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The MCAT
Physics Book
Garrett Biehle

Nova Press
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Copyright O 2005 by Nova Press Previous editions: 2000, 1997 All rights reserved. Duplication, distribution, or data base storage of any part of this work is prohibited without prior written approval from the publisher.
ISBN: 1889057339
MCAT is a service mark of the Association of American Medical Colleges.
Phone: 18009496 175 Email: info8novapress.net Website: www.novapress.net
The MCAT
Physics Book
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Preface
The physics portion of the Medical College Aptitude Test (MCAT) contains questions to test your knowledge of basic physics and your ability to apply that knowledge to unfamiliac situations. The goal of this book is to review basic physics with an emphasis on the principles and ideas, and to help you learn to approach new situations and think about them with a physics mindset. This book is not primarily concerned with testtaking techniques. It is designed to help you develop an intuitive understanding of physics, so that you will understand the MCAT questions and how to answer them. Each chapter contains a discussion of a major physics topic, followed by problems to help you apply the concepts. Finally, there are MCATstyle passages and questions to help you get used to the MCAT format. All the problems have complete solutions in the back of the book, some with tips to help you approach problems and to solve them faster. If you work through this book, taking notes with pencil and paper by your side, and solving the problems, you will improve your understanding of physics. And you will improve your score on the MCAT.
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The author wishes to thank James Aldridge for his comments on the manuscript. The author wishes to thank Michelle Haller for the many hours she spent editing the book's prose. The author especially appreciates Andrew and Judy Cordell for their critical reading of the book, alerting the author to subtleties in the science, helping the author approach difficult topics, and pointing out unnecessary detail.
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. . . . . Indexi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Periodic M o t i o n and Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Friction and A i r Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 Laws of Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Planes and Circles . . . . . . . .contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Interlude Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 1 3 Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 Electric Circuits . . . . . . . . . . 3 0 5 Solutions Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 The Language of Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 16 Atomic and Nuclear Physics . 225 Electrodynamics . . . . . . . . 323 . . . . . . . . Solving Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Torques and Properties of Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grav~tat~on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 121 149 159 185 Sound . . . . . 9 3 Momentum . . . . . . . . Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . Inclined Pbnes and For Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. Ouantitative Description .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 1 6 F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .wcfrictian . . . . . . . . . . . . . .lntroduction B. . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . 13 13 13 A. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .The Law of Gravitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 77 80 83 83 Chapter 6 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.4 5 A . . . . . . . D. . . . .Vcctors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . and Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 5 . . . . . .. . . . . . 86 . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 6 3 C. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Again . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 D. .. .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ThirdLawofMotion . . Acceleration . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .lntroduction . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SticWslip .Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reading this Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . Horizontal and Vettical Motion. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . 4 9 Chapter 4 Problems . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 54 Chapter 5 Planes and Circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . 6 4 r D. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . C i ~ u b Motion. . . . . . . .. . . 3 3 C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and All That . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .Mass . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Position. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 1 C. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . Speed. . . . . . . . . c i i M o t i i . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 1 6 G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. .. . . . . . . . .. . . 22 Chapter 2 Problems . .Statichction C. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 36 39 Chapter 4 Gravitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Uniform Acceleration . . . . . . . . J.. . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . ... . Force Diagrams . . . . . .. . 13 D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . Rilosophy of the Book . . . . . .. .. . 6 1 B. . .. . . . . . . . . 1 A . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 3 Problems . .. . .. . .CluQter 1 Introduction . . . . . 3 1 8 . . . . . 14 E. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .FneFall . . . . 47 C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 I. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Chapter 2 The Language of M o t i o n . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . Oualitative Description . . . ... . . Air resistance . . . . . . . . . 61 A . . . . . .. . . .Equations . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 6 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 Kinematic Equations for Constant Acceleration . . First Law of Motion . . . . I 8 . . . . . 2 3 Chapter 1 Problems . . . 66 Chapter 5 Problems . . . . . . . . . Horizontal and Vertical Motion . . . . . . . .. . . Second Law of Motion . . Displacement. . . . . . . . . . . ...Forcc . . . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . Velocity. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Surface of the Earth . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Chapter 3 Laws of M o t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 17 H. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . .. . . . . . 70 Friction and Air'Resistance . . . . . .. . . . . . . .Unib . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 4 D. . 1 8 7 D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 100 Chapter 7 Problems . 160 D. . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 2 E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..lntroduction Solving Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 1 2 1 B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Waves.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 5 C. . . . . . . . Surface tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . Specific Strategies . . . . . . . . ..lntroduction Periodic Motion and Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chapter 7 Torques and Properties of Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 191 C. . . . . . . . . . . 149 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conservation of Momentum . . . . . . . . . .Torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . P e r i i i c Motion: O n e Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 7 E. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . Some definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 0 H. . . . . . . . . . . 166 G.. . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bernoulli's hnciple . . 149 149 153 B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Periodic Motion: Two Connected Oscillators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 6 E. . . . . Lnguage of Rotation. . . . . .EnergyofMotion . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 4 D. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Wo& . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 F. . . . Chapter 8 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 9 G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 10 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lnterfmme . . 127 F. . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Potential Energy and Conservative Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pulleys . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ViscositymdTurbulence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Power . . . . . . . . . . 116 Chapter 9 Energy . . . . . . 197 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . interlude A. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Chapter 11 Problems . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 11 111 112 114 A . .Equilibrium . . .. . . External Forcer and Impulse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 1 Chapter 9 Problems . . . . . General Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 159 159 A . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . 8 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 170 Chapter 1 1 A. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solid Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 4 . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 6 H. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 1 0 3 Chapter 8 Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction and Dtfinition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . an Introduction . . . . .. . .lntroduction . . . . . . . . . . .Buoyantforce . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . Facta about presswe . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sprinss . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .StandingWava . 121 A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 9 E. . . . . . . . . . . . 185 B. . . 1 6 7 F. . . . . 9 3 93 93 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conservation of Energy .. . . . . . . . . . . . Efficiency of Energy Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 10 Fluids . 164 Continuity . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Energy Levels a D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3 0 E . . . . . . . . . . . . .8eats . . . . . . 288 F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 B . . . . . Basic Structure of an Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 B . . . . . . . . . . . 305 305 B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ideal Lenses and Nonideal Lenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' 2 5 0 D. . . . . . . . . . C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 Chapter 16 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alternating current . . . . . . . . . . . . . .lntroduction Atomic and Nuclear Physics . 252 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Properties of Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . H. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 9 0 Chapter 15 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . .2 7 9 A . . Optics Usins Mirrors F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Coulomb'sbw . . 2 0 8 C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 A . . . . . . . . 2 4 9 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric Potential. . . G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electromagnetic Radiation . . . . . . . . . 313 Solutions Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 13 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Charges and Materials .Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chapter 12 Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Indexi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reflection and Refraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 6 D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . . . . . . 2 4 9 C . . . . . . . . . H. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radioactivity d Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Resonating Cavities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .lntroduction . . . . .ElectricCharse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Combination of Lenses . 2 8 6 E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Optics Using Lenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 14 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 Electric Circuits . 307 . . 213 Chapter I Problems . . . . . Ohm's Law and the Combination of Resistors . . . . . . . Magnetic Fields . . . . . Doppler Shift . . . . . Dispersion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285 D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 5 C . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4 9 Alntroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric Field . . . . . . . . . . . Real DC cells and Real Wires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Intensity and Pitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 0 D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 238 238 239 240 Chapter 1 4 Electrodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 958 263 964 E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 916 2 Chapter 1 3 Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 999 Chapter 1 5 Chapter 16 A. .
03] [227.87 79 Zn 65.99] [222.08 38 Sc 44.01 15 0 16.69 46 Cu 63.47 55 S r 87.80 54 Rb 85.90 85 Xe 131.81 13 C 12.90 53 Kr 83.45 35 A r 39.99 19 Mg 24.95 105 W 183.22 72 Nb 92.07 76 Rh 102.59 112 [277] In 114.97 111 [272] Hg Ti 204.11] [262.91 87 Ba 137.12] [265.03] [261. 57 Z r 91.23 108 Ir 192.91 77 Pd 106.91 89 Hf 178.94 43 Fe 55.39 48 Ga 69.01 12 B 10.94 11 Be 9. 138.11] [263.00 17 Ne 20.60 84 I 126.84 106 Re 186.71 82 Sb 121.94 74 Tc [98.92 51 Se 78.61 50 As 74.00 42 Mn 54.09 32 P 30.49 104 fa 180.91 73 Mo 95.94 41 Cr 52.02] [226.42 78 Ag Cd 112.55 47 107.97 33 S 32.31 20 21 22 23 25 ' Al 26 ' S i 28.02] 116 118 [2891 [2931 Fr Ra Ac Rf Db [223.90 40 V 50.41 80 200.95 36 27 28 29 30 26.72 49 Ge 72.Perodic Table of the Elements 2 He 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 4.12] [264.85 44 Co 58.08 110 [269] Au 196.82 81 Sn 118.2 114 [2891 Bi 208.00 16 F 19.10 37 Ca 40.003 10 Li 6.22 109 Pt 195.34 88 La.91] 75 Ru 101.29 86 Cs 132.96 39 Ti 47.98 31 K 39.76 83 Te 127.07 34 CI 35.011 14 N 14.62 56 Y 88.91 .98 Po At Rn 1208.38 Pb 207.13] Sg Bh H s M t [268] .96 52 Br 79.18 18 N a 22.93 45 Ni 58.981 [208.21 107 0 s 190.
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explanations. each with several questions or problems. Often the passages involve unfamiliar situations and. You should write down every equation. 1 ( B. Another goal is to teach you how to solve problems in science. it concentrates on the underlying ideas. Instead. why certain forces are there and no others. This book actually has several goals. Gradually. You may even try working the examples before reading the solutions and work the solutions out along side the text. You should reproduce every diagram. Reading h Book i s I Reading a book about physics is completely different from reading a novel. you will have difficulty on the exam unless you learn to do these first. Although you will not need a battery of specialized ' equations. . The physics and chemistry portions of the MCAT consist mainly of a series of passages. The goal is for you to learn how to approach new problems. In each chapter the initial problems are simple. for example. the reader. The solutions at the back of the book tell you how to think about the problems. making sure you understand all the symbols. The text portion of this book covers all the topics listed in the MCAT study guide. and so on. For this reason each chapter contains problems in the text with full explanations. to pass the physics part of the MCAT. But you cannot learn to solve problems by simply reading about physics. the problems in a chapter become more difficult. When premed students find out about the exam. by thinking in the same way as when you solved problems before. One is to give you a working knowledge of the basic concepts of physics. and at the end of every chapter there are MCATstyle passages. in order to help you to practice your understanding of the concepts in that chapter. Philosophy of the Book This book is about the concepts of physics. working to understand. In all. relationships among various quantities. on the MCAT. they are often fearful. but it omits details included in many freshman physics texts. rather than numbers. and what methods to apply. you should remember enough equations to understand the ideas. for example. which clues to look for. there are 5 1 passages in this book. How do you prepare for such a thing? The short answer is: by thinking and doing physics. and there is no ordering from easy to difficult.Chapter 1 Introduction A. Although they are not a close approximation of MCAT questions. First of all. you must be at a desk and have paper and a pen or pencil. and extrapolations to new situations. with the goal to prepare you. as well as problems for you to solve at the end. Then you can solve future problems. Physics and chemistry problems are sometimes mixed. The way to learn is to solve problems. These problems may be easy questions or single problems involving some calculations.
if you approach physics looking for new concepts. kilograms. C. In biology one can actually see organelles with an electron microscope. But there are several good reasons to pay attention to units. carefully carrying units through a difficult formula is sometimes about as interesting as painting a barn. themes and a new worldview. where we may have left out a proportionality constant. kilograms. For example. "How much oxygen?'.  )( ImoleO.0821 L atm/K mol. You can lose valuable points if you.The M C A T Physics Book It is especially important that you keep an open mind and visualize what you read.4 kg. and seconds) as you read the passage. Another reason to pay attention to units is that they can alert you if you have written an equation the wrong way. we can answer either in kilograms or in liters. Example: How much volume does 0. so this is a complicated units conversion problem. One way to guard against this type of error is to automatically convert any number to MKS (meters.) Solution: Well. Units may bring back to mind an equation you would have forgotten. The problem gives kilograms and asks for liters. then your efforts will be better rewarded.e. We will essentially construct the ideal gas equation using the units of the elements in the problem. and forget to convert cm to m or the like. you will find it frustrating. We can do this by including the factors (l*go2 103g0. We start with 0. Units A widely held belief is that unit analysis is the least interesting activity of the physical sciences. (amount of 0.drop units. But how do you relate f [m3/s]. you may remember that flow rate f is the volume (m3) flowing past a point per unit time (s) and that it is related to the velocity v and crosssectional area A of the pipe. not meters. 32go2 ) . Alternatively. I In order to apply the ideal gas equation we need to convert to moles.4 kg of oxygen gas take up at T = 27" C and P = 12 atm? (Use the gas constant R = 0. you must rely on imagination even more. or at least flag the units which are nonstandard (i.Both are equivalent to 1. but the units . In physics. If you view physics as a mere collection of facts and equations to memorize.) = 0. Understanding the operation of enzymes requires a little bit more imagination. and seconds). Indeed. substitute into a formula. to the question. A third reason for keeping track of units is that they sometimes guide you to an answer without your having to use a formula or do much work. that is. as the next example shows. In this case the formula is correct as written. but it is not too different from imagining the working of enzymes. and A [mZ] ? The only way to correctly obtain the units is to write something like f=Av. v [mls]. counting fcr valuable points. Another way is to keep track of the units any time the units in the problem are nonstandard.4 kg 0.
but it works. however. 4 (:"A 1 ~ LF@L 32fi )("oF2m) This leaves us with units of atm and K which we want to get rid of.) = 0 .) Thus we obtain 300 . We obtain (amount of 0. If this is the way you normally do such a problem.) = 0.L.12 It is generally safe to round to one significant digit.0. Most readers. we can just put them in.) = 0 . then you can always go back and gain more accuracy. This may seem strange. 4 (:"k 2 X1rz) ~ ~ Now we include a factor of R because it has liters in the numerator and moles in the denominator. They are sentences in the concise language of mathematics. good. This example involved more arithmetic than most MCAT problems. warm fondness.4~1000~0.0821 with 0. (Recall 27" C = 300 K. but its purpose was to point out that attention to units can speed up the solution to a problem. If it happens that two choices are close. because by the time you learn each chapter.cancel. and 3.0. so we replace 0. so that we have (amount of 0.1000 . 32. (amount of 0. They should feel like natural relationships among familiar quantities.12 For MCAT problems we generally work to one digit of accuracy. cold pragmatism (plug in numbers and get an answer). using up valuable seconds on the MCAT. leaving us with moles. In order to cancel them. Many students do not realize that equations are merely a way to contain useful information in a short form. the equations should feel natural to you. You should not have to memorize most equations in the text. Remember that seconds can add up to points.08. Try adopting the last attitude. Students generally have one of three attitudes toward equations: 1 sheer hatred (enough said).4. would take longer working through this type of problem.08 300 32. 2.0821. .
we can go twice as far if we go twice as fast. it will be easier to keep the formulas in your head. (1) It makes sense that. The greater force causes the greater acceleration. Another example is the second law of motion. Thus A is proportional to v. then we expect the smaller object to accelerate more (Figure 12). Thus Ax is proportional to dt. we simply write Now let's think about the equation. When you take the MCAT. then we have a picture like that in Figure 11. for a given speed. and we apply three times as much force to the second object as to the first. Instead of words. which we will encounter in Section 3. you will be better able to apply the concept behind the equation. in a given time. because these equations give relationships among the quantities that we know to be wrong. and acceleration are connected somehow. then its acceleration is proportional to the magnitude of the force and inversely proportional to its mass. On the other hand. so we can guess that they are proportional. consider one of the first equations you ever encountered. Thus we can guess that the acceleration is inversely proportional to the mass. Most importantly. so we write a . If we apply the same force to two objects of different masses. . We write Figure 11 a . If we have two objects of the same mass. mass. And you will understand physics better. Note also that the units work out correctly only in equation (1). but if you train yourself to think this way. that is. We would never be tempted to write v=AxAf. you really should have the equation F = ma in your head. Ax=vdt. distance equals rate times time.B. This will make it possible to recover the formula if you forget it. we can go twice as far if x we navel twice as long a time.The M C A T Physics Book For example. m Figure 12 1 Combining these two proportions we get F a=m' as in equation (2). we could figure it out. First. we know that force.F. If an object has a single force on it. What would we do if we forgot it? If we stop to think about it.
. so that we have That's why we call gravity an inversesquare force. (4) What happens to the area when the radius increases by a factor of 3? (Answer: It increases by a factor of 9... How would you ever remember this equation? Well.. The MCAT will not ask you to substitute into an equation like equation (3). which gives the force of gravity between two objects: where G is a constant. . so write Fgnv .. . .. the force of gravity between them is less. On the other hand. because r is in the denominator. so write The only part that needs to be memorized is the "square" in the denominator. An example is Newton's law of gravity.... and m2 are masses of objects.. Introduction I I I Some equations are a little more complicated. or with some other numbers. start with the idea that objects with more mass have a greater force of gravity between them. = 4 m and r2 = 12 m. a factor of 4 in r will result in a factor of 42 = 16 in F.mim2. and r is the distance between them. Also. Why? (Think about units. m. . The answer is that the gravitational force decreases by a factor of 16. = 4 m and r2= 12 m. so write There is a constant.) The surface area of a sphere is an equation that you just have to memorize.. It is difficult to get an intuitive grasp why the 4ashould be there.... try some numbers on a more familiar equation... Because the r is squared. the 2 is natural in this equation. Surprised? What about the factor of 4? Try it with r.. "What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is increased by a factor of four?" We can tell from equation (3) that an increase in distance results in a decrease in force.... If this last point seems opaque to you.) I Another example concerni the volume of a sphere: I What happens to the volume when the radius is doubled? . if objects are far apart. Another equation is that for the surface area of a sphere: What happens to the surface area of a sphere when the radius increases by a factor of 3? (Answer: It increases by a factor of 9. such as that for the area of a circle: A = zr2..) Try it with r...Chapter 1 .. but it may ask a question like.
. If a problem involves only simple proportionalities and there are no unitless proportionality constants. The example in the text demonstrates all the techniques involved. then we can obtain a quick solution simply by keeping track of units. you should spend some time thinking about what the equation means. Each time you encounter a boxed equation in this book. then the equations will seem less foreign than if you look at them as abstract collections of symbols. We also looked at equations as the language of physics. If you read equations as sentences containing information for you to understand.The MCAT Physics Book In this chapter we discussed the importance of units in solving problems.
7. The resistor dissipates heat at a rate of 2. and 1 W is 1 Jls.. what happens to the circumference? 4. 3. 6 K D.6 x lo4 D..4 pglmL.0821 L atm/K mol. 5500 C.05 x 10' seconds.0 W.. It increases by a factor of 16..fi = 4ar 2 . B. If the diameter of a circle is increased by a factor of 4.Chapter 1 .. 6. 1. and the area A = lcr2. B..55 mg. 4 K Use the following information for questions 610: For a circle we have the formula for the circumference C = 2xr. D It increases by a factor of 64. D.. How many microbes are in a sample of mass 1. It increases by a factor of 4. In any of the following problems you may want to use one of the constants N.. It is known that the average mass of a microbe (of this species) is 6..020 mg.02 x lo2'.. . = 6. what happens to its area? A. . An electrical resistor is installed in a container of water to heat it. It increases by a factor of 16. 7 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . .. . C.4 x 10z seconds. . 4.. 6. a number of microbes is measured by determining the mass of the sample. 0.1 x lo" g? A. In a certain assay. the surface area is A.. 1800 B. what is the temperature? A. B.. What is Two liters of argon gas are at 10 atm of pressure.. Introduction Chapter 1 Problems A.6 x loZs A certain substance has a density 8... B. and the volume is the mass of 422. . If the radius of a circle increases by a factor of 4... 2. How long would it take to raise the temperature of the water 5" C? (Note: The specific heat of water is 4. 610K C. 4. where r is the radius. It increases by a factor of 2.2 x lo3J/kg "C.. 5. 16. 1. .4 mL? A. D. It increases by a factor of 4. and the container holds 10 kg of water. If the sample is 16 g.) A. R = 0.0 x 10l6g.. For a sphere. C. C.2 x 10' seconds. It increases by a factor of 2.000 K B. 2. It increases by a factor of 8.2 x lo3seconds. 6.
B. 10. C. how would the period of the pendulum change? A. 36% C.5Hz B. If the length of the suing of a pendulum is increased by 1 a factor of 4.(See figure. It increases by 75%. D. The period is the amount of time it takes the bob (as the mass is called) to swing from one side to the other and back. It would increase by a factor of 6. D. C. It increases by 69%. If a pendulum is transported to the Moon. C. If you connect a mass m on one end. D. how does the period change? A. 20% B. and the period then decreases by 20%. or how hard you have to pull to stretch it. C It increases by a factor of 4. 9. It increases by 60%. If the volume of a sphere decreases by a factor of 27. It decreases by a factor of 9. It decreases by a factor of 1.) ' 1 . 1is the length of the string or rod (in m). 44% 8. It decreases by a factor of 3. the frequency is 30 Hz. It is given by I 13. how does the area change? A. It would increase by a factor of 36. then the resulting system will vibrate. It decreases by a factor of 16.5. what happens to its volume? A. It increases by a factor of 2. It increases by 30%. D. and connect the other end to a fixed wall or ceiling. B. . what happens to its diameter? A. 120 Hz I GO ONTOTHE NDCTPAGE . B. It would increase by a factor of 2.The MCAT Physics Book If the radius of a sphere increases by a factor of 4. It increases by a factor of 16. what is the frequency? A. By how much was the rod length decreased? A. B. B. where the acceleration due to gravity is six times less than that here on Earth. It increases by a factor of 4. It would decrease by a factor of 36. It increases by a factor of 16. 7. D.5. It increases by a factor of 2. Use the following information for questions 111 3: A pendulum is a mass connected to a light string or rod which is connected to the ceiling. The length of the rod of a certain pendulum is decreased. 15Hz C. C. and g is the acceleration due to gravity (m/s2). 14. 12. If the radius of a circle is increased by 30%. If a mass of 240 g is connected to the same spring. It increases by a factor of 64. If a mass of 60 g is connected to a certain spring. 60Hz D.4. 40% D. Use the following information for questions 1416: A spring is characterized by a spring constant k (in N/m) which gives the stiffness of the spring. It decreases by a factor of 4. This vibration has period T given by The frequency of the vibration is defined as where T is in s.
how is the electric field affected? A. It increases by a factor of 12. D.!?between the plates. B. . It would increase by a factor of 27. If the period increases by 50%. thus creating an electric field . where V is measured in volts. D. It increases by a factor of 3..Chapter 1 .. It decreases by a factor of 3. . 16. . B. C. A charged particle placed between the plates will experience a force given in magnitude by F=qE. . so that the voltage between . It increases by a factor of 81. Mass P is 6 times smaller than mass Q.. Mass P is 1296 times larger than mass Q. where s is the length of a side. Mass P is 1296 times smaller than mass Q. . It decreases by a factor of 9.. & eleclric field I voltage source 18. 1 If a new battery is installed. If every linear dimension of a square pyramid were increased by a factor of 3. C. B.] In a parallelplate capacitor. D. . . and F is the force in N. how does the frequency change? A. It increases by a factor of 8 1. C. and h is the perpendicular height. It stays the same. I passage 1 [You d o not need to have any prior knowledge of e l e c t n c i ~ to deal with this passage. It would increase by a factor of 3. It increases by a factor of 4. B. C. . It increases by a factor of 3. It would increase by a factor of 9. two parallel metal plates are connected to a voltage source which maintains a potential V across the plates. Mass P is 6 times larger than mass Q. It increases by 33%. D. 2. B. . how is the electric field affected? A. It decreases by 50%. How does the volume of square pyramid change if the height is increased by a factor of 12 and the base side length is unchanged? A. D. It increases by a factor of 36. Mass P resulted in a period 36 times larger than the period of mass Q. It decreases by a factor of 9.. . B. . but the distance between the plates is increased by a factor of 3. two masses are attached to a spring and .. C . capacitor 17. It increases by a factor of 72. the periods recorded. It increases by a factor of 9. It decreases by 40%. C. If the voltage in a given experiment is held constant. . E in J l n and d in m. 9 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . In two trials. It decreases by 33%. . It increases by a factor of 3. . How does the volume of a square pyramid change if the base side length is increased by a factor of 9 and the height is unchanged? A. Positive charges collect on one side of the capacitor and negative charges on the other side. C. Use the following information for questions 1719: The volume of a pyramid with a square base is given by i 19.. . Introduction 15. The magnitude of the electric field is related to the potential and the separation between the plates according to V = Ed. how would the volume change? A. B. . where q is the charge of the particle in Coulombs. . D It would increase by a factor of 8 1. D.. the plates is increased by a factor of 9. It increases by a factor of 9. It increases by a factor of 27. . What can be concluded? A. .
. 1 C. 2. C. and all else unchanged. magnitude of the force is given by Which graph best shows the relationship between the force between two balls F and their separation r? q where F is in N. B. 3. It decreases by 36%. B. 5. In a hypothetical situation.The MCAT Physics Book 3. D. It decreases by a factor of 4. If the charge on ball A is increased to 8 C. 1 In a certain experiment. the distance separating the balls is increased by 25%. . The charge q. Which graph best show the relationship between the potential V and the electric field E? 4. D. The force would increase by a factor of 2. If the force between the balls stays the same. It is twice as great. and q2 are the charges on the balls measured in C. 5. is also multiplied by 4. There is no force on the helium. The separation is increased by a factor of 4. The charge on ball A is 2 C. all other things being held constant. It is four times as great. It decreases by 25%. How does this affect the force between the balls? A. 18N 48 N I Two charged balls which are near each other will exert a force on each other: attractive if they are oppositely charged. How would this affect the force between them? A. and all else is unchanged. the separation between the balls . what happens to the force on a proton between the plates if the separation of the plates is increased by a factor of 2? A. In a given experiment. 8 N B. two balls of positive charge exert a force 12 N on each other. B. D. C. is halved. and all else is unchanged. D. It decreases by 50%. both a proton and a bare helium nucleus are between the plates. while the charges on the balls are undisturbed. 4. The separation is increased by a factor of 2. and r is the distance between the balls in m. ?he force would decrease by a factor of 2. B It decreases by a factor of 2. and repulsive if they are similarly charged. It stays the same. 16N In a given experiment. C. The . It is the same. but the charge q2 is multiplied by 4. C. and all else is unchanged. In an experiment. k is a constant 9 x 10' N m2/c2. C. The force would decrease by a factor of 4. How does the force on the helium nucleus compare to the force on the proton? A. B. The force would increase by a factor of 4. It increases by 25%. D. The separation is decreased by a factor of 2. D. which is a possibility? A. GO ON TO T E N X PAGE H ET . what would the force be? A. and all else is unchanged. It increases by a factor of 2.
. C . . the crosssectional area.5 0. D.. It increases by a factor of 2. 44% more energy. In a certain experiment two balls are both given a charge q. Julie wants to drive from Tucson to Phoenix and get good gas mileage.A is the crosssectional area of the car viewed from the front (in m2).. Introduction 6. and there is no wind. 4 and 6 4 .. . . C .0 3.~~v2. where k is a proportionality constant with some appropriate units. Passage 3 3.5 3. 1 and 2 B. we are investigating the retarding force that a fluid exerts on an object moving through it. as well as the density of the fluid p.. B..015 5 6 steel ball 3. .160 1 Which pair of experiments could be used to . Before we run the experiment.5 0. is the density of air . .0 14.. . . how does the energy required to travel from Tucson to Phoenix change? A.020 2 cork ball 1. . . 0 1 2 D. (1.2 kg/m3). It increases by a factor of 8.5 3. so we include A. and the force between them is recorded.0 0. 1. 1 If Julie increases her speed from 30 mph to 60 mph. and v is the speed of the car (in d s ) . p.. 2 and 3 C. and p. What combination of experiments would be considered a minimum set for determining p and k? A. D It increases by a factor of 16. Experiment object A (cm2) v ( d s ) F (N) 1 cork ball 1. We guess that the size of the object is a factor. The relative velocity between the object and the fluid is a factor v.. B.2pi.005 steel ball 1.Chdpter 1 . 20% more energy.005 3 steel ball 3. . n. and 3 C. What is the approximate value of p? A.5 0. they are set a distance r away from each other.. determine n? where E is measure in Joules. A.5 3. 40% more energy.. GO ON TO THE N X PAGE ET .. How much more energy will she use if she drives 2046 faster? D.. Let us say m and n are known. 1 D. So we guess Passage 4 The amount of energy a car expends against air resistance is approximately given by E = 0. It increases by a factor of 4. and 5 3 only In a certain experiment. in an equation. 2 and 3 3 and 4 4 and 6 5 and6 1 B.. B. assume that the energy loss is due solely to air resistance.4. 2.010 4 steel ball 4.. Which graph best represents the relationship between F and q? 3.. 80% more energy. A.D is the distance traveled (in m). Whichpair of experiments indicates that retarding force does not depend on the density of the object? A. . The chart gives the data for a certain fluid.2.0 0.5 7. . For the following questions. 1 and 6 D.. . 1 and 2 B.5 0. C. we do not know the values of the exponents m. 2. Julie usually drives at a certain speed. C.
D. 5. Julie modifies her car. How does Julie's energy usage change if she changes from driving 50 mph to 55 mph? A. D. B. It increases by 40%. C. 20% further. and Laura drives . D. so that every linear dimension of Scott's car is double that of Laura's car. STOP . How much further can she drive and still use the same amount of energy? A. It increases by 20%. Four times as much energy. B. B. 44% further. 4. 25% further. It increases by 10%. how much more energy would you expect Scott's car to expend gening from Tucson to Phoenix than Laura's car? A.a small 90s style car. Twice as much energy. 10% further. so that the effective crosssectional area is reduced by 20%. Eight times as much energy. On the basis of energy loss due to air resistance alone. It increases by 21%.The 3. MCAT Physics Book Scott drives a very large 50s style car. C. C. Sixteen times as much energy.
but it turns out (happily) that we rarely need to. velocity. The amount of stuff in an object is a fundamental property of the object. We can think of changes in acceleration. For example. his task would be equally difficult. (See ~ i ~ 21. to moving at 1 mls. Their velocity changes. Objects move. The mass of an object is a measure of how difficult it is to get it moving at a certain velocity if it starts from rest. not the astronomical body the car is on.1 Chapter 2 Mechanics is about the motion of things. We are assuming the car's motion has no friction. initially at rest. Before we can talk about motion in depth. If John and the car were on the Moon. the force of a spring pushing the chassis of a car. the force of gravity pdling you down. we need to be able to describe motion and the things which affect it. and the units for force are [Newtons = Nl. > . Mechanics is concerned mainly with changes in velocity. like a mountain top or to M r . There is another way to think of mass. Examples of forces include the force ofa horse pulling a cart. The fundamental concept here is the u & mass of the car. (Some countries continue to use an archaic unit called the "pound". so we talk of acceleration. the nuzss of an object is a measure of the total amount of material (or stuff) in the object. We can think about mass in several ways. A force is a push or pull.) . It doesn't change if you move the as object to a new place. and the force on your head due to pressure when you are at the bottom of a pool.) A Newton is approximately the amount of force that you would exert on an apple near the Earth's surface to keep it from falling. if John wants to set a car. but it must be done.. that is. First. mass. . It is an unpleasant way to begin. and acceleration. In this chapter we look at the fundamental elements of mechanics: force. distance. velocity. he has to push hard for a little while. and we talk of how fast they go. Comparatively this chapter has a lot of equations (six that you should memorize) and the least interesting physics.
which is a force. we 1 0N need to use vectors. We leave the first vector fixed. It takes just as much force and time to get a car moving at a given velocity on the Earth as on the Moon. But that definition depends on where you are. The sum is the vector pointing from the first tail to the last tip. There is a wrong way to think about mass.The MCAT Physics Book A car has the same mass on the Moon as it has on Earth. the mass of an object is a measure of how much it hurts if your stub you toe on it. Figure 22 We can add vectors by the tiptotail method. Figure 21 Saying this another way. In the former case he gets stretched. To describe forces we need to specify size and direction. and in the latter case he goes flying. We denote vectors in diagrams by Twoforces on an object may add in arrows. The difficulty in picking up an object is a matter of weight. Vectors In physics we often need to describe direction as well as size. depending on the the size of the vector and the direction of relative directwm of the forces. And weight does depend on the astronomical body near by. even on the Moon. It is easy to pick up a bowling ball on the Moon. but the crocodile's I O O ~ W N' N ing on whether the forces are both pointing north or one north and one south (Figure 22). If there are other vectors. Many people think the mass of an object is a measure of how difficult it is to pick it up. and F. For example. the length of the arrow showing dijferentways. That is. two forces F. may both be 100 N and experience will be very different dependacting on a crocodile. the arrow showing its direction. Force is a vector. then each vector gets added to the previous tip. t~ . D. but nearly impossible on the surface of Jupiter. Stubbing your toe on a bowling ball is a painful proposition. and move the second vector so its tail is at the first vector's tip.
. f the magnitude of the sum is equal to. the sum can be anything from 0 N to 300 N. What is the direction of the net force (that is. It is useful to keep in mind the Pythagorean theorem and elementary trigonometry. if @ is the deviation from north of the direction of the total force? Solution: We DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 25). for example. then the first tail coincides with the last tip and the sum is zero (Figure 23). where the sum is shown dashed). ~ Figure 25 If your trigonometry is rusty. What is cos @. For instance. Figure 23 Example 2: A crocodile has three forces acting on him: a 100N force north. For MCAT problems. vector addition need not get more sophisticated than this. about 40 N.. a 100N force east.. The Language of Motion Example 1: For the crocodiles mentioned before. There is a right triangle.Chapter 2 . so we can write FA= ( 3 ~ ) + ( ' F. but no greater. then the sum is a force of 200 N pointing north (Figure 23.. A vector is denoted by a halfarrow on top of a letter. = 5 N .. a... .. P f 1 2 A Example 3: A force of 4 N is acting to the north on a rock and a force of 3 N is acting to the east. if three Figure 2 4 vectors of 100 N are acting on a crocodile. tudes (and that only if they are pointing in the same direction). now is a good time to relearn the definitions of sine. p. if the vectors (both 100 N) both point north. Forces are vectors and they add according to the tiptotail method. . What is the magnitude of the total force? b.. the sum of the individual magniFS". total force)? Solution: We DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 24). at most. Note that. cosine. The sum is a vector pointing northeast. Also we write 4 ~ =)25 N ~ .. If one vector points north and the other south. and tangent. when you add vectors. and a 100N force southwest.
and we must pay attention to several velocities. If an object is traveling such that its velocity vector is constant. y. that a car will travel twice as far if it travels for twice the time. we say it is in uniform motion. only A is replaced by its definition x2. denoted t. Since v is constant..t. Position. An instant is a single moment of time..$1. y..? But in some problems the velocity does change.x2 or x2 + x. Time is a fundamental quantity in classical physics. v. We can write the following equations for uniform motion in one dimension: When you see a formula in this text. Do you see why it is this and not x. and z. we must give three coordinates x. "What is this equation telling me?'Quation (la) is just another form of "distance equals rate times time" for an object in uniform motion. that is. initial velocity. v. that is. The magnitude of the velocity vector (that is. The magnitude of the displacement vector is called 2 the displacement. Ask yourself. Velocity. . and Time To specify position.The MCAT Physics Book E. and and ending time t. z). Speed. the time between a beginning time t. just the speedometer reading) is called speed. An example is a car going a constant 30 m/s (freeway speed) west. average velocity. v2 final velocity. When in doubt. generally measured in [meters = m]. and All That We can think of the velocity vector in terms of a speedometer reading with units [meterskecond = m/s] and a direction. and The average velocity is defined as . instead of speeding by it. Often we will speak of a time interval At = t2 . measured in [seconds = s]. This makes sense. The symbol ? stands for the coordinates (x. = 2 .x. slow down and look at it. F. this tells you.. you should assume it refers to the vector. The word "velocity" is sometimes used to refer to the vector and sometimes to the magnitude. x Equation (lb) is like the first. If an object moves from one position to another. for instance. Displacement. the vector giving the change in position is the displacement vector.
. slowing down or braking ("decelerating". For the average velocity we need to DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 26). then it goes north at 10 m/s for 5 s. . we have v... Example: A car goes west at 10 m/s for 6 s.. Acceleration When an object's velocity vector is changing.? Solution: Well.. whereas equation (I) defines a constant velocity and only holds for time intervals when the motion is uniform. .. In three dimensions. . .. The Language of Motion This is different from equation (1). . = 10 m/s and v2 = 4 m/s.. The Pythagorean theorem gives us As = 130 m. In one dimension the definition of acceleration is The units for acceleration are [(m/s)/s = m/s 11s = m/s2].. v. and turning. What are v . We will talk more about this in Chapter 6. . and then it goes west again at 4 m/s for 15 s. With this sign convention.. acceleration is negative. What is the sign of the acceleration? Solution: Since the velocity vector points south and the car is speeding up.. but physicists prefer to say "negatively accelerating").5. the object is accelerating. Thus 130m Vavg = . so there is an acceleration if either the magnitude or the direction of the velocity vector change. we define acceleration by  The numerator for equation (3a) gives the change in the velocity vector. Equation (2) is the definition of an average velocity over a time interval when velocity is changing..m s 26 s 60 m .. the acceleration vector must point south..Chapter 2 . 60 m 50 m b 120 m Figure 26 G. Examples include a car speeding up ("accelerating" in common parlance). and v. Example la: Take north to be positive. A car is traveling south and speeding up.
What is its acceleration? Solution: We write This confirms our thinking in Example la. velocity. Given a graph of x versus t. Often it is helpful to visualize these quantities graphically. Example 2b: What is the acceleration for the car in Example 2a slowing from 1 0 d s to 8 m/s in 1 s? Solution: We write Example 3: An Oldsmobile takes a certain amount of time to accelerate from 0 to 60 mph. A car is traveling north and slowing for a red light. Given a graph of v versus t. the area under the curve during interval At gives the change in velocity v during that interval. 2. the area under the curve during interval At gives the change in position x during that interval. position. . Given a graph of a versus t. Example 2a: Take north to be positive. Thus the acceleration is negative. the acceleration vector must point south. A car traveling south speeds up from 10 m/s to 15 m/s in 10 s. The following principles apply 1. and acceleration. if At is smaller by a factor of 3. 3. 4. A Porsche takes less time by a factor of 3 to accelerate from 0 to 60 mph. the instantaneous slope at time t is the velocity v at time t. What is the sign of the acceleration? Solution: The velocity vector points north.The MCAT Physics Book Example lb: Take. the instantaneous slope at time t is the acceleration a at time t. then a is larger by a factor of 3. all related to each other algebraically. Now we have three quantities. north to be positive. How does the Porsche acceleration compare with that of the Oldsmobile? Solution: We look at equation (4) Since Av is constant. Since this vector is shrinking. Given a graph of v versus t.
When it reaches the top of its path. The graph of y versus t is shown in Figure 29.Chapter 2 . so the car is speeding up (if it is going forward). Figure 27 I I I This is how we defined acceleration in 0 t equation (4). We can at least read that the 1 slope is positive and very large.During the second interval At. Solution: The area under the curve between 0 and dt is shown in a "forwardslash" hatch. For the next intervals of time.. we can use an imaginary electron micioscope to look at a small portion of the graph. . hence the first point in Figure 210. vK 11 Before you read the next example.. . Figure 27 has the information that Figure 28 the acceleration is positive and constant. This area is Av. so we could calculate its slope if we had some numbers. the area is a At again.The reason for principle 3 above becomes clear if we recall the formula for the area of the rectangle representing the hatched region: area = height x length... what is the direction of its velocity? What is the direction of its acceleration? Example 2: An apple is tossed straight up in the air.. Solution: To obtain an instantaneous slope. the'quantity A is constant. as shown in Figure 28. that is. the change in velocity during dt. This is the same thing. v Note that Figures 27 and 28 give 0 t (almost) the same information in different forms. Figure 28 has the information that the velocity is increasing at a constant rate. Assume v=Om/satt=Os. Thus the change in velocity is the same. Av = aAt. A small section of Figure 29 has been enlarged using such a microscope.. Sketch the graphs of v versus t and a versus t. The Language of M o t i o n Example 1: The graph of a versus t for a car which undergoes constant acceleration is shown in Figure 27. a Figure 29 Fire 210 .. . This portion looks almost straight. consider an object thrown straight up. Sketch the graph of v versus t .
(Say x = 0 at t = 0.5 rn.The MCAT Physics Book Figure 211 Figure 212 The second point on Figure 210 still has a positive slope. The slope jumps to 1 mls2 for the interval from 1 to 3 s and drops back down to zero for times after 3 s. The third point has a zero slope (see uppermost point in Figure 29). Does this match your expectation? Particularly at the top of flight. and so on. as in Figure 2.  0 1 2 3 4 5 t(s) Figure 213 6 1 (in progress) t x(m) 31&+0 1 2 x (m) 'c/ 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 t Figure 214 Figure 215 . The fourth point has negative slope. but it is easy to see that the slope is constant and negative. From t = 1 to 2 s.) Think about all three graphs for a while and note how they give the same information in different forms. but smaller. the slope of v versus t for any point between t = 0 and 1 s is zero.13 shows v versus t for a car. For the graph of a versus t. there is no area under the curve. so that the x value jumps to 2 m (see the first graph of Figure 214). We take the slope at three points. Sketch the graphs for x versus t and for a versus t. It will not come as a surprise if we draw a straight line through these points. Between t = 3 and 4 s. We graph the acceleration in Figure 212.11. so x stays constant. the area is 2 m and x jumps to 4 m. did you know that the direction of the acceleration would be down? Example 3: Figure 2. From t = 0 to 1 s. (Recall the area of a triangle is A = 112 base x height.) From t = 2 to 3 s the area under the curve is 1. the area under the curve is 0. (See Figure 2.5 m. Figure 214 shows the result.) Solution: Let's graph x versus t first.15. and the fifth point has a slope more negative still.
but the definition of v. and it increases by a factor of 4' = 16. v. See Figures 27 and 28 for an example. we have the following: that is. . . the average velocity over a period of time is the average of the beginning and ending velocities. Furthermore. You should memorize it anyway... we say it undergoes uniform acceleration.". then we obtain 1 Ax = (v. is small.+ a d t ) ) d r .. how far will it go in the first four seconds? Solution: We want an equation involving the quantities mentioned in the problem.so equation (6) is it. Uniform Acceleration If an object has a constant acceleration vector.+ adt (from equation [4]). and v. This may seem like a natural definition of average velocity. With v. v . If it goes a distance din the first second. For uniform acceleration. If we start with the definition of average velocity. Most MCAT problems involving acceleration will involve uniform acceleration. is large. if we substitute v. a.. . is exactly between them. = v. and Ar. = 0. and equation (5) holds only for uniform acceleration. + (v.. The Language of Motion I.. Working through the algebra will help you memorize it. The velocity v.Chapter 2 .. Example: A car is accelerating uniformly from rest. = 0. 2 This is the first equation which may seem a bit arcane. the Ax increases. is given by equation (2).Ax. we can write Ax = vavgdfr This is a useful equation if you do not have and do not need the acceleration (see equation [7] below)...we obtain If At increases by a factor of 4.
S A m a = 10s2 ' Ay = 2m a = 10 m s2 A=? We look for an equation which involves these quantities and no others. If he accelerates 10 m/s2 downward due to gravity. so that + Figure 216 . We write the quantities we know: V0 m =o.The M C A T Physics Book II J. The second equation is just the definition of acceleration. The last equation is the only one which is new. The third equation was in the last section. Kinematic Equations for Constant Acceleration For uniform acceleration there are four equations you should know: The first equation we have seen before. Example 1:A cat drops from a ledge 2 m above the ground. obtained by eliminating dt from equations (7) and (8). It should be easy to remember. how much time does it take him to drop? Solution: Let's choose "up" to be positive and DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 216). the modified "distance equals rate times time" when velocity is changing. It is useful for problems in which the time interval is neither specified nor desired. Equation (9) fits.
displacement. Velocity is a measure of the change in location per unit time. and acceleration.) Solution: First we DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 217). so that Figure 217 His impact velocity is 20 m/s. In addition. velocity. In this chapter we looked at the quantities which describe motion. that is. and force are all vectors. acceleration. and the quantities which affect motion. The impact velocity is the man's velocity just before he hits the ground v. As he is falling. force and mass. Displacement. . The formula which contains this infotmation and nothing else is (10)..Chdpter 2 . while acceleration is a measure of the change in velocity per unit time. Most of the mechanics problems on the MCAT involve one dimension and uniform acceleration. you should know the equations for the definition of velocity for uniform motion and of average velocity. .. Thus our information summary m is v.. We will be dealing with the vector nature of these quantities in future chapters. In this case we can derive four equations. shown in Section J. that is. What is his impact velocity? (He was a bad man..... The Ldnguage of M o t i o n Example 2: A man drops to his death from the sixth floor of a building (20 m). velocity. =O . his acceleration is a constant 10 m/s2 downward. Displacement is a change in location. they have diuection as well as magnitude. that is. . . and if he had not died many other nice people would have. .
What is its mass on the Moon? A. 24 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE .The MCAT Physics Book Chapter I Problems 1 The gravitational field of a planet or spherical asuo. 3. 2. and a fly in the car is flying west at 0.3 m/s D. Which of the following best shows the appropriate diagram for the fly's velocity relative to the ground (thick arrow)? What arrow best represents the direction of the sum? A.3 m/s (relative to the car). 2. 2. The net effect is that the gravitational field of the Moon at its surface is one sixth that of the Earth.000 kg Use the following informationfor questions 2 and 3: A car is driving north at 2 m/s. while its smaller radius favors a larger one.7 m/s B. The following diagram represents three vectors in a plane: What arrow best represents the direction of the sum? 1 A. What is the speed of the fly? A. D. 116 (10. 1. C.000 kg D.02 m/s C. When the Moon is compared to Earth.000kg mobile unit is transported to the Moon. i t B. Dt 1 5.000) kg B. + B.09 m/s The following diagram represents three vectors in a plane: 4. its smaller mass makes for a smaller gravitational field.000) kg C. 10. The diagram is invalid. A 10. 60. 4. 1/36 (10. nomical body depends on its mass and on its radius. + C. ?he sum is zero.
What is her average velocity? A. given. 1.25ds D.. 5000N C.5 m/s2 C. Consider the interval from 11:OO to 12:15. What is the car's average velocity for this time interval? A. Two men pull on ropes connected to a large refrigerator with forces 3000 N and 4000 N. 22. 3500N D.95 m/s D. then the time of travel would be A. 2. If the car were to travel three times as fast.1 m/s C. At 11:OO (exactly) she starts from rest and accelerates at a constant 2. 3. How far does the car travel during this time? D . 7000N D. 5. the two men are pulling at right angles . 1000N B. She comes to a stop at her friend's house. 22. 5.28 m/s B. 6m/s C. 22. What is her initial velocity? A. She then drives for 15 minutes at constant speed before she hits city traffic. If there are no other (unbalanced) faces.. 0.5d. 2. B decreased by a factor of 3. I I 14..5 m/s2 D. 15 m/s2 13. 2.5 m/s Use the following infonnation for questions 1214: A car accelerates uniformly in one dimension from 5 m/s to 30 m/s in 10 s. This cannot be determined from the information given.4 m/s GO ON TO THE N X PAGE ET ..5 m/s2for 9 s to get to her cruising speed. 17. What is its change in velocity? A. 8..9 m/s B. 8000N Use the following infonnation for questions 81 I : A woman is going to a friend's house to discuss opening a business.Chapter 2 .. 10. to each other.5 m/s C.75 m/s2 B.. 0.3 m/s2 for 3 s. 7 If. what is the magnitude of the net force? A. which of the following is NOT a possibility for the magnitude of the net (total) force? A. 9. 7000N 11. 2.s B.5m/s This cannot be determined from the information D . What is the car's acceleration? A. 2. . A sparrow cruising at 1. . 3.. . in question 6.5mls 15. D increased by a factor of 9.6 m/s D. 1OOON C. 1.. What is her final velocity? A. C increased by a factor of 3. 500 N B. A car travels a certain distance at a constant velocity v for a time t. which i s 27 km away (straightline distance). at 12:15 (exactly). covering the same distance.5 m/s begins to accelerate at a 6 constant 0. 11. Ods B. Ods B. decreased by a factor of 9..5 d s C.1 m/s C. Om/s 1 .5 m/s 12. The Language of Motion 6. What is her velocity 9 s after 11:00? A. 1.6 m/s D.
I2000km D.25 m/s C. 21. 1. A bicycle traveling at speed v covers a distance Ax during a time interval At.3 26.5 m/s2 D. 14ds C. The car accelerates at 0. 1.75 m/s2 C.5 m/s2 B. What was its initial velocity? A.6m D. At13 D. 0. A car is going 20 mls in traffic. B. 19.8 m/s2 downward. It decelerates uniformly at 0. It comes to a stop after going for 5 s. 0.98 m/s B.7 m C.8m A.04 s This cannot be determined from the information given.43 s 22.02 m/s B. 1. 0. A car is going up a slight slope decelerating at 0.4 m C. 30m 115m 130m 160m 20.4 d s and final velocity 1.5 m/s D. If a car travels at speed 3v. 98 m/s D. 8. how much time does it take the car to go the same distance? A.5 m D. D. What is its velocity just before hitting the ground? A. D. 1.The MCAT Physics Book Use the following infonnation for questions 17 and 18: A dropped ball falls from a height of 10 m to the ground.6 m B. At.2 m/s2 for 5 s. C. 41. 0. 0. 25 m B. the car is going forward at 10 m/s. What is the net distance traveled? A. 0. How far does he travel during these 5 s? D. 17. 1. At+ 3 B. accelerating at a constant 1. A car is traveling 25 m/s when it passes kilometermarker 3000. How long does it take to fall? A. 5 m/s2 24. What is the ball's net displacement after 6 s? A. 0. When the traffic breaks.8 d s after 4 s. how far does it run in that time? A.0 s Use the following information for questions 21 and 22: A ball is initially rolling up a slight incline at 0. 3015 km B. D.05 m/s2.02 d s 2 for the next 500 s.4 m C. What is the acceleration? A.3 m B.1 m/s2. 23. 18000 km A squirrel is running along a wire with constant acceleration. What kilometer marker will the car pass at that time? A. 0. Its acceleration is a constant 9. 3dr C. the driver steps on the accelerator pedal. After 10 s of uniform acceleration. 4. B. C.2 m/s. 50m A. 2s 4s 8s 16s 26 GO ON TO T E N X PAGE H ET . 2. 0. At what time does the ball come to a stop? 25.02 s B. 5. This cannot be determined from the information given. If it has an initial velocity 0.7m C. 45 m 18. 3030 km C. 1. Use the following information for questions 23 and 24: A car is going backwards at 5 m/s.
v + 9 B . consider the following figure representing the velocity of an object in one dimension. If a bicycle starts accelerating uniformly from rest (at t = O).consider the following figure representing the velocity of a car along a street. then positive.. It is positive except for one point. 6v D. The Language of Motion 28. Which best represents the graph of displacement versus time? A. C D. Which best represents the graph of acceleration versus time? A. C D.. then zero.Chapter 2 . t 29. B C. C. it attains a certain velocity v after a time t How . It is always positive? For questions 3335.. consider the following figure representing the displacement of an object in one dimension. 3v C. For questions 31 and 32. Which best represents the graph of acceleration versus time? Consider also the following graphs: 32. a time 3t after the start t = O)? A. D.. 9v For questions 29 and 30... fast would it be going after a time 3t (that is. 31. It is negative. A B. A B. B C.. B.. It is zero. where it is zero. . What can be concluded about the net displacement? A.. D Consider also the following graphs: 97 GO ON TO THE N X PAGE ET . D 30.
What is the value of his average velocity? GO ON TO THE.) 1 . It is positive. then accelerate forward. Which best represents the graph of acceleration versus time? 34. Which best represents the graph of acceleration versus time? A. then slows to a stop. except for one point. This causes some wear on the transmission. it accelerates and then goes forward at constant velocity. After it is stopped for a while.2 d s 36. Which best represents the graph of displacement versus time? 1 37.8 d s B. Which best represents the graph of velocity versus time? I 2. Consider also the following graphs: A man is driving out of his driveway by backing up. Car experts agree that the best way to do this is to press on the brake until the car comes to a complete stop. D. shift from reverse into first gear. A Passage 1 35. What can be said about the net velocity change Av? A. 0. The following chart shows some data about his progress. It is positive. however. 1. C.The MCAT Physics Book 33. 1. The driver. B. shifts into first gear while the car is rolling backward and pushes on the accelerator until he is going forward. Use the following information for questions 36 and 37: A car backs up at constant velocity. It is negative. What is the value of his initial velocity? A. He realizes he has forgotten his lunch. It is zero. so he pulls back into the driveway.0 d s C. (Negative velocity = backwards.NEXTPAGE .
consider a ball dropped from the fortieth story of a building. B..6 m/s2 C.. How does the change in velocity from t = 1 to 2 s compare with the change in velocity from t = 3 to 4 s? A.0 s? A. This somewhat counterintuitive result is an example of a general principle: If air resistance is negligible. It is greater.0 s to 2. 0.8 kg and made of iron. D.. C. 1.. Which of the following is evidence that the acceleration is uniform? A. How does the change in height from t = 1 to 2 s compare with the change in height from r = 3 to 4 s? A. up D. 4.2 m B.5 s. B. Which graph best represenh velocity versus time? A. The velocity becomes zero at t = 1. It is less. and consider "down" to be in the positive direction.. then an object in free fall at the surface of the Earth has a downward acceleration of g = 9. The displacement x is always nonnegative. GO ON T T E N X PAGE O H ET . It depends on the objec't. One is 0.8m D.. It depends on the object. D. It is greater. What is the magnitude of the acceleration from t = 1. It is the same. Which best represents the graph of acceleration versus time? I 3.0 m/s2 D. B. The velocity is always increasing.0 m/s2 B.2 m/s2 What is the direction of the acceleration vector? A. 1 .6m Which expression gives the change in velocity between t..2 kg and made of lead.4m C. 1. 39. the heights of the two balls match all the way down. 6. D. It is the same. 313. backward C. Not only do the two balls hit the ground at the same time. In the following questions. 5.Chapter 2 .. 78.. Passage P A physics student leans out of the fortieth story of the physics building and drops two balls of the same size at the same time. 4. forward B.8 m/s2. C. It is less. down How far does the object fall in the time interval from t=Oto4s? A. 0. and the other is 1. Consider air resistance negligible unless noted otherwise. Equal intervals of time correspond to equal intervals of velocity. 156. 5. C. = 3 s and t2 = 4 s? 2.. The Language of M o t i o n 3.Free fall means that only the force of gravity is acting on an object.
C. 7. than that on the lead ball. The force of gravity does not act on the styrofoam ball. x how far does it fall during the first 3t seconds? A. 3Ax Ax+9 9Ax D. Air resistance is a significant force in this problem. Which is a good explanation for this? A. There is a gravitational force between the ball and the building. Ax+3 6. A styrofoam ball of the same size as the lead ball takes a longer time to reach the ground. B The force of gravity on the styrofoam ball is less . D. B . .The MCAT Physics Book If an object falls a distance A during the first t seconds. STOP . C.
but that's physics. Some very intelligent thinkers thought it was a law of nature. and when that happens we have to change our thinking. then the forces on it are balanced. although it's generally called Newton's first law of motion. it eventually slows to a stop. Some people use the term inertia to describe this property of matter. Galileo discovered this law. there must be a force on it. That can be difficult. so that what once seemed wrong now seems right. There are no forces. But sometimes closer scrutiny conflicts with common sense. so that right. if an object has constant velocity. Case a.Chapter 3 Laws of Motion A. Conversely. First Law of Motion The following is not a law of physics: If an object is moving. '((0 mea!s the object is moving to the " 0 ' Figure 3la . to retune our intuition. Because it is common sense (right?) that if nothing pushes on an object. no intellectual lightweight) and more recently Descartes (famous philosopher). In the following figures (Figures 3laf) we denote !he motion of an object by "motion marks". then the ob~ect moves with constant velocity (constant speed in a straight line). including Aristotle (ancient Greek. let's look at a few cases. First Law of Motion If the forces on an object are balanced. meaning the rock continues traveling at. In this case think of a rock in deep space moving along. The velocity vector is constant. What does it mean for the forces to be balanced? Before we answer that question. constant speed to the right indefinitely.  Most people think the above statement is a law of nature.
left and right.. is the force of gravity. The woman kicks the ball. The forces are balanced if the vector sum of all the forces on the object is zero. We define Fnel=F. are equal in magnitude. The object will speed up. equal in magnitude. the total is force on the object. then another woman stops it. a physics word meaning perpendicular to the ground. It is force the ground exerts on the ball. Case d.. This scenario is a nonexarnple. in which the right force is larger than the left force (hence unbalanced). In this case think of a marble rolling along a smooth level floor (no friction). and it rolls for a while at constant speed. This scenario is also a nonexample with the left force larger than the right force.is the force of the foot on the ball. Figure 3lf where F. The object will slow down. Case c. The case is between cases c and d. Draw a diagram showing all the forces on the ball at the three times: kicking. but the floor pushes up. Think about this one for a while.. A The ball rolls withoutfriction. Two opposed forces..The MCAT Physics Book Case b.. Figure 33 . Figure 32 Solution: Part a: The ball is kicked (see Figure 32). and stopping. Example: A woman kicks a soccer ball.. _L  Figure 3lb Figure 3lc Figure 3ld Figure 3le Fnel by a _ + F2 +. . The symbol fi stands for "normal". rolling. The object has constant velocity. There are two opposed forces. Case f. Gravity pulls down. The vector Fn.. The forces in all three directions are balanced. perpendicular to the motion. The vector gg.are all the forces acting on an object. The velocity vector is constant. that is. F2. The object's velocity vector is constant. and F. Case e. it will keep its speed indefinitely. . This stumps many people.
... Second Law of Motion So what happens if the forces on an object are not balanced? If the net force on an object is nonzero.. B.. (See Figure 35. The woman stops the ball. Figure 36 We have not proven this equation.. the balanced forces guarantee it will keep rolling indefinitely at constant speed.) On the other hand.. if we apply the same push to both a small car and a large car (Figure 36). Figure 34 Over the next several chapters there will be many problems to test your intuition on the first law... but the discussion in the previous paragraph should make it seem reasonable to you.. . Now there is a force of a foot on the ball as well (Figure 34).. the small car will have the larger acceleration... The ball does not remember (or care) what started it rolling.Chdpter 3 . According to the first law. 4 Fstop Fgrav a Part c: The ball is stopped.. . Figure 3 5 We can write (in one dimension) A force on a small object causes more acceleration than the same force On a large object. There must be acceleration... the larger the acceleration.. A A large force causes more acceleration than a small force.. It has only two forces acting on it (Figure 33). then the velocity vector changes. In fact the larger the force.. Laws of Motion Part b: The ball rolls along...
acting on it. and v. states that the sum of all the horizontal forces is mass times the horizontal acceleration. = 2  2 and the acceleration 2 of the object is given by Eel= m . = 1 m/s. The Newton is defined by [ N = 7 m . Fnef 4 + 4 +". 2 (2) i Most often. . and we want At. introduced in Chapter 1. We will discuss breaking vectors into vertical and horizontal components in Section 4.D. we will break up equation (2) into components: Equation (3a).Thz MCAT Physics Book In three dimensions. S Example 1 Bruce pushes a car (500 kg) on level ground starting from rest with a : force 100 N.. we are able to make the connection between the units for force and [w kg 1 for mass [kg]. then the total force on the object is the vector sum 4. for example. Finally. We can find acceleration from equation (I). = 0 d s . v.How long does it take to get the car rolling 1 d s ? (Assume no friction. G. so we obtain a= lOON 500 kg Then we can find At from . however.) Solution: We have the information m = 500 kg. F = 100 N. we write what is often called Newton's second law: Second Law of Motion If an object has forces .
. . which has five times the mass of A (Figure 37).. and of the same type (gravity. . . but rn is five times larger for wagon B. so At is five times larger. . friction. The third law of motion is not so much a law about motion as it is a rule of thumb about pairs of forces.... etc. Substitution gives Figure 37 I Since the problem asks about the change in time. we can solve for At to obtain Now. on object 1 which is equal in magnitude. but if we write down the relevant equations. .) Solution: This one looks difficult. it is not so hard. then object 2 exerts a force g. A similar rocket providing the same force is attached to wagon B. ): 42 21 =F A A ' . .. Laws o Motion f Example 2: A rocket provides a constant force to wagon A which rolls without friction.Chapter 3 .V2 Vt  V2 At At' We set v. on object 2. We need to connect force and velocity. opposite in direction.. so we write . . F and v2 stay the same. The Third Law of Motio? If object 1 exerts a force I.... . It is usually stated thus: To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.. It starts from rest and after time t attains velocity v.. How much time does it take wagon B to go from rest to velocity v? (Assume no friction... The answer is 5t.. to zero because the wagons start from rest.
while the ball springs toward another player. Solution: See Figure 310. There are two types of force diagrams: 1. FsE= Example 2: Two spacecraft push off from each other. I I I . Solution: See Figure 38. and 2. F. Figure 310 2 FEb=gravitational force of Earth on ball. * Earth FsE pEs= gravitational force of the Earth on the Sun. FpE=gravitational force of player on Earth. a diagram in which all the objects appear and the forces come in thirdlaw pairs. PbE= gravitational force of ball on Earth. but not all the objects in the situation). Solution: See Figure 39. L 1 2 + Figure 39 p1 2 p2. PEP= gravitational force of Earth on player. Draw a force diagram. Why is the basketball affected more than the player? (Hint: Look at equation 1.The MCAT Physics Book Example 1: The Sun and the Earth exert a force of gravity on each other. But the player moves hardly at all. While he is in the air. Example 3: A basketball player jumps up. Fp. Notice that the magnitude of the force of the player on the ball is the same as the that of the ball on the player. Draw all the forces while he is pushing the ball.) D. .= contact force of craft 2 on craft 1. . he pushes the basketball horizontally. = contact force of craft 1 on craft 2. Figure 38 gravitational force of the Sun on the Earth.. Draw a force diagram. a diagram featuring one object and all its forces (or maybe several objects. Ignore the tiny gravitational force between the player and the ball. Force Diagrams Already in this chapter we have seen a number of force diagrams.= contact force of player on ball. 2 pbp= contact force of ball on player. In this section we discuss some rules for drawing force diagrams.
Example 2: A vase sits on a table. which sits on the Earth.13... Example 1 A girl jumps horizontally from a boat in the water. Then we add the forces due to the boat and girl and Fgb)and the contact touching ( pbg force between the Earth and the boat ( and RE). . we ask four questions: 1. It is difficult to tell what is going on with the Earth..... EE. This may seem unnatural at first.. The net force on the girl indicates she would accelerate forward and down. and ignore the drag force of the water on the boat.. FvE= gravitational force of vase on the Earth. . Does the problem mention any specific forces? 4. Figure 313 . Do this example on your own before you look at the solution.. Draw a 1 the : 1 forces on the boat.. Solution: First we add the gravitational forces in pairs (Figure 3. 2 FE.11). Laws of Motion In most problems we will want the second type. Figure 311 The net forces on the boat indicate that it accelerates backwards. the girl. To draw the first type of diagram.. Solution: See Figure 3. which seems right. Do the net forces in the diagram conform to expectation? For each force we draw an arrow whose tail lies on the object on which the force acts.) 3. and knowing diagrams of the first type will help with the second type.. but it makes things easier in the end. look at the diagrams we drew in Section C. .See Figure 3.. but it is important to know how to draw both. and the Earth. For some examples. Ignore the tiny gravitational force between the girl and the boat.12... Figure 312 FEv= gravitational force of Earth on the vase. FE= gravitational force of table on the Earth.. which seems right..Chapter 3 . What things are touching? (These give contact forces. What gravitational forces are important? 2. List all pairs of forces.= gravitational force of Earth on the table..
The second law of motion concerns objects whose force vectors' sum is not zero: The acceleration of such an object is in the same direction as the total force. These include gravity. Draw all the forces on the roller skate. and if the vector sum of the force vectors for an object is zero. STOP! Try doing this problem before looking at the solution. Drawing a diagram of the second type is easier. Constant velocity means constant speed in a straight path. we are always interested in the forces on an object at a given instant in time. pushing up (question 2). No other forces need to be included. and forces due to things touching the object at that moment. If an object is moving at a constant velocity. In particular. Example 3: A roller skate is rolling frictionlessly on level ground to the left. And the ground is touching the skate. you have not yet tuned your intuition about the first law of motion. then the object moves at constant velocity.= contact force of vase on table. fiE= contact force of table on Earth. Do you see why we use equations? The third law states that forces come in pairs: If object 1 pushes object 2. fiE.= contact force of Earth pn table. Figure 314 A Figure 315 B In this chapter we studied Newton's laws of motion. . = contact force of table on vase. Did your diagram look like Figure 315 A or B? If so. the first law of motion is the most subtle. do not include a force in a direction just because the object in moving in that direction. usually. That is a'= $&. There is no friction. Pay especial attention to Section D on force diagrams. No force is required to keep an object moving. so the force diagram is Figure 3. fiv. nor any other forces.. proportional to its magnitude and inversely proportional to the object's mass. then object 2 pushes object 1 in the opposite direction. In a sense.The MCAT Physics Book A N. In solving problems. then the forces on the object add to zero. Solution: Gravity is pulling down (question 1). Only if the skate were speeding up to the left would we be forced to conclude that there was a force to the left. but you have to be careful not to leave out any forces nor to add any ghost forces.14. Just because the skate is going to the left does not mean there is a force to the left.
None of the above may be definitely concluded. . the net force is 700 N. The net force is in the same direction that the object is moving. The son and the wagon are 60 kg.66 m/s2 D.. .550 N.Chdpter 3 . No.450 N. the magnitude of force FA is is 300 N. What can we definitely conclude from this? A.. No. What is the acceleration of the wagon with the son? A. The net force acting on the car is not zero. 3. Case 2 Case 3 There is one force acting on an object. 6. There are two forces acting on the object. A car's engine has died. D. C. In case 1. Case 1 A. 0. D. C. . . In case 1. since he is moving at a constant velocity. since gravity is not balanced by anything. . . since gravity is greater than the drag force. he begins to fall at a constant speed in a straight vertical plunge (at terminal velocity). not necessarily in a straight line. B. After an initial accelerating plunge. The two forces have equal magnitudes but point in opposite directions. and the car is slowing down as it coasts. There are forces acting on the car. The object is going at a constant speed.. the net force is 350 N. the net force is 100 N. and case 3. Use the following information for questions 6 and 7: A man is pulling his son in a toy wagon. D.500 N. 2. B. None of the above may be be definitely concluded.500 N. C. . case 2.. and that of of the net force in the three cases? FB A. The object is going at a constant speed in a straight line. case 2. The object is speeding up or slowing down.5 m/s to 3. Both forces are in a direction perpendicular to the object's motion. C.. GO ON TO THE N X PAGE ET . C. .84 m/sZ C. D. What can we definitely conclude from this? 7 What is the net force on the wagon and son? . No. .67 m/s2 B. 20 m/s2 4.50 N. What is the magnitude 400 N. A. B. 1 Consider a paratrooper who has jumped from an . B. 100 N.50 N. For 3 s the man exerts a force which has the effect of uniformly accelerating the wagon from 1. since a force balance exists only if an object is not moving. case 2.. and case 3. In case 1. .5 d s . During the latter portion of his fall. There are no forces acting on the car. at constant speed in a straight line. Laws01 Motion Chapter 3 Problems C. . 40N 50N 120N 1200 N B. B .700 N. and case 3. . An object is moving with uniform motion. A. that is. Section Section A B 5. D. . airplane. 1. . None of the above may be be definitely concluded. 0. In case 1. the net force is 350 N. . Yes. case 2. are the forces on the paratrooper balanced? In the following diagram. What may we conclude about the forces acting on the car? A. and case 3. D. but the net force is zero.
1. 480 m D. 34 m/s2 11. A rocket ship (500 kg) is firing two jets at once. It slides to a rest in 5 s. 17.0015 N.67 m/s2 D. the acceleration of B is A. two dung beetles are pushing a small ball (0. How much distance does the tiger cover in those 12 s? A. Gravity. what is the magnitude of the force? A. What are all the forces acting on the tiger? A. 240 rnls2 9. B. 60 N B. The string passes over a pulley and is connected in such a way as to maintain a tension force of 6 N (see figure). D. Three men push on a station wagon with a net force F. and the normal force. 960 m 10. D.8 kg hangs from a suing over the edge of a table. and a horizontal force of the ground pushing the tiger.83 m/s2 C. C. At t = 0 s. 9 times that of A. 240 m C. with one firing to yield a force of 5000 N and the other to yield a force of 12000 N.0010 N. producing an acceleration. 26m/s2 C.75 N B. 0. 24 m/s2 B. one third that of A. the other pushes west with a force 0. Assuming a constant force slowing the cart. 8. (Assume there is no friction. A girl shoves a 4kg toy cart across the level floor with a speed of 15 m/s (so it is going 15 m/s when it leaves her hand). 120m B. half the acceleration of the station wagon. A piece of steel of mass 0. C. What is the acceleration of the tiger? A. 0. C. B twice the acceleration of the station wagon.33N C. up. four times the acceleration of the station wagon. 18. Object A is acted upon by a net force FA produce an to acceleration.5 g). I I 1 I 16. up. 83N C. At time t = 0 s. Gravity. 13. down. D one quarter the acceleration of the station wagon. 1. 0. the same as that of A. None of the above is correct. If object B has three times the mass of A and is acted on by three times the force as A. down. The two jets are at right angles.75 N 12. Gravity.The MCAT Physics Book 14. . B 3 times that of A. the acceleration of the compact car is A. . 12N D.60 m/s2 B. 167N D. GO ON T T E NEXT PAGE O H . . 24000 N 15. down.) If they push with the same net force on a ccmpact car (with half the mass). One pushes east with a force 0. What is the magnitude of the acceleration of the rocket ship? A. what is the acceleration of the ball? Use the following informationfor questions 81 I : A tiger (100 kg) sees a wildebeest and accelerates uniformly from rest to 20 m/s in 12 s. What is the magnitude of the net force on the tiger? A. the normal force.
D. A woman is riding in an elevator which is going up at constant speed. .. according to the third law of motion? A. A B. (See figure) Assume for this problem that the Earth is not rotating. . The change in velocity of the spacecraft and rocket case was found to be 0. .force paired with the gravitational force of the Earth on the stove. starts from rest and accelerates uniformly as well. 2.5 m/s2 C. C. The normal force of the road on the car.93 m/s. B. . is greater than the force of gravity on her. . B. and the road exerts an upward force of 8000 N.5 m/s2 C. . It is speeding up. What was the mass of the rocket case? 22. and both are traveling forward at velocity 3 mls at time t = 5 s.= rng. . is less than the force of gravity on her. It is speeding up or staying the same speed.Chapter 3 . . B. A. On September 12. how long does is take B to travel the same distance d? A. The force of the floor against her feet A. The vertical force of the wheels on the road. The horizontal force of the wheels on the road. 12. .100kg 15. D. B. B C. . D GO ON TO WE N X PAGE ET . What is the force which accelerates the car? A. A B. 4t 2t tl4 D . We allow the piece of steel to fall from rest for 5 s. Laws of Motion The force due to gravity on the steel is given by F. C D. D.400 kg 20. B C. Which arrow represents the. . Car B. D. is the same as the force of gravity on her. . 120 kg 3300 kg 10. D A car trailer is connected to a car. Which arrow represents the gravitational force of the Earth on the stove? A. A Gemini spacecraft (measured to be 3400 kg) connected with an orbiting rocket case. where g = 10 m/s2is the acceleration due to gravity. ..0 s. and the force of air resistance on the trailer is 70 N. Use the following informationfor questions 2326: An antique stove is sitting on the ground. The force the car exerts on the trailer is 105 N. 19.1966. has no relationship with the force of gravity on her that can be determined by the given information. The force of gravity on the trailer is 8000 N. 24..  It is slowing down. C . which has four times the mass of car A. Section C 18. C B. Car A starts from rest and accelerates uniformly for a period of time t to travel a distance d. What is the final acceleration of the piece of steel? A. The horizontal force of the road on the wheels. The thrusters were fired to provide a force of 890 N for 7. C. 10 m/s2 D. 16t 23. . D. If the magnitudes of the forces accelerating A and B are the same. It is staying the same speed.. What conclusion may be drawn about the trailer? A. 2 m/s2 B. the force of friction on the trailer is 30 N. A car is accelerating from rest at an intersection after the light has turned green.. . . astronauts conducted an experiment using the second law of motion.. C.
The second law of motion states that force and acceleration are proportional. D. There is the force of gravity. What forces are acting on Mars? A. The first law of motion states that an object in motion will remain in motion unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. and a forward force. up. B . 0.) The tension in the string is the force that the string exerts where it is connected to another object or to more string. D. 02 m . backwards. B. D The third law of motion states that forces come in . D. At various times. 2. In this experiment the mass m is initially at rest and allowed to drop. There are no forces. Gravity. When the arrow is in the air. Passage 1 We perform an experiment which involves two masses m and M connected by a string which we will consider to be massless. the road's force. Mass m hangs over the edge of a table. The entries for v are always greater than x. The first law of motion states that an object which is motionless has balanced forces. The entries for x are nonnegative and increasing. B. C. and the car is slowing down as it coasts. 0. B. What forces are acting on the car? A. Any interval Av is proportional to the interval dt. There is the force of gravity. friction. backwards. There is the force of gravity and a forward force. what is a . The entries for v are nonnegative and increasing. A car's engine has died. An arrow is shot into the air. . equal and opposite pairs. There is the force of gravity and a forward force. and friction. There are no forces. likely entry x for t = 0 9s? A. The second law of motion states that a force on an object and acceleration of the object are proportional. (See figure. 29. Gravity.The MCAT Physics Book Why is the force vector A equal in magnitude to the force vector B? A. The third law of motion states that forces come in equal and opposite pairs. down. and the road's force. and an outward force. B. are motionless have balanced forces. D. 26. Its position x is measured downward from its initial position. The first law of motion states that an object in motion will remain in motion only if acted upon by an unbalanced force. what forces are acting on the arrow? A. It is generally true that the tension anywhere along the string is the same as the tension anywhere else in the string. Gravity. is uniform? A. a forward force. down.0 C. The planet Mars is traveling around the Sun. the road's force. C. C. C.22m D 02 m . up. the position x and velocity v of mass m are measured and the results are recorded in the table which follows: 1 Which of the following is evidence that the acceleration . Why is the force vector A equal in magnitude to the force vector C? The first law of motion states that objects which A. Assuming that acceleration remains uniform. B. C. The string passes over a pulley at the edge of the table and mass M sits on the table. ' 27.18m B. down. such that it moves along the table without friction.4 GO ON TO THE N X PAGE ET . There is the force of gravity and an upward normal force. D. There is the force of gravity. C. up. 28. down. Gravity.
.0 m/s 0.. B. D.. The force of gravity. B.. The velocity v increases with time. The force due to gravity is F. The force of gravity. and the tension in the string. We are assuming the shuttle moves in one dimension upward. and g is the acceleration due to gravity. the mass m hits the floor and the string goes slack. The force provided by the engines is given by the product of the velocity of the exhaust gases relative to the ship and the rate (massper time) at which fuel is burned. C. But mass M continues going forward until it hits the pulley. D. The following chart shows hypothetical data for the liftoff of a shuttle.. the force due to m. The second law of motion states that acceleration is proportional to force. ' 4. the upward force of the table. 0. There are no forces on M. What is the average velocity v for the interval of time . what are the forces on mass M? A.3 m/s 2. The force of gravity. the external tank. C. the rate of fuel burning is approximately constant. I I C. and so the mass of the shuttle decreases. When it stands on the launching pad.. The thrust at liftoff is 2.Chdpter 3 . Ldws of Motion 3.where M is the mass of the object. 1 What is the initial acceleration of the shuttle just as it . and the force due to rn. = Mg. What are the forces on the mass M? A. D. . The force of gravity and the upward force of the table.. and the tension in the string. D. As the space shuttle ascends. What are the forces on the mass rn? A.. The force of gravity. 1. and the the opward force of the table. GO ON TO THE N X PAGE ET .. the tension of the string. 4. shown in the table? A. Referring to the chart. The second law of motion states that acceleration is inversely proportional to mass. D. which is achieved by burning 3400 kg of fuel each second.0 X lo6kg. the upward force of the table. x Which gives the best reason for the increase in acceleration? A.0X106kg After the experiment has run a while. .86 X 10' N... The force of gravity and the tension of the string. the the upward force of the table. The space shuttle is a spaceship which was designed for transporting a payload to nearearth orbits and to be used many times. C. B. After the string goes slack but before M hits the pulley. The third law of motion states that there must be a second force.. it consists of the orbiter itself. and the force due to M. equal in magnitude but of opposite direction to the force accelerating the shuttle.. and two booster rockets. begins leaving the launchpad? 5. Use 10 m/s2for the acceleration due to gravity.. 3. .. B. What is the approximate mass of the shuttle after 300 s? A. B. The force of gravity. the upward force of the table. The force of gravity. The force of gravity and the force due to mass M. what evidence is there that the acceleration is increasing? A. and a forward force. D. . C. 6. The orbiter is 7.1 m/s 0. The ratio of Av to At increases with time. The force of gravity. The ratio of A to Av increases with time. while the whole assembly is 2. B. The velocity v is linear with time. C. .32 X lo4 kg.. The first law of motion states that an unbalanced force implies a change in velocity..15ds 0. The force of gravity.
The force of the shuttle on the exhaust gases. If there is no air. creating a force accelerating the shuttle. C. STOP .The MCAT Physics Book 5. The force of the shuttle on the air. fires its engines. The force of the exhaust gases on the shuttle. B. D. Which of the following BEST describes the force accelerating the shuttle? A. then the shuttle cannot accelerate. Consider a situation when the shuttle is in space and.
Newton is given credit. the essentials of Newton's first law of motion were discovered by Galileo. and Robert Hooke surmised the essential parts of the law of gravitation.0 x lo2' kg. Example 1 What is the force on a : cow (200 kg) standing on the surface of the Earth? (Assume M. at least in popular accounts. For instance. and G is a universal constant 6. Do not memorize G.4 x lo6m. In this chapter we will study the physics of the gravitational force. science is the activity of a community. m.. it often happens that that person eventually receives credit for almost everything done by anybody (see Matthew 13:12 in the Christian Bible). the force of gravity. with many people contributing to the revolution in thinking. R= 6. = 6. In fact. but do remember the equation. An example of this is his realization that both the motion of the Moon and the motion of a falling apple could be explained by the same force. for almost every interesting thing that happened in science during the Renaissance. d is the distance between the centers of the objects. and m2 are the masses of the objects. For example. is the magnitude of the gravitational force between two objects. Newton's law of gravity states that any two objects exert an attractive force on each other given by Here F. Newton's genius lay in his ability to see a simple underlying law for very different phenomena and to synthesize diverse branches of science. then as now.Chapter 4 Gravitation When a person does a great deal of work in a scientific field.67 x lo" m 3 k g s2.. We discussed it in Chapter 1.) Figure 41 .
Equation (1) is easy to use in two types of problems: 1. obtaining the force between two planets (d is much larger than the radii of the planets). The previous examples illustrated this second use. There is only the force of gravity (nothing else is touching it). . We calculate Example 2: What is the motion of an apple (0. we DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 42) showing all the forces on the apple while it is falling.8 rn/s2. so we write Since the total force is simply the gravitational force.Thc M C A T Physics ~ o o k Solution: Let's assume we have a spherical cow (Figure 41). we write *rppka = Fnet r L Figure 42 So the apple accelerates downward at 9.1 kg) which has let go of its tree? Solution: First. and 2. obtaining the force between a planet and a small object on its surface (d is essentially the radius of the planet).
8 mls2 comes up so often in introductory physics that we have given it a name: The acceleration due to gravity is In working problems. Second. so that the only force on it is gravity. The simplest problem in free fall involves dropping objects near the surface of the Earth. we DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 43).02 kg) to fall from rest 2 meters to the ground? Solution: First. We want to know which falls faster. so at first we will consider two objects for which air resistance is only a small consideration. we will use Fpv = mg. This number 9. What is the force of gravity of the Earth on an object of mass m? The force is where we use a calculation from the previous section. 4 (3) C. Free Fall An object is said to be infree fall when nothing is touching it. we find the net force Figure 43 where the negative sign reminds us that gravity points down. which is in most problems. Example 1: How long does it take a small rock (0. Surface of the Earth Most of us will spend most of our lives on or near the surface of the Earth. however. we always approximate this as g = 10 m/s2 (even if the problem says to use 9. (We discuss air resistance in Chapter 6.B. a heavy object or a light one? Things become complicated if the object is too light. Please note: Whenever there is gravity and we are at the surface of the Earth. like a leaf fluttering to the ground. Such an object is called a projectile.8 mlsl). .) Let us start by doing a pair of examples. There is only one force since nothing touches the rock and we are neglecting air resistance.
= F.down.. came to a stop.. down).H. M 0. Once the apple leaves the hand. the downward force of gravity.) n e acceleration A tossed apple at the top of itsflight m must be down as well. There we saw an apple tossed straight up..2 kg m s I The rest of the problem is the same. BUT the acceleration is inversely proportional to mass in the second law of motion.~ ~ = . but think about it until you also understand why the two rocks have the same acceleration. It rose. The net effect is that the acceleration is the same 9. F.2 kg) to fall 2 meters from rest? Solution: The rock is larger. . Figure 44 I I Example 2: How long does it take a mediumsized rock (0.63 s.( 0 . We claimed that the acceleration was always negative (that is.. (This result should look familiar. We are now at a better position to understand why.) We also have v1 = 0.The MCAT Physics Book Third. see Figure 44).(See Figwe 45.8 m/s2. so At = 0. Figure 45 'Q . We write F.. It is difficult to gain an intuitive grasp of this situation. 2N a===107. = .8 m/s2 for both rocks. know the the acceleration is a constant s2 9. and so is the force of gravity (and the force arrow. Ay = 2 m. so that At = 0.63 s. we now is accelerating down at 9.8 . 2 k g ) 10The acceleration is ( 3 =2N. and fell. WHAT HAPPENED? The force of gravity was larger in Example 2. In fact. we obtain acceleration by writing F = ma. Let us revisit Example 2 in Section 2. there is only one force on the apple. Try this at home with a pen and a stapler or some such thing. even at the top point.
and you see a boat traveling o along at constant speed in a straight line.Chapter 4 .. A.. the second grapefruit keeps up with the ship. At t = 0. If you are like most people. grapefruit falls from the mast.. As time goes on. While walking at a constant speed. (See Figure 48.) We will pretend air resistance plays no role (mostly true).05 m (the second has moved horizontally as well).. Figure 47  What is going on in the previous example? Just after the grapefruit is released from the hand on the second ship.. If air resistance does not affect it. C. try the experiment yourself. A boat moves with uniform motion.above your head (and a little forward). Sailors at the tops of the masts drop grapefruits at the same time. Here is what really happens.. proceeds on schedule regardless of the horizontal motion. both grapefruits have moved vertically 0. Where will the grapefruit land? A.....) ... it still has its horizontal motion... In frontof the mast.. A pencil and paper may prove handy. Figure 47 shows two ships at four successive times. The vertical motion.. on the other hand.. Both grapefruits drop to the foot of the corresponding mast..2 s. wheredoesit land? Choose your answer before you Figure 46 read any further.. so prepare your imagination. If that was your answer. Gravitation D.. Horizontal and Vertical Motion This section has no new equations but it does present one new idea.. B. At the foot of the mast. then you need to do some rethinking. It will fall in front of your face and land at your Figure 48 feet. If you do not believe the figure.. you chose C. Not many people choose B. The grapefruit on the moving ship retains its horizontal motion regardless of vertical motion.. thinking that somehow the boat moves out from under the grapefruit. Few people choose A.. one ship at rest and the other in uniform motion. Imagine you are sitting at the shore of a bay. then it maintains its same horizontal motion from start to finish. A sailor at the top of a vertical mast drops a grapefruit. release an apple. and it drops vertically regardless of its horizontal motion.... and both grapefruits hit the deck at the same time.. Behind the mast. (See Figure 46.
at the the way down. * .. and a to denote velocities and acceleration in one dimension.. =m y . . (See Figure 49. the vertical motion of falling is not affected at all by its horizontal motion. ..and a. v2. 2 2 v. Up until now.) For the second ball. The following box shows how this principle gets translated into equations: If the net vertical force is (FA. 1 dY = ( 2 v. a.. looks just like Figure 47 with the boats removed. they will hit at the same time. + 2ayAy. motion in the x. we shoot one • • horizontally off the cliff and drop the other..The MCAT Physics B m k Horizontal and vertical motion are independent. so we need the symbols v. most people will say the dropped ball hits first. and at the same time. we can determine the horizontal motion using similar equations with y replaced by x. ) 4 V Z y = v. Which will hit the plain first? Again.we have been using v . As long as air resistance plays at most a small role..and ydirections can be considered independently. v... v. + a. v.. . Notice that Figure 49 same rate as one shot horizontally.... 1 Ay = vlyAt+ayAt2. . It is the same physical prinFigure 49 ciple. We have two cannonballs. Now let's leave the bay and travel • to the edge of a cliff with a large plain at the bottom.then we can determine the vertical motion using () Fy . + v 2 .. A. For these problems we will need to keep track of the vertical and horizontal pieces separately. It may help your intuition to realize that the shot cannon1 ball does have a larger total velocity all A dropped cannonball falls. Similarly... That is. = v:.
. . We do not know the mass of the ball. .. but from Section B we know we do not need it. so we can say more: For an object in free fall at the surface of the Earth. down. .. Let's DRAW A DIAF.. . = 9... = O T 2 m where "up" is positive and we use the estimate 10s2 . (4a) S m a.. we have m a . 51 .Chapter 4 . One cannonball is dropped. Gravitation Objects in free fall experience only the force of gravity... You should work through this example yourself without looking at the book. The acceleration vector is 10 d s 2 . but after the ball leaves the cannon. S (4b) Example 1:A cliff stands 80 m above a flat plane. The time dt = 4 s was the connection between the horizontal and vertical parts.. Note that the cannon exerts a force on the cannonball while it is Figure 410 in the cannon.. GRAM for the second ball while it is in I" flight (Figure 410). .. of course. the only force is gravity.... How far from the first ball will the second ball land? Solution: The first ball falls stnight down.g7. .. . . = 1205 Ax = 480 m We solved the vertical problem first because we had more vertical information than horizontal information.. We record the information we have.... and another is fired horizontally at 120 rnls at the same time. T VlY vertical =0 horizontal m v..
. so that their sum is the original vector v'. we have divided by a factor of At. y vertical Ay=Om v. and v'.. using simple trigonometry..The MCAT Physics Book I The following example involves a projectile. and a vertical vector v'. so we have A = 0 m..... Example 2: A cannon is fired on level ground..) A r : 30" A VlY Vlr Figure 412 v.We can find the magnitudes of v'. . = vI sin 30' v.) . (see Figure 412). The cannonball rises and then falls to the same height from which it started. (You may need to review trigonometry at this point. Figure 411 Interruption: We need to know the horizontal and vertical components of the initial velocity v'.. We need to find a horizontal vector v'. &io:  .a. = 150 horizontal Ax=? m s I In the last line.. . = 150&m S Soiution: The force diagram is the same as in Figure 410. so that the ball's initial velocity is 300 rnls and directed 30' up from the horizontal. How far from the cannon will the ball fall? (See figure 411..
Figure 4. The gravitational force acts as if it were exerted only at the center of mass. the center of mass is the point which refuses to rotate.. m ......... Objects with a more complicated shape obey the same rules. The centercannonball in the previous example. We will see more of this principle in the following chapter. even though the bat is rotating. This curious result comes s2 from the fact that the force of gravity is proportional to the mass. whose grand form is F. In fact this is a definition of the center of mass. This allows us to solve problems involving projectiles... that is.. We also explored the principle that horizontal and vertical motion are independent... just like the of mass moves from a cannon.. where g = GMR. = ~ m . = mg.. m = 10 T .. it m has a downward acceleration vector of magnitude 10. l dFor most problems near the surface of the Earth we can use simply ~. If an object is set to fnely rotating...13 shows a baseball bat fired /\/ * + / Figure 413 2 in a parabola.... S When any object near the Earth's surface has only gravity acting on it (freefall).. Gravitation We have been talking about grapefruits and cannonballs so far.... . while the second law of motion states that the acceleration in inversely proportional to the mass.Chapter 4 ... F. as long as we use the center of mass to talk about the position of the object. In this chapter we looked at the law of gravitation.... objects with only gravity acting on them.
19N D. and its mass is 0. What is the weight of the block on the Moon? A. It would decrease by a factor of 2.5..5 times that of Earth. 1 I 8. the acceleration due to gravity is 10 rn/s2. How long does it take to drop to the surface? A. If the mass of one of the skxs could somehow be decreased by a factor of 2 at a given moment. It would decrease by a factor of 2.6 s B.04 times weaker. The force increases by a factor of 5. how is the force affected if the distance between the stars' centers remains the same? A. (Note: On Earth. 0. how would this affect the force between them? A. D. It would stay the same. 12kg C. and M. 1. the acceleration due to gravity is g= 9. 2 kg B. which thus increases its mass by a factor of 5. D. If the distance between the stars were doubled. 0. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . If star 1 dumps half of its material onto star 2. At the surface of the Earth. D. 7 If a person were standing on the surface of Mars and .10 times weaker. Also. Use the following information for questions 13: In a binary star system.6 m/s2. C. B. we have G = 6. The force decreases by a factor of 2. Sections AC 24 kg 72 kg 5. 6.5 times further from the Sun than Earth. 0. the force of gravity between the stars (masses M.1 times that of Earth. 118N Use the following information for questions 7 and 8: The colonization of Mars is a favorite topic among science fiction writers. D. There is not enough information to answer this question. B. for example. It would decrease by a factor of 4. The force remains the same. 0. B.= to the Moon. dropped a Martian rock. C.5. the gravitational field depends on its mass and radius. 1 m/s2 B . 2 m/s2 4m/s2 Use the following informationfor questions 46: For a spherical planetary body. C. It would increase by a factor of 4. what is the approximate acceleration of the rock's fall? A. one star transfers material onto the other. It would increase by a factor of 2.3s D.3 m/s2 B. In some binary systems. What is the mass of the block on the Moon? A. how would this affect the force between them? A. 2. The force increases by a factor of 2. C.) 3.4 s C. The strength of the gravitational field determines the acceleration due to gravity of t freely falling objects a the planet's surface. 1. 2 kg B. It is a smaller planet than Earth and further from the Sun.07 times weaker. D. HOW does the force of attraction between the Sun and Mars compare with that between the Sun and Earth? A. The block is dropped from a height of 2 m to the surface of the Moon.8 m/s2. A metal block (12 kg on Earth) is taken is g. They are held together by the force of gravity. 6. The Moon has a smaller mass and a smaller radius. There is not enough information to answer this question. It is 1.67 x lo" N m2/kg2. C D. For a certain system.) is F. Its radius is 0. two stars revolve about their combined center of mass.The MCAT Physics Book Chapter 4 Problems 4. It would decrease by a factor of 4. 2. It would increase by a factor of 2. 12kg C.. The net result is that the acceleration due to gravity 1.
There is racqhet ball moving at 0. It would take the same amount of time. producing a small force of 0. 9. C.). D.) A .67 times larger. 0. 0.4 m/s2. It would decrease by a factor of 3. C. B The time would be less by a factor of 1. 0.4 N How would the force of gravity between the Earth and the Moon be affected if the distance between the Earth and the Moon were decreased by a factor of 3? A. It is the same. It would stay the same.) .. The ball slows to a stop in 4 s. It would increase by a factor of 9. 0. The acceleration due to gravity on the surface of the Moon is one sixth the acceleration due to gravity on the Earth's surface.4 m/s2  15. 0. What is the radius of this new planet? 1 A . (That is. and the Earth's mass is 8 1 times that of the Moon. What is the weight of the racquet ball? A* ON B. What is the magnitude of the acceleration of the racquet ball? A.64 kg C. = 9. how much time would it take to reach the ground compared to the time it would take on Earth to drop the same distance h? (Assume no atmospheric resistance.4 N  10. 13. The time would be less by a factor of 9. It would decrease by a factor of 9.67 times that of the Moon. . If an object were dropped from a height h on this planet.8 m/s2 and g= 29.125 m/s2 C.016N C. What is the mass of the racquet ball? A. B. 1.2 rn/s2 D. 0 kg B. It is 6 times larger.7 times smaller than the radius of Earch. 9 times smaller than the radius of Earth.08 N in the direction opposite the ball's velocity. 14. D.5 m/s on the spaceship. The time would be less by a factor of 3. we have g. 0. C. D. D. How does the Earth's gravitational pull on the Moon differ from the Moon's pull on the Earth? A. It is 3.. 3 times larger than the radius of Earth. 6. An astronaut blows air on the racquet ball.5 kg 1 . 0 m/s2 B. B.6 kg D. 2. An astronaut is in a spaceship traveling at constant velocity toward the star Rigel and is far away from any other objects (planets and stars.Use the following informutionfor questions 9 and 10: I Use the following informationfor questions 1315: The Earth and the Moon attract each other with the force of gravity. 1. D. GO ON TOTHENEXTPAGE . It is 8 1 times larger. although the acceleration of freely falling objects at the surface of this planet is three times larger than that corresponding to Earth. C. Use the following informutionfor questions 11 and 12: A new planet is discovered whose mass is the same as that of Earth. B 3 times smaller than the radius of Earth. etc. . 12.7. The Earth's radius is 3.
What is the ball's initial vertical velocity? A. 0 d s B.5 rn/s and then rolls off the edge.2m D 23m . Which of the following best shows a force diagram for the can opener at point B? 21. What horizontal distance has the can opener traversed in the two seconds? A. What is the ball's initiaI horizontal velocity? A. When Barbara heaves her opener at t = 0 s.) 20. Om/s Use the following informationfor questions 1 6 2 0 : In a certain sports event. what is the opener's horizontal velocity? A.5m/s . Consider the time from the moment just after the ball leaves the table till the moment just before the ball touches the floor.) The cliff is very high. At t = 2 s. 17. (Use g = 9. the opener has horizontal velocity 1.5 m/s when it leaves her hand.The MCAT Physics Book Section D 19. D . After 2 s. men and women test their strength by hurling an electric can opener horizontally over a cliff. 21. 0 m/s B 1. it is still in the air (point B in the diagram). 20m C. The table is 1.5m/s 5. See figure. 1. (See figure. B . standing over a plain. 3m 22. 20m GOONTO THE NEXT PAGE . C.= 2 s. 1. and judges at the bottom determine where the openers land. what is the opener's vertical velocity? A. 3 m B.5m/s Use the following information for questions 2127: A ball (0. C.2 kg) rolls along a level table at 1.25 m off the floor.8 m/s2. D 5 2 m/s .) 16. . 20. (Use g = 10 m/s2. 18. At t.and ignore any air resistance. 50 m/s . 20 m/s D.0m/s 5 2d s . Om/s B. What vertical distance has the can opener fallen in the two seconds? A.5 m/s C. called the appliance toss.
. It depends on the height at which the acceleration is recorded. 29. There is a horizontal force of friction. When the ball is in midair (point B). .) The woman pulls the handle with a tension 200 N. It is the same. how does the gravitational force on one of Alice's coins compare with the force on one of Barbara's? A. 0. D.25 m 25. 0.. is less than s. what is the net force on the ball? A.. In the wagon is her daughter by her first marriage.92 N 9.. C. speed s.. The speed s. 0. 0. 2. The speed s. It is four times as large.2 d s 2 C. Use the following informationfor questions 3236: A woman (50 kg) is pulling a wagon behind her. It is the same.76 m B... D. . How does the time to reach the ground for one of Alice's coins compare with the time of fall for Barbara's? 26. B. (Use g = 10 ds2.. It is one fourth as large.  1.76 m 1.) 'coin B GO ON TO THE N X PAGE ET . D. It depends on the height at whch the force is recorded. It depends on the height of the building. C. 0 m/s2 B.96 N 3. it has speed s Just before Barbara's coin reaches the ground.. How does s. What is the horizontal acceleration of the ball at point B? A. It is four times as large. 1.. and her coins are 40 g each.3 m/s. C. A. . What is the horizontal displacement of the ball during the fall? A. B. C.25 m D. is greater than s.. Just before Alice's coin reaches the ground.. B. each of which is 10 g. Alice is actually dropping her coins. 9.Chapter 4 .. how does the acceleration of one of Alice's coins compare with the acceleration of one of Barbara's? A. What is the vertical displacement of the ball during the fall? A.47 m C. How much time does the drop take? It is one fourth as large. (See figure..47 m 1. 30. When the coins are in midair.) (Ignore air resistance. B.6 N 28. 24.51 s 0.... 1.. D. (See figure. the daughter and the wagon are 60 kg. .. compare with s.83 s 1. B. D. C..8 N 19. B. 1. The time for Alice's coins is greater.? A.. is the same as s. B.25 m 2.) Use the following informutionfor questions 2831: Two girls are sitting on the edge of a building tossing coins over the edge. The time for Alice's coins is less.8 d s 2 27. The speed s....96 m/s2 D.. Gravitation 23. The times are the same. C.01s D.26 s 0.. it has . A. and the handle makes a 30" angle with the horizontal. It depends on the height of the building. Barbarqis tossing her coins horizontally at 0. C. When the coins are in midair. and the wagon moves at a constant 2 m/s. .25 m 31. . D.
There is no answer. B. What is the magnitude of the net force? A. 30s. Neither lands but instead fly off the Moon's surface. What is the horizontal component of the gravitational force on the wagon and daughter? A. 600N 800 N Use the following infonnationfor questions 3739: A bale of hay (500 kg) is dropped from the second story of a barn (9 m) with no initial velocity. On the Moon there is very little atmosphere (several centimeters of thin gas). D. An astronaut drops a hammer and a feather at the same time from about shoulder height. Which of the following represents the best force diagram at times after t = 0 s? D. (200 N) (cos 30") D. What happens? A. Use the following infonnation for questions 41 and 42: A large ball (2 kg) is rolling (at the surface of the Earth) on a large. D. The hammer and the feather land at the same time. It is rolling 0. ON 1OOON 5000N 9000 N 33. How long would it take the ball to come to a stop? A. (200 N) (sin 30") C. ON B. A rope is tied to the hay to control its fall. What is the acceleration of the bale of hay? A. O N B. ON B. (600 N) (sin 30") C. ON B. 173N C. 3.3 m/s to the right at time t = 0 s. Assume there is no friction. 0 m/s2 B. 200N M.3 s. 0. C. 10 mls2 D. The tension in the rope only. 35. D.The MCAT Physics B o o k 38. The hammer lands first. What is the magnitude of the net force on the bale of hay? 32.) 37. 600N 39. What is the vertical component of the force of the wagon handle on the wagon body? A. B. C. 600N 36. GO ON TO THE N X PAGE ET . What is the horizontal component of the force of the wagon handle on the wagon body? A. Gravity only. gravity. The tension in the rope and gravity. D. The feather lands first. (600 N) (cos 30") D. 200N A. flat plain. 41. B. Take the acceleration of gravity to be 10. ON B. (200 N) (cos 30") D. C. (200 N) (sin 30") C.rn/s2. I 58 42. B. The rope extends up from the bale and maintains a tension of 4000 N. What are the forces acting on the bale of hay? A.33 s. The tension in the rope. C. so large that we will idealize it as an infinite plain. What is the vertical component of the gravitational force on the wagon and daughter? A. (Use g = 10 mls2. and an additional downward force once the bale is moving. (600 N) (cos 30") D. 18 m/s2 40. 2 m/s2 C. (600 N) (sin 30") C.
on the edge of the pool. C. Which diagram best represents the force diagram for the student while he is on the roof? When a massive star uses up its nuclear fuel.5 meters from the edge of the building. on the pavement. The building is 7. 1. and inebriation.4.and the gravity on the surface is strong enough to crush any ordinary material. the tidal forces near a neutron star are nevertheless prodigious. The structure inside a neutron star is different from anything known on Earth.0 meters from the edge of the building. 1. a distance of 5 rn. that is. Which diagram best represents the force diagram for the student while he is in the air? A sport at a nearby educational institute involves running along the roof of an apartment building. called a supernova.2 m hgh. 2. Just after his feet leave the building. 13m/s Passage 2 2. and the pool is 4.5 meters from the edge of the building. he is traveling horizontally at a speed 5 d s . 0 mls B. 1. Use g = 10 m/s2. D. 6. 2. that is. but the radius is about 14 krn. and as he got closer he would be drawn as thin as a wire. Where does he land? A. 1. Finally he would GO ON TO T E N X PAGE H ET . B.that is. called a neutron star. 50.44 s D.00 s B. jumping off the edge. A neutron star is composed mainly of neutrons. A man falling toward a neutron starwould be stretched out as he fell.00 s B. braggadocio. 4. in the pool. How much time does it take the student to accelerate as he is running dong the roof? A. and the core collapses. that is. 6 What is his horizontal velocity just before he lands? . Away from the surface. that is.000 times smaller than the Sun's. The result is an explosion. A. 5.5 rn from the edge of the building. which leaves behind a very dense core. He would be killed when he was about 2000 km away. in the pool.0 meters from the edge of the building.00 s 3. This dangerous sport involves a combination of strength of spirit. there is no longer enough heat to hold up its core against gravitational forces. and falling into the pool below. Let's say a student (50 kg) accelerates uniformly from rest at one side of the building to the jumping edge. How much time does it take him to fall? A.20 s I D. 5ds 1. 5. The only thing which creates a stronger gravitational field is a black hole.20 s C. It has approximately the mass of the Sun. 1.
67 x lo" N m2/kg2 M. The Earth is 1. It would be 1.. 2 x 10" kg/m3 B.0 x kg (volume of a sphere) A . 4. (50.= 2.The MCAT Physics Book For these problems you may want to use the follow ing: G = 6.000)~times stronger. 1 x loz4kg/m3 D. 8 x lo2' kg/m3 C. D. surface gravity varies inversely as the radius. D. What is the best explanation for the stretching of an object in free fall as it approaches a neutron star? A.000)' times stronger. B.000)' times stronger.000 times stronger. The density of the neutron star is huge. B. It would be 50.000 times stronger. It would be the same. The parts of an object which are nearer the neutron star are pulled more strongly than the parts which farther away from the star. C. C The strong surface gravity is due to the fact that . = 4n 2~ ~ ~ ~ (surface area of a sphere) Acutie = n 4 1 . D. were a planet of the same mass which was 1. The strong surface gravity is due to the fact that surface gravity varies inversely as the square of the radius. It would be (50. 2.5 x 10" meters away from a neutron star.5 x 10"/14 times stronger.. (area of a circle) What is the approximate density of a neutron star? A. C. STOP . (50. how would the neutron star's gravitational pull on that planet compare with the Sun's pull on the Earth? A. B. 3. 1 x 10" kg/m3 How does the acceleration due to gravity at the surface of a neutron star compare with that near the surface of the Sun? A.5 x 10" meters away from the Sun. If there. times 50. Je stronger.
. = F . In the last chapter we discussed the independence of venical and horizontal motion for objects in freefall.. F. but it turns out the principle works when other forces are acting as well: Independence of Vertical and Horizontal Motion An object has forces F. are the vertical components of the forces. Horizontal and Vertical Motion.B. Assume there is no friction. that surface exerts one or two forces on it: always a nonnal force 6 pointing perpendicular to the surface and sometimes a frictional force pfkpointing parallel to the surface.... Example: A boy pulls a red wagon (10 kg) with a constant force 20 N.. . In the following example.. An example will help illustrate how the principle in the above box is used to solve problems. . That is the goal of this chapter. x a . (3) (4) This is a more useful form of Fm.. Well.. when an object is on the ground or some other surface. . but we need to understand problems in which other forces are present. We will postpone discussing friction until Chapter 6. how fast is it going after 3 seconds? b. If the wagon starts from rest. a.. F2.... gravity is a fine force indeed. Again In the last chapter we solved problems with gravity as the only force. In general. (1) ' m (2) Similarly. then we have Fmx = &. 3. If F. if F. we find a toy wagon rolling on the ground.= the equation that we discussed in Section md. are the horizontal components of the forces... then we have A A LLY + Fty +.. m + FZx +. acting on it. . = &y F Y a =.. What is the normal force acting on the wagon? . F.Chapter 5 Planes and Circles A. The handle makes an angle 30" with the horizontal...
so that < F A y my= But the cart is not moving vertically.. If we consider the vertical components of force.. The tension f points along Figure 51 the handle.Ty =mgTy = 90 N. then we can find (F. ( ~ " = max 3 ~ Tx= ma. so we write (Foec)y N + TY Fgnv' = where we use the positive sign for forces which point up. This means (F. we derive a horizontal velocity vlx = v. there are the tension due to the handle and the Fcav normal force. = mg Figure 52 + axAt which is the answer to part a. just by looking at the diagram. 30" from the horizontal. . that is.). so the only Thus we write horizontal force is TX. NOW the second law of motion connects this with vertical acceleration. a mistake often made by students. N = Fm. Notice that the normal force is not the same as the gravitational force. = (20 N) cos 30" The normal force and gravity do not have horizontal components. is zero...). C Fg.. so we know that vyis constant (and zero) and thus a. so we have I k) 1 A 2 = sin 30" T T T = cos 30" I Ty = (20 N) sin 30" T. The handle and the ground are the only two things which touch it.F. In Figure 52 we resolve the tension into components (recall trigonometry). Using this and v.The MCAT Physics Book c Solution: First we DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 5. = 0 rnls and At = 3 s. Why is the normal force not the same as gravity? . negative for down.1) showing all the 13 forces on the wagon body.. So in addition to gravity. so we have O=N+T. is zero...
If we add Fx Fy .. I 0. Draw all the forces on the object(s) in question (see Section 3. There is no frictional force. Pldnes and Circles Note that in solving part a. and then the answer. The principle of the independence of the components of the ?=rna'equation is valid even when the axes are tilted... how much time does it take the car to reach the floor? Solution: First we DRAW A F ~ v DIAGRAM (Figure 53). 3. Divide the forces into components if necessary. Inclined Planes and Force Components The following method generally works for force problems in two dimensions: 1. . = 0. Also.= 0 and a.).D)... Assuming there is no friction.. = 0.= 0 to obtain information about the normal force. using information about the vertical acceleration a.. Note that and Fyare not new forces but pieces a of F.. and together like vectors (tiptotail). A Fgnv complementary to the angle between Fx A Figure 54 and F . Next. the track touches the car and Figure 53 exerts a normal force. I Example: A toy car of mass 40 grams is released at the top of an vefltcal incline of plastic track.. then we get F. It .and (F.Chdpter 5 .a force balance. .. 5. This strategy of reasoning in both directions will be useful in many problems.. Solve (F. leading to (F. In addition to gravity. Decide the orientation of the axes ("horizontal" and "vertical"). Since the track is inclined. We will call "horizontal" the direction along the track and "vertical" the direction perpendicular to the track (Figure 53).. The car starts from rest and travels 4 m to the floor.. .. On the other hand.)... be on the lookout for the words "constant velocity" or the equivalent.. the normal force points not up but perpendicular to the surface.. Note that both angles labeled 19 are 2 Wizo 2 Fx .. In part b we reasoned the other way. we used information about forces to obtain the horizontal acceleration a. since that implies a. = 0. = ma.. DRAW A DIAGRAM. we divide the gravitational force into components (Figure 54).). in physics it is generally true that two small angles which look congruent are congruent(!). inclined 30" from the horizontal... as the next example will show. 4. For the last step. may not be obvious that the two angles Fy:e shown in Figure 54 should both be 0 = 30".= ma. note that we often have a... 2.
If we were to apply a rightward force SA.by blowing the car with a portable hair dryer. = FBmv sin 8 ~y = <rav cos e We care about the horizontal motion. = 0 m/s and Ax = 4 m. A force force pcapplied (for just a moment) perpendicular to the motion would neither speed it up nor slow it down. Qualitative Description Let's think a minute about a toy car moving along the floor and pretend the movement is frictionless. = m a x . Figure 55 shows a top view. but it would cause the car to veer from its straight path. we can write Y cos 8 4rsY F  F. mgsine= ma.. this would clearly speed up the car. we write so F. If we were to apply a leftward this would slow it down..er)x= max The only horizontal force is ex. for instance. FB. gsin8=aX. Figure 55 .The MCAT Physics Book Now if we look at the triangle in Figure 54. with the car moving to the right (see the motion marks behind the car). so we write (F. so we can find At by writing C. Circular Motion. We have v.
Chapter 5 . because the velocity vector is changing. "centrifugal" means "away from the center". the road exerts a force to the left on the wheels. if there were oil on the road. In normal English.. .. an object that is moving at constant speed in a circle is "accelerating toward the center of the circle". An object moving in a circle with constant speed has an acceleration vector pointed towards the center of the circle. We call this centripetal acceleration. . .. we do not say that the car is accelerating when it is turning. (Think what would happen if there were no friction.. is turning lefr. What force provides the centripetal force? Solution: The gravitational force provides the centripetal force (Figure 57). . .. What force provides the centripetal force? Solution: This example is a bit mote complicated. . . Planes and Circles If we are using a hair dryer to exert then we can keep adjusting the direction of the force to keep it perpendicular to the motion of the car. so the wheels exert a force on the road to the right. then the net force on the object points toward the center of the circle. turning the car left In this case friction provides the centripetal force (Figure 58). . But in physics language. the following box should seem reasonable. Earth btf) Sun Figure 57 The car. (Parenthetically.) . By Newton's Third Law of Motion. .. and thefrictionalforce provides the centripetal acceleration Figure 58 Example 2: A car goes around a curve to the left.. for instance. . and the acceleration vector points towards the center as well. which is Latin for "toward the center".. seen from the rear. Example 1: The Earth moves around the Sun. The driver turns her wheels to the left. Figure 56 If an object is moving at constant speed in a circle. . . Given this discussion. The car will end up traveling in a circle (Figure 56).) The force whichprovides the centripetal acceleration is the centripital force.
it is likely that you can explain it better with the ideas of first law of motion and a turning frame of reference (like the car).. The blade is at the top of its cycle. Sketch the acceleration vector. The former is directed toward the center and is responsible for changing the direction of the object. The father invents the word "centrifugal force" in order to hide his ignorance.The M C A T Physics Book Example 3: A father is driving a car and turns to the left. The acceleration is given by Tangential acceleration Centripetal acceleration Aspeed aUng = . The car door is pulled into the path of the groceries. as we would expect accordFigure 59 ing to the first law of motion. story. The little brother Samson in the back seat asks the father why the groceries crashed into the door. and the total acceleration a'is shown. Whenever you are tempted to explain something by centrifugal force. fl I D. Quantitative Description An object moving in a circle has an acceleration which has. The centripetal acceleration vector is down. At v2 a.. = . The latter is responsible for changing the speed. Circular Motion. Figure 510 . thinking about how much physics her brother will have to unlearn as he grows up. The father says that was due to centrifugal force. two components: the centripetal acceleration and the tangential acceleration. then the tangential acceleration must be to the right. Solution: In Figure 510. There is a sack of groceries in the front passenger seat which crashes into the passenger door. in general. The older sister Cadenza rolls her eyes at this. if the beetle is going left and slowing down. What is the correct explanation for the groceries' ~h~ groceries in the passangerls seat crashing into the door? crash into the car door because the door turns into their path (not Solution: Figure 59 gives the real because of "centrifugalforce"). The groceries are going along a straight path. r (5) (6) Example 1 A bombardier beetle sits on a blade of a windmill which is going : counterclockwise and slowing down.
so that we have F. But the only force is gravity. e+ 4 Sun ~ & h .. we DRAW A DIAGRAM showing all the forces (Figure 51 1).. along with T = 365days(24lday to yield M. (Recall that the force the Earth exerts on the Sun is the same as that which the Sun exerts on the E r h )Note that M. = 2 x loMkg.I . so it will come immediately to mind in any similar situations.. but take a minute to think about why this equation is true. Some students are tempted to draw two forces on the Earth: a gravitational and a centripetal force. Do not simply memorize this... where the distance is the circumference of the circle.~ Figure 511 We use Mon the righthand side of the equation.5 x 10" m (distance from the Sun to the Earth) Solution: First.. We know expressions for gravitation and for centripetal acceleration._........ then velocity is simply distance per time. .__... . This last sentence provides the clue for solving the problem.. 9 .cancels. ....~. ..._..Chapter 5 . The important parts are the method of setting two expressions for the same force equal to each other and the use of equation (8).. .. .... because it is the Earth's acceleration we are concerned about. at. and this provides the centripetal force in this problem..________. Substituting this into equation (7) and doing some algebra gives into which we can substitute the values given in the problem.. Pldnes d n d Circles Example 2: Use the following information to find the mass of the sun: R = 1. .' . ." = Fen. What expression shall we use for v? What is the velocity of the Earth? If the Earth travels a full circuit in a year.. The Sun's acceleration is much smaller because its mass is larger.. hOurr)(e) 1hour 3 10' s = Y The importance of this example does not lie in the arithmetic. Thus we write  where T is 1 year....
If the fan spins at 50 cycles per second. A conventional rocket provides the thrust to maintain course. Bad Star is large but not large enough to have an atmosphere or gravity worth considering. What is the centripetal acceleration of a piece of plastic at the tip of one of the blades? Solution: You should try to work this out before you read the solution. A Figure 512 . The velocity is given by so the acceleration is given by Example 4: A space warrior must fly his spacecraft at constant speed around a spherical space station "Bad Star".The M C A T Physics Book Example 3: A fan spins at a frequency of 50 cycles per second. It is important for the wamor to stay close to the surface and maintain constant speed. and its plastic blades are 0. it must undergo one cycle in one fiftieth of a second.02 s. In which direction (Figure 512) would we see the plume? Stop! Think about his question and answer it before you look at the solution on the next page. so the plume appears in the opposite direction of the desired thrust.4 meters long. so T = 1/50 s = 0.
If the object is moving at constant speed. it ought to fall down. because they are thinking about a car driving on the surface of the Earth. called . No force is required to maintain constant speed. toward the center of Bad Star. whereas the space warrior encounters neither.. almost everyone chooses E.. In this chapter we have used the concept to solve problems involving inclined planes and oblique forces. The most important concept in this chapter is the independence of horizontal and vertical motion. then the direction of the acceleration vector is toward the center. This is the same as objecting that if the Earth pulls on the Moon. Path 3 is just Figure 513 right. its velocity vector is not constant. forces which are neither horizontal nor vertical. in Figure 513.. no friction.. . What holds up the Moon? The answer in both cases is that ... . Therefore the rocket plume points in the direction of A. what is the correct way to think of this problem? The net force of the spacecraft is down.Chapter 5 . That is. . and the object must be accelerating. But a car on the Earth's surface encounters the force of drag.. no air drag. path 1 is the path the spacecraft takes if the warrior does not fire his rockets at all (no force).. In fact. . We also looked at circular motion. Path 2 is the path if he does not fire the rockets enough. because the craft is moving at constant speed in a circle. . and path 4. We saw this concept for the first time in Chapter 4.. it means you need to study the first law of motion again. If you chose E. . so the only force on the craft is due to the rockets.. Some students object that a rocket firing in the direction of A would push the craft into the Bad Star. Few people choose A. Okay. . centripetal acceleration.. . both by friction and by air resistance. and its magnitude is a = v2/r. there is no gravity. . If an object is moving in a circle.I the centripetal force is large enough to keep the object (spacecraft or Moon) from 2 moving away but not so large as to pull them into the ground. Planes dnd Circles Solution: No one chooses B. that is. if he fires them too much.
0. What is the vertical component of the net force on the orange while it is in the air? A. 0. The magnitude of the frictional force is F. the magnitude of the gravitational force is G. 2 m/s2 C. C. B. 18 m/s2 What is the horizontal velocity of the orange at the top of its path? A. 0 mls2 B. (Using g = 10 m/s2. 1 mls C. There is no friction.5 s D.5 s What is the horizontal component of the acceleration of the orange while it is in the air? A. Om/s B. and the magnitude of the normal force is N.The MCAT Phystcs Bcok 3. 0. Use 10 m/s2 for the acceleration due to gravity.) 2. The string is horizontal and bears a tension Tin magnitude. What can be definitely be concluded? A. T>F D. D.25 s B. 2. T=F C. The crate is moving at a constant speed 0. Use the following information for questions 15: A cannon shoots an orange (3 kg) straight up in the air with initial velocity 5 m/s (see figure). 1. Which is the best force diagram while the orange is in the air? 6. A horizontal wind exerts a force of 6 N on the orange while it is in the air.25 m/s Section A 4. 1. T<F B. A shoe is being dragged to the right at constant velocity along a level floor by its string.4 s C. 5mls D. 1om/s2 D. ON 2N 30N 32 N 70 GO ON TO THE N X PAGE ET . 5.2 m/s. T+F=G+N Use the following infonnation for questions 711: A winch pulls a crate of oranges (300 kg) up an incline (30" with the horizontal) by maintaining a tension on a rope over a pulley. Chapter 5 Problems How much time does it take the orange to reach the top of its path? A.
e.. 0 m/s2 B. .. 17N C. (3000 N) cos 30" D. 20 N D. What is the vertical component of the force due to the stick? A.. .. Which of the following is the best force diagram for the sled after t = 0 s? 8. What is the net force on the crate? A. 15. . the sled is at rest. At time t = 0 s. 3000N 9. What is the normal force of the ground on the sled? A. What is the tension on the rope? A. (3000 N) cos 30" D. 5 0 N D. He applies a force of 20 N. 0. What is the horizontal component of the force due to the stick? A. B. (3000 N)cos30° D. 33 N C. 3000 N 14. 3000N 13. . perpendicular fo the surface on which the crate sits? A. . 17N C. 5 0 N 10.. so that the stick makes a 30" angle with the vertical. C. D. D. .8 m/s2 GO ON TO THE N X PAGE ET . ON B. What is the net force on the sled? A.. C.0 m/s2 9. (3000 N) sin30° C... ON B. . 5 0 N 11. What is the normal force on the crate? A. (3000 N)cos 30' D. (3000 N) sin 30" C. 3000N Use the following informationfor questions 121 7: A boy (60 kg) is pushing a sled (5 kg) with a stick. 10N B.. (3000 N) sin30° C.. ON B... 17N B. so that the force acts along the stick (i. 3000N 12. 67 N 16. Planes and Circles 7 What is the component of the gravitational force . there is no shear or friction force). ON 10N 50N 67 N 17. 0N B. (3000 N) cos 30" D. . There is negligible friction between the sled and the ground.5 m/s2 2. What is the component of the gravitational force parallel to the surface on which the crate sits? A.. What is the acceleration of the sled? A. ON B. (3000 N)sin30° C. (3000 N) sin 30" C. 10N B.ChaDter 5 . 20 N D.
III. Tension.a string. Gravity. I and III are true. B C D c 20. Use the following informationfor questions 1923: A stopper is swung 0n. None is true. The forces acting on the books while they are crashing against the door are gravity. The diagram shows the stopper and string from the top. C. 11. The books were pushed against the door by a centripetal force. Ignore the gravitational and normal forces (which are vertical and add to zero anyway). Which arrow best shows the direction of the acceleration vector? A. Friction. C. A B C D Use the following informationfor questions 2427: A '79 Buick Regal (1200 kg) is being driven at a constant speed 3 m/s and turning to the right on a curve of road which has effective radius 4 m. The books were pushed against the door by a centrifugal force. one end of which is fixed at a point P. 1 D. D. D. Consider the car as viewed from the top. that she needs to make a left hand turn. She quickly turns the wheel. and the books which were in the passenger seat go crashing against the passenger door. C. I1 and III are true. A I I 25. and the stopper is swinging counterclockwise at constant speed. Which is the best force diagram? B. A woman is driving a car along a road when she realizes. the normal force. Normal.The MCAT Physics Book Section B 21. and a force toward the right. Consider the following statements: I. D . 24. B. 23. Which arrow best shows the direction the stopper would go if the string were to break at the moment shown in the diagram? A. 1 1only is true. What is the acceleration of the Buick? GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . B. What provides the centripetal force? A. B. C. B. D. almost too late. C. 18. A B C D I 22. Which is (are) true? A. Which arrow best shows the direction of the net force? A.
. 73 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . Normal.. All Sections Use the following information for questions 31 and 32: A winch pulls a crate of apples (mass M) up an incline (making an angle a with the horizontal). Use g = 10 m/s2. . MgsinaT 30. NIMgcosa TIM gsina .. What force provides the centripetal force on the Buick? A. (See figure. Planes and Circles 26. D... Which arrow best describes the path of the ball after it leaves the hoop? 32. . 10 rn/s2 D. . C... Friction. the wheel is viewed almost from the side. Mg sin a D. 28.. Which is the best force diagram? 29. B. ..0. The beetle is traveling at a speed 2 mls. 0 m/s2 B.) The tension exerted by the winch is T. Tension. What is the net force on the Buick? I 27.5 m) is spinning at a constant angular speed. so that "down" is toward the bottom of the page. 8 m/s2 31...' Assume there is no friction... and a beetle (5 g) is sitting on the rim.. . It is situated horizontally. 0 B* 8 C. D. . Use the following informationfor questions 2829: A bicycle wheel (mass 3 kg. What is the acceleration of the beetle? A. The figure shows a ball (from the top view) rolling on a table with a partial hoop. What is the acceleration of the crate? A. At the bottom of the incline the crate begins at rest at t . What is the normal force of the incline on the crate? A.Chapter 5 . 2 m/s2 C. Mg B. In the following diagrams. Gravity. .. radius 0. Mg cos a C ..
down. How would the centripetal acceleration of a chair on the Ferris wheel change if the frequency were doubled? A. 5000 N Use the following infonnation for questions 3537: A Ferris wheel (radius R) is turning in a counterclockwise direction at a given frequency 0. Which arrow best shows the acceleration vector? Use the following infonnation for questions 33 and 34: A runner (50 kg) is running around a track (see figure). down. outward. B. It would stay the same. It would increase by a factor of 8. and a force. and a force. The centrifuge spins with a frequency of 50 rps (revolutions per second). B. Gravity. It would increase by a factor of 4. 200N D. The curved portions of the track are arcs of a circle. The runner is running a constant speed 8 m/s. D. the normal force. It would increase by a factor of 2. the bottoms of the centrifuge tubes are 10 cm away from the axis of rotation. forward. A person is sitting on a seat at the bottom of a Ferris wheel which is going counterclockwise and speeding up. D. ON B. a force. up. C. GO ON TO THE N X PAGE ET . B. down. B. and the dimensions of the track are shown. C. A. It would increase by a factor of 2 C It would increase by a factor of 4. Gravity. and a force. inward. inward. What is the net force on the runner on the curved portion of the track? A. It would increase by a factor of 8. Use 10 m/s2for the acceleration due to gravity. the normal force. lOlcmls 20lcmls 100lcm/s 200lcmls D. 33. up. In a centrifuge. up. Which expression gives the velocity of a sample at the bottom of a spinning tube? 35. Gravity. forward. Gravity. the normal force.The MCAT Physics Book 36. up. 34. 38. a force. D. and a force. outward. . When the runner is on the curved portions of the track. . what are the forces acting on her? A. It would stay the same. C. l00N C. down. the normal force. How would the velocity of a chair on the Fems wheel change if the frequency were doubled? A. 37.
Which is the best force diagram for a man standing at the equator of a rotating Earth? Consider an object sitting on a scale at the surface of the Earth. however.. 2: the radius of the Earth and the velocity of the man. If the man at the equator stood on a scale... and the mass of the man... If the gravity of the Sun were somehow cut off when Jupiter was at point P. Tfie simple result is that the force of gravity. For example. Because it is rotating. and the magnitude of the scale's force is the magnitude of the gravitational force: 3. In the following diagram Jupiter is revolving about the Sun. and R. 2... D. .) 0 Sun A' B. D. and we want to calculate the centripetal force on him. C. It would read less than on a nonrotating Earth. If we know the period of the man's motion. 4. is proportional to the mass: the page. REarlhlTday 21tRlT. It would read greater than on a nonrotating Earth. The scale reading is the magnitude of the normal force which the scale exerts on the object. and if we want to calculate the scale reading. there is force balance. Pldnes and Circles 39. is the radius of the Earth. 75 GO ON TO M E N X PAGE ET . .. if we need an exact value of the effective acceleration due to gravity.8 where g has the value G M ~ R =~ m/s2. the velocity of the man. 9. the distance from the center of the Earth to the equator is greater than the distance from center to pole by about 0. B.~ gTday 2xgTda. which expression gives the best expression of his be velocity? (Let Tday the time of one rotation. Consider a man standing on a scale at the equator. The result is that the scale will not give a reading equal to the force of gravity (equation [l]).. gm. B... how would the scale read compared to the scale reading for an identical man standing at the equator of a nonrotating Earth? A. We have made several idealizations. 2: the radius of the Earth and the mass of the man. points into the mass of the where G is Newton's constant. we have ignored the rotation of the E d ... 1 day.Chdpter 5 . 1 . 3: the radius of the Earth.. We have also assumed that the Earth is a perfect sphere. and the reading of the scale. C. C. 1: the radius of the Earth.1%.. It would read the same as on a nonrotating Earth. For a man standing at the equator of a rotating Earth. D. what path would Jupiter take? A third effect we have ignored is that the Earth has local irregularities which make it necessary to measure g in the local laboratory. we need to be more careful.. Because he is moving in a circle.. To a first approximation. It would depend on where the man is. what is the minimum number of other data that we need? A. Mis Earth. there is a centripetal acceleration..
The MCAT Physics Book 5. STOP . how would the reading of the polar scale compare to the equatorial one? A. It would be greater. D. C. There is not enough information to answer this question. It would be less. If two identical men stood on scales at the south pole and at the equator of an Earth identical to this one but nonrotating. It would be the same. B.
the forces on the basket are those shown in Figure 6. but the basket does not budge. and it is difficult to go anywhere without air resistance (especially if you go by car).1. If she can manage to push harder than the theoretical maximum. but that is not the best way to consider it. Figure 61 There is a maximum for friction. what force makes the car go faster? None other than the friction between the tires and the road. then the basket will move. Static friction Let us consider an example. She begins to push. and that is shown in Figure 64 as a dashed vector.A. there cannot be too many practical applications of such a theory without friction. When you step on the accelerator of a car. Friction is a force which opposes the slipping of two surfaces. the frictional force becomes larger. Before she starts. On the other hand. since few of the surfaces in this world are frictionless. we have ignored friction in order to make problems easier and to uriderstand the basic principles behind motion. Muffin the cat is trying to budge a wastepaper basket in order to see what is under it. frustrating her effort (Figure 63). and kinetic friction. What happens when you try to accelerate on ice? There aretwo types of friction: staticfriction. The force of friction has shown up and exactly balances her pushing force (Figure 62). which is relevant when the surfaces are slipping. so it acts parallel to the boundary between the surfaces.. Introduction So far in this book. When she pushes harder. At that time we no longer have a problem in static friction. labeled Fm. which is relevant when the surfaces are not slipping. We generally think of friction as the force that slows things down. B. v Figure 62 .
the coefficient of static friction. so we label them pd. At any rate. which acts parallel to the surface. that is. The coefficient of static friction between him and the bank is 0. = 0 and a. and the problem needs to be reconsidered with kinetic friction. = PsN* where &.. Figure 63 maximum Ifthe basket is not moving. Vincent (20 kg) is on the slippery slope of a river bank making an angle 30' with the horizontal. a.The MCAT Physics Book 16. we can surmise that thefriction is the same magnitude as the push force.. = 0. If so. It has no units and is generally less than 1.. & Example: Beth (45 kg) has tied a rope around her brother's waist.2. there is the force of gravity. m 1 Also If the calculated force of friction is greater than the theoretical maximum. we need to DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 65). these act along the bank. First. The maximum is given by F. then static friction is not relevant. 1 . The bank is touching him. If she does not pull on the rope.. so there is a normal force. Figure 64 There are two principles here: If there are no slipping surfaces. This generally involves solving the whole force equation with a . . the force needed to keep him from sliding. depends only on the materials involved. has whatever magnitude it needs in order to maintain nonslipping surfaces. which is infested with crocodiles? b. then the static friction. There is also friction and possibly the rope. what is the smallest force she must exert parallel to the bank in order to keep him from slipping? Solution: First. will he slide down into the river.
The "horizontal" equation becomes F. or by friction and his sister's rope. .)= = O .. Then we have F...m g c o s 3 0 "=(F. ... Fr~ctlonand 6 Air Resistance Figure 65 In Figure 66 we divide gravity into components.Cha~ter . . Thus we have N = mgcos30° = = 170 N. then we must have a. = mg sin 30" = = 100 N.... then a.. mgsin300 =(F..)" = O because if Vincent does not move.= 0. Figure 66 The "vertical" equation becomes ~ . = 0. If Vincent is being held still by friction.
. then the kinetic frictional force is given by F. then static friction provides 34 N. N is the normal force.34)N = 66 N ...The MCAT Physics Book Equation (1) becomes F. Kinetic friction Once the static friction maximum is exceeded. the faster an object slides. That is. is less than &. . This is not true. then she must pull hard enough to exceed the static friction maximum in the other direction. and we have a problem involving kinetic friction. C. the more friction it experiences. but not friction. you might have thought that there would be more friction for an object Fk Pprrh 2kg with more surface touching (see the second picture in Figure 67).A The kineticfriction depends only on the nonnalfotce and the slipping surfaces. In generalp. If Beth pulls with a force 66 N. and she would have to pull up the slope with a force (100 + 34)N = 134 N. Figure 67 . where is the coefficient of kinetic friction. friction would pull down the slope. which is clearly insufficient. The friction depends only Fprw on the coefficient of friction and the normal force. Beth must pull with a force F. enough to keep Vincent from slipping down. I i You might have thought that. but again.2(170N) = 34 N. the surface involved in a problem begins to dip. r If there is slipping between surfaces.N. If she wants to pull Vincent up the slope. = psN = 0.) Also. this is not true. so once an object is moving.= P. (It is true for air resistance. = (100 .. the force of friction is less than the maximum friction when the object is still. and the direction of the force is parallel to the surface in opposition to the slipping.
Chapter 6 .. where the two horizontal vectors are equal in magnitude. The moment Brad exceeds F.. so the vertical equation becomes N=mg=(lOOkg) Figure 68a Equation (2) gives the friction The horizontal equation becomes Think about this.. "But wait a minute!" some readers will cry...2 mls. If the stove is moving at constant speed.. Now there is a net force on the stove. it gets away (a little) from his hands. . and Brad's force decreases to become F. we DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 68a).. and it accelerates from rest (Figure 68d). as in Figure 68c. to F. the friction vector gets larger. Once the stove is moving. the force diagram on the stove looks like Figure 68b.3 for the stove and the Boor. If Brad exceeded the force of friction. What is the force that Brad must apply? Solution: First.. "Doesn't Brad have to overcome the force of friction for the stove to be moving? Brad's force must be greater than the frictional force!" But that is exactly not the case.. The coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.. The words "constant speed and "straight path" should send bells off in our head. the stove budges. At this point the stove has attained some constant speed.. .. then the forces must balance. which it keeps. Perhaps it would help if we looked at the whole Bradfstove story. There is no acceleration. See Figure 68a. the stove would be accelerating. Figure 68b Figure 68c F i r e 68d . As Brad begins to push on the stove. Friction and Air Resistance Example 1 Brad pushes a stove (100 kg) in a straight path across the level floor : at constant speed 0. When Brad approaches the stove. .. and the force of friction shrinks from F.. Brad's pushing force is equal in magnitude to the frictional force.
The M C A T Physics Book Example 2 A student is pushing a chalk eraser (0.) Y = 0 gives N = 9800 N.3 N) sin 30" + (0. (Bambi was unscathed. = 4900 N. m a.= 0.5. then cos 8 = 0. The grade of the road is 20%. What is the coefficient of friction between the eraser and the desk? Solution: First.2. .15 N. ) and ( F .1 m/s across the desk (in a straight line). The eraser is moving at constant speed 0. . .F = ( F .) . and the final velocity v2.3 Newtons at an angle directed downward. the vertical drop is 20 meters.) Solution: Here we will merely sketch a solution. Working out the vertical equation with (F.9s2 . Figure 610 Using the acceleration. ) ~ zero. Also g = 10 rn/s2. but only because he jumped off the road in time.98 and sin 8 = 0. . k Thus we can calculate & Example 3: A car (1000 kg) is traveling downhill at 20 m/s in the rain. Kinetic friction is then F. ( 3 N = 1. Working out the horizontal equation (there is a net force) gives (F. The vertical equation becomes ~ are N = (0. = 2. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the tires and the road is 0. the initial velocity. but 30" from the horizontal. we DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 69). The driver sees Bambi in the road and slams on the brakes. How much time does it take the car to skid to a halt? (Hint: If 8 is the angle between the horizontal and the road. The horizontal equation becomes Figure 69 T. ) ~= o . You should try to work out the details. Figure 610 shows the force diagram. which means that for every 100 meters of road. we obtain At=7s.1 kg) across a level desk by applying a force 0.)~ = 2 W N .. l kg) 10 . Constant velocity tells us that ( F .
. Consider an object moving through a substance. .. It is reasonable that a larger object would experience more drag than a smaller one. depends on the velocity that an object is going. Thus it is difficult to work problems without a computer. The sticWslip phenomenon is responsible for the squeal of bus brakes. this is a reasonable assumption. The force is placed in the force diagram like all the other forces. we DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 6. and 0. and v is its velocity. A i r resistance We have neglected air resistance thus far mainly for one reason. This is called sticWslip.Chapter 6 . for obvious reasons.2. where C is a constant equal to about 0. It will not be a surprise... in many situations. E. The density of air is 1. After the rubber band stretches enough. the friction will switch back and forth from kinetic to static. a. except it points necessarily opposite the direction of motion.29 kg/m3. so the potato stops. What is the air resistance by the time the dog gets to the bottom? c. It is also responsible for the eheheheheh sound when you rub your hair after a shower or your dishes after washing.. and that is that air resistance makes problems more difficult. and not always in a simple way. Friction and Air Resistance The fact that &is generally less than &means that.15 meters wide and 0. For cars driving and people walking through air and for fish swimming through water. You do not have to memorize this equation.. so static friction initially prevails. Air resistance. Example 1 A dog Nikki (7 kg) falls five stories (3. such as air or water. Finally it is reasonable to expect that a dense fluid would exert more drag than a "thin" fluid. what is the terminal velocity of the dog? b. First. p is the density of the fluid. If we ignore air resistance.2 meters tall. He is 0. A is the crosssectional area of the moving object. There are a few things we can say about drag. or drag. the potato moves and kinetic friction takes over. We are hoping that the force of air resistance is small. then. But then the rubber band has contracted again.11). and static friction prevails. These are some very practical applications of physics. We might also expect that the drag would be larger for a faster moving object. Picture pulling a potato with arubber band. Is air resistance a small or large effect in this problem? Solution: a. that the formula for drag is FdrilgCPAV* = . We have .4 meters from nose to tail.. By this time you are pulling again. This equation is reasonably accurate if the fluid is "roughed up" a bit by the object's passing through. . but do know how to use it. .3 meters each) down from a : roof with his stomach pointing down.
The new idea follows. What is its velocity when it reaches the ground? Solution: If we work out the problem as in Example l a above. It does not matter how tall Nikki is. 15 m) = 0.. If the ball has fallen so far that it has stopped accelerating then the gravity force down and the air resistance force up are balanced. He was unharmed. mass 5 grams) is dropped from a height of 50 meters. and we are justified in ignoring air resistance. We need a new idea in order to solve this. the total surface area of a sphere.06 m2. whereas the weight of the ball is F = mg = 0. In fact. we run into trouble. If not we calculate the force due to air resistance at the bottom of flight.4 m)(O. it is much larger than the force of gravity. The crosssectional area presented by the dog is (0.is not small at all in comparison. The calculated force F. b. Then the force diagram would look like the one in Figure 6.) The crosssectional area is the area of a circle d. Ignoring air resistance yields v.12. Thus c. The force equation becomes Figure 6 1 2 . Our answer is good with no more than about 10% error. Nikki is a stunt dog.The M C A T Physics Book We use the kinematic equation that does not involve At. (You should work this out. we obtain . so we have v. Air resistance is about 10% of the dog's weight (70 this implies that the dog's weight is the dominant force all the way down.05 N. = v: + 2ady. Any assumption that air resistance is neglible is not valid. = 32 m/s. Example 2: A rubber ball (radius 2 cm.
. The force equation becomes F~cmg=ma. Generally you just need to know that air resistance is a retarding force which depends on the surface area.. Situations involving friction fall into two categories: static and kinetic..3 m2. . and velocity of the object. a. . This shows that ignoring air resistance is wrong since 3 10 N is not small compared to F. we obtain 3 10 N. . .Chdpter 6 . its velocity increases until it begins to get close to 12 rnls. as in Example 1. Our calculations show that air resistance is too large to be ignored. The cross: sectional area for his fall is 0. We solve for the frictional force using force balance. density of the medium.. CPAV'. But Fa... The MCAT does not have many problems involving air resistance. Friction is a force which opposes the slipping of surfaces. This velocity is called terminal velocity. What equation governs the fall? b. is not large compared to F. = pJV. Force balance occurs when v = 12 mls. Fprav b. If the surfaces are not slipping. = 600 N . Friction dnd Air Resistdnce As the ball falls. Its magnitude is given by F. given by F. = pJ. Example 3 A man (60 kg) falls from a very tall building (200 m). The static friction cannot be larger than the maximum.mg = ma.  1 In this chapter we looked at friction and air resistance.. This problem is just too hard.. then static friction is the force which maintains the status. we DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 6... The air resistance increases until it balances the force of gravity.13). First. about half of the man's weight. An analysis similar to the one in Example 1 shows that ignoring air Figure 613 resistance yields v2= 63 rnls. If the surfaces are slipping. then kinetic friction opposes the slipping. . and it always acts parallel to the surface. but not so large as to assure force balance.. If we calculate F. What is his velocity when he reaches the bottom? Solution: a. either.
The student determines that for any angle up to 30" (with respect to the horizontal). B.6 N 1. and the angle of the tilt is its maximum 3. What is the magnitude of the normal force on the copper block? A.8 N C. Air resistance.8 m/s2 for the acceleration due to gravity.0 N D. 19. a student places a block of copper (2 kg) on a surface of a flat piece of steel and tilts the steel. Kinetic friction. D. Use the following information for questions 48: In a laboratory experiment. C. B. Static friction. 17. ON B. D. 19. What is the magnitude of the normal force? A.) 4.Tsina What is the magnitude of the force of friction on the block? 0N A.8 N C. 0 8. &mg Tcosa Tsina GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE .58 B. D. Consider the situation in which the block is not moving.97 3. What is the magnitude of the force of friction F. Rolling friction. 17. The block is moving at velocity v for a time At. C.8 N C. 0 Tcosa Tsina T 6.0N D. What frictional force prevents the block from sliding? A. 5. 9.6 N 7. The rope makes an angle a with the horizontal. What is the horizontal component of the tension? A. D. C. 0 ' (Use 9. B. 9.The MCAT Physics Book Chapter 6 Problems Use the following information for questions 13: Sam is pulling a block of ice (mass m) along a smooth level floor with a rope on which he maintains a tension of magnitude T. What is the net force on the block? 0N A.? A. but larger angles necessarily allow the block to slide. B. 2. C. 17. B. The coefficient of friction between the ice and the floor is &. 0. 9. 0. B.0N D. 19.6 N What is the value of u the coefficient of friction? A. friction will prevent the block from sliding.Tcosa mg + Tcosa mg . mg mg .
The pencil is perpendicular to . Yes.) (Use g = 10 m/s2. How hard would the man have to push to get the washer 9. 1 .. D 0.8 0..08N . 0 4utic=and 08 . 600N B. ON B.. D . The car goes into a skid as it comes to a stop. mg B. He is pushing with a horizontal force 700 N. 1000 N mgsin9 18. C.Chdptei 6 . Use the following information for questions 1315: A man is trying to push a washer (100 kg) along a level floor. the frictional force is insufficient to hold up the card.. D.08 . What is the gravitational force on the card? A. . B . (We will investigate this assumption in question 12. Yes. What is the magnitude of the force of static friction on 1 the card? A. the frictional force is less than & N. 0 0 N . 0. 17.. mgcos9 C. 80N 1000 N A. What is the force of friction on the washer? 15.) 1 14. D . What is the magnitude of the component of the force of gravity parallel to the surface of the road? A. the frictional force is greater than 4 N. mgcos8 C. the kinetic coefficient of friction is &. of static friction between the wall and the card is 0 2 Assume the card is still. Which of the following best represent the force diagram for the car during the skid? 12.04N C 0.The coefficient . 700 N C . mgsin8 D. The static coefficient of friction between and the tires and the road is 4. 10. D . What is the magnitude of the normal force on the card? moving? A. Which expression gives the normal force on the car? A. the frictional force is greater than mg. but the washer is not moving. the wall and exerts a horizontal force 0 4N. .) . ON 0. Yes. .4N Use the following information for questions 1620: A car (mass m) is going up a shallow slope (angle 8 with the horizontal) when the driver sees a red light and suddenly applies the brakes. . B. C .4 C 0. 16. 600N B. N D 0 4N . 700N C 800N .04N 00 N . What is the normal force on the washer? A.4N . No. mg B. . Friction dnd A i r Resistdnce Use the following information for questions 912: A playing card ( grams) is held against a vertical 4 wall by a pencil (20 grams). Is the force of friction sufficient to maintain the card from sliding? A..The coefficients of friction are 0 6 (Use g = 1 rn/s2. O N B. 13. mgtan8 7 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE .
. Gravity. the net force F. C. Kinetic friction. D.000N  C 9000N . the acceleration due to gravity is 10 m/s2. 22. Yes.. 6400 N c.The MCAT Physics A. C 9000N . we will assume the turn is successful. D. For the following questions. until it achieves uniform rotation with period T and the rider feels as if some force is pushing him against the wall (see figure). No. B. The drum begins to turn. so there is nothing touching the bottoms of the rider's shoes. the net force F.000 N . 26. C.. Yes. The normal force. Book 19.is less than &N. The D N of Discomfort is an amusement park ride ~ which consists of a large vertical hollow cylinder which turns on its axis. is less than &N. A force away from the turn axis. mg mgsin 13 PkN 25. 88 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . 20. Static friction. 23. What is the acceleration of the car? Assume the coefficientof friction between the rider's clothes and the surface of the drum is p. What forces are acting on the car besides the gravitational force (down) and the normal force (up)? A. D .is greater than &N. B. C. B. friction between the tires and the road is 0 9 the kinetic and coefficient of friction is 0. the car performs in the turn as the driver intends.. B. The static coefficient of . What force provides the centripetal force? A. C. that is.. D.. D 10.. the net force F. w @ @+mgsinO @mgsin6 B 7000N . A force toward the turn axis. A force in the direction the car is traveling and a force toward the turn axis. A force in the direction the car is traveling and a force away from the turn axis.. Passage 1 21. 24. D. Which expression gives the force of friction on the car? B. 6400N 7000 N 10. Then the floordrops down. Is the turn successful? A. What is the normal force on the car? A. No. What is the net force on the car during the skid? A 0 . What is the net force on the car if the turn is successful? A.. A person of mass M enters the drum (insideradius R) while the drum is still and stands against the wall.7. Use the following informationfor questions 2126: A car (1000 kg) is driving on level road at a constant speed 8 rn/s when it attempts to execute a turn about a curve 0 of effective radius 1 m. the net force F.is greater than &N. D. B..
21irlR What is the magnitude of the upward force on the rider? 3. after the floor drops. B. A is the crosssectional area of the object normal to the flow direction. In the direction of the rider is moving. then equation (1) for F. then the drag force is actually greater than the value given in equation [I].) The extent to which a fluid is disturbed is determined by a dimensionless constant called the Reynolds number. Gravitation. . Friction and Air..8 x lo' 1. 'substance air water mercury p (kg/m3) After the floor drops. which direction does the acceleration vector point? A. 2. . Which gives an expression for the speed v the rider is going? A. Toward the center of rotation. that is. There is a force pointing outward and a force pointing in the same direction the rider is moving.. C. D. Mg B.e. D. Any velocity greater than about m/s. 6. = (1) where C (= 0. B. 9m2 GO ON TO M NEXT PAGE E . What values of p assure that the rider will not slide down when the floor drops? A. defined by Re = pvllq. 6 m 2 D. what force provides the cenuipeta1 force? A.Chapter 6 . what is the crosssectional area A appropriate for equation (I)? A. C. p must be less than v 2 / ~ g . 3. and 3 m long. Rl21rT B. Its magnitude is given by F~~~ CPAV~. Tension.5 m2 B. After the floor drops.0 lo3 1.Reststdnce 1. what are the forces acting on a rider... There is a force pointing inward and a force pointing in the same direction the rider is moving.6 x low3 4. and'v is its velocity relative to the fluid. i. what velocities would make equation (1) valid? A. pmust be less than R ~ ~ v ~ . p must be greater than v 2 / ~ g . The normal force. w g &Iv2/r phlv2/r 1. The acceleration is zero. B. 2. 3 m 2 C. .36 x lo4 7 (kglm s) 1. a measure of its stickiness. C.0 x lo5 1.29 1. D..5 m high. Any velocity greater than about 1 m/s. p must be greater than ~glv'.2) is a constant. Away from the center of rotation. is fairly accurate. 1. Friction. There is a force pointing inward. (Note: g = 9.8 m/s2. Any velocity less than about 1 d s . RIT C. For a car 1.then the fluid develops whirls and eddies that break off from the flow in an essentially unpredictable manner. . A table of densities and viscosities is shown below. The Reynolds number also determines when turbulence begins. There is a force pointing outward. approaching the onset of turbulence. besides gravity acting down and a force acting up? A.) 5. . (If the fluid is essentially undisturbed. B. For a cube 2 m by 2 m by 2 m moving through the air. Equation (1) is valid only if the fluid flow develops whirls and eddies. During uniform rotation. . p is the density of the fluid. If Re is greater than about 2 x loS. 2 m wide. . D. C. 2zRlT D. there is a drag force which retards its motion. C. Passage 2 When an object moves through a fluid. B. D. turbulence. Any velocity less than about ds. (2) where I is the linear size of the object and 7 is the viscosity of the fluid. If Re is greater than about 100. D. C.
= mg.where g = 9. 1 If there were no air. to what idealized height would the . A simple example of t h s is the analysis of a tennis ball falling from a height at the surface of the Earth. ball travel? 5.2) is a constant.000 N How fast would a car have to be going for turbulence to develop behind it? Any velocity less than about 10" d s . it is possible that we can still do the problem.1 m by 0. each atom is pulled by all the pieces of the Earth. then we can use equation (1) to solve the problem. 20. B.7 N 50N D. 8 N C. Any velocity greater than about m/s. the drag force must be small compared to A. B. 6. The acceleration due to gravity on Earth's surface is approximately the same as the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of Venus.01 N B. and a drop of equal size and mass of sulfuric acid on Venus. be small compared to the other forces in the problem.~ N 0. the gravitational force. Consider a water raindrop on Earth. The third effect we generally ignore is air resistance. D.1 m by 0. If the air resistance is small. and v is its velocity relative to the air.. the normal force. 0. C. B. and 111. The chemical composition of the drop. what thrust would it exert? A. Any velocity less than about 1 mls. 3 x 1 0 ~ ~ A. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE .46 m 0. Much of the praxis of physics is breaking a problem into parts. The ball consists of many atoms. The first idealization we make is that we can treat the ball as a point mass located at its center and the Earth as a point mass located at its center. C. Any velocity greater than about 1 mls. 3.1 m) swimming at constant velocity in the ocean at 2 d s . B.92 m 1. we ignore the gradient of the gravitational field. C. Once we have solved the idealized problem. ~ x ~ o . A.= 0.84 m 176. 9800N C. 11. C. B. 2 x 1 0 ~ ~ On Venus... Consider the following possibilities: I. consider a'ball of radius 0. D. the frictional force.05 kg which is tossed upward at initial velocity 3 m/s. the centripetal force. For a fish (0. rain presumably consists of sulfuric acid droplets in a carbon dioxide atmosphere. I. 0. p (= 1. Iand III. I only. Most physical situations are quite complicated. IIandIII. D. In addition to the chemical forces. C. involving a number of forces or interactions even in the simplest of cases. 40.03 m and mass 0. = (1) where C (= 0. In. 80 N D. A. connected by chemical forces. (Actually we can only require that F. What is the drag force on such a car if it is going 30 d s ? A. 2. so that allows us to approximate the force of gravitation on the ball as F. we can use the solution to evaluate the appropriateness of the idealizing assumptions.4 m What is the initial drag force on the ball? A.. then we were justified in ignoring it. we can calculate the idealized maximum velocity.000 N D. treating some parts exactly and ignoring other parts. If we ignore air resistance. A is the crosssectional area of the ball.The MCAT Physics Book 3..3 kg/m3) is the density of air.of the falling ball and then calculate the force of air drag. The pressure of the atmosphere. This is given by F~~~ C~AV'. 700N B. The temperature of the atmosphere. D.) For the following problems. 11.8 m/s2 is a constant. Which of the above affect(s) the terminal velocity with which rain falls? 4. If air resistance is important. If we are going to ignore air resistance. Consider a car (1000 kg) of dimensions in the above question. If the ball falls far enough for there to be a force balance F. Second.
A. . C. could best explain this? A. We have idealized the gravitational field as being . The force of gravity on the cat is greater near the ground. 5. Friction and Air Resistdnce 4. . In the idealized problem. B. what happens to the force of gravity as the ball travels toward the top of its flight? A. The force of gravity decreases. Cats falling from large heights often survive the fall. ten stories) has a better chance of surviving than a cat falling from a lesser height (five stories).Chapter 6 . The force of gravity increases. . . D. and the terminal velocity is greater.. The air is more dense near the ground. In fact. . The force of gravity decreases. the height is greater. it has been found that a cat falling from a building at very great height (eg. C. but the terminal velocity is less. . 6. the height is less. Cats falling for a while tend to stretch out their legs. . Which. then disappears at the top. D. STOP . if m e . . uniform. the height is greater. If air resistance is included. The force of gravity decreases. then increases. . C. and the terminal velocity is less. Greater velocity leads to a greater force of drag. but the terminal velocity is greater.. B. the height is less. If we remove that idealization. D. B. the ball attains a certain maximum height and afterward attains a final velocity just before it reaches the ground.
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Chapter 7 Torques and Properties of Solids
A.
Introduction
In the first six chapters, we have talked as if all things were points or boxes which move by sliding or gliding. In this chapter we will discuss the ability of real objects to rotate, stretch, and bend. These topics are slightly more complicated than previous topics, and their study quickly moves beyond the scope of the MCAT. For this reason, we will cover only the main points and the simpler problems. Even so, you may find this chapter difficult. So work carefully, and if you do not understand everything the first time, work through the rest of the book before coming back to it.
B.
Language of Rotation
In Chapter 3 we discussed force, mass, and motion. A large force on a small mass will produce a large change in velocity in a given time. Now let's consider a 10kg bicycle wheel of diameter 1 meter and a 10kg pipe of diameter 5 cm, both at rest (Figure 71). Now we want to set them spinning by giving them a twist. Which is more difficult to set spinning? Even though they .have the same mass, the bicycle wheel has a greater Figure 71 moment o inertia than the pipe, and f applying a twist to it will not have as great an effect as applying the same twist to the pipe. For the simple shape of a ring (or pipe) tuning about a central axis, the moment of inertia is where M is the mass of the object and R is the radius. Do not memorize the equation, but do remember the general rule: If two objects have the same mass, then the object with greater radius will have a greater moment of inertia and thus will be more difficult to set spinning from rest. If an object, like a bicycle wheel, is spinning, then the period T is the time it takes for one revolution. Thefrequency f is the number of revolutions per unit time, so
which is measured in [lls = Hertz = HzJ.
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A torque is a twist, which can change the frequency at which an object is spinning. A large torque on an object with a small moment of inertia will produce a large change in its frequency of rotation. Note the similarity with the second law of motion. Notice that the moment of inertia larger moment depends also on the axis about which an of inertia object is turning. We can twist a barbell about its central axis, or about a perpenFigure 72 dicular axis (see Figure 72). The moment of inertia with respect to the perpendicular axis is greater than that with respect to the central axis, because of the greater radius.
smaller moment of inertia
:
C. Torque
In order to calculate a torque, we always have a pivot Po(where the axis is) and a force acting at another point P,. For example, in Figure 73, the pivot is at the crocodile's belly, and the force F acts at his snout at P,. The torque is defined by
Theforce produces a torque about point Po.
Figure 73
I
I (
where 7is the torque, r is the distance from Poto PI, F is the size of the force, and $ is the angle between the direction of the force and the line Poand PI.But is 4 the big angle or the little angle? Well, it turns out it doesn't matter, since we are taking the sine, and the sines of supplementary angles are the same. Recall that sin 0" = 0, (4) sin 90" = 1, sin 180" = 0. Also the convention is that counterclockwise = positive torque, clockwise
=
I
(
negative torque.
Up until this chapter, we have drawn force vector arrows anywhere as long as the tail of the arrow sat on the object the force acted on. In doing torque problems, we must be more careful to put the arrows in the right place.
Chapter
7
. .. Torques a n d Properties
01 Solids
Example 1: A large tarot card (the Fool) measuring 0.3 m by 0.4 m lies at the lower left in the first quadrant of the xyplane, so that one comer is at (0.4 m, 0.3 m). See Figure 74. There is a force of 1.5 N in the ydirection located at point (0.4 m, 0.3 m). The pivot is at the origin. What is the torque? Solution: We can see that the force tends to turn the card counterclockwise, so the torque is positive. We can find the radius by the Pythagorean theorem:
Figure 74
The angle $is shown in the two places in the diagram (corresponding angles with the parallel lines). The sine of @canbe obtained by looking at the portion of the diagram shown in Figure 75: sin i$ = opposite  0.4 m = 0.8. hypoteneus 0.5 m

Putting all this together gives us
r= rFsin$
=(0.5 m)(1.5 N)(0.8) = 0.6 Nm.
Figure 75
I
(
Example 2: A massless meter stick is supported by a fulcrum at the mark 0.3 m (point B). A mass A of 10 kg is sitting at the the 0.1m mark (point A). A mass C of 4 kg is sitting a the the 0.8m mark (point C). Consider the forces on the ruler (Figure 76). A a. What is the torque due to the B C weight of A about point B? nI I I I I b. What is the torque due to the I I I I i weight of C about point B? 4 w c. What is the torque due to the force of the fulcrum about Figure 76 point B? Solution: a. In this case, we have r = 0.2 m, F = mg = 100 N, sin@ 1, and the = torque is counterclockwise, so
n +
II .
r = (0.2 m)(100 N)(I) = 20 Nm.
b. In this case, the torque is clockwise, so we have r = (0.5 m)(40 N)(I) = 20 Nm. c. In thiscase, r = O m , so r=ONm.
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Example 3: A massless meter stick is hanging from the ceiling at the mark% //////////////// 0.3 m, point B. Mass A (10 kg) is hanging I by string A (0.2 m long) connected to C point A at the 0.1m mark on the meter I A 1 stick. Mass C(4 kg) is hanging by string ; B '.. ' C (0.3 m long) connected to point C at the rc '0.8m mark on the meter stick. (See ..., 4c Figure 77.) a. What is the torque due to the 100 N 40 N weight of A about point B? 4 b. What is the torque due to the weight of C about point B? Figure 77 c. What is the torque due to the force of the fulcrum about point B? Solution: This example looks exactly like the previous example; the strings are only a slight modification. If we apply the strict definition for torque (equation [3]), however, we will end up making an enormous effort, calculating r,and sin$A, and so on. Thankfully, there is an easier way.
I 1,
Trick: The torque due to a force is not changed by moving the force vector to a new point, as long as that point lies on the line of the vector. That is, the new point must be on a line containing the old point and running in the same direction as the vector. We can think of this as sliding the vector along the direction it is already pointing until we have 4 = 90".
.
/
In this example, this trick is the equivalent of sliding the force up the string to the meter stick. In fact, the example is exactly equivalent to Example 2. a. T = 20 Nm. b. T = 20 Nm. c. .r=ONm. Example 1, revisited solution: We can slide the 15N force down the edge of the card to the xaxis. In this case we have r = 0.4 m and sine = 1, so we have
7 = (0.4
?.
0.4 m
t
4 h
i Fold ,
,
m)(1.5 N)(l) = 0.6 Nm . 0.3 m
Once we move the force to a new point, so that @ = 90"(and sin 4 = l), the torque is especially easy to calculate. The line segment from the pivot to the new position of the force is called the lever arm. In Figure 78, the lever arm is the line segment
r
w
A
Fnw
Po
Figure 78 p1
m.
Chdpter
7 . . . Torques d n d Properties of Solids
In drawing torque diagrams, it is helpful to keep the following principles in mind: 1. Gravity acts at the center of mass. 2. A string or rope exerts only a pulling force at the point of connection. 3. When a stick or pole meets a wall or floor, the force acts at the point of contact. a. If the surface is frictionless, then there is only a normal force. b. If the stick is connected by a hinge, then the force is along the stick (either pushing or pulling). c. If the stick is connected to the wall or floor, then there are two forces, one normil and one parallel to the surface. We will use these in Section D.
Torques are useful in problems involving rolling and spinning, although most such problems lie outside the scope of the MCAT. Torques are also useful in solving for forces in structural problems, even if there is no motion. For these problems we use the
If a system is in static equilibrium, then
( F , , , ) ~ 0, =
(FKJY 0' =
Pa) (5b) (5~)
and
7 = 0, ,
no matter which point you choose as the pivot.
Equations (5a) and (5b) assure translational equilibrium, and equation (5c) assures mtafional equilibrium. The following examples illustrate methods for calculating forces in static equilibrium.
A
B
C
Example 1 Consider the pulley :
system shown in Figure 79. Mass m, is 2 kg, the radius of pulley A is 0.15 m, the radii of pulley B are 0.3 rn and 0.1 m, and the radius of pulley C is 0.05 m. What mass m,is required for equilibrium? Solution: A string has one tension throughout its length, no matter what pulleys it goes around. Thus the tension TI= m,g, and T,= w.The radii of pulleys A and C are irrelevant.
Figure 79
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For equilibrium, we can take torques about the pivot of pulley B, keeping in mind that counterclockwise is positive and clockwise is negative, so that
met= 0,
z, r2= 0,
m,=6 kg.
For problems involving torque balance, the following methods often work: 1. DRAW A DIAGRAM. 2. Label all forces acting on the system.
3. Choose a pivot. 4. Calculate torques and set T,,=,,,= 0. 5. Use (F,,,), = 0 and (F,,J,= 0, or choose another pivot.
In the following example, it will be helpful for you to work out the example as you read along.
Example 2: A pole of mass m, and length L sticks out perpendicularly from a wall at point A. A wire connects the end of the pole to a point B above point A, making an angle 8 with the pole. A lamp of mass rn, hangs from a wire at the end of the pole. (See Figure 710.)
Figure 710 What is the tension in the wire a. from B to C in terns of m , , m,,g, L, and 8? What is the vertical force exerted b. by the wall on the pole? Solution: First, we DRAW A DIAGRAM with all the forces on the pole (Figure 71 1). We know m,g and m g but not T, F,, and F,.Let us make a chart showing the toques about A and C.
B
Figure 7 11
force m1g
torque about A
torque about C
L  mlg 2
I.
Make sure you understand why these two entries are correct. Then fill in the rest of the chart on your own. The completed chart is shown on the next page.
Chapter
7 .. . Torques and
Properties of Solids
force
toraue about A
toraue about C
In the second column the entries for the torque due to Fxand Fyabout A are zero, since r = 0 for these entries. In the third column, the entry for the torque due to Fxabout C is zero because sin$ = 0.The torque due to T about C is zero because r = 0. a. In order to find T, we can take torques about point A, since that eliminates F, and Fy.The net torque must be zero because the system is in equilibrium, so we have (taking the sum of the first column)
We solve for T and divide through by L to obtain
b. In order to find Fy,we can use one of two methods. Using torques and choosing point C as a pivot yields
On the other hand, we could add up all the vertical forces and use (F,,), = 0,so that Fy+TsinOm,gm2g=0,
Fy= m , g + ~ g  T s i n O
=*~g+Qg 1
m1g + 2m2g
sin 8
 m,g. 2
This was a longer solution, so using torques is clearly the way to go.
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Book
Example 3: A pole of length L is connected to a hinge at point A on a vertical wall, making an angle a with the wall. A horizontal string connects to the wall at point B and the end of the pble at point C. A box of candy of mass m hangs from a string at the end of the pole. (See Figure 7 12) a What is the tension in the horizontal string? b. What is the magnitude of the force of the wall on the pole at point A? Solution: First we DRAW A DIAGRAM with all the forces on the pole (Figure 7 13). We have the tension Tin the horizontal string and tension mg in the vertical string. We are left with a choice for the force of the wall on the pole F,: pushing or pulling? No matter, we can draw it either way, and physics will tell us later on if we have it right. Let's make the force tensile, that is, pulling. a. We choose A for the pivot, since that choice kills the force F, but keeps T and mg. Setting the sum of the torq"es equal to zero gives
LTsin(90° a) Lmg sin a = 0, LTcosa Lmgsina = 0 , T=mgsin a cos a
Figure 712
Figure 713
b. In order to find F,, we set the sum of vertical forces to zero, so that
(Fnedy 0 , =
The negative sign tells us that we drew the F, vector the wrong way. (Perhaps you knew this already.) The force is compressional.
E. Solid Properties
We have also been pretending that sticks and strings and such things are absolutely rigid, but we know that solid objects do stretch and bend and sometimes break. Solids bend when you exert different forces on two sides of them. To keep things simple, we will look at how a solid cylinder reacts to forces placed on it.
Chapter
7
. .. Torsues and Properties of Solids
Figure 714 shows two rods, made of the same material and having the same crosssectional area, but the first rod L, is longer than the second L,. If we apply the same magnitude tensile force (that is, pulling) to the four ends, then we expect the rods to stretch. But the longer rod has more material to stretch than the shorter one, so the change in length AL will be greater. On the other hand, we can even things out by taking the ratio , which L is called the strain. Now let's consider two rods of the same length with different crosssectional areas (Figure 715). Again we apply the same magnitude tensile force to the ends. The thicker rod stretches less than the thinner one. This time, to even things out. we introduce the quantity stress, which is F .This should remind you of pressure,
A force of tension will stretch a long wire more than a short wire.
Figure 714
AL
,
Aforce of tension will stretch a thin wire more than a thick wire.
since pressure is a kind of stress. Figure 715 As long as the forces involved are not too large, the resulting strain is proportional to the stress placed on the rod, so that we can write
F y.  =A L
A
L
where Y is the Young's modulus, having You units of [ ~ l m ~ ] . might think that it is easier to stretch a rod than to compress it, do it turns out not to be so (as long as you butnot go too far). The shortening AL due
to a compressive force (pushing) is the same as the lengthening AL due to an , equalsized tensile force. The Young's modulus depends only on the material. t A shear force is a force applied perpendicular to the surface. Figure 7 16 Figure 716 shows an example of four shear forces applied to a block. Note that the net force is zero and the net torque is zero. The block bends, a distance AX, and the relationship between stress (FIA) and strain ( M L ) is
I I
1i
lr$A
(6)
,
F A =s. X
A L
(7)
L
where S is the shear modulus with units [N/m2].
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The MCAT Physics Book
Shear is a bit more complicated than compression and tension. In Figure 717, the compression force in the trunk is nearly uniform. The shear force in the large branch to the right is composed of tension at the top of the branch and compression at the bottom of the branch, as well as pure shear, If you want to weaken the branch, the most effective place to cut is on top and the least effective place is in the middle, which is called the neutral layer. The proportionality in equations (6) and (7) holds for a large range of forces, but things will break if you pull them too hard. Before they break, they may go soft. The regime in which equations (6) and (7) holds is called elastic. The point at which the constituent particles of the material begin to flow and cause the material to go soft is the elastic limit. (See Figure 718.)
A shearforce involves a layer of tension and a layer of compression. Figure 717
F A
plastic region
klastic limit In this chapter we looked at using torques in order to solve for forces in elastic region certain static structures. In problems of this type we begin by drawing a force AL. diagram, as we have always done, but L now we need to be careful to locate the force at the right place. Generally, in a Figure 718 given problem, there will be forces we do not know and do not need, and it will be possible to choose a pivot solhat the torques of all such forces are zero. Then if we z write down the torque balance equation ,, = 0,we will be able to obtain the magnitude of the desired forces. We also looked at the static properties of solids. It is helpful to think in terms of a stress (force per area) being applied to a solid, and this stress causes a strain (displacement per length). For many materials stress and strain are proportional. Just realizing this proportionality is the key to solving some problems.
Chapter
7
.. . Torsues and Properties oi Solids
Chapter 7 Problems
at the lower left corner. Force ( l o N) acts down at the lower right corner. Force ? (30 N) acts to the right at the upper right comer. (Take counterclockwise to be positive.)
Section AC
Use the following information for questions 13: A student nails a meter stick to a board at the meter stick's 0.0m mark. A force of 10 N acts at the 0.5m mark perpendicular to the meter stick as shown in the figure. Force of 5 N acts at the end of the meter stick, making a 30' angle, as shown. Force ? of 20 N acts at the same point providing tension but no shear. (Use counterclockwise to be positive.)
4.
What is the torque of force about the pivot? A. 8 Nm B.  4 N m C. ONm D. 4 N m
1. What is the torque of force A about the fixed point? A. 5 Nm B. ONm C. 5Nm D. 10Nm
5 What is the torque of force B' about the pivot? . A. 5 Nm B.  4 N m C. 3 Nm D. ONm
6. What is the torque of force ? about the pivot? A. 9 Nm B. ONm
I
2. What is the torque of force A. 4 . 3 3 Nm B. 2.5 Nm C. 4.33 Nm about the fixed point?
Section
D
3.
What is the torque of force A. 20 Nm B. ONm C. 1ONm D. 20 Nm
C about the fixed point?
7.
Use the following information for questions 46: A rectangular piece of metal (0.3 m by 0.4 m)is hinged (@) as shown in the upper left comer, hanging so that the long edge is vertical. Force A (20 N) acts to the left
A massless meter stick sits on a fulcrum at its 0.4m mark. A 6kg mass sits on the meter stick at the 0.2m mark. What mass is required to sit at the 0.9m mark in order to have torque balance? A. 2.4 kg B. 4.5 kg C. 10 kg D. 1 s kg
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The
MCAT Physics 8ook
balance. Assume the seesaw itself is uniform and balanced. How far from the end should Scott sit in order to achieve balance?
Use the following information for questions 81 1: A book (4 kg) is hanging by a string connected to a rope at point B. One end of the rope is connected to the wall at point A, and the other end is pulled by a person at point C . with a tension T. The rope from A to B is 1.5 m long and horizontal, while the rope from B to C makes an angle 30" with the horizontal. (See figure, in which we take counterclockwise to be positive.) (Use g = 10 m/s2)
8. What is the torque due to the weight of the book about point B? A. 4 N m B. 30 Nm C. ONm D. 60 Nm 9. What is the torque due to the weight of the book about point A? A. 6ONm B. 30 Nm C. ONm D. 60 Nm
13. A meter stick of mass 0.6 kg sits on a fulcrum located at the 0.3m mark at equilibrium. At the 0.0m mark hangs a mass m. What is m?
10. What is the torque due to tension T about point B? A. 4 N m B. 30 Nm C. ONm D. 60Nm
Use the following informationfor questions 14 and 15: Pulley B hangs from the ceiling and has a diameter d. A string twined about the pulley leads around pulley A, hanging from the ceiling, and to a mass M. A beam of length L is attached to the pulley B itself and stretches out horizontally. A mass m is connected to the end. The system is in static equilibrium. (See figure.)
11. What is the torque due to tension T about point A? A. 60Nm B. 30 Nm C. ONm D. 60Nm
12. Scott and Tina are playing on a seesaw which is 4 meters long with a fulcrum in the middle. lZna is 30 kg and sits at one end, while Scott, 40 kg, sits so that they
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14. What is the magnitude of the torque due to the weight of mass m about the axis of pulley B? A. mgdl2 B. mgd C . mgW2 D. mgL
Chdpter
7 . . . Torques and Properties of Solids
18. What is the force exerted by the muscle? A. 300 N B. 350N C. 500 N D. 700N
Use the following information for questions 1921: One end of a massless rod connects to a vertical wall at point B, and the other end (point C) is connected to the wall at point A by a second massless rod, this one horizontal (see figure). Point A is a distance d above B, and the horizontal rod has a length I. In addition, a brick of mass rn hangs from a wire connected to the rod at point C.
15. Which gives an expression for M? A. mW2d B. m u d C . 2mUd D. md/2L
Use the folbwing information for questions 1618:
The bones of the forearm (radius and ulna) are hinged to the humerus at the elbow. The biceps muscle connects to the bones of the forearm about 2 cm beyond the joint, forming a secondclass lever. Assume the forearm is 2 kg in mass and 0.4 m long. The humerus and biceps are (nearly) vertical and the forearm is horizontal. The hand holds a r mass A of 1.5 kg. The a m and mass are in static equilibrium. (Use g = 10 m/s2.)
b l
bone elbow
muscle
19. What is the horizontal force of the wall exerted on the oblique rod at point B?
A.
bone hand
1 mg , to the left
d
1
B.
16. W a is the magnitude of the torque of the weight of ht
mass A about the elbow?
d mg,to the left
C
1 mg, to the right
A. B. C. D.
3Nm 4Nm 6Nm 8Nm
d
D .
d mg,to the right 1
17. What is the magnitude of the torque of the weight of the
forearm about the elbow?
20. What is the horizontal force of the wall exerted on the horizontal rod at point A?
A.
A. B. C. D.
3Nm 4Nm 6Nm 8Nm
1 mg,to the left d
B .
d mg, to the left 1
1 nag, to the right d
C .
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) (Useg = 10 mls2.=2 kg) hangs from a string connected to the middle of the md. support: the mass rn. length 0. (See figure. C.the follo. If the torque due to the tension Tin the wire BC about point A is 2. A mass (m.5 2 . I 24. 0. B.? A. which is 1 m directly above A.3333 0.. = 1 kg. at the pelvis and the mass n at the foot. The center of gravity for the leg is one third of the way from the pelvis to the bottom of the foot. what is the ratio 2: T ? I 26. What is the tension in the wire? GO ONTO THE N X PAGE ET . Two masses are hung via pulleys to provide an upward ..9 m) is in traction (see figure). A wire connects the opposite end of the rod B to a point C. length 2 m) of uniform cross section sticks out perpendicularly from a vertical wall at point A. 23.ing r for qucrrionr 2M8r The femur of a human leg (mass 10 kg. What is the sum oE the vertical forces of the wall exerted on the rods? . What is the vertical force exerted by the wall on the rod? . 25. 22. What is the ratio of %to m. What is the horizontal force exerted by the wall on the rod? Use the following information for questions 2225 A rod (mass m.The MCAT Physics Book 21.) ( . The body itself provides tension but no shear.? 27. What is the mass rn. A third mass of 8 kg is hung to provide tension along the leg.
It is one third as large. so that it has four times the length. by how much does the h e shorten? A. It is the same magnitude. except that the circumfer1 ence is 4 times that of bone B. C. by what length would the bone shorten? A.Chapter 7 . It is one sixteenth as large. C. 100N 3 . causing the bone to shorten by some tiny length dl. B. A force Facts to compress the bone. 0. It is half as large. see figure). axle is connected to a plate. If the same force were applied to another bone C of 3 9 times the length and the same crosssectional area. D. crosssectional area A. Section E Use the following information for questions 2933: Consider a bone B of given size and shape (length 1. How does the stress on bone C (see previous question) compare with the stress on bone B? A. 67 N C. 261 Use the following infonnationfor questions 34 and 35: A rod (0. 2 . 6113 dl 341 30. . How does the stress on bone D (see previous question) 2 compare with the stress on bone B? A. 0. circular cross section of radius 0. If the same force is applied to it. 33. A force is applied to the free end of the rod which is perpendicular to both the rod and the axle. D. It is three times as large. Bone D is similar to bone B. What is the tension provided by the body? A. GO ON T THE N X PAGE O ET . 0. so the rod exerts a torque r. 6114 B. 33N B.062541 B. Torques and Properties o Solids f 28.541 D.= 4 Nm about the axis of the axle where the rod connects to the axle. AU2 C. by how much would the bone shorten? A. D.2541 C. It is four times as large.01 m) so that it makes a right angle (see figure). C.041 3 .. B. 80N D. Bone E is the same shape as bone B but larger. If the same force F is applied to it. 61 D. Nothing is moving. It is one quarter as large. It is 9 times as large.05 m) is attached to an axle (length 2 m. 4. All9 B. The other end of the.
2N B. If all the linear dimensions are increased by a factor (part B in figure). Therefore. as well as the mass and weight of the block. That this is not so was known in antiquity by tragic observation. is less than 7.? A. z2is the same as 7. which when . what is the stress at the forearm? A. has a crosssectional area at its center of 5x m2 and crosssectional area at the forearm of 5 x lo' m2. when the linear dimensions of a structure are all increased by a factor. if the stress at the center of the biceps is 10' Pa. it tends to become unstable. At first we might assume that a model made of the . or the maximum force the structure can hold across any surface increases by the square of that factor. Sometimes..exerted by the axle on the plate. D. which has much greater length than its diameter and is connected to the ceiling (part A in figure). What force should be applied to the rod in order to create the torque r. 200N D. At the end of the axle which is connected to a plate. 400 N 1 35. structures fail even when the models function. Each material has a threshold stress.. let's consider a block of metal connected to a cylinder. is 40 times greater than z. Referring to the previous question. The crosssectional area of the cylinder increases by the square of the factor. and it was first explained by Galileo around AD 1600. B. so the stress increases as the factor itself.. To illustrate the point. How does the torque z2compare with z. such that stress larger than the threshold causes the material to fail. more susceptible to failure. This is the simplest example of the subtlety involved in model building. but how much less depends on the material which makes up the axle. however. what is the force exerted at the shoulder? Passage Engineers often make scale models of structures they plan to build in order to test function and stability. 10' Pa C. as a structure gets larger. If the force exerted at the forearm is F. there is a torque . flexed. whereas the strength.same material as the intended final structure with each dimension scaled by a single factor will accurately reproduce the behavior of the final structure.. 1 d ) ~ a B. The stress in the cylinder is the force per area across a cross section. is 40 times less than 7. 7.r. 8 0 N C. 2.The MCAT Physics Book 34. then the volume of the block increases by the cube of the factor. To summarize Galileo's conclusion on this point.. 7.? A. 1' Pa 0 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . 1 The figure below depicts a human biceps. The torque z. C.. We will not present his detailed argument but will sketch some of the conclusions. the load across any surface increases by the cube of that factor. so engineers have developed extensive theory in order to determine how to build proper scale models and extrapolate reliable results from them. 107pa D.
A. WJ0 '10 W.. w. It would be eight times as large. What would be the breaking weight for a . The cable breaks when the weight of the lantern . A lantern is hanging from a cable of negligible mass. m SO TP . exceeds W similar cable (same material. D. both made of plaster of paris. It would be twice as large.. how does the pressure (stress) exerted by the right front foot of statue B compare with the pressure exerted by the corresponding foot of statue A? A.1 m/0 c. Statue B has twice the linear dimension of statue A. If statue A weighs 40 N. It would be four times as large.Chapter 7 3. C. The figure below shows two elephant statues which are the same shape. how much does statue B weigh? . It would be the same. B . In the previous question. Torques and Properties of Solids 4. B. same cross section) which 0 was 1 times longer? 5.
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In Figure 82 the movage begins in the left ball. called Newton's Cradle). a toy in which five steel balls hang in a line from threads (Figure 81. this is totally amazing. and we will study them in this chapter and in Chapter 9. Then the right ball swings up and rises to almost the height of the initial release.  iii . There are five balls undergoing collisions. which is dick c lck a constant in any situation. Now if you think about it. You might think we would need a supercomputer to deal with Desk toy or physics machine? the problem. it swings down and hits the other four balls. n o II or movage = mv2 ' or what? It turns out there are two kinds of movage.Momentum A. But is it movage = mv  0 ' . and ends up in the right ball. so mass must be involved. Figure 82 Can we write a formula for this "movage"? Well. And a sprinter has more of it than a walker. so velocity must be involved. and each collision involves a rapidly changing force between two balls (Figure 82). it is clear that a moving Mack truck has more movage than a Tonka truck. If you swing the left ball to the left and let go. Introduction and Definition The 1970s saw the popularity of a certain physics toy. before: The idea that emerged from experiments like this one was that moving click click objects contained a certain amount of during: "motion quality" (or "movage"). The very simple outcome (one ball swinging to the right) hints that Figure 81 there is some very simple underlying physics as well. after: CXXX) transfers through the three balls.
. . Let's discuss the collision itself.. These. Example 1 A Mack truck : (9000 kg) going north at 10 rn/s encounters a Porsche (1000 kg) going south at 20 m/s. before: r [ G 10m 20m S dU"ng: FMP after: Momentum is conserved in collisions. then the total momentum of the system stays constant over time. +. she means that momentum ("movage") has a kind of permanence. (3) An external force is a force on one of the objects in the system by an outside agent. while an internal force is a force between two objects in the system. * The momentum of a single object of mass m and velocity c i s the vector p'= mc.. are balanced. that is. +p'. that it cannot be created from nothing nor destroyed. There are two normal forces and two gravitational forces which are all external. however. What is the velocity (speed and direction) of the resulting fused mass of metal? Solution: We DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 83). (1) The total momentum of several objects taken as a system is the vector sum $tot=$.The MCAT Physics Book I One kind of movage is momentum. When a physicist says that momentum is conserved... The force of the truck on the car and that of the car on the truck are internal forces. (2) z. F i r e 83 . A A Ptefore = Prtcer. are the momenta of the objects. The formal statement is in the box: If a system of objects is isolated (external forces are balanced). In particular. shown in the middle part of Figure 83. the total momentum is constant. 'T I B. where p".. Conservation of Momentum Conservation is one of those words in physics which has a special meaning.
Figure 85 shows why momentum is not conserved. . .000 kg)v. ..ds. Notice we used v. .. Figure 85 Example 4: Is momentum conserved for a crocodile dropped from a ladder? If not. and we write (in one dimension) (o g( .) Figure 84 Solution: It certainly does not seem so.. We do not yet know enough to show why exactly one ball jumps off the right end. . (See Figure 86.... . . Momentum would be conserved. for example. with the negative sign since it was going south and we chose north to be positive. the external forces are the tensions in the threads and gravity.. . .. So momentum is conserved. . since the ball starts with zero momentum and achieves a maximum momentum just before impact. 1 Example 3: Is momentum conserved while the left ball is swinging from its initial height on its way to collision? (See Figure 84. if all five balls headed to the right at one fifth the impact velocity of the left ball. what is the external force? Try doing this one yourself. . . The external forces on the ball are unbalanced.) Figure 86 . ...= 20 . Example 2: During the collision in Section A. . . kl 10S ") + (1000 kg) 20 (  3 = (10. . Momentum I Momentum is conserved.Chapter 8 .. The internal forces are all the complicated forces among the balls. We have to pay attention to signs because momentum is a vector quantity. and these are balanced. . .
. C.PIO? 3 x 10' k e S Figure 88 From the Pythagorean theorem we find the magnitude of the total momentum p... If the external forces on an object add up to F.. The total momentum before the collision can be read from Figure 88.2 x 10' kg ~ I S . or sticking. you will probably want to use conservation of momentum. Thus 4 = 18" north of east.The MCAT Physics Book Here is a major hint: Whenever a problem involves a collision. External Forces and Impulse So what happens if there is an unbalanced external force? There must be a change a of momentumdp = &p'. The direction we obtain from tan+ = (1 x 10' kg mIs)/(3x lo4kg mls). Assume there is negligible friction at the time of the collision. magnitude of The the velocity is v = (3. (second law) (definition of acceleration) =& At' .. crashing.* . before: after: Figure 87 1x10'" S C .. then we can write A FM =mi.. especially one with crunching.2 x 10' kg mIs)/(2500 kg) = 13 d s . What is the final speed and direction of the combined cadtruck? Solution: We DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 87). m Example 5: A car (1000 kg) going north (10 m/s) collides with a truck (1500 kg) going east (20 mls). = 3.
.. The equation for conservation of momentum can quickly lead to answers. The force is less because the mass of the sidewalk is greater. The force is less because the time of impact is greater. Can we make sense of this choice? The impulse. a body is in contact with it for a longer time.. Example: Why is bouncing on a trampoline less painful than bouncing off a cement sidewalk? A. .. B. so an isolated system has a constant momentum in time. since greater area implies a greater force. So the impulse and the net force on a system are related by A A Ap = F".<+ . Choice B reminds us of the definition of pressure. . . momentum is likely to be a key concept... In this chapter we looked at momentum. so let's write the equation P = F1'4. . . The force is less because the area of the sidewalk is greater. . and 4 = d v .. ...Chapter 8 . It's hard to see how this makes a difference.. especially if there is crunching or sticking. you should think about momentum and write this equation. is the same in either case. D. Choices C and D remind us of equation ( 5 ) above. + mm. and we can change the momentum of a system only by applying an unbalanced external force.& is called the impulse.. because of the elasticity of the trampoline. for a given force. C. . & or in one dimension T Ap = F. If the mass of the sidewalk is large.Momentum has a kind of permanence. if the impulse is constant. = m . There is no way to reconcile choice B with this equation. Momentum 1 The change in momentum.At . then the sidewalk's acceleration will be small.At. so we write 4 = F. . Or else the force the sidewalk must experience fbr a acceleration is large.. since the body goes from moving downward to moving upward. . which is a way of quantifying motion. This question is reminiscent of many problems on the MCAT.. so it is helpful to learn how to think about them. The force is less because the time of impact is less. . In these problems the external forces are negligible if the collision is brief. so let's see if that makes any sense. and the internal forces are very complicated.At. ... for a given pressure.. So choice D makes sense... . Solution: Choice A reminds us of the equation F. The force would be less for greater At. however. . Also. This is called conservation of momentum... The momentum of a system is defined by p^. v'. or change in momentum...= ma. (5) Whenever you see a problem involving force and time. In any problem involving a collision.
and cart B is 2 kg. 2.7 m/s. Gravity would then be an unbalanced external force. 0.7 kg m/s 2. 1. the system.Skgm/s C. In the middle is cart B (2 kg) moving at 0.6 kg m/s D.1 m/s D. . 1. 0. 0.lkgm/s B. Chapter 8 Problems . carts run along a level.35 m/s B .5 mls to the right. After the carts separate. Take "right" to be positive. Take the system to mean carts A and B. 3. situations in which objects are speeding up or slowing down. After they collide. question. 6. Cart A is 3 kg. 1. 0. 0. cart A has velocity 0. l.4 m/s to the left.The MCAT Physics Book 4. l k g d s C. Furthest to the left is cart A (1 kg) moving at 0.1 kg m/s C.5 kg m/s G O ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . How would the analysis be complicated if the track were not level? Physics applies only to situations which are A.9 kg m/s D There is not enough information to answer this .6ds . 0. what is the total momentum of the system just after A and B collide? A. 1. Cart A is 1 kg and cart B is 2 kg.4 m/s B.) They all collide and stick together. 0. C. What is the magnitude of the total momentum of the system before the collision? A. 2. onedimensional track.2 m/s to t e left. 0. frictionless track and are connected by a compressed spring and a string. What is the final velocity of the three carts? A. level. l. 0.0 kg m/s B . 1 Use the following information for questions 7 and 8: Use the following informationfor questions 36: In a certain physics experiment. Initially cart A is moving to the right at 0. and let "right" to be positive. Furthest right h is cart C (3 kg) moving at 0. onedimensional track.2 kg m/s B.1 . Gravity would no longer be an internal force in B. Consider the three carts as a system. 2. 0.0 kg m/s D. carts run along a frictionless.) 5.1 kg m / ~ B. frictionless. What is the magnitude of the final velocity of the two carts? A. they stick together. At a certain time.1 kg m/s What is the magnitude of the total momentum of the system after the string is cut? A. What is the total momentum of the system before the collision? A. and cart B is moving to the left at 0. Conservation of momentum does not apply to D. 7.183ds C. Use the following information for questions 1 and 2: Assuming A and B collide first and C is still independent.6 kg mls D.2 m / s .9 m/s D 1. the string is cut and the carts fly apart. (See figure.35 m/s In a certain physics experiment.6 kg mls C.2 m/s to the left. 0. Two carts sit on a level. 0. frictionless.5 m/s C. 1. (See figure.
What is the final velocity of the two carts? A. 0. 3. 1. . . Take the system to mean the combination of rifle and bullet. Carol is 40 kg and was going horizontally west at 1.5mls C. What is the momentum of the system just after the 1 bullet leaves the barrel? A. The force of the car braking.0 kg m/s B. C butt 1 . frictionless surface in one dimension.5 kg m/s .. A force of 3 N to the right acts on Cart A for 2 s. 0. .. 12.0 kg m/s C. 13. Momentum. No force pulls the books forward. Michael is 60 kg and was going horizontally north at 0. .5 kg m/s B. . Ignore the force of the shoulder on the rifle. 3. 51kgm/s D. the velocity of the rifle just after firing? A. . 50 kg m/s C. C. . What is the velocity of cart B after the string is cut? I 12.. but what force pulls them horizontally forward? A. What is the magnitude of the total momentum just after the collision? 10 kg m/s B. 9. 10.0 m/s just before the collision. and the books on the front seat slide to the floorboard. . .1 mls B. The driver brakes suddenly. (See figure. B.2m/s 15. 0. 0. 7. . Gravity. called'a bullet.The velocity of the bullet upon leaving the barrel is 300 m/s.0 k g d s D.  14. .0 kg d s GO ON TO THE N X PAGE ET .5 mls C. and they are initially at rest. 1.. . Assume they have no vertical velocity. What is the magnitude of their velocity just after the collision? A. by exploding a charge behind the bullet.5 m/s just before the collision. Momentum 8. A car is traveling along the freeway at 30 m/s. Cart A is 5 kg and cart B is 10 kg.. 6 kg m/s D. Just after the collision and well before they land on the ground. 6. 120 mls Use the following information for questions 9 and 10: l b o ballet dancers collide in midair. . as well.75 m/s B.1 mls Use the following information for questions 11 and 12 A ripe is a longbarreled firearm which imparts a high velocity to a small ballistic. Normally the rifle is fired with the butt of the gun pressed against the shooter's shoulder. 0...) A rifle is typically 4 kg.5 mls D. . that is. 0.222 m/s B. 0. .. D. and the bullet is 10 grams. they stick together. .4 m/s C. 1.7 mls D. What is the recoil velocity of the rifle.333 kg mls C.ChaDter 8 . What is the momentum of cart A just before the collision? A. . 1. . 0. It is obvious that gravity pulls the books vertically to the floorboard. . Subsequently it hits Cart B and sticks.. . 70 kg m/s Use the following information for questions 13 and 14: Carts A and B ride on a level.
Ball 2. B. 0 kg m/s B. he or she is often advised to "ride the punch". Three: gravity. What is the impulse imparted to the ball by the wall? A. 35 kg d s 17. 2 . during the collision. 25 kg d s D. it hits the floor and rebounds to 80% of its original drop height.5 d s B. to move his or her head backward during contact with the opponent's fist. What additional information would be sufficient to determine the final momentum of the object? A. it hits the floor and stops. 1.33 mls.25 kg) is traveling toward Sirius at a speed 4 mls just before the collision.33 mls. C. because the impulse received by ball 1 is about zero. 0. What is the magnitude of the change in momentum from the time before the collision to the time after the collision? A. B. The direction of the force and the mass of the object. to the right 2 . 7.3 kg) hits a wall and rebounds. The other (4 kg) is traveling at a speed 3 11s just before the collision in a perpendicular direction. 1 . A pendulum consists of a bob hanging by a rod from 2 the ceiling (see figure). None.The MCAT Physics Book Use the following information for questions 16 and 17: Two asteroids collide in space and stick together. 12kgds C.67 d s . x1 21. Initially the 9 ball is going 7 mls. 2. D. to the right D. A constant force of magnitude 5 N acts on the object for 10 s. An object is initially at rest. C. because the impulse is about double that received by ball 2. that is. When it is dropped from shoulder height. A ball (0. D. and Cart B (3 kg) is initially going left at 3 mls. Riding the punch may throw off the opponent's timing. 2. onedimensional track. 13ds 18. Ball 1. What is the velocity of Cart B after the collision? A. Which would be a reasonable explanation for this advice? A. D.6 kg mls B. the information is already sufficient. Three: gravity. frictionless. GO ON TO THE N X PAGE ET . C . One (1. because the time of interaction at the floor is very small. how many forces are acting on the bob? A. tension. C. 1 k g d s D. but after the rebound it is going 5 mls. 0. tension. 5m/s C. 16. What is the final velocity of the two asteroids? A. Carts A and B are on a level.6 kg m/s One: gravity. The mass of the object only. Ball 1 is a good tennis ball. The pendulum is pulled to the left and released. Ball 2. D. 23. At the moment the rod is vertical and the bob is moving. When it is dropped from shoulder height. The direction of the force only.33 d s . Cart A (1 kg) is initially going right at 7 mls. to the left B. to the right C . which ball receives the greater impulse? A. so it swings back to its equilibrium position. Ball 2 has gone flat. Increasing the time of collision will decrease the force of contact. Ball 1.8 kg mls C. 3. The impulse received by the head will be greater . 12ds D. B. When a boxer is hit. and a normal force. because the impulse received by ball 2 is about zero. Cart A rebounds with a speed 3 m/s. The impulse received by the head will be less during the collision. and a force to the right. Consider two tennis balls. Two: gravity and tension. B. 5. 20. In the collision with the floor.
.Chapter 8 24.. The explosion is over in about 0. The momentum of the apple and the Earth is conserved. . No.. What. nuclear fission of uranium is used to heat a supply of hydrogen to high temperatures (around 2200 K). due to its high temperature. the law of universal gravitation. we can derive the result that the effective force on the ship is where M is the mass expulsion rate. The molecular mass of the exhaust is too high.0 mls C. C.. The water vapor. . STOP . frictionless onedimensional track. I 3. A rocket ship is going forward at 2000 d s and fires its engines in order to speed up but not turn. In conventional rocket engine design. 6. 5 0 0 0 d s A rocket engine operates on the principle that hot gas is expelled backwards through a nozzle in order to produce a thrust on the ship in the opposite direction. D. 2 0 0 0 d s C. 4.2 s. 3000m/s D.. 1 When a rocket ship expels gas in order to produce a . 1000ds B... is a disadvantage of nuclear engines compared to conventional engines? A.. 0.. what is the exhaust velocity u relative to the ship? A. The exhaust velocity varies as the square root of the ratio of the temperature of the combustion chamber and the molecular mass of the exhaust. 2000m/s B. We can model a rocket and its exhaust with two carts sitting on a level. large fuel tanks carry liquid hydrogen and oxygen. B.0 x lo4mls. If the absolute velocity of the exhaust gases is 3000 d s going backwards. Which statement is true dilring the fall? The momentum of the apple is conserved. B No.. The molecular mass of the exhaust is too low. B... An apple drops from a tree. according to the passage. Momentum C. the second law of motion. since neon is not a product of uranium fission. about twice the exhaust velocity as that for conventional rockets.. and u is the exhaust velocity relative to the ship. 0. Some of the energy is lost as heat. D. Yes. 5. . Since momentum is conserved in this operation. but the engine would not be as efficient because of exhaust velocity. At a certain time the explosive goes off and the two carts go flying apart. this is an example of A. 1. In the previous question. since neon is an inert gas. The less massive cart recoils with velocity 20 d s . Momentum is not conserved whenever gravity is not balanced by another force.. In an experimental engine design. C. The impulse received by the apple is zero. The mass expulsion rate is too low. what is a reasonable estimate for the force which is exerted on the ship during the explosion? A. the first law of motion. it would work approximately as well. Thus it is important for both M and u to be high. and these react by chemical combustion to yield water vapor. D...2 d s B. One major engineering problem involves the heat exchange between the hydrogen gas and the site where the nuclear reaction takes place. Engineers are improving the design so that the hydrogen is heated at a faster rate than it is in current designs. 0.. There is a small explosive between them. 2. . IOOON Could neon gas work instead of hydrogen in the design of the nuclear engine? A.1 kg. 20 d s D. D... the third law of motion.. 10N C.. shoots out of the nozzle. The hydrogen is then expelled through a nozzle at 1.. thrust. C. The large cart (rocket) has a mass 10 kg. and the small cart (exhaust gas)..4 N B. What is the final velocity of the larger mass? A. A.. and the ship is thrust forward. Yes. 4 0 N D..
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or anything) acts on an object which moves a distance &. it is gone. In this chapter we can do no better.The units for work are [ kg m2/s2= Nm = Joule = Jl. the concept of energy did not suddenly arrive as a mature concept out of Newtonian theory. it is said.A. gravity. Actually energy is harder to explain than you may think. so we will introduce the concept slowly. the physics understanding is distinct from the popular understanding. then we understand a lot about the physics of the situation. We can obtain energy from various places and then we can use it usefully or squander it. Following energy through its forms is what much of physics is all about. energy is defined as the capacity for performing something useful. "What is energy?'you may ask. If we understand where energy is coming from. and we will want to pay attention to the differences between the two. As you can see. like Athena emerging from Zeus's head. In the history of physics. and once it is gone. Rather. energy is a thing which cannot be created from nothing or destroyed. it is said. how it flows. In standard English. On the other hand. energy is the capacity for doing useful things. In physics also. you need to follow the energy. you need to follow the money. and where it ends up in any physical situation. only transformed from one form to another. . it. When a force (which can be due to a pair of hands. it began as a hazy idea which grew in richness and clarity during the 1800s. Introduction To understand politics. To understand physics. is the magnitude of the net force and # is the angle between pw z. the work done by the force on the object is c where is the angle between the direction of the force and the direction of the displacement &. ?he total work done on an object is c and where F. a rope.
Combining these equations gives us F. h sin 0 ' . &=. If we look at the large triangle in Figure 92. Hint: Whenever a problem on the MCAT mentions a force and a distance.).The MCAT Physics Book Keep in mind that if the force is in the same direction as the motion. a. so cos @ = 1. First we look at the "horizontai" components. it is probably a key idea for understanding at least one of the problems. pausing to think about them. Even if work and energy are not mentioned. The cart goes from the floor level to a height h. We need to find F. then cos4 = 1. First. = mg sin 8.. then cos 4 = 0.mgsin8= 0. Example 1: A woman is pushing a cart of mass m slowly at constant speed up an incline which makes an angle 8 with the horizontal. How much work does the woman do on the cart in terms of m. h. = 0 . then we have h sin8 = . so we write (F. Figure 91 F. If the force acts You should know these angles without perpendicular to the motion. If the force exactly opposes the motion.. We can find AK by trigonometry.h sin 0 ' The vectors Fw 2 point in the and same direction. & TN' &sin 8 = h. We choose a "horizontal" and "verticai" and resolve the gravity vector into components (Figure 92). you should think "WORK!" and write down the equation for work. = (mg sin 8)W. g. The words "constant speed" and "straight path" imply that the cart's acceleration is zero.). = mgh.and AK. we DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 91). Thus the work done by the woman on the cart is Figure 92 W. From Figure 92 we obtain (F.. What is the total work done on the cart? Solution: a. then cos4 = 1. = F. and the net force on it is zero.mg sin 8. and 8 ! b.
What is the total work done? Well.. so the work done by gravity cancels the work done by the woman. if we were to figure out the work done by gravity.. I 1 .This is the answer to question a. the acceleration is zero. But what is this? The quantity 8 dropped out of the equation (!). we would find that it comes to mgh. Solution: F i t .so that w.67 x lo'' m3/kg s2. distance from E r h to Sun = at 1. In fact: The work done depends only on the height climb h from the begnning to end and not at all on the path between the two. perhaps.. .so we have cos t j = 0 and w. .. since the speed and direction are constant. The energy a woman requires to push a cart from one point to a point which is height h higher is mgh.is perpendicular to the displacement 2. : Figure 94 Example 2: How much work is done by the gravity of the Sun on the Earth in one day? (G = 6. . It takes the same energy to go a long way up a shallow incline as it does to go a short way up a steep incline. = 0. What? The poor woman works from dawn till dusk.____.=0.5 x 10" m). we DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 94). My=2~1~wkg. I a& r' . but this will not be the final word on gravity (see Section D). Once we draw the diagram. = 0. .~=~~l~24kg.. and the total work done is zero? Where did the energy go? Well. It seems like a sad story. See Figure 93. and F. The vector FIn. the answer is clear. even if the path is complicated. Work done by' woman is zero for this or ti on Work done by woman is negative for this portion Total work done by woman is the same as in Figure 91 Figure 93 b.
so v. It is initially at rest. Energy of Motion So how much energy do we put into an object if we push it for a while? Let's try another simple example. as Wow! This is just the kind of expression we saw near the beginning of the Chapter 8. we have 1 W=FAx Notice that the factor At drops out. = 0) Also we have (Erom Chapter 2) =v. This indicates that we can define the 2 kinetic energy.At. We have completed the circle. Example: Consider an orange. 2 Since cos 4 = 1. the energy of an object due solely to its motion.= 0. If we push on an orange initially at rest until it is going at velocity v. which we have smeared with a special grease so there is no friction. But now we have to find out how to use this expression.m v t . . then the 1 amount of work we have done on it is . this time in one dimension. We push it in one direction with a force F over a distance Ax. in terms of the mass m and final velocity v2 of the orange? Solution: We have an expression for the force given by the second law of motion: F=ma (definition of acceleration) (since the orange starts from rest.. v. What is the work done by the force.The MCAT Physics Book C.
i(. Example 1: What is the change in kinetic energy for the woman's cart in the previous section? Solution: We calculated W.o. so that its speed is 700 mis in air.mvz2 .Work and change in kinetic energy are related by the following expression. where cos# is 1. 2 . simple version If the total work done on an object is W. which is almost correct. The bullet enters a tree stump and embeds 2 meters inside. and indeed the Earth's speed is constant from one day to the next. W.9 x lo3J. 1 2 1 (4) 2 A Some examples should clarify this. So this result is consistent with the above equation. we can set W to and . Immediately we think of energy. Example 3: A bullet of mass 20 grams is fired from a gun. Thus When a bullet embeds in a stump. because of the collision and crunching of wood. Figure 95 4 . however..EKL = 0J .. We know the change in kinetic energy of the bullet AEK= Em . At first this problem looks like a momentum conservation problem. If we try to apply conservation of momentum. Example 2: What is the change in kinetic energy of the Earth in one day? Solution: According to the previous section.. .l).. 9 x lo3J = F(2 m)(. Here we are assuming a circular orbit. The cart is going the same speed at the end of the problem as at the beginning. = 0.mv.) Solution: First. The kinetic energy change is zero. kinetic energy is converted to heat. The key is to notice that force and distance are both mentioned in the problem. Fdxcos#. What is the average force exerted by the stump on the bullet? (Ignore gravity. Thus we have dE. Worksnergy theorem.. This is also W.= 0. we DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 95). its change in then kinetic energy is given by W . =A& 1 .=0. which tells us that the change in kinetic energy is zero.020 kg)(700 2 * ): 2 = 4. we just do not get anywhere.
Examples include the forces due to springs and the electrostatic force (see Chapter 14). Potential Energy and Conservative Forces Potential energy is the energy of an object due to position alone. (the same formula as before). It would make sense to define gravitational potential energy as E. as an object moves along a path. Any force with an associated potential energy is called a potential force or a conservativeforce. The change in kinetic energy is given by Y o . The height is measured relative to some standard. and h is the height. where it was stored as chemical energy. complicated version If an object moves along a path. We can still consider calculating the total work on the object. Workenergy theorem. the net force on it changes.  . It is clear that the energy ends up as potential energy. or else the displacement changes direction. = mgh . How does this work? Remember the woman in Section B? She pushed a cart to a new height h. = *E. such as sea level or street level. i We will see examples of this in future chapters. because we are always interested in changes in height or changes in potential energy.is calculating the work done for each piece. doing work W = mgh. (5) where m is the mass of the object in question. The force the woman exerts on the cart and magnetic forces are not conservative forces..The MCAT Physics Book Sometimes. This formula works for all situations near the surface of the Earth. It does not matter what the standard is. Gravitational potential energy is the energy associated with the position of an object in a gravitational field. the sum of the work for these pieces. because the cart is hardly moving both before and after its trip. The energy starts in her muscles. D. we can calculate the total work done on the object by dividing the path into tiny pieces and . g is the acceleration due to gravity. Thus the flow of energy is chemical to gravitational potential energy.. Example: We are now in a position to FOLLOW THE ENERGY for the woman and the cart. The total work W. How does the energy start? Kinetic? No.
) Sometimes they use normal words to mean normal things. like two: kinetic and potential. "conservation of energy" means that energy. or crunching. Simple Statement If there is no friction. but they mean it a little differently. In the table are listed some of the energy forms which may appear on the MCAT. moving electrons energy in the nucleus. and this leads to much confusion.E. a responsibility of good citizens. then EKl+ EPl = EKZ+ EP2. type of energy kinetic potential gravitational potential mechanical chemical electrical nuclear sound light heat description bulk motion object's position object's position in gravity MCAT word for kinetic + potential batteries. For doing problems it is better if the number of kinds of energy considered are few. for example. etc. by decree of Nature. 127 . almost too grand to be useful in most problems. If we calculate the total energy in a closed system at one time. the total energy some time later will be the same. magnetic field waves random motion of particles The principle of energy conservation in the previolis box is the Grand Statement. Energy Conservation. Conservation of Energy Sometimes physicists use strange words to mean normal things (They say "scalar" when they mean "number". muscles. Energy Conservation The energy in a closed system is conserved. or nonpotential forces (except forces perpendicular to the motion). "conservation of energy" means frugal use of energy. but it can flow from one form to another or from one place to another. constant in time. cannot be created from nothlng nor destroyed. fission reactor pressure waves electric. force and energy. (6) Use this principle in problems in which gravity does all the work. Energy is conserved. In common parlance. Sometimes they use normal words to mean something completely different from the standard meaning. In physics. that is. for example. radioactivity.
First. so it does no work. c. We conclude that the simple version of energy conservation applies. a. Although the normal force is nonpotential. We have already decided that the tension does no work.1 m Figure 97 mvz2= mgh.The MCAT Physics Book Example 1: The woman of Section B lets go of the cart at the top of the inciine. = mgh. E. all the way down. a. 4 ~ . +0. Thus we write EK1 + E~~= EK2 + E ~ 2 ' 1 O + r n g h = .7 meters is pulled so that its bob (0. =(0. . Example 2: A pendulum of length 0. we DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 96). ( Sm) i L 0. we obtain the final velocity from 1 2 .2 kg) is 0. v2 =a m =1 .2kg) loT (O. We need to check all the forces. are dropped at the same time.m ~ . Solution: a. The energy flow is chemical (woman's muscies) to potential to kinetic. The gravitational force is a potential force. so equation (6) applies and we can write EKI+ EpI = EK2 + Epz* 0 + mgh. What is its kinetic energy at the bottom of the swing? b.. Now. b. 128 . What is the final velocity? b. Thus tension does no work. it is perpendicular to the motion. This should remind you of the siktion in When the cart rolls down. yields Vz =&K. What is its velocity at the bottom of the swing? c. We check the forces. Gravity is a potential force.1 meters higher than its resting position. ~ 2 Solving for v. which a massive object and a light object gravitational potential energy is converted to kinetic energy. = EK2+ 0 . The cart roils to the bottom. From that position it is let go. Note that the mass has dropped out.lm)=0. This is true even though the bob is moving in an arc and the tension is changing direction during the swing. What is the work done by the string tension during the swing from start to the bottom? Solution: a. The tension is perpendicular to the direction the bob is moving at every moment. They fall at the same rate with the same acceieration Figure 96 and same velocity as each other. Describe the energy flow from start to finish. we DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 97). b.2J. First.
It uses 245 grams of fuel in the form of 2. What is the efficiency of the engine? Assume no energy loss due to air resistance.F. The following overall reaction occurs in the car: AHRac~o" = 1 3 10 . = mgh kcal mol  Next we calculate the energy used: The efficiency is 2'4 lo' x 100% = 20%. which is the potential energy: Ed. I everything is stuck f together in the end. In a collision. Efficiency of Energy Conversion Often we have energy in one form and we want to convert it into another form. energy and heat. kinetic energy is often converted to heat and chemical energy. then the collision is called elastic. from chemical energy in gasoline to kinetic energy of a car. but it can end up in an inconvenient. Gasoline chemical energy is converted to gravitational potential . if kinetic energy before the collision is the same as after. If this is not the case. that is. In this case we define the efficiency of energy conversion as follows: Efficiency = energy in desired fonn x 100% energy in original form (7) i Example 1 A car (800 kg) goes slowly up a hill from the base to a height of : 300 meters. for example. It may be the case that energy cannot be destroyed. the collision is called completely inelastic. (See Figure 98.2.4trimethylpentane. Otherwise it is called inelastic.form such as heat.) 1 . 2 ~ 1 0 ~ ~ We can speak of efficiency in a collision as well. Figure 98 . Use 1 kcal = 4184 J. Solution: First we calculate the energy in desired form.
29 kg/m3and C = 0. Power Power is the rate at which energy is produced. initially going east at 1 0 d s . that is. 00 One car is 1 0 kg.) . Figure 99 G. Now we need to know the kinetic energy both before and after the collision. the density of air. Did you remember that crunching or smashing generally means we must use the conservation of momentum? Let us take east to be positive (see Figure 99) and we write P I =P 2 9 b. before: 1 EK2= (2500 kg) 2 = 3. Example 1: A car (1000 kg) traveling 55 mph has a forward crosssectional area of about 4 m2.1 x lo4J. Recall that the formula for air resistance is F. Thus the efficiency is after: During the collisi~n. consumed. some kinetic s energy i converted to heat.= C ~ A Vwhere p. initially going west at 15 m/s. What is the power dissipated by air resistance? (Use 1 mph = 0. 1. The other car is 1500 kg. a. is ~..45 mls.2. or transformed. What is the velocity of the twisted metal afterward? b. What is the efficiency of the collision? Solution: a.The PICAT Physics Book Example 2: Two cars collide in one dimension in a completely inelastic collision.
Ax At At At ' Fengin= t I since cos $ = 1.. Example 2: The same car is traveling 65 mph.6 x lo4W. Example 1: A person is hanging in air by grabbing the two ends of a rope which is draped atound a pulley.. but with some practice. but we have neither an energy nor a time.Axcos$ . If a rope is pulled at a constant rate by a hand. We have AE p = = F. What is the power dissipated by air resistance? Solution: P = 2. The minus sign indicates that the energy is dissipated by the force. If the person is 60 kg. The tension in a single rope is the same all along the rope. problems including pulleys become simpler.reminds us of At velocity. we DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 910). Ax And the expression . But we have several formulas for energy. so we have Figure 910 P = F.( c P ~ v 2 ) v = 1. Why is there such a large difference? Pulleys are somewhat tricky. what is the tension in the rope? . 2. There are two underlying principles: 1.Solution: First. the work done by the hand on the rope is the same as the work done by the rope on some load.v = .6 x lo4W.. so let's try to connect it with the force given in the problem. We have only one formula to work with (P = AElAt). We can substitute for F.<. even if it goes over and under pulleys.
(See Figure 913. . One is to realize that this is essentially the same as Example 1. so that an upward tension is maintained. so we can call it T. we DRAW A DIAGRAM (F~gure 1) showing the 91 forces on the man. rise 0. The tension on the two sides of the rope is the same. since 0 5meters of rope will be pulled from each side of the pulley.The MCAT Physics Book Solution: First.= mgdh = mg(0.Thus Figure 912 Figure 913 w. The work done on the mass is the change in potential energy W. The person is not accelerating. so the forces add to zero. I T(1 m) = mg(0. passes through a pulley and then goes up.) tension in the rope? (See Figure 9Solution: There are two ways to do this problem. FAxcos q5 = T ( 1 m). A mass 30 kg is hung on the pulley. The work done by T must be the same as the work done on the mass.= w2.5 meters. The = work done by the rope is W. Figure 911 I Example 2: A rope. one end of which is connected to the ceiling. A bit of study of the diagram will show that the mass will .5 m). What is the 12.mg = 150 N.5 m). so that 1 T = .) 2 The other way is to imagine pulling up on the rope 1 meter. giving T+Tmg=0.
= 4. This will be the key to answering some of the questions.. energy cannot be created from nothing or destroyed. = mv2 of the object is f 2 changed according to W. The rate at which energy is transformed is called power P = MAt.14.) Solution: This looks different from the previous problem. Figure 915 In this chapter we explored the concept of energy. So m = 25 kg.. what is m? (See Figure 9. Another form of energy is gravitational potential energy given by E. total work gives the size of the energy flow into The an object. It loops through a pulley with a downward weight of 500 N. Another way to obtain the above equation is to DRAW A DIAGRAM showing the forces on both masses (Figure 915).. but it can be transferred from one form to another. I I a net force acts on an object. If everything is in equilibrium. That is. Whenever you read about a force and a distance through which the force acts. the kinetic energy E. even if no numbers are involved. The tension T which pulls up on mass m is numerically the same as the tension T pulling up on both sides of the first pulley. goes up to the ceiling where it loops over a second pulley and connects to a mass m.Example 3: A rope has one end connected to the ceiling. So we have l a Figure 914 T = mg. 1 . you should think immediately of work W = Fdrcos 4. but in fact it is essentially the same. It is important to keep track of the energy flow because energy is conserved. = mgh.
forward. 18 Joules D. 5. up. The force of gravity. packed snow. 12kgds B. UP. What is the work done by the man on the box during this time? A. 2250 Joules C. 64 Joules What is the cart's kinetic energy at this time? A. 3000 Joules What is the total work done on the sled? A. Section B Use the following infonnationfor questions 15: A woman pulls her daughter on a sled by a rope on level. Use the following information to answer questions 8 and 9: A toy cart (4 kg) is rolling along level ground. What is the magnitude of the cart's momentum at this time? A. 3000 Joules B. 3000 Joules D. B. 0 Joules B. The force of gravity. The sled is a Firestone200 of mass 10 kg which slides along the snow with a coefficient of friction 0.5 m/s across a room. 0 Joules Section C 2. B. and man's force. normal force. forward. 8. The force of gravity. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE .5 m/s for 4 s. 0 Joules B. At a given time it is traveling 3 m/s and accelerating at 4 m/s2. It takes 10 seconds. (Use g = 10 m/s2. 4500 Joules 7. D. 1500 Joules D. 150 Joules 260 Joules 3000 Joules I What is the work done by friction on the sled? A. man's force. B. The woman is 70 kg with red hair. 3000 Joules What is the work done by the normal force on the sled? A. C.) What are the forces acting on the box? A. 150 Joules C.09. making an angle of 30" with the ground. down. down. earnest looking. C. and man's force.) 6. (Use g = 10 m/s2. 3000 Joules 260 Joules 0 Joules 3000 Joules D. 3. D.The MCAT Physics Book Chapter 9 Problems Use the following informationfor questions 6 and 7. The tension in the rope is 30 N. They are going a constant 2. 260 Joules D. 4. down. down. 32 Joules 9. up. 8kgm/s C. The force of gravity. 12kgm/s B. 0 Joules C. A man is carrying a heavy box (mass 30 kg) at constant velocity 1. 1 . C. What is the work done by the rope on the sled? A. The daughter is 20 kg with brown hair and wild curls. 150 Joules C. 32 Joules D. 8kgm/s C. 3000 Joules What is the work done by the force of gravity on the sled? A. 1500 Joules D. 0 Joules B. and the man's force.
and a brake force. down. backwards. down. 2 x lo5 Joules D. 0 Joules C. Use the following information to answer questions 1718: A cat (4kg) drops from the roof to the ground. Gravity. 7. normal force. What is the work done by the road on the car? A. MgvAt D. Gravity. down. 4 x 10' Joules 15. Gravity. 18 Joules C. 3000 Newtons C. MgvAt B. so the cart begins to move along the level frictionless floor. 4 x 10' Joules 16. 17. 0 Joules C. (Use g = 10 m/s2. C. D. 500 Newtons B. FvAt D. C. 3. If the force of the road on the car during the stop is constant. 5. the engine force forwards. and a force forwards. How much work is done by the horse on the wagon in time At? A. What is the kinetic energy of the cart just after the 20 seconds? A. C. B. There is not enough information to answer this question. 100 Joules 200 Joules 2 x lo4Joules There is not enough information to answer this question.) 10. 0 Joules B. There is not enough information to answer this question. (Use g = 10 m/s2. I D .5 m/s 13. What is the change in kinetic energy during the braking? A.7 m/s There is not enough information to answer this question. 0 Joules C. D. 18. 120 Joules D. a distance of 3 meters. 8000 Newtons 11. normal force. normal force. The skid marks are 25 meters long. up. up. There is not enough information to answer this question. 2 x 10' Joules B.9 m/s B. Gravity. A constant force of 10 N is applied horizontally for 20 seconds. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . 14. up. Section D and E B.) Use the following information to answer questions 1316: A car (1000 kg) is going 20 rnls on a level road and slams on the brakes. FvAt B.Use the following information for questions 10 and 11: A horse pulls with a horizontal force F on a wagon full of belongings (mass M). 12 A toy cart is initially at rest. down. 2 x 10' Joules B. What is its velocity just before it reaches the ground? A. and normal force. How much work is done by gravity on the wagon in time At? A. 2 x 10' Joules D. what is that force? A. What is its kinetic energy just before it reaches the ground? A. 0 Joules C. up. The horse and wagon are traveling at a constant speed v on level ground. and a force backwards. What forces are acting on the car while it is coming to a stop? A. 5000Newtons D.
) A. The terminal velocity would double. Use the following information to answer questions2426: A cart runs along a swaight level road by burning propane.The MCAT Physics Book Use the following informution to answer questions 1920: A hammer of mass m is dropped from the roof. Where does the energy go which is not used to overcome air resistance? A. kinetic energy B. C.5 rnls toward the right when it encounters Cart B. What is the efficiency of the collision (for kinetic energy)? A. so that it falls a distance h to the ground. and Cart A is traveling 0. Kinetic energy is conserved. The enthalpy for the combustion of propane is given by AH. Cart B is initially at rest. 0. The efficiency must decrease.0 mls 25. 1. The energy expended to overcome air resistance is increased. Momentum is conserved. B. It consumes n moles of propane during that time. what is a necessary consequence? A. 0.25 m/s B. 24. chemical energy 23. If the cart travels the same distance D at a larger velocity.5 m/s D. In a given experiment.25 136 GO ON TO T E NEXT PAGE H . If the height h were doubled. B.) A. The kinetic energy would be the same.. we can define efficiency as the ratio of energy expended to overcome air resistance to the energy available in the propane. C. The force due to the air resistance is F. The collision is an elastic collision. B. What is the final velocity of Cart B? A.22~ lo6 J mole 20.2 B. The efficiency must stay the same. how would the terminal velocity of the hammer be changed? (The terminal velocity is the velocity just before it hits the ground. how would the terminal kinetic energy of the hammer be changed? (The terminal kinetic energy is the kinetic energy just before it hits the ground. 19. There is not enough information to answer this question. D. 22. If the height h were doubled.35 mls C. which is proportional to the square of the velocity. For the cart. Which expression gives the efficiency of the cart? Section F Use the following information to answer questions 2123: Cart A (1 kg) and Cart B (2 kg) run along a frictionless level onedimensional track. C. D. 26. 0. The terminal velocity would increase by 41%. Cart A is at rest. heat and sound D. The kinetic energy would double. 0. D. The kinetic energy would increase by 41%.After the collision. =2. There is not enough information to answer this question. Which of the following is true concerning the collision? A. B. potential energy C. The efficiency must increase. The terminal velocity would increase by 59%. the cart (of mass m) wavels a distance D at constant velocity v on a level road. The collision is a completely inelastic collision. 21. 0. C. D.
where P is power in Watts. 60 seconds D. the angle a is the angle the rope makes with the horizontal. Electric to kinetic.4 meters GO ON TO THE N X PAGE ET . Which is the best description of the energy flow? A. 20 meters C. to what height above the ground does the winch pull the box? A. what is that tension? A. (Use g = 10 m/s2. In the pulley system shown.) A. (Useg = 10 m/s2. 5.Section G C.) 27.) 31. 1. Use the following informution to answer questions 2930: A motor is connected to a power supply which supplies 6 amperes of current with a 20volt potential difference. D. 120 seconds Section H 28. 30 seconds C. Kinetic to potential. mgsina C. mg 29. B. D. and AV is the potential difference in volts. 15 seconds B. The motor is used to lift a mass which is 40 kg. 40 meters 30.8 meters B. C. 18 meters 180 meters Use the following informution to answer questions 2728: A winch pulls a box on wheels (1000 kg) at a very slow speed up an incline which makes an angle 8 = 30" with the horizontal. Assuming no friction and 100% efficiency. Electric to potential to kinetic. mgcos a B. If the rope is slowly pulled at a constant rate with tension T. Electric to potential. The hanging mass has mass m. working for 200 seconds. how high does the mass rise? A. The power provided by a power supply is given by P = IAV. and the winch exerts a power 2000 Watts. 35 meters D. The mass starts at ground level. If the motor is run for 60 seconds. How long would it take to bring the mass to the same height if the current and the potential difference were both doubled? (Assume constant efficiency. 10 meters B . The motor has a 10% efficiency rating. I is current in amperes.
0 mls B. 0 Newtons 30 Newtons 150 Newtons 300 Newtons I first 3 strides? A. In the figure shown. and the other end wraps over a pulley and connects to a flagpole.The MCAT Physics Book 32. = T.0 m/s C. B. 32. All sections D. to sccelerate from rest at the starting block to the speed at which he plans to run. amg 1 1 B.7 Newtons B. .0 m/s D. GO ON TO THE N C PAGE DT . There is not enough information to answer this question. What is the average force accelerating him during the 1 (Take 10 m/s2 for the acceleration due to gravity. What is his final running velocity? A. B. T. There is a tension TIin the rope. T. which is 12 meters all together. C. 16. = 2T. 32 Newtons C.) ( A. At that speed. D.. There is not enough information to determine a relationship between TI and T. 130 Newtons D. 8.. A painter hangs by connecting two ends of a rope to a harness. The tension in his rope is T. mg 3 A. force meter 35. 4. what is the force reading on the force meter? Use the following information to answer questions 35 and 36: Bob the runner (50 kg. 34. a tension T is exerted in order to lift the mass m. Which is true? A. Which expression gives the tension? A second painter of the same mass connects one end of the rope to his harness.0 m/s 36. 2. In the figure shown. so that the rope wraps over a pulley.  33. his kinetic energy is 1600 Joules. runner's build) takes about 3 strides.
No. 1. the . Consider a ball tossed into the air. and a forward force. the potential energy is converted to kinetic energy. the potential energy is conserved.6 x lo4Joules B. The cannonball reaches a height of 180 meters.4 x lo4Joules C. D.Use the following information to answer questions 3741: Use the following infonnation to answer questions 4143: A cannon fires a cannonball (20 kg) at an angle. 6. gravity and the force due to the hand are balanced. Point A shows the ball just after the release. 80 m/s D. 42.0 x lo5Joules D There is not enough information to answer this . 2 0 d s C. B. As the ball travels from A to D.kineticenergy is conserved. C. so that its initial speed upon leaving the cannon is 100 d s . There is not enough information to answer this question. Gravity. No. 3.4 x lo4Joules C. Only I is true. Use 10 m/s2for the acceleration due to gravity. 39. What is the gravitational potential energy at the top of flight? A. C. 3. 37. Only II is true. 6. Which is true? rm A. GO ON TO THE N M PAGE . 10ds B. 11. . D. the ball is isolated from other objects. 40.0 x lo5Joules D There is not enough information to answer this . From points A to D. B. question. I I. gravity is an unbalanced external force. 38. the kinetic energy is converted to potential energy. The total work done on the ball f o A to D is zero. and the normal force. From A to D.6 x lo4Joules B. From points A to D. 43. Yes. there are no internal forces. . and assume there is no air resistance. Gravity. As the ball travels from A to D. and point D show it at the top of its flight. 1. III. and III are true. C. question. I I 41. the normal force. is the momentum of the ball conserved? A. Consider the following statements: I. the sum of the kinetic energy and potential energy is conserved. 11. C. B. What forces are acting on the cannonball after it leaves the cannon? A. and a forward force. D. B. The work done on the ball from A to D is due to the force by the hand. Only I1 is true. D Gravity. Yes. Which is true? A. Gravity. What is the initial kinetic energy? A. What is the velocity at the top of flight? A. From points A to D.
Only III is true.5 Joules C. the wood and bullet are moving 1. Immediately after the bullet embeds itself in the wood. kinetic to heat D. C. 4. 11. 2. kinetic to potential B. D. 2) The wood block with the bullet. Consider the following statements: I. the potential energy of the cart 1 is conserved.The MCAT Physics Book 46. Gravity can be ignored in this part. as shown in the figure. 6cm 11 cm 22.25 Joules B. potentialto kinetic C. which is suspended by the strings. the kinetic energy of the cart is conserved. What is the velocity of the bullet just before it enters the block? 49. potential and kinetic to heat 1 1 48. swings upward by height h. kinetic to heat and kinetic D. potential and kinetic to heat Use the following information to answer questions 4951: Consider a winch which is operating to pull a cart slowly at constant speed up an incline. and 111 are true. From points A to B. 9 Joules 18 Joules 45. B. kinetic to potential B. D. From points A to B. Only I1 is true. Which best describes the energy flow during part l ? A.5 cm 225 cm 47. I. Immediately after the bullet embeds in the wood. Which best describes the energy flow during part 2? A.5 mls.5 meters. ( The bullet embeds itself in the block of wood. How high does the block (and bullet) swing on the strings before it comes to rest? Use the following information to answer questions 4448: A bullet (5 grams) is fired horizontally into a block of wood (2 kg) suspended from the ceiling by strings of length 1. GO ON TO T E NEXT PAGE H . 44. the sum of the kinetic energy and potential energy of the cart is conserved. Which is true? A. B. D. Only I is true. Point A is at the bottom of the incline and point B is at the top. 1 . potential to kinetic C. A. C. ID. The event can be divided into two parts: 1) In a very little time the bullet embeds itself into the wood. From points A to B. which is the best approximation of the kinetic energy of the block and bullet? A.
is the same as t.. 55. No. D. No. It takes time t...and t3? A.? A. less than M. 54. ' Use the following information to answer questions 5657: A car (mass M) has a crosssectional area A in the direction of motion. C. is greater than t. slides without friction from the same height h along a slope of the same angle a. Is the momentum of the cart conserved? 52.. B.. 141 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . B. The time t. C. What is the relationship between v. The total work done on the cart from A to B is zero. D. D . Yes. is less than t. Kinetic energy is converted to potential energy. B. B 'The energy required would increase by a factor of 2.is the same as v. There is not enough information to answer this problem. B. The velocity v. is greater than v. there are internal forces. 1. What is the relationship between t. A rock of mass m slides without friction fromthe same height h along a slope making angle B (greater than a) with the horizontal. at which time it is traveling a velocity v. The total work done on the cart from A to B is due to the force of the winch alone. The velocity v. and v. D The energy required would increase by a factor of 8.. The time t. Which is true? A. and t.where F is the force required to overcome drag. There is not enough information to answer this problem.. to reach the bottom. and v. The time t. A. A rock of mass m. If it is moving at constant speed v.. The velocity v. is less than t3. The energy required would stay the same. . is less than v. 53. Yes. C.? Use the following information to m w e r questions 5255: A rock of mass M slides without friction from a height h above some ground level along a slope making angle a with the horizontal. C. where C = 0. gravity is an unbalanced external force. There is not enough information to answer this problem.. The velocity v. is the same as t.. gravity... the cart is isolated from other objects. C. B. The time t. at which time it is traveling a velocity v. C. It takes time t. D. is the same as v. Consider only the drag due to air resistance.50. The energy requind would increase by a factor of 4. is greater than v. The time t. For these problems consider C to be constant.? A.The power dissipated by a car moving at constant velocity is P = Fv. B. It takes time t. There is not enough information to answer this problem. The time t. D. is less than v. to reach the bottom. How does the energy required to get fiom A to B change if the velocity were doubled? A. What is the relationship between t. 51.3 kg/m3. The velocity v. then the force due to air resistance is F"r = C~AV'.2 and p is the density of air. C. 56.. Potential energy is converted to kinetic energy. at which time it is traveling a velocity v. the normal force. and consider a car driving at speed v from city A to clty B. What is the relationship between v. to reach the bottom. D . is greater than t. The velocity v.. . and the force due to the winch are balanced. A.
volume C. C. The pressure rises to P. GO ON TO M E ND(T PAGE . If the reaction shown were performed in a closed chamber isothermally at 500°C . After the combustion occurs. Some of the waste gas would be oxygen or hydrogen. D. A. The apparatus consists of a pipe closed at one end with a piston at the other end.8 x lo5J mol ' 5. How does the energy required to get from A to B change if the velocity were increased from 50 rnph to 55 rnph? A. a piston chamber is used as part of a primitive engine. B. 1. Some of the waste gas would be intermediate products of incomplete combustion.what would happen to the pressure? valve In the operation of this engine. The following reaction is ignited 2H2(B) + %(g) ) 2HzO(g) 9 with a heat of reaction AHH. Next the piston slowly moves back a distance I. which is much larger than 1. . The number of moles of oxygen introduced is n. What would happen if the ratio in the second paragraph were not 2:l? The heat of reaction would be less than A.. 4. from which the engine derives useful work. The reaction is spontaneous. There is not enough information to solve this problem. why does the pressure go up? A. The energy required would increase by 33%. C. The pressure would increase. The radius of the cylinder is r. mass B. B. The energy required would stay the same.8 x 10~~/mol. C. temperature 4. The energy required would increase by 10%. B. B. Which expression expresses the efficiency of the engine? Passage 1 In a certain experiment. D. The pressure would decrease. I A. 3. The second paragraph refers to what kind of ratio? A. D. D. and the crosssectional area is A. The temperature rises considerably. 2. There are more gas particles on the left side of the reaction. A valve in the cylinder allows fuel gases to be introduced or waste gases to be expelled. The combustion would not ignite. C. hydrogen and oxygen are introduced in a 2: 1 ratio (in order to ensure complete combustion) at ambient temperature Tmbandatmospheric pressure P. = 4. How would power dissipated change if the velocity increased from 35 to 70 mph? The power would stay the same. The power would increase by a factor of 8. B.. and the piston is restored to its original position. The length of the cylinder before the piston moves back is L. The heat of reaction is negative. C.The MCAT Physics Book 57. neDressure would the same. The power would double. 58. The energy required would increase by 2 1%. neutron D. The power would increase by a factor of 4. The distance I is short enough that the pressure and temperature inside the chamber remain roughly constant The waste gases are then expelled. D.
The energy loss depends not on the mass of the incident particle. 4 ~ e . Which is an expression giving the number of moles of oxygen introduced in the chamber? m. I only B. pressure in the chamber would decrease. by a factor of 2 D. D.6. They lose approximately the same amount of energy per distance. acceleration C. D. and temperature would increase. forgotten notation like 4 ~ ethen look forward to Chapter 16 and review it. 1nB = 10 (approximately constant). If you have . Which tends to lose more energy in a given distance? A. Total energy is conserved. as well as on the average number of electrons Z per atom or molecule in the material. 111. 1. is the electron mass. H. there is a drag force on the incident particle and hence a loss of energy. 111 only I and III only I. 3 ~ . In an isolated collision between a fast charged particle and an electron. by a factor of 3 B. 7. pressure in the chamber would increase. C. and temperature would increase. 3 ~by . Which tends to lose more energy in a given distance? I A. What would be the consequence of making 1 larger? During the piston movement. C. e is the electron charge (in Coulombs). They lose approximately the same amount of energy per distance. energy A hydrogen nucleus ('H) and a helium nucleus ( 4 ~ e ) have the same initial kinetic energy. a factor of 4 by A hydrogen nucleus (I H) and a tritium nucleus (3 H) have the same initial kinetic energy. such as a bare nucleus. c is the speed of light. H. a massive positive particle. mass B. 11. Z is the average number of electrons per atom or molecule in the material. and temperature would decrease. where N is the number of atoms per unit volume of material. moving through a material composed of neutral atoms and molecules. 4. pressure in the chamber would increase. with near light speed. B. They travel through the air. Kinetic energy is conserved. with near light speed. called an incident particle. force D. D. interestingly enough. Consider the following statements: I. In the process. such as gas or biological tissue. A. Use this equation to answer the questions. if the collision is elastic. They are traveling through water.a factor of 3 A swiftly moving charged particle. The following equation gives energy loss per distance traveled: 3. 2. C. by a factor of 4 B . Momentum is conserved. z is the charge (number of elementary charges) of the incident particle. but it does depend on its charge z. For instance. and temperature would decrease. pressure in the chamber would decrease. C. loses kinetic energy to the material.a factor of 9 by 143 G O ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . moving at a speed near that of light will ionize the atoms or molecules of the medium it is moving through. He. I1 and I n Passage 2 What sort of quantity is on the left hand side of equation (I)? A. then what can be definitely concluded? A.
Since the brake pads are growing hotter. For the following questions. The kinetic energy of a flywheel is given by where I is the moment of inertia and w is the angular frequency in radians per unit time. given by I= MR~. Consider a small portion of the flywheel Am. ( 144 0. 5 . and the heat . be made up by conventionaI means. which expression gives an approximate temperature change in the brake pads if a car going velocity v slows to a stop? A large amount of energy is lost each time a car is brought to a stop by applying the brakes. there is an unbalanced external force. capacity is Cv (in J k g K). They lose approximately the same in a given distance. The beam in helium. Then what is an expression giving the angular velocity w after the car comes to a stop? 4. If we consider the system as closed with respect to energy. For this reason. d R GO ON TO THE N X PAGE ET . C. 27C The moment of inertia is The efficiency of conversion of forward kinetic energy to rotational energy is a. Passage 3 If the mass of the brake pads is m. some engineers have experimented with the idea of storing energy in a flywheel when a car comes to a stop. the free energy change is greater than zero. by a factor of 25.. C. entropy is increasing. The kinetic energy is converted into heat energy. Thus the frequency f (in cycles per unit time) is f =. The beam in neon. Since the car is slowing. by a factor of 5. of course. A relativistic proton beam is incident upon helium gas at STP. B. Since the brake pads are growing hotter.Assume the flywheel is initially nonrotating and the car is maving at velocity v. The beam in neon. by a factor of 5. then we would say the energy of the system is conserved. use the notation: M is mass of the car . When the driver wants to go again. D. Which of the following statements tends to contradict the idea of the car as a closed system? . Ideally the kinetic energy of the car would be transferred to the flywheel as the car comes to a stop.. situation in which it is braking on level ground using conventional brakes. M is mass of the flywheel R is radius of the flywheel w = 2zf = angular frequency of the flywheel 0 3. the efficiency of the two transfers will be less than 10096. the energy would be transferred back to forward kinetic motion. so energy will be lost to heat. A second relativistic proton beam is incident upon neon gas at STP. Which beam loses more energy in a given distance? A. Which expression gives the centripetal force experienced by that piece? 1 Consider the whole car as a physical system in the . D. Unfortunately. This energy can.The MCAT Physics Book A. like a bicycle wheel. some heat is transferred to the air. A flywheel is a massive ring which is free to spin about its center. Since the situation is not spontaneous. B. where M is the mass of the flywheel and R is the radius. such as burning gasoline. 2. which is useless in getting the car going again.
) A. Beginning in the 1980s. The slope of the first hill is an angle 8 from the horizontal. What is the kinetic energy of the car at point E? A. the two forces acting on the car are gravity and the normal force. if the rider (mass m) experiences a force 2mg. made the new roller coasters larger. 0 145 GO ON TO THE N X PAGE ET . where it is has very little veiocity at a height H. The loop is a circle of whose highest point is H. thus finding a roller coaster's weakest points and determining the cost of making them failsafe. 4 0 d s 1 . for we will ignore the force of friction during the ride. and more fun. What is the work done by the normal force from point C to point D? A. This. v. 6 d s D.. and people learned how to construct them using the principles of physics and by a certain amount of experimentation. abv 6 A conventional car (500 kg) rolls down a hill. in answering the following questions.cos8 B. constructers of roller coasters began to use computers to design them. MgHlsin 8 C. For the most part.? 4. and the efficiency for converting rotational energy to kinetic energy is b. 2. 3 1 . This is expressed as a number of g's. What is the velocity of the car at point E? People began to make roller coasters around the early 1900s. Nevertheless. The mass of the car is M. then he is said to experience 2g's. and then it gains velocity again until the flywheel is still. 2 0 d s C. . D.6ds B. safer. The car is initially going velocity v and the flywheel is still. The velocity of the car at point F is v. above the ground. A motor brings the car from point A to B. Finally there is a frictional force due to rubber bumpers pressing against the car which serve to stop it at the end of the ride so that other riders can get on. A force due to a motor carries the car to the top of the first hill. MgH. What is the velocity of the car at point F. What is the resulting speed of the car? instance. MgH. such that . For I 3. a fair amount of knowledge about a roller coaster can be learned by applying simple physics without the aid of a comp'uter. 12. Consider the figure below. If the car starts from rest at a point 600 meters above sea level and coasts to a point 550 meters above sea level. The efficiency for converting forward lunetic energy to rotational energy is a. The car slows to a stop by convening energy to the flywheel. the efficiency of conversion of potential energy to kinetic energy is 40%.5. a very simple roller coaster. In this way they were able to create a great many designs and simulate them.above the ground. and the practice of making them of steel. These early roller coasters were made of wood. B. 2MgH. what is the resulting speed of the car? (Use g = 10 m/s2. The feeling a rider experiences in the car is related to the force exerted by the car's seat on his body perpendicular (normal) to the car's motion. where g is the acceleration due to gravity.
Which of the following best describes the energy flow in this ride? A. A cylinder (or barrer) is closed at one end (the breech) and open at the other (the muzzle). and a ball is placed in the cylinder on top of the charge. B.3 meters long with a bore (hole) of radius 5 centimeters. The force of gravity. thus creating stress on the cannon and creating a risk of failure. GO ON TO T E N X PAGE H ET . The explosive is ignited and the reaction produces hot gases which increase the pressure.to kinetic to potential Beginning in the 1500s. C. For the following questions. the normal force down. The slower burning charge ensures that the pressure behind the ball stays more nearly constant as the ball travels the length of the barrel. the manufacture of cannons has taken many forms. the forces due to the gases are so much greater than the force of gravity that the force of gravity can be ignored. D. What expression best gives the normal force on the car at point F? A cannon is a device for imparting a large velocity to a mass of iron. The final velocity of the cannonball. While the ball is in the cannon. electrical to potential and kinetic to heat B electrical to kinetic to electrical. generally for the purpose of warfare. between the bumpers and the car. . B. D electrical to heat to potential . Over the centuries.An explosive (or charge) is placed in the cylinder at the breech. Assume the pressure inside the cannon after the explosive has been set off is constant. C. the normal force down. The force the cannonball experiences in the barrel. 5 . Passage 5 6. 7. B. Faster burning charge creates a large pressure very quickly.  1 . None of the above. What force pulls the blood to the rider's feet when the car is at point F? A. The centripetal force. The rain reduces the coefficient of static friction between the bumpers and the car. but the basic construction has remained the same. B. consider a cannon which is 2. and a force forward. Thus the gases push the ball along the cylinder and out the muzzle at great velocity. When it rains. explosive / 8. D. C The rain reduces the coefficient of kinetic friction . Three.The MCAT Physics Book How many forces are acting on the car at point F? One. Which of the following is a good explanation of why this is? A. in a circuit . C. and a centripetal force toward the center of the circle. electrical. A. C. The normal force. gunners began using largegrained explosive in order to decrease the rate of burning. What additional piece of information would be sufficient to allow the calculation of the kinetic energy of the ball upon leaving the cannon? A. 9. muzzle . D The rain decreases the efficiency of the motor. the park operators run the ride with fewer people in the cars. Three. the force of gravity down. None of the above. the force of gravity down. D. The rain reduces the friction on the tracks and makes the cars go faster. the force of gravity down. The mass of the cannonball. None of the above.
C. C. chemical to kinetic to heat B. Which of the following would best explain why a largegrained charge would bum more slowly than a smallgrained charge? A. B The free energy change during burning is . chemical to potential to kinetic For this question. of reactants. The temperature of the gas in the barrel. 5. The free energy change during burning is positive. negative. The rate of reaction depends on the temperature C. of reactants. What additional piece of information would be sufficient to allow the calculation of the height to which the cannonball would travel? A. D. The kinetic energy of the ball upon just leaving the barrel. when it leaves the muzzle of the cannon. The entropy change during burning is zero. D.What additional piece of information would be sufficient to allow the calculation of the pressure in the barrel while the cannonball is still inside? A. B The final velocity of the cannonball. The force the cannonball experiences in the barrel. B. assume the cannon points straight up. The force the cannonball experiences in the barrel. Which of the following is necessarily true? A. Which of the following best describes the energy flow in the passage? A. . chemical to heat to kinetic C. 6. The free energy change during burning is zero. The activation energy is reduced for smallergrained charge. 3. D. No more information is needed. chemical to potential to heat D. None of the above. D. C. SO T P . and assume we know the velocity of the cannonball 4. The mass of the cannonball. B The rate of reaction depends on the concentration . The rate of reaction depends on the surface area.
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and for approaching unfamiliar questions. Introduction "Yes. the more questions you will answer correctly on the exam. I worked through a number of published MCAT practice problems. B. the best way to study is to begin studying. The more physics problems you solve beforehand. No book can diagnose these problems better than yoursel'f. As you work through practice problems. the better you will do on the MCAT. When I began to write this minichapter. You must find your own trouble spots regarding comprehension. ask yourself. If you concentrate on accuracy and understanding first." I hear the gentle reader saying. In this chapter we will discuss the general strategy for studying for the MCAT. "this physics is all very nice. does this remind me of a problem I have done . scan it quickly to note the main ideas. yes. making notes of the skills and methods which proved useful. the more physics you understand." That is what this chapter is about. Do you have trouble finding the main ideas? Practice this skill. you will gain speed later on. Underline any sentences or phrases that seem to state a main idea or further an argument. Again. however. You should do the same thing. Do you spend too much time reading unnecessary information in the passage? Practice scanning the passages more quickly. When you read a question which seems puzzling. Underline any numbers that are embedded in the passage.I Interlude A. for reading passages. the more likely it is that you will recognize and understand the information in an MCAT passage. General Strategy When you approach an MCAT passage. Do you misread questions? Learn to read them more slowly. The more passages you have seen. how should I have approached this problem? What clues indicate that I should have used a given method? What other types of problems can be solved with this method? How should I approach similar problems? Some questions on the MCAT are simply a matter of comprehending the material in the passage. Do you miss important details? Learn to slow down. Don't panic. but I want to know how to pass the MCAT. Ask yourself. In general. When you read the question section you can always go back and read a portion of the passage more carefully.
Apparently a man had connected a Jet Assisted Take Off unit (JATO) to his car. . quickly reaching terminal speed of 170 m/s. 3 x 1 0 ~ ~ C. Figure 11 Question 2 reminds. Here cos 4 = 1.us of problems involving collisions and hence consemation of momentum. The displacement of the car during the crash is 1 m. 2 x 1 0 6 N D.C we saw a bullet embedding in a tree stump. In that problem the mention of force and distance was the clue to write W. except that it became airborne for the last 2000 m and hit the cliff face 40 m above the ground. since the car's displacement is in the opposite direction from the net force on it. 3 x 1 0 ~ ~ B. so the approximate force is 3 3 x 1 0 7 ~ / 1 m =x 1o7N.drcos4. In that problem energy was conserved. so that we have cliff : I w1 .1/2 mv2 =3 x 1 0 7 ~ . 42 m/s ." You will be surprised how often you reach the solution to a problem which initially seemed daunting. Example 1: Police in Arizona found a piece of wreckage embedded in a mountain rock near a freeway. A JATO unit is a solid fuel rocket normally used for assisting in the take off of heavy planes on short runways. 1 What is the approximate force the cliff exerted on the car during the final crash? .ol=F. = = 0 . The car traveled in a straight path more or less. 57 m/s D. If the car traveling 170 m/s had crashed into a stationary 6000kg truck and stuck. how fast would the combined vehicles be going just after the collision? A. Solution: Does question 1 remind us of a probIem we have done before? In Example 3 of Section 9. "This reminds me of the problem I saw with the crocodile and the toaster.The MCAT Physics Boob You may find yourself saying. we drew "before and after" pictures (Figure 12). The total work is the same as the change in kinetic energy. 85m/s C. 170 m/s B.. The man and his Chevy (2000 kg) started accelerating approximately from rest 5000 m from the crash site. 3 x 1 0 ~ ~ 2. In those problems. creating a crater 1 m deep in the rock. I wonder if energy is conserved in this problem as well. We can draw a force diagram for the car once it encounters the cliff (Figure 11).) A. Study of the site indicated that the wreckage was not that of an airplane but of a car. (Assume that force of collision is approximately constant.
. For air flow along a streamline. Bernoulli's principle applies (approximately). . . Keep in mind that this is the starting point of many problems. Example 2: In the mechanical flight of an airplane. . p (= 1... 2 1 The wing is constructed so that the air flowing over the top flows faster than the air flowing under the bottom of the wing. . lift is created by the differential air flow over the wings.. P + .. . That is. The drag is given (very approximately) by Fdng= CPAV'. As the wings of the airplane slice through the air. A is the crosssectional area of the airplane as viewed from the front. some energy is lost to the air in the form of turbulence and heat. . so the cumulative effect is an upward force on the wing. The force on a piece of surface area of the wing is given by F = PA.pv2 = const.. that is.. Draw a diagram. . This energy comes from the motion of the airplane. and v is its velocity relative to the air. . . where C (= 0... . .. ..Chdpter I... so that the net effect is a drag due to air resistance.3 kg/m3) is the density of air. . The implication is that the air flowing over the top has a smaller pressure than the air at the bottom of the wing..: Interlude Conservation of momentum gives us Pbeforc= Pa~tcr* before: after: Figure 12 In these two examples. . or lift.2) is a constant. we used a second important principle... . Include forces. .
where W would be the work of stopping the driver. B. . The increased distance of the collision of the driver decreases the force he experiences.A I A F. . thus decreasing the force. then choice B would be a possibility. the airbag inflates in milliseconds.. as in this passage. C. Solution: Does this remind us of a problem we have done before? Yes. The decreased distance of the collision of the driver decreases the force he experiences. the answer often becomes clear only when you Write an equation. the thrust of the engines is equal to . Thus the magnitude of the thrust is equal to the drag. I : & Fdng .The MCAT Physics Book 1 When an airplane is in steady horizontal flight.so the horizontal forces balance. In the event of a headon collision.. Example 3: One of the new safety features included in cars is the inflatable airbag. D.. As you read a passage. I Solution: Considering choice A. we have noted that whenever you read about a force and a time interval. The MCAT passages often include extraneous information. you should be thinking of the connections among the quantities mentioned. Choices C and D remind us (because of force and distance) of the equation W = Fdrcos 4. Steady horizontal flight implies that F. Indeed the airbag does increase the distance of collision. Decreased force implies increased distance. A. If the airbag were compressed like a spring. The airbag de8ates. The airbag decreases the time of collision. . But the equation implies that a decrease in force corresponds to an increase in time interval. Concerning choice B. so D is incorrect. Since there are forces mentioned. The magnitude of the vector sum of the drag and the weight. the 1 Which of the following gives an explanation for the safety provided by an airbag? . For instance. and Ax the distance over wbich the force is applied. D. The weight of the airplane. we write the equation Ap = F A . you should immediately think "momentum" and write the momentum equation Ap = F A . The kinetic energy of the driver is converted to potential energy of the airbag. The drag force. F the required force. the energy turns into the heat of the escaping gases. so A is wrong.. which of the following? A.. where F is the force on the driver. we can draw a force diagram (Figure 13). The sum of the magnitudes of the drag force and the weight.= 0. = 0 Figure 13 Even in questions which do not involve numbers.a~ driver or passenger presses against it. C. B.
''What additional information is necessary to determine . . . . B . . what additional information is necessary to . This strategy is especially good for questions which ask. As long as the piston moves a short distance Ax compared with the length of the cylinder.Chapter I . We can extend the variable map to include the volume and length of the cylinder. while the ambient pressure is 1 atm. the distance the piston moves is Ax = 0. The volume of the cylinder.. using the ideal gas equation PV = nRT (Figure 16). . work. . . we can consider the pressure inside the cylinder to be constant. . ?" An example will help make this clear. force. The mass of the piston.. sometimes specified in the passage and sometimes not. . . The pressure inside the chamber is 20 atm. According to the variable map. . We can place a check by Ax and P to indicate that we know these quantities. . The area of the piston. . . . For such passages it is often valuable to Draw a variable map. . Some problems involve a large number of quantities related to each other in various ways. . . and displacement are related by the equations W = FAx and F = PA. we also need to know force in order to determine work. determine the work done on the piston by the pressure in the cylinder? A. . The net force on the piston is the difference between the force of the gas pushing the Figure 14 piston out and the force of the outside atmosphere pushing the piston in. D.. We make a variable map connecting these quantities k Ax F P p A Figure 15 (Figure 15). . The length of the cylinder. W k F p f . In the following. . so that the gas inside the cylinder exerts a pressure on the piston and pushes it out (Figure 14). area.. .. . . 1 Assuming the piston moves slowly. . W Solution: Pressure. . C. We can derive energy from this process. Example 1:A piston is fit into a long cylinder. .01 m. Interlude C. The force is given by the product of pressure and surface area. Specific Strategies In this section we look at a few other hints that work on certain classes of problems. connect related quantities by lines that meet at a vertex. To draw a variable map. . .l JAX JP nx T v F i r e 16 .
value of Y for steel? . the amount of strain is proportional to the amount of stress. and D. we see that the force exerted by the weight on the wire is equal to its weight mg. according to the variable map. area and pressure will give us force. We can add a Figure 18 . then we can place a check by area. In this case. Often problems involving charts can be solved by one of the three methods below.The MCAT Physics Book Concerning choices A. you should Pick one point. B. and we have the information to find work. I 1 Example 2: A steel thread is hung from the ceiling. add a column perhaps. these quantities do not lead to a knowledge of force. fi (mm) 0 005 . and one of the questions requires an element of the equation. and make a substitution. and you can waste time figuring out something which can be derived fairly quickly. a constant for a given material. The free end has a hook on it. Now. the thread stretches (Figure 17). But if we know the area of the piston. According to elasticity theory. and Y is Young's modulus. Experiment 1 2 m (kg) 0 05 . F is the force applied to both ends. Solution: If we draw a force diagram (Figure 18) for the weight hanging from the wire. A is its crosssectional area. The following data were obtained for a wire 1 m long of crosssectional area lo4 m2. so that Figure 17 where dl. L is the length of the wire. is the amount of stretching. for small values of the stress. such that when various weights are hung from the hook.2 I 1 What is the. Problems which involve charts can be confusing until you get used to them. Some charts have data which fit an equation.
2~ lo' ~ 1 x 1 0 . it is often helpful to Pick a convenient point.. .. .. .1 0.5 F(N) 2 0. and exmpolate using the given formula. The following data were obtained for a nickel bar: Experiment 1 Figure 19 m (kg) 1 2 3 4 1 (m) 2 2 2 3 4 . . Interlude column to the table F = mg. . a property of the material making up the bar and g is the acceleration due to gravity. A mass m is hung from the center of the bar (Figure 19).. . .Chapter I ..~ 3x10' 1x10~ 4x10~ 2 2 2 5 1 2x lo' 6. The table looks like the following. . so let's choose Experiment 4. r (m) dr (m) 1x I X lo' 1 x ~ o .. . .025 0.  Example 3: Consider a horizontal bar of circular cross section (radius r) and length 1 hung between two walls. . Experiment 1 m (kg) 0 dL (mm) 0 0. . .. . . . . . . .. . .5 2 10 3 4 100 Now we can substitute into the formula using F = 100 N to obtain &= FL AY' For questions which ask for an extrapolation from a chart. . The distance that the bar will sag A is given by x where Y is Young's modulus.3 x lo' . . Actually we only need to choose one experiment.
8 . but it wastes time. then the sag increases by a factor of 3. The length increases by a factor of 3.8x10~m D. That is not wrong. 8 x 1 0 " m C. 8. 1. Experiment 1 Experiment 2 Experiment 3 Experiment 4 cannon . if the mass increases by a factor of 3.7 x rn C. Experiment rn (kg) v.) is recorded. Thus the new sag is 27 (3 x I For some questions involving charts.1 x 102m. Thus the sag is 1. 1. According to the equation. This is done for several masses and initial velocities (see chart).The MCAT Physics Book 1 . compare it to Experiment 3. What would the sag be for a 2rn horizontal circular rod (radius loA2 if a 12kg m) . B. Example 4: In a certain experiment a small cannon shoots a balI (mass m) vertically into the air. 1. 9x104m B. * 0I 1 For which experiment does the ball have . factor of 33= 27.5 m verticalIy (Figure 110). For question 1. For question 2. compare the set up with Experiment 4. C.3x10~m 8. mass were hung in the middle of it? A. the greatest potential energy at the top of its path? A. D. 2. 1. The only difference is that the mass is three times as great. 4 .6x10~rn What would the sag be for a 6m horizontal circular rod (radius lo' m) if a 3kg mass were hung in the middle of it? A. According to the equation. the key is to Add columns to the chart.2 x m D.1x10~m 2.2 x lo' m. Its initial velocity (v. as well as its velocity after it has traveled 0. (rnls) 3 4 2 4 6 4 ti II 1. the sag increases by a m) = 8. and think about the physics. Solution: The mistake some students make is calculating Y as an intermediate step. but everything else remains the same.
. does this remind us of a problem we have done before? In a number of problems we have seen objects in free fall. . .Chapter I .5 m. for Experiment 1. . For instance. . Experiment 3 D. . . . .. . Experiment 2 C. = (8 . . some of the initial energy has been converted to potential energy. Experiment 1 2 3 4 m (kg) 1 1 2 4 v. . (mls) 4 8 6 4 E. But nothing can substitute for gaining a solid understanding of physics. . . These methods are not exhaustive.5) J = 3 J. .5m) = 5 J and E. .5 m and the left over kinetic energy (recall that the total energy is converved). . .(J) 8 32 36 32 E. . . and the guiding principle is the conservation of energy. (J) 8 32 36 32 The answer to question 1 is C. . This potential energy is Em= mghowhere ho= 0. When the ball is at height 0.. .(J) 5 5 10 20 EK2(J) 3 27 26 12 The answer to question 2 is B. . . . For question 1. . Experiment 1 2 3 4 m (kg) I 1 2 4 vo(m/s) 4 8 6 4 EK.5 m? A. Experiment 1 B. we have Em= (1 kg)(lO mlsZ)(0.5 m. So let's add a column to the chart containing initial kinetic energy. . . so you should feel free to add to them as you work through problems yourself. Interlude 2. For which experiment does the ball have the greatest kinetic energy at the height of 0.. Experiment 4 Solution: We ask. . . We can add two columns to the chart: the potential energy at ho= 0. . a ball will have a large potential energy at the top of its path if it has a large initial kinetic energy.
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Hence you should pay close attention to the problems and solutions at the end of the chapter. it pushes up on you with the same 1000 N. Introduction In studying mechanics. Some definitions Density is a measure of how packed a substance is. B. pressure is the important concept. so it is somewhat more complicated. since "specific gravity" has nothing to do with gravity. "Do I know the pressure everywhere? Can I figure out the pressure where the crocodile is?'and that sort of thing.) The density of almost all biological tissue is approximately the same as the density of water (remember this): Pressure is like a push (that is. by the way. Pressure is defined as . the difficult part of mechanics is unlearning the misconception that a moving object needs a force to maintain its motion. For the MCAT. The key concept here is pressure.. (Recall Example 4 in Section 5D) . the sidewalk pushes up on you with about 1000 N. Why then does your face look so different when it's a tack that you stepped on? In this case. force). and it is defined by where m is the mass of a piece of fluid and V is its volume. For instance. except we also consider the area over which the push is extended. when a teenager sips a soft drink through a straw. In this chapter we study fluids. If you are barefoot and step on the sidewalk. does he pull the'refreshing liquid into his mouth? As you will soon discover. the answer is no. Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of something to the density of water: P specific gravity = PH~O ' (This is a misnomer. If you step on an upright tack. Even if pressure is not mentioned in the problem. A fluid is a large number of interacting particles. The tricky part is learning how to apply them in diverse situations. often it is the concept which leads you to the answer. you need to know only a few basic principles of elementary fluid mechanics. Its symbol is the Greek letter rho. In any given problem you should be thinking.Chapter 1 O Fluids A. For most people. we have generally looked at one object and the forces on it. p. One way to do this is to look at so many examples that any new situation reminds you of something you have seen or worked before.
we DRAW A DIAGRAM. The following principle is called Archimedes' principle. Example 1:A bathtub duck floats in water with one third of its volume above the water line. g.7 psi.The MCAT Physics Book where F is a force. so that you do not confuse force and pressure. or psi. The method for solving problems involving Archimedes' principle follows: 1. Write a force equation.V. What is its specific gravity? Solution: First. the buoyant force. Figure 101 . The pressure of the atmosphere at sea level varies. which is a force balance equation.01 x 1 o 5 P a = 14.. so the pressure on that point is quite large. we write a force equation. 3. Consider this definition carefully. DRAW A DIAGRAM. (See Figure 10.) Second. Buoyant force When an object is floating on or immersed in a fluid. 1 Next we replace FBwith p. Solve. then the fluid exerts an upward buoyant force given by F = pVgr B (7) where FB is the buoyant force. and of course F. The point of a tack has a much smaller area than the bottom of your foot. p is the density of the fluid. The units for pressure are N/m2. We can summarize the effect of the fluid in one force. but its average is given by 1 atm= 1. the fluid pushes on the object from many directions. = pVg. (Use m = pV. such as an iceberg in water or a whale in the ocean.mg. Get rid of m and F. F = PA. since the duck is not accelerating: O=F.including the buoyant force. 2. and A is the area over which it acts. and V is volume of the displaced fluid. This situation might seem too complicated to analyze mathematically.) 4. after its discoverer:  If an object is floating on or immersed in a fluid. (6) I C.1. but it turns out that it is not. and these have a name: Pressure can also be measured in pounds per square inch.
. we DRAW A DIAGRAM with all the forces on the crown. In this equation m is the mass of the crown. . and for water. (See Figure 103. We obtain F.3 glcm3. is weighed in air.. (See Figure 102. . what is touching the crown? The fluid and the string are. 1.0 &m3. . O V ~ V ~ Figure 103 .. and mg is 50 N. .m g . The crown is weighed again by hanging it from a string and submerging it in water.) We have force balance because there is no acceleration: O = F.PVg .Chdpter 1 O .. apparently made of gold. ~ Since one third of the duck is shown above the water. . Next. Fluids and we replace m with pV. and the weight is 50 N. Let's first solve for F. where p is the density of the duck.. . . and 3 we write L Here we canceled the factors V and g.V .. . . and m. and V is its volume: 0 = P H ~ o V . . . . so we know to draw the buoyant force and the force of tension. . then replace F. = P A ~ P H .. the displaced volume is .. use g = 10 m/s2. .) What reading will the force meter give if the crown is true gold? (Use for the density of gold 19.) We draw the force of gravity first. It is the force of tension that the meter reads. .. . (That is what a force meter does: it provides a force and then tells you what Figure 102 that force is...+ F . .. (which we want).) Solution: First. Also.. ... Example 2: A crown. . The answer is 213 ..=mg F.
what is the pressure at any other point? In fact. Consider a vertical pipe filled with fluid and consider the body of fluid between points 1 and 2 as an object. The pipe's height is h and its crosssectional Figure 104 area is A. and the force of the pressure pushing down from above. and the pressure at a given point is the same in all directions. The fluid is not accelerating. How much less is the pressure on the fiftyfirst story than the pressure at ." The language is a bit obscure. This equation applies not only to this situation but to any situation involving two vertically separated points in a fluid. Facts about pressure We want to answer the question: Given the pressure at one point in a fluid.The MCAT Physics Book I D. the key intuition on many problems is understanding what the pressure is everywhere. 2. The pressure is greater at point 2 because more fluid is pressing down on top of point 2 than on top of point 1. so the net force is zero. 1.= P I + phg . where each story is : 4 meters high. P. the pressures at two points separated vertically by height h are related by (8) P2 = P . the pressures at two points separated only horizontally are the same. + pgh. the force of the pressure pushing up from below. 3. We can obtain pressures at other points in the fluid using a principle. but it translates into principles 2 and 3 below.What is the pressure at. Law of Hydrostatic Equilibrium In a body of fluid.F.point 2? . Example 1 We are standing on the fiftyfirst story of a hotel. There are three vertical forces: the force of gravity. Let us start with the simple situation shown in Figure 104. discovered by Blaise Pascal: "Pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted to every portion of the fluid and the walls of the containing vessel in all directions. The pressure at point 1 is P I . and we have O= F2.mg We can cancel the factor A: O=P2PIphg. Point 1 is directly above point 2 in a fluid.
and T is at the same height as Q. as shown in Figure 106. Fluids g/cm3for the density of air. . .Chdptcr 1 0 .= 3.01 x lo5Pa+2. . .+pgh. What is the pressure at point B? c. The point Q is 20 m directly below point S . . This pressure is fairly small compared to Pa. . .7 . . Example 3: A pan contains a pool of mercury. .  = 2400 Pa. the density of mercury is 1. What is the pressure at point C? .. . The air pressure above point S is 1 atm. d. . . . but also they have the air column between us and the ground floor sitting on their head. P. .r.8 m/s2. . What is the pressure at point A? b. What is the pressure at point T against the floor? c. . The pressure of the air on the mercury in the pan is 1. Example 2: An underground cave is almost filled with water as shown in Figure 105..01 x I@ pa.) the ground floor? (Use 1.01 x lo5Pa. and the acceleration due to gravity is 9. Point B is 75 cm above the surface of the mercury in the pan.36 x lo4kg/m3.2 x Solution: This is a straightforward application of the formula: P. The pressure at Q is given by the formula: P = 1 atm = 1. a. . .01325 x 10' Pa. Point A is 38 cm above the surface of the mercury in the pan. m) Figure 105 = 1. P = P. . a. The pressure inside the air chamber varies slightly with height but it is approximately equal to the pressure at R. .5 x 10' pa. .=P. Point C is 76 cm above the surface of the mercury in'the pan.. . .. .. but it is enough to make your ears pop. The people on the ground floor have to deal with not only the air column on top of us at the fiftyfirst floor.0x loSPa = 3. . R is 5 m vertically below S. . What is the pressure in the air chamber above R? Solution: a. g lkg IOOcm 1. . b and c. Notice what is going on here.2x10. + (10' 3 ) ( 1 0 ~ ) ( 5 . with an inverted tube. What is the pressure at point T against the walls? d. What is the pressure at point Q? b.
8)(0. called the gauge pressure. the systolic pressure of a woman with blood pressure 110160 is actually (760 +110) torr = 870 tom (assuming 760 torr atmospheric pressure).36 x 104)(9.36 x 104)(9. When we apply the equation to point A. . called cohesion. If the surface becomes bent for some reason.38) Pa = 5. mercury vapor. b.8)(0.01325 x lo5Pa (1. . experience a cohesive force directed into the fluid. however. or. there is a restoring force making the surface smooth or flat. we obtain Pm=PA+pgh. The larger the distortion. we obtain P. The molecules at the surface of the fluid.8)(0. This will become c l e a r with some examples.36 x 104)(9. the larger the force.= YL. PA = Pam. Above the mercury column is a vacuum. But the numbers reported in blood pressure measurements are the pressures in excess of atmospheric pressure. Thus the pressure vanishes at the top of the column. This is a simple barometer. For instance.01325 x lo5Pa(1. This is what holds the fluid together. we obtain PC = Pa.pgh I I I = 1. (9) 760 tom = 1 atm. where y is the surface tension (a function of the fluid) and L is the length of the edge of the object in contact with the fluid. The last calculation shows that the height of the mercury column is proportional to the outside pressure. At point C. more accurately. the height of a hypothetical mercury column is often given as units of pressure: 1 ton = 1 mm of mercury = pressure sufficient to lift Hg 1 mm . Surface tension The molecules in the middle of a fluid exert an attractive force on each other. up to a maximum: (1 1) f . = 1. Thus: E..pgh = 1. . At point B.The MCAT Physics Book Solution: a. = Pa.76) Pa =OPa.75) Pa = lo3 pa.1 x lo4pa.pgh. Figure 106 c. '. For this reason.01325 x lo5Pa (1. These are the units used in a sphygmomanometer.
. . that is. as in the previous example.. . Notice the similarity between Figures 107 and 108. L is the circumference of the dimple. what is the force of .. A sixlegged water bug stands on the surface of the water.:. . what is the maximum weight the water surface tension can support? Solution: In this case.. .) In this case the surface tension exerts its maximum force. . Example 2 A needle floats on the surface of h e water as shown in Figure 108. . .. and the two hoops fit on the arms of a Ushaped frame.. Fluids Example 1: Water has a surface tension of 7..:.... Its length is 1 = 3 cm.... . and its width exerted small. .2 x lo*Nlm at 25" C. A water film fills the interior of the Ushape...... G...) Applying the formula yields Figure 107 where 6 is the number of legs on the bug. What is the maximum force on the bug due to the water? That is...1 1 surface tension? Solution: The circumference is the Figure 109 distance around the wire.Chdpter 10 . . . If the length of the wire is 1 and the width of the film is w. . the Figure 108 length of distorted surface around the needle or the length of the dashed Iirie in Figure 108... In Figure 109 we measure the length of the wire along the front of the page and then along the back of the page: . .. Thus we have 7 . What is by the surface force is very on the needle the maximum Example 3: A straight piece of wire has loops at both ends. (See Figure 109.y .. . The radius of each foot is 2 x 104m. tension of the water? Solution: In this case. ... L is the circumference of a foot.... (See Figure 107. We use the formula for the perimeter of a rectangle: since the width w is very small.
If we turn up the faucet. while point 2 is in the rapids. kilograms per meter per second. We would guess (correctly) that we could write f = Av. The rate at which a fluid passes by a point. Molasses is stickier. The drag force on the hockey puck due to the stickiness of the fluid is given by where q is the viscosity in kglm s (that is. Why does the water flow faster at ? point 2 During one second the number of gallons flowing past point 1 is the same as the number flowing past point 2. and water is stickier than air. liquids. then the inflow must equal the outflow. in fact. If the water level between 1 and 2 is constant. It also applies to compressible fluids. compressed. lazy flow. if the fluids are not. i (13) The discussion in this section refers to any incompressible fluid.) The difference is that point 2 has a smaller crosssectional area. A precise definition of viscosity looks like this: Say we have a floor covered with a fluid to a depth d. like air. that is. Just remember that viscosity is stickiness. Continuity The dynamics of flowing fluids is more difficult than statics. It means the MCAT will test ~ n l y The first principle is continuity.The MCAT Physics Book I F. . not kilograms per millisecond). You should understand this equation but need not memorize it. Figure 1010 shows a river. news. then the flow rate and the flow velocity both increase. measured in volume per time. A hockey puck of area A is traveling along at velocity v. but this is good some of the basic principles. in which point 1 is in a slow. is called theflow rate$ In a steady state. We can also obtain a greater flow rate by increasing the crosssectional area. for instance. (Think about it. Think of water going through a garden hose. the flow rate is the same at each point along Figure 1010 the flow: Now we can relate the flow rate to the actual speed of the fluid. Viscosity is a measure of the stickiness of a fluid. than water.
along a streamline.000. which can also be written P + pgh + . (SeeFigure 1011.Viscosity often calms down a flow.) cream in it? (Use q = 1. if points 1 and 2 are on the same streamline. It should also make sense to you that v is in the numerator.0 x typical spoon has size 0. so the density is kg/m s. 2 1 (17) . Thus H.0 x Solution: We can use information corresponding to water. and a lo3 kg/m3.. called turbulence.03 m. 1 and 2. we have 1 1 2 ~ + P ~ ~ .1 m/s. Example: What is the Reynolds number for a spoon moving through tea with kg/m s and estimate other values. above a standard height. + ~ P Y ~ ~ = ~ + P P ~ + (16) Y ~ ~ P 1 Let's see if we can make sense of this equation. and q is viscosity (in kg/m s). the molasses is mostly undisturbed (laminar flow around the spoon). Point 1 is at some height h. Bernoulli's Principle For laminar flow there is an equation which relates conditions at one point in the flow with points downstream. v is the velocity of the flow (in mls). but do realize that the presence of r7 in the denominator means that higher viscosity reduces turbulence.pv2 = const. p is the density of the fluid (in kg/m3). laminar. the less turbulence. The flow starts getting rough when Re is around 40.) Figure 1011 For incompressible. the tea and cream undergo turbulent motion. Consider two points. Do not memorize this equation. What's the difference? The more viscosity. The flow can break off into wild swirls and chaotic patterns. Consider a stream of water flowing past a rock or the flow of air past a weather vane. inviscid (no viscosity) flow. If we pull a spoon through a bowl of molasses. An important parameter for determining the type of flow is the Reynolds number: where 1 is the size (in m) of the obstacle in the flow (spoon or whatever). whereas if we pull the spoon through a cup of tea with cream at the bottom. and the viscosity is 1. and point 2 is at height h. A good rate to stir tea is 0. Smooth flow is called streamline or laminar. andit is usually turbulent if Re is greater than 20.
the pressure is atmospheric pressure Pa. a. m S Another way to get the same result is to realize that the pressure at point 2 must be (from Section D) 1 P = P. very small. At point 1. (See Figure 1012). is the area of the hole. = 4. 2 1 Figure 1012 vj2 =80. we have P. If we multiply the above expression by AV. so we have We are looking for v.. to zero in the above equation: (10?)(4. But what is the first term? This is a bit more difficult. AV can be replaced with AAx so that PAV = PAAx = FAx. = Pa.5 meters above'the bottom of the barrel. we DRAW A DIAGRAM with a streamline. Thus we can set v.~rn) = (10~)(0. as well. and that is why there are so many caveats in the statement of the principle: we are trying to make sure energy does not leak out into heat and ruin the equation. Also.'. The tricky part is realizing that v. 2 Wait! This looks like an energy conservation equation.5m)+v. The barrel is filled to a height of 4. = 0. What is the flow velocity v just outsidz the hole? b. + pgh = P + (10' . .5 m and h. m2 s2 vj =9. then we obtain 1 PAV + mgh + . but we can make this look like an expression for work. Bernoulli's principle applies. and the hole is a circle of radius 1 centimeter in the side of the barrel at a height 0. that is.. First. the second and third terms being potential and kinetic energy. 3 1 1 0 :( )4 m) . is the crosssectional area of the barrel and A. the difference being only a factor of AV. is very.. volume. PAV is the work that one portion of the fluid does on another portion of the fluid as it moves along. where A. h. What is the flow rate f out of the hole? Solution: a. For a moving fluid. Bernoulli's principle is an expression of energy conservation. and at point 3.5 meters above the bottom.5 m. This is because continuity guarantees that Alvl = A.mv2 = const.v. Thus.The MCAT Physics Book The expression pgh reminds us of mgh. Example: A large barrel of water has a hole near the bottom.
. so we have f3 = A3v3 In this chapter we studied fluids in static equilibrium and fluids in motion. . . .. so we have the sum P + pv2 + pgh being 2 a constant along a streamline... Continuity expresses the conservation of mass as the fluid flows.. The answer to part b we get through the definition of flow rate.. These two principles allow you to solve most simple problems involving flowing fluids. .. .. . as long as energy is not lost to heat or other energy sinks.. .. + pgh (for vertical separation) and Pascal's law (for horizontal separation). . . The important concepts for fluids in motion are continuity and Bernoulli's principle. Pressure is related to force by the equation P = FIA (where the units of pressure are often Pa = ~ / m ~ ) . . . 1 .. Pressure at one point in a body of fluid can be related to pressure at another point using P. If we know the pressure everywhere in a situation.. Pressure is a unifying concept for fluids in equilibrium. . Bernoulli's principle expresses the conservation of energy along the fluid flow. .... so we have the product Av being a constant along a streamline. we can often understand the physics and answer questions about it. .. Chapter 10 .. = P. to zero to obtain b. we set the very small velocity v. . Fluids Then we can use Bernoulli's principle between points 2 and 3 and use h2 = h3 to obtain Again.
. Iron has a density of p. C.3 meters..2 meters and height 0. D.1 B. 0.9 C.0821)(27)(1WO) GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 170 . Sarah. 320 D. How many kilograms taken together would weigh Fa. = density of air at 27O C and 1 atm 6. 2. 1. = density of helium gas at 27' C and 1 a m p. D.9 glcm3. 1. A cork floats with three quarters of its volume in and one quarter of its volume out of the water. 94 C.08 N 0. B.0 3. What is its specific gravity? A. 1300 Section C A 70kg man would weigh mg = (70 kg)(9.25 0.8 rn/s2)= 686 N if there were no air. Which expression gives the ratio of volume of iron above the surface to volume below the surface of the liquid? I ** (0. = 7.The MCAT Physics Book Chapter 10 Problems Section B 5. A typical human head has the approximate shape of a cylinder of diameter of 0. If the pressure of the atmosphere is 1.12N 0. = 13.A piece of iron is placed in a pool of mercury. 0. and the density of air is about 1. 12 B. An object floats with one tenth of its volume out of the water. 0.) A.0 D. and mercury has a density of p. be the force acting down on a ~ .8 N 8N Use the following information in questions 6 and 7: Sarah is in a basket hanging from a balloon filled with helium.2 x 1CJ3 g/cm3.75 2. and empty balloon p.5 0.. 0. 1. What is the specific gravity of the cork? A.6 g/cm3. Which expression is an approximation for the density of helium in &m3? 4. How much weight does the buoyancy due to air take off the man's weight? (The density of the man is about 1 g/cm3. C.11 I M = mass of basket.? A.01 x 10' ~ / mlet Fa. human head due to the atmosphere. B.
5 x lo4Pa B.. . (pressure of the atmosphere)x(area of snorkel hole) Section D 8. . His lungs are expanding against a net lo4Pa of pressure.... . His lungs are expanding against a net D. B. . GO ON TO M E NEXT PAGE 171 . l. When his chest is about 1 meter under water.O1 x 10' Pa) A.= 13. . Why is it difficult for the man to breathe? A.5x104Pa I 12. . . . Volume 1 is filled with an unknown gas. The height of mercury in column 2 is &. with a density of pH.6 &m3. .. C. I Use the following information: P H ~ Pair 10. . (gauge pressure of the water)x(area of his chest) B.. (pressure of the atmosphere)x(area of his chest) D. 5x104pa B. = 10' kg/m3. His lungs are expanding against a net 1. . Use the following information in questions 10 and 11: A man is swimming in the ocean and breathing through a snorkel.) A. but include the weight of the helium. . = 1.Chdpter 10 .Ox16~a D.. . .1 x lo5Pa of pressure. and the crosssectional area is A..01 x 1 6 Pa of pressure. . Pa. (gauge pressure of the water)x(area of snorkel hole) C. ocean? (pwa. The height of mercury in column 1 is h. To what volume should the balloon be filled to achieve neutral buoyancy? (Ignore the volume of Sarah. 7.. . 7. . . P = 1. Fluids 7.5 x lo4Pa C..02 x 10' Pa of pressure. What is the pressure 5 meters below the surface of the . .. His lungs are expanding against a net 1. .. he has a difficult time breathing. What is the gauge pressure 5 meters below the surface . The liquid in the barometer is mercury.5 x 10' Pa 9. 11. of the ocean? @ = lo3kg/m3. 2. Which expression most nearly gives the force his muscles must exert to push out his chest? A. . . 1. The figure shows a simple barometer which consists of a Utube with one end closed (1) and the other end open to the atmosphere (2)..01 x lo5Pa) A. . and the crosssectional area is A.
Which equation holds? A.... B. which is correct? A.The M C A T Physics Book What is the best expression for the pressure in volume I? I 14. is less than W... W.. 13. 16. P2 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 172. what load can be lifted? Use the following information to answer questions 1315: A hydraulic press is used to lift heavy objects. We assume losses due to friction are negligible. There is not enough information to determine a relationship between Wl and W. and the other. The two flasks shown in the figure haveno ambient atmosphere. W. D.. and the load is placed on a platform fitted to area A. The tube is filled with an incompressible fluid. small crosssectional area A. and the work done by the fluid on the load is W. W. C . is equal to W. The object is lifted by applying a force to a piston fitted to area A. and P2 is the pressure at the bottom of the second flask. Pressure P. If the work done by the piston on the fluid is W. The area at the bottom of the second flask is twice that of the first flask.. If the piston and the load are at the same height. If the piston moves down a distance Ax. what is the pressure of the fluid near the load? Both flasks contain mercury to a height h. It consists of a Utube. and the pressure of the fluid near the piston is P.. is greater than W... one end having large crosssectional area A. These distances are small compared to the other dimensions of the device. is the pressure at the bottom of the first flask. (See figure.. such as cars..) 15. . they exist in a chamber in which the atmosphere has been removed. that is. The volume of mercury in the second flask is three times the volume of mercury in the first flask.. If the force exerted by the piston is F. then the load moves up a distance Ax.
2 x Nlm). 19. 8 5 d s D.12 m3/s D. If yis the surface tension of water (y= 7.0 g/cm3.2 g/cm3? A. What would happen to the height difference h. They have.06 m3/s. h. by a factor of 2..24 m3/s 21. B. then what is the maximum weight that the thread can have without sinking? measure the velocity of the water. 67 m/s C. A tiny propeller is inserted at point A in order to . The solid circle. 20. 0. The figure shows a simple barometer. Section F The wire circle. 9 6 d s . which is essentially a Utube with one end leading to a reservoir whose pressure is desired and the other end open to the atmosphere.03 m3/s B. 2 1 d s B. 0. Use the following information to answer questions 2021: A pipe with a circular cross section has water flowing in it from A to B. A wire circle is sitting on the surface of the water. It would decrease.17. The solid circle. At end A the flow rate is 0.  E 18. 0. There is not enough information to answer this question. by a factor of 2. A thread (diameter 6)in the shape of a rectangle (length 1. C. if the water were replaced by salt water with a density 1.06 m3/s c. B. What does it read? A. The radius of the pipe at A is 6 cm. while the radius at B is 3 cm. and a solid circle of the same diameter is also sitting on the water. D. D. C. Section A. with a density of p = 1. It would increase. 0. Which one can have the larger maximum mass without sinking? The liquid in the tube is water. The height of water in the open column is h. by a factor of 4. width w) is lying on the surface of the water. What is the flow rate at end B? A. It would stay the same.The height of water in the reservoir column is h..the same maximum mass.
. and it moves with velocity v. v. The pressure in the chamber is P. D. = qAv/d. r2v& P. and the pressure outside the chamber is P. The piston has a radius rand a length I. . Use the following information to answer questions 2526: A hockey puck of area A and mass m rides on an air hockey table.. 2 M f D. Which expression gives the magnitude of the work done by the pressure outside the chamber on the piston during the time At? A. while the radius at B is r. The movement of the piston is lubricated by oil which has a viscosity q.. so that the pressure from combustion in the reaction chamber is used to push the piston back at a constant rate and do useful work. Section G Use the following information to answer questions 2324: A piston fits into a sleeve. The puck turns with frequency f (revolutions per unit time). C. 25.. where A. as shown in the figure). relative velocity. P.. such that the radius of the pipe at point A is r.2nrzvAt P.. &f 26. = qAv/d. A pipe has a circular cross section.. The velocity of the fluid particles at point A is v. Which expression gives the force due to viscosity? A. The rod exerts a small torque to maintain the circular motion over time. and d are the relevant surface area...The puck is connected to a thread whose other end is attached to a vertical small rod.. such that Ar is very small compared to r .. so the puck travels a large circle of radius R (R is much larger than the radius of the puck. 2zrlqvlAr GO ON T THE NEXT PAGE O 174 . Recall: The force due to viscosity is given by F. Which expression gives the torque which the rod must exert? 23. which gives the best expression for v? A. Which expression gives the velocity of the fluid particles at point B? 24. The force due to viscosity is F.The MCAT Physics Book 22.. since otherwise the puck would gradually slow down and stop. so that the puck sits on a cushion of air (which has a thickness d and viscosity q). If v is the velocity of the puck. nrlvAt B.. zcRf c. z r Z v A t Pm. and separation. The sleeve has a radius slightly larger than the piston r + Ar. Rf B.An incompressible fluid is flowing through the pipe at flow ratef.
. because the pool is not part of the flow. . Fluids Reynold's number is given by Re = lpvlq.. . = pressure of the outside atomosphere p = density of water. because the water develops turbulence. (See figure.. where 1 is the length scale of the pipe or of obstacles.. Does Bernoulli's principle apply for the water which falls into the pool? No. I I h Pressure 30. because the water returns to the level of the nozzle.e2 A I . Section H 29. LP. Which of the following would tend to reduce the likelihood of turbulent flow? A. ... Which gives the best expression for the velocity of the water just after it leaves the nozzle? GO ON TO M E NEXT PAGE . Which gives the best expression for the height h? Use the following infonnation to answer questions 2830: Water in a certain sprinkler system Bows through a level hose connected to a nozzle which is directed upward. = crosssectional area of the nozzle & = length of the hose P.. .... Make the joints in the pipe smooth. Raise the temperature. Assume the flow has no viscosity from the reservoir until it gets out of the nozzle. Pg 4. The water leaves the nozzle and shoots to a height h before falling back down again into a pool.."" A. The end of the hose outside the tank is at height h = 0 meters.. A.. Consider water flowing in a pipe.) D. .. . . D. Increase the radius of the pipe... C.. No. and the top of the water is at height h. v is the velocity of the fluid... .. the end of the hose inside the tank is at height h.. . The hose is filled with water and the other end is below the tank. because the water develops viscosity. the more likely it is that turbulence will develop. Use the following infonnation to answer questions 3132: A tank of water has a hose coming out of the top. .Chapter 10 . .. No. Increase the flow rate. The bottom of the tank is at height h.. . B. 28. B. so that the system acts as a syphon. . p is the density of the fluid. The greater Reynold's number for a given flow. No. Assume the flow is without viscosity. Use the following notation: A. .. D.. €+L Pool The hose is connected to a reservoir which maintains the water there at a pressure P. and 7 is the viscosity.. C.
the pressure in the narrow tube? Pressure valve GO ON TO THE N X PAGE ET . P.. = pressure of the reservoir Pa. = velocity of water in the wide tube I 35. .? 32. = velocity of water in the narrow tube v. = atmospheric pressure A .? Use the following infonnation to answer questions 3335: In a chemistry laboratory it is often useful to create a partial vacuum. = crosssectional area of the wide tube v. Use the following notation: p = density of water p. Which gives the best expression for P. Which gives the best expression for v. The reservoir has pressure greater than the ambient atmospheric pressure.) 1 D. Assume that there is no viscosity and that gravity plays no role. Which gives the best expression for v. Which is the best expression for the velocity of the flow coming out of the hose? 1 33. + pg(h + h. P. Which is the best expression for the pressure at the bottom of the tank? A.) 34. A simple way to do this involves connecting a wide pipe to a narrow pipe which is connected to a reservoir of water (just the water line).h. = crosssectional area of the narrow tube A.The MCAT Physics Book 31. the pressure in the narrow tube is less than atmospheric pressure..pg(h . A valve can be placed in the narrow tube to take advantage of the partial vacuum..r = density of air P . but once flow is established.
40.. 1.Chdptsr 10 . = 3 x m.20N . The joke is that customers cannot manage to 2 drink their beverages. Use R = 0. D . what is the force that the sink exerts . R = 0. C . A. Drink a beverage which has a smaller density.. 0 plir 1 2kg/m3.2 of water. .. Neither I nor I1 would work. D There is not enough information to answer the .. Consider the following possibilities: I. D. We can model 0 0 the dike as a dam 2 rn high and 1 0 km long on top of an 0 0 ocean which is another 980 m deep. 0 0 dike. C.. What happens when the chemist connects her pump to the straw? A. A metal box in the shape of a cube which is 0 1 m on a .. and 1 atm = 1 0 x 1' Pa. One night a chemist brings along a vacuum pump from her laboratory.. is able to hold 0 1liters of coffee. 210N 420N 2100N 2. B . = 1' Pa.. The pump is able to draw the liquid to the fourth floor and quench her thirst. . 0 p = 1d kg/m3. . I only. 1 Which option will help a customer to draw the beverage up the straw? A. It is tied to a string and lowered into a glass . g = 1 rn/s2... GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE .01m . .1~10~~ Use the following information to answer:questions 4143: When the dike sprang a leak. . question. Use the following information to answer questions 3839: The restaurant BistroanMaineStreet is located on the fourth floor of a certain building. . where there is a vacuum. A .. .) . D .) 39. The pump is theoretically able to draw the liquid to the fourth floor. and use 9 8m/s2 for the acceleration due to gravity.54N There is not enough information to answer the question.0821 L atm / K mol. = 1' Pa. and 1 0 km long. B. A silver necklace has a mass of 50 grams and a volume 4 8 cm3.0821 L atm/K mol. The box has 8 grams of oxygen gas in it at 2 ahn. 37. There is not enough information to answer this question. Part of the restaurant's "character" is that the beverages are served on the first floor with a straw leading up to the fourthfloor customers 1 meters up. Assume the pump can draw a perfect vacuum. = lo3kg/m3. Let's say the hole is a square 0 0 m by 0. The beverage will not rise past a certain point. no matter how good the pump is. .1 located 1 m below the surface of the water. Fluids All sections C. 1 . I1 only. . If the density of water is lo3kg/mg. . on the coffee cup? (Use 9 8 m/s2 for the acceleration due to gravity. = . B. Either I or I1 would work. . A coffee cup sits fully submerged at the bottom of the 2 sink filled with water. B.. The other end of the string is connected to a force meter.18 N C 2. and the radius of the straw r. The coffee cup is 1 0 grams and ..49N 0. Assume that viscosity is negligible. Assume also that surface tension of the beverage plays no role.1 0 is the best estimate of the force the gas exerts on one face of the cube? A 0. the little Dutch boy placed his finger in the hole to stop the flow. Use a straw of smaller radius. What . 38. D. . . We have P.44N 0... B. 1 0 km wide.16N . . and we have P. .. p. 36. and g = 1 m/s2. side floats in space. C. but it requires an infinite amount of time. . . 0. . What is the reading on the force meter? (Take the density of water to be 1 g/cm3.
What would be the flow through the hole if the little Dutch boy removed his finger? A. = 790 grams) is tied to a string which is hung from a force meter.0 g/cm3. There is not enough information to answer this question. 1 0 4 ~ D.. 44.9 N B. What would be the velocity of the stream if the little Dutch boy removed his finger from the hole? A. 102N C. 8.5 x lo4m3/s D. 49 N 50N 51N There is not enough information to answer this question. 140 m/s D. Use the following information to answer questions 4445: A. C. 43. the water inside the straw rises above the surface level outside and a rniniscus (curvature of the surface) forms. 6. 1N B. Consider the column of water in the straw from the height of the water outside the straw to the top of the column. 4. What force does the little Dutch boy have to exert in order to keep his finger in the dike? A. = atmospheric pressure . B. g = acceleration due to gravity .9 g/cm3and the density of water is 1.. where the column is shown shaded.5 x lo2m3/s C. (See figure. = yL.5 x lo4 m3/s B. A steel hammer (m.) Let P. where y is the coefficient of surface tension (which depends only on the substance) and L is the length of the line of contact between an object and the fluid. 45 m/s C.The MCAT Physics Book 41. For this problem use the following: p = density of water y = surface tension of water r = radius of the straw h = height of the column P. 45.5 mls B. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . The acceleration due to gravity is 10 mls2. What does . A container of water (m. 4. The force due to surface tension for a maximally stretched surface is given by F. 4. The hammer is lowered completely into the water but it does not touch the bottom. 7. There is not enough information to answer this question. Assume the density of steel is 7. What does the force meter read? A.9N C. There is not enough information to answer this question. be a point in the straw at the bottom of the column and let P. D. = 5 kg) sits on a scale.9N D. be a point inside the water column at the top. Passage 1 When we place a straw (a hollow cylindrical tube) in water. 4. There is not enough information to answer this question.he scale holding the water read? 42.
= lcr2hpg F. Pressure at P2 is greater than at P .. It turns out not to be a good model for Nature. Gravity.. so the downward force of gravity is equal to the upward force of surface tension.. force due to pressure on top surface. B. . 6. xylem is a tube or pipe. pgh. What are the forces acting on the column? A. D. Vascular plants transport water by a passive transport system using xylem. Model 1 pressure less than atmoshpere F = lcr2(p. The height h would increase by a factor of 4. 2ry BC. A. . What expression approximates the force due to surface tension? A. In another model (Model 2 . C..... the same force that causes water to rise in a thin straw when it is sitting in water. long cylinders along branches of plants.pgh) F = zr2p. . What expression gives the force due to gravity on the column? A. There is not enough information to answer this question. C. B.. force due to pressure on top surface. D. Gravity. shown in first figure below). Pressure at P .. 'v 2my 2zr2y/h What happens if r decreases by a factor of 2? A. force due to pressure on bottom surface.? . . .. B.. down. Gravity. and at P2 are both Pa.. D. and at P.. The figure shows a tube whose bottom end is in a reservoir of water.. GO ON TO THE N X PAGE ET 179 . In particular.. 4.. . by the term pgh I Passage 2 2. In this case the forces on the column of water have to be balanced. Pressure at P . D. In one model (Model 1. trees use this tissue to transport water against the force of gravity to great heights. 5.. . C D. xylem is a narrow tube which exerts a force on water by surface tension.. or at P. down. and water is "pulled" up by reducing the pressure at the top of the column of water in the xylem. . Pressure at P ... The top end is closed and has a cavity whose pressure is less than atmospheric pressure. . What expression gives the magnitude of the force due to pressure on the top of the column? A.Chdpter 10 . Fgrav r2hg = FBrrv 2r2hg = F.072 N/m for water) and the circumference of the cylinder.. B. force due to pressure on bottom surface. by the term You should understand the last passage before going on to the next one... is greater than at P. The force of surface tension is the product of the coefficient of surface tension y(0.. C.. = 21crzhpg B. the pressure at P. The height h would stay the same. up. down. F = 2 z r 2 Pa. 3.. .. .. C. are the same but not Pa. and surface tension. Gravity. D.pgh) F = 2 z r 2 ( p a . The height h would increase by a factor of 2. and surface tension. force due to pressure on top surface. . down. force due to pressure on bottom surface. a cell tissue which forms thin. down. Fluids 1 Which pressure is greater. shown in figure below).. .
What is maximum height of a column of water in xylem in Model 2? A. Increase the density of xylem. Use the estimate P.The MCAT Physics Book In both models the height of the column is h and the radius of the tube is r.6 meters B. Use . adhered to the walls. 200 meters 2. The temperature of the fluid in the chamber is Tcb. = 10' ~ / m for atmospheric pressure. .m. B.44.32 Note: The tallest trees are the redwoods. This solution has enough heat and pressure to create a hot stream to shoot out of an opening (radius 0. The nozzle has radius r and crosssectional area A. When the bombardier beetle is attacked or provoked. Decrease the radius of the cylinder. in Model l ? A. and the entire chamber has volume V . 20 meters D.65 . The pressure in the chamber . it sprays a jet of hot liquid toward its attacker. which can be as high as 100 meters. connected by a valve to an outer chamber which contains oxidative enzymes (peroxidase and catalase) I chamber GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 180 .44184 . D. C. ' lo3kg/m3 for the density of water and 10 m/s2 for the acceleration of gravity. and this provides the force on the fluid in the nozzle. A. C. None of the above will increase the maximum height. greater than the outside pressure P. Increase the radius of the cylinder. I The heats of formation of the various compounds are shown in the table. . species hydrogen peroxide hydroquinone quinone water How could the maximum height be increased in Model 2? Decrease the radius of the cylinder. We can model this outer chamber as a volume (reaction P is flask) with a nozzle. None of the above will increase the maximum height. 1 meter B. The jet comes out of an opening at the tip of its abdomen.45. 10 meters C. 36 meters C. < hydroquinone hydrogen peroxide 3.68. The physical mechanism for creating the hot spray consists of two chambers in the abdomen: an inner chamber which stores hydrogen peroxide and hydroquinone in water solution. 3. Increase the density of xylem. inner chamber outer chamber How could the maximum height be increased in Model I? A. 72 meters D 144 meters .68 . B. Passage 3 This reaction in the outer chamber creates a solution of the products of reaction (1) in water.1 rnm) in the tip of the abdomen at a speed v = 12 m/s. Increase the radius of the cylinder. which it can move in order to direct the stream. which is about 2 x m. 4. D.4benzoquinone): 1 What is maximum height of a column of water in xylem . The beetle squeezes the hydrogen peroxide and hydroquinone into the outer chamber where the following reaction takes place to form quinone (also called 1.
* . .. which react somewhat as follows: 4Zr(s.m molecules in the chamber.6 meters B. . n. What is the approximate height to which the spray would travel if it were directed straight up? (Ignore air resistance. (pchm . I A recent innovation in automobile safety is the airbag. What is the flow rate out of the beetle's abdomen? A. In addition to the information given in the passage and the boiling point of the product solution.. .. is the number of moles of . . This ingredient is prepared using the reaction of sodium amide and nitrous oxide: GO ON T T E N X PAGE O H ET 181 . and the heat of reaction (1). 1 + pv2. P. 7. 5. Fluids What is the primary reason that the reaction rate of the reaction (1) increases when the reactants go from the inner chamber to the outer chamber? A. zirconium and potassium hyperchlorate. v. reaction depending on the temperature. .) A. 4 x lo' cm3/s B.. a scientist wants to determine whether there is enough heat to raise the temperature to the boiling point of the solution. . + 421O(~. B. . The main active ingredient in the airbag is the sodium azide. the airbag provides a soft cushion. Which of the following expressions gives the best approximation of the pressure inside the chamber? A. In the event of a collision.. RT C. The essential mechanism of the airbag consists of a sealed combustion chamber containing iron(II1) oxide and sodium azide. . C. B.where n is the number of moles of . what information does she need to do the calculation? A.2 meters C. . the concentration of quinone. . 3. Once reaction (1) takes place in the outer chamber. 14. . 2 B.. an airbag in front of the driver inflates in about 0. . D . 7. / B.. . As the driver's body comes to a rapid stop.. In reference to the model in the last paragraph. Heat capacity of the solution.where n. + Pam )A 2.4 meters 4.where n is the number of moles of molecules in the chamber. .. which gives the best expression for the total force on the part of the fluid in the nozzle? A. v quinone in the chamber. .2 meters D..Pam )A (PC. 1. The catalyst decreases the heat of reaction.. +KC&) (2) D . softer than the steering wheel in any case.02 seconds.. C The surface area of reaction is increased.. .+ KCIO. . . 4 x cm3/s 6. consisting of an electric coil. where p is the density of the fluid.. B.. Heat capacity of the solution. The concentration of the reactants is increased. The catalyst does not affect the heat of reaction.. + v. and volume of the outer chamber. .1 . the concentration of quinone. which react to form the nitrogen gas which fills the airbag: D The catalyst may decrease or increase the heat of . Chdptcr 10 . How does the catalyst affect the heat of reaction for reaction (I)? A.(s.. Heat capacity of the solution. Heat capacity of the solution and the concentration of quinone. C The catalyst increases the heat of reaction. The temperature is increased.. nRT <tm nRT In the same chamber is an ignitor. D The activation energy is decreased.. 0.
C.Db# I\ rupture filter screen 4. B. which could contaminate the reaction. which expression gives the grams of sodium azide required? During a collision. B. Assume that the final gas has temperature 27" C at 1 atmosphere of pressure. chemical to heat to work against the atmosphere. As the bag deflates. Increasing the distance over which the deceleration occurs decreases the required force. After 15 ms. which has the greatest entropy increase? energy flow for the airbag inflation? A. the seal of the combustion chamber bursts and releases the products (see figure). Increasing the area decreases the pressure on any given body part. c. it is hoped that the driver can walk away from the collision with no injuries worse than abrasions from the inflating bag. What is a possible purpose for keeping the combustion chamber sealed during the first 15 ms of reaction? A. it is almostly completely deflated by the time the accident is over. Which of the following is the least likely byproduct for reaction (1) referred to in Paragraph 3? A. D. B. What is the advantage of having an airbag with larger area (as one views it from the driver seat)? A. What is the best possible purpose for having the bag deflate as the driver presses into it? A. Thus. D. chemical to heat A. FeO D. B. The bag's deflation decreases the energy of the collision. This ensures that poisonous byproducts are prevented from entering the bag. chemical to gravitational potential.The MCAT Physics Book 3. D. Increasing the area increases the gasflow rate. so as the driver presses against it. and (3). 1. D. Na C. and the whole reaction (I) continues for about 50 ms. D. Increasing the area decreases the density of the gas inside the bag. The reactants are protected from water vapor. C. 7. Increasing the area decreases the gas flow rate. 2. Of reactions (I). B. This keeps the reactants near the catalyst. NaO. 5. the temperature of the gas decreases to safe levels. an electric coil starts reaction (2). The bag is porous. The concentration of reactants is kept high to speed the reaction. Allowing the gas to flow out of the bag ensures that the bag does not burst. C. C. After that. A filter screen removes the solid products of reaction (I) and other trace reaction products (some possibly noxious) while passing the nitrogen gas I gas chamber chamber Lb r igniter Y '. chemical to kinetic to heat. (1) (2) (3) All three have zero entropy increase. B. N$N GO ON TO THE N C PAGE UT 182 . 6 Which of the following is the best description of the . the bag deflates. The nitrogen gas fills the bag in about 20 ms. (2). This provides the heat which ignites reaction (I). If 1000 liters of gas are desired.
B The speed v is the same as v. 'Ihe figure below shows a flow with a constriction. is placed inside. we can consider the line shown in the figure. the heights of the left and right columns of mercury are h. and a crosssectional area A. Barometer 1 does not intempt the flow.. 4. 3.A barometer. This cannot be determined from the information given. ? expression gives the reservoir pressure P reservoir at pressure pmS h2 2.. Nevertheless. a device that measures pressure. . Which .. d  . compare with the pressure P. is the same as P..and that measured by Barometer 2 is P. then what is the upstream velocity of the flow? A modification of a barometer can be used to measure Bow speed. so it If measures P.? .. How does the speed v compare with the speed v. In the consmction the flow has a . 1. . A. s&&=   Barometer 1 Barometer 2 The flow just in front of the tip comes to stop at what is called a stagnation point. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE .. filling the bottom portion of the U. D. The pressure P. C. The speed v is less than v3. like mercury... This cannot be determined from the information given. is less than P. velocity v . that is. Barometer 2 is placed in the flow as shown in the figure below.. C . pressure P. If the pressure measured by Barometer 1 in the second figure is P.. incompressible fluid moving a speed v and pressure P. . In the first figure. A fluid.pressure P. The pressure P. is greater than P.. can be constructed from a tube which is open at both ends and shaped like a U. .and a crosssectional area A. to be a streamline. How does the pressure P.far upstream. and h.? A.. which comes to an end at the stagnation point. respectively. then the pressure above the liquid on that end is less. For the following prob!ems. The flow far upstream has a speed v. D. Consider a pipe which carries an inviscid.. The pressure P. let p be the density of mercury. The speed v is greater than v. B . If the height of the mercury column at one end is greater than at the other end. then the tip of the barometer forms an obstruction in the flow.
How would the velocity..? A. C. The new pressure would be less than P. . .. B. remained the same. D. P.. How would the new pressure in the constriction be changed from P.. D. P. tion be changed from v? A. . but v. The new pressure would be the same as P . remained the same. Again.. but v.v in the constric.A. suppose the fluid were replaced with a fluid that had viscosity.. The speed would be the same as v . This cannot be determined from the information given. . and A.The MCAT Physics Book 5 Suppose the fluid were replaced with an incompressible . fluid that had viscosity. .. B.. The speed would be less than v. The new pressure would be greater than P . 6. The speed would be greater than v. STOP ..and A. This cannot be determined from the information given. C.. A..
If you compress a spring capable of being compiessed. The force F3is the force the hand exerts on the spring. The forces F3and p4are equal in magnitude because of the third law of motion as well. then it exerts a force Fvring kl: = 3 (1) where k is the spring constant in [Nlm]. and the bending and reflecting of waves. In this chapter we look at what these various wave phenomena have in common. such as sound and light. Hooke's law states that the force is proportional to the extension or compression. the spring exerts a pull on you. The forces p2and F3 add to zero because of the second law of motion. Figure 112 shows a spring attached to a wall stretched by a hand. Figure 113 shows all the forces involved. Waves govern many of the phenomena we experience every day. + x. but there are four forces. You need to visualize the toandfro motion of the medium. and the force of the spring is opposite the direction of the pull (or push). their socalled "wavelike" nature. and it is stretched (or compressed) to a length 1. the more it pulls. The more you stretch it. because the spring is not accelerating.I Chapter 1 1 I A. (See Figure 111. Only in this way will the few formulas and ideas become intuitive. In the following two chapters we will look at sound and light separately. But it is especially important to have ready a mental pad of paper. and is the force the wall exerts on the spring. These forces are equal in magnitude because of the third law of motion. All these forces are equal in magnitude (for various reasons). The force p. F2 F4 . For these chapters it will be important to have pen and paper ready to recopy diagrams and rework problems. and is the force the spring exerts on the hand. is the force the spring ejrerts on the wall. then it exerts a push. If you stretch a spring. Introduction This chapter begins the study of waves.) Let's be clear about the forces involved here. giving force balance. t Hooke's Law If a spring has resting length 4. the shape of waves.
so we have EK + Ep = constant. Again If there is no friction. In many problems. Example: One end. (See Figure 114. but then it decreases as the spring moves the mass. showing the system at three different times.1 m) (0.2 1 But this would be WRONG.) In the work equation we assume the force is constant.The MCAT Physics Book Figure 112 Theforce exerted by a spring is proportional to the displacement of one end. as in many types of physics problems.The force of = .of a horizontal spring (k = 20 Nlm) is connected to a wall. no crashing.Ax (20 Nlm x 0.2 kg). After it is released. how much work does the spring do in order to push the mass to the equilibrium position? Solution: Our first idea is to write the work equation: W = F&COS$J = Fswn. and if each force is a potential force or does no work.1 m from equilibrium. and the other end is connected to a mass m (0. the spring begins at (20 Nlm) (0. The spring is compressed 0. Figure 111 Figure 113 In spring problems. (3) The expression Ep includes both gravitational and spring energies. it is important to follow the energy. then the sum of kinetic and potential energies is constant. we can treat this potential energy like gravitational potential energy. The potential energy of a stretched or compressed spring is as follows: This energy is the second type of potential energy we have encountered. although in most problems it represents just one or the other.1 m) = 0. What shall we do? .1 m) = 2 N. no heat generation. Conservation of Energy.
We stretch the spring to length 1.Chqter 11 . Spend some time making sure you understand every entry on the table. . As the mass goes faster. the displacement x and force F... (and thus x = O). Figure 115 . + A and let go. . . Figure 115 shows the movement at five times. = 4 =4 1 4 2 The spring's force changes as the mass moves. so we have w. spring constant k ) which is connected to a wall. C. that is. 'lhe maximum displacement occurs when v = 0 and the magnitude of the spring force is very large. This motion is called simple harmonic motion. What happens? At first the spring pulls the mass back towards equilibrium. Periodic Motion: One Oscillator Let's think about a mass rn connected to a horizontal spring (resting length I. .d b But the kinetic energy of the mass comes from the potential energy of the spring. In the first line the negative sign of the acceleration indicates the acceleration vector points left. The mass is sitting on a frictionless floor (so we can ignore vertical forces). force and acceleration are zero. the same as the force of the spring. The work done by the spring on the mass is the same as the change in kinetic energy of the mass (by energy conservation). L. = AE. the v . but thinking about the energy flow is the key to success. so the equation W = FAX does not apply. .. the restoring mass is moving velocity . Periodic Motion and Wdves Let's think about the flow of energy after the release... Figure 114 This is one of those problems in which blind plugging into the formulas is to no avail. Because the length is I. When the spring is length b. decrease.
We would guess that a system with a ~tiff~spring would have a high frequency (think about it). so it makes sense that k should be in the numerator. In both. and it has units [lls = Hertz = Hz]. The frequency of a pendulum is given by Note that the mass of the bob m does not appear in this equation. which is connected to a ceiling of some sort. and the dashed arrows show mg the gravitational force divided into components. + E. (= constant) =& +_my2. f the latter : :" Figure 116 where sin0 is approximately equal to 0 (measured in radians) for small angles. f increases. . but you should be familiar with the fact that m does not appear in it. the force is proportional to the displacement. Also a larger mass will decrease the frequency. = E. the solid mows are the two forces mgcose on the bob. so a 10kg mass swings on a 3m string with the same period as a 0. The restoring force is similar to t h t o a spring with a mass. A mgsine 116. and it has units [s].The MCAT Physics Book K E.1kg mass swinging on a 3m string. As k increases. In a pendulum we have a bob connected to a string or a light rod. Note the similarity of this equation to equation (1). along the supporting rod and A pendulum operates by a principle perpendicular to it. In this case. so it makes sense that rn is in the denominator. so the motion is similar. the restoring force is provided not by a spring but by a component of gravity. The period T is the time it takes for the system to go through one cycle. Let's consider a similar set up. l The maximum displacement of the mass from equilibrium is the amplitude A. In Figure . We have The frequency is related to the spring constant and the mass as follows: Let's see if this equation makes sense. You need not memorize this equation. The square root is needed to make the units agree. Thefrequency f is the number of cycles a system goes through in a unit of time.
and if the energy starts in one oscillator. Let's look at some general characteristics of this system. then the energy tends to be slowly transfer back and forth between the oscillators. Gradually. Two pendulums connected by a If one of the pendulums is set to weak coupling (spring). and the air between them. The energy of swinging has transferred from the first pendulum to the second. the wine glass. The soprano can tap the glass to hear its natural frequency. by the weak coupling. Then the first pendulum comes almost to a stop while the second one swings with the original amplitude of the first. I I Figure 118 shows two pendulums with a very weak spring connecting them. Periodic Motion: Two Connected Oscillators In the last section we looked at a single oscillator moving in one dimension. . Figure 117 shows a slightly more complicated system with two similar pendulums connected by a weak spring. This is called resonance. enough energy enters the wine glass to cause it to go into a nonlinear regime. the air. If two weakly connected oscillators have similar frequencies.Chdpter 1 1 . The energy in the first pendulum is slowly transferred to the second then slowly back again. In this case. swinging. If she sings that note very loudly. . . This is an example of a general principle.) . her vocal cords. a wine glass.) Now the situation is reversed from the original set up. Periodic Motion dr~dW W d S I D. The second pendulum now transfers energy to the first pendulum. and it bursts. and transfers to the other oscillator. This continues until the second one is at rest and the first is swinging. . * still * * still * * still These are two pendula weakly connected by a spring. while the first pendulum swings less and less.E. (See Figure 118. I Figure 118 Another example of resonance involves a soprano. the second pendulum swings higher and higher.. then the energy starts in one oscillator. (See Section 7. the other pendulum hardly moves at first because the coupling is Figure 117 weak.
transporting energy. A water skater sitting at point P goes up and down and up with period T.CAT + t + t The arrows show the displacement in this longitudinal wave. Figure 1110 t In many cases the velocity is constant. Waves. When you see a ripple across a field of grain. and the large arrow shows the direction of travel. the circular ripples carry energy and momentum away from the original disturbance. the disturbance travels a long distance. watch for this on the .The wavelength A is the length from peak to peak (or trough to trough or ascending zero ooint to ascending. The amplitude A is a measure of the size of the disturbance. and this formula simply relates frequency and wavelength. measured in [s]. his frequency is f = 1/T. then the wave is called longitudinal. A wave is a disturbance (small movement or change) in a medium such that. because it is the wind pushing the grain. if the disturbance of the medium is in the same direction as the direction of wave travel. The large arrow shows the direction of wave travel. Figure 111 1 shows a longitudinal wave on a spring. zero mint). although the medium moves hardly at all. an Introduction rn rn Figure 119 When you throw a rock into an otherwise calm lake. Of course. . The units depend on the kind of wave it is and on how we measure it. The small arrows show the direction of the displacement.The MCAT Physics Book I E. The wavelength is measured in [m]. Figure 1110 shows water waves frozen at several moments in time. The velocity of a wave is given by  I L A water wave moves to the right but keeps its shape. measured from the equilibrium point to the high point. The waves are moving to the right. These ripples are waves (Figure 1 1 9). and the grain itself does not cany any energy or momentum. Figure 1111 In a wave. that is not a wave.
consider a wave on a lake (amplitude 7 cm.Chapter II . Unpolarized transverse waves are a random mixture of the two polarizations. like two balls or two cars. up and down in and out of page The arrows show the displacement in these polarized transverse waves. would be (+2 + 1) cm = +1 cm. It is not as complicated as it sounds. . Longitudinal waves cannot be polarized. The large arrow shows the direction of wave travel. . Interference When two particles come together. Figure 1112 shows two examples of transverse waves.. . 1 cm. they generally collide in some manner. wavelength 4 m) aniving from the north.) 2 Three seconds later. together. that is. wavelength 6 m) arrives from the east. . The resulting height of the water at 12:30 at point A is (+5 + 2) cm = +3 cm. then the wave is called transverse. Periodic M o t i o n and Waves If the disturbance of the medium is perpendicular to the direction of wave travel. 1such that at time 12:30 its height would be 2 cm if it were the only wave around. The table below shows most of the examples of waves that you need to know for the MCAT. For example. wave 1 When two waves come would have height +7 cm and wave 2. they interfere. Figure 1112 wave longitudinaVtransverse medium water wave both water T string wave on plucked string sound L air earthquake both earth light T electric. let's say. they can be confined to moving in one of two dimensions. such that at point A at time 12:30 (exactly) its height would be +5 crn if it were the only wave around (Figure 1113). When two waves come together. Then the new height. Now another wave (amplitude 10 cm. . with both waves. magnetic fields F. they do not collide but jumble together in a process called interference. Transverse waves are capable of being polarized. (These heights are measured relative to A the equilibrium height of the water. Figure 1113   !I II .
in phase. For the water skater at C. Figure 1115 shows a third example of interference on water. Figure 1116 Figure 1114 6h 192 . I Figure 1114 shows another example of this. Alice and Alice sits (and where Bob sits). Water skaters are sitting on A the water at points A. and the interference is neither in phase nor out of phase but somewhere in between. The resulting amplitude is the sum of the individual amplitudes. so A experiences increased amplitude UPDOWNUPDOWNUP. the relative phase is between 0"and 180°. Their relative phase is said to be 0". the resulting displacement of the medium is the sum of the individual displacements. The resulting amplitude is the difference of the 2 individual amplitudes. Stereo speakers are at points Sound waves arriving from 1 and 2. The skater at point A experiences the updownupdownup from the wave on the left and the updownupdownup from the wave on the right. and point A is called an antinode. By superposition we see that the resulting motion is no displacement at all. The resulting amplitude is somewhere inbetween as well. 1 For the water skater at B. this time with sound waves. when the wave forms tend to cancel and give minimal displacement. P  Two wave trains are about to interfere. u L Figure 1115 I Transverse pukes interfere. and point C is called a node.h he MCAT Physics Book Principle of Superposition When two waves come together. B. one from the right and one from the left. and the right wave is downupdownupdown. Superposition tells us that the resulting motion is added. the left wave is updownupdownup. Their relative phase is said to be 180". In this example a wave train from the left encounters a wave train from the right with the same wavelength. Bob are listening to the speakers. and C. This is called constructive interference. in which two wave pulses come together. Figure 11. The two waves are said to be out of phase.16 shows a fourth Alice Bob example of interference. The two waves are said to be in phase. This is called destructive interference. both producing a pure tone (sine speakers I and 2 interfere where wave) of wavelength A. when two wave forms add in such a way as to create maximal displacement of the medium.
is further away from speaker 1 than from speaker 2 by half a wavelength.19 shows what Alice hears with Sound wave heard by Alice Sound from speaker 2 Alice hears sound from speakers 1 and 2. cannot be heard well. Figure 1122 Note: In real life it is difficult to hear this phenomenon fully. . Since the waves begin in phase and travel equal distances. She experiences construcFor Alice the sound waves tive interference. since the amplitudes of the two speakers are rarely exactly the same. (See Figure 1120. Figure 1117 shows the waves traveling from speakers to Alice. Note that these figures show displacement of air particles versus time. a trough is just arriving from speaker 1. . .) Figure 1121 shows the sound waves from Sound from speaker 1 Alice Bob Bob hears soundfrom speakers 1 and 2. greater intensity than that from one speaker. where certain notes made by the concert master's violin. If only speaker 1 were making sound. Figure 1119 Bob. Periodic M o t i o n and Waves Alice is an equal distance from both speakers. . Figure 11. the wave arriving at her ear would look like that shown in the same figure.Chapter 11 . Figure 1122 shows what Bob hears. The sound from speaker 1 i s delayed by halfa wavelength. . . What difference does half a wavelength make? The wave arriving from speaker 1 has further to go. However. the wave arriving at her ear would look like that shown in Figure 1 118. Sound wave heard by Bob. Figure 1118 both speakers. Figure 1120 Figure 1121 the two speakers. For Bob the sound waves add destructively. architects of orchestra halls often must guard against the possibility of "dead spots". they arrive in phase. for example. If only speaker 2 Sound from speaker 1 Alice \ Bob A A A f V r Figure 1117 were making a sound. so she hears a sound of add constructively. nothing. so when a peak is coming from speaker 2. however.
What is the lowest frequency which can be played on it? (The lowest frequency corresponds to the normal mode with no nodes except at the ends. These are standing waves. The main difference is that traveling waves may have any frequency Lowestfrequency mode for at all. when there are bands of strong and weak amplitude.65 m waves which are unconstrained by boundaries.65 m long. so that the longest wavelength you can imagine would look something like that shown in Figure 1123. Figure 1123 Think about a wave on an infinite string. but there is a lowest possible frequency. or cetera. you should suspect that constructive and destructive interference is the' cause. Now think about a wave on a guitar string. or 312. and it is 0. Generally there are an infinite number of allowed frequencies. 4 be Waves trapped in a cavity may have only certain allowed frequencies. But you should recognize constructive and destructive interference when you see it (or hear it). The fixed ends now constrain your imagination. and there is a lowest frequency.) . a next lowesf and so on. Destructive interference occurs when two waves differ by half a wavelength. or traveling waves. How could it any longer. with the ends forced to be at equilibrium points? I . Example 1: A guitar string has a wave velocity 285 mls. or two. or cetera. certain allowed frequencies. In any wave phenomenon.The MCAT Physics Book Calculations of this type get complicated fairly quickly. or 512. Standing waves are waves constrained inside a cavity. whereas standing waves have only a string held at both ends. beyond the scope of the MCAT. A mode of motion in which every part of the medium moves back and forth at the same frequency is called a normal mode. So far we have been talking of 0. or one. The example of the guitar string will help make this clear. There is nothing to constrain your imagination to think of waves of any wavelength. And you should recognize this: Constructive interference occurs when two waves differ by no wavelengths.
. but that is always called thefundamenraf). . .write so Figure 1123 is half a wavelength. Periodic Motion and Waves Solution: Figure 1123 shows the normal mode for the lowest frequency. the midpoint of this string . A full wavelength looks like. Example 2: What is the second lowest frequency that can be excited on the same guitar string? Solution: Figure 1124 shows the normal mode with one node between the ends. That is. For this mode the wavelength is A = 0. . f= a rn Figure 1124 = 440Hz. . We write Next lowest frequency mode v for a string held a t both ends. This frequency is called the second hannonic (the first harmonic being the fundarnental.65 m.experiences destructive interference and thus no motion at all. . The wavelength is given by F i r e 1125 = 660Hz. Example 3: What is the third lowest frequency that can be excited on the guitar string? Solution: Figure 1125 shows the normal mode with two nodes between the ends.Chapter 1 1 . . This is the third hannonic. We This frequency is called thefundamental.
wavelength A. $waves come .. It is important to get the ends correct (for example. it is important to draw accurate force diagrams and remember the spring equation F. In this chapter we explored springs and waves. They have the distinguishing characteristic that only certain frequencies are allowed: a lowest. To solve problems involving stationary springs. Often waves have a characteristic frequency f and a WhenI . If they interfere constructively. it is often more important to follow the energy flow. Waves involve a small movement of a medium which propagates to great distances. and a next lowest. The potential energy of a spring stretched (or 1 compressed) by a distance x is Ep= kr2. To solve problems involving moving springs.. and SO on. These normal modes are all sine waves on a string. usually none. If they interfere destructively. it is likely that interference is part of the explanation as to Why the bands formed. You should practice doing this sort of 2 problem. you hear all these frequencies with varying amplitudes. Standing waves are waves trapped in a cavity. For the fundamental there are as few nodes as possible. the ends of a guitar string are nodes). 2. so the guitar string is not in a normal mode but in a mixed state.. they create a wave with small amplitude.The MCAT Physics Book When you pluck a guitar string. = kr. and these are connected by the wave velocity v = together they exhibit interference. 3. transporting energy. Whenever you encounter bands of light and dark (light waves) or loud and soft (sound waves). Here are some general rules for drawing normal modes: 1. they create a wave with large amplitude. . Each following hannonic adds one node (only rarely more). . excluding the end points.
4. (Use acceleration due to gravity g = 10 mls2. 8. 6.25 N Thefigure shows a pendulum at the bottom of its swing. D. Use thisfigure for questions 6 and 7. 0. Use the following informationfor questions 35: One end of a spring (spring constant 50 N/m) is fixed at point P while the other end is connected to a mass m . t 1 \ D. massless spring (spring constant 2. How long does it take for the mass to go around P once? A. 2. 6.8 kg is added to the bottom end of the . C.35 m 2.15 m) is hanging from the ceiling. 7. 3.. 0. Periodic Motion dnd W ~ V ~ S Chapter 1 1 Problems 3.0 m D. spring. 3. (which is 5 kg). 7.8 kg mass in the previous question were pulled down an additional 10 cm (that is. B. and the force on the mass is 10 N.14s C. The mass moves in a circle of radius R = 2 m. What is the direction of the acceleration vector for the bob? A. What is the length of the spring? A.20 m D. so that the mass and the spring are able to rotate about P. 1. and the system is allowed to reach a static equilibrium. If the 0.00 s B.8 m C.2m What is the amount of potential energy stored in the spring? A. 5.00 N D. GO ON TO THE N X PAGE ET . l00J D. The net force is zero.2 m B. what is the magnitude of the net force on the mass just after the release? A.25 N B. 3. There is no acceleration at this point.75 N C. 8.) 1 A mass of 0. below its equilibrium length) and released. 3. 2 J C. 0.. 2.Chapter 11 . Use the following informationfor questions I and 2: An ideal.5 Nlm and resting length 0. . What is the direction of the net force on the pendulum bob? A. 1J B. . The fixed end and the mass sit on a horizontal frictionless surface. 200J Section B 4. B t 1 f c.05 m C. 1.47 m B.00 s D.28 s What is the resting length of the spring? A.
After its release. potential to kinetic B. kinetic to potential C.8 H z 198 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE .8 s 13. 18. D.= E2 C.) 12. the same mass is pushed back a distance 4x. v2=2v.3 m from one end of its oscillation to the other.333 H z B.= 3E. 2. of the first mass compare with the final kinetic energy E2of the second mass? A. C.? A. a larger mass 9rn is pushed back the same distance x. What is the period of the oscillation? A. 0. ( The frequency is related to the spring constant by f = 2n F 1 m . it reaches a maximum speed v. v. = 16v1 9. A mass rn is sitting on a frictionless floor. such that it moves 0. The mass is oscillating in one dimension. it reaches a maximum In speed v. it reaches a maximum speed v. V2 = v 1 B. potential to kinetic to potential D kinetic to potential to kinetic . 8. It undergoes 20 complete oscillations in 60. El= 9E2 Use the following informationfor questions 10 and 11: A ball of mass m falls from rest from a height and encounters a spring. it has moved a distance L.= E2/3 B. After its release.09 H z C. E. A massless spring with spring constant k is connected on one end to a wall and on the other end to a massless plate. Which describes the flow of energy referred to in the problem? A. thus compressing it (see figure). When the ball comes to a momentary stop..1kg). How does the final kinetic energy E. compare with v. How does v. = 4v1 D. Which expression is an expression for x? Refer to the figure below for questions 8 and 9.333 s B. The mass m is slid against the plate and pushed back a distance x. In a second experiment.The MCAT Physics Book 10. 3. After its release. E. 2. 0.00 H z D. a second experiment. What is the frequency of the oscillation? A. After its release. it . A mass rn is sitting on a frictionless floor. 3. 11. 18. v. reaches a maximum speed v.09 s C. A massless spring with spring constant k is connected on one end to a wall and on the other end to a massless plate...0 s. E. The mass m is slid against the plate and pushed back a distance x.00s D. compressing the spring a distance x. Section C Use the following information for questions 1218: A massless ideal spring projects horizontally from a wall and connects to a mass (0.
so that they stick when they touch. It would increase by a factor of 4. Periodic M o t i o n and Wdves 14. and III 21. . It would increase by 41%. Initially Block B is at rest. 11. 0. 0. It would increase by a factor of 2. It would decrease by a factor of 2. back and forth from spring potential to kinetic C. C. .1 kg) and B (0. When the spring is extended. It would decrease by a factor of 2.Chdpter 11 . I 15. In. Use the following informationfor questions 1924: Blocks A (0. 199 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE .6 m D. How would the amplitude change if the spring constant were increased by a factor of 2? A. B. 0. back and forth from gravitational potential to spring potential D back and forth from potential to kinetic to heat . 0. D.4 kg) ride on a frictionless level surface in one dimension and have velcro on their sides. Momentum is conserved.15m B. 3 m I. .04 m C. 0.45 d s / D.16m ' I 23. The sum of kinetic and spring potential energy is conserved.02 m B. I1 only C. When the spring is at its resting length. . Which of the statements is true during the oscillation? A. During the oscillation. and IIE 16. I only B. 20. 0. 19.08 m D. They then oscillate. What is the velocity of Block A before the collision? A. I1 and III D. None of the above. 5. 0. potential to kinetic to heat B. What is the amplitude of the oscillation? A. I only B. D. I.2 mls. 22. ideal spring (k = 50 Nlm) which extends horizontally and is connected to a wall. and block A approaches from the left (see figure). B. How far does the spring get compressed from its resting position? A. the two blocks are going 0. B. Kinetic energy is conserved. When the spring is compressed. 17. 11. Block B is also connected to a massless. It would increase by a factor of 4. What is the energy flow in such a system? A. How would the frequency change if the spring constant were increased by a factor of 2? A. Which of the statements is true during the collision? A. D. II and III D. 0. Consider the following three statements in questions 19 and 20. 111only C. when is the magnitude of the acceleration the greatest and the direction of the acceleration directed to the right? A.3 m C. It would increase by a factor of 2. What is the spring constant k? Immediately after the hit. None of the above is true. 11. C. C. I.0nh 18.
kinetic to potential B. the blade patroler. is not supposed to move. You decide to take a photograph in order to use up a roll of film. 4 m Use the following'infonnationfor questions 3033.28 m/s A. What is the amplitude of the wave? A. but one particular part. A sine wave is traveling to the right with frequency 200 Hz. 28. B. I and 111. I1 only. The linear mass density is the mass per unit length of wire. Which best describes the flow of energy during the collision? A. C.lm B. 1m B. O. 2ds 3. There is a strong connection between this vibration and another vibration.4 mm. It has many moving parts. What is the frequency of this wave? A. B. kinetic to kinetic and heat I 26. 0. I or I1 is true. kinetic to chemical C.14m/s 4ds 6.  200 GO ON TO T E N X PAGE H ET . What is the velocity of the wave? . but you are waiting for a taxi. The data for the figure is taken from the photo. The city. and 111 is true. A certain wire A (see figure) has tension 2000 N and a circular cross section of diameter 0. until it is flopping around uselessly. 1H z Section D 25. D. 29. 2m C. A.2 m C. The two vibrations have similar or equal frequencies. 8 m 27. 4 m D. 2000 N 2000 N diameter 0. and you ' notice that it bobs from up to down to up in every two seconds. 0. they . There is a weak connection between this vibration and another vibration. D.4 rnm Wire A Wire B is made of the same material as wire A with half the diameter. I. notice that this piece vibrates a little at first. 2 m D. tossed there by some careless passerby rushing to work. C. kinetic to potential and chemical D. then more. 111.. in its rush.5 H z B. When the researchers turn on the machine. ignores this assault to civility.The velocity of a wave on a wire or string is not dependent (to a close approximation) on frequency or amplitude and is given by v2 = T/U where T is the tension in the wire and p i s the linear mass density. Section E Use the following informationfor questions 2429: A water wave is traveling down a narrow channel in a rundown district in Manhattan. what can you conclude? Consider the following statements. A research and development lab has just built a prototype for a potato peeler. so that the linear mass density 1is the product of the mass density and the crosssectional area. If resonance is responsible for this phenomenon. IIand III. 11. A styrofoam cup is floating on the surface of the water. What is the wavelength for this wave? A.The MCAT Physics Book 24.
69% D.0 g/cm3). A microphone is placed between the speakers to determine the intensity of the sound at various points. The second wave comes from the west with amplitude 4 m and wavelength 60 m. 30% B. 6. A node.Chapter 1 1 . C. One half that of wire A. straight wire has a diameter of 0. One long. made of a synthetic material (density 2.0 gl cm3). C.1 mm B 0. 35. 7 m D. A. A. There are two water waves (velocity 16 d s ) which 32. It would increase by a factor of 16. .6 mm D. 0. 81% 33. It would increase by a factor of 2. What is the amplitude of the duck's oscillation? A. Neither an antinode nor a node. D Double that of wire A. What kind of point exists exactly midway between the 6 two speakers? A.What must the diameter of the second wire be in order to have the same wave velocity? A. and both are producing a sound wave (in phase) with wavelength 0. . How would the crosssectional area change if the diameter were increased by a factor of 4? It would decrease by a factor of 4. If we want to increase thewave velocity on a wire by 3076. The same as that of wire A. by how much should we increase the tension? A. Use v = 343 m/s for the speed of sound. 3. It would increase by a factor of 4. Periodic M o t i o n and Waves 30. comes from the north with amplitude 3 m and wavelength 60 m. The wave shown is traveling to the right. B. D Both an antinode and a node. Which ofthe waves below.. An antinode. 1. What is the linear density of wire B? One quarter that of wire A. C. C.8 m (see figure). The first wave . There is not enough information to answer this question. 1m B. B. D. Another wire has the same tension. . will momentarily cancel this wave? Lo detector 3 . . 31.5m C. .4 mm arrive at point P where a duck is sitting. eoi GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . 60% C. B. traveling to the left.4 mm made of steel (density 8.8 rnrn . speaker 1 speaker 2 Section F 34. Use the following infonnutionfor questions 3638: Tivo speakers are located L = 2 m from each other.
4 m to the left of the righthand speaker? A.. 2. 42. while the mix of other frequencies gives the sound its timbre.25 x lo4Hz D. what is the ratio A. An antinode. there are many frequencies of sound which are emitted. and so on. and the second harmonic has wavelength 4.5 Pa C.3 Pa.0. and the string is lightly plucked.) What is the lowest frequency that may be heard in this case? A.5 x l d Hz B. 4/3m D. D. Both an antinode and a node. A node.lf. C. The timbre depends on the material of the string (steel or plastic or catgut). What is the wavelength corresponding to the third harmonic? A. 1 m C.2 . What kind of point exists exactly 0. (See figure.. D. B is midway between the ends).8 Pa Use the following informationfor questions 4045: A taut string (2 m) is fixed at both ends and plucked. the next to lowest. 5 x 1 0 3 ~ ~ B. 2 D.5x104Hz C. C./& ? A. 0. 413 m D. and the other with amlitude 0. B. The speed of waves on this string is 3 x lo4m/s. A finger is placed at point A (point A is one third way from one end to the other). The lowest frequency is the fundamental..5 Passage 1 B. A finger is placed at point B (see figure. on the way it is pIucked (middle or at the end). The next lowest frequency is the second harmonic. (Thus a node exists at B. B. I 2 4 When a guitar string is plucked. what is the ratiof. 7 . or sound quality.3 m to the right of the lefthand speaker? A. Neither an antinode nor a node. 3 x 1 0 ~ ~ ~ 39. 2m 44.3 0. An antinode. 213 m B. I. 4 I I GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . 0. the third harmonic.The M C A T Physics Book 37.8 Pa D. 1m C. If the fundamental has wavelength A. 3 x 1 0 ~ ~ ~ 40. 38.2 0. C. D. while the higher frequencies make up the harmonic series. 1 C. 7. and on the sounding 41.5 Pa B. 213 m B. Which of the following gives the range of possible amplitudes for sound at point P? A. 1. 00. 0. and the first harmonic has frequency off. What kind of point exists exatly 1. Both an antinode and a node. Neither an antinode nor a node. Two sounds waves of the same frequency arrive at point P.5 B.25 x lo4Hz D. 0. 0. What is the wavelength corresponding to the fourth harmonic? A. and the string is lightly plucked. The lowest frequency is the note we associate with the string. A node.) 45. 2m 43. one with amplitude 0. 2.5 Pa. so that a waveform exists on the whole string.SX~O~HZ C.? A. What is the lowest frequency that may be heard in this case? A. so that a waveform exists on the whole string. If the fundamental has a frequency off.
6.5 m/s B 429 m/s . where T is The wave velocity is given by v = the tension in the string. consider an E string (frequency 660 Hz) which is made of steel. and p is the linear mass density. This occurs if the length of the transition region is large compared with the wavelength of the wave (seefigure).66grams for each meter of wire and has a circular cross section of diameter 0. 3. Periodic Motion dnd Waves Sometimes some of the frequencies may be sup.5% D. 2..325 m C . If the properties of the second medium are similar to those of the first medium. . while some is transmitted. by lightly holding a finger at a point along the string to force a node there. 588Hz If the properties of the second medium are markedly different from the first. What is the frequency of the fourth harmonic of the D string? A. What is the wavelength of the sixth harmonic of the E string? A.65 m. The situation is slightly more complicated if the boundary between the two media is gradual. . 4. the wave passes from the first medium to the second." 1 . then the wave "sees" the boundary as being sharp. for example. If we want to increase the frequency of the fundamental of a string by 3%. which is the product of material density and crosssectional area. D 1716 m/s .Chdpter 11 . increase it by 4. Also note that the D string has a wave velocity of 382 m/s.% B.33 mm.8 m . If not. D.. The string length when strung on a guitar is 0. increase it by 6% What is the velocity of a wave on the E string mentioned in paragraph 4? A. In this case most of the energy of a wave may be transmitted to the second medium even if there is an impedance mismatch. . What is the frequency of the fundamental of the D string? A. C 882 Hz . If the guitarist places her left finger lightly on the D string one fourth way from the neck end to the base. m. increase it by 1 5 . 5. increase it by 3% C.22 m B . or is trammitted (see figure). 0. which involves holding the string all the way down to the neck in order to effectively change the length of the string. 0. For the following questions. 3. 1175 Hz Passage 2 Sometimes we are concerned with what happens when a wave in one medium encounters a sharp boundary with a second medium. . GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . there is said to be an impedance mismatch. 294 Hz B 588Hz . 214. what is the lowest frequency that will be heard? . This is not the same as fretting the string. It has a mass of 0. and much of the wave energy is reflected (see figure). by how much do we want to change the tension in the string? A.25 m D 20. pressed. C 858 m/s .
Certain media convert wave energy into heat energy. chemical. What is a likely purpose for that coating? A. When sound waves encounter a closed door. wave ocean wave swimming pool wave sound wave visible light typical wavelength 10100 m 0. which is true? waves water A.1 m 1m lo' m 4. for a wave traveling along a rope. Waves with a short wavelength have the best chance of arriving at the shore. Waves are approaching the ocean shore from the left in the following figure. Ocean waves are waves in a denser medium (salt water) than pool waves (fresh water). sometimes wave energy is absorbed. 6. Waves with a long wavelength have the best chance of arriving at the shore. carry sound. ground. C. 1 Water waves which strike the edge of a swimming pool . The frequency of the sound is likely to be changed as it enters the door. D. Ocean waves have a longer wavelength than waves in pools. The coating increases the reflectivity of the lens. The coating prevents absorption of light. . The sound energy is likely to be transmitted into the wood. C. 3. which shows the typical wavelengths of various waves. The sound energy is likely to be reflected. The energy is converted from potential to kinetic. A photographer's lens often has a thin plastic coating on the surface of a glass lens. The coating decreases the reflectivity of the lens. C The energy is converted from mechanical to . This can happen. What happens to the energy of ocean waves as they approach and break on the shore? A. The sound energy is likely to be absorbed. Waves of a small amplitude have the best chance of arriving at the shore. are reflected. The snow tends to reflect sound. B. Ocean waves are generally parallel to the shore. B. The energy is converted from kinetic to potential. D The energy is converted from mechanical to heat. B. for instance. Waves of a large amplitude have the best chance of arriving at the shore. D The cold temperature makes the air unable to .The MCAT Physics Book I In addition to being reflected and transmitted. refer to the following chart. D. According to the passage. B The snow tends to transmit sound energy to the . C. What is the best explanation for this? A. The outdoors seems very quiet. 204 GO ON TO T E NEXT PAGE H . B. There is a gradual slope to shallower water at a shore. D. . The coating increases the efficiency of converting light to heat. what is 2. C. B. most likely to happen? A. The rope fibers rub against each other and the energy dissipates as heat (see figure). C The snow tends to absorb sound energy. D. For the following questions. One morning you go outside and find a blanket of newly fallen snow several centimeters thick. while ocean waves approaching the shore are generally not reflected back to sea. Which is a good explanation for this? A.
D. sound to heat C. 0. B. sound to gravitational D. the wavelength of the sound has to be smaller than the object being observed. 6. what is its wavelength? A.05 seconds B. A mass m on a spring (constant k) has a frequency given Which best describes the flow of energy in paragraph 2? A. For this reason. Any frequency less than about 1. These can be highly injurious to humans if they have sufficient intensity. 0.56 m C. Frequencies of sound higher than this are called ultrasound. The sounds can cause internal organs to vibrate and eventually rupture. D. 0. . Otherwise the wave passes right around the object. C.Chapter I 1 Passage . 3. Periodic Motion and Wdves 3 4. B. 0. B. For a sound wave of frequency 10' Hz in air. The sound is reflected by the organ. . An increase in frequency. An increase in the mass of the internal organ.7 m D. At the other end of the sound spectrum there are very low frequency sounds. D. 17 meters STOP .5 x lo6Hz. 0. Although they cannot be heard. The sound waves are reflected off the interface between the fetus and the surrounding fluid. What period corresponds to the lowest frequency a human ear can hear? A. A scientist wants to model an internal organ with connective tissue as a mass on a spring. If a doctor wanted to take the image of a fetus and wanted to resolve features of size on the order of one millimeter.. The human ear can hear sounds with frequencies from 20 Hz to 20.5 x lo6Hz. For the following.8 Nlrn C. which of the following would result in an increase in intensity? A. what frequency sound could she use? A. The wavelength of the sound is larger than the size of the organ. tearing the connective tissue holding the organ in place. ~ z . sound to potential B. to take the image of a fetus in the womb. Which of the following would be part of an explanation of why low frequency sounds are injurious? A.05 meters C.1Nlm B. there are limits in the workplace as to how intense low frequency sounds can be.000 Hz. The mass of the organ is 0.29m B. 0. and its natural period of oscillation is 0. 3. for example. Any frequency greater than about 3 x lo5 Hz.2 s. The wavelength of the sound is smaller than the size of the organ. 17 seconds D.5 kg. The frequency of the natural oscillation ofthe organ is similar to that of the sound. .5 Nlrn D. . In order for this to provide information. C . they are used in the technique of ultrasound imaging. . 7. C. 5. sound to chemical and heat In paragraph 2. 490 Nlrn 1. 2. 1. use 1500 11s for the speed of sound x1 in biological tissue. A decrease in frequency. What would be the spring constant for the spring in the scientist's model? A.4 m 2. Any frequency greater than about 1. Any Wuency less than about 3 x l o 5 . None of the above. Use 343 mls for the speed of sound in air.
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The quantity Ax gives the displacement of an air particle from its equilibrium position to its position with the sound wave. .ye .* *:..*s*<S.t*:*:. *: *= .. ...:. and where P = P.. that is.*.. Introduction Sound is a longitudinal wave in some material medium. . usually in air. *. *   . . .. * . . Where Ax = 0. as Figure 121 shows.e y.. . the pressure is a maximum or minimum. **. ..***'* F i r e 121 Notice several things about the above graphs. + * . . airwitha :* *sound wave .. an underground nuclear explosion creates pressure waves in the solid E r h The vibrating column of air in the plaintive oboe creates pressure waves in air. + +*. 2: .#ye *.*. . at. so that a positive Ax corresponds to displacement to the right.. air in  . ? *s: .* *. We denote the variation of the pressure from the equilibrium pressure as AP=PP.**. Alternatively.*. 4. There are many ways in which energy can be converted into the energy of sound... In fact. we have Ax a maximum or minimum. for example. 4 :*... ZWS. the pressure variations are much exaggerated in the figure. the equilibrium pressure P.0 * * .. The variations of pressure are much smaller than the barometric pressure itself..Chapter I P Sound A. we can say that sound is a wave of pressure variation.
so that a certain amount of energy per time on an earA person with bigger ears would have a proportionally greater energy per time falling on them.The MCAT Physics Book In general. On the other side of the room we hear the sound with a certain intensity. (See Figure 122. then sound waves transport energy across the room.) material air water steel speed of sound 340 d s 1600 d s 16000 mls 8. . (See table. AAt (1) The units are [w/m2]. Figure 122 I = . If there is a stereo speaker producing music on one side of the room. Thus waves travel a littIe faster in solids than in liquids.AE . which is in decibels..) The human ear can hear sounds from the barely perceptible rush of air at intensity 10l2w/m2 to the painful roar at intensity 1 w/m2. we often convert intensity into decibels: where I. so a sensible definition of intensity is energy per time per area: sound waves The intensiv is the power (energy per unit time) going through the hoop divided bv the area o f the hoop. Note that an increase by a factor of 10 in intensity I corresponds to adding 10 to P. In order to make these numbers correspond more closely to our perception of sound. sound waves travel faster in a stiff material than in a material which is not as stiff. Intensity and Pitch alarm The intensiv of a wave is a measure of the amountof energy a wave transports. and a lot faster in solids and liquids than in a gas. is the intensity 1012wlm2.
. . How much energy lands on one ear in one second? (An ear is about 0. .~ lo4 lo' 1 1 o3 lo6 1 0' 10'~ 0 3 6 9 12 0 30 60 90 120 Example 1: A loud argument takes place in the next room. . . Thus we have [power going through surface A] = [power going through surface B]. . . and the same amount flows out of sphere B each second. If there is a woman listening at radius A. The alarm clock produces a certain amount of energy each second. I ' B Figure 123 AE = IAdt As you go further from a source of sound. That same amount of energy flows out of sphere A each second. . I = 7.03 m. . I0 1= Thus. and you hear 70 dB. . . . .. W  m2 ' . . Sound The chart shows some sample calculations. . the intensity of the sound decreases. a man at radius r.05 m by 0. . think of an alarm clock in the center of two concentric spheres (Figure 123). In order to figure out how much it decreases. experiences intensity .) Solution: The intensity is given by log.Similarly.. I log I0 Description rush of air wind conversation water fall pain 1 1o .Chdpter 1 2 . . . . ... . . .. . the intensity she experiences is because the surface area of the sphere is 41rri. .
the wave in Figure 124.2 m away.212 = 31. the principle behind all these pipes is the same.6.8 ms. the distance from one side to the other side of the displacement is 2A. The pitch you hear depends on the frequency of the sound wave.2 m to 2 m. then the radius decreases by a factor of 63.. 210 . how much louder does she sound when he is 2 m away? Solution: If Jack moves from 63. The violin sounds 30 decibels louder. like organ pipes. and these produce sound of a particular pitch and timbre. If the intensity of the sound Jack hears is Po (in decibels) when he is 63. the lower the frequency. corresponds to D#.r. Example 2: Jack and Jill are in a field. The wave in 125.I . For instance. the air in the pipe vibrates longitudinally.. so P = Po + 30. Standing waves are set up in the cavities.6)' = 1000. A closed pipe is a pipe closed at one end and open at the other. (See Figure 126. Since its equilibrium point is in the middle. corresponds to D#. with period T = 0.. Now we will look at resonating pipes.The MCAT Physics Book Putting this all together yields 4 n r . and Jill is playing a violin. and Ax gives the tiny displacement an air particle can have. The variable x gives the location along the length of the pipe.) The double arrow shows the air particle moving back and forth. If we excite the air column. Then equation (3) indicates that I increases by a factor of (31. = 4nr. Resonating Cavities In the last chapter we looked at the sound produced by a plucked guitar string or a struck piano string. with period double the first one. the same note one octave higher. Three factors of 10 is equivalent to adding 10 to P three times. While the resonating cavity of a soft drink bottle or of an oboe are more complicated than the pipes in this section. Memorize the formula.IB. " 1 In words. the lower the note. the intensity decreases as the square of the radius (inverse square law). Figure 124 Figure 125 I C. but also understand the reasoning that led to the formula.
Figure 128 Figure 129 .) Sdution: The fundamental mode is shown in Figure 127. A full wave looks like this:. You should check this point.G. and the wavelength is d = 4 (0.A closed pipe has a displacement node on one end and an antinode on the other: Figure 126 At the closed end. open at the other) which is 0. I we are thinking in terms of pressure variation (see the beginning of the chapter). Example 1: A boy blows across the top of a bullet casing (a cylinder closed at one end. Figure 1210 shows the fundamental in both cases. Any graph we draw for a closed pipe must have a node on one end and an antinode on the other. which had nodes at both ends. then the node is at the closed end and f the antinode is at the open end. Thus the closed end is a displacement node.03 m) = 0. Note this peculiar fact: If we are thinking in terms of displacement of air particles. but try to draw it also without looking. The Figure 127 graph shows the first fourth: from zero point to maximum. For the second harmonic we have drawn three fourths of a wave. Now try drawing the second harmonic without looking at Figure 128. the air cannot move back and forth. Thus f = vld = 2860 Hz. Compare this with the vibrations in Section 11.fourth of a wave.12 m. of course. Thus the full wave is four times the length of the pipe. For closed pipes. while it is completely free to do so at the open end. The fundamental has no nodes in the middle of the pipe away from the ends (Figure 127). (At a different temperature the sound speed will be different. so L = 314 A.) Some hints for drawing these diagrams appear at the end of Section ll. What is the frequency of the note he hears (the fundamental)? (The speed of sound is 343 mls. and d = 413 L. and the open end is an antinode. The next harmonic is shown in Figure 129. The frequency we calculate comes to the same.G. then the closed end is the antinode and the open end is the node. What is A? (Did you get 415 L?) Let's go back and look at the fundamental. each successive harmonic has one additional node.03 m long. What is shown ends up being one.
since such a mode would make no sound. An open pipe is open at both ends.third harmonic Figure 1212 If we consider pressure variation. Try drawing these graphs yourself without looking. Figure 1210 fundamental second harmonic . like aaaaaaaahooooooooaaaad~ooooooooooaaaaaaaah about twice a second. like an organ pipe (Figure 1211). If we consider displacement of air particles. you will hear a single note that gets louder and quieter. then both ends are nodes. We find that we cannot draw a mode with no nodes in the middle of the pipe. They represent the fundamental and the second and third harmonics. louder and quieter. Beats If you play the lowest two notes of a piano you may hear the notes separately. you can hear this effect by playing an A on the fifth fret of the sixth string and an A on the fifth string open. and vice versa. If the two strings are slightly out of tune. Try this if a piano is available. and we can draw a mode with no nodes in the middle. 0. . Thus the fundamental has one node (Figure 1212). but you may also hear a beating pattern.Thc MCAT Physics Book An open pipe has a displacement antinode at both ends. Draw also the graphs for the fourth harmonic. If you have a guitar. This is called beats. Figure 1211 AP L A sound wave has a pressure antinode when there is a displacement node. then both ends are antinodes.
so the beat frequency is 0. and the amplitude of the combination is large.What is happening? The first two graphs of Figure 1213 show the two notes which have similar frequency. The beat period is shown in the third graph. This is shown in third graph. the beat period would get longer. If the resulting frequency were closer to 220 Hz. a. and beatfrequency is given by Two waves of nearly the same frequency interfere to give & s . So this is the origin of the loudsoftloud sound of the two notes. What is the guitar string's current fundamental frequency? b. Figure 1214 shows a train whistle making sound waves when it is still. The string may be producing 220.67 Hz. The beat period is 3 s. She hears a loudsoft ringing whose maxima are separated by 3 seconds. and the beat gets faster. By tightening the string. and the amplitude of the sum is a minimum. you are familiar with the eeeeeeeeeee aaaaaaaaaah sound it makes as it passes. At t = 0. where their sum is shown. b. The man h&s these pressure waves.33 Hz. She should reduce the tension in the string. She plays an A on the piano (220 Hz) and loudly plucks the Astring. Jessica tightens the string (increases the tension) of the guitar slightly. that is. E. Fire 1214 . so that his ear records a certain frequency of pressuremaxima arrival A person hears a notefrom a whistle.33 Hz or 119. Why does this happen? Figure 1214Figure 1216 show this phenomenon. Doppler Shift If you have ever been standing around where a train or car goes by. however. Should she continue to tighten the string? Solution: a. too sharp or too flat. Jessica increases its frequency. . A little while later. a turning on and off: Figure 1213 Example: Jessica is tuning a guitar by comparing notes to a piano which she knows is in tune. the two waves are out of phase. they are in phase.
speed of the detector. If a wave strikes a moving object and bounces back. and f is the emitted frequency. a. In Figure 1215. = 38 d s . there is one shift when the radar is intercepted by the car and another shift when the reflected signal is intercepted by the police device. when a police officer uses a radar device to detect the speed of an oncoming vehicle. We know to choose the positive sign because we where f. What frequency would the car detect if it could detect the sonar? b. (Actually police use electromagnetic waves. In Figure 1216 the train is receding.is the detected frequency. For example. What frequency would the officer detect from the reflection? Solution: a. The car is approaching at 38 d s . The Doppler shift is . Figure 1215 frequency from the one emitteda Doppler ship. He perceives a higher frequency note. the train whistle is approaching. so the man perceives the pressure maxima coming more frequently. v is the .) It emits a frequency of 60 kHz.The MCAT Physics Book times. = 60 kHz and v know the result must be a higher frequency. and the man perceives pressure maxima less frequent1y.. The frequency that the car would pick up if it could intercept the police sonar is . A person hears a lower note from a receding whistle. When the emitter of a wave and the detector are moving relative to each other. where f. Thus . the detector detects a different A person hears a higher note from an approaching whistle. There is one special case which deserves note. then there are two Doppler shifts. each successive pressure maximum has a longer way to travel. The frequency is higher if they are coming together and lower if they are going apart. Figure 1216 Example: A police officer uses sonar to determine the speed of an approaching car. but that is in the next chapter. vsis the speed of the wave in the medium.v is the speed of the emitter. The speed of sound is 343 m/s.
. b. ... . The frequency that the police intercepts is given by We choose the negative sign because. again.. ... We especially noted resonating cavities of air which exhibit standing waves just like the waves on the guitar string in the previous chapter.. Sound f. ............ and less if they are receding.... Thus = 75 Hz. = (60 kHz) ' s m 343  = 66.7 Hz.. The key to doing problems involving these cavities is drawing the pictures correctly.. In this chapter we looked at sound as an example of waves..Chapter 1 P ... .. we know the result must be a higher frequency.. The most important thing to remember about the Doppler shift is that the detected frequency is greater than the emitted frequency if the emitter and the detector are approaching each other.
noise which comes from a cricket 30 m away. he accidentally lets the mailing tube drop to the floor. 1 What is the sound level in decibels for this noise? . 10 decibels B. If you move to a point 6 m away. Section B 6. What level of sound do you hear? A. 60 decibels D. 3 . If a swann of mosquitos were 10 m away. 1 ~ 1 0 . Someone turns up the power to 50 W.) In the following use 5. 'Ihe mailing tube is 1.~ J where I. The speed of sound in air is 343 mls at 20" C. Before he inserts his papers. is a barely perceptible noise lo'' w/m2. (Hint: A barely perceptible noise is 1012w/m2. Betsy hears the barely perceptible buzz of a mosquito one meter away from her ear. 120 decibels 7. how many mosquitos would there have to be in order for you to just be able to hear it? A. what would be the intensity? 3.~ ~ ~ C. How much energy does a mosquito produce in 100 s? A. It is sealed at one end and open at the other. A speaker is producing 40 W of sound and you are standing 6 m away. A. and you hear 10 dB. 30 decibels C. 15 dB Richard is preparing a mailing tube. 10 B. You hear a 20decibel. A speaker is producing a total of 5 W of sound. how many would it take to power a 10W bulb? Use the following informationfor questions 1 and 2: A copier machine is making a rattling sound whose intensity is lod w/m2 where you are sitting 2 m away horn it. 120 decibels D. 40 decibels C.) What would be the intensity of sound energy at your ear? 8. If you could harness the sound energy of mosquitos. 2000 decibels 1 Section C Use the following informationfor questions 91 3: 4. 30 decibels B. lo'' JB. 3 x 1 0 . and it produces a note. 1 . 216 GO ON TO THE N C PAGE DT .5 m long with a cylindrical cross section of 4cm diameter. (Assume the sound goes out equally in all directions. 100 2.The M C A T Physics Book Chapter I 2 Problems I Use the following informationfor questions 57: In a quiet room just before she drops off to sleep. How loud would it sound if you were 3 m away? A.
.. It would be 2% higher.. .. The velocity of sound at 20° C is 343 mis. . A. The air column is set to vibrating by air flowing through the lower portion of the pipe.2 m 12. 320 Hz C. If the tube were filled with helium. 0. In the diagram hlength of the pipe is 0. 0.05 m C. 7.08m C. What is the wavelength of the fundamental? A. 3 m D. which has a sound speed of 965 mls. 100 Hz C. What is the frequency of the note that Richard heard? A. 3400Hz  16. 1700Hz D. 0. 0. 1. 2m C. 200Hz B. 0... . 9000 Hz air t 11.. . What is the wavelength of the fifth harmonic? A. 400Hz C. . C It would be the same. . . On a cold day (10" C) the speed of sound is 2% slower than on a warm day (20" C). D.7 m B. 970 Hz Use the following informationfor questions 1417: An organ pipe is a cylindrical tube which is open at both ends.. 4000 Hz D. 3. 3 m D.025 m B. 0.. 0. . . 430Hz D.. What is the wavelength of the fourth harmonic? A. 15.04 m B. How would that affect the frequency? A. B It would be 2% lower.. What is the frequency of the fundamental? A.5m B. 0. .13 m D. The shape of the hole where the air exits affects the timbre of the pipe. 0. what would be the frequency of the fundamental? A. 6 m D. GO ON TO M NEXT PAGE E . . 6 m 14.02 m. .. 0. What is the wavelength of the second harmonic? A. .1 m and t e h diameter is 0. . 6m 10.05 m B. O. 160Hz B.Chdpter 1 2 .1 m C. .8m C.... Sound 9 What is the wavtlength of the fundamental? .. . It would be 4% lower. 60 Hz B.1 m 17.067 m D.5m 13.
down. 0. 0. string? A. resonance dispersion 18. the resulting sound seems to turn off and on and off and on. she hears a note that changes from loud to soft to loud twice a second. When she plucks the true E (on the B string) and the E string together. The effect of this is to increase the detected frequency when the source and detector are approaching each other and to decrease the detected frequency when they are receding from each other. D. 19. but in one dimension the formula is relatively simple: Hold the key for C. What is the frequency of the beat between the notes? A. 367. 22. Kinetic and potential in one medium to kinetic and potential in another medium. Use the following informationfor questions 2123: On a piano tuned to the American equaltempered scale.6 s Use the following informationfor questions 19 and 20: Sarah has correctly tuned the B string of a guitar. The E string is not yet in tune. is the detected frequency. What phenomenon is demonstrated when the G. Sound to mechanical to heat. (27. 262 Hz C.88 Hz B.. interference B.88 Hz B. 660 Hz. I I 24.5 Hz. D. 0. and f. is the emitted frequency. 1..5 Hz 480 Hz 490 Hz 21 8 GO ON TO THE N C PAGE DT . is the speed of the wave in the medium.The M C A T Physics Book Section D C.is the speed of the detector. Sound to heat. key let the G. What is the frequency of the C. A fast train (50 mls) is moving directly toward Samue1.1 Hz). go (this quiets the G string). The speed of sound is 350 mls at the outdoor temperature of 31" C. 1. string will be excited. v. Before that note dies down. C. 56. fundamental? A. What best describes the energy flow in this problem? A. 0.3 s D. (29. 392 Hz D. 2 Hz.'who is standing near the tracks. The two lowest notes on the piano are A. C. string is 783.99 Hz. Strike the G.6 s B. B. beats B. D. so that the volume of the two strings are matched. D.6 s C. string is used to excite the vibration of the C. the frequency of the third harmonic of C. The train is emitting a whistling sound at 420 Hz. so that the string can vibrate. If you play the notes simultaneously. 28. 1569 Hz 23. string is 784.1Hz C. Sound to mechanical. the speed of the emitter. She frets the string to play an E (660 Hz). v. so that the third harmonic of the C. I h e fundamental ftequency of G. Beats between these frequencies can be heard in the following way: Use the following informationfor questions 2427: When the source of waves and a detector are moving with respect to each other. Choose the sign in the numerator to reflect the direction the detector is going (negative if approaching). where f. 784. and choose the sign in the denominator to reflect the direction the emitter is going (positive if approaching). 785 Hz . Section E 20. Either 658 Hz or 662 Hz.5 Hz) and A#.key loudly. Then strike the G string again more softly. C. What frequency does Samuel hear? 21. What is the fundamental frequency on the untuned E string? A. In two or three dimensions this is complicated.43 Hz D. How much time exists between the successive "on"s? A.87 Hz. v is . B. the frequency of the detected wave is shifted from the frequency of the emitted wave (Doppler shift).
and the bat detects it. Any frequency less than 34 Hz. What is a possible reason for using a sound with high hannonic content? A.09 s D. and the insect is flying 10 m/s to the east. D. What is the frequency of the signal received back at the detector? (v. C.25. to the east..... what frequency does he hear from the whistle? A. and a bat emits a pulse signal. . Many use some combination of these strategies. what frequency sound does it detect? A.. .017s C. 48 kHz C. using the frequency of the returned sound to detennine information about the velocity of the insect.. 29 kHz B. Several adaptations provide for better processing of the returned signal.. use the following: The speed of sound is 343 m/s.. Any frequency greater than 34 Hz. then a portion of the sound wave is reflected. . . 2. * 'det 26. Some species emit a series of pulses. 0. vs +. Any frequency greater than 34 kHz. such as a tree. with frequencies ranging from 12 kHz to 150 kHz. 0.. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . C. Others use a sweep of frequencies. B The harmonic frequency can stun the insect. Some emit a sound with a high harmonic content. For the questions.2 kHz B. presumably to detennine size information or directional information. Echolocation involves using vibrating membranes to direct a high frequency sound. This sound bounces off an approaching vehicle going 50 m/s.. Any frequency less than 34 kHz. how long is the delay in the return signal? A. 36 kHz B. Samuel whistles at 420 Hz. 50 kHz D. D The harmonic frequency might be Doppler shifted . The bat is flying 10 d s . The harmonic frequency might be reflected even if the fundamental is not. The harmonic frequency can determine the distance to an insect. 360Hz 2. 0. . What frequency would a bat use to locate an insect 1 cm wide which is 10 m away? A. different species of bats use different strategies in echolocation. 0. In the above question. If an insect is 3 m away. Some emit a constant frequency. 48 kHz C.17s 27. If the bat emits a constant frequency sound of 30 kHz. even if the fundamental is not..detector and emitter moving relative to each other is I 3 A bat is in pursuit of an insect.009 s B. 55 kHz 5. Beyond this basic framework. 49 kHz D. . and the Dopplershifted frequency for a . B. 32 KHz 4. 's Chapter 12 . Sound fdet =fa... = 350 m/s) A. 56 kHz I Passage 1 Bats are mammals which have acquired the ability of flight and of echolocation. including isolation of the detection apparatus from the emitting apparatus and specializations in the middle ear. . A police sonar detector operates by emitting a sound at 42 kHz. After the train passes Samuel.. ... . determining the distance to an object by the delay in return of the signal.Ye. 30 kHz C.. If a passenger on the train could hear him. 31 kHz D. what frequency will he detect? A. .. A bat is traveling west at 15 m/s. If the sound encounters a flying insect or obstacle which is larger than the wavelength of the sound. . If it encounters an obstacle. .. emitting a constantfrequency sound of 50 kHz... what frequency would she hear? 1 .
In one experiment with the device. the incoming signal and outgoing signal are combined. resonant.25~10~s 3. B. The top figure shows the output of the detector in terms of power versus time. 150kHz In the top figure above. A secretion of an obnoxious tasting chemical. the incoming and outgoing waves are A.8 m long and 0. C.025 m in diameter. The outgoing sound reflects from a moving target and is Doppler shifted. wave? A. At time t = to (in the top figure above). C. the emitter created an outgoing signal of 80 kHz. Which can be concluded from the passage? A. 75 kHz D. The bottom figure shows power as a function of frequency (Fourier analyzed function of the top figure above). B. 4.The MCAT Physics Book 6. The vehicle is approaching the detector directly. use 343 m/s for the speed of sound. out of phase. 8. coherent. An ability to emit a sound with frequency much higher than that of a bat. 54mm GO ON TO THE ND(T PAGE . D. What is the beat frequency referred to in this passage? A. The vehicle is receding from the detector directly.6 mrn C. lower than that of a bat. 5kHz B. and it is suspended by a string about 0. The device consists of a sound emitter and a detector. 10kHz C. so that the detector actually detects the beat between them. For these questions. 1 2. Passage 3 A certain wind chime is a hollow pipe 0. what is 7? A. about onefourth way down (see figure). B. D. The emitter creates a sound of a single frequency. but not necessarily directly. C. 27 mrn D.2 m from the top. D. 1. Power P 5. in phase. 4. A hammer hits the chime about onehalf way down. An ability to emit a sound with frequency about the same as that of a bat. The note that the chime plays is a D at 262 Hz. which was reflected from a vehicle. The detector is a squareamplitude detector. Which is an adaptation which might aid an insect? An ability to emit a sound with frequency much A. but not necessarily directly.3 mm B. which is thus able to pick up the beat (see figures below). The received signal was 70 kHz. The two graphs above were obtained. The vehicle is receding from the detector. When the incoming signal arrives at the detector. The vehicle is approaching the detector. 1 What is the wavelength corresponding to a 80 kHz . Passage 2 It is possible to construct a device for determining the speed of moving objects using sonar.
It would stay the same. this phenomenon is called A. into a Fourieranalyzed signal traveling on nerves to the hearing center of the brain.. corresponding to the fundamental of the notes being played. a sound wave.4 m C. B.. . .. In the question above. interference. In a highly idealized model of the ear. the brain hears not two frequencies but one average frequency which slowly turns on and off. whereas the waves in air are transverse. The place where the hammer strikes also vibrates.. It would be doubled. What is the wavelength in the pipe corresponding to the second harmonic? A. 0. 1. so they are antinodes. (32. 0. B. 0.2 m B. What is the frequency of the note which is heard to beat? 4. if a sound wave were to enter the ear consisting of two frequenciesf. . which are not similar but have some harmonic relationship. . For the following use 343 m/s for the speed of sound in air. how many times per second does the beat turn on and off? A.andf. but the place where the string connects is not free to vibrate. making it seem as if the phonograph reproduced sound better than it in fact did.f. and the velocity of sound in the pipe stayed the same? A. and the other tof.. and these differences from ideal can be observed by simple experiment. It would increase by a factor of 4. . although they would reproduce the harmonics.. each frequency of sound wave corresponds to one neuron leading from the ear to the brain. then two neurons would be excited. 31. that is. a diference tone. .70 Hz)simultaneously. 2.Chdpter 12 . B. . . 1. In this case the brain sometimes hears a third tone... C. D. frequencies of the input: f.. The waves in the pipe are longitudinal. For example. 0.27 m B. Often the ear would reconstruct the difference tone which would be the missing fundamental.31m 2. This seemingly unfortunate phenomenon was a boon to the listeners of early phonographs. however. The phonographs were not really able to reproduce the lowest frequencies in the music. if a sound wave of two very similar frequencies enters the ear.. The turning on and off is called beats. It would be halved... 0.f . For instance. corresponding to the difference of the . one corresponding tof. diffraction.27 m C.87 Hz) and C. 3. When waves of two frequencies combine to make one wave. A single note is heard beating. (30. z produces the 262 H tone? A. .79 The ear converts a series of pressure variations.. The waves in the pipe are transverse. The waves in the pipe and the sound waves in ar i are transverse. The waves in the pipe and the sound waves in air are longitudinal.8 m Passage 4 3. quencies: f =f. Sound The ends are free to vibrate. D. 1 What is the wavelength of the wave in the pipe which . someone plays the notes B. 0. difference tones... C. How would the frequency change if the length of the pipe were doubled.. 1. Another similar example involves a sound wave of two frequencies.. and the beat frequency is the difference between the two fre... 0..4 m D. Which is true? A.55 B. =f. 0. beats.. .. A physical ear is more complicated than this model.83 C.8m D. . GO ON TO THE N C PAGE DT ... C. whereas the waves in air are longitudinal. On a piano.. D.
which best represents pressure as a function of time for a sound wave of one frequency? Alice places two stereo speakers a distance d apart.. 220 and 330 Hz D. She sends a signal which is a sine wave of frequencyf. If the equilibrium pressure in the room is 10' Pa. until he can barely hear it.but relatively far away from the speakers. For him the sound gets quieter as he moves right. and Alice changes the frequency of the signal sent to both speakers. 27. Alice changes the frequency of the second speaker slightly. Power B. The distanced is large compared to the wavelength. 55 Hz and 165 Hz C. speakers d. Then it begins to get louder again. She enlists her friend Bob to do an experiment. In Experiment 2.5 Hz B. The figure shows Bob's position: where he first can barely hear the sound. Power 5. so that the speakers are producing the same pure tone in phase. but the first speaker remains at the original frequency. Which best represents a power spectrum of the sound entering the ear in paragraph 3 of the passage? In Experiment 1. The distance from Bob to the left speaker is d. Alice and Bob keep their positions. and his distance to the right speaker is 4. Power fi f1 f I 222 GO ON TO THE N X PAGE ET . which of the following sets of harmonics might cause the ear to reproduce it? A. but he slowly moves to the right. If a phonograph fails to reproduce the fundamental tone 110 Hz. so that both speakers are still producing a sound in phase at the same frequency (a different frequency from the set up). and it is small compared to the distance Alice and Bob sit from the speakers. This is the set up. The sound wave in air has a wavelength A. 1 : Alice Bob 6. Alice sits directly in front of the speakers on the line which bisects the line segment connecting the speakers (see figure). A. 220 and 440 Hz ' D. Bob starts at the same place.The MCAT Physics Book 4.5 Hz and 137.
SO T P . Which of the following is the best expression for d. and Bob's hearing of sound depends on the chosen frequency. Nothing can be predicted. Alice will continue to hear sound.. and Bob will A. B. Neither Alice nor Bob will hear very much sound. Waves from the two speakers are in phase and add to zero. ... and Bob will continue to hear Iittle. Alice and Bob are both at antinodes.. D. + d.. The sound is blocked by the speakers. in that Alice and Bob's hearing of sound depends on the chosen fiequency.. continue to hear little.Chdpter 1 2 .. Which of the following is the best expression for d . B. I 6. In Experiment 1. . and Bob is at an antinode. and Bob's hearing of sound depends on the chosen fiequency. and Bob wiIl hear sound clearly... what is the best prediction for what Alice and Bob will observe? Alice will continue to hear sound. Sound 1 Which is true concerning the set up? . Alice's body is absorbing the sound. D. C. D.d2? I 5. Alice wiI1 continue to hear sound... C.. Alice wiIl hear very little sound. B. Which is the best explanation that Bob hears little sound where he sits in the set up? A. Alice is at an antinode. . what is the best prediction for what Alice and Bob will observe? A. .. Alice and Bob are both at nodes.. C. Alice and Bob will hear a sound which grows and fades and grows. B. 4.... Alice will continue to hear sound. . and Bob is at a node. Waves from the two speakers are out of phase and add to zero. 3.. In Experiment 2... Alice is at a node. C.? D. D.. 2. There is not enough information in the passage to answer this question....... A.
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From the point of view of your car. interfering with itself and undergoing Doppler shifts and so on. Think of how strange this is. B. the first car is going 15 mph and the second is going 120 mph. But sound involves the motion of air. but what motion happens in a light wave? Well.00 x 10' d s to every observer. and from the point of view of the other spacecraft it is going 3. In the superfast space freeway.00 x 10' d s . A light beam passes both of you in the same direction going 3. So light is a wave. The answer is not "this molecule" or "that substance" but rather a combination of electric and magnetic fields. your spacecraft may be going 1. wavelength on the order of lo' m to If light of a wavelength between 400 nm and 700 nm enters the pupil of your eye. such as when it interacts with an electron. it is likely to interact with the electrons of certain cells in the retina. it is going (not 2. Go figure. like sound and water ripples. it turns out to be a hard question. Here is another strange property of light.00 x lo8 d s . From the point of view of your spacecrafi. In this chapter we will explore the wavelike properties of light and leave the particlelike behavior to Chapter 16. if you have one. or perhaps it is a property of the space and time in which light travels. but electric and magnetic fields are still there. producing a chemical change in the photoreceptor cells. These are called radio waves or microwaves. so the information about television images is encoded on the light waves and broadcast to your television set. General Properties of Light Since light acts like a wave. (See Figure 131.00 x 10' mls. Its speed is the same c = 3. and light disturbs these fields. we call that piece of space a vacuum. a car may pass you going 75 mph.00 x 10' d s and another spacecraft passes you going in the same direction going 2. If you are driving 60 mph down the freeway. and a car on the other side of the yellow stripe may be going 60 mph in the other direction. This makes sense. Much of the heat from an electric heater is transported by infrared radiation.A. Light of different wavelengths goes by different names. The speed of light is this mysterious c = 3. That is why light can travel in a vacuum.) Light waves of a very long wavelength (greater than one centimeter) are used for broadcast.00 x 10' m/s only in a vacuum. In other materials the speed is a little slower. and water ripples involve the motion of water. When all the material is removed from a piece of space.00 x 10' mls. leading to an action potential in one (or . . Introduction Light is pretty mysterious: sometimes it acts just like a wave. and sometimes it acts like a particle.00 x 10' d s but) 3. it has a wavelength. with m.
responsible for sun tans and melanoma. You can detect the polarization using polaroid glasses. but note that n is always greater than 1). The chart at right gives some values of indices of refraction (do not memorize this chart. and this is the most penetrating electromagnetic radiation. In microwaves lo8 TV. the light from the sky is polarized in most places. so that the displacements lie along one direction (defined here by the picket fence). You can see the light become dimmer and brighter. Nuclear decay produces gamma rays (see Chapter 16). Look through the glasses at the shimmering surface of a hot road and rotate the glasses. look at Figure 132.3 = 1. Xrays have shorter wavelength still (less than m) and can pass through much biological tissue. Gamma rays are able to pass through the Earth like visible light passes through glass. FM radio 106 AM radio 1010 lo4 radiowaves 102 Figure 131 fact. substance vacuum air water glass n 1 = 1.The MCAT Physics Book wavelength (m) frequency several) neurons. For this reason. light in this range is called visible light. In fact it is given by where n is the index of refraction.Polaroid glasses allow the vertically polarized portion of light to go through but absorb the horizontally polarized portion.5  1 .The waves easily pass through the picket fence as it stands. To see what is happening. but if the slats were horizontal. Light waves can be polarized. Figure 132 C. They are used in imaging. Beth is waving her hands up and down sending waves to Sam. as well as light which is reflected from the hot layer of air on a desert road. n. +  waves Transverse waves can be polarized. the waves would not be transmitted to Sam. Reflection and Refraction We mentioned in Section A that light traveling in a medium other than the vacuum has a speed slower than c. which have even shorter wavelengths. Light with shorter wavelength is ultraviolet light. but not so easily the calcium in bones.
Figure 134 is equivalent to Figure 133. toward the normal. then. & I +q < 4 Example 1: A light beam encounters a piece of glass as shown (Figure 135). some of the light is rejected and some is transmitted into the second medium. using rays instead. Also. If the incident light comes in at an angle. The refracted angle 6. The reflected angle 6. Solution: In Figure 136 the normal is shown as a dashed line. then the transmitted light is refracted. air j glass 1 air Figure 135 . The answer. 2. glass Notice the following: 1. Sketch the refracted path of the beam.(in glass) is smaller than the incident Figure 134 angle (in air). The angles are measured from the normal. When working with diagrams of Figure 133 light waves. Rays point perpendicular to the front. the normal to the surface (remember that "normal" means perpendicular) is shown as a dashed line. That is. it is customary (and convenient) to use light rays rather than wave fronts. This is the most important figure of the chapter. Figure 133 shows the wave fronts of light waves incident on glass from air. Light waves in air encounter glass.When light traveling in one medium encounters a boundary to another medium. the slower medium has the ray closer to the normal. so take a moment to study it. from its original direction. 3. Now when it hits the other side of the glass. and in the direction the light is going. the beam bends away from the normal. however. The dotted line shows the path the beam would take if there were no glass. The ray bends. is the solid line. or bent.is the Incident light beam is both same as the incident angle OP reflected and refracted.
414 sin 8. = n. with glass replaced by hydrogen peroxide. Example 2: A beam of light in air strikes the surface of pure hydrogen peroxide (n = 1. What angle does the reflected beam make with the normal? b.. are the angles of the beams. I I I 1.) Solution: Figure 137 shows the diagram for this problem. ' 8 Now we need to find an angle whose sine is 1.0 sin 8. sin Or. 8. = sin' 0.42 sin 30°. and if the beam is transmitted. sin 1. = 2. b. But wait a minute! There is no such .0 sin 30°.42. a. (2) where ni and n. = 1. the transmitted beam is refracted. The diagram for this problem is similar to Figure 134. according to ni sin 8. = 1.354. sin Bi . and Bi and 6. = n. or bent. sin Oi.The MCAT Physics Book Snell's law gives the refracted angle exactly: Snell's Law If a beam of light encounters a boundary. What angle does the transmitted beam make with the normal? Solution: a. but it is more important that you know how to use it.21.. sin 8. = n. The beam makes a 30' angle with the normal. The refracted angle is given by npcr sine. Snell's law becomes nPir 8. measured from the normal.354 = 20. 1 I You will want to memorize it since it is in the MCAT study guide. = 0.21.414) making an angle 30" with the normal to the surface. are the indices of refraction of the media housing the incident and refracted beams. where that last equation must be solved on a calculator. What is the angle of refraction? (The index of refraction for diamond is 2. Figure 137 sine. Example 3: A beam of light in a piece of diamond encounters an interface with air. The reflected angle is the same as the incident angle.7". 30".
it has bent so far from the normal that it is parallel with the surface. the refracted ray bends all the way to 90" Figure 138 thing as a sine which is greater than one. The refracted ray bends away from the normal. Example 4: In a fiber optic cable. The cables have a high index of refraction. is called the critical angle for a diamondair interface.The refracted ray bends away from the nonnal. Figure 139 shows a beam of light in diamond making a 24. It is the incident angle for which the refracted angle is 90". When it anives at the tip. but the refracted beam cannot bend any further away from the normal than it did for 24". Figure 139 With a larger angle of incidence.4'. What is going on? Figure 138 shows a beam of light in diamond with an angle of incidence of 20". there is no refracted ray in this case. there is only refiction (total internal reflection). This phenomenon is called total internal refiction. Figure 1310 light beam without losing energy. Once the beam gets into the air. You may have seen these cables in toys which were popular in the 1970s where the tips of clear thin fibers light up with different colors. so that light gets totally intoemally reflected off the surface and thus does not leak out the sides. In fact.4" angle with the normal. Figure 1310 shows our situation with 30°. With a large angle of incidence. Figure 1311 . the light is transmitted into the air (Figure 1311). light travels down a light pipe with very little energy loss. because all of the light stays in the diamond and none goes into the air. 24. This angle. This equation has no solution.
with smaller wave wtr ae speed. once when entering the lens (usually glass) and once when leaving it. Compare Figure 1312 to approach the shore. as iffrom a point. Imagine ocean waves in the deep portion of the ocean going updownupdown once every five seconds. so that the Ocean waves are refracted wave fronts would arrive roughly parallel toward the nonnal as they to the shore. it must be that the ocean waves arriving at shallow water go updownupdown once every five seconds as well. Figure 1314 shows such a lens. the focal length is negative. as seen from above. . they encounter more and more shallow water. Figure 133. Figure 1312 shows ocean waves cdming toward the shore. The lens is designed so that parallel light rays on the left converge to a point on the right. 0.The MCAT Physics Book Although we have discussed deep reflection and refraction only in the context of light waves. the frequency stays the same. For diverging lenses. The difference here is that the airglass boundary is sharp. both times bending toward the axis. A diverging lens causes parallel b e a m to diverge. The distance from the lens to the point of convergence is the focal lengthf Light rays from the right will also focus to a point after a distancef . Also note (Figure 133 and Figure 1312) that when a wave travels from one medium to another. A converging lens focuses parallel beams to a point. Figure 1313 &:  A diverging lens has the property that parallel light rays incident from the left spread apart after going through the lens. If this goes on for a long time. As they approach. Think about it. Notice how the waves come in to the shore the next time you are at the beach.Optics Using Lenses Figure 1313 shows a converging lens. as if they were coming from a point source a distance +from the lens. This is easier to see with ocean waves than with waves of light. You should work this out by tracing the rays in an exaggerated diagram. all waves in fact get reflected and refracted at boundaries. Thus we would guess that they land would bend toward thenormal. A light ray incident on the lens bends twice. whereas Figure 1312 the boundary from deep to shallow water is gradual. whereas the wavelength changes if the wave speed changes. Figure 1314 .
Draw a ray going through the vertex (center) of h e lens and passing straight through. the object being observed. 1 f di d o (3) and dm = 2 do (4) is the magnification of the image. If the distance from the lens to the object is do. object. It is probably worth your while to learn both. Draw a ray parallel to the principal axis and passing through the lens. then we have 1 1 =+. This ray becomes parallel to the principal axis when it passes through the lens. but it will become more clear as you work through the examples. The intersection of the extended ray in step 2 and the ray in step 3 gives the location of the image. . The method of ray tracing will sound confusing at first. this indicates that the image is on the other side of the lens from the object.For lens problems. extend them backwards until they do. If d i s greater than zero. and both focuses. there are two formulas and a raytracing method. 2. If the rays do not intersect on the side opposite the object. i Raytracing method for a converging lens 1. and the focal length of the lens is f. Raytracing method for a diverging lens 1.the distance from the lens to the image is d. as if it came from the focus. Bend the ray to go through the opposite focus.. Extend the ray backwards. 3. After it passes through the lens it bends up. Draw the lens. but ray tracing is better at answering qualitative questions. Draw a ray passing through the object and the focus on the same side of the lens. 2. 3. The formulas are better for calculating numbers. and focus on the same side as the object. The intersecting point is the location of the image. Draw the lens. Draw a ray parallel to the principal axis. 4. 4.
Figure 1315 In this example.meaning light rays are not actually coming from the position from which they seem to come.03 m) to observe a bug which is 0. we had to extend the rays backwards in step 4 in order to find the image. We can get the magnification by first calculating the exact position of the image: Then / The negative sign for dimems the image is on the same side as the object.02 m from the lens. If the light rays pass through the point from which they seem to come. For this reason the image is virtual.The MCAT Physics Book Example 1:A boy uses a magnifying glass (converging lens with focal length 0. b.15 shows the ray diagram. The positive sign for rn means the image is upright (not inverted). . then the image is said to be real. a. What is the magnification of the image? Solution: Figure 13. Draw a ray diagram.
Example 2: The eye contains a lens whose focal length can be adjusted. takes the near focus into account. What is the focal length of the lens? b. The image is where the lines meet.1 + . you will notice. The other line. In an actual eye. there are many rays which converge to a point. and none of them need to be the two which we have drawn here. Figure 1316 is a physics diagram. and the image is focused on the retina.r 1 f d do i Figure 1316 shows the appropriate diagram.inverted and very small. Is the image upright or inverted? Solution: We calculate the focus as follows: 1 =. . object Figure 1317 image . object Figure 1316 We draw the horizontal line on the left of the lens in step 2.1 m from the lens of the eye.5 cm. Assume the length of the eye from front to back is 2. the image is real. a. See Figure 1317 for a more realistic diagram. Because the image is located where light rays actually converge. A candle (2 cm long) sits 0.
That gives the magnification. .333) (9.0 cm tall and 6. Where is the image of the candle when viewed through the lens? b. The size is then (0. then the image is either both real and inverted or both virtual and upright. which we knew from the diagram.0 m. Also the image is upright.0 cm. for exarnpIe. It 'is a general rule that if only one lens or mirror is involved in a problem. a. Then work it out with the book. The magnification is given by where the positive result indicates the image is upright.0 m away. What is the size of the image? c.The M C A T Physics Book Example 3: The diverging lens on a pair of glasses has a focal length of 3. That means the image is virtual. Figure 1318 We had to extend a ray backwards in step 2. It will never be real and upright. Is the image real or virtual? Solution: (You should try this solution yourself before you read about it.0 cm) = 3. The location of the image can be gotten from the equation: where the negative result indicates the image is behind the lens.) Figure 1318 shows the ray diagram. Is the image inverted or upright? d. A candle is 9.
object. 4. and concave. but you have to be careful. . The intersection of rays behind the mirror is the location of the image. r . object. You use the same kinds of ray diagrams. F i r e 1319 Raytracing method for a converging mirror 1. A positive sign for d. Draw the mirror. in front.E. 2. For mirrors. If the rays do not intersect. For a plane mirror. 3. and concave (Figure 1319). as if it came from the focus. because the meaning of the signfor di is different from that for lens. incoming parallel rays converge after reflection. And for a concave mirror. and focus (behind mirror). Draw a ray parallel to the principal axis which reflects and goes up. Draw a ray going toward the focus of the mirror and reflecting as a horizontal ray. 3. Draw a ray from the object passing through the focus and reflecting off the mirror to become parallel to the axis. that is. Optics Using Mirrors The methods and formulas for mirrors are almost identical to those for lenses. Extend the horizontal ray behind the mirror. plane. so the focal length is negative. Extend the ray behind the mirror. except that a mirror has only one focus. but since there is only one focus. 2. the focal length is infinity. and focus. There are three kinds of mirrors: convex. so the focal length is positive. incoming parallel rays diverge after reflection. The intersecting point is the location of the image. Raytracing method for a diverging mirror 1. For a convex mirror. extend the rays behind the mirror. Draw a ray parallel to the principal axis which reflects from the mirror and passes through the focus. means that the image is on the same side of the mirror as the object. 4. There are three types of mirrors: convex. you use that same focus in steps 2 and 3. Draw the mirror. plane. you use the same equations.
that the second ray uses the same focus as the first ray. The exact location is given by 1 =.The MCAT Physics Book Example 1: The passenger mirror in Larry's car is a diverging mirror with focal length 0. The magnification is given by where the positive sign indicates the image is upright. So why is there a warning "Objects in mirror are closer than they appear"? There are two things going on. Is the image upright or inverted? Solution: Figure 1320 shows the ray diagram. Is the image real or virtual? d. The image of the car is behind the mirror and is virtual and tiny. . Where is the image of the car? b. A car is 10. Larry's brain does not care about where the image is and does not notice from which point the light rays appear to be diverging. What is the magnification of the image? c. Larry's brain compares the size of the image to what it knows is the size of a car in order to obtain a a. distance to the c r The distance thus calculated is about a factor of two too far away.1 f di 1 +* do where the negative sign indicates the image is behind the mirror. a.0 meters away from the mirror. You do not need to pay attention to the sign conventions if you get the diagram right. and the second is that the image is smaller than the image Larry would see if he turned around and looked. * object CFigure 1320 image Note. The first is that the image is much closer to Larry than the object itself.8 meters.
ExampIe 2: Alice looks at herself in a plane minor. 4m di = . The image is 4 meters on the other side of the mirror. we calculate 1 =. What is the magnification? c. Then = Figure 1322 . the magnification is 1.l +. Treat the image as the object and thus the origin of light rays. since the focuses are an infinite distance away. The hard part of this problem (if you have to do the calculation) is remembering the sign di 1 0 m. l 1 1 di 4m o=+. standing 4 meters away. Where is the object? . and the image is virtual and upright. Also Figure 1321 00 Example 3: The image of a candle lies 1 . Where is her image? b. a.1 1 +9 f d i w d o I =. Is the image real or virtual? d. meters behind a converging mirror (focal length 5 0 m). SoIution: Figure 1322 shows the ray diagram.4 m . To see this in the equations. d. Is the image upright or inverted? Solution: Figure 1321shows a ray diagram. with which we can be a bit creative.
which is 0.. Combination of Lenses When several lenses with focal lengthsf. measure in [m' = diopters = Dl.4649 HZ 6. So blue light bends a little more when going from air to glass than red light. but that orange 4..1 X lot4Hz 1. when the eye is at rest.. although this is true. . but not exactly. but you should study the diagram of the prism until it makes sense to you.5 X 1014Hz indigo 1.5 X loL4 7.4614 blue 1. that is. then it is possible to treat the combination of lenses as one lens. it is not the whole truth.6 X 1 0 ' ~Hz light. are near each other.5. causing a separation of colors in a prism. This word power has nothing to do with the other definition of power. Dispersion In Section C we discussed the idea that the speed of light in each substance is related to its index of refraction n.. This is the principle behind the prism (Figure 1323). You can see 5 . given by I The quantity l/Jfor a lens is called the power of the lens.9 X 1014Hz 1. What is the power of the corrective lens he must wear? + that n is approximately 1.4566 4. Example: Dieter has an eye which. A more complete version of the truth is that the index of refraction f color n depends slightly on the frequency of the red 1. then the combination has a focal length&.4702 I G. Now. The phenomenon is called dispersion. and the index of refraction governs the bending of light as it crosses a boundary..) The chart shows the yellow 5. There are not many simple calculations we can do at this point. Ad blue Different colors (different frequencies) refract slightly differently. Combination of Lenses When we view an object through several lenses which are near each other.The MCAT Physics Book I F. focuses light to a point 0. (Sometimes not so slightly..001 m in front of the retina. Figure 1323 .024 m behind the lens.4578 is another story. f. energy per time. 8 X 1 0 ' ~ H z green 1.4584 index of refraction for glass. The point here is that the power of a combination of lenses is the sum of the power of the lenses.
Since PC. In Section F we noted that different frequencies of light have slightly different indices of refraction. lenses that are very thick cannot focus light to a single point. + we H. we assumed that the lens was able to focus all parallel rays to a single focus. frequencies in standing waves. Likewise. If you visualize this principle in diagrams such as Figures 134 and 1312 and practice the raytracing diagram. In this chapter we looked at light as an example of waves. refraction. which can cause different colors to have different focal lengths. and "1. looking specifically at reflection. The deviation from ideality is called an aberration. "Sound". you will notice that the image looks bent out of shape.= Peye Pconscl. If you look through a glass sphere. like a bead or a paperweight. and lens effects.67 D. This is called a chromatic aberration. Such an assumption is called an ideallens or thinlens approximation. bending toward the normal of the interface when they pass from a fast medium to a slow one..025 m = 40 D. beats. have P m I = 1. This is called a spherical aberration. 5. The properties of waves we have studied in the past three chapters include 1. so the way we have divided them up among chapters titled "Waves".024 m + 0.024m = 41. All waves exhibit these properties. so the image ends up distorted.67 D. The combination of lenses should have a focal length 0. so the power of the combination of the two lenses needs to be Pa. 4. reflection and refraction.ight" is somewhat artificial. = 110.Solution: The power of Dieter's eye is P. beats are usually observed in sound waves and only extremely rarely in light You should be aware that sound waves reflect and refract just like light. Ideal Lenses and Nonideal Lenses In our discussion of lenses... interference (by superposition). 2.001 m = 0.= 110. . and 6.025 m. Refraction is most often observed in light waves. dispersion. 3. so it is generally studied in the context of light. Real lenses are not so good. For one thing. then you should do well on problems that this chapter covers. Doppler shift.
Which best represents the refracted ray which leaves the right surface? Chapter 13 Problems Section B nu= glass Use the following indices of refraction for problems 112: 4.414 n A ray of light in air is incident on an interface with glass. glass air glass glass air glass A spherical air bubble is embedded in glass. such that the airglass interface is parallel to the glasswater interface. In the figure. and a ray of light (incident ray I) approaches the bubble as shown in the figure. Which best shows the refracted ray of light? glass GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE .7 water 1. there is a triangle of glass in air. 2. substance air water hydrogen peroxide glass ammonium bromide 1. In the following figures. followed by an interface with water. 5. glassairglass interface? lass air glass lass air glass A.The MCAT Physics Book 3. Which best represents the refracted ray which passes through the bubble? C. a ray of light approaches normal to the surface on the left. Which best represents the refracted ray? \ water 1 Which of the following best shows the refracted ray at a .
C. 12. 3 sin' 4 8. 2.4 x 1014HZ C. 510nm C . D. 30" B. 9. 3 sin' 4 7. such that the smallest angle the beam makes with the surface is 30". C.0 x 1014HZ D. 2 sin' 3 1 .9 x 1013HZ B. What is the smallest angle the refracted ray makes with 1 the surface? A. 867 nm . 1. 4 None of the above. D. hydrogen peroxide 1 6 Which expression best expresses the angle the refracted . Which expression best expresses the critical angle for the interface of water with air? A. B.8 x 1014Hz Use the following information in questions I 1 and 12: A light beam of wavelength 5 10 nm in air encounters a flat surface of ammonium bromide (index of refraction = & . 300 nm B. (See figure. 2. What is the wavelength of the refracted ray? A. Which expression best expresses the angle the reflected ray makes with the normal? A. (See figure.) refraction = JZ). so that the angle between the beam and the normal to the surface is 30".) 30" 60" 2 sin' 3 D. 1020 nm sin' 3  241 GO ON TO THE N M PAGE . What is the critical angle for this encounter? sin' sin' 1 3 2 3 D. ammonium bromide sin' 1  3 B.1. D. If the angle of encounter is less than the critical angle. 17" C. 9. which of the following is the frequency of the light beam in the hydrogen peroxide? A. None of the above.4 x 1014H in air z encounters a surface with hydrogen peroxide (index of (See figure.7). 10. ray makes with the normal? A.Use the following injbnnation in questions 68: A beam of light in water encounters a boundary with air.) Use thefollowing infonnation in questions 9 and 10: A light beam of frequency 1.
333 m from the lens on the same side as the object. B. 0. inverted and virtual A. Where is the resulting image? A. upright and virtual C.333 m from the lens on the opposite side from the object. 1. (See figure. A. 20. 1217 m from the lens on the same side as the object. D. Which of the following characterizes the image? A. B. 19. C. while the image is 2 m from the Iens on the other side. inverted and virtual 15. Half as large and inverted. D. refraction. 1. 4 m from the lens on the opposite side from the object. C. 14. interference.) 13. C. dispersion. D. 18. B .) 17. 4m 4/3 m 413 m 4m 21. Use the following information in questions 18 and 19: A candIe 21 cm tall sits 4 m away from a diverging lens with focal length 3 m. 12 m from the lens on the opposite side from the object. (See figure. B. upright and real B. B. .The MCAT Physics Book Section C Use the following information in questions 1315: We observe a candIe through a converging lens with focaI length 4 m. upright and real B. D. What is the magnification of the image? A. C. This phenomenon is caIled A. The candle is 0. B. 4 m from the lens on the same side as the object.1 x 10" Hz. 12 m from the lens on the same side as the object. C. Where is the resulting image? A.1 m tall and 2 m away from the lens. The candle is 4 m from the lens. the focal length of the lens is different from 2 m. Which of the following characterizes the image? A. B. 1U7 m from the lens on the opposite side from the object. What is the focal length of the lens? 16.6667 1. For a different frequency of the light. inverted and real D. upright and virtual C. GO ON TO THE N C PAGE OT . inverted and real D. 7 cm 9 cm 49 cm 63 cm Use the following infomtion in questions 16 and 17: A sodium emission tube produces light of frequency 5.5 0. Half as large and erect. D. What is the size of the image? A.5 2 D. What is the magnification of the image? D. C. Twice as large and erect Twice as large and inverted. It sits 6 m from a converging lens of focal length 2 m. incidence. Use the following information in questions 20 and 21: A candle is viewed through a lens. C.
It is half as large. 2 D. The image is A. upright and virtual. D. 24 m behind the mirror. where is the image? A. What is the absolute magnification of the image? A. 23. and the image is upright. Light rays reconverge at the focus. No image is formed and the rays end up traveling parallel to infinity. inverted and real. C. where is the image? 12 m in front of the mirror. 3 30. It is half as large. 6 m behind the mirror. 4 m behind the mirror. A. and the image is upright. (See figure. C . upright and real. 0. C. 12m *24 m 4 1 22. B. An image is formed 6 m in front of the mirror. 12 m in front of the mirror. 31. where is the image? 6 m in front of the mirror. 28. A. D. 25. C. upright and real B. If the object is 6 m in front of the mirror. D. Light rays end up parallel going to infinity. 1.) 27.5 C. 24. inverted and virtual 26. If the object is 24 m away from the mirror. 12 m in front of the mirror. An image is formed 6 m behind the mirror. 12 m behind the mirror. C. If the object is 24 m away from the mirror. what best characterizes the image? A. (See figure. It is twice as large. 12 m behind the mirror. If the object is an infinite distance away. An image is formed 6 m in front of the mirror. B. B. B. B. upright and virtual C. If the object is 6 m in front of the mirror. 29. B. 24 m in front of the mirror. C . {I. 6 6 m . B. 12 m behind the mirror. What happens if a light bulb is placed 6 m in front of the mirror? A. what is its magnification? A. Where is the resulting image? A. What happens when a candle is placed at the focus? A. 6 m behind the mirror. It is twice as large.) . inverted and virtual. B. Use the following information in questions 2831: A light bulb is placed 12 m in front of a diverging mirror with focus 6 m. inverted and real D. C.333 B. C.Section D Use the following information in questions 2227: We view an object at various distances using a mirror with focal length 12 m. and the image is inverted. An image is formed 3 m behind the mirror. and the image is inverted. An image is formed 6 m behind the mirror. 12 m behind the mirror. D. 4 m in front of the mirror. 6 m in front of the mirror. 12 m in front of the mirror. D. D. GO ON T THE N X PAGE O ET . D. D. .
D. A lens of power 6 diopters.116 diopters. unpolarized light vertically polarized light GO ON TO THE N X PAGE ET . vertical polarizer observer 36. is incident on a vertical polarizer. What is the focal length of the combination? A. It is a converging mirror with focal length 1. and the large arrows show the direction of the wave. and the image is upright. 1/10 D 5112D 1215 D IOD Passage 1 33. through is vertically polarized with intensity 112 I. Two thin lenses (6 D and 4 D) are positioned near each other. A lens of power . so that the lens on the left has focal length 2 m and the one on the right has focal length 4 m. Two thin converging lenses are near each other. In this diagram the small arrows show the direction of the electric field. I Electromagnetic radiation from an incandescent source.33 m. is unpolarized. B. If unpolarized light of intensity I.5. What can be said about the mirror? A. D. One way to produce polarized radiation involves applying an alternating voltage to a straight piece of wire to form an antenna (See figure below). what would the rays do on the other side of the lens? A. B. Such a film is called apolarizer. and the image is inverted. . D. C A lens of power 116 diopters. C. D They would diverge as if from a point 3 m behind . 32. and the image is inverted. It is a diverging mirror with focal length 4 m. Another way to obtain polarized radiation involves allowing unpolarized radiation to be incident on a film or material which transmits radiation of one polarization but absorbs radiation of the perpendicular polarization. A certain lens has focal length 2 m. D A lens of power 6 diopters. Section G 34. and the image is 4 m behind the mirror. The magnification is 0. the lens. . The magnification is 2. and the image is upright. C. 37. They would converge with a focal length of 113 m. B. B. such as a light bulb. If parallel light rays were incident on a lens of power 3 D. C The magnification is 2.5.of the wave points in random directions perpendicular to wave travel. C. What is the magnification of the image? A. . 314 m C.33 m. which means that the electric field. They would diverge as if from a point 113 m behind the lens. 6 m 35. B. What lens could you combine with it to give a combination with focal length 3 m? A. Radiation is emitted from the antenna perpendicular to the wire with a polarization which is parallel to the wire. The figure below shows this schematically.The MCAT Physics Book Use the following information in questions 32 and 33: A light bulb is 2 m in front of a mirror. What is the power of the combination? A. 116 m B. They would converge with a focal length of 3 m. The magnification is 0. It is a converging mirror with focal length 4 m. It is a diverging mirror with focal length 1. 413 m D. the radiation that passes .
C.) What polarization does he detect from the antenna? In the figure below. All manufactured polarizers have less than ideal efficiency which comes from reflection off the two surfaces and absorption of the parallel component. with an optically active substance between the polarizers. What is the intensity of the resultant beam? C. He observes an unpolarized beam. Polarizer A is oriented vertically. An optically active substance is a substance which rotates the plane of polarization of a beam. C. so it is emitting electromagnetic radiation. Assume the polarizers are ideal. an unpolarized radiation source is incident on a series of polarizers. Without the polarizers the intensity of the source is I. 2 0 1 D. the amount of energy that is transmitted depends on the relative angle of the radiation polarization and the polarizer axis. chemical energy B. heat D. less than Io but greater than zero intensity 2 0 5. D. D. unpolarized light is incident on polarizers A and B in series. but greater than zero intensity 2 0 A.. 1 less than I. unpolarized light is incident on . nuclear energy A horizontal antenna is aligned along a northsouth axis. The figure shows a modification of the figure in Problem 2. If they are aligned. If the angles differ by 8. 2. It could have any intensity less than (or equal to) I. An observer is due north of the antenna. then the intensity of the transmitted radiation is cos2 8 of the original intensity. (See the figure. What is the intensity of the resultant beam? 3. D. 945 GO ON TO T E N X PAGE H ET . Polarizers A and B are both oriented vertically.If polarized radiation is incident on a polarizer. He observes horizontal polarization. All of the foregoing refers to ideal polarizers. 1 Where does the energy of the original beam go which is not in the resultant beam? A. 1 In the figure below. polarizers A and B in series.. while polarizer B is oriented horizontally. What is the intensity of the resultant beam? optically active substance C. potential energy C. This antenna has an alternating voltage applied to it. In questions 14. He observes no radiation. He observes vertical polarization. 4. B. then all the radiation is transmitted.
15" D. Behind the retina. The front to back length of the eye is 0. When waves pass through an aperture.5 x eye is 1. The human eye.023 m 3. A human eye is focused on a moth of size 0. the angular separation of two light sources (or features on any sort) is x the ratio of spatial separation A to distance from the point of reference L. The front to back length of the eye is 0. If em the eye is focusing a b a of red light onto the retina. The tuning is necessary since the eye must be able to bring into focus light from objects as close as 0.The MCAT Physics Book 2 For the following problems use c = 3.09 degrees (since 1 rad = 57") or 5 seconds of an arc.5 x rad or 0. C.025 m. each having the ability to detect light falling on its surface: Most of the refraction (and thus focusing) of incoming light rays takes place at the interface between air and the cornea. however. 1 What is the frequency of green light? . 4. what angle is subtended by the moth in the view of the eye? A. then the angular separation of the lights is approximately radians. To a good approximation. What should be the approximate power of the appropriate corrective lens? A. (See figure. since the light from the two headlights approaches your eye from two directions (see figure). 5. The lens does the finetuning. and you see only one light source. low3 m D. Ultimately the spatial resolution of any detector. is essentially diffraction limited. 3 diopters C. 5 diopters B. 3 diopters D. For instance.~ m) Passage The mammalian eye is designed to collect light and focus it onto the retina. being either near. If the car is far enough away. In front of the retina.or farsighted. including the eye.1 m as well as light from an infinitely distant source. but the focusing power of the resting eye is 35 diopters. What is the size of the image on the retina? A. For example. and d is the diameter of the hole through which the waves must pass. your eye lacks the resolution to distinguish the headlights.01 m located 0.5 m apart on a car which is 1 km away.3" B.0 x 10' mls. Both in front of and behind the retina. 0. 2 x 1 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ 2. if your eye can just resolve two headlights which are 1. The actual resolution of a detector may be much poorer than equation (1) would indicate if it is poorly designed.6" C. l where Omis measured in radians. which is the spreading of waves. The resolution of your 1. Green light has a wavelength of 520 nm in a vacuum. 2. is limited by difraction. GO ON TO THE N X PAGE ET . In question 2. diffraction is the physical limit of the resolution. 30" A certain eye does not focus correctly. em where would the focus for a b a of blue light fall? A. they spread on the other side subtending an angle given by 5. 5 diopters 4. 64 x Hz B. when functioning properly. D.3 x l o a m C. 160 Hz C. B. The cornea is made of a material which has a larger index of refraction for blue light than for red light. you can see two distinct headlights. On the retina.25 m away.5 rn/1000 m = 1. if a distant car is facing you at night with its headlights on. A. (1 nm = 1o . Of course. 2. The retina consists of an array of cells. 10~m B. i is the wavelength of the wave involved.8 x 1 0 ' ~ Hz D. changing the focal length so the image lands exactly on the retina. 1 .025 m. the smaller the resolution angle. Spatial resolution is the ability of the eye to distinguish waves coming from different directions.) Thus the better the resolution. Resolution is measured in degrees or radians.
Assuming diffraction limitation. B. 8. we would expect that the resolution in the ultraviolet would be not as good as that for visible light. but the resolution is not good enough. The Hubble Space Telescope in question 8 above also has detectors for ultraviolet light. sometimes not as good as. Increase the size of the whole camera. The larger pupil restricts the amount of directional information entering the eye. He has designed a camera with a lens which focuses incoming light on a detector. which of the following gives an estimate for the best resolution we could hope for? incoming light A. Paragraph 3. D. better than that for visible light. B. C. A. The large lens introduces spherical aberration. and you must stand 10 m away. B.6. D. A cat's eye. If you view it from a great enough distance. adapted for seeing at night. sometimes better than that for visible light. and you must stand 2 m away. The large lens introduces chromatic aberration. B. about the same as that for visible light. Which of the following could improve the resolution? Increase the distance from the lens to the detector. A Seurat painting consists of many dots of paint about 0. 10. The resolution for a cat's eye.4 m. The focus is directed by a secondary mirror into detection apparatus (not shown). eye. and you must stand 10 m away. is not better than that of a human eye. however. Light comes in from the right and is focused by the primary mirror (focal length 13 m). which paragraph in the passage gives the information to calculate this? Paragraph 3.18 radians SO TP . which is almost diffraction limited.09 radians 0. If you wanted to know how far away need you be for the dots to blur together. 2 x lo' radians 0. C. C. the dots of color appear to blend together. Change the material of the lens to be more transparent. and you must stand 2 m away.045 radians 0. The camera is essentially diffraction limited. and you see a coherent picture. Paragraph 4. D.3 m). A.002 m in diameter. The resolution of your diffractionlimited eye is 2 x lo4 radians. B.1 m and diameter 4. If the HST is used for viewing galaxies in visible light. Paragraph 4. has a larger pupil than a human eye and a much larger lens. D. Improve the lens shape. C. D. C . A. The figure shows a cross section of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) (length 13. An engineer is working on a camera to photograph the distant landscape in foreign countries. The perimeter of the mirror is a circle whose diameter is 2. Which of the following is a possible explanation for the lack of resolution in a cat's eye? The larger pupil allows more light to enter the A. 9.
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electrodynamics will become far less arcane. and so it is less familiar. is the electric field real? Well. the following story has emerged as the best explanation: Most material on Earth is composed of three particles. The key to building an intuition about electrodynamics is visualizing these unfamiliar concepts: concepts such as charge. electric and magnetic fields. someone noticed that when amber is rubbed with a cloth it attracts small seeds or pieces of straw. l b o charges of like sign exert a repulsive force on each other. and protons have a positive charge. it's unlikely you'll get a satisfactory answer. and electric potential. but we can become familiar with their properties. but if you spend some effort actively creating mental pictures. That is not our story. (Amber is a soft ochre "stone" of hardened tree sap. In this chapter there are only a few equations and concepts. things no one talks about outside of physics circles. extra electrons. neutrons. In mechanics we used words like "car" and "force" and "wave". they have nearly the same number of protons as electrons. yes. and electrons. and this mobility results in most of the changes we observe. But that's chemistry. while two charges of unlike sign exert an attractive force on each other (Figure 141). but the implications are profound. The protons and neutrons hold together in tight lumps. it is as real as anything. giving it a net negative charge. then. No one knew why. We can not see them directly. but everyday life does not bring us in direct experience with the electric field. When our unknown predecessor Like charges repel and rubbed the neutral amber it acquired a few unlike charges attract. In electrodynamics we use phrases like "electric field". Most objects are neutral. called nuclei. Sometimes the electrons hold the atoms together. forming atoms. but if you ask your physics teacher. What is an electric field? It's a reasonable question. I A long time ago. The much less massive electrons exist in a cloud around the nuclei. Fire 141 A .) Many years and many experiments later. forming molecules and so on. Well. that is. The electrons are sometimes quite mobile.1 Chapter 14 Many students find electrodynamics difficult because it is the physics of things you cannot see. There is no doubt that this is a difficult chapter. called protons. This is our story: Electrons have a negative charge.
They may move around. i Clearly this is true in chemical reactions. then the total charge of that system is conserved (stays constant as time passes). Negative charges migrate to the surface of a conducting sphere. Figure 142 The same holds for positive charge.. .) This is a general rule: The total charge of a piece of the interior of a conductor is zero.) C. with no positive excess charge in the interior. So all the charge ends up evenly distributed on the surface. This is called induced charge.) . and neutrons are permanent objects. most of them metals. A material which does not conduct electrons is called either a nonconductor. as in physical and chemical reactions.Any excess charge lies on the surface of the conductor. protons. If we place a bunch of electrons (a negative charge) on an isolated conducting sphere (like a metal ball). any interior piece has a total charge of zero (Figure 143). the total charge on that piece will be zero. Charges and Materials There are some materials. but they do not spontaneously disappear or appear. which are just rearrangements of electrons and nuclei. depending on the mood of the speaker. or a dielectric. such as the radioactive decay of nuclei or reactions of exotic particles. electrons will move away or. . but it turns out to be true even in unusual circumstances. electrons. then the excess Figure 143 positive charge will spread out on the surface. (This has to be. In other words. since the charged object induces a charge on the neutral conductor (Figure 144). If there were any excess electrons. you will never go wrong by thinking in terms of positive charges repelling each other.) All the excess charge is on the surface. they would repel each other and move out of the piece. Such materials are called conductors. until they cannot go any further.toward the charged object. Thus we have the following: r Conservation of Charge If a system is closed (no matter goes in or out). (See Chapter 16. Positive charges migmte to the surface of a conducting sphere.The MCAT Physics Book Under normal circumstances. If a positive charge is placed on a conducting sphere. (Although the positive charge is caused by a deficit of electrons. If a charged object is brought near a neutral conductor. depending on the object's charge. (See Figure 142. the electrons repel and move away from one another. or an insulator. 0 + + If we examine the interior of a piece of the sphere. in which electrons are able to move freely from atom to atom.
sign. too. the following procedure is given for charging by induction a metal sphere connected to an insulating rod: 1. Sketch what happens to charges. 5. Figure 145a A ground is any huge reservoir and depository of electrons. each molecule in a nonconductor can have its electron density move to one side (Figure 145a). Remove your finger. The induced charge in a nonconductor is not as large as in a conductor: charge F i r e 145b The following example illustrates these concepts. 2. Figure 146 Example: In a physics lab text. We rub amber with a cloth. Instead of drawing all the polarized molecules. Rub a piece of amber with cotton cloth. A charged object (left)can induce a charge in a nonconductor (right)as well. and a deficit of electrons is indicated by a + sign. We can induce a charge on a nonconductor. Remove the amber. the charge will be neutralized where you touch it (Figure 146). a slight excess in the number of electrons over the number of protons is indicated by a .A (left)can induce a charge in a conductor (right).) Solution: 1. 4. Bring the amber near but not touching the metal sphere. Even though charges do not move freely in it. we generally summarize these with a picture like Figure 145b. 3. If you touch a charged object to a wire connected to ground.  ground I A ground is able to supply a charge to or drain a chargefrom any object it touches. Figure 144 Generally the induced charge on nonconductors is smaller than that on conductors. amber sphere Figure 147a . Touch the other side of the sphere with your finger (which acts as a ground). (Hint: Amber tends to pick up electrons. In the illustrations.
and q. just like the law of gravitation. We remove the finger Figure 147d 5. We remove the amber. Coulomb's Law Knowing that like charges repel (and unlike attract) is only a part of the story. Figure 147c 4. dZ ' (1) Note that the distance appears in the denominator as a square. For this we must introduce the unit for charge [Coulombs = C]. and most laboratory situations involve the accumulation of at most lo4 C. . so it is called an inversesquare law. Figure 147b 3. Figure 147e D. We can calculate numbers as well. of magnitude F. ~m~ where k = 9 X 10' 7Coulomb's constant. A Coulomb is a large amount of charge.q. are a distance d apart. then they exert a force on each other.The MCAT Physics Book 2.. =kq. We bring the amber near the sphere. We touch the other side with a finger. This force is is C attractive if the charges have unlike sign and repulsive if they have like sign. Coulomb's Law If two simple charges q.
The second viewpoint introduces a In another viewpoint. but they are very different perspecf tives.Example: A piece of amber rubbed with a cloth acquires a negative charge on a cold day. When we place q at a point. that is. we consider two charges. . Often in physics. and the net force is to the left. Explain why the seeds are attracted charge and the inversesquare to the amber. We have explained our predecessor's observation (Section B). we can explain this phenomenonas a repulsive force that Q exerts on q. but it is not the only way we can explain the forces which charges experience. Fix Q at some point. and the electric field tells charge q what F i r e 149 force to feel. it experiences a force away from Q. relationship of electric force. One is that Coulomb's law is not really designed to deal with moving charges. The electric field is an example of a deeper insight Again. But does it feel it immediately. and q feels thisfield field). seed amber Show the charge distribution for a. using Coulomb's law. being nearsighted. directed outward and getting shorter with distance from the charge Q. the seeds are attracted to it. there are good reasons to talk about an independent existence of an electric field. now call them Q and q. does not see Q over there. and assume they are positive. At first it looks as if the attractive and repulsive forces balance. and sometimes it prevails because it provides a deeper insight into the working of the universe. there are two viewpoints which explain the same phenomena. If the amber is brought near neutral seeds. So why do we introduce a new viewpoint? Isn't Coulomb's law adequate for our needs? Actually. q does not feel the forcefrom Q directly. and if so. Or we can explain this as follows: The charge Q creates a "field of arrows" around itself. but Q creates an new animal: a field of arrows (or vector electric field. charge q. Both viewpoints explain the observations. giving no net force. then q must experience a different force. Lx Stop for a minute and think about Z this. Uedric Field Coulomb's law is simple. What happens if we abruptly move charge Q. If we place charge q nearby. But the distance from the amber to the left side of the seed is less than the distance to the right side. taking into account the induced charge in the seed. Now. which tells it what force to feel (Figure 149).Solution: Figure 148 shows the Figure 148 charge distribution. But it does see the arrow. Usually. only one eventually prevails. or is there a delay. how much of a delay? 1 I . Sometimes it prevails because it is easier to use. Charge Q creates an electric field. we have explained why a rubbed piece of amber attracts seeds and small objects. The inversesquare relationship in Coulomb's law makes the arrow on the left slightly longer than the arrow on the right. A charged object may attract a neutral object because of induced b. 0  E. If Q is moved to a different place. the amber and the seeds.
The direction of this field is away from Q if Q is positive and toward Q if it is negative. The electricfield is the same as it was before the move and charge q feels a force as if Q were in its old place. d2 where d is the distance from the charge to the point in question. In fact. but also down. an electric field. . Ifthe charge Q moves quickly. however. then Coulomb's Law indicates q feels the change immediately. The electric field outside the dotted line is the same as before the charge Q moved up. Figure 1410b Now q experiencesforce to the right. that is. Figure 1410a The information has moved outward to the dotted line. The information about the change in position spreads out quickly. Charge q still feels a force as if Q were in its old place. The electric field tells charges what force to feel. (See text.) In this figure charge Q h s been moved up a suddenly. It turns out.b. Rule 1 A stationary charge Q creates at every point an electric field of magnitude E = kQ . The easiest way to explain this is to say that a disturbance in the electricfield propagates outward at a finite speedthe speed of light. (Fiat lux. Charges (some stationary and some moving) create the electric field. then the electric field does not respond immediately. This demonstration indicates that the electricfield has an existence independent of the charges and that the second viewpoint is better than Coulomb 's law. that's what light is: a disturbance in the electric field which propagates away from the source.c). that there is a delay. which is an accelerating charge.The MCAT Physics Book If d (in Coulomb's Law) is the actual distance between the charges. but not immediately (Figure 14lOa. There are three rules for the electric field which you need to know for the MCAT. This is worth remembering.) Figure 1410c The important concept is this: The universe is filled with arrows.
A positive charge q placed at point P would experience a force to the right. + E .. Charge Q. Figure 149 shows the electric field due to a single positive charge. A sketch of the electric field due to a single negative charge would look the same except the arrows would point toward the charge. Figure 141l b shows this explicitly for point P.. + . and so on..) a. charge Q. D C The magnitude of the electric field at A F i r e 1412 I I . creates electric field I .  Figure 14lla The electricfield at any point is the vector sum of the individual electric fie&.1 X lo'' C are placed at corners B and D. If a proton were placed at point A. . What force would an electron placed at point A experience? fE" c. Charges of Q = 1. Example 1: A dipole is a positive charge and an equalmagnitude negative charge separated by a distance.L Rule 2 Assume there are several stationary charges Q. creates electric field E. What is the electric field at point A? b. 2 2 A Rule 3 A charge q placed at point P will experience a force given by F = qE. Each electric field vector shown is actually the sum of two vectors. First. The electric field at P is . at point P. Q. Sketch the electric field around a dipole. Solution: Figure 141l a shows such a sketch. at point P. (The charge of a proton is 1. ? the vector sum E = E.6 x C. while a negative charge would experience a force to the left. what would be the ratio of the magnitude of the force it would experience to that which the electron in b experiences? Solution: a. I Figure 14llb Example 2: Square ABCD has sides of length meters. we DRAW A DIAGRAM showing the electric fields caused by the two charges (Figure 1412).. and so on.
) Note also: In problems of this sort. in which we may use the Pythagorean theorem. We simply calculate F =qE The force the electron at point A experiences is directed toward C. c. 0 Simp1e 'fa water molecule. since the sign of the proton is positive. b. electric field. Note: A water molecule is a complicated object. much more important than memorizing several equations. Figure 1414 . The force on the proton at point A is obtained in the same way. with three nuclei and ten electrons interacting quantum mechanically. except the direction of the force is away from C. you should ignore gravity unIess the problem tells you to include it. so we write This is the answer to part a. we can model the water molecule as a simple dipole: a molecule with a positive end and a negative end. The following example shows how important it is to have a mental picture of the charges.The MCAT Physics Book due to the charge at B is Figure 1413 This is the magnitude of the electric field due to the charge at D as well. Figure 1413 shows this sum. The two electric fields add like vectors. since the charge of the electron is negative. The ratio of the magnitudes of the forces on the proton and the electron is 1. (See Figure 1414. But for many purposes (as in the following example). and forces. Even simpler model o f a water molecule.
Figure 1417 Notice the difference between Example 4 and Example 3. In Example 3 the electric field is uniform. so its charge is q.Example 3: An electric field exists in the xyplane directed in the positive ydirection with constant magnitude E.. F The force is directed in the ydirection Figures 1415b. What direction is the net force due to the sodium ion on the hydrogen fluoride molecule? Solution: First we DRAW A DIAGRAM showing the electric field C C (Figure 1416). Figure 1417 shows the force diagram for the molecule.c (Figure 1415b). (This is like the seeds beings attracted to the amber in Section D ) . If a water molecule is placed in the xyplane with its oxygen end pointing in the +xdirection and hydrogen end pointing in the xdirection. (Use q. Figure 1415a shows the electric field.. If a chloride ion (Cl) is placed x in the xyplane. because the hydrogen part is located where the electric field is smaller. The net force is in the xdirection. molecule. field is not uniform.. Adding the two forces in Figure 141% yields zero net force..E.. c. b For the torque on a water . Example 4: A positive charge due to a sodium ion (Na') is at the origin. so the net force on the dipole is zero. for the elementary charge. think of a water molecule as having a positive end and a negative end. which direction is the torque? c. Notice that the force on the fluoride part of the I molecule is larger than the force on the 4 Fire 1416 hydrogen part.The magnitude of the force on the ion is F =q. what is the force on the ion? Figure 1415a b. A hydrogen fluoride molecule (HF) is on the positive xaxis with its hydrogen end further from the ion than its fluoride end. In Example 4 the electric . or the charge of the proton. What is the direction of the net force on the water molecule? Solution: a. Chloride has one more electron than it has protons. so the torque is clockwise.) a. Figure 141% shows the forces on the two ends.
II F." or whatever it happened to be. Analogy: Sisyphus. How would we create and analogy with electric forces? Let's say a positive charge Q is fixed in space. (Figure 1420 shows them in action.) A honey bee carries a positive a. For sisyphus7task. Figure 1421 The electric force is also a conservative force. His son moved a smaller rock (mass m) to the top of the same mountain. and it has a potential energy associated with it. Who had the greatest work per mass ratio? The ratio of work required to roll a rock Solution: This is a problem we from the bottom to the top to the mass o f the rock is independent of the path. there is a flow of energy from his muscles Figure 1420 into another form. This is just another way of graphically representing the same information.) a. The woddmass ratio is independent of path because gravity is a conservative force. The latter is given by MgH. Each point on the mountain would have its own worWmass ratio. and Figure 1419 exemplifies two positive charges. " have done before.) Each carefully calculated the work required. each arrow directing your pen to the next arrow. and his son performs work mgH. But by the conservation of energy. (See Figure 1421. along Path 1 from A to B. (They calculated W = FAxcos # for each piece of the journey and then added the pieces.The MCAT Physics Book Figure 1418 Figure 1419 One last note here: To draw electric field lines. At the top of the mountain they could drive a stake in the ground with the title "WorWmass is 1200 Jlkg. charge q. If they calculate the work to mass ratio. the gravitational potential energy of the stone. . Electric Potential We begin this section with an analogy. where H is the height of the mountain. that must be the same as the work that Sisyphus performs. was condemned to move a large stone of mass M to the top of a mountain (with no friction). By the same argument. Path 1 Q For bees carrying charges from A to B the wonk@charge ratio is independent of path and sign of charge. all obtain gH. Sisyphus' sister performs the same work MgH. Figure 14!8 shows an example for a dipole. of Greek legend. His sister moved a similar stone up a different path to the top of the mountain. Who did the most work? b. simply connect the arrows of the electric field.
Although honey bee c performs a different amount of work. is equivalent to the worwmass ratio to get to that point. we don't need the exact heights of A and B above sea level. Now the analogy to gravitational potential energy works only so far. and the acceleration due to gravity. So Sisyphus performs a large amount of work with his large rock. and the electric potential is in a fourth dimension that we can only imagine. For one thing. mass is always positive. Similarly. Each point on the Earth's surface may be labeled by a height or the worWmass ratio. In physics. A third bee carries a negative charge q. On the other hand. the electric potential. we do not care about the absolute potential. In that case. We could drive a stake into space at point B with the title "7 JIC to get to this point from A" or something to that effect. the mass of the rock. while charge may be positive or negative. and the third dimension. Honey bee a performs a large amount of work. the honey bees can fly in three dimensions. so she is able to derive work from the system. This is analogous to gravitational potential energy per mass or roughly analogous to height. Another bee carries the same amount of charge along Path 2 fiom A to B. entails.. height. we would view climbing a mountain (as in Figure 14226). The units are [JIC = volts = V]. point A is often set at infinity as a standard. This work per charge is called electric potential. The bee approaches aflower at 600 volts. the situation appears like Figure 1422a Figure 1422b to the bee. We need only the difference in height. carries a charge of lo4 C. The work per charge is the same in all cases. in most electrostatic problems. But since it takes a lot of energy to get to the flower. Honey bees a and b perform the same amount of work. the bee perceives the task as Figure 1422a shows how it looks to us. The work required to bring a charge from infinity'to P is independent of the path taken and is given by w=qv.b. it is different only because of the different charge. m A Fire 1422b . we refer to the Each point P in space has an absolute electric potential V. c. Figure 1422 is A honeybee with charge I @ C an attempt to illustrate this. and the flower Because of the amount of energy this has a electric potential of 600 volts. to every point in space we assign a number.. but honey bee c performs a negative amount of work. along Path 2. Another difference is that the Earth's surface is two dimensional. and his son performs a smaller amount of work. If we want to know how much energy is required to move a rock from A to B. Thus. we need only the potential dgerence.
6 x lo'' C. such a positive potential (if Q is positive) looks like a high steep mountain. We apply the formula W = qAV We need to check the sign. How much energy would be required to remove an electron from the positive terminal and move it to the negative terminal? (The charge of an electron is 1.v*). are the electric potentials at A and B. It is a good thing to know the amount of work to move a charge from one place to another. d where d is the distance from P to the center of the charge. But how do we calculate the potentials? In many situations. if we know the electric potentials at the various points. where V. I. Example 1: A DC battery is rated at 6 volts. Note that there is no d in the denominator. and we know how to do that now.) Solution: Note that going from a positive terminal to a negative terminal is "downhill". (Figure 1423). dv. it looks like a deep pit (since the energy change is negative for getting close to Q). so AV is negative. Does such an action require work? Or can we derive work from it? Removing an electron from a positive terminal requires work. so the positive sign in our answer is correct. and placing it on a negative terminal requires work as well. = .The MCAT Physics Book The work required to move a charge q from point A to B is given by W = qAV. Consider a lone charge Q. respectively. . this is easier than it sounds. and V. For a negative charge. For a positive charge q. only d. The potential at point P due to that charge is given by V = k Q .
So now we have an electric potential energy in addition to the gravitational potential energy.. No energy is required. we imagine the two charges Q are mountains next to each other.. Example 3: Two charges Q Q . The electric potential energy of a group of charges is the work required to assemble the charges by moving them from an infinite distance away. dA Z Now let's check the sign. . When we move charge q from A to B. .. and point B is lo' meters from both of them. Point A is exactly between them. we increase its electric potential energy by the same amount as the work we have performed. so the energy change is negative.. How much work is required to move a charge q = Cfo rm A to B? . A  + dl. then the potential at P is Q. given by the simple sum (no vectors): Ql Q 2 V = k +k+. Since the test charge is positive. and A is a mountain pass. Therefore the negative answer is justified.. but instead energy can be derived. Let's apply the formula: V .= B A Qt.~ Q Ike..If there are several charges Q. Qz Figure 1424 Solution: First we DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figwe 1424). 4 dl a .= 1.1 x i o 4 c are 2 X 102meters apart.. Point B is further down. .
How much potential energy is For part a. energy is conserved. (both 1. b. the answer must be the same.from infinity. forming equipotential lines. One last note: In topographic maps of the Earth's surface. Figure 1426 shows such a diagram for two equal positive charges. and they go flying apart. How much kinetic energy is in moving Q. They are released. Or we could move them both from infinity. toward it.01 m apart. to this point is The other way to do this problem is to regard Q. and Q. the potential energy is converted to kinetic energy.as fixed and move Q. as fired and b. the initial electric potential (at infinity) is zero and the final electric potential is kQ.The MCAT Physics Book Example 4: Two charges Q.ld. points at the same height are connected by lines and labeled according to height.With this viewpoint. but since the energy is independent of path. the system finally? Figure 1425 Solution: a. The potential energy is the work needed to assemble the system. After the particles are released. Since there are no external forces and no heat generation. but of course we would get the same answer.1 x lo' C and both lo4 grams) are initially 0. we assemble the system in the system initially? by regarding Q. Let's regard Q . as fixed and move Q. where d = 0. We can do the analogous thing with charges by connecting points of equal potential. The work done to bring Q. chances are near certain you will use potential differences to solve the problem (rather than W = FAxcos 4). @& 300 v 200 V Figure 1426 .1 x Major hint: Whenever there is a question about energy in a problem involving charges or electricity. toward it from infinity (Figure 1425). d a. J. This would be harder to calculate.01 m. and the final kinetic energy is 1.
The units of current are [CIS = amperes = amps =A]. Again. Futhermore a moving charge experiences a magnetic force only if its motion has a component perpendicular to the magnetic field. wrist as possible. For most problems it does not matter whether we think of (negative) electrons moving left or of some positive charge moving right. the arrows show the magThe current is coming out of the netic field. A circle with a cross in it denotes a vector going into the Figure 1428 page. f page.G. and at first glance there do not seem to be any currents here. such as iron. called the magneticfield. This magnetic field points not toward. Magnetic Fields Electric fields are not enough to explain everything in electrodynamics. The arrows point in the denotes a vector coming out of the page. if electrons are moving to the left along a wire. If a current is flowing in a wire. zt 29 shows a situation in which the magexperiences a magnetic force down the page. 4 b can remember its direction by applying I. 0 0 0 A charge sitting still in a magnetic 0 0 0 0 0 field experiences no force. A circle with a dot in it often page. not along the i. It turns out that we need to consider a second field as well. Figure 14The magnetic f e dis coming out of the il page. The small arrows show the 1 direction of the magnetic field. Figure 1428 shows a current coming out of the \ . For this reason. In that case the particle experiences a force 0 0 0 which is perpendicular to the magnetic field and to the charge's path. Both stationary and moving charges generate an electric field. direction of the magnetic field. like the feathers of a receding arrow. magnetic field wire. but tends to point around the wire. In physics we generally think in terms of a positive charge moving. A currenl is a flow of charge. even though we know that it is the electrons which are moving. that is. We . F i r e 1429 0  \ . It is strongest near the wire. current I 7' the first hand rule: Use your right hand and point the thumb in the direction of Thefirst hand rule reminds us the (positive) current. The reason for magnetic fields in these cases is subtle and involves the current of electrons about the nucleus. then we say the current is toward the right. and the pmton is tmveling right. the quantity of charge moving past a point per unit of time. The fingers tend to point Figure 1427 J in the direction of the magnetic field. generate magnetic fields as well. Bend your fingers of lhe direction of the around so the tips are as close to your magnetic field due to current. Figure 1427 shows a current flowing to / 1 Of 1 the right. netic field is coming out of the page and a proton is moving to the right. but only moving charges generate a magnetic field. This is almost certainly beyond the scope of the MCAT. since electrons have negative charge. Certain materials./ \. of course. this generates a magnetic field outside the wire. Magnetic fields appear outside the wires in which there is current flowing. not away from. like an incoming arrow.
So the polarization is in the same direction thatthecharge shakes. Your palm (which you use for pushing) points in the direction in which the particle experiences a force. so the wave is transverse. you will probably need to think of the electric field. or atom. Just to help you visualize it. In addition to visualizing the movement of electrons in various materials. You should picture arrows (vectors) filling all of space pointing away from positive. Although Figure 1430 does not show the magnetic field. Of course. and the orientation of the electric field gives the polarization. That is to say. The magnetic field is perpendicular to the electric field and to the direction of propagation. if the electric field points up and down.. use your left hand. H. The shaking portion of the electric field breaks off and moves away through space. For this reason magnetic forces do no work (always we have cosg = 0. the electric field points down with a magnitude 100 NIC and the magnetic field points south (0. To a close approximation. In brief. In Figure 1430 a charge Q on a vertical spring moves up and down and generates the wave shown. one being the electric field and the other being the magnetic field. then we say the light is vertically polarized. ?'you need. Now the force on a particle due to a magnetic field is always perpendicular to the displacement of the particle. This chapter is the most difficult of the book. every point in the universe has two vectors sitting on it. For a negative particle. These waves of electric and magnetic fields come out as packets. Whenever you read a question involving force and charge. which you can remember because the four fingers look like the field lines of a magnet. this is not the full story. but we have not discussed units for the magnetic field). imagine going to a field in the Northern Hemisphere on a clear day and picking a point in the air. use your right hand. you must also learn to visualize electric and magnetic fields. We will discuss this more fully in Chapter 16.The MCAT Physics Book The second hand rule helps you to recall the direction of the force: For a positive particle.read no further. The answer is zero. molecule. The phenomenon is called electromagnetic radiation or light. like a hitch hiker. The electric field relates force to charge. Your thumb points in the direction that the particle is going. the electric field at a point due to several charges is the vector sum of the individual electric fields at that point.charges and toward negative ones. A magnetic field also goes along with the electric field. The electric field is perpendicular Figure 1430 to the wave direction. called photons. Your fingers point in the direction of the magnetic field. Figure 1431 shows both fields.. generally associated with energy transitions within a crystal. If you ever encounter a question such as "How much work d. and an electric potential as well. Electromagnetic Radiation In Section D we discussed the fact that an accelerating charge will shake up the electric field around it. if you must know.5 gauss. I .ws the ) magnetic force . Since the electric field is a vector field.
although we have calculated only the former. . The MCAT will not ask for any more detailed information. When a question mentions energy and charge.The electric potential is related to energy and charge.). you should immediately think of using electric potentials.V. Qualitative information can be obtained by the hand rules. An electric field is generated by both stationary and moving charges. . We can find the potential at point A by simply adding the potentials (V = kQlr) from the charges in the problem. A magnetic field is generated only by moving charges and affects only moving charges. The work to move a charge from point A to point B is W = q(V.
. the force that charge Q. I or I1 or 111. What can be concluded? A. and charge Q. N. I Use the following information in questions 6 and 7: A small metal ball having a positive charge is brought near a large solid metal disk on the right side. D. change if the charges were both doubled.. 6 ~ 1 0 . hung from insulating strings. F. Which of the following best shows the distribution of the charges after the ball is removed? Use the following information in questions 35: Two charges Q. How would F. One ball is charged and the other is neutral. One ball has a positive charge. There is a force to the . Chapter 1 4 Problems B. F. C. Which of the following best shows the distribution of the charges before the ball touches the disk? 2 In a certain experiment..1 . 111. and Q were i n a d by a factor of 4? . 4.. a negative charge. = 8 x lo" C are near each other.. due to charges on the balls. D.The MCAT Physics Book A. 11. = 2 x lo" C and Q. change if the distance between Q. 1 In a certain experiment. 11or n 1 ! I 7. I or II or rn. would increase by a factor of 4. Sections AD In all of the following problems. 111. exerts a force F. 266 GO ON TO T E N X PAGE H ET . 111 or IV. would decrease by a factor of 2. B. C. and the other. Consider the following possibilities in answering questions 1 and 2: I. but the distance between them remained the same? A. In all problems ignore gravity unless it is explicitly mentioned. It would decrease by a factor of 4... hung from insulating strings. I How would F. two balls made of cork are .. D. What is F.' ~ ~ . Both balls have a negative charge. What can be concluded? A. B. I B. IorII. two balls made of cork are . There is a force to the effect of pushing the balls apart. Both balls have a positive charge. D. It would increase by a factor of 4. =. would increase by a factor of 2. The ball then touches it and is removed. 3.. would decrease by a factor of 4. F. 6. due to charges on the balls.. I or I . effect of pulling the balls together. exerts on charge PI? I 5. use the following constants: k=9x109q. ILI. It would decrease by a factor of 16. C. C. ~rn' cZ. on Q. F. It would decrease by a factor of 2.
7. = 3.' ~ D.1 x m. lo' N D. The ball then touches it on the right side and is removed.~ N 1 . 2. Consider a water molecule near a sodium ion.1 x lo'' C is located meters away from a negative charge of equal magnitude. and a negative charge of the same xaxis at x = magnitude is located at the origin. are located 2 x 10" m apart. 2 x 1 0 .8. A third charge q = 10l7C is located exactly between them. B. to the right. 10"N c. ON B. a positive charge Q = 1. A small metal ball having a positive charge is brought near a large solid plastic disk. lo7 NIC.' ~ C.5 x 10l2N C. The hydrogen atoms are nearer the ion because of their negative charge. to the left. The net force is repulsive.3 x lo' C) is located on the. Point P is exactly between them. The hydrogen atoms areJearer the ion because of their positive charge. Two positive charges. 10'~ B. D.' ~ Na' H\ 0 ' H A.1 x lo'' C. 2 x l d N I C Use the following information in questions 12 and 13: In a water solution of sodium chloride. D. m). Two charges. and another charge (Q. C. What is the magnitude of the force on the charge at the origin? A. A positive charge Q = 1. 1.) A.4 x lo' C) at is located on the yaxis at (0 m. ~ X ~ O . D. What is the magnitude of the force on charge q? A.1 X lo'' C and a negative charge of the same magnitude. What is the magnitude of the electric field at point P? A. 2 x lo7 NIC. to the right.) 9. Section E  10. What is the magnitude and direction of the electric field at the point on the m? (Right means the positive xaxis at x = xdirection. The net force is attractive. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . A charge q = 10l6C is located at the origin. to the right. 2.5 x lo6NIC. A third charge q = 10l7C is located exactly between them. There is no net force. The oxygen atom is nearer the ion because of the oxygen's negative charge. A positive charge Q = 1. 4 x lo3NIC 8x103N1C  12 What tends to be the orientation of the water molecule? A. 8 x l 0 . 5 x 1 0 . lo3NIC B. Which of the following best shows the distribution of the charges after the ball is removed? B. The net force is into the page. 2 x 1 0 . D. C. B.' N C is located on the 14. are located 1 10" m apart. 15.xaxis m. ON B. The oxygen atom is nearer the ion because of the oxygen's positive charge. What is the magnitude of the force on charge q? A. 0 m). C. the sodium chloride dissociates into ions surrounded by water molecules. One charge (Q. What net electrostatic force exists between a sodium ion and a water molecule oriented as shown in the figure? (Assume the overlap of electron clouds is negligible.5 x 1o6N D.25 x lo7 NIC. Q = 1. C. = 4. 13.
Which arrow best shows the direction of the electric field at the point (0. f \ c. It has zero magnitude. Use the following information in questions 2226: Two parallel metal plates separated by a distance 0. 0NlC B. Positive charges of magnitude Q = 1. and C and equidistant from them. 20. and C are the vertices of an equilateral triangle with sides of length lo4 meters.The charge on a proton is 1.5 m. The acceleration due to gravity g = 10 m/s2.1 x located at points A.The MCAT Physics Book 16. The ball is not moving. A small plastic ball (m = 0.5 x C is at the point (0. B. Point D is exactly between B and C. What is the direction of the electric field at point A? Use the following information in questions 20 and 21: A positive charge of 3.1 x lo" C are located at points B and C. It points down (1). The only forces on it are the forces due to gravity and to the electric field. B.1 x 10I0C are located meters away from each other. lo5NIC C. 2 x 10' NIC D.3 x lo3 C is at the point (0 rn.5 m. D. B. C are Positive charges of magnitude Q = 1. 3 x 10' NIC D. 1 m)? 21. A negative charge 5. 18. GO ON TO M N M PAGE E . Two positive charges Q = 1. What is the magnitude of the electric field at point E? A. points A. Note: An alpha particle is a bare helium4 nucleus and has a mass about four times that of a proton. 9 x 10' NIC 1 17. and C are the vertices of an equilateral triangle with sides of length meters. C. and point P is exactly between them. 0 m). What is the direction of the electric field at point D? A. It points into the page.6 x 10l9 C. 8 x lo6NIC 19. 1 m). I d 7 Use the following information in questions 18 and 19: In the figure. 0 NIC B. In the figure. The mass of a proton is 2000 times the mass of an electron. D. What is the magnitude of the electric field at point P? A. B. Which arrow best shows the direction an electron would experience a force if it were placed at (0. while point E is in the same plane as A. points A. which points down (see figure). 1 m)? A.01 meters are charged in order to create a uniform electric field (4 x lo4 NIC) between them.009 kg) has a small charge Q on it and is located between the plates.5 m. It points up (t). lo6NIC C. B. and C. B.
what would be the direction of the net force on it? 24. what effect would the electric field have on the molecule (other than net force)? A. 6. 2. C. If the water molecule were oriented as in the previous problem. The molecule would be rotated clockwise.4x10'N 25. and in the opposite direction. 23. C.56 x 10l4N D. A water molecule can be modeled as a simple dipole. B. and in the opposite direction. What is the charge on the ball? ttttt 27. C. having a negative end (the oxygen atom) and a positive end (the hydrogen atoms).25 x lo4 2. D.25 x 104C l00C c 28. C. C. and in the opposite direction. GO ON T THE N C P G O DT A E .22. B lbice as large. 100C 2. The top plate is charged negatively and the bottom plate is charged positively. 26. B. but in the opposi& direction. If the water molecule were oriented as shown below. B. and in the same direction. 29. If a water molecule is placed between the two plates. The same magnitude.4 x lo'' N B. which orientation would it take to minimize its energy? A. t 1 + between the plates compare with the force exerted on a proton between the plates? A. Four times as large. B. Which is a distribution of charge which would create the desired electric field between the plates? The top plate is charged positively and the bottom A. direction. that is. How would the force exerted on an alpha particle A. Use the following information in questions 2729: %o parallel metal plates are charged in order to create a uniform electric field between them which points up (see figure). Both plates have the same positive charge. One thousand times as large.28 x 10l4N C. Both plates have the same negative charge. No force. . The molecule would be compressed. Four times as large. C. plate is charged negatively. What is the magnitude of the force which would be exerted on a proton between the two plates? A 6. D The molecule would be stretched. The same magnitude. D. 1. B. and in the same direction. How would the acceleration of an electron between the plates compare with the acceleration of a proton between the plates? A. Twice as large. and in the opposite . D Two thousand times as large. . D. D. and in the same direction. The molecule would be rotated counterclockwise.
lo4 J C.1 . It is slowly moved 4 meters in a straight line directly toward the charge Q.1 m) are neutral and considered to be at zero electrical potential. D.how much work is required to transfer lo'' C from ball A to B? GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE .1 meters apart. Two charges (q.1 x lo' C is fixed at the origin. l o d J D. lo" J 2x10"J B. How much work is required to move charge q? A. Plates A and D are opposite each othex and maintained at 1000 V. . D. Plates B and E are opposite each other and maintained at 0 V. At the beginning of an experiment.000 volts. C.016J 0. +1. 2 m) to the point (2 m.2 x 10l6J 3 .2 x 10l6J B. electrons transfer device B .1 x lo' C) 2 are a distance 0. The elementary charge is 1. Another charge q = lo4 C is_5 meters away. 10"J B. 0. How much work is performed in moving q along this path? 31. J B. A charge Q = 1.The MCAT Physics B o ok F A .' 6 ~ C. ball A has acquired a potential of 10.016 J 0. insulated from each other (see figure). is made up of six metal plates. Electrons are transferred by a mechanical technique from ball A to ball B. such that the system of balls and apparatus is isolated fiom the environment After the transfer. Now. 6 ~ 1 0 . 0. 34. What is the change of potential energy of the system if an electron is transferred from plate A to plate C? A. 0. D.1 x 108C and q.000 volts and ball B a potential of 10. 3. Plates C and F are maintained at 1000 V. = 1.08 J 35.6x10'~~ +3. lod5J 33.6 x C. A charge of 1014cis pushed very slowly from the center of plate A straight across to the center of plate D. How much energy is required to bring them to a distance 0. A charge Q = 1. two identical metal balls (radius 0. 0 m).08 J 30.01 meters apart? A. k second charge q = lo4 C is moved along a straight path from the point (0 m. What is the work done by this force pushing the charge? A. = 1.  Section Use the following information in questions 30 and 31: A cube.1 x lo' C is fixed in space. OJ C.1 m on a side. They are located far apart (5 m).
and Q. and point C is the point (0 m.q. Use the following information in questions 4 1 4 3 : When a proton encounters a large atomic nucleus. to a good approximation. charge q ) approaches it moving along the xaxis. B. (See figure. What is the potential difference between A and B? A. Which of the following describes the theoretical acceleration of q afrer it is let go? A. point B is the point (1 m. D.) Energy is conserved during this process.5 x lo6 volts turning radius k4 Q % proton . but it never reaches zero. Which of the following describes the theoretical velocity of q afrer it is let go? A.36. 0 m). and a proton (mass m. 0 m). Its velocity increases forever without bound.) 39. D. The main force between the nucleus and proton is electrostatic. go. A dry cell (or battery) is in the shape of a cylinder of length 1 and diameter d. 38. but it never reaches zero. Its acceleration decreases and then increases. 40. and the rating of the battery is voltage V. it slows and comes to a stop at a socalled turning radius r. 4 m).ld. A. eventually reaching zero. What is the energy required to bring one electron from the positive terminal to the negative terminal? (Charge on electron = q. Its velocity increases forever but never becomes greater than a certain bound. but as the proton approaches the nucleus. Its acceleration decreases forever. Its acceleration increases forever. Its velocity increases and then decreases. 2 x lo6 volts D. D. I 37. we can assume the large nucleus is fixed in space. B.) I Use the following information in questions 39 and 40: A positive charge Q is held fixed at the origin. C. A positive charge q is on the positive xaxis and is let. (Assume no friction. Far away from the nucleus the proton has a velocity v. Its terminals have a small radius r. 7. What is the potential of C relative to a point an infinite distance away? Note: The electric potential energy (or electrostatic energy) between two charged particles q. Use the following information in questions 37 and 38: Charges Q. Its acceleration decreases. Assume a nucleus of charge Q is fixed at the origin. B. C. a distance d apart is E = kq. Its velocity increases and then decreases to zero.5 x l d volts GO ON TO THE N X PAGE ET . C.(both 1. 0 m) and at (3 m. 2xldvolts 4x ~ O ~ V O ~ ~ S 5 x 10' volts 7. and q.1 x C) are located at (3 m. lo6volts C. 0 m) on the xyplane. 0 volts B. Point A is the point (1 m.
C . It would be the same. D. D. It would be greater by a factor of 16. D. There is an electric field pointing to the left. How would the electrostatic energy of the second proton at its turning radius compare with the electrostatic energy of the first proton at its turning radius? A. D. Up the page. Which of the following best describes the flow of energy? A. 272 GO ON T THE NEXT PAGE O . How would the turning radius be affected if the initial velocity v were increased by a factor of 4? A. It would stay the same. In a spiral. Right. It would decrease by a factor of 16.The MCAT Physics Book 41. There is no magnetic force. A proton is traveling to the right and encounters a region R which contains an electric field or a magnetic field. It would be greater by a factor of 2. potential to kinetic B. 48. Up. D. Out of the page. kinetic to potential and heat 42. Which direction are electrons traveling in the wire? A. C. The proton is observed to speed up. 46. Down the page. Section G Use the following information in questions 44 and 45: A wire canies a current I which is traveling up the page. which of the following best indicates the direction of the force of magnetic field on the electrons in the wire? A. There is no magnetic force. the second with four times the velocity of the first. It would decrease by a factor of 2. Into the page. C . Left. Into the page. C. B. I Use the following information in questions 46 and 4 7 In the figure the magnetic field is pointing down. B. 47. C. Which is the best conclusion about the region R? A. 44. Two protons are fired at the nucleus. Point P lies off to the right. There is a magnetic field pointing down the page. There is an electric field pointing to the right. which of the following best indicates the direction of the force of the magnetic field on the electrons i n the wire? A. What is the d i i t i o n of the magnetic field at point P? A. To the right. Out of the page. kinetic to potential C. If an external force pulls the horizontal wire down the page. B. Into the page. C. D. 45. In a circle. . kinetic to potential to heat D. It would be greater by a factor of 4. A horizontal wire is shown. There is a magnetic field pointing up the page. B. If the horizontal wire is pulled out of the page toward you. C. 1 lPll magnetic 43. B. It would decrease by a factor of 4. B. Up the page. B. D.
Out of the page. Into the page. I or III. D Down. Point A is above the beam. slowing down the proton. If a proton is at point P and moving upward ( t ) . An electron beam is traveling to the right. Out of the page. I1 or I . 53. Into the page. Use the following information in questions 50 and 51: A beam of electrons is traveling to the right.49. V Which is the best conclusion about the region S? A. Refer to the following possibilities: There is a magnetic field pointing into the page. Into the page. I. I only. Up the page. electric force cancel. C. 52. We observe that the effects of the magnetic force and of the GO ON TO THE N X PAGE ET . 54. C. as shown. as shown. Point P is in the middle of the loop. Downthe page. D. D. C. There is an electric field pointing down the page. and encounters a region R with a magnetic field pointing down. that is. To the left. C. I . that is. C. There is a magnetic field pointing out of the page. To the left. B. 51. proton u In which direction must the electric field point? A. D. Into the page. 111. speeding up the proton. D. There is an electric field pointing up the page. The proton is observed to bend up the page. D. Use the following information in questions 53 and 54: A current I is flowing through a wire loop as shown. so that the electron beam is straight. B. To the right. To the right. To the right. What is the direction of the magnetic field at point A? A. V B. Up. ?his region also has an electric field. What is the direction of the electric field at point A? A. B. Down the page. Out of the page. 50. A proton is traveling to the right and encounters a region S which contains an electric field or a magnetic field. To the left. r electron beam B. Up the page. C. . Out of the page. II only. What is the direction of the magnetic field at point P? A. 11. what is the direction of the acceleration of the proton? A. B.
The magnetic field points in a direction perpendicular to the wave propagation and to the electric field. C. Mechanical to electromagnetic to mechanical. C. what is the direction of the magnetic field vector for the radiation? A. B. 3. Which of the following best describes the energy flow? A. and the two fields propagate in phase. North/south. Kinetic to electromagnetic to kinetic. For a point between the two antennas. The electromagnetic radiation is generated by an antenna. B.5 m What would be the best orientation of the receiving antenna? A. The electric field exerts a force on the electrons. The electric field polarizes the electrons. Any orientation would suffice. whose frequency is the same as that of the radiation to be produced. D. what is the direction of the electric field vector for the radiation? A. D. B. D. When the wave is linearly polarized. Upldown.The MCAT Physics Book Passage 1 D. and the receiving antenna is directly to the north. that is. ' The radio waves which carry information in a standard broadcast are an example of electromagnetic radiation. how does the electric field create . The speed of light is 3 x 10' mls. 5 In the third paragraph. not of a material medium. The electric field creates a current along the receiving antenna. C. pointing toward the transmitting antenna. D. C. B. consider a situation in whlch a transmitting antenna points vertically. Northlsouth. C. 4. The electric field of the electromagnetic radiation encounters electrons on the receiving antenna. B. For the following questions. B. 6. Eastlwest. Upldown. in space and time. For a point between the two antennas. The electric field changes the resistance of the antenna. One way to have good transmission and reception is to have the length of the antenna be one quarter of the wavelength of the electromagentic wave. EasVwest. but of electric and magnetic fields. what would be a reasonable length for an efficient antenna. a current on the receiving antenna? A. An alternating current is generated in the antenna. North/south. GO ON TO THE N C PAGE DT . Northlsouth or eastlwest. Vertical. These waves are a disturbance. D. according to the passage? A. the electric field points in a direction perpendicular to the propagation of the wave. The electric field boosts the electrons to higher energy orbitals in the atoms. Electromagnetic to electrical to electromagnetic. which is another wire or metal rod. The electric field of the resulting electromagnetic radiation points along the same axis as the current. although its magnitude varies. which is a wire or metal rod which points perpendicular to the direction of the intended wave propagation. 1 If the alternating current in the transmitting antenna has . EasVwest. Northlsouth or eastlwest. C. 0 a frequency of 1' Hz. 30m 60 m 120111 2. of course. 7. Electrical to electromagnetic to electrical.
C. The methyl group will be near the wire.01 meters from the wire? A. This is true of elementary particles. 4. For the following questions. = 1.CHzCHICHIOH) is near the wire. 1. 1. The two sides of the molecule thus experience two forces. 3. Polar molecules have one end charged positively and the other end. what is its most likely orientation? A. The methyl group will be away from the wire. Positive and negative in equgl amounts to make neutral. If a butanol molecule (CH. The resulting electric field outside the wire is directed away from the wire and has a magnitude given by B. D. 1 What is the sign of the charge on the wire? .8 x 1013N away from the wire. What is the force on an electron located 0. the gas around the wire may undergo breakdown. C. as well as ions and molecules. GO ON TO THE N C PAGE DT . 2. D.6 x 1019c. how does the magnitude of the force on the fluoride ion compare to that of the force on the hydrogen ion? A. that is. B. use for the charge on an electron q . 4. B. Negative. A fluoride ion (F) a mass 19 times greater than a has H. D.9 x loz3 away from the wire. negatively.Passage 2 In a certain apparatus. 5.9xld3Ntowardthewire. A. Positive. D. ' hydrogen ion ( ) If a hydrogen ion and a fluoride ion are at the same location relative to the wire. like electrons. the molecules are ionized by the electric field. wire wire wire I wire Charges near the wire experience forces due to the electric field. a long wire along the zaxis carries a uniform charge on it.8 x 10l3N toward the wire. Positive or negative. B. The oxygen atom will be near the wire. If the electric field is great enough. N Which of the following best depicts the electric field lines? where and d is the perpendicular distance from the wire to the point in question. C. The same magnitude. 19 times weaker. C. 4. The oxygen atom will be away from the wire. 10 times stronger. 19 times stronger.
9 . then a spark may jump across the gap. C. The process described is a runaway chain reaction. The mean free path depends only on the number density of the gas. so it will move in the direction of the positive plate. To see how a spark occurs. D. The oxygen ion by a factor of 2. which releases photons as they decay to the ground state. A lone electron thus undergoes acceleration and energy gain. = the average atomic radius = 6 x 10 I1 meters. one positively and one negatively. would be greater. C. The threshold would increase because the mean free path would increase. If the electric field is larger than a certain threshold.) You may also use the following: r. 3 How would the threshold electric field change if the . It experiences a force and an acceleration. B The threshold would increase because the density . The threshold would increase because the mean free path would decrease. The threshold electric field depends on the type and pressure of the gas between the plates. 4. If the electron gains enough energy before colliding with the gas particle to ionize it. The oxygen ion by a factor of 8. C . 6 ~ 0 . so the phenomenon grows exponentially. How much force would a calcium atom experience if it were between the plates? (Assume the electric field is the threshold electric field for air. the discharge leaves many molecules in an excited state. If two parallel metal plates separated by a small gap are charged. B. I. D. For air at atmospheric pressure the threshold electric field is about Sulfur hexafluoride is a dense gas which absorbs electrons. then after the collision there are more electrons to continue the process.) If an oxygen ion (0')and an electron are both between the plates. while the lone electrons would be absorbed. partially discharging the plates. = the mean free path = 8 x 10"m t r .The MCAT Physics Book 1 . (Density is not a factor. The result is a transfer of charge from one plate to the other.) A. (See figure. followed by a collision. increasing the threshold even more. then there will be an electric field between the plates. D. 9. which experiences the greater force? A. The original electron loses much of its kinetic energy but is still available to accelerate and ionize other gas particles. 4 . They experience the same magnitude of force.6 x 101' N D. The threshold would decrease because the density would be greater. pressure of the gas were increased? A. The average distance an electron travels before encountering a gas particle is the mean free path. The lone electrons would be absorbed. depositing energy into the gas particle and debris. The threshold would decrease because the mean free path would increase. Each collision releases several electrons. imagine a lone electron between the plates. ON B. What would be the effect of replacing air with sulfur hexafluoride between the plates? A. 8 ~ 10I3N C. The electron experiences a much greater force because of its small mass. B. increasing the threshold. In addition. ees GO ON TO THE N X PAGE ET . that is. The increased density would increase the threshold.. it is likely to collide with a gas particle. Before it gets there. the number of gas particles per unit volume.l ~ ~ 1 2. The threshold would decrease because the mean free path would decrease.
Which graph could be a typical graph of the electron described in paragraph 2 above? STOP .5.
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then the electric field would push electrons to one side. wires. that is. For current to flow through a resistor. you should imagine seeing currents and potentials. Whenever you see a circuit diagram.. would rush toward the higher potential and lower it. When the potential I I between the terminals becomes the rated voltage (6 volts.   1 At any rate. but the charge does not flow freely as it does in a wire. so in this chapter we will apply this intuition to electric circuits. of course. The reason for this is simple: If it were not so. if one end of the wire were at a higher potential. Because it is a piece of metal. a wire has one potential. the r I chemical reation in the cell reaches DC cells o r batteries equilibrium and the electron transport stops..Chapter 15 Electric Circuits A. then electrons. and resistors. Electric current may flow through a Figure 152 resistor as well. If it were not so. The symbols for a cell are shown in Figure 151 Figure 151. the potential difference between any two points in it is zero. and if the potential at one point in @ the wire is V. would flow away from that end into the lower one. Perhaps a better analogy is a mountain lake which is. That is to say. its one job being to ensure that the potential difference between the two terminals remains constant. a wire is like a plateau. A voltage source (often a DC cell or battery) is a potential difference enforcer. the end with higher potential. all of it at one height. so that charge flows in a closed path or circuit. For this reason also the electric field inside a piece of metal is always zero. Introduction In the last chapter we developed some intuition about electric fields and electric potentials. In this chapter the concepts to watch are current and electric potential. however. the electric field is zero. or whatever). you will find that this subject becomes fairly straightforward. two reIated but distinct concepts. there must be a potential difference across it. A wire is simply a long. where the long bar is the positive end. free to move. If one end were higher than the other. flat. being free to move. and the shifting electrons would cancel the electric field. This flow of charge is called a current. long cylinder of metal. A simple electric circuit consists of a voltage source. the water. It does this by chemically transporting electrons from the positive terminal to the negative terminal. then the potential all along resistor light bulb the wire is V. By doing this as you read this chapter. A simple example of a resistor is a piece of graphite (pencil lead). you should remember that inside a metal. Other examples include w' . all along its length. In our analogy with Sisyphus and the mountain (Chapter 14).
Resistors are like rocky A simple circuit consisting of a battery and a light bulb. The analogy is shown in Figure 155. In this circuit. waterfalls. Whereas in the last chapter we were often interested in the absolute potential. energy flow is not the same as water flow. and the electric potential is like the height are of the water. and back to the battery. As the water falls. relative to which other We can analyze a c i ~ u i t potentials are measured. and a voltage source is like a pump which pumps water from one height to another. then more water would be going in Figures 153 and 154. Note the following very important idea: The current in the upper trough is the same as the current in the lower trough. Similarly.Thesymbols for these are shown in Figure 152. the chemical energy of the battery is transformed into I = current electrical energy and then into heat and light. we are free to choose a standard 0 volts. ' . If 0 volts the current in the upper trough were Watercourse analogy for circuits larger. Let's look at the example of a 6V battery connected to a light bulb. it is helpful to think of an analogy. . into the waterfall than coming out of it. r 0 volts. The electric current is like a current of water. Figure 153 Circuit diagram for circuit in Figure 153. This is Figure 154 shown in Figure 153. In order to think about circuits. we bv not in^ the currents and can label the low end of the battery htentials. and the circuit diagram is shown in Figure 154. Think about this scenario until it is intuitive. through the light bulb. The energy starts in the pump and becomes the energy of flowing water. The 6 volts battery pumps the charge from one electric potential to another. m a t is Figure 155 not what happens. W~res like level streambeds (level because they have one potential). Therefore. in which the water flows in a circuit. the energy becomes heat. The charge flows through a wire to the light bulb. however.The MCAT Physics Book a light bulb and a toaster. in circuits we are interested only in ov changes in potential from one position to another. and the waterfall would overflow. Also. The other end of the battery is F i 156 then 6 volts (Figure 156).
. The unit for R is [volt/arnp = Ohm = R]. In the next example we encounter a combination of resistors.. Figure 158 If several resistors are in series.. . then AV = IR. . Ohm's Law and the Combination of Resistors It turns out that the current through most resistors is approximately proportional to the electric potential across them. Example 1:Two resistors (R. We label the wire between the two . resistors with the potential V... Several resistors are in series if a charge coming from the source must go through each of them before going back to the source. Figure 157 We label the lower wire 0 volts. Ohm's Law If I is the current through a given resistor and AV is the potential across the resistor. a measure of how difficult it is for charge to flow through it. The current is the same through both resistors and the source.. . (1) where R is the resistance of the resistor. . Electric Circuits I B. What is the current through resistor l? Solution: First. A slightly more complicated circuit involves hvo. . . . = 10 R and R. . .. There is 9volt jump across the voltage source. I DO you see why? 981 . Several resistors in a circuit are often either in series or in parallel. . Several resistors are in parallel if a charge may go through any of them before going back to the source. let's DRAW A DIAGRAM of the circuit (Figure 157).resistors in series.Chapter 1 5 . = 20 R) are connected in series with a potential source (9 volts). The equivalent water course is shown in Figure 158 in which the current in the top wugh is the same as the current through both waterfalls and through the bottom trough. then the same current flows through all of them. Watercourseanalogy for Figure 157. so the upper wire is labeled 9 volts....
. R. what is the potential drop across resistor I? Solution: If we apply Ohm's law to resistor 1. = I. = IR.. R. and so on) are in parallel then we can replace them with one resistor with resistance RT. = (0.. R2 . becomes (2) R. then we have AV.. then we can replace them with one resistor whose resistance is the sum 1 RT = R. we do not have to go through as much trouble as we did in Example 1 because there are two rules for combining resistors: f If several resistors (R.O = IR.. Example 2: In the circuit above. Substituting the expression for V. (3) RT becomes .IR.. + R.. and applying Ohm's law to the second resistor gives V. Generally... .. R.. .3A)(lOQ) = 3v. where 1 1 =++ 1 R T R. If several resistors (R. R3 RT 1 . and so on) are in series..The MCAT Physics B b ~ k Applying Ohm's law to the first resistor gives 9VV.gives 9V. = IR. R.. +.
. The potential all along the left wire is 0 volts.Chdpter 1 5 .. . First. . Electric Circuits Example 3: In the circuit shown (Figure 159). To obtain the total current. . . = 60 SL.? b. let's label the negative terminal of the source 0 V and the positive terminal 12 V. and along the right wire is 12 volts (Figure 1510). we have R. . = 20 SL. . Figure 159 Solution: a. . . . = 12V. . . = 30 R. Figure 1512 If several resistors are in parallel then the same potential exists across all of them. .. b. .: AV. What is the current through the potential source? Vcell Another simple circuit involves resistors in pamllel. and R. What is the current through resistor R. . . Figure 1510 This gives us the potential drop across R. R. Figure 1512 shows the analogous water course. Note that the current splits into three parts through the resistors. and the potential source is 12 volts. a. . Watercourse analogy for the circuit in Figure 1510. . . we need to combine resistors to obtain an equivalent circuit (Figure 1511): Figure 1511 RT = i o n .
2. and resistor 1 has the full 6 V across it. Combine resistors. finally) 2 A. Label the lower end of the battery 0 V. then they have the same potential. so the answer to part a is 2 A.=4!2. (Many students make. but the potential difference across resistor 1 is not 6 volts. First we draw in the current and voltages (Figure 1514). F i m 1517 .) Figure 1515 shows the result of Figure 1514 combining the two parallel resistors. change if points A and B are connected with a wire? Solution: a. but this does not seem to get anywhere. the mistake here of using 6 volts and 1 Q in Ohm's law. 4. Apply Ohm's law. Example 4: Consider the circuit shown in Figure 1513. What is the current going through resistor l ? b. Label the currents going through the wires. . a. If we connect points A and B by a wire. where R. and this is shown in Figure 1517.The MCAT Physics Book When faced with a question concerning a circuit. but here are some things to try: 1. F i r e 1516 b. Figure 1513 because we do not know a potential difference across resistor 1 to apply Ohm's law. No current Aows through resistors 2 and 3. R2=R. The current t h u g h it (by Ohm's law) is 6 A. there is no general procedure which always leads to an answer. by combining the two resistors in Figure 1515. 5. Figure 1516 shows the final equivalent circuit. 3.andV =6V. Label other wires with voltages. How does 1. The total current is the same as the current through resistor 1 (see Figure 1514). The total current is (by Figure 1515 Ohm's law. = 1 Q.
the current is 0 5 amps. while the actual potential difference across the whole cell is the tenninal potential... the external resistor is 03 volts.57~)(10R) =5 7 . The potential difference across the internal .. the resistance of the internal resistor is the internal resistance R. resistor is IR. Real DC cells and Real Wires An ideal voltage source would maintain a given potential across its terminals regardless of the circuit. resistor is 03 volts. so the potential drop across the internal with a resistor "(R~~.. as if there were a resistor inside the cell. Real DC cells are not so good... In the simplified circuit of Figure 1518..the circuit outside of the cell is a represented by a single resistor and dashed lines enclose the cell.. = (0. . The potential drop across 1 the external resistor ( 0R) is given by Ohm's law: AVext = I&=.. The potenRcircuit tial jump across the ideal source is V..Chapter 15 ..).7 Solution: First let's DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 151) We label the negative 9. Electric Circuits C. @ circuit is connected to it... and Ohm's law gives us the resistance ... terminal of the potential source 0 volts. We can model a real cell as an ideal potential source in series with a resistor. When it is connected to a l Q resistor. ...v ?he potential on the other side of .. .. 6 volts. ... ) in series I.. . . the other side. you should understand the discussion which leads to it. What is the internal resistance of the battery? .. Thus from the illustration Figure 1518 we can give an expression for the terminal potential: I . Example 1 A battery has a measured potential difference of 6 0volts if no : ... A real cell is like an ideal The current flowing through the'circuit is potential source (V. In addition to knowing this equation. The potential across the ideal source is the electromotive force or emf. ... and we find that any current through the cell reduces the potential across the terminals...
D.7 X lo4 2 4X lod . . A given material has a resistivity p. but if we draw a diagram and apply the methods of Section B. they have a small resistance which is proportional to their length and inversely proportional to their crosssectional area. = IAV. measured in [Jls = Watts = W]. Notice that equation (4) does not automatically give the answer in this example. In addition to idealizing DC cells. You can assume wires have zero resistance unless the passage tells you otherwise. Because of Ohm's law. Power Recall that power is a measure of how quickly energy is transformed. 1 is the length of the wire (in [m]) and A is its crosssectional area (in [m2]). we have been assuming that wires have noresistance at all. (5) A where p has the units [Ohm meters]. where I is the current through the resistor and A V is the potential difference across it.5 X lo8 1. then we obtain the answer in two steps. In fact. The power dissipated by a resistor is P = IAV. we may also write (It is better to remember how to derive this equation than to memorize it. Some resistivities are given in the table below. where I is the current through the cell and A V is the potential .) The power provided by a DC cell to a circuit is Pd. substance silver copper gold resistivity(i2m) 1.The MCAT Physics Book Another way to do this problem is to combine resistances. so the resistance of a wire is given by 1 R=p.
. For instance. (Actually it is a little more complicated. (Usually the "120W bulb is brighter because the bulbs are connected in parallel. . what is the resistance of a " 120Watt" bulb? What is the resistance of a b. So the 4 8 0 4 bulb (that is. . . anaplugged into a wall outlet. Figure 1521 shows the circuit diagram for a single 120W bulb plugged into a potential source. . If these two bulbs are connected in are connected in series? series. . . c.. . a. Since the power is proportional to the resistance. . The equation for power is By Ohm's law. . the "30W' bulb) is brighter because the bulbs are in series. Figure 1521 b. . Which b u m brighter when a "30Watt" bulb? 30W bulb and a 120W bulb c. . . 1 2 0 =( ~ A ) R .) With that in mind. a 120W bulb uses 120 Watts of power ‘* 20W" "30w' 1 when placed in a socket with a 120V potential difference. . Figure 1520 which bulb would be brighter (Figure 1520)? Solution: a.Chapter 1 5 .. ~ 120 v R = 120 St. A similar calculation gives a resistance 480 Q for the "30W" bulb. we have AV=IR.. . If we place the bulbs in series (Figure 1522). See Section F. . Electric Circuits Example: Light bulbs that you use around the house are designed to have 120 V across their terminals. . then the current through the bulbs is the same.) Figure 1522 .
because the energy cost is too great. . An electron aniving at the negative plate feels the opposing force from the electrons. (That is. Capacitance slight positive charge A DC cell creates a potential difference between its terminals by transferring electrons from the positive to the negative terminal. the negative terminal gains a greater charge. we connect each terminal to a plate of metal (Figure 1524). but by that time the terminal potential has been reached (Figure 1523). In this case the potential between the plates is same as before. slight negative charge Figure 1523 If. Eventually the cell tries to push one more electron onto the plate but cannot. Figure 1525 . is called a capacitor. because the additional electrons are able to spread out across the plate. if a larger potential is applied to the plates. In Figure 1525. and the terminal exerts a greater force on every additional electron the cell transfers.) Such a device. even more charge is able to be transferred through the cell. Finally.The M C A T Physics Book I E. As it transfers more and more electrons. is defined by Bringing the plates near each other increases their capacity to hold charge. the capacity to hold charge. a proportionally larger charge will sit on them. the plates become charged. then the cell is able to transport more electrons at a low energy cost. but it also feels the attractive force of the nearby positive plate. it can be energetically favorable. which holds a charge when a potential difference is applied to it. Figure 1524 If we bring the plates near each other but not touching (Figure 1525). The capacitance. the energy cost of adding an electron is too much and the cell stops. so it does not mind so much getting onto the negative plate. When metal plates are connected to battery terminals. however. Thus it takes more energy to transfer each additional electron onto it. but the difference is that more charge is able to be contained on the plates than on the terminals of the cell.
01 meters apart. c=Q To reiterate.. . so we + expect the work to be positive.Chdpter 15 . 2 ~ 1 0 . The two plates now have a 6V potential difference between them. and Fekf =W Ax . The electric field between the plates is uniform (though we will not prove it). second. . How much work is required for him to cross from the negative plate to the positive plate? b. The charge on it is proportional to the voltage applied to it: Q = CAV Example: We place two metal plates parallel to each other and 0. with F * . . . to the negative end. . The units of capacitance are [Coulombs/volt = Farads = F]. If he goes straight across. .Ax cos 4... we know cos$ is 1. then we have the old work equation W = Fm. What force does he experience as he crosses? c. the same direction and magnitude everywhere. Also. What is the magnitude of the electric field between the plates? Solution: a. . . . . Figure 1527 An electric field exists between the plates o f a capacitor: =1 . Thus we write Fmia 4 + w = FClrcAx. We write B riq Figure 1526 Fe. a diagram showing the forces on the mite (Figure 1527). and the other. then the force (F. + Moving from a negative to a positive + plate is an uphill battle for the mite. One sheet we connect by a wire to the positive end of a 6V DC cell. so the forces are balanced and we can replace Fmi. If the electric field is uniform. . First let's DRAW A DIAGRAM showing the electric field (Figure 1526). . and AV is the potential difference across the plates. the capacitance of a device depends on how it is built. Now the mite moves at a constant velocity. . . = qE) that the mite experiences must be constant. that is.' ~ ~ . . . Electric Circuits (8) AV ' where Q is the charge on one plate. a. . . b. A dust mite has a 2 x 10l4C charge tied around his ankle.
tance of the capacitor with the dielectric in the middle is given by The constant K is always greater than 1. A dielectric is a nonconductplates incremes the copaeitance. The result is that the DC cell c8n transfer still more charge from one plate to the other. We obtain the electric field from F. Its potential. E is the magnitude of the electric field inside of the capacitor. In a wall outlet. the potential difference between the terminals stays constant. but the electrons can slosh a little onto one side of the molecules (they are slightly polarizable). This is just our old W = FAx equation in new clothing. In the United States. ing substance. If a dielectric is placed between the plates. such as plastic. . with electrons being pulled toward the positive plate (Figure 1528). since an electron arriving at the negative plate feels also the slight positive charge of the one side of the dielectric. Thus. This is called direct current (hence DC). I Remember what this equation is about. This ensures that this terminal stays at a constant potential which we call 0 volts. It is more important to understand the pictures and the ideas than to apply the formulas in this example. connected to the Earth itself. Its electrons are not free to move from one atom Figure 1528 to the next. the assumption made in the problem is fairly accurate: The electric field between two charged parallel plates is uniform. that is. work (per charge) is force (per charge) times displacement. then the molecules in the dielectric become polarized. things are more complicated..placing the dielectric between the plates increases the capacitance. The short slit is "hot". = qE. Alternating current When a DC cell is connected in a circuit. Each material which is a nonconductor has a dielectric constant K The capaci.The M C A T Physics Book c. the long slit is the ground. so that E = 600 NJC. and Ax is the separation of the plates. The equation we derived is worth remembering in its own right: where A V is the potential across a capacitor. Now let's complicate the situation A dieletric between the metal even more. In fact. F. relative to ground. which is a large supply of charge.
Chdpter
15
. . . . . ....
.. . . . . . . . ... Electric Circuits
120 170
varies like a sine wave between +I70 volts and 170 volts. The voltage goes from high to low to high about 60 times a second, that is, with frequency 60 Hz. This is called alternating current, since the current in the wire is changing back and forth (Figure 1529).
Figure 1529
Example: Consider your toaster plugged intithe wall. Thebower company pulls electrons out of the Earth and pushes them onto a wire. The resulting electric field pushes electrons on down the wire, until electrons are pushed into your Figure 1530 toaster. Electrons are pushed out of the toaster into the wire, out of the wire into the Earth. Any one electron does not go very far, but the signal goes from the power company to your toaster. (See Figure 1530.) Then the power company pulls electrons out of the wire and pushes them into the Earth. The resulting electric field pulls electrons along the wire, out of of your toaster. Electrons in the other wire go into the toaster and are replaced with eIectrons puIled from the Earth. Sixty times a second. Until your bread is toasted. Note that only one wire needs to go from the power company to your house, since the Earth itself completes the circuit. Generally we do not talk of the line current as being 170 volts (the maximum). , Instead we talk of a kind of average (root mean square) which is V = 120 volts for the line current. The following equations hold for alternating current:

So there are no new equations to memorize. Things begin to get complicated when we connect alternating current to capacitors (and to other things), but that is beyond the scope of the MCAT. In this chapter we built on the concepts of the previous chapter to study simple circuits. When you solve problems involving circuits, it is helpful to visualize the flow of charge as the flow of a fluid and the potential in the wires as a height above a standard. Each piece of wire is at one potential. Each individual resistor has a current I through it and a potential AVacross it such that AV= IR (Ohm's law). It is important to be careful when using Ohm's law. Think about the circuit first. The power dissipated by = a resistor is Pi I,AV,.
A capacitor is two parallel conducting plates which store charge when a potential is appIied to them. The capacitance of a capacitor is its ability to hold charge C = QlAV. The capacitance is determined by the dimension and material of the capacitor and the stored charge depends on the applied potential. The electric field between the plates is x given by AV = EAx, where A is the separation of the plates.
The MCAT Physics Book
Chapter
15 Problems
4.
What would be analogous to the pool? A. a resistor B. an inductor C. a ground D. a wire
Section A Section
B
Use the following information in questions 14: In a certain water fountain, a pump takes water from a large pool and pumps it up to a trough. The water flows along the trough and falls through 3 hole in the bottom. As the water falls, it turns a water wheel and returns to the pool. Assume this water fountain is analogous to an electric circuit.
Use the following information in questions 5 and 6:
Q
1
In the circuit shown, use the following: R, = m a ,
R,=MR.
1 What would be analogous to electric current? . A. water B. flow velocity C. volume flow rate D. height of water 2 .
What would be analogous to electric potential? A. water B. flow velocity C. volume flow rate D. height of water
5. What is the current flowing through resistor 2? A. 0.2 A
B .
C.
D.
0.4A 0.6 A 1.2A
3. What would be analogous to the water pump? A. a motor B. a resistor C. a battery D. a light bulb
6. How does the current flowing through the wire at point P compare with the current flowing at Q? A. 'Ihe current at P is less. B. The current at P is the same. C. 'Ihe current at P is greater. D. 'Ihe answer depends on whether one considers positive current or negative current
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Chapter 1 5 ..... . ..... .... . . .. . . Electric Circuits
Use the following information in questions 7 and 8: In the circuit shown, R, = 1 Q, R, = 2 R, and the emf of the cell is 6 volts.
1
Use the following information in questions 1013: Four 6V batteries are connected in series in order to power lights A and B. The resistance of light A is 40 SL and the resistance of light B is 20 SL.
7.
How does the current flowing through resistor 1 compare with the current flowing through resistor 2? A. The current through resistor 1 is less.
B. C. D.
The current through resistor l.is the same. The current through resistor 1 is greater. None of the above can be concluded.
10. How does the current through light bulb A compare with the current through light bulb B? A. The current through light bulb A is less. B. The current through Light bulb A is the same. C. The current through light bulb A is greatei. D. None of the above is true.
11. What is the potential difference between points C and D? A. 6 volts B. 12 volts C. 18 volts D. 24 volts
8. How does the voltage drop across resistor 1 compare with the voltage drop across resistor 2? A. The voltage across resistor 1 is less. B. The voltage across resistor 1 is the same. C. The voltage across resistor 1 is greater. D. None of the above can be concluded.
9.
Two batteries are connected to a single resistor, as shown in the diagram.
12. How does the voltage drop across light A compare to the drop across light B? A. The voltage drop for A is less than that for B by a factor of 4. B. The voltage drop for A is less than that for B by a factor of 2. C. The voltage drop for A is the same as that for B. D. The voltage drop for A is greater than that for B by a factor of 2.
V,= 6 volts
v, = 9 volts
R=60R
What is the current through the resistor? A. 0.083 A B. 0.125 A
I
13. What is the current through the wire at point C?
C. D.
0.020A 0.250A
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The
MCAT Physics B ~ o k
Use the following information in questions 1416: In the circuit diagram shown, note that R, = 4 a, R2=2a, R3 = 2 0 . In addition, the current through resistor 1 is 2 amps.
17. What is the current through resistor l ? A. 2.77 amps B. 6 amps C. 8 amps D. 9 amps
14. What is the voltage drop across resistor l? A. 2 volts B. 4 volts C . 8 volts D. 12 volts
18. How does the voltage drop across resistor 2 (that is, V,) compare with that across resistor 3 (that is, V,)? A. V, = 2 V3
B.
c.
D.
V2 = V3 v3= 2 v2 V2+V3=36V

15. What is the cument through resistor 2?
A.
B.
C.
D.
1 ampere 2 amperes 4 amperes 8 amperes
16. What is the voltage difference between points A and B? A. 2 volts B. 4 volts C. 8 volts D. 12 volts Use the following information in questions 1720: In the diagram, resistors 2 and 3 are in parallel, and their combination is in series with resistor 1. Point A is in the wire between the voltage source and resistor 1. Point B is in the wire between resistor 1 and the combination 2 and 3. Point C is on the other side of resistor 2.
In the circuit shown, use the following: R,=4S2, R2=6S2, R,=3Q, AV= 36V.
19. How would the potential difference across resistor 2 change if points A and B were connected by a wire? A. It would increase. B. It would stay the same. C. It would decrease, but it would not be zero. D. It would be zero. 20. How would the current through the source change if points A and C were connected by a wire? A. It would be the same. B . It would increase by a factor of 4. C. It would increase by a factor of 2 4 . D. None of the above, the circuit would be shorted.
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Chapter
1 5 .... . . . . . .. . . .. . .. . .. Electric Circuits
Sections
C and D
Use rhe following information in quesrions 2124: In the circuit shown, the light bulbs are each 20 R, and the potential source is 6 volts.
Use the following information in questions 25 and 26: In the circuit shown, resistor 1 has resistance 2 R, and resistor 2 has resistance 4 R. The potential source has a potential of 12 volts.
21. How much energy is dissipated by light bulb 2 in 10 seconds? A. 18 Joules B. 120 Joules C. 200 Joules D. 1200 Joules 22. What would happen to light bulb 2 if light bulb 1 were to blow (interrupting the connection)? A. It would go out. B. It would be dimmer, but it would not go out. C. It would burn the same. D. It would be brighter.
25. How much power is dissipated by resistor l? A. 8 Watts B. 24 Watts C. 48 Watts D. 72 Watts
26. Which correctly gives a relationship between the potential drop across resistor 1, AV,, and that across resistor 2, AV,? A. AV, = AV, B. AV, = 2AV2 C. AV, = 4 AV, D. AV, + AV, = 12 V
Use rhe following information in questions 2730: In the circuit shown, each of the light bulbs has a resistance 2 R, and the potential source has an emf of 6 volts.
23. What would happen to light bulb 3 if light bulb 1 were to blow (interrupting the connection)? A. It would go out. B. It would be dimmer, but it would not go out. C. It would bum the same. D. It would be brighter.
24. What would happen if the points A and B were connected with a wire? A. Light 1 would extinguish, otherwise nothing. B Lights 1 and 2 would extinguish, light 3 would . remain the same. C. Lights 1 and 2 would extinguish, and light 3 would be brighter. D All lights would extinguish, and the battery would . be shorted.
27. Which of the following would increase the power dissipated by light bulb 3? A. Decrease the resistance of light bulb 3. B Increase the resistance of light bulb 3. . C Decrease the emf of the battery. . D. Introduce another resistor at C.
995
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The
MCAT Physics Book
3 . Which dissipates more power, light bulb 1 or 3? 2
A.
2 . Which graph best shows the power dissipated by light 8
bulb 3 as a function of time?
B. C. D.
Light bulb 1. They dissipate the same. Light bulb 3, by a factor 2. Light bulb 3, by more than a factor of 2.
33. What happens if points A and B are connected by a
wire? A. Light 1 extinguishes. B. Light 1 extinguishes, and light 3 is brighter. C. Lights 1 and 2 extinguish, and light 3 is brighter. D. All lights extinguish, and the voltage source is shorted.
34. What happens to the voltage across light 3 if A and B are connected with a wire? A. It becomes zero. B. It stays the same. C. It increases but not to 12 volts.
2 . What would happen if light bulb 1 goes out (thus 9
breaking the circuit)? A. Nothing else happens. B, Light bulb 2 goes out. C. Light bulb 3 bums brighter. D. Light bulb 2 goes out, and light bulb 3 bums brighter.
30. What happens to light bulb 2 if light bulb 1 is shorted, that is, if points A and B are connected by a wire? A. It extinguishes. It becomes dimmer, but it does not extinguish. B. C. It bums the same. D. It bums brighter.
Use the following information in questions 3135: In the circuit shown, each light bulb has a resistance of 2 Q, and the voltage source maintains a potential of . . 12 volts. . .
D.
It becomes 12 volts.
35. What happens if points C and D are connected by a
wire? A. Light 3 extinguishes. B. Light 3 extinguishes, and lights 1 and 2 bum dimmer. C. Light 3 extinguishes, and lights 1 and 2 burn brighter. D. The potential source is shorted.
Use the following information in questions 3638: In the circuit shown, R, = 100 S2, R, = 200 S2, and AV = 6 volts.
31. What is the current passing through the voltage
source?
A.
B. C. D.
lamp 2 amps 4 amps None of the above
36. What is the total resistance for the circuit? A. 67 Ohms B. 100'0hms C. 2000hms
D.
300Ohms
.
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Chdpter
1 5 .. . .. .. . . .. . . .. .. . . . . Electric Circuits
37. What is the voltage flowing through resistor l ? A. 2 volts B. 4 volts C. 6 volts D. None of the above
38. How much energy is dissipated by resistor 2 in 10 minutes? A. 108J B. 720 J C. 7.2 x lo3J D. 7.2 x lo4J
Use the following information in questions 3 9 d 1 : The heating element of a toaster is a long wire of some metal, often the alloy nichrome, which heats up when a potential difference is applied across it. In the U.S.A., plugging a toaster into the wall outlet is equivalent to applying a 120V potential source across it. For these problems, consider a 300W toaster connected to a wall outlet.
Use the following information in questions 4244: A variable resistor is a resistor whose resistance can be adjusted by turning a knob. In a certain experiment a battery is connected to a variable resistor R. The potential difference across the resistor and the current through it are recorded for a number of settings of the resistor knob. Assume the battery can be modeled as an ideal potential source in series with an internal resistor.
variable
'           ,
battery
39. What is the resistance of such a toaster? A. 0.4Ohms B. 2.5 Ohms C. 48Ohms D. 3.6 x lo4Ohms
42. The emf of the potential source is 6.2 volts and the internal resistance is 0.1 Q. If the variable resistor is set .for 0.5 Q, what is the current through it? A. 10.3A B. 15.5 A C. 30.6A D. 74.4 A
40. How could one increase the rate at which heat is produced? A. Use a longer wire. B. Use a thicker wire. C. BothAandB. D. None of the above. 41. In one experiment, we use a collection of toasters with various resistances. We record the power consumed by each. Which graph best represents the relationship between power consumption and resistance?
43. Consider the following possibilities: I. a small external resistance 11. a large external resistance III. a small total current IV. a large total current When would it be a good approximation to ignore the internal resistance of the battery? A. I1 only B. n o r m C. I only D. I or IV
.
297
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44. From the resistances R and currents I mentioned in the experiment, we prepare a graph of 111versus R. Which of the following best represents that graph?
plates. The copper plates are carefully separated to a new distance 26,.
1 An alpha particle is a bare helium4 nucleus. If an alpha . particle is placed between the plates in Experiment 1, how would the electric force on it compare to the electric force on a proton? A. Both experience zero force. B. The force on the alpha particle would be the same as that on the proton. C. The force on the alpha particle would be double that on the proton. D. The force on the alpha particle would be four times that on the proton.
Passage
1
2.
In a certain experiment, we place two metal plates of area A parallel to each other and separated by a distance d to form a capacitor. The copper disks are mounted on nonconducting stands in a dry room which does not allow the conduction of charge through the air. The two plates are connected with wires to the opposite ends of a DC cell. The capacitance of such a device is given by
What charge is on the positive plate in Experiment 2? A. Q,l3
B. C. D.
3.
Q,
3Ql 9Q1
where
What is the magnitude of the electric field between the plates in Experiment 2? A. E,l3 B. El C . 3E, D. 9 E , What charge is on the positive plate at the end of Experiment 3?
4.
5.
In Experiment 1 we place two copper circular disks of radius R , a distance d l apart and connect them to a battery which produces a potential AV,,. This produces a positive charge Q, on one of the plates and an electric field El between the plates. In Experiment 2 we use two copper circular disks of the same radius ( R , ) and place them three times as far apart (3d,) as in Experiment 1. Again, the two disks are connected to the opposite ends of the same battery. In Experiment 3 we reproduce the setup in Experiment 1. Then the wires are removed from the copper
What is the magnitude of the potential difference between the plates at the end of Experiment 3? A. Avb,,/2 B. A , V C. 2AV,, D. 4AVb,
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The copper disks are mounted on nonconducting stands in a dry room which does not allow the conduction of charge through the air. In Experiment 3 we reproduce t e setup in Experih ment 1. D.. . We can increase the capacitance of such a setup by inserting a nonconductor. .. Then the wires are removed from the copper plates.12 C. About 30 km above the surface of the Earth. . is a good conductor. the troposphere and stratosphere. 81Q. .. 3. ionosphere. 81AV1 Passage 3 The Earth itself is a relatively good conductor.. Electric Circuits Passage 2 4..Chapter 15 . thus creating a capacitor with capacitance C. . .stratosphere What charge is on the positive plate in ~xperiment 2? A. . The two plates are connected with wires to the opposite ends of a DC cell.). Thus the model roughly resembles a parallelplate capacitor. where C. the two disks are connected to the opposite ends of a battery which produces four times the potential as that in Experiment 1 (4AV. 16C 2. This portion of the atmosphere. area A. Q. . there is a net charge of lo6 C on the at surface of the E r h and a corresponding positive charge on the ionosphere. 4E. and Cdiis the new capacitance. Ql/4 B. . however. is composed mainly of neutral oxygen and nitrogen molecules. This produces a positive charge Q. Furthermore. called a dielectric in electrical engineering h parlance. on one of the plates and an electric field El between the plates. ... a very much simplified model of the Earth and its atmosphere consists of two conductors separated by an insulator.. The potential between the Earth's surface and the ionosphere is about 9 x 10' volts. 9AV. 1he atmosphere near the surface of the Earth. . the capacitance of the device is Cdi= KC. 2E. (See figure.. is the capacitance of the plates with a vacuum between them. 9Q. and it is a fairly good insulator. 4C. These ions are created by the bombardment of cosmic rays. B. We connect the two plates to opposite terminals of a battery which produces a potential AV.. Q1 D.) 1.. is the dielectric constant of the nonconductor. ! B.2 C. . you may consider the charge on the electron to be 1. D. . In this case. This time. 3AV1 C. In Experiment 1 we place two copper circular disks of . In a certain experiment. 999 GO ON TO ME NEXT PAGE . the atmosphere is composed mainly of ions. E! . . a distance d. C.6 x C. called the ionosphere. What is the capacitance of the capacitor in Experiment 2? A. and the low density of gas at that height inhibits their recombining to form neutral species. C. We place cellulose nitrate (a dielectric with dielectric constant K = 9) between the plates. apart. between t e plates. What is the magnitude of the electric field between the plates in Experiment 2? A. 281 Thus. E4 .. What is the magnitude of the potential difference between the plates at the end of Experiment 3? A. D. For these questions.. we place two metal plates of area A parallel to each other and separated by a distance d to form a capacitor.. In Experiment 2 we reproduce the setup in Experiment 1. 5. AVl/9 B. Q119 BC. What charge is on the positive plate at the end of Experiment 3? A. 2C.
Note: The charge on an electron is 1. 2.7 x lo9 Farads D. 1. which of the following best represents the electric potential as a function of height h above the Earth's surface? 1.&I. 1. Neutral particles of pollution are attracted to the center wire.1 Farads B. What is a good approximation for the magnitude of the electric field in the Earth's atmosphere? A. 9 x ~ O ' ~ N I C 3. such that a potential about 5 x lo4volts is maintained between the negative wire and the positive cylinder. 30NlC C. 4. If a C.O. in what direction would it experience a force? GO ON TO T E NEXT PAGE H . They are attracted to the outer cylinder.6 X 10l9 C. 5.. up D. It consists of a long thin wire surrounded by a conducting cylinder. 2 . A typical energy requirement for such a device is about 300 Joules for each cubic meter of gas processed. down 2. 7 ~ 1o9N1C D. what is its capacitance? A. .molecule is at point A. 30 Farads C. up D.8 x Joules 1. C. left C. 9 x 10" Farads 1 Considering the Earth and its atmosphere as a . The electric field near the wire is strong enough (greater than about 3 x lo6NIC) to ionize air. left C.4 x 10l3Joules @ t A.) 2. 1. D. An electrostatic precipitator is a device used in industry to remove pollution from exhaust gas.. where they collect and are eventually removed.8 x Joules 1.4 x 10I3Joules B.4 x 10l3NIC B. (See figure. right B. Which of the following best represents the electric field? The resulting electric field inside the cylinder varies inversely with the distance from the center wire. If a sodium ion is at point A. 1. What would be the change in potential energy of an electron which was transported from the Earth's surface to the ionosphere? A. in what direction would it experience a force? A. down clean gas polluted gas . Assuming the electric potential at the Earth's surface is zero.The MCAT Physics Book capacitor. Point A is in the plane of the page. right B. so the pollution particles are ionized negatively.
while the top of the cloud may extend to about 8 krn above the Earth. Meanwhile the cloud induces a positive charge on the surface of the Earth. 0. If a fluorine atom were ionized to form fluoride (mass 3x kg) near the center wire. some of the negative charge of the cloud neutralizes the positive charge of the Earth. This results in a huge release of energy in the form of dissociation. the middle of the cloud. a strong negative charge. The attraction between a chloride ion and a sodium ion in a salt crystal. and excitation of molecules in air. J C. and the bottom of the cloud.5x10=~ C. it is helpful to install lightning rods. A lightning rod is a long piece of metal with one end embedded in the ground and the other end extending up higher than the surrounding buildings. the base of the cloud is generally about 2 km above the surface of the Earth. Approximately 4 Coulombs of negative charge pass from the ground to the cloud. B. The van der Waals attraction between two nitrogen molecules in air. The capacitance could decrease or increase depending on the gas in the cylinder. The charge structure is quite complicated. (See figure.) The resulting potential difference between the bottom of the cloud and the ground is around 10' volts. low2 amps C. forming a current of 20 kamps. 0 amps B. D. D. GO ON TO T E N X PAGE H ET . Which of the following best represents the electric field lines in the cylinder? 7. The aligning of a small magnet to Earth's magnetic field. The capacitance would stay the same. A charged comb picking up pieces of paper. The capacitance would increase. 3 x lo4amps 6. C. The purpose of such a piece of metal is to conduct electrons from the Earth into the air and reduce the charge imbalance. When lightning strikes. The capacitance would decrease. 1. 5. The end in the air comes to a sharp point. If the potential maintained across the wirdcylinder were increased. what would be the electrical current through the device? A. 8xl0~'~ B. The top of the cloud has a strong positive charge. If the flow rate of gas through an electrostatic precipitator is 100 m3/s. ionization.8 amps D. what is the best approximation for the maximum kinetic energy it could have by the time it reached the outer cylinder? A. In places especially prone to lightning. B. how would the capacitance of the device be affected? A. If lightning strikes anyway. 4.3. it is more likely to strike the lightning rod than the buildings. thus reducing the of lightning. When thunderclouds form. and electromagnetic radiation. Which of the following is the closest analogy to the attraction of neutral particles of pollutants to the center wire? A. a weaker positive charge. the heating and expanding of gas.
use this capability to stun or kill a predator or prey.5 seconds 5 Whlch of the following best represents the electric field . D. B. For some species this helps them to detect other organisms. 6. During the equilibrium state. 0. as a battery. which acts. Electrocytes are flattened cells (like disks) which are stacked in a series. 5 x lo' seconds C. The Following description refers to a hypothetical electric organ. 1 A number of aquatic species have evolved the capability to produce sizable electric fields. Which of the following is most likely to result in the light associated with lightning? A. such as the electric eel.The MCAT Physics Book What is the approximate magnitude of the electric field in the air during a thunderstorm? I. heating of air D.1 V. the cells actively exclude sodium ions (Na3. in effect. Potassium ions rush in the same direction through the anterior face of the cell. so the interior of the cell becomes enriched with K+ ions. as shown in the figure below. The cell membrane is permeable to potassium ions (K'). The organism generates the electric field in an "electric organ" which can take up most OF the body cavity. 2.) The circuit is completed in the surrounding water. partially but not fully compensating for the potential difference due to the imbalance of Na' ions. dissociation of molecules B. The magnitude of the potential difference between the inside and outside is of the cell is about 0. How much energy is released during a stroke of lightning? A. creating a potential difference between the inside of the cell and the outside of the cell. 2 x 10" Joules D. the posterior side of the cells becomes permeable to sodium ions. either predator or prey. as shown in the second figure below. The result is a potential difference across the whole organ. Other species. excitation of molecules C. expansion of air During the activated state. 8 x lo4Joules B. 5 m n 2x104sz posterior anterior 3. There is not enough information to answer this question. 4 x 10' Joules C. I 1 GO ON TO T E N X PAGE H ET . near a lightning rod? Equilibrium State C. What is approximate resistance for charge flow during a lightning strike? A. 2x seconds B. which includes many features by which these organs operate. 2 x lo' seconds 4. (See the figure below. What is the approximate duration of a stroke of lightning? A. so they rush in through the posterior face due to the potential difference.
what is the approximate total current through the fish during the activated state? A. fresh water or sea water? A. Sea water... . The duration of a pulse is 2 milliseconds.. If the electric organ of a fish consists of 5000 electrocytes stacked in a series. . The charge on an electron is 1. 75 amps 150 amps 300 amps 3. because ions c a w current in sea water. Which of the following best shows the electric field due to the fish during the activated state? Activated State (arrows show currentflow) arrows show currentflow  5. C. . .. C. . . D Sea water.Chapter 1 5 . because sea water is slightly more dense. and x. Consider x. a point in the interior of the cell. 30 milliamps B. Fresh water. . . . . Electric Circuits 4. . / 2. because ions impede current in sea water. 1. . . 1.6 x 10l9C. Which of the following best shows the magnetic field due to the fish during the activated state? During the activated state. Fresh water. How much charge crosses the cell membrane during the activated state? A. . During the equilibrium state. because sea water is slightly more dense. Which is a better conductor of electricity.. the current across the anterior and posterior faces of a cell in this hypothetical electric organ is 30 milliamps. which graph best shows the electric potential as a function of x? 6. B. B.6~1019c 3 x 1 0 ~ ~ STOP . D. .. to be points in the extracellular medium and x.
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One way to think about it is to think that electrons are tiny particles which move so fast that we do not know where they are. but not its exact position.6 x C (chemists call this 1).) I B. an electron in the lowestenergy orbital of a hydrogen atom exists throughout the area near the nucleus. In classical physics. Knowing an electron's orbital means knowing its energy (generally) and knowing something about its location (often). That is thinking classically again. existing all around the nucleus at once. although it does exist more strongly in some places than in others. because it turns out these terms are impossible to define. so we often use another mass unit. we do not even talk about position and velocity in this way. but it exists 90% within a radius of 1. of atoms and molecules. or [amu] (or sometimes just u). if we wanted to talk about a particular electron in an atom. They needed a new language and a new way of thinking. Instead we talk about a particular electron in an atom by specifying the orbital it is in. Introduction In this chapter we break out of the tradition and viewpoint of classical physics and discuss results from quantum theory. Particles simply do not have a definite position nor velocity. That is one way to think about it.7 x lo'' kg). It is not the case that electrons have position and velocity of which we are simply ignorant. but it's the wrong way. As you can see. Physics would tell us how that position changed in time. and quantum physics was born. and each electron has charge 1. forces and fields was insufficient to discuss the world of the very small. In quantum physics. which comprise almost all of the matter around us. kilograms are really too large a unit to use to talk of these masses. so that . Orbital it is in? An orbital is a state of being for an electron. physicists began to realize that the very language of particles and positions. and electrons are about 2000 times lighter. an atom consists of a tiny positive charge center m) called the nucleus and a surrounding cloud of electrons (lo" m). For instance. called the atomic mass unit. Each proton has a charge +1. and the area of space they move in is an orbital. An electron truly has no exact position. which we have been studying thus far.4 x lo" m. Basic Structure of an Atom As was mentioned in Chapter 14. The mass of the proton and the mass of the neutron are about the same (1. each neutron has zero net charge.6 x 10l9C (chemists call this +I). Atoms connect together by interactions of their electrons to form molecules and ionic solidr. The nucleus of the atom contains protons and neutrom. (That does not mean that it spends 10% of its time outside of 1. In the 1890s. we would specify its position and velocity.4 x lo'' m and 10% outside of that radius.Chapter 16 Atomic and Nuclear Physics I A.
since most of the mass comes from the protons and neutrons.. and the total number of protons and neutrons.. The mass number is the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.. The mass of such a nucleus is about 4 amu (actually 4. or mass number. .0087 amu. There are always at least two product particles in any nuclear reaction. The notation we use for a single atom contains all this information. Several atoms which differ in the number of neutrons but have the same number of protons are called isotopes of that element. corresponding in the periodic table to I4c carbon14. since we can obtain that from the periodic table. for example. Thus we can describe a nucleus by specifying the number of protons in it. where the mass number is 4 and the atomic number is 2. we denote common helium by one of the two symbols: (pronounced "helium four"). The atomic number also determines which element the atom makes up. except now we are concerned with changes in the protons and neutrons in the nuclei. = 0.00260 amu). This assures that the number of heavy particles stays constant. so we write When writing reactions.6606 x kg .. The atomic mass (sometimes erroneously called the atomic weight) is the mass of an atom in amu. . 3 5 ~and 3 7 ~ 1 . of which 2 went into the :He. or atomic number. The mass number is approximately the atomic mass of an atom in amu..00055 amu. We really do not need to specify the atomic number. so we have m. = 1. We write nuclear reactions using similar notation as that for chemical reactions. Tbus the final nucleus has a 6 in the lower left position and a 14 in or the upper left. This assures that charge is conserved in the reaction. (Exceptions are vanishingly rare. the sum of left superscripts for the reactants must equal the sum of left superscripts for the products. since the neutrons of the nucleus have hardly any effect on the surrounding electron cloud. The number of protons and neutrons all together among the reactants is 1 + 17 = 18. chemical 1 The and are properties of 3 S ~ l 37C1 nearly identical. m. It is very nearly the mass of a proton or neutron. called a photon and symbolized by 7 . Also. For instance. = 1. of which 4 are in He. Example 1: When a slow neutron collides with a 1 7 0 nucleus. the e include a " ~ nucleus and what other nucleus? Solution: The information given in the problem can be written where we have used the symbol i n for the neutron (do you see why?).) One of these particles is often a particle of light.0073 amu . The symbol :He may refer either to a nucleus having two protons and two neutrons or to an atom having such a nucleus.The MCAT Physics Book 1 amu = 1. the sum of left subscripts for the reactants must equal the sum of left subscripts for the products. The number of protons mentioned among the reactants is 0 + 8 = 8. me.
. The state corresponding to the lowest energy is called the growtd state. so that 1 where h = 6. . in which the vertical axis represents energy and the horizontal axis does not represent anything. . How do we write the reaction? Solution: We write the reaction as follows: :H+ or ':c+ ':N+ y 'H+ 12c+1 3 ~ y+ where we have used H for the proton (again. so the energies for all the other states are negative. Quantum theory maintains that these disturbances come in little packets called photons. then they act like the classical field discussed in Chapter 13. since they do not fit into the formula. Quantum theory predicts that only certain energies are allowed for a given atom.1 x lo'' J. Atomic and Nucledr Physics Exampie 2: When a proton collides with a nucleus of carbon12. In previous chapters we discussed light in terms of a wave of disturbance of electric and magnetic fields. C.. there is a connection between the frequency of the light and the energy of a photon of that light. At any rate. There is no such thing as an isolated hydrogen atom with energy 1. a hydrogen atom can have only energies corresponding to the equation where n is a positive integer. Other states are excited states. This can be shown graphically on an energy level diagram Figure 16l). generally the result is one new nucleus (if there is a reaction at all). do you see why?). .5 x 10" J or with energy.1. from one state to another. the electrons are in various orbitals. For instance.Chapter 1 6 . Energy Levels and Transitions For an isolated atom.. or make a tmnsirion. depending on what orbitals are occupied by electrons.63 x 10"~J/Hz is a constant of nature. Bringing the proton and electron Figure 161 together releases energy. the atom can jump. If there are a large number of photons. The atom as a whole has a certain energy. It does this either by colliding with another atom or by absorbing or releasing a photon. Planck's constant. . Even though the atom cannot have energies between the allowed energy states shown on the diagram. Zero energy corresponds to the state in which the proton and electron are infinitely separated.
Example 1: A beam of laser light is incident on a sample of hydrogen gas. called scattering. in which a substance absorbs one frequency of light and emits light of different frequencies.(2. emitting a photon of (almost) the same energy. where absorption occurs between steps 1 and 2 and emission between steps 2 and 3. Thus the frequency of the photons is Transitions are shown in an energy level diagram by arrows from one line to another. It can decay back to its previous state. so its energy is The energy of the photons in the laser are (0. Most of the gas in the sample is in the ground state (lowest energy state). This phenomenon.94 x lo'' J.The MCAT Physics Book If a photon is emitted or absorbed by an atom. Several things can happen after an atom has absorbed a photon. An atom which has absorbed a photon may emit a photon of a different energy by making a transition to a new I Figure 162 Step 1 / . This process. so its energy is The second excited state must have n = 3. then the photon has an energy given by the difference of the energies of the atomic states. is shown in Figure 162. Figure 163 shows the process differently. To what frequency should the laser be tuned so that the hydrogen atoms absorb the light and end up in the second excited state? Solution: The ground state corresponds to n = 1.18 x lo'' J) = 1. This is shown in Figure 164.24 x lo'' J) . so the atom emits two photons for each one it absorbs. Figure 161 shows the transition for Example 1. is called$uorescence. Figure 164 . The upward arrow represents the absorption of the original photon.u Eo Step 2 Step 3 El  F i r e 163 state. Several examples will make this more clear. subsequent emission. in which the up arrow represents absorption and the down arrow. The downward arrows represent emitted photons.
If this happens spontaneously. we need to make sure the upper and lower left numbers add up correctly. an electron. Thus we have the incomplete equation ?L. but sometimes zero energy corresponds to complete ionization and the ground state energy is negative.Th+ '. Sometimes the ground state energy is labeled E. Also we add an antineutrino.. Sometimes. it slows down by ionizing molecules that it passes by. Once in the body. The proton stays in the nucleus. here shown initially at rest. it is called radioactive decay. Also.i+?+ qe. one a small 4 ~nucleus. t In alpha decay. symbol : ~ e Figure 165 shows this decay. We know the atomic number of thorium (90) from the periodic table. an electron. so we write . since it is able to speed through the air and penetmte into the body. Example 1: What is the reaction representing the alpha decay of the thorium232? Solution: The answer is 232 . compared with protons. The alpha particle is always represented by the . The antineutrino is so penetrating that it generally passes through the body and the planet without depositing any energy. while the electrons in the electron orbitals are doing all sorts of things. e Figure 165 Generally alpha emitters are not dangerous to biological tissue (provided you do not eat them). can be highly injurious to biological tissue. The second type of radioactive decay is beta decay. and sometimes E. as the nucleus of the common helium nucleus. called an alpha particle (a). In order to complete it. a single nucleus.~a+ : ~ e . Nuclei which have an especially large number of protons and neutrons will sometimes throw off a packet of two protons Note that an alpha particle is the same and two neutrons.Chapter 1 6 . The protons and neutrons hold together. sometimes we say the ground state has zero energy. since the alpha particles lose energy very quickly and do not penetrate very far even in air (several centimeters). It is a matter of convention which the problem will specify. In this process. undergo normal beta decay (p). . . the symbol of the electron is ye. and the electron shoots away from the nucleus.) Step 1 step 2 132Th 'r. This is called alpha decay. The nucleus is often content to spend many years undergoing no major changes. Atomic and Nuclear Physics Do not get thrown off by notation. . a neutron decays into a proton. however. often called a beta pahcle. There are three main types of radioactive decay. the nucleus undergoes a change. Example 2: What is the reaction for the (normal) beta decay of lithium9? Solution: On the left side of the reaction we have . The speeding electron. (Figure 165 shows this decay. ~ i On the right side we place . and an antineutrino. which can be very dangerous if one such molecule is DNA. The ground state is always the lowestenergy state. . breaks into two pieces. so it is mostly harmless. That means they generally do not get inside of you. . For accounting purposes. Nuclei with many neutrons.
able to penetrate many meters of lead. which is a particle just like an electron (in mass and so on) with a positive charge. The neutron stays in the nucleus. The positron. shoots away from the nucleus. than for the electronic decays. called a gamma particle. the nucleus can also be in an excited quantum state. so the wording can be a bit tricky. . a proton decays into a neutron. This is the time it takes half the atoms in a sample to decay. When the nucleus decays. whose symbol is l e . and the neutrino is innocuous.o before after f +coo 00. If we imagine a population sample of 1000 humans all born in the same year. assume the normal kind unless otherwise specified. This reaction is the most penetrating. humans. o0o e0 0 oO.The MCAT Physics Book or we can write ' ~ i +' ~ e + e . When the nucleus decays into the lower energy state. In this process. In this case @ c o g decays into one excited state of @Ni. The positron is dangerous to biological tissue as well. Just as the electrons of an atom may be in an excited state. Example 4: The radioactive decay of an excited state of cobalt60 is given by where the asterisk indicates an excited state. It can be harmless if it passes simply through the human body. say.which decays into a second excited state of 6 0 ~ which decays to the i. just as a photon is released in the electronic case. or it can be quite harmful. The lifetime of an atom is not the same as the lifetime of. Thus we have A third type of radioactive decay is gamma decay. Figure 166 and a neutrino. ground state. If it matters which sort of beta decay is required. Beta decays are divided into beta decays and positron decays. the energies involved are much greater. a positron. Sometimes writers will be careful to say "normal beta decay" and sometimes they will not. however.  8 = proton o = neutron Nuclei with many protons undergo = electron positron decay (P').) 2" Example 3: What is the reaction for the positron decay of carbon1 l? Solution: On the left side of the reaction we have 'JC. beta. it releases a photon. about a million times greater. and gamma decays (although there are some other sorts of decays as well).+ v Figure 166 shows this decay schematically. On the right side we place a positron. . (A word about words: Radioactivity is generally divided into alpha. We can measure the time it takes a nucleus to decay in terms of a halfZi$e.
228. all generated at the same moment. about half of those have decayed.0 x 10' mls is the speed of light. The mass deficit in this reaction is m. That means that four halflives must have transpired. but at any moment they have some constant risk of decaying. We would expect. After 156 days the radioactivity is down to 101 millicuries. The mass of Ra228 is 228. it would be half again. Notice that the sum of the Ra228 and He4 masses is less than that of Th232. that there would probably be no survivors. Example 5: The nucleus Ru103 decays to the stable isotope Rh103. that is. only half of those would be surviving.0026) amu = 0. . This is the famous E = mc2 equation.0381 amu. In Example 1. . Example 6: In the decay of Th232. This energy is mainly in the form of kinetic energy of the alpha particle.03 11 amu. and the energy of reaction is given by where c = 3. After another five years. . This isotope decays by alpha emission to samarium144 with a halflife of 75 years. Consider now a sample of 1000 gadolinium148 atoms. leaving about 250 Gd148 atoms. There is a deep connection between mass and energy which we will mention only briefly here.. We obtain a pure sample and measure that its radioactivity to be 1616millicuries. After another 75 years. In order to apply this equation we must be careful that the units agree. and that of He4 is 4. and the amount of energy can be determined if we know the masses sufficiently well. Atomic and Nuclear Physics then after 75 years we would expect about half of them (or 500) to still be alive. most of the energy of the reaction ends up in the kinetic energy of the alpha particle. After another eight years. How fast (approximately) is the alpha particle going? Sdution: a. 150 years after the birth date. After yet another 75 years.Chdpter 1 6 .0044 amu. the mass of a Th232 is 232.. In this reaction.0026 amu. One halflife is (156 days)l4 = 39 days.. . down by four factors of 2.031 1 4. We convert this to kg and multiply by c2 to obtain energy 166x kg)kvo 1amu 108 J . What is the halflife of this isotope? Solution: The activity of the sample is down by a factor of 16161101 = 16. After a decay. how much energy (in J) does the alpha particle have? b. The mass deficit m. = (232. mass is converted into energy. . Where did the missing mass go? This mass has been converted into energy. a. Radioactive atoms do not age and die.0381 . is the difference of the mass of products and the mass of reactants.. there are around 125 left. After 75 years we expect about half of the original Gd148 to remain.
beta plus y. lies in visualizing the decay and in writing the nuclear reaction correctly. here is a chart of special particles and their symbols for nuclear reactions: Particle proton neutron helium4 electron positron photon neutrino  Other names Symbol :H 1 P n 0" a. a photon is absorbed or released with energy equal to the difference of the energies of the two states. beta minus p+. 2 so we want m to be in kilograms: ma = 4. The key to understanding many physical situations lies in understanding the energy level diagram. in Joules. e. Then we have This is quite fast. e+. When the atom or nucleus makes a transition from one state to another. gamma e e Y (do not need to know) (do not need to know) v V antineutrino In this chapter we discussed the physics of the atom and nucleus: atomic structure. and nuclear reactions. The key to understanding problems involving nuclear reactions. called alpha.66x lo'' kg = 6.alpha :He 0 1 0 +l p. We want to use the equation E. These decays vary in the type of particle expelled from the nucleus and the effect that this expulsion has on the nucleus. In summary for this section. radioactivity. There are three types of radioactive decay. We know E. and gamma decay. An atom or nucleus can exist only in certain discrete states of precise energy. beta.6 x 1amu kg. about 5% of the speed of light.0026 amu 1 I 1. electronic energy levels. but not so fast that we have to resort to the full mechanics of special relativity.The MCAT Physics Book b. = mv2 to solve for v. including radioactive decay. .
The former experiences a force of magnitude F. Two neutrons.. Some isolated =u atoms will spontaneously fission ' into two approximately equalsized fragments. The bare nuclei of H and of 'H are between the plates. 5 . the acceleration of the hydrogen nucleus a compare with the magnitude of the acceleration of the helium nucleus a. F. compare with the magnitude of the force of the heavy hydrogen nucleus F. 6..? ' An elecuon and a deuteron (bare nucleus of H) are placed between the plates. F = 2000 F. what is its speed after 0.. Note the approximations: 5.? Sections A and B 1 A charged parallelplate capacitor has an electric field . F. A proton.and the bromide ion m ~. D..7 x 10lom/s C.. How does the magnitude of the acceleration of the proton a.1 milliseconds? A. compare with the magnitude of the acceleration of the electron a.? mmon = 2000 m. The following represents a possible reaction: 3. How does the magnitude of the force on the electron Fek compare with the magnitude of the force on the deuteron Fd? A.. . How does the magnitude of the force of the light hydrogen nucleus F.. GO ON TO THE N C PAGE DT . = FF us^+ " ' ~ a +9 2 ~ r +? What is missing from the right side of the reaction? A. charge 1. F. How do these compare? A. and both are at rest at t = 0 seconds. and both are at rest.6 x C) is between the plates and starts from rest. B. A proton and a neutron. and both are at rest. If a proton (mass 1. Atomic and Nucledr Physics Chapter 1 6 Problems 4. B. and the latter a force of magnitude F. How does the magnitude of . = Fd 7.~ ~ m l s l B. 7 ~~ . 1 . 1.Iron * mdcceon 9 x lo" kg .Chdpter 1 6 .7 x kg.. of 160 NIC between its plates.5~10~rn1s Use the following information in questions 2 6 : A charged parallelplate capacitor has an elecuic field Eo between its plates. Two ions are placed between the plates: the fluoride O r ion 'F . . A proton and an electron are both between the plates. The bare nuclei of ' H and of 4 ~are between the e plates.6 x lo" C . = 4000 F.. C. = 2. A neutron. 1. . 9 x 1 0 f m / s D. Ignore the force of gravity. = qPmmn 1.. * C .
7.5 x 10'' Hz. C. 3.3 x lo'* J 13. What is the maximum number of spectral lines for this atom? A. we discover a m. 4 ~ e + 1 ~ + ' ~ C. 16N+y Use the following information in questions 12 and 13: The figure below shows the energy level diagram of a hypothetical atom.0 x 10" HZ and 7. 3 14.2 x 1014Hz.0x 1 0 4 ~ ~ 1. 0 B. What is the energy of the (excited) quantum state she has discovered? (Use h = 4. 1 C. 1 B. In the spectrum of a hypothetical atom. 4 D.14 x lo'' ev s and c = 3.2 x 1014Hz Hz 10" Hz and 9. Light in the visible portion of the spectrum has frequency between 4. (Use h = 4. 3 C.7 x loi4Hz 314 GO ON TO THE N C PAGE DT . one or more products may result. B.8 x 10'' Hz. B. which she determines is a transition from the ground state to an excited state.4 x 1014HZ 1 0 ' ~ and 7. A common reaction in the Sun involves the encounter of two nuclei of light helium ()He).14 x lo'' ev s and c = 3. and 9.) 9. How many lines are possible in the visible spectrum? A.2 x 2. 2 D.5 x the transition is from the ground state. D. and we discover that line with wavelength 1.4 x 2.) 1 . 7. What other energy level must exist in the atom? (Use c = 3. The figure below shows the known energy level diagram for a hypothetical atom.0 x lo8mls.63 x J s.The MCAT Physics Book 8. 6 10. 7 ~ i + ' ~ D.14 x lo'' ev s and c = 3.) A. A brilliant young scientist discovers a new spectral tine with frequency 4. B.0 x 10' mls.0 x lo8 mls. Which of the following represents a possible set of products? A. what possible frequencies might be in the spectrum of this atom? (Use h = 4.) A.0 x 10' d s and h = 6.4 x 2. If one )He nucleus encounters another. If an atom has only the three energy levels shown in the 1 figure below. which is a possible list of products? A. ' H ~ + ~ H B. 2 ~ + 2 ~ + 2 ~ If the nucleus "N is bombarded with a proton.7 x 1014Hz 10" Hz. The ground state corresponds to zero energy. Section C 12.
What is the result when a "*udecays by alpha emission. and another GO ON TO T E N X PAGE H ET . Which of the following shows this reaction? (The third step in the pp chain is given in problem 8. 'H+ 'H+ l H + y 2 . D. followed by two beta decays. B. C. . We measure the radioactivity of a certain sample of 3 2 to be 300 mCi. 4 . what conclusion 7 can be drawn about the photon? A.Chapter 16 Use the following information for questions 151 7: Atoms of lithium are able to absorb photons of frequency 2.20 ev 16. (Use h = 4.14 x lo'' ev s and c = 3.20 ev B.1~10~g1ams D. The Curies prepared about 1 gram of Ra226 (with 3 Section D 1 . 1 10"grams ~ C.5 grams ~ 1 . D.) . "'~n 2 . What was the parent nucleus? A. None of the above may be concluded. 4. =8Th B. What nucleus results when "Ni decays by positron 8 emission? A. If a photon ionizes a lithium atom. Which of the following expresses this reaction? A. "Ni D. B. 55.6days C.5 x m C. The first step involves two protons colliding to make heavy hydrogen. D.3x10'm B. 28. C. 6. The daughter nucleus from an alpha decay was 9 identified to be " ~ a . This corresponds to a transition from the ground state (at 5.9 days ~ B.3 x lo6m D. D. s s ~ C. How much will be left after 8000 years (about the length of time of recorded history)? A. None. It had frequency less than 1. 230Th D.37 ev) to an excited state.7 x 10' m reactions called the pp chain. 0.3 x 10" Hz. 1. In the Sun much of the energy results from a set of 1 15. 26.3 x 10" Hz. What is the energy of the excited state referred to in the passage? A. . .) A. 2 . Another step in the pp chain is a reaction in which 2 heavy hydrogen combines with a proton to make a third nucleus.3 days.01 x 10" Hz. Atomic dnd Nuclear Physics alpha decay? A. 3 . 2. How long before the radioactivity ~ decreases to 20 mCi? (The halflife of 3 2 is 14.3 x lo1' Hz. .) A. 5 4 ev C. 2 2 8 ~ n C. What is the wavelength of light corresponding to this transition? A. It had frequency 1.0 x lo8mls.7 days B. 6. 'H+'H+~+~H~ ' H + 'H+ 4 ~ e + y 'H+ 'H+ 3~i+y  1 C. B. " * ~ n 24. 0. '=~r "~AC 2 2 6 ~ 20. 6. 'H+ 'H+ 3 ~ e y+ 1 . " ~ e B.83 ev . 3. Zero energy correspoads to the state in which one electron is completely removed from the atom. " ~ a halflife 1600 years). . It had frequency greater than 1.
02872 amu B.6 ev) n2 ' 1 27. This is not observed in a chemical reaction.8~ 106'kg Use the following information in questions 26 and 27: Atomic masses of some isotopes on 1 1. In a nuclear reaction the mass of the products is less than the mass of the reactants.602 x 10l9J) The energy level diagram is shown in the figure below. In the Sun. 4.0 x 10' rn/s h = 6. How much mass is converted to energy per day to power the community? (Hint: c = 3. An isolated ' ~ atom will spontaneously decay into e two alpha particles.The MCAT Physics Book C. 2. so that the net reaction looks l i e 4 'H+ 4 ~ e 2v.03204 amu C. four hydrogen nuclei react to form a helium nucleus.9 x J.) A. 1.0249 1 amu D. or particle of light.01043 amu 30. What is the mass deficit for this reaction? A. In chemical reactions. A. Mass is conserved in chemical reactions. B.00260 m u 28. The mass is exactly double the mass of the He atom.00260 amu 7. HOW much mass does it lose per second from nuclear processes alone? (Use c = 3.00866 amu 1. which involve only the electromagnetic force.Li 26.63 x 10j4J s. 25.8x101kg B.3 x lo9 kg D. + where the neutrino is massless or nearly so. 7.99477 m u D. Each second the Sun produces 3. 0.47 129 amu C. The mass deficit due to the fission of one uranium235 atom is 3 x grams.0 x lo8 m/s.01410 amu 4. 0. An atom generally has an electron in a given energy level. The mass deficit in chemical reactions is too small to be observed by present techniques. In chemical reactions. D. The mass is less thandouble the mass of the 4 ~ e atom. The mass is greater than double the mass of the He atom.00783 amu 2. A nuclear power plant provides loE2 of electrical J power each day to run a small community by using heat from the fission of uranium235 to turn turbines. A state in which the electron is infinitely far from the nucleus corresponds to 0 ev. 10~ g D. the mass is held constant by the nucleus. What is the mass deficit for this reaction? A. What can be concluded about the e mass of the ' ~ atom? where n is a positive integer.63 x 10j4J s. 10~g C. D. however. 4. Why not? A. the mass deficit is balanced by a mass surplus. 5. 13g 29. 0.2 x lo9 kg c. 2. 0. I 316 GO ON TO THE N ) TPAGE EC .) A. (Note: 1 ev = 1. 1. B.01601 amu :£I : ~ e 7 tH . h = 6.01 864 amu B. C. II Passage 1 A hydrogen atom has energy levels given by En = (I 3. None of the above may be concluded. a transition may occur if the atom absorbs or emits a photon. Consider the interaction of one lithium atom (7 Li) and one hydrogen atom ('H) to create two equal particles. B.
a photon causes a transition from the ground state to state 2. and it takes place by different (and thus slower) processes than the other transitions.. The photon had an energy greater than 12.14 x lo" ev s. There is no smallest energy. Both momentum and energy are conserved. The photon had an energy greater than 10.2 ev C. D. The hydrogen atom is now in its ground state. The mass of a hydrogen atom is m. 9. C.2 x m C.. 5. boost a hydrogen atom in its ground state to an excited state? A. 1 What is the smallest energy a photon must have to . What is the most restrictive statement that can be concluded about the photon? A.) 1 How doesfa. 3. the Sun). IE=O ground state 3. The phenomenon of phosphorescence requires the interaction of light with three energy levels in an atom (or molecule). The energy of a photon is given by E. fn = f p h c* ffl> fph D. The photon had an energy greater than or equal to 12. 13. Neither momentum nor energy is conserved. There is no longest wavelength. 2.1~10~m B. he is able to observe the phosphorescent photons from this final transition. Almost immediately.2 ev. When the toy is taken into the Sun.4 ev B. be the frequency of the absorbed photons. D. In the scenario mentioned in the second paragraph. What is the longest wavelength corresponding to a photon which could cause a transition in a hydrogen atom? A. The atom makes a transition to the ground stateonly slowly. where c = 3. B. . It depends on the specific atoms used in the material. 6 ~ 1 0 . . = f p h frbr > f* It depends on the specific atoms used in the material. but not momentum. The figure below (not to scale) shows a hypothetical energy diagram in which the lowest state shown is the ground state (E = 0). The photon had an energy of 12. = 1. L b s Cf.0 x 10' mls..5 ev B. If a child exposes the toy to a bright light (for example.14 x lo" ev s.6 ev D. D.4 ev C. Certain toys found in cereal boxes display the phenomenon of phosphorescence.the atom emits a photon. the speed of light.6ev A hydrogen atom in its ground state absorbs a photon and ends up in the excited state corresponding to n = 3. f*. . compare to the f@? . . Energy is conserved. be the frequency of the photons emitted while the object is still in the sunlight. and fph be the frequency of the photons released in the closet. B.1 ev. C. f. 317 GO ON TO T E NEXT PAGE H .1 ev but less than 12. = hf. 3. 4. 10. what can be concluded? A.8 ev. A. 10.2 ev D.? A. Atomic and Nucledr Physics For the following questions.Chdpter 1 6 .f.7 x lo'' kg. which travels to the right. Thus when the child takes the toy into a closet.. but not energy. The .1 ev. 1. consider a hydrogen atom in an excited state initially at rest. then the toy will glow with a characteristic color when the child takes it into a dark closet. Letf. How does f. 3 . making a fast transition to state 1. cf* B. 2. The transition from state 1 to the ground state is said to be forbidden. . . momentum of a photon is given by p p h o= Elc.~ m D. (Planck's constant is h = 4. It emits a photon of energy E. wheref is the frequency and h = 4. 13. compare to the f. 1. . What is the ionization energy for a hydrogen atom? A. B. c. Momentum is conserved.
what is the effect on the beam? A. but only photons corresponding to the absorption frequency will be absorbed by the object. 5. __+ 9. B. C. a B. A beam is made of the radioactive efflux in the same way as mentioned for Sample 1. 12. 3. State 1 is most populated. When the beam from Sample 1 enters the magnetic field. the level of radioactivity is down to 250 mCi. We dbtain a pure sample of 6 6 ~(Sample 2). The beam bends down. I 4. top. which atomic state is the most populated? That is. C.The M C A T Physics Book 3.05 rnm) gold foil. p+ Y c. C . but only photons corresponding to the absorption frequency make it through Earth's atmosphere. The beam bends to the left. The beam bends up. B. The Sun emits photons of one frequency. B. In another experiment the beam is subjected to a magnetic field which points down. The particles in the beam go faster. The beam is traveling to the east. After the child brings the object into the closet. The particles in the beam slow down. We observe that the radioactivity is not blocked by a piece of thin metal foil. and the toy is constructed to absorb that frequency. what is the effect on the beam? A. D. Sample 1 We observe radioactivity from a sample of 209Po (Sample I). A.? SampIe 2 4. The beam bends up. The radioactive efflux is made into a beam by placing the sample in a block of lead (Pb) with a hole which allows the particles to escape as shown in the figure below). After 19 hours. beam GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . State 2 is most populated. C. The ground state is the most populated. D. and it enters a strong magnetic field pointing up. which a has a radioactivity level of 1000 mCi. a number in state 1. In one experiment the beam is subjected to an electric field which points up. The Sun emits photons of many frequencies. C . a number of atoms have electrons in the ground state. and the toy converts the photons to the desired frequency. When the beam from Sample 1 enters the electric field. and a number in state 2. D The beam bends to the right. populated. The Sun emits photons of one frequency. as viewed from the top. Which number is greatest? A.6 hours 15 hours None of the above is correct. At what time after the beginning of Experiment 2 was the radioactivity level at 500 mCi? A. D. pD. 1 What is the product of the decay of '09po? . The beam bends down. D Either the ground state or state 1 is the most . but it is blocked by several centimeters of aluminum. 'OSpb 209~t 209~i 209~o 2. Which of the following gives a correct expression for&. B. as viewed from the . C. What type of radioactivity is produced by 6 6 ~ a ? A. but the radioactivity is effectively blocked by a piece of thin (0. B. Which is correct? A. B. 5. The Sun emits photons of many frequencies.5 hours D. The beam veers to the south.
S 6 ~ i % c o + e ' + v + S6~i+S6~~+e+V S6~i+56~0+e+~ S6~i+e+m~o+v B.decay. decreases by 2 C. In P' decay (also called positron decay). of %Ni? A.. the interaction of a nucleus with a secondshell electron. a positron. B. C. C. would explain why Lcapture. most stable nuclei have somewhat more neutrons than protons. The neutrino ionizes the sumounding atoms.. combined with the Pauli principle for the particles in the nucleus. although nonmassive stable nuclei have about the same number of neutrons as protons. The secondshell electrons are easily removed from the atom. D. B. The second shell has greater energy than the first shell. then there are two likely modes of decay: 0' decay and Kcapture. C. For instance. and the strong force. Atomic dnd Nuciedr Physics 6. and the symbol means that N is greater than or approximately equal to Z. When an atom undergoes Kcapture. several photons are often observed in the vicinity of the event. 112 hours. and a neutrino. When the difference N . which is attractive among protons and neutrons. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . The positron interacts with an electron. decreases by 2 B. in which a neutron converts into a proton. . is extremely rare? A. positrons. C. This often happens in nuclei in which positron decay is forbidden. that is. decreases by 1 C. stays the same D. the firstshell orbital has a nonzero amplitude at the center of the nucleus. Nuclei with a deficit of electrons. when will the level of radioactivity decrease to zero? A.Chdpter 16 . 56 hours. Which of the following. A. f Nuclear physicists say that these nuclei are in a valley o stabiliv. . it is likely that a nucleus will decay by 0.Z is strongly positive.Z during normal beta decay? A. increases by 4 1 Which of the following represents the Kcapture decay . for instance. Many of the things we observe in nuclei can be explained by a balance of these two forces. Which is the best explanation for this? 3. a proton is converted into a neutron. D.Z is only slightly positive or even negative. if true.Z during alpha decay? A. decreases by 4 B. that is. and an antineutrino (which rarely interacts with matter). Kcapture is possible because there is some overlap of the firstshell orbital and the volume taken up by the nucleus. increases by 1 increases by 2 6. The second shell has a vanishing amplitude in the nucleus. A. D. which is the repulsive force among protons. Passage 4 The two dominant forces in the nucleus of an atom are the electromagnetic force. The secondshell electrons cannot be converted to D. D. In Experiment 2. ez. What kind of nuclei would tend to undergo Kcapture? Nuclei with many more neutrons than protons. B. In Kcapture. What happens to N . Electrons in outer shells make transitions to lower shells. B. where N is the number of neutrons and Z is the atomic number. The neutron decays into particles which ionize surrounding atoms. 28 hours. . so that 4. C. What happens to the difference N . because it is energetically unfavorable. an electron. the 1s orbital) combines with a nuclear proton to make a neutron and a neutrino. Nuclei with protons in low energy orbitals. D. Nuclei with more protons than neutrons. 2. When N . an electron from an orbital of the first shell (or Kshell. 5. It will last indefinitely.
effectively destroying cancerous tissue.3 Mev of kinetic energy. with a 2. and 7. 0. expensive. The neutrons will convert hydrogen and oxygen to other elements. 0. The interaction of a boron10 nucleus and a neutron results in the production of an alpha particle with 2. nucleus. 2 4 s ~ m A sample of 2 5 2 ~ fshipped to a hospital. a neutron C. Li Paragraph 3 alludes to nuclear reactions which may be dangerous to normal tissue. It has proven difficult to concentrate 'OB in tumor cells. A.04 moles D.6year halfife. in addition to the alpha particle? A. a significant fraction of it can spontaneously fissions. D . a proton B. according to this paragraph? . 2. C. This sets an upper limit on the flux of neutrons and thus a lower limit on the necessary concentration of 'OB in tumor cells. ' B. and the area is irradiated with slow neutrons. called boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Another problem is finding a significant source of slow neutrons. C. It is important not to use a neutron flux so high that neutrons react substantially with oxygen and hydrogen in normal tissue. boron10 is introduced into tumor cells. In BNCT. One idea involves attaching boron to certain monoclonal antibodies which would recognize antigens on cancer cells. Another idea involves attaching boron to nucleosides. when a slow neutron encounters a 'OB . The neutrons will react with hydrogen and oxygen to produce ionizing radiation. 1 In paragraph 1. The neutrons will react with boron in normal cells. Thus 2 5 2 ~ f be taken to the site where it is needed. Although its main channel of decay is alpha. The neutrons from the fission can be moderated and directed to the area to be irradiated. 2 s 2 ~ k C. The isotope 2 5 2 ~ f been suggested as a source of neutrons.8 years is left. The neutrons have overall zero charge. Nuclear reactors are few. There are several problems with this method.The MCAT Physics Book Passage 5 One strategy in the fight against cancer involves the interaction of neutrons with a particular isotope of boron. The neutrons do not contain any orbitals. producing gamma rays. 4 ~ e D. 0. B. A charged particle with large kinetic energy will lose that energy as it ionizes molecules that it passes by.01 moles of 2 s 2 ~ f How much was shipped to the hospital in the first place? A.08 moles Which reaction shows an example of the spontaneous fission mentioned in the last paragraph? A. A. 160+ 'n+ I3C+ 4 ~ e What is the immediate decay product for the alpha decay of 252 Cf? A.01 moles B.03 moles C. Which of the following is a possibility. The neutrons get captured before they have a chance to ionize anything. not just tumor cells. 256 Fm D. The neutrons will ionize molecules in biological tissue. 0. 252 Cf + 2 S 0 + fIn + 'n ~ Why is it dangerous to have too large a neutron flux? A. 252~s B. In this case the alpha particles disrupt the DNA (among other molecules) of the tumor cells. Why do the neutrons used in irradiation not cause significant ionization and thus radiation damage of normal tissue? D. and has relatively immobile. what particle is created. yielding neutrons. later there are 0. The neutrons are not an elementary p&icle. which tend to be taken up by dividing cells. GO ON TO THE N C PAGE DT .
but its metabolism stops at that point. The key to this procedure is using the isotope "F in FDG. "0 C. A neutron. a gamma particle B. These photons are detected by a ring of detectors circling the person's body.of "0 is to have an activity of 10 mCi at a . Atomic and Nuclear Physics Passage 6 2. . The halflife of ''0 might be too short to record its incorporation into cells. When a 18Fnucleus emits a positron. The isotope "0 would not positron decay when incorporated into a carbon compound. 4. A major advance in image resolution came with computerized axial tomography (CAT). a neutron D. sound B. Glucose with "0 would not be transported into the cells. what must its activity be at the time it is synthesized? A. In the production of this isotope. 1. is introduced into a person's bloodstream. which chemically reacts with the hydrogen gas to form hydrogen fluoride (H ''F). Hexokinase converts FDG into FDG6phosphate. This is used in the synthesis of FDG. A new method is positron emission tomography (PET). An alpha particle. gravitational potential energy In paragraph 3. This can be accomplished by bombarding a target of ' 4 with ~ protons from a cyclotron. The water (with "0) is introduced into the bloodstream. B. A proton. a cyclotron ) accelerates deuterons ( 2 ~ toward a target of I0Ne and &. Detailed information can be obtained as to what capillaries are open or closed and therefore what areas of the brain are active. . which are emitted 180" apart. what particle is produced in addition to the ' 8 nucleus? ~ A. 1'0 B.. 5 If a sample. The first method of imaging the interior of the human body came with the discovery of Xrays in 1895. when a deuteron collides with the 2 0 ~ e . B. we can obtain information about cells which are metabolizing a large amount of glucose. nuclear energy. It then reacts with an electron to form two photons. For instance. ionization C. . and the fluorine may be detected. D. C.Chapter 16 . In the last paragraph. Another use of PET involves the incorporation of the isotope "0 (halflife 122 seconds) into water. I9Ne What is a possible problem of using glucose tagged with l5 O? A. an analog of glucose. A deuteron and a neon nucleus collide to form "F. Thus the original site of the decay can be reconstructed. D. STOP . a proton collides with a 14N nucleus to create ''0 and what other particle? A. Where does the kinetic energy of the positron go as it comes to a stop? A. The cells which are metabolizing a large amount of glucose will have a high concentration of FDG tagged with "F. a method of imaging which combines Xray images from numerous axial viewpoints. since "F is unstable to positron decay (halflife 110 minutes). 60 mCi 6. PET allows us to obtain very precise tomographic information of a specialized nature. or FDG. time 8 minutes after it is created and injected into the body. 3. a proton C. A gamma particle. the positron travels several millimeters before slowing to a stop. In this method. 2fluoro2deoxyDglucose. "Ne D. . Glucose with "0 would be a poison to biological functioning. The analog is incorporated into the cells along with normal glucose by the same carriers. C. an alpha particle What does the "F nucleus become after positron decay? A. D.
Solutions .
~ x 160 .2. You do not need to calculate a second digit. . . . . .. Thus we write 5. In the third step we calculated 2 40/8 = 10. "How much?We have information in mL. . . .1)16 to be about 0. so we add a factor of 4. This is close enough to yield the answer B. But it is surprising how many questions can be answered this way. . We start with the information 1. rchdPter 1 Chapter 1 Solutions I 10 kg in the numerator. so let's start with that.. This gives i 1=1microbe 6x1016g 1. We know this involves the ideal gas equation. 3 C.10uK 0. Now we cut everything down to one digit and quickly multiply.. Here we estimate (1.0821 Latrn 1 1 rnol 16g Ar =3000 1000 mg = 3 mg. . A.02 wlmol 10"molec 1mol We can guess that the amount of time required is proportional to the temperature change desired. O r answer is u close enough for us to realize the correct answer is B. .and we want it in mg.. Here we start with 1 molecule H O Then we can . 2 B. convert to rnol and g: x ~ ) . Most calculations go pretty quickly if you look for these shortcuts. . The question again is. giving To cancel J. so we canjust place a factor of I 323 In the second step above.082 1L atm Now we cancel L and atm. specifically any question in which all the formulas involved are simple proportionalities without unitless proportionality constants.0821Latm 1 1 We can cancel rnol if we think of a connection between rnol and the 16 g Ar. Here we estimated 4 times 8 = 30. Remember. we multiplied numerator and denominator by 100.z 3 g . 110l2 ~ At this point we rejoice. which is close enough to give us an answer. we can use the J from the power the resistor dissipates 2 W = 2 Jls. .1 1012(L6) microbes 6 = 0.08 16 lmolec(6. we want to cancel the units "C. .2 x lo3J k g "C. giving Kmol 2 LlOatm 0.. Thus 1.. . . .1 x 10I2g. giving We want to caacel kg. This is close to choice C. . . because we have seconds in the numerator. so that we write Kmol 2 L lOatm 40g 1 0. B.. we can just place it there at the outset: K rnol 0.. all you need is an answer..Solutions . . Next.2 x lo4microbes = 2000 microbes..2. . Unit analysis takes us to the answer: 1 . . Does this method always work? Clearly you cannot answer every conceivable question by looking at units. . but how do we start a unit analysis? Since we know we want to end up with K in the numerator.
Thus the length decreases by 36%. Next. 15. both s and h increase by a factor of 3. If the radius decreases by a factor of 3. Since m is in the numerator.4. 1. Again. The n in the formula does not make any difference. C .361100). 7 If s increases by a factor of 9. First. the area increases by a factor of 42= 16. B. then T increases by a factor of f i = 2. B. since (1 + 301100) = 1. the period changes by a factor of = 2. so the frequency decreases by 33%. This results in a decrease in frequency f. If 1increases by a factor of 4.67 = (1 . C. If the volume of a sphere decreases by a factor of 27. D. . We rewrite 0. If the radius increases by a factor of 1. Any time spent calculating the value of k is wasted time. 1 . so the answer is B. If it did. 1 .67. so the volume increases by a factor of 4) = 64. then T increases by a factor of & = 2. then its radius must decrease by a factor of 3. The increase in s causes V to increase by a factor of 9. 1 1 . B. there must be a change of 1296 inside the square root. then V increases by a factor of 81. you should try this method with some numbers if it does not make sense to you.The MCAT Physics Book 6.) The circumference increases by a factor of 4 as well. 16. C. the radius increases by a factor of 4 also. In this case. This is a simple proportionality. Since we have (1 + 501100) = 1.3. so the electric field increases by a factor of 9.8. A problem like this is easier if we solve for 1. B. uy it with a few numbers. Since 1is in the numerator. try the problem with numbers to see why the 113 does not matter.32= 1. 3 Since g is in the denominator.69. B 19. then mass P must be larger. 9. T increases if 1does. since 33= 27. A. 14.8' = 0. for there to be a change of 36 in the period. A glance at the answers indicates that B is correct.64. Keep in mind that you need to know how to manipulate numbers like this quickly. C. you do not have to work out the square root.3. 0 If the radius increases by 30%. Thus the answer is A. Of course. 12. 1 .8. and another factor of 3 comes from the h. If the diameter of a circles increases by a factor of 4.201100) = 0.5. I The separation of the plates is unchanged. an increase in m will increase T. 18. if the period is larger for mass P. Do not let the 113 in the formula throw you off. This time there is an r in the formula. D. then then the length is multiplied by 0. (If you do not believe this. that is the same as increasing by a factor of 1. then the diameter decreases by a factor of 3 as well. B. If the period is multiplied by 0. a decrease in g results in an increase in T. the period is multiplied by 1.3. This approach is the most straightforward way to do the problem. Since m changes by a factor of 4. giving Passage 1 A decrease by 20%in the period is equivalent to multiplying the period by (1 . 8. B. Thus the frequency is multiplied by (IS)' = 0.64 = (1 .5. An increase by such a factor is an increase by 69% so the answer is C.331100). but since the radius is squared in the formula. The frequency changes by a factor of 2. We can rewrite 0. then the area increases by a factor of 1 . If g decreases by a factor of 6. Clearly the area increases.
the object changes and the area does not. In order to determine n. That is. C. Choice B involves two experiments in which only the density of the object changes. and q. then the force must increase by a factor of 4. We can eliminate D. D. then an increase by a factor of 4 in v results in an increase by a factor of 4. In choice D. . so an increase in d results in a decrease in E. and q.e the velocity is the only thing that changes.8~ 0.361100). 5. so C is a good choice... .. 2. a factor of 4 in both q. For this question we need to remember that a helium nucleus has two protons (its atomic number on the periodic table).. 3. . and nothing else changes. which increases by a factor of 4.. C. B. a quadratic equation.. if r decreases. In the previous solution. then the force between them is given by If the separation of the plates increases by a factor of 2. so choice B is incorrect. then the force changes by a factor of 22= 4. the equation . As r approaches 0. so it is impossible to isolate the effect of object density. since F does not have a linear relationship with r (that would look like F = kr + c). If r changes by a factor of 2. increases. The voltage V and electric field E are proportional. A. so the bare helium nucleus has twice the charge of a proton. which means that p must be 2. would need to be V = Ed + V. Thus F is = multiplied by 1. D. so B is correct.. 3. . B... . According to the first equation. 3. 5. since F decreases as r increases. . In choice B. since 2. F approaches 0 but never reaches it. . . many input variables are altered between experiments 1 and 6.5 to 3. B.. In choice A. the electric field and the plate separation are inversely related. 4. The force increases by a factor of 16. experiments 4 and 6 both use a steel ball. in the force. Since r is in the denominator. Another way to see this is to solve for r.0 cm2. .25. as r becomes large.We can eliminate A and B immediately. Also. if p is 2. For choice C. area changes from 1.. Choice C is incorrect becaus. is equivalent to a factor of 2 in r. As for choice D.. we need two experiments where everything stays the same except for the area. Concerning choice A.. both A and v change. so A is correct. B. then the force increases. The distance r is multiplied by 1. solve for E in the first equation. = 4. . If this is unclear. which you should do if this discussion was unclear. then the distance r must increase.Solutions .Chapter 1 2. If both balls acquire a charge q. 6. we realized that experiments 4 and 6 have the property that all the input variables stay the same except for velocity v. . experiments 1 and 2 both use a cork ball. A factor of 4 in q. then the electric field decreases by a factor of 2. so we would not be able to tell how much change in F is due to A and how much is due to v.64 = (1 .. If F is to stay the same. Thus the answer is B.. The force decreases by 36%. B. so this choice is incorrect. As for choice A.. .25" = (514)~= (415)' = 0. so that we can investigate the results of a change in area. which is equivalent to F = a?. so that B is the answer. . Thus the force on it is twice as great. .. so that is out. will result in a factor of 16 in F. And the force on the proton decreases by a factor of 2. If the charge on one ball increases by a factor of 4 (from 2 C to 8 C). the force becomes infinite. For C to be correct. .
2.25. Thus the required energy increases by a factor of 4. giving I .As for choice D. . D is multiplied by (0. If A is reduced by 20%. The crosssectional area A is width times height (A = hw). C The easiest way to do this is to solve for D.21. . which is an increase of 44%.44. If Julie increases her speed by 20%. Once p is determined. A. then the required energy increases by a factor of 2' = 4. Julie increases her speed by a factor of 55/50 = 1. Passage 4 1 B. 4. If v increases by a factor of 2. k can be determined by substituting in values Erom either experiment 1 or 2. Comparing Scott's car to Laura's. Thus the required energy is = multiplied by (1. C. so if both h and w increase by a factor of 2. The increase in length does not matter. . then she multiplies her speed by 1.1. ' 3 B.2)~ 1. all the linear dimensions are increased by a factor of 2 (see figure). there is not enough infomation to obtain p or k.8)' = 1.The MCAT Physics Book 4. then A is multiplied by 0. Thus experiments 1 and 2 are sufficient We can exclude choices B and C (not minimum sets). This is an increase of 21%.8. According to the above equation. experiments 1 and 2 could be used to determine p. then A increases by a factor of 4. As for choice A.1' = 1. so the energy increases by a factor of 1. representing an increase by 25%. since the velocity changes and nothing else does. 5.
5. Therefore it is not possible for the net force to be 500 N. From the diagram of the previous solution. we can see that the answer must be slightly larger than 2 m/s and certainly not so large as 2. since the arrows seem to cancel out each other. The mass of the mobile unit does not change just because we transport it to a different place. so its tail is on the tip of the horizontal vector..Solutions . They exert the smallest net force when they are directly opposed to each other. . . . Then we move the bottom vector. C. Again we s&quentiallyplace the tail of one vector on the tip of the previous one.3 d s . The resulting sum is zero (see diagram). . . . To do the numbers. B. Chdpter 2 Chapter 2 Solutions First we move the horizontal vector.. The resulting sum is the arrow from the first tail to the last tip (see diagram). . In the choices. The resulting total is just west of north (see diagram).. . so B is correct.. 3. giving the total 7000 N. . . A. They exert the largest net force when they pull the same direction (see figure). We add the fly's velocity to the car's velocity in order to obtain its total velocity relative to the ground. The choice does not show the fly vector already moved.. If this is unclear. only choice A shows the correct total vector. 6.. We could see this in the diagram anyway. You must do that. We move the fly velocity vector so that its tail coincides with the tip of the car velocity vector.. .. giving 1000 N. . . try drawing a few vector diagrams to get a total of 500 N. . . we use the Pythagorean theorem: . .. . .. so its tail is on the tip of the top vector...
and time. the time interval At = 3 s. write a = AvlAt = (30 m/s . v. Since the car is accelerating uniformly. so we can write the equation: v2 vl =aAt. We want a formula which relates distance. then we need to apply the Pythagorean theorem (see figure): 7. average velocity is v = hldt = 6 mls.5 mls)/lO s = 2 5 m/s2. . + a h ~0. and the initial velocity v. C . S m So wedid not need the value of v. = 0 mls (because it is dropped). A.. 1 . . Other problems will not be so simple. she ends at rest. her initial velocity is zero. A. 0 The net displacement is A = 27 krn = 27.5 m/s. B.You could probably do this without writing down the formula. We want At. v. at all. while we want v to increase by a factor of 3. = 1. velocity. 9. If they pull at right angles. Wecan write the equation (s)' = (3000N' ) + (4000N)' . The key to many problems is making an inventory of what we know and what we want. + v. Again. D. 1 During these 9 s. We know Ay = 10 m. she was accelerating uniformly. Thus we have 13.5 d s . We need the definition of acceleration: 1 . I 14. so we write 8.To do this we need At to decrease by a factor of 3.9. We want to know change of velocity Av.000 m. s The total time is At = 75 min = 4500 s. x Now A is the same.3 m/s2. Since the car is accelerating uniformly. = 5000N. a = . F. we can write v= lf2 (v.The MCAT Physics Book B. Since she starts from rest. C . Thus the .0 m/s2 (approxi1 mately).) = 17. = v. we can . while we know acceleration a = 0.
.05 m/s2. Chapter 2 22. We want x. C.Remember to be careful with the units. Solutions . .3 m. . If we want v. At = 10 s. C. = 3000 km. Thus dr = v. .2 m/s2. . . . 23.2 mls and a = 0. .. . . Also note that the ball travels further than 0.) At = 25 m. so we can calculate I = 15 km. .02 mls2.x.v. . . 26. . a 2 It is important to pay attention to signs in this problem. . 1 m/s2. . If we want to know how long it takes to stop. . . I Here we know that v. a = 1. . B. 20.5 mls2. = a h . v.& + 1 ( ~ t ) ' = 115 m. = 0.. = 0. This is v = drldt. We use the following equation: v2 vl =aAt. 21. B. and At = 500 s.. . Thus x2 = 3015 km. = . . = a 0.. . = 25 mls. .. The net displacement is the difference between final position and initial position. If v increases by a factor of 3. . A. we use the equation: vi = v: +2a&..and At = 5 s. We know a = 4 .4 m up the slope before heading back. . + v.2 mls and a = 4 . The net displacement is obtained from 19. and v2 = 10 mls. Ax. v2 = 0 mls (because it comes to a stop). translating "up" into positive and "decelerating" into negative. A. we add the datum v2 = 0 mls. = 20 m/s. We still use v. Here we have v. so the answer is C. . and At. B. We want an equation which relates v..)lAt = 1. . We can obtain acceleration from its definition: a = (v. 0 5 m/s2. and At = 5 s. We know v. .18. We know v. Thus we have v. but now we have At = 6 s. .5 m/s. then At must decrease by a factor of 3. going 0. x. We obtain the net displacement from Ax = 1/2(v. We know that Ax = x.
the instantaneous slope is zero (see figure). From B to C. This gives the points shown in the second figure. 28. But this does not mean that x returns to the xaxis (as in choice A). eliminating A and C as choices. + v. C. there is area under the curve. 29. Thus A increases by a factor of 3 as well. But in this case x . From point A to point B. so the net displacement is zero. eliminating choices B and D which show a jump in x versus t. Let's keep this in mind. The figure above shows v versus t. . Let's look at the equation 31. C. .)At = 4. The figure shows how successive areas under the curve v versus t result in successive increases in the curve x versus t. there is no area under the graph. speeds up to a cruising speed which it maintains. Just this description alone might lead us to recognize C as . From C to D. which is shown only in choice C.4 m. Between points D and E. so dx is positive for every interval Ar. Between A and B. but clearly the slope is always positive (and probably constant). we can say that the velocity starts large and decreases to a stop. the answer. so B is correct.. and x. I To obtain the acceleration. then slows to a stop. the instantaneous slope is zero. giving B as v an answer. We can obtain v versus t by looking at the instantaneous slope at various times. so the acceleration jumps back down to zero. Here a is constant and dt increases by a factor of 3. This means x is increasing. the velocity goes to zero. so the displacement is zero.The MCAT Physics Book We calculate Ax = 112 (v. A. Then it increases again. This means that no more increments get added to x. B. The figure in the problem shows a car which starts from rest.x. so an increase in At yields an increase in v. and we want to pick the best graph for x versus t. B. The following figure is x versus t. are the same. Between C and D. After E. the difference between final and initial position. A B C LA& D E t 32. In words. Another way to see this is to rewrite the equation: Av =a&. and all the choices show this. we need to take the instantaneous slope at various points in the second figure. Between points B and C. 33. The net displacement is Ax = x. there is an increasing amount of area under the curve. the instantaneous A B C D E I slope jumps to a constant value. Note that the fact that v is always positive translates into the fact that x is always increasing. We want an equation involving velocity and time and possibly acceleration. the acceleration is negative. and dx goes to zero.
. The later flat portion shows the constant velocity while going forward.. is simply zero. since the velocity starts and ends with the same value.. . . 6 The car is backing up at the beginning of the problem. so C is the correct choice. C. . we will have to think some more. A... taking instantaneous o slopes. choice B shows a sketch of x versus t. Thus A and At are in a v constant ratio. the acceleration is zero. perhaps find another equation. A. If one of the choices expresses this fact. so the velocity is negative.... the acceleration (Avldt) is a constant 1. The car accelerates exactly twice: while it slows to a stop going backward (positive acceleration) and while it speeds from a stop going forward (positive a acceleration). We can also work this problem by taking the choices and working backward. (If not. x = We apply the formula A = v.. .. The net x displacement is A = 1. . . B.. The average velocity is v.. The flat portion in the center of choice A is when the car is stopped.. Taking instantaneous slopes of v versus t gives an acceleration which'is constant and negative until the cusp.) D is the correct answer. When the c r is cruising at constant velocity. Thus B is the best answer. D.Solutions .. even for the intervals near t = 1. and a = Avldt. 6.5 s. then that would be the solution. . 37.2 m/s2.. B... Since acceleration is positive. = drldt. . The net change in velocity Av = v2 . 3 . . . By the way.v.1.35 m . . 5. 4. Chapter P .. B. the vector points in the forward direction (according to the sign convention of the passage). 1 B. where the velocity is zero...5s interval in the chart. This is shown in choice B. The initial velocity is just that at the beginning of the experiment. . p ' 9 34. Uniform acceleration means a is constant. The only choice to show this is A..Af + 112a(dt)~ (0 mls)(4 s) + 112 (10 mls2)(4 = 80 m. For any 0.35 m = 0 m. t no increment added / This question consists entirely of words... We apply the definition of acceleration: 35. in order t find which would produce the given v versus t. but let us write an equation anyway. Then it is constant and positive.. Passage 1 1 A.
. Notice the difference between this problem and the previous one. the object falls 35 m. 4.SO we write m = g(t. This confirms our intuition that the distance fallen is greater for the later time interval. B. the object falls 15 m. since the lead and iron balls fall at the same rate.while from 3 to 4 s. ) . We can calculate the height at the four clock readings: I Thus from 1 to 2 s. Choice D is irrelevant. Since velocity starts at zero. and the acceleration (since we know its value): Av=gAt. Let's be clear about this by writing an equation. Choice B is a true statement.t . Choice C is a good candidate. 3. If the time interval At increases by a factor of 3. C. C. = 0S . we can eliminate D. The instantaneous slope for the graph of v versus t must be a constant g = 9.?he graph to which this applies is C. and At is the same for f the two situations (both have A = 1 s). . Choice A is nonsense. what happens to Ax? Apparently it increases by a factor of 9. but it cannot be an adequate explanation for the fact.8 m/s2. 7. The velocity increases at a constant rate throughout the fall.. The acceleration g is constant.The MCAT Physics Book The equation which involves change in velocity Av and time is the definition of acceleration: : We use the equation involving Ax. Thus Av is the same. At.since the passage mentions air resistance as a caveat. Thus Av = gAt. The equation involving Av is the definition of acceleration (see solution to problem 2 above). AV We have V. and the force of gravity is presumably different on those two balls as well.
and mass. 1 Since the object is moving with uniform motion. C. or changing direction. . D. Certainly he does not push himself forward (what would that even mean?). The sum. 6. but it is a result of the thud law of motion. in which the downward force of gravity is balanced by the upward force of the air drag. there is no way for forces to be balanced.. A. Since the car is not undergoing uniform motion (it is slowing). . 1 . then the acceleration increases by a factor of 2.. Since we are looking for the change in acceleration. a force balance on an object implies it has constant velocity. the net force points in the opposite direction the car is going..... . So choice B is correct. acceleration. Since there are exactly two forces. In case 1. . which are balanced. The vertical . We calculate (from Chapter 2) A = x 112 (Omls + 20mls) (12s)= 120m. 2. giving a magnitude of 700 N. We calculate a = (20 mls . The same method for case 2 yields a magnitude 100 N. B. This may seem strange. we can write this equation a = Flm. we move the tail of cBto the tip of FA figure). slowing down. If you chose B.  10.67 mls2)= 8. . we conclude that the object is not undergoing uniform motion.. We calculate F W = ma = (60 kg) (0. In fact. so it is speeding up. .... A. (This was a review problem. it has a net force on it. C.forces. . . pm. The tiger pushes the ground backward.Chapter 3 Chapter 3 Solutions Case 1 1 . If the mass decreases by a factor of 2. the forces on the object must be balanced..5 mls . even though there is no "active" agent creating the force.. .is drawn from the first (see tail to the last tip.Solutions .) We calculate a = (3.67 mls2. But none of the choices can be definitely concluded. C. . . . 9. . and it is due to the ground pushing forward. .67 d s 2 .. We want an equation which connects force. The one horizontal force accelerates the tiger.1. C. think of the example of the paratrooper falling in question 1. From the first law of motion. there must be a net force on the object.5 m/~)l3 = 0. Since there is only one force. Case 2 Case 3 D. 3.. 40 N. which is choice C. since that is the only thing touching him. This is F = ma. . . There is then an equal force of the ground on the tiger pushing forward. .0 mls)l(12 s) = 1. For case 3. . The magnitude of the net force is given by Fm= ma = 167 N. we need to apply the Pythagorean theorem to obtain a magnitude 500 N. are gravity (down) and the normal force of the ground (up). From the first law of motion. From this we conclude that the force of gravity and the drag force due to the air are exactly balanced. But it has to be the ground pushing the tiger forward. s 7 A.. the only way for them to be balanced is thal they be of equal magnitude in opposite directions.
which pulls up. This is just the first law of motion. A. There is the force of gravity and the tension in the string. then you need to study the first law of motion again. We obtain the acceleration a = (0 m/s . B. balance each other). We draw a diagram (see figure). B. We include the vertical forces of gravity and the normal force. The sign indicates the net force is down. We cannot calculate the acceleration using the methods of the previous chapter. . Now we can calculate the acceleration a = Fnc(m= 2 Nl0. This is close to B. 1 . Thus we can find acceleration a = FnJm = 0.0010 N = 0. B.The MCAT Physics Book 17. There is nothing touching the truck except the ground (the girl has already let go). 14. 13. From this we obtain the magnitude of the acceleration a = Fwlm = 26 mls2. C . We draw a diagram showing the forces on the mass (see figure). This force is the drag force. we can call east positive. If F increases by a factor of 3 and m increases by a factor of 3. since this is also the net force.0. The net force (with down as positive) is Fm= (0.0015 N . but there must be another force because the truck is changing velocity. pointing backward. we write a = Flm. 15. which add to zero (that is. We can obtain the net force by applying the Pythagorean theorem. then a remains the same. The net force is 13000N. 18.0005 N.0005 kg = 1 m/s2.Thus.0005 Nl0.6 N = 2 N. We draw a diagram (see figure).Thus the total mass is given by m = FJa = 9001(1/7) kg = 6300 kg. Since she is traveling at constant velocity. We draw a diagram (see figure).) We want to know the magnitude of the drag force.3300) kg = 3000 kg. the net force on her is zero. but we can find a net force. B. 9 We can calculate an estimate of acceleration a = AvlAf = (1 m/s)/(7 s) = 1/7 m/s2.5 rn/s2. If you chose C. Thus the force of the floor against the woman's feet has the same magnitude as the force of gravity on her. As in question 12. (There is no forward force.8 kg) (10 m/s2). We draw a diagram showing the forces on the woman. so Fnel= 0.8 kg = 2. the net force is Fm= ma = 12 N. The mass of the rocket case is then (6300 . and the forces are balanced. in magnitude.15 m/s)/5 s = 3 mls2. In one dimension.
= 2. Force A is the upward contact force of ground on the table. Gravity acts. . so the net force must be horizontal.Solutions . .. .. arrow D.Combining these.. 24. We also have information about F. we obtain Forces A and B represent the normal force and gravitational force on the stove. then time increases by a factor of 21. Choice B is not a true statement. because the car has an acceleration vector pointing backwards. 28. If these were not balanced.) path if there were no gravity 23. D. . The vertical forces balance.. We can use F = ma and d = v. The acceleration is horizontal..) The force which accelerates the car must be a force of some agent acting on the car. that is. C.. The gravitational force acts on the stove. hence the frictional force. so B is correct The Sun's as gravity changes the course of M r . 25.. (See figure. B. and force C is the downward contact force of the table on the ground. . so that (third law) the road exert.. by the first law of motion. which states that the ac~eleration is proportional to net force. A. The Sun's gravity acts on Mars.70 N = 5 N. D .30 N . . Forces A and C are paired. There is certainly gravity. A. .. into the circular orbit. a force on the car. 26. So if m increases by a factor of 4. . so that fact narrows the choices to C and D. We need an equation which connects time and mass (which differs from A to B). The net horizontal force is Fnct= 105 N . . . . so B is correct. The paired force is the gravitational force of the stove on the Earth. . . The correct choice is C. (See figure. Choice C is not even a correct statement of the second law of motion. of course. so the car is speeding up. What else touches the planet? Nothing. The net force is forward.. . The answer is B. and d. . the stove would not undergo uniform motion (first law). B. It continues going forward for a while because that is what cars do.. The force diagram is shown in the solution for problem 3. therefore C is correct... nie car exerts a force on the road. What else is touching the arrow? Nothing.. First we draw a diagram (see figure).. and there is an upward force from the road to balance i t There must be another force.At + 112 a(&)=.. Chdptcr 3 20. so A is correct. . Choice D concerns two forces which act on different objects. pulling it toward the Earth. v. There is no force pushing the car forward.which would be a straight line away from the solar system.
v.5 m/s2. The ratio A to Av does not have any obvious meaning. B.1 m/s . .20 m.2 m/s). if possible.6 X lo6N. (See figure. caused by mass m. = 0.06 s . but v increasing with time indicates only that the ship is speeding up. 0. C.09 m 0. The things touching mass M are the table and the string. and we have At = 0. we will use the second approach.  . Only the table and the string are touching mass Passage 1 1 D.86 X lo7N g force is given by Fnp=F(2.9 s. B. and comparisons. The only thing touching mass m is the string. Passage 2 1 A. Now we can look at the interval from t = 0. Gravity certainly acts on m.2 s . 4.0. but M does not know or care what the other end of the string is connected to. Or we can obtain acceleration Trom a = FJM. hence having positive v acceleration. We draw a force diagram (see figure). 3.0 X 106 kg (300 s) (3400 kgls) = 1. obtaining a = AvlAt = (0. From the table we can see that equal jumps of time (for example. The net M = 2.0 m/s) I (0. M. Choice A is not even a true statement.0 m/s. C. We want to find Ax.2 s to 0. Choice B is a true statement. and that this rate is fairly constant.0 s) = 0. x Choice C is correct. It seems as if acceleration would be a useful quantity to calculate. The correct choice is D. The ratio of A to At is the acceleration.) 2. the acceleration is increasing. we have vavg= Addt = (0. so let's choose the interval from t = 0.0.0 to 0. It only cares that there is a force due to a string which is directed to the right.2 s.0 X 106 kg) (10 m/s2) = 8. B.15 mls. such as those in choice C. Thus we obtain acceleration a = FnJM= 4. From this we calculate A = 1 2 x 1 0.5 m/s2.3 m/s2. so if this ratio is increasing. 3. . Since we do not want acceleration over an interval (like 0 to 90 s) but at an instant (t = 0 s). By definition. so the answer is C. 2. Choices A and B are irrelevant.4 s) result in equal jumps of velocity (0. so B is correct. This is consistent with the statement that AvlAt is a constant.0 m)1(0. in some sense. We have encountered two ways of calculating acceleration: We can get the acceleration over an interval by calculating a = AvlAt.but the string has no tension in it. are meaningless if the units do not match.0 X 106kg. It is true that the tension in the string is. The passage states that 3400 kg of fuel are burned each second.0 s to 0. or that acceleration is constant.1 m/s to 0. A.0. C.The MCAT Physics Book 6. The remaining mass after 300 s 6 2. and a = = 0.0 s) = 0. 5.9 s.
there is reason to assume the Force is constant. Thus C is correct. .... . A is ruled out. and acceleration is a = FJM. In addition.) .. 5. .. according to the third law of motion. ... Chapter 3 According to the passage. In order for the shuttle to accelerate. there must be a force on it by some agent. . and that is what creates the force which accelerates it forward. . . This narrows the choices to A and C. . The connection of force. so if M decreases. B. .. . the mass of the ship decreases as it bums its fuel.. since the rate of fuel burning is appximately constant. The shuttle pushes off from the exhaust.Solutions . The thirdlawpair force must be a force of the shuttle on that agent. mass.. .... . Since there is little air in space. (See figure... then a increases. .. .
decreases by a factor of 2. The factor of d2in the denominator indicates that if d increases by a factor of 2. The mass of Mars is 0. B. increases by a factor of 3' = 9.= ~ m . On Earth (or on any planetary body). Since we have F.. . So we . The mass of an object does not change just because you transport it somewhere. = ~m. changes by a factor of 512... so we divide by (IS)'. then F.= m equal to F.04. D.. The fact that the stars revolve about their combined center of mass is irrelevant for calculating the force of gravity between them. then F.. yielding about 0. B. This comes from setting F. giving us 40 rn/s2. then Fgr.1 times that of Earth. l dif one of the masses decreases by a factor of 2. and D. 3. by a factor of 5. so a factor of 0. since the acceleration increases if radius decreases. If m. (We expect an increase. If d decreases by a factor of 3..5)'. The equation we need for this problem and the next is where d is the distance between the Earth and the Moon. we get the acceleration due to gravity on the surface by assuming that gravity is the only force acting on an object.The MCAT Physics Book Chapter 4 Solutions We only need to work as far as At2 in order to eliminate choices B. B. 8.pd?.6 m/s2 for the same reason that freefall objects have a = 9.decreases by a factor of 2' = 4.. we have 9. then F.8 m/s2 here on Earth. Objects in free fall on the Moon have a constant acceleration due to gravity 1. C.5.5 times greater.. That depends only on their masses and the distance between their centers. then the acceleration due to gravity would be divided by (0. The weight of the block on the Moon is an exact g = 20 N. = m . 5..1 in the numerator brings the acceleration down to 4 m/s2.) But the mass of Mars is 0.1 of Earth's mass. A. In this case.. where r is the set F = ma equal to F. 2. Another factor comes from the distance from the Sun to Mars.. This time the relevant equation is A. decreases by a factor of 2. See Example 2 in Section A. radius of the planet: A. so that a = g. and m2 increases . Now if the radius of the planet were multiplied by 0. analogy to its weight on Earth: F. I hope this one did not fool you.. 6.. m . 4. where d is the distance from the Sun to that planet. so that is a factor of 0. C. which is 1.= mg. .1.
= 0.5 m/s. B. Since there is no horizontal force.) We draw a diagram including all the forces (see figure)..) 8to figure out which choice is  a. but a larger acceleration due to gravity. so we have If the new planet has the same mass as Earth.. gravity is the only force. we choose the magnitude 20 mls. we use the equation A = v. . . Since we have a force diagram... we have V l Y = 0 Ids. we don't really have to do a calculation.. .125 m/s2. since we know that the horizontal velocity is constant as long as there are no horizontal forces on the opener.. That's the third law of motion.. Because the opener is traveling horizontally when it leaves Barbara's hand. . . Since we want to know Ay. Since weight is the force of gravity on an object.At = 1... the weight is zero. The acceleration is a = (0 m/s . down. Since nothing is touching the ball. (We so I 18... Once we have the acceleration. then?) Certainly there is the force of gravity. 17. we can calculate a mass m = Flu = (0.= mg = (0. Since we are looking for radius.. 125 rn/s2) = 0.the answer is B. As the ball just leaves the table. it is going 1. But horizontal motion does not imply a horizontal force (see the first law of motion).+ ayAt= 20 mls... There is nothing else touching the can opener. so v.Solutions .64 kg. 20. .5 mls.. we worked out the surface acceleration due to gravity of a planet. Of course. so we want an equation that involves these quantities.0. Since only positive choices are listed. Since the initial velocity is horizontal. If g increases by a factor of 3. there is constant horizontal motion. = 0 m/s. .. B. we have v... A. Thus we have Ax = v.Pt + 112 a.5 mls..5 rnls)l(4 s) = 0..2 kg) (10 mls2)= 2 N. = v. C. 22. (At)2= y 20 m. .. (At)' = 3 m.= 10 mls2and At = 2 s. In problem 7. A. (Why does the Moon in its orbit move so much more than the Earth.. so gravity is the only force. = 1. and there are no massive planetary bodies around. . We can calculate v. then the radius must be smaller. we now inventory 0 the horizontal information. Thus F. we next need to inventory the information relevant to the vertical motion. . (We have seen enough of these problems to realize v. .. We want to relate acceleration and time..:so we write v2.08 N)/(O. 19. then At decreases by a factor of 1 21. B. =*v. then r changes by a factor of don't need to know right... We have a. And if a changes by a factor of 3. Since we are looking for Ax.. We have ax= mls2 and v.) We can use The problem asks for v2.. = 1. &. + a..At + 1/2a.5 m/s horizontally.(This was a review question. Chapter 4 The Earth's gravitational pull on the Moon is the same as the Moon's on the Earth. we can solve for it.
Since gravitational force is given by F. follows: as 28.25m. 27.5 s)' = 0. A. then ( t ' = (0. and since Barbara's coins have four times the mass of Alice's coins. 25. A. 24. If choice A is right. Since the ball simply drops the height of the table. B. so we inciude the tension force of the handle T and the upward force of the ground N. B. we have enough information to calculate We calculate T. The vertical displacement for the fall is certainly the same. .25 m (choosing "up" to be positive). let's draw a diagram showing all the forces on the wagon body. There is no horizontal force on the ball.The MCAT Physics Book 30.. For vertical information. we have a. We can calculate First. then (At)2= (0. The vertical acceleration a.5 mls. There are four forces on the wagon.. so in the equation Ay = v. If choice B is right. the force on them is four times as large. The problem mentions friction. C .(Do not feel the need to work A) every arithmetic problem to its end.8 rnls2 down. 31. In addition. for freely falling bodies near the surface of the Earth the vertical acceleration is 9. so we inciude that as well. I We do not really need to take the square root to figure out the answer.= 0 m/s2 and v t x= 1. and for all bodies vertical motion is independent of horizontal motion. A.12 s2(wrong).At + 1/2ay( ~ t )all . We want Ax. Since we now have At. is the same for both coins. = mg. we have Ay = 1. Barbara's coins retain their horizontal velocity. which is not enough to obtain At. We can redraw the force of the handle as the sum of two components. 29. parameters are the same. The acceleration of Alice's coins is a constant 9. as shown in the second figure. This ~ the question combines the two ideas in this chapter.25 s2. B. A. . The handle and the ground are touching the wagon.8 mls2 down. is the same for both coins.) 26.26 s)' = 0. Both coins have the same vertical velocity. For horizontal information.. we have Ay = 1. namely. and the initial vertical velocity v. as is the acceieration of Barbara's.
We calculate T. The problem is idealized. . which is F. C. For At. This is the same way that a passenger moves along with a swiftly moving train. B. as the problem states. the falling is another. so a = 0 m/s2 and Fn. B. If "up" is positive. 2. The force diagram is shown. .. he starts from rest (v. The vertical component of the gravitational force is the magnitude of the force. . T. but without any information about a horizontal force. down. then they have the same acceleration (about 1. 41. A. Ay =7. = T sin 30". See the example in the text. .= mg. C. . . up. Concerning choice C. The rope exerts a tension force. D. = 0 mls) and ends up running v2 = 5 m/s.. which can cause only a normal force and possibly a frictional force. there is nothing pushing the ball to the right.. then without any horizontal forces.3 m/s at time t = 0 s. .= 0 N. . . 3 . . For the student cunning along the roof. There is the force of gravity. Concerning choice D. . but if there is no air. then the net force is given by F. the ball is going to the right at 0. The problem states the wagon is nonaccelerating (velocity is a constant 2 d s ) . 34. A. We can calculate the acceleration a = FnJm = 1000 NI50 kg = 2 mls2. it will continue to go 0.. .. since it simply retains its initial motion. . Choice D adds in a leftward force. and the normal force.= 4000 N . We use & = x 1/2(v1+ v2)& to obtain At = 2 s. Note that the bale is not in free fall. 6 We don't have enough information to add up the force vectors. of course they do not fly off. as follows: On Earth. .6 m/s2). 37. Since the problem states there is no friction. and we want At.. D. The acceleration on the roof is one problem. which the problem says is not there. .2m. Chdpter 4 40. We have A = 5 m.(500 kg) (10 mls2) = 1000 N. but they move along with the Moon in the same way that the grapefruit moves along with the ship. so its horizontal component is zero. Passage 1 1 D. . . 42. .3 m/s forever. B. . there is no way to calculate a horizontal acceleration or a horizontal change in velocity. . choice B is correct. . we need the vertical information: 38. .Solutions 33. If.. We have used a negative sign for gravity since it points down. . of course.. . The gravitational force is vertical. The only thing touching the ball is the floor. the hammer lands first because of air resistance. but we don't need to.. Gravity is acting on the bale. . B. . 35. presumably of friction.
so we have to obtain (At12 = 1. 6. it is the roof which exerts the force forward. h + 1/2a. there is no other force. Surprisingly. Considering the two situations in the problem. The mass of the two planets is the same.4 = 2 . A. . All during the fall the student has the same horizontal velocity 5 rnls. Choice B correctly states that the force of gravity between near things is greater than between far things.1. the = horizontal displacement is Ax = v . The passage states that M for a neutron star is the gme as M for the Sun. C. We know gravity pulls down. 3. Since the student's fall takes At = 1.1. . and these forces add to zero. 3. 2.is greater by a factor of (50.000)~. 5. there must be a force accelerating the student forward (to the right).4 . We know gravity pulls down and the roof pushes up. Choice A is not relevant to the things which happen 2000 km away from the neutron star.1.44 s2. B. .4 = 3.We can eliminate choice A.(~t)~ 6 m.43= 1. The arithmetic is spelled out so that you can see how you can do a lot of fast estimating and still get a reasonable answer.2 s. where M is the mass of the body. That means a. Concerning choices C and D. The acceleration due to gravity is given by D. Even on questions which involve much less arithmetic. the surface gravity of the neutron star is also irrelevant.000 times smaller. and r is the radius. we know the mass of the neutron star is the same as the mass of the Sun.4 . Next we estimate 1. you should always be looking for shortcuts. His feet push backwards on the roof. B. This difference is enough to pull a body apart. Since nothing else touches the student. so B is right. The force due to gravity is Fgm" =GMm Passage 2 d2 ' 1 A.The MCAT Physics Book We use the equation Here we have estimated a = 3. The distance d is the same for the two situations. and choice C is too large. In addition. and the roof (by the third law of motion) pushes forward on him. We estimate density as follows: where G is the gravitational constant. but r is 50. The force of gravity does not depend on the size of the bodies but on the distance from center to center.
we have two forces.5 s) = 1 mls. except the problem mentions that wind exerts a horizontal force. then go back and read the section on the first law of motion. If you chose C. We want At. .5 s. due to two things touching the crate. = FJm = (6 N)/(3 kg) = 2 d s 2 . = 10 d s 2 and v.. From trigonometry we know Since we know a. but we can use a. and At.. At the top of the orange's path we have v.. We want a. B.. 5.. . . + a p t and obtain At = 0. . The force diagram is shown. First we draw a force diagram... vertical 2. so we write v. . We don't have enough information for the equations of Chapter 2. = v. Nothing else is touching the orange. Chdpter 5 Chapter 5 Solutions The force diagram should include gravity. .= v.. We have a. + a.. This gives us choice C. . 3... B. The horizontal forces are equal in magnitude so that their vector sum is zero. pointing down... . In addition to gravity. normal and tension. so we add that.. .Solutions . B. = F.. C. = 5 d s .. G. Since this is vertical information. .. .= 6 N. We get this from the same diagrams shown in the solution for 7. First we draw a force diagram (see figure).dt = 0 + (2 d s 2 )(0.. . C. The horizontal information we have is v. This problem has those key words "at constant velocity". v. The only vertical force is due to gravity. = mg = 30 N. = 0 d s .. so B is correct. There is no friction. so F. . = Gcos 30".. C. .. = 0 and F. . 6.. let's see what other vertical information we have. . 4. . we can find v2. which means there is a force balance on the shoe..... B. The gravitational force vector can be separated into two components (see figure).
0 m/s2 18. There is no friction (which would act to the left).The M C A T Physics Book 9. 14. we need to consider all the vertical forces. So.= (Fn>. and we obtain T . 15. In the last problem. The acceleration of the sled is given by a.C.. 10. the net force is zero because of the information we have on the acceleration. 3 We use the following diagram to obtain the vertical component of the stick's force. The above equation becomes 1 . 1 O=NmgF.mg .). sin 30" . The books are following a straight path... and Fy= 17 N. so the vertical acceleration a. = 0. = F. Using trigonometry.. and this net force is the horizontal component F. we obtain N .. we draw the normal force pointing up and the force due to the stick pointing downlright. so we write This time we take the sum of parallel forces ("horizontal"). D. If we take the sum of all the perpendicular forces (in the text we called them "vertical").C = 0. the driver pulls her car door into the path of the books./F. 2 There are two things touching the sled: the ground and the stick. we obtain F. B. = 0. We can tell from the force diagram that there is a net force. Thus the answer is B.. which tells us that the acceleration is zero. = sin 30" Fk & . C. II. in addition to gravity pointing down. Again. (FneJy N . By turning the wheel.. D. We can obtain the vertical component of the net force by looking at the force diagram. however.= (F. The negative sign denotes the "down.C = (F.. = ma.). As we noted.). So B is the correct answer (see figure). Thus N . is zero. = Here we have used F. A. But we know that the sled is not moving up or down. we talked about the vertical component of the net force being zero.. giving the impression that the books have a force on them. we know that (F.. Using the same diagram as in solution 13.lm = 2. B. ward" direction of G But the crate is moving at a constant velocity. And from second law of motion. B. giving choice C. 16. In order to obtain the normal force. we know the horizontal component of the net force is zero because the crate is moving at constant velocity. 1 .F. A.= cos 30°. I F. = mg and have chosen "up" to be positive. we obtain F. and the net force is zero.. B..
. 25.. N . According to the first law of motion. . there is no longer a centripetal acceleration.25 m/s2)= 2700 N. then there would no longer be a force to affect the velocity vector. The direction of the velocity vector is always changing but not its magnitude. A. = 0. but since the wheel is rotating at constant speed. we know there is a centripetal acceleration and a centripetal force.. The velocity vector would be constant (first law of motion). . .. The tangential acceleration is zero. = Once we know the acceleration of the car. There is no reason to assume there is a force acting forward on the car.. B. ~ u t w know that a. The car would simply slide straight forward into the other lane.... N . Choice C includes a force in the forward direction. = 0. there is no tangential acceleration and no reason to assume there is a tangential force. . B.Mgcosa. . We know there is a net force toward the center of the wheel. the velocity vector is pointing in the direction of the stopper's motion. However. . Not so. let us consider the vertical component of Fna G. B.). perhaps you were thinking that motion in the forward direction implies there must be a force in the forward direction. From the diagram we = obtain (F~. and we divide gravity into components (see figure). 20.. m) 30. Hence A is correct.. The centripetal force is provided by the string. . we can'conclude that the net force F. C.. We choose "horizontal" and "vertical" to be parallel and perpendicular to the surface. and the acceleration vector points toward the center of the circle.. Once there is no longer a centripetal force. Because the car moves in a circle. 23.). Gravity and the normal force add to zero..= ma = (1200 kg) (2. because the beetle is moving in a circle. consider what would happen if there were no friction between the tires and the road. Since the acceleration vector a" points toward the center.Solutions . m) Since the normal force is "vertical". so B is correct.because the crate is not e moving up or down.. C... and we have O= To see that the centripetal force is due to friction. the velocity vector would be constant. 22.= v2/r = (3 m/~)~/(4 = 2. . since the speed is constant.. If you chose C. The acceleration is given by a. This implies (F. C. B. .. 28. At the moment shown in the diagram.5 = 8 m/s2. respectively. B.. This narrows the choices to A and C. A The acceleration can be calculated a = v2/r= (2 m/~)~/(0. . If the string were to break. .25 m/s2. 29.. N = Mgcosa. because the stopper is moving in a circle. that is. the velocity vector is changing direction.. so this narrows our choices to A and C. which is a force of tension. A. Chdpter 5 19.= ma' points toward the center as well. We draw a diagram. especially since the tangential acceleration is zero (because of the car's constant speed). .. 27. 21.. A.. we necessarily know the net force on the car: F.. . including the three forces on the crate.Mgcosa.
is increased by a factor of 4.2nm). D. We can find the centripetal acceleration a . It may seem surprising that there is not a force forward. I Passage 1 B. (F. The net force is given by F . 5.. Adding the two vectors together gives the result B (see figure).()~= T . 39.= v 2 / ~ . maintaining the same velocity vector as it had when the gravity was cut off.. C . that is. his acceleration vector points toward the center of rotation. D. acceleration is centripetal. The gravitational force for the two men is the same. if we know his velocity and the radius of . For this to be so. It seems that D is the correct answer.= then we can obtain from the diagram MZi. if the distance in the denominator is less. Each day the man travels a distance given by the circumference of the Earth C = 2w R. A. It would point the opposite way if he were slowing down. and the only . The force inward is due to friction between the runner's shoes and the track. The frequency is the number of revolutions per unit of time. then v is doubled. According to Newton's law of gravitation.. giving a velocity 10wm/s. If there is no gravity. 4. The tangential acceleration is in the same direction he is going.. v = 2 z Rf. .. Each revolution represents a trip of length 2w R. C. .= ma.. only at the beginning of the race when the runner is accelerating. and Jupiter follows a straight line at constant speed. where we have taken the positive direction to be up the incline. C.= . and he experiences a tangential acceleration because he is speeding up. 2. When she is going at a constant speed. B...The MCAT Physics Book 32. and each revolution is the circumference 2 n r = 2 K (0. she expends effort pushing down with the foot in contact with the track and moving it back fast enough. 34. then the gravitational force is greatex. T = M 33.Mgsina. Since the scale reading on a rotating Earth is less than the gravitational force. need the mass of the man and the centripetal we acceleration. = v2/r. Since the man is traveling in a circle at constant speed. so we have a = a . 37. In order to calculate the centripetal force F. then there is no net force. Iff is doubled.. The problem with choice D is that we can calculate the velocity once we know the period and radius (as in the previous problem). SO a. and so does the net force vector. 3. and thus net force. = v2/r. the magnitude of the gravitational force must be greater than the magnitude of the force of the ground. the correct answer is A. So the velocity is the total distance per time. the Earth. A. The acceleration is In one second the centrifuge sample undergoes 50 revolutions. B. 3. Thus in one second the sample travels 50 (0.1 m). since the runner is actively running. There is a horizontal acceleration. If we consider the "horizontal" component of Fw. C. . The person experiences a centripetal acceleration because he is moving in a circle. . B. ma. gsina. 35. 6 On the other hand the centripetal acceleration is a .
= 0. since N is not mg. We draw a diagram with all the forces. Since we know cos 30" is somewhat less than 1. We also include gravity..) ~is zero.... 2....)~ and = 0. so that Since only the steel is touching the copper block. F. We draw a diagram showing all the forces... is zero. we know that the normal force is somewhat less than mg = 20 N. . In order to find the normal force. The problem states that the block's velocity is constant..... which contributes the normal force and friction. Chapter 6 Chapter 6 Solutions We can also get an expression for ( F ... 5.= &N. which contributes tension. C.. .. so we write But (eel)..... Thus we must have ( F .. We can read the horizontal component of the tension from the diagram. and the vertical acceleration is zero (F. ) ~ = 0.Gy. is ma. Since the normal force is vertical. implying 4.. We do not really need to do the last few calculations..... I Since the surfaces are not slipping. we look at the "vertical" forces. I But ( F . The two things touching the block are the ground. C. and divide the gravitational force into two components. We choose axes which are tilted compared to the level ground. so let's look at the force diagram again. the friction is static friction.4r* x 1 B. we add all the vertical forces to obtain (F.. Thus . since a. Choices C and D mention the tension T.. Our first thought for this question is the definition. So we have N=Gy = mg cos 30" 3.. D.). the only forces besides gravity are the normal force and friction.'( ) = N . because the block is not changing its velocity up and down... .Solutions .. but none of the answers corresponds to this.. and the rope.. ) ~ from the diagram: ('Es)x = T . .
Since there is force balance on the block. even if the surface is vertical.The MCAT Physics Book Since the block is not moving.= 0.so the normal force is equal in magnitude to F .which is given in the problem. ..is less than this. 13. By definition.. I 1 . 14. But from the diagram we know that 1 12..58. and F. (F.= 1000 N. Thus we have N = F.04 N.08 N. Since the washer is not moving.)~= 0. it is not accelerating. We know this friction must be less than the quantity 4 N in order for the friction to be sufficient to keep the @ surfaces from slipping. and the ground exerts a normal force and a frictional force. there is no slipping. Force balance allows us to conclude that the frictional force is equal to the gravitational force (as in question 10). so that we have 0 = (Fnet). The man is pushing to the right. C. The friction in this problem is static friction. that is. The gravitational force is simply FP.2) (0.)~ = 0. The man would have to exert a force in excess of the maximum possible friction.. Since we have j = (0. and we have (F. Did you calculate Ffr= = 800 N? Remember.= mg = (0. The wall and the pencil touch the card. The problem states that the pencil exerts a horizontal force (see diagram). First we draw a diagram with all the forces. the acceleration axis zero.N. Since we are assuming the card is not moving. B.. The normal force is perpendicular to the surface and the frictional force parallel to it. Force balance tells us that the man's force and the frictional force are equal in magnitude. its acceleration is zero. A. so F.. we must have (F..4 N) = 0. The actual static friction forcecan have any magnitude from zero up to this maximum. D. this is &N the calculation for the maximum static friction. we have p= Ff)N = (10 N)/(17 N) = 0.004 kg) (10 m/s2) = 0.)~ = Ft. so their magnitudes must be equal. = mg sin 30" First we draw a diagram including all the forces.= 700 N. I = 800 N . and F.)== Fw. But 1 (F.. and the wall exerts a normal force and a frictional force.G. 15. 9. From the diagram we can see that the normal force and the gravitational force add to zero. and we have force balance. B..
. . so a. SO we have O=NGy. . . . . Because the car is turning at constant speed. . 21. But we can calculate F. Did you choose D? If so.) Since the tires are not slipping on the road. G. in which we view the car from the rear and the turn is to the left. . ?Ae force diagram is shown. . 19. . We cannot obtain the force of friction from the force diagram because we do not have a force balance and do not have any information about the acceleration. ( F ~ )= N. 22. C. B. We can obtain the net vertical force from the diagram.= v2/r = (8 m/s)'/ 10 m = 6. . 18. N=Gy = GCOS e = mgsin 8. The force diagram is shown. = mgsin 8. Chapter 6 16. . .. 20. The net force is the same as the sum of all the horizontal components of the forces. there is a force of friction. . . Since the car is going uphill with its brakes applied and tires skidding. the appropriate friction is static. . I But the car is not moving up or down. = 0 and (F. . . = Gsin 8.. Friction supplies the centripetal force. A. We calculate Gx follows: as G.. B. There is no force in the direction the car is going because the car is neither s p e d n g up nor slowing down. C. (The turn would be impossible if the surface were frictionless. C. Also. . The components of gravity are shown in the diagram below. the kinetic friction force is parallel to the surface and downhill. . .G. . so =&N+mgsin8 17.. pointing down. C . C . . The road exerts a force normal to its surface. so we have 2 . go back and read about the first law of motion.. = &A'. . we know the net force points toward the center of the turn. . . 3 The acceleration is centripetal acceleration given by a. We have gravity.. . Meditate on it for about fifteen minutes.Solutions .)~= 0.4 m/s2. where we have taken "downhill" to be positive. .
Mg < P Y But N is the centripetal force. which exerts a normal force that ends up being toward the axis of rotation. so that N = 10. . The force of friction (which is the upward force in the previous question) must be less than the maximum possible static friction (F. For uniform circular motion. 3. 4. so we substitute N = MV*IRto obtain ' Dividing both sides by M and multiplying by ~ l v gives Translating this into words gives choice D.000 N. The rider traverses the circumference of the circle (2n R) during each period of time T. . If any more friction is required by a situation. A. From the diagram we can see that the normal force provides the centripetal force.9) (10. so the magnitude of the upward force must be Mg as well.000 N) = 9000 N. C. A. 25.. Thus the car will not go into a skid.). 6 D. 5 A. A. Thus his speed is 2 n RIT.The MCAT Physics Book From the force diagram we can see that the normal force and gravity balance. But @ = (0. Remember that the expression @ gives the maximum force of static friction. so we can see that this force diagram is complete. we know the net force must be toward the center of rotation. In this case. Because the motion is uniform circular rotation. . A.. this would mean the car goes into a skid. we can calculate the net force F. = @: We draw a force diagram including the force of gravity. which is up (balancing gravity). The upward force must balance the gravitational force. The only thing touching the rider once the floor drops is the side of the drum. which is large enough. It also exerts a frictional force. 26. then surfaces begin to slip.= ma = 6400 N. the acceleration vector points toward the center of rotation. If we know the acceleration. Passage 1 1 .
so. The length of the car does not matter. 6. using equation (2). The two forces are equal in magnitude.Chapter 6 Passage 2 4. We apply equation (1) to obtain Fdrag= CPAV' Let's compare this terminal velocity for the two situations. B. The density of the atmosphere depends on temperature and pressure.2) (lo3 kg/m3) (0.. and C is a constant.= (0. 5. we exclude I. we have Re> 100.the mass of the drop is the same. so choice D is about right. however. 2. D. The question states that M. B. so we can write The arrow shows the direction the car would go. tl This is just an estimate. modeled by a block shape. For turbulence we need the Reynolds number to be greater than about 2 x loS.01 m2) (2 d s 1 2= 8 N. g is the same. The density of the respective atmospheres is different. 3. A..so we have Re> 2 x 10' >2x10S. We draw a force diagram for the drop at terminal velocity. The area is A = (15 m) (2 m) = 3 m2. so choice B is correct. A is the same. Looking at the choices.  B. so the shaded face is the cross section we are interested in. on Earth and on Venus. . According to the passage. . so we have F. We apply equation (1) again. equation (1) is valid as long as the Reynolds number is greater than about 100. B. pvl 1 . The diagram shows the car.
then a... and the acceleration is given by may = m g . if cats stretch their legs. As the ball travels away from the center of the E d . to obtain the height. We calculate the drag F. A. which would decrease their terminal velocity. but the fact would not help a cat to have a lesser terminal velocity from a greater fall. = Fgrav . If there is no air. then this increases their crosssectional area. Regarding D. But the force of gravity is mg. B. but this is just the force of gravity. since Fgnv= . Regarding choice C. 3. A. = 3 m/s. if we call "up" positive.2) (1. and v. = (0. there is an. then the only force is the force of gravity: (~"et). 4.3 kg/m3) ( ~ ( 0 . = 10 m/s2. = v:~ + 2ayAy . 0 3 m)') (3 m/s)' = 7 x N. it would not help cats survive a greater fall. the air resistance must be small compared to the other forces in the situation.the force of gravity decreases slightly. This holds for choice B as well. the statement is true. So.initia1 force down while the ball is going up. C. so its speed just before hitting the ground will be less than in the idealized problem. According to the passage.. so is a viable possibility for an answer. so the maximum height is less. If air resistance is included. The ball loses energy to air resistance. C. r n d / : ~m .The MCAT Physics Book 3 A. Even if the density of air changed appreciably (it does not). we write v. 2. Passage 1 . Also.
. The radius vector is shown in the diagram.4 m)(20 N) 1 = 8 Nm.. . . The more difficult way leaves 2 in the lower right comer. The torque is z= rFsinq5 = 2. . B. . . . z. so the sign is negative. so its sign is negative. A. The sign is negative because the torque is clockwise. We can see this from the diagram. C. 5.. In the easier way we can move E.. so that T = (0. . 2 . . For force g. the value of q5 is 150". For force the value of q5 is 90". . A. . . For force the angle $ is 0". . we can slide it directly up (maintaining its direction) to the upper right corner. . . We calculate torque z= rFsing = (0. We consider the fixed point to be the origin.3) (10 N) = 3 Nm. Now we have r = 0. Since B points down. .5 Nm. . e. so sin $ = 0. so the sign is positive. . . The torque is clockwise. . Chdpter 7 Chapter 7 Solutions 4. a d the torque is zero. to the diagram of the meter stick (see figure). and we add the angles and &. .3 m and sin q5 = 1. . . . The torque is clockwise. Thus torque is z = rFsin q5 = (0. There are two ways to calculate the torque of force g about the pivot (see diagram). 1 .5 m)(10 N) sin 90" = 5 Nm. . 3.Solutions . but when we calculate torques we can always use the smaller angle 30" (see figure). The torque is counterclockwise.. . in which force C does not tend to produce any rotation about the fixed point.
so its torque must be zero. The torque is zero since sin @ is zero. Then apply the definition of torque. The force is perpendicular to the line connecting B and A.r. the torque is zero (because r = 0 m). because the torque due to the weight of the book about A should be balanced by the torque of the tension T about A. The torque due to the horizontal rope is zero. 5 = 60 Nm. A more difficult way to do the problem is to calculate T using force balance (F. and we have rc = 0 nt = 4 1 . = 0. The tension due to the person pulling the rope acts at the point B. D. A. 7. C. 10. Since there is a torque balance about the fulcrum. This makes sense.4 kg. we may write F. Now y = 1. Another way to see this is to note that force C would slide right through the pivot. Since the weight of the book acts at point B. m2 = 2. we have 12. F. (See figure. 11.). so the torque due to this tension is zero (since r = 0 m).(y) = 0. so 4 = 90". A.5 m from the end. 5 m)(40 N) + r2. We draw a diagram (see figure) showing all the forces on the seesaw itself. Thus he sits 0. 6. met = 0. We draw a diagram (see figure) showing the forces on the meter stick. + F2r. = 0 and obtaining T = 80 N.F.The MCAT Physics Book B. We draw a diagram (see figure) showing all the forces on the rope. Since the torque due to the force of the fulcrum is zero.) 9.5 m represents the distance from the fulcrum to Scott's seat. a c. . The net torque on the meter stick about the fulcrum must be zero. A. The easiest way to do this problem is to take torques about point A and to apply torque balance. We have = 60 Nm.(2 m) .
then the fulcrum force will not have a torque.. . . B. .5 kg 1 l: 0 ) = 6 Nm. . . . .4 kg. We draw a diagram showing all the forces on the meter stick (see figure). . The torque due to the weight of the arm is = 4 Nm. C. We can take torques about the axis of pulley B. . . C . We draw a diagram showing all the forces which contribute to torques about the axis of pulley B (see figure)..alance yields .. . and torque b.. If we take torques about the fulcrum. Torque balance about the elbow yields the following equation: The torque due to the weight of mass m is z = (L)(mg)l . C. 17. A. .. = (0. .. 6 We draw a diagram showing all the forces on the forearm (see figure). 18. . . 1. .. In both cases we have sin@ = 1. .. Torque balance becomes The torque due to the weight of mass A is m = 0. Z .4 rn)(l.Chapter 7 13. .. 15. .. .Solutions .
If we take torques about B.. so that the torque balance is dF. then torques due to > F. FAY. that to the right.sin900 .  Fh We do not know if the forces are to the left or right. so we have Fh + FBr mg = 0. D. The negative sign tells us that the direction of ph is to the left. dFB. If we take torques about A. = The positive sign tells us that our choice was correct.lmg = 0. The torque is 1T. A We draw a diagram showing all the forces on the rod (see figure). 1 FBK . but the equation will tell us later on if our choices were right.sin 90" .T mg. 2 + FBI mg.lmg = 0. 1 The sum of the vertical forces must be zero. are due to the tension in the wire easily by sliding the force down the string to the point shown in the figure. that is. = And this makes sense. . 2 . Torque balance becomes and are dFB. 22.. We can calculate the torque FBx.The MCAT Physics Book We draw a diagram showing all the forces on the two rods (see figure). We can use the Pythagorean theorem to obtain the length of the wire. D. FBy zero. and FBy zero.lTsin90° = 0.lTsin 90" = 0. because the wall is providing the upward force which adds to the one downward force of gravity of the brick. 2 0 A. then torques due to FAY. The torque due to the tension in the wire about point A is given by ?: = (2 m) Tsin8 Thus the ratio dT is given by dividing both sides by T. . dF. so we have .
. C. . the that it. sin 90" sin 90" = 0.6m2= 0.. sin 90" . . . D. . . from the torque balance. B. B. we eliminate Fwy. so torque balance becomes . . If we take torques about point B. 26.. . so torque balance becomes (2 m ) ~sin 90"+ (1 m)F.. T. .. . . .. . so we can obtain an equation without them if we take torques about point A. and T from the torque balance by taking torques about point C. ... and the and mass of the leg.33 kg with the same method used in the previous problem. C.. and torque balance becomes (1 m)F. since q3 = 90".sin900 = 0 .. = 30 N. and m. .We can get the torques due to F. . . .. We do not know Faand F.. opposite the d~rection vectors point (see figure). . .. . (lrn)~ 20Nm10Nm=0.. so we write (1 rn)(2 kg. The torque due to Fxis (1 m) F.Solutions . Dividing by 10 m/s2 and solving yields 0.(1 m)F. .. loF "1 sin 90' = 0.(1 m)F2. (1 m) F. . we can take torques about the center of mass of the leg. . Torque balance becomes (2 m)Tsin8.sin90° . and F2 by sliding the forces upwards.3m1 +0. Then we can write the torques at sight. sin 90" + .(1 m)F.. Chapter 7 23. 27. . .. . sin 90" = 0. . F. then F. . To obtain an equation with just m. . 24. leaving just m. This time we eliminate F. We draw a diagram with all the forces on the leg (see figure). .. If we take torques about point B. 25. and T do not appear in the equation. (1 m)Fz. We could obtain the same result by figuring out mZ= 3.
Since nothing is moving. we must have static equilibrium. For this problem. The crosssectional area increases by a factor of 16 (see previous problem). We write Fmy + T = 0. so the stress (forcerarea) decreases by a factor of 16. Stress is defined as stress = F ' A so if F and A stay the same. and therefore torque balance. Thus and Fh. The circumference is C = 2nr. FbOdY =T Both the length and the area are increased. A. This implies that z and . . Don't let the information in the problem distract you from the fact that there must be a force balance on the muscle. A. C . then A1 increases by a factor of 3. 31. The figure shows the torques acting on the axle. we do not need to put the proportionality constant in the right place. but the equation is If F. . (See discussion in Chapter 1 if this is unclear. Refemng to the equation in solution 29.The MCAT Physics Book The tension exerted by the body must be equal in magnitude to the one other horizontal force. B. A. the magnitudes of F. = The equation we need is the proportionality between stress (FIA) and strain (Alll)... the tension due to the weight of the 8kg mass. . since the muscle is not accelerating.. The torque due to the force on the rod is given by 7. Passage 1 B. are equal in magnitude. 28. the length by a factor of 4. then the radius increases by a factor of 4. if area increases by a factor of 16. rFsin90°. 34. then the stress does not change. so if the circumference increases by a factor of 4. are the same. then A decreases 1 by a factor of 16. and the area by a factor of 16.) Then the crosssectional area increases by a factor of 42 = 16. and Y stay the same. 30. The equation in solution 29 indicates A1 decreases by a factor of 4. and since there are two they must be balanced. 32. B. and we increase 1by a factor of 3.r.
. . Also. ... . and the area increases by a factor of 4. . . so the stress increases by a factor of 814 = 2. The force (weight) increases by a factor of 8. . Since weight w = mg. 5 C. Increasing the length does not change the force of the load (the lantern weight) or the crosssectional area. (You may have done this problem by an intermediate step by calculating that force to be 500 N. Chdpter 7 Stress. Stress is forcelarea. see the last sentence of the fourth paragraph. ..) 3. . and the area is 100 times smaller. . .Solutions . . statue B has 8 times the weight as well. D. . force. Statue B has 8 times the volume of statue A. .. . Stress is force per area. Thus the stress at the foreann is 100 times larger. . . see previous question). so the breaking weight would be the same. Since m = pV. . . . and area are related by the equation The force exerted at the center of the biceps is the same as the force exerted at the forearm (force balance. .. . statue B has 8 times the mass. . . . . The passage indicates that the breaking point is related to the threshold stress for the material in the cable. .
Let's draw a diagram (see figure) of the system before and after the collision. 1 A. so the final velocity is given by Pberare where the negative sign indicates the momentum vector points left. before: The fact that the carts stick together is our clue that this is a conservationofmomentum problem. before: after: I The total momentum before the collision is given by Before the collisior. A. In this problem we set the initial momentum equal to the final momentum after all the collisions have occurred. are balanced.kg m =(6kg)v. which are gravity and the normal force. so that P eo t bf r =P h 9 1. . S = Puw ' where the negative sign indicates the velocity vector points left.The MCAT Phyncs Book Chapter 8 Solutions 3. so the answer is the same as the answer for problem 3. The sticking together provides the clue that this is a conservationofmomentum problem. Thus we can set the momentum before the collision equal to the momentum after the collision. We draw a diagram showing the system before and after the collision (see figure). The question asks only for the magnitude. so momentum is conserved. The external forces. . B. we calculate the total momentum as follows: I The collision of A and B does not affect the momentum of the system. 2.1..
Solutions .... .... . . . .. . . .. .. . . .. .. . . .. .. Chdpter 8
6. C.
If the track were not level, gravity and the normal force would not be balanced, and there would be a component of gravity accelerating the carts. Thus the momentum of this system would not be conserved. Of course, if the system included the Earth, then the momentum would be conserved, but then there would not be enough information to do the problem.
7.
before:
1
m
A.
We draw a diagram of the system before and after the explosion (see figure). The momentum before the string is cut is just.0 kg d s , since neither of the carts is moving. Since the external forces are balanced, the final momentum is also zero.
before: Before the collision, Michael's momentum is (60 kg) (0.5 m/s) = 30 kg m/s pointing north, and Carol's momentum is (40 kg) (1.0 m/s) = 40 kg m/s pointing west. The total momentum before the collision given by a vector diagram (see figure below).
after:
While the sting is cut, there are no unbalanced external forces, so we can set the momentum before to the momentum after the cutting, so we write By the Pythagorean theorem, the magnitude of the momentum is 50 kg m/s pointing in the northwest direction. Since momentum is conserved, this is the same as the momentum after the collision.
The final velocity must be v,= &= Since Michael and Carol stick together, we think this is a problem in conservation of momentum. During the tiny time of their collision, momentum is approximately conserved. (Gravity is an unbalanced force, but it operates in the vertical direction only, and we are ignoring that direction because the change in momentum due to gravity is so small.) Thus we draw a diagram of the system before and after the collision. See figure below.
mo t ,
(50 kg m/s)/lOO kg = 0.5 m/s.
ll.A.
.
. Before the collision, the total momentum of the system is 0 kg m/s, since the rifle and bullet are not moving. Momentum is conserved in the explosion, so the total momentum after the explosion is 0 kg m/s, as well. The momenta of the moving rifle and the moving bullet are in opposite directions, so they add to zero.
The
MCAT Physics Book
If we draw a diagram,
12. A.
15. D.
after:
Vbullet
we can write the conservationofmomentum equation:
Pbefore
= Palter
13. C.
Since the problem mentions force and time, we think immediately of momentum. The external force of 3 N imparts to cart A the momentum given by
Ap, = FAt
= 3~
Concerning choice A, gravity acts only vertically. Choice B is ambiguous, referring either to the car's force on the road or the road's force on the car. In neither case is there a force on the books pulling them forward  the brakes do not come into it, they don't touch the books  so B is not correct. Concerning choice C, momentum is not a force (it does not even have the same units). A force is a push or pull on an object due to something. So D is correct. What is going on? If you missed this problem, you need to work on your understanding of the first law of motion. The car and the books are traveling along with forces balanced at the beginning of the problem. When the driver applies the brakes, the wheels push forward on the road. The road pushes backward on the car (third law of motion), and it is the backward force that slows the car. The books, not having a backward force, continue in uniform motion until the seat they are on is pulled out from under them.
16. A.
Since momentum is conserved during the collision, the change in momentum is zero.
17. A.
(s)2
= 6Ns
Let's draw a diagram showing the system of two asteroids before and after the collision (see figure).
before:
m
pA= 6 b + o  = 6kgm a
S
kgm
S
S
Here we have explicitly worked out the units. Recall that FAt gives the change of momentum, but since cart A starts at zero momentum, the momentum of cart A after the force has acted is 6 kg d s .
14. B.
1.25 kg
For the collision, there is no unbalanced external force, and we can apply the equation for conservation of momentum:
Solutions .... . . . ...... . . ...... . . ........ Chapter
8
The total momentum before the collision must be determined by adding the individual momenta as vectors. This is shown in the momentum diagram (see figure). Thus we obtain the total momentum of the system before the collision to have the magnitude 13 kg m/s (from the Pythagorean theorem).
19. D.
. An impulse is a change in momentum. If the ball is initially going in the positive direction, after the bounce it is going in a negative direction. We calculate Ap = p, p, = (0.3 kg) (7 m/s)  (0.3 kg) (5 m/s) = 3.6 kg m/s.
A force and a time reminds us of momentum. The change in momentum is given by Ap = FAt = 50 kg d s . Since the object is initially at rest, this must be the magnitude of its final momentum. But when we look at the choices, we realize that we do not know the direction of the force and therefore the direction of the final momentum. Thus B is correct. The final velocity can be determined from momentum conservation:
21. A.
When the first ball hits the floor, it has a momentum vector pointing down. After the bounce, its momentum vector points up. The impulse imparted by the floor is shown in the first figure. (Recall that p,= Pbelorc + 4 . ) 18. B. We draw a diagram (see figure).
4
before:
after:
impulse
t
a t
before:
ball 1
.A

I AT
after:
m 3 S
We do not know which direction cart B is going after the collision, but if we draw the vector going to the right, the equation will tell us in which direction B moves. Momentum is conserved, so we write
The second ball hits the floor with the same momentum as the first. After the impact, its momentum vector is zero. The impulse imparted by the floor is shown. From these diagrams, we can see that choice A is .correct.
The MCAT Physics Book
We know there is the force of gravity and a force due to the rod, since the rod is the only thing touching it. Therefore A is incorrect (excludes rod) and C is incorrect (includes force from a surface). We need to draw a diagram (see figure) to see if the force due to the rod is tension only or also to the right. Gravity acts downward. Clearly the momentum of the apple is not conserved, since it goes from zero velocity to a finite velocity of impact, so A and D are wrong. If we consider the apple and Earth as a system, we can draw the force diagram shown. In this system the force of Earth's gravity on the apple is an internal force (rather that an external one). We have simply defined our system large enough to include all the forces. The momentum of this system is conserved, so B is the answer. This reasoning shows the flaw in choice C: If gravity is an internal force, momentum may be conserved if there are no unbalanced external forces.
The net force is a centripetal force, since the bob is traveling in a circle at constant speed at the moment the bob is at the bottom. Therefore the force of the pendulum is up. Did you say there was a force to the right? If you did, you have not learned about the first law of motion. Just because an object is moving to the right does not mean there is a force in that direction.
Impulse is change in momentum. If the head is initially at rest, and ends up going backwards at the velocity of the fist, then the impulse it receives is given by
Passage
1 C. .
Both the second and third laws of motion concern unbalanced forces. But the third law of motion states that, if the ship exerts a force on the gas, then the gas exerts an equal and oppositely directed force on the ship, so C is correct.
4 = 0 (mw)(v,,,)
The impulse is the same in either case, so choices A and B are incorrect. Choice C mentions force and time, so we think to write
2. C.
Choice A is a true statement: Neon is not a product of uranium fission, but neither is hydrogen. The passage says that hydrogen is heated and then expelled. This is different from conventional rockets in which the products of the reaction themselves are expelled. Choice B is a true statement but also irrelevant, because the hydrogen does not react chemically in this process either. Concerning choice C, let's think of exhaust velocity. It is related to temperature and molecular mass of the exhaust gas. Since neon is more massive, the exhaust velocity will be less, and the thrust will be less. Choice C is correct.
&=FA.
Riding the punch has the effect of increasing the time of contact with the fist and thus decreasing the magnitude of force of the fist on the face, so choice C is a possibility. Choice D is not relevant. This question is not really a very good one, but it is typical of some of the questions on the MCAT.
Solutions . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . ... . . . . . . . . Chapter
8
3. D.
According to the passage, the hydrogen can not be heated fast enough. This would result in a low mass expulsion rate.
4.
D.
It helps to visualize this problem if we draw a diagram (see figure).
From the figure we can see that, reiative to the ship, the gases are going 5000 m/s.
5 A. .
Let's draw a diagram of the system.
before:
after:
We can do this by momentum conservation:
Pbcfan
=Par
9
6. B.
This problem asks about force, and since a time is given in the problem, we immediately think to write
Ap = F,, At.
A
2
We know how to caicuiate the impulse Ap of the ship during the explosion, Ap = (10 kg)(0.2 d s )  0 = 2 kg d s . Thus F = (2 kg rn/s)/0.2 s = 10 N.
The
MCAT Phvs1cs Book
The force of the man is perpendicular to the direction of the box's motion, so cos I$= 0 What is . going on here? The reason our intuition is poor is fhat the man does a fair amount of microscopic work inside his striated muscles' in order to maintain a force. Such muscles are extremely inefficient. That energy ends up as heat, which radiates from his body.
Chapter 9 Solutions
The force diagram is shown. The direction of travel is shown by a dashed vector, to distinguish it ,= from forces. We have W , (30 N) (10 m) cos 30" = 260 J.
8. A.
We have p = mv = (4 kg) (3 d s ) = 12 kg m/s.
9.
C.
We have E,= 1/2 mv2= 112 (4 kg) (3 m/s12= 18 J.
A force diagram is shown, although we do not need it in this case. We deduce there must be a frictional force since the net force is zero. The horse is pulling in the same direction as the direction of travel so cos$ = 1. Also Ax is vAt. The normal force and the direction of travel are perpendicular, so cos $ = 0.
3. B.
The gravitational force and the direction.of travel are perpendicular, so cos $ = 0.
4.
A.
11. B.
The gravitational force is perpendicular to the direction of travel, so cos I$= 0.
The words "constant velocity" tell us that the net force is zero. Thus the total work is zero.
12. D.
The friction does negative work on the sled. The only other work is from the rope (question I), that is, 260 N. Since the total work is 0 J, the friction must do 260 J.
6.
We have v,, F and At, which do not combine in any way to make energy. If we had the mass of the cart we could obtain the acceleration from F, then the final velocity, and then the energy. If we had the distance FAX.But we do not have traversed, we could use W,a= those things.
B.
The box is not sitting on a surface, so there is no normal force. The man is certainly pushing up. Is he pushing forward? There is no reason to think so, since the box is moving at constant speed in a straight line.
Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chdpter
9
13. B. Gravity and the normal force are balanced vertical forces. Since the car is slowing down, which is accelerating backwards, there must be a net force backwards, and this is provided by friction (or braking). If you thought there had to be a force pulling it forwards, then you forgot that the car would tend to keep going forward in the absence of any forces (first law of motion). The force diagram is shown below.
We set EKI EPI= EK2+ Em* + O+mgH=E,+O,
I
Use EK=112 mv2, but just estimate the square root.
19. C .
As in problem 17, we obtain E,= were doubled, then E would double. ,
mgH. If H
20. A.
Change in energy is always final minus initial. Thus we have E, E,, = 0 J  112 (1000 kg)(20 mls), = 2 x 105~.
15. A.
Setting now E, to 112 mv, 2, we obtain 112
=
mgH. Notice that m cancels, and this yields v,= &@. This looks more complicated than the variable relationships we have seen, but it is not. If H increases by a
The only force doing work is the road, so the work done by the road is the total work. But this is the same as the change in kinetic energy. 16. D. In this case the direction of travel is in the opposite direction of the road's force, so cos $ = 1. Thus W = FAx cos 4 yields 8000 N. 17. C. This is one of the cases in which the simple statement of the conservation of energy holds. The only force acting on the cat is gravity. (See figure.)
factor of 2, then v2increases by a factor of f i which is 1.41. But an increase by a factor of 1.41 is the same as increasing by 4 1%. If this is unclear, think of increasing a number by 41%. That means taking 41% of a number and adding it to the original number. That is the same as multiplying by 1.41.
Momentum is always conserved as long as there is no unbalanced external force. The external forces here are gravity and the normal force, which are balanced. The internal forces are the forces that the wts exert on each other. Choices B and D are equivalent, so neither can be the answer. In fact, the collision is not elastic. It is not completely inelastic because the carts do not stick together.
22. A.
Using conservation of momentum gives
PI = P 2 3
The MCAT Physics Book
The initial kinetic energy is E,, = 112 rnAv,, = 0.125 1.The final kinetic energy is E , = 112 m,v,, = 0.0625 J. The ratio is 0.5.
If the current and the potential difference were both doubled, then the power would increase by a factor of 4. If the energy expended is the same in AE = PAt, then At decreases by a factor of 4.
The efficiency is defined in this problem as ratio of energy expended due to air resistance to energy consumed. The energy expended due to air resistance is W , = F,p case, where cos @ is 1 because the road is level. The total energy consumed is simply nAHH,,.
31. D.
The first method of doing pulley problems involves drawing a force diagram for the bottom pulley, as shown. This gives the force equation T + T  mg = 0, so that T = 112 mg.
The problem makes no mention of how efficiency depends on speed. On the other hand, the energy expended to overcome air resistance will increase as the square of the velocity. In many situations the efficiency is defined as the ratio of useful work to input energy, the rest of the energy wasted as heat. This problem is different in that the efficiency is defined as the ratio of energy consumed by a given drag to input energy.
The answer is not A or B, because the car has as much kinetic energy before as after. since it goes at one speed, and as much potential energy before as after, since it travels on level ground. The energy starts as chemical energy, so D is incorrect.
27.
D.
The amount of energy expended is AE = P A , by definition. This is equal to the increase of the potential energy of the box. The energy does not go anywhere else: not into heat because the transfer is 100% efficient and not into kinetic energy because the box moves slowly and at constant speed. Setting P A equal to mgH yields H = 40 m. Note the the 30' angle had nothing to do with the answer.
The second method involves imagining that the end of the rope is pulled 1 meter. That means that 1 meter of rope goes over the upper pulley, and 0.5 meters of rope are taken from either side of the lower pulley. The angle a has no part in this problem. The work done by the pulling is the work done pulling the mass, so T (1 m) = mg (0.5 m) and T = 112 mg. 32. A. The force diagrams are shown. Clearly the second tension is double the first tension.
28. A.
See the answer to problem 27.
29. A.
In this case the power is 120 Watts. This gives an energy expenditure of (120 W) (60 s) = 7200 J. The energy which becomes potential energy is 720 J because of the 10% efficiency. If this is set equal to mgH, then H = 1.8 m.
.Solutions . . .. . = 112 mv2 gives us v = 8 d s . so A is false. Since the kinetic energy is decreasing. 39.= 112 mv2 = 112 (2. In this case. 38. The force diagram for the lower pulley is shown. A. The sum is conserved. 3 . . .. The force of the hand ceases to play a role after the ball leaves the touch of the hand... C . and we are ignoring air resistance. We use En= mgh.005 kg) (1. We use E. A. I1 is false. The energy starts as kinetic and ends as potential. C . . cos @ = 1. . then you need to review the first law of motion.mg = 0.25 Joules. . so that F = 130 N. but it goes to zero by the end. . The right string exerts 150 N on the force meter. exerts on his feet.005 to 2. C . . . Chapter 9 33. we think of energy and the equation W = FAxcos $. . . so D is false. The unbalanced force is gravity. The force diagram below shows that the tension in either string is 150 N. 6 Whenever we see force and distance. 35. . and the force meter records 150 N. thinking that the two weights add. . The only force acting on the cannonball is gravity. I is false. . . If you chose B. It is safe to round 2. . . Since the potential energy is increasing. . Using E.. 41. so B is true.5 d s ) ' = 2. B. . through friction. . dravity is the only force on the ball in flight. The momentum is large and directed up at the beginning. . Many students are tempted to choose 300 N. Here we have enough information to apply the definition. C. so the simple statement of the conservation of energy holds. 43. because gravity is the only force acting on the ball. = 112 mv2. C .The force is the force that the track. there is nothing touching it besides air. E. After the cannonball leaves'the cannon. C is false. Thus T + T + T. the left string exerts 150 N on the force meter. so that T = 113 mg. .. so the simple statement of the conservation of energy holds in this case. B. and we write EK1 + EP1 = EK2 + EP2' The first method is the easier method for this pulley problem. . 44. 42. and it does work on the ball.
although contrived. so W. balanced and the momentum stays constant throughout the problem. This is the correct. + Certainly the energy starts as kinetic. winch energy goes into potential energy of the cart. We could do these problems by drawing forces. its height is greater. The only thing that matters. Most of the kinetic energy of the bullet goes into heat. and a little stays as kinetic energy of the bullet. It is correct because the forces are.. countenntuitively. there is no change in the potential energy of anything. B.Axcos @ is zero. Conservation of energy gives us the answer much more quickly. and the simple statement of the conservation of energy applies: EKI+ E P 1 = E K Z + E P 2 ' The net force on the cart is zero. Remember to follow the energy flow. We write PI =p29 Since the speed is constant. But the tension is always perpendicular to the direction of travel. The block is moving at first. some goes into kinetic energy of the block. In this question we are talking about part 1 of the event: a collision involving hot wood and partially cornbusted organic compounds."after 1) (5 . Option III sounds attractive. so D is false. 2 h=2 = . 46. energy lost as heat. We write EK1+ E P 1 = E K 2 Em. A. B and C are false a~s because kinetic energy.. in fact. and finally velocities. C. so the answer is A or C. taking components.. being ~ o n s t a n t . So the energy goes from kinetic to potential.11 m = 11 cm. and the mass of the rock m or M cancels in the second step above.: z0 (. This resembles a car collision. . is the height from which the rocks fall. A. so conservation of momentum is the relevant concept. The potential energy is not constant but increases. It is contrived because this information does not allow you to calculate anything of use. since the winch does work on it. The forces on the block (with bullet) are gravity and the tension of the strings. and by the time it stops. B. In this problem. answer. I Notice that the angle a or P never appears at all. so A is incorrect. But during part 1. ' ~ lno role. In this question we are talking of part 2 of the event. 45. and so its energy is not conserved. so the simple statement of the conservation of energy applies. 48. obtaining accelerations. so the tension forces do no work. the kinetic energy is constant and therefore conserved. 1) = 0. A is true.The MCAT Physics Book A. that is. The proper statement for the conservation of energy in this problem is this: The potential energy increase of the cart is given by the work done by the winch. 51. Remember that the total work is a measure of the energy that goes into the kinetic energy of the cart. The only two forces on the rocks are gravity and the normal force.= F. but the cart as a system is not isolated. Both the winch and gravity do work. 50.
It is true that there are more particles on the left side of the reaction.. . . . War must increse by a factor of 1.21.=ma'for the respective diagrams is Mg sin a =Ma. . One of the reactants would be in excess.= C ~ A V ~ A X . . The first answer we think of is number ratio.v = cpAv3.Chapter 9 This problem is more difficult.. which is an increase by 21%.. a factor of 1. . so C is incorrect. and since the reactants are gases. per mole of 0 . The reason that two rocks. so A is false.Thus the amount of energy used is nAHm. .Al. C.C). C is nonsense. their velocities are the same. B is a good choice. not up. an so increase by a factor of 2 in velocity yields an increase by a factor of 23= 8 in power.C. 56. Once we determine that the acceleration of rock M is the same as rock m then they must take the same time to slide down. But the reaction of hydrogen with water is clean. In the above cases the accelerations are the same because the factor m cancels... Spontaneous reactions can have either an increase or a decrease in pressure. The answer is C or D. so A is false. . mg sin a =max. then the acceleration is greater. . one more massive than the other. volume ratio is proportional to number ratio.= F. which would make the rock take a long time to slide. which is a constant. The amount of work done is W = Fdrcos $= ( P A ) ( l ) ( l ) = P.. then W. so B seems a good choice. . The horizonel components Fm. then some of those compounds could end up in the waste gas. The same is true in this problem. which would be almost free fall. The energy required to get from A to B is given by the work done against air resistance. For ideal gases. versus a large P (steep slope). But that is not a choice. D is incorrect for the same reason. Even if we do not think through the analysis.. since the coefficients in a reaction refer to the number of atoms/molecules/formula units or whatever. Thus we have W.is given in Joules per mole of reactants going across the reaction equation. The combustion would still ignite.. Passage 1 1 B.. Since W. The analysis in the previous problem should convince you that if the angle is greater. An increase from 50 to 55 mph is an increase of lo%. so A is excluded. Our intuition comes from Section 4. and the time of fall is less.1. . The heat of reaction is unchanged. The pressure goes up because the temperature goes up. where AKis the distance between the cities.varies as v2. . .. ..is inand creased by a factor of 4. but that would tend to make the pressure go down. .. Mass ratio is wrong. 2. This situation is the same as the case with falling masses (Section 4. If any of the intermediates in the reaction were stable compounds. . we can consider the extremes of a very small a... Thus the time is shorter. . The quantity AHm. ..Solutions . take the same time to fall is that at each point along the path their accelerations are the same. and they take o the same time t fall.. The work done by the air is W.that is. . 4. so B is out. 58.&.. D is irrelevant since the reactants are at the same temperature. Power is given by P = F.. if v is doubled. D. and the waste gas would contain only leftover hydrogen or oxygen. that is. . D. C. ...1' = 1. We can see that their accelerations are the same in the force diagrams below..
When the gases are introduced in the chamber. C. The gas in the chamber is doing work against the piston. so A is correct. The energy of motion is turned into heat.. so the internal energy of the gas must decrease. out of the system. so 111 is true.AL = n.. B. Since z is doubled. is the number of total moles of both gases. so A is false. If heat is transferred to the air.' 2. C . Since pressure at a given volume and temperature is proportional to the number of gas particles by the ideal gas law. fiom the equation W = FAxcos 4. so I1 is true.The MCAT Physics Book 5.$?T. the ideal gas law is P.. If the collision is isolated. The temperature must decrease as well. If the piston movement were larger. so I is true. the ideal gas equation guarantees that the two gases have the same number of moles per unit volume. So neon has a Z which is 5 times larger and removes 5 times as much energy per unit distance. 1. e . 2. Passage 2 The slowing of the car implies the momentum is decreasing.. The conservation of energy takes entropy into account if heat is included in the accounting of the energy of the system. where n. On the righthand side of the equation. The initial kinetic energy of the car is 112 M. just the conservation of momentum. Only one third of those molecules are oxygen. The word "elastic" implies that kinetic energy is conserved. Neon has 10 electrons per gas particle. D. the increase in volume would decrease the pressure. hence N is the same. Thus we write 3. and helium has 2 per particle. everything is constant except N. that is. and C is true.. A. C . We have assumed that the piston movement is small and the pressure stays about the same. then there are no external forces and momentum is conserved.. which reminds us of force. mere is an energy and a distance. If the reaction were performed isothermally. D. A. of which 112 a&v2 actually gets transferred to the flywheel. D. Thus the answer is D. In this question we are . so the equation is The equation looks complicated.. Since both gases are at STP.. then the number of gas particles would be less after the reaction than before the reaction. which plays no role in equation (I). 1. . 6 A. The quantity energy divided by distance has the units of force. That is. 4. but it does not look as forbidding if we break it down. but an unbalanced external force does not necessarily nullify the conservation of energy. The only difference in the two nuclei is the mass. the pressure would decrease.. and z. Consider the lefthand side.v~. ' ~ must lose 4 times as much energy per unit distance. 3. Option D makes little sense. then energy is not conserved for that system. The total energy is always conserved in an isolated collision. 5. 'H has z = 1 and 'He has z = 2. so B is false. comparing 'H and ' ~ e so the only difference is z.
Gravity. certainly. The books are going in a straight path and the car's door turns into their path. Passage 4 1 C. In this case. which is 112 M . down. the only forces acting on it are gravity and the normal force.v'. The car initially has kinetic energy 1/2 M. The force diagram is shown. In order to obtain the velocity. . .D. where T is the period.40 before setting it equal to 112 mv2.. .. . . 7... EK2= M g H L . we use the above equation and set kinetic energy to 112 hivZ. which get "pulled" toward the door when the car turns. .. that is. ~ .. . vis transferred back into kinetic energy. also know We that the velocity v = 2 z RIT... Chapter 9 4.vZ is placed into the flywheel. The normal force does no work. so we can use the simple statement of the conservation of energy. . . . there are two. The initial kinetic energy is very small. only energy 112 a b ~ . which provide a normal force. This is because its direction is normal to not only the surface but to the motion of the object as well. Puttkg all this together with o = 2 z f given in the passage yields F = Amd~. T = llf... The change in potential energy is AEp= mgAh. A glance at the answers shows expression which look like centripetal force and gravity. No such thing happens. .. The only thing touching the car is the tracks. . r 5.. . 3. is acting down. When the car goes from point C to point D.. only energy 112 ahi. 2. . This is analogous to the books in the car in Section 5. but the body is pulled by a centripetal force (from gravity and the normal force) away from the blood. so E ~ ~ = & l + EK1* C. We multiply this by 0. If you chose C. The situation is the same for the car going from point C to F as it is in going from C to E. Thus gravity and the normal force together provide the centripetal force. Thus The normal force never does work. B. ~ And of this. V . so the simple statement of energy conservation works: + EPI = EKZ + 4 7 . We have learned that the force on a mass d m moving in a circle of radius R is d m v 2 1 ~ ... C. you need to review the section about the first law of motion.Thus... the blood would be going along a straight path. . of course. The only forces ever operating are gravity and the normal force.. . C. Of this.Solutions . using Ah = 50 meters. So if we are counting forces. A.
. Since A is not a likely answer. B is the best answer. 3 . and there is a connection between force and energy. The energy in the motor certainly starts out as electrical. the so answer is C. which is H. 5. The whole point of a cannon is to convert energy to kinetic energy of the ball. Since the reaction is irreversible.= N + Mg. h = v 2 2g ' 1 we see that we do not need anything besides the bail . however. The rate of reaction does depend on surface area. . so A is not the answer. 2 . so the free energy change must be negative. 9. Because of the following calculation: 1 C. then the energy ends up as heat. 8. so A is false.. So A is the answer. Among the choices given. Only a catalyst could reduce the activation energy. A. but grain size affects only the surface area. this could be disastrous. Pressure and force together remind us of the definition of pressure P = FIA.The MCAT Physics Book Gravity and the normal force add to make the net force. so the friction is kinetic. On the other we write F. B. Does this equation apply in this case? The change in kinetic energy is given by the total work done on an object. The bumpers are used to stop the car at. Thus 2. Pressure and temperature go together in the ideal gas equation. It seems difficult to connect velocity with pressure. Note that the conversion of heat to kinetic energy is inefficient.. On the one hand we can write F. and though we may have the volume of the "reaction flask". concentration. + EpI = 1 mv2 = mgh. If the bumpers dissipate the energy. This is close. which is centripetal and leads to the acceleration of the car... C . the entropy change is positive. The quantity Ax is the length of the barrel. B. energy is sloshed back and forth from kinetic to potential. The cars are stopped by rubbing past the bumpers. the end of the ride. If the coefficient of friction is reduced. the equation W = FAxcos $.= Ma. + E2 p The definition of kinetic energy involves mass and velocity.  4. so let us look for a better answer than B. and temperature. Now we need to remember that the radius of the circle R is half the diameter. The energy starts as chemical energy and turns to heat after burning.. The reaction is spontaneous. we do not have the number of moles. so A and B are not right. let's look at the others. so the equation does apply. Choice C mentions force. Passage 5 This is like a problem we have done before. the park operators reduce the amount of force necessary to negatively accelerate the cars to a stop. In the ride itself. that is F. C is the answer. and we know neither. The friction on the tracks plays no role in our cument analysis and plays only a small role in reality. and they rely on friction.Ax cos$. this is a connection between force and pressure. Since we have the crosssectional area of the cannon. A. C.. By reducing the mass. and we have cos $ = 1.
g.. 5. .. .. if P is in a m . I p) mg = 1. A diagram of a human head is shown.Solutions ... The force equation is again F. as shown. Because the cork is not accelerating. but V.. we can write F. (Did you recognize R in the answer We draw a force diagram as shown. . D.. 7.2 x (686 N) = 0.1 m12. ...8 N. There is a factor of 1000 ro convert liters to cm3..= 3  4' The force diagram is same as that for the previous problem.mg = 0. Thus m = [ ~ ( 0 . [ . according to the problem.mg = 0. . that is. .9. R is in L atm/ K mol. = (p. .we obtain p/p. . number of kilograms we are seeking. . . We replace F. . . If rn is the ~ . The second step is to write a force equation. .. = mg. .. and 27" C is 300 K.9V. We multiply this by atmospheric pressure. . . Again we have F. g. we want an equation which includes the volumes in and out of the fluid.. This is a simple application of the ideal gas law PV = nRT. FB = mg.4 g r ~ s l m o l ewe obtain density.V. Note that temperature Tmust be measured in Kelvins. . with pmmV. is 3 V. is 0. 1 ) ~ 10'110] kg = 310 kg.but V. . Let rn and V be the mass and volume of the cork. In this problem. then this force is rng. we draw a force diagram. .= 0. number of moles per liter. choices?) The quantity nlV. . which we approxmate as 10' ~ l m This is a force in Newtons. which is PIRT. 4 We cancel g and V to obtain p/p. . . Solving . is the volume of the man dp. . If we . and the total volume of iron we call Vin+ V .. SO we have 1 C. . . First.. is the number of moles per volume. Chapter IO Chapter 10 Solutions The force diagram is the same as that in the previous problems. We replace m with pV. multiply by the atomic rnass..but we call the displaced volume V.. ... . In this problem V. C. The area over which the force is acting down is the top of the head d = N0. Thus F. The buoyancy force is FB= p.
= FiIA. Thus F. it is the net pressure. so the force is most nearly the product of the gauge pressure and the area of the chest. Underwater. so let us think about what the muscles which expand the lungs do..)F. is the pressure of gas inside the lung. we by would say that the pressure the lungs are expanding against is the difference P . The questions here are a bit confusing.P. and P is the pressure of fluid outside your lung. 9..Pa. + lo3 . We apply the formula P = Pa. 11. the force P. If we apply hydrostatic equilibrium to the points Q and S (at the top of the column at the left). A.. where Pi. we can substitute an expression for force P = FIA. The force Flu. so we have pairVg . 14. To breathe in.The MCAT Physics Book We assume the balloon is not accelerating. = pgh = 5 x lo4 Pa. . so these forces balance.i 0 . This is a simple application of Pascal's law. you were thinking along the right track. the pressure inside your lungs is similar to the pressure outside. 8.5 x 10' Pa. A. and F.. and cancel the factor g. however. you exert a small force to expand the push out the chest (and pull down the diaphragm). = P. We replace F.hz) 9 13. we obtain Po = Ps + pHgg(h1 . the difference in pressure. 10.IA. A. . must balance the two pressure forces.pHcvg . 5 j Pa = 1. The guage pressure is defined as P . Since the pressures are the same P. D. Thus for question 10. A. A force diagram for the chest is shown. The best answer is . so we write FBmHegMg=O. but it is not the total outside pressure that makes breathing difficult. During normal breathing conditions.IA. that is. + pgh = (1. and m. If you chose C. A. Pascal's law states that the pressure at point Q is the same (see figure). = (A. is greater than Pin an additional pgh..0 x 10' The pressure at the top of the column on the right side is simply the atmospheric pressure Pm. . The best answer is A.Mg = O 9 A.
.. .. Compare this problem with the needle in Example 2 of Section E. = yL will be L = 2 (l+w+l+w). = But W ..Ax. = F. Since water is incompressible. Each revolution represents a distance 2&. that is.B is related to the velocity at pointA as well. The circumference about the needle turned out to be twice the length of the needle. B. . 25. . . since we are ignoring gravity. increasing its potential energy. This is a common calculation that could save you some day. and the area of the pipe at B is K (0.3/s. . But the velocity at p0int. Here we have bent the needle into a rectangle. .03 m12. A. so we must have W . On the right side. the flow rate must be constant along the flow. = W2. We assume no energy is lost to friction. The problem mentions the viscous force.g(h2 h.gh. 27171. the circumference. . Thus the velocity is 27rh'fi If this question confused you. A. B. If the flow rate is 0.... 1 .nr2. =PA. go over it several times. The area of contact is the area of the side of the piston. Chapter 10 15. so the length L that goes into F. The long way to do this is to realize that a change of volume on one side of the press is the same as a change of volume on the other side of the press. The coin's relevant length is 2 m . The force is P a d = P.&. The quantityf gives the revolutions per second. Frpm this we get choice D. The distance between the sliding surfaces is Ar. There are four forces we are concerned with. .. Since we know fA =f.just like Example 2 in Section E. We can draw a force diagram. Hydrostatic equilibrium allows us to write P = Pa. 9 The relevant length for the wire circle is L = . then AV = A&.. The distance the piston moves is vAt. . . .06 m.. . B. . Work is force times distance times cos 9. This is an application of hydrostatic equilibrium. we can write 2 v A m A = v. .. . = PAV. 20.m. We are interested in the work done by the atmospheric pressure.) 9 which becomes = ~Ruidg(~2h l ) ' The left side is constant.Solutions . if p. . The circumference for the thread has to go all around the outside as well as all around the inside. . and the load moves Ax2.. 2(2nr). . just like Example 1. Certainly one expression for the velocity at point B is flnr:.. decreases. and it is by moving the shaft that the piston does useful work. so the viscosity equation gives choice A. 2 . 21. The pressure at the top of the column is zero. The short way to see this is to realize that the flow of energy is from the piston doing the work on the fluid to the fluid doing work on the load.h. and W2= F2Ax2= PA2&. the shaft is attached to the piston. There are pressure forces for the two faces of the piston. . that is. . In addition. C. increases. then h2 . then the flow velocity is v = f / A = 21 mls. . 16.. . so that B is the correct answer. If the piston on the right moves Ax. This is not like a rectangular bug foot (see Example 1 of Section E) in the water.Pam + p. . 17. and the pressure at the bottom of both flasks is p. A. . . but that is not any of the choices.. = PAV.
Because the force is perpendicualar to the radius vector. = A2v2. + . C . Thus the retarding torque is z= RqAvld. and this would disqualify the flow from Bernoulli's principle. and the answer must be B. so D is incorrect. so Alv. A. We can consider a streamline which goes from the reservoir to the top of fountain (pressure Pa.. Since gravity plays no role. as well as D. so B is a possibility. v = 0) to the nozzle (pressure Pa. B. so Bernoulli's equation becomes P. then we can try again: .. The energy of the flow goes into turbulence and eventually into heat. 1 + 0 = Pa. so B is correct. B. so let us take for the two points. Reynolds number says nothing about temperature. so that Bernoulli's equation gives I 30. A streamline goes from the reservoir (pressure P.2. 29. The answer choices do not refer to v. Relating the velocity'vl tb velocity v2 is a matter of continuity. so C is also incorrect. v = 0)through the hose to the other end (pressure Pa. and the relevant radius is R. 6 Torque is force times radius times sin@ The torque of the rod must balance the retarding torque due to the viscous force... and this is also the torque of the rod. B. we have sin = 1. a point in the reservoir and a point in the constricted pipe. The viscosity depends only on the substance and not on the situation. and v = 0). Increasing the radius of the pipe increases the likelihood of turbulence.Thus B is correct. If nowhere. The flow f has to be the same all along the flow. Again we can apply Bernoulli's principle. The water does develop turbulence. 31. C is irrelevant.p. Bernoulli's equation becomes 2 . 7 Increasing the flow rate increases the likelihood of turbulence. Bernoulli's equation gives 1 2 34. so B is correct. so A is incorrect. 3 Loolung at the answers. and see where that leads. C . A streamline can be said to go from the top of the tank (pressure Pa. B.. 3 . A. the pgh terms drop out. This is similar to an example worked in the text. 8 We can consider a streamline which goes from the reservoir (pressure P. B. The fact that the hose goes over the top of the tank does not change the application of Bernoulli's principle.. so B is a possibility. The viscous force is F. velocity desired). 35. B. 2. = pdh3  3 .The MCAT Physics Book 2 . we see that the question writer intends for us to apply Bernoulli's equation. so A is incorrect. 2 Pbottom This is a question about hydrostatic equilibrium. = qAvld. velocity 0) to the pipe 2 with no gravity gradient.. Making the joints smooth does not seem to do anything at first glance. but perhaps this would remove obstacles that would create turbulence. velocity desired).
where A = 0. . . we obtain that F is approximately 2000 N. . . . C. . . . .. there are two forces on the necklace due to the two things touching it: the water (buoyant force) and the string (tension). . Using a different straw clearly has no effect. The reading on the force meter is the magnitude of the tension. . which turns out to be impossible. We do not need PV = nRT. to 0. C. Pressure is the connection between gas data and information about force. beverage tubeC We write the force equation The pressure at the top of the column is P. . . In order to calculate force.We would have gotten the right answer by estimating g to be 10 d s Z . D. A.Solutions . Even if the pump draws a perfect vacuum. because we already know P = 2 atm. however. never a negative pressure. This problem is similar to other problems we have done. 38...g. This is impossible. we need Pascals. First we draw a diagram. Chapter 1O 36. In addition to gravity.01. so that the top of the column would have zero pressure and the evacuated space above it would also have zero pressure.. . . m2 (the area of one face). .. the sink must exert a force mg . The water column would fall. . In order to achieve force balance. Using F = PA. so P is approximately 2 x 10' Pa. The capacity of the cup is not the same as the volume the cup displaces when it is under water. We can obtain the height of the water column by setting P. 37. The problem gives all the information except V. . but decreasing p will increase h. .. 0 We have to careful of units in this problem. . Even the best pump can draw at best zero pressure.. Thus. Consider the situation shown. .pw. 39. the column will not rise above 10 m. 4 . = P. . P.Vdi.. . .. ... .. B. + pgh becomes h = PJpg. and we write 'sun = Plop + ~bevexa~eg~ * .
The displaced volume is simply the volume of the hammer. + FB .4 'boy . the force equation is F. Bernoulli's equation becomes This is similar to problem 36.. pw.. The pressures at points 1 and 2 are both Pa. Since the hammer is not accelerating. = Pam + pgh.. The velocity at point 1 is essentially 0.. its magnitude must be the same 1 N we calculated in the previous problem. but by Newton's thii law of motion. Thus F.mhg = 0. Thus F. we draw a force diagram. g = 0. then the height of point 2 is 1 m. This reminds us of a Bernoulli question (especially with the explicit "ignore viscosity"). V..79 k g ) (10 m/s2)= 7. 42. There we learned that a force meter provides a force. . that is. = 100 cm3.F b o y = 0 = (Prater . A.. the force equation is F.1) N = 6. where h is 1 m. mlp.... A. We know m.. and we can draw a streamline as shown.. If the top of the ocean is the standard height. If we know the flow velocity.. Since the water is not accelerating. and the reading tells us what the force is..9 . Recall that a scale provides a force. The pressure of the water can be obtained by hydrostatic equilibrium: P. The force diagram for the water is shown in the same diagram. and the reading tells the magnitude of the force provided.. g = 1 N (by the time the units are straightened). A.m. so that F...The MCAT Physics Book Thus. 43. A force diagram is shown. is (7. we can obtain the flow rate fromf = Av = (.F.g = (0. We have not discussed the force that the hammer exerts on the fluid. 41.=50N+ 1N=51N. A. Since the problem asks for force.Pam)' 44. since the finger is not accelerating.. = p.9 N.. .9 N. we write We draw a diagram as shown below.01 m)' (4. .5 m/s).PamA .
. B. Pbollom + pgh becomes Pa.. The force due to gravity is F. = Ptap Thus. since the pressure at P. though.. . 2~ rPg From this we see that height h increases proportionally as r decreases. s r r ~ . .. This becomes = 72 meters. points P. Thus. 2~ pnr2hg= 0(as in the previous passage). . Usually the pressure on one side of a boundary between two substances is the same as the pressure on the other side. . Well. but a smaller one. (2 x 10~m)(10~0) 3( ~ )1 6. Choice A may play a role.. In this model the height is inversely proportional to the radius. must be Pa. . C. must have pressure Pam. 2. so L = 2 m The passage mentions that the surface tension and the gravitational force must add to zero. 3. The surface tension pulls the column up. the force equation &comes the following: P A + F. = 0 + pgh. = 2my= d h p g . so the pressure at P. but these balance (both are F = P. . D. 4.. . . . Passage 2 1 . C. According to this equation... . . .Solutions . . and the acceleration due to gravity. should be greater by pgh. The length of the line of contact is the circumference of the straw. ...ar2). The pressure at the top of the column is given by F = P = ~ . Enzymes are catalysts which reduce the activation energy. = mg = pVg = . Passage 3 The'main difference between the inner and outer chambers is the presence of enzymes in the outer chamber. is above P. . h = 2ylrpg = 4. as when a meniscus forms. h=. but this is not m e if the boundary is curved. psrr2hg. . . B. .We use the air pressure since it is the A air that exerts the downward force on the column. . and P.. balancing the force of gravity./pg = lo5 Pa / (lo3 kg/m3) (10 rn/s2) = 10 m.P a d . are in the water. . 5. C. Chapter 10 Passage 1 Since nothing is accelerating. Certainly there are pressure forces. . Thus h = P. The air just above P. It is confusing.m g = 0 . . . In this model a maximum height is obtained by setting the pressure at the top of the column to zero. . . A. C. 2. and P. the height h depends only on the atmospheric pressure. the density of the fluid. Fsu6 mg .. The force diagram for the column of water is shown. .
increasing the concentration and speeding the reaction. even if some energy is dissipated as heat. not the 15 rns during the reaction. The rupture film does keep the reactants dry. since the question is about intensive properties of the solution and not about extensive properties. A third solution could involve Bernoulli's equation. B is correct.. Indeed there is no reason to assume the flow is not turbulent and not viscous. As for choice C. so C is incorrect. 4. Option A seems good. The initial velocity is 12 m/s up. B. Once we know the heat available per quantity of solution. so the answer is A or B.. = E. An alternate solution involves using energy conservation: E. There is no catalyst involved. 7. then A is a good estimate. The rupture film would certainly keep in the reactants. B is a likely possibility. B. Any object. but the passage clearly stated that the spray is a liquid. A. .0821) (300) is the number of moles df gas we desire. so these choices are definitely incorrect. B. Thus A is incorrect: not enough information. 3. which might give an estimate of the pressure inside the outer chamber.. the question is not about how much stuff there is. and the final velocity is 0 mls. except it is the purpose of thejlter screen to filter out byproducts. Multiplying by the molar mass (65 gramslmol) yields the number of grams required. Choice A reminds us of Bernoulli's principle. C and D definitely remind us of an ideal gas. A catalyst affects activation energy but has no effect on the heat of reaction. As for choice D. where we have done the necessary unit conversions. + E. That is. the heat of reaction is necessary but it is derivable from information in the passage. Multiplying by 619 (because of the reaction coefficients) yields the number of moles of sodium azide required. We apply the formula f = Av = ~(0.4 cm3/s.The MCAT Physics Book 2. The connection between force and pressure is F = PA. then we can use the heat capacity to get the temperature change. whether it be a cannon ball or a drop of beetle spray. Using P V = nRT. The table in the passage allows us to calculate the heat released per mole of quinone produced. the volume of the chamber is unnecessary information. 2. + E. we note that 1000 / (0. At a given temperature gases tend to have much more entropy than liquids and solids. using the points just outside the abdomen and the top of flight for the spray. Choices B.. but about quantities that do not depend on volume (such as temperature). accelerates down at 10 mls2 if gravity is the only force acting on it at the surface of Earth. In the absence of other information about entropy. so D is incorrect. 5. A. so this is not a likely possibility. We can obtain the distance traveled by vZZ v12 2ah . it is reasonable to assume that the reaction which produces the most gas has the largest entropy increase. B. but that is important during the days and years before the accident. so A is correct. The pressure inside the chamber is pushing in the opposite direction as the atmospheric pressure outside the chamber.01 em)' (1200 cm/s) = 0. = + 1. But if Bernoulli's principle applies. We need to know the concentration of quinone to know how much heat per quantity of solution is produced. D..
since the bag seems to gain kinetic energy. . Since the flow must go through a smaller area. . and F is the same.o. There are a number of ways to ensure that a bag will not burst (safety valve. then P. 5. misses the point. . .. 2. C.. then A would be a possibility. The energy of collision or. 4. . A. And. the presence of an airbag increases the distance over which the decelerating force acts: not all at once at the steering wheel. D. Option A. since the true energy flow involves pushing back the atmosphere and not in moving the bag (which has little mass)... . which might later be turned to heat. remember that for flow along a streamline. . the work that must be done on the driver to stop him is a constant (equal to the negative of his kinetic energy before the collision).). If we take the streamline shown in the figure. . the reservoir pressure (Pascal's law). So A is incorrect. + pg(h2.. so it is incorrect. is greater than v. D makes a correct statement. but "gradually" over 0. indeed. Option D is a better description. as well as B. . the velocity must increase to maintain the same flow rate f = Av. so B is incorrect. 3. C . but doesnot lend advantage to the driver. Bernoulli's equation (neglecting the gravity terms) is If v.... so A and B are incorrect. then pressure is reduced. the pressure at point Q is the same as the pressure at point S. rather. A larger area of the nozzle could increase the flow rate. Bernoulli's equation becomes 6. The point of energy release in an airbag is that the airbag is actually inflated.Solutions . . Hydrostatic equilibrium dictates that Po = Pa. . and so on) that are better than having it deflate. The language of choice D reminds us of W. It is not clear how a larger area of the bag could affect the flow rate.. except for the tiny region where Barometer 2 disturbs the flow. . however..= FAx. . Thus the pressure measured by Barometer 1 is the same as the upstream pressure. If A is increased. . then upstream we have pressure PI and desired velocity v . . D. If this were a reaction that generated a lot of heat that then dissipated. hence the cushioning effect Thus C is correct. . so C is incorrect. is less than P. . and at the point in front of the barometer we have pressure P2 and v = 0. The pressure all along the flow is the same. .. Option C reminds us of the formula P = FIA. But do not rely on the equation. Chapter IO I Having the bag deflate will not affect the temperature appreciably. which involves Na or 0 in bizarre valence states.h. . Passage 5 I In the figure shown. the pressure increases when the velocity decreases. This decreases the force and reduces grievous bodily harm. . All the options are reasonable byproducts except A. but the question is asking about the airbag. . so A is incorrect.3 meters. Option C seems like a possibility. chemical to heat.
. . v. Bernoulli's equation can no longer be used to obtain pressure. The 2 key to this problem is remembering that Bernoulli's equation is about energy. Thus.The MCAT Physics Book B. . If viscosity is added. thus reducing pressure from the prediction given by the Bernoulli equation.2 2 2 + heat energy volume Comparing this with the equation in problem 4 above. see previous problem). 5. then f = A. The equation is a statement of energy conservation. Thus v... we see that in this equation P. we have 1 1 P3 + pv3 2 = P. v as v . creating heat. then viscosity converts some energy into heat. . A. + pv. must be smaller (the 1 pv. but perhaps we can figure out the answer by figuring out where the equation breaks down. If the fluid is incompressible. = regardless of viscosity. is the same . Viscosity robs the flow energy. term is the same.
.. The velocity vector is changing direction.. the forces due to spring and gravity were balanced.10 m) = 0... Chapter II Chapter 1 1 Solutions 1. We can draw a force diagram for the mass (shown below).0 N down..35 m.2 m.5 Nlm) = 3.= One revolut~on the equivalent of the circumference is C = 21rR=.8 kg) (10 mls2) = 8. (See figure.. which sum to zero. Another way to get the same result is to realize the new extension x is 3. for a total 3. Of course. . (There are two forces not shown: the force of gravity and the normal force of the table.5 Nlm) (0.= (2. the resting length of the spring must be 1...) The spring provides the centripetal force... so they must be equal in magnitude (second law of motion). Since the radius of the circle of revolution is 2 m and since the spring is pulling. for a net force 0. The increase in spring force is given by AFsMn. The magnitude of the force is FPv = (0.Bk = (8.. can write Fs. If we draw a force diagram for the mass (shown below). 5... . These two facts together imply the acceleration is up. We use the spring equation to calculate x = F.25 N.15 m.3 m) = 8. B.1 m. The net force must be either up or down or zero. The extension x is given by x = F.. the answer to a problem would not depend on the answer to a previous problem.. .= kr2 = (0.0 N... . 12 m.) The figure below shows a force diagram for the bob.Solutions . Before we started pulling. then we see that the gravitational force and the spring force add to zero.+. Thus the time it takes is Clv = (12 m)l(2 mls) = 6 s.2 m + 0.5) (50 Nlm) (0.2 m)' = 1 J.. D.2 m.Bk = (10 N)/(50 Nlm) = 0..8 m. Since the spring is being stretched.. Solving for v gives v = 2 d s . Then we increased the spring force... and in fact.0 N)1(2... so the acceleration cannot be zero.. 2 on the real MCAT. we add that to the resting length 0. there must be a centripetal component to the acceleration.25 N up.. We simply use 1 E. so we rnv21~.5 Nlm) (3. A. so the force exerted by the spring is F. which is closest to D.25 N up. The force of gravity is 8..=kdr = (2.. 4.
C. 15. EKI+ E P I= En +EPZv Clearly the choices intend for us to use frequency information (not F. The amplitude is the size of the displacement from the equilibrium position.41. The energy is then converted to spring potential energy. The equation is The displacement of the spring is increased by a factor of 4 in our experiment. If 20 oscil1ations take 60. The period is the time for one oscillation. The change in gravitational energy is mgL.0 s.. A..that is. This time the displacement is the same in both experiments. and energy is converted from potential to kinetic. I 1 . Any amplitude may be chosen for the oscillation.1 5 m to the left of equilibrium and 0. So the amplitude is 0. . This is a conservation of energy problem. C. Again. The mass travels 0. so we write The frequency is the number of oscillations per unit time. Questions 6 and 7 are the same because of the second law of motion. The larger mass does not affect the final kinetic energy but its velocity would be less.. The 1 change in spring potential energy is kr2. If k increases by a factor of 2. since energy is conserved (there is no change from begin point to end point in kinetic energy): If k increases then f increases. B. 14. this is a conservation of energy problem. so the initial stored energy is increased by a factor of 16. it has its maximum kinetic energy. then f increases by a factor of &. then one oscillation takes 3 s. The velocity must increase by a factor of 4. = 4v. B. 17. 9. and v.15 m to the right of equilibrium in one oscillation. The energy begins as gravitational potential energy. Thus also the net force is up. Just before the ball hits the spring. sof = 1IT. so the stored energy is the same at the beginning of the experiment...41 is the same as increasing by 41%. 12. A. 1. A. D. If you try to work out the forces involved. Increasing by a factor of 1. There is no relationship between amplitude and spring constant. These should 2 add to zero.The M C A T Physics Book 7. = kx).15 m. things get tangled pretty quickly. 6 The relationship between frequency and spring constant is given by 11. and the kinetic energy is the same at the end of the experiment.
. so that if the initial velocity is v.. but any answer must also involve heat. Some readers confuse acceleration with velocity (or speed) and think that the block must be moving when the acceleration is great. that is. Gravitational potential energy plays no role in the problem. 2 . During the collision.. and the area increases by a factor of 16. The velocity is given by v = Af = (4 m) (0.. During the brief moment of the collision.. B.. The choices involving chemical energy would also be possibilities (since the tearing and grasping of velcro is chemical). 24. D.Solutions .. . . . . 30. A. the spring does not do anything.. spring potential and kinetic are the two forms of energy.5 Hz.. If we try to think of forces. 25..D. then we write 26. so D is the best answer. . most of the initial kinetic energy gets dissipated as heat. B. A. C. 27.. The wavelength is the distance from peak to peak. If the diameter of a circle increases by a factor of 4.. This is a question about geometry only. the sum of kinetic and potential is. It cannot dissipate as heat.. Momentum is conserved because there are no external forces during the collision: gravity is balanced with the normal force. The question is a little vague on purpose. since some MCAT questions are like that.. D. . We need to use conservation of momentum (the clue is that the collision involves sticking). A strong coupling will generally not allow energy to build up. in which the kinetic energy (after the collision) gets completely converted to potential energy: ?he amplitude is from equilibrium point to peak. I . 3 The period is 2 s. These are the two conditions for resonance to occur. see Section 1. The net force is to the right when the spring is extended. so the frequency is f = IIT = 0. . 28. A. when the spring is compressed or extended.+ mB 012 . because the spring force keeps changing.. Momentum is not conserved.. If this seems counterintuitive. (0)= (m. 22. In an oscillating system.5 Hz) = 2 m/s. so the potential energy does not come into play. A... A. and the spring is not compressed and hence exerts as yet no force. 29.. Although kinetic energy is clearly not conserved. the external force being the spring which acts on mass B. the radius increases by a factor of 4. And the kinetic energy before the collision turns into heat (mostly). so C is also incorrect.. momentum is likely to be the only conserved quantity.. 3 The acceleration is the greatest when the net force is the greatest. the energy is going back and forth between two or more forms (so A is incorrect). we will get confused. This is not so. m v + m. Indeed. how does If the area change? We know A = d.. Again this is an energy problem. so D is incorrect.. . Chdpter 11 18.the diameter increases by a factor of 4. Remember that whenever there is a collision involving sticking or crunching or whathaveyou..
We can read from the figures that ill = 4 m. 37.0. and 4=2m.The MCAT Physics Book 31.8 mm. 39. and the speakers produce waves that are in f phase. As in the previous problem. etc. Since we want to keep v the same and T the same. The fundamental is shown in the first figure below. the center is an antinode.). relative to wavelength. the combination has its maximum amplitude 0. If it were a haifodd integer (0.5. we calculate We have a node. Thus if the diameter is decreased by a factor of 2. then we would have an antinode. 40. A.5 . 1. The density p is to decrease by a factor of 4. Accordingly. 38. If the waves are out of phase.3. we therefore (since vZ= Tlp) want to keep p the same. while the first harmonic is shown in the next figure. Thus we have pA = const. the area is decreased by a factor of 4.the ratio f1& is 112. C. B. We want to increase the wave velocity by a factor = of 1.2. If this were a whole number.3 m. the combination has its minimum amplitude of (0. C. Two crests are emitted by the speakers at the same time. 1. if superposed. A. and its distance to speaker 2 is 0 7 m.69. the waves must arrive at the midpoint in phase. we want to increase T by 69%. The duck's oscillation could be as little as 1 m (out of phase) or as much as 7 m (in phase).2 Pa. Since the frequency is inversely related to the wavelength (from v = ilf). The question does not say whether the wave arrives in phase or out of phase or inbetween. If the waves are in phase. so the radius increases by a factor of 2.3)~ 1. second harmonic Since the midpoint is the same distance from both speakers. The two waves. I this explanation is unclear. then the radius is decreased by a factor of 2. We could also write . and the linear density is decreased by a factor of 4.5. They travel at the same velocity toward the center.3) Pa = 0. and the diameter increases by a factor of 2. The passage stated that p = pA.8 Pa. The distance from the microphone to speaker 1 is . We are interested in the difference in phase.5. We calculate 41. Since vZ = TI1 we want to increase T by (1. Thus it is 0. then we would have a node. 32. visualize the following. would add to zero at every point. and they arrive at the same time. which is the difference in distance. that is. C. C.
v = AJ and we know f = 660 Hz. . ... ?he sixth harmonic has five nodes (not including the ends).06. which is an increase of 6%. We can get the wavelength just by knowing that the note 660 Hz refers to the fundamental. C. and pdoes not change.22 m. The fundamental does not have a node at the midpoint. B. . I 3. This is shown in the figure.325 m. .25 x lo4Hz..03. but the second harmonic does. so the frequency is given by = 2. we see only one choice less than 382. I The fourth harmonic is shown. The third hannonic is the first mode with a node at the "third" point.5x104 Hz. so this is the lowest frequency that can make a sound.. so that we write Our first thought is to use the information about linear density. What other formula do we have for wave velocity? Well.. which means T is increased by a factor of (1. Passage 1 The third harmonic is shown in the figure above... so that f = VIA= 294 Hz. we can read the wavelength from the figure. C. but there is no way to find the tension in the string. Its frequency is given by The first node occurs one fourth of the way from the neck end.03)' = 1. . Since the neck is a node as well. so that we write 1 C.65 m) = 0. If this is not clear.. We do not have to do the calculation.03. does not change) by a factor of 1. If we look at the choices. We can see there are two wavelengths in the 2 m.3 m. C h d p t e r 11 42. =1.. ?his corresponds to a wavelength 0... C. 44. as in problem 3 (above).. Increasing the frequency by 3% is the same as increasing it by a factor of 1.. . . there must be a node at the midpoint and three fourths of the way down.. 2.65 m) = 0.. Now T = v2p.325 m. For the D string we can use d = 1. .3 m.65 m) = 1. yielding f = vld = 1175 Hz.. The fundamental has a wavelength d = 2 (0. . A. ..Solutions . . which means increasing the wave velocity (recall v = AJ and A.. we can also write that there are 3R wavelengths contained in the 2 m... One the one hand. The wavelength is d = 113 (0. 4. The fourth harmonic (see the figure in problem 40) has a wavelength d = 112 (0.
5 x lo6Hz in biological tissue. the coating providing a gradual transition. C. There is nothing in the passage indicating a change of frequency. Choices A and B do not express what happens when a wave breaks. 2. The two real choices are B and D. so D is it. which the MCAT refers to as mechanical. Choice D is reasonable. the wavelength must be smaller than the observed object. where we use v= 1500mls. This would decrease the reflectivity. . since the situation more closely resembles paragraphs 1 and 2. Frequency is not directly connected to intensity.The: MCAT Physics Book Passage 2 1. It must be the case that the snow absorbs the sound energy. because the transition from air to wood is abrupt. A. Choice B refers to the transition from deep to shallow water. Since there is tearing and rupturing involved. Choice A is incorrect. This is not the case. doncerning choice C. D. Visible light waves have a small wavelength. so a thin coating would suffice. The source of friction is the sandy beach. The pool waves hit the sharp boundary of the side of the pool and are reflected.05 s. but amplitude is . not mentioned among the choices. A wavelength of m corresponds to a frequency of about 1. since the point is that the . This is an example of resonance. 7. The lowest frequency is 20 Hz. D. D. Choices A and B are irrelevant. if the coat of snow were thick compared with the wavelength of sound (paragraph 2). 5. and there must be a weak coupling between two oscillators: the sound is one and the oscillating organ is the other. 1 5 I I n. B. According to the second paragraph. the energy is initially both kinetic and potential. 3 . We apply v = A$ using the speed of sound in air. turning it to heat. there must be chemical bonds broken. . since the frequency of a wave stays constant as it travels from place to place. Passage 3 1. There are no chemical changes. Choice B seems likely. As waves. 6. and the mechanical energy goes into another form. D. The equation here is given by 6. D. Choice A is true but does not do a good job of explaining anything. B Choice A is incorrect. 4.. Choice D is definitely incorrect. which happens over length scales very long compared to the 10m ocean waves. There is nothing to indicate C is correct. According to the first paragraph. the problem is not energy reflecting off the organ but being absorbed by it. since we certainly do not want to convert light energy to anything else. Choice B would be a good explanation. Amplitude and intensity are connected. Choices C and D are true but irrelevant. so C is incorrect. resulting in your not hearing it. a wave has its best chance of being transmitted if it has short wavelength. Choice A is incorrect.. Choice B is incorrect. so T = I&= 1420 Hz) = 0. snow is not reflecting sound.
and this adds 10 to twice. But P i s related to the logarithm of intensity. . and plugging any number you want in for area (like 1 m2). . ..... then take a minute to memorize it. with area 4n(1 m)2. If distance increases by a factor of 3. that means that the intensity at Betsy's ear was I = 1012w/m2. (If you have forgotten this formula. ... An increase by a factor of 10 leads to an addition of 10 to P. C . . we write AE=PAt 6. D. The total surface area of that ball is 4z 3. and this increases the intensity by a factor of 100 (two factors of lo). If you stand 6 m away from the sound. . . then the intensity of the sound would be lo2= 100 times less. = 2. Since the mosquito was 1 m away. Chdpter 12 Chapter 1 2 Solutions 5. Since the problem said the sound was barely perceptible. We simply apply the formula W ~ m ~ ) l ( l~~l. [ 10 10~. so = (20 + 10 + 10) decibels.3 x lo'' W) = 10110'I = 1oL2. .) Since intensity is power per area. You can also work this out by using the formula..[10~] 10 (6) = 60 decibels. we would need (10 W)/(1. 8. The intensity I is proportional to the power. then intensity decreases by a factor of 32= 9.. . .Solutions .. To power a 10W bulb. We estimated n = 3 and 3 x 36 = 100. we can imagine a ball 1 m in radius around the mosquito (see figure). but that is more difficult. then you can imagine a ball around the speaker of radius 6 m. But it is better to think it through as we have done here...... so an increase by a factor of 10 in power leads to an increase by a factor of 10 in intensity.r ~ ]~ ) ' n = /3 = 10 log. A. . The 40 W goes out in all directions. 7. A. To obtain the energy produced in 100 s. B. In the last problem we determined that the power produced by one mosquito was 1. .3 x lo" W. the power must be 3.. In Section B we discussed how intensity varies as the inverse square of the distance from the point source of sound. . Thus there would have to be 100 mosquitos in order to be barely perceptible. Look for these shortcuts. then for this ball. If a mosquito were 10 m away (instead of 1 m).. we can write This is the power produced by one mosquito. .. . Moving from 30 to 3 m away decreases the distance by a factor of 10. If 10l2W emerges from each area 1 m2. B. You can work this problem by explicitly using the formula.
A.5 m to obtain I = 2 m.I= 0. and we apply f = VIA. since the pipe length is 0. The fundamental wave form is shown in the figure. then the closed end is a node and the open end is an antinode. There are 1 9 2. Thusf decreases by 2%. so we may write (914)I = 4 4 1. This is half a wave.1 m. If sound speed is 2% slower. 14. What is shown is only three quarters of a wavelength. 12. 10.. z 16. . C. I 18. We can write (314) A = 1. or 2 Hz. Sound speed and frequency are related by f = VIA. The 1.5 m to obtain I = 213 m. B. This is shown in the figure. D. 13.wave forms present.98. then both ends are antinodes. Thus the frequency is f = VIA=(343 m/s)/(6 m) = 60 H . A.6 H . for a total of four nodes. so the wavelength is 6 m.2 m) = 1700 H . so . 27.98. This means that the E string z frequency differs from true 660 Hz by 2 H .The MCAT Physics Book D. and f decreases by a factor of 0.5 Hz = 1. z 1. even for the fundamental. The beat frequency in this case is f = 29. If we consider the displacement of air particles. The fourth harmonic has three more nodes than the fundamental. . 9. There are two wavelengths packed in the 0. D.2 m.6 s. 15. The problem states that the beat frequency is twice a second.5 m shows merely a quarter of a full wave. z 19. The second harmonic has one more node than the fundamental. This is shown in the figure. and we need at least one node in the pipe. B. The fifth harmonic has four more nodes than the fundamental.= .Thus the period is T = Ilf= 0. where I is constant since it is simply twice the length of the organ pipe. A.1 m. and it is shown in the figure. If we consider the displacement of air particles.Thus it could be 658 Hz or 662 Hz. 1 Thus the frequency of the fundamental is f = VIA=(343 m/s)/(0. so the wavelength is 0. 17.1 Hz . The ends are still antinodes:This is shown in the figure. then v decreases by a factor of 0. since the length of the tube does not change.05<n. The wavelength A is still 6 m for the fundamental. A. B.
. since sound needs to come into it somehow. the frequency detected by the police detector would be 24.= (784. (42 kHz) Now if it were to reemit this frequency. but we hear beats only at the end of the procedure. . the frequency it would hear is given by + f .= vl(2L)....783. and C look really tempting. but this time we choose the positive sign: fdel 350 (420 Hz) = 350 + 50 .87 Hz by 3.. but that is not the excitation of the C. Choice D.Thus we have = 56 kHz. This time the detector is moving. For choice B. This is the equivalent of sending a signal and having it reflectfrom a moving target.Thus to get the frequency of the fundamental... Thus + 21.= 350 . B. so C is the answer.... is the spreading of waves due to the dependence of wave speed on frequency (which we have not discussed). = 490 Hz. f.. we need to divide 784. The frequency of the third harmonic is given by f. B.. (420 Hz) = (420 Hz) = 480 Hz. 26. 350 (420 Hz) fh = 35050 .. 2 .. Chapter 1P Choices A. Choice D describes sound in another way. string. The figure shows the fundamental and the third harmonic for the C . B. D is the answer. After all.. that the energy starts in the strings and ends up as sound. however. and we choose the positive sign in the numerator to obtain an answer greater than 420 Hz (again they are approaching). and we choose the minus sign in the denominator because we want the answer to z be greater than 420 H .. string... which is a "sloshing back and forth" of kinetic and potential energy. If the car were to hear the frequency.. Thus. The emitter is moving.. 350 = 8 7 . 3 = = 367. 25. We know.... 27. Again the emitter is moving. D.87 . the first medium being the guitar string and the second medium being air. Choice A is tempting since the minipassage is about beats.. The beat frequency between the notes is f f f. which is what happens when waves from both strings combine. The fundamental frequency is given by f.. sound is a wave.......88 HZ. Choice C is when energy gets transferred from one oscillator to another of similar frequency by a weak coupling.. interference is the addition of two waves in the same medium. C.. There are two Doppler shifts. = vl(2l3 L) = 3 f.99) HZ= 0. D. C.5 Hz. dispersion.Solutions .
4. but it is interesting to think why. The reason that the power never reaches zero is that the outgoing wave has a larger amplitude than the incoming wave.. If the tree could detect a frequency. D. Use A = v/f. so choice D is incorrect. The time required is dr = Axlv = 0. and we have discussed only the one dimension parallel to the motion (which is the important one). there is no Doppler shift. it would detect f= = . 1.358 343 (50 kHz)  There are two Doppler shifts. Given the fact that the bat and the te re approach each other. so T refers to the beat period. and travel back again. This would not really aid in distance measurement. the wavelength must be shorter than the target insect._. then the bat would detect a frequency given by . Since the insect and the bat are moving in the same direction at the same speed. Higher harmonic content refers to higher frequencies being present in addition to the fundamental. but there is no way to know from the passage whether it is doing so directly away or at an angle. Thus the frequency must be greater than f = vlli. . 343 343 328 50 kHz. B. Stunning the insect? Choice B is also incorrect.= 34300 Hz = 34. The Doppler effect happens in three dimensions. In the upper figure we see the beat. These higher harmonic frequencies thus have shorter wavelength. since shorter wavelengths are more likely to be reflected if the wavelength of the fundamental is too large. D. Why is such an adaptation completely useless? The sound pulse must travel from the bat to the insect.. for a total of 6 m. If you want to make sure. 3. you can work this problem like problem 27 above. According to paragraph 1.017 s. The bat does not hear frequencies which are too far from those it sends out. If the harmonics are Doppler shifted. Maxima correspond to times when the two waves are in phase.. 4. Because the detected frequency is lower. be reflected. . 3.3 kHz. D. If it reemitted this frequency. You do not need to do the calculation to obtain the answer.. the vehicle is receding. C. which is l/j. There is a sentence in paragraph 1 which indicates that C is plausible.. B.The MCAT Physics Book Passage 1 6 B. then so is the fundamental. Choice D is definitely not right. A. so choice A is incorrect. and the detected frequency is simply 30 kHz. so D is the only possible answer. 5. the frequency must be increased. 5.
C.. cies f. B. A..Solutions . The waves in the pipe are analogous to waves on a string. so the . 6. .. but the question asks for the wavelength of the wave in the pipe. sof = 32. then an answer like A would be appropriate...70Hz . Choice A is definitely wrong.30. .. . . that forces us to include three more nodes. . especially with a wavelength drawn onto the graph. and the hammer blow is a transverse blow. The ear constructs the difference tone later. Sound waves in air must be longitudinal. C. . . According to paragraph 3.87 Hz + 32. and f enter the ear. Choice D might have been correct if time were the horizontal coordinate. not the wavelength of the wave in the air. which cannot possibly be harmonics. f. +$ node 7 antinode. . The passage describes the vibration 4 as having antinodes at the midpoint and ends and a node at the onequarter point. . This is shown in the figure. You may have been tempted to choose D.3 4. The second fundamental is shown in he . We usef = VIA. Choice B might show a portion of the power spectrum after some processing. .P. One wavelength corresponds to the length of the pipe. the figure above. The passage says that a note of average frequency turns on and off. 1 .87Hz = 1 8 Hz. so we cannot use 3 3 m/s. Sound is tiny variations of pressure. . . but choice D is excluded. Beats is a particular phenomenon which occurs when waves of similar frequency interfere. The pressure in the room does not change markedly from the equilibrium pressure. . . This is the definition of interference. Chdpter 1 P Passage 3 I Passage 4 1 C. T r e waves fit in 0 8 m. B..7 wavelength is 0 2 m. does not enter the ear. Difference tones have to do with the way the ear processes sound. . . If the vertical axis were marked AP = P . . Choices A and B include frequencies lower than 110 Hz. Choice C is correct. We need to introduce at least one more node. 2. . Thus the perceived frequency is (30. sound of two frequen. so A and B are incorrect. and C all share the property that the difference is the desired frequency 110 Hz. . .  2. . Diffraction is the spreading of waves.9 3. .70Hz)/2 = 3 1 7 Hz. C. . For that the horizontal axis must be a space coordinate like x. . Choices A. . This question asks for the beat frequency (times per second).. B. but the frequencyf. . If we introduce another node between the end and the place where the string attaches.
C. Since Alice is an equal distance from the speakers. so for her the waves will still be in phase. 4. B. the corresponding crest from the left is still in transit. a trough is arriving from the right speaker. Thus she is at an antinode. 3. When crest is coming from the left speaker. and the speakers are emitting sound waves in phase. for Bob. D. because the wave fiom the left speaker takes a bit longer to arrive. C. Alice is positioned equidistant from the speakers. D. Bob has moved to a position of relative silence. trough comes from the right. C . The key here is that. By the time it arrives. 6.The MCAT Physics Book Passage 5 1. 5. wave crests arrive at her location in phase. the waves arrive out of phase. which must be a node. The sum of the two distances is not significant and cannot be derived from the information. . so A and D are incorrect. The waves arrive out of phase where Bob is sitting. When a crest from the right speaker is arriving. which we change when we change the frequency. The difference is half a wavelength. 2. Experiment 2 is the prescription for creating beats. Bob's location at a node depends on the wavelength of the sound.
Thus the answer is C. and this eliminates A and B. the light bends down. the beam bends away from the normal (C is incorrect)... . which is a radius. To see that the beam is indeed exactly horizontal. As the light beam goes from the glass to the air.. As it passes into the glass it bends toward the normal. The dashed line shows the normal. At the interface to glass.. At the second interface (normal is dashed line). . from air to glass. which is down. lass As the light beam passes into the glass.. .... Passing into the air. shown dashed. Chdpter 13 Chapter 13 Solutions beam bends toward the normal. At the first interface.... the beam bends away from the normal. and at the first interface the light bends toward the normal. . .. which is down.. the incident angle is 0°. away from the normal. .. it bends away from the normal (so the refracted beam makes a larger angle with the normal than the incident beam).Solutions . which is again up.. you need to work out Snell's law... so the transmitted ray is still horizontal. glass At the interface to air. At the interface with glass. the beam bends toward the normal. back to horizontal. the light bends away from the normal. the beam bends toward the normal (A and D are incorrect).... .. the . and at the second interface..
2 8. the wavelength must decrease by a factor of 1. Thus. sin 8. and total internal reflection. and thus wavelength.. then the ray makes an angle with the surface which is 60". The frequency of light is the same. = . 4 9. = nisin Oi. For the critical angle. = n. C . where the negative sign indicates the image is on the same side as the object.= 90") ni sin O. 6. although the wave speed. so the answer is A. . The figure shows the ray diagram. D. 6sin 0.. Since sine cannot be greater than 1.The MCAT Physics Book 11.)' Thus A = clnf. sin 0. 3 1 sin 6 .. If you want to use equations. 3 sine.. 3 4 In this case the incident angle is 60°. 10.7. From this we can see the answer is B. = ni sin 8. Since n increases by a factor of 1. n. sin 90". . The equation for critical angle becomes (setting 8. Oi = 60". If the refracted angle is 30°. we must have the refracted angle be 90": ni sin 8. A. There is a critical angle.7. only for light beams traveling from a slow medium encountering a fast one.00 sin 8. changes. = 2' The reflected angle has the same magnitude as the incident angle. 4 3 0cnt =sin' .00) sin 60°. B.. = sin' . Snell's law becomes n. D. so we have A = v. since the problem states that the angle with the horizontal is 30". 12. 1. but the wave speed does. = (1. = sin 30°.. you can write = n.. The frequency of the beam does not change as it goes from air to a salt crystal. sin 90°. there is no critical angle..
f d i do (object  / 21. The figure shows the ray diagram. The magnification is given by The candle image has a height 20. We can get the focal length from the following equation: 1. C. The magnification can be read from the diagram. since the rays must be extended to intersect. or we can write 19. B. dispersion causes the focal length to depend on frequency. B. The magnification is given by The figure shows the ray diagram. and the focal length depends on the refraction of the beam in the lens. B.+ . 17. . From it we can read the position of the image close enough to realize that B is the answer.r 1 Since the index of refraction depends on the frequency.14. From the diagram we observe the image is upright and virtual.1 . C . The equation is where the negative sign indicates the image is inverted. from which we see the image is inverted and real.
A. To see this in the equation.di/&= . C. light rays that start at the focus end up parallel. The equation becomes where the negative sign indicates the image is behind the mirror. If the object is an infinite distance away. D. We can read this from the diagram. we write 22. From the diagram we can see that the image is about 12 m behind the mirror. A.(12 m)/(6 m) = 2. we would write 25. 12 m in front of the mirror. 28. B.The MCAT Physics Book 26. The figure shows the ray diagram. then the focus is on the focal plane. Conversely to the previous problem. From the diagram we see the image is inverted and real. From the diagram we see the image is in the same position as the object but inverted. or we can calculate m = . . 0 \ image ' These answers can be read from the ray diagram (see figure). C. 3 . If we wanted to do the calculation. Ii Z image The figure shows the ray diagram for the candle 6 m from the mirror. 29.
All of the resulting light passes through the second (right) polarizer.. Thus the final beam has half the intensity of the original. B. We want a combination with total power P. then the intensity is zero. The second polarizer cuts out the vertical component and passes the horizontal component. This is an application of the equation f = CIA= m) = 5.. west... 1 4m 2m Again. down. The light emerging from the first polarizer has half the intensity of the original source. Chdpter 13 32. but none is emitted north and south.. . so the lens is a converging lens. The power of the combination is the sum of the powers. B.. Ifit ends up vertically polarized.. The passage states (paragraph 1) that radiation is emitted perpendicular to the wire.. still polarized but at some oblique angle. Thus P.. . = Pa..= 113 D. The focal length is 113 m.. 37. If the beam ends up horizontallypolarized. The magnification is given by m = +do = . the light emerging from the first polarizer is vertically polarized and has intensity 112 1.. so the resulting intensity is zero... then the resultant intensity is between 0 and 112 I. 35. (3 x 10' m/s)/(520 x .8 x 1014Hz. = llf= 112 D. then the resulting intensity is 112 1..P. . For the antenna in question 5.. We use the equation 1 .(4 m)/(2 m) = 2.. .116 D. up. the energy turns to heat. D. = . After it goes through the optically active substance. .. If the more probable situation arises that the beam is somewhere between these two extremes. and it is vertically polarized. since it is already vertically polarized.. . B. since the horizontal component has been taken out of it. +. Since the light is absorbed.. and so on.1 f. . .. since that information is not given in the problem. We calculate the focal length as follows: 1 1 1 1 . D. most of the radiation is emitted east.. The first lens has a power P. 5.... The light emerging from the first (left) polarizer has half the intensity of the original source. where the positive sign indicates the mirror is converging.= I&. it may have any orientation.Solutions .
we must have P. 4. the opposite is true: a larger pupil allows more directional information to enter the eye.1) (0.~ and inverted. B.04 radians. tive lens plus eye lens is 110.01 m10. giving a better resolution. D. the size of the image is m (0. The desired power of the combination of correcC. 10. The resolution of the eye is the ratio of dot separation to standing distance. a larger pupil does allow in more light. but this does not explain a decrease in resolution. D = 10m. C= . .The MCAT Physics Book 6. D. 5 D.0. so we calculate Trying to determine if two dots are separate or blurred is analogous to trying to distinguish two headlights. light gathering hole) and the wavelength of the light used. the ratio of the spatial separation of the top and bottom of the moth to the distance from the moth to the eye. The figure shows the red light focused on the retina.= A/d = (520 x 2 x lo' rad. We have used green light as being representative of visible light. = Peye+ Pmmt. Thus the angle is 0.. so D is correct. The subtended angle can be calculated from information in the third paragraph. if the camera is diffraction limited.4 m) = limited.3". which should improve resolution if there were not another factor present. so the information is in paragraph 3. then the resolution depends on the size of the lens (that is. D. that is. A. which is about 2. which would increase the resolution. Choices A. so the diffraction angle 8.01 m) = 1o . For choice B.1. Increasing the size of the entire camera would increase the size of the lens. You must stand 10 m away. According to the passage. . The figure shows the ray diagram for this problem. assuming the apparatus is diffraction limited. The best resolution we can hope for is diffraction rnY(2.= Ud would decrease. The large lens introduces spherical aberration. . so we write Since the magnification is . by decreasing the resolution angle.025 m = 40 D. Since P . 3.25 m = 0. for which 8. The figure exaggerates the case. Concerning choice A.. W light has a shorter wavelength than visible light. both cats and humans contend with chromatic aberration (see question 5). and C address neither of these issues. For choice C. The diagram is not too much help in this problem. This lens refracts the blue light more than red light and hence focuses blue rays in front of the red focus.
. The magnitude of the force in the xdirection is given by Coulomb's law.. Both charges increase by a factor of 2. = N... so that F. Pythagorean theorem. so choice A is out. C.. At first it seems as if 111can be definitely concluded.. B. In choices C and D.. F. D. First let's draw a diagram with all the forces on charge q. This can be obtained by process of elimination. We obtain the total force by the N.. A. The positive charges will repel each other and. The positive charges will repel each other.... as the distance increases by a factor of 4. First let's draw a diagram with all the forces. A. The sodium ion Na' is positively charged and attracts the oxygen atom. By Coulomb's law. So choices C and D are out.Solutions . the force decreases by a factor of 4'. the positive charges are concentrated in an area. the balls must have like charge. Then we remember that a charged object can attract a neutral object if it induces a charge. If Q and Q are 2 x 104m apart. Thus they will end up distributed as in choice B.. will move as far apart as possible... By Coulomb's law... then q is lo4 m from Q. Oxygen is slightly negative because it is more electronegative than the hydrogen atoms to which it is attached.. where we have used d = lo4 m. being free to move. 12.. 7. Chapter 14 Chapter 1 4 Solutions I Sections AD First let's draw a diagram with all the forces. The k~qld2 = force due to the charge Q is also to the right and has the same magnitude. = 5 x 1o . For a repulsive force to exist. 5. = 4 x lo' N. The forces add to yield 2 X lo' N. 10. Both contribute an increase of a factor of 2 to the force. so D is the correct answer.... Likewise F. = 3 x lo' N.~ 11... This is an example of Newton's thud law. The correct answer is D. but not being free to move. A. the charges in the middle would be repelled by the charged ball and move to the left. Q q Q* The forces add to zero. 1.. the force exerted by one charge on the other has the same magnitude as the force the other exerts on the first... In choice A. Their mutual repulsion would cause them to move apart. B... 4.. they will remain where they are placed. . The force to the right due to charge Q is F..
The MCAT Physics Book 13. Likewise we calculate the magnitude The horizontal components add to zero. If we want to calculate the numbers. First we draw a diagram. . The water molecule can be modeled as having a positive end and a negative end. Both electric field vectors point toward the negative charge. we draw a diagram. 7 First we draw electric field vectors into the diagram. is due to charge Q. so the total electric field at that point is zero. Subtracting these yields the result A. 1 . showing the electric field from the various charges. 15. and both vectors have a magnitude First we draw a diagram. and the vertical components are both up. the vector to the left is longer. A. so that is how we will draw i t The sodium ion exerts a force on each end. Note that because point P is closer to the negative charge. The sum will be to the left. we calculate the magnitude Note that the electric fields are of the same magnitude and point in the opposite direction. showing the electric field from the various charges. First. The repulsive force is greater than the attractive force because the positive end is nearer the sodium ion. as shown.) Since there are two vectors of equal magnitude. 1 . A. D. C . ( The vector El. showing the electric field from the various charges. away from the charges. and Coulomb's law states that the force varies as the inverse square of the distance. at x = m. Thus the answer is A.the result is D. so the answer is A. 6 First we draw a diagram.
.rng = 0. . . so the total electric field at point D is down. Let's start with F = ma. . and we have taken up to be positive.6 x 10l9C) (4 x lo4 NIC) = 6. we realize that the electric force must be up. up. Therefore. 19. if the hydrogen end pointed up and the oxygen end down. @isthe in opposite direction from f. and Q is twice as large for the alpha particle (helium has two protons and two neutrons). . 23. .. We do not have data for Coulomb's law. or We read the direction from the diagram. but we do have an electric field. and choices C and D will not create electric fields at all. where we have used E = 400 NIC. .E = (1. If the electric field is down. The force diagram for the ball is shown. The electron has a charge of opposite sign.. 20.. so C is the answer. showing the electric field from the various charges. In order to check the sign on the charge.and the charge q for an electron is negative.4 x lo'' N... and a negatively charged bottom plate will create a downward field as well. B. E is constant. D. So the charge must be negative. where F is the force on the proton (or electron). 24. The positive end of the water molecule would experience a force in the same direction as the electric field. down. ..Solutions . The relevant equation is F = QE.. the acceleration of the electron is of opposite direction and 2000 times greater.25 x lo4 C for the ball.mg = 0. and m is 2000 times smaller. . . Force balance yields F. . 21.4E m The positively charged top plate will create a downward electric field.. The force is given by F = qE. therefore. . The negative end of the molecule would experience a force in the opposite direction of the electric field.. B. . a= F m' Since $ = q~?. Since E is constant. The energy would be minimized. We apply the formula F = q. . that is. . The electric fields due to the various charges add to zero. We obtain Q = 2. Thus we write QE . in both cases... . Choice B will create an upward field. where Q is the charge on the ball. that is. We need to relate acceleration to data in the problem. so a=. Chdpter 14 First we draw electric field vectors into the diagram. . so the electric force will balance gravity. and rn is the mass of the proton (or electron).. .. The electric fields due to charges B and C add to zero. A. First we draw a diagram. then a positive charge would experience a downward force. the force is twice as large. . What do we use for F. 2 2 A. A. ...
OOOV) = 2 x J. A positive charge going from 10.10.The MCAT Physics Book 28. (see figure). we know to write W = Q AV. w = q(V.Y ) 29. The charge we want to transfer is Q = lo" C. to be fixed and move charge q. Does the sign make sense? Since we are moving a negative charge nearer a positive one. F changes. . If we try to apply W = FAxcos I$. that is. In this case the charge q starts at point A. A. we see that the molecule tends to be compressed. because the electric field here is uniform. we know to write W =Q AV. It moves to . The forces cancel.v. Note that this is not the orientation derived in problem 27. . Although the problem specifies that the path is straight across. we have w =%(v. the energy is path independent. where the potential due to Q is VA= kQ /rl = 2 x lo4V. = 1 m away from Q. = 5 m.. A. . so moving an electron is uphill. W=qAV 32.000V to 10. C. so the negative sign is correct. as the charge moves. so the equation to use is W = qAV. fixed and move q. A. so we do not need that information.000 V is going downhill. 33. The work required is Let's check the sign. Whenever we see a problem about work or energy with charges.) Then. Thus we have W = (10lo C) (10. we expect that the energy required be negative. which is r. from initial distance rito final distance r. D.VA) Whenever we see a problem about work or energy with charges. and drawing the water molecule as a dipole. (This is not like those problems in which one arrqw is longer than the other. . Whenever we see a problem about work or energy with charges. 30. Let's draw a diagram showing the forces. Thus Note that we get the same answer if we consider q. point 8.000 V . so V = kQlr2= 10' V. Moving a positive particle from 1000V to 1000 V is downhill. 31. D Again we use W = qAV = q(v. we know to write W = QAV. From the above diagram. because. an increase in energy.) 34. where we use r. B The clue here is the combination of energy and charge.we are dead in the water. Let's consider the charge q.
. and the force is an inversesquare law with respect to distance.mv2. so if v increases by a factor of 4.. never reaching zero. there is no heat generation or such nonsense.) This narrows the answer to C or D. where r is their initial distance. and r2= 4 m. = kQqlr. is 2 m. = 2 m . away from charge Q). we are lost..Solutions . Q is the charge of the electron.. where r. and AV is the voltage rating of the dry cell. In order for there to be heat. we know to write W = Q AV.mv2)is entirely converted to electrical potential The electric potential at point C is given by 1 1 43.. Since the acceleration is always positive (that is. = 4 x 105 volts...where r. (Note: The denominator is r. To distinguish between these possibilities we need an energy argument.. = 2 m and r2 = 4 m.. = V . and no energy is required.. (Use the Pythagorean theorem. since r. so there is no energy entering or exiting.. but the total work required is zero. The potential at the starting point A is VA = kQ Ir.This is not Coulomb's law. Chapter 1 4 Whenever we see a problem about work or energy with charges. there is a limit on the size of v. the velocity will increase forever. B. A. and the potential difference is zero volts. The energy starts as kinetic and ends as elecuical potential. can never be greater than 2 kQqlr. A. (There is no friction force in the problem to slow it down.. Clearly v and r are inversely related. Thus the potential at the two points is the same..) 3 . The potential at the ending point B is VB = kQ /r2. where r. we know to write W = Q AV.. (See the figure for a sketch of v versus t.. Thus if v is increased by a factor of 4.. as is the final electrostatic energy. so the initial kinetic energy 2 energy. . except that r. The force decreases as q moves away ffom Q.But since E. the energy of the system is all 1 kinetic: . Heat is not an appropriate concept with just two particles. = r4= 5 m.. because you pull as much energy out of the rock as you put into it. 36. (.. But the calculation for VB involves the same numbers. The energy is conserved..) 39. You may move the rock uphill and downhill. 7 If we work out the electric potential at points A and B. So V. We derived the expression for the electric potential energy in Example 4 of Section F. If we try to apply W = FAxcos $. The energy of the system starts as elecmcal potential energy. and is given by E .. . B.) After the charge Q has moved very far away. (Recall that the electrical potential energy is the energy required to bring a system together from charges starting at infinity. This is the equivalent of moving a rock from one point 50 m above sea level to another point 50 m above sea level.) If we set the expression for the initial kinetic energy equal to the final electrostatic energy.. not 2. is 2 m. A..... This is an equation about energy. we obtain 41.. Furthermore. which is about force.. we obtain Its acceleration is given by force divided by mass. there must be a large number of particles in random motion.. In this case.. for the force decreases forever. then r decreases by a factor of 16.. Whenever we see a problem about work or energy with charges. then the initial kinetic energy is increased by a factor of 16.
According to the passage. The wavelength of the radiation is A = clf = (3 x lo8rn/s)l(10~ = 30 m. so the force on the electrons in the antenna is up and down as well. D. the electric field "points along the same axis as the current" that produces it. The external force pulls the wire. B. 51. the fingers curl in the direction into the page at point A. then the electrons (being negative) must be flowing down. No matter what point along the wire loop we choose. The electric field must be to the right as well. D. At point P the magnetic field is into the page. it does no work). Using the right hand. 54. point the thumb up. The palm faces to the right. The palm faces left. But it will feel the attraction toward the electrons. Using the right hand. Thus there is no magnetic force on the electrons. Choices C and D are definitely out anyway. if we apply the right hand rule. 3. If a proton is placed at point A.The MCAT Physics Book 52. down the page. Passage 1 1. B. the length would be 7. so it cannot be a magnetic force speeding it up. If it is an electric force. This indicates that the direction of the electric field is down (toward the electrons). For a quarterwave Hz) antenna (see paragraph 3). point the fingers out of the page and the thumb up. The electrons should be free to move in this direction if an alternating current is to be set up. 49. it experiences no magnetic force (it is not moving). The tricky part here is realizing that if the electron beam moves to the right. The magnetic field is perpendicular to the direction of propagation (northlsouth) and to the electric field (upldown). Since the antenna is vertical. B. D. either one). The acceleration of the proton is to the right. The frequency of the radiation is the same as the frequency of the alternating current. 53. D. then the electric field points up the page. The fingers point down and the thumb to the right. B. 'IAe electric field points up and down. Using the left hand. so that the fingers curl counterclockwise when viewed from the top. then its force on an electron is into the page (because the electron is negative). A. . We use the left hand (because electrons are negative) to figure out the direction of the magnetic force. A. 4. there is work being done on it. 2. we obtain a magnetic field pointing out of the page. We are told that the electric force opposes it. C. Using the right hand with the thumb pointing left (or the left hand with the thumb pointing right. so the answer is B. so that is the direction of the magnetic force. There is a force on the proton up the page. If it is a magnetic force. so the electric field is vertical as well. because a magnetic force cannot speed up or slow down a particle (that is. so the force is to the right. It does not matter that the electrons are moving. So the magnetic field must point eastlwest. 47. point the fingers down the page and the thumb toward you. C . . The palm faces out of the page. the direction of the magnetic force. If the electric field points out of the page.5 m. If the current is up. so the electrons move in the same direction as the magnetic field. then the force would be provided by a magnetic field pointing into the page. so it must be into the page. A. 44. lo7Hz. 45. the current it carrieiis vertical. 46. Thus the antenna should be vertical. Since the proton is speeding up. then the current points to the left.
.Ol m) = 3 x lo6 NIC. that is. Since the electric field is directed away from the wire... The force of a charged particle in an electric field is simply F = Q E. 1 A.. B. this indicates that the charge on the wire is positive. .Solutions . (The kinetic energy it gains is about F.01 m from the wire. A calcium atom has no charge.... . Passage 3 I The force on a charged particle in an electric field is F = QE. you should immediately think of force on a charge. so the threshold is higher.. Choice B is correct in that the force creates the current. the negative oxygen experiences a force toward the wire... Thus te mean free path would decrease... so it is 1.. The mass density does not have anything to do with this phenomenon. To obtain force. so the oxygen ion ( ' experiences twice 03 the force. so an electron could not h travel as far before colliding with a particle. The charge on the hydrogen ion is 1. Passage 2 Increasing the pressure would put the gas particles closer to each other. The charge on the fluoride ion is due to an extra electron. Since the electric field points away from the wire.. so it is negatively charged relative to the rest of the molecule. so the force on it would be zero.6 x 10l9C. 5.. In an butanol molecule. The energy starts as electrical. we calculate F = q. Since the electric field is directed away from the wire.) Thus the electron is not likely to create a spark. Chapter 14 When you think of an electric field. away from the wire. It is true that an electron absorber will inhibit the phenomenon like killing a baby in its crib.) 6.. The electric field lines point in the same direction that the field points. and C are out... At a distance 0. A. The rapid decreases in velocity are the times of collision where the electron loses energy.... the electric field is E = (3 x lo4NrnlC)/(O. (Choice C is incorrect because the electrons are not bound to individual atoms. 409 I . from the standard formula for work. the oxygen atom is the most electronegative atom. E = 4. . then the energy it gains is less.6 x 10l9C. . the force on the electron is toward the wire.. If the electron is not able to travel as far. C. .. I.... . Thus the force on the fluoride is the same in magnitude and opposite in direction. A greater electric field is required. so choices A.. This graph shows the constant acceleration (due to the constant force) of the electron inthe parts of the graph which have a small positive slope.8 x lo" N.
in that the current at one point is affected by conditions (such as a partial blockage) both upstream and downstream. 4. The current through resister 2 is I. This is like water in a pipe. In the circuit diagram we label voltages and currents. We label the voltages and currents in the circuit diagram. C. = 6 V/l S2 = 6 A. = 6 V/2 S2 = 3 A. so a jump of 9 V means the wire on the other side is 15 V. from Ohm's law. The current through resister 1 is given by Ohm's law: I. and the volume flow rate is constant along a flow (if there is no branching). the volume flow rate. See the above explanation. B. The current splits into two unequal pieces.= 6 V. 8. we label the wire on the other side 6 volts. The short end of the cell 2 is 6 V.25 I . To obtain this current. Of course.2 A. Thus the potential drop across the resistor is 15 V. this is not surprising. But the potential drop is not nearly so large. beginning with 0 volts at the short end of cell 1. A ground is a large supply of charge. Because of the jump of V. Clearly. the current which flows through resistor 2 is the current which flows through the entire circuit. we can combine resistors. 6. Note that the current is the same for resistors in series.The MCAT Physics Booic Chapter 15 Solutions 1. We need to consider the entire circuit to obtain the current in any one place. A battery pumps charge from one electric potential to another. is I = (18 V)/(90 Q) = 0. If you chose C. we simply add in order to obtain the equivalent circuit shown below. which is not m e of flow velocity. In a flow of water. C. We can label the circuit diagram with currents and voltages. A pool is a large supply of water from which you can take or to which you can add water without disturbing it. the analogous parameter is the amount (volume) of water going past a point per unit of time. Ohm's law gives us I = 15 V/60& A. just as electric potential is a measure of the energy per charge required to place a charge at that point The current. Since they are in series. D. The electric current is the amount of charge going by a point in the circuit per unit time. as is shown in the first diagram of this solution. since we would expect that the lesser resistance would have the greater current if the voltage drops are equal. C. Height gives a measure of the energy per mass required to place water at that point. B. See above explanation. then you probably tried to apply Ohm's law by substituting in 18 V for the potential drop across the resistor. 2. 3. = 0.
we can simply apply Ohm's law to obtain AV.... In this case.... Ohm's law is A y = IR. = I. D...... Chapter 1 5 For this question. We can read off that the potential difference between C and D is 18 V. . you should pay attention to this point) First let's combine resistors 2 and 3. the current through them is the same. R. then a jump of 4 V will bring.. since I is constant.. = 4 V. the voltage drop across it is I. If we label point A to be 0 V.4 A. 1 . B.us to point B.. but this does not give us the answer immediately because we do not know the potential drop across resistor 1. we draw an equivalent circuit. as shown in the equivalent circuit below... 12. C. We label voltages and currents in the circuit diagram...Solutions . = (2 A) (4 Q) = 8 V.. (If you chose D.... 14.. the current going through them must be the same... R. 1 Since the current through resistor 2 is 2 amps.. combining the voltage sources and the two resistor light bulbs (see figure). Since resistors 1 and 2 are in series. The light bulb with the higher resistance has a proportionally higher potential drop. We can label the circuit diagram with voltages and currents. Ohm's law yields 0... The resulting resistance is given by To obtain the total current. C. Since the bulbs are in series. 15.
8 J/s. If the connection through light bulb 1 were interrupted. = (6 V)/(20 Q) = 0. The current splits into three pieces. From this we can get power. But what is this? Definitely a problem. . = 1. (If you chose C. you forgot to take the final reciprocal. The total current is 6 amps. On the circuit diagram. we label the potentials. the voltage drop across both of them are the same. We have shorted the circuit. 18 Joules are dissipated.The MCAT Physics Book The resulting new circuit is shown in the diagram.1.8 Watts = 1. P. Do not try this at home. then we obtain the circuit shown. The electric potential across light bulb 2 is the same 6 V that it was before. AV.) We combine the resistors in series to obtain the equivalent circuitshown. which is also the current through resistor 1. Since resistors 2 and 3 are in parallel. In 10 seconds. = I.3 A. By Ohm's law we can calculate the current through light bulb 2. The potential drop across resistor 2 is the full 36 V Thus the voltage increases when A and B are connected. The resulting new circuit is shown in the diagram. B. so it bums in the same way. 18. .
If the question had asked..)~/R. Thus . Since current can no longer go through the wire with light bulb 1. The power dissipated (that is. We could obtain another relationship.. = I.. We draw potentials and currents on the circuit diagram.. and the potential difference across it is I R. but this does not correspond to any of the choices.. If you tried this in real life the battery would get very hot while a large current surged through the wire connection. If we hold the potential drop across light bulb 3 constant. C. decreasing the power P3 = (AV. Chapter 15 Question 23 is essentially the same question. Introducing a resistor at point C would split the potential drop across light bulb 3. then D would have been the answer.the energy per unit time) is constant.Solutions . we obtain I = 12 V/6 R = 2 A. Does light bulb 3 bum brighter? The potential drop across light bulb 3 is not a function of what happens in the upper wire. Decreasing so the emf of the battery would decrease the power of resistor 3.....The 6V potential across light bulb 3 does not change if current through light bulb 2 is interrupted.. since the current through both resistors is the same. So 28.. P3= (AV..... by combining resistors... The potential across it remains 6 V. AV. light bulb 2 extinguishes... Thus the power dissipated is P. B might have been the answer if the source were alternating current. again. so C is out.. however.... and the power it dissipates does not change. B.. Its current does not change.. = 8 Watts.)~/R. "What is the energy dissipated look like as a function of time?'. = 4 V.. We draw in potentials and currents in the circuit diagram. A is correct. Thus the current through resistor 1 is 2 A. 29.. From the circuit diagram (Problem 25) we can see that the sum of the potential drops across the resistors must be 12 V. choice D is out.. Since the resistors are in series.. but we know neither the potential drop nor the current for resistor 1. The short is made clear in the resulting circuit diagram.. We can obtain this current.. then a decrease in the resistance will increase the power since. Choices A and C are eliminated.
7 Voltage does not flow. we need the total resistance of the circuit. The new wire ensures that the potential on both sides of light 3 is zero. 3 . 7 3 e resulting circuit diagram is shown. returns. D. In order to obtain the total current. So these lights extinguish. . Lights 1 and 2 are in parallel. the fact that light 3 has twice the current means it dissipates 4 times the power. A. See the diagram above. light 3 gets the full 12 volts. We apply the equation for resistors in parallel: r=+ 1 1 1 RT R l R2 It is difficult to know how the potential across light 1 compares with the potential across light 3. The last two resistors can be combined to obtain 3 i2 as shown below. the whole current through the potential source goes through light 3 and splits in half before going through lights 1 and 2. Lights 1 and 2 are brighter.) Since the power dissipated is P = Z'R and resistance is the same for lights 1 and 3. so it bums brighter. The question makes as much sense as asking what height is flowing in a river. On the other hand.The MCAT Physics Book We draw a new circuit with A and B connected. so it bums brighter. so we can combine their resistances to obtain 1 52. so it goes out. The new circuit diagram is shown. D. On the other hand. 34. 36. light bulb 2 has the full 6 volts across it. The resulting equivalent circuit is shown above. The total current is 4 amps. The new wire ensures that the potential on both sides of lights 1 and 2 is zero. In this new circuit. (Later it recombines and .
. and the current is infinite.5 A = 48 a. A longer wire will increase resistance.. but this equation has 1 the familiar y = mx + b form.5 A. A. C. = 0.) Combining the power equation with Ohm's law where A = 120 V is a constant. there is a resistance where Ill is zero.03 A. To V yields P = (AV)~IR. . which means 1 1 must increase..Solutions . we obtain the current from I = 300 Wl120 V = 2.. If the external resistance is large.. 43.. Since Rim added to the external resistance of the is circuit. The formal solution to the problem involves writing down Ohm's law for this circuit and then solving for 111: = I ( R + R*. We know that as resistance R increases. Ohm's law yields the result.. = .. . so the current through it is 1. . which we can estimate by I = 6 Vl0. it dissipates E = P. so choice D is out. we see that this is just a circuit with two resistors in series. . since R = pUA.. we can ignore it if the external resistance is large (see the above solution).& = 108 Joules. and the force on a charged particle is given by F.. Let's say you did not think of that. In the previous problem we mentioned P = (AV)~IR. the current I decreases. so that 1 eliminates A and B. Since the power is given by P = IAV.. we want to decrease the resistance. increase power. Chapter I5 38.6 SZ = 10 A. so either I1 or IEI would allow us to ignore the internal resistance. 1 1 is not proportional to R.. But you cannot obtain that from this circuit. B. then the current is small. = 0. If we graph P versus R. . we obtain something like C. Ignoring the unfamiliar symbol and the dashed lines around the battery. and the power dissipated by it is P.. .. We can combine the resistors into one with resistance R..18 Watts. In 600 s.. The potential drop across resistor 2 is 6 volts. 1 C.. between the plates.. (see figure).. The circuit diagram is simply that shown above. The resistance is 120 V12. 44. In choice D.. = R + R. There is an electric field E. while a thicker wire will decrease it. where AV= 120 V is a constant. with positive slope and positive yintercept......
But we are unsure about the sign. In Experiment 2 the increase in distance results in a decrease in capacitance by a factor of 3 (see equation). (Capacitance depends only on the capacitor itself. so an increase in d by a factor of 3 results in a decrease in the electric field by a factor of 3. The only equation we have relating voltage and charge is AV= QIC.since there is no way for it to. Capacitance is defined as charge per potential. . Once the wires are removed from the plates. we can exclude C and D. since we have Q = CAV. We have changed the potential across the plates.) 2.6 x 10I9C) (9 x 105J/C) =1. 2. Since the passage said that the potential difference between the ionosphere and the Earth's surface is 9 x lo5volts. . Thus the potential between the plates must change. The electric field is simply given by E = AVld. 3. 3. so to speak. After the wires are removed. A. The Earth has a negative charge. 5. so the charge must increase by a factor of 4. V 3. that is. but the capacitance increases by a factor of 9. The capacitance does not change. 2. The question is difficult or intractable if we rely on rote memorization of equations. Thus it points toward the Earth and away from the ionosphere. going to greater potential energy away from the Earth's negative charge.change. D. 1 A. not on the applied potential. Therefore A is the correct answer. so A increases by a factor of 2. The Earth and the ionosphere are like a parallelplate capacitor which has been bent intoa sphere.The MCAT Physics Book QE. For a proton. Since AV is the same in Experiment 2. A. going from the surface to the ionosphere is uphill. The electric field points away from a positive charge and toward a negative one. where Ax is the separation between the Earth's surface and the ionosphere. Since a helium nucleus has twice the charge of a proton. This is a situation in which the question becomes easy if we visualize the charges and think about the experiment. The dielectric is a nonconductor. 5. so the electric field increases by a factor of 4. The electric field is E = AVld. Thus the potential AV = QlC decreases by a factor of 9. no more charge may be transferred. The charge is still Q. D.4 x 10l3J. Thus its capacitance does not change. B. Thus the change in potential energy is negative. the force on it is double. 4. The work required is given by W = qAV = (1. The other two pictures are reminiscent of the Earth's magnetic field. The capacitance is decreased by a factor of 2 since the distance is increased by a factor of 2. 1 A. Both are given in the passage. no charge can be transferred from one plate to the other. the charge (Q = CAV) decreases by a factor of 3. V The formula A = EAx works here. B. Passage 2 D. A. The charge Q is constant. A. so taking an electron away from it is easy: a downhill ride. 4. C. .. but we have not changed the capacitor itself. so the charge must stay the same.
. Thus dt = QII = (4 c)1(2 x loqUS) = 2 x lo4 S. A. (To get the units. and so on.. 5. A charge is induced on the pollutants. to obtain the power usage of P = (300 Ym3) (100 m31s) = 3 x lo4Watts. . . so this is actually the maximum energy available. The only thing we can do with the new piece of information is to combine it with the information in the third paragraph.. C. But we are given that in the next paragraph. I = Qldt. and choice C involves two neutral species. . This is easy if we remember that current is the rate at which charge moves. . The only thing that matters is its neutral charge. charge on the wire Q. The question asks for current. Since this question is about energy and charges. D. so its charge is the same as an electron.. and the resulting net force is attractive (see chapter text)..the current is given in the second paragraph I = 20 karnps. we could obtain its energy W = FAxcos t$.) 4. and the only connection we know of between power and current is potential difference. 6. We can write R = AVII = (10' V)1(2 x lo4A) = 5 x lo3Q. which may tempt you to think that an increase in potential would lead to a decrease in capacitance. An increase in potential would result in an increase in the . paper. and we could get an energy if we knew an amount of charge that was transferred. D. We have several formulas involving electric field: E = kQlr for a point charge. Now some energy may be lost to heat. The capacitance of a device is fixed by the construction of that device.6 x 10l9C)(5 x 10' JIC) = 8 x lo" J.) Next we are given the potential between cloud and ground. . Let's go through the passage scanningfor information that could go together to get an energy estimate. Choice D refers to a charged and a neutral species. . (If a single object moved 2 km under the influence of a constant force..) The increase in kinetic energy is thus 8 x 10ISJ. 3. but there is no information about force. 2. and F = qE. nor are we given a force on a charge. B. We are not given the charge of the cloud in the passage (and even if we were. D. The change in potential energy is qAV = (1. (Recall: a fluoride ion has one extra electron. it will point away from the positive lightning rod. .but that is not helpful. A fluoride ion near the negative wire has high potential energy. since energy is being conserved. . Choice A does not refer to charges at all.Solutions .. just like the wire and the pollutants. but this is not so. but the capacitance remains the same. The first piece of information is 2 km.8 Us.. A sodium ion (Na') is positively charged. Choice B involves two charged particles. . A. E = AVIAx.) 2. A. (This represents the work done on the charge by the electric field. Aha! I = PIAV = (3 x lo4Jls)I(5 x lo4JIC) = 0. Thus W = qAV = (4 C) (10' JIC) = 4 x 10' J. The attraction of neutral particles to a charged wire is like a charged comb attracting neutral pieces of Since the electric field points away from a positive charge.. and the negatively charged central wire will attract it.... especially away from the very positively charged tip. it would be difficult to get E from it). 7.. Chdpter 15 Passage 4 1. But we are told the potential AV between the cloud and the Earth and the distance Ax between them. . Do we have enough information?. The electric field lines point away from the positive charge and toward the negative charge. It does not matter what kind of molecule this is.. A. .. Passage 5 1 B. The passage states that it will be attracted to the wire. our guess is that we will use W = qAV somewhere.. 3. . The main formula we have for capacitance is C = QIAV. recall J = Nm. Thus E = (10' J/C)/(2 x 10' m) = 5 x 10' NIC.Yes. The main formula with resistance in it is Ohm's law. . and the amount of stored charge goes up proportionally as the potential. . . so it gains kinetic energy as it moves away from the wire.
) Heating and expansion of air is lower on the energy scale. then the charge transferred is IAr = (30 x 1o~ (2 x Us) s) = 6 x lo' C. producing merely thunder. The outside of the cell acquires a positive charge and a higher potential. D. B. According to the third paragraph. If the magnetic field there is to the right. . The elecmc field points away from positive charges and toward negative charges. we need to consider the current. but excitation of molecules is a better answer. choose A. 5. (Ionization andrecombination would have been another good answer. D. so if the time for the activated state is 2 ms. I Sea water has the charge carriers which make it more conductive. Current is the rate at which charge is transferred. and the total current is simply 30 rnilliarnps. The main current during the activated state is along the fish from tail to head. the currents add up if the components of the current are in parallel. if it had been a choice. Passage 6 1 C. choose the point under the fishes belly. To obtain the magnetic field. and a negative charge at its tail. choose one typical point and apply the righthand rule. C. problems like this one. You knew this. The righthand rule applied to this implies a magnetic field circling the body in the direction shown in choice D. the positive sodium ions are transported to the outside of the cell. For instance. On . if you are in doubt. Thus the current through all the cells is the same.The MCAT Physics Book Visible light results from the electrical transition of electrons in atoms and molecules. B. 2. left. but the qualitative picture is the same. or into the page. Remember. Thus the answer is B. The diffusion of potassium ions lessens the effect. So C is the correct choice. up. Dissociation of molecules may produce some light. so a positive charge collects at the head of the fish. The voltages add up in series. A. 6. So where are the charges during the activated state? A glance at Figures 1 and 3 shows that the fish pushes positive charges from its tail to its head. The secondary currents outside the fish in the fourth figure reinforce this magnetic field. We know the current during the activated state is 30 mA. The cells are stacked in series.
+ aAf = (qElm) At = (1. This gives us the acceleration from a = Flm.3 x lo'' J. Is it positive or negative? Since the ground state represents the lowest energy.6 x lo'' C)(1. . The charges of the proton and the electron are equal in magnitude and are opposite in sign. The problem with choice D is that :li cannot exist. 9. = v. C. The left side of the reaction is represented by 3...U '2~at EK~+? 1. .. Thus the superscripts must add to 6. . . 10. . . . . . The nuclei have the same charge (both have one proton). . the final velocity is given by v. 2. Therefore the new energy level differs from the ground state (0 J) by 1.3 x lo'' J.Solutions . the superscripts add to 235 on the left and to 233 on the right.3 x lo'' J. C. The symbol 'OF. The reactants are i ~ + e He. Thus D is the answer. We have a = qE. 5. The result is an increase by a factor of 2. B. the excited state must be +1. .. The energy of the transition is the same as the f energy of the photon E. Since F = qEo. so the superscripts add to 16 and the subscripts add to 8. In order to get the frequencies listed. A. Chdpter 16 Chapter 16 Solutions If we write the atomic numbers explicitly. C.. D. There are three possible transitions. = 0 mls... The charge on the deuteron (orie proton and one neutron) is the opposite of the charge on the electron.jm from Problem 4. The proton is 2000 times more massive.6 x 10' N / c ) ( ~ os)1(1. D. If we add two neutrons to the right (in + n). The force on a particle is simply F = qE. For this problem. Thus the forces on the two are the same in magnitude.. as shown in the figure below..jm. . since the mass number (total number of protons and neutrons) must be greater&an the atomic number (number of protons). so A and D are eliminated.. On the other hand.= h = h(c/A) = 1. the overall charge is all that is needed.. The electric field is constant. B. The forces on both are the same. .= (1 ev .7 x ~ kg) = 1. 11. . C. as expressed in answer C. we calculatef.14 x lo'' ev s) = 2. so its acceleration is 2000 times smaller..represents an ion with a nucleus of 9 protons (hence F) and 11 neutrons (hence mass number 20) and 10 electrons outside the nucleus (hence the overall charge)... then the sum becomes correct. . Now 'H has one half the charge of He (decreasing the acceleration by a factor of 2) and one fourth the mass (increasing the acceleration by a factor of 4). and since we are given the initial velocity v. we obtain 235 + .5 x lo6 mls. so C is not the answer. cetera. 6.4 x loL4 and HZ. .) The subscripts already add to 92. (Notice how easy it is to do the arithmetic if the variables are manipulated first and the numbers substituted afterwards. The subscripts must add to 4. so adding a proton (: H) on the right would ruin the sum. The force on the proton is given by F = qE. This eliminates A and B (recall that y represents no protons and no neutrons). The magnitude of the acceleration is given by a = Flm = qE.0 evy(4. of course. the magnitudes of the forces are the same. 8. .
four factors of 2.01 x 1014Hz) = 0.14 x lo'' ev s) (7. which is close to C. 18.83 ev above the ground state at 5. We write the nuclear reaction 238 .. C. f Since this is a transition from the ground state. D.~a + :He. C. + 13. C. we obtain A. and the upper limit corresponds to E. A decrease in radioactivity from 300 to 20 mCi is a decrease of about a factor of 16. it must be a transition from 5 ev (the ground state) to 3 ev (an excited state).37 ev of the energy will liberate the electron from the atom. then 5.. C. C./h. = (4.0 ev. Thus the excited state is 0.. The subscript of the parent nucleus is 90. and the superscript must be 55. Eight thousand years is five halflives.0 x 1014Hz.. We write the nuclear reaction ? +':.14 x lo" ev s) (4. I Thus the daughter is 21.37 ev.. The wavelength is given by A = clf.. :H+ :H+ ? ~ + y :H+ :H+ .The MCAT Physics Book 12.= h = (4.14 x lo'' ev s) (2. The only reaction which satisfies the criteria is A.... The energy of transition is the same as the energy f of the photon Ep.1 ev. B. If we g multiply 1 gram by 112 five times. that is. and choices A and D do not satisfy the criteria that the sub. 19..U+ i ~ e ye+ ye+ . B. f which corresponds to E. Recall that the symbol for the neutron is n or in. The formal way to do this problem is to write 200(+] = 30. B.+ V Choice B does not have heavy hydrogen as a product. We write the nuclear reaction The subscript of the daughter nucleus must be 27. 20.8 x 1 0 ' ~Hz) = 2.7 ev. The frequency given in the choices corresponds to Eiti. The lower limit for visible light is 4.54 ev. we obtain (112)~ = 1/32 g = 3.14 x ev s) (4. 17. :H+ :H+ :H+ :e+ :H+ :H+ :H+ The young scientist calculates a photon energy E= h = (4. The six possible transitions are shown in the figure below. D.5 ev to 0 ev.2 days.5 x 1014Hz) = 3. . C.He+y B. 16. = h = (4. +v ye.0 x 1014Hz) = 1. If a photon has any energy greater than this. 23.83 ev. If we add in the subscripts and add notation to the beta particles. and the rest of the energy will go into the kinetic energy of the electron. D... ?he only transition to fall in these limits is from 2. and the superscript is 226.and superscripts have the same sum on both sides. 24. Thus the daughter is ~ C O . Thus the parent is Z T h . Four halflives corresponds to 57. So the energy level is at 4. H e + ? .1 x grams.
In that case we can hit the atom with a photon of greater energy because the excess goes into kinetic energy.= 4.00783 m u ) . .which means the smallest energy (since E = hj). .00260)) amu.= (3..6 ev... .o.in this case. . 29. we see there is a transition corresponding to a largest energy. but in fact the principle of massenergy conservation is completely general. We want the longest wavelength. . Choices C and D are nonsensical. The energy of a reaction must be in the form of mass before the reaction occurs. Compare this with problem 17. Certainly B and C are incorrect. quite small for chemical reactions. Choice A is possible. If we look at the energy level diagram for the differences between levels. The reaction we seek is The photon energy corresponds to the difference between the two energy states..00783 2 (4..00260 amu.. The difference in energy is Ep. but the energy difference can get as small as you like (at the upper end of the diagram). This is a simple application of E = m 2 .. A glance a the answers indicates we need get t Passage 1 only an estimate.. The energy level diagram shows this to be 13. ionization energy is the amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom (or molecule) in its ground state.. We see from the energy level diagram that the smallest energy from ground state to excited state is from n = 1 to n = 2. We want to know how much uranium we need to obtain 10" J. C. A. 28. 3. . 4 (1. however.. . 27. . By definition. C..4 . We calculate m . about a million (lo6) times smaller than for nuclear reactions. C. Energy is converted from one form to another: from the energy of an excited state to photon energy and (much less) kinetic energy of the recoiling atom. = (7. .. . We have no way of soaking up the extra energy.. . where we wanted to ionize the atom. A. 26. We calculate m .6) ev. We have to hit it exactly.13. . It is not the case that we must merely have enough energy to reach the next rung of the ladder.01601 + 1.). It is. . Both momentum and energy are conserved because there are no external forces in this scenario. . . Chdpter 16 25. which means the smallest frequency (sincef = CIA. 30. The amount of mass that needs to be converted each second is given by 1 B. 4. C.. B.Solutions .. The original ' ~ must have more mass than the e final products in order for the reaction to occur. A. . The mass deficit is converted into the kinetic energy of the resulting products.
C. Because this radiation is blocked by a single sheet of gold. C . since transitions out of state 2 to state 1 (or to the ground state) occur very quickly. 2 . A. Clearly state 2 is not very populated.0)lh. two halflives. The energy level diagram makes clear that the largest transition is the transition of absorption. so the frequency is f = (El . nothing in the passage indicates that the energy difference between levels 1 and 2 should be less than (or greater than) the energy difference between level 1 and the ground state. Passage 4 1 D. We need only know that the alpha particles are positive. A. there must be a last atom todecay. 2. able to be blocked even by several centimeters of air. Choice C does not have balanced subscripts. which does not happen for this nucleus. 3. Kcapture happens under the same conditions which promote positron decay. which is what the question asks for. According to the passage. n u s the decay is positron decay. 5. Beta and gamma radiation are more penetrating. But it is not alpha radiation. The question refers to the transition from state 1 (E. . 6. In an electric field which points up. 3. Applying the right hand rule for magnetic force indicates a force to the left as viewed from the top. After 19 hours.5 hours. nuclei with more protons than neutrons have a negative N . it is not gamma radiation. Since the radiation is blocked by several centimeters of aluminum. .) 5. Otherwise. that is. they will experience a force up. so if the orbital has vanishing amplitude near the nucleus. the probability of capture is small. Choice B represents normal beta decay. (However. The Sun emits photons of all sorts of frequencies. According to the passage. the radioactivity of the sample decreases by a factor of 4. which is forbidden for subtle quantum reasons. so D is the answer. Therefore. it must be alpha radiation. so the answer "indefinitely" is better than "forever". since a sheet of metal foil fails to block it. The text mentioned that alpha radiation is not very penetrating. Each 9.) to the ground state (E = 0). Passage 1 C. that is what makes the colors of the rainbow. 0 2 Choice A represents the positron decay.5 hours sees a decrease by a factor of 2 in radioactivity. On the other hand. from the ground state to the highest energy level. Its halflife is 9. B. A. Choice D fits the description in the question. the sample will never have zero radioactivity. the passage is silent on this issue. . The only information we need here is that the alpha particles are positive. And many photons make it through the atmosphere. Is it normal beta radiation or positron radiation? The information from the magnetic field indicates the particles are positive. D. Thus those photons have the most energy and the highest frequency. so the product must be ' ~ b .Z. the possibility of electron capture is nonzero only if there is some overlap of the electron wavefunction and the nucleus. that is. B.The MCAT Physics Book 2 3. protonrich nuclei. That is to say.
. During alpha decay. Choice A does not satisfy the description in the passage. Choices C and D do not have the superscripts and subscripts balanced. a neutron goes away (N decreases by 1) and a proton appears in its place (Z increases by 1).+ :He+?. . . C. C.so choices A and B are incorrect.. The particle which balances the superscripts and subscripts is : ~ e which is an alpha particle. . The reaction is z ~ +fi ~ + e '.. 6. Passage 5 Passage 6 1. 1 B. so the neutron is not likely to change back. . which is entirely due to nuclear physics. that orbital is empty and can be filled by another electron from outer shells. The whole point of Kcapture is to turn one of the many protons into a neutron. . . so choice D is incorrect.. During normal beta decay. . The original sample must have been 0. Choice D is excluded for the same reason. The energy comes from nuclear energy. . Glucose marked with "0would react chemically (almost exactly) the same as glucose with 160. D. Choice A is incorrect because the neutrino hardly interacts with matter (see paragraph 2). D.+ ':F+?. so choice C is a possibility. 6 B. so the. original sample decreased by a factor of 2 three times.. . Choice A is nonsensical. This is a paraphrase of the second sentence of paragraph 3. .Z stays the same. D. except the reaction is not spontaneous. The passage indicates (paragraph 2) that a charged particle with large energy is ideal for ionizing tissue. The chemical environment of the nucleus hardly affects its decay.. . 5. There is no positron created. . Just for your information.. a halflife of 128 seconds is very short.Solutions . . Since Kcapture pulls an electron from the innermost shell. The net effect is N . not fission. 4.Z decreases by 2. and choice B is incorrect. both N and Z decrease by 2. A. . I I 3* B* We write the reaction The nucleus which balances the superscripts and subscripts is 0. .:~m. Choice B misses the point. Choice C is a likely possibility.. since the question asks why these neutrons do not tend to ionize the tissue. Chapter 16 4. .8 years represents 3 halflives. Choice D is excluded since neutrons are an elementary particle. Choice A is spontaneous neutron drip. This is accomplished by emitting photons. so a neutron with no charge and little energy will do little harm. We write the reaction 10 . Most of the energy goes into the ionization of molecules.. . C. The only choice for the missing particle that satisfies the criteria that the superscripts and subscripts add up is : ~ i . 5. The 7. . so D is out. in that there is no gamma ray in the products.. Choice B is correct. 4. so N .. For a reaction to be spontaneous there can be only the one reactant. ': 3. B. We write the reaction :H+ : : ~ e .08 moles. In fact. Choice C is nearly correct. D.. 2.B+ i n . . the other problem is that the glucose gets .
The FDG tends to build up in the cell since it cannot be metabolized as easily. This equation seems to be already balanced. We write the reaction . The only particle which can be placed in the products without disturbing the balance'is a gamma particle. 1 H + '. A.The MCAT Physics Book completely metabolized before there is a chance to detect its presence. The 8 minutes is about 4 halflives.N+ ' i 0 + ? . 5. so the activity must have decreased by a factor of 2 four times. Its initial activity was 160 mCi. . D. 6.
Index .
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1 5 9 D DC cell 9 7 9 Density 1 591 60 Dielectric 250. 299 Capacitor 968. See Mass: center o l Centripid accduation. 78. See Force: electric Electromagnetic spectrum 2 2 522 6 Electromotive force 2 8 5 Electron 949. See Sound: beats Beetle. 1831 8 4 Battery 971. See Energy. 2 5 8 Electric eel 3 0 2 Capacitance 988290. See Momentum: conservation of Continuity 1 6 6 Coulomb's law 2 522 53 Critical angle 2 9 9 Crocodile 14.1 Index Conservation of energy. 49. See Force: centripetal Elc fidd 953958. See Motion: circular Closet 3 1 7 Collision elastic 1 2 9 inelastic 1 2 9 color 225. 279. 69 Barometer 163. 94. 3 0 5 Electrostatic precipitator 3 0 0 Energy 121133 conservation of 1271 28.: conservation Acceleration 1 71 8 centripetal 6 5 uniform 21.4mplitude 1 9 0 Antinode 1 9 2 Archimedes' priniple 160 Atom 3 0 5 Atomic mass 3 0 6 Atomic number 3 0 6 Atomic weight 3 0 6 Attitude 34 of Conservation of momentum. 2223 Air Resistance 8385 Airbag 181182 Alpha decay 3 0 9 . See Acceleration: centripetal Centripid !om. 989 Charge 249950 conservation 01 2 5 0 electric Uectric fidd lines 2 5 8 Eiectric force. 998 Center o l mass. 1 8 6 949 induced 9 5 0 Circular motion. 290 11 3. 1 8 6 Equations 36 168. bombadier 1 801 8 1 Bernoulli's principle 1671 Beta decay 3 0 9 Buoyancy 160 69 Boron neutron capture therapy 3 2 0 E Eficiency 1 291 3 0 Elastic limit 1 0 2 Elasticity 1 0 2 Uectric charge. 979 Beats. kinetic 1241 26 levels 307309 potential 126. See Charge: electric Electric circuits 279991 Electric dipole P 57. 964965. 9 3 8 Components 34 Conductor 2 5 0 . $88990. 2 9 0 Differencetone 2 2 1 Diffraction 2 4 6 Dimensions 2. 969. 5 Diopters 2 3 8 Dispersion 2 3 8 Doppler shift 2 1 32 1 5 Drag 8385 Dust mite 9 8 9 Bad Star 68. Current alternating 290991 electric 263.
990 Intensity 2082 1 0 Interference 1 9 1 constructive destructive 199 Nonconductor Nudeus 250.cal length 2 3 0 xce 13 bouyant centripetal diagrams meter 69 230 diverging 2 3 0 1601 6 1 65 power 2 3 8 thin 2 3 9 Lever arm 9 6 Light 225239. 1671 69 rate 1 6 6 streamline 167. Mass 13. 4 5 Sravity 455 3 Sround 2 5 1.6 4 Index of refraction 2 2 6 1 3 0 . See Wave: infrared insulator Newton's cradle 1 1 1 305 first law. 23 8 Inertia 3 1 Infrared waves. 188. 6669 3 2 109 1 2 first law 3 13 Harmonic motion. simple 1 871 8 8 notmal mode 1 9 4 second law third law 3 53 1 85 Hydrostatic preswre. See Friction: kinetic OW Laminar flow. See Flow: laminar Law of hydrostatic equilibrium 1 6 2 Lens 230234 aberations 2 3 9 combination 2 3 8239 convergng laminar 167. See Motion: second law third law. Law of second law. See Motion: normal mode 305 . Law of 5. 1 9 0 riction 7785 kinetic 8089 static 7780 "ndamental. Impulse 1 1 4 Inclined planes 6 3 . 253258 speed of 2 2 5 ultraviolet 254. 990 192 Normal mode. 161 226 reefall 4748 requency 93. See Motion: third law Node 250. See Gravitation. See Wave: fundamental visible 2 2 6 Lightning rod 3 0 1 Magnetic fields 263264. See Motion: first law gravitation law.The: MCAT Physics Book 7uilibrium rotational 9 7 translational 97 quipotential lines 263 ccited state 307 Kcapture 3 1 9 Kinetic friction. 131 4 center of 5 3 Mass deficit 3 1 1 264265 3arnma decay. 951. 264265 conservative 126 363 8 electric 252253. See Law o l hydrostatic equilibrium 3 33 5 6 Neutron 249. 3 1 0 Jamma rays 2 2 6 Jauge pressure 1 6 4 Jraphs 1890 zravitation. Hooke's law circular 6466. 1671 uorescence 308 . 9 9 0 Sround state 307 Mass number 3 0 6 Massenergy conversion ' 3 1 1 Microwaves 925226 Mirrors 2 3 523 7 Molecule 2 4 9 Moment of inertia 9 3 Momentum 1 1 11 1 5 conservation of 1 1 21 1 4 impulse 1 1 4 Motion .  Halflife 3 1 0 Harmonic 195.
226. 22 1 intensity 2082 1 0 pipes 2 1 02 12 pitch 21 0 production 207 speed 208 Specific gravity 1 59 Speed 1617 Sphygmomanometer 1 64 Springs 1 85 1 96. See Light: ultraviolet Units 23 Radio waves. 1 88 Periodic motion 1 871 88 Phase 192 Phosphorescence 3 17 Photon 264. 281984. 23 5 Real image 232 Reflection 226230 Refraction 2269 30 Rehadive index. See Sound: pitch Polarization Positron decay Potential 1 87 1 88 226230 Sound 20721 5 beats 21 2. 989 Resolution 946 Resonance 189 Reynolds number 89 Rocket engine 1 1 9 Root mean square 291 926 Visible light. 52 Proton 249. 285286 Wave addition amplitude Scattering 308 10 1 Shear modulus 199 1 88 frequency 1 88 fundamental 195 infrared 225926 intensity 2089 1 0 longitudinal 190 radio 995996 standing 1941 96 . See Wave: radio 309 3093 1 2 Raytracing diagram 231. 1 86 Static friction. 1621 64 Projectile 4748. Ohm's Law Orbital 28 1284 305 Snell's law P 1 88 93. Ultraviolet light. See Light: visible 258963. 979980. See Friction: static Strain Stress 191. 244 310 Positron emission tomography 32 1 259 electric 2 58263 terminal 285 absolute electric Potential difference 10 1 Streamline flow.Index Simple harmonic motion. 305 Pulleys 131133 electrical 301 291. 983 in series 981. 306 Pendulum Period Pitch. 297 93102 929 307309 1 661 67 Total internal reflection Transitions Turbulence Ultrasound Radiation electromagnetic Radioactive decay Radioactivity 205 26496 5 974 . See index of refraction Resistance v Vector field Vectors 253 141 5 Velocity 1 6 1 7 Virtual image 232 Viscosity 1 661 67 Visible spectrum Voltage 981 internal 285 Resistivity 286 Resistor 981984 ddinition 979 in parallel 989. See Flow: streamline 101 192 1 641 65 Superposition Surface tension T Thunderclouds Toaster Torque 260 Power 1 301 31 electric 2862 87 Pressure 1 59. 1 591 60.
The M C A T Physics Book 19 1 194 velocity 190 Vavelen3th 19 0 vaves 185196 Weight 1 4 vire 279 Vork 121123 transverse traveling 'ouns's modulus I OI .