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PROJECT PREPARED BY:
Ayush Vashishth Class: - XI-B Session: 2010-2011 Roll Number: - 12 Oxford Sr. Sec. School
It would be my utmost pleasure to express my sincere thanks to my chemistry teacher Mrs. Rita Dhar in providing a helping hand in this project. Her valuable guidance, support and supervision all through this project are responsible for attaining its present form. I would also like to thank my parents as they encouraged me to put forward my project.
Teacher’s Signature ________________
News flashed that they contain harmful pesticide. I wanted to confirm that whether the charge imposed on these brands are true or not. Another fact which inspired me to do this project is that I am in touch with qualitative analysis whose knowledge with other factors helped me to do so. which arouse many interest in knowing its contents because I have been drinking them for years. .PURPOSE In recent days. soft drink brands were put into various questions regarding their purity.
Chemicals Required 6. Introduction 2. Test for Sucrose Result Precautions Conclusion Bibliography . Apparatus 5.Contents 1. 11. Test for Phosphate 9. Test for Carbon Dioxide 8. 14. Test for Alcohol 10. 13. Theory 3. Aim 4. Detection of pH 7. 12.
it is observed in general that majority of people viewed Sprite. the beginning of cold drinks was highly profitable and luring. many multinational companies launched their brands in India like Pepsi and Coke.Introduction The era of cold drinks began in 1952 but the industrialization in India marked its beginning with launching of Limca and Goldspot by parley group of companies. while Pepsi and Thumps Up to activate pulse and brain. Fanta and Limca to give feeling of lightness. Since. Now days. .
Carbohydrates. The carbon dioxide gas is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid which is also responsible for the tangy taste. Carbon dioxide is responsible for the formation of froth on shaking the bottle. On the basis of their molecule size carbohydrates are classified as:Monosaccharide. It is also present in human blood to the extent of about 0. phosphate ions etc. General formula of carbohydrates is CX (H2O)Y. Disaccharides and Polysaccharides.1%. Sucrose is one of the most useful disaccharides in our daily life. lightness and have a tangy taste which is liked by everyone. These soft Drinks give feeling of warmth. carbon dioxide. Glucose is a monosaccharide with formula C6H12O6 . seeds and also in flowers of many plants. It is widely distributed in nature in juices.It occurs in Free State in the ripen grapes in bones and also in many sweet fruits.Theory Cold drinks of different brands are composed of alcohol. The main source of sucrose is sugar cane juice . Carbohydrates are the naturally occurring organic compounds and are major source of energy to our body.
. The pH values also depend upon the acidic contents such as citric acid and phosphoric acid. It is produced by a mixture of glucose and fructose. It is non-reducing in nature whereas glucose is reducing. The molecular formula of sucrose is C12H22O11. Cold drinks are a bit acidic in nature and their acidity can be measured by finding their pH value.which contain 15-20 % sucrose and sugar beet which has about 10-17 % sucrose.
Aim Comparative Study and Qualitative Analysis of different brands of Cold Drinks available in market. .
Apparatus Test Tubes Test Tube Holder Test Tube Stand Beaker Bunsen Burner pH Paper Tripod Stand China Dish Wire Gauge Water Bath .
Chemicals Required Iodine Solution Potassium Iodide Sodium Hydroxide Lime Water Concentrated Nitric Acid Ammonium Molybdate .
The change in colour of pH paper was noticed and was compared with standard pH scale. . Name of the Drink 1 2 3 Pepsi Fanta Limca Pink Light Orange Pinkish 2.5-3 3-4 4 Colour Change pH Value Inference Soft Drinks are generally acidic because of the presence of citric acid and phosphoric acid. Observation S No.Detection Of pH Experiment Small samples of cold drinks of different brands were taken in a test tube and put on the pH paper. pH values of cold drinks of different brand are different due to the variation in amount of acidic content.
Name of the Drink 1 2 3 Pepsi Fanta Limca Conclusion CO2 is present CO2 is present CO2 is present Inference All the soft drinks contain dissolved carbon dioxide in water. Observation S No. The carbon dioxide (CO2) dissolves in water to form carbonic acid. The lime water turned milky. Chemical Reaction Ca(OH)2 (s) + CO2 (g) → CaCO3 (s) + H2O(l) .Test For Carbon Dioxide Experiment As soon as the bottles were opened. one by one the samples were passed through lime water. which is responsible for its tangy taste.
Observation S No. Name of the Drink 1 Pepsi Canary Yellow Precipitate 2 Fanta Canary Yellow Precipitate 3 Limca Canary Yellow Precipitate Phosphate is Present Phosphate is Present Phosphate is Present Observation Conclusion . The solution was heated. Appearance of canary-yellow precipitate confirmed the presence of phosphate ions in cold drinks.Test For Phosphate Experiment Small samples of each brand of cold drinks were taken in separate test tubes and Ammonium Molybdate ((NH4)2MoO4) followed by concentrated Nitric Acid (HNO3) was added to it.
Inference All the soft drinks samples gave positive test for phosphate ions.+ 12MoO42. Hence all the cold drinks contain phosphate. Reaction Involved PO43.+ 24 H+ → (PMo12O40)3.+ 12H20 .
Test For Alcohol Experiment Small samples of each brand of cold drinks were taken in separate test tubes and Iodine followed by Potassium Iodide and Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) solution was added to each test tube. Then the test tubes were heated in hot water bath for 30 minutes. Name of the Drink 1 Pepsi Yellow Precipitate 2 Fanta Yellow Precipitate 3 Limca Yellow Precipitate Alcohol is present Alcohol is present Alcohol is present Observation Conclusion . Observation S No. Appearance of yellow coloured precipitate confirmed the presence of alcohol in cold drinks.
Inference All the cold drinks samples gave positive test for alcohol. Chemical Reaction CH3CH2OH + 4I2 + 6NaOH → CHI3 + HCOONa + 5NaI + 5H2O . Hence all the cold drinks contain alcohol.
But amount of sucrose varies in each brand of drink. Name of the Drink 1 2 3 Pepsi Fanta Limca Black Residue Black Residue Black Residue Sucrose is present Sucrose is present Sucrose is present Observation Conclusion Inference All the brands of cold drinks contain sucrose.Test For Sucrose Experiment 5 ml samples of each brand of cold drinks were taken in separate china dishes and were heated very strongly until changes occur. Black coloured residue left confirmed the presence of sucrose in cold drinks. Fanta contains highest amount of sucrose . Observation S No.
Result After conducting several tests. Fanta 3. All cold drinks are acidic in nature. . Limca All contains alcohol. On comparing the pH value of different brands Pepsi is the most acidic and Limca is least acidic of all the three brands taken. it was concluded that the different brands of cold drinks namely: 1. phosphate and carbon dioxide. Pepsi 2. sucrose.
flush immediately with copious amounts of water. Turn them off whenever you leave your workstation. 4. 5. 2. Concentrated solutions should be handled with immense care. . If chemicals come into contact with your skin or eyes. 3. 6. Hands should be washed thoroughly after performing each experiment.Precautions Some of the precautions which need to be taken care of are: – 1. If possible. Never point a test tube or any vessel that you are heating at yourself or your neighbour. one should wear hand gloves to prevent from any possible damage. Never leave burners unattended.
As they contain sugar in large amount which cause problems in diabetes patients.Conclusion DIS-ADVANTAGES OF COLD DRINKS 1. 5. Soft drinks have also ability to remove blood so they are very harmful to our body. Soft drinks can cause weight gain as they interfere with the body‟s natural ability to suppress hunger feeling. So they can dissolve a nail in about 4 days. For transportation of soft drinks syrup the commercial truck must use the hazardous matter place cards reserved for highly consive material. . 4. Soft drinks have ability to dissolve the calcium so they are also harmful for our bones. 3. 6. 2.8. Soft drinks contain “phosphoric acid” which has a pH of 2. Soft drinks are little more harmful than sugar solution.
Soft drinks are used as an excellent „detergent‟ to remove grease from clothes. Cold drinks can be used as toilet cleaners. 2. They can remove rust spots from chrome car humpers. They clean corrosion from car battery terminals. 5. 4. 3. .USES OF COLD DRINKS 1. They can loose a rusted bolt.
com www.VEENA SURI DINESH COMPANION CHEMISTRY BY.edu . unoregon.com www.K. MALHOTRA Websites www.S.wikipedia.com www. google. icbse.Bibliography Following books and websites were a source for my project . Books LABORATORY MANUAL OF CHEMISTRY BY.