This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Professional Managers: Should They Be Licensed? In most consulting firms and engineering research institutes, many (perhaps all) of the professional-level employees, managers, and senior administrators may be professional engineers or geoscientists. However, in many manufacturing companies, very few (perhaps none) of the managers may be engineers. Manufacturing companies typically have only a small group of engineers who advise senior managers, who are typically trained in business or accounting. Moreover, the managers usually recognize their first priority as being the production activities of the plant—obtaining raw materials, shipping the products, and hiring and firing employees—and see engineering activities as secondary. As an engineering employee, does it make a difference to you whether your manager is a licensed engineer, with recognized credentials and subject to the Code of Ethics of the provincial Association? Explain your answer in a few sentences. Suggest at least one situation where having an engineer as manager would be critically important. Professional Licensing and Insurance Requirements 1. Should all engineers and geoscientists who offer services to the general public be required to hold (primary) liability insurance? 2. Should all engineers and geoscientists who offer services to the general public be required to satisfy experience or competence requirements that are higher than the basic requirements to be licensed as a professional engineer? 3. Consider question 2, and apply it specifically to engineers and geoscientists employed by the federal, provincial, and municipal governments. These professionals provide services to the general public, although as government employees they do not actually offer their services to the public. Since they provide services to the general public, should all government-employed engineers and geoscientists be required to satisfy experience or competence requirements that are higher than the basic requirements to be licensed as a professional engineer? 1
Privatization of Inspection Services Some governments have suggested cost-reduction measures to reduce the number of federal, provincial, and municipal engineers involved in inspection and quality-control activities. It is proposed that these duties be transferred to engineers in private practice. For example, instead of a government engineer inspecting a facility, as is frequently required by various laws, the owner of the facility would be required to hire an engineer to perform the inspection and prepare a compliance report. The government would merely perform the clerical task of ensuring that an inspection was performed, and that the facility complied with the law, as assured by the engineer’s report. Write a brief essay on the advantages and disadvantages of this proposal from the perspectives of cost reduction and efficiency, maintenance and enforceability of standards, availability of service, and potential for conflict of interest. Is a government-employed engineer more or less likely to enforce standards than an engineer in private practice? If possible, relate your point of view to the tragedies at Walkerton, Ontario, and the Westray mine in Nova Scotia, or to other well-known engineeringrelated problems.
but apparently no one had noticed that the lugs were not long enough to keep the cable clear of the baskets. at the last minute. even so. The tower and antennae were designed by an antenna engineering company (the “engineers”). or on the ground near the tower. would he have been obliged to redesign it? If so. The engineering company refused to agree. Both the rigging contractor and the bolt manufacturer were sued. when the section was rotated into a vertical position. Should an engineer be asked. the bolts sheared in the redesigned lugs. The riggers had many years of experience and were considered expert in the erection of such towers. and the hoisting system could not lift the tower section without damaging the baskets. and everything fell to the ground. when the erection experts are unable to do so? 2. The chief engineer declined to examine the redesigned lugs and refused to comment on them. The chief engineer was concerned that any comment or opinion might imply an assumption of liability for the redesigned lugs. since they had erected several similar towers. and the bolt strength was half what the bolt manufacturer’s specifications stated. they redesigned the lifting lugs to make them longer. The antenna engineering company was not sued. During the lifting operation. the crane’s lift cables touched the baskets. however. Seven people on the tower. The redesigned lugs were judged to be faulty. however. were killed. who would have redesigned it? Should the chief engineer have advised the riggers to hire an engineer? 3. it may seem obvious that a small effort by the chief engineer might have saved the lives of seven people. The riggers then approached the chief engineer of the antenna engineering company and asked for an opinion on the redesigned lugs. The lugs were well placed for the crane to lift the final tower section from the delivery truck. to assume responsibility for an important task. since removal would void the warranty on the antennae. would he have been assuming responsibility for the redesign? If not. the riggers had approved the lifting lugs designed by the antenna engineers. Before the tower sections were fabricated.Fatal Tower Collapse: Would this Happen in Canada? A fatal accident occurred in the United States during the construction of a 300 metre (1000 ft) television tower. in the final stages of construction. However. but the question has been raised as to whether its chief engineer acted ethically in refusing to examine the lug redesign. The falling tower section demolished the partly constructed tower. the sequence of the collapse was evident. the contracts clearly delineated separate responsibilities for tower design and tower erection. would he have assumed responsibility for the damage and deaths? If he had examined it and judged it as unsatisfactory. Who was responsible for ensuring that the original lugs were properly designed for lifting? Was the rigging company practising engineering when it approved the original lug design? 4 2 . The riggers did not have an engineer on staff. The “rigging” contractor (the “riggers”) was hired to erect the tower. that company had no responsibility for erection of the tower. If the chief engineer had examined the lug redesign and approved it. a problem arose: the last tower section had several antenna “baskets” mounted on it. and the cause of the failure was soon found. (Continue next page) 3 Questions: Please answer the following questions: 1. Did the chief engineer act ethically when he refused to examine the lug redesign? In retrospect. The rigging contractor proceeded to construct the redesigned lugs and install them on the tower section. However. Since the entire lifting operation was being recorded by a television crew. The riggers asked the antenna engineers for permission to remove the antenna baskets and reattach them later.
Try to define these four terms objectively. after a competitive bidding process. or subjective opinions. (c) You are offered the job after submitting a proposal on a project for which the competitor is also bidding. Obviously. yet these terms are very difficult (perhaps impossible) to define. without using circular definitions.Eng. (b) Your friend in (a) tells you about the job opportunity because his employer has a recruitment drive underway. so these two clauses could be in conflict. is assistant manager of the engineering department for a large Canadian city. but do not be surprised if you find that this simple. We look forward to a long and professional relationship—Zenith Construction. justice. Does your code contain both of these clauses? Under what conditions does your code allow an engineer or geoscientist to express an opinion publicly? 5 The Ethics of Job Offers Assume that you are a professional engineer or professional geoscientist and that you have been employed for several years by a major corporation. Baker finds a gift-wrapped case of rye whisky on his doorstep (approximate value: $600). The Dilemma of Public Welfare and Free Expression All Codes of Ethics require. He has been assigned to supervise the construction of a new sewage treatment plant since he participated in designing the plant. for each case.What is the purpose of human life? Since we are all human.Chapter 6. so that your definition would be true for all cultures. and at a social gathering he tells you about the job opportunity. If you are hired. regardless of the difficulty in defining these well-known terms objectively. A card attached to the box says. you will be expected to implement the competitor’s proposal (if it is the offer selected). or is it something different from any of these? 2. justify your answer using your provincial or territorial Code of Ethics. what kind of pleasure? Is it to ensure a balanced natural ecosystem on earth? Is it related to a higher power? Is it all of these things. Gift or Bribe? Albert Baker. protecting the public welfare may often require a person to express an opinion publicly.” Is it ethical for Baker to accept this gift? If possible. basic question is unanswerable. for all time. we should be able to respond easily.Philosophy studies and uses concepts such as truth. many codes insist that an engineer or geoscientist refrain from expressing an opinion publicly on engineering or geoscientific matters unless certain conditions are satisfied. beauty. or the primary responsibility of the engineer or geoscientist. Consult a dictionary and textbooks on philosophy to prepare your answer. that the welfare of the public be paramount. P. The construction contract has been awarded.. and goodness. Yet at the same time. and your friend will receive a bonus if you are hired. 6 3 . synonyms. Is the purpose of life to ensure the survival of our species? Is it to maximize economic gain? Is it to maximize individual pleasure? If so. Under which of the following circumstances would it be ethical for you to discuss and/or accept an offer of employment? (Explain your reasons. Review the Code of Ethics for your jurisdiction. About ten days before construction is to begin. Consider the following cases in which you are offered a better-paying job by a company that competes with your employer. in a few sentences. to the Zenith Construction Company. and 8 Exercise 1. in some form. 7. “To an esteemed colleague. Submit your best definitions.) (a) You have a friend who works for the competitor. simply as a friendly gesture.
the end result will be the same. As an engineering manager. Kant. and the device is to be used to identify people who blush easily.Revising a Contract Error Assume that you are an engineer or geoscientist employed by a government agency. what ethical issues would you consider before you agreed to develop the device. Obviously. However. who wants you to adapt your sensing equipment to measure human skin temperature. The proposal involves measuring skin temperatures and capturing a picture (or “thermograph”) on a screen for electronic storage and retrieval. which will take time. and refuses to divulge the precise purpose of the device? 8 4 . After some discussion with the engineers in your group. a utilitarian approach would say that if the contractor is paid the right amount. You face an ethical dilemma. from a distance. a very complex set of bureaucratic contract revisions must be made. in particular. Your equipment detects hot spots in mechanical or electronic equipment while in operation and indicates where overheating problems are occurring. X makes it clear to you that all monitoring will be done secretly. and the device is to be used to identify people suffering from fever and prevent them from entering hospitals and spreading disease? (b) a police inspector. delay repayment. assuming that Mr. to pay the contractor. the contractor is also carrying out a later stage of the work. more information would be useful here. wishes to pay in cash. if any. The error is your fault. you realize that the project is feasible and would most likely succeed. Your company is approached by a Mr. and the device is to be used to assist lie detector (polygraph) tests of people suspected of crimes? (c) a private entrepreneur. on the hypothesis that they could be more easily swayed to purchase products? (d) completely anonymous. without the knowledge of the people being observed. but the work was completed properly. and less effort will have been expended to achieve it. Conversely. X. might permit an ethical person to select the second choice (inflating the later expenses)? 7 Ethical Applications of Electronic Design You are the engineering manager of a company that manufactures optical temperature-sensing equipment used in quality control. Mr. would say that you have an obligation to tell the truth and to disclose the true reason for the payment. Most ethical theories would say that you should admit your error and rectify it. Question: What additional facts or conditions might compel an ethical person to insist on the first choice (explaining your error)? What factors. However. so it would be possible to inflate the contractor’s expenses on the later work to compensate for your error. X is: (a) a provincial health official. and may require embarrassing explanations. A contractor working under your supervision discovered a minor error in your measurements that required the contractor to supply additional materials to a project.
When your shop is overloaded with work (which occurs often) you hire other local machine shops to do work such as milling. One of the shops is owned by a man who is engaged to your sister. so the final device is more likely to meet specifications. Your employer has assigned you the task of hiring and supervising a temporary assistant to help a survey crew. Should you have to disclose your personal feelings or your family connection when no preference has been offered or requested? 9 B. You often bid on and receive contracts for the design of new digital devices. 10 5 . Pirated Software You are a professional engineer or geoscientist with your own consulting business. through meeting him at family gatherings. You are the chief design engineer in a small machine design and fabrication factory. You regularly hire a relative who is chronically unemployed. C. who obtained some software from a previous employer. You justify your actions on the basis that you are familiar with circuit-board company’s manufacturing facilities. You receive no payment or reward from your relative other than good will. Supplanting is specifically forbidden by several Codes of Ethics (and it is prohibited indirectly by other clauses in almost all codes). 10. cooperation with your staff has been excellent. The assistant carries equipment and clears sight lines for the surveyors in rough bush country. usually by your computer technologist. You are a consulting engineer and own a small electronic design company. The work is casual and unscheduled. Unknown to your client or your employees. through inducements or persuasion (or derogatory comments). when needed. Your colleagues and employer are not aware of this fact. if anything. should you do about it? Supplanting a Professional Action to supplant a colleague has always been considered unethical. and obtained much more from a local computer repair store. When your relative is unavailable (a rare occurrence). What risks are you taking by using this pirated software? What. gear hobbing. you have grown to detest the man at a personal level). you are a director and silent partner in the circuit-board company. Over the years. and your designs give the company a slight edge in bidding on the manufacture of the devices. No one is aware that the person is your relative. and NC lathe work.Chapter 9. convincing the client to fire the engineer and hire the intruding engineer. “Supplanting” is defined as intervening in the client–engineer relationship of a colleague and. You have several very competent professional and auxiliary staff. and although you didn’t ask the technologist to obtain the software. No client or competitor has ever complained. You do not believe you have a conflict of interest because you do not favour this person (in fact. You suspect that most of this software has been copied illegally. His machine shop is one of the best. and his company receives the bulk of the work you let out. and you justify the hiring on availability— you can call your relative at any time and offer the casual employment. and 11 Exercise Conflict of Interest: Degrees of Conflict A. you contact a local labour pool. You instruct your engineers to design the circuit boards with dimensions and features that make it easier for a local circuit-board company to manufacture. many software packages have been illegally duplicated. you admire his initiative—the software certainly improves the efficiency and productivity of the office.
Is this a case of supplanting? 11 B. would you support the Kyoto Protocol? What energy conservation and energy tax policies would you recommend your country adopt to assist its success? (b) (c) As a Canadian professional engineer or geoscientist. and offers to visit the mine and discuss the matter with the mine manager. the consultant and the city official get into a conversation about the project. and even now exhibit conspicuous over consumption of resources. By coincidence. and misappropriation that occurred on their last big job. A consulting engineer writes a personal note to the mayor of the municipality(who is also a personal friend). it will commit governments to meet specified reduction targets by 2010. stating that a large road-paving job is being poorly done. During the seven-hour flight overseas. Is this a case of supplanting? A consultant is bidding on a fairly large design contract for a city building. but it is expected that he would compete for any contract that would be awarded for this task. do you support the Kyoto Protocol? What energy conservation and energy tax policies would you recommend we adopt to assist in its success? Waste Dumping You are the chief manufacturing engineer in a large factory. however. Although the geoscientist has little personal knowledge of the mine. C.” The consulting engineer is correct in the statement about “cost overruns”—the new company’s recent project ran grossly over budget. who are nationals of the foreign country. because a new design engineering company has recently established an office in the city. personally. it becomes clear that the mine development is being carried out very slowly. thefts. Questions (a) Will the Kyoto Protocol improve this situation or make this situation worse for the developing countries? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the Kyoto Protocol. perhaps because of the geotechnical personnel. If ratified. the workers inadvertently pour several barrels of a toxic degreasing solvent compound into a drain that leads to the sanitary sewer. The developing countries are dismayed at suggestions that they should spend money on energy conservation and pollution control when developed countries were not subject to these controls until recently. During a fundraising event for the daughter’s sports team. The consultant replies that “the building committee would be wise to avoid the new design company because of the cost overruns. the consultant’s daughter plays sports with the daughter of the city official who collects the bids and (with other members of the building committee) awards the contract. next to the major shareholder of a large copper mine being developed in a foreign country. under the municipal and provincial laws for your jurisdiction? Would you notify anyone different (or additional) if the spill had been made directly into a local large lake or navigable river? 12 6 . coincidentally. The consulting engineer suggests that the mayor should convince the Municipal Engineer to hire additional engineering help. The consulting engineer does not mention himself.Supplanting a Professional A. The city official mentions that bidding may be very close on the project. The geoscientist suggests that Canadian personnel might be able to speed the process up. Is this a case of supplanting? A geoscientist travelling as a passenger on a commercial airliner finds himself seated. During a night shift. The Kyoto Protocol The Kyoto Protocol asks everyone to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. and is poorly monitored by an overworked Municipal Engineer. the two passengers discuss the mine’s development. Who should be notified of such a spill. the mention of “thefts and misappropriation” was speculation. as seen by the developing countries versus the wealthy Western countries? If you were a professional engineer or geoscientist in a developing country. provided that the shareholder arranges a formal invitation.
The professor requires homework assignments to be submitted as computer files. In particular. or any other current environmental issue? Explain or support your answer. yet their piping systems were made of lead. Software Validation Chapter 12 discusses the importance of testing or validating any software that is used by engineers or geoscientists for analysis purposes. At the tribunal. and files freely. answer the following questions: (a) What are the harmful effects of ingesting lead? Could lead later pipes permit lead to enter the drinking water? What regulations are in place (or proposed) by the federal and provincial governments for controlling lead disposal? (b) Compare the allegation of widespread lead poisoning in Roman times with today’s pollution problems. However. each claims to have completed the work independently. accounts. and claims that the other person then copied the work without permission. but that she made a few minor revisions to her assignment and that during this delay. one female) have admitted that they share computer passwords. Investigate the theory that lead poisoning from water supply pipes played a role in the decline and fall of the Roman Empire. since their stories contradict. consider software developed for health care use. because they live together and often use the same home computer. Attempts to verify the facts by checking computer records have been unsuccessful. the professor testifies that students are warned several times every term about the university’s policy on offences such as plagiarism. and it is genuinely unclear who is telling the truth. 13 Chapter 12. and assigns penalties. A student convicted by the tribunal on a first (Continue next page) 14 7 . The date stamp shows that the male student submitted the work first. If a medical doctor relies on software that supplies incorrect data concerning a patient. shouldn’t the software developer have more accountability? Consider the cases where the developer is a software engineer and the program user is not technically trained. Both of the accused students (one male. plumbum. the term “plumbing” comes from the Latin word for lead. For example. and compares the files for possible copying or collusion. The female student claims that it is her work. one of the accused must be lying. would the medical doctor be liable? Are medical doctors required to test the software in the same way required of engineers and geoscientists? University Discipline for Computer Plagiarism You are a member of a university tribunal that investigates allegations of cheating. depletion of the ozone layer. However. In fact. However. genetic manipulation. …. Software guidelines published by several provincial Associations state clearly that “engineers are responsible for verifying that results obtained by using software are accurate and acceptable. However. lead is a cumulative poison that builds up in the body.” This implies that some testing is required before the software is used for critical applications. Can you see an analogy with global warming. her boyfriend submitted it first. A professor has discovered that two final-year students submitted almost identical homework assignments. decides guilt.Lead Pollution: What Are the Harmful Effects? The Romans were excellent organizers and rulers (the Latin word ingenium evolved into the English word “engineering”).
over a period of several days. requests for sexual favours. The co-worker is not your boss.” You recognize that the boss is abusing his authority and discriminating on the basis of the employee’s race. but is open at starting time and quitting time. You appreciate his hard work and agree that he should be promoted. The Code of Ethics does not explicitly forbid discrimination on the basis of race. The professor’s position is that the students have committed two offences: plagiarism (or collusion). and files really an “academic offence”? Is submitting a duplicate file really plagiarism? Does it matter that the tribunal cannot determine which student completed the assignment and which student copied it? Is the university’s usual punishment for academic offences too lax. and on whether they were in their first year rather than their final year? Racial Discrimination in Promotion You are a fairly senior professional engineer in a major manufacturing corporation. Conviction on a second offence results in expulsion from the university. You find that her conduct is unprofessional and that working with her is unpleasant. includes “unwelcome sexual advances. at a level similar to yours. disagrees because he doesn’t want to promote a person who is a visible minority. but your boss. These offences are both dishonest and unprofessional. An older female boss makes grossly offensive jokes and remarks about men—their activities and anatomy during work hours. but never when any witnesses can overhear. and what action would be appropriate. recently licensed engineer works with you in the plant. and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature. A young male employee constantly spouts sexual innuendo and makes sexual requests or suggestions to you privately. during budget preparations that occur quarterly. but such discrimination is certainly prohibited by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. accounts. (b) (c) (d) 16 8 . an opening for advancement arises. as defined in Chapter 13. You have told him you are not interested in him. Keeping university computer passwords secure is good training. but the boss says quite clearly that he will not agree with the promotion because the “other employees don’t want a visible minority as their leader. You approach your boss with the promotion proposal. how would you decide this case? Who is guilty. but is someone with whom you work regularly. A similar action is repeated in the workplace the following week. You persist. The younger employee asks you to support his promotion. Questions: As a member of the tribunal. and the university is the profession’s main guardian. After a few years. and what penalty should be assigned? Is sharing passwords. You must work with her on a fairly close basis. but this seems to have no effect. The locker is closed throughout the day. in private. it means that someone is annoying you with unwelcome actions of a sexual or gender-related nature.“academic offence” is suspended from classes for one term (four months) and loses the term’s tuition fees. when employees must change into protective clothing to work in an electronics room. What should you do in this situation? Does it make any difference if your boss is also a professional engineer? 15 Sexual Harassment in the Workplace Sexual harassment. about right. Professionals are expected to control valuable corporate data. or too severe? Would your opinion depend on the ages of the students. Which of the following would be considered sexual harassment. You are offended and find the posters unprofessional.” In other words. in the circumstances? (a) A married co-worker touches your genital area inappropriately while offering you a ride home after work. A younger. and failure to maintain computer security. You sometimes notice him staring at you. An employee in the machine shop has sexually explicit posters along the full length of a private locker door in a change room.
True: ____ False: ____ 5. Disciplinary action is too late in these case the damage has already occurred. A Professional Engineer may criticize the work of a fellow engineer publicly if he or she first advises the fellow engineer of the intention to do so. Discipline and Safety The Act or regulations in every province and territory include incompetence as a basis for disciplinary action (such as removal of a licence to practice). The question of incompetence typically becomes apparent after an incident (a failure. a Professional Engineer’s first responsibility is to the employer. Did your course of study include accident prevention instruction? If not. what action should you take if a design requires safety expertise beyond your present knowledge? 17 True–False Examination Questions 1. how can you show that you are competent to design a hazardous product? In general. Questions 1. It is voluntary. True: ____ False: ____ 3. If a person is working under the direct supervision of a Professional Engineer who assumes all responsibility. or similar event) in which a safety hazard causes damage or injury. True: ____ False: ____ 4. accident. very few engineering or geoscience programs include a course devoted to safety principles or accident prevention.Competence. and not mandatory. for a Professional Engineer to strive to keep informed about new techniques in his or her field of endeavour. A Professional Engineer must ensure that clients understand the full extent of his or her responsibilities. Should a design engineer or geoscientist who has never taken a formal course of instruction in safety principles or accident prevention be allowed to design a hazardous structure or device? What does your provincial or territorial Code of Ethics say about competency in this case? What disciplinary action could result if an injury or death resulted from a hazardous device designed by an engineer or geoscientist who has no formal education in safety principles or accident prevention? 2. Unless a person is registered or licensed by the Association of Professional Engineers of any province. True: ____ False: ____ 18 9 . True: ____ False: ____ 6. As far as work is concerned. that person may not imply that he or she is entitled to engage in professional engineering. True: ____ False: ____ 2. However. the subordinate is still required to be registered.
True: ____ False: ____ 18. provided that the ruling of the superior or client does not jeopardize public property. True: ____ False: ____ 19 15. True: ____ False: ____ 16. All specifications and reports must be sealed by the Professional Engineer who has done the work involved. True: ____ False: ____ 8. life. True: ____ False: ____ 14. the engineer should present clearly the consequences to be expected from the proposed deviations and then complete the assignment. True: ____ False: ____ 10. Council may ask witnesses to attend an inquiry on a discipline matter and has the power to ensure attendance. or the environment. even though no written complaint has been received. If a Professional Engineer in charge of an assignment is overruled by his or her superior or client. True: ____ False: ____ 17. having first advised his or her fellow engineer of the intention to do so. A Professional Engineer may seal plans that have been prepared neither by himself or herself nor under his or her personal direction. Registration as a full member of the Association may be granted if the following education and experience requirements are met: (a) The applicant has an accredited engineering degree and has experience that is satisfactory to Council. may accept a commission to review the work of the fellow engineer. True: ____ False: ____ (b) The applicant has passed the examinations required by Council and has a minimum of six years of satisfactory engineering experience. True: ____ False: ____ (b) ensure that the public interest is served and protected through the competent and ethical practice of engineering within the province.7. True: ____ False: ____ 11. A Professional Engineer may be compensated by more than one interested party for the same service without the consent of all interested parties. True: ____ False: ____ 12. True: ____ False: ____ 9. True: ____ False: ____ 13. If a member is found guilty of unprofessional conduct. It is not mandatory for a Professional Engineer to report a colleague whom he or she feels is engaged in unethical practice. True: ____ False: ____ 20 10 . A Professional Engineer has no responsibility for the professional development of engineers in his or her employ. The objects of the Association are primarily to (a) ensure that the rights and interests of all engineers in the province are protected. the most severe penalty Council may mete out is a reprimand. A Professional Engineer. Council may initiate an inquiry where professional misconduct is suspected.
X to practise engineering in Manitoba. architects.Eng. True: ____ False: ____ (b) Mr. Mr. True: ____ False: ____ 21 20. he does not have to become a member of APEM.19. as defined by the Act. The practice of engineering. the following persons are considered exempt from the provisions of the Act. For the past two months he has been the sole designer of a commercial building in Manitoba. X. electricians. covers a broad range of activities. X is in contravention of the Act since he is practising engineering and hence is liable for the penalty under the Act. therefore. X should have applied for registration with APEM on arrival in Manitoba. He has not become a member of the Manitoba Association. after his name on his business card. True: ____ False: ____ (c) Mr. X is in contravention of the Act for using P. His new title is Chief Design Engineer for Western Canada. a registered member of another provincial Association. X should immediately apply for a temporary licence to practise in Manitoba. He uses his title and P. True: ____ False: ____ 22 11 . True: ____ False: ____ (d) those who have ten or more years of good engineering experience and feel they are competent have a basic right to work as an engineer. Assess the following statements: (a) Membership in the other provincial Association allows Mr. after his name. and enginemen. True: ____ False: ____ (e) Mr. (a) those who were doing engineering work before the Act became law True: ____ False: ____ (b) technicians working under the direct and personal supervision of professional engineers True: ____ False: ____ (c) land surveyors. However.Eng. True: ____ False: ____ (d) Mr. provided they do not engage in the practice of engineering. is transferred to Manitoba by his company and has taken up permanent residence in Winnipeg.