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Development of a new non-destructive testing technique for quantitative evaluations of delamination defects in concrete structures based on phase delay measurement using lock-in thermography
Takahide Sakagami *, Shiro Kubo
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Systems, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
Abstract A new quantitative NDT technique for delamination defects in concrete structures was developed based on the phase delay measurement using a lock-in infrared thermography under the application of periodical heating. It was found that the location and size of the defect can be estimated from the contrast change and that the depth can be estimated from the relationship between phase delay and heating period. Ó 2002 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.
Keywords: Lock-in thermography; Phase delay; Thermal insulation; Delamination defect; Concrete structure
1. Introduction The number of accidents caused by delaminated concrete blocks in aging concrete structures such as tunnels and bridges constructed in the 1960s has been increasing in Japan. Conventional thermographic NDT techniques based on the steady-state temperature measurement have been successfully applied for the detection and shape measurement of delamination defects in concrete structures . However the conventional thermographic NDT techniques cannot be applied for the quantitative measurement of the defect depth. Thermographic NDT techniques have been receiving increasing attention as one of the eﬀective NDT techniques,
because they are non-contact, remote sensing, time-saving and cost-saving techniques. The present authors have been examining the applicability of the lock-in infrared thermography for the NDT of cracks, delamination defects and material loss defects [2,3]. In this research, a new quantitative non-destructive testing technique for delamination defects in concrete structures was developed based on the phase delay measurement using a lock-in infrared thermography under the application of periodical heating. 2. Lock-in thermographic NDT 2.1. Basic principles For the detection of delamination defects, thermographic NDT technique, based on the thermal
1350-4495/02/$ - see front matter Ó 2002 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. PII: S 1 3 5 0 - 4 4 9 5 ( 0 2 ) 0 0 1 5 7 - 3
Output power from each quartz lamp was adjusted so that the surface of concrete specimen was uniformly heated. 2. and this makes the phase diﬀerence between the temperature changes observed above delamination defects and those observed on sound area. the surface temperature shows a periodical change in the same frequency as that of the applied heat source. The lock-in thermography designed for thermoelastic stress measurement was employed.2. Periodical heating was conducted by alternatively switching the lamp heaters. 1. . is usually employed. Kubo / Infrared Physics & Technology 43 (2002) 311–316 insulation caused by defects. in which infrared data captured during a half-cooling cycle were Fig. Schematic of lock-in thermographic NDT system. Considering the ﬁeld tests of concrete structures. Sakagami. it is required to generate an out-of-plane heat ﬂow and to measure temperature changes caused by the insulation of the outof-plane heat ﬂow by the delamination defects. The lock-in thermography technique was developed based on the thermographic NDT using thermal insulation method. At the ﬁeld test of the large structures an oil-ﬁred heater was employed instead of the quartz lamp heater. no ﬂat black paint coating was made on the objective surface. and this results in the outof-plane direction thermal wave.312 T. which controlled 12 quartz lamps via heater control relay. The photograph and speciﬁcations of the employed oil-ﬁred heater is shown in Fig. A halfcycle lock-in processing algorism. Sinusoidal reference signal for the lock-in measurement was generated in the computer and transferred to the lock-in heater control unit. Under the application of this thermal wave. For the detection of delamination defects. Periodically modulated heating generates an outof-plane heat ﬂow. and transferred to the computer with lock-in data processing algorism via image capture board. Experimental systems A schematic illustration of the lock-in thermographic NDT system developed for the labora- tory test using concrete block specimen is shown in Fig. 1. Infrared radiation data from the surface of the specimen were measured by the infrared camera. Measured infrared data were inﬂuenced by the infrared energy from the heater reﬂected at the objective surface. 2. according to the reference signal. which propagates from the surface to the inside of the body. S. Periodical change of the surface temperature is aﬀected by the thermal insulation eﬀect of the delamination defects.
which had a width of 1 m. the defects of 3 cm in depth were clearly identiﬁed under the heating period of 35 min. on the other hand. was then set from 1:67 Â 10À3 to 2:78 Â 10À4 Hz. which were set from 10 to 60 min with 5 min intervals. was developed to avoid this problem. Concrete block specimen with artiﬁcial delamination defects. Phase-delay distribution was calculated from the in-phase and out-of-phase data. Photograph and speciﬁcations of the employed oil-ﬁred heater. It was found that the location and size of the delamination defects can be determined by the area of contrast change in the phase delay images. In-phase and out-of-phase temperature amplitude images were taken by the lock-in thermography. It was also found in Fig.T. 5 shows a phase delay image taken for side B of the specimen under the heating period of 40 min. It is found in the ﬁgure that the defects of 10 cm in depth cannot be detected. processed as eﬀective data.3 m. Sakagami. Measurement of artiﬁcial delamination defects Experimental studies were made on the applicability to the detection of artiﬁcial delamination defects in a concrete block specimen. Considering the heating period which is used at the ﬁeld test and is long enough to make contrast change in the phase delay image. This implies that there is an optimal heating period for detecting a delamination defect. which was reciprocal of the heating period. since the phase delay images were hardly inﬂuenced by the non-uniformity of heating and emissivity. Square shaped polystyrene foam sheets (10 Â 10 cm2 ) in diﬀerent thickness were embedded in the specimen. 3. Fig. 4 that the defects of 2 cm in depth were clearly identiﬁed under the heating period of 15 min. depth d and thickness t of the defects are shown in Fig. a height of 1 m and a depth of 0. . 4 shows phase delay images taken for side A of the specimen under the heating periods of 15 and 35 min. The contrast changes at the defects were clearly observed compared with those in conventional thermal images. Kubo / Infrared Physics & Technology 43 (2002) 311–316 313 Fig. 3. it is adequate to set the limitation of the detectable defect depth at 5 cm. Fig. Location. 2. 3. S. Lock-in measurements were carried out for 11 diﬀerent heating periods. synchronized to the reference signal. Fig. The modulation frequency.
which was found in the concrete box culvert constructed under a railroad. Measurement of actual delamination defects The proposed lock-in thermographic NDT technique was applied to the quantitative measurement of the actual delamination damage. 5. Sakagami. It is also found in the ﬁgure that DP for the defects of 2 cm in depth turns into negative value after the heating period of 30 min. Phase diﬀerence DP ðDP ¼ Pd À Pm Þ was calculated between the averaged value of phase delay in the area showing contrast change Pd and the averaged value of phase delay in the entire area of the specimen Pm . It is found in the ﬁgure that the phase delay curve shows the peak at certain heating period. S. for the quantitative estimation of the depth of the delamination defects. 6. Phase delay image obtained for side B. Lock-in measurements . 4.314 T. These features in the relationship between phase delay and heating period can be used Fig. Phase delay images obtained for side A. Relationship between phase diﬀerence DP and heating period T obtained for diﬀerent defect depths. Kubo / Infrared Physics & Technology 43 (2002) 311–316 Fig. The relationship between the values of phase delay and heating period was examined for different defect depths and 11 heating periods. 6 shows an obtained relationship between DP and heating period T. Fig. 4. Fig. The heating period. which shows the peak value of DP is found longer for the deeper delamination defect.
10. It was found that the location and size of the delamination defects can be estimated from the contrast change in the phase delay images. were carried out for three diﬀerent heating periods. 7 shows phase delay images taken for three heating periods. i. A cross-section of the removed concrete piece is shown in Fig. It was found that the location and size of the . the area taking negative DP expanded from the edge to the central part of the defect. S. It was found that the estimated depths of the delamination defect agree well with the actual values. For the longer heating periods. 5. Results of lock-in thermographic NDT of actual delamination defect in box culvert. 7. If the relationship between phase delay and heating period shown in Fig. the depth of the delamination defect can be estimated to be from 0 to 1 cm near the edge and from 2 to 3 cm at the center. and the master curve of the relationship between phase delay and heating period made by the ex- Fig.T. periments for artiﬁcial delamination defects can be applied to the depth estimation of actual delamination damages. 8.e. and darker color shows lower value of phase delay (negative DP ). Brighter color shows higher value of phase delay (positive DP ). 4 and 5. The delamination defect was removed to measure the actual depth by hammering from the box culvert after the experiment. Negative DP was found at the edge of the delamination defect and positive DP was found at the center of the defect. 6 is applied to the defect depth determination in this case. 20 and 30 min. Phase delay values are visualized using the similar gray scale as shown in Figs. 8. Fig. Kubo / Infrared Physics & Technology 43 (2002) 311–316 315 Fig.. Sakagami. A cross-section of the removed delamination defect. when the heating period was set to be 10 min. Conclusions A new quantitative non-destructive testing technique for delamination defects in concrete structures was developed based on the phase delay measurement using a lock-in infrared thermography under the application of periodical heating.
S. Fatigue crack identiﬁcation using near-tip singular temperature ﬁeld measured by lock-in thermography. Defect depth can be estimated by using the relationship between phase delay and heating period. Journal of JSNDI 47-10 (1998) 723–727. Sakagami. T. S. Sakagami. Kubo. SPIE Proceedings Series 4020 (2000) 174–181. References  T. Komiyama. Y. SPIE Proceedings Series 3700 (1999) 369–376. Teshima. S. Kubo / Infrared Physics & Technology 43 (2002) 311–316 delamination defects can be estimated by the area of contrast change in the phase delay images. Thermographic nondestructive testing for concrete structures.  T. Sakagami.  T. Kawashima for cooperative works in the experiments. Kubo. Acknowledgements The authors acknowledge Mr. Development of a new crack identiﬁcation method based on singular current ﬁeld using diﬀerential thermography.316 T. . Nakamura and Mr. Sakagami.
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