CHALLENGES FACING SUSTAINABILITY OF COMMUNITY BASED POLICING IN KENYA (A case of Nairobi Eastland

)

By

MWAS KIM/DPM/00000

A research proposal submitted in partial fulfillment for the requirement of Diploma in Project Management of Kenya Institute of Management.

July, 2008

DECLARATION:
I ---------------------------------the undersigned declare that this proposal is my original work and it has never been submitted to any other college or institution of higher learning for award of any academic grade. Name: Sign: ---------------------Date: ---------------------DECLARATION BY SUPERVISOR: This proposal has been submitted for examination with my approval as the supervisor. Name: -------------------------Sign: --------------------Date: ------------------For and on behalf of Kenya Institute of Management Nairobi Branch Name: -------------------------Sign: --------------------Date: -------------------

ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

iii

DEDICATION iv .

.......................................................................................................................................................4..........................................................................17 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY.....................................................................................................................................................................................3 SUMMARY...............................................................................................8 CHAPTER TWO....................6 1.......................................................5 1...................................................................1 INTRODUCTION...............................................................iii DEDICATION.....................................................................................................4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY .....................................1 The General Objectives................................12 2....................2 The Specific objectives.....................................1 1..........iv TABLE OF CONTENTS........6 1..............................17 3................7 1..............................................................................................................17 3.....................................................................................15 2.................................................................................................6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH...........8 1.............................3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM.......8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY.........................1 1...............v DEFINITION OF TERMS .............................................................................................15 CHAPTER THREE.....................................12 2......................18 v .....6 1................................................1 INTRODUCTION.....7 1..............................................................................................2 REVIEW OF PAST STUDIES.............................................................TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION:..................................................2........................17 3.........................................................................1 INTRODUCTION................5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS.....12 2..........................................................................17 3........3 TARGET POPULATION...................................................................................................2 CRITICAL REVIEW................................................................4....................................................................................................................1 OVERVIEW........................................................4 1.......................6 1....................................................................................vii CHAPTER ONE.......................................................................................4 SAMPLE DESIGN AND PROCEDURE....12 LITERATURE REVIEW...............................................................2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY...............7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY...............................................................................................9 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK......2 RESEARCH DESIGN........................................................ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT...................1 Profile..........................................1 1.........

...................................................................................................................................................................................26 vi ..................................................................................5 DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS AND PROCEDURES...................18 3....24 Section I: General information..........22 APPENDIX: B ...........................................................................................................................................................22 BUDGET PLAN..................................................................................................................................6 DATA ANALYSIS............................................................................25 Section II: Observation/opinion/recommendation...............................................................................................................................22 APPENDIX: C................................................................................................23 INTERVIEW GUIDE:...............3..22 APPENDIX: A...............................................................................19 REFERENCES:............................................23 RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS:.......................................................................24 QUESTIONAIRE............................................................................................................................23 APPENDIX: D..............................................................................................................................20 APPENDICES:..................................................................22 TIME PLAN....................

Police are agents or agencies. Crime is the breach of a rule or law for which a punishment may ultimately be prescribed by some governing authority or force. regardless of their location or degree of interaction to do or perform common services. a Community means individuals who share characteristics. empowered to enforce the law and to affect public and social order through the legitimatized use of force. vii . Community Policing is an approach to policing that recognizes the independence and shared responsibility of the Police and the Community in ensuring a safe and secure environment for all citizens. It aims at establishing an active and equal partnership between the Police and the public through which crime and community safety issues can jointly be discussed and solutions determined and implemented. usually of the executive.DEFINITION OF TERMS Community. The term is most commonly associated with police departments of a state that are authorized to exercise the police power of that state within a defined legal or territorial area of responsibility.

Community policing requires police and citizens to join together as partners in the course of both identifying and effectively addressing these issues. and give the public ownership of the problem-solving process. and developing and implementing responses. and partnerships.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Community policing is a crime prevention strategy that envisages the creation of a partnership between responsible members of the Community and the police in preventing crime.1 OVERVIEW Community Policing focuses on crime and social disorder through the delivery of police services that includes aspects of traditional law enforcement. The Community policing model balances reactive responses to calls for service with proactive problem-solving centered on the causes of crime and disorder. other government agencies are called upon and recognized for their abilities to respond to and address crime and social disorder issues. as well as prevention. The police are only one of the many local government agencies responsible for responding to Community problems. The support and leadership 1 .CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1. citizens are viewed by the police as partners who share responsibility for identifying priorities. The significant decline in almost all categories of crime across the country is attributable as much to the vigilance of police officers as it is to the support and cooperation received from the public in line with the spirit of Community policing In Community Policing. problem-solving. 1. Community-based organizations are also brought into crime prevention and problem-solving partnerships with the police. Community engagement. Under Community Policing. Accurate surveying of customer needs and priorities is required under Community policing to determine the problems that drive police services.

Departments became highly reactive under the traditional model of policing. Department-wide adoption of Community policing is evidenced by the integration of the philosophy into mission statements. becoming one of many tools available to officers that can be collectively employed to prevent and combat crime. As the philosophical foundation. Organizational systems support and 2 . Collectively. but also on crime prevention and proactively addressing the root causes of crime and disorder.of elected officials. training programs and other systems and activities that define organizational culture and activities. and other public and private entities work together to address the underlying problems that contribute to crime and disorder by identifying and analyzing problems. policies and procedures. as well as the coordination of the police department at all levels. performance evaluations and hiring and promotional practices. Law enforcement responded to calls for service from citizens and focused primarily on arresting offenders after crimes had been committed. emphasis is placed on the quality of individual and group efforts. Police. community members. and assessing the effectiveness of these responses. law enforcement focuses not only on enforcement. developing suitable responses. then working with lawmakers and organizing citizen support efforts to change them. and making crime locations less conducive to problems. problem-solving relies less heavily on use of the traditional criminal justice system components and enforcement methods and more on preventing crime through deterring offenders. police departments should be active partners in identifying laws that need to be amended or enacted. Community policing complements the use of proven and established enforcement strategies. Under community policing. While enforcement is an integral part of policing. protecting likely victims. are vital to the success of these efforts. these activities allow police agencies to address underlying conditions that lead to crime while strongly enforcing breaches in the law. In addition. The Community actively engages in collaborating on prevention and problem-solving activities with a goal of reducing victimization and fear of crime.

both individually and collectively. department-wide implementation. supervisors. updated technology and information systems can facilitate Community Policing by providing officers access to crime and incident data which supports problem analysis or increases uncommitted officer time by reducing time spent on administrative duties. individual line officers are given the authority to solve problems and make operational decisions suitable to their roles. In Community Policing. and tactical decision-making are geographically based. the majority of staffing. Community policing encourages the use of non-law enforcement resources within a law enforcement agency. command. and stress the importance of different units within the agency working cooperatively in support of Community policing. Leadership is required and rewarded at every level. with managers. This results in enabling officers to spend 3 . volunteers. deployment. Explorer Scouts. service organizations. The geographic boundaries are naturally determined based more on communities rather than statistical divisions. Examples of such resources might include police reserves. The law enforcement organization educates the public about ways that they can partner with the organization and its members to further community policing. Volunteerism involves active citizen participation with their law enforcement agency. Appropriate personnel are assigned to fixed geographic areas for extended periods of time in order to foster communication and partnerships between individual officers and their community. and allow sworn personnel to be more proactive and prevention oriented. and citizen or youth police academies. For example. but a defined path leads towards full. and provides an effective means for citizen input. Volunteer efforts can help to free up officer time. There are a number of enhancers and facilitators that may assist departments in their transition to Community policing.value a service orientation. and officers held accountable for decisions and the effects of their efforts at solving problems and reducing crime and disorder with the Community. In Community policing. Implementation of the Community policing philosophy may occur incrementally and within specialized units at first. and are accountable for reducing crime and disorder within their assigned area.

The centrality of security in our daily lives requires that our sense of civic responsibility shift from that of bystander to one of active involvement.2. and if the Community is to be an equal partner in combating crime and disorder. The crime ranges from Carjacking. Embakasi and Mathare with Kasarani and Makadara on the outskirts. In addition. and 4 . It is easy possible to investigate a capital crime in the area since there is a lot of secrecy around it. People don't want to report. If officers are to be responsible for problems in their beat.more time in the Community. Parts of Makadara fall under South B. write statements. Most of estates in Eastlands poorly planned and densely populated mostly by low income earners and unemployed. possession of illegal firearms. discard old stereotypes and instead forge cooperation. In addition. but also to the community. Four constituencies make up Eastland: Kamukunji. information must be made accessible not only to police officers. there is need to alter our attitudes against law enforcement. In this regard.1 Profile Eastland have been the centre with the highest crime in Nairobi. Makadara. to effectively utilize the great potential of Community Policing. both must have access to timely and complete information. the media can play an important role in shaping the attitudes and perception of the citizenly towards law and order. 1. Finally. or to be associated with murder cases hence making gathering evidence is painful and time consuming. Eastlands is also home to various sects and vicious gangs who terrorise the public. mugging. Many residents of Eastlands have been killed by armed gangsters in the past years. to house breaking among others. enhanced technological and analytical capabilities allow the agency to gather timely information about crime problems. which supports better resource and personnel deployment while providing officers a better understanding of the problems within their beat.

Crime had risen in Nairobi as a result of urbanization. In recent years some estates have developed from Embakasi estate which include. Ali (2008) reported that in 2004 the Kenya police launched a five years strategic plan that placed emphasis on crime prevention and robust enforcement action. prominence was given to rapid response by increasing mobile and foot patrols. Dadora Among others. Eastlands estates include Buruburu. which is administratively run by a divisional officer. To achieve this. burglar grills. since its inception Community Policing have not opened all important avenues in forging formalized partnerships with the community against crime. earning a reputation for being a dangerous city and the nickname "Nairobbery".sections of Mathare extend to Kasarani. Umoja Komarock. after 1984). Tourists are advised to conceal valuables at night. Other such divisions include: Northern (Kasarani and Muthaiga). Uhuru. and Western (Westlands and Parklands)." The head of one development agency cited the "notoriously high levels of violent armed robberies. It was covered by Eastern Police Division (renamed Buruburu. as crime preventing strategy that encourages the participation of the community.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Throughout the 1990s. Bahati. Southern (Kilimani and Langata). Kayole. 1. Kaloleni and Kimathi estates. Nairobi had struggled with rising crime. Eastlands was a colonial reference to Jericho. Maringo. 5 . and dogs to patrol their grounds during the night. most large houses have a watch guard. The centre of Eastlands is said to be Makadara. Accordingly the Kenya police focus in 2007 placed emphasis on crime prevention through the collection of criminal intelligence targeting serious crimes that involve the use of fire arms such as car-jacking and robberies. In 2001. Kasarani and Embakasi. the United Nations International Civil Service Commission rated Nairobi as among the most insecure cities in the world. burglaries and carjacking. classifying the city as "status C. As a security precaution. Although the Kenya police is pleased by the growth of Community Policing.

How do Community Relations and Development affects the sustainability of community based policing? 6 . How does organizational support and culture affects the sustainability of community based policing? 3.1.4. How does institutional change affects the sustainability of community based policing? 2. 3. To study how Community Relations and Development affects the sustainability of community based policing. 1. To find out how training and education affects the sustainability of community based policing. 2.4.2 The Specific objectives The specific objectives of the study will be: 1. 4. To study how institutional change affects the sustainability of community based policing. To find out how organizational support and culture affects the sustainability of community based policing.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. 1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. How does organizational support and culture affects the sustainability of community based policing? 4.1 The General Objectives The purpose of the study is to establish the challenges facing sustainability of community based policing in Kenya.

This can lead to increased education standards.1. and a wider pool of candidates from which to draw. These include: · More effective use of and increased resources · increased access to information through community cooperation and vigilance · Adjustment of service demands to the actual needs have given neighborhoods · Proactive approaches to address social determinants of crime · Identification and resolution of disputes before they escalate · dismantling stereotypes by police of community members and vice-versa · increased mutual understanding · increased public approval · decreased citizen complaints · Community as a resource rather than an impediment to police · Empowerment and power-sharing both within the police service and with the community · increased police visibility and accessibility · increased accountability to the local community for police actions A final clear advantage is that the move to community policing requires a new set of skills for police officers.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH The move to a community policing model creates a number of advantages both for police and community. 1. The main focus will be Umoja estate. an increased level of professionalism.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY The researcher intends to carry out the research at Nairobi Eastland. and from nontraditional groups in the community. This allows police services to better reflect the community in which they serve and enhances their ability to form effective partnerships and open the lines of communications with groups that may have a tendency to mistrust members of law enforcement agencies. Many police services should recruit the best and brightest from our schools. 7 .

1. Some respondents may flatly refuse to give information due to the fear of intimidation and victimization. This breaking down of us vs. This might arise when questionnaires will be presented for the members of the community to provide the required information. 8 . 1. The researcher will also avoid asking questions which might provoke the respondent. them mentality and a complaints-driven service can result in a new sense of partnership in keeping the community safe: a proactive service geared to prevention rather than just enforcement.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY There are limitations that the author is likely to face while carrying out the research. To overcome these constraints the researcher will ensure the respondent confidentiality to the information they give. They include: • Lack of cooperative and suspicion Due to the nature of the problem. It will be difficult to obtain information as most of it will be considered sensitive considering the volatile environment caused by post election violence. Enough time will also be given to the respondent to give their feedback. Police response to crime is more reflective of and responsive to community needs through the community policing model. • Inconveniences/ Time factor Awaiting response or feedback from the respondents may be a time constraint the Researcher which may inconvenience him in writing the report. to one where the police are seen to be part of the community in which they serve. Most of them may be reluctant in giving appropriate answer to questions due to suspicion. This might lead to incomplete study of the problem as some vital information might not be retrieved from the appropriate sources.9 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Community policing attempt to move away from an isolated and detached model where police rarely interact with the community except in response to a complaint.

organizational change practices need to be followed. beginning with the frame. be willing to dismantle misconceptions and prejudices to enter a new partnership. It is not enough to have a code of values without enacting the policies. practices. If the community policing model is not reflected in the occupational subculture and conveyed through strong commitment from the top down. Some of these include: • Demonstrate strong leadership commitment to the principles and practices of community policing 9 .Dependent variable Dependent variable Institutional change Training and Education Civilian Governance and Policing Organizational support and culture Community Relations and Development Source. and hold the police accountable for fulfilling their end of this partnership. and reward systems. To achieve this. the right chassis and a high performance engine to move it along. Community members have to take an active interest in working with their police services. procedures and promotional decisions to match them. Elias (2008) Institutional change Community policing requires a complete shift in institutional policy. We need to start from scratch. the nuts and bolts." Nor is community policing a one-way street. it is doomed to fail.

10 . failing to address needed structural or policy changes. Training opportunities support Community Policing through alternative means of enforcing the law and impacting crime and disorder problems. including police services (Jedwab. money) to implement change strategies Evaluate and rewrite existing policy and practices Identify and address issues of power imbalance both within and outside of service Revamp reward systems to include community policing outcomes Develop relationships with community members on an ongoing basis Engage in inclusive recruitment. and required for all department personnel and available to the Community. in the form of inaction. selection and hiring practices Develop and implement diversity training for all levels. Some examples include inadequately resourcing diversity initiatives. A programme or policy may be tolerated rather than given active support and this can happen at any level of an organization engaging in this process. Community policing training must be incorporated into all facets of training. Police and community training Community Policing training for all sworn and civilian personnel can serve as a facilitator to successful implementation of the philosophy. Organizational Support and Culture Ensure support for community policing models and diversity organizational change from police leadership. and expanded well beyond the definition and basic elements. Numerous reports and citizens complaints over the years have focused on systemic discrimination in the justice system. High profile cases that allege racially motivated police brutality or racial profiling only increase the levels of distrust between the police and the communities in which they serve. Resistances to these efforts are often expressed passively. 2001). civilian and sworn The last two points cannot be emphasized enough. people. and finding no time to deal with issues of organizational change.• • • • • • • Deploy adequate resources (time.

Police command officers must ensure that their supportive attitudes to community policing and diversity organizational change are clearly understood within the lower ranks for which they are role models. Police Chiefs. and to change organizational policies and practices if true. take the opportunity to speak to community groups. negative media attention. 1994) Community Relations and Development We have seen that in an increasingly diverse society. Positive change cannot occur without commitment and will on the part of senior staff. Clear statements of executive endorsement followed by the appointment of senior management who are given sufficient resources and held accountable for structured implementation are necessary for success. host public consultations. police services need to render their commitment to community policing and practices publicly.Active. 11 . Failure to do so can lead to accusations of racism. Denial does not enhance community relationships nor promote examination of practices. visible and accountable support must be evident throughout senior staff levels. Opportunities should be sought to work with the community to breakdown these perceptions if false. Post their policies and commitments in public space. In addition. the rank and file. To establish transparency and create trust and accountability. and poor relationships with community’s police services are mandated to serve and protect. and their associations. and identify positive media opportunities to highlight their efforts (Miner etal. there is a need to better reflect and represent all our communities including those that have been traditionally marginalized. Police leaders need to be trained in organizational change strategies and practices. municipal leaders and Police Commissions need to stop being defensive when charges against occur.

allegations of police discrimination. to one where the police are seen to be part of the community in which they serve. them mentality and a complaints-driven service can result in a new sense of partnership in keeping the community safe: a proactive service geared to prevention rather than just enforcement. The chapter will review what other researchers found out about the effectiveness of community policing in reducing crime rate. Community policing is an attempt to move away from an isolated and detached model where police rarely interact with the community except in response to a complaint. competence and improving the overall community policing performance. date unknown). This breaking down of us vs. 2.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter will provide an overview of past studies on community based policing.CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2. and public disillusionment with what they saw as police services unresponsive to their concerns and with little accountability to the people (Wiltshire.1 General Views When police jurisdictions shifted to a community responsive service model some had been working in that model all along.2 REVIEW OF PAST STUDIES 2. The shift occurred in response to a number of issues including an emerging focus on race relations. 12 . The different forms of challenges facing sustainability of community based policing will be discussed and how they play a major role in reduction of crime rate.1. Police response to crime is more reflective of and responsive to community needs through the community policing model. boosting security. And while many police services continue to predicate rewards and promotions on enforcement outcomes. some are now including community service and cultural competence objectives in their performance appraisals.

priorities and objectives. a definition for community policing remains elusive. In other cases. policies. commitments. 1989) refers to community policing as an interactive process between the police and community to mutually identify and resolve community problems. and practices that link police and community members together in joint pursuit of local crime prevention. O'Toole & Fleras (1992) point out that. community policing is little more than rhetoric behind which business as usual continues. There are a number of barriers to instituting and sustaining community policing. in some cases. Another definition (Brown. One of the main barriers can be resistance and resentment from police officers who see it as an erosion of their powers and their ability to act with relative autonomy and anonymity. Traditionally recruitment procedures and the organizational culture of police forces have reinforced this image. In community policing models. 1996). and some from external sources. police serve as one partner in the community working towards the same goals. Many police officers are vested in their roles as crime fighters. As such. Cryderman. et al. This may lead to open resistance and can be observed in comments such as "we are not social workers" or "this is not 'real' policing" (Cryderman. warriors against crime. the police are insulated from the community by procedures and organizational structure. The community policing focus on service rather than enforcement makes many police personnel nervous and often those who work in more service-oriented divisions are seen 13 .In an enforcement model. Cryderman. Some of these come from within police organizations themselves. community policing occurs on a continuum from a few programs like neighborhood watch to a complete organizational change process. 1992). as each jurisdiction structures its service in different ways. commitment to community policing has resulted in a whole scale paradigm shift causing a reorganization of police values. and cherish an image of the tough law enforcer (Stansfield. et al (1992) defines community policing as: A clearly articulated doctrine along with a corresponding set of principles. However.

To those who wish to advance through the ranks. Rewards are often assigned to enforcement rather than community or social outcomes. The goal is public accountability and fairness of treatment for the complainant and appropriate protection of the accused officer. Another area of resistance may come from police associations. it is often seen as impractical in practice. Finally. we will see later. Civilian Governance and Policing The office of public complaints commissioner should be used to make police service successful effort at "civilianization' of police complaints procedures (Lewis. Because. While community policing may be seen as sound in theory. despite these barriers. 1990). Disconnect that occurs between community police or liaison officers and enforcement divisions can have disastrous consequences as. who represents a community.as "kiddie-cops" rather than "real cops". increasing the burden on already overworked and understaffed departments. they can assist the police in "asserting worthwhile authority over officer conduct and reduce unnecessary and debilitating conflict with the community" (Lewis. Community policing may also be seen as an option or a luxury that is secondary to the achievement of central police objectives. this disparagement of community service can create real limitations to their careers. unions and municipal governments who may see the move to community policing as one that requires more resources. to which faction of the community the police service is responsible. 1990). the advantages of a successful partnership between a police service dedicated to community policing and a community supportive of its police service are immeasurable. and mechanisms for power sharing. While civilian review boards have their disadvantages. there is little agreement on the definition of community. 14 . All of these issues need to be clearly addressed to ensure the success of a community policing model.

15 . They also establish relationships that create trust in the community. But the numerous advantages warrant considering making this shift. commitments. A number of internal and external barriers exist to developing community policing or police/community partnership models. 2. After all.2 CRITICAL REVIEW When community policing is done well. better range and allocation of resources. ensuring that community members are more likely to come forward when a crime has occurred. to prevent crime rather than just to clean up its aftermath. It can also serve an education and mediation function for the police and the community. police serve as one partner in the community working towards the same goals. This is especially true in communities that have a long-standing fear and mistrust of the police and is probably the most powerful advantage of community policing. and identifying and resolving disputes before they escalate. including increasing trust in the community.3 SUMMARY In an enforcement model. we all have the same goal. 2. the police are insulated from the community by procedures and organizational structure. addressing crime is preventative and proactive. Police officers are positioned closer to information sources and receive early warnings of potential flare-ups in the community. Commitment to community police requires a wholescale paradigm shift causing a reorganization of "police values.The public complaints procedure can lead to increased professionalism by the police in their relations with the community. In community policing models. developing proactive strategies to addressing crime. priorities [and] objectives". thus responding to problems before they escalate into more serious incidents. and decreased the gravity of police misconduct allegations. It allows for useful recommendations for change in police policies and procedures that may help to avoid future complaints.

The proposal outlines several ways of community and police interactions. This ways outline how the researcher will study how police and communities can learn from both positive and negative interactions. 16 . and move ahead to forge a stronger relationship which can help to sustain community based policing.

This will involve collection of appropriate data by use of oral interview. activities and instruments that the researcher will use to collect data. it’s an appropriate design because it will help the author identify the real challenges facing sustainability of community based policing. It focuses on respondent views. 17 . The method is used when collecting information related to habits or social issues.CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 3.3 TARGET POPULATION The researcher targeted hundred members of the community who will be from different age groups and gender. population and sampling techniques that will be used. observations. This method is preferred because it will allow for an in depth study of the subject.2 RESEARCH DESIGN The study will adopt a descriptive research design to establish the challenges facing sustainability of community based policing in Kenya. It also focuses on the research design. 3. The researcher hopes to come up with a sample of the population from which he will establish traits representing the whole population easily. It describes the steps. 3. literature search and questionnaires.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter will deal with the methods and instruments which will be used in the study.

This will be done through the lottery system and finding a sample consisting of one hundred peoples. and literature search from books.4 SAMPLE DESIGN AND PROCEDURE Stratified random sampling method will be used. attitudes and opinions will be captured during data collection. 3. He will also design questionnaires which will contain both open sand close ended questions when carrying out interview.5 DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS AND PROCEDURES Data will be collected using oral interview.Table 3. This will ensure that every member of the population had equal and independent chance of being selected into the sample. 2008 3. It will be necessary to pick from the strata developed and simple random sampling from each strata will be used. observations. This will be most appropriate since the respondent feeling. Members’ of the community will be arranged into groups according to the characteristics that seem crucial to the study since each group is faced with different challenges. TARGET 20 20 15 15 15 15 100 PERCENTAGE 20 20 15 15 15 15 100 18 .1 Sample size GROUPS 18-24 years 25-31 years 32-38 years 39-45 years 46-51 years 51 years and above TOTAL Source: Elias. journals internet among others. publication.

Descriptive statistics by use of tables.3.6 DATA ANALYSIS The author will use various techniques to capture the data and analyze it. Both qualitative and quantitative techniques will be used. percentages and graphs will be used researcher have a better view of respondents response in relation to what was expected of them. 19 . pie charts.

Hate crime study: Summary results of consultations. J. Toronto. 2008. D. The report of the race relations policing task force. Lewis. Call for action combating hate and bias activity: Recommendations from the June 2000 roundtable. ISMN 0-662-33026-9. Lewis.REFERENCES: Biles. C. A basis for national action: A selected bibliography of systemic discrimination in Canada. O'Toole. A stock taking of recommendations in the fight against racism. After September 11th 2001: A tale of two Canada's. Janhevich. xenophobia and related intolerance in Canada (Draft) Vol 1. C.statcan. Police. (2001). Police complaints in Metropolitan Toronto: Perspectives of the Public Complaints Commissioner.. Presentation to 7th International Metropolis Conference.metropolis. Ottawa. H. & Fleras. Canadian Heritage Multiculturalism. Toronto. racial discrimination. Canadian Heritage (2000). Canadian Centre for Race Relations (1993).ca.international. Oslo Norway. Major Gen.N. B. Jedwab. & Ibrahim. 2nd. Secretary of State (Multiculturalism. 85-557-XIE. Catalogue No. Ali (2008). (2002). C. See www. 20 . (1990). A. Status of Women). Mohamed H. Daily Nation Newspaper Wednesday March 5. (1992). Ed. et al (1989). Ottawa: Minister of Industry.net. (2002). Toronto: Butterworths. J. Kenya police crime report and data for 2007. Cryderman. See www.E. Race and Ethnicity.

Miner. Canadian Centre for Police-Race Relations. Race relations training in the police curriculum in Canada: A content analysis.J. Lakhani. (1996). (unknown). Starts Crime Study in Kenya's Capital Von Stein. Pruegger. S. C. Ottawa. (1996). Effective race relations through community policy: One police officer's perspective.. Perceptions of racism and hate activity among youth in Calgary: The lived experience. R. cohesive and healthy communities? Presentation to 5th National Metropolis Conference. Canadian Centre for Police-Race Relations. Turkewych.. (2002). (1994). Davis. Police race relations guidelines: For management of institutional change. J. Toronto: Thompson Educational. Police and Security Branch. Pruegger.. (1993). Stansfield. Guidelines for management of diversity organizational change in the Calgary Police Service. A.N. Wiltshire.J. Solicitor General Canada. Calgary. V. Police race relations guidelines for management of institutional change (Draft 3).T. What are the challenges and where should public policy be directed in order to produce safe. Miner. (1999). Wortley. G. Police and Security Branch: Solicitor General Canada. City of Calgary. M. Issues in policing: A Canadian perspective. U. V. (2001). M. 21 . K.

June July. TIME PLAN YEAR 2008 January-February March. ACTIVITY COST (KSH) 22 .APPENDICES: APPENDIX: A.August September October ACTIVITY Title selection Writing of the research proposal Data collection & analysis Report writing Submission of the research project APPENDIX: B BUDGET PLAN NO.

00 APPENDIX: C RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS: INTERVIEW GUIDE: • • • Which part of Umoja do you reside? For how long have you stayed in Umoja? What do you know about community based policing projects in Kenya? 23 .000.00 36.00 10.000.000.00 5.000.000.1 2 3 4 5 6 Stationery Binding Typing & printing Transport Literature search Miscellaneous Sub total 3.000.00 3.00 5.00 10.000.

If yes.• • • • • Is there community based policing in Umoja. Please tick appropriately (√) 24 . the challenges facing community based policing in Kenya. what do you know about community based policing in Umoja? Do you know the role of both police and the public in community based policing? Do you think community based policing has any impact in reducing crime rate in the region? What are your views on the future of community based policing in Kenya? What do you think should be done to enhance sustainability of community based policing? APPENDIX: D QUESTIONAIRE Respondent questionnaire on. Kindly go through the items given carefully and give your answer as indicated.

32yrs-38yrs ( ).000. Highest Education level: Primary ( ) Secondary ( ) College ( ) University ( ) 4.000 ( ) 25 . Gender: Male ( ) Female ( ) 2. Employment details Employed ( ) Self employed ( ) Unemployed ( ) 5. Remuneration/ generated income per month Ksh 10.Section I: General information 1. Age: 8yrs-24yrs.000 and Below Ksh 11. 39yrs-46yrs ( ) 51 yrs & above ( ) 3.Ksh 30. ( ) 25yrs-31yrs ( ).

In our View.Ksh31. Poor (3) (2) (1) 7. No ( ) C. Do you think community based policing has improved the security of the area? 26 . Good D. Yes ( ) B. 000. Average E. Excellent (5) B.000 and above Section II: Observation/opinion/recommendation 6. Low E. how do you rate COP in Umoja A.Ksh 70. Very good (4) C. Not sure ( ) D.Ksh50.000. Does the manner in which police relate with the public affect COP? A. Very large (5) B. Don’t know ( ) 8. Average D. If ‘yes’ to what extent? A. large C. 000 ( ) Ksh 51.000 ( ) Ksh 71. Very low (4) (3) (2) (1) 9.

Do you think community based policing has improved the security of the area? Yes ( ) no ( ) Explain--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 27 .Yes ( ) no ( ) Explain--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10.

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