English Teaching Study Program Faculty of Education and Teachers Reading I Training Understanding Paragraph Christian University of Indonesia

Click to edit Master subtitle Situjuh Nazara style situjuh.nazara@uk 4/28/12 i.ac.id http://blog.uki.ac.i d/situjuh

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A paragraph (from the Greek paragraphos, "to write beside" or "written beside") is a selfcontained unit of a discourse in writing dealing with a particular point or idea. Paragraphs consist of one or more sentences. The start of a paragraph is indicated by beginning on a new line. ... en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paragraphs

What is Paragraph?

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Paragraphs are groups of interrelated sentences that develop a central topic. Generally governed by a topic sentence, a paragraph has its own unity and coherence and is an integral part of the logical development of an essay. www.pearsoned.ca/text/flachmann4/gloss_iframe.htm

What is Paragraph?
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Paragraph - This is a distinct subdivision in a text. In your essay, you should break up the text into several paragraphs. Each paragraph develops a separate thought, and makes one statement only. en.wikibooks.org/wiki/ Writing_Better_University_Essays/Glossary Paragraph - A series of sentences which are about one aspect of a topic. universitywriting.shu.ac.uk/defs.htm

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Essential Parts of Paragraphs

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TOPIC= WHAT (Thing, person, idea) the paragraph is about. In Noun Phrase

Three Essential (Core) Elements of a Paragraph

MAIN IDEA: WHAT the author wants to communicate about the topic. (In Sentence)

DETAILS: the proof, support, explanation, reasons, or examples that explain the main idea.

Topic
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To understand a paragraph, it’s important to find the topic Finding the topic should be the first step you do after reading. Every sentence in a paragraph discusses the topic. The one or two words you would choose as a title of the paragraph are the topic. A topic is usually expressed as a word or phrase, never complete sentence To find the topic of a paragraph ask yourself: What is the one thing the author is discussing throughout the paragraph? Or WHO or WHAT is this paragraph about?”

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Can you find the topic?

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Water is an amazing resource. Everyone in the world depends upon it. Every creature needs water to survive. Without water, we would not last long. Water makes our world beautiful.

Can you find the topic?

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Colonial Williamsburg is a great place to visit. In Williamsburg, you can see how people lived in colonial times. There are guides in costumes who can show you to taverns, shops, and houses. You can even sample some colonial food at the restored taverns! One visit to Williamsburg will make you feel as if you have been transported to the 1700s.

Main Idea
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The MAIN IDEA is the “big point” or the most important idea that the writer is communicating to the reader. It is like the heart paragraph. of the text or a

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It is the controlling idea. All the other supporting details in the text or within a paragraph should tell us more about the main idea. It is usually expressed as a sentence

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Main Idea

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TOPIC SENTENCE
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The sentence that states the main idea—the author's most important point, is topic sentence The Topic sentence is the most important idea: it is the idea that the whole paragraph explains or supports. A topic sentence is the sentence that states the main idea, the

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Position of topic sentence
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First

Most often the topic sentence is placed first in the paragraph. A writer leads up to the main point & then directly states it at the end The sentences before the topic sentence lead up to or introduce the main idea. Those that follow the main idea explain or describe

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Last

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Middle

Tips for Finding the Topic Sentence
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A topic is usually more "general" than the other sentences, that is, it talks about many things and looks at the big picture. Sometimes it refers to more that one thing. Plurals and the words "many", "numerous", or "several" often signal a topic sentence. Detail sentences are usually

1.

Tips for Finding the Topic Sentence
3.

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Most of the detail sentences support, give examples, prove, talk about, or point toward the topic in some way. A question will never be a topic sentence.

3.

Where is the topic sentence in this paragraph?

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Sleep problems can be avoided if you follow a few simple guidelines. First, don’t drink alcoholic beverages or drinks with caffeine before bedtime. Next, do not exercise within three hours of bedtime. Finally, plan a sleep routine. Every day, go to bed at the same time and get up at the same time. 

Where is the topic sentence in this paragraph?

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Sleep problems can be avoided if you follow a few simple guidelines. First, don’t drink alcoholic beverages or drinks with caffeine before bedtime. Next, do not exercise within three hours of bedtime. Finally, plan a sleep routine. Every day, go to bed at the same time and get up at the same time. 

Where is the topic sentence in this paragraph?

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To avoid sleep problems, you should not drink alcoholic beverages or drinks with caffeine before bedtime. Another way to avoid sleep problems is to not exercise within three hours of bedtime. A final way to prevent sleep problems is to plan a sleep routine. Every day, go to bed at the same time and get up at the same time. As can be seen, sleep

Where is the topic sentence in this paragraph?

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To avoid sleep problems, you should not drink alcoholic beverages or drinks with caffeine before bedtime. Another way to avoid sleep problems is to not exercise within three hours of bedtime. A final way to prevent sleep problems is to plan a sleep routine. Every day, go to bed at the same time and get up at the same time. As can be seen, sleep

Supporting Details
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To prevent any misinterpretation or misunderstanding The supporting details are the things that describe the main idea.

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WHAT IS AN USTATED MAIN IDEA?" MAIN IDEA
MAJOR SUPPORTING DETAILS

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SUPPORTI NG DETAILS

MINOR SUPPORTING DETAILS

MAJOR SUPPORTING DETAILS

MIMOR SUPPORTING DETAILS

Determine the topic, main idea, details (major & minor) this paragraph!

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(1) For students who are learning a SL/FL, reading is the most crucial skill to master due to several reasons. (2) First, students can usually perform at a higher level in reading than in any other skills. (3) They can quite accurately understand written materials that they could not discuss orally or in writing with equivalent accuracy or thoroughness. (4) Such condition will undoubtedly enhance their motivation to learn. (5) Second, reading necessitates very minimum requirements. (6) Different from speaking which requires opportunities to interact with sparring partner, or from writing which needs a lot of guidance and time to practice, reading necessitates only a text and motivation. (7) Third, reading is a service skill. After learning how to read effectively, students will be able to learn effectively by reading.

Determine the topic, main idea, details (major & minor) this paragraph!

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(1) For students who are learning a SL/FL, reading is the most crucial skill to master due to several reasons. (2) First, students can usually perform at a higher level in reading than in any other skills. (3) They can quite accurately understand written materials that they could not discuss orally or in writing with equivalent accuracy or thoroughness. (4) Such condition will undoubtedly enhance their motivation to learn. (5) Second, reading necessitates very minimum requirements. (6) Different from speaking which requires opportunities to interact with sparring partner, or from writing which needs a lot of guidance and time to practice, reading necessitates only a text and motivation. (7) Third, reading is a service skill. After learning how to read effectively, students will be able to learn effectively by reading.

WHAT IS AN USTATED MAIN IDEA?"
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Some paragraphs sentence.

have

no

topic

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This does not mean that there is no main idea in the paragraph. When a paragraph has no topic sentence, the supporting details suggest the main idea. The main idea is implied, or unstated, which means that you have to figure it out by yourself.

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Unstated Main Idea
Detail B

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Detail A

Unstated Main Idea

C Detail

Detail

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D Detail

Questions for Finding the Implied Main Idea
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What is the topic, of the paragraph? What are the major supporting details? Based on the details about the topic, what point or main idea is the author trying to get across? What is the author's main point about the topic? What is the author saying about the topic?

3.

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Your answer
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Your answer should not be too general nor too specific. Try to make it broad enough to include all the supporting details in the paragraph, and make sure you state it in a complete sentence.

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Finding Unstated Main Idea
Implied Main Ideas

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Find the topic.

What is the author’s main point about the topic?

Write the implied main idea in your own words.

What is Main Idea of this Paragraph?
Yellow

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is a bright, cheery color; it is often associated with spring and hopefulness. Green, since it is a color that appears frequently in nature (trees, grass, plants), has come to suggest growth and rebirth. Blue, the color of the sky, may suggest eternity, or endless beauty. Red, the color of both blood and fire, is often connected with strong feelings such as courage, lust, and rage.

Topic : Color Details

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Unstated Main Idea

What is the implied main idea?

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Fear drains color from our faces, makes our teeth chatter, our hearts pound, our breath quicken, and our knees knock. Fear churns our stomachs, raises goose bumps, and causes jitters. Fear also raises feelings of anxiety and distrust, and may even cause us to change our behaviors. Obsessive fear can become a phobia that keeps us from enjoying life. __Phobias keep us from enjoying life. __Fear affects us in several ways. __Fear is the result of distrust and anxiety.

What is the implied main idea?

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Fear drains color from our faces, makes our teeth chatter, our hearts pound, our breath quicken, and our knees knock. Fear churns our stomachs, raises goose bumps, and causes jitters. Fear also raises feelings of anxiety and distrust, and may even cause us to change our behaviors. Obsessive fear can become a phobia that keeps us from enjoying life. __Phobias keep us from enjoying life. __Fear affects us in several ways. __Fear is the result of distrust and anxiety.

What is the implied main idea?

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Green tea has been used for thousands of years in Asia as both a beverage and an herbal medicine. This herbal tea contains catechin, which is a type of tannin that acts as an astringent. Research suggests that men and women in Japan who drink five to six cups of green tea each day have much lower rates of cancer than people who do not. Green tea is also thought to lower cholesterol and blood sugar, control high blood pressure, stop tooth decay, and fight viruses. Green tea has even been credited with the power to slow down the aging process.

What is the implied main idea?

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Green tea has been used for thousands of years in Asia as both a beverage and an herbal medicine. This herbal tea contains catechin, which is a type of tannin that acts as an astringent. Research suggests that men and women in Japan who drink five to six cups of green tea each day have much lower rates of cancer than people who do not. Green tea is also thought to lower cholesterol and blood sugar, control high blood pressure, stop tooth decay, and fight viruses. Green tea has even been credited with the power to slow down the aging process.

2. Maria is watching too much television. A 4/28/12 toddler shouldn’t be spending hours staring blankly at a screen. Worse yet, some of her wild behavior has been inspired by those awful cartoons she watches. We need to spend more time reading books with her and pull the plug on the TV!

What is the main idea of this paragraph? a. Watching a lot of television isn’t good for Maria. b. Books are good. c. All cartoons are bad. d. Some cartoons are bad for Maria.

LINKS for Practice

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http ://wps.ablongman.com/long_mcwhorte 00.html

http:// www.laflemm.com/dynamic/online_pra

LINKS

http:// www.laflemm.com/dynamic/online_pra for Practice

http://www.laflemm.com/RfT/RfTPracti http://www.laflemm.com/hmco/RfRonline.htm

http ://www.laflemm.com/RfT/Practice/RfTP

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Thank You

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Q&A

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