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Personality is the particular combination of emotional, attitudinal, and behavioral response patterns of an individual. Personality refers to individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving. The study of personality focuses on two broad areas: One is understanding individual differences in particular personality characteristics, such as sociability or irritability. The other is understanding how the various parts of a person come together as a whole.
Determinants of Personality: Biological:
Hereditary: Personality may be hereditary, that is, transmitted from parents to their children through genetics. Research done on animals has suggested this theory; however, there is inconclusive proof whether this theory may work with humans. It is more likely that only human temperament is transmitted through genetics. Brain: Psychologists find it difficult to empirically relate brain physiology to personality. However, from the electrical stimulation of the brain, they have realized that a better understanding of human personality may come from the study of the brain. Physical Features: Physical characteristics of a person have a tremendous influence on his/her personality. Physical characteristics may include height, weight, attractiveness, skin color, gender, etc.
It is third biological approach to determine personality. Physiologists and psychologists felt that biological functions like brainwave patterns, gastric and hormonal secretions, and fluctuations in blood pressure and skin temperature were beyond
Furthermore. a child brought up in a violent home may grow up to be aggressive. These theories are the intrapsychic theory. A person within a culture is expected to behave in a certain way that is acceptable to the whole community.conscious control. social learning theories. the person can learn to control the body process through questions. When we interacted with our parents. and self-theory. individual can learns the internal rhythms of a particular body process through electronic signals that are feedback from equipment which is wired to body. trait theories. psychologists have not found conclusive proof of this concept. there are various personality theories that study the development of personality based on family and social factors. In face. Cultural While culture may be considered to play an influential role in the development of one's personality. Familial & Situational This process is a bit complex and is dependent upon various processes. Nevertheless. For this purpose. there is empirical evidence that the environment parents create at home shapes their child's personality. In this process. Social processes such as our interaction with our parents during childhood may have a great influence on our personalities. we picked up their behavior. . While all these theories differ in their fundamental principles. cultural influences on one's personality may he vast. they all show that the development of personality depends upon social constructs created by society. It is one of the interesting topics to do future research work in personality. type theories. For example. Recent research shows that these functions can be consciously controlled through biofeedback techniques.
according to their own information pathways. Judging or Perceiving. These types are sixteen. quiet and thoughtful usually do not have many friends have difficulties in making new contacts like concentration and quiet do not like unexpected visits and therefore do not make them work well alone • Sensing vs. Thinking. Intuition Sensing is an ability to deal with information on the basis of its physical qualities . The most common differences between Extroverts and Introverts are shown below: Extroverts • • • • • • • • Introverts • • • • • • • are interested in what is happening around them are open and often talkative compare their own opinions with the opinions of others like action and initiative easily make new friends or adapt to a new group say what they think are interested in new people easily break unwanted relations are interested in their own thoughts and feelings need to have own territory often appear reserved. Intuitive.Personality Type According to Jung's theory of Psychological Types we are all different in fundamental ways. Feeling. depending on the method in which they process received information. depending on the direction of their activity . Sensing. Extroverts vs. Introverts Extroverts are directed towards the objective world whereas Introverts are directed towards the subjective world. People can be either Extroverts or Introverts. One's ability to process different information is limited by their particular type.
The most common differences between Sensing and Intuitive types are shown below: Sensing types • • • • • • Intuitive types • • • • • see everyone and sense everything live in the here and now quickly adapt to any situation like pleasures based on physical sensation are practical and active are realistic and self-confident are mostly in the past or in the future worry about the future more than the present are interested in everything new and unusual do not like routine are attracted more to the theory than the practice often have doubts • Thinking vs. Feeling is an ability to deal with information on the basis of its initial energetic condition and its interactions. patterns expose everything to logical analysis are relatively cold and unemotional evaluate things by intellect and right or wrong have difficulties talking about feelings do not like to clear up arguments or quarrels are interested in people and their feelings easily pass their own moods to others pay great attention to love and passion evaluate things by ethics and good or bad can be touchy or use emotional manipulation often give compliments to please people • • . Feeling Thinking is an ability to deal with information on the basis of its structure and its function. Intuition is an ability to deal with the information on the basis of its hidden potential and its possible existence. structures.and its affection by other information. The most common differences between Thinking and Feeling type are shown below: Thinking types • • • • • Feeling types • • • • • are interested in systems.
On the other hand. Judging types are motivated into activity by their decisions resulting from the changes in a situation. causing them to seek out stimulating experiences. Research on heritability suggests that there is a link between genetics and personality traits. who linked aspects of personality to biological processes.Perceiving vs. The most common differences between Perceiving and Judging types are shown below: Perceiving types • • • • • Judging types • • • • • act impulsively following the situation can start many things at once without finishing them properly prefer to have freedom from obligations are curious and like a fresh look at things work productivity depends on their mood often act without any preparation do not like to leave unanswered questions plan work ahead and tend to finish it do not like to change their decisions have relatively stable workability easily follow rules and discipline • PERSONALITY THEORIES:Biological Theories: Biological approaches suggest that genetics are responsible for personality. . leading them to avoid stimulation. One of the best known biological theorists was Hans Eysenck. For example. Judging Perceiving types are motivated into activity by the changes in a situation. Eysenck argued that introverts had high cortical arousal. Eysenck believed extroverts had low cortical arousal.
rejecting theories that take internal thoughts and feelings into account. the superego. the ego. Success in any stage depended upon successfully overcoming these conflicts. while the superego for ideals and moral. Humanist theorists include Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow. Psychodynamic Theories: Psychodynamic theories of personality are heavily influenced by the work of Sigmund Freud. . Psychodynamic theories include Sigmund Freud’s psychosexual stage theory and Erik Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development. A trait is basically a relatively stable characteristic that causes an individual to behave in certain ways. According to this theory. Trait Theories: The trait theory approach is one of the largest areas within personality psychology. The ego moderates between the demands of the id.Behavioral Theories: Behavioral theories suggest that personality is a result of interaction between the individual and the environment. The id is responsible for all needs and urges. Humanist theorists emphasized the concept of self-actualization. Erikson believed that personality progressed through a series of stages. and thesuperego. F. Behavioral theorists study observable and measurable behaviors. Some of the best known trait theories include Eysenck's three-dimension theory and the five factor theory of personality. and emphasize the influence of the unconscious mind and childhood experiences on personality. Humanist Theories: Humanist theories emphasize the importance of free will and individual experience in the development of personality. Freud believed the three components of personality were the id. Skinner and Albert Bandura. which is an innate need for personal growth that motivates behavior. with certain conflicts arising at each stage. and reality. personality is made up of a number of broad traits. Behavioral theorists include B.
Learn more about Piaget’s groundbreaking theory and the important contributions it made to our understanding of personality development. many prominent theorists developed stage theories to describe various steps and stages that occur on the road of personality development. the ego. Sigmund Freud remains one of the most controversial. he suggested. The following theories focus on various aspects of personality development. three elements of personality—known as the id. and the superego—work together to create complex human behaviors. ego and superego has gained prominence in popular culture. Freud’s Structural Model of Personality Freud’s concept of the id. . but how exactly do we become who we are today? In order to answer this question. Freud’s Stages of Psychosexual Development In addition to being one of the best-know thinkers in the area of personality development. despite being subject to considerable criticism. including cognitive. would lead to personality problems in adulthood. While many aspects of his theory have not stood the test of time. According to Freud. the central idea remains important today: children think differently than adults. Failure to successfully complete these stages. In his well-known stage theory of psychosexual development. social and moral development. despite a lack of support and considerable skepticism from many researchers. Our personality is what make us unique. Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development remains one of the most frequently cited in psychology. Freud suggested that personality develops in stages that are related to specific erogenous zones.HOW PERSONALITY DEVELOPS? Personality development has been a major topic of interest for some of the most prominent thinkers in psychology.
Kohlberg’s theory remains important in our understanding of personality development. Strong people believe in themselves. their actions and initiatives. including the possibility that it does not accommodate different genders and cultures equally. These people ask not why you have money. Building on a two-stage process proposed by Piaget. Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development Lawrence Kohlberg developed a theory of personality development that focused on the growth of moral thought. More specific in a work environment: if the career path is influenced mostly by external factors or internal forces. luck and powerful people that can help them on the way. Their future is determined by their career planning process. The theory also extends beyond childhood to look at development across the entire lifespan. Erikson chose to focus on the importance of social relationships on personality development. While the theory builds on Freud’s stages of psychosexual development. but “how did you do it so I can do it too?” Self-esteem: .Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Erik Erikson’s eight-stage theory of human development is one of the best known theories in psychology. HOW PERSONALITY INFLUENCES ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR? Locus of control: refers to what a person believes that has a good or bad influence about his/her life. While the theory has been criticized for a number of different reasons. Weak people believe in fate. Kohlberg expanded the theory to include six different stages. It works if you accept to have your freedom and rights as a human being limited.
law is one of them) and there are natural actors that have the wrong job. There are jobs that require acting (from my personal experience. consequently much more inclined to be perseverant and focused. .is the result of self-evaluation. A favorable image about yourself can make you more resistant to external influences. Self-monitoring: is about self-control or how much of a show you put in interacting with others.
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