Linux Home Networking

Grief Relief For The Home And Small Office

Peter Harrison
www.linuxhomenetworking.com
May 3, 2003

To Diana: “Turn off the PC and go to bed”

Copyright
© Peter Harrison 2002-2003, All rights reserved. ISBN 0-9729355-0-9 Unless otherwise stated, the material published within this document is copyright of the author, Peter Harrison. No part of of this document, including page design, interior design, cover design and icons may be reproduced or transmitted in any form, by any means, (electronic, photocopying, recording, or otherwise) without the prior consent of the publisher/author.

Disclaimer – The Website and Manual
While every effort will be made to ensure that the information contained within the is website and manual is accurate and up to date, the author makes no warranty, representation or undertaking whether expressed or implied, nor does it assume any legal liability, whether direct or indirect, or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information.

Disclaimer - Other sites
Hypertext links to sites outside this website are provided as a convenience to users and should not necessarily be construed as an endorsement. Although every care is taken to provide links to suitable material from this site, the nature of the Internet prevents the author from guaranteeing the suitability or accuracy of any of the material that this site may be linked to. Consequently, the author can accept no responsibility for unsuitable or inaccurate material that may be encountered and accepts no liability whether direct or indirect for any loss or damage a person suffers because that person had directly or indirectly relied on any information stored in the hypertext links. Further, the author is not and can not be responsible for the accuracy or legitimacy of information found elsewhere on the Internet and there is therefore no guarantee or warranty that any of the sites listed will be available at any particular time. The author does not guarantee or warrant any services that might be announced - use at your own risk. The author makes no warranty, representation or undertaking whether expressed or implied nor does it assume any legal responsibility for the accuracy, completeness of usefulness of the information in the hypertext links.

Introduction During the “.com” gold rush, I decided to set up a small website dedicated to Caribbean art. The
company I used made it really easy, all I had to do was copy my files to the web server using the username and password they provided. One day at work I overheard some friends saying that they were hosting their websites from home using their DSL line. I suddenly decided to do the same and moved www.simiya.com literally “in-house”. Of course, it wasn’t as easy as they had made it seem. I generally found a majority of Linux resources on the web to be either too detailed or too vague or just inaccurate. There were many excellent articles on specific topics, but they were usually part of a general interest publication, and information on related topics on the site was sometimes hard to find. There just wasn’t a site out there for intermediate Linux home users who wanted to get their feet wet in web hosting, nor did there seem to be any similar sites targeting the poor I.T. people who are told to “get Linux working by tomorrow”. After a few months I decided that no one should have to repeat my pain and I added some technical pages to the site. Soon, www.linuxhomenetworking.com was born. This manual assumes you have a few weeks of Linux experience and understand the basics, such as file management and the use of text editors such as “vi”. This approach was taken in order to keep its focus on the intermediate user who requires a compact guide. It’s ironic to know that in the beginning I learned from the web as I just wasn’t prepared to buy too many Linux books, now I’ve created this manual because web users were constantly asking me to write one. If you like this manual, feel free to visit the site and let me know. Without your encouragement it wouldn’t have happened at all. Peter

......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................32 Some Necessary Facts About up2date .........................................................................................................................................................................................................19 Download and Install The sudo Package .......................................................................................30 Older Linux Versions ............. 19 What is sudo?....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 19 Using Sudo.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................26 RedHat..........................................................................................................................................................................................24 Downloading RPMS To Your Linux Box.................................................................................24 How to Easily Access CD RPMs With Automount ............................................................ 15 Adding Linux Users ..............................20 General Guidelines ...................29 Newer Linux Versions .......................................................26 Speakeasy ............................................................................................................................................34 Chapter 4 ..................................................................................................29 Using Downloaded Files ...................................20 Simple Examples ...............................................................................24 RPMs Downloaded From Speakeasy ...............................................................................................................................................................................23 RPMs On Your Installation CDs ..........................................20 The /etc/sudoers File ..........................................................................................................................................................................................20 How To Use sudo ...................................................................29 Using CDROMs................................................................21 Chapter 3 .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................20 The visudo Command ........................................................................................................26 Getting RPMs Using Command Line Anonymous FTP ...................................21 Using syslog To Track All sudo Commands .........................................................................................................................................................15 How To Change Passwords......... 23 Installing RPM Software ...................................................................................................................................................29 How to Install Source RPMs.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................17 How To Tell The Groups To Which A User Belongs .......................... 37 .....32 RedHat Up2date ..............................................................................................................................................................26 How To Install The RPMs .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................31 How Uninstall RPMs...................................................................... 23 Where To Get Commonly Used RPMs.......................................................................... 15 Who Is The Super User? ..........................16 How To Delete Users ..............................................................................................i Table Of Contents Chapter 1 .......................................................................................25 Getting RPMs Using Web Based FTP.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................31 How To List Installed RPMs ................................................17 Chapter 2 ..............................24 RPMs Downloaded From Redhat...............................................................................................................15 How To Add Users................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................38 Get A GUI Console ........................ 37 The RedHat Boot Sequence ............................................................39 Using A GUI Terminal Window ..........................................................40 Doublecheck That Sendmail Will Not Startup..........................52 What Is A Hub? ..................................................................48 What is UDP? .............................53 What Is A LAN?.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................44 Factors To Consider Before Hosting Yourself ....................................................48 What is a TTL? ............................................................40 Turn it back on again ...........................45 Cons...............................................................................................................................................................46 Chapter 6 ...........................................52 What Is Duplex? ....................................................................44 Pros ................................................................................linuxhomenetworking...............................54 What Is A NIC?..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................40 Use Chkconfig To Get A Listing Of Sendmail's Current Startup Options ....................................................................54 What Is A Default Gateway? ...................................................................................................40 Switch Off Sendmail Starting Up In Levels 3 and 5 .................................................................................................................................................................................50 What Is A Subnet Mask? ....................39 System Shutdown And Rebooting..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................com The Linux Boot Process ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................48 What are TCP / UDP Ports?...........39 Reboot The System ...................................44 Cons.......40 Chkconfig Examples.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................44 Small Office Based Websites....................................45 Pros .........................................................39 Halt / Shutdown The System...............................................................................................................................................52 What Is A Switch?..................................................................50 How Many Addresses Do I Get With My Mask? .......................................................................43 Alternatives To Home Web Hosting ...............................................................................................................................................37 Determining The Default Boot runlevel.........................................................................................................................38 Get A Basic Text Terminal Without Exiting The GUI ......................53 What Is A Router?.................................49 What Do IP Addresses Look Like?...................................................................................................................................44 Home Based Websites.................................................................................................53 What Is A Gateway?....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................49 What is ICMP?...........................................................................................................................................45 How To Migrate From An External Provider .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................55 ................................................................... 43 Why Host Your Own Site?.............................ii www.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................49 Private IP Addresses .............54 What Is A Route? ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................51 Manual Calculation .....................50 What Is Localhost? ..........................................................41 Chapter 5 .......................................................51 What’s The Range Of Addresses On My Network? .................................................................48 What is TCP?.................................................................................51 Calculation Using A Script ................................ 43 Network Diagram .......................................................................................................................................................................................................39 Using Virtual Terminals .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 47 What Is TCP/IP? ..................41 Final Tips On chkconfig......................................................................................................................................................................................39 How To Set Which Programs Run At Each runlevel ....................................................... 47 Introduction To Networking......................................

..................................58 How Do I Get My Own DNS Domain Name? ...........................................................................63 Syslog Facilities.......................................................................................................77 Simple Troubleshooting ....................71 Changing Your IP Address ...........................................67 Sample contents of /etc/logrotate.............................................................55 What Is A Firewall?....................73 IP Address Assignment For A Direct DSL Connection........................................................78 How To Change Your Default Gateway ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 71 How To Configure Your NIC's IP Address ......................................................................................................................................................67 Syslog and Firewalls...................................................................................................................................................68 The /etc/logrotate...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................71 Determining Your IP Address....................80 How To Convert Your Linux Server Into A Router .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................63 About syslog ...............................79 How Configure Two Gateways ............................................59 Where is Linux Help? ...............................................................................................................................................................................................d/apache File (For Apache) ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................64 Activating Changes To The syslog Configuration File.................................................................................................................................................................conf File ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................56 What Is DHCP? .............................................................................................Table Of Contents iii What Is A MAC Address? ....69 Activating logrotate ........................................................................80 How To View Your Current Routing Table ...........................................................................................................................................................................d/syslog File (For General System Logging)...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................59 Static or Dynamic DNS? ................................................................................................................................................ 63 Troubleshooting Linux With Syslog..........55 What Is ARP? ....69 Chapter 8 .............................................65 Configuring the Linux Syslog Server............................................................... 63 Syslog ..68 The /etc/logrotate.................................73 Multiple IP Addresses On A Single NIC .....................................................................................................59 What is FTP? ...............................................................67 The /etc/logrotate............................conf .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................65 Configuring the Linux Client ..........................59 Anonymous FTP .................................................................................................................................81 Configuring Your /etc/hosts File........................ 71 Linux Networking ..........................................56 What Is Port Forwarding With NAT? ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................56 What Is NAT? ........68 The /etc/logrotate........................................................................................60 Chapter 7 ....................79 How To Delete A Route ..................................................................................................................................................................................................60 Search For All Instances Of A Word .................65 How To View New Log Entries As They Happen.....................66 Syslog Configuration and Cisco Network Devices...............................................................72 network-scripts File Formats ...........59 Regular FTP........................................................d/samba File (for SAMBA) ........................................................................................................................................................69 The /etc/logrotate....................................65 Logging Syslog Messages To A Remote Linux Server .................................................................................................................67 Logrotate ..d Directory....................74 Some Important Files Created By adsl-setup ..............60 Finding General Information On A Command ..........................................................................................................................................................................82 Your NIC's /etc/hosts File Format..........................................................................................................................................................................................82 ...........................57 What Is DNS?...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................57 How Can I Check The IP Address For A Domain?..........................................................................................................

...................................99 Determining The Kernel Type .......................................................................................................................................................115 Packet Processing For Data Sent By The Firewall ................................................... 111 What Is iptables?.............109 Chapter 11................................................................................................................................117 Descriptions Of The Most Commonly Used Targets ................................................................................................................................................................105 PCMCIA Cards .................87 Possible Traceroute Messages...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................89 Ping & Traceroute Troubleshooting Example .............93 Chapter 10......................................................iv www................................................................................................................................................................................. 85 Simple Network Troubleshooting ................................................................................................................................................................................. 97 Linux Wireless Networking...............88 Always Get A Bidirectional Traceroute ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 97 Wireless Linux Compatible NICs ....................................................................101 Configure The New wlan0 Interface Driver (PCI Cards) .............................................................................................101 Install the Kernel Source Files ........99 PCMCIA Type Card Specific Information .....................................................................................................105 Linux-WLAN Encryption For Security ............................................................99 Installing The Linux-WLAN Drivers ......................................................................................................105 PCI Cards – Installed Using RPMs ..................................86 Using "traceroute" To Test Connectivity......................................................................................................................................................................................90 Possible Reasons For Failed Traceroutes ................................................................................................................................................117 .......................114 Packet Processing For Data Received By The Firewall..................................................................................................99 Determining The OS Version .....................................................92 Possible TCPdump Messages ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................105 PCI Cards – Installed Using TAR Files....91 Viewing Packet Flow With TCPdump ................................................ 85 How To See MAC Addresses ......103 Post Installation Steps.................112 Processing For Packets Routed By The Firewall......100 Linux-WLAN Installation – Using TAR files ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................97 The Linksys WMP11 NIC and Linux .........................104 Configure The New wlan0 Interface.......................................................................101 Download And Install The Linux-WLAN TAR File ..........................................................................................................................................Using RPMs ........98 The WMP 11 Version 2..............................................................................................................................................................................................99 Linux-WLAN Installation ........................................ 111 Linux Firewalls Using iptables.......linuxhomenetworking...................................................................................................................102 Configure The New wlan0 Interface Driver (PCMCIA Cards) ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................112 Download And Install The Iptables Package ...........................................................104 Select the Wireless mode and SSID ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................104 Simulate a Reboot ..................................................................................................................112 Packet Processing In iptables .......................................................................................................107 De-activating Encryption ..............100 Determining The Kernel Version..........................................................................................................................................105 Check For Interrupt Conflicts...................................................................................................................................108 Troubleshooting Your Wireless LAN ............................................................................................com Chapter 9 ......92 Useful TCPdump Expressions ............................116 Targets And Jumps...................................................................................................................................112 How To Get iptables Started ...98 Pre Version 2..................98 Linux-WLAN Preparation .................................104 Disable Your Existing Ethernet NIC ........................................85 How To Use "Ping" To Test Network Connectivity ................7 WMP 11 Card..........................................................................................................7 Card ...................

.............................................................................148 Example #1: ...................................143 Server Protected By A Firewall Problem ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................134 What is Telnet? ...............................................145 How To Get VSFTP Started ......................................................................... TFTP and XINETD ........................... 141 FTP Overview...............................130 Logging & Troubleshooting.................................................TCP Port 21 ............................................................................ 141 Linux FTP Server Setup...........119 General Iptables Match Criteria ..............................................143 Problems With FTP And Firewalls............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................124 Basic Initialization...................................................143 Client Protected By A Firewall Problem.................................................................................................................................................126 Allow Your Home Network To Access The Firewall ...........................................................................................................................148 Anonymous Upload .....138 Cisco Local Director................................................120 Common ICMP (Ping) Match Criteria ...........................................................142 Active FTP........ 133 Telnet .........................................................................................................................................121 Using User Defined Chains ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................TCP Port 20.......................................................................................................................................................................137 Cisco Router ............126 Allowing Your Firewall To Access The Internet.......................................................................................................................................121 Common Match Extensions Criteria...............................................................147 FTP Security Issues .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................127 Port Forwarding Type NAT (DHCP DSL) ......................................................................................................................................................................144 Solutions...........128 Static NAT .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................137 Cisco Switch Running CATOS............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................148 Using SCP As Secure Alternative To FTP ................................................................141 FTP Control Channel ......................139 Chapter 13...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................142 Passive FTP...............................................................123 Sample iptables Scripts.......................................................................................................................................................................144 How To Download And Install The VSFTP Package....................................................................................................................138 Cisco CSS 111000 "Arrowpoints"............................................119 Common TCP and UDP Match Criteria .........................................................................143 Solutions.............148 The /etc/vsftpd.....................135 What is TFTP?.........125 Allowing WWW And SSH Access To Your Firewall...............................................................127 Masquerading (Many to One NAT) ............ftpusers File ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................136 Configuring Cisco Devices for TFTP......................................................................................................135 Setting up a TFTP server...............................................................135 TFTP ...............................................................................................................................................149 ................................... 133 Telnet........134 Setting Up A Telnet Server............................................................................146 What Is Anonymous FTP?......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................124 Allowing DNS Access To Your Firewall .......conf File............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................142 FTP Data Channel ............................................................................................148 FTP Greeting Banner ..........................................138 Using TFTP To Restore Your Router Configuration .................................................................137 Cisco PIX firewall ...........................................................................................................................................131 Chapter 12.........................................................................Table Of Contents v Important Iptables Command Switch Operations........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................146 Testing To See If VSFTP Is Running...................................................147 The /etc/vsftpd.................................................................................

..............................164 Make The Administrator One Of The Samba Admin Users......................................167 Make Your PC Clients Aware Of Your Samba PDC................162 Create The Administrator’s User Group and Directories ..................171 Chapter 16.............................................................................168 Windows XP.......................................................................................155 User “root” Logs In To smallfry As User “peter” ..........................................................................................................................170 How To Delete Users From Your Samba Domain .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................160 How To Get SAMBA Started ......157 Copying Files To The Remote Linux Box..........................................................168 Windows 2000 ............................................................................................................................................................................................167 Windows 95/98/ME .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................164 How to Configure a Samba PDC ..................... 159 Download and Install Packages............................................................................................................162 The Windows XP Built In Firewall.............................................................................................................. 173 .....153 Testing To See If SSH Is Running ..............................................................................167 Windows NT.............................................156 Using SCP as a more secure replacement for FTP.................................. Linux And Samba ............................................................................................. 153 Using Secure Shell As A Replacement For Telnet ..........................................155 User “root” Logs In To smallfry As User “root”...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................157 Copying Files To The Local Linux Box .............................................................154 Using SSH To Login To A Remote Machine .................................................................................................................. 159 Windows...............................................................................................161 Zone Alarm......................................................................................................................................................160 Configuring SWAT .......................................162 How To Create A Samba PDC Administrator User ..........................................168 How To Add Users To Your Samba Domain ...................linuxhomenetworking............................................................................................................171 Delete The Users Using smbpasswd.............................................................................................164 Create A Samba PDC ....vi www.............................................................155 What You Should Expect To See When You Log In ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................150 Chapter 14................169 Map The Linux Users To An smbpassword ..166 Manual Creation Of Machine Trust Accounts (NT Only)..................................................................................................169 Mapping From The Command Line............................................................................................................................163 Adduser’s Command Switches .............................................164 Create Your PC Machine Trusts..............................................155 Using port 435 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................171 Delete The Users In Linux ....................................161 Samba and PC Firewall Software...................................................................................................................... 153 Secure Remote Logins And File Copying.......................................................149 Sample Login Session To Test Funtionality...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................157 Chapter 15.......................................................155 Deactivating Telnet once SSH is installed .............................................................................................................................................169 Mapping Using “My Computer” ..com FTP Users With Only Read Access To A Shared Directory ........................................154 The etc/ssh/sshd_config File..........................................................................................................................................163 Create An Administrator Domain Password .......................................................................................................................169 Add The Users In Linux..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................169 Map A Drive Share..............................................155 Using default port 22 ........................................................................................... 173 Sharing Resources With Samba........................................................................................................................170 Domain Groups And Samba ..166 Dynamic Creation Of Machine Trust Accounts......162 Create The Administrator User Under Linux...................

.......................200 .................................................182 When To Use A Regular DNS Server....................................................................... A And CNAME Records ................................................................... 197 Dynamic DNS................................................................................................................................................................................................174 Configure The Printer Driver On The Workstations ..........................................................................................conf File...................................................................................................................................................................182 The /etc/resolv........................................................................................................................182 How To Get BIND Started ...................................................................................................................................................................................................conf File..................................................................................................176 Create The Directory And User Group .............................................................................................193 DHCP Considerations For DNS...................................................................192 Make Sure Your /etc/hosts File Is Correctly Updated............................................................................................................173 Adding The Printer To Linux..........................Table Of Contents vii Adding A Printer To A Samba PDC .......................178 Test Your Windows Client Configuration.........................................................................181 What Is BIND?....200 ez-ipupdate And NAT .......................173 Make Samba Aware Of The Printer ..........................................................................................................................................................199 The /etc/ez-ipupdate...............................................................................192 Fix Your Domain Registration .............................................................................187 Sample Forward Zone File ..................................................................................................177 Windows 2000 .......................................................................198 Dynamic DNS Prerequisites...........................................................................................................................................184 Configuring named................................................................................................................................................................. MX.................................................................................................................................................................................................185 NS.............conf ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................185 The SOA Record.....................................................................................................................................................179 Not Prompted For Password Method...181 When To Use A DNS Caching Nameserver ........................................................................................................................................................176 Map The Directory Using “My Computer”.......................................................188 Sample Reverse Zone File .......................................................................................................................................197 What Is Dynamic DNS? .............184 Configuring A Regular Nameserver ................................................182 When To Use Dynamic DNS....189 What You Need To Know About NAT And DNS ..........................................................................................198 Dynamic DNS And NAT Router/Firewalls .............................................................................................178 Create A ZIP Drive Mount Point On Your Samba Server .............................................................................................................................................................................................................199 Installing And Using ez-ipupdate ..192 Configure Your Firewall................................................................................................................................................................................................................177 Windows Drive Sharing With Your SAMBA Server .................................................................................................................................................................................... 197 What Is DNS?...................................................................................................................................................................................................183 Configuring A Caching Nameserver.....................................................................................179 Using The smbmount Command Method...................................................................................................................................................................................................199 Update Your DNS Registration ............................................ 181 What Is DNS?...................................................................................................................................................................178 Prompted For Password Method ...................................................................................................................193 How To Migrate Your Website In-House..............177 Windows 98/ME ............199 Sign Up With A DDNS Provider ........184 Configuring The Zone Files ..............................................................................176 Configure The Share In SWAT ...................................................................................182 How To Download and Install The BIND Packages ..177 Windows Setup ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 181 Configuring DNS................................................................................................................................................................................189 Loading Your New Configuration Files .........................................................................175 Creating Group Shares in SAMBA ............177 Windows XP.............................194 Chapter 18........................................................................................................................179 Chapter 17...........................................................................................................................

..222 Installing And Starting Sendmail..........223 Errors With The Newaliases Command...............................205 A Note On Virtual Hosting And SSL.................................................................................................................................................................206 A Note On Virtual Hosting And DNS ................206 Use Wild Cards Sparingly.........................................................205 IP Based Virtual Hosting .............................................................................................................................................................viii www..................................................................................................213 SNMP on a Linux Server ......................................................................................................................com Installing And Using DDclient........210 How To Protect Web Page Directories With Passwords .......................................................203 How To Get Apache Started .............210 File Permissions And Apache ..............................................conf File...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................223 Errors When Restarting sendmail..............................................................................................................212 Incompatible /etc/httpd/conf/http.222 Restart Sendmail After Editing Your Configuration Files ............................................................................................................................................213 MRTG ..........................................................................................................................................................................221 An Overview Of How Sendmail Works ...............................218 The Webalizer Configuration File .....213 What is SNMP? ..............................................................206 Configuration – Multiple Sites And IP Addresses.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................217 Using MRTG To Monitor Other Subsystems ......................................................................................................215 Download and Install The MRTG Packages .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 203 Download and Install The Apache Package ........................................................................... 221 Configuring Sendmail ......................................................................................................................0 and Indexmaker.....................................................................................................................................................................................................223 Errors With The m4 Command ...........215 What is MRTG?..........................................................mc File ........conf files ..................................................................................................224 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................218 What Is Webalizer?..........218 Webalizer .............................216 RedHat Version 8.............................................................................. 213 Monitoring Server Performance ...212 Chapter 20.......................................200 The /etc/ddclient............................................................ 221 Configuring Linux Mail Servers ..........208 Using Data Compression On Web Pages ................................................................................205 Disabling SSL – (Not Recommended) .....................................................................................................................215 Configuring MRTG ..............................................................................................218 Make Webalizer run in Quiet Mode ........................ 213 SNMP...................................................................................................218 How To View Your Webalizer Statistics ........224 Why Sendmail Only Listens On The Loopback Interface By Default ............................................................................................................................204 General Configuration Steps ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................204 Named Virtual Hosting .........................................................................209 Apache Running On A Server Behind A Firewall..................210 Issues When Upgrading To Apache 2................................................................................................................................202 Chapter 19.................................................................................201 Testing Your Dynamic DNS ..........................................................................................................218 Chapter 21....................................................................................................................................................224 The /etc/mail/sendmail...................0.....202 Testing Port Forwarding.....................................................................................................................................................................................221 Configuring DNS ..........................................................................................208 Compression Configuration Example .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 203 The Apache Web Server ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................224 The /var/log/maillog File ............204 Configuring DNS For Apache.................................................................................................linuxhomenetworking................................

..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................241 How to get DHCP started .........................................................................................................................................................................231 The /etc/aliases File.................................................................................................................252 ............................................................................................................................................................ 251 Configuring Cisco PIX Firewalls..............................................242 Temporary solution ...236 How To Configure Your Windows Mail Programs............................226 A General Guide To Using The sendmail...................................246 The /etc/ntp................................................................................................ 239 Configuring The DHCP Server ...................................................................................................................................................................................................242 Permanent Solution ...............................231 Simple Mailing Lists Using Aliases.....................................................243 Chapter 23..........249 Firewalls and NTP.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................242 Modify Your Routes for DHCP on Linux Server ........................................conf File.......230 The /etc/mail/virtusertable file ............................................................. 245 What is NTP?......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 245 The NTP Server ................................................................251 Accessing the PIX command line ............Table Of Contents ix Edit /etc/mail/sendmail.......................................................................................226 Now Make Sure Sendmail Is Listening On All Interfaces........................234 Other Masquerading Notes ............................................................................229 The /etc/mail/local-host-names File......248 Cisco IOS ...........................................................237 How to handle overlapping email addresses.................................................................................................................................227 The /etc/mail/relay-domains File..........................................................................................................................................................246 How To Get NTP Started ..........................237 Chapter 22..................................................................................................................... 251 Network Address Translation (NAT) .................................................................................................................................................................233 Sendmail Masquerading Explained....................................................................................................................................................................................................................240 Upgrading Your DHCP Server ........................248 CAT OS .........................................245 Download and Install The NTP Package.......................................mc To Make Sendmail Listen On NICs Too........................................252 Via The Console Port .........................conf File ............................................................................................................................................234 A Simple PERL Script To Help Stop SPAM.........................................226 The /etc/hosts File...................................................................................................................................................................................................................233 Testing Masquerading...................cf File................................................................................................................................228 The /etc/mail/access File ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................225 Regenerate The sendmail......................................225 Restart sendmail to load the new configuration .......................................................239 The /etc/dhcp..............................................249 Chapter 24................................................................................... .....................233 Configuring masquerading.........................................................................................................0........................................243 Configuring Linux clients to use DHCP .232 An Important Note About The /etc/aliases File ................................................................235 Configuring Your POP Mail Server.........3 To 8.......................................236 Configuring Your POP Mail Server.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 239 Download and Install The DHCP Package ...............................................................227 Symptoms Of A Bad /etc/hosts File..................................................................................................................mc File.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................230 Which User Should Really Receive The Mail? ..................................................................................................................................................................................248 Configuring Cisco Devices To Use An NTP Server.................................................................................................................243 Error Found When Upgrading From Redhat 7.........................................................252 Via Telnet ......................................................235 Installing Your POP Mail Server .............................247 Determining If NTP Is Synchronized Properly ....................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................x www..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................269 Authentication .........................................................................................................................................................................................275 Configuration Steps .........272 IKE's role in creating Security Associations ............................258 Via The Console Port .................................................273 Shared keys .....................................................................................................................255 Outgoing Connections NAT Configuration .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................254 Sample PIX configuration: DSL ............271 Encryption methods ..................................................275 Make Your Linux Box Emulate A VT100 Dumb Terminal..........................................................Static IP ................................................................. 257 Configuring Cisco DSL Routers ..................................277 .....................271 IKE authentication methods..............255 Incoming Connections NAT Configuration ...........................................................................258 Via Telnet ................253 Configuring PPPoE.........DHCP......................................................................................................................................................................................262 DSL Router With External Modem .........................266 How To Troubleshoot NAT ................................................................................................. 269 Miscellaneous Topics............273 VPN Security And Firewalls........ 269 VPN Terminologies.........................................254 How To Get Static IPs For DSL Cheaply .................................................................................272 Shared keys .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................270 Tunnel mode VPNs............................................258 Introduction to accessing the router command line ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................277 Configuration Steps ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................270 IPSec .....................................................................................273 VPN User Authentication Methods For Temporary Connections ...........................................................................254 Dynamic DNS Port Forwarding Entries ...............................................................................................................................................................................275 Preparing To Go “Headless” .... 257 An Introduction to Network Address Translation (NAT) ...............................................271 Internet Key Exchange (IKE)...............................................Static IPs ............................................258 Sample Configurations..................270 Transport mode VPNs.........271 Authentication methods............................................253 NAT Configuration ....................260 DSL Router With Built-In Modem ............255 Chapter 25................................................270 Authentication Header (AH)................................................................................................................................................273 Transforms ............................................................................................................................................................................................264 Other NAT Topics ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................273 Types Of Dial Up VPN Authentication ...................................................................................................................266 Commonly Used TCP And UDP Ports......................................................................................................274 Running Linux Without A Monitor ...........................................................................DHCP..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................266 How To Verify That NAT Is Working Correctly ..........................................................com Sample PIX Configuration: DSL .................................................................................272 Public key cryptography using RSA encryption..............................260 DSL Router With Built-In Modem ............................................................................................................267 Appendix I .........................Static IP ............................................................linuxhomenetworking................................................................................................................271 Tunnel mode AH packet format ................271 Tunnel mode AH / ESP packet format..................................................................................................................270 Transport mode AH packet format ............................................273 IKE and ISAKMP...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................269 Encryption ......................................270 Transport mode AH / ESP packet format ..............................................................................270 Encapsulating Security Protocol (ESP) .................................................................................................................

.............................322 Sendmail Sample /etc/aliases File ....................................................................330 Appendix III...................................................294 Apache File Permissions Script .........320 Sendmail Sample /etc/mail/access File .........334 Cisco Router Configuration Examples...........................................................285 swap........................288 TCP/IP Packet Format ...................................287 What Can I Do When I Run Out Of Disk Space?...................................................297 The mail-filter....Table Of Contents xi Syslog Configuration and Cisco Devices .284 What Is A Partition? ........................................................................................................283 Disk Partitioning Explained.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................284 What Is A Filesystem?.......................................................................................................................298 The mail-filter................. Also Known As "root"....305 DNS Zone File For my-site.................................................... 293 Subnet Calculator Script ...............................................................................................................................................................319 Forward Zone File For A Home Network Using NAT ..............................................................................................284 How Linux Links Filesystems And Partitions ..........................................................................................................324 Sendmail Sample /etc/mail/virtusertable File.............................................................280 Catalyst CAT Switches running CATOS....................................DHCP DSL Configuration..........................................................................................329 Cisco PIX Firewall .......................................326 ICMP Codes.........................................................334 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................305 IPtables Complex script .....conf File .........285 /boot .......................................................285 Some Recommended Partition Sizes .................................................................................................Static DSL Configuration..........................................322 Sendmail Sample /etc/mail/local-host-names File .287 The OSI Networking Model ...............................................298 IPtables FTP Client............................................................................304 IPtables NTP Server............................................................................................................................................. Scripts and Configurations .......................................................280 Cisco Local Director..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................288 The Seven OSI Layers ..............................................................................................................303 IPtables FTP Server ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................327 Cisco PIX Firewall ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................com ......320 Reverse Zone File For A Home Network Using NAT .......................................................................................................................................................................298 The mail-filter Script................................................................................................................................................................................................290 Appendix II.....................................................................289 Contents Of The TCP Header........................286 How Much Space Do I Have On My Partitions?.........................296 Sendmail SPAM Filter Script ...............................................................323 Sendmail Sample /etc/mail/sendmail............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 293 Codes........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 333 Wireless Linux ............................................................................................................................................285 Recommended Sizes For Disk Partitions...........................................................................................................................280 Cisco PIX Filewalls ................................accept File.......................................... 333 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................282 The Sample Cisco syslog................................290 Contents Of The UDP Header ........280 Cisco Routers ...........................................................................................................................................................285 "/"........................................................................................................................................reject File......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................284 What Partitions Are Mandatory?..............................................................334 Cisco PIX Firewall Configuration Examples...........................................................................................................................................................................................................289 Contents Of The IP Header .......................................................mc File ..............................................................................................319 DNS Zone File For my-other-site.............................................................................................................282 Cisco CSS11000 (Arrowpoints) ..com ......................................................................................................................................

....339 My Other Sites..................................................................................................336 FTP Server and FTP Clients ........................................................................337 POP Mail Server ..............................339 ...............................................335 The Windows SCP client called WinSCP.........................................................................................................................337 NTP Server ..................................................................xii www......338 Disk Partitioning ...........................................................336 DHCP Server .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................com Netfilter ..............................Linux as a Windows File Server ..............................................................................................336 Dynamic DNS ......................................................................................linuxhomenetworking.............................................................335 General Home Networking Resource Pages..............iptables Configuration ......335 SSH Servers and SSH Clients........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Hosting Your Website at Home .339 Network Monitoring.............................................................................................................337 Static DNS........................................................................................................................................................................................................336 Apache Web Server Software..................................................................................338 Samba ..............................338 General Linux Resource Pages ......................................................................336 Sendmail Mail Configuration ................................................

Table Of Contents xiii .

linuxhomenetworking.xiv www.com .

I have included some simple examples to provide a foundation for future chapters. A more detailed description of the process is beyond the focus of this book. Who Is The Super User? The super user with unrestricted access to all system resources and files is the user named "root".linuxhomenetworking.com =========================================== One of the most important activities in administering a Linux box is the addition of users. You will need to log in as user root to add new users to your Linux box How To Add Users Adding users takes some planning. www. . You may use the command “man useradd” to get the help pages on adding users with the useradd command or the “man usermod” to become more familiar with modifying users with the usermod command. In this example there are three groups "parents".15 Chapter 1 Adding Linux Users =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 1 Adding Linux Users Who Is The Super User? How To Add Users How To Change Passwords How To Delete Users How To Tell The Groups To Which A User Belongs © Peter Harrison. "children" and "soho". read through the steps below before starting: • Arrange your list of users into groups by function.

com Parents Paul Jane • Children Alice Derek Soho Accounts Sales Add the Linux groups to your server: [root@bigboy tmp]# groupadd parents [root@bigboy tmp]# groupadd children [root@bigboy tmp]# groupadd soho • Add the Linux users. • User "root" changing the password for user "paul" [root@bigboy root]# passwd paul Changing password for user paul. [root@bigboy tmp]# ll /home drwxr-xr-x 2 root root drwx-----2 accounts soho drwx-----2 alice children drwx-----2 derek children drwx-----2 jane parents drwx-----2 paul parents drwx-----2 sales soho [root@bigboy tmp]# ll /home 12288 1024 1024 1024 1024 1024 1024 Jul Jul Jul Jul Jul Jul Jul 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 20:04 20:33 20:33 20:33 20:33 20:33 20:33 lost+found accounts alice derek jane paul sales How To Change Passwords You’ll need to create passwords for each account. New password: Retype new password: . RedHat Linux will create a group with the same name as the user you just created. When each new user first logs in.16 www. You will be prompted once for your old password and twice for the new one. assign them to their respective groups [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy tmp]# tmp]# tmp]# tmp]# tmp]# tmp]# useradd useradd useradd useradd useradd useradd -g -g -g -g -g -g parents parents children children soho soho paul jane derek alice accounts sales If you don't specify the group with the "-g". The directory name will be the same as their user name. This is done with the "passwd" command. they will be prompted for their new permanent password. • Each user's personal directory will be placed in the /home directory.linuxhomenetworking.

New password: your new password Re-enter new password: your new password Password changed. The "-r" flag removes all the contents of the user's home directory [root@bigboy tmp]# userdel -r paul How To Tell The Groups To Which A User Belongs • Use the "groups" command with the username as the argument [root@bigboy root]# groups paul paul : parents [root@bigboy root]# . [paul@bigboy paul]$ How To Delete Users • The userdel command is used. Here is how unprivileged user "paul" would change his own password.Chapter 1 : Adding Linux Users 17 passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully. [root@bigboy root]# • Users may wish to change their passwords at a future date. [paul@bigboy paul]$ passwd Changing password for paul Old password: your current password Enter the new password (minimum of 5. maximum of 8 characters) Please use a combination of upper and lower case letters and numbers.

linuxhomenetworking.com .18 www.

• The command you want to run must first begin with the word "sudo" followed by the regular command syntax.com =========================================== You can give selected users temporary "root" privileges using the "sudo" command. here's how. . • When running the command you will be prompted for your regular password before it is executed.Chapter 1 : Adding Linux Users 19 Chapter 2 Using Sudo =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 2 Using Sudo What is sudo? Download and Install The sudo Package The visudo Command The /etc/sudoers File How To Use sudo Using syslog To Track All sudo Commands © Peter Harrison.linuxhomenetworking. www. What is sudo? • Sudo is a command that allows users defined in the /etc/sudoers configuration file to have temporary root access to run certain privileged commands.

• "visudo" is best run as user "root" The /etc/sudoers File General Guidelines o The /etc/sudoers file has the general format: usernames/group o o o o o o o target-servername = command Groups are the same as user groups and are differentiated from regular users by a % at the beginning The "#" at the beginning of a line signifies a comment line You can have multiple usernames per line separated by commas Multiple commands can be separated by commas too.com • You may run other privileged commands using sudo within a five minute period without being reprompted for a password • All commands run as sudo are logged in the log file /var/log/messages Download and Install The sudo Package Fortunately the package is installed by default by RedHat The visudo Command • "visudo" is the command used to edit the /etc/sudoers configuration file. If you run out of space on a line. The NOPASSWD keyword provides access without you being prompted for your password Simple Examples o Users "paul" and "mary" have full access to all privileged commands paul. mary ALL=(ALL) ALL . It is not recommended that you use any other editor to modify your sudo parameters. The keyword "ALL" can mean all usernames.20 www.linuxhomenetworking. commands and servers. groups. "visudo" uses the same commands as the "vi" text editor. Spaces are considered part of the command. you can end it with a "\" and continue on the next line.

PWD=/etc . Here is sample output from the above example. . %operator ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL How To Use sudo • In this example.Chapter 2 : Using Sudo 21 o Users with a groupid of "operator" has full access to all commands and won't be prompted for a password when doing so. COMMAND=/bin/more sudoers [root@bigboy tmp]# ... [root@bigboy tmp]# grep sudo /var/log/messages Nov 18 22:50:30 bigboy sudo(pam_unix)[26812]: authentication failure. user "paul" attempts to view the contents of the /etc/sudoers file [paul@bigboy paul]$ more /etc/sudoers /etc/sudoers: Permission denied [paul@bigboy paul]$ • Paul tries again using sudo and his regular user password and is successful [paul@bigboy paul]$ sudo more /etc/sudoers Password: . .. [paul@bigboy paul]$ Using syslog To Track All sudo Commands All sudo commands are logged in the log file /var/log/messages.. USER=root . logname=paul uid=0 euid=0 tty=pts/0 ruser= rhost= user=paul Nov 18 22:51:25 bigboy sudo: paul : TTY=pts/0 ...

22 www.com .linuxhomenetworking.

com =========================================== A lot of Linux system software is available using RPM packages for default Linux installs. Where To Get Commonly Used RPMs Here are three commonly used sources for RPMs: . www. and source RPMs for non standard installations.linuxhomenetworking. they more easily installed across a wide variety of Linux flavors. As the procedure for installing source RPMs involves compiling source code. thereby making life easier for the software developer who wrote the package.23 Chapter 3 Installing RPM Software =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 3 Installing RPM Software Where To Get Commonly Used RPMs How to Easily Access CD RPMs With Automount Downloading RPMS To Your Linux Box Getting RPMs Using Web Based FTP Getting RPMs Using Command Line Anonymous FTP How To Install The RPMs How to Install Source RPMs How To List Installed RPMs How Uninstall RPMs RedHat Up2date © Peter Harrison.

start your search in the /pub/redhat/linux/ directory and move down the directory tree.24 www.redhat. It is usually simplest to configure your system to Automount your CDROM.linuxhomenetworking. This will make your Linux system act more like Windows. RPMs Downloaded From Speakeasy RedHat only has their approved software on their site.1. though you run the risk of some of the packages being obsolete due to newer releases on the RedHat website. This makes the files on it immediately accessible whenever you access it without having to use the "mount" command. FTP downloading it’ll be explained later. don’t worry.com/apps/download/advanced_search. [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -qa | grep autofs autofs-3.com.html RedHat also has a highly used FTP site. ftp. Always remember to select the RPM that matches your version of Linux http://speakeasy. You can check this using the following commands. A good general purpose source is RPMfind. RPMs Downloaded From Redhat Advanced searches for all versions of RedHat can be done using this web link: http://www.7-33 [root@bigboy tmp]# • You can then ensure that it runs when the system boots using the chkconfig command.net/ How to Easily Access CD RPMs With Automount Using the Linux installation CDs is usually easier.com RPMs On Your Installation CDs This is usually easier than having to download files from a remote website. See the section about using Automount to easily access your CDROM drive to obtain RPM files. If you’re new to FTP.redhat. • Autofs is the package that supports Automount is installed by default with newer versions of RedHat Linux.rpmfind. [root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig --level 345 autofs on [root@bigboy tmp]# .

Chapter 3 : Installing RPM Software

25

• There are two automount configuration files in /etc, one called auto.master and the other called auto.misc. My auto.master looks like this: /misc /etc/auto.misc --timeout 60

The default version of this file normally has this line commented out so you’ll have to remove the "#" at the beginning of the line for the configuration to take effect when autofs is restarted. The first entry is not the mount point. It's where the set of autofs mount points will be. The second entry is a reference to the default map file /etc/auto.misc and the third option says that the mounted filesystems can try to unmount themselves 60 seconds after use. • You can create mount points for each of your removable devices, "floppy", "cdrom" and "zip" with the following commands. [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy total 3 drwxr-xr-x 2 drwxr-xr-x 2 drwxr-xr-x 2 [root@bigboy tmp]# tmp]# tmp]# tmp]# mkdir /misc/cdrom mkdir /misc/floppy mkdir /misc/zip ll /misc

root root 1024 Nov 10 16:06 cdrom root root 1024 Nov 10 16:06 floppy root root 1024 Nov 10 16:06 zip tmp]#

• Edit your auto.misc file to include the CDROM. It should have an entry like this. cdrom -fstype=iso9660,ro,nosuid,nodev :/dev/cdrom You'll find other entries such as "floppy" and "zip" commented out with a "#". If you need them, just delete the "#". The first column (the "key") is the mount point under directory /misc, so in this case you'll be doing auto mounting when you access /misc/cdrom. • Restart autofs. [root@bigboy /tmp]# /etc/init.d/autofs restart Stopping automount:[ OK ] Starting automount:[ OK ] [root@bigboy /tmp]#

Downloading RPMS To Your Linux Box
For casual searching and installing, I recommend using the http links above. If you are doing industrial strength stuff, then use a real FTP client such as (WSFTP or CuteFTP for GUI) or the command line.

26

www.linuxhomenetworking.com

Getting RPMs Using Web Based FTP
Let’s say you are running RedHat 8.0 and need to download an RPM for the DHCP server.

RedHat
• • • • • • • Use your web browser to go to the RedHat link above Type in dhcp in the search box Click the search button Scroll down for the RPM you need for the DHCP server Click on the appropriate "download" link Click on the FTP link Save the file to Linux box's hard drive

Speakeasy
• • • • • • • Go to the Speakeasy link Type in dhcp in the search box Click the search button Scroll down for the RPM that matches your version of RedHat The right hand column has the links with the actual names of the rpm files Click the link Save the file to Linux box's hard drive

It is best to download RPMs to a directory named "RPM", so you can find them later.

Getting RPMs Using Command Line Anonymous FTP
The Web based method above transparently uses anonymous File Transfer Protocol (FTP). Anonymous FTP allows you to log in and download files from a FTP server using the username “anonymous” and a password that matches your email address. This way anyone can access the data. • Let's try to FTP the SSH package from ftp.redhat.com [root@bigboy tmp]# ftp ftp.redhat.com Trying 66.77.185.38... Connected to ftp.redhat.com (66.77.185.38).

Chapter 3 : Installing RPM Software

27

220 Red Hat FTP server ready. All transfers are logged. Name (ftp.redhat.com:root): anonymous 331 Please specify the password. Password: 230 Login successful. Have fun. Remote system type is UNIX. Using binary mode to transfer files. ftp> ls 227 Entering Passive Mode (66,77,185,38,50,122) 150 Here comes the directory listing. drwxr-xr-x 5 0 0 4096 Jun 09 04:20 pub 226 Directory send OK. ftp> • Let's see the available help commands ftp> help Commands may be abbreviated. Commands are: ! $ account append ascii bell binary bye case cd cdup chmod close cr delete ftp> • The commands you'll most likely use are: FTP Commands Command binary cd dir exit Description Copy files in binary mode Change directory on the FTP server List the names of the files in the current remote directory Bye bye debug dir disconnect exit form get glob hash help idle image lcd ls macdef Mdelete mdir mget mkdir mls mode modtime mput newer nmap nlist ntrans open prompt passive proxy sendport put pwd quit quote recv reget rstatus rhelp rename reset restart rmdir runique send site size status struct system sunique tenex tick trace type user umask verbose ?

28

www.linuxhomenetworking.com

Command get lcd ls mget mput passive put pwd

Description Get a file from the FTP server Change the directory on the local machine Same as dir Same as get, but you can use wildcards like "*" Same as put, but you can use wildcards like "*" Make the file transfer passive mode Put a file from the local machine onto the FTP server Give the directory name on the local machine

• By using the search feature on the website ahead of time, I know that the RedHat 8.0RPMs are located in the pub/redhat/linux/8.0/en/os/i386/RedHat/RPMS directory. ftp> cd pub/redhat/linux/8.0/en/os/i386/RedHat/RPMS 250 Directory successfully changed. ftp> ls open* 227 Entering Passive Mode (66,77,185,38,45,180) 150 Here comes the directory listing. -rw-r--r-- 1 0 0 11191 Sep 03 21:32 open-1.4-16.i386.rpm -rw-r--r-- 1 0 0 2006950 Sep 03 21:32 openh323-1.9.3-4.i386.rpm -rw-r--r-- 1 0 0 256971 Sep 03 21:32 openh323-devel-1.9.3-4.i386.rpm ... ... -rw-r--r-- 1 0 0 217326 Sep 03 21:33 openssh-3.4p1-2.i386.rpm ... ... 226 Directory send OK. ftp> • Get the file we need and place it in the local directory /usr/rpm. Also print "#" hash signs on the screen during the download. ftp> hash Hash mark printing on (1024 bytes/hash mark). ftp> lcd /usr/rpm Local directory now /usr/rpm ftp> ftp> get openssh-3.4p1-2.i386.rpm local: openssh-3.4p1-2.i386.rpm remote: openssh-3.4p1-2.i386.rpm 227 Entering Passive Mode (66,77,185,38,57,102) 150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for openssh-3.4p1-2.i386.rpm (217326 bytes). ##################################################################### #####################################################################

Chapter 3 : Installing RPM Software

29

#################################################################### 226 File send OK. 217326 bytes received in 87.7 secs (2.4 Kbytes/sec) ftp> • Bye bye ftp> exit 221 Goodbye. [root@bigboy tmp]#

How To Install The RPMs
Using Downloaded Files
• • Download the source RPMs which usually have a file extension ending with (.rpm) into a temporary directory such as /tmp As user root, issue the following command: [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh filename.rpm

Using CDROMs
• Insert the CDROM and check the files in /misc/cdrom/RedHat/RPMS [root@bigboy tmp]# cd /misc/cdrom/RedHat/RPMS [root@bigboy RPMS]# ls filename* filename.rpm [root@bigboy RPMS]# rpm -Uvh filename.rpm • When finished, eject the CDROM [root@bigboy RPMS]# cd /tmp [root@bigboy tmp]# eject cdrom [root@bigboy tmp]#

How to Install Source RPMs
Sometimes the packages you want to install need to be compiled in order to match your kernel version. This requires you to use source RPM files. • Download the source RPMs or locate them on your CD collection. They usually have a file extension ending with (.src.rpm)

30

www.linuxhomenetworking.com

• Run the following commands as root:

Newer Linux Versions
Compiling and installing source RPMs with newer RedHat Linux versions can be done simply with the rpmbuild command

[root@bigboy tmp]# rpmbuild --rebuild filename.src.rpm

o

Here is an example in which we install the tacacs plus package. [root@bigboy rpm]# rpmbuild --rebuild tac_plus-4.0.3-2.src.rpm Installing tac_plus-4.0.3-2.src.rpm Executing(%prep): /bin/sh -e /var/tmp/rpm-tmp.61594 + umask 022 + cd /usr/src/redhat/BUILD + cd /usr/src/redhat/BUILD + rm -rf tac_plus-4.0.3 + /usr/bin/gzip -dc /usr/src/redhat/SOURCES/tac_plus-4.0.3.tgz + tar -xvvf drwxr-xr-x nsen/25 0 1999-08-04 00:33:15 tac_plus-4.0.3/ -rw-r----- root/root 9029 1999-04-02 22:03:45 tac_plus4.0.3/CHANGES ... ... ... ... ... ... Checking for unpackaged file(s): /usr/lib/rpm/check-files /var/tmp/tacacsd Wrote: /usr/src/redhat/RPMS/i386/tac_plus-4.0.3-2.i386.rpm Executing(%clean): /bin/sh -e /var/tmp/rpm-tmp.60207 + umask 022 + cd /usr/src/redhat/BUILD + cd tac_plus-4.0.3 + rm -rf /var/tmp/tacacsd + exit 0 Executing(--clean): /bin/sh -e /var/tmp/rpm-tmp.60207 + umask 022 + cd /usr/src/redhat/BUILD + rm -rf tac_plus-4.0.3 + exit 0 [root@bigboy rpm]#

o

Here we see that the regular RPM file, not the source RPM, has been installed correctly. [root@bigboy rpm]# rpm -qa | grep tac_plus tac_plus-4.0.3-2 [root@bigboy rpm]#

4p1-2 openssh-askpass-gnome-3.4p1-2 [root@bigboy tmp]# . o o The source files are first exported into the directory /usr/src/redhat/SPECS with the rpm command.rpm o How To List Installed RPMs • The rpm –qa command will list all the packages installed on your system [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm –qa perl-Storable-1.3-3 … … … [root@bigboy tmp]# • You can also pipe the output of this command through the grep command if you are interested in only a specific package.0. You then have to install the new RPM file from this directory. regardless of case (“-i” meaning ignore case) [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -qa | grep -i ssh openssh-server-3.2-7 audiofile-0.14-15 smpeg-gtv-0.4p1-2 openssh-clients-3.4p1-2 openssh-askpass-3. In this example we are looking for all packages containing the string “ssh” in the name.4p1-2 openssh-3.4-9 e2fsprogs-1.rpm SPECS]# cd /usr/src/redhat/SPECS SPECS]# rpm –ba filename tmp]# cd /usr/src/redhat/RPM/i386 i386]# rpm -Uvh filename. You then have to run the rpm command again to compile the source files into a regular RPM file which will be placed in either the /usr/src/packages/RPMS/i386/ or the /usr/src/redhat/RPMS/i386/ directories. [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh filename.4.Chapter 3 : Installing RPM Software 31 Older Linux Versions The process is more complicated with older RedHat Linux versions as can be seen below.src.27-9 libstdc++-3.2.

com How Uninstall RPMs • The rpm –e command will erase an installed package. run the following as root: rpm --import /usr/share/rhn/RPM-GPG-KEY [root@bigboy tmp]# • Issue the rpm command to get the keys [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm --import /usr/share/rhn/RPM-GPG-KEY [root@bigboy tmp]# . The package name given must match that listed in the rpm –qa command as the version of the package is important. It will prompt you to change the initial settings. public key. Here’s what to do: • After installing the operating system issue the up2date command. Just quit by typing “q” and up2date will give you the command to run to get the encryption keys from RedHat. q to quit without saving>: Your GPG keyring does not contain the Red Hat. [root@bigboy tmp]# up2date 0. [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm –e package-name RedHat Up2date RedHat has a program called up2date which will update your Linux installation with the latest revisions of the RPMs from the RedHat website via a HTTPS/SSL connection running in the background.32 www. you will be unable to verify that packages Update Agent downloads are securely signed by Red Hat. Without it. depslist [] … … … Enter number of item to edit <return to exit. isatty Yes 2. To install the key. debug No 1. Inc. Your Update Agent options specify that you want to use GPG.linuxhomenetworking.

..Chapter 3 : Installing RPM Software 33 • Issue the up2date command again and it will prompt you through a number of registration screens which will ask for information such as: o o o The login name & password of your choice Your...2. … … … Preparing ########################################### [100%] Installing.18 24.0Pkg name/pattern [root@bigboy tmp]# .r ########################## Done. address and email address A profile name for your server • It will then present you with a list of all the packages installed on your server and ask you whether you want to register this software information with RedHat • The up2date updater will then register your system and exit back to the command prompt..0..17-0. ######################################## cups-libs-1.. name.8.0.1.. This is done with the up2date –u command.. ######################################## Fetching Obsoletes list for channel: redhat-linux-i386-8.i386. ######################################## Fetching rpm headers. 1:cups-libs 2:cvs 3:cyrus-sasl … … … ########################################### [100%] ########################################### [100%] ########################################### [100%] The following Packages were marked to be skipped by your configuration: Name Version Rel Reason --------------------------------------------------------------------kernel 2.. ####################################### Testing package set / solving RPM inter-dependencies. • Now you have to actually update the software using up2date.4. This is what it looks like: [root@bigboy tmp]# up2date -u Fetching package list for channel: redhat-linux-i386-8.

com/network RedHat will regularly send you emails with the packages you need to update. You can selectively update the package mentioned in each email using the command: [root@bigboy tmp]# up2date package-name o o o o Only one profile per login name is free. Some RPMs won’t install unless other RPMs have been installed previously. up2date uses HTTPS/SSL to do its updating. up2date automatically figures out these package inter-dependencies and will install all the required foundation packages as well. The “–u” switch will update all packages and the “-p” will register any additional packages you have installed without using up2date. All additional profiles under the login name have an annual fee. You can write a small script to periodically update your system.com Some Necessary Facts About up2date o o You can update your contact information afterwards using the link http://www. If you have a firewall protecting your system. you will need TCP port 443 access to the internet Updating packages could cause programs written by you to stop functioning especially if they rely on the older version’s features or syntax.redhat. Here is a sample script that you can run weekly using cron #!/bin/sh # # Updates system every week # up2date -p up2date -u o .34 www.linuxhomenetworking.

Chapter 3 : Installing RPM Software 35 .

linuxhomenetworking.com .36 www.

37 Chapter 4 The Linux Boot Process =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 4 The Linux Boot Process The RedHat Boot Sequence Determining The Default Boot runlevel Get A GUI Console Get A Basic Text Terminal Without Exiting The GUI System Shutdown And Rebooting How To Set Which Programs Run At Each runlevel © Peter Harrison.d/rc1. This stage is known as “single user mode”. . www. The RedHat Boot Sequence When RedHat boots. After completing this first phase. the boot process will run a number of scripts located in subdirectories under directory /etc/rc.com =========================================== The way Linux boots up is very important information to know.d which provides only the most basic functionality and the ability to only handle a single user. the boot process will run scripts in only one of the other directories depending on the startup mode (aka. These are listed below.linuxhomenetworking. run level). You can alter it to change the type of login screen you get and also which programs get started.d. The boot process first runs the scripts found in /etc/rc.

X11 # 6 .d/rc3. When set it to “3”.Single user mode # 2 .d /etc/rc. when set to “5”. The runlevels used by RHS are: # 0 .linuxhomenetworking.d/rc1. Here is a sample snippet of the file: (Delete the initdefault line you don't need) # Default runlevel. without NFS (The same as 3.d/rc5.com Mode/Run Level 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Directory /etc/rc.d/rc2. Get A GUI Console You have two main options if your system comes up in a text terminal mode on the VGA console and you want to get the GUI: • Manual Method: You can start the X terminal GUI application each time you need it by running the “startx” command at the VGA console.d /etc/rc.d /etc/rc. See the section below on how to get a GUI login all the time until the next reboot. the system boots up with the text interface on the VGA console. you get the GUI.reboot (Do NOT set initdefault to this) # id:3:initdefault: # Console Text Mode id:5:initdefault: # Console GUI Mode • Most home users boot up with a Windows like GUI (Run Level 5) • Most techies will tend to boot up with a plain text based command line type interface (Run level 3) • Changing "initdefault" from 3 to 5 or vice-versa will only have an effect upon your next reboot.d /etc/rc. Remember that when you log out you will get the regular text based console again.d/rc4.d /etc/rc.d Run Level Description Halt Single-user mode Not used (user-definable) Full multi-user mode (No GUI interface) Not used (user-definable) Full multi-user mode (With GUI interface) Reboot Determining The Default Boot runlevel The default boot runlevel is set in the file /etc/inittab with the "initdefault" variable.halt (Do NOT set initdefault to this) # 1 .38 www.d /etc/rc. .d/rc0. if you do not have networking) # 3 .Multiuser.d/rc6.Full multiuser mode # 4 .unused # 5 .

or if the GUI is running after launching "startx" System Shutdown And Rebooting The "init" command will allow you to change the current runlevel. [root@bigboy tmp]# init 5 Get A Basic Text Terminal Without Exiting The GUI Using A GUI Terminal Window You can open a GUI based window with a command prompt inside by doing the following: o o Click on the “Red Hat” Start button in the bottom left hand corner of the screen. Click on Systems Tools. You can step through each text session by using the <CTL> <ALT> <F1> through <F6> key sequence. You can get the GUI login with the sequence <CTL> <ALT> <F7>. only in run level 5. You will need to edit your “initdefault” variable in your /etc/inittab file as mentioned in the preceding section to keep this functionality even after you reboot. then Terminal Using Virtual Terminals Linux actually has seven virtual console sessions running on the VGA console. Halt / Shutdown The System [root@bigboy tmp]# init 0 Reboot The System [root@bigboy tmp]# init 6 .Chapter 4 : The Linux Boot Process [root@bigboy tmp]# startx • Automatic Method: You can have Linux automatically start the X terminal GUI console for every login attempt until your next reboot by using the init command. it will run under session number seven. o o o Sessions one through six are text sessions. If the GUI is running. You'll get a new login prompt for each attempt.

Let’s change it so that Sendmail doesn't startup at boot.... Here we see Sendmail will start with a regular startup at runlevel 3 or 5. 5:on 5:on 5:on 5:on 5:on 5:on 5:on 5:on 5:on 5:on 6:off 6:off 6:off 6:off 6:off 6:off 6:off 6:off 6:off 6:off Chkconfig Examples You can use chkconfig to change runlevels for particular packages. .d and place symbolic links (pointers) to this script in the appropriate /etc/rc. • Use this command to get a full listing of packages listed in /etc/init. Use Chkconfig To Get A Listing Of Sendmail's Current Startup Options [root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig --list | grep mail sendmail 0:off 1:off 2:off 3:on 4:off 5:on 6:off [root@bigboy tmp]# Switch Off Sendmail Starting Up In Levels 3 and 5 [root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig --level 35 sendmail off [root@bigboy tmp]# Doublecheck That Sendmail Will Not Startup [root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig --list | grep mail sendmail 0:off 1:off 2:off 3:off 4:off 5:off 6:off [root@bigboy tmp]# .d and the runlevels at which they will be "on" or "off" [root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig --list keytable 0:off 1:on 2:on 3:on 4:on atd 0:off 1:off 2:off 3:on 4:on syslog 0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on gpm 0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on kudzu 0:off 1:off 2:off 3:on 4:on wlan 0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on sendmail 0:off 1:off 2:off 3:on 4:off netfs 0:off 1:off 2:off 3:on 4:on network 0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on random 0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on .com How To Set Which Programs Run At Each runlevel Most RedHat packages place a startup script in the directory /etc/init. The typical home/SOHO user doesn't have to be a scripting / symbolic linking guru to make sure everything works right because RedHat comes with a nifty utility called "chkconfig" to do it for you.d/rc.40 www.X directory.linuxhomenetworking..

Don't add/remove anything to other runlevels unless you absolutely know what you are doing. it just configures them to be started or ignored when the system boots up. . Chkconfig doesn’t start the programs in the /etc/init. Don't experiment. The commands for starting and stopping the programs covered in this book are covered in each respective chapter.Chapter 4 : The Linux Boot Process Turn it back on again [root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig --level 35 mail on [root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig --list | grep mail sendmail 0:off 1:off 2:off 3:on 4:off 5:on 6:off [root@bigboy tmp]# Final Tips On chkconfig • • • In most cases you'll want to modify runlevels 3 and 5 simultaneously AND with the same values.d directory.

42 www.com .linuxhomenetworking.

43 Chapter 5 Why Host Your Own Site? =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 5 Why Host Your Own Site? Network Diagram Alternatives To Home Web Hosting Factors To Consider Before Hosting Yourself How To Migrate From An External Provider © Peter Harrison. www. Network Diagram . you should at least weigh the merits of such a move.com =========================================== We have assumed you want to host your website in your home or home office using a topology similar to that in the diagram below.linuxhomenetworking. Before you do.

For an additional charge. You must make sure your new domain name’s DNS records point to the DNS server of the virtual hosting company. DNS. security audits.com. such as www. with companies like Register. • Upload your web pages to your private virtual hosting directory. The virtual hosting provider will also offer free backups of your site.44 www. . • Register your domain name. Verisign or RegisterFree. a number of email addresses and an easy to use web based GUI to manage your settings. Availability: Reliable virtual hosting facilities may not be available in your country and/or you may not have access to the foreign currency to host your site abroad. o o Cons o Lost Services: You lose the convenience of many of the services such as backups. so you’ll probably have to wait at least that long before you’ll be able to view your site using your domain. Changes can be made with little delay. You should be able to buy this equipment second hand for about $100. load balancing. redundant hardware.com.com Alternatives To Home Web Hosting It is easy to find virtual hosting companies on the Web which will offer to host a simple website for about $10 per month. For the home based website these are usually not big issues. New Skills: There is also the additional benefit of learning the new skills required to set up the site. If your home already has DSL there would be no additional network connectivity costs. It takes about 3-4 days for DNS to propagate across the Web. data base services and technical support offered by the virtual hosting company. technical support. So for a savings of $10 per month the project should pay for itself in less than a year. The steps are fairly straight forward: • Sign up for the virtual hosting service. Factors To Consider Before Hosting Yourself Virtual hosting is the ideal solution for many small websites. Home Based Websites Pros o Cost: It is possible to host a website on most DSL connections. A website can be hosted on this data circuit for the only additional hardware cost of a network switch and a web server.linuxhomenetworking. There are a number of reasons why you may want to move your website to your home or small office.my-site. They will provide you with a login name and password. many will also provide an e-commerce feature which will allow you to have a shopping cart and customer loyalty programs.my-site.com. www.com. the IP address of your site plus the name of a private directory on a shared web server in which you’ll place your web pages. • Test viewing your site using your IP address in your web browser.

The chapter on the Linux iptables firewall should help make the decision easier. In order to determine the break even point of the proposal. Proceed with the server migration only if you feel your staff can handle the job. Hosting providers may provide software patches to fix security vulnerabilities on your web servers and may even provide a firewall to protect it. Availability: Reliable virtual hosting facilities may not be available in your country and you may not have access to the foreign currency to host your site abroad. There is a chapter on the iptables Linux firewall and general security policies for Linux servers to help you overcome these shortcomings. • • • • • Costs New hardware & software Possible new application development. Technical Ability: Your service provider may have more expertise in setting up your site than you do. Technical Ability: You may have to incur additional training costs to ensure that your IT staff has the necessary knowledge to do the job internally. you will have to consider the following: In-house Web Hosting Savings • • Monthly out sourced web hosting fee Elimination of the cost of delays to implement desired services. software. Training The percentage of IT staff’s time installing and maintaining the site Potential cost of the risks (% likelihood of failure per month X cost of failure) • • Risks Likelihood of a failure and expected duration The cost of both the failure and post failure recovery (Hardware. time) Cons o o Lost Services: You won’t have access to the services provided by your old service provider. Security: Always weigh the degree of security maintained by your hosting provider with that which you expect to provide in-house. These services may be more difficult to implement at home. data restoration. You will eventually be able to justify hosting your website inhouse based on this financial fact. o .Chapter 5 : Why Host Your Own Site? 45 o Security: One important factor to consider is the security of your new server. o Small Office Based Websites Pros o o o Increased Control: You will be able to manage all aspects of your website if it is hosted on a server based either in-house or within your control at a remote data center. which may have been highly desirable and cost effective. Cost: The cost of using an external web hosting provider will increase as you purchase more systems administration services.

. You should also read the sections on mail and web server configuration to help provide a more rounded understanding of the steps involved.linuxhomenetworking.46 www.com How To Migrate From An External Provider The chapter on DNS has a detailed explanation of the steps involved in migrating your website from an external hosting provider to your home or small office.

.com =========================================== This chapter briefly explains some basic networking concepts for the home user.47 Chapter 6 Introduction To Networking =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 6 Introduction To Networking What Is TCP/IP? What Is An IP Addresses? What Is Localhost? What Is A Subnet Mask? How Many Addresses Do I Get With My Mask? How Can I Figure Out My Broadcast Address? What Is Duplex? What Is A Hub? What Is A Switch? What Is A LAN? What Is A Router? What Is A Gateway? What Is A Route? What Is A Default Gateway? What Is A NIC? What Is A MAC Address? What Is ARP? What Is A Firewall? What Is NAT? What Is Port Forwarding With NAT? What Is DHCP? What Is DNS? How Can I Check The IP Address For A Domain? How Do I Get My Own DNS Domain Name? What is FTP? Where is Linux Help? © Peter Harrison. www.linuxhomenetworking.

For example.48 www. What are TCP / UDP Ports? So the data portion of the IP packet contains a TCP or UDP datagram sandwiched inside. What is TCP? TCP opens up a connection between client and server programs running on separate computers so that multiple and/or sporadic streams of data can be sent over an indefinite period of time. What is UDP? UDP is a connectionless protocol.linuxhomenetworking. those above 1024 are generally reserved for non system third party applications.com What Is TCP/IP? TCP/IP is a universal standard suite of protocols used to provide connectivity between networked devices. The two most popular transportation mechanisms used on the Internet are Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Certain programs are assigned specific that are internationally recognized. One component of TCP/IP is the Internet Protocol (IP) which is responsible for ensuring that data is transferred between two addresses without being corrupted. Usually when a connection is made from a client computer requesting data to the server machine that contains the data: . You could look at it as a combination used to create a connection ID number. It is also used when data needs to be broadcast to all available servers on a locally attached network where the creation of dozens of TCP connections for a short burst of data is considered resource hungry. Data is sent on a “best effort” basis with the machine that sends the data having no means of verifying whether the data was correctly received by the remote machine. Programs that use TCP therefore have a means of detecting connection failures and requesting the retransmission of missing packets. The remote computer then receives the packets and reassembles the data and checks for errors. How does the computer know what program needs the data? Each IP packet also contains a piece of information in its header called the “type” field. Ports below 1024 are reserved for privileged system functions. The source/destination port combination defines the program on the computer that sent/received the data. It then passes the data to the program that expects to receive it. It is part of the larger OSI model upon which most data communications is based. but both the UDP and the TCP datagram headers track the “port” being used. This informs the computer receiving the data about the type of transportation mechanism being used. UDP is usually used for applications in which the data sent is not mission critical. port 80. For manageability. TCP keeps track of the packets sent by giving each one a sequence number with the remote server sending back “acknowledgement” packets confirming correct delivery. is reserved for HTTP web traffic and port 25 is reserved for SMTP email. Only the TCP datagram header contains sequence information. TCP is a good example of a “connection oriented” protocol. the data is usually split into multiple pieces or “packets” each with its own error detection bytes in the control section or “header” of the packet.

Just like a telephone number. control. This mechanism helps to ensure that bad routing on the Internet won’t cause packets to aimlessly loop around the network. o The client keeps track of all its requests to the server's IP address and will recognize that the reply on port 1095 isn't a request initiation for "Nicelink" (See the Bibliography for a link to a TCP/IP port listing).Chapter 6 : Introduction To Networking 49 o the client selects a random unused "source" port greater than 1024 and queries the server on the "destination" port specific to the application. IP addresses have 32 bits in total. 1095 and query the server on port 80 (HTTP) The server recognizes the port 80 request as an HTTP request and passes on the data to be handled by the web server software. The server will usually detected this by examining the packet and correlating the contents to what it finds in the IP header’s error control section.12. the client will use a source port of say. then the network device will discard the packet. None of the numbers between the dots may be greater than 255. The server sending the packet sets the TTL value and each network device that the packet passes through then reduces this value by “1”. For example. it tells the TCP application to respond back to port 1095 of the client using a source port of port 80.65. If the TTL value reaches “0”. An example of an IP address would be 97. What is ICMP? There is another commonly used protocol called the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). What is a TTL? Each IP packet has a Time to Live (TTL) section that keeps track of the number of network devices the packet has passed through to reach its destination. • IP addresses are in reality a string of binary digits or "bits". It is not strictly a TCP/IP protocol. but TCP/IP based applications use it frequently. • For ease of use. • The numbers between the dots are frequently referred to as "octets" • Some groups of IP addresses are reserved for use only in private networks and are not routed over the Internet. What Do IP Addresses Look Like? • All devices connected to the Internet have an Internet Protocol (IP) address. and informational messages for use by the operating system. IP addresses are written in what is called a "dotted decimal" format.25. four numbers with dots in between. When the web server software replies to the client. TTLs help to reduce the clogging of data circuits with unnecessary traffic. Each bit is either a 1 or a 0. ICMP also includes echo and echo reply messages used by the Linux “ping” command to confirm network connectivity. electrical interference or even misconfiguration. More information on ICMP messages can be found in both the Appendix and the chapter on network troubleshooting. IP packets will occasionally arrive at a server with corrupted data due to any number of reasons including. It will then issue an ICMP reject message to the original sending machine that the data should be resent. These are: . it helps to uniquely identify a user of the system. ICMP provides a suite of error. a bad connection. If it is an HTTP request. but a response to the initial port 80 HTTP query.

255 192. then your IP addresses will be: • • • • • 97.255.255. • In this example.168.255.172.linuxhomenetworking.0.255) is reserved for broadcast traffic intended to reach all hosts on the network at the same time. • If you purchased a DSL service from your Internet service provider (ISP) that gives you fixed IP addresses.192.255. • You can check the Linux networking topics page on how to configure the IP address of your Linux box.25 and a subnet mask of 255.253.248 that defines 8 IP addresses. So if your server has an IP address of 192.168.24. and host #255 (192.Available . For example if the ISP provides you with a "public" network address of 97. host #0 (192.255.0.168. You can then use IP addresses from #1 to #254 on your "private" network.253. What Is Localhost? Whether or not your computer has a network interface card it will have a “built in” IP address with which network aware applications can communicate with one another.255.1 and is frequently referred to as “localhost” What Is A Subnet Mask? • Subnet masks are used to tell which part of the IP address represents: • The network on which the computer is connected (Network portion) • The computer's unique identifier on that network (Host portion) • A simple analogy would be a phone number.253.26 .1 to 192.31.255.10.253.24 – Network base address 97.255.0. the 225-2468 represents the telephone within that area code.168. • Subnet masks allow you to specify how long you want the area code to be (network portion) at the expense of the number of telephones in that are in the area code (Host portion) • Most home networks use a subnet mask of 255.1.Gateway 97.158.158. Each "255" means this octet is for the area code (network portion).0.1.158.1.0.168.255.248 and a gateway of 97.1 and the server or host would be device #25 on that network. a subnet mask of 255.16.158.158.253.27 .Available 97.255.255 • Home networking equipment / devices usually are configured in the factory with an IP address in the range 192.158.0 .25 .0.168.255. such as (808) 225-2468.Available 97.0) is reserved to represent the network itself.1. then the network portion would be 192.0.1.253.28 .24.168. This IP address is defined as 127.168.com Private IP Addresses 10.0 .255.253.255 172.50 www.0. then they will most likely provide you with a subnet mask of 255.158. The (808) represents the area code.255.0 .

158.Available 97.158.158. Think of it as "This is the third subnet with 8 addresses in it". how do you determine the network address and the broadcast address. This will give you the theoretical number of subnets of the same size that are below this IP address.56 with a mask of 255.168.253. • There are only 7 possible values for the last octet of a subnet mask.255.158.253.29 . (256 .1 = 63. 252 • You can calculate the number of IP addresses for each of the above values by subtracting the value from 256 • So for example. The Network address is therefore 97. Therefore the broadcast address is 192.255.28 and a subnet mask of 255. Multiply this result by the result of step 1 to get the network address (8 x 3 = 24).168.224 1. 240.Chapter 6 : Introduction To Networking 51 • • • 97.255.240 1. 2.30 .24 The broadcast address is the result of step 3 plus the result of step 1 minus 1.224 = 32 56 / 32 = 1 32 x 1 = 32.75 with a mask of 255.255” which should be sufficient for your home network.0.248.31 o o Let's do this for 192. 128.Broadcast How Many Addresses Do I Get With My Mask? The method described in this section only works for subnet masks that start with “255. The broadcast address is 97. 3.255. (24 + 8 -1 = 31).192 then you have 64 IP addresses in your subnet (256 .192) What’s The Range Of Addresses On My Network? If someone gives you an IP address of 97.253.168.248) = 8 Divide the last octet of the IP address by the result of step 1.3.32 32 + 32 .255.240 = 16 .255.253. 192.253. 4. These are 0.255.255.3.63 Let's do this for 10. if you have a subnet mask of 255. 248.158.158. Think of it as "The broadcast address is always the network address plus the number of IP addresses in the subnet minus 1". 224. 256 . Therefore the network base address is 192. 256 .255.0. don't bother with the remainder (28/8 = 3).31 .Available 97.3.253. in other words the boundaries of my network? Here are the steps: Manual Calculation o o Subtract the last octet of the subnet mask from 256 to give the number of IP addresses in the subnet.

92 /28 IP Address : 216. just provide the IP address followed by the subnet mask as arguments. • Full duplex uses separate pairs of wires for transmitting and receiving data so that incoming data flows don't interfere with outgoing data flows. Therefore the network base address is 10.linuxhomenetworking.52 www.0.151. Once again.193.151. 4.0. Here is a sample of how to use it. 75 / 16 = 4 16 x 4 = 64.193.255.151. Hubs physically cross-connect all their ports with one another which causes all traffic sent from a server to the hub to be blurted out to all other servers connected to that hub whether they are the intended recipient or not. If you are sub-netting a large chunk of IP addresses it’s always a good idea to lay it out on a spreadsheet to make sure there are no overlapping subnets.79 Note: As a rule of thumb. What Is A Hub? • A hub is a device into which you can connect all devices on a home network so that they can talk together. • Half duplex uses the same pairs of wires for transmitting and receiving data./subnet-calc.0. • Data transfer speeds will be low and error levels will be high if you have a device at one end of a cable set to full duplex.255.sh 216. It will accept subnet masks in dotted decimal format or "/value" format [root@bigboy tmp]# .80 Broadcast Address : 216.com 2. this only works with subnet masks that start with 255.92 Network Base Address : 216. 3. Therefore the broadcast address is 10.193. It is for this reason that duplex settings aren’t usually a problem for Linux servers. Error detection and retransmission mechanisms ensure that data reaches the destination correctly even if it were originally garbled by multiple devices starting to transmit at the same time. Calculation Using A Script There is a BASH script in the Appendix which will do this for you.64 64 + 16 -1 = 79.255.255. • Most modern network cards can auto-negotiate duplex with the device on the other end of the wire.0.193. . the last octet of your network base address must be divisible by the “256 minus the last octet of your subnet mask” and leave no remainder. Devices that want to transmit information have to wait their turn until the "coast is clear" at which point they send the data. and another device at the other end of the cable set to half duplex.151.95 Subnet Mask Subnet Size [root@bigboy tmp]# : 255.240 : 16 IP Addresses What Is Duplex? • Duplex refers to the ability of a device to transmit and receive data at the same time.

• It is possible to have LANs that span multiple switches. • Larger. In this case. much like a traffic policeman. thereby eliminating the possibility of message garbling. A router is still needs to be connected to each VLAN for inter-network communication. • Communication to devices on another LAN requires a router directly connected to both LANs. This is often called “daisy chaining”. it is possible to deny communication between two servers on different networks that intend to communicate on TCP port 80. until the message gets through correctly.Chapter 6 : Introduction To Networking 53 • Hubs have none or very little electronics inside and therefore do not regulate traffic. and allow all other traffic between them. They can also filter traffic based on the TCP port section of each packet. after a random time interval. What Is A Switch? • A switch is also a device into which you can connect all devices on a home network so that they can talk together. Unlike a hub. When this happens the servers try again. The router is also capable of filtering traffic passing between the two LANs therefore providing additional security. the switch houses ports on multiple LANs. • Pure switches provide no access control between servers connected to the same LAN. traffic sent from Server A to Server B will only be received by Server B. • It is for these reasons that devices that plug into hubs should be set to half duplex. • Routers can also be configured to deny communication between specific servers on different networks. For example. Simple home switches can be connected in a chain formation to create a LAN with more ports. What Is A LAN? • A Local Area Network (LAN) is a grouping of ports on a hub. Routers therefore direct and regulate traffic between separate networks. It is possible for multiple servers to speak at once with all of them receiving garbled messages. This is why network administrators group trusted servers having similar roles on the same LAN. more expensive switches can be configured to assign only certain ports to pre-specified Virtual LANs or (VLANs) chosen by the network administrator. • Devices that plug into switches should be set to full duplex to take full advantage of the dedicated bandwidth coming from each switch port. switch or tied to a wireless access point (WAP) that can only communicate with each other. The only exception is broadcast traffic which is blurted out to all the servers simultaneously. • Switches regulate traffic. switches and hubs usually only have servers connected to them that have been configured as being part of the same network. They will also ensure that they don’t mix servers on different IP networks on the same LAN segment. . Switches therefore provide more efficient traffic flow. What Is A Router? • As stated before. • Routers will connect into multiple switches to allow these networks to communicate with one another. A good rule of thumb is to have only one network per LAN.

1. and can therefore intelligently redirect traffic to bypass failed network links. What Is A Default Gateway? • A default gateway is really a gateway of last resort. Say for example: o o o You have two routers R1 and R2 R1 is connected to both your SOHO home network (192. R1 therefore would be considered your default gateway • You could put a route on your SOHO servers that states: o o • For most home networks. Home Linux boxes frequently don't run a dynamic routing protocol and therefore rely on "static" routes issued by the system administrator at the command line or in configuration files to determine the next hop to all desired networks.0) and your credit card transaction payment the network (10.0) which is also connected to other corporate networks with addresses starting with 10.168. routers most frequently provide connectivity to the Internet using network address translation or NAT. Each router along the way may also be referred to as a hop. a route refers to the path data takes to traverse from its source to its destination. you must reserve an IP address for a router and make sure that the router is directly connected to the LAN associated with that network.0.168.123.linuxhomenetworking.46.X Go to network 10. • The Linux network topics page shows how to add static routes to your Linux box and also how you can convert it into a simple router.X. your default gateway would be the router / firewall connected to the Internet. What Is A Gateway? • Another name for a router. It is assumed that this first hop will know how to automatically relay the packet. then for each network.0 via router R2 Go to everything else via router R1.0) and the internet R2 is connected to both your SOHO home network (192. • Usually when we speak about a route on a Linux box.0. • You can check the Linux networking topics page on how to configure the default gateway on your Linux box.com • If you intend to route between networks.X.0. • Routers are designed to exchange routing information dynamically. we are referring to the IP address of the first hop needed to reach the desired destination network.1.54 www. What Is A Route? • In the broader networking sense.0. .0 255. • In home networks.

Chapter 6 : Introduction To Networking 55 What Is A NIC? Your network interface card is frequently called a NIC. • The server will not send the data to its intended destination unless it has an entry in its ARP table. but the MAC addresses are reassigned by each router on the way using a process called ARP. If no entry is available. let's say with an IP address of 192. • If there is a valid router. The ARP table is queried. As each router in the path receives the packet. Once a reply is received. As the packet hops across the Internet. its source/destination IP address stays the same. the ARP table only contains the MAC addresses of devices on the locally connected network. • As can be expected. • The Linux network topics page shows how to see your ARP table and the MAC addresses of your server's NICs. an ARP request is made asking the target server for its MAC address. the server checks it's ARP table to see whether it has the MAC address of the router's NIC. • If the target server is on the same network as the source server. the application needing to communicate will issue a timeout or "time exceeded" error. MAC addresses therefore only have significance on the locally attached network. If there is an ARP entry.1. If it doesn't. the packet is sent and the ARP table is subsequently updated with the new MAC address.1. What Is ARP? The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is used to map MAC addresses to network IP addresses. the server will issue an ARP request asking that router 192. the server sends the IP packet to its NIC and tells the NIC to encapsulate the packet in a frame destined for the MAC address of the router. a similar process occurs. Once a reply is received. What Is A MAC Address? The media access control address (MAC) can be equated to the serial number of the NIC. ARP entries are not permanent and will be erased after a fixed period of time depending on the operating system used.168. . the packet is sent and the ARP table is subsequently updated with the new MAC address.1. If there is no ARP entry. it will in turn continue with the ARP-ing process to relay the packet to the final destination.168.1 respond with its MAC address so that the delivery can be made. Every IP packet is sent out of your NIC wrapped inside an Ethernet frame which uses MAC addresses to direct traffic on your locally attached network. the most common types of NIC used in the home are Ethernet and wireless Ethernet cards. When a server needs to communicate with another server it does the following steps: • The server first checks its routing table to see which router provides the next hop to the destination network. Currently.

NAT protects your home PCs by assigning them IP addresses from “private” IP address space that cannot be routed over the internet. firewalls can detect malicious attempts to subvert the TCP/IP protocol. You can also use “many to one” NAT in which the firewall maps a single IP address to multiple servers on the network. you won’t be able to access the public NAT IP addresses from servers on your home network. This greatly increases the number of devices that can access the Internet without running out of "public" IP addresses. What Is Port Forwarding With NAT? In our simple home network. Basic NAT testing will require you to ask a friend to try to connect to your home network from the Internet. As a general rule. This prevents hackers from directly attacking your home systems as packets sent to the “private” IP will never pass over the Internet. A short list of capabilities includes: • Throttling traffic to a server when two many unfulfilled connections are made to it • Restricting traffic being sent to obviously bogus IP addresses • Providing network address translation or NAT What Is NAT? Your router / firewall will frequently be configured to make it appear to other devices on the Internet that the servers on your Home network have a valid “public” IP address. This arrangement works well with a single NAT IP trying to initiate connections to many Internet addresses. and not a “private” IP address.linuxhomenetworking. Connections initiated from the Internet to the “public” IP address of the router / firewall face a problem. all servers accessing the Internet will appear to have the single “public” IP address of the router / firewall because of “many to one” NAT. Specifically.com What Is A Firewall? Firewalls can be viewed as routers with more enhanced abilities to restrict traffic. not just by port and IP address like routers. the two most commonly stated are: • No one on the Internet knows your true IP address. As the router / firewall is located at the “border crossing” to the Internet it can easily keep track of all the various outbound connections to the Internet by monitoring: • The IP addresses and TCP ports used by each home based server and mapping it to • The TCP ports and IP addresses of the Internet servers with which they want to communicate. There are many good reasons for this. As there normally has been no prior connection association . You can configure NAT to be “one to one” in which you assign multiple IP addresses to the outside “public” interface of your firewall and pair each of these addresses to a corresponding server on the inside network. • Hundreds of PCs and servers behind a NAT device can masquerade as a single "public" IP address. The reverse isn’t true.56 www. Examples of NAT may be found in the IP masquerade section of the Linux iptables firewall chapter and also in the Cisco PIX firewall chapter. This is called network address translation (NAT) and is often also called IP masquerading in the Linux world.

"The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is an Internet protocol for automating the configuration of computers that use TCP/IP.com As you can imagine. (and) to deliver TCP/IP stack configuration parameters such as the subnet mask and default router”. The most commonly used form of DSL will also assign the outside interface of your router / firewall with a single DHCP provided IP address. The DHCP client sends out a query requesting a DHCP server which in turn provides the client PC with its IP address. you can configure your router / firewall to forward TCP port 80 (Web/HTTP) traffic destined to the outside NAT IP to be automatically relayed to a specific server on the inside home network As you may have guessed. • The "linuxhomenetworking. port forwarding is one of the most common methods used to host websites at home with DHCP DSL. Here step by step description of what happens with a DNS lookup.linuxhomenetworking. You can also make your Linux box into a DHCP server. Port forwarding is a method of counteracting this.linuxhomenetworking. Each server in the chain will store the most frequent DNS name to IP address lookups in a memory cache which helps to speed up the response. • The root server will then redirect your query to one of the Internet's ". The assignment usually occurs when the DHCP configured machine boots up. • Home router / firewall providing DHCP services often provides its own IP address as the DNS name server address for home computers. DNS server and default gateway information.com" DNS name servers which will then redirect the query to the "linuxhomenetworking.com" name server.com" name server will then respond with the IP address for www.org. or regains connectivity to the network.Chapter 6 : Introduction To Networking 57 between the Internet server and any protected server on the home network. DHCP can be used to automatically assign IP addresses.dhcp. What Is DNS? The domain name system (DNS) is a worldwide server network used to help translate easy to remember domain names like www. You can also check the chapter on Configuring a DHCP Server. For example. once it has a fixed IP address. to make your Linux box provide the DHCP addresses for the other machines on your network. You can check the chapter on Linux networking topics page on how to configure your Linux box to get its IP address via DHCP. the router / firewall has no way of telling which of the many home PCs behind it should receive the relayed data. subnet mask. Most home router / firewalls are configured in the factory to be DHCP servers for your home network. You can make your Linux box into a caching DNS server for your home network too. • Your ISP's DNS server will then probably redirect your query to one of the 13 "root" name servers. • Most home computers will get the IP address of their DNS server via DHCP from their router / firewall. What Is DHCP? According to www. • The router / firewall will then redirect the DNS queries from your computer to the DNS name server of your Internet service provider (ISP). . this process can cause a noticeable delay when you are browsing the web.com into an IP address that can be used behind the scenes by your computer.

1 Address: 127.elan.linuxhomenetworking.193. 193. dns1. [root@bigboy tmp]# nslookup www.elan.216.151.58 www.arpa domain name pointer extra193-92.com Note: nslookup is deprecated and may be removed from future releases.linuxhomenetworking.92 [root@bigboy tmp]# You can also use the nslookup and host commands to get the reverse information.linuxhomenetworking.0. Server: 127. then you can use either the nslookup command or host command to get the associated IP address. Run nslookup with the `-sil[ent]' option to prevent this message from appearing.elan.elan. Consider using the `dig' or `host' programs instead.193.com has address 216.151.0. Run nslookup with the `-sil[ent]' option to prevent this message from appearing.net.com How Can I Check The IP Address For A Domain? If you have the domain.92 92.193.193.92 [root@bigboy tmp]# host www. Authoritative answers can be found from: 193.0.0.0.elan.151.arpa nameserver = dns1. but can still be used with Windows .1#53 Non-authoritative answer: 92.151.in-addr.0. Consider using the `dig' or `host' programs instead.151.net.151.193.com www.151.0.arpa nameserver = dns2.1#53 Name: www. [root@bigboy tmp]# nslookup 216.151.arpa name = extra193-92.in-addr.193.216. [root@bigboy tmp]# .in-addr.192.net.92 Note: nslookup is deprecated and may be removed from future releases.0.151.net.216.1 Address: 127.linuxhomenetworking. nslookup will be removed from future releases of Linux.com Address: 216.in-addr.1 [root@bigboy tmp]# [root@bigboy tmp]# host 216.linuxhomenetworking. Server: 127.216.net internet address = 216.

The password is usually your valid email address. From the remote user's perspective. The remote FTP server will prompt you for a username. Static or Dynamic DNS? o If you didn't specifically reserve static IP addresses from your ISP.Chapter 6 : Introduction To Networking 59 How Do I Get My Own DNS Domain Name? • There are many companies that provide DNS name registration. don't worry you can do this later. such as WSFTP and CuteFTP. then static DNS is the way to go. there are another two categories. at which point the user will be the username you normally use to log into the FTP server. after you follow the steps below. there are two types of FTP. This helps DNS root servers know exactly where to get the information for the IP address for your new website. You can use them to determine whether the name you want is available and you can purchase the domain you want using a credit card with your web browser. If you bought static IP addresses. o What is FTP? This is one of the most popular applications used to copy files between computers via a network connection. You also FTP from the command line as shown in the RPM chapter. In this case you'll want to use a dynamic DNS service. These are active and passive FTP which is covered in more detail in the FTP Chapter. The password will be your regular password for your user account. at which point the user will type "anonymous". • The registration process will prompt you for your two primary DNS servers. RegisterFree is the one I use. Anonymous FTP o o This is used primarily to allow any remote user to download files to their systems. Regular FTP o o This is used primarily to allow specific users to download files to their systems. There are a number of commercially available GUI based clients you can load on your PC to do this. then your router is probably getting its "public" Internet IP address via DHCP from your ISP. • If you don't have the names and/or IP addresses for you primary name servers. . From the systems administrator's perspective. The remote FTP server will prompt you for a username.

linuxhomenetworking. If you want to get information on the ssh command. Where is Linux Help? Linux help files are accessed using the “man” or manual pages. [root@bigboy tmp]# man -k ssh Tcl_DecrRefCount [Tcl_IsShared] (3) .com It is good to remember that FTP isn't very secure as usernames. then you’d use the command “man ssh”. without the –k. to narrow your help search. and provide secure encrypted … … … … [root@bigboy tmp]# Search For All Instances Of A Word Here we discover that the search string ssh can be found in the TCL man pages and also in a variety of ssh related pages including ssh.manipulate Tcl objects . ssh-add and ssh-agent. Here are some examples: Finding General Information On A Command Here we get information on the ssh command: [root@bigboy tmp]# man ssh SSH(1) BSD General Commands Manual SSH(1) NAME ssh . If you want to search all the man pages for a keyword. From the command line you issue the man command followed by the Linux command or file you wish to get information about. passwords and data are sent across the network unencrypted. Using this information you can use the man command.OpenSSH SSH client (remote login program) SYNOPSIS ssh [-l login_name] hostname | user@hostname [command] ssh [-afgknqstvxACNPTX1246] [-b bind_address] [-c cipher_spec] [-e escape_char] [-i identity_file] [-l login_name] [-m mac_spec] [-o option] [-p port] [-F configfile] [-L port:host:hostport] [-R port:host:hostport] [-D port] hostname | user@hostname [command] DESCRIPTION ssh (SSH client) is a program for logging into a remote machine and for executing commands on a remote machine. It is intended to replace rlogin and rsh. More secure forms such as SFTP (Secure FTP) and SCP (Secure Copy) are available as a part of the Secure Shell package that is normally installed by default on RedHat. then use the man command with the –k switch.60 www.

authentication agent ssh-keygen (1) .manipulate Tcl objects Tcl_IsShared [Tcl_DecrRefCount] (3) .ssh helper program for hostbased authentication ssh_config (5) .OpenSSH SSH client (remote login program) ssh [slogin] (1) .manipulate Tcl objects Tcl_IsShared [Tcl_NewObj] (3) .OpenSSH SSH daemon configuration file [root@bigboy tmp]# .OpenSSH SSH client (remote login program) ssh-add (1) .manipulate Tcl objects Tcl_IsShared [Object] (3) .manipulate Tcl objects Tcl_IncrRefCount [Tcl_IsShared] (3) .manipulate Tcl objects ssh (1) .manipulate Tcl objects Tcl_InvalidateStringRep [Tcl_IsShared] (3) .OpenSSH SSH client configuration files sshd (8) .gather ssh public keys ssh-keysign (8) .OpenSSH SSH daemon sshd_config (5) .manipulate Tcl objects Tcl_IsShared [Tcl_IncrRefCount] (3) .manipulate Tcl objects Tcl_IsShared (3) .manipulate Tcl objects Tcl_IsShared [Tcl_InvalidateStringRep] (3) .manipulate Tcl objects Tcl_NewObj [Tcl_IsShared] (3) .authentication key generation.Chapter 6 : Introduction To Networking 61 Tcl_DuplicateObj [Tcl_IsShared] (3) . management and conversion ssh-keyscan (1) .adds RSA or DSA identities to the authentication agent ssh-agent (1) .manipulate Tcl objects Tcl_IsShared [Tcl_DuplicateObj] (3) .

linuxhomenetworking.com .62 www.

For example.linuxhomenetworking. o The first describes the function (facility) of the application that generated it.com =========================================== This chapter will show you how to troubleshoot problems not only on your Linux box but also on remote networking devices using syslog. The second describes the degree of severity of the message. applications such as mail and cron generate messages with easily identifiable facilities named "mail" and "cron". www.63 Chapter 7 Troubleshooting Linux With Syslog =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 7 Troubleshooting Linux With Syslog Syslog Logrotate © Peter Harrison. Each system message sent to the syslog server has two descriptive labels associated with it that makes the message easier to handle. There are eight in all and they are listed below: o . Syslog About syslog Syslog is a utility for tracking and logging all manner of system messages from the merely informational to the extremely critical.

none /var/log/messages In this case.none. Here is a sample: .64 www.conf configuration file.debug /var/log/messages Certain applications will additionally log to their own application specific log files and directories independent of the syslog. *.mail. You can make this logging even more sensitive by replacing the line above with one that captures all messages from debug severity and above in the /var/log/messages file.info. Here are some common examples: Files: /var/log/maillog /var/log/httpd/access_log : Mail : Apache web server page access logs . the first lists the facilities and severities of messages to expect and the second lists the files to which they should be logged.authpriv. all messages of severity "info" and above are logged.none. but none from the mail.com Syslog Facilities Severity Level 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Keyword emergencies alerts critical errors warnings notifications informational debugging Description System unusable Immediate action required Critical condition Error conditions Warning conditions Normal but significant conditions Informational messages Debugging messages The files to which syslog will write each type of message received is set in the /etc/syslog.cron.conf file.linuxhomenetworking.conf file is configured to put most of the messages the file /var/log/messages. By default. This file consists of two columns. cron or authentication facilities/subsystems. This may be more suitable for troubleshooting. RedHat's /etc/syslog.

Here’s how to configure your Linux server to start listening for these messages. Here is an example. Activating Changes To The syslog Configuration File Changes to /etc/syslog. . This is probably one of the best troubleshooting tools available in Linux.conf will not take effect until you restart syslog. you can pipe it through the "more" command so that you only get one screen at a time. [root@bigboy tmp]# grep string /var/log/messages | more You can also just use the plain old "more" command to see one screen at a time of the entire log file without filtering with "grep". Here is an example: [root@bigboy tmp]# more /var/log/messages Logging Syslog Messages To A Remote Linux Server Configuring the Linux Syslog Server By default syslog doesn’t expect to receive messages from remote clients.conf file is very sensitive to spaces. Another good command to use apart from "tail" is "grep". Only use tabs on lines that don't start with the "#" comment character.d/syslog restart How To View New Log Entries As They Happen If you want to get new log entries to scroll on the screen as they occur. Grep will help you search for all occurrences of a string in a log file. Issue this command to do so: [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. Spaces in the file will cause unpredictable results. then you can use this command: [root@bigboy tmp]# tail -f /var/log/messages Similar commands can be applied to all log files.Chapter 7: Configuring Syslog 65 Directories: /var/log /var/log/samba /var/log/mrtg /var/log/httpd : Samba messages : MRTG messages : Apache webserver messages NOTE: The /etc/syslog.

0. # Options to syslogd # -m 0 disables 'MARK' messages.com As we saw previously. syslog checks its /etc/syslog. [root@bigboy tmp]# netstat -a | grep syslog udp 0 0 *:syslog *:* [root@bigboy tmp]# netstat -an | grep 514 udp 0 0 0. You now have to configure your remote Linux client to send messages to it.1. # -r enables logging from remote machines # -x disables DNS lookups on messages recieved with -r # See syslogd(8) for more details SYSLOGD_OPTIONS="-m 0 -r" # Options to klogd # -2 prints all kernel oops messages twice.my-site.0. This is done by editing the /etc/hosts file on the Linux client named smallfry.0. Remember to restart syslog to make these changes take effect. Here are the steps: • • Determine the IP address and fully qualified hostname of your remote logging host Add an entry in the /etc/hosts file in the format IP-address Example: 192. The server will now start to listen on UDP port 514 which you can verify using either one of the following netstat command variations. and # once for processing with 'ksymoops' # -x disables all klogd processing of oops messages entirely # See klogd(8) for more details KLOGD_OPTIONS="-2" You will have to restart syslog on the server for the changes to take effect. It also checks the file /etc/sysconfig/syslog to determine the various modes in which it should operate.66 www.com bigboy loghost fully-qualified-domain-name hostname "loghost" Server "bigboy" has now become the remote logging server as its /etc/hosts entry has an alias "loghost" which indicates to syslog that this is a remote syslog server. Syslog will not listen for remote messages unless the SYSLOGD_OPTIONS variable in this file has a “–r” included in it as shown below.0:514 0. .0. once for klogd to decode.168.conf file to determine the expected names and locations of the log files it should create.100 bigboy.0:* [root@bigboy tmp]# Configuring the Linux Client The syslog server is now expecting to receive syslog messages.linuxhomenetworking.

Routers.. [root@bigboy tmp]# Syslog Configuration and Cisco Network Devices Syslog reserves facilities "local0" through "local7" for log messages received from remote servers and network devices. firewalls and load balancers each logging with a different facility can each have their own log files for easy troubleshooting. . Logrotate Logrotate is a Linux utility that renames and reuses system error log files on a periodic basis so that they don't occupy excessive disk space. you'll have to allow traffic on this port to pass through the security device. allowing for daily updates. Apr 11 22:09:35 smallfry lpd: lpd shutdown succeeded Apr 11 22:09:39 smallfry lpd: lpd startup succeeded . If you are logging to a remote syslog server via a firewall. Linux Client [root@smallfry tmp]# /etc/init.. PIX firewalls. Syslog and Firewalls Syslog listens by default on UDP port 514.d/lpd restart Stopping lpd: [ OK ] Starting lpd: [ OK ] [root@smallfry tmp]# Linux Server [root@bigboy tmp]# tail /var/log/messages .Chapter 7: Configuring Syslog 67 You can now test to make sure that the syslog server is receiving the messages with a simple test such as restarting the lpd printer daemon and making sure the remote server sees the messages.. . The chapter on Miscellaneous Topics has examples of how to configure syslog to do this with Cisco devices using separate log files for the routers.conf File This is logrotate’s general configuration file in which you can specify the frequency with which the files are reused.. o You can specify either “weekly” or “daily” rotation parameter.. . CSS arrowpoints and LocalDirectors. switches.. The /etc/logrotate. In the case below the weekly option is "commented out" with a "#". switches...

2 logfile. The "create" parameter creates a new log file after each rotation Therefore our sample configuration file will create daily archives of ALL the logfiles and store them for seven days.conf # rotate log files weekly #weekly # rotate log files daily daily # keep 4 weeks worth of backlogs #rotate 4 # keep 7 days worth of backlogs rotate 7 # create new (empty) log files after rotating old ones create The /etc/logrotate. while allowing 7 copies.5 logfile.d/syslog File (For General System Logging) /var/log/cisco/* /var/log/messages /var/log/secure /var/log/maillog /var/log/spooler /var/log/boot.com o o The "rotate" parameter specifies the number of copies of log files logrotate will maintain.d Directory Most Linux applications that use syslog will put an additional configuration file in this directory to specify the names of the log files to be rotated.log /var/log/cron { sharedscripts postrotate /bin/kill -HUP `cat /var/run/syslogd.0 logfile. Here are some sample files which define the specific files to be rotated for each application.pid 2> /dev/null` 2> /dev/null || true endscript } .68 www.4 logfile.3 logfile. It is a good practice to verify that all new applications that you want to use the syslog log have configuration files in this directory.linuxhomenetworking. In the case below the 4 copy option is "commented out" with a "#".1 logfile.6 Sample contents of /etc/logrotate. The files will have the following names with "logfile" being current active version: logfile logfile. The /etc/logrotate.

Chapter 7: Configuring Syslog 69 The /etc/logrotate.log { notifempty missingok sharedscripts copytruncate postrotate /bin/kill -HUP `cat /var/lock/samba/*.pid 2>/dev/null` 2> /dev/null || true endscript } The /etc/logrotate.pid 2> /dev/null` 2> /dev/null || true endscript } Activating logrotate The above logrotate settings will not take effect until you issue the following command to do so: [root@bigboy tmp]# logrotate –f If you want logrotate to reload only a specifc configuration file.d/apache File (For Apache) /var/log/httpd/access_log /var/log/httpd/agent_log /var/log/httpd/error_log /var/log/httpd/referer_log { missingok sharedscripts postrotate /bin/kill -HUP `cat /var/run/httpd. and not all of them.d/samba File (for SAMBA) /var/log/samba/*. then issue the logrotate command with just that filename as the argument like this: [root@bigboy tmp]# logrotate -f /etc/logrotate.d/syslog .

com .70 www.linuxhomenetworking.

When Linux is installed. this device is called "eth0".com =========================================== This chapter covers how to configure your Linux box’s networking features. You can determine the IP address of this device with the "ifconfig" command. www.linuxhomenetworking.Chapter 7: Configuring Syslog 71 Chapter 8 Linux Networking =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 8 Linux Networking How To Configure Your NIC's IP Address How To Change Your Default Gateway How Configure Two Gateways How To Delete A Route How To View Your Current Routing Table How To Convert Your Linux Server Into A Router Configuring Your /etc/hosts File © Peter Harrison. How To Configure Your NIC's IP Address Determining Your IP Address Most modern PCs come with an ethernet port. [root@bigboy tmp]# ifconfig -a eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:08:C7:10:74:A8 BROADCAST MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 .

168.0 up The "up" at the end of the command activates the interface.168. This can also be found in less detail in the file /proc/interrupts Changing Your IP Address If you wanted. one assumes the interface has a fixed IP address.1 netmask 255..100 and a subnet mask of 255.0 UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1 RX packets:787 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:787 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 RX bytes:82644 (80. you could give this eth0 interface an IP address using the ifconfig command.0.0. eth0 has no IP address as this box is using wireless interface wlan0 as it's main NIC.1.7 Kb) wlan0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:06:25:09:6A:B5 inet addr:192.255.0. etc.4 Mb) TX bytes:43209032 (41.1.168.local file.168.255. [root@bigboy tmp]# ifconfig eth0 10.168.255. eth1 uses ifcfg-eth1 .0.0 You can see that this command gives good information on the interrupts used by each card.0.255.255..linuxhomenetworking.com collisions:0 txqueuelen:100 RX bytes:0 (0.0 b) Interrupt:11 Base address:0x1820 lo Link encap:Local Loopback inet addr:127.2 Mb) Interrupt:11 Memory:c887a000-c887b000 wlan0:0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:06:25:09:6A:B5 inet addr:192. Interface wlan0 has an IP address of 192.255.99 Bcast:192.1.72 www. Linux also makes life a little easier with interface configuration files located in the /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts directory. To make this permanent each time you boot up you'll have to add this command in your /etc/rc. Here are two samples for interface eth0. the other assumes it requires an IP address assignment using DHCP.0 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 Interrupt:11 Memory:c887a000-c887b000 [root@bigboy tmp]# In this example.255 Mask:255.d/rc.255.255 Mask:255.0 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:47379 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:107900 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:100 RX bytes:4676853 (4.1. .1.255.7 Kb) TX bytes:82644 (80.0.0 b) TX bytes:0 (0.1 Mask:255. You can place your IP address information in these files which are then used to auto-configure your NICs when Linux boots.100 Bcast:192. Interface eth0 has a file called ifcfg-eth0.

255. You can read more about netmasks and DHCP on the introduction to networking chapter. Interface wlan0:0 is actually a "child" of interface wlan0.Chapter 8: Linux Networking 73 network-scripts File Formats Fixed IP Address [root@bigboy tmp]# cd /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts [root@bigboy network-scripts]# more ifcfg-eth0 DEVICE=eth0 BROADCAST=192.0 NETWORK=192.1.100 NETMASK=255.1.168. a virtual sub-interface also known as an "IP alias".1.168. where "X" is the sub-interface number of your choice. IP aliasing is one of the most common ways of creating multiple IP addresses associated with a single NIC. The ifdown and ifup commands can be used to do this.255 IPADDR=192. Once you change the values in the configuration files for the NIC you'll have to deactivate and activate it for the modifications to take effect. [root@bigboy network-scripts]# ifdown eth0 [root@bigboy network-scripts]# ifup eth0 Multiple IP Addresses On A Single NIC In the previous "determining your IP address" section you may have noticed that there were two wireless interfaces. Aliases have the name format "parent-interface-name:X".168.0 ONBOOT=no [root@bigboy network-scripts]# Getting the IP Address using DHCP [root@bigboy tmp]# cd /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts [root@bigboy network-scripts]# more ifcfg-eth0 DEVICE=eth0 BOOTPROTO=dhcp ONBOOT=yes [root@bigboy network-scripts]# As you can see eth0 will be activated on booting as the parameter ONBOOT has the value "yes" and not "no". . One's named wlan0 and the other wlan0:0.255.

0 up o You then have the choice of creating a /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-wlan0:0 file or adding the ifconfig command used above to your /etc/rc.rpm Preparing.99 \ netmask 255. In this we want to create interface wlan0:0 Create the virtual interface with the ifconfig command [root@bigboy tmp]# ifconfig wlan0:0 192.4-7.d/rc. Your ISP will provide you with a PPPoE “username” and “password” which will allow your computer to login transparently to the Internet each time it boots up. broadcast address and gateway information provided by your ISP and you should have connectivity once you restart your interface.com The process for creating an IP alias is very similar to the steps outlined for the real interface in the previous "changing your IP address" section. By default. ########################################### [100%] 1:rp-pppoe ########################################### [100%] [root@bigboy tmp]# You’ll then need to go through a number of steps to complete the connection. o o o IP Address Assignment For A Direct DSL Connection If you are using a DSL connection with fixed or “static” IP addresses.rpm.255.i386. the chapter on RPMs covers how to do this in detail. First ensure the "parent" real interface exists Verify that no other IP aliases with the same name exists with the name you plan to use. Install the package using the following command: [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh rp-pppoe-3.4-7.linuxhomenetworking. then the process is different. Here’s what you need to do: . Remember that you may also need to configure your DNS server correctly.255.local file to ensure the IP address is assigned properly when you reboot.0. RedHat Linux installs the rp-pppoe RPM software package required to support this. You plug your ethernet interface into the DSL modem. Downloading and installing RPMs isn’t hard. then the configuration steps are the same as those outlined above.i386.74 www. If you are using a DSL connection with a DHCP or “dynamic” IP address assignment.168. subnet mask.1. configure it with the IP address. If you need a refresher..0 is rp-pppoe-3.. The PPPOE configuration will create a software based virtual interface named ppp0 that will use the physical Internet interface eth0 for connectivity. as of version 8. The latest version of the RPM for RedHat 8.

Enter the demand value (default no): . If you want the link to stay up permanently. LOGIN NAME Enter your Login Name (default root): bigboy-login@isp INTERFACE Enter the Ethernet interface connected to the ADSL modem For Solaris. Welcome to the ADSL client setup. DEVICE=eth0 ONBOOT=no o Shutdown your eth0 interface. I will run some checks on your system to make sure the PPPoE client is installed properly. this is likely to be something like /dev/hme0.) NOTE: Demand-activated links do not interact well with dynamic IP addresses. enter 'no' (two letters.Chapter 8: Linux Networking 75 o Make a backup copy of your ifcfg-eth0 file. the interface to be used (eth0) and whether you want to the connection to stay up indefinitely. For Linux. [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy ifcfg-eth0 [root@bigboy tmp]# tmp]# cd /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ network-scripts]# ls ifcfg-eth0 network-scripts]# cp ifcfg-eth0 DISABLED. You may have some problems with demand-activated links.ifcfg-eth0 o Edit your ifcfg-eth0 file to have no IP information and also to be deactivated on boot time. enter the idle time in seconds after which the link should be dropped. where 'X' is a number. We’ll use defaults wherever possible. First. it will be ethX. [root@bigboy network-scripts]# ifdown eth0 [root@bigboy network-scripts]# o Run the adsl-setup configuration script [root@bigboy network-scripts]# adsl-setup o It will prompt you for your ISP username. (default eth0): Do you want the link to come up on demand.. or stay up continuously? If you want it to come up on demand.. lower-case.

or the more comprehensive one found in the Appendix. 1 . They are very basic and don’t cover rules to make your Linux box a web server. ftp. If you are running any servers on your machine. etc.) if you want to allow normal user to start or stop DSL connection (default yes): o The rp-pppoe package has two sample ipchains firewall scripts located in the /etc/ppp directory named firewall-standalone and firewall-masq.NONE: This script will not set any firewall rules.MASQUERADE: Appropriate for a machine acting as an Internet gateway for a LAN Choose a type of firewall (0-2): 0 . lower-case.linuxhomenetworking. Otherwise. Note that these rules are very basic. FIREWALLING Please choose the firewall rules to use.conf file. If you want your ISP to automatically provide the IP address of its DNS server then enter the word “server”. you must choose 'NONE' and set up firewalling yourself. You are STRONGLY recommended to use some kind of firewall rules. If you’re running BIND on your server in a caching DNS mode then you may want to leave this option blank.com o It will then prompt you for your DNS server information. If you are using SSH. If your ISP claims that 'the server will provide dynamic DNS addresses'. This step will edit your /etc/resolv. The firewall choices are: 0 . If you just press enter.76 www. Enter the DNS information here: o The script will then prompt you for your ISP password PASSWORD Please enter your Password: Please re-enter your Password: o Then it will ask whether you want regular users (not superuser “root”) to be able to activate/deactivate the new ppp0 interface USERCTRL Please enter 'yes' (two letters. You are strongly encouraged to use a more sophisticated firewall setup. the firewall rules will deny access to all standard servers like Web. I’d recommend selecting “none” and using a variant of the basic script samples in the firewall chapter. enter 'server' (all lower-case) here. DNS Please enter the IP address of your ISP's primary DNS server. DNS server nor mail server. these will provide basic security.STANDALONE: Appropriate for a basic stand-alone web-surfing workstation 2 . You are responsible for ensuring the security of your machine. e-mail. I will assume you know what you are doing and not modify your DNS setup. the rules will block outgoing SSH connections which allocate a privileged source port. however.

This command defaults to show information for interface ppp0 and therefore listing the ifcfg-ppp0 filename won’t be necessary in most home enviornments.bak) o At the very end it will tell you the commands to use to activate /deactivate your new ppp0 interface and to get a status of the interface’s condition.Chapter 8: Linux Networking 77 o You’ll then be asked whether you want the connection to be activated upon booting. you’ll get a summary of the parameters you entered and the relevant configuration files will be updated to reflect your choices when you accept them. ** Summary of what you entered ** Ethernet Interface: eth0 User name: bigboy-login@isp Activate-on-demand: No DNS: Do not adjust Firewalling: NONE User Control: yes Accept these settings and adjust configuration files (y/n)? y Adjusting /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-ppp0 Adjusting /etc/ppp/chap-secrets and /etc/ppp/pap-secrets (But first backing it up to /etc/ppp/chap-secrets. it should be all set up! Type '/sbin/ifup ppp0' to bring up your xDSL link and '/sbin/ifdown ppp0'to bring it down.bak) (But first backing it up to /etc/ppp/pap-secrets. The first is the ifcfgppp0 file with interface’s link layer connection parameters [root@bigboy network-scripts]# more ifcfg-ppp0 USERCTL=yes BOOTPROTO=dialup NAME=DSLppp0 DEVICE=ppp0 TYPE=xDSL ONBOOT=yes PIDFILE=/var/run/pppoe-adsl. Start this connection at boot time Do you want to start this connection at boot time? Please enter no or yes (default no):yes o Just before exiting. Most people would say “yes”.pid FIREWALL=NONE . The above example recommends using the adsl-status command with the name of the PPPoE interface configuration file. Type '/sbin/adsl-status /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-ppp0' to see the link status. Congratulations. Some Important Files Created By adsl-setup • The adsl-setup script creates three files that will be of interest to you.

POINTOPOINT.com).com PING=.RUNNING.linuxhomenetworking. [root@bigboy network-scripts]# more /etc/ppp/pap-secrets # Secrets for authentication using PAP # client server secret IP addresses "bigboy-login@isp" * "password" [root@bigboy network-scripts]# Simple Troubleshooting • You can run the adsl-status command to determine the condition of your connection. adsl-status may be inaccurate. There are some good tips there on how to avoid problems with VPN clients. but ppp0 is down [root@bigboy tmp]# • After activation. In this case the package has been installed but the interface hasn’t been activated. [root@bigboy tmp]# ifup ppp0 [root@bigboy tmp]# adsl-status adsl-status: Link is up and running on interface ppp0 ppp0: flags=8051<UP. . PPPOE_TIMEOUT=20 LCP_FAILURE=3 LCP_INTERVAL=80 CLAMPMSS=1412 CONNECT_POLL=6 CONNECT_TIMEOUT=60 DEFROUTE=yes SYNCHRONOUS=no ETH=eth0 PROVIDER=DSLppp0 USER= bigboy-login@isp PEERDNS=no [root@bigboy network-scripts]# • The others are the duplicate /etc/ppp/pap-secrets and /etc/ppp/chap-secrets files with the username and password needed to login to your ISP. the interface appears to work correctly.78 www.MULTICAST> mtu 1462 inet … … … [root@bigboy tmp]# • For further troubleshooting information you can visit the website of rp-ppoe at Roaring Penguin (www. adsl-status: Link is attached to ppp0. [root@bigboy tmp]# adsl-status Note: You have enabled demand-connection.roaringpenguin.

0. Here's a typical scenario: • You have one router providing access to the Internet which you'd like to have as your default gateway (See the default gateway example above) • You also have another router providing access to your corporate network using addresses in the range 10.0.1.0 gw 192. wlan0 net 10.1.0 gw 192. [root@bigboy tmp]# route add default gw 192.1 is connected to the same network as interface wlan0 ! Once done.0. .168.0.168.168.254 The Linux box used in this example uses interface wlan0 for its Internet connectivity.0.1 Some people don't bother with this step and just place the "route add" command in the file /etc/rc.1.0.255. This example uses a newly installed wireless interface called wlan0.d/rc.0 to 10.255.d/rc.168. This file is used to configure your default gateway each time Linux boots.254 Some people don't bother with this step and just place the "route add" command in the file /etc/rc. you'll need to update your /etc/sysconfig/network file to reflect the change. Let's assume that this router has an IP address of 192.Chapter 8: Linux Networking 79 How To Change Your Default Gateway This can be done with a simple command.0.1.local. most PCs would be using the standard ethernet interface eth0.255. Add the new route as follows: route add -net 10.168.1 wlan0 In this case.168.0. make sure that the router / firewall with IP address 192.0.254 wlan0 The file etc/sysconfig/static-routes will also have to updated so that the route is reinstated when you reboot. NETWORKING=yes HOSTNAME=bigboy GATEWAY=192. please adjust your steps accordingly.0 netmask 255.0 netmask 255. A more complicated /etc/sysconfig/static-routes file is located in a following section. You may be most likely using interface eth0.1.local How Configure Two Gateways Some networks may have multiple router / firewalls providing connectivity.0. Here is a sample.1.

11. [root@bigboy tmp]# netstat -nr Kernel IP routing table Destination Gateway Genmask 255.16. As no gateway is needed to reach your own directly connected interface then an address of 0.16.67.0.16.255.192 0.16.255.0.0.16. [root@bigboy tmp]# netstat -nr Kernel IP routing table Destination Gateway Genmask 172.0 are usually directly connected to the interface.0 0.0.0 127.1.67.16.255. Delete the line that reads: wlan0 net 10.255.1.1.0 172.255. there are multiple gateways handling traffic destined for different networks on different interfaces.255.255.193 255.0.0 0.0.linuxhomenetworking.255.255.0.0 192.192 172.67.193 0.135 255. the default and one to 255.160.0.0.0 172.0.0.0.0.255.255.0 [root@bigboy tmp]# Flags UH U U UG MSS 40 40 40 40 Window 0 0 0 0 irtt 0 0 0 0 Iface wlan0 wlan0 lo wlan0 • In this example.255 192.0 [root@bigboy tmp]# Flags UG UG UG UG U U UG UG U UG MSS 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 Window 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 irtt 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Iface eth1 eth1 eth1 eth0 eth1 eth0 eth0 eth0 lo eth1 • Here is what the static routes file looks like for this multi-homed (Multiple NICs) server .0.67.0.0 0.69.240.0 0.69.0.16.0 172.0.0.0 0.0 netmask 255.128 0.0.0.193 255.0 gw 192.168.128 172.254 wlan0 The file etc/sysconfig/static-routes will also have to be updated so that when you reboot the server will not reinsert the route.0.255.69.255.0 255.67.224 172.68.0 172.0.16.0 255.0 netmask 255.0.224 172.0.255.0.131 255.16.0.0.0.com How To Delete A Route Here's how to delete the routes added in the previous section.0 127.0.69.0 gw 192.1 0. Server bigboy is a DHCP server in this case.255.68.255. • In this example there are two gateways.0.96 172.0 seems appropriate.0.0 255.193 255.135 255.16.0 255.0.255 which is usually added on DHCP servers.0.224 172.255. Networks with a gateway of 0.224 172.0 172.0.255.0.80 www.16. route del -net 10.16.0.0.32 172.168.168.0.255.69.0.16.254 How To View Your Current Routing Table The netstat -nr command will provide the contents of the touting table.0.0.64 172.0 255.0.1.255.0 255.255.0.255 0.168.16.

Proxy ARP activation needs to be done for each ethernet interface on your Linux box.0 netmask 255.131 eth0 net 172.64 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 172.135 eth1 net 172.69. This example is for interfaces eth0 and wlan0.69.ipv4.16.d/rc.255. In simple terms packet forwarding lets packets flow through the Linux box from one network to another.160.255. [root@bigboy tmp] echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/eth1/proxy_arp [root@bigboy tmp] echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/wlan0/proxy_arp (You can determine your network interface names with the ifconfig -a command) There is no purpose built configuration file to force Linux to do proxy ARP on booting. To activate the feature immediately you have to create a single lined text file called /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward and it only contain the value "1".ipv4.16.32 netmask 255.67.conf.0 gw 172.224 gw 172.16.135 eth0 net 172.96 netmask 255.193 eth1 net 172. The best way to do this is put the commands above in your /etc/rc. you have to enable packet forwarding.16.16.224 gw 172.16. Before # Disables packet forwarding #net.224 gw 172.0 netmask 255.67.0 netmask 255.255.67.69. Proxy ARP has to be enabled for the Linux box to answer ARP requests.ip_forward=1 This will only enable it when you reboot at which time Linux will create a file in one of the subdirectories of the special RAM memory based /proc filesystem.16. All computers that need to communicate with a computer on another network send out an ARP request to get the Ethernet MAC address (separate from the IP address) of the most desirable router in their routing table.193 [root@bigboy tmp]# How To Convert Your Linux Server Into A Router For your Linux server to become a router.68.255.16. Remove the "#" from the line related to packet forwarding.local file .67.ip_forward=1 After # Disables packet forwarding net. The router will reply with its MAC address which the server will use when forwarding the packet to the router. Here is how it's done: [root@bigboy tmp] echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward The next step needed will be activating proxy ARP.68.193 eth1 net 172.16.16.11.240. The configuration parameter to activate this is found in the file /etc/sysctl.Chapter 8: Linux Networking 81 [root@bigboy tmp]# more /etc/sysconfig/static-routes eth0 net 172.0.224 gw 172.0.0.255.255.255.16.

The Netfilter iptables pages show how to do this.0.my-site.1 localhost. if the name is found with a corresponding IP address then DNS won't be queried. First determine what your true hostname is: [root@bigboy mail]# hostname bigboy [root@bigboy mail]# o Add the corresponding entry in the /etc/hosts file for the NIC's IP address o Your NIC's /etc/hosts File Format Your machine's name is NOT listed with a DNS server IP-address hostname. Configuring Your /etc/hosts File The /etc/hosts lists the name and IP address of local hosts. • The /etc/hosts file has the following format: ip-address fully-qualified-domain-name alias1 alias2 alias3 etc • The very first line should always look like this with "localhost" being the only alias: 127. Unfortunately. you'll have to update file. then you have to add another entry in this file. it is best to limit entries in this file to just the loopback interface.com echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/eth1/proxy_arp echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/wlan0/proxy_arp Remember to configure a default route on your Linux box to point to your Internet gateway. and also the local host's name and use the centralized DNS server handle the rest. You may also want to convert your new Linux router into a firewall to protect your home network. if the IP address for that host changes.0.linuxhomenetworking. Your server will typically check this file before referencing DNS. For ease of management.localdomain hostname Your machine's name is listed with a DNS server IP-address hostname.com hostname Here are some examples: .82 www.localdomain localhost • If you have a NIC card in the server.

.168.com 192.168.1.1.100 bigboy.com bigboy mail www Note: Only have one line per IP address in this file.Chapter 8: Linux Networking 83 • Host bigboy with an IP address of 192. If you server has multiple names.168.1.100 is the mail and web server for domain my-site.1.168.my-site.com with corresponding entries in the DNS zone file for my-site.localdomain bigboy • Host bigboy with an IP address of 192.100 isn't part of any DNS domain 192.100 bigboy. then just put the two or three aliases that you feel are most important.

84

www.linuxhomenetworking.com

Chapter 8: Linux Networking

85

Chapter 9

Simple Network Troubleshooting
===========================================

In This Chapter Chapter 9
Simple Network Troubleshooting
How To See Your ARP Table How To Use "Ping" To Test Network Connectivity Using "traceroute" To Test Connectivity Viewing Packet Flow With TCPdump © Peter Harrison, www.linuxhomenetworking.com ===========================================

You will eventually find yourself trying to fix a network related problem. Here are some troubleshooting
tips to help you discover what the problem could be.

How To See MAC Addresses
There are times when you lose connectivity with another server that is directly connected to your local network. Taking a look at the ARP table of the server from which you are troubleshooting will help determine whether or not the remote server’s NIC is responding to any type of traffic from your Linux box. Lack of communication at this level may mean: • Either server may be disconnected from the network • There may be bad network cabling • A NIC may be disabled or the remote server may be shut down Here is a description of the commands you may use to determine ARP values • The "ifconfig -a" command will show you both the NIC's MAC address and the associated IP addresses of the server which you are currently logged in to.

86

www.linuxhomenetworking.com

[root@bigboy tmp]# ifconfig -a wlan0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:06:25:09:6A:B5 inet addr:192.168.1.100 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:47379 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:107900 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:100 RX bytes:4676853 (4.4 Mb) TX bytes:43209032 (41.2 Mb) Interrupt:11 Memory:c887a000-c887b000 wlan0:0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:06:25:09:6A:B5 inet addr:192.168.1.99 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 Interrupt:11 Memory:c887a000-c887b000 [root@bigboy tmp]# Here you can see the wlan0 interface has two IP addresses 192.168.1.100 and 192.168.1.99 tied to the NIC hardware MAC address of 00:06:25:09:6A:B5 • The "arp -a" command will show you the MAC addresses in your server's ARP table. Here we see we have some form of connectivity with the router at address 192.168.1.1 [root@bigboy root]# arp -a bigboypix (192.168.1.1) at 00:09:E8:9C:FD:AB [ether] on wlan0 ? (192.168.1.101) at 00:06:25:09:6A:D7 [ether] on wlan0 [root@bigboy root]# • You should also check the ARP table of the remote server to see whether it is populated with acceptable values too.

How To Use "Ping" To Test Network Connectivity
Whether or not your troublesome server is connected to your local network it is always a good practice to force a response from it. One of the most common methods used to test connectivity across multiple networks is the "ping" command. Ping sends ICMP “echo” type packets that request a corresponding ICMP “echo-reply” response from the device at the target address. As most servers will respond to a ping query it becomes a very handy tool. A lack of response could be due to: • A server with that IP address doesn't exist • The server has been configured not to respond to pings • A firewall or router along the network path is blocking ICMP traffic • You have incorrect routing. Check routes on the local, remote servers and all routers in between. A classic symptom of bad routes on a server is the ability to only ping servers on your local network and nowhere else. There are a variety of ICMP response codes which can help in further troubleshooting. See the appendix for a full listing of them.

Chapter 9: Simple Network Troubleshooting

87

The Linux ping command will send continuous pings, once a second, until stopped with a <Ctrl-C>. Here is an example of a successful ping to the server bigboy at 192.168.1.100 [root@smallfry tmp]# ping 192.168.1.101 PING 192.168.1.101 (192.168.1.101) from data. 64 bytes from 192.168.1.101: icmp_seq=1 64 bytes from 192.168.1.101: icmp_seq=2 64 bytes from 192.168.1.101: icmp_seq=3 64 bytes from 192.168.1.101: icmp_seq=4

192.168.1.100 : 56(84) bytes of ttl=128 ttl=128 ttl=128 ttl=128 time=3.95 time=7.07 time=4.46 time=4.31 ms ms ms ms

--- 192.168.1.101 ping statistics --4 packets transmitted, 4 received, 0% loss, time 3026ms rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 3.950/4.948/7.072/1.242 ms [root@smallfry tmp]# You may get a "Destination Host Unreachable" message if your router or server knows that the target IP address is part of a valid network, but is getting no response from the target server. The network device sends an ICMP reply type 3 which triggers the message. [root@smallfry tmp]# ping 192.168.1.105 PING 192.168.1.105 (192.168.1.105) from 192.168.1.100 : 56(84) bytes of data. From 192.168.1.100 icmp_seq=1 Destination Host Unreachable From 192.168.1.100 icmp_seq=2 Destination Host Unreachable From 192.168.1.100 icmp_seq=3 Destination Host Unreachable From 192.168.1.100 icmp_seq=4 Destination Host Unreachable From 192.168.1.100 icmp_seq=5 Destination Host Unreachable From 192.168.1.100 icmp_seq=6 Destination Host Unreachable --- 192.168.1.105 ping statistics --8 packets transmitted, 0 received, +6 errors, 100% loss, time 7021ms, pipe 3 [root@smallfry tmp]#

Using "traceroute" To Test Connectivity
Another tool for network troubleshooting is the traceroute command. It gives a listing of all the router hops between your server and the target server. This helps you verify that routing over the networks in between is correct. Traceroute works by sending a UDP packet destined to the target with a TTL of "0". The first router on the route recognizes that the TTL has already been exceeded and discards or “drops” the packet, but also sends an ICMP "time exceeded" message back to the source. The traceroute program records the IP address of the router that sent the message and knows that that is the first hop on the path to the final destination. The traceroute program tries again, with a TTL of "1". The first hop, sees nothing wrong with the packet, decrements the TTL to 0 as expected, and forwards the packet to the second hop on the path. Router 2, sees the TTL of "0", drops the packet and replies with an ICMP time exceeded message. Traceroute now knows the IP address of the second router. This continues around and around until the final destination is reached.

88

www.linuxhomenetworking.com

Here is a sample output for a query to 144.232.20.158: [root@bigboy root]# traceroute 144.232.20.158 traceroute to 144.232.20.158 (144.232.20.158), 30 hops max, 38 byte packets 1 adsl-67-120-221-110.dsl.sntc01.pacbell.net (67.120.221.110) 14.304 ms 14.019 ms 16.120 ms 2 dist3-vlan50.sntc01.pbi.net (63.203.35.67) 12.971 ms 14.000 ms 14.627 ms 3 bb1-g1-0.sntc01.pbi.net (63.203.35.17) 15.521 ms 12.860 ms 13.179 ms 4 bb2-p11-0.snfc21.pbi.net (64.161.124.246) 13.991 ms 15.842 ms 15.728 ms 5 bb1-p14-0.snfc21.pbi.net (64.161.124.53) 16.133 ms 15.510 ms 15.909 ms 6 sl-gw11-sj-3-0.sprintlink.net (144.228.44.49) 16.510 ms 17.469 ms 18.116 ms 7 sl-bb25-sj-6-1.sprintlink.net (144.232.3.133) 16.212 ms 14.274 ms 15.926 ms 8 * * * 9 * * [root@bigboy root]# If there is no response within a 5 second timeout interval a "*" is printed for that probe. Possible causes of this and other traceroute status messages are listed below:

Possible Traceroute Messages
Traceroute Symbol *** Description Time exceeded. Could be caused by: • A router on the path not sending back the ICMP "time exceeded" messages • A router or firewall in the path blocking the ICMP "time exceeded" messages • The target IP address not responding Host, network or protocol unreachable Communication administratively prohibited. A router Access Control List (ACL) or firewall is in the way Source route failed. Source routing attempts to force traceroute to use a certain path. Failure may be due to a router security setting

!H, !N, or !P !X or !A !S

Some devices will prevent traceroute packets directed at their interfaces, but will allow ICMP packets. Using traceroute with a “-I” flag forces traceroute to use ICMP packets that may go through. In this case the "* * *", status messages disappear. [root@bigboy root]# traceroute -I 144.232.20.158 traceroute to 144.232.20.158 (144.232.20.158), 30 hops max, 38 byte packets 1 adsl-67-120-221-110.dsl.sntc01.pacbell.net (67.120.221.110) 14.408 ms 14.064 ms 13.111 ms

Chapter 9: Simple Network Troubleshooting

89

2 dist3-vlan50.sntc01.pbi.net (63.203.35.67) 13.018 ms 12.887 ms 13.146 ms 3 bb1-g1-0.sntc01.pbi.net (63.203.35.17) 12.854 ms 13.035 ms 13.745 ms 4 bb2-p11-0.snfc21.pbi.net (64.161.124.246) 16.260 ms 15.618 ms 15.663 ms 5 bb1-p14-0.snfc21.pbi.net (64.161.124.53) 15.897 ms 15.785 ms 17.164 ms 6 sl-gw11-sj-3-0.sprintlink.net (144.228.44.49) 14.443 ms 16.279 ms 15.189 ms 7 sl-bb25-sj-6-1.sprintlink.net (144.232.3.133) 16.185 ms 15.857 ms 15.423 ms 8 sl-bb23-ana-6-0.sprintlink.net (144.232.20.158) 27.482 ms 26.306 ms 26.487 ms [root@bigboy root]#

Always Get A Bidirectional Traceroute
It is always best to get traceroutes from the source IP to the target IP and also from the target IP to the source IP. This is because the packet's return path from the target is sometimes not the same as the path taken to get there. A high traceroute time equates to the round trip time for both the initial traceroute query to each “hop” and the response of each “hop”. Here is an example of one such case, using disguised IP addresses and provider names. There was once a routing issue between telecommunications carriers FastNet and SlowNet. When a user at IP address 40.16.106.32 did a traceroute to 64.25.175.200, a problem seemed to appear at the 10th. hop with OtherNet. However, when a user at 64.25.175.200 did a traceroute to 40.16.106.32, latency showed up at hop 7 with the return path being very different. In this case, the real traffic congestion was occurring where FastNet handed traffic off to SlowNet in the second trace. The latency appeared to be caused at hop 10 on the first trace not because that hop was slow, but because that was the first hop at which the return packet traveled back to the source via the congested route. Remember, traceroute gives the packet round trip time. Trace route to 40.16.106.32 from 64.25.175.200 1 0 ms 0 ms 2 0 ms 0 ms 3 0 ms 0 ms [207.174.144.169] 4 0 ms 0 ms 5 0 ms 0 ms 6 0 ms 0 ms 7 0 ms 0 ms 8 30 ms 30 ms 9 30 ms 30 ms 10 1252 ms 1212 ms 11 1252 ms 1212 ms 12 1262 ms 1212 ms 13 1102 ms 1091 ms 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 30 30 1202 1192 1192 1092 [64.25.175.200] [64.25.175.253] border-from-40-tesser.boulder.co.coop.net [64.25.128.126] p3-0.dnvtco1-cr3.othernet.net [4.25.26.53] p2-1.dnvtco1-br1.othernet.net [4.24.11.25] p15-0.dnvtco1-br2.othernet.net [4.24.11.38] p15-0.snjpca1-br2.othernet.net [4.0.6.225] p1-0.snjpca1-cr4.othernet.net [4.24.9.150] h0.webhostinc2.othernet.net [4.24.236.38] [40.16.96.11] [40.16.96.162] [40.16.106.32]

Trace route to 64.25.175.200 from 40.16.106.32 1 2 3 4 1 1 2 1 ms ms ms ms 1 1 1 1 ms ms ms ms 1 1 1 1 ms ms ms ms [40.16.106.3] [40.16.96.161] [40.16.96.2] [40.16.96.65]

64.inet.webh02-1. G:\>ping 186.dnvtco1-cr3.94 and 186.40.200] Ping & Traceroute Troubleshooting Example In this example.223.17.94] [186.net [205.net [4.coop.slownet.othernet.co.24.ge0-1-net2.226] p15-0.net rtr-2.153] over a maximum of 30 hops: 1 2 3 4 5 6 <10 60 70 60 70 60 ms ms ms ms ms ms <10 70 71 70 70 70 ms ms ms ms ms ms <10 60 70 60 70 61 ms ms ms ms ms ms 186.9.net [64.fastnet.9.sfj.7.9.64.inet.linuxhomenetworking.93] [186.othernet.slownet.54] gw234.94] [186.171.17.dnvtco1-br2.97] [205.net [186.40.29] svl-core-03.paix-bi1.9.40.snjpca1-br2.40.64.153 with 32 bytes of data: Reply Reply Reply Reply from from from from 186.25.153 gave a “TTL timeout” message.17.net ms core1.217.0.64. Received = 4.net [4.205.sfj.confusion.0.9.othernet. Maximum = 0ms.fastnet.net rtr-1.77] 6 2 ms 1 [216.1 rtr-2.25.net [186.40. Ping TTLs will usually only timeout if there is a routing loop in which the packet bounces between two routers on the way to the target.com 5 2 ms 2 [216.6.40.93. transit.64.153 Tracing route to lostserver.61] p9-0.net [4.cointcorp.inet.confusion.boulder.net ms ms ms ms ms ms ms ms ms ms ms ms ms ms sjo-edge-03.37] p1-0.64.confusion.othernet.94] .othernet.46.snjpca1-br1.49.64.net [4.2.dnvtco1-br1.net rtr-1.94: 186.153: Packets: Sent = 4.253] [64.171.90 www.26. Each “bounce” causes the TTL to decrease by a count of one until the TTL reaches zero at which point you get the timeout.5.64.33.9. The routing loop was confirmed by the traceroute in which the packet was proven to be bouncing between routers at 186.othernet.175.94: 186.11.130] p3-0.17.175.25.confusion.93] [186.11.net [4. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. a ping to 186.net rtr-2.33] sjo-core-01.9.24.52.17.94: TTL TTL TTL TTL expired expired expired expired in in in in transit.64.othernet.19.153 Pinging 186. transit.25.net [4.26] p0-0.64. transit.40.40.64. Lost = 0 (0% loss).65] 7 993 ms 961 8 1009 ms 1008 9 985 ms 947 10 1028 ms 1010 11 989 ms 988 12 1002 ms 1001 13 1031 ms 989 14 1031 ms 1017 15 1027 ms 1025 16 1045 ms 1037 17 1030 ms 1020 18 1038 ms 1031 19 1050 ms 1094 20 1050 ms 1094 ms 1 ms 1 ms ms ms ms ms ms ms ms ms ms ms ms ms ms 999 971 983 953 985 973 978 1017 1023 1050 1045 1045 1034 1034 ms border8.99] [64.24.net [205. Ping statistics for 186.40.40.slownet.52.94: 186.171.24.net [208.22.40.confusion.net [4.confusion.30] p4-3.p4-2. Average = 0ms G:\>tracert 186.128.17.13] p6-0.

confusion.. The router immediately after the last visible one is the one at which the routing changes. . It could be disconnected.confusion. 70 ms 60 ms 70 ms rtr-1.64..64..40.) The network on which you expect the target host to reside doesn’t exist in the routing table of one of the routers in the path (!H or !N messages may be produced. The traceroute will probably fail at the bad router on the return path.40. The problem was initially triggered by an unstable network link that caused frequent routing recalculations.net [186. Do a traceroute from this router to your intended target server. The router immediately after the last visible one is usually the culprit.Chapter 9: Simple Network Troubleshooting 91 7 70 ms 70 ms 8 60 ms 70 ms 9 70 ms 70 ms . Possible Reasons For Failed Traceroutes Traceroutes can fail to reach their intended destination for a number of reasons. If it doesn’t work: Test the routing table and/or other status of all the hops between it and your intended target. these include: o Traceroute packets are being blocked or rejected by a router in the path. . The target server doesn’t exist on the network..confusion. The packets don’t have a proper return path to your server. o o o o o . If this works: Routing to the target server is OK. (!H or !N messages may be produced. It’s usually good to: log on to the last visible router..net [186. Look at the routing table to determine what the next hop is to your intended traceroute target.64. The last visible hop being the last hop in which the packets return correctly. then the last visible router of an incomplete trace is either the last good router on the path. The constant activity eventually corrupted the routing tables of one of the routers.93] This problem was solved by resetting the routing process on both routers. or the last router that has a valid return path to the server issuing the traceroute.40. Trace complete.net [186..94] rtr-1. or turned off. Do a traceroute back to your source server. Log on to this next hop router.93] rtr-2. It’s usually good to check the routing table and/or other status of this next hop device.) You may have a typographical error in the IP address of the target server You may have a routing loop in which packets bounce between two routers and never get to the intended destination. Note: If there is nothing blocking your traceroute traffic.

interfaces of devices in the packet flow • The server not listening on the port because the software isn't installed or started Analyzing tcpdump in much greater detail is beyond the scope of this section.linuxhomenetworking.92 www. especially if you are doing simpler types of troubleshooting. then tcpdump will use the lowest numbered interface that is UP Don't print a timestamp at the beginning of each line You can also add expressions after all the command line switches. tcpdump uses command line switches to modify the output. If this is not specified. Like most Linux commands.com Viewing Packet Flow With TCPdump Tcpdump is one of the most popular packages for viewing the flow of packets through your Linux box's NIC card. Some of the more useful command line switches would include: Possible TCPdump Messages tcpdump command switch -c -i -t Description Stop after viewing count packets. Listen on interface. One of the most common uses of tcpdump is to determine whether you are getting basic two way communication. It is installed by default on RedHat linux and has very simple syntax. These act as filters to limit the volume of data presented on the screen. You can also use keywords such as "and" or "or" between expressions to further fine tune your selection criteria. Lack of communication could be due to: • Bad routing • Faulty cables. Some useful expressions include: .

928257 smallfry > bigboy.com > smallfry: 9 packets received by filter 0 packets dropped by kernel [root@bigboy tmp]# Explanation o o o o The first column of data is a packet time stamp.my-site.com: 21:48:58.963966 bigboy.my-site.Chapter 9: Simple Network Troubleshooting 93 Useful TCPdump Expressions tcpdump command expression host host-address icmp tcp port port-number Description View packets from the IP address host-address View icmp packets View TCP packets with packets with either a source or destination TCP port of portnumber View UDP packets with either a source or destination UDP port of port-number udp port port-number Example: tcpdump used to view ICMP "ping" packets going through interface wlan0 [root@bigboy tmp]# tcpdump -i wlan0 icmp tcpdump: listening on wlan0 21:48:58.com > smallfry: 21:48:58.my-site.com: 21:48:58. The second column of data shows the packet source then destination IP address or server name of the packet The third column shows the packet type Two way communication is occurring as each echo gets an echo reply icmp: icmp: icmp: icmp: icmp: icmp: icmp: icmp: icmp: echo echo echo echo echo echo echo echo echo request (DF) reply request (DF) reply request (DF) reply reply reply reply .com: 21:48:58.927510 bigboy.com > smallfry: 21:48:58.927091 smallfry > bigboy.my-site.my-site.my-site.com > smallfry: 21:48:58.com > smallfry: 21:48:58.944034 bigboy.my-site.my-site.943926 smallfry > bigboy.my-site.962244 bigboy.928365 bigboy.968556 bigboy.com > smallfry: 21:48:58.

ssh: 5840 <mss 1460.nop.168.com.32938: 0x10] bigboy.1.wscale 0> (DF) [tos R 0:0(0) ack 2013297021 win 0 S 2013297020:2013297020(0) win 0.ssh > smallfry.my-site.102 and tcp port 22 tcpdump: listening on wlan0 smallfry.sackOK.32938: (DF) [tos 0x10] smallfry.timestamp 75227931 0x10] bigboy.com.my-site.32938: 0x10] smallfry.com.com. Two way communication is occuring .168.32938 > bigboy.com.ssh > smallfry.32938: R 0:0(0) ack 1 win 0 (DF) [tos 0x10] 9 packets received by filter 0 packets dropped by kernel [root@bigboy root]# Explanation o o o o The first column of data shows the packet source then destination IP address or server name of the packet The second column shows the TCP flags within the packet The client named "bigboy" is using port 32938 to communicate with the server named "smallfry" on the TCP SSH port 22.1.my-site.my-site.timestamp 75227931 0x10] bigboy.timestamp 75227931 0x10] bigboy.my-site.32938 > bigboy.my-site.wscale 0> (DF) [tos R 0:0(0) ack 1 win 0 (DF) [tos R 0:0(0) ack 1 win 0 (DF) [tos bigboy.ssh: 5840 <mss 1460.com.my-site.com Example: tcpdump used to view packets on interface wlan0 to/from host 192.com.ssh > smallfry.ssh: 5840 <mss 1460.linuxhomenetworking.32938: R 0:0(0) ack 1 win 0 (DF) [tos 0x10] bigboy.32938: 0x10] S 2013297020:2013297020(0) win 0.my-site.32938 > bigboy.sackOK.ssh > smallfry.wscale 0> (DF) [tos R 0:0(0) ack 1 win 0 (DF) [tos S 2013297020:2013297020(0) win 0.sackOK.94 www.ssh > smallfry.nop.my-site.com.com.ssh > smallfry.nop.102 on TCP port 22 with no timestamps in the output [root@bigboy root]# tcpdump -i wlan0 -t host 192.

Chapter 9: Simple Network Troubleshooting 95 .

com .96 www.linuxhomenetworking.

Wireless Linux Compatible NICs Not all wireless NIC cards work with Linux-WLAN.org for the latest hardware compatibility list.97 Chapter 10 Linux Wireless Networking =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 10 Linux Wireless Networking Wireless Linux Compatible NICs Linux-WLAN Preparation Installing The Linux-WLAN Drivers Post Installation Steps Linux-WLAN Encryption For Security Troubleshooting Your Wireless LAN © Peter Harrison. For this reason it is best to check the Linux-WLAN group’s website at www. As of version 8. or have upgraded your RedHat distribution’s kernel then you can refer to the sections on how to install WLAN from universally usable tar files. www. . For this reason it may be good to keep your regular Ethernet NIC installed in the machine to provide connectivity to the web until you get the wireless NIC to work.0.linux-wlan.linuxhomenetworking. If you are not running RedHat Linux. You have to download and install them after installing Linux. RedHat did not ship with the Linux Wireless driver set (Linux-WLAN) installed.com =========================================== This chapter will show you how to configure wireless NIC cards on your Linux box. or you could ask someone to burn a CD with the files needed for installation.

4. You can determine whether you have this model by looking for the “V2. If you don't. You may find more information in syslog or the output from dmesg Dec 1 01:28:14 bigboy insmod: /lib/modules/2.7 card using a Broadcom chipset will not.7 (or v2. latency 64.98 www. non-prefetchable) [size=3D8K] Capabilities: [40] Power Management version 2 Installing the WMP11 v2. Aug 25 21:07:06 hostname kernel: p80211knetdev_hard_start_xmit: Tx attempt prior to association.7 with the linux-WLAN tarball will give the following error in the log file /var/log/messages 00:0c. The WMP 11 Version 2. Be careful as this message can also be due to you using an SSID in your configuration files that doesn’t match the SSID of your WAP / wireless router.0 Network controller: BROADCOM Corporation: Unknown device 4301 (rev01) Subsystem: Unknown device 1737:4301 Flags: bus master. fast devsel.18-14/net/prism2_pci. IRQ 5 Memory at f4000000 (32-bit. The older version of the card that uses the Intersil chipset works with Linux.7) model of the WMP11 card using a Broadcom chipset.7” which is very clearly stamped on the front side of these cards. the original WMP won’t work without upgrading the firmware. Even so.7 WMP 11 Card This card uses the Linux-WLAN compatible Intersil chipset and doesn’t have any version number stamped on it. including invalid IO or IRQ parameters.7 as being an incompatible device. your Linux box may not detect your NIC card at all and you will get kernel error messages like this one in /var/log/messages after you finish installing the software. The linux-wlan.o: init_module: No such device Dec 1 01:28:14 bigboy insmod: Hint: insmod errors can be caused by incorrect module parameters.com The Linksys WMP11 NIC and Linux You have to be especially carefull with Linksys WMP series of wireless PCI cards. frame dropped. Linksys launched a Version 2. then install the card in a windows box and upgrade the firmware. but the newer version 2.18-14/net/prism2_pci.org site's hardware compatibility page now lists the WMP v2. You’ll have to download and install the latest firmware for a card from the Linksys website.7 with the linux-WLAN tarball using RPMs will give the following error message on the screen: Dec 1 01:28:14 bigboy insmod: /lib/modules/2.o: insmod wlan0 failed . Installing the WMP11 v2.linuxhomenetworking. Pre Version 2.7 Card In September 2002.4.

rpm Downloading and installing RPMs isn’t hard. Remember to download the files for the correct kernel type.1. [root@bigboy tmp]# uname -p i586 [root@bigboy tmp]# . Downloading and installing RPMs isn’t hard. OS version and kernel version.Chapter 10: Linux Wireless Networking 99 Linux-WLAN Preparation All devices on a wireless network must use the same “Network Identifier” or SSID in order to communicate with each other. Always be prepared to check your syslog /var/log/messages file for errors if things don't work. Linux-WLAN doesn’t identify the wireless NIC as an Ethernet “eth” device.Using RPMs 2.raleigh. It is a good source of information. It’s a good idea to decide on a common SSID and stick with it. The syslog chapter will also show you how to set up syslog error logging to be more sensitive to error types. If you need a refresher. RPM versions of the driver files can be found at http://prism2.us. The latest version as of this writing was: kernel-pcmcia-cs-3. the RPM chapter covers how to do this in detail. Determining The Kernel Type Use the "uname -p" command. This step isn't necessary for true PCI cards such as the Linksys WMP11. the default SSID for your windows NIC cards may be different.unixguru. According to the linux-wlan documentation. This is good to know in order to avoid confusion when troubleshooting.nc. Once configured. You may get "device unknown" or "no such device" errors related to the wlan device in the /var/log/messages file if you use older unpatched versions of the Linux-WLAN software. this will have to be done from a source RPM. The default SSID for Linux-WLAN is “linux-wlan”. Download the latest version of linux-wlan RPM. If you need a refresher. but as a “wlan” device.31-9. PCMCIA Type Card Specific Information Before installing the linux-wlan software for PCMCIA type cards such as the (Linksys WPC11) you will need to install the RedHat Linux "pcmcia-cs" RPM package. Always use the most recent versions to reduce the installation mental stress. The Bigboy server discussed in the Topology chapter is running a i586 version of Linux. the RPM chapter covers how to do this in detail.i386. always use the uname version. The Linux version may not match the CPU you have installed. Installing The Linux-WLAN Drivers Linux-WLAN Installation .

3.155.i586.com Determining The OS Version One of the easiest ways is to view the /etc/issue file.100 www.opts files which you may have to restore from the automatically saved versions. . I have seen the kernel-wlan-ng-pcmcia rpm installation give errors stating that the kernel-pcmcia-cs rpm hadn't been previously installed even when it had been. Installing the rpm with --force and --nodeps switches does the trick by forcing the installation while not checking for dependencies.0 [root@bigboy cron.rpm If you get any error messages during the installation.140.conf and /etc/pcmcia/wlanng. Here are examples for a i586 installation using a PCI card on Redhat 8.daily]# Determining The Kernel Version You can use the "uname -r" command to do this. you’ll need to download and install the base. Always remember that under normal circumstances this wouldn’t be a good idea. error messages are there for a reason.rpm [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh kernel-wlan-ng-modules-rh80. In this case.4.18-14 [root@bigboy tmp]# uname -r 2. However.1.15-5.0 [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh kernel-wlan-ng-0. then you're doing something wrong. The combined Linux / Linux-WLAN upgrade will also create new versions of your /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-wlan0.1. Once you have all this information. Bigboy is running version 8.4.i586.1.0 (Psyche) Kernel \r on an \m [root@bigboy cron. Bigboy is running version 2.linuxhomenetworking.i586.155.rh80.rh80.daily]# more /etc/issue Red Hat Linux release 8. you'll have to do these steps all over again.rh80. module and interface packages.rpm [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh kernel-wlan-ng-pci-0. /etc/wlan.18-14 [root@bigboy tmp]# If you upgrade the version of your Linux.

1. The most recent version as of this writing was: linux-wlan-ng-0. The default wlan0 network configuration is DHCP..3 it was version 2. Adjust accordingly.4.18-3.i686. ACHTUNG! ATTENTION! WARNING! YOU MUST configure /etc/pcmcia/wlan-ng.14]# make clean linux-wlan-ng-0.1.rpm Download And Install The Linux-WLAN TAR File Download the latest version of Linux-WLAN from www.1.tar.i686.14 linux-wlan-ng-0.14-pre1.opts to match WAP settings!!! [root@smallfry tmp]# Linux-WLAN Installation – Using TAR files If you are running a non standard version of your RedHat kernel or using a version of Linux that is incompatible with RPMs.14]# make config . If you are running standard RedHat Linux use the RPMs unless you have excess patience. Starting PCMCIA services: modules cardmgr.1.18-3. you'll probably have to do these steps all over again Install the Kernel Source Files Installing Linux-WLAN using TAR files involves compiling the software to make it match the particular flavor of the Linux kernel you are running.1.156.Chapter 10: Linux Wireless Networking 101 [root@smallfry tmp]# rpm -Uvh kernel-wlan-ng-pcmcia-0.. then you’ll need to use the TAR file installation method.15-6 [root@smallfry tmp]# rpm -Uvh --force --nodeps kernel-wlan-ngpcmcia-0.gz Unzip and install the Linux-WLAN files [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy tmp]# gunzip linux-wlan-ng-0.. [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh kernel-source-2. It is therefore important to install your kernel sources files. Remember that if you upgrade your Linux version or kernel.conf file.tar tmp]# cd linux-wlan-ng-0.linux-wlan.rpm error: Failed dependencies: kernel-pcmcia-cs is needed by kernel-wlan-ng-pcmcia-0.gz tmp]# tar -xvf linux-wlan-ng-0.1.1. ########################################### [100%] 1:kernel-wlan-ng-pcmcia ########################################### [100%] Adding prism2_cs alias to /etc/modules.14-pre1.org.1.15-6..1.tar.rpm Preparing.4. Shutting down PCMCIA services: cardmgr modules.i386. For RedHat version 7.14-pre1.

plx.d/wmp11 3.1. Select only a single module directory as using more than one can lead to future "make" problems.102 www. and usb driver questions When you are prompted for the "Module install directory" enter /lib/modules/”linux-kernelversion”. #!/bin/bash modprobe prism2_pci wlanctl-ng wlan0 lnxreq_ifstate ifstate=enable wlanctl-ng wlan0 lnxreq_autojoin ssid=linux_wlan authtype=opensystem exit 0 Remember to modify the SSID in the above commands to match that of your WAP. Edit /etc/modules.d directory [root@bigboy tmp]# vi /etc/init.14]# make all [root@bigboy linux-wlan-ng-0. and usb driver questions (PCMCIA cards only) Say 'y' to pcmcia and 'n' to pci. Get a directory listing of /lib/modules/ beforehand to make sure you are providing the correct kernel directory that both matches your kernel version and that also actually has files in it.conf and insert the following line to load the driver on booting: alias wlan0 prism2_pci 2. The response should be: . where “linux-kernel-version“ is the version of the kernel.1. Create a startup driver configuration file called wmp11 (or whatever you NIC card is named) in the /etc/init.14]# make install o Configure The New wlan0 Interface Driver (PCI Cards) 1. You can also test these commands from the command line to see if they work. Use other defaults =========================================== [root@bigboy linux-wlan-ng-0. Add the following 4 lines to the file. plx.com =========================================== Running “make config” command will prompt you for information: o o o (PCI cards only) Say 'y' to pci and 'n' to pcmcia.linuxhomenetworking.

d and /etc/rc5. when configured to specifically run on the IP address of your interface.local. but this makes the driver load at the end of the booting process and the wlan0 interface will be inactive till then. then start over making sure you are using the latest versions of the Linux-WLAN software. it may not matter and you could put these commands in your /etc/rc. If you don’t want to use the /etc/rc.d/rc. 4. Make the file executable so that it will be able to run on the next system reboot. which is the default setting for the applications above.d/wmp11 be run before "S10network" during the boot process.d tmp]# ln -s ..d tmp]# ls *network* (Verify the "network" tmp]# ln -s .d/wmp11 S09wmp11 Configure The New wlan0 Interface Driver (PCMCIA Cards) Open and edit the configuration options file.conf. Some web sites recommend putting the driver loading commands in /etc/rc. NOTE: Never alias for the PCMCIA cards in /etc/modules. You will need to create a symbolic link called "S09wmp11" to make /etc/init. the system needs to load the drivers for the interface before it will activate the interface. The next step is to create a link to this file in the startup directories. Locate the lines containing "ssid=linux_wlan" and set the SSID to whatever value you’ve decided to use on your wireless LAN.local file instead and save yourself a lot of grief.. as it is not neccessary. which won't work.opts.d/rc. [root@bigboy tmp]# chmod 755 /etc/init. may fail to start if the interface is down. and also it will cause the system to try to bring up wlan0 before the PCMCIA services.Chapter 10: Linux Wireless Networking 103 message=lnxreq_autojoin ssid=linksys authtype=opensystem resultcode=success If you get a resultcode=error or something else. If your applications are set to promiscuous listening./init. At this time. /etc/pcmcia/wlan-ng.d/wmp11 5.d/wmp11 S09wmp11 tmp]# cd /etc/rc5. When booting. the "Link" LED on your NIC card will come on solid.d/rc. In RedHat the default network startup script link in /etc/rc3./init. . but applications such as Samba.local file then you need to ensure that you run your custom driver script before the Linux "network" script starts up the wlan0 interface device you will create later. [root@bigboy [root@bigboy filename) [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy tmp]# cd /etc/rc3.d is named "S10network". DHCP server. This may not be a problem for many installations. DNS (named) and SSH. as it has established a link with the WAP11 access point.

104 www. Edit /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 file to have an ONBOOT=no entry. Make sure you have correct gateway statement in your /etc/sysconfig/network file. netmask.1 o o Disable Your Existing Ethernet NIC You may want to disable your existing eth0 Ethernet interface after installing the drivers.168.168.conf file (PCI type NIC) or your /etc/pcmcia/wlan-ng.1.255. eg.1. Locate the lines containing "ssid=linux_wlan" and set the SSID to whatever value you’ve decided to use on your wireless LAN.1. broadcast address with those above. Select the Wireless mode and SSID Edit your /etc/wlan.com Post Installation Steps Configure The New wlan0 Interface Edit /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-wlan0 to include the following lines: DHCP Version ============ DEVICE=wlan0 USERCTL=yes ONBOOT=yes BOOTPROTO=dhcp Fixed IP Version ================= DEVICE=wlan0 BROADCAST=192.100 NETMASK=255. Also modify the IS_ADHOC option to make your NIC either support "adhoc" mode for peer to peer networks or "infrastructure" mode if you are using a WAP.168.0 ONBOOT=yes In the fixed IP version you will also need to: Substitute your selected IP.opts file (PCMCIA type NICs) configuration file.d/network is restarted. GATEWAY=192.1.168. .0 NETWORK=192.linuxhomenetworking.255.255 IPADDR=192. network. This will disable the interface on reboot or when /etc/init.

Insert the card in an empty slot in your Linux box and reboot. If that is the case. .d/pcmcia restart [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. Inspect your /var/log/messages file again: [root@bigboy tmp]# tail -300 /var/log/messages Look carefully for any signs that the card is interfering with existing card IRQs.d/network restart Now check to see IP address of the wlan interface is OK [root@bigboy tmp]# ifconfig -a [root@bigboy tmp]# ping <gateway-address> Check For Interrupt Conflicts Before installing the software you should ensure that the wireless NIC card doesn’t have an interrupt that clashes with another device in your computer. y . If there is a conflict there will usually be a warning.d/init.d/wlan restart PCI Cards – Installed Using TAR Files [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. or "IRQ also used by. #=======SELECT STATION MODE=================== IS_ADHOC=n # y|n. move the card to a different slot.Chapter 10: Linux Wireless Networking 105 Here is a sample snippet.d/wmp11 [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.infrastructure #=======INFRASTRUCTURE STATION START=================== # SSID is all we have for now AuthType="opensystem" # opensystem | sharedkey (requires WEP) # Use DesiredSSID="" to associate with any AP in range DesiredSSID="linksys" Simulate a Reboot Run the following commands and test for errors in the file /var/log/messages: PCI Cards – Installed Using RPMs [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init... n .d/network restart PCMCIA Cards [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/rc. or otherwise eliminate the conflict by disabling the conflicting device if you don’t really need it." message.adhoc.

255. the base memory address which was used by Linux to communicate with the cards were different.255.3 Mb) TX bytes:7678679 (7.8 Mb) Interrupt:11 Memory:c887a000-c887b000 [root@bigboy tmp]# .3 Mb) wlan0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:06:25:09:6A:B5 inet addr:192. newer PCI based systems generally handle conflicts better.255 Mask:255. You can check both the interrupts and base memory of your NIC cards after doing the software installation by using the "ifconfig -a" command: [root@bigboy tmp]# ifconfig -a eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:08:C7:10:74:A8 BROADCAST MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:100 RX bytes:0 (0.0 UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1 RX packets:88418 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:88418 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 RX bytes:7678679 (7.com After you’ve installed the software.0. eth0 [root@bigboy tmp]# more /proc/interrupts 11: 4639 XT-PIC wlan0 (bad) (good) Interrupt conflicts are usually more problematic with old style PC-AT buses. The above (bad) /proc/interrupts example came from a functioning PCI based Linux box.100 Bcast:192.168.linuxhomenetworking.0 b) TX bytes:0 (0.1 Mask:255. you can also inspect your /proc/interrupts file for multiple devices having the same interrupt [root@bigboy tmp]# more /proc/interrupts 11: 4639 XT-PIC wlan0.0.1.106 www.1.5 Mb) TX bytes:126738425 (120.0 b) Interrupt:11 Base address:0x1820 lo Link encap:Local Loopback inet addr:127.168.0. the reason why it worked was that though the interrupt was the same.0 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:215233 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:447594 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:100 RX bytes:39394014 (37.0.

you can use the /sbin/nwepgen program to generate the keys once you provide your easy to remember key generator string. Settings only matter if PrivacyInvoked is true lnxreq_hostWEPEncrypt=false # true|false lnxreq_hostWEPDecrypt=false # true|false dot11PrivacyInvoked=true dot11WEPDefaultKeyID=1 dot11ExcludeUnencrypted=true # true|false. in AP this means WEP # is required for all STAs # If PRIV_GENSTR is not empty. With encryption. To invoke encryption. In the example below. Here is how you can use nwepgen to create the keys with a generator string of "ketchup". The /etc/wlan. If this is the case. Once you have the four sets of keys. you have to set the "dot11PrivacyInvoked" parameter to "true" and state which of the keys will be used as the default starting key via the "dot11WEPDefaultKeyID" parameter. You then have the option of either providing a key generating string (simple password) or all four of the keys. You may find the same generator string will not create the same keys.opts file (PCMCIA type NICs) file is also used to activate this feature. "ketchup" is the password used to automatically generate the keys. [root@bigboy tmp]# /sbin/nwepgen ketchup 64:c1:a1:cc:db 2b:32:ed:37:16 b6:cc:9e:1b:37 d7:0e:51:3f:03 [root@bigboy tmp]# . Note: I must strongly recommend that you first set up your network without encryption. Set genstr or keys.g. dot11WEPDefaultKey0= # format: xx:xx:xx:xx:xx or dot11WEPDefaultKey1= # xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx dot11WEPDefaultKey2= # e. and intra-network communication will be impossible. use PRIV_GENTSTR to generate # keys (just a convenience) PRIV_GENERATOR=/sbin/nwepgen # nwepgen.conf file (PCI type NIC) or the /etc/pcmcia/wlanng. the client must have a membership encryption password which can also be represented as a series of Wireless Encryption Protocol (WEP) keys.conf (or /etc/pcmcia/wlan-ng. Neesus compatible PRIV_KEY128=false # keylength to generate PRIV_GENSTR="ketchup" # or set them explicitly. you'll have to add them them individually and in sequence to the /etc/wlan.Chapter 10: Linux Wireless Networking 107 Linux-WLAN Encryption For Security One of the flaws of wireless networking is that all the wireless clients can detect the presence of all available network SSIDs and have the option of joining any of them. 01:20:03:40:05 or dot11WEPDefaultKey3= # 01:02:03:04:05:06:07:08:09:0a:0b:0c:0d Not all devices on your network will use the same algorithm method to generate the encryption keys. not both. #=======WEP=========================================== # [Dis/En]able WEP.opts) file and set the PRIV_GENSTR parameter to "". Only migrate to an encrypted design after you are satisfied that the unencrypted design works satisfactorily.

d/wlan start Starting WLAN Devices:message=lnxreq_hostwep resultcode=no_value decrypt=false encrypt=false [root@bigboy tmp]# ifup wlan0 . [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.d/wlan stop Shutting Down WLAN Devices:message=lnxreq_ifstate ifstate=disable resultcode=success [root@bigboy tmp]# ifdown wlan0 o Even though you have done these two steps. NIC cards without full Linux-WLAN compatibility will freeze up after a number of hours of working with encryption. and remove the Linux-WLAN related entries using rmmod [root@bigboy tmp]# lsmod Module Size … … prism2_pci 66672 p80211 20328 … … Used by Not tainted 1 1 (autoclean) [prism2_pci] [root@bigboy tmp]# rmmod prism2_pci [root@bigboy tmp]# rmmod p80211 o Restart Linux-WLAN and reactivate the wlan0 interface and you should be functional again. though not active. the driver is still loaded in memory. dot11WEPDefaultKey0= 64:c1:a1:cc:db dot11WEPDefaultKey1= 2b:32:ed:37:16 dot11WEPDefaultKey2= b6:cc:9e:1b:37 dot11WEPDefaultKey3= d7:0e:51:3f:03 Remember that all devices on your network will need to have the same keys and default key for this to work. This includes all wireless NICs and WAPs De-activating Encryption In some cases. Set genstr or keys. The steps to reverse encryption are: o o Set the configuration file parameter "dot11PrivacyInvoked" to "false" Stop Linux-WLAN and disable the wireless wlan0 interface [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.conf file would look like this: PRIV_GENSTR="" # or set them explicitly.com In this case your /etc/wlan. not both.108 www. Your next steps will be to list all the active drivers in memory with the lsmod command.linuxhomenetworking.

p80211 Kernel errors in /var/log/messages usually point to an incorrectly configured SSID Nov 13 22:24:54 bigboy kernel: p80211knetdev_hard_start_xmit: Tx attempt prior to association. then check your /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-wlan0 file for a correct IP configuration and your routing table to make sure your routes are OK. frame dropped. The chapter on logging covers how to do this in more detail. result=110 Troubleshooting Your Wireless LAN Always check the /var/log/messages file for possible errors arising from the software installation. If there are no errors in /var/log/messages and you can’t ping your gateways or obtain an IP address. You can also check to see if your Linux box is out or range of the WAP. Jan 2 18:11:12 bigboy kernel: prism2sta_ifstate: hfa384x_drvr_start() failed.result=-110 Jan 2 18:11:18 bigboy kernel: hfa384x_docmd_wait: hfa384x_cmd timeout(1). . Jan 2 18:11:18 bigboy kernel: hfa384x_drvr_start: Initialize command failed. Jan 2 18:11:18 bigboy kernel: hfa384x_drvr_start: Failed. reg=0x8021.Chapter 10: Linux Wireless Networking 109 o If you fail to reload the driver modules you’ll get errors like these below in your /var/log/messages file.

linuxhomenetworking.110 www.com .

www.com =========================================== You can convert your Linux box into a firewall using the IPtables package.linuxhomenetworking.111 Chapter 11 Linux Firewalls Using iptables =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 11 Linux Firewalls Using iptables What Is iptables? Download And Install The Iptables Package How To Get iptables Started Packet Processing In iptables Iptables Packet Flow Diagram Processing For Packets Routed By The Firewall Packet Processing For Data Received By The Firewall Packet Processing For Data Sent By The Firewall Targets And Jumps Descriptions Of The Most Commonly Used Targets Important Iptables Command Switch Operations General Iptables Match Criteria Common TCP and UDP Match Criteria Common ICMP (Ping) Match Criteria Common Match Extensions Criteria Using User Defined Chains Sample iptables Scripts Basic Initialization Allowing DNS Access To Your Firewall Allowing WWW And SSH Access To Your Firewall Allowing Your Firewall To Access The Internet Allow Your Home Network To Access The Firewall Masquerading (Many to One NAT) Port Forwarding Type NAT Static NAT Logging & Troubleshooting © Peter Harrison. This page shows how to convert your Linux box into: .

. As a result of this. Downloading and installing RPMs isn’t hard.2.i386. Each of these queue is dedicated to a particular type of packet activity and is controlled by an associated packet transformation / filtering chain. For example.6a-2. web and DNS server. the chapter on RPMs covers how to do this in detail. The Netfilter organization decided to create a new product called iptables in order to rectify this shortcoming. • A router that will use NAT and port forwarding to both protect your home network and have another web server on your home network while sharing the public IP address of your firewall What Is iptables? Originally.d/iptables stop [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. The latest version of the RPM for RedHat 8.rpm. the most popular firewall / NAT package running on Linux was ipchains. .2. If you need a refresher. the primary one being that it ran as a separate program and not as part of the kernel. iptables has now become the default firewall package installed under RedHat Linux.0 is iptables-ipv6-1.com • A firewall while simultaneously being your home website's mail. there’ll be tables and examples of how the concepts are all interlinked.d/iptables start [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.linuxhomenetworking. Download And Install The Iptables Package Most RedHat Linux software products are available in the RPM format. Install the package using the following command: [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh iptables-ipv6-1. Don’t worry if this all seems confusing.. iptables is considered a faster and more secure alternative. It had a number of limitations.rpm Preparing. the chart and graphic below describe the steps taken by iptables when a packet traverses the firewall.112 www.i386.d/iptables restart To get iptables configured to start at boot: [root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig --level 345 iptables on Packet Processing In iptables All packets inspected by iptables pass through a sequence of built-in tables (queues) for processing.6a-2. ########################################### [100%] 1:iptables ########################################### [100%] [root@bigboy tmp]# How To Get iptables Started You can start/stop/restart iptables after booting by using the following commands: [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.

Chapter 11: Linux Firewalls Using iptables 113 Iptables Packet Flow Diagram .

(Rarely used) Destination network address translation (DNAT) N/A Determines whether the packet is destined to a local application or should be sent out another NIC interface Packet filtering: Packets destined for servers accessible by another NIC on the firewall.com Processing For Packets Routed By The Firewall Packet flow Intercepted by iptables chain (Queue) Packet transformation table associated with this queue PREROUTING Description of possible modifications by iptables using this transformation table Modification of the TCP packet quality of service bits.linuxhomenetworking.114 www. Source network address translation (SNAT) N/A Packet enters the NIC and is passed to iptables Mangle Nat PREROUTING Packet passed to the Linux routing engine N/A N/A Packet passed back to iptables Filter FORWARD Nat POSTROUTING Packet transmitted out the other NIC N/A N/A .

The packet is intercepted by the iptables mangle. (Rarely used) Packet destined for firewall Packet enters the NIC from remote server. . then nat queues mangle nat PREROUTING Destination network address translation (DNAT) Packet filtering: Packets destined for the firewall. The packet is then passed from iptables to the Linux routing engine.Chapter 11: Linux Firewalls Using iptables 115 Packet Processing For Data Received By The Firewall Packet flow Actions by Operating System Packet intercepted by iptables table (Queue) Packet transformation chain associated with this queue PREROUTING Description of possible modifications by iptables using this transformation table Modification of the TCP packet quality of service bits. The routing engine passes the packet to the target application via the iptables filter queue filter INPUT The application receives the packet from iptables then processes it.

116 www.linuxhomenetworking. Source network address translation (SNAT) filter OUTPUT The packet is then passed to the Linux routing engine which forwards the packet out the correct NIC The packet is intercepted by the iptables nat table nat POSTROUTING Packet transmitted out a NIC . nat and filter tables mangle OUTPUT Modification of the TCP packet quality of service bits. (Rarely used) nat OUTPUT Source network address translation (Rarely used) Packet filtering: Packets destined for other servers / devices.com Packet Processing For Data Sent By The Firewall Packet flow Actions by Operating System Packet intercepted by iptables table (Queue) Packet transformation chain associated with this queue Description of possible modifications by iptables using this transformation table The application sends data to a remote server Packet originating from firewall The packet is intercepted by iptables which then processes it in the mangle.

but will also return an error message to the host sending the packet that was blocked N/A Most common options DROP N/A LOG --log-prefix "string" Tells iptables to prefix all log messages with a user defined string. Descriptions Of The Most Commonly Used Targets Target ACCEPT Description • iptables stops further processing. Frequently used to tell why the logged packet was dropped REJECT --reject-with qualifier The qualifier tells what type of reject message is returned. The first will LOG the packet. So in summary. the targets/jumps tell the rule what to do with a packet that matches the rule perfectly.Chapter 11: Linux Firewalls Using iptables 117 Targets And Jumps You don't have to rely solely on the built-in chains provided by iptables. it is common to have two similar rules in sequence. There are a number of built-in targets that most rules may use. • The packet is handed over to the end application or the operating system for processing • iptables stops further processing. you can create your own chains. These include: icmp-port-unreachable (default) icmp-net-unreachable icmp-host-unreachable icmp-proto-unreachable icmp-net-prohibited icmp-host-prohibited tcp-reset echo-reply DNAT • Used to do Destination Network Address Translation.rewriting the destination IP address of the --to-destination ipaddress Tells iptables what the destination IP . These can be accessed by making them the targets of "jumps" in the built-in chains. ie. • The packet is blocked • The packet information is sent to the syslog daemon for logging • iptables continues processing with the next rule in the table • As you can't LOG and DROP at the same time. • Works like the DROP target. the second will DROP it.

. • Used to do Source Network Address Translation.118 www. ie.rewriting the source IP address of the packet • The source IP address is user defined • Used to do Source Network Address Translation.rewriting the source IP address of the packet • By default the source IP address is the same as that used by the firewall's interface MASQUERADE [--to-ports <port>[-<port>]] Specifies the range of source ports the original source port can be mapped to. ie.linuxhomenetworking.com Target packet SNAT Description Most common options address should be --to-source <address>[<address>][:<port>-<port>] Specifies the source IP address and ports to be used by SNAT.

nat. As discussed before. udp.168. mangle Append rule to end of a chain Flush. icmp. Deletes all the rules in the selected table Match protocol.1.Chapter 11: Linux Firewalls Using iptables 119 Important Iptables Command Switch Operations We’ll now explore how to use iptables command switches used to create your firewall. Types include. tcp. all Match source IP address Match destination IP address Match "input" interface on which the packet enters. the possible built-in tables include: filter.1 .1 -p TCP -j ACCEPT In this example iptables is being configured to allow the firewall to accept TCP packets coming in on interface eth0 from any IP address destined for the firewall's IP address of 192. General Iptables Match Criteria iptables command Switch -t <table> Description If you don't specify a table. then the filter table is assumed.168.1. Match "output" interface on which the packet exits -A -F -p <protocol-type> -s <ip-address> -d <ip-address> -i <interface-name> -o <interface-name> Example: iptables -A INPUT -s 0/0 -i eth0 -d 192.

linuxhomenetworking.168. not a new connection request --sport <port> TCP source port Can be a single value or a range in the format: starting-port:endingport Description switches used with -p udp Description --dport <port> --dport <port> TCP destination port Can be a single value or a range in the format: starting-port:endingport --syn Example: iptables -A FORWARD -s 0/0 -i eth0 -d 192.120 www.com Common TCP and UDP Match Criteria switches used with -p tcp --sport <port> TCP source port Can be a single value or a range in the format: start-portnumber:end-portnumber TCP destination port Can be a single value or a range in the format: starting-port:endingport Used to identify a new connection request ! --syn means.1.58 -o eth1 -p TCP \ -sport 1024:65535 -dport 80 -j ACCEPT In this example iptables is being configured to allow the firewall to accept TCP packets to be routed when they enter on interface eth0 from any IP address destined for IP address of 192.168.58 that is reachable via interface eth1.1. The source port is in the range 1024 to 65535 and the destination port is port 80 (www/http) .

port> A variety of TCP/UDP source ports separated by commas A variety of TCP/UDP destination ports separated by commas A variety of TCP/UDP ports separated by commas. Description --dport <port. port> --dport <port.Chapter 11: Linux Firewalls Using iptables 121 Common ICMP (Ping) Match Criteria Matches used with ---icmp-type --icmp-type <type> The most commonly used types are echo-reply and echo-request Description Example: iptables -A OUTPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -j ACCEPT iptables -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-reply -j ACCEPT In this example iptables is being configured to allow the firewall send ICMP echo-requests (pings) and in turn. Common Match Extensions Criteria TCP/UDP match extensions used with -m multiport --sport <port. Source and destination ports are assumed to be the same. accept the expected ICMP echo-replies. port> .

168. it is sufficient to allow packets related to established connections using the -m state and --state ESTABLISHED options. Instead of stating the source and destination ports.168. . We are also allowing the return packets from 192.58 -o eth1 -p TCP \ -sport 1024:65535 -m multiport -dport 80.1.1.com Match extensions used with -m state --state <state> Description The most frequently tested states are: ESTABLISHED The packet is part of a connection which has seen packets in both directions NEW The packet is the start of a new connection RELATED The packet is starting a new secondary connection.122 www. The source port is in the range 1024 to 65535 and the destination ports are port 80 (www/http) and 443 (https).linuxhomenetworking.58 that is reachable via interface eth1.58 -i eth1 -p TCP \ -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT This is an expansion on the previous example.58 to be accepted too. Example: iptables -A FORWARD -s 0/0 -i eth0 -d 192. This is a common feature of protocols such as an FTP data transfer.168.1.443 -j ACCEPT iptables -A FORWARD -d 0/0 -o eth0 -s 192.1.168. or an ICMP error. Here iptables is being configured to allow the firewall to accept TCP packets to be routed when they enter on interface eth0 from any IP address destined for IP address of 192.

Example: iptables -A INPUT -i eth0 -d 206.229. instead of having a single chain for all protocols. iptables can be configured to have user-defined chains.110.Chapter 11: Linux Firewalls Using iptables 123 Using User Defined Chains As stated in the introduction.2 -j fast-output-queue iptables -A fast-input-queue -p icmp -j icmp-queue-in iptables -A fast-output-queue -p icmp -j icmp-queue-out iptables -A icmp-queue-out -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request \ -m state --state NEW -j ACCEPT iptables -A icmp-queue-in -p icmp --icmp-type echo-reply -j ACCEPT In this example we have six queues with the following characteristics to help assist in processing speed: Chain INPUT Description The regular built-in INPUT chain in iptables The regular built-in OUTPUT chain in iptables Input chain dedicated to specific protocols Output chain dedicated to specific protocols Output queue dedicated to ICMP Intput queue dedicated to ICMP OUTPUT fast-input-queue fast-output-queue icmp-queue-out icmp-queue-in .2 -j fast-input-queue iptables -A OUTPUT -o eth0 -s 206. This feature is frequently used to help streamline the processing of packets. it is possible to have a chain that determines the protocol type for the packet and then hands off the actual final processing to a protocol specific chain. In other words. you can replace a long chain with a main stubby chain pointing to multiple stubby chains thereby shortening the total length of all chains the packet has to pass through. For example.229.110.

linuxhomenetworking. UDP and ICMP packets. it is not good policy to make your "nat" and "mangle" tables DROP packets by default. FORWARD and OUTPUT chains should DROP packets by default for the best security. However. then they will not reach the the INPUT. This chapter also includes other snippets that will help you get basic functionality. It is best to invoke these from your /etc/rc. Additional ALLOW rules should be added to the end of this script snippet.124 www. The "filter" table's INPUT. The "basic initialization" script snippet should also be included in all your scripts to ensure the correct initialization of your chains should you decide to restart your script after startup. It should be a good guide to get you started. It shows you how to allow your firewall to: • Be used as a Linux Web / Mail / DNS server • Be the NAT router for your home network • Prevent various types of attacks using corrupted TCP. in any iptables script you write. FORWARD and OUTPUT chains and won't be processed. Pay special attention to the logging example at the end.com Sample iptables Scripts Here are some sample scripts you can use to get iptables working for you.d/rc. • Outbound passive FTP access from the firewall There are also simpler code snippets in the Appendix for: • Inbound and outbound FTP connections to / from your firewall Basic Initialization It is a good policy.local file so that the firewall script is run every time you boot up. and if all packets that don't match the "nat" and "mangle" rules are DROP-ped. #!/bin/bash #--------------------------------------------------------------# Load modules for FTP connection tracking and NAT – You may need # them later #--------------------------------------------------------------modprobe ip_conntrack_ftp modprobe iptable_nat #--------------------------------------------------------------# Initialize all the chains by removing all the rules # tied to them #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables --flush iptables -t nat --flush . to initialize your chain and table settings with known values. This is because these tables are queried before the "filter" table. You then can use the Appendix to find a detailed script once you feel more confident.

Most home networks # / websites using a single DNS server won’t require TCP statements # #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A OUTPUT -p udp -o eth0 --dport 53 --sport 1024:65535 \ -j ACCEPT iptables -A INPUT -p udp -i eth0 --sport 53 --dport 1024:65535 \ -j ACCEPT . We'll recreate them in the next step #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables --delete-chain iptables -t nat --delete-chain iptables -t mangle --delete-chain #--------------------------------------------------------------# If a packet doesn't match one of the built in chains. The following statements will apply not only for firewalls acting as DNS clients but also for firewalls working in a caching or regular DNS server role.Interface eth0 is the internet interface # # Zone transfers use TCP and not UDP. #--------------------------------------------------------------# Allow outbound DNS queries from the FW and the replies too # # .Chapter 11: Linux Firewalls Using iptables 125 iptables -t mangle --flush #--------------------------------------------------------------# Now that the chains have been initialized. then # The policy should be to drop it #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables --policy INPUT DROP iptables --policy OUTPUT DROP iptables --policy FORWARD DROP #--------------------------------------------------------------# The loopback interface should accept all traffic # Necessary for X-Windows and other socket based services #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT iptables -A OUTPUT -o lo -j ACCEPT Allowing DNS Access To Your Firewall You’ll almost certainly want your firewall to make DNS queries to the Internet. the user defined # chains should be deleted.

Connections initiated by persons logged into the webserver will be denied as outbound NEW connection packets aren't allowed.126 www. It isn't necessary to specify these ports for the return leg as outbound packets for all established connections are allowed.RELATED -i eth0 –p tcp \ . HTTPS is also used by RedHat Linux servers using up2date.RELATED \ -j ACCEPT #--------------------------------------------------------------# Allow port 80 (www) and 22 (SSH) connections to the firewall #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -i eth0 --dport 22 –sport 1024:65535 \ -m state –state NEW -j ACCEPT iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -i eth0 --dport 80 –sport 1024:65535 \ -m state –state NEW -j ACCEPT Allowing Your Firewall To Access The Internet The following iptables sample script allows a user on the firewall to use a web browser to surf the Internet. #--------------------------------------------------------------# Allow port 80 (www) and 443 (https) connections to the firewall #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A OUTPUT -j ACCEPT -m state --state NEW \ -o eth0 –p tcp -m multiport --dport 80. TCP port 80 is used for HTTP traffic and port 443 is used for HTTPS (secure HTTP frequently used for credit card transactions). #--------------------------------------------------------------# Allow previously established connections # .linuxhomenetworking.com Allowing WWW And SSH Access To Your Firewall This sample snippet is for a web server that is managed remotely by its system administrator via secure shell (SSH) sessions.Interface eth0 is the internet interface #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A OUTPUT -o eth0 -m state --state ESTABLISHED. Inbound packets destined for ports 80 and 22 are allowed thereby making the first steps in establishing a connection.443 --sport 1024:65535 #--------------------------------------------------------------# Allow previously established connections # .Interface eth0 is the internet interface #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A INPUT -j ACCEPT -m state --state ESTABLISHED.

168. masquerading is another word for what many call "many to one" NAT.1. eth1 is directly connected to a home network using IP addresses from the 192. while only packets related to ESTABLISHED connections will be allowed inbound. Once masquerading has been achieved using the POSTROUTING chain of the "nat" table.0/24 -i eth1 -j ACCEPT -p all -d 192. iptables will have to be configured to allow packets to flow between the two interfaces. This helps to protect the home network from persons trying to initiate connections from the Internet.Interface eth1 is the private network interface #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A INPUT iptables -A OUTPUT -j ACCEPT -p all -s 192. This is done using the FORWARD chain of the "filter" table.0 network.168. traffic from all devices on one or more protected networks will appear as if it originated from a single IP address on the Internet side of the firewall. Further rules will be needed for the interface connected to the Internet to allow only specific ports.Chapter 11: Linux Firewalls Using iptables 127 If you want all TCP traffic originating from the firewall to be accepted then you can remove the following section from the snippet above: -m multiport --dport 80. More specifically.443 --sport 1024:65535 Allow Your Home Network To Access The Firewall In this example.168. iptables requires the iptables_nat module to be loaded with the "modprobe" command for the masquerade feature to work. Masquerading also depends on the Linux operating system being configured to support routing between the internet and private network interfaces of the firewall. #--------------------------------------------------------------# Allow all bidirectional traffic from your firewall to the # protected network # . This is done by enabling "IP forwarding" or routing by giving the file /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward the value "1" as opposed to the default disabled value of "0". types of connections and possibly even remote servers to have access to your firewall and home network. An example follows: .0/24 -o eth1 Masquerading (Many to One NAT) As explained in the Introduction to Networking chapter. All traffic between this network and the firewall is simplistically assumed to be trusted and allowed.1.1. packets related to NEW and ESTABLISHED connections will be allowed outbound to the Internet. In other words.

If their Linux firewall is their interface to the Internet and they want to host a website on one of the NAT protected home servers then they will have to use the “port forwarding” technique. Here the combination of the firewall's single IP address. established and related connections # Allowed inbound : Established and related connections #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A FORWARD -t filter -i eth1 -m --state NEW. the remote server’s IP address and the source/destination port of the traffic can be used to uniquely identify a traffic flow.168.RELATED state \ -j ACCEPT state \ -j ACCEPT Note: If you configure your firewall to do masquerading. this would include all NEW inbound connections from the Internet matching the port forwarding port plus all future packets related to the ESTABLISHED connection in both directions.Interface eth0 is the internet interface # . # Allowed outbound: New.Interface eth1 is the private network interface #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A POSTROUTING -t nat -o eth0 -s 192. All traffic that matches a particular combination of these factors may then be forwarded to a single server on the private network. the packets are routed via the filter # table's FORWARD chain.linuxhomenetworking.128 www. Port forwarding is handled by the PREROUTING chain of the "nat" table.ESTABLISHED.0/24 -d 0/0 \ -j MASQUERADE echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward #--------------------------------------------------------------# Prior to masquerading. the iptables_nat module will have to be loaded and routing enabled for port forwarding to work. An example follows: .com #--------------------------------------------------------------# Load the NAT module #--------------------------------------------------------------modprobe iptable_nat #--------------------------------------------------------------# Allow masquerading # Enable routing by modifying the ip_forward /proc filesystem file # .1. Port Forwarding Type NAT (DHCP DSL) In many cases home users may get a single DHCP public IP address from their ISP. As in masquerading. then if should be the used as the default gateway for all your servers on the network.RELATED iptables -A FORWARD -t filter -i eth0 -m --state ESTABLISHED. Routing too will have to be allowed in iptables with the FORWARD chain.

200 \ --dport 8080 --sport 1024:65535 -m state --state NEW -j ACCEPT iptables -A FORWARD -t filter -i eth1 -m state \ --state NEW.ESTABLISHED.200 # # Enable routing by modifying the ip_forward /proc filesystem file # .*://'`" #--------------------------------------------------------------# Allow port forwarding for traffic destined to port 80 of the # firewall’s IP address to be forwarded to port 8080 on server # 192. # The external IP address could just be hard coded (“typed in # normally”) #--------------------------------------------------------------external_int="eth0" external_ip="`ifconfig $external_int | grep 'inet addr' | \ awk '{print $2}' | sed -e 's/.1. # Connections on port 80 to the target machine on the private # network must be allowed. the packets are routed via the filter table's # FORWARD chain.168.Interface eth0 is the internet interface # .1.168. #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A FORWARD -p tcp -i eth0 -o eth1 -d 192.Interface eth1 is the private network interface #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -p tcp -i eth0 -d $external_ip \ --dport 80 --sport 1024:65535 -j DNAT --to 192.1.168.200:8080 echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward #--------------------------------------------------------------# After DNAT.RELATED -j ACCEPT iptables -A FORWARD -t filter -i eth0 -m state \ --state ESTABLISHED.RELATED -j ACCEPT .Chapter 11: Linux Firewalls Using iptables 129 #--------------------------------------------------------------# Load the NAT module #--------------------------------------------------------------modprobe iptable_nat #--------------------------------------------------------------# Get the IP address of the Internet interface eth0 (linux only) # # You'll have to use a different expression to get the IP address # for other operating systems which have a different ifconfig output # or enter the IP address manually in the PREROUTING statement # # This is best when your firewall gets its IP address using DHCP.

168.168.100 \ .0/24 \ -j SNAT -o eth1 --to-source 97.168.168. MASQUERADE isn't recommended to be used as it will force masquerading as the IP address of the primary interface and not any of the alias IP addresses it may have.1. #--------------------------------------------------------------# Load the NAT module #--------------------------------------------------------------modprobe iptable_nat #--------------------------------------------------------------# Enable routing by modifying the ip_forward /proc filesystem file #--------------------------------------------------------------echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward #--------------------------------------------------------------# NAT ALL traffic: # # TO: FROM: MAP TO SERVER: # 97.26 -i eth0 \ DNAT --to-destination 192.Interface eth1 is the private network interface #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -t -j iptables -t -j iptables -t -j nat -A PREROUTING -d 97.1.253.100 nat -A PREROUTING -d 97.26 Anywhere 192.102 iptables -A POSTROUTING -s 192.28 -i eth0 \ DNAT --to-destination 192.253.158.29 iptables -A FORWARD -p tcp -i eth0 -o eth1 -d 192.27 Anywhere 192. only connections on ports 80. is NAT-ted to a single server on the protected subnet.443 and 22 are allowed through by the FORWARD chain.101 nat -A PREROUTING -d 97.253.168.linuxhomenetworking.168.1.102 # # SNAT is used to NAT all other outbound connections initiated # from the protected network to appear to come from # IP address 97.Interface eth0 is the internet interface # .1. all traffic to a particular public IP address.168.1.27 -i eth0 \ DNAT --to-destination 192.253.158.100 # 97.253.158. not just to a particular port.158.158.1.253. As the firewall has more than one IP address.130 www.100 to 102).158.com Static NAT In this example.1.253.1.253.158.168.1.101 # 97.158. SNAT is therefore used to specify the alias IP address to be used for connections initiated by all other servers in the protected net.29 # # .28 Anywhere 192.168. Note that though the "nat" table NATs all traffic to the target servers (192.

o .1.101 \ -m multiport --dport 80.168. This example logs a summary of failed packets to the file /var/log/messages.443. You should be aware that the LOG target: o o will log all traffic that matches the iptables rule in which it is located.Chapter 11: Linux Firewalls Using iptables 131 -m multiport --dport 80. you’ll find yourself logging both desired and unwanted traffic with no way of discerning between the two as by default iptables doesn’t state why the packet was logged in its log message.ESTABLISHED.22 --sport 1024:65535 \ -m state --state NEW -j ACCEPT iptables -A FORWARD -p tcp -i eth0 -o eth1 -d 192. Therefore if you want to log only unwanted traffic then you have to add a matching rule with a DROP target immediately after the LOG rule.RELATED -j ACCEPT Logging & Troubleshooting You track packets passing through the iptables list of rules using the LOG target.RELATED -j ACCEPT iptables -A FORWARD -t filter -i eth0 -m state \ --state ESTABLISHED.1.443.22 --sport 1024:65535 \ -m state --state NEW -j ACCEPT iptables -A FORWARD -p tcp -i eth0 -o eth1 -d 192.168.1. If you don’t. automatically writes an entry to the /var/log/messages file and then executes the next rule.102 \ -m multiport --dport 80.443. #--------------------------------------------------------------# Log and drop all other packets to file /var/log/messages # Without this we could be crawling around in the dark #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A OUTPUT -j LOG iptables -A OUTPUT -j LOG iptables -A FORWARD -j LOG iptables -A INPUT -j DROP iptables -A INPUT -j DROP iptables -A FORWARD -j DROP Here are some examples of the output of this file: Firewall denying replies to DNS queries (UDP port 53) destined to server 192.102 on the home network.22 --sport 1024:65535 \ -m state --state NEW -j ACCEPT iptables -A FORWARD -t filter -i eth1 -m state \ --state NEW.168. You can use the contents of this file to determine what TCP/UDP ports you need to open to provide access to specific traffic that is currently stopped.

102 LEN=220 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=54 ID=30485 PROTO=UDP SPT=53 DPT=32820 LEN=200 o Firewall denying Windows NetBIOS traffic (UDP port 138) Feb 23 20:43:08 bigboy kernel: IN=wlan0 OUT= MAC=ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:00:06:25:09:6a:b5:08:00 SRC=192.30 DST=192. OUTPUT. OUTPUT statements If nothing shows up in the logs. Troubleshooting NAT: As a general rule. FORWARD and NAT related statements.linuxhomenetworking.1.1. You can then use the logging output in /var/log/messages to make sure that: o o the translations are occurring correctly and iptables isn’t dropping the packets after translation occurs .168. then you should focus on the INPUT.168.113 LEN=76 TOS=0x10 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=0 DF PROTO=UDP SPT=123 DPT=123 LEN=56 Note: The traffic in all these examples isn’t destined for the firewall. you won’t be able to access the public NAT IP addresses from servers on your home network.93. If the firewall’s IP address is involved.1. and if it is not.255 LEN=241 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=0 DF PROTO=UDP SPT=138 DPT=138 LEN=221 o Firewall denying Network Time Protocol (NTP UDP port 123) Feb 23 20:58:48 bigboy kernel: IN= OUT=wlan0 SRC=192.1.81.42.102 DST=207. the location your network that could be causing the problem.com Feb 23 20:33:50 bigboy kernel: IN=wlan0 OUT= MAC=00:06:25:09:69:80:00:a0:c5:e1:3e:88:08:00 SRC=192. Therefore you should check your INPUT.100 DST=192.168. Basic NAT testing will require you to ask a friend to try to connect to your home network from the Internet.132 www.168.200. then follow the steps in the Network Troubleshooting chapter to determine whether the data is reaching your firewall at all.

need to be installed afterwards. Once you have edited the configuration files you’ll have to restart xinetd to make the configurations take effect. TFTP and XINETD Telnet TFTP © Peter Harrison.com =========================================== Xinetd is a program used to start and stop a variety of Linux data communication applications. such as Telnet.133 Chapter 12 Telnet.d/xinetd restart Stopping xinetd: [ OK ] Starting xinetd: [ OK ] [root@bigboy tmp]# Remember that you will also be restarting all the other xinetd controlled processes. www. The configuration files for each of the network programs xinetd controls are located in the /etc/xinetd. others such as TFTP. If you are logged into your Linux box via Telnet and then restart xinetd you will disconnect your self from your Linux server as Telnet would be restarted too. TFTP and XINETD =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 12 Telnet. Xinetd is pre-installed in newer RedHat versions and is configured to startup automatically at boot time.d directory.linuxhomenetworking. . [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. Some of these applications. are installed by default in RedHat Linux.

0 0.168. One of the disadvantages of Telnet is that the data is sent as clear text.255.255. The user looks at the routing table and then logs out. [root@bigboy root]# telnet 192. 05 January 2003) Login: peter Password: Last login: Fri Nov 22 23:29:44 on ttyS0 You have new mail. Connected to 192. The command to do remote logins via telnet from the command line is simple. [peter@smallfry peter]$ [peter@smallfry peter]$ netstat -nr Kernel IP routing table Destination 255.0.0..168.4.0.linuxhomenetworking. Linux 2.255.1 Genmask 255.105 Trying 192. Here is an example of someone logging into a remote server named "smallfry" from server "bigboy".0.0 0. This means that it is possible for someone to use a network analyzer to peek into your data packets and see your username and password.0. Escape character is '^]'.0.1..0.0 Gateway 0.255.0 127.0.168.255. A more secure method for remote logins would be via Secure Shell (SSH) which uses varying degrees of encryption.my-site.0 0.com Telnet What is Telnet? Telnet is a program that allows users to log into your server and get a command prompt just as if they were logged into the VGA console.18-14 (smallfry.134 www.255 192.0 Flags UH U U UG MSS 40 40 40 40 Window 0 0 0 0 irtt 0 0 0 0 Iface wlan0 wlan0 lo wlan0 [peter@smallfry peter]$ exit logout Connection closed by foreign host.0 192.1.255 255.0.0.0.1.255.168.1.0.0 0.168.0 255.105.1. [root@bigboy root]# . Telnet is installed and enabled by default on RedHat Linux.0.com) (10:35 on Sunday.105.0. You enter the word "telnet" and then the IP address or server name to which you want to connect.

configurations can be loaded from the server to the network device.d/xinetd restart Stopping xinetd: [ OK ] Starting xinetd: [ OK ] [root@bigboy tmp]# TFTP What is TFTP? Cisco and other networking equipment manufacturers allow you to backup live configurations from routers and switches to workstations via the TFTP protocol. You can test whether the Telnet process is running with the following command which is used to check the TCP/UDP ports on which your server is listening: [root@bigboy root]# netstat -a | grep telnet tcp 0 0 *:telnet *:* [root@bigboy root]# LISTEN If you want to disable Telnet then edit the file /etc/xinetd. A remotely stored configuration file is always good to have.Chapter 12: Telnet. The reverse is also true. service telnet { flags = REUSE socket_type = stream wait = no user = root server = /usr/sbin/in. [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. # default: on # description: The telnet server serves telnet sessions.telnetd log_on_failure += USERID disable = yes } You'll then have to restart xinetd for the new settings to take effect.d/telnet and set the disable parameter to "yes". A common use of this reverse TFTP is the application of access control lists (ACLs) and even passwords from a centralized file. . it uses \ # unencrypted username/password pairs for authentication. TFTP and XINETD 135 Setting Up A Telnet Server By default Telnet is installed enabled on RedHat Linux.

d/tftp and set disable to "no". Downloading and installing RPMs isn’t hard.1.rpm o Edit the file /etc/xinetd. If you need a refresher.tftpd server_args = -s /tftpboot disable = no per_source = 11 cps = 100 2 } In this example.d/xinetd restart Stopping xinetd: [ OK ] Starting xinetd: [ OK ] [root@bigboy tmp]# o o .29-3. You can extend this list with commas in between or just comment it out al together for global access.1 server = /usr/sbin/in. the chapter on RPMs covers how to do this in detail.linuxhomenetworking. xinetd will only allow the TFTP server to accept connections from the router / switch / firewall with an address of 192.168. service tftp { socket_type = dgram protocol = udp wait = yes user = root only_from = 192. The latest TFTP server version of the RPM for RedHat 8. Create a /tftpboot directory with global read write privileges [root@bigboy tmp]# chmod 777 /tftpboot o Restart xinetd [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.i386. \ # and to start the installation process for some operating systems. Here are the steps to setting up the software: Install the package using the following command: [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh tftp-server-0.168. download configuration files to # network-aware printers. The tftp protocol is often used to boot diskless \ # workstations.136 www. # default: off # description: The tftp server serves files using the trivial # file transfer \ # protocol.com Setting up a TFTP server Most RedHat Linux software products are available in the RPM format.0 is tftp-server0.1.29-3.1.

.1. get into enable mode and then enter the TFTP commands pixfw> enable Password: ******** pixfw# configure terminal pixfw(config)# tftp-server inside 192.168. The following examples assume that the TFTP server's IP address is 192.. Here's an example of what to do for a SOHO firewall with the name "pixfw" and a configuration filename that matches cisco's standard naming scheme of "devicename"-config [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy total 1631 -rw-rw-rw.Chapter 12: Telnet.1.1 [root@bigboy tmp]# touch /tftpboot/pixfw-config tmp]# chmod 666 /tftpboot/pixfw-config tmp]# ll /tftpboot/ root root 3011 Oct 29 14:09 pixfw-config tmp]# Configuring Cisco Devices for TFTP You'll now have to configure your Cisco router / firewall to use the TFTP server.168. get into enable mode and then enter the TFTP commands ciscoswitch> (enable) wr net This command shows non-default configurations only..168. TFTP and XINETD 137 o Each device must have a configuration file in the /tftpboot directory.100 /pixfw-config pixfw(config)# exit • Save the configuration to non volatile memory pixfw# write memory Building configuration.100 Cisco PIX firewall • Log onto the device. Use 'write network all' to show both default and non-default .100 on interface 1 [OK] pixfw# Cisco Switch Running CATOS • Log onto the device.1. TFTP write '/pixfw-config' at 192.. Cryptochecksum: 3af43873 d35d6f06 51f8c999 180c2342 [OK] pixfw# • Save the configuration to the TFTP server pixfw# write network Building configuration.

138

www.linuxhomenetworking.com

configurations. IP address or name of remote host? [192.168.1.100] Name of configuration file?[ciscoswitch-config] Upload configuration to ciscoswitch-config on 192.168.1.100 (y/n) [n]? y ......... Finished network upload. (30907 bytes) ciscoswitch> (enable)

Cisco Router
• Log onto the device, get into enable mode, then configure mode and then enter the TFTP commands ciscorouter> enable ciscorouter#write net Remote host [192.168.1.100]? 192.168.1.100 Name of configuration file to write [ciscorouter-config]? ciscorouter-config Write file ciscorouter-config on host 192.168.1.100? [confirm] y ciscorouter# exit

Cisco CSS 111000 "Arrowpoints"

Log onto the device and then enter the tftp commands ciscocss# copy running-config tftp 192.168.1.100 ciscocss-config Working..(\) 100% Connecting (/) Completed successfully. ciscocss# exit

Cisco Local Director
• Log onto the device, get into enable mode, then configure mode and then enter the TFTP commands ciscold> ena Password: ciscold# write net 192.168.1.100 ciscold-config Building configuration... writing configuration to //ciscold-config on 192.168.1.100:69 ... [OK] ciscold# exit

Chapter 12: Telnet, TFTP and XINETD

139

Using TFTP To Restore Your Router Configuration
One of the benefits of having a TFTP server is that you can save your configuration files on a remote server's hard disk. This can be very useful in the event of a router failure after which you need to reconfigure the device from scratch. One of the simplest ways of doing this using TFTP is to: o o o o o Connect your router to the local network of the TFTP server Give your router the bare minimum configuration that allows it to ping your TFTP server. (No access controls or routing protocols) Use the copy command to copy the backup configuration from the TFTP server to your startup configuration in NVRAM. Disconnect the router from the network Reload the router without saving the live running configuration to overwrite the startup configuration. On rebooting, the router will copy the startup configuration stored in NVRAM into a clean running configuration environment Log into the router via the console and verify the configuration is OK Reconnect the router to the networks on which it was originally connected

o o

Here are the commands: ciscorouter> enable Password: ******** ciscorouter# write erase ciscorouter# copy tftp:file-name startup-config ciscorouter# reload Please be aware that the "write erase" command erases your NVRAM startup configuration and should always be used with great care.

140

www.linuxhomenetworking.com

141

Chapter 13

Linux FTP Server Setup
===========================================

In This Chapter Chapter 13
Linux FTP Server Setup
FTP Overview Problems With FTP And Firewalls How To Download And Install The VSFTP Package How To Get VSFTP Started Testing To See If VSFTP Is Running What Is Anonymous FTP? The /etc/vsftpd.conf File FTP Security Issues Example #1: © Peter Harrison, www.linuxhomenetworking.com ===========================================

This chapter will show you how to convert your Linux box into an FTP server using the VSFTP package.
The RedHat software download site runs on VSFTP.

FTP Overview
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a common method of copying files between computer systems. Two TCP ports are used to do this:

142

www.linuxhomenetworking.com

FTP Control Channel - TCP Port 21
All commands you send and the ftp server's responses to those commands will go over the control connection, but any data sent back (such as "ls" directory lists or actual file data in either direction) will go over the data connection.

FTP Data Channel - TCP Port 20
Used for all data sent between the client and server.

Active FTP
Active FTP works as follows: o o Your client connects to the FTP server by establishing an FTP control connection to port 21 of the server. Your commands such as 'ls' and 'get' are sent over this connection. Whenever the client requests data over the control connection, the server initiates data transfer connections back to the client. The source port of these data transfer connections is always port 20 on the server, and the destination port is a high port on the client. Thus the 'ls' listing that you asked for comes back over the "port 20 to high port connection", not the port 21 control connection. FTP active mode data transfer therefore does this in a counter intuitive way to the TCP standard as it selects port 20 as it's source port (not a random high port > 1024) and connects back to the client on a random high port that has been pre-negotiated on the port 21 control connection.

o o

Chapter 13: Linux FTP Server Setup

143

o

Active FTP may fail in cases where the client is protected from the Internet via many to one NAT (masquerading). This is because the firewall will not know which of the many servers behind it should receive the return connection.

Passive FTP
Passive FTP works as follows: o o Your client connects to the FTP server by establishing a FTP control connection to port 21 of the server. Your commands such as 'ls' and 'get' are sent over that connection. Whenever the client requests data over the control connection, the client initiates the data transfer connections to the server. The source port of these data transfer connections is always a high port on the client with a destination port of a high port on the server. Passive FTP should be viewed as the server never making an active attempt to connect to the client for FTP data transfers. Passive FTP works better for clients protected by a firewall as the client always initiates the required connections.

o o

Problems With FTP And Firewalls
FTP frequently fails when the data has to pass through a firewall as FTP uses a wide range of unpredictable TCP ports and firewalls are designed to limit data flows to predictable TCP ports. There are ways to overcome this as explained in the following sections. The Appendix has examples of how to configure the iptables Linux filewall to function with both active and passive FTP.

Client Protected By A Firewall Problem
Typically firewalls don't let any incoming connections at all, this will frequently cause active FTP not to function. This type of FTP failure has the following symptoms: o The active ftp connection appears to work when the client initiates an outbound connection to the server on port 21. The connection appears to hang as soon as you do an "ls" or a "dir" or a "get". This is because the firewall is blocking the return connection from the server to the client. (From port 20 on the server to a high port on the client)

Solutions
Here are the general firewall rules you'll need to allow FTP clients through a firewall:

Server Protected By A Firewall Problem o Typically firewalls don't let any connections come in at all. This rule may not be necessary in all cases.144 www.linuxhomenetworking. you may want to allow all Internet users to have access. not just a specific client server or network. ** in some cases.com Client Protected by Firewall .Required Rules for FTP Method Source Address Source Port Destination Address Destination Port Connection Type Allow outgoing control connections to server Control Channel FTP client/ network FTP server** High FTP server** 21 New 21 FTP client/ network High Established* Allow the client to establish data channels to remote server Active FTP FTP server** 20 FTP client /network FTP server** High New FTP client/ network Passive FTP FTP client/ network FTP server** High 20 Established* High FTP server** High New High FTP client/ network High Established* *Many home based firewall/routers automatically allow traffic for already established connections. FTP server failure due to firewalls in which the active ftp connection from the client doesn't appear to work at all Solutions Here are the general firewall rules you'll need to allow FTP severs through a firewall .

the VSFTP RPM file is named: vsftpd-1. RedHat software is installed using RPM packages. • Now download the file to a directory such as /tmp and install it using the “rpm” command: .i386. This rule may not be necessary in all cases. If you need a refresher.0-1. the RPM chapter covers how to do this in detail.rpm Downloading and installing RPMs isn’t hard.1. In version 8. not just a specific client server or network.Chapter 13: Linux FTP Server Setup 145 Server Protected by Firewall . you may want to allow all Internet users to have access. ** in some cases. How To Download And Install The VSFTP Package • As explained previously.0 of the operating system.Required Rules for FTP Method Source Address Source Port Destination Address Destination Port Connection Type Allow incoming control connections to server Control Channel FTP client/ network** FTP server High FTP server 21 New 21 FTP client/ network** High Established* Allow server to establish data channel to remote client Active FTP FTP server 20 FTP client/network** FTP server High New FTP client/ network** Passive FTP FTP client/ network** FTP server High 20 Established* High FTP server High New High FTP client/ network** High Established* *Many home based firewall/routers automatically allow traffic for already established connections.

. VSFTP is deactivated by default.i386. to disable VSFTP once again. 1:vsftpd [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh vsftpd-1. set “disable” to “yes” and restart xinetd. you’ll have to edit /etc/xinetd. there would be no output at all if VSFTP wasn’t running.com [root@bigboy Preparing.d/vsftpd.rpm ########################################### [100%] ########################################### [100%] tmp]# How To Get VSFTP Started The starting and stopping of VSFTP is controlled by xinetd via the /etc/xinetd. The example below shows the expected output.d/xinetd restart Stopping xinetd: [ OK ] Starting xinetd: [ OK ] [root@aqua tmp]# Naturally.1. so you’ll have to edit this file to start the program. The disable feature must be set to "no" to accept connections. [root@bigboy root]# netstat -a | grep ftp tcp 0 0 *:ftp [root@bigboy root]# *:* LISTEN . Make sure the contents look like this. [root@aqua tmp]# /etc/init. Testing To See If VSFTP Is Running You can always test whether the VSFTP process is running by using the netstat –a command which lists all the TCP and UDP ports on which the server is listening for traffic.0-1.146 www.d/vsftpd file..d directory.linuxhomenetworking. service ftp { disable = no socket_type = stream wait = no user = root server = /usr/sbin/vsftpd nice = 10 } You will then have to restart xinetd for these changes to take effect using the startup script in the /etc/init.

# Allow anonymous FTP? anonymous_enable=YES . By default VSFTP only allows anonymous FTP downloads to remote users.. not uploads from them. you’ll automatically have access to only the default anonymous FTP directory /var/ftp and all its subdirectories. # Uncomment this to enable any form of FTP write command. Unless you want any remote user to log into to your default FTP directory.. I would suggest turning this off. The /etc/vsftpd. anonymous FTP only requires a username of "anonymous" and your email address for the password. VSFTP doesn't allow remote users to create directories on your FTP server and it logs FTP access to the /var/log/vsftpd.conf configuration file when it starts...Chapter 13: Linux FTP Server Setup 147 What Is Anonymous FTP? Anonymous FTP is used by web sites that need to exchange files with numerous unknown remote users. local_enable=YES .. using anonymous FTP as a remote user is fairly straight forward. .....conf File VSFTP only reads the contents of its /etc/vsftpd. As seen in the chapter on RPMs. # Uncomment to allow the anonymous FTP user to upload files. # (Needed even if you want local users to be able to upload files) write_enable=YES . Also by default.. Also. Unlike regular FTP where you login with a userspecific username. . you will # obviously need to create a directory writable by the FTP user. VSFTP runs as an anonymous FTP server. The configuration file’s anonymous_enable instruction can be commented out using a “#” to disable this feature.log log file.. so you’ll have to restart xinetd each time you edit the file in order for the changes to take effect. Once logged in to a VSFTP server.. . Common uses include downloading software updates and MP3s to uploading diagnostic information for a technical support engineer’s attention. Remove/add the "#" at the beginning of the line to "activate/deactivate" the feature on each line. #anon_upload_enable=YES . This file uses a number of default settings you need to know. The configuration file is fairly straight forward as you can see in the snippet below. .. By default... # Uncomment this to allow local users to log in.. VSFTP can be configured to support user based and or anonymous FTP in its configuration file. This only # has an effect if global write enable is activated. . # Uncomment this if you want the anonymous FTP user to be able to create # new directories.

Secure Copy (SCP) provides encryption and could be considered as an alternative to FTP for trusted users. Do not delete entries from the default list. .148 www. ftpd_banner= New Banner Here Using SCP As Secure Alternative To FTP One of the disadvantages of FTP is that it does not encrypt your username and password. but not access other files uploaded by other users. This will allow your users to upload. it is best to add. This could make your user account vulnerable to an unauthorized attack from a person eavesdropping on the network connection.conf to make it harder for malicious users to determine the type of system you have. Anonymous Upload If you want remote users to write data to your FTP server then it is recommended you create a write-only directory within /var/ftp/pub. # Activate logging of uploads/downloads.linuxhomenetworking.. xferlog_enable=YES .com #anon_mkdir_write_enable=YES .. # You may override where the log file goes if you like.ftpusers File For added security you may restrict FTP access to certain users by adding them to the list of users in this file. a feature that FTP does. . SCP however does not support anonymous services.. # The default is shown# below. #xferlog_file=/var/log/vsftpd.. . Here are the commands to do this: [root@bigboy tmp]# mkdir /var/ftp/pub/upload [root@bigboy tmp]# chmod 733 /var/ftp/pub/upload FTP Greeting Banner Change the default greeting banner in /etc/vsftpd.....log FTP Security Issues The /etc/vsftpd.

anonymous FTP is not desired. [root@bigboy tmp]# groupadd ftp-users [root@bigboy tmp]# mkdir /home/ftp-docs o Make the directory accessible to the ftp-users group. and make their default directory /home/ftp-docs [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy o tmp]# tmp]# tmp]# tmp]# tmp]# tmp]# tmp]# tmp]# useradd -g ftp-users useradd -g ftp-users useradd -g ftp-users useradd -g ftp-users passwd user1 passwd user2 passwd user3 passwd user4 -d -d -d -d /home/ftp-docs /home/ftp-docs /home/ftp-docs /home/ftp-docs user1 user2 user3 user4 Copy files to be downloaded by your users into the /home/ftp-docs directory .Chapter 13: Linux FTP Server Setup 149 Example #1: FTP Users With Only Read Access To A Shared Directory In this example. Comment out the anonymous_enable line in the /etc/vsftpd. Edit the /etc/xinetd. Here are the steps: Enable FTP.d/vsftp and set the disable value to "no". In this case we’ll use "/home/ftp-users" and a user group name of "ftp-users” for the remote users. local_enable=YES o Create a user group and shared directory. Disable anonymous FTP.conf file like this: o o # Allow anonymous FTP? # anonymous_enable=YES o Enable individual logins by making sure you have the local_enable line uncommented in the /etc/vsftpd. [root@bigboy tmp]# chmod 750 /home/ftp-docs [root@bigboy tmp]# chown root:ftp-users /home/ftp-docs o Add users.conf file like this: # Uncomment this to allow local users to log in. but a group of trusted users need to have read only access to a directory for downloading files.

1.168. Remote system type is UNIX.1. Using binary mode to transfer files. break me) Name (192.com o Change the permissions of the files in the /home/ftp-docs directory for read only access by the group [root@bigboy tmp]# chown root:ftp-users /home/ftp-docs/* [root@bigboy tmp]# chmod 740 /home/ftp-docs/* Users should now be able to log in via ftp to the server using their new user names and passwords.100 Connected to 192. ftp> o We can view and download a copy of the VSFTP RPM .100.100). 220 ready.168. we can't do an upload transfer of "testfile" to bigboy.d/xinetd restart Stopping xinetd: [ OK ] Starting xinetd: [ OK ] [root@bigboy tmp]# Sample Login Session To Test Funtionality o Check for the presence of a test file on the ftp client server.0: beat me.1. dude (vsFTPd 1.150 www. Password: 230 Login successful.100 (192. If you absolutely don't want any FTP users to be able to write to any directory then you should comment out the write_enable line in your /etc/vsftpd.100:root): user1 331 Please specify the password. ftp> put testfile local: testfile remote: testfile 227 Entering Passive Mode (192.1 root root 0 Jan 4 09:08 testfile [root@smallfry tmp]# o Connect to bigboy via FTP [root@smallfry tmp]# ftp 192. [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.linuxhomenetworking. ftp> o As expected.168.1.181.1. Have fun. [root@smallfry tmp]# ll total 1 -rw-r--r-.conf file like this: #write_enable=YES o Restart vsftp for the configuration file changes to take effect.168.168.210) 553 Could not create file.1.

[root@smallfry tmp]# ftp 192. ftp> get vsftpd-1.1.35.1.tmp local: vsftpd-1. we can't do anonymous ftp.100.1.168.0-1. -rwxr----. 226 File send OK. 76288 bytes received in 0.1 0 502 76288 Jan 04 17:06 vsftpd-1. Password: 530 Login incorrect.100).i386.Chapter 13: Linux FTP Server Setup 151 ftp> ls 227 Entering Passive Mode (192.i386.5e+02 Kbytes/sec) ftp> exit 221 Goodbye.1. break me) Name (192.100:root): anonymous 331 Please specify the password.0-1.1.rpm 226 Directory send OK.168. ftp> quit 221 Goodbye.100.i386.1.i386. dude (vsFTPd 1.100 (192.0-1.173) 150 Here comes the directory listing. [root@smallfry tmp]# o As expected.rpm.0: beat me.0-1.1.i386.rpm vsftpd-1.1. [root@smallfry tmp]# .499 secs (1.168.0-1.1.tmp remote: vsftpd-1. Login failed.0-1.168.100 Connected to 192.1.rpm.168.44. 220 ready.1.1.156) 150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for vsftpd-1.1.rpm 227 Entering Passive Mode (192.168.rpm (76288 bytes).i386.

152 www.linuxhomenetworking.com .

153 Chapter 14 Secure Remote Logins And File Copying =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 14 Secure Remote Logins And File Copying Using Secure Shell As A Replacement For Telnet Testing To See If SSH Is Running The etc/ssh/sshd_config File Using SSH To Login To A Remote Machine What You Should Expect To See When You Log In Deactivating Telnet once SSH is installed Using SCP as a more secure replacement for FTP © Peter Harrison. Similar programs such as Telnet and FTP can be security hazards as they do not encrypt their passwords.linuxhomenetworking. so all your activities can be monitored. SSH and SCP could be the right choice for you. None of the data flow in Telnet is encrypted. H Using Secure Shell As A Replacement For Telnet When you use Telnet to remotely log into a Linux box you run the risk of people being able to eavesdrop on your network wire to see your username and password as unencrypted text. www. .com =========================================== ere is some information on how to both remotely log in and copy files using a secure encrypted connection with Secure Shell (SSH) and Secure Copy (SCP).

but leave them commented.d/sshd restart Remember to restart the SSH process every time you make a change to the configuration files for the changes to take effect on the running process.0 #ListenAddress :: If you are afraid of people trying to hack in on a well known TCP port.1 #ListenAddress 0. When logging in from another Linux/UNIX machine you use the "ssh" command. such as port 435 • First make sure your system isn't listening on port 435. By default SSH listens on all your NICs and uses TCP port 22.linuxhomenetworking. [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. This provides an encrypted data stream for you to use when you log in from one machine to another. You should get a response of plain old process ID numbers: [root@bigboy tmp]# pgrep sshd The etc/ssh/sshd_config File The SSH configuration file is called /etc/ssh/sshd_config. See the configuration snippet below: # # # # The strategy used for options in the default sshd_config shipped with OpenSSH is to specify options with their default value where possible. then you can change port 22 to something else that won't interfere with other applications on your system.154 www.0. Testing To See If SSH Is Running You can test whether the SSH process is running with the following command. using the "netstat" command and using "grep" to filter out everything that doesn't have the string "435". Uncommented options change a default value.0. #Port 22 #Protocol 2.d/sshd stop [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. . [root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig --level 35 sshd on • You can also start/stop/restart SSH after booting by running the sshd initialization script.d/sshd start [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. There are GUI based SSH clients available for Windows. • You can get SSH configured to start at boot by using the chkconfig command. see the references in the bibliography.com RedHat Linux comes standard with Secure Shell (SSH) installed.

Port 435 • Restart SSH [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.Chapter 14: Secure Remote Logins And File Copying 155 [root@bigboy root]# netstat -an | grep 435 [root@bigboy root]# • No response. Something like this: .1. you will get a warning message saying that the remote host doesn't know about your machine. User “root” Logs In To smallfry As User “root” [root@bigboy tmp]# ssh smallfry User “root” Logs In To smallfry As User “peter” Using default port 22 [root@bigboy tmp]# ssh -l peter smallfry Using port 435 [root@bigboy tmp]# ssh -l peter -p 435 smallfry What You Should Expect To See When You Log In The first time you log in.0:* [root@bigboy root]# LISTEN Using SSH To Login To A Remote Machine Using SSH is similar to Telnet. If port 435 is being used.168. Change the Port line in /etc/ssh/sshd_config to mention 435 and remove the "#" at the beginning of the line.0. If you leave out the "-l".d/sshd restart • Check to ensure SSH is running on the new port [root@bigboy root]# netstat -an | grep 435 tcp 0 0 192. Here are some examples for a server named “smallfry” in your /etc/hosts file. your username will not change. OK. pick another port and try again.100:435 0. To login from another Linux box use the "ssh" command with a "-l" to specify the username you wish to login as.0.

Xinetd is installed by default in RedHat 7. service telnet { flags = REUSE socket_type = stream wait = no user = root server = /usr/sbin/in.98 No mail. Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes Host 'smallfry' added to the list of known hosts. which makes it relativily easy to !! hijack the connection without the attack being detected.d/telnet and set the disable parameter to "yes". it uses \ # unencrypted username/password pairs for authentication.156 www.linuxhomenetworking. The configuration files for each of the network programs it controls is located in the /etc/xinetd.3 and newer. Edit the file /etc/xinetd.telnetd log_on_failure += USERID disable = yes } Now restart xinetd.d/xinetd restart Stopping xinetd: [ OK ] Starting xinetd: [ OK ] [root@bigboy tmp]# . ssh1 protocol is vulnerable to an !! attack known as false-split. !! If host key is new or changed. root@smallfry's password: Last login: Thu Nov 14 10:18:45 2002 from 192.168. [root@smallfry tmp]# Deactivating Telnet once SSH is installed Now you need to switch off Telnet.d directory.1.com [root@bigboy tmp]# ssh smallfry Host key not found from the list of known hosts. It is !! highly advisable to turn StrictHostKeyChecking to "yes" and !! manually copy host keys to known_hosts. # default: on # description: The telnet server serves telnet sessions. The Telnet server is controlled by the xinetd network security program. [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.

passwords and data are sent across the network unencrypted.rpm /usr/rpm Copying Files To The Remote Linux Box Command Format: scp filename username@address:remotedir Example: Copy file /etc/hosts on the local machine to directory /tmp on the remote server.rpm on the remote machine to the local directory /usr/rpm [root@bigboy tmp]# scp root@smallfry:/tmp/software. There is a windows scp client called WinSCP which can be downloaded at: http://winscp. SCP doesn't support anonymous downloads like FTP. Copying Files To The Local Linux Box Command Format: scp username@address:remotefile localdir Example: Copy file /tmp/software.168.cz/eng/ Secure Copy (SCP) is installed in parallel with SSH and they always run simultaneously on the same TCP port. [root@bigboy tmp]# scp /etc/hosts root@192.vse.103:/tmp . FTP isn't very secure as usernames.Chapter 14: Secure Remote Logins And File Copying 157 Using SCP as a more secure replacement for FTP From a networking perspective. More secure forms such as SFTP (Secure FTP) and SCP (Secure Copy) are available as a part of the Secure Shell package that is normally installed by default on RedHat.1.

158 www.com .linuxhomenetworking.

This allows each user to have a universal username and password when logging in from all PCs on the network. This chapter describes how you can make your Linux box into a Windows Primary Domain Controller (PDC) or a server for a Windows Workgroup. What’s the difference between a PDC and Windows Workgroup member? A detailed description is beyond the scope of this chapter.linuxhomenetworking.com =========================================== Samba is a suite of utilities that allows your Linux box to share files and other resources such as printers with Windows boxes. • In a Windows Workgroup. . www. Linux And Samba Download and Install Packages How To Get SAMBA Started Configuring SWAT Samba and PC Firewall Software How To Create A Samba PDC Administrator User How to Configure a Samba PDC How To Add Users To Your Samba Domain Domain Groups And Samba How To Delete Users From Your Samba Domain © Peter Harrison. Linux And Samba =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 15 Windows. Either configuration will allow everyone at home to have: • their own logins on all the home windows boxes while having their files on the Linux box appear to be located on a new Windows drive • shared access to printers on the Linux box • shared files accessible only to members of their Linux user group. each PC stores the usernames and passwords locally so that they are unique for each PC. • A PDC stores the login information in a central database on its hard drive.159 Chapter 15 Windows. but this simple explanation should be enough.

If you need a refresher. By default.2.rpm samba-swat-2. • You can test whether the smb process is running with the following command.i386. For added security you can make your Samba and Linux passwords different. As of this writing.rpm samba-common-2.2.d/smb restart • Remember to restart the smb process every time you make a change to the conf file for the changes to take effect on the running process. How To Get SAMBA Started • You can configure Samba to start at boot time using the chkconfig command: [root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig --level 35 smb on • You can start/stop/restart Samba after boot time using the smb initialization script as in the examples below: [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.i386.5-10. Install all the packages in this order: [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy tmp]# tmp]# tmp]# tmp]# rpm rpm rpm rpm -Uvh -Uvh -Uvh -Uvh samba-2. you should get a response of plain old process ID numbers: [root@bigboy tmp]# pgrep smb .5-10. Explanations of how to use both SWAT and a text editor to configure Samba are given in this chapter. the RPM chapter covers how to do this in detail. Samba mimics a Windows PDC in almost every way needed for simple file sharing.5-10.com This chapter will only cover the much more popular PDC methodology used at home.5-10.d/smb start [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.2.linuxhomenetworking. Download and Install Packages Samba is comprised of a suite of RPMs that come on the RedHat CDs.d/smb stop [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.rpm samba-client-2.5-10.i386. the latest version of the Samba suite for RedHat 8.conf with a text editor if you subsequently use SWAT to edit it. Keep in mind that you will lose all your comments inserted in /etc/samba/smb.2.i386.conf using a text editor or using the easier web based SWAT utility.0 was version 2.160 www. When Samba starts up it reads the configuration file /etc/samba/smb. You can create your own smb.rpm Downloading and installing RPMs isn’t hard. Samba Domains and Linux share the same usernames so you can log into the Samba based Windows domain using your and immediately gain access to files in your Linux user’s home directory.2.conf to determine its various modes of operation. Linux functionality doesn’t disappear when you do this.

168.d/swat. Unfortunately it doesn't encrypt your login password.0. you can only log into SWAT from the VGA console as user "root".1. service swat { port socket_type protocol wait user server log_on_failure disable only_from } = 901 = stream = tcp = no = root = /usr/sbin/swat += USERID = no = localhost The formatting of the file is fairly easy to understand. The URL must point to your localhost IP address on port 901 (http://127.3 Therefore in this case you can also configure Samba on your Linux server "Bigboy" IP with address 192. Here is a sample. • By default. Because of this. • The disable parameter must be set to "no" to accept connections.1.0:901) as defined by the only_from and port parameters. Here’s an example of an entry to allow connections only from 192. This may be a security concern in a corporate environment.3 using the URL http://192. starting and stopping of SWAT is controlled by xinetd via a configuration file named /etc/xinetd.0.168. you may want to create a Samba administrator user that has no root privileges whatsoever or do your configuration using the configuration files. Linux And Samba 161 Configuring SWAT SWAT is a very intuitive web based Samba configuration tool that allows you to configure Samba without all the memorization of the keywords needed for text based configuration.1. especially as there are only two entries of interest. You can make SWAT accessible from other servers by adding IP address entries separated to the only_from parameter.168.Chapter 15 : Windows.168.1.3 and localhost: only_from = localhost. 192. Here are some ways to solve the problem with two popular packages.168.100 from PC 192.1.100:901 Samba and PC Firewall Software Firewall software installed on Windows PCs may cause Samba to not function. The enabling/disabling. .

This can be done by clicking on the firewall tab and editing the settings for your home network that will most likely have a 192. The Windows XP Built In Firewall You may also need to disable the firewall feature of Windows XP by doing the following: o o o o o Bring up Control Panel Go through the Network and Internet Connections and then Network Connections menus.162 www. The easiest way around this is to configure Zone Alarm to consider your home network as a trusted network too.x. you may want to experiment with the firewall software settings to optimize your security with the need to maintain a valid relationship with the SAMBA server How To Create A Samba PDC Administrator User To do both SWAT and user administration with Samba you'll need to create an Administrator account on the Samba PDC Linux box.com Zone Alarm The default installation of Zone Alarm assumes that your PC is directly connected to the Internet.linuxhomenetworking. This means that the software will deny all inbound connections that attempt to connect with your PC. Right click your on your LAN connection icon and select Properties Click on the Advanced tab. Once you get SAMBA to work.0 type entry.255. Here is how it's done: Create The Administrator’s User Group and Directories o First create a Linux group for administrators: [root@bigboy tmp]# /usr/sbin/groupadd sysadmin o Then create a Linux directory to house all the administrator directories: [root@bigboy tmp]# mkdir /home/sysadmin [root@bigboy tmp]# chgrp sysadmin /home/sysadmin [root@bigboy tmp]# chmod 0770 /home/sysadmin . Make this network a trusted network. instead of an Internet network and ZoneAlarm should cease to interfere with Samba.168. The NetBIOS traffic that Samba uses to communicate with the PCs on the network will therefore be considered as hostile traffic.255.x/255. Uncheck the Internet Connection Firewall box and it will be turned on.

Chapter 15 : Windows. Forces linux to create the directory specified with the -d switch Home directory for the new user Tells adduser to copy the contents of the directory /etc/skel. Usually default login scripts. Adduser’s Command Switches useradd command switch -g group Description Sets the group to which the user should be added. we won’t assign a real Linux password. especially if you’re using SWAT. In this case the administrator user has been made a member of the sysadmin group. (Redundant in this case) -m -d dir_path -k /etc/skel.smb -n . create a Linux user with the adduser command: [root@bigboy tmp]# /usr/sbin/adduser -d \ /home/sysadmin/administrator \ -g sysdmin -m -k /etc/skel. The table below explains what each of the adduser command switches used.smb -n administrator o As this user may not need a real Linux login.smb to the users new home directory. Linux And Samba 163 Create The Administrator User Under Linux o For each administrator user. This provides an added level of security. Tells RedHat NOT to create a default group with the same name as the user.

101 (192.168. Log into SWAT and click on the “globals” section and make sure the key highlighted parameters below are set correctly. Use a generic password then have users change it immediately from their workstation the usual way.linuxhomenetworking. [global] admin users = @sysadmin This can also be set via SWAT in the expanded “global settings” section. then you'll have to use the Linux passwd command to give this user a Linux (not a Samba domain) password.101) # Date: 2002/11/10 19:54:45 # Global parameters [global] ## ## The name I want to give my DOMAIN ## workgroup = HOMENET .1. Note: If you want user "administrator" to be able to log into the Linux box as a regular user via Telnet or SSH.168. # Samba config file created using SWAT # from 192. Samba domain logins use the smbpasswd password. This is done with the smbpasswd command.164 www. [root@bigboy tmp]# /usr/bin/smbpasswd -a administrator password The -a adds the user administrator to the /etc/smbpasswd file. You’ll need to restart Samba for this to take effect. Make The Administrator One Of The Samba Admin Users Edit /etc/samba/smb. How to Configure a Samba PDC Create A Samba PDC By far the easiest way to configure a Samba PDC is by using SWAT.1.conf file and add the sysadmin group to the list of Samba system administrator users.com Create An Administrator Domain Password The Linux Administrator now needs a Samba password to log into the Windows domain.

(Usually blank) ## logon script = logon. but they wont be PDC administrators to do things like adding new PCs to the domain domain admin group = @sysadmin ## ## The script logon. Linux And Samba 165 ## ## The name of my Linux Box ## server string = BigBoy ## ## Make sure passwords are always encrypted ## encrypt passwords = Yes ## ## Samba will log errors via syslog to ## directory /var/log/samba ## log file = /var/log/samba/%m.log max log size = 0 ## ## The command Samba uses to add new printers ## directory /var/log/samba ## addprinter command = /usr/bin/addprinter ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## Only domain users in the sysadmin group can act as universal administrators.cmd ## ## My user’s Linux login directory will always appear ## to be Windows drive H: ## logon drive = h: ## ## Activate domain type logins and make ## Linux box be the master Windows server ## in all domain type functions ## domain logons = Yes os level = 99 preferred master = True domain master = True local master = True dns proxy = No . You can also have local administrator accounts on PCs to do software installation. Ie administer the PDC and do activities on the local PC like software installation.cmd in the Linux user’s home directory ## will be run whenever the user logs in.Chapter 15 : Windows.

166 www. Manual Creation Of Machine Trust Accounts (NT Only) When manually creating a machine trust account you need to manually create the corresponding Unix account in /etc/passwd and /etc/smbpasswd files. Create Your PC Machine Trusts PDCs will only accept user logins from trusted PCs that have been placed in its PC client database.com ## ## Only users in the sysadmin group can use SWAT ## to modify Samba and ## admin users = @sysadmin printer admin = @sysadmin printing = lprng Next you will have to use SWAT to click on the “shares” button. [root@bigboy nickname" -s [root@bigboy [root@bigboy tmp]# /usr/sbin/useradd -g 100 -d /dev/null -c "machine /bin/false machine_name$ tmp]# passwd -l machine_name$ tmp]# smbpasswd -a -m machine_name . Samba can create these “Machine Trusts” in two ways. Pay careful attention to the "$" at the end and replace machine_name with the name of the Windows client machine. Here you will use the drop down menu to edit the netlogon and profiles shares [netlogon] ## ## Store all Samba PDC overhead data in the directory ## /home/netlogon (or whatever you desire) ## path = /home/netlogon write list = administrator guest ok = Yes [profiles] ## ## Store user profiles in this directory ## path = /home/ntprofile read only = No create mask = 0600 directory mask = 0700 guest ok = Yes browseable = No Click on the “Status” button at the top of the screen and restart Samba to make your settings take effect. either manually or automatically.linuxhomenetworking.

Windows 95/98/ME Windows 9x machines do not implement full domain membership and therefore don't require machine trust accounts • • • • • • Navigate to the Network section of the Control Panel (Start ->Settings->Control Panel>Network) Select the Configuration tab Highlight "Client for Microsoft Networks" Click the Properties button.conf to automatically add the required users.Chapter 15 : Windows.. defining your wall paper and setting the way dates are formatted... These include things like suppressing the splash screen. Linux And Samba 167 This is the only way to configure machine trusts using Windows NT. Dynamic Creation Of Machine Trust Accounts The second (and recommended) way of creating machine trust accounts is simply to allow the Samba server to create them as needed when the client joins the domain. [root@bigboy tmp]# mkdir /home/netlogon [root@bigboy tmp]# chmod 0755 /home/netlogon You’ll then have to log into each PC client and do the following steps depending on their operating system. Click all the OK buttons and reboot! .> add user script = /usr/sbin/useradd -d /dev/null -g 100 -s /bin/false -M %u This is probably easier to do if you use SWAT in the “Global” menu Make Your PC Clients Aware Of Your Samba PDC When you log into the domain. and enter the domain name. This information is stored in the netlogon directory.. Check "Log onto Windows NT Domain". [global] # <. but suffice it to say that the directory must be created on the Linux box for Samba to operate correctly. This can be done by editing /etc/samba/smb. the PDC will send your new client PC a list of universal “look and feel” related features that may have been previously set by the Administrator.remainder of parameters. This method is also referred to as making a machine account "on the fly". How to configure the netlogon directory is beyond the scope of this chapter.

• • • Windows XP Create a dynamic SAMBA machine trust account as explained above. Log in using any account in the /etc/smbpasswd file with your domain as the domain name. then go through the following steps: • • • • Navigate to the Network section of the Control Panel (Start ->Settings->Control Panel>Network ) Select the “identification” tab Click the "change" button Enter the domain name and computer name.com Windows NT Create a manual SAMBA machine trust account as explained above. This should be your Samba administrator. • • • • Windows 2000 Create a dynamic SAMBA machine trust account as explained above.linuxhomenetworking. then go through the following steps: • Press Windows-key Break-key simultaneously to get the System Properties dialogue box . then go through the following steps: • • • • • • Press Windows-key Break-key simultaneously to get the System Properties dialogue box Click on the 'Network Indentification' tab on the top Click the "Properties" button Click on the “Member of Domain” button Also enter your domain name and computer name and then click "OK" You will now be prompted for a user account and password with rights to join a machine to the domain. Reboot. Reboot." In this case. In our case that would be user "administrator" with the corresponding smbpasswd password. Click "OK" You should then get a confirmation that you’ve been added with a "Welcome to <DOMAIN>" message.168 www. (See this note before proceeding.) You should then get a confirmation that you’ve been added with a "Welcome to <DOMAIN>" message. Log in using any account in the /etc/smbpasswd file with your domain as the domain name. the existing machine trust account is used to join the machine to the domain. do not check the box "Create a Computer Account in the Domain.

Log in using any account in the /etc/smbpasswd file with your domain as the domain name. • • How To Add Users To Your Samba Domain Add The Users In Linux First go through the process of adding users in Linux just like you would normally do. Use a generic password then have users change it immediately from their workstation the usual way. Samba will automatically give each user logged into the domain an H: drive that really maps to the /home/username directory on the Linux box. This should be your Samba administrator. Map The Linux Users To An smbpassword Next you need to create Samba domain login passwords for all users [root@bigboy tmp]# /usr/bin/smbpasswd -a username password The -a adds the user to the /etc/smbpasswd file.Chapter 15 : Windows. In our case that would be user "administrator" with the corresponding smbpasswd password. Map A Drive Share By default. Linux And Samba 169 • • • • • Click on the 'Computer Name' tab on the top Click on the 'Change' button Click on the “Member of Domain” button Also enter your domain name and computer name and then click "OK" You will now be prompted for a user account and password with rights to join a machine to the domain. Reboot. Mapping Using “My Computer” If the auto-mapping doesn't work then do the following: • • • • Let the user log into the domain Right click on the "My Computer" icon on the desktop Click on "Map Network Drive" Select a drive letter . Passwords won’t be necessary unless you want the users to log in to the Samba server via Telnet or SSH.

Domain Groups also have the ability to join machines to the domain.linuxhomenetworking. The argument is a space-separated list of user names or group names (group names must have an @ sign prefixed). then you can do the following and possibly make it into a script. This will allow them to do such things as add software and configure network settings.rpmfind. This requires the 'todos' program to be installed.bat • The next page will show you how to add regular users to your new SAMBA domain Domain Groups And Samba Samba supports domain groups which will allow users who are members of the group to be able to have Administrator rights on each PC in the domain.com • • Browse to the HOMENET domain. For example: domain admin group = <USER1> <USER2> @<GROUP> . (You can get this package from http://speakeasy.bat • Add the following contents to mount the user's share as drive P: (for 'private'). REM administrator net use P: \\bigboy\administrator • Make the file world readable: [root@bigboy tmp]# chmod +r /home/samba/netlogon/administrator.bat • Linux and Windows format text files slightly differently.net ) [root@bigboy tmp]# todos /home/samba/netlogon/administrator. As the file resides on a Linux box. then the user’s home directory. to make the change permanent Mapping From The Command Line If you find the "My Computer" method too time consuming for dozens of users or if the PC doesn't have the feature available. Click on the check box "Reconnect at Logon". you’ll have to convert the file to the Windows format. In Windows.170 www. but will be interpreted bay a Windows machine. We will add the contents of this file to all administrator's logon scripts. then the Samba server. but this is not currently supported in Samba. • Create a master logon batch file for administrator users. The domain admin group parameter specifies users who will have domain admin rights. [root@bigboy tmp]# vi /home/netlogon/administrator.

Chapter 15 : Windows. Here we are deleting the user zmeekins and all zmeekin’s files from the Linux server: [root@bigboy tmp]# userdel -r zmeekins Delete The Users Using smbpasswd Next. [root@bigboy root]# . Linux And Samba 171 How To Delete Users From Your Samba Domain Delete The Users In Linux First go through the process of deleting users in Linux just like you would normally do. use the smbpasswd command with the "-x" switch [root@bigboy tmp]# smbpasswd -x zmeekins Deleted user zmeekins.

linuxhomenetworking.172 www.com .

Here’s how to connect your printer directly to your PDC and make it available to all your windows workstations.173 Chapter 16 Sharing Resources With Samba =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 16 Sharing Resources With Samba Adding A Printer To A Samba PDC Creating Group Shares in SAMBA Windows Drive Sharing With Your SAMBA Server © Peter Harrison. www. directories and printers via the Samba server. N Adding A Printer To A Samba PDC Sharing printers amongst all your PCs is one of the advantages of creating a home network. Adding The Printer To Linux By far the easiest way to add a printer in Linux is to use the GUI from the VGA console. This may be OK for a small home network but may be impractical for a huge corporate network. Here are the menus to use: o o o o Click on the RedHat icon in the bottom left hand corner of the screen Click on System Settings Click on Printing Click on New . We’ll assume the printer is locally attached to the parallel port. Here’s how to do it all.linuxhomenetworking. This makes your Samba PDC a print server too! The method explained here requires the Windows printer driver to be loaded on every client machine.com =========================================== ow that you have Samba up and running. you may want to allow users to share resources such as floppy drives. The way to get a GUI on the console is outlined in the runlevels chapter.

If this is the case. o o o . restart Samba and go to the next section. edit/create the printer Click on the “Commit Changes” button to create an updated /etc/samba/smb.conf file.174 www. I called the printer queue EpsonC60) Click the local printer button Click "forward" You'll get the "Configure a Local Printer" menu Select /dev/lp0 as I assume the printer is on the parallel port (not USB) You'll get the "Select Print Driver" menu Scroll to the printer Double click on the name Select the driver Click "forward" You'll get the "Finish and Create the New Print Queue" menu Click finished Click "Apply" Do a test print to make sure all is OK o o o o o Make Samba Aware Of The Printer The easiest way to do this is using the Samba SWAT web interface. Click on the “Status” tab at the top of the screen and restart smbd and nmbd to restart Samba. then it has been auto configured by Samba.com o You'll now get the "Add a New Print Queue" menu Click "forward" You'll get the "Set the Print Queue name and Type" menu Give the printer an easy to remember name. Once you are in SWAT: o o o Select the "Printers" button Find your printer in the drag down menu If the printer name has a [*] beside it. (My printer is an Epson Stylus C60. but may not be visible on your network because Samba hasn't been restarted since creating the printer.linuxhomenetworking. If this isn't the case.

you pre installed the driver Click the "OK" button The "Add Printer Wizard" will appear Select the manufacturer of your printer Select the printer model Click the "OK" button The "Add Printer Wizard" will prompt you whether you want to use this new printer as the default printer. Fortunately.Chapter 16: Sharing Resources With Samba 175 Configure The Printer Driver On The Workstations o Download the Windows printer driver from the manufacturer and install it. click OK". Click next so you can browse for your printer You should be on the "Browse for Printer" menu Double Click on the name of your Linux Samba Box You should see the new printer Click on the printer name Click the "Next" button You may get a message stating "The server on which the printer resides does not have the correct printer driver installed. Go to the Add printer menu Click the "Next" button Select the "Network Printer" button to get the "Local or Network Printer" menu Click the "Next" button You should be on the "Locate Your Printer" menu Don't enter a name. If you want to install the driver on your local computer. Select "Yes" or "No" depending on your preference Click the "Next" button The "Completing the Add Printer Wizard" menu will appear Click the "Finish" button o o o o o o o o .

o Creating Group Shares in SAMBA On occasion. If one user is designated as the leader. Create The Directory And User Group o Create a new Linux group parents: [root@bigboy tmp]# /usr/sbin/groupadd parents o Create a new directory for the group's files. Click on the “Create Share” button. you might want to change the chown statement to make them owner [root@bigboy tmp]# mkdir /home/parent-files [root@bigboy tmp]# chown parents /home/parent-files [root@bigboy tmp]# chmod 0770 /home/parent-files o Next we add the group members to the new group. parents working in a home office environment may need a place where they can share.linuxhomenetworking.conf file. let’s say “onlyparents”. distribute or collaboratively work on documents. [root@bigboy tmp]# /usr/sbin/usermod -G parents father Configure The Share In SWAT o o o o o Finally. . where parents is the name of the Linux user group.176 www. Click on the “Commit Changes” button to create a new /etc/samba/smb. create the share in Samba using SWAT. For example. Click on the “Status” tab at the top of the screen and restart smbd and nmbd to restart Samba. subgroups of a family need a share that is fully accessible by all members of the group. Here’s how it’s done. Make sure the path maps to “/home/parent-files” and make the valid users be @parents.com o The new printer should now show up on the Windows Printers menu in "Control Panel" Send a test print. For instance. Click on the shares button then enter the name of the share you want to create. let's add user "father" to the group.

Windows 98/ME • • • • Double click 'My Computer' Right click on the ZIP drive and choose 'Sharing' Set the Share Name as 'zip' with the appropriate access control Restart windows Windows 2000 • • • • Double click 'My Computer' Right click on the ZIP drive and choose 'Sharing' Set the Share Name as 'zip' and the appropriate access control Logout and login again as normal using your current login . DVD.conf file should have an entry like this at the end: # Parents Shared Area [only-parents] path = /home/parent-files valid users = @parents Map The Directory Using “My Computer” o o o o o o Let the user log into the domain from a remote PC Right click on the "My Computer" icon on the desktop Click on "Map Network Drive" Select a drive letter Browse to the HOMENET domain. In this section we’ll attempt to share a ZIP drive. ZIP. to make the change permanent Windows Drive Sharing With Your SAMBA Server You can also access a CD. then the Samba server.Chapter 16: Sharing Resources With Samba 177 Your /etc/samba/smb. then the share named only-parents Click on the check box "Reconnect at Logon". Windows Setup The Windows client box should first be setup as a member of a Samba domain or workgroup. floppy or hard drive installed on a Windows Client from the Samba server. The next step is to make the ZIP drive shared.

168.255 nmask=255.255.0 Got a positive name query response from 192.100 bcast=192. You should get output like this when using the username's corresponding password: [root@bigboy tmp]# smbclient -L WinClient -U username added interface ip=192.------IPC$ IPC Remote IPC D$ Disk Default share print$ Disk Printer Drivers SharedDocs Disk zip Disk Printer2 Printer Acrobat PDFWriter ADMIN$ Disk Remote Admin C$ Disk Default share Server Comment --------.255 nmask=255. You should substitute "WinClient" with the name of your widows client PC and "username" with a valid workgroup/domain username that normally has access to the Windows client.1.1] Server=[Windows 2000 LAN Manager] Sharename Type Comment --------.168. .255.1.178 www.255.0. Here’s how to do it.253 ) Password: Domain=[HOMENET] OS=[Windows 5.------Note: You could have got the same result using the following command.0 added interface ip=127.168.---.1.253 ( 192.linuxhomenetworking.0. though it is less secure: [root@bigboy tmp]# smbclient -L WinClient -U username%password Create A ZIP Drive Mount Point On Your Samba Server You’ll need to create the mount point on the Linux server in order to mount and access the ZIP floppy.1 bcast=127.168.0.------Workgroup Master --------.1.0.255.com Windows XP • • • • Double click 'My Computer' Right click on the ZIP drive and choose 'Sharing and Properties' Set the Share Name as 'zip' and the appropriate access control Logout and login again as normal using your current login Test Your Windows Client Configuration Use the smbclient command to test your share.

Incompatible versions will give errors like this: [root@bigboy tmp]# smbmount //winclient/zip /mnt/zip -o username=username Password: 27875: session setup failed: ERRDOS .ERRnoaccess (Access denied.) SMB connection failed .password=password //winclient/zip /mnt/zip Using The smbmount Command Method Some versions of Linux support the smbmount command to mount the remote drive.Chapter 16: Sharing Resources With Samba 179 Prompted For Password Method [root@bigboy tmp]# mkdir /mnt/zip [root@bigboy tmp]# mount -t smbfs -o username=username //winclient/zip /mnt/zip Not Prompted For Password Method [root@bigboy tmp]# mkdir /mnt/zip [root@bigboy tmp]# mount -t smbfs -o username=username.

com .linuxhomenetworking.180 www.

the daemon that responds to DNS queries from remote machines.linuxhomenetworking.linuxhomenetworking. the Domain Name System (DNS) is the way in which a URL or domain like www.conf File Configuring A Caching Nameserver Configuring A Regular Nameserver How To Migrate Your Website In-House DHCP Considerations For DNS © Peter Harrison. The most well known program in BIND is "named". What Is DNS? As explained on the introduction to networking concepts chapter. here’s how.com =========================================== You can make your Linux box into your home network's DNS nameserver. www. What Is BIND? BIND is an acronym for the "Berkeley Internet Name Domain" project which maintains the DNS related software suite that runs under Linux. .181 Chapter 17 Configuring DNS =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 17 Configuring DNS What Is DNS? What Is BIND? When To Use A DNS Caching Nameserver When To Use A Regular DNS Server When To Use Dynamic DNS How To Download and Install The BIND Packages How To Get BIND Started The /etc/resolv.com is converted to an IP address.

How To Download and Install The BIND Packages Most RedHat Linux software products are available in the RPM format. When To Use Dynamic DNS Your DSL ISP will assign IP addresses to your home either with an unchanging.0 was version 9.2. Downloading and installing RPMs isn’t hard. As of this writing the latest version of the BIND suite for RedHat 8. A caching DNS nameserver is only used as a reference.my-site. then you will have to configure your DHCP server to make it aware of the IP address of your new DNS server. the chapter on RPMs covers how to do this in detail. When To Use A Regular DNS Server If you host your own website at home with full control of all the web domains and your ISP provides you with a “fixed” or “static” IP address.1-9. then a regular DNS server would be the way to go. If your router/firewall is getting its Internet IP address using DHCP then you must consider dynamic DNS. the most frequently requested information to reduce the lookup overhead of subsequent queries.com to the rest of the world. Note: Regular nameservers are also caching nameservers by default. If you need a refresher. then a regular DNS server is what you require.1-9. This chapter assumes that you are using “static” Internet IP addresses. Caching DNS servers then store (or cache). Off the shelf router/firewall appliances used in most home networks will usually act as both the caching DNS and DHCP server.com When To Use A DNS Caching Nameserver DNS caching servers should be used by the machines on your network to provide DNS information that it has learned from the authoritative DNS servers of the Internet. “fixed” or “static” IP address or via a changing “DHCP” method.linuxhomenetworking. It comes standard with the RedHat installation CDs.2. In this case a separate DNS server is unnecessary. Once you have set up your caching DNS server you will then have to configure each of your home network PCs to use it as their DNS server.rpm How To Get BIND Started • You can use the chkconfig command to get BIND configured to start at boot: . If you want to advertise your website www. regular nameservers are used as the authoritative source of information. Setting up a caching DNS server is fairly straightforward and will work whether or not your ISP provides you with a static or dynamic Internet IP address.i386.182 www. [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh bind-9. If your home PCs get their IP addresses using DHCP.

com If you refer to another server just by its name without the domain added on. Here is a list of keywords: Keyword Nameserver • Value IP address of your DNS nameserver.100 and 192. Domain • Search • Here is a sample configuration in which: • The client server’s main domain is my-site. then the entry would just be my-site.d/named stop [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. It generally has two columns. the first contains a keyword and the second contains the desired value(s) separated by commas.com.102 provide DNS name resolution.d/named restart • Remember to restart the BIND process every time you make a change to the conf file for the changes to take effect on the running process.168.102 .org which should be searched for short hand references to other servers.168. This is a handy time saving feature to have so that you can refer to servers in the same domain by only their servername without having to specify the domain. The local domain name to be used by default.net my-site.100 nameserver 192. DNS on your client will append the server name to each domain in this list and do an nslookup on each to get the remote servers’ IP address.com. The domains in this list must separated by spaces. There should be only one entry per “nameserver” keyword.d/named start [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. If there is more than one nameserver.1.1.168.com net my-site.1. • Two nameservers.conf File This file is used by DNS clients (servers not running BIND) to determine both the location of their DNS server and the domains to which they belong. 192.net and my-site.Chapter 17: Configuring DNS 183 [root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig --level 35 named on • To start/stop/restart BIND after booting [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. The /etc/resolv. If the server is bigboy.168.org nameserver 192. you’ll need to have multiple “nameserver” lines.my-site. domain my-site.com search my-site. but it also is a member of domains my-site.1.

255.zone should be located in the default directory of /var/named.0.0. There are usually two zone areas in this file: Forward zone file definitions which list files to map domains to IP addresses Reverse zone file definitions which list files to map IP addresses to domains In this example the forward zone for www.conf file.zone and. though not explicitly stated.255. o .168. zone "my-site.0. the subnet that has been assigned to you by your ISP is 97.184 www.conf in which you’ll have to comment out the reference to your previous DNS server (most likely your router) with a "#" or make it point to the server itself using the universal localhost IP address of 127. The only file you have to edit is /etc/resolv.1 New Entry # nameserver 192.my-site.158.1 Old Entry nameserver 192.248 (/29).1.0.1. the file my-site. notify no.conf o The main DNS configuration is kept in the file /etc/named.com is being set up by placing the following entries at the bottom of the /etc/named.253.com Configuring A Caching Nameserver The RedHat default installation of BIND is configured to convert your Linux box into a caching nameserver. The zone file is named my-site.1 or: nameserver 127. Configuring named.168.linuxhomenetworking. Configuring A Regular Nameserver For the purposes of this tutorial.24 with a subnet mask of 255.com" { type master.conf which is used to tell BIND where to find the configuration files for each domain you own.1 The next step is to make all the other machines on your network point to the caching DNS server as their primary DNS server.

158. notify no. The SOA Record The very first record is the Start of Authority (SOA) record which contains general administrative and control information about the domain.158. It is especially difficult to do this with your DSL ISP if you have less than 256 static IP addresses (also known as a "Class C" block of addresses).conf file to reference other web domains you host. Each zone file contains a variety of records (eg. Note: the reverse order of the IP address in the zone section is important.in-addr.253. file "my-other-site. This is rarely done for home based sites. file "my-site. MX. }.x IP address and get back the true name of the server assigned that IP address. . By default.158. Though you would normally think a record would be a single line. }.com using a zone file named myother-site. SOA.zone.zone". zone "my-other-site.arpa" { type master. It just makes you able to do an nslookup query on the 97. }. Configuring The Zone Files o o o In all zone files. the rest of the records are relatively straight forward. It is the most counter-intuitive of them all. allow-query { any. Here is an example for my-other-site. NS.97. o The reverse zone definition below is optional for a home / SOHO DSL based web site. notify no. }. your zone files are located in the directory /var/named. zone "253. I’ll explain of them below and then follow it all up with an example. file "253.com" { type master.” character then typing in the text of your comment. You can also insert additional entries in the /etc/named. }.Chapter 17: Configuring DNS 185 allow-query { any. the SOA format spans several.zone". A and CNAME) which govern different areas of BIND.97". you can place a comment at the end of any line by inserting a semi-colon “.

A serial number for the current configuration. Tells the slave DNS server how often it should check the master DNS server. Signifies that we’re all finished with the variables. Slaves aren't really used in home / SOHO environments. The email address must also be followed by a "." The email address of the nameserver administrator. The regular "@" in the e-mail address must be replaced with a ".186 www. Usually in the date format YYYYMMDD with single digit incremented number tagged to the end. The slave's retry interval to connect the master in the event of a connection failure. As of BIND version 9 this value is overridden by the $TTL command at the very top of the configuration file." instead. 2. 3 4 5 Name @ IN SOA Nameserver Email • • • • • • 6 2 1 “(“ Serial • • • 3 1 Refresh • Description Signifies that the SOA record is about to begin Fully qualified name of your primary nameserver. Must be followed by a ". The amount of time external caching DNS servers should keep your DNS information before flushing the data from the cache. Slaves aren't really used in home / SOHO environments.com SOA Record Format Line # 1 Column # 1." Signifies that we’re about to define some performance related variables.linuxhomenetworking. Slaves aren't really used in home / SOHO environments. Total amount of time a slave will retry to contact the master before expiring the data it contains. 4 1 Retry • 5 1 Expire • 6 1 Minimum TTL • • 2 “)“ • .

NS. A And CNAME Records Unlike the SOA record. MX. So an "A" record with "www" will be assumed to refer to www.0.com at the end." at the end of a host name in a SOA. Server name "A" IP address of server CNAME "alias" or "nickname" for server "CNAME" "A" record name for server N/A **The Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) is the full DNS name of the server such as mail. MX.0. A or CNAME record." "MX" CNAME of mail server or the mailserver's FQDN** followed by a ".com.mysite.com Blank "NS" N/A MX Domain.com o Note: If you don't put a ".1 Provides additional alternate "alias" names for servers listed in the "A" records.Chapter 17: Configuring DNS 187 NS. A and CNAME Record Formats Record Description First Column Second Column Third Column IP address or CNAME of the nameserver Mail server priority Fourth Column NS Lists the name of the nameserver for the domain Lists the mail servers for your domain such as mysite. followed by a ". the NS. There must always be an entry for localhost 127. BIND will attach the my-site. A and CNAME records each occupy a single line and the records each have a very similar layout.com.com. .com. but if you forget to put the ". BIND will automatically tack on the domain name. and you will find your mail server only accepting mail for the domain my-site.my-site." after the domain in the MX record for my-site.my-site." N/A A Maps an IP address to each server in your domain. MX. NS. This may be OK in most cases.

seconds 3600 .158.com "mail" is actually a CNAME or "alias" for the web server "www".com is nameserver for my-site.253. In corporate environments there may be a separate nameserver for this purpose. mail server and web server being the same machine.0. but in the home / SOHO environment it is not necessary to differentiate.26 www Notice that in this example: o Server www.253.158. seconds . If they were all different machines.1 97. www mail ns o A A A 97.my-site.com points to the server named mail. .158.com. Primary nameservers are more commonly called “ns1” and secondary nameservers “ns2”. You MUST increment it after editing the file or else BIND will not apply the changes you made when you restart "named". Zone file for my-site.my-site.125 o o o The serial number is extremely important.com. So here we have an example of the nameserver. The full zone file . Primary Mail Exchanger A A CNAME 127. refresh.158.26 97. ( 200211152 .253. serial# 3600 . . . seconds 3600 ) .253. localhost www mail MX 10 mail .com.com.com . NS www . Inet Address of nameserver my-site.134 97.linuxhomenetworking.188 www. minimum. seconds 3600 . retry. expire.0. then you’d have an "A" record entry for each like the example below.my-site. .my-site. The minimum TTL is set to 3600 seconds.com Sample Forward Zone File Here is a working example of the zone file for my-site. . So remote DNS caching servers will store learned DNS information from your zone for 3 days before flushing it out of their caches. The MX record for my-site. hostmaster.com. $TTL 3D @ IN SOA www. but the overriding $TTL value is 3 days.

my-site. .com.com.1. Filename: 192-168-1. seconds .com.168.my-site.my-site.com. Nameserver Address Note: I have included entries for addresses 192.158. .253. .my-site.my-site.com. dhcp-36. . seconds retry.100.Chapter 17: Configuring DNS 189 Sample Reverse Zone File Now we need to make sure that we can do an nslookup query on all our home network’s PCs and get their correct IP addresses.my-site. Zone file for 192.my-site.26 address of the webserver.com. Most home DSL sites wouldn’t qualify. ochorios. smallfry.168.1.1. SMTP mail relay wouldn’t work for PCs that get their IP addresses via DHCP if these lines weren’t included.my-site.x .my-site. This is very important if you are running a mail server on your network as sendmail typically will only relay mail from hosts whose IP addresses resolve correctly in DNS. seconds minimum.26 NAT IP address of your webserver. dhcp-34. . What do the PCs on your home network need to see? They need to see DNS references to the real IP address of the webserver.168.com. serial number refresh. dhcp-35. This is because NAT won’t work properly if a PC on your home network attempts to connect to the external 97.253. . reggae. seconds expire. What You Need To Know About NAT And DNS The above examples assume that the queries will be coming from the Internet with the zone files returning information related to the external 97.my-site. dhcp-33. You may also want to create a reverse zone file for the public NAT IP addresses for your home network. 200303301 8H 2H 4W 1D ) hostmaster.zone .com.36 which are the addresses our DHCP server issues.32 to 192. . .168. . 100 103 102 105 32 33 34 35 36 PTR PTR PTR PTR PTR PTR PTR PTR PTR bigboy.1. $TTL 3D @ IN SOA ( www.158.my-site. NS .com. 192.com. dhcp-32. Unfortunately ISP’s won’t usually delegate this ability for anyone with less than a “Class C” block of 256 IP addresses. www .com. Here is a sample reverse zone file for our network.

168. This /etc/named.zone file is fairly easy.in-addr. The creation of the my-site-home. Just copy it form the my-site.conf entry would be inserted in the “external” section.253.ca". There are some built-in ACLs: “localhost” which refers to the DNS server itself. .0.1. }.zone for lookups related to the 97.X with references to 192. zone "localhost" IN { type master. This entry would be inserted in the “internal” section. localhost. }.0.1.arpa” and ". allow-update { none.zone file and replace all references to 97.com Don’t worry. zone "0. "trusted-subnet".0 network.X o You must also tell the DNS server which addresses you feel are “internal” and “external”.in-addr. The first section will be called “internal” and will list the zone files to be used by your internal network.253. All the statements below were inserted after the “options” and “controls” sections in the file.conf file I use for my home network.190 www. “0. Here’s a summary of how it’s done: o Place your zone statements in the /etc/named.local"." IN { type hint. The views feature allows you to force BIND to use pre-defined zone files for queries from certain subnets. }. “any” which is self explanatory. view "internal" { // What the home network will see match-clients { localnets. }.127. The second view called “external” will list the zone files to used for Internet users. }.zone".127. You could also have a file called my-site-home.168. For example. Remember to increment your serial numbers! Here is a sample configuration snippet for the /etc/named.linuxhomenetworking. file "localhost. BIND has a way around this called “views”. you could have a reference to a zone file called my-site.158. Note: You must place your “localhost”.17/24. This means it’s possible to use one set of zone files for queries from the Internet and another set for queries from your home network. }.X network which Internet users would see. “localnets” which refers to all the networks to which the DNS server is directly connected. file "named.conf file in one of two “views” sections.158.168. }. This is done by first defining access control lists (ACLs) and then referring to these lists within each view section with the match-clients statement. file "named. allow-update { none.arpa" IN { type master.zone for lookups by home users on the 192. // ACL statement acl "trusted-subnet" { 192." zone statements in the “internal” views section. zone ".

zone".Chapter 17: Configuring DNS 191 zone "1. this is purely an example. allow-query { any. allow-update { none.com" { type master.168.com" { type master.17. }.zone". }. Our network won’t need the “trustedsubnet” section in the match-clients line either.0) and localhost will get DNS data from the zone files in the “internal” view. Note: In the above example I included an ACL for network 192.arpa" IN { type master. allow-query { any.zone". The home network we have been using doesn’t need to have the ACL statement at all as the built in ACLs “localnets” and “localhost” are sufficient. Once the ACL was defined. }.17. file "my-other-site-home. notify no.168. }. }.0 /24).1. }.0 /24 called “trusted-subnet” to help clarify the use of ACLs in more complex environments.168. }. notify no. view "external" { // What the Internet will see match-clients { any. Remember. allow-query { any. file "my-other-site. zone "my-site. I then inserted a reference to the “trusted-subnet” in the match-clients statement in the “internal” view. the other trusted network (192. }. notify no. . file "192-168-1.168. notify no. }. allow-query { any. }. recursion no. }.in-addr. zone "my-site. zone "my-other-site. file "my-site-home.zone".192.com" { type master. }.zone".com" { type master. file "my-site. zone "my-other-site. }. So in this case the local network (192.

com Loading Your New Configuration Files o Make sure your file permissions and ownership are OK in /var/named [root@bigboy [root@bigboy total 6 -rw-r--r-.zone The configuration files above will not be loaded until you issue the following command to restart the named process that controls DNS (Make sure to increment your configuration file serial number before doing this): [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.168.1 -rw-r--r-. You'll have to employ NAT in order for Internet users to be able to gain access to the server via the Public IP address we chose.d/named restart Make Sure Your /etc/hosts File Is Correctly Updated The chapter covering Linux networking topics explains how to do this.zone 2001 2001 2001 16:23 localhost.1 -rw-r--r-.local my-site.192 www.26.1 -rw-r--r-.zone named. If your firewall is a Linux box.158. The actual IP address of the server is 192.1 [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy total 6 -rw-r--r-.zone named. .1 -rw-r--r-.100. Some programs such as sendmail require a correctly configured /etc/hosts file even though DNS is correctly configured.ca named.1 -rw-r--r-.253.1 [root@bigboy o tmp]# cd /var/named named]# ll named named 195 Jul 3 named named 2769 Jul 3 named named 433 Jul 3 root root 763 Oct 2 named]# chown named * named]# chgrp named * named]# ll named named named named named named named named named]# 195 2769 433 763 Jul Jul Jul Oct 3 3 3 2 2001 2001 2001 16:23 localhost. Configure Your Firewall The sample network we're using assumes that the BIND nameserver and Apache web server software run on the same machine protected by a router/firewall.1 -rw-r--r-.local my-site.ca named.linuxhomenetworking. you may want to consider taking a look on the iptables chapter on how to do the NAT and allow DNS traffic trough to your nameserver. which is a private IP address.1. namely 97.

com or www.com.com domain. convert all the server configuration files to reference my-site. but different name. say 1 minute.com to handle your domain. You’ll therefore have to wait about this amount of time before you’ll start noticing people hitting your new website site.com and my-site-test. or whatever it is. You'll have to do the following two steps: o First.158.26 to map to ns. As the TTL is usually set to 3 days. ( 97. If you only have one.com • Once testing is completed. create a second NAT entry on your firewall and then create the second nameserver record entry with the new IP address. so that at least one of the nameservers is your new nameserver. Give your web server a second IP address using an IP alias.my-site-test.my-site. knowing it will rapidly recover within minutes rather than days.253. Domain registrars such as Verisign and RegisterFree usually provide a web interface to help you manage your domain.com or whatever your nameserver is called.my-site.com • Test web traffic to www. the registrar will require at least two registered nameservers per domain.my-site-test. • Set up your server in house using a different domain. Also set the TTL on this domain to 1 minute.com Restart all the relevant applications.Chapter 17: Configuring DNS 193 Fix Your Domain Registration Remember to edit your domain registration for "my-site. (This screen will prompt you for the server name only) o Sometimes. Your best alternative will be to request your existing service provider to set the TTL on my-site.com in the DNS zone file to a very low value. If anything goes wrong. It normally takes about 3-4 days for your updated DNS information to be propagated to all 13 of the world’s root (“super duper”) nameservers.my-site.com. (This screen will prompt you for both the server's IP address and name) Then you'll have to assign ns. it will take only 1 minute to see the results of the final DNS configuration switch to your new server. Once.253. you'll have to create a new nameserver record entry for the IP address 97. How To Migrate Your Website In-House It is important to have a detailed migration plan if you currently use an external company to host your website and wish to move the site to a server at home or in your office. • Test your applications using server.26 in this case ). you've logged in with the registrar's username and password. Now your server will be a part of both my-site.158. and different name.my-site. • Ask your existing web hosting provider to add a DNS entry for your new server in the my-site. Once the propagation is complete.com and not my-site-test.com • Test mail to users @my-site-test. . you can then revert to the old configuration.com". At the very least it should include the following steps: • There is no magic bullet which will allow you to tell all the caching DNS servers in the world to flush their caches of your zone file entries. it will take at least 3-5 days for all remote DNS servers to recognize the change. then you could either: o o Create a second nameserver record entry with the same IP address. for example www.

You can then decide whether the change will be permanent once you have failed over back and forth a few times. Finally.194 www. then you may need to refer to the DHCP server chapter. you don't have to host DNS or mail in-house. you'll be able to see results of the migration within minutes. You can migrate these services in-house later as your confidence in hosting becomes greater. • Once complete.com • Coordinate with your web hosting provider to simultaneously update you domain registration’s DNS records to point to your new DNS server. • As both TTLs were set to 1 minute previously. .linuxhomenetworking. DHCP Considerations For DNS If you have a DHCP server on your network. you can set the TTL back to 3 days to help reduce the volume of DNS query traffic hitting your DNS server. Remember. if you have concerns that your service provider won’t co-operate then you could explain to them that you want to test their failover capabilities to a duplicate server that you host in-house. If your Linux box is the DHCP server. you'll need to make it assign the IP address of the Linux box as the DNS server it tells the DHCP clients to use. this could be left in the hands of your service provider.

Chapter 17: Configuring DNS 195 .

196 www.linuxhomenetworking.com .

You can consider static DNS as the “traditional” or “regular” form of DNS.linuxhomenetworking.linuxhomenetworking.197 Chapter 18 Dynamic DNS =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 18 Dynamic DNS What Is DNS? What Is Dynamic DNS? Dynamic DNS And NAT Router/Firewalls Dynamic DNS Prerequisites Installing And Using ez-ipupdate Installing And Using DDclient Testing Your Dynamic DNS © Peter Harrison. Your DNS server acts as the authoritative source of information for your my-site. .com domain.com domain. Dynamic DNS: Used when you get a changing “dynamic” Internet IP addresses via DHCP from your ISP.com =========================================== What Is DNS? As explained on the introduction to networking chapter. If you want to host a website at home you have two DNS options: Static DNS: This is used when your ISP provides you with unchanging “fixed” or “static” Internet IP addresses. DNS is the way in which a URL or domain like www. You will have to use the services of a third party DNS provider to provide DNS information for your my-site.com is converted to an IP address. www.

most home router / firewalls will use Network Address translation (NAT) to map a single public DHCP obtained IP addresses to the many private IP addresses within your network. An example of port forwarding with a Cisco PIX firewall is given in both the Cisco PIX firewall chapter and Net-Filter chapters. The reported value is therefore invalid. • register your domain name and read your DDNS provider's instructions on how to use their name servers. NAT can fool the operation of some DDNS client software. in order to conserve the limited number of IP addresses available for internet purposes. most cable modem providers may not allow you to host sites at home.198 www. or else it will not work • be prepared for slower response times for your home based site than if you were using a static IP and a regular DNS service.my-site. specifically HTTP. you'll have to also configure your router / firewall to do port forwarding to make all HTTP traffic destined for the IP address of the router / firewall to be exclusively NAT-ed and forwarded to a single server on your home network.org offers a service to overcome this limitation. In these cases.mysite. Some DDNS providers use more intelligent clients such as DDclient which can be configured to let the DDNS provider record the public IP address from which the data stream is originating. the software can only report the true IP address of the Linux box's NIC interface. .com in which the IP address is dynamically assigned. If the Linux box is being protected behind a NAT router / firewall then the NIC will report in its data stream to the DDNS provider a private IP address which no one can reach directly via the Internet. The web masters then register their domains with companies such as Verisign and RegisterFree and tells these registrars to direct queries to www.linuxhomenetworking. This chapter describes how to configure the most popular Linux based DDNS software ez-ipupdate and DDclient in the following two configurations: • on a Linux box directly connected to the Internet • on a Linux box when protected by a NAT router / firewall Remember that unlike DSL. Before considering using a dynamic DNS solution for hosting a website at home with dynamic IPs: • you must make sure your DSL provider will allow inbound connections. Once this is done.com What Is Dynamic DNS? In many home networking environments. the DSL IP address is provided by DHCP and therefore changes from time to time. DDNS works by having webmasters register their DDNS sites on the DDNS provider's servers. The webserver itself then has a DDNS client program running that updates the DDNS providers name servers with the most current DHCP IP address of the site.com to the servers of the DDNS provider. dynDDS. Dynamic DNS And NAT Router/Firewalls As discussed in the introduction to networking chapter. Dynamic DNS (DDNS) allows you to host a website such as www.

com.Chapter 18: Dynamic DNS 199 Dynamic DNS Prerequisites Sign Up With A DDNS Provider First you'll have to register with a DDNS provider. you'll have to return to www.com or www. The miniDNS registration for your own domain requires you to use the "add DNS Record" link on the registration page to create your own domain.minidns. you'll need DDclient in this case. DNS queries for my-site. some of which are listed on the Bibliography. For example miniDNS. Most DDNS providers assume you are going to create a sub domain of their main domain. o o Update Your DNS Registration If you have your own domain. You'll have to register your domain with a DNS registrar such as www.verisign.net.my-site. This chapter focuses on the services of miniDNS and DynDNS. You can give your machine's name or you can name the machine "www" to create a combined domainsubdomain of www. Use the following commands to extract the contents into a new subdirectory. .com and update the nameserver entries for your domain to point to the name servers of your DDNS provider.com. you'll have to do a little extra work.com or www.com will eventually query RegisterFree or Verisign which will then refer the query to your DDNS providers name servers which will have the most current IP address of your site because of the DDNS client software you are running at your home site.com which would be more intuitive to use.org you'll have to go with their paid service to get a customized domain name. The ez-ipupdate installation will put the executable file in /usr/local/bin and all the files in the /tmp/filename directory will become extraneous. The cost is about US$20 per year. They call it Custom DNS and it doesn't support ez-ipupdate. With dynDNS. [root@bigboy]tmp]# gunzip zip-tar-filename [root@bigboy]tmp]# tar –xvf tar-filename [root@bigboy]tmp]# cd /tmp/filename Follow the install instructions for doing the “make” or program compilation. Then you must add a host record. Installing And Using ez-ipupdate Download the tar/gzip file to your server’s /tmp directory from the ez-ipupdate site listed in the Bibliography.org.com.net will default to a domain such as machine-name.registerfree.registerfree. If you want to create your own domain such as my-site. First you add your domain such as my-site.verisign.

DDclient claims to offers support for a wide variety of routers from different manufacturers. ez-ipupdate And NAT The ez-ipupdate software runs as a daemon in memory continuously checking the IP address of your NIC. If your Linux server is protected behind a firewall using NAT then the IP address of the NIC won't match that of the public IP address of the firewall and DDNS won't work properly. It then communicates this information to your dynamic DNS provider. The developer of DDclient has recognized the limitations of using ez-ipupdate with NAT.2/COPYRIGHT ddclient-3. Check the Bibliography for the DDclient URL. some routers such as the netgear line may provide automatic DDNS service and you may not have to download the software.linuxhomenetworking.com interface=eth0 Note: The service-type line is specific to your dynamic DNS provider which will often provide a customized /etc/ez-ipupdate. Before installing DDclient.6. Here is an example of the steps used to install it. [root@bigboy tmp]# gunzip ddclient.gz [root@bigboy tmp]# tar -xvf ddclient.2/ ddclient-3.6. read the README file to give you an idea of what to do. Installing And Using DDclient Another highly used solution is DDclient.tar.conf in which you must specify: o o o Your registration username and password The host name you have selected for your Linux box The NIC interface which is connected to your DSL line. Here is a sample: service-type=justlinux user=registration-username:registration-password host=servername.my-site.2/COPYING … .conf file for you to use.com The /etc/ez-ipupdate. the DDclient script can also log in and parse out the external IP address of the router. DDclient has a simple "web" update mode which tells your DDNS provider to use the source IP address of the data stream used to update your DDNS record.conf File ez-ipupdate uses a configuration file named /etc/ez-ipupdate.200 www. In most Home / SOHO environments this will be the same as that of the firewalls external NAT IP address. you’ll have to use a client like DDclient which doesn’t have this limitation. In cases where "web" mode doesn't work.tar ddclient-3.6. Remember.

mx.d/init.redhat /etc/rc.168.conf file to use "web" #use=if.2]# ddclient -daemon=0 -query use=if.org. [root@bigboy ddclient-3.6.1 use=if.6. if=eth0 # via interfaces .158.org custom addresses ## ## (supports variables: wildcard.d_ddclient.253.d/ddclient [root@bigboy ddclient-3.d_init. if=wlan0 address is 192.6.6.26 [root@bigboy ddclient-3.6. the simple web mode provides an acceptable value for your external IP address. This is referenced on the line labeled “server”.0.2]# ll -rw-r--r-. if=lo address is 127.2]# cp ddclient /usr/sbin/ The /etc/ddclient. Here is a sample using interface eth0: ## dyndns. \ protocol=dyndns2 \ your-domain.top-level.1 root root 869 Jan 3 2002 COPYRIGHT … … … [root@bigboy ddclient-3.0.100 use=web. Here is an example. if=eth0 # via interfaces login=your-login # default login password=your-password # default password custom=yes \ server=members.dyndns.2]# cp sample-etc_rc.conf File DDclient uses a configuration file named /etc/ddclient.your-other-domain.backupmx) ## use=if.6.top-level # Your domains here Before updating the file you can use DDclient with the "-query" option to tell you which is the best mode to use.1. web=dyndns address is 97.2]# /sbin/chkconfig --add ddclient [root@bigboy ddclient-3. You can then configure your /etc/ddclient.1 root root 18007 Jan 3 2002 COPYING -rw-r--r-.Chapter 18: Dynamic DNS 201 … … [root@bigboy tmp]# cd dd* [root@bigboy ddclient-3.conf in which you must specify: o o o Your registration username and password The host name you have selected for your Linux box. The NIC interface which is connected to your DSL line.2]# In this case.

my-site.com: NXDOMAIN Note: This error could also be due to the fact that your domain hasn't propagated fully throughout the Internet.1#53 ** server can't find www.com Server: 127. • Using the nslookup www. If you failed to add your host record.235. The example below queries the miniDNS name server: [root@bigboy tmp]# nslookup > server ns1.64.net Address: 202.linuxhomenetworking.64.0.214#53 Name: www.minidns.0.51.0.my-site. you will get an error message like this: [root@bigboy tmp]# nslookup www. . Test it by asking a friend to access your web server by pointing their browser to the external IP address of your router / firewall.minidns.1 Address: 127.minidns.com use=web # via web Testing Your Dynamic DNS You can test your dynamic DNS by: • Looking at the status page of your DNS provider and making sure the IP address that matches your "www" site is the same as your router / firewall's public IP address.com Server: ns1. You can test to make sure everything is OK by forcing NS lookup to query the nameservers directly.202 www.214#53 > www.com command from your Linux command prompt and see whether you are getting a valid response.com Address: 12.net Default server: ns1.0.my-site.51.my-site.my-site.net Address: 202.96 > Testing Port Forwarding Remember to read the configuration manual of your router / firewall to activate port forwarding.194.

the RedHat 8.0 © Peter Harrison.rpm . Downloading and installing RPMs isn’t hard. the chapter on RPMs covers how to do this in detail.40-8. The Apache online documentation gets a little complicated.linuxhomenetworking.0 RPM as of this writing was: httpd-2. www.203 Chapter 19 The Apache Web Server =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 19 The Apache Web Server Download and Install The Apache Package How To Get Apache Started Configuring DNS For Apache General Configuration Steps Configuration – Multiple Sites And IP Addresses Using Data Compression On Web Pages Apache Running On A Server Behind A Firewall File Permissions And Apache How To Protect Web Page Directories With Passwords Issues When Upgrading To Apache 2.com =========================================== This is page outlines how to create multiple websites using a single IP address for a basic home configuration. Download and Install The Apache Package Most RedHat Linux software products are available in the RPM format.0. It is best to use the latest version of Apache. • For example.i386. If you need a refresher.

Examples of this will follow. .d/httpd restart • You can test whether the Apache process is running with the following command.d/httpd stop [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. Apache expects its HTML files to be located in the /var/www/html directory How To Get Apache Started • Use the chkconfig configure Apache to start at boot: [root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig --level 35 httpd on • Use the httpd init script in the /etc/init.com • Install the package using the rpm command [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh httpd-2.i386.d/httpd start [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.d directory to start/stop/restart Apache after booting [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.linuxhomenetworking.40-8.conf. General Configuration Steps The configuration file used by Apache is /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.204 www.rpm By default. you should get a response of plain old process ID numbers: [root@bigboy tmp]# pgrep httpd Configuring DNS For Apache Remember that you will never receive the correct traffic unless you have configured DNS for your domain to make your new Linux box web server the target of the DNS domain's www entry. See either the Static DNS or Dynamic DNS pages on how to do this.0.

You can also list secondary domain names which will serve the same content as the primary ServerName using the ServerAlias directive. When you use wild cards. then the first listed virtual host that matches the IP address will be used. As explained on the apache website: "When a request arrives. then wild cards won’t work. Apache interprets it as an overlap of name based and IP based <VirtualHost> directives and will give errors like this because it can’t make up its mind about which method to use: . If it is. Here is the format: NameVirtualHost 97. The Apache SSL module demands at least one explicit <VirtualHost> directive for IP based virtual hosting.253." IP Based Virtual Hosting The other virtual hosting option is to have one IP address per website which is also known as IP based virtual hosting. then it uses the configuration for that server. You must specify the IP address for which each <VirtualHost> section applies. which is used frequently in credit card and shopping cart web pages. The NameVirtualHost directive in the /etc/httpd/conf/httpd. then it will look at each <VirtualHost> section with a matching IP address and try to find one where the ServerName or ServerAlias matches the requested hostname. the server will first check if it is using an IP address that matches the NameVirtualHost.conf file is used to tell Apache the IP addresses which will participate in this feature.253. A Note On Virtual Hosting And SSL It is common for system administrators to replace the IP address in the <VirtualHost> and NameVirtualHost directives with the “*” (all IP addresses) wildcard character.26 The <VirtualHost> sections in the file then tell Apache where it should look for the web pages used on each web site. This makes configuration easier. and you must only have a single <VirtualHost> section per IP address. If no matching virtual host is found.253. The directory where the index page for that site is located is defined with the DocumentRoot directive.158.26> Directives for site #1 </VirtualHost> <VirtualHost 97. If it finds one.Chapter 19: The Apache Webserver 205 Named Virtual Hosting You can make your web server host more than one site per IP address by using Apache's "named virtual hosting" feature. In this case you will not have a NameVirtualHost directive for the IP address. Here is the format: <VirtualHost 97.26> Directives for site #2 </VirtualHost> Within each <VirtualHost> section you then specify the primary website domain name for that IP address with the ServerName directive.158.158. If you installed Apache with support for secure HTTPS / SSL.

206 www.conf You will then have to restart Apache for the changes to take effect. If you think this is a server error. This can be done by not loading all the modules from the /etc/httpd/conf. In this case we load only the php and perl modules.d/php.conf You can therefore do a listing of all the files in this directory and specifically load all except ssl. The only exception would be the very first <VirtualHost> directive which defines the web pages to be displayed when matches to the other <VirtualHost> directives cannot be found.conf file: Include conf.d/perl. Use Wild Cards Sparingly The other choice is not to use virtual hosting statements with wild cards.conf file you'll need to edit. In this scenario: . all the modules in this directory are loaded with the following directive in the /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.d/*. Include conf.conf Include conf.linuxhomenetworking. Configuration – Multiple Sites And IP Addresses What follows are snippets of the section of the /etc/httpd/conf/httpd. By default. o o Continue using wildcards and disable SSL.com Starting httpd: [Sat Oct 12 21:21:49 2002] [error] VirtualHost _default_:443 -. proceeding with undefined results If you try to load any webpage on your web server you’ll also notice an error like this: Bad request! Your browser (or proxy) sent a request that this server could not understand. please contact the webmaster You have two options to overcome this problem.d directory. Run Apache with more careful use of wildcards Disabling SSL – (Not Recommended) If you wish to host a basic home SOHO website in which secure connections for credit card payments are unnecessary then you have the option of disabling SSL altogether.mixing * ports and non-* ports with a NameVirtualHost address is not supported.

253.my-cool-site.my-cool-site. Hitting these URLs will cause Apache to display the contents of file index. Site www.com my-site.com www.26 Site1 Name Based 97.27 Site3 Site1 Name Based IP Based IP address 97. www. ServerName localhost NameVirtualHost 97.com.conf file is listed below.default-site.default-site.26 # # Match a webpage directory with each website # <VirtualHost *> DocumentRoot /var/www/html/site1 .26 as in this case we have a single IP address serving different content for a variety of domains.my-site.com will get content from directory site4.default-site.com.158.253. my-site.26 Directory Site2 Type of Virtual Hosting Name Based A sample snippet or a working httpd.158.253. www.com www.com and so traffic going to this domain • All other domains pointing to this server that don’t have a matching ServerName directive will get web pages from the directory defined in the very first <VirtualHost> section. Remember to restart Apache every time you update the conf file for the changes to take effect on the running process. • Traffic going to www.com and www.158. The domain www.com.default-site.158.com to map to an IP address 97. The statements listed would normally be found at the very bottom of the file where virtual hosting statements normally reside.test-site.test-site. • Named virtual hosting will be required for 97.html in this directory.26 on this web server.com must get content from subdirectory site2.26 97.253.Chapter 19: The Apache Webserver 207 • The systems administrator for the server has previously created DNS entries for www.158.253.test-site.com must get content from sub-directory site3.com.com was also configured to point to alias IP address 97.my-site. Web Hosting Scenario Summary Domain www.253.253.my-other-site.com www.158.253.my-other-site. The last section of this configuration snippet has some additional statements to ensure read-only access to your web pages with the exception of web based forms using POSTs (pages with “submit” buttons).158.27.com falls in this category.my-other-site.com 97. www.158. In this case is directory site1. my-site.com All other domains www. • There is no ServerName directive for www.26 is therefore required.253.my-site.my-cool-site. A NameVirtualHost directive for 97. • Traffic to www.com. • Traffic to www.158.

208

www.linuxhomenetworking.com

</VirtualHost> <VirtualHost 97.158.253.26> DocumentRoot /var/www/html/site2 ServerName www.my-site.com ServerAlias my-site.com, www.my-cool-site.com </VirtualHost> <VirtualHost 97.158.253.26> DocumentRoot /var/www/html/site3 ServerName www.test-site.com </VirtualHost> <VirtualHost 97.158.253.27> DocumentRoot /var/www/html/site4 ServerName www.my-other-site.com </VirtualHost>

# # Make sure the directories specified above # have restricted access to read-only. # <Directory "/var/www/html/*"> Order allow,deny Allow from all AllowOverride FileInfo AuthConfig Limit Options MultiViews Indexes SymLinksIfOwnerMatch IncludesNoExec <Limit GET POST OPTIONS> Order allow,deny Allow from all </Limit> <LimitExcept GET POST OPTIONS> Order deny,allow Deny from all </LimitExcept> </Directory>

A Note On Virtual Hosting And DNS
You will have to configure your DNS server to point to the correct IP address used for each of the websites you host. The chapter on static DNS shows you how to configure multiple domains such as my-site.com and my-other-site.com on your DNS server.

Using Data Compression On Web Pages
Apache also has the ability to dynamically compress static web pages into gzip format and then send the result to the remote web surfers’ web browser. Most current web browsers support this format and will transparently uncompress the data and present it on the screen. This can significantly reduce bandwidth charges if you are paying for internet access by the megabyte.

Chapter 19: The Apache Webserver

209

First you need to load Apache version 2’s deflate module in your httpd.conf file and then use Location directives to specify what type of files to compress. After making these modifications and restarting Apache you will be able to verify from your /var/log/httpd/access_log file that the sizes of the transmitted HTML pages has shrunk. Here is a comparison of the file sizes in the Apache logs and the document directory, 78,350 bytes shrunk to 15,190 bytes, almost 80% compression. Log File

67.119.25.115 - - [15/Feb/2003:23:06:51 -0800] "GET /dns-static.htm HTTP/1.1" 200 15190 "http://www.siliconvalleyccie.com/sendmail.htm" "Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 5.5; Windows NT 4.0; AT&T CSM6.0; YComp 5.0.2.6)" Corresponding Directory Listing [root@ bigboy tmp]# ll /web-dir/dns-static.htm -rw-r--r-1 user group 78350 Feb 15 00:53 /home/www/ccie/dns-static.htm [root@bigboy tmp]#

Compression Configuration Example
You can insert these statements just before your virtual hosting section of your httpd.conf file to activate the compression of static pages. Remember to restart Apache when you do.

LoadModule deflate_module modules/mod_deflate.so <Location /> # Insert filter SetOutputFilter DEFLATE # Netscape 4.x has some problems... BrowserMatch ^Mozilla/4 gzip-only-text/html # Netscape 4.06-4.08 have some more problems BrowserMatch ^Mozilla/4\.0[678] no-gzip # MSIE masquerades as Netscape, but it is fine BrowserMatch \bMSIE !no-gzip !gzip-only-text/html # Don't compress images SetEnvIfNoCase Request_URI \ \.(?:gif|jpe?g|png)$ no-gzip dont-vary

# Make sure proxies don't deliver the wrong content Header append Vary User-Agent env=!dont-vary

210

www.linuxhomenetworking.com

</Location>

Apache Running On A Server Behind A Firewall
If your webserver is behind a firewall, and you are logged on a machine behind the firewall as well, then you may find problems when trying to access www.mysite.com of www.my-other-site.com. The reason for this is that due to NAT (Network Address translation), firewalls frequently won't allow access from their protected network to IP addresses that they masquerade on the outside. For example, in this case, Linux web server bigboy has an internal IP address of 192.168.1.100, but the firewall presents it to the world with an external IP address of 97.158.253.26 via NAT/masquerading. If you are on the inside, 192.168.1.X network, you may find it impossible to hit URLs that resolve in DNS to 97.158.253.26. The solution to this can also be solved with virtual hosting. You can configure Apache to serve the correct content when accessing www.mysite.com or www.my-other-site.com from the outside, and also when accessing the specific IP address 192.168.1.100 from the inside. Fortunately Apache allows you to specify multiple IP addresses in the <VirtualHost> statements to help you overcome this problem. Here is an example:

NameVirtualHost 192.168.1.100 NameVirtualHost 97.158.253.26 <VirtualHost 192.168.1.100 97.158.253.26> DocumentRoot /www/server1 ServerName www.my-site.com ServerAlias bigboy, www.my-site-192-168-1-100.com </VirtualHost>

File Permissions And Apache
Remember that if you get a "permissions" error in your web browser after trying to browse your newly configured website, then you need to ensure that you allow "others" to have read access to the directory all the way from the root directory "/" to the target sub-directory. The appendix has a short script that you can use to recursively set the file permissions in a directory to match those expected by Apache. You may also have to use the "Directory" directive to make Apache serve the pages once the file permissions have been correctly set. If you have your files in the default /var/www/html directory then this second step becomes unnecessary.

How To Protect Web Page Directories With Passwords
You can password protect content in both the main and sub-directories of your DocumentRoot fairly easily. I know of cases where persons will allow normal access to their regular web pages, but require passwords for directories / pages that show MRTG or Webalizer data. In this example we'll show how to password protect the /var/www/html directory.

Chapter 19: The Apache Webserver

211

• Apache has a password utility called "htpasswd" which can create "username password" combinations independent of your system login password for web page access. You have to specify the location of the password file, and if it doesn't yet exist, you'll have to include a "-c" or "create" switch on the command line. I recommend placing the file in your /etc/httpd/conf directory, away from the DocumentRoot tree where web users could possibly view it. Here is an example for a first user named "peter" and a second named "paul": [root@bigboy tmp]# htpasswd -c /etc/httpd/conf/.htpasswd peter New password: Re-type new password: Adding password for user peter [root@bigboy tmp]# [root@bigboy tmp]# htpasswd /etc/httpd/conf/.htpasswd paul New password: Re-type new password: Adding password for user paul [root@bigboy tmp]# • Make the .htpasswd file readable by all users. [root@bigboy tmp]# chmod 644 /etc/httpd/conf/.htpasswd • Create a .htaccess file in the directory to which you want password control with the following entries. Remember this will password protect this directory and all its sub directories. AuthUserFile /etc/httpd/conf/.htpasswd AuthGroupFile /dev/null AuthName EnterPassword AuthType Basic require user peter • • The AuthUserFile tells Apache to use the “.htpasswd” file The "require user" tells Apache that only user "peter" in the “.htpasswd” file should have access. If you wanted all “.htpasswd” users to have access then you'd replace this line with require valid-user "AuthType Basic" instructs Apache to accept basic unencrypted passwords from the remote users web browser.

• Set the correct file protections on your new .htaccess file in the directory /var/www/html. [root@bigboy tmp]# chmod 644 /var/www/html/.htaccess • Make sure your /etc/httpd/conf/http.conf file has an AllowOverride statement in a <Directory> directive for any directory in the tree above /var/www/html. In the example below, we want all directories below /var/www/ to require password authorization.

212

www.linuxhomenetworking.com

<Directory /var/www/html/*> AllowOverride AuthConfig </Directory> • You must also ensure that you have a <VirtualHost> directive that defines access to /var/www/html or another directory higher up in the tree. <VirtualHost *> ServerName 97.158.253.26 DocumentRoot /var/www/html </VirtualHost> • Restart Apache. Try accessing the web site and you'll be prompted for a password.

Issues When Upgrading To Apache 2.0
Incompatible /etc/httpd/conf/http.conf files
Your old configuration files will be incompatible when upgrading from Apache version 1.3 to Apache 2.X. The new version 2.X default configuration file is stored in /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf.rpmnew. For the simple virtual hosting example above, it would be easiest to: Save the old httpd.conf file with another name, httpd.conf-version-1.x for example. Copy the ServerName, NameVirtualHost, and VirtualHost sections from the old file and place them in the new file httpd.conf.rpmnew Copy the httpd.conf.rpmnew file an name it httpd.conf Restart Apache

o

o o

213

Chapter 20

Monitoring Server Performance
===========================================

In This Chapter Chapter 20
Monitoring Server Performance
SNMP MRTG Webalizer © Peter Harrison, www.linuxhomenetworking.com =========================================== Monitoring your system’s web performance can be done quite easily with a number of graphical tools available for Linux. These include MRTG for raw network traffic which is based on SNMP and Webalizer that monitors web site hits.

SNMP
What is SNMP?
Most routers and firewalls keep their operational statistics in Management Information Blocks (MIBs). Each statistic has an Object Identifier (OID) and can be remotely retrieved from the MIB via the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). However, as a security measure, you need to know the SNMP password or "community string" to do so. There are a number of types of community strings, the most commonly used ones are the "Read Only" community string that only provides access for viewing statistics and system parameters. In many cases the "Read Only" community string or password is set to "public". There is also a "Read Write" community string for not only viewing statistics and system parameters but also for updating the parameters too.

SNMP on a Linux Server
By default, RedHat Linux has the NetSNMP package installed to provide SNMP services. NetSNMP uses a configuration file /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf in which the community strings may be set. The version of the configuration file that comes with Net-SNMP is quite complicated. I suggest

3 = INTEGER: 3 IF-MIB::ifDescr. [root@bigboy snmp]# snmpwalk -v 1 -c craz33guy localhost interface IF-MIB::ifNumber.0 = STRING: bigboy .1 = INTEGER: 1 IF-MIB::ifIndex. Here is an example of how to do that.. .2 = STRING: wlan0 IF-MIB::ifDescr.d/snmpd start Starting snmpd: [ OK ] [root@bigboy root]# • Test whether SNMP can read the "system" and "interface" information MIB [root@bigboy snmp]# snmpwalk -v 1 -c craz33guy localhost system SNMPv2-MIB::sysDescr... [root@bigboy root]# /etc/init.3 = STRING: eth0 .18-14 #1 Wed Sep 4 11:57:57 EDT 2002 i586 SNMPv2-MIB::sysObjectID.4.2 = INTEGER: 2 IF-MIB::ifIndex.conf snmpd..10 SNMPv2-MIB::sysUpTime...conf • Enter the following line in the new configuration file to set the Read Only community string to "craz33guy" rocommunity craz33guy • Configure Linux to start SNMP services on each reboot with the chkconfig command: [root@bigboy root]# chkconfig --level 345 snmpd on [root@bigboy root]# • You can then start SNMP to load the current configuration file. .25 SNMPv2-MIB::sysContact.. [root@bigboy snmp]# .0 = STRING: Linux bigboy 2. • Save the old configuration file [root@bigboy snmp]# cd /etc/snmp/ [root@bigboy snmp]# mv snmpd. .conf.com archiving it and using a much simpler version with only a single line containing the keyword "rocommunity" followed by the community string...1 = STRING: lo IF-MIB::ifDescr.0 = OID: NET-SNMP-MIB::netSnmpAgentOIDs..214 www.0 = Timeticks: (425) 0:00:04...0 = INTEGER: 3 IF-MIB::ifIndex. .0 = STRING: root@localhost SNMPv2-MIB::sysName.old [root@bigboy snmp]# vi snmpd.linuxhomenetworking.

X.i386.Chapter 20: Monitoring Server Performance 215 Note: In this case we were polling localhost. You can easily create graphs of traffic flow statistics through your home network's firewall / router or even your Linux box's NIC cards using MRTG.d/httpd restart . Download and Install The MRTG Packages Most RedHat Linux software products are available in the RPM format.3.0 is: mrtg-2. The latest version of the RPM for RedHat 8.rpm o You will also need to have a webserver package installed for MRTG to work. The RedHat RPM version seems to work with Apache 1. This is available from the RedHat website or your installation CDs. [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh apache-1.i386.23 . The most current version as of this writing was apache 1. we can configure a SNMP statistics gathering software package such as MRTG to create online graphs of your traffic flows. You can poll any SNMP aware network device with SNMP enabled.d/httpd start [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.rpm o You can install the package like this: [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh mrtg-2.9. The product is available from the MRTG website and also on your distribution CDs.rpm o MRTG runs automatically upon startup. Downloading and installing RPMs isn’t hard.17-8.d/httpd stop [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.i386.11. MRTG What is MRTG? MRTG (Multi Router Traffic Grapher) is a public domain package for producing graphs of various types of router statistics via a web page.9. but you’ll need to configure Apache to start at boot using the chkconfig command: [root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig --level 35 httpd on o Here’s how to start/stop/restart Apache after booting: [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.17-8. the chapter on RPMs covers how to do this in detail. If you need a refresher. All you need is the IP address and SNMP read only string and you’ll be able to get similar results.3. Install apache using the following command. Now that we know SNMP is working correctly on your Linux server.23-14.

MRTG will map the inbound and outbound data throughput rates on the device it is polling. Configuring MRTG By default. Here are the steps you need to go through to create new configuration files. We’ll be discussing the default configuration.png” image files into it. In this example we'll use MRTG’s cfgmaker command to create a configuration file named localhost.0 --> 3 --snpo: confcache craz33guy@localhost: Ip 127. All data files will be placed in the directory /var/www/html/mrtg/stats.cfg [root@bigboy tmp]# o Next create the /var/www/html/mrtg/stats directory and copy all of MRTG’s standard “.216 www. [root@bigboy tmp]# cfgmaker --output=/etc/mrtg/localhost.1 --> 1 --snpo: confcache craz33guy@localhost: Ip 192.0. When the MRTG RPM is installed it creates a directory called /etc/mrtg in which all future configuration files are stored.0.168. MRTG will place its HTML files in /var/www/html/mrtg.0.linuxhomenetworking.100 --> 2 --snpo: confcache craz33guy@localhost: Type 24 --> 1 --snpo: confcache craz33guy@localhost: Type 6 --> 2 --snpo: confcache craz33guy@localhost: Type 6 --> 3 (duplicate) --snpo: confcache craz33guy@localhost: Eth --> 1 --snpo: confcache craz33guy@localhost: Eth 00-06-25-09-6a-b5 --> 2 --snpo: confcache craz33guy@localhost: Eth 00-08-c7-10-74-a8 --> 3 --base: Get Interface Info --base: Walking ifIndex --base: Walking ifType --base: Walking ifSpeed --base: Walking ifAdminStatus --base: Walking ifOperStatus --base: Writing /etc/mrtg/localhost.1.com By default Apache expects the HTML files for your website to be located in /var/www/html. but this is beyond the scope of this book. There are ways to specify other OIDs such as CPU and memory usage.cfg \ -ifref=ip --global "workdir: /var/www/html/mrtg/stats" \ craz33guy@localhost o --base: Get Device Info on craz33guy@localhost: --base: Vendor Id: --base: Populating confcache --snpo: confcache craz33guy@localhost: Descr lo --> 1 --snpo: confcache craz33guy@localhost: Descr wlan0 --> 2 --snpo: confcache craz33guy@localhost: Descr eth0 --> 3 --snpo: confcache craz33guy@localhost: Ip 0. [root@bigboy mrtg]# mkdir /var/www/html/mrtg/stats .cfg for the server "bigboy" using a read only community string of craz33guy.0.

cfg and comment out the one pointing to mrtg.old updating log file [root@bigboy mrtg]# mrtg /etc/mrtg/localhost.100.0 and Indexmaker RedHat version 8 gives an error like this when running indexmaker.cfg device2. the first time it is run.168.cfg Rateup WARNING: /usr/bin/rateup Can't remove localhost_192.Chapter 20: Monitoring Server Performance 217 [root@bigboy mrtg]# cp /var/www/html/mrtg/*.cfg and remove the sections related to interfaces you don't need to monitor.0.log to localhost_192.cfg etc RedHat Version 8.168.cfg 0-59/5 * * * * root /usr/bin/mrtg /etc/mrtg/localhost. # 0-59/5 * * * * root /usr/bin/mrtg /etc/mrtg/mrtg.old updating log file [root@bigboy mrtg]# mrtg /etc/mrtg/localhost.cfg Rateup WARNING: /usr/bin/rateup could not read the primary log file for localhost_192. You'll get an error the two times as MRTG tries to rename old data files. Add a new line referring to /etc/mrtg/localhost. The format of the command is: indexmaker --output=filename device1.1.1.cfg [root@bigboy mrtg]# o You'll then want to use MRTG’s indexmaker command to create a combined index page to see all the graphs defined in all the various “. [root@bigboy mrtg]# mrtg /etc/mrtg/localhost.old updating log file Rateup WARNING: /usr/bin/rateup Can't rename localhost_192.0.168.cfg o Run MRTG using /etc/mrtg/localhost. and naturally.html /etc/mrtg/localhost.100. don’t be fooled.cfg configuration file.168. This would most likely include the loopback interface L0: with the IP address of 127.168.1.1.cfg” files in your /etc/mrtg directory.1. [root@bigboy mrtg]# indexmaker --output=index.png /var/www/html/mrtg/stats [root@bigboy mrtg]# o Edit /etc/mrtg/localhost.168. MRTG has no data files to move. Note: The indexmaker command creates a very generic index page which is very similar to the MRTG home page.100 was invalid as well Rateup WARNING: /usr/bin/rateup Can't remove localhost_192.100.cfg as your argument three times. you will find your devices at the very bottom. you can point your browser to http://ip-address/mrtg/ to get a graphical listing of all the monitored interfaces.1 When the MRTG RPM is installed it places an entry in the /etc/crontab file to make MRTG run every 5 minutes using the default /etc/mrtg/mrtg.cfg Can't locate package $VERSION for @MRTG_lib::ISA at /usr/bin/indexmaker line 49 . Once this is done.cfg.100.1.100 Rateup WARNING: /usr/bin/rateup The backup log file for localhost_192.

Make Webalizer run in Quiet Mode Webalizer has a tendency to create this message in your logs which according to the Webalizer site’s documentation is non-critical. By default MRTG provides only network interface statistics. How To View Your Webalizer Statistics By default webalizer places its index page in the directory /var/www/html/usage. This can be adjusted with the OutputDir directive in the file.pm line 49 eval {..com/usage The Webalizer Configuration File Webalizer stores its configuration in the file /etc/webalizer. Error: Unable to open DNS cache file /var/lib/webalizer/dns_cache. Using MRTG To Monitor Other Subsystems MRTG will generate HTML pages with daily. The default settings should be sufficient for your web server.my-site. weekly. Webalizer What Is Webalizer? Webalizer is a web server log file analysis tool that comes installed by default on RedHat Linux.db You can make the software run in quite mode by editing the /etc/cron..org has links to other sites that show you how to monitor other sub-systems on a variety of devices and operating systems.} called at /usr/bin/. but you may want to adjust the directory in which Webalizer places your graphic statistics.. so if you have a default Apache installation you’ll be able to view your data by visiting http://www. You can then add links to all the html files in the /var/www/html/mrtg/stats directory.218 www. The MRTG website www.mrtg.com main::BEGIN() called at /usr/bin/.conf.daily/00webalizer script file and adding the –Q (Quiet) switch to the webalizer command like this: ../lib/mrtg2/MRTG_lib. Each night.linuxhomenetworking.pm line 49 [root@bigboy mrtg]# You have a couple choices here: • • Run a version of indexmaker from an older version of RedHat Create your own custom index page to replace the default one in /var/www/html/mrtg. Webalizer reads your Apache log files and creates a set of web pages that allow you to view websurfer statistics for your site./lib/mrtg2/MRTG_lib. monthly and yearly statistics for your interfaces. The information provided includes a list of your web site’s most popular pages sorted by “hits” along with traffic graphs showing the times of day when your site is most popular.

Webalizer will function with few annoyances.Chapter 20: Monitoring Server Performance 219 #! /bin/bash # update access statistics for the web site if [ -s /var/log/httpd/access_log ] . then /usr/bin/webalizer -Q fi exit 0 Once you’ve done this. however be aware that running in quiet mode could hide deeper problems that could occur in future. .

com .220 www.linuxhomenetworking.

If the mail is destined for a local user then sendmail will place the message in that person’s mailbox so that they can retrieve it using one of the methods above.com =========================================== This chapter will help to show you how to set up a mail server for your home network. then sendmail will attempt to relay it to the appropriate destination mail server via the Simple Mail Transport Protocol or SMTP. Windows users also have the option of either keeping or deleting the mail on the mail server after it has been downloaded. It covers Sendmail which is responsible for relaying your mail to a remote user’s mailbox and also POP mail which is used to retrieve the mail from the mail box to your local PC via a mail client such as outlook Express. www.linuxhomenetworking.221 Chapter 21 Configuring Linux Mail Servers =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 21 Configuring Linux Mail Servers Configuring Sendmail Configuring Your POP Mail Server © Peter Harrison. If the mail isn't destined for the mailbox of a local user. One of The process is different when sending mail via the mail server: o o . Windows users can use an email client such as "Outlook" or "Outlook Express" to download the mail to their local PC via POP. Once the mail arrives on the mail server it can be read in a number of ways: o o Linux users logged into the mail server can read their mail directly using a text based client such as "mail" or a GUI client such as Evolution. Configuring Sendmail An Overview Of How Sendmail Works Sendmail is the most popular Linux program for processing mail.

Note:If mail relaying is not configured properly then your mail server could end up relaying SPAM.i386.d/sendmail stop [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. If you need a refresher.5-7.i386.12.rpm [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh sendmail-devel-8.linuxhomenetworking.12. the PC of user "A" can delegate the SMTP processing to the mail server.d/sendmail start [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.5-7 .d/sendmail restart o Remember to restart the sendmail process every time you make a change to the configuration files for the changes to take effect on the running process.222 www. You can also test whether the sendmail process is running with the pgrep command. Installing And Starting Sendmail Most RedHat Linux software products are available in the RPM format. Simple sendmail security is outlined on this page.rpm o You can use the chkconfig command to get Sendmail configured to start at boot: [root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig --level 35 sendmail on o To start/stop/restart sendmail after booting [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.5-7 . See either the Static DNS or Dynamic DNS pages on how to do this. o It is best to use the latest version of sendmail as older versions have had a number of security holes. Install all the packages in this order: [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh sendmail-cf-8. Downloading and installing RPMs isn’t hard. Configuring DNS Remember that you will never receive mail unless you have configured DNS for your domain to make your new Linux box mail server the target of the DNS domain's MX record.com the main advantages of mail relaying is that when a PC user "A" sends mail to another user "B" on the Internet.12.i386.5-7 .rpm [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh sendmail-8. the chapter on RPMs covers how to do this in detail. As of this writing the latest version of the sendmail suite was version 8.12. you should get a response of plain old process ID numbers: [root@bigboy tmp]# pgrep sendmail .

cf file is version 0 No local mailer defined QueueDirectory (Q) option must be set [root@bigboy mail]# Errors With The m4 Command [root@bigboy mail]# m4 /etc/mail/sendmail. Both the newaliases and m4 commands depend on the sendmail-cf RPM package. This may not be a good idea in a production system. The line in the script that restarts sendmail is only needed if you have made changes to the /etc/mail/sendmail. This little script encapsulates all the required post configuration steps.d/sendmail restart Use this command to make the script executable.mc:8: m4: Cannot open /usr/share/sendmailcf/m4/cf.cf m4 /etc/mail/sendmail.5 supports version 10.cf /etc/mail/sendmail. Delete the appropriate "m4" line depending on your version of RedHat. if not.mc file.cf newaliases /etc/init. #!/bin/bash cd /etc/mail make m4 /etc/mail/sendmail. you'll get errors like this when running the script: # RH Ver 7. chmod 700 filename You’ll need to run the script each time you change any of the sendmail configuration files described in the sections to follow.m4: No such file or directory [root@bigboy mail]# .Chapter 21: Configuring Linux Mail 223 Restart Sendmail After Editing Your Configuration Files In this chapter we’ll see that Sendmail uses a variety of configuration files which require different treatments in order for their commands to take effect.mc > /etc/mail/sendmail.12.cf file is out of date: sendmail 8. but it has been included so that you don’t forget.3# RH Ver 8. This must be installed.mc > /etc/sendmail.mc > /etc/mail/sendmail.0+ Errors With The Newaliases Command [root@bigboy mail]# newaliases Warning: . .

0.0 No local mailer defined 554 5. To become a server. We can verify that sendmail is running by first using the pgrep command which will return the sendmail process ID number once sendmail is running. Work in one of them and monitor the sendmail status output in the other using the command [root@bigboy tmp]# tail -f /var/log/maillog The /etc/mail/sendmail. It is often viewed as an intimidating file with its series of structured "directive" statements that get the job done. If it isn't running. Fortunately in most cases you won't have to edit this file very often.224 www.d/sendmail restart Shutting down sendmail: [ OK ] Shutting down sm-client: [FAILED] Starting sendmail: 554 5. As mail must be sent to a target IP address even when there is no NIC in the box.com Errors When Restarting sendmail [root@bigboy mail]# /etc/init. SSH or console windows.0. Why Sendmail Only Listens On The Loopback Interface By Default All Linux systems have a virtual loopback interface that only lives in memory with an IP address 127.1. then the return value will be blank.mc File Most of sendmail's configuration parameters are set in this file with the exception of mailing list and mail relay security features. Sendmail needs to be also configured to listen for messages on the NIC interface. It is always good to monitor this file whenever you are doing changes. Open two telnet. and not a client.0.linuxhomenetworking. . Sendmail therefore uses the loopback address to send mail to users on the local box.0. The two most basic steps in configuring a Sendmail server are to modify this file to enable Sendmail to listen on the NIC interface and to make Sendmail to accept mail from valid web domains.0 QueueDirectory (Q) option must be set [FAILED] Starting sm-client: [ OK ] [root@bigboy mail]# The /var/log/maillog File Sendmail throws all its status messages in the /var/log/maillog file.

0. .0. Comment this out if you want dnl to accept email over the network. it reads the file sendmail.mc is a more user friendly configuration file and really is much easier to fool around with without getting burned.0 and higher.0. Family=inet6') dnl We strongly recommend to comment this one out if you want to protect dnl yourself from spam.1.cf file and restart sendmail.1:25 0. Note: When sendmail starts.3.0:* LISTEN [root@bigboy tmp]# Edit /etc/mail/sendmail.cf for versions up to 7. However.0. dnl DAEMON_OPTIONS(`Port=smtp.0.0.cf File Once finished editing the file.Chapter 21: Configuring Linux Mail 225 [root@bigboy tmp]# pgrep sendmail 22131 [root@bigboy tmp]# We can also see the interfaces on which Sendmail is listening with the “netstat” command. dnl FEATURE(`accept_unresolvable_domains')dnl dnl FEATURE(`relay_based_on_MX')dnl You need to be careful with the accept_unresolvable_names feature. Name=MTA') dnl NOTE: binding both IPv4 and IPv6 daemon to the same port requires dnl a kernel patch dnl DAEMON_OPTIONS(`port=smtp.cf file is located in different directories dependent on the version of RedHat you use.cf for versions 8. /etc/sendmail. Name=MTA-v6. so we use "netstat" and "grep" for "25" to see a default configuration listening only on IP address 127.0. and /etc/mail/sendmail.1 (loopback). See the italicized lines in the example below.0.mc To Make Sendmail Listen On NICs Too To correct this you'll have to comment out the daemon_options line in the /etc/mail/sendmail. The sendmail. we have to regenerate a new sendmail. sendmail. Sendmail listens on TCP port 25. It is also good practice to take precautions against SPAM by not accepting mail from domains that don't exist by commenting out the "accept_unresolvable_domains" feature too. Regenerate The sendmail.cf for its configuration.Addr=::1. bigboy the mail server will not accept email relayed from any of the other PCs on your network if they are not in DNS. [root@bigboy tmp]# netstat -an | grep :25 | grep tcp tcp 0 0 127. the laptop and users on computers that do dnl not have 24x7 DNS do need this. dnl This changes sendmail to only listen on the loopback device 127.0.0.1 dnl and not on any other network devices. In our sample network.mc file with "dnl" statements. The chapter on DNS shows how to create your own internal domain just for this purpose.Addr=127.

0.0.0+ [root@bigboy tmp]# m4 /etc/mail/sendmail.0.cf Redhat versions 8.0:25 0. Having easily identifiable modifications in this file will make post upgrade reconfiguration much easier.com Redhat versions up to 7. To make it less cluttered I usually create two easily identifiable sections in it with all the custom commands I've ever added.0.0) [root@bigboy tmp]# netstat -an | grep :25 | grep tcp tcp 0 0 0.d/sendmail restart Shutting down sendmail: [ OK ] Starting sendmail: [ OK ] [root@bigboy tmp]# Now Make Sure Sendmail Is Listening On All Interfaces Sendmail should start listening on all interfaces (0.mc > /etc/sendmail.226 www. Here is a sample: dnl ***** Customised section 1 start ***** dnl dnl FEATURE(delay_checks)dnl FEATURE(masquerade_envelope)dnl FEATURE(allmasquerade)dnl FEATURE(masquerade_entire_domain)dnl dnl dnl dnl ***** Customised section 1 end ***** .0:* LISTEN [root@bigboy tmp]# A General Guide To Using The sendmail. The first section is near the top where the FEATURE statements usually are. and the second section is at the very bottom.mc file can seem jumbled.3 [root@bigboy tmp]# m4 /etc/mail/sendmail.linuxhomenetworking.0.cf Restart sendmail to load the new configuration [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. Sometimes sendmail will archive this file when you do a version upgrade.mc > /etc/mail/sendmail.0.mc File The sendmail.

Enter some text after issuing the command and end your message with a single ".localdomain> 250 <root@localhost..com. a poorly configured /etc/hosts file can make mail sent from your server to the outside world appear as if it came from users at localhost.domain (bigboy.com".. The server would therefore be open to relay all mail from any ".com bigboy mail www Here the IP address is followed by the hostname. Sat. Sendmail uses this file to determine: o o The system name The domains it is responsible for relaying Sendmail looks for the IP address of your NIC in /etc/hosts and then assumes the first name after it is the fully qualified domain name of the server such as bigboy.com.another-site.localdomain>.localdomain 250-mx.100 my-site.Chapter 21: Configuring Linux Mail 227 The /etc/hosts File It is very important to have a correctly configured /etc/hosts file. Here is a brief example: 127. via esmtp. Connecting to mail.localdomain localhost bigboy.my-site.com Hello [67.0.0.221. Recipient Ok >>> DATA ..com" domain and would ignore the security features of the access and relay-domains files we'll describe below.106].. 220 ltmail.com.1 192. Sender Ok >>> RCPT To:<example@another-site.my-site..100 localhost. pleased to meet you 250 HELP >>> MAIL From:<root@localhost.02(BFLITEMAIL4A).com.my-site.localdomain and not bigboy." all by itself on the last line..com.120.com> 250 <example@another-site.. If you fail to put the IP address of your NIC in the /etc/hosts file altogether.com (Wrong!!!) Sendmail would assume the server's name was my-site and that the domain was all of ".. Symptoms Of A Bad /etc/hosts File As discussed above. example@another-site.mysite.com LiteMail v3.my-site. Use the sendmail program to send a sample email to someone in verbose mode.another-site.1.another-site.com) followed by the hostname and all the DNS CNAMEs assigned to the server's IP address.168.1.168. If bigboy had an entry like this: 192. 05 Oct 2002 06:48:44 -0400 >>> EHLO localhost.localdomain and not bigboy. then you run the risk of having all your mail appear to come from localhost. [root@bigboy tmp]# sendmail -v example@another-site.com>.com test text test text .

. You will probably get an error like this in /var/log/maillog if this happens: Oct 16 10:20:04 bigboy sendmail[2500]: g9GHK3iQ002500: SYSERR(root): savemail: cannot save rejected email anywhere Oct 16 10:20:04 bigboy sendmail[2500]: g9GHK3iQ002500: Losing . end with ". The contents of the relay-domains file should be limited to those domains that can be trusted not to originate spam. 250 Message accepted for delivery example@another-site. it is therefore an illegal internet domain. sleeping for retry The /etc/mail/relay-domains File The /etc/mail/relay-domains file is used to determine domains from which it will relay mail. >>> QUIT [root@bigboy tmp]# Localhost. PC2 will see that the mail originated from localhost..linuxhomenetworking.localdomain.localdomain is the domain that all computers use to refer to themselves. my-super-duper-site.com. Sent (Message accepted for delivery) Closing connection to mail. all mail sent from my-super-duper-site. fix $j in config file [root@bigboy tmp]# With the accompanying error in /var/log/maillog log file that looks like this: Oct 16 10:23:58 bigboy sendmail[2582]: My unqualified host name (bigboy) unknown.com and not destined for this mail server will be forwarded.com 354 Enter mail.com.another-site.com . or creating a new alias database file. this file does not exist in a standard RedHat install. In this case. for example a script based on the PERL module Mail::Audit.228 www. fix $j in config file [root@bigboy tmp]# newaliases WARNING: local host name (bigboy) is not qualified. Another set of tell tale errors caused by the same problem can be generated when trying to send mail to a user .localdomain on PC1 and is rejected. By default." on a line by itself >>> . If mail sent from computer PC1 to PC2 appears to come from a user at localhost. in this example "root". (The newalias command will be explained later): [root@bigboy tmp]# sendmail -v root WARNING: local host name (bigboy) is not qualified.localdomain and will think that the rejected email should be sent to a user on PC2 that may not exist./qfg9GHK3iQ002500: savemail panic Note: You may also get this error if you are using a SPAM prevention program. the rejected email will be returned to localhost. An error in the script could cause this type of message too.

Chapter 21: Configuring Linux Mail 229 One disadvantage of this file is that it can only control mail based on the source domain which can be spoofed by SPAM email servers. The second lists the type of action to be taken when mail from these sources / destinations is received. only SPAM flowing through you. The /etc/mail/access file has two columns.localdomain localhost 127. Configuring the /etc/mail/access file will not stop SPAM coming to you.168.168.com if its IP address can be found in a DNS reverse zone file: localhost. Sendmail will REJECT all other attempted relayed mail that doesn't match any of the entries in the /etc/mail/access file. we allow relaying for only the server itself (127.0. OK (not ACCEPT) and DISCARD. Sendmail has to be restarted after editing this file for the changes to take effect.com. localhost).0.1. Remember that a server will only be considered a part of my-site. Sendmail assumes it could be either and tries to match both.0. (In Outlook Express you set this using: Tools Menu -> Accounts -> Properties -> Servers) If you don't take the precaution of using this feature. Despite this. The /etc/mail/access File You can make sure that only trusted PCs on your network have the ability to relay mail via your mail server by using the /etc/mail/access file.X network and everyone passing email through the mail server from servers belonging to my-site. everyone on your 192.17 192. Here are the commands to do that: [root@bigboy tmp]# cd /etc/mail [root@bigboy mail]# make Remember that the relay security features of this file may not work if you don't have a correctly configured /etc/hosts file. That is to say.2. . you may find your server being used to relay mail for SPAM email sites.1. If you delete /etc/mail/relay-domains. such as restricting relaying by IP address or network range and is more commonly used. my experience has been that control on a per email address basis is much more intuitive via the /etc/mail/virtusertable file.db.1 192. the mail server will only relay mail for those PCs on your network that have their email clients configured to use the mail server as their "outgoing SMTP mail server". The /etc/mail/access file has more capabilities.168. two client PCs on your home 192. REJECT.0.1.X network. There is no third column to state whether the IP address or domain is the source or destination of the mail.2 my-site.com RELAY RELAY RELAY RELAY RELAY RELAY RELAY You'll then have to convert this text file into a Sendmail readable database file named /etc/mail/access. then relay access is fully determined by the /etc/mail/access file.1.16 192.168. In the sample file below. The first lists IP addresses and domains from which the mail is coming or going. Keywords include RELAY.168.

then sendmail assumes the recipient is on the local box.com and the host server. This file has a list of hostnames and domains for which sendmail will accept responsibility. It uses the /etc/mail/local-host-names file to do this. it assumes the recipient is a local user. Primary Mail Exchanger for my-other-site. The true destination in the eyes of the mail server could be a local Linux user.com then the file would look like this: my-site.com. It checks these methods in this order: The /etc/mail/virtusertable file This file has two columns. If it doesn't find a duplicate.my-site. For example.com Which User Should Really Receive The Mail? Sendmail uses two different methods to determine who the ultimate mail recipient will be.com. The /etc/aliases file This file has two columns too.com The /etc/mail/local-host-names File When sendmail receives mail. if this mail server was to accept mail for the domains my-site." is important): my-other-site.230 www. It could be viewed as a mailing list file. o o o If the mailing list member doesn't have an "@" in the name.com my-other-site. The second column lists the single true destination.com.com In this case. It will then search the first column of the aliases file to see if the recipient isn't on yet another mailing list.my-site. Here is an example (Remember each ". remember to modify the MX record of the "my-other-site. MX 10 mail. . it needs a way of determining whether it is responsible for the mail it receives. .com" DNS zonefile point to my-site.linuxhomenetworking.com and my-other-site. a mailing list entry in the /etc/aliases file or the email address of someone on some other mail server to which the mail should be automatically forwarded. o o The first lists the destination to which the original sender intended to send the mail. The first column has the mailing list name (sometimes called a virtual mailbox) and the second column has the members of the mailing list separated by commas.

com paul paul error:nouser User unknown After editing this file you'll have to convert it into a sendmail readable database file named /etc/mail/virtusertable. In this case "root" is actually an alias for a mailing list consisting of user "marc" and webmaster@my-site.com @my-site.these MUST be present. The first column lists the target email address and the second column lists the local user’s mail box or remote email address to which the email should be forwarded. Here are the commands to do that: [root@bigboy tmp]# cd /etc/mail [root@bigboy mail]# make The /etc/aliases File This file is really a list of email aliases for local users.com webmasters marc sales@my-other-site. . It contains a list of virtual mail boxes (or mailing lists) in the first column..com receive a "bounce back" message stating "User unknown" webmaster@my-other-site. you may want to delete the comment and change user "marc" to another user. In the example below. they will all get a copy of the email message. you can see that mail sent to users "bin". "daemon". "paul" and "finance" at my-site.com goes to local user (or mailing list) "paul" all other users at my-site. "lp".com @my-other-site.com will go to local user "marc". "named"..Chapter 21: Configuring Linux Mail 231 o If the recipient is a mailing list.com will go to the sales department at my-othersite. # Basic system aliases -.com sales@my-site.com. etc by system processes will all be sent to user (or mailing list) "root". mail sent to: o o o o webmaster@my-other-site. "apache".com paul@my-site.com finance@my-site. then it goes through the process all over again to determine each individual in the mailing list and when it is all finished.com. all other mail to my-other-site. "shutdown". In the example below. "sales" at my-site.db. Note: The default /etc/aliases file installed with RedHat has the last line of this sample commented out with a "#". and members of the mailing lists in the second column. mailer-daemon: postmaster postmaster: root # General redirections for pseudo accounts.com will go to local user (or mailing list) "webmasters". The /etc/mail/virtusertable file This file contains a set of simple instructions on what to do with received mail.

After editing this file you'll have to convert it into a sendmail readable database file named /etc/aliases.paul.com Notice that there are no spaces between the mailing list entries for “root”. Here are a few more list examples for your /etc/aliases file. If either of these are a problem for you. "paul" and "mary".sister Mail sent to admin-list gets sent to all the users listed in the file /usr/home/admin/admin-list. user “root” is only needed update the aliases file.com" goes to users "grandma". One is that bounce messages from failed attempts to broadcast goes to all users.webmaster@my-site. Here is the command to do that: [root@bigboy tmp]# newaliases Simple Mailing Lists Using Aliases In the simple mailing list example above. "brother" and "sister" # My family family: grandma.com. The advantage of using mailing list files is that the admin-list file can be a file that trusted users can edit. # Directors of my SOHO company directors: peter.linuxhomenetworking.db. Mail to "directors@my-site. mail sent to "root" actually goes to user account "marc" and webmaster@my-site.com bin: daemon: lp: shutdown: mail: apache: named: system: manager: abuse: root root root root root root root root root root # trap decode to catch security attacks decode: root # Person who should get root's mail root: marc.232 www. Another is that all subscriptions and unsubscriptions have to be done manually by the mailing list administrator. This is important as you will get errors if you add spaces.brother. . Despite this. then consider using a mailing list manager like majordomo.com" goes to users "peter". there are some problems with mail reflectors.mary Mail sent to "family@my-site.

com.mc that all outgoing mail originating on bigboy should appear to be coming from my-site. To get around this. try making root have an alias for a user with a fully qualified domain name. This can be solved by editing your sendmail. These are explained below: .com. but you may not want your website site to be remembered with the word "mail" in front of it. it will have no "to:" in the email header. you may find yourself dumping legitimate mail.com. Here is an example: # Person who should get root's mail root: webmaster@my-site.com then you have two choices: o o Configure your email client. In other words you may want your mail server to handle all email by assigning a consistent return address to all outgoing mail.mc configuration file and adding some masquerading commands and directives. to set your email address to user@mysite. This explained later in this chapter in the POP Mail section.com Sendmail Masquerading Explained If you want your mail to appear to come from user@mysite. such as Outlook Express. If you then use a mail client like Outlook Express with a SPAM mail filtering rule to reject mail with no to: in the header. This isn't terrible. if not.Chapter 21: Configuring Linux Mail 233 # My mailing list file admin-list: ":include:/home/mailings/admin-list" After editing this file. no matter which server originated the email. Set up masquerading to modify the domain name of all traffic originating from and passing trough your mail server. When sendmail sends email to a local user.mysite.com and not user@bigboy. it will appear to come from mail. you'll have to convert it into a sendmail readable database file named /etc/aliases. based on our settings in the /etc/hosts file. You now have to tell bigboy in the sendmail configuration file sendmail. Here is the command to do that: [root@bigboy tmp]# newaliases An Important Note About The /etc/aliases File By default your system uses sendmail to mail system messages to local user "root". this will force sendmail to insert the correct fields in the header. Configuring masquerading In the DNS configuration.db.com. we made bigboy the mailserver for the domain my-site.my-site.

com by rewriting the email header. Use this with caution. The MASQUERADE_DOMAIN directive will make mail relayed via bigboy from all machines in the my-other-site.com)dnl • • The MASQUERADE_AS directive will make all mail originating on bigboy appear to come from a server within the domain my-site. Feature "masquerade_entire_domain" makes sendmail masquerade servers named *my-site. You should also tail the /var/log/maillog file to verify that the masquerading is operating correctly and check the envelope and header of test email received by test email accounts. If you cc: yourself on an outgoing mail. then only servers named mysite. say the "to:" and "from:" should be. It is easy to fake the header.com as my-site.com. The email envelope contains the "to:" and "from:" used by mailservers for protocol negotiation. only when you are sure you have the authority to do this.localdomain. and *my-other-site.com.com FEATURE(always_add_domain)dnl FEATURE(`masquerade_entire_domain')dnl FEATURE(`masquerade_envelope')dnl FEATURE(`allmasquerade')dnl MASQUERADE_AS(`my-site.linuxhomenetworking.com domain appear to come from the MASQUERADE_AS domain of my-site. I have noticed that "sendmail -v username" ignores masquerading altogether. Feature "masquerade_envelope" will rewrite the email envelope just as "MASQUERADE_AS" rewrote the header. as Spammers often do.com would be masqueraded.com. Feature "always_add_domain" will always masquerade email addresses. The "to:" and "from:" in the header is what is used when you use Outlook Express to do a "reply" or "reply all".mysite. The email header is what email clients.com. • • • • Testing Masquerading The best way of testing masquerading from the Linux command line is to use the "mail -v username" command. even if the mail is sent from a user on the mail server to another user on the same mail server. it is detrimental to email delivery to fake the envelope.234 www. such as Outlook Express. It is the envelope's "from:" which is used when email rejection messages are sent between mail servers.')dnl MASQUERADE_DOMAIN(`my-site. If this wasn't selected.com would be masqueraded too. Feature "allmasquerade" will make sendmail rewrite both recipient addresses and sender addresses relative to the local machine. In other words. This is achieved with the: . Other Masquerading Notes By default. user "root" will not be masqueraded.')dnl MASQUERADE_AS(my-site. mail from sales.com. the other recipient will see a cc: to an address he knows instead of one on localhost.com and my-othersite.

I have included a simple script with instructions on how to install the PERL modules in the Appendix.mc. The most important modules are: o o o o MailTools IO-Stringy MIME-tools Mail-Audit I have written a script called mail-filter. Sendmail then looks for the filename in the directory /etc/smrsh and executes it. o Update your “.Chapter 21: Configuring Linux Mail 235 EXPOSED_USER(`root')dnl command in /etc/mail/sendmail.pl that effectively filters out SPAM email for my home system. . Configuring Your POP Mail Server Sendmail will just handle mail sent to your "my-site. This is fairly simple to do as sendmail always checks the “.com" domain. You'll also have to make your Linux box a POP mail server. By default.forward” file and place an entry in /etc/smrsh Mail-filter will first reject all email based on the “reject” file and will then accept all mail found in the “accept” file. If you want to retrieve this mail from your Linux box's user account.reject that specifies those that you should reject.accept. There are a few steps required to make the script work: o o o Install PERL and the PERL modules listed above. PERL doesn’t come with modules that are able to check email headers and envelopes so you will have to download them from CPAN (www. mail-filter. then you have a few more steps.forward” file in your home directory for the name of this script. using a mail client such as Microsoft Outlook or Outlook Express.org). Each user on your Linux box will get mail sent to their account's mail folder. It will then deny everything else. Place an executable version of the script in your home directory and modify the script’s $FILEPATH variable point to your home directory Update the two configuration files: mail-filter.cpan. which specifies the subjects and email addresses to accept. You can comment this out if you like with a "dnl" at the beginning of the line and recompiling / restarting sendmail A Simple PERL Script To Help Stop SPAM It is possible to limit the amount of unsolicited commercial email (UCE or SPAM) SPAM you receive by writing a small script to intercept your mail before it is written to your mailbox.

Make sure the contents look like this. service pop3 { socket_type = stream wait = no user = root server = /usr/sbin/ipop3d log_on_success += HOST DURATION log_on_failure += HOST disable = no } .d/xinetd stop [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. Therefore to get POP mail configured to start at boot you have to use the chkconfig command to make sure xinetd starts up on booting.d/xinetd restart Remember to restart the POP mail process every time you make a change to the configuration files for the changes to take effect on the running process Configuring Your POP Mail Server The starting and stopping of POP Mail is controlled by xinetd via the /etc/xinetd. mutt.i386.236 www. Downloading and installing RPMs isn’t hard.d like this: [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. You can install the RPM with this command: [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh imap-2001a-15.linuxhomenetworking. The disable feature must be set to "no" to accept connections.com Installing Your POP Mail Server Most RedHat Linux software products are available in the RPM format.d [root@bigboy xinetd. \ # or fetchmail.d/ipop3 file. so you’ll have to edit this file to start the program.rpm o POP mail is started by xinetd.d]# vi ipop3 # default: off # description: The POP3 service allows remote users # to access their mail \ # using an POP3 client such as Netscape Communicator. the chapter on RPMs covers how to do this in detail. POP Mail is deactivated by default. [root@bigboy tmp]# cd /etc/xinetd.d/xinetd start [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. o The IMAP/POP mail suite comes standard with the RedHat installation CDs. [root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig --level 35 xinetd on o To start/stop/restart POP mail after booting you can use the xinetd init script located in the directory /etc/init. If you need a refresher. Follow the steps below and set the "disable" parameter to "no".

If the users insist on overlapping names then you may need to modify your virtusertable file. Here’s how: POP Mail Set your POP mail server to be the IP address of your Linux mail server. Use your Linux user username and password when prompted. You have two choices: o Make the user part of the email address is different. you’ll have to edit the /etc/xinetd. How to handle overlapping email addresses.com).com pointing to account "john2". to disable POP Mail once again. Create Linux accounts "john1" and "john2". by default. If you have a user overlap. o . How To Configure Your Windows Mail Programs All your POP email accounts are really only regular Linux user accounts in which Sendmail has deposited mail. set “disable” to “yes” and restart xinetd. You can now configure your email client such as Outlook Express to use your use your new POP / SMTP Mail Server quite easily.com and john2@my-other-site.com. SMTP Set your SMTP mail server to be the IP address / domain name of your Linux mail server.d directory.com pointing to account "john1" and john@my-other-site. John Smith (john@my-site. Create the user accounts "john1" and "john2".com) and John Brown (john@my-other-site.d/ipop3 file. eg. Naturally. both users will get sent to the Linux user account "john". Have a virtusertable entries for john@mysite.Chapter 21: Configuring Linux Mail 237 You will then have to restart xinetd for these changes to take effect using the startup script in the /etc/init. The POP configuration in Outlook Express for each user should POP using "john1" and "john2" respectively. For example: john1@my-site.

linuxhomenetworking.com .238 www.

239 Chapter 22 Configuring The DHCP Server =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 22 Configuring The DHCP Server Download and Install The DHCP Package The /etc/dhcp. If you need a refresher.conf File Upgrading Your DHCP Server How to get DHCP started Modify Your Routes for DHCP on Linux Server Configuring Linux clients to use DHCP Error Found When Upgrading From Redhat 7. Downloading and installing RPMs isn’t hard. www. This chapter only covers the configuration of a DHCP server that provides IP addresses.3 To 8.com =========================================== ormally if you have a cable modem or DSL you get your home PC's IP address dynamically assigned from your service provider. If you install a home cable/DSL router between your modem and home network your PC will most likely get its IP address at boot time from the home router instead. The configuration of a Linux DHCP client that gets its IP address from a DHCP server is covered in the Linux Networking Topics chapter.0 © Peter Harrison. You can choose to disable the DHCP server feature on your home router and set up a Linux box as the DHCP server. the RPM chapter covers how to do this in detail. N Download and Install The DHCP Package Most RedHat Linux software products are available in the RPM format.linuxhomenetworking. .

conf File When DHCP starts it reads the file /etc/dhcp.rpm The /etc/dhcp.0 RPM as of this writing was: dhcp-3.168.com • For example. /usr/share/doc/dhcp-<version-number>/dhcpd.rpm • Install the package using the following command: [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh dhcp-3.linuxhomenetworking.255.i386. # Set the default gateway to be used by # the PC clients option routers 192.201 192. the RedHat 8.220.0pl1-9.1. ddns-update-style interim # Redhat Version 8.1.1.sample Here is a quick explanation of the dhcp.168.1. It uses the commands here to configure your network.0 { # The range of IP addresses the server # will issue to DHCP enabled PC clients # booting up on the network range 192.conf.conf.0pl1-9. Normally you can find a sample copy of dhcpd. # Don't forward DHCP requests from this # NIC interface to any other NIC # interfaces option ip-forwarding off.1. # Set the amount of time in seconds that # a client may keep the IP address default-lease-time 86400.168.0+ subnet 192. max-lease-time 86400.255.conf in the following directory which you can always use as a guide.0 netmask 255.i386. there must be a "subnet" section for each interface on your Linux box. .240 www.168.conf file: Most importantly.

fixed-address 192. } There many more options statements you can use to configure DHCP.0 netmask 255. For example.222.168. # Set the NTP server to be used by the # DHCP clients option nntp-server 192. The command to do this follows: [root@bigboy tmp]# man dhcp-options Upgrading Your DHCP Server Always refer to this sample file after doing an upgrade as new required commands may have been added.168.1.168. # If you specify a WINS server for your Windows clients.1.0 (dhcpd version 3. # Set the DNS server to be used by the # DHCP clients option domain-name-servers 192.0b2pl11) you will need to add the line at the very top of the config file or else you will get errors:: ddns-update-style interim .100.0 { } # You can also assign specific IP addresses based on the clients' # ethernet MAC address as follows (Host's name is "smallfry": host smallfry { hardware ethernet 08:00:2b:4c:59:23.255.255.Chapter 22: Configuring The DHCP Server 241 # Set the broadcast address and subnet mask # to be used by the DHCP clients option broadcast-address 192.168.1.168.168. } # # List an unused interface here # subnet 192. # you need to include the following option in the dhcpd. Check the dhcp-options man page after you do your install.255.1.255. in Redhat Version 8.2. These include telling the DHCP clients where to go for services such as finger and IRC. option subnet-mask 255.100.100.conf file: option netbios-name-servers 192.0.1.255.

it will request its IP address from the DHCP server.255 from the command line. we’re assuming that DHCP requests will be coming in on interface eth0).255. Note: More information on adding Linux routes and routing may be found in the Linux Networking chapter. You also can test whether the DHCP process is running with the following command. Temporary solution o Add the route to 255. You will have to add a route for this address on your Linux DHCP server so that it knows the interface on which to send the reply.d/dhcpd start [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. . always remember to set your PC to get its IP address via DHCP. it will fail unless there is an existing dhcpd.leases • Use the chkconfig command to get DHCP configured to start at boot: [root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig --level 35 dhcpd on • Use the /etc/init.com How to get DHCP started • Before you start the DHCP server for the first time.255. Use the command "touch /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd.leases file.255. Modify Your Routes for DHCP on Linux Server When a DHCP configured PC boots.d/dhcpd restart • Remember to restart the DHCP process every time you make a change to the conf file for the changes to take effect on the running process. you should get a response of plain old process ID numbers: [root@bigboy tmp]# pgrep dhcpd • Finally.leases" to create the file if it does not exist. (In both examples below. [root@bigboy tmp]# touch /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd.d/dhcpd stop [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. It does this by sending a standardized DHCP broadcast request packet to the DHCP server with a source IP address of 255.linuxhomenetworking.d/dhcpd script to start/stop/restart DHCP after booting [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.242 www.255.255.

try: eth0 host dhcp Configuring Linux clients to use DHCP Remember to have your Linux based clients configured to have DHCP obtained IP addresses Error Found When Upgrading From Redhat 7. .255: Unknown host appears then try adding the following entry to your /etc/hosts file: 255.conf file: ddns-update-style interim Sample error: Starting dhcpd: Internet Software Consortium DHCP Server V3.255. please visit http://www.255.255. All rights reserved.conf.isc.255.255.255 o If this doesn't work properly try adding the following entry to your /etc/hosts file: 255.255 dhcp Then.0 This dhcpd startup error is caused by not having the following line at the very top of your /etc/dhcpd.255. For info.255. which is read on booting.org/products/DHCP ** You must add a ddns-update-style statement to /etc/dhcpd.255.3 To 8.255.255 dhcp Then.Chapter 22: Configuring The DHCP Server 243 [root@bigboy tmp]# route add -host 255. try: route add -host dhcp dev eth0 Permanent Solution o Edit /etc/sysconfig/static-routes.255 dev eth0 o If the message 255.0pl1 Copyright 1995-2001 Internet Software Consortium.255. and add the following line: eth0 host 255.

isc.isc. ** If you did not get this software from ftp.conf manual page for more information.isc. exiting. Please do not under any circumstances send requests for help directly to the authors of this software ." Please read the dhcpd.linuxhomenetworking. please read the section on the README about submitting bug reports and requests for help. If you did get this software from ftp. [FAILED] . please get the latest from ftp.244 www.0b2pl11 and previous versions.org mailing list.com To get the same behaviour as in 3.org and install that before requesting help.org and have not yet read the README.please send them to the appropriate mailing list as described in the README file. add a line that says "ddns-update-style ad-hoc. please read it before requesting help.org. If you intend to request help from the dhcp-server@isc.

A list of available servers may be found at: http://www.udel. It is good practice to have at least one server on your network be the local time server for all your other devices.linuxhomenetworking. www. this makes the correlation of system events on different systems much easier.245 Chapter 23 The NTP Server =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 23 The NTP Server What is NTP? Download and Install The NTP Package The /etc/ntp.eecis. There are a number of "Stratum 1" (NTP sites using an atomic clock for timing) and "Stratum 2" (NTP sites with slightly less accurate time sources) sites that allow the general public to synchronize with them.edu/~mills/ntp/servers.html What is NTP? Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a protocol used to help synchronize your system clock with an accurate time source. .com =========================================== You can keep accurate time under Linux by synchronizing your system clock with a Network Time Protocol (NTP) Server.conf File How To Get NTP Started Determining If NTP Is Synchronized Properly Configuring Cisco Devices To Use An NTP Server Firewalls and NTP © Peter Harrison.

• Now list the NTP clients on our home network which should be querying our server for the time (notice that the noquery has been removed): restrict 192.server.gov • Then we restrict the type of access you allow these servers.rpm The /etc/ntp. If you need a refresher. restrict otherntp.1.linuxhomenetworking.gov # A stratum 1 server at server.research.com There are a number of freely available NTP client programs for Windows. • The latest version of the RPM for RedHat 8.255.org # A stratum 2 server at research.1. Downloading and installing RPMs isn’t hard.255. Here is a sample of a home configuration using a pair of sample Internet based NTP servers: • First we specify the servers we’re interested in: server server otherntp.255 is really a subnet mask limiting access to the single IP address of the remote NTP servers.0 mask 255.org ntp.i386.research.0 is: ntp-4. the chapter on RPMs covers how to do this in detail.1-1. You can use them to practice with your new NTP server.246 www.rpm • Install the package using the following command: [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh ntp-4.255.255.server.255.1.gov mask 255.0 notrust nomodify notrap . In this example we’re not allowing them to modify or query our Linux NTP server.255.255 nomodify notrap noquery mask 255.255.org restrict ntp.255 nomodify notrap noquery The mask statement 255. Download and Install The NTP Package Most RedHat Linux software products are available in the RPM format.168.conf File This is the main configuration file for Linux NTP in which you place the IP addresses of the stratum 1 and stratum 2 servers you want to use.1-1.i386.255.

you need to make sure the default restrict statement is removed.0.100.d/ntpd stop [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.d/ntpd start [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.research.266188 sec [root@bigboy tmp]# ntpdate otherntp.100.d/ntpd restart Remember to restart the NTP process every time you make a change to the conf file for the changes to take effect on the running process • You can test whether the NTP process is running with the following command. you should get a response of plain old process ID numbers: [root@bigboy tmp]# pgrep ntpd . If the line is there. • We also want to make sure that localhost (The universal IP address used to refer to a Linux server itself) has full access without any restricting keywords: restrict 127.10 offset 15.gov 24 Mar 18:16:36 ntpdate[10254]: step time server 200.000267 sec How To Get NTP Started • To get NTP configured to start at boot: [root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig --level 35 ntpd on • To start/stop/restart NTP after booting: [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.20.1 • Last.conf [root@bigboy tmp]# ntpdate otherntp.0.10 offset -0.research.Chapter 23: The NTP Server 247 In this case the mask statement has been expanded to include all 255 possible IP addresses on our local network. but most importantly. comment it out like this: #restrict default ignore • Save the file • Do the following commands twice for each new server added to /etc/ntp. It will override all other restrict statements and you’ll find your NTP server will only be communicating properly with itself.gov 24 Mar 18:16:43 ntpdate[10255]: adjust time server 200.20.

edu 2 u 502 1024 357 55.1.0.anl.000 0. ben.go ntp0.206 19.424 -3.000 0.sigmaso 3 u 95 1024 377 31.conf file not being commented out.go 2 u 818 1024 125 41.534 ntp1.0.0 16 u 64 0 0.trim 0.681 -18.098 3.333 +taylor.cs.edu gandalf.umb.00 This could be caused by: o o The restrict default ignore statement in the /etc/ntp.0.wisc.1.028 -dr-zaius.aol-ca.navy.edu ntp1.000 4000.100 and 192. remote refid st t when poll reach delay offset jitter ============================================================================== LOCAL(0) LOCAL(0) 10 l 64 7 0.psc.0.externa 0. 1 u 426 1024 377 107.wis ben.tr 0.00 • A telltale sign that you haven’t got proper synchronization is when all the remote servers have jitters of 4000 with delay and reach values of zero.conectiv.0.0 16 u .0 16 u 64 0 0.047 -ntp0.cs.248 www.wisc.264 1.cs.1.379 0.00 nist1. ciscorouter> enable password: ********* ciscorouter# config t ciscorouter(config)# ntp update-calendar ciscorouter(config)# ntp server 192.0.com Determining If NTP Is Synchronized Properly • Use the following command to see the servers with which you are synchronized: [root@bigboy tmp]# ntpq -p Sample output: remote refid st t when poll reach delay offset jitter ============================================================================== -jj.000 0.0.000 4000. 2 u 972 1024 377 38.549 1.392 -mailer1.strath harris.201.mcs.net .168. A firewall blocking access to your Stratum 1 and 2 NTP servers Configuring Cisco Devices To Use An NTP Server Cisco IOS Here are the commands you would use to make your router synchronize with NTP servers with IP addresses 192.00 snvl-smtp1.1024 0 0.usno.589 28.025 1.cc.000 0.mcs.008 ntp-cup.100 . An explanation of the commands used follows.993 -15.979 0.0 16 u 64 0 0.via.127 3.c 0.wisc.274 -5.cs.168.000 4000.linuxhomenetworking.000 0.edu 2 u 454 1024 347 54.anl.642 *clock.000 0.000 4000.cs.572 milo.018 2.strat 3 u 507 1024 377 115.cis.0.GPS.168.

168. You'll have to allow UDP traffic on source/destination port 123 between your server and the Stratum 1/2 server with which you are synchronizing. Unlike most UDP protocols.201 ciscorouter(config)# exit ciscorouter# wr mem o o ntp server: Forms a server association with another system. the source port isn't a high port (ie.100 ciscoswitch# exit o o o ntp server: Forms a server association with another system. CAT OS Here are the commands you would use to make your router synchronize with NTP servers with IP addresses 192. A sample Linux iptables firewall script snippet is in the Appendix.168.168.100 ciscoswitch# ntp server 192. set ntp client enable: Activate the NTP client Firewalls and NTP NTP servers communicate with one another using UDP with a destination port of 123.1. but 123 also.1.201.168. ciscoswitch> enable password: ********* ciscoswitch# set ntp client enable ciscoswitch# ntp server 192.1.1. .1. greater than 1023). An explanation of the commands used follows. ntp update-calendar: Configures the system to update its hardware clock from the software clock at periodic intervals.168.Chapter 23: The NTP Server 249 ciscorouter(config)# ntp server 192.100 and 192.

com .linuxhomenetworking.250 www.

com =========================================== Sometimes you may have a Cisco PIX 501 firewall protecting your DSL based home network. www. The introduction to networking page explains the concept in more detail in addition to other fundamental topics.DHCP How To Get Static IPs For DSL Cheaply Sample PIX configuration: DSL . Network Address Translation (NAT) Network address translation is a method used to help conserve the limited number of IP addresses available for internet purposes. there is a sample configuration in the appendix.linuxhomenetworking. This chapter covers how to configure it and in addition. but first a very basic introduction on how to configure and use the PIX.Static IPs © Peter Harrison. . We will return to the NAT discussion. specifically how to configure it.251 Chapter 24 Configuring Cisco PIX Firewalls =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 24 Configuring Cisco PIX Firewalls Network Address Translation (NAT) Accessing the PIX command line Sample PIX Configuration: DSL . later on this page.

. # wr term Building configuration.100 bigboy mail. you should get a similar prompt too.. Here you list all the IP addresses of important devices that you may want to access with a corresponding nickname.168.1.1.168. o You'll be prompted for a password and will need another password to get into the privileged "enable" mode.1.. .com o Once connected to the network you can access the PIX via telnet [root@bigboy tmp]# telnet pixfw Trying 192. Via Telnet o One easy way to get access to any device on your network is using the /etc/hosts file. Once you’ve set up all your PIX with an IP address you’ll be able to access it via Telnet.com Accessing the PIX command line Via The Console Port Your Cisco PIX will come with a console cable that will allow you to configure your PIX using terminal emulation software such as Hyperterm.252 www. If you are directly connected to the console.1: # Do not remove the following line.168. Connected to pixfw. Escape character is '^]'.my-site.1.0. User Access Verification Password: Type help or '?' for a list of available commands. pixfw> enable Password: ******** pixfw# o Use the "write terminal" command to see the current configuration.localdomain localhost 192.0.1 pixfw 192. or various programs # that require network functionality will fail.1.1 localhost.168. # 127.. Here is a sample in which the PIX firewall "pixfw" has the IP address 192.linuxhomenetworking. There is no password in a fresh out of the box PIX and simply hitting the "Enter" key will be enough. You will want to change your "password" and "enable password" right after completing your initial configuration.

. Cryptochecksum: 3af43873 d35d6f06 51f8c999 180c2342 [OK] pixfw# Sample PIX Configuration: DSL . The VPDN group statements just assign a username. ask customer service for the URL. pixfw# conf t pixfw(config)# "Enter commands here" pixfw(config)# exit pixfw# o One of the first things you should do is change the default paswords for the PIX. The configuration steps are relatively straight forward. Most ISPs have a homepage where you can register to get the username and password.. o ALL PIX configuration commands need to be done in configuration mode. (Remember to be in config mode) ip address outside pppoe setroute .. you can permanently save your changes by using the "write memory" command: pixfw# wr mem Building configuration. pixfw# conf t pixfw(config)# enable password "enable password here" pixfw(config)# passwd "console password here" pixfw(config)# exit pixfw# o When you've finished configuring.Chapter 24 : Configuring Cisco PIX Firewalls 253 : Saved : PIX Version 6.. . by issuing the "configure terminal" command from enable mode prompt.DHCP Configuring PPPoE o DHCP and DSL require you to get a pppoe password and username from your ISP.. in this case "ISP". You should substitute this username and password for "dsl-username" and "dsl-password" below. password..2(2) nameif ethernet0 outside security0 nameif ethernet1 inside security100 enable password dsjf5sdfgsjrgjwk encrypted passwd sdffg8324dgrggjd encrypted hostname pixfw fixup protocol ftp 21 . authentication type to a profile.

This service frequently isn't available for users with static IPs which the ISPs frequently feel are businesses.254 www. eg: http://firewall-outside-ip-address access-list inbound permit icmp any any access-list inbound permit tcp any any eq www access-group inbound in interface outside static (inside.168.253.255. If you really want static IP addresses and are willing to pay the higher monthly fee.0.158.255. Once configured.outside) tcp interface www 192. They probably won't ask about the modem and/or router. you will have to set the default gateway on all your servers to be 192.12. will appear to be coming from address 97.168. NAT Configuration Here we allow any traffic coming in on the inside (private/protected) interface to be NAT-ted to the IP address of the outside (Public/unprotected) interface of the firewall.2 or greater for this to work.168.168.158. you may be able to hit your website using PCs behind your firewall using the firewall's outside interface's IP address as the destination.0 vpdn group ISP request dialout pppoe vpdn group ISP localname dsl-username vpdn group ISP ppp authentication pap vpdn username dsl-username password dsl-password In this example.1.com ip address inside 192.1.100 www netmask 255. As the PIX will be acting as your default gateway to the internet. Due to competition they'll even throw in a DSL modem and even a router for free. then you can reduce your installation costs by: • Ordering DHCP DSL first with the free modem and/or router • Upgrade to static IPs a week later.0.255.DHCP has assigned an address of 97.linuxhomenetworking.255 How To Get Static IPs For DSL Cheaply Many ISP DSL providers offer cheap DHCP (dynamic IP) service. the IP address of the PIX is 192.0 0 0 Dynamic DNS Port Forwarding Entries Here we allow all incoming www traffic (on TCP port 80) destined for the firewall's interface to be forwarded to the web server at 192.253.1.1 You must be using PIX IOS version 6.0 0.1.255.1. global (outside) 1 interface nat (inside) 1 0.0.1 255. .12 then the traffic passing through the firewall. and it becomes bundled in free.0.100 on port 80 (www).1. from your protected PCs.168. If DSL .

255.1. the vpdn statements won’t be required.253.0 255.26 eq 53 access-list inbound permit udp any host 97.168.158. Once you go for static IPs.0.158.Chapter 24 : Configuring Cisco PIX Firewalls 255 Sample PIX configuration: DSL .253.248 (/29).253.1. we then allow all incoming traffic to be forwarded to the protected web server which has an IP address of 192.255. In this example internet subnet that has been assigned is 97.253. access-list inbound permit tcp any host 97.0 0 0 Incoming Connections NAT Configuration Here we allow the firewall to handle traffic to a second IP address.158.Static IPs PPOE authentication is only required for DSL DHCP.168.248 ip address inside 192.100.26 eq www access-list inbound permit tcp any host 97.30 In this example.168.158.26.0 0.253.0.26 eq 53 access-group inbound in interface outside static (inside.outside) 97.1 Outgoing Connections NAT Configuration Here we allow connections originating coming from servers connected to the inside (private/protected) interface with an IP address in the range 192.1.168.30 If you are converting from dynamic to static IP addresses.25 255.1.158.0.1.253. the default gateway is 97.168.100 netmask 255.255.158.1.255.158.255. As the PIX will be acting as your default gateway to the internet.158. namely 97.255 to be NAT-ted to the IP address of the outside (Public/unprotected) interface of the firewall which is 97. The IP address selected for the PIX is 97.0 route outside 0.25 : global (outside) 1 interface nat (inside) 1 192.1 255.255 0 0 .158.253.255.1.0 to 192. the IP address of the PIX is 192.26 192.0 97.25.24 with a mask of 255. you will have to set the default gateway on all your servers to be 192.253. You'll have to ask a friend t check it out. Only www and DNS (Port 53) traffic is allowed to access it via an access control list applied to the outside interface. you do not need the vpdn PIX command statements for static IPs ip address outside 97. Once configured.255.168.253.158.253.255. you won't be able to hit your website from PCs behind your firewall using the public IP address assigned to your web server as the destination.255.1.0.168.255.158.1.253.168.

linuxhomenetworking.256 www. 21 25 110 443 .com Here are some additional TCP ports you may be interested in: Protocol FTP SMTP Mail POP3 Mail HTTPS / SSL Port 20.

com =========================================== This is a simple guide on how to set up your Cisco DSL router for DHCP using PPPoE. www.257 Chapter 25 Configuring Cisco DSL Routers =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 25 Configuring Cisco DSL Routers An Introduction to Network Address Translation (NAT) Introduction to accessing the router command line Sample Configurations Other NAT Topics © Peter Harrison.linuxhomenetworking. The examples in this chapter also show how to configure NAT so you can also have a home / SOHO based website. This page should be suitable for the following Cisco routers: With Built In DSL Modems • 800 series • 1700 / 2600 / 3600 series with the ADSL WIC installed With External DSL Modems • 1700 / 2600 / 3600 series .

Here is a sample in which the router "ciscorouter" has the IP address 192. or various programs # that require network functionality will fail. User Access Verification Password: Type help or '?' for a list of available commands.1. later in this chapter.258 www. but first a very basic introduction on how to configure and use Cisco DSL routers.0. Introduction to accessing the router command line Via The Console Port Your Cisco router will come with a console cable that will allow you to configure your PIX using terminal emulation software such as Hyperterm.linuxhomenetworking.1. # 127.my-site. If you are directly connected to the console. you should get a similar prompt too.1: # Do not remove the following line. o You'll be prompted for a password and will need another password to get into the privileged "enable" mode.168.1 ciscorouter 192. Escape character is '^]'.localdomain localhost 192. ciscorouter> enable Password: ******** .1 localhost.0.. Via Telnet o One easy way to get access to any device on your network is using the /etc/hosts file. There is no password in a fresh out of the box Cisco router and simply hitting the "Enter" key will be enough.168. specifically how to configure it. Connected to ciscorouter..com o Once connected to the network you can access the router via telnet [root@bigboy tmp]# telnet ciscorouter Trying 192. We will return to the NAT discussion. The introduction to networking page explains the concept in more detail in addition to other fundamental topics.100 bigboy mail.com An Introduction to Network Address Translation (NAT) Network address translation is a method used to help conserve the limited number of IP addresses available for internet purposes. Here you list all the IP addresses of important devices that you may want to access with a corresponding nickname.1.1.168. Once you’ve set up all your router with an IP address you’ll be able to access it via Telnet.168.1.

. o ALL router configuration commands need to be done in configuration mode.. ! version 12.. you can permanently save your changes by using the "write memory" command: ciscorouter# wr mem Building configuration...Chapter 25: Configuring Cisco DSL Routers 259 ciscorouter# o Use the "show running" command to see the current configuration.1 no service pad service timestamps debug uptime service timestamps log datetime localtime service password-encryption ! hostname ciscorouter ! no logging console no logging monitor logging trap debugging . ciscorouter# conf t ciscorouter(config)# enable secret ciscorouter(config)# line con 0 ciscorouter(config-line)# password ciscorouter(config-line)# line vty ciscorouter(config-line)# password ciscorouter(config-line)# ^z ciscorouter# o "enable password here" "console password here" 0 4 "telnet password here" When you've finished configuring. Cryptochecksum: 3af43873 d35d6f06 51f8c999 180c2342 [OK] ciscorouter# .. by issuing the "configure terminal" command from enable mode prompt. ciscorouter# conf t ciscorouter(config)# "Enter commands here" ciscorouter(config)# exit ciscorouter# o One of the first things you should do is change the default paswords for the router. You will want to change your "password" and "enable password" right after completing your initial configuration.. ciscorouter# show run Building configuration.... ..

The "ip nat" statement tells your router that !--. Most ISPs have a homepage where you can register to get the username and password.DHCP o DHCP and DSL requires you to get a pppoe password and username from your ISP.255.255.1) uses NAT !--.260 www. then putting an Internet accessible web server on your home network would be impossible using the routers mentioned above in this configuration.IP address !--.com Sample Configurations DSL Router With Built-In Modem . You should substitute this username and password for PPP "username" and "password" listed below. Do the "show run" command before starting to configure your router to see what commands you'll really need.0 ip nat inside !--.can setup a session with the ISP ! vpdn-group pppoe request-dialin protocol pppoe !--.this interface: !--.Configure the router's PPPoE client so that it !--.Your ISP may provide you with a different pvc !--. Remember to be in "config" mode to enter these commands and remember to do a "write memory" at the end to permanently save the configuration Cisco DSL Router With Built-in Modem Configuration (DHCP) ! vpdn enable no vpdn logging !--.value not necesarily "1/1" ! interface ATM0 o o o .Configure the home / SOHO network interface's !--. Here is a sample configuration for a Cisco home router. Cisco IOS doesn’t support DHCP DSL and NAT. ask customer service for the URL.Configure the DSL interface !--.1 255. Some of the commands listed are part of Cisco's default settings.1.2) is the inside "private" interface ! interface FastEthernet0 ip address 192.linuxhomenetworking.168. If this is so.

1 point-to-point pvc 1/1 pppoe-client dial-pool-number 1 !--.168.The "ip nat" statement tells your router that !--. Commands for using the "PAP" method are included at the end of this box authentication chap callin chap hostname <username> chap password <password> !--!--!--!--!--- Tells the router to NAT all traffic that passes through it: 1) From the inside to the outside.Cisco prefers to run the PPPoE client on a virtual !--.the PPPoE header overhead.This is tied to the real ATM DSL interface with the !--"dialer pool" command. 2) And whose IP address is in the 192.2) is the outside "public" interface ! interface Dialer1 ip address negotiated ip mtu 1492 ip nat outside encapsulation ppp dialer pool 1 !--!--!--!--!--! ppp ppp ppp ! Here are the commands to configure authentication with with your ISP. This example uses the "CHAP" method."dialer" interface !--.Chapter 25: Configuring Cisco DSL Routers 261 no ip address no atm ilmi-keepalive bundle-enable dsl operating-mode auto hold-queue 224 in ! interface ATM0.0 network as given in access list 1 .1.1) uses NAT !--. ! !--. The default ethernet MTU !--.size has been reduced from 1500 to accommodate !--.this interface: !--.

1 service timestamps debug uptime service timestamps log uptime ! hostname ciscorouter ! ip subnet-zero no ip domain-lookup ! bridge irb o o .Static IP o Here is a sample configuration for a Cisco home router with a built-in modem.linuxhomenetworking.com !--. Remember to be in "config" mode to enter these commands and remember to do a "write memory" at the end to permanently save the configuration Cisco DSL Router With Built-in Modem Configuration (Static IP) Current Configuration: ! version 12.3) Giving it an outside "public" address that is the !--same as interface Dialer1 gets from the PPPoE !--connection ! ip nat inside source list 1 interface Dialer1 overload ip classless ip route 0.0.255 If your ISP tells you that you need to do the PAP.1 0. type of authentication then you'll have to replace the lines: ppp authentication chap callin ppp chap hostname <username> ppp chap password <password> with only these two: ppp authentication pap callin ppp pap sent-username <username> password <password> o DSL Router With Built-In Modem . This example also shows how to use NAT so you can have a web server / mail server / FTP server etc.0. in your home network. and not the CHAP.168.0.0 dialer1 no ip http server ! access-list 1 permit 192. Some of the commands listed are part of Cisco's default settings. Do the "show run" command before starting to configure your router to see what commands you'll really need.0 0.0.0.0.262 www.

255.253.Chapter 25: Configuring Cisco DSL Routers 263 !--.1) From the inside to the outside.248 ip nat outside !--.26 port 80 (www) will be . !--.Cisco prefers to run the PPPoE client on a virtual !--.1.1) uses NAT !--.This statement performs the static address !--.0 ip nat inside ! interface ATM0 no ip address no atm ilmi-keepalive pvc 0/35 encapsulation aal5snap ! bundle-enable dsl operating-mode auto bridge-group 1 ! !--.translation for the Web server.25 255.0 network !--as given in access list 1 !--.168. !--."bridge-group" command above.Tells the router to NAT all traffic that passes !--."BVI" interface !--.2) is the inside "private" interface ! interface Ethernet0 ip address 192.255.255.253.158.(The BVI number always matches the bridge-group number) !--.3) Must get an outside "public" address that is the !--. !--.168.1 255.1.users trying to reach 97.Configure the home / SOHO network interface's IP address !--.The "ip nat" statement tells your router that this !--.interface: !--.1) uses NAT !--.2) is the outside "public" interface ! interface BVI1 ip address 97. With this statement.255.same as interface BVI1 ! ip nat inside source list 1 interface BVI1 overload !--.through it: !--.2) And whose IP address is in the 192.158.This is tied to the real ATM DSL interface with the !--.this interface: !--.The "ip nat" statement tells your router that !--.

Do the "show run" command before starting to configure your router to see what commands you'll really need.158.com !--.30 ! access-list 1 permit 192.158.168. in your home network.Static IP o Here is a sample configuration for a Cisco home router with an external modem.0.100 80 97.0.linuxhomenetworking.100 port 80 !--.1.0.253.0.(www).1 service timestamps debug uptime service timestamps log uptime ! hostname ciscorouter ! ip subnet-zero no ip domain-lookup ! !--!--!--!--Configure the home / SOHO network interface's IP address The "ip nat" statement tells your router that this interface: 1) uses NAT o o .0 0.26 80 extendable !--.168.automatically redirected to 192. !--! ip nat inside source static tcp 192.264 www.0.1.253. Some of the commands listed are part of Cisco's default settings.0.1. which in this case is the Web server.Set your default gateway as provided by your ISP ! ip classless ip route 0.255 bridge 1 protocol ieee bridge 1 route ip ! end DSL Router With External Modem . This example also shows how to use NAT so you can have a web server / mail server / FTP server etc. Remember to be in "config" mode to enter these commands and remember to do a "write memory" at the end to permanently save the configuration Cisco Router Connected to DSL via External Modem Configuration (Static IP) Current Configuration: ! version 12.0 97.0 0.168.

2) And whose IP address is in the 192.100 80 97.25 255.253.168.158.1.192.0.through it: !--.2) is the inside "private" interface ! interface Ethernet0 ip address 192.Tells the router to NAT all traffic that passes !--.253.1 255.255 ! end . !--.0 ip nat inside ! interface Ethernet1 ip address 97.26 !--.is the Web server.0.Set your default gateway as provided by your ISP ! ip classless ip route 0.26 80 extendable !--.168.253.248 ip nat outside !--.253.255.0.255.With this statement. users trying to reach 97.0 97.168.1.255.30 ! access-list 1 permit 192.0.0 0.158.3) Must get an outside "public" address that is the !--same as interface ethernet1 ! ip nat inside source list 1 interface ethernet1 overload !--.port 80 (www) will be automatically redirected to !--.1.0.168. which in this case !--.for the Web server.0 network !--as given in access list 1 !--. !--.0.168.This statement performs the static address translation !--. !--! ip nat inside source static tcp 192.100 port 80 (www).158.1.1) From the inside to the outside.Chapter 25: Configuring Cisco DSL Routers 265 !--.255.0 0.158.1.

266 www. the command for SMTP mail would be: ip nat inside source static tcp 192.100 25 97. 21 25 110 443 53 Type TCP TCP TCP TCP UDP o So for example. to be NAT-ted to 192.100 53 97.158.158.1.168.253.168.253.linuxhomenetworking.1.168.26 25 extendable o DNS requires a UDP type NAT statement such as: ip nat inside source static udp 192.com Other NAT Topics Commonly Used TCP And UDP Ports Here are some additional TCP ports you may be interested in for NAT "ip nat inside source static" statements: Protocol FTP SMTP Mail POP3 Mail HTTPS / SSL DNS Port 20.253.100.158.25 How To Verify That NAT Is Working Correctly You can use the show ip nat translation command to determine whether NAT is actually occurring as expected: . then you can use the command: ip nat inside source static 192.26.168.253.158.1.1. regardless of port.100 97.25 53 extendable o To have all traffic trying to reach 97.

.--67.. . 5698) -> (97. 80) [0] .Chapter 25: Configuring Cisco DSL Routers 267 ciscorouter> enable Password: ******** ciscorouter#show ip nat translation Pro Inside global Inside local global tcp 97.100 on the home network How To Troubleshoot NAT To troubleshoot NAT after you have logged into the router via Telnet requires you to first activate logging to the telnet terminal with the terminal monitor command and then using the debug ip nat detailed command to visualize the translation process.158.253. The Inside global address is the IP address of the server presented to the Internet after NAT.158.6 was communicating with the inside global address of 97.100.253.26 03:29:49: NAT: Allocated Port for 192.1.219.253. in this case.1. The Outside global the IP address of the remote computer as presented on the Internet.100 -> 97. o o o o As you can see. The example below shows that translation occurs for port 80 traffic (HTTP / www) from address 97.26:80 192. .158.168.217..26: wanted 80 got 80 03:29:49: NAT: o: tcp (198. . and more specifically that remote host 67.26.217.133.34.1.253.217.6:5698 ciscorouter# Outside local --..100:80 67. ciscorouter> enable Password: ******** ciscorouter#term mon ciscorouter#debug ip nat detailed IP NAT detailed debugging is on ciscorouter# 03:29:49: NAT: creating portlist proto 6 globaladdr 97.1.253.168.26. The Outside local the actual IP address of the remote computer on its local network.168..6:5698 Outside Cisco uses the following terms for the various IP addresses you’ll find in any NAT translation process.100:80 tcp 97.1.26 to 192.34.253.34.168.168.158.158.26:80 192.158.1..158. NAT seems to be functioning properly for the web server 192.253. The Inside local address is the actual IP address of the local server on your home network.

268 www.com .linuxhomenetworking.

What follows is an introduction to VPN terminology Authentication The process of ensuring that the VPN data received is both unchanged and from the expected source.269 Appendix I Miscellaneous Topics =========================================== In This Chapter Appendix I Miscellaneous Topics VPN Terminologies Running Linux Without A Monitor Make Your Linux Box Emulate A VT100 Dumb Terminal Syslog Configuration and Cisco Devices Disk Partitioning Explained The OSI Networking Model TCP/IP Packet Format © Peter Harrison.linuxhomenetworking.com =========================================== We briefly discuss some miscellaneous topics in this chapter that are beyond the scope of this book with the intention that you will be stimulated to consider utilizing some of the technologies discussed to improve your website and / or your SOHO network. . VPN Terminologies A Virtual Private Network (VPN) provides security for transmission of sensitive information over unprotected networks such as the Internet. VPN relationships are established between trusted sites on the Internet making the public network appear to be virtually the same as a private network to the VPN members. www.

(For more information on the IP protocol. without encryption.linuxhomenetworking. IPSec The name given to a number of data communications protocols designed to authenticate and encrypt VPN data to protect it from unauthorized viewing or modification as it is transmitted across a network. Authentication Header (AH) One of two IPSec security protocols. Provides authentication. Here are some examples of what transport mode VPN IP packets will look like. AH and an ESP are often used in combination with each other.com Encryption The process of encoding VPN data to protect it from unauthorized viewing except by the intended recipient who has the decoder key. As ESP headers don't authenticate the outer IP header like AH headers. please refer to the OSI model page) Transport mode AH packet format Inserted Original Original DATA IP Header AH Header TCP Header Transport mode AH / ESP packet format Inserted Inserted Original Original DATA IP Header AH Header ESP Header TCP Header . It does this by encrypting the data within the packet and then adding its own security header to the original IP packet. encryption. Provides authentication and anti-replay services. and anti-replay services. It does this by adding its own security header to the original IP packet. Transport mode VPNs The original source and destination address of the data being sent over the VPN is unchanged. Encapsulating Security Protocol (ESP) The other IPSec security protocol.270 www. This is called Transport Adjacency.

. header and all in an effort to provide an additional layer of security by not revealing the true identities of the servers communicating with each other. please refer to the OSI model page) Tunnel mode AH packet format New Inserted Original Original DATA IP Header AH Header IP Header TCP Header Tunnel mode AH / ESP packet format New Inserted Inserted Original Original DATA IP Header AH Header ESP Header IP Header TCP Header Authentication methods IPSec data integrity is usually provided by one of two Hashed Message Authentication Code (HMAC) methods: o o Message Digest 5 (MD5) Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-1). (For more information on the IP protocol. The original packet is frequently encrypted. and establishes IPSec keys. Internet Key Exchange (IKE) IKE provides authentication of the IPSec peers. negotiates IPSec security associations.Appendix I : Miscellaneous Topics 271 Tunnel mode VPNs The original source and destination address of the data being sent over the VPN is changed by encapsulating the original IP packet within another IP packet. Encryption methods IPSec usually uses one of two methods to encrypt data: o o The Data Encryption Standard (DES) using a 56-bit encryption key Triple DES using a 168-bit encryption key. Here are some examples of what tunnel mode VPN IP packets will look like.

During the key exchange. Shared keys The devices at each end of the VPN use a shared key or password. and not to someone pretending to be the sender. such as VeriSign. CA overview A digital certificate contains information that identifies a user or device. authentication is complete. The VPN devices will also be pre-configured with the CA's certificate. A CA can either be a trusted public third party. but encrypted using their private key. This is done using Certification Authorities. . Once the the certificates received from the CA and the other peer match. or a "in-house" private server that you establish within your organization. Certificates are managed and issued by Certification authorities (CAs). making it difficult for large scale implementations. Anything encrypted with one of the keys can only be decrypted with the other. The receiver verifies the signature by decrypting the message with the sender's public key. department. The disadvantage is that each pair of VPN connections need set of keys. there is no CA to provide an impartial audit trail of VPN connection initiations. A successful exchange requires the receiver to have a copy of the sender's public key and knowing with a high degree of certainty that it really does belong to the sender. Each peer then extracts the public key from the certificate they receive from the CA and then uses it to decrypt the certificate they just received from the other peer. serial number. or IP address. each VPN device must be pre-configured with the certificate generated for them by the CA. company. This allows you to create a signature when the message is encrypted with a sender's private key.com IKE authentication methods There are two main methods of establishing a trusted relationship between two devices that want to create a VPN between themselves: Public key cryptography using RSA encryption RSA overview Each VPN device has its own public and private keys. Prior to installing a certificate based VPN. such as a name. As the message could be decrypted using the sender's public key means that the holder of the private key created the message. Each peer then uses the pre-installed CA certificate they have to authenticate with the CA and securely receive the other peer's certificate from the CA using public key cryptography.linuxhomenetworking. the VPN peers authenticate by sending each other the certificate issued to them by the CA. It will also contain a copy of the entity's public key.272 www. Unlike the RSA method.

VPN Security And Firewalls o o All security devices in the path of a VPN connection will have to allow "protocol 50" between the two VPN devices to ensure that IKE works properly. Here are some authentication methods used in such . the source and destination port is 500. This includes: • • • • • Packet encryption methods Packet authentication methods Transport versus tunnel mode AH and or ESP usage SA lifetime before it is renegotiated. This must also be allowed to pass through unimpeded. IKE is then used by the VPN peers to negotiate the security associations (SAs) to be used at each end point. Unusually. IKE and ISAKMP IKE uses special ISAKMP IP packets using "protocol 50" to establish an Security Association. SAs are comprised of two factors: Transforms Describes how the data will be transformed by the VPN to provide the desired security. (SAs are permanent for when manually established) Shared keys The actual keyword used by the encryption and authentication to protect the data. In permanent VPNs.Appendix I : Miscellaneous Topics 273 IKE's role in creating Security Associations Once authentication is complete. This uses UDP packets using port 500. Frequently the device at the other end of the connection is a PC. The VPN uses a separate channel through which the encrypted data passes. you may have to open up these ports and protocols to the CA as well. o VPN User Authentication Methods For Temporary Connections The above sections have been slanted towards a permanent connection between purpose built VPN devices.

the user not only has to enter the username & password. In order to login. password in conjunction with a digital key FOB whose authentication serial number changes every few minutes for a login to occur. Software uses a username.com Types Of Dial Up VPN Authentication Method IKE-XAUTH secured RADIUS Description Usernames and passwords entered into the VPN remote login software are relayed by the VPN device at the remote end to a trusted RADIUS server. Remote home user authentication relies on the same username / password combination of the Windows Domain Controller that the user would normally use to login when they are at work.274 www. but also the PIN tied to the FOB plus the FOB's dynamic serial number which is synchronized with the authentication server at the other end of the VPN.linuxhomenetworking. Valid usernames and passwords are configured into the VPN device at the other end of the VPN ACE/SecurID Windows Domain Local user database . If the username / password combination is valid for remote login then the RADIUS server will authorize the VPN device to continue with the IKE interchange.

One popular Linux equivalent to Hyperterm is “minicom”. connect the other end to the client PC running "Hyperterm" or whatever terminal emulation software you are using. For non-modem connectivity (PC to PC) connect a NULL modem cable to the COM port you want to test. Here is a table that lists the physical ports to their equivalent Linux device names. • A modem connected to the COM port • Telnet to login to a terminal server that has one of its ports connected to the Linux box’s COM port Preparing To Go “Headless” o One of the advantages of this method is that you don't need a keyboard either. In other versions of Linux. and I need to get to it by using: • A notebook PC with a console cable connected to the COM port. Port Linux "agetty" Device Name ttyS0 ttyS1 COM1 COM2 . o o o Configuration Steps In RedHat Linux. but will be in a corporate environment with large numbers of Linux servers racked in data centers. This creates what is also known as a “headless” system. The most common occurrence is when the system is hung. A brief configuration guide for minicom follows the section below. If you're using a modem for connectivity. Unfortunately your BIOS may halt the system during the Power On Self Test (POST) if it doesn't detect a keyboard. Make sure you disable this feature in the BIOS setup of your PC before proceeding. This feature can usually be found on the very first screen under the “Halt On” option.Appendix I : Miscellaneous Topics 275 Running Linux Without A Monitor You can reduce the cost of ownership of your Linux system by not using a VGA monitor. "agetty" may be called just plain "getty". the COM1 and COM2 ports are controlled by a program called "agetty". then you'll need a FULL modem cable and testing will have to be done using a dial up connection. access to the Linux box can be more cheaply provided via the COM port. Operating costs may not be important at home.com at friends’ homes and felt badly about borrowing their monitors. In such cases. locking out network access. I’ve included this section as I have occasionally hosted the website www. You will also need to make sure that you have activated your COM ports in your BIOS settings. but "agetty" usually isn't activated when you boot up unless its configuration file /etc/inittab is modified. Having access via the COM ports has also helped me in both the home and business situations.linuxhomenetworking.

and celebrate when you see something like this: Red Hat Linux release 8. The respawn means that agetty will restart automatically if. The next step is to restart the "init" process to re-read /etc/inittab [root@bigboy tmp]# init q Now you need to configure the terminal client such “as Hyperterm” to match the speed settings in /etc/inittab. To do this you'll have to edit the /etc/securetty file which contains the device names of tty lines on which root is allowed to login. The "-L" means ignore modem control signals. for whatever reason. when the system enters runlevels 2.com The following lines added to /etc/inittab will configure your COM ports for terminal access: # Run COM1 and COM2 gettys in standard runlevels S0:235:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 ttyS0 vt102 S1:235:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 ttyS1 vt102 In summary. Just add ttyS0 and ttyS1 to the list if you need this access. . "agetty" must attach itself to devices ttyS0 and ttyS1 and emulate a VT102 terminal running at 19200 baud. these lines mean: o o o At boot time. it dies.18-14 on an i586 bigboy login: Note: By default.0 (Psyche) Kernel 2. Connect the console / modem cable between the client and your Linux box. Hit "enter" a couple times. 3 or 5.276 www.4.linuxhomenetworking. user "root" will not be able to log in from a terminal. this option should be omitted if you are connecting the port to a modem.

We then need to restart the init process to reload the new /etc/inittab settings. not the use of using Linux to dial a modem. In other words a “headless” system cannot be used to access another “headless” system using the “headless” COM port.) Configuration Steps The most commonly used Linux terminal emulation program is minicom. There are a number of reasons to do this: • You run Linux on a notebook and you need to use it to access a hung “headless” Linux server via the COM port • You need to gain access to a modem connected to the COM port. In the case below we disable agetty on COM1 by commenting out the ttyS0 agetty statements in the /etc/inittab file. You can make your Linux box emulate a dumb terminal quite easily.Appendix I : Miscellaneous Topics 277 Make Your Linux Box Emulate A VT100 Dumb Terminal Dumb terminals can be loosely defined as devices that allow you to log in to your system via the COM port. o o You will first need to go through all the relevant steps listed in the “Preparing to go Headless” section of this chapter to ensure you have the right type of cable and correct BIOS settings. Here are the steps you’ll need to go through to get it working. Edit /etc/inittab # Run COM1 and COM2 gettys in standard runlevels #S0:235:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 ttyS0 vt102 S1:235:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 ttyS1 vt102 Restart init [root@bigboy tmp]# init q o Run minicom in setup mode using the minicom –s command [root@bigboy tmp]# minicom –s o You will get the setup menu . It is simple to use mainly because it uses a text based GUI. Other systems using minicom can use COM2 to access this system. COM1 will therefore be used for outbound minicom connections to other systems. (This section will focus on the notebook scenario. Minicom will clash with your agetty configuration explained in the previous section. You therefore have to disable the agetty configuration for the port on which you wish to run minicom.

Press CTRL-A Z for help on special keys bigboy login: o o To exit minicom you type CTRL-A. F-key Macros. Connect the cables between the systems Re-enter minicom.278 www. | | Exit | | Exit from Minicom | ---------------------------o Select the serial port setup menu item. then X Non “root” users will get a “permission denied” message if they use minicom as the COM ports are not normally accessible to regular users.0 OPTIONS: History Buffer.linuxhomenetworking.. I18n Compiled on Jun 23 2002.Callout Program : | | E Bps/Par/Bits : 19200 8N1 | | F . 16:41:20. this time without the “-s” [root@bigboy tmp]# minicom o Hit enter and you should get a login prompt Welcome to minicom 2. Make the speed match that of the remote “headless” system and make sure the correct serial COM device is chosen.Software Flow Control : No | | | | Change which setting? | ------------------------------------------o o o o Select the “Modem and dialing” option and make sure the “Init string” and “Reset string” settings are blank. Search History Buffer. Select the “Save setup as dfl” to make this your saved default setting and then “Exit from Minicom” Make sure the other system is correctly configured for headless operation.Lockfile Location : /var/lock | | C Callin Program : | | D . Also make sure that flow control is off.Hardware Flow Control : No | | G . then Z.com ------[configuration]------| Filenames and paths | | File transfer protocols | | Serial port setup | | Modem and dialing | | Screen and keyboard | | Save setup as dfl | | Save setup as. ------------------------------------------| A Serial Device : /dev/ttyS0 | | B . Device /dev/ttyS0 is COM1 and /dev/ttyS1 is COM2.00. The way to get around this is for user “root” to .

or add selected trusted users to your sudo configuration. [root@bigboy tmp]# chmod o+rw /dev/ttyS0 . Remember that minicom will reset the privileges to the COM port each time you change the configuration with “minicom –s” so you may find yourself having to run chmod from time to time.Appendix I : Miscellaneous Topics 279 either give everyone read/write access using the chmod command below.

SS (facility.severity) using the numbering scheme below: .280 www. Cisco Routers By default Cisco routers send syslog messages to their logging server with a default facility of local7. then you may also want to switch off all logging to /var/log/messages as suggested above for the home/SOHO environment. service timestamps log datetime localtime no logging console no logging monitor logging 192. Routers.168.100 which we set up in the previous section.1. therefore making routers and switches log to the same file. If you have a large data center. We won't set the facility in this case. The following examples will show how to have a different log file for each class of device. but we can tell the router to timestamp the messages and make the messages have the source IP address of the loopback interface. set set set set logging logging logging logging server enable server 192.1.168.168.linuxhomenetworking. The value provided must be in the format FF.100 level all 5 server severity 6 Cisco Local Director Local Directors use the "syslog output" command to set their logging facility and severity.1.100 Catalyst CAT Switches running CATOS By default Cisco switches also send syslog messages to their logging server with a default facility of local7.com Syslog Configuration and Cisco Devices Syslog reserves facilities "local0" through "local7" for log messages received from remote servers and network devices. switches. In all the network device configuration examples below we are logging to the remote Linux logging server 192. firewalls and load balancers each logging with a different facility can each have their own log files for easy troubleshooting. We won't change this facility either.

Appendix I : Miscellaneous Topics 281 Facility local 0 local 1 local 2 local 3 local 4 local 5 local 6 local 7 FF Value 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Severity System unusable Immediate action required Critical condition Error conditions Warning conditions Normal but significant conditions Informational messages Debugging messages SS Value 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Here we using facility LOCAL4 and logging debugging messages and above.100 .7 no syslog console syslog host 192.168.1. syslog output 20.

logging logging logging logging logging logging on standby timestamp trap notifications facility 19 host inside 192.282 www.168.100 facility 6 set logging subsystem all info-6 logging commands enable . Facility Logging Facility Command Value 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 local 0 local 1 local 2 local 3 local 4 local 5 local 6 local 7 This configuration example assumes that the logging server is connected on the side of the "inside" protected interface. This example shows the CSS11000 logging facility LOCAL 6 and severity level 6 (Informational) logging host 192.1.1.168. We're sending log messages to facility LOCAL3 with a severity level of 5 (Notification) set by the "logging trap" command.linuxhomenetworking. You specify the facility with an intuitive number using the "logging host" command and set the severity with the "logging subsystem" command.com Cisco PIX Filewalls PIX firewalls use the following numbering scheme to determine their logging facilities.100 Cisco CSS11000 (Arrowpoints) This configuration for this is more straight forward.

Appendix I : Miscellaneous Topics 283 The Sample Cisco syslog.debug /var/log/cisco/ciscofw # # All LOCAL4 messages (debug and above) go to the Local Director file ciscold # local4.debug ciscoacl # # LOCAL7 messages (notice and above) go to the ciscoinfo # This excludes ACL logs which are logged at severity debug # local7.notice ciscoinfo .conf File # # All LOCAL3 messages (debug and above) go to the firewall file ciscofw # local3.notice /var/log/cisco/ciscoinfo local7.debug /var/log/cisco/ciscocss # # All LOCAL7 messages (debug and above) go to the ciscoacl # This includes ACL logs which are logged at severity debug # local7.debug /var/log/cisco/ciscold # # All LOCAL6 messages (debug and above) go to the CSS file ciscocss # local6.debug /var/log/cisco/ciscoacl local7.

What Is A Filesystem? Filesystems can be considered as being the directory structures on a disk partition that contains all the files.284 www. the partitions hide underneath unseen to the regular user. Linux partitions handle all files in the subdirectory of your choice. Partitions cannot be moved or resized without destroying the data on them. whereas Linux users would be familiar with the terms "directories" and "sub-directories". each of which is treated as a separate disk by your operating system.com Disk Partitioning Explained Here’s some interesting information on how Linux handles hard drives and their partitions. In other words. Most Windows users would be familiar with the analogous terms "folders" and "subfolders". In Linux. for example. The directory allocation will be: Partition /var/log /var Directory Allocation All files in directory /var/log and all the subdirectories underneath /var/log All files in /var except the contents of directory /var/log and all the subdirectories underneath /var/log .linuxhomenetworking. The choice of which subdirectories belong in which partition is made when you partition the hard drive. This allows you to be able to boot different operating systems from the same disk. everything appears to be a single set of "folders" or directories. If you create a file system called "/var" and another called "/var/log". Linux and Windows. What Is A Partition? A partition is a means of dividing your hard disk into multiple sections. a disk with two partitions would most likely find itself with a "C:" drive and a "D:" drive each with a separate set of folders. How Linux Links Filesystems And Partitions In Windows.

linuxhomenetworking. Usually recovery requires reformatting the root file system and doing a Linux reinstall. Also Known As "root" The root filesystem ("/") contains the files necessary for the system to boot up in single user mode with the bare minimum of functionality. Most Linux systems then will then become multi-user systems by changing their runlevel and executing the associated startup scripts including those that will mount the remaining file systems. If all your files are located in a root filesystem that becomes corrupted. not only for controlling the boot process. In most cases. /boot The /boot partition contains the Linux kernel which is the "master control program". Redhat Linux creates this partition automatically. there is a high possibility that you will lose all your data. especially if you have more than 4GB.Appendix I : Miscellaneous Topics 285 What Partitions Are Mandatory? The mandatory partitions are: "/". but also the normal functioning of Linux. RedHat automatically creates this partition and usually makes it about twice the amount of system RAM. swap Used as a location to place data temporarily if RAM memory becomes full. It is for this reason that you should consider placing similar files in dedicated partitions. a corrupted root filesystem will make your system unbootable from the hard drive. This reduces the need to reformat the "root" partition if it becomes corrupted. .com The RedHat default partitioning scheme used during the Linux installation should be sufficient for most home / SOHO systems. This is a generous guide. you may look at the bottom of the table to see the settings I used for the 4GB hard disk I used to first run www. Recommended Sizes For Disk Partitions Here are some allocation suggestions that may be useful.

0+ GB 750+ 500+ 750+ N/A 250+ Third party software Man pages (Help files) Error log files Print queues (Needed only if you plan to do printing) Mail queues Temporary files Multiply the expected number of users by the amount of disk space you want to assign per user. /home Variable Variable .5+ GB 500 4. Remember MP3s fill disks quickly. / Usually called "root" /boot Automatically determined by RedHat 50 (approx) Automatically determined by RedHat 50 (approx) 1.0+ GB 500+ 1.286 www. Contains the system kernel files.com Some Recommended Partition Sizes Partition Size Workstation / Home Web Server (MB) Swap 2X Physical Memory 100 Size Mail Server (MB) Purpose of the Partition 2X Physical Memory 100 Used as a location to place data temporarily if RAM memory becomes full Base system program files Configuration files Libraries Device drivers Assigned automatically by RedHat.0+ GB 250+ /usr /var /var/log /var/spool /var/spool/mail /tmp 2.linuxhomenetworking.

You may want to also consider backing up files and then deleting them.Appendix I : Miscellaneous Topics 287 How Much Space Do I Have On My Partitions? You can use the "df" command. you can ask users to delete unnecessary files such as downloaded software and MP3s If it is in the /var partition. See the logging page for a description of the log files and how you can use the "logrotate" command to help reduce their size. o . then you can consider deleting some of your log files in /var/log. These are the settings I used for the hard disk I used to first run this site. [root@bigboy root]# df -k Filesystem 1K-blocks /dev/hda3 505636 /dev/hda1 46636 /dev/hda5 505605 /dev/hda7 830104 /dev/hda2 4633108 /dev/hda6 256667 [root@bigboy root]# Used Available Use% Mounted on 90002 389529 19% / 9164 35064 21% /boot 87915 391586 19% /home 17632 770304 3% /tmp 1797504 2600252 41% /usr 169577 73838 70% /var What Can I Do When I Run Out Of Disk Space? o o If it is in the /home partition.

linuxhomenetworking. Correctly re-sequences data packets that arrive in the wrong order.com The OSI Networking Model The Open System Interconnection (OSI) protocol suite acts as a framework for designing network based applications. Your network address can stay the same if the NIC is replaced. • Also provides the option of having multiple addresses of the same networking protocol being assigned to the same MAC address. Ensures that unacknowledged data is retransmitted.288 www. For example. It consists of layers of sub-applications. Each layer generally has "hooks" into the layer immediately above and below it so that the data can flow smoothly through the sub-applications designed to handle each layer. Detailed descriptions of TCP. • Used as a means of not tying the address of the server to its MAC address. • Error control and timing of bits speeding down the wire between two directly connected devices. • Manages continuing requests and responses between the applications at both ends over the various established connections. In the home environment. • Also allows you to select your own numbering scheme for the global network independent of the MAC address which in rare cases could also be duplicated. email text entered into Outlook express being converted into SMTP mail formatted data. IP and ARP can be found in the Introduction to Networking chapter. data is frequently sent using the MAC addresses of the NIC cards of the communicating devices. UDP. The Seven OSI Layers Layer Name Description Application 7 Applicati on Presentat ion • The user interface to the application Telnet FTP Sendmail 6 • Converts data from one presentation format to another. • Handles the routing of data between links that are not physically connected together. each building on the lower ones to provide a complete connectivity solution. • Manages the establishment and tearing down of a connection. • Defines the electrical and physical characteristics of the network cabling and interfacing hardware TCP UDP 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network IP ARP 2 Link Ethernet ARP 1 Physical Ethernet .

Appendix I : Miscellaneous Topics 289 TCP/IP Packet Format The TCP/IP packet contains an IP header followed by a TCP or UDP header followed by the TCP/UDP data. The TTL decrement feature is used by routers as an additional precaution to prevent the packet from mistakenly being routed around the Internet in an infinite loop due to a routing error. 17 = UDP Used to ensure that the header contents are error free. MF Bit Fragment Offset TTL Protocol Header checksum Source Address Destination Address Indicates the IP address of the server sending the data Indicates the IP address of the server intended to receive the data . For example. Internet Header Length. Version 6. The server sending the data usually sets the TTL to a value high enough to reach it's destination without being discarded. is the current version used by most devices on the Internet. If this packet is part of a fragmented datagram. When the value reaches zero. Total length of the IP header Total length of the IP packet IHL Total Length DF Bit Indicator to tell whether the data in the packet may be fragmented into smaller packets due to limitations of the communications line Indicator to tell whether this data in this packet is the last one of a stream of fragments. This value is decremented by each router through which the packet has passes. is a newer format which allows for a much more vast range of addresses. Time to live. then this specifies where in the complete datagram the data in this packet should be inserted. 6 = TCP. Version 4. the packet is discarded by the router. IP Header TCP/UDP Header DATA Contents Of The IP Header Field IP Version Description The version of IP being used. Defines the type of protocol header to expect at the end of this header.

. In the connection-establishment phase.linuxhomenetworking. Carries a variety of control information. Contains upper-layer information Acknowledgment Number Data Offset Flags Window Checksum Data Contents Of The UDP Header Field Source and Destination Port Length Checksum Description Identifies points at which upper-layer source and destination processes receive TCP services. and the FIN bit used for connection termination. Usually specifies the number assigned to the first byte of data in the current message. Specifies the size of the sender's receive window (that is. this field also can be used to identify an initial sequence number to be used in an upcoming transmission. including the SYN and ACK bits used for connection establishment. Length of the TCP header. Specifies the length of the UDP header and data Used to ensure that the header contents are error free.com Contents Of The TCP Header Field Source and Destination Port Sequence Number Description Identifies points at which upper-layer source and destination processes receive TCP services.290 www. Contains the sequence number of the next byte of data the sender of the packet expects to receive. the buffer space available for incoming data) Used to ensure that the header contents are error free.

Appendix I : Miscellaneous Topics 291 .

292 www.com .linuxhomenetworking.

......................................................................................303 IPtables FTP Server ............................................................................................................................................................................305 IPtables Complex script .............. Scripts and Configurations =========================================== In This Chapter Appendix II............linuxhomenetworking......................................................................327 Cisco PIX Firewall ....................................com ...............................................................................................................................................................329 Cisco PIX Firewall ........................................................................................................................com .......................................................................................................................................................................................................330 © Peter Harrison............319 Forward Zone File For A Home Network Using NAT ............................................................322 Sendmail Sample /etc/aliases File ...................................... 293 Subnet Calculator Script ......................................... ..........................................................................324 Sendmail Sample /etc/mail/virtusertable File.............................................................................................304 IPtables NTP Server...........323 Sendmail Sample /etc/mail/sendmail........................................................................................................................................... Scripts and Configurations ....................................................................................................................................................................320 Sendmail Sample /etc/mail/access File ...........................................................................296 Sendmail SPAM Filter Script ......................294 Apache File Permissions Script ..293 Appendix II Codes..........................305 DNS Zone File For my-site......................................................................................................................320 Reverse Zone File For A Home Network Using NAT .....mc File .................................................................................... 293 Codes...................322 Sendmail Sample /etc/mail/local-host-names File ...................................................................................................................................................................................................319 DNS Zone File For my-other-site.................................................................297 IPtables FTP Client.........................................................................com =========================================== Here we have samples of all the scripts used in the previous chapters.DHCP DSL Configuration.. www...........................................326 ICMP Codes.....................................................................................Static DSL Configuration...............

255.294 www.255. then netmask="255. then netmask="255.248" fi if [ "$netmask" = "/28" ].240" fi if [ "$netmask" = "/27" ]. then netmask="255. then netmask="255.linuxhomenetworking.com Subnet Calculator Script #/bin/bash # # subnet-calc.252" fi if [ "$netmask" = "/29" ].255.com # # # Get the IP address.192" fi if [ "$netmask" = "/25" ]. the subnet mask and broadcast address of # the external interface # IPADDR=$1 netmask=$2 # # Convert "/" notation to dotted decimal # if [ "$natmask" = "/30" ].255.255.sh .255.255.255.255.255.255.255” or in # the range /24 to /30 # # Usage: # # subnet-calc.128" fi . then netmask="255.Calculates subnets given an IP address and subnet mask # The subnet mask must begin with “255.sh IP-address subnet-mask # # (c) SiliconValleyCCIE.255. then netmask="255.255.224" fi if [ "$netmask" = "/26" ].

Appendix II : Codes.$subnet_base SUBNET_BROADCAST=$IPADDR_octet_1.//g'`" # # Get first three octets of the IP address # IPADDR_octet_1="`echo IPADDR_octet_2="`echo IPADDR_octet_3="`echo IPADDR_octet_4="`echo $IPADDR $IPADDR $IPADDR $IPADDR | | | | sed sed sed sed -e -e -e -e 's/\.255.0" fi # # Get the last octet of the subnet mask # netmask_octet_4="`echo $netmask | sed -e 's/255./ /g' /g' /g' /g' | | | | awk awk awk awk '{print '{print '{print '{print $1}'`" $2}'`" $3}'`" $4}'`" # # Get the size of the subnet # subnet_size=$[256-$netmask_octet_4] # # Get the last octet of the network address # if [ "$netmask_octet_4" = "0" ].255. Scripts and Configurations 295 if [ "$netmask" = "/24" ]./ 's/\. then subnet_base="0" else subnet_base=$[$IPADDR_octet_4/$subnet_size] subnet_base=$[$subnet_base*$subnet_size] fi SUBNET_BASE=$IPADDR_octet_1.$IPADDR_octet_2.$IPADDR_octet_3.$IPADDR_octet_3./ 's/\.$[$subnet _base-1+$subnet_size] echo echo echo echo echo echo echo echo "IP Address : "$IPADDR "Network Base Address : "$SUBNET_BASE "Broadcast Address : "$SUBNET_BROADCAST "Subnet Mask "Subnet Size : "$netmask : "$subnet_size IP Addresses . then netmask="255.$IPADDR_octet_2./ 's/\.

.. The script will print out a list of all the files it’s modified to the screen..com # for i in `find $1` do if [ -d $i ] .Recursively fixes file permissions in a www directory # so that Apache may serve the pages correctly # # (c) SiliconValleyCCIE.sh ./fix-www-perms.sh /home/www/webpages/ /home/www/webpages/ /home/www/webpages/file1.htm /home/www/webpages/file2. then chmod 755 $i echo $i else chmod 644 $i echo $i fi done .htm .. [root@bigboy tmp]# . .. [root@bigboy tmp] Here’s how it’s done: #!/bin/sh # # fix-www-perms.linuxhomenetworking.296 www. .com Apache File Permissions Script The first argument of the script is the target directory and must have a trailing "/"..

If you receive emails as part of mailing lists. Each file has two columns. • The script will reject emails in which your email address doesn’t appear in the “TO:”.log. • The script will match addresses in both the TO: and FROM: of the received email.pl will log all accepted and denied emails in a file called mail-filter. File mail-filter.pl file there.pl in your $HOME directory (default login directory) • Use the “chmod” command to make it executable [root@bigboy mailuser]# chmod 700 mail-filter. Here is a sample I’ve used at home for some time. • The script is very tolerant of email addresses. You do not have to have an “@” sign in the configuration files’ entries. then it denies everything else.Appendix II : Codes. it then reads the accept file and accepts any matching emails. • The first column has either the word “subject:” or “address:” and the second column has either a subject string (inclusive of spaces) or a single address entry. • Place mail-filter. The CPAN modules page also has a link on how to install the modules. IO-Stringy.forward file in your home directory with the following text: . Scripts and Configurations 297 Sendmail SPAM Filter Script One of the good things about having a Linux box at home is that you can create your own customized SPAM filter. put the name of the mailing list in your “accept” file. The script will match on a partial address too.reject lists all the mail to reject. Here’s how to install the script: • The script runs using the PERL scripting language which is installed by default on RedHat. Here is a summary of its operation: • This script is called mail-filter. “FROM:” or “CC:”.cpan. [root@bigboy mailuser]# cd /etc/smrsh [root@bigboy smrsh]# ln –s /home/mailuser/ mail-filter.pl • It uses two configuration files. • Mail-filter.pl • Create a . • The script reads the “reject” file and rejects any matching emails. o o o Click on the CPAN home page's "modules” link Click the "All Modules" listing and download and install the MailTools. Look at this file from time to time as you may find yourself rejecting too much traffic which will require you to modify the configuration files.org to download and install a variety of PERL modules beforehand.accept lists all the mail to accept and file mailfilter. MIME-tools & Mail-Audit modules in that order. • You will have to go to www. “BCC:” emails are therefore denied.pl • Go to directory /etc/smrsh and create a logical link to the mail-filter.

pl • You should then be ready to go! The mail-filter.com address: cnn subject: Alumni Association The mail-filter.com subject: porn The mail-filter Script #!/usr/bin/perl # # # Mail-filter .index.com #!/bin/bash | ~/mail-filter. MIME-tools & Mail-Audit in this order # # Need to have: # # a logical link to this file in /etc/smrsh # .1/Audit. IO-Stringy.pl # use Mail::Audit.org/writings/mail-audit.PERL Script # # by Peter Harrison © www.cpan.com # # Reference pages # # http://search.org/modules/01modules.forward file with the following line in it # #/bin/bash # | ~/mail-filter.html # # Need to install the following modules: # # MailTools.LinuxHomeNetworking.298 www.org/author/SIMON/Mail-Audit-2.linuxhomenetworking.pm # http://simon-cozens. # # Spam filter variables # .cpan.accept File address: my-address@mysite.html # # PERL modules needed from http://www.reject File address: spammer@spammer.

= $FILEPATH . study $CC. $ITEM->from(). $SUBJECT). $ITEM->cc(). Scripts and Configurations 299 $FILEPATH = "/home/mailuser/". study $FROM. (). exit. "mail-filter. "mail-filter. $FILEPATH . } } close (REJECT_FILE).Appendix II : Codes. &Mail_Filter. } if ($type =~ /address/i){ $badaddresses{$value} = "$type". "mail-filter. chomp($FROM.log". (). # # Get the bad subjects / address # if ($type =~ /subject/i){ $badsubjects{$value} = "$type". study $TO. # # Read in the configuration files # open (REJECT_FILE. $ITEM->subject(). study $SUBJECT. "$REJECT_FILE").reject". $ITEM->to().accept". "". $TO. $FILEPATH . . (). $type) = &Strip_Record($record). chomp($DATE = `date '+ %m/%d/%Y %H:%M:%S'`). $CC. #################### Don't edit below here ################### $ITEM $FROM $TO $CC $SUBJECT $DATE $INBOX_LOG $ACCEPT_FILE $REJECT_FILE = = = = = = = = Mail::Audit->new. my ($value. sub Mail_Filter { my my my my %badsubjects %badaddresses %goodsubjects %goodaddresses = = = = (). while(<REJECT_FILE>){ my $record = $_.

&Reject_Mail("no"). # # Reject by subject # foreach my $criteria (keys %badsubjects) { next unless $SUBJECT =~ /$criteria/i. } } close (ACCEPT_FILE).300 www. $type) = &Strip_Record($record). "$ACCEPT_FILE"). while(<ACCEPT_FILE>){ my $record = $_. } # # Accept some subject lines # for my $criteria (keys %goodsubjects) { next unless $SUBJECT =~ /$criteria/i. my ($value.linuxhomenetworking. # # Get the good subjects / address # if ($type =~ /subject/i){ $goodsubjects{$value} = "$type". } # # Reject email to/from these addresses # foreach my $criteria (keys %badaddresses) { next unless ($TO =~ /$criteria/i) or ($CC =~ /$criteria/i) or ($FROM =~ /$criteria/i). &Reject_Mail("yes"). &Reject_Mail("yes"). } if ($type =~ /address/i){ $goodaddresses{$value} = "$type".com open (ACCEPT_FILE. } # # Accept emails to/from these addresses # for my $criteria (keys %goodaddresses) { .

Appendix II : Codes. $fields[1]). # # Log message receipt to file # if ($ok =~ /yes/i){ print LOG "REJECT $DATE To: $TO From: $FROM Subject: $SUBJECT\n". return ($person . # # Split out the fields in the record and strip out #leading/trailing white space # chomp $record. ">> $INBOX_LOG"). } else{ return ($fields[1]. open (LOG. } . # # Return the subjects / addresses # if ($fields[0] =~ /subject/i){ return ($fields[1]. } sub Strip_Record{ my $record = shift(@_). my @fields = split(/\:/. "address"). } } } sub Reject_Mail { my $ok = shift(@_)."\@" . $domain) = split(/\@/. $domain. $ITEM->reject.*?)\s*$/$1/. &Reject_Mail("no").$record). } # # Reject everything else # &Reject_Mail("yes"). Scripts and Configurations 301 next unless ($TO =~ /$criteria/i) or ($CC =~ /$criteria/i) or ($FROM =~ /$criteria/i). "address"). "subject"). } elsif ($fields[0] =~ /address/i){ if ($fields[1] =~ /\@/){ my ($person. $fields[1] =~ s/^\s*(.

} close(LOG). } . exit.com else{ print LOG "ACCEPT $DATE To: $TO From: $FROM Subject: $SUBJECT\n".linuxhomenetworking. $ITEM->accept.302 www.

Appendix II : Codes.RELATED -j ACCEPT #=============================================================== #=============================================================== # Select one of the following two #=============================================================== #=============================================================== #--------------------------------------------------------------# FTP connections from your Linux server # Active FTP data connection established back from remote server #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A -m state iptables -A -m state INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp --sport 20 --dport 1024:65535 \ --state NEW -j ACCEPT OUTPUT -o eth0 -p tcp --dport 20 --sport 1024:65535 \ --state ESTABLISHED.RELATED -j ACCEPT #--------------------------------------------------------------# FTP connections from your Linux server # Passive FTP data connection established from your Linux server #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A -m state iptables -A -m state OUTPUT -o eth0 -p tcp --dport 1024:65535 --sport 1024:65535 \ --state NEW -j ACCEPT INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp --sport 1024:65535 --dport 1024:65535 \ --state ESTABLISHED.RELATED -j ACCEPT . Scripts and Configurations 303 IPtables FTP Client # .Interface eth1 is the private network interface modprobe ip_conntrack_ftp #--------------------------------------------------------------# FTP connections from your Linux server # Outbound FTP requests on control connection (port 21) #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A -m state iptables -A -m state OUTPUT-o eth0 -p tcp --sport 1024:65535 --dport 21 \ --state NEW -j ACCEPT INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp --sport 21 --dport 1024:65535 \ --state ESTABLISHED.Interface eth0 is the internet interface # .

RELATED -j ACCEPT #=============================================================== #=============================================================== # Select one of the following two #=============================================================== #=============================================================== #--------------------------------------------------------------# FTP connections to your Linux server # Active FTP data connection established back to client from # your server #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A -m state iptables -A -m state OUTPUT -o eth0 -p tcp --sport 20 --dport 1024:65535 \ --state NEW -j ACCEPT INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp --dport 20 --sport 1024:65535 \ --state ESTABLISHED.Interface eth1 is the private network interface modprobe ip_conntrack_ftp #--------------------------------------------------------------# FTP connections to your Linux server # Inbound FTP requests on control connection (port 21) #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A -m state iptables -A -m state INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp --dport 21 --sport 1024:65535 \ --state NEW -j ACCEPT OUTPUT-o eth0 -p tcp --dport 1024:65535 --sport 21 \ --state ESTABLISHED.Interface eth0 is the internet interface # .304 www.com IPtables FTP Server # .RELATED -j ACCEPT .RELATED -j ACCEPT #--------------------------------------------------------------# FTP connections to your Linux server # Passive FTP data connection established to your Linux server # from remote client #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A -m state iptables -A -m state INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp --sport 1024:65535 --dport 1024:65535 \ --state NEW -j ACCEPT OUTPUT -o eth0 -p tcp --dport 1024:65535 --sport 1024:65535 \ --state ESTABLISHED.linuxhomenetworking.

0/24" address space # Internet-connected interface # Interface connected to the # your IP address # ISP network segment base # network segment broadcast # NOC subnet that monitors the # Test webserver for port # Protected internal network .7.168.Appendix II : Codes. and web servers running on a firewall used as \ # the Internet NAT gateway for a home network # modprobe ip_conntrack_ftp modprobe iptable_nat #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#= # # The variables in this section are site specific and should be # changed to match your network # #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#= EXTERNAL_INT="eth1" INTERNAL_INT="eth0" private network EXTERNAL_IP="97.101" forwarding and masquerading INTERNAL_NET="192.1.158.168. Scripts and Configurations 305 IPtables NTP Server # .Interface eth0 is the internet interface # .158.Interface eth1 is the private network interface iptables -A OUTPUT -o eth0 -p udp -m multiport --ports 123 \ -j ACCEPT iptables -A INPUT -i eth0 -p udp -m multiport --ports 123 \ -j ACCEPT IPtables Complex script #!/bin/bash # # DNS.158.25" EXTERNAL_SUBNET_BASE="97.168.253.255" address NOC_SUBNET="180. mail.253.253.0" address EXTERNAL_SUBNET_BROADCAST="97.0/24" firewall with pings WEBSERVER="192.1.

0.81.0.38.60.0/4" RESERVED_IP_FUTURE="240.0/8" networks RESERVED_IP_MULTICAST="224.306 www.0.linuxhomenetworking.113" server # address of a remote time # address of a remote time # address of a remote time #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#= # # The variables below should not normally be changed as they # are not site specific # #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#= LOOPBACK="127.0.0/16" RESERVED_IP_172_SPACE="172.0.0/5" use HIGH_PORTS="1024:65535" clients using servers # reserved loopback address range # class C private networks # RFC1918 172 space B private # RFC1918 10 space private # Multicast addresses # IP addresses reserved for future # High TCP/UDP ports used by #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#= # # Define the names of the user defined chains we'll be using # #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#= ADDITIONAL_CHAINS="INPUT-external OUTPUT-icmp-external local-tcp-client local-ntp-client valid-tcp-flags valid-source-address LOG-and-drop" OUTPUT-external \ INPUT-icmp-external \ remote-tcp-client \ remote-ntp-server \ established-connection \ valid-destination-address \ #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#= # # Prepare Chains .6.168.206" server TIME_SERVER3="207.0.200.0.127" server TIME_SERVER2="65.203.0/8" RESERVED_IP_192_SPACE="192.Clear and recreate existing chains prior to # adding rules to the chains # #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#= .16.0.0/12" networks RESERVED_IP_10_SPACE="10.com TIME_SERVER1="192.0.0.

then # The policy should be to drop it #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables iptables iptables iptables iptables --policy INPUT DROP --policy OUTPUT DROP --policy FORWARD DROP -t nat --policy POSTROUTING ACCEPT -t nat --policy PREROUTING ACCEPT #--------------------------------------------------------------# The loopback interface should accept all traffic #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT iptables -A OUTPUT -o lo -j ACCEPT #--------------------------------------------------------------# Re-create our user-defined chains #--------------------------------------------------------------for i in $ADDITIONAL_CHAINS.Appendix II : Codes. Scripts and Configurations 307 #--------------------------------------------------------------# Delete all entries in the built-in tables. # We'll recreate them in the next step #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables iptables iptables iptables --delete-chain -t filter --delete-chain -t nat --delete-chain -t mangle --delete-chain #--------------------------------------------------------------# If a packet doesn't match one of the built in chains. do iptables -N $i . #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables iptables iptables iptables --flush -t filter --flush -t nat --flush -t mangle --flush #--------------------------------------------------------------# Delete all the user defined chains.

com done #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# # # TCP Rules .22. initiated from local machine to # remote server #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A local-tcp-client -p tcp --dport $HIGH_PORTS \ --syn -m state --state NEW -j ACCEPT #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# # # TCP Rules .Port 113 # FTP control .113 \ --syn -m state --state NEW -j ACCEPT #--------------------------------------------------------------# Passive FTP data.Port 21 #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A local-tcp-client -p tcp \ -m multiport --dport 25.Port 25 # SSH .Port 22 # AUTH (ident) .Remote machines initiating connections to # local server # # TCP responses from the local server are handled # by the established-connection chain # .Local machine initiating connections to a # remote server # # TCP responses from the remote server are handled # by the established-connection chain # #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# iptables -A OUTPUT-external -p tcp --sport $HIGH_PORTS \ -j local-tcp-client #--------------------------------------------------------------# Local client rules for: # # SMTP .308 www.21.linuxhomenetworking.

53.Port 22 # POP mail .Port 25 # SSH .Port 21 #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A remote-tcp-client -p tcp -m state --state NEW \ -m multiport --dports 80.Port 113 # FTP control .Source and Destination port the same (123) #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A OUTPUT-external -p udp -m multiport --ports 123 \ -j local-ntp-client iptables -A INPUT-external -p udp -m multiport --ports 123 \ -j remote-ntp-server iptables -A local-ntp-client -p udp -d $TIME_SERVER1 \ -j ACCEPT iptables -A local-ntp-client -p udp -d $TIME_SERVER2 \ -j ACCEPT iptables -A local-ntp-client -p udp -d $TIME_SERVER3 \ .22.Appendix II : Codes.Port 80 # HTTPS .Port 53 # AUTH (ident) .Port 110 # DNS .25.21. Scripts and Configurations 309 #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# iptables -A INPUT-external -p tcp --sport $HIGH_PORTS \ -j remote-tcp-client #--------------------------------------------------------------# Local server rules for: # # HTTP (www) .Port 443 # SMTP .110 \ -j ACCEPT #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# # # UDP Rules # #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# #--------------------------------------------------------------# NTP time client .443.

linuxhomenetworking.310 www.com -j ACCEPT iptables -A remote-ntp-server -p udp -s $TIME_SERVER1 \ -j ACCEPT iptables -A remote-ntp-server -p udp -s $TIME_SERVER2 \ -j ACCEPT iptables -A remote-ntp-server -p udp -s $TIME_SERVER3 \ -j ACCEPT #--------------------------------------------------------------# DNS server to DNS server queries via UDP #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A OUTPUT-external -p udp -m multiport --ports 53 \ -j ACCEPT iptables -A INPUT-external -p udp -m multiport --ports 53 \ -j ACCEPT #--------------------------------------------------------------# Remote DNS clients querying local DNS server via UDP #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A INPUT-external -p udp --sport $HIGH_PORTS --dport 53 \ -j ACCEPT iptables -A OUTPUT-external -p udp --sport 53 --dport $HIGH_PORTS \ -j ACCEPT #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# # # Port forwarding statements # # (FORWARD statements related to ESTABLISHED and RELATED traffic # is covered in the CORE Chains section) # #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# #--------------------------------------------------------------# Allow port forwarding on port 8080 to port 80 on server $WEBSERVER #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -p tcp -i $EXTERNAL_INT -d $EXTERNAL_IP \ .

Scripts and Configurations 311 --dport 8080 --sport 1024:65535 -j DNAT --to $WEBSERVER:80 #--------------------------------------------------------------# After DNAT. # Connections on port 80 to the target machine on the private # network must be allowed. They include not responding to packets with # the following bad characteristics: # # 1) Incorrect TCP flags in the header # 2) Attempts to connect or respond to bogus IP addresses # 3) Attempts to connect or respond to applications not suitable # for use over the Internet # # All the user defined chains are also tied to the built in # INPUT and OUTPUT chains in this section # #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# #=# #=# #=# CORE Chains . #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A FORWARD -p tcp -i $EXTERNAL_INT -o $INTERNAL_INT -d $WEBSERVER \ --dport 80 --sport 1024:65535 -m state --state NEW -j ACCEPT #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# # # Rules in the section below should not normally be changed # for most firewalls.Appendix II : Codes. the packets are routed via the filter table's FORWARD chain.Start #=# #=# #=# #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# # # Install the User-defined Chains on the built-in # INPUT and OUTPUT chains # .

linuxhomenetworking.com #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# #--------------------------------------------------------------# Check TCP packets for invalid state flag combinations #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -j valid-tcp-flags iptables -A OUTPUT -p tcp -j valid-tcp-flags #--------------------------------------------------------------# Verify valid source and destination addresses for all packets #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables iptables iptables iptables -A -A -A -A INPUT -p ! tcp -j valid-source-address INPUT -p tcp --syn -j valid-source-address INPUT -j valid-destination-address OUTPUT -j valid-destination-address #--------------------------------------------------------------# Already established connections should be allowed #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A INPUT -j established-connection iptables -A OUTPUT -j established-connection #--------------------------------------------------------------# Start the protocol specific rules #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A INPUT -i $EXTERNAL_INT -d $EXTERNAL_IP -j INPUT-external iptables -A OUTPUT -o $EXTERNAL_INT -s $EXTERNAL_IP -j OUTPUT-external #--------------------------------------------------------------# Allow all bidirectional traffic from your firewall to the protected network #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A INPUT -j ACCEPT -p all -s $INTERNAL_NET -i $INTERNAL_INT iptables -A OUTPUT -j ACCEPT -p all -d $INTERNAL_NET -o $INTERNAL_INT #--------------------------------------------------------------# Allow masquerading # Enable routing by modifying the ip_forward /proc filesystem file #--------------------------------------------------------------- .312 www.

Scripts and Configurations 313 iptables -A POSTROUTING -t nat -o $EXTERNAL_INT -s $INTERNAL_NET \ -d 0/0 -j MASQUERADE echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward #--------------------------------------------------------------# Prior to masquerading. established and related connections # Allowed inbound : Established and related connections # # These statements handle both FORWARD-ing for both MASQUERADE # and port forwarding # #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A FORWARD -t filter -i $INTERNAL_INT -m state \ --state NEW.ESTABLISHED. # Allowed outbound: New.RELATED -j ACCEPT #--------------------------------------------------------------# Log all other packets.Appendix II : Codes. the packets are routed via the filter # table's FORWARD chain.RELATED -j ACCEPT iptables -A FORWARD -t filter -i $EXTERNAL_INT -m state \ --state ESTABLISHED. The default policy will also drop them #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A INPUT -j LOG-and-drop iptables -A OUTPUT -j LOG-and-drop #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# #=# #=# #=# CORE Chains .Stop #=# #=# #=# #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# # # Check for incorrect TCP state flags # # # All state bits zeroed .

0.RST -j LOG-and-A valid-tcp-flags -p tcp --tcp-flags FIN.2.FIN FIN -j LOG-and-drop ACK.FIN SYN.com # FIN set ACK cleared # PSH set ACK cleared # URG set ACK cleared # SYN and FIN set # SYN and RST set # FIN and RST set # #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# iptables iptables iptables iptables iptables drop iptables drop iptables drop -A -A -A -A -A valid-tcp-flags valid-tcp-flags valid-tcp-flags valid-tcp-flags valid-tcp-flags -p -p -p -p -p tcp tcp tcp tcp tcp --tcp-flags --tcp-flags --tcp-flags --tcp-flags --tcp-flags ALL NONE -j LOG-and-drop ACK.0.RST -j LOG-and- #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# # # Source and Destination Address Sanity Checks # # Drop packets from networks covered in RFC 1918 (private nets) # Drop packets from external interface IP # Drop directed broadcast packets # #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# iptables iptables iptables iptables iptables iptables iptables iptables iptables iptables iptables -A -A -A -A -A -A -A -A -A -A -A valid-source-address valid-source-address valid-source-address valid-source-address valid-source-address valid-source-address valid-source-address valid-source-address valid-source-address valid-source-address valid-source-address -s -s -s -s -s -s -s -d -s -s -s $RESERVED_IP_10_SPACE -j DROP $RESERVED_IP_172_SPACE -j DROP $RESERVED_IP_192_SPACE -j DROP $RESERVED_IP_MULTICAST -j DROP $RESERVED_IP_FUTURE -j DROP $LOOPBACK -j DROP 0.URG URG -j LOG-and-drop SYN.PSH PSH -j LOG-and-drop ACK.0/24 -j DROP $EXTERNAL_IP -j DROP iptables -A valid-destination-address -d $EXTERNAL_SUBNET_BASE -j DROP iptables -A valid-destination-address -d $EXTERNAL_SUBNET_BROADCAST -j DROP iptables -A valid-destination-address -d $RESERVED_IP_MULTICAST -j DROP .linuxhomenetworking.RST SYN.254.314 www.0/8 -j DROP 255.255.0.0.255 -j DROP 169.FIN -j LOG-and- -A valid-tcp-flags -p tcp --tcp-flags SYN.RST FIN.0/16 -j DROP 192.255.

Appendix II : Codes.Destination unreachable .Parameter problem # .Time exceeded # .Fragmentation needed # .Source quench # . Scripts and Configurations 315 #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# # # ICMP # #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# iptables -A INPUT-external -p icmp -j INPUT-icmp-external iptables -A OUTPUT-external -p icmp -j OUTPUT-icmp-external #--------------------------------------------------------------# Drop fragmented ICMP packets #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A INPUT-icmp-external --fragment -j LOG-and-drop iptables -A OUTPUT-icmp-external --fragment -j LOG-and-drop #--------------------------------------------------------------# Allow outbound pings #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A OUTPUT-icmp-external -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request \ -m state --state NEW -j ACCEPT iptables -A INPUT-icmp-external -p icmp --icmp-type echo-reply -j ACCEPT #--------------------------------------------------------------# Allow inbound pings from the NOC #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A INPUT-icmp-external -p icmp -s $NOC_SUBNET \ --icmp-type echo-request -m state --state NEW \ -j ACCEPT iptables -A OUTPUT-icmp-external -p icmp --icmp-type echo-reply \ -d $NOC_SUBNET -j ACCEPT #--------------------------------------------------------------# Accept the following ICMP Messages # # .

com #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A unreachable iptables -A ACCEPT iptables -A ACCEPT iptables -A ACCEPT iptables -A ACCEPT iptables -A -j ACCEPT iptables -A ACCEPT INPUT-icmp-external -p icmp --icmp-type destination-j ACCEPT INPUT-icmp-external -p icmp --icmp-type parameter-problem -j INPUT-icmp-external -p icmp --icmp-type time-exceeded -j INPUT-icmp-external -p icmp --icmp-type source-quench -j OUTPUT-icmp-external -p icmp --icmp-type source-quench -j OUTPUT-icmp-external -p icmp --icmp-type fragmentation-needed OUTPUT-icmp-external -p icmp --icmp-type parameter-problem -j #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# # # Log and drop chain # #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# iptables -A LOG-and-drop -j LOG --log-ip-options --log-tcp-options \ --log-level debug iptables -A LOG-and-drop -j DROP #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# # # Already ESTABLISHED connections accepted # #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# iptables -A established-connection -m state \ --state ESTABLISHED.RELATED -j ACCEPT iptables -A established-connection -m state --state INVALID \ -j LOG-and-drop #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# # # OS supplied protection # #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# #--------------------------------------------------------------- .316 www.linuxhomenetworking.

not another. Helps to maintain state # Also protects against IP spoofing #--------------------------------------------------------------echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/rp_filter #--------------------------------------------------------------# Enable logging of packets with malformed IP addresses #--------------------------------------------------------------echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/log_martians #--------------------------------------------------------------# Disable redirects #--------------------------------------------------------------echo 0 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/send_redirects #--------------------------------------------------------------# Disable source routed packets #--------------------------------------------------------------echo 0 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/accept_source_route #--------------------------------------------------------------# Disable acceptance of ICMP redirects #--------------------------------------------------------------echo 0 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/accept_redirects #--------------------------------------------------------------# Turn on protection from Denial of Service (DOS) attacks #--------------------------------------------------------------echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_syncookies #--------------------------------------------------------------# Disable responding to ping broadcasts #--------------------------------------------------------------echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts .Appendix II : Codes. Respond to queries out # the same interface. Scripts and Configurations 317 # Disable routing triangulation.

318 www.linuxhomenetworking.com exit 0 .

com . The full zone file . Scripts and Configurations 319 DNS Zone File For my-site. . .158. seconds 3600 ) .com.com. Inet Address of name server my-site.Appendix II : Codes. expire. seconds 3600 . NS www . seconds 3600 .com. The full zone file .0. ( 200211151 . hostmaster.0.com. minimum. Zone file for my-site. . retry. ( 200211152 .my-other-site.com . seconds . localhost www mail MX 10 mail . Zone file for my-other-site. seconds 3600 ) . . expire. seconds 3600 . .1 97.my-site.com .26 www DNS Zone File For my-other-site.com. . Inet Address of name server . $TTL 3D @ IN SOA www. todays date + todays serial # 3600 . serial.my-othersite. retry. refresh.com .253. Primary Mail Exchanger A A CNAME 127. todays date + todays serial # 3600 . $TTL 3D @ IN SOA www. seconds 3600 .my-site. hostmaster. NS www . refresh. minimum. serial. seconds .

The full zone file .1 97.com. seconds .1.1.com my-other-site.100. minimum. you could access it as mail.26 Forward Zone File For A Home Network Using NAT Here is an example for a zone file for my-site-internal. expire. seconds 3600 .168.168. .0. For mail. Primary Mail Exchanger A A 127. hostmaster. localhost www MX 10 mail. Zone file for my-site-internal.1 www mail CNAME CNAME bigboy bigboy Reverse Zone File For A Home Network Using NAT .com. . .100 smallfry A 192.320 www.com. NS www .1 bigboy A 192.253. refresh.com.0.com .102 firewall A 192.168.168.my-site-internal.my-site-internal.my-site-internal.1.com. There is also an entry for one of the home PCs named smallfry which you can now additionally access as smallfry.1.my-siteinternal. ( 200211152 .com.158.my-site. $TTL 3D @ IN SOA www. seconds 3600 .com in which we can also access bigboy as bigboy. .my-site-internal. Inet Address of name server . As server bigboy is also a mail and web server we have also added CNAMEs so that you can access 192.100 by one of two aliases depending on the role you wish it to play. serial# 3600 . .linuxhomenetworking.0. retry. . seconds 3600 ) . .0.my-site-internal.168.com which maps to 192.com and for web applications you could access it as www. localhost A 127.1.

. ( 200210023 .1.my-site-internal. refresh. serial number 8H .168. . seconds 1D ) . seconds 2H .168. retry. Zone file for 192. seconds . seconds 4W . smallfry.X network using the same principles you used for a public network.my-site-internal. firewall. . Inet Address .my-site-internal. minimum.com. hostmaster. 100 102 1 PTR PTR PTR bigboy.Appendix II : Codes.my-site-internal.my-site-internal.com. Scripts and Configurations 321 You can also create a reverse zone file for the home network on the 192.com.com.1.com.x . Now you’ll get correct responses for both forward and reverse lookups using the host or nslookup commands. NS www . expire. $TTL 3D @ IN SOA www.

2 (Berkeley) 3/5/94 Aliases in this file will NOT be expanded in the header from Mail.cf file for a description # of the format of this file. but WILL be visible over networks or from /bin/mail.1 RELAY # # Relay messages from the local subnet 192.cf is part of the sendmail-doc # package.0.. (search for access_db in that file) # The /usr/share/doc/sendmail/README. bin: root daemon: root adm: root lp: root sync: root shutdown: root halt: root . # # by default we allow relaying from localhost.0. mailer-daemon: postmaster postmaster: root # General redirections for pseudo accounts.localdomain RELAY localhost RELAY 127. >>>>>>>>>> >> NOTE >> >>>>>>>>>> The program "newaliases" must be run after this file is updated for any changes to show through to sendmail.322 www.com Sendmail Sample /etc/mail/access File # Check the /usr/share/doc/sendmail/README. localhost.linuxhomenetworking. # Basic system aliases -.these MUST be present..168 RELAY Sendmail Sample /etc/aliases File # # # # # # # # # # @(#)aliases 8.

# my-site.com www.com .com Sendmail Sample /etc/mail/local-host-names File # local-host-names .com mail.my-site.include all aliases for your machine here.my-site. Scripts and Configurations 323 mail: news: uucp: operator: games: gopher: ftp: nobody: apache: named: xfs: gdm: mailnull: postgres: squid: rpcuser: root rpc: ingres: system: toor: manager: root dumper: abuse: newsadm: news newsadmin: usenet: ftpadm: ftpadmin: ftp-adm: ftp ftp-admin: root root root root root root root root root root root root root root root root root root root root root news news ftp ftp ftp # trap decode to catch security attacks decode: root # Person who should get root's mail root: t689ndtw@my-site.Appendix II : Codes.

`/etc/mail/userdb.com ns. `2000000')dnl define(`confUSERDB_SPEC'. `A')dnl dnl TRUST_AUTH_MECH(`EXTERNAL DIGEST-MD5 CRAM-MD5 LOGIN PLAIN')dnl dnl define(`confAUTH_MECHANISMS'.pem') dnl define(`confSERVER_KEY'.your.mc File divert(-1) dnl This is the sendmail macro config file.cf dnl include(`/usr/share/sendmail-cf/m4/cf.novrfy.true)dnl define(`confDONT_PROBE_INTERFACES'.noexpn.linuxhomenetworking.cf by running the following command: dnl dnl m4 /etc/mail/sendmail. `EXTERNAL GSSAPI DIGEST-MD5 CRAM-MD5 LOGIN PLAIN')dnl dnl define(`confCACERT_PATH'.``8:12'')dnl undefine(`UUCP_RELAY')dnl undefine(`BITNET_RELAY')dnl dnl define(`confAUTO_REBUILD')dnl define(`confTO_CONNECT'.com mail.crt') dnl define(`confSERVER_CERT'.my-other-site.m4') VERSIONID(`linux setup for Red Hat Linux')dnl OSTYPE(`linux') dnl dnl Uncomment and edit the following line if your mail needs to be sent out dnl through an external mail server: dnl dnl define(`SMART_HOST'.db')dnl define(`confPRIVACY_FLAGS'.324 www.true)dnl define(`PROCMAIL_MAILER_PATH'.`/usr/share/ssl/certs/sendmail.com www.`/usr/share/ssl/certs/ca-bundle. dnl you need the sendmail-cf rpm installed and then have to generate a dnl new /etc/mail/sendmail.com # my-other-site.com Sendmail Sample /etc/mail/sendmail.restrictqrun')dnl define(`confAUTH_OPTIONS'. `/etc/aliases')dnl dnl define(`STATUS_FILE'.`/usr/share/ssl/certs/sendmail.`smtp. If you make changes to this file.`/usr/bin/procmail')dnl define(`ALIAS_FILE'.pem') . `/etc/mail/statistics')dnl define(`UUCP_MAILER_MAX'. `1m')dnl define(`confTRY_NULL_MX_LIST'.`/usr/share/ssl/certs') dnl define(`confCACERT'. `authwarnings.my-site.my-other-site.mc > /etc/mail/sendmail.com ns.my-other-site.provider') define(`confDEF_USER_ID'.

Name=MTA-v6.`dnl')dnl FEATURE(`smrsh'. the laptop and users on computers that do dnl not have 24x7 DNS do need this. dnl FEATURE(`accept_unresolvable_domains')dnl dnl FEATURE(`relay_based_on_MX')dnl .0.db')dnl FEATURE(`virtusertable'. Name=MTA') dnl NOTE: binding both IPv4 and IPv6 daemon to the same port requires dnl a kernel patch dnl DAEMON_OPTIONS(`port=smtp.0.`hash -o /etc/mail/mailertable.1. the user runs over his quota.0.Appendix II : Codes. `4h')dnl dnl define(`confTO_QUEUERETURN'. `18')dnl define(`confTO_IDENT'. Comment this out if you want dnl to accept email over the network.0. Scripts and Configurations 325 dnl define(`confTO_QUEUEWARN'. Family=inet6') dnl We strongly recommend to comment this one out if you want to protect dnl yourself from spam.`hash -T<TMPF> -o /etc/mail/access. `12')dnl dnl define(`confREFUSE_LA'.db')dnl FEATURE(`blacklist_recipients')dnl dnl dnl dnl ***** Customised section 1 start ***** dnl dnl FEATURE(always_add_domain)dnl FEATURE(`masquerade_entire_domain')dnl FEATURE(`masquerade_envelope')dnl FEATURE(`allmasquerade')dnl FEATURE(delay_checks)dnl dnl FEATURE(genericstable.`'.db')dnl FEATURE(redirect)dnl FEATURE(always_add_domain)dnl FEATURE(use_cw_file)dnl FEATURE(use_ct_file)dnl dnl The '-t' option will retry delivery if e. dnl DAEMON_OPTIONS(`Port=smtp. However. FEATURE(local_procmail.Addr=127.Addr=::1.1 dnl and not on any other network devices.g. `5d')dnl dnl define(`confQUEUE_LA'.`procmail -t -Y -a $h -d $u')dnl FEATURE(`access_db'. `0')dnl dnl FEATURE(delay_checks)dnl FEATURE(`no_default_msa'.`hash -o /etc/mail/virtusertable.`/usr/sbin/smrsh')dnl FEATURE(`mailertable'. `hash -o /etc/mail/genericstable')dnl dnl GENERICS_DOMAIN_FILE(`/etc/mail/genericstable')dnl dnl dnl dnl ***** Customised section 1 end ***** dnl dnl dnl EXPOSED_USER(`root')dnl dnl This changes sendmail to only listen on the loopback device 127.

Changes login message define(`confMAX_HEADERS_LENGTH'.com t689ndtw@my-site.')dnl (for everyone else) MASQUERADE_AS(my-site.localdomain dnl dnl dnl ***** Customised section 2 start ***** dnl dnl define(`confPRIVACY_FLAGS'. `$j server ready at $b')dnl .com.linuxhomenetworking.com paul@my-site.16384)dnl dnl MASQUERADE_AS(`my-site.com @my-site.com)dnl (for local machine) dnl dnl dnl ***** Customised section 2 end ***** dnl dnl Sendmail Sample /etc/mail/virtusertable File @my-other-site.com error:nouser User unknown error:nouser User unknown paul paul paul .')dnl (for local machine) MASQUERADE_DOMAIN(`my-site.Limits command usage define(`confSMTP_LOGIN_MSG'.com.`goaway')dnl .com paul@my-other-site.326 www.com MAILER(smtp)dnl MAILER(procmail)dnl dnl Cwlocalhost.

Redirect Datagram for the Host ICMP sender (router) is not the best way to get to the desired host. ICMP sender (router) has been configured to block access to the desired destination network. Source Route Failed ICMP sender can't use the strict or loose source routing path specified in the original packet. ICMP sender is not available for communications at this time. However. Reply contains IP address of best router to destination. . Reply contains IP address of best router to destination. Destination Network Unknown ICMP sender does not have a route entry for the destination network. indicating the host is not available at this time Protocol Unreachable The protocol defined in IP header cannot be forwarded. Destination Host Unknown ICMP sender does not have a host entry. Dynamically adds a network entry in original sender's routing tables. application set the Don't Fragment bit. The sender is using a Type of Service (TOS) that is not available through this router for that specific network. The sender is using a Type of Service (TOS) that is not available through this router for that specific host. Scripts and Configurations 327 ICMP Codes Type 3 Description Destination Unreachable Codes Net Unreachable The sending device knows about the network but believes it is not available at this time. Name ICMP sender (router) has been configured to block access to the desired destination host. indicating this network may never have been an available. Perhaps the network is too far away through the known route. Port Unreachable The sending device does not support the port number you are trying to reach Fragmentation Needed and Don't The router needs to fragment the packet to forward it across Fragment was Set a link that supports a smaller maximum transmission unit (MTU ) size. Precedence value defined in sender's original IP header is not allowed (for example. Redirect Codes Redirect Datagram for the Network ICMP sender (router) is not the best way to get to the (or subnet) desired network. Host Unreachable The sending devices knows about host but doesn't get ARP reply.Appendix II : Codes. using Flash Override precedence). Source Host Isolated Communication with Destination Network is Administratively Prohibited Communication with Destination Host is Administratively Prohibited Destination Network Unreachable for Type of Service Destination Host Unreachable for Type of Service Communication Administratively Prohibited Host Precedence Violation 5 ICMP sender (router) has been configured to not forward packets from source (the old electronic pink slip). indicating the host may never have been available on connected network. Dynamically adds a host entry in original sender's route tables.

328 www. Time Exceeded Codes Time to Live exceeded in Transit ICMP sender (router) indicates that originator's packet arrived with a Time To Live (TTL) of 1.com Type 6 11 12 Name Description Redirect Datagram for Type of the ICMP sender (router) does not offer a path to the Service and Network destination network using the TOS requested.linuxhomenetworking. Redirect Datagram for the Type of ICMP sender (router) does not offer a path to the Service and Host destination host using the TOS requested. Should redirect application to another host. Routers cannot decrement the TTL value to 0 and forward the packet. Alternate Host Address Codes Alternate Address for Host Reply that indicates another host address should be used for the desired service. Bad Length Original packet structure had an invalid length. . Fragment Reassembly Time ICMP sender (destination host) did not receive all fragment Exceeded parts before the expiration (in seconds of holding time) of the TTL value of the first fragment received. Missing a Required Option ICMP sender expected some additional information in the Option field of the original packet. Dynamically adds a host entry in original sender's route tables. Parameter Problem Codes Pointer indicates the error Error is defined in greater detail within the ICMP packet. Dynamically adds a network entry in original sender's route tables.

or else you'll ! never get your default route back ! ip address outside pppoe setroute .outside) tcp interface www 192. Cisco suggests you remove it when troubleshooting ! getting your IP address.1.0 0 0 ! ! Port forwarding setup. ! Substitute your DSL username for "myusername" and your ! password for "*********" ! vpdn group ISP request dialout pppoe vpdn group ISP localname myusername vpdn group ISP ppp authentication pap vpdn username myusername password ********* ! ! Set up the outside. Scripts and Configurations 329 Cisco PIX Firewall .100.0.168.168. Don't forget to put it back.0.168. Internet interface to use the PPPOE protocol ! to get it's IP address and default route.1.Appendix II : Codes.100 www netmask 255.1.255.1.100 snmp-server community password ! ! DSL setup using a generic group called "ISP".168.100 ! (Linux webserver) ! static (inside. The set route command ! is very important. Substitute "password" ! with the real SNMP string (Optional) ! snmp-server host inside 192.0.255.DHCP DSL Configuration ! ! NAT Setup ! global (outside) 1 interface nat (inside) 1 0.255 0 0 ! ! Apply an access list entry to allow www (TCP Port 80)traffic in ! access-group inbound in interface outside access-list inbound permit tcp any any eq www ! ! Enable SNMP queries from 192.0 0. Forward all www traffic to 192.0.

home.253.158.26 access-list inbound permit tcp any host 97.330 www.1.26 pager lines 25 logging on logging timestamp logging trap warnings logging history warnings logging facility 22 logging host inside 192.Static DSL Configuration : Saved : Written by enable_15 at 22:33:57.168.158.253.2(2) nameif ethernet0 outside security0 nameif ethernet1 inside security100 enable password sde0sdD0sGz09COjx encrypted passwd sde0sdD0sGz09COjx encrypted hostname aquapix domain-name stcla1.com fixup protocol ftp 21 fixup protocol http 80 fixup protocol h323 h225 1720 fixup protocol h323 ras 1718-1719 fixup protocol ils 389 fixup protocol rsh 514 fixup protocol rtsp 554 fixup protocol smtp 25 fixup protocol sqlnet 1521 fixup protocol sip 5060 fixup protocol skinny 2000 names access-list inbound permit icmp any any access-list inbound permit tcp any host 97.sfba.100 interface ethernet0 10baset interface ethernet1 10full icmp deny any outside 2002 eq eq eq eq eq www 222 domain domain smtp .255.601 UTC Sat Nov 23 PIX Version 6.255.0 ! ! Setup DHCP autoconfiguration for the outside interface ! dhcpd auto_config outside Cisco PIX Firewall .1 255.linuxhomenetworking.253.158.158.26 access-list inbound permit udp any host 97.26 access-list inbound permit tcp any host 97.158.com ip address inside 192.253.253.168.1.26 access-list inbound permit tcp any host 97.

0.1.1.255.outside) 97.255.255.253.0 0.255.120.100 /aquapix-confg floodguard enable no sysopt route dnat telnet 192.0.221.0.168.168.168.1.255.168.1.Appendix II : Codes.168.253.255.248 0 0 static (inside.168.255.0.168.0 0.99 netmask 255.0.255.255.0 0.255.255.27 192.1.255.255.255.0.255.0.255 0 0 static (inside.0 inside snmp-server host inside 192.110 1 timeout xlate 0:05:00 timeout conn 1:00:00 half-closed 0:10:00 udp 0:02:00 rpc 0:10:00 h323 0:05:00 sip 0:30:00 sip_media 0:02:00 timeout uauth 0:05:00 absolute aaa-server TACACS+ protocol tacacs+ aaa-server RADIUS protocol radius aaa-server LOCAL protocol local filter java 80 0.0 255.0 inside ssh timeout 15 dhcpd address 192.158.0. Scripts and Configurations 331 mtu outside 1500 mtu inside 1500 ip address outside 97.0.0.168.20-192.28 192.25 255.0.100 netmask 255.30 inside dhcpd lease 3600 dhcpd ping_timeout 750 dhcpd auto_config outside terminal width 80 Cryptochecksum:3af43873d35d6f0651f8c999180c2342 .1 255.0 67.96 255.0.255.168.0.255 0 0 static (inside.158.0.0 ntp server 192.100 source inside http server enable http 192.253.0 inside telnet timeout 15 ssh 192.1.100 no snmp-server location no snmp-server contact snmp-server community simiya2002 snmp-server enable traps tftp-server inside 192.0.outside) 97.0 filter activex 80 0.0.1.0.168.0 0.0 ip audit info action alarm ip audit attack action alarm pdm logging informational 100 pdm history enable arp timeout 14400 global (outside) 1 interface nat (inside) 1 192.253.1.0.255 0 0 access-group inbound in interface outside route outside 0.168.0 255.168.158.248 ip address inside 192.1.1.158.1.0 255.168.0 0.0 0.255.26 192.0.101 netmask 255.0 0.outside) 97.255.1.0.1.

com : end .332 www.linuxhomenetworking.

333 Appendix III Bibliography =========================================== In This Chapter Appendix III Bibliography Wireless Linux Cisco Router Configuration Examples Cisco PIX Firewall Configuration Examples Netfilter .linuxhomenetworking. www.Hosting Your Website at Home Static DNS NTP Server POP Mail Server Samba .iptables Configuration General Home Networking Resource Pages SSH Servers and SSH Clients The Windows SCP client called WinSCP FTP Server and FTP Clients DHCP Server Apache Web Server Software Sendmail Mail Configuration Dynamic DNS .Linux as a Windows File Server General Linux Resource Pages Disk Partitioning Network Monitoring My Other Sites © Peter Harrison. .com =========================================== An informal listing of some of the sites I visited to create this manual.

saragossa.nc.html Configuring Cisco 800 series routers Configuring 1700 / 2600 / 3600 series routers Cisco .org/HOWTO/Wireless-HOWTO http://www..htm Configuring Cisco PIX firewalls for DHCP .unixguru.net/LinuxG3/ls-wlan.shtml http://linuxdoc..html http://www.cisco.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/ps1835/products_configuration_guide_chapt er09186a00800ca7b1.cisco.com http://www.html http://www.com Wireless Linux A good reference page (Has GUI screens for PCMCIA type cards) • • • • • http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/routers/ps221/prod_configuration_examples_list.html http://www.334 www.cisco.linuxhomenetworking.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/routers/ps380/prod_configuration_examples_list.us The LDP Wireless LAN Resources for Linux The drivers are here.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/iaabu/pix/pix_62/config/pixclnt.raleigh.hpl.Configuring IPSec Network Security Cisco .linux-wlan. RPM versions of the drivers can be found here Cisco Router Configuration Examples Cisco Systems • • • • http://www.hp.com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/ps1835/products_configuration_guide_chapt er09186a00800ca7b1.com/personal/Jean_Tourrilhes/Linux/ http://www.cisco.com http://www.Configuring IOS IPSec Network Security • Cisco PIX Firewall Configuration Examples Cisco Systems • • http://www.org/ http://prism2.

cisco.cisco.99/icmp09/code.com/en/US/products/sw/secursw/ps2120/products_configuration_guide_chapt er09186a00800eb72a.html http://www.com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/ps1835/products_configuration_guide_chapt er09186a00800ca7b1.org.org/HOWTO/Networking-Overview-HOWTO.html http://www.iptables Configuration Netfilter iptables HOWTO tutorial site • http://www.uk/~sgtatham/putty/ http://www.cisco.html#xtocid3 http://www.cisco.tldp.chiark.org/HOWTO/Net-HOWTO/ http://www.netfilter.com/en/US/products/hw/vpndevc/ps2030/prod_configuration_examples_list.Appendix III : Bibliography 335 Cisco PIX 500 series configuration guides • http://www.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/iaabu/pix/pix_sw/v_62/syslog/index.tldp.ht ml http://www.iana.vandyke.htm http://www.nwconnection.htm#xtocid15 Cisco .greenend.html Linux Networking-HOWTO http://www.cisco.org/documentation/tutorials/blueflux/iptables-tutorial.Configuring PIX IPSec Network Security • Cisco PIX error messages • • Configuring Cisco PIX logging parameters Netfilter .html General Home Networking Resource Pages Linux networking HOWTO • • • • • http://www.Configuring IPSec Network Security • Cisco .com/ SecureCRT homepage (Purchase Required) .org/assignments/port-numbers ICMP codes listing TCP and UDP port assignments SSH Servers and SSH Clients PuTTY homepage (Free) • • http://www.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/iaabu/pix/pix_62/cmdref/gl.com/oct.

cz/eng/ FTP Server and FTP Clients A good site on how to install one of the many Windows GUI FTP clients • • Zen and the Art of FTP: An FTP Tutorial http://www.linuxhomenetworking.html Good page on how to stop SPAM with sendmail .html Linux Magazine's detailed guide • Apache Web Server Software Apache's documents on setting up virtual hosts • • http://httpd.0-Manual/custom-guide/s1-dhcp-configuringserver.com/documents/s=2426/uni1018361705067/0204e.html http://www.com/network_howto/part3/ http://www.apacheweek.com/spam/paper.com/features/vhost Apache week's description of how to do virtual hosting Sendmail Mail Configuration Good sendmail quick setup guide • • http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/linux/RHL-8.vse.unixreview.org/docs/vhosts/examples.apache.brettglass.html http://www.com The Windows SCP client called WinSCP • http://winscp.linux-mag.com/2000-04/networknirvana_05.336 www.neilgunton.htm Perl Script to do Automatic FTP File Copies to Update Your Website DHCP Server RedHat's guide to configuring DHCP • http://www.

0-Manual/ref-guide/s1-email-sendmail.html .org/dynamic/ http://www.cx/proj/ez-ipupdate/ See the README for more information. Mirrored here.technopagan.DDNS Provider dynDNS.edu/~mills/ntp/servers.redhat.com/handbook/sendmail.html http://www.primemail.com/permanentEmailAddress.Appendix III : Bibliography 337 Some more was found here • • • • http://www.org/m4/features.html All you ever need to know about setting up DNS for a home / SOHO environment NTP Server NTP Configurations • http://www.minidns.technopagan.DDNS Provider Ez-ipupdate DDNS Update Script DDclient DDNS Update Script Static DNS What is DNS? • • http://www. MiniDNS.freebsdsystems.net http://www.tldp.Hosting Your Website at Home What is Dynamic DNS (DDNS)? • • • • • http://www.sendmail.net .org/dynamic/ http://www.org .html http://www.html Masquerading explanations Explanation on the difference between email headers and envelopes RedHat's recommendations for configuring sendmail Dynamic DNS .org/HOWTO/DNS-HOWTO.dyndns.org http://gusnet.udel.com/docs/manuals/linux/RHL-8.hml http://www.eecis.

html http://plug.html http://us6.org/docs/connect/csamba6.de/howtos/html/NET-3-HOWTO. by David Lechnyr Simple Windows Workgroup Networking Tutorial SAMBA organization's description of creating a PDC Mandrake's resource page on Samba PDCs Sharing a Windows hard drive from a Linux box (Windows steps to do this) Sharing a Windows hard drive from a Linux box (Linux steps to do this) General Linux Resource Pages Text Terminal HOWTO • http://www.in/pipermail/plug-mail/2002-June/004274.338 www.net/rosko/howto/en/mini/Automount.uoregon.about.rosko.com/community/articles/security/v1.html The Unoffical Samba HOWTO.org/samba/ftp/docs/htmldocs/Samba-PDC-HOWTO.mandrakeuser.html http://playstation2-linux.Linux as a Windows File Server The Samba Project • • • • • • • http://www.org http://hr.com/download/cfyc/HOWTO_setup_samba.html Automount HOWTO with FAQs • • http://home.com POP Mail Server From the creators of the default Redhat POP server • • http://www.com/library/weekly/aa102500c.uni-bayreuth.samba.com/~jemorrow/samba/implementation.htm A very comprehensive guide to sudo .edu/davidrl/samba.org.linuxhomenetworking.samba.washington.html http://unix.openna.html POP server compilation and configuration details Samba .html#toc14 Complete Linux Networking HOWTO http://www.edu/imap/ http://www.linuxpowered.azstarnet.linux.3-xml/imapop.com/archive/howto/Text-Terminal-HOWTO.html http://www.html http://www.

linuxsa.Caribbean Art and Photos • Simiya .html Network Monitoring The MRTG homepage • http://www.org My Other Sites Simiya .org.au/tips/disk-partitioning.Appendix III : Bibliography 339 Disk Partitioning • http://www.mrtg.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful