts off with the upper armature element. 2-21.

The pressure differential between the partial vacuumleft by the descendingpiston and the weight of the atmosphere pressing in on the air filter is the source of power for the carburetor. Thirdly. a figure derived from the weight of a column of tir one square inch in area extending vertically from the earth’s surface to the limits of the atmosphere. and the part least susceptible to “common sense” fixes. the carburetor automatically adjusts the strength of the fuel mixhue. Normally the venturi is streamlined to reduce turbulence 45 . Air pressure is nominally14. breaking the liquid gasolineinto droplets so that it can burn readily. it atomizes the fuel.7pounds per square inch at sealevel. A carburetor is a pressure-differential device. operating upon the well known principle that nature abhors a vacuum. THEVENTURI A restriction in the bore known as the venturi creates the vacuum. A carburetor has three functions. the en&e acts as a vacuum pump.The carburetor is the most mechanicallycomplex part of the engine. You will need some knowledge of carburetor theory to perform needed rep&s. Lhuing the intake stroke. First. exhaustingmost of the ah-in the intake pipe. it limits the total amountof fuel and air passingto the engine so that the operator can control engine speed. Secondly. to suit engine demandsat Merent speeds and loads. the relative amount of fuel to air.

Carburetor nomenclature. Once the fuel mist enters a warm engine. 3-l). The increasein air velocity is useful in that it whips the fuel into a froth or. The loss of pressure causes the fuel to pass through the main jet and into the venturi where it is swept into the engine. and since the same amount of air enters the bore as leaves it. as engineers say. An increasein velocity would appear to cause an increase in the energy of the air stream. As air passesthrough the venturi. (Courtesy International Harvester Co.) and fluid friction losses (Fig. a transformation occursin the venturi analogousto what happens in an ignition coil. Instead. and thus the energy level of the air stream remains constant. the air stream must move more quickly through the venturi. 3-l. Some Briggs & Stratton carburetors deliver fuel to the venturi by way of a nozzle as shown in Fig. but any restriction in the bore serves. As the air speedincreases. 46 .1 IDLE VALVE N0nx. less the losses generated by fluid friction.E 4 GASKET NEEDLL VALVE Fig. its velocity increasesThe pinchedin walls of the carburetor bore lengthen the air’s path. air pressure drops. it undergoes a further reduction in pressure and becomesa highly combustible vapor. but this is not the case. atomizes it. 3-l. Others have a jet-a threaded brass plug with an orifice in the centerpositioned in the high-vacuum zone of the venturi. Pressure fails well below sealevel values.

It no longer can assure consistent fuel delivery. Briggs & Stratton (and all other carburetor makers) provides a secondsource of fuel independent of tbe main venturi. only the lightest hydrocarbcns vaporize. the venturi stumbles and looses its vacuum. 3-l it is pictured as wide open.the amountof fuel passingthrough it determined by the position of the throttle valve (Fig.. 3-l). the air stream moves very quickly.Unfortunately. Hence surplus fuel is necessary to generate enough vaimr to start the engine. robbig the engine of power. and because the vacuum increases as a function of air speed. functionsat part throttle. This additional ’ fuel allows the engine to develop full power and plays a small. This dual fuel source is important since the engine requires a gasoline rich mixture at idle (on the order of one part of air to eight parts of gasolinevapor). Needle valve and idle valve adjustments are interrelated and. With cold starting. For this reason. The idle port is locatedin the low pressure zone created by this throttle-valve “venturi. becominga kind of crude venturi. The engine gets “indigestion” from the gasoline-rich mixture. At Iesser angles. are interdependent. As the throttle closes. The mixture richens to a fourteen or fifteen to one ratio.at cruise. tle. sometimescalled the low speedport. At lowgr velocities. Cold starting requires a very rich mixture of two or three parts &fair to one part fuel. to some small degree. but important. . although there is some overlap between it and the main jet. This sourceis known as the idleport and is adjustable. airandfuelare restricted andthe venturi works at less than optimum efficiency.” Theidleport. at higher velocities it becomes restrictive. most of the fuel condenses u:Tn contact with the engine castings. THETHROTTLE VALVEAND IDLEPORT The fhroti!e cabe determines the amount of air and fuel gaingto the engine. the vacuummixtures at midthrottle are in the neighborhoodof seventeenparts air to one part fueL At full throttle. and a leaner mixture. In Fig. generating a high vacuum in the venturi. it obstructs more and more of the bore. a given venturi is efficient only over a narrow rangeof air velocities. delivering too much fuel for the availableair. At wide open throt. role in piston cooling. There is enough separation between the two systems to allow different mixture strengths at different throttie settings.

46 . the carburetor is subject to intake pipe vacuum. the greater the amount of fuel that will be delivered through the main jet and idle por& By the same token. Once the engine warms. either manually or automatically.) Briggs & Stratton carburetors employ the familiar choke valve upstream of the ven&mi. The internal fuel level of the carburetor-the level of fuel in the passageways-is critical.3-2. The one piece variant is built around a single mllng (A).8. Both the main andidle circuits deliver fuel that mixes with the scant air supply to give an extremely rich mixture. When the valve is closed. the lower the level. the choke must be opened. The higher the level. The Fb-Jet carburetor. Wlesy International Harvester Co. the two-piece version has the throttle body cast separately (B). the greater the distance the fuel must move before delivery. and the leaner the mixture.

At apreset level.) . or of the pressure exerted upon it by the fuel pump. 3-3).The internal fuel level must be independent of the level of the fuel in the tank. However. the engine must be kept relatively level. Flo-Jet carburetors are not the ideal choice for power lawnmowers that are expected to work in hilly terrain. 3-Z). and a large and small two piece design (Fig. 3-l. becauseof its short reaction time. 3-3. Fuel enters the float chamber through the float needle and seat (more often known as the inlet needleand seat). The Vacu-Jet carburetor. Briggs & Stratton Vacu-Jet carburetors employ a pickup tube which extends into the gasoline tank (Fig. (Courtesy Briggs & Stratton Corp. As the float drops. it releases pressure on the needle and more fuel enters. The carburetors under discussionemploy either of two mechanisms to control the internal fuel level. the float closesthe needleagainst the seat. This operation takes place as often as two hundred times a minute and. does a good job of keeping the internal fuel level constant. Briggs & Stratton FQ. Carburetors that Briggs & Stratton calls the Flo-Jet series employ a float like the one shown in Fig. No more fuel can enter until the engine consumesenough to lower the level in the chamber. There are three versions of these carburetors: a one piece design.

FQ. P&a-Jet carburetors are a variation of the pickup-tube principle of the Vacu-Jetcarburetors (Fig.) offers three versions of this carburetor. the cup is always fug to the spillway. (Courtesy Briggs 8 Stratton Corp. Sincethe pump delivers more fuel than the enginecan use. and some of the parts are interchangeable. 3-4). The longer of the two tubes is the inlet pipe for a self-containedfuel pump. The pickup . 34. The mixture becomes progressively leaner as the tank empties. The pump delivers fuel to a cup from which the pickup tube feeds.The principle is not unlike the pickup tube in a flit gun. While this device is admirably simple. The cup is built into the top of the fuel tank and its upper edge is notchedto form a spillway. It reachesalmost to the bottom of the fuel tank. involving only a single moving part (a check ball in the tube). Vacu-Jet carburetors are sensitive to the amount of fuel in the tank. The Pulsa-Jet carburetor. Rriggs & Stratton offers three versions.

Normally it is full. Assuming clean. Ignition system failures give the same symptoms-hard starting. after that it turns into a gummy soup of varnish. it must be an electrically soundplug and one that is not alreadysoddenwith raw fuel. Carburetors do not in any real sense wear out. Crank the engine several times andremove the spark plug. The only drawback to these carburetors is that the cup must be full before the engine will start. water. or as the result of persistent cranking. 51 . the spark plug must be capableof firing. the combustionchamber must be dried before further troubleshooting. and they do so more frequently. and heavy hydrocarbons. the spark plug can tell you whether or not it is receiving fuel. erratic idle. Stale gasolineis difficult to ignite andhighly corrosive. The cup can be replenished by topping off the tank-sending fuel back through the spillway-or simply by cranking the engine until the pump delivers sufficient fuel to the cup. you can remove the spark plug and simply wait until the surplus fuel evaporates. there are few parts that can spontaneously fail. Gasolinehas a shelf life of &out six months. high sped mistiring-as carburetor problems. Other than the Flo-Jet needle and seat. But if the engine hasbeenout of service for several weeks. If the engine refuses to start. A dry firing tip meansthat no fuel is entering the chamber.tube operates at a constant fuel level. Thequickest way to do this is with compressed air. For this to be valid. fresh fuel is used and that the air filter is in working order. The firing tip shouldbe dampandsmellof gasoline. and the mixture remains consistent. Before assumingthe carburetor is guilty. rusting the tank and attacking gaskets. check the fuel.If the tip is soakingwet. Onceyou havedecidedthat the carburetor is at fault. but if compressed air is not available. If the enginehas severely floodedfrom a carburetor malfunction. That is. changethe sparkplug andpoint set as describedin Chapter 2. fuel in the cup evaporates. clear it as describedin the previous paragraph. TROUBLESHOOTINGTHE CARBURETOR The basis of troubleshooting is to examine the firing tip of the spark plug. the chamber is flooded. a carburetor shouldgive little trouble.

) 52 . (Courtesy Champion Spark Plug Co. The firing tip of a spark plug should be light brown or tan (A): fluffy b!ack G&WI deposits indicate an overrich mixture(B).FQ. white deposits mean a dangerousty lean mixture. 3-5.

are too hot. Blow out the mainjet. Lean mixtures increase engine temperature. main jet adjustment. fannedby the excess oxygen. or Refuses to Run at a Steady. Determine that “Jlechoke valve closes completely. 3-5A). 3-5C). If the lean condifionoxiginatesti. The correct ratio will leave tan or light brown deposits on the tip (Fig. where applicable. the engine will stumble under suddenacceleration. improper adjustment. The engine may backfire through the carburetor. Black carbon. Rich fuel to air mixtures blacken the exhaust and give the enginea kind of liquid sound. Check for carburetor stoppage. White tip depositspoint to an overly lean mixture (Fig. Vacu-Jet carburetors will run rich if the pickup-tube check ball is stuck open. In extreme cases. means that the mixture is too rich @ig. 53 . Blow out the main jet and allied circuitry. andinspect the mounting fiange for air leaks. Look for large air leaks at the carburetor mounting flange. Runs Rich: Check choke opening. the color of the spark plug tip gives valuableclues about the air to fuel ratio. But Runs Normally Once Started: Determine that the choke closes completely. and the exhaust may be flecked with red. check the fuel level in tank.h the mainjet. andwith Flo-Jet models. the side electrode will show blue temper marks and may actuallymelt. and for air leaks between the carburetor and engine. Power will be weak. choke functioning. Combustion temperatures. check the float level. usually dry and fluffy but sometimes wet andreeking with gasoline. float adjustment. and the engine may be hard to start when hot. Symptomsof Malfunctioning Refuses to Start: If flooded. in the float chamber. If starved. sometimes to an obvious degree. Runs Lean: Check mixture and float adjustments. almost as if it were running under water. The carburetor is maladjustedor malfunctioning. and. Vacu-Jetmodels will hunt when adjusted for best wide openthro:tle power. Hard to Start Cold. mixture adjustments. and cost power. Hunts.Once the engine starts and reaches operating temperature. 3-5B). No Load Speed: Check adjustments and for wasted motion at the governor spring.

P&a-Jets may leak because of a ruptured pump diaphragm or gasket. Briggs Sr Stratton engines have two (with the Vacu-Jet). Carburetor adjustments: the idle speed adjusting screw. and the low speed or idle mixture screw. if the condition continues after the engine catches. l The air filter should be oiled (see below). that is: l The fuel tank should be half full of clean. . Adjustments Carburetor adjustments should be made to the engine under normal working conditions. determines throttle plate angle: the idle valve or low speed needle regu!SbStheamountoffuelpassingthelowspeedport. fresh gasoline. Most mechanicsknow these parts as the high speed or main jet screw. or idle tpm ScrW. replacethe float needle and seat on this and the one piece model. regulates fuel through the main jet. l The choke should be fully open.) .orhigh SpeSdneedle. and idle valve. Only if these conditions are fulfiIlecl will the carburetor adjustmentbe correct. idle speed screw. theneedlevaive. Both adjustment IDLE SPEED ADJUSTING SCREW NEEDLEVALVE CHOKE 3-6.The engine shouldbe running at normal operating temperature. or three adjustments: needle valve. (Courtesy International Harvester co.Carburetor Dribbles Fuel: During cranking. The terms needle valve and idle valve are peculiar to the company. two piece Flo Jets dribble fuel.

one can usually guess at idle rpm. The idle speed screw is easy to distinguish. Initial adjustment of the low speed mixture screw is lY2 turns out from lightly seated. and idle rpm. Tightening the idle speed screw opens the throttle and increases idle t-pm. Flo-Jets have all three: low and bigb speed mixture. adjustment is 1% turns out from lightly seatedon both mixture screws.a condition known as lean roll. The initial. open the high speed mixture screw a fraction of a turn. While these engines will “Cadillac. For accurate adjustment. and finally splitting the difference. The midpoint between these two extremes is the approximate adjustment. then richening the mixture.” or tick over so slowly that you can almost count the revolutions. use a vibrating reed tachometer. 55 . However. Tightening either one reduces the flow of fuel. since it bears againstthe idle stop. or starting. or an electronic tachometer calibrated for single cylinder magnetos. These tools are availablethrough engine jobbers. 3-6). and at this stage. sincethe low speed screw will have had some effect upon it. leaning the mixture. Back the screw out to induce rich roll. Finally. Keep idle speed high. flip the throttle. Suddenaccelerationafter a few minutes at low idle speedssometimes throws the rod through the side of the block. The Flo-Jet Carburetor (both one and two piece). If it hesitates or sputters. allow the engine to idle and open the throttle quickly. be aware that low i4le speeds are extremely dangerous.screws terminate in a needle. Do the same for the low speed mixture screw. and the high speed screw is closer to the air filter. The Vacu-Jet and P&a-Jet Carburetor. first leaning. Allow the engine to reach operating temperature and tighten the high speed mixture screw until the engine misses. The idle speed screw threads into the throttle valve and acts as the low speed stop (Fig. Vacu-Jets and P&a-Jets have two adjustments: low speed mixture and idle rpm. The engine shouldacceleratesmoothly. between 1750t-pmand 1800rpm.The cooling fan ceasesto deliver muchair to the fins. The low speed screw is alwaysnear the throttle valve. Check the adjustment on the high speed screw again. the exact idle x-pmis less important that full-throttle rpm (see the next chapter for governor adjustments). and lubrication becomesfaulty. After the engine reaches operating temperature.

A wire or other metallic probe can deform the jet. 3-7). Finger-tightis enough.Fig. since thirty pounds per square inch can collapsethe float. grind the screwdriver for a close fit with the slot. 3-7. Cleaning Obstructions in the jet orifices and feed circuits can usuallybe clearedby removing the adjustment screw and applyingcompressed air to the jet. 3-S). Wear on the inlet needle and seat showsas an annulargroove on the needle tip (Fig. you can clear the jet with a broomstraw. greater pressures can penetrate humanskin and form bubblesin the blood stream. Replacethe needle. Needle profiles are critical. seatingthe adjustment needles hard againstthe jets deforms both parts (Fig. By the same token. Sloppy screwdriver fits batter the slots and disturb fuel flow through the o&e. Do not pressurize that chambers. If the jet is removed. If compressedair is not available. seat. and gasket. it is good practice to replace any gasket that has been disassembled. air pressure must be no higher than thirty poundsper square inch. While plastic gasket rings can be reused. A blunted or grooved needle passes fuel erratically. By OSK4 regulation. Tighten firmly. Idle speed is 1750 rpm. Chemicalimmersion cleaningis sometimesnecessary. particularly if the carburetor has been contaminated with stale or water- . Hesitation meansthat the mixture should be richened a fraction of a turn. makingadjustmentdifficult or impossible.This is particularly true of P&a-Jet diaphragmsand mounting flange gaskets. sizing the screwdriver blade to fit the seat slots.

Despite shapeand size varia tion within each modei type. 3-2 through 3-4). BRIGGS STRATTON 81 CARBURETORS The three basic models. Allow tb carburetor to~dry before reassembly. and human skin. with these exceptions: DAMAGED I Fig. Worn inlet needles and seats should be replaced as an assembly. parts are often interchangeable. Flo-Jet. Soakthe metal parts for a half hour or so in carburetor cleaner Most mechanics seem to prefer Bendix cleaner. rust. Completely disassemblethe carburetor with the put poseof removing all rubber andplastic parts. 3-8. includingplastic choks valves and pickup tubes. dissolvin: paint. 3-l. Disassemblyprocedure: are for the most part obvious. scale. Vacu-Jet. in the case of Delco X-55.) SEAT INLET/ SEAT GASKET pq . carburetor cleaners are powerful chemicals. Flo-Jet(One and Two Piece) The two piece Flo-Jet is shown in cross sectionin Fig. Delco-Remy markets a water-soluble cleanex Gunk packagestheirs in small tins which are ideal for this work. 3-9. with hot water.and Pulsa-Jet. I any event. Wash off the cleaner witi kerosene or. Avoid breathing the fumes ant protect your hands with rubber gloves. (Courtesy Tecumseh Products Co. although othe brands work as well.take variousforms (Figs.logged fuel. Tht one piece variant was pictured in Fig.

The two-piece Flo-Jet.FQ. or carburetor body. and extract the shaft (Fig. remove the screws holding the throttle valve to the shalt. drive the pin out with a punch. Withdraw the choke valve with a pair of long nosed pliers and remove the shaft. in many cases outlasting the engines to which they are affixed. Once free. (Courtesy International Harvester Co. Flo-Jet carburetors are intended for !ong service. cross section view. 3-10). carefully unseat the Welchplug (Fig. remove the screws at each comer of the float housing. and the lower. Insert a sharp tool between the shaft andchokevalve to break the grip of the nylon. l To remove the nylon choke shaft. Gently tap the throttle body to break the hold of the gasket. guide the carburetor body down and away from the air tilter to disengage the fuel noazle.) l The throttle lever is pinned to the throttle shaft. seal the Welch plug with liquid silicone. l The two piece designconsists of two castings. 3-11). To separate these parts. Upon installation. or throttle body. The replaceablethrottle shaft bushingsattest to the longev- . If you wish to remove these parts (not necessary for cleaning). the upper. Throttle Bushings. 3-9.

3-11.) ity of FloJet carburetors. Replacethe throttle shaft and lever.) . 3-12).Fg. Met Valve Seat. Lesser carburetors. including those built by Clinton. The Welch plug at the aircleaner end of the carburetor musl be removed for access to the choke shaft. 3-10. Tiiotson. Install a new throttle shaft and test for free operation: should the shaft bind. ream the bushingsby hand with a 7/32 inch drill bit. the whole carburetor must be replaced To replace the bushings. Replacethe seat and needle if the carburetor Fig. or equivalent sized thread extractor (Fig. Onepiece and older two piece Flo-Jetshave brassinlet valve seats. secured by a roll pin. and Walbro. (Courtesy International Harvester Co. do not have this feature. Withdraw the bu&ings with the help of a 4/r inch x 20 tap. The flo-Jet throttle shaft. Tecumseh. When the throttle shaft wears its pivots. (Courtesy Intemational Harvester Co. remove the throttle valve and shaft.

As a practical matter. Throttle *aIt bu+ings can be rer~~oyedwith a j/4 in. 3-13). 3-14) . the float on these and one piece Rio-Jetsshouldbe parallel with the gasket when inverted (Fii. Late model one piece Fro-Jets employ a Viton seat that should outlast several needles.I Fig.) * Float. check the float for leaks. Replace a damaged float rather than attempt to repsir it.If the seat appears damaged (any visible wear is grounds for rejection). pump fed carburetors require seat ’ number 23019. orifthe needle is grooved around its contact face. t&p or screw eximctof. press in a replacement flush with the carburetor casting. While these carburetors will tolerate resoldered floats. The float level-measured between the upper edge of the tloat and float cover gasket-is 3/16 of an inch on the large two piece &-Jet. Using the old seat as a buffer. 3-12. If floodinghas been a comn%nt. pinholes will expand and the float will take on water. 60 . (NOTE: Gravity fed carburetors require inlet seat number 23109.Thebestwaytodothisistoplacethefloatinacontainerofhot water. and 5/16 of an inch on the smaller versions of the same carburetor. (Courtesy International Harvester 60. extract the old seat with a self-tapping sheet metal screw <Fig. this practice is not recommended.) floods.

Viion seats are extracted with the help of a self-tapping screw .SELF -THREADING\ SCREW fl p / PRESS FLUSH \ Fig. 3-13.

A secondmethod is to judiciously bend the choke trip link. or if the load is unbalanced)and cause an air leak at the flange. but in practice this rarely works. Introduce a fine wire through the filter screen and gently unseatthe ball. Metering. Vacu-Jet The Vacu-Jetis availabiein three variants. 62 L . Later models benefit from an improved flange and tank brackets. When adjusting the float. Adjust the linkage to close the choke valve completely wi*out denying full throttle. If the engine has been stored with fuel in the tank. Clean the tank as described under “Fuel Tanks” and. if at all possible. expect the ball check valve to be stuck closed. But even in the best run shop. mounts to the engine with capscrews.bears against the needle-with a pair of long nosed pliers. for should the valve stick open. In theory brass tubes can be cleaned by knmersion. The high and low speed discharge ports are sized to match drill numbers 56 and 68 respectively. Remote Controlled Choke.These carburetors are less sensitive to float level variations than competitive designs are. The filter screen (at the baseof the pickup tube) may be cloggedand the lower half of the tank will be covered with foul smelling gum and varnish. replace the pickup tube assembly. bend the tangthe part that . These screws can become loose in service (gakuldy if the crankshaft is bent. particularily a plastic needle. all of which operate on the same pickup tube principle (Fig. the type shown at the bottom of the drawing. Do not force it to the upper stop. Fuel passes through an adjustablejet before dischargingthrough ports in the carburetor body. The earliest of these variants. Very early Vacu-Jetsemployed a small brass pickup tube without a check valve. the carburetor will run excessively rich. This jet is accessible for cleaningby removing the adjustment screw and gasket. Do not apply force to the needle. Later variants have a check valve in a brass or nylon tube. Pickup Tube. a mechanicdoes not alwayshave parts and must make do with what he has-in this casea stuck check valve. 3-3). This can be accomplishedon cable operated systems by moving the cable in its anchorscrew.

leak air if the intake pipe is distorted. Two piece throttles of the pattern shownin Fig. using long nosedpliers.Choke. Moving thecable to the rear should cause the lever movement to engage the choke sooner. The plug choke must close completely (that is. Working from the engine end of the carburetor. or if it prevents shutdown. These throttles can be litted up andout of the carburetor body once the idle speedscrew is backedoff. effectively shortening it. Make the initial adjustmentat the tie point for the control cable. speed. As noted earlier. The float should be level with the carburetor body. and engine shutdown. you have to align the hole in the Fig. Early Pulsa-Jets used throttles cast in the form of a cylinder with flats milled on the sides. P&a-Jet The P&a-Jet etists in three varieties: one with the traditional Rriggs & Stratton carburetor along with an ‘mtake pipe. be fully extended out of the carburetor body) during cold starts. Lii out the throttle shaft. The “bob-tailed” types give very little trouble in this regard. and two short coupled designs for use with separate intake pipes (Fig. (Courtesy lntemational Harvester Co. particularly if the crankshaft is bent.are secured by a Phillips screw. 3-1.) 63 . the elongated model can work loose in service. Most of these carburetors are controlled remotely with a linkage that regulates choke action. If this does not help. Remove the screw and. bend the choke link. extract the throttle plate from the carburetor bore. of course. 3-4). Throttle Plate. 3-14. Installing the throttle plate is a bit tricky on the elongated P&a-Jet becauseof space limitations. but will.

Mixture adjustment screw and related hardware. Spiral. The cup. and so determines the air fuei ratio. The mixture adjustment screw limits fuel flow through the jet (Fig. balance the throttle plate over the end of the screw.) throttle plate with the threaded hole in the throttle shaft. but are stocked by somelarge hardware dealers. parficularly along the shadedareas in Fig. 3-15B) and is sealedby an O-ring (Pig. was soIid in the original version. A few of these carburetors have a sheet metal spiralin the bore. Metering. 3-16). ‘&y of these solid cups. 3-150 Washers (Fig. (Courtesy h:ematiinal Harvester Co. distortion. These functions depend upon the elasticity of the diaphragm. Once the parts are in position. and pump gasket. This screw threads into a packinggland (Fig. situated between the inner edge~of diaphragmand the the coil spring. should be replaced with the new hoiicw type.B CD E Fig. Pump Elements. 3-15D) protect the O-ring from shearing damage as the screw is turned. (Phillips screw starters are fairly rare tools. The spiral can be extracted with long nosed phers.) Position the screw in the holder. 64 . Another technique is to hold the parts with a screw starter. The pump diaphragm is a masteM (exam ple of engineering economy (Fig. 3-15A). This single part combines the functions of pump diaphragm. Wise mechanics replace the diaphragm whenever the pump cover is removed. Upon installation the spiral should be flush with the flange gasket surface. if still in use. Bob-tailed P&a-Jets have the pump vacuumchamberbu& into the top of the fuel tank. Briggs & Stratton engineerssuggest mounting the plate on the sharpenedend of a wooden pencil. It is vital that the machinedsurfaces on the tat& be true.a quality that is difficult to judge by feel. 3-15. suction and exhaust valves. to the rear of the throttle plate. and install the parts in one rapid motion. the pencil can‘be withdrawn and the screw instalied.

3-18). !ix the pipein a vise and carefully pry and twist the casting off. 391413 if you can insert a 0. may short circuit the main jet. Replace the whole assembly. Brass pipes are press fitted into the casting. a convenience since these pipes lllllSi not be aho-wedin carburetor solvent. particularly when attachedto a nylon pipe. fuel in the chamber is eventually pulled into the engine. Hatvester 65 . or attempt a repair with kit No.3-17. P~lsa-Jet pump assembly. fuel can leak past the diaphragmfrom the carburetor side of the pump and collect in the vacuumchamber. Fuel Pipes. Nylon pipes are threaded into the carburetor caskg and are easily removable. straightedge across the tank as shown in the drawing. Lay a precision ground. Fuel screensare difficult to clean. force the replacement pipe to the depth of the origin&. and can be ordered by part number (Fig. 3-16. SPRING _ CUP OLD NEW CARBURETOR LGNG PUMP PIPE BOTiOM HOUSING FQ. Sincethe chamber is evacuatedby meansof a port on the side of the carburetor body. To separatethe pipes from the casting. Brass pipe screens are pressed on. Using the vise as a press. In other words. or machinists.002 inch feeler gauge between the straightedge and the critical tank surfaces. Replacethe tank.

Engine speed is sensed by a vane positioned in the . The choke valve must be closed for cold starting. try to force it open. 3-17.f. #W-JetChokes Big bodied Flo-Jets employ a very sophisticated choke that responds to engine speed and cylinder block temperature. a iaminate of iron and copper. at the shaded areas can disable the mp or automatic choke. (Courtesy International Harvester Co. The spring. Disloriion of more than 0. or a combiition ofcoolingair pressure anda thermostatic spring.002 in. increases tension as the block warms and provides a progressively greater opening force on the choke valve. and should progresively open as the engine warms and reachesoperating speed The choke valve is suspendedbetween opposingforces: a coil spring attempts to close the valve while Venturi vacuum.) imoMAllc CHOKES An automaticchoke is anexampleof a closedloop servosystem.

checkthe initial adjustment.coolingair stream. 3-19A). Brass tube screen housings are replaceable. close the choke valve by hand. or clean the shaft pivots as necessary tc restore freedom of movement. To service. (Courtesy International Harvester Co. with the thermostatic spring horizontal and pegged against its near side stop (Fig. the vane reduces pressure of the valve and allows it to partially close. turning the spring shaft counterclockwise until its stop rests againstthe opposite side of the tube (Fig. Turn the spring shaf: clockwise while holding the valve */sof an inch open. 3-19B). 3-18. Conversely. There should be a 4/sinch dearance between the valve’s lower edge and the bottom of the carburetor bore. 3-19). Once the engine reaches operating temperature. Tighten the set screw. Cycle the choke valve by hand to detect possible bids in the mechanism. allowing more air to enter the carburetor. As speed increases. The position of the valve should remain the samewith the thermostatic spring at the opposite extreme of travel. If this dimensionis off. loosen the set screw at the thermostatic spring iever.the diaphragm Fig. disengagingthe spring from the choke valve (Fig. In the Pulsa-Jetapplication. the thermostatic spring overrides the vane and holds the choke valve fully open.) 67 . as speeddrops. Vacu-Jetand P&a-Jet Chokes These chokesopen in response to venturi vacuum.sensedby a spring loadeddiaphragm. Center the valve on its shaft. Without releasingthe shaft. Reverse the procedure. the air vane moves to open the choke.

richening the mixture. 60 . While the choke does not respond to changesin engine temperature. remove the air cleaner and observe the position of the choke valve. It should be closed and. Without this boost. Failure of the choke to close can be traced to any of the following causes: l Carbon or varnish deposits on the choke shaft pivots.grgfi% o$ye Flo-Jet automatic choke adjustment. Upon suddenacceleration. The Briggs 8t Stratton choke mimics accelerator pump action. lighter thangasoline andrespondsmuch more quickly to throttle opening. when opened by hand. (COUttesY doublesas the fuel pump element. of course. Troubleshooting With the engine stopped. A few seconds is required for the fuel to “catchup” and restore the mixture balance. Air is. When the throttle valve pivots open. Automotive carburetors generally have a pump linked to the ‘hottle lever. the pump delivers a stream of raw fuel &to the carburetor bore. l Interference between the air cleaner stud and the choke valve. venturi vacuum momentarily decreases and the choke valve closes. returned to the closed position. the engine would momentarily go lean and falter. it acts as an accelerator pump.

Once the engine starts. l Interference between the air cleaner stud and the choke valve. The shaded areas in the drawings are critical. it should open.002 of an inch. S-20. JET CARBURETOR FQ. l Tank top distortion. 3-17. l Fuel or oil in the diaphragm chamber. the procedure for P&a-Jet tanks has been shown previously in Fig. The choke valve should gutter with each intake stroke. (Courtesy Btiggs & Stratton Corp. 0 Punctured diaphragm. Figure 3-20 illustrates the gaugingprocedure for Vacu-Jettanks. Vacu-Jet tank distortion is critical between the two wells and between the smaller well and vacuum slot. although some pulsation under acceleration is normal. l The tank top shou!d be Cat to within 0.) 69 i .jr these defects: l Carbon or varnish deposits on the choke shaft pivots.Insufficient diaphragm preload (see below). l Excessive diaphragm spring tension. Removethe air tiiter and crank the engine. * Loss of diaphragm spriig tension. Check f. “AC”. The more frequent complaint is failure of the choke to open.

While the otiginal diaphragm may be used as long as it is not Fig. 3-21. The free standing length of the spring should fall between these limits: Model P&a-Jet (all) Vacu-Jet (except engine model 110900) Vacu-Jet (engine model 110900) Mirlimum 1% in. The spring is located by a well in the carburetor body and its free end bears on the diaphragm through a cup. 3-21). (Courtesy Briggs & Stratton Corp.) . The choke spring fits under the diaphragm with the choke link positioned as shown. 3-21). P&a-Jet diaphragms have a second spring for the fuel pump function (Fig. 15/16 of an inch Maximum 1 7/32 inches 1 inch 1 5/16 inches 1% in.The choke Iii is secured to the diaphragmby a clip and spring (Fig.

more e*:. The diaphragmor.. or work hardened. draw down the carburetor mounting screws. is preloaded 71 .(Courtesy Briggs 8 Stratton Corp. most mechanicsreplacethe part eachtime a carburetor is disassembled.1ly. the choke spring. Without releasing the choke valve. located by a recess the in carburetor body.Mount the choke spring and link. Position the pump spring and cup on the P&a-Jet and thread the mounting screws a turn or so into the fuel tank. connect the link to the choke shaft. being careful not to distort the spring in the process. The link passes through a hole in the body. The cap and spring ride on the diaphragm. The choke should be closed and when you tlip it with your finger.DlAPHRAGii --%\- ’ -\ Fig. Tighten the screws evenly in a crisscrosspattern to equalize stresses on the tank.) punctured. creased. return to the closed position. 3-22. Holding the choke valve closed with your finger.

pneumatic and centrifugal 73 . Few loadsare constant. it is strongly suggested that you set the maximumspeedof the governor with the help of a tachometer. InerthI forces on the rod increase as the square of rpm. A 26-inch blade. driven directly from the cranksha& will reach this critical speed at a leisurely 2791 tpm. that is. electronic tachometer hookup involves puGingthe flywheel. The abiity of the governor to hold a predetermined engine speedunder varying loadsis also important. without a governor. This limiting of speed is important becausethe weakest link in a small engine is the connecting rod. For these reasons.but are expensiveand must be connected in parallelwith the points. at 6CHMrpm rod is subject to nine times the stress it is subject to at the 2699rpm. and to hold rpm constant under changing loads. Electronic tachometersare available. On small engines without magneto hill switches. Most mechanics use a vibrating reed tach. the operator would have to make continuous throttle corrections.CHAPT Governors have two functions: to limit no load rpm. In addition. Bfiggs & Stratton engines employ two types of governor. one whose reeds go into hatmonicvibration with exhaust pulses.666feet per minute. the blade tips of rotary lawnmowers must not exceed 19.

Conversely. airstxeamvelocity drops. lmubleshooting Erratic Response. Clean the pivot and install the vane dry. and the vane. and picking it up again. or air vane. Do not expect muchfrom a pneumaticgovernor. subsequently closes the throttle. if the load relaxes. While details of this drawing differ from specific Briggs & Stratton models. Once this compensationis made. losing it. (This is another good reason for fixing the lowest idle limit at 1700 rpm or so. The faster the engine ruus. the bigher the velocity. Throttle plate equilibrium is established at a higher point on the rpm scale. Theair vane is mounted in the cooling air stream under the shroud and is free to pivot under the effects of air velocity. This action causesthe carburetor throttle valve to open wider. picking up a few hundred t-pm. closing the throttle lever relaxes spring tension.) And. It should move freely. At low speeds. engine speed returns to its otigiia! !eve!. governor. there is insuffxient dampeningand the engine hunts. 8y the san~eiuken. The governor has a manualoverride: the operator can increase spring tension by opening the throttle lever. Should the load increase. On rare occasions. biasingthe throttle position in favor of the air vane. The throttle valve is suspendedbetween a spring that will open it andanairvanethat. Remove the shroud and work the mechanismby hand. Smding is usually the fault of a bent link. On new engines. regardless of engine speed. engine speed increases. tbe throttle valve is sometimes fouled 74 . or a link in&&d backwards and rubbing against the carburetor or cooling fins.the vane may bind on its pivots as the result of rust or &I%. oncetheenginestarts. These devices have only one recommendation-they can be manufacturedfor pennies. generating a greater force by the vane to close the throttle. acts tocloseit. and the vane allows the spring to openthe throttle.PNEUMATIC GOVERNOR3 Figure 4-l is a representative drawing of a pneumatic. the functional relationships are the same. the engine momentarily bogs down. response is lethargic. without lubrication. increasing the speedof the engine and the velocity of the cooling airstream.

hunting results from an improperly adjusted carburetor (usually too lean) or excessive 75 . 4-l.DIRECTION OF AIR FLOW AIR VANE Fig. Typical pneumatic gownor. (courtesy Tecumsen rrooucls w. You can usually clear up this problem without disassemblingthe carburetor by using an eye dropper to soak the throttle valve pivots with lacquer thinner.j by paint overspray. Hunting. AssunSnga liueral idle speed.

The trick is to twist the spring . This last symptom means that the coils have fatigued.) free play in the governor linkage. (Courtesy Briggs 8 Stratton Corp. Adjust the carburetor to give instant response as the throttle is tripped open. Many springs are double looped for security. ascertain that the spring is the correct one for the application. each with slightly dEerent characteristics. Forcing these springs open with long nosed pliers will deform the ends and upset governor tibration. effectively increasmc. The spring is the most delicate part of the mechanism.whiledisengaging it. as if you were coiling a length of hose. Removing (A) and mounting (a) double coiled governor springs on here.and the causeof most failures.the length of the spring.lNlS1 SPRINGTWARDS ENDINE UNTIL END OF LOOP CAN SE PUWED UNDER LEVER Ff. 76 . Examine the spring ends for deformation. gently stretching the spring. 4-2. Figures 4-2 and 4-3 illustrate the technique. look for uneven coil separation. and. If at aW possible. There are scores of governor springs.

e2owtesy Bliggs 8 straml Cop) .Removing(A)andmounting(B)doublecoiledspringsongovemorlinks.ORASP SPRING AS wow USEKELE END OP LOOP INTO LINK LVELET NC TDWIOS YOU ~~.e3.

or directly to the throttle valve. This complaintis commonin older engines and is. CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNORS The heart of the mechanism is a pair of revolving weights known asflyweights (Fig. releasingthe enginefrom governor control. In most cases. The weights are driven by a gear and revolve with the engine. Other possible cattses are bids at the link or vane. or by changingthe shapeof the link will probably fail and consequently destroy the engine. A mechanicmay inadvertently reverse these mounting points. clipping. In either event. or reforming the old one. Speed kills aging connectingrods. This outward motion is proportional to the square of engine speed. Inextreme cases. Centrifugal (or. increasing dramatically at high rpm. As the weights move. benign. or connect the vane link at a leverage disadvantage. opening the manual throttle control increases spring tension and causes the engine to run faster. Engine Overspeeds. by stretching. The motion of thelever tends to close thethrottle. Attempting to repair one by substituting a nonstock spring. Most throttle valves have more than one mounting hole for the spring and link. 4-4).thelink can saw its ends off. wear on the link ends will slow governor response and promote hunting. with only the pivots restraining them. or it will self-destruct. the engine must be shutdown immediately. Engine Will Not Reach Full Governered Speed. they slide the cup to the left. this lack of speedcan be cured by replacingthe weakenedspring with the correct one for that mode!e@e. the other end to a bellcrank as shown. 76 .While no great gains can be had from replacing the wire link. In tbis situation.A deformed link or improper throttle spring can also cause this problem. controlling engine speedwith forces of only a few grams. centripedal) force flings the weigbts outward. more precisely.This force is counteractedby a spring that holds the throttle open. camming the follower and its attached lever. CautionaryComment Air vane governors are delicate devices. One end of the spring is attached to the manualthrottle or control cable. in a way.

79 I . Centrifugal governors are quite reliable and are more durable than the engine that drives them. On most applications. Should the load decreasesthe tram of events is reversed: the engine speeds. Most complaints involve minor problemscentering around the throttle spring andlever adjustment. No Governor Response. Throttle valve angleschange before the engine canreact andthe result is hunting. If the governor is involved. 6. the &eights tling outward. This malady-a metronomic gain and loss of rpm under steady or no load conditions-can be causedby a maladjusted carburetor. Failure to Reach Govemored Speed. inability to attain full govemored speed canbe corrected by replacing the spring with another of the same number. Small changesin engine t-pmare sensed and compensatedfor and no load and full load speeds are closely matched. If load increases. Troubleshooting Hunting. the engine momentarily slows. Conversely. links. the flyweights relax. mounting the springs and links far outside of the lever pivots makes the mechanism more sensitive. and the spring opens the throttle to compensate for the increased load. Check for binds at the levers. Smallchangesin engine speed ge unnoticed by the governor and there is a marked variation between no load and full load rpm. Large flyweight movements have smalleffects on the angleof the throttle valve. and the throttle valve closes. the problem can usually be cured by slight changesin the linkage. or intermittent ignition failure. and 8 have no adjustment provision. Mounting the hardware too close to the lever pivots makes the governor overly sensitive. throttle valve. the engine should hold that speed independently of load. and in the centrifugal mechanism&elf. bellcranks and levers are drilled with rows of numberedholes.Once the throttle control level is set. Assuming the linkage moves freely. Models h!. Other engine models can be adjusted to compensate for weak springs. giving alternate positions for spring andLink attachment.Securingthe links and springs near the end of the levers reducesthe sensitivity of the governor. The governor lever must be secured to the governor shaft. But this matching can be carried too far.

8B. the crank.between vertical crank and horizontal crank enginesof the same model. This governor cn these early models has features that mechanics would like to see continued in current models:’ access from outside of the engine. Cleanthe parts andlightly grease all friction surfaces. shown in exploded view in Fig. The crank and bushing come out together.” there is no provision for governor adjustment. Install the crank with the inner tip at the twelve o‘clock position. and factory set maximum speed. differences in performance requirements. Expect to find serious mechanicaldamage. as Briggs & Stratton calls it. Once the shaft is off. position the assembly against the side of the engine block. changes in manufacturing techniques. usually triggered by loss of lubrication. 8. Other than the provision for increasingor decreasingsensitivity which has beendescribed under “Hunting. The gear and cup will slide out with it. and variations in engine layout result in variety. there is room to unthread the bushing. replaceable thread-in bushing. drive out the pin that securesit to the shaft. 4-4. and using a new gasket. The factory has the lever spring in the fourth hole. Displace it as far to the right as it will go. Evenly thread the holddown screws to prevent distortion. To disassemble.80000.Runaway Governor. Remove the two capscrewsholding the governor case to the engine. Gtiggs&SiraGon Governors Although Briggs & Stratton governors are mechanicallyalike. Pin the lever.loosen the pinch bolt on the governor lever and disengagethe lever from the governor shaft. is serviced from outside the engine. Models SB. 60000. or. This governor.remove the two housing screws and gently pry the housing off the side of the block. You may have to rock the flywheel to mate the governor gear with the camshaft. 140000. Supportingthe governor lever on a wood block. ModeIs N. 6. and the upper end of the link in the second hole out from the throttle lever pivot. Shut the engine down immediately and open the governor case for inspection. As the case is 60 . To disassemble. and run in the bushing. in some cases. Teardown andadjustmentprocedures differ between models and.

6B. The shaft and follower can be unthreaded for replacement To reassemble. the part that locates the shaft on the outer side of the bushing. While employing the samelinkageas the governor just described. Holding the shaft.) withdrawn. end down. Draw up the cover screwsevenly over a new gasket. 20000. Allow the shaft to hangfree. Placethe thrust washer over the inboard end of the shaft and mount the gear and cup assembly. bellcrank. with the follower down. 190000. and 320000. Position the governor lever on the shaft. Turn the shaft counterclockwise until the cup is solid against the flyweights. and 140000 is typkal of all centrifugal types. turn the lever counterclockwise as far as it will go. 4-4. 14. Qhten the pinch screw at the lever. 19. the governor gear will slip off its shaft. together with the cup. Centering the pin causesrapid wear on the bushingface. The governor used on models 6B. gently bow the wire links to make connection at the throttle lever. 60000. Do not overlook the steel thrust washer between the gear and case. (Courtesy Brtggs 8 Stratton Corp.60000. 240000. Models 9. To adjust the reassembledgovernor. 230000.300000. The end of the governor shaft is slotted for a screwdriver. 23. this series is disassembledfrom 61 .mount the shaft in its bushingand thread on the follower. should be installed with one end extending out of the shaft. at the six 0’d0ck position. The throttle valve should be hard against its fully open stop. The spring mounts between the short end of the bellcrank and the third hole in the governor lever. The shat?pin. about 30 degrees off the vertical. and governor lever.FQ.

45. The engine must be opened to service either type. UlOfJO. Remove the shaft pulley or drive coupling and polish out any rust or burrs that could score the main bearing. and then mount the flyweight assembly and thrust washer using a new cotter pm. anU251000. Horizontal Crankshaft. models 100000. as component parts are not available separately.allow the crank to hang loosely. jar the plate away from the crankcase. 170000.9. If the centrifugal mechanismis bad. To reassemble. ) inside the crankcase. The flyweight mechanism is secured by a cotter pin and thrust washer. 190000. using a rubber hammer. replace the whole assembly.13000t 1. Remove the cover bolts and. 130000. and 251000. depending upontheir application. 140000. vertical crankshaft governors are mounted under the flange. 170000. or baseplate. The crank is a one piece affair. andare incorporated into the oil slinger.199000. Reassembling the horizontal shaft governor. Adjustment is same as for the series described above. Inspect the 82 . easy to extract oncethe flyweights are out of the way. Horizontal crankshaft governors are mounted under the crankcase cover and are driven by the cam. Thesealuminum block governors differ. Models 100000. (Courtesy International HarvesterCorp.

Do not pry againstthe flangeparting surface. using a new gasket. The engine is secured by bolts through the rim of the flange. With the engineon its side. andin the process. I ne spnng wasner mounts oetween me slinger DracKeran0 riange oil vehal shaft models 100000. This entails removing whatever hardware is on the end of the crankshaft. It is important to install this washer as shown in the drawing. as a further precaution againstbearing and seal damage. Gnirtesy international Harvester Corp. 4-o. Polish the crankshaft and. such as models 100900 and130900. and 251000. Replace the shaft and bushing as required. Pg.governor crank for wear on its rubbing and bearing surfaces.dull the sharp edges of the keyway with a file.190000. Vertical Crankshaft. break the gasket sealwith the help of a rubber hammer.170000.generate an oil leak.) 83 . Remove the engine from the device it powers. place the engine upright in its normal position (Fig. 46). If it is stubborn. and separate the flange. mount the side cover.140000. Secure the flyweight assembly to the shaft with a little heavy grease and. The centrifugal mechanismis built into the oil slinger and should be changedas an assembly. along with control cables and external wiring. have a wave washer outside of the slinger bracket (Fig. To reassemble. remove the capscrewsholding the flange to the block.130000. Tighten down the cover capscrews in a crisscross pattern. as this tactic will separate the parts. 4-5). Some engines.

.Fg. turn the governor crank counterclockwise until you feel the crank seat against the nylon cup. loosenthe pinch bolt on the governor lever ‘(Fig.130000. tighten the pinch bolt. 4-ir.and251000. Using a scx-ewdriver.140000. since the govemor spring tension keepsthe assemblytogether.190000. 4-7). With the throttle full open.) These horizontal and vertical crank&&I engines can be damaged if run out of adjustment.‘Adjustingthe governor on horizontal shaft (A)and vertical shaft (B) ~ines.mod~s10000.170000. The governor is new set.(~ tesyBrtggs&StrattonCorp. With the throttle still open.

and the probable causes of these dif6culties. nouniversal starter systemexists. Most failures are the fault of the user. The best impulse. Briggs & Stratton offers a large selection of starting systems. starters have a short operating life. Below are listed some of the problems which arise with rewind starters. Consequently. MECRARICALSTARTERS 'RewindStartm Rewind. or recoil. Lead acid battery systems are impractical for enties that are stored and not used part of the year. Rewind starters require too much effort for manyelderly people. or spring wound. SYMPTOM Rattles as the engine runs Shrieks as the engine runs PROBABLE CAUSES Misaligned shroud Dry clutch bearing 85 . The cord should be pulled out smoothly and held while it retracts. starters were introduced on small engines Rfty years ago by Jacobsenand remain the most popular type. The 115V AC starters limit an engine’s portability. each tailored to a particular segment of the market.Becauseof the many different cx&ions under which small engines operate.

insufficient mainspring Broken sprag clutch Refuses to rewind Refuses to disengage sprag Clutch ecoil and impulse starters drive through a sprag clutch that doub!es as the flywheel nut. Its outside end mates with the starter pulley. mounted to the clutch housing by four self-threading 86 . and its lower.SEAL RATCHET CLUTCti HOUSING Fg. the sprag traps a ball bearing between it and the clutch housing. or inside end. and the sprag idles on the bushing. When rotated by the starter pulley. S-1. The clutch housing (Fig. rides against four on six ball bearings in the starter housing. Thecurrent production sprag clutch. To service the clutch. the ball bearing releases. The sprag (r&et in the drawing) is supported by a bushing on the crankshaft stub. Once the engine catches. (Courtesy International Harvester -P-h SYMPTOM Starter slips PROBABLE CAUSES Wear or dirt in the sprag clutch. locking the starter to the crankshaft. remove the engine shroud and the screen. 51) threads over the cranksahft. bent or worn friction link assembly (vertical pull only) Misaligned shroud. oil on starter cord. weak or broken mainspring.

Unthread the clutch assembly using factory tool number 19114.screws. the assemblycan be !oosenedwith a hammer and a block of soft wood. the part that makes contact with the bearings. Somedeformation of the clutch housing is normal.l~%OOO 140000. 5-2). Carefully straighten the pulley tangs. without lubricant. To dismantle the starter. pull the main spring out of the housing as far as it will come (Fig. Using a pair of pliers. Install the spring washer and torque to specificationsin Table 5-l.261000. A spring washer fits under the clutch assembly. Clean the metal parts in solvent and inspect for damage. the retainer cover was secured with a spring wire: on late models the cover must be pryed off.Clutch HousingTorque limits Cast-IronSeries 6B. twisting it slightly to disengagethe spring. If this tool is not available.191700. Secure the flywheel with a strap wrench or a Briggs & Stratton holding fixture. Somedamageto the screen lugs is inevitable.170000. and ball bearingsin solvent. 6ooo. Horizontal Pull Starter. 1wooo loOOOO. For further protection. 68. Clean the sprag. 62ooo‘ 92ooo. can cause the clutch to slip. The purpose is to bind the spring so that it will not -“‘explode”when the pulley is detached. Reassemblethese parts dry. remove the shroud and place the assembly upside down on a bench (Fig. wear safety glasses. 190000. 5-3.60000.1717000. On early models.190000*2OOOOO 115 Torque(ft-lb) 55 60 65 87 . clutch housing. Withdraw the pulley. Cut the rope at the pulley knot and extract it. and iightly oil the bushing. AluminumSeries 19. but is less than fatal if distributed evenly to all four lugs. Wear on the tip of the sprag. Disconnect and ground the spark plug lead to prevent accidental starting. Table S-l.

past the spring anchor. Cut a short length of one by one to fit the pulley socket. Early model pulleys have a guide lug which must be outside of the rope FQ. (Couttesy Brtggs & Stratton Corp. Back the spring off one turn to align the rope knot hole in the pulley with the rope guide in the shroud. Bend the tangs to make light contact with the pulley. guiding the spring up and into the anchor slot. Thread the three end out through the shroud. or hold the shroudin a large vise. Lightly grease the sprirg and attachit to the pulley.) 88 . 5-Z. 54. Wind the pulley tight. Briggs & Stratton Corp.Fig. Without releasing the puUey. thread the rope into it. Newstylespringendsimprovethereliabilityofthesestarten. Disarm the spring befora disassembly.) (Courtesy Securethe shroud to the workbench with several large nails.

Fish the end of the rope through the knot hole. 54. andsealthe fmyed edges with a match. tie it. except that there is no lug to frustrate your work. @ii. loosen the shroud and reposition it. leaving some three quarters of an inch of rope beyond the knot. Install the shroud assembly on the engine. Bend the Lugsso that the nylon bumpers are one sixteenth of an in& below the pulley (the bumpers were againstthe pulley during winding for better control).FQ. Whensbingingtheoldstylestarter.The process is the same with new style pulleys. (Courtesy Briggs 8 Stratton Corp.) therope must pass insideofthe lug. If it is slow to retract or bids. Vertical Pull Starter. centering it over the flywheeL Test the starter. Once the engine fires. Secure the handle with a figure eight knot. Releasethe spring in a controked manner and allow the rope to wind. the gear retmts back down the thread The main spring is under some tension and you should wear 89 . A Lengthof piano wire is helpful to force the’rope past the lug. Puiiing on the rope sends a nylon gear into engagement with the ring gear on the underside of the flywheeL The nylon gear moves on a thread by virtue of a friction spring and link (an arrangement reminiscent of that usedon bicycle coaster brakes). Seal the end with heat and slip the handle pin through one of the knot loops. S-4). This starter is conzkiered a safety feature on rotary iawnmowers. Rush the knot down into the hole for clearance. The vertical pull starter is a convenience on vertical crankshaft engines which prevents the operator from havingto crouch alongsidethe engine to start it.

FQ.5-S. Using a piece of piano wire in conjunction with long nosed pliers. The friction spring and link are the most vulnerable elements in this me&r&m. See that the link and spring assembly move the drive 98 . Removethe rope guide. S-5). pull the rope far enough out of the pulley to cut the knot. usinga screwdriver. Do not pull on the rope with the cover disengaged. Clean mechanicalparts in solvent. safety g&es when servicing this starter. When you are finished. 5-7) for assemblyreference. Disarm the Briggs vetical pull starter by lifting a foot or so of rope out of the pulley groove. Disarm the spring by Wing the rope out of the pulley groove and winding the pulley. 5-6). If the spring is to be replaced. gently pry the cover off. Remove the anchor bolt and anchor. noting how the spring mates with it (Fig. Observe the warning stampedon the plastic starter cover and. several turns counterclockwise (Fig. there should be no tension on the pulley and approximately one foot of rope should be free. together with the freed section of rope. observing the position of the link (Fig. carefully work it out of the housing.

Spaceis critical.56. Observe the position of the friction link before disassembly. wiping down the melted fibers with b. Begin reassemblyby installing the spring in its housing. Extract the end of the rope from behindthe pulley.) of traveL If there is any hesitation.Removatheanchorbolandspring. 5-7. Melt the ends with a flame. andno more than a sixteenth of an inch of rope should extend beyond the knot.Fig. Slip one end into the retainer slot and wind the spring counterclockwise (Fig. hard knot. Using a length of piano wire or a jeweler’s screwdriver. and tie a small. (Courtesy Briggs 8 Stratton Gory) 91 . S-8). replace these parts. snake one end of the rope into the pulley. gear to its extremes (Courtesygriggs&StrattonCorp.

and to assure that the rope will be rewound smartly. 5-S. 5-9). Once the handlebutts against the starter case.1 92 . 5-10). secure the spring anchor with 80-90 in-lb of torque.Fig. PuUthe rope tight. Install the rope guide with the link positioned as it was originally found (Fig. anchor it in the retainer slot and wind cow tefclockwise. 5-11). Wind the spring counterclockwise with your thumbsto retract the rope (Fig. Snapthe starter cover into place and disengageapproximately one foot of rope from the pulley (Fig.) a shop rag to reduce their diameter. Give the rope andpulley two or three dockwise turns to preload the main spring. Fig. To install the spring. Install the friction link behind the rope guide. (Courtesy ariggs8 Stratton Corp. and check that the knot clears the threads. (Courtesy Eiriggs8 Stratton cocp. Lightly lubricate the spring with motor oil. 5-8.

5-10. ratchet.) Impulse Starter The purpose of the impulse. or ratchet. starter is to reduce peak cranking effort. But the average effort is increasedsince one must store enough energy in the spring to spin the engine and to overcome the inefficiency of the crank.1 93 . And this it does. (Courtesy Briggs 8 Stratton Corp. Wind the spring counterclockwise to retract the rope. 5-11. Preload the spring two or three rotations. (Courtesy Sriggs 8 Stratton rp.Fig. I.

If the spring is whole. turn the knob or lever to the crank position. but stand clear and hold the crank with your free hand. and the other with a ratchet release. 5-12). or broken main springs. To prevent serious injury. (Thedratingismisleading-doNOTplaceyourforearm inthepalhofthe wank. The spring must be disarmed before the starter is disassembled and the spring must remain in its retainer at all times. replacing those that show evidence of severe wear. A quick way to check for a broken spring is to place the control onstart and wind the crank. If the engine is locked and the starter fails to unwind. both the flywheel and starter clutch ratchet will turn. The two models that Briggs & Stratton builds. Disarm the Briggs ratchet starter by loosening the central Phillips screw. Clean the parts in solvent. attempting to start a baulky engine with one of these devices is exhausting. enough to break an arm. the model with a sear 94 .’ one with a trigger that bears against the flywheel fins. are more reliable than the impulse starters fitted to other engines.) and spring. Do not attempt to service a starter with a broken spring retainer. But do not be surprised to find worn sears. Considerableenergy is stored in the spring. damagedsprag clutches. 512. hold the crank handle in one hand and remove the Phillips screw at the top of the assembly (Fig. broken 5ywheels (on the direct release model). Releasespring tension by placing the control knob or remote control lever in the start position. As any men mechanic knows.Fig. The direct release starter.

Grease the parts indicated. (Courtesy Briggs & Stratton Corp. Bend the shroud tabs down securely over the retaining plate.Briggs & Stratton engines may be fitted with any of five distinct electric starting systems. 5-13).that engagesthe flywheel fins. 5-13.retainer. ELECTRIC STARTERS Dependingupon the model and the date of manufacture. four ball clutch. greasealI parts that are subject to severe wear (Fig. Except for the spragclutch. uses the old style. The lever release model uses the six ball clutch.) . Three of these systems operate from a 12V lead Fig. Note the spring washerbetween the retaining plate and main spring.

Briggs & Stratton suggests two test parameters. The armature can be withdrawn from the drive side with the pulley still attached. an ammeter. no load rpm and no load current draw. The current readings in Table 5-2 are steady draw readings-disregard initial surges. Take off the brush cover and cap. for the motors that dealer mechanics service (excluding Delco and Prestolite motors). or a 1lOV AC source. To perform these tests. these motors are typical of all gear driven types. two from 1lOV line voltage. the power supply is a tidly charged6V or 12V leadacidbattery or 12V Nicad battery. and the probable causes of these difticulties. In so far as basic constructionaifeatures are concerned. you will need a hand held tachometer. Starter motor failure can be traced to: 96 . Below are listed some of the problems which arise with electric starters. Delco-Remy and Prestolite belt drive motors are distinguished by field coils. and a power supply. Dependingupon the starter motor.acid or Nicad battery. and 190000 series engines. SYMPTOM Does not crank PROBABLE CAUSES Low battery Low tine voltage (llOV model) High resistance connection Open starter switch Hay load Defective motor or rectifier (1lOV model) Low battery Low line voltage (1lOV model) High resistance connection Worn motor bearings Worn or sticking brushes Heavy load crsnks slowly Stafter Motors-All Models Figure 5-14 illustrates the three starter motors availablefor the 140000. 170000. Mark the end cap and motor frame for assemblyreference and remove the two through bolts that secure the cap to the frame.

(Courtesy Briggs & Stratton Corp. Typical starter motors.Optional 12 V Motor 110 v Motor Fig. or grounded armature l Shorted. opened. 5-14.) Biding (scored or dry) armature shaft bearings 9 Worn armature shaft bearings l Shorted. opened. or grounded field l Brushes worn to half or less of their original length l Brushes sticking in their holders l .

14oooo.170000. Steady DrawCurnnl Ratings.32o4oo 14oooo.Table!L2.190000 1lOVAC . 170000. *2V DC geared (American Bosch No.1go000 11OV AC geared 12V DC geared 110V AC geared 12V AC geared 12V DC geared 3oo4oo.

(Courtesy Tecumseh Products Co.Severe out-of-round. being careful not to score the bearingbosses and drive in new ones to the depth of the originals. Glaze and minor imperfectionscanbe removed with number 00 sandpaperas shown in Fig. deep pits. 5-16).) . Cleaning the commutator. A sharp hammer blow will lift the bushing by hydraulic pres- Fig. A small chisel can be used to split the bushing. The starter may turn freely by hand. or scores should be corrected with a lathe. groan through a revolution or so. then bind. then ram the bushingout with a punch that matches the diameter of the motor shaft. Bushings in motor end covers can be removed by any of several methods. Bearings are the next most likely area of failure.5. The neatest technique is to pack the boss with heavy grease. Drive out the old bushings. and clear the 6lings with compressed air. but when engaged against the flywheel. Polish the commutator to remove burrs. 5-1. cut down the micawith a tool designed for this purpose. flat edged jeweler’s 6le (Fig. American Bosch end cover bushings have a flange to accept thrust loads that can he used as a purchasepoint to collapsethe bushing inward. AtIer any of these operations. 5-15. B-urnedcommutator bars signala shorted winding.Reddishbrown discolorationson the commutator bars are normal and mean that the brushes have seated. or with a narrow.

Underarttingthe mica. Handle the EOV probes with extreme caution-holding one in each hand means that an electric current could pass through the vulnerablethOl. 6-16. 100 .START UNDERCUT 34ORNERED FILE COMMUTAT SEGMENTS MICA FINISH WITH EDGES MUST BE FREE OF MICA Fg. Check for shorts between the shaft and armature with a 12OVtest lamp. All iron and steel parts must be electrically isolated from nonferrous (brass or copper) parts. Checkadjacentcommutator bars by the samemethod.) The armature can develop shorts.SX. (Courtesy Kohler of Kohler.

or extreme vibration can.Sincefew shopshavethe necessaryequipmentto “recharge”them. Smail Appliance Repair Guide.shorts betweenthe windings sometimes rectifiedby warmingthe starter framein can be anovenat 275degreesFahrenheit a few hours. welding on Arc adjacentparts. Test for shorts to the tiame with an ohmmeteror 12QV probes.If the insulationis not visibly burned. Otherwise.) 101 . (Courtesy Tecumseh Products Co.Internal winding-to-windingshorts can be detected with a growier.the for Fig.a broken connection betweenthe armatureand a commutatorbar. weakenthe magnets. but a few autoparts to houseskeep one for customeruse. however.Rewindway ing costsmore than a replacement. 5-17. in 555. 5-17).Unless the damage visible. If oneof the armaturetidings is shorted. AmericanBosch motors use permanentmagnetfields that require no service under normal circumstances. the field must be replaced. You canbuild one aroundthe coreof a television powersupplytransformerasdetailed TAB No. Checking for internal (winding-to-winding) shorts with a growlor and hacksaw blade. thereis nopractical to repairanarmature. as for is example.a hacksaw bladewill vibratewhenplaced overthe affected armaturesegment (Fig. An openwindingwill generatesparksbetweenthe bladeandadjacent commutatorsegments. Delco-Remy starter generatorsemployconventionally wound fields.Thesetooisarefairlyexpensive buy.

(Courtesy Briggs 8 Stratton Carp.) fieldswill haveto be replaced.Fig.Onebrushor brush set shouldbe grounded the frame. 518). Starter Drives The 12V Delco-Remy starter generatorcombination driven is by a singleor ‘andemV-belt andremainsin constantengagement .The brushesshould free to to be movein their holders.In mostcases. while the remaining to brushor brushset connects the armature. A homemade tool used to owrcome brush spring tension during reassembly.Removethe frame screwswith an impact driver and. The brushesmust haveat least half of their originallengthto.andtheassembly mustbefree of carbon dust andoil deposits. maintain pressureagainst commutator the bars.the brushesmustbe “shoe-homed” over the commutator with a homemadetool (Fig. 5-18. stake the screws. once the new parts are installed.

103 . The motor may be mountedlow on the block or. 5-19. Note the dimensions Fig. 519). Turn the ignition switch off.In either configuration. rotate the flywheel by hand to the thresholdof the compression stroke.or crackedalongits inner circumference.If the dimensionis Fig. The llOV Presto&estarter drivesthrougha pulleyclutch. 5-20B). The 12V starter generator combination used on some Briggs 8 Stratton engines. 5-2OC).in the high position.The A depthof the belt in the sheave shxdd fall between3/32 and% of an inch. To test. gouged. andcrankthe enginewith the the startermotor. If the dimension 11:s~ this during cranking.The belt should in trackinsideof the restrictor barsanddimension (Fig. Belt tensionis correct if there is % of an inch free play betweenpulley centers. the motor is pivoted and securedby a pinch bolt. Tandem belts shouldbe replacedas matchedsets. 5-20.The belt shouldengage the motor andshoulddisengage soonas with as the enginestarts. Replace belt with a heatandoil resistantBriggs& Strattonpart if the worn.movethe is thaIi starter away from the engine (Fig.(Fig. connect powercord to a 1lOVoutlet. as shownin the drawing.

movethe starter towardthe engine(Fig. The pinionengages ring gearon the inboardsideof the flywheel. The pinionshouldthreadout on the motor shaftwhenturnedcounterclockwise.In mostcases. The sparkmight ignite gasolinevapors. Remove starter motorfrom the engineandvisuallyinspect the the pinionandring gearsfor burrs andchippedteeth. Somesmall damage beexpected.disassemble If theunit by removing springclipandcleanthepartsin solvent. Other starter motors drive by meansof an inertialclutchnot unlikethe Bendixunit familiarto automotivemechanics 514).Fii. a either directly or throughthe intermediaryof a reductiongear. of 52OD). S-20.1 greaterthan?41 an inch. can is repairscanbe madewith a file. @wtesy Briggs sbatfon Corp.sinceengagement brutal. DO NOT break the line cord connection while the starter motor is engaged. (Fig.No the 104 . Be!!slack iscritical for the 120V Prestolife system. it sticks.

S-21. (Courtesy Bdggs 8 Stratton Corp. Wtring varies somawhet with application.12v Fg. The Delco-Rmy 12 volt stsmr~snerator.) .

with the exceptionof the ring gear. spareparts are unavailable. although other examples featurea solenoid ratherthana mechanical switch.Battery failure canbe detectedby the tests described the foJlowing in chapter.the assembly mustbereplaced because. Most problemswith this systeminvolvethe battery.and eachcell shouldgive a hydrometerreadingof at least 1.PLUNGER WlNDlNGS MOTOR TERMINAL BATTERY TERMINAL SPRINGS ‘-&& CONiACT DISC / DUST CAP Fig. 106 .andanammeter rather thananidiot light. (Courtesy OMC.05 points variationbetweencells. The battery must havea capacityof 40-45 ampere-hours. and the terminals should be routinely disconnected. scrapedbright. and tightenedsecurely. Starter solenoid cutaway.) lubxkation (otherthansilicone coldweather)is allowed. 5-22.Fii 5-21 illustrates typicalwiring. A low chargeca? result kom battery inactivity-a lead acid batteryself-discharges the rate of onepercenta day-or failureof at the battery or chargingsystem. The Briggs & Stratton version is built by Delco-Remy.240with no more than 0. Combination starter generatorsets were oncefoundon a few smallimportedmotorcycles small-bore and Chrysleroutboards.If cleaning in doesnot curethe problem. The battery top shouldbe wiped down to prevent leakagebetweenthe terminals.

the fault is elsewhere. Test by connecting heavygauge a jumper betweenthe battery and motorterminals. the generatorfield coils are gounded must and CURRENT-VOLTAGE GENERATOR ARMATURE (A) TERMINAL (NOTSHOWNON UNOERSIOE) Fig.The ammetershouldshowa charge at approximately rpm.Otherthanthe battery andterminals. Typical voltage and current regulator. or positiveleadto lead the B wire.If the starter works on the jumper. Remove B (battery) terminalat the voltageregulatorandconthe nect the ammeterin serieswith it.the problemis in the switch or solenoid. How muchamperage delivered 2000 is depends uponthe stateof chargeof the battery. 5-23. That is. If the meter shows10amps or more.) . or negative instrument goesto theregulator. disconnect F (field) terminal at the regulator.if the starter fails to spin. the black. (Courtesy Kohler of Kohler. 5-22). Start the engine.the mostvulnerable part of this systemis the starter switch. A 15ampammeteris requiredto checkthe chargingsystem.andthered.Should the outputremainhigh.or optionalsolenoid (Fig.

A healthygeneratorwill put out 10amps or more.the regulatoris defective. 14wire from a good. But the most frequent causeof cookedpoints is a poor regulator ground. or The regulator usually goes out in response to trouble elsewhere the chargingcircuit (Fig.If outputceases.berepairedor replaced.run a lengthof No. Burnedpointsmay meanreversedpolarity. or high resistancein the chargingcircuit. .If the regulatoris not electricallyonewith the engine.No chargewith the F that leadgrounded meansthat the generatorbrushesor armaturehave opened shorted.paintandrust free engineground to oneof the regulatorholddownbolts. Burnedcurrent coils in (distinguished from voltage coils by the heavy windings)usually meana short in the externalwiring or battery. with momentarily short theleadto the engine block. 5-23). If thereis nocharge theF leaddisconnected.signaling the regulatorhasfailed.

The battery and straps-the internalbusses connectthe cells-are castaspart that of the terminals. At least someof the sulphate dissolves andgoesbackinto solution.Howeverthe best cure is prevention.poor vibrationhrsulation. Deepcharge-discharge cyclesencourage sulphation if the and.or i.The plates becomeimpregnatedwith sulphate crystalsandare no longerableto take part in the ion exchange that generates electricalpotential.canoverheatthe battery.A partial cure is to trickle chargethe batteryfor a weekor more. systemis not properlyregulated.cn a temperature-corrected hydrometer.The Nicadsystemis recharged from house current by way of a step-downtransformer andrectifier.The extentandrate of discharge bereduced can 109 .i22C.and the state of chargeshouldbe held above75%. melting holesin the plates. owner abuse. Distilledwater shouldbe addedas neededto coverthe plateswith electrolyte.CHAPTER The va.Twisting the cablesor over-tightening terminal the bolts canfracture the straps. Electrical failure is usually associatedwith chronicallylow states of charge.tious enginemodelsemployfive distinct alternatorsfor use with leadacidbatteries. STBRAGE BATTERIES Storagebatteries can fail either mechanically electrically. or Theleading causes mechanical of failureare loosebatteryhold-down hardware.

000.j. usuallymeasured ampere-hours.The more acidin the electrolyte.In other words. The less cranking better. of in although more sophisticated yardsticksare available.it shouldbe noted that the capacity the battery hassomebearinguponits longevity. Beforeturning to specifictest procedures.The battery 110 .eventhe largebattery must be recharged. A hydrometer consistsof a squeeze bulb. afloatchamber. The first evidence chargingsystemfailure is a low battery.!lasa specificgravity of 1.Whilehydromewith ter resultsdonot takethe placeof a performance the hydrometest. that depends and uponthe outputof the alternatorand uponthe way the engineis used. completely A discharged batterywill havea specific gravity ontheorder of 1.Sulphuricacid. the Self-discharge be controlledby frequent transfusionsand by can keepingthe battery top andterminalsclean.100.Ultimately. 6-1A.88.The rate of chargeis. Eachcell in a fully charged battery shouldhavea specificgravity of 1. cannotcompensate for longterm withdrawals. practicallyspeaking+ beyondowner control. particularlyif thebattery showssignsof fatigue. Draw enoughelectrolyteinto the hydrometerto set the float adrift. of ‘The state of charge-how must potential is available the batin tery-is mosteasilymeasured a hydrometer.880 times heavierthan an equal amountof water. Repeattheoperationonthe others.The float is calibrated unitsof in speciftc gravity. of AUthingsbeingequal. But the capacity thebattery. the other ingredientof electrolyte. The float must not touchthe sidesof the instrument.280.Waterhasa specific graivty of 1. a and preciselyweighted float (Fig. the greater the chargeandthe heavierthe electrolyte.240-1. sulphuricacid is 1. The amountof acidin the electrolytereflectsthe state of charge.by keepingthe battery chargedand the enginein tune.A smallalternatorthat is adequate for one start a day may not deliverthe current for twenty starts a QY. ter is the instrumentto be tried first.Sight aaosSthe mainlevel of the instrument. althoughit is wise to invest in an ammeterto keep an eye on the system. and record the specific gravityfor that cell.a larger battery will outlive onethat delivers its last erg of energy each time the engine is cranked. disregarding menicus the that clings to the sides of the chamber.

The mostreliablefield test requiresa carbonpile (Fig. 6-l.0 VOLTS (-12 VOLT BAT.220to preventbattery damage.+a HYDROMETER TEST EYE ON LEVEL WITb LIQUID SURFACE MAKE CORRECTION FOR TEMPERATURE LOAD TEST DISCHARGE BATTERY AT RATE OF 200 AMPERES FOR 15 SECONDS .004)to the reading add subtract four points for each ten degrees below 80 degrees Fahrenheit.Any accuratethermometerwilt work.1 Fig. A battery hydrometer and rhacstat. that The higherthe temperature the electrolyte. . Expensive hydrometerssometimes incotporazea thermometerin the barrel anda temperature-compensating scale. While raw.the lower the appaof rent specificgravity.----. For eachten degrees above degrees 80 Fahrenheit four points(0. . it shouldbe remembered acidand water expandwhen heated. VOLTAGE SHOULD NOT DROP BELOW 0.005)below the averageof the others. The temperature-compensated specific gravityshould at least1. (Courtesy OMC. 6-1B)or a rheostatanda voltmeter. uncorrectedreadingsare generallyadequate.) shouldhe suspectedof malfunctioning any of the cells fall five if points (0. be Connect 1’11 .

Thebatterymustbeout of the circuit. The rectifier convertsalternatingcurrent into pulsating directcurrent.connecta number4001headlamp betweenthe rectitier output and a paint free engineground(Fig. Undernocircumstances Fig.Continue discharge fifteen seconds.62. 6-Z).the voltmeteracrossthe terminals adjusttheloadto three times and the ampere-hour rating.5Amp Alternator The 1. If it does. For example. To test the alternatoroutput. of ALTERNATORS The usualBriggs & Stratton approach to provide battery is chargingcurrent with an enginedriven alternator and solid state rectifier. there is no regulator.the battery shouldbe suspected malfunctioning.the carbonpile shouldbe adjusted discharge 30 ampere-hour to a battery at the rate of 90 amps. no time during to for At the test shouldthe voltmeterregister lessthan9.The moresophisticated systemsinclude solidstate a voltageregulatorto protect the battery from overcharging to and extendheadlamp Optional life. The 1.intended to replenish 12ampere-hour a battery.5ampalternatoris the peeweeof the series.All systemsemploya leadacid storagebattery. (CourtesyBriggs&StrattonCorp.6V. Other thanthe resistance the of battery and the enginespeedgovernor.) 112 .Testingoutputofthe 15Aalternator. featuresincludean ammeterandan isolationdiode.

Connecta 12V test lamp between the rectifier output and the 113 .Oamp alternatoris a variationof the onejust described.Fig. 6-3). comparethe magneticstrength of the flywheel ring against knownto be good. to Youshould continuityin onedirection.Test the rectifier first. If not. torquing the capscrews18-24 in-lb. Troubleshooting proceduresbegin with a short-circuit test. (CourtesyBriggs8StrattonCorp. If the lamprefusesto Light.andweIf the clear of the flywheeL The 4. checkthe leads to the stator for possiblefouling.PestingsJatorofthe 15AaRernator. sinceit is the more likely failure point.63. If not.andhighresistance the get in other. Seethat the outputleadsare snugagainst block.the fault is in the rectilier or the alternator. 6-3. Install a replacementstator.Before decidingthat the stator is defective.) should outputof this or anyother alternatorbe grounded.0 Amp Alternator The4.as shownin Fig.FaCure exceedingly one is rare. Thelampshouldbum. Test the stator with a 4001 headlamp connectedacrossthe outputleads(Fig. replacethe rectifier box. do the To so is to invite burnedcoils andfried diodes.touch the probesof a low voltage ohmmeter the outputterminalandground. but not impossible. It has eight chargingcoils (insteadof three) andis protectedby an in-linefuse. With the enginestopped.

7. the to rectifier is at fault andmust be replaced. 6-5. Should a diodeblow. Checkeachof the four rectitierterminals anohmmeter. Make necessaryrepairs with electrician’stape and silicone cement. Eachpair of pinssupplies currentto a diodein the rectifier.OA and dual drcuit alternators. If the lampgoesout.Fii. 6-4). the rectifier is okay andthe problemlies in the alternatorandassociated wiring.eachinvolvingtwo coils. Inspectthe output leadsfrom the alternatorfor frayed insufation or other evidence shortsbefore replacingthe stator assemof bly.OA. If the lamplights. battery current is beingfed back to groundthrough the charging circuit. a quarter of the output is lost. (Cow tesy mgga a smtoll Corp.A breakin oneof the windingsdropsoutputby a third. Check eachof the four pins with the fuse holderleadasshownin Fig. 6-4. This alternatorhasfour distinct windings.Oneprobeshould onagood with be (paintlessand rustless) ground on the undersideof the blower bowing. the other probe shouldbe on one of the diodeconnection 114 . If the lampcontinues burn.) positiveterminalof a charged battery (Fig. Testing for shorts in the 4. Unplugthe rectifier connection underthe blowerhousing.

by 6-6).) points. 6-5. 6-6. The 7. resting the rtator on the 4.Fr. Some installations employan isolationdiodein a tubularjacket FUSE . (Courtesy Briggs (L Stratton Corp. will havecontimuity onedirection is it in and very high resistancein the other. Repeat the test for the remaining three connection points.OA alternator configuration.0 Amp Alternator The 7. STATOR / ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY RE’kJLATOR ASSEMBLY Fig.0 and 7. ! flanked a regulatorononesideandthe rectifier on the other(Fig.OA alternator.0 ampalternatoris usedon series 140000. and 1 190000 enginescan easily be recognizedby the connectorplug.Observethe meter andreversethe test connections. The 7. the If diodein question functionaI. (Courtesy Briggs 8 Stratton Corp.) 115 .170000.

6-4.Withoutremoving rectifier the 116 .If the lamplights.Test to thesetwo components individuaiiy determinewhichis at fa-ult. regulator. Two blackleads. The lampshouldnot light. Applications do not havethis diode isolate the battery at the that ignitionswitch. theregulatoror rectifier is shorted. Eachleadservices pins go two onthe rectiiier sideof the connector.Check diodecontinuity with an ohmmeterconnectedbetween the two diode leads. If it does.removingthe stator from the circuit. If thelampcontinues burn.Thepurpose to blockcurrentleakage is from the battery to ground by way of the alternator windings. joinedby aconnector. Testing the isolation diode on the 7. To test the stator. to therectifier.) onthe outsideof the shroud. 6-7).or rectifier.OA alternator. oneof the three is shorted. connect test lampas a shownbackin Fig. Do not start the engine. Test the isolation diodeby connecting 12Vlampin serieswith a the output(Fig.FROM EQUIPMENT TEST Fig. 6-7. The meter shouldshow zero resistancein one direction andhigh resistance when the leadsare reversed. to Test the rectifier as describedpreviously. (Courtesy Briggs 8 Stratton Corp.the diode is shortedand must be replaced.Disconnect rectifier regulatorplug the underthe blower housing.

rectifier is open. The meter should show someoutput at mediumand high enginespeeds. if no currentpasses. 6-4. or a failure of the rectifier or alternator. Connect 12Vtest lampbetweenthe battery andthe charging a sectionas illustrated in Fig.Instructionsare packaged with the new part.Headlight outputis alternating candeliver5.The pinsshouldconductin onedirectionandnot in the other.assembly from the shroud. 6-8). Checkoutput with an ammeterin series with the positive battery terminal (Fig. The regulatoris distinguished one red andonewhite lead.If it is necessary replace give to the regulator.Two stator windings are providied.connectohmmeterleadsbetweeneach of the four pins and a paint free ground on the undersideof the shroud. The lamp shouldnot light.The AC circuitis independent the charging of circuit. the alternatoror rectifier is defective. disconnectthe plug . Charging Circuit. If current flows in both directions.In either event. check with the visiblewiring for defectsbefore investingin a new stator.underthe shroud. Eachcircuit is treated separately here.8 ampsat 12Vat wide openthrottle.instructionsare suppliedwith the replacement part.5amps AGCor 3AG type automotivefuse and may be suppliedwith an ammeter. If the tight goes out.If not. and The batteryciicuit is protectedby a 7.onefor the headlights the other for the battery. If it does. although goodpractice demands both be grounded the sameenginemounting that at bolt. shortedor open wiring. Dual Circuit Alternator The dualcircuit alternatoris technicallythe most interesting alternatorusedon Briggs& Strattonengines. the rectifier is good.andthe difficultyis in the alternatoror its external 117 . 6-5. the rectifier is shorted.The white leadpin must show someconductivity in onedirection none. Thered leadpm should noreadingin either direction.Observethe meter readingat each pin and reverse the leads. the assembly the must be replaced. and Battery outputis rectified andrated at 3 amps.No charge indicatesa blown fuse.To isolatethe problem. Eachof the four pinsmustbecontiguous theleadat thefuseholder.or almost and none. by Test asabove. Checkstator continuityas shownin Fig.in the other.

Testing DC output on the dual circuit alternator. If the light continues burn. The rectifier mountsunderthe fan shroudwhereit is serviced by a three-prong connector plug. To test the stator.Observethe meter andreverse of the test leads. Test for continuityby holdingthe probesagainstthe two blackpins (Fig. the rectifier is shortedto to groundandmust be replaced. Test the stator by connectingan ohmmeter betweenthe terminalat the fuseholderandthe red lead pin in the connector. shroud. If the circuit is open. (Courtesy Briggs 8 :ratton Corp.the stator must be replaced.being carefulto route the lead away from moving parts.If not.g. Test for shorts by connecting ohmmeterbetweena good the groundandeachof the three blackleadpinsin sequence (Fig. 6-8. 6-9).Openthe plugandconnect test one lead from an ohmmeterto the red lead pin.) circuitry.The meter shouldshow continuity. the stator is good. g-10).Inspectthe red outputleadfor frayedor brokeninsulation. and flywheel. If the meter showscontinuity. 6-10). The meter should report high resistancein one 118 . the stator is openandmust be replaced. remove the starter motor. Repairwith electricaltape andsilicone. and the other to the underside the shroud(Fig.

SHOULD READ ZERO FQ. 6-g. Testing for shorted charging coils in the dual circuit atrernaror. t-rtesy Eriggs 8 Stratton Corp.)

Fig.6-lg. Testing charging wilcontinunyon weaua~ ~~~II~~I~IvI. f3Ifggs&S&~OllCOrp.) 119

Fig. 6-l 1. Testing AC circuit continuity on the dual circuit alternator. (Courtesy Briggs & Stratton Corp.)

directionandnoresistance the other. Do the samefor eachblack in leadpin. The lightingcircuit shouldbe tested with a number4001headlampconnected betweenthe output terminal anda reliableengine ground.Thelampshould bumbrightlyat medium engine speeds. it If doesburn brightly, the problemis in the externalcircuit, between the engineandthe vehiclelights. If the lampdoesnot light or burns feebly,the problemis in the alternator.Checkcoil continuitywith a ohmmeter shownin Fig. 6-11.Highor intlniteresistance as means a defectivestator.
The 10 Amp Regulator

Usedon the series200406 320400engines, alternator and this is aheavydutydevice,delivering better than4 amps 2000rmpand at lull rating at 3600t-pm.The regulatoris more flexible than those used on the smallerengines,and can handlelarge loadswithout overcharging battery. the Checkvoltage acrossthe battery terminals with the engine turning at full govemoredrpm. Less than 14V on a fully charged battery meansstator or regulator-rectifierproblems. Disconnect plug at the regulator-rectifierand connectan the AC voltmeterto eachof thetwo outsideplugterminals(Fig. 6-12).A readingof less than 20V per terminal meansa defective stator. Checkthe regulator-rectifier default:that is, if the systemfailsto by deliver sufficientchargingvoltage and the stator appearsokay, replacethe regulator-rectifier.
120

THEWAD SYSTEM

An option on 92000and 110900engines,the Nicad system consistsof a gear driven starter motor, starter-ignitionswitch, plug-inbattery charger, anda 12V nickel-cadmium battery. Since this system is intended for rotary lawnmowerapplications, the starter-ignitionswitch is mountedon the handlebar where it is by electically isolatedfrom the eng+ The switchstopsthe engine grounding magneto the primarycircuit throughthe connector clippedonthe engineshroud.If theconnector comes of its clip,the free magneto be deniedground,andthe enginewill continueto mu will regardless the switch setting. of The tist placeto check, shouldtrouble arise, is the battery. Nickel-cadmium are by no meansimmortal.Load the battery cells with two G.E. number4001sealedbeamheadlamps connected in parallel(Fig. 6-13). Monitor the voltage.The meter shouldshowat least13.6Vafter oneminuteof draw. Readings 13Vandlessmean of that oneor more of the cells are defective.The lights shouldbum brightly for at least five minutes. The half wave rectifier suppliedwith this system shouldbe capable recharging fully depleted of a battery overa periodof sixteen holus

Fig. 6-12. Testing the statoron alternator. (Courtesy Briggs & Stratton Corp.) the

121

wg. (Courtesy Briggs & Stratton Corp. Testing the Nicad battery.) An inexpensive tester canbe constructedfrom the following materials: 1 IN4005 diode 1 red lamp socketDialco number0931-102) l l 122 . 6-13.

(Courtesy Briggs & Stratton Corp. A properly working i chargerwiII Iight only the green bulb. A homemade rectifier tester. number53 1 % inch machinescrew.the transformer chargerdiodeis open. number3-48 Wirethesecomponents shownin Fig. number6-32 1 % inch machine screw.Fg.if bothbulbslight. 6-14. 123 . the charger or diodeis openand passing alternatingcurrent.If neitherbulblights. 6-14.) l l l l 1 green lamp socket(Dialconumber0932-102) 1 neonbulb.

thoroughlubrication beforereassembly. A looseconnectingrod bearingmakesa Iif& rapping soundthat growslouderandmoreinsistentwith time. or somethree times the stockoutput.If the repairis made early. mainbearings wearat abouta third of the rate of corm 125 . and ENBINE MODIFICATION While a Briggs & Stratton engine is an unlikely exampleof racing material. The modifications discussed this chapterare not radicaland in will increase output by no more than half a horsepower. andfuel economy be unaffected slightly improved. it is usually possible savethecrankshaft.CHAPTER 7 ENGI Engine workrequiresantiseptic cleanliness. a to As general rule. per Parts and expertise !s:e been developed fcr four cycle go-cart racing. these enginescan be modified to produceone horsepower cubicinch. carefulinspection the of parts. strict adherence and to torque sequences torque limits.But these conservative modifications not adverselyaffect enginelife or will tractability.In most cases.starting is easierthan before. may or SYMPTOMS ENG:NE OF TROUBLE Unusual noisesare the most obvious indication something that is seriouslywrong.

7-l). the bestapproach is to checkcompression feel.Perceptible means play mainbearing trouble. is Most Briggs & Stratton enginesfeature “Easy Spin” starting. Ratherthanrig somesort of backturning starter.or headgasket. rhythmicknock. Mount a compression gaugein the sparkplug port. the The problemis to determinehow much compression normal. pistonshouldreboundoff compression. vaives. Withthe sparkplugin place.A few drops of oil shouldclear up the problem. The as if it hadencountered spring. For consistentreadings.spinthe by flywheelbackwards. A high-pitched whineis usuallythe result.rods. Another checkis to graspthe crankshaft atand tempt to moveit sideto side. Sincepower dependsto a great extent upon compression.A furious rattle. Reposition shroudcover. as Main bearingsmake a distress signalin the form of a dull. a Engineswithout a compression bleed can be tested in the normalfashion(Fig.But mainbearingwear is accelerated contamiby natedoil andby failure to keepthe crankcase toppedoff. Crankthe engineat starting speed. far asthe mechanic concerned. the Lossof compression involves rings. A rampon the camlobe holdsthe inlet valveopenduringmost of the compression stroke. seemsalmost sacrilegious bleed compression it to pastanopenvalve. the engineshouldwearout three COM rods to oneset of mains. soundinglike marblesrolling down a washboard.Howeverthe “Easy Spin” systemcuts starting effort by hatfandhasno effectuponthe rated output. It is not ‘unusual find the lower main(onverticalshaftengines) to sludge-cut SOthat the crankshaft appears if it were threaded. Onesuspc&s Briggs& Strattonengineers compensated the losswith carburefor tion or ignitiontimingchanges. l l l 126 . = Openthe throttle andchokevalves. As is “EasySpin”startingmakes conventional a compression checkmeaningless. hr other words.ofa dry starter clutch bushing.usually meansthat the flywheel vanesare touchingthe air inlet screen.follow these steps Removethe sparkplug and ground the ignition.the flywheel mustbe spunbackwardsagainstthe normaldirectionof rotation at around100rpm.To get anhonestreading.

Expect low about80pounds square per inch.how fast the engineis cranked.Fig. Using a compression gauge. 7-1.) As the crankshaftturns. (Courtesy Clinton Engines Corp. The tubber stopperreplaces oil filler plug.andother variables.An engine thathasbeendormantfor severalmonthswill givelow readings until the cylinder walls are lubricated. count the compression strokes. taking the readingon the fourth one. Briggs& Strattonandothersmall the l 127 . In any event.ambientair temperature. The manometer shownin Fig. Briggs& Strattonengineshavelow (5 or 6 to 1) compression ratios and give correspondingly pressure readings. 7-2 is a comparative instrument usedto gaugethe slow declinein engineperformance accomthat panieswear and age. The U-shapedglass tube is markedoff in quarter-inch incrementsandpartially filled with water. althoughthe exactfiguredepends uponhow muchcarbonis in the chamber. an enginethat generates than60 poundsper squareinchof compression less will not start.

(Courtesy Kohler of Kohler. 7-2. All speccan troscopiclabs have an emergencyphoneservice.. A U-tube manometer.But as the cost of theseengines escalates.faultycrankcase breather. greater the movement. A_.) four-cycle engines operatewith negativepressure the crankcase..I e I WttN bULUMIY5 1 Fig. this technique predict when an enginewill fail. in Oncetheenginestarts.S.andthen 128 .a--. the light collected. the healthier engine. More than one pilothasshutdown the runwayuponreceivinga message the on from tower that his engineis on the edge of self-destruction. spectroscopic analysis oil should of become commonplace. spectroscopic analysis. Spectrographic analysis basedon the fact that eacheleoil is mentgivesoff a characteristic frequencywhenvaporized.. light The sampleis flashedby an electric arc.or apinholein oneof the castings. Pioneered the railroadsandperfectedby the U.-- - Ut MEASURE DIFFERENCE --. is virtually unknownin the world of smallengines.the more vacuum.andall The things being equal.. No movementmeansa blownflange gasket. The most sophisticated enginetest. . by Navy.. the column water should of movetowardthe crankcase.

. . . . .. ... .. . . . . ... .. .. . .. Chromium .. . . . . contaminated or afailedair cleaner.. . . Linder. ... boron. piston rings .. . the reports are mailed. . . . . . . . .. .involving an all of the above well asa new. . .... most of the interpretationis subjective. . .. .Their presence can usuallybe tracedto sloppymaintenance-opening enginewiththe out cleaning first. . . ... . .. . ... it oil... .whenneeded. . . . . . ... . Typically. . .. . . . . . . . ..Whileheavyconcentrations aluminum iron spellobvious of or trouble. . . .used motor oil containsthese materials: . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. A test maylog as manyas sixteenelements be run several and times. Lead . . . . gaskets. .. .. . .. ..block metal. . .andremachined valves. . . .. . . Otherwise.. . . . . . battery of A photocells-each sensitive to a particular fraction of the spectrum-converts light intensity to electrical impulses. . . . . . . . .. .bearings Silver. Theseparticlesareresponsible mostlower cylinfor der wearandmeandeathto cormrod bearings. . . . .passed througha prism that sorts out the frequencies...cylinder walls.. . . .... ..valves Siiconandaluminum oxideparticlesmean dusthasentered that the crankcase. . . . Analysts. . . OVERHAULING REBUILDING VS An engineoverhaul involvesnew piston rings. .. . . . . . the shopwill rebuildthe carburetor and replace the points and condenseras part of the overhaulpackage. .piston coatings AluminMl. bearings Tim... .. .. . . . . . . . .. . . . .These impulsescan be metered and read directly. . . . .cylinder walls. . then are fed into a computerfor a printout. Rebuilding engineis a moreseriousproposition. . . . .bearings. . . ... . . . . as a I 129 . . . . . . . . . ..bearings. .andzincare additives foundin highgrademotor oil. . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . piston rings Nickel. . . NJ 07036)will do the work for less than$15. . . .. .basedon the experience the technician whathe knowsof the engine’s of and history. . ..Cakium. . . .. (820E.the lab will call.. .bushings Iron . .bearings. .... .. oil seals. . . If failureis imminent. . .. but Inc. . . . . . . . .. . .. . . .. .As a rule. . . The wholeprocesssounds frightfully expensive. ... ElizabethAve. .. . . *. . ... .. . . but high concentrations considered are harmful. . . .. . .. . . . pistons Copper. . .. .. oversizedpistonand. ..

Chances that it will bebright nearthe the are head-bolt holesand dull in the unsupported areasbetweenthem. Scrubthe engine with a mixture of concentrated Gunk andkerosene. Checkthe gasketsurfacefor warp. Tapea square medium of grit. In theory. Heat must be dissipatedby the coolingfurs&Tdthe engineoil. But few enginemoditications as fraughtwith dangeraathe are compression increases.raising the compression is the highroad to performance. Stock aluminumheads will accept some additionalheat without 130 -. .<and removecontrollinkages. to ENGINE TEAROOWN To preparethe enginefor teardown. Continueto scrub awayat the gasket surfaceuntil it is true. Soakthe abrasivewith motor oil and.The . by Since pound square of compression each per inch translates into threeof fourpounds square of combustion per inch pressure.mainbearingset.It is relatively safeto assume this at point that the block itself is not warped.If thehead wobbles. gather somecansand pasteboard boxesfor the large parts. Castiron headswith the heat conductivityof thermal underwear shouldnot be moditied.it is surely warped. evidenced uniformbrightness. The correct(andtedious)wayto checkgasketsurface warp for is to scrounge pieceof plateglass.parts that have a limitedlife in stockapplications.Ordinarywindowglasswill not a do. The quick(andwiidy inaccurate)wayis to placetheheadonthe block.After a few passes. Drain all liquids. disconnect anyelectricalleads. rebuilt enginesshouldbe equivalent a new one. 7-3. scrubit over the abrasive. easiest ratio The way to raise the compression ratio is to mill the head.Number 340 paper is about right.additional ratio power must be transmitted by the connectingrod and crankshaft.33113 gasket. andconnectingrod. wet-or-dry abrasive paperto the glass. Raising compression liberthe ratio atesalmostas muchadditional heat as power.holdingthe beadwith both handsto equalize force.new crankshaft.Hoseit down andallow the surfacesto dry before proceding. Vertical shaft enginesare easier to serviceif supportedin a standlike the one shownin Fig.wipe the oil off and inspect gasketsurface.

-. (Briggs & Disconnect wiring. A homemade engine stand.FRONT .but this sanitaryarrangement not alwaysfollowedby their customers). aftermarketheads the bestbet for seriousmoditibut are cation.) complaint. )--‘I Fii 7-3.and lawnmowerblade. WllNOERHEAD Removethe shroud. fuel tank. Removethe cylinderhead. sprocket. Aluminum 131 . and spark plug. observing the lengtt of the ahead bolts.Disconnect is the control linkagesand uncouple crankshaftfrom the loadby the removingthe pulley. (Ccurtesy Tecumseh Prcducts Cc. makingnotes as necessary the Stratton electric3have one way connectors.

or give can insufficientsupportand causethe gasket to blow (Fig. The cylinderheadusuallyfallsoff oncethe bolts are out. The best way to remove carbon with anendcuttingwire brushsoldfor thispurpose is (Fig. 7-5).a few taps with a hammerhandlewill break the gasket seal. (Courtesy Briggs 8 Stratton CW’p. Cylinder head torque sequence.Sidecuttingwire wheels. 74. 132 . Sting the pistonto top dead centerandbrushthe carbonfromit andthe valves. particularlyif the enginehas been running at a constant speed. but shotid it be stubborn.) block exhaustvalves are flanked on three sides by long bolts. The combustion chapterwill be car-boned. on cannotget into the cranniesaroundthe valve pockets.the kindmounted a mandrel. confusing these bolts on assembly break a cooiingfin.b b Fg. 74).

Achieving figuretook yearsof patientresearchandthousands racingmiles. The ultimatecompressionratio sidevalve.airfor cooled engines about9. 7-5. of Fig.5 to 1.Carbonmay also be removedwith a dull knife. Removing carbon with a cupped wire brush. Prudence dictatesthatthe ratio beraisedto no morethan8 to 1. althoughyou should be careful not to gouge the aluminumin the process. Look for “hang-nail” spark plug threadsthat couldincandesce ignite the mixture early.andare positively harmfulif the damage extendsinto the gasketsurface.) . (Courtesy Clinton Engines cw. Inspect the head carefully. Scratches gougesmakedtioking more difficult the next time and around. aratio achieved Harley-Davidson is by this engineers underthe old 45 cubicinchracingformula. StockBriggs& Strattonengines havepunycompression ratios. between5 and6 to 1. Check and the truenessof the head.

However.But. Onceyou havecut meta!.0.fill the combusion in cavitywith light oil. you can bolt or clampa piece of PlexigIasto it. Althoughthe first digit3 in the model numberdescribedisplacement.model14draws14.1416 ‘( bore x bore x stroke 4 Thevolume the cylinderheadis *cult to calculate. Usinga beakergraduated cubicinches.Comrnercialshop3 generally anair poweredgrindingtool not unlikethose use usedto refaceva!veseats. figure is onlyanapproximation.usingnumber220 grit abrasive paperfor the initial cut.SinceBriggs& Stratton pistonsrise flushwith the fire deck(or top of the block)at top dead center.determinethe chambervolumeand compression ratio. Divide this figure into the displacement to determinethe originalcompression ratio. Atter 0. this Model69000draws 6.Measure the cylinderbore andthe distance piston travels betweencenters. Turn the crankshaftso that both valves ?re closed. compound to the buffingwheelandholdthetool lightly soit canmaintain speed.z the formula: ‘the by 3.015of an inchis a safefigure to use for all engines. you should purchasea professional qualit: buftingwheeland an assortmentof polishingpastes.Casting flashcanbe removedwith a grindingwheelor a riftle (spoon-shaped) Applya dabof coursepolishing file. But a light duty hobbyist’3grinder will sufficefor the occasional mechanic cost3a third asmuchas the and professional tool. The amount oil requiredto top off the cavityis of the clearance volume.015 of an inch has been removed. 134 . the clearance volumeis the volumeof the cylinder head cavity. easy of but to determine empirically.polishingthe combustion chamber seemsalmostanticlimatic.carefullylevel the headwith the cavity up. as explainedearlier.31cubicinches. the effort is worthwhile.‘I-l The compression is the ratio of the swept volumeof the ratio engine volumethe cylinderdisplaces it mcvesfrom bottomto (the as top deadcenter) to the clearance volume. Beginwith the block.Polishing requiressomesort of powerassist.Withthe sparkplugin place. Mill the heada3 described previously. the cakulating swept volum. For readerswho do not relish beakersand arithmetic. Altemate:y. using grease as a sealanton the gasket surface.65cubicinches.

For the sealto beeffective. 230000.130000 19.190000. the surfacesshouldbe burnishedlike a mirror. 7-6). Repeatthe processfor the headcavity. follow the torque sequence shownin Fig. I Model I Toroue tin-lbs) 6B.300000.60000.6B. Thewholepurpose thevalveis to form a gastight sealagainst of the seat(Fig. 62000. 320000 . VALVES The primarysymptom valvefailureis lossof compression. 60000. Remove tracesof the compound a rag dipped solventand. 100000.23.110900. all with in if the blockis case-iron. power cnrill drasticallycurtailed. Whenyou are finishedpolishingthe combustion chamber and the headcavity. In this regard.protect the finish with a tight coat of oil.the valvespringmust Table7-l.240000.Head BoltTorque limits. to concluding work the with jeweler’sruage. tightenthe headbolts in three increments.although be enginespeedwill be unaffected. -When reassembling.Move progressively the finer compounds.a by carbonblackened throttle plateis circumstantial evidence intake of valveproblems.200000. 7-4.92000.according Table to 7-l. Intake valvefailureis often accompanied “pop-back”throughthe carburetorbore. of If the engineruns at all.

Leadbuildup(Fig. Valve nomenciature. It alsooccurswhen the engineis repeatedly 136 . in whichcasethey are normalbyproductsof combusion (Fig.the headmust be round.or carbonaccumulation. Gumdepositscanalsobe caused by using stale gasoline. yellowish. 7-8A). 7-6. 78B) is not normal.) exert sufficienttensionto compensate the smallirregularities for betweenthe seatandface. Underheaddepositsmaybe brown.Coking. Stemcorrosion(Fig. the valveguideandstemmustbe within tolerance holdthe faceconcentric the seat. lead 7-7C)are the markof a poorlymaintained engine.or fails tan. The exhaustvalveis most susceptible these maiadies to and usually first.and by habituallyshutting the enginedown beforeit hasreachedoperatingtemperature. by although Briggs & Strattondoesnot recommend free fuel.onethat hasbeen allowedto run chronically rich.the valvestemmust to to be straightandat right anglesto the head.Fig. 7-7A). Intakevalvesare susceptible all of thesefailuresandhavean to unfortunate affinity to attract depositsundertheir bead. usuallypresent in a lightly loadedengine is with a thirst for oil (Fig. (hutesy Clinton Engines Corp. 7-7B)cansometimesbecontrolled switchingbrandsof gasoline. Gumdeposits(Fig.andis caused by moisturein the fuel. andseatandfacemust mate without the interferenceof impacted carbonor displaced metal.

Intake valve maladies: caking (A).) stoppedbefore it attains operating temperature. 7-8D)is the result of depositson the edgeof the valve seatandcanusuallybe tracedto haphazard maintenance practices. 7-X). polishedappearance the relative freedom by and from deposits(Fig.Fig. and gum deposits (C). Overheating is signaled a black. 7-7. (Courtesy Kahler of Kohler. 137 . lead deposits (6). Carbon cutting(Fig. Suspectthat the stem is bent.

overheating (C).or if events demand valves.the hole elongatesand the pin bends. 7-B. (Coultesy cut Fig. Kohler of Kohler. a As the errgine ages.which in turn are heldby valvespringtension.) The valvesare securedby keepers. pinpasses througha holein thevalvestemandbearsagainst collar. Exhaust valve portraits: normal (A). 7-10).andcarbon (D).Useonepieceretainers(Fig.purchase type new the with slottedstems. The pin. 7-9)or split collets (Fig.Three typesof keeperhavebeenused. 138 . andthe split collet.the late andunlamented the onepieceretainer. Split collets are preferedfor modifiedengines.If your budgetallows. stem corrosion(B).

7-9.) 139 . but the work is awkward. you canmakedo with a pair of screwdrivers.Apply pressureto both sidesof the Installing split collets. probablythe finest valvespringcompressoravailable smallenfor gines. Installing one-piece retainers.Withoutthis tool.) Both illustrationsshow Briggs& Stratton tool number19063.Fig. (Courtesy International Harvester Corp. International Harvester Corp.

and sea!the chamber againstair andoil. l l Valve Springs Briggs& Strattondoesnot publishvalvespringtensionspecitications.it shouldberemembered the of that valvesoperatein a vertical plane. Bend the bracketas necessary. Tilt means the coilshaveweakened. CrankcaseBreather The crankcase breatherventscorrosivegases from the crankcaseand.that is. an arrangement exthat plainswhy a well worn Briggs& Strattonwill sometimes even run whenthe fuel tank is empty. Have a helper disengage the keeper. andcheckthe valve the in clearance. holesboredin the blockto center the valvesover the seats. In defense this practice.let it drain.Reversethe procedurewhen installingthe vaives. The breather assembiydoublesas the valve chamber cover and is securedby two fillister headscrews The breatherusuallyvents to the carburetor. maintainsthe crankcaseat a slight negativepressure.045of aninch by (Fig. as Valve Guides Many Briggs & Stratton enginesare without valve guidesas such. without the horizontalforces generated rocker armsandoverhead by camshafts.collar(or to one of the lower coi!sif no collaris fitted) to raisethe spring without lifting the valve.andone must fall backon the old mechanic’s that the ruie free standing heightof a usedspring shouldbe at least 90%of the heightof a new spring. at the sametime.Replace necessary.dissipate combustion heat.There is enough fuel in the oil to raw supportcombustion. fiber discshould The clearthehousing 0. that Examinethe springfor pitting (the early symptomof fatigue) and for fretting (the sign of coil binding).at least throughthe first overhaul. ‘i-11).The springshouldstandperpendicular. Whitemetaland castiron are adequate support. 140 . symptomsof breatherfailure arez The * Oil leaksat the flangegasketandcrankshaftseals Zero vacuumon a manometer Oil discoloration sludging and Wash assembly solvent.

If the guage be inserted5/16 for can of an inch or deeperinto the guide. Clintonsupplies valveguideknurlersthat canbeusedonBriggs engines. Checking the crankcase breather with a feeler gauge. it is worn. knurler raisesthe metal. 7-11. Anothermethodis to usea factory guage. Briggs & Stratton engineerswould have the guide reamed oversizeand a bushingpressedinto place. andnumber19151 the others. For smallerengines. nothingsubstitutesfor an honestbrassor bronzeguide. wobbleof l/16 of aninch and A or moremeans guidehasbell-mouthed shouldbe knurledor the and replaced. The traditional(andfairly accurate)test is to raisethe valveto its full extension moveit side-to-side.number19122 for engines displacing cubicinchesandless (excepting 13 model9).) But in so far as longevityis concerned.reducingthe intemaIdiameThe ter of the guide and providingoil reservoirs that shouldgive the refurbished guidethe life of a new one. drawingno more than 13 cubicinches(exceptthe model9 with its largevalvestems). the necessary tools are: Part Number 19064 Name Reamer ReamerGuideBushing BushingDriver Finish Reamer i41 19191 191065 191068 . (Courtesy tnternational Harvester Corp.I -HOLES MUST BE OPEN BREATHER ~-ASSEMBLY Fig.

reamthe valve guide l/16 of an inch deeperthan the length of the replacement bushing. Lapping a short term fix.Centeringthe reamerwith the guidebushing.Unlesstheseprior conditions are met. anexpedientto get the engine is back .” 142 .intoserviceuntil the valvesandseatscanbe properlymachined. For lappingto be at all effective. in ream the valveguide l/16 of an inch deeperthan the replacement bushing. reaming is no tool supplied.Drive the bushing is flush with the top of the valve guideusing the factory tool or a copper punch. lappingor grindingis a waste of time. for its lower diameter neededto stabilizethe bushing.that thesprings generate enough tensionto closethe valves. Since bushings finishreamed are beforeshipment.wideningthe seating surface possibly and groovingthe valveface.the next operation hold to is to refurbishthe vaivefacesandseats.A wide seating surface tendsto collectcarbon to develop unit areapressure and less than a narrower seat. the valve faces and seatsmust be relativelyhealthy. Valve and Seat Refinishing Onceyou are satisfiedthat the valvesare basically sound.Use the finishreamerto side the bushingto the valvestem. the finishreamerto sidethe bushing Use flushwith the top of the valveguideusingthe factory tool or a copperpunch.Use a soft copperpunchto drive the bushingflush with the top of the guide. Both reamers are turned clockwiseandlubricatedwith cutting oil or kerosene. require these tools: Part Number 19183 19192 Name Reamer ReamerGuideBushing As described the previousparagraph.Do not ream the guidecompletelythrough. as well as the ubiquitous model9. Enginesdisplacing14 cubicinchesand more. The groovingeffect becomesseriouswhen the enginereachesoperatingtemperatureand the parts “grow.andthatthe guides the valvesconcentric the seats. Deep pits require heavy lapping.

(Courtesy Clinton Engines Corp. 7-12.The engine suffersa hardto diagnose of power(Fig. The most popularlappingcompound Clover Leaf brand.An is oil based mixture. it is soldin dcJbleendedtins. Unlessyou are dealing anantiquelike the modelN.) . and leak when the engine warms and the valve “grows” (B). with Fig. A valve can be lapped gas tight when cold (A). the other a finefinishing a for comp@Jnd. 7-12)when loss what was a good sealat room temperaturesuddenlyevaporates. Onecompartment contains courseabrasive rapidcutting.

K-D marketsa small suctioncup tool designed smallengines. Running valvedry scoresthe seat andface.rotate it backandforth (Fig. Lapping valves with a suction cup. Renewthe compound frequentintervals. 7-13).andit maybe necessary to moor the tool with a drop of contactcement. 7-13. (Courtesy Clinton Engines Corp.) you will needsomeway to turn the valves. and Valvegrindinginvolvesthe useof a valvelatheanda highspeed seatgrinder. Surpluscompound may findits wayto the valveguidewhereit wouldberuinous.Every four or five seconds.The benefitsare consid144 . work canbe farmedout to an to the automotive machine shopfor a few dollars.andwheneveryou at no longer hear the harsh grating noise that accompanies lapping. But suctioncups tendto slipon highlypolished valveheads.Holding the valveby the suctioncup.Fig. Applyseveraldabsof coursecompound the valvefacewith a to screwdriver. Whilethis equipment expensive the amateuror is for occasional mechanic purchase.beingcareful13t to overdoit.give the valve a half turn so that the whole surfacewill be lappedevenly.It is available for through most auto supplyhousesas catalognumber501. Finishthe job with the fine compound. cleanthe parts with a rag dippedin solvent.

The valvemarginshouldbeat leastl/64 of aninchthick to controlvalve temperatures reducethe possibilityof preignition(Fig.Turn the flywheeluntil one valve is &It open.Recommended width is 3/64-l/16 of be seat an inch. 7-14). since the lathe centers on the valve stem and the grind& on the valve guide. the seatcanbenarrowedto factoryspecifications by u&g alternatestones.Smallirregularities.the valveshould replaced. both parts are concentric.Placethe valves to for in their guides. Once the valvesare lappedor ground. Turn the flywheel one more complete revolutionandadjustthe clearance betweenthat valveand DIMENSIONS Fig. if the work has been donecorrectly. Valve margin dimensions.) 145 . the cut as uniformangles.but do not install the springsandkeepers. Early Briggs engineshad intakevalvesand seatsgroundat 30 degreesfor better flow. no lappingis necessary. 7-14. are automatically compensated Secondly.The seatsaregroundat on the sameangle.andhence.Thirdly. and while it is possibleto widen the marginby judiciousgrinding. First.And finaIly.rllll erable.heat expansion little effect has uponthe seal. the stems must be shortened compensate the metalremoved. without the half a degree of “interference fit” favoredby someother manufacturers. Thevalvefaceangle current Briggs& Strattonproduction for is 45degrees both the intakeandexhaust. andnarrower on enginesthat are modifiedfor increased performance. valvefaceandseatare for.a slightly bent stem or a cantedvalve guide. (Courtesy Clinton Engines Corp.

ortunately. “kissing” the wheelto removea few thousandths an inch of metal.006 0. Deiermining valve lash. 7-15. run I. Valve Seats Theintakevalvesoncast-iionengines directlyonthe block.or work loosefrom the block.) the tappetwith a feelergauge(Fig.the port geometryis suchthat the seatcan bedrivenout frombelowwith apunch. 7-15)according the following to specifications: Intake Exhaust Cast-IronBlock Models 5 through20000000 0.018 inch i 0. wearthin with age.015inch 0. available from Briggs & Stratton in four varietiesto fit 146 .010 inch inch To adjustthe clearance.Otherengines requirea valve seatpuller. (Courtesy Clinton Engines Corp.008 inch AluminumBlock All models 0.It is disconof certingly easyto removetoo muchmetal. so checkandfinish the operation afile. Exhaust valveson iron engines both valveson aluminum and modelsrun on replaceable seats.Thenrepeat with the the processfor the other valve.In mostcases. slightlybeveling squareedges.008 inch Models23 through320000 0.Fig. cast-ironis a relatively good seat material.grind the stems flat. Valveseatsmaycrack.

7-16. andwithout groovesor other imperfections woulddeny a perfect fit betweenthe seat that insert andblock. better to farmthisjob out It’s to a Briggs & Stratton repair station. Briggs 8 Stratton valve seat puller. Oncethe old seat is removed. on And somemechanics simply use an old valve as the driver. . althoughthe cost of the counterborereamer and pilot is prohibitive anoccasional for mechanic. 7-16). Most mechanics simplydrive the seat homeusingspecial tool number19136and pilot number19126on enginesdispiacing less than14eabic inches.cleanall traces of oil l?omthe recessin the block. Replacement intake valve seats xe inventoriedfor cast-ironengines. Seethat it is true.A 5ubstitutecanbefabricated easily. flat.andpilot number19127 largerengines. A more civilizedmethodthaneither is to heat the blockfor severalhoursin the kitchen oven at about 275 degrees Fahrenheit.thevarious models(Fig.Supportthe Fig.

The speciticationis 0.The flange to rod is the casting.Usinga rubber mallet.be approximately flushwith the firedeckoncast-ironengines a few thousandths and of an inch belowit on ahuninum blocks. or float. drop the seatinto the recesswith the beveled edgeup.the seatson these is enginesshouldbe peenedaround their full circumference (Fig. After installinga new seat.Inspectthe base“feet” for fatiguecracksand replacethe gasketas a matter of course. almostimmuneto burningandacid attack. FlANGE5RGASE The baseis the oil sumpfor horizontalshaftengines once and. The top of the seat shou!d.and is presenton plain bearinghorizontalshaftand presenton ahvertical shaftengines. cast-ironor aluminurn. When building imodified a engine. Sincethe thermalexpansion rate of ahnninum four timesthat of cast-iron. Completethe job with a Stellite exhaust valve. but addsmassto the valve gearand requires a shortenedspring.it is worth theeffort to replace the standardexhaustvalve seat with one madeof Stekite. This materialis an expensive fomr of stainlesssteel. givesaccess the connecting andpiston. detached.002-0.omittingthe Rotocap. Positivevalverotationis a nicefeature. lap or machinegrind a valve as described earlier.tightly tap the shaftin onedirection to establish zeroreference. is fixed by the distance end between the mainbearingthrust shoulders the thrust journalsgroundon and the outward sides of the crankshaftwebs.Working quicklybeforethe partsnormaiize.I. 146 . Crankshaft play. of On horizontalengines. Theseparts are available from the factory for most engines. On horizontalcrankmodels.andtapit in the other directionto gage a the movement.The flangesupportsthe main lmring on the power takeoffside. 7-17).008 an inch for all models. The base heldby four screwsandtheir removal assembly is and involveno problem.Chillthe seatinsertin on the freezeror by packingit in crusheddry ice andalcohol.’ casting bricksto preventlocaloverheating.the measurement be madedirectly with a can feeler gaugeinserted betweena crankshaftweb and either main bearing.the Range doublesas the oil sump.

the flangea few sharprapsto breakthe gasket give seal. 7-18. is Polishthecrankshatt with sandpaper shownin Fig. If it binds. Valve seat inserts should ba peened on aluminum angines. fact is usuallydisasterous. (Courtesy Briggs 8 Stratton Corp. Tap the shaftin the directionof the dial indicatorandadjustthe instrumentto showzero.sometimes buttressedwith a spacer. removethe flangebolts. 149 . Tap the crankin the other directionandread the float. Oneway to do this is to mounta dial indicatorwith the pointer restingon either endof the crank. pry not in to the castingsapart. sprocket.4S” BEVEL PEEN HERE TO FORCEMETAL AGAINST INSERT Fig. With the cylinderpointedup. c)ncethe locatingpins havedisengaged. Another method is to insert a feeler guage between the flywheelrim andblock. flangeshouldslip the easilyover the crankshaftstub.) The processis not as convenientwith vertical shaftengines.centrifugalclutch. 7-17. polishthe shaft again. Remove pulley. Floatmustbe measured from the outsidewith the enginebuttoned up.and stub as 5l out any marksleft by mountingscrews. or whatever the mechanism attachedto the power takeoff end of the crankshaft.The gapis suchthat you will haveto usethe whole packof blades. Usinga rubberhammer.It should benecessary.

in Aluminum blockengines mustusea 0.010inch 0.the crankshaft showmatching will groovesandboth parts must be remachined replaced. The reasonthe cylindershouldbe pointingup duringthis operationis to keepthe partsin place. and Inspecttheflangebearing damage.If playis lessthan and 0.005inch Other modelsare adjusted flangeor. 0.Thesegaskets are available 0.005.If the crankshaft flangehave or to be replacedor machined.Radial grooves-threadlikegroovesaroundthe inner circumference the of bearing-are caused operating enginewithoutsuflicientoil in by the the sump.looking for microscopicburrs that would lock the bearing.but arenot in themselves serious.Sincethis washer is relatively thick. compensate adding or moreflangegaskets.002of an inch.015of aninchflangegasket for oil integrity.The wave be is washeron models100900and 130900mountsover the governor slingerassembly not underit.If theflangeis grooved.Usea number220624 by one washerfor the % inchcranksanda number22070$ the oneinch for cranks.009. checkthe end play. andbetween powertakeoffsidebearingandcrankonmx%!s the with ball bearingmains. Adjustclearance adding thrust washerbetweenthe by a magneto mainbearingandthe crankshaft plain-bearing side on models.015inch 0.015 of an inch thicknesses. for Someaxialscratches are the priceof flange removal. or Adjustthe endplay 300400 320400engines spacers on and with betweenthe outsidemainbearing crankshaft. Wheninstallingthe flange. 150 .use a new gasketandrun the bolts downevenlyin a crisscross fashion. 0. on engineswith antiby friction powertakeoffbearings.Timingmarksare sometimes dElicultto see andshould identifiedbeforethe camshaft disturbed.bearingcover gaskets. as one might suppose. as sometimes happens when a new crankshaft is fit& addshimsto achievethe following thicknesses: Part Number 2705i3 270514 270515 Thickness 0.

Onmostantifrictionbearing gear engines. Both valvesshould closed. 7-20). they to be if are not.Anotherway is to forget aboutthe timingmarksentirelyand time by the rock position. On models300400and320400.ri?e The 30 and32 cubicinchenginesposea smallproblemduring assembly because crankshaft masks markduringassemthe gear the bly.Whenthe engine timedproperly. 7-19). . 151 . crankshaft is dimpled matchthe largerdimpleon the web to the camshaft gear (Fig. (Courtesy Clinton Engines Corp. the timing marksconsistof a dimpleon the camshaftanda chisel markonthe crankshaft (Fig. extract the cam and experimentuntil it drops into place withoutraisingthe lifters.) CAMSHAFT Notethe location the timingmarks.Install the crankshaft cam. The engineis now at top deadcenteron the compression stroke. 7-18. Rockthe crankshafta few degreeseach direction.Onplainbearing of engines. the other immediately after top dead center.onevalveshould is crack openbeforetop deadcenter.the crankshaft referenceis urn inner web (Fig. 7-21). Polishing the crankshaft stub. a characteristicof all original equipment camshafts. This is the rock position.Turn the and crankshaft top deadcenter. One way aroundthis is to mark the relevent gear-tooth with chalk.Fig.

One timing mark is on the crankshaft counterweight on engines with &all bearing mains. 7-20. (Courtesy Btiggs & Stratton Corp.) I 152 . (Courtesy Sriggs 8 Stratton Corp.) Fig. Timing marks are stamped adjacent to gear teeth on plain bearing engines. f-19.Fig.

008of an inch. 7-21.005 inch 0. Stratton models 300400 and 320400 have the crankshaft mark on the inner web. Sriggs 8. or the sameas for the is universalcrankshaftspecification. exceptthat the shaftis bolted into placeand manipulated from the power takeoff side. The shaft. drivethe shaftout with a hammerandpunch.Tiig hascarriedus ahead the story.The endplay to end specification 0.workingfrom the powertakeoffside. These 30 and 32 cubic inch enginesare uniquein another respect-the camshaft ridesin a replaceable bearing the magneto on side.the timingmarksare aligned.At this position.This bearing secured two capscrews the outsideof the is by to blockandcanbe shimmed adjustcamshaft play. The big 300400and 320400 models employa similararrangement.009 inch Fig.007 inch 0. andit is necessary of to backtrack.Cast-ironblockcamsare hollowandride on a shaft that spansthe block. Part Number 270518 270517 270516 ShimThickness 0.002-0. 153 . will be forced out the magnetoside. togetherwith anexpansion plug. To remove the cam on smaller engines. Ahuninum blockcamshafts mooredin the blockbearare ing andlift out whenthe valvesare both closed.

If endplay is more than 0. giving the designercomplete freedom selection lobeprofiles.”Racingcamshaft grinds producelittle torque at low throttle anglesand.andallowingthe valvesto open in of wider.The operativeterm in the last sentence is “high speed.andkeepthem openlonger.sincea failureof the casehardening quicklyleads to a “bald” camshaft Reground camshafts indispensable seriousattemptsat are for modification.Fig. 154 . Briggs 8 Stratton connecting rods.but pose a problem becausethey open the valves sooner. 7-22. use bearingkit number 299706. The purposeof the exerciseis to giveimprovedvolumetric efficiency that the enginedoesnot gaspfor air or suffocate ih so on ownfumesat highspeed. dependingupon how soon the intake valve opens. Inspectthe camshaft evidence wear-the inspection for of can bequitecursory.008 of an inch.may burble backthroughthe carburetorat idle. thanthe factoryproduct.The best of them are madefrom billets.

or at leasta potentialdifficulty.depending the enginemodel. markwhichsideof the rod shank nearthe is camshaft. the cap.rod bolts are securedby a lock strap. andthe lower halfof the rod.particularlyduring starting. sendthe dipper crashing upon againstthe camshaft.Anotherdifficulty.andtheworst the phantom dois to add can tireworksto the exhaust.The matchmarksare embossed on the rod andmust be alignedif the rod bearingis to be round To avoidconfusion. (Courtesy Clinton Engines Corp.. Reversed instakation starvethe rod bearing oil and can for may.But a regroundcamopensthe intakevalve early. involves the “phantom”sparkgenerated a &wheel magneto. duringthe periodof phantom spark. CONNECTING ROD Figure 7-22 showsthe variousBriggs & Stratton connecting rods. Fig. past the intakevalveis closed. 360 crankshaft degrees the ignitionspark. In eachcase. With stockvalvetiming. a carburetor fire is possible.) 155 . 7-23.As a result.is indexedto the shankby means a of rabbetjoint. or with matchmarks. Plastic gauge wire placed for running clearance.This superfluby ous sparkoccursnear top deadcenter on the exhauststroke.

WIRE Fig.wipe the oil off theseparts and lay a pieceof plasticgaugewire (available from auto parts houses) alongthe length of the crankpin(Fig. 230000. 82gO0.88.. 100000.19.ConnectingRbd BoRTorque LimRs.190000 251000 9 14.) Remove rod nuts.92ooo. (Courtesy Clinton Engines Corp. 7-24.Inspectthe bearingsurfacefor scoresand discoloration.170000. 7-23).80000.110900.60000.130000 140000. the in Table 7-2.320000 190 I 100 170 185 140 Torque (in-lbs) 156 . N. If the rod andcrankpinappearsound.Plasticgauge wire placed fortaper.200Q00. straightening lock-straptabswith a the the chisel. torquethe rod capto the specification Table7-2. 8 68. Modal 56.240000. Without turning the crankshaft.300000.23.190000.

015and0.if severe enough. The bearingclearance shouldfall between0.is anaftermarketconnectof 157 .005 of an inch of taper if the retainerappearssoundand the piston shirt showsa normalwear pattern.A a that twistedconnecting rocks the piston.Remove capandreadthe bearingclearance thousandths the in by comparing widthof thegaugewire to the scaleprintedon the the package. A bent connecting tilts the rod piston.Figure 7-27shows howthisis doneusinga bar with the samediameterasthe pistonpin andthe blockas references. Differencesin width betweenthe two wires showcrankpin taper.this off timeusingtwo piecesof wire. variationsin width of the same wire shows out-of-round. ore than0. Without inside and outside ‘crometers. repairs are possible.015of an inch makeslubricationmarginal. 7-24). concentrating rod wear above andbelow the piston pin bores (Fig. 7-26). 7-25).one canlive with 0. detectbendsat right anglesto the rod hearings. the only durability a advantage it over the factoryproduct. The objection to taperis thatit throws the pistonaskewin the boreandcan.to leaveroo for set rodandcrankshaftexpansionatelevated temperatures.in thethree tenthsrange. particularly high speed or under heavyload.leaving signature lookslike anhourglass(Fig. p!ough pistonpin pastthe retainerandinto the cylinder the wall. .03o an inch. An unusual wear pattern shouldalert you to the possibiity of COM rod or crankshaft distortion. No The on@insurance modifiedenginehas.But syn efic oils are more tolerant of heat than petroleumbasedlubric ts.The COM rod is passed rejectedon or the basisof these inspections. Crankshaft taper is a touchy subject. Racingenginesare at traditionally uploose. Less than 0.wear limits are weft nigh useless. Somemechanics would rejecta crankthat showedanymeasureable taper. The greater the clearance.the less the wire flattens. Briggs & Stratton suppliescrankpinand big end bearingspecsas wear limits. Scrape the remnantsof the wire andrepeat the operation.mdhenceallow racingmechauics closedown the clearancs in to : their engineswithout dangerof seizure. Whileconnecting rod twist cannotbe verified without an expensive it is possibleto jig. no as clearance data. positioned athwart the crankpin (Fig. In practice.03 of an inchpoundsthe life out of the rod andcranks atI.

Fig. 7-25. A bent corm rod causes the piston to tilt in the cylinder and produces a wear pattern indicated bytheshaded areas. (CourtesySeabd Power Corp.)

Fig. 7-29. A twisted connecting rod causes the pi3on to rock in the cylinder, producing wear on the upper and lower edges of the skirt above and below the pin bore. (Courtesy Sealed Power Corp.)

ingrod. The bestof theserodsarelighter thanthe Briggs& Stratton product,andshift the burdenof fragility to the crankshaft. yougo If so far as to defeat the governor-something not recommended here-you must investin one of these connecting rods. Otherwise the enginewill self-destructin a matter of minutes.
PISTON

The piston hasfour functions: * To reactagainst combustion pressure,convertingchemical energyinto mechanical motion t To hold the rings sqtnx-e ihe bore in To passsurplusheatout of the chamber into the cooling and
l

fitlS

To isolatethe crankcase from the violenceof combustion. The thrust faces-the contactareason eithersideof thepiston pin and roughly parallel with it-should be lightly burnished.A mattedfmisb,as if the pistonh.ad beenlapped,means abrasive that particleshaveaccelerated wear. Usually these abrasives preare
l

Fig. 7-27.Assumingthefiredeckistrue, aconnecting rodgaugewill detectabent rod. (Court~sjj CZ.)

sent in the oil, althougha failedair cleanercan contribute to the problem.Deepscratches usuallymeanmeanlubrication ?ailure compounded overheating. the mostseverecases, pistonmelds by In the itself to the bore, depositing splashes aluminum the cylinder.A of on pistonwith this sort of damage cannot, of course,be reused. Once the carbon is removed, the piston crown shouldbe smoothandregular,its surfacebrokenonly by a suggestion tool of marks. A wavy or flaked piston crown is prima facie evidenceof detonation, preignition,or a combination both. Oncethe surface of is compromised, metalunderit no longerhasthe heatstrengthto the withstandcombustion. It‘s rare, but not unknown,to tind a brokenBriggs & Stratton piston.The pistonmaycrackat the skirt, in whichcaseit hasbeen loosein the bore andpounded itself to death,or it maycrackon the undersideat the piston pin bosses.In either event, discardthe piston. The piston rings changedirection twice eachrevolution. Because rate of deceleration moreabruptat top deadcenter,the the is upper side of the ring groove suffers most. It may appearto be stepped,each step like growth rings on a tree testifying to the increased of the ring. For asthe ring wears,it movesfurther out age in the groove.The uppergroovewearsfour or five times asfast as the second groove.For practicalpurposes,the third groove,the oil ring groove,doesnot wear at all. Removethe rings from the piston, handlingthem with great care.The edgesare razor sharp.Pry one of the upperrings apart, much youwouldbreaka wishbone. ring should like The snapcleanly. Secure of the brokenpiecesin a file holderanduseit asa scraper one to removecarbonfrom the ring grooves.It maybenecessary dull to the brokenend with a few file strokes to prevent gouging. Position newring in the uppergrooveandinsertafeelergauge a under it as shownin Fig. 7-28. If a 0.006 of an inch leaf can be bottomed the baseof the groove,the pistonshouldbe replaced. on The new rings will flutter, fatigue, andbreak. Smallenginemechanics rarely measurepiston clearance, but dependuponthe “wobble test” instead.The piston shouldhavea barelyperceptible side-to-side at top deadcenter(the regionof play the borethat suffersmost). Consideration should givento replacbe
160

Iron bore pistons are available oversizesof 0.020. Better lubricatingoils.010. Somepistons have the letter F 161 .oversiaingthe boresis impractical. with clearances the order of 0. Checking piston ring groove width.0025of an inch of betweeneither thrust face andthe bore is a goodcompromise. and in 0. Beforeseparating pistonfrom the connecting noteany the rod. Those used in chromed’ Kool-Borecylindersare themselves chromeplated. on The tin platedpiston cannottolerate a chromedbore. In the past.005of an inch callsfor a rebore to the next oversize. andthe impactof studiesgenerated Japan in havetendedto discourage practice. 7-28. the high price of replacement parts. oversized and postonsare not available.030of an inch.pistonsfor modified engines havebeenfitted loose. nor canthe chromeplatedpiston live in the iron bore.006 of an inch to allow for heat on expansion.andthose in areasare likely to starve for oiL A clearance 0. A word about replacement pistons. 0.004of aninch. Since chromed cylinders cannotbereplatedin the field. morethan 0. (Courtesy International Harvester -F4 ing the pistonif the playis estimatedat 0./ NRWPISTONRING Fig.It has been shown that a loosepistonis this muchmoreliableto seizethanonewith reasonable clearances.onlysmallareasarein contact. The oversizeis stampedon the crown.thoseintended for iron boresare tin platedandare further identifiedby the expander bandbehindthe oil ring andthe letter L stamped the crown. referencemarks on the piston. the If pistonwanders the bore.

Make note of the connecting matchmarks.Yet anothermethodis to supportthe pistonin a woodV-block anddrivethe pinout with a punch. (Courtesy CZ. Othershavenotchedcrowns. A piston pin press.referencingthem to the camshaft rod or someotherprominent feature. carefullyfitted andpolishedstock pistonis adequate.) embossed the skirt.Thesereferon ence marks should be on the flywheel side. Whilethere is no substitutefor an aftermarketpiston cast in high siliconalloyfor heat strengthanddomedto increasethe compressionratio. Figure7-29showsa tool of the the type supplied by motorcycle and snowmobile manufacturers. Solidpistonpinshavea recesson onesideand shouldbe assembled foundoriginally. Anothermethodis to heatthe piston by wrappingit in rags soaked with hot oil.Be sureto keepthe punch against the pm. because it wandersinto the bearings.For moderatepower increases.Retainers too importantto betrusteda second are timearound. 7-29. removeboth pistonpin retainer clips anddiscard them. these pistonsare expensive.the piston will be if ruined. or by placingthe pistoncrown downon an electric hot plate.Remove pistonpin.Fig. a 162 . Otherwiseit is possible reassemto ble the shank wrong. as Usinglongnosedpliers.

163 . Carbonand COMPASSION SCRAPER OIL CORTROL Fig. By the same token.exertingonly a few ouncesof residualspring tension againstthe bore. The greater the pressure. Severelyworn rings. from the flanks.evencarbonaccumulations.otherwisethe pressureescapes the ring face.the second scrapessurplusoil from the bore. Briggs 8 Stratton ring profiles. or ringsthat past havebeen overheatedcannotdevelopthe initial tension. As pressure abovethe ring rises. Piston Rings Counting from the top. the stronger the camming action. or oil control ring. the purposeof the lirst andsecond ring is to sealcompression combustion and pressure.in additionto its primaryfunction. ring andis sometimes calledthe scraperring to distinguish from the it uppermost. beingcarefulnot to removeany the to material.andthe more tightly the ring hugsthe bore. The bottom.the ring mustbe free to movein the bore.or compression ring. hubricatcs cylinder. the A pistonring is a pressurecompensating Whenthereis no seal. the ring lies dormant. 7-30.actingfrombehindit. camsthe ring hardagainst the bore.Confine polishing the crown. pressurein the cylinder. The ring musthavesomeresidualtension. someof this pressurebleedsover the upper edgeof thering and.

No one is surprisedto find broken rings in a worn engine. increasesoil consumption.035of aninchonbothcompression rings and0. Eachincrease gapabovethisnullpoint translates cylinderwear. The more the ring faceshaveeroded. for rings to be mislabeled. The upper side is identifiedby the words “t@ or up.045of aninchfor the oil control ring for aluminumKool-Bore applications.within a few hours of startup.Establish gapat the baseof the bore in the the regionbelowring travel. 7-31). King gapis alsoa way to detect manufacturer’s mistakes. and installing theseringsupside downcostscompression in the case and. in as and/or eccentricity. by Figure 7-30illustratesfour “factory” ring sets.the wearlimit is 0. Thebigproblemwith ringsis hardlymentioned theliterature.Iron sleeved enginesare set up a little tighter.the fact that one or more rings has shatteredjustifies the mechanic’s work. Note that the compression scraper rings have a definite top and bottom.The changefrom the bottom to the zonejust underthe ridgeis the cylindertaper.Theseringstolerate0. Whenmakingthesemeasurements. indeed.If is unusual.Oil control rings and expanders shown)are symmetrical.but by no meansspectacularly rare. certainlyno morethan0.030of aninchfor the compression and0. K ith ring wear limits of 0.use a pistonas a ram to keep the ring square.Determinethe gap of eachnew ring.andcanbe installedeither (not sideup. But replacementrings should be immune to 164 . This gaprepresentszero bore wear.035of aninchfor the rings oil control ring. by Ringshavea tendencyto breakaPer overhaul.” Briggs& Strattonalsosupplies “engineered”ring sets for use in severelyworniron or chromebores. of the scraper. The ring gap-the installeddistance betweenthe ring ends-is premarilya measureof ring wear (Fig.0015! less of an inch per inch of bore diameter. In this context.the wider the gap.005of an inchof cylinderwear andseatthemselveswithout the needfor honing. The variationin ring gapat different positionsin the bore is a poorman’smicrometer. This gap shouldbe considerably thanthe wearlimit. in andrarely acknowledged mechanics.varnish boundringshaveceased function:whatevercompression to the enginehasis developed the piston.

) breakage. an overly wide ring groove is the culprit. Breakin stressescanhardlybe blamed. (Courtesy Kohler of Kohler. He performs two operationsexpanding rings to slideover the piston.particularly those involvingthe upper compression Cng. Determining ring end gap. andcompressing the them 165 .sincefactory new engines seemimmuneto early ring failure. The reasonmustbe in the way the mechanic handles rings the while they are in his charge.a pistonthat shouldhavecorrectly sizedgrooves.In some cases.Fig. But post-overhaul breakage occxs aboutas often whenrings are fitted on a new piston. 7-31.

andpistonskirt with highgrade motoroil.Installthe oil controlringfirst.andfinallythe compression Checkthat the uppertwo havetheir correct sides ring. and on the rings are free to rotate. can Purchase rent an expander the one shownin Fig. Using a piston ring expander.Mount the pistonassembly a vise with blocksof in hardwood betweenthe jaws to protect the connecting Tighten rod.andof course. thenthe scraper.leaking compression exhaustgases eachupwardstroke. 7-32. If done incorrectly. andare extremelyunlikely to aligntheir gapsagain.nowin disfavorbecause the sparkplug of foulingit caused. the rings might “freeze” in that position. crown down andpin deep. It is not necessaryto bear down hardon the compressor.from Briggs& Strattonand its competitors. the compressor over the rings. pistonpm. Lubricatethe rings. exerting just enoughpressureto overcomeresidualring tension. or like This tool pries the ring openwhile holdingthe endsin the same plane.) to enter the cylinder bore. Staggered. If the gaps were to be in line. up androtate eachring 120 degreesfrom the others. The mechanic simplyimmersedthe piston. 7-32.Fig. discouraging groovesticking. either of these operations weakenthe rings. King compressors small enginesare available for from K-D Manufacturing. (Courtesy Briggs & Stratton Corp. The oldmethod. aligning 166 . Placethe assembly over the bore. in a bucketof oil. Whitney.at least was thorough.

Withdrawthe assembly start over. torque up the rod andturn the crankshaft few revolutions. If the piston hangs. and Fig. andpushthe pistonout of the tool andinto the cylinder (Fig. Installing the piston with Kohler.a ring has Do escaped confinesof the compressor. Cylinder Bore Oneof the mechanic’s responsibilities tc g:. wherepistonmovement greaterper degreeof crankshaft is rotation than at the deadcenters. 7-33). (Courtesy Kohler ot 167 .) a ring compressor. center.Lge cylinder is the boreat three placesalongits length: at the upperlimit. not force the issue.or the rod is jammed the againstthe crankshaft. 7-33.The piston shouldmovewithout a protest.. slowinga bit as it transversesthe middleof the stroke. Thumb pressureshouldbe adequate. and Oncethe piston is in the cylinder.anyindexmarkson the pistonor rod.

. .0035inch over&e .. Maketwo measurements eachstation. . . . ..Cast-iron blockswill acceptlargeroverbores.The wear limits of the cylinderbore are: all models.. 0. . less Most smallenginemechanics estimatebore wear with the wobble test andthe fortitude of their convictions. . .0. ... and one at right anglesto it. engines on 166 . . .. . .. . .. at one in tine with the piston pin axis. of Very little skillis requiredto obtainconsistent results. . Figure 7-34showsa direct readingcylindergaugein use. . . cast-ironblocks. 7-34.. .. ... . .030of an inchpast stock can diameters. . 0. . . . .. .and0.but requires practiceto master.030. . At leastsome thecostof this toolisjustifiedby its convenience.010. . .0.. . . . .. .. . .0015inch cult-of-round Boring. . . ....0015inchout of tound ahuninum blocks(iron sleevedor chromepiated)...) towerlimit of x?ng travel... . . ... .. . ... .An insidemicrometer is somewhat expensive. . . Cast iron blocks and ahtminumblocks with iron sleeves be bored0. . . . . . The best way to determine cylinder bore wear is with a direct reading gauge. (Courtesy Clinton Engines Corp. . .Fg.

is the hardestpart of the job. 7-35.givesbetter accuracy thanthe conventional.springloadedtype. mostshopsusea hone. but once the stonesare wetted.Q90 aninch. however.The leastdesirable methodis to honethe cylinderoversize(Fig.An adjustable hone.) 169 .Kerosene andother petroleumoils dissolve adhesive bindsthe partithe that Fig. Cylinders should be machined oversize with a boring bar. Assuming first rate toolingandreasonable competency the part of the machinist. 7-36). (Courtesy Clinton Engines Corp. 7-35. they must continueto be lubricated. Somemechanics prefer to run the hone dry.codenumber a 500stoneis equiva Lentto 280 grit. Sincemachine tools are expensive few customers and comein for majorenginework.The next bestchoiceis to cut the borein a lathe. suchas the oneillustrated.For example. There are three ways to bore the block. remembering grit size(the numberof that abrasive particlesper squareinch)andhonecodenumbersare not alwaysidentical. Fiiding a s&able of piston.recordhavingbeentakenout to O. on the bestmethod to useaverticalboringmachine the type illustrated is of in Fig. Selectthe stonefrom the honemanufacturer’s recommendation.

Looselybolt the blockto the work tableso that the blockwill tend to center itself on the how. animal or fat.Fig. Adjust the spindlestops to limit hone travel to 3/i of an inch past either end of the bore.) cles in the stone and causerapid wear without a corresponding increase cuttingspeed.010of an inch. 7-3~3.opening stones the until the cut is uniformfrom top to bottom.this pistonwill havethe correct runningclearance. a pistonmarked0. If the cylinderbore is enlarged 0.Usea commercial in honingoil. Briggs&Stratton pistonoversizes based the diameter are on of the originalpiston.010 is ten thousandths an inch larger than the of factory standard piston.If you usea the springloadinghone. and not on bore diameter.a drill pressis the betterchoice.010is 170 .concentrate the lower part of the bore and on slowlyincrease lengthof the strokesto includethe wholebore.a pistonthat is marked0. andgear the machinedown to 400 rpm. Most cylinders are honedoversize. (Courtesy Clintm Engines Corp. the Sweepthe wholebore with an adjustable hone. machinist A might be confusedon this point since other manufacturers base pistonsizeon bore. In other words. In this system. Reciprocate honeaboutseventystrokesa minute. vegetable suchas Crisco. oil Althoughcylindershavebeen bored with a quarter inch drill motor.

while the valleysbecome channels coolthe rings oil to andto float away the debris.Scrubthe bore&roughly andwipeit down with paper towels.The Crystal Palace. Deglazing.a periodof accelerated ring andborewearuntil thepartsaccomodate themselves each to other.the last 0. 171 . Cast-iron anamazing is material.0015of an or inchor soshouldbe finishhonedwith a fairly light stone.usedin its heyday for everythingfrom lamppoststo structural beams. Oneof this metal’sunique propertiesis the wayit formsa glaze when subjectto rubbingfriction. “glazebusting. Deglaaing. iron bores.” is no more than light honingfor or then purposeof roughteningthe metal and giving it tooth. mattedappearance. Upon microscopic examination. oil Cast-iron rings seatbest with a codenumber(not grit number)200 stone.The peaksare in rubbingcontactwith the pistonrings. The only way to clean a honed bore is with hot water. Whetherthe bore is machined honed.Petroleum based solvents merelyfloatthe abrasive deeperinto the poresof the metal.Oncethe boreis completely is free of abrasive. chromerings need a 300 stone. and iudeed makesit possible run cast-ironrings. Breakin is a mutualhoning process.hard skin that is almostimperviousto into further wear. surfaceis characterized diamond the by shaped peaksandvalleys.the cylinderwalltakeson a dull.was framesin cast-iron.but it is a nuisance to in when the enginehas been overhauledand the rings are replaced. if the towels discolor.anda sturdybrush. abrasiveis still presentandmorescrubbing required. Abrasive particlesmustbe removedfrom the boreif thehoning processis not to continueover the life of the engine.symbol of Victoria’s reign and British industrialism. Done correctly.Otherwise the rings are slow to seatandmaynever g&e adequate control. Withoutthe formationof g&e. Ghue is beneficialto an older engine. it wouldbe impossible to run cast-ironrings in iron bores. The working surfaceflows and compresses a smooth. and stainlesssteel rings require the almostpolishedfinish given by a 500 stone.oil it to preventrust. The of bore must be cut out further for piston clearance.Its imperviousness wear meansthat the rings do not breakin propto erly.exactlyten thousandths aninchlarger thanthe originalbore. detergent.

otherwise the magneto jump time and starting will becomeproblematic. andall of the polishingandfitting amountsto nought. &&. The honewill skip in an eccentric.Takingout the ovalcostsmoremetalthanit is worth. Reciprocate at approximatelyseventy strokes a minute. Because is a passive it element.wJld nex< .. 7-37). will The 172 .cylinder.DISCARD CRANKSHAFT IF SMALL OR OUT OF ROUND SEE CHART JOURNAL’ JDURNAL CRANKPIN MGNETO END I OISCARO CRANKINAPT IF PLUNGER FLAT DR KEYWAY IS 01 Use the appropriatefinishing stone for the ring materialas de&bed under“Boring. Cylinders ~~J-1. Begin the inspectionwith the flywheel threads (Fig. a.x& se”“l’p g-accent++or left alone. The it cylindermay be said to be deglazedwhen the surfaceis entirely honed.But flaws in the crankshaftmeanthat the enginewill not live. mechanics sometimes the crankshaft take for granted.or egg shaped. Pulledor crossedthreadsmeanthat the wheelcanbreakfree.. The keyway must be squareand sized to fit the key. ring CRANKSHAFT The crankshaftis the fundamental part upon which all else depends.havingnothingdirectlyto do with performance. Deglazing inappropriate chromedbores that do not deis for velop a “skin” and for cast-iron bores fited with the Briggs & Strattonengineered set.” andturn the honeno morethan400rpm.er be overboiedto &kie ske.although somediscretionshouldbe usedin the matter.

tandemdialindicators.andthe patience a to match or exceed factory tolerances.but economic considerations repairsto straightening limit and rebuildingthe crankpinbearing. Plainbearings take the form of a bushingon cast-ironengines. or almostnoplay.somethe times it doesn’t.The crankshaft rod should straightto within 0. a techniquefavoredby go-cart racers.Crankpin bearing work is more expensive. smooth(small imperfectionscan be polished and out. evenwelding. since air.is technically feasible. The crankpin bechecked be can with a new connecting andplastic wire gauge.Some with outer 173 .The pin is groundundersize.Without a micrometer. antifiiction bearingshave zero tolerance for moisure.andgroundto dimension. you can get someidea of main journal wear by movingthe crankshaftside-to-side the bearings.The cost of this work shouldbe no morethana third of the price of a new crankshaft.built up with vaporized metal. nail hangingridges meanthe crankshaftmust be replaced. in turn. but deep. hydraulicpress. Ballbearing clearances cannotbe gauged.indentation crankshafts flywheel magnetos on with must be square for the pointsto break. Grinding the crankpin off center increasesthe stroke. is boltedto the block. Bearingsurfaces shouldbereasonably close to specification.the inner racemakesa press fit with the crankshaft. If you use compressed the sourcemust be fitted with a water trap. Almostany crankshaft repair. Main Bearings Depending themodel. Once the crank is straightened.and the outer race is pinnedto the hearingcarrier which. must be inspected cracksby the magnetic it for particlemethod. Straighteninginvolvesprecision V-blocks.the conditionof the bearingis judgedby how it looks and sounds. in Thereshould no. a determination is be that madewith a dial indicatoranda set of precisionV-blocks.Briggs& Strattonengines plain upon use or bail mainbearings. and are integralon aluminumblocks.Whenball bearingsare specified. Turn the bearing hand:it should withoutcatches withoutthe cracks by roll and andpopsassociated Brineledracesandpittedballs. ‘Soakthe bearingin solventto removeall lubricantand allow it to air dry.001of aninch. Sometimes repairholds.

although it shottld be limited to a few thousandths an inch. 731).19.8B-HA. Maximumailowableoil temperature 325 degreesFahrenheit. sizedto matchthe diameterof the inner race (Fig. Sumpsidebearings berenewedexcepton models9. can and23in the cast-ironseries. the innerraceswill expand enoughto slip over the crankshaft. (Courtesy Tecumeeh Products co.82599.&king new bearings homewith a lengthof pipe. Ball bearings can be pulled with a bearing splitter. removethem from the crankshaft wttt an arbor press or a bearingspiitter (Fig. 7-38~.80790.andthe bearingsmust be is heldclearof the bottomandsidesof the container. A more refined methodis to warm the replacement beatingsin a containerof oil. Magnetoside plain bearingscan be renewedon all engines. 7-38.The shielded sidesof the ballsare inside.Powertake off sidereamersare not available theseengines. 174 . 8l790.81590.92590.) race play is a!!*aable.14. 80590.andthe newoil for sumpsor bearingcoversmust be purchased.82990. toward the crankpin.PULLER SPLllTER Fig.Oncewarmed. of If the bearingshavefailed. 92990 the aluminum and in series.20.

) . Installthe sealwith the steepside of the lip inward. 7-39). if only for the insurance value. Sealdrivers are side available. (Courtesy Rpckewell Mfg.Replacing bearings plain requiresa set of factory reamersand guideblocks(Fig. However. Fig.sincethe tools cost severaltimes more thana dealer wouldcharge do the work. CQ. and tine reamedas before. although mostmechanics a iengthof two by four. toward the oil. The use sealmustbepressedhomedeadflat andto the depthof the original. When bearings are driven home by force.the sea1 be repositioned fractionof is can a an inch to compensate. with the iooi centeredon the flange bearing magneto oil sealgroove. the crankshaft webs must be supported with a wood btock.there is no bushingand the bearingweb mustbe roughreamedto acceptone.On and side is ahnninum block engines.Figure 7-40 illustratesthe technique. 7-39.and. Ifthe crankshaft grooved. a is new one pressedhome. andthe numbered outward.the bushing reamed. The processbeginswith the magneto to sidebearing. it is usedasa centerfor the side is sumpsidebushing. Oncethe magneto bushing true. the hackof the sealmust make goodcontactwith the recessand must not invadethe oil port. It is one of thosejobs that the amateur should avoid. The new bushing installed. toward the tool. is stakedinto placeto prevent rotation.the old bushing knockedout.On cast-ironblocks. Oil Seals Oil sealsshouldbe replaced eachtime the engineis opened.

shouldbe mentionedthat it is not necessary it to disassemble engineto removeandinstallanoil seal.Fig.beingcarefulnot to damage seal the cavityor the crankshaft. InstaIlthe new sealwith a lengthof pipe whoseoutsidediameter&s&y matchesthat of the seal.Deformand the tear the old sealwith a punch.) Newseals oftendamaged are duringengineassembly. Oncethe sealhasrelaxed.withdrawit with a pairof sidecuttingpliers. Oil seals can be pryad loose with a large screwdriver. seal The lips shouldbe greasedto aid breakin andthe crankshaft shouldbe lightly polished. In passing. (Courtesy Tecumseh Products Co.Cover keywayswith maskingtape. 176 . 740.

::. --.. .I I I. I .

.

alternator By’. storage Searing.Index A Alternators dust circuit 4.0 Amp Amp. symptoms oversp=xds Erratic response Elements. pump c Flange or base Float Flo-Jet Flywheel Four-cycle engine 30. starter E Engine teardown trouble. throttle C Camshaft Carburetor Briggs & Stratton dribbles fuel FloJet Vacu-Jet 8 P&a-Jet Charging circutt Choke automatic RoJel remote controlled VacuJet 8 Pulsa-Jet Cleaning CMoh wag 113 118 115 117 113 109 173 168 80 58 151 51 57 54 55 55 118 63 66 66 ii: 56 86 Coil cocdi!lg Connecting rod Crankcase breather Crankshaft horizontal vertical Cylinder bore head 0 Deglazing Drives.43 14 155 140 172 82 83 167 131 171 102 130 125 78 74 64 148 60 57 25 9 179 . main wng Srfggs 8 Stratton governors Suahings. Salterles.0 Amp 7.

ifi 125 95 9 P 37 65 :: R Rebuilding vs overhauling Refinishing.. IO Amp Replacement points spark plug Response.lrrkrr*:~” I I”“YlrJOlwu:::.41 58 62 62 135 140 146 1:: 45 Poklis Z& fuel Pfats%Lt le Point. pickup v Vacu-Jet Vatves !fJim seat inlet springs Venturt 24 23 79 43 33.. EL condenser i?iJzzei* ii 180 . nicad 1 Timing T.. valve seat Refuses to run at steady no load speed Regulator.* Tube. Brtggs & Stratton ~~~foning.175 64 53 85 i! ii 05 89 22 33. governor Rotor Runs lean rich Seal oil Spiral Start.. symptoms Mod~~~rglne N NomenclilbU~ 73 78 74 80 53 75 16 47 15 37 ii 20 28 62.6 GOVWlOlS centrifugal pneumatic runaway Hard to start cold ” Hunting I Identificatfon Idle port 8 throttle valve 1 Lubrkation 1 Magna-Matfc Magneto external point set internat point set types..l. refuses Starters electric horizontal pull impulse mechanical rewind vertical pull Sysiem.

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