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PREFACE This Manual is intended primarily for the governnent officers engageb in ah;'supervisi*n use of of aIKR Road Contracts.

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one of the probrens confronting anyone draftlng such a Manual ls thg very r*ide range of lontract valuee anrir -tt"-- procedures the dtfficulty of makiig reconmendations appLicabre to both large and emall and site organieations

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rn order to make the Manuar as conpl.ete as sorution generalry adopted ie tL cater possibre the for proJects. As a result, some of the procedures rargen fon example those dealing with the interaiiion of numerous indlvidrfal staff .in i comprehensive elte organi.satfon may be inappropriate to ctnt,racts which engage onry one or two techniclans on site. rn such casea staff nust use their judgement ae to applt""uifltv. Irowever, ef f ective supervislon ie an essentlaJ. requlrenent for every proJect regiroress of indivlduat contract s|ze and officers who carrv even oi the sfrafiegi, the that the resporisinlitiv-;;;; -p"rticular englneer lgportant duties- ar*- p."rormedl ir- en'ure which _carry the "mandaiory,, t"g-in--thI Manual. those (see rndex for listlng under "nandat5rv ""g"rrements..l, Although the Manuar. hag been prepared for governnent officers, nost of the proceduree appropriate to contracts supervieed byare equally consurtancy organiaatlons. rn order to achieve a uniiorm-ippr"r"t, -*iir, the consurtants' staff should compty Manual wherever poasibre. However, they should note that -ippry special supprementary regulatiois their conduct of matters lucn as variatlong. to inancla.l f authority, t'ime extension, conpretion ino craime, etc. Governnent instructions. circularsr rgulations and standing ordere, officers refe*ing are updated from itme to q"o["a and to airy euch pubr.iciiionJ tlne in the Manual- should ensure that ;h;t--i.r. the r,atesr vergion.
Arahan Teknik ( "laran ) are refe*ed ManuaL sfmply as Arahan Teknik

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COIISTRUCTION SUPERVISION HATSUAIJ FOR COXTRICT ROAI)SONTg

cot{TExT8

CHAPTER ONE CHAPTER TI{O CITAPTER TIIREE CHAPTER FOUR CHAPTER FIVE CHAPTER

GENERAIJ APPROACH

STAFFING ARRANGETIIEilTS
T,EGAIJITIES

INCBPTION

PROCEDURE

INSPECTION, TEFTIITTG AND APPROVAIJ


INSTRUCTIONS
MBASUREUENT AND FTNA$CIAIJ CONTROIJ
PROGhESS

gIX

CIIAPTBR SFUEN
CHAPTER EIGTIT CHAPTBR NTNE CHAPTER TEN CHAPTER EIJEVEN CHAPTER TTIEIJVB

REPORTg
DRAWTilGS

UTIITfTIE8 e TRTFFIC
COIIPIJETION PROCEDURE

PRACTICAI, HINTS FOR SITE STAFF

Chapter One

Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks

CHAPTER ONE :GENERAL APPROACH

1.01 The conceptual and design stages of road projects involve professionals from a variety of disciplines - economists, sociologists, planners, engineers and surveyors, as well as financial and legal experts. When the projects enter their construction phases and if implementation is effected under contract, responsibility for their administration and control passes very largely into the hands of site supervision teams. The prime function of such teams, of course, is to ensure that the technical requirements of the projects are met, and since the teams essentially comprise engineers and technicians it is natural that these aspects should be paramount in the minds of their staff. 1.02 However, there is more to the supervision of road contracts than engineering alone. To varying degrees, staff additionally have to fill the role of quantity surveyor, lawyer, production planner, progress chaser and public relations officer. In a sense they are proxies for all the people previously involved in the preparation of the scheme who have now relinquished their responsibilities and authority to the engineers and technicians appointed to see the project through its implemention phase to completion. The contractor is usually preoccupied with his own problems of the day to day management of construction operations and with the profit motive. Accordingly, he is unlikely to be concerned with many of the interests that the government has in the project. 1.03 For all these reasons it is important that site supervision staff and in particular those individuals appointed to Resident Engineer positions, see themselves in a total management role rather than solely responsible for engineering matters. They alone, are both suitably placed and appropriately authorised to exert any real direct influence on the contractor's performance. Only they are close enough to the project to watch and safeguard the various interests of government during construction.

1.04 Numerous and diverse as these management responsibilities are, the most important aspects can be categorised under four main headings. 1. Construction - ensuring that the works are constructed in compliance with the designers intent indicated in the Drawings and Specification and in accor dance with sound engineering practice. 2. Finance - ensuring that measurement and payment processes result in correct pay ments to the contractor in accordance with the terms of the contract and also that the government's budgetary requirements are met. 3. Progress - ensuring that construction is completed within the stipulated contract period or within the very minimum extra time that may be necessary to deal with absolutely unavoidable delays. 4. Public Relations - ensuring that co-opera tion is obtained from the various govern ment and private agencies and individuals whose interests and activities affect the proj ect; also that inconvenience and danger to the public are avoided or at least minimised. 1.05 Even quite small road contracts involve a number of individual supervisory staff engaged on inter-related duties. On larger jobs there may be as many as 15 or 20 such staff and the supervisory and administrative processes they engage in can become complex. Because of this and because there is a strong element of technical and financial accountability involved in their work, sound control is essential to ensure that all aspects of management are covered. That cannot be achieved without a systematic approach carefully regulating, integrating and recording the various site functions and staff activities. Further, site teams operate in locations remote from the central JKR establishment, but that establishment, carrying as it does the ultimate responsibility, needs to be able to monitor and control what is happening on site. It can only do
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Chapter One

Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks

so efficiently and effectively if there is a degree of uniformity in procedure from site to site. Similarly, contractors need to know, when they prepare their tenders and. organise their operations, what to expect in the way of Engineer supervision. There are therefore two cardinal rules for the management of site supervision. 1. Systemise 2. Standardise 1.06 With a standardised system of site control, supervision teams are well equipped to meet their responsibilities but there are two further principles which must govern their work. Both are closely related. First, all site staff must adopt a critical approach to the contractor's constructional performance and commercial motivation. Second, they must establish and maintain the initiative in matters which are intended to be under their control. If it were true that all contractors acted at all times in a completely responsible and ethical way there would be no need for independent supervision. The fact that the supervision team exists at all acknowledges that this ideal situation does not exist and cannot be expected to exist. Pressure of work combined with stringent staffing limitations may tempt the team to abdicate their supervision role to the contractor. He, probably better resourced, will usually happily undertake the additional workload because it enables him to work the arrangement to his own advantage at the expense of proper compliance with the contract. Quality control/testing and measurement matters are examples which spring readily to mind in this connection and they are both activities to which supervision staff must devote adequate time and apply strictly independent control. 1.07 The objectives, then, of the supervision of road contracts should be to bring the projects to a completion which is satisfactory from all points of view; realising the design intent and providing, within the scheduled time and contracted cost, soundly constructed, durable roads, which will continue to give good service into the future without excessive maintenance cost or inconvenience.
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

1.08 The purpose of this Manual is to assist site supervision staff to achieve these objectives by, a) demonstrating the powers and resources available to them under the contract, b) defining their duties and responsibilities, and c) detailing essential procedures and standard forms, and outlining good supervi sion practice. Guidance on these points is to be found in the following chapters of this Manual. Much of it deals with what amounts to recommended practice upon which individual officers responsible for particular projects can exercise a certain degree of discretion, depending on localised requirements and conditions. However, a number of mandatory procedures are set down which must be complied with. In these cases the mandatory nature of the provisions is noted in the text. Officers appointed as Engineers to contracts and their Resident Engineers are responsible for ensuring that the mandatory regulations are observed. 1.09 One last point needs to be made in this introductory chapter. Emphasis has been placed on the need for strong control and a critical approach. However, the intention is not to encourage confrontation and contention on site. Supervision staff should not interfere unduly with the contractor's direction of his own operations or act in such a way as to unnecessarily obstruct his progress. Their concern should be the end-products of quality construction, timely completion and correct payment. The contractor's site organisation and the supervision team can form an effective partnership for the success of the project. Helpful co-operation on both sides, combined with firmness from the Engineer's staff, is the desirable mix.

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Chapter Two

Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks

CHAPTER TWO : STAFFING ARRANGEMENTS


CONTENTS erence to Form 203A Conditions of Contract clauses. ** Variants will also be found in practice for the designation "Resident Engineer" which is intended here to apply to the officer immediately subordinate in contract terms to the Engineer or S.O. and who carries direct responsibility for the site staff organisation. He will normally be the delegated "Engineer's Representative" or S.O's Representative under the Contract. The term "Resident Engineer" ("R.E.") is used throughout this Manual for such officers regardless of their actual titles or designations. However, before turning to the details of the onsite organisation, the matter of its departmental links should be mentioned. To a major extent these operate between the Resident Engineer and the officer occupying the position of the Engineer, but the RE may, in addition, have responsibilities for reporting and other aspects of his job towards other senior officers in District or State JKR establishments, or in the JKR Headquarters in Kuala Lumpur; in particular the Coordinator for the project. As a general rule this Manual uses the terms " JKR regional office or JKR HQ" for such cases. It is a matter for each individual RE, in consultation with his immediate superior, to establish which office or officers he should deal with in connection with any particular subject where this terminology is used. 2.02 Composition of Site Teams The make-up of the team depends very much on the magnitude of the contract. On contracts of larger value there is usually some scope for a degree of specialisation on the part of most members of the team. Figures 2A and 2B show examples of staffing set-ups that might apply to contracts in the $15 - 20 million range and over. Assistant R.E. duties are sectionalised and there are separate professional positions covering testing and Q.S. activities. A draftsman and a secretary/typist may also be provided.
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2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07

"The Engineer" and Resident Engineer Composition of.Site Teams Single-Contract RE's Multi-Contract RE's Technician Staff Job Allocations Sectionalisation

----------------------------------------------------------2.01 "The Engineer" and Resident Engineer. All road contract supervision organisations in the Department are formally headed by a senior officer appointed as "The Engineer" or Superintending Officer (S.O.) under the Contract*. Such officers rarely have a full time on-site presence and much of their responsibility is delegated to subordinates in Resident Engineer** positions supported by staff primarily engaged on site duties. The relationship between "The Engineer" and the site team is dealt with in the discussion of legalities in Chapter 3; this chapter is concerned more specifically with the practicalities of staffing structures established for on-site supervision. *Either of these alternative designations may be encountered depending on which Conditions of Contract form is used. In order to avoid constant repetition of the alternatives the term "The Engineer" is generally used throughout this Manual to refer to the person holding the contractual appointment - it is to be regarded as synonymous with "superintending Officer" (S.O.) in contracts where that term appears in the definition clauses of the Conditions of Contract. Exceptions to the preference for the term "The Engineer" are cases of exclusive refCawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

Chapter Two

Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks and find housing as close as possible to the project 2.05 Technician Staff. Technician staff allocated to site inspection duties should, in particular, have a full time site presence. If necessary, they must be prepared to work in excess of normal hours if the contractor is so permitted to operate, either during week days or at week ends. In such cases Resident Engineers should specifically instruct and authorise their staff's overtime and arrange for additional remuneration or "time off in lieu" in accordance with central or regional JKR regulations. They should record the overtime hours involved and ensure that the arrangement is not abused by staff simply sitting on site watching operations which could equally well be checked out later during normal working hours. In organisations run by Resident Engineers from regional offices, site inspectors and other subordinate staff should not be required to travel to these offices for early morning job briefings or day to day duty allocations. The RE's should attend to such instructions during their regular and frequent visits to site and give such discretion to their staff as is necessary for distributing the workload during intervening periods. 2.06 Job Allocations. Whatever organisational arrangement is adopted for any particular contract, staffing constraints are likely to exist and effective supervision can only result if staff are carefully allocated to the various duties and deployed efficiently. The detailed arrangement will, of course, depend to a large extent on the size of job and staffing establishment, the constructional content and the competence and experience of the individuals involved. The allocation of staff to the various duties will normally fall upon the Resident Engineer and before undertaking this task he should determine what activities individuals are best suited to. Having decided upon staff/duty allocations, it is important for the R.E. to ensure that individuals are clear as to what their specific responsibilities are. The best way to do this is to set down in the form of brief Duty Lists the functions each indi-

Smaller contracts have inadequate staffing levels to permit such specialisation, so that Resident Engineers themselves, possibly aided by one assistant engineer or technical assistant, undertake all duties, except most works inspection and field and laboratory testing work. The minimum staffing requirement for contracts up to a value of $5 million may be regarded as a Resident Engineer with either one or two technicians. In any event a technician capable of carrying out the essential site testing must be provided. For contracts in the range $5 - 15 million additional assistant engineer and technician positions should be provided. 2.03 Single-Contract R.E.'s The preferred arrangement regardless of size is to have a separate R.E. organisation for each individual contract with a staff fully and uniquely engaged on the supervision of that contract. The base should be an office established for the purpose either on site or close to it. In remote areas, living accommodation may be provided in site compounds under the contract. Where this is not the case, staff should find housing as close as possible to the site office or nearest appropriate part of the project site. 2.04 Multi - Contract RE's. The ideal of self-contained site organisations cannot always be achieved, particularly where contracts are of low value and considerations of staffing economy and availability rule. In such cases, Resident Engineers are often appointed with responsibility for several JKR contracts (not necessarily all roadworks). They have their base in the regional offices of their superior officers - usually State Directors JKR, or District Engineers JKR - and travel out regularly to their various contracts. It is very important that Resident Engineers who operate in this way should regard themselves essentially as site people and consciously maximise the time spent in on-site administration and the inspection of work in progress. As a general rule, gaps between visits to any individual contract in their care should not exceed two or three working days. Furthermore, all subordinate staff, both engineers and technicians, must be site based

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Chapter Two

Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks Undertake any statistical analysis. Check provision of listed equipment. Care, maintenance, replacement of equipment. Instruction : Prepare, issue and/or sign each of following: Duplicate Book Memos Site Instruction Forms APP's Certificates of Variation and related sketches/drawings. Circulate to Draftsman, Q.S. Measurement : Site measure for prescribed items. Measure from drawings for prescribed items Receive Site Instructions & APP's and action for measure. Keep measurement/payment records. Prepare interim certificates. Check Daywork Sheets. Prepare Materials-on-Site Valuation. VOP Valuations. Make regular Contract Sum predictions Progress : Check contractor's initial and subsequent programmes. Check S curve and progress chart. Update progress chart monthly. Organise Monthly Site Meeting. Minutes of Monthly Site Meeting. Organise Progress Photographs. Reports : Prepare Two Monthly Report. Contribute specified items to T.M.R. Drawings : Keep original drawings, prints, negatives. Receive Site Instructions, APP's, etc. and amend contract drawings. Prepare supplementary drawings. Keep drawings register. Issue revised and supplementary drawings to appropriate staff & contractor. Services : Liaise with Service Authorities.
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vidual will perform. In order to assist Resident Engineers in the preparation of such instructions a schedule of activities which need to be coverded by one Duty List or another is given in Table 2/1. Where staff carry responsibility for work items delegated to subordinates, details of the delegated duties should be included in the superior's list so that, for example, an Assistant RE's Duty List will show what Inspectors he is responsible for and the duties they in turn undertake. In allocating duties to staff, Resident Engineers should bear in mind the limitations of contractual authorisation or delegation. Whilst it may be quite acceptable for junior staff to prepare instructions, orders and drawings and draft correspondence to the contractor, all of these may prove ineffectual unless authenticated by the signature of an officer who has been formally authorised or delegated to act in this way (see Chapter 3.06 - 3.07). Table 2/1 - Duty Check-list Site Inspection : a) Earthworks b) Drainage c) Major Structures d) Minor Structures e) Culvert f) Pavement Courses, Kerbing g) Road Furniture, etc Chainage limits, (or section areas) if appropriate Approvals : Receiving Contractor's request for approval Checks by: a) Technical Inspection b) Survey c) Dimension d) Testing Assess results of checks; Sign and issue approval or rejection chits. Testing : Decide on day to day test programme and allocate testing staff to duties. Decide auxiliary test programme. Record results.
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

Chapter Two

Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks neers. * Site technicians will usually assist with actual on-site measurement.

Locate underground services. Land : Obtain Land Plans. Liaise with land officers. Accommodation Works. Traffic: Check and approve traffic diversion proposals. Traffic safety - patrol traffic routes, check diversion signs, barriers, warnings, etc. Administration : Office Accommodation & Equipment. Despatch, receipt and filing of correspondence. Vehicles - allocation, maintenance, logkeeping. Staff attendance, leave, etc. 2.07 Sectionalisation If the staffing levels of sub-professional staff permit such division, it is appropriate to earmark a number of technicians almost exclusively to site inspection duties, the remainder being allocated to survey, testing and office work such as measurement preparation*, the keeping of records and drawings, etc., and progress/programming work. The individual site inspectors are normally made responsible for particular construction operations, for example, earthworks, pavement or structures, although on larger sites they may still work within chainage limits and be responsible to a particular Section Engineer. The previous experience and aptitude of staff will usually be a guide as to who does what in the field of site inspection, but Resident Engineers should bear in mind the need to widen the experience of all subordinate staff to cover as much of the supervision activity spectrum as possible. Engineer staff may be deployed on the basis of function, e.g. roadworks, structures, testing or Q.S. work, or given overall responsibility for all aspects of supervision for part of the site within certain chainage limits. Only the largest sites will normally have sufficient engineers to permit such sectionalisation, but if it is possible, decisions as to which system to adopt will depend upon constructional content and the field of competence and experience of particular engiCawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Chapter Two

Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Chapter Two

Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Chapter Three

Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks

CHAPTER THREE : LEGALITIES


CONTENTS 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 Employer-ContractorEngineer Relationship. Constituent Contract Documents. The Importance of the Conditions of Contract. Various Conditions of Contract Forms. Detailed Application of the "Conditions". Authorisation of the Engineer and Delegation - Engineer's Representative. Letters of Authorisation and Delegation. Impartiality of the Engineer. appointment is usually the subject of a separate agreement with the Employer. There is no agreement between the Contractor and the Engineer and in legal terms the relationship between the two is bound solely by the terms of the works contract. The contracts under which roadworks are executed for government provide the Engineer and his delegated staff with wide ranging powers; they also place strong obligations on those same officers. 3.02 Constituent Contract Documents. The documents which primarily embody the contract and the aspects they cover are: 1. The Drawings .- Detailing the technical requirements. 2. The Specification. - ditto 3. The Bill of Quantities - Dealing with the way in which the works are to be measured for payment and providing estimated quantities and a Contract Sum figure. 4. The Conditions of contract - Providing a legal regulation for the way in which the contract is to be conducted and paid for. There are other constituents in most contracts such as the Tender, Forms of Agreement, Forms of Guarantee or Bond and various attached schedules but the four sets of documents noted above are those which site staff will most frequently encounter. A comprehensive listing of documents that may be contained in any contract : LIST OF CONTRACT DOCUMENTS 1. DOCUMENTS FORMING ACTUAL CONTRACT a. Form of Tender b. Letter of Acceptance c. Articles of Agreement d. Conditions of Contract e. Special Provisions to Conditions of Contract
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3.07 3.08

APPENDIX: The Application of the Conditions of Contract to Site Supervision. -----------------------------------------------------3.01 Employer - Contractor Engineer Relationship. Engineering contracts are Agreements between two parties. On the one side "The Employer" being the organisation or individual commissioning the "Works"; on the other "The Contractor" who agrees to execute the "Works" in return for the consideration of the "Contract Sum" payments. The two parties are nominated in the "Conditions of Contract" and in the case of roadworks undertaken for the Department "The Employer" is usually the Government of Malaysia. Also defined in the Conditions of Contract is the position of "The Engineer". He is not a party to the Contract but acts as an agent appointed by the Employer (together with delegated and subordinate staff) to administer and supervise the Contract. If he is not a government officer, his
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

Chapter Three

Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks lished by the Federation International des Ingenieurs Conseills (generally known as the "FIDIC Conditions") have gained wide acceptance in international practice. In Malaysia, JKR Form 203 CEWI and the Conditions of Contract for International Competitive Bidding (I.C.B.) derive largely from the FIDIC "Conditions" although there are some important detailed differences. Form 203A, also employed by the Department for a substantial number of roadworks contracts, is rather less comprehensive and differs widely in content and form from the FIDIC Conditions. In the local forms (and particularly in 203A) some provisions which appear in FIDIC have been extracted and appear instead in the General Section of the Specification which should therefore be read carefully in conjunction with the "Conditions". In the case of FIDIC "Conditions" the Department currently uses the Third Edition. A Fourth Edition has been published by FIDIC but has not been adopted by the Department and FIDIC references in the main text of this Manual are therefore to the Third Edition unless otherwise stated. 3.05 Detailed Application of the "Conditions". In order to encourage familarity and to give a guide as to where to look for the contractual background to any particular problem, the Appendix to be found at the end of this chapter is provided. It shows, by clause reference and notes, the application of Forms 203A, 203 CEWI, the I.C.B. "Conditions" and the Third and Fourth Editions of the FIDIC "Conditions" to practical supervision duties under the five following headings. A. Authorisation and Delegation. B. General and Procedural Matters. C. Ensuring Acceptable Standards of Work. D. Measurement, Variation and Payment. E. Third Party Issues. This list and the Appendix by no means deal comprehensively with all legal provisions contained in the "Conditions" but many of the issues not covered (for example some aspects of insurance, subletting, forfeiture, termination, arbitration, etc.) require a high level of legal expertise

f. g. h. j. k.

Appendix to Conditions of Contract Drawings and Schedule of Drawings Specification Bill of Quantities including Preamble Dayworks Schedule including Preamble

2. OTHER DOCUMENTS CONNECTED WITH CONTRACT & OTHER BOUNDIN-WITHCONTRACT DOCUMENTS a. Instructions to Tenderers b. List of proposed construction plant c. Programme submitted with Tender d. Proposed site staff 3. BLANK FORMS USUALLY BOUND-INWITH CONTRACT DOCUMENTS a. Bank Guarantee for Perfomance Bond b. Bank Guarantee for Advance c. Gerenti Perlaksanaan d. Register of Workers 3.03 The Importance of the Conditions of Contract. It goes without saying that anyone involved in the supervision of works must be fully conversant with the technical provisions of the Drawings, Specification and Bill of Quantities but the importance of the legalities contained in the Conditions of Contract may be less obvious. However, works contracts are legally constituted agreements and those who administer them, particularly the formally appointed Engineers and Engineer's Representatives in Resident Engineer positions must be aware of the way in which the "Conditions" regulate their activities and decisions. That is not to say that there should be an excessive preoccupation with legalities many contracts run throughout their full term with very little recourse to the "Conditions" on either side. The important thing for supervision staff is to know what legal back-up the various clauses give, should it be needed. 3.04 Various Conditions of Contract Forms. A complicating factor for staff trying to familiarise_ themselves with the legal provisions covering roadworks contracts is that several different forms are in use. Conditions of Contract pubCawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Chapter Three

Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks Section A3 of Table APP/3 in the Appendix but it is emphasised here that the Resident Engineer or other appropriate officer should ensure that he is properly and formally appointed as the Engineer's Representative, that his delegated powers are clearly defined and that the Contractor is informed of both in writing. It is not usual for the Engineer's Representative to make further delegation and he should not permit subordinate staff to attempt to exercise authority they do not have.** For example, whilst inspectors or junior engineers may identify defective work they should leave the Engineer (or Engineer's Representative if delegated) to sign instructions for removal. T h e suspension (even petty suspension) of work is another example which should be left to properly authorised staff. * There are however a few clauses which do also specifically empower the Engineer's Representative. ** The Fourth Edition of the FIDIC "Conditions", however, contains a clause (2.4 Appointment of Assistants) which is something of a departure from the previous edition and other "Conditions". 3.07 Letters of Authorisation and Delegation. The most practical way to arrange detailed delegation is by reference to clauses of the "Conditions" citing either those intended to be delegated or exceptions from total delegation. A typical letter of appointment and delegation is given in Figure 3A on pages 3/7 - 10. Site staff will rarely be called upon to draft such letters but if necessary, guidance can be obtained from Circular KPKR 12/87 for Form 203A contracts, with suitable adjustment for clause numbers in the case of other Conditions of Contract. On a point of important detail, it should be noted that under a special Appendix to Form 203A some contract provisions (Clauses 40, 43, 51, 52 and 54), as well as Variation Limits under Treasury Instruction No. 202, may be excluded from the Engineer's powers and assigned to other nominated officers. Resident Engineers should be prepared to
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and staff should remember that they can and should, in such cases, turn to the Department's Legal Advisors for assistance. 3.06 Authorisation of the Engineer and Delegation - Engineer's Representative. Two. of the most essential legalities with which supervision staff are concerned are the matters of general authorisation and delegation of powers. It has been previously noted that the appointment of the Engineer to the Contract is formalised in the Conditions of Contract. He is either personally named or designated by the governmental office he holds or, in the case of supervision by consultants, the firm may be nominated. Most of the powers required for the supervision and administration of the Contract and which are defined in the various clauses of the "Conditions" are ascribed to the Engineer who in the words of Clause 2 of Form 203A "shall be responsible for the overall supervision and direction of the Works" and who is even more simply defined in Form 203 CEWI and the other "Conditions" as "appointed....to act on the Employer's behalf for the purpose of the Contract". The Conditions of Contract also establish the position of the "Engineer's Representative" or S.O's Representative whose duties are "to watch and supervise the Works and to test and examine any material to be used or workmanship employed in connection with the Works". The Conditions of Contract definitions which have been quoted above cover the supervisory duties in only a very general way but there are of course numerous detailed obligations and related powers additionally set out in the various clauses of the "Conditions". Many of the clauses only empower the Engineer* and because of this, and because the Engineer himself is not normally present on site, provision is made for delegation of;"any of the powers and authorities vested in the Engineer". However, the delegation is not a blanket one and it is necessary to specifically declare what powers are delegated and inform the Contractor accordingly. Further notes on delegation matters can be found in
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

Chapter Three

Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks tractual framework. 2. Technical supervision of the Works is largely a matter of ensuring compliance with Drawings and Specification whilst measurement and payment regimes are prescribed either in the Bill of Quantities or Specification. The organisation required and the day to day activities involved in the technical and financial control of the contract are dealt with in the various other chapters of this Manual. 3. These arrangements have evolved largely from the practical requirements of site supervision and the legalities of the contract may rarely need to be invoked but there may well be times when the Engineer (or his Representative) needs to have a clear understanding of what powers he has and their limits. Table 3/APP which appears on the pages following this Preface demonstrates under five sectional headings the contractual back-up that the Engineer has at his disposal to enforce compliance with the technical and other requirements of his project and ensure proper payment. 4. These powers are largely contained in the Conditions of Contract and the Table provides a precis of various clauses and indicates their application to the Engineer's duties and powers. Not every clause is dealt with because many are concerned with situations with which the site staff will rarely be called upon to deal. 5. In addition to the strict reference to the text of the clauses of the "Conditions" occasional comment appears in the Table which is not specifically so referenced. Such comment is contained within square brackets thus: [ ] 6. In order to accommodate the various versions of the Conditions of Contract which are in use by the Department (see Chapter 3.04) the Table has columns and notes for the following "Conditions" 1. Form 203A 2. Form 203 CEWI 3. FIDIC Third Edition 4. FIDIC Fourth Edition No separate column is provided for the I.C.B. "Conditions" because this recently introduced version follows the Form 203 CEWI document fairly closely.
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prompt the "Engineer" to their contract on matters reserved for action by him. Officers authorised as "Engineers" to a contract frequently are responsible for several other contracts and other duties and may not be able to keep fully in touch with their obligations on every job. 3.08 Impartiality of the Engineer. Finally in this chapter, it is necessary to return to the subject of the Employer-EngineerContractor relationship as it exists under government works contracts. In the classic relationship the Engineer has a strongly independent stance, even though he is remunerated by the Employer and the service he provides is usually regulated by a separate agreement for employment or consultancy. In many JKR contracts, the Engineer and all the supervisory staff are government officers whose loyalties are naturally towards government and the Department. The danger then, is that the principle of strict impartiality on the part of the Engineer and his staff may suffer. It is a danger to be guarded against because, although the Engineer is given wide discretionary powers, he may ultimately have to defend the correctness and reasonable nature of his decisions during arbitration or common law proceedings. Although it is perfectly legitimate for government officers appointed to supervisory positions to watch the interests of their employer on any number of extra-contractual matters (an approach encouraged in Chapter One), on matters ruled by the contract, the Engineer must act impartially without favouring either of the two parties. His first loyalty must be to the terms of the contract. APPENDIX TO CHAPTER THREE THE APPLICATION OF THE CONDITIONS OF CONTRACT TO SITE SUPERVISION PREFACE 1. Chapter One of this Manual sets out the four main aims of contract supervision. Whilst the Engineer (or his Representative) may adopt various tactics in order toachieve these ends, in the last resort he has to rely on the powers which the contract gives him and operate within the conCawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

Chapter Three

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However, there are some differences between the two and this is dealt with by providing an Annex to the Table (on pages APP 3/30-31) which gives details of some of the clauses in the I.C.B. "Conditions" which differ from their 203 CEWI counterparts. The notes in the Annex are correlated with ringed alphabetic references in the 203 CEWI column of the Table. Where no such references occur the notes in the 203 CEWI column can be taken to apply to the I.C.B. "Conditions" without adjustment. 7. Where notes extend across more than one column in the Table, clause references are given in the order that the columns occur from left to right.

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Chapter Four

Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks

CHAPTER FOUR : INCEPTION PROCEDURES.


CONTENTS
4.01 The Urgency and Importance of Inception Activity 4.02 Staff Deployment 4.03 Checklist 4.04 a) Notice to Proceed. b) Right of Way (R.O.W). c) Insurances. d) Bonds. e) Plant Mobilisation. f) Plant Advances : Cash Advances. g) RE's Office and Equipment. h) RE's Laboratory and Equipment. i) Approval of Materials., Products and Sources. j) Contractor's Programme. k) Progress Chart and 'S' Curve. 1) Correspondence and Filing System; Drawing Register. m)Supp1lies of Standard Forms. n) Agree Site Procedures with Contractor. o) Staff Assignments. p) Contractor's Staffing Organisation. q) Initial Survey Checks. r) Utilities. s) Public Relations. t) Site Safety. u) Assimilate Contract Documents. v) Design Check & Redesign. 4.05 Conclusion -----------------------------------------------------4.01 The Urgency and Importance of Inception Activity. It is easy to get the idea during the first few weeks of a contract period that because few constructional. operations are underway the period is a slack time for the supervision team when litCawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

tle is expected of them. That is an erroneous and dangerous notion. Although there may be little work to supervise on site, there are many activities which demand attention and most of them need to be dealt with as matters of urgency and importance. First, there are essential contractual procedures to be followed. Additionally, it is necessary to establish supervision and administrative systems, arrange for accommodation and transportation, attend to the planning and detailing of constructional operations jointly with the contractor and to assign staff to their long term duties. If these matters are not dealt with before construction starts in earnest, the day to day pressure of work later on may make it impossible to complete the preliminaries in an orderly way, or catch up with all the work involved in them. As a result, the initiative for the control that should be exercised by the supervision team may pass to the contractor and never be recovered. 4.02 Staff Deployment. It often happens that the supervision team is only partially mobilised at the beginning of the contract and those individuals that have arrived on site may therefore have to accept that they are pressed into service for jobs they are not intended to undertake in the long team. The inception period, then, is a period for carefully marshalling staffing resources and tackling a number of important duties in an energetic, resolute and systematic way. There follows a check list of items to be attended to during the inception period. it is intended primarily for Resident Engineers or other officers directly responsible for on-site organisations. 4.03 Checklist. a) Notice to Proceed b) Right of Way c) Insurances d) Bonds e) Plant Mobilisation f) Plant and Cash Advances g) RE's Office and Equipment
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h) RE's Laboratory and Equipment i) Approval of Materials, Products and Sources j) Contractor's Programme k) Progress Charts and 'S' Curve l) Correspondence and filing system; drawing register m) Supplies of standard forms, etc. n) Agree site procedures with contractor o) Staff Assignments p) Contractor's staffing organisation q) Initial survey checks r) Utilities s) Public Relations t) Site Safety u) Assimilate contract documents v) Design checks and redesign The following sections offer guidance on how to act under each of the individual headings or provide reference to other relevant parts of the Manual. 4.04 a) Notice to Proceed Most Conditions of Contract* require the Engineer to order the commencement of work in writing. Where there is such a requirement this is an essential contractual preliminary since the whole contract time schedule has its origin on the date of the Notice. The Notice is normally issued by the Engineer or JKR HQ. The RE should check that the Notice has been issued and determine from it the date by which works must start and be completed. The giving of site possession is an important corollary and the R.E. should keep in close touch with the land office and make urgent representations to it if there appears to be a danger that the possession dates prescribed in the contract may not be met. He should inform the contractor in writing of the dates on which individual parcels of land will be available and carefully record dates of actual first occupation by the contractor. * In the case of form 203A contracts a "Date of Possession" on which work is required to start is quoted in the Letter of Acceptance. b) Right of Way (R.O.W.)

Members of the supervision team may find that the Right-of-Way has been demarcated prior to their engagement for the project. In this case standard pattern concrete markers as indicated in Figure 4A are likely to have been used*. If no boundary markers have already been established the Resident Engineer must obtain the land plans and supply the contractor with the necessary data for setting out the R.O.W. limits. For all projects implemented after the date of this Manual land acquisition plans prepared by the Department will carry co-ordinates for the R.O.W boundary points.Although establishing the R.O.W on the ground (like all setting out activity) is a contractor responsibility it must be carefully checked by the supervision team's surveyor (see Chapter 5.04). The important danger to guard against at this stage is that the contractor may clear or carry out earthworks on land outside the highway reserve, resulting in compensation claims from the owners. For some projects the R.O.W limits are indicated on the road layout plans. If copies of the land plans are not immediately available, these can provide a useful coarse check (by simple scaling) on areas being cleared. (See also notes under Site Clearance in Chapter 13, Section A) * More often, the concrete boundary markers are not established until the contract works have been completed c) Insurances The contractor is required under the Conditions of Contract to provide insurances for the following: i) Contractors All Risks (CAR) ii) The Works, if not included in (i) ii) Public liabilities iii) Workers Compensation, Socso, etc. No work should be permitted to commence on site until these insurances have been effected. The RE should ensure that the originals of the policies, cover notes and premium receipts are submitted by the contractor to the office which issued the Letter of Acceptance. Work should not be permitted to start until the insurance documents have been vetted in this way.

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d) Bonds The provision of a Performance Bond, Deposit or Banker's Guarantee is also a contractual requirement. The original Bond or Guarantee or the Deposit should be lodged with the State JKR or JKR HQ who will obtain confirmation of the validity of the bonds etc. from the issuing bank or insurance company. The RE should ensure that all these requirements have been met before allowing work to proceed on site.
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e) Plant Mobilisation Most contracts require the contractor to submit a list of plant he proposes to employ on the works and the list (or any subsequent revision required by the Employer) becomes part of the contractor's accepted bid. Under the terms of the contract the scheduled plant is vested in the Employer. The RE should ensure that the contractor mobilises the plant that has been scheduled and inspect individual items to ensure that they are in reasonable working condition and

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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks calculated values in order to arrive at realistic values in connection with the Advance. Additionally, the Engineer or Resident Engineer should collect from the contractor the following documents. 1. Original of the plant registration cards where applicable 2. Purchase Receipts These documents, together with the authenticated schedule of data and a report on the condition of individual items prepared after the inspection on site and the assessed current value are to be forwarded to the State QS or JKR HQ QS, as appropriate. A Bank Guarantee is required for the Advance and the original of the bond must be obtained from the contractor and similarly forwarded before payment of the Advance is certified. When the Engineer is informed by JKR HQ of the amount of the Advance to be made against the committed plant, he or the RE will prepare an interim certificate solely for the Advance amount, separate from any other works payment. The RE will note the amount for reference in connection with repayments under future interim certificates. Plant items included in the schedule must be held in the contractor's own unencumbered ownership - items under mortgage or forming the subject of a hire purchase agreement must not be included. Cash Advances not secured by the plant are also made under some contracts. They usually amount to 15% of the Contract Sum (excluding Provisional Sums etc.)with a limit of $5.(l million and are made at the start of the contract period. Payment for them should not be certified until the following have been provided by the contractor:Contract Insurances (see c above) Performance Bond (see d above) Bank Guarantee for Cash Advance. Details of the required Guarantee for either type of Advance are usually set out in the Conditions of Contract together with arrangements for repayment of the Advance from monies due to the contractor under interim payment certification. g) R.E.'s Office and Equipment
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capable of providing the output required of them throughout the works period. Although a few items such as pavers, etc. may not need to be mobilised immediately most plant involved in roadworks contracts is required at an early stage. In particular, the RE should urge the contractor to make early preparations for the installation of any heavy fixed plant he proposes to use such as crushing/ screening plant, batching and concrete plant and asphalt manufacturing plant. Alternatively, the contractor must arrange for supplies of bought-in products until such time as his own equipment is operational. If Variation of Price features in the contract, the RE should take note of plant capacities for the V.O.P computations. f) Plant Advances ; Cash Advances If Plant Advances are provided for under the terms of the contract, further checking in connection with the mobilised plant is necessary. The contractor should be required to submit a comprehensive schedule including the following data on each item of plant against which the Advance is to be made. i) Plant type, make, model and serial number ii) Date of manufacture iii) Date of purchase by the contractor iv) Original cost price v) Purchase price to contractor if not tiv) vi) Claimed current value The details in the schedule should be carefully checked against the items on site and the plant should be seen to be in good, operable condition. It is then necessary to assess the current value of each item in order to check the contractor's claimed figure. One method is to take the new purchase price quoted by the contractor (and verified with local agents or distributors) and apply accepted annual depreciations. The following factors and residual values for different plant categories may be useful in this connection. Although this method enables a depreciated value to be determined, the over-riding criterion should be the current market value. State JKR Mechanical Engineers and dealers in second hand plant should therefore be consulted and the prices they quote should be weighed against the
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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks RE to arrange for assistance with preliminary testing from JKR regional or other local JKR laboratories. Alternatively arrangements can be made with commercial laboratories for tests to

If the-supervision team is to establish firm control from the outset it needs to have its office and equipment provided at an early stage.

PLANT TYPE Bulldozers Tracktor Shovels Wheeled Loaders Graders Hydraulic Excavators Mechanical Excavator Rollers Pavers Compressors Pumps Concrete Mixers Trucks Mobile Cranes Static Plant - Crushers, Concrete and Asphalt Plant

ANNUAL DEPRECIATION % 25 25 25 20 25 25 15 15 15 15 15 25 25 25

RESIDUAL % 15 15 15 15 15 15 20 15 20 20 20 15 20 20

Almost invariably, the office is provided under the terms of the contract and the contractor should be urged and prodded to act quickly. In particular, telephone connection (or shortwave radio if it is to be provided), electrical supply, water and sanitation should be pressed for. As a government officer the RE may be able to give the contractor some assistance that he needs in these connections and in obtaining local government planning consents, etc. Detailed requirements for the site office are normally given in the General Section of the Specification and shown on the Drawings. The RE should ensure that the specifications are met and that construction is sound enough to ensure that the offices are secure against weather and unauthorised intrusion and will remain so throughout the contract period. h) R.E.'s Laboratory and Equipment Again, provision of these facilities is usually a contractor responsibility, and is a matter of urgency because no work can be permitted to start on site until testing facilities are available. In the event of delay it may be possible for the
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be carried out at the contractor's expense. As equipment for the laboratory is received from the contractor it should be checked against the Specification schedule to ensure that it complies with the requirements and is in suitable. working order. It should be carefully inventoried, quoting make, model and serial number and the data should be passed to the contractor for verification and confirmation. i) Approval of Materials, Products and Sources The contractor will require approval for materials and manufactured products which he proposes to use in the early stages. Sub-base, crushed stone for road base and concrete drainage pipes are examples. He will probably also ask for general approval of the sources from which items come, that is, the quarries, factories and yards, etc. On receiving the requests the RE should arrange as follows. 1. Receipt of samples. A member of the supervision team should be present at the selection in order to ensure that the material submitted is representative of the nominated
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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks programme within a specified period of the Notice to Proceed. The programme should be appraised for approval as soon as possible so that the contractor can proceed with his planning and allow for any amendments that may be required by the Engineer. See Chapter 8.06 for notes on programme appraisal, etc k) Progress Chart and 'S' Curve The progress chart and 'S' curve are required to be prepared by the contractor but they must be carefully checked by the RE or his staff. See Chapter 8.07 for further notes. l) Correspondence and Filing System; Drawing Register As soon as any proposed secretarial or other staff assigned to these duties are available and appropriate office furniture is provided, the filing system for correspondence and records should be established. Arrangements for receiving and despatching correspondence between the RE's and contractor's offices should be agreed. The system adopted for dealing with correspondence will depend very much on the size of the project but should provide suitable filing and, if necessary, distribution and circulation arrangements. The most important point is to ensure that correspondence from the contractor is dealt with promptly. If it is not it may result in delay to his site operations and to claims for extra cost. The Drawing Register should also be prepared to record drawings made, issued and received. Copies of'contract drawing prints in suitable numbers should be obtained for site and office use. See Chapter Ten for further details. m) Supplies of Standard Forms, etc A number of standard forms are identified in this Manual. Copies of those required for the particular contract should be obtained at the outset from the State JKR office or JKR HQ in suitable number. A list of standard forms likely to be required is as follows:i)Duplicate Memo Book} ii) Site Instruction Form
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source and that material is available in suf ficient quantities from it. Quarries should be inspected to ensure that material can be, and is being, recovered without contamination from overburden or other unsuitable material and that equipment and methods will result in the supply of consistent and accept able material. 2. Visit factories and yards from which manufactured products are to be supplied to check that production and quality control methods will result in consistent and acceptable supplies. 3. Undertake such tests* as are specified and necessary for acceptance. If site testing facilities are not available at this stage the alternative arrangements noted in (h) may be adopted. When the RE has satisfied himself on all these points he should confirm the results of tests to the contractor and issue written approval of the material and source subject to subsequent regular site testing and the continuance of satisfactory conditions at the particular quarry or factory, etc. It should be noted that there is no contractual obligation on the contractor to have sources approved, or for the Engineer to give approval, but the arrangement is a sensible and practical one which can be the subject of mutual agreement. With regard to products manufactured off - site the Department gives general certified approval to some factories for periods of 2 -3 years at a time, subject to spot checks by the Central Laboratory. In such cases it is, of course, unnecessary for the RE to arrange for his own independent testing. The Resident Engineer may also be asked to arrange at an early stage for approval of trial mixes for cement concrete and job mix formulae for asphaltic mixes. * See "Guidelines for-Inspection and Testing of Roadworks" and the relevant sections of the standard Specification for Road Works. j) Contractor's Programme The contractor is obliged under all Conditions of Contract forms except 203A to submit a works
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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks Chapter Six: Instructions Chapter Seven: Measurement and Financial Control Chapter Nine : Reports Chapter Ten: Drawings (As Builts etc) o) Staff Assignments Although all site staff may not be mobilised at the start of the contract the Resident Engineer will probably be given details of staff to be engaged eventually on the supervision team. The RE can therefore make staffing assignments and prepare Duty Lists at an early stage. See Chapter Two for guidance on these points Contractor's Staffing Organisation The contractor should be asked to provide details of individual staff to be employed in his site organisation, the duties they will undertake and the construction operations for which they will be responsible. The Resident Engineer should review the credentials of the Site Agent and his deputy and assess the adequacy of the whole contractor's site organisation, bearing in mind that the Engineer can ask for changes he considers necessary, or demand the replacement of contractor's employees considered unsuitable. q) Initial Survey Checks Basic survey information and setting out data for road alignment, etc is usually given on the drawings but the RE should obtain any additional survey data that may be available from the design team,or other officers engaged in pre-contract activity for the project. Armed with the data, the Resident Engineer should, jointly with the contractor's staff, locate and identify on the ground all survey marks and reference points established earlier, including IP's, curve points and bench marks. As soon as the supervision team's survey staff* are posted to the site they should be engaged in checking by instrument the co-ordinated values and elevations of the marks to ensure that those scheduled on the drawings (or elsewhere in the contract) are correct. The values should then be agreed with the contractor after correction of any errors that come to light. Any missing survey p)

(Triplicate Book } See iii) A.P.P. } Chapt. iv) Certificate of Variation of Works/ PPJHK Forms } Six v) Buku Harian vi) Inspector's Daily Report Form vii) Culvert Form viii) Interim Certificate (JKR Form 66) ix) Standard Test Result Forms (as available) x) Staff Leave Application Form In addition to standard forms it is necessary to design forms unique to each contract site. These may include the following:(a) Works Approval Forms (b) Weather Record (c) Non Standard Test Result Forms (d) Measurement Forms (various) Non standard forms can be locally typed and photocopied but if large numbers are anticipated (say over 500) arrangements can be made with the JKR Printer. Agree Site Procedures with Contractor As was seen in chapter Three the Conditions of Contract confer wide powers on the Engineer and his delegated staff for the administration and control of the contract. However, they do not go into detail, generally speaking, on procedures to be adopted and these are very much a matter for discussion and agreement between the contractor and the, Resident Engineer. At the earliest opportunity, the RE should meet with the contractor's staff and reach agreement on practical arrangements to be adopted. In particular, the provision of contractor's daily/weekly advance programme and monthly progress report, and procedures for site inspection, the use of an approval chit system, site instructions, testing and measurement (including the scheduling of payment of the "preliminary" items) should be agreed. The meetings should be minuted to record the details of arrangements agreed or the points should be recorded and confirmed in letter form. The Chapters of this Manual noted below are relevant and may be consulted for guidance in connection with these matters. Chapter Five: Site Inspection, Testing & Approval
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n)

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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks On the practical side, Resident Engineers have a clear responsibility to watch the interests of local and travelling members of the public and ensure at all times that they are not put to unnecessary risk or inconvenience. Particular points to note are that the contractor should not intrude into private land outside the Right of Way, create unreasonable noise, dust or other nuisance or interfere with, or damage, access to public or private property. The matter of responsibility for traffic and the effect of obstructions and diversions is also important (See Chapter 11.08 11.11). All of these responsibilities remain throughout the contract period of course, not only during the early stages. t) Site Safety Although site safety is largely the concern of the contractor, the Resident Engineer's total management responsibility for the project make it a matter in which he must also take a hand. He should ensure that agreed safety precautions are observed so that both the contractor's workmen and his own staff are not put at personal risk. The inception period is the time to discuss with the contractor's Site Agent what safety rules are to be applied and what arrangements should be established for obtaining urgent professional medical assistance and transport to hospital in the event of an accident. Additionally, at least one member of either the contractor's or the supervision team with suitable training should be nominated as the person to render First Aid, and a First Aid Kit should be maintained in a designated place to which access can be obtained at all times. In drawing up further safety rules, the following points should be included. (i) All staff engaged in, or supervising, site operations should be required to wear protective boots and "hard hats". (ii) Contractor's superintendents and supervision team inspectors should carefully inspect scaffolding and walkways for elevated sections of structures to see that they are secure and also that ladders are securely fixed at top and bottom.

stations or setting out marks should be re-established from such agreed data as then exists. All checking work of this nature should be undertaken by the Engineer's surveyors working independently from the contractor, using separate instruments. A further important early survey activity is the recording of original ground levels. Again, the work should be done independently and the results agreed with the contractor and carefully recorded. The importance of the exercise warrants close supervision by the RE himself. A discrepancy of only a few centimeters applied, either by genuine mistake or deliberate fraud, throughout the whole length of even a relatively short route can result in the incorrect payment of many thousands of ringgit. Once the earthworks are complete, verification of original ground levels is difficult. * Seer Chapter 5.04 for alternative arrangements if no survey staff are appointed to the site team. r) Utilities Contact should be made with utilities' authorities at the earliest opportunity to work out arrangements for dealing with their services, locate the position of installations and detail diversions etc. (See Chapter :Eleven) s) Public Relations It is natural that local residents, land owners and others with local interests should be concerned about the effect that any major civil engineering project will have on their lives and livelihood both during and after construction. If approached by members of the public, Resident Engineers should deal with enquiries in a helpful and courteous way, providing factual information about the project. Junior staff, however, should not discuss project matters with the public but refer enquiries to their Resident Engineer or regional chief officer. As a further word of warning no member of the site staff is permitted to give interviews to the press or media, or divulge any project information to them without reference to the Project Coordinator or other senior officer in the regional office or JKR HQ.
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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks Examples of design changes which are most likely to arise include the following. i) Changes in vertical or horizontal alignment to economise earthworks quantities, avoid rock etc. or to avoid underground services. ii) Relocate and re-size drainage culverts to ensure that they are appropriate to hydro logical conditions on site. iii) The additional provision or deepening of side ditches or provision of sub - soil drains to deal with underground water; general drainage re-arrangement to suit local drainage topography etc. iv) Special provisions to deal with earth works settlement or stability - removal of soft material below embankments, pre loading, construction of stabilising berms, benches etc.; provision of revet ments, changes in length and cross sec tion dimension of designed retaining structures and drainage of cut slopes. v) Subgrade improvement or replacement or strengthening of pavement construc tion to deal with weak subgrades in localised areas. vi) The utilization of materials found in exca vations on site which may be suitable and more economical than designed materials for pavement construction e.g. sands, gravels or laterite for subbase, shoulders etc. vii) Changes in foundation arrangements for structures in accord with soil conditions different from those predicted at the design stage. viii) Changes in the layout or wording of direction or warning signs or road mark ings to accommodate traffic patterns or conditions which are different from those designed for. It is re - emphasized that careful consideration must be given to the financial and contractual effects of any proposed design changes. Where the changes constitute variations to the contract the requirement of Departmental Circular KPKR BIL : 6/1988 for approval procedures must be observed.

(iii) All lifting equipment, slings, hooks and splices should be checked regularly for wear or damage and staff should be made aware of the need to ensure that attachment systems are suitable for the particular lifting job in hand_. (iv) Staff should ensure that all machinery guards and guardrails for static plant are maintained in place at all times. (v) All excavations and trenches in which men have to work must be suitably strutted against possible collapse. Assimilate Contract Documents This is a fairly obvious requirement and one which becomes easier to meet as the Department increasingly adopts standard Specifications, Drawings and Conditions of Contract. However, Resident Engineers should search the documents for special provisions or unusual details and see that these are noted by the appropriate site staff. It may not be possible to provide each member of the supervision team with a full set of documents, in which case- relevant sections should be copied and presented to each individual - an activity which can be undertaken in conjunction with the preparation of Duty Lists mentioned in Chapter 2.06. v) Design Check & Redesign It is necessary at the beginning of. the contract for the Resident Engineer to review the details of the design as presented on the Drawings and to keep them under review as construction proceeds, giving better access to the site and revealing physical conditions which may not have been apparent to the designers. If changes are found to be necessary or desirable the RE and his staff can undertake redesign work or, if this is beyond the competence or resource of the supervision team, the JKR regional office or JKR HQ should be contacted to arrange for redesign. In any case, no major new design should be introduced without reference to, and approval of, the original design team and consideration of the financial and contractual implications by the JKR regional office or JKR HQ. u)

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Chapter Five

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CHAPTER FIVE : INSPECTION, TESTING AND APPROVAL

CONTENTS
5.01 Introduction

INSPECTION
5.02 The various Inspection Duties 5.03 Technical Inspection 5.04 Survey Checks 5.05 Dimensional Checks 5.06 Non-Routine Measurement 5.07 Reporting

TESTING
5.08 The Role of Testing 5.09 Observance of Departmental " Guidelines" 5.10 Management of Testing Activities 5.11 Monitoring Role of Testing Engineer 5.12 Dealing with the Test Results 5.13 Testing by Supervision Staff Essential

The work of the Resident Engineer therefore, in. his role as Engineer's Representative and as assisted by his site staff, involves presence on site, watching the contractor's operations in progress, the visual inspection of completed items of work, checking for correct positioning, alignment and dimensional compliance of the works, arranging and conducting appropriate physical tests and appraising their results. These activities carry over logically into approval measures which enable the contractor to proceed with progressive or sequential operations with reasonable confidence that his work will meet with ultimate acceptance. Similarly, the Employer can then expect that acceptable standards have been achieved throughout the progress of the works provided of course that the whole process has been tackled in a systematic and conscientious way.

INSPECTION
5.02 The Various Inspection Duties. Inspection duties can be regarded as falling into the five categories indicated below. Technical Inspection Survey Checks Dimensional Checks Non-Routine Measurement Reporting. 5.03 Technical Inspection Comprehensive information on the details of Technical Inspection activities is given in Part I of the Department's "Guidelines for Inspection and Testing of Roadworks". This sets out the nature of inspection duties for the various constructional operations encountered in roadworks and makes recommendations for the level of surveillance in terms of proportional time and the class of supervision staff to be assigned to the particular duties. It is not intended to reproduce these technical recommendations here, but it is appropriate to comment on one or two staff management matters in connection with them. First, it is important that the operations and area

APPROVAL
5.14 General Considerations 5.15 Approval Chit System -----------------------------------------------------5.01 Introduction. The subjects of this chapter encompass what must be regarded as the most essential element of all supervision by the Engineer's staff. The Conditions of Contract charge the Engineer with the "...overall supervision and direction of the Works.." and his Representative's duties are defined as "...to watch and supervise the Works and test and examine materials and workmanship.."
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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks contract survey. Inception period survey procedures are noted in Chapter 4.04 of this Manual but the following points are worth noting here. The first inspection survey task is to check that the primary control of main intersection and curve points has been correctly established from the provided coordinated data, together with temporary bench marks for which the elevation values have been determined. The work of setting out the more detailed road alignment with drainage intervals and major structure and side road intersections should follow. The site inspectors who carry out most of the Technical Inspection will, generally speaking, not be competent to deal with this basic survey work. It should therefore be undertaken by Surveyors or Survey Technicians. If the establishment of the supervision team does not include such specialists, it will be necessary to arrange for the checking of the basic setting out to be done by Surveyors from JKR regional or other offices. Failing this Resident Engineers should seek departmental approval to engage the services of a Licensed Surveyor from a commercial firm. Even if Surveyors are included in the team, the aim should be to provide a basic setting out system of pegs, pins and profile boards, etc., from which individuals responsible for the Technical Inspection (who may be unskilled in survey) can apply simple measurement, sighting or "boning" checks,. For example, road centre-line pegs should be established at say 25 metre intervals; profiles and slope stakes should be set up for earthworks, together with profiles for drainage run levels. At major structures, pegs should be provided for the end points of offset string lines for foundations, walls, piers, etc. As a matter of general principle, checking of the contractor's survey and setting out should be done by supervision staff acting independently. Although a common peg system has to be used, separate chainmen, instruments, instrument setups, readings, recordings and calculations should be the rule in order to avoid the danger of duplicated errors As a practical precaution against the need for excessive repetition of survey work, it is sound practice to reference, with triangulated or bearPage 57

boundaries (denoted by drainage, etc.) subject to supervision by each individual inspector are carefully defined and that both the contractor and the inspectors themselves are clearly aware of the detailed arrangements. Declarations on this subject should be made in writing to the contractor and can additionally form the basis for Duty Lists prepared for each member of the staff as recommended in Chapter 2.06. T h e scheduling of inspection duties and their allocation on the basis of staff classes detailed in the "Guidelines" should provide useful guidance to the Resident Engineer when assigning duties to staff and in preparing the Duty Lists. Second is the question of superior officer's responsibility. A. high proportion of inspection duties fall to the most junior staff on the supervision team. However, as in all staffing relationships where superiors delegate work to subordinates, the senior officer carries the ultimate responsibility and in construction contracts there is a strong element of technical and financial accountability. In order to cover their own position and safeguard that of the departmental chief officer for whom they work, Resident Engineers should themselves make regular and frequent visits to the works and ensure that their inspector force is devoting sufficient time to on-site activities and is complying with the requirements set out in this Manual and the "Guidelines". Resident Engineers based on site offices should attempt to visit the major operations every day and for "travelling Resident Engineers" based in regional offices the gaps between site visits should not exceed one working day unless a low level of contractor activity on site clearly warrants a relaxation of the rule. 5.04 Survey Checks The setting out of the works is a contractor's responsibility but errors can result in serious embarrassement to all involved in the contract, including the supervision team. it is therefore important for the site staff to ensure that the contractor's setting out is correct and accurate. No Departmental manual on site survey practice exists but Appendix A of Arahan Teknik 14/1'7 "Model Terms of Reference, Detailed Ground Survey and Engineering Design of Roads" gives some guidance as to what to expect from preCawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks supervising. Further details on this subject are given in Chapter 9.06 of this Manual.

ing ties, all major control points and the more important local marks likely to be damaged or demolished by construction plant. 5.05 Dimensional Checks These checks should be made by the individual responsible for the Technical Inspection of the particular work item. They are important to ensure that design requirements are being met, and that what is being paid for is actually being provided by the contractor. Inspector staff must therefore be fully versed in the dimensional requirements of the Drawings and Specification, together with specified tolerances. (The tolerances or permitted relaxations of dimensional requirements may have payment implications which require inspector's action see Chapter 7.04.) Most of the dimensional checks which have to be made will be obvious to most inspection staff but the more common ones are noted under the various operational headings in Table 5/1 for Approval Chat requirements on pages 5/19 - 21. 5.06 Non-Routine Measurement The whole subject of measurement for payment is dealt with in Chapter Seven of this Manual and includes the involvement of inspection staff which arises to a lesser or greater extent depending on whether separate QS or engineer measurement staff are engaged. However, it is to be noted here that even where special measurement staff are employed, the inspector corps should watch for the following. 1. Special items which may otherwise slip through the routine measurement net, e.g. the removal and replacement of unsuitable material, the use of non standard pavement course thicknesses, etc. 2. The use of Daywork which requires the recording of plant, labour and materials employed. 5.07 Reporting In addition to the duties described in the foregoing four sections, staff engaged on inspection duties are also required to record not only their own activities, but also information in connection with those construction operations they are

TESTING
5.08 The Role of Testing. The conducting of physical tests on materials and workmanship is a most essential part of the quality control regime required to be applied by the supervision team and from a management point of view needs to be regarded as integral with the Inspection and Approval site procedures. 5.09 Observance of Departmental "Guidelines" The subject of Quality Control testing forms Part II of "Guidelines for Inspection and Testing of Roadworks" which must be read in conjunction with this Manual. The "Guidelines" define the tests which should be carried out for the various constructional elements and operations and also establishes suitable levels or frequencies of testing. It notes the discretion which can be exercised in this latter respect dependent upon the degree of inspection applied and the consistency of results achieved. It is important that all staff engaged on inspection and testing duties and those officers responsible for approvals are fully conversant with the technical requirements and recommendations of the "Guidelines". 5.10 Management of Testing Activities. Turning to the management aspects of testing activities, it is difficult to be categoric about the assignment of such duties to staff, because staffing establishments vary so widely from site to site. On the smallest jobs staffed with only one Technician or Technical Assistant, that person will have to undertake the required testsgprobably assisted by contractor"s labour he carefully supervises. on larger projects there is likely to be a Testing Technician ora Testing Engineer in charge of the site laboratory and other testing staff. Even here, however, it is necessary to establish clearly who decides what testing is to be done for approval purposes a fur-

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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks contractor for concrete and asphaltic pre-mix etc. 5.12 Dealing with the Test Results The results of all tests undertaken in the site laboratory must be carefully and systematically recorded and filed in the laboratory for easy retrieval and reference. The sectional headings quoted in the Testing "Guidelines" provide a useful basis for the filing system. Testing Engineers in charge of site laboratories have an obligation to review the results, assess the consistency being achieved, inform their Resident Engineers of requirements for improved control in contractor's constructional or manufacturing processes and to contribute a summary of all results to the Two Monthly Progress Report (see Chapter 9.07). 5.13 Testing by Supervision Staff Essential. As a final and important comment on the subject of site testing, it is worth reiterating and stressing a paint which is made in "Guidelines for Inspection and Testing of Roadworks" To quote from the first paragraph of Part II on page 11, "As far as practicable, all quality control testing ... should be directed and carried out by the staff of the ... Engineer..." It is completely inappropriate to the whole concept of Engineer supervision to establish a control regime and then leave it to the contractor to organise and conduct the individual tests himself.

ther item for the drafting of Duty Lists mentioned in Chapter 2.06. Inspection staff are, of course, closest to the problem, but on larger contracts staffed with Section Engineers, or full time Resident Engineers it is preferable that these more senior staff (prompted by the inspectors and the raising of Approval Chits under the system described in Chapter 5.14, etc.) should requisition the testing services from the laboratory. If the laboratory has a substantial work load and is testing for a sectionalised site it is wise to keep a Testing Book in the laboratory in which requisitioning staff note the tests and anticipated times in advance, so that the Testing Engineer or Technician can organise his working day and allocate equipment and ovens, etc. The results obtained from the requisitioned tests will be assessed for approval of the work item concerned, and failure will be noted on the Approval Chit and result in rejection. However, as soon as failure of any test is identified, it should be notified immediately (and in the first instance verbally) to both the contractor's agent and the Resident Engineer and any other supervision inspection staff concerned. 5.11 Monitoring Role of Testing Engineer. In addition to the testing requirements raised by the Approval Chit system, engineers or technicians appointed exclusively to testing positions should regard themselves as having a wider brief. The Section Engineer or Inspector will require an answer to the "does it comply?" question for each particular part of the works, as it comes up for approval. The Testing Engineer is concerned with the overall and continuing requirement for quality control of the works, all the materials supplied and incorporated in them and the end result achieved. Accordingly, he should regularly examine stockpiles of materials, e.g. aggregates, cement, bitumen and manufactured items, and select samples for test under his own independent programme and also patrol the site in order to determine whether tests additional to those requisitioned by the site inspection team are desirable. The Testing Engineer will also be involved in the testing of trial and job mixes submitted for approval by the
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APPROVAL
5.14 General Considerations. What is under consideration here is approval for the contractor to proceed with the next operation. Contractually speaking, final acceptance of 'the Works' or any part of it is not given until the Certificate of Making Good Defects or the Maintenance Certificate is issued. However, in order to meet the practical need for stage by stage control, a system of "approvals" tied closely to the inspection and testing regime must be established. Verbal approvals are not adequate because they can give rise to confusion or dis-

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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks date or chainage order. The work items and stages to which the Approval Chit system is to be applied are stipulated in Table 5/1. (Pages 5/19 - 21) 5.16 Notice Periods for Inspection and Approval. It is necessary to establish periods of notice which the contractor must give to the supervision team to inspect and test the work and within which it is reasonable to expect the Resident Engineer or his delegate to return the form with approval or rejection. These periods in working hours are also noted in Table 5/1. Regardless of the notice periods quoted, the response period to the Chit (that is the time taken to start checking or other appropriate action) should not normally exceed 2 working hours. The notice periods quoted in Table 5/1 do not include time that may be necessary for the completion of developed strength tests. Examples are cube results for structural and pavement concrete and soil cement and soaked CBR's. In such cases it will normally be necessary to add further time to the quoted notice periods to obtain test results before the Approval Chit is returned. However, in special circumstances, permission to proceed can be given before test results are available, provided all other checks are satisfactorily completed and provided the contractor accepts the risk of demolition of the work together with any subsequently built-on layers or parts if the tests eventually fail. Resident Engineers or any member of their staff should only make such a concession with the express permission of the Engineer or other superior officer. Permission will not be granted in cases which risk the demolition of cement or bitumenbound pavement courses or important elements of structures. If permission to proceed is given pending test results and on the basis of the contractor's risk of demolition, the Approval Chit should carry a suitable acknowledgement from the contractor and the test results that are outstanding should be noted. Figure 5B/3 gives an example of an Approval Chit completed in this way. 5.17 Contractor's compliance with the System.
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pute as to what has been approved and because they leave no record which ensures that all sections and stages of the works have been systematically included in the checking process. Further, whilst approvals noted and countersigned by the contractor's agent are appropriate entries in the Daily Site Diary, they do not provide a suitably convenient or complete record. 5.15 Approval Chit System. The method to be adopted for approval is the use of Approval Chits. Copies of typical blank forms and examples of completed forms are given in Figures 5A/12 and 5B/1-4 respectively on pages 5/21 to 5/16. The Approval Chit is to originate with the contractor as a request for inspection and permission to proceed with thesubsequent operation. It is to be submitted in duplicate and;,be'dated and timed at the time it is handed to the supervision team member who will initial receipt. Boxes are provided for initialling by supervision staff responsible for survey, technical inspection/dimensional checks and testing, with, in the latter case, appropriate test reference numbers. The particular work item and chainage limits or other defining data should be carefully recorded on the form and checked. When the boxes have been completed indicating compliance, signature for approval must be added, preferably by the Resident Engineer who dates and times the form and returns one copy to the contractor. (Completion of the boxes need not necessarily involve signature by the technician or engineer making the check. The box can be ticked by another member of the site staff informed verbally that the check has been made earlier e.g. an Inspector can tick for a Surveyor's check on setting out made earlier.) If the work is found after inspection or test not to comply with requirements, the Approval Chits must be completed and returned in the same way but indicating non approval and the reasons for rejection. The copy retained by the Resident Engineer is to be carefully filed. It is suggested that the serial number should be prefixed by the Bill of Quantities section number of the completed item being approved (not the subsequent operation) and the chits filed accordingly by section and in
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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks Approval Chit system, applying little superintendence to their own labour engaged in the preparatory work themselves, in the hope that the supervision team will pick up any deficiencies or errors during the latter's checking process. If the contractor persistently adopts this approach the thing to do is to issue a rejection as soon as the first fault is discovered and then repeat the process for each single defect as the Chits are successively presented for approval. Otherwise, however, the supervision team should cooperate with the contractor's foremen and tradesmen, drawing their attention to faults as the work proceeds so that by the time the Approval Chit is presented the item is acceptable and the subsequent operation can go ahead without undue delay. 5.20 Mandatory Nature of the System. The use of the Aproval Chit system in so far as it is defined in Table 5/1 and described in this chapter is mandatory for the Resident Engineer subject to the contractor's agreement as discussed in Chapter 5.17 5.21 Culvert Approval Forms These are standard forms in general use on many roadwork contracts. Their content categorises them as record forms rather than approvals, although they are used for acceptance of founding conditions before the concreting of bases etc. proceeds. They should be used in addition to, not as a substitute for, the normal Approval Chits advocated in the earlier sections of this chapter. A copy of a Culvert Form blank is given in Figure 5C.

Although most Conditions of Contract give the Engineer the right to inspect work for approval before it is covered up and to reject work which in his opinion does not comply, and although in general terms the contractor is required "....to execute, complete and maintain the Works to the satisfaction of the Engineer..." there is no specific contractual basis for the application of the Approval Chit system. It is therefore necessary to come to a mutual arrangement with the contractor for the use of the system and its detailed provisions. Most contractors will readily agree because the arrangement helps them to ensure ultimate acceptance, but if the Resident Engineer or his site staff experience difficulties in obtaining agreement or practical compliance with it, the matter should be referred to the Engineer, Co-ordinator or departmental Chief officer. 5.18 Signing of Chits. Because of the mutual and non contractual nature of the agreement, the signing of the Approval Chits for either rejection or acceptance is not strictly restricted to the Engineer or his delegated Representative, but as previously noted, it is preferable that the Chits should be endorsed by the Resident Engineer. If rejections of a major nature are issued by subordinate staff they should be followed by confirmation by letter, or the issuing of a further Chit, in both cases signed by a delegated officer and marked "Confirmation of Approval Chit No.... (Rejection)" Whatever arrangement is adopted for the signing of the Approval Chits, all cases of non compliance with the technical requirements of the contract must be brought to the attention of the Resident Engineer. It is a wise precaution when coming to a general agreement for the use of Approval Chits to make a disclaimer in writing to the contractor that the issuing of such a chit does not constitute final approval for the completed work item involved. The model forms also carry a printed note to this effect. 5.19 Contractor's Abuse of System. It sometimes happens that contractors abuse the
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Chapter Six

Contruction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks

CHAPTER SIX : INSTRUCTIONS


CONTENTS
6.01 Introduction 6.02 Specific Grounds for Instructions 6.03 Instructions for work; Circular KPKR 6:88 6.04 Various Methods of Instruction 6.05 Verbal Instructions 6.06 Normal Correspondence 6.07 Duplicate Memo Books 6.08 Site Progress Meetings 6.09 Site Diary Entries 6.10 Site Instruction Form 6.11 Engineer's Instruction (A.P.P.) 6.12 Variation Order Form 6.13 Drawings -----------------------------------------------------6.01 Introduction. If it were possible to devote unlimited time and resources to the preparation of contracts and if contractors always complied strictly with their requirements, site instructions from the supervision team would be unnecessary. However, such a situation will never be realised. Contract documents are inevitably prone to error and inaccuracy, or are less than fully comprehensive, whilst contractor's performance, at some time or another, is bound to be imperfect. The issuing of site instructions to overcome these deficiencies is therefore a necessary and important part of the supervision staff's duties. 6.02 Specific Grounds for Instruction. Some of the more specific reasons for the need for site instructions can be categorised as follows: a) to provide, clarify or amplify details of work already explicitly or implicitly contained in the contract;
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b) to order extra work rationally connected with and necessary for the project; c) to omit work originally included in the contract but which is found to be unnec essary; d) to introduce changes in design (as presented in the Drawings or Specification) for technical, financial or progress reasons; e) to instruct work to be undertaken by Daywork - see Chapter 7.08; f) to indicate the applicability of a particular unit rate to an original or added item of work; g) to eliminate conflicts between the contract's constituent documents; h) to enforce the contractor's compliance in cases of actual or potential non-compliance with the requirements of the contract; j) to order the removal and replacement of defective or non-complying work; k) to order the removal of contractor's staff; 1) to re-programme or accelerate the works; m) to suspend the works. Instructions under all of these headings may be given legitimately within the terms of the contract but those which constitute variations may (and in most cases will) result in changes in cost. 6.03 Instructions for Work; Circular KPKR 6:88 Before any instruction for work is issued by any method whatsoever, the requirements of Circular KPKR 6:88 must be considered. If the work involves a contractual variation, then the rules for obtaining financial approval operate and the instruction cannot be issued without such approval. The Circular sets out the procedures which have to be followed and details the make-up of approving committees in various circumstances. (See also Chapter 7.11 Certificate of Variation of Works) 6.04 Various Methods of Instruction.

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Contruction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks confirmation should quote the date of the original verbal instruction (and time if significant). 6.06 Normal Correspondence All normal correspondence letters to the contractor must be typewritten on official letterheads. They should be addressed to the contractor's agent authorised to receive official communications in connection with the contract and be signed by the Engineer or, if he is specifically delegated* with respect to the particular subject, by the Resident Engineer. All instruction letters issued under delegated authority must be copied to the Engineer. Since most R.E.'s offices are located near the contractor's site offices, letters can be passed by hand and it is a simple matter to organise an acknowledged delivery system. Normal letter correspondence is of course appropriate for dealing with matters of contract administration, contractual issues and for strictures or warnings in connection with the contractor's work performance. However, for detailed work instructions they are less suitable because they do not provide data for the various site records in a convenient or manageable form. The standard forms (Site Instruction Forms and/or Engineer's Instructions - A.P.P.'s) should be used for this purpose. ordinary letters can usefully be employed as covering correspondence in cases where amplification of the standard form details, or special instructions as to how and when the work is to be executed, are required. * See Chapter 3.06 6.07 Duplicate Memo Books For urgent field instructions Memoranda handwritten in Duplicate Books can be issued. They can be written and signed by Resident Engineers or subordinate staff and, unlike normal correspondence letters, can be addressed to.individual members of the contractor's staff. They are particularly useful on small sites which have no typing facility and for warning the contractor of unsatisfactory work, or for giving advance warning of variations. The pages of the Duplicate Memo Book should

Instructions may be issued to the contractor in a number of ways. Verbal communication and normal correspondence are of course obvious methods that feature in all site dealings and have a proper place, but in order to achieve the systematic control that is essential to proper site management, the use of standard forms is strongly preferred for many instructions, particularly those connected with the ordering of works. They save time and effort, eliminate confusion or doubt as to what is required and provide a convenient and permanent record of data which facilitates not only the control of construction operations, but measurement/payment, progress and archival matters as well. The methods dealt with in the following sections of this chapter under.individual headings are Non Standard-Form Methods. i) Verbal Instructions ii) Normal Correspondence iii) Duplicate Memo Books iv) Progress Meetings Standard Form Methods: v) Site Diary Entries vi) Site Instruction Form vii) Engineer's Instruction (A.P.P.) viii)Certificate of Variation of Works ix) Drawings 6.05 Verbal Instructions Verbal communication between supervision and contractor's staff is both natural and convenient. At the man to man level of works operations it is essential and encourages good site relations. Instructions given verbally have the advantage of immediacy and "discuss-ability". However, they also have the serious disadvantage that they can create confusion, or be disputed as to their content, or even as to whether they were given at all. For instructions which: a) authorise or detail extra or variation works, b) require measurement for payment, c) concern potentially contentious or disputable issues, or. d) need to be recorded for any reason, verbal instructions are obviously inade quate and, if given, must be followed promptly by confirmatioy written instructions of one form or another. The
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Contruction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks for any of the cases listed under items a) to f) in Chapter 6.02. Common examples of clarification or amplification which can be the subject of Site Instruction Forms include the following. 1. Removal of unsuitable material below embankment or in cutting subgrade (giving chainage limits, widths, depths or other dimensions if possible). 2. Detailed position and invert level of ditches, drains and chambers only gener alised on Standard Drawings. 3. Details of pavement course thickness or width only generalised on the contract drawings. 4. Location and dimension details of mass concrete or masonry retaining structures given only in Standard Drawing form in the contract. 5. Specifics of street furniture and fencing details only generalised in the contract drawings. Copies of a blank Site Instruction Form and of a completed example are given in Figures 6A and 6B respectively. The following further points apply to the preparation of Site Instruction Forms. a. They are to be issued in triplicate. Preprinted books are the most suitable form preferably with different colours for first, second and third copies. b. They are to be serially pre-numbered in triplicate. on larger jobs it is desirable to keep one book for each section of the Bill of Quantities and to prefix the serial num ber with the section number by hand in order to facilitate filing and retrieval. c. They may be handwritten. d. They can be prepared by subordinate staff but must be signed in triplicate by the Resident Engineer or an officer authorised or delegated under the contract to issue instructions. Primarily the intention is that the forms should be signed by the Resident Engineer. They must be addressed to the contractor's authorised site agent and delivered to him or his office. Attention is drawn to the requirements contained in Departmental Circular KPKR BIL 6/1988 for approval
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be serially numbered in duplicate and be prefixed, when issued, with the writer's initials. If the time of issue is significant it should be added to the date.Distribution of the copies should be as follows.Top Copy to the contractor's staff member or office. Second Copy (after countersignature by the top copy recipient) to the Resident Engineer for his filing system. Staff issuing such Memos must pass the second copy promptly to the Resident Engineer who will decide whether the matter is sufficiently important to warrant endorsement of the instruction with a typewritten version on an official letterhead or standard form signed by the Engineer for himself if appropriately delegated). 6.08 Site Progress Meetings Instructions can be conveniently passed on at these meetings which have the advantage of discussion between supervisory and contractor's staff. The item should be carefully minuted for circulation to the contractor and, if concerned with an order for work, followed by a Site Instruction Form, APP Form etc. - see Chapters 6.10 and 6.11. 6.09 Site Diary Entries Instructions given verbally are often recorded in the Daily Site Diary (see Chapter 9.05) and are counter-signed by the contractor's staff member receiving them This provides an authenticated record and there is no reason why the practice should not continue. However, the entries do not provide data which can be conveniently disseminated systematically to the various site records, or which can be readily retrieved. Nor do they necessarily constitute instructions passed between formally authorised officers on both sides. They should therefore not be regarded as a substitute for the use of Site Instruction Forms and/or Engineer's Instructions (APP'S), which are dealt with in the following two sections. 6.10 Site Instruction Form This is the first of a three-tier system of standard work instruction forms which is an essential part of operational and financial control for JKR roadwork contracts. The forms should be used

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Contruction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks be definitive at the time of issue) should be given. Explanation, conditions or other elaborations, if necessary, should be reserved to be provided in covering letters. h) Simple sketches may be given on the face of the Form particularly to establish loca tion and dimension but also to provide constructional detail. If the matter is too complex to be dealt with by a simple sketch, supplementary or new drawing numbers can be referenced. (Site Instruction Forms can be used simply as covers for the issuing of new or supplementary drawings). The use of Site Instruction Forms for the purposes detailed in this chapter is a mandatory requirement which must be observed by Engineers and ,Resident Engineers, except in cases where Engineer's Instructions (APP'S) are prepared and issued promptly to cover the particular item. Even then, the use of Site Instruction Forms preparatory to APP'S is strongly recommended because of the way they contribute to systematic site records and controls. 6.11 Engineer's Instruction (APP - Form JKR 203U/82) The Site Instruction Forms provide a convenient method of issuing instructions to the contractor quickly from the site base. The second stage of the process is the issuing of an Engineer's Instruction (A.P.P.). An example of a completed Form is given in Figure 6C. The following points apply to the preparation of the APP Forms. a) The printed standard forms should be completed by typewriting and prepared in triplicate. b) As their name suggests, they are to be signed by the Engineer (except as required in c) below). c) Under contracts subject to Form 203A Conditions of Contract with a completed Appendix to the Conditions, only officers nominated in the Appendix* can authorise and issue A.P.P. Forms which raise variations (Financial authorisation limits for each nominated officer are also
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of any instructions which constitute variations. e. Distribution of the copies of the Form is to be as follows. Top Copy : to contractor's site agent. He (or authorised subordinate) must sign (in triplicate) on receipt. Second Copy: to Resident Engineer's filing sys- tem after circulation to: i) draftsman or technician responsible for drawings who will note any amendments on the Master Set of prints (see Chapter 10.06) or other appropriate drawings. ii) to site QS or officer responsible for measurement who will note requirements for measurement. Third Copy: promptly to the Engineer, accompanied by an estimate, prepared by the Resident Engineer, of the cost of the work raised by the Instruction f) There is provision on the Form for the method of payment to be declared as: i) Bill of Quantities Item No. ...., ii) Rate to be agreed, iii) Daywork, or, iv) No additional payment. One or other of the methods must be selected by striking out the other three. If there is doubt as to whether an original Bill of Quantities item applies, or whether a new item is appropriate, the first method should be selected and the matter negotiated with the contractor,if so raised by him. If there is doubt as to whether the work involved in the instruction is covered by an existing rate, the last method should be selected. In the case of Daywork the word should also be added prominently in capitals to the text section of the Form. (Site Instruction Forms must be raised for all Daywork operations - see Chapter 7.08). g) The text of the instruction should deal exclusively with the work item to be per formed and kept as simple as possible but the maximum of dimensional and loca tion detail (and/or quantities if they can
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Contruction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks valuation, extra cost and time extension referred to in the "'Special Notes" on page 3 of the Form should therefore be carefully considered before the APP is finally issued. Again, it is necessary to draw attention to the requirements of Circular KPKR 6:88. Approval, as required by the Circular, must be obtained before issuing any A.P.P. Form which constitutes a variation to the contract, or is otherwise subject to the Circular's provisions. * See C1. 3(a)(ii) of the Form 203A Conditions of Contract. 6.12 Certificate of Variation of Works (JKR 203V - Pin 4/83) Site Instruction Forms and Engineer's Instruction Forms do not necessarily create variations to the contract, neither are all variations the result of either or both of these forms being issued. However, where the subject of these first two stages in the instruction process are variations, the next step is to raise a Certificate of Variation of Works, Form JKR 203V Pin 4/83 It is a standard printed form (see Figure 7/G) and is signed by the Engineer. Certificates of Variation are a formal acknowledgement by the Engineer and the contractor that an instruction which constitutes a variation under the relevant clause of the Conditions of Contract has been issued and accepted for execution. Although the standard printed forms contain (on the first page) space for detailing the work involved, they are less important for that purpose than they are for valuing the work and establishing an agreed amendment to the Contract Sum. since their purpose is primarily concerned with the financial aspects of the contract, notes on their preparation and use are given in Chapter Seven: Measurement and Financial Control - see Chapter 7.11. 6.13 Drawings The issuing of additional or supplementary drawings by the Engineer or his Resident Engineer constitutes instruction to the contractor to undertake work which may or may not be variations to the contract. In order to formalise the procedure, however, it is necessary to issue

set in the Appendix). See also the last paragraph of this Section with regard to Circular KPKR 6:88. d) Reference is made in Paragraph 1 of the printed form to Clause 5 of the Conditions of Contract which gives the Engineer the power to issue instructions and also provides a blank for the insertion of other authorising clauses. e) Paragraph 2 of the Form provides for the statement of reasons for the instruction. In the case of instructions for the removal of defective work the reasons can be stated here. It is not essential to quote practical reasons for extra, omitted or varied work except as being ".....required (not required) in connection with the Contract..." f) Paragraph 3 of Form makes provision for reference to the Site Instruction Form, Drawings or Specification covering the APP instruction. g) The Forms for each contract are to be numbered (3 digit) in consecutive sequence as issued. h) Distribution of the Form is to be as follows. First Copy to the contractor, who com pletes the acknowledgement section in triplicate and retains one copy. Second Copy to Resident Engineer's file. Third Copy to the Engineer. By photocopy to the further officers noted at the foot of Page 2 of the Form. j) In cases where the APP Form is issued without a preliminary Site Instruction Form the Resident Engineer must ensure that the APP is circulated in his site organisation for action similarly as detailed in Chapter 6.1.0 e M and (ii). The APP Forms provide a formal confirmation of instructions given on site in one form or another, but as previously noted, will most usually follow a Site Instruction Form. Unlike Site Instruction Forms, which are normally signed by the Engineer's Representative, the APP Forms are not subject to review by the Engineer under clauses of the various Conditions of Contract, since they are already formally authorised by him. The implications, with regard to
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Contruction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks plementary drawings is dealt with in Chapter 10.08.

such drawings under covering letter or Site Instruction Forms, normally simply informing the contractor that he is to carry out the work detailed on the drawings. The preparation and issuing of additional or sup-

FIGURE 6A

JABATAN KERJA RAYA, CAWANGAN JALAN CONTRACT : JKR/PERS/IP/39/91 Contructions of Bandar Baru to Kampong lama Rd.

SITE INSTRUCTION NO. /

From : To:

Resident Engineer JKR Site agent, Syarikat Bina Suprim

You are instructed to carry out the following work omit

Method of Payment 1. Bill of Quantities

Signed Resident Engineer Date: / / /

2. Rate to be agreed 3. Dayworks 4. No additional payment Received by Date: / / /

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FIGURE 6C Continued

CATITAN-CATITAN KHAS SPECIAL NOTES (a) Jika arahan ini menjadikan perubahan kepada Kontrak is hendaklah dinilaikan mengikut Klausa 25 Syarat-Syarat Kontrak. If this instruction constitutes a variation to the Contract, it shall be valued in accordance with Clause 2.5 of the Conditions of Contract. (b) Jika pematuhan arahan ini meiibatkan perbelanjaan atau kerugian lebih darigada yang dijangka munasabah menurut Kontrak, maka tuan hendaklah dalam tsmpoh satu bulan selepas menerima arahan ini, memberi notis secara bertulis tentang cadangan tuan hendak menuntut perbelanjaan atau kerugian itu kepada P.P. berserta dengan anggaran amaun perbelanjaan dan atau kerugian tersebut. If in compliance with this instruction involves expense or loss beyond that reasonably contemplated by the Contract, then you shall within one month of receipt of this instruction, give notice in writing of your intention to claim such expense or loss to the S 0. together with an estimate of the amount of such expense and/or loss. (c) Jika pematuhan arahan ini meiibatkan kelambatan dan lanjutan masa terhadap penyiapan KerjaKerja di bawah kontrak ini tuan hendaklah dengan serta nlerta memberi notis bertulis kepada P.P. If in compliance with this instruction involves delay and extension of time for the completion of the Works under this Contract, you shall forthwith give written notice to the S. 0. .

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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks

CHAPTER SEVEN :

MEASUREMENT AND FINANCIAL CONTROL


agents, the supervision staff have clear obligations to the Department for the second. The work involved in meeting these obligations is dealt with in the following sections of this chapter under the following headings: Staffing for Measurement Elements of Measurement Routine Items Extra Work Items Prime Cost Sums Provisional Sums Daywork Progressive Measurement Interim Valuation and Certification Certificates of Variation of Works and Adjustment of Contract Sum Rate Fixing Variation of Price Claims Final Account and Certification Budgetary Control 7.02 Staffing for Measurement In large supervision teams, it is normal and desirable for all measurement matters on site to be handled by a Measurement Engineer or Quantity Surveyor supported by Measurement Technicians, all of whom devote their time solely to those duties. On smaller projects however, the work is likely to be undertaken by the Resident Engineer, with site measurement and computation attended to by technicians engaged primarily on inspection duties and with support from the QS Section of the JKR regional office or HQ, particularly with variation documentation, certification of payments and budgetary control. Even where the site team has its own separate measurement section, it is important that there is good liaison between the measurement staff and those primarily concerned with construction Section Engineers, Site Inspectors, etc. If this is not observed, details of work - particularly "extra work"* which does not come within

CONTENTS
7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 Measurement Obligations Staffing for Measurement Elements of Measurement Routine Items Extra Work Items Prime Cost Sums Provisional Sums Daywork Progressive Measurement; Progress/Measurement Drawings 7.10 Interim Valuation and Certification 7.11 Certificate of Variation of Works; Certificate of Adjustment of Contract Sum. 7.12 Rate Fixing 7.13 Variation of Price {Escalation} 7.14 Claims 7.15 Final Account and Certification 7.16 Budgetary Control 7.17 Mandatory Duties 7.18 The Importance of Independent Control ---------------------------------------------------------7.01 Measurement obligations It was observed in the introductory chapter of this Manual that the financial aspects of supervision work entailed "ensuring that measurement and payment procedures result in correct payments to the contractor in accordance with the terms of the contract and also that the government's budgetary requirements are met." The first of these responsibilities the Engineer and his team carry for the Employer and the Contractor alike; as government officers or
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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks and operation of workworks contracts. It is based largely on the I.C.E. (U.K.) Civil Engineering Standard Method of Measurement (2nd Edition). In the contract documents, the "Method" is formulated in Preambles to each Section of the Bill of Quantities. setting out rules for the way in which each item is to be measured and its quantity calculated for payment. Every member of the supervision team involved in measurement activity must familiarise himself with the Preambles Further, it is necessary to determine and agree with the contractor how the actual dimensions of the measurement will be determined: either a) by physical measurement on site, or b) taken from the Drawings or Specification as standard. The aim should be to use standard dimensions and measure "from the Drawings" wherever possible. This approach is facilitated by the principle that it is an inspection staff responsibility to ensure that designed dimensions are achieved in construction. If they are not, the routine remedy should be to reject the work, not to measure substandard dimensions. If, exceptionally, substandard dimensions are accepted, it is the Inspector's job to see that the details are recorded for payment adjustment. Items may be encountered which quote standard thicknesses with specified tolerances and where volumetric or weight units are quoted - for example, asphaltic bases and surfacings. Clearly these are also cases requiring on-site determination of the "as constructed" quantity involving the inspector. Centre line chainage, accurately established by site survey, also facilities "from the Drawings" measurement and is usually adopted for longitudinal dimensions. Non-parallel features (e.g. some drainage runs), of course, require site measurement. The site-measured or "from-the-Drawings" dimensions should be recorded on forms prepared for the purpose. The Department does not prescribe standard measurement forms and the Resident Engineer or his measurement staff must therefore design forms suitable for each of the items covered by their contract. Each form should accommodate the following. i) Form Serial Number.
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the orbit of routine measurement - may fail to be properly recorded. Accordingly, the duties of Site Inspectors must be defined to include the measurement (or reporting) of "variation" work, whether those Inspectors deal with routine measurement or not. Resident Engineers, whatever the staffing arrangement for measurement, must themselves exercise control over the activity. They need to ensure, not only that the detailed accounting is accurate, but also that every item included in the measurement is properly payable under the terms of the contract. Most important, however, is the R.E.'s accountability for the work of his subordinate staff. It is easy for error or fraud to creep in and, in order to guard against this, R.E.'s should make it clear that everyone's work will be subject,. at the least, to random detailed checks. * See-Chapter 7.05 for a definition of "extra work" used in this context. 7.03 Elements of Measurement Almost all roadworks contracts for the Department have payment systems based on a Bill of Quantities (B of Q) and it is contracts of this type that are dealt with here. Under this system, payments are determined from the following constituents. i) Routine items with unit rates included in the original B of Q and detailed in the Drawings and Specification. ii) Extra work items for which instructions are issued during the construction period - Site Instructions, APP'S, Supplementary Drawings, etc. iii)P.C. Sum items. iv) Provisional Sum items. v) Daywork. vi) Variation of Price Adjustments. vii) Advances paid / repayed (Plant, Cash or Materialson-Site. viii)Retention witheld / released. ix) Other Deductions. 7.04 Routine Items A standard method of measurement has been adopted by the Department for the preparation
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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks outlined for routine items in Chapter 7.04 but, because of the danger that they may be overlooked, it is important that officers raising the Site Instruction Form or A.P.P. warn the appropriate Inspector of the requirement for measurement and ensure that a copy is circulated to the measurement staff as stipulated in Chapter 6.10 (e) and 6.11 (j). As far as payment is concerned, where the nature of the extra work is the same as that covered by existing items in the B of Q the rate in that original item must be adopted for the new work. If the extra work is not exactly the same, but similar, the original rate should be used as a base and be suitably adjusted. If no similar rate exists in the B of Q it is necessary for the Engineer to agree or fix a new rate - see Chapter 7.12. Alternatively, if there is real difficulty in establishing a new rate, payment can be made on Daywork basis providing the work was instructed at the outset as Daywork - see Chapter 7.08. There is provision on the prescribed Site Instruction Form (see Chapter 6.10) for identifying the proposed payment method. Where new B of Q items are required, they should be allocated numbers in the appropriate section of the Bill, following consecutively after the last item in that section in the original Bill and should appear in this sequence in the monthly valuations. Provisional or "Star Rates" may be used to value work under new items pending the fixing of final rates as prescribed in Circular KPKR 6:88. They should be clearly marked as such in the Interim Certificate account. 7.06 Prime Cost Sums Prime Cost (P.C.) Sums do not feature in roadwork contracts as strongly as in many other of the Department's work contracts, but items do occur which require the specialist input of Nominated sub-Contractors or Suppliers and which call for the inclusion of P.C. Sums. Examples are special piling systems, prestressing, ground anchors, street lighting, traffic signals, road signs and other street furniture, special types of fencing and hydro seeding. The specification and other technical detail for work executed under P.C. items should be
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ii) B ofQ Item No. and Brief Description. iii) Date of Measurement. iv) Required Dimensions. v) Signature of supervision staff member. vi) Signature of contractor's representative. Examples of some typical measurement forms are given in Figures 7A - 7D. Where computation is simple, the measurement form can also show the extended quantity; otherwise separate calculation sheets must be appended, serially numbered and cross referenced to the measurement form. Generally, measurement should be a monthly routine with covered-up dimensions recorded during the month as each section is executed and with remaining data obtained during a single joint exercise with the contractor, at a regular date agreed between the Resident Engineer and Site Agent. When the measurement forms and computation endorsed by the contractor are available, they must be summarised for the period for each item. The measurement forms, any calculation sheets and the summaries are then to be filed together and in date order in the Measurement File(s), which should have a separate section for each B of Q item. A record of the work executed and measured should be kept on a set of Progress/Measurement Drawings see Chapter 7.09. 7.05 Extra Work Items This term covers work which is not specifically defined in the contract documents but which is specially instructed by the Engineer or his supervision staff on Site Instruction Forms, APP's or one of the other methods outlined in Chapter Six. The instructions may constitute contractual variations as defined in the Conditions of Contract but this is not necessarily so. They may, for example, be clarifications or amplifications covering work originally intended to be included in the contract and for which a B of Q item already exists. (See Chapter 6.03 in connection with authorisations which have to be obtained by the Engineer and his site staff under Circular KPKR 6:88 before instructions for some "Extra" items are given.) The procedures for taking and recording measurements for such items are the same as those

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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks raised for work to be charged against Provisional Sums, but the instructions do not need to be regarded as variations subject to the approval procedures set out in Circular KPKR 6:88 unless the estimated, or actual incurred cost, exceeds the value of the charged Provisional Sum, as recorded in the original Bill of Quantities.Payment is made after measurement in the normal way through the interim and final certificates and the Contract Sum is eventually adjusted by issuing a Certificate of Adjustment of Contract Sum (see Chapter 7.11e) omitting the original Provisional Sum and substituting the actual incurred cost. Contractual provisions are contained in Clause 30 of the 203A Conditions of Contract form and in Clause 58 of the 203 CEWI and FIDIC/I.C.B. "Conditions". Provisional sums should not be confused with items marked as having Provisional Quantities. The latter form an important element of roadworks contracts executed under 203A Conditions of Contract, which stipulate that all original quantities not marked "Provisional" are to be entered in the account without re-measurement. 7.08 Daywork Daywork is work instructed and paid for on the basis of the cost of plant, labour and materials actually used, plus an allowance for overhead and profit. Daywork instructions cannot be given for work covered by unit rates in the original Bill of Quantities but can (subject to the reservation in the following paragraph), be used for extra work items for which no B of Q rates already exist, or for work covered by Prime Cost or Provisional Sum items. Whilst Dayworks are useful for work for which it is difficult to establish a unit rate, they should only be used as a last resort. Wherever possible, ordinary work instructions should be given and unit rates determined - see Chapter 7.12 If it is decided that work is to be undertaken on a Daywork basis, special conditions apply both to supervision of the operation and it's measurement. First, site staff must exercise control over the type and numbers of plant used and generally ensure that the operation is conducted eco-

obtained from the JKR design office or co-ordinator responsible for the project. For values exceeding $50,000 tenders must be called and the work executed under a formal Nominated Sub-Contract, arrangements for which are normally handled by the appropriate JKR QS office. Advice on the Departmental regulations governing such sub-contracts can be obtained from the same office. For values less than $50,000 the Engineer should call for quotations and obtain committee approval for acceptance of the selected offer. Instructions should then be given for the work to be executed under normal variation procedure (subject to Departmental regulations for approval, etc) without resorting to formal subcontract arrangements. Payment for work executed under Nominated Sub-Contracts is made through the main contractor's interim and final certificates but the Engineer is required to inform the Nominated Sub-Contractor or supplier of the amounts paid. Contract Sum adjustment is necessary for P.C. items by issuing a Certificate of Adjustment of Contract Sum (see Chapter 7.11), omitting the Bill of Quantities P.C.Sum and substituting the value of executed work. Contractual provisions for P.C. items are contained in Clause 30 of the 203A Conditions of Contract and Clauses 58 & 59 of the 203 CEWI and I.C.B. forms. The term is not used in the FIDIC forms but Clause 59 covers the subject of Nominated Sub-Contractors. Regardless of the Conditions of Contract form used, no expenditure should be incurred under P.C. items except by express instruction of the Engineer. 7.07 Provisional Sums Provisional sums are included in the Bill of Quantities for work which at the time of tender, is of uncertain necessity, magnitude, definition, or detail, but which is regarded as being within the capability of the main contractor, without recourse to specialist Nominated SubContractors, or Suppliers. All Conditions of Contract forms stipulate that Provisional Sums are to be expended only if, and as instructed by, the Engineer. Written instructions (i.e. Site Instruction and/or A.P.P.) should therefore be
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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks 7.10 Interim valuations and Certification All Conditions of Contract provide for the contractor to be paid progressively for the value of work done and materials on site during the progress of the work. Such payments are necessary to provide the contractor with the necessary cash-flow to finance his operations. Although corrections and adjustments can be made in subsequent certificates, all interim valuations should be as accurate as possible. Overpayment resulting from an excessive valuation may be impossible to recover in the event of bankruptcy or default of the contractor. On the other hand, underpayment may affect the contractor's cash flow to such extent that it delays the progress of the project. The Form 203A Conditions of Contract require the S.O. to value completed work on a monthly basis. The 203 CEWI Conditions allow for the contractor to present a statement of completed work value at the end of each month whilst the FIDIC Conditions provide for the contractor to attend for measurement and valuation, as and when required by the Engineer. However, regardless of which "Conditions" apply, it is normal for interim measurement activities to be undertaken jointly with the contractor. After joint measurement and agreement of completed quantities, a statement is prepared, signed and presented by the contractor, usually on a monthly basis. This must be checked against the agreed recorded quantities and signed by the R.E. or member of the site team responsible for measurement. The contractor should be informed of any amendments or deletions made to the statement at this stage. An Interim Payment Certificate is then to be prepared by the Resident Engineer for signature by the Engineer, or other officer authorised to issue payment certificates. Certificates are to be prepared on JKR Form 66, a copy of which is given in Figure 7F. Before being presented to the issuing officer for signature, they should be endorsed as correct by the officer actually responsible for preparing or checking the valuation. Full supporting details of the statement should be appended. Contractual requirements- for the preparation of the statements and certificates are set down in

nomically. Second, they must carefully record and agree with the contractor the working period of the plant and labour actually devoted to the operation and the quantities of any materials used. Rules for the recording of Dayworks data are given in Clause 52 (3) or (4) of the Form 203 CEWI/FIDIC/ICB versions of the Conditions of Contract and Clause 25 (d) of Form 203A. A copy of a model Daywork Form is given as Figure 7E. The quantities obtained from the recorded data are extended by the appropriate rates contained in the contract Daywork Schedule to produce the developed cost of the operation. These are charged against new items, Provisional Sums or Daywork Section sums provided in the original B of Q. 7.09 Progressive Measurement; Progress/Measurement Drawings The Measurement Files, in addition to the sheets mentioned in Chapter 7.04 must contain a cumulative record of quantities updated month by month, so that when completion is reached, total quantity figures are available. However, the figures obtained from progressive measurement must be re-computed in a final measurement exercise for the whole completed works for all work items, where this is practicable. The exercise should be based either on site measurement or the "As Built Drawings", depending on the items involved (See Chapter 7.15). In order to assist the progressive measurement of the works, a comprehensive set of Progress/Measurement drawings should be maintained in the site office. These are prepared on paper prints of the road layout and structural general arrangement drawings. Several sets are required to accommodate the various items although colour coding can enable several similar items to be recorded on the same sheet (e.g. subbase and base together and binder and wearing course together). The boundaries of each month's completed work are edged in colour and the month and measurement sheet reference are marked. The use of these plans eliminates the risk of duplication or omission of sections of completed work in the measurement.

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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks odic checks should be made to ensure that they remain on site and have not deteriorated in quality before succes sive certificated payments are authorised. Payment to Nominated SubContractors/Suppliers is dealt with in Chapter 7.06. No retention is held on contracts with are subject to form 203A Conditions of Contract but deductions for retention must be made in accordance with 203 CEWI and I.C.B. "Conditions" (Clause 60.9), the percentage and limiting amounts being quoted in the Appendix to the Form of Tender. In the case of FIDIC contracts, retention requirements are detailed in Part II of the "Conditions". In cases where assignment arrangements have been made for direct payment to Pernas Trading Sdn Bhd for materials (cement and reinforcing steel) supplied to the contractor by that company, deduc tions of the same amount must be allowed for in the certificate. Details of the arrangement are given in Treasury Circular 11:1983 which contains copies of the standard forms to be used. Similar arrangements are provided in Treasury Circular 5:1986 for the supply of cement to roadwork projects by manufacturing companies. In either case, the provisions are usually contained in the Conditions of Contract (or Special Provisions). Payments may be included on an interim basis for work executed as a variation before the Certificate of Variation is issued, provided the work hasbeen authorised by the Engineer (ona Form A.P.P.) after approval as required by Circular KPKR 6:88 (see Chapter 7.11). If new rates are required, provisional or 'Star' rates can be determined by the Engineer for valuation of the work pend ing approval of unit rates under the Circular KPKR 6:88 rules. However, care should betaken to-ensure that. nopayment is included for variation work undertaken on the contractor's ini tiative, without formal instruction. It is necessary to determine how the
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Clause 47 of Form 203A Conditions of Contract and in Clause 60 (8) and (9) of the 203 CEWI Conditions. In the FIDIC Conditions, Clause 60 and the Part II Conditions carry the details whilst in the ICB version final payment arrangements are dealt with in Clause 60 (10) and (11). In addition to the value of complete work executed under the main contract, JKR Form 66 provides for the following. Payment/repayment of Plant or Cash Advances, Payment of Advances for Materials on site Nominated SubContractors/Suppliers Accounts Variation of Price Adjustment Deduction for Retention Various other Deductions The following further points should be noted in connection with the preparation of interim certificates. (a) Procedures for establishing the value of Plant Advances are dealt with in Chapter 4.04 (f). Repayment terms for these Advances are prescribed in the Conditions of Contract. The amounts of Cash Advances, if they are a feature of the contract, and the repayment terms are also both established in the Conditions of Contract. (b) Advances for Materials on Site are paid in the interim certificates against claims presented by the contractor. The claims must be checked by the supervision measurement staff to ensure that they are in accord with material actually existing on site and not incorporated in the works at the effective end-date of the certificate period. Clause 60 (6) of Form 203 CEWI and I.C.B. Conditions of Contract and Clause 47 (c) of Form 203A "Conditions" set out the terms under which Plant Advances are to be made - both forms allow for payment of 75% of the accred ited value.Under FIDIC contracts provi sion is made in Part II of the "Conditions" under Clause 60. If materials are delivered to site substan tial ly in advance of their incorporation into the works and are admitted for inclu sion in the Advance Payments, peri

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks statements. Any corrections must be signed by the issuing officer and in no case is correcting fluid to be used. 7.11 Certificate of Variation of Works; Certificate of Adjustment of Contract Sum Certificates of Variation must be raised for the following: 1) Work instructed on Site struction Forms or A.P.P.'s (or by any of the other methods noted in Chapter 6.04) and which is not explicitly or implicitly included in the works indicated in the contract documents. 2) Changes-:in 'rate or price-consequent upon change in quantity or total Contract Sum, such as is_ provided under Clause 25(b) of the 203A Form Conditions of contract, or Clause 52(2) & (3) of the 203 CEWI and FIDIC versions, or in Clause 52 (2) of the I.C.B. "Conditions". Although Certificates of Variation incorporate formal confirmation of instructions, they are less concerned with instruction than with authorisation and it is important to realise that two authorisation aspects are involved. First is contractual authorisation which legitimises variation under provisions contained in the Conditions of Contract; second is financial authorisation by Government which enables it to control and predict expenditure on the project. The Engineer's powers for varying the works are given in Clauses 5'and 24 of the Form 203A Conditions of Contract and in Clause 51 of the Form 203 CEWI, FIDIC and I.C.B. versions. The Engineer has no authority to order variation except as these clauses provide. Further detail and comment on these powers is given in Section D 3 etc., of Table APP/3. The regulations governing financial authority for ordering and valuing variations are contained in Departmental Circular KPKR 6:88. The Circular's requirements, particularly those for approval by committee, must be understood and complied with when Certificates of Variation of Works are prepared and issued. Both aspects of authorisation, contractual and financial, must, of course, be observed when the instruction is first contemplated on site, long
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(h)

(j)

(k)

(1)

general or preliminary items in the Bill of Quantities are to be paid - what propor tion and at what time. Unless the details are already specified in the contract doc uments, the break down into initial, peri odic and final elements, or any other appropriate arrangements, should be agreed with the contractor, if possible before the first interim certificate is pre pared. Many items can be paid month by month in the proportion of permanent work completed. Other items however, such as those covering insurance premi ums, can be paid in full - at the time and to the extent that costs are met by the con tractor. If a Certificate of Non-Completion has been issued (see Chapter 8.15) deduc tions must be made for 'Liquidated and Ascertained Damages in accordance with the amounts set out in the contract - in the Appendix to the Conditions of Contract in the case of Form 203A Conditions, and in the Appendix to the Form of Tender for Form 203 CEWI, and FIDIC and I.C.B. "Conditions." Minimum payment values are stipulated for interim certificates issued under Form 203A and 203 CEWI Conditions of Contract (see Clauses 47(a) and 60 g). If such provisions are entered in FIDIC contracts, they are usually contained in the Part II Conditions, and the minimum value for I.C.B. contracts is given in the Appendix to the Form of Tender. In all cases, if the valuation of the interim pay ment covering value of work executed and materials on site does not reach the stipulated minimum, payment is held over until the next interim certificate is due or requested, as the case may be. Resident Engineers should consult the Engineer or their Project Co-ordinator as to the distribution of copies of interim certificates and supporting data. In all cases, however, one copy is to be for warded to the contractor together with a copy of the amended detailed statement. All certificates must be typewritten. Print-outs are acceptable for supporting

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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks previous adjustments, the value of the current variation and thus the New Contract Sum. A copy of a blank form is given in Figure 7H on Pages 7/25 - 26 and regulations governing its use are contained in Circular KPKR 9:88. f) Copies of originating instructions e.g. Site Instruction Forms, A.P.P.'s, etc., should be attached to the Certificate. g) The Certificate should be dated the day of signature by the Engineer. h) The form should contain no typing or other corrections - in particular correcting fluid should not be used. It has already been noted that Certificates of Adjustment of Contract Sum have to be attached to Certificates of Variation of works. Certificates of Adjustment of Contract Sum are also used for other arrangements which give rise to a change in Contract Sum including, (i) work which is included in the original contract but for which no unit rate is given; eg. work chargeable to original Daywork, P.C. or Provisional Sum items, (ii) changes in quantities between those quot ed in the B of Q and those actually required which do not arise as a result of variation instructions noted in 1) on page 7/19, (iii) awards made in response to contractorsclaims and (iv) final meas urement determining the Final Contract Sum to be paid. As previously notedlCertificates of Adjustment of Contract Sum are prepared on standard forms (PPJHK) a blank copy of which is given in Figure 7H on pages 7/25-26 and regulations governing its use are contained in Circular KPKR 9;88. In connection with item (ii) above, it may be noted that Clause 51(2) of the FIDIC Conditions of Contract, exempts simple changes in quantity from the requirement for written variation instruction. However, whilst this is the contractual position, the requirements of governmental financial control demand that the changes must be formalised and this is done on a Certificate of Adjustment of Contract Sum. Strictly speaking, it is not necessary to prepare the certificate until the-executed quantities exceed the Billed quanPage 88

before the certificate is issued. Points to note in connection with the preparation and issuing of Certificates of Variation of Works are as follows. a) The Certificates must be prepared (type written) on form JKR 203V - Pin 4/83 Certificate of Variation of Works. An example of a completed Certificate is given in Figure 7G on Pages 7/22--24. b) The forms are to be consecutively num bered for each contract and where appropriate should quote the number(s) of the A.P.P.(s) on which they are based - they can aggregate up to three separate originating instructions. c) The forms must be signed by the Engineer and are to be acknowledged by the contractor on the last page. Although the Engineer signs the Certificates, he must observe the requirements for obtaining authorisation and the financial limits, all contained in Circular KPKR 6:88. d) The Certificates value the work and show the effect on the Contract Sum but do not quote the New Contract Sum. The valuation of variations is based either on estimated or completed work quanti ties and on existing or agreed new* unit rates as appropriate. Rules for the appli cation of existing rates, or the adoption of new rates, are given in Clause 25 of the form 203A Conditions of Contract and Clause 52 of the 203 CEWI, FIDIC and I.C.B. versions. For the purpose of interim payment, pro visional or "Star" rates determined by the Engineer can be used, providing the vari ation has been authorised in accordance with Circular KPKR 6:88 and pending the approval of finally adopted rates, also in accordance with the Circular. e) The Resident Engineer or other officer preparing the Certificate of Variation of Works is also required to prepare and attach a Certificate of Adjustment of Contract Sum (P.P.J.H.K.). When completed, the form indicates the original Contract Sum, the total net value of all
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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks labour offices. The payroll rates are subject to additions to allow for EPF, SOCSO, insurances, annual leave, sick leave, bonus, overtime and severance benefits. The all-in hourly rate is then applied to the estimated output to arrive at the labour element of cost per unit quantity of the item. For materials which contribute significantly to the makeup of the rate, the Resident Engineer should obtain at least two quotations together with the contractor's actual invoices, all of which should preferably include delivery to site and which must show the trade discounts obtained. To these prices must be added allowances for unloading, handling and reasonable wastage. To the toal of the three main elements of cost dealt with above must be added overhead and profit. The contract itself may specifically quote a percentage figure for this, or it may be indicated in figures required as oncosts to P.C. Sums. Generally speaking, the figure should range between 15-25% depending on the nature of the project and the risks involved. For further detailed guidance that may be required on the subject of first-principle rate fixing, site staff should consult the QS Section of the JKR regional office or JKR HQ. It is widely acknowledged that first-principle methods tend to provide rates which are higher than those resulting from competitive tender. The calculated rate should therefore be checked against any similar rates found in other JKR contracts undertaken in the same area. 7.13 Variation of Price (Escalation) Some roadwork contracts, particularly those of protracted duration, contain Variation of Price (V.O.P.) provisions to allow for increases or decreases in the prices of materials etc., from those ruling at the time the tender was prepared. If such allowance is made, it is contained in special Provisions annexed to the Conditions of Contract in the case of Form 203A and 203 CEWI contracts, and in the case of FIDIC and I.C.B. contracts in Part II of the "Conditions". It is important that all staff responsible for assessing V.O.P. payment should carefully study the provisions for their particular contract and ensure that only payments in accord with those
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tities, but from a practical point of view, it is desirable to do so as soon as it is clear that the Billed quantities will eventually be exceeded. Whichever Conditions of Contract form is used, approval under the Circular KPKR 6:88 regulations is not required for simple changes in quantity which do not otherwise constitute a variation. Once the Certificate of Adjustment has been duly authorised, signed, issued and endorsed by the contractor, the New Contract Sum indicated on the form can be regarded as formally adopted. It should be quoted in place of the original Contract Sum on payment certificates and used for the determination of progress data, etc. 7.12 Rate Fixing For work executed as Variations and for which no applicable unit rate exists in the original B of Q, it is necessary for the Engineer to agree or fix new rates (unless Daywork is instructed). Except in the case of large contracts which have their own Measurement Engineer or QS and supporting staff, rate fixing work is likely to be prepared for the Engineer by the QS Section of the JKR regional office, or HQ. However, the following notes are provided for the benefit of site staff who may be involved in any rate fixing activity. Unless rates for nearly similar work exists in the B of Q, which can be adapted for the new item, it is usual to prepare a new rate valuation from first principles, as a first step. The make up of rates is based on the cost of: Plant, Labour, Materials, and Overheads and Profit. For plant, it is necessary to establish the hourly output of individual machines and the normal number of operational hours achieved per annum. Annual owning and operating costs are determined and the plant cost per unit quantity arrived at. Plant manufacturer's handbooks, sales organisations and standard reference works should be consulted for the data involved. For labour, contractor's payrolls can be consulted for rates actually paid, which should be checked against data released by government
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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks deductions for V.O.P. They should therefore ensure that the contractor submits regular returns for the operating hours and fuel consumption of plant and for the procurement of materials, even though he is making no claim for V.O.P. payments. 7.14 Claims Although the careful preparation of contract documents and effective site supervision can do much to reduce the number and value of contractors' claims, it is unlikely that they will ever be entirely eliminated. Much of the work involved in the assessment and settlement of claims is handled, not by site staff, but by specialist officers working in regional JKR offices or JKR HQ. However, there are a number of essential steps which need to be taken by site staff when the contractor notifies his intention to claim, or when it becomes obvious that a claim situation is developing. The more important of these are listed below. a) Keeping comprehensive records of claim events and circumstances. b) Recording relevant data e.g. dates, times, weather and plant, labour, materials and overhead items involved. c) Checking records presented by the contractor and refuting any found to be erroneous or inaccurate. d) Deciding on any steps that will mitigate the on-going effects of claim situations. e) Reporting to superiors on the submission of claims or situations arising. f) Assisting with the preparation of evaluation reports. Guidance on all these points is given in a separate Appendix to this manual - "Dealing with Claims under Roadwork Contracts". Additionally, the Appendix contains information in con nection with grounds for claims, their contractual basis, procedures to be adoped and the principles of, and detailed approach to, the evaluation of various classifications of claims. Settlement of the agreed values of claims is effected by issuing a certificate of Adjustment of Contract Sum (see Chapter 7.11e) for the amount on Form 203V. The whole process of

provisions are processed. The provisions usually concern the submission, checking and recording of data, the limitation of quantities by scheduled estimates in the contract and the computation of the V.O.P. sum due to the contractor. V.O.P. practice adopted by the Department for roadwork contracts uses the base rate method as opposed to index systems, and materials to which V.O.P. provisions apply are normally limited to: (i) mild steel and high tensile steel reinforcing bars, (ii) cement, (iii) diesel and fuel oil, and (iv) bitumen V.O.P. adjustments are not admissible on any materials not specifically included in the contract provisions. Current rates for all materials quoted in (i)-(iv) are published in the Statistic Department's Special Release No. 1 (for Civil Engineering Works). The V.O.P. adjustment to the contract price is usually determined on a monthly basis and generally computed as the product of the quantity of material delivered to the site multiplied by the difference between the Special Release rate for. the month in which the tender closed and the Special Release rate for the month of delivery. V.O.P. adjustments are usually evaluated by the Engineer and checked by the JKR regional office or HQ QS Section, but the member of the site supervision team responsible for measurement work must obtain the required monthly returns, invoices and delivery notes from the contractor and verify them by site checking, or other appropriate means. V.O.P. payment adjustments are made in interim certificates but overall checks should be applied periodically, and ultimately for the Final Account, against measured work items etc, with suitable allowances for wastage and temporary work - all, of course, subject to the limits established in the V.O.P. regulations contained in the Supplementary Provisions or Part II Conditions. Staff responsible for measurement work should bear in mind that prices can go either up or down, so that it may be appropriate to certify
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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks have been paid to, or for, the contractor's workmen. The Final Certificate must not be issued before the end of the Defects Maintenance Period nor before the date of the Certificate of Making Good Defects, but the penultimate or prior payment certificate may be issued as soon as possible after the submission of the Contractor's final account. Any such certificate shouldbe subject to adjustment for any outstanding, defective (or potentially defective) work at the time it is issued. In the 203 CEWI and T.C.B. Conditions final certification and payment arrangements are dealt with in Clause 60 (10) and (11). They allow for release o one half of the retention money when the Certificate of Completion for the whole of the works is issued and subject to confirmation of payment of wages and statutory contributions to workmen. The contractor may apply for full release of retention at this stage in exchange for the provision of a bank guarantee. Within four months of the date of the Certificate of Completion, the contractor is required to submit a complete and detailed Final Account and the Engineer prepares a Final Certificate releasing the outstanding half of the retention (or the Retention Guarantee) when the Maintenance Certificate is issued. In the case of the FIDIC Conditions, final certification and payment arrangements areet out in Part II of the Conditions (Clause 60), covering retention release and the period for issuing the Final Certificate after submission of the contractor's Final Account. It should be noted that in the FIDIC case, the release of the outstanding retention at the end of the Maintenance Period is not conditional upon the granting of the Maintenance Certificate - see Clause 62(l). For 203 CEWI, ICB and FIDIC contracts, penultimate certificates should be prepared as soon as possible after receipt of the contractor's Final Account. The certificate should be based on the Engineer's "estimated final sum" allowing for all payments and deductions due but, (if necessary) excluding all unsettled or disputed contractor's claims. 7.16 Budgetary Control Certificates of Variation of Works and

determination and payment is subject to the approval requirements, etc., contained in Circular KPKR 6:88 and these must be carefully observed by all officers involved in the process. Site staff should make no commitment as to acceptance of a claim or its evaluation until approval under the terms of Circular KPKR 6;88 has been given nor should they make any prior provision for interim payment, or adjustment of quantities, or sums, in connection with claims presented by the contractor. 7.15 Final Account and Certification Although progressive measurement throughout the construction period, together with comprehensive and accurate interim valuation is encouraged, it remains necessary to undertake a thorough and separate final measurement exercise for the whole completed works, under which the total quantity for each item is reexamined and re-computed. The exercise should be based on actual site measurement or the As Built Drawings. When taking measurements from As Built Drawings, it should be remembered that they may show dimensions constructed in excess of those indicated on the original Drawings, or subsequent instructions, and that the excess quantity should not be paid for by the Employer. The procedure for preparation of the Final Account varies, according to which Conditions of Contract form is used, the most important difference being the fact that the form 203A Conditions have no requirement for the holding of retention as in the case of the 203 CEWI, FIDIC and ICB versions. Provisions covering the Final Certificate in the Form 203A Conditions are contained in Clause 48 of the document. The clause requires the contractor to submit his final statement together with all supporting documentation not later than 3 months after the date of Practical Completion. The Engineer is required to issue the Final Certificate within three months of the date of expiry of the Defects Liability Period, or of the date-of the Certificate of Making Good Defects whichever is the later. There is also a requirement for a declaration or certification confirming that all wages and statutory contributions

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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks ensure are undertaken by his staff, are as follows: i) Familiarisation with the B of Q and its Preambles. ii) Routine monthly on-site and "from-theDrawings" measurement. iii) Special "Extra Work Item" measurement. iv) Preparation of standard measurement/computation forms. v) Recording of measurement/computation on standard forms. vi) The keeping of progressive measurement files. vii) The keeping of Progress/Measurement Drawings. viii)Final Measurement computation. ix) The recording and agreeing of Daywork data. x) The checking of V.O.P. accounts. xi) Preparation of Interim Certificates*. xii) Preparation of Certificates of Variation of Works/Adjustment of Contract Sum or separate Certificates of Adjustment of Contract Sum. xiii) Fixing of unit rates*. xiv) Preparation of Schedule of Predicted Final Cost. * ------------------------------------------------------Unless taken over by the QS in the JKR regional or HQ office. 7.18 The Importance of Independent Control As a conclusion to this chapter, it is necessary to stress an important point of principle. It is customary for the contractor to be strongly involved in measurement matters. He collects and presents physical measurement data, produces Daywork records, prepares accounts and valuations and probably contributes to rate fixing exercises. Most of these activities are the ultimate responsibility of the Engineer and his staff, or are at least intended to be undertaken jointly. It is vital that the role of the supervision team in measurement does not become one of simply "rubber stamping" work done by the contractor and that the Resident Engineer and his staff exercise full and careful control and checking of all the processes leading to payment..

Certificates of Adjustment of Contract Sum provide financial authorisation and control by establishing the New Contract Sum. However, because preparation (involving, as it often does, rate evaluation) may be protracted, and because non-variation increases in quantity may not be dealt with until the original quantities are actually exceeded, they do not provide a very current or accurate projection of ultimate cost, which both the Department and the Treasury require. Accordingly, the Resident Engineer for every roadwork contract must prepare at the end of each month, a Schedule of Predicted Final Cost. The Schedule must show, in the sequence indicated: a) the New Contract Sum recorded in the P.P.J.H.K. Form attached to the last previ ously issued Variation Order (See Chapter 7.11), b) the estimated value of each Site Instruction Form or APP involving increased or decreased cost not already covered by a Variation order, c) the value of any other anticipated increase or decrease in quantities, d) the estimated net value of any other anticipated variation, and thus: e) the Predicted Final Cost. The Schedule of Predicted Final Cost is to be presented in the Resident Engineer's Two Monthly Progress Report for the appropriate month (see Chapter 9.07). The Schedule of Predicted Cost is concerned only with construction cost but Standard Detailed Abstract returns are made by the Department which additionally cover items such as land acquisition, consultancy service and utilities costs. The revisions to the standard Detailed Abstracts which become necessary from time to time may be dealt with off-site but the Resident Engineer should consult the Engineer, Project Co-ordinator, or other superior officer to determine whether or not he is required to undertake the revision or.provide data for it. 7.17 Mandatory Duties Measurement and Financial Control. duties as described in this chapter which are mandatory for the Resident Engineer, or which he must

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* Unless taken over by the QS in the JKR regional or HQ office.

FIGURE 7A

JABAT AN KERJA RAYA, CAWANGAN JALAN CONT RACT NO: / /

SIT E MEASUREMENT FORM

NO: /

IT EM NO DESCRIPT ION LOCAT ION DAT E MEASUREMENT

FO R CO NTRACTO R: .. DATE.. ..DATE. SITE AGENT

FO R JABATAN KERJA RAYA .DATE. .DATE. RESIDET ENGINEER

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FIGURE 7B

JABAT AN KERJA RAYA, CAWANGAN JALAN CONT RACT NO: / /

SIT E MEASUREMENT FORM

NO: 4 /

IT EM NO 4/3 4/6 CHAINAGE (M) C.S.A (M2) DESCRIPT ION EART HWORKS: Roadway Excavation/ Embankment AVERAGE C.S.A (M2) LENGT H OF CUT /FILL (M) CUT VOLUME (M3) FILL CUMULAT IVE VOLUME (M3) CUT FILL LOCAT ION DAT E MEASUREMENT

FO R CO NTRACTO R: .. DATE..

FO R JABATAN KERJA RAYA .DATE.

..DATE. .DATE. SITE AGENT RESIDET ENGINEER

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FIGURE 7C

JABAT AN KERJA RAYA, CAWANGAN JALAN CONT RACT NO: / /

SIT E MEASUREMENT FORM

NO: 4 /

IT EM NO 6/3 CHAINAGE (M) WIDT H (M) DESCRIPT ION PAVEMENT Sub-base NOMINAL T HICKNESS (MM) (M3) CHECK MINIMUM T HICKNESS REMARKS LOCAT ION DAT E MEASUREMENT

VOLUME

FO R CO NTRACTO R:

FO R JABATAN KERJA RAYA

.. DATE.. .DATE. ..DATE .DATE. SITE AGENT RESIDET ENGINEER

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FIGURE 7F

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CHAPTER EIGHT : PROGRESS


CONTENTS 8.01 8.02 8.03 8.04 8.05 8.06 8.07 8.08 8.09 8.10 8.11 8.12 The Importance of Progress Matters Engineer's Responsibilities R.E.'s Aids to Progress The Monitoring and Control of Progress Contractor's Programme Programme Approval Progress Chart and 'S' Curve Regular Review of Progress Progress Meetings Action in the Event of Delay Extension of the Contract Period Determination of Extension Period
8.02 Engineer Responsibilities Progress matters are not essentially* a contractual responsibility of the Engineer and his staff, but the whole supervision team does have a clear duty to its employer, the Government, to bring the project to timely completion. This is one of the important aspects of the total management concept advocated in Chapter One. So, although there may be numerous causes of delay which neither the contractor nor the Engineer create (for example late land release, protracted services work, financing problems or national materials shortages), the supervision staff must actively do all they can to help overcome delays and encourage progress. It goes without saying that when it comes to progress matters over which the team does have direct influence, such as the provision of drawings and instructions etc, inspection, the giving of approval and the certification of payment, the team must maintain a continuing sense of urgency. * But see the Table 3/APP, Sections B4, 5 & 6 with reference to some duties of the Engineer prescribed in the Conditions of Contract in the event of delay. 8.03 R.E.'s Aids to Progress. Particularising the foregoing generalities, the Resident Engineer should regard the following duties as an essential part of his job. (1) Ensure through the early provision of Land Plans and close contact with the appropriate Land Office that the site is made available to the contractor at the proper time. (2) Provide instructions and drawings covering variations or the necessary amplification or clarification of the original documents quickly. (3) Ensure that site staff attend to inspection and testing duties promptly and issue approvals for sequential operations as soon as possible, or inform the contractor of necessary corrections; warn the contractor in advance if deficiencies in preparation are observed.

-----------------------------------------------------8.01 The Importance of Progress Matters. There is a pressing need to improve and maintain a better record of prompt completion of road contracts administered by the Department. Apart from social benefit aspects, substantial economic losses can result from delays in completion. The investment that Government makes in the form of interim payments during the construction period produces no return until the road (or at least part of it) comes into public use and failure to complete on time confounds the economic return figures on which the viability of the project is based. More direct losses occur if the contractor successfully claims extra costs arising from delays not of his making.

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(4) Prepare interim certificates on time and pass them on quickly for signature and processing. (5) Use any departmental or other governmen tal influence to earmark, for the project, materials in short supply. (6) Liaise with service authorities and pre-plan service diversions. (7) Monitor progress on a regular basis and take corrective action where necessary. (8) Report promptly to the Engineer delays to the scheduled programme which develop. (9) Examine with the contractor possibilities for redesign or reprogramming which may be helpful in overcoming delays which are affecting, or threatening, progress (but see also last paragraph of Chapter 8.10) 8.04 The Monitoring and Control of Progress. Turning to the subject of practical measures involved in the monitoring and controlling of progress, the most essential tool is the contractor's works- programme. In most contract forms the contractor"-~is required to present his proposals for the--'Engineer's approval within a stipulated period of the Notice to Proceed. Since the programme has both practical and contractual significance it should be found to be realistic before it is approved. The importance of the programme is threefold: 1. It is the basis for the whole day to day and long term planning of the contractor's operations, procurement of materials and commitment of plant and labour resources. if it. is seriously impractical the contractor may find himself in a real, but previously undiscerned, delay situation late in the contract period, when he is unable to recover the backlog. 2. It is the yardstick against which all progress is measured and against which requirements for any necessary acceleration can be determined. 3. In the event of claims for delay costs it is the means of determining the effect of obstructions, and the cost of non-delay situation operations, against which the extra cost of the actual delay situation operations can be assessed.
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8.05 Contractor's Programmes. Programmes presented by the contractor should take one of the following three forms. 1. operational Networks, 2. Vector Charts, or 3. Simple Bar Charts. The Engineer may, in addition, ask the contractor to submit simple calculations of material requirements and output in support of his programme. Most road jobs have a relatively simple operation train so that critical path networks are often unnecessary. However, if complicated services or traffic diversions are involved (which is the case in many urban schemes) network programmes can be valuable. They are also useful for programming major structure operations. Further, general networks are valuable for extra time and cost determination in delay circumstances. Vector Charts can be prepared for Bill of Quantities sections for more detailed groups of items) using vertical time scales and horizontal chainage coordinates. They are particularly suitable for roadworks because many work output requirements are proportional to chainage length and adopt common vector slopes. Simple Bar Charts, prepared for groups of Bill of Quantities items on a horizontal time base with chainage or other location or structure data, are suitable for uncomplicated contracts. Whilst Vector Charts or Bar Charts are appropriate for the roadwork operations of many contracts, they give little scope for the detailed planning of major structures and the combination of Vector or Bar Charts for roadwork operations, together with network programmes for major structures, can be a suitable approach. Examples of the three types of programme are given in Figures 8A, 8B and 8C on pages 8/12, 8/13 & 8/14. In the case of small contractors with little programming experience, the RE may assist in the preparation of the programme which must, however, be presented formally as the contractor's proposal.

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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks Manufacturing Plant may be as low as 60% of the rated output. If appropriate, the Engineer (or his Respresentative) should require the contractor to make any alterations that the examination of the original programme has indicated to be necessary. When the programme is acceptable in form and content, the Engineer should give his approval to the contractor in writing. Obtaining and checking the contractor's programme for approval is mandatory for the RE. 8.07 Progress Chart and 'S' Curve. Once an approved programme is available, the Resident Engineer should ask the contractor to prepare a detailed Progress Chart and from it the financial progress 'S' Curve. Both should be checked by the RE. These are mandatory requirements. Figure 8D on page 8/15 gives an example of a Progress Chart with which the 'S' Curve has been combined. It is equally possible to prepare the two as separate charts, of course, providing better clarity. For the Progress Chart the work value of the programme month by month is assessed, broken down at least into Bill of Quantities Sections, but preferably subdivided into the major operational item groups. For example, the "Pavement" section will raise item groups for SubBase, Base and Surfacing. The monthly figures for each section or item group are expresed as a percentage of the total for the whole contract period and inserted against the "Scheduled" bar for the particular item. As construction proceeds the percentage value of work completed month by month under each item group is determined, usually based on the interim certificate measurements. An open bar is provided for each item group below the "Scheduled" figure bar and the actual percentage completion figure is written in each month., The open bar is then coloured in to the limit that the "Actual" completion represents on the "Scheduled" bar. In this way it is possible to see, at a glance, the extent to which any item group or section is behind, or ahead of schedule and it is a simple matter to express this as delay or advance of so many months.
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8.06 Programme Approval. In checking that the contractor's programme is practicable before approving it, the Resident Engineer should include the following points in his examination. 1. Is the length of the mobilisation period practical for establishing plant, offices and laboratory before the scheduled date of the first operations, or are special alternative arrangments for temporary supply of materials, hire of plant etc., practicable? 2. Is the scheduled sequencing of operations suitable? Are any special specified sequence arrangements observed? 3. Are the assumed quantities correct? A coarse ch eck on the Bill of Quantities should be run. 4. Is the output capacity of the proposed labour force and mobile plant fleet adequate to meet the scheduled rates of progress? 5. Are the acquisition rates of materials and stor age capacities adequate? 6. Is the output of static plant adequate? a. Quarry facilities - drilling, blasting, loading, trucking. b. Crushing, screening, washing. c. Concrete plant d. Asphalt plant 7. Has the effect of daily weather patterns and seasonal weather constraints been taken into account? 8. Has the effect of major public holidays been allowed for ? 9. Has the disrupting effect of service diversions and existing road traffic been taken into account? 10. Has adequate float time for clearing up and contingencies been allowed? In assessing the capacity of mobile plant, manufacturer's literature, reference books or selling agents' organisations can be consulted. The capacity figures obtained may need adjustment for equipment which is old or in poor condition. As far as static plant is concerned, hourly output ratings are usually quoted by the manufacturers but these are often highly optimistic. For example, the maximum output that can reasonably be achieved from an Asphalt

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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks tional and contractual points which the local site staff have been unable to resolve during the month, but on which the more senior personnel attending may be able to give rulings, or reach agreement. 'A site visit to the works should be undertaken by the members of the meeting on the same day. 8.10 Action in the Event o Delay. It should be remembered that some Conditions of Contract forms * give the Engineer the right to require the contractor to revise his programme in the event o delay. If accumulated delay exceeds say 20% in financial terms this right should certainly be exercised. As a further and more formal step, Clause 46 of the CEWI, FIDIC and I.C.B. Conditions of Contract oblige the Engineer to notify the contractor if, in the Engineer's opinion, progress is "....too slow for the completion of the Works by the prescribed time ..." The contractor must then take steps agreed with the Engineer to expedite progress. Measures to expedite may well include the committing of additional resources of plant and labour. (See also Sections B2 and 4 of Table 3/APP) As noted in Chapter 8.03 (9) the Resident Engineer should co-operate with the contractor to find ways of overcoming delay either through re-design or reprogramming. However, on a point of contractual detail, if the circumstances of delay can be shown by the contractor to be not of his making, but the result of some external influence or the Employer's fault, then the contractor may be able to claim extra costs for the measures he takes in order to accelerate progress. Resident Engineers should therefore give no instruction, nor make any agreement with the contractor, without first informing their superior officer and discussing the implications with him. * 203 CEW1 and I.C.B. C1.14.(2); FIDIC C1.14.2. 8.11 Extension of the Contract Period. In certain circumstances of delay it is necessary for the Engineer to extend the construction period beyond that provided in the contract.
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At the foot of the Chart, horizontal columns are provided for "Scheduled" and "Actual" monthly cumulative totals aggregated from completed work values in dollars, for all the item groups. In determining percentage completion figures in assessments of progress or delay periods, the Predicted Final Cost (see Chapter 7.16) should be used, not the original contract sum. It will therefore be necessary to update the figures on the Progress Chart from time to time, although this is not considered necessary for changes less than 2%. 8.08 Regular Review of Progress. The progress situation should come under monthly review by the Resident Engineer. The Progress Chart, if it is updated conscientiously, will reveal operations which are subject to delay, but it is also necessary to identify areas of potential delay in critical operations, or sequencing problems which may arise in the future. If the programmes consist of Bar or Vector Charts, these problems may not be very obvious and will only be revealed after careful examination. Prints of the contract drawings which show progressive completion of the various items of work by colour coding are helpful in illustrating the current progress situation. They perform a joint function as Progress/Measurement Drawings and are dealt with in Chapter 7.09. 8.09 Progress Meetings. The Resident Engineer should arrange for Progress Meetings to be held at his site office with the contractor at monthly intervals. It is desirable that the meetings should be attended by the Engineer and a director of the contracting company. In the case of supervision by consultants a principal of the firm (preferably the Project Manager) should attend. Where consultants are involved in design only, representatives may also be asked to attend in appropriate circumstances. At the meeting, the overall progress situation should be discussed, detailed causes of any delay should be identified and agreement reached as to how they should be overcome. I n addition to dealing with progress matters, the meetings are a useful forum for raising construc-

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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks delay. 2. In spite of delaying factors the contractor is still required to use his "best endeavours" to avoid delays. These may include rescheduling his operations but clearly, if he incurs extra expense as a result of measures he takes, he may have a justifiable claim for reimbursement. 3. To qualify for extension the delay must be such as to unavoidably extend some works activity beyond the end of the original construction period. It is therefore necessary to examine the effect of the obstruction upon the most timecritical train of operations. Network programmes can be particularly useful in identifying the critical elements. The procedure followed is to restart the critical path at the date the obstruction ceases and allow the same construction periods for the remaining operations as the original programme allowed, unless some redesign or reprogramming makes it practical to reduce these periods. If there is no approved programme network an attempt trust still be made to establish the effect on time- critical operations. 4. On no account should several delaying events or circumstances be simply aggregated to give a total delay period, without assessing the critical effect as outlined in 3 above. The time allowed for the most critical delay may well envelope the time consumed by another. 5. The granting of an extension" of the contract period relieves the contractor of the liability for Liquidated Damages and usually opens the door to claims for extra cost which may be substantial. Officers determining extensions should therefore carefully ensure that there are genuine and justifiable grounds before doing so. 8.13 Co-incident Delays It often happens that determination of the extension period is complicated by delays caused by the contractor, which are either totally or partially coincident in time with those for which the Employer carries responsibility. In these cases, it is necessary to apportion liability between the contractor and the Employer when determining an extension, which will, in turn, affect the contractor's liability for Liquidated Damages. It is difficult to formulate
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Generally speaking grounds for extension are external influences on the contractors operations or default on the part of the Employer. T h e contract period must not be extended under circumstances which are entirely the fault, or contractual responsibility of the contractor. Grounds for extension are formalised (not necessarilly exhaustively) in the Conditions of Contract. In the case of the, 203 CEWI and I.C.B. "Conditions" the major clauses to note are: a) Clause 12 Adverse Physical conditions or obstructions. b) Clause 42 Employers failure to provide the site. c) Clause 44 Various causes noted in sub clauses a-i. Similar provisions are to be found in the FIDIC "Conditions" except that whilst Clause 12 deals with the extra cost of Adverse Physical Conditions, time extension on these grounds is not mentioned specifically in the Clause. In the Form 203A "Conditions" there is no " Adverse Physical Conditions or obstructions" clause (but this does not necessarily exclude claims for extension on these grounds). Clause 43 of Form 203A has sub clauses similar to those of Clause 44 of 203 CEWI except that inability to secure materials and the employer's failure to provide the site on time are entered as grounds for extension (extra costs connected with land delays however are ruled out by Clause 38.d). A more comprehensive listing of the clauses in the various Conditions of contract which provide grounds for extension are given in Section B(5) and (6) of Table 3/APP. Clearly it is important to consult the contract's particular Conditions of Contract when considering what grounds, if any, are appropriate for extension. 8.12 Determination of Extension Period. The following points should be noted in determining extensions. 1. Delaying or obstructing influences do not in themselves constitute grounds for an award of extra time - there must an actual occurence of
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general rules for apportionment which apply to all circumstances and each case should be investigated on its own merits. Site staff should refer such cases to the Engineer or their Co-ordinator and ensure that the officer determining any extension is aware of all the facts affecting the issue. Even if the contractor's delays are adjudged not to be a factor affecting the length of the extension period, they maystill be relevant to the assessment of costs awarded to the contractor for delay and extension. 8.14 Extension Certificate. The decision to extend the contract period should not be taken hastily. The Engineer must be convinced that the contractor is not able to recover delay during the remaining part of the original contract period. On the other hand, if extension is denied or delayed when it is clearly justifiable and advisable, the Employer may face an irrefutable claim for cost incurred by the contractor in accelerating his operations to complete within the original contract period. It is therefore, a decision which requires careful and reasoned judgement. If it is decided that an extension must be granted an Extension Certificate should be prepared for the Engineer's signature on Form JKR 203T Pin 4/83 "Certificate of Delay and Extension of Time". The Form quotes the length of extension and the reasons for it - a blank copy is shown in Figure 8E on pages 8/16-17. 8.15 Certificate of Non-Completion. If the work included in the contract is not substantially complete by the end of the original contract period, and if there are no acceptable grounds for extension of the contract period, then the Engineer is to issue a Certificate of Non-Completion. Liquidated Damages as prescribed in the contract will, in this circumstance, be levied against the contractor. It is normal before issuing the Certificate to send to the contractor a "show cause" letter seeking his views on any grounds for not issuing the Certificate. The letter can be sent in advance of the completion date if it is clear that there is no possibility of completion on time.
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8.16 Extension of Insurances In the event of extension of the contract period, the Resident Engineer should ensure that all the contract insurances (see Chapter 4.4 c) are renewed by the contractor, as necessary, at their original expiry dates. In the event of failure of the contractor to effect renewal, the Engineer should arrange for renewal by the Department and deduct the cost of the premiums from monies due to the contractor. 8.17 Quality versus Progress. One last word on the subject of progress. It has already been said that supervision staff should encourage progress and make strenuous efforts to overcome delay. 'They should co-operate with the contractor and give him their support to this end. However, in doing so, no one in the supervision team should ever relax specified standards which their engineering judgement tells them are essential, ignore the requirements of good construction practice, or abandon necessary testing or other control techniques, in an attempt to short-cut the time required to provide an acceptable result. The quality is remembered long after the completion date is forgotten.

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FIGURE 8E

(JKR.203T Pin.4/83)
KERAJAAN........................... JABATAN KERJA RAYA PERAKUAN KELAMBATAN DAN LANJUTAN MASA No............... (CERTIFICATE OF DELAY AND EXTENSION OF TIME No.............)

Rujukan.................................

Pejabat............................ .... ........ . Tarikh............................. .

Kepada........................... ....................................... (Kontraktor)

Berdaftar dengan JKR dalam Kelas ..................." Kontrak No............................,............:..................... ........... ..................................... Kontrak untuk............................................................................................................. Bahagian*................................................................................................................... Section* Dengan ini saya memperakui bahawa kemajuan dan penyiapan Kerja-Kerja/ Bahagian Kerja I hereby certify that the progress and completion of the Works/Section of the Kerja* seperti yang tersebut di atas mungkin/ telah* terlambat melewati Tarikh Siap seperti Works* as mentioned above is likely to be / has been* delayed beyond the Date for Completion yang dinyatakan dalam Lampiran kepada Syarat-Syarat Kontrak atau melewati Tarikh stated in the Appendix to the Conditions of Contract or beyond the extended Date Lanjutan Siap yang telah dibenarkan sebelum ini, iaitu......................................................... for Completion previously approved i.e. dengan sebab/sebab-sebab berikut: due to the following reason/reasons. Sebab/sebab-sebab (reasonlreasons) ..................................... .................................... .................................... Klausa (Clause) ............................. ............................. ............................. 1 Tempoh Kelambatan dan Lanjutan Masa (Period of Delay and Extension of Time) ................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................

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CHAPTER NINE : REPORTS


CONTENTS 9.01 Introduction 9.02 Reports Required 9.03 Contractor's Daily / Weekly Advance Works Reports 9.04 Contractor's Monthly Progress Report 9.05 Daily Site Diary 9.06 Daily Inspection Reports 9.07 Resident Engineer's Two Monthly Progress Report 9.08 Special Non - Periodic Reports 9.09 Weather Report 9.10 Completion Report
-----------------------------------------------------9.01 Introduction Reporting is regarded as a burdensome task by most site staff but it is a necessary duty both to provide essential recorded data and to ensure that superior officers based away from the site are adequately briefed. Promptitude is important. Information presented long after it is current may be of little value to those who have to take action on it. Further, early preparation when events are still clear in the mind encourages accuracy and completeness and makes the job easier. The longer it is left the harder and more time consuming it becomes. 9.02 Reports Required The following reports are required. From the contractor to the Resident Engineer: (1) Daily/Weekly Advance Works Report (2) Monthly Progress Report By the Supervision Team: (3) Daily Site Diary (4) Daily Inspection Reports (5) Resident Engineer's Two-Monthly Progress Report
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(6) Special Non-Periodic Reports (7) Weather Report (8) Completion Report Comments on the requirements for each of these reports are given in the following sections of this chapter. 9.03 Contractor's Daily/Weekly Advance Works Reports The purpose of these reports is to keep the Resident Engineer informed in advance of the contractor's detailed programme so that he can organise the supervision activities of his own team and prepare for necessary checking and testing and provision of required data. Whether the reports should be presented on a daily or weekly basis, or both, will depend on the size of the contract and the complexity of the works and the contractor's programming for them. The subject should be a matter for discussion with the contractor's agent during the inception period. On small contracts (say with a value less than $2 million) a daily handwritten report by the contractor's general foreman will probably suffice. On the largest projects, typed-up reports presented on a weekly basis by the contractor's agent will probably be required in addition to the daily report mentioned above. For both daily and weekly reports the following information should be given: a) under each Bill of Quantities heading, details of completed work operations intended, quoting chainange limits, particular structures or other location data; b) preparatory work to be undertaken in connection with (a); c) any special working hours or overtime arrangements proposed; d) any special test or other check requirements anticipated; e) major supplies or stockpiling of materials anticipated; f) any special operational arrangements for major plant items e.g. downtime for maintenance of crushers, asphalt plant, etc., travelling of mobile plant. Daily Reports should be required to be present-

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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks from the supervision team staff. A single Daily Site Diary is to be kept on every contract site. It is to be written up by hand in the standard book form obtainable from JKR HQ. The front pages of the book give instructions for use. An abstract including these pages and the 2 page-a-day sheets for the actual Diary entries appears in the Appendix to this chapter. The daily completion and signature of the Diary is the responsibility of the Resident Engineer except where RE's do not have a daily presence on the site but "travel", supervising a number of sites. In this latter circumstance, the RE will delegate one (or not more than two) on-site staff members to make the entries and sign the Diary each day. The R.E. will read and countersign the entries during his next visit to the site and note his visit on the appropriate day's page. The blank Site Diary pages copied in the Appendix to this chapter give an indication of the information that is to be recorded in the Diary but it should be added that it is intended to show both the contractor's operational and supervison staff's activity. Also, by means of countersignature by contractor's staff, it can be used to confirm and record instructions and approvals given by the supervision team. However, the preference 'for Daily Inspector's Reports (see Chapter 9.06), for Site Instruction Forms (Chapter 6.10) and for Approval Chits (see Chapter 5.15) as opposed to Site Diary entries for these various purposes, should be noted. Regardless of whatever other records are kept however, the Daily Site Diary is an important site document and its loss can be a serious matter. when not actually in use it should, like all other records, be kept under lock and key. The keeping of the Daily Site Diary as outlined in this section is a mandatory requirement. 9.06 Daily Inspection Reports It has already been noted that Resident Engineers (or delegated subordinates) have a responsibility to keep and contribute to the Daily Site Diary. All other staff engaged on inspection duties (see Chapter Five) also have a daily reporting obligation. Where more than two supervision staff members with daily reporting

ed not later than 3.00 pm on the previous day and Weekly Reports not later than 3.00 pm on Wednesday or Friday for the following week depending on which weekly calendar is adopted by the State concerned. 9.04 Contractor's Monthly Progress Report This is an important provider of recorded data and as such needs to be carefully read andchecked by the Resident Engineer by reference to the reports from his own staff, or by visits to the site. AnY points found to be in error or misleading, unless trivial, must be repudiated by the RE in writing. The Report (which can, to a large extent, rely on tabular presentation) should contain =the following information. a) Monthly and cumulative percentageprogress based on estimated total value of work completed against current contract sum. b) Details of major items of work completed during the month, noting location and approx. quantities (this information may be presented graphically on A3 size drawings). c) schedule of plant operational on site. d) schedule of labour, operators and staff engaged on site. e) Weather report and a note of days lost due to weather. f) Photographs of work under construction or completed. The Report should be received by the Resident Engineer by the fifth day of the succeeding month providing this is compatible with the dates fixed for progress meetings and preparation of interim payment certificates. The obtaining of the Report should be regarded by the R.E. as a mandatory obligation although clearly this requires the co-operation of the contractor who has no. such contractual obligation. If the contractor persistently refuses to comply with the requirement the R.E. must inform h i s Engineer or departmental chief officer who will decide what action to take. 9.05 Daily Site Diary This is the first on the list of reports required
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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks iii) access roads and office location, iv) contractor's plant compound and quarry locations (3) Contract Data Schedule showing salient information such as: i) Contractors name. ii) Original Contract Sum. iii) Current Contract Sum. iv) Contract Period. v) Original Start Date. vi) Original Completion Date. vii) Extended Completion Date. (4) Narrative - approx 2,000 words. i)Introduction giving value of work completed during month and actual cumulative percentage completion against scheduled figure and thus progress, (delay/advance) in months; new work items or stages started; special problems encountered; reasons for delay. ii) Construction Progress. Major work items executed during month with approx. quantities, chainage, locations, etc. iii) Contractual Issues. Dispute or claim issues raised, progressed or resolved during the month iv) Conclusion. Noting prospects for completion on time or predicted final delay; Estimated Final Contract Sum; assessment of quality standards achieved and contractor's general performance. (5) Appendices i) Progress Chart for the end of the report period ii) Diagramatic representation of completed work (see Chapter 9.04b) iii) Contractor's plant schedule iv) Contractor's staff and labour schedule v) Cumulative Record of Payment Certificates Issued showing payment and completed work values vi) Schedule of Predicted Final Cost (see Chapter 7.16) vii) Schedule of Claims viii) Summary of Testing showing number and category of tests conducted, compliance and failure ix) Weather Record (see Chapter 9.09) (6) Progress Photographs
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obligations are engaged on a site, the Diary pages will have insufficient space for the purpose and all inspectors on that site should prepare individual Inspection Reports every day. This is a mandatory requirement. Even on small sites engaging only one or two supervision staff the use of daily Inspection Reports is preferred either as an alternative, or an addition to, Site Diary Entries. The Reports are to be made on standard forms, a blank copy of which is reproduced in Figure 9A. Figure 9B gives an example of a completed form. The vertical columns with numbered headings provide a valuable check list for inspectors each of whom should keep blanks of the form (together a copy of sections of the Specification appropriate to their work) on a clipboard as they go about their site duties. The forms can be prepared progressively through-out the day and should, whenever possible, be completed as the last of the working day's activity. In any case, the Reports are to be signed and lodged with the Resident Engineer or his office by noon on the following working day. 9.07 Resident Engineer's TwoMonthly Progress Report The preparation of this Report is the responsibility of the Resident Engineer but he should draw contributions from his staff such as Assistant or Section Engineers, the Testing Engineer and Q.S. Data submitted in the Contractor's Monthly Report can also be used after suitable checking. Like the Contractor's Report, the RE's Progress Report can rely largely on scheduled data in its presentation but should additionally carry a short narrative which summarises the most essential information and provides subjective comment. The contents of the Two-Monthly Progress Report should be as follows. (1) Brief Description of Project - approx 200 words. (2) Project Route Map showing: i)route alignment, ii) topographical features,
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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks piled into a regular report prepared on a monthly basis. The taking and recording of the readings and the preparation of the Report should be made the responsibility of the Testing Engineer, Testing Technician or other member of the supervision team assigned to testing duties. Only three items need to be featured in the Weather Report. They are: Daily Rainfall Flood Occurrence Daily Temperature Meteorological stations exist at a number of points throughout the country but they are too widely spread to be likely to provide data on localised weather conditions on most contracts and it is therefore usually necessary to rely on data obtained by the supervision staff at the site itself.* If weather recording equipment is provided under the terms of the contract or is made available from central or regional laboratories it will consist of a simple rain gauge and a maximum/ minimum thermometer. * If meteorological stations do happen to be located within 20 kms of the site there is no reason why data from them should not be quoted to augment the site data. a) Daily Rainfall The rain guage should be established in a secure position in the vicinity of the laboratory but not sufficiently close to any building or elevated structure which creates a rain "shadow" at the guage. If the project route is long it is desirable to establish additional guages at 15-20 km intervals. The guages are to be read at set times approximating to the start and finish of the contractor's normal working hours. The data should be recorded in either simple tabulated or histograph form. If no rain guage is provided the assistant responsible for the weather report is to record the hours during which rain falls with an assessment of its intensity ie. "light", "medium" or "heavy". In any case, the time and duration of rainfall should be recorded as accurately as possible. b) Flood Occurrence
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Approx. 10 in number showing typical examples of work under construction and completed both satisfactory and unsatisfactory, if applicable. Prints of photographs presented with the contractor's report may be utilised for this purpose. For projects with a contract value less than $2 million, Appendix items 5 ii, iii and iv can be omitted and only the information listed in items 4(i) and 4(iv) need be given in the Narrative. Fifteen copies of the Two Monthly Progress Report are to be prepared and forwarded to the Engineer or departmental chief officer by the fifthteenth day of the succeeding month. The preparation of the Report as detailed in Chapter 9.07 is a mandatory requirement. 9.08 Special Non-Periodic Reports In addition to the brief accounts of special issues and occurrences which can be given in the narrative section of the Two- Monthly Progress Reports, it may be necessary for the Resident Engineer to prepare more comprehensive reports on special topics from time to time in order to keep his superior officers properly briefed. Matters which may need to be dealt with in this way include the following. 1. Special design-related or constructional problems such as weak ground, subgrade or structure foundation conditions, piling test or set problems. 2. Action required to be taken in the event of test result failures or persistent poor quality control or workmanship on the contractor's part. 3. Contractual disputes concerned with instructions, approvals, interpretation of documents, claim issues, etc. 4. Redesign requirements for technical or financial reasons. 5. Progress, programming and delay situations. 9.09 Weather Report Weather exerts a significant influence on road construction operations and their progress. Exceptional weather conditions can be an important factor in delay claims presented by the contractor. it is, therefore, necessary to record simple weather data. The data should be comCawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Any incident in which rivers or other water courses within or adjacent to the site overtop their banks in such a way as to affect construction operations are to be recorded. The data should include the date, time, duration, level and extent of the flooding. c) Temperature The thermometer is to be fixed in a secure, shaded position and read at the end of each working day. Maximum and minimum values are to be recorded. Readings should also be taken at other times during the day in the event of the possibility of limiting air temperatures for concreting work being exceeded. d) Preparation of Weather Report At the end of each month the assigned staff member is to compile a Weather Report. It is to be forwarded to the contractor who should be required to confirm his agreement with the figures. The Reports are to be summarised as an appendixed item to the Two Monthly Progress Report. The preparation of the Weather Report as detailed in this section is a mandatory requirement. 9.10 Completion Reports The preparation of these reports is dealt with in Chapters 12.08 and 12.09.

APPENDIX TO CHAPTER NINE ABSTRACT OF DAILY SITE DIARY BOOK Page No. Cover Sheet Contract Data Instructions for use Contractor's and Sub-contractor's Plant and Equipment Daily Diary pages APP 9 APP 9/3 APP 9/4 APP 9/5 APP 9/6-7

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CABUTAN BUTIRAN KONTRAK Nama Kontraktor: ......................................................................................... Alamat............................................................................................................. Harga Kontrak Asal........................................................................................ Tarikh Milik Tapak Bina . .................................................................................. Tarikh M ula Kerja Sebenar............................................................................... Tarikh Siap Bagi Kesemua Kerja........................................................................ Penyiapan Berbahgian-Bahagian: Seksyen/Bahagian.................... Tarikh MilikTapak....................Tarikh Siap............ SeksyenlBahagian.....................Tarikh MilikTapak.....................Tarikh Siap.......... SeksyenlBahagian.....................Tarikh MilikTapak........ ............Tarikh Siap......... Perakuan Kelambatan dan Lanjutan Masa Perakuan Pertama ................................................................................... Perakuan Kedua....................................................................................... Perakuan Ketiga ..................................................................................... lnsurans/PERKESO: Polisi................................................................................................ Tempoh Kuatkuasa Dari................................... hingga................................... Tempoh Lanjutan Pertama sehingga .............................. Tempoh Lanjutan Kedua sehingga..........:...................... Tempoh Lanjutan Ketiga sehingga................................. Polisi................................................................................ Tempoh Kuatkuasa Dari............. ...................... hingga.................................... Tempoh Lanjutan Pertama sehingga............................... Tempoh Lanjutan Kedua sehingga................................. Tempoh Lanjutan Ketiga sehingga................................. Polisi................................................................................................ Tempoh Kuatkuasa Dari................................... hingga................................... Tempoh Lanjutan Pertama sehingga............................... Tempoh Lanjutan Kedua sehingga................................. Tempoh Lanjutan Ketiga sehingga................................. Nombor Kod Kontraktor (Skim P E R K ES O)...........................................................................................

A/2 APP 9/73

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ARAHAN-ARAHAN UNTUK PENGGUNAAN 1. Buku Harian in! hendaklah digunakan setiap hari bekerja oleh Penyelia Tapak Bina J.K.R. dari bermulanya projek hingga penyiapan yang terakhir. Catatan hahan yang dimasukkan dalam Buku Harian Tapak Bina hendaklah ditandatangani oleh Pegawai Penyelia serta wakil Kontraktor pada setiap hari. Butir-butir berikut hendaklah dimasukkan setiap hari bekerja di bawah tajuk perkara seperti: Bilangan pekerja-pekerja yang diambil bekerja di Tapak Bina: (a) Isikan petak-petak yang disediakan dengan jenis kerja utama atau pekerjaan yang dijalankan den Kontraktor dan Subkontraktor Dinamakan serta bilangan pekerja mengikut pecahan kaum. Maklumat ini hendaklah diisi secara berasingan bagi Kontraktor dan Subkontraktor Dinamakan. Isikan petak bagi Jumlah Pekerja Tempatan dan juga ruangan untuk Jumlah Pekerja bagi Kontraktor ban Subkontraktor Dinamakan. Catatkan masalah yang berkaitan dengan pekerja seperti perselisihan pekerja, kekurangan pekerja, melakukan salah laku, pemecatan pekerja, kemungkiran membayargaji,dan lain lain yang mungkin mengendalakan kerja.

2.

3.

(b)

Kuantiti bahan-bahan yang diterima: Catatkan dengan ringkas kuantiti bahan-bahan utama yang diterima. Arahan Pegawai Penguasa: Catatkan semua arahan yang diterima secara lisan, melalui telefon dan bertulis. Kerja yang dibina hari ini: Catatkan dengan ringkas kerja utama yang telah dijalankan pada hari tersebutyang menunjukkan keadaan kemajuan.

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Loji, alat dan kelengkapan Kontraktor, Subkontraktor, Dinamakan, pekerjaan dan waktu kerja sebenar: Catatkan semua loji, W at keiengkapan yang digunakan, pekerjaan serta waktu bekerja sebenar di dalam petak-petak yang disediakan. Maklumat ini hendaklah diisi secara berasingan dengan menandakan (K) bagi loji, alat dan keiengkapan kep-unyaan Kontraktor dan (SKN.) bagi loji, alat dan'kelengkapan kepunyaan. Subkontraklor Dinamakan. Catatan-catatan Lain: a. Catatkan mana-mana perkara berikut sekiranya berlaku. Jika ruang tidak mencukupi, sila gunakan muka surat kosong di akhir buku harian ini. i) Kekurangan bahan-bahan dan loji. alas dan keiengkapan di Tapak Sina: ii) Menggantung perjalanan seluruh atau mana-mana bahagian- kerja kerana perselisihan, kekurangan pelan/luki.san, Arahan Pegawai Penguasa, "force majeure" , clan lain-lain; iii) Kerja lebih mana: iv) Penerim.aan pelanllukisan dan butiran; v) Pengukuran semula dan penilaian ke atas kerb yang dliaksanakan; vi) Arahan Pegawai Penguasa mengenai loji, alat dart keiengkapan yang tidak digunakan dan juga menunggu arahan lanjut; vii) Kuantiii bahan-bahan yang diterima dari PERNAS. viii) Tidak mematuhi Undang-undang dari Syarat-syarat yang terdapat di dalam kontrak; ix) Percangcahan atau pemesongan yanc terdapat di dalam Dokumen Kontrak; x) Penerimaan sampil, menguji bahan dan pemeriksaan kerja tertutup serta butir-'butir ujian/ pemeriksaan tersebut; xi) Semua lenls kemalancan a`au setaranc kejadlan Yang mekbatkan kerja: xii) Masalan persekitaran(banjir, tanah runtuh dan lain-Iain) yang melibatkan kerja; xiii) Lawatan Pegawai Penguasa;/Waklinya dan Pelawat.-pelawat yang dibenarkan; xiv) Fosil dan lain-lain yang diternui di tapak bina: xv) Permintaan olen "Pegawaf Penguasa/Wakilnya rnengenai sebarang rekod seperti butir-butir yang telah dikorek atau digali dan lain-lain; xvi) Perkara-perkara lain yang tidak dinyatakan di atas. 4. Semua kiub konkrit diuji yang telah diambil hendaklah direkodkan di dalam Jadual Konkrit Kiub Diuji yang teodapat di akhir muka Buku Harian ini. Keputusan ujian, boiehlah direkodkan dikemudian hari. 5. Sebagai tambahan kepada merekod hasil-hasil pengujian kiub konkrit. hasil terakhir ujian bagi C.B.R disitu, ketumpatan, kandungan kelembapan, menggred, bitumen recovery uiian Marshall dan lain-lain adalah juga perlu direkodkan dalam format yang direkabentuk oleh pengguna-pengguna dengan menggunakan ruang-ruang kosong yang disediakan dalam Buku Harian Tapak Bina ini. 6. Muka-muka suratyana kosong di akhir muka Buku Harian ini hendaklah juga digunakan untuk membuat lakaran-lakararn dan laporan kejadlan-ke)adianiaktivitiaktiviti harian yang disediakan, disambung sekiranya halaman dalam muka surai yang diperuntukan tidak mencukupi. Sebavang catatan hendaklah diberi fiarikh dan mengikut aturan. . A/4 APP9/5
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Tarikh.Waktu kerja buruh dari pukul.hingga Waktu hujan Dari.hingga. Dari.hingga. Dari.hingga. (Nyatakan samaada lebat atau tidak Kerja-kerja tergendala kerana hujan: .. .. .. Bilangan pekerja-pekerja yang diambil bekerja di Tapak Bina Bil Kontrak/ Melayu subkontrak + Jenis Kerja/Pekerjaan

Cina

India

Lain-lain

Jumlah Pekerja Catatan Tempatan ... ..

Jumlah Pekerja (i) Kontraktor. (ii)Subkontraktor Dinamakan + Sila asingkan rekod untuk pekerja kontraktor dengan pekerja Subkontraktor Dinamakan

* Pekerja Mahir **Pekerja Tidak Mahir Kuantiti bahan-bahan yang diterima A/5 APP 9/6

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Arahan Pegaw ai Penguasa . .. .. Kerja yang dibina hari ini .. .. .. Loji, alat dan kelengkapan Kontraktor, Subkontraktor Dinamakan, pekerjaan dan w aktu kerja sebenar. Bil Loji, alat dan kelengkapan (K/S.K.N) Jumlah Pekerja Tempatan Waktu Kerja

Lain-lain

Tandatangan Kontraktor/ejen tapak Bina Nama:

Tandatangan Penyelia JKR di Tapak Bina Nama; A/6 APP 9/7

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Chapter Ten

Contruction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks

CHAPTER TEN : DRAWINGS


CONTENTS 10.01 10.02 10.03 10.04 10.05 10.06 10.07 10.08 10.09 10.10 10.11 10.12 10.13 Departmental Gu1idelines for Drawings Site Facilities for Drawings Assignment of Drawing Staff Drawing Register Categories of Drawings Original Contract Drawings and Master Set of Prints Amended Contract Drawings Supplementary Drawings Contractor's Works Drawings Contractor's Temporary Works Drawings Programming Drawings Progress / Measurement Drawings As Built Drawings
management of drawings and drafting activities is complicated by the fact that staffing, equipment and office resources devoted to them vary so much according to the size of the project. However, for the purpose of this Manual the following assumptions have been made. 1. Dyeline printing facilities are not available on site nor are they sufficiently accessible to make day to day use practicable. Dyeline plan printing therefore, has to be undertaken on an irregular basis in regional or other JKR offices or at commercial outlets. 2. Photocopying is available on site or is sufficiently accessible for practical day to day use elsewhere. 3. Plan filing chests or racks for approximately 150 Al sheets (in five compartments or divisions) are available on site. 10.03 Assignment of Drawing Staff. If a draftsman or suitably qualified technician is included in the team, he should be made responsible for the safeguarding and management of all drawings, the drafting of additional drawings, receiving and issuing drawings and maintaining a Drawing Register. If no such individual is included in the team the RE must assign the most suitable member of his staff to undertake these duties, except of course, the actual drafting of drawings for which he must make arrangements in his regional JKR office, JKR H.Q. or other nearest JKR facility. 10.04 Drawing Register. A Drawing Register sectionalised under the categories indicated in Chapter 10.05 is to be maintained on every contract site, recording the number and title of every drawing held, issued and received. Further, the Register should record,' for issued drawings, the following information. a) Date of issue. b) Number of copies. c) Whether in paper print or negative form. The keeping of a Drawings Register as
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------------------------------------------------10.01 Departmental Guidelines for Drawings. Arahan Teknik 6/85 "Guidelines far Presentation of Engineering Drawings" regulates the preparation of drawings for roadworks in the Department and site staff will find that the Drawings which form part of their contract documents comply with it. The "Guidelines" are also generally applicable to the additional site drawings which inevitably become necessary as construction proceeds and all officers reesponsible for the preparation and keeping of such drawings should be conversant with the provisions of the "Guidelines". 10.02 Site Facilities for Drawings. The preparation of hard and fast rules fort h e
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Contruction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks design or extra or omitted work authorised on the various instruction forms described in Chapter Six. (copies of the instruction forms are to be circulated to the drafting staff for this purpose). The changes to the negative are to be recorded in the amendment box on the negative and progressive alphabetic suffixes added to the drawing numbers to indicate amendment, all in accordance with Arahan Teknik 6/86. The Master Set of prints is also to be progressively updated to ensure that site staff have current contruction details readily available. As far as the actual drafting work for the amendments is concerned the contractor should be required to make the alterations to the negatives as part of his contract responsibilities for the preparation of As Built Drawings. However, the member of the site staff responsible for Drawings should attend to alteration (or annotation) of the Master Set print as soon as the works instruction is issued. He should replace the old print with a new one after revision of the negative by the contractor. The amendment and its suffixed number is to be recorded in the amended drawing section of the Drawing Reqister. Two prints of the amended drawing are to be supplied free of charge to the contractor and the date of issue recorded in the Register. Minor amendments do not need to raise an amended negative immediately - they can be incorporated with a subsequent major amendment or a collection- of minor items. However, in this case, the minor amendment must first be noted promptly on the Master Set print as previously described and the contractor must, of course, be informed of the change without delay in one way or another-Site Instruction Form, APP or A3 Supplementary Drawing (see Chapter 10.08) If the negative becomes so heavily amended as to prevent legible reproduction it will be necessary to prepare a retraced negative incorporating all previous, and the current amendments, but the previous amendment box details must appear on the new negative. 10.08 Supplementary Drawings As far as possible design changes, additions and omissions should be dealt with by amending the
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described in this section and as detailed in the subsequent sections of this chapter is a mandatory requirement. 10.05 Categories of Drawings. The drawings prepared and used in connection with the contract include the following. A WORKING DRAWINGS 1. Original contract drawings. 2. Amended contract drawings. 3. Supplementary Engineer's drawings. 4. Contractor's works drawings. 5. Contractor's temporary works drawings. 6. Programming drawings. B RECORD DRAWINGS 1. Progress/Measurement drawings. 2. As Built Drawings. 10.06 Original Contract Drawings and Master Set of Prints. The original negatives of these drawings are retained in JKR HQ or regional offices and remain unaltered. One set of copy negatives is to be obtained by the Resident Engineer at the start of the job and held, together with a full set of paper prints, in the Site Office. The paper prints form the basis of a Master Set. Both the copy negatives and the Master Set of prints become subject to amendment as described in Chapter 10.07. A further two sets of paper prints are to be obtained from the original drawing negatives and issued to the contractor free of charge. If requested, copy negatives may also be supplied to the contractor and charged to him. Books of half-size reductions of the Contract Drawings are useful and convenient for site work but it should be remembered during reference to them that they may be subject to unnoted amendment for which staff must refer to the Master Set of prints. The reduction process also renders the half size drawings inaccurate for scaling purposes. 10.07 Amended Contract Drawings The copy negatives held in the Site Office must be progressively amended to show changes in
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Contruction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks not be accepted unless they relate to contractor's alternative proposals that have been approved by the Engineer. 10.10 Contractor's Temporary Works Drawings Drawings are more often raised by the contractor for temporary works such as structural formwork and temporary traffic diversion layouts and details. Acceptance or rejection of the drawing's proposals must be confirmed to the contractor in writing and, if accepted, the negatives or prints are to be filed separately from the other categories of drawings and recorded in the appropriate section of the Register under the contractor's number reference. If the drawings are reproduced from original contract drawing negatives or drawn on prints of original drawings the contractor must be required to strike out the original number and substitute his own. 10.11 Programming Drawings Prints of original layout drawings are frequently used by both contractor and the supervision team for the indication of construction sequences with the help of colour coding. They are to be numbered, registered and filed separately from the other catergories. The numbers used are to be those of the negative of the base drawings but with the alphbetic references in spaces 9 and 10* substituted with PG and serials starting at 01 in space 11. * See Appendix 1 of Arahan Teknik 6/85. 10.12 Progress/Measurement Drawings These are drawings prepared by the supervision team for its own record purposes (see Chapter 7.09). They are drawn on prints of road layout and structure general arrangement drawings and are to be numbered, registered and filed separately from other categories. The drawing numbers are to be formulated as indicated for Programming Drawings in Chapter 10.11 except that the alphabetic references are to be "P M." 10.13 As Built Drawings These provide a most important record for the
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original contract drawings as described in the previous section of this chapter. However, if there is no suitable drawing in the original. set or if it is otherwise impracticable to amend existing drawings it will be necessary to produce a supplementary drawing under signature of the Engineer. Arrangements for drafting, printing and registering Supplementary Drawings and issuing them to the supervision site office and the contractor should be as described for Amended Contract Drawings in Chapter 1.0.07 but a separate section of the Drawing Register should be opened for them. The numbering system should be the same as that adopted for the original contract drawing and be in' accordance with Arahan Teknik 6/85. The "Guidelines" stipulate that all road works drawings are to be prepared in Al format but an exception to the rule can be made as follows. For supplementary site drawings which do not rely on accurate scaling in use and which fit conveniently on to the smaller size frame, A3 format can be used. No other size variations are permitted. Prints may be produced from the A3 negative by photocopy process but in this case must be immediately and prominently overstamped "Do not scale". (For the "As Built" set, A3 size drawings must be converted to Al format) The original negative of the supplementary drawing (whether A1 or A3 size) should be sent to the JKR Regional Office or JKR HQ to be held with the original negative of the Contract Drawings. A site copy negative is to be filed in number order with those of the original contract drawings. Two prints are to be issued to the contractor and one is to be placed with the Master Set or, if of A3 size, kept (single fold) in box or lever arch files. 10.09 Contractor's Works Drawings Contractors, for one reason or another, sometimes produce working drawings for permanent work. The prints or negatives should be separately filed and recorded in the appropriate section of the Drawing Register under the contractor's numbering reference. Contractor's Works Drawings which vary the content or detail of works shown on the Contract Drawings should
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Contruction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks layering and c) permanent diversion of services. It has already been noted that the contractor is responsible for preparing and presenting the full set of As Built Drawings. However, in order to ensure that he meets this obligation in an adequate way, it is essential for the supervision team to monitor the progress of drawing preparation and to care fully note all the amendments that need to be shown. The contractor should be required to present the As Built Drawing for any particular sheet as and when the constructional ' work detailed on that sheet is completed. He must be required to present for approval any such completed "As Builts" at the Monthly Progress `Meetifgstogether with a list' of amendments made to those that are in the course of preparation. In order to ensure that no items are omitted the contractor's list should be checked against a record of amendments and additional items kept for the purpose in a special section of the Drawings Register. Negatives for the major proportion of the As Built Drawings (those in categories 1, 2 and 3 above) can be supplied (and charged) to the contractor by the Resident Engineer as copy negatives of the original or Amended Contract Drawings and Supplementary Drawings. The drawing numbers of the base negatives are to be retained but the copy negatives produced for the purpose are to be prominently stamped "AS BUILT DRAWINGS" in the bottom right hand corner above the title box and any previous overstamping. Copy negatives may also be similarly provided for the Special Drawings (category 5 above) if suitable negatives are available. If not, the contractor is to prepare negatives himself. If appropriate, the base negative numbers are to be used or new numbers are to be provided in accordance with Arahan Teknik 6/85. Again, the negatives are to be stamped "AS BUILT DRAWINGS" in the bottom right hand corner. In addition to the preparation of full size negatives the contractor must be required to present a microfilm of every As Built Drawing. All full size negatives of the As Built Drawings (including Supplementary Drawings orginally of A3 size) must be presented in A1 format.
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Department and other government agencies and, although the actual preparation of the drawings is required to be undertaken by the contractor, the responsibility for ensuring that an accurate and comprehensive set of As Built Drawings is produced, rests firmly with the supervision team. As their name implies, the As Built Drawings are intended to show details of the actually constructed works in the form that they exist on completion. As a result, there is often a tendency to leave their preparation until the end of the construction period. This is not an acceptable approach. By the time this stage is reached many of the staff involved in construction on both sides have dispersed, and those who remain may have difficulty in recalling details from one or two years earlier and have little incentive, or interest, in completing the task at the tail-end of the job. The approach that must be adopted is to deal with the preparation progressively throughout the construction period. If the procedures outlined in Chapter 10.07 for amending original contract drawings and for circulating works instructions to the drafting staff for recording on the drawings as proposed in Chapters 6.10 Wand 6.11 (j) are observed, together with the further procedures set out in this chapter, it should not be a difficult task to make the few final additions and amendments to the As Built Drawings at the time of completion. The As Built Drawings are to comprise the final editions of the following. 1. The Original Contract Drawings or, where amended, the Amended Contract Drawings 2. Supplementary Drawings 3. Contractors Working Drawings that have been approved for use in construction 4. Final Land Plans 5. Special Drawings. The last category is required because some important record data is not raised automatically by drawings contained in the first three sets named, or cannot be conveniently presented on them. Examples of such items are: a) removal and replacement of unsuitable material below formation, b) variation in pavement course thickness or
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On acquisition of the negatives for the As Built Drawings from the contractor, the Resident Engineer is to prepare one complete set of paper prints and then submit all the negatives (including microfilms) to the Documentation Unit, Roads Section, JKR H.Q. through the Engineer or Project Co-ordinator. The requirements set out in this chapter for ensuring that the contractor properly prepares and presents the As Built Drawings are mandatory on the. Resident Engineer. Finally, in meeting these mandatory requirements the Resident Engineer should carefully bear in mind that apart from the general recording of the final form and detail of the project, the As Built Drawings are required for the following practical purposes. (i) To assist with the measurement for the preparation of an accurate final account. (ii) To provide details for the instruction and supervision of defects maintenance work by the contractor and for the organisation of subsequent routine and special maintenance by the Department. (iii) To record details of underground features which may be encountered in any subse quent excavation or load application operations within the Right-of-Way. (iv) To provide details of both above-andbelowground features for statutory and commercial authorities when planning and installing their services. (v) To provide information which helps the Department to assess pavement performance and to decide what remedial action to take in the event of failure. (vi) To record land-take and ownership.

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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks

CHAPTER ELEVEN : UTILITIES AND TRAFFIC


CONTENTS
11.01 Introduction lowing notes are intended to help the-team to deal with work involving, a) services of statutory and commercial undertakers, b) road traffic and c) the railways. UTILITIES 11.02 Service Authorities and Work Categories. The Authorities with which site staff may become involved are those responsible for the following services, Water, Electricity, Telephone, Sewers and Oil and gas pipelines. The work connected with any of these services usually falls into one or more of the following categories. Permanent or temporary diversions Protection of existing services New installations. 11.03 Arrangements for Utilities Work. The arrangements for dealing with utilities on road contracts varies according to service, authority and also from contract to contract. Any of the following arrangements may be prescribed or adopted: a) Inclusion of the whole services operation in the roadworks contract with the supply of materials and all. the work of construction and installation undertaken by the main contractor. b) As in a) but with materials (eg. ducts, pipes, cables or covers) supplied by the service authority c) As in a) but with the main contractor engaging specialist sub contractors either registered with, or approved by, the services authority d) The use of Nominated Sub-Contractors and Provisional or P.C. Sums in the main contract e) Combinations of a) to d). 11.04 Liaison with Service's

UTILITIES.
11.02 11.03 11.04 11.05 11.06 11.07 11.08 11.09 11.10 11.11 Service Authorities and Work Categories. Arrangements for Utilities Work Liaison with Service Personnel The Safeguarding of Installations Applications for New Services Routes Cost Implications of Services Work. ROAD TRAFFIC Responsibilities of the Supervision Team ContrActor's Proposals for Traffic Control, etc. Maintenance of Traffic Arrangements Departmental Regulations for Traffic Control MALAYAN RAILWAYS - KTM The Need for Care and Liaison General KTM Requirements Detailed Considerations for Railway Work

11.12 11.13 11.14

-----------------------------------------------------1.01 Introduction Although neither of the subjects of this chapter involve permanent work which forms part of the actual road facility both can have a strong influence on contract operations and third parties -- particularly if the road is urban in character. If that influence is not to be strongly adverse it is essential that the supervision team plays a central role in coordinating activities and providing liaison. The folCawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks hand-excavate trial holes for the purpose of location. Instructions may also need to be given to a) specially protect services with concrete or other surrounds or coverings, b) provide sheet piling or strutting to prevent damage from earth movement, or c) provide bridging or support for cables, ducts or pipes themselves. Close liaison with utilities authority personnel is clearly important for all these activities. 11.06 Applications for New Services Routes. Re-aligned or new Right--of-Way reserves provide routes which are attractive to service authorities for new installations. Applications for such proposals are usually dealt with by State JKR offices or JKR HQ but if Resident Engineers become involved they should acquaint themselves with the recommendations of Arahan Teknik 4/85. - "Application for the Installation of Public Utilities Services within the Road Reserve". 11.07 Cost Implications of Services Work. There are particular cost implications of services work which need to be observed. First, when approving general works programmes the Resident Engineer should guard against any tendency to incur unreasonable costs to the Employer for temporary services diversions, proposed solely or primarily for the contractors own convenience,- or to mitigate his own costs. Second is the question of the cost of trial pits opened for the purpose of underground services location. Generally speaking if no blanket lump sum item is provided in the contract for this,the excavation should be measured and paid for unless the location work is necessary because of some fault on the part of the contractor. ROAD TRAFFIC 11.08 Responsibilities of Supervision Team.

Personnel. Although attempts are usually made to preplan services work during the design stage, many arrangements cannot be finalised until the contractor's detailed roadworks programming is available. As soon as it is, the Resident Engineer must take the initiative to make contact with the utility authorities and the personnel concerned. It is necessary to ensure that the utilities people are fully aware of the proposals by supplying them with drawings, details and programmes so that they can determine, or review, what diversions and protective measures are necessary. Thereafter, there is a continuing need to involve services personnel in the planning and execution of the contract works. If the roadwork contract is large and the impact of services work substantial, it is desirable to arrange meetings, say at monthly intervals, to plan operations, discuss progress and deal with problems arising. The meeting should be attended by the appropriate R.E. staff*, the main contractor, sub contractors and representatives of the utilities authorities. All service organisations involved should attend at the same time because the activities of one are often affected by another. * It may be desirable to assign one engineer or technician to take special responsibility for utilities work. 11.05 The Safeguarding of Installations. On site, supervision staff must remember that any services work executed under the main contract must meet the authority's standards. Also, whatever the contract arrangement, damage to existing installations must be avoided. Damage can result from the cutting of service lines, removing support or by loading from earthworks, traffic or construction plant. The actual positions of underground installations are often inaccurately plotted on drawings and in cases of doubt or high potential risk the contractor should be instructed to

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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks present and in the case of urban authorities their traffic committees will usually wish to be represented. The R.E. should minute the meetings and arrange for formal approval of the proposals or confirmation of any required amendments to be sent to the contractor. It should be noted that there is a statutory obligation under the Road Traffic Act to notify the highway authority of any traffic diversion. In the case of closures, those exceeding 30 days duration must be gazetted and those of lesser duration must be advertised to the public. 11.10 Maintenance of Traffic Control Arrangements.

Not all roadworks contracts have to contend with existing traffic but even those located on completely new alignments may have terminal connections or intersections with existing routes where construction and traffic interests conflict. on road improvement or rehabilitation projects where work is almost continuously subject to existing traffic those conflicts can present difficult management problems. The importance of the responsibility of the Resident Engineer and his team for these matters cannot be overstated and is not diminished by the legal indemnities which the contractor has to provide for the Employer. If serious or even fatal accidents result from the contractor's lack of attention to traffic safety, or if there is serious disruption of traffic flow, these all counter the benefits that the completed project provides and reflect adversely on the Department. Therefore, all members of the supervision team, without exception, should be made to feel that they share responsibility for traffic matters. They should be required to report urgently to their R.E. any unsatisfactory situations they observe during their daily journeys to and from the site office and around the site. But in spite of this general involvement of the whole team, where staffing levels permit, it is desirable to assign one assistant with special responsibility for traffic matters. 11.09 Contractor's Proposals for Traffic Control, etc. Before the contractor is permitted to make any change in traffic arrangements or introduces any restriction or obstruction, the Resident Engineer must require him to present his proposals for approval. The proposals should be submitted at least two weeks in advance of the date they are intended to be put into operation and must include full details of any temporary pavement construction, signs, barriers and lighting, etc. In the case of major diversions or obstructions the R.E. should convene a meeting for discussion of the proposals, to be attended by the contractor and the highway authority's traffic officers. The Police should also be
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As far as the regular maintenance of diversions and traffic aids, such as temporary warning signs, barriers and lighting is concerned, the contractor must be required to provide regular patrolling and inspection to be followed up by quick and effective action for repair and replacement. Routine cleaning of warning and direction signs must also be provided. The regular patrolling of existing t r a f f i c routes affected by construction should also be a feature of the supervision team's activities. 11.11 Departmental Regulations for Traffic Control. All work undertaken on public highways open to traffic is subject to the provisions of Arahan Teknik 2c/85 "Manual on Traffic Control Devices Temporary Signs and Work Zone Control". Its provisions must be observed both in giving approval to the contractor's proposals and also during the regular inspection of his temporary works. The specific requirements set down in Chapters 11.08 - 11.10 and the observance of Arahan Teknik 2c/85 requirements are mandatory upon the Resident Engineer. MALAYAN RAILWAYS - KTM 11.12 The Need for Care and Liaison. Special care needs to be taken at intersections
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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks to be in attendance. b) Arrangements which do not involve closure of the tracks can be made for longer periods but "inconvenience" and flagging charges are usually levied. These can be substantial and it is important therefore, that work subject to such arrangements is completed as quickly as possible. Also that the rates' for the charges` are agreed in writing` with KTM, together with start and end dates, which must be confirmed without delay. It should also be clearly established who is to meet the cost of the railway charges. If this is not spelt out in the contract it must be the subject of conclusive negotiation between the Engineer, contractor and KTM before the working arrangements are approved by the Resident Engineer and any charges are incurred. In addition to supervision by railway staff the contractor must provide a full time competent foreman to control plant and labour at the railway site during the arrangement, c) The requirements for protective fencing imposed by KTM are usually stringent and Resident Engineers should ensure that their site inspectors check regularly that the temporary structures are maintained effectively. Also that long reach cranes and excavators, etc. do not operate in such a way as to circumvent the barriers and become a danger to passing rail traffic. d) Supervision staff should ensure that the contractor takes care not to damage KTM communication cables on site.

with railway routes, or at any locations where work has to be undertaken close to railway tracks. Although the roadworks supervision staff will not (and must not), at any time, become involved in the control of rail traffic it is essential that there is very close liaison with the railway authority and that all its regulations are strictly observed by the contractor. At an early stage, contact should be made with the appropriate KTM Area Engineer to acquaint him with the details of roadworks likely to affect railway operations. 11.13 General KTM Requirements. Work on railway track reserves will normally only be permitted by KTM under the following conditions: a) with full occupation by the roadworks contractor during which time the tracks are completely closed to rail traffic, or b) with both roadworks and rail traffic strictly controlled by KTM supervisors and flagmen, etc., or c) with the erection of temporary safety fencing or walling in cases where entry on to the tracks themselves is not necessary but where work is undertaken close to them. 11.14 Detailed Considerations for Railway Work. Resident Engineers should carefully note and observe the following points in connection with KTM conditions. a) Full occupations of the track are usually only given for short and strictly limited periods of a few hours and heavy penalties, in addition to normal "occupation" charges, are levied in the case of overruns. Construction operations scheduled for these periods must therefore be carefully pre-planned. Adequate plant and other resources must be mobilised, preferably with backup equipment as a precaution against breakdown. Attendance by senior contractor's staff and competent foremen, etc. must be insisted upon and the Resident Engineer himself should be on site throughout the occupation period with appropriate assistant engineers and technicians. Railway supervisors must also be requested
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Chapter Twelve

Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks

CHAPTER TWELVE : COMPLETION PROCEDURE


CONTENTS 12.01 Completion Programme 12.02 Pre-Completion Checks 1.2.03 Qualification For Completion 12.04 Handover 12.05 Certification of Works Completion 12.06 Defects Maintenance Period (Maintenance Period) 12.07 Certification of Maintenance Completion 12.08 Preparation of Completion Reports 12.09 Other Reports Required 12.10 Mandatory Completion Duties ------------------------------------------------2.01 Completion Programme. The supervision team's involvement in the final stages of the contract-can be regarded as fitting into the following programme. a) Pre-completion checks. b) Qualification for Completion. c) Handover. d) Certification of Completion.* e) Defects Liabilities (Maintenance) Period.* f) Certification of Maintenance Completion.* g) Preparation of Completion Reports. Required action under each of these headings is dealt with in the following sections of this chapter. 12.02 Pre-Completion Checks As construction work approaches full. completion, the contractor will apply to the
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Engineer to issue a Certificate under the terms of the Conditions of Contract (Clause 39 of Form 203A or Clause 48 of the 203 CEWI, FIDIC and I.C.B. "Conditions" *). The first step for the Resident Engineer in response to the application is to inform the Engineer and then to arrange for a full inspection of the works as they stand. The preparation of a list of deficiencies should follow compiled in two sections: (i) Outstanding Work, (ii) Defects. When the complete list is available copies are to be passed to the Engineer and the contractor. The Resident Engineer must then review its contents and recommend to the Engineer either: a) that the works are sufficiently and satis factorily completed to warrant the prepration of the certificate, or b) that further completion or remedial work is required. The Engineer's decision on this point is to be notified to the contractor in writing. If it is decided that the Certificate can be issued, before proceeding further, an undertaking must be obtained from the contractor that he will attend to all required outstanding and remedial work during the Defects Liability Period (Maintenance Period). * The Form 203A Conditions of Contract use the terms Certificate of Practical Completion, Defects Maintenance Period and Certificate of Completion of Making Good Defects, Forms 203 CEW1 and the FIDIC Conditions of contract use the terms Completion Certificate, Maintenance Period and Maintenance Certificate. The I.C.B. "Conditions" use the terms Certificate of Completion, Period of Maintenance and Maintenance Certificate. 12.03 Qualification For Completion In coming to a decision as to whether the project is ready for its Certificate of Practical

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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks completion has been achieved if small but important items of work are out standing-particularly if they are covered by items that the contractor may regard as loss-making. (f) The issuing of the Certificate of Practical. Completion or Completion Certificate does not constitute contractul approval for the items of work indicated to be complete - final approval rests with the issuing of the Certificate of Making Good Defects or Maintenance Certificate. However, an element of implied acceptance cannot be entirely avoided and it is clearly embarrassing to identify, at the end of the Defects Maintenance Period or Maintenance Period, deficiencies which could have been pointed out earlier. Accordingly, Resident Engineers should ensure that their staff carry out the completion inspection and listing of work conscien tiously. It is to be noted that the Contractor can ask for a Certificate to be issued for part of the Works. In the case of Form 203A contracts a Certificate of Partial Completion can be issued for part of the works occupied by the Government - see Clause 42(a) & (b). For Form 203 CEWI, FIDIC and I.C.B. contracts a Sectional Certificate of Completion can be issued providing the terms of Clause 48(2) and/or (3) have been met. The procedure for sectional completion is similar to that described in this chapter for whole completion. * In the case of FIDIC.contracts any arrangements for the holding and release of retention are give in the Part II "Conditions". 12.04 Handover Before the Certificate of Practical Completion or Completion Certificate is issued it is normal to arrange for acceptance of the project to be signified by the maintaining authority, which may be the Jabatan Kerja Raya. Alternatively, it may be some other central or local government authority. For this purpose a joint site inspection is arranged
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Completion or Completion Certificate the following points should be considered. a) It is not necessary for every last nut and bolt to be in place but the project should be in a suitable state for occupation by the government and use by the public at large, without inconvenience or hazard. b) Generally speaking: (i) all side ditches and cross highway pipes must be complete but the non-completion of some chambers and covers is acceptable; (ii) all carriageway pavement and shoulder work should be complete except for very minor isolated areas at bridges, culverts etc., or where remedial work is required; (iii) all elements of major structures and large culverts should be complete; (iv) guardrails on high embankments or at other hazard points and bridge parapets must be complete; (v) road marking should be complete except for very minor items; (vi) if included in the contract the more important advance and direction signs and all warning signs, without exception, must be erected. (c) The value of completed work should be at least 95% of the estimated final Contract Sum. (d) once the Certificate has been issued no Liquidated Damages can be levied against the contractor for non completion of any part of the works. In the case of contracts governed by the Form 203A Conditions of contract there is no retention money to be released on completion but the 203 CEWI and I.C.B. Conditions provide for a retention on interim certifi cates half of which is released on certified completion.* (e) Because, as noted in (d), the contractor has been relieved of some of the onerous conditions and because the remaining payment values are small it is some times very difficult to get the contractor to take the completion of outstanding or remedial work seriously. For this reason, staff must guard against agreeing that
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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks should agree with the contractor the programme for the Period and what resources of plant and labour etc. will be required. He will then assess his own supervision staffing requirements and agree with his superior in the Department what provision is to be made. Arrangements also need to be made with the contractor for continuing the services of accommodation,, transportation and labour support, scaling these down to a suitable level. The contractor's programme of maintenance should be based on dealing with the list of deficiencies appended to the Certificate of Practical Completion or completion Certificate. However, the list must be progressively updated throughout-the period by the supervision staff who should be constantly on the lookout for any additional defects and evidence of potential failure. It should be stressed that the contractor's works obligation during the period is for defects and noncompletions only - it does not extend to routine or " wear and tear" maintenance unless otherwise stated in the specification. 12.07 Certification of Completion of Maintenance. The Certificate of Completion of Making Good Defects or Maintenance Certificate, unlike the Certificate of Practical completion or Completion Certificate, does signify ultimate acceptance of the works. It is, therefore, of the greatest importance that any defects remaining toward the end of the Defects Liability or Maintenance Period are identified and put right before the Certificate is issued. The work of compiling a final list of deficiencies should start approximately two months before the nominal end of the Period. When all remedial and outstanding work has been completed to the satisfaction of the Engineer the Certificate of Making Good Defects or Maintenance Certificate is to be prepared on form JKR 203Y / 82. An example of an issued certificate is given in Figure 12B. In the case of the Form 203A Conditions of Contract the procedures for

with the contractor, the Engineer and officers of the maintaining authority at which the latter have the opportunity to draw attention to any items they consider to be incomplete or unacceptable. If the Engineer agrees that the items are properly subject to rectification under the contract he will include them in his list of deficiencies prepared for the contractor. However, it should be stressed that the exercise is concerned with work already covered by contract instructions and, although most contractors will be flexible about undertaking a small amount of additional construction, this is not the stage at which major extra works should be introduced. 12.05 Preparation of the Certificate Of Practical Completion or Completion Certificate When the Engineer is satisfied that a suitable state of completion has been achieved and has obtained the contractor's undertaking to complete the outstanding and remedial works, the Certificate of Practical Completion or Completion Certificate should be prepared. Form JKR 2035 Pin 2/83 is used for the purpose and should carry an annex listing the more important deficiencies to be attended to by the Contractor. A copy of an issued Certificate is given in Figure 12A. Clause 48 (1) of the Form 203 CEWI, FIDIC and I.C.B. Conditions of Contract requires that the Certificate be issued within 21 days of the contractors notice requesting it or within 21 days of his making good any defects required by the Engineer for "substantial completion". There is no such stipulation in the Form 203A "Conditions 12.06 Defects Maintenance Period (Maintenance Period) The contract does not end with the Certificate of Practical Completion or Completion Certificate and some members of the supervision team are usually retained to oversee work executed during the Defects Liability or Maintenance Period, which start on the date of the Certificate. At that time, the Resident Engineer or other officer assigned with continuing site responsibility for the contract
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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks appendices to this chapter. 12.10 Mandatory Completion Duties The following activities dealt with in this chapter are mandatory for the Resident Engineer. (i) Conducting of pre-completion checks and listing of deficiencies. (ii) Preparation of Certificate of Practical Completion or Completion Certificate. (iii) Supervision of contractor's maintenance operations. (iv) Preparation of final deficiencies list. (v) Preparation of Certificate of Completion of Making Good Defects or Maintenance Certificate. (vi) Preparation of or contributions to, the three Completion Reports.

dealing with defects and issuing the Certificate of Making Good Defects are set out in Clause 45. The issuing of a Maintenance Certificate is dealt with in Clause 62(1) of the Form 203 CEWI, FIDIC and I.C.B. Conditions of Contract which require the Certificate to be issued within 28 days of the end of the Maintenance Period or the date of Completion of the required defects work. There is no such provision in the Form 203A "Conditions". 12.08 Preparation of Completion Reports The Project Co-ordinator is required to prepare for each contract, a Road Project Report as outlined in Nota Teknik 15/87 which is reproduced as an Appendix to this chapter. Resident Engineers are normally expected to assist with the preparation of the Report, starting work on the task as soon as construction is finished and continuing throughout the Defects Liability (Maintenance) Period. The Report should be presented to the Director of Roads, JKR (after approval by the Engineer) within a few weeks of the end of the Period. Resident Engineers who are posted away from the project before the end of the maintenance period must draft as much of the Report as is practical before leaving and hand over the draft to the in-coming incumbent, the Engineer or their Co-ordinator. Two very important constituents of the Road Project Report are a complete list of the As Built Drawings and the detailed Final Account - matters which are dealt with in Chapters 10.13 and 7.15 respectively. 12.09 Other Reports Required Further reports to be prepared at the end of the contract, which the Resident Engineer may be required to prepare or contribute to are: a) the Report on Contractor's Performance, and b) the Completion Report on Form JKR 8 Pin 6/79. Copies of blank forms for both these reports are also given as

APPENDICES TO CHAPTER TWELVE APPENDIX 12 (1) 12 (2) 12 (3) Nota Teknik 15/87. Format for Road Project Report Report on Contractors Performance Form JKR 8 - Pin 6/79

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RAHSIA FORMAT FOR ROAD PROJEK REPORT


Preface

This Technical Note sets Out The required format for road project reports that are to be prepared by the coordinators after the completion of a project. while the basic format as set out should be ffolowed at all time, variations and changes can be made wherever necessary for specific projects. RAHSIA

FORMAT FOR ROAD PROJECT REPORT

1. 2.

Title Page Road Project Report 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Construction Details 3.0 Construction Cost 4.0 Miscellaneous 5.0 Appendix

CAWANGAN JALAN ROAD PROJECT REPORT NAME OF PROJECT Design By Constructed By Supervised By Cost of Project : : : : (Unit Rekabentuk / Jurutera Perunding) (Name address and Class of Contractor) (JKR Daerah/Jurutera Perunding)

Date of Completion :

Report Prepared By :

Name and Designation

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1.0

INTRODUCTION

This is to introduce the project constructed. Details should include the following: 1.1 Scope of Works - Describe generally the scope of works involved such as the nature of the project, class and length of road involved, number of structures and facilities provided etc. Feasibility Study - Give brief details of the feasibility study if any such as date of study, name of consultant etc. Detailed Engineering - Give brief details of the design such as standard adopted and other special design features together with the name of designer. Source of Funding - State the source of funding for the project e.g World Bank, ADB, Federal Government etc. The Head and Subhead and the Plan Period (e.g.) FMP) is also to be stated. Contract Details - Give details of the contract such as name, number, class and address of the Contractor, date of possession of site, original and final contract sum etc. Supervision - Give name and address of the resident 'supervisory staff. Construction Details

come them. Problems arising from deficiencies in the specifications should especially be highlight. 2.1 Earthworks Stating the earthworks carried out, its quantities etc. 2.2 Pavement Stating the construction of the pavement 2.3 Structures Describes the various structures constructed such as bridges, retaining walls, pedestrian crossing etc. 2.4 Drainage Describes the various drainage structures and types of drains and culverts including any subsoil drainage and erosion control measures used. 2.5 Relocation of Services Describes the various types of service involved, difficulties encountered during construction and its effect on the progess of work. 2.6 Intersections/Interchanges Describes the major intersection/interchange including details of traffic signal design used. 2.7 Others Other matter encounter during construction e.g. traffic control, river diversions, land problem etc.

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

3.0

Contruction Cost

2.0

This section is intended to provide a detailed account of the overall construction of the project. The details should include the highlights of the construction of the items concerned; the problem encountered during construction; and the solutions adopted to overCawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

This section should summaries the contruction cost of the major elements as set out in Sumarry of Tender. It should also highlight the areas of Variation Orders.

4.0

Miscellaneous

Any other details deemed relevent should be recorded here.

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5.0

Appendix

The appendix should include the following :a) location and site plan of the project list b) as-built plan / profile drawings c) photographs of instruction aspects of the construction. d) other plans etc. as required. e) as completed detailed abstract f) list of related file numbers

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APPENDIX 12 (2)

LAPORAN PERLAKSANAAN PEMBORONG (CONTRACTOR'S PERFORMANCE)


Baik 75% - 89% Se de rhana 50% - 74% Tidak Me muaskan 50% ke bawah

BIL

KRITERIA

Te rbaik 90% ke atas

1 Pengurusan Tapak Bina (Site Organisation)

2 Pentadbiran (Administration)

3 Perancangan / Kemajuan (Programming / Progress)

4 Mutu Kerangka Quality)

(Structure

5 Mutu Kerja-kerja Kemudahan (Services Quality)

Kemasan 6 Mutu Quality)

(Finishes

7 Mutu Kerja-kerja Luar (External works Quality)

Kontraktor8 Pengawasan kontraktor Kecil/ Pembekal Yang Dinama (Control of Nominated Sub-Contractors/

SOKONGAN (RECOMMENDATION)

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CHAPTER THIRTEEN: PRACTICAL HINTS FOR SITE STAFF


CONTENTS Introduction A. B. C. D. Earthworks Drainage Pavement Concrete
Roadworks" published -by the Department gives further details of the tests that should be undertaken and recommends frequencies of testing for specific cases. On the inspection side, the "Guidelines" define the various operations which should be subject to inspection, the category of staff to be employed and the degree of supervision, in terms of proportional time, that should be applied. Resident Engineers should make themselves familiar with the requirements and recommendations of the "Guidelines"" and ensure that they are implemented. A. EARTHWORKS Site Clearance 1. Areas to be cleared etc., may be indicated on the Drawings. If not, it will be necessary to issue instructions. In the case of designation on the Drawings, it may be necessary to issue variation instructions as the site is opened up and conditions become clearer. The Specification provides for areas to be either, a) felled only, or b) completely cleared including stripping and grubbing. 2. It may not be necessary to fell trees over the whole Rightof-Way area but care should be taken to ensure that tall trees retained near the edge of the tops of cuttings, are not in danger of falling into the roadway. Trees which can be safely retained for landscaping purposes should be preserved. 3. Generally speaking, areas under embankments with a centreline height less than 1.5m should be grubbed and stripped of topsoil except in weak ground conditions. In the latter circumstances, care should be taken to avoid damage to the crust, which may be stronger than the underlying soil. Plant should not be. allowed to run directly on it and the first layers of fill should be placed "overhand". Areas in which drainage channels and ditches are to excavated should also be grubbed and stripped. Excavation 4. Material classified as unsuitable in the
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------------------------------------------------Introduction 1. Technical requirements and constructional details for all contracts are given in the Specification and the Drawings The purpose of this chapter is not to reproduce that data in the Manual, nor to provide a short-cut for site supervision staff in the essential matter of becoming fully conversant with the technical directions contained in the contract documents. Rather, the intention is to lay stress on points of particular importance and to give guidance on further points of good constructional practice where the contract may be non-specific or prepared to leave discretion to the supervision team. The notes that are provided for this purpose on the pages following this Introduction are grouped under four headings, namely, A. Earthworks B. Drainage C. Pavement D. Concrete 2. The importance of adequate levels of inspection and testing cannot be over emphasized. The following notes do not attempt to deal with these subjects extensively and staff should turn to other sources for information and guidance. The Specification notes the particular tests involved and the quantative values that the results must achieve for compliance. T h e "Guidelines for the Inspection and Testing of

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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks 13. Embankment should be built up in such a way as to permit surface drainage run-off at all stages. 14. Particular care should be taken with the construction of the top 300mm of embankment selection of suitable material for subgrade, layering and compaction. 15. Care should also be taken with compaction of embankment side slopes, either by use of a towed slope roller or by overfilling and trimming back excess with excavator or dragline. If the latter method is adopted, net volume of cross section only should be used for payment and calculation of cut/fill balance for any borrow (See A.5). 16. If the contractor constructs edge bunds at the top of embankments to reduce slope erosion, outlets should be left at the low point of sag curves to prevent ponding. The bunds should be removed once vegetation on the slope has been established, or the contractor should be required to construct shoulder drains and outlet cascades at his own expense, unless these are provided for in the contract. Cultivation 17. Vegetation should be established on cutting and embankment slopes at the earliest oppportunity. 18. Alternatives to specified turfing arrangements involving hydro-seeding or other methods can be considered providing the contractor gives full details- of the system and accepts the risk of successfully establishing effective ground cover. 19. The contractor must be required to care for cultivation works by' watering, fertilising and repairing erosion damage as necessary during the construction and maintenance periods of the contract so that strong effective growth is established which can be expected to survive and propogate after the contract ends. Grass cutting should also be undertaken if necessary during the construction period and, if specified, during the maintenance period. B. DRAINAGE 1. Side ditches, filter drains and other drainage

Specification is to be removed, but no material should be taken off site without_ the R.E.'s express instruction. This is particularly important on contracts which have (or are likely to develop) a fill deficiency requiring imported or borrow material. 5. Paid volumes of imported or borrow material should be determined as the theoretical difference between the total excavation (less instructed unsuitable) and the required fill, both being based on the Drawings' cross sections. The actual imported quantities (which may be affected by wastage or unauthorised disposal) should not be used. 6. The Specification provides for separation of suitable and unsuitable materials by the contractor and for the selection (and stockpiling if necessary) of material for subgrade, etc. Site staff should use these provisions to ensure that the best available and appropriate materials are used in the embankments. 7. Material with a moisture content which makes it difficult to compact should not be discarded as unsuitable for this reason alone (See item A12). 8. The Specification requirements for benching slopes which are to receive embankment should be carefully observed. Embankment 9. A vigorous programme of density testing is essential to ensure that the specified compaction requirements are met. ("Method" specifications are being replaced by "end result" specifications). 10. Densities should be determined by the sand replacement method; moisture content by oven or site drying (the latter with propane gas ring & kwok or frypan). "Speedy" moisture content apparatus should not be used. 11. The maximum layer thickness for placing and compaction as determined in compaction trials should be carefully observed. Some density testing at the bottom of layers is desirable. 12. It may be necessary to adjust the moisture content of fill material (either up or down) in order to render it suitable for compaction - the Specification makes provision for this.

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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks and configurations,should be checked to ensure that they match the actual topography and proposed embankment heights. 9. For all major culverts (i.e. those exceeding 1.5m diameter or 2m, rectangular), R.E.'s should insist on formal inspection and approval of the foundation before allowing construction to proceed. The excavation bottom should be inspected and probed at incremental stages to determine suitable founding levels, or replacement of unsuitable material. The use of the Culvert Verification Form is appropriate (See Chapter 5.21). C. PAVEMENT Subgrade 1. Naturally occuring material exposed at the various depths of a road profile cannot be expected to provide consistent bearing strengths throughout the whole length of a contract route. Nor can site investigations give a fully comprehensive view of local soil variations. Formations in cuttings should therefore be carefully examined to ensure that the designed pavement is everywhere suitable for its subgrade strength. This can be done by visual inspection and the taking of samples for remoulded CBR tests (Insitu CBR's can be unreliable). The observation of deflection under the wheels of loaded construction vehicles can also be useful. 2. If the bearing capacity of the material at formation level is found to be less than that adopted for design purposes, instructions should be given for increasing pavement thickness (See C.4 below). Alternatively, if values are very low (say less than 2.0% CBR) it is preferable to excavate and dispose of a 0.5 meter thickness replacing it with superior material from site or borrow. 3. The Specification compaction requirements for subgrade, both in cut and in fill locations, should be carefully observed. Unbound Granular Courses 4. If it is found necessary to redesign the pavement at any particul'a`r location--because the subgrade is weaker than anticipated by the standard design, it is normal to thicken the sub-base
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facilities should be constructed as soon as possible after cuttings have been reduced to formation level. 2. Although locations for the installation of filter drains, etc. may be indicated on the contract drawings, it is an R.E.'s responsibility to ensure that adequate sub-soil drainage is provided wherever necessary. Water arising in cutting slopes and at formation level should be carefully observed and trial pits opened to established water table level.Spring water can be expected where the face between permeable and impermeable layers is exposed on steep longitudinal grades. Where this occurs, or where the formation is wide, a pattern of cross sub-soil drains may be required in addition to the normal longitudinal side filter drams (Porous pipes in filter drains under pavement areas should be surrounded with no fines concrete). 3. Many drainage arrangements are given in contract drawings only as typical details without specific invert levels, cross drain locations, etc. Resident Engineers should ensure that in providing layout & level details etc, minimum depth requirements and grades are observed (See "Guide to Drainage Design of Roads"). If necessary, additional cross drains and outfalls should be provided to deal with local ground level irregularities which impose slack grades and shallow inverts. 4. Minimum depths of ditches are quoted in the drainage Arahan Teknik as dimensions below subgrade level, not finished surface. Ditch lining should not extend above subgrade level and should be provided with weepholes. 5. For piped drains, Inspectors should check that individual pipes are soundly bedded and,in the case of spigot and socket pipes,that they are bedded over the whole length of the barrel and are not resting on their collars. 6. For concrete pipes with eliptical reinforcement it is essential to ensure correct rotation when placing. 7. Careful placing and compaction of backfill is important, especially at pipe haunches, and particularly for C.M.P. 8. When the precise locations of cross culverts have been set out on the ground, the detailed or scheduled lengths, and also headwall positions
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layers and leave the base layer unchanged. The Specification provisions for Lower Sub-Base present an economical means of increasing pavement thickness, particularly if material with the required CBR can be found on site. In any case, site staff should be on the look out for material exposed in roadway cuttings, which can be employed as sub-base material and so give cost savings. 5. As in the case of embankment fill, a full testing programme is necessary to ensure that Specification requirements for base and subbase are met - in this case for both gradation and compaction. Similar comments to those contained in A.9-12 also apply to test methods and moisture content adjustment, etc. 6. Gradation tests should be carried out on samples from insitu laid material, not merely delivered or stockpiled material. 7. If unbound layers are subject to site or road traffic, they should be checked to ensure that they have not suffered loss of material or segregation before succeeding layers are placed. If necessary, they should be scarified and/or reshaped and recompacted. 8. Care should be taken to ensure the continuity of permeable sub-base or base layers across the full width of shoulders where this is indicated on the Drawings. They are intended in the various design Arahan Teknik, to provide drainage seepage of the pavement courses to discharge at embankment edge or cutting drainage features. Contractors should not be permitted to excavate for, and lay, carriageway pavement layers in trench and then construct the shoulder drainage layers for intermittent filter channels) later. 9. Bituminous and Surfacing Courses Prime Coat (cut back or emulsion) - It is important to provide adequate rate of spread and time to allow penetration and curing. A minimum of 24 hours is required before the succeeding course is laid and traffic should not be allowed on the surface during this time. Sand or other fine aggregate blinding material must not be applied. Tack Coat (emulsion) The succeeding course should be laid as soon as the emulsion has broken.
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10.Production of Pre-Mix Materials It is highly desirable to have a member of the supervision team full time at the mixing plant. He should be fully involved in the taking of samples and testing (The Specification and "Guidelines for Inspection and Testing of Roadworks" provide comprehensive details of mix requirements and testing procedures.If the approved job mix incorporates both natural and crushed fines, it is important that separate cold bins should be provided for each, and that the contractor adheres to the prescribed proportions throughout the production day. In drum type production plants, it is important to ensure that hopper gates and belt feeds provide a consistent supply of material; also that the consumed quantities of added filler indicate that the intended amount is being incorporated. Where this type of plant is used, extra vigilance should be exercised with regard to the mix and any problems experienced during laying should result in increased levels of testing. In hot bin plants, all the available bin sizes should be used and screens should be checked regularly for wear. Laying Premix Materials 11. An asphalt thermometer must be kept on site for regular checking of delivery and rolling temperatures. For alphaltic concretes, three rollers should'be used - a steel wheeled roller for break down, a pneumatic tyred roller for main compaction and a steel tandem roller for finishing. Break down rolling should commence as soon as possible after laying without causing undue deformation or cracking. All rolls and tyres must be continuously watered and cleaning mats must be provided at all times,to prevent pickup.Ballasted rollers must be regularly checked to ensure that they carry the appropriate weight. Excessive rolling speeds and sudden direction changes must be avoided. Back spreading of material should be discouraged and kept to a minimum. Longitudinal joints in wearing courses should be cut and painted with bitumen unless provision is made for reheating, or multiple pavers are operated in echelon. Transverse joints should be cut and
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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks c) Current Margins and the method of deter mination, d) procedures for establishing mix design & properties by trial, e) compliance requirements (by test result) for incorporated concrete It is important that all staff involved in supervising and testing concrete works are fully conversant with all the Specification data. 2. It is important for the contractor and the supervisory staff to make an early start on the preparation of trial concrete mixes and their tests. 3. Sampling and testing regimes (including test frequencies etc.), for both constituent materials and finished concrete mixes (strength & workability), are given in the Specification and/or "Guidelines for Inspection and Testing of Roadworks" and should be carefully observed. 4. The moisture content of coarse and fine aggregates for concrete should be checked regularly in order to determine the quantities of added water. Frequent slump tests should also be taken on delivery of the mix to the structure in order to check water content and workability. The specified mix properties established during the mix design trails give a workability range for each grade of concrete. The range may be too wide to provide a suitable mix for all the purposes for which the grade has been specified and it may be necessary to apply closer limits for particular usages. For example high workability may be required for areas of congested reinforcement or mould shapes which restrict the movement and compaction of fresh concrete. Low water, slow setting mixes may be necessary for high strength deck slabs with large exposed areas. In such cases it may be desirable to incorporate additives to produce these special effects.. It should be remembered however, that the additive mix should be fully tested beforehand and the results compared with a basic additivefree control mix. 5. The requirements for fixing reinforcement,, constructing shuttering and placing, compacting and curing concrete are all fully covered in the

painted. 12. Double Bituminous Surface Treatment Although ranges for the rate of spread of binder are quoted in the Specification, it is important to establish the appropriate rate for any given surface, and other conditions, by trial. Spray bar equipment should be checked to ensure that nozzles are clear and that they are set at the correct level above the surface to avoid streaking, etc. Cover aggregate should be dry, free of dust, cubical in shape and of single size. Spreading of the cover aggregate should proceed immediately after application of the binder and rolling immediately after that. A pneumatic tyred, not steel wheeled, roller should be used. The rate of spread of binder and the rolling technique should ensure that individual chips of the cover aggregate are embedded in the bitumen layer up to 2/3 of their depth. A number of other points of good surfacing dressing practice are noted in the Specification and should be carefully observed. 13. Level, Thickness and Regularity Tolerances The Specification sets out level and thickness tolerances for all courses from sub-grade to top of wearing course. The contractor should be encouraged to keep to the lower -side of level tolerances. Compliance can be checked by optical levelling or by "dipping" from a taut nylon line stretched across the pavement between level pins set outside the pavement, so that they serve for all layers without repeated replacement. Additional pins are required, however, adjacent to surfacing lanes for automatic level control devices of paving machines. The surface regularity requirements (which apply only to surface courses) are also given,in the Specification and can be checked by rolling straight-edge, or hand-carried straight-edge and wedge. D. CONCRETE 1. The Specification gives full details of a) the designation of Grades (Prescribed & Designed), b) Characteristic Strength,
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Construction Supervision Manual For Contract Roadworks (iii) the actual section of the structure represented by the test cubes, (iv) the possible influence of any reduction in concrete quality on the strength and durability of the particular section of the struture. The Engineer may wish to carry out tests on the hardened concrete in the structure such as the taking of cored samples. However, the results of any such tests should not be admitted as taking precedence over the evidence of valid cube results. 7. Remedies for other defects If the contractor is permitted to repair defective concrete resulting from shutter movement or collapse, grout loss or poor compaction, rather than remove the whole structural element, care must be taken to ensure that the area affected is cut back to sound dense concrete before recasting fresh concrete. In areas of critical stress, it may be necessary to insist on repair with epoxy concrete or epoxy mortar. If poor concreting and finish persist, it is advisable to insist on the removal of all offending elements and review the whole of the contractor's concreting and formwork techniques.

Specification but the following points are of particular interest. a) It is important to ensure that all faces of the placed concrete in the structure are kept alive with fresh material so that dead joints do not form. In emergencies it may be necessary to form specified construc tion joints. b) Particular care should be taken with the curing arrangements for high strength bridge decks which are susceptible to shrinkage cracking. If high heat generation and high ambient temperatures com bine to cause problems with setting and curing it may be necessary to take special steps to reduce concrete temperatures to the specified limits - e.g. by shading aggregate stockpiles or adding ice to the mixing water. 6. Non compliance of test cube results with specified strengths. The first step is to ask the contractor for his proposals for dealing with the problem. In deciding whether to accept the contractor's proposals, or whether other remedial measures should be taken, the following points are relevant. The action to be taken in respect of the concrete which is represented by the test cubes failing to meet the specified requirements, may range from qualified acceptance in less severe cases, to rejection and removal in the most severe cases. In determining the action to be taken, the Engineer should have due regard to the technical consequences of the kind and degree of noncompliance and to the economic consequences of alternative remedial measures, either to replace the sub-standard concrete or to ensure the integrity of any structure in which the concrete has been placed. In estimating the quality of the sub-standard concrete and in determining the action to be taken, the Engineer should establish the following, whenever possible:-. (i) the validity of the test result, and confirmation that specimen sampling and testing has been carried out in accordance with the Specification, (ii) the mix proportion actually used in the concrete under investigation.
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