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INDEX Chapter-1 a. Abstract b. Technical specifications Chapter-2 a. introduction Chapter-3 a. block diagram b. working Chapter-4 a. circuit components b. components description Chapter-5 a. advantages b. applications Chapter-6 a. conclusion b. Bibliography
In the field of agriculture, use of proper method of irrigation is important because the main reason is the lack of rains & scarcity of land reservoir water. The continuous extraction of water from earth is reducing the water level due to which lot of land is coming slowly in the zones of un-irrigated land. Another very important reason of this is due to unplanned use of water due to which a significant amount of water goes waste. For this purpose; we use this automatic plant irrigation system. In the conventional irrigation system, the farmer has to keep watch on irrigation timetable, which is different for different crops. The project makes the irrigation automated. With the use of low cost sensors and the simple circuitry makes this project a low cost product, which can be bought even by a poor farmer .This project is best suited for places where water is scares and has to be used in limited quantity. The Project presented here waters your plants regularly when you are out for vocation. The heart of the project is the IC opamp lm324. This is safest and no manpower is required. Require smaller water sources, for example, less than half of the water needed for a sprinkler system. This is very useful to all climatic conditions any it is economic
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS Title of the project : Automatic Plant Irrigation System with water pump control based on soil moister condition Domain Power Supply Sensors Load Applications : using IC OPAMP LM324 : +5V. 500mA Regulated Power Supply : Electro magnetic moister sensor : 230 V ac motor : Roof Gardens. Agriculture Lands. Home Gardens 4 . Lawns.
You can either make some simple homemade automatic plant watering systems or purchase the best suited one from the wide range of systems available in the market. designed for both indoor and outdoor potted plants as well as flower gardens. such system takes care of the water requirements of plants and totally eliminates manual watering. which has to be done regularly for healthy growth of plants. While some people get fed up with manual watering. these systems range from simple ones to sophisticated ones. In short. Automatic Plant Watering System As you know that by installing an automatic watering system. there are very few homes which do not have plants. if the system has any. One of the main aspects of plant care is watering. which store water and supply the plants with the required amount of water. There are many plant enthusiasts. You can even make a watering system from materials used for household purposes. who keep on buying different varieties and end up with no time to take care of those plants.CHAPTER-2 INTRODUCTION Automatic plant watering systems have proved to be a boon for those. There are various types of automatic plant watering systems. These types vary from simple ones to most sophisticated systems and you have to choose the best suited one for your plants. Scroll down for more information about automatic plant watering system. fill the 5 . One of the basic homemade automatic plant watering system can be made with plastic containers. you have to fill water in some systems. others do not have enough time for this task. However. Nowadays. Clean the containers and make two to three small holes on their bottom. Types of Automatic Plant Watering Systems As mentioned above. Automatic watering systems can be of immense help to such people. Now. you can do away with the task of watering plants manually. both indoor and outdoor ones. Read on to know more about the various aspects of automatic plant watering systems. who lack time for watering plants manually. There are many types of watering systems. as and when it requires and set the timer.
2) Used in conventional farming areas. automatic house plant watering systems can be of great help in water conservation too. Above all. etc. The water reservoirs too. are available in different designs and patterns. you know. Read more on gardening accessories. even ground sensors are used. that work under gravity. For a garden. The Microcontroller was used to control the whole system it monitors the sensors and 6 . Now. Op-amp's are configured here as a comparator. These systems take care of the water requirements of individual plants. The circuit comprises sensor parts built using op-amp IC LM324. you have a basic idea about automatic plant watering systems. Two stiff copper wires are inserted in the soil to sense the whether the Soil is wet or dry. which can be very useful for those. Even commercial watering systems come in various types. next to the plant. Relevance: 1) Used in the field of agriculture as a new technology. If the soil is wet. the ground gets dry. Such systems may or may not have timers. Select the one. who don't have time to water their plants and also for those are going on a vacation. you can make different types of automatic plant watering devices with various other materials. before investing on it. how to make automatic plant waterer. more water will leak out of the container. sprinkler and drip systems with timers are available. so that watering will be done. which have to be understood. some others use power from the mains. This is one of the basic methods. Now. water reservoirs. Each type of plant watering system has its own features. simultaneously. In some sophisticated ones. 3) Used in the garden system. These systems constitute water tanks. There are simple ones too. There are standalone systems. There are multiple plant watering systems. whenever. but. While some of watering system work on battery power. that can take care of a certain number of plants. very little amount of water will be absorbed and as it get dry.containers with water and set them in the dirt. which is best suited for your requirement. Present theory: The Project presented here waters your plants regularly when you are out for vocation. pipes that supplies water from the tank to individual plants and drips attached to the end of each pipe. which come with pots.
F). Also avoid the waste of water which occurs in the older irrigation system. This project helps those farmers which do not have sufficient water for their farming. The Project presented here waters your plants automatically and regularly when you are out for vocation. FULLY. This projects helps the farmer to overcome the drawbacks of traditional irrigation system. G). The existing set-ups primarily are: D). It works on a feedback system which helps it to respond to the external stimuli efficiently. From this project we provide the new technology for farmer to improve the quality of their irrigation system.when more than two sensors sense the dry condition then the microcontroller will switch on the motor and it will switch off the motor when all the sensors are in wet.AUTOMATED: This is a sophisticated set-up which is well equipped to react to most of the climatic changes occurring inside the greenhouse. PROPOSED MODEL FOR AUTOMATION OF GREENHOUSE 7 . From this project we can reduce the manpower. manual irrigation of plants. Although this set-up overcomes the problems caused due to human errors it is not completely automated and expensive. C). and this signals operated under the control of software which is stored in ROM. CURRENT SCENARIO Greenhouses in India are being deployed in the high-altitude regions where the subzero temperature up to -40° C makes any kind of plantation almost impossible and in arid regions where conditions for plant growth are hostile. Proposed Work: A) Objective: From this project we provide a new technology for automation of agriculture field. It is time consuming. E). vulnerable to human error and hence less accurate and unreliable. PARTIALLY AUTOMATED SET-UP: This set-up is a combination of manual supervision and partial automation and is similar to manual set-up in most respects but it reduces the labor involved in terms of irrigating the set-up. MANUAL SET-UP: This set-up involves visual inspection of the plant growth. The microcontroller does the above job it receives the signals from the sensors. B) Scope of Project: In our India 70% people doing farming. turning ON and OFF the temperature controllers. manual spraying of the fertilizers and pesticides.
The proposed system is an embedded system which will closely monitor and control the microclimatic parameters of a greenhouse on a regular basis round the clock for cultivation of crops or specific plant species which could maximize their production over the whole crop growth season and to eliminate the difficulties involved in the system by reducing human intervention to the best possible extent. 8 . microcontroller and actuators. The system comprises of sensors. Analog to Digital Converter.
CHAPTER-3 Block diagram Soil dry – wet Sensor Ref Voltage LM324 Comparator Transistor driven circuit led display water Ac input RELAY pump Step Down t/f Bridge rectifier filter circuite regulator power supplies To all Sectionns 9 .
In this way we can control the water flow to a plant. Now moisture level increases than the reference value then comparator gives another signal to transistor. Comparator compares the voltage levels from sensor and reference values. Relay activates the motor to run and supply water to the plant.the circuit comprises sensor parts built using op-amp LM324.WORKING The project presented here waters your plants regularly when you are out for vocation . And electromagnetic moisture sensor is inserted into soil to measure the moisture level in soil. Now relay stops the electrical motor. this transistor send a signal to relay. Then transistor stops the signal flow to the relay. Op-amp is configured here as a comparator. This process is continuous to give healthy watering to the plant. If moisture levels is low than reference value then it produces a dc signal and it passed to transistor. 10 .
TRANSFORMER 2. RHEOSTAT(VARIABLE RESISTOR) 10.Chapter-4 CIRCUIT COMPONENTS 1. CERAMIC CAPACITOR (FILTER) 4. ELECTICAL MOTOR 11 . VOLTAGE REGULATOR 5. RESISTOR 7. MOISTURE SENSOR 9. RELAY 13. BRIDGE RECTIFIER 3. TRANSISTORS 6. DIODE 12. LED 8. COMPARATOR( IC OP-AMP LM324) 11.
12 . 230V is to be brought down to the required voltage level. that an electric current can produce a magnetic field (electromagnetism). a step down transformer is employed to decrease the voltage to a required level.e. Basic principles: The transformer is based on two principles: first.. 9V or 12V. TRANSFORMER Usually. and. DC voltages are required to operate various electronic equipment and these voltages are 5V. Thus. The changing magnetic flux induces a voltage in the secondary coil. Thus the a. second that a changing magnetic field within a coil of wire induces a voltage across the ends of the coil (electromagnetic induction).c input available at the mains supply i. But these voltages cannot be obtained directly. Changing the current in the primary coil changes the magnetic flux that is developed. This is done by a transformer.COMPONENTS DISCRIPTION 1.
If the turns of the coil are oriented perpendicular to the magnetic field lines. being equal to the cross-sectional area of the transformer core. Current passing through the primary coil creates a magnetic field. the flux is the product of the magnetic flux density B and the area A through which it cuts. which states that: Where Vs is the instantaneous voltage. Induction law: The voltage induced across the secondary coil may be calculated from Faraday's law of induction. so that most of the magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary coils. The primary and secondary coils are wrapped around a core of very high magnetic permeability. the instantaneous voltage across the primary winding equals 13 . such as iron. whereas the magnetic field varies with time according to the excitation of the primary. The area is constant. Since the same magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary coils in an ideal transformer.An ideal transformer is shown in the adjacent figure. Ns is the number of turns in the secondary coil and Φ is the magnetic flux through one turn of the coil.
If the voltage is increased. all the incoming energy is transformed from the primary circuit to the magnetic field and into the secondary circuit. and is the primary functional characteristic of any transformer. if an impedance Zs is 14 . the transformer is perfectly efficient. Ns/Np. For example.Taking the ratio of the two equations for Vs and Vp gives the basic equation for stepping up or stepping down the voltage Np/Ns is known as the turns ratio. a transformer with primary and secondary windings of. Ideal power equation Fig. The ideal transformer as a circuit element If the secondary coil is attached to a load that allows current to flow. In the case of step-up transformers. The impedance in one circuit is transformed by the square of the turns ratio. then the current is decreased by the same factor. Ideally. respectively. Turns ratio is commonly expressed as an irreducible fraction or ratio: for example. so this formula is a reasonable approximation. the incoming electric power must equal the outgoing power: giving the ideal transformer equation Transformers normally have high efficiency.667 or 100:150. If this condition is met. 100 and 150 turns is said to have a turns ratio of 2:3 rather than 0. electrical power is transmitted from the primary circuit to the secondary circuit. this may sometimes be stated as the reciprocal.
The circuit has four diodes connected to form a bridge. into pulsating D.C. In this project. 15 . a bridge rectifier is used because of its merits like good stability and full wave rectification. The Bridge rectifier is a circuit. 2. It converts A.C. The load resistance is connected between the other two ends of the bridge. BRIDGE RECTIFIER The output from the transformer is fed to the rectifier.attached across the terminals of the secondary coil. This relationship is reciprocal. The ac input voltage is applied to the diagonally opposite ends of the bridge. The rectifier may be a half wave or a full wave rectifier. which converts an ac voltage to dc voltage using both half cycles of the input ac voltage. it appears to the primary circuit to have an impedance of (Np/Ns)2Zs. The Bridge rectifier circuit is shown in the figure. so that the impedance Zp of the primary circuit appears to the secondary to be (Ns/Np)2Zp.
16 .For the positive half cycle of the input ac voltage. whereas diodes D2 and D4 remain in the OFF state. For the negative half cycle of the input ac voltage. The conducting diodes D2 and D4 will be in series with the load resistance RL and hence the current flows through RL in the same direction as in the previous half cycle. diodes D1 and D3 conduct. The conducting diodes will be in series with the load resistance RL and hence the load current flows through RL. diodes D2 and D4 conduct whereas. Thus a bi-directional wave is converted into a unidirectional wave. D1 and D3 remain OFF.
specifically to remove unwanted frequency components from the signal. It removes the ripples from the output of rectifier and smoothens the D. voltage received at this point changes. if either of the two is varied.C.3. Output received from this filter is constant until the mains voltage and load is maintained constant. to enhance wanted ones. 17 . CERAMIC CAPACITOR (FILTER) Capacitive filter is used in this project. Capacitors easily pass AC (changing) signals Electronic filters are electronic circuits which perform signal processing functions. However. D. or both.C. Capacitor blocks DC (constant) signals. Therefore a regulator is applied at the output stage.
As the name itself implies. The voltage regulators classified into two types. making it useful in a wide range of applications. these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltage and currents. Depending on the design. A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage regulators. The first number 78 represents positive supply and the numbers 05. or passive or active electronic components. positive series(7805) 2. It may use an electromechanical mechanism. Negative series(7905) are 18 . 12 represent the required output voltage levels. VOLTAGE REGULATOR A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. TO-220FP. In order to obtain these voltage levels. thermal shut-down and safe area protection. they can deliver over 1 A output current. making it essentially indestructible. 1. power supply of 5V and 12V are required. If adequate heat sinking is provided. The L78xx series of three-terminal positive regulators is available in TO-220. In this project. Each type employs internal current limiting. TO-3. 7805 and 7812 voltage regulators are to be used. These regulators can provide local on-card regulation. it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC voltages.4. it regulates the input applied to it. D2PAK and DPAK packages and several fixed output voltages. eliminating the distribution problems associated with single point regulation.
The transistor is the key active component in practically all modern electronics. Many consider it to be one of the greatest inventions of the 20th century. to produce complete electronic circuits. Although several companies each produce over a billion individually packaged (known as discrete) transistors every year.5. microchips or simply chips). capacitors and other electronic components. the vast majority of transistors now are produced in integrated circuits (often shortened to IC. along with diodes. Its importance in today's society rests on its ability to be mass produced using a highly automated process (semiconductor device fabrication) that achieves astonishingly low per-transistor costs. TRANSISTORS A transistor is a semi conductor device commonly used to amplify or switch electronic signals. 19 . the transistor provides amplification of a signal. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current flowing through another pair of terminals. resistors. Because the controlled (output) power can be much more than the controlling (input) power.
a heat sink and optics. but one LED failure could extinguish the whole string. A series diode and resistor could be used to control the voltage polarity and to limit the current. Paralleled strings increase reliability by providing redundancy. 7. RESISTOR A resistor is a device which opposes the flow of current. a number of LEDs must be placed close together in a lamp to combine their illuminating effects. To be useful for illumination for home or work spaces. LED lamps usually consist of clusters of LEDs in a housing with both driver electronics. Circuit symbol: 8. A single series string of LEDs would minimize dropped-voltage losses. while the arrangement of white LEDs is not critical for color balance. three strings or more are usually used. a uniform color distribution can be difficult to achieve. degradation of different LEDs at various times in a color-mixed lamp can lead to an uneven color output. In practice.. Further. and low power.6. Because our probe measures the dielectric constant of the soil using transmission line techniques. rugged. it is insensitive to water salinity. A single LED is a low-voltage solid state device and cannot be directly operated on standard AC current without some circuitry to control the voltage applied and the current flow through the lamp. In a circuit offenly it is used to protect the devices like LED etc. LED LEDs emit light when an electric current passes through them. but this is inefficient since most of the applied voltage would be dropped as wasted heat in the resistor. 20 . When using the color-mixing method. and will not corrode over time as does conductivity based probes. This is because individual LEDs emit only a fraction of the light of traditional light sources. Our probes are small. MOISTURE SENSOR VH400 Soil Moisture Sensor Probes Our high frequency VH400 series soil moisture sensor probes enable precise low cost monitoring of soil water content.
Probes come standard with a 2 meter cable. Moisture monitoring of bulk foods.Soil Moisture Sensor Probe Soil Moisture Sensor Probe Applications Irrigation and sprinkler systems. See our Soil Moisture Sensor Selector. to figure out which probe is right for your application. it is much more sensitive at higher VWC levels.Compared to other low cost sensor such as gypsum block sensors. 21 . Insensitive to salinity. Soil Moisture Sensor Probe Features Extreme low cost with volume pricing. Not conductivity based. Probe does not corrode over time. Rugged design for long term use. Small size. Water conservation applications. The VH400 consumes more power than the VG400 series sensors because it operates at a much higher frequency. Fluid level measurements. our probes offer a rapid response time. VH400 . Environmental monitoring. They can be inserted and take an accurate reading in under 1 second. Consumes less than 600uA for very low power operation. and its curves are more linear. Rain and weather monitoring. however. Also see our extremely low power VG400 series soil moisture sensors.
10-20 mA (max) Accuracy: o 1% Volumetric Soil Moisture Cable Length: 15 ft. Product Advantages Responds immediately and accurately to changes in soil moisture.5. Specifications Sensors: o o o SS model . Connection: o 3 pin. Patent pending technology. Wide supply voltage range.75" w x 1.5" d x 9. Probe is long and slender for wider use. 22 . Can be buried and is water proof.5 . including smaller potted plants.18 VDC.5 .Stainless Steel MS & HS models . Output Voltage is proportional to moisture level.5 lbs.4° to 160° F Output Format: o Standard format .32° to 150° F Storage . Measures volumetric water content (VWC) or gravimetric water content (GWC).0 mA Power requirements: o Standard 5.Stainless Steel with Epoxy coating All electronics are sealed in water-proof epoxy Temperature range: o o Operating .5" l Weight: o 1. Precise measurement.0. IP66/IP68 rated environmental connector Dimensions: o 3.
Unit is rugged. Install the Gro-Point sensor in the crop's root zone and read the percentage of soil moisture on the Gro-Point Display Unit. Sensor probes are factory calibrated and can operate in all soils and crops. or IrriWise Wireless Radio Crop Monitoring System. Typical measurement field is 2" in all directions from the outside element. Designed to remain in the soil for the growing season or be installed permanently.0 dS/L salinity Gro-Point Sensors 37GP-MS o o o Sands >3. saving fertilizer and energy. Utilizes TDT technology (Time Domain Transmissometry) which is similar in operating principle to TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry). Optimizes water use and reduces excessive leaching.0 dS/L salinity Clay loam soils with up to 2. record it on a Datalogger. easy to use and maintenance-free.0 dS/L salinity Silt loam soils up to 1.0 dS/L salinity Silt loam soils with 1.0 dS/L salinity 23 . Sensor Selection Criteria Gro-Point Sensor 37GP-SS o o Sands with up to 3.0 dS/L salinity Gro-Point Sensor 37GP-HS o o All clay soils (>40% clay particles) regardless of salinity Loam soils through clay soil with >2.0 to 3.
The rheostat is still a common and fundamental electronic component used to control the flow of current in a circuit. which states that current are inversely proportional to resistance for a given voltage. The LMX321/ LMX358/2kΩ LMX324 are unity-gain stable with a 1. 10. Rheostats commonly fail because their contacts become dirty or the coil wire corrodes and breaks. This means the current decreases as the resistance increases. 24 . Three-terminal potentiometers can be used as rheostats by connecting the unused third terminal to the contact terminal. it has largely been replaced by the triac.3MHz gain-bandwidth product capable of driving capacitive loads up to 400pF. Current enters the rheostat through one of its terminals. and small package size makes these amplifiers ideal for portable/battery-powered equipment. flows through the wire coil and contact.low-cost. or it increases as the resistance decreases. from light dimmers to the motor controllers in large industrial machines. It is a type of potentiometer that has two terminals instead of three. and drive resistive loads to within 40mV of either rail. The combination of low voltage. low cost. and exits through the other terminal. pin-to-pin compatible upgrades to the LMV321/LMV358/LMV324 family of general purpose op amps. Rheostats do not have polarity and operate the same when the terminals are reversed.The LMX321/LMX358/LMX324 are single/dual/quad. However.3V to +7V supply. These devices offer Rail-toRail® outputs and an input common-mode range that extends below ground. The symbol for a rheostat is a resistor symbol with an arrow diagonally across it. operate from a single +2. RHEOSTAT A rheostat is an electrical component that has an adjustable resistance. A triac do not waste as much power as a rheostat and has better reliability due to the absence of mechanical parts. These op amps draw only 105µA of quiescent current per amplifier. They are used in many different applications. Rail-to-Rail Output Op Amps. How they Work The basic principle used by rheostats is Ohm's law. The two main types of rheostat are the rotary and slider. COMPARATOR(IC OP-AMP LM324) Low-Voltage.9. a solid-state device also known as a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR). low-voltage.
105µA Quiescent Current per Amplifier (VCC = +2. 3.1.7V) 6. Low-Voltage Applications.Resistive LoadsDrives 2kΩ Applications: 1. Available in Space-Saving Packages14-Pin TSSOP (LMX324) 4. Cordless Phones.Features: 1. No Crossover Distortion 8.3V to +7V Supply Voltage Range 3. 6. Cellular Phones. Active Filters. Low-Power.3 MHz Gain-Bandwidth Products 5. The OP-AMP is a basic component in the circuits of data acquisition and control.2V to VCC – 0. Portable/Battery-Powered Equipment. All 8051 based data acquisition board must have used the opAmps in any form.8V 10. 4. Single +2. the ADC 25 . 5. Upgrade to LMV321/LMV358/LMV324 Family 2.No Phase Reversal for Overdriven Inputs 7. the purpose of use of OPAMPs in data acquisition system is to interface the sensors and the ADC. Rail-to-Rail Output Swing 9. Laptops.Input Common-Mode Voltage Range: VEE – 0. 2.
It is one of the most versatile devices in all of electronics. Obviously the most critical case occurs when the attenuation of the feedback network is zero.then give digital data to microcontrollers. the phase shift through amplifier and feedback network must never exceed 180 degree for any frequency where the gain of the amplifier and its feedback network is greater than unity. however the contribution due to input bias current is dependent on the circuit configuration used. if the temp is low then set point then heater is switched ON and heater is switched off when required set point is achieved. The very high gain op-amp IC’s our days uses external feedback networks to control responses. The op-amp without any external devices is called ‘open-loop’ mode. 26 . Like in this project a furnace is of main concern whose temperature is read. For minimum offset voltage at the amplifier input without circuit adjustment the source resistance for both inputs should be equal. bandwidth and a zero output resistance. In practical applications. these components are identified in specifying the amplifier as input offset voltage and input bias current. Thus Opamp are used in the analog section of the data acquisition board. referring actually to the so-called ‘ideal’ operational amplifier with infinite open-loop gain. The operational amplifier is used in the applications in filter. Thus we can say that is one of the data acquisition and control project related to temperature monitoring and control projects based on microcontrollers or microprocessors. To meet this condition. The input offset voltage is fixed for a particular amplifier. The gain-frequency characteristic of the amplifier and its feedback network must be such that oscillation does not occur. in wave generation. mathematical operations. the phase shift should not approach 180 degree since this is the situation of conditional stability. However. The term ‘op-amp’ was originally used to describe a chain of high performance dc amplifiers that was used as a basis for the analog type computers of long ago. An operational amplifier IC is a solid-state integrated circuit that uses external feedback to control its functions. and analog to digital and digital to analog conversions Offset voltage at the input of an operational amplifier is comprised of two components. in practice no op-amp can meet these ideal characteristics. input resistance.
which can be tailored by varying the construction of their P-N junction. which makes them useful in some types of circuits. DIODE A Diode is a two terminal electronic component that conducts electric current only in one direction. to electronically tune radio and TV receivers (varactor diodes). to protect circuits from high voltage surges (Avalanche diodes). Tunnel diodes exhibit negative resistance. For example. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuits). The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current in one direction (called the forward direction) while blocking current in the opposite direction (the reverse direction). diodes can have more complicated behavior than this simple on-off action. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism mechanically. diodes are used to regulate voltage (Zenor diodes). Gunn diodes. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits. to generate radio frequency oscillations (tunnel diodes. Semiconductor diodes do not begin conducting electricity until a certain threshold voltage is present in the forward direction (a state in which the diode is said to be forward biased). The voltage drop across a forward biased diode varies only a little with the current. IMPATT diodes). and to produce light (light emitting diodes). but other operating principles are also used. or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. However. 12. and is a function of temperature.11. RELAY A relay is an electrically operated switch. Semiconductor diodes have non-linear electrical characteristics. this effect can be used as a temperature sensor or voltage reference. These are exploited in special purpose diodes that perform many different functions. 27 .
The armature is hinged to the yoke and mechanically linked to one or more sets of moving contacts. one of the two sets of contacts in the relay pictured is closed. In this condition. BASIC DIAGRAM OF INDUCTION RELAY A simple electromagnetic relay consists of a coil of wire surrounding a soft iron core. The relay in the picture also has a wire connecting the armature to the yoke. instead using a semiconductor device to perform switching. and one or more sets of contacts (there are two in the relay pictured). a movable iron armature. 28 . Solid-state relays control power circuits with no moving parts. which is soldered to the PCB. and the other set is open.repeating the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitting it to another. and the circuit track on the printed circuit board (PCB) via the yoke. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations. an iron yoke which provides a low reluctance path for magnetic flux. Other relays may have more or fewer sets of contacts depending on their function. A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an electric motor is called a contactor. in modern electric power systems these functions are performed by digital instruments still called "protective relays". Relays with calibrated operating characteristics and sometimes multiple operating coils are used to protect electrical circuits from overload or faults. It is held in place by a spring so that when the relay is de-energized there is an air gap in the magnetic circuit. This ensures continuity of the circuit between the moving contacts on the armature.
An electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. The physical principle of production of mechanical force by the interactions of an electric current and a magnetic field was known as early as 1821. by their internal construction. machine tools. The smallest motors may be found in electric wristwatches. and vice versa if the contacts were open. Electric motors are found in applications as diverse as industrial fans. Most electric motors operate through the interaction of magnetic fields and currentcarrying conductors to generate force. In a low-voltage application this reduces noise. Electric motors of 29 . for example. or by the type of motion they give.When an electric current is passed through the coil it generates a magnetic field that attracts the armature and the consequent movement of the movable contact either makes or breaks (depending upon construction) a connection with a fixed contact. a traction motor on a vehicle may perfom both tasks. by their application..g. and disk drives. but gravity is also used commonly in industrial motor starters. Electric motors and generators are commonly referred to as electric machines. and water pumps with ratings in the millions of watts. Most relays are manufactured to operate quickly. pipeline compressors. in a high voltage or current application it reduces arcing. to its relaxed position. 13. The very largest electric motors are used for propulsion of ships. Usually this force is provided by a spring. some electric motors can also be used as generators. If the set of contacts was closed when the relay was de-energized. a battery powered portable device or motor vehicle). household appliances. then the movement opens the contacts and breaks the connection. Medium-size motors of highly standardized dimensions and characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for industrial uses. ELECTICAL MOTOR It is used to supply water to plants. approximately half as strong as the magnetic force. is done by generators such as an alternator or a dynamo. producing electrical energy from mechanical energy. . or by alternating current from a central electrical distribution grid or inverter. the armature is returned by a force. blowers and pumps. The reverse process. power tools. When the current to the coil is switched off. They may be powered by direct current (e. Electric motors may be classified by the source of electric power.
but commercial exploitation of electric motors on a large scale required efficient electrical generators and electrical distribution networks. 2KW 30 . Motor rating is 230V AC.increasing efficiency were constructed throughout the 19th century.
CHAPTER-5 ADVANTAGES _ Highly sensitive _ Works according to the soil condition _ Fit and Forget system _ Low cost and reliable circuit _ Complete elimination of manpower _ Can handle heavy loads up to 7A _ System can be switched into manual mode whenever required APPLICATIONS _ Roof Gardens _ Lawns _ Agriculture Lands _ Home Gardens 31 .
For a garden. The water reservoirs too. These systems constitute water tanks. the ground gets dry. which come with pots. before investing on it. There are simple ones too. Such systems may or may not have timers. Each type of plant watering system has its own features.CHAPTER-6 CONCLUSION Even commercial watering systems come in various types. are available in different designs and patterns. simultaneously. etc. While some of watering system works on battery power. that work under gravity. even ground sensors are used. some others use power from the mains. 32 . In some sophisticated ones. which is best. which have to be understood. water reservoirs. suited for your requirement. so that watering will be done. pipes that supplies water from the tank to individual plants and drips attached to the end of each pipe. whenever. Select the one. sprinkler and drip systems with timers are available. These systems take care of the water requirements of individual plants. There are multiple plant watering systems that can take care of a certain number of plants. There are stand-alone systems.
CHAPTER-5 ADVANTAGES _ Highly sensitive _ Works according to the soil condition _ Fit and Forget system _ Low cost and reliable circuit _ Complete elimination of manpower _ Can handle heavy loads up to 7A 33 .
etc. Such systems may or may not have timers. The water reservoirs too. are available in different designs and patterns. There are stand-alone systems. These systems take care of the water requirements of individual plants. which come with pots. water reservoirs._ System can be switched into manual mode whenever required APPLICATIONS _ Roof Gardens _ Lawns _ Agriculture Lands _ Home Gardens CHAPTER-6 CONCLUSION Even commercial watering systems come in various types. There are multiple plant watering 34 .
simultaneously. In some sophisticated ones. which have to be understood. There are simple ones too. pipes that supplies water from the tank to individual plants and drips attached to the end of each pipe. the ground gets dry. suited for your requirement. which is best. While some of watering system works on battery power. whenever. These systems constitute water tanks. before investing on it. Select the one. sprinkler and drip systems with timers are available. that work under gravity. so that watering will be done. For a garden. 35 . Each type of plant watering system has its own features.systems that can take care of a certain number of plants. some others use power from the mains. even ground sensors are used.
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