Secret Codes
Ken Beatty

Secret Codes
Ken Beatty

Level 4
Series Editors: Andy Hopkins and Jocelyn Potter

Pearson Education


Edinburgh Gate, Harlow, Essex CM20 2JE, England and Associated Companies throughout the world. Pack ISBN: 978-1-4058-5222-7 Book ISBN: 978-1-4058- 5087-2 CD-ROM ISBN: 978-1-4058-5088-9 This edition first published by Pearson Education Ltd 2007 13579108642 Text copyright © Ken Beatty 2007 Illustrations by Werb Set in 11113pt A. Garamond Printed in China SWTC/Ol Produced for the Publishers by AC Esrudio Editorial S.L.
All rights rcscrued; no part oftbis publication or transmitted in anyform mdY be reproduced, stored in a rrtrienai system. recording or otherwise.

Activities 1 Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Codes for Life War Secrets Activities 2 A Queen's Mistake Unsolved Codes and Ciphers Activities 3 Hidden Writing Secret Symbols Activities 4 Puzzles in Fiction Mountain Fires to Enigma Activities 5 Speaking in Code Talking with Your Body Activities 6 Lost Words Human Nature Talk about it Write about it Project: Kidnapped!

1 6 12 14 20 24 26 31 36 38 43 48 50 55 60 62 67 72 73 74

Chapter 3 Chapter 4

Chapter 5 Chapter 6

or by dny means, electronic, mechanical. photocopying. without the prior written perm inion the Publishers.


Chapter 7 Chapter 8

Published by Pearson Education in association with Penguin Books Ltd, both companies being subsidiaries of Pearson Pic Acknowledgements We are grateful to the following for permission to reproduce photographs: Beinecke Rare book and Manuscript Library, Yale University: page 22 (b) (The Voynich Manuscript); Corbis: page 2 (Tim Wright), page 13 (t) & page 15 (I) (Archivo iconografico,S.A), page 13 (b) & page 15 (r) (Gustavo Tomsich), page 65 (© Araldo de Luca), page 68 (© Charles & Josette Lenars), page 70 (© Ashley Cooper); Getty Images: page 36 (bl) (News / Tim Boyle), (br) (Neo Vision / Shinya Sasaki), page 45, page 47 (Hulton Archive), page 53 (Hulton Archive), page 61 (Bridgeman Art Library), page 63; Photos 12: page 42 (Collection Cinema); PunchStock Royalty Free Images: page 3() (brn) (Phorodisc), (rr) (rnixa): Topfoto: 6I(r); Wikipedia: page 22 (r) (The Beale Papers) Picture research by Natasha Jones Every dt<m has been made to trace the copyright holders and we apologise in advance fin any uninrcnrional omissions. We would be pleased to insert the appropriate acknowledgement in any subsequent edition of this publication.

Chapter 9 Chapter 10

Chapter 11 Chapter 12

For a complete list of the titles available in the Penguin Active Reading series please write to your local Pearson l.ongm.u: office or to: Penguin Readers Marketing Department, Pearson Education, Edinburgh Gate, Harlow, Essex CM20 2JE, England.

Activities 1


What's the book about?
These are discussed in this book. What are they? What do you know about them?
•• ·e ••

Codes for Life
The most common codes and ciphers are in your waLLetand they are used every d4Y.

,• .~

e· •.

•• Ie·

•• ..

.e .. ..

• ..

You are probably not a spy, bur you certainly use a great number of secret Lodes. ciphers, symbols and messages, Everyone does! For example. which of IIt > c symbols makes you think of the word stop?


o YOLl use secret codes,? Do you look for artd understand strange symbols? Do you send and receive messages rhar only a few orher people can

- -•
What do you know?
Write in the boxes below.

• ••



Why do they use them?
to keep wo,r secrets

5rop signs


Who uses secret codes?


fl"Ol'V'l other soldiers

Mo. t of these symbols for stop are familiar around the world. bur some ~ mbol have different meanings for different people, The colour red might mean mljl or danger to some people, bur in China it often mean let's celebrate .

tode Ikaudl (n) words, letters or siqns that are used together, instead of ordinary writing or speech, to send secret messages. A bar code is a number of black fines on a product that t,1I1 be read by a computer. If you break a code or decode a secret messaqe, you discover its I!ll'dnlng.
\ymhol {'~lmb;)1! (n) a sign (for example, a picture) for a quality, idea or organisation dph r /',alfa/ (n) a method of changing the letters of words with other letters, numbers or \Yfllbols to make a secret message. It you dedpher a message, you break the cipher and find th hidden message.


~:5~::a:. On the other hand. though.:ru~:~~.. Ybur clothes ofreu show that YOIl are in a certain mood or bdong to a certain group.lge text IIekstl (nJ the writing in a book or magazine (not the pictures) gang' Ig~Ql (n) a group of people.ext messaging? For example..1~1ro the first.II-\C . Most paper money and bankcards include one or more code numbers In try to smp people printing or stealing money. a uniformand irs decorations give a lot of information about the soldier's position and abilities. till . gang members killed a. For example. The shop 1I1. me 'Illc message Do you baue« secretfor me? becomes wI bljszzll z hvxivg uli Itt'.. you may use or invent a new language that older people do not understand. costs. ar same product. l::u:~h~ it ~ Iml\\\I"IU\~\\\ ·~!~~~o ~s~"\\ rJ 1 . c. Two shops can use the same bar. Grear TO see YOll.{JUt! cui'" Personal codes Only your close frrends may understand your personal codes. rhe manager could look at the code and stan ro discuss the price. Among soldiers. the manager of a carpet shop could write cbe four letters urad carpet [Q show chat it COSt him £75. Money and prices Bur the most common codes and ciphers are in your wallet and chey areused l'vny day. A mistake in your choice of clothes is usually just embarrassing.III:'Igcr knew exactly what he could afford to charge. you probably could not understand a common word like stqp in more than a few languages . person's school or job.. de on the" o b. the letters are listed from the 1. The letters in background represented the numbers zero [0 nine.19. Red was the colour of anorhergang. Unlforms are formal clothes that gJve information about a. For example. A StOP sign really says. like hand signs. • GR8 2 C LJ. but (he young man probably could ooeunderscand their meaning or the danger he was in. espedally trouble-makers or criminals 2 3 .pher b reakers rnighr guess rhat si ngJe-lencr words in the ciphered mCS~.!JiM ill rmifim71 ago. Thjs was another kind of code. In chis example.k like secret codes to yon. Shop managers sometimes used an easy-to-remember ren-lereer word like background to write the cost of products.feprl'zenll (v)to be a sign for something .n::~j~. Although you can read the words in this book. When a customer came in co the \ilup.'!ph(!bllt l'relIJbell (n) (III the letters that are used when writing a I(lngu. each of the twenty-six letters in the English alphabet represents a dillcrcnr letter. there were other ways to hide information uhout prices. 'Please wait here for a moment and look around. but decide to price it differently. but sornerirnes it is dangerous.Secret Codes Chapter 1 . but many people donor understand it. Bar codes can be read by ~}I. Secret codes are also used on almost everyrhing you buy. Simple ciphers I . Other languages might loo... Each gang painted symbols on local buildings to mark their space. In ~il11ll!t:sl cipher.Codes ror Life Symbols for ideas like stop are not meant to be secret.t~ II Ierrer or symbol in a simple cipher represen rs a differen t letter. III t I I. Are you sure there are no other cars or people chat might cause you (0 have an accident?' It would take too long to read all this at every corner. do you understand this message? I GR8 2 This is nor meant to be secret code. Even language is a code.. like the next letter. Do you understand the word codes in t. pt sent/. Many codes are just shatter or faster ways of explaining other ideas. Long before computers. lesson notes and the special meanings of the domes you wear. A few years A . what does it mean when you wear a T-snirt and jeans? It could be a code to tell other people that you are relaxed. young man in Los Angeles while he walked in the wrong part of [he city wearing a red jacket.

Like all secret codes and ciphers [he Vigenere cipher was only as good a. [he cipher was easy [Q . That makes it difficult [Q find the solution 11111 ·s~y u know or can guess the code word. You can write 1 for £1. 5 to 5. Another kind of cipher is shown below. each row started with a new letter. 4 5 .!ml (n) a list of words or numbers written below each other down a pa. Blaise de Vigenere invented the next big step in code-making in the 1500s. 2. you can run the letters together: wlb/fizevzhvxivgulinv. They might also guess that two-letter pairs are common words like or. Or you call break them into groups of four letters each: wlbl fize vzlru xivg ulin v. Iieople who knew i . It is useful that a letter like t ill the seruenceabove is rrprcsenred by four different letters. Your friends will be able co decipher the message as ihaveasecr-et/oryou. Vigen ere used row of alphabets. 1 2 so the message X V 'I ABC DE G H I J K L M N 0 P Q R STU VW XY BCD E F G H I J K L M N 0 P Q R STU VW XYZ C D E F G H I J K L M N 0 P Q R STU VW XYZA D E F G H I J K L M N 0 P Q R STU V W X Y Z ABC E F G H I J K L M N 0 P Q R STU V W X Y Z ABC F G H I J K L M N 0 P Q R STU V W X Y Z ABC D G H I J K L M N 0 P Q R STU VW X Y Z ABC DE H I J K L M N 0 P Q R STU V W X Y Z ABC DEF IJ K LM N0 P R STU V W X Y Z ABC D EFG J K L M N 0 P Q R STU V W X Y Z ABC D EFGH KLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZABCDE FGH I L M N 0 P Q R STU V W X Y Z ABC D EFGH IJ M N 0 P Q R STU V W X Y Z ABC D E F G HOJ J K N 0 P Q R STU V W X Y Z ABC D EFGH IJ Kl o P Q R STU V W X Y Z ABC D EFG H IJ K LM P Q R 5 T U V W X Y Z ABC D EFGH IJ KLMN Q R STU V W X Y Z ABC D EFG H IJ K LM N0 R STU V W X Y Z ABC D E FG H IJ K LM N0 P STUVWXYZlA]BCDE FGH I J KLMNOPQR T U V W X Y Z ABC D EFG H IJ K LM N0 PQR U V W X Y Z ABC D EFG H IJ K lM N0 PQRS V W X Y Z ABC D EFG H IJ K LM N0 PQR 5T W X Y Z ABC D E FG H IJ K LM N0 PQR 5TU X Y Z ABC D EFGH IJ KLMN0 PQR5TUV Y Z ABC D E F G H I J K L M N 0 P Q R STU VW Z ABC D EFGH J K L M N 0 P Q R STU VW X J K L M N 0 Q S T U V W X Y P The Vigenere cipher Although these ciphers seem hard to understand at first. a er ice y ifo. becomes lJst harou. If one person was forced [Q share the secret cod word. symbols or letters in rows from left to rigb. a place or even a hobby. ofor to. a hero.. 1'111 lIHN: [hi was also an important weakness of the Vigenere cipher. If you knew enough about the person. 4. A Frenchman.2 for b to make the message: 9 8 1225 I 1953 18520615 18251521. they will have the true message: J have a secretfor you. using smile as the code word. You write the numbers.3. The next lerrer comes rom rhe JOW that starts with M Vigenere's cipher looked like the one on the next page.1 [ricnd.Secret odes Chapter I- Codes for Life are either a. you can agree that your friend will change the order of the columns from 1.. so the message becomes iee y ifoharoua er ust: To make it more difficult. looks like this: • Codeword: s mile smi lesrn • enrence: I will not tell • ipher [ext: a iqwp fab eidx It rook a long time to write a message in the Vigenere cipher. like SMILE. as. After you choose your code word. By adding spaces and a capiral letrer. S T U V W 3. do. with empty squares foJ' spaces: 2 3 ABC A 0 E F G H[[J K L M N 0 P Q R STU V~X YZ Z A B D E F G H I B C D E F G H j K L IJ e ~I a N p M o o R you Then you write the letters from top to bottom. Find the column headed by the fiIst lerrer ofyour message and move straight down to the place where the column meets the row that begins with (the first let er ofSMlLE). The message 1 will not sell. you can use numbers or symbols. but it was \ ~'I)' uirficulr to decipher.4. a patient enemy could break them quite easily. This part of the cipher was not a secret. lnsread of lerrers. you can Start to write your message in cipher. People often words that were easy to remember. That is your first lerrer. To make the cipher more difficult.Ju/ In) a line of things or people next to each other columlll'kol. Illl' row lr. lluu ynll would probably guess that his or her secret code word was the name of a family member. The ecret part was a code word. or I h"11 break.

arId the ways ofbre4kblg .400 years ago.L1ly~fivc leuersafrer a as the starring leccer. About 2..II''·~I"I'f (v) 10 makea new Eng/ish 1\ lluh esar's cipher InOR' chan 2. in defghljklmnopqrstuvwxyzabc I hl~ type t1Fcipher was very easy to break: the enemy simply had to rry~ach III lin Iw(.\1mll " Ih". He developed a SImple Cipher \dm It klll'rs of the alphabet were moved a few letters forward. . ~ Many of hisrory's secret codes and ciphers . When countries decide to fight eachorher. started after Russia sent part of its army to Turkey. Even if enemy soldiers found the paper. ompanies keep bu~iness s~crets.ln" .( 'lin. To keep secrets.have probably been lost. For example: a bed e fghij k I rn no p q rs t lIVWXY7. soldiers in the Spartan army stretched a long piece of paper around a Stick..or did he? Some people believe that he told the British government. j r was too late for [hem ro doa ny Lilli j Ii . But they also need to understand the many ways of breaking enemy codes and ciphers. mey would destroy the paper. it is always irnpottanr for them to keep their plans secret. governmems and armies need codes and ciphers that are easy to use but hard to break.may be needed again. But he never told anyoneabouc his secret method . secol~d.ct or idea successful 7 . under [heir belts.000 years ago> the Roman leader Julius Caesar invented ill hllill 'I l iphe 1".Then they wrote the letters of a message along the length of the stick. the codes. France and Austria fought in the Crimean War. But people did not mind writing about them when both sides knew thar they had been broken.CHAPTER Chapter 2 . soldiers also need to share their plans in secret. People like to keep personal secrets. The Russians used the Vigenere cipher and lost the war. most of his enemies could not read or wnte ~ bill 1111 v 11111'h l n:cogl1 ise a few words if a simple cipher was no! use~. When the paper was taken off. Anearty war cipher One of the first record. Spartan soldiers hid these messagesaround rheir waist.llt· lur 1wu reasons . But Caesar probabl! did tlllll .them . It was used for 300 years before the English scientist Charles Babbage discovered how to break II.. After a war. against Russia. Britain. ofche use of a secret cipher In war was in Greece.11\ cncm ies II nderstood a message. But some of the world s mosr IITIportamsecrets are about war. The war. Perhaps their enemies were able to break the cipher and read their messages. From 1854 to 1856.have probably been lost. the letters were in an odd order. By rile 111111 { II . 6 C A Spnrtan umr ciphu with a mmng~. no government wants to share this informacion. Breaking the Viigenere cipher Many people thought that the Vigenere cipher was unbreakable. Illtl I "I III~ messages were probably only important fora short orne. Caesar needed to sendmesseges to his soldiers b~[ want~d fa 11111. If they could not escape froman enemy. First. the Ottomans (in the area that is now Turkey). During a war. Thousands of soldiers fought around thearea of the Black Sea in southern Russia. they needed to stretch the paper around the same size stick to understand the message.and the ways ofbreaking them .' rhar no one could read them easily. And.War S~"r~1S War Secrets ManyofhistOl'js secret codes and eipbers . The leerers seemed [Q make no sense.

What is the difference between these two messages? Killthe king.. every rnnn 'IUllld '1IIn~!J (n) a. then they can also have their own code. 'Englandexpeces "I do h j. C h I' 5 6 7 8 (. For example. Kill the king? B C D u v One message is a command to kilt the kingand the other asks should someone kill the king? So. SAbma'rimi (nl a ship that can travel under water 8 . an army could send different messages to its soldiers right in from of theirenemies. A J K L M N 0 P s T 1 2 3 bed e fghij k I rn nap q r s t uvwxyz wogxhpbqriJyszctkdulvemfna But this cipherstill has problems.000 years ago.War Secrets A more complicated cipher is an arrangemem OJ oflerters in adifferenr order. Also. One message could be sent to many different people. you can add extra symbols. a.111 fill r. When you look 3:[ a messag. . lilt! It·[ people send and receive messages over greater distances. But what two meanings could chis message have? It makes a difference where you put the spates between words. 4 and n.)1 submarine l'sAbmarim. Bur both lights and Hags could only be • rnaakeir haardor roo deesifitr::make it harder to .uoll I II'" !lIulg "ll'I~~kilIH!I decipher (nl a piece of equipment like a tube thal makeslhlngs seem dm"1 9 . . especially belore he fought at Trafalgar in 1805.e. W. Greek and Roman armies used lights and flags to send messages. messages need more than just words. if an army ofeen uses a word like submarine. !lhlu . For this reason.I rti me. i[ is useful to adddiese symbols: ? !..sound. duty: 111111 mar. you can Lise it and a few other odd symbols ro break up words.These can be used in two ways. m I adio. the message says The soldiers are nowhere. I 'he most famous flag message wasa nine-word code ordered by HoratiO NII~IIII. HI !. ic was difficult to send and receive messages on a ship. n and the 17. numbers or letters to show where [he spaces should go.lJ here. Messages are often wrinen with no breaks between the letters. If some words are used often... These extra symbols are also sometimes added to confuse someone trying to read [he code. Around [he year 1600. If you pm them befo re the first s. It is also useful [Q include the numbers zero to nine as part of a cipher. appear more often than others. the message says something quite differeD[: The soldiers /I. action osevent that gives Information 'or tells someone \0 lio "I. You can also use wrong spellings to maake it haardor roo deesifer. you will notice char some letters.: . . BLl[ if you pm them before the first r. In English. e is rhe most common letter. then It may want to invent a special word or symbol for ie. 111IIV~'I R 9 o Sigllal/lags me shoet disrances. If YOLLand other person knowthar the & sign means nothing. Q e . 5h i ps used many kinds of flags to share information or give .Secret Codes Chapter 2. If the signals were in code or cipher.I'e n01. Ofeen ciphers contain letters that do not mean anything . II Thesoldiersarenowhere. the telescope became popular Waving flags More than 2.

the Japanese began sending messages about the need for water on f\ 1 i Iway IsLand. Flag messages are still ofren u ed a decorations and there are differenr Bags for each letter of the alphabet to spell out messages. oon..1Ck i. of the alphabet. A People became very quick at sending Bag messages. Often.Secret Codes Chapter 2 . . 1942. They are held like the bands of a dock and [here are seven positions for eacb Bag.1..War Secrets These Bags are still used..1I Ihe Japanese had already broken. ''''''1\ ~Il~"J) -1 G II Smltlpho«/{I/gf semaphore l'sem::lf~:1 (n) a method of signalling using two handheld flags 11 10 . C . The wrong message Not all secret messages are meant for your friends..dready knew [he Japanese ciphers and the Japanese had communicated abour an . but it was not fast enough.11 their secret messages. The Americans listened to these I III i~ messages and kn ew tha t the Japanese planned to attack Midway Island. especially when a ship's radio does not work.uer treatment plant was nor they knew Ih. the Bags are usually red and yellow. The Rags are usually square and in tWO colours. uring World War 2. Semaphore Bags let people spell messages using the letter Some letters are also used to signal number and mistakes. r find out. They include Bags [0 show that someone on the ship is ill. these false messages help to discover If what the enemy knows or is doing. the flags are usually red and white. On the ocean. \ B :.. faster way was to use semaphore. On land.11<1\ 11.. mar someone has fallen into the ocean and that the ship will soon leave or arrive at a port. They were worried that there would nor be enough water for IIll i) army after they made their surprise attack. Sometimes an army or group ~ soldiers will send a false message. Americans believed char me Japanese were going to ~md their ships to arrack Midway Island or Alaska in June. Bur the Japanese messages did not say where rhey \ ere going to attack. The Americans . The message said rhat Midway Island's w. . I II1l'Y sent their ships [0 Midway and destroyed Japan's ships and planes.111. the Americans sent a mes age using an old code .J.

...... (use) every day....••••..•• 4 (mean) to be secret.. on mobile phones just to save time. ' . . ~ ...••.4 ~•• ... These flags are still used ...... ... to send messages to his 11 •• __. 5 A simple cipher to his soldiers.. 1 The most common codes are In your wallet an d t hey .••............ dropped...... war cipher flags prices secret stop alphabets text messaging semaphore soldiers cl. .. understand. (use) in shops for many years....••. 12 l5 . ...••••••••.•••••....... 4 What problems did the women have with each other? ..••••••..~~~~ •• ... Business people use secret ciphers to hide details about times of 8 rows of • 10 7 ••• ....••. ....Activities 2 Secret Codes _1iiiIiI. It was are a kind of lASed .••....••••. It is the same With S _. often by 6 4 By the middle of the nineteenth century. and still are.. .......•••••••••••••••••••.••••••.... .••............:..••...othes 1 ••••.... •••••• •... 5 Why did they use secret codes? .••...... Were you right? What are the popular uses of secret codes and ciphers? Use the words in the box to complete the sentences. Then choose the best passive form of the verb to complete these sentences.. and foreign Languages..~ ~ . • They give people information about you.. . If one person was forced to share the secret code... And we use on ships which are used to send messages...•••••. '" 2 What jobs did these women have? .... .... Language in use Lookat these examples of passive forms in the box on the right.. What's next? Lookat the pictures......•••••••........ Examples are the different symbols for 2 .......' ••••••• ~...... 2 Not all codes 3 Bar codes ... ." 3 When were these pictures painted? ...••.. . o..••. ..... What do you think? 1 Who are the two women? What more did you learn? Decipher these three messages: .. the Vlgenere cipher .. Many codes are not often people want you to ...•..••••.. (use) by the Russians for over 300 years before But some codes are meant to be secret. ...... 6 Messages around a stick..oj "'1" •• ~. ................... (develop) by Caesar to send messages (can/decipher) in Sparta by tying the paper Governments use secret codes in Caesar used a 9 .••••.. ~..._ The Vigenere cipher used and was not broken for 300 years.. ....•.......•••.... . ... ~ ... Even your 3 ••.

Y~'<1I"S passed and M . Mary used her own personal secret cipher.Mary also had twenty-four orher symbols ell II \'i I used as codes for her name and for common words. Most people rhought that one of Stewart's kilk'i ~ W. nor Eli'. Mary W:I~ IUln:d to stay I here. slu' had some hope..buh f Mary.R k I. and they had one child. But other lurd\ \V('I. And there were many people in F.3 -A Ql!~Il'S MiSl:llkc A Queen's Mistake Instead of helping Mary.nglrtnd after Elizabeth died .abehs father.or [Q be skilled In me use of cedes. Both me full containers and the empty ones often had secret notes hidden in them .I\ l. plain English.~ double letters. Babington would certainly be killed. and one symbol III h. be used between words as spaces or jUS[ to CUIIIII anyone reading [hemess~ge . His wife was French :111(1 M.~~Il( to France. then. It was nor safe for her in Scotland. Philip II. they were successful. though. These could.IPI~). She was Elizabeth's prisoner. T Two queens A few months later.11111~\ hl·n she was a year old she became Queen of the Scots. [I Q.French armies also wanted lO arrack England but were ulraid of Elizabeth. ...ngbnd who did not want I'lil. England's kings and queens had also followed the Catholic 1"l·lJgioll until El i7. ~hl W. . Elizabeth I. Queen O/SeMI A royal cipher Mary had a special way to get news fwm her friends and supporters. Instead of writing in. Every few days.Mary's servants put one message inside a container and took another out.1 he died two yea. These enemies tried to kill him once and failed.111101 il religion.:dwrh. Henry VIIT.. Elizabeth was worried. The lcingsancl queens of England had had spies since 1324. son of rhe King of r r 1 n~ c. was ready to :1I1.l1 Y was born in 1542.. She was Elizabeth's prisoner. But they were not completely empty. But he and Mary both knew they had to be careful. Mary's father died when she was just Sll: days old. "' [~a{ it is not always all advantage In life to be royal. he sad S.nlllll] rime. Elizabeth sent her to tI country hous« Mary wits forced to stay there. Henry Stewart..Jl)~l'rcd by his new position and Mary ran away to England to ask fa r hd p 1"10111 1ll'1 cousin..Boeh Mary and Elizaberh heard news about these U II h. He left full beer containers and picked up the empty ones. a son.11 Y Ilt"ga11 to understand that she would die as a prisoner.IH:opll' from "their own spies. about Mary's (:. had made England a "Protesta n t t:\ HIIIII y. Mary married Francis. "'I I In ny r English Catholics wanted Mary to be queen of England. Mal·y was not punished in any way and even had servants ro help her.1~ . Mary married Lord Bothwell.Ufen Elizn. Even Mary might be killed. But SI rwannmdc many enemies.I~ III her Scottish cousin. Queen ofSeots sho.uucd to take Scotland.ord Bothwell. England's King Henry V III w. Instead of helpIng Mary. Mary's father was King James V of Scotland. Gllbert Gifford delivered beer to the house where Mary stayed.CHAPTER Chapter . the . Elizabeth sent her co a count. l4 is . Her next rnarr] ag~ W. when King Edward II ordered aU letters ro or from England to be opened and read. Mary's cipher used numbers and symbols for rwenry-three letters of the alphabet . At the age of fifreen. If anyone fOlmd the messages. Gifford's job was to deliver the messages between Mary and her spy) Anthony Babington. and he began [Q attack me cOLUHry.:lbcth to be their queen.\' . Babington had many contacts among important people who wanted co kill Elizabeth. At five years old.there were no symbols for i vor u: There were also symbols that meant nothing.tOf! o~Mary.ry house. The Catholic king of later and she returned to Scotland. II!1. bur she l'flUld 11m travel or have visitors without Elizabeth's permission.

Soon. Walslngham wanted to know their names too. sj It' 1'. s. I.. In the new message. Walsingham asked Phelippes to add a few sentences [0 the letter before Gifford gave it to Babingcorr. the order ofthe most common letters is: e.f(j X P IS what say me my send "l ~ (t' ~ you i your name -1 16 3- The cipher of MlIry. The nan: year. He copied the message and he and his team started working on it. d. Mary was taken to a special courr.. i. Gilbert Gifford was really working for Elizabeth's secretary. Phelippes was good at breaking secret ciphers. only appears once.A Queen's Mistake o abc . He and twelve other men W('I't qed. Babington explained his plans to kill Queen Elizabeth as well as Walsingham and others. She also thought rhat ifanyone found the messages.. he discovered that some letters were used much morethan others. he gave it co Walsinghatn before he gave it [Q Babington.It was important that Mary and Babington should not notice an unusual delay. She was also afraid that Elizabeth's own people would not like itand would £ight against her. s. Perhaps Babington knewthac something was wrong. Walslngham needed clear informacion to show that Mary wanted to kill Elizabeth and he found it in the secret letters . He cried to leave England for Spain but WaS taken prisoner.rong. In English. h. Queen OfScofs When Gifford received a lerrer from Mary. Phelippes quickly deciphered the message by finding some lerters and guessing at others.Phelippes used Mary's code and copied her handwriting. a. and L for thllt if but where ~ 1 • The final message 1 i '1t ~ J as of the from by so not n II M ~ -*~ b t-x- when there this In . z. -H. WaIsingham could read everything that Mary and Babington wrote. but she was w. n. Sir Francis Walsingham. but she was wrong again. Mary wrote back and said she understood.Secret Codes Chapter 3 . 0. Phelippes asked Babington for the names of the other six men. n t l'itt~Ce with defgh 1 .When al-Kindi looked at different languages. l u. a Language specialist. The letter e usually appears about thirteen times in one hundred letters. The least commonlerter. At firsr. Phelippes studied the ciphered messages using a method developed by an Arab code breaker named Abu Yusuf al-Kindi. She choughr it would anger other Catholic kings and queens and perhaps start a war with the rest of Europe.1 I I1III and said she knew nothing about the plans [Q kill Elizabeth or co iuvru Ih~ 17 . This was the message Walsingham was waiting for.. But Babington wrote about six other men who would help him. then they would not be able to read her secret cipher. Walsingham wanted to get rid of Mary but knew that Elizabeth was afraid of killing a Catholic queen. kIm 00 I O~/1 Mary thought that no one would find her secret messages.. Each letter was quickly returned to Gifford so he could give it to Babington . Walsingharn gave it [Q Thomas Phelippes.

Mary had her head cut lIff. Why did they not develop a new cipher or code? No one will ever know. Charles n. At [he age of forty-four. Mistakes The stories of Mary. 19 . he wanted someone to read his diaries. it was easy to teach them that each word in rhe poem was a code word for somechingelse. not try to make things sound better or worse rhan they really were. cipher was used by Samuel Pepys. But the diaries were almost lost and rorgotreo. In time. Pepys was twenty-severn years old and he decided to stan writing a diary..l'spcd. he did not know thatthe cipher key was in anomer book on a bookshelf above the diaries! A big problem with ciphers is teaching people how [0 undersrand and remern ber them. used different symbols and he also mixed words from Fllglish. Unti I.tFire of London.. no one rerucrnbered the cipher. like the Gr<ea. 1915. . He wrote in cipher only to srop his wife &000 reading about his private life. English history. bur nor enough to understand that it could be broken. He wrote his diary in a cipher so others could not read il. Mer soldiers learned the poem. Mary's cipher did not protect her because she did not know me people who worked with her well ciphers Pepyss cipher was common WheJ1 he lived. but afrer he died in 1703 his diaries were not read for more than a hundred years. or Rememberi. much till: lity burned down . He used me fust fOTrY words of a poem. It is nard to understand the Russian Army's use of an old cipher rhar they knew theirenemies could decipher. Samuel Pepys and me Russians show how one cannot always be confident about secret codes and ciphers. in 1819. we Russian army used an old ci plrcr rhar was easy ro break because poorly trained Russian soldiers could Dot remember newer ciphers . Sadly. That mistake cost her her life. But then me court showed Mary her own leiters and she could not deny it. She knew enough to use a secret cipher. He. Pepys wrote (or himself and. Pepys was a witness to many exciting events in the history of Eng laud. Pepys was intelligent and a hard worker and lu: was soon given better and better jobs.. Samuel Pepys had the opposite problem. ne famous. QUtm1'S Mistake Spanish king [0 attack England. When he left directions to give his books to Cambridge University. he became a fdend of the king o( England. So he did. run for a newspaper or because he wanted to sell his diary in bookshops. French and Portuguese as a kind of a code.The Chinese general Sun Tzu had faced the same problem 2. It was easy for one so-called friend to work with her enemies.A. a man named Thomas Shelton spent three years deciphering thediaries. l'epys':~ diaries give us a dear picture of an important rime in. During this fire.Secret Codes Chaprer:3 . Queen of Scots.tlly his wife!. Finally. By then. Mary believed that no one would ever discover the secret of her royal cipher. His cousin got him a job ill rhl: government in London. Today. A secret diary Many other people have used personal 1659.500 years earlier. for different reasons. 18 .

The first page. n 1885. He did not send the key and he did not explain the secrets. was included in the fortune. Ir included 460 kilograms of gold. bur one of c:he letters was quite exciting. described where the secret fortune was buried. It tells a very strange Story about a mysterious lost me An explanation The: lerrer said that in 1818 Beale and about thirty other men had travelled in the Am . He rayed for about [en days and became friends with Morriss. and covered with stones. silver and jewels were 'packed in iron pars with iron covers'.000.729 kilograms of silver. Also it must be one that existed when Beale WIOte his pages of numbers. he explained everything in his book. including three pages of numbers. Virginia. Morriss guessed that Native Americans" had killed Beale.000. The second page explained what • Native: Americans: the first people to live inorth America A big joke? Cipher breakers continue to look for solutions to the first and third pages in books as welJ as in other places. But he forgot about me box and did not open it until 1845. Ward found a clue CO second of the three pages. Beale left but he returned after two years and asked Morriss to keep something for him. Even today. Beale sent Morriss a letter. he had a few new visitors co his hotel. to look in the west of the United States talked about people taking their gold to t IIC' lot clue Iklu:! (n) something. New Mexico they had found gold and ilver -Tots of it! They traded orne of the heavy silver for lighter jewels and rook everything to the eastern United Stares. One day. Virginia.rican outhwest. Beale did nor return. Somewhere around anta Fe. They started to dig all around Bed ord. For example. The my rery began in 1820 with a man called Robert Morris. The box co n rained a few letters and 0 ther papers. It was a small locked metal box and Beale told his friend that mere were important papers inside. The letter explained that the box contained secret informarion a out a fortune in gold. In 1862. old Stories from Native Arneric. Beale wa inrelligenr and kind. It was called The Beale Papers. silver and jewels. This second page explained that the fortune was in Bedford. The townspeople dug up their own gardens and farms. Nothing was ever heard from him again. that helps to solve a crime or 011' I I trade Ilreldl (v) to buy or sell large quantities of things bury I'beril (v) to put a dead body under ground 20 2] . In 1885. For many years be tried to understand them. Morriss did nor understand me pages of numbers. jewels. he found an American government document mat marched the second page of numbers. silver and. bur. But the fortune ha never been found. he failed. AU the pots were buried in a hole in me ground abou two merres deep. He started looking at different books and documents to see if one had words rhar matched me numbers in a meaningful way. like the face of a man who had spenr a lot of time in the sun. he guessed mar each number represented a word in a book. The third page gave the names of the people who should share the gold. I Giving away secrets Morriss could nor work our the strange numbers on me secret pages. But the governmenr document did not give clues [Q the tirst or the third pages or numbers. Beale promised [Q send me key for the box and information for decoding [he messages inside it. the value of me gold silver and jewels is about £10. These were the relatives of the men who found the fortune. The letter al a aid due Morriss should open the box in ten years if Beale did nor return. In today's money. people still look for it. he gave [be box and its papers to another man. but he did nor know where to start. Thomas Jeffer on Beale and his friend . The question was: which book? Ward decided that it must be a popular or famou book or docurnen mat anyone could find. I e decided mat mere were too many numbers for them to be ciphers for letters. fortune. a small but unusual book was printed in the United Scates. The message said mar the exact place was given in me first page of numbers. silver and jewels.Unsolved Codes and Ciphers Unsolved Codes and Ciphers The letter explained that the box contained secret information about afortune in gold. Ward tried co find answers for the next twenty-three years. 10 read. problem or a piece of information. in the United States. it said. Ward compared the numbers and words and fiJ1ally understood one of the three parts of the secret. The letter also explained (hac the gold. Finally. People became very excited about the mystery of The Beale Papers. The letter also explained me three pages of numbers. J B Ward. Morriss said later that Beale was a handsome man but that his face was very dark. and 1. They then buried their fortune in a secret place in rhe ground where no one would find it. Morriss owned a hotel in Lynchburg. There were al a many jewels. A lirtle later. Many did not wait to solve the mystery of the firsr page.CHAPTER Chapter 4 .

.. people have looked at what Elgar and Penny both knew about and liked: walking in Elgar's cipher the countryside. and other shapes. Afier he killed them. He even put them into some of his music. VJRCJNLII. Each cipher was handwritten all paper. hut no one h:18 been. Some of the cipher text has been broken. he talked about how he killed the people. It is completely in cipher. old house outside Rome. No one has been able to understand it. One solution may be to study as many old European languages as possible and search for a cipher that firs.wrote the letters much later. • The Zodiac Cipher In the 1960s and 19705. They have looked for information about Morriss. Some are filled in and others have dots in them.h century. Perhaps he simply made up the smry. Morris.not Beale .nu5~ript l'mrenj(Jslmpll (n) an old book written OUt. an American book {'ages/ram the V&ynich MaJluscript by hand before printing was invented 22 23 . in Italy. But there are also many small. horse racing and music. he wrote letters to police departments and newspapers. The letter included a cipher. But other people think the Beale story is not true .. But why would anyone go to so much trouble? One reason might be money .- Unsolved Codes and Ciphers of the COUntry. Most of the symbols are letters. but some are squares.ll round mark. visited an. The killer explained that one of the codes gave his real name. • A musical Cipher? The British musician Edward Elgar loved puzzles and secret codes.s was probably a real person. THE The Voynicb Manuscript is also filled with very unusual pictures. He found an old manuscript that was handwritten sometime around the 15. Perhaps someone else The cover of The Beale Papers. found about Beale or Ward .C I>TATEiM!NTS is just a joke. Beale and TREASURE BURIED Ward. Language specialists say that Beale uses words in his lerter [hac were not popular in 1822.. found where the letter says it was .that The Beale Papers AlirHENTI. Penny Was not able (0 decipher [he message and Elgar never gave her the answer. ma. sma. Elgar sent a letter [Q Miss Dora Penny. Many of them look like scientific drawings of plants and views from telescopes. the Zodiac Killer murdered at least five people in California. :puzzle /'pllzlIlJ (n) something that is difficult to understand dot Idotl (n) a... Were these old stories about Beale? Perhaps the other pages are not the same kind of book code. Ward gives some good advice.. The pages of the book are about the size of chis book's pages.The baths are connected like the branches of plants. able to discover it. odd pictures of women in baths . There are many unsolved ciphers. Perhaps you will SOiVl' them one day. On 14 July 1897.. but the Voynicb Manuscript is much thickerand much more difficult to understand.. He warns readers not to waste too much time looking for clues. We now know that [he killer used seven different symbols for [he letter Eand did not have any symbols for some other letters . But Penny was not a very good musician and Elgar would not send her a musical message that was roo difficult to decipher . Ward's book was very popular and made him a lot of money. BEALE PAPERS. but little information can be 1819 Aii'll 1821. football.but not for the forrene-huerers...Secret Codes Chapter 4.Some people say it is not likely that gold was BIlFDJlDS. printed by Ward . Dr spot or explain Tha Voynich Manuscript Twenty-seven years after Ward's Beale Papers book came collector. the daughter of a friend of Elgar's wife. Elgar died in 1934 and Penny died in 1964. In his letters. And why did Beale write letters in three different ciphers: Why not just use one? There are a lot of questions . To guess the meaning. Wilfred Voynich.IN' BEOFIllU> CDUNTY. circles. He also included messages in cipher. Ax the end of the The Bettie Papers.

messages. ~ . 6 The Zodiac Killerangered the pollee messages in code. 1 They kept Mary safe He deciphered the message by finding some letters and guessing others. possibly the killer of Henry Stewart. 2 3 Mary sent messages Pepys kept his diary secret life at that time. Are these sentences true (T) or false (F)? Robert Morriss discovered the Beale fortune. 4 The Voynich Manuscript is written in an English Cipher. Language in use look at the sentence in the box. o The of the King of France dies. 4 . D Mary is born in Scotland. o Mary sends secret messages. Then number these events in the correct order. 6 The Zodiac Killerwrote ciphered messages about his murders.4. He is later killed. Pages of numbers may tell everything about the Beale fortune. (send) them . (send) her to France when she was (put) them In empty containers.abeth makes Mary her prisoner. S Seale discovered that the secret fortune was very large (decipher) a page of numbers. What do you see in each picture? Write your answers. 3 A government document was the key to one of T F the pages. o Mary marries Henry Stewart.~9. son of the King of France. D Elizabeth finds and deciphers the secret D Elizabeth has Mary's head cut off. (read) Pepys' diaries we have a better understanding of . 7 The Zodiac Killer's cipher included nine symbols for the letter E. Then use by + V-ing in these sentences.i. (write) it in a cipher. 24 T F T F T F T F T F 25 . five years old.:9 o Eliz. SOh D Mary marries the o Mary marries lord Bothwell. o Mary escapes to England.>.. 5 Knowledge of Elgar and Penny's shared interests might help solve Elgar's cipher.Activities 3 Secret Codes Were you right? Check your answers to Activity 2. lIB What 1 2 more did you Learn? T F What's next? look closely.

Bur be careful not [0 bum me paper! [f an enemy saw a plain piece of paper in the mail. For example. The second king shaved his head and read the message. You only needed a story with aU the letters for your message in the right order. Wben yow: friends receive me message. Charlbury's most beautiful garden. Dear Aunt Mabel. the one underneath has your message. It was near the end of World War 2 and the British and Americans were worried. When you hold paper money up to a special Iighr. Cheap messages Another way to send a hidden message is to write an ordinary message bur mark certain letters. The cat is in the tree againll will write again tomorrow. For example. The message could be anywhere in the newspaper.but his students did! ecret codes and ciphers are not the only ways to hide secrets. ir was inexpensive [Q send newspapers in England but expensive to send letters. People found an interesting way ro save money. and keep the other piece. Secret inks There are many other interesting way ro hide secret messages. The writing should then disappear and you can send yom secret message to your friends. S When me underlined letters are taken our. Most paper money now uses these kinds oEinks. he would wonder what it was aU about. Simply write your message in orange juice OJ' milk and let it dry. slavery is the use of slaves or the condition of being a slave 26 . A similar way to hide a message is tQ cur holes in two pieces of plain paper. Yay give oge of [be pieces to your friend.r. an American ciry. you can use inks that cannot be seen. When you rake away the top piece of pape. see you later.CHAPTER haprer 5 . Make the lines of your sentences a little wider and write your true message between them.§sa~ ~ould be much mo~ difficult if you also used i!. These five words were all important code words used by their armies in planning attacks against the German army in France. The slave's hair grew back and he travelled ro see the second Icing. you can read extra information. bur thought they sounded important. He WIlJ not a German spy and he did not have speciaL injotmatz'on . This was an unusual way to send a message and it was not very fast. they hide the messa. Is an old one: wnQ_ CQrnbury Park. He was nor a German spy and he did not have special information . Oh.1·m it gendy over a coaster. YO!! then pur a piece of writing paper under the piece with the holes and write your message. You can use another kind of secret ink at home. Did you hear team be in town too much work on the second and third. the message becomes meetmeinlondon. and a word for a leader. Wim pace and capital letters added the message becomes dear: Meet me in London./ (nl someone who is owned by another person and must work for them without payment. Often people do not use secret codes at all. It would also help if you made holes under letters on other p~es. a British newspaper printed a word puzzle by a schoolteacher called Leonard Dawe. at this time of year. you write in ower words between the words of your message. But I can't go. The answers [Q me puzzle included five unusual words: the names of an American state. The hea will make the hidden writing appear again.but his students did! They bad suggested the words and helped Dawes write the puzzle.. a Greek king wrote a message to another king on the shaved head of a slave. The sruden did nor know what me word meant. Peter will the news on the radio today? My favourite next month. For example. 27 slave Isle!.Tnsread. Many years ago.ges chat they want [0 end. a it is better to write a false lerrer with unimportant information in it. a an enemy would not know which page [0 look at. They had not told Dawes where [hey heard the words. Where did they learn the words? Dawes's rudents liked to play around a British army camp and had oneIl heard soldiers use the code words.Hidden Writing Hidden Writing Britain's spy department quickly contacted Dawes. I have to do A dangerous word puzzle In 1945. they can W3. They used a needle to make small holes under different letters. cipher. To hide it. Britain's spy department quickly contacted Dawes. an unusual tree and me Roman god of the sea. Can YOll read rhe message in the lines below? The me.

If an enemy stopped you. Another method was to write the two arms of semaphore symbols and connect several symbols in a line. He ran aU around the fields outside the building and explained his insect drawings co anyone who was interested. It is code fOL 'gone home'. you could drop the balls and they looked like small stones. If anyone asked. be wrote a book about his life. At other rimes. 00 the Mediterranean Sea. In 1915. he wrote his messages on small pieces of paper and made them into balls. In III book.ccret Codes Chnprer' 5 . Later. They were really drawings of rhe building. BUT . In 1892.Hidden Writing Coded pictures or all messages can be written in code. When Baden-Powell died.his drawings were more important. Badin-Powell. In Africa. Baden-Powell hid a drawing of another building by making i[ look like an old church window. Africa and Europe. Sometimes. Baden-Powell was also good at catching other spies. rho/villg the position ofamry 28 grillS an nn insects wings me 19 . they would pretend to look for a lost animal. He described many ways of hiding messages. [hey carried Lights into fields [0 send signals. Sometimes spies need to send pictures. A dmwillgb). soldiers at an important Baden-Powell was a spy for many years in India. you could return and pick them up. he explains how people used lights and chimney smoke to send signals. These were bidden in holes in walking sticks or covered in small. A semaphore message: 'Plagsshare secrets' Because he was good at spying. They were JUSt drawn to look like insects. thin sheets of metal and worn around a messenger's neck. MyAdventures as a py. These lines could be fined onto the side of a drawing. German army building in Dalmatia. a ircle with a dar was pur on stone where he was buried. enjoyed laughing at Robert Baden-Powell. showing the posicion of each gate and big gun.

The doccors found these and gave them to the prisoners' govemmenrs and famjJies. spies used ordinary things like pencil and coins with hollow spaces ro hide message . Finally. but what do they mean? Writing for the blind The dors are a way ofwriting called Braille. Bu r while pea pie h ide messages. One spy used code words in a car advertisement co share information about meetings. W'hen Braille was four years old. The school was like a prison and the boys were badly beaten for me smallest mistakes. Now a photograph or page of text can be hidden inside another photograph and then sent by computer.nor the Mongols. Braille had an accident and [he [001 went into his right eye.. They cook the old cloche with them. For fWO years. They learned simple jobs that they could do without using their eyes. In 1821. His father made shoes for a living. Inside each mooncake was a piece of paper with rhe message. The students did nor learn bow co write. Braille met a soldier called Charles Barbier. Kennedy decided to try to destroy the organisation. you would tear off the secret burton and destroy it or throw it away. Braille thought he could make it simpler to help blind people to read.mean when you get a I. email/'i:melll (n) electronic mail. but some secrets are hidden where everyone can see them. But after very small cameras were invented. the hinese decided to light back. a way of sending messages by computer raise /relzi (v) to move or lift something into a higher position 31 30 . You may know that they are for the blind. We are surrounded by secret symbols. Ar one business. To share their plans. Photograph are more difficulr to hide. ne favourite place wa behind a stamp 00 a letter. The message could only be recognised by someone who knew the code. The backs of shirt and coar buttons were another popular place [0 hide secret messages. Bur it was difficult to read [hem because letters all felt roo me we me similar. They became the rulers of [he country again. Anomer spy used coloured pins on a telephone POSt 1:0 give d ifferem messages. even in food! In me year ]280. Many people never notice most of memo ~en you get in a lifi. doctors visited prisoners and broughr them new clothes. it is a sign that there is a love letter inside.ecrer odes CHAPTER Strange pLaces ecret have been hidden in many differem places.ter with rhe sta~p upside dow.oes if . 'Kill all rhe Mongols!' The Chinese peopJe started a war and won. Only a computer with the right code can read the information. if an enemywas ncar. th ir pi rures could be made in a mall dots. Barbier used twelve raised docs on paper for soldiers to feel. Braille finally went to a special school for blind boys in Paris. But ill some counrrres. He [oak a pointed metal cool and made boles in pieces of leather. often wrote secret messages in very small letters on parts of rheir old clothes. There were few books for the blind and they all used raised letter on the page. Secret Symbols After his African American helper was beaten by a Ku Klux Klan gang. Braille still went [Q the local school. Only the Chinese ace these mooncakes . Many pies carried secret LIl hidden places. but he was not learning anything and could not read or write. Braille slowly lost ighr in his lef eye. me boss found our rhar me employee wa hiding company information in the photographs and sending ir to another bu ine . He was now blind. be went inro his father's shop and tried [0 make some shoes. This wa bad news. These dots were hidden in unlikely places. Barbier had invented a way for soldiers to communicate at night without speaking or using lights. Braille was born in a small town near Paris in 1809. The Chinese became their slaves.n? I~ may lust mean that che sender was ID a hurry. but school did cry to reach them how to read. ther photographic dots were sometimes hidden somewhere on a spy's body. [he man who invented it. Soon after that. Often. But the cipher was roo d. like China. It is named after Louis Braille. he lost sight in eye. you will see a few row of raised dots next to the buttons.iHiculr for oldiers to learn or remember. When me enemy earched them. Bur the prisoner. but it got war e.e~. Kublai Khan and the Mongols became the rulers of China. chey asked all their bakers to hide messages in special cakes served during the Augusr Moon celebrations. Computers have made it much ea ier [0 hide secrets. It was trange char she never wrote back. a boss wondered about one of his employees. W hat d. During World War 2. their secrets would not be noticed. The employee sent email messages with pictures ro his 'grandmother' every day. other people will always look fm ways to di cover them. He used different arrangements of six dots for writing letters and numbers and even invented dot ciphers for mathematics and music. In 1368.

In this way. bur many people in the North wanted the slaves to go free. the gangs killed me hobos. Most people did not notice them. But the students loved the Dew and easy way to read. Many people in South wanted to keep them as cheap workers. me hobo j'h"ub"u/ (n) someone who travels around and has no home or job 32 33 . bur another teacher refused to allow his srudenrs to learn it. During this time. • The underground railway From 1861 to 1865. but there used to be a lot of them in North America. the hobos shared information about food. rl1CY might think that the signs were accidental marks or simply children's drawings. The war was mostly about African American slaves. all everything From buildings ro paper money. omerimes the hobos fell under train wheels as riley cried to escape. They were mostly men. slaves escaped from the Soutb and travelled to the North on the 'Underground Railroad'.Secrer Codes When hobos went to a new place. They hired gangs of Strong men to get rid of them. If they did. armies from [he North and South of the United States fought each other. Sometimes. Often. The train companies did nor want [0 give free rides ro hobos. or they Froze in winter. they left signs around own [Q snare information with other hobos. work and dangers. But it was against rile law and it was dangerous. These signs were usually small drawings near the door or gate of a house or business. who travelled from place to place to lind work. Braille became a teacher at his old school. me Eraille symbols Braille's alphabet for the blind was not an immediate success. They began learning ir in secret. Blind people everywhere Liked to write messages in their own Braille letters. Braille writing is now found around the world. the cheapesr way to travel was to jump on a rrain. Hobo symbols Hobo signs Hobos are not so common now.

talked and played games . Some rools could help them :find new work. It was a group of people who helped slaves escape. like a perSall who had drunk IOQ much alcohol. He gave secret information to the police. These helpers had many secret ways to tell slaves where there was a safe house for them to rest. They paid a small amount of money that went to the leaders of the KKK These leaders of teo used the money for illegal activities.and the KKK always lost! When the leaders of the KKK heard their code words on the radio. the group also began to terrorise B and kill freed slaves. ut soon.. many people learned the facrs about KKK and were not afraid of it anymore. The writers of the radio show and children loved [he new story. He starred by writing about it but few people were interested. When the Underground Railroad was ready for more slaves to escape. many people were unhappy rhar slaves were free.000. the helpers put out: blankets with pictures of wheels and tools on them. The embarrassment hurt the KKK and they SOOD lost most of their members. This made even more KKK members leave. By 1920. politicians and newspapers. 4. and he wrote mote about [he organisation. .. He was an American vas writer who often wrote about African Americans and he hated the KKK. Would he be more successful if he could make everyone laugh at the KKK? He contacted [he makers of SupemzaTl. Bur slaves knew what the patterns meant. he learned the new code words and quickly gave them [Q the writers of the radio show. and Kennedy gave them aU rhe Klan's secret code words. but little was done about it.There were many signs for danger . pretended to be a good member ofrhe group (without hurting anyone) and learned all about the KKK. Most thought that nothing could be done to stop the KKK In the 19505. or KKK At first. Ir did not cost very much to join. But because Kennedy was a member. The wheels meant that ir was time to go. If was dangerous co escape and dangerous [Q help slaves. Were they interested in a new enemy for Superman to fight? They were. rhey JUSt met. did join. a radio show fbI' children. He sold 400.too/.Secret Symbols The Underground Railroad was not underground and it was not a railway. the first country in world to make slavery illegal. Soon KKKmembers' own children were playing Superman and KKK . Most people thoughr chat Blanket symbols me Go fa CI11IRda American helper was beacen by a KKK gang. they quickly changed them.000 white Am. After his African pattern /'pa:t alll (n) shapes that are arranged ina requtar way 54 35 . patterns.. Suddenly. mostly men. Other tools could be used for prorecrion. The KKK became very powerful. A pattern of flying birds showed the best direction to take for an escape to Canada. but a lor of people. me Briflg. TIH!O Kennedy had an idea. No one wanted to belong to a secret group that was not so secret. Stetson Kennedy . More imponandy. One way was to hang colourful blankets on their washing lines . it became embarrassing to bea member. He joined under a False name. Kennedy wrote a: book abom his fight against the KKK. Kennedy decided that he should work against the KKK from the inside of the organisation.Secret Codes Chapter 6 . Six white men from the American South decided to starr an organisaticn called the Ku Klux Klan..r Om'lgl'dirl!CtiorJ Oftl!ll Superman and the Ku Klux Clan After the Southern United States lost [he war against the North..000 copies. the tools meant that the slaves should bring tools to help rhern.ericaru belonged to the KKK. born in 1916.. Kennedy decided to try co destroy the organisation. These colourful blankets had interesting they were just pretty...ODe pattern warned slaves to change direction often.

. you can read extra information. Can you think of any stories (books or films. it gently over a toaster. a a Braille specialist b a spy in Australia c skilled at hiding secrets c with other slaves 3 Stetson Kennedy helped destroy the KKK. . Number the sentences in the correct order. a in large cameras o When you hold paper money OJ There are many 6 People cut holes in newspapers to . a warn spies b destroy unpleasant stories c save money D When your friends receive the message. 0 Chinese 2 3 bakers prisoners 4 5 0 Doctors visiting D Louis Braille 0 Stetson 0 Robert Baden-Powell Kennedy Codes often appear in stories ... Work with other students.Activities 4 Serret COdes __ Were you right? Circle the best answer. up to a special light... a keep animals warm b escape safely c catch birds b in other photographs c on top of stamps 5 Photographs are sometimes hidden .. a by making fun of it b with secret radios 4 o Simply write your message in orange juice or milk and let it dry. tvlotes 37 . should then disappear and you can send your secret message to your other interesting ways to hide secret messages. What more did you learn? Match the people to the things they are known for.. . you can use inks that cannot be seen. for example) that contain a code? Make notes here.. o For example. o But be careful not to burn the paper! o Most paper money now uses these kinds of inks.... o The heat will make the hidden writing appear again. they can warm D You can use another kind of secret ink at home.especially detective stories. . What's next? ... 2 language in use Hobos used signs to . a help them meet police b find the closest train c share information Baden Powell was .s used blankets to .... What dues do you use to help you make your choices? Slave... D The writing friends.

Holmes ehinks che message is in code. It begins like this: tell him chat the book was selling very well.. bur they upset his wife. because chey are already burnt. The man shows the light once. johns uncle soon dies in a rnysrerious way. Trevor shows Holmes the letter. the letters do not seem to make sense. so he sent this message to his British bookseller: ? The bookseller wrote back message Was! to T asks him to pu [ the box: and its letters outside. Sherlock Holmes's most famous cipher case is 'The Adventure of tbe Dancing Men'. does 110r understand it and watches his uncle burn a box full of papers. Sherlock Holmes understands that the. before STopping and scarting again.. the real message. five orange seeds are acode for 'you will be killed'. This letter translate ILI~ns'!elt. a bag of old metal and stones . John. but that night John is also murdered. Musgrave has a strange document that has been in his family for a few hundred. But then he sees the meaning.Puzzles in Fiction Puzzles in Fiction Atfirst..6ve orange seeds.'. a man comes to Holmes with a copy of a drawing that he has seen around the outside of his house. In The G loria Score'.J!lu:re. then several more times. the document has several map dues co find something that was hidden long ago.. u nJ The document then talks about trees and Jteps and directions. Trevor's father has an enemy who has talked to the police about the father's secret criminal past. 'VJ1ho. the message is changed co the word Danger. It is a very simple message of just sentences about hunti11g birds."htJlllraveitl Many writers also Like to use puzzles and secrets in their books. He soon dies as well. He cannot. [WO lights mean b. Later. after a warning is repeated three times.He finds that the man with the Light has been murdered. In Conan Doyle's 'The Five Orange Pips'. 'The Musgrave Ritual' contains an unusual puzzle that the detective must solve. "'0Of die. ni:ght. But then he sees the mea1'ling. also with five orange seeds in it. He wanted to know bow well the book was selling. Every third word is the real message.figures that appear to be dancing. people often use mirrors ro send messages and warnings. In fact. Holmes thinks the messoge is in code... Every third word i. Sherlock Holmes solves a case by watch ing a rna n wal k in front of a window with a Iighr. years. a man receives a letter with . But no one in the Musgrave family has ever understood it. His UTlW$e was it? :FIls ". ill it. He promises [0 help John. 38 39 . come. His nephew. In 'The Ad ve nsure ofdie Red Circle. Two people disappear while they are working for Musgrave and Holmes tries [Q find our what happened. Trevor's father receives a letter . Even after Holmes has understood this. He wlJO LIUl Sherlock Holmes Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes detective stories are full of secret codes and symbols. but she will not teE him. It is a row of stick .CHAPTER II Chaprer 7 . Victor Trevor. These dancing men mean nothing to the man. Holmes understands mat the man's light is cornmunlcaring one letter aft·er another . three lights meanc .Onelighrmeans a. But these lights ate used as a simple code to warn a criminal. The Hound of the Baskervilles. Lighrs at a window are also used in another Sherlock Holmes story. They are in Italian. In this story. Holmes has a friend called Reginald Musgrave. At first.But Holmes cleans them and explains "that they are the royal jewels of the first kings of England. he French writer Victor Hugo wrotea book chat was translated lnro English and sold in Britain. When the tnessage suddenly stopsJ Holmes rushes to see what happened . She seems to know their secret. John'sfarher receives a similar letter. Pinally. Holmes goes One twO [0 visit his old friend.110 is gotle. but it does not make sense. Holmes uses the light at the window cipher to help solve the came. Tn stories by orher writers. trmnz·J (v) to change speech or writing from one language to another J. It is finally found but looks unimportant. bur Trevor's farber is deeply shocked and he soon dies. Is there a secret cipher or are they code words? Then he realises that the messages are not in English.

But he had to bum most of them because they contained too much secret information. so the Swiss police never looked at them too carefully. In 1939. Together. Dan Brown and The Da Vinci Code One of the most popular books in the world today is a srory about secret ciphers and codes . Vinci Code. read their secret messages. which the dead man wrote himself in his own blood. The dancing men Holmes looks atthe message and begins ro g. Vinci Code.. He collected informacion from other spies about the German army and sent it back to England. an insectcollector draws a picture of an insect he has found. He uses the Dancing Men cipher to send a message to the local hotel. Trumbo hated war and wrote the book for people who rhoughr rhar war was exciting.Puzzles in Fiction Poe was a writer. The information was hidden in code in Maugham's handwritten books. 40 .Dan Brown's The Da Vinci Code has been translated into forry-four languages. Each dancing man iss symbol for a different letter. French and German. A man with a specialist interest in symbols and the dead man's granddau:ghter. but are connected with the subject of Brown's next book. Johnny Got His Gun Not all stories with codes and ciphers areabour crimes and spies. It begins with a murder at the Louvre. After lindinga page with secret hidden writing on it and breaking a cipher. Russia . in Switzerland. But Poe himself only used very simple ciphers.a. When he was very young. speak or hear.. Soon. rhough.uess what each dancing man might rnean. Thousands of readers followed the dues and were able to 41 • Edgar Allen Poe Like Arthur Conan Doyle. Edgar Allen Poe was a writer who was interested in ciphers. But he is too late. Holmes explains thar one man's invention can always be understood by anomer man . a specialist in ciphers. Rewrote newspaper stories about them and invited readers to send him secret messages in their own ciphers. The man is dead and the pol ice think that his wife has killed him. he did write a book about his work as a spy in Sr Petersburg. there are other clues. On the cover of The Do. These clues have no relacionship with The DIt..Holmes's message is the one above. But the famous British writer Somerset Maughamreallywas a spy. here are strange T sym bolsaround the. In the story. though.Tt is a cipher of symbols. Somerset Ma. Poe also used a secret cipher in his short story 'The Cold Bug'. Holmes discovers the meaning of the messages. he wrote about how to solve ciphers and his notes were used to break German ciphers during World War 1. they follow a :number of dues. The drawing is on a piece of paper he has also found. In 1928. was a doctor. He eventually uses Morse code to tel! his story by hitting his head on his pillow. In Switzerland. It means. who wrote che Sherlock Holmes stories..Chapter 7 . Later. to speak English. People were surprised that Poe could. but he was born in Paris.. nor a detective. theinseer collector finds a fortune in gold. Conan Doyle. in Paris . body. see them. He was so good at languages that Britain's spy department sent him to be a spy in Genev. he started writing detective stories because not enough sick people came to see: him and he needed another way to make money. Many of the clues are connected with Leonardo da Vinci. where one letter or SYl1)bolwas used for another letter.. Maugham wrote stories about his spy experiences. 'Come here ar once.. Maugham pretended to be a French writer. The killer quickly comes There and is caught by the police . Dalton Trumbo wrote a book about an American soldier in World War 1 who loses both arms and both legs and the ability to see. all artist and inventor who lived in Italy five hundred years ago.ugham Maugham was British. After World War 1.' The murderer is surprised that anyone can understand his code. This was the name Maugham used when he worked in Russia as a spy for the British government in 1917. But on the other side of the paper is something else: an old clue to something that was buried. Holmes finds a way to catch the real killer..The name of one of the people in me book was Somerville. he Learned.

a new idea became popular in France. they could drum too.... Like mountaintop fires. The work of art is called Kryptos. especially in places where you could nor see mountains or smoke. Th« Do Vinci Code mixes fact and ficrioR. and the noise could make the first message impossible to understand. Pan of rhe message . a bottle of liquid inside will break and destroy the message. 70 kilometres away. they could miss a message. Friends saw the patterns of smoke and understood the code.Secrer Cod es CHAPTER • • Mountain Fires to Enigma British scientists eould riot discover a way to break the code. Finally. People could bear drums in different ways. Also. so drums could share more information than mountaintop fires. or if the tube is broken. they found the reason . The clues led them to a piece of arc at the American spy department. Bur when enemies beard drumming.other ways People in ·differenc parts of the world found other ways [Q send messages . Twelve signal fires brought Clytemnestra me good news in a few minutes. These signals were not an effective way of sharing information. me Greeks used signal Dres. thas always been difficult to send secret information over great distances. a two-day journey by horse or a five-day run. smoke signals might nor be seen during bad weather.s. Drums were also better because people noticed the sound of drums withour looking in their direction. Native Americans built a fire and used a blanket to send up small douds of smoke.Langdon ill The Da Vinci Code solve the puzzle. Clytemnesrra. there were disadvantages. rhe CIA. If they are not. they immediately wanted to tell their queen. I Tom Hanks as Robert . but other people might just clunk that it was a fire. In parts of Africa.might nor be seen in rime. Bur very linle infonnarion could be sene this way. When the Greeks celebraredrhe fall ofthe city of Troy in 1084 Be .smoke signals.or the whole message.. drums were used to send messages. Mechanical semaphore 1n the late 1700.s used over short distances by soldiers .. they were also useless. One fact is Brown's description of a tube-shaped container with disks that need to be lined up in the right order . If the soldiers on the mountains were nor paying attention. fires on the topS of mountains were probably [he fasresr and easiest way [Q send a message across a great distance. Other places. She was 800 kilometres away in Mycenae. The first fire was lit and then another. the good news. Ir is a large public cipher puzzle with letters CUt out of meral. as waiting soldiers saw the signal. Each fire was lit in turn. heavy rains or cloudy weather could make the fires less easy co see. • BC: years befote the birth of Christ 42 43 . For hundreds of years. for example. Ir was a mechanical semaphore similar to semaphore signal. Leonardo da Vinci invented this cipher tube. Instead. usually JUSt a warning ot news char was expected. at night.

Morse code telegraph messages could be sent day or night over any distance. so it was possible that someone could break a code and learn a secret. The Inventor was a young American artist named Samuel Morse. ALthough it was very convenient that messages.. receive fifty words a minute by ear. the Chappe brothers connected two large metal arms to a cross-arm. trained Morse operators could. The brothers built several lines of stations across France. An. Instead.rsec. his code T could be sent on anelectrical line. The twO metal arms had seven positions each and the cross-arm had fou~ positions . Morse worked on his invention for six years. he finally showed the world a telegraph that could send a message in a code of short and long sounds . There were. primed our on paper. another invention took the place of the Chappes' semaphore stations. Each station was on a hillrop twelve to rwenty-jive kilometres &orn the nexr one. read at the other end. and several companies. but all around Europe.. Interest was slow Claude Chappe and his three brothers did not have jobs and were looking for a way to make money. He decided he could use electrical magnets to send messages over great distances.. 45 .ode Morse studied drawing and painting. the signal for Help!: '" --. There was one problem: telegraph lines could be cut or knocked down in a storm. In 1838. The most famous Morse code signal is 50S. But everyone could see Chappe's semaphore stations. of a line on and off.. he heard some people calking about electrical magnets. could be. for example. che brothers tried co uselarge squares of metal that looked like aorrnal semaphore £lags. They decided to build mechanical semaphore stations to send messages from one end of France to me other. but these metal flags were not easy to see over great distances.Mounrain Fires to Enigma The Chappe brothers' invention was soon popular not JUSt in France. The stations were hard to see in bad weather and. and turned back into words.•. bulle leng-distanee lines to carry news around the United A tekgmph machine States. Few business people wanted co use the stations. the lights could not be seen dearly at night. But people still learn Morse code because itcan be sent with mirrors.. 44 at first but then Morse. magnet I'mj£gn~lI (n) a piece of metal that makes other metal things move towards ft telegraph I'teL:Jgr~:fl(n) an old-fashlcned way of sending messages uslnqelectrlcal signa is . numbers and special symbols in code.Together. Ac fust. Mo. lights or bells. Messages could be sent in code. A Iifty[erter message could be sene in an hour. electrical signal could turn a magnet at the other end. On an 1832 boat nip from London to New York. although the Chap pes tried fixing lights to the arms.Secrer Codes Chapter 8 . but be was also interested in electricity and inventions. including letters. Finally.. But ir still had a few problems. fifteen stations in the 240 kilometres between Paris and Lille. they Gould offer a total of196 symbols.

they used the information [Q stop German attacks on their ships and to attack German ships. For example.Sec!'e! Codes Chapter 8 . Breaking Enigma Before World War 2. a private home with large grounds outside London. also learned that at 6:05 each morning. The Enigma's disks could be changed and the machine could mix every single letter of a message into a [lew and dlffenmc cipher.000. Morse code was still popular. Someone needed to break the Enigma cipher! Turing had two important ideas that helped to break Enigma. began in 1939. planes and submarines. To save time. The British sent messages about each success in a radio cipher rhae they knew the Germans could understand. Even after radio became used more than telegraph lines. so radio messages were often sent in code. But in 1933.000. Scherbius sold the Enigma co German companies. This was especially true during times of war. The machine itself locked like a box with keys and several disks [hat turned around each time a new letter was pressed. Turing's computer and codebooks from a All Enigma machine sinking German submarine helped the British solve the Enigma ciphers and read all secret German messages. they often used similar words. They were sent to break the Enigma cipher at Bletchley Park. Suddenly.. a. Mosrearly codes were not roo difficult if you were clever and had some skills in mathematics.irs ships and submarines as well as with irs armies abroad. bur also for normal business secrets. they found the reason: these new messages were made using a new cipher machine called Enigma. The last Enigma secret Sadly. Enigma could send a coded messag. heroes. Enigma operawrs used secret codebooks to broadcast their Enigma n)'essages each day. Governments and businesses were always trying to break each other's secret codes. He. bur the German government soon took an interest in Enigma's ability to offer 'unbreakable' codes. When World War 2.000.. the British government did nor tell the German government thisl Instead. Bur the Germans then added more disks and made the code more difficult.. But anyone with a radio could listen to the messages. dates and the German word for 'weather'. The Germans believed in Enigma and did not guess thetrue situation. Turing invented an early eomputer which matched coded messages to real words. invented by the German inventor Arthur Scherbius. tile British government began noticing strange secret Morse code messages from Germany. banks frequently sent secret messages ro their offices around the wodd. Every day. like times. the British government still thought that Enigma should be a secrer.. British scientists could not discover a way to break the cipher. At first. They could not afford to share their knowledge because Germany or another country might try to use a machine like Enigma again. Polish mathematicians were able to steal a German Enigma machine and began to understand how it worked. Many people think that Britain's use of the Enigma ciphers helped win the war. The decipherers of the Enigma code were not allowed to ralk about the work. Of course. Most of them died before their families and friends learnt thar they were.e in 159. Finally. thousands of enemy messages were collected and sent there for people to work on. ciphered A could not be an A. Bletchley Park soon became the centre of Brirish code-breaking activities.000.000 ways! The Britlsh governmen t hired many of England's top scientists and mathematicians . Germany used [he Enigma machine to communicate with . He learned that no letter could ever be a code for itself.Moun rain Fires to Enigma Secrets by radio The invention of radio allowed people to send secret messages through the air. Among these code-breakers was the young mathematician Alan Turing. after the war. The Germans broke ocher countries' codes and ciphers and used the informacion [Q attack planes and ships in the Atlantic Ocean. when German ships and submarines sent their weather reports using Enigma..and many people who were simply good at word games and finding solutions to puzzles. 46 47 . pretending chat their successes were the results of luck.000.

. " a Johnny Got His Gun 1 Conan Doyle who wrote the Sherlock Holmes stories was a doctor not a detective he started writing detective stories because not enough sick people came to see him and he needed another way to make money 2 3 4 5 It is finally found but looks unimportant a bag of old metal and stones It means Come here at once One light means a two lights mean b three lights mean c Part of the message or the whole message might hot an old document every third word \ b " 'The Adventure of the Danclng Men' 'The Adventure of the Red Circle' 'The Five Orange Pips' 'The Gloria Scott' 'The Gold Bug' 'The Musgrave Ritual' c d be seen in time 5 drawings outside a house 6 e f What's next? Chapter 9 is called 'Speaking in Code'... Do you know any ways of speaking 50 that other peopLedo not understand? TaLk other stu dents and make notes to here... Were your stories described in these chapters? Then match these dues to the stories on the right. Advantages Signal fires Drums Mechanical semaphore Morse code Radio Enigma machine 48 ~otes - Disadvantages 49 . ...~ ....Activities 5 Secret Cod es Were you right? Look back at Activity 4. . hidden writing Morse code 7 g What more did you learn? Write notes about the advantages and disadvantages of these methods of sending messages.4. 1 a light in the window 2 seeds in a letter 3 4 Language in use Use the punctuation marks in the box to correct these sentences from Chapters 7 and 8. ~..~ ...

In all. you 2.balrabeo. In Asia and the Pacific Ocean. Philip Johnston had a special skill and an unusual idea.' Another code Like rhis places ab before each of the letters 11. followed by o. By the time your enemy bas decoded the message. Johnston's father had lived and worked with Navajo Native Americans in the American Southwest. Chocataw Native Americans had used their language on [he radio to confuse German soldiers. and about twenty other people could speak or understand the Nav~IJ) language. Only me Navajo people themselves. he lived among the Navajo for twenty-four years. they are easy [Q P decipher. johnston did not just know how to speak the Navajo language. a:o ayay am= amyo. becomes abi (J. the Americans were 6ghting the Japanese.badaby knabow thabat sabecrabet. tl and y in a word. Spoken secret codes and ciphers need to be remembered by the people who use them. so the words change as different people become famous. e.: ecretsay telling = ellingtay 50 u or y and pur .ight use long words or speak i. big « igbay Larin = atinlay listen = istmlay pig'" igpay secrer. the United States was in the middle of World War 2. arents often want to say things that they do not want their children to understand. with practice. fOI example. e. it is probably no longer important. People speak it in different ways. Most importantly. If a word begins with a. You can speak Pig Larin by changing the order of leners in English words and adding some letters. It sounds difficult but. he knew that it was only a spoken ian guage. Pew people in the world had ever studied Navajo. but here are the rwo most common rules: 1. Johnston realised that Native American languages could be a good way ro send coded messages.they are only made th1'ough the nose. Because of this. 10 1942. and johnston had grown up with Navajo children. More important. 51 • Pig Latin A different kind of code is Pig Latin.' In Cockney. he also knew a lot abou r ir. means foce. i. With enough time. Speakers of Cockney. 0. a form of Eoglish.y 1= iyay In = myay = youyay 0.until their children learn [hat language. They do not need as much training. A sentence like J already know that secret.nlay: 'Listen. such as ay or yay. Some sounds in the language are not said through the m01lth . Bur alirtle-known language can be a useful code and it can be easy to 6nd speakers of the language who learned it as children. In Europe Africa and (he Atlantic Ocean. you can do it! Pig Latin and similar codes are really only used for speaking. 1 am telling you a big secret in Pig Latin. JohnstOn remembered that in World War 1. Johnston.CHAPTER • Chapter 9 . 50 it is important to send messages c:hat take a long cimeto break. e. Cockney English speakers sometimes use an invented language when they do nor know another language. i.y. There were no letters. so a lot efrraining is necessary. there was no dictionary.Speaking in Code Speaking in Code Navajo is also a difficult language to speak. sevenreen years earlier. For example. 'I like YOlU boat. They Ql. 0. Boat race. he naturally started to learn their language and customs. Cockney is always changing. the words dog Imd bone mean telephone and a Cockney speaker might say.11 anomer language . Also. If ic does not. he knew a lor abou one Native American language: Navajo (said /' ruevahao/). symbols or written words in Navajo. You can put these words together to say. use many words that sound like other words. them at the end of the word. German and Japanese enemies were very 1I n\ikely to speak it. Wind Talkers Time is important for many secret codes and ciphers. This mean t that there were no written descri prio ns of how me language worked and no easy way for people to learn it. Criminals in England learnt co say words backwards so police and other people could not understand them easily.but Cockney speakers use a short form and just say. a scientist or a spy can break almost any secret code using a computer. i. istenLay iyay amyay ellingtay youyay ayay igbay ecretsay inyay igpnyati. 'I'm on the dog. take away all the letters before the a. u or y. If you write messages in those codes. Americans were fighting Germans.' The meaning is very difficult [Q guess for someone who does not understand Cockney. It often uses the names of famous people for new words. add yay to the end of the word. As he played with them.

Often. Secret codes were important to him and to American soldiers co plan their attacks and also co call for help when they needed it. bur they were nor enough. Navajo soldiers could translate an English message and say it over the radio in Navajo. The rest worked perfectly. these messages needed to be em in difficult and dangerous conditions. or with a movement of the voice up or down. bombs. the islands of Britain were called land between waters and Spain was called sheep 52 A Nnvt1jo Wirld Talker 53 . The translated messages were exactly the same as the ones that were sent. cha (bar) or Lin (horse). This meant that [he test was a success.' Navajo i also a diflicult language to speak. aeroplanes and land vehicles. They needed a quick way to send messages that could not be easily understood. Vogel was a tOp officer in the United tare Army. an English-speaking person may say 'I am hungry'. so no written copies of the code were allowed outside the training camps. orne sounds in the language are not said through the mouth . Next they had to learn about sending and receiving secret codes. 1942.Spe:tking in Code Navajo is a very difficult language TO learn.Secret Codes Chapcer 9 . Place names also needed code words. bur a Navajo will translate the idea as 'Hunger is hurting me. TILe Wind Talkers first had CO learn about being soldiers. • Into the army In early 1942. Words change meaning if [hey are said softly or loudly. boats. Half of the Navajo were given messages in English. To rest the new code and cipher.anguage. Of course ir was necessary to keep everything secret. They called themselves Wind Talkers. you need [0 undersrand how a Navajo chinks. [he army found Navajo peakers who did not work for the army.special army training camp for the rust twentynine Navajo Native Americans code speakers. soldiers shouted and made lots of noise with guns to copy war conditions. To speak the l. If you say rheeppain quickly. But if they used one group of words for the lerr. it sounds like sbpai». johnston wenr to his local army cenrre and asked [Q speak to Clayton P. pain. The United States was called our mother. the letter Hwas ciphered as tse-gah (hair).they are only made through the nose. to the sound of • Newwords The Wind Talkers developed more than six hundred terms to describe differenr things. A Navajo speaker would listen on anomer radio and translate the message back into English. But it could be more dangerous if an enemy heard and understood a message. In ehruary. Sometimes they bad to spell chename of a special place or a person. later that year. but it did nor cover special army terms for differem kinds of guns. Voge1. the enemy might start to understand the cipher.ers. Vogel started a. If you do nor understand how the language works. he Navajo Wind Talkers had to remember everything. John ton brought five Navajo speakers together to meet Vogel. The Navajo language covered many important words like colours. It is quite unlike other languages. close Spain. The Erst Navajo Wind alkers developed code words for these terms. so for most letters the Navajo WInd Talkers used three different Navajo words. you can hear similar sounds repeated many times and not understand that they are different words. For example. Vogel gave them a test co see how me method could work. These other speakers of the Navajo language could not guess the meaning of the coded and ciphered messages. For example. At the same cime. cbanging them often. Other Navajo speakers received me messages and translated them back into English. Many of the aeroplanes were named after birds and many of the boats were named after fish. Johnston explained his idea.

The rest of the pages of the book were empty pages for the young woman to write a diary in Nashu. the Navajo Wind Talker code was never broken and the Navajo Wind Talkers helped rhe United Stares to win World Wru' 2. Older women. Adults control theirs for many reasons. an you recognise whether a stranger . It may let someone know [hat they are doing a good job. They may not want to show (hat they are bored because they want to be polite. first taught younger girls Nashu by singing songs in the secret languag and then talking and telling stories in ir. deaf children laugh alrhough they never hear anyone else laughing. Chinese girls now learn to read and write in school and do not need [Q read and write in a secret language. girls and women in Pumei Village. bends gave her a special book. anger and jealousy. But body language is different all around the world. For example. girls in Pumei Village taught themselves to read and write their own secret language. Instead. our body s messages are not the same as the ones we give through our speech. It is easiest to read the body language of children. Body language is all the communication in a conversation except the actual words you LLSe. These messages teach us a Jot about what people really mean. used a secret language char was never shared with men or boys. Tbey may not want other people [Q trunk they are afraid when they speak in from of a group. Sometimes they wrote a message on a handkerchief as a gift to another woman. There are two different kinds of body language: body language that we can control and body language that we cannot control. Many of these messages come from emotions like love. 54 55 . blind children do not learn (0 smile by seeing someone else smile. Tbe name of the language is Nasbu. until recently. Although they never see anyone happy or unhappy? There is one secret language that everyone speaks bur not everyone understands: body language. How many of the kinds of body language shown on the next page do you use? Do they have the same meaning? • Body language you control The second kind of body language is the kind we can control. The first few pages of the book were written in Nashu by female friends and relatives. but: a smile can also give other kinds of messages. Boys and men learned to read and write Chinese bur gills did nor learn. 10 the same way. C Uncontrolled body language We are born with body language that we cannot control. They wrote on their hands to practise. We may smile when we are happy. Some of the symbols look like Chinese symbols. It lllay show that we believe something. nor a word. We may give a polite 'yes' while showing with a shake of our head and crossed arms our true feeling: 'no'. AJl humans smile. Often. Nashu started as a way for young girls and women to make friends and share secrets. only about ten people know how to speak it. • For women only! For about 1. more than four hundred Navajo Wind Talkers were sending Thousands of messages. they Still do it. The written form of Nashu is quire different from written Chinese. As children get older they try to contra] their body language. sad or happy. but each one is a letter. she left her friends and went to live with her husband. Talking with Your Body Hand signals are important when people cannot hear each other or do not want to be heald. they did not have paper [Q write on. Sometimes. Girl were then taught how ro write the language. But people cannot always control themselves. And we use many different kinds of smile to greel someone or to call attention to ourselves in a shop or restaurant.700 years.Secret Codes CHAPTER I By 1945. Most importantly. or chat we agree. Nashu is a dying language. their bodies show it immediately. they did not go to school at all. When a girl married. in southern China. they also help us understand when other people are lying. It shows how we fed. so it is easier to learn. Today. When they are tired. Often. The human body has many ways to give messages about: how we fed. The third day after she was married. because their words do not march their body language.

But many of these people had a medical problem that made them and their children deaf. Even hearing people used it [Q communicate with other hearing people. These deaf people had no problem cornmuniearing. jewellery traders discuss the price of special jewels or scones by purring their hands under a newspaper or blanker. The lines around our eyes move too. we use OUI whole face [Q show real pleasure. They can lise hand ignals that the other team cannot understand. Small radios have made some of these signals tess important.Chapter 10. They pull on each other's fingers co agree a price and use code words to say if the price is in the hundreds or thousands. For almost rwo hundred years there was a small population on the i land and people often married within the same families. By the late 18005 there were twenry rimes as many deaf people on Martha's Vineyard as in mo t other places in the world. Children learnt it to communicate behind their teachers' backs in class . A \: B C J /p C D K L " . Sports teams use body language to tell team members how to play. People use body language to give many kinds of orders. Hand signals are importan when people cannot hear each other or do nor wam to be heard. They devdoped their own ign language for everyday use and most people on Martha' Vineyard used it. tiS (ji) M N 0 P 2' {Pi' ~ Q R 5 e T D ~ ~ ~~ U V W X Y Z In Hong Kong. Police and soldiers u e hand signals to give secret commands. People sometimes smile wirh their lips but DOt with their eyes when they are just being polite. but one group of people till uses hand signals every day: the deaf 5 E B e~ Y N 5 E c A R E T 5 H American N D Sign Ltmgr!4gr 57 . A police officer uses body language to give directions to traffic.Talking with Your Body Martha's Vineyard is an island on the east coast of the United [ares. ~ ~ ~ E F G H I Bod} innguagr But people do not jusr smile with their lips.

people in other English-speaking countries like Britain do nor understand. help each other and help others. Other signs just need to he memorised. But other people disagree and say the scientists have nor proved anything. after learning sign language in France. Connecticur in the United Stares. The Masons is an old organisation. 58 59 . There is no inrernational sign language. Some other signs are easy to understand when they are explained.their mouths. which are like a code.Secret Cod". milk.. Also. Amerios» Sigtl Language Bur although American Sign Language is used everywhere in North. Animals cannot talk for the same reason that babies cannot.Talking with Your Body to 1817. American sign language has two parts: body language symbols. like pointing ro /. also called the Freemasons. the use of your tight hand to brush pretend snow off your left shoulder means Canadian. Chapter 10 . are part ofa large international group of men who like to' share secrets. • Secret handshakes Water \Vash The Masons. many animals do not have lips. But in the "19805.. threats and tongues are not the right shapes. Their mouths. There have been many rests. sleep and food. He found that the baby could quickly learn to make simple signs. ir. Some signs are easy [0 understand. throats and tongues are not ready. or using your open righr hand to show my. Now many people use sign language with their hearing babies. but he tried it. The man found that these babies learn [Q communicate withtheir parents much earlier than hearing children. The two languages mixed and the new language was soon called American Sign Language. and alphabet symbols that are like a cipher. Some scientists say the tests prove animals can learn to speak in signs. a group of reachers opened a school for the deaf in Hanford. They use simple hand signs for things that they wanted ro have or do. Scientists wondered if animals could team to use signs to explain what they wanted. a university student noticed his deaf friends communicating with their babies in sign. Children and animals At whar age can someone stan to' learn sign language? Babies cannot talk before a certain age . It starred around the 17005 and perhaps as early as four hundred years earlier. bur they also took their own sign language with them. roy.ourself with the first finger of your right hand to show J. America. Masons give themselves special names and greet each other with secret signals and handshakes. The man's own child was not deaf. They use their own signs. Many deaf students from Martha's Vineyard went there to learn. The signs are for rhings like hat.

5 Some people drum their fingers to show impatience. "" * ~ •••• ill '..·.t . 6 American Sign Language is a language which deaf people use .... • • •••• ••• ••• •• *" ••• I •... 4 Write your name in the ab code. Then answer these questions... •••••••• ~ ••••••••••• .. ~~ ~ . •• .. T GO 61 . 4 One sign of nervousness is biting your fingers. 9 .. " •••• . 3 Do you know anyone who can speak Pig Latin? 4 Johnston spoke Navajo which gave him a good idea. _ .~. What more did you learn? Circle T for true and F for false..~ ~ ~ .. Do you recognise this stone.. ···.. The army found Navajo speakers..· .. F F F F F F 3 American Sign Language is uncontrolled body language.... .. . 1 Write your name in Pig Latin. ····. . ~"'''''''''''''''... ~ •• 5 The girls in Pumei Village who could not write Chinese wrote in a secret language.... ••••••• 1_' . 2 T T F All body language is uncontrolled.~ . ...~. who did not work for the army. What is the difference in meaning? Add commas to these sentences if they need them .. What's next? ~. (Mine is enkayeattybay) .4...... 5 What are the names of America and Spain in Navajo Wind Talker code? . •• .. ••• ~..~~ ~~ ... 2 What does the Cockney sentence 'I'm on the dog: mean? ~ •• .... •• . or can you guess what it is? Discuss why it might be important.~.... 6 7 T T T T Hearing babies cannot learn sign language..."'" ~ ••••••••••• Language in use look at the sentences in the box. 2 Cockneys speak a form of English that is always changing..··.'' I 5 •••••• ~ •••. 1 Cockneys who speak a form of English are difficult to understand.. . 6 What is Nashu? ~ ~....Activities 6 Secret Codes Were you right? look back at Activity 5.... ~ The army found Navajo speakers who did not work for the army. " •••••••••• ~'.•. Some hearing people speak to each other in sign language.~~~ ~ ~... ~..... 3 Make up a new word or sentence in Cockney........... ~.. 1 Blind children learn to smile ey listening.~~ •••• II" ~ •• ~ ~•• ~..

to most cases. When ChampolLion was eighteen years old.000 different symbols. Zend. The oilier language was Demotic. The French scientists made paper copies of the Roserta Stone's writings and sent them to 0 rher scienrisrs in Europe. Demotic is old Egypcian writing mat is simpler to read and write hieroglyphics. 63 62 . A glyph is a symbol. it is easy to learn other languages. As a young boy. The speakers and writers of those languages have all died and there is no record of how the languages sounded or what the writings mean . If they could understand one of the languages they might be able to understand hieroglyphics.400 years.ham. He decided to di over me meaning of hieroglyphics and spent the next eighteen years srudying them. [twas old Greek. soldiers found a lazge piece of black stone near the Egypr. there is no reason for them co be secret at alL. People had different ideas about what hieroglyphics might mean. Another problem was the direction of the sentences. this situation changed. discovered the man hieroglyphics l. usually a picture. Chaldean. Bu c many years passed before anyone could understand how CO read hieroglyphics. The scientists quickly decided that the stone was the clue they were looking for. he saw a copy of the Rosetta Stone. that gives tnforrnatien. One day. a young F{enchroan. people and animals. Bur it was still not understood.CHAPTER Chapter 11 . Some thought tha t the different symbols were letters of an 1'1\)'11 t uiu alphabet. He later learned Copcic. The scientist bad visited Egypt and Champollion had learned everything he could abour Egypt.nge symbols or even what they sounded like. The scientists wanted to rudy Egypt's arc and old buildings and to try co understand Egypt's past and its language. Pahlevi and Persian. A • 111angua. Later that year.You can go to the library or rake classes or visit another country and learn. It written in 196 Be and talked about the new leader of Egypt. The SCtllL'1H t'~ ~(!111 UIII went from left to right and sometimes from right [0 lefr. After 1798. but rherc ".I~ 11111 III the animal heads alway: faced the Stan of each sentence. a famous scientist came to his school. Scientisrs soon understood the message. All these languages helped him to understand how a lose Janguage like Egyptian hieroglyphics might work. Some people thoughr mat rhe symbols were only pretty pictures=decorations.ian town of Rosena. a thirteen year-old boy named Ptolemy V Epiphanes.'gIL[lksi (n) a way of writing that uses pictures instead of words. He bad many questions for the scientist. Hebrew and Syriac. The answer did not COme from a The Rosett« Stone famous scientist. He learned Arabic Chinese. me scientist laughed: 'Who went to Egypt? You or me?' The scientist thoughr chat Champollion was a great student and later helped him study ar a better school. The 762-kilogram stone was pan of a building that the soldiers were raking down. including hieroglyphics. Egyptian hieroglyphics ne of the oldest and most famous of these languages is Egyptian hieroglyphics. Champollion was very interested in languages. Hieroglyphics is an unusual kind of writing. ne of the languages was easy co understand. Some symbols are quite simple: a picture of a Imile means knife or cut. Finally. Ethiopic. On [he stone was a message in three languages. Some are detailed pictures of gods.ges are secret codes for people who cannot understand them. Jean Francois Champ secret. The French leader Napoleon Bonaparte rook hi army to Egypt. But for 1. no one could begin to guess how to read these stca. Some people thought each symbol was a diFf"cfl'l1t word.Lost Words Lost Words He decided to discover the 'meaning of hieroglyphics and spent the next eighteen years studying them. But some languages are Simply lost. Sanskrit. He also took 167 scientists with him. It includes 6. ilion.

A writer quickly made small marks in the wet clay Like Egyptian hieroglyphics. A [fader drew a picture of a cow on one clay disk and used it like money. cuneiform began as picture of things chat people wanted to buy and sell. . they used clay. The fuse pictures were of animals and food. 'I have done it!' he shouted. the messages might be buried in the desert sands for hundreds or thousands of years. he clay me sages in the houses and buildings were baked in rhe fires .000 years ago and was popular for about 3. thought about these differen ideas and looked at more and more examples of hieroglyphics. Then It lasted for centuries. cuneiform writers developed explain what it was about. Instead.000 years. II became very hard to recogni e (he old pictures. When he guessed the other letters. traders made one disk with the number five and a cowan it and till' disks became coins. In dllll. Sometimes they are also not included in written English. Often. if the btword was boat. boot. the clay could be baked hard. 64 clay fidei! Cn) a type of heavy earth that is used for making pots and bricks 65 . If the message was not important. He found chat sometimes symbols werein a little box. he bad the names of an Egyprian king and queen: Ramses and Kliopadra (Cleopatra). ChampoJlion jumped up from his desk and ran across town to see his brother. the first symbol might be abour water. his told Champollion thar Egyptian hieroglyphics were made up of sounds. the trader could lise one disk for cows and one disk with the number five on i r. It was used by the people who lived in the area around modern Iraq. These people did not use paper to write on. e. stick. i. it often burned down a city. If message was important. Eventually. and were not just pictures of ideas. 0 or u sounds. including beat. These pictures became simpler as people had to write them faster. It was first used more than 5. For example. If there were. Cuneiform was written with Cuneiform a small pointed. boat and. Later. we write the short form Rd for road Bur ir would be confusing if we shortened every word in this way. For example. Then he fell down and did nor get out of bed for eight days. clay messages were baked by accident. the clay could be put in water and used again. Cu neifonn was another Language chat was lost for thousands of years. The Lost language of the Egyptians could finally be read and heard again. Champollion guessed that the e symbols might stand for the name of a king or quecn.Lost Words Champollion knew that written Hebrew and Arabic texts do nor include the Cuneiform a. me Egypfiall hil!/"ogiyphics Champollion found characters ill the boxes that represented the sounds for RMSS and KLJ?DR. Instead of five disks for cows.After that. Charnpellion decided that hieroglyphics worked the same way bur that they used a symbol at the Start of the sentence. Two letters like btcould represent a number ofwcrds.Chaprer II . Champollion.five cows he made five clay di ks. When an enemy army attacked.

Thieves even go through people's rubbish to look for letters from banks or information about bank cards. C Stealing secrets Thieves find it easy [Q steal information from people's computers or banks because people are less. been broken because people have been careless or because spies have been clever. many people write down their code words and keep them in their wallets or on their desks. The French were able to understand the message. In the 1920s. you am lose a lot of money quickly and easily. Joseph J Rochefort was the World War 2 66 67 . Human nature means that people make mistakes for many reasons . a thief may telephone you and say mere is a problem with your computer or bank. peeple have often missed finding clues or solving problems for personal reasons.. Ifyou agree to give them your secret word or orherinforrnarion. For example. During World War 2. the Americans learned about japanese codes by breaking into their government office' in New York and photographing their codebook.500 years ago. cuneiform became a lost language that no one could read. Henry Rawlinson. thieves use 'social engineering'. Because the British and Americans could break the less difficult japanese codes and ciphers. He was the king ofPersia from 522 to 486 nc. They sect her a message in anomer cipher that they knew the French could read. he could read tWO hundred cuneiform signs. iphers and codes are only as good as che people who use them. careful about their secret codes than they are about the locks on their doors. • Mistakes In the 11 istory of secret codes and ciphers. Then.old Persian . Rawlinson spoke Persian and was able to translate the least difficult text .i1l stone. but they shared their plans with Japanese officials and politicians who then talked about the Gentian plans. The message gave away Mara Hari's name.or they may be punished for their success. The French government found and shot her. people haue often missedfinding clues or soivingpnJblems for pmonal rC41ons. By 1851. the same texts were written in three languages: Old Persian. so the Germans were angry and. Writi1lg.Secret Cod CiS CHAPTER Human Nature In the history ofsecre: codes and ciphers. People are now more careful with information about their secret codes and bank information. bur thieves still nnd new ways. Germans used [he effecrive Enigma cipher [Q keep their secrets. In other eases. It cold the Story of King Darius. Babylonian cuneiform and Elamke. The writing Ilad been cur inro the stone during the time of King Darius-I. Maca Hari was a Dutch spy who worked. found some writing on a rock at Behistun ill Persia (now in Iraq). After that.first. ill Behittun Although it was an irnportant language for 3. rhey had a better idea of what the Germans were doin. Rawlinson began the hard work of deciphering the cuneiform. punished her. they use people's foolishness and fears to get the secrets they want. Cuneiform is no longer a lost language and we can understand a lot about daily life 2.g. They have .000 years. to steal what they want. in 1835~ a British soldier. for the Germans during World War L But she made a mistake and sent information to them using an old cipher. Like the Rosetta Stone. For example.

Thompson and the Americans did nor believe him simply because they did not like Russians. He warned to bring the CbJiscian~e1igion to the people of the Americas. Mayans had built great cities and developed a written language around 100 Be. gods and everyday took De Landa destroyed much of Mayan language and art. it was nor JUSt kept in: books. The Mayan people left their writing on stone buildings. or glyphs .One man especially wanted to get rid of them: a religious leader called Diego de Landa. but they were not strong enough.among the most beauciful in die world .I y III us? These are questions that scien risrs have tried [0 answer for memo til . He decided to ask some of the Mayan people to write down their alphabet. In fact. The Russian scientist Yud Knorosov finally found a way to read the Mayan texts using de Landa's alphabet writing. In the 19205. Bm forrunarely. Other languag.h and r7t1'cenruries. the Christian religion and disease with them. For a long time. They found it in the area of Mexico and Cenrral America. In 1566.But it was almost completely lost. He ordered the Spanish soldiers to destroy all Mayan books and pictures. They rook guns.. Rochefort was right and found a way to prove it by sending a false message. alcohol. John Lloyd Stephens and Frederick Catherwood. These cities lasted until the Spanish arrived. But his boss was jealous and Rochefort never worked in codes and ciphers again. He did not understand the glyphs and thought that their pictures ef Mayan gods would stop the Mayan people from accepting Christianity. They also had beautiful writing .Human Narure cipher breaker who thought the Japanese were going co attack Midway Island. the Mayan langm:ge was lost. the Mayans did not have an alphabet. Many foreigners knew that there were lost cities in Central America and two travellers.•.es. The Spanish fouad a rich society. Spanish soldiers went to the 'New World' for gold. animals.IH they complete! y differen r? If they are. you might misunderstandand draw a sea. 69 68 . John Eric Thompson collected and organised thousands of Mayan symbols. were lost because people JUSt stopped using them. They simply wrote the pictures that they used for each of rhe sounds mat he said. But Mayan glyphs were lost because the Spanish did not like them .III 11'1 t r Maymlg/yphs The largest codes years.Secret Codes Chapter 12 . He fought with anyone who disagreed. but we do know that on:lythree are left today.. visited some of them in 1839. No one knows how many books were the form of humans. but he had his own ideas about what they meant. Mayan writing has hundreds of differenr signs. The Mayan people had beauciful art and great writings which cold their history and rheir srories. The Mayan Glyphs In [he 16. Thompson was a specialise in the Mayan symbols. Catherwood made drawings and paintings of the ruins they found and people became very interested in Mayan writing. Some people think that his ideas slowed learning about Mayan writing for forty years. he wrorea book about his time in Latin America and thought he should say something about the language. but he also helped to save it. whar are they like? What wi 11 th l'Y S. If someone asked you Ear the picture for the English letter c. His boss thought that they were goi ng to attack Alaska. The Mayan people tried to fighr against the Spanish. Slowly. De Landa hated Mayan glyphs. Is there ineelligenr life in other worlds? Are there living beings like people HI . like Egyptian hieroglyphics.

bur others were inreresred in the idea to communicate. Everyone /Qyes to know a secret.000 years for Voyager {Q gee dose to another world mat might contain Life. The Voyager space ship message is on a rhirry-ceurimerre metal disk. Were there scientific societies in other worlds sending radio messages? In 1960. Ower scientists send om messages for people from other worlds to hear. They may send out radio making secret codes and ciphers and ar breaking them. rwo scientists at Cornell University explained how radio waves could be sent between the stars. we will know that someone &om another world is rry. One group uses people' home computer 0 help examine informacion collected by radio telescopes. scienri t on Earth have cried to send another kind of code on a spaceshi p. Helistened for several weeks. It will rake 40. If signals are regular and repeated. This made people think. There are also greetings in fifty-five languages. perhaps no one will remember the message that we em or the languages rhar we now speak. Will we LIseour intelligence to fightwars or make friends? The important question is whether human nature will make people want to keep secrets or share ideas. What do scientists expect to find? People from another world are not likely [Q speak English or any other known language. he history of secrer codes and ciphers shows how clever people can be . different kinds f weather. a cienrisr called Frank Drake used a radio telescope co listen for signs from anomer world. When you are not working on your computer. Some of the languages are 6.000 years old.S""'Cl des hsptcr 12- Human Nature In 1959. By then. It is unlikely char anyone will ever develop the perfect secret code or cipher mar no one can break It may rake a long time and be very difficult. More and more scientists began looking for life among the stars. These include sounds of ocean. birds and other animals. The di k contains sounds and pictures that how diflerenr kinds of Life00 Earth. but it will be broken. a program can use it [0 look for ignals [hac could be messages. different rimes through history. There is musk from differem countries and from me me A I"adiolt!lt!!co/JI! in tbf UK 70 7] . There are 115 pictures and many sounds from nature. In addition to radio wave signals. He did not find anything. But you should nor expect to bear from another world roo SOOJl.

and why. •••••• . There are many fictional and real characters in this book. a Each student should choose a different code or cipher and make notes on its strengths and weaknesses. a b c Discuss which one you would most like to be. Which is the best? Vote to decide. Vote to decide. Start with the sentence below and use all these words in your story.. Write about it Write a story that includes the use of secret codes and ciphers. Work in small groups.~~ •••••• ~. but aLso its disadvantages. Which character would be a good spy if they were alive now? Choose one character each and make notes here..~ ••••••••• ~ •••• . b Now discuss the different codes and ciphers with the other people in your group.Talk about it Work in small groups. body Language clue represent ematl decipher signal translate puzzle ~otes I •••• ~. . Every secret code and cipher has its advantages. •• . II . Discuss which of those people would make the best spy. ~otes 72 73 ..~ •• ~ ••••• ~•••• ~ ••••• ~ .

but you want to talk in code.Project Kidnapped! Work in groups of three. What might you be able to use to make. a gang of thieves break down the door and lock you in a room. tJo+es 74 7e. Your friend is locked in the next room. Your brother is arriving at the house in an hour. Soon they are going to tie you up and put you in their car. They want to steal everything in the house. but they also want to kidnap the three of you! They hope to get money from your families. . Quickl Talk to your two friends and decide how you can leave a secret message for your brother and the police. You need to talk. Suddenly. Two of you are locked in a room under the hut. send or hide secret messages? Can you send messages outside? Can you get a message to your friend in the next room? Remember that the thieves must not know what you are dolngl Wotes Work in the same groups of three. You are in your house with two friends one night. Write a list of the ten most important words or sentences that you might need to use to help you escape. You have a few minutes while the thieves are in the next room. Then think of easy-to-remember code words or a cipher that will help you share information. One says that they are going to take you to a hut by a lake. You can hear them talking. The kidnappers must not find it! Project Kidnapped/ Work in the same groups. You and your friends are now in the hut. Look around the room.

... ... .. ~...~?'::.. . .~~ .:r. . ~. ~:.'~.~~.':'. .:_!~.!~~ . ...Project Kidnapped! j.0 ! . .:. ' ••• ~ ~.. ... ~ I: .$~~~~: ~ ..~'~~ ..':. .~ .~~~. :. t ..':'!..~..~:..I~ ' .. •~ . .. '''' ~ ~ 76 . ~ ...~ ... .....~:. _ J It workedl Youare free! The local newspaper has asked you to write your story.~ .~~.::~.~.i..~! .~~~.. ~.~~. ... ~ .~ . .....~:~.~~.~~9.

Ea5ystarts Level ..1• www..'.evel 1 200 headwords 300 headwords 600 headwords 1200 headwords Beginner Elementary Pre-intermediate C(Mlr photograph © MOen\ Art 8.J~J~ Itt I sa N 978-1~4Q58--5222-7 . . How did secret messages cause a queen to lose her head? How have lost languages finally been understood' How did one little-known language help a country win a war? Read this book and find out. . ArchltectuJ1! Collection Ubrary .British English Original For thousands of years people have used codes and ciphers to keep secrets from people who will do anything to learn them.penguinreaders..

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