Linux Home Networking

Grief Relief For The Home And Small Office

Peter Harrison
www.linuxhomenetworking.com
May 3, 2003

To Diana: “Turn off the PC and go to bed”

Copyright
© Peter Harrison 2002-2003, All rights reserved. ISBN 0-9729355-0-9 Unless otherwise stated, the material published within this document is copyright of the author, Peter Harrison. No part of of this document, including page design, interior design, cover design and icons may be reproduced or transmitted in any form, by any means, (electronic, photocopying, recording, or otherwise) without the prior consent of the publisher/author.

Disclaimer – The Website and Manual
While every effort will be made to ensure that the information contained within the is website and manual is accurate and up to date, the author makes no warranty, representation or undertaking whether expressed or implied, nor does it assume any legal liability, whether direct or indirect, or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information.

Disclaimer - Other sites
Hypertext links to sites outside this website are provided as a convenience to users and should not necessarily be construed as an endorsement. Although every care is taken to provide links to suitable material from this site, the nature of the Internet prevents the author from guaranteeing the suitability or accuracy of any of the material that this site may be linked to. Consequently, the author can accept no responsibility for unsuitable or inaccurate material that may be encountered and accepts no liability whether direct or indirect for any loss or damage a person suffers because that person had directly or indirectly relied on any information stored in the hypertext links. Further, the author is not and can not be responsible for the accuracy or legitimacy of information found elsewhere on the Internet and there is therefore no guarantee or warranty that any of the sites listed will be available at any particular time. The author does not guarantee or warrant any services that might be announced - use at your own risk. The author makes no warranty, representation or undertaking whether expressed or implied nor does it assume any legal responsibility for the accuracy, completeness of usefulness of the information in the hypertext links.

Introduction During the “.com” gold rush, I decided to set up a small website dedicated to Caribbean art. The
company I used made it really easy, all I had to do was copy my files to the web server using the username and password they provided. One day at work I overheard some friends saying that they were hosting their websites from home using their DSL line. I suddenly decided to do the same and moved www.simiya.com literally “in-house”. Of course, it wasn’t as easy as they had made it seem. I generally found a majority of Linux resources on the web to be either too detailed or too vague or just inaccurate. There were many excellent articles on specific topics, but they were usually part of a general interest publication, and information on related topics on the site was sometimes hard to find. There just wasn’t a site out there for intermediate Linux home users who wanted to get their feet wet in web hosting, nor did there seem to be any similar sites targeting the poor I.T. people who are told to “get Linux working by tomorrow”. After a few months I decided that no one should have to repeat my pain and I added some technical pages to the site. Soon, www.linuxhomenetworking.com was born. This manual assumes you have a few weeks of Linux experience and understand the basics, such as file management and the use of text editors such as “vi”. This approach was taken in order to keep its focus on the intermediate user who requires a compact guide. It’s ironic to know that in the beginning I learned from the web as I just wasn’t prepared to buy too many Linux books, now I’ve created this manual because web users were constantly asking me to write one. If you like this manual, feel free to visit the site and let me know. Without your encouragement it wouldn’t have happened at all. Peter

..31 How Uninstall RPMs...............................................29 Newer Linux Versions .........................29 Using CDROMs...............................................................................................................................................................26 How To Install The RPMs ........16 How To Delete Users ........................................................................................................29 Using Downloaded Files ........................................................................................................................................................ 15 Who Is The Super User? ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................20 Simple Examples .................................................................................................................................15 How To Change Passwords...............................................................................................................................................................................................24 RPMs Downloaded From Speakeasy ...21 Using syslog To Track All sudo Commands ..................................29 How to Install Source RPMs...................................................................................................................................20 How To Use sudo .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 23 Installing RPM Software ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 19 Using Sudo.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................20 The visudo Command ....................................................................................................................................................................................................23 RPMs On Your Installation CDs ....................26 RedHat......................................................................19 Download and Install The sudo Package ...............................................................20 General Guidelines ..........................................................................................................................................................................................26 Getting RPMs Using Command Line Anonymous FTP .......................................................................................32 Some Necessary Facts About up2date ............................................................................................................................................................24 How to Easily Access CD RPMs With Automount ....................................................................................................................................................................................25 Getting RPMs Using Web Based FTP..................................................15 How To Add Users...................................26 Speakeasy ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................21 Chapter 3 ......................................... 37 ............17 How To Tell The Groups To Which A User Belongs ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................17 Chapter 2 .............................................................31 How To List Installed RPMs ................................................................................................................................ 23 Where To Get Commonly Used RPMs....... 19 What is sudo?......................................................................32 RedHat Up2date .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................20 The /etc/sudoers File ........ 15 Adding Linux Users ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................34 Chapter 4 .........................................24 Downloading RPMS To Your Linux Box..............................................................24 RPMs Downloaded From Redhat.......................................................................................................i Table Of Contents Chapter 1 ..................................................................................................................................................................................30 Older Linux Versions ................................................................................................................

.............49 What is ICMP?.........................................................................................................................................................................................48 What is a TTL? ....................................................................................................51 Calculation Using A Script ......................................40 Use Chkconfig To Get A Listing Of Sendmail's Current Startup Options ..............................50 What Is A Subnet Mask? .......39 Using Virtual Terminals ...........................................................................................................................................38 Get A GUI Console ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................39 Reboot The System ...........................................................................................................44 Pros ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................40 Turn it back on again .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................51 What’s The Range Of Addresses On My Network? ..................45 How To Migrate From An External Provider ..............................................................................................................................................................38 Get A Basic Text Terminal Without Exiting The GUI .........................48 What is TCP?..............................................linuxhomenetworking................................................................................................................................................. 43 Why Host Your Own Site?......................................................................................................................................................................................51 Manual Calculation .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................44 Factors To Consider Before Hosting Yourself ...............39 Halt / Shutdown The System..................41 Chapter 5 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................40 Doublecheck That Sendmail Will Not Startup............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................46 Chapter 6 ................................... 47 Introduction To Networking.........................53 What Is A Router?...............................................55 ....................................................................................52 What Is A Switch?....................................................48 What is UDP? ...................50 How Many Addresses Do I Get With My Mask? ..............................................................................................................................43 Alternatives To Home Web Hosting ......................................................45 Pros ...........37 Determining The Default Boot runlevel....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................44 Small Office Based Websites........................................................................................................................................................................... 43 Network Diagram .........................49 Private IP Addresses ...................................................................................................................................................................49 What Do IP Addresses Look Like?....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................40 Chkconfig Examples.... 47 What Is TCP/IP? ...........................................................................................................................................40 Switch Off Sendmail Starting Up In Levels 3 and 5 ...................................................................50 What Is Localhost? .................52 What Is Duplex? .....................................................44 Home Based Websites......................................................................................................................................................................53 What Is A Gateway?..............................................................................................................................................39 System Shutdown And Rebooting................................................................................................................54 What Is A Route? ..........................................................................................................................................................................48 What are TCP / UDP Ports?........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 37 The RedHat Boot Sequence ......39 Using A GUI Terminal Window .....................................................................54 What Is A Default Gateway? ...........................................................................................................................................52 What Is A Hub? ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................41 Final Tips On chkconfig..............................................54 What Is A NIC?...........................ii www................................39 How To Set Which Programs Run At Each runlevel ....................53 What Is A LAN?................................................................................................................................................................................................................44 Cons.......com The Linux Boot Process ................................................................................................................................45 Cons.................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................63 Syslog Facilities................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 71 How To Configure Your NIC's IP Address .....................................................................................................79 How To Delete A Route ..........68 The /etc/logrotate...................77 Simple Troubleshooting ..........................................................................71 Determining Your IP Address.......................................................................................69 Activating logrotate ............. 71 Linux Networking ...............................65 Configuring the Linux Syslog Server................................................................................................69 The /etc/logrotate................................................................................68 The /etc/logrotate...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................conf ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................57 What Is DNS?...........................................................................63 About syslog .................................................................................................conf File .............................................................................................67 Syslog and Firewalls........................................59 What is FTP? ......................................................................................................................................................71 Changing Your IP Address ...................................67 The /etc/logrotate......................................................................................78 How To Change Your Default Gateway ..............................................................................................................................73 IP Address Assignment For A Direct DSL Connection..................................................60 Search For All Instances Of A Word ......................................................................................................55 What Is A Firewall?.......................................................................................82 Your NIC's /etc/hosts File Format.............................................................................59 Where is Linux Help? .................................................................................................................................................................................................Table Of Contents iii What Is A MAC Address? .................................................................................................................69 Chapter 8 ...........................................................................82 ................................................................59 Anonymous FTP .....................................................73 Multiple IP Addresses On A Single NIC ........................................................................................................64 Activating Changes To The syslog Configuration File............67 Sample contents of /etc/logrotate..................80 How To Convert Your Linux Server Into A Router ......55 What Is ARP? ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................67 Logrotate ..............................................................................................68 The /etc/logrotate.......................................................59 Static or Dynamic DNS? ................................................................72 network-scripts File Formats ........................................................................................60 Chapter 7 ..................................59 Regular FTP............57 How Can I Check The IP Address For A Domain?...................................................................................................................................................d/apache File (For Apache) .........................................................................................................................................79 How Configure Two Gateways ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................65 How To View New Log Entries As They Happen...................................................................................................................................................66 Syslog Configuration and Cisco Network Devices.....74 Some Important Files Created By adsl-setup ................................... 63 Troubleshooting Linux With Syslog...............................................................80 How To View Your Current Routing Table ...........................56 What Is DHCP? ............65 Logging Syslog Messages To A Remote Linux Server .......................................................................................................................56 What Is Port Forwarding With NAT? ......................................................................58 How Do I Get My Own DNS Domain Name? ..................................................................60 Finding General Information On A Command ..d/syslog File (For General System Logging).......................................................................................d Directory........................................................................................................................d/samba File (for SAMBA) ...............56 What Is NAT? ......................................................................................................................81 Configuring Your /etc/hosts File................................... 63 Syslog ....................................................................................................................................................65 Configuring the Linux Client .................

...........................................................................................98 Pre Version 2......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................92 Useful TCPdump Expressions ................................................................................................................................................................................................89 Ping & Traceroute Troubleshooting Example ...............................................98 Linux-WLAN Preparation ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................115 Packet Processing For Data Sent By The Firewall .............Using RPMs ....................................... 111 What Is iptables?.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................87 Possible Traceroute Messages.......................................................... 85 Simple Network Troubleshooting ..........................................................................................................................................................................iv www.....................92 Possible TCPdump Messages ................................................................................................................................................................................104 Simulate a Reboot ........................................................................................99 Determining The OS Version .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7 WMP 11 Card..............................105 Linux-WLAN Encryption For Security ...............................................................................................................90 Possible Reasons For Failed Traceroutes .........................................................................112 Processing For Packets Routed By The Firewall.......................................................................................101 Download And Install The Linux-WLAN TAR File ......98 The WMP 11 Version 2...................................105 PCMCIA Cards ......................100 Linux-WLAN Installation – Using TAR files ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 97 Wireless Linux Compatible NICs ...................................................................99 Installing The Linux-WLAN Drivers ...............108 Troubleshooting Your Wireless LAN ................................................................................88 Always Get A Bidirectional Traceroute ..................104 Configure The New wlan0 Interface.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................97 The Linksys WMP11 NIC and Linux ........................................................................................99 Determining The Kernel Type .........................................................112 How To Get iptables Started ........................................................112 Download And Install The Iptables Package ...........................................................................................105 PCI Cards – Installed Using TAR Files.....................................................................................................................................................101 Install the Kernel Source Files ................................................. 111 Linux Firewalls Using iptables.......85 How To Use "Ping" To Test Network Connectivity ............99 PCMCIA Type Card Specific Information .............................................................................................................................................................................................................103 Post Installation Steps......................93 Chapter 10.................................................................................................................................................................................................................101 Configure The New wlan0 Interface Driver (PCI Cards) ..................................................................linuxhomenetworking............................................................................................................................................................................................................116 Targets And Jumps....102 Configure The New wlan0 Interface Driver (PCMCIA Cards) .............112 Packet Processing In iptables ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................109 Chapter 11...............105 PCI Cards – Installed Using RPMs ....................com Chapter 9 ........................................................................................................86 Using "traceroute" To Test Connectivity.............................................................................105 Check For Interrupt Conflicts......................99 Linux-WLAN Installation ...........................................100 Determining The Kernel Version..................................................7 Card ..............................107 De-activating Encryption .................................................................................................... 97 Linux Wireless Networking..........................................................................................................................................................................117 .......................................................................................................................................................... 85 How To See MAC Addresses .............................91 Viewing Packet Flow With TCPdump ........117 Descriptions Of The Most Commonly Used Targets .........................................................................................................................104 Disable Your Existing Ethernet NIC ....................................................................................................114 Packet Processing For Data Received By The Firewall............................................................................104 Select the Wireless mode and SSID ..............................................................................................

...................................................................................................148 The /etc/vsftpd.......139 Chapter 13..123 Sample iptables Scripts.................121 Using User Defined Chains ..............................................................................................................................TCP Port 21 ....................................................................145 How To Get VSFTP Started ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................127 Port Forwarding Type NAT (DHCP DSL) ..........................................................................................................................................................................119 Common TCP and UDP Match Criteria ...........................................143 Solutions................................................147 FTP Security Issues ........................................................................................128 Static NAT .....................148 FTP Greeting Banner .....................................................................................................................................135 Setting up a TFTP server........................138 Cisco CSS 111000 "Arrowpoints"...................126 Allowing Your Firewall To Access The Internet..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................142 Passive FTP.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................137 Cisco Router ...................................120 Common ICMP (Ping) Match Criteria ...........................................................................121 Common Match Extensions Criteria..............................Table Of Contents v Important Iptables Command Switch Operations..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................134 Setting Up A Telnet Server....................................................................................................................................143 Server Protected By A Firewall Problem .................................................146 Testing To See If VSFTP Is Running...............................................................................................................................................................................146 What Is Anonymous FTP?..............................................................127 Masquerading (Many to One NAT) ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... TFTP and XINETD .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................147 The /etc/vsftpd....................................................................................................................................131 Chapter 12........................................................................................148 Using SCP As Secure Alternative To FTP ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................142 Active FTP................................................................................................................................................................................................................141 FTP Control Channel ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................143 Problems With FTP And Firewalls...............................................................................119 General Iptables Match Criteria ......................144 Solutions..........................124 Basic Initialization.....................................126 Allow Your Home Network To Access The Firewall ....................................................ftpusers File ...................... 141 Linux FTP Server Setup......................................................................................125 Allowing WWW And SSH Access To Your Firewall......................135 What is TFTP?.................................................................................143 Client Protected By A Firewall Problem...........................................148 Anonymous Upload .....................................................134 What is Telnet? ...............................................................................................................................................137 Cisco Switch Running CATOS......... 141 FTP Overview...........................................................................................................................142 FTP Data Channel ................................................144 How To Download And Install The VSFTP Package........138 Using TFTP To Restore Your Router Configuration ...........................................................................................................................149 ...... 133 Telnet .............conf File....................................................................................................................................................................137 Cisco PIX firewall .......................................... 133 Telnet....................................................................................136 Configuring Cisco Devices for TFTP..........................................................................................................................................................................................138 Cisco Local Director..........TCP Port 20....................................................................................................................................124 Allowing DNS Access To Your Firewall ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................135 TFTP ..........................130 Logging & Troubleshooting..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................148 Example #1: ...................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................................................... 173 Sharing Resources With Samba..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................166 Dynamic Creation Of Machine Trust Accounts...............................................................................162 How To Create A Samba PDC Administrator User ...........................170 Domain Groups And Samba .................................................................................................................................155 User “root” Logs In To smallfry As User “peter” .....................................169 Add The Users In Linux...............................................................................................................164 How to Configure a Samba PDC .................................................167 Make Your PC Clients Aware Of Your Samba PDC...............................................................................................................................................................................169 Map The Linux Users To An smbpassword ..................................155 User “root” Logs In To smallfry As User “root”...164 Create Your PC Machine Trusts............................162 Create The Administrator’s User Group and Directories ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................155 Using port 435 ................155 Deactivating Telnet once SSH is installed .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................160 Configuring SWAT .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................171 Delete The Users Using smbpasswd...................154 The etc/ssh/sshd_config File.................................................................................149 Sample Login Session To Test Funtionality.........................................................................................................................................................................154 Using SSH To Login To A Remote Machine .......169 Map A Drive Share..............................................................................................................................................................................157 Copying Files To The Remote Linux Box...............................168 Windows XP................................................................. Linux And Samba ........... 153 Using Secure Shell As A Replacement For Telnet .................................................................................168 How To Add Users To Your Samba Domain ..........................................163 Create An Administrator Domain Password .....................................................167 Windows 95/98/ME ..................................................................... 159 Download and Install Packages........................................................................................160 How To Get SAMBA Started ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................157 Copying Files To The Local Linux Box ..................................... 153 Secure Remote Logins And File Copying...com FTP Users With Only Read Access To A Shared Directory ............164 Make The Administrator One Of The Samba Admin Users...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................171 Chapter 16.............................................................................................................................linuxhomenetworking........155 Using default port 22 ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................150 Chapter 14.................................................162 Create The Administrator User Under Linux..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................155 What You Should Expect To See When You Log In ..................................vi www...................................................................................................................................................................................... 159 Windows.....170 How To Delete Users From Your Samba Domain ...........................................................................................................................................169 Mapping Using “My Computer” ....................................................169 Mapping From The Command Line................................................................................162 The Windows XP Built In Firewall........................................................................................................................................................................................................161 Samba and PC Firewall Software........ 173 ..........................................................166 Manual Creation Of Machine Trust Accounts (NT Only)....................................171 Delete The Users In Linux .........................................168 Windows 2000 .........156 Using SCP as a more secure replacement for FTP...................................................161 Zone Alarm...........................................................................167 Windows NT.............................................................................................................................................................163 Adduser’s Command Switches ................................................................................................153 Testing To See If SSH Is Running ................................................................................164 Create A Samba PDC ...............................157 Chapter 15.........................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................................187 Sample Forward Zone File ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................177 Windows 2000 ............................................185 NS........................................200 ............................................178 Test Your Windows Client Configuration...........................183 Configuring A Caching Nameserver....................184 Configuring named...............................................................176 Map The Directory Using “My Computer”.......................177 Windows 98/ME ...................................................................................................................197 What Is Dynamic DNS? ...........................................................conf File.........................................................................................................173 Adding The Printer To Linux....................................................................................182 When To Use A Regular DNS Server..............................................................................................189 Loading Your New Configuration Files ........................................ 181 Configuring DNS.....................................................................................................................................192 Configure Your Firewall...........198 Dynamic DNS Prerequisites.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................188 Sample Reverse Zone File .. A And CNAME Records ................................................................................194 Chapter 18............................................................................................................................181 When To Use A DNS Caching Nameserver ........................................................................199 Update Your DNS Registration ....................................................................................................................................199 The /etc/ez-ipupdate...........................181 What Is BIND?....................................................................................................................................................................................................................182 The /etc/resolv.........................................................................................................................................199 Installing And Using ez-ipupdate ..............................................................176 Create The Directory And User Group .............................................................. 181 What Is DNS?..................................................................................................................198 Dynamic DNS And NAT Router/Firewalls ........................................................................................................................................................................conf File..........179 Using The smbmount Command Method....................................................................................................................................................177 Windows Drive Sharing With Your SAMBA Server ..................................................................................................................................................................................184 Configuring The Zone Files ...............177 Windows Setup .........................175 Creating Group Shares in SAMBA ............................................................193 DHCP Considerations For DNS.........................................................................................................................................................179 Chapter 17..174 Configure The Printer Driver On The Workstations .........................................................................................189 What You Need To Know About NAT And DNS .....................................................................................................176 Configure The Share In SWAT .........................................185 The SOA Record.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................173 Make Samba Aware Of The Printer ...........................................................conf ........................................................................................178 Prompted For Password Method ........................................................................................................................................... 197 What Is DNS?.......................................................................182 How To Download and Install The BIND Packages ........................................................................................................................................................... 197 Dynamic DNS........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................200 ez-ipupdate And NAT ........................................................................................................................... MX..........................................................192 Fix Your Domain Registration ......................................182 When To Use Dynamic DNS.................................................................................................................................................................................Table Of Contents vii Adding A Printer To A Samba PDC ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................193 How To Migrate Your Website In-House...179 Not Prompted For Password Method....178 Create A ZIP Drive Mount Point On Your Samba Server .....................................................................192 Make Sure Your /etc/hosts File Is Correctly Updated....................................................................................199 Sign Up With A DDNS Provider ................................................................................................................................................................................................................177 Windows XP......................................................184 Configuring A Regular Nameserver .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................182 How To Get BIND Started ..........................................................................................................................................................

........................................................................215 What is MRTG?.223 Errors When Restarting sendmail.........................................................................215 Configuring MRTG .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................0 and Indexmaker.................................................................................................................................................................224 The /etc/mail/sendmail............218 Webalizer .......................................................................................................213 SNMP on a Linux Server ......................................................210 Issues When Upgrading To Apache 2......................................................218 Make Webalizer run in Quiet Mode ..........................................................................202 Testing Port Forwarding..........................................................................................................................................206 Use Wild Cards Sparingly..............................................................................................................com Installing And Using DDclient.......................................................................................................................................................204 General Configuration Steps ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 213 SNMP.........................................................................................................................208 Compression Configuration Example .......................218 What Is Webalizer?................................................................................200 The /etc/ddclient.........206 A Note On Virtual Hosting And DNS ..................................................................................................................................................................................208 Using Data Compression On Web Pages ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................221 Configuring DNS .....................................................................................212 Chapter 20....................................................213 MRTG .............0........................................212 Incompatible /etc/httpd/conf/http.........................205 Disabling SSL – (Not Recommended) .....................................................................218 How To View Your Webalizer Statistics .217 Using MRTG To Monitor Other Subsystems ......................................................................................................................................218 Chapter 21............................................................................................. 203 The Apache Web Server .................................210 How To Protect Web Page Directories With Passwords ......................................................................................................................209 Apache Running On A Server Behind A Firewall.................224 Why Sendmail Only Listens On The Loopback Interface By Default .................................................................................................218 The Webalizer Configuration File ...........................................................................................221 An Overview Of How Sendmail Works .......................................... 213 Monitoring Server Performance .............................................................................................................................202 Chapter 19.............................222 Restart Sendmail After Editing Your Configuration Files ..........................................................................mc File .................................................203 How To Get Apache Started .................................................................................................................201 Testing Your Dynamic DNS ......................................................................................................................................................................................210 File Permissions And Apache ......................................222 Installing And Starting Sendmail.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 221 Configuring Sendmail ........................................................223 Errors With The m4 Command .................................................. 221 Configuring Linux Mail Servers ....................................................................linuxhomenetworking...............................................................................223 Errors With The Newaliases Command.....................................................................................................................224 The /var/log/maillog File ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................204 Named Virtual Hosting ........................ 203 Download and Install The Apache Package ................................................................................................................205 A Note On Virtual Hosting And SSL.....224 .........................conf File.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................216 RedHat Version 8.......................................................................................................................................................215 Download and Install The MRTG Packages .......................................................................................205 IP Based Virtual Hosting ...............................................................213 What is SNMP? ...............................................................................................206 Configuration – Multiple Sites And IP Addresses......................................................................conf files ...........................................................................................................................................viii www..........204 Configuring DNS For Apache............................................................

.........232 An Important Note About The /etc/aliases File ..............................................................................................................................................cf File................................................3 To 8............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 239 Configuring The DHCP Server .........................247 Determining If NTP Is Synchronized Properly .............................................................................230 Which User Should Really Receive The Mail? ........................................................................................................................................................................252 Via The Console Port .................................241 How to get DHCP started .........................................................229 The /etc/mail/local-host-names File.......................................................................................236 How To Configure Your Windows Mail Programs.................................................................................................................Table Of Contents ix Edit /etc/mail/sendmail......................................................................................................................................................................................................246 How To Get NTP Started .......................................248 Configuring Cisco Devices To Use An NTP Server.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................252 ......................................................................................................................................................................226 The /etc/hosts File...........246 The /etc/ntp............................................................................................................................................................................................................................225 Regenerate The sendmail..............................................................249 Chapter 24.......................................243 Error Found When Upgrading From Redhat 7........................mc To Make Sendmail Listen On NICs Too........................................................................................................................ 251 Network Address Translation (NAT) ...............................................................................................................248 Cisco IOS ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................237 How to handle overlapping email addresses....................233 Configuring masquerading......................................................................231 The /etc/aliases File....................................236 Configuring Your POP Mail Server..................................................................231 Simple Mailing Lists Using Aliases..................................... 245 What is NTP?..233 Sendmail Masquerading Explained.............226 A General Guide To Using The sendmail.......................................................................................................240 Upgrading Your DHCP Server ....................................................................249 Firewalls and NTP.........................................................................................................................................248 CAT OS ......................................................................................................................................................................................................227 Symptoms Of A Bad /etc/hosts File................................227 The /etc/mail/relay-domains File..........................................................................................................................245 Download and Install The NTP Package............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 239 Download and Install The DHCP Package ......................................................237 Chapter 22.233 Testing Masquerading.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................mc File.................................................................................................................................234 A Simple PERL Script To Help Stop SPAM...........................................................234 Other Masquerading Notes .....................................................conf File...................................................................................conf File ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................242 Permanent Solution ...239 The /etc/dhcp..............................................................................................................................0...............................235 Configuring Your POP Mail Server....................................................243 Chapter 23........................................................................................................................235 Installing Your POP Mail Server .................................. 245 The NTP Server ........................................230 The /etc/mail/virtusertable file ............................................................242 Modify Your Routes for DHCP on Linux Server ....................................................................................................................... ......................................................................243 Configuring Linux clients to use DHCP .......................................................................................................................242 Temporary solution .......................................................................................225 Restart sendmail to load the new configuration ..............................................................228 The /etc/mail/access File ................................. 251 Configuring Cisco PIX Firewalls..............................................................................................226 Now Make Sure Sendmail Is Listening On All Interfaces.............................................................................................................252 Via Telnet ..............................251 Accessing the PIX command line ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

..............275 Configuration Steps .................................................................................................270 Tunnel mode VPNs........................Static IPs ............................................Static IP ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................277 .273 IKE and ISAKMP.........................................................266 How To Verify That NAT Is Working Correctly ......272 Public key cryptography using RSA encryption...................................................................................................................................271 Authentication methods................................... 269 VPN Terminologies...............................................269 Encryption ...........................................................................................................264 Other NAT Topics ............DHCP...........271 Tunnel mode AH packet format .................................272 Shared keys ..................................................258 Sample Configurations..............................................................................................254 Dynamic DNS Port Forwarding Entries ............................................270 Encapsulating Security Protocol (ESP) .......................................................................... 257 Configuring Cisco DSL Routers ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................258 Via The Console Port ................................................277 Configuration Steps ........................................................................................................................................................................................................linuxhomenetworking..................................................................x www...................................................................................................................................................................................................DHCP.......................................................................................270 Authentication Header (AH)..........................................255 Incoming Connections NAT Configuration .............................................................................................................................255 Outgoing Connections NAT Configuration ............................................................................................270 Transport mode VPNs...........255 Chapter 25...................273 Transforms .................258 Introduction to accessing the router command line .......273 VPN User Authentication Methods For Temporary Connections .................................................271 Internet Key Exchange (IKE)...........................................................272 IKE's role in creating Security Associations ....................................275 Preparing To Go “Headless” ..............................................260 DSL Router With Built-In Modem ........................................271 Encryption methods ..........................266 Commonly Used TCP And UDP Ports..............................270 Transport mode AH / ESP packet format ................................274 Running Linux Without A Monitor ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................275 Make Your Linux Box Emulate A VT100 Dumb Terminal.................................................................................................................................................................................... 257 An Introduction to Network Address Translation (NAT) ....................................................................................................................................273 Types Of Dial Up VPN Authentication .............................................................................................................................270 Transport mode AH packet format ..............266 How To Troubleshoot NAT .................................................................................................................254 Sample PIX configuration: DSL ...............................................................................................................................................com Sample PIX Configuration: DSL ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................271 Tunnel mode AH / ESP packet format.....................................................................................................................260 DSL Router With Built-In Modem ..............................254 How To Get Static IPs For DSL Cheaply .............................................................................................................................................................270 IPSec ........................................................273 Shared keys ...........................................................................................................................269 Authentication ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................253 Configuring PPPoE..............................Static IP ............................................................................................................................................271 IKE authentication methods............................................................................................267 Appendix I ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................258 Via Telnet ................253 NAT Configuration ........................................................................................... 269 Miscellaneous Topics..................................................................................................273 VPN Security And Firewalls...................................................................................262 DSL Router With External Modem ...................................................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................................com .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Static DSL Configuration.....................................................322 Sendmail Sample /etc/mail/local-host-names File ....................................................................................................com ..... 293 Codes..........................................................................................280 Cisco Local Director..................................................................................................................................320 Sendmail Sample /etc/mail/access File .....................................................................................................288 The Seven OSI Layers ...............................284 What Is A Filesystem?.................................................284 What Partitions Are Mandatory?.....................................Table Of Contents xi Syslog Configuration and Cisco Devices ........................................288 TCP/IP Packet Format ................298 IPtables FTP Client....................................322 Sendmail Sample /etc/aliases File .................................................................................................287 What Can I Do When I Run Out Of Disk Space?..330 Appendix III.................................................................................................................................................323 Sendmail Sample /etc/mail/sendmail....................................285 "/".............................................294 Apache File Permissions Script ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................290 Appendix II....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................286 How Much Space Do I Have On My Partitions?........285 /boot .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................280 Cisco PIX Filewalls .........................................................................327 Cisco PIX Firewall ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................296 Sendmail SPAM Filter Script ......................................................334 Cisco Router Configuration Examples...............................................................284 What Is A Partition? ..............................326 ICMP Codes............................................................................280 Cisco Routers ................................................................................................................................285 Some Recommended Partition Sizes .........................................................................................................................................reject File...........................320 Reverse Zone File For A Home Network Using NAT .........................................305 IPtables Complex script .............................285 swap.................................................................................................................................................282 Cisco CSS11000 (Arrowpoints) ......................................................................................mc File ..........................................................................................................287 The OSI Networking Model ....................................................................................................................................................................... Also Known As "root"............conf File ..................................................................................................................................................................................................298 The mail-filter.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................297 The mail-filter...........................................................................................................289 Contents Of The IP Header ...... Scripts and Configurations .................................................................................................................................DHCP DSL Configuration...................................................324 Sendmail Sample /etc/mail/virtusertable File......accept File...................283 Disk Partitioning Explained..........................290 Contents Of The UDP Header ...............................................................................................................289 Contents Of The TCP Header...............................................304 IPtables NTP Server..................................................................329 Cisco PIX Firewall ...........................................................280 Catalyst CAT Switches running CATOS......................................................................................................................305 DNS Zone File For my-site......................................................................................................................................................................................................298 The mail-filter Script......................319 DNS Zone File For my-other-site........................................................282 The Sample Cisco syslog.......................................303 IPtables FTP Server ... 333 Bibliography ....................................................................319 Forward Zone File For A Home Network Using NAT .....334 Cisco PIX Firewall Configuration Examples................334 ..........................................................................................................284 How Linux Links Filesystems And Partitions ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................285 Recommended Sizes For Disk Partitions........................................................................... 333 Wireless Linux ........................... 293 Subnet Calculator Script ..................................

..........339 Network Monitoring.....................337 POP Mail Server ....................................................................335 SSH Servers and SSH Clients.................................................................339 My Other Sites.....................................................................................................................336 DHCP Server ................................................................................................336 Dynamic DNS .....................................................................................................................................................335 The Windows SCP client called WinSCP......................337 Static DNS..................................................................Hosting Your Website at Home ................................xii www.................................................................336 Sendmail Mail Configuration ....................................................................................................................................337 NTP Server ..............................................................................Linux as a Windows File Server .............................................................................................................338 Disk Partitioning .............................................................................................339 ....................linuxhomenetworking..........................................................................................................................................................336 Apache Web Server Software..............................................................iptables Configuration .....................335 General Home Networking Resource Pages.............com Netfilter ............338 Samba .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................338 General Linux Resource Pages ............................................................................................................................................336 FTP Server and FTP Clients .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Table Of Contents xiii .

com .xiv www.linuxhomenetworking.

www. I have included some simple examples to provide a foundation for future chapters. . Who Is The Super User? The super user with unrestricted access to all system resources and files is the user named "root". A more detailed description of the process is beyond the focus of this book. You may use the command “man useradd” to get the help pages on adding users with the useradd command or the “man usermod” to become more familiar with modifying users with the usermod command. read through the steps below before starting: • Arrange your list of users into groups by function. "children" and "soho".linuxhomenetworking.15 Chapter 1 Adding Linux Users =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 1 Adding Linux Users Who Is The Super User? How To Add Users How To Change Passwords How To Delete Users How To Tell The Groups To Which A User Belongs © Peter Harrison. In this example there are three groups "parents".com =========================================== One of the most important activities in administering a Linux box is the addition of users. You will need to log in as user root to add new users to your Linux box How To Add Users Adding users takes some planning.

com Parents Paul Jane • Children Alice Derek Soho Accounts Sales Add the Linux groups to your server: [root@bigboy tmp]# groupadd parents [root@bigboy tmp]# groupadd children [root@bigboy tmp]# groupadd soho • Add the Linux users. [root@bigboy tmp]# ll /home drwxr-xr-x 2 root root drwx-----2 accounts soho drwx-----2 alice children drwx-----2 derek children drwx-----2 jane parents drwx-----2 paul parents drwx-----2 sales soho [root@bigboy tmp]# ll /home 12288 1024 1024 1024 1024 1024 1024 Jul Jul Jul Jul Jul Jul Jul 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 20:04 20:33 20:33 20:33 20:33 20:33 20:33 lost+found accounts alice derek jane paul sales How To Change Passwords You’ll need to create passwords for each account. The directory name will be the same as their user name.16 www. RedHat Linux will create a group with the same name as the user you just created. assign them to their respective groups [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy tmp]# tmp]# tmp]# tmp]# tmp]# tmp]# useradd useradd useradd useradd useradd useradd -g -g -g -g -g -g parents parents children children soho soho paul jane derek alice accounts sales If you don't specify the group with the "-g". • User "root" changing the password for user "paul" [root@bigboy root]# passwd paul Changing password for user paul. You will be prompted once for your old password and twice for the new one.linuxhomenetworking. • Each user's personal directory will be placed in the /home directory. When each new user first logs in. they will be prompted for their new permanent password. This is done with the "passwd" command. New password: Retype new password: .

Chapter 1 : Adding Linux Users 17 passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully. Here is how unprivileged user "paul" would change his own password. [paul@bigboy paul]$ How To Delete Users • The userdel command is used. The "-r" flag removes all the contents of the user's home directory [root@bigboy tmp]# userdel -r paul How To Tell The Groups To Which A User Belongs • Use the "groups" command with the username as the argument [root@bigboy root]# groups paul paul : parents [root@bigboy root]# . maximum of 8 characters) Please use a combination of upper and lower case letters and numbers. [paul@bigboy paul]$ passwd Changing password for paul Old password: your current password Enter the new password (minimum of 5. New password: your new password Re-enter new password: your new password Password changed. [root@bigboy root]# • Users may wish to change their passwords at a future date.

com .18 www.linuxhomenetworking.

What is sudo? • Sudo is a command that allows users defined in the /etc/sudoers configuration file to have temporary root access to run certain privileged commands. here's how.Chapter 1 : Adding Linux Users 19 Chapter 2 Using Sudo =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 2 Using Sudo What is sudo? Download and Install The sudo Package The visudo Command The /etc/sudoers File How To Use sudo Using syslog To Track All sudo Commands © Peter Harrison. • When running the command you will be prompted for your regular password before it is executed.com =========================================== You can give selected users temporary "root" privileges using the "sudo" command. • The command you want to run must first begin with the word "sudo" followed by the regular command syntax. . www.linuxhomenetworking.

"visudo" uses the same commands as the "vi" text editor. It is not recommended that you use any other editor to modify your sudo parameters. If you run out of space on a line.20 www. you can end it with a "\" and continue on the next line. The NOPASSWD keyword provides access without you being prompted for your password Simple Examples o Users "paul" and "mary" have full access to all privileged commands paul. mary ALL=(ALL) ALL . Spaces are considered part of the command. • "visudo" is best run as user "root" The /etc/sudoers File General Guidelines o The /etc/sudoers file has the general format: usernames/group o o o o o o o target-servername = command Groups are the same as user groups and are differentiated from regular users by a % at the beginning The "#" at the beginning of a line signifies a comment line You can have multiple usernames per line separated by commas Multiple commands can be separated by commas too. The keyword "ALL" can mean all usernames. groups. commands and servers.linuxhomenetworking.com • You may run other privileged commands using sudo within a five minute period without being reprompted for a password • All commands run as sudo are logged in the log file /var/log/messages Download and Install The sudo Package Fortunately the package is installed by default by RedHat The visudo Command • "visudo" is the command used to edit the /etc/sudoers configuration file.

PWD=/etc .. [paul@bigboy paul]$ Using syslog To Track All sudo Commands All sudo commands are logged in the log file /var/log/messages. COMMAND=/bin/more sudoers [root@bigboy tmp]# . .. [root@bigboy tmp]# grep sudo /var/log/messages Nov 18 22:50:30 bigboy sudo(pam_unix)[26812]: authentication failure. user "paul" attempts to view the contents of the /etc/sudoers file [paul@bigboy paul]$ more /etc/sudoers /etc/sudoers: Permission denied [paul@bigboy paul]$ • Paul tries again using sudo and his regular user password and is successful [paul@bigboy paul]$ sudo more /etc/sudoers Password: .. . logname=paul uid=0 euid=0 tty=pts/0 ruser= rhost= user=paul Nov 18 22:51:25 bigboy sudo: paul : TTY=pts/0 ... %operator ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL How To Use sudo • In this example.. USER=root . Here is sample output from the above example.Chapter 2 : Using Sudo 21 o Users with a groupid of "operator" has full access to all commands and won't be prompted for a password when doing so.

22 www.com .linuxhomenetworking.

thereby making life easier for the software developer who wrote the package. they more easily installed across a wide variety of Linux flavors. www. and source RPMs for non standard installations.linuxhomenetworking.23 Chapter 3 Installing RPM Software =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 3 Installing RPM Software Where To Get Commonly Used RPMs How to Easily Access CD RPMs With Automount Downloading RPMS To Your Linux Box Getting RPMs Using Web Based FTP Getting RPMs Using Command Line Anonymous FTP How To Install The RPMs How to Install Source RPMs How To List Installed RPMs How Uninstall RPMs RedHat Up2date © Peter Harrison. Where To Get Commonly Used RPMs Here are three commonly used sources for RPMs: .com =========================================== A lot of Linux system software is available using RPM packages for default Linux installs. As the procedure for installing source RPMs involves compiling source code.

See the section about using Automount to easily access your CDROM drive to obtain RPM files. ftp. A good general purpose source is RPMfind.7-33 [root@bigboy tmp]# • You can then ensure that it runs when the system boots using the chkconfig command.com. Always remember to select the RPM that matches your version of Linux http://speakeasy. You can check this using the following commands. RPMs Downloaded From Speakeasy RedHat only has their approved software on their site. If you’re new to FTP. [root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig --level 345 autofs on [root@bigboy tmp]# .net/ How to Easily Access CD RPMs With Automount Using the Linux installation CDs is usually easier. though you run the risk of some of the packages being obsolete due to newer releases on the RedHat website. • Autofs is the package that supports Automount is installed by default with newer versions of RedHat Linux. FTP downloading it’ll be explained later.redhat. RPMs Downloaded From Redhat Advanced searches for all versions of RedHat can be done using this web link: http://www.linuxhomenetworking. don’t worry. This makes the files on it immediately accessible whenever you access it without having to use the "mount" command. This will make your Linux system act more like Windows.html RedHat also has a highly used FTP site.rpmfind.24 www.1.com/apps/download/advanced_search. It is usually simplest to configure your system to Automount your CDROM.redhat. [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -qa | grep autofs autofs-3. start your search in the /pub/redhat/linux/ directory and move down the directory tree.com RPMs On Your Installation CDs This is usually easier than having to download files from a remote website.

Chapter 3 : Installing RPM Software

25

• There are two automount configuration files in /etc, one called auto.master and the other called auto.misc. My auto.master looks like this: /misc /etc/auto.misc --timeout 60

The default version of this file normally has this line commented out so you’ll have to remove the "#" at the beginning of the line for the configuration to take effect when autofs is restarted. The first entry is not the mount point. It's where the set of autofs mount points will be. The second entry is a reference to the default map file /etc/auto.misc and the third option says that the mounted filesystems can try to unmount themselves 60 seconds after use. • You can create mount points for each of your removable devices, "floppy", "cdrom" and "zip" with the following commands. [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy total 3 drwxr-xr-x 2 drwxr-xr-x 2 drwxr-xr-x 2 [root@bigboy tmp]# tmp]# tmp]# tmp]# mkdir /misc/cdrom mkdir /misc/floppy mkdir /misc/zip ll /misc

root root 1024 Nov 10 16:06 cdrom root root 1024 Nov 10 16:06 floppy root root 1024 Nov 10 16:06 zip tmp]#

• Edit your auto.misc file to include the CDROM. It should have an entry like this. cdrom -fstype=iso9660,ro,nosuid,nodev :/dev/cdrom You'll find other entries such as "floppy" and "zip" commented out with a "#". If you need them, just delete the "#". The first column (the "key") is the mount point under directory /misc, so in this case you'll be doing auto mounting when you access /misc/cdrom. • Restart autofs. [root@bigboy /tmp]# /etc/init.d/autofs restart Stopping automount:[ OK ] Starting automount:[ OK ] [root@bigboy /tmp]#

Downloading RPMS To Your Linux Box
For casual searching and installing, I recommend using the http links above. If you are doing industrial strength stuff, then use a real FTP client such as (WSFTP or CuteFTP for GUI) or the command line.

26

www.linuxhomenetworking.com

Getting RPMs Using Web Based FTP
Let’s say you are running RedHat 8.0 and need to download an RPM for the DHCP server.

RedHat
• • • • • • • Use your web browser to go to the RedHat link above Type in dhcp in the search box Click the search button Scroll down for the RPM you need for the DHCP server Click on the appropriate "download" link Click on the FTP link Save the file to Linux box's hard drive

Speakeasy
• • • • • • • Go to the Speakeasy link Type in dhcp in the search box Click the search button Scroll down for the RPM that matches your version of RedHat The right hand column has the links with the actual names of the rpm files Click the link Save the file to Linux box's hard drive

It is best to download RPMs to a directory named "RPM", so you can find them later.

Getting RPMs Using Command Line Anonymous FTP
The Web based method above transparently uses anonymous File Transfer Protocol (FTP). Anonymous FTP allows you to log in and download files from a FTP server using the username “anonymous” and a password that matches your email address. This way anyone can access the data. • Let's try to FTP the SSH package from ftp.redhat.com [root@bigboy tmp]# ftp ftp.redhat.com Trying 66.77.185.38... Connected to ftp.redhat.com (66.77.185.38).

Chapter 3 : Installing RPM Software

27

220 Red Hat FTP server ready. All transfers are logged. Name (ftp.redhat.com:root): anonymous 331 Please specify the password. Password: 230 Login successful. Have fun. Remote system type is UNIX. Using binary mode to transfer files. ftp> ls 227 Entering Passive Mode (66,77,185,38,50,122) 150 Here comes the directory listing. drwxr-xr-x 5 0 0 4096 Jun 09 04:20 pub 226 Directory send OK. ftp> • Let's see the available help commands ftp> help Commands may be abbreviated. Commands are: ! $ account append ascii bell binary bye case cd cdup chmod close cr delete ftp> • The commands you'll most likely use are: FTP Commands Command binary cd dir exit Description Copy files in binary mode Change directory on the FTP server List the names of the files in the current remote directory Bye bye debug dir disconnect exit form get glob hash help idle image lcd ls macdef Mdelete mdir mget mkdir mls mode modtime mput newer nmap nlist ntrans open prompt passive proxy sendport put pwd quit quote recv reget rstatus rhelp rename reset restart rmdir runique send site size status struct system sunique tenex tick trace type user umask verbose ?

28

www.linuxhomenetworking.com

Command get lcd ls mget mput passive put pwd

Description Get a file from the FTP server Change the directory on the local machine Same as dir Same as get, but you can use wildcards like "*" Same as put, but you can use wildcards like "*" Make the file transfer passive mode Put a file from the local machine onto the FTP server Give the directory name on the local machine

• By using the search feature on the website ahead of time, I know that the RedHat 8.0RPMs are located in the pub/redhat/linux/8.0/en/os/i386/RedHat/RPMS directory. ftp> cd pub/redhat/linux/8.0/en/os/i386/RedHat/RPMS 250 Directory successfully changed. ftp> ls open* 227 Entering Passive Mode (66,77,185,38,45,180) 150 Here comes the directory listing. -rw-r--r-- 1 0 0 11191 Sep 03 21:32 open-1.4-16.i386.rpm -rw-r--r-- 1 0 0 2006950 Sep 03 21:32 openh323-1.9.3-4.i386.rpm -rw-r--r-- 1 0 0 256971 Sep 03 21:32 openh323-devel-1.9.3-4.i386.rpm ... ... -rw-r--r-- 1 0 0 217326 Sep 03 21:33 openssh-3.4p1-2.i386.rpm ... ... 226 Directory send OK. ftp> • Get the file we need and place it in the local directory /usr/rpm. Also print "#" hash signs on the screen during the download. ftp> hash Hash mark printing on (1024 bytes/hash mark). ftp> lcd /usr/rpm Local directory now /usr/rpm ftp> ftp> get openssh-3.4p1-2.i386.rpm local: openssh-3.4p1-2.i386.rpm remote: openssh-3.4p1-2.i386.rpm 227 Entering Passive Mode (66,77,185,38,57,102) 150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for openssh-3.4p1-2.i386.rpm (217326 bytes). ##################################################################### #####################################################################

Chapter 3 : Installing RPM Software

29

#################################################################### 226 File send OK. 217326 bytes received in 87.7 secs (2.4 Kbytes/sec) ftp> • Bye bye ftp> exit 221 Goodbye. [root@bigboy tmp]#

How To Install The RPMs
Using Downloaded Files
• • Download the source RPMs which usually have a file extension ending with (.rpm) into a temporary directory such as /tmp As user root, issue the following command: [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh filename.rpm

Using CDROMs
• Insert the CDROM and check the files in /misc/cdrom/RedHat/RPMS [root@bigboy tmp]# cd /misc/cdrom/RedHat/RPMS [root@bigboy RPMS]# ls filename* filename.rpm [root@bigboy RPMS]# rpm -Uvh filename.rpm • When finished, eject the CDROM [root@bigboy RPMS]# cd /tmp [root@bigboy tmp]# eject cdrom [root@bigboy tmp]#

How to Install Source RPMs
Sometimes the packages you want to install need to be compiled in order to match your kernel version. This requires you to use source RPM files. • Download the source RPMs or locate them on your CD collection. They usually have a file extension ending with (.src.rpm)

30

www.linuxhomenetworking.com

• Run the following commands as root:

Newer Linux Versions
Compiling and installing source RPMs with newer RedHat Linux versions can be done simply with the rpmbuild command

[root@bigboy tmp]# rpmbuild --rebuild filename.src.rpm

o

Here is an example in which we install the tacacs plus package. [root@bigboy rpm]# rpmbuild --rebuild tac_plus-4.0.3-2.src.rpm Installing tac_plus-4.0.3-2.src.rpm Executing(%prep): /bin/sh -e /var/tmp/rpm-tmp.61594 + umask 022 + cd /usr/src/redhat/BUILD + cd /usr/src/redhat/BUILD + rm -rf tac_plus-4.0.3 + /usr/bin/gzip -dc /usr/src/redhat/SOURCES/tac_plus-4.0.3.tgz + tar -xvvf drwxr-xr-x nsen/25 0 1999-08-04 00:33:15 tac_plus-4.0.3/ -rw-r----- root/root 9029 1999-04-02 22:03:45 tac_plus4.0.3/CHANGES ... ... ... ... ... ... Checking for unpackaged file(s): /usr/lib/rpm/check-files /var/tmp/tacacsd Wrote: /usr/src/redhat/RPMS/i386/tac_plus-4.0.3-2.i386.rpm Executing(%clean): /bin/sh -e /var/tmp/rpm-tmp.60207 + umask 022 + cd /usr/src/redhat/BUILD + cd tac_plus-4.0.3 + rm -rf /var/tmp/tacacsd + exit 0 Executing(--clean): /bin/sh -e /var/tmp/rpm-tmp.60207 + umask 022 + cd /usr/src/redhat/BUILD + rm -rf tac_plus-4.0.3 + exit 0 [root@bigboy rpm]#

o

Here we see that the regular RPM file, not the source RPM, has been installed correctly. [root@bigboy rpm]# rpm -qa | grep tac_plus tac_plus-4.0.3-2 [root@bigboy rpm]#

4p1-2 openssh-3.4p1-2 openssh-clients-3.4.2-7 audiofile-0. o o The source files are first exported into the directory /usr/src/redhat/SPECS with the rpm command.0.rpm SPECS]# cd /usr/src/redhat/SPECS SPECS]# rpm –ba filename tmp]# cd /usr/src/redhat/RPM/i386 i386]# rpm -Uvh filename. In this example we are looking for all packages containing the string “ssh” in the name.Chapter 3 : Installing RPM Software 31 Older Linux Versions The process is more complicated with older RedHat Linux versions as can be seen below.3-3 … … … [root@bigboy tmp]# • You can also pipe the output of this command through the grep command if you are interested in only a specific package. regardless of case (“-i” meaning ignore case) [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -qa | grep -i ssh openssh-server-3.14-15 smpeg-gtv-0. You then have to install the new RPM file from this directory. [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh filename.2.4p1-2 openssh-askpass-3. You then have to run the rpm command again to compile the source files into a regular RPM file which will be placed in either the /usr/src/packages/RPMS/i386/ or the /usr/src/redhat/RPMS/i386/ directories.27-9 libstdc++-3.src.4p1-2 [root@bigboy tmp]# .4p1-2 openssh-askpass-gnome-3.rpm o How To List Installed RPMs • The rpm –qa command will list all the packages installed on your system [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm –qa perl-Storable-1.4-9 e2fsprogs-1.

public key.32 www. depslist [] … … … Enter number of item to edit <return to exit. [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm –e package-name RedHat Up2date RedHat has a program called up2date which will update your Linux installation with the latest revisions of the RPMs from the RedHat website via a HTTPS/SSL connection running in the background. [root@bigboy tmp]# up2date 0. Here’s what to do: • After installing the operating system issue the up2date command. The package name given must match that listed in the rpm –qa command as the version of the package is important. Your Update Agent options specify that you want to use GPG. you will be unable to verify that packages Update Agent downloads are securely signed by Red Hat.com How Uninstall RPMs • The rpm –e command will erase an installed package. To install the key. debug No 1. Inc. run the following as root: rpm --import /usr/share/rhn/RPM-GPG-KEY [root@bigboy tmp]# • Issue the rpm command to get the keys [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm --import /usr/share/rhn/RPM-GPG-KEY [root@bigboy tmp]# . isatty Yes 2. It will prompt you to change the initial settings.linuxhomenetworking. Just quit by typing “q” and up2date will give you the command to run to get the encryption keys from RedHat. q to quit without saving>: Your GPG keyring does not contain the Red Hat. Without it.

r ########################## Done.4.0Pkg name/pattern [root@bigboy tmp]# .i386.. address and email address A profile name for your server • It will then present you with a list of all the packages installed on your server and ask you whether you want to register this software information with RedHat • The up2date updater will then register your system and exit back to the command prompt.17-0. ######################################## cups-libs-1. ######################################## Fetching Obsoletes list for channel: redhat-linux-i386-8.18 24.0. … … … Preparing ########################################### [100%] Installing.2. This is done with the up2date –u command....8. • Now you have to actually update the software using up2date. ####################################### Testing package set / solving RPM inter-dependencies. 1:cups-libs 2:cvs 3:cyrus-sasl … … … ########################################### [100%] ########################################### [100%] ########################################### [100%] The following Packages were marked to be skipped by your configuration: Name Version Rel Reason --------------------------------------------------------------------kernel 2.. This is what it looks like: [root@bigboy tmp]# up2date -u Fetching package list for channel: redhat-linux-i386-8...1..Chapter 3 : Installing RPM Software 33 • Issue the up2date command again and it will prompt you through a number of registration screens which will ask for information such as: o o o The login name & password of your choice Your.. ######################################## Fetching rpm headers. name..0.

redhat.com/network RedHat will regularly send you emails with the packages you need to update. If you have a firewall protecting your system. up2date automatically figures out these package inter-dependencies and will install all the required foundation packages as well.linuxhomenetworking. you will need TCP port 443 access to the internet Updating packages could cause programs written by you to stop functioning especially if they rely on the older version’s features or syntax. Here is a sample script that you can run weekly using cron #!/bin/sh # # Updates system every week # up2date -p up2date -u o . up2date uses HTTPS/SSL to do its updating. The “–u” switch will update all packages and the “-p” will register any additional packages you have installed without using up2date. Some RPMs won’t install unless other RPMs have been installed previously.34 www. You can write a small script to periodically update your system. All additional profiles under the login name have an annual fee.com Some Necessary Facts About up2date o o You can update your contact information afterwards using the link http://www. You can selectively update the package mentioned in each email using the command: [root@bigboy tmp]# up2date package-name o o o o Only one profile per login name is free.

Chapter 3 : Installing RPM Software 35 .

linuxhomenetworking.com .36 www.

These are listed below. After completing this first phase. www.d/rc1. the boot process will run a number of scripts located in subdirectories under directory /etc/rc. . The RedHat Boot Sequence When RedHat boots. The boot process first runs the scripts found in /etc/rc.d which provides only the most basic functionality and the ability to only handle a single user.37 Chapter 4 The Linux Boot Process =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 4 The Linux Boot Process The RedHat Boot Sequence Determining The Default Boot runlevel Get A GUI Console Get A Basic Text Terminal Without Exiting The GUI System Shutdown And Rebooting How To Set Which Programs Run At Each runlevel © Peter Harrison. run level). This stage is known as “single user mode”. the boot process will run scripts in only one of the other directories depending on the startup mode (aka. You can alter it to change the type of login screen you get and also which programs get started.linuxhomenetworking.com =========================================== The way Linux boots up is very important information to know.d.

d /etc/rc.d/rc5. See the section below on how to get a GUI login all the time until the next reboot.38 www.d/rc2.d Run Level Description Halt Single-user mode Not used (user-definable) Full multi-user mode (No GUI interface) Not used (user-definable) Full multi-user mode (With GUI interface) Reboot Determining The Default Boot runlevel The default boot runlevel is set in the file /etc/inittab with the "initdefault" variable. Here is a sample snippet of the file: (Delete the initdefault line you don't need) # Default runlevel. when set to “5”. . When set it to “3”.d/rc4. without NFS (The same as 3.d/rc1.d /etc/rc.unused # 5 .Single user mode # 2 .halt (Do NOT set initdefault to this) # 1 .Full multiuser mode # 4 . Get A GUI Console You have two main options if your system comes up in a text terminal mode on the VGA console and you want to get the GUI: • Manual Method: You can start the X terminal GUI application each time you need it by running the “startx” command at the VGA console. if you do not have networking) # 3 .d/rc3.linuxhomenetworking.com Mode/Run Level 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Directory /etc/rc. Remember that when you log out you will get the regular text based console again. you get the GUI.d/rc6.X11 # 6 .Multiuser. the system boots up with the text interface on the VGA console.reboot (Do NOT set initdefault to this) # id:3:initdefault: # Console Text Mode id:5:initdefault: # Console GUI Mode • Most home users boot up with a Windows like GUI (Run Level 5) • Most techies will tend to boot up with a plain text based command line type interface (Run level 3) • Changing "initdefault" from 3 to 5 or vice-versa will only have an effect upon your next reboot.d /etc/rc. The runlevels used by RHS are: # 0 .d/rc0.d /etc/rc.d /etc/rc.d /etc/rc.

then Terminal Using Virtual Terminals Linux actually has seven virtual console sessions running on the VGA console. [root@bigboy tmp]# init 5 Get A Basic Text Terminal Without Exiting The GUI Using A GUI Terminal Window You can open a GUI based window with a command prompt inside by doing the following: o o Click on the “Red Hat” Start button in the bottom left hand corner of the screen. it will run under session number seven. Halt / Shutdown The System [root@bigboy tmp]# init 0 Reboot The System [root@bigboy tmp]# init 6 . You can step through each text session by using the <CTL> <ALT> <F1> through <F6> key sequence. only in run level 5. o o o Sessions one through six are text sessions. You will need to edit your “initdefault” variable in your /etc/inittab file as mentioned in the preceding section to keep this functionality even after you reboot. You'll get a new login prompt for each attempt. If the GUI is running. Click on Systems Tools. or if the GUI is running after launching "startx" System Shutdown And Rebooting The "init" command will allow you to change the current runlevel. You can get the GUI login with the sequence <CTL> <ALT> <F7>.Chapter 4 : The Linux Boot Process [root@bigboy tmp]# startx • Automatic Method: You can have Linux automatically start the X terminal GUI console for every login attempt until your next reboot by using the init command.

The typical home/SOHO user doesn't have to be a scripting / symbolic linking guru to make sure everything works right because RedHat comes with a nifty utility called "chkconfig" to do it for you.linuxhomenetworking.. Let’s change it so that Sendmail doesn't startup at boot..d/rc. Use Chkconfig To Get A Listing Of Sendmail's Current Startup Options [root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig --list | grep mail sendmail 0:off 1:off 2:off 3:on 4:off 5:on 6:off [root@bigboy tmp]# Switch Off Sendmail Starting Up In Levels 3 and 5 [root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig --level 35 sendmail off [root@bigboy tmp]# Doublecheck That Sendmail Will Not Startup [root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig --list | grep mail sendmail 0:off 1:off 2:off 3:off 4:off 5:off 6:off [root@bigboy tmp]# .d and place symbolic links (pointers) to this script in the appropriate /etc/rc.. Here we see Sendmail will start with a regular startup at runlevel 3 or 5.40 www..X directory.com How To Set Which Programs Run At Each runlevel Most RedHat packages place a startup script in the directory /etc/init.d and the runlevels at which they will be "on" or "off" [root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig --list keytable 0:off 1:on 2:on 3:on 4:on atd 0:off 1:off 2:off 3:on 4:on syslog 0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on gpm 0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on kudzu 0:off 1:off 2:off 3:on 4:on wlan 0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on sendmail 0:off 1:off 2:off 3:on 4:off netfs 0:off 1:off 2:off 3:on 4:on network 0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on random 0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on . • Use this command to get a full listing of packages listed in /etc/init. . 5:on 5:on 5:on 5:on 5:on 5:on 5:on 5:on 5:on 5:on 6:off 6:off 6:off 6:off 6:off 6:off 6:off 6:off 6:off 6:off Chkconfig Examples You can use chkconfig to change runlevels for particular packages.

Chapter 4 : The Linux Boot Process Turn it back on again [root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig --level 35 mail on [root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig --list | grep mail sendmail 0:off 1:off 2:off 3:on 4:off 5:on 6:off [root@bigboy tmp]# Final Tips On chkconfig • • • In most cases you'll want to modify runlevels 3 and 5 simultaneously AND with the same values. Chkconfig doesn’t start the programs in the /etc/init.d directory. Don't experiment. Don't add/remove anything to other runlevels unless you absolutely know what you are doing. The commands for starting and stopping the programs covered in this book are covered in each respective chapter. . it just configures them to be started or ignored when the system boots up.

42 www.com .linuxhomenetworking.

you should at least weigh the merits of such a move. Before you do. www. Network Diagram .com =========================================== We have assumed you want to host your website in your home or home office using a topology similar to that in the diagram below.43 Chapter 5 Why Host Your Own Site? =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 5 Why Host Your Own Site? Network Diagram Alternatives To Home Web Hosting Factors To Consider Before Hosting Yourself How To Migrate From An External Provider © Peter Harrison.linuxhomenetworking.

• Register your domain name. load balancing.com.44 www. data base services and technical support offered by the virtual hosting company. Home Based Websites Pros o Cost: It is possible to host a website on most DSL connections. so you’ll probably have to wait at least that long before you’ll be able to view your site using your domain. such as www. So for a savings of $10 per month the project should pay for itself in less than a year. redundant hardware. • Test viewing your site using your IP address in your web browser. You should be able to buy this equipment second hand for about $100.my-site. A website can be hosted on this data circuit for the only additional hardware cost of a network switch and a web server. New Skills: There is also the additional benefit of learning the new skills required to set up the site. technical support. Factors To Consider Before Hosting Yourself Virtual hosting is the ideal solution for many small websites. security audits.com. You must make sure your new domain name’s DNS records point to the DNS server of the virtual hosting company. Changes can be made with little delay. the IP address of your site plus the name of a private directory on a shared web server in which you’ll place your web pages.com Alternatives To Home Web Hosting It is easy to find virtual hosting companies on the Web which will offer to host a simple website for about $10 per month.linuxhomenetworking. The virtual hosting provider will also offer free backups of your site. a number of email addresses and an easy to use web based GUI to manage your settings. The steps are fairly straight forward: • Sign up for the virtual hosting service. • Upload your web pages to your private virtual hosting directory. Availability: Reliable virtual hosting facilities may not be available in your country and/or you may not have access to the foreign currency to host your site abroad. Verisign or RegisterFree. many will also provide an e-commerce feature which will allow you to have a shopping cart and customer loyalty programs.com. If your home already has DSL there would be no additional network connectivity costs. www.my-site. There are a number of reasons why you may want to move your website to your home or small office. . For an additional charge. DNS. o o Cons o Lost Services: You lose the convenience of many of the services such as backups. It takes about 3-4 days for DNS to propagate across the Web. with companies like Register. For the home based website these are usually not big issues. They will provide you with a login name and password.com.

data restoration. Proceed with the server migration only if you feel your staff can handle the job. o . Hosting providers may provide software patches to fix security vulnerabilities on your web servers and may even provide a firewall to protect it. These services may be more difficult to implement at home. Security: Always weigh the degree of security maintained by your hosting provider with that which you expect to provide in-house. you will have to consider the following: In-house Web Hosting Savings • • Monthly out sourced web hosting fee Elimination of the cost of delays to implement desired services.Chapter 5 : Why Host Your Own Site? 45 o Security: One important factor to consider is the security of your new server. software. which may have been highly desirable and cost effective. You will eventually be able to justify hosting your website inhouse based on this financial fact. • • • • • Costs New hardware & software Possible new application development. Technical Ability: Your service provider may have more expertise in setting up your site than you do. Training The percentage of IT staff’s time installing and maintaining the site Potential cost of the risks (% likelihood of failure per month X cost of failure) • • Risks Likelihood of a failure and expected duration The cost of both the failure and post failure recovery (Hardware. Availability: Reliable virtual hosting facilities may not be available in your country and you may not have access to the foreign currency to host your site abroad. The chapter on the Linux iptables firewall should help make the decision easier. time) Cons o o Lost Services: You won’t have access to the services provided by your old service provider. Technical Ability: You may have to incur additional training costs to ensure that your IT staff has the necessary knowledge to do the job internally. In order to determine the break even point of the proposal. There is a chapter on the iptables Linux firewall and general security policies for Linux servers to help you overcome these shortcomings. o Small Office Based Websites Pros o o o Increased Control: You will be able to manage all aspects of your website if it is hosted on a server based either in-house or within your control at a remote data center. Cost: The cost of using an external web hosting provider will increase as you purchase more systems administration services.

.46 www.com How To Migrate From An External Provider The chapter on DNS has a detailed explanation of the steps involved in migrating your website from an external hosting provider to your home or small office. You should also read the sections on mail and web server configuration to help provide a more rounded understanding of the steps involved.linuxhomenetworking.

47 Chapter 6 Introduction To Networking =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 6 Introduction To Networking What Is TCP/IP? What Is An IP Addresses? What Is Localhost? What Is A Subnet Mask? How Many Addresses Do I Get With My Mask? How Can I Figure Out My Broadcast Address? What Is Duplex? What Is A Hub? What Is A Switch? What Is A LAN? What Is A Router? What Is A Gateway? What Is A Route? What Is A Default Gateway? What Is A NIC? What Is A MAC Address? What Is ARP? What Is A Firewall? What Is NAT? What Is Port Forwarding With NAT? What Is DHCP? What Is DNS? How Can I Check The IP Address For A Domain? How Do I Get My Own DNS Domain Name? What is FTP? Where is Linux Help? © Peter Harrison. .linuxhomenetworking.com =========================================== This chapter briefly explains some basic networking concepts for the home user. www.

Only the TCP datagram header contains sequence information. What are TCP / UDP Ports? So the data portion of the IP packet contains a TCP or UDP datagram sandwiched inside. It is part of the larger OSI model upon which most data communications is based. The remote computer then receives the packets and reassembles the data and checks for errors. One component of TCP/IP is the Internet Protocol (IP) which is responsible for ensuring that data is transferred between two addresses without being corrupted. Ports below 1024 are reserved for privileged system functions. Data is sent on a “best effort” basis with the machine that sends the data having no means of verifying whether the data was correctly received by the remote machine. It is also used when data needs to be broadcast to all available servers on a locally attached network where the creation of dozens of TCP connections for a short burst of data is considered resource hungry. Usually when a connection is made from a client computer requesting data to the server machine that contains the data: .com What Is TCP/IP? TCP/IP is a universal standard suite of protocols used to provide connectivity between networked devices. but both the UDP and the TCP datagram headers track the “port” being used.linuxhomenetworking. is reserved for HTTP web traffic and port 25 is reserved for SMTP email. Programs that use TCP therefore have a means of detecting connection failures and requesting the retransmission of missing packets.48 www. What is UDP? UDP is a connectionless protocol. TCP is a good example of a “connection oriented” protocol. those above 1024 are generally reserved for non system third party applications. What is TCP? TCP opens up a connection between client and server programs running on separate computers so that multiple and/or sporadic streams of data can be sent over an indefinite period of time. This informs the computer receiving the data about the type of transportation mechanism being used. For manageability. You could look at it as a combination used to create a connection ID number. UDP is usually used for applications in which the data sent is not mission critical. How does the computer know what program needs the data? Each IP packet also contains a piece of information in its header called the “type” field. Certain programs are assigned specific that are internationally recognized. port 80. TCP keeps track of the packets sent by giving each one a sequence number with the remote server sending back “acknowledgement” packets confirming correct delivery. The source/destination port combination defines the program on the computer that sent/received the data. The two most popular transportation mechanisms used on the Internet are Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). For example. It then passes the data to the program that expects to receive it. the data is usually split into multiple pieces or “packets” each with its own error detection bytes in the control section or “header” of the packet.

Just like a telephone number. ICMP also includes echo and echo reply messages used by the Linux “ping” command to confirm network connectivity. ICMP provides a suite of error. then the network device will discard the packet. What is ICMP? There is another commonly used protocol called the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). What Do IP Addresses Look Like? • All devices connected to the Internet have an Internet Protocol (IP) address.25. but TCP/IP based applications use it frequently. IP addresses are written in what is called a "dotted decimal" format. If the TTL value reaches “0”. and informational messages for use by the operating system. the client will use a source port of say. electrical interference or even misconfiguration. a bad connection. These are: . This mechanism helps to ensure that bad routing on the Internet won’t cause packets to aimlessly loop around the network. 1095 and query the server on port 80 (HTTP) The server recognizes the port 80 request as an HTTP request and passes on the data to be handled by the web server software. The server will usually detected this by examining the packet and correlating the contents to what it finds in the IP header’s error control section. but a response to the initial port 80 HTTP query. For example. The server sending the packet sets the TTL value and each network device that the packet passes through then reduces this value by “1”. it tells the TCP application to respond back to port 1095 of the client using a source port of port 80.Chapter 6 : Introduction To Networking 49 o the client selects a random unused "source" port greater than 1024 and queries the server on the "destination" port specific to the application. What is a TTL? Each IP packet has a Time to Live (TTL) section that keeps track of the number of network devices the packet has passed through to reach its destination. IP packets will occasionally arrive at a server with corrupted data due to any number of reasons including. control.12. four numbers with dots in between. TTLs help to reduce the clogging of data circuits with unnecessary traffic. • For ease of use.65. o The client keeps track of all its requests to the server's IP address and will recognize that the reply on port 1095 isn't a request initiation for "Nicelink" (See the Bibliography for a link to a TCP/IP port listing). Each bit is either a 1 or a 0. It will then issue an ICMP reject message to the original sending machine that the data should be resent. It is not strictly a TCP/IP protocol. If it is an HTTP request. When the web server software replies to the client. More information on ICMP messages can be found in both the Appendix and the chapter on network troubleshooting. An example of an IP address would be 97. None of the numbers between the dots may be greater than 255. • IP addresses are in reality a string of binary digits or "bits". • The numbers between the dots are frequently referred to as "octets" • Some groups of IP addresses are reserved for use only in private networks and are not routed over the Internet. it helps to uniquely identify a user of the system. IP addresses have 32 bits in total.

then they will most likely provide you with a subnet mask of 255.253.0. You can then use IP addresses from #1 to #254 on your "private" network.255.0.255. What Is Localhost? Whether or not your computer has a network interface card it will have a “built in” IP address with which network aware applications can communicate with one another.1 and the server or host would be device #25 on that network.168. host #0 (192.1.25 and a subnet mask of 255.255.10.255.24.28 . and host #255 (192.168.255.0) is reserved to represent the network itself.1.255 192.1 and is frequently referred to as “localhost” What Is A Subnet Mask? • Subnet masks are used to tell which part of the IP address represents: • The network on which the computer is connected (Network portion) • The computer's unique identifier on that network (Host portion) • A simple analogy would be a phone number.253.253.168.24 – Network base address 97. • If you purchased a DSL service from your Internet service provider (ISP) that gives you fixed IP addresses.255.255. So if your server has an IP address of 192.25 .0 .255.0. then your IP addresses will be: • • • • • 97.1.Available 97. the 225-2468 represents the telephone within that area code.linuxhomenetworking.172.253. then the network portion would be 192. a subnet mask of 255. • You can check the Linux networking topics page on how to configure the IP address of your Linux box.192.168.0.168.27 .253.158.158.248 that defines 8 IP addresses. This IP address is defined as 127.0. • Subnet masks allow you to specify how long you want the area code to be (network portion) at the expense of the number of telephones in that are in the area code (Host portion) • Most home networks use a subnet mask of 255. • In this example.255.158.158.24.255 • Home networking equipment / devices usually are configured in the factory with an IP address in the range 192.1.31.253.1 to 192.0 .1. Each "255" means this octet is for the area code (network portion).248 and a gateway of 97.158.255.255.255.50 www. For example if the ISP provides you with a "public" network address of 97.168.26 . The (808) represents the area code.Gateway 97.0.255 172.158.253.16.255) is reserved for broadcast traffic intended to reach all hosts on the network at the same time.255. such as (808) 225-2468.168.0.158.com Private IP Addresses 10.Available .0 .0.Available 97.168.

2. 3.248) = 8 Divide the last octet of the IP address by the result of step 1.192) What’s The Range Of Addresses On My Network? If someone gives you an IP address of 97.253.32 32 + 32 .Available 97.253.224 = 32 56 / 32 = 1 32 x 1 = 32.158.255.255.56 with a mask of 255. don't bother with the remainder (28/8 = 3). 192.255.255” which should be sufficient for your home network.30 .3.253. Think of it as "The broadcast address is always the network address plus the number of IP addresses in the subnet minus 1".3. Think of it as "This is the third subnet with 8 addresses in it". The broadcast address is 97.Broadcast How Many Addresses Do I Get With My Mask? The method described in this section only works for subnet masks that start with “255.0.29 .224 1.0.253.248.240 1.255. 224.255.31 o o Let's do this for 192. (24 + 8 -1 = 31). The Network address is therefore 97. Therefore the broadcast address is 192. 4.240 = 16 . (256 .75 with a mask of 255.168. how do you determine the network address and the broadcast address.158.168. in other words the boundaries of my network? Here are the steps: Manual Calculation o o Subtract the last octet of the subnet mask from 256 to give the number of IP addresses in the subnet.158.158. 252 • You can calculate the number of IP addresses for each of the above values by subtracting the value from 256 • So for example.158. This will give you the theoretical number of subnets of the same size that are below this IP address.253.253.255.31 . 248. Therefore the network base address is 192.3.255.168.Chapter 6 : Introduction To Networking 51 • • • 97.158.Available 97. 128.192 then you have 64 IP addresses in your subnet (256 . These are 0. 256 .1 = 63.255.24 The broadcast address is the result of step 3 plus the result of step 1 minus 1.28 and a subnet mask of 255. if you have a subnet mask of 255. Multiply this result by the result of step 1 to get the network address (8 x 3 = 24). 256 .63 Let's do this for 10. 240. • There are only 7 possible values for the last octet of a subnet mask.255.

linuxhomenetworking. Therefore the network base address is 10.80 Broadcast Address : 216. It is for this reason that duplex settings aren’t usually a problem for Linux servers.0.com 2.52 www. What Is A Hub? • A hub is a device into which you can connect all devices on a home network so that they can talk together.255. 4. 75 / 16 = 4 16 x 4 = 64.95 Subnet Mask Subnet Size [root@bigboy tmp]# : 255.sh 216. Here is a sample of how to use it. Therefore the broadcast address is 10. 3. Error detection and retransmission mechanisms ensure that data reaches the destination correctly even if it were originally garbled by multiple devices starting to transmit at the same time. just provide the IP address followed by the subnet mask as arguments. and another device at the other end of the cable set to half duplex.193. Once again.255.0.193. this only works with subnet masks that start with 255.193. If you are sub-netting a large chunk of IP addresses it’s always a good idea to lay it out on a spreadsheet to make sure there are no overlapping subnets.255. It will accept subnet masks in dotted decimal format or "/value" format [root@bigboy tmp]# ./subnet-calc.0. • Data transfer speeds will be low and error levels will be high if you have a device at one end of a cable set to full duplex.240 : 16 IP Addresses What Is Duplex? • Duplex refers to the ability of a device to transmit and receive data at the same time.92 /28 IP Address : 216.92 Network Base Address : 216. Calculation Using A Script There is a BASH script in the Appendix which will do this for you. Hubs physically cross-connect all their ports with one another which causes all traffic sent from a server to the hub to be blurted out to all other servers connected to that hub whether they are the intended recipient or not. • Full duplex uses separate pairs of wires for transmitting and receiving data so that incoming data flows don't interfere with outgoing data flows.255.151. .151.79 Note: As a rule of thumb.0.151.193. • Most modern network cards can auto-negotiate duplex with the device on the other end of the wire. the last octet of your network base address must be divisible by the “256 minus the last octet of your subnet mask” and leave no remainder.64 64 + 16 -1 = 79.151. Devices that want to transmit information have to wait their turn until the "coast is clear" at which point they send the data. • Half duplex uses the same pairs of wires for transmitting and receiving data.

The only exception is broadcast traffic which is blurted out to all the servers simultaneously. switch or tied to a wireless access point (WAP) that can only communicate with each other. It is possible for multiple servers to speak at once with all of them receiving garbled messages. Routers therefore direct and regulate traffic between separate networks. after a random time interval. thereby eliminating the possibility of message garbling. until the message gets through correctly. Switches therefore provide more efficient traffic flow. • Routers can also be configured to deny communication between specific servers on different networks. In this case. • Devices that plug into switches should be set to full duplex to take full advantage of the dedicated bandwidth coming from each switch port. Simple home switches can be connected in a chain formation to create a LAN with more ports. What Is A LAN? • A Local Area Network (LAN) is a grouping of ports on a hub.Chapter 6 : Introduction To Networking 53 • Hubs have none or very little electronics inside and therefore do not regulate traffic. much like a traffic policeman. What Is A Router? • As stated before. more expensive switches can be configured to assign only certain ports to pre-specified Virtual LANs or (VLANs) chosen by the network administrator. They will also ensure that they don’t mix servers on different IP networks on the same LAN segment. For example. What Is A Switch? • A switch is also a device into which you can connect all devices on a home network so that they can talk together. They can also filter traffic based on the TCP port section of each packet. • Routers will connect into multiple switches to allow these networks to communicate with one another. This is why network administrators group trusted servers having similar roles on the same LAN. and allow all other traffic between them. switches and hubs usually only have servers connected to them that have been configured as being part of the same network. • Switches regulate traffic. A good rule of thumb is to have only one network per LAN. Unlike a hub. it is possible to deny communication between two servers on different networks that intend to communicate on TCP port 80. • Pure switches provide no access control between servers connected to the same LAN. This is often called “daisy chaining”. When this happens the servers try again. . traffic sent from Server A to Server B will only be received by Server B. A router is still needs to be connected to each VLAN for inter-network communication. • Larger. • It is for these reasons that devices that plug into hubs should be set to half duplex. • It is possible to have LANs that span multiple switches. The router is also capable of filtering traffic passing between the two LANs therefore providing additional security. the switch houses ports on multiple LANs. • Communication to devices on another LAN requires a router directly connected to both LANs.

• Usually when we speak about a route on a Linux box.168. routers most frequently provide connectivity to the Internet using network address translation or NAT. R1 therefore would be considered your default gateway • You could put a route on your SOHO servers that states: o o • For most home networks.0.123.46. What Is A Default Gateway? • A default gateway is really a gateway of last resort.0.0.0 255. • The Linux network topics page shows how to add static routes to your Linux box and also how you can convert it into a simple router. we are referring to the IP address of the first hop needed to reach the desired destination network.1. It is assumed that this first hop will know how to automatically relay the packet.54 www. and can therefore intelligently redirect traffic to bypass failed network links.X Go to network 10.0) and the internet R2 is connected to both your SOHO home network (192.1. What Is A Route? • In the broader networking sense.0 via router R2 Go to everything else via router R1.X.com • If you intend to route between networks. then for each network. Each router along the way may also be referred to as a hop.X.0.0) and your credit card transaction payment the network (10. • Routers are designed to exchange routing information dynamically. • In home networks.0) which is also connected to other corporate networks with addresses starting with 10. .linuxhomenetworking. your default gateway would be the router / firewall connected to the Internet. you must reserve an IP address for a router and make sure that the router is directly connected to the LAN associated with that network. Home Linux boxes frequently don't run a dynamic routing protocol and therefore rely on "static" routes issued by the system administrator at the command line or in configuration files to determine the next hop to all desired networks. a route refers to the path data takes to traverse from its source to its destination.168. • You can check the Linux networking topics page on how to configure the default gateway on your Linux box. Say for example: o o o You have two routers R1 and R2 R1 is connected to both your SOHO home network (192. What Is A Gateway? • Another name for a router.

the ARP table only contains the MAC addresses of devices on the locally connected network. ARP entries are not permanent and will be erased after a fixed period of time depending on the operating system used. Once a reply is received.168. its source/destination IP address stays the same. . the packet is sent and the ARP table is subsequently updated with the new MAC address. MAC addresses therefore only have significance on the locally attached network. When a server needs to communicate with another server it does the following steps: • The server first checks its routing table to see which router provides the next hop to the destination network. As the packet hops across the Internet. the server sends the IP packet to its NIC and tells the NIC to encapsulate the packet in a frame destined for the MAC address of the router. If there is no ARP entry. let's say with an IP address of 192.1. • The Linux network topics page shows how to see your ARP table and the MAC addresses of your server's NICs. Every IP packet is sent out of your NIC wrapped inside an Ethernet frame which uses MAC addresses to direct traffic on your locally attached network. If no entry is available. • As can be expected. What Is A MAC Address? The media access control address (MAC) can be equated to the serial number of the NIC.Chapter 6 : Introduction To Networking 55 What Is A NIC? Your network interface card is frequently called a NIC. it will in turn continue with the ARP-ing process to relay the packet to the final destination. the application needing to communicate will issue a timeout or "time exceeded" error.1. The ARP table is queried. but the MAC addresses are reassigned by each router on the way using a process called ARP. • If there is a valid router. If it doesn't. As each router in the path receives the packet. • If the target server is on the same network as the source server. the packet is sent and the ARP table is subsequently updated with the new MAC address. Once a reply is received. an ARP request is made asking the target server for its MAC address. • The server will not send the data to its intended destination unless it has an entry in its ARP table.1 respond with its MAC address so that the delivery can be made. What Is ARP? The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is used to map MAC addresses to network IP addresses.168. the server checks it's ARP table to see whether it has the MAC address of the router's NIC. the server will issue an ARP request asking that router 192. a similar process occurs. Currently.1. If there is an ARP entry. the most common types of NIC used in the home are Ethernet and wireless Ethernet cards.

As the router / firewall is located at the “border crossing” to the Internet it can easily keep track of all the various outbound connections to the Internet by monitoring: • The IP addresses and TCP ports used by each home based server and mapping it to • The TCP ports and IP addresses of the Internet servers with which they want to communicate. As there normally has been no prior connection association . Connections initiated from the Internet to the “public” IP address of the router / firewall face a problem. You can configure NAT to be “one to one” in which you assign multiple IP addresses to the outside “public” interface of your firewall and pair each of these addresses to a corresponding server on the inside network. and not a “private” IP address. This greatly increases the number of devices that can access the Internet without running out of "public" IP addresses. A short list of capabilities includes: • Throttling traffic to a server when two many unfulfilled connections are made to it • Restricting traffic being sent to obviously bogus IP addresses • Providing network address translation or NAT What Is NAT? Your router / firewall will frequently be configured to make it appear to other devices on the Internet that the servers on your Home network have a valid “public” IP address. This prevents hackers from directly attacking your home systems as packets sent to the “private” IP will never pass over the Internet.com What Is A Firewall? Firewalls can be viewed as routers with more enhanced abilities to restrict traffic. There are many good reasons for this. • Hundreds of PCs and servers behind a NAT device can masquerade as a single "public" IP address. Basic NAT testing will require you to ask a friend to try to connect to your home network from the Internet. all servers accessing the Internet will appear to have the single “public” IP address of the router / firewall because of “many to one” NAT. This is called network address translation (NAT) and is often also called IP masquerading in the Linux world. you won’t be able to access the public NAT IP addresses from servers on your home network. As a general rule. What Is Port Forwarding With NAT? In our simple home network. Examples of NAT may be found in the IP masquerade section of the Linux iptables firewall chapter and also in the Cisco PIX firewall chapter. NAT protects your home PCs by assigning them IP addresses from “private” IP address space that cannot be routed over the internet. not just by port and IP address like routers. firewalls can detect malicious attempts to subvert the TCP/IP protocol. The reverse isn’t true.linuxhomenetworking. the two most commonly stated are: • No one on the Internet knows your true IP address.56 www. This arrangement works well with a single NAT IP trying to initiate connections to many Internet addresses. You can also use “many to one” NAT in which the firewall maps a single IP address to multiple servers on the network. Specifically.

Each server in the chain will store the most frequent DNS name to IP address lookups in a memory cache which helps to speed up the response.dhcp. DHCP can be used to automatically assign IP addresses. Port forwarding is a method of counteracting this. you can configure your router / firewall to forward TCP port 80 (Web/HTTP) traffic destined to the outside NAT IP to be automatically relayed to a specific server on the inside home network As you may have guessed.linuxhomenetworking.linuxhomenetworking. • The "linuxhomenetworking. You can also make your Linux box into a DHCP server. • Your ISP's DNS server will then probably redirect your query to one of the 13 "root" name servers. subnet mask. "The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is an Internet protocol for automating the configuration of computers that use TCP/IP. You can make your Linux box into a caching DNS server for your home network too.com" name server will then respond with the IP address for www. • Most home computers will get the IP address of their DNS server via DHCP from their router / firewall. The assignment usually occurs when the DHCP configured machine boots up.com As you can imagine. or regains connectivity to the network. • The root server will then redirect your query to one of the Internet's ". • The router / firewall will then redirect the DNS queries from your computer to the DNS name server of your Internet service provider (ISP). Most home router / firewalls are configured in the factory to be DHCP servers for your home network.Chapter 6 : Introduction To Networking 57 between the Internet server and any protected server on the home network. DNS server and default gateway information. The most commonly used form of DSL will also assign the outside interface of your router / firewall with a single DHCP provided IP address.com" name server.com" DNS name servers which will then redirect the query to the "linuxhomenetworking. Here step by step description of what happens with a DNS lookup. (and) to deliver TCP/IP stack configuration parameters such as the subnet mask and default router”. the router / firewall has no way of telling which of the many home PCs behind it should receive the relayed data. What Is DNS? The domain name system (DNS) is a worldwide server network used to help translate easy to remember domain names like www. The DHCP client sends out a query requesting a DHCP server which in turn provides the client PC with its IP address.org. • Home router / firewall providing DHCP services often provides its own IP address as the DNS name server address for home computers. port forwarding is one of the most common methods used to host websites at home with DHCP DSL. to make your Linux box provide the DHCP addresses for the other machines on your network. What Is DHCP? According to www. this process can cause a noticeable delay when you are browsing the web. . You can check the chapter on Linux networking topics page on how to configure your Linux box to get its IP address via DHCP.com into an IP address that can be used behind the scenes by your computer. once it has a fixed IP address. For example. You can also check the chapter on Configuring a DHCP Server.

216.151.0.216.151. dns1.net. but can still be used with Windows .elan. [root@bigboy tmp]# nslookup 216.elan.arpa nameserver = dns2.linuxhomenetworking.1 Address: 127.92 [root@bigboy tmp]# You can also use the nslookup and host commands to get the reverse information.0.151.in-addr.elan.com Note: nslookup is deprecated and may be removed from future releases.com has address 216.193.linuxhomenetworking.linuxhomenetworking.151.net.0.0. Server: 127.0.1 Address: 127.151. [root@bigboy tmp]# .193.0.elan.216. 193.in-addr.elan.1 [root@bigboy tmp]# [root@bigboy tmp]# host 216.1#53 Name: www.arpa domain name pointer extra193-92.58 www.1#53 Non-authoritative answer: 92. then you can use either the nslookup command or host command to get the associated IP address.net internet address = 216.151. nslookup will be removed from future releases of Linux.216.92 92.0.com Address: 216.linuxhomenetworking.linuxhomenetworking.arpa name = extra193-92.193.193.com www.com How Can I Check The IP Address For A Domain? If you have the domain.193. Run nslookup with the `-sil[ent]' option to prevent this message from appearing.193.151.in-addr. [root@bigboy tmp]# nslookup www.net. Consider using the `dig' or `host' programs instead.151. Run nslookup with the `-sil[ent]' option to prevent this message from appearing.0.arpa nameserver = dns1.151.net.in-addr.92 [root@bigboy tmp]# host www.92 Note: nslookup is deprecated and may be removed from future releases.192. Server: 127. Consider using the `dig' or `host' programs instead. Authoritative answers can be found from: 193.

There are a number of commercially available GUI based clients you can load on your PC to do this. In this case you'll want to use a dynamic DNS service. don't worry you can do this later. From the remote user's perspective. • If you don't have the names and/or IP addresses for you primary name servers. RegisterFree is the one I use. You also FTP from the command line as shown in the RPM chapter. The remote FTP server will prompt you for a username. . at which point the user will type "anonymous". From the systems administrator's perspective. The remote FTP server will prompt you for a username. such as WSFTP and CuteFTP. o What is FTP? This is one of the most popular applications used to copy files between computers via a network connection.Chapter 6 : Introduction To Networking 59 How Do I Get My Own DNS Domain Name? • There are many companies that provide DNS name registration. at which point the user will be the username you normally use to log into the FTP server. after you follow the steps below. Regular FTP o o This is used primarily to allow specific users to download files to their systems. then static DNS is the way to go. Static or Dynamic DNS? o If you didn't specifically reserve static IP addresses from your ISP. there are two types of FTP. there are another two categories. The password will be your regular password for your user account. • The registration process will prompt you for your two primary DNS servers. This helps DNS root servers know exactly where to get the information for the IP address for your new website. Anonymous FTP o o This is used primarily to allow any remote user to download files to their systems. The password is usually your valid email address. then your router is probably getting its "public" Internet IP address via DHCP from your ISP. You can use them to determine whether the name you want is available and you can purchase the domain you want using a credit card with your web browser. If you bought static IP addresses. These are active and passive FTP which is covered in more detail in the FTP Chapter.

OpenSSH SSH client (remote login program) SYNOPSIS ssh [-l login_name] hostname | user@hostname [command] ssh [-afgknqstvxACNPTX1246] [-b bind_address] [-c cipher_spec] [-e escape_char] [-i identity_file] [-l login_name] [-m mac_spec] [-o option] [-p port] [-F configfile] [-L port:host:hostport] [-R port:host:hostport] [-D port] hostname | user@hostname [command] DESCRIPTION ssh (SSH client) is a program for logging into a remote machine and for executing commands on a remote machine.manipulate Tcl objects . then use the man command with the –k switch. then you’d use the command “man ssh”.linuxhomenetworking. without the –k. Using this information you can use the man command. passwords and data are sent across the network unencrypted. ssh-add and ssh-agent. It is intended to replace rlogin and rsh.60 www. If you want to get information on the ssh command. to narrow your help search. From the command line you issue the man command followed by the Linux command or file you wish to get information about. Where is Linux Help? Linux help files are accessed using the “man” or manual pages.com It is good to remember that FTP isn't very secure as usernames. If you want to search all the man pages for a keyword. [root@bigboy tmp]# man -k ssh Tcl_DecrRefCount [Tcl_IsShared] (3) . and provide secure encrypted … … … … [root@bigboy tmp]# Search For All Instances Of A Word Here we discover that the search string ssh can be found in the TCL man pages and also in a variety of ssh related pages including ssh. Here are some examples: Finding General Information On A Command Here we get information on the ssh command: [root@bigboy tmp]# man ssh SSH(1) BSD General Commands Manual SSH(1) NAME ssh . More secure forms such as SFTP (Secure FTP) and SCP (Secure Copy) are available as a part of the Secure Shell package that is normally installed by default on RedHat.

authentication agent ssh-keygen (1) .manipulate Tcl objects Tcl_IsShared (3) .authentication key generation.adds RSA or DSA identities to the authentication agent ssh-agent (1) .manipulate Tcl objects Tcl_NewObj [Tcl_IsShared] (3) .OpenSSH SSH client (remote login program) ssh [slogin] (1) .OpenSSH SSH client (remote login program) ssh-add (1) .manipulate Tcl objects Tcl_IsShared [Tcl_InvalidateStringRep] (3) .manipulate Tcl objects ssh (1) .manipulate Tcl objects Tcl_IsShared [Tcl_IncrRefCount] (3) .manipulate Tcl objects Tcl_IncrRefCount [Tcl_IsShared] (3) .manipulate Tcl objects Tcl_IsShared [Object] (3) .manipulate Tcl objects Tcl_IsShared [Tcl_DuplicateObj] (3) .manipulate Tcl objects Tcl_InvalidateStringRep [Tcl_IsShared] (3) .gather ssh public keys ssh-keysign (8) . management and conversion ssh-keyscan (1) .manipulate Tcl objects Tcl_IsShared [Tcl_NewObj] (3) .OpenSSH SSH client configuration files sshd (8) .manipulate Tcl objects Tcl_IsShared [Tcl_DecrRefCount] (3) .ssh helper program for hostbased authentication ssh_config (5) .Chapter 6 : Introduction To Networking 61 Tcl_DuplicateObj [Tcl_IsShared] (3) .OpenSSH SSH daemon sshd_config (5) .OpenSSH SSH daemon configuration file [root@bigboy tmp]# .

62 www.linuxhomenetworking.com .

linuxhomenetworking. Syslog About syslog Syslog is a utility for tracking and logging all manner of system messages from the merely informational to the extremely critical. For example. Each system message sent to the syslog server has two descriptive labels associated with it that makes the message easier to handle. There are eight in all and they are listed below: o .63 Chapter 7 Troubleshooting Linux With Syslog =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 7 Troubleshooting Linux With Syslog Syslog Logrotate © Peter Harrison. The second describes the degree of severity of the message. applications such as mail and cron generate messages with easily identifiable facilities named "mail" and "cron". o The first describes the function (facility) of the application that generated it. www.com =========================================== This chapter will show you how to troubleshoot problems not only on your Linux box but also on remote networking devices using syslog.

conf file is configured to put most of the messages the file /var/log/messages. the first lists the facilities and severities of messages to expect and the second lists the files to which they should be logged. cron or authentication facilities/subsystems.none. but none from the mail.info.debug /var/log/messages Certain applications will additionally log to their own application specific log files and directories independent of the syslog. This file consists of two columns.conf configuration file.linuxhomenetworking.conf file. RedHat's /etc/syslog. *.com Syslog Facilities Severity Level 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Keyword emergencies alerts critical errors warnings notifications informational debugging Description System unusable Immediate action required Critical condition Error conditions Warning conditions Normal but significant conditions Informational messages Debugging messages The files to which syslog will write each type of message received is set in the /etc/syslog. all messages of severity "info" and above are logged.mail. By default.64 www.cron.none. This may be more suitable for troubleshooting.none /var/log/messages In this case. Here are some common examples: Files: /var/log/maillog /var/log/httpd/access_log : Mail : Apache web server page access logs . You can make this logging even more sensitive by replacing the line above with one that captures all messages from debug severity and above in the /var/log/messages file.authpriv. Here is a sample: .

Here is an example. Grep will help you search for all occurrences of a string in a log file. Spaces in the file will cause unpredictable results.Chapter 7: Configuring Syslog 65 Directories: /var/log /var/log/samba /var/log/mrtg /var/log/httpd : Samba messages : MRTG messages : Apache webserver messages NOTE: The /etc/syslog.conf file is very sensitive to spaces.conf will not take effect until you restart syslog. [root@bigboy tmp]# grep string /var/log/messages | more You can also just use the plain old "more" command to see one screen at a time of the entire log file without filtering with "grep". then you can use this command: [root@bigboy tmp]# tail -f /var/log/messages Similar commands can be applied to all log files. This is probably one of the best troubleshooting tools available in Linux. Activating Changes To The syslog Configuration File Changes to /etc/syslog. . Here is an example: [root@bigboy tmp]# more /var/log/messages Logging Syslog Messages To A Remote Linux Server Configuring the Linux Syslog Server By default syslog doesn’t expect to receive messages from remote clients. Only use tabs on lines that don't start with the "#" comment character. you can pipe it through the "more" command so that you only get one screen at a time. Issue this command to do so: [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. Here’s how to configure your Linux server to start listening for these messages.d/syslog restart How To View New Log Entries As They Happen If you want to get new log entries to scroll on the screen as they occur. Another good command to use apart from "tail" is "grep".

This is done by editing the /etc/hosts file on the Linux client named smallfry.0. once for klogd to decode. Here are the steps: • • Determine the IP address and fully qualified hostname of your remote logging host Add an entry in the /etc/hosts file in the format IP-address Example: 192.my-site. You now have to configure your remote Linux client to send messages to it. # -r enables logging from remote machines # -x disables DNS lookups on messages recieved with -r # See syslogd(8) for more details SYSLOGD_OPTIONS="-m 0 -r" # Options to klogd # -2 prints all kernel oops messages twice.conf file to determine the expected names and locations of the log files it should create.168. and # once for processing with 'ksymoops' # -x disables all klogd processing of oops messages entirely # See klogd(8) for more details KLOGD_OPTIONS="-2" You will have to restart syslog on the server for the changes to take effect.66 www. The server will now start to listen on UDP port 514 which you can verify using either one of the following netstat command variations. .com As we saw previously. Syslog will not listen for remote messages unless the SYSLOGD_OPTIONS variable in this file has a “–r” included in it as shown below. It also checks the file /etc/sysconfig/syslog to determine the various modes in which it should operate.0:514 0.0.0.100 bigboy. syslog checks its /etc/syslog.com bigboy loghost fully-qualified-domain-name hostname "loghost" Server "bigboy" has now become the remote logging server as its /etc/hosts entry has an alias "loghost" which indicates to syslog that this is a remote syslog server. [root@bigboy tmp]# netstat -a | grep syslog udp 0 0 *:syslog *:* [root@bigboy tmp]# netstat -an | grep 514 udp 0 0 0. Remember to restart syslog to make these changes take effect.linuxhomenetworking. # Options to syslogd # -m 0 disables 'MARK' messages.0:* [root@bigboy tmp]# Configuring the Linux Client The syslog server is now expecting to receive syslog messages.1.0.

.conf File This is logrotate’s general configuration file in which you can specify the frequency with which the files are reused.. Apr 11 22:09:35 smallfry lpd: lpd shutdown succeeded Apr 11 22:09:39 smallfry lpd: lpd startup succeeded . you'll have to allow traffic on this port to pass through the security device. The /etc/logrotate. PIX firewalls. Syslog and Firewalls Syslog listens by default on UDP port 514. .Chapter 7: Configuring Syslog 67 You can now test to make sure that the syslog server is receiving the messages with a simple test such as restarting the lpd printer daemon and making sure the remote server sees the messages.. [root@bigboy tmp]# Syslog Configuration and Cisco Network Devices Syslog reserves facilities "local0" through "local7" for log messages received from remote servers and network devices. The chapter on Miscellaneous Topics has examples of how to configure syslog to do this with Cisco devices using separate log files for the routers. switches. . If you are logging to a remote syslog server via a firewall. allowing for daily updates.. Linux Client [root@smallfry tmp]# /etc/init.d/lpd restart Stopping lpd: [ OK ] Starting lpd: [ OK ] [root@smallfry tmp]# Linux Server [root@bigboy tmp]# tail /var/log/messages .. In the case below the weekly option is "commented out" with a "#". Routers... switches. o You can specify either “weekly” or “daily” rotation parameter. CSS arrowpoints and LocalDirectors. firewalls and load balancers each logging with a different facility can each have their own log files for easy troubleshooting. . Logrotate Logrotate is a Linux utility that renames and reuses system error log files on a periodic basis so that they don't occupy excessive disk space..

while allowing 7 copies.1 logfile.conf # rotate log files weekly #weekly # rotate log files daily daily # keep 4 weeks worth of backlogs #rotate 4 # keep 7 days worth of backlogs rotate 7 # create new (empty) log files after rotating old ones create The /etc/logrotate.pid 2> /dev/null` 2> /dev/null || true endscript } . The /etc/logrotate.4 logfile.log /var/log/cron { sharedscripts postrotate /bin/kill -HUP `cat /var/run/syslogd.com o o The "rotate" parameter specifies the number of copies of log files logrotate will maintain. The "create" parameter creates a new log file after each rotation Therefore our sample configuration file will create daily archives of ALL the logfiles and store them for seven days. The files will have the following names with "logfile" being current active version: logfile logfile.3 logfile.0 logfile.2 logfile. It is a good practice to verify that all new applications that you want to use the syslog log have configuration files in this directory.d Directory Most Linux applications that use syslog will put an additional configuration file in this directory to specify the names of the log files to be rotated.d/syslog File (For General System Logging) /var/log/cisco/* /var/log/messages /var/log/secure /var/log/maillog /var/log/spooler /var/log/boot.5 logfile.68 www. Here are some sample files which define the specific files to be rotated for each application. In the case below the 4 copy option is "commented out" with a "#".linuxhomenetworking.6 Sample contents of /etc/logrotate.

d/syslog . then issue the logrotate command with just that filename as the argument like this: [root@bigboy tmp]# logrotate -f /etc/logrotate.Chapter 7: Configuring Syslog 69 The /etc/logrotate.pid 2>/dev/null` 2> /dev/null || true endscript } The /etc/logrotate.d/samba File (for SAMBA) /var/log/samba/*.d/apache File (For Apache) /var/log/httpd/access_log /var/log/httpd/agent_log /var/log/httpd/error_log /var/log/httpd/referer_log { missingok sharedscripts postrotate /bin/kill -HUP `cat /var/run/httpd. and not all of them.pid 2> /dev/null` 2> /dev/null || true endscript } Activating logrotate The above logrotate settings will not take effect until you issue the following command to do so: [root@bigboy tmp]# logrotate –f If you want logrotate to reload only a specifc configuration file.log { notifempty missingok sharedscripts copytruncate postrotate /bin/kill -HUP `cat /var/lock/samba/*.

70 www.linuxhomenetworking.com .

this device is called "eth0".com =========================================== This chapter covers how to configure your Linux box’s networking features. www.linuxhomenetworking.Chapter 7: Configuring Syslog 71 Chapter 8 Linux Networking =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 8 Linux Networking How To Configure Your NIC's IP Address How To Change Your Default Gateway How Configure Two Gateways How To Delete A Route How To View Your Current Routing Table How To Convert Your Linux Server Into A Router Configuring Your /etc/hosts File © Peter Harrison. When Linux is installed. How To Configure Your NIC's IP Address Determining Your IP Address Most modern PCs come with an ethernet port. You can determine the IP address of this device with the "ifconfig" command. [root@bigboy tmp]# ifconfig -a eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:08:C7:10:74:A8 BROADCAST MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 .

0.linuxhomenetworking.72 www.0 You can see that this command gives good information on the interrupts used by each card.0 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 Interrupt:11 Memory:c887a000-c887b000 [root@bigboy tmp]# In this example.0 b) Interrupt:11 Base address:0x1820 lo Link encap:Local Loopback inet addr:127. Interface wlan0 has an IP address of 192.255.255.0. etc..7 Kb) wlan0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:06:25:09:6A:B5 inet addr:192. one assumes the interface has a fixed IP address.255 Mask:255. you could give this eth0 interface an IP address using the ifconfig command.255.255. You can place your IP address information in these files which are then used to auto-configure your NICs when Linux boots.0. the other assumes it requires an IP address assignment using DHCP. .168.7 Kb) TX bytes:82644 (80.1.0.99 Bcast:192.255.local file. Interface eth0 has a file called ifcfg-eth0.1 netmask 255. To make this permanent each time you boot up you'll have to add this command in your /etc/rc. Linux also makes life a little easier with interface configuration files located in the /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts directory.100 Bcast:192.1. [root@bigboy tmp]# ifconfig eth0 10.com collisions:0 txqueuelen:100 RX bytes:0 (0.168.0 up The "up" at the end of the command activates the interface..1.168.1.168. Here are two samples for interface eth0.2 Mb) Interrupt:11 Memory:c887a000-c887b000 wlan0:0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:06:25:09:6A:B5 inet addr:192.0. eth0 has no IP address as this box is using wireless interface wlan0 as it's main NIC.1.255.d/rc.0 b) TX bytes:0 (0.255.0 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:47379 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:107900 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:100 RX bytes:4676853 (4.100 and a subnet mask of 255.255 Mask:255.0. eth1 uses ifcfg-eth1 .168.1 Mask:255.4 Mb) TX bytes:43209032 (41.0 UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1 RX packets:787 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:787 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 RX bytes:82644 (80. This can also be found in less detail in the file /proc/interrupts Changing Your IP Address If you wanted.255.

The ifdown and ifup commands can be used to do this.1.1.168.168. IP aliasing is one of the most common ways of creating multiple IP addresses associated with a single NIC. [root@bigboy network-scripts]# ifdown eth0 [root@bigboy network-scripts]# ifup eth0 Multiple IP Addresses On A Single NIC In the previous "determining your IP address" section you may have noticed that there were two wireless interfaces. Once you change the values in the configuration files for the NIC you'll have to deactivate and activate it for the modifications to take effect. where "X" is the sub-interface number of your choice. One's named wlan0 and the other wlan0:0. a virtual sub-interface also known as an "IP alias". Aliases have the name format "parent-interface-name:X".0 ONBOOT=no [root@bigboy network-scripts]# Getting the IP Address using DHCP [root@bigboy tmp]# cd /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts [root@bigboy network-scripts]# more ifcfg-eth0 DEVICE=eth0 BOOTPROTO=dhcp ONBOOT=yes [root@bigboy network-scripts]# As you can see eth0 will be activated on booting as the parameter ONBOOT has the value "yes" and not "no".0 NETWORK=192.100 NETMASK=255.Chapter 8: Linux Networking 73 network-scripts File Formats Fixed IP Address [root@bigboy tmp]# cd /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts [root@bigboy network-scripts]# more ifcfg-eth0 DEVICE=eth0 BROADCAST=192. .255. You can read more about netmasks and DHCP on the introduction to networking chapter. Interface wlan0:0 is actually a "child" of interface wlan0.1.255.168.255 IPADDR=192.

Remember that you may also need to configure your DNS server correctly. then the configuration steps are the same as those outlined above. In this we want to create interface wlan0:0 Create the virtual interface with the ifconfig command [root@bigboy tmp]# ifconfig wlan0:0 192. By default.0.com The process for creating an IP alias is very similar to the steps outlined for the real interface in the previous "changing your IP address" section. RedHat Linux installs the rp-pppoe RPM software package required to support this.rpm.rpm Preparing. broadcast address and gateway information provided by your ISP and you should have connectivity once you restart your interface. If you are using a DSL connection with a DHCP or “dynamic” IP address assignment. First ensure the "parent" real interface exists Verify that no other IP aliases with the same name exists with the name you plan to use. o o o IP Address Assignment For A Direct DSL Connection If you are using a DSL connection with fixed or “static” IP addresses. Here’s what you need to do: . subnet mask. The latest version of the RPM for RedHat 8. the chapter on RPMs covers how to do this in detail. Downloading and installing RPMs isn’t hard.1.i386. The PPPOE configuration will create a software based virtual interface named ppp0 that will use the physical Internet interface eth0 for connectivity. as of version 8.74 www. then the process is different.d/rc. Install the package using the following command: [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh rp-pppoe-3.. You plug your ethernet interface into the DSL modem.168.0 up o You then have the choice of creating a /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-wlan0:0 file or adding the ifconfig command used above to your /etc/rc.99 \ netmask 255. If you need a refresher. ########################################### [100%] 1:rp-pppoe ########################################### [100%] [root@bigboy tmp]# You’ll then need to go through a number of steps to complete the connection. configure it with the IP address. Your ISP will provide you with a PPPoE “username” and “password” which will allow your computer to login transparently to the Internet each time it boots up.i386.255.4-7.0 is rp-pppoe-3.255.4-7.linuxhomenetworking.local file to ensure the IP address is assigned properly when you reboot..

First. enter the idle time in seconds after which the link should be dropped. [root@bigboy network-scripts]# ifdown eth0 [root@bigboy network-scripts]# o Run the adsl-setup configuration script [root@bigboy network-scripts]# adsl-setup o It will prompt you for your ISP username. Welcome to the ADSL client setup. (default eth0): Do you want the link to come up on demand. enter 'no' (two letters... where 'X' is a number. We’ll use defaults wherever possible.Chapter 8: Linux Networking 75 o Make a backup copy of your ifcfg-eth0 file.ifcfg-eth0 o Edit your ifcfg-eth0 file to have no IP information and also to be deactivated on boot time. Enter the demand value (default no): . DEVICE=eth0 ONBOOT=no o Shutdown your eth0 interface. I will run some checks on your system to make sure the PPPoE client is installed properly. If you want the link to stay up permanently. the interface to be used (eth0) and whether you want to the connection to stay up indefinitely. it will be ethX. this is likely to be something like /dev/hme0. or stay up continuously? If you want it to come up on demand.) NOTE: Demand-activated links do not interact well with dynamic IP addresses. [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy ifcfg-eth0 [root@bigboy tmp]# tmp]# cd /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ network-scripts]# ls ifcfg-eth0 network-scripts]# cp ifcfg-eth0 DISABLED. You may have some problems with demand-activated links. For Linux. lower-case. LOGIN NAME Enter your Login Name (default root): bigboy-login@isp INTERFACE Enter the Ethernet interface connected to the ADSL modem For Solaris.

If you’re running BIND on your server in a caching DNS mode then you may want to leave this option blank. Otherwise. 1 . the rules will block outgoing SSH connections which allocate a privileged source port. You are STRONGLY recommended to use some kind of firewall rules. They are very basic and don’t cover rules to make your Linux box a web server. these will provide basic security. This step will edit your /etc/resolv. I’d recommend selecting “none” and using a variant of the basic script samples in the firewall chapter. You are responsible for ensuring the security of your machine.com o It will then prompt you for your DNS server information. or the more comprehensive one found in the Appendix. lower-case.conf file.MASQUERADE: Appropriate for a machine acting as an Internet gateway for a LAN Choose a type of firewall (0-2): 0 . FIREWALLING Please choose the firewall rules to use. DNS Please enter the IP address of your ISP's primary DNS server. The firewall choices are: 0 . If you are running any servers on your machine. ftp.STANDALONE: Appropriate for a basic stand-alone web-surfing workstation 2 . Enter the DNS information here: o The script will then prompt you for your ISP password PASSWORD Please enter your Password: Please re-enter your Password: o Then it will ask whether you want regular users (not superuser “root”) to be able to activate/deactivate the new ppp0 interface USERCTRL Please enter 'yes' (two letters. If your ISP claims that 'the server will provide dynamic DNS addresses'.linuxhomenetworking. however. If you just press enter. etc.76 www. you must choose 'NONE' and set up firewalling yourself. If you want your ISP to automatically provide the IP address of its DNS server then enter the word “server”. e-mail. DNS server nor mail server.) if you want to allow normal user to start or stop DSL connection (default yes): o The rp-pppoe package has two sample ipchains firewall scripts located in the /etc/ppp directory named firewall-standalone and firewall-masq. I will assume you know what you are doing and not modify your DNS setup.NONE: This script will not set any firewall rules. Note that these rules are very basic. enter 'server' (all lower-case) here. You are strongly encouraged to use a more sophisticated firewall setup. the firewall rules will deny access to all standard servers like Web. If you are using SSH.

bak) (But first backing it up to /etc/ppp/pap-secrets. Type '/sbin/adsl-status /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-ppp0' to see the link status. ** Summary of what you entered ** Ethernet Interface: eth0 User name: bigboy-login@isp Activate-on-demand: No DNS: Do not adjust Firewalling: NONE User Control: yes Accept these settings and adjust configuration files (y/n)? y Adjusting /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-ppp0 Adjusting /etc/ppp/chap-secrets and /etc/ppp/pap-secrets (But first backing it up to /etc/ppp/chap-secrets. The first is the ifcfgppp0 file with interface’s link layer connection parameters [root@bigboy network-scripts]# more ifcfg-ppp0 USERCTL=yes BOOTPROTO=dialup NAME=DSLppp0 DEVICE=ppp0 TYPE=xDSL ONBOOT=yes PIDFILE=/var/run/pppoe-adsl.bak) o At the very end it will tell you the commands to use to activate /deactivate your new ppp0 interface and to get a status of the interface’s condition. Some Important Files Created By adsl-setup • The adsl-setup script creates three files that will be of interest to you. it should be all set up! Type '/sbin/ifup ppp0' to bring up your xDSL link and '/sbin/ifdown ppp0'to bring it down. Start this connection at boot time Do you want to start this connection at boot time? Please enter no or yes (default no):yes o Just before exiting.pid FIREWALL=NONE . Congratulations. Most people would say “yes”. This command defaults to show information for interface ppp0 and therefore listing the ifcfg-ppp0 filename won’t be necessary in most home enviornments. you’ll get a summary of the parameters you entered and the relevant configuration files will be updated to reflect your choices when you accept them.Chapter 8: Linux Networking 77 o You’ll then be asked whether you want the connection to be activated upon booting. The above example recommends using the adsl-status command with the name of the PPPoE interface configuration file.

PPPOE_TIMEOUT=20 LCP_FAILURE=3 LCP_INTERVAL=80 CLAMPMSS=1412 CONNECT_POLL=6 CONNECT_TIMEOUT=60 DEFROUTE=yes SYNCHRONOUS=no ETH=eth0 PROVIDER=DSLppp0 USER= bigboy-login@isp PEERDNS=no [root@bigboy network-scripts]# • The others are the duplicate /etc/ppp/pap-secrets and /etc/ppp/chap-secrets files with the username and password needed to login to your ISP.RUNNING. There are some good tips there on how to avoid problems with VPN clients. [root@bigboy network-scripts]# more /etc/ppp/pap-secrets # Secrets for authentication using PAP # client server secret IP addresses "bigboy-login@isp" * "password" [root@bigboy network-scripts]# Simple Troubleshooting • You can run the adsl-status command to determine the condition of your connection.roaringpenguin. adsl-status: Link is attached to ppp0. adsl-status may be inaccurate. but ppp0 is down [root@bigboy tmp]# • After activation.linuxhomenetworking. the interface appears to work correctly.com PING=.com). . [root@bigboy tmp]# ifup ppp0 [root@bigboy tmp]# adsl-status adsl-status: Link is up and running on interface ppp0 ppp0: flags=8051<UP.POINTOPOINT. In this case the package has been installed but the interface hasn’t been activated.MULTICAST> mtu 1462 inet … … … [root@bigboy tmp]# • For further troubleshooting information you can visit the website of rp-ppoe at Roaring Penguin (www. [root@bigboy tmp]# adsl-status Note: You have enabled demand-connection.78 www.

local.0. Let's assume that this router has an IP address of 192.1.255.254 wlan0 The file etc/sysconfig/static-routes will also have to updated so that the route is reinstated when you reboot.255. you'll need to update your /etc/sysconfig/network file to reflect the change.1.254 Some people don't bother with this step and just place the "route add" command in the file /etc/rc. A more complicated /etc/sysconfig/static-routes file is located in a following section. make sure that the router / firewall with IP address 192.d/rc.255.0.Chapter 8: Linux Networking 79 How To Change Your Default Gateway This can be done with a simple command.0.0.1.168.168.0.254 The Linux box used in this example uses interface wlan0 for its Internet connectivity.1.0 to 10.1 is connected to the same network as interface wlan0 ! Once done.168. most PCs would be using the standard ethernet interface eth0. [root@bigboy tmp]# route add default gw 192.168.0 netmask 255. please adjust your steps accordingly. Add the new route as follows: route add -net 10.1.1 wlan0 In this case.0. Here's a typical scenario: • You have one router providing access to the Internet which you'd like to have as your default gateway (See the default gateway example above) • You also have another router providing access to your corporate network using addresses in the range 10.d/rc.168.168.0 gw 192.0. You may be most likely using interface eth0. This example uses a newly installed wireless interface called wlan0. NETWORKING=yes HOSTNAME=bigboy GATEWAY=192.0 netmask 255.local How Configure Two Gateways Some networks may have multiple router / firewalls providing connectivity.0 gw 192.1. Here is a sample.0. wlan0 net 10.0. This file is used to configure your default gateway each time Linux boots. .1 Some people don't bother with this step and just place the "route add" command in the file /etc/rc.0.

0.192 0.16.160.128 0.16.0 0.0.0 172.0 gw 192.0.16.0 192.16.16.255. Networks with a gateway of 0. • In this example there are two gateways.255.224 172.0.16.67.255 192.16.0.69.0 are usually directly connected to the interface.16.67.68.16.224 172.69.135 255.255.linuxhomenetworking.0 255.0.0 0.255.0.0 172.255.135 255.131 255.69. Server bigboy is a DHCP server in this case.16.0 172.193 0.0.0 [root@bigboy tmp]# Flags UH U U UG MSS 40 40 40 40 Window 0 0 0 0 irtt 0 0 0 0 Iface wlan0 wlan0 lo wlan0 • In this example.67.0 172.1 0.0.0.0.0 255.0.0.69.0.224 172.0.67.193 255.0.1.0 255.255.0 0.0 127.255.168.0 127.0.255.0 255.16.193 255.0.0.255 0.0 netmask 255.67.64 172.168.0.11. there are multiple gateways handling traffic destined for different networks on different interfaces.0 0.254 wlan0 The file etc/sysconfig/static-routes will also have to be updated so that when you reboot the server will not reinsert the route. Delete the line that reads: wlan0 net 10.0 172.0.240.0 netmask 255.0.0 255.0.255.0 255. [root@bigboy tmp]# netstat -nr Kernel IP routing table Destination Gateway Genmask 255.255.255.255 which is usually added on DHCP servers.0.255.0.68.192 172.255.69.0.0.0.255.com How To Delete A Route Here's how to delete the routes added in the previous section. As no gateway is needed to reach your own directly connected interface then an address of 0.255.0.0.1.0. route del -net 10.80 www.0.16.0.255.168.0.0 seems appropriate.0.0.255.16.0.1.0. the default and one to 255.128 172.168.96 172.0 gw 192.255.224 172.16.255. [root@bigboy tmp]# netstat -nr Kernel IP routing table Destination Gateway Genmask 172.193 255.254 How To View Your Current Routing Table The netstat -nr command will provide the contents of the touting table.0 0.0 [root@bigboy tmp]# Flags UG UG UG UG U U UG UG U UG MSS 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 Window 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 irtt 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Iface eth1 eth1 eth1 eth0 eth1 eth0 eth0 eth0 lo eth1 • Here is what the static routes file looks like for this multi-homed (Multiple NICs) server .0.32 172.255.255.0.0.1.0.0.

The best way to do this is put the commands above in your /etc/rc.16.255. Here is how it's done: [root@bigboy tmp] echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward The next step needed will be activating proxy ARP.193 [root@bigboy tmp]# How To Convert Your Linux Server Into A Router For your Linux server to become a router.131 eth0 net 172.0 netmask 255.0 netmask 255.16. All computers that need to communicate with a computer on another network send out an ARP request to get the Ethernet MAC address (separate from the IP address) of the most desirable router in their routing table.16.255.193 eth1 net 172.16.255.96 netmask 255.224 gw 172. Proxy ARP has to be enabled for the Linux box to answer ARP requests. In simple terms packet forwarding lets packets flow through the Linux box from one network to another.135 eth1 net 172.240.69.0.255. The configuration parameter to activate this is found in the file /etc/sysctl. To activate the feature immediately you have to create a single lined text file called /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward and it only contain the value "1".local file .224 gw 172.32 netmask 255.16.ip_forward=1 This will only enable it when you reboot at which time Linux will create a file in one of the subdirectories of the special RAM memory based /proc filesystem. Proxy ARP activation needs to be done for each ethernet interface on your Linux box.67.16.64 netmask 255. Remove the "#" from the line related to packet forwarding.255.Chapter 8: Linux Networking 81 [root@bigboy tmp]# more /etc/sysconfig/static-routes eth0 net 172.ip_forward=1 After # Disables packet forwarding net. you have to enable packet forwarding.0.d/rc.0.ipv4.16.0 gw 172.ipv4.255.193 eth1 net 172.255.135 eth0 net 172.160.0 netmask 255.16.255. The router will reply with its MAC address which the server will use when forwarding the packet to the router.224 gw 172.69.16.255.conf.67.16. This example is for interfaces eth0 and wlan0.16.0 gw 172. Before # Disables packet forwarding #net.67. [root@bigboy tmp] echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/eth1/proxy_arp [root@bigboy tmp] echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/wlan0/proxy_arp (You can determine your network interface names with the ifconfig -a command) There is no purpose built configuration file to force Linux to do proxy ARP on booting.11.68.69.67.68.224 gw 172.

then you have to add another entry in this file. You may also want to convert your new Linux router into a firewall to protect your home network. • The /etc/hosts file has the following format: ip-address fully-qualified-domain-name alias1 alias2 alias3 etc • The very first line should always look like this with "localhost" being the only alias: 127.linuxhomenetworking.com hostname Here are some examples: .0. you'll have to update file. if the IP address for that host changes.0.82 www.localdomain hostname Your machine's name is listed with a DNS server IP-address hostname.localdomain localhost • If you have a NIC card in the server. it is best to limit entries in this file to just the loopback interface. First determine what your true hostname is: [root@bigboy mail]# hostname bigboy [root@bigboy mail]# o Add the corresponding entry in the /etc/hosts file for the NIC's IP address o Your NIC's /etc/hosts File Format Your machine's name is NOT listed with a DNS server IP-address hostname.my-site. Your server will typically check this file before referencing DNS. Unfortunately. The Netfilter iptables pages show how to do this. Configuring Your /etc/hosts File The /etc/hosts lists the name and IP address of local hosts.com echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/eth1/proxy_arp echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/wlan0/proxy_arp Remember to configure a default route on your Linux box to point to your Internet gateway.1 localhost. For ease of management. and also the local host's name and use the centralized DNS server handle the rest. if the name is found with a corresponding IP address then DNS won't be queried.

100 is the mail and web server for domain my-site.localdomain bigboy • Host bigboy with an IP address of 192.168.100 bigboy.com with corresponding entries in the DNS zone file for my-site.168.1.my-site.1.1.1. . then just put the two or three aliases that you feel are most important.com bigboy mail www Note: Only have one line per IP address in this file.Chapter 8: Linux Networking 83 • Host bigboy with an IP address of 192.100 bigboy.168. If you server has multiple names.168.com 192.100 isn't part of any DNS domain 192.

84

www.linuxhomenetworking.com

Chapter 8: Linux Networking

85

Chapter 9

Simple Network Troubleshooting
===========================================

In This Chapter Chapter 9
Simple Network Troubleshooting
How To See Your ARP Table How To Use "Ping" To Test Network Connectivity Using "traceroute" To Test Connectivity Viewing Packet Flow With TCPdump © Peter Harrison, www.linuxhomenetworking.com ===========================================

You will eventually find yourself trying to fix a network related problem. Here are some troubleshooting
tips to help you discover what the problem could be.

How To See MAC Addresses
There are times when you lose connectivity with another server that is directly connected to your local network. Taking a look at the ARP table of the server from which you are troubleshooting will help determine whether or not the remote server’s NIC is responding to any type of traffic from your Linux box. Lack of communication at this level may mean: • Either server may be disconnected from the network • There may be bad network cabling • A NIC may be disabled or the remote server may be shut down Here is a description of the commands you may use to determine ARP values • The "ifconfig -a" command will show you both the NIC's MAC address and the associated IP addresses of the server which you are currently logged in to.

86

www.linuxhomenetworking.com

[root@bigboy tmp]# ifconfig -a wlan0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:06:25:09:6A:B5 inet addr:192.168.1.100 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:47379 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:107900 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:100 RX bytes:4676853 (4.4 Mb) TX bytes:43209032 (41.2 Mb) Interrupt:11 Memory:c887a000-c887b000 wlan0:0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:06:25:09:6A:B5 inet addr:192.168.1.99 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 Interrupt:11 Memory:c887a000-c887b000 [root@bigboy tmp]# Here you can see the wlan0 interface has two IP addresses 192.168.1.100 and 192.168.1.99 tied to the NIC hardware MAC address of 00:06:25:09:6A:B5 • The "arp -a" command will show you the MAC addresses in your server's ARP table. Here we see we have some form of connectivity with the router at address 192.168.1.1 [root@bigboy root]# arp -a bigboypix (192.168.1.1) at 00:09:E8:9C:FD:AB [ether] on wlan0 ? (192.168.1.101) at 00:06:25:09:6A:D7 [ether] on wlan0 [root@bigboy root]# • You should also check the ARP table of the remote server to see whether it is populated with acceptable values too.

How To Use "Ping" To Test Network Connectivity
Whether or not your troublesome server is connected to your local network it is always a good practice to force a response from it. One of the most common methods used to test connectivity across multiple networks is the "ping" command. Ping sends ICMP “echo” type packets that request a corresponding ICMP “echo-reply” response from the device at the target address. As most servers will respond to a ping query it becomes a very handy tool. A lack of response could be due to: • A server with that IP address doesn't exist • The server has been configured not to respond to pings • A firewall or router along the network path is blocking ICMP traffic • You have incorrect routing. Check routes on the local, remote servers and all routers in between. A classic symptom of bad routes on a server is the ability to only ping servers on your local network and nowhere else. There are a variety of ICMP response codes which can help in further troubleshooting. See the appendix for a full listing of them.

Chapter 9: Simple Network Troubleshooting

87

The Linux ping command will send continuous pings, once a second, until stopped with a <Ctrl-C>. Here is an example of a successful ping to the server bigboy at 192.168.1.100 [root@smallfry tmp]# ping 192.168.1.101 PING 192.168.1.101 (192.168.1.101) from data. 64 bytes from 192.168.1.101: icmp_seq=1 64 bytes from 192.168.1.101: icmp_seq=2 64 bytes from 192.168.1.101: icmp_seq=3 64 bytes from 192.168.1.101: icmp_seq=4

192.168.1.100 : 56(84) bytes of ttl=128 ttl=128 ttl=128 ttl=128 time=3.95 time=7.07 time=4.46 time=4.31 ms ms ms ms

--- 192.168.1.101 ping statistics --4 packets transmitted, 4 received, 0% loss, time 3026ms rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 3.950/4.948/7.072/1.242 ms [root@smallfry tmp]# You may get a "Destination Host Unreachable" message if your router or server knows that the target IP address is part of a valid network, but is getting no response from the target server. The network device sends an ICMP reply type 3 which triggers the message. [root@smallfry tmp]# ping 192.168.1.105 PING 192.168.1.105 (192.168.1.105) from 192.168.1.100 : 56(84) bytes of data. From 192.168.1.100 icmp_seq=1 Destination Host Unreachable From 192.168.1.100 icmp_seq=2 Destination Host Unreachable From 192.168.1.100 icmp_seq=3 Destination Host Unreachable From 192.168.1.100 icmp_seq=4 Destination Host Unreachable From 192.168.1.100 icmp_seq=5 Destination Host Unreachable From 192.168.1.100 icmp_seq=6 Destination Host Unreachable --- 192.168.1.105 ping statistics --8 packets transmitted, 0 received, +6 errors, 100% loss, time 7021ms, pipe 3 [root@smallfry tmp]#

Using "traceroute" To Test Connectivity
Another tool for network troubleshooting is the traceroute command. It gives a listing of all the router hops between your server and the target server. This helps you verify that routing over the networks in between is correct. Traceroute works by sending a UDP packet destined to the target with a TTL of "0". The first router on the route recognizes that the TTL has already been exceeded and discards or “drops” the packet, but also sends an ICMP "time exceeded" message back to the source. The traceroute program records the IP address of the router that sent the message and knows that that is the first hop on the path to the final destination. The traceroute program tries again, with a TTL of "1". The first hop, sees nothing wrong with the packet, decrements the TTL to 0 as expected, and forwards the packet to the second hop on the path. Router 2, sees the TTL of "0", drops the packet and replies with an ICMP time exceeded message. Traceroute now knows the IP address of the second router. This continues around and around until the final destination is reached.

88

www.linuxhomenetworking.com

Here is a sample output for a query to 144.232.20.158: [root@bigboy root]# traceroute 144.232.20.158 traceroute to 144.232.20.158 (144.232.20.158), 30 hops max, 38 byte packets 1 adsl-67-120-221-110.dsl.sntc01.pacbell.net (67.120.221.110) 14.304 ms 14.019 ms 16.120 ms 2 dist3-vlan50.sntc01.pbi.net (63.203.35.67) 12.971 ms 14.000 ms 14.627 ms 3 bb1-g1-0.sntc01.pbi.net (63.203.35.17) 15.521 ms 12.860 ms 13.179 ms 4 bb2-p11-0.snfc21.pbi.net (64.161.124.246) 13.991 ms 15.842 ms 15.728 ms 5 bb1-p14-0.snfc21.pbi.net (64.161.124.53) 16.133 ms 15.510 ms 15.909 ms 6 sl-gw11-sj-3-0.sprintlink.net (144.228.44.49) 16.510 ms 17.469 ms 18.116 ms 7 sl-bb25-sj-6-1.sprintlink.net (144.232.3.133) 16.212 ms 14.274 ms 15.926 ms 8 * * * 9 * * [root@bigboy root]# If there is no response within a 5 second timeout interval a "*" is printed for that probe. Possible causes of this and other traceroute status messages are listed below:

Possible Traceroute Messages
Traceroute Symbol *** Description Time exceeded. Could be caused by: • A router on the path not sending back the ICMP "time exceeded" messages • A router or firewall in the path blocking the ICMP "time exceeded" messages • The target IP address not responding Host, network or protocol unreachable Communication administratively prohibited. A router Access Control List (ACL) or firewall is in the way Source route failed. Source routing attempts to force traceroute to use a certain path. Failure may be due to a router security setting

!H, !N, or !P !X or !A !S

Some devices will prevent traceroute packets directed at their interfaces, but will allow ICMP packets. Using traceroute with a “-I” flag forces traceroute to use ICMP packets that may go through. In this case the "* * *", status messages disappear. [root@bigboy root]# traceroute -I 144.232.20.158 traceroute to 144.232.20.158 (144.232.20.158), 30 hops max, 38 byte packets 1 adsl-67-120-221-110.dsl.sntc01.pacbell.net (67.120.221.110) 14.408 ms 14.064 ms 13.111 ms

Chapter 9: Simple Network Troubleshooting

89

2 dist3-vlan50.sntc01.pbi.net (63.203.35.67) 13.018 ms 12.887 ms 13.146 ms 3 bb1-g1-0.sntc01.pbi.net (63.203.35.17) 12.854 ms 13.035 ms 13.745 ms 4 bb2-p11-0.snfc21.pbi.net (64.161.124.246) 16.260 ms 15.618 ms 15.663 ms 5 bb1-p14-0.snfc21.pbi.net (64.161.124.53) 15.897 ms 15.785 ms 17.164 ms 6 sl-gw11-sj-3-0.sprintlink.net (144.228.44.49) 14.443 ms 16.279 ms 15.189 ms 7 sl-bb25-sj-6-1.sprintlink.net (144.232.3.133) 16.185 ms 15.857 ms 15.423 ms 8 sl-bb23-ana-6-0.sprintlink.net (144.232.20.158) 27.482 ms 26.306 ms 26.487 ms [root@bigboy root]#

Always Get A Bidirectional Traceroute
It is always best to get traceroutes from the source IP to the target IP and also from the target IP to the source IP. This is because the packet's return path from the target is sometimes not the same as the path taken to get there. A high traceroute time equates to the round trip time for both the initial traceroute query to each “hop” and the response of each “hop”. Here is an example of one such case, using disguised IP addresses and provider names. There was once a routing issue between telecommunications carriers FastNet and SlowNet. When a user at IP address 40.16.106.32 did a traceroute to 64.25.175.200, a problem seemed to appear at the 10th. hop with OtherNet. However, when a user at 64.25.175.200 did a traceroute to 40.16.106.32, latency showed up at hop 7 with the return path being very different. In this case, the real traffic congestion was occurring where FastNet handed traffic off to SlowNet in the second trace. The latency appeared to be caused at hop 10 on the first trace not because that hop was slow, but because that was the first hop at which the return packet traveled back to the source via the congested route. Remember, traceroute gives the packet round trip time. Trace route to 40.16.106.32 from 64.25.175.200 1 0 ms 0 ms 2 0 ms 0 ms 3 0 ms 0 ms [207.174.144.169] 4 0 ms 0 ms 5 0 ms 0 ms 6 0 ms 0 ms 7 0 ms 0 ms 8 30 ms 30 ms 9 30 ms 30 ms 10 1252 ms 1212 ms 11 1252 ms 1212 ms 12 1262 ms 1212 ms 13 1102 ms 1091 ms 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 30 30 1202 1192 1192 1092 [64.25.175.200] [64.25.175.253] border-from-40-tesser.boulder.co.coop.net [64.25.128.126] p3-0.dnvtco1-cr3.othernet.net [4.25.26.53] p2-1.dnvtco1-br1.othernet.net [4.24.11.25] p15-0.dnvtco1-br2.othernet.net [4.24.11.38] p15-0.snjpca1-br2.othernet.net [4.0.6.225] p1-0.snjpca1-cr4.othernet.net [4.24.9.150] h0.webhostinc2.othernet.net [4.24.236.38] [40.16.96.11] [40.16.96.162] [40.16.106.32]

Trace route to 64.25.175.200 from 40.16.106.32 1 2 3 4 1 1 2 1 ms ms ms ms 1 1 1 1 ms ms ms ms 1 1 1 1 ms ms ms ms [40.16.106.3] [40.16.96.161] [40.16.96.2] [40.16.96.65]

coop.24.net [205.net rtr-1.sfj.24.33] sjo-core-01. Each “bounce” causes the TTL to decrease by a count of one until the TTL reaches zero at which point you get the timeout.171.17.40.40.52.net [205.93] [186.snjpca1-br1.64.25.64.sfj.99] [64.confusion.40.94: 186.61] p9-0.17.77] 6 2 ms 1 [216.93] [186.175.net ms core1.com 5 2 ms 2 [216.64.net rtr-2.17.93.slownet.9.253] [64.94] .9.net [186.net ms ms ms ms ms ms ms ms ms ms ms ms ms ms sjo-edge-03.snjpca1-br2.webh02-1.19.26.net [4. The routing loop was confirmed by the traceroute in which the packet was proven to be bouncing between routers at 186.200] Ping & Traceroute Troubleshooting Example In this example.153 with 32 bytes of data: Reply Reply Reply Reply from from from from 186.slownet.p4-2.9.226] p15-0.65] 7 993 ms 961 8 1009 ms 1008 9 985 ms 947 10 1028 ms 1010 11 989 ms 988 12 1002 ms 1001 13 1031 ms 989 14 1031 ms 1017 15 1027 ms 1025 16 1045 ms 1037 17 1030 ms 1020 18 1038 ms 1031 19 1050 ms 1094 20 1050 ms 1094 ms 1 ms 1 ms ms ms ms ms ms ms ms ms ms ms ms ms ms 999 971 983 953 985 973 978 1017 1023 1050 1045 1045 1034 1034 ms border8.net [186. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.153] over a maximum of 30 hops: 1 2 3 4 5 6 <10 60 70 60 70 60 ms ms ms ms ms ms <10 70 71 70 70 70 ms ms ms ms ms ms <10 60 70 60 70 61 ms ms ms ms ms ms 186. Lost = 0 (0% loss).ge0-1-net2.9.net rtr-1.paix-bi1.othernet.net [4.97] [205.30] p4-3.64.net rtr-2.94: 186.net [4.7.17.othernet.co. G:\>ping 186.40.inet.40.25. transit.64.confusion.94: 186.49.33.40.net [64.6.13] p6-0.217.52.othernet.2.24.22.9.25.1 rtr-2.64.40.net [208.175.40.29] svl-core-03.net [4.cointcorp.94] [186.205. a ping to 186. Ping TTLs will usually only timeout if there is a routing loop in which the packet bounces between two routers on the way to the target.confusion.64.dnvtco1-cr3.confusion.153 Pinging 186.40.64.94: TTL TTL TTL TTL expired expired expired expired in in in in transit.128.153: Packets: Sent = 4.94] [186.46.11. Received = 4.0.171.othernet.11. transit.40. Ping statistics for 186.net [4.slownet.0.boulder.64.90 www.othernet. Maximum = 0ms.inet. Average = 0ms G:\>tracert 186.9.inet.confusion.9.26] p0-0.17.dnvtco1-br2.37] p1-0.fastnet.40.25.153 gave a “TTL timeout” message.64.confusion.54] gw234.linuxhomenetworking.171.130] p3-0.64.fastnet.5. transit.othernet.223.net [4.net [4.24.dnvtco1-br1.94 and 186.153 Tracing route to lostserver.17.othernet.

The packets don’t have a proper return path to your server. or turned off. Do a traceroute from this router to your intended target server.40.64.64.. The traceroute will probably fail at the bad router on the return path.93] rtr-2.64. these include: o Traceroute packets are being blocked or rejected by a router in the path. The router immediately after the last visible one is usually the culprit.net [186.Chapter 9: Simple Network Troubleshooting 91 7 70 ms 70 ms 8 60 ms 70 ms 9 70 ms 70 ms .40.. It could be disconnected. Trace complete. The router immediately after the last visible one is the one at which the routing changes.94] rtr-1. It’s usually good to: log on to the last visible router.93] This problem was solved by resetting the routing process on both routers. The problem was initially triggered by an unstable network link that caused frequent routing recalculations. If this works: Routing to the target server is OK. . . Possible Reasons For Failed Traceroutes Traceroutes can fail to reach their intended destination for a number of reasons. The last visible hop being the last hop in which the packets return correctly. Look at the routing table to determine what the next hop is to your intended traceroute target. Log on to this next hop router. It’s usually good to check the routing table and/or other status of this next hop device. o o o o o .. (!H or !N messages may be produced. then the last visible router of an incomplete trace is either the last good router on the path.net [186. or the last router that has a valid return path to the server issuing the traceroute.. Note: If there is nothing blocking your traceroute traffic. The target server doesn’t exist on the network.confusion.40.net [186...confusion. The constant activity eventually corrupted the routing tables of one of the routers.) You may have a typographical error in the IP address of the target server You may have a routing loop in which packets bounce between two routers and never get to the intended destination.confusion. Do a traceroute back to your source server. 70 ms 60 ms 70 ms rtr-1.) The network on which you expect the target host to reside doesn’t exist in the routing table of one of the routers in the path (!H or !N messages may be produced. If it doesn’t work: Test the routing table and/or other status of all the hops between it and your intended target.

It is installed by default on RedHat linux and has very simple syntax. Like most Linux commands. especially if you are doing simpler types of troubleshooting.92 www. One of the most common uses of tcpdump is to determine whether you are getting basic two way communication.com Viewing Packet Flow With TCPdump Tcpdump is one of the most popular packages for viewing the flow of packets through your Linux box's NIC card. Listen on interface.linuxhomenetworking. Some of the more useful command line switches would include: Possible TCPdump Messages tcpdump command switch -c -i -t Description Stop after viewing count packets. interfaces of devices in the packet flow • The server not listening on the port because the software isn't installed or started Analyzing tcpdump in much greater detail is beyond the scope of this section. These act as filters to limit the volume of data presented on the screen. then tcpdump will use the lowest numbered interface that is UP Don't print a timestamp at the beginning of each line You can also add expressions after all the command line switches. Some useful expressions include: . If this is not specified. tcpdump uses command line switches to modify the output. You can also use keywords such as "and" or "or" between expressions to further fine tune your selection criteria. Lack of communication could be due to: • Bad routing • Faulty cables.

962244 bigboy.927510 bigboy.968556 bigboy.928257 smallfry > bigboy.my-site.my-site.my-site.my-site.com > smallfry: 21:48:58.my-site.Chapter 9: Simple Network Troubleshooting 93 Useful TCPdump Expressions tcpdump command expression host host-address icmp tcp port port-number Description View packets from the IP address host-address View icmp packets View TCP packets with packets with either a source or destination TCP port of portnumber View UDP packets with either a source or destination UDP port of port-number udp port port-number Example: tcpdump used to view ICMP "ping" packets going through interface wlan0 [root@bigboy tmp]# tcpdump -i wlan0 icmp tcpdump: listening on wlan0 21:48:58.com > smallfry: 21:48:58.my-site.com > smallfry: 21:48:58.com > smallfry: 9 packets received by filter 0 packets dropped by kernel [root@bigboy tmp]# Explanation o o o o The first column of data is a packet time stamp.927091 smallfry > bigboy.943926 smallfry > bigboy.my-site.944034 bigboy.928365 bigboy.963966 bigboy.my-site.com: 21:48:58.my-site. The second column of data shows the packet source then destination IP address or server name of the packet The third column shows the packet type Two way communication is occurring as each echo gets an echo reply icmp: icmp: icmp: icmp: icmp: icmp: icmp: icmp: icmp: echo echo echo echo echo echo echo echo echo request (DF) reply request (DF) reply request (DF) reply reply reply reply .com: 21:48:58.com > smallfry: 21:48:58.com: 21:48:58.com > smallfry: 21:48:58.

32938 > bigboy.32938 > bigboy.1.ssh: 5840 <mss 1460.my-site.com.32938: (DF) [tos 0x10] smallfry.my-site.ssh > smallfry.my-site.ssh: 5840 <mss 1460.102 and tcp port 22 tcpdump: listening on wlan0 smallfry.32938 > bigboy.my-site.my-site.timestamp 75227931 0x10] bigboy.32938: 0x10] S 2013297020:2013297020(0) win 0.ssh > smallfry.timestamp 75227931 0x10] bigboy.com Example: tcpdump used to view packets on interface wlan0 to/from host 192.32938: 0x10] bigboy.wscale 0> (DF) [tos R 0:0(0) ack 1 win 0 (DF) [tos S 2013297020:2013297020(0) win 0.com.168.com.32938: 0x10] smallfry.timestamp 75227931 0x10] bigboy.com.94 www.linuxhomenetworking.com.1.my-site.my-site.sackOK.sackOK.ssh > smallfry.32938: R 0:0(0) ack 1 win 0 (DF) [tos 0x10] 9 packets received by filter 0 packets dropped by kernel [root@bigboy root]# Explanation o o o o The first column of data shows the packet source then destination IP address or server name of the packet The second column shows the TCP flags within the packet The client named "bigboy" is using port 32938 to communicate with the server named "smallfry" on the TCP SSH port 22.my-site.my-site.nop.nop.wscale 0> (DF) [tos R 0:0(0) ack 1 win 0 (DF) [tos R 0:0(0) ack 1 win 0 (DF) [tos bigboy.102 on TCP port 22 with no timestamps in the output [root@bigboy root]# tcpdump -i wlan0 -t host 192.ssh > smallfry.168.ssh > smallfry.wscale 0> (DF) [tos R 0:0(0) ack 2013297021 win 0 S 2013297020:2013297020(0) win 0.nop. Two way communication is occuring .32938: R 0:0(0) ack 1 win 0 (DF) [tos 0x10] bigboy.ssh: 5840 <mss 1460.com.com.ssh > smallfry.com.sackOK.com.

Chapter 9: Simple Network Troubleshooting 95 .

96 www.com .linuxhomenetworking.

For this reason it is best to check the Linux-WLAN group’s website at www. If you are not running RedHat Linux. As of version 8.org for the latest hardware compatibility list.com =========================================== This chapter will show you how to configure wireless NIC cards on your Linux box.0.linuxhomenetworking.97 Chapter 10 Linux Wireless Networking =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 10 Linux Wireless Networking Wireless Linux Compatible NICs Linux-WLAN Preparation Installing The Linux-WLAN Drivers Post Installation Steps Linux-WLAN Encryption For Security Troubleshooting Your Wireless LAN © Peter Harrison. www. You have to download and install them after installing Linux. For this reason it may be good to keep your regular Ethernet NIC installed in the machine to provide connectivity to the web until you get the wireless NIC to work.linux-wlan. Wireless Linux Compatible NICs Not all wireless NIC cards work with Linux-WLAN. RedHat did not ship with the Linux Wireless driver set (Linux-WLAN) installed. . or have upgraded your RedHat distribution’s kernel then you can refer to the sections on how to install WLAN from universally usable tar files. or you could ask someone to burn a CD with the files needed for installation.

You’ll have to download and install the latest firmware for a card from the Linksys website. You can determine whether you have this model by looking for the “V2.98 www. Linksys launched a Version 2. the original WMP won’t work without upgrading the firmware.0 Network controller: BROADCOM Corporation: Unknown device 4301 (rev01) Subsystem: Unknown device 1737:4301 Flags: bus master.7” which is very clearly stamped on the front side of these cards.7 as being an incompatible device.7 card using a Broadcom chipset will not.7 Card In September 2002. fast devsel.7) model of the WMP11 card using a Broadcom chipset. frame dropped. Aug 25 21:07:06 hostname kernel: p80211knetdev_hard_start_xmit: Tx attempt prior to association.4. IRQ 5 Memory at f4000000 (32-bit. The WMP 11 Version 2. If you don't.7 (or v2.4. Be careful as this message can also be due to you using an SSID in your configuration files that doesn’t match the SSID of your WAP / wireless router.org site's hardware compatibility page now lists the WMP v2. The linux-wlan. You may find more information in syslog or the output from dmesg Dec 1 01:28:14 bigboy insmod: /lib/modules/2. then install the card in a windows box and upgrade the firmware. including invalid IO or IRQ parameters.18-14/net/prism2_pci. non-prefetchable) [size=3D8K] Capabilities: [40] Power Management version 2 Installing the WMP11 v2.7 with the linux-WLAN tarball using RPMs will give the following error message on the screen: Dec 1 01:28:14 bigboy insmod: /lib/modules/2.linuxhomenetworking. but the newer version 2.7 with the linux-WLAN tarball will give the following error in the log file /var/log/messages 00:0c. Installing the WMP11 v2. Even so. your Linux box may not detect your NIC card at all and you will get kernel error messages like this one in /var/log/messages after you finish installing the software.18-14/net/prism2_pci.com The Linksys WMP11 NIC and Linux You have to be especially carefull with Linksys WMP series of wireless PCI cards. latency 64. Pre Version 2.o: insmod wlan0 failed . The older version of the card that uses the Intersil chipset works with Linux.o: init_module: No such device Dec 1 01:28:14 bigboy insmod: Hint: insmod errors can be caused by incorrect module parameters.7 WMP 11 Card This card uses the Linux-WLAN compatible Intersil chipset and doesn’t have any version number stamped on it.

You may get "device unknown" or "no such device" errors related to the wlan device in the /var/log/messages file if you use older unpatched versions of the Linux-WLAN software. Determining The Kernel Type Use the "uname -p" command. This is good to know in order to avoid confusion when troubleshooting. Remember to download the files for the correct kernel type.unixguru. Linux-WLAN doesn’t identify the wireless NIC as an Ethernet “eth” device. the default SSID for your windows NIC cards may be different. According to the linux-wlan documentation. If you need a refresher. but as a “wlan” device.Chapter 10: Linux Wireless Networking 99 Linux-WLAN Preparation All devices on a wireless network must use the same “Network Identifier” or SSID in order to communicate with each other. this will have to be done from a source RPM. It is a good source of information. Once configured.Using RPMs 2. OS version and kernel version. always use the uname version. Installing The Linux-WLAN Drivers Linux-WLAN Installation . Download the latest version of linux-wlan RPM.1. This step isn't necessary for true PCI cards such as the Linksys WMP11. the RPM chapter covers how to do this in detail.i386. [root@bigboy tmp]# uname -p i586 [root@bigboy tmp]# . The Bigboy server discussed in the Topology chapter is running a i586 version of Linux.nc. the RPM chapter covers how to do this in detail. Always use the most recent versions to reduce the installation mental stress.31-9. The latest version as of this writing was: kernel-pcmcia-cs-3. RPM versions of the driver files can be found at http://prism2. PCMCIA Type Card Specific Information Before installing the linux-wlan software for PCMCIA type cards such as the (Linksys WPC11) you will need to install the RedHat Linux "pcmcia-cs" RPM package.raleigh. It’s a good idea to decide on a common SSID and stick with it. The default SSID for Linux-WLAN is “linux-wlan”.rpm Downloading and installing RPMs isn’t hard. The Linux version may not match the CPU you have installed. Downloading and installing RPMs isn’t hard. Always be prepared to check your syslog /var/log/messages file for errors if things don't work. If you need a refresher. The syslog chapter will also show you how to set up syslog error logging to be more sensitive to error types.us.

conf and /etc/pcmcia/wlanng.155. /etc/wlan.rh80.1.0 [root@bigboy cron.0 (Psyche) Kernel \r on an \m [root@bigboy cron.rpm If you get any error messages during the installation. I have seen the kernel-wlan-ng-pcmcia rpm installation give errors stating that the kernel-pcmcia-cs rpm hadn't been previously installed even when it had been. In this case.rpm [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh kernel-wlan-ng-pci-0.1. Here are examples for a i586 installation using a PCI card on Redhat 8. module and interface packages.com Determining The OS Version One of the easiest ways is to view the /etc/issue file.4. you’ll need to download and install the base.155.18-14 [root@bigboy tmp]# If you upgrade the version of your Linux. Once you have all this information.i586.100 www. Always remember that under normal circumstances this wouldn’t be a good idea.i586.linuxhomenetworking.rh80.18-14 [root@bigboy tmp]# uname -r 2.daily]# more /etc/issue Red Hat Linux release 8.4. 3.1.0 [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh kernel-wlan-ng-0.daily]# Determining The Kernel Version You can use the "uname -r" command to do this.rh80.15-5.opts files which you may have to restore from the automatically saved versions. The combined Linux / Linux-WLAN upgrade will also create new versions of your /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-wlan0. then you're doing something wrong. Installing the rpm with --force and --nodeps switches does the trick by forcing the installation while not checking for dependencies.140. you'll have to do these steps all over again. . error messages are there for a reason. However.rpm [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh kernel-wlan-ng-modules-rh80. Bigboy is running version 2.i586. Bigboy is running version 8.

18-3. The most recent version as of this writing was: linux-wlan-ng-0.tar tmp]# cd linux-wlan-ng-0. [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh kernel-source-2.14]# make config .4.1.14-pre1.1.4. then you’ll need to use the TAR file installation method. ########################################### [100%] 1:kernel-wlan-ng-pcmcia ########################################### [100%] Adding prism2_cs alias to /etc/modules. Starting PCMCIA services: modules cardmgr.1.3 it was version 2.15-6.1.rpm Preparing.gz tmp]# tar -xvf linux-wlan-ng-0.i386.1. you'll probably have to do these steps all over again Install the Kernel Source Files Installing Linux-WLAN using TAR files involves compiling the software to make it match the particular flavor of the Linux kernel you are running.gz Unzip and install the Linux-WLAN files [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy tmp]# gunzip linux-wlan-ng-0. If you are running standard RedHat Linux use the RPMs unless you have excess patience.linux-wlan.i686.18-3.1.Chapter 10: Linux Wireless Networking 101 [root@smallfry tmp]# rpm -Uvh kernel-wlan-ng-pcmcia-0.1.i686.tar. ACHTUNG! ATTENTION! WARNING! YOU MUST configure /etc/pcmcia/wlan-ng.conf file.156..15-6 [root@smallfry tmp]# rpm -Uvh --force --nodeps kernel-wlan-ngpcmcia-0.opts to match WAP settings!!! [root@smallfry tmp]# Linux-WLAN Installation – Using TAR files If you are running a non standard version of your RedHat kernel or using a version of Linux that is incompatible with RPMs.14-pre1.org.14 linux-wlan-ng-0.rpm error: Failed dependencies: kernel-pcmcia-cs is needed by kernel-wlan-ng-pcmcia-0. Shutting down PCMCIA services: cardmgr modules. For RedHat version 7.rpm Download And Install The Linux-WLAN TAR File Download the latest version of Linux-WLAN from www..14]# make clean linux-wlan-ng-0.. Remember that if you upgrade your Linux version or kernel. The default wlan0 network configuration is DHCP. Adjust accordingly.14-pre1.1.tar. It is therefore important to install your kernel sources files..1.

plx.d/wmp11 3. plx. where “linux-kernel-version“ is the version of the kernel. Create a startup driver configuration file called wmp11 (or whatever you NIC card is named) in the /etc/init.14]# make install o Configure The New wlan0 Interface Driver (PCI Cards) 1.d directory [root@bigboy tmp]# vi /etc/init.conf and insert the following line to load the driver on booting: alias wlan0 prism2_pci 2. You can also test these commands from the command line to see if they work. Add the following 4 lines to the file.102 www. #!/bin/bash modprobe prism2_pci wlanctl-ng wlan0 lnxreq_ifstate ifstate=enable wlanctl-ng wlan0 lnxreq_autojoin ssid=linux_wlan authtype=opensystem exit 0 Remember to modify the SSID in the above commands to match that of your WAP.14]# make all [root@bigboy linux-wlan-ng-0. and usb driver questions (PCMCIA cards only) Say 'y' to pcmcia and 'n' to pci. and usb driver questions When you are prompted for the "Module install directory" enter /lib/modules/”linux-kernelversion”.linuxhomenetworking. The response should be: . Get a directory listing of /lib/modules/ beforehand to make sure you are providing the correct kernel directory that both matches your kernel version and that also actually has files in it.1. Edit /etc/modules.com =========================================== Running “make config” command will prompt you for information: o o o (PCI cards only) Say 'y' to pci and 'n' to pcmcia. Use other defaults =========================================== [root@bigboy linux-wlan-ng-0.1. Select only a single module directory as using more than one can lead to future "make" problems.

. If you don’t want to use the /etc/rc.conf. . /etc/pcmcia/wlan-ng.d/wmp11 5.d/rc. but applications such as Samba. At this time.d/wmp11 S09wmp11 Configure The New wlan0 Interface Driver (PCMCIA Cards) Open and edit the configuration options file. Make the file executable so that it will be able to run on the next system reboot. when configured to specifically run on the IP address of your interface. [root@bigboy tmp]# chmod 755 /etc/init.d/wmp11 be run before "S10network" during the boot process.. The next step is to create a link to this file in the startup directories.Chapter 10: Linux Wireless Networking 103 message=lnxreq_autojoin ssid=linksys authtype=opensystem resultcode=success If you get a resultcode=error or something else./init. DNS (named) and SSH. If your applications are set to promiscuous listening. When booting.opts.d tmp]# ln -s . Some web sites recommend putting the driver loading commands in /etc/rc. DHCP server. which is the default setting for the applications above. it may not matter and you could put these commands in your /etc/rc. Locate the lines containing "ssid=linux_wlan" and set the SSID to whatever value you’ve decided to use on your wireless LAN.local file instead and save yourself a lot of grief. the "Link" LED on your NIC card will come on solid.d/wmp11 S09wmp11 tmp]# cd /etc/rc5. [root@bigboy [root@bigboy filename) [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy tmp]# cd /etc/rc3.d/rc. In RedHat the default network startup script link in /etc/rc3.local.d and /etc/rc5. and also it will cause the system to try to bring up wlan0 before the PCMCIA services. may fail to start if the interface is down. This may not be a problem for many installations. as it has established a link with the WAP11 access point. but this makes the driver load at the end of the booting process and the wlan0 interface will be inactive till then.local file then you need to ensure that you run your custom driver script before the Linux "network" script starts up the wlan0 interface device you will create later. as it is not neccessary. then start over making sure you are using the latest versions of the Linux-WLAN software.d tmp]# ls *network* (Verify the "network" tmp]# ln -s . 4.d is named "S10network".d/rc./init. which won't work. NOTE: Never alias for the PCMCIA cards in /etc/modules. You will need to create a symbolic link called "S09wmp11" to make /etc/init. the system needs to load the drivers for the interface before it will activate the interface.

1. broadcast address with those above. Select the Wireless mode and SSID Edit your /etc/wlan.255.1 o o Disable Your Existing Ethernet NIC You may want to disable your existing eth0 Ethernet interface after installing the drivers.1. .100 NETMASK=255. This will disable the interface on reboot or when /etc/init. Locate the lines containing "ssid=linux_wlan" and set the SSID to whatever value you’ve decided to use on your wireless LAN.com Post Installation Steps Configure The New wlan0 Interface Edit /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-wlan0 to include the following lines: DHCP Version ============ DEVICE=wlan0 USERCTL=yes ONBOOT=yes BOOTPROTO=dhcp Fixed IP Version ================= DEVICE=wlan0 BROADCAST=192.168.255.168. Also modify the IS_ADHOC option to make your NIC either support "adhoc" mode for peer to peer networks or "infrastructure" mode if you are using a WAP. GATEWAY=192.d/network is restarted.168.168.opts file (PCMCIA type NICs) configuration file.255 IPADDR=192.104 www. network.linuxhomenetworking.1.1.0 ONBOOT=yes In the fixed IP version you will also need to: Substitute your selected IP.conf file (PCI type NIC) or your /etc/pcmcia/wlan-ng. eg. netmask.0 NETWORK=192. Make sure you have correct gateway statement in your /etc/sysconfig/network file. Edit /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 file to have an ONBOOT=no entry.

d/init. Inspect your /var/log/messages file again: [root@bigboy tmp]# tail -300 /var/log/messages Look carefully for any signs that the card is interfering with existing card IRQs. If that is the case. n . or "IRQ also used by.adhoc. or otherwise eliminate the conflict by disabling the conflicting device if you don’t really need it. If there is a conflict there will usually be a warning. move the card to a different slot. .. y .d/wmp11 [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.Chapter 10: Linux Wireless Networking 105 Here is a sample snippet. #=======SELECT STATION MODE=================== IS_ADHOC=n # y|n. Insert the card in an empty slot in your Linux box and reboot.d/network restart Now check to see IP address of the wlan interface is OK [root@bigboy tmp]# ifconfig -a [root@bigboy tmp]# ping <gateway-address> Check For Interrupt Conflicts Before installing the software you should ensure that the wireless NIC card doesn’t have an interrupt that clashes with another device in your computer.d/network restart PCMCIA Cards [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/rc." message..d/wlan restart PCI Cards – Installed Using TAR Files [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.d/pcmcia restart [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.infrastructure #=======INFRASTRUCTURE STATION START=================== # SSID is all we have for now AuthType="opensystem" # opensystem | sharedkey (requires WEP) # Use DesiredSSID="" to associate with any AP in range DesiredSSID="linksys" Simulate a Reboot Run the following commands and test for errors in the file /var/log/messages: PCI Cards – Installed Using RPMs [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.

the base memory address which was used by Linux to communicate with the cards were different.106 www.0.0.0.168.168.255. You can check both the interrupts and base memory of your NIC cards after doing the software installation by using the "ifconfig -a" command: [root@bigboy tmp]# ifconfig -a eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:08:C7:10:74:A8 BROADCAST MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:100 RX bytes:0 (0.0 UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1 RX packets:88418 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:88418 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 RX bytes:7678679 (7. you can also inspect your /proc/interrupts file for multiple devices having the same interrupt [root@bigboy tmp]# more /proc/interrupts 11: 4639 XT-PIC wlan0. newer PCI based systems generally handle conflicts better.3 Mb) TX bytes:7678679 (7. the reason why it worked was that though the interrupt was the same. eth0 [root@bigboy tmp]# more /proc/interrupts 11: 4639 XT-PIC wlan0 (bad) (good) Interrupt conflicts are usually more problematic with old style PC-AT buses.8 Mb) Interrupt:11 Memory:c887a000-c887b000 [root@bigboy tmp]# .linuxhomenetworking.5 Mb) TX bytes:126738425 (120.1.com After you’ve installed the software.1.0 b) Interrupt:11 Base address:0x1820 lo Link encap:Local Loopback inet addr:127. The above (bad) /proc/interrupts example came from a functioning PCI based Linux box.0 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:215233 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:447594 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:100 RX bytes:39394014 (37.100 Bcast:192.255.3 Mb) wlan0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:06:25:09:6A:B5 inet addr:192.255 Mask:255.1 Mask:255.0.0 b) TX bytes:0 (0.

"ketchup" is the password used to automatically generate the keys. Set genstr or keys. and intra-network communication will be impossible. #=======WEP=========================================== # [Dis/En]able WEP. You then have the option of either providing a key generating string (simple password) or all four of the keys.opts) file and set the PRIV_GENSTR parameter to "". If this is the case. you have to set the "dot11PrivacyInvoked" parameter to "true" and state which of the keys will be used as the default starting key via the "dot11WEPDefaultKeyID" parameter.conf (or /etc/pcmcia/wlan-ng. Here is how you can use nwepgen to create the keys with a generator string of "ketchup".Chapter 10: Linux Wireless Networking 107 Linux-WLAN Encryption For Security One of the flaws of wireless networking is that all the wireless clients can detect the presence of all available network SSIDs and have the option of joining any of them. use PRIV_GENTSTR to generate # keys (just a convenience) PRIV_GENERATOR=/sbin/nwepgen # nwepgen. With encryption. The /etc/wlan. Only migrate to an encrypted design after you are satisfied that the unencrypted design works satisfactorily. [root@bigboy tmp]# /sbin/nwepgen ketchup 64:c1:a1:cc:db 2b:32:ed:37:16 b6:cc:9e:1b:37 d7:0e:51:3f:03 [root@bigboy tmp]# . In the example below.g. dot11WEPDefaultKey0= # format: xx:xx:xx:xx:xx or dot11WEPDefaultKey1= # xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx dot11WEPDefaultKey2= # e. you can use the /sbin/nwepgen program to generate the keys once you provide your easy to remember key generator string. 01:20:03:40:05 or dot11WEPDefaultKey3= # 01:02:03:04:05:06:07:08:09:0a:0b:0c:0d Not all devices on your network will use the same algorithm method to generate the encryption keys. you'll have to add them them individually and in sequence to the /etc/wlan. Note: I must strongly recommend that you first set up your network without encryption. Settings only matter if PrivacyInvoked is true lnxreq_hostWEPEncrypt=false # true|false lnxreq_hostWEPDecrypt=false # true|false dot11PrivacyInvoked=true dot11WEPDefaultKeyID=1 dot11ExcludeUnencrypted=true # true|false. Neesus compatible PRIV_KEY128=false # keylength to generate PRIV_GENSTR="ketchup" # or set them explicitly. the client must have a membership encryption password which can also be represented as a series of Wireless Encryption Protocol (WEP) keys. You may find the same generator string will not create the same keys.opts file (PCMCIA type NICs) file is also used to activate this feature. in AP this means WEP # is required for all STAs # If PRIV_GENSTR is not empty. not both. Once you have the four sets of keys. To invoke encryption.conf file (PCI type NIC) or the /etc/pcmcia/wlanng.

not both.conf file would look like this: PRIV_GENSTR="" # or set them explicitly.com In this case your /etc/wlan. the driver is still loaded in memory. dot11WEPDefaultKey0= 64:c1:a1:cc:db dot11WEPDefaultKey1= 2b:32:ed:37:16 dot11WEPDefaultKey2= b6:cc:9e:1b:37 dot11WEPDefaultKey3= d7:0e:51:3f:03 Remember that all devices on your network will need to have the same keys and default key for this to work.linuxhomenetworking. Set genstr or keys. and remove the Linux-WLAN related entries using rmmod [root@bigboy tmp]# lsmod Module Size … … prism2_pci 66672 p80211 20328 … … Used by Not tainted 1 1 (autoclean) [prism2_pci] [root@bigboy tmp]# rmmod prism2_pci [root@bigboy tmp]# rmmod p80211 o Restart Linux-WLAN and reactivate the wlan0 interface and you should be functional again.d/wlan start Starting WLAN Devices:message=lnxreq_hostwep resultcode=no_value decrypt=false encrypt=false [root@bigboy tmp]# ifup wlan0 . NIC cards without full Linux-WLAN compatibility will freeze up after a number of hours of working with encryption. This includes all wireless NICs and WAPs De-activating Encryption In some cases.d/wlan stop Shutting Down WLAN Devices:message=lnxreq_ifstate ifstate=disable resultcode=success [root@bigboy tmp]# ifdown wlan0 o Even though you have done these two steps. [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. Your next steps will be to list all the active drivers in memory with the lsmod command.108 www. The steps to reverse encryption are: o o Set the configuration file parameter "dot11PrivacyInvoked" to "false" Stop Linux-WLAN and disable the wireless wlan0 interface [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. though not active.

then check your /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-wlan0 file for a correct IP configuration and your routing table to make sure your routes are OK. frame dropped. Jan 2 18:11:12 bigboy kernel: prism2sta_ifstate: hfa384x_drvr_start() failed. The chapter on logging covers how to do this in more detail.Chapter 10: Linux Wireless Networking 109 o If you fail to reload the driver modules you’ll get errors like these below in your /var/log/messages file. p80211 Kernel errors in /var/log/messages usually point to an incorrectly configured SSID Nov 13 22:24:54 bigboy kernel: p80211knetdev_hard_start_xmit: Tx attempt prior to association.result=-110 Jan 2 18:11:18 bigboy kernel: hfa384x_docmd_wait: hfa384x_cmd timeout(1). You can also check to see if your Linux box is out or range of the WAP. Jan 2 18:11:18 bigboy kernel: hfa384x_drvr_start: Initialize command failed. result=110 Troubleshooting Your Wireless LAN Always check the /var/log/messages file for possible errors arising from the software installation. reg=0x8021. . If there are no errors in /var/log/messages and you can’t ping your gateways or obtain an IP address. Jan 2 18:11:18 bigboy kernel: hfa384x_drvr_start: Failed.

110 www.linuxhomenetworking.com .

www.com =========================================== You can convert your Linux box into a firewall using the IPtables package.111 Chapter 11 Linux Firewalls Using iptables =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 11 Linux Firewalls Using iptables What Is iptables? Download And Install The Iptables Package How To Get iptables Started Packet Processing In iptables Iptables Packet Flow Diagram Processing For Packets Routed By The Firewall Packet Processing For Data Received By The Firewall Packet Processing For Data Sent By The Firewall Targets And Jumps Descriptions Of The Most Commonly Used Targets Important Iptables Command Switch Operations General Iptables Match Criteria Common TCP and UDP Match Criteria Common ICMP (Ping) Match Criteria Common Match Extensions Criteria Using User Defined Chains Sample iptables Scripts Basic Initialization Allowing DNS Access To Your Firewall Allowing WWW And SSH Access To Your Firewall Allowing Your Firewall To Access The Internet Allow Your Home Network To Access The Firewall Masquerading (Many to One NAT) Port Forwarding Type NAT Static NAT Logging & Troubleshooting © Peter Harrison.linuxhomenetworking. This page shows how to convert your Linux box into: .

d/iptables start [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. .rpm Preparing. Install the package using the following command: [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh iptables-ipv6-1... the chart and graphic below describe the steps taken by iptables when a packet traverses the firewall.i386. the primary one being that it ran as a separate program and not as part of the kernel. The Netfilter organization decided to create a new product called iptables in order to rectify this shortcoming. As a result of this.d/iptables stop [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.6a-2.com • A firewall while simultaneously being your home website's mail. For example.rpm. Don’t worry if this all seems confusing. If you need a refresher. The latest version of the RPM for RedHat 8. iptables has now become the default firewall package installed under RedHat Linux.112 www. Downloading and installing RPMs isn’t hard.6a-2. iptables is considered a faster and more secure alternative. • A router that will use NAT and port forwarding to both protect your home network and have another web server on your home network while sharing the public IP address of your firewall What Is iptables? Originally. Download And Install The Iptables Package Most RedHat Linux software products are available in the RPM format. web and DNS server. the most popular firewall / NAT package running on Linux was ipchains. the chapter on RPMs covers how to do this in detail.2.linuxhomenetworking.2. It had a number of limitations. Each of these queue is dedicated to a particular type of packet activity and is controlled by an associated packet transformation / filtering chain.0 is iptables-ipv6-1.i386. ########################################### [100%] 1:iptables ########################################### [100%] [root@bigboy tmp]# How To Get iptables Started You can start/stop/restart iptables after booting by using the following commands: [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. there’ll be tables and examples of how the concepts are all interlinked.d/iptables restart To get iptables configured to start at boot: [root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig --level 345 iptables on Packet Processing In iptables All packets inspected by iptables pass through a sequence of built-in tables (queues) for processing.

Chapter 11: Linux Firewalls Using iptables 113 Iptables Packet Flow Diagram .

Source network address translation (SNAT) N/A Packet enters the NIC and is passed to iptables Mangle Nat PREROUTING Packet passed to the Linux routing engine N/A N/A Packet passed back to iptables Filter FORWARD Nat POSTROUTING Packet transmitted out the other NIC N/A N/A .com Processing For Packets Routed By The Firewall Packet flow Intercepted by iptables chain (Queue) Packet transformation table associated with this queue PREROUTING Description of possible modifications by iptables using this transformation table Modification of the TCP packet quality of service bits.114 www.linuxhomenetworking. (Rarely used) Destination network address translation (DNAT) N/A Determines whether the packet is destined to a local application or should be sent out another NIC interface Packet filtering: Packets destined for servers accessible by another NIC on the firewall.

Chapter 11: Linux Firewalls Using iptables 115 Packet Processing For Data Received By The Firewall Packet flow Actions by Operating System Packet intercepted by iptables table (Queue) Packet transformation chain associated with this queue PREROUTING Description of possible modifications by iptables using this transformation table Modification of the TCP packet quality of service bits. then nat queues mangle nat PREROUTING Destination network address translation (DNAT) Packet filtering: Packets destined for the firewall. The packet is intercepted by the iptables mangle. The routing engine passes the packet to the target application via the iptables filter queue filter INPUT The application receives the packet from iptables then processes it. (Rarely used) Packet destined for firewall Packet enters the NIC from remote server. . The packet is then passed from iptables to the Linux routing engine.

116 www. nat and filter tables mangle OUTPUT Modification of the TCP packet quality of service bits. Source network address translation (SNAT) filter OUTPUT The packet is then passed to the Linux routing engine which forwards the packet out the correct NIC The packet is intercepted by the iptables nat table nat POSTROUTING Packet transmitted out a NIC . (Rarely used) nat OUTPUT Source network address translation (Rarely used) Packet filtering: Packets destined for other servers / devices.linuxhomenetworking.com Packet Processing For Data Sent By The Firewall Packet flow Actions by Operating System Packet intercepted by iptables table (Queue) Packet transformation chain associated with this queue Description of possible modifications by iptables using this transformation table The application sends data to a remote server Packet originating from firewall The packet is intercepted by iptables which then processes it in the mangle.

These include: icmp-port-unreachable (default) icmp-net-unreachable icmp-host-unreachable icmp-proto-unreachable icmp-net-prohibited icmp-host-prohibited tcp-reset echo-reply DNAT • Used to do Destination Network Address Translation. • The packet is blocked • The packet information is sent to the syslog daemon for logging • iptables continues processing with the next rule in the table • As you can't LOG and DROP at the same time. but will also return an error message to the host sending the packet that was blocked N/A Most common options DROP N/A LOG --log-prefix "string" Tells iptables to prefix all log messages with a user defined string.rewriting the destination IP address of the --to-destination ipaddress Tells iptables what the destination IP . the second will DROP it.Chapter 11: Linux Firewalls Using iptables 117 Targets And Jumps You don't have to rely solely on the built-in chains provided by iptables. • The packet is handed over to the end application or the operating system for processing • iptables stops further processing. There are a number of built-in targets that most rules may use. the targets/jumps tell the rule what to do with a packet that matches the rule perfectly. Descriptions Of The Most Commonly Used Targets Target ACCEPT Description • iptables stops further processing. These can be accessed by making them the targets of "jumps" in the built-in chains. you can create your own chains. • Works like the DROP target. it is common to have two similar rules in sequence. So in summary. The first will LOG the packet. Frequently used to tell why the logged packet was dropped REJECT --reject-with qualifier The qualifier tells what type of reject message is returned. ie.

118 www.linuxhomenetworking. ie. . ie.com Target packet SNAT Description Most common options address should be --to-source <address>[<address>][:<port>-<port>] Specifies the source IP address and ports to be used by SNAT.rewriting the source IP address of the packet • By default the source IP address is the same as that used by the firewall's interface MASQUERADE [--to-ports <port>[-<port>]] Specifies the range of source ports the original source port can be mapped to. • Used to do Source Network Address Translation.rewriting the source IP address of the packet • The source IP address is user defined • Used to do Source Network Address Translation.

As discussed before.168. the possible built-in tables include: filter. udp. Deletes all the rules in the selected table Match protocol. then the filter table is assumed.Chapter 11: Linux Firewalls Using iptables 119 Important Iptables Command Switch Operations We’ll now explore how to use iptables command switches used to create your firewall.1 .1 -p TCP -j ACCEPT In this example iptables is being configured to allow the firewall to accept TCP packets coming in on interface eth0 from any IP address destined for the firewall's IP address of 192.1. all Match source IP address Match destination IP address Match "input" interface on which the packet enters.1. tcp. Match "output" interface on which the packet exits -A -F -p <protocol-type> -s <ip-address> -d <ip-address> -i <interface-name> -o <interface-name> Example: iptables -A INPUT -s 0/0 -i eth0 -d 192. General Iptables Match Criteria iptables command Switch -t <table> Description If you don't specify a table. Types include.168. mangle Append rule to end of a chain Flush. nat. icmp.

120 www. not a new connection request --sport <port> TCP source port Can be a single value or a range in the format: starting-port:endingport Description switches used with -p udp Description --dport <port> --dport <port> TCP destination port Can be a single value or a range in the format: starting-port:endingport --syn Example: iptables -A FORWARD -s 0/0 -i eth0 -d 192.58 that is reachable via interface eth1.168.168.1.linuxhomenetworking. The source port is in the range 1024 to 65535 and the destination port is port 80 (www/http) .58 -o eth1 -p TCP \ -sport 1024:65535 -dport 80 -j ACCEPT In this example iptables is being configured to allow the firewall to accept TCP packets to be routed when they enter on interface eth0 from any IP address destined for IP address of 192.1.com Common TCP and UDP Match Criteria switches used with -p tcp --sport <port> TCP source port Can be a single value or a range in the format: start-portnumber:end-portnumber TCP destination port Can be a single value or a range in the format: starting-port:endingport Used to identify a new connection request ! --syn means.

accept the expected ICMP echo-replies. Description --dport <port. Common Match Extensions Criteria TCP/UDP match extensions used with -m multiport --sport <port. port> --dport <port.Chapter 11: Linux Firewalls Using iptables 121 Common ICMP (Ping) Match Criteria Matches used with ---icmp-type --icmp-type <type> The most commonly used types are echo-reply and echo-request Description Example: iptables -A OUTPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -j ACCEPT iptables -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-reply -j ACCEPT In this example iptables is being configured to allow the firewall send ICMP echo-requests (pings) and in turn. Source and destination ports are assumed to be the same. port> A variety of TCP/UDP source ports separated by commas A variety of TCP/UDP destination ports separated by commas A variety of TCP/UDP ports separated by commas. port> .

122 www. Here iptables is being configured to allow the firewall to accept TCP packets to be routed when they enter on interface eth0 from any IP address destined for IP address of 192. or an ICMP error. Instead of stating the source and destination ports.168.168.58 to be accepted too.168. Example: iptables -A FORWARD -s 0/0 -i eth0 -d 192.com Match extensions used with -m state --state <state> Description The most frequently tested states are: ESTABLISHED The packet is part of a connection which has seen packets in both directions NEW The packet is the start of a new connection RELATED The packet is starting a new secondary connection.1.168.58 -o eth1 -p TCP \ -sport 1024:65535 -m multiport -dport 80.58 that is reachable via interface eth1. We are also allowing the return packets from 192.443 -j ACCEPT iptables -A FORWARD -d 0/0 -o eth0 -s 192.1.1. .1. This is a common feature of protocols such as an FTP data transfer. it is sufficient to allow packets related to established connections using the -m state and --state ESTABLISHED options. The source port is in the range 1024 to 65535 and the destination ports are port 80 (www/http) and 443 (https).58 -i eth1 -p TCP \ -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT This is an expansion on the previous example.linuxhomenetworking.

instead of having a single chain for all protocols. you can replace a long chain with a main stubby chain pointing to multiple stubby chains thereby shortening the total length of all chains the packet has to pass through.110.Chapter 11: Linux Firewalls Using iptables 123 Using User Defined Chains As stated in the introduction.110.2 -j fast-input-queue iptables -A OUTPUT -o eth0 -s 206.2 -j fast-output-queue iptables -A fast-input-queue -p icmp -j icmp-queue-in iptables -A fast-output-queue -p icmp -j icmp-queue-out iptables -A icmp-queue-out -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request \ -m state --state NEW -j ACCEPT iptables -A icmp-queue-in -p icmp --icmp-type echo-reply -j ACCEPT In this example we have six queues with the following characteristics to help assist in processing speed: Chain INPUT Description The regular built-in INPUT chain in iptables The regular built-in OUTPUT chain in iptables Input chain dedicated to specific protocols Output chain dedicated to specific protocols Output queue dedicated to ICMP Intput queue dedicated to ICMP OUTPUT fast-input-queue fast-output-queue icmp-queue-out icmp-queue-in . For example. This feature is frequently used to help streamline the processing of packets. it is possible to have a chain that determines the protocol type for the packet and then hands off the actual final processing to a protocol specific chain. Example: iptables -A INPUT -i eth0 -d 206. iptables can be configured to have user-defined chains.229. In other words.229.

Additional ALLOW rules should be added to the end of this script snippet. It shows you how to allow your firewall to: • Be used as a Linux Web / Mail / DNS server • Be the NAT router for your home network • Prevent various types of attacks using corrupted TCP. This is because these tables are queried before the "filter" table.linuxhomenetworking.124 www. FORWARD and OUTPUT chains should DROP packets by default for the best security. FORWARD and OUTPUT chains and won't be processed. The "filter" table's INPUT. and if all packets that don't match the "nat" and "mangle" rules are DROP-ped. The "basic initialization" script snippet should also be included in all your scripts to ensure the correct initialization of your chains should you decide to restart your script after startup. then they will not reach the the INPUT. it is not good policy to make your "nat" and "mangle" tables DROP packets by default. It should be a good guide to get you started. • Outbound passive FTP access from the firewall There are also simpler code snippets in the Appendix for: • Inbound and outbound FTP connections to / from your firewall Basic Initialization It is a good policy. You then can use the Appendix to find a detailed script once you feel more confident. to initialize your chain and table settings with known values. This chapter also includes other snippets that will help you get basic functionality. Pay special attention to the logging example at the end.d/rc. #!/bin/bash #--------------------------------------------------------------# Load modules for FTP connection tracking and NAT – You may need # them later #--------------------------------------------------------------modprobe ip_conntrack_ftp modprobe iptable_nat #--------------------------------------------------------------# Initialize all the chains by removing all the rules # tied to them #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables --flush iptables -t nat --flush . However.com Sample iptables Scripts Here are some sample scripts you can use to get iptables working for you.local file so that the firewall script is run every time you boot up. It is best to invoke these from your /etc/rc. in any iptables script you write. UDP and ICMP packets.

#--------------------------------------------------------------# Allow outbound DNS queries from the FW and the replies too # # . the user defined # chains should be deleted.Chapter 11: Linux Firewalls Using iptables 125 iptables -t mangle --flush #--------------------------------------------------------------# Now that the chains have been initialized. Most home networks # / websites using a single DNS server won’t require TCP statements # #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A OUTPUT -p udp -o eth0 --dport 53 --sport 1024:65535 \ -j ACCEPT iptables -A INPUT -p udp -i eth0 --sport 53 --dport 1024:65535 \ -j ACCEPT . We'll recreate them in the next step #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables --delete-chain iptables -t nat --delete-chain iptables -t mangle --delete-chain #--------------------------------------------------------------# If a packet doesn't match one of the built in chains. The following statements will apply not only for firewalls acting as DNS clients but also for firewalls working in a caching or regular DNS server role.Interface eth0 is the internet interface # # Zone transfers use TCP and not UDP. then # The policy should be to drop it #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables --policy INPUT DROP iptables --policy OUTPUT DROP iptables --policy FORWARD DROP #--------------------------------------------------------------# The loopback interface should accept all traffic # Necessary for X-Windows and other socket based services #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT iptables -A OUTPUT -o lo -j ACCEPT Allowing DNS Access To Your Firewall You’ll almost certainly want your firewall to make DNS queries to the Internet.

RELATED -i eth0 –p tcp \ .RELATED \ -j ACCEPT #--------------------------------------------------------------# Allow port 80 (www) and 22 (SSH) connections to the firewall #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -i eth0 --dport 22 –sport 1024:65535 \ -m state –state NEW -j ACCEPT iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -i eth0 --dport 80 –sport 1024:65535 \ -m state –state NEW -j ACCEPT Allowing Your Firewall To Access The Internet The following iptables sample script allows a user on the firewall to use a web browser to surf the Internet. It isn't necessary to specify these ports for the return leg as outbound packets for all established connections are allowed.Interface eth0 is the internet interface #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A OUTPUT -o eth0 -m state --state ESTABLISHED.com Allowing WWW And SSH Access To Your Firewall This sample snippet is for a web server that is managed remotely by its system administrator via secure shell (SSH) sessions.linuxhomenetworking. #--------------------------------------------------------------# Allow previously established connections # . #--------------------------------------------------------------# Allow port 80 (www) and 443 (https) connections to the firewall #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A OUTPUT -j ACCEPT -m state --state NEW \ -o eth0 –p tcp -m multiport --dport 80. TCP port 80 is used for HTTP traffic and port 443 is used for HTTPS (secure HTTP frequently used for credit card transactions).126 www.443 --sport 1024:65535 #--------------------------------------------------------------# Allow previously established connections # . HTTPS is also used by RedHat Linux servers using up2date.Interface eth0 is the internet interface #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A INPUT -j ACCEPT -m state --state ESTABLISHED. Connections initiated by persons logged into the webserver will be denied as outbound NEW connection packets aren't allowed. Inbound packets destined for ports 80 and 22 are allowed thereby making the first steps in establishing a connection.

#--------------------------------------------------------------# Allow all bidirectional traffic from your firewall to the # protected network # . In other words. traffic from all devices on one or more protected networks will appear as if it originated from a single IP address on the Internet side of the firewall.Interface eth1 is the private network interface #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A INPUT iptables -A OUTPUT -j ACCEPT -p all -s 192.1.0 network.168.1. This is done by enabling "IP forwarding" or routing by giving the file /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward the value "1" as opposed to the default disabled value of "0". iptables requires the iptables_nat module to be loaded with the "modprobe" command for the masquerade feature to work. packets related to NEW and ESTABLISHED connections will be allowed outbound to the Internet. Masquerading also depends on the Linux operating system being configured to support routing between the internet and private network interfaces of the firewall. All traffic between this network and the firewall is simplistically assumed to be trusted and allowed.168. This helps to protect the home network from persons trying to initiate connections from the Internet.168. This is done using the FORWARD chain of the "filter" table.443 --sport 1024:65535 Allow Your Home Network To Access The Firewall In this example.Chapter 11: Linux Firewalls Using iptables 127 If you want all TCP traffic originating from the firewall to be accepted then you can remove the following section from the snippet above: -m multiport --dport 80.0/24 -i eth1 -j ACCEPT -p all -d 192.1. More specifically. iptables will have to be configured to allow packets to flow between the two interfaces. types of connections and possibly even remote servers to have access to your firewall and home network. Once masquerading has been achieved using the POSTROUTING chain of the "nat" table. masquerading is another word for what many call "many to one" NAT. while only packets related to ESTABLISHED connections will be allowed inbound. eth1 is directly connected to a home network using IP addresses from the 192. Further rules will be needed for the interface connected to the Internet to allow only specific ports.0/24 -o eth1 Masquerading (Many to One NAT) As explained in the Introduction to Networking chapter. An example follows: .

then if should be the used as the default gateway for all your servers on the network.Interface eth0 is the internet interface # . Here the combination of the firewall's single IP address.ESTABLISHED. Port forwarding is handled by the PREROUTING chain of the "nat" table.RELATED state \ -j ACCEPT state \ -j ACCEPT Note: If you configure your firewall to do masquerading.Interface eth1 is the private network interface #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A POSTROUTING -t nat -o eth0 -s 192.1. Port Forwarding Type NAT (DHCP DSL) In many cases home users may get a single DHCP public IP address from their ISP.linuxhomenetworking.RELATED iptables -A FORWARD -t filter -i eth0 -m --state ESTABLISHED. this would include all NEW inbound connections from the Internet matching the port forwarding port plus all future packets related to the ESTABLISHED connection in both directions.com #--------------------------------------------------------------# Load the NAT module #--------------------------------------------------------------modprobe iptable_nat #--------------------------------------------------------------# Allow masquerading # Enable routing by modifying the ip_forward /proc filesystem file # . established and related connections # Allowed inbound : Established and related connections #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A FORWARD -t filter -i eth1 -m --state NEW.168. the iptables_nat module will have to be loaded and routing enabled for port forwarding to work. # Allowed outbound: New. Routing too will have to be allowed in iptables with the FORWARD chain. As in masquerading. the packets are routed via the filter # table's FORWARD chain. If their Linux firewall is their interface to the Internet and they want to host a website on one of the NAT protected home servers then they will have to use the “port forwarding” technique.0/24 -d 0/0 \ -j MASQUERADE echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward #--------------------------------------------------------------# Prior to masquerading. All traffic that matches a particular combination of these factors may then be forwarded to a single server on the private network.128 www. An example follows: . the remote server’s IP address and the source/destination port of the traffic can be used to uniquely identify a traffic flow.

200 \ --dport 8080 --sport 1024:65535 -m state --state NEW -j ACCEPT iptables -A FORWARD -t filter -i eth1 -m state \ --state NEW.Interface eth0 is the internet interface # .Chapter 11: Linux Firewalls Using iptables 129 #--------------------------------------------------------------# Load the NAT module #--------------------------------------------------------------modprobe iptable_nat #--------------------------------------------------------------# Get the IP address of the Internet interface eth0 (linux only) # # You'll have to use a different expression to get the IP address # for other operating systems which have a different ifconfig output # or enter the IP address manually in the PREROUTING statement # # This is best when your firewall gets its IP address using DHCP.RELATED -j ACCEPT iptables -A FORWARD -t filter -i eth0 -m state \ --state ESTABLISHED. the packets are routed via the filter table's # FORWARD chain.168.168.168.1.ESTABLISHED. # Connections on port 80 to the target machine on the private # network must be allowed.200:8080 echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward #--------------------------------------------------------------# After DNAT.RELATED -j ACCEPT .1.200 # # Enable routing by modifying the ip_forward /proc filesystem file # . #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A FORWARD -p tcp -i eth0 -o eth1 -d 192. # The external IP address could just be hard coded (“typed in # normally”) #--------------------------------------------------------------external_int="eth0" external_ip="`ifconfig $external_int | grep 'inet addr' | \ awk '{print $2}' | sed -e 's/.1.Interface eth1 is the private network interface #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -p tcp -i eth0 -d $external_ip \ --dport 80 --sport 1024:65535 -j DNAT --to 192.*://'`" #--------------------------------------------------------------# Allow port forwarding for traffic destined to port 80 of the # firewall’s IP address to be forwarded to port 8080 on server # 192.

168.Interface eth1 is the private network interface #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -t -j iptables -t -j iptables -t -j nat -A PREROUTING -d 97.168.130 www.100 \ .0/24 \ -j SNAT -o eth1 --to-source 97. not just to a particular port. Note that though the "nat" table NATs all traffic to the target servers (192.168.168.28 -i eth0 \ DNAT --to-destination 192.253.253.168.1. MASQUERADE isn't recommended to be used as it will force masquerading as the IP address of the primary interface and not any of the alias IP addresses it may have.com Static NAT In this example.158.1.168. only connections on ports 80.1.27 -i eth0 \ DNAT --to-destination 192.100 nat -A PREROUTING -d 97.1. As the firewall has more than one IP address.101 # 97.100 to 102). is NAT-ted to a single server on the protected subnet.168.158.158.28 Anywhere 192.101 nat -A PREROUTING -d 97.158.1.1.29 iptables -A FORWARD -p tcp -i eth0 -o eth1 -d 192.Interface eth0 is the internet interface # .102 iptables -A POSTROUTING -s 192.253.253.158. #--------------------------------------------------------------# Load the NAT module #--------------------------------------------------------------modprobe iptable_nat #--------------------------------------------------------------# Enable routing by modifying the ip_forward /proc filesystem file #--------------------------------------------------------------echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward #--------------------------------------------------------------# NAT ALL traffic: # # TO: FROM: MAP TO SERVER: # 97.253.158.26 Anywhere 192.29 # # .102 # # SNAT is used to NAT all other outbound connections initiated # from the protected network to appear to come from # IP address 97.168.1. all traffic to a particular public IP address.253.26 -i eth0 \ DNAT --to-destination 192.linuxhomenetworking.1.443 and 22 are allowed through by the FORWARD chain.158.158.253.1.253.100 # 97.27 Anywhere 192.168. SNAT is therefore used to specify the alias IP address to be used for connections initiated by all other servers in the protected net.

Chapter 11: Linux Firewalls Using iptables 131 -m multiport --dport 80.443.22 --sport 1024:65535 \ -m state --state NEW -j ACCEPT iptables -A FORWARD -p tcp -i eth0 -o eth1 -d 192.RELATED -j ACCEPT Logging & Troubleshooting You track packets passing through the iptables list of rules using the LOG target. automatically writes an entry to the /var/log/messages file and then executes the next rule.ESTABLISHED.1.22 --sport 1024:65535 \ -m state --state NEW -j ACCEPT iptables -A FORWARD -t filter -i eth1 -m state \ --state NEW.RELATED -j ACCEPT iptables -A FORWARD -t filter -i eth0 -m state \ --state ESTABLISHED.22 --sport 1024:65535 \ -m state --state NEW -j ACCEPT iptables -A FORWARD -p tcp -i eth0 -o eth1 -d 192.102 \ -m multiport --dport 80.1.102 on the home network.443. Therefore if you want to log only unwanted traffic then you have to add a matching rule with a DROP target immediately after the LOG rule.168. You can use the contents of this file to determine what TCP/UDP ports you need to open to provide access to specific traffic that is currently stopped.101 \ -m multiport --dport 80. You should be aware that the LOG target: o o will log all traffic that matches the iptables rule in which it is located.168.443. If you don’t. o .1.168. you’ll find yourself logging both desired and unwanted traffic with no way of discerning between the two as by default iptables doesn’t state why the packet was logged in its log message. #--------------------------------------------------------------# Log and drop all other packets to file /var/log/messages # Without this we could be crawling around in the dark #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A OUTPUT -j LOG iptables -A OUTPUT -j LOG iptables -A FORWARD -j LOG iptables -A INPUT -j DROP iptables -A INPUT -j DROP iptables -A FORWARD -j DROP Here are some examples of the output of this file: Firewall denying replies to DNS queries (UDP port 53) destined to server 192. This example logs a summary of failed packets to the file /var/log/messages.

and if it is not.1. then follow the steps in the Network Troubleshooting chapter to determine whether the data is reaching your firewall at all.200.168. Troubleshooting NAT: As a general rule. you won’t be able to access the public NAT IP addresses from servers on your home network. You can then use the logging output in /var/log/messages to make sure that: o o the translations are occurring correctly and iptables isn’t dropping the packets after translation occurs .42.1.168.168.93.113 LEN=76 TOS=0x10 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=0 DF PROTO=UDP SPT=123 DPT=123 LEN=56 Note: The traffic in all these examples isn’t destined for the firewall.linuxhomenetworking.168.255 LEN=241 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=0 DF PROTO=UDP SPT=138 DPT=138 LEN=221 o Firewall denying Network Time Protocol (NTP UDP port 123) Feb 23 20:58:48 bigboy kernel: IN= OUT=wlan0 SRC=192. then you should focus on the INPUT.1. If the firewall’s IP address is involved. Basic NAT testing will require you to ask a friend to try to connect to your home network from the Internet.102 DST=207. Therefore you should check your INPUT. OUTPUT.81. the location your network that could be causing the problem.102 LEN=220 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=54 ID=30485 PROTO=UDP SPT=53 DPT=32820 LEN=200 o Firewall denying Windows NetBIOS traffic (UDP port 138) Feb 23 20:43:08 bigboy kernel: IN=wlan0 OUT= MAC=ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:00:06:25:09:6a:b5:08:00 SRC=192.132 www.100 DST=192.com Feb 23 20:33:50 bigboy kernel: IN=wlan0 OUT= MAC=00:06:25:09:69:80:00:a0:c5:e1:3e:88:08:00 SRC=192. FORWARD and NAT related statements. OUTPUT statements If nothing shows up in the logs.30 DST=192.1.

Some of these applications.com =========================================== Xinetd is a program used to start and stop a variety of Linux data communication applications.d/xinetd restart Stopping xinetd: [ OK ] Starting xinetd: [ OK ] [root@bigboy tmp]# Remember that you will also be restarting all the other xinetd controlled processes. are installed by default in RedHat Linux. [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.linuxhomenetworking. www. Once you have edited the configuration files you’ll have to restart xinetd to make the configurations take effect. Xinetd is pre-installed in newer RedHat versions and is configured to startup automatically at boot time. TFTP and XINETD Telnet TFTP © Peter Harrison. If you are logged into your Linux box via Telnet and then restart xinetd you will disconnect your self from your Linux server as Telnet would be restarted too.d directory. .133 Chapter 12 Telnet. TFTP and XINETD =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 12 Telnet. The configuration files for each of the network programs xinetd controls are located in the /etc/xinetd. others such as TFTP. need to be installed afterwards. such as Telnet.

1.0.0 0. 05 January 2003) Login: peter Password: Last login: Fri Nov 22 23:29:44 on ttyS0 You have new mail.168. A more secure method for remote logins would be via Secure Shell (SSH) which uses varying degrees of encryption.134 www.255.18-14 (smallfry.0.255.255..168. This means that it is possible for someone to use a network analyzer to peek into your data packets and see your username and password.255.1.1.1.0.0 127.255.255.0.0 Gateway 0. The command to do remote logins via telnet from the command line is simple. You enter the word "telnet" and then the IP address or server name to which you want to connect.my-site.255 255..105 Trying 192. Linux 2.168.168.0.0 0.0.0.0.0. Telnet is installed and enabled by default on RedHat Linux.0. [root@bigboy root]# telnet 192.com Telnet What is Telnet? Telnet is a program that allows users to log into your server and get a command prompt just as if they were logged into the VGA console. The user looks at the routing table and then logs out.0 255.0. [peter@smallfry peter]$ [peter@smallfry peter]$ netstat -nr Kernel IP routing table Destination 255.0.105. Escape character is '^]'.0 Flags UH U U UG MSS 40 40 40 40 Window 0 0 0 0 irtt 0 0 0 0 Iface wlan0 wlan0 lo wlan0 [peter@smallfry peter]$ exit logout Connection closed by foreign host. [root@bigboy root]# .0 0.com) (10:35 on Sunday.1 Genmask 255. Connected to 192.0 192. Here is an example of someone logging into a remote server named "smallfry" from server "bigboy".0 0.168.0.linuxhomenetworking.4.0. One of the disadvantages of Telnet is that the data is sent as clear text.1.255 192.105.

The reverse is also true.d/xinetd restart Stopping xinetd: [ OK ] Starting xinetd: [ OK ] [root@bigboy tmp]# TFTP What is TFTP? Cisco and other networking equipment manufacturers allow you to backup live configurations from routers and switches to workstations via the TFTP protocol. configurations can be loaded from the server to the network device. A common use of this reverse TFTP is the application of access control lists (ACLs) and even passwords from a centralized file. service telnet { flags = REUSE socket_type = stream wait = no user = root server = /usr/sbin/in. [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. . A remotely stored configuration file is always good to have. TFTP and XINETD 135 Setting Up A Telnet Server By default Telnet is installed enabled on RedHat Linux.telnetd log_on_failure += USERID disable = yes } You'll then have to restart xinetd for the new settings to take effect.d/telnet and set the disable parameter to "yes". # default: on # description: The telnet server serves telnet sessions. You can test whether the Telnet process is running with the following command which is used to check the TCP/UDP ports on which your server is listening: [root@bigboy root]# netstat -a | grep telnet tcp 0 0 *:telnet *:* [root@bigboy root]# LISTEN If you want to disable Telnet then edit the file /etc/xinetd. it uses \ # unencrypted username/password pairs for authentication.Chapter 12: Telnet.

1.i386.tftpd server_args = -s /tftpboot disable = no per_source = 11 cps = 100 2 } In this example. You can extend this list with commas in between or just comment it out al together for global access. service tftp { socket_type = dgram protocol = udp wait = yes user = root only_from = 192. xinetd will only allow the TFTP server to accept connections from the router / switch / firewall with an address of 192.168.d/xinetd restart Stopping xinetd: [ OK ] Starting xinetd: [ OK ] [root@bigboy tmp]# o o .linuxhomenetworking. If you need a refresher.com Setting up a TFTP server Most RedHat Linux software products are available in the RPM format. Here are the steps to setting up the software: Install the package using the following command: [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh tftp-server-0.0 is tftp-server0. \ # and to start the installation process for some operating systems. the chapter on RPMs covers how to do this in detail.1.29-3.rpm o Edit the file /etc/xinetd. The tftp protocol is often used to boot diskless \ # workstations. download configuration files to # network-aware printers. # default: off # description: The tftp server serves files using the trivial # file transfer \ # protocol.1 server = /usr/sbin/in.1.168. Create a /tftpboot directory with global read write privileges [root@bigboy tmp]# chmod 777 /tftpboot o Restart xinetd [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. The latest TFTP server version of the RPM for RedHat 8.136 www.29-3. Downloading and installing RPMs isn’t hard.d/tftp and set disable to "no".

get into enable mode and then enter the TFTP commands pixfw> enable Password: ******** pixfw# configure terminal pixfw(config)# tftp-server inside 192. get into enable mode and then enter the TFTP commands ciscoswitch> (enable) wr net This command shows non-default configurations only. Use 'write network all' to show both default and non-default . TFTP write '/pixfw-config' at 192. The following examples assume that the TFTP server's IP address is 192.100 Cisco PIX firewall • Log onto the device.1. Here's an example of what to do for a SOHO firewall with the name "pixfw" and a configuration filename that matches cisco's standard naming scheme of "devicename"-config [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy total 1631 -rw-rw-rw.168. TFTP and XINETD 137 o Each device must have a configuration file in the /tftpboot directory.100 on interface 1 [OK] pixfw# Cisco Switch Running CATOS • Log onto the device.1.168..1 [root@bigboy tmp]# touch /tftpboot/pixfw-config tmp]# chmod 666 /tftpboot/pixfw-config tmp]# ll /tftpboot/ root root 3011 Oct 29 14:09 pixfw-config tmp]# Configuring Cisco Devices for TFTP You'll now have to configure your Cisco router / firewall to use the TFTP server.1.168.100 /pixfw-config pixfw(config)# exit • Save the configuration to non volatile memory pixfw# write memory Building configuration..Chapter 12: Telnet... Cryptochecksum: 3af43873 d35d6f06 51f8c999 180c2342 [OK] pixfw# • Save the configuration to the TFTP server pixfw# write network Building configuration.

138

www.linuxhomenetworking.com

configurations. IP address or name of remote host? [192.168.1.100] Name of configuration file?[ciscoswitch-config] Upload configuration to ciscoswitch-config on 192.168.1.100 (y/n) [n]? y ......... Finished network upload. (30907 bytes) ciscoswitch> (enable)

Cisco Router
• Log onto the device, get into enable mode, then configure mode and then enter the TFTP commands ciscorouter> enable ciscorouter#write net Remote host [192.168.1.100]? 192.168.1.100 Name of configuration file to write [ciscorouter-config]? ciscorouter-config Write file ciscorouter-config on host 192.168.1.100? [confirm] y ciscorouter# exit

Cisco CSS 111000 "Arrowpoints"

Log onto the device and then enter the tftp commands ciscocss# copy running-config tftp 192.168.1.100 ciscocss-config Working..(\) 100% Connecting (/) Completed successfully. ciscocss# exit

Cisco Local Director
• Log onto the device, get into enable mode, then configure mode and then enter the TFTP commands ciscold> ena Password: ciscold# write net 192.168.1.100 ciscold-config Building configuration... writing configuration to //ciscold-config on 192.168.1.100:69 ... [OK] ciscold# exit

Chapter 12: Telnet, TFTP and XINETD

139

Using TFTP To Restore Your Router Configuration
One of the benefits of having a TFTP server is that you can save your configuration files on a remote server's hard disk. This can be very useful in the event of a router failure after which you need to reconfigure the device from scratch. One of the simplest ways of doing this using TFTP is to: o o o o o Connect your router to the local network of the TFTP server Give your router the bare minimum configuration that allows it to ping your TFTP server. (No access controls or routing protocols) Use the copy command to copy the backup configuration from the TFTP server to your startup configuration in NVRAM. Disconnect the router from the network Reload the router without saving the live running configuration to overwrite the startup configuration. On rebooting, the router will copy the startup configuration stored in NVRAM into a clean running configuration environment Log into the router via the console and verify the configuration is OK Reconnect the router to the networks on which it was originally connected

o o

Here are the commands: ciscorouter> enable Password: ******** ciscorouter# write erase ciscorouter# copy tftp:file-name startup-config ciscorouter# reload Please be aware that the "write erase" command erases your NVRAM startup configuration and should always be used with great care.

140

www.linuxhomenetworking.com

141

Chapter 13

Linux FTP Server Setup
===========================================

In This Chapter Chapter 13
Linux FTP Server Setup
FTP Overview Problems With FTP And Firewalls How To Download And Install The VSFTP Package How To Get VSFTP Started Testing To See If VSFTP Is Running What Is Anonymous FTP? The /etc/vsftpd.conf File FTP Security Issues Example #1: © Peter Harrison, www.linuxhomenetworking.com ===========================================

This chapter will show you how to convert your Linux box into an FTP server using the VSFTP package.
The RedHat software download site runs on VSFTP.

FTP Overview
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a common method of copying files between computer systems. Two TCP ports are used to do this:

142

www.linuxhomenetworking.com

FTP Control Channel - TCP Port 21
All commands you send and the ftp server's responses to those commands will go over the control connection, but any data sent back (such as "ls" directory lists or actual file data in either direction) will go over the data connection.

FTP Data Channel - TCP Port 20
Used for all data sent between the client and server.

Active FTP
Active FTP works as follows: o o Your client connects to the FTP server by establishing an FTP control connection to port 21 of the server. Your commands such as 'ls' and 'get' are sent over this connection. Whenever the client requests data over the control connection, the server initiates data transfer connections back to the client. The source port of these data transfer connections is always port 20 on the server, and the destination port is a high port on the client. Thus the 'ls' listing that you asked for comes back over the "port 20 to high port connection", not the port 21 control connection. FTP active mode data transfer therefore does this in a counter intuitive way to the TCP standard as it selects port 20 as it's source port (not a random high port > 1024) and connects back to the client on a random high port that has been pre-negotiated on the port 21 control connection.

o o

Chapter 13: Linux FTP Server Setup

143

o

Active FTP may fail in cases where the client is protected from the Internet via many to one NAT (masquerading). This is because the firewall will not know which of the many servers behind it should receive the return connection.

Passive FTP
Passive FTP works as follows: o o Your client connects to the FTP server by establishing a FTP control connection to port 21 of the server. Your commands such as 'ls' and 'get' are sent over that connection. Whenever the client requests data over the control connection, the client initiates the data transfer connections to the server. The source port of these data transfer connections is always a high port on the client with a destination port of a high port on the server. Passive FTP should be viewed as the server never making an active attempt to connect to the client for FTP data transfers. Passive FTP works better for clients protected by a firewall as the client always initiates the required connections.

o o

Problems With FTP And Firewalls
FTP frequently fails when the data has to pass through a firewall as FTP uses a wide range of unpredictable TCP ports and firewalls are designed to limit data flows to predictable TCP ports. There are ways to overcome this as explained in the following sections. The Appendix has examples of how to configure the iptables Linux filewall to function with both active and passive FTP.

Client Protected By A Firewall Problem
Typically firewalls don't let any incoming connections at all, this will frequently cause active FTP not to function. This type of FTP failure has the following symptoms: o The active ftp connection appears to work when the client initiates an outbound connection to the server on port 21. The connection appears to hang as soon as you do an "ls" or a "dir" or a "get". This is because the firewall is blocking the return connection from the server to the client. (From port 20 on the server to a high port on the client)

Solutions
Here are the general firewall rules you'll need to allow FTP clients through a firewall:

Server Protected By A Firewall Problem o Typically firewalls don't let any connections come in at all. not just a specific client server or network.Required Rules for FTP Method Source Address Source Port Destination Address Destination Port Connection Type Allow outgoing control connections to server Control Channel FTP client/ network FTP server** High FTP server** 21 New 21 FTP client/ network High Established* Allow the client to establish data channels to remote server Active FTP FTP server** 20 FTP client /network FTP server** High New FTP client/ network Passive FTP FTP client/ network FTP server** High 20 Established* High FTP server** High New High FTP client/ network High Established* *Many home based firewall/routers automatically allow traffic for already established connections. FTP server failure due to firewalls in which the active ftp connection from the client doesn't appear to work at all Solutions Here are the general firewall rules you'll need to allow FTP severs through a firewall . This rule may not be necessary in all cases.linuxhomenetworking. ** in some cases.144 www.com Client Protected by Firewall . you may want to allow all Internet users to have access.

How To Download And Install The VSFTP Package • As explained previously. This rule may not be necessary in all cases. In version 8.i386. • Now download the file to a directory such as /tmp and install it using the “rpm” command: . If you need a refresher. you may want to allow all Internet users to have access. RedHat software is installed using RPM packages.0 of the operating system.rpm Downloading and installing RPMs isn’t hard. ** in some cases. not just a specific client server or network. the VSFTP RPM file is named: vsftpd-1. the RPM chapter covers how to do this in detail.Required Rules for FTP Method Source Address Source Port Destination Address Destination Port Connection Type Allow incoming control connections to server Control Channel FTP client/ network** FTP server High FTP server 21 New 21 FTP client/ network** High Established* Allow server to establish data channel to remote client Active FTP FTP server 20 FTP client/network** FTP server High New FTP client/ network** Passive FTP FTP client/ network** FTP server High 20 Established* High FTP server High New High FTP client/ network** High Established* *Many home based firewall/routers automatically allow traffic for already established connections.0-1.Chapter 13: Linux FTP Server Setup 145 Server Protected by Firewall .1.

0-1.i386.rpm ########################################### [100%] ########################################### [100%] tmp]# How To Get VSFTP Started The starting and stopping of VSFTP is controlled by xinetd via the /etc/xinetd. so you’ll have to edit this file to start the program. The disable feature must be set to "no" to accept connections. Make sure the contents look like this. 1:vsftpd [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh vsftpd-1. you’ll have to edit /etc/xinetd. service ftp { disable = no socket_type = stream wait = no user = root server = /usr/sbin/vsftpd nice = 10 } You will then have to restart xinetd for these changes to take effect using the startup script in the /etc/init. to disable VSFTP once again.linuxhomenetworking.com [root@bigboy Preparing.146 www. VSFTP is deactivated by default.d/vsftpd..1.d/vsftpd file. [root@aqua tmp]# /etc/init..d/xinetd restart Stopping xinetd: [ OK ] Starting xinetd: [ OK ] [root@aqua tmp]# Naturally. there would be no output at all if VSFTP wasn’t running. The example below shows the expected output. Testing To See If VSFTP Is Running You can always test whether the VSFTP process is running by using the netstat –a command which lists all the TCP and UDP ports on which the server is listening for traffic. set “disable” to “yes” and restart xinetd.d directory. [root@bigboy root]# netstat -a | grep ftp tcp 0 0 *:ftp [root@bigboy root]# *:* LISTEN .

Remove/add the "#" at the beginning of the line to "activate/deactivate" the feature on each line. . As seen in the chapter on RPMs. # Uncomment this to enable any form of FTP write command.. Also by default. so you’ll have to restart xinetd each time you edit the file in order for the changes to take effect. # Allow anonymous FTP? anonymous_enable=YES .. ...log log file. . not uploads from them... Unlike regular FTP where you login with a userspecific username. VSFTP runs as an anonymous FTP server.. I would suggest turning this off.. . The configuration file is fairly straight forward as you can see in the snippet below.. . Once logged in to a VSFTP server. anonymous FTP only requires a username of "anonymous" and your email address for the password.. Common uses include downloading software updates and MP3s to uploading diagnostic information for a technical support engineer’s attention. # Uncomment this to allow local users to log in. The configuration file’s anonymous_enable instruction can be commented out using a “#” to disable this feature. local_enable=YES . VSFTP doesn't allow remote users to create directories on your FTP server and it logs FTP access to the /var/log/vsftpd.. using anonymous FTP as a remote user is fairly straight forward.conf File VSFTP only reads the contents of its /etc/vsftpd. you’ll automatically have access to only the default anonymous FTP directory /var/ftp and all its subdirectories.. By default VSFTP only allows anonymous FTP downloads to remote users.Chapter 13: Linux FTP Server Setup 147 What Is Anonymous FTP? Anonymous FTP is used by web sites that need to exchange files with numerous unknown remote users... Unless you want any remote user to log into to your default FTP directory. # Uncomment this if you want the anonymous FTP user to be able to create # new directories. By default. The /etc/vsftpd. Also. #anon_upload_enable=YES ... VSFTP can be configured to support user based and or anonymous FTP in its configuration file. This only # has an effect if global write enable is activated. This file uses a number of default settings you need to know. # (Needed even if you want local users to be able to upload files) write_enable=YES . # Uncomment to allow the anonymous FTP user to upload files. you will # obviously need to create a directory writable by the FTP user.conf configuration file when it starts.

ftpusers File For added security you may restrict FTP access to certain users by adding them to the list of users in this file. Anonymous Upload If you want remote users to write data to your FTP server then it is recommended you create a write-only directory within /var/ftp/pub.. SCP however does not support anonymous services.com #anon_mkdir_write_enable=YES .. .148 www. # Activate logging of uploads/downloads... #xferlog_file=/var/log/vsftpd. # The default is shown# below. .linuxhomenetworking. .. This could make your user account vulnerable to an unauthorized attack from a person eavesdropping on the network connection. This will allow your users to upload. ftpd_banner= New Banner Here Using SCP As Secure Alternative To FTP One of the disadvantages of FTP is that it does not encrypt your username and password. a feature that FTP does. but not access other files uploaded by other users. it is best to add.conf to make it harder for malicious users to determine the type of system you have.. Here are the commands to do this: [root@bigboy tmp]# mkdir /var/ftp/pub/upload [root@bigboy tmp]# chmod 733 /var/ftp/pub/upload FTP Greeting Banner Change the default greeting banner in /etc/vsftpd. xferlog_enable=YES .. Do not delete entries from the default list.log FTP Security Issues The /etc/vsftpd. # You may override where the log file goes if you like. Secure Copy (SCP) provides encryption and could be considered as an alternative to FTP for trusted users..

[root@bigboy tmp]# groupadd ftp-users [root@bigboy tmp]# mkdir /home/ftp-docs o Make the directory accessible to the ftp-users group.conf file like this: o o # Allow anonymous FTP? # anonymous_enable=YES o Enable individual logins by making sure you have the local_enable line uncommented in the /etc/vsftpd. Edit the /etc/xinetd. anonymous FTP is not desired. local_enable=YES o Create a user group and shared directory.Chapter 13: Linux FTP Server Setup 149 Example #1: FTP Users With Only Read Access To A Shared Directory In this example. Here are the steps: Enable FTP. but a group of trusted users need to have read only access to a directory for downloading files. [root@bigboy tmp]# chmod 750 /home/ftp-docs [root@bigboy tmp]# chown root:ftp-users /home/ftp-docs o Add users. and make their default directory /home/ftp-docs [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy o tmp]# tmp]# tmp]# tmp]# tmp]# tmp]# tmp]# tmp]# useradd -g ftp-users useradd -g ftp-users useradd -g ftp-users useradd -g ftp-users passwd user1 passwd user2 passwd user3 passwd user4 -d -d -d -d /home/ftp-docs /home/ftp-docs /home/ftp-docs /home/ftp-docs user1 user2 user3 user4 Copy files to be downloaded by your users into the /home/ftp-docs directory . Comment out the anonymous_enable line in the /etc/vsftpd. In this case we’ll use "/home/ftp-users" and a user group name of "ftp-users” for the remote users. Disable anonymous FTP.conf file like this: # Uncomment this to allow local users to log in.d/vsftp and set the disable value to "no".

1.100 (192.1.1.com o Change the permissions of the files in the /home/ftp-docs directory for read only access by the group [root@bigboy tmp]# chown root:ftp-users /home/ftp-docs/* [root@bigboy tmp]# chmod 740 /home/ftp-docs/* Users should now be able to log in via ftp to the server using their new user names and passwords. break me) Name (192.linuxhomenetworking.168. we can't do an upload transfer of "testfile" to bigboy.100.100 Connected to 192.168.210) 553 Could not create file.168. [root@smallfry tmp]# ll total 1 -rw-r--r-. Password: 230 Login successful.181. Have fun.conf file like this: #write_enable=YES o Restart vsftp for the configuration file changes to take effect.168. Using binary mode to transfer files.d/xinetd restart Stopping xinetd: [ OK ] Starting xinetd: [ OK ] [root@bigboy tmp]# Sample Login Session To Test Funtionality o Check for the presence of a test file on the ftp client server. ftp> put testfile local: testfile remote: testfile 227 Entering Passive Mode (192.100:root): user1 331 Please specify the password.168. dude (vsFTPd 1.150 www. If you absolutely don't want any FTP users to be able to write to any directory then you should comment out the write_enable line in your /etc/vsftpd.100). [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. ftp> o As expected. 220 ready. ftp> o We can view and download a copy of the VSFTP RPM . Remote system type is UNIX.0: beat me.1.1 root root 0 Jan 4 09:08 testfile [root@smallfry tmp]# o Connect to bigboy via FTP [root@smallfry tmp]# ftp 192.1.1.

226 File send OK.100:root): anonymous 331 Please specify the password.tmp remote: vsftpd-1.0-1. we can't do anonymous ftp.0: beat me.1. break me) Name (192.100.5e+02 Kbytes/sec) ftp> exit 221 Goodbye.Chapter 13: Linux FTP Server Setup 151 ftp> ls 227 Entering Passive Mode (192. 220 ready.1 0 502 76288 Jan 04 17:06 vsftpd-1.0-1.rpm 227 Entering Passive Mode (192.499 secs (1.168.0-1.rpm.168.1.rpm vsftpd-1.156) 150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for vsftpd-1.rpm 226 Directory send OK.44.i386.1.0-1. [root@smallfry tmp]# ftp 192.tmp local: vsftpd-1.100).1. Login failed. [root@smallfry tmp]# o As expected.1.35. 76288 bytes received in 0.1.i386.168.100.168. dude (vsFTPd 1.1.1. [root@smallfry tmp]# .rpm. Password: 530 Login incorrect.i386.1.1.0-1.i386.100 (192.1.168. ftp> quit 221 Goodbye.i386.i386.rpm (76288 bytes).100 Connected to 192.1. ftp> get vsftpd-1.173) 150 Here comes the directory listing.168.1.0-1. -rwxr----.

com .152 www.linuxhomenetworking.

linuxhomenetworking. H Using Secure Shell As A Replacement For Telnet When you use Telnet to remotely log into a Linux box you run the risk of people being able to eavesdrop on your network wire to see your username and password as unencrypted text. so all your activities can be monitored.com =========================================== ere is some information on how to both remotely log in and copy files using a secure encrypted connection with Secure Shell (SSH) and Secure Copy (SCP).153 Chapter 14 Secure Remote Logins And File Copying =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 14 Secure Remote Logins And File Copying Using Secure Shell As A Replacement For Telnet Testing To See If SSH Is Running The etc/ssh/sshd_config File Using SSH To Login To A Remote Machine What You Should Expect To See When You Log In Deactivating Telnet once SSH is installed Using SCP as a more secure replacement for FTP © Peter Harrison. . www. None of the data flow in Telnet is encrypted. Similar programs such as Telnet and FTP can be security hazards as they do not encrypt their passwords. SSH and SCP could be the right choice for you.

such as port 435 • First make sure your system isn't listening on port 435.0. By default SSH listens on all your NICs and uses TCP port 22. There are GUI based SSH clients available for Windows. [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.d/sshd stop [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. You should get a response of plain old process ID numbers: [root@bigboy tmp]# pgrep sshd The etc/ssh/sshd_config File The SSH configuration file is called /etc/ssh/sshd_config.1 #ListenAddress 0.0 #ListenAddress :: If you are afraid of people trying to hack in on a well known TCP port. This provides an encrypted data stream for you to use when you log in from one machine to another.linuxhomenetworking. see the references in the bibliography.d/sshd start [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. #Port 22 #Protocol 2. • You can get SSH configured to start at boot by using the chkconfig command. but leave them commented.com RedHat Linux comes standard with Secure Shell (SSH) installed. See the configuration snippet below: # # # # The strategy used for options in the default sshd_config shipped with OpenSSH is to specify options with their default value where possible. .154 www. then you can change port 22 to something else that won't interfere with other applications on your system. using the "netstat" command and using "grep" to filter out everything that doesn't have the string "435". When logging in from another Linux/UNIX machine you use the "ssh" command. [root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig --level 35 sshd on • You can also start/stop/restart SSH after booting by running the sshd initialization script. Testing To See If SSH Is Running You can test whether the SSH process is running with the following command. Uncommented options change a default value.d/sshd restart Remember to restart the SSH process every time you make a change to the configuration files for the changes to take effect on the running process.0.

100:435 0.d/sshd restart • Check to ensure SSH is running on the new port [root@bigboy root]# netstat -an | grep 435 tcp 0 0 192.Chapter 14: Secure Remote Logins And File Copying 155 [root@bigboy root]# netstat -an | grep 435 [root@bigboy root]# • No response. you will get a warning message saying that the remote host doesn't know about your machine. User “root” Logs In To smallfry As User “root” [root@bigboy tmp]# ssh smallfry User “root” Logs In To smallfry As User “peter” Using default port 22 [root@bigboy tmp]# ssh -l peter smallfry Using port 435 [root@bigboy tmp]# ssh -l peter -p 435 smallfry What You Should Expect To See When You Log In The first time you log in. If port 435 is being used. Here are some examples for a server named “smallfry” in your /etc/hosts file.168. your username will not change. Port 435 • Restart SSH [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.0. Something like this: .0.1. pick another port and try again. To login from another Linux box use the "ssh" command with a "-l" to specify the username you wish to login as.0:* [root@bigboy root]# LISTEN Using SSH To Login To A Remote Machine Using SSH is similar to Telnet. Change the Port line in /etc/ssh/sshd_config to mention 435 and remove the "#" at the beginning of the line. OK. If you leave out the "-l".

Xinetd is installed by default in RedHat 7. which makes it relativily easy to !! hijack the connection without the attack being detected.d/telnet and set the disable parameter to "yes". ssh1 protocol is vulnerable to an !! attack known as false-split.168. Edit the file /etc/xinetd. root@smallfry's password: Last login: Thu Nov 14 10:18:45 2002 from 192.d/xinetd restart Stopping xinetd: [ OK ] Starting xinetd: [ OK ] [root@bigboy tmp]# . # default: on # description: The telnet server serves telnet sessions. The Telnet server is controlled by the xinetd network security program.linuxhomenetworking.telnetd log_on_failure += USERID disable = yes } Now restart xinetd. !! If host key is new or changed. It is !! highly advisable to turn StrictHostKeyChecking to "yes" and !! manually copy host keys to known_hosts. service telnet { flags = REUSE socket_type = stream wait = no user = root server = /usr/sbin/in. [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.98 No mail.d directory.156 www.com [root@bigboy tmp]# ssh smallfry Host key not found from the list of known hosts. The configuration files for each of the network programs it controls is located in the /etc/xinetd. Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes Host 'smallfry' added to the list of known hosts.1.3 and newer. [root@smallfry tmp]# Deactivating Telnet once SSH is installed Now you need to switch off Telnet. it uses \ # unencrypted username/password pairs for authentication.

rpm /usr/rpm Copying Files To The Remote Linux Box Command Format: scp filename username@address:remotedir Example: Copy file /etc/hosts on the local machine to directory /tmp on the remote server. There is a windows scp client called WinSCP which can be downloaded at: http://winscp. More secure forms such as SFTP (Secure FTP) and SCP (Secure Copy) are available as a part of the Secure Shell package that is normally installed by default on RedHat.cz/eng/ Secure Copy (SCP) is installed in parallel with SSH and they always run simultaneously on the same TCP port.103:/tmp . passwords and data are sent across the network unencrypted. SCP doesn't support anonymous downloads like FTP.vse.Chapter 14: Secure Remote Logins And File Copying 157 Using SCP as a more secure replacement for FTP From a networking perspective.rpm on the remote machine to the local directory /usr/rpm [root@bigboy tmp]# scp root@smallfry:/tmp/software.1. FTP isn't very secure as usernames.168. Copying Files To The Local Linux Box Command Format: scp username@address:remotefile localdir Example: Copy file /tmp/software. [root@bigboy tmp]# scp /etc/hosts root@192.

linuxhomenetworking.158 www.com .

com =========================================== Samba is a suite of utilities that allows your Linux box to share files and other resources such as printers with Windows boxes. This allows each user to have a universal username and password when logging in from all PCs on the network. This chapter describes how you can make your Linux box into a Windows Primary Domain Controller (PDC) or a server for a Windows Workgroup. • A PDC stores the login information in a central database on its hard drive. Either configuration will allow everyone at home to have: • their own logins on all the home windows boxes while having their files on the Linux box appear to be located on a new Windows drive • shared access to printers on the Linux box • shared files accessible only to members of their Linux user group. .linuxhomenetworking. Linux And Samba Download and Install Packages How To Get SAMBA Started Configuring SWAT Samba and PC Firewall Software How To Create A Samba PDC Administrator User How to Configure a Samba PDC How To Add Users To Your Samba Domain Domain Groups And Samba How To Delete Users From Your Samba Domain © Peter Harrison. Linux And Samba =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 15 Windows. but this simple explanation should be enough. What’s the difference between a PDC and Windows Workgroup member? A detailed description is beyond the scope of this chapter.159 Chapter 15 Windows. www. each PC stores the usernames and passwords locally so that they are unique for each PC. • In a Windows Workgroup.

i386. When Samba starts up it reads the configuration file /etc/samba/smb.2.i386. the latest version of the Samba suite for RedHat 8.2. Keep in mind that you will lose all your comments inserted in /etc/samba/smb.conf to determine its various modes of operation.5-10.conf using a text editor or using the easier web based SWAT utility.2.linuxhomenetworking.conf with a text editor if you subsequently use SWAT to edit it.5-10.rpm samba-client-2.160 www.5-10. Samba Domains and Linux share the same usernames so you can log into the Samba based Windows domain using your and immediately gain access to files in your Linux user’s home directory. You can create your own smb. By default.com This chapter will only cover the much more popular PDC methodology used at home. How To Get SAMBA Started • You can configure Samba to start at boot time using the chkconfig command: [root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig --level 35 smb on • You can start/stop/restart Samba after boot time using the smb initialization script as in the examples below: [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.d/smb start [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.5-10.rpm Downloading and installing RPMs isn’t hard.rpm samba-common-2.d/smb restart • Remember to restart the smb process every time you make a change to the conf file for the changes to take effect on the running process. Download and Install Packages Samba is comprised of a suite of RPMs that come on the RedHat CDs.2.0 was version 2.i386.d/smb stop [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. you should get a response of plain old process ID numbers: [root@bigboy tmp]# pgrep smb . • You can test whether the smb process is running with the following command. Linux functionality doesn’t disappear when you do this. For added security you can make your Samba and Linux passwords different.i386. As of this writing. Samba mimics a Windows PDC in almost every way needed for simple file sharing.5-10.2. If you need a refresher. the RPM chapter covers how to do this in detail. Install all the packages in this order: [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy tmp]# tmp]# tmp]# tmp]# rpm rpm rpm rpm -Uvh -Uvh -Uvh -Uvh samba-2.rpm samba-swat-2. Explanations of how to use both SWAT and a text editor to configure Samba are given in this chapter.

The enabling/disabling.168. you can only log into SWAT from the VGA console as user "root". Here are some ways to solve the problem with two popular packages. service swat { port socket_type protocol wait user server log_on_failure disable only_from } = 901 = stream = tcp = no = root = /usr/sbin/swat += USERID = no = localhost The formatting of the file is fairly easy to understand.0:901) as defined by the only_from and port parameters. starting and stopping of SWAT is controlled by xinetd via a configuration file named /etc/xinetd.3 Therefore in this case you can also configure Samba on your Linux server "Bigboy" IP with address 192. Here’s an example of an entry to allow connections only from 192. .168.100:901 Samba and PC Firewall Software Firewall software installed on Windows PCs may cause Samba to not function. 192. Unfortunately it doesn't encrypt your login password.1.168. You can make SWAT accessible from other servers by adding IP address entries separated to the only_from parameter.1.0. you may want to create a Samba administrator user that has no root privileges whatsoever or do your configuration using the configuration files.168. Linux And Samba 161 Configuring SWAT SWAT is a very intuitive web based Samba configuration tool that allows you to configure Samba without all the memorization of the keywords needed for text based configuration.3 using the URL http://192.1.100 from PC 192.0. especially as there are only two entries of interest.1. • The disable parameter must be set to "no" to accept connections.Chapter 15 : Windows. Because of this. Here is a sample. • By default. This may be a security concern in a corporate environment.3 and localhost: only_from = localhost. The URL must point to your localhost IP address on port 901 (http://127.d/swat.168.1.

Once you get SAMBA to work. This means that the software will deny all inbound connections that attempt to connect with your PC.x/255.255. Right click your on your LAN connection icon and select Properties Click on the Advanced tab. The NetBIOS traffic that Samba uses to communicate with the PCs on the network will therefore be considered as hostile traffic. The easiest way around this is to configure Zone Alarm to consider your home network as a trusted network too.linuxhomenetworking.0 type entry.162 www.com Zone Alarm The default installation of Zone Alarm assumes that your PC is directly connected to the Internet. The Windows XP Built In Firewall You may also need to disable the firewall feature of Windows XP by doing the following: o o o o o Bring up Control Panel Go through the Network and Internet Connections and then Network Connections menus. Make this network a trusted network.255.168. Uncheck the Internet Connection Firewall box and it will be turned on. This can be done by clicking on the firewall tab and editing the settings for your home network that will most likely have a 192.x. instead of an Internet network and ZoneAlarm should cease to interfere with Samba. Here is how it's done: Create The Administrator’s User Group and Directories o First create a Linux group for administrators: [root@bigboy tmp]# /usr/sbin/groupadd sysadmin o Then create a Linux directory to house all the administrator directories: [root@bigboy tmp]# mkdir /home/sysadmin [root@bigboy tmp]# chgrp sysadmin /home/sysadmin [root@bigboy tmp]# chmod 0770 /home/sysadmin . you may want to experiment with the firewall software settings to optimize your security with the need to maintain a valid relationship with the SAMBA server How To Create A Samba PDC Administrator User To do both SWAT and user administration with Samba you'll need to create an Administrator account on the Samba PDC Linux box.

In this case the administrator user has been made a member of the sysadmin group. (Redundant in this case) -m -d dir_path -k /etc/skel. Tells RedHat NOT to create a default group with the same name as the user.smb -n . Forces linux to create the directory specified with the -d switch Home directory for the new user Tells adduser to copy the contents of the directory /etc/skel. The table below explains what each of the adduser command switches used. create a Linux user with the adduser command: [root@bigboy tmp]# /usr/sbin/adduser -d \ /home/sysadmin/administrator \ -g sysdmin -m -k /etc/skel. Linux And Samba 163 Create The Administrator User Under Linux o For each administrator user. This provides an added level of security.Chapter 15 : Windows.smb to the users new home directory. especially if you’re using SWAT.smb -n administrator o As this user may not need a real Linux login. Usually default login scripts. we won’t assign a real Linux password. Adduser’s Command Switches useradd command switch -g group Description Sets the group to which the user should be added.

# Samba config file created using SWAT # from 192.conf file and add the sysadmin group to the list of Samba system administrator users.168.164 www. [global] admin users = @sysadmin This can also be set via SWAT in the expanded “global settings” section.101 (192. [root@bigboy tmp]# /usr/bin/smbpasswd -a administrator password The -a adds the user administrator to the /etc/smbpasswd file. How to Configure a Samba PDC Create A Samba PDC By far the easiest way to configure a Samba PDC is by using SWAT. Samba domain logins use the smbpasswd password.1. Make The Administrator One Of The Samba Admin Users Edit /etc/samba/smb.linuxhomenetworking. You’ll need to restart Samba for this to take effect. Note: If you want user "administrator" to be able to log into the Linux box as a regular user via Telnet or SSH.101) # Date: 2002/11/10 19:54:45 # Global parameters [global] ## ## The name I want to give my DOMAIN ## workgroup = HOMENET .1. Log into SWAT and click on the “globals” section and make sure the key highlighted parameters below are set correctly. then you'll have to use the Linux passwd command to give this user a Linux (not a Samba domain) password.168. Use a generic password then have users change it immediately from their workstation the usual way. This is done with the smbpasswd command.com Create An Administrator Domain Password The Linux Administrator now needs a Samba password to log into the Windows domain.

Linux And Samba 165 ## ## The name of my Linux Box ## server string = BigBoy ## ## Make sure passwords are always encrypted ## encrypt passwords = Yes ## ## Samba will log errors via syslog to ## directory /var/log/samba ## log file = /var/log/samba/%m. Ie administer the PDC and do activities on the local PC like software installation. (Usually blank) ## logon script = logon.log max log size = 0 ## ## The command Samba uses to add new printers ## directory /var/log/samba ## addprinter command = /usr/bin/addprinter ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## Only domain users in the sysadmin group can act as universal administrators.cmd in the Linux user’s home directory ## will be run whenever the user logs in.Chapter 15 : Windows.cmd ## ## My user’s Linux login directory will always appear ## to be Windows drive H: ## logon drive = h: ## ## Activate domain type logins and make ## Linux box be the master Windows server ## in all domain type functions ## domain logons = Yes os level = 99 preferred master = True domain master = True local master = True dns proxy = No . but they wont be PDC administrators to do things like adding new PCs to the domain domain admin group = @sysadmin ## ## The script logon. You can also have local administrator accounts on PCs to do software installation.

Samba can create these “Machine Trusts” in two ways. either manually or automatically. Pay careful attention to the "$" at the end and replace machine_name with the name of the Windows client machine.linuxhomenetworking. [root@bigboy nickname" -s [root@bigboy [root@bigboy tmp]# /usr/sbin/useradd -g 100 -d /dev/null -c "machine /bin/false machine_name$ tmp]# passwd -l machine_name$ tmp]# smbpasswd -a -m machine_name . Manual Creation Of Machine Trust Accounts (NT Only) When manually creating a machine trust account you need to manually create the corresponding Unix account in /etc/passwd and /etc/smbpasswd files.166 www. Here you will use the drop down menu to edit the netlogon and profiles shares [netlogon] ## ## Store all Samba PDC overhead data in the directory ## /home/netlogon (or whatever you desire) ## path = /home/netlogon write list = administrator guest ok = Yes [profiles] ## ## Store user profiles in this directory ## path = /home/ntprofile read only = No create mask = 0600 directory mask = 0700 guest ok = Yes browseable = No Click on the “Status” button at the top of the screen and restart Samba to make your settings take effect.com ## ## Only users in the sysadmin group can use SWAT ## to modify Samba and ## admin users = @sysadmin printer admin = @sysadmin printing = lprng Next you will have to use SWAT to click on the “shares” button. Create Your PC Machine Trusts PDCs will only accept user logins from trusted PCs that have been placed in its PC client database.

Click all the OK buttons and reboot! . [global] # <. [root@bigboy tmp]# mkdir /home/netlogon [root@bigboy tmp]# chmod 0755 /home/netlogon You’ll then have to log into each PC client and do the following steps depending on their operating system. How to configure the netlogon directory is beyond the scope of this chapter. This method is also referred to as making a machine account "on the fly". This can be done by editing /etc/samba/smb. defining your wall paper and setting the way dates are formatted.remainder of parameters. This information is stored in the netlogon directory. These include things like suppressing the splash screen.. Check "Log onto Windows NT Domain".Chapter 15 : Windows.. but suffice it to say that the directory must be created on the Linux box for Samba to operate correctly. and enter the domain name. Windows 95/98/ME Windows 9x machines do not implement full domain membership and therefore don't require machine trust accounts • • • • • • Navigate to the Network section of the Control Panel (Start ->Settings->Control Panel>Network) Select the Configuration tab Highlight "Client for Microsoft Networks" Click the Properties button.> add user script = /usr/sbin/useradd -d /dev/null -g 100 -s /bin/false -M %u This is probably easier to do if you use SWAT in the “Global” menu Make Your PC Clients Aware Of Your Samba PDC When you log into the domain..conf to automatically add the required users. Dynamic Creation Of Machine Trust Accounts The second (and recommended) way of creating machine trust accounts is simply to allow the Samba server to create them as needed when the client joins the domain. the PDC will send your new client PC a list of universal “look and feel” related features that may have been previously set by the Administrator.. Linux And Samba 167 This is the only way to configure machine trusts using Windows NT.

) You should then get a confirmation that you’ve been added with a "Welcome to <DOMAIN>" message. • • • • Windows 2000 Create a dynamic SAMBA machine trust account as explained above.linuxhomenetworking. do not check the box "Create a Computer Account in the Domain. then go through the following steps: • • • • Navigate to the Network section of the Control Panel (Start ->Settings->Control Panel>Network ) Select the “identification” tab Click the "change" button Enter the domain name and computer name. Click "OK" You should then get a confirmation that you’ve been added with a "Welcome to <DOMAIN>" message. Reboot. then go through the following steps: • Press Windows-key Break-key simultaneously to get the System Properties dialogue box .168 www. • • • Windows XP Create a dynamic SAMBA machine trust account as explained above. In our case that would be user "administrator" with the corresponding smbpasswd password. This should be your Samba administrator." In this case. Log in using any account in the /etc/smbpasswd file with your domain as the domain name. Log in using any account in the /etc/smbpasswd file with your domain as the domain name. Reboot. (See this note before proceeding. the existing machine trust account is used to join the machine to the domain. then go through the following steps: • • • • • • Press Windows-key Break-key simultaneously to get the System Properties dialogue box Click on the 'Network Indentification' tab on the top Click the "Properties" button Click on the “Member of Domain” button Also enter your domain name and computer name and then click "OK" You will now be prompted for a user account and password with rights to join a machine to the domain.com Windows NT Create a manual SAMBA machine trust account as explained above.

This should be your Samba administrator. • • How To Add Users To Your Samba Domain Add The Users In Linux First go through the process of adding users in Linux just like you would normally do.Chapter 15 : Windows. Map A Drive Share By default. Passwords won’t be necessary unless you want the users to log in to the Samba server via Telnet or SSH. Linux And Samba 169 • • • • • Click on the 'Computer Name' tab on the top Click on the 'Change' button Click on the “Member of Domain” button Also enter your domain name and computer name and then click "OK" You will now be prompted for a user account and password with rights to join a machine to the domain. Map The Linux Users To An smbpassword Next you need to create Samba domain login passwords for all users [root@bigboy tmp]# /usr/bin/smbpasswd -a username password The -a adds the user to the /etc/smbpasswd file. Mapping Using “My Computer” If the auto-mapping doesn't work then do the following: • • • • Let the user log into the domain Right click on the "My Computer" icon on the desktop Click on "Map Network Drive" Select a drive letter . Reboot. Log in using any account in the /etc/smbpasswd file with your domain as the domain name. Use a generic password then have users change it immediately from their workstation the usual way. Samba will automatically give each user logged into the domain an H: drive that really maps to the /home/username directory on the Linux box. In our case that would be user "administrator" with the corresponding smbpasswd password.

The argument is a space-separated list of user names or group names (group names must have an @ sign prefixed). then the Samba server. The domain admin group parameter specifies users who will have domain admin rights. then the user’s home directory. This will allow them to do such things as add software and configure network settings.bat • Linux and Windows format text files slightly differently. In Windows. then you can do the following and possibly make it into a script.bat • Add the following contents to mount the user's share as drive P: (for 'private'). Click on the check box "Reconnect at Logon". but this is not currently supported in Samba. but will be interpreted bay a Windows machine.com • • Browse to the HOMENET domain.rpmfind. (You can get this package from http://speakeasy. As the file resides on a Linux box. This requires the 'todos' program to be installed. you’ll have to convert the file to the Windows format. Domain Groups also have the ability to join machines to the domain. REM administrator net use P: \\bigboy\administrator • Make the file world readable: [root@bigboy tmp]# chmod +r /home/samba/netlogon/administrator. For example: domain admin group = <USER1> <USER2> @<GROUP> .linuxhomenetworking. [root@bigboy tmp]# vi /home/netlogon/administrator.net ) [root@bigboy tmp]# todos /home/samba/netlogon/administrator.170 www. We will add the contents of this file to all administrator's logon scripts.bat • The next page will show you how to add regular users to your new SAMBA domain Domain Groups And Samba Samba supports domain groups which will allow users who are members of the group to be able to have Administrator rights on each PC in the domain. to make the change permanent Mapping From The Command Line If you find the "My Computer" method too time consuming for dozens of users or if the PC doesn't have the feature available. • Create a master logon batch file for administrator users.

Here we are deleting the user zmeekins and all zmeekin’s files from the Linux server: [root@bigboy tmp]# userdel -r zmeekins Delete The Users Using smbpasswd Next. use the smbpasswd command with the "-x" switch [root@bigboy tmp]# smbpasswd -x zmeekins Deleted user zmeekins.Chapter 15 : Windows. Linux And Samba 171 How To Delete Users From Your Samba Domain Delete The Users In Linux First go through the process of deleting users in Linux just like you would normally do. [root@bigboy root]# .

com .linuxhomenetworking.172 www.

directories and printers via the Samba server. This makes your Samba PDC a print server too! The method explained here requires the Windows printer driver to be loaded on every client machine. Here’s how to do it all. The way to get a GUI on the console is outlined in the runlevels chapter. We’ll assume the printer is locally attached to the parallel port. Here are the menus to use: o o o o Click on the RedHat icon in the bottom left hand corner of the screen Click on System Settings Click on Printing Click on New .173 Chapter 16 Sharing Resources With Samba =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 16 Sharing Resources With Samba Adding A Printer To A Samba PDC Creating Group Shares in SAMBA Windows Drive Sharing With Your SAMBA Server © Peter Harrison. Adding The Printer To Linux By far the easiest way to add a printer in Linux is to use the GUI from the VGA console. Here’s how to connect your printer directly to your PDC and make it available to all your windows workstations. This may be OK for a small home network but may be impractical for a huge corporate network. www.com =========================================== ow that you have Samba up and running. N Adding A Printer To A Samba PDC Sharing printers amongst all your PCs is one of the advantages of creating a home network.linuxhomenetworking. you may want to allow users to share resources such as floppy drives.

Once you are in SWAT: o o o Select the "Printers" button Find your printer in the drag down menu If the printer name has a [*] beside it.com o You'll now get the "Add a New Print Queue" menu Click "forward" You'll get the "Set the Print Queue name and Type" menu Give the printer an easy to remember name.linuxhomenetworking. but may not be visible on your network because Samba hasn't been restarted since creating the printer. If this isn't the case. Click on the “Status” tab at the top of the screen and restart smbd and nmbd to restart Samba. edit/create the printer Click on the “Commit Changes” button to create an updated /etc/samba/smb.174 www. o o o . I called the printer queue EpsonC60) Click the local printer button Click "forward" You'll get the "Configure a Local Printer" menu Select /dev/lp0 as I assume the printer is on the parallel port (not USB) You'll get the "Select Print Driver" menu Scroll to the printer Double click on the name Select the driver Click "forward" You'll get the "Finish and Create the New Print Queue" menu Click finished Click "Apply" Do a test print to make sure all is OK o o o o o Make Samba Aware Of The Printer The easiest way to do this is using the Samba SWAT web interface. If this is the case. (My printer is an Epson Stylus C60. restart Samba and go to the next section.conf file. then it has been auto configured by Samba.

you pre installed the driver Click the "OK" button The "Add Printer Wizard" will appear Select the manufacturer of your printer Select the printer model Click the "OK" button The "Add Printer Wizard" will prompt you whether you want to use this new printer as the default printer. If you want to install the driver on your local computer. click OK". Fortunately. Select "Yes" or "No" depending on your preference Click the "Next" button The "Completing the Add Printer Wizard" menu will appear Click the "Finish" button o o o o o o o o . Click next so you can browse for your printer You should be on the "Browse for Printer" menu Double Click on the name of your Linux Samba Box You should see the new printer Click on the printer name Click the "Next" button You may get a message stating "The server on which the printer resides does not have the correct printer driver installed. Go to the Add printer menu Click the "Next" button Select the "Network Printer" button to get the "Local or Network Printer" menu Click the "Next" button You should be on the "Locate Your Printer" menu Don't enter a name.Chapter 16: Sharing Resources With Samba 175 Configure The Printer Driver On The Workstations o Download the Windows printer driver from the manufacturer and install it.

Click on the “Commit Changes” button to create a new /etc/samba/smb. you might want to change the chown statement to make them owner [root@bigboy tmp]# mkdir /home/parent-files [root@bigboy tmp]# chown parents /home/parent-files [root@bigboy tmp]# chmod 0770 /home/parent-files o Next we add the group members to the new group. let's add user "father" to the group. Click on the shares button then enter the name of the share you want to create. let’s say “onlyparents”. Click on the “Status” tab at the top of the screen and restart smbd and nmbd to restart Samba. subgroups of a family need a share that is fully accessible by all members of the group. create the share in Samba using SWAT. For instance. For example. . [root@bigboy tmp]# /usr/sbin/usermod -G parents father Configure The Share In SWAT o o o o o Finally. Here’s how it’s done. Make sure the path maps to “/home/parent-files” and make the valid users be @parents.com o The new printer should now show up on the Windows Printers menu in "Control Panel" Send a test print.linuxhomenetworking. Create The Directory And User Group o Create a new Linux group parents: [root@bigboy tmp]# /usr/sbin/groupadd parents o Create a new directory for the group's files. where parents is the name of the Linux user group.conf file. Click on the “Create Share” button. o Creating Group Shares in SAMBA On occasion. distribute or collaboratively work on documents. parents working in a home office environment may need a place where they can share. If one user is designated as the leader.176 www.

DVD. In this section we’ll attempt to share a ZIP drive. to make the change permanent Windows Drive Sharing With Your SAMBA Server You can also access a CD. floppy or hard drive installed on a Windows Client from the Samba server. ZIP.Chapter 16: Sharing Resources With Samba 177 Your /etc/samba/smb.conf file should have an entry like this at the end: # Parents Shared Area [only-parents] path = /home/parent-files valid users = @parents Map The Directory Using “My Computer” o o o o o o Let the user log into the domain from a remote PC Right click on the "My Computer" icon on the desktop Click on "Map Network Drive" Select a drive letter Browse to the HOMENET domain. then the Samba server. Windows Setup The Windows client box should first be setup as a member of a Samba domain or workgroup. The next step is to make the ZIP drive shared. Windows 98/ME • • • • Double click 'My Computer' Right click on the ZIP drive and choose 'Sharing' Set the Share Name as 'zip' with the appropriate access control Restart windows Windows 2000 • • • • Double click 'My Computer' Right click on the ZIP drive and choose 'Sharing' Set the Share Name as 'zip' and the appropriate access control Logout and login again as normal using your current login . then the share named only-parents Click on the check box "Reconnect at Logon".

0. You should substitute "WinClient" with the name of your widows client PC and "username" with a valid workgroup/domain username that normally has access to the Windows client.---.255 nmask=255. Here’s how to do it.1.0.------IPC$ IPC Remote IPC D$ Disk Default share print$ Disk Printer Drivers SharedDocs Disk zip Disk Printer2 Printer Acrobat PDFWriter ADMIN$ Disk Remote Admin C$ Disk Default share Server Comment --------.255.168.168. You should get output like this when using the username's corresponding password: [root@bigboy tmp]# smbclient -L WinClient -U username added interface ip=192.100 bcast=192.255.253 ) Password: Domain=[HOMENET] OS=[Windows 5.1.1.178 www.com Windows XP • • • • Double click 'My Computer' Right click on the ZIP drive and choose 'Sharing and Properties' Set the Share Name as 'zip' and the appropriate access control Logout and login again as normal using your current login Test Your Windows Client Configuration Use the smbclient command to test your share.------Note: You could have got the same result using the following command.1 bcast=127.0 Got a positive name query response from 192.253 ( 192.168.------Workgroup Master --------.255 nmask=255.1.255.0.1] Server=[Windows 2000 LAN Manager] Sharename Type Comment --------.255.0.linuxhomenetworking.0 added interface ip=127. .168. though it is less secure: [root@bigboy tmp]# smbclient -L WinClient -U username%password Create A ZIP Drive Mount Point On Your Samba Server You’ll need to create the mount point on the Linux server in order to mount and access the ZIP floppy.

ERRnoaccess (Access denied. Incompatible versions will give errors like this: [root@bigboy tmp]# smbmount //winclient/zip /mnt/zip -o username=username Password: 27875: session setup failed: ERRDOS .Chapter 16: Sharing Resources With Samba 179 Prompted For Password Method [root@bigboy tmp]# mkdir /mnt/zip [root@bigboy tmp]# mount -t smbfs -o username=username //winclient/zip /mnt/zip Not Prompted For Password Method [root@bigboy tmp]# mkdir /mnt/zip [root@bigboy tmp]# mount -t smbfs -o username=username.) SMB connection failed .password=password //winclient/zip /mnt/zip Using The smbmount Command Method Some versions of Linux support the smbmount command to mount the remote drive.

linuxhomenetworking.180 www.com .

com is converted to an IP address. The most well known program in BIND is "named". . the Domain Name System (DNS) is the way in which a URL or domain like www. the daemon that responds to DNS queries from remote machines.181 Chapter 17 Configuring DNS =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 17 Configuring DNS What Is DNS? What Is BIND? When To Use A DNS Caching Nameserver When To Use A Regular DNS Server When To Use Dynamic DNS How To Download and Install The BIND Packages How To Get BIND Started The /etc/resolv. here’s how.linuxhomenetworking. www. What Is DNS? As explained on the introduction to networking concepts chapter.com =========================================== You can make your Linux box into your home network's DNS nameserver.conf File Configuring A Caching Nameserver Configuring A Regular Nameserver How To Migrate Your Website In-House DHCP Considerations For DNS © Peter Harrison.linuxhomenetworking. What Is BIND? BIND is an acronym for the "Berkeley Internet Name Domain" project which maintains the DNS related software suite that runs under Linux.

If you need a refresher. When To Use A Regular DNS Server If you host your own website at home with full control of all the web domains and your ISP provides you with a “fixed” or “static” IP address.com When To Use A DNS Caching Nameserver DNS caching servers should be used by the machines on your network to provide DNS information that it has learned from the authoritative DNS servers of the Internet. Downloading and installing RPMs isn’t hard. In this case a separate DNS server is unnecessary. If your router/firewall is getting its Internet IP address using DHCP then you must consider dynamic DNS. the most frequently requested information to reduce the lookup overhead of subsequent queries. Once you have set up your caching DNS server you will then have to configure each of your home network PCs to use it as their DNS server.2. “fixed” or “static” IP address or via a changing “DHCP” method.1-9. then you will have to configure your DHCP server to make it aware of the IP address of your new DNS server. regular nameservers are used as the authoritative source of information. the chapter on RPMs covers how to do this in detail. A caching DNS nameserver is only used as a reference. then a regular DNS server is what you require.rpm How To Get BIND Started • You can use the chkconfig command to get BIND configured to start at boot: . Off the shelf router/firewall appliances used in most home networks will usually act as both the caching DNS and DHCP server. As of this writing the latest version of the BIND suite for RedHat 8. Note: Regular nameservers are also caching nameservers by default. When To Use Dynamic DNS Your DSL ISP will assign IP addresses to your home either with an unchanging.182 www.0 was version 9. It comes standard with the RedHat installation CDs. then a regular DNS server would be the way to go.i386. Setting up a caching DNS server is fairly straightforward and will work whether or not your ISP provides you with a static or dynamic Internet IP address. Caching DNS servers then store (or cache).2. This chapter assumes that you are using “static” Internet IP addresses.linuxhomenetworking. How To Download and Install The BIND Packages Most RedHat Linux software products are available in the RPM format. If your home PCs get their IP addresses using DHCP.my-site. If you want to advertise your website www.com to the rest of the world. [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh bind-9.1-9.

com search my-site.102 .102 provide DNS name resolution.1. 192.org nameserver 192. • Two nameservers.100 and 192.my-site. The local domain name to be used by default. Here is a list of keywords: Keyword Nameserver • Value IP address of your DNS nameserver. the first contains a keyword and the second contains the desired value(s) separated by commas.com net my-site.com.d/named start [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. It generally has two columns. If there is more than one nameserver. This is a handy time saving feature to have so that you can refer to servers in the same domain by only their servername without having to specify the domain.Chapter 17: Configuring DNS 183 [root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig --level 35 named on • To start/stop/restart BIND after booting [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.168.d/named stop [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. If the server is bigboy.168.168.d/named restart • Remember to restart the BIND process every time you make a change to the conf file for the changes to take effect on the running process. but it also is a member of domains my-site.net and my-site. domain my-site.168. The /etc/resolv.1. The domains in this list must separated by spaces. DNS on your client will append the server name to each domain in this list and do an nslookup on each to get the remote servers’ IP address.1.1. Domain • Search • Here is a sample configuration in which: • The client server’s main domain is my-site.100 nameserver 192.org which should be searched for short hand references to other servers. There should be only one entry per “nameserver” keyword.conf File This file is used by DNS clients (servers not running BIND) to determine both the location of their DNS server and the domains to which they belong.com If you refer to another server just by its name without the domain added on. then the entry would just be my-site. you’ll need to have multiple “nameserver” lines.com.net my-site.

The zone file is named my-site. Configuring A Regular Nameserver For the purposes of this tutorial.0.1 The next step is to make all the other machines on your network point to the caching DNS server as their primary DNS server. The only file you have to edit is /etc/resolv.com Configuring A Caching Nameserver The RedHat default installation of BIND is configured to convert your Linux box into a caching nameserver.conf o The main DNS configuration is kept in the file /etc/named.1 Old Entry nameserver 192. notify no.158.255.com" { type master. zone "my-site.1.com is being set up by placing the following entries at the bottom of the /etc/named. the subnet that has been assigned to you by your ISP is 97.1 or: nameserver 127.linuxhomenetworking. o .184 www.168.168. though not explicitly stated.1.zone and.248 (/29). the file my-site.0.conf which is used to tell BIND where to find the configuration files for each domain you own. There are usually two zone areas in this file: Forward zone file definitions which list files to map domains to IP addresses Reverse zone file definitions which list files to map IP addresses to domains In this example the forward zone for www.24 with a subnet mask of 255.0.conf file.conf in which you’ll have to comment out the reference to your previous DNS server (most likely your router) with a "#" or make it point to the server itself using the universal localhost IP address of 127.my-site.253.255.zone should be located in the default directory of /var/named.0. Configuring named.1 New Entry # nameserver 192.

158. zone "my-other-site.conf file to reference other web domains you host. You can also insert additional entries in the /etc/named. file "253. A and CNAME) which govern different areas of BIND. The SOA Record The very first record is the Start of Authority (SOA) record which contains general administrative and control information about the domain.zone.” character then typing in the text of your comment.zone". the SOA format spans several.Chapter 17: Configuring DNS 185 allow-query { any. o The reverse zone definition below is optional for a home / SOHO DSL based web site. SOA. }. Note: the reverse order of the IP address in the zone section is important. It just makes you able to do an nslookup query on the 97. allow-query { any. you can place a comment at the end of any line by inserting a semi-colon “. Configuring The Zone Files o o o In all zone files. your zone files are located in the directory /var/named.97".com" { type master.97. Here is an example for my-other-site. notify no. MX. zone "253. Though you would normally think a record would be a single line. This is rarely done for home based sites.158. the rest of the records are relatively straight forward. It is especially difficult to do this with your DSL ISP if you have less than 256 static IP addresses (also known as a "Class C" block of addresses).com using a zone file named myother-site. }. Each zone file contains a variety of records (eg. }.arpa" { type master. notify no. I’ll explain of them below and then follow it all up with an example. NS.158.in-addr. }. It is the most counter-intuitive of them all.x IP address and get back the true name of the server assigned that IP address.zone". }.253. . By default. file "my-other-site. file "my-site.

As of BIND version 9 this value is overridden by the $TTL command at the very top of the configuration file.com SOA Record Format Line # 1 Column # 1. The email address must also be followed by a ".186 www. 2.linuxhomenetworking. Tells the slave DNS server how often it should check the master DNS server. Total amount of time a slave will retry to contact the master before expiring the data it contains. 4 1 Retry • 5 1 Expire • 6 1 Minimum TTL • • 2 “)“ • ." Signifies that we’re about to define some performance related variables. Slaves aren't really used in home / SOHO environments. Slaves aren't really used in home / SOHO environments. A serial number for the current configuration. The slave's retry interval to connect the master in the event of a connection failure. The regular "@" in the e-mail address must be replaced with a ". 3 4 5 Name @ IN SOA Nameserver Email • • • • • • 6 2 1 “(“ Serial • • • 3 1 Refresh • Description Signifies that the SOA record is about to begin Fully qualified name of your primary nameserver. Must be followed by a "." The email address of the nameserver administrator. The amount of time external caching DNS servers should keep your DNS information before flushing the data from the cache." instead. Slaves aren't really used in home / SOHO environments. Signifies that we’re all finished with the variables. Usually in the date format YYYYMMDD with single digit incremented number tagged to the end.

NS. MX." after the domain in the MX record for my-site.com. followed by a ". There must always be an entry for localhost 127. Server name "A" IP address of server CNAME "alias" or "nickname" for server "CNAME" "A" record name for server N/A **The Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) is the full DNS name of the server such as mail.my-site." N/A A Maps an IP address to each server in your domain. MX. A and CNAME records each occupy a single line and the records each have a very similar layout.Chapter 17: Configuring DNS 187 NS.com. and you will find your mail server only accepting mail for the domain my-site." "MX" CNAME of mail server or the mailserver's FQDN** followed by a ".0. the NS. BIND will attach the my-site.com.com Blank "NS" N/A MX Domain.1 Provides additional alternate "alias" names for servers listed in the "A" records.mysite. A and CNAME Record Formats Record Description First Column Second Column Third Column IP address or CNAME of the nameserver Mail server priority Fourth Column NS Lists the name of the nameserver for the domain Lists the mail servers for your domain such as mysite.com o Note: If you don't put a ".com at the end. BIND will automatically tack on the domain name.com. A And CNAME Records Unlike the SOA record." at the end of a host name in a SOA. So an "A" record with "www" will be assumed to refer to www. MX. . A or CNAME record. This may be OK in most cases.my-site. but if you forget to put the ".0. NS.

expire. www mail ns o A A A 97. hostmaster.253. ( 200211152 . In corporate environments there may be a separate nameserver for this purpose. Inet Address of nameserver my-site.my-site.0.com "mail" is actually a CNAME or "alias" for the web server "www".158. .com Sample Forward Zone File Here is a working example of the zone file for my-site. .158.188 www. You MUST increment it after editing the file or else BIND will not apply the changes you made when you restart "named".158. . seconds 3600 ) . but in the home / SOHO environment it is not necessary to differentiate. but the overriding $TTL value is 3 days. serial# 3600 . seconds 3600 .my-site.253. then you’d have an "A" record entry for each like the example below.26 97. .134 97.253.com.com. NS www . refresh.253.158.linuxhomenetworking.1 97. seconds . If they were all different machines. seconds 3600 . So here we have an example of the nameserver.com points to the server named mail. localhost www mail MX 10 mail . mail server and web server being the same machine. Primary nameservers are more commonly called “ns1” and secondary nameservers “ns2”.com.com .26 www Notice that in this example: o Server www.my-site. Zone file for my-site.my-site. So remote DNS caching servers will store learned DNS information from your zone for 3 days before flushing it out of their caches.com. The full zone file . retry. The MX record for my-site. .com is nameserver for my-site. The minimum TTL is set to 3600 seconds.0.com. minimum. Primary Mail Exchanger A A CNAME 127.125 o o o The serial number is extremely important. $TTL 3D @ IN SOA www.

168. seconds . dhcp-33.my-site.com. 192. www . .1.my-site.253.com.com.158. ochorios.my-site. .my-site.168. Zone file for 192.com.com.com. Unfortunately ISP’s won’t usually delegate this ability for anyone with less than a “Class C” block of 256 IP addresses.32 to 192.1. This is very important if you are running a mail server on your network as sendmail typically will only relay mail from hosts whose IP addresses resolve correctly in DNS.100. serial number refresh. reggae. 100 103 102 105 32 33 34 35 36 PTR PTR PTR PTR PTR PTR PTR PTR PTR bigboy. Most home DSL sites wouldn’t qualify. NS .26 NAT IP address of your webserver. .my-site. Here is a sample reverse zone file for our network. dhcp-34.168.com.36 which are the addresses our DHCP server issues.my-site. seconds retry.my-site.my-site. .253.1. dhcp-36.Chapter 17: Configuring DNS 189 Sample Reverse Zone File Now we need to make sure that we can do an nslookup query on all our home network’s PCs and get their correct IP addresses.158. dhcp-35. smallfry.1.26 address of the webserver. seconds minimum.168. 200303301 8H 2H 4W 1D ) hostmaster. You may also want to create a reverse zone file for the public NAT IP addresses for your home network. What You Need To Know About NAT And DNS The above examples assume that the queries will be coming from the Internet with the zone files returning information related to the external 97. seconds expire. .zone .com. SMTP mail relay wouldn’t work for PCs that get their IP addresses via DHCP if these lines weren’t included.my-site. .com.x . This is because NAT won’t work properly if a PC on your home network attempts to connect to the external 97.my-site. . . $TTL 3D @ IN SOA ( www.com.my-site.com. Filename: 192-168-1. Nameserver Address Note: I have included entries for addresses 192. What do the PCs on your home network need to see? They need to see DNS references to the real IP address of the webserver. dhcp-32. .

// ACL statement acl "trusted-subnet" { 192. Note: You must place your “localhost”.arpa” and ".conf file in one of two “views” sections.zone for lookups by home users on the 192. “any” which is self explanatory.zone".X network which Internet users would see. }.zone for lookups related to the 97. There are some built-in ACLs: “localhost” which refers to the DNS server itself." zone statements in the “internal” views section. This /etc/named.253. file "localhost. You could also have a file called my-site-home. “localnets” which refers to all the networks to which the DNS server is directly connected. }.arpa" IN { type master. For example. }. Here’s a summary of how it’s done: o Place your zone statements in the /etc/named.168. }. zone "0.1. Remember to increment your serial numbers! Here is a sample configuration snippet for the /etc/named. The second view called “external” will list the zone files to used for Internet users.zone file is fairly easy. The creation of the my-site-home. localhost. zone "localhost" IN { type master.ca". zone ". The views feature allows you to force BIND to use pre-defined zone files for queries from certain subnets." IN { type hint.in-addr.com Don’t worry.conf file I use for my home network. This means it’s possible to use one set of zone files for queries from the Internet and another set for queries from your home network. }.zone file and replace all references to 97.linuxhomenetworking.190 www.0. This entry would be inserted in the “internal” section. }.127.X with references to 192.158.X o You must also tell the DNS server which addresses you feel are “internal” and “external”.253.168. allow-update { none.conf entry would be inserted in the “external” section. "trusted-subnet". The first section will be called “internal” and will list the zone files to be used by your internal network.17/24. BIND has a way around this called “views”.local".1.in-addr.0 network.127. you could have a reference to a zone file called my-site.0. Just copy it form the my-site. }. view "internal" { // What the home network will see match-clients { localnets.158. file "named. file "named. “0. This is done by first defining access control lists (ACLs) and then referring to these lists within each view section with the match-clients statement. All the statements below were inserted after the “options” and “controls” sections in the file. . allow-update { none.168.

Remember. Note: In the above example I included an ACL for network 192. allow-query { any.arpa" IN { type master. notify no. }.192. file "my-other-site. file "192-168-1.com" { type master. }. The home network we have been using doesn’t need to have the ACL statement at all as the built in ACLs “localnets” and “localhost” are sufficient. allow-query { any. view "external" { // What the Internet will see match-clients { any. notify no. allow-update { none. }. zone "my-other-site.in-addr. zone "my-other-site. }.zone". Our network won’t need the “trustedsubnet” section in the match-clients line either.0 /24 called “trusted-subnet” to help clarify the use of ACLs in more complex environments.com" { type master. }. allow-query { any. }. I then inserted a reference to the “trusted-subnet” in the match-clients statement in the “internal” view. }.zone". }. So in this case the local network (192. }.com" { type master. }.0) and localhost will get DNS data from the zone files in the “internal” view.0 /24).168. notify no. recursion no.zone". Once the ACL was defined.zone".com" { type master. file "my-other-site-home. zone "my-site. }. file "my-site.17. file "my-site-home.zone".1. . this is purely an example. zone "my-site. notify no. the other trusted network (192.Chapter 17: Configuring DNS 191 zone "1. allow-query { any. }.168.17.168. }.168.

If your firewall is a Linux box.local my-site.1 -rw-r--r-. .192 www.26.zone 2001 2001 2001 16:23 localhost.local my-site.1 [root@bigboy o tmp]# cd /var/named named]# ll named named 195 Jul 3 named named 2769 Jul 3 named named 433 Jul 3 root root 763 Oct 2 named]# chown named * named]# chgrp named * named]# ll named named named named named named named named named]# 195 2769 433 763 Jul Jul Jul Oct 3 3 3 2 2001 2001 2001 16:23 localhost.linuxhomenetworking.1 -rw-r--r-.1 [root@bigboy [root@bigboy [root@bigboy total 6 -rw-r--r-. Some programs such as sendmail require a correctly configured /etc/hosts file even though DNS is correctly configured.253.158.1 -rw-r--r-.168.1. The actual IP address of the server is 192.zone named.1 -rw-r--r-. which is a private IP address.1 -rw-r--r-.zone The configuration files above will not be loaded until you issue the following command to restart the named process that controls DNS (Make sure to increment your configuration file serial number before doing this): [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. you may want to consider taking a look on the iptables chapter on how to do the NAT and allow DNS traffic trough to your nameserver. namely 97. Configure Your Firewall The sample network we're using assumes that the BIND nameserver and Apache web server software run on the same machine protected by a router/firewall.ca named.zone named.d/named restart Make Sure Your /etc/hosts File Is Correctly Updated The chapter covering Linux networking topics explains how to do this.com Loading Your New Configuration Files o Make sure your file permissions and ownership are OK in /var/named [root@bigboy [root@bigboy total 6 -rw-r--r-.1 -rw-r--r-. You'll have to employ NAT in order for Internet users to be able to gain access to the server via the Public IP address we chose.ca named.100.

Chapter 17: Configuring DNS 193 Fix Your Domain Registration Remember to edit your domain registration for "my-site. the registrar will require at least two registered nameservers per domain. Your best alternative will be to request your existing service provider to set the TTL on my-site. Once the propagation is complete. create a second NAT entry on your firewall and then create the second nameserver record entry with the new IP address.com. It normally takes about 3-4 days for your updated DNS information to be propagated to all 13 of the world’s root (“super duper”) nameservers.com in the DNS zone file to a very low value.26 to map to ns.com to handle your domain.my-site. • Set up your server in house using a different domain.my-site. Give your web server a second IP address using an IP alias. Once. say 1 minute. • Test your applications using server.158. you'll have to create a new nameserver record entry for the IP address 97. convert all the server configuration files to reference my-site.com".my-site.com • Once testing is completed. Also set the TTL on this domain to 1 minute. you've logged in with the registrar's username and password.my-site-test.com domain.253.com • Test mail to users @my-site-test.26 in this case ). At the very least it should include the following steps: • There is no magic bullet which will allow you to tell all the caching DNS servers in the world to flush their caches of your zone file entries. . You'll have to do the following two steps: o First. You’ll therefore have to wait about this amount of time before you’ll start noticing people hitting your new website site. it will take only 1 minute to see the results of the final DNS configuration switch to your new server. How To Migrate Your Website In-House It is important to have a detailed migration plan if you currently use an external company to host your website and wish to move the site to a server at home or in your office. for example www.com • Test web traffic to www.com or whatever your nameserver is called. Domain registrars such as Verisign and RegisterFree usually provide a web interface to help you manage your domain.my-site-test. If anything goes wrong.253. (This screen will prompt you for both the server's IP address and name) Then you'll have to assign ns. Now your server will be a part of both my-site.com or www. As the TTL is usually set to 3 days. you can then revert to the old configuration. then you could either: o o Create a second nameserver record entry with the same IP address. (This screen will prompt you for the server name only) o Sometimes. knowing it will rapidly recover within minutes rather than days. and different name. so that at least one of the nameservers is your new nameserver. If you only have one. • Ask your existing web hosting provider to add a DNS entry for your new server in the my-site.com and my-site-test.158. it will take at least 3-5 days for all remote DNS servers to recognize the change.com and not my-site-test. or whatever it is.com.my-site. but different name.com Restart all the relevant applications. ( 97.

this could be left in the hands of your service provider. if you have concerns that your service provider won’t co-operate then you could explain to them that you want to test their failover capabilities to a duplicate server that you host in-house. You can migrate these services in-house later as your confidence in hosting becomes greater. If your Linux box is the DHCP server. you'll need to make it assign the IP address of the Linux box as the DNS server it tells the DHCP clients to use. you can set the TTL back to 3 days to help reduce the volume of DNS query traffic hitting your DNS server. You can then decide whether the change will be permanent once you have failed over back and forth a few times.linuxhomenetworking. you'll be able to see results of the migration within minutes. then you may need to refer to the DHCP server chapter. you don't have to host DNS or mail in-house. . • As both TTLs were set to 1 minute previously. Finally.com • Coordinate with your web hosting provider to simultaneously update you domain registration’s DNS records to point to your new DNS server. DHCP Considerations For DNS If you have a DHCP server on your network. • Once complete. Remember.194 www.

Chapter 17: Configuring DNS 195 .

linuxhomenetworking.com .196 www.

If you want to host a website at home you have two DNS options: Static DNS: This is used when your ISP provides you with unchanging “fixed” or “static” Internet IP addresses. DNS is the way in which a URL or domain like www. Your DNS server acts as the authoritative source of information for your my-site.com domain.com =========================================== What Is DNS? As explained on the introduction to networking chapter.com is converted to an IP address. www.linuxhomenetworking.197 Chapter 18 Dynamic DNS =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 18 Dynamic DNS What Is DNS? What Is Dynamic DNS? Dynamic DNS And NAT Router/Firewalls Dynamic DNS Prerequisites Installing And Using ez-ipupdate Installing And Using DDclient Testing Your Dynamic DNS © Peter Harrison. Dynamic DNS: Used when you get a changing “dynamic” Internet IP addresses via DHCP from your ISP.linuxhomenetworking.com domain. . You can consider static DNS as the “traditional” or “regular” form of DNS. You will have to use the services of a third party DNS provider to provide DNS information for your my-site.

you'll have to also configure your router / firewall to do port forwarding to make all HTTP traffic destined for the IP address of the router / firewall to be exclusively NAT-ed and forwarded to a single server on your home network. Dynamic DNS (DDNS) allows you to host a website such as www. The reported value is therefore invalid. • register your domain name and read your DDNS provider's instructions on how to use their name servers. Once this is done.linuxhomenetworking. specifically HTTP. Dynamic DNS And NAT Router/Firewalls As discussed in the introduction to networking chapter.my-site. the DSL IP address is provided by DHCP and therefore changes from time to time. in order to conserve the limited number of IP addresses available for internet purposes. Before considering using a dynamic DNS solution for hosting a website at home with dynamic IPs: • you must make sure your DSL provider will allow inbound connections. The web masters then register their domains with companies such as Verisign and RegisterFree and tells these registrars to direct queries to www. most cable modem providers may not allow you to host sites at home. dynDDS.org offers a service to overcome this limitation. This chapter describes how to configure the most popular Linux based DDNS software ez-ipupdate and DDclient in the following two configurations: • on a Linux box directly connected to the Internet • on a Linux box when protected by a NAT router / firewall Remember that unlike DSL. NAT can fool the operation of some DDNS client software. . Some DDNS providers use more intelligent clients such as DDclient which can be configured to let the DDNS provider record the public IP address from which the data stream is originating.com What Is Dynamic DNS? In many home networking environments. If the Linux box is being protected behind a NAT router / firewall then the NIC will report in its data stream to the DDNS provider a private IP address which no one can reach directly via the Internet. most home router / firewalls will use Network Address translation (NAT) to map a single public DHCP obtained IP addresses to the many private IP addresses within your network.com in which the IP address is dynamically assigned.198 www. An example of port forwarding with a Cisco PIX firewall is given in both the Cisco PIX firewall chapter and Net-Filter chapters. the software can only report the true IP address of the Linux box's NIC interface.com to the servers of the DDNS provider. The webserver itself then has a DDNS client program running that updates the DDNS providers name servers with the most current DHCP IP address of the site. or else it will not work • be prepared for slower response times for your home based site than if you were using a static IP and a regular DNS service. DDNS works by having webmasters register their DDNS sites on the DDNS provider's servers.mysite. In these cases.

com.net will default to a domain such as machine-name. you'll need DDclient in this case. Installing And Using ez-ipupdate Download the tar/gzip file to your server’s /tmp directory from the ez-ipupdate site listed in the Bibliography.Chapter 18: Dynamic DNS 199 Dynamic DNS Prerequisites Sign Up With A DDNS Provider First you'll have to register with a DDNS provider. The ez-ipupdate installation will put the executable file in /usr/local/bin and all the files in the /tmp/filename directory will become extraneous.com will eventually query RegisterFree or Verisign which will then refer the query to your DDNS providers name servers which will have the most current IP address of your site because of the DDNS client software you are running at your home site. you'll have to return to www.registerfree. With dynDNS.org you'll have to go with their paid service to get a customized domain name. some of which are listed on the Bibliography.my-site.com.org.net. The cost is about US$20 per year.com. . o o Update Your DNS Registration If you have your own domain. First you add your domain such as my-site. DNS queries for my-site.verisign.verisign.com and update the nameserver entries for your domain to point to the name servers of your DDNS provider. Then you must add a host record. This chapter focuses on the services of miniDNS and DynDNS. you'll have to do a little extra work. You can give your machine's name or you can name the machine "www" to create a combined domainsubdomain of www.registerfree. For example miniDNS. You'll have to register your domain with a DNS registrar such as www. [root@bigboy]tmp]# gunzip zip-tar-filename [root@bigboy]tmp]# tar –xvf tar-filename [root@bigboy]tmp]# cd /tmp/filename Follow the install instructions for doing the “make” or program compilation.minidns.com or www. They call it Custom DNS and it doesn't support ez-ipupdate. The miniDNS registration for your own domain requires you to use the "add DNS Record" link on the registration page to create your own domain.com which would be more intuitive to use. Use the following commands to extract the contents into a new subdirectory. Most DDNS providers assume you are going to create a sub domain of their main domain.com or www. If you want to create your own domain such as my-site.

some routers such as the netgear line may provide automatic DDNS service and you may not have to download the software. the DDclient script can also log in and parse out the external IP address of the router. The developer of DDclient has recognized the limitations of using ez-ipupdate with NAT.conf File ez-ipupdate uses a configuration file named /etc/ez-ipupdate.tar.2/COPYRIGHT ddclient-3.tar ddclient-3.my-site.6.2/COPYING … . read the README file to give you an idea of what to do. If your Linux server is protected behind a firewall using NAT then the IP address of the NIC won't match that of the public IP address of the firewall and DDNS won't work properly.conf in which you must specify: o o o Your registration username and password The host name you have selected for your Linux box The NIC interface which is connected to your DSL line. Check the Bibliography for the DDclient URL. DDclient has a simple "web" update mode which tells your DDNS provider to use the source IP address of the data stream used to update your DDNS record.6.200 www. Remember.conf file for you to use. you’ll have to use a client like DDclient which doesn’t have this limitation. ez-ipupdate And NAT The ez-ipupdate software runs as a daemon in memory continuously checking the IP address of your NIC.com interface=eth0 Note: The service-type line is specific to your dynamic DNS provider which will often provide a customized /etc/ez-ipupdate. In cases where "web" mode doesn't work.linuxhomenetworking. DDclient claims to offers support for a wide variety of routers from different manufacturers. In most Home / SOHO environments this will be the same as that of the firewalls external NAT IP address. [root@bigboy tmp]# gunzip ddclient. Here is an example of the steps used to install it.gz [root@bigboy tmp]# tar -xvf ddclient. It then communicates this information to your dynamic DNS provider. Installing And Using DDclient Another highly used solution is DDclient.2/ ddclient-3. Here is a sample: service-type=justlinux user=registration-username:registration-password host=servername.com The /etc/ez-ipupdate.6. Before installing DDclient.

6. web=dyndns address is 97.0.your-other-domain. [root@bigboy ddclient-3.redhat /etc/rc.2]# cp sample-etc_rc. if=lo address is 127.2]# In this case.backupmx) ## use=if.168.d/ddclient [root@bigboy ddclient-3.100 use=web.dyndns. You can then configure your /etc/ddclient. This is referenced on the line labeled “server”.0.158.top-level. the simple web mode provides an acceptable value for your external IP address.6.253.top-level # Your domains here Before updating the file you can use DDclient with the "-query" option to tell you which is the best mode to use.2]# ddclient -daemon=0 -query use=if. The NIC interface which is connected to your DSL line. if=wlan0 address is 192.1 use=if.1 root root 18007 Jan 3 2002 COPYING -rw-r--r-.6.conf File DDclient uses a configuration file named /etc/ddclient.2]# cp ddclient /usr/sbin/ The /etc/ddclient. \ protocol=dyndns2 \ your-domain.conf file to use "web" #use=if.6.6.org.d_init. if=eth0 # via interfaces .d/init.org custom addresses ## ## (supports variables: wildcard. if=eth0 # via interfaces login=your-login # default login password=your-password # default password custom=yes \ server=members.conf in which you must specify: o o o Your registration username and password The host name you have selected for your Linux box.26 [root@bigboy ddclient-3.1.2]# /sbin/chkconfig --add ddclient [root@bigboy ddclient-3.d_ddclient.2]# ll -rw-r--r-.6.mx.Chapter 18: Dynamic DNS 201 … … [root@bigboy tmp]# cd dd* [root@bigboy ddclient-3.1 root root 869 Jan 3 2002 COPYRIGHT … … … [root@bigboy ddclient-3. Here is an example. Here is a sample using interface eth0: ## dyndns.

linuxhomenetworking.1 Address: 127.0.214#53 Name: www. Test it by asking a friend to access your web server by pointing their browser to the external IP address of your router / firewall.0.com: NXDOMAIN Note: This error could also be due to the fact that your domain hasn't propagated fully throughout the Internet.0.235.net Address: 202.0.com Address: 12.64.net Address: 202.net Default server: ns1.51. If you failed to add your host record.my-site.my-site. The example below queries the miniDNS name server: [root@bigboy tmp]# nslookup > server ns1.my-site.my-site. • Using the nslookup www. .minidns.my-site. You can test to make sure everything is OK by forcing NS lookup to query the nameservers directly.96 > Testing Port Forwarding Remember to read the configuration manual of your router / firewall to activate port forwarding.com Server: ns1.com use=web # via web Testing Your Dynamic DNS You can test your dynamic DNS by: • Looking at the status page of your DNS provider and making sure the IP address that matches your "www" site is the same as your router / firewall's public IP address.214#53 > www.202 www.194.1#53 ** server can't find www.51.64. you will get an error message like this: [root@bigboy tmp]# nslookup www.minidns.com Server: 127.minidns.com command from your Linux command prompt and see whether you are getting a valid response.

i386.0 RPM as of this writing was: httpd-2. The Apache online documentation gets a little complicated.0. Download and Install The Apache Package Most RedHat Linux software products are available in the RPM format. the chapter on RPMs covers how to do this in detail.linuxhomenetworking. www. Downloading and installing RPMs isn’t hard. the RedHat 8.rpm .40-8.0 © Peter Harrison.203 Chapter 19 The Apache Web Server =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 19 The Apache Web Server Download and Install The Apache Package How To Get Apache Started Configuring DNS For Apache General Configuration Steps Configuration – Multiple Sites And IP Addresses Using Data Compression On Web Pages Apache Running On A Server Behind A Firewall File Permissions And Apache How To Protect Web Page Directories With Passwords Issues When Upgrading To Apache 2. It is best to use the latest version of Apache.com =========================================== This is page outlines how to create multiple websites using a single IP address for a basic home configuration. If you need a refresher. • For example.

com • Install the package using the rpm command [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh httpd-2.40-8.d/httpd restart • You can test whether the Apache process is running with the following command. Examples of this will follow. .i386. Apache expects its HTML files to be located in the /var/www/html directory How To Get Apache Started • Use the chkconfig configure Apache to start at boot: [root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig --level 35 httpd on • Use the httpd init script in the /etc/init.d directory to start/stop/restart Apache after booting [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.conf.d/httpd start [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.d/httpd stop [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.0. you should get a response of plain old process ID numbers: [root@bigboy tmp]# pgrep httpd Configuring DNS For Apache Remember that you will never receive the correct traffic unless you have configured DNS for your domain to make your new Linux box web server the target of the DNS domain's www entry. See either the Static DNS or Dynamic DNS pages on how to do this. General Configuration Steps The configuration file used by Apache is /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.rpm By default.204 www.linuxhomenetworking.

then it will look at each <VirtualHost> section with a matching IP address and try to find one where the ServerName or ServerAlias matches the requested hostname.158." IP Based Virtual Hosting The other virtual hosting option is to have one IP address per website which is also known as IP based virtual hosting. The Apache SSL module demands at least one explicit <VirtualHost> directive for IP based virtual hosting. If it finds one. A Note On Virtual Hosting And SSL It is common for system administrators to replace the IP address in the <VirtualHost> and NameVirtualHost directives with the “*” (all IP addresses) wildcard character. Apache interprets it as an overlap of name based and IP based <VirtualHost> directives and will give errors like this because it can’t make up its mind about which method to use: .253.253. then the first listed virtual host that matches the IP address will be used. When you use wild cards.Chapter 19: The Apache Webserver 205 Named Virtual Hosting You can make your web server host more than one site per IP address by using Apache's "named virtual hosting" feature. Here is the format: <VirtualHost 97. the server will first check if it is using an IP address that matches the NameVirtualHost. If no matching virtual host is found.26> Directives for site #2 </VirtualHost> Within each <VirtualHost> section you then specify the primary website domain name for that IP address with the ServerName directive. The NameVirtualHost directive in the /etc/httpd/conf/httpd. If you installed Apache with support for secure HTTPS / SSL. then wild cards won’t work. In this case you will not have a NameVirtualHost directive for the IP address.253. You must specify the IP address for which each <VirtualHost> section applies.conf file is used to tell Apache the IP addresses which will participate in this feature.158. Here is the format: NameVirtualHost 97. This makes configuration easier. The directory where the index page for that site is located is defined with the DocumentRoot directive. which is used frequently in credit card and shopping cart web pages.26> Directives for site #1 </VirtualHost> <VirtualHost 97. You can also list secondary domain names which will serve the same content as the primary ServerName using the ServerAlias directive. then it uses the configuration for that server. As explained on the apache website: "When a request arrives.26 The <VirtualHost> sections in the file then tell Apache where it should look for the web pages used on each web site. If it is.158. and you must only have a single <VirtualHost> section per IP address.

This can be done by not loading all the modules from the /etc/httpd/conf. By default.d directory.mixing * ports and non-* ports with a NameVirtualHost address is not supported.com Starting httpd: [Sat Oct 12 21:21:49 2002] [error] VirtualHost _default_:443 -. In this case we load only the php and perl modules.conf file: Include conf. If you think this is a server error.d/*. Configuration – Multiple Sites And IP Addresses What follows are snippets of the section of the /etc/httpd/conf/httpd. Include conf. o o Continue using wildcards and disable SSL.206 www. In this scenario: .linuxhomenetworking. proceeding with undefined results If you try to load any webpage on your web server you’ll also notice an error like this: Bad request! Your browser (or proxy) sent a request that this server could not understand.d/perl. please contact the webmaster You have two options to overcome this problem. all the modules in this directory are loaded with the following directive in the /etc/httpd/conf/httpd. The only exception would be the very first <VirtualHost> directive which defines the web pages to be displayed when matches to the other <VirtualHost> directives cannot be found.d/php.conf You will then have to restart Apache for the changes to take effect. Use Wild Cards Sparingly The other choice is not to use virtual hosting statements with wild cards.conf Include conf. Run Apache with more careful use of wildcards Disabling SSL – (Not Recommended) If you wish to host a basic home SOHO website in which secure connections for credit card payments are unnecessary then you have the option of disabling SSL altogether.conf file you'll need to edit.conf You can therefore do a listing of all the files in this directory and specifically load all except ssl.

com was also configured to point to alias IP address 97.158.26 Site1 Name Based 97.com must get content from sub-directory site3.com www. www. A NameVirtualHost directive for 97.test-site.my-other-site. In this case is directory site1.158.158.158.my-site.my-cool-site.27 Site3 Site1 Name Based IP Based IP address 97.253.26 # # Match a webpage directory with each website # <VirtualHost *> DocumentRoot /var/www/html/site1 . my-site.my-cool-site.com.26 on this web server.com and www.test-site.253. www.27.com to map to an IP address 97.default-site.253.my-other-site.158.test-site.com falls in this category. Remember to restart Apache every time you update the conf file for the changes to take effect on the running process.com 97. The domain www. The statements listed would normally be found at the very bottom of the file where virtual hosting statements normally reside.com and so traffic going to this domain • All other domains pointing to this server that don’t have a matching ServerName directive will get web pages from the directory defined in the very first <VirtualHost> section. my-site.253.253.com.com will get content from directory site4. ServerName localhost NameVirtualHost 97.26 is therefore required.253.com must get content from subdirectory site2.default-site.158.com.my-cool-site.default-site.26 as in this case we have a single IP address serving different content for a variety of domains. www.default-site. Hitting these URLs will cause Apache to display the contents of file index.com. • Traffic going to www.my-site.com my-site.my-other-site.158. • Traffic to www.253. • There is no ServerName directive for www.com.conf file is listed below. • Traffic to www.26 Directory Site2 Type of Virtual Hosting Name Based A sample snippet or a working httpd. • Named virtual hosting will be required for 97.com www.com All other domains www.253. The last section of this configuration snippet has some additional statements to ensure read-only access to your web pages with the exception of web based forms using POSTs (pages with “submit” buttons).my-site.253.com www.158.26 97.158.html in this directory. Site www.Chapter 19: The Apache Webserver 207 • The systems administrator for the server has previously created DNS entries for www. Web Hosting Scenario Summary Domain www.

208

www.linuxhomenetworking.com

</VirtualHost> <VirtualHost 97.158.253.26> DocumentRoot /var/www/html/site2 ServerName www.my-site.com ServerAlias my-site.com, www.my-cool-site.com </VirtualHost> <VirtualHost 97.158.253.26> DocumentRoot /var/www/html/site3 ServerName www.test-site.com </VirtualHost> <VirtualHost 97.158.253.27> DocumentRoot /var/www/html/site4 ServerName www.my-other-site.com </VirtualHost>

# # Make sure the directories specified above # have restricted access to read-only. # <Directory "/var/www/html/*"> Order allow,deny Allow from all AllowOverride FileInfo AuthConfig Limit Options MultiViews Indexes SymLinksIfOwnerMatch IncludesNoExec <Limit GET POST OPTIONS> Order allow,deny Allow from all </Limit> <LimitExcept GET POST OPTIONS> Order deny,allow Deny from all </LimitExcept> </Directory>

A Note On Virtual Hosting And DNS
You will have to configure your DNS server to point to the correct IP address used for each of the websites you host. The chapter on static DNS shows you how to configure multiple domains such as my-site.com and my-other-site.com on your DNS server.

Using Data Compression On Web Pages
Apache also has the ability to dynamically compress static web pages into gzip format and then send the result to the remote web surfers’ web browser. Most current web browsers support this format and will transparently uncompress the data and present it on the screen. This can significantly reduce bandwidth charges if you are paying for internet access by the megabyte.

Chapter 19: The Apache Webserver

209

First you need to load Apache version 2’s deflate module in your httpd.conf file and then use Location directives to specify what type of files to compress. After making these modifications and restarting Apache you will be able to verify from your /var/log/httpd/access_log file that the sizes of the transmitted HTML pages has shrunk. Here is a comparison of the file sizes in the Apache logs and the document directory, 78,350 bytes shrunk to 15,190 bytes, almost 80% compression. Log File

67.119.25.115 - - [15/Feb/2003:23:06:51 -0800] "GET /dns-static.htm HTTP/1.1" 200 15190 "http://www.siliconvalleyccie.com/sendmail.htm" "Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 5.5; Windows NT 4.0; AT&T CSM6.0; YComp 5.0.2.6)" Corresponding Directory Listing [root@ bigboy tmp]# ll /web-dir/dns-static.htm -rw-r--r-1 user group 78350 Feb 15 00:53 /home/www/ccie/dns-static.htm [root@bigboy tmp]#

Compression Configuration Example
You can insert these statements just before your virtual hosting section of your httpd.conf file to activate the compression of static pages. Remember to restart Apache when you do.

LoadModule deflate_module modules/mod_deflate.so <Location /> # Insert filter SetOutputFilter DEFLATE # Netscape 4.x has some problems... BrowserMatch ^Mozilla/4 gzip-only-text/html # Netscape 4.06-4.08 have some more problems BrowserMatch ^Mozilla/4\.0[678] no-gzip # MSIE masquerades as Netscape, but it is fine BrowserMatch \bMSIE !no-gzip !gzip-only-text/html # Don't compress images SetEnvIfNoCase Request_URI \ \.(?:gif|jpe?g|png)$ no-gzip dont-vary

# Make sure proxies don't deliver the wrong content Header append Vary User-Agent env=!dont-vary

210

www.linuxhomenetworking.com

</Location>

Apache Running On A Server Behind A Firewall
If your webserver is behind a firewall, and you are logged on a machine behind the firewall as well, then you may find problems when trying to access www.mysite.com of www.my-other-site.com. The reason for this is that due to NAT (Network Address translation), firewalls frequently won't allow access from their protected network to IP addresses that they masquerade on the outside. For example, in this case, Linux web server bigboy has an internal IP address of 192.168.1.100, but the firewall presents it to the world with an external IP address of 97.158.253.26 via NAT/masquerading. If you are on the inside, 192.168.1.X network, you may find it impossible to hit URLs that resolve in DNS to 97.158.253.26. The solution to this can also be solved with virtual hosting. You can configure Apache to serve the correct content when accessing www.mysite.com or www.my-other-site.com from the outside, and also when accessing the specific IP address 192.168.1.100 from the inside. Fortunately Apache allows you to specify multiple IP addresses in the <VirtualHost> statements to help you overcome this problem. Here is an example:

NameVirtualHost 192.168.1.100 NameVirtualHost 97.158.253.26 <VirtualHost 192.168.1.100 97.158.253.26> DocumentRoot /www/server1 ServerName www.my-site.com ServerAlias bigboy, www.my-site-192-168-1-100.com </VirtualHost>

File Permissions And Apache
Remember that if you get a "permissions" error in your web browser after trying to browse your newly configured website, then you need to ensure that you allow "others" to have read access to the directory all the way from the root directory "/" to the target sub-directory. The appendix has a short script that you can use to recursively set the file permissions in a directory to match those expected by Apache. You may also have to use the "Directory" directive to make Apache serve the pages once the file permissions have been correctly set. If you have your files in the default /var/www/html directory then this second step becomes unnecessary.

How To Protect Web Page Directories With Passwords
You can password protect content in both the main and sub-directories of your DocumentRoot fairly easily. I know of cases where persons will allow normal access to their regular web pages, but require passwords for directories / pages that show MRTG or Webalizer data. In this example we'll show how to password protect the /var/www/html directory.

Chapter 19: The Apache Webserver

211

• Apache has a password utility called "htpasswd" which can create "username password" combinations independent of your system login password for web page access. You have to specify the location of the password file, and if it doesn't yet exist, you'll have to include a "-c" or "create" switch on the command line. I recommend placing the file in your /etc/httpd/conf directory, away from the DocumentRoot tree where web users could possibly view it. Here is an example for a first user named "peter" and a second named "paul": [root@bigboy tmp]# htpasswd -c /etc/httpd/conf/.htpasswd peter New password: Re-type new password: Adding password for user peter [root@bigboy tmp]# [root@bigboy tmp]# htpasswd /etc/httpd/conf/.htpasswd paul New password: Re-type new password: Adding password for user paul [root@bigboy tmp]# • Make the .htpasswd file readable by all users. [root@bigboy tmp]# chmod 644 /etc/httpd/conf/.htpasswd • Create a .htaccess file in the directory to which you want password control with the following entries. Remember this will password protect this directory and all its sub directories. AuthUserFile /etc/httpd/conf/.htpasswd AuthGroupFile /dev/null AuthName EnterPassword AuthType Basic require user peter • • The AuthUserFile tells Apache to use the “.htpasswd” file The "require user" tells Apache that only user "peter" in the “.htpasswd” file should have access. If you wanted all “.htpasswd” users to have access then you'd replace this line with require valid-user "AuthType Basic" instructs Apache to accept basic unencrypted passwords from the remote users web browser.

• Set the correct file protections on your new .htaccess file in the directory /var/www/html. [root@bigboy tmp]# chmod 644 /var/www/html/.htaccess • Make sure your /etc/httpd/conf/http.conf file has an AllowOverride statement in a <Directory> directive for any directory in the tree above /var/www/html. In the example below, we want all directories below /var/www/ to require password authorization.

212

www.linuxhomenetworking.com

<Directory /var/www/html/*> AllowOverride AuthConfig </Directory> • You must also ensure that you have a <VirtualHost> directive that defines access to /var/www/html or another directory higher up in the tree. <VirtualHost *> ServerName 97.158.253.26 DocumentRoot /var/www/html </VirtualHost> • Restart Apache. Try accessing the web site and you'll be prompted for a password.

Issues When Upgrading To Apache 2.0
Incompatible /etc/httpd/conf/http.conf files
Your old configuration files will be incompatible when upgrading from Apache version 1.3 to Apache 2.X. The new version 2.X default configuration file is stored in /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf.rpmnew. For the simple virtual hosting example above, it would be easiest to: Save the old httpd.conf file with another name, httpd.conf-version-1.x for example. Copy the ServerName, NameVirtualHost, and VirtualHost sections from the old file and place them in the new file httpd.conf.rpmnew Copy the httpd.conf.rpmnew file an name it httpd.conf Restart Apache

o

o o

213

Chapter 20

Monitoring Server Performance
===========================================

In This Chapter Chapter 20
Monitoring Server Performance
SNMP MRTG Webalizer © Peter Harrison, www.linuxhomenetworking.com =========================================== Monitoring your system’s web performance can be done quite easily with a number of graphical tools available for Linux. These include MRTG for raw network traffic which is based on SNMP and Webalizer that monitors web site hits.

SNMP
What is SNMP?
Most routers and firewalls keep their operational statistics in Management Information Blocks (MIBs). Each statistic has an Object Identifier (OID) and can be remotely retrieved from the MIB via the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). However, as a security measure, you need to know the SNMP password or "community string" to do so. There are a number of types of community strings, the most commonly used ones are the "Read Only" community string that only provides access for viewing statistics and system parameters. In many cases the "Read Only" community string or password is set to "public". There is also a "Read Write" community string for not only viewing statistics and system parameters but also for updating the parameters too.

SNMP on a Linux Server
By default, RedHat Linux has the NetSNMP package installed to provide SNMP services. NetSNMP uses a configuration file /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf in which the community strings may be set. The version of the configuration file that comes with Net-SNMP is quite complicated. I suggest

2 = STRING: wlan0 IF-MIB::ifDescr..0 = STRING: bigboy .18-14 #1 Wed Sep 4 11:57:57 EDT 2002 i586 SNMPv2-MIB::sysObjectID.1 = STRING: lo IF-MIB::ifDescr.conf snmpd. [root@bigboy snmp]# .3 = STRING: eth0 .. [root@bigboy root]# /etc/init.. .d/snmpd start Starting snmpd: [ OK ] [root@bigboy root]# • Test whether SNMP can read the "system" and "interface" information MIB [root@bigboy snmp]# snmpwalk -v 1 -c craz33guy localhost system SNMPv2-MIB::sysDescr.. Here is an example of how to do that.com archiving it and using a much simpler version with only a single line containing the keyword "rocommunity" followed by the community string.0 = Timeticks: (425) 0:00:04. • Save the old configuration file [root@bigboy snmp]# cd /etc/snmp/ [root@bigboy snmp]# mv snmpd...1 = INTEGER: 1 IF-MIB::ifIndex....0 = STRING: Linux bigboy 2. [root@bigboy snmp]# snmpwalk -v 1 -c craz33guy localhost interface IF-MIB::ifNumber.10 SNMPv2-MIB::sysUpTime..0 = OID: NET-SNMP-MIB::netSnmpAgentOIDs.25 SNMPv2-MIB::sysContact.0 = STRING: root@localhost SNMPv2-MIB::sysName.. . .214 www.conf • Enter the following line in the new configuration file to set the Read Only community string to "craz33guy" rocommunity craz33guy • Configure Linux to start SNMP services on each reboot with the chkconfig command: [root@bigboy root]# chkconfig --level 345 snmpd on [root@bigboy root]# • You can then start SNMP to load the current configuration file.3 = INTEGER: 3 IF-MIB::ifDescr.linuxhomenetworking..old [root@bigboy snmp]# vi snmpd.2 = INTEGER: 2 IF-MIB::ifIndex.conf.4. .0 = INTEGER: 3 IF-MIB::ifIndex.

d/httpd start [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. we can configure a SNMP statistics gathering software package such as MRTG to create online graphs of your traffic flows.d/httpd restart . This is available from the RedHat website or your installation CDs. The most current version as of this writing was apache 1.Chapter 20: Monitoring Server Performance 215 Note: In this case we were polling localhost. but you’ll need to configure Apache to start at boot using the chkconfig command: [root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig --level 35 httpd on o Here’s how to start/stop/restart Apache after booting: [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. The RedHat RPM version seems to work with Apache 1. The product is available from the MRTG website and also on your distribution CDs. MRTG What is MRTG? MRTG (Multi Router Traffic Grapher) is a public domain package for producing graphs of various types of router statistics via a web page.X. the chapter on RPMs covers how to do this in detail. Download and Install The MRTG Packages Most RedHat Linux software products are available in the RPM format. If you need a refresher. Now that we know SNMP is working correctly on your Linux server.11.i386. All you need is the IP address and SNMP read only string and you’ll be able to get similar results. Downloading and installing RPMs isn’t hard.d/httpd stop [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.rpm o You will also need to have a webserver package installed for MRTG to work.23 .9. [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh apache-1.i386.23-14. Install apache using the following command.rpm o You can install the package like this: [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh mrtg-2.i386.0 is: mrtg-2. The latest version of the RPM for RedHat 8.3. You can poll any SNMP aware network device with SNMP enabled. You can easily create graphs of traffic flow statistics through your home network's firewall / router or even your Linux box's NIC cards using MRTG.17-8.rpm o MRTG runs automatically upon startup.9.17-8.3.

100 --> 2 --snpo: confcache craz33guy@localhost: Type 24 --> 1 --snpo: confcache craz33guy@localhost: Type 6 --> 2 --snpo: confcache craz33guy@localhost: Type 6 --> 3 (duplicate) --snpo: confcache craz33guy@localhost: Eth --> 1 --snpo: confcache craz33guy@localhost: Eth 00-06-25-09-6a-b5 --> 2 --snpo: confcache craz33guy@localhost: Eth 00-08-c7-10-74-a8 --> 3 --base: Get Interface Info --base: Walking ifIndex --base: Walking ifType --base: Walking ifSpeed --base: Walking ifAdminStatus --base: Walking ifOperStatus --base: Writing /etc/mrtg/localhost.0 --> 3 --snpo: confcache craz33guy@localhost: Ip 127.0.png” image files into it. We’ll be discussing the default configuration.0. MRTG will place its HTML files in /var/www/html/mrtg. When the MRTG RPM is installed it creates a directory called /etc/mrtg in which all future configuration files are stored.cfg for the server "bigboy" using a read only community string of craz33guy. [root@bigboy mrtg]# mkdir /var/www/html/mrtg/stats .cfg \ -ifref=ip --global "workdir: /var/www/html/mrtg/stats" \ craz33guy@localhost o --base: Get Device Info on craz33guy@localhost: --base: Vendor Id: --base: Populating confcache --snpo: confcache craz33guy@localhost: Descr lo --> 1 --snpo: confcache craz33guy@localhost: Descr wlan0 --> 2 --snpo: confcache craz33guy@localhost: Descr eth0 --> 3 --snpo: confcache craz33guy@localhost: Ip 0. Configuring MRTG By default.linuxhomenetworking.1. MRTG will map the inbound and outbound data throughput rates on the device it is polling.168.cfg [root@bigboy tmp]# o Next create the /var/www/html/mrtg/stats directory and copy all of MRTG’s standard “.216 www.1 --> 1 --snpo: confcache craz33guy@localhost: Ip 192. There are ways to specify other OIDs such as CPU and memory usage. All data files will be placed in the directory /var/www/html/mrtg/stats. but this is beyond the scope of this book.0.0. [root@bigboy tmp]# cfgmaker --output=/etc/mrtg/localhost. Here are the steps you need to go through to create new configuration files. In this example we'll use MRTG’s cfgmaker command to create a configuration file named localhost.com By default Apache expects the HTML files for your website to be located in /var/www/html.

Note: The indexmaker command creates a very generic index page which is very similar to the MRTG home page.168.cfg as your argument three times.Chapter 20: Monitoring Server Performance 217 [root@bigboy mrtg]# cp /var/www/html/mrtg/*. [root@bigboy mrtg]# indexmaker --output=index.log to localhost_192.1. [root@bigboy mrtg]# mrtg /etc/mrtg/localhost.cfg device2.cfg configuration file.png /var/www/html/mrtg/stats [root@bigboy mrtg]# o Edit /etc/mrtg/localhost.1.168.100.0.1.cfg o Run MRTG using /etc/mrtg/localhost.cfg Rateup WARNING: /usr/bin/rateup Can't remove localhost_192.old updating log file [root@bigboy mrtg]# mrtg /etc/mrtg/localhost.1.168.168. don’t be fooled. MRTG has no data files to move.100.100.1 When the MRTG RPM is installed it places an entry in the /etc/crontab file to make MRTG run every 5 minutes using the default /etc/mrtg/mrtg.cfg.cfg Can't locate package $VERSION for @MRTG_lib::ISA at /usr/bin/indexmaker line 49 .0.cfg Rateup WARNING: /usr/bin/rateup could not read the primary log file for localhost_192. you will find your devices at the very bottom.cfg” files in your /etc/mrtg directory.0 and Indexmaker RedHat version 8 gives an error like this when running indexmaker.cfg etc RedHat Version 8. Once this is done.168.cfg and comment out the one pointing to mrtg.100. the first time it is run.168. and naturally.old updating log file Rateup WARNING: /usr/bin/rateup Can't rename localhost_192.1.100 Rateup WARNING: /usr/bin/rateup The backup log file for localhost_192. you can point your browser to http://ip-address/mrtg/ to get a graphical listing of all the monitored interfaces.old updating log file [root@bigboy mrtg]# mrtg /etc/mrtg/localhost. # 0-59/5 * * * * root /usr/bin/mrtg /etc/mrtg/mrtg. You'll get an error the two times as MRTG tries to rename old data files.cfg and remove the sections related to interfaces you don't need to monitor.1.100 was invalid as well Rateup WARNING: /usr/bin/rateup Can't remove localhost_192. This would most likely include the loopback interface L0: with the IP address of 127.cfg [root@bigboy mrtg]# o You'll then want to use MRTG’s indexmaker command to create a combined index page to see all the graphs defined in all the various “. Add a new line referring to /etc/mrtg/localhost.html /etc/mrtg/localhost. The format of the command is: indexmaker --output=filename device1.cfg 0-59/5 * * * * root /usr/bin/mrtg /etc/mrtg/localhost.

but you may want to adjust the directory in which Webalizer places your graphic statistics. Webalizer reads your Apache log files and creates a set of web pages that allow you to view websurfer statistics for your site./lib/mrtg2/MRTG_lib.linuxhomenetworking. You can then add links to all the html files in the /var/www/html/mrtg/stats directory. monthly and yearly statistics for your interfaces.com/usage The Webalizer Configuration File Webalizer stores its configuration in the file /etc/webalizer. The information provided includes a list of your web site’s most popular pages sorted by “hits” along with traffic graphs showing the times of day when your site is most popular. The default settings should be sufficient for your web server. By default MRTG provides only network interface statistics.com main::BEGIN() called at /usr/bin/.pm line 49 [root@bigboy mrtg]# You have a couple choices here: • • Run a version of indexmaker from an older version of RedHat Create your own custom index page to replace the default one in /var/www/html/mrtg.org has links to other sites that show you how to monitor other sub-systems on a variety of devices and operating systems.conf. This can be adjusted with the OutputDir directive in the file. weekly. so if you have a default Apache installation you’ll be able to view your data by visiting http://www.pm line 49 eval {.db You can make the software run in quite mode by editing the /etc/cron.218 www.} called at /usr/bin/.daily/00webalizer script file and adding the –Q (Quiet) switch to the webalizer command like this: . The MRTG website www... Using MRTG To Monitor Other Subsystems MRTG will generate HTML pages with daily..mrtg./lib/mrtg2/MRTG_lib.my-site. Each night. Webalizer What Is Webalizer? Webalizer is a web server log file analysis tool that comes installed by default on RedHat Linux. Error: Unable to open DNS cache file /var/lib/webalizer/dns_cache. Make Webalizer run in Quiet Mode Webalizer has a tendency to create this message in your logs which according to the Webalizer site’s documentation is non-critical. How To View Your Webalizer Statistics By default webalizer places its index page in the directory /var/www/html/usage..

Chapter 20: Monitoring Server Performance 219 #! /bin/bash # update access statistics for the web site if [ -s /var/log/httpd/access_log ] . Webalizer will function with few annoyances. . then /usr/bin/webalizer -Q fi exit 0 Once you’ve done this. however be aware that running in quiet mode could hide deeper problems that could occur in future.

220 www.com .linuxhomenetworking.

221 Chapter 21 Configuring Linux Mail Servers =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 21 Configuring Linux Mail Servers Configuring Sendmail Configuring Your POP Mail Server © Peter Harrison. If the mail is destined for a local user then sendmail will place the message in that person’s mailbox so that they can retrieve it using one of the methods above.linuxhomenetworking. www. Configuring Sendmail An Overview Of How Sendmail Works Sendmail is the most popular Linux program for processing mail. If the mail isn't destined for the mailbox of a local user. One of The process is different when sending mail via the mail server: o o . then sendmail will attempt to relay it to the appropriate destination mail server via the Simple Mail Transport Protocol or SMTP.com =========================================== This chapter will help to show you how to set up a mail server for your home network. Windows users also have the option of either keeping or deleting the mail on the mail server after it has been downloaded. It covers Sendmail which is responsible for relaying your mail to a remote user’s mailbox and also POP mail which is used to retrieve the mail from the mail box to your local PC via a mail client such as outlook Express. Once the mail arrives on the mail server it can be read in a number of ways: o o Linux users logged into the mail server can read their mail directly using a text based client such as "mail" or a GUI client such as Evolution. Windows users can use an email client such as "Outlook" or "Outlook Express" to download the mail to their local PC via POP.

5-7 .linuxhomenetworking.com the main advantages of mail relaying is that when a PC user "A" sends mail to another user "B" on the Internet.i386.222 www.d/sendmail start [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.rpm [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh sendmail-devel-8.rpm [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh sendmail-8. Installing And Starting Sendmail Most RedHat Linux software products are available in the RPM format.12. Simple sendmail security is outlined on this page.i386.5-7 . See either the Static DNS or Dynamic DNS pages on how to do this.5-7. Downloading and installing RPMs isn’t hard.12. Note:If mail relaying is not configured properly then your mail server could end up relaying SPAM. As of this writing the latest version of the sendmail suite was version 8.12.12. If you need a refresher.d/sendmail restart o Remember to restart the sendmail process every time you make a change to the configuration files for the changes to take effect on the running process. the PC of user "A" can delegate the SMTP processing to the mail server.rpm o You can use the chkconfig command to get Sendmail configured to start at boot: [root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig --level 35 sendmail on o To start/stop/restart sendmail after booting [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.5-7 .d/sendmail stop [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. the chapter on RPMs covers how to do this in detail. You can also test whether the sendmail process is running with the pgrep command.i386. Install all the packages in this order: [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh sendmail-cf-8. o It is best to use the latest version of sendmail as older versions have had a number of security holes. Configuring DNS Remember that you will never receive mail unless you have configured DNS for your domain to make your new Linux box mail server the target of the DNS domain's MX record. you should get a response of plain old process ID numbers: [root@bigboy tmp]# pgrep sendmail .

but it has been included so that you don’t forget.d/sendmail restart Use this command to make the script executable.mc > /etc/mail/sendmail.cf file is version 0 No local mailer defined QueueDirectory (Q) option must be set [root@bigboy mail]# Errors With The m4 Command [root@bigboy mail]# m4 /etc/mail/sendmail.5 supports version 10.mc file.cf m4 /etc/mail/sendmail. .cf newaliases /etc/init. This may not be a good idea in a production system. Delete the appropriate "m4" line depending on your version of RedHat.mc > /etc/sendmail.mc > /etc/mail/sendmail. Both the newaliases and m4 commands depend on the sendmail-cf RPM package. you'll get errors like this when running the script: # RH Ver 7. The line in the script that restarts sendmail is only needed if you have made changes to the /etc/mail/sendmail. This must be installed. if not.mc:8: m4: Cannot open /usr/share/sendmailcf/m4/cf.12. chmod 700 filename You’ll need to run the script each time you change any of the sendmail configuration files described in the sections to follow.0+ Errors With The Newaliases Command [root@bigboy mail]# newaliases Warning: .cf /etc/mail/sendmail.Chapter 21: Configuring Linux Mail 223 Restart Sendmail After Editing Your Configuration Files In this chapter we’ll see that Sendmail uses a variety of configuration files which require different treatments in order for their commands to take effect.m4: No such file or directory [root@bigboy mail]# . #!/bin/bash cd /etc/mail make m4 /etc/mail/sendmail. This little script encapsulates all the required post configuration steps.3# RH Ver 8.cf file is out of date: sendmail 8.

. Work in one of them and monitor the sendmail status output in the other using the command [root@bigboy tmp]# tail -f /var/log/maillog The /etc/mail/sendmail. and not a client. Sendmail needs to be also configured to listen for messages on the NIC interface.0 QueueDirectory (Q) option must be set [FAILED] Starting sm-client: [ OK ] [root@bigboy mail]# The /var/log/maillog File Sendmail throws all its status messages in the /var/log/maillog file.1. It is often viewed as an intimidating file with its series of structured "directive" statements that get the job done. It is always good to monitor this file whenever you are doing changes.0 No local mailer defined 554 5. To become a server.0. We can verify that sendmail is running by first using the pgrep command which will return the sendmail process ID number once sendmail is running.0. Why Sendmail Only Listens On The Loopback Interface By Default All Linux systems have a virtual loopback interface that only lives in memory with an IP address 127.mc File Most of sendmail's configuration parameters are set in this file with the exception of mailing list and mail relay security features.com Errors When Restarting sendmail [root@bigboy mail]# /etc/init. then the return value will be blank. If it isn't running. Sendmail therefore uses the loopback address to send mail to users on the local box.linuxhomenetworking.d/sendmail restart Shutting down sendmail: [ OK ] Shutting down sm-client: [FAILED] Starting sendmail: 554 5.224 www.0. The two most basic steps in configuring a Sendmail server are to modify this file to enable Sendmail to listen on the NIC interface and to make Sendmail to accept mail from valid web domains.0. As mail must be sent to a target IP address even when there is no NIC in the box. Open two telnet. Fortunately in most cases you won't have to edit this file very often. SSH or console windows.

mc is a more user friendly configuration file and really is much easier to fool around with without getting burned.0:* LISTEN [root@bigboy tmp]# Edit /etc/mail/sendmail.0.cf file is located in different directories dependent on the version of RedHat you use.0. it reads the file sendmail. Note: When sendmail starts.1.0.Addr=127.1 dnl and not on any other network devices. dnl This changes sendmail to only listen on the loopback device 127. and /etc/mail/sendmail. It is also good practice to take precautions against SPAM by not accepting mail from domains that don't exist by commenting out the "accept_unresolvable_domains" feature too. the laptop and users on computers that do dnl not have 24x7 DNS do need this. . we have to regenerate a new sendmail.0. The sendmail.0.mc file with "dnl" statements.cf file and restart sendmail. Regenerate The sendmail. In our sample network. Name=MTA-v6.0. Family=inet6') dnl We strongly recommend to comment this one out if you want to protect dnl yourself from spam.0. dnl DAEMON_OPTIONS(`Port=smtp. The chapter on DNS shows how to create your own internal domain just for this purpose.0.Addr=::1.cf File Once finished editing the file.1:25 0.0.3. Name=MTA') dnl NOTE: binding both IPv4 and IPv6 daemon to the same port requires dnl a kernel patch dnl DAEMON_OPTIONS(`port=smtp. dnl FEATURE(`accept_unresolvable_domains')dnl dnl FEATURE(`relay_based_on_MX')dnl You need to be careful with the accept_unresolvable_names feature. See the italicized lines in the example below.cf for its configuration.mc To Make Sendmail Listen On NICs Too To correct this you'll have to comment out the daemon_options line in the /etc/mail/sendmail. Comment this out if you want dnl to accept email over the network.1 (loopback).cf for versions 8.cf for versions up to 7.Chapter 21: Configuring Linux Mail 225 [root@bigboy tmp]# pgrep sendmail 22131 [root@bigboy tmp]# We can also see the interfaces on which Sendmail is listening with the “netstat” command.0 and higher. bigboy the mail server will not accept email relayed from any of the other PCs on your network if they are not in DNS. sendmail. Sendmail listens on TCP port 25. [root@bigboy tmp]# netstat -an | grep :25 | grep tcp tcp 0 0 127.0. /etc/sendmail. However. so we use "netstat" and "grep" for "25" to see a default configuration listening only on IP address 127.

0. To make it less cluttered I usually create two easily identifiable sections in it with all the custom commands I've ever added.0.0:* LISTEN [root@bigboy tmp]# A General Guide To Using The sendmail.0+ [root@bigboy tmp]# m4 /etc/mail/sendmail.mc > /etc/sendmail.mc File The sendmail.0.cf Redhat versions 8. Sometimes sendmail will archive this file when you do a version upgrade. The first section is near the top where the FEATURE statements usually are.d/sendmail restart Shutting down sendmail: [ OK ] Starting sendmail: [ OK ] [root@bigboy tmp]# Now Make Sure Sendmail Is Listening On All Interfaces Sendmail should start listening on all interfaces (0. Having easily identifiable modifications in this file will make post upgrade reconfiguration much easier.0.0. Here is a sample: dnl ***** Customised section 1 start ***** dnl dnl FEATURE(delay_checks)dnl FEATURE(masquerade_envelope)dnl FEATURE(allmasquerade)dnl FEATURE(masquerade_entire_domain)dnl dnl dnl dnl ***** Customised section 1 end ***** .0.0:25 0.3 [root@bigboy tmp]# m4 /etc/mail/sendmail.com Redhat versions up to 7.0) [root@bigboy tmp]# netstat -an | grep :25 | grep tcp tcp 0 0 0.linuxhomenetworking.mc file can seem jumbled.cf Restart sendmail to load the new configuration [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. and the second section is at the very bottom.mc > /etc/mail/sendmail.226 www.

com) followed by the hostname and all the DNS CNAMEs assigned to the server's IP address.com.com (Wrong!!!) Sendmail would assume the server's name was my-site and that the domain was all of ".localdomain localhost bigboy..106]. example@another-site..1. Enter some text after issuing the command and end your message with a single ".0. [root@bigboy tmp]# sendmail -v example@another-site. Use the sendmail program to send a sample email to someone in verbose mode. Sender Ok >>> RCPT To:<example@another-site.com>.my-site.com". The server would therefore be open to relay all mail from any ".1. then you run the risk of having all your mail appear to come from localhost.com.another-site.168.100 localhost.my-site. If you fail to put the IP address of your NIC in the /etc/hosts file altogether.localdomain 250-mx. Sendmail uses this file to determine: o o The system name The domains it is responsible for relaying Sendmail looks for the IP address of your NIC in /etc/hosts and then assumes the first name after it is the fully qualified domain name of the server such as bigboy. If bigboy had an entry like this: 192..localdomain and not bigboy.0.Chapter 21: Configuring Linux Mail 227 The /etc/hosts File It is very important to have a correctly configured /etc/hosts file.com> 250 <example@another-site.02(BFLITEMAIL4A). Recipient Ok >>> DATA .com LiteMail v3.100 my-site..domain (bigboy.my-site.com" domain and would ignore the security features of the access and relay-domains files we'll describe below.com test text test text . Symptoms Of A Bad /etc/hosts File As discussed above. pleased to meet you 250 HELP >>> MAIL From:<root@localhost.1 192. Sat.." all by itself on the last line. Connecting to mail..com.120.com.com bigboy mail www Here the IP address is followed by the hostname. via esmtp.localdomain> 250 <root@localhost. 05 Oct 2002 06:48:44 -0400 >>> EHLO localhost.mysite.another-site.221.168.another-site. 220 ltmail.. Here is a brief example: 127.com. a poorly configured /etc/hosts file can make mail sent from your server to the outside world appear as if it came from users at localhost.localdomain>.com Hello [67..my-site.localdomain and not bigboy.

Sent (Message accepted for delivery) Closing connection to mail.another-site. In this case. >>> QUIT [root@bigboy tmp]# Localhost. An error in the script could cause this type of message too.com.linuxhomenetworking.localdomain..localdomain and will think that the rejected email should be sent to a user on PC2 that may not exist. sleeping for retry The /etc/mail/relay-domains File The /etc/mail/relay-domains file is used to determine domains from which it will relay mail. it is therefore an illegal internet domain. By default.localdomain on PC1 and is rejected./qfg9GHK3iQ002500: savemail panic Note: You may also get this error if you are using a SPAM prevention program.com . fix $j in config file [root@bigboy tmp]# With the accompanying error in /var/log/maillog log file that looks like this: Oct 16 10:23:58 bigboy sendmail[2582]: My unqualified host name (bigboy) unknown. PC2 will see that the mail originated from localhost.com and not destined for this mail server will be forwarded. fix $j in config file [root@bigboy tmp]# newaliases WARNING: local host name (bigboy) is not qualified. end with ". all mail sent from my-super-duper-site. 250 Message accepted for delivery example@another-site. for example a script based on the PERL module Mail::Audit.localdomain is the domain that all computers use to refer to themselves. my-super-duper-site.228 www. the rejected email will be returned to localhost." on a line by itself >>> . You will probably get an error like this in /var/log/maillog if this happens: Oct 16 10:20:04 bigboy sendmail[2500]: g9GHK3iQ002500: SYSERR(root): savemail: cannot save rejected email anywhere Oct 16 10:20:04 bigboy sendmail[2500]: g9GHK3iQ002500: Losing ..com 354 Enter mail. The contents of the relay-domains file should be limited to those domains that can be trusted not to originate spam. in this example "root".com. or creating a new alias database file. (The newalias command will be explained later): [root@bigboy tmp]# sendmail -v root WARNING: local host name (bigboy) is not qualified. this file does not exist in a standard RedHat install. If mail sent from computer PC1 to PC2 appears to come from a user at localhost. Another set of tell tale errors caused by the same problem can be generated when trying to send mail to a user .

168. localhost). REJECT.16 192.17 192. Keywords include RELAY.0. we allow relaying for only the server itself (127. (In Outlook Express you set this using: Tools Menu -> Accounts -> Properties -> Servers) If you don't take the precaution of using this feature. my experience has been that control on a per email address basis is much more intuitive via the /etc/mail/virtusertable file. The second lists the type of action to be taken when mail from these sources / destinations is received. you may find your server being used to relay mail for SPAM email sites.Chapter 21: Configuring Linux Mail 229 One disadvantage of this file is that it can only control mail based on the source domain which can be spoofed by SPAM email servers.168. The /etc/mail/access File You can make sure that only trusted PCs on your network have the ability to relay mail via your mail server by using the /etc/mail/access file. two client PCs on your home 192.1 192.localdomain localhost 127.X network.2 my-site.0. the mail server will only relay mail for those PCs on your network that have their email clients configured to use the mail server as their "outgoing SMTP mail server". Remember that a server will only be considered a part of my-site. If you delete /etc/mail/relay-domains. .1.1. only SPAM flowing through you. There is no third column to state whether the IP address or domain is the source or destination of the mail.com RELAY RELAY RELAY RELAY RELAY RELAY RELAY You'll then have to convert this text file into a Sendmail readable database file named /etc/mail/access.0.X network and everyone passing email through the mail server from servers belonging to my-site. then relay access is fully determined by the /etc/mail/access file. That is to say. such as restricting relaying by IP address or network range and is more commonly used. Here are the commands to do that: [root@bigboy tmp]# cd /etc/mail [root@bigboy mail]# make Remember that the relay security features of this file may not work if you don't have a correctly configured /etc/hosts file. Configuring the /etc/mail/access file will not stop SPAM coming to you. The /etc/mail/access file has more capabilities.168.db. OK (not ACCEPT) and DISCARD. Sendmail has to be restarted after editing this file for the changes to take effect.168. The first lists IP addresses and domains from which the mail is coming or going.1. The /etc/mail/access file has two columns. In the sample file below. Sendmail will REJECT all other attempted relayed mail that doesn't match any of the entries in the /etc/mail/access file.168.com.com if its IP address can be found in a DNS reverse zone file: localhost. Despite this.1.0.2. Sendmail assumes it could be either and tries to match both. everyone on your 192.

. Primary Mail Exchanger for my-other-site.com The /etc/mail/local-host-names File When sendmail receives mail.com Which User Should Really Receive The Mail? Sendmail uses two different methods to determine who the ultimate mail recipient will be.com.com.com In this case. It could be viewed as a mailing list file. This file has a list of hostnames and domains for which sendmail will accept responsibility. For example. it needs a way of determining whether it is responsible for the mail it receives. If it doesn't find a duplicate. a mailing list entry in the /etc/aliases file or the email address of someone on some other mail server to which the mail should be automatically forwarded. o o o If the mailing list member doesn't have an "@" in the name.my-site. it assumes the recipient is a local user. It will then search the first column of the aliases file to see if the recipient isn't on yet another mailing list. It uses the /etc/mail/local-host-names file to do this. if this mail server was to accept mail for the domains my-site.com. The /etc/aliases file This file has two columns too. Here is an example (Remember each ".com and the host server.com and my-other-site." is important): my-other-site. The true destination in the eyes of the mail server could be a local Linux user. remember to modify the MX record of the "my-other-site.linuxhomenetworking. It checks these methods in this order: The /etc/mail/virtusertable file This file has two columns. o o The first lists the destination to which the original sender intended to send the mail.com my-other-site. MX 10 mail. The second column lists the single true destination.230 www. then sendmail assumes the recipient is on the local box.my-site. . The first column has the mailing list name (sometimes called a virtual mailbox) and the second column has the members of the mailing list separated by commas.com" DNS zonefile point to my-site.com then the file would look like this: my-site.

"daemon". Here are the commands to do that: [root@bigboy tmp]# cd /etc/mail [root@bigboy mail]# make The /etc/aliases File This file is really a list of email aliases for local users.com goes to local user (or mailing list) "paul" all other users at my-site.com @my-site. you may want to delete the comment and change user "marc" to another user. then it goes through the process all over again to determine each individual in the mailing list and when it is all finished. mailer-daemon: postmaster postmaster: root # General redirections for pseudo accounts.com. "apache".com. "named".com finance@my-site.. In this case "root" is actually an alias for a mailing list consisting of user "marc" and webmaster@my-site. all other mail to my-other-site.db.com will go to local user "marc". "paul" and "finance" at my-site.com paul@my-site. The /etc/mail/virtusertable file This file contains a set of simple instructions on what to do with received mail. "sales" at my-site.com sales@my-site. they will all get a copy of the email message.com will go to the sales department at my-othersite.com @my-other-site. # Basic system aliases -. Note: The default /etc/aliases file installed with RedHat has the last line of this sample commented out with a "#".these MUST be present. mail sent to: o o o o webmaster@my-other-site.Chapter 21: Configuring Linux Mail 231 o If the recipient is a mailing list. "shutdown".com will go to local user (or mailing list) "webmasters".. etc by system processes will all be sent to user (or mailing list) "root". The first column lists the target email address and the second column lists the local user’s mail box or remote email address to which the email should be forwarded. you can see that mail sent to users "bin". and members of the mailing lists in the second column. "lp".com paul paul error:nouser User unknown After editing this file you'll have to convert it into a sendmail readable database file named /etc/mail/virtusertable. . In the example below.com receive a "bounce back" message stating "User unknown" webmaster@my-other-site. In the example below.com webmasters marc sales@my-other-site. It contains a list of virtual mail boxes (or mailing lists) in the first column.

232 www.com" goes to users "grandma".paul.db.com Notice that there are no spaces between the mailing list entries for “root”. If either of these are a problem for you. The advantage of using mailing list files is that the admin-list file can be a file that trusted users can edit. then consider using a mailing list manager like majordomo. "paul" and "mary". Mail to "directors@my-site. Here are a few more list examples for your /etc/aliases file. there are some problems with mail reflectors.com bin: daemon: lp: shutdown: mail: apache: named: system: manager: abuse: root root root root root root root root root root # trap decode to catch security attacks decode: root # Person who should get root's mail root: marc. mail sent to "root" actually goes to user account "marc" and webmaster@my-site. .com.webmaster@my-site.brother.linuxhomenetworking. user “root” is only needed update the aliases file. Another is that all subscriptions and unsubscriptions have to be done manually by the mailing list administrator.mary Mail sent to "family@my-site. Here is the command to do that: [root@bigboy tmp]# newaliases Simple Mailing Lists Using Aliases In the simple mailing list example above. Despite this.sister Mail sent to admin-list gets sent to all the users listed in the file /usr/home/admin/admin-list.com" goes to users "peter". One is that bounce messages from failed attempts to broadcast goes to all users. "brother" and "sister" # My family family: grandma. After editing this file you'll have to convert it into a sendmail readable database file named /etc/aliases. # Directors of my SOHO company directors: peter. This is important as you will get errors if you add spaces.

it will appear to come from mail.db.com and not user@bigboy.com. You now have to tell bigboy in the sendmail configuration file sendmail. This can be solved by editing your sendmail. this will force sendmail to insert the correct fields in the header.mc that all outgoing mail originating on bigboy should appear to be coming from my-site.com.mysite. but you may not want your website site to be remembered with the word "mail" in front of it. To get around this. it will have no "to:" in the email header. Configuring masquerading In the DNS configuration.com. no matter which server originated the email. if not.com.com Sendmail Masquerading Explained If you want your mail to appear to come from user@mysite. we made bigboy the mailserver for the domain my-site. to set your email address to user@mysite. based on our settings in the /etc/hosts file. you'll have to convert it into a sendmail readable database file named /etc/aliases. These are explained below: .Chapter 21: Configuring Linux Mail 233 # My mailing list file admin-list: ":include:/home/mailings/admin-list" After editing this file. If you then use a mail client like Outlook Express with a SPAM mail filtering rule to reject mail with no to: in the header. In other words you may want your mail server to handle all email by assigning a consistent return address to all outgoing mail. try making root have an alias for a user with a fully qualified domain name.mc configuration file and adding some masquerading commands and directives. such as Outlook Express. you may find yourself dumping legitimate mail.com then you have two choices: o o Configure your email client. This isn't terrible. When sendmail sends email to a local user. Here is an example: # Person who should get root's mail root: webmaster@my-site. Here is the command to do that: [root@bigboy tmp]# newaliases An Important Note About The /etc/aliases File By default your system uses sendmail to mail system messages to local user "root". Set up masquerading to modify the domain name of all traffic originating from and passing trough your mail server.my-site. This explained later in this chapter in the POP Mail section.

even if the mail is sent from a user on the mail server to another user on the same mail server. I have noticed that "sendmail -v username" ignores masquerading altogether.com FEATURE(always_add_domain)dnl FEATURE(`masquerade_entire_domain')dnl FEATURE(`masquerade_envelope')dnl FEATURE(`allmasquerade')dnl MASQUERADE_AS(`my-site.com. The email header is what email clients. If this wasn't selected. user "root" will not be masqueraded. This is achieved with the: . • • • • Testing Masquerading The best way of testing masquerading from the Linux command line is to use the "mail -v username" command. then only servers named mysite.com by rewriting the email header. Other Masquerading Notes By default. It is easy to fake the header. You should also tail the /var/log/maillog file to verify that the masquerading is operating correctly and check the envelope and header of test email received by test email accounts. If you cc: yourself on an outgoing mail.com would be masqueraded too. the other recipient will see a cc: to an address he knows instead of one on localhost. Feature "masquerade_entire_domain" makes sendmail masquerade servers named *my-site. The "to:" and "from:" in the header is what is used when you use Outlook Express to do a "reply" or "reply all". Feature "allmasquerade" will make sendmail rewrite both recipient addresses and sender addresses relative to the local machine. In other words.')dnl MASQUERADE_AS(my-site. it is detrimental to email delivery to fake the envelope.com. as Spammers often do. It is the envelope's "from:" which is used when email rejection messages are sent between mail servers. The MASQUERADE_DOMAIN directive will make mail relayed via bigboy from all machines in the my-other-site.com. Feature "always_add_domain" will always masquerade email addresses.com and my-othersite.com)dnl • • The MASQUERADE_AS directive will make all mail originating on bigboy appear to come from a server within the domain my-site. Use this with caution. The email envelope contains the "to:" and "from:" used by mailservers for protocol negotiation.localdomain.com.com as my-site. say the "to:" and "from:" should be. such as Outlook Express.')dnl MASQUERADE_DOMAIN(`my-site. mail from sales.com domain appear to come from the MASQUERADE_AS domain of my-site.com would be masqueraded. and *my-other-site.mysite.linuxhomenetworking. Feature "masquerade_envelope" will rewrite the email envelope just as "MASQUERADE_AS" rewrote the header.com. only when you are sure you have the authority to do this.234 www.

mc.com" domain. mail-filter. using a mail client such as Microsoft Outlook or Outlook Express. I have included a simple script with instructions on how to install the PERL modules in the Appendix. . It will then deny everything else.pl that effectively filters out SPAM email for my home system.cpan. There are a few steps required to make the script work: o o o Install PERL and the PERL modules listed above.reject that specifies those that you should reject. The most important modules are: o o o o MailTools IO-Stringy MIME-tools Mail-Audit I have written a script called mail-filter. If you want to retrieve this mail from your Linux box's user account.Chapter 21: Configuring Linux Mail 235 EXPOSED_USER(`root')dnl command in /etc/mail/sendmail. then you have a few more steps.forward” file in your home directory for the name of this script. You'll also have to make your Linux box a POP mail server. This is fairly simple to do as sendmail always checks the “.org). You can comment this out if you like with a "dnl" at the beginning of the line and recompiling / restarting sendmail A Simple PERL Script To Help Stop SPAM It is possible to limit the amount of unsolicited commercial email (UCE or SPAM) SPAM you receive by writing a small script to intercept your mail before it is written to your mailbox.accept. o Update your “. Each user on your Linux box will get mail sent to their account's mail folder. PERL doesn’t come with modules that are able to check email headers and envelopes so you will have to download them from CPAN (www. which specifies the subjects and email addresses to accept. Place an executable version of the script in your home directory and modify the script’s $FILEPATH variable point to your home directory Update the two configuration files: mail-filter. Configuring Your POP Mail Server Sendmail will just handle mail sent to your "my-site. Sendmail then looks for the filename in the directory /etc/smrsh and executes it. By default.forward” file and place an entry in /etc/smrsh Mail-filter will first reject all email based on the “reject” file and will then accept all mail found in the “accept” file.

Downloading and installing RPMs isn’t hard.com Installing Your POP Mail Server Most RedHat Linux software products are available in the RPM format.i386. o The IMAP/POP mail suite comes standard with the RedHat installation CDs. [root@bigboy tmp]# cd /etc/xinetd.236 www.d/ipop3 file.linuxhomenetworking.d [root@bigboy xinetd.d like this: [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. so you’ll have to edit this file to start the program. POP Mail is deactivated by default. Follow the steps below and set the "disable" parameter to "no". Make sure the contents look like this.d/xinetd stop [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. the chapter on RPMs covers how to do this in detail. The disable feature must be set to "no" to accept connections. [root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig --level 35 xinetd on o To start/stop/restart POP mail after booting you can use the xinetd init script located in the directory /etc/init.rpm o POP mail is started by xinetd. mutt. \ # or fetchmail. Therefore to get POP mail configured to start at boot you have to use the chkconfig command to make sure xinetd starts up on booting. You can install the RPM with this command: [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh imap-2001a-15.d]# vi ipop3 # default: off # description: The POP3 service allows remote users # to access their mail \ # using an POP3 client such as Netscape Communicator. service pop3 { socket_type = stream wait = no user = root server = /usr/sbin/ipop3d log_on_success += HOST DURATION log_on_failure += HOST disable = no } . If you need a refresher.d/xinetd restart Remember to restart the POP mail process every time you make a change to the configuration files for the changes to take effect on the running process Configuring Your POP Mail Server The starting and stopping of POP Mail is controlled by xinetd via the /etc/xinetd.d/xinetd start [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.

You can now configure your email client such as Outlook Express to use your use your new POP / SMTP Mail Server quite easily.com pointing to account "john1" and john@my-other-site. eg. SMTP Set your SMTP mail server to be the IP address / domain name of your Linux mail server. You have two choices: o Make the user part of the email address is different. Use your Linux user username and password when prompted. o . If the users insist on overlapping names then you may need to modify your virtusertable file. How To Configure Your Windows Mail Programs All your POP email accounts are really only regular Linux user accounts in which Sendmail has deposited mail. set “disable” to “yes” and restart xinetd. by default.d directory. Here’s how: POP Mail Set your POP mail server to be the IP address of your Linux mail server. For example: john1@my-site. you’ll have to edit the /etc/xinetd. Naturally.Chapter 21: Configuring Linux Mail 237 You will then have to restart xinetd for these changes to take effect using the startup script in the /etc/init.com) and John Brown (john@my-other-site. How to handle overlapping email addresses.com. Create Linux accounts "john1" and "john2".d/ipop3 file. The POP configuration in Outlook Express for each user should POP using "john1" and "john2" respectively. Create the user accounts "john1" and "john2". both users will get sent to the Linux user account "john". to disable POP Mail once again.com pointing to account "john2". Have a virtusertable entries for john@mysite. John Smith (john@my-site.com and john2@my-other-site.com). If you have a user overlap.

com .linuxhomenetworking.238 www.

If you install a home cable/DSL router between your modem and home network your PC will most likely get its IP address at boot time from the home router instead.linuxhomenetworking.239 Chapter 22 Configuring The DHCP Server =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 22 Configuring The DHCP Server Download and Install The DHCP Package The /etc/dhcp.0 © Peter Harrison. N Download and Install The DHCP Package Most RedHat Linux software products are available in the RPM format. The configuration of a Linux DHCP client that gets its IP address from a DHCP server is covered in the Linux Networking Topics chapter. Downloading and installing RPMs isn’t hard. . the RPM chapter covers how to do this in detail.3 To 8. This chapter only covers the configuration of a DHCP server that provides IP addresses.com =========================================== ormally if you have a cable modem or DSL you get your home PC's IP address dynamically assigned from your service provider.conf File Upgrading Your DHCP Server How to get DHCP started Modify Your Routes for DHCP on Linux Server Configuring Linux clients to use DHCP Error Found When Upgrading From Redhat 7. If you need a refresher. www. You can choose to disable the DHCP server feature on your home router and set up a Linux box as the DHCP server.

It uses the commands here to configure your network.i386.linuxhomenetworking.conf.1.i386. .0 { # The range of IP addresses the server # will issue to DHCP enabled PC clients # booting up on the network range 192.conf File When DHCP starts it reads the file /etc/dhcp. # Set the amount of time in seconds that # a client may keep the IP address default-lease-time 86400. the RedHat 8. /usr/share/doc/dhcp-<version-number>/dhcpd. max-lease-time 86400.1.com • For example. ddns-update-style interim # Redhat Version 8.conf.168.168.0pl1-9.1.1.rpm The /etc/dhcp. # Set the default gateway to be used by # the PC clients option routers 192.0+ subnet 192. there must be a "subnet" section for each interface on your Linux box. # Don't forward DHCP requests from this # NIC interface to any other NIC # interfaces option ip-forwarding off. Normally you can find a sample copy of dhcpd.168.0 netmask 255.168.255.201 192.rpm • Install the package using the following command: [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh dhcp-3.1.240 www.0pl1-9.255.0 RPM as of this writing was: dhcp-3.conf file: Most importantly.conf in the following directory which you can always use as a guide.sample Here is a quick explanation of the dhcp.220.

100.255.100.168. } # # List an unused interface here # subnet 192. The command to do this follows: [root@bigboy tmp]# man dhcp-options Upgrading Your DHCP Server Always refer to this sample file after doing an upgrade as new required commands may have been added.1. } There many more options statements you can use to configure DHCP.0b2pl11) you will need to add the line at the very top of the config file or else you will get errors:: ddns-update-style interim . # you need to include the following option in the dhcpd.0.2. Check the dhcp-options man page after you do your install.1.0 { } # You can also assign specific IP addresses based on the clients' # ethernet MAC address as follows (Host's name is "smallfry": host smallfry { hardware ethernet 08:00:2b:4c:59:23.100.0 netmask 255.168. option subnet-mask 255.Chapter 22: Configuring The DHCP Server 241 # Set the broadcast address and subnet mask # to be used by the DHCP clients option broadcast-address 192.168.168.168.conf file: option netbios-name-servers 192. # Set the NTP server to be used by the # DHCP clients option nntp-server 192.255. # Set the DNS server to be used by the # DHCP clients option domain-name-servers 192.0 (dhcpd version 3. in Redhat Version 8.255.1.168.255.1. These include telling the DHCP clients where to go for services such as finger and IRC.222.255.1. For example. fixed-address 192. # If you specify a WINS server for your Windows clients.

255.255.255.com How to get DHCP started • Before you start the DHCP server for the first time. always remember to set your PC to get its IP address via DHCP. you should get a response of plain old process ID numbers: [root@bigboy tmp]# pgrep dhcpd • Finally. .linuxhomenetworking.leases file. Note: More information on adding Linux routes and routing may be found in the Linux Networking chapter.leases • Use the chkconfig command to get DHCP configured to start at boot: [root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig --level 35 dhcpd on • Use the /etc/init. You also can test whether the DHCP process is running with the following command. You will have to add a route for this address on your Linux DHCP server so that it knows the interface on which to send the reply.255. it will fail unless there is an existing dhcpd.d/dhcpd start [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. (In both examples below.d/dhcpd stop [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. It does this by sending a standardized DHCP broadcast request packet to the DHCP server with a source IP address of 255.leases" to create the file if it does not exist.255 from the command line.242 www. we’re assuming that DHCP requests will be coming in on interface eth0). it will request its IP address from the DHCP server. Modify Your Routes for DHCP on Linux Server When a DHCP configured PC boots.255. [root@bigboy tmp]# touch /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd.d/dhcpd restart • Remember to restart the DHCP process every time you make a change to the conf file for the changes to take effect on the running process.d/dhcpd script to start/stop/restart DHCP after booting [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. Use the command "touch /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd. Temporary solution o Add the route to 255.

try: eth0 host dhcp Configuring Linux clients to use DHCP Remember to have your Linux based clients configured to have DHCP obtained IP addresses Error Found When Upgrading From Redhat 7. For info. try: route add -host dhcp dev eth0 Permanent Solution o Edit /etc/sysconfig/static-routes.255.255 dhcp Then.0 This dhcpd startup error is caused by not having the following line at the very top of your /etc/dhcpd.conf file: ddns-update-style interim Sample error: Starting dhcpd: Internet Software Consortium DHCP Server V3.255.0pl1 Copyright 1995-2001 Internet Software Consortium. and add the following line: eth0 host 255.255 dev eth0 o If the message 255.255.isc. please visit http://www.3 To 8.255: Unknown host appears then try adding the following entry to your /etc/hosts file: 255.255 o If this doesn't work properly try adding the following entry to your /etc/hosts file: 255. . which is read on booting.org/products/DHCP ** You must add a ddns-update-style statement to /etc/dhcpd.255.255.255.255.255 dhcp Then.255.255.conf. All rights reserved.255.Chapter 22: Configuring The DHCP Server 243 [root@bigboy tmp]# route add -host 255.

exiting.isc.org.conf manual page for more information.isc.linuxhomenetworking.244 www. If you intend to request help from the dhcp-server@isc.isc.please send them to the appropriate mailing list as described in the README file. please read it before requesting help. Please do not under any circumstances send requests for help directly to the authors of this software . add a line that says "ddns-update-style ad-hoc.org and install that before requesting help. please read the section on the README about submitting bug reports and requests for help.org mailing list." Please read the dhcpd. If you did get this software from ftp.0b2pl11 and previous versions.com To get the same behaviour as in 3. please get the latest from ftp. ** If you did not get this software from ftp.org and have not yet read the README. [FAILED] .

.eecis.conf File How To Get NTP Started Determining If NTP Is Synchronized Properly Configuring Cisco Devices To Use An NTP Server Firewalls and NTP © Peter Harrison.245 Chapter 23 The NTP Server =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 23 The NTP Server What is NTP? Download and Install The NTP Package The /etc/ntp.edu/~mills/ntp/servers.udel. There are a number of "Stratum 1" (NTP sites using an atomic clock for timing) and "Stratum 2" (NTP sites with slightly less accurate time sources) sites that allow the general public to synchronize with them. www.html What is NTP? Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a protocol used to help synchronize your system clock with an accurate time source. A list of available servers may be found at: http://www. It is good practice to have at least one server on your network be the local time server for all your other devices.linuxhomenetworking. this makes the correlation of system events on different systems much easier.com =========================================== You can keep accurate time under Linux by synchronizing your system clock with a Network Time Protocol (NTP) Server.

gov mask 255.0 is: ntp-4.1.research.255 is really a subnet mask limiting access to the single IP address of the remote NTP servers.i386.org ntp. • Now list the NTP clients on our home network which should be querying our server for the time (notice that the noquery has been removed): restrict 192.conf File This is the main configuration file for Linux NTP in which you place the IP addresses of the stratum 1 and stratum 2 servers you want to use.com There are a number of freely available NTP client programs for Windows.255.server.1.255 nomodify notrap noquery mask 255. Download and Install The NTP Package Most RedHat Linux software products are available in the RPM format.255.i386.gov # A stratum 1 server at server.255.255.255 nomodify notrap noquery The mask statement 255.research.rpm The /etc/ntp.255.rpm • Install the package using the following command: [root@bigboy tmp]# rpm -Uvh ntp-4.246 www.255.255.gov • Then we restrict the type of access you allow these servers. You can use them to practice with your new NTP server. the chapter on RPMs covers how to do this in detail.org # A stratum 2 server at research.server.255.linuxhomenetworking.0 notrust nomodify notrap . Here is a sample of a home configuration using a pair of sample Internet based NTP servers: • First we specify the servers we’re interested in: server server otherntp. If you need a refresher.org restrict ntp. In this example we’re not allowing them to modify or query our Linux NTP server. • The latest version of the RPM for RedHat 8. restrict otherntp.1. Downloading and installing RPMs isn’t hard.0 mask 255.1-1.168.1-1.

0. It will override all other restrict statements and you’ll find your NTP server will only be communicating properly with itself. but most importantly.1 • Last. you need to make sure the default restrict statement is removed. you should get a response of plain old process ID numbers: [root@bigboy tmp]# pgrep ntpd .research. If the line is there.100.20.gov 24 Mar 18:16:43 ntpdate[10255]: adjust time server 200.100.0.20.10 offset -0.research.d/ntpd stop [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init. • We also want to make sure that localhost (The universal IP address used to refer to a Linux server itself) has full access without any restricting keywords: restrict 127.d/ntpd start [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.10 offset 15.d/ntpd restart Remember to restart the NTP process every time you make a change to the conf file for the changes to take effect on the running process • You can test whether the NTP process is running with the following command.000267 sec How To Get NTP Started • To get NTP configured to start at boot: [root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig --level 35 ntpd on • To start/stop/restart NTP after booting: [root@bigboy tmp]# /etc/init.266188 sec [root@bigboy tmp]# ntpdate otherntp.conf [root@bigboy tmp]# ntpdate otherntp.gov 24 Mar 18:16:36 ntpdate[10254]: step time server 200. comment it out like this: #restrict default ignore • Save the file • Do the following commands twice for each new server added to /etc/ntp.Chapter 23: The NTP Server 247 In this case the mask statement has been expanded to include all 255 possible IP addresses on our local network.

0 16 u .edu 2 u 502 1024 357 55.979 0.008 ntp-cup.edu 2 u 454 1024 347 54.cs.cs.00 • A telltale sign that you haven’t got proper synchronization is when all the remote servers have jitters of 4000 with delay and reach values of zero.534 ntp1.264 1.0.000 0.549 1.0 16 u 64 0 0.100 .1024 0 0.333 +taylor.127 3.usno.cs.com Determining If NTP Is Synchronized Properly • Use the following command to see the servers with which you are synchronized: [root@bigboy tmp]# ntpq -p Sample output: remote refid st t when poll reach delay offset jitter ============================================================================== -jj.mcs.100 and 192.0 16 u 64 0 0.cis.wisc.wisc.psc.028 -dr-zaius.168.00 snvl-smtp1.c 0.000 4000.GPS.0.cs.025 1.681 -18.0.168.642 *clock.0.strath harris.206 19.navy.0.572 milo.edu ntp1.conectiv. An explanation of the commands used follows.cc.tr 0.168.mcs. A firewall blocking access to your Stratum 1 and 2 NTP servers Configuring Cisco Devices To Use An NTP Server Cisco IOS Here are the commands you would use to make your router synchronize with NTP servers with IP addresses 192.274 -5.000 0.edu gandalf.anl.conf file not being commented out.0.00 nist1.000 0.0.anl.993 -15.wis ben. 2 u 972 1024 377 38.392 -mailer1.1.000 0.047 -ntp0. ciscorouter> enable password: ********* ciscorouter# config t ciscorouter(config)# ntp update-calendar ciscorouter(config)# ntp server 192.000 4000. 1 u 426 1024 377 107. ben.000 0.cs.018 2.201.go 2 u 818 1024 125 41.linuxhomenetworking.000 4000.umb.aol-ca.098 3.379 0.1.trim 0.via.00 This could be caused by: o o The restrict default ignore statement in the /etc/ntp.sigmaso 3 u 95 1024 377 31.589 28.424 -3.net .0 16 u 64 0 0.0.248 www.go ntp0. remote refid st t when poll reach delay offset jitter ============================================================================== LOCAL(0) LOCAL(0) 10 l 64 7 0.000 0.1.000 4000.externa 0.wisc.strat 3 u 507 1024 377 115.

168.1. ntp update-calendar: Configures the system to update its hardware clock from the software clock at periodic intervals. A sample Linux iptables firewall script snippet is in the Appendix. ciscoswitch> enable password: ********* ciscoswitch# set ntp client enable ciscoswitch# ntp server 192.1.168. CAT OS Here are the commands you would use to make your router synchronize with NTP servers with IP addresses 192.1. Unlike most UDP protocols.Chapter 23: The NTP Server 249 ciscorouter(config)# ntp server 192.100 ciscoswitch# ntp server 192. but 123 also.1.201.168. . You'll have to allow UDP traffic on source/destination port 123 between your server and the Stratum 1/2 server with which you are synchronizing.100 ciscoswitch# exit o o o ntp server: Forms a server association with another system. the source port isn't a high port (ie. An explanation of the commands used follows.201 ciscorouter(config)# exit ciscorouter# wr mem o o ntp server: Forms a server association with another system. set ntp client enable: Activate the NTP client Firewalls and NTP NTP servers communicate with one another using UDP with a destination port of 123. greater than 1023).100 and 192.1.168.168.

linuxhomenetworking.com .250 www.

linuxhomenetworking. .DHCP How To Get Static IPs For DSL Cheaply Sample PIX configuration: DSL . there is a sample configuration in the appendix. We will return to the NAT discussion. specifically how to configure it.251 Chapter 24 Configuring Cisco PIX Firewalls =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 24 Configuring Cisco PIX Firewalls Network Address Translation (NAT) Accessing the PIX command line Sample PIX Configuration: DSL . Network Address Translation (NAT) Network address translation is a method used to help conserve the limited number of IP addresses available for internet purposes. but first a very basic introduction on how to configure and use the PIX. The introduction to networking page explains the concept in more detail in addition to other fundamental topics.com =========================================== Sometimes you may have a Cisco PIX 501 firewall protecting your DSL based home network. www. This chapter covers how to configure it and in addition.Static IPs © Peter Harrison. later on this page.

.168. o You'll be prompted for a password and will need another password to get into the privileged "enable" mode. Escape character is '^]'.1.1.0. If you are directly connected to the console.my-site. You will want to change your "password" and "enable password" right after completing your initial configuration. pixfw> enable Password: ******** pixfw# o Use the "write terminal" command to see the current configuration.com o Once connected to the network you can access the PIX via telnet [root@bigboy tmp]# telnet pixfw Trying 192.. or various programs # that require network functionality will fail.1. Here you list all the IP addresses of important devices that you may want to access with a corresponding nickname.168.com Accessing the PIX command line Via The Console Port Your Cisco PIX will come with a console cable that will allow you to configure your PIX using terminal emulation software such as Hyperterm. Connected to pixfw. # 127.. Once you’ve set up all your PIX with an IP address you’ll be able to access it via Telnet.1.linuxhomenetworking. User Access Verification Password: Type help or '?' for a list of available commands.1. Here is a sample in which the PIX firewall "pixfw" has the IP address 192.localdomain localhost 192. you should get a similar prompt too.252 www.1 pixfw 192. Via Telnet o One easy way to get access to any device on your network is using the /etc/hosts file.0. # wr term Building configuration..168. There is no password in a fresh out of the box PIX and simply hitting the "Enter" key will be enough.1 localhost.100 bigboy mail.1: # Do not remove the following line.168..

. authentication type to a profile. The configuration steps are relatively straight forward. ask customer service for the URL. You should substitute this username and password for "dsl-username" and "dsl-password" below. by issuing the "configure terminal" command from enable mode prompt.Chapter 24 : Configuring Cisco PIX Firewalls 253 : Saved : PIX Version 6..DHCP Configuring PPPoE o DHCP and DSL require you to get a pppoe password and username from your ISP. you can permanently save your changes by using the "write memory" command: pixfw# wr mem Building configuration.2(2) nameif ethernet0 outside security0 nameif ethernet1 inside security100 enable password dsjf5sdfgsjrgjwk encrypted passwd sdffg8324dgrggjd encrypted hostname pixfw fixup protocol ftp 21 . (Remember to be in config mode) ip address outside pppoe setroute .. pixfw# conf t pixfw(config)# enable password "enable password here" pixfw(config)# passwd "console password here" pixfw(config)# exit pixfw# o When you've finished configuring. in this case "ISP". The VPDN group statements just assign a username... Cryptochecksum: 3af43873 d35d6f06 51f8c999 180c2342 [OK] pixfw# Sample PIX Configuration: DSL .. password. o ALL PIX configuration commands need to be done in configuration mode. pixfw# conf t pixfw(config)# "Enter commands here" pixfw(config)# exit pixfw# o One of the first things you should do is change the default paswords for the PIX.. Most ISPs have a homepage where you can register to get the username and password.

1. This service frequently isn't available for users with static IPs which the ISPs frequently feel are businesses. eg: http://firewall-outside-ip-address access-list inbound permit icmp any any access-list inbound permit tcp any any eq www access-group inbound in interface outside static (inside.1. global (outside) 1 interface nat (inside) 1 0.0 0.253. the IP address of the PIX is 192.0. Due to competition they'll even throw in a DSL modem and even a router for free.168. you may be able to hit your website using PCs behind your firewall using the firewall's outside interface's IP address as the destination. and it becomes bundled in free.1.158.158.12 then the traffic passing through the firewall. As the PIX will be acting as your default gateway to the internet.255 How To Get Static IPs For DSL Cheaply Many ISP DSL providers offer cheap DHCP (dynamic IP) service. from your protected PCs.255.2 or greater for this to work. Once configured.255. If you really want static IP addresses and are willing to pay the higher monthly fee.255.com ip address inside 192.168.0.1.254 www. They probably won't ask about the modem and/or router.168.0 0 0 Dynamic DNS Port Forwarding Entries Here we allow all incoming www traffic (on TCP port 80) destined for the firewall's interface to be forwarded to the web server at 192.168.253. If DSL .DHCP has assigned an address of 97.0 vpdn group ISP request dialout pppoe vpdn group ISP localname dsl-username vpdn group ISP ppp authentication pap vpdn username dsl-username password dsl-password In this example. you will have to set the default gateway on all your servers to be 192.1.0. will appear to be coming from address 97.1.outside) tcp interface www 192.100 on port 80 (www). .168. NAT Configuration Here we allow any traffic coming in on the inside (private/protected) interface to be NAT-ted to the IP address of the outside (Public/unprotected) interface of the firewall.255.1 You must be using PIX IOS version 6.linuxhomenetworking.12.1 255.100 www netmask 255. then you can reduce your installation costs by: • Ordering DHCP DSL first with the free modem and/or router • Upgrade to static IPs a week later.0.

26 eq 53 access-group inbound in interface outside static (inside. Only www and DNS (Port 53) traffic is allowed to access it via an access control list applied to the outside interface.255.255.168.255.0 0.255.255. access-list inbound permit tcp any host 97.158.26 eq 53 access-list inbound permit udp any host 97.168.253.1.25.158.253.255 0 0 .100 netmask 255.30 If you are converting from dynamic to static IP addresses.158.0.1. namely 97.248 (/29).26 eq www access-list inbound permit tcp any host 97. Once you go for static IPs.158.25 255.1.1.Static IPs PPOE authentication is only required for DSL DHCP. you won't be able to hit your website from PCs behind your firewall using the public IP address assigned to your web server as the destination.0.255.0 route outside 0.253. The IP address selected for the PIX is 97. we then allow all incoming traffic to be forwarded to the protected web server which has an IP address of 192. In this example internet subnet that has been assigned is 97. You'll have to ask a friend t check it out.0.26.255 to be NAT-ted to the IP address of the outside (Public/unprotected) interface of the firewall which is 97.168.158.0 97.158.Chapter 24 : Configuring Cisco PIX Firewalls 255 Sample PIX configuration: DSL .1 Outgoing Connections NAT Configuration Here we allow connections originating coming from servers connected to the inside (private/protected) interface with an IP address in the range 192.253.158. the vpdn statements won’t be required.255.253.1.158.168.100.0.25 : global (outside) 1 interface nat (inside) 1 192.1. the default gateway is 97.outside) 97.253. Once configured.158.1 255.0 to 192. As the PIX will be acting as your default gateway to the internet.0 255.253.158.255.1. you will have to set the default gateway on all your servers to be 192.158.253.253.1.26 192.168.248 ip address inside 192.30 In this example.255.0 0 0 Incoming Connections NAT Configuration Here we allow the firewall to handle traffic to a second IP address.168.168.1.168. the IP address of the PIX is 192. you do not need the vpdn PIX command statements for static IPs ip address outside 97.24 with a mask of 255.253.253.255.

21 25 110 443 .linuxhomenetworking.com Here are some additional TCP ports you may be interested in: Protocol FTP SMTP Mail POP3 Mail HTTPS / SSL Port 20.256 www.

linuxhomenetworking. This page should be suitable for the following Cisco routers: With Built In DSL Modems • 800 series • 1700 / 2600 / 3600 series with the ADSL WIC installed With External DSL Modems • 1700 / 2600 / 3600 series .com =========================================== This is a simple guide on how to set up your Cisco DSL router for DHCP using PPPoE.257 Chapter 25 Configuring Cisco DSL Routers =========================================== In This Chapter Chapter 25 Configuring Cisco DSL Routers An Introduction to Network Address Translation (NAT) Introduction to accessing the router command line Sample Configurations Other NAT Topics © Peter Harrison. www. The examples in this chapter also show how to configure NAT so you can also have a home / SOHO based website.

1: # Do not remove the following line.1. o You'll be prompted for a password and will need another password to get into the privileged "enable" mode. Introduction to accessing the router command line Via The Console Port Your Cisco router will come with a console cable that will allow you to configure your PIX using terminal emulation software such as Hyperterm. Once you’ve set up all your router with an IP address you’ll be able to access it via Telnet.my-site. The introduction to networking page explains the concept in more detail in addition to other fundamental topics.com An Introduction to Network Address Translation (NAT) Network address translation is a method used to help conserve the limited number of IP addresses available for internet purposes. later in this chapter.1. Here you list all the IP addresses of important devices that you may want to access with a corresponding nickname.1 localhost. Escape character is '^]'. specifically how to configure it.168. We will return to the NAT discussion.168.1. User Access Verification Password: Type help or '?' for a list of available commands. There is no password in a fresh out of the box Cisco router and simply hitting the "Enter" key will be enough.258 www.localdomain localhost 192..linuxhomenetworking. ciscorouter> enable Password: ******** . If you are directly connected to the console. Connected to ciscorouter.0.168.1.100 bigboy mail. Here is a sample in which the router "ciscorouter" has the IP address 192.. or various programs # that require network functionality will fail. # 127.1. Via Telnet o One easy way to get access to any device on your network is using the /etc/hosts file.0. you should get a similar prompt too.com o Once connected to the network you can access the router via telnet [root@bigboy tmp]# telnet ciscorouter Trying 192.1 ciscorouter 192. but first a very basic introduction on how to configure and use Cisco DSL routers.168.

by issuing the "configure terminal" command from enable mode prompt. you can permanently save your changes by using the "write memory" command: ciscorouter# wr mem Building configuration..... o ALL router configuration commands need to be done in configuration mode. ciscorouter# conf t ciscorouter(config)# enable secret ciscorouter(config)# line con 0 ciscorouter(config-line)# password ciscorouter(config-line)# line vty ciscorouter(config-line)# password ciscorouter(config-line)# ^z ciscorouter# o "enable password here" "console password here" 0 4 "telnet password here" When you've finished configuring.. Cryptochecksum: 3af43873 d35d6f06 51f8c999 180c2342 [OK] ciscorouter# .. You will want to change your "password" and "enable password" right after completing your initial configuration. ciscorouter# conf t ciscorouter(config)# "Enter commands here" ciscorouter(config)# exit ciscorouter# o One of the first things you should do is change the default paswords for the router. ciscorouter# show run Building configuration.Chapter 25: Configuring Cisco DSL Routers 259 ciscorouter# o Use the "show running" command to see the current configuration....1 no service pad service timestamps debug uptime service timestamps log datetime localtime service password-encryption ! hostname ciscorouter ! no logging console no logging monitor logging trap debugging . .. . ! version 12.

this interface: !--.255.Configure the home / SOHO network interface's !--.IP address !--. then putting an Internet accessible web server on your home network would be impossible using the routers mentioned above in this configuration.0 ip nat inside !--.1) uses NAT !--. Remember to be in "config" mode to enter these commands and remember to do a "write memory" at the end to permanently save the configuration Cisco DSL Router With Built-in Modem Configuration (DHCP) ! vpdn enable no vpdn logging !--.1 255.2) is the inside "private" interface ! interface FastEthernet0 ip address 192.linuxhomenetworking. Cisco IOS doesn’t support DHCP DSL and NAT.Configure the router's PPPoE client so that it !--.1. You should substitute this username and password for PPP "username" and "password" listed below.Configure the DSL interface !--. ask customer service for the URL. Here is a sample configuration for a Cisco home router.can setup a session with the ISP ! vpdn-group pppoe request-dialin protocol pppoe !--.260 www. Do the "show run" command before starting to configure your router to see what commands you'll really need. Most ISPs have a homepage where you can register to get the username and password.com Sample Configurations DSL Router With Built-In Modem .value not necesarily "1/1" ! interface ATM0 o o o .168.Your ISP may provide you with a different pvc !--. Some of the commands listed are part of Cisco's default settings.255.The "ip nat" statement tells your router that !--.DHCP o DHCP and DSL requires you to get a pppoe password and username from your ISP. If this is so.

Cisco prefers to run the PPPoE client on a virtual !--. The default ethernet MTU !--.1.0 network as given in access list 1 . Commands for using the "PAP" method are included at the end of this box authentication chap callin chap hostname <username> chap password <password> !--!--!--!--!--- Tells the router to NAT all traffic that passes through it: 1) From the inside to the outside. This example uses the "CHAP" method.1) uses NAT !--.Chapter 25: Configuring Cisco DSL Routers 261 no ip address no atm ilmi-keepalive bundle-enable dsl operating-mode auto hold-queue 224 in ! interface ATM0.168.1 point-to-point pvc 1/1 pppoe-client dial-pool-number 1 !--.this interface: !--."dialer" interface !--.This is tied to the real ATM DSL interface with the !--"dialer pool" command.size has been reduced from 1500 to accommodate !--. ! !--.the PPPoE header overhead. 2) And whose IP address is in the 192.2) is the outside "public" interface ! interface Dialer1 ip address negotiated ip mtu 1492 ip nat outside encapsulation ppp dialer pool 1 !--!--!--!--!--! ppp ppp ppp ! Here are the commands to configure authentication with with your ISP.The "ip nat" statement tells your router that !--.

0 dialer1 no ip http server ! access-list 1 permit 192.linuxhomenetworking. Remember to be in "config" mode to enter these commands and remember to do a "write memory" at the end to permanently save the configuration Cisco DSL Router With Built-in Modem Configuration (Static IP) Current Configuration: ! version 12.0. Some of the commands listed are part of Cisco's default settings.255 If your ISP tells you that you need to do the PAP.1 service timestamps debug uptime service timestamps log uptime ! hostname ciscorouter ! ip subnet-zero no ip domain-lookup ! bridge irb o o .0.0. type of authentication then you'll have to replace the lines: ppp authentication chap callin ppp chap hostname <username> ppp chap password <password> with only these two: ppp authentication pap callin ppp pap sent-username <username> password <password> o DSL Router With Built-In Modem . This example also shows how to use NAT so you can have a web server / mail server / FTP server etc. in your home network.0 0.3) Giving it an outside "public" address that is the !--same as interface Dialer1 gets from the PPPoE !--connection ! ip nat inside source list 1 interface Dialer1 overload ip classless ip route 0. Do the "show run" command before starting to configure your router to see what commands you'll really need.1 0.0.262 www. and not the CHAP.0.com !--.Static IP o Here is a sample configuration for a Cisco home router with a built-in modem.0.168.

253.interface: !--.253.This is tied to the real ATM DSL interface with the !--.255.0 ip nat inside ! interface ATM0 no ip address no atm ilmi-keepalive pvc 0/35 encapsulation aal5snap ! bundle-enable dsl operating-mode auto bridge-group 1 ! !--.Configure the home / SOHO network interface's IP address !--.168.This statement performs the static address !--.3) Must get an outside "public" address that is the !--."BVI" interface !--.same as interface BVI1 ! ip nat inside source list 1 interface BVI1 overload !--.158.168.Chapter 25: Configuring Cisco DSL Routers 263 !--.255.2) And whose IP address is in the 192.255.1) uses NAT !--. !--.through it: !--.1) From the inside to the outside.248 ip nat outside !--.1.Cisco prefers to run the PPPoE client on a virtual !--.1) uses NAT !--.users trying to reach 97.2) is the outside "public" interface ! interface BVI1 ip address 97.(The BVI number always matches the bridge-group number) !--.25 255.255.The "ip nat" statement tells your router that !--. With this statement.this interface: !--.translation for the Web server.1 255.1.26 port 80 (www) will be .0 network !--as given in access list 1 !--.Tells the router to NAT all traffic that passes !--.The "ip nat" statement tells your router that this !--. !--. !--.158.2) is the inside "private" interface ! interface Ethernet0 ip address 192."bridge-group" command above.

0 0.253.(www).253.1.1 service timestamps debug uptime service timestamps log uptime ! hostname ciscorouter ! ip subnet-zero no ip domain-lookup ! !--!--!--!--Configure the home / SOHO network interface's IP address The "ip nat" statement tells your router that this interface: 1) uses NAT o o .264 www. in your home network.168.0 0.0.0.Static IP o Here is a sample configuration for a Cisco home router with an external modem.com !--.automatically redirected to 192.0.255 bridge 1 protocol ieee bridge 1 route ip ! end DSL Router With External Modem .168. Remember to be in "config" mode to enter these commands and remember to do a "write memory" at the end to permanently save the configuration Cisco Router Connected to DSL via External Modem Configuration (Static IP) Current Configuration: ! version 12.Set your default gateway as provided by your ISP ! ip classless ip route 0. !--! ip nat inside source static tcp 192.100 port 80 !--.158.0.168.26 80 extendable !--.30 ! access-list 1 permit 192. Some of the commands listed are part of Cisco's default settings.1.linuxhomenetworking.1.100 80 97.0.0. Do the "show run" command before starting to configure your router to see what commands you'll really need. This example also shows how to use NAT so you can have a web server / mail server / FTP server etc.0 97. which in this case is the Web server.158.

2) is the inside "private" interface ! interface Ethernet0 ip address 192.158.2) And whose IP address is in the 192.168.158.25 255.30 ! access-list 1 permit 192.0 0.192.253.168.1.This statement performs the static address translation !--.port 80 (www) will be automatically redirected to !--.1) From the inside to the outside.is the Web server.0 97.With this statement.0.0.100 port 80 (www).1.158.Set your default gateway as provided by your ISP ! ip classless ip route 0.255. !--! ip nat inside source static tcp 192.255 ! end .168.Tells the router to NAT all traffic that passes !--.0 ip nat inside ! interface Ethernet1 ip address 97.0.for the Web server.0 network !--as given in access list 1 !--.26 80 extendable !--.158.1.through it: !--.168.255. !--.Chapter 25: Configuring Cisco DSL Routers 265 !--.0. !--.1 255. users trying to reach 97.3) Must get an outside "public" address that is the !--same as interface ethernet1 ! ip nat inside source list 1 interface ethernet1 overload !--. which in this case !--.248 ip nat outside !--.26 !--.253.1.100 80 97.0.253.255.255.0 0.253.1.168.0.

25 How To Verify That NAT Is Working Correctly You can use the show ip nat translation command to determine whether NAT is actually occurring as expected: .100 97. regardless of port.158.linuxhomenetworking.1.100 25 97. then you can use the command: ip nat inside source static 192.158.25 53 extendable o To have all traffic trying to reach 97. 21 25 110 443 53 Type TCP TCP TCP TCP UDP o So for example.253.100.253.168.266 www.26 25 extendable o DNS requires a UDP type NAT statement such as: ip nat inside source static udp 192. to be NAT-ted to 192.100 53 97.158. the command for SMTP mail would be: ip nat inside source static tcp 192.1.168.168.26.1.158.168.253.1.com Other NAT Topics Commonly Used TCP And UDP Ports Here are some additional TCP ports you may be interested in for NAT "ip nat inside source static" statements: Protocol FTP SMTP Mail POP3 Mail HTTPS / SSL DNS Port 20.253.

217..219.6:5698 ciscorouter# Outside local --.100 on the home network How To Troubleshoot NAT To troubleshoot NAT after you have logged into the router via Telnet requires you to first activate logging to the telnet terminal with the terminal monitor command and then using the debug ip nat detailed command to visualize the translation process.158. .26: wanted 80 got 80 03:29:49: NAT: o: tcp (198.168..1.1.253.26:80 192. o o o o As you can see..26 to 192.26. The Inside global address is the IP address of the server presented to the Internet after NAT.158. .168.. The Outside local the actual IP address of the remote computer on its local network..158.168.1.158.1. NAT seems to be functioning properly for the web server 192.26:80 192..26.133. and more specifically that remote host 67.6:5698 Outside Cisco uses the following terms for the various IP addresses you’ll find in any NAT translation process. 80) [0] .253.26 03:29:49: NAT: Allocated Port for 192.217.34.168.34.100:80 67.Chapter 25: Configuring Cisco DSL Routers 267 ciscorouter> enable Password: ******** ciscorouter#show ip nat translation Pro Inside global Inside local global tcp 97.1.100:80 tcp 97.6 was communicating with the inside global address of 97.253. The Outside global the IP address of the remote computer as presented on the Internet. 5698) -> (97.253.100.158. .34. in this case.168.158.158.217. The example below shows that translation occurs for port 80 traffic (HTTP / www) from address 97.1.253.100 -> 97.253. ciscorouter> enable Password: ******** ciscorouter#term mon ciscorouter#debug ip nat detailed IP NAT detailed debugging is on ciscorouter# 03:29:49: NAT: creating portlist proto 6 globaladdr 97.253.--67. The Inside local address is the actual IP address of the local server on your home network.

268 www.com .linuxhomenetworking.

269 Appendix I Miscellaneous Topics =========================================== In This Chapter Appendix I Miscellaneous Topics VPN Terminologies Running Linux Without A Monitor Make Your Linux Box Emulate A VT100 Dumb Terminal Syslog Configuration and Cisco Devices Disk Partitioning Explained The OSI Networking Model TCP/IP Packet Format © Peter Harrison. www. What follows is an introduction to VPN terminology Authentication The process of ensuring that the VPN data received is both unchanged and from the expected source. . VPN relationships are established between trusted sites on the Internet making the public network appear to be virtually the same as a private network to the VPN members.linuxhomenetworking.com =========================================== We briefly discuss some miscellaneous topics in this chapter that are beyond the scope of this book with the intention that you will be stimulated to consider utilizing some of the technologies discussed to improve your website and / or your SOHO network. VPN Terminologies A Virtual Private Network (VPN) provides security for transmission of sensitive information over unprotected networks such as the Internet.

Provides authentication. This is called Transport Adjacency. (For more information on the IP protocol.com Encryption The process of encoding VPN data to protect it from unauthorized viewing except by the intended recipient who has the decoder key. please refer to the OSI model page) Transport mode AH packet format Inserted Original Original DATA IP Header AH Header TCP Header Transport mode AH / ESP packet format Inserted Inserted Original Original DATA IP Header AH Header ESP Header TCP Header . It does this by encrypting the data within the packet and then adding its own security header to the original IP packet.linuxhomenetworking. It does this by adding its own security header to the original IP packet. Provides authentication and anti-replay services. Here are some examples of what transport mode VPN IP packets will look like. Encapsulating Security Protocol (ESP) The other IPSec security protocol. and anti-replay services. encryption. Transport mode VPNs The original source and destination address of the data being sent over the VPN is unchanged.270 www. As ESP headers don't authenticate the outer IP header like AH headers. without encryption. Authentication Header (AH) One of two IPSec security protocols. AH and an ESP are often used in combination with each other. IPSec The name given to a number of data communications protocols designed to authenticate and encrypt VPN data to protect it from unauthorized viewing or modification as it is transmitted across a network.

and establishes IPSec keys. Internet Key Exchange (IKE) IKE provides authentication of the IPSec peers. negotiates IPSec security associations. . (For more information on the IP protocol. please refer to the OSI model page) Tunnel mode AH packet format New Inserted Original Original DATA IP Header AH Header IP Header TCP Header Tunnel mode AH / ESP packet format New Inserted Inserted Original Original DATA IP Header AH Header ESP Header IP Header TCP Header Authentication methods IPSec data integrity is usually provided by one of two Hashed Message Authentication Code (HMAC) methods: o o Message Digest 5 (MD5) Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-1). header and all in an effort to provide an additional layer of security by not revealing the true identities of the servers communicating with each other. The original packet is frequently encrypted. Here are some examples of what tunnel mode VPN IP packets will look like. Encryption methods IPSec usually uses one of two methods to encrypt data: o o The Data Encryption Standard (DES) using a 56-bit encryption key Triple DES using a 168-bit encryption key.Appendix I : Miscellaneous Topics 271 Tunnel mode VPNs The original source and destination address of the data being sent over the VPN is changed by encapsulating the original IP packet within another IP packet.

This allows you to create a signature when the message is encrypted with a sender's private key. the VPN peers authenticate by sending each other the certificate issued to them by the CA. making it difficult for large scale implementations. Shared keys The devices at each end of the VPN use a shared key or password. or a "in-house" private server that you establish within your organization. serial number. department. and not to someone pretending to be the sender. company. It will also contain a copy of the entity's public key. The receiver verifies the signature by decrypting the message with the sender's public key. During the key exchange. As the message could be decrypted using the sender's public key means that the holder of the private key created the message. authentication is complete.linuxhomenetworking. . This is done using Certification Authorities.272 www. CA overview A digital certificate contains information that identifies a user or device. Anything encrypted with one of the keys can only be decrypted with the other. but encrypted using their private key. Each peer then uses the pre-installed CA certificate they have to authenticate with the CA and securely receive the other peer's certificate from the CA using public key cryptography. such as a name. Once the the certificates received from the CA and the other peer match. Each peer then extracts the public key from the certificate they receive from the CA and then uses it to decrypt the certificate they just received from the other peer. A CA can either be a trusted public third party. Certificates are managed and issued by Certification authorities (CAs). such as VeriSign. or IP address. Unlike the RSA method. each VPN device must be pre-configured with the certificate generated for them by the CA. Prior to installing a certificate based VPN.com IKE authentication methods There are two main methods of establishing a trusted relationship between two devices that want to create a VPN between themselves: Public key cryptography using RSA encryption RSA overview Each VPN device has its own public and private keys. there is no CA to provide an impartial audit trail of VPN connection initiations. The VPN devices will also be pre-configured with the CA's certificate. A successful exchange requires the receiver to have a copy of the sender's public key and knowing with a high degree of certainty that it really does belong to the sender. The disadvantage is that each pair of VPN connections need set of keys.

you may have to open up these ports and protocols to the CA as well. In permanent VPNs. Here are some authentication methods used in such . Unusually. This includes: • • • • • Packet encryption methods Packet authentication methods Transport versus tunnel mode AH and or ESP usage SA lifetime before it is renegotiated. This uses UDP packets using port 500.Appendix I : Miscellaneous Topics 273 IKE's role in creating Security Associations Once authentication is complete. (SAs are permanent for when manually established) Shared keys The actual keyword used by the encryption and authentication to protect the data. the source and destination port is 500. IKE and ISAKMP IKE uses special ISAKMP IP packets using "protocol 50" to establish an Security Association. IKE is then used by the VPN peers to negotiate the security associations (SAs) to be used at each end point. SAs are comprised of two factors: Transforms Describes how the data will be transformed by the VPN to provide the desired security. VPN Security And Firewalls o o All security devices in the path of a VPN connection will have to allow "protocol 50" between the two VPN devices to ensure that IKE works properly. o VPN User Authentication Methods For Temporary Connections The above sections have been slanted towards a permanent connection between purpose built VPN devices. The VPN uses a separate channel through which the encrypted data passes. Frequently the device at the other end of the connection is a PC. This must also be allowed to pass through unimpeded.

Software uses a username. In order to login. Valid usernames and passwords are configured into the VPN device at the other end of the VPN ACE/SecurID Windows Domain Local user database .com Types Of Dial Up VPN Authentication Method IKE-XAUTH secured RADIUS Description Usernames and passwords entered into the VPN remote login software are relayed by the VPN device at the remote end to a trusted RADIUS server.274 www. Remote home user authentication relies on the same username / password combination of the Windows Domain Controller that the user would normally use to login when they are at work. the user not only has to enter the username & password. but also the PIN tied to the FOB plus the FOB's dynamic serial number which is synchronized with the authentication server at the other end of the VPN.linuxhomenetworking. password in conjunction with a digital key FOB whose authentication serial number changes every few minutes for a login to occur. If the username / password combination is valid for remote login then the RADIUS server will authorize the VPN device to continue with the IKE interchange.

and I need to get to it by using: • A notebook PC with a console cable connected to the COM port. but "agetty" usually isn't activated when you boot up unless its configuration file /etc/inittab is modified. Having access via the COM ports has also helped me in both the home and business situations. then you'll need a FULL modem cable and testing will have to be done using a dial up connection. the COM1 and COM2 ports are controlled by a program called "agetty". For non-modem connectivity (PC to PC) connect a NULL modem cable to the COM port you want to test. This creates what is also known as a “headless” system. "agetty" may be called just plain "getty". Operating costs may not be important at home. Make sure you disable this feature in the BIOS setup of your PC before proceeding. Port Linux "agetty" Device Name ttyS0 ttyS1 COM1 COM2 . The most common occurrence is when the system is hung.linuxhomenetworking. One popular Linux equivalent to Hyperterm is “minicom”. You will also need to make sure that you have activated your COM ports in your BIOS settings. A brief configuration guide for minicom follows the section below. Unfortunately your BIOS may halt the system during the Power On Self Test (POST) if it doesn't detect a keyboard. This feature can usually be found on the very first screen under the “Halt On” option. access to the Linux box can be more cheaply provided via the COM port. In such cases. locking out network access. Here is a table that lists the physical ports to their equivalent Linux device names.Appendix I : Miscellaneous Topics 275 Running Linux Without A Monitor You can reduce the cost of ownership of your Linux system by not using a VGA monitor. I’ve included this section as I have occasionally hosted the website www. o o o Configuration Steps In RedHat Linux. In other versions of Linux.com at friends’ homes and felt badly about borrowing their monitors. If you're using a modem for connectivity. • A modem connected to the COM port • Telnet to login to a terminal server that has one of its ports connected to the Linux box’s COM port Preparing To Go “Headless” o One of the advantages of this method is that you don't need a keyboard either. but will be in a corporate environment with large numbers of Linux servers racked in data centers. connect the other end to the client PC running "Hyperterm" or whatever terminal emulation software you are using.

and celebrate when you see something like this: Red Hat Linux release 8.276 www. this option should be omitted if you are connecting the port to a modem. To do this you'll have to edit the /etc/securetty file which contains the device names of tty lines on which root is allowed to login. "agetty" must attach itself to devices ttyS0 and ttyS1 and emulate a VT102 terminal running at 19200 baud. The respawn means that agetty will restart automatically if. 3 or 5. . user "root" will not be able to log in from a terminal. when the system enters runlevels 2.18-14 on an i586 bigboy login: Note: By default.com The following lines added to /etc/inittab will configure your COM ports for terminal access: # Run COM1 and COM2 gettys in standard runlevels S0:235:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 ttyS0 vt102 S1:235:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 ttyS1 vt102 In summary. The next step is to restart the "init" process to re-read /etc/inittab [root@bigboy tmp]# init q Now you need to configure the terminal client such “as Hyperterm” to match the speed settings in /etc/inittab. for whatever reason. Hit "enter" a couple times.linuxhomenetworking.4.0 (Psyche) Kernel 2. it dies. these lines mean: o o o At boot time. Just add ttyS0 and ttyS1 to the list if you need this access. Connect the console / modem cable between the client and your Linux box. The "-L" means ignore modem control signals.

Other systems using minicom can use COM2 to access this system.) Configuration Steps The most commonly used Linux terminal emulation program is minicom. Here are the steps you’ll need to go through to get it working. You can make your Linux box emulate a dumb terminal quite easily. Edit /etc/inittab # Run COM1 and COM2 gettys in standard runlevels #S0:235:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 ttyS0 vt102 S1:235:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 ttyS1 vt102 Restart init [root@bigboy tmp]# init q o Run minicom in setup mode using the minicom –s command [root@bigboy tmp]# minicom –s o You will get the setup menu . You therefore have to disable the agetty configuration for the port on which you wish to run minicom. not the use of using Linux to dial a modem. Minicom will clash with your agetty configuration explained in the previous section. o o You will first need to go through all the relevant steps listed in the “Preparing to go Headless” section of this chapter to ensure you have the right type of cable and correct BIOS settings. We then need to restart the init process to reload the new /etc/inittab settings.Appendix I : Miscellaneous Topics 277 Make Your Linux Box Emulate A VT100 Dumb Terminal Dumb terminals can be loosely defined as devices that allow you to log in to your system via the COM port. There are a number of reasons to do this: • You run Linux on a notebook and you need to use it to access a hung “headless” Linux server via the COM port • You need to gain access to a modem connected to the COM port. COM1 will therefore be used for outbound minicom connections to other systems. (This section will focus on the notebook scenario. It is simple to use mainly because it uses a text based GUI. In the case below we disable agetty on COM1 by commenting out the ttyS0 agetty statements in the /etc/inittab file. In other words a “headless” system cannot be used to access another “headless” system using the “headless” COM port.

Select the “Save setup as dfl” to make this your saved default setting and then “Exit from Minicom” Make sure the other system is correctly configured for headless operation. then X Non “root” users will get a “permission denied” message if they use minicom as the COM ports are not normally accessible to regular users. F-key Macros. The way to get around this is for user “root” to . Search History Buffer. I18n Compiled on Jun 23 2002.Lockfile Location : /var/lock | | C Callin Program : | | D . Connect the cables between the systems Re-enter minicom.00.Callout Program : | | E Bps/Par/Bits : 19200 8N1 | | F .Software Flow Control : No | | | | Change which setting? | ------------------------------------------o o o o Select the “Modem and dialing” option and make sure the “Init string” and “Reset string” settings are blank. then Z. Make the speed match that of the remote “headless” system and make sure the correct serial COM device is chosen.com ------[configuration]------| Filenames and paths | | File transfer protocols | | Serial port setup | | Modem and dialing | | Screen and keyboard | | Save setup as dfl | | Save setup as. Also make sure that flow control is off.linuxhomenetworking. this time without the “-s” [root@bigboy tmp]# minicom o Hit enter and you should get a login prompt Welcome to minicom 2.. Press CTRL-A Z for help on special keys bigboy login: o o To exit minicom you type CTRL-A. | | Exit | | Exit from Minicom | ---------------------------o Select the serial port setup menu item.278 www.0 OPTIONS: History Buffer.Hardware Flow Control : No | | G . Device /dev/ttyS0 is COM1 and /dev/ttyS1 is COM2. ------------------------------------------| A Serial Device : /dev/ttyS0 | | B . 16:41:20.

or add selected trusted users to your sudo configuration. [root@bigboy tmp]# chmod o+rw /dev/ttyS0 . Remember that minicom will reset the privileges to the COM port each time you change the configuration with “minicom –s” so you may find yourself having to run chmod from time to time.Appendix I : Miscellaneous Topics 279 either give everyone read/write access using the chmod command below.

168.100 Catalyst CAT Switches running CATOS By default Cisco switches also send syslog messages to their logging server with a default facility of local7. firewalls and load balancers each logging with a different facility can each have their own log files for easy troubleshooting.280 www. We won't set the facility in this case. In all the network device configuration examples below we are logging to the remote Linux logging server 192.1.severity) using the numbering scheme below: .1.100 which we set up in the previous section. Routers.100 level all 5 server severity 6 Cisco Local Director Local Directors use the "syslog output" command to set their logging facility and severity.168.1. then you may also want to switch off all logging to /var/log/messages as suggested above for the home/SOHO environment. therefore making routers and switches log to the same file.linuxhomenetworking.168. The following examples will show how to have a different log file for each class of device. switches. Cisco Routers By default Cisco routers send syslog messages to their logging server with a default facility of local7. service timestamps log datetime localtime no logging console no logging monitor logging 192.SS (facility. set set set set logging logging logging logging server enable server 192.com Syslog Configuration and Cisco Devices Syslog reserves facilities "local0" through "local7" for log messages received from remote servers and network devices. but we can tell the router to timestamp the messages and make the messages have the source IP address of the loopback interface. The value provided must be in the format FF. If you have a large data center. We won't change this facility either.

Appendix I : Miscellaneous Topics 281 Facility local 0 local 1 local 2 local 3 local 4 local 5 local 6 local 7 FF Value 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Severity System unusable Immediate action required Critical condition Error conditions Warning conditions Normal but significant conditions Informational messages Debugging messages SS Value 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Here we using facility LOCAL4 and logging debugging messages and above. syslog output 20.168.1.7 no syslog console syslog host 192.100 .

100 Cisco CSS11000 (Arrowpoints) This configuration for this is more straight forward.1.100 facility 6 set logging subsystem all info-6 logging commands enable .168. We're sending log messages to facility LOCAL3 with a severity level of 5 (Notification) set by the "logging trap" command. This example shows the CSS11000 logging facility LOCAL 6 and severity level 6 (Informational) logging host 192. You specify the facility with an intuitive number using the "logging host" command and set the severity with the "logging subsystem" command.168.1. Facility Logging Facility Command Value 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 local 0 local 1 local 2 local 3 local 4 local 5 local 6 local 7 This configuration example assumes that the logging server is connected on the side of the "inside" protected interface.linuxhomenetworking. logging logging logging logging logging logging on standby timestamp trap notifications facility 19 host inside 192.com Cisco PIX Filewalls PIX firewalls use the following numbering scheme to determine their logging facilities.282 www.

debug /var/log/cisco/ciscocss # # All LOCAL7 messages (debug and above) go to the ciscoacl # This includes ACL logs which are logged at severity debug # local7.debug /var/log/cisco/ciscofw # # All LOCAL4 messages (debug and above) go to the Local Director file ciscold # local4.conf File # # All LOCAL3 messages (debug and above) go to the firewall file ciscofw # local3.notice ciscoinfo .debug ciscoacl # # LOCAL7 messages (notice and above) go to the ciscoinfo # This excludes ACL logs which are logged at severity debug # local7.notice /var/log/cisco/ciscoinfo local7.debug /var/log/cisco/ciscold # # All LOCAL6 messages (debug and above) go to the CSS file ciscocss # local6.debug /var/log/cisco/ciscoacl local7.Appendix I : Miscellaneous Topics 283 The Sample Cisco syslog.

linuxhomenetworking. a disk with two partitions would most likely find itself with a "C:" drive and a "D:" drive each with a separate set of folders. What Is A Filesystem? Filesystems can be considered as being the directory structures on a disk partition that contains all the files. Linux and Windows. for example. Linux partitions handle all files in the subdirectory of your choice. everything appears to be a single set of "folders" or directories. What Is A Partition? A partition is a means of dividing your hard disk into multiple sections.com Disk Partitioning Explained Here’s some interesting information on how Linux handles hard drives and their partitions. The directory allocation will be: Partition /var/log /var Directory Allocation All files in directory /var/log and all the subdirectories underneath /var/log All files in /var except the contents of directory /var/log and all the subdirectories underneath /var/log . In other words. In Linux. whereas Linux users would be familiar with the terms "directories" and "sub-directories". Most Windows users would be familiar with the analogous terms "folders" and "subfolders". each of which is treated as a separate disk by your operating system. The choice of which subdirectories belong in which partition is made when you partition the hard drive. Partitions cannot be moved or resized without destroying the data on them. the partitions hide underneath unseen to the regular user.284 www. If you create a file system called "/var" and another called "/var/log". How Linux Links Filesystems And Partitions In Windows. This allows you to be able to boot different operating systems from the same disk.

/boot The /boot partition contains the Linux kernel which is the "master control program". but also the normal functioning of Linux. not only for controlling the boot process. Most Linux systems then will then become multi-user systems by changing their runlevel and executing the associated startup scripts including those that will mount the remaining file systems. swap Used as a location to place data temporarily if RAM memory becomes full.linuxhomenetworking. there is a high possibility that you will lose all your data. . This reduces the need to reformat the "root" partition if it becomes corrupted. RedHat automatically creates this partition and usually makes it about twice the amount of system RAM. Also Known As "root" The root filesystem ("/") contains the files necessary for the system to boot up in single user mode with the bare minimum of functionality. Usually recovery requires reformatting the root file system and doing a Linux reinstall. If all your files are located in a root filesystem that becomes corrupted. especially if you have more than 4GB. This is a generous guide. a corrupted root filesystem will make your system unbootable from the hard drive. Redhat Linux creates this partition automatically.com The RedHat default partitioning scheme used during the Linux installation should be sufficient for most home / SOHO systems. Recommended Sizes For Disk Partitions Here are some allocation suggestions that may be useful. It is for this reason that you should consider placing similar files in dedicated partitions.Appendix I : Miscellaneous Topics 285 What Partitions Are Mandatory? The mandatory partitions are: "/". In most cases. you may look at the bottom of the table to see the settings I used for the 4GB hard disk I used to first run www.

Remember MP3s fill disks quickly.5+ GB 500 4. / Usually called "root" /boot Automatically determined by RedHat 50 (approx) Automatically determined by RedHat 50 (approx) 1.0+ GB 500+ 1. Contains the system kernel files.0+ GB 750+ 500+ 750+ N/A 250+ Third party software Man pages (Help files) Error log files Print queues (Needed only if you plan to do printing) Mail queues Temporary files Multiply the expected number of users by the amount of disk space you want to assign per user.286 www.com Some Recommended Partition Sizes Partition Size Workstation / Home Web Server (MB) Swap 2X Physical Memory 100 Size Mail Server (MB) Purpose of the Partition 2X Physical Memory 100 Used as a location to place data temporarily if RAM memory becomes full Base system program files Configuration files Libraries Device drivers Assigned automatically by RedHat. /home Variable Variable .linuxhomenetworking.0+ GB 250+ /usr /var /var/log /var/spool /var/spool/mail /tmp 2.

[root@bigboy root]# df -k Filesystem 1K-blocks /dev/hda3 505636 /dev/hda1 46636 /dev/hda5 505605 /dev/hda7 830104 /dev/hda2 4633108 /dev/hda6 256667 [root@bigboy root]# Used Available Use% Mounted on 90002 389529 19% / 9164 35064 21% /boot 87915 391586 19% /home 17632 770304 3% /tmp 1797504 2600252 41% /usr 169577 73838 70% /var What Can I Do When I Run Out Of Disk Space? o o If it is in the /home partition. These are the settings I used for the hard disk I used to first run this site. You may want to also consider backing up files and then deleting them. you can ask users to delete unnecessary files such as downloaded software and MP3s If it is in the /var partition. o .Appendix I : Miscellaneous Topics 287 How Much Space Do I Have On My Partitions? You can use the "df" command. then you can consider deleting some of your log files in /var/log. See the logging page for a description of the log files and how you can use the "logrotate" command to help reduce their size.

IP and ARP can be found in the Introduction to Networking chapter. In the home environment. • Defines the electrical and physical characteristics of the network cabling and interfacing hardware TCP UDP 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network IP ARP 2 Link Ethernet ARP 1 Physical Ethernet . It consists of layers of sub-applications. The Seven OSI Layers Layer Name Description Application 7 Applicati on Presentat ion • The user interface to the application Telnet FTP Sendmail 6 • Converts data from one presentation format to another. email text entered into Outlook express being converted into SMTP mail formatted data.linuxhomenetworking.288 www. • Error control and timing of bits speeding down the wire between two directly connected devices. data is frequently sent using the MAC addresses of the NIC cards of the communicating devices. • Handles the routing of data between links that are not physically connected together. Each layer generally has "hooks" into the layer immediately above and below it so that the data can flow smoothly through the sub-applications designed to handle each layer. Your network address can stay the same if the NIC is replaced. • Manages continuing requests and responses between the applications at both ends over the various established connections. UDP. • Also allows you to select your own numbering scheme for the global network independent of the MAC address which in rare cases could also be duplicated. • Used as a means of not tying the address of the server to its MAC address. each building on the lower ones to provide a complete connectivity solution.com The OSI Networking Model The Open System Interconnection (OSI) protocol suite acts as a framework for designing network based applications. Correctly re-sequences data packets that arrive in the wrong order. Ensures that unacknowledged data is retransmitted. For example. • Also provides the option of having multiple addresses of the same networking protocol being assigned to the same MAC address. Detailed descriptions of TCP. • Manages the establishment and tearing down of a connection.

Appendix I : Miscellaneous Topics 289 TCP/IP Packet Format The TCP/IP packet contains an IP header followed by a TCP or UDP header followed by the TCP/UDP data. is the current version used by most devices on the Internet. Version 4. This value is decremented by each router through which the packet has passes. Version 6. The server sending the data usually sets the TTL to a value high enough to reach it's destination without being discarded. 17 = UDP Used to ensure that the header contents are error free. When the value reaches zero. Time to live. If this packet is part of a fragmented datagram. the packet is discarded by the router. Internet Header Length. For example. then this specifies where in the complete datagram the data in this packet should be inserted. The TTL decrement feature is used by routers as an additional precaution to prevent the packet from mistakenly being routed around the Internet in an infinite loop due to a routing error. 6 = TCP. Defines the type of protocol header to expect at the end of this header. IP Header TCP/UDP Header DATA Contents Of The IP Header Field IP Version Description The version of IP being used. MF Bit Fragment Offset TTL Protocol Header checksum Source Address Destination Address Indicates the IP address of the server sending the data Indicates the IP address of the server intended to receive the data . Total length of the IP header Total length of the IP packet IHL Total Length DF Bit Indicator to tell whether the data in the packet may be fragmented into smaller packets due to limitations of the communications line Indicator to tell whether this data in this packet is the last one of a stream of fragments. is a newer format which allows for a much more vast range of addresses.

290 www. Contains upper-layer information Acknowledgment Number Data Offset Flags Window Checksum Data Contents Of The UDP Header Field Source and Destination Port Length Checksum Description Identifies points at which upper-layer source and destination processes receive TCP services.linuxhomenetworking. . this field also can be used to identify an initial sequence number to be used in an upcoming transmission. and the FIN bit used for connection termination. Specifies the length of the UDP header and data Used to ensure that the header contents are error free. Contains the sequence number of the next byte of data the sender of the packet expects to receive. Length of the TCP header. Carries a variety of control information.com Contents Of The TCP Header Field Source and Destination Port Sequence Number Description Identifies points at which upper-layer source and destination processes receive TCP services. In the connection-establishment phase. including the SYN and ACK bits used for connection establishment. the buffer space available for incoming data) Used to ensure that the header contents are error free. Specifies the size of the sender's receive window (that is. Usually specifies the number assigned to the first byte of data in the current message.

Appendix I : Miscellaneous Topics 291 .

linuxhomenetworking.292 www.com .

..com ..330 © Peter Harrison.....................................................................294 Apache File Permissions Script ........................................................................... 293 Subnet Calculator Script ..........................................DHCP DSL Configuration.................................................................................................................com ............................................................................linuxhomenetworking................................................. Scripts and Configurations .........................329 Cisco PIX Firewall ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................com =========================================== Here we have samples of all the scripts used in the previous chapters...............mc File .............................................................................................................................................................. 293 Codes.........................305 DNS Zone File For my-site..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................304 IPtables NTP Server...322 Sendmail Sample /etc/aliases File .......305 IPtables Complex script .........................................................................293 Appendix II Codes...........319 Forward Zone File For A Home Network Using NAT .......................................... ...............................................320 Reverse Zone File For A Home Network Using NAT .........................................319 DNS Zone File For my-other-site..............................................303 IPtables FTP Server .................................................................................................................................................................................................. www................Static DSL Configuration...................................327 Cisco PIX Firewall .........324 Sendmail Sample /etc/mail/virtusertable File............................................. Scripts and Configurations =========================================== In This Chapter Appendix II......326 ICMP Codes.......................................296 Sendmail SPAM Filter Script .....................................................................323 Sendmail Sample /etc/mail/sendmail..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................297 IPtables FTP Client.............................................322 Sendmail Sample /etc/mail/local-host-names File ....................320 Sendmail Sample /etc/mail/access File .....................

192" fi if [ "$netmask" = "/25" ].255.Calculates subnets given an IP address and subnet mask # The subnet mask must begin with “255. the subnet mask and broadcast address of # the external interface # IPADDR=$1 netmask=$2 # # Convert "/" notation to dotted decimal # if [ "$natmask" = "/30" ].248" fi if [ "$netmask" = "/28" ]. then netmask="255.240" fi if [ "$netmask" = "/27" ].linuxhomenetworking. then netmask="255.224" fi if [ "$netmask" = "/26" ].255.294 www.255.255.255.255” or in # the range /24 to /30 # # Usage: # # subnet-calc.252" fi if [ "$netmask" = "/29" ].128" fi . then netmask="255.255.255.sh .255.255.255.255. then netmask="255.com Subnet Calculator Script #/bin/bash # # subnet-calc. then netmask="255.sh IP-address subnet-mask # # (c) SiliconValleyCCIE.com # # # Get the IP address. then netmask="255.255.255.

/ 's/\.255.//g'`" # # Get first three octets of the IP address # IPADDR_octet_1="`echo IPADDR_octet_2="`echo IPADDR_octet_3="`echo IPADDR_octet_4="`echo $IPADDR $IPADDR $IPADDR $IPADDR | | | | sed sed sed sed -e -e -e -e 's/\.$subnet_base SUBNET_BROADCAST=$IPADDR_octet_1.$IPADDR_octet_3. then subnet_base="0" else subnet_base=$[$IPADDR_octet_4/$subnet_size] subnet_base=$[$subnet_base*$subnet_size] fi SUBNET_BASE=$IPADDR_octet_1.$IPADDR_octet_2. Scripts and Configurations 295 if [ "$netmask" = "/24" ]./ 's/\.255.$IPADDR_octet_2.Appendix II : Codes.$IPADDR_octet_3.$[$subnet _base-1+$subnet_size] echo echo echo echo echo echo echo echo "IP Address : "$IPADDR "Network Base Address : "$SUBNET_BASE "Broadcast Address : "$SUBNET_BROADCAST "Subnet Mask "Subnet Size : "$netmask : "$subnet_size IP Addresses ./ 's/\.0" fi # # Get the last octet of the subnet mask # netmask_octet_4="`echo $netmask | sed -e 's/255./ /g' /g' /g' /g' | | | | awk awk awk awk '{print '{print '{print '{print $1}'`" $2}'`" $3}'`" $4}'`" # # Get the size of the subnet # subnet_size=$[256-$netmask_octet_4] # # Get the last octet of the network address # if [ "$netmask_octet_4" = "0" ]. then netmask="255.

[root@bigboy tmp] Here’s how it’s done: #!/bin/sh # # fix-www-perms.com # for i in `find $1` do if [ -d $i ] . then chmod 755 $i echo $i else chmod 644 $i echo $i fi done ../fix-www-perms..htm /home/www/webpages/file2.. .296 www..com Apache File Permissions Script The first argument of the script is the target directory and must have a trailing "/". The script will print out a list of all the files it’s modified to the screen.Recursively fixes file permissions in a www directory # so that Apache may serve the pages correctly # # (c) SiliconValleyCCIE.htm . [root@bigboy tmp]# ..sh /home/www/webpages/ /home/www/webpages/ /home/www/webpages/file1.. .sh .linuxhomenetworking.

The script will match on a partial address too.pl in your $HOME directory (default login directory) • Use the “chmod” command to make it executable [root@bigboy mailuser]# chmod 700 mail-filter. • You will have to go to www. Here’s how to install the script: • The script runs using the PERL scripting language which is installed by default on RedHat. You do not have to have an “@” sign in the configuration files’ entries. “FROM:” or “CC:”. Scripts and Configurations 297 Sendmail SPAM Filter Script One of the good things about having a Linux box at home is that you can create your own customized SPAM filter. Here is a summary of its operation: • This script is called mail-filter. The CPAN modules page also has a link on how to install the modules. • Mail-filter.pl file there. If you receive emails as part of mailing lists.org to download and install a variety of PERL modules beforehand. Here is a sample I’ve used at home for some time.forward file in your home directory with the following text: . • The first column has either the word “subject:” or “address:” and the second column has either a subject string (inclusive of spaces) or a single address entry. MIME-tools & Mail-Audit modules in that order.pl • Go to directory /etc/smrsh and create a logical link to the mail-filter. Look at this file from time to time as you may find yourself rejecting too much traffic which will require you to modify the configuration files.pl • Create a . o o o Click on the CPAN home page's "modules” link Click the "All Modules" listing and download and install the MailTools.log. • The script will match addresses in both the TO: and FROM: of the received email. • The script reads the “reject” file and rejects any matching emails. then it denies everything else.Appendix II : Codes. • The script is very tolerant of email addresses.reject lists all the mail to reject. • Place mail-filter. “BCC:” emails are therefore denied. [root@bigboy mailuser]# cd /etc/smrsh [root@bigboy smrsh]# ln –s /home/mailuser/ mail-filter. • The script will reject emails in which your email address doesn’t appear in the “TO:”. put the name of the mailing list in your “accept” file. File mail-filter.pl will log all accepted and denied emails in a file called mail-filter.pl • It uses two configuration files.cpan. Each file has two columns.accept lists all the mail to accept and file mailfilter. IO-Stringy. it then reads the accept file and accepts any matching emails.

forward file with the following line in it # #/bin/bash # | ~/mail-filter.pl • You should then be ready to go! The mail-filter.org/modules/01modules.cpan.com # # Reference pages # # http://search.cpan.org/writings/mail-audit.PERL Script # # by Peter Harrison © www. IO-Stringy.org/author/SIMON/Mail-Audit-2.html # # PERL modules needed from http://www.index.pl # use Mail::Audit.linuxhomenetworking.LinuxHomeNetworking.com subject: porn The mail-filter Script #!/usr/bin/perl # # # Mail-filter .298 www.html # # Need to install the following modules: # # MailTools.1/Audit.reject File address: spammer@spammer.pm # http://simon-cozens. MIME-tools & Mail-Audit in this order # # Need to have: # # a logical link to this file in /etc/smrsh # .com address: cnn subject: Alumni Association The mail-filter. # # Spam filter variables # .com #!/bin/bash | ~/mail-filter.accept File address: my-address@mysite.

$ITEM->cc(). chomp($FROM. $FILEPATH . "mail-filter. (). study $TO. $ITEM->from(). "$REJECT_FILE"). "".reject". sub Mail_Filter { my my my my %badsubjects %badaddresses %goodsubjects %goodaddresses = = = = ().log". study $SUBJECT. $ITEM->subject(). } } close (REJECT_FILE). . study $CC. $SUBJECT). &Mail_Filter.Appendix II : Codes. # # Read in the configuration files # open (REJECT_FILE. (). $CC. Scripts and Configurations 299 $FILEPATH = "/home/mailuser/". # # Get the bad subjects / address # if ($type =~ /subject/i){ $badsubjects{$value} = "$type". = $FILEPATH . "mail-filter. #################### Don't edit below here ################### $ITEM $FROM $TO $CC $SUBJECT $DATE $INBOX_LOG $ACCEPT_FILE $REJECT_FILE = = = = = = = = Mail::Audit->new. $type) = &Strip_Record($record). while(<REJECT_FILE>){ my $record = $_. exit. "mail-filter. } if ($type =~ /address/i){ $badaddresses{$value} = "$type". $FILEPATH . (). study $FROM.accept". $ITEM->to(). chomp($DATE = `date '+ %m/%d/%Y %H:%M:%S'`). my ($value. $TO.

my ($value.300 www.linuxhomenetworking. } # # Reject email to/from these addresses # foreach my $criteria (keys %badaddresses) { next unless ($TO =~ /$criteria/i) or ($CC =~ /$criteria/i) or ($FROM =~ /$criteria/i). # # Reject by subject # foreach my $criteria (keys %badsubjects) { next unless $SUBJECT =~ /$criteria/i. } # # Accept some subject lines # for my $criteria (keys %goodsubjects) { next unless $SUBJECT =~ /$criteria/i. while(<ACCEPT_FILE>){ my $record = $_. } if ($type =~ /address/i){ $goodaddresses{$value} = "$type". } } close (ACCEPT_FILE). $type) = &Strip_Record($record). } # # Accept emails to/from these addresses # for my $criteria (keys %goodaddresses) { . &Reject_Mail("yes"). # # Get the good subjects / address # if ($type =~ /subject/i){ $goodsubjects{$value} = "$type". &Reject_Mail("no"). &Reject_Mail("yes").com open (ACCEPT_FILE. "$ACCEPT_FILE").

$fields[1] =~ s/^\s*(. my @fields = split(/\:/. return ($person . # # Split out the fields in the record and strip out #leading/trailing white space # chomp $record. } .*?)\s*$/$1/. # # Log message receipt to file # if ($ok =~ /yes/i){ print LOG "REJECT $DATE To: $TO From: $FROM Subject: $SUBJECT\n". open (LOG. ">> $INBOX_LOG"). Scripts and Configurations 301 next unless ($TO =~ /$criteria/i) or ($CC =~ /$criteria/i) or ($FROM =~ /$criteria/i). } else{ return ($fields[1]. $domain) = split(/\@/. $domain. "address"). } # # Reject everything else # &Reject_Mail("yes"). &Reject_Mail("no"). "address"). } elsif ($fields[0] =~ /address/i){ if ($fields[1] =~ /\@/){ my ($person. } sub Strip_Record{ my $record = shift(@_). "subject")."\@" . # # Return the subjects / addresses # if ($fields[0] =~ /subject/i){ return ($fields[1]. $ITEM->reject. $fields[1]).$record).Appendix II : Codes. } } } sub Reject_Mail { my $ok = shift(@_).

linuxhomenetworking. } . exit.302 www. } close(LOG).com else{ print LOG "ACCEPT $DATE To: $TO From: $FROM Subject: $SUBJECT\n". $ITEM->accept.

RELATED -j ACCEPT . Scripts and Configurations 303 IPtables FTP Client # .Interface eth1 is the private network interface modprobe ip_conntrack_ftp #--------------------------------------------------------------# FTP connections from your Linux server # Outbound FTP requests on control connection (port 21) #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A -m state iptables -A -m state OUTPUT-o eth0 -p tcp --sport 1024:65535 --dport 21 \ --state NEW -j ACCEPT INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp --sport 21 --dport 1024:65535 \ --state ESTABLISHED.Appendix II : Codes.RELATED -j ACCEPT #--------------------------------------------------------------# FTP connections from your Linux server # Passive FTP data connection established from your Linux server #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A -m state iptables -A -m state OUTPUT -o eth0 -p tcp --dport 1024:65535 --sport 1024:65535 \ --state NEW -j ACCEPT INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp --sport 1024:65535 --dport 1024:65535 \ --state ESTABLISHED.Interface eth0 is the internet interface # .RELATED -j ACCEPT #=============================================================== #=============================================================== # Select one of the following two #=============================================================== #=============================================================== #--------------------------------------------------------------# FTP connections from your Linux server # Active FTP data connection established back from remote server #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A -m state iptables -A -m state INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp --sport 20 --dport 1024:65535 \ --state NEW -j ACCEPT OUTPUT -o eth0 -p tcp --dport 20 --sport 1024:65535 \ --state ESTABLISHED.

linuxhomenetworking.RELATED -j ACCEPT .com IPtables FTP Server # .304 www.RELATED -j ACCEPT #--------------------------------------------------------------# FTP connections to your Linux server # Passive FTP data connection established to your Linux server # from remote client #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A -m state iptables -A -m state INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp --sport 1024:65535 --dport 1024:65535 \ --state NEW -j ACCEPT OUTPUT -o eth0 -p tcp --dport 1024:65535 --sport 1024:65535 \ --state ESTABLISHED.Interface eth1 is the private network interface modprobe ip_conntrack_ftp #--------------------------------------------------------------# FTP connections to your Linux server # Inbound FTP requests on control connection (port 21) #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A -m state iptables -A -m state INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp --dport 21 --sport 1024:65535 \ --state NEW -j ACCEPT OUTPUT-o eth0 -p tcp --dport 1024:65535 --sport 21 \ --state ESTABLISHED.RELATED -j ACCEPT #=============================================================== #=============================================================== # Select one of the following two #=============================================================== #=============================================================== #--------------------------------------------------------------# FTP connections to your Linux server # Active FTP data connection established back to client from # your server #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A -m state iptables -A -m state OUTPUT -o eth0 -p tcp --sport 20 --dport 1024:65535 \ --state NEW -j ACCEPT INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp --dport 20 --sport 1024:65535 \ --state ESTABLISHED.Interface eth0 is the internet interface # .

158.1.101" forwarding and masquerading INTERNAL_NET="192.7.168.25" EXTERNAL_SUBNET_BASE="97.253.158.168.0" address EXTERNAL_SUBNET_BROADCAST="97.Interface eth1 is the private network interface iptables -A OUTPUT -o eth0 -p udp -m multiport --ports 123 \ -j ACCEPT iptables -A INPUT -i eth0 -p udp -m multiport --ports 123 \ -j ACCEPT IPtables Complex script #!/bin/bash # # DNS.0/24" firewall with pings WEBSERVER="192.253.158. mail. Scripts and Configurations 305 IPtables NTP Server # .255" address NOC_SUBNET="180.253.Interface eth0 is the internet interface # .168.1.Appendix II : Codes. and web servers running on a firewall used as \ # the Internet NAT gateway for a home network # modprobe ip_conntrack_ftp modprobe iptable_nat #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#= # # The variables in this section are site specific and should be # changed to match your network # #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#= EXTERNAL_INT="eth1" INTERNAL_INT="eth0" private network EXTERNAL_IP="97.0/24" address space # Internet-connected interface # Interface connected to the # your IP address # ISP network segment base # network segment broadcast # NOC subnet that monitors the # Test webserver for port # Protected internal network .

linuxhomenetworking.0.113" server # address of a remote time # address of a remote time # address of a remote time #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#= # # The variables below should not normally be changed as they # are not site specific # #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#= LOOPBACK="127.0/12" networks RESERVED_IP_10_SPACE="10.306 www.0.0.0.60.200.203.0/4" RESERVED_IP_FUTURE="240.0.0/8" RESERVED_IP_192_SPACE="192.0.0.0.0.38.com TIME_SERVER1="192.206" server TIME_SERVER3="207.0/5" use HIGH_PORTS="1024:65535" clients using servers # reserved loopback address range # class C private networks # RFC1918 172 space B private # RFC1918 10 space private # Multicast addresses # IP addresses reserved for future # High TCP/UDP ports used by #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#= # # Define the names of the user defined chains we'll be using # #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#= ADDITIONAL_CHAINS="INPUT-external OUTPUT-icmp-external local-tcp-client local-ntp-client valid-tcp-flags valid-source-address LOG-and-drop" OUTPUT-external \ INPUT-icmp-external \ remote-tcp-client \ remote-ntp-server \ established-connection \ valid-destination-address \ #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#= # # Prepare Chains .Clear and recreate existing chains prior to # adding rules to the chains # #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#= .0.16.6.0/8" networks RESERVED_IP_MULTICAST="224.127" server TIME_SERVER2="65.0/16" RESERVED_IP_172_SPACE="172.168.81.

then # The policy should be to drop it #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables iptables iptables iptables iptables --policy INPUT DROP --policy OUTPUT DROP --policy FORWARD DROP -t nat --policy POSTROUTING ACCEPT -t nat --policy PREROUTING ACCEPT #--------------------------------------------------------------# The loopback interface should accept all traffic #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT iptables -A OUTPUT -o lo -j ACCEPT #--------------------------------------------------------------# Re-create our user-defined chains #--------------------------------------------------------------for i in $ADDITIONAL_CHAINS.Appendix II : Codes. do iptables -N $i . Scripts and Configurations 307 #--------------------------------------------------------------# Delete all entries in the built-in tables. #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables iptables iptables iptables --flush -t filter --flush -t nat --flush -t mangle --flush #--------------------------------------------------------------# Delete all the user defined chains. # We'll recreate them in the next step #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables iptables iptables iptables --delete-chain -t filter --delete-chain -t nat --delete-chain -t mangle --delete-chain #--------------------------------------------------------------# If a packet doesn't match one of the built in chains.

Port 21 #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A local-tcp-client -p tcp \ -m multiport --dport 25.Port 113 # FTP control .Port 25 # SSH .com done #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# # # TCP Rules . initiated from local machine to # remote server #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A local-tcp-client -p tcp --dport $HIGH_PORTS \ --syn -m state --state NEW -j ACCEPT #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# # # TCP Rules .113 \ --syn -m state --state NEW -j ACCEPT #--------------------------------------------------------------# Passive FTP data.21.Remote machines initiating connections to # local server # # TCP responses from the local server are handled # by the established-connection chain # .308 www.22.Local machine initiating connections to a # remote server # # TCP responses from the remote server are handled # by the established-connection chain # #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# iptables -A OUTPUT-external -p tcp --sport $HIGH_PORTS \ -j local-tcp-client #--------------------------------------------------------------# Local client rules for: # # SMTP .linuxhomenetworking.Port 22 # AUTH (ident) .

110 \ -j ACCEPT #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# # # UDP Rules # #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# #--------------------------------------------------------------# NTP time client .21.25.Port 443 # SMTP .Port 22 # POP mail .Source and Destination port the same (123) #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A OUTPUT-external -p udp -m multiport --ports 123 \ -j local-ntp-client iptables -A INPUT-external -p udp -m multiport --ports 123 \ -j remote-ntp-server iptables -A local-ntp-client -p udp -d $TIME_SERVER1 \ -j ACCEPT iptables -A local-ntp-client -p udp -d $TIME_SERVER2 \ -j ACCEPT iptables -A local-ntp-client -p udp -d $TIME_SERVER3 \ .Appendix II : Codes.Port 53 # AUTH (ident) .22.53.Port 113 # FTP control .443.Port 25 # SSH .Port 80 # HTTPS .Port 21 #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A remote-tcp-client -p tcp -m state --state NEW \ -m multiport --dports 80.Port 110 # DNS . Scripts and Configurations 309 #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# iptables -A INPUT-external -p tcp --sport $HIGH_PORTS \ -j remote-tcp-client #--------------------------------------------------------------# Local server rules for: # # HTTP (www) .

linuxhomenetworking.310 www.com -j ACCEPT iptables -A remote-ntp-server -p udp -s $TIME_SERVER1 \ -j ACCEPT iptables -A remote-ntp-server -p udp -s $TIME_SERVER2 \ -j ACCEPT iptables -A remote-ntp-server -p udp -s $TIME_SERVER3 \ -j ACCEPT #--------------------------------------------------------------# DNS server to DNS server queries via UDP #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A OUTPUT-external -p udp -m multiport --ports 53 \ -j ACCEPT iptables -A INPUT-external -p udp -m multiport --ports 53 \ -j ACCEPT #--------------------------------------------------------------# Remote DNS clients querying local DNS server via UDP #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A INPUT-external -p udp --sport $HIGH_PORTS --dport 53 \ -j ACCEPT iptables -A OUTPUT-external -p udp --sport 53 --dport $HIGH_PORTS \ -j ACCEPT #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# # # Port forwarding statements # # (FORWARD statements related to ESTABLISHED and RELATED traffic # is covered in the CORE Chains section) # #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# #--------------------------------------------------------------# Allow port forwarding on port 8080 to port 80 on server $WEBSERVER #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -p tcp -i $EXTERNAL_INT -d $EXTERNAL_IP \ .

Scripts and Configurations 311 --dport 8080 --sport 1024:65535 -j DNAT --to $WEBSERVER:80 #--------------------------------------------------------------# After DNAT.Start #=# #=# #=# #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# # # Install the User-defined Chains on the built-in # INPUT and OUTPUT chains # . #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A FORWARD -p tcp -i $EXTERNAL_INT -o $INTERNAL_INT -d $WEBSERVER \ --dport 80 --sport 1024:65535 -m state --state NEW -j ACCEPT #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# # # Rules in the section below should not normally be changed # for most firewalls.Appendix II : Codes. They include not responding to packets with # the following bad characteristics: # # 1) Incorrect TCP flags in the header # 2) Attempts to connect or respond to bogus IP addresses # 3) Attempts to connect or respond to applications not suitable # for use over the Internet # # All the user defined chains are also tied to the built in # INPUT and OUTPUT chains in this section # #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# #=# #=# #=# CORE Chains . # Connections on port 80 to the target machine on the private # network must be allowed. the packets are routed via the filter table's FORWARD chain.

312 www.com #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# #--------------------------------------------------------------# Check TCP packets for invalid state flag combinations #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -j valid-tcp-flags iptables -A OUTPUT -p tcp -j valid-tcp-flags #--------------------------------------------------------------# Verify valid source and destination addresses for all packets #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables iptables iptables iptables -A -A -A -A INPUT -p ! tcp -j valid-source-address INPUT -p tcp --syn -j valid-source-address INPUT -j valid-destination-address OUTPUT -j valid-destination-address #--------------------------------------------------------------# Already established connections should be allowed #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A INPUT -j established-connection iptables -A OUTPUT -j established-connection #--------------------------------------------------------------# Start the protocol specific rules #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A INPUT -i $EXTERNAL_INT -d $EXTERNAL_IP -j INPUT-external iptables -A OUTPUT -o $EXTERNAL_INT -s $EXTERNAL_IP -j OUTPUT-external #--------------------------------------------------------------# Allow all bidirectional traffic from your firewall to the protected network #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A INPUT -j ACCEPT -p all -s $INTERNAL_NET -i $INTERNAL_INT iptables -A OUTPUT -j ACCEPT -p all -d $INTERNAL_NET -o $INTERNAL_INT #--------------------------------------------------------------# Allow masquerading # Enable routing by modifying the ip_forward /proc filesystem file #--------------------------------------------------------------- .linuxhomenetworking.

Scripts and Configurations 313 iptables -A POSTROUTING -t nat -o $EXTERNAL_INT -s $INTERNAL_NET \ -d 0/0 -j MASQUERADE echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward #--------------------------------------------------------------# Prior to masquerading. established and related connections # Allowed inbound : Established and related connections # # These statements handle both FORWARD-ing for both MASQUERADE # and port forwarding # #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A FORWARD -t filter -i $INTERNAL_INT -m state \ --state NEW.ESTABLISHED.RELATED -j ACCEPT iptables -A FORWARD -t filter -i $EXTERNAL_INT -m state \ --state ESTABLISHED. the packets are routed via the filter # table's FORWARD chain.Stop #=# #=# #=# #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# # # Check for incorrect TCP state flags # # # All state bits zeroed . # Allowed outbound: New.Appendix II : Codes. The default policy will also drop them #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A INPUT -j LOG-and-drop iptables -A OUTPUT -j LOG-and-drop #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# #=# #=# #=# CORE Chains .RELATED -j ACCEPT #--------------------------------------------------------------# Log all other packets.

0/16 -j DROP 192.314 www.com # FIN set ACK cleared # PSH set ACK cleared # URG set ACK cleared # SYN and FIN set # SYN and RST set # FIN and RST set # #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# iptables iptables iptables iptables iptables drop iptables drop iptables drop -A -A -A -A -A valid-tcp-flags valid-tcp-flags valid-tcp-flags valid-tcp-flags valid-tcp-flags -p -p -p -p -p tcp tcp tcp tcp tcp --tcp-flags --tcp-flags --tcp-flags --tcp-flags --tcp-flags ALL NONE -j LOG-and-drop ACK.linuxhomenetworking.RST -j LOG-and-A valid-tcp-flags -p tcp --tcp-flags FIN.255.FIN FIN -j LOG-and-drop ACK.0.0.FIN SYN.254.PSH PSH -j LOG-and-drop ACK.0/24 -j DROP $EXTERNAL_IP -j DROP iptables -A valid-destination-address -d $EXTERNAL_SUBNET_BASE -j DROP iptables -A valid-destination-address -d $EXTERNAL_SUBNET_BROADCAST -j DROP iptables -A valid-destination-address -d $RESERVED_IP_MULTICAST -j DROP .2.RST -j LOG-and- #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# # # Source and Destination Address Sanity Checks # # Drop packets from networks covered in RFC 1918 (private nets) # Drop packets from external interface IP # Drop directed broadcast packets # #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# iptables iptables iptables iptables iptables iptables iptables iptables iptables iptables iptables -A -A -A -A -A -A -A -A -A -A -A valid-source-address valid-source-address valid-source-address valid-source-address valid-source-address valid-source-address valid-source-address valid-source-address valid-source-address valid-source-address valid-source-address -s -s -s -s -s -s -s -d -s -s -s $RESERVED_IP_10_SPACE -j DROP $RESERVED_IP_172_SPACE -j DROP $RESERVED_IP_192_SPACE -j DROP $RESERVED_IP_MULTICAST -j DROP $RESERVED_IP_FUTURE -j DROP $LOOPBACK -j DROP 0.FIN -j LOG-and- -A valid-tcp-flags -p tcp --tcp-flags SYN.RST FIN.0.RST SYN.0.0/8 -j DROP 255.255.URG URG -j LOG-and-drop SYN.255 -j DROP 169.

Scripts and Configurations 315 #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# # # ICMP # #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# iptables -A INPUT-external -p icmp -j INPUT-icmp-external iptables -A OUTPUT-external -p icmp -j OUTPUT-icmp-external #--------------------------------------------------------------# Drop fragmented ICMP packets #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A INPUT-icmp-external --fragment -j LOG-and-drop iptables -A OUTPUT-icmp-external --fragment -j LOG-and-drop #--------------------------------------------------------------# Allow outbound pings #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A OUTPUT-icmp-external -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request \ -m state --state NEW -j ACCEPT iptables -A INPUT-icmp-external -p icmp --icmp-type echo-reply -j ACCEPT #--------------------------------------------------------------# Allow inbound pings from the NOC #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A INPUT-icmp-external -p icmp -s $NOC_SUBNET \ --icmp-type echo-request -m state --state NEW \ -j ACCEPT iptables -A OUTPUT-icmp-external -p icmp --icmp-type echo-reply \ -d $NOC_SUBNET -j ACCEPT #--------------------------------------------------------------# Accept the following ICMP Messages # # .Appendix II : Codes.Parameter problem # .Fragmentation needed # .Destination unreachable .Source quench # .Time exceeded # .

RELATED -j ACCEPT iptables -A established-connection -m state --state INVALID \ -j LOG-and-drop #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# # # OS supplied protection # #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# #--------------------------------------------------------------- .com #--------------------------------------------------------------iptables -A unreachable iptables -A ACCEPT iptables -A ACCEPT iptables -A ACCEPT iptables -A ACCEPT iptables -A -j ACCEPT iptables -A ACCEPT INPUT-icmp-external -p icmp --icmp-type destination-j ACCEPT INPUT-icmp-external -p icmp --icmp-type parameter-problem -j INPUT-icmp-external -p icmp --icmp-type time-exceeded -j INPUT-icmp-external -p icmp --icmp-type source-quench -j OUTPUT-icmp-external -p icmp --icmp-type source-quench -j OUTPUT-icmp-external -p icmp --icmp-type fragmentation-needed OUTPUT-icmp-external -p icmp --icmp-type parameter-problem -j #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# # # Log and drop chain # #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# iptables -A LOG-and-drop -j LOG --log-ip-options --log-tcp-options \ --log-level debug iptables -A LOG-and-drop -j DROP #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# # # Already ESTABLISHED connections accepted # #=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=#=# iptables -A established-connection -m state \ --state ESTABLISHED.linuxhomenetworking.316 www.

Respond to queries out # the same interface. Scripts and Configurations 317 # Disable routing triangulation. not another.Appendix II : Codes. Helps to maintain state # Also protects against IP spoofing #--------------------------------------------------------------echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/rp_filter #--------------------------------------------------------------# Enable logging of packets with malformed IP addresses #--------------------------------------------------------------echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/log_martians #--------------------------------------------------------------# Disable redirects #--------------------------------------------------------------echo 0 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/send_redirects #--------------------------------------------------------------# Disable source routed packets #--------------------------------------------------------------echo 0 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/accept_source_route #--------------------------------------------------------------# Disable acceptance of ICMP redirects #--------------------------------------------------------------echo 0 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/accept_redirects #--------------------------------------------------------------# Turn on protection from Denial of Service (DOS) attacks #--------------------------------------------------------------echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_syncookies #--------------------------------------------------------------# Disable responding to ping broadcasts #--------------------------------------------------------------echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts .

linuxhomenetworking.318 www.com exit 0 .

com . ( 200211151 .Appendix II : Codes. . refresh. serial.my-site. seconds 3600 ) . Zone file for my-other-site. seconds 3600 . retry.com.com. refresh. ( 200211152 . Inet Address of name server .com. seconds . seconds .26 www DNS Zone File For my-other-site. . $TTL 3D @ IN SOA www. todays date + todays serial # 3600 . hostmaster.com . seconds 3600 . minimum. minimum. seconds 3600 . . . Primary Mail Exchanger A A CNAME 127. localhost www mail MX 10 mail . expire.0. seconds 3600 .253. Scripts and Configurations 319 DNS Zone File For my-site. .0.my-othersite. The full zone file .158.com. hostmaster. serial. NS www . NS www . The full zone file .my-site.1 97.my-other-site. seconds 3600 ) . .com.com . Inet Address of name server my-site. todays date + todays serial # 3600 .com . Zone file for my-site. retry. $TTL 3D @ IN SOA www. expire.

. .1. Primary Mail Exchanger A A 127.100 by one of two aliases depending on the role you wish it to play. .com my-other-site.com.com in which we can also access bigboy as bigboy.1. .0.168.168.linuxhomenetworking.my-site-internal.1. you could access it as mail. . localhost A 127. .26 Forward Zone File For A Home Network Using NAT Here is an example for a zone file for my-site-internal.my-site.168.my-site-internal.168.com. localhost www MX 10 mail.1.my-site-internal.100 smallfry A 192.158.1 97.1 bigboy A 192.com. serial# 3600 . retry.168.my-siteinternal.100. refresh.com. For mail.320 www. minimum.1 www mail CNAME CNAME bigboy bigboy Reverse Zone File For A Home Network Using NAT . seconds 3600 .com which maps to 192.com and for web applications you could access it as www.102 firewall A 192. Zone file for my-site-internal. The full zone file .my-site-internal.com.com .0. seconds 3600 ) .com. .my-site-internal. ( 200211152 . As server bigboy is also a mail and web server we have also added CNAMEs so that you can access 192. seconds 3600 . expire. $TTL 3D @ IN SOA www.253. Inet Address of name server . seconds . hostmaster.0.1. There is also an entry for one of the home PCs named smallfry which you can now additionally access as smallfry. NS www .0.

my-site-internal.com. retry.168. seconds . NS www . expire. $TTL 3D @ IN SOA www. .my-site-internal.my-site-internal.com. seconds 1D ) .1. Zone file for 192.1. refresh. smallfry. serial number 8H . Scripts and Configurations 321 You can also create a reverse zone file for the home network on the 192. Now you’ll get correct responses for both forward and reverse lookups using the host or nslookup commands. ( 200210023 .com. 100 102 1 PTR PTR PTR bigboy. .my-site-internal. minimum.Appendix II : Codes.168. hostmaster. firewall.com.com. Inet Address . . seconds 4W . seconds 2H .my-site-internal.x .X network using the same principles you used for a public network.

these MUST be present. >>>>>>>>>> >> NOTE >> >>>>>>>>>> The program "newaliases" must be run after this file is updated for any changes to show through to sendmail. bin: root daemon: root adm: root lp: root sync: root shutdown: root halt: root ..168 RELAY Sendmail Sample /etc/aliases File # # # # # # # # # # @(#)aliases 8.localdomain RELAY localhost RELAY 127.linuxhomenetworking. but WILL be visible over networks or from /bin/mail.2 (Berkeley) 3/5/94 Aliases in this file will NOT be expanded in the header from Mail.1 RELAY # # Relay messages from the local subnet 192.cf file for a description # of the format of this file. mailer-daemon: postmaster postmaster: root # General redirections for pseudo accounts.0. # Basic system aliases -.com Sendmail Sample /etc/mail/access File # Check the /usr/share/doc/sendmail/README. # # by default we allow relaying from localhost.322 www..cf is part of the sendmail-doc # package.0. (search for access_db in that file) # The /usr/share/doc/sendmail/README. localhost.

Appendix II : Codes.com www.my-site.com . Scripts and Configurations 323 mail: news: uucp: operator: games: gopher: ftp: nobody: apache: named: xfs: gdm: mailnull: postgres: squid: rpcuser: root rpc: ingres: system: toor: manager: root dumper: abuse: newsadm: news newsadmin: usenet: ftpadm: ftpadmin: ftp-adm: ftp ftp-admin: root root root root root root root root root root root root root root root root root root root root root news news ftp ftp ftp # trap decode to catch security attacks decode: root # Person who should get root's mail root: t689ndtw@my-site.com Sendmail Sample /etc/mail/local-host-names File # local-host-names .include all aliases for your machine here.my-site. # my-site.com mail.

`/usr/share/ssl/certs/sendmail.my-other-site.com ns.novrfy.com mail.crt') dnl define(`confSERVER_CERT'.324 www.my-other-site. `2000000')dnl define(`confUSERDB_SPEC'.com # my-other-site.mc > /etc/mail/sendmail.`/usr/share/ssl/certs/ca-bundle.my-other-site.`/usr/bin/procmail')dnl define(`ALIAS_FILE'. `/etc/mail/statistics')dnl define(`UUCP_MAILER_MAX'.`/usr/share/ssl/certs') dnl define(`confCACERT'.m4') VERSIONID(`linux setup for Red Hat Linux')dnl OSTYPE(`linux') dnl dnl Uncomment and edit the following line if your mail needs to be sent out dnl through an external mail server: dnl dnl define(`SMART_HOST'.my-site.restrictqrun')dnl define(`confAUTH_OPTIONS'.com Sendmail Sample /etc/mail/sendmail.com ns.true)dnl define(`confDONT_PROBE_INTERFACES'. `/etc/aliases')dnl dnl define(`STATUS_FILE'. `A')dnl dnl TRUST_AUTH_MECH(`EXTERNAL DIGEST-MD5 CRAM-MD5 LOGIN PLAIN')dnl dnl define(`confAUTH_MECHANISMS'.db')dnl define(`confPRIVACY_FLAGS'.`/usr/share/ssl/certs/sendmail.cf dnl include(`/usr/share/sendmail-cf/m4/cf.mc File divert(-1) dnl This is the sendmail macro config file.`smtp.linuxhomenetworking.pem') . `/etc/mail/userdb.your. `authwarnings.pem') dnl define(`confSERVER_KEY'. `1m')dnl define(`confTRY_NULL_MX_LIST'.com www.noexpn. `EXTERNAL GSSAPI DIGEST-MD5 CRAM-MD5 LOGIN PLAIN')dnl dnl define(`confCACERT_PATH'.cf by running the following command: dnl dnl m4 /etc/mail/sendmail.``8:12'')dnl undefine(`UUCP_RELAY')dnl undefine(`BITNET_RELAY')dnl dnl define(`confAUTO_REBUILD')dnl define(`confTO_CONNECT'.true)dnl define(`PROCMAIL_MAILER_PATH'.provider') define(`confDEF_USER_ID'. dnl you need the sendmail-cf rpm installed and then have to generate a dnl new /etc/mail/sendmail. If you make changes to this file.

0. `4h')dnl dnl define(`confTO_QUEUERETURN'.1 dnl and not on any other network devices. Name=MTA') dnl NOTE: binding both IPv4 and IPv6 daemon to the same port requires dnl a kernel patch dnl DAEMON_OPTIONS(`port=smtp. FEATURE(local_procmail.g. the user runs over his quota.`hash -T<TMPF> -o /etc/mail/access. Scripts and Configurations 325 dnl define(`confTO_QUEUEWARN'.db')dnl FEATURE(`virtusertable'. `18')dnl define(`confTO_IDENT'.Addr=::1. Family=inet6') dnl We strongly recommend to comment this one out if you want to protect dnl yourself from spam.`hash -o /etc/mail/virtusertable.db')dnl FEATURE(`blacklist_recipients')dnl dnl dnl dnl ***** Customised section 1 start ***** dnl dnl FEATURE(always_add_domain)dnl FEATURE(`masquerade_entire_domain')dnl FEATURE(`masquerade_envelope')dnl FEATURE(`allmasquerade')dnl FEATURE(delay_checks)dnl dnl FEATURE(genericstable.1.0.`dnl')dnl FEATURE(`smrsh'.`hash -o /etc/mail/mailertable.`'. `12')dnl dnl define(`confREFUSE_LA'. dnl FEATURE(`accept_unresolvable_domains')dnl dnl FEATURE(`relay_based_on_MX')dnl .Addr=127. `hash -o /etc/mail/genericstable')dnl dnl GENERICS_DOMAIN_FILE(`/etc/mail/genericstable')dnl dnl dnl dnl ***** Customised section 1 end ***** dnl dnl dnl EXPOSED_USER(`root')dnl dnl This changes sendmail to only listen on the loopback device 127.db')dnl FEATURE(redirect)dnl FEATURE(always_add_domain)dnl FEATURE(use_cw_file)dnl FEATURE(use_ct_file)dnl dnl The '-t' option will retry delivery if e.`/usr/sbin/smrsh')dnl FEATURE(`mailertable'.0.0. `5d')dnl dnl define(`confQUEUE_LA'. `0')dnl dnl FEATURE(delay_checks)dnl FEATURE(`no_default_msa'. the laptop and users on computers that do dnl not have 24x7 DNS do need this. dnl DAEMON_OPTIONS(`Port=smtp. Comment this out if you want dnl to accept email over the network. Name=MTA-v6. However.`procmail -t -Y -a $h -d $u')dnl FEATURE(`access_db'.Appendix II : Codes.

localdomain dnl dnl dnl ***** Customised section 2 start ***** dnl dnl define(`confPRIVACY_FLAGS'.com paul@my-site.com error:nouser User unknown error:nouser User unknown paul paul paul .16384)dnl dnl MASQUERADE_AS(`my-site.linuxhomenetworking.Changes login message define(`confMAX_HEADERS_LENGTH'.com t689ndtw@my-site.326 www.com paul@my-other-site.com)dnl (for local machine) dnl dnl dnl ***** Customised section 2 end ***** dnl dnl Sendmail Sample /etc/mail/virtusertable File @my-other-site.')dnl (for local machine) MASQUERADE_DOMAIN(`my-site. `$j server ready at $b')dnl .com MAILER(smtp)dnl MAILER(procmail)dnl dnl Cwlocalhost.com @my-site.`goaway')dnl .com.')dnl (for everyone else) MASQUERADE_AS(my-site.Limits command usage define(`confSMTP_LOGIN_MSG'.com.

The sender is using a Type of Service (TOS) that is not available through this router for that specific network. indicating the host is not available at this time Protocol Unreachable The protocol defined in IP header cannot be forwarded. Port Unreachable The sending device does not support the port number you are trying to reach Fragmentation Needed and Don't The router needs to fragment the packet to forward it across Fragment was Set a link that supports a smaller maximum transmission unit (MTU ) size. However. Source Host Isolated Communication with Destination Network is Administratively Prohibited Communication with Destination Host is Administratively Prohibited Destination Network Unreachable for Type of Service Destination Host Unreachable for Type of Service Communication Administratively Prohibited Host Precedence Violation 5 ICMP sender (router) has been configured to not forward packets from source (the old electronic pink slip). indicating this network may never have been an available. using Flash Override precedence). Dynamically adds a network entry in original sender's routing tables. ICMP sender is not available for communications at this time. application set the Don't Fragment bit. Precedence value defined in sender's original IP header is not allowed (for example. ICMP sender (router) has been configured to block access to the desired destination network. indicating the host may never have been available on connected network. . Redirect Datagram for the Host ICMP sender (router) is not the best way to get to the desired host. Scripts and Configurations 327 ICMP Codes Type 3 Description Destination Unreachable Codes Net Unreachable The sending device knows about the network but believes it is not available at this time. Host Unreachable The sending devices knows about host but doesn't get ARP reply. Redirect Codes Redirect Datagram for the Network ICMP sender (router) is not the best way to get to the (or subnet) desired network. Reply contains IP address of best router to destination. Reply contains IP address of best router to destination. Perhaps the network is too far away through the known route. Destination Network Unknown ICMP sender does not have a route entry for the destination network.Appendix II : Codes. Destination Host Unknown ICMP sender does not have a host entry. Source Route Failed ICMP sender can't use the strict or loose source routing path specified in the original packet. Name ICMP sender (router) has been configured to block access to the desired destination host. The sender is using a Type of Service (TOS) that is not available through this router for that specific host. Dynamically adds a host entry in original sender's route tables.

Redirect Datagram for the Type of ICMP sender (router) does not offer a path to the Service and Host destination host using the TOS requested. Time Exceeded Codes Time to Live exceeded in Transit ICMP sender (router) indicates that originator's packet arrived with a Time To Live (TTL) of 1. Missing a Required Option ICMP sender expected some additional information in the Option field of the original packet. Fragment Reassembly Time ICMP sender (destination host) did not receive all fragment Exceeded parts before the expiration (in seconds of holding time) of the TTL value of the first fragment received.com Type 6 11 12 Name Description Redirect Datagram for Type of the ICMP sender (router) does not offer a path to the Service and Network destination network using the TOS requested.linuxhomenetworking. Bad Length Original packet structure had an invalid length. Alternate Host Address Codes Alternate Address for Host Reply that indicates another host address should be used for the desired service. Dynamically adds a network entry in original sender's route tables.328 www. Parameter Problem Codes Pointer indicates the error Error is defined in greater detail within the ICMP packet. Should redirect application to another host. . Routers cannot decrement the TTL value to 0 and forward the packet. Dynamically adds a host entry in original sender's route tables.

255.0 0. Don't forget to put it back.255 0 0 ! ! Apply an access list entry to allow www (TCP Port 80)traffic in ! access-group inbound in interface outside access-list inbound permit tcp any any eq www ! ! Enable SNMP queries from 192.DHCP DSL Configuration ! ! NAT Setup ! global (outside) 1 interface nat (inside) 1 0.168.1.100.0 0 0 ! ! Port forwarding setup.0.100 snmp-server community password ! ! DSL setup using a generic group called "ISP".168.0.168. or else you'll ! never get your default route back ! ip address outside pppoe setroute .outside) tcp interface www 192.100 www netmask 255. Scripts and Configurations 329 Cisco PIX Firewall .0.255.Appendix II : Codes.100 ! (Linux webserver) ! static (inside.1.168. Internet interface to use the PPPOE protocol ! to get it's IP address and default route. The set route command ! is very important. Substitute "password" ! with the real SNMP string (Optional) ! snmp-server host inside 192.1. Forward all www traffic to 192. Cisco suggests you remove it when troubleshooting ! getting your IP address. ! Substitute your DSL username for "myusername" and your ! password for "*********" ! vpdn group ISP request dialout pppoe vpdn group ISP localname myusername vpdn group ISP ppp authentication pap vpdn username myusername password ********* ! ! Set up the outside.1.0.

253.255.168.26 access-list inbound permit udp any host 97.home.253.26 access-list inbound permit tcp any host 97.253.253.158.com ip address inside 192.2(2) nameif ethernet0 outside security0 nameif ethernet1 inside security100 enable password sde0sdD0sGz09COjx encrypted passwd sde0sdD0sGz09COjx encrypted hostname aquapix domain-name stcla1.158.330 www.253.linuxhomenetworking.1.com fixup protocol ftp 21 fixup protocol http 80 fixup protocol h323 h225 1720 fixup protocol h323 ras 1718-1719 fixup protocol ils 389 fixup protocol rsh 514 fixup protocol rtsp 554 fixup protocol smtp 25 fixup protocol sqlnet 1521 fixup protocol sip 5060 fixup protocol skinny 2000 names access-list inbound permit icmp any any access-list inbound permit tcp any host 97.100 interface ethernet0 10baset interface ethernet1 10full icmp deny any outside 2002 eq eq eq eq eq www 222 domain domain smtp .26 access-list inbound permit tcp any host 97.Static DSL Configuration : Saved : Written by enable_15 at 22:33:57.158.0 ! ! Setup DHCP autoconfiguration for the outside interface ! dhcpd auto_config outside Cisco PIX Firewall .1 255.26 pager lines 25 logging on logging timestamp logging trap warnings logging history warnings logging facility 22 logging host inside 192.158.168.sfba.158.26 access-list inbound permit tcp any host 97.1.255.601 UTC Sat Nov 23 PIX Version 6.

255.101 netmask 255.1.25 255.1.168.0.0 0.0 255.Appendix II : Codes.0.0.0.255.120.0 filter activex 80 0.0.1 255.255.255 0 0 access-group inbound in interface outside route outside 0.1.168.1.0 255.0.0 0.168.0.0 0.168.255.0.0.255.1.0 0.253.0 255.100 source inside http server enable http 192.1.0 ip audit info action alarm ip audit attack action alarm pdm logging informational 100 pdm history enable arp timeout 14400 global (outside) 1 interface nat (inside) 1 192.96 255.0.1.99 netmask 255.1.255.20-192.158.0 inside snmp-server host inside 192.0.168.0.255.0 inside telnet timeout 15 ssh 192.168.0 0.168.255.255.1.100 /aquapix-confg floodguard enable no sysopt route dnat telnet 192.0.168.158.0.outside) 97.1.110 1 timeout xlate 0:05:00 timeout conn 1:00:00 half-closed 0:10:00 udp 0:02:00 rpc 0:10:00 h323 0:05:00 sip 0:30:00 sip_media 0:02:00 timeout uauth 0:05:00 absolute aaa-server TACACS+ protocol tacacs+ aaa-server RADIUS protocol radius aaa-server LOCAL protocol local filter java 80 0.255.158.1.168.0 0.255.0. Scripts and Configurations 331 mtu outside 1500 mtu inside 1500 ip address outside 97.0 67.255.158.0.253.28 192.0.255.outside) 97.168.255.0 0.0.255.outside) 97.0.168.26 192.221.255 0 0 static (inside.0.100 no snmp-server location no snmp-server contact snmp-server community simiya2002 snmp-server enable traps tftp-server inside 192.253.100 netmask 255.253.1.248 0 0 static (inside.0 ntp server 192.255.255.1.255.27 192.168.248 ip address inside 192.255 0 0 static (inside.30 inside dhcpd lease 3600 dhcpd ping_timeout 750 dhcpd auto_config outside terminal width 80 Cryptochecksum:3af43873d35d6f0651f8c999180c2342 .0 inside ssh timeout 15 dhcpd address 192.168.

332 www.com : end .linuxhomenetworking.

com =========================================== An informal listing of some of the sites I visited to create this manual.iptables Configuration General Home Networking Resource Pages SSH Servers and SSH Clients The Windows SCP client called WinSCP FTP Server and FTP Clients DHCP Server Apache Web Server Software Sendmail Mail Configuration Dynamic DNS . .Linux as a Windows File Server General Linux Resource Pages Disk Partitioning Network Monitoring My Other Sites © Peter Harrison.linuxhomenetworking.Hosting Your Website at Home Static DNS NTP Server POP Mail Server Samba . www.333 Appendix III Bibliography =========================================== In This Chapter Appendix III Bibliography Wireless Linux Cisco Router Configuration Examples Cisco PIX Firewall Configuration Examples Netfilter .

cisco.334 www.Configuring IPSec Network Security Cisco .com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/iaabu/pix/pix_62/config/pixclnt.com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/ps1835/products_configuration_guide_chapt er09186a00800ca7b1.saragossa.com/personal/Jean_Tourrilhes/Linux/ http://www.com/en/US/products/hw/routers/ps221/prod_configuration_examples_list.nc.com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/ps1835/products_configuration_guide_chapt er09186a00800ca7b1.linux-wlan.Configuring IOS IPSec Network Security • Cisco PIX Firewall Configuration Examples Cisco Systems • • http://www.cisco.com http://www.cisco.html http://www..com/en/US/products/hw/routers/ps380/prod_configuration_examples_list.cisco.htm Configuring Cisco PIX firewalls for DHCP .html http://www.shtml http://linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/Wireless-HOWTO http://www.linuxhomenetworking.unixguru.com http://www..cisco.cisco.org/ http://prism2.html Configuring Cisco 800 series routers Configuring 1700 / 2600 / 3600 series routers Cisco .html http://www.us The LDP Wireless LAN Resources for Linux The drivers are here.hp. RPM versions of the drivers can be found here Cisco Router Configuration Examples Cisco Systems • • • • http://www.raleigh.hpl.com Wireless Linux A good reference page (Has GUI screens for PCMCIA type cards) • • • • • http://www.net/LinuxG3/ls-wlan.cisco.

Configuring IPSec Network Security • Cisco .com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/ps1835/products_configuration_guide_chapt er09186a00800ca7b1.cisco.com/ SecureCRT homepage (Purchase Required) .chiark.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/iaabu/pix/pix_62/cmdref/gl.ht ml http://www.com/en/US/products/hw/vpndevc/ps2030/prod_configuration_examples_list.cisco.com/oct.Appendix III : Bibliography 335 Cisco PIX 500 series configuration guides • http://www.netfilter.org/HOWTO/Net-HOWTO/ http://www.org/documentation/tutorials/blueflux/iptables-tutorial.tldp.cisco.cisco.html http://www.html Linux Networking-HOWTO http://www.html#xtocid3 http://www.tldp.htm http://www.html http://www.com/en/US/products/sw/secursw/ps2120/products_configuration_guide_chapt er09186a00800eb72a.org/assignments/port-numbers ICMP codes listing TCP and UDP port assignments SSH Servers and SSH Clients PuTTY homepage (Free) • • http://www.vandyke.org/HOWTO/Networking-Overview-HOWTO.nwconnection.org.Configuring PIX IPSec Network Security • Cisco PIX error messages • • Configuring Cisco PIX logging parameters Netfilter .greenend.uk/~sgtatham/putty/ http://www.99/icmp09/code.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/iaabu/pix/pix_sw/v_62/syslog/index.iptables Configuration Netfilter iptables HOWTO tutorial site • http://www.iana.htm#xtocid15 Cisco .html General Home Networking Resource Pages Linux networking HOWTO • • • • • http://www.

apacheweek.com/documents/s=2426/uni1018361705067/0204e.0-Manual/custom-guide/s1-dhcp-configuringserver.html Good page on how to stop SPAM with sendmail .com/features/vhost Apache week's description of how to do virtual hosting Sendmail Mail Configuration Good sendmail quick setup guide • • http://www.brettglass.com/spam/paper.linuxhomenetworking.html http://www.com/2000-04/networknirvana_05.linux-mag.html Linux Magazine's detailed guide • Apache Web Server Software Apache's documents on setting up virtual hosts • • http://httpd.html http://www.neilgunton.com The Windows SCP client called WinSCP • http://winscp.com/network_howto/part3/ http://www.cz/eng/ FTP Server and FTP Clients A good site on how to install one of the many Windows GUI FTP clients • • Zen and the Art of FTP: An FTP Tutorial http://www.336 www.com/docs/manuals/linux/RHL-8.redhat.htm Perl Script to do Automatic FTP File Copies to Update Your Website DHCP Server RedHat's guide to configuring DHCP • http://www.org/docs/vhosts/examples.apache.vse.unixreview.

Hosting Your Website at Home What is Dynamic DNS (DDNS)? • • • • • http://www.org .freebsdsystems.DDNS Provider Ez-ipupdate DDNS Update Script DDclient DDNS Update Script Static DNS What is DNS? • • http://www.html http://www.dyndns. Mirrored here.technopagan.DDNS Provider dynDNS.minidns.org/dynamic/ http://www.com/handbook/sendmail. MiniDNS.html http://www.net http://www.org/dynamic/ http://www.html .org http://gusnet.com/docs/manuals/linux/RHL-8.sendmail.technopagan.html Masquerading explanations Explanation on the difference between email headers and envelopes RedHat's recommendations for configuring sendmail Dynamic DNS .Appendix III : Bibliography 337 Some more was found here • • • • http://www.net .udel.tldp.redhat.0-Manual/ref-guide/s1-email-sendmail.eecis.com/permanentEmailAddress.edu/~mills/ntp/servers.hml http://www.primemail.org/m4/features.cx/proj/ez-ipupdate/ See the README for more information.org/HOWTO/DNS-HOWTO.html All you ever need to know about setting up DNS for a home / SOHO environment NTP Server NTP Configurations • http://www.

html http://www.org.html http://unix.html POP server compilation and configuration details Samba .edu/davidrl/samba.com/community/articles/security/v1.in/pipermail/plug-mail/2002-June/004274.linuxpowered.mandrakeuser.html The Unoffical Samba HOWTO.org/samba/ftp/docs/htmldocs/Samba-PDC-HOWTO.linux.de/howtos/html/NET-3-HOWTO.org/docs/connect/csamba6.com/~jemorrow/samba/implementation. by David Lechnyr Simple Windows Workgroup Networking Tutorial SAMBA organization's description of creating a PDC Mandrake's resource page on Samba PDCs Sharing a Windows hard drive from a Linux box (Windows steps to do this) Sharing a Windows hard drive from a Linux box (Linux steps to do this) General Linux Resource Pages Text Terminal HOWTO • http://www.about.htm A very comprehensive guide to sudo .338 www.html http://playstation2-linux.rosko.linuxhomenetworking.washington.edu/imap/ http://www.uoregon.html http://www.uni-bayreuth.Linux as a Windows File Server The Samba Project • • • • • • • http://www.com/archive/howto/Text-Terminal-HOWTO.openna.com/library/weekly/aa102500c.html#toc14 Complete Linux Networking HOWTO http://www.html http://plug.azstarnet.samba.org http://hr.html http://us6.net/rosko/howto/en/mini/Automount.samba.com/download/cfyc/HOWTO_setup_samba.3-xml/imapop.com POP Mail Server From the creators of the default Redhat POP server • • http://www.html Automount HOWTO with FAQs • • http://home.

org My Other Sites Simiya .Appendix III : Bibliography 339 Disk Partitioning • http://www.Caribbean Art and Photos • Simiya .org.html Network Monitoring The MRTG homepage • http://www.mrtg.au/tips/disk-partitioning.linuxsa.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful