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The Truth About Caffeine How many of you here consider yourself caffeine addicts? How much coffee do you drink a day? One cup? Two cups? More? How about caffeinated sodas? Caffeine is pervasive in our society these days and every few months we hear about how a study has shown that it is bad for us or good for us. What are we to believe? Today I'd like to give you some of the facts about caffeine and its effects on your body. It may not cause you to change your coffee consumption but at least you'll be better informed about what you are putting into your body. I'm going to talk about the beneficial effects of caffeine, the negative effects and discuss what are considered safe levels of caffeine consumption. Let's start with the good news. Caffeine, which comes from the leaves, seeds and fruits of about 63 different plants, is well known as a stimulant. That's why people drink it, right? Caffeine does help you wake up and feel more alert and it has been shown to increase attention spans. This is a beneficial effect for people who are driving long distances and for people who are doing tedious work. Calling this a health benefit may be stretching it, though staying awake while you are driving a car is definitely a benefit to your well-being! Caffeine also contains antioxidants which have been shown to have cancer prevention qualities. The negative effects of caffeine are largely dependent on how much you consume. When consumed in small quantities like, for example when you have one cup of coffee or one soda, caffeine can cause your heart rate to increase, you urinate more which can cause dehydration, and your digestive system produces more acid. In larger amounts, caffeine can cause you to have headaches, feel restless and nervous, be unable to sleep, and even, in very large quantities to have hallucinations.(Don't try that at home!) When larger amounts of caffeine (over 600 mg per day) are used over long periods of time you can develop sleep problems, get depressed and have problems with your digestive system. According to a Medline article on the National Institutes of Health website, having caffeine in your diet is not of any benefit to your health but moderate consumption is also not considered harmful. They say that having up to 3 eight ounce cups of coffee a day or 250 mg of caffeine is considered (quote) "average or moderate". 10 cups of coffee a day is considered excessive. Also, remember that the amount of caffeine per cup can vary greatly depending on the type of beans that are used and the strength of the brew.
Most sodas with caffeine, unless they are specially enhanced like "Jolt" or something like that, have about 35 mg of caffeine per 8 ounces so you don't have to worry too much unless you are drinking several 2 liter bottles per day. Also, the effect of caffeine on you personally will depend on a number of factors like your weight, general health, mood and personal sensitivity to caffeine. You can see that caffeine can have both positive and negative effects on our health and well-being but the bottom line is that if you drink your coffee or sodas in moderation, you don't have to worry too much. So, the next time you are wondering whether you should have that second cup of coffee to perk you up, relax. At least now you know what it is and isn't doing to you!
Ever See A Liger? An episode of the edgy, humorous, and often line-crossing show South Park had the four young main animated characters singing the song "Pig and elephant DNA just won't splice" after a visit to the South Park Genetic Engineering Ranch. Unfortunately, this is how much of the country thinks about hybrid animals. When most people hear the term "hybrid animal," they often think of odd, mutant creatures - hippopotamuses mixed with lions, dogs mixed with cats, or squirrels mixed with porcupines. Indeed, the word hybrid invokes the imagination and encourages one to entertain these improbable combinations as miracles of science. However, the phrase "hybrid animal" merely means a crossbreeding of two animals - a process which has occurred for centuries, both artificially and naturally. The idea of hybrids dates back to the mythology of ancient times. Folk tales were full of animal-human hybrid stories like mermaids and minotaurs. The word hybrid comes from the Ancient Greek, meaning "son of outrageous conduct." But understanding hybrid animals lies both in nature and science. Hybridization has been occurring in nature for thousands of years. Diaries of early hunters in the northwestern territories tell of shooting bears that were large and off-white with hairy paws, suggesting hybrids of kodiak and polar bears. Recent DNA studies confirmed this is possible. The mixing of animals that are closely related happens naturally more than you might think. In fact, scientists have recently identified a number of hybrid zones, or places where animal hybridization is most likely to occur based on a number of different factors. These hybrid animals are far more important to nature than you might think. Evolutionary biology studies show that the fittest animals survive, no matter whether they are hybrids or not, and while some are simply not genetically compatible in terms of survival, many others are. A few examples of naturally occurring hybrid animals include the white tail/mule deer, some Galapagos Finches, and the European Red Deer and Chinese Sika Deer. Noted evolutionary expert Charles Darwin even commented on animal hybridization. "Many species have bred in various menageries . . . Strange as the fact may appear, many animals . . . unite with distinct species and produce hybrids quite as freely as, or even more freely than, with their own species." Science, as well as nature though, has created some of its own hybrids for various purposes. Take, for instance, the mule - a cross between a female horse and a male donkey, which has existed since Ancient Roman times. For centuries, mules have been used as a means of transportation and labor. Even today, their sure-footedness makes them one of the best animals to
have in rough terrain or narrow passages. In countries such as Chile and China, mules are valued for their navigability. In fact, mules are still used to tour the Grand Canyon's steep and narrow trails! Hybrid animals are closer to home than even the mule, though. Common pets like cats and dogs are often hybrid animals, having been crossbred with another breed. Thoroughbred cats and dogs are valued for the purity of their blood, but because of the cost involved with thoroughbreds, most people find themselves with crossbred dogs or cats for pets. The value of hybrid dogs and cats is changing, though. Crossbred dogs and cats were once considered mutts or mongrels, but today, with the everincreasing crossbreeding and technology, some find that hybrid dogs and cats are "more valuable" because of their temperate personality, the shininess of their hair, or other desirable characteristics. Perhaps you want the security a Doberman Pinscher can provide, but you do not want its aggressiveness. Breeding with a more amiable dog could provide you with the best combination of characteristics. Crossbreeding is a process that has occurred for centuries. There are many hybrid animals in the world, whether produced artificially, by scientists or naturally in a common habitat or because of familiar characteristics. Though many believe the unlikeliest hybrid animals, such as the liger, can occur only in a laboratory, the hybrid polar/grizzly bear found in the wild repudiates this belief. In this way, hybrid animals provide us with fascinating questions on fertility as well as the limits, or rather non-limits, of nature, while challenging our imaginations, and our animated television shows like South Park to envision the possibilities.
How do you tell the Difference between an Elephant and a Letterbox? It was my father's favorite riddle and it drove me wild because he never would tell me the answer. "I don't know," I would cry, "How do you tell the difference between elephant and a letterbox?" "Well," he would grin, "I wouldn't send you to post a letter." "But what is the answer to the riddle?" "That's it!" he'd say. "That's all there is." "But you haven't told me how to tell the difference!" "If you haven't worked that out, you'd better not post any letters." "But what is the rest of the riddle?" I knew how to tell the difference between the end of a queue and a letterbox. One makes a tail and the other takes the mail. I knew the difference between a riddle and an elephant sitting on a bun. One is a conundrum and the other is a bun under em. See? Those riddles had a satisfying answer. They were complete. But what was the difference between an elephant and a letterbox? It bothered me whenever my mother sent me to post a letter. Not that I expected to meet an elephant in our street. It was more unlikely than a chicken crossing the road or a fireman in red braces. Still, the unanswered question niggled in my mind as I stepped carefully over the cracks in the pavement and tried not to slide down the gutter "for a pound of butter." My mother offered no solution. When I appealed to her she just laughed and explained "It means that if you can't tell the difference, you might post the letter in the elephant's trunk."
Surely they didn't think I was that stupid! Anyone could tell the difference between an elephant and a letterbox! But the riddle was incomplete. Why ask a riddle if there was no answer? It was the same with some of the words I didn't understand. No one would tell me when I asked, "What is Plissity?" "Plissity?" they'd say, "There's no such thing." But I knew there was. Plissity was something special. I heard it at Sunday School. I was taught to pray, "Gentle Jesus, meek and mild, look upon a little child. Pity mice and plissity. Suffer me to come to thee." I prayed this prayer every night, earnestly, specially the part that said, "Pity mice." After all, with all the cats round, these defenseless little creatures needed all the help they could get. But I didn't understand the rest of the prayer. It said "Pity mice and plissity" What was plissity? Some other creature, obviously, but there were no pictures of them in my big book of zoo animals, and there was no mention of them in "The Animals of Farmer Jones" So I asked my mother. "What's plissity?" "I don't know," she `said, "finish your dinner." Perhaps it was one those words that made my mother change the subject quickly if I said it in front of visitors. I still prayed for the plissity each night but I was careful not tomention it again in case it was something embarrassing. And I stopped asking for the answer to the elephant and the letterbox riddle. Grown ups seemed to have secret jokes they wouldn't share with us. When I was old enough to read, I was given a dictionary. At last! Here was my chance to find out. Eagerly I looked up P.L.I.S.S.I.T.Y I couldn't believe it. . It wasn't there! I looked up "elephant" and "letterbox" They were there but it gave no clues to this secret adult joke. Then one day I was given a book of children's prayers. I was able to read for myself, "Gentle Jesus, meek and mild, look upon a little child. Pity my...... Simplicity." So there were no plissity after all. What a shame! But I never did find out how to tell the difference between an elephant and a letterbox.I still think of it as I step over the cracks on my way to post a letter. I hope I don't meet an elephant!
An Alarming Experience What is it? I wake in fright. And the cat dozing on the end of my bed leaps in terror and runs headfirst into the wall. I sit up in bed, my heart pounding and my mind whirling in confusion. The still night air is ripped apart by a shrill piercing sound. Is it the phone? Who could be ringing me at this hour? I grab my bedside phone and hold it to my ear. But still the insistent ringing continues. Is it...it must be ...the smoke alarm! Horror! The house is on fire! I leap out of bed in panic. No time to salvage anything. My one thought is survival. I rush out into the hallway. Where's the fire? The air is clear. No smoke. No hungry red flames! I rush from room to room, searching and sniffing for fire. There's not a trace. But still the smoke alarm shrieks on, jangling my brain with its strident sound. Is this some kind of joke? How dare it wake me from my exhausted sleep! I switch on the light to see if the alarm can be turned off. Obviously, the only way to stop it is to remove the battery. The alarm is set high on the ceiling. "Just call us when the battery needs to be changed," the man had told me when he installed the alarm. "Don't try to climb up and do it yourself." Wouldn't he just love to be called out at 2 a.m.? I stand on a chair. The alarm is still out of reach. It shrills on and on. Surely the neighbours can hear it? It's a wonder no one has phoned the fire brigade. I'd feel pretty silly if they arrived, but at least someone might be able to stop this racket. I look out the window.
No sign of life anywhere. The neighbourhood sprawls in blissful slumber. I grab my broom, reach up and prod the alarm. After a few bashes it gives a final shriek and goes silent. Phew! Peace at last. I turn out the light and flop back into bed. My heart rate has almost returned to normal. But what's that? A shuffling sound comes from the corner of the room. It's obvious that I am not alone. I watch in transfixed horror as the door of my wardrobe slo-owly creaks open. Someone - or something is about to emerge. I try to scream but the scream sticks in my throat as out... creeps ... the cat!! She nervously resumes her place on the end of my bed and carefully washes her face. With a sigh of relief I collapse weakly on my pillow and finally fall fast asleep. Suddenly the room reverberates once more with the earpiercing sound. That infernal alarm again! I leap out in fury, turn on the light, grab the broom and whack the alarm. Again and again. It stops - then it starts, stops and starts again. Each time I put the broom down, the noise starts, pounding in my brain, taunting me. "I'll fix you for good!" I yell. I keep ramming and bashing it with the broom handle. The alarm seems as though it will never give in. Well, neither will I. I'll kill it this time! Finally, I give it a mighty whack. The alarm loses its grip on the ceiling and lands at my feet, still protesting loudly. I perform the final act by wrenching out the battery. Silence. My head is still ringing, but the night is at rest once more. I turn the alarm over. The warning on the back - which I hadn't been aware of - says, "Gives a warning chirp when the battery is low." Chirp! They call that a chirp? I throw away the battery. If I get that smoke alarm put back up, it will be on the wall where I can reach it. No doubt smoke alarms do save lives when they warn in time of real danger. But what if that unnecessary fright had given me a heart attack? And it could happen to a frail, elderly person. If I had died in the night, they probably would have performed an autopsy to determine the cause. But would anyone have suspected the real culprit - the smoke alarm!
Sample Speech To Persuade
HACC, Lancaster Campus Speech 101, Mr. Fernandes THE SPEECH TO PERSUADE (An Example) Note: The data presented in this sample speech is fictitious and is intended only as a backdrop for this illustration. Also, this example illustrates a mid point between the initial narrative form and the final note card form of the speech. This entire speech should be reduced to three or four 5" X 8" note cards for an extemporaneous presentation. Remember, the less narrative data on the note cards, the less temptation to read. Introduction 1. Attention: I wonder how many of us came to class tonight a wondering whether or not we would make it home safely? Most of us are not usually preoccupied with these type thoughts. But did you know that during the past 14 months 27 people have been
seriously injured and 4 have been killed within one block of where you are sitting right now? 2. Personal Introduction: Good Evening, I'm Jerry Fernandes 3. Motivational Statement: and tonight, I'm going to provide you with some information that can literally save your life. In doing this I'll talk about 4. Overview: - The nature of a serious problem that we are facing And then, I'll cover - What has been done by city officials and law enforcement so far to resolve this problem And finally, I'll discuss - What we can do now to protect ourselves from the threat this problem poses Body I. The problem that we are facing is the deadly intersection of H Street and Laurel Avenue. - This intersection is dangerous to us all because it has no stop light. -- According to a summary of Lompoc City Police reports filed within the last 14 months, there have been 19 collisions at the corner of H Street and Laurel Avenue. Of these, 19 collisions, 11 were attributed to the failure of East/West Laurel Avenue traffic to stop at H Street. The remaining 8 accidents were attributed to motorist traveling North and South on H Street, striking cars in the rear that had just turned on to H street from Laurel Avenue. -- An analysis of Lompoc traffic accidents was prepared by Mr. J. T. Brown of the California Department of Motor Vehicles Mishap Investigation Division, and published February 22nd,1996. In this analysis, the underlying cause of these specific 19 traffic accidents was listed as the lack of adequate traffic control at the intersection of H Street and Laurel Avenue. The analysis further went on to site the installation of a traffic signal as the recommended solution.
-- I have copies of both the Summary of Lompoc City Police reports and Mr. Brown's analysis If you would care to review them for yourself later. Well, now that we've examined the nature of the threat we are facing lets take a look at what has been done so far to defend against this threat. II. Debate by city officials and increased patrols by law enforcement have not solved the problem. - The Lompoc City Council has debated installing a traffic signal. -- During the last two City Council meetings held in January and February of this year, the council acknowledged the need for a traffic signal but concluded that the cost of $127,000.00 would take away from funds needed for other city projects. - Police increased patrol of this dangerous area from October to December of 1996. -- 6 of the 19 accidents occurred during this three month period. --- Police can not be permanently assigned to observe one intersection.... Manning just won't permit that. ---- According to Patrolman Danny Glover, a Lompoc City Policeman who was involved in the additional patrol of the H Street and Laurel Avenue intersection area (and I quote) "While Police were present and visible, people were normally more careful, but when no police were present it was business as usual." So we've taken a look at what has been done so far, now lets look at what we can do to further protect ourselves. III. In order to protect ourselves and those we love, we can drive defensively, but most importantly, we must demand a traffic light be installed without further delay. - Driving defensively is always a good idea. -- Just being aware of a dangerous situation will naturally make us more alert. The more attentive we are anywhere, but particularly at this dangerous intersection, the more apt we are to avoid an accident. but driving defensively is just not enough - We must have that traffic signal and we must have it NOW!!! -- When we get this traffic signal installed we will all be safer. Tragedies will be prevented. The city council must hear our voices. Remember, 27 people have
already been seriously injured and 4 have died at this intersection. $127,000.00 may be a lot of money but can we afford not to spend it on a traffic signal for the intersection of Laurel Avenue and H Street? How long will it be before you and I are one of those accident victims? How often do you use this Intersection? Will you use this intersection tonight when you leave class? We can't wait any longer !!!!! -- If we do not act now and demand the installation of this traffic signal then we will be contributing to the injuries and deaths and pain to surviving families because of our lack of action. We must act now!! -- The next City Council meeting will be held April 12th, next Thursday at 7:00 p.m.. The agenda includes comments and a call to vote on this traffic signal issue. The more of us who attend that council meeting and support immediate installation of a traffic signal, the better the chance we will have of getting it . Ladies and Gentlemen, attend that meeting with me and with me, demand this traffic signal be installed immediately!!! Conclusion 1. Summary: Well, tonight we
- Took a look at the nature of a serious problem we are all facing. -- The Intersection of Laurel Avenue and H Street is a disaster waiting to happen to you and me and those we love. Remember the two separate documents which point to the lack of a traffic signal at this dangerous intersection as a prime contributing factor in the accidents which occurred there. -- Remember the 27 injured and 4 who were killed there, not one block from where we are right now. then - We discussed what has been done so far by both city officials and law enforcement to deal with this problem. -- We saw that the City Council has been debating installing a traffic signal. -- We saw that the Police Department tried increased patrol of the area. --- But remember the words of Patrolman Glover, when he said that as soon as police were not immediately present it was business as usual. and finally
- We looked at what we can do to further protect ourselves from the threat posed by the serious problem of no traffic signal at the corner of H Street and Laurel Avenue. -- Remember, driving defensively is always a good idea. -- But most importantly, we saw that the immediate installation of a traffic signal is our best defense against this threat and we need to let our City Council know that we can't wait any longer. 2. Purpose Statement: So, ladies and gentlemen, now you have the information that can literally save your life. And so the time for action is here. I urge you to go to the City Council meeting with me next Thursday at 7:00 p.m. and demand a traffic signal be installed at the intersection of Laurel Avenue and H Street immediately!!! 3. Closure: If you need a ride to the meeting or if you have any questions, see me after class. I'll be happy to talk with you.
SAMPLE PERSUASIVE SPEECH OUTLINE (Motivated Sequence)
Topic: Organ Donation Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience to donate their organs and tissues when they die and to act upon their decision to donate. Thesis Statement: The need is constantly growing for organ donors and it is very simple to be an organ donor when you die.
I. INTRODUCTION A. Attention material/Credibility Material: How do you feel when you have to wait for something you really, really want? What if it was something you couldn’t live without? Well, my cousin was five years old when he found out he needed a new kidney. He went on the organ waiting list right away. He was called twice during a six month span that they had a kidney available only to find out that the kidney wasn’t a good match. He had to wait again. The third time was a charm. A small adult was in an accident and his kidney was a good match. This story had a happy ending but so many do not. B. Tie to the audience: One of the people on the waiting list for an organ transplant might be someone you know. C. Thesis and Preview: Today I’d like to talk to you about first, the need for organ donors in our area, second, how you can become an organ donor after you die, and finally, how your family and organ donor recipients benefit from you donation. [Transition into body of speech]: I’ll begin by telling you about the need for organ donors. II. BODY A. People around the world but also right here in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Illinois, need organ transplants and they need our help. 1. The problem is that there is a lack of organs and organ donors who make organ transplantation possible. a. The need is many organs and tissues such as the heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, pancreas, corneas, bone, skin, heart valves, and blood vessels(Iowa Statewide Organ Procurement Organization undated brochure). b. A new name is added to the national waiting list every 16 minutes. That means that 3 people will be added to the list during the time we are in class today.
1) The problem is that 10 people will die each day waiting for an organ transplant (LifeSource: Questions and Answers). 2) The reason is that are only on the average 5,000 donors nationally per year (LifeSource: Statistics). c. You can choose to donate any needed organs or you can specify which organs or tissues you wish to donate. 2.. Organ donation is very important. a. The following poem by Robert Test entitled, "To Remember Me," shows the importance of organ donation. "Give my sight to the man who has never seen a sunrise, a baby’s face or love in the eyes of a woman. Give my heart to a person whose heart has caused nothing but endless days of pain… Take my bones, every muscle, every fiber and nerve in my body and find a way to make a crippled child walk… Take my cells, if necessary, and let them grow so that, someday, a speechless boy will shout at the crack of a bat and a deaf girl will hear the sound of rain against her window (South Dakota Lions Eye Bank, undated brochure). b. Not only is this a problem nationally but also it is a big problem right here at home in the Midwest. 1) Nationally, there are over 62,000 people waiting as of October 7, 1998. As of October 7, 1998, there are 1,422 people from Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, and part of Wisconsin that are on the organ waiting list (LifeSource: Statistics). 2) The sad part is that there have only been 104 donors in the Midwest so far from January 1998 through August 1998 (LifeSource: Newsnotes). [Transition: I’m sure that you can see the need for people like you to donate your organs. The majority of this class has already said they would like to donate their organs when they die. But you might be asking, well, how can I make sure my organs are donated after I die? Let me tell you.] B. This is how you go about making sure your organs are donated. 1. Talk with your family about your decision. They will be involved in the donation arrangements when you die. If they do not know your wishes of becoming a donor, your wishes may never be carried out. 2. Mark your driver’s license so that your license indicates your intent to donate. Each state varies.
a. Fill out, sign and carry a uniform donor card with you. b. This donor card says what organs you wish to have donated and also has places for your family members to sign as witnesses after you have discussed your decision with them (Gundersen Lutheran Hospital [LaCrosse, WI] undated brochure). [Transition: You can see that it isn’t difficult to be an organ donor. Now let’s look at what may happen if you choose to donate your organs and what may happen if you choose not to.] C. Organ donation benefits both the donor’s family and the recipients. 1. If you do donate your organs, your family and the people who receive your organs might benefit in a similar way like this family. A seventeen year old died of head injuries in a car accident. His mom decided to donate his organs. His heart went to a prison chaplain, his kidneys went to a mother of 5 children and a Vietnam vet. The Vietnam vet is "energetic" and finally is getting his college degree. The teenager gave life to others and his family feels a sense of satisfaction and comfort that other lives have been touched by his (University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics 1991 brochure). 2. The problem arises when you are thinking about becoming a donor but never do anything about it. Then, no one knows your wishes and your organs will not be donated. The consequences of this are more people waiting for organs and there will still be an incredible shortage of available organs. III. CONCLUSION: A. Brakelight/Transition: As you can easily see, donating your organs can be one of the most important decisions you ever make and also the greatest gift you could ever give. B. Summary: I’ve told you about the need for organ donors in our area, how you can become an organ donor after you die, and finally, how your family and organ recipients benefit from your donation. You become a donor by talking to your family and making sure they know you want to be a donor, fill out and sign a donor card, and indicate your wishes on your driver’s license. C. Tie Back to the Audience: What if the person waiting on the list needing an organ transplant was someone you loved? Imagine if you had a brother or sister who had unexpectedly died and you were able to meet the person who received their heart, for example. Think of the satisfaction and possible comfort knowing that your brother or sister provided life for somebody else. D. Concluding Remarks: I’m going to leave you with a short message from Michael Jordan who is a sponsor for the Iowa LifeGift Coalition on Organ and Tissue Donor Awareness and appears in their 1996 brochure. "Please make the decision to become an organ and tissue donor. Remember: Share your life. Share your decision."
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