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ACI350.3-065.0

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3-06

**Seismic Design of Liquid-Containing Concrete Structures and Commentary (ACI 350.3-06)
**

An ACI Standard

Reported by ACI Committee 350

First Printing November 2006

**Seismic Design of Liquid-Containing Concrete Structures and Commentary
**

Copyright b y the Amer ican Concrete Institute , Farmington Hills , MI. All r ights reser ved. This mater ial may not be reproduced or copied, in whole or par t, in any printed, mechanical, electronic, film, or other distribution and storage media, without the written consent of ACI. The technical committees responsib le for ACI committee reports and standards str ive to avoid ambiguities, omissions, and errors in these documents . In spite of these eff orts, the users of A CI documents occasionally find information or requirements that may be subject to more than one inter pretation or may be incomplete or incorrect. Users who ha ve sugges tions f or the impro vement of A CI documents are requested to contact ACI. ACI committee documents are intended f or the use of individuals who are competent to e valuate the significance and limitations of its content and recommendations and who will accept responsibility f r the o application of the material it contains. Individuals who use this publication in any way assume all risk and accept total responsibility for the application and use of this information. All information in this publication is provided “as is” without warranty of any kind, either express or implied, including but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose or non-infringement. ACI and its members disclaim liability for damages of any kind, including any special, indirect, incidental, or consequential damages , including without limitation, lost re venues or lost profits , which ma y result from the use of this publication. It is the responsibility of the user of this document to establish health and safety practices appropriate to the specific circumstances in volved with its use . ACI does not mak e any representations with regard to health and safety issues and the us e of this document. The user m ust determine the applicability of all regulatory limitations before applying the document and must comply with all applicable laws and regulations, including but not limited to, United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) health and safety standards. Order information: ACI documents are available in print, by download, on CD-ROM, through electronic subscription, or reprint and may be obtained by contacting ACI. Most ACI standards and committee reports are gathered together in the annually revised ACI Manual of Concrete Practice (MCP). American Concrete Institute 38800 Country Club Drive Farmington Hills, MI 48331 U.S.A. Phone: 248-848-3700 Fax: 248-848-3701

**www.concrete.org
**

ISBN 0-087031-222-7

**Seismic Design of Liquid-Containing Concrete Structures and Commentary (ACI 350.3-06)
**

AN ACI STANDARD REPORTED BY ACI COMMITTEE 350

Environmental Engineering Concrete Structures

Satish K. Sachdev Chair Jon B. Ardahl Vice Chair Walter N. Bennett Lucian I. Bogdan Steven R. Close Patrick J. Creegan Ashok K. Dhingra Robert E. Doyle Anthony L. Felder Carl A. Gentry Gautam Ghosh Charles S. Hanskat Keith W. Jacobson Dov Kaminetzky M. Reza Kianoush David G. Kittridge Dennis C. Kohl Nicholas A. Legatos Ramon E. Lucero Andrew R. Minogue Lawrence G. Mrazek Javeed A. Munshi Jerry Parnes

John W. Baker Secretary Andrew R. Philip Narayan M. Prachand Risto Protic William C. Sherman Lawrence M. Tabat Lawrence J. Valentine

.

Guides. To establish the scope of the new procedures consistent with the overall scope of ACI 350. con vective component. as well as circular. Keywords: circular tanks. The Institute shall not be liable for any loss or damage arising therefrom.b). The committee’s decision was influenced by the recognition that liquid-containing structures are unique structures whose seismic design is not adequately covered by the leading national codes and standards. or by any electronic or mechanical device. as well as prestressed. This required the incluson of i all types of tanks—rectangular.” to provide a set of thorough and comprehensive procedures for theseismic analysis and design of all types of liquid-containing environmental concrete structures.3-01 a nd became effective on July 3.3-1 Seismic Design of Liquid-Containing Concrete Structures and Commentary (ACI 350. it was decided to maintain this practice in ACI 350 as well. impulsive component. executing. earthquake resistance. printed or written or oral. 22-1 through 22-14 of ASCE 7-05. and 2.1. unless permission in writing is obtained from the copyright proprietors. These procedures address the loading side of seismic design and are intended to complement ACI 350-0 6. INTRODUCTION The following paragraphs highlight the development of this standard and its evolution to the present format: From the time it embarked on the task of developing an ACI 318-dependent code. storage tanks. format. they shall be restated in mandatory language for incorporation by the Architect/Engineer.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. Chapter 21. Chapter 22] and the geometry of the structure). All rights reserved including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by any means.8 of ACI 318 are included in ACI 350. To produce a self-contained set of p rocedures that would enable a practicing engineer to perfo rm a full seismic analysis and design of a liquid-containing structure. and reinforced concrete. The American Concrete Institute disclaims any and all responsibility for the stated principles. and mandatory language of Chapte r 21 of ACI 318 were retained with only enough revisions to adapt the chapter to environmental engineering structures. As the loading side of seismic design is outside the scope of ACI 318. designing. . seismic resistance. ACI Committee 350 decided to expand on and supplement Chapter 21. A seismic design subcommittee was appointed with the charge to implem ent the committee’s decision. prestressed concrete tanks only). or recording for sound or visual reproduction or for use in any knowledge or retrieval system ordevice. environmental concrete structures. sloshing. these are limited to circular. The seismic subcommittee’s work was guided by two main objectives: 1. Reference to this commentar y shall not be made in contract documents. concrete ta nks. and Commentaries are intended for guidance in planning. 2006. It allows ACI 350 to maintain ACI 318’s p ractice of limiting its seismic design provisions to the resistace side n only. and inspecting construction. Section 1.3-06) REPORTED BY ACI COMMITTEE 350 This standard prescribes procedures for the seismic analysis and design of liquid-containing concrete structures. ACI 350. This approach offers at least two advantages: 1. Copyright © 2006. including the making of copies by any photo process. “Special Provisions for Seismic Design. Accordingly. Standards.1. and 2. If items found in this Commentar are desired by the Architect/Engineer y to be a part of the contract documents . design: the “loading side” (namely the determination of the seismic loads based on the mapped maximum considered earthquake spectral response accelerations at short periods (Ss) and 1 second ( S1) obtained from the Seismic Ground Motion maps [Fig. the basic scope. American Concrete Institute. so as to resist those loads safely). It makes it easier to update these seismic provisions so as to keep up with the frequent changes and improvements in the field of seismic hazard analysis and evaluation. (Note: While there are currently at least two national standards that provide detailed procedures for the seismic analysis and design of liquid-containing structures (ANSI/AWWA 1995a.8 and Chapter 21. This meant that these procedures should cover both aspects of seismic ACI Committee Reports. and the “resistance side” (the detailed design of the structure in accordance with the provisions of ACI 350. Provisions similar to Section 1. This Commentary is intended for the use of individuals who are competent to evaluate the significance and limitations of its content and recommendations and who will accept responsibility for the a pplication of the material it contains.3-06 supersedes 350. liquid-containing structures. rect angular tanks.

as referenced in ASCE 7-02. such as those included for seismic design in the 2003 International Building Code (IBC). Instead of assuming a rigid tank for which the accelerat ion is equal to the ground acceleration at all locations. this standard assumes amplification of response due to natura l frequency of the tank. particularly the applicable connection provisions of 2003 IBC.When comparing these provisions with other documents defining seismic forces at allowable stress levels (for example. which represent some of the key . this standard combines these modes by square-root-sum-of-the-squares. 3. Rather than combining impulsive and convective modes by algebraic sum. 4. 2. The user should note the fo llowing general design methods used in this standard. This standard includes the response modification factor. such as those described in ASCE (1984): 1. The seismic force levels andR-factors included in this standard provide results at strength levels. applicable to the mass of the walls.350. This standard includes the ef fects of vertical accelerat ion. This standard includes an effective mass coefficient.3-01). th e 1994 Uniform Building Code [UBC] or ACI 350. the se ismic forces in this standard should be reduced by the applicable factors to derive comparabe l forces at allowable stress levels. and 5.3-2 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY differences relative to tradi tional methodologies.

SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES

350.3-3

CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1—GENERAL REQUIREMENTS ............................................................................ 5

1.1—Scope 1.2—Notation

**CHAPTER 2—TYPES OF LIQUID-CONTAINING STRUCTURES ......................................... 11
**

2.1—Ground-supported structures 2.2—Pedestal-mounted structures

**CHAPTER 3—GENERAL CRITERIA FOR ANALYSIS AND DESIGN ................................... 13
**

3.1—Dynamic characteristics 3.2—Design loads 3.3—Design requirements

**CHAPTER 4—EARTHQUAKE DESIGN LOADS .................................................................... 15
**

4.1—Earthquake pressures above base 4.2—Application of site-specific response spectra

**CHAPTER 5—EARTHQUAKE LOAD DISTRIBUTION........................................................... 21
**

5.1—General 5.2—Shear transfer 5.3—Dynamic force distribution above base

CHAPTER 6—STRESSES....................................................................................................... 27

6.1—Rectangular tanks 6.2—Circular tanks

CHAPTER 7—FREEBOARD ................................................................................................... 29

7.1—Wave oscillation

**CHAPTER 8—EARTHQUAKE-INDUCED EARTH PRESSURES .......................................... 31
**

8.1—General 8.2—Limitations 8.3—Alternative methods

**CHAPTER 9—DYNAMIC MODEL ........................................................................................... 33
**

9.1—General 9.2—Rectangular tanks (Type 1) 9.3—Circular tanks (Type 2) 9.4—Seismic response coefficients Ci , Cc, and Ct 9.5—Site-specific seismic response coefficients Ci , Cc, and Ct 9.6—Effective mass coefficient ε 9.7—Pedestal-mounted tanks

CHAPTER 10—COMMENTARY REFERENCES .................................................................... 53

350.3-4

ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY

**APPENDIX A—DESIGN METHOD...........................................................................................55
**

A.1—General outline of design method

**APPENDIX B—ALTERNATIVE METHOD OF ANALYSIS BASED ON 1997 Uniform Building Code...........................................................................57
**

B.1—Introduction B.2—Notation (not included in Section 1.2 of this standard) B.3—Loading side, general methodology B.4—Site-specific spectra (Section 1631.2(2)) B.5—Resistance side B.6—Freeboard

SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES

350.3-5

**CHAPTER 1—GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
**

STANDARD

1.1—Scope

This standard describes procedures for the design of liquid-containing concrete structures subjected to seismic loads. These procedures shall be used in accor dance with Chapter 21 of ACI 350-06.

COMMENTARY

R1.1—Scope

This standard is a companion standard to Chapter 21 of the American Concrete Institute, “Code Requirements for Environmental Engineering Concrete Structures and Commentary (ACI 350-06)” (ACI Committee 350 2006). This standard pro vides directions to the designer of liquidcontaining concrete structures for computing seismic forces that are to be applied to the particular structure. The designer should also consider the ef fects of seismic forces on components outside the scope of this standard, such as piping, equipment (for e xample, clarifier mechanisms), and connecting walkways where v ertical or horizontal mo vements between adjoining structures or surrounding backf ill could adversely influence the ability of the structure to function properly (National Science Foundation 1981). Moreover, seismic forces applied at the interf ace of piping or w alkways with the structure may also in troduce appreciable fle xural or shear stresses at these connections.

1.2—Notation

As b B = = = cross-sectional area of base cab le, strand, or conventional reinforcement, in.2 (mm2) ratio of v ertical to hor izontal design acceleration inside dimension (length or width) of a rectangular tank, perpendicular to the direction of the ground motion being investigated, ft (m) period-dependent seismic response coeffi cients defined in 9.4 and 9.5. coefficients for determining the fundamental frequency of the tank-liquid system (ref er to Eq. (9-24) and Fig. 9.3.4(b)) period-dependent seismic coefficient freeboard (sloshing height) measured from the liquid surface at rest, ft (m) inside diameter of circular tank, ft (m) excluding base pressure (datum line just above the base of the tank wall) modulus of elasticity of concrete, lb/in.2 (MPa) modulus of elasticity of cab le, wire, strand, or conventional reinforcement, lb/in.2 (MPa) short-period site coefficient (at 0.2 second period) from ASCE 7-05, Table 11.4-1 long-period site coefficient (at 1.0 second period) from ASCE 7-05, Table 11.4-2 shear modulus of elastomer ic bearing pad, lb/in.2 (MPa) acceleration due to g ravity [32.17 ft/s 2 2)] (9.807 m/s

R1.2—Notation

Cc, Ci , and Ct = Cl , Cw = Cs = d, dmax= D EBP Ec Es Fa Fv Gp g = = = = = = = =

For Cs, refer to “International Building Code (IBC)” (International Code Council 2003), Section 1617.4. EBP refers to the hydrodynamic design in which it is necess ary to compute the o verturning of the wall with respect to the tank floor , e xcluding base pressure (that is, e xcluding the pressure on the floor itself). EBP h ydrodynamic design is used to determine the need for hold-downs in nonfixed base tanks. EBP is also used in determining the design pressure acting on walls. (For explanation, refer to Housner [1963].)

from Table 4. lb-s 2/ft per foot of wall width (kg per meter of wall width) mass per unit width of a rectangular tank wall. ft (m) hc ′ = hi = hi′ hr hw HL Hw I IBP k ka Ka Ko L Lc Lp m mi mw Mb Mc = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = IBP refers to the h ydrodynamic design in which it is necess ary to in vestigate the o verturning of the entire structure with respect to the foundation. (For explanation. parallel to the direction of the ground motion being investigated. lb-s 2/ft per f oot of w all width (kg per meter of wall width) impulsive mass of contained liquid per unit width of a rectangular tank w all. ft (m) height abo ve the base of the w all to the center of g ravity of the con vective later al force for the case including base pressure (IBP). ft (m) effective length of base cab le or str and taken as the sleeve length plus 35 times the strand diameter. in.) .350. ft-lb (kN-m) bending moment of the entire tank cross section just above the base of the tank w all (EBP) due to the con vective force Pc . lb/ft per f oot of w all width (N/m per meter of wall width) spring constant of the tank w all suppor t system. ft-lb (kN-m) h = COMMENTARY as defined in Section R9. lb-s 2/ft per f oot of w all width (kg per meter of wall width) bending moment on the entire tank cross section just above the base of the tank wall.1(a) including base pressure (datum line at the base of the tank including the eff ects of the tank bottom and supporting structure) flexural stiffness of a unit width of a rectiline ar tank w all. lb/ft2 per foot of wall width (N/m per meter of wall width) active coefficient of lateral earth pressure coefficient of lateral earth pressure at rest inside dimension of a rectangular tank.3-6 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD hc = height abo ve the base of the w all to the center of g ravity of the con vective later al force for the case e xcluding base pressure (EBP). ft (m) height above the base of the wall to the center of gravity of the impulsiv e lateral force for the case including base pressure (IBP). refer to Housner [1963]. ft (m) height from the base of the w all to the center of gravity of the tank roof. IBP hydrodynamic design is used to determine the design pressure acting on the tank floor and the underlying foundation. ft (m) importance factor. This pressure is transferred directly either to the subgrade or to other supporting structural elements. ft (m) design depth of stored liquid. ft (m) height abo ve the base of the w all to the center of g ravity of the impulsiv e later al force for the case e xcluding base pressure (EBP). in. IBP accounts for moment effects due to dynamic fluid pressures on the bottom of the tank b y increasing the effective vertical moment arm to the applied forces. ft (m) wall height (inside dimension).1. ft (m) height from the base of the w all to the center of gravity of the tank shell.4.2. (mm) length of individual elastomer ic bear ing pads. (mm) total mass per unit width of a rectangular wall = mi + mw .

lb/ft2 (kPa) pwy = unit lateral inertia force due to w all dead weight. per unit height of the tank w all. at liqu id level y. ft-lb (kN-m) bending moment of the entire tank cross section just above the base of the tank w all (EBP) due to the roof iner tia force Pr. due to the impulsiv e component of the accelerating liquid. lb (kN) unit lateral dynamic convective pressure distributed horizontally at liquid level y. above the base of the tank (pvy = üv × qhy). hoop force at liquid level y. lb/ft2 (kPa) Pc Pcy Peg = = = . lb/ft2 (kPa) unit lateral dynamic impulsi ve pressure distributed horizontally at liquid level y. lb per foot of wall height (kN/m) in circular tanks. including the tank bottom and suppor ting structure (IBP). occurr ing at liquid level y. ft-lb (kN-m) bending moment of the entire tank cross section just above the base of the tank w all (EBP) due to the w all iner tia force Pw. ft-lb (kN-m) in circular tanks. due to the impulsiv e f orce Pi. lb/ft2 (kPa) total later al con vective f orce associated with Wc . including the tank bottom and suppor ting structure (IBP). total eff ective hoop f orce at liquid level y. lb per f oot of w all height (kN/m) in circular tanks . hoop force at liquid level y. due to the eff ect of vertical acceleration. including the tank bottom and suppor ting structure (IBP). ft-lb (kN-m) bending moment of the entire tank cross section just above the base of tank wall (EBP) due to the impulsive force Pi. ft-lb (kN-m) overturning moment at the base of the tank.3-7 STANDARD Mc′ = overturning moment at the base of the tank. ft-lb (kN-m) overturning moment at the base of the tank. distributed horizontally at liquid level y. due to the con vective component of the accelerating liquid.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. lb per foot of wall height (kN/m) in circular tanks. due to the con vective force Pc. hydrodynamic hoop f orce at liquid level y. lb per foot of wall height (kN/m) in circular tanks . hoop force at liquid level y. lb per foot of wall height (kN/m) COMMENTARY Mi Mi′ = = Mo Mr = = Mw = Ncy = Nhy Niy = = Nwy Ny = = pcy piy = = pvy = unit equivalent hydrodynamic pressure due to the eff ect of v ertical acceleration. due to the iner tia force of the acceler ating wall mass. lb (kN) lateral convective force due to Wc . lb per foot of wall height (kN/m) lateral force on the b uried portion of a tank wall due to the dynamic ear th and g roundwater pressures.

1(a) and (b) Py = qhy = q. a n umerical coefficient representing the combined effect of the str ucture’s ductility .1(b) S0 = effective peak ground acceleration (at T = 0) related to the maximum considered earthquak e. energ y-dissipating capacity. hydros tatic hoop force at liquid level y (Qhy = qhy × R). later al iner tia f orce of one accelerating wall (Ww ). ( S0 is equivalent t o a P GA h aving a 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years. per pendicular to ′ the direction of the earthquake force. and str uctural redundancy ( Rc fo r the convective component of the acceler ating liquid. lb per foot of wall height (kN/m) lateral iner tia force of the acceler ating roof Wr . as gi ven in the U.1. and the h ydrodynamic pressure due to the vertical acceler ation) at a height y abo ve the tank base.3-8 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD Ph Phy Pi Piy Pr Pw Pw ′ Pwy = = = = = = = = total hydrostatic force occurring on length B of a rectangular tank or diameter D of a circular tank. ft (m) response modification f actor. lb (kN) in circular tanks. lb (kN) lateral h ydrostatic f orce per unit height of the tank w all.usgs. lb per foot of wall height (kN/m) total lateral impulsive force associated with Wi . refer to Fig. lb/ft (kN/m) total membrane (tangential) shear force at the base of a circular tank. occurring at level y above the tank base . Geological Survey (USGS) database at website (http:// eqhazmaps.350.gov) .S. lb (kN) lateral iner tia f orce due to Ww . the w all’s iner tia. lb per foot of w all height (kN/m) r R = = inside radius of circular tank. occurr ing at liquid level y. lb/ft2 (kPa) COMMENTARY For a schematic representation of Ph. qmax = Q = Qhy = unit shear force in circular tanks. occurr ing at liquid le vel y. expressed as a fraction of t he acceleration due to gravity g from a site-specif ic spectrum. lb per foot of wall height (kN/m) unit hydrostatic pressure at liquid level y above the tank base [qhy = γL (HL – y)]. lb (kN) lateral impulsiv e f orce due to Wi . per unit height of the tank w all. lb (kN) lateral iner tia force of the acceler ating wall Ww. lb (kN) in a rectangular tank. lb per f oot of w all height (kN/m) combined hor izontal f orce (due to the impulsive and con vective components of the acceler ating liquid. Ri for the impulsiv e component) from Table 4. R5.3. per unit height of the tank w all.

5% damped.4. tak en from a site-specific acceleration response spectrum SD = spectral displacement. 22-1 through 22-14 Sa = COMMENTARY generalized design spectral response acceleration corresponding to a given natural period T.40 -----Ca 2. in. at a per iod of 1 second. parameter at a period of 1 second. from ASCE 7-05. expressed as a fraction of the acceleration due to gravity g SaM = Sc ScM = = maximum considered ear thquake spectr al response acceler ation. from ASCE 7-05. Fig. s fundamental period of oscillation of the tank (plus the impulsiv e component of the contents).4.1. expressed as a fr action of the acceleration due to gravity g center-to-center spacing of elastomer ic bearing pads. in. (mm) average wall thickness. (mm) maximum considered ear thquake spectr al response acceler ation. 22-1 through 22-14 thickness of elastomer ic bear ing pads . expressed as a fraction of the acceleration due to gravity g. s SD1/SDS T S: In Appendix B. as defined in 9. tak en from a site-specific acceleration response spectrum center-to-center spacing between individual base cable loops.= 0. (mm) natural period of the first (convective) mode of sloshing. in. in. 5% damped.5% damped. at period Tc . at shor t per iods. ft (m) SD1 = SDS = Sp Ss = = tp tw Tc Ti TS = = = = = design spectr al response acceler ation.1. Cv Cv T s = -------------.3-9 STANDARD S1 = mapped maxim um considered ear thquake 5% damped spectr al response acceler ation. expressed as a fraction of the acceleration due to gravity g. (mm) mapped maxim um considered ear thquake 5% damped spectral response acceleration parameter at short periods. 5% damped. as defined in 9. .SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. e xpressed as a fr action of the acceleration due to gravity g design spectr al response acceler ation. Fig.5C a where Ca and Cv are defined in Appendix B. at period Ti or Tv . 0.

lb (kN) in a rectangular tank. Eq. lb (kN) effective dynamic weight of the tank str ucture (walls and roof) [We = (εWw + Wr )].2 (MPa) circular frequency of oscillation of the first (convective) mode of sloshing. plus applicab le portion of snow load considered as dead load. in. (mm) equivalent w eight of the con vective comp onent of the stored liquid. that is der ived b y scaling from an elastic hor izontal response spectrum.2 For θ.4 membrane (hoop) stress in w all of circular tank at liquid level y. lb (kN) equivalent weight of the tank w all (shell). lb (kN) width of elastomeric bearing pad. lb (kN) equivalent weight of the impulsive component of the stored liquid. plus superimposed load. e xpressed as a fr action of the acceleration due to gravity g total horizontal base shear. degree percent of critical damping density of concrete. R5. as defined b y Eq.2. ft (m) angle of base cab le or strand with hor izontal. (4-15) . lb (kN) total equiv alent weight of the stored liquid.4 and 9.56 kN/m3) for standard-weight concrete] density of contained liquid. radian/s circular frequency of the impulsiv e mode of vibration. the equiv alent weight of one w all per pendicular to the direction of the earthquake force. refer to Fig.2.350. [150 lb/ft3 (23.1 and R5. s effective spectr al acceler ation from an inelastic v ertical response spectr um. lb (kN) liquid level at which the w all is being in vestigated (measured from tank base). (9-44) and (9-45) ηc . lb/ft3 (kN/m3) density of water. lb (kN) equivalent w eight of the tank roof . degree coefficient as defined in 9.43 lb/ft3 (9. lb/in.807 kN/m3) effective mass coefficient (r atio of equiv alent dynamic mass of the tank shell to its actual total mass). 62.3-10 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD Tv üv = = natural per iod of vibr ation of v ertical liquid motion. ηi = θ λ σy ωc ωi = = = = = polar coordinate angle. radian/s COMMENTARY V wp Wc We Wi WL Wr Ww Ww ′ y α β γc γL γw ε = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = coefficients as defined in Section R4.3.2. .2.

The tank roof may be a free-span dome or column-supp orted flat slab.1—The classif ications of Section 2. R2. the floor may be a membrane-type slab. This standa rd. W ith any one of the tank types covered under this standard.1—Typical tank configurations (adapted from ASCE [1984]).1(1)—Reinforced concrete 2.3-11 CHAPTER 2—TYPES OF LIQUID-CONTAINING STRUCTURES STANDARD 2. or the tank may be open-topped. contained 2.1—Ground-supported liquid-containing str uctures are classified according to this section on the basis of the following characteristics: • • • General configuration (rectangular or circular).1. R2.3—Flexible base (prestressed only) 2.1—Fixed base Type 1.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. uncontained COMMENTARY R2. hinged. 2.3(1)—Anchored 2.1—Fixed base 2.1—Ground-supported structures Structures in this categor y include rectangular and circular liquid-containing concrete structures. R2. Fig.1.2—Hinged base 2.1(2)—Prestressed concrete Type 2.1—Ground-supported structures For basic conf igurations of ground-supported.1. a raft foundation. Wall-base joint type (fixed. R2. The tank floor and floor support system should be designed for the seismic forces transmitted therein. liquidcontaining structures.1.1 are based on the wall-to-footing connection details as illustrated in Fig. or flexible base). 2. however.2—Pedestal-mounted structures Structures in this categor y include liquid-containing structures mounted on cantilever-type pedestals.1. does not co ver the determination of seismic forces on the piles themselves.1. .2(2)—Prestressed concrete Type 2. Type 1—Rectangular tanks Type 1.3(3)—Unanchored. refer to Fig. on-grade and below grade. and Method of construction (reinforced or prestressed concrete).3(2)—Unanchored.2—Hinged base Type 2—Circular tanks Type 2. or a structural slab supported on piles.2(1)—Reinforced concrete 2.

1—Types of ground-supported. R2.350.3-12 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY COMMENTARY Fig. . liquid-containing structures classified on the basis of their wall-to-footing connection details (base waterstops not shown).1.

refer to Appendix A.3.3. . 3.3—Effects of maxim um hor izontal and v ertical acceleration shall be combined b y the square-rootsum-of-the-squares method. 3. the design shall take into account the effects of the transfer of the total base shear between the wall and the footing and betw een the w all and the roof . floors .SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. and the dynamic pressure acting on the wall above the base.1—The w alls.1—Dynamic characteristics For an outline of the general steps in volved in the intera ction between the structure and the contained liquid.2—With regards to the hor izontal acceleration. 3. 3.2—Design loads The loads gener ated b y the design ear thquake shall be computed in accordance with Chapter 4.3.1—Dynamic characteristics The dynamic char acteristics of liquid-containing structures shall be der ived in accordance with either Chapter 9 or a more r igorous dynamic analysis that accounts for the interaction between the structure and the contained liquid. and roof of liquid-containing structures shall be designed to withstand the effects of both the design horizontal acceleration and the design vertical acceler ation combined with the eff ects of the applicable design static loads. COMMENTARY R3.3-13 CHAPTER 3—GENERAL CRITERIA FOR ANALYSIS AND DESIGN STANDARD 3.3—Design requirements 3.

3-14 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY Notes .350.

1—Earthquake pressures above base The w alls of liquid-containing str uctures shall be designed for the following dynamic forces in addition to the static pressures in accordance with Section 5.3. which is a function of the period of vibration and the mapped accelerations SS and S1 as described in Section R9.1. and redundanc y (A CI 350-06. (4-1) through (4-4) by replacing the term W with the four ef fective weights: the effective weight of the tank wall εWw and roof Wr. ASCE 1981.1 and Housner (1963). Explanations of the impulsive and convective pressures Pi and Pc are contained in Section R9. Engineering judgment may require a factor I greater than tabulated in Table 4. Because the impulsi ve and convective components are not in phase wi th each other. or is constructed b y analogy to sites with kno wn soil and seismic characteristics. (c) Hydrodynamic convective force Pc from the contained liquid. practice is to combine them using the square-root sum-of-the-squares method ( Eq. and (e) The effects of vertical acceleration. energy-dissipating properties.1. Factor I provides a means for the engineer to increase the factor of safety for the cate gories of structures described in Table 4.1(a).1: (a) Inertia forces Pw and Pr . COMMENTARY R4. A more detailed discussion of the impulsi ve and convective components Wi and Wc is contained in Section R9. (4-5) ) (Ne w Zealand Standard [NZS] 1986. The response modification factors Rc and Ri reduce the elastic response spectrum to account for the structure’ s ductility .1).1(a) where it is necess ary to reduce further the potential le vel of damage or account for the possibility of an earthquake greater than the design earthquake.2.1—Earthquake pressures above base The general equation for the total base shear normally encountered in the earthquak e-design sections of go verning building codes V = CsW is modif ied in Eq. The profile of the response spectrum is defined by Sa.3-15 CHAPTER 4—EARTHQUAKE DESIGN LOADS STANDARD 4.1. the impulsi ve component of the liquid weight Wi and the convective component Wc.4. (d) Dynamic ear th pressure from satur ated and unsaturated soils against the b uried por tion of the wall.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. ANSI/AWWA 1995a). and the term Cs with Ci. The imposed ground motion is represented b y an elastic response spectrum that is either deri ved from an actual earthquake record for the site. . (b) Hydrodynamic impulsiv e force Pi from the conta ined liquid. Cc. Section R21. or Cv as appropriate.

2—Total base shear The base shear due to seismic f orces applied at the bottom of the tank wall shall be determined by V = ( Pi + Pw + Pr ) + P c + P 2 2 2 eg (4-5) Energy Method: An ener gy method of dynamic analysis may be used instead of the base-shear approach of Section 4. I is the impor tance factor defined in Table 4. perpendicular to the direction of the ground motion being investigated.4 and 9. (4-1a) (4-2) (4-3) (4-4) where Ci and Cc are the seismic response coefficients determined in accordance with Sections 9. Scarlat 1997).2 and deter mined in accordance with Table 4.6 . the later al f orces due to the dynamic earth and groundwater pressures against the buried por tion of the w alls shall be computed in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 8. Where applicab le.1 for sizing earthquak e cables and base pad for fle xible base joints (Housner 1963.2 and determined in accordance with Sections 9.1. respectiv ely. Wi and Wc are the impulsive and con vective components of the stored liquid. as defined in Section 1. Bertero 1995.3.1.5. Uang and Bertero 1988.350. 4.1.2 and deter mined in accordance with Section 9. and Ri and Rc are the response modification factors defined in Section 1. respectiv ely.3-16 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD 4. Blume & Associates 1958.2. and Ww is the ′ weight of one wall in a rectangular tank.1(a). Ww and Wr are the weights of the cylindr ical tank wall (shell) and tank roof . Medearis and Young 1964.1 and 9.1—Dynamic lateral forces The dynamic later al f orces abo ve the base shall be determined as εW w P w = C i I ----------Ri εW w ′ P w = C i I ------------′ Ri Wr P r = C i I ------Ri Wi P i = C i I -----Ri Pc = Cc I Wc -------Rc (4-1) COMMENTARY R4.1(b). R9. the later al f orces due to dynamic earth and g roundwater pressures against the b uried . ε is a f actor defined in Section 1.1.1. Where applicab le. John A.1—Dynamic lateral forces A model representation of Wi and Wc is shown in Fig.1.1.

The resulting h ydrodynamic pressure pvy shall be computed as pvy = üv qhy (4-14) R4. Section 5. at level y above the base. .7. Bending moment on the entire tank cross section just above the base of the tank wall (EBP) Mw = Pw hw Mr = Pr hr Mi = Pihi Mc = Pc hc Mb = 2 ( Mi + Mw + Mr ) + Mc 2 COMMENTARY (4-6) (4-7) (4-8) (4-9) (4-10) Overturning moment at the base of the tank.1. Similar changes in ef fective weight of the concrete structure may also be considered. (4-10) and (4-13).SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. including the tank bottom and supporting structure (IBP) M i ′ = P i h i′ Mc ′ = Pc hc ′ Mo = 2 ( M i ′ + M w + M r ) + M′ c 2 (4-11) (4-12) (4-13) Where applicab le.1. IBC (2003).2 The h ydrostatic load qhy from the tank contents.1.4—Vertical acceleration 4. and Building Seismic Safety Council (2000).3—Moments at base.1 .1.2.4—Vertical acceleration The effective fluid pressure will be increased or decreased due to the ef fects of v ertical acceleration.3-17 STANDARD portion of the walls shall be included in the deter mination of the total base shear V. the eff ect of dynamic ear th and groundwater pressures against the b uried por tion of the walls shall be included in the deter mination of the moments at the base of the tank.2SDS to account for the effects of vertical ground acceleration in the definition of seismic effects. the r atio b of the v ertical-tohorizontal acceleration shall not be less than 2/3 4. general equation The moments due to seismic forces at the base of the tank shall be determined by Eq.1 The tank shall be designed f or the effects of vertical acceleration.1.4. 4. shall be multiplied by the spectral acceleration üv to account for the effect of the v ertical acceler ation.1. 4.4. Section 1617. In the absence of a site-specific response spectr um. use a f actor of 0.

706 η i = ----------------------------------4.≥ 0.2—Application of site-specific response spectra 4.2—Probabilistic maximum considered earthquake For probabilistic ground motions.38 – 0.38 – 1. When the a vailable site-specific response spectrum is for a damping ratio β other than 5% of critical.45 ln β .1—General In locations with Ss ≥ 1. 4.2.60 and sites with weak soil conditions. a 2% probability of e xceedance in a 50-year period is equi valent to a recurrence interval of approximately 2500 years.2—Probabilistic maximum considered earthquake The probabilistic maxim um considered ear thquake spectral response acceler ation shall be tak en as the spectral response acceler ation represented b y a 5% damped acceleration response spectrum having a 2% probability of exceedance in a 50-year period. site-specific response spectra are normally used. the perioddependent spectral acceleration ScM given by that spectrum may be modif ied b y the ratio ηc to account for the influence of damping on the spectral amplification as follows 3.3-18 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD where b üv = C t I ----.0 seconds 2.350.302 η i = ----------------------------------3.2 and the deterministic maximum spectral response acceleration as defined in Section 4.0 When the a vailable site-specific response spectrum is for a damping ratio β other than 0.4 and 9.5 or S1 ≥ 0. 4.2—Application of site-specific response spectra R4. R4.2.2.04 ln β For Ts < (Ti or Tv) < 4.67 ln β For β = 5%.3.2. the maximum considered ear thquake spectr al response acceler ation shall be taken as the lesser of the probabilistic maxim um earthquake spectral response a cceleration as defined in Section 4.043 η c = ----------------------------------2.2. R4.73 – 0.2.5% of critical.2S DS Ri (4-15) COMMENTARY where Ct is the seismic response coefficient deter mined in accordance with Sections 9. the period-dependent spectral acceleration SaM g iven by s uch s ite-specific spectrum should be modified by the factor η i to account for the influence of damping on the spectral amplif ication as follows (Newmark and Hall 1982) For 0 seconds < (Ti or Tv) < Ts 2.1—General Where site-specific procedures are used.5. ηi = 1.

Tables 11.3—Deterministic maximum considered earthquake The deter ministic maxim um considered ear thquake spectral response acceler ation at each per iod shall be taken as 150% of the largest median 5% damped spectral response acceleration computed at that per iod for characteristic earthquakes on all kno wn active faults within the region. 4. and should not be less than the largest magnitude that has occurred historically on the fault.6Fv /T e xcept that the lo wer limit of the spectr al response acceleration shall not e xceed 1. The deter ministic value of the spectral response acceler ation shall not be tak en lo wer than 0. respectively.2.2. R4. .3-19 STANDARD COMMENTARY For β = 0.5Fa.6/Ts. ηc = 1. 4.0 For site-specif ic response spectra dra wn on a tripartite logarithmic plot.⎛ ----.2.226S D S cM = η c ----. the magnitude of a characteristic earthquake on a given fault should be the best estimate of the maximum magnitude capable for that fault.2 g ⎝ Tc ⎠ Tc where SD is the spectral displacement corresponding to Tc obtained directly from the site-specif ic spectrum in the range Tc > 1.5 using the site-specific acceleration response spectr um as defined in Section 4.⎞ = η c ------------------.4-2.3—Deterministic maximum considered earthquake For deterministic ground motions.5%.4-1 and 11. The site coefficients Fa and Fv shall be obtained from ASCE 7-05. the design spectral acceleration ScM can also be derived by using the relationship S D 2π 2 1.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350.4 The maxim um considered ear thquake spectr al response accelerations SaM and ScM shall be determined in accordance with Section 9.1.2.

For partially buried tanks. contained.5 1. flexible-base tanks Fixed or hinged-base tanks Unanchored.75. . ‡ Unanchored.0 3.0 1. or tanks that are part of lifeline systems Tanks not listed in Categories II or III In some cases.25 1. tank is defined as a tank whos e maximum water surface at rest is at or below ground level.0 1. for tanks containi ng hazardous materials.25† 3.0 2.25† 2.0 1. uncontained tanks shall not be b uilt in locations where SS ≥ 0. the Ri value may be linearly interpolated between that shown for tanks on grade and for buried tanks.1(b)—Response modification factor R Factor I 1.0 1.0 Type of structure Anchored.1. engineering judgment may require a factor I > 1.0 — 1. †R = 3.1(a)—Importance factor I Tank use III II I * Table 4.350.3-20 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD Table 4.0 Tanks containing hazardous materials* Tanks that are intended to remain usable for emergency purposes after an earthquake.5.25 is the maximum R value permitted to be used for any liquid-coni i taining concrete structure. or uncontained tanks‡ Pedestal-mounted tanks *Buried Ri On or above grade Buried* Rc 3.1.5 2.

liquid-containi ng structures shall be designed for the following dynamic shear and pressure distributions in addition to the static load distributions: COMMENTARY 5. and Walls parallel to the direction of the ground motion being investigated shall be analyzed as shearwalls subjected to the in-plane f orces computed in Section 5. approximately 20% of th e earthquak e shear force is transmitted by the radial base reaction to v ertical bending.1.2—Circular tanks In fixed.2—Shear transfer R5. For a tank with a height-to-diameter ratio of 1:4 (D/HL = 4.1—General In the absence of a more rigorous analysis that takes into account the complex vertical and horizontal variations in hydrodynamic pressures.0 ). • 5. and wall-to-roof joints of rectangular tanks shall be designed for the earthquake shear f orces on the basis of the f ollowing sheartransfer mechanism: • Walls per pendicular to the direction of the g round motion being investigated shall be analyzed as slabs subjected to the hor izontal pressures computed in Section 5. 5.1 and 2.2.sin θ πr The distribution is illustrated in Fig. the distribution of forces and wall reactions in rectangular tank w alls will be similar to that sho wn in Fig.2. R5. The maximum tangential shear occurs at a point on the tank wall oriented 90 de grees to the design earthquak e direction being evaluated and is given by .2.2—Circular tanks The w all-to-footing and w all-to-roof joints shall be designed for the earthquake shear forces.3 . where Q q = ----. The shears along the bottom and side joints and the top joint in case of a roof-covered tank shall correspond to the slab reactions. a distrib uted shear force q is required at the wall/footing interface.3-21 CHAPTER 5—EARTHQUAKE LOAD DISTRIBUTION STANDARD 5. To transmit this tangential shear Q.2— Shear transfer (NZS 1986) The horizontal earthquak e force V generates shear forces between the wall and footing and the wall and roof.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. R5. wall-to-wall. the earthquake base shear is transmitted partially b y membrane (tangential) shear and the rest by radial shear that causes vertical bending. R5.2).and hinged-base circular tanks (Types 2.1—Rectangular tanks The wall-to-floor. R5.1—Rectangular tanks Typically. The remaining 80% is transmitted by tangential shear transfer Q.2.2.2.2.3.

3(2) and 2. v ertical bending moments induced in the wall by shear should be considered. fle xible-base. When using preformed slots.= ----------πr πr The radial shear is created b y the flexural response of the w all near the base.2. the wall-footing interface should have reinforcement designed to transmit these shears through the joint.8V q max = ----. The radial shear attains its maximum value at points on the tank w all oriented zero and 180 de grees to the ground motion and should be determined using c ylindrical shell theory and the tank dimensions. Q = 1. is insuf ficient to resist the earthquak e shear. Because the roof is free to slide on top of the wall. or preformed slots may be required. and is therefore proportional to the hydrodynamic forces shown in Fig. circular tanks (T ype 2. Failure to pro vide a means for shear transfer around the circumference may result in sliding of the wall.2. The design of the w all-footing interf ace should take the radial shear into account.2 with maximum shear given by 0. Typically.1. In general. or between the w all base and the bearing pads. the distrib ution will be the same as shown in Fig.= ----πr πr In tank Types 2. Alternatively.8P r q max = -----------πr where Pr is the force from the horizontal acceleration of the roof.350. If friction between the wall base and the footing. Where do wels are provided to transfer this shear . For tanks with roof o verhangs. the concrete lip can be designed to withstand the earthquak e force. the wall may be located in a preformed slot in the ring beam footing. the shear transfer will take place over that portion of the circumference where the lip overhang comes into contact with the wall.3-22 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD COMMENTARY Q 0. R5.3(1)) it is assumed that the entire base sh ear is transmitted b y membrane (tangential) shear with only insignificant vertical bending. In anchored. some form of mechanical restraint such as do wels. The roof-to-w all joint is subj ect to earthquak e shear from the horizontal acceleration of the roof. galvanized steel cables.0V Q V q max = ----. the distribution of forces and w all reactions in circular tanks .3(3) it is assumed that the base shear is transmitted b y friction only. R5.

3-23 STANDARD COMMENTARY will be similar to that sho wn in Fig.1—Hydr odynamic pr essure distrib ution in tank walls (adapted from Housner [1963] and NZS [1986]). Fig.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350.1.2. R5. but reacting on only half of the circumference. R5.2—Membrane shear tr ansfer at the base of cir cular tanks (adapted from NZS [1986]). .2.2.0P r q max = -----------πr Fig. R5. The maximum reaction force will be given by 2.

1(a)—Vertical force distribution: rectangular tanks. Superimposed on these later al unbalanced f orces shall be the later al hydrodynamic force resulting from the hydrodynamic pressure due to the effect of vertical acceleration pvy acting on each wall. Fig.5). and one-half the convective force Pc .350.9. and the dynamic force on the trailing half of the tank will reduce the e ffects of the hydro force on the wall. the effect of the dynamic ear th and groundwater pressures against the b uried por tion of the walls shall be included.3.2. The horizontal distribution of the dynamic pressures across the wall width B is P wy p wy = -------B P iy p iy = -----B P cy p cy = ------B pvy = üv qhy The dynamic force on the leadi ng half of the tank will be additive to the h ydrostatic force on the w all. per foot of w all height. one-half the impulsive ′ force Pi.3-24 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD 5.1—Rectangular tanks The v ertical distrib ution. and Fig.3. and the dynamic ear th and g roundwater pressure against the buried portion of the wall. of the dynamic forces acting perpendicular to the plane of the wall may be assumed as sho wn belo w (adapted from NZS [1986].3. Walls par allel to the dire ction of the g round motion being in vestigated shall be loaded in their plane (dimension L) b y: (a) the w all’s o wn in-plane iner tia force Pw and the in-plane forces corresponding to the ′ edge reactions from the abutting wall(s). R5.1(b). one-half the impulsive ′ force Pi .3—Dynamic force distribution above base 5. .2—Combining d ynamic f orces f or rectangular tanks The hydrodynamic force at any given height y from the base shall be determined by Py = 2 ( P iy + P wy ) + P cy + ( p vy B ) 2 2 COMMENTARY R5. R5. Section 2.3. 5. (5-1) Where applicable. one-half the con vective f orce Pc . Walls per pendicular to the g round motion being investigated and in the trailing half of the tank shall be loaded per pendicular to their plane (dimension B) by the wall’s own inertia force Pw .3—Dynamic force distribution above base R5.1—Rectangular tanks Walls per pendicular to the g round motion being in vestigated and in the leading half of the tank shall be loaded per pendicular to their plane (dimension B ) by the wall’s own inertia force Pw .3.

while the horizontal distribution varies along the tank circumference as shown in Fig. (For circular tanks.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. R5. R5.) . the vertical distribution of the impulsive and convective forces is identical to that shown above for rectangular tanks.1.3-25 COMMENTARY Fig.2.3.1(b)—Distribution of hydrostatic and hydrodynamic pressures and inertia forces on the wall of a rectangular liquidcontaining structure (adapted from Haroun [1984]).

of the dynamic forces acting on one half of the w all may be assumed as shown below and in Fig.3—Circular tanks The v ertical distrib ution. R5.3. R5.3. R5. Fig. per foot of w all height.3—Circular tanks The cylindrical walls of circular tanks shall be loaded by the wall’s own inertia force distributed uniformly around the entire circumf erence. The horizontal distrib ution of the dynamic pressure across the tank diameter D may be assumed as follows P wy p wy = -------πr 2P iy p iy = --------. one-half the impulsiv e f orce Pi applied symmetr ically about θ = 0 degrees and acting outward on one half of the w all’s circumference.3.2.3. and onehalf Pi symmetr ically about θ = 180 degrees and acting inward on the opposite half of the w all’s circumference.350.3 and Fig. and the dynamic ear th and groundwater pressure against the trailing half of the b uried portion of the wall.cos θ 9πr pvy = üv qhy .3-26 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD 5. COMMENTARY R5. Superimposed on these later al unbalanced f orces shall be the axisymmetr ic later al h ydrodynamic f orce resulting from the h ydrodynamic pressure pvy acting on the tank wall.cos θ πr 16P cy p cy = ------------.3—Vertical force distribution: circular tanks. one-half the convective force Pc acting on one-half of the wall’s circumference symmetr ically about θ = 0 degrees and one-half Pc symmetrically about θ = 180 degrees and acting inw ard on the o pposite half of the w all’s circumference.1.

in the SI system] tw where tw = w all thickness at the le vel being in vestigated (liquid level y). respectively. the terms in Eq.3. Similarly .2 and 5.2—Circular tanks For free-base circular tanks (T ype 2.3).3.3.1 and R5. Hydrodynamic membrane (hoop) forces in the cylindrical wall corresponding to an y liquid le vel y above the tank base shall be determined by Ny = and hoop stress Ny (6-2) ----------σy = 12t w Ny [σ y = -----. (6-1) should be modified to account for the effects of base restraint.or hinged-base circular tanks (Types 2. (6-1) .for (at θ = 0) π 16P cy Ncy = pcy r = -------------.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350.2).1 and 2.3-27 CHAPTER 6—STRESSES STANDARD COMMENTARY R6—General In calculating the v ertical bending moments in the w alls of rectangular and circular tank s.1. T ypical earthquak e force distrib utions in walls of rectangular and circular tanks are presented in R5. the boundary conditions at the wall-to-base and w all-to-roof joints should be properly accounted for . (6-1) should be modified to account for the restraint of rigid wallto-roof joints.2—Circular tanks The v ertical bending stress es and shear stresses in the wall and at the wall base due to lateral earthquake forces shall be computed on the basis of shell action using an acceptable pressure distribution. 6.1—Rectangular tanks The v ertical and hor izontal bending stresses and shear stresses in the w all and at the w all base due to lateral ear thquake f orces shall be computed on the basis of slab action (Sections 5. 6. the terms in Eq. the terms in Eq. (6-1 ) are defined as 2P iy Niy = piy r = --------. 2 2 ( N iy + N wy ) + N cy + N hy 2 R6.3.3) using pressure distribution consistent with the provisions of Section 5.for (at θ = 0) 9π P wy Nwy = pwy r = -------π Nhy = üv Qhy where Qhy = qhy r For fixed.

3-28 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY Notes .350.

1—Wave oscillation The horizontal earthquake acceleration causes the contained fluid to slosh with vertical displacement of the fluid surface.4.667S D ) 2π 2 L L d max = ⎛ -.c I 2 Circular tanks D d max = --.⎛ ----.C c I 2 (7-2) (7-1) COMMENTARY R7. and/or Provide an overflow spillway. roof.5.⎛ ----. tanks for the storage of toxic liquids) or where o vertopping may result in scouring of the foundation materials or cause damage to pi pes. where Cc is the seismic response coefficient as computed in Section 9. The amount of freeboard required in design to accommodate this sloshing will v ary.⎞ I ( η c ) -----------------------.⎞ ( C c I ) = ⎛ --. and ScM (as in the equation for Cc). no freeboard provision is necessary. .⎞ . Where site-specific response spectra are used. then one or more of the following measures should be undertaken: • • • Provide a freeboard allowance. The maxim um v ertical displacement dmax to be accommodated shall be calculated from the f ollowing expressions: Rectangular tanks L -C d max = -.⎞ . or both.2.⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ Tc ⎠ g where Cc is defined in Section 9. the maximum vertical displacement dmax may be calculated from the following expressions: Rectangular tanks ( 0. and SD are as defined in Section R4.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. ηc .1—Wave oscillation Provisions shall be made to accommodate the maxim um wave oscillation dmax gener ated b y ear thquake acceleration.⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ Tc ⎠ g Circular tanks ( 0.⎞ I ( η c ) -----------------------.667S D ) 2π 2 D D d max = ⎛ --. Where loss of liquid should be prevented (for example.2. Wh ere o vertopping is tolerable.⎞ ( C c I ) = ⎛ -.3-29 CHAPTER 7—FREEBOARD STANDARD 7. Design the roof structure to resist the resulting uplift pressures.

350.3-30 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY Notes .

the resultant of the incremental increase in groundwater pressure shall be assumed to act at a point 1/3 of the water depth above the base.1—General Dynamic ear th pressures sha ll be tak en into account when computing the base shear of a par tially or fully buried liquid-containing str ucture and when designing the walls. shall be included in the calculation of these pressures.1—General The lateral forces due to the dynamic earth and groundwater pressures are combined algebraically with the impulsi ve forces on the tank as in Eq.3-31 CHAPTER 8—EARTHQUAKE-INDUCED EARTH PRESSURES STANDARD 8. the dynamic bac kfill forces shall not be relied upon to reduce t he dynamic eff ects of the stored liquid or vice versa. .2—Limitations In a b uried tank. In a pseudostatic analysis. if present.3—Alternative methods The provisions of this chapter shall be per mitted to be superseded by recommendations of the project geotechnical engineer that are appro ved b y the b uilding official having jurisdiction. The coefficient of lateral earth pressure at rest Ko shall be used in estimating the ear th pressures unless it is demonstrated by calculation that the structure deflects sufficiently to lo wer the coefficient to some v alue between Ko and the activ e coefficient of later al ear th pressure Ka.6 of the ear th height abo ve the base .SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. 8. The eff ects of g roundwater tab le. (4-5). and when part or all of the structure is below the water table. the resultant of the seismic component of the ear th pressure shall be assumed to act at a point 0. COMMENTARY R8. 8.

3-32 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY Notes .350.

corresponding to the change in direction of the base acceleration. Wc is fastened to the tank walls by springs . the force Pi changes direction several times per second.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. The con vective press ures are those produced b y the osci llations of the fluid and are therefore the consequences of the impulsive pressures. The following commentary is adapted from Housner (1963): The design procedures described in Chapter 4 recognize that the seismic analysis of liquid-containing structures subjected to a horizontal acceleration should include the inertia forces generated b y the acceleration of the structure itself. the overturning moment generated by Pi is thus frequently ineffective in tending to overturn the tank. Wc is the equi valent weight of the oscillating fluid that produces the con vective pre ssures on the tank w alls with resultant force Pc. The impulsive pressures are not impulses in the usual sense b ut are associated with inertia forces produced b y accelerations of the w alls of the container and are directly proportional to these accelerations. Wc represents the resultant of the sloshing (convective) fluid pressures.3 and 9. the pressures associated with these forces “can be separated into impulsive and convective parts.7.3-33 CHAPTER 9—DYNAMIC MODEL STANDARD 9. and the pressures and forces may need to be modified for sloping surfaces. which acts at a height of hc above the tank bottom. COMMENTARY R9. This model has been accepted by the profession since the early 1960s. In the model. which corresponds to the location of the resultant impulsi ve force Pi.2 . In the model. The dynamic char acteristics of pedestal-mounted liquid-containing str uctures shall be computed in accordance with Section 9.” Figure R9. 43) sho ws an equivalent dynamic model for calculating the resultant seismic forces acting on a groundbased fluid container with rigid w alls. During an earthquak e.5. Wi represents the resultant ef fect of the impuls ive seismic pressures on the tank w alls. 9. In this model. and a suction force on the w all accelerating away from the fluid.1—General The dynamic char acteristics of g round-supported liquidcontaining structures subjected to ear thquake acceleration shall be computed in accordan ce with Sections 9.1—General The lateral seismic pressures and forces determined in accordance with this Standard are based on v ertical tank walls and v ertical w all elements. Wi is rigidly f astened to the tank w alls at a height hi above the tank bottom. Wi moves with the tank w alls as the y respon d to the ground shaking (the fluid is assumed to be incompressible and the fluid displacements small). According to Housner (1963). and the hydrodynamic forces generated by the horizontal acceleration of the contained liquid.1 (on p. The impulsi ve pressures are generated b y the seismic accelerations of the tank w alls so that the force Pi is evenly divided into a pressure force on the w all accelerating into the fluid.

5 to 1% of critical damping.866 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ H L⎠ Wi ------. The force Pi (and its associated pressures) primarily act to stress the tank wall. The pressures and forces on a cylindrical tank are similar to.866 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ H L⎠ Wc HL L ------.350.2.2. 9.333 HL . ASCE 1981. and is usually se veral seconds.5. NZS 1986.= 0. but if there is not enough dead load. this is smaller than the impulsi ve effect.1 [on p.1—Equivalent weights of accelerating liquid (Fig. the tank will tend to uplift. 44]) L tanh 0. (9-10).2—Height to center s of gra vity EBP ( Fig. The vertical vibrations of the ground are also transmitted to the fluid.2—Rectangular tanks (Type 1) All equations in Section 9.2. The period of oscillation of the sloshing depends on the ratio of fluid depth to tank diameter . Normally. whereas Pc acts primarily to uplift the tank w all. and can be se veral seconds or longer. ANSI/A WWA 1995a. Haroun 1984. thus producing pressures that act on the tank w alls. The sloshing increases and decreases the fluid pressure on the w all. (9-9). The overturning moment e xerted by Pc (Fig.2 e xcept Eq.5 to 7.5 to 7. They act to increase or decrease the hoop stresses.= ---------------------------------------------WL L 0.3-34 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD COMMENTARY that produce a period of vibration corresponding to the period of fluid sloshing.16 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ L⎠ ⎝ H L⎠ WL R9. Equations (9-9). 43]) acts for a sufficient time to tend to uplift the tank wall if there is insufficient restraining weight. (9-10). The sloshing pr essures on the tank w alls result from the fluid motion associated with the w ave oscillation.2. and (9-11) were originally developed by Housner (1963). R9. Note that the damping of the sloshing w ater is small: approximately 0.1 [on p. those acting on a rectangular tank. The forces Pi and Pc act independently and simultaneous ly on the tank. V eletsos and Shi vakumar 1997.b.264 ⎛ ------⎞ tanh 3. 9. The force Pc fluctuates sinusoidally with a period of vibration that depends on the dimensions of the tank. (9-1) (9-2) 9. The duration of the fluctuations is 10 to 15 seconds for earthquakes of magnitude 6. but not the same as. Haroun and Ellaithy 1985). and (9-11) were adapted from NZS (1986). The duration of sloshing can be 20 to 40 seconds for earthquakes of magnitude 6. The rapid fluctuations of the force Pi mean that the bending moments and stresses in the wall of a rectangular tank also vary rapidly (the effect is not like a constant force acting on the wall). and subsequently used by other authors (Housner 1956.2—Rectangular tanks (Type 1) 9. 9.5.< 1. 45]) L For tanks with -----.2 [on p.

ωi = k ---m (9-9) (9-10) tw γc m w = H w ----.HL 8 L ⎛ ------⎞ 2 tanh 0.12 ⎝ g ⎠ (9-6) (9-7) (9-8) R9.16 ⎛ ------⎞ – 1 ⎝ L⎠ hc -----.01 ⎝ L-⎠ hc ′ ------.) m = mw + mi .= 0.16 ⎛ ------⎞ sinh 3.09375 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ H L⎠ HL L For tanks with -----. (Note that mass is equal to weight divided by the acceleration due to gravity.16 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ L⎠ ⎝ L⎠ (9-4) (9-3) COMMENTARY (9-5) 9.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. 46]) L For tanks with -----.375 HL For all tanks HL cosh 3.⎛ --.3-35 STANDARD hi L -----.= -------------------------------------------------. 9.16 ⎛ ------⎞ sinh 3.⎞ .866 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ H L⎠ hi ′ 1 -----.< 0.– -.75 HL L 0.2.4—Dynamic properties The str uctural stiffness k shall be computed on the basis of correct boundary conditions.2.= 0.3 [on p.45 HL L For tanks with -----.333 HL hi -----.2.= 1 – -------------------------------------------------------------------HL HL HL 3.2.16 ⎛ ------⎞ – 2.16 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ L-⎠ ⎝ L-⎠ 9.3—Heights to center of gra vity IBP ( Fig.= 1 – -------------------------------------------------------------------HL HL HL 3.≥ 0.866 ⎝ H L⎠ For all tanks HL cosh 3.75 HL hi ′ -----.≥ 1.4—Dynamic properties The follo wing equations are pr ovided as e xamples for the special case of a wall of uniform thickness.5 – 0.= 0.

Eq. Equations (9-23) through (9-28) were adapted from NZS (1986).3—Circular tanks (Type 2) 9. fle xural stiffness for a unit width of w all k may be approximated using the following equation Ec tw 3 k = ----. Such spring constants will generally fall within the low period range (less than about 0. particularly for end conditions other than cantile ver. Haroun 1984. such as in open-top tanks.48 ⎝ h ⎠ Ec 3 [ k = ---------------. For fixed-base.350. NZS 1986.⎠ 4 × 10 3 h Flexural stiffness formulas may be developed for other wall support conditions.⎝ W L⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ g ⎠ ( hw mw + hi mi ) h = -----------------------------------( mw + mi ) (9-12) λ = (9-13) where hw = 0. and Fig. V eletsos and Shi vakumar 1997.3⎝ ⎠ 10 g Wi L γL m i = ⎛ -------⎞ ⎛ -. As an alternati ve to computing the natural period of vibration.1 [on p. (9-15) (9-16) . and h.= ---------------------------------------------WL D 0. and subsequently used by other authors (Housner 1956.4 ⎝ ------⎠ λ (9-11) COMMENTARY tw γc [ m w = H w ------. ASCE 1981.3 seconds) for tanks of normal proportions. 48]) D tanh 0. ANSI/AWWA 1995a.⎞ H L ⎛ ---. Haroun and Ellaithy 1985).5Hw.3. (9-3) and (9-4). it is reasonable to assume the wall rigid.3. mi.16 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ L⎠ 2π 2π T c = -----. (9-23) through (9-28). free-top cantilever walls. In such a case.⎞ .⎛ --.⎛ --.230 ⎛ ------⎞ tanh 3.2.1—Equivalent weights of accelerating liquid (Fig.16g tanh 3.⎞ in the SI system] . For w alls of nonuniform thickness.b. (9-32) may be conserv atively used to calculate the impulsi ve forces regardless of the actual boundary conditions of the structure or structural components being analyzed.866 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ H L⎠ Wc HL D ------.= 0.= ⎛ ------⎞ L ⎝ λ⎠ ωc ⎛ 2π⎞ from Fig. 9. e xcept Eq.3. were originally de veloped by Housner (1963).⎛ t w⎞ in the SI system] .3-36 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD 2π T i = -----.866 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ H L⎠ Wi ------. 44).⎞ .= 2π m ---ωi k λ ω c = ------L where HL 3. 9.⎝ --. and hi is obtained from Eq.3—Circular tanks (Type 2) All equations in Section 9.68 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ D⎠ ⎝ H L⎠ WL R9.2. special analysis is required to determine mw. 9. (9-14) 9.2 (on p.

333 HL hi D -----.01 ⎝ D-⎠ hc ′ ------.= 0.333 HL hi -----.4—Dynamic properties Ti: For tank Types 2.866 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ H L⎠ hi ′ -----.= 1 – -------------------------------------------------------------------HL HL HL 3.75 HL hi ′ -----.-HL 8 D 2 tanh 0.3—Heights to center of gra vity (IBP [ Fig.3.< 0. .3.68 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ D-⎠ ⎝ D-⎠ 9.< 1. Equations (9-26) and (9-27) are adapted from ANSI/AWWA (1995a.3-37 STANDARD 9.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350.≥ 1.75 HL D 0.E c ---HL γc (9-23) (9-20) (9-21) (9-22) R9.3.3.866 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ H L⎠ HL cosh 3.2.= 0.= -------------------------------------------------.2: 12 g ω i = C l -----. 50]) D For tanks with -----.1 and 2.3. 9.375 HL For all tanks HL cosh 3.68 ⎛ ------⎞ – 2.2—Heights to center s of gra vity (EBP [ Fig.3.68 ⎛ ------⎞ sinh 3.= 0.68 ⎛ ------⎞ – 1 ⎝ D-⎠ hc -----.45 HL D For tanks with -----. on p.≥ 0.68 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ D-⎠ ⎝ D-⎠ (9-18) (9-17) COMMENTARY (9-19) 9.68 ⎛ ------⎞ sinh 3.09375 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ H L⎠ HL D For tanks with -----. 9. 49]) D For tanks with -----.– 1 . on p.b).= 1 – -------------------------------------------------------------------HL HL HL 3.4—Dynamic properties Equations (9-23) and (9-24) are adapted from ASCE (1981) and Veletsos and Shivakumar (1997).5 – 0.3.

(9-14).⎟ + ⎜ -----------------------.68g tanh 3. tw C l = C w 10 -------12r [Cw from Fig.3. 52] ⎝ λ⎠ Tv: For circular tanks Tv 2π 2 L DHL (9-28) (9-29) (9-30) = ----------------------24gt w E c Y (9-31) .⎟ [in the SI system] Lc Sc ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ tp Sp ⎠ Tc : λ ω c = ------D where λ = HL 3.25 seconds. on p. (9-29). 9.10 E c ---. 9.⎞ ⎝ t p S p -⎠ Lc Sc ⎝ ⎠ 2 (9-27) k a = 10 3 ⎛ A s E s cos α⎞ ⎛ 2G p w p L p⎞ ⎜ -----------------------------.350.3 Ti = 8π ( W w + W r + W i ) -----------------------------------------------gDk a (9-24) (9-25) (9-26) but shall not exceed 1. and (9-30) are adapt ed from Housner (1963).⎟ + ⎛ -----------------------.3-38 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD 3 1 g [ ω i = C l -----.= ⎛ ------⎞ D ⎝ λ⎠ ωc 2π [ ⎛ ------⎞ from Fig. on p. 51] tw [ C l = C w -------.68 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ D⎠ 2π 2π T c = -----. ⎛ A s E s cos 2α⎞ 2G p w p L p k a = 144 ⎜ -----------------------------.in the SI system] 10r 2π T i = -----ωi For tank Type 2.in the SI system] HL γc COMMENTARY Equations (9-13) .4(b).4(a).3.

S. R9. 9. and Ct In practice. A plot of the seismic response coef ficient Ci is shown in the design response spectrum in Fig. at http:// eqhazmaps. Cc. Designations Ci.4.1—Design response spectrum.4.4.gov.1 Ci shall be determined as follows: For T i ≤ TS Ci = SDS For Ti > TS S D1 C i = --------Ti where TS = D1 -------- (9-32) R9.4. R9. In regions other than those sho wn in the maps in publicat ions by IBC (2003). and Ct R9. Cc .3-39 STANDARD L DH L [ T v = 2π --------------------.4—Seismic response coefficients Ci . Tc. ≤ S DS (9-33) S S DS (9-34) SDS = the design spectr al response acceler ation at short periods 2 SDS = -. respectively.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. Building Se ismic Safety Council (1997.SsFa 3 (9-35) SD1 = the design spectr response acceleration at a al 1 second period . Cc. SS and S1 may be replaced b y the maximum considered earthquak e spectral response accelerations from 5% damped response spectra repres enting earthquakes with a 2% probability of e xceedance in a 50-year period. which is adapted from IBC (2003).usgs.in the SI system] 2gt w E c Y COMMENTARY 2 9. using the specif ic zip code or latitude and longitude that identify the location. Fig.4—Seismic response coefficients Ci. and Tv. equi valent to a recurrence interv al of approximately 2500 years. and ASCE (2005).1.1 The mapped spectral response accelerations Ss and S1 for any location can also be obtained from the late st database of the U. and Ct define the profile of the design response spectrum at periods Ti. 2000). Geological Surv ey (USGS).

4S DS C c = 6 ------------------.4.4SDS in Eq.2 Cc shall be determined as follows: For Tc ≤ 1.S1Fv 3 (9-36) COMMENTARY SS and S1 are the mapped spectr al response accelerations at short periods (Ss) and 1 second ( S1).3 Ct shall be determined as follows: For circular tanks For Tv ≤ TS Ct = SDS For Tv >TS Ct = S D1 Tv (9-39) (9-38) R9. Cc. ≤ 1.6/Ts seconds 0.5 represents the approximate ratio of the spectral amplifications based on 0. and Ct For damping ratios other than 5% of critical.5S DS (9-37) R9. 22-1 through 22-14 of ASCE 7-0 5.” of ASCE 7-05.4. Therefore. Ct is taken independent of the period of vibration.4-2.5—Site-specific seismic response coefficients Ci . respectively. or is not well defined in the Tc range.2. 0. For R9. except that it shall not be tak en less than 90% of the peak spectr al acceleration at an y per iod larger than 0.3-1. the maximum considered ear thquake spectr al response acceler ations SaM and ScM shall be obtained from the site-specific acceleration spectrum as follows: For per iods less than or equal to TS .6/Ts seconds 1.4S DS 2. This mode of vibration is relevant only to circular tanks.2 Factor 1. coefficient Cc may be calculated using the equation 2 -.2 seco nds. for rectangular tanks. Chapter 22.4. While the deri vation of Tv for circular tanks has been th e subject of se veral technic al papers. Cc . “Site Classification.4-1 and 11.350. and Ct When site-specific procedures are used. refer toSection R4.= ------------------2 2 Tc Tc 9.5—Site-specific seismic response coefficients Ci.= -------2 2 Tc Tc . 9. -------- (9-40) For rectangular tanks.5S D1 C c = -------------------Tc For Tc > 1.4.5% damping to those based on 5% damping. respectively. and Fa and Fv are the site coefficients and shall be obtained from T able 11. in conjunction with Table 20. (9-38) is an approximation of the effective peak ground acceleration S0 (at T = 0) reduced by a factor of 2/3.4SDS. piston-like “pounding” of the st ored liquid b y the v ertically accelerating ground. and shall be obtained from the seismic g round motion maps in Fig.3-40 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD 2 SD1 = -.3 The period of vibration of v ertical liquid motion Tv for a circular tank (upright c ylinder) is deri ved from the axisymmetric pulsating (“breathing”) of the cylindrical wall due to the h ydrodynamic pressures resulting from the v ertical.S 0 4S 3 0 C c = 6 -------. of ASCE 7-05. the committee is not a ware of an y work devoted to the deri vation of this parameter for rectangular tanks. and does not apply to rectangular tanks. 9. Ct = 0.2 seconds. SaM shall be taken as the spectral acceleration obtained from the sitespecific spectra at a per iod of 0. If the site-specif ic response spectrum does not e xtend into.

6—Effective mass coefficient ε 9. Cc. For all periods. Tv 2 Ct = -. SaM shall be tak en as the spectral response acceler ation corresponding to Ti or Tv .1. ≤ 1. and Ct shall be deter mined from Eq. Ti 2 C i = -. except that when a 0.3-41 STANDARD periods g reater than TS .⎞ + 1. Cc. and Ct used for design shall not be less than 80% of the corresponding v alues as determined in accordance with Section 9.1—Rectangular tanks L 2 L ε = 0.6.7 of ACI 350-06. The use of site-specific response spectra represents one specific case of an “accepted alterna tive method of analysis” permitt ed in Section 21.7 of ACI 350-06.S cM 3 For all periods. Tc 2 C c = -. as applicab le. When a 5% damped. respectively. SaM shall be determined from that spectr um when used to deter mine Ct .1908 ⎛ -----.0 (9-44) 9.6. (9-42).5% damped. (9-41). site-specific vertical response spectr um is a vailable.⎞ – 0.6—Effective mass coefficient ε The coefficient ε represents the ratio of the equi valent (or generalized) dynamic mass of the tank shell to its actual total mass.0 (9-45) . site-specific horizontal response spectrum is a vailable.0151 ⎛ -----. the 80% lower limit imposed in 9.2.1908 ⎛ -----.S aM 3 (9-43) (9-42) (9-41) COMMENTARY where S0 is the effective site-specific peak ground accelerat ion (at T = 0) expressed as a fraction of the acceleration due to gravity g.⎞ + 1. 9. Therefore.5 should be considered the same as the limit imposed in Section 21.S aM 3 For all periods.2.⎞ – 0.0151 ⎛ -----. consult Veletsos and Shivakumar (1997). ScM shall be equal to the spectr al response acceleration from that spectr um corresponding to period Tc. For additional information related to the ef fective mass coefficient ε. The values of Ci . and ScM shall be tak en as 150% of the spectr al response acceleration corresponding to Tc.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350.4. Equation (9-44) and (9-45) are adapted from ASCE (1981).2—Circular tanks D 2 D ε = 0.021 ⎝ H -⎠ ⎝ H -⎠ L L R9.1.021 ⎝ H -⎠ ⎝ H -⎠ L L ≤ 1. The seismic response coefficients Ci. and (9-43).

7—Pedestal-mounted tanks Housner (1963). shall be computed using the corresponding Eq. hc . and heights to the centers of gravity. and hc′ of a mounted tank.7—Pedestal-mounted tanks The equivalent weights. Wi and Wc . COMMENTARY R9. Haroun and Ellaithy (1985). (9-2) and (9-3) for rectangular and circular tanks. The dynamic proper ties. including per iods of vibration and later al coefficients . hi′. respectively.3-42 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD 9. shall be per mitted to be determined on the basis of gener ally acceptab le methods of dynamic analysis. and A CI Committee 371 (1998) pro vide additional guidelines on the dynamic analysis of pedestal-mounted tanks.350. . hi.

R9.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350.1—Dynamic model of liquid-containing tank rigidly ASCE [1984]).3-43 STANDARD COMMENTARY Fig. supported on the gr ound (adapted fr om Housner [1963] and .

L/HL RATIO Fig.350.264 ⎛ -------⎞ tanh 3. 9.1—Factors Wi /WL and Wc /WL versus ratio L/HL for rectangular tanks. Ltanh 0.2.16 ⎛ -------⎞ ⎝ L⎠ ⎝H ⎠ WL L (9-1) (9-2) .3-44 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD COMMENTARY IMPULSIVE AND CONVECTIVE MASS FACTORS vs.= 0.866 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ H L⎠ HL Wc L ------.= ---------------------------------------------WL L0.866 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ H L⎠ Wi ------.

16 ⎛ ------⎞ × sinh 3.333 HL L For tanks with -----.= 0. 9.2—Factors hi /HL and hc /HL versus ratio L/HL for rectangular tanks (EBP).≥ 1.5 – 0.2.16 ⎛ ------⎞ – 1 ⎝ L⎠ hc -----.3-45 STANDARD COMMENTARY IMPULSIVE AND CONVECTIVE HEIGHT FACTORS vs.16 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ L⎠ ⎝ L⎠ hi L -----.= 1 – -------------------------------------------------------------------------HL HL HL 3.375 HL (9-3) (9-4) (9-5) .SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350.09375 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ H L⎠ HL hi -----.333 HL hc /HL: For all tanks HL cosh 3. L/HL RATIO Fig.= 0.< 1. hi /HL: L For tanks with -----.

= -------------------------------------------------------.16 ⎛ ------⎞ – 2. hi′ /HL : L For tanks with -----. L/HL RATIO Fig.– -HL 8 L ⎛ ------⎞ 2 × tanh 0.< 0.3—Factors hi′/HL and hc′/HL versus ratio L/HL for rectangular tanks (IBP).2. 9.45 HL L 0.01 ⎝ L-⎠ hc ′ ------.16 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ L-⎠ ⎝ L-⎠ (9-8) .= 0.866 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ H L⎠ hi ′ 1 -----.350.75 HL hi ′ -----.16 ⎛ ------⎞ sinh 3.3-46 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD COMMENTARY IMPULSIVE AND CONVECTIVE HEIGHT FACTORS vs.75 HL (9-7) ′ hc /HL : For all tanks HL cosh 3.866 ⎝ H L⎠ (9-6) L For tanks with -----.= 1 – -------------------------------------------------------------------HL HL HL 3.≥ 0.

16 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ L⎠ 2π 2π T c = -----.4—Factor 2π/λ for rectangular tanks.2." λ ω c = ------L λ = HL 3.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. multiply the factors on the vertical axis by 1. "For results in the SI system. 9.3-47 STANDARD FACTOR (2π/λ) COMMENTARY Fig.811.16g tanh 3.= ⎛ ------⎞ L ⎝ λ⎠ ωc (9-12) (9-13) (9-14) .

3-48 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD COMMENTARY IMPULSIVE AND CONVECTIVE MASS FACTORS vs. 9. D/HL RATIO Fig.230 ⎛ ------⎞ tanh 3. D tanh 0.866 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ H L⎠ Wi ------.68 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ D⎠ ⎝ H L⎠ WL (9-15) (9-16) .= ---------------------------------------------WL D⎛ ------⎞ 0.1—Factors Wi / WL and Wc/WL versus ratio D/HL for circular tanks.3.= 0.866 ⎝ H L⎠ Wc HL D ------.350.

5 – 0.68 ⎛ ------⎞ sinh 3.< 1. hi /HL: D For tanks with -----. 9.= 0.68 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ D-⎠ ⎝ D-⎠ hi D -----.3.333 HL D For tanks with -----.68 ⎛ ------⎞ – 1 ⎝ D-⎠ hc -----.≥ 1.= 1 – -------------------------------------------------------------------HL HL HL 3.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350.2—Factors hi / HL and hc /HL versus ratio D/HL for circular tanks (EBP).375 HL (9-17) (9-18) (9-19) .= 0.333 HL hc /HL: For all tanks HL cosh 3. D/HL RATIO Fig.3-49 STANDARD COMMENTARY IMPULSIVE AND CONVECTIVE HEIGHT FACTORS vs.09375 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ H L⎠ HL hi -----.

9.68 ⎛ ------⎞ sinh 3.68 ⎛ ------⎞ – 2.= 1 – -------------------------------------------------------------------HL HL HL 3.866 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ H L⎠ hi ′ .= -------------------------------------------------.75 HL hi ′ -----.≥ 0.68 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎝ D-⎠ ⎝ D-⎠ (9-22) .3-50 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD COMMENTARY IMPULSIVE AND CONVECTIVE HEIGHT FACTORS vs.= 0.350.– 1 HL 8 D 2 tanh 0. ′ h′i /HL: D For tanks with -----. D/HL RATIO Fig.45 HL D 0.01 ⎝ D-⎠ hc ′ ------.------.3—Factors h′i /HL and hc /HL versus ratio D/HL for circular tanks (IBP).866 ⎛ ------⎞ -⎠ ⎝ HL (9-20) D For tanks with -----.75 HL (9-21) hc′ /HL: For all tanks HL cosh 3.< 0.3.

375 × 10 –2 5 HL 2 HL HL 3 HL 4 –2 H L + 0.2039 ⎛ ------⎞ – 0.186 × 10 ⎛ ------⎞ -⎠ -⎠ -⎠ -⎠ -⎠ ⎝D ⎝D ⎝D ⎝D ⎝D .4(a)—Coefficient Cw for circular tanks. For D /HL > 0.1034 ⎛ ------⎞ – 0.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350.1253 ⎛ ------⎞ + 0. 9.3.1267 ⎛ ------⎞ – 3.3-51 STANDARD COEFFICIENT C W COMMENTARY Fig.667 C w = 9.

3." λ ω c = ------D (9-28) λ = HL 3.811.68g tanh ⎛ 3. 9.= ⎛ ------⎞ D ⎝ λ⎠ ωc (9-29) (9-30) .3-52 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY STANDARD FACTOR (2π/λ) COMMENTARY Fig.4(b)—Factor 2π/ λ for circular tanks. multiply the factors on the vertical axis by 1.68 ⎛ ------⎞ ⎞ ⎝ ⎝ D ⎠⎠ 2π 2π T c = -----.350. "For results in the SI system.

Building Seismic Safety C ouncil. 1958. 1956.. 1997. D. “NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Re gulations for New Buildings and Other Structures—Part 1: Provisions (FEMA 302) and Part 2: Commentary (FEMA 303). S. American Society of Ci vil Engineering (ASCE). III. W orld Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Housner. ASCE. D-1 to D-12..” Washington. “International Building Code. V. Blume & Associates. 3. Building Seismic Safety C ouncil. W .” American Concrete Institute. Circular . N o.. 3. E.and Strand-Wound. 36 pp. Mich. Earthquake Engineering Series V. G. Anagnostopoulos.” 656 pp. ST1. New Zealand Standard (NZS). ” American Concrete Institute. 90.” Journal of Technical Topics in Civil Engineering . and Y oung. International Conference of Building Of ficials (ICBO).” ASCE 7-05.. Feb.. “NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Re gulations for New Buildings and Other Structures—P art 1: Pro visions (FEMA 368) and Part 2: Commentary (FEMA 369). and Hall. 1984. Computational Mechanics Publications. and Ellaith y. Reston. ANSI/AWWA.C. Chapter 6 and Appendix F. Design. No.” Committee on Gas and Liquid Fuel Lifelines of the T echnical Council on Lifeline Earthquake Engineering. “Seismically Induced Fluid Forces on Elevated Tanks.. “Ener gy Based Design Approach. University of California. Mass. V. V. “ AWWA Standard for Circular Prestressed Concrete W ater T anks with Circumferential Tendons. “Use of Energy as a Design Criterion in Earthquak e-Resistant Design.. “Code Requirements for Environmental Engineering Concrete Structures and C ommentary (350-06). J. Housner.” National Science Foundation Report NSF/CE52-81079. “Limit Design of Structures to Resist Earthquak es..” Proceedings. Newmark. Inc. Section 7. 2 . “Guidelines for the Seismic Design of Oil and Gas Pipeline Systems. and Bertero. A. 1997. 2003. 5-1 to 5-13. Bertero. John A. 305-315. ” Bulletin of the Seismolo gical Society of America . “Code of Practice for Concrete Structures for the Storage of Liquids. Whittier. 1981. 1985.” ANSI/AWWA D110-95. 1995. “ AWWA Standard for W ire. 1997.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. “Dynamic Response of Tanks Containing Liquids or Solids. W .3-53 COMMENTARY CHAPTER 10—COMMENTARY REFERENCES ACI Committee 350. 1 3. M ay. D. No. N. 1995a. ” Report by Committee on Seismic Analysis.. 1997. H. 1981. ANSI/AWWA. Sept. Uang. M.. K. D.. 2000. 1031-1041. M. 484 pp. A. 1998.. pp. 61-89. Haroun. M.. National Science F oundation.. 1988. 1. ACI Committee 371.S. 1963.. 1995b. U.” Technical Information (TID) Document 7024.. ” Performance-Based Seismic Engineering of Buildings ..” Computer Analysis and Design of Earthquake-Resistant Structures . 936 pp. and Construction of Concrete-Pedestal W ater Towers (A CI 371R-98) (Reappro ved 2003). “Ener gy Absorption of Structures Under Cyclic Loading. M.” July. ” NZS 3106. American Society of Ci vil Engineers (ASCE). Nov. Billerica. V. pp. Veletsos. 1984. Mich. ” Journal of the Structural Division. UCB/EERC-88.” Earthquake Spectra.” V. eds. A. 77 pp. “Uniform Building Code. “Earthquak e Spectra and Design..” ANSI/AWWA D115-95. Haroun. Scarlat. 1-15.” Washington. 2005. “Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Struct ures. . Va. pp. Dec. 1982.” EERC Report No. 2006. Apr. pp.. H. Medearis. “Guide for the Analysis. ” Earthquake Engineering Resear ch Institute Monograph. pp.. V. “Earthquak e Design Criteria for Water Supply & Wastewater Systems. 1986.C.. Berkeley. “Dynamic Pressure on Fluid Containers. P. V. Prestressed Concrete W ater Tanks.. and Shivakumar. S. W. “Design of Soft Stories—A Simplifi ed Energy Approach. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). Atomic Energy Commission. June. G. V. M. 2. Farmington Hills. “Stress Analysis of Rectangular Walls Under Seismically Induced Hydrodynamic Loads. Farmington Hills. International Code Council. Calif. C.. “Report of T esting Program on Earthquak e Cable Detail for the Preload Company. V. A. “Fluid/Structure Interaction During Seismic Excitation. 74. SEAOC. pp. Beskos and S. 1964. ASCE. A. D.

3-54 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY Notes .350.

9. R9. Based on the natural periods determined in Step 10 and the design spectral response acceleration values derived in Step 2. respectively (Fig. (9-37). (9-28) for circular).4-2. 9. (9-35) and (9-36).3. Where required. 9.5 and R9.2). 9.1 and 2.3-1. (9-11) and (9-14) for rectangular tanks. 10. respectively). Thus.4-1 and 11. 6. The impulsive mode will generally fall into the rigid range of the response spectra (that is. Basic seismic design parameters: 1.3. Freeboard: 12. and the stored liquid WL. and hc (EBP) and h′ and h′ (IBP) to the center of gravity of the tank wall. Tank dynamic properties: 5.3-55 COMMENTARY APPENDIX A—DESIGN METHOD A. 11.4. respectively.3. if the maximum value of Ci is used (SDS). 8. Establish the design depth of the stored liquid HL .2. 7. T ables 11. or Eq. hi.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. Calculate the equivalent weight of the tank wall (shell) Ww.5. impulsive i c component.3). obtain coef ficients Fa and Fv using ASCE 7-05. calculation of the natural frequency and natural period is not required.1—General outline of design method In the absence of a more rigorous method of analysis. Ci and Cc are determined in accordance with Sections 9. (9-23) for circular tank Types 2. .2 and 9. Select an importance factor I from Table 4. and the tank length or diameter. Adjust the wall height if required to meet freeboard requirements. and (9-30) for circular tanks).1 for rectangular tanks or Fig.1. hr. (9-26). (9-12) for rectangular tanks or Eq. After selecting the site classification from ASCE 7-05. T able 20.2. and convective component. calculate the corresponding natural periods of vibration Ti and Tc. From the applicable seismic ground motion map of ASCE 7-05. calculate the corresponding seismic response coefficients Ci and Cc (Eq. and the convective component Wc using Fig. calculate the maximum v ertical displacement of liquid surf ace (w ave height) in accordance with Chapter 7 .1) for common sizes of concrete tanks.3. Calculate the frequenc y of the vibration ωc of the con vective component of the stored liquid ( Eq.1(b) for the type of structure being investigated. (Eq. Calculate the effective weight of the impulsive component of the stored liquid Wi. obtain the mapped maximum considered earthquake spectral response accelerations at short periods and at 1 second (SS and S1. or Sections 9. the constant spectral acceleration region of the design response spectrum in Fig. Calculate the combined natural frequenc y of vibration ωi of the containment structure and the impulsi ve component of the stored liquid (Eq.1. 2. Calculate the heights hw. 9. Chapter 22. (9-9) for rectangular tanks or Eq.2. (9-33).3. roof Wr.1 for circular tanks. Note: Where a sitespecific response spectrum is constructe d in accordance with Section 4. roof. 3. Select the factors Ri and Rc from Table 4.2.1(a). and 9. and calculate SDS and SD1 using Eq. compute the effective mass coefficient ε. (9-32). 9.2. the wall height Hw. Also. (9-25). the general procedures out lined below may be used to apply the pro visions of Chapters 1 through 9. Using the frequency values determined in Steps 8 and 9. and (9-38)). 4.2.1. L or D.

first calculate the natural period of vibration of vertical liquid motion Tv (Eq. calculate the st resses in the w all due to the impulsi ve and con vective pressures. (4-10) and (4-13)).350. . If uplift develops on the heel side. In circular tanks. Compute the vertical amplification factor Ct in accordance with Section 9. Vertical acceleration: 15. Do wnward pressures on the neoprene bearing pads of free base circular tanks caused b y overturning moments should be co nsidered. (4-5)).1) and the stresses associated with the increase in effective fluid density due to the vertical acceleration.3-56 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY COMMENTARY Base shear and overturning moments: 13. Compute the dynamic lateral forces (Eq. In rectangular tanks. Pressure distribution: 17. Calculate the bending and overturning moments (Eq. calculate the hoop stresses due to the impulsive and convective pressures and due to the vertical acceleration (Section 6. (9-31)). (4-14)). 14. Stresses: 18. Calculate the o verall bending stresses due to the o verturning moments (from Step 14). and 19. depending on the structural system considered (Section 6.3.2). Compute the vertical distribution of the force components in accordance with Chapter 5. (4-1) to (4-4)) and total base shear V (Eq. Calculate the hydrodynamic pressure pvy (Eq. then anchor cables must be provided.4. For circular tanks. 16.

B.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. table. Using the seismic zone determined in Step 1. NOTE: All section. select a Seismic So urce Type A.2 and Table 16-J. find the zone factor Z from Table 16-I. 3. and near-source factors Na and Nv from Tables 16-S and 16-T.1—Introduction B1. SC.1—Scope The purpose of this appendix is to permit the user to adapt the pro visions of ACI 350. find the seismic coefficient Ca from Table 16-Q and seismic coefficient Cv from Table 16-R. B1. If the structure is in Seismic Zone 4.2—Notation (not included in Section 1.3-57 COMMENTARY APPENDIX B—ALTERNATIVE METHOD OF ANALYSIS BASED ON 1997 Uniform Building Code B. 16-2). the design ground motions are those with a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years.2 of this standard) Ca Cv = seismic coefficient. SF = Na Nv Ts Z = near-source factor used in the determination of Ca in Seismic Zone 4 related to the proximity of the structure to known faults with magnitudes and slip rates as set forth in Tables 16-S and 16-U = near-source factor used in the determination of Cv in Seismic Zone 4 related to the proximity of the structure to known faults with magnitudes and slip rates as set forth in Tables 16-T and 16-U = 0. Consulting paragraph 1636. using the seismic zone map (Fig. as set forth in Table 16-Q = seismic coefficient. 5. general methodology 1. B. In this case. Using the zone factor Z and the soil profile designation from Steps 2 and 3. . select the soil profile type designation SA through SF that best represents the soil at the site. 4. SB. or C from Table 16-U. The differences between the 1997 UBC and the 2003 IBC seismic provisions as used in this Standard are primarily due to differences in the definition of design ground motions and the construction of the corresponding design response spectra as explained below.1 live load soil profile types as set forth in Table 16-J DL = E = LL = SA. Select the seismic zone (1 through 4) where the site is located. figure and equation references are to 1997 UBC except as otherwise indicated.2—Design ground motions This appendix presents an outline of the methodolog y to be followed when computing the loadin g side of seismic analysis in accordance with 1997 UBC. SD. as set forth in Table 16-R dead load earthquake load as defined in Section 1630.40Cv /Ca = seismic zone factors as given in Table 16-I B.3—Loading side. SE. 2. respectively.3 to the seismic pro visions of the 1997 edition of the Uniform Building Code (UBC) (ICBO 1997).

2. this standard uses the static procedures in accordance with 1629.) For all seismic zones: For Ti ≤ Ts Ci = 2.2 Cc (convective component): Compute period of vibration Tc using Eq. for Seismic Zone 4 Ci ≥ 1. and Eq.350. or dynamic.5C a Ca 7.1.1—Modified UBC 1997 design response spectrum (ICBO 1997). Using the values of Ca. Compute T s = ------------.” allows three options for computing lateral forces.= 0.6ZNv (B-3) (B-2) (B-1) 8.6/Ts seconds 1. Seismic response coefficients Ci and Cc— 8. (9-11) of this Standard for rectangular tanks.≤ 3. For Tc ≤ 1. the methods in Chapter 9 of this standard should be used.8. 16-3 and B.8.3.4 specif ies the method for determining th e fundamental period b y referencing 1630. and Ts. (9-25) or (9-26) for circular.) Compute seismic response coefficient Ci corresponding to T. Fig.75Ca Tc (B-4) . construct a design response spectrum as in Fig. B.1 Ci (impulsive component): Compute period of vibration Ti in accordance with Eq. (9-14) of this Standard for rectangular tanks. For liquid-containing structures. (Note 1: Section 1634. F or liquidretaining structures. depending on the type of structure being investigated: simplified static.2. 8. “Selection of Lateral-force Procedures.5C v Cc = ------------. 2.3-58 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY COMMENTARY Cv Cv 6. however. Cv.1. and (9-30) for circular tanks.. using the above design response spectrum as follows (Note 2: Section 1629.40 ----. static.5Ca For Ti > Ts Ci = Cv /Ti In addition. modified as indicated in this standard.

For Ti ≤ Ts 2. Base shears V— • • • • • Compute Ww. (30-4) and (34-2)] [1997 UBC Eq.2 and 9.1.c -W Rc Equation (B-8) and (B-9) take the following form depending on the period Ti and Tc. Wr . and Pc in accordance with Section 4.6/Ts seconds 6C a I 1. (30-5)] (B-6) (B-7) (B-8) (B-9) .6/Ts seconds 1. Pw.1. Pr .c -W Rc Tc (B-11) (B-10) [1997 UBC Eq.3 of this Standard. Pi . (B-5) For all seismic zones Ci I P w = ------.W c 2 Rc Rc Tc For Tc ≤ 1.1.1 of this Standard as follows.W c ≤ ---------------------------. Select an importance factor I from Table 4.5C v I P c = --------------.5C a I P i = ----------------W i Ri For Ti > Ts Cv I P i = ----------W i ≥ 0.5 ( 2.1(a) of this Standard.1(b) of this Standard. Compute the component parts of the total lateral force.εW w Ri Ci I P r = ------.5C a )I P c = ----------.εW r Ri Ci I P i = ------. Compute Wi and Wc using the equations in Sections 9.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350.56C a IW i Ri Ti For Tc > 1. and WL.εW i Ri Cc I P c = ------. Select coefficient Ri and Rc from Table 4.3-59 COMMENTARY For Tc > 1.6/Ts seconds Ca C c = 6 -----2 Tc 9.

12. Pi . and Pc may be computed b y combining these lateral loads using the square root of the sum of the squares method as in Section 4.2(2)) When a site-specific design response spectrum is available.4 of this Standard. B.3. Overturning moments—Compute overturning moments for the lateral loads described above using the procedures of Section 4. Pr . (34-3)] 10.1. Total base shear V—The total base shear due to Pw . for all periods Tv Ct = Ca In addition.350.3-60 ACI STANDARD/COMMENTARY COMMENTARY In addition.4—Site-specific spectra (Section 1631.2 of this Standard V = ( Pw + Pr + Pi ) + Pc 2 2 11. Vertical component of ground motion—Compute the natural period of vibration of the vertical liquid motion Tv in accordance with Section 9. for Seismic Zone 4: For rectangular and circular tanks Ct ≥ 1.3 of this Standard. the coefficients Ci and Ct are replaced by the actual spectral values corresponding to Ti and Tv. from the 5% damped site-specific spectrum.6ZN v I P i ≥ -------------------.1. for Seismic Zone 4 1.W i Ri [1997 UBC Eq. and Cc is replaced by the actual spectral . Vertical load distribution—The vertical distribution of the lateral seismic forces may be assumed as shown in Section 5 of this Standard. respectively.6ZNv Compute the spectral acceleration üv as follows b üv = C t I---Ri (B-16) (B-15) (B-14) (B-13) (B-12) 13. Compute seismic response coefficient Ct as follows: For all seismic zones: For circular tanks For Tv ≤ Ts Ct = Ca For Tv > Ts Cv C t = ----Tv For rectangular tanks. Combine th e computed moments using the square root of the sum of the squares method as in the same section.

5% damped site-specific spectrum.⎞ ⎝ 2 ⎠ (B-17) . may be computed in accordance with the applicable provisions of 1997 UBC (ICBO 1997) or ACI 350-06. including load combinations and streng th reduction factors.4 for use with allowable stresses. and allo wable stress increases used in the appro ved standard are permitted. (B-4). and 2. with Cv representing the effective site-specific peak ground acceleration expressed as a fraction of the acceleration due to gravity g. If the site-specific response spectrum does not extend into or is not well defined in the Tc range. DL + LL + E/1. B.3-61 COMMENTARY value corresponding to Tc from the 0.6—Freeboard L or D d max = Cc I ⎛ ---------------. coefficient Cc may be calculated using Eq.SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID-CONTAINING CONCRETE STRUCTURES 350. the design seismic forces obtained from this appendix shall be reduced b y a factor of 1. The resistance side of the seismic desi gn. Where the approved standard defines acceptance criteria in terms of allowable stresses (as opposed to strengths).5—Resistance side 1.4 B. the following load combinations are permitted to be used for design instead of the ASCE 7-05 load factor combinations (Haroun and Ellaithy 1985). Chapter 9. When such a standard is used.

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contr actors. which assures all participants the right to have their views considered. architects . The work of ACI is conducted by individual A CI members and through v olunteer committees composed of both members and non-members. constr uction and maintenance of concrete products and str uctures. presentation of constr uction and repair techniques. Members are encouraged to par ticipate in committee activities that relate to their specific areas of interest. as w ell as A CI as a whole . Committee activities include the development of building codes and specifications. contact ACI. scientists .org . A CI’s membership is composed of engineers . analysis of research and de velopment results. Individuals interested in the activities of ACI are encouraged to become a member . For more information.concrete. and representatives from a variety of companies and organizations. operate under a consensus f ormat. ACI gathers and distributes inf ormation on the impro vement of design. The committees.Seismic Design of Liquid-Containing Concrete Structures and Commentary The AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE was founded in 1904 as a nonprofit mem bership organization dedicated to pub lic service and representing the user interest in the field of concrete. and education. www. There are no educational or emplo yment requirements . educators .

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