GSM Interference Analysis

GSM Interference Analysis Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Course Description.......................................................................................................................1 Introduction to Course..............................................................................................................1 Course Objective......................................................................................................................1 Relevant Materials...................................................................................................................1 Chapter 1 Overview......................................................................................................................2 1.1 Affection of Interference on Network.................................................................................2 Interference Sources.....................................................................................................................3 1.2 Classification of Interference Sources...............................................................................3 1.2.1 Natural Noise..........................................................................................................3 1.2.2 Man-made Noise....................................................................................................3 1.3 Main Interference Sources Affecting Mobile Communication...........................................4 Discovery of Interference..............................................................................................................6 1.4 Discovering Interference via OMC Traffic Measurement...................................................6 1.5 OMC Alarm and Subscriber Complaint.............................................................................8 1.6 Discovering Interference via Drive Test............................................................................8 Chapter 2 Location and Clearance of Interference Source.......................................................9 2.1 Recommended Procedures for Location and Clearance of Interference...........................9 2.1.1 Determine Interference Cell according to Key Performance Index (KPI)................9 2.1.2 Check Alarm of OMC..............................................................................................9 2.1.3 Frequency Planning Check.....................................................................................9 2.1.4 Check Parameter Setting of Cell...........................................................................10 2.1.5 Drive Test.............................................................................................................10 2.1.6 Interference Clearance.........................................................................................10 2.2 Location and Clearance of Hardware Fault....................................................................10 2.2.1 Antenna Performance Degradation......................................................................10 2.2.2 Water Seepage of Antenna or Feeder..................................................................11 2.2.3 Jumper Connector Fault.......................................................................................12 2.2.4 Antenna Connected Inversely...............................................................................12 2.2.5 Incorrect Jumper Connection of BTS....................................................................14 2.2.6 TRX Fault.............................................................................................................14 2.2.7 Clock Unlocking....................................................................................................16 2.2.8 Summary..............................................................................................................17 2.3 Intra-network Interference...............................................................................................18 2.3.1 Co-channel Interference.......................................................................................18 2.3.2 Adjacent-channel Interference..............................................................................20 2.3.3 Interference Caused by Over-coverage................................................................22 2.3.4 Interference Caused by Aggressive Reuse..........................................................23 2.4 Repeater Interference.....................................................................................................23 2.5 Off-network Interference.................................................................................................24 2.5.1 Microwave Interference........................................................................................24 2.5.2 High-power Broadcasting Station Interference.....................................................25 2.6 Other Phenomena Causing Interference.........................................................................26 2.7 False Interference...........................................................................................................27 Chapter 3 Anti-interference Measures......................................................................................29 Chapter 4 Interference Test Tools.............................................................................................30 4.1 Brief introduction to Spectrum Analyzer..........................................................................30 4.2 Directional Antenna.........................................................................................................30 Chapter 5 Way to Test Interference...........................................................................................31 5.1 The way to Test Internal Interference..............................................................................31

GSM Interference Analysis Table of Contents

5.2 The way to Test External Interference............................................................................31 5.3 The way to Search External Interference Sources..........................................................32


Course Objective After completed the course. location and troubleshooting. fault location method and troubleshooting method. anti-interference measures. you can:   get the cause of interference and master the method of locating the interference source. Relevant Materials Interference GSM Principle and Network Optimization Mobile Communication Engineering Starwiarski Han Binjie Lu Er’Rui 1 . The main contents of the course are as follows: overview. and offers description of cases to facilitate fault location and troubleshooting. classification of interference source. Master the method of overcoming interference.OMF000403 GSM Interference Analysis ISSUE1. Course Description Introduction to Course To introduce affection brought by interference to the GSM system. introduction to instrument interference test.0 Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. etc. this course hereby lists out the possible interference sources. judgement method.

it is difficult to handover . the GSM network may be affected by interference from other communication systems. How to reduce or eliminate interference is now becoming the principal task of network planning and optimization. Through Drive Test. 3. 7.OMF000403 GSM Interference Analysis ISSUE1. du . Chapter 1 Overview Frequency resource is a kind of rare resource. interference location and troubleshooting on the basis of experience of experts. du” is heard. but the interference will be stronger because the reuse distance becomes nearer. Through tracing the Abis interface signaling with signaling analyzer (MA10/K1205). Congestion rate is comparatively high (As there is interference in SDCCH channel. The call drop rate is higher than other cells. handover and congestion. 4. or MS subscriber calls fixed telephone subscriber. 1. the subscriber usually cannot hear the voice . 2. there are some characteristic as following. The handover success rate is low. 2 . 5. This document herein provides a systemic description of interference source. and the measurement value is more than 1. Frequency reuse means that same frequency can be used simultaneously in several cells when the distance between them is far enough. When fixed telephone subscriber calls MS subscriber.1 Affection of Interference on Network When there is interference in the network. 1. Besides. There are Level 4~Level 5 interference band in TCH measurement function . In GSM system. call drop occurs after “Du. the subscribers usually encounter the following phenomenon:     During conversation. And the ratio between the reuse distance and the cell radius is called co-frequency interference factor. immediate assignment or TCH assignment will fail). For certain frequency resource. the network capacity will be larger if the frequency reuse is more tight. it is found that interference situation is one of the most important factor that affects the network. frequency reuse is very necessary for GSM system to provide enough capacity. and the background noise is too loud. 8. from the result of traffic statistic. and call drop often happens. The conversation cannot be carried on smoothly.Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. The Rx level is high.0 Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. The interference caused by frequency reuse is called internal network interference (it is also called internal system interference). but the quality is bad. call drop. Judging from the aspects such as conversation quality. it is found that: 6. The distance between the cells allocating the same frequency is called the reuse distance. it is found that The bit error rate is higher than other cells. When interference exists in the network.

2. which can be ignored.1 Natural Noise    Atmosphere noise Galaxy noise Solar noise (quiet period) 1.1 Environment noise In the figure. And above 100MHz. To=2900K. Ta To From the research data of ITT. America on the above noise/interference is shown as follows. it can be viewed that the atmosphere noise and solar noise is comparatively low in 30~1000MHz.2 Classification of Interference Sources The interference sources of mobile communication system/noise are mainly classed as follows: 1.2.OMF000403 GSM Interference Analysis ISSUE1.2 Man-made Noise     Interference of ignition systems of vehicles or other engines Interference of electronic communication system. medical and household appliances. Thus. Interference of power line Interference of scientific research. Research data of ITT.Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. the interference can be ignored as well. Figure 1. natural noises (atmosphere 3 .0 Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. Ta denotes the noise temperature. and the relation between the two is as follows: Fa = 10 log Wherein. as the radio noise of galaxy is lower than the thermal noise of typical receiver. Fa denotes equivalent noise factor. Interference Sources 1.

it will encounter interference from the ambient communication equipment. Due to its own characteristics. or isolation between TX and RX of the duplexer in CDU is not enough. when BTS receives the signals from the MS comparatively far away. such as ignition interference of vehicle engine. it will easily cause 4 . electric power interference and industrial electric equipment interference. The latter is main research field of this document. However. as shown in the figure below. self-excitation might be caused when fault occurs. certain interference is uncontrollable.0 Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. 900MHz. all these will form interference on the receiving channel.Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. 1800MHz and 2000MHz[3]. 1. Internal network interference: Improper frequency planning: Co-frequency interference Adjacent frequency interference Repeater interference: It is commonly adopted that coverage of BTS is extended with repeater in the early stage network construction.3 Main Interference Sources Affecting Mobile Communication In mobile communication system. such as interference between communication equipment and internal network interference. Spurious emission and inter-modulation: if out-band spurious emission index of BTS TRX or amplifier exceeds the limit. certain interference. noise. The affection of sunspot fastigium on mobile communication is temporarily unknown. which will cause self-excitation of TRX amplification circuit resulting in interference. but scientists believe that sunspot fastigium has great affection on the electric power and communication. galaxy noise and solar noise) are unnecessarily considered for the mobile systems above 450MHz.OMF000403 GSM Interference Analysis ISSUE1. Among those man-made interference/noise sources. According to the research of National Bureau of Standards (NBS). Inter-modulation may also occur in passive equipment such as passive antenna and feeder. which can be overcome by reasonable network planning and system optimization.2 Schematic diagram of mobile communication interference The main interference of this part is as follows: Hardware fault:        TRX fault: if the performance of TRX is reduced due to manufacture cause or application. 800MHz. Figure 1. CDU or divider fault: as active amplifier has been adopted for the divider and divider module of CDU. it is found that the man-made noise is one of the main interference sources.and BTS or MS of the same system [3].

and its transmitting power was very high. causing insufficient isolation between the donor antenna and the subscriber antenna.0 Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. the frequency used by the decimeter wave radar was similar to that of GSM. For the repeater adopting wideband non-linear amplifier. which generally reached tens and hundreds of kilowatts. This affects normal working of BTS that the repeater belongs to. so the outband spurious emission is comparatively large. interference will be caused within the GSM system coverage area.OMF000403 GSM Interference Analysis ISSUE1.Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. the inter-modulation component will be large. Interference of other communication equipment with high power: Radar station: From 70s~80s of the 20th century. 5 . and this will cause interference to the BTS around. it easily causes interference to the BTS. so self-excitation is caused. interference to the BTS if it is improperly used. As the GSM frequency band is occupied by the equipments. Communication equipment at same frequency band: As the types of communication equipment are so many. the inter-modulation index far exceeds the requirement of the protocol. For repeater. Analog BTS: The frequency band used by the analog mobile BTS overlaps with the GSM frequency band in certain segment. there are mainly two interference modes:       As the installation of repeater is non standard. If the power is comparatively high. Thus. some manufacturers maybe adopt the frequency band but doesn’t comply with the current communication standards.

OMC alarm. SDCCH measurement function and handover measurement function. check the traffic status of various cells. then maybe there is strong interference in the cell. What needs to be mentioned is that only the existence of the potential interference can be judged according to the checking results. Discovering potential interference via traffic statistics result Check the “Average TCH busy time (second)” in TCH measurement function of each cell. If it is found that the Average TCH busy time (second) of certain cell is comparatively short (such as less than 10s). To find out whether there is interference actually. Discovery of Interference To solve the interference problem and improve the conversation quality. times of attempt to initiate handover (uplink quality). and at last eliminating or reducing interference. times of receiving quality level (0~7) when initiating handover (uplink) and average receiving quality when initiating handover (uplink). within the measurement period. following traffic measurement tasks should be registered to discover the problems in time: TCH measuremen functiont. if hardware fault occurs in certain TRX (non-BCCH or non-SDCCH carrier) of a cell. find out the interference first. As the puissant tools. location and analysis is needed.4 Discovering Interference via OMC Traffic Measurement After a network on srvice.0 Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. After task registration. if the times of receiving quality level above 5 is more than that below 4. Drive Test and subscriber complaint. we can divide the handover data into two categories for analysis. The methods available for discovering the interference in GSM system are as follows: OMC traffic measurement. If the times of certain cell attempts to initiate handover (uplink/downlink quality) is 6 . then it is possibly caused by uplink interference.OMF000403 GSM Interference Analysis ISSUE1. and then use proper means for locating the interference. 1. then there may be uplink interference as well. it should be ≥ 5). handover and traffic measurement indices related to cell quality to discover the cells with potential interference.Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. the case mentioned above will also appear. which is usually called “TCH mean holding time” in the BSC of other manufacturer”. if there is. When certain cell initiates handover. When certain cell initiates handover. and the mean receiving level is ≥ 25(-85dBm). 2. causing that handover/call drop happens due to bad quality after TCH channel occupied to MS. or there are other problems. Certainly. the reason is that this index can show the TCH mean occupied time (s”). Discovering interference via handover data The handover measurement data reflects the mobility of the subscribers within the cell under measurement. 1. special test equipment such as signaling analyzer and spectrum analyzer are commonly unused in this stage. intra-cell handover and inter-cell handover.  Inter-cell handover There are many reasons of MS triggering handover The handover measurement indices mainly used for judging whether there is interference are as follows: times of attempt to initiate handover (downlink quality). etc. Generally. if the average receiving quality (uplink) is ≥ 4 (this is true when there is no frequency hopping.

3. 87 and 85 (unit: -dBm). Discovering potential interference via call drop index Call drop is one of the network faults un-acceptable for the subscribers. If the call drop times of certain cell is rather higher the the other with same traffic load. The reducing of handover judgment threshold and P/N duration can make the handover more sensitive. if there is comparatively high value in band 3. 4. The default setting of interference bands in BSC of Huawei is as follows: 110. Discovering potential interference via interference band BTS will utilize an idle TS in a frame to scan the uplink frequencies of the frequencies used by TRX. If the intra-cell handover is caused by uplink/downlink quality. According to the online data measurement. then attention should be paid to this.1 Interference band Interference band Interference band one Interference band 2 Interference band 3 Interference band 4 Interference band 5 Level scope (-dBm) -105 ~ -98 -97 ~ -90 -89 ~ -87 -86 ~ -85 ≥ -84 Compared with other measurement indices. more than 10% of total handover attempt times. However. and cause more handovers. 7 . and the proportion taken up by total intra-cell handover times among the total inter-cell handover times is comparatively higher than that of others. there is also measurement items such as intra-cell handover request times (uplink/downlink quality) and the interference situation. then there may be interference in the cell. However. 90. corresponding to the following interference bands in traffic measurement: Table 2. while the average receiving quality level is ≥ 6. Too few handover times maybe no good to the network performance at whiles. and then make measurement to the level 5 interference band. and the main cause of call drop is owning to connection fault. the measurement index of interference band can reflect the cell interference situation more directly.0 Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. And on the contrary. handover is also the main cause of call drop. The two indices are all related to quality handover threshold and interference handover threshold within the cell parameters. handover times will be reduced. there may be co-frequency interference in the cell. 105. too many handover is no good either. then it is possibly caused by interference. The measurement indices related to call drop are as follows: SDCCH/TCH call drop times. If the measurement values mainly distribute in interference band 1 and interference band 2.Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. If the values of interference band 4 and interference band 5 are comparatively large (≥ 1). wireless link broken times when SDCCH/TCH occupied (connection failed) and mean uplink/downlink quality in case of SDCCH/TCH call drop. If the average receiving level during call drop is comparatively high (≥ 25). and affect the handover success rate directly. then. then the cell should be listed into the interference source. The handover measurement index is closely related to the setting of cell parameters. then the possibility of interference will be small. As for the hard handover attribute of GSM. 98.OMF000403 GSM Interference Analysis ISSUE1.  Intra-cell handover For intra-cell handover. then there may be interference in the cell. but it can only reflect whether there is interference in the uplink. the proportion that one handover per conversation will be comparatively reasonable.

If the alarm information is more detailed. MS model. Before starting to locate the interference source. it is wise to eliminate hardware fault first. 1. the direct feelings of the subscriber may be: heavy noise.Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. In addition. there are two Drive Test methods available: idle mode test and special mode test. cannot be judged via the alarm information of alarm subsystem. it will be more easily to find out the network problems. namely. both parties or either party cannot hear each other clearly. Generally when the FER ≥ 25%. Note: As Huawei’s measurement method of interference band is based on cell. However. Further. When there is interference in the network. analysis must be performed to the alarm information first. power control registrations and time advance. Under special mode test.0 Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. 8 . interference exists in this section of highway (FER measurement of ANT is inaccurate. that is to say. of both the serving cell and adjacent cell. The description of subscriber complaint is comparatively fuzzy. call drops and call cannot be put through. the equipment can also perform frequency scanning test to the specified frequency or frequency band. the test equipment can measure the signal level of both serving cell and adjacent cell. The suspicion of interference gained by the methods described above. receiving qualities. Thus. During actual implementation. it is reasonable if the subscriber cannot tell you where the interference is. analysis of traffic measurement and subscriber complaint. Subscriber complaint is also important clew for finding the potential interference. etc. the reason is that they don’t know much about the cellular network actually. Under the idle mode.). round-trip test should be performed to the object BTS. During test. The reason is that this value has been averaged by the values of other seven TRX without interference. etc. the value of interference band of certain TRX that suffers serious co-frequency interference will be comparatively small in large site type (S8/8/8). subscribers can feel the discontinuous voice. part test equipment can directly display the frame elimination rate (FER). etc. Thus. whether from MS or other BTS.5 OMC Alarm and Subscriber Complaint OMC alarm subsystem can report the hardware fault of BTS side. when many subscribers within the same area complain the same problem. then work should be done to check whether there is interference in the area. then. should also be verified via drive test. What needs to be mentioned is that the interference. Information which should be collected from user complaint includes MS number. Before implementation of any optimization works. Note that the Drive Test can only check the downlink interference. 1.6 Discovering Interference via Drive Test Drive Test is a method that is most commonly used to find out problems. the test equipment can measure the signal levels. the values cannot reflect the actual interference condition. called number and fault phenomenon of calling side and fault phenomenon of called side and particular fault location.OMF000403 GSM Interference Analysis ISSUE1. it can be concluded that interference exists in the section. When high level (≥ 30) and low quality (Rx_Qual≥ 6) remain in certain section of highway.

traffic. etc. the high call drop rate. the self-excitation of the transmitter. etc. check the log of the operation on the cells is required. Similarly. It is recommended to check the hardware first. If no data modification is performed in this duration. First you should be very clear about the BTS location distribution and azimuth of each cell. or whether the occurrence of the interference is associated with these operations in terms of time. spurious interference of high-power transmitting equipment around. the alarm information cannot be reported. Chapter 2 Location and Clearance of Interference Source The most important process during optimization is how to locate the fault in the network which requires much experience.1. At this time.1.1 Recommended Procedures for Location and Clearance of Interference 2.. if interference still exists after the hardware fault is excluded. it can be sure that the interference comes from the hardware or external of the network. At the same time.3 Frequency Planning Check If one cell is doubted with interference. (Compared with digital components. Check whether BTS hardware is added or modified.1 Determine Interference Cell according to Key Performance Index (KPI) The sudden deterioration of such indices as call drop rate. but the causes of interference vary such as cofrequency or adjacent frequency interference in the system. and data is modified recently. then check whether external interference exists (the method for checking external interference. congestion rate. check the frequency planning of this cell and cells around. the association of alarm record with the deterioration of these indices in terms of time is analyzed here. Generally you can judge whether there is co-frequency and adjacent frequency interference according to accurate topology map of frequency planning. handover success rate. It should be noted that most alarms of OMC aim at the hardware fault of the such as TRX no power output. interference band indicates that interference exists in the cell. low handover success rate and high congestion rate may be relevant with the equipment fault.Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. and mark the BCCH/TCH frequency and BSIC.OMF000403 GSM Interference Analysis ISSUE1.1. 2. For most potential fault in optimization such as TRX or CDU receiving performance degradation. the analog components such as microwave and so on are more difficult to detect) 2. 9 . please refer to the chapter infra).2 Check Alarm of OMC Sometimes. The above section only reveals that the interference may exist in the network. check of OMC alarm record will spare much time spent in judgment and analysis. make a comparison between the planned frequency and actually configured frequency in BSC to check whether there is discrepancy.0 Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. self-excitation. then make a drawing of the topology map. etc. 2.

even leads to disastrous result. Case 0010761. BTS clock alarm and so on remotely. please refer to the technical cases. For details. handover judgment/statistics duration (P/N criteria). system clock unlocked.e.1. BSC breakdown.1 Antenna Performance Degradation As one of the passive devices.1. so once C/I cannot be more than the threshold 12dB in case of conversation. water seepage. 2. the possibility of antenna damage is very little. i. If CRO is set too larger than the neighbor cells. TRX fault. Fault description: There are 5 BTSs for a certain network in a county configured as S4/4/4 and 6/6/6. this will also lead to interference.2 Location and Clearance of Hardware Fault When a certain cell is doubted with interference through the above analysis.Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. but also the system load. The difference is that the cell with interference is highlighted during the test when locate the interference. 2. MS will fail to handover to the cell with better signal level and quality. If configuration of adjacent cell is omitted in adjacent cell relation. handover threshold. and adjacent cell relation. the frequent handover not only increases the call drop rate..6 Interference Clearance Adjustments should be made respectively according to the above location results. 2. The specific methods for interference location and clearance are described in form of cases as follows. MS is drawn in this cell with in idle mode even the actual Rx level lower than the cells around.5 Drive Test Drive Test is an effective way to locate the interference.3. interference will emerge. CDU fault.OMF000403 GSM Interference Analysis ISSUE1. But it is far more dangerous if the value is too small. Finally the effect of interference clearance will be evaluated according to KPI. and P/N criteria as well as handover difficulty between cells. TRX alarm. the BTS type includes BTS20 and BTS30. Check whether there is antenna feeder alarm.0 Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. The interference band 5 in TCH measurement function of some cells is over 15. but the real antenna damage or performance degradation will lead to poor communication quality. and there is no alarm information in OMC Fault location process 1) Register the statistics task of interference band of 24 hours for the cell with 10 . 2. and Drive Test result. it is required to check whether the BTS first where the cell is located works normally or not. The method is the same as problem location in 3. check whether there is antenna damage.1. feeder (including jumper) damage.2. at the same time the case ID is provided for the convenience of consultation. Slight interference may also occur in case of large handover threshold. 2. water seepage. incorrect BTS jumper connection.4 Check Parameter Setting of Cell Some cell parameters have impact on the interference such as CRO.

0 Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. and in the small hours near middle night. 2) After opening the idle BURST of all BTSs and transmitting it in the early morning. 4) It can be seen from the above second and third points that the problem is relevant with the BTS equipment. FPU. generating interference and effect the conversation quality. so the feeder fault can be excluded while the antenna fault is quite possible.. For further verification. it is found that interference band 5 mainly occurs in daylight. it is found that the interference follows the antenna. the interference band value is almost 0. 10) Replace the jumper (i. it is found that the interference band occurs.Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. while the former often leads to the reduction of service range. (It should be noted that the external interference at this step cannot be excluded because the actual installation place of the antenna does not change. 3) No frequency in the network and data are modified before the interference occurs. and then the interference disappears. antenna) at the top of the tower. While the antenna damage will lead to the degradation of the radiation performance and inter-modulation. 6) First replace all boards (TRX. with Tower Top Amplifier) one by one. ) 11) Finally check the antenna. Sometimes the alarm cannot be reported to the OMC alarm console after the antenna is damaged.2. it is found that the interference follows the antenna and feeder. CDU. and power board) of this BTS (BTS20. Similar case also includes case 0017185. replace the antenna of one cell with strong interference in another BTS20 with a new one. Fault cases in the on service network indicate that the possibility for water seepage of antenna and feeder is less than that of antenna damage. antenna. replace another BTS30(S4/4/4) (dual-CDU. accordingly. 2. it can be seen that unstable strong broadband interference and rise of back noise occur. And the inter-modulation product is fed back to the receiving channel of the BTS. 11 . but the external interference has already been excluded in the above step. interchange the antenna and feeder (changing the jumper at the top of the cabinet) of the cells which are with and without interference in the BTS in the evening. It disappears after transmitting is stopped. problems. it can be seen that interference exists all the time.2 Water Seepage of Antenna or Feeder The water seepage of antenna and feeder will change the media structure and bring high loss of radio signals. Then it can be sure that fault exists in the feeder or antenna. at the same time observe the spectrum signal of RXM test interface. 5) Observe the RXM test interface of CDU with the spectrum analyzer in peak hour in the daylight. the antenna and feeder check is inconvenient.e. jumper and connector) instead of the board. 9) The situation remains the same even after replacing lightning arrester of antenna feeder and checking all jumper connectors. and dual-polarization antenna) with interference and check the antenna feeder. 7) Since the above BTS under test has the Tower Mount Amplifier. feeder. lightning arrester. Then send idle BURST. It can be judged from this phenomenon that the interference comes from internal network and has nothing to do with other equipment. This indicates that the interference is relevant with the antenna feeder (including divider. thus the problem is solved here.OMF000403 GSM Interference Analysis ISSUE1. And no case that interference is caused by water seepage of antenna and feeder till now. This step helps further locate the fault which should exist in antenna and feeder system. 8) Since no interference exists in one of the cells while strong interference exists in another two cells in the BTS. The strong interference disappears immediately after the antenna is replaced on the tower by using the dual-polarization antenna. HPA. Tower Top Amplifier. the interference is irrelevant with the frequency planning. combiner.

this problem reminds us of the importance of checking the engineering quality carefully. increase of intermodulation and interference. but situation si the same.Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. The scraps in the connector will bring unconspicuous interference. Case 0015118 Fault description: the type of certain BTS is BTS2. Subsequently the interference occurs and disappears along with the operations of screwing up and screwing off the connector at the exit of CDU.4 Antenna Connected Inversely It is quite usually that the antenna is connected inversely. There is no alarm in OMC. if loose contact exists in any section from TRX. For case of water seepage of feeder. Though the conversation is not affected. The interference still exists after replacing carrier board. power board.0. antenna connected inversely will affect the network quality much more. Screw up the connector after blowing off the scraps.0 Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. call drop. Interference of different value occur on several carriers of this cell through signaling tracing. it is doubted that the interference causes the above phenomena.2. there is no alarm message in OMC system Fault location process 1) 2) 3) 4) Check carefully the frequency planning of the BTS. It will also lead to co-frequency and adjacent frequency interference. but interference band only occurs to interference band 2 and 3 several days later. The external interference becomes the chief consideration after the frequency planning problem is excluded. feeder to antenna will lead to high VSWR. power amplification board. It is found that the interference band 4 and 5 appear in cell 2 interference band of the BTS by viewing the traffic measurement. and configuration is S242. and also call drop often occurs during conversation. and since then. etc. On the other hand. interference never occurs. Check the frequency planning first. the inter-cell handover success rate is very low and the congestion rate is up to 5%. handover failure. This problem belongs to the soft fault. Fault location process 1) 2) Since the interference bands 4 and 5 occur along with low handover success rate and congestion. so experience is quite important here.OMF000403 GSM Interference Analysis ISSUE1. Confirmation made with the operator’s branch office indicates that the BTS is 12 . MS is difficult to access cell 2. please refer to case 0009057. the interference does not disappear.3 Jumper Connector Fault The RF signal of GSM falls into the UHF signal.2. If the frequency resources for operator is a few. Change the original used frequency 9 into the far-away frequency 94 to avoid external interference. 2. The possibility of internal cofrequency and adjacent frequency interference is excluded because the BTSs in this area are not so dense and with loose frequency reuse. 2. It is found that though interference spectrum occurs. It is found that some scraps exist on the CDU output connector. no problem is found. CDU. Case 0011108 Fault description: the interference bands 4 and 5 often occur in the traffic measurement after certain BTS is on service. but the interference signal level is not too high when checking with spectrum analyzer. which will lead to complete difference between the using frequency and the planned frequency.

the connection of RXD feeder in this cell is correct. At this time. the cell to which the RXD feeder belongs can be obtained. or no method is available to judge whether the feeder connection is correct. then check this flag at the side of lightning arrester of indoors antenna. and locate the erro with the test MS on site. with handover success rate affected. Moreover. Fault location process 1) 2) 3) 4) Make clear the frequency of several cells according to the networking plan design.OMF000403 GSM Interference Analysis ISSUE1. Since handover failure is involved at the same time. If correct frequency is received in the specified cell. it is unable to know whether the antenna feeder is correctly connected through the Drive Test. 3) 4) 5) 6) remote and without any high-power radio equipment nearby. Method 1: there is one length flag every other 1m on 7/8 feeders. the adjacent cell relation is disordered with serious co-frequency interference. Finally correct the incorrect flag. The congestion analysis indicates that TCH assignment failure is usually caused by uplink. the conversation quality is poor. On-site examination indicates that the antennas of cell 1/2/3 become crossed pair which causes the transmitter antennas of cell 1 and 3 to stay in the same cell. Method 2: the feeder flag of some BTSs may be blurry due to scratch in construction. The length for each feeder from the tower top to equipment room is basically the same. After registering the traffic measurement of uplink/downlink balance. and crossed pair exists between two cells of some BTSs.Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. switch off the HPA of all carriers in the cell. The judgment for TX/RX feeder of one cell is easy and whether the connection is correct can be known from the results of Drive Test. it is incorrect. so the length flags at the two top and at the side of lightning arrester can be used to judge to which cell does the feeder belong. Case 0005237 Fault description: the Drive Test for certain network reveals that the BCCH frequencies of several cells is different from the design. causing the TX/RX of two cells to cover the same area in the same direction. Two methods can be adopted to correct the connection error and verify the accuracy. then switch on the HPA for Drive Test. otherwise. and the call drop rate is very high. The interference band and congestion disappear and the handover is all right after it is corrected. This indicates that severe imbalance occurs between uplink and downlink. But RXD transmits no signal. Drive Test can be adopted for judgment. and connect RXD feeder to TX/RX output of the CDU where the main BCCH of cell is located. The imbalance between uplink and downlink. Verify each cell with the test MS. 13 . From the Drive Test. it is found that 3 sector cell of some BTSs are configured correctly but rotated 120 clockwise. On-site detection reveals that the connections of antenna feeder system in several BTSs are disordered. It looks as if the frequency planning or external interference should be excluded. in combination with much handover failure in cell 1 and 3 turn the doubt to the antenna and feeder which may be connected inversely. In this case. it is found that handover failure occurs between cells 1 and 3 according to the registration of outgoing/incoming cell handover performance measurement.0 Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. Correct the connection at the lightning arrester of the antenna after clear judgment is obtained. through which the successive two length flags on 7/8 feeders corresponding to each antenna in each cell at the tower top can be observed and recorded. while the receiver antennas of them connect to another cell. it is found that the measurement item of uplink/downlink balance for cell 1 and cell 3 focus on level 1 and 11. So the increase or decrease of flag can be judged in case of cabling of each feeder from the tower to the equipment room.

Since this site is on service for two years. the fault of TRX will lead to the increase of interference. BSC data error.44 when BTS cell 2 is busy. 2. Case 0015303. etc. At the same time it is found that the number of TCH assignment failure of this cell is up to 50.2. 2. and the first 4 TRXs of each cell are connected to the “4-in-1” combiner via rigid RF cable. it is found that SDCCH call drop rate of this cell is very high.Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here.6 TRX Fault As the core component of BTS. Considering that this BTS is a newly on service. In the traffic measurement. the SDCCH call drop rate of one cell in this BTS is up to 50%. Case 0011519 Fault description: the subscriber reports that the conversation quality in the area near certain BTS in certain city is poor and with call drop.5 Incorrect Jumper Connection of BTS There are many jumpers from BTS TRX to the antenna. and moreover. No alarm information has been generated recently. access difficulty. that of interference band 2 is 32. It is found that there are 3 carriers in 3 cells of this BTS with dual-CDU configuration.0 Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here.. There is no alarm in OMC Fault location process 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) The causes for the above phenomenon may include: interference. From the traffic measurement.27. decrease of coverage. and running always stably . all causes are radio link loss connections (error indication). i. Fault description: a newly constructed BTS is of S333 type and dual-CDU configuration with the version as 05.2. so it can be judged that SDCCH call drop is the reason why the MS is difficult to make MOCor MTC. 50%.OMF000403 GSM Interference Analysis ISSUE1. and hardware fault. From the cell measurement function report. the input of two carriers. only one in four and five times of calling is successful. The “tick” always occurs in the MS and the MS returns to the idle mode when it initiates a call. The BTS type is BTS20(M900) with the configuration of S6/6/6. it can be found that the average idle TCH number of interference band 1 is 11. and the call drop rate is about 10%.e.0529. The subscriber complains that it is difficult to make MOC or MTC in the areas covered by this BTS since the on service. But TCH assignment is normal. The location will focus on these 3 aspects. The duplex TMA is installed in the antenna and feeder system. the confusion of which will lead to high call drop rate.2. the check should base on data and BTS hardware. while the last 2 are connected to the “2-in-1” combiner. Further analysis of the traffic measurement indicates that the interference band of this cell is normal. which should be connected to the combiner input end of CDU. 5) Correct the connection at the lightning arrester of antenna and attach new flag again after making a clear judgment of all feeders. Verification with Drive Test is required after correction. The dial test carried out by maintenance engineer of the operator indicates that this fault phenomenon occurs in cell 3. 14 . is connected to TX-COMB and TX-DUP ends instead. that of interference band 3 and 4 is 0 all the time. A careful check of the data of this BTS including hardware data and nework planning data shows that there is no error. so the impact of interference on SD call drop can be excluded. The fault does not exist after the connection is corrected. that of interference band 5 is 7. moreover.

Generally. 6) Then replace the duplex TMA of cell 2 with normal Tower Mount Amplifier. and HPA11. lightning arrester. Then observe the cell performance measurement report. 3) The cause of internal interference is basically the same with that of adjacent frequency interference. Fault location process 1) On-site dial test and analysis of traffic measurement indicate that this is an interference case. the interference source can be located through the signal strength within uplink band with spectrum analyzer. Fault location process 15 . the number of idle TCH in interference band 5 of the cell becomes 0 and the congestion rate and call drop rate are lowered obviously after BT10. and 5 0. the congestion rate and call drop rate 0. HPA10. While both congestion rate and call drop rate of cell 2 become 0. So the location focuses on the antenna and such boards as TRX. and interference band 3. number of TCH occupation fault 1. etc. 4. FPU10. it indicates that the interference is not caused by Tower Mount Amplifier. TRX board. 9) Replace TRX16. the FPU10. Then carry out a test for the signal strength of whole uplink band in the air under the tower with spectrum analyzer. the number of uplink TCH. 5) Check the connection of antenna and feeder. as well as the loose contact of RF cable. the interference band has no change. TRX10. too. 8) To further locate. TRX11 and corresponding boards in the cabinet of cell 3 are interchanged. The careful view of traffic measurement (TCH measurement function) reveals that about 7 TCHs in this cell often stay in interference band 4~5. From this phenomenon. The external interference is suspected.2. TCH congestion and call drop rate will increase when interference exists. no such antenna connected reversely or loose contacted. After TRX10. Since replacement of antenna is quite troublesome. HPA. too. The traffic measurement obtained some time after TRX17 is replaced indicates that the interference band 3. and so on. A valuable phenomenon is found when interference is located through blocking the baseband channel. 7) Replace related devices in cell 2 with normal SPL. and TRX17. and no stable signal of more than -100dB is found.Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. 2) For external interference. But further location is necessary to determine whether it is external interference. 4) The co-frequency/adjacent frequency interference can be excluded because the frequency has already been rationally planed by the optimization engineers.OMF000403 GSM Interference Analysis ISSUE1. This indicates that the interference is generated within the network. and BT11 are blocked at the same time. That is. and 5 of cell 3 become 0. FPU11. So it can be sure that the interference is not caused by the above devices. and TRX17 respectively and observe the traffic measurement. But the following will also lead to internal interference: the performance degradation of RF devices such as antenna. the board should be located first. It can be known that the interference is caused by selfexcitation of TRX17 internal RF circuit and performance degradation of devices. Tower Mount Amplifier. so the interference maybe exist. This indicates that the faulty board is just in TRX16. it can be sure that the interference is caused by one or several boards among TRX10. the interference band has no change. TRX17 are interchanged. it is found that the interference band 5 of cell 3 becomes 5. combiner and RF cable. HPA10. FPU. 4.0 Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. TRX11. HPA11. Case 0005940 Fault description: congestion rate of 2 cells in BTS (S6/6/6)2 in certain county is usually up to 10%. combiner/divider. This problem can be solved by replacing corresponding boards and devices. 10) No call drop occurs and the voice is distinct when performing frequency locking dial test on each cell’s BCCH frequency. FPU11. TRX11 and TRX16.

and replace them to the two carriers free from interference. Mark the carrier board and power amplifier board respectively. Then it can be found that the radio resource indication of all timeslots in this carrier reports interference band 5. 2. The number of TCH in interference band 4 ~5 becomes 0 when blocking carrier 8 (frequency 28). So it can be sure that the carrier board fault leads to the interference. but the increase of error code in transmission will lead to the decrease of 16 . too. while that in cell 2 becomes 0. To locate the frequency with interference.7 Clock Unlocking The clock for the digital system similar to GSM is just like the nervous system of the equipment. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) The self-excitation of carrier board or the invalidation of devices will bring strong interference for the receiving device. This helps further locate that the carrier board is the interference source. Interchange the carrier board with interference in cell 2 with normal carrier board in cell 3. It is found that the number of idle TCH in interference band 5 of cell 3 becomes 0. No continuous interference signal falls into this band. So the interference may come from the equipment. The problem is solved after this faulty carrier board is replaced. this indicates that the interference maybe come from within the system and may be caused by the fault of certain part in the equipment. Case 0007646 Fault description: The interference of a cell always falls into interference band 4 and 5 through the analysis of traffic measurement of certain network. the large deviation of BTS clock will bring difficulty for the MS to be locked in the frequency of the BTS. So large amount of assignment fault leads to high congestion rate of the cell. Block the carriers one by one. Fault location process The interference source usually comes from radio communication system as following. Replace the carrier board with interference and power amplifier board to another cell at the same time. The interference disappears from original cell and occurs in new cell. 1) Carry out a test for the electromagnetic environment of the BTS with spectrum analyzer.OMF000403 GSM Interference Analysis ISSUE1. On the other hand.6MHZ). and register the traffic measurement of 5 minutes.0 Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. and carrier 28 is under the interference via tracing and analysis. and set the filtering condition to TRX management message. indicating that the interference is from the frequency.Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. then observe the traffic measurement. Set the start scan frequency to 895MHz and end scan frequency to 896MHz for the spectrum analyzer. register the traffic measurement of the cell (a period of 15 minutes) first. On one hand. indicating that the interference may be caused by self-excitation of carrier board or power amplifier board. it will cause the BTS to be unable to decode the signal correctly. and lead to MS handover failure or unavailability of residing in the cell of the BTS.2. set the central frequency is frequency 28 (895. then carry out the test in different time segments. Connect the antenna and feeder of cell 2 with spectrum analyzer. No external interference exists through observing the level value. Use Maintenance Console—GSM Interface Tracing—ABIS Interface Tracing. so the clock unlocking of BTS will cause the BTS to “go mad”. It should be noted that the clock out-of-lock will not bring interference. 2) 3) This problem is also caused by TRX self-excitation. Then register the traffic measurement of 5 minutes for tracing and observation. it can be found that the interference occurs to frequency where the carrier board with mark is located.

So check and clearance of BTS hardware fault should be performed first as interference is found. Case 0017590 Fault description: The customer adopts transmission timeslot multiplexer to save the transmission resource. these modules also support the BTS of other cities (where no clock out-of-lock is found). Since these BTSs are under different modules of the BSC. The BTS is in free oscillation status through query of the TMU status of BTS. And in addition. All BTS clocks can trace the upper-level clock normally after connecting the protection grounding. all BTS 13M clocks under the combiner are out –of-lock. The inter-BTS handover is unavailable and call drop rate rises up.2. It is observed that the BTS clock changes from pull-in status to tracing status. Check the transmission of each BTS and test. Check of grounding of slot multiplexer shows that the power grounding is all right. voice quality. antenna. the slot multiplexer is damaged because of the water seepage into the equipment room. Disconnect the BTS under the slot multiplexer. so BSC clock problem can be excluded.Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. The BER is not too high. Especially the poor grounding or contact will generate potential difference which will lead to the degradation of transmission quality and affect the stable running of overall network.8 Summary The fault of any one of the TRX. and interruption and cacophony occur during conversation. BTS clock out-of-lock will also lead to interference and call drop. in most cases. emphasis should be laid on the clearance of hardware fault. can be easily located and handled by exchanging the board and analyzing the traffic measurement data. So the fault is relevant with the slot multiplexer. The check of alarm box shows no transmission alarm. according to the former experience and the phenomenon of the problem. Check of the program in slot multiplexer shows that all ports are correctly defined. After removing the jumper and restoring the original connection.OMF000403 GSM Interference Analysis ISSUE1. Detailed understanding of the network is quite necessary for solving the fault. Check BSC clock. 2. After being used for some time. CDU. and connector will lead to interference and call drop. Certainly the adoption of spectrum analyzer will help locate the problem faster. Check of DDF shows that grounding is good and DDF combines grounding with the BSC. The diversity of transmission connection from the BSC to the BTS will easily lead to BTS fault because of the problem of certain process in the connection. So emphasis should be laid on the physical link from the BSC to inter-BTS Abis interface. and fault phenomenon can be used to judge the possible causes. 17 . the clock is in normal tracing status. Fault location process 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Generally BTS clock out-of-lock is caused by the degradation of transmission quality and rise of BER. and connect it with the BSC directly via the jumper. feeder. the BTS clock is out of lock. This is also proved by large amount of related cases. but the protection grounding is not connected. it is not transmission equipment only but the sharing equipment relevant with these BTSs. After it is replaced. The clock out-of-lock of such a large configuration BTS..0 Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. Many alarms of 13M clock out-of-clock occur in OMC alarm console. in addition. skipping the slot multiplexer. jumper. so the problem is solved. In the case that interference occurs suddenly in some cells during the running of network data to which no data modification is made. The hardware fault.

The above interference related to the BTS. is mainly caused by third order intermodulation. 2. B1. It is after the BTS’s normal running for a certain time that the call drop occurs. co-channel interference will be easily caused when the reuse distance between two cells using the same frequency is too small compared with the cell radius. there are only one earlier case and one case in laboratory for reference besides the above case of co-channel interference that the antenna is connected inversely. A2. and 92 (64 is of BCCH frequency). Located in a little town (Du city) on the border of the city. suppose that frequency N is assigned for cell A-3. Fault phenomenon: The co-channel interference of Huawei early 2. B3. Figure 1. It is unavoidable when C/I<12dB or C/Ia<-6dB. Serious interruption with occasional strong noise (whizz in general) occurs. C3. the receiving quality is also good when the receiving level is more than -70dBm. The case of co-channel interference is scarce. The adoption of aggressive frequency reuse will also increase the probability of interference.0 BTS (O2) in certain area leads to high call drop rate and poor voice quality. the receiving quality (quality level is less than 3) is continuously good as the downlink signal level is -95dBm in the direction away from Huanggang and Du City. C2. should be avoided.OMF000403 GSM Interference Analysis ISSUE1. D1. D1. and D2 (without frequency hopping). according to the experience. The frequency reuse in many cases.1 Co-channel Interference Since frequency reuse in the GSM is unavoidable. A2. In the direction from Du City to Huanggang. and D3. 2. B1.Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. belongs to the uplink interference and will be directly reflected in the interference band. Fault location process 1) 2) The frequencies assigned for the BTS are 64.3. A3.3 Cellular cell For A~D BTSs shown in the above figure. C1. 18 .3 Intra-network Interference GSM intra-network interference mainly comes from co-channel/adjacent channel interfereces. D2. frequency N±1 cannot be assigned to A1. In the optimizing test. the BTS is surrounded by the BTSs of the other manufacturer. C2. then frequency N cannot be assigned to A1. B2.0 Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here.

But the signal strength of 64# frequency rises up to -65dBm and disappears after a duration of 100 seconds when entering the downtown area of Huanggang. so the data problem can be excluded. From the system message. and sometimes more than 5 in about 1 minute when the receiving level is about -75dBm. the customer should adjust the adjacent cell relation of peer equipment. it will drop soon . the fault still exists. it is quite possible that fault occurs in the carrier board. Fault location process 1) 2) 3) The correctness of the data configured by the trainees cannot be ensured in the training equipment room. and ANT with so-called C/I test function actually test the C/A. 3) 4) 5) 6) Then move forward until to the place where TA=5. Check each process related to the voice for the BTS: TMU. The test carried out again in the section from Du City to Huanggang reveals that the signal strength of 64# frequency is already less than -100dBm near the Huanggang. The interference disappears after the application is made to the customer to modify the frequency.0 Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. Current Drive Test tools are unable to measure the co-channel interference directly. the signal level still remains high. carry out designated scan test at the place with the strongest signal of this frequency in the street of Huanggang. So load standard data (which is tested to ensure that call can be connected) for BSC2. DIP switch. it is quite possible that co-channel interference exists in this channel. RxQual>4). The GSM is a duplex system.g. For the fault phenomenon. It indicates that the problem of co-channel interference (downlink) is solved. The fault still exists after replacing the TRX. and test in Idle mode with another test MS.OMF000403 GSM Interference Analysis ISSUE1. it can be confirmed that 64# frequency is assigned to the TCH in HG08 cell with BCCH frequency 45. the call drop and network drop disappear. So it can be judged that the co-channel interference may be from the TCH frequency of cell nearby. If the receiving signal in some areas is a relatively high (e. so the interface may occur on both the uplink and downlink frequencies. At the same time. The co-channel interference in downlink frequency can be confirmed by using current Drive Test equipment to measure it indirectly. and call drop already had occured. The next day. First. Even it accesses the network narrowly.Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. Carry out continuous conversation test with one test MS and scan test for 64# frequency with another MS. And network-drop occurs frequently when Idlemode test is made at this place. and conversation quality Rx_Qual<3.. And in addition. the equipment such as SAFCO. -85dBm) while the receiving quality is very low (e. and the conversation is actually established once on 64# frequency in multiple times of conversation tests.g. 19 . Test MS shows that the signal exists intermittently and the receiving level is very high (about -50dBm). Carry out test again at the place where the original co-channel interference exists after the frequency is modified. but the conversation is not implemented on this frequency. The interference of uplink can be judged with the help of interference band statistics data in traffic measurement Case 0008119 Fault phenomenon: It is found in the training equipment room some day: it is hard for the MS to access the network in BTS30 under BSC2.. lock the test MS in the cell of the service area to carry out Drive Test of 2~3 hours in continuous conversation mode. Carry out scan test for this frequency after arriving at the hotel. the Drive Test equipment can only measure the downlink frequency and nothing for the uplink frequency. It is suspected that downlink interference may exist on BCCH frequency. the receiving quality is sometimes good.

The traffic statistic data and Drive Test data are normal. 2.3. configured by the trainee. The BTS distribution and topology map of frequency planning are shown as follows: 20 . Careful consideration from the beginning to end reveals that all data of BSC2 and BTS30 are not modified.And the call is set up easily . No problem is found. In this way. it seems that there is no way out. you tend to think that it is the fault of BTS30. overall check of BSC can be performed). so the BSC is all right. 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) backplane cable. The problem is solved after the frequency of BTS30 is modified. Case 0003451 Fault description: the customer reports that the call drop often occurs in the office during optimization of a certain area. so the MS cannot access the BTS30. It seems that the problem is solved but the cause is still not located. while can access the BTS20 . but restore the BTS30. however. and the signal is far weaker than that of BTS20. but the truth is hidden herein. etc. a BTS20 instead of BTS30 and change the data into BTS20 (in this way. is loaded in BSC1 after it is changed into BTS20. leading to the same frequency of BTS20 and BTS30. but BTS20 is switched off during BTS30 rollback.2 Adjacent-channel Interference For the cells to which the adjacent channel cannot be allocated. Then focus is turned to the BSC. the MS can call again after power-on loading. It is found that the frequency of BTS20 is set to be the same with that of BTS30. The BTS30 is connected with the attenuator. Think about the phenomenon of the test MS: the signal exists intermittently and the receiving level is very high (about -50dBm). it is possible that BTS20 works interference on BTS30? Since BTS20 is in BSC1.Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. And the BSC2 data (BTS30).OMF000403 GSM Interference Analysis ISSUE1. check the data of BSC1. so the BTS is all right. At this time. please refer to the section supra.0 Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here.

Case 0004034 Fault phenomenon: The call drop ratio is universally high and even up to about 15% in busy hour after several BTSs are cut over.Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. red stands for BCCH frequencies. and the call drop disappears.0 Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here.To meet the emergency: exchange frequency 111 of BTS A with frequency 114. The signal by complete reflection of glass and leads to overlap . Frequency 113 of BTS C will work no interference for frequency 114. The transmitting signal of antenna is about -26dBm. The test is all right after the modification. When the MS occupies the channel 111. while the strength of test signal near the glass is unexpectedly up to -14dBm. call drop occurs due to interference of channel 112. And it is difficult for the call to be set up during on-site test. In the figure. Testing near the antenna. adjust the direction angle of frequency 113 in C1 cell to avoid the interference of frequency 114 after the exchange. while 8m away there is one house in glass structure which is 4m lower than the platform. First we think the test is incorrect. and the level of which is even up to -70dBm at some places. There is no alarm message in OMC system Fault location process 1) All BTSs are connected to the same BSC. and call drop occurs after cutover of 21 . increase the downtilt angle of antenna in A3 cell. Fault location process 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Thorough test reveals that the level of channel 112 is up to -73dBm in the position of call drop. but several tests indicates that channel 112 exists from BTS A to B. It is recommended that the customer should change the installation position of the antenna.then cause interference and call drop. Surveying in BTS D reveals that antenna of D3 cell is installed on a platform at the top of the building. Test MS indicats that channel 112 is BCCH channel in D3 cell by distinguishing CGI. while black for TCH frequencies.OMF000403 GSM Interference Analysis ISSUE1.

The data provided by the customer reveals that the tilt angle is 5°. the service cell used in the building where BTS A is located is cell B with the same BCCH frequency as cell A1. leading to irrational traffic loading. while the cell near the BTS A does not function as its adjacent cell. The transmission quality is good. The signal of cell B forms co-channel interference which leads to poor downlink link quality in coverage area of cell 1 of BTS A. The analysis of cause of call drop indicates that the times of bad downlink quality are more than those of bad uplink quality . The hand over success rate is less than 80%. while cell B is 6 kilometers away from BTS A in the suburb. And they also have interference in between them and the surrounding running BTSs. But serious over-coverage exists. that is to say.0 Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. In this way. Especially. It is found that there are many times of downlink/uplink strength hand overs through view and analysis of traffic measurement data.3 Interference Caused by Over-coverage The objective of one rationally designed network is that each cell only covers the area around the BTS and the MS resides in the nearest cell. So when its signal is unavailable.3. So it is sure that the interference in the above several cells is quite serious. 2. and the call drop rate is more than 2%. Call drop disappears after adjusting and loading the frequency configuration of this area. the “effect of isolated island” will occur because the signal of its adjacent cell is poor. Case 0005164 Fault phenomenon: The hand over success rate of a certain GSM network is low. 2) 3) 4) 5) new BTSs. while there are many times of bad downlink quality. No fault is found by checking the data and carrying out the test for 32BIE port corresponding to the BTSs. and interference exists among them. too. call drop. is newly added. 2. the coverage is all right. and the number of channels falling into interference band 5 in several cells is up to 7. When cell B is selected as the service cell. It is a phenomenon in which the actual cell service range deviates from the designed service range. Then hand over fault and even call drop will easily occur.Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. it can be judged that downlink interference may exist in the system or the coverage is not very good. the call drop rate is high and conversation quality is poor. BSC hardware fault.OMF000403 GSM Interference Analysis ISSUE1. and TRX test is carried out for the above BTS with call drop and this indicates that each TRX is all right. The on-site survey shows that the antenna of cell B is hung 50m above. which is actually far less than 5°. The actual result of Drive Test shows that the strength of outdoor signal can be up to -80dBm above in the downtown area. interference. A interface circuit fault and transmission fault can be excluded. Analysis of traffic measurement result reveals that serious interference occurs in each cell of the above several BTS. The over-coverage is that the service range of a certain cell is too wide that the signal level at an interval of more than 1 BTS is still strong to let the MS reselect or hand over to it. It is found that there are many adjacent channels and the frequency planning is irrational after checking the frequency configuration of above BTSs and the adjacent cells. congestion. There is no alarm message in OMC system Fault location process 1) 2) From the result of traffic measurement. For example. From the above analysis. the TRX fault. Most cells have measurement values in interference band 4 and 5. its adjacent cell is only geographically adjacent to it. It is found that ”****” is displayed in the test MS when this cell is locked during the test. hand over failure. the area where the above BTSs are located. 22 . the problem exists in two aspects: 1. and uplink strength among the times of unsuccessful handover. etc.

Fault location process 1) 2) The signals on the bridge are disorderly due to distribution of multiple BTSs around the river. while call drop ratio drops to 1. Temporarily this problem can only be solved by adjusting the network parameter. The actual test result indicates that the conversation quality is improved significantly. Although the signal of 23 . and adopt the frequency hopping plan of A+B. while 1*1 frequency hopping averages the interference. especially in the first and third cells. while 1*1 frequency hopping for other cells.e. The azimuth of the first cell directs at north. moreover. adjust the antenna and transmission power of other cells to reduce the strength of their signals reaching the bridge. or noise is heavy after occupancy of channel though the signal of MS is strong at this time.0 Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. 3) The cause for bad network indices lies in over-coverage. The following operations can be adopted: lower the power level of cell B and add the adjacent cell of cell B. So the interference of frequency hopping will easily occur when adopting frequency hopping. There is no alarm. Case 0017086 Fault phenomenon: subscribers of a certain network complain that they cannot occupy channel in some area for conversation since some day.. so the frequency planning technology of tight reuse should be adopted to satisfy the requirement of capacity. Finally modify the frequency plan. the hand over success ratio rises up to 85%. yet the interference of frequency hopping still cannot be under control because all signal receiving levels reaching the bridge are very high due to the clearance around the bridge.OMF000403 GSM Interference Analysis ISSUE1. i.4 Repeater Interference Repeater really exhibits a little convenience. this network adopts the mode of 1*3 frequency hopping. there are large number of subscribers. the increase of capacity is traded by the sacrifice of quality. The network indices exhibit obvious improvement after the above check and modification are performed for all cells in the downtown area. The BTS in this area works normally and the network indices conform to requirement before the complaint. The traffic measurement indices show that traffic of both BTSs decreases obviously after occurrence of this problem. Then carry out the test.Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. The adoption of tight reuse in the place where the layout of some BTSs is irrational will easily lead to collision of co-channel or adjacent channel.3. adopt 1*3 frequency hopping for some cells. so customers often make use of it. at the same time increase the level threshold of candidate cell from 10 to 15. Both BSC and MSC are devices of Huawei and two BTSs are connected in star mode.0529. Case 0017397 Fault phenomenon: The interference of frequency hopping is serious and the conversation is intermittent on a bridge. It is found that though the interference is reduced.4 Interference Caused by Aggressive Reuse The capacity and quality are a pair of contradictions. First. The repeater is also one of the main interference sources. 2. There are two directional BTSs in this area and both of them are BTS30 with the version 05. In the downtown area. That is. A combination of them in some local areas is better for the dispersion of interference. adjust the antenna to make one main cell on the bridge. The interference of 1*3 frequency hopping occurs in co-directional cell.3%. so the basic way is adopted to lower the antenna and adjust downtilt of it to make actual coverage area consistent with planned coverage area. 2.

i. high-voltage power line. or interference is strong even after call is put through. 2. the interference band and call become normal along with the recovery of Huawei BTS. and the situation remains the same after TMU is replaced. Then customers negotiated with China Mobile several times. interference of different classes also exists in other cells. Call drop rate is up to about 20% at some time. and 95% of channels are under interference. repeater. Fault location process 1) View of BSC traffic measurement shows that idle TCH number in interference band in this BTS begins to increase in interference band 3-5 at about 8:30. 4.5 Off-network Interference External interference sources are TV station.) Carry out test on site with antenna feeder analyzer. It is found that it is difficult to put through the call in the first and third cells through on-site dial test. Finally the problem is solved with the coordination of China Mobile. in interference band 4. Internal or external interference may exist. especially in the first and third cells. No problem of BTS itself is found. Problem occurs in transmission and leads to error code.0 Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. problem will occur soon in Huawei BTS. and five. four. And there is no alarm message in OMC system Fault location process 1) 2) 3) 4) The feedback of subscribers shows the possible causes as follows: 1. MS subscriber can hear fixed telephone subscriber clearly. we ask customers whether there are such newly constructed equipment as microwave station. In addition. the quality of voice is very poor. 5 at 10:00. GSM BTS of another operater. This leads to interference of different levels in the first.OMF000403 GSM Interference Analysis ISSUE1. and the voice is intermittent seriously with strong interference. The traffic measurement console shows the possible reasons as follows: 1. Finally China Mobile carried out on-site test with Huawei engineers together. If MS subscriber calls fixed telephone subscriber in this area. Therefore.1 Microwave Interference Case 0001084 Fault phenomenon: it is found that call drop rate in the second and third cell of a certain BTS (S2/2/2) in traffic measurement increases abruptly.e. They told that they didn’t set up them. The traffic measurement relevant with interference band in two different cases was handed on to China Mobile. 3. 2. CDMA. instead. the quality of voice is poor. Fault exists in TMU. radar. So subscribers complained strongly. channel is very strong. Then it can be seen from traffic measurement that the interference band of these four cells is in class three. call cannot be put through.Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. analogue BTS. and in interference band 1 at about 22:00. the problem will occur in Huawei BTS. surrounding the BTS. and found that only if the repeater is switched off. Problem occurs in antenna feeder. microwave. It is said that China Mobile sets up a repeater in the area. it is hard for fixed telephone subscriber to hear the voice clearly. Although the call is put through. etc.5. This also proves the above analysis that the interference may be external (It can be judged from this point that interference only exists in uplink. second and third cells. It can 24 . There may exist strong uplink interference signal in the north lean to west in this area. which is located about two kilometers away in the north lean to the west of both BTSs of Huawei. and when it is activated. etc. 2. high-power broadcasting station. and they approved our viewpoint. if the repeater is activated.

Interference band is found large in traffic measurement of OMC. but interference remains 5) View of all BSC traffic measurement data shows that interference of different levels exists in the cells of all BTSs nearby. This transmitter usually transmits every Monday. be judged from the above phenomenon that interference exists. 10) When the microwave equipment is switched off and TRX management information is traced. and the possibility of damage of the four boards at the same time is little. Through communicating with customer and the Radio Resource Management Committee. 4) TRX management information reveals that interference exists in four boards of the second and third cell in this BTS. so this has proved the above judgement. the interference disappeared. Fault location process 1) 2)  When Drive Test is carried out around the BTS. while the occupancy ratio of SDCCH at the same time is very little according to the amount of subscriber. So it can be judged that this signal has impact on BTS. Measurement for external electromagnetic environment with HP8595E spectrum analyzer shows that strong interference exists around the frequency of BTS. jumpers of the first and third cell are interchanged on the rack top. But interference still exists. 3) Perform power-off restart and replace board for BTS. 25 . and this signal level come up to about –25dbm in BTS with serious interference. and the complaint of subscriber increases obviously.5.Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. but the interference may be relevant with direction instead of frequency. and it is hard to make calls 2 km away from the BTS. So it can be sure that external interference exists in uplink. and no such phenomenon is found in two days after BTS is activated.OMF000403 GSM Interference Analysis ISSUE1. It is suspected that fault is caused by external interference. The fault remains the same after the TRX corresponding to the frequency is replaced. so the problem of TRX can be excluded. The voice is under a serious interference. 7) Since interference is not relevant with frequency.2 High-power Broadcasting Station Interference Case 0000279 Fault phenomenon: the quality of MS call is very poor in the morning of the third day (Monday) after a BTS cutover. 6) To further locate. but the signal quality RQ has too much change. which is facing the same direction as the second and third cells in this BTS. Since this BTS operates well before. 8) Measurement on BTS divider output port with spectrum analyzer shows that high-power signal exists on 904MHz frequency (5M away from the used frequency). As a result. we get known that the interference is caused by signals transmitted by one message transmitter of some company. TRX board is replaced for caution. it is found that MS’s RX signal level (downlink level) has little change (about –60dBm). it will jump from 0 to 7 and call drop occurs. And sometimes SDCCH channels in the cells with serious interference are all occupied at the same time.0 Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. but interference disappears in the third cell. whose RF band is just adjacent to the planned GSM frequency. so the possibility of TRX self-excitation can be excluded. the problem of frequency planning can be excluded. BTS interference may be caused by high-power signal sent into BTS system. it is found that a microwave antenna outputting high-power signal is at a frequency of 904. 2) 2. while in other BTS it is about –50dbm. it is found that interference occurs in the first cell. 9) After frequency scanning around BTS with spectrum analyzer.

It is usually caused by error code. The Standing Wave Radio is normal. As for frame slip or frame loss of clock. grounding. error codes are also regular. noise and voice have superimposed effect because PCM sample value is influenced. When fault occurs the subscriber under this BTS can not hear clearly. There is no fault. MCK board is normal. However. One party or both parties can not hear each other clearly when the noise is serious (One party is in the range of coverage of this BTS and the other under a normal BTS. the noise is regular and there is little fluctuation. The whole BSC is cascaded with 150 BTSs (BTS312. Case 0015274 Fault phenomenon: BSC has six modules.OMF000403 GSM Interference Analysis ISSUE1. The fault phenomenon occurs when the ringback tone is sent back. BTS clock state shows “slow pull-in or tracing”. FPU. It mainly contains sound of metal. Disturbance of different degrees will exist during normal conversation. refer to part of processing course. The fault has a certain continuity in terms of time. there is great noise fluctuation. Fault phenomenon is found as follows: there exists strong background noise. If it is below A interface. Different error codes have their certain regularity: as for error code on wiring.0 Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. 2. BTS earth is good. noise occurs in time during conversation. clock also should be considered. Sometimes the probability of occurrence of metal chink is very high and sometimes fault phenomenon cannot be captured. The occurrence ratio is 10%. But it occurs just at some time. All voice channel of each cell may bring about metal chink. because the compressed voice signal is influenced. 750TRX in total). Trace Abis interface information. if it is A interface or upper. while the other can). so long as the voice channel is established. it needs decoding before hearing. There is no alarm message in OMC system Cause analysis: this case is about noise in voice problem. such as bubbling sound. Some cases below are analyzed detailedly. The signal of the MS is very good and there is no interference on the radio interface. the fault will occur. fault of some devices can also make conversation quality bad.Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. The clock is normal. Therefore. We come to county A with serious complaint to make a dial test. The result of traffic measurement also shows that there is no interference. connectors or wiring through which the voice signal is sent. while some words can not be recognized. it has a time regularity. That is to say. The clock that is unsynchronized will cause frame slip or frame loss. So the possibility of occurrence of TRX board fault can be excluded. sound of metal and so on. Fault location process 1) 2) Check the BTS of county A: test transmission error code and find transmission is without error code.6 Other Phenomena Causing Interference Sometimes although no intra-network and ex-network interference exists. When the voice channel of the failed BTS is occupied. dang” and so on. make specific locating processing. Therefore. combiner. discontinuity. The possible cause for error code is the fault of boards. There exists serious chink during conversation under many BTSs. From the above analysis. judge the receiving quality of radio interface is good without interference according to the measurement report. So the possibility of bit slip or frame loss caused by clock fault can be excluded. Interference existing on radio link may also cause error. For example. check TRX. When the fault is serious. all the voice channel of each cell may have sound of metal. it is sure that the problem has nothing to do with this BTS. one party (or both parties) can not hear clearly during conversation. one frame lost in several minutes. They have high reference value. Besides. Make detailed dial test in B city (22 BTS totalled downtown) and C city (10 BTS 26 . One month after the capacity expansion of BSC and MSC. Therefore . such as “ting. interference. Combine the description of fault phenomenon. Some words are normal. customers report that there is serious voice quality problem in the whole network. Use Site master to test antenna feeder system.

MSC will assign the circuit of module 4 first (the corresponding CIC is from 2240 to 2815). Change BM4 GOPT. Error code should not exist on HW Lines between 32BIE and NET board. The number of MSM of the failed TCSM is 3. 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) in total in downtown) and find that some BTSs have the same fault phenomenon. 85. The cause lies in here.7 False Interference Sometimes we made great efforts to check. 87. but the fault remains the same. Exchange the third and fourth FBIs (including FBC) corresponding to BM3 and BM4 with the first and second FBI board corresponding to BM1 and BM2. The problem of metal chink is related to BM4 through above location. The failed circuit (CIC is from 2336 to 2463) corresponds to module 4 of MSC. So if the signaling of call is transmitted through module 4 of MSC. is 3) is bad. During the conversation under all BM4 there is no sound of metal. the problem is still. They are normal. the fault is eliminated. Deformation and invagination occur on the inner pin of one connector. the circuits in the module that the signaling link belongs to will be selected with higher priority. There are three links on module 4 of BSC. 86. Swap BM4 GNET board. The result is that the connector cannot connect the connector of MSM board on backplane well. A interface circuit CIC is 2336~2463. the problem still exists. the problem is still.Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. The possibility of existence of circuit error code in the part “OPT—(fiber) —FBI” can be excluded. In fact the fault of dial test under BTS is 10 % or so. exchange GNET board with BM3. Check the connection line of BM4 from E3M to MSM carefully. Choose other BTSs under BM4 to make dial test and find every BTS has this problem. So if the MS is used under module 4 BTS. the problem is still. 128 of MSC module 4 circuits has fault (corresponding to BSC 4 module) (the proportion of failed circuit of MSC module 4 is 128/576) and it may bring about problems of voice quality. That is because it is impossible that all HW Lines between 32BIE and GNET board are not good. check one connector of MSM and find that the quality of the connector of trunk lines behind one MSM (board No. and the number of FTC is 84. exchange E3M board with BM3. The same fault exists in all BTS under the whole BM4. the rate for being assigned to the failed circuit is very high. All BTSs under other five BM modules have no this case through dial test. but the fault remains the same. When MSC assigns circuit. but only find that it is false alarm in the 27 . Two of which correspond to module 4 of MSC. At first analyze and see whether there is something wrong with swithing network board (GNET and GCTN) and fiber interface circuit: check the connection and connector between AM and BM4. Make sure whether all BTS under BM4 have this case. The highest rate of occurrence of fault (all have fault when 128 circuits is busy) is about 2/3 * 128/576 = 15 %. Transmission path of voice signal: MS—— radio link (including antenna feeder system)—— BTS—(E1 line)— BTS_DDF—— trunk transmission—— BSC_DDF—(E1 line)—32BIE—(HW line)—GNET——GOPT—(optic fiber)— GFBI——GCTN——E3M—(E1 line or transmission device)—MSM——FTC—— MSC. Analyze the commonness of each failed BTS and find that these BTS are all under BM4. but the fault remains the same. If the signaling of the MS call is transmitted through module 4 of MSC. As for BSC. Adopt locating method of analizing section by section. and find that the connector of E3M is normal. Redo the trunk connector. 2.0 Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. BTS of module 4 selects A interface link first to transmit signaling. swap GCTN board.OMF000403 GSM Interference Analysis ISSUE1. there is a possibility of 2/3 to be assigned to the circuit of MSC module 4. When the subscriber occupied TCSM under BM4 sound of metal may occur. Use absolute alcohol to clean the fiber connector. and the problem exists in one certain process of BM4 “voice signal transmission path”.

But it is found that the interference band becomes high when the BTS is expanded from S4/4/4 to S6/6/6. and the ad-frequency interference has been avoided basically. So change the antenna. and find that the four carriers come from the same divider. Maybe the devices break down after some time. However. It is unknown whether there is something wrong with Tower Top Amplifier. The idea that four carriers with high interference band are connected to the same second level divider before the divider is changed.Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. From the above process.0 station itself is up to 5dB. Fault location process 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) During the past interference test ofthis office. but the interference band did not fall down obviously after that. Theinterference band of two cells in it changed from 5 to 7. the interference signal will be amplified by 7dB. This is because antenna intermodulation resulted in the interference of normal signal in case of large traffic and it made the interference band very high. However. So we decided to change the combiber/divider to have a try. feeder or connector. After it is corrected. The 7-dB gain of the divider has been considered during interference judgement. and find that the interference band does not change. Trace the state of interference band of each channel via Maintenance Console and find that high interference band mainly focuses on the four TRXs of the cell. Fault phenomenon: the reconstruction of some office found that the interference band of an S6/6/6 BTS20 in a county is very high.0 Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. The problem of frequency planning has been basically excluded. Indeed it is better to have no interference than have it. if the DIP switch is not moved to the right place while cascaded. They fall down to 0. the situation is unchanged after the TRXs were interchanged. At the same time the frequency that may cause third order intermodulation in the cell has been adjusted. It was really not moved to “Off”. During the prior period. 28 . But no problem was found after checking the antenna feeder system of the BTS several times. While the combiner/divider used to be normal.OMF000403 GSM Interference Analysis ISSUE1. end. some cells with high interference band were located. First set the frequency with less interference to the TRX with more interference. higher interference band will exist because the calculating error of 2. the frequency planning has been checked several times. In fact the interference is false. the problem may be the divider. And there is a little value on the interference band three. Whether there is something wrong with TRX board or not is unknown. It shows there is no relation to the frequency. Then confirm the TRX numbers. view the traffic measurement of interference band 4 and 5. Check the DIP switch of the divider. Simultaneously.

height of antenna is also a main optimization way to reduce network interference.Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. While the aggressive reuse is adopted. every function should be purchased by the operators themselves. However. These anti-interference measures mainly aim at intra-network interference.0 Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. By the way. During optimization as Third Party or co-operation to equipment of other vendors. the methods of adjusting antenna please refer to relative guidance book. dynamic power control. power control and DTX by default. for some equipment of some other vendors. and the price is very high. The currently serving network equipments of many operators have no these functions. When there is strong external interference. Chapter 3 Anti-interference Measures Anti-interference Measures of GSM are: Frequency Hopping. 29 . these anti-interference measures can hardly take effect. The aim for adjusting is to make the real service area of each cell approach to the designed service area to reduce over-coverage. DTX.OMF000403 GSM Interference Analysis ISSUE1. To adjust the obliquity. remind everybody that BSC of Huawei has the function of frequency hopping. please pay attention to this matter. azimuth. frequency hopping and dynamic power control should be adopted as well.

g. The Spectrum Analyzer itself may produce large number of inter-modulation components without attenuation. Video Filter Bandwidth (VBW): it refers to the bandwidth of the intermediate filter after Frequency mixing of the Spectrum Analyzer. It is very important to make use of it correctly.. So it will influence the veracity of the testing result. e. It is a broadband signal receiver with high performance which can display the spectrum of the receiving signals. the noise of the instrument itself is less. Sensitivity: generally the minimum receiving level with 1Hz signal bandwidth is defined as receiving sensitivity of the Spectrum Analyzer. high antenna gain and strong directionality.8GHz 30Hz-2. The stronger the directionality of antenna is. This kind of antenna has broad frequency band. the receiving sensitivity of GSM signal of 200kHz is: -142dBm+10log(200*1000)=-89dBm. the smoother the curve is.0 Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. the higher the receiving sensitivity of instrument. This index determines the frequency range of interference signal that the Analyser can test. the main tool Huawei has for testing interference signal is Spectrum Analyzer. The receiving sensitivity of HP85 series Spectrum Analyzer can be below -142 dBm. The receiving sensitivity of signal bandwidth of xHz equals to 1Hz sensitivity+10logx.OMF000403 GSM Interference Analysis ISSUE1.5GHz 30Hz-6. Chapter 4 Interference Test Tools 4. The receiving signal resolution bandwidth (RBW): namely the minimum signal bandwidth the Spectrum Analyzer can recognize. it is required to make attenuation on signal properly. Input signal attenuation (ATT): when there is large signal input. Operational frequency band 30Hz-1. So the logarithm-period antenna with broad frequency band is the best choice.9GHz 30Hz-6. 30 . That is to say. The smaller the bandwidth is.Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. the higher the antenna gain is. The Spectrum Analyzer of different types has different receiving frequency band and receiving sensitivity.1 Brief introduction to Spectrum Analyzer 1) At present. Bandwidth (SPAN): it refers to the spectrum span the Spectrum Analyzer can test.2 Directional Antenna Directional antenna is used for searching interference sources.5GHz Sensitivity (1Hz) 145dBm 142dBm 142dBm 145dBm Minimum resolution bandwidth 30Hz 30Hz 30Hz 1Hz 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) The main technical indices of interference test spectrum analyzer: Model HP8591E HP8594E HP8595E HP8561E 4. The smaller the parameter is. A brief introduction to several key indexes of the Spectrum Analyzer is made as follows: Input frequency: the frequency range the Spectrum Analyzer can receive. Central frequency (F0): it refers to the central frequency of the spectrum that the Spectrum Analyzer can test. And the ability to search will become better.

RBW=30kHz. The way to calculate the level of interference signal is as follows: Antenna port interference level = interference level tested by the Spectrum Analyzer – 15dB Tower Top Amplifier Gain + 3dB cable loss – 7dB divider gain. At first confirm TRX carrier board. Generally ATT is set as 40dB. Set the Spectrum Analyzer to proper state: For 900M BTS: f0=902MHz. please refer to the chapter supra.VBW=30kHz. otherwise it is required to change carrier board. View the spectrum distribution state of the Spectrum Analyzer. Choose output port of divider of cell under interference.ATT=0. Chapter 5 Way to Test Interference 5. If the fractional frequency spectrum level is less than –80dBm.65dBm-15+3-7=-84dBm Note: Cable loss may vary with cable length. then connect the output signal of the divider to the Spectrum Analyzer to carry out a test.VBW=30kHz. please follow steps below.0 Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. either the main or the diversity can be selected. then the tx_test signal of CDU should be imported to the Spectrum Analyzer to be observed to make sure weather interference signal is generated. If the fractional frequency spectrum level is less than –80dBm. The three steps above aim at interference measure for the uplink frequency band. Due to the large ouput power of BTS. 1) 2) 3) 4) First. and find out the abnormal interference signal.ATT=0. first we should confirm the location of interference source and the spectrum distribution state.OMF000403 GSM Interference Analysis ISSUE1. For 1800M BTS: f0=1715MHz. A convenient way is to make use of the existing antenna feeder of Base Station and low-noise amplifier of Radio Frequency Front End to have a test. cut down the cable via which TRX is connected to divider. then use Coaxial Cable to import the output signal of divider to the Spectrum Analyzer. it shows that TRX is normal.SPAN=30MHz.SPAN=10MHz. First. The standard for judging weather interference level has impact on the system is described as follows: 31 . attenuation should be made on the input signal. 4. 5. If there is suspect that interference exists in the downlink frequency band. and use the Spectrum Analyzer to test the main or diversity connector of TRX.RBW=30kHz. Screw out the selected connector. set the Spectrum Analyzer in transmission frequency band of the BTS. if more than –80dBm. Screw out the connector of output port of CDU divider. For example: Antenna port interference level = . If internal interference exists.2 The way to Test External Interference When we are sure that interference is caused by the external cause. the free output port (with dummy load) is generally chosen.Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. set the Spectrum Analyzer to proper state. further make sure that it belongs to CDU or TRX. 3. it shows that there is no internal interference. Check interference of transmission band. 2.1 The way to Test Internal Interference 1. it shows that CDU or TRX inside Base Station are under interference or self-excitation. In order not to influence the normal operation of BTS.

walk out of equipment room. and confirm that it is interference signal.Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here. select a test point without building obstruction. then return to step 2 to carry out a test till interference source is found. If it is required to find the more detailed location of interference source. and use the directional antenna with strong directionality mentioned above to make a search. record the signal strength and record the azimuth and downtilt of antenna wave beam. Set the Spectrum Analyzer. (2) The maximum interference level at divider output port without influence on system = -117dBm+15-3+7 = -98dBm 5.  (1) The maximum interference level at antenna port without influence on system = -108dBm sensitivity – 9dB co-channel interference protection= -117dBm. and make the wave beam of the antenna point to the front. fix the orientation of the antenna immediately and change uptilt of the antenna to make the receiving signal to the strongest. and at the same time view the change of signal of the Spectrum Analyzer. If there is rotatable platform.OMF000403 GSM Interference Analysis ISSUE1. if there is no interferent signal. one can raise the antenna over head with hands. and connect the directional antenna. 32 . Analyze the signal spectrum distribution carefully. Find new test point along with the direction of antenna wave beam.3 The way to Search External Interference Sources The location of interference source can be examined via BTS divider output port. The steps for searching are as follows: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) In the cell under interference. Rotate the antenna slowly. the antenna can be placed on it. and the antenna with vertical polarization should be placed vertically. Once there exists abnormal signal.0  Error! Use the Home tab to apply 标题 1 to the text that you want to appear here.