Artificial Intelligence

by Jeff Pasternack Mike Thacker

A Brief History of AI
5th century BC Aristotle invents syllogistic logic, the first formal deductive reasoning system.
16th century AD Rabbi Loew supposedly invents the Golem, an artificial man made out of clay

17th century Descartes proposes animals are machines and founds a scientific paradigm that will dominate for 250 years. Pascal creates the first mechanical calculator in 1642
18th century Wolfgang von Kempelen ―invents‖ fake chess-playing machine, The Turk.

precursor to modern electronic computers.19th century George Boole creates a binary algebra to represent ―laws of thought‖ Charles Babbage and Lady Lovelace develop sophisticated programmable mechanical computers. .

20th century Karel Kapek writes ―Rossum’s Universal Robots‖. coining the English word ―robot‖ Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts lay partial groundwork for neural networks Turing writes ―Computing Machinery and Intelligence‖ – proposal of Turing test .

in part due to learning.1956: John McCarthy coins phrase ―artificial intelligence‖ 1952-62: Arthur Samuel writes the first AI game program to challenge a world champion. 1950’s-60’s: Masterman et. al at Cambridge create semantic nets that do machine translation. .

Robinson invents Resolution Method using formal logic as its representation language. to solve calculus problems. 1963: Thomas Evan’s writes ANALOGY. 1965: J. SAINT. . which solves analogy problems like the ones on IQ tests. A.1961: James Slagle writes first symbolic integrator.

perception and problem solving. . the first useful knowledge-based agent that interpreted mass spectrographs.1965: Joseph Weizenbaum creates ELIZA. 1969: Shakey the robot combines movement. al create Dendral. one of the earliest ―chatterbots‖ 1967: Feigenbaum et.

the first expert system which showed the effectiveness of rule-based knowledge representation for medical diagnosis. 1972: Alain Colmerauer writes Prolog 1974: Ted Shortliffe creates MYCIN.1971: Terry Winograd demonstrates a program that can understand English commands in the word of blocks. .

1980’s: Backpropagation (invented 1974) rediscovered and sees wide use in neural networks .1978: Herb Simon wins Nobel Prize for theory of bounded rationality 1983: James Allen creates Interval Calculus as a formal representation for events in time.

a learning backgammon agent that vies with championship players 1997: Deep Blue defeats Garry Kasparov . Early 1990’s: Gerry Tesauro creates TDGammon.1985: ALVINN. ―an autonomous land vehicle in a neural network‖ navigates across the country (2800 miles).

security holes aplenty AI-powered CRM Faster—and many more—computers .Modern Times (post-Cartesian) Robopets Widespread viruses.

This has already been done for very simple life forms such as insects which only have a few thousand neurons in their brains. One would just build a copy of one using artificial materials and see how it behaves. In principle. the connectedness of the local environment to AI will force science away from a reductionist view of this new life and into a more complex view of interactions causing life to arise.  AI will force a dualistic view of life to change because the environment will be inseparable from it. On the other hand.g. Also. it would not be necessary to have a full scientific understanding of how the brain works. requirement of a body). most scientists would be happy to view the brain as a vast but complex machine. causing society to expand current definitions of life (e. As such it should then be possible to purely replicate the brain using artificial neurons. Axiological shifts will occur in defining life. A word about paradigms…  .

ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS Utilitarianism supports the development of AI. so if the risks associated with creating a form of AI are too great. . Yet. or perhaps slaves. then we should not pursue that development. but only because of the Christian value of dominion over the environment. AI promises to increase control over life. We do have to take responsibility for our creations. thus suffering can be reduced. We do have to take responsibility for our creations. so if the risks associated with creating a form of AI are too great. thus increasing profits for corporations. if AI is developed and not forced into particular tasks. then we should not pursue that development. Utilitarianism may not apply. Artificial life may be viewed as more expendable than human life. so AI will be used as cheap labor.

because sentience is impossible to determine.  Rights Based Ethics    Once AI programs achieve a modicum of sentience. because sentience can be proven beyond a reasonable doubt. should they be given rights on par with other animals? Two sides of the argument: 1) No. 2) Yes. .

or are they to be guided by their creator. . are they to be a Frankenstein’s monster and cast off without help. like ―do not kill. unless the suffering caused by honesty is large‖.Duty ethics Consequence of developing AI is not at issue. What obligations do we have to our biological children? Once AL is created. so if the risks associated with creating a form of AI are too great. unless in self-defense‖ or ―do not lie. like Adam & Eve in Eden. We do have to take responsibility for our creations. then we should not pursue that development. Do we have a responsibility to our biological children similar to AI? Are the two exactly the same? What rules should we use as categorical imperatives? AI should contain a set of rules that most people share.

in part. not Lì: actions should be based on righteousness. charity. and kindness‖ . love.Confucianism    Confucianism is. Rén: ―benevolence. humanity. similar to Kant’s duty ethics: ―don't do to others what you would not want yourself― (reciprocity) Yì . not on gain or profit. duty and morality.

however. and could not be created out of individual or corporate greed. which suggests that it would be more open to considering AI to be alive and deserving rights than other spiritual mythologies.    But AI is also an advance in civilization. so long as it does not endanger others If the AI is sentient. it would have to be treated humanely without exploitation. Though Confucianism can be seen as a religion. it makes it possible for everyone to live more comfortable lives Thus. it is also a code of ethics. Confucianism seems to encourage development and application of (non-sentient) AI. .

courage. strength. carefulness…? . obedience. compassion. Unable to see the results of these virtues may be a problem because there are risks involved with some virtues overpowering others. What preprogrammed ―virtues‖ should computers have to allow them to be morally right? Can virtues make an AI entity behave morally at all? Wisdom.Virtue ethics Difficult to predict what virtues to give Artificial life because it is a complex technology.


Self-modifying. self-writing.ADVANTAGES (Factual Changes) Smarter artificial intelligence promises to replace human jobs. Self-replicating applications can make deployment easier and less resource-intensive. and learning software relieves programmers of the burdensome task of specifying the whole of a program’s functionality—now we can just create the framework and have the program itself fill in the rest (example: real-time strategy game artificial intelligence run by a neural network that acts based on experience instead of an explicit decision tree). AI can see relationships in enormous or diverse bodies of data that a human could not . freeing people for other pursuits by automating manufacturing and transportations.



―cold war‖ between two countries. environmental consequences will most likely be minimal. unforeseen impacts because it is complex technology.Disadvantages (Risks)  Potential for malevolent programs. .

neural networks) is never completely predictable . when combined with selfreplicating.     Self-modifying. human casualties. Military robots may make it possible for a country to indiscriminately attack less-advanced countries with few.e. the possibility of randomly creating an artificial intelligence becomes real. Rapid advances in AI could mean massive structural unemployment AI utilizing non-transparent learning (i. such as a new and frequently mutating computer virus. As computers get faster and more numerous. unexpected results. can lead to dangerous. if any.

. yet Christianity does dictate that we control the environment around us. would AI allow us to control it? Buddhism and Taoism take a different stance. thus if cyberspace is part of our environment.Mythological Considerations    Do sentient programs have a soul? Christianity says no because a soul is imparted by God alone. and not by Computer Scientists.

This is in line with the axiological shift that would likely result from developing Artificial Life. so AI would be valued just as highly as all other life. Buddhism and Taoism value life above all else. at each intersection of which lies a jewel in which exists every other jewel and where every part of the net depends for its existence on dynamic awareness of every other part. once developed. Creation of AI would be opposed because AI does not share the tenets of the 8-fold path. environment and individual life are one. Buddhism and Taoism  The Hua-Yen school of Buddhism offers as the metaphor for the world an infinite net.  .

O Muhammad: Allah gives life to you. and Judaism are (at least in relation to AI) very similar: they all state God created man in his own image So:    How can man create artificial life if God is the creator of life? (―Say unto them.. is man still the highest of worldly life? Does sentient AI have a soul? Does it ascend to heaven when it is deleted? Or when it stops running temporarily (and then is reborn)? How do you baptize software? And so on… .Christianity. Islam. Judaism Oh my!   Christianity. then gathers you unto the day of resurrection. Islam.‖) If AI programs are sentient and as smart or smarter than humans.. then causes you to die.

Judaism. while Islam and Judaism concerned with orthopraxy (correct action) Should you release (potentially dangerous) AI software if you have tested it to your satisfaction or if you have applied a set testing protocol? . Christianity concerned with orthodoxy (correct belief). they will focus on the dangers to humans. Christianity and Islam do not care about the rights and treatment of any AI. Instead.    Because they will not accept AI as life.

digital AI software will always produce the same output. however. Islam is more slanted toward predestination (―By no means can anything befall us but what God has destined for us‖). outputs. and probably not even as life. is contrary to their beliefs.   . that this could be true for humans as well. And thus Christianity. and Judaism would not accept any AI as sentient. memories and thoughts are not easily accessible or reproducible. and. sentient AI doesn’t make sense in the context of these religions. Bottom line: in most ways. in some cases. but is unverifiable because our inputs. Given the same conditions and the same input. however. Islam.   Judaism and Christianity hold that man has free will. Notice. Digital AI doesn’t appear to have free will: all inputs and outputs to an AI program are discreet and reproducible. as are the AI program’s state and execution (its ―memory‖ and ―thought‖).

it will produce a utilitarian creature.   . Mesoethics-if a company develops AI. this may influence the codes of conduct designed into artificial life. Microethics-depending on a person’s spirituality. then it may contain various ethical standpoints depending on who is doing the research and development. If research institutes develop AI.Applied Ethicist’s Stance  Macroethics-current societal values is dominated by Utilitarianism. thus AI is likely to continue.

Programs may not fit this requirement for life yet.  . or anything with a form or body. but this will change. The consensus among scientists is that a requirement for life is that it has an embodiment in some physical form.The Future?  Idea of Artificial Intelligence is being replaced by Artificial life.

with sufficient computation power (such as that offered by quantum computers) it is possible to ―evolve‖ AI without much programming effort. Today.Should we start caring yet?   Very sophisticated—perhaps even sentient—AI may not be far off. . concerns include mutating viruses and the reliability of AI (you don’t want software directing your car into a tree).

Software companies should be made legally responsible for failings of software that result in damage to third parties despite good-faith attempts at control by the user. allowing greater production—it deserves a corresponding share of research funding! . in general. companies will try to avoid developing sentient AI since they would not be able to indiscriminately exploit it.What should happen     When programs that appear to demonstrate sentience appear (intelligence and awareness). so. a panel of scientists could be assembled to determine if a particular program is sentient or not. If sentient. it will be given rights. AI and robotics have the potentially to truly revolutionize the economy by replacing labor with capital.

Bottom line: ethical considerations will be ignored.And what is going to happen…      Most people are willing to torture and kill intelligent animals like cows just for a tastier lunch—why would they hesitate to exploit artificial life? This is further compounded mainstream religious beliefs Even with laws. reform—if it happens—will only take place when the economic costs become too high. Licensing agreements will continue to allow careless companies to often escape responsibility for faulty software. . any individual with sufficient computing power could ―evolve‖ AI without much programming.

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