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3-06

**Seismic Design of Liquid-Containing Concrete Structures and Commentary (ACI 350.3-06)
**

An ACI Standard

Reported by ACI Committee 350

First Printing November 2006

**Seismic Design of Liquid-Containing Concrete Structures and Commentary
**

Copyright b y the Amer ican Concrete Institute , Farmington Hills , MI. All r ights reser ved. This mater ial may not be reproduced or copied, in whole or par t, in any printed, mechanical, electronic, film, or other distribution and storage media, without the written consent of ACI. The technical committees responsib le for ACI committee reports and standards str ive to avoid ambiguities, omissions, and errors in these documents . In spite of these eff orts, the users of A CI documents occasionally find information or requirements that may be subject to more than one inter pretation or may be incomplete or incorrect. Users who ha ve sugges tions f or the impro vement of A CI documents are requested to contact ACI. ACI committee documents are intended f or the use of individuals who are competent to e valuate the significance and limitations of its content and recommendations and who will accept responsibility f r the o application of the material it contains. Individuals who use this publication in any way assume all risk and accept total responsibility for the application and use of this information. All information in this publication is provided “as is” without warranty of any kind, either express or implied, including but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose or non-infringement. ACI and its members disclaim liability for damages of any kind, including any special, indirect, incidental, or consequential damages , including without limitation, lost re venues or lost profits , which ma y result from the use of this publication. It is the responsibility of the user of this document to establish health and safety practices appropriate to the specific circumstances in volved with its use . ACI does not mak e any representations with regard to health and safety issues and the us e of this document. The user m ust determine the applicability of all regulatory limitations before applying the document and must comply with all applicable laws and regulations, including but not limited to, United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) health and safety standards. Order information: ACI documents are available in print, by download, on CD-ROM, through electronic subscription, or reprint and may be obtained by contacting ACI. Most ACI standards and committee reports are gathered together in the annually revised ACI Manual of Concrete Practice (MCP). American Concrete Institute 38800 Country Club Drive Farmington Hills, MI 48331 U.S.A. Phone: 248-848-3700 Fax: 248-848-3701

**www.concrete.org
**

ISBN 0-087031-222-7

**Seismic Design of Liquid-Containing Concrete Structures and Commentary (ACI 350.3-06)
**

AN ACI STANDARD REPORTED BY ACI COMMITTEE 350

Environmental Engineering Concrete Structures

Satish K. Sachdev Chair Jon B. Ardahl Vice Chair Walter N. Bennett Lucian I. Bogdan Steven R. Close Patrick J. Creegan Ashok K. Dhingra Robert E. Doyle Anthony L. Felder Carl A. Gentry Gautam Ghosh Charles S. Hanskat Keith W. Jacobson Dov Kaminetzky M. Reza Kianoush David G. Kittridge Dennis C. Kohl Nicholas A. Legatos Ramon E. Lucero Andrew R. Minogue Lawrence G. Mrazek Javeed A. Munshi Jerry Parnes

John W. Baker Secretary Andrew R. Philip Narayan M. Prachand Risto Protic William C. Sherman Lawrence M. Tabat Lawrence J. Valentine

.

The seismic subcommittee’s work was guided by two main objectives: 1. they shall be restated in mandatory language for incorporation by the Architect/Engineer. design: the “loading side” (namely the determination of the seismic loads based on the mapped maximum considered earthquake spectral response accelerations at short periods (Ss) and 1 second ( S1) obtained from the Seismic Ground Motion maps [Fig. ACI 350. it was decided to maintain this practice in ACI 350 as well. This meant that these procedures should cover both aspects of seismic ACI Committee Reports. and 2. and reinforced concrete.b). These procedures address the loading side of seismic design and are intended to complement ACI 350-0 6. . 2006.3-1 Seismic Design of Liquid-Containing Concrete Structures and Commentary (ACI 350. Keywords: circular tanks. Guides.1. and inspecting construction. The Institute shall not be liable for any loss or damage arising therefrom. as well as circular. so as to resist those loads safely). ACI Committee 350 decided to expand on and supplement Chapter 21.3-06) REPORTED BY ACI COMMITTEE 350 This standard prescribes procedures for the seismic analysis and design of liquid-containing concrete structures. or recording for sound or visual reproduction or for use in any knowledge or retrieval system ordevice. the basic scope. seismic resistance. To produce a self-contained set of p rocedures that would enable a practicing engineer to perfo rm a full seismic analysis and design of a liquid-containing structure. and 2. and mandatory language of Chapte r 21 of ACI 318 were retained with only enough revisions to adapt the chapter to environmental engineering structures. earthquake resistance. INTRODUCTION The following paragraphs highlight the development of this standard and its evolution to the present format: From the time it embarked on the task of developing an ACI 318-dependent code. these are limited to circular. con vective component. unless permission in writing is obtained from the copyright proprietors. printed or written or oral. This required the incluson of i all types of tanks—rectangular. and the “resistance side” (the detailed design of the structure in accordance with the provisions of ACI 350. 22-1 through 22-14 of ASCE 7-05. American Concrete Institute.8 of ACI 318 are included in ACI 350. format. Chapter 22] and the geometry of the structure).1. (Note: While there are currently at least two national standards that provide detailed procedures for the seismic analysis and design of liquid-containing structures (ANSI/AWWA 1995a. This Commentary is intended for the use of individuals who are competent to evaluate the significance and limitations of its content and recommendations and who will accept responsibility for the a pplication of the material it contains. It makes it easier to update these seismic provisions so as to keep up with the frequent changes and improvements in the field of seismic hazard analysis and evaluation. Chapter 21.” to provide a set of thorough and comprehensive procedures for theseismic analysis and design of all types of liquid-containing environmental concrete structures. Copyright © 2006.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. A seismic design subcommittee was appointed with the charge to implem ent the committee’s decision. prestressed concrete tanks only). as well as prestressed. executing. storage tanks. If items found in this Commentar are desired by the Architect/Engineer y to be a part of the contract documents . and Commentaries are intended for guidance in planning. liquid-containing structures. concrete ta nks. The American Concrete Institute disclaims any and all responsibility for the stated principles. or by any electronic or mechanical device. including the making of copies by any photo process. designing. environmental concrete structures.8 and Chapter 21. Reference to this commentar y shall not be made in contract documents. Accordingly. The committee’s decision was influenced by the recognition that liquid-containing structures are unique structures whose seismic design is not adequately covered by the leading national codes and standards. To establish the scope of the new procedures consistent with the overall scope of ACI 350. Section 1. rect angular tanks. impulsive component.3-01 a nd became effective on July 3. This approach offers at least two advantages: 1. As the loading side of seismic design is outside the scope of ACI 318. Standards. It allows ACI 350 to maintain ACI 318’s p ractice of limiting its seismic design provisions to the resistace side n only.3-06 supersedes 350. Provisions similar to Section 1. sloshing. “Special Provisions for Seismic Design. All rights reserved including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by any means.

3.3-01). This standard includes the ef fects of vertical accelerat ion. such as those included for seismic design in the 2003 International Building Code (IBC).350. Rather than combining impulsive and convective modes by algebraic sum. The user should note the fo llowing general design methods used in this standard. 2.When comparing these provisions with other documents defining seismic forces at allowable stress levels (for example. applicable to the mass of the walls. The seismic force levels andR-factors included in this standard provide results at strength levels. which represent some of the key . particularly the applicable connection provisions of 2003 IBC. Instead of assuming a rigid tank for which the accelerat ion is equal to the ground acceleration at all locations.3-2 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY differences relative to tradi tional methodologies. 4. as referenced in ASCE 7-02. and 5. such as those described in ASCE (1984): 1. This standard includes the response modification factor. This standard includes an effective mass coefficient. this standard combines these modes by square-root-sum-of-the-squares. this standard assumes amplification of response due to natura l frequency of the tank. the se ismic forces in this standard should be reduced by the applicable factors to derive comparabe l forces at allowable stress levels. th e 1994 Uniform Building Code [UBC] or ACI 350.

SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES

350.3-3

CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1—GENERAL REQUIREMENTS ............................................................................ 5

1.1—Scope 1.2—Notation

**CHAPTER 2—TYPES OF LIQUID-CONTAINING STRUCTURES ......................................... 11
**

2.1—Ground-supported structures 2.2—Pedestal-mounted structures

**CHAPTER 3—GENERAL CRITERIA FOR ANALYSIS AND DESIGN ................................... 13
**

3.1—Dynamic characteristics 3.2—Design loads 3.3—Design requirements

**CHAPTER 4—EARTHQUAKE DESIGN LOADS .................................................................... 15
**

4.1—Earthquake pressures above base 4.2—Application of site-specific response spectra

**CHAPTER 5—EARTHQUAKE LOAD DISTRIBUTION........................................................... 21
**

5.1—General 5.2—Shear transfer 5.3—Dynamic force distribution above base

CHAPTER 6—STRESSES....................................................................................................... 27

6.1—Rectangular tanks 6.2—Circular tanks

CHAPTER 7—FREEBOARD ................................................................................................... 29

7.1—Wave oscillation

**CHAPTER 8—EARTHQUAKE-INDUCED EARTH PRESSURES .......................................... 31
**

8.1—General 8.2—Limitations 8.3—Alternative methods

**CHAPTER 9—DYNAMIC MODEL ........................................................................................... 33
**

9.1—General 9.2—Rectangular tanks (Type 1) 9.3—Circular tanks (Type 2) 9.4—Seismic response coefficients Ci , Cc, and Ct 9.5—Site-specific seismic response coefficients Ci , Cc, and Ct 9.6—Effective mass coefficient ε 9.7—Pedestal-mounted tanks

CHAPTER 10—COMMENTARY REFERENCES .................................................................... 53

350.3-4

ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY

**APPENDIX A—DESIGN METHOD...........................................................................................55
**

A.1—General outline of design method

**APPENDIX B—ALTERNATIVE METHOD OF ANALYSIS BASED ON 1997 Uniform Building Code...........................................................................57
**

B.1—Introduction B.2—Notation (not included in Section 1.2 of this standard) B.3—Loading side, general methodology B.4—Site-specific spectra (Section 1631.2(2)) B.5—Resistance side B.6—Freeboard

SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES

350.3-5

**CHAPTER 1—GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
**

STANDARD

1.1—Scope

This standard describes procedures for the design of liquid-containing concrete structures subjected to seismic loads. These procedures shall be used in accor dance with Chapter 21 of ACI 350-06.

COMMENTARY

R1.1—Scope

This standard is a companion standard to Chapter 21 of the American Concrete Institute, “Code Requirements for Environmental Engineering Concrete Structures and Commentary (ACI 350-06)” (ACI Committee 350 2006). This standard pro vides directions to the designer of liquidcontaining concrete structures for computing seismic forces that are to be applied to the particular structure. The designer should also consider the ef fects of seismic forces on components outside the scope of this standard, such as piping, equipment (for e xample, clarifier mechanisms), and connecting walkways where v ertical or horizontal mo vements between adjoining structures or surrounding backf ill could adversely influence the ability of the structure to function properly (National Science Foundation 1981). Moreover, seismic forces applied at the interf ace of piping or w alkways with the structure may also in troduce appreciable fle xural or shear stresses at these connections.

1.2—Notation

As b B = = = cross-sectional area of base cab le, strand, or conventional reinforcement, in.2 (mm2) ratio of v ertical to hor izontal design acceleration inside dimension (length or width) of a rectangular tank, perpendicular to the direction of the ground motion being investigated, ft (m) period-dependent seismic response coeffi cients defined in 9.4 and 9.5. coefficients for determining the fundamental frequency of the tank-liquid system (ref er to Eq. (9-24) and Fig. 9.3.4(b)) period-dependent seismic coefficient freeboard (sloshing height) measured from the liquid surface at rest, ft (m) inside diameter of circular tank, ft (m) excluding base pressure (datum line just above the base of the tank wall) modulus of elasticity of concrete, lb/in.2 (MPa) modulus of elasticity of cab le, wire, strand, or conventional reinforcement, lb/in.2 (MPa) short-period site coefficient (at 0.2 second period) from ASCE 7-05, Table 11.4-1 long-period site coefficient (at 1.0 second period) from ASCE 7-05, Table 11.4-2 shear modulus of elastomer ic bearing pad, lb/in.2 (MPa) acceleration due to g ravity [32.17 ft/s 2 2)] (9.807 m/s

R1.2—Notation

Cc, Ci , and Ct = Cl , Cw = Cs = d, dmax= D EBP Ec Es Fa Fv Gp g = = = = = = = =

For Cs, refer to “International Building Code (IBC)” (International Code Council 2003), Section 1617.4. EBP refers to the hydrodynamic design in which it is necess ary to compute the o verturning of the wall with respect to the tank floor , e xcluding base pressure (that is, e xcluding the pressure on the floor itself). EBP h ydrodynamic design is used to determine the need for hold-downs in nonfixed base tanks. EBP is also used in determining the design pressure acting on walls. (For explanation, refer to Housner [1963].)

ft (m) height from the base of the w all to the center of gravity of the tank roof.2. ft-lb (kN-m) h = COMMENTARY as defined in Section R9. ft (m) height from the base of the w all to the center of gravity of the tank shell.1(a) including base pressure (datum line at the base of the tank including the eff ects of the tank bottom and supporting structure) flexural stiffness of a unit width of a rectiline ar tank w all.4. refer to Housner [1963]. (For explanation.1. ft (m) design depth of stored liquid. in. ft (m) height above the base of the wall to the center of gravity of the impulsiv e lateral force for the case including base pressure (IBP). ft (m) hc ′ = hi = hi′ hr hw HL Hw I IBP k ka Ka Ko L Lc Lp m mi mw Mb Mc = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = IBP refers to the h ydrodynamic design in which it is necess ary to in vestigate the o verturning of the entire structure with respect to the foundation. ft (m) importance factor. This pressure is transferred directly either to the subgrade or to other supporting structural elements. ft-lb (kN-m) bending moment of the entire tank cross section just above the base of the tank w all (EBP) due to the con vective force Pc .) . lb-s 2/ft per f oot of w all width (kg per meter of wall width) bending moment on the entire tank cross section just above the base of the tank wall. (mm) length of individual elastomer ic bear ing pads. lb-s 2/ft per foot of wall width (kg per meter of wall width) mass per unit width of a rectangular tank wall. lb-s 2/ft per f oot of w all width (kg per meter of wall width) impulsive mass of contained liquid per unit width of a rectangular tank w all. IBP accounts for moment effects due to dynamic fluid pressures on the bottom of the tank b y increasing the effective vertical moment arm to the applied forces. parallel to the direction of the ground motion being investigated.350. ft (m) height abo ve the base of the w all to the center of g ravity of the impulsiv e later al force for the case e xcluding base pressure (EBP). ft (m) effective length of base cab le or str and taken as the sleeve length plus 35 times the strand diameter. lb/ft per f oot of w all width (N/m per meter of wall width) spring constant of the tank w all suppor t system. ft (m) height abo ve the base of the w all to the center of g ravity of the con vective later al force for the case including base pressure (IBP). (mm) total mass per unit width of a rectangular wall = mi + mw . IBP hydrodynamic design is used to determine the design pressure acting on the tank floor and the underlying foundation. from Table 4. lb/ft2 per foot of wall width (N/m per meter of wall width) active coefficient of lateral earth pressure coefficient of lateral earth pressure at rest inside dimension of a rectangular tank. ft (m) wall height (inside dimension). in.3-6 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD hc = height abo ve the base of the w all to the center of g ravity of the con vective later al force for the case e xcluding base pressure (EBP).

above the base of the tank (pvy = üv × qhy). ft-lb (kN-m) bending moment of the entire tank cross section just above the base of tank wall (EBP) due to the impulsive force Pi. lb per foot of wall height (kN/m) in circular tanks. distributed horizontally at liquid level y. at liqu id level y. lb/ft2 (kPa) total later al con vective f orce associated with Wc . per unit height of the tank w all. lb/ft2 (kPa) unit lateral dynamic impulsi ve pressure distributed horizontally at liquid level y. due to the con vective force Pc. ft-lb (kN-m) bending moment of the entire tank cross section just above the base of the tank w all (EBP) due to the w all iner tia force Pw. lb per foot of wall height (kN/m) in circular tanks . lb per foot of wall height (kN/m) COMMENTARY Mi Mi′ = = Mo Mr = = Mw = Ncy = Nhy Niy = = Nwy Ny = = pcy piy = = pvy = unit equivalent hydrodynamic pressure due to the eff ect of v ertical acceleration. occurr ing at liquid level y. total eff ective hoop f orce at liquid level y. lb per f oot of w all height (kN/m) in circular tanks . lb/ft2 (kPa) pwy = unit lateral inertia force due to w all dead weight. lb/ft2 (kPa) Pc Pcy Peg = = = . including the tank bottom and suppor ting structure (IBP). lb (kN) unit lateral dynamic convective pressure distributed horizontally at liquid level y. due to the con vective component of the accelerating liquid. hoop force at liquid level y. including the tank bottom and suppor ting structure (IBP).3-7 STANDARD Mc′ = overturning moment at the base of the tank. hoop force at liquid level y. including the tank bottom and suppor ting structure (IBP). ft-lb (kN-m) overturning moment at the base of the tank. ft-lb (kN-m) overturning moment at the base of the tank. due to the iner tia force of the acceler ating wall mass. ft-lb (kN-m) bending moment of the entire tank cross section just above the base of the tank w all (EBP) due to the roof iner tia force Pr. due to the eff ect of vertical acceleration. hoop force at liquid level y. lb per foot of wall height (kN/m) in circular tanks. hydrodynamic hoop f orce at liquid level y. due to the impulsiv e component of the accelerating liquid. due to the impulsiv e f orce Pi. ft-lb (kN-m) in circular tanks. lb per foot of wall height (kN/m) lateral force on the b uried portion of a tank wall due to the dynamic ear th and g roundwater pressures.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. lb (kN) lateral convective force due to Wc .

lb per f oot of w all height (kN/m) combined hor izontal f orce (due to the impulsive and con vective components of the acceler ating liquid. Ri for the impulsiv e component) from Table 4. lb per foot of w all height (kN/m) r R = = inside radius of circular tank. lb (kN) in circular tanks. lb per foot of wall height (kN/m) total lateral impulsive force associated with Wi . lb (kN) lateral impulsiv e f orce due to Wi . lb per foot of wall height (kN/m) lateral iner tia force of the acceler ating roof Wr . lb (kN) in a rectangular tank. qmax = Q = Qhy = unit shear force in circular tanks.1(b) S0 = effective peak ground acceleration (at T = 0) related to the maximum considered earthquak e. lb/ft (kN/m) total membrane (tangential) shear force at the base of a circular tank. hydros tatic hoop force at liquid level y (Qhy = qhy × R).1. per pendicular to ′ the direction of the earthquake force. a n umerical coefficient representing the combined effect of the str ucture’s ductility . R5. per unit height of the tank w all. ( S0 is equivalent t o a P GA h aving a 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years.usgs. the w all’s iner tia. lb (kN) lateral h ydrostatic f orce per unit height of the tank w all.S. and str uctural redundancy ( Rc fo r the convective component of the acceler ating liquid.1(a) and (b) Py = qhy = q. occurr ing at liquid le vel y. ft (m) response modification f actor. Geological Survey (USGS) database at website (http:// eqhazmaps. lb (kN) lateral iner tia f orce due to Ww . later al iner tia f orce of one accelerating wall (Ww ). lb (kN) lateral iner tia force of the acceler ating wall Ww. lb/ft2 (kPa) COMMENTARY For a schematic representation of Ph.gov) .3-8 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD Ph Phy Pi Piy Pr Pw Pw ′ Pwy = = = = = = = = total hydrostatic force occurring on length B of a rectangular tank or diameter D of a circular tank. lb per foot of wall height (kN/m) unit hydrostatic pressure at liquid level y above the tank base [qhy = γL (HL – y)]. expressed as a fraction of t he acceleration due to gravity g from a site-specif ic spectrum.3. energ y-dissipating capacity.350. per unit height of the tank w all. occurr ing at liquid level y. and the h ydrodynamic pressure due to the vertical acceler ation) at a height y abo ve the tank base. as gi ven in the U. refer to Fig. occurring at level y above the tank base .

40 -----Ca 2.1. (mm) average wall thickness. expressed as a fraction of the acceleration due to gravity g. (mm) natural period of the first (convective) mode of sloshing. . Fig. expressed as a fr action of the acceleration due to gravity g center-to-center spacing of elastomer ic bearing pads.3-9 STANDARD S1 = mapped maxim um considered ear thquake 5% damped spectr al response acceler ation. as defined in 9.5C a where Ca and Cv are defined in Appendix B. 5% damped. in.5% damped. at a per iod of 1 second. expressed as a fraction of the acceleration due to gravity g. s SD1/SDS T S: In Appendix B. at shor t per iods. e xpressed as a fr action of the acceleration due to gravity g design spectr al response acceler ation. tak en from a site-specific acceleration response spectrum center-to-center spacing between individual base cable loops. 22-1 through 22-14 Sa = COMMENTARY generalized design spectral response acceleration corresponding to a given natural period T. as defined in 9. (mm) maximum considered ear thquake spectr al response acceler ation. from ASCE 7-05.4. Fig. from ASCE 7-05. (mm) mapped maxim um considered ear thquake 5% damped spectral response acceleration parameter at short periods.4. in. parameter at a period of 1 second. at period Tc .= 0. 5% damped. 22-1 through 22-14 thickness of elastomer ic bear ing pads .SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. in. tak en from a site-specific acceleration response spectrum SD = spectral displacement. ft (m) SD1 = SDS = Sp Ss = = tp tw Tc Ti TS = = = = = design spectr al response acceler ation. at period Ti or Tv . expressed as a fraction of the acceleration due to gravity g SaM = Sc ScM = = maximum considered ear thquake spectr al response acceler ation. s fundamental period of oscillation of the tank (plus the impulsiv e component of the contents). in. 0. 5% damped.1. Cv Cv T s = -------------.

(mm) equivalent w eight of the con vective comp onent of the stored liquid. degree coefficient as defined in 9. in.807 kN/m3) effective mass coefficient (r atio of equiv alent dynamic mass of the tank shell to its actual total mass). Eq. ft (m) angle of base cab le or strand with hor izontal.350. radian/s circular frequency of the impulsiv e mode of vibration. refer to Fig. lb (kN) in a rectangular tank.4 membrane (hoop) stress in w all of circular tank at liquid level y. that is der ived b y scaling from an elastic hor izontal response spectrum.2 (MPa) circular frequency of oscillation of the first (convective) mode of sloshing. as defined b y Eq. lb (kN) equivalent w eight of the tank roof . plus applicab le portion of snow load considered as dead load. 62. lb (kN) liquid level at which the w all is being in vestigated (measured from tank base). radian/s COMMENTARY V wp Wc We Wi WL Wr Ww Ww ′ y α β γc γL γw ε = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = coefficients as defined in Section R4. lb (kN) total equiv alent weight of the stored liquid. lb (kN) width of elastomeric bearing pad.56 kN/m3) for standard-weight concrete] density of contained liquid.2 For θ.4 and 9. lb/in. R5. (4-15) . lb (kN) equivalent weight of the impulsive component of the stored liquid.2.3. e xpressed as a fr action of the acceleration due to gravity g total horizontal base shear. lb/ft3 (kN/m3) density of water.1 and R5. the equiv alent weight of one w all per pendicular to the direction of the earthquake force. s effective spectr al acceler ation from an inelastic v ertical response spectr um.43 lb/ft3 (9. (9-44) and (9-45) ηc . . ηi = θ λ σy ωc ωi = = = = = polar coordinate angle.2.2.2. degree percent of critical damping density of concrete. lb (kN) effective dynamic weight of the tank str ucture (walls and roof) [We = (εWw + Wr )]. plus superimposed load.3-10 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD Tv üv = = natural per iod of vibr ation of v ertical liquid motion. lb (kN) equivalent weight of the tank w all (shell). [150 lb/ft3 (23.

2—Pedestal-mounted structures Structures in this categor y include liquid-containing structures mounted on cantilever-type pedestals.3(2)—Unanchored. The tank floor and floor support system should be designed for the seismic forces transmitted therein. on-grade and below grade.3(3)—Unanchored. however.2(2)—Prestressed concrete Type 2. or a structural slab supported on piles.1—Fixed base 2.1—Ground-supported structures For basic conf igurations of ground-supported.3-11 CHAPTER 2—TYPES OF LIQUID-CONTAINING STRUCTURES STANDARD 2.1.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. the floor may be a membrane-type slab.2—Hinged base 2.1.1. Fig.1. hinged.3—Flexible base (prestressed only) 2.1(2)—Prestressed concrete Type 2. This standa rd. . uncontained COMMENTARY R2.1—Fixed base Type 1. or flexible base).1(1)—Reinforced concrete 2. a raft foundation. and Method of construction (reinforced or prestressed concrete). contained 2. R2.1 are based on the wall-to-footing connection details as illustrated in Fig. liquidcontaining structures.1. The tank roof may be a free-span dome or column-supp orted flat slab.3(1)—Anchored 2. or the tank may be open-topped. R2.1—The classif ications of Section 2. does not co ver the determination of seismic forces on the piles themselves.2(1)—Reinforced concrete 2.2—Hinged base Type 2—Circular tanks Type 2.1—Typical tank configurations (adapted from ASCE [1984]). 2.1.1—Ground-supported liquid-containing str uctures are classified according to this section on the basis of the following characteristics: • • • General configuration (rectangular or circular).1—Ground-supported structures Structures in this categor y include rectangular and circular liquid-containing concrete structures. R2. R2. W ith any one of the tank types covered under this standard. 2. Type 1—Rectangular tanks Type 1. refer to Fig. Wall-base joint type (fixed.

1—Types of ground-supported. .3-12 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY COMMENTARY Fig.350. R2. liquid-containing structures classified on the basis of their wall-to-footing connection details (base waterstops not shown).1.

refer to Appendix A. 3. 3. the design shall take into account the effects of the transfer of the total base shear between the wall and the footing and betw een the w all and the roof .SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350.1—The w alls.1—Dynamic characteristics The dynamic char acteristics of liquid-containing structures shall be der ived in accordance with either Chapter 9 or a more r igorous dynamic analysis that accounts for the interaction between the structure and the contained liquid.3-13 CHAPTER 3—GENERAL CRITERIA FOR ANALYSIS AND DESIGN STANDARD 3. and the dynamic pressure acting on the wall above the base.1—Dynamic characteristics For an outline of the general steps in volved in the intera ction between the structure and the contained liquid. and roof of liquid-containing structures shall be designed to withstand the effects of both the design horizontal acceleration and the design vertical acceler ation combined with the eff ects of the applicable design static loads. 3.3.2—With regards to the hor izontal acceleration. floors .3—Effects of maxim um hor izontal and v ertical acceleration shall be combined b y the square-rootsum-of-the-squares method.3. 3.3—Design requirements 3. .3.2—Design loads The loads gener ated b y the design ear thquake shall be computed in accordance with Chapter 4. COMMENTARY R3.

350.3-14 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY Notes .

ASCE 1981. Because the impulsi ve and convective components are not in phase wi th each other.1: (a) Inertia forces Pw and Pr . The response modification factors Rc and Ri reduce the elastic response spectrum to account for the structure’ s ductility . ANSI/AWWA 1995a). COMMENTARY R4.1—Earthquake pressures above base The w alls of liquid-containing str uctures shall be designed for the following dynamic forces in addition to the static pressures in accordance with Section 5.2. (4-5) ) (Ne w Zealand Standard [NZS] 1986. and (e) The effects of vertical acceleration. energy-dissipating properties. the impulsi ve component of the liquid weight Wi and the convective component Wc. or Cv as appropriate.1. practice is to combine them using the square-root sum-of-the-squares method ( Eq. which is a function of the period of vibration and the mapped accelerations SS and S1 as described in Section R9. (4-1) through (4-4) by replacing the term W with the four ef fective weights: the effective weight of the tank wall εWw and roof Wr. (b) Hydrodynamic impulsiv e force Pi from the conta ined liquid.3-15 CHAPTER 4—EARTHQUAKE DESIGN LOADS STANDARD 4. The imposed ground motion is represented b y an elastic response spectrum that is either deri ved from an actual earthquake record for the site.1 and Housner (1963). (d) Dynamic ear th pressure from satur ated and unsaturated soils against the b uried por tion of the wall. Cc. . and redundanc y (A CI 350-06.1.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. Engineering judgment may require a factor I greater than tabulated in Table 4. and the term Cs with Ci.1). A more detailed discussion of the impulsi ve and convective components Wi and Wc is contained in Section R9. Factor I provides a means for the engineer to increase the factor of safety for the cate gories of structures described in Table 4.1.1(a). Section R21. Explanations of the impulsive and convective pressures Pi and Pc are contained in Section R9.4.1—Earthquake pressures above base The general equation for the total base shear normally encountered in the earthquak e-design sections of go verning building codes V = CsW is modif ied in Eq. (c) Hydrodynamic convective force Pc from the contained liquid.3.1(a) where it is necess ary to reduce further the potential le vel of damage or account for the possibility of an earthquake greater than the design earthquake. The profile of the response spectrum is defined by Sa. or is constructed b y analogy to sites with kno wn soil and seismic characteristics.

1.1. R9.2 and deter mined in accordance with Table 4.4 and 9. John A.1.1—Dynamic lateral forces A model representation of Wi and Wc is shown in Fig.2. Where applicab le.1. ε is a f actor defined in Section 1. the later al f orces due to the dynamic earth and groundwater pressures against the buried por tion of the w alls shall be computed in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 8.1 and 9.3. the later al f orces due to dynamic earth and g roundwater pressures against the b uried .1. respectiv ely.1(b). Ww and Wr are the weights of the cylindr ical tank wall (shell) and tank roof . perpendicular to the direction of the ground motion being investigated. Blume & Associates 1958.3-16 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD 4. I is the impor tance factor defined in Table 4.1(a).2 and determined in accordance with Sections 9. 4.1—Dynamic lateral forces The dynamic later al f orces abo ve the base shall be determined as εW w P w = C i I ----------Ri εW w ′ P w = C i I ------------′ Ri Wr P r = C i I ------Ri Wi P i = C i I -----Ri Pc = Cc I Wc -------Rc (4-1) COMMENTARY R4. and Ww is the ′ weight of one wall in a rectangular tank.1 for sizing earthquak e cables and base pad for fle xible base joints (Housner 1963. (4-1a) (4-2) (4-3) (4-4) where Ci and Cc are the seismic response coefficients determined in accordance with Sections 9. and Ri and Rc are the response modification factors defined in Section 1. Where applicab le.5. Wi and Wc are the impulsive and con vective components of the stored liquid.350.6 . Scarlat 1997). as defined in Section 1.1. Uang and Bertero 1988. respectiv ely.2—Total base shear The base shear due to seismic f orces applied at the bottom of the tank wall shall be determined by V = ( Pi + Pw + Pr ) + P c + P 2 2 2 eg (4-5) Energy Method: An ener gy method of dynamic analysis may be used instead of the base-shear approach of Section 4. Medearis and Young 1964.2 and deter mined in accordance with Section 9. Bertero 1995.1.

at level y above the base. 4. Similar changes in ef fective weight of the concrete structure may also be considered. the eff ect of dynamic ear th and groundwater pressures against the b uried por tion of the walls shall be included in the deter mination of the moments at the base of the tank. use a f actor of 0. Section 1617.2SDS to account for the effects of vertical ground acceleration in the definition of seismic effects.4—Vertical acceleration The effective fluid pressure will be increased or decreased due to the ef fects of v ertical acceleration.4. and Building Seismic Safety Council (2000). .7. (4-10) and (4-13).1 The tank shall be designed f or the effects of vertical acceleration.2 The h ydrostatic load qhy from the tank contents.1.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. including the tank bottom and supporting structure (IBP) M i ′ = P i h i′ Mc ′ = Pc hc ′ Mo = 2 ( M i ′ + M w + M r ) + M′ c 2 (4-11) (4-12) (4-13) Where applicab le.3-17 STANDARD portion of the walls shall be included in the deter mination of the total base shear V.1.4. the r atio b of the v ertical-tohorizontal acceleration shall not be less than 2/3 4.1 . shall be multiplied by the spectral acceleration üv to account for the effect of the v ertical acceler ation. The resulting h ydrodynamic pressure pvy shall be computed as pvy = üv qhy (4-14) R4. Section 5. IBC (2003).1.3—Moments at base. 4.1. general equation The moments due to seismic forces at the base of the tank shall be determined by Eq.1.2.4—Vertical acceleration 4.1. Bending moment on the entire tank cross section just above the base of the tank wall (EBP) Mw = Pw hw Mr = Pr hr Mi = Pihi Mc = Pc hc Mb = 2 ( Mi + Mw + Mr ) + Mc 2 COMMENTARY (4-6) (4-7) (4-8) (4-9) (4-10) Overturning moment at the base of the tank. In the absence of a site-specific response spectr um.

350.38 – 1. a 2% probability of e xceedance in a 50-year period is equi valent to a recurrence interval of approximately 2500 years.2.043 η c = ----------------------------------2.4 and 9.2.706 η i = ----------------------------------4. R4. ηi = 1.5. site-specific response spectra are normally used. When the a vailable site-specific response spectrum is for a damping ratio β other than 5% of critical.2.2.04 ln β For Ts < (Ti or Tv) < 4. 4.2—Probabilistic maximum considered earthquake For probabilistic ground motions. R4.45 ln β . the perioddependent spectral acceleration ScM given by that spectrum may be modif ied b y the ratio ηc to account for the influence of damping on the spectral amplification as follows 3.2.0 When the a vailable site-specific response spectrum is for a damping ratio β other than 0.1—General Where site-specific procedures are used.2S DS Ri (4-15) COMMENTARY where Ct is the seismic response coefficient deter mined in accordance with Sections 9.2—Application of site-specific response spectra 4.1—General In locations with Ss ≥ 1.2.≥ 0.5 or S1 ≥ 0.2—Application of site-specific response spectra R4. 4.38 – 0.73 – 0.2—Probabilistic maximum considered earthquake The probabilistic maxim um considered ear thquake spectral response acceler ation shall be tak en as the spectral response acceler ation represented b y a 5% damped acceleration response spectrum having a 2% probability of exceedance in a 50-year period.2 and the deterministic maximum spectral response acceleration as defined in Section 4.302 η i = ----------------------------------3.0 seconds 2. the period-dependent spectral acceleration SaM g iven by s uch s ite-specific spectrum should be modified by the factor η i to account for the influence of damping on the spectral amplif ication as follows (Newmark and Hall 1982) For 0 seconds < (Ti or Tv) < Ts 2.3.3-18 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD where b üv = C t I ----.67 ln β For β = 5%.5% of critical. the maximum considered ear thquake spectr al response acceler ation shall be taken as the lesser of the probabilistic maxim um earthquake spectral response a cceleration as defined in Section 4.60 and sites with weak soil conditions.

the magnitude of a characteristic earthquake on a given fault should be the best estimate of the maximum magnitude capable for that fault.3—Deterministic maximum considered earthquake For deterministic ground motions.2.5Fa.0 For site-specif ic response spectra dra wn on a tripartite logarithmic plot. and should not be less than the largest magnitude that has occurred historically on the fault.3—Deterministic maximum considered earthquake The deter ministic maxim um considered ear thquake spectral response acceler ation at each per iod shall be taken as 150% of the largest median 5% damped spectral response acceleration computed at that per iod for characteristic earthquakes on all kno wn active faults within the region.1. . 4.6/Ts.2 g ⎝ Tc ⎠ Tc where SD is the spectral displacement corresponding to Tc obtained directly from the site-specif ic spectrum in the range Tc > 1.226S D S cM = η c ----.2.5%. 4.2. R4. respectively.4-1 and 11.5 using the site-specific acceleration response spectr um as defined in Section 4.3-19 STANDARD COMMENTARY For β = 0. Tables 11. the design spectral acceleration ScM can also be derived by using the relationship S D 2π 2 1. The deter ministic value of the spectral response acceler ation shall not be tak en lo wer than 0.⎞ = η c ------------------.2.4 The maxim um considered ear thquake spectr al response accelerations SaM and ScM shall be determined in accordance with Section 9.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. ηc = 1.⎛ ----.6Fv /T e xcept that the lo wer limit of the spectr al response acceleration shall not e xceed 1.4-2. The site coefficients Fa and Fv shall be obtained from ASCE 7-05.

25 is the maximum R value permitted to be used for any liquid-coni i taining concrete structure. for tanks containi ng hazardous materials.1(a)—Importance factor I Tank use III II I * Table 4.75. . the Ri value may be linearly interpolated between that shown for tanks on grade and for buried tanks.350.1(b)—Response modification factor R Factor I 1.0 1.0 1. flexible-base tanks Fixed or hinged-base tanks Unanchored.25† 2.0 Tanks containing hazardous materials* Tanks that are intended to remain usable for emergency purposes after an earthquake.5 1.1. or uncontained tanks‡ Pedestal-mounted tanks *Buried Ri On or above grade Buried* Rc 3. For partially buried tanks.1.25† 3. contained.0 Type of structure Anchored.3-20 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD Table 4.0 3.5. ‡ Unanchored.0 1. tank is defined as a tank whos e maximum water surface at rest is at or below ground level.0 2.25 1. or tanks that are part of lifeline systems Tanks not listed in Categories II or III In some cases.0 1. †R = 3. uncontained tanks shall not be b uilt in locations where SS ≥ 0.5 2. engineering judgment may require a factor I > 1.0 — 1.

a distrib uted shear force q is required at the wall/footing interface.3. approximately 20% of th e earthquak e shear force is transmitted by the radial base reaction to v ertical bending. For a tank with a height-to-diameter ratio of 1:4 (D/HL = 4. R5. wall-to-wall. where Q q = ----. the earthquake base shear is transmitted partially b y membrane (tangential) shear and the rest by radial shear that causes vertical bending. • 5.2—Circular tanks In fixed.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. To transmit this tangential shear Q.1—Rectangular tanks Typically. The remaining 80% is transmitted by tangential shear transfer Q.1 and 2.2. R5.sin θ πr The distribution is illustrated in Fig. 5.2.2.1—General In the absence of a more rigorous analysis that takes into account the complex vertical and horizontal variations in hydrodynamic pressures.2—Circular tanks The w all-to-footing and w all-to-roof joints shall be designed for the earthquake shear forces.2. R5.2— Shear transfer (NZS 1986) The horizontal earthquak e force V generates shear forces between the wall and footing and the wall and roof. The shears along the bottom and side joints and the top joint in case of a roof-covered tank shall correspond to the slab reactions.2).2. R5.3 .2. and Walls parallel to the direction of the ground motion being investigated shall be analyzed as shearwalls subjected to the in-plane f orces computed in Section 5. and wall-to-roof joints of rectangular tanks shall be designed for the earthquake shear f orces on the basis of the f ollowing sheartransfer mechanism: • Walls per pendicular to the direction of the g round motion being investigated shall be analyzed as slabs subjected to the hor izontal pressures computed in Section 5. The maximum tangential shear occurs at a point on the tank wall oriented 90 de grees to the design earthquak e direction being evaluated and is given by . liquid-containi ng structures shall be designed for the following dynamic shear and pressure distributions in addition to the static load distributions: COMMENTARY 5.2.2—Shear transfer R5.and hinged-base circular tanks (Types 2.1—Rectangular tanks The wall-to-floor.1. the distribution of forces and wall reactions in rectangular tank w alls will be similar to that sho wn in Fig.3-21 CHAPTER 5—EARTHQUAKE LOAD DISTRIBUTION STANDARD 5.0 ).

= ----πr πr In tank Types 2.0V Q V q max = ----. galvanized steel cables. the shear transfer will take place over that portion of the circumference where the lip overhang comes into contact with the wall. In anchored. circular tanks (T ype 2. The roof-to-w all joint is subj ect to earthquak e shear from the horizontal acceleration of the roof.1. The radial shear attains its maximum value at points on the tank w all oriented zero and 180 de grees to the ground motion and should be determined using c ylindrical shell theory and the tank dimensions. v ertical bending moments induced in the wall by shear should be considered. If friction between the wall base and the footing. or between the w all base and the bearing pads. the distribution of forces and w all reactions in circular tanks . the wall-footing interface should have reinforcement designed to transmit these shears through the joint. For tanks with roof o verhangs. Typically. When using preformed slots.2 with maximum shear given by 0. Alternatively. the distrib ution will be the same as shown in Fig. or preformed slots may be required.2. Because the roof is free to slide on top of the wall. Where do wels are provided to transfer this shear .2. fle xible-base.350.3(3) it is assumed that the base shear is transmitted b y friction only. some form of mechanical restraint such as do wels. and is therefore proportional to the hydrodynamic forces shown in Fig.8P r q max = -----------πr where Pr is the force from the horizontal acceleration of the roof. In general.3(2) and 2. R5. the wall may be located in a preformed slot in the ring beam footing. the concrete lip can be designed to withstand the earthquak e force.3(1)) it is assumed that the entire base sh ear is transmitted b y membrane (tangential) shear with only insignificant vertical bending.8V q max = ----.3-22 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD COMMENTARY Q 0. is insuf ficient to resist the earthquak e shear. Q = 1. The design of the w all-footing interf ace should take the radial shear into account. Failure to pro vide a means for shear transfer around the circumference may result in sliding of the wall. R5.= ----------πr πr The radial shear is created b y the flexural response of the w all near the base.

R5. R5. R5.3-23 STANDARD COMMENTARY will be similar to that sho wn in Fig.0P r q max = -----------πr Fig. .SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350.1—Hydr odynamic pr essure distrib ution in tank walls (adapted from Housner [1963] and NZS [1986]). Fig.2—Membrane shear tr ansfer at the base of cir cular tanks (adapted from NZS [1986]).2. The maximum reaction force will be given by 2.1. but reacting on only half of the circumference.2.2.

per foot of w all height. Walls par allel to the dire ction of the g round motion being in vestigated shall be loaded in their plane (dimension L) b y: (a) the w all’s o wn in-plane iner tia force Pw and the in-plane forces corresponding to the ′ edge reactions from the abutting wall(s). one-half the impulsive ′ force Pi . and Fig. 5.3.1(b). Section 2. . R5. and the dynamic ear th and g roundwater pressure against the buried portion of the wall. the effect of the dynamic ear th and groundwater pressures against the b uried por tion of the walls shall be included. R5. Superimposed on these later al unbalanced f orces shall be the later al hydrodynamic force resulting from the hydrodynamic pressure due to the effect of vertical acceleration pvy acting on each wall. one-half the impulsive ′ force Pi. of the dynamic forces acting perpendicular to the plane of the wall may be assumed as sho wn belo w (adapted from NZS [1986]. (5-1) Where applicable.2—Combining d ynamic f orces f or rectangular tanks The hydrodynamic force at any given height y from the base shall be determined by Py = 2 ( P iy + P wy ) + P cy + ( p vy B ) 2 2 COMMENTARY R5.3-24 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD 5.5).2.1—Rectangular tanks Walls per pendicular to the g round motion being in vestigated and in the leading half of the tank shall be loaded per pendicular to their plane (dimension B ) by the wall’s own inertia force Pw . one-half the con vective f orce Pc . Fig.3.3.3—Dynamic force distribution above base 5.350. Walls per pendicular to the g round motion being investigated and in the trailing half of the tank shall be loaded per pendicular to their plane (dimension B) by the wall’s own inertia force Pw .3. and one-half the convective force Pc .9. and the dynamic force on the trailing half of the tank will reduce the e ffects of the hydro force on the wall.1(a)—Vertical force distribution: rectangular tanks.1—Rectangular tanks The v ertical distrib ution. The horizontal distribution of the dynamic pressures across the wall width B is P wy p wy = -------B P iy p iy = -----B P cy p cy = ------B pvy = üv qhy The dynamic force on the leadi ng half of the tank will be additive to the h ydrostatic force on the w all.3.3—Dynamic force distribution above base R5.

R5. while the horizontal distribution varies along the tank circumference as shown in Fig. the vertical distribution of the impulsive and convective forces is identical to that shown above for rectangular tanks. (For circular tanks.3-25 COMMENTARY Fig.2.3.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350.) . R5.1(b)—Distribution of hydrostatic and hydrodynamic pressures and inertia forces on the wall of a rectangular liquidcontaining structure (adapted from Haroun [1984]).1.

1.cos θ πr 16P cy p cy = ------------.3.3. of the dynamic forces acting on one half of the w all may be assumed as shown below and in Fig. R5.cos θ 9πr pvy = üv qhy . The horizontal distrib ution of the dynamic pressure across the tank diameter D may be assumed as follows P wy p wy = -------πr 2P iy p iy = --------.2. Superimposed on these later al unbalanced f orces shall be the axisymmetr ic later al h ydrodynamic f orce resulting from the h ydrodynamic pressure pvy acting on the tank wall. one-half the impulsiv e f orce Pi applied symmetr ically about θ = 0 degrees and acting outward on one half of the w all’s circumference. and onehalf Pi symmetr ically about θ = 180 degrees and acting inward on the opposite half of the w all’s circumference.3—Vertical force distribution: circular tanks. Fig.3-26 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD 5. per foot of w all height.3. one-half the convective force Pc acting on one-half of the wall’s circumference symmetr ically about θ = 0 degrees and one-half Pc symmetrically about θ = 180 degrees and acting inw ard on the o pposite half of the w all’s circumference.3—Circular tanks The cylindrical walls of circular tanks shall be loaded by the wall’s own inertia force distributed uniformly around the entire circumf erence. R5.3 and Fig.3.3—Circular tanks The v ertical distrib ution.350. R5. COMMENTARY R5. and the dynamic ear th and groundwater pressure against the trailing half of the b uried portion of the wall.

2 and 5.2—Circular tanks The v ertical bending stress es and shear stresses in the wall and at the wall base due to lateral earthquake forces shall be computed on the basis of shell action using an acceptable pressure distribution.for (at θ = 0) 9π P wy Nwy = pwy r = -------π Nhy = üv Qhy where Qhy = qhy r For fixed.3) using pressure distribution consistent with the provisions of Section 5.1 and R5.3-27 CHAPTER 6—STRESSES STANDARD COMMENTARY R6—General In calculating the v ertical bending moments in the w alls of rectangular and circular tank s. Hydrodynamic membrane (hoop) forces in the cylindrical wall corresponding to an y liquid le vel y above the tank base shall be determined by Ny = and hoop stress Ny (6-2) ----------σy = 12t w Ny [σ y = -----.3).SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350.1—Rectangular tanks The v ertical and hor izontal bending stresses and shear stresses in the w all and at the w all base due to lateral ear thquake f orces shall be computed on the basis of slab action (Sections 5. respectively. 6. T ypical earthquak e force distrib utions in walls of rectangular and circular tanks are presented in R5.in the SI system] tw where tw = w all thickness at the le vel being in vestigated (liquid level y). (6-1) should be modified to account for the restraint of rigid wallto-roof joints.3.1 and 2. (6-1 ) are defined as 2P iy Niy = piy r = --------. the terms in Eq.for (at θ = 0) π 16P cy Ncy = pcy r = -------------. the terms in Eq. (6-1) should be modified to account for the effects of base restraint.3. 6. the boundary conditions at the wall-to-base and w all-to-roof joints should be properly accounted for .or hinged-base circular tanks (Types 2. Similarly . (6-1) .3.2—Circular tanks For free-base circular tanks (T ype 2.1.2). the terms in Eq. 2 2 ( N iy + N wy ) + N cy + N hy 2 R6.3.

3-28 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY Notes .350.

C c I 2 (7-2) (7-1) COMMENTARY R7.⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ Tc ⎠ g Circular tanks ( 0.2.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. and ScM (as in the equation for Cc). ηc .1—Wave oscillation The horizontal earthquake acceleration causes the contained fluid to slosh with vertical displacement of the fluid surface. Wh ere o vertopping is tolerable.⎞ . and SD are as defined in Section R4.1—Wave oscillation Provisions shall be made to accommodate the maxim um wave oscillation dmax gener ated b y ear thquake acceleration.c I 2 Circular tanks D d max = --. or both. where Cc is the seismic response coefficient as computed in Section 9. Design the roof structure to resist the resulting uplift pressures.5. then one or more of the following measures should be undertaken: • • • Provide a freeboard allowance. . tanks for the storage of toxic liquids) or where o vertopping may result in scouring of the foundation materials or cause damage to pi pes.⎛ ----.⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ Tc ⎠ g where Cc is defined in Section 9. The amount of freeboard required in design to accommodate this sloshing will v ary.⎛ ----.667S D ) 2π 2 D D d max = ⎛ --.⎞ . and/or Provide an overflow spillway. no freeboard provision is necessary.⎞ ( C c I ) = ⎛ --.3-29 CHAPTER 7—FREEBOARD STANDARD 7. The maxim um v ertical displacement dmax to be accommodated shall be calculated from the f ollowing expressions: Rectangular tanks L -C d max = -. roof.667S D ) 2π 2 L L d max = ⎛ -.⎞ I ( η c ) -----------------------.2. the maximum vertical displacement dmax may be calculated from the following expressions: Rectangular tanks ( 0. Where loss of liquid should be prevented (for example.4. Where site-specific response spectra are used.⎞ I ( η c ) -----------------------.⎞ ( C c I ) = ⎛ -.

3-30 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY Notes .350.

The coefficient of lateral earth pressure at rest Ko shall be used in estimating the ear th pressures unless it is demonstrated by calculation that the structure deflects sufficiently to lo wer the coefficient to some v alue between Ko and the activ e coefficient of later al ear th pressure Ka.3-31 CHAPTER 8—EARTHQUAKE-INDUCED EARTH PRESSURES STANDARD 8. the resultant of the seismic component of the ear th pressure shall be assumed to act at a point 0.2—Limitations In a b uried tank. if present.3—Alternative methods The provisions of this chapter shall be per mitted to be superseded by recommendations of the project geotechnical engineer that are appro ved b y the b uilding official having jurisdiction. COMMENTARY R8. 8.1—General The lateral forces due to the dynamic earth and groundwater pressures are combined algebraically with the impulsi ve forces on the tank as in Eq.6 of the ear th height abo ve the base . and when part or all of the structure is below the water table. 8.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350.1—General Dynamic ear th pressures sha ll be tak en into account when computing the base shear of a par tially or fully buried liquid-containing str ucture and when designing the walls. shall be included in the calculation of these pressures. (4-5). In a pseudostatic analysis. The eff ects of g roundwater tab le. the resultant of the incremental increase in groundwater pressure shall be assumed to act at a point 1/3 of the water depth above the base. . the dynamic bac kfill forces shall not be relied upon to reduce t he dynamic eff ects of the stored liquid or vice versa.

350.3-32 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY Notes .

the force Pi changes direction several times per second. which acts at a height of hc above the tank bottom.7. In this model. This model has been accepted by the profession since the early 1960s. According to Housner (1963). The following commentary is adapted from Housner (1963): The design procedures described in Chapter 4 recognize that the seismic analysis of liquid-containing structures subjected to a horizontal acceleration should include the inertia forces generated b y the acceleration of the structure itself. which corresponds to the location of the resultant impulsi ve force Pi. and the pressures and forces may need to be modified for sloping surfaces. In the model. corresponding to the change in direction of the base acceleration. the overturning moment generated by Pi is thus frequently ineffective in tending to overturn the tank. Wc is the equi valent weight of the oscillating fluid that produces the con vective pre ssures on the tank w alls with resultant force Pc. COMMENTARY R9. The impulsive pressures are not impulses in the usual sense b ut are associated with inertia forces produced b y accelerations of the w alls of the container and are directly proportional to these accelerations. The impulsi ve pressures are generated b y the seismic accelerations of the tank w alls so that the force Pi is evenly divided into a pressure force on the w all accelerating into the fluid.” Figure R9.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. 43) sho ws an equivalent dynamic model for calculating the resultant seismic forces acting on a groundbased fluid container with rigid w alls.3 and 9.2 . Wc represents the resultant of the sloshing (convective) fluid pressures. During an earthquak e. the pressures associated with these forces “can be separated into impulsive and convective parts. The dynamic char acteristics of pedestal-mounted liquid-containing str uctures shall be computed in accordance with Section 9.1—General The dynamic char acteristics of g round-supported liquidcontaining structures subjected to ear thquake acceleration shall be computed in accordan ce with Sections 9.1 (on p.3-33 CHAPTER 9—DYNAMIC MODEL STANDARD 9. and a suction force on the w all accelerating away from the fluid. Wi moves with the tank w alls as the y respon d to the ground shaking (the fluid is assumed to be incompressible and the fluid displacements small). Wi is rigidly f astened to the tank w alls at a height hi above the tank bottom. Wc is fastened to the tank walls by springs . and the hydrodynamic forces generated by the horizontal acceleration of the contained liquid.5. In the model.1—General The lateral seismic pressures and forces determined in accordance with this Standard are based on v ertical tank walls and v ertical w all elements. The con vective press ures are those produced b y the osci llations of the fluid and are therefore the consequences of the impulsive pressures. Wi represents the resultant ef fect of the impuls ive seismic pressures on the tank w alls. 9.

The force Pi (and its associated pressures) primarily act to stress the tank wall. The sloshing pr essures on the tank w alls result from the fluid motion associated with the w ave oscillation.2 e xcept Eq. NZS 1986.866 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ H L⎠ Wc HL L ------.2—Rectangular tanks (Type 1) All equations in Section 9. (9-10).5. The sloshing increases and decreases the fluid pressure on the w all. Haroun and Ellaithy 1985).3-34 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD COMMENTARY that produce a period of vibration corresponding to the period of fluid sloshing. 9.2.5 to 7.1—Equivalent weights of accelerating liquid (Fig. ASCE 1981. 45]) L For tanks with -----. thus producing pressures that act on the tank w alls. and can be se veral seconds or longer. The duration of the fluctuations is 10 to 15 seconds for earthquakes of magnitude 6. The vertical vibrations of the ground are also transmitted to the fluid. 9.1 [on p.2—Height to center s of gra vity EBP ( Fig. R9. 9. The forces Pi and Pc act independently and simultaneous ly on the tank.350. Equations (9-9). this is smaller than the impulsi ve effect. The rapid fluctuations of the force Pi mean that the bending moments and stresses in the wall of a rectangular tank also vary rapidly (the effect is not like a constant force acting on the wall).= 0.2—Rectangular tanks (Type 1) 9. those acting on a rectangular tank.2. but not the same as. The force Pc fluctuates sinusoidally with a period of vibration that depends on the dimensions of the tank. V eletsos and Shi vakumar 1997.< 1. and subsequently used by other authors (Housner 1956. The pressures and forces on a cylindrical tank are similar to. the tank will tend to uplift. (9-9).866 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ H L⎠ Wi ------. (9-10). Normally. but if there is not enough dead load. whereas Pc acts primarily to uplift the tank w all.= ---------------------------------------------WL L 0. Haroun 1984.5 to 1% of critical damping. (9-1) (9-2) 9. ANSI/A WWA 1995a.2. They act to increase or decrease the hoop stresses.5.333 HL .1 [on p. 43]) acts for a sufficient time to tend to uplift the tank wall if there is insufficient restraining weight. Note that the damping of the sloshing w ater is small: approximately 0.16 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ L⎠ ⎝ H L⎠ WL R9. 44]) L tanh 0. The duration of sloshing can be 20 to 40 seconds for earthquakes of magnitude 6.264 ⎛ ------⎞ tanh 3.b.2. and (9-11) were originally developed by Housner (1963). The overturning moment e xerted by Pc (Fig. and is usually se veral seconds. and (9-11) were adapted from NZS (1986).5 to 7. The period of oscillation of the sloshing depends on the ratio of fluid depth to tank diameter .2 [on p.

ωi = k ---m (9-9) (9-10) tw γc m w = H w ----.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350.4—Dynamic properties The follo wing equations are pr ovided as e xamples for the special case of a wall of uniform thickness.= 1 – -------------------------------------------------------------------HL HL HL 3.= -------------------------------------------------.= 0.16 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ L-⎠ ⎝ L-⎠ 9.⎞ .16 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ L⎠ ⎝ L⎠ (9-4) (9-3) COMMENTARY (9-5) 9.≥ 1.HL 8 L ⎛ ------⎞ 2 tanh 0.– -.01 ⎝ L-⎠ hc ′ ------.12 ⎝ g ⎠ (9-6) (9-7) (9-8) R9.333 HL hi -----.75 HL L 0.16 ⎛ ------⎞ sinh 3. 9.09375 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ H L⎠ HL L For tanks with -----.3-35 STANDARD hi L -----.5 – 0.16 ⎛ ------⎞ sinh 3.45 HL L For tanks with -----. (Note that mass is equal to weight divided by the acceleration due to gravity.= 0.2.= 0.2.375 HL For all tanks HL cosh 3.) m = mw + mi .⎛ --.= 1 – -------------------------------------------------------------------HL HL HL 3.16 ⎛ ------⎞ – 1 ⎝ L⎠ hc -----.2.75 HL hi ′ -----.866 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ H L⎠ hi ′ 1 -----.< 0.≥ 0.3 [on p.866 ⎝ H L⎠ For all tanks HL cosh 3. 46]) L For tanks with -----.4—Dynamic properties The str uctural stiffness k shall be computed on the basis of correct boundary conditions.2.16 ⎛ ------⎞ – 2.3—Heights to center of gra vity IBP ( Fig.

V eletsos and Shi vakumar 1997.3-36 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD 2π T i = -----.3.⎛ --. 9. NZS 1986. fle xural stiffness for a unit width of w all k may be approximated using the following equation Ec tw 3 k = ----. (9-14) 9. particularly for end conditions other than cantile ver.1 [on p.= ---------------------------------------------WL D 0. Equations (9-23) through (9-28) were adapted from NZS (1986). 9. Such spring constants will generally fall within the low period range (less than about 0.866 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ H L⎠ Wi ------.= 2π m ---ωi k λ ω c = ------L where HL 3.⎞ H L ⎛ ---. and subsequently used by other authors (Housner 1956. (9-3) and (9-4).⎝ --. ANSI/AWWA 1995a. (9-15) (9-16) .= ⎛ ------⎞ L ⎝ λ⎠ ωc ⎛ 2π⎞ from Fig.16 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ L⎠ 2π 2π T c = -----. ASCE 1981.5Hw.2.3—Circular tanks (Type 2) 9. In such a case.1—Equivalent weights of accelerating liquid (Fig. it is reasonable to assume the wall rigid.3 seconds) for tanks of normal proportions. and h.2 (on p.⎞ in the SI system] .16g tanh 3. special analysis is required to determine mw.2.230 ⎛ ------⎞ tanh 3. For w alls of nonuniform thickness.b.350. and hi is obtained from Eq.48 ⎝ h ⎠ Ec 3 [ k = ---------------. such as in open-top tanks.4 ⎝ ------⎠ λ (9-11) COMMENTARY tw γc [ m w = H w ------.⎞ . (9-32) may be conserv atively used to calculate the impulsi ve forces regardless of the actual boundary conditions of the structure or structural components being analyzed.3.= 0.866 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ H L⎠ Wc HL D ------. were originally de veloped by Housner (1963). Eq.⎝ W L⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ g ⎠ ( hw mw + hi mi ) h = -----------------------------------( mw + mi ) (9-12) λ = (9-13) where hw = 0. (9-23) through (9-28). Haroun 1984.⎛ t w⎞ in the SI system] . As an alternati ve to computing the natural period of vibration.3.68 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ D⎠ ⎝ H L⎠ WL R9.⎞ .3⎝ ⎠ 10 g Wi L γL m i = ⎛ -------⎞ ⎛ -. 9.⎛ --.3—Circular tanks (Type 2) All equations in Section 9. Haroun and Ellaithy 1985).⎠ 4 × 10 3 h Flexural stiffness formulas may be developed for other wall support conditions. free-top cantilever walls. For fixed-base. 48]) D tanh 0. 44). e xcept Eq. mi. and Fig.

9.3.2: 12 g ω i = C l -----.– 1 .3.333 HL hi -----.2—Heights to center s of gra vity (EBP [ Fig.= 0. .68 ⎛ ------⎞ – 2.09375 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ H L⎠ HL D For tanks with -----.866 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ H L⎠ HL cosh 3.1 and 2.3.375 HL For all tanks HL cosh 3.3.68 ⎛ ------⎞ sinh 3.75 HL D 0.68 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ D-⎠ ⎝ D-⎠ 9.= 1 – -------------------------------------------------------------------HL HL HL 3.01 ⎝ D-⎠ hc ′ ------.3-37 STANDARD 9.= 1 – -------------------------------------------------------------------HL HL HL 3.45 HL D For tanks with -----.68 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ D-⎠ ⎝ D-⎠ (9-18) (9-17) COMMENTARY (9-19) 9. 49]) D For tanks with -----.≥ 1. 50]) D For tanks with -----.3.-HL 8 D 2 tanh 0.3. on p.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. on p.< 0. 9.68 ⎛ ------⎞ sinh 3.4—Dynamic properties Ti: For tank Types 2.b).≥ 0.< 1.= -------------------------------------------------.68 ⎛ ------⎞ – 1 ⎝ D-⎠ hc -----.3.= 0.E c ---HL γc (9-23) (9-20) (9-21) (9-22) R9.4—Dynamic properties Equations (9-23) and (9-24) are adapted from ASCE (1981) and Veletsos and Shivakumar (1997). Equations (9-26) and (9-27) are adapted from ANSI/AWWA (1995a.5 – 0.333 HL hi D -----.866 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ H L⎠ hi ′ -----.2.= 0.3—Heights to center of gra vity (IBP [ Fig.75 HL hi ′ -----.

9. (9-29).3-38 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD 3 1 g [ ω i = C l -----.in the SI system] 10r 2π T i = -----ωi For tank Type 2.68g tanh 3.3 Ti = 8π ( W w + W r + W i ) -----------------------------------------------gDk a (9-24) (9-25) (9-26) but shall not exceed 1.3.25 seconds. and (9-30) are adapt ed from Housner (1963).in the SI system] HL γc COMMENTARY Equations (9-13) .10 E c ---. 9. on p.350.4(b).68 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ D⎠ 2π 2π T c = -----.= ⎛ ------⎞ D ⎝ λ⎠ ωc 2π [ ⎛ ------⎞ from Fig.⎟ + ⎛ -----------------------. tw C l = C w 10 -------12r [Cw from Fig.⎟ + ⎜ -----------------------. ⎛ A s E s cos 2α⎞ 2G p w p L p k a = 144 ⎜ -----------------------------.4(a). (9-14).⎟ [in the SI system] Lc Sc ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ tp Sp ⎠ Tc : λ ω c = ------D where λ = HL 3.3. 51] tw [ C l = C w -------. 52] ⎝ λ⎠ Tv: For circular tanks Tv 2π 2 L DHL (9-28) (9-29) (9-30) = ----------------------24gt w E c Y (9-31) . on p.⎞ ⎝ t p S p -⎠ Lc Sc ⎝ ⎠ 2 (9-27) k a = 10 3 ⎛ A s E s cos α⎞ ⎛ 2G p w p L p⎞ ⎜ -----------------------------.

Fig.usgs.in the SI system] 2gt w E c Y COMMENTARY 2 9.4. Cc .4.4.4—Seismic response coefficients Ci . Geological Surv ey (USGS). Tc. equi valent to a recurrence interv al of approximately 2500 years.1. In regions other than those sho wn in the maps in publicat ions by IBC (2003).SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. R9. respectively.4—Seismic response coefficients Ci.1—Design response spectrum. Building Se ismic Safety Council (1997. ≤ S DS (9-33) S S DS (9-34) SDS = the design spectr al response acceler ation at short periods 2 SDS = -.1 The mapped spectral response accelerations Ss and S1 for any location can also be obtained from the late st database of the U. 9.SsFa 3 (9-35) SD1 = the design spectr response acceleration at a al 1 second period . A plot of the seismic response coef ficient Ci is shown in the design response spectrum in Fig.3-39 STANDARD L DH L [ T v = 2π --------------------. R9. SS and S1 may be replaced b y the maximum considered earthquak e spectral response accelerations from 5% damped response spectra repres enting earthquakes with a 2% probability of e xceedance in a 50-year period. and ASCE (2005). 2000). Designations Ci.gov. using the specif ic zip code or latitude and longitude that identify the location. and Ct R9. Cc. and Tv. which is adapted from IBC (2003). Cc.1 Ci shall be determined as follows: For T i ≤ TS Ci = SDS For Ti > TS S D1 C i = --------Ti where TS = D1 -------- (9-32) R9. and Ct define the profile of the design response spectrum at periods Ti.S. at http:// eqhazmaps.4. and Ct In practice.

350.4. -------- (9-40) For rectangular tanks. piston-like “pounding” of the st ored liquid b y the v ertically accelerating ground. and Ct For damping ratios other than 5% of critical.S 0 4S 3 0 C c = 6 -------.4SDS.4. refer toSection R4.2. 22-1 through 22-14 of ASCE 7-0 5.4SDS in Eq. the maximum considered ear thquake spectr al response acceler ations SaM and ScM shall be obtained from the site-specific acceleration spectrum as follows: For per iods less than or equal to TS .4-1 and 11. of ASCE 7-05.= -------2 2 Tc Tc . Ct is taken independent of the period of vibration. 0. This mode of vibration is relevant only to circular tanks. and does not apply to rectangular tanks. Chapter 22. 9. If the site-specif ic response spectrum does not e xtend into. Therefore.” of ASCE 7-05.4. except that it shall not be tak en less than 90% of the peak spectr al acceleration at an y per iod larger than 0. “Site Classification.4S DS 2.4.S1Fv 3 (9-36) COMMENTARY SS and S1 are the mapped spectr al response accelerations at short periods (Ss) and 1 second ( S1). and Ct When site-specific procedures are used. respectively.2 Factor 1. in conjunction with Table 20.= ------------------2 2 Tc Tc 9.5S DS (9-37) R9. 9.3 The period of vibration of v ertical liquid motion Tv for a circular tank (upright c ylinder) is deri ved from the axisymmetric pulsating (“breathing”) of the cylindrical wall due to the h ydrodynamic pressures resulting from the v ertical. SaM shall be taken as the spectral acceleration obtained from the sitespecific spectra at a per iod of 0.5—Site-specific seismic response coefficients Ci . Cc.5 represents the approximate ratio of the spectral amplifications based on 0.3-40 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD 2 SD1 = -.5S D1 C c = -------------------Tc For Tc > 1. or is not well defined in the Tc range.2 seconds. Ct = 0.6/Ts seconds 0.3-1.2 seco nds.3 Ct shall be determined as follows: For circular tanks For Tv ≤ TS Ct = SDS For Tv >TS Ct = S D1 Tv (9-39) (9-38) R9. (9-38) is an approximation of the effective peak ground acceleration S0 (at T = 0) reduced by a factor of 2/3. Cc .5% damping to those based on 5% damping. respectively. For R9.4-2.5—Site-specific seismic response coefficients Ci. the committee is not a ware of an y work devoted to the deri vation of this parameter for rectangular tanks. for rectangular tanks. coefficient Cc may be calculated using the equation 2 -. and shall be obtained from the seismic g round motion maps in Fig.4S DS C c = 6 ------------------. and Fa and Fv are the site coefficients and shall be obtained from T able 11.6/Ts seconds 1. ≤ 1. While the deri vation of Tv for circular tanks has been th e subject of se veral technic al papers.2 Cc shall be determined as follows: For Tc ≤ 1.

3-41 STANDARD periods g reater than TS .2. respectively.2.S aM 3 (9-43) (9-42) (9-41) COMMENTARY where S0 is the effective site-specific peak ground accelerat ion (at T = 0) expressed as a fraction of the acceleration due to gravity g.6—Effective mass coefficient ε The coefficient ε represents the ratio of the equi valent (or generalized) dynamic mass of the tank shell to its actual total mass.1908 ⎛ -----.7 of ACI 350-06.0151 ⎛ -----.021 ⎝ H -⎠ ⎝ H -⎠ L L ≤ 1. The use of site-specific response spectra represents one specific case of an “accepted alterna tive method of analysis” permitt ed in Section 21.⎞ + 1. SaM shall be tak en as the spectral response acceler ation corresponding to Ti or Tv .⎞ + 1. consult Veletsos and Shivakumar (1997). Tc 2 C c = -. the 80% lower limit imposed in 9.2—Circular tanks D 2 D ε = 0. Cc.S aM 3 For all periods.6—Effective mass coefficient ε 9.7 of ACI 350-06. and Ct shall be deter mined from Eq. Ti 2 C i = -. (9-42). and (9-43). except that when a 0.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350.6. Therefore. For additional information related to the ef fective mass coefficient ε. For all periods.0151 ⎛ -----.1. SaM shall be determined from that spectr um when used to deter mine Ct . Tv 2 Ct = -.5% damped.1908 ⎛ -----. ≤ 1.021 ⎝ H -⎠ ⎝ H -⎠ L L R9.6. Cc.⎞ – 0.0 (9-44) 9. site-specific vertical response spectr um is a vailable. site-specific horizontal response spectrum is a vailable. and ScM shall be tak en as 150% of the spectr al response acceleration corresponding to Tc. Equation (9-44) and (9-45) are adapted from ASCE (1981). (9-41).4. as applicab le.⎞ – 0. ScM shall be equal to the spectr al response acceleration from that spectr um corresponding to period Tc. When a 5% damped.1—Rectangular tanks L 2 L ε = 0. 9. and Ct used for design shall not be less than 80% of the corresponding v alues as determined in accordance with Section 9.S cM 3 For all periods.0 (9-45) .5 should be considered the same as the limit imposed in Section 21.1. The seismic response coefficients Ci. The values of Ci .

hi′. including per iods of vibration and later al coefficients .3-42 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD 9. Haroun and Ellaithy (1985).350. hc . (9-2) and (9-3) for rectangular and circular tanks. shall be computed using the corresponding Eq. COMMENTARY R9.7—Pedestal-mounted tanks The equivalent weights. and A CI Committee 371 (1998) pro vide additional guidelines on the dynamic analysis of pedestal-mounted tanks. The dynamic proper ties. respectively.7—Pedestal-mounted tanks Housner (1963). Wi and Wc . and heights to the centers of gravity. hi. shall be per mitted to be determined on the basis of gener ally acceptab le methods of dynamic analysis. and hc′ of a mounted tank. .

1—Dynamic model of liquid-containing tank rigidly ASCE [1984]). R9.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350.3-43 STANDARD COMMENTARY Fig. supported on the gr ound (adapted fr om Housner [1963] and .

= 0. Ltanh 0.2. L/HL RATIO Fig.350.866 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ H L⎠ Wi ------.866 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ H L⎠ HL Wc L ------. 9.1—Factors Wi /WL and Wc /WL versus ratio L/HL for rectangular tanks.= ---------------------------------------------WL L0.16 ⎛ -------⎞ ⎝ L⎠ ⎝H ⎠ WL L (9-1) (9-2) .3-44 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD COMMENTARY IMPULSIVE AND CONVECTIVE MASS FACTORS vs.264 ⎛ -------⎞ tanh 3.

= 1 – -------------------------------------------------------------------------HL HL HL 3.333 HL hc /HL: For all tanks HL cosh 3.= 0.16 ⎛ ------⎞ × sinh 3.≥ 1. L/HL RATIO Fig.16 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ L⎠ ⎝ L⎠ hi L -----.333 HL L For tanks with -----.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350.2.16 ⎛ ------⎞ – 1 ⎝ L⎠ hc -----.< 1.09375 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ H L⎠ HL hi -----.3-45 STANDARD COMMENTARY IMPULSIVE AND CONVECTIVE HEIGHT FACTORS vs.375 HL (9-3) (9-4) (9-5) .= 0.5 – 0.2—Factors hi /HL and hc /HL versus ratio L/HL for rectangular tanks (EBP). 9. hi /HL: L For tanks with -----.

L/HL RATIO Fig.16 ⎛ ------⎞ – 2.2.45 HL L 0.16 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ L-⎠ ⎝ L-⎠ (9-8) .866 ⎝ H L⎠ (9-6) L For tanks with -----.≥ 0.16 ⎛ ------⎞ sinh 3.= 1 – -------------------------------------------------------------------HL HL HL 3. 9.= 0. hi′ /HL : L For tanks with -----.3—Factors hi′/HL and hc′/HL versus ratio L/HL for rectangular tanks (IBP).3-46 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD COMMENTARY IMPULSIVE AND CONVECTIVE HEIGHT FACTORS vs.75 HL hi ′ -----.– -HL 8 L ⎛ ------⎞ 2 × tanh 0.75 HL (9-7) ′ hc /HL : For all tanks HL cosh 3.= -------------------------------------------------------.866 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ H L⎠ hi ′ 1 -----.01 ⎝ L-⎠ hc ′ ------.< 0.350.

"For results in the SI system.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350.3-47 STANDARD FACTOR (2π/λ) COMMENTARY Fig.= ⎛ ------⎞ L ⎝ λ⎠ ωc (9-12) (9-13) (9-14) . 9.2.16 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ L⎠ 2π 2π T c = -----.4—Factor 2π/λ for rectangular tanks." λ ω c = ------L λ = HL 3.16g tanh 3.811. multiply the factors on the vertical axis by 1.

9.68 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ D⎠ ⎝ H L⎠ WL (9-15) (9-16) .350. D/HL RATIO Fig.866 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ H L⎠ Wi ------.3.= ---------------------------------------------WL D⎛ ------⎞ 0.1—Factors Wi / WL and Wc/WL versus ratio D/HL for circular tanks.866 ⎝ H L⎠ Wc HL D ------.230 ⎛ ------⎞ tanh 3.3-48 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD COMMENTARY IMPULSIVE AND CONVECTIVE MASS FACTORS vs. D tanh 0.= 0.

68 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ D-⎠ ⎝ D-⎠ hi D -----.09375 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ H L⎠ HL hi -----. hi /HL: D For tanks with -----.= 0.5 – 0.333 HL hc /HL: For all tanks HL cosh 3.< 1.3.= 0.68 ⎛ ------⎞ – 1 ⎝ D-⎠ hc -----.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350.≥ 1.375 HL (9-17) (9-18) (9-19) .68 ⎛ ------⎞ sinh 3. D/HL RATIO Fig.333 HL D For tanks with -----.= 1 – -------------------------------------------------------------------HL HL HL 3.3-49 STANDARD COMMENTARY IMPULSIVE AND CONVECTIVE HEIGHT FACTORS vs.2—Factors hi / HL and hc /HL versus ratio D/HL for circular tanks (EBP). 9.

≥ 0.------.3—Factors h′i /HL and hc /HL versus ratio D/HL for circular tanks (IBP).350. 9.= 0.= 1 – -------------------------------------------------------------------HL HL HL 3.68 ⎛ ------⎞ sinh 3. ′ h′i /HL: D For tanks with -----.3-50 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD COMMENTARY IMPULSIVE AND CONVECTIVE HEIGHT FACTORS vs.– 1 HL 8 D 2 tanh 0.68 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ D-⎠ ⎝ D-⎠ (9-22) .866 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ H L⎠ hi ′ .= -------------------------------------------------.< 0.866 ⎛ ------⎞ -⎠ ⎝ HL (9-20) D For tanks with -----.01 ⎝ D-⎠ hc ′ ------.75 HL (9-21) hc′ /HL: For all tanks HL cosh 3.45 HL D 0.75 HL hi ′ -----.68 ⎛ ------⎞ – 2. D/HL RATIO Fig.3.

9.1034 ⎛ ------⎞ – 0.1267 ⎛ ------⎞ – 3.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350.667 C w = 9.3. For D /HL > 0.2039 ⎛ ------⎞ – 0.375 × 10 –2 5 HL 2 HL HL 3 HL 4 –2 H L + 0.3-51 STANDARD COEFFICIENT C W COMMENTARY Fig.4(a)—Coefficient Cw for circular tanks.1253 ⎛ ------⎞ + 0.186 × 10 ⎛ ------⎞ -⎠ -⎠ -⎠ -⎠ -⎠ ⎝D ⎝D ⎝D ⎝D ⎝D .

811.68g tanh ⎛ 3. 9. multiply the factors on the vertical axis by 1.4(b)—Factor 2π/ λ for circular tanks.68 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎞ ⎝ ⎝ D ⎠⎠ 2π 2π T c = -----. "For results in the SI system.3.3-52 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD FACTOR (2π/λ) COMMENTARY Fig.= ⎛ ------⎞ D ⎝ λ⎠ ωc (9-29) (9-30) ." λ ω c = ------D (9-28) λ = HL 3.350.

International Conference of Building Of ficials (ICBO).C. “Guidelines for the Seismic Design of Oil and Gas Pipeline Systems. 1997.. Uang.” EERC Report No. ” Report by Committee on Seismic Analysis. A. Haroun.. Mich. No. . 1.. “Earthquak e Design Criteria for Water Supply & Wastewater Systems. J. 1995b. Whittier. and Hall. M. eds. 36 pp. Building Seismic Safety C ouncil.. 1997. 1981. “Code Requirements for Environmental Engineering Concrete Structures and C ommentary (350-06).” V.. Blume & Associates. 3. K. Inc. “Seismically Induced Fluid Forces on Elevated Tanks. H. C. 1998. M. “Dynamic Response of Tanks Containing Liquids or Solids.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. A. G.” Journal of Technical Topics in Civil Engineering . Veletsos. III. 1981. International Code Council. “Design of Soft Stories—A Simplifi ed Energy Approach. D-1 to D-12. V.” Earthquake Spectra. “Code of Practice for Concrete Structures for the Storage of Liquids. ACI Committee 371.” National Science Foundation Report NSF/CE52-81079. V.” Computer Analysis and Design of Earthquake-Resistant Structures .and Strand-Wound. N o.” ASCE 7-05. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). pp. 305-315. “Dynamic Pressure on Fluid Containers. ASCE. G... Bertero.” Proceedings. ” NZS 3106. 936 pp. New Zealand Standard (NZS).S.” Technical Information (TID) Document 7024. Calif. D. Farmington Hills. 2 .. “International Building Code. H. “Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Struct ures. 2003. A. Section 7. 1986.” Washington.. 1963. 1-15.. “Earthquak e Spectra and Design. “Uniform Building Code. pp. Atomic Energy Commission. 3. V. Building Seismic Safety C ouncil. Mass. 1985. Anagnostopoulos. P. John A. S. National Science F oundation. Medearis. Billerica. “Stress Analysis of Rectangular Walls Under Seismically Induced Hydrodynamic Loads. W . Dec. University of California. 74. 1958.. N. V.” ANSI/AWWA D110-95. 90. V. A. 2005. 2000.. ” Performance-Based Seismic Engineering of Buildings . UCB/EERC-88. 1997. ” Journal of the Structural Division.3-53 COMMENTARY CHAPTER 10—COMMENTARY REFERENCES ACI Committee 350. Mich. W orld Conference on Earthquake Engineering. “Ener gy Based Design Approach. Apr. Housner. Newmark. and Shivakumar. S.” 656 pp. 1956. A.” Committee on Gas and Liquid Fuel Lifelines of the T echnical Council on Lifeline Earthquake Engineering. No. U. 61-89.. 5-1 to 5-13. 1995a.C.. ” Bulletin of the Seismolo gical Society of America . pp. Feb. D. Computational Mechanics Publications. 1964.” American Concrete Institute. ” Earthquake Engineering Resear ch Institute Monograph. Berkeley. M ay. ASCE. M. and Ellaith y. “ AWWA Standard for W ire. American Society of Ci vil Engineers (ASCE). V. W. and Y oung. Scarlat. SEAOC. 1031-1041. “Fluid/Structure Interaction During Seismic Excitation. “Limit Design of Structures to Resist Earthquak es. 2006. “NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Re gulations for New Buildings and Other Structures—P art 1: Pro visions (FEMA 368) and Part 2: Commentary (FEMA 369). and Bertero.. Housner. Chapter 6 and Appendix F. June.. American Society of Ci vil Engineering (ASCE).. 484 pp. “Ener gy Absorption of Structures Under Cyclic Loading. 1982. 1984. Earthquake Engineering Series V... “Use of Energy as a Design Criterion in Earthquak e-Resistant Design. Haroun. Circular . V. V. M. Design. pp. ” American Concrete Institute. 1995. Beskos and S. Sept. ST1. Prestressed Concrete W ater Tanks. “Guide for the Analysis.” ANSI/AWWA D115-95. ANSI/AWWA.. Farmington Hills. “NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Re gulations for New Buildings and Other Structures—Part 1: Provisions (FEMA 302) and Part 2: Commentary (FEMA 303). E. 1997. D. 1988. 1 3. pp. and Construction of Concrete-Pedestal W ater Towers (A CI 371R-98) (Reappro ved 2003). D. “ AWWA Standard for Circular Prestressed Concrete W ater T anks with Circumferential Tendons. pp.. Va. Nov. 2. “Report of T esting Program on Earthquak e Cable Detail for the Preload Company. Reston. M.” Washington..” July. 77 pp. ANSI/AWWA. 1984. W ..

350.3-54 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY Notes .

Based on the natural periods determined in Step 10 and the design spectral response acceleration values derived in Step 2.1. Where required. Calculate the effective weight of the impulsive component of the stored liquid Wi.2). and hc (EBP) and h′ and h′ (IBP) to the center of gravity of the tank wall. Select an importance factor I from Table 4. respectively). respectively. (9-37). Freeboard: 12. and convective component. The impulsive mode will generally fall into the rigid range of the response spectra (that is. or Eq. L or D. Note: Where a sitespecific response spectrum is constructe d in accordance with Section 4. Thus. if the maximum value of Ci is used (SDS).SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. and the stored liquid WL. 3.1—General outline of design method In the absence of a more rigorous method of analysis. (9-12) for rectangular tanks or Eq.4-2.1. (9-33).2. roof. Calculate the equivalent weight of the tank wall (shell) Ww.3). and the convective component Wc using Fig. Calculate the combined natural frequenc y of vibration ωi of the containment structure and the impulsi ve component of the stored liquid (Eq. Calculate the heights hw. 10.3-55 COMMENTARY APPENDIX A—DESIGN METHOD A. impulsive i c component. Calculate the frequenc y of the vibration ωc of the con vective component of the stored liquid ( Eq. Establish the design depth of the stored liquid HL . (Eq. 9. 6.1 and 2. 4. Ci and Cc are determined in accordance with Sections 9. calculate the corresponding seismic response coefficients Ci and Cc (Eq. 9.3. compute the effective mass coefficient ε. calculation of the natural frequency and natural period is not required. 9. (9-26). From the applicable seismic ground motion map of ASCE 7-05.1 for rectangular tanks or Fig.3. (9-28) for circular).1 for circular tanks. R9. calculate the maximum v ertical displacement of liquid surf ace (w ave height) in accordance with Chapter 7 . and 9.3. obtain coef ficients Fa and Fv using ASCE 7-05. calculate the corresponding natural periods of vibration Ti and Tc. (9-35) and (9-36). Tank dynamic properties: 5. and (9-38)). Chapter 22. (9-32). 7. Basic seismic design parameters: 1.2. and the tank length or diameter. (9-25). T able 20.4-1 and 11. 11. (9-11) and (9-14) for rectangular tanks. the constant spectral acceleration region of the design response spectrum in Fig. 8. . obtain the mapped maximum considered earthquake spectral response accelerations at short periods and at 1 second (SS and S1.2. 9. After selecting the site classification from ASCE 7-05. Adjust the wall height if required to meet freeboard requirements.3-1. Using the frequency values determined in Steps 8 and 9. and calculate SDS and SD1 using Eq.2. the general procedures out lined below may be used to apply the pro visions of Chapters 1 through 9.2. 2.3. hi. 9. the wall height Hw.1(a). Also. T ables 11. respectively (Fig. (9-23) for circular tank Types 2. and (9-30) for circular tanks).5. 9.3.2 and 9. (9-9) for rectangular tanks or Eq. hr. roof Wr.1(b) for the type of structure being investigated.1) for common sizes of concrete tanks.2. Select the factors Ri and Rc from Table 4.1. or Sections 9.4.5 and R9.

Vertical acceleration: 15. If uplift develops on the heel side.4. Stresses: 18.1) and the stresses associated with the increase in effective fluid density due to the vertical acceleration. (4-5)). and 19. Compute the vertical amplification factor Ct in accordance with Section 9.3. first calculate the natural period of vibration of vertical liquid motion Tv (Eq. Compute the vertical distribution of the force components in accordance with Chapter 5. For circular tanks. Calculate the bending and overturning moments (Eq. Calculate the o verall bending stresses due to the o verturning moments (from Step 14). 16. calculate the hoop stresses due to the impulsive and convective pressures and due to the vertical acceleration (Section 6. 14. In rectangular tanks. Pressure distribution: 17. calculate the st resses in the w all due to the impulsi ve and con vective pressures. then anchor cables must be provided. (4-10) and (4-13)). depending on the structural system considered (Section 6. Calculate the hydrodynamic pressure pvy (Eq.2). (4-14)). In circular tanks.3-56 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY COMMENTARY Base shear and overturning moments: 13. Do wnward pressures on the neoprene bearing pads of free base circular tanks caused b y overturning moments should be co nsidered. . (9-31)).350. (4-1) to (4-4)) and total base shear V (Eq. Compute the dynamic lateral forces (Eq.

Using the zone factor Z and the soil profile designation from Steps 2 and 3. or C from Table 16-U. find the zone factor Z from Table 16-I. NOTE: All section. SE. respectively. select a Seismic So urce Type A. B. . B1.1—Scope The purpose of this appendix is to permit the user to adapt the pro visions of ACI 350.2 and Table 16-J. SB.3-57 COMMENTARY APPENDIX B—ALTERNATIVE METHOD OF ANALYSIS BASED ON 1997 Uniform Building Code B. find the seismic coefficient Ca from Table 16-Q and seismic coefficient Cv from Table 16-R. table.2 of this standard) Ca Cv = seismic coefficient. SF = Na Nv Ts Z = near-source factor used in the determination of Ca in Seismic Zone 4 related to the proximity of the structure to known faults with magnitudes and slip rates as set forth in Tables 16-S and 16-U = near-source factor used in the determination of Cv in Seismic Zone 4 related to the proximity of the structure to known faults with magnitudes and slip rates as set forth in Tables 16-T and 16-U = 0. SC. general methodology 1.40Cv /Ca = seismic zone factors as given in Table 16-I B. 5.2—Design ground motions This appendix presents an outline of the methodolog y to be followed when computing the loadin g side of seismic analysis in accordance with 1997 UBC. In this case. The differences between the 1997 UBC and the 2003 IBC seismic provisions as used in this Standard are primarily due to differences in the definition of design ground motions and the construction of the corresponding design response spectra as explained below. Select the seismic zone (1 through 4) where the site is located.1—Introduction B1. and near-source factors Na and Nv from Tables 16-S and 16-T. Consulting paragraph 1636. using the seismic zone map (Fig. SD. 3. 4. the design ground motions are those with a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. If the structure is in Seismic Zone 4. select the soil profile type designation SA through SF that best represents the soil at the site.3 to the seismic pro visions of the 1997 edition of the Uniform Building Code (UBC) (ICBO 1997).2—Notation (not included in Section 1. B. Using the seismic zone determined in Step 1. as set forth in Table 16-R dead load earthquake load as defined in Section 1630.1 live load soil profile types as set forth in Table 16-J DL = E = LL = SA.3—Loading side. figure and equation references are to 1997 UBC except as otherwise indicated.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. 16-2). 2. as set forth in Table 16-Q = seismic coefficient.

2. this standard uses the static procedures in accordance with 1629. 16-3 and B.2.40 ----.8. static. using the above design response spectrum as follows (Note 2: Section 1629. the methods in Chapter 9 of this standard should be used.5C a Ca 7.1.5Ca For Ti > Ts Ci = Cv /Ti In addition.” allows three options for computing lateral forces. depending on the type of structure being investigated: simplified static.3.6/Ts seconds 1.350. (9-14) of this Standard for rectangular tanks.8.1—Modified UBC 1997 design response spectrum (ICBO 1997). 8. modified as indicated in this standard. construct a design response spectrum as in Fig.75Ca Tc (B-4) .4 specif ies the method for determining th e fundamental period b y referencing 1630.) For all seismic zones: For Ti ≤ Ts Ci = 2. Seismic response coefficients Ci and Cc— 8.≤ 3. B. Cv. Compute T s = ------------.. F or liquidretaining structures.5C v Cc = ------------.3-58 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY COMMENTARY Cv Cv 6. Using the values of Ca. and (9-30) for circular tanks. and Eq.) Compute seismic response coefficient Ci corresponding to T. or dynamic. and Ts. however.1 Ci (impulsive component): Compute period of vibration Ti in accordance with Eq.2 Cc (convective component): Compute period of vibration Tc using Eq. “Selection of Lateral-force Procedures. (9-11) of this Standard for rectangular tanks.1. for Seismic Zone 4 Ci ≥ 1. For liquid-containing structures. 2. For Tc ≤ 1. (Note 1: Section 1634.= 0. Fig.6ZNv (B-3) (B-2) (B-1) 8. (9-25) or (9-26) for circular.

1 of this Standard as follows. Select coefficient Ri and Rc from Table 4.6/Ts seconds Ca C c = 6 -----2 Tc 9.5C v I P c = --------------. Compute the component parts of the total lateral force.5C a I P i = ----------------W i Ri For Ti > Ts Cv I P i = ----------W i ≥ 0. Pr .1.1. For Ti ≤ Ts 2.c -W Rc Tc (B-11) (B-10) [1997 UBC Eq. and WL.5 ( 2. Select an importance factor I from Table 4.2 and 9.W c ≤ ---------------------------.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. Base shears V— • • • • • Compute Ww.3-59 COMMENTARY For Tc > 1.1(a) of this Standard.1(b) of this Standard. (30-5)] (B-6) (B-7) (B-8) (B-9) .c -W Rc Equation (B-8) and (B-9) take the following form depending on the period Ti and Tc. (30-4) and (34-2)] [1997 UBC Eq. Wr .56C a IW i Ri Ti For Tc > 1.εW i Ri Cc I P c = ------. Compute Wi and Wc using the equations in Sections 9.εW w Ri Ci I P r = ------.1.6/Ts seconds 6C a I 1. Pw.3 of this Standard.5C a )I P c = ----------. and Pc in accordance with Section 4.εW r Ri Ci I P i = ------.W c 2 Rc Rc Tc For Tc ≤ 1. (B-5) For all seismic zones Ci I P w = ------. Pi .6/Ts seconds 1.

2(2)) When a site-specific design response spectrum is available. Compute seismic response coefficient Ct as follows: For all seismic zones: For circular tanks For Tv ≤ Ts Ct = Ca For Tv > Ts Cv C t = ----Tv For rectangular tanks. Pr . 12. Vertical load distribution—The vertical distribution of the lateral seismic forces may be assumed as shown in Section 5 of this Standard. (34-3)] 10.1. respectively. Combine th e computed moments using the square root of the sum of the squares method as in the same section. the coefficients Ci and Ct are replaced by the actual spectral values corresponding to Ti and Tv.3-60 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY COMMENTARY In addition. Vertical component of ground motion—Compute the natural period of vibration of the vertical liquid motion Tv in accordance with Section 9. from the 5% damped site-specific spectrum. Total base shear V—The total base shear due to Pw . and Cc is replaced by the actual spectral .6ZNv Compute the spectral acceleration üv as follows b üv = C t I---Ri (B-16) (B-15) (B-14) (B-13) (B-12) 13. Overturning moments—Compute overturning moments for the lateral loads described above using the procedures of Section 4.4—Site-specific spectra (Section 1631. for Seismic Zone 4 1. Pi . for Seismic Zone 4: For rectangular and circular tanks Ct ≥ 1.3 of this Standard.4 of this Standard.1.3. for all periods Tv Ct = Ca In addition.W i Ri [1997 UBC Eq.2 of this Standard V = ( Pw + Pr + Pi ) + Pc 2 2 11.6ZN v I P i ≥ -------------------. and Pc may be computed b y combining these lateral loads using the square root of the sum of the squares method as in Section 4.350. B.

5—Resistance side 1. may be computed in accordance with the applicable provisions of 1997 UBC (ICBO 1997) or ACI 350-06. Where the approved standard defines acceptance criteria in terms of allowable stresses (as opposed to strengths). (B-4). the following load combinations are permitted to be used for design instead of the ASCE 7-05 load factor combinations (Haroun and Ellaithy 1985). including load combinations and streng th reduction factors. B. coefficient Cc may be calculated using Eq. When such a standard is used. and 2.3-61 COMMENTARY value corresponding to Tc from the 0. the design seismic forces obtained from this appendix shall be reduced b y a factor of 1. If the site-specific response spectrum does not extend into or is not well defined in the Tc range.4 for use with allowable stresses. DL + LL + E/1.⎞ ⎝ 2 ⎠ (B-17) . and allo wable stress increases used in the appro ved standard are permitted.4 B.6—Freeboard L or D d max = Cc I ⎛ ---------------.5% damped site-specific spectrum. with Cv representing the effective site-specific peak ground acceleration expressed as a fraction of the acceleration due to gravity g. Chapter 9.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. The resistance side of the seismic desi gn.

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