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This is a compilation of internet articles on the history of the MacIntyre Clan, compiled and published into PDF format in 2007. It is primarily drawn from the work of Martin MacIntyre and his father L.D. MacIntyre, and includes graphics from McIntyre websites on the internet, and photographs from vivian Hutchinson’s journey to Scotland in 2004.
from a letter by Martin MacIntyre Lieutenant to Glenoe, Clan MacIntyre Association reproduced from Electric Scotland Website http://www.electricscotland.com/webclans/m/macinty.html
10th Jan 2001. The following are drafts of first parts of a planned 2nd Edition of my father's book CLAN MAC INTYRE, A Journey to the Past by L. D. MacIntyre, selfpublished 1977, Lib. Of Congress Catalog Card # 7781280 (pre ISBN). It is out of print and he is no longer with us, so I have no choice but to carry on the family responsibility. The Table of Contents will give you some idea of what is missing, especially the visuals. ... I don't mind if you forward this material so long as no one sells it. Eventually it will be published and if you like you can email me so you can be on the mailing list. MacIntyres have some great legends that make excellent bedtime stories. You can contact me, Martin MacIntyre, at firstname.lastname@example.org. Thanks for your interest and support. Marty (Martin Lewis MacIntyre, L. D. MacIntyre's youngest son).
A Journey to the Past
M. L. MacIntyre
CLAN MAC INTYRE A Journey To The Past
Authors: L. D. MacIntyre and Martin L. MacIntyre Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 7781280 Copyright: Martin Lewis MacIntyre 2001 Publisher: MacIntyre Publishing, 41 Temescal Terrace, San Francisco, CA 941184324 www.electricscotland.com/webclans/m/macintyre Email: email@example.com Publication Sponsor: Clan MacIntyre Association Editor: Martin Lewis MacIntyre
Craobh de dhabhall a gharaidh aig taobh Loch Eite agus MacantSaoir GhlinnNodha da thuath anach a 's sinne 'n Albainn ("An apple tree at Loch Etivehead and MacIntyre of Glenoe are the two oldest farmers in Scotland.") The apple tree and MacIntyres of Glen Noe are both long gone. The Clan has scattered like leaves of a tree in winter to far places of the earth. Though Glen Noe is bereft, those who survive do honor to the motto "Per Ardua." That the days of all who bear the name may be long and their hardships light is the hope of the compiler of this volume, and to them it is dedicated. MacI The second edition is dedicated to the memory of L.D. MacIntyre and Alice Sonnenschein MacIntyre who lovingly prepared the first edition. MLM
First Edition Thanks for help in different ways go to Martin and his wife, Rosemary, for planning and executing the visit to Glen Noe and the publication of this Story, to my wife, Alice, for encouragement, and help in editing, indexing and preparing the manuscript; to Donald MacIntyre, eighth Chief of Clan MacIntyre, his wife, Catherine, and their son, James, for photographs of the Chief and his heirlooms; to the late Alexander James MacIntyre of Inveraray, Scotland and his family (May, Angus and Alexander) for assistance given over the years; to Carol (our daughter and Carl Purcell and Donald (our son) and his wife Carol, for their financial help in getting this book published; to our grandchildren for their efforts and interest; and to Ian Stuart McIntyre of Bucks, England for urging me to complete and publish this Story. MacI
Second Edition Thanks for this new edition go to Thomas McIntyre for maintaining and organizing the historical files; to Alan Bridgeman MacIntyre, Colin Macintyre, and Marcia McIntyre for reviewing the new material for accuracy and adding valuable information; to Wanda Wells and P. K. Murphy for editing; and to the many members of Clan MacIntyre Association who retyped the first edition into a word processing format. Thanks also to the innumerable internetters who sent corrections and additions. Writers will never again be alone. Special acknowledgment goes to those who have written histories of Clan MacIntyre: Chief of Clan MacIntyre, James (V) (18751863); Duncan MacIntyre, 14th of CamusnahErie, Cadet of Glenoe (1901); Alexander James MacIntyre (18951968); L.D. MacIntyre (18971991); and Duncan McIntyre of Sydney Australia (living). Thanks also goes to James Wallace MacIntyre, 9th of Glenoe, his wife, Lady Marion, their son, Donald Russell MacIntyre of Glenoe, 10th of Glenoe, and to Ian MacIntyre,17th of Camus na h Erie. MLM
MAC INTYRE: VARIATIONS IN SPELLING 1 and NAMES 2
MacAntire MacAntyre MacEntyre MacEntire MacIntear MacIntire Macintire MacIntire MacIntre MacIntyre Macintyre Mackintire MacYntire McAntire McAntyre McEnteer McEnteir McEntire McEntyre Mcentire McIntear McInteer McInter McInter McIntier McIntire McIntyer McIntyre McItyre
‘Intyar Makentyr Makintare Makintyr MacIntire Mcanteir Mcinteir McIntere McIntheir McIntyar McIntyir McIntyr McYter McYnter McYntir McYntyre M’Inteir M’Intere M’kantare M’Kintier M’Kintyre Makkintire M’Ynteir M’Yntere M’Yntir
MacTear MacTeer MacTeir Tear Teare Teir Tier Tyre Anglicised Names 3 Carpenter Joiner Wright Wrights Wrightson Sometimes Synonymous 4 MacTier Matier Mateer (Ireland) MacAteer (Ireland McAteer (Ireland) McCateer (Ireland) Probable Sept Name Coshem or McCoiseam Shared or Unrelated Names 5 MacTìre, MacTier and McTyr could be a sept of Clan Ross (Clann Andrias)
c 1. Mac ( . . . contracted to M’, Mc, M ) is a Gaelic prefix meaning "son" and corresponds to son in Teutonic names; Fitz in NormanFrench names; and to Map, shortened to ‘ap or ‘p in Welsh names, according to George Fraser Black in "The Surnames of Scotland," page 519. Many Gaelic names are translated phonetically into English to preserve the sound of the original. Before the spelling of one’s name became important for documents, the spelling was left to the discretion of the writer who was often a government official. For immigrants this was the immigration officer and the "thick" Scottish accent led to a multitude of spellings that all sounded the same. Even in the family of the chief of Clan MacIntyre, the spelling of the name has varied. One researcher has uncovered a tradition of a son with the same given name as his father, changing the "I" to "E" and vice versa, instead of "Sr." and "Jr."
2. It was common for names to be shortened (‘Teir) or translated (Wrightson) or both (Wright). 3. Anglicized translations like carpenter or joiner may be synonymous with MacIntyre if their ancestors immigrated from Scotland, especially western Scotland. One might speculate that Wright is more common in Scotland and northern England while Carpenter and Joiner in southern England. 4. MacAteer and its various spellings sound the same as Mac an tSaoir when said by a Gaelic speaker. In Ireland, there are three possible rationales for a Scottish connection and two possible sources for a purely Irish origin. These will be discussed in Part II. 5. Although they are pronounced the same in English, standing alone in Gaelic, Tire,Tier, and Tyr can be translated as "wolf", and would not be pronounced the same as Teir, Teer or Tere, meaning "wright." Spelling in English as a way to differentiate Gaelic names is "iffy" at best. Family history and location in Scotland are the best methods to determine the most probable Clan association for a surname.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I. SCOTTISH HISTORY 7000 B.C. to 1800 A.D. Sources of Information The Scots Origin, Names, Clan System The Influence of Bloodlines and Cultures Demise of the Clan System Highland Wars The Scottish Dispersion PART II. MAC INTYRE HISTORY c. 800 A.D. TO 2000 A.D. Origin of the MacIntyre Name and Clan Meaning of the Name Traditional Legends of Origin False Origins Where From and Where To? Two Brothers Second Sight and Mountain Spirits Glen Noe Home of the MacIntyre Chiefs Glenoe Loch Etive Ben Cruachan Kin Ancestors Cadets CamusnahErie Stranmore Etive Kith MacDonalds MacIntyres at Glenoe Before the MacIntyres Came Undocumented MacIntyre Chiefs The Snowball and the Fatted Calf Documented MacIntyre Chiefs MacIntyres in the Highland Wars The Last MacIntyre Chief at Glenoe MacIntyres Outside of Scotland Ireland North America MacIntyre Armorial Bearings Coat and Shield of Arms PART III. HOUSES OF CLAN MAC INTYRE House of Glenoe Legendary Chiefs First Documented Chief MacIntyre Chiefs and Glenoe Recorded MacIntyre Chiefs of Glenoe House of CamusnahErie Prior to the First Chieftain of Record The Chieftains of Record
House of Stranmore House of Etive PART IV. MAC INTYRE CULTURE Visual Art Tartans Literature Duncan Ban MacIntyre Other Bards, Storytellers, and Seanachie Music MacIntyre March MacIntyre Who’s Who MacIntyre Organizations Glasgow Maine Canada? Clan MacIntyre Association Clan MacIntyre Society, Inc. Michigan? Ireland? Land of the MacIntyres A Family Journey To The Past . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Martin and Rosemary MacIntyre Tour of MacIntyre Country . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M. L MacIntyre In Memoriam: L.D. and Alice MacIntyre M. L. MacIntyre PART V. SCOTTISH AND MAC INTYRE STORIES The Stone of Destiny The Isle of Destiny Deirdre of the Sorrows Thumb Carpenter Two Brothers, One Pri. The Viking and his Clach Nodha The Viking Raid and the White Cow Maurice MacNeil and Somerled The Mountain Spirits and Glen Noe The First MacIntyre at Glen Noe Fiction by Alexander James MacIntyre The Two Sons of Chief Duncan The Snowball and the Fatted Calf The Piper’s Warning Clach Nodha and the Glencoe Massacre Fairy Dart of Glen Noe The ‘Loss’ of Glenoe A Very ‘Special’ Delivery NonFiction by M. L. MacIntyre Another MacIntyre Miracle: The ‘Wright’ man at the Right time . . . NonFiction by M. L. MacIntyre PART VI. POEMS Verses On Arms . . . . Duncan Ban MacIntyre Metrical translation from the Gaelic . George Calder Free metrical description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rev. James M. Joss, L’Islet On Samuel Johnson, Who Wrote Against Scotland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . James 3rd Chief of Glenoe Cruachan Beann . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Patrick, 16th Chieftain of CamusnahErie Farewell To Alban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . translation by Angus Macintyre, Glasgow Nostalgia. . . . . . . . . . . . Angus Macintyre, Taynuilt and Tobermory Robert McIntyre of Australia To the Chief ……. . . . . . L. D. MacIntyre Return of the MacIntyres . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M L. MacIntyre, San Francisco
APPENDIXES I. The Tenure of Glenoe II. Timeline of the World, Scotland and The MacIntyres VISUALS Illustrations Duncan Ban MacIntyre’s Monument Photographs MacIntyre Coat of Arms, St. Conan’s Kirk L.D.MacIntyre and Alice MacIntye Highland Dancer at Glen Noe, Ancestral Home of the MacIntyre Chiefs (Gaelic Name) Site where the cow laid down Lairg Nodha (Stone of the Fatted Calf) Snow on Ben Cruachan , Midsummer’s day, 2000 A.D. White Bull near Ardchattan Priory Ardchattan Priory, Burial Grounds for MacIntyre Chiefs Gravestone of Duncan (I) of Glen Noe at Ardchattan Priory Glenoe Heirlooms Gravestone of CamusnahErie on Isle of St. Munn , Loch Leven CamusnahErie Heirlooms Cairn to the Chiefs at Glen Noe Clach Nodha Magic Stone Return of the MacIntyres (from the 1976 film) Document Replication 1556 Clan Teir Bond to Lord Glenorchy 1737 Memorandum between Donald (II) of Glenoe and Glenorchy 1746 James (III)’s Document of Safe Passage 1770 Renunciation of 1656 Wadset (Partial) 1775 Rental Receipt for Lease of Part of Glenoe 1808 James (V)’s 1808 Letter from Glen Noe, Scotland 1927 Letterhead of the Clan MacIntyre Association of Glasgow 1940 Invitation to Micum McIntyre Picnic 1955 Armorial Bearings and Letters Patent of CamusnahErie 1991 Armorial Bearings and Letters Patent of Glenoe Charts Genealogy of Prehistory MacIntyres, MacNeils, MacDonalds, and MacDougalls Genealogy of MacIntyre Chiefs Genealogy and Cognizances of the Glenoe Chiefs Genealogy and Cognizances of the CamusnahErie Chieftains Time Map of MacIntyres, Scotland, and the World Maps Celtic Isles Scotland Vicinity of Glen Noe Glossary Bibliography Index 2007 Additions Invitations to 2008 gathering of Clan MacIntyre from Martin MacIntyre
This history of Clan MacIntyre 1 contains information collected by the original author, L. D. MacIntyre, and by many others. His search for a history of Clan MacIntyre and its Chief began in 1930. When he couldn't locate a history, he decided to write one 2 . In 1933, he finally located in New York State, James th MacIntyre, 7 Chief of Glenoe, and his son, Donald MacIntyre, heir apparent. The Lyon Court of Heraldry in Scotland did not recognize James as the MacIntyre chief. Recognition would have required a petition proving his direct lineage from a chief living in Scotland before 1783. In 1933, the Chief had no personal desire to be recognized by the Court and the Lord Lyon King of Arms had no desire to recognize a chief who resided outside of Scotland. Regardless, it seemed unlikely that the necessary documentation could be compiled. This did not deter L.D. MacIntyre from trying to obtain his Chief’s recognition. His quest seemed to be as futile as Don Quixote’s, after a representative of the Lord Lyon's office told him in person that no petition from a claimant in the United States would be considered even if it could be proven that his ancestors were born in Scotland! 3 While this dampened L.D.’s desire to follow through on obtaining the Chief’s recognition, it spurred him toward completing his second goal, a history of Clan MacIntyre. The purpose would be to set the record straight and give both the Chief and Clan MacIntyre the respect they were due. In 1977, fortyseven years after he had begun, the first edition was published on his eightieth birthday.
1. MacIntyre has many spellings, some of which are on the inside of the front cover. In this edition, MacIntyre will be used except when individuals are referenced who spell it differently. This is also the spelling used by the present Chief and Chieftain. 2. L.D. did not locate the 1901 history by Duncan MacIntyre, 14th Chieftain of CamusnahErie, the senior cadet to MacIntyre of Glenoe until he began corresponding with Donald, heir apparent to James, the 7th Chief. 3. As recently as 1977, the instructions specifically stated, "Grants of Scottish Arms by Letters Patent are not made to nonBritish subjects." If this prohibition had remained, it would have been impossible for James Wallace MacIntyre or any of his descendants, to be recognized as Chief.
FOREWORD TO THE FIRST EDITION
My earliest memories are of my father’s bedtime stories about Scotland. What kind of stories could impress a fouryearold so much? Plenty of action? . . . These stories had enough battles to rival the Old Testament! An abundance of emotion? . . . There was love and hate sandwiched between pride and revenge. A moral? . . . Always a moral – perseverance and justice; justice and perseverance. A hero? . . . Aye, what better heroes than Wallace, Robert the Bruce, and Bonnie Prince Charlie? Yes, all of these things made a lasting impression on me; but what I remember most was the sound of my father’s voice, the wrinkling of his brow, and the fire in his eyes that made me feel he had just come from the battle and was giving a firsthand report. The cunning, the pride and instant justice were real to him and he passed that reality on to me. The conviction and truth with which he spoke, right down to an appropriate rolling of an "rrr" is what I cherish to this very day. My favorite story, although it lacked bloodletting or a hero, was about the MacIntyres of Glen Noe how they arrived on the mainland of Scotland, and why they had to leave. Somehow, when my father told this story there was more conviction and truth than in any of the others. Of course, we were MacIntyres, and proud of it, and this was a story about us. Now my father, in his eightieth year, has summarized in this book what he knows about the MacIntyres after fortyfive years of searching for his heritage. Perhaps you will appreciate the accuracy or the detail. I hope you will sense the passion, the perseverance of fortyfive years, the integrity, and the indignation against the Lord Lyon King of Arms that still burns brightly in his breast. If you only could see the fire in his eyes and hear his voice ring with conviction, still yearning for the justice due the MacIntyres of Glen Noe. Perhaps his story of the MacIntyres will cause another MacIntyre to take up the standard and carry it to still greater heights, even to the top of Ben Cruachan, if that is necessary to find the truth and proclaim it to the world. Martin Lewis MacIntyre, Eighth generation removed from Scotland
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION
Beginning in 1931, I planned to write a history of Clan MacIntyre since I found none was available and I was curious about the roots of the people whose name I bore. This led to a deep and lasting interest in all things Scottish. Although I was discouraged by my first contact with the Secretary of the Clan MacIntyre Association in Glasgow on the basis that a person outside of Scotland would not be able to carry through such a project, I persisted. During the years, I collected materials at the Library of Congress and the National Archives in Washington and through correspondence with the late Alexander James MacIntyre of Inveraray and many others; and through personal contacts in the United States and in Scotland. Also, from Donald MacIntyre, the present Chief of the Clan, I received a copy of the unpublished manuscript from Alexander James MacIntyre dated 1936. A facsimile of the latter’s deeply felt Foreword is reproduced above. Leslie D. MacIntyre, Bannockburn, Bethesda, Maryland June 1977
FOREWORD TO THE SECOND EDITION
Since the First Edition in 1977, many important events have taken place in the history of Clan MacIntyre. No longer with us are Donald, eighth Chief of record, his wife, Lady Catherine, their son, James, ninth Chief of record, my father, L. D. MacIntyre, the author of the first edition, and my mother, Alice MacIntyre, the editor of the first edition. Over this same period many other things have occurred. The Clan MacIntyre Association was formed in 1979 and with its support, James Wallace MacIntyre, successfully petitioned the Lyon Court of Heraldry and Arms in Scotland for matriculation of his Arm as Glenoe, the ninth Chief of record of Clan MacIntyre. There was the accession of Donald Russell MacIntyre as the tenth Chief and the birth of his son, James Thomas MacIntyre, the younger and heir apparent. I can assure Sir Malcolm Innes of Edingight KCVO, Lord Lyon King of Arms, and his officers of arms, that my father did not carry to his grave the feelings of injustice described in the Foreword to the First Edition. Without the assistance of Sir Crispin Agnew of Loch Naw, Rothesay Herald at Arms Bt., and Mr. Hugh Peskett, genealogist, the matriculation of the Arms of Glenoe would not have been successful. The recognition of Glenoe by the Lyon Court gave my father the elation and peace that all of us should experience at least once in our lifetime. Although the story is over for those no longer with us, the story never ends. MacIntyres the world over must continue to forge a bright future, search for our elusive past, and tell our stories to the next generation so they will carry on where we leave off.
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION
My father and mother, L.D. and Alice MacIntyre, passed on to me the desire and responsibility to revise their story of Clan MacIntyre. When our family published the first edition, we optimistically printed 3,000 copies – all that we could afford. This number seemed more than sufficient until suddenly, the last copy was in sight. The choice s were, either reprint the first edition with an addendum, or make a new edition. Considering all that had transpired in the interim, I decided on a new edition. I accepted this formidable challenge knowing that Dad would be my guide for facts and Mom for language. Any misgivings on my part for having fallen short is tempered by the knowledge that someone must do it and my turn has come. Surely, the future will bring forth another who will pick up where I leave off. After completing the first draft, I was given a copy of MacIntyres, A Clan History – a carefully researched and personal book by Duncan McIntyre of Sydney, Australia. He has done what I had thought impossible – matched, and in some areas, surpassed my father’s knowledge of MacIntyre history while exhibiting an equal enthusiasm for the truth. He has proved once again, what my father always knew, that one could write a scholarly history of Clan MacIntyre without living in Scotland. Notwithstanding Duncan of Australia’s excellent history, I have completed the second edition of my father’s book in the belief that there is room for two visions of the same story. The first edition of this book was limited in size and scope to ensure its completion by L. D. MacIntyre’s eightieth birthday. In 1977, there was a great deal of uncertainty about recouping our family’s investment so we kept costs to a minimum without sacrificing quality. While the second edition also has time and cost limitations, there is no longer any doubt about interest in the subject matter. Most of what was in the first edition has been retained although not always in the same sequence. Because this may be the reader’s first encounter with Scottish as well as MacIntyre history, I have greatly expanded the section on the origins of our Scottish heritage and placed it at the beginning. Another major addition is the relevant history since the first edition was published thirty years ago. At the end of the book are stories, poems, and music by and about MacIntyres. There is also information on Glen Noe and the surrounding historical sites for those with the urge for a pilgrimage to the land of their forefathers. Martin L. MacIntyre , San Francisco, California December 2001
History of the MacIntyre Clan Part I Scottish History 7000 B.C. to c. 1800 A.D.
To fully understand the history of Clan MacIntyre one must be familiar with the ethnic origins of the Scottish people, the creation and inheritance of Scottish surnames, the Scottish clan system, and the major events in Scottish history. What you are about to read is neither pure fact nor fantasy but simply the best judgment of this author after reading the opinions of many writers, including the author of the first edition and the other MacIntyre published historians (seanachies). These authors are in general agreement but often disagree on the details. Remaining areas of controversy are given extensive discussion in appendixes. SOURCES OF INFORMATION In the Gaelic tradition, the history of Scotland and Clan MacIntyre comes primarily from legend and a few remaining artifacts. The Celtic culture and Druid religion relied on bards (poets), storytellers, and seanachies (genealogists/historians) to maintain a rich oral history in the form of sagas, legends, songs, and poems. Archeology can confirm approximate dates, but the search for truth requires a sprinkling of common sense and intuition. For example, legends abound in fanciful exaggeration and may miss the mark by a millennium or a continent, yet they still contain a great deal of truth. It is the desire to know our past and to pass it on that creates these stories, and motivated the writing of this book. Legends make wonderful bedtime stories and MacIntyres are truly blessed with many colorful ones. 1
th Written histories don’t appear until the last half of the 15 century and it was difficult to distinguish th century. The most reliable information comes from church between legend and known fact, until the 20 and legal documents but these sources rarely reveal the life stories behind the names. Those stories were sometimes found in the socalled Black Books kept by many clans, although they are biased, as all histories are, including this one.
THE SCOTS ORIGIN, SURNAMES, AND CLAN SYSTEM Origin of the Scots There is archeological evidence in Scotland of the presence of huntergatherers around 7000 B.C. By 2 3000 B.C., there were Neolithic farmers and cairn builders. Around 1500 B.C., there are early Mesolithic, BronzeAge people. The first wave of Celtic tribes from southeastern Europe arrived about 1200 – 1000 B.C. and eventually populated England, Wales and Ireland. 3 None of these people were the direct ancestors of the Scots. According to the legends, in about 500 B.C., another Celtic group who came by sea from the Iberian Peninsula conquered the earlier Celtic people in Ireland. These conquerors have been referred to by several different names: Gaels, Milesians, and Scoti. 4 Their legends had foretold they would find an Isle of Destiny. They brought with them their "Stone of Destiny" (Lia Fail) 5 upon which they proclaimed their High Kings (Ard Righ). Around this same period, the Britons, an IronAge Celtic group from northern Europe, conquered England and Wales. Because the Celts did not have a written history of their own, the only written descriptions of them were by outsiders, who said they were warlike, artistic, and egalitarian. Some combination . . . but it fits the Gaelic and Scottish persona like a glove! At the beginning of the first millennium A.D., most of the western world was under the control of the Roman Empire, except for the British Isles, which was still controlled by Celts. To the outside (Roman)
1. A few of these legends are included in Part I but most of them are in Part V. 2. Pile of stone indicating a gravesite. 3. This area is due north of Greece and Turkey that is now known as Romania. It was the site of the ancient Scythians. 4. Named Gaels after their place of origin in Asia Minor, Milesians after a revered king, and Scoti after an ancient queen. 5. See Part V. Lia Fail (Stone of Destiny) and The Isle of Destiny.
world, Scotland was known as Alba or Caledonia; Ireland was known as Scotia or Hibernia; and, England plus Wales was known as Britannia. The English Channel did not deter the Roman Legions for long. By the middle of the first century, they had subjugated the Britons. 1 Although the Romans tried, they could not vanquish the inhabitants of Alba, whom they called Picts. 2 The Picts were so fierce and troublesome that Emperor Hadrian built a protective wall from sea to sea. 3 The location of this wall is almost identical to the present border between England and Scotland. The Romans had plans to conquer Scotia (Ireland) but their empire was declining and they never got around to it. Deprived of doing battle with the Roman Legions, the Scoti continued to battle each other an enduring, if not endearing, hallmark of the Gaelic people. Between battles, they continued to live on their Isle of Destiny and to give temporary allegiance to their High King at Tara.
Hadrian’s Wall Northumberland — photo Hutchinson UK04
The Celtic Isles c. 33 A.D. Ulster, the northeast corner of Scotia, was only a short distance across the sea from the west coast of Alba and there was a natural interchange between the islands. Around the time of Christ, the Scoti High King, Conor (Conchobar) MacNessa unintentionally started the first known Scoti colony in Alba as described in Deirdre of the Sorrows, one of the three Sorrows of Irish legend. 5 This legend is important in MacIntyre history because it refers to Glen Noe, Loch Etive, and Ben Cruachan, the ancestral home of the MacIntyre Chiefs. Two hundred years later, in the third century, High King Carbris Riada established a significant Scoti colony on the west coast of Alba. He called it "The Dalriada" after his Kingdom of Dal Riada in Ulster. The Dalriada was located in the area we now call Argyll, meaning "of the Gaels" or "coast of the Gaels." This enclave of Scoti (Scots) had to be continuously defended against the Picts. About every 100 years, the colony was strengthened and enlarged by kings of Ulster, including King Eric who assigned the task to his three sons Lorne, Angus and Fergus Mor. Lorne ruled the part of Argyll around Loch Etive and it is still referred to as Lorn. The Dalriada ultimate triumph over the Picts was not by military force but by the mission of St. Columba in the latterhalf of the sixth century, who converted the Picts to the Celtic form of Christianity. This change in religion, removed a major difference between the Scots and Picts. In 576, the colony formally claimed independence from Scotia and became known as Scotia Minor, to distinguish it from Scotia Major. 6 In recognition of their independence, they brought their Stone of Destiny to Iona, the center of the Catholic missionary, St. Columba, and it was eventually taken to their political capitol, Dunstaffnage, at the entrance to Loch Etive. 7 Scotia Minor kept increasing its territory on the mainland until the middle of the ninth century, when Kenneth MacAlpin united the Picts and the Scots to become the first King of Scotland. 8 In keeping with
Iona Abbey, Island of Iona
Dunstaffnage Castle, near Oban
— photos Hutchinson UK04
this change, Scotia Minor became known only as Scotia and eventually called Scotland, while Scotia Majorreverted to being called Erin or Eire, the names before the Scoti Gaels arrived in Ireland, more than a millennium before. This has been a brief, albeit complicated, recounting of the origin of the Scots and Scotland. It demonstrates the close connection between Scotland and Ireland that resulted from their common Celtic GaelicScoti ancestry, and centuries of trade, colonization, communication, religious missionaries, and intermarriage. Although most of these connections are not described in written records, they are manifest in the commonality of their Gaelic language, family names, art, literature, music, and customs. The cultural heritage of the modern Scots does not end here but its most enduring and distinctive roots are from the Gaelic Celts.
1. Unless otherwise noted, from this point forward, all dates will be A.D. 2. The Romans called these people Picts because their warriors drew colorful designs (pictorials) on their skin. 3. Hadrian’s Wall was built from 122128 A.D. 5. Part V. Legend, Deirdre of the Sorrows. 6. Scotia Minor was ratified as an independent Kingdom in 576 at the Convention of Drimceatt in Scotia Major (Ireland). 7. ## Bibliography, p. 155 (In Scotland Again, H.V. Morton, 1933). Part V., Lia FailStone of Destiny. 8. King MacAlpin was a Scoti but his mother was of Pictish descent.
Scottish Surnames Shakespeare has Juliet muse, "What’s in a name?" Alas, poor Romeo and Juliet lost their lives because one was a Montague and the other, a Capulet! In a like manner, many a Scot lived or died, prospered or declined, because of their clan name. In the Gaelic culture, last names were just that, the last name in a list of names, and the last name changed, depending on where one stopped reciting the list. The Scottish bards and seanachies spent most of their lives memorizing and reciting the lineage and heroic deeds of their patrons. Alexander (Alister) James MacIntyre of Inveraray related how his grandfather Alister had a common ancestor with Duncan Ban MacIntyre, the famous Gaelic bard, and nine generations earlier. In the early 1800s, when these two gentlemen met on the main street of Inveraray, Duncan Ban would greet Alister’s grandfather as follows: "Failte Alister, Mac Alister, Mac Alister, Mac Alister, Mac Alister, Mac Alister, Mac Iain, Mac Hamish, Mac Callum, Mac Callum Mhor." The recitation of names not only kept the names alive, but more importantly, the stories and legends associated with the names. Mac means "son of" or "descendant of." 1 Thus, if you were Ian, son of Fergus, your name was Ian Mac Fergus. If Ian Mac Fergus had a son called Donald, his name would be Donald Mac Ian. If there were another person in the village with the same name, as well there might, these two individuals would be distinguished by adding the grandfather’s name e.g., Donald Mac Ian Mac Fergus. The names from each generation would have to be recited until there was no confusion with someone else, and to show pride in their origin. Nevertheless, in a normal conversation, nicknames were used just as they are today, emphasizing some personal characteristic, e.g., Donald the Fair (Ban). Within a family, a second name was often used to indicate the position of a son within the family as Og (younger or first son) and Faich (second son). If your father was the town’s only shipwright, you might be known as Donald, son of the wright. Nicknames were not passed on to the next generation unless that individual started a new clan and his nickname became the new clan’s name. If the famous ancestor’s name was Donald, then your surname would be MacDonald "descendant of Donald." If, in honor of a heroic act, you started a new clan and your nickname was Bheathain or "lively one," then your descendants would be MacicBheathain, pronounced MacBain or MacBean, "descendants of the lively one." Clan System The clan system is based on blood relations, usually led by a patriarch. 2 All oldworld cultures used this system, which had both social and political functions. Clans are as old as the concepts of family, ancestor, and leader. Even the word "chief" sounds like, and has the same meaning as, "sheik" from far off Arabia. This system is associated with Scots and Scotland because Scottish clans endured into the modern era when it was surrounded by newer systems, especially the feudal system. Although the recording of the clan names and territories was probably influenced by the feudal system, the underlying concept was Gaelic. The clan system has been both romanticized and vilified. The Scots finetuned it, and it sustained them through the "best and worst of times" as they were dispersed to the four corners of the earth. The clan system continues to bring Scots together at Highland gatherings, a rare demonstration of national and cultural solidarity. Clans, Cadets, and Septs. Over the centuries, Scottish clans emerged and disappeared. New clans were formed to honor an individual for a heroic act and to acknowledge an individual’s leadership, or strength. As a clan prospered, the lack of space, or a problem of succession, resulted in a part of the clan settling elsewhere. If the new group came from the male line of the chief and claimed a new name, and became strong enough to protect itself, it was a new clan. Formation of most clans Highland clans occurred before th the 13 century. If the new group was formed by a younger brother who had his own territory and was separated from the original clan, after four or more generations, his descendants would style themselves as a cadet or branch of the clan, but retain the Clan Name e.g., MacDonald of Sleat. If the group was led by someone other than the male heir of the chief, or by a daughter of the chief, or still required the protection of the Clan, they were not a cadet but were referred to as a sept. The term sept was also used to describe the relationship between a weak clan that sought and received protection from a
1. “Daughter of” in Gaelic is "Nic." Since "Nic" is not used as a family name, we have added "descendant of" as a meaning for "Mac", especially when used as a clan name. 2. Clan in Gaelic means "children of " or "family of," so Clan MacIntyre means, Children of the Son of the Wright.
more powerful clan, or a clan that was forced to submit, but allowed to keep their name. A sept could also be formed when an individual attached himself to another clan as their piper or bard. In modern times, the term ‘sept’ has been applied to surnames that might be connected with a clan. This became popular when people with Scottish ancestry wanted to know their Clan name, when they weren’t found on the list of tartans. They weren’t listed because their clan had been eliminated, or because their Gaelic surname was Anglicized when they left Scotland. For example, MacDonald might have been changed to Donaldson, which is why Donaldson is listed as a sept of Clan Donald. It is for this reason that in this edition, Wrightson has been added to the list of MacIntyre names or septs. The term sept, is not part of the heraldic system. Of course, there were clans who were decisively defeated in battle and lost everything their lives, land, and even their clan name. 1 The Chief and his Clansmen. Among his clansmen, the chief was considered the first among equals. The land belonged to the clan and those who lived on the clan’s land were usually related in some way. Although the chief administered justice, he did not make the laws. Special individuals called brehons helped to develop and pass down the laws. Although this system eventually disappeared, even today, Scottish and English laws differ in many important ways. 2 The clan name indicated a personal relationship between the clansman and his chief through a common descent from the first chief. This relationship was also expressed by symbols that were worn on their bonnet, such as the badge (plant) 3 and the crest badge. 4 Thus, the clan system was a large extended family that ensured a degree of certainty and safety to clansmen in times when both were tenuous. This concept of family even extends to acknowledgment of a close relationship and duty among independent clans who had a common ancestor, as illustrated by the MacIntyres, MacDonalds, and MacDougalls. The sense of an extended family bound by a name, still exists today. Selection of the Chief. In the earliest times, the chief was selected by his peers. As in most systems, over long periods of time, the process became more defined and codified. In determining who would succeed a chief, the Celtic tradition used a method called tanistry in which the chief named his successor (tanist). 5 This was usually the chief’s brother because battles had a way of cutting one’s life short, especially if you were leading the way. There was no time to wait for a baby to grow up and lead the Clan into battle. This was eventually changed from the brother to the firstborn son. The change came from the influence of feudalism and from those instances when the chief lived to see their sons become an adult. It was then possible to chose the eldest son, although the Celtic tradition also allowed him to choose a stronger, but younger, son. If the chief died without naming a tanist or without a male issue, then any male in the chief’s family, with the same greatgrandfather was eligible to be chief. The election of a chief took place at a derbhfine (council meeting) of those eligible to be the chief. 6, 7
1. For many years, the MacGregors were outlawed and so was their surname. During that time, they used the names of neighboring Clans, e.g. MacIntyre. 2. There is no law in Scotland against trespassing as there is in England. Also, Scot’s Law has a not proven verdict, in addition to the standard verdicts of guilty and not guilty. 3. The badge refers to the plant, e.g., white heather. 4. The crest badge is the crest of the chief’s coatofarms encircled by a belt. This does not mean that all persons with the surname MacIntyre, or variations thereof, are descendants of the first chief. This name could also have originated in Scotland outside of the Highlands, simply as the son of a wright. This was true for Ireland as well. Nevertheless, the need for family, that we all crave may lead anyone with the name MacIntyre, or an associated name, to want to be part of the extended Clan MacIntyre. Who would deny someone this basic need? 5. Tanistry, as distinct from the feudal system. The feudal system used primogeniture (the eldest son inherited all of his father’s land and titles). 6. There were rare exceptions when a female inherited the chiefship, as in the case of the Mackintoshes. 7. An adaptation of this method is still available for use by the Court of the Lord Lyon in selecting a temporary clan representative (ad hoc derbhfine).
The chief was central to the clan’s survival. Inheritance of property by the chief’s son was not an issue, since the territory belonged to the clan. However, once the feudal system took hold in Scotland, the chief owned the land, which his first son inherited. If the main line was without issue, then the chieftain of the senior cadet became chief, and if there were no cadet, the clan became extinct or a sept of another clan. The King and the Chiefs. Just as the chief was the first among equals within his clan, the Gaelic king was only the first among his peers, who were the clan chiefs. 1 The clans retained their own lands and administered their own justice. Until the time of Robert the Bruce, the Scottish kings had very little power by the middle of the first century. 2 This is one reason why the Scottish kings had difficulty in bringing the clans together for any length of time to oppose their enemies. The interests of the individual clan were always more important than the king or nation. When the English fought the Scots, the Scots usually won the first battle but lost the war. Even when it appeared that the clans were united, there were clans who abstained from fighting, and sometimes fought on the other side. Conversely, the English were ruled by an absolute feudal king who the barons had to support, or else. The best alternative was exile but the punishment was often the Tower of London or the chopping block. THE INFLUENCE OF OTHER BLOODLINES AND CULTURES The Norse and the English were the last two important bloodlines and cultures to influence the Gaelic world. Around 800 A.D., the Scandinavian kingdoms of the far north began to attack and even settle parts of Scotland, England, and Ireland. The Vikings, as they were called, started their expansion in the northern islands of Scotland. They hop scotched to the northern mainland, then to the Western Isles (Inner and Outer Hebrides), and south to the Isle of Man, and over to Ireland. Over the next 500 years, they went as far south as Sicily, east to Kiev, and west to Newfoundland (Vineland). Although often ruthless in their brutality toward those they conquered, they were not alone in this approach. Contrary to this stereotype, the Vikings often settled down and intermarried with the local population. For example, they established the city of Dublin, the Kingdom of Sicily, and a large Duchy in France called Normandy (Land of the North Men). The Vikings did not spare Argyll and the western islands of Scotland. There were raids followed by times of accommodation, when tribute was paid and strategic marriages were arranged. The founders of most of the Highland Scottish clans, including the MacIntyres, had some Norse blood in their veins and there were Highland clans, like the Andersons, who were primarily Norse. The Norwegian Kingdom didn’t relinquish its last Scottish possession until 1266 A.D. Given the 400 years they were overlords of northern and western Scotland, the remnants of the Norse influence is very small. They left many place names and family names but had relatively little cultural influence. Many of the Norse men married Scoti women and never returned to their homeland. This allowed the mothers to speak Gaelic and to pass on the legends that embodied the ScotiGaelic heritage. The final cultural and political influence came from England where wave upon wave of political refugees Britons, Angles, Danes, Saxons, and Normans came over Hadrian’s Wall and resettled in the Scottish Lowlands. It was from these refugees that the GaelicScoti political system met its match and was eventually overcome.
1. This was the same as in the old Scotia (Ireland), where there were the regional kings and then there was the elected, High King at Tara. 2. MacDonald, Lord of the Isles, was able to ignore the Kings of Scotland through an alliance with the Norse Kings.
DEMISE OF THE CLAN SYSTEM 1 Clash of cultures In Scotland, two major systems of governance and culture competed for preeminence. There was the clan system that originated with the Celts, then the Gaels, and finally the Scoti, with a touch of Picts and Norse thrown in for spice. From the south came the newer European feudal system that originated with the Germans and was refined by the FrenchNormans. Gaelic and feudal systems affected daily life in different ways that instigated many conflicts. The final military battle to retain something of the Gaelic clan culture was fought at Culloden in 1746. In the modern vernacular, the clan system was organized from the bottom up and the feudal system from the top down. The essential difference was the clan’s emphasis on family, relative equality, and leadership, while the feudal system was based on land ownership, inequality, and ultimately on the divine right of kings. In the feudal system, the barons (equivalent to Gaelic chiefs) gave their land and allegiance to the king who, at his pleasure, returned to them the use of the land along with honorary titles and privileges. These privileges included administering the laws, "in the name of the King." The land and honorary titles were passed on to the firstborn male, as the heir apparent, in a system known as primogeniture. The king had the power to create new titles and reclaimed his land from any baron who failed in his allegiance. This was a common occurrence, with the titles and land given to a more loyal subject, for services rendered or promised. In the feudal system, the people who worked on the noble’s land were not related to him, except for extramarital relations. In fact, the livestock were often treated better than the peasants because they were more valuable, reliable, and less trouble. 2 Feudalism, and its continuations in the form of the "barons" of industry, eventually lost its control of the peasants to newer social, political, and economic systems that were based on freedom of the individual or on the power of a nonhereditary, nationalistic government. By comparison, in the Gaelic clan system, the position of chief was by consent of the clansmen, who were family. A change in a Gaelic king did not change the relationship of a clan chief to his clansmen. A chief would not and could not treat his clansmen as his personal property. Clan territory belonged to the clansmen and could not be transferred by the chief to another clan or to the king without their consent. The chief and the clansmen protected each other with their lives, even against the king. This meant that the military strength of the clan determined their independence from the king and the strength of the king depended on the strength of the clans that supported him. The chief’s status depended on his wisdom, military prowess, and leadership skills. Among different clans, there were always disagreements due to the lack of distinct territorial boundaries, and fierce clan loyalty, without regard to right and wrong. The collision between the English and Gaelic cultures and between the feudal and clan systems intensified in the middle of the 12th century and continues to this day. 3 Other underlying conflicts were Highland vs. Lowland, traditional vs. new, Catholic vs. Protestant, and Scottish Protestant vs. English Protestant. The problem developed as wave after wave of vanquished English rulers and their entourage crossed into Scotland. This immigration continued for a thousand years. These "refugees" smoothed their welcome with gold and forged alliances with their daughters. The sequence of immigration was: Britons, Saxons, Angles, and then the Danes who were ousted by the FrenchNorman, William the Conqueror, in 1066. Each of these groups seemed to be willing to accept the Gaelic culture as their own. Meanwhile, in England, the FrenchNormans had installed a highly sophisticated and oppressive form of feudalism. That’s how things stood for the next century, until 1154, when there was a split in the NormanEnglish royal house. The losing faction landed on Scotland’s doorstep as so many groups before, with their money and daughters with one major difference; they brought their feudal system.
1. For those who can’t wait to read about Clan MacIntyre’s history, you can skip to Part II. For genealogists, anxious to study the MacIntyre Chiefs and Chieftains, go directly to Part III. For those who have had enough "history" for a while, you can take rest by reading about MacIntyre culture in Part IV and MacIntyre stories in Part V. For the rest of you, I say, stay right here and "charge ahead." 2. See Jonathon Swift’s, A Modest Proposal, which is from a later period and satirical but the based on the same premise. 3. It is one underlying reason Scotland recently voted for devolution and their own Parliament.
While most of the nobles came from England to Scotland, there were instances when the flow was reversed. In these instances, an unsuccessful claimant to the Scottish throne fled to the English court for the safety of his family. These children were brought up speaking French and later English, but certainly not Gaelic. As important, he learned the customs of the English court (Anglicized). When the Scottish king was became caught up in the power struggles, he was often assassinated and the son of the previous king to return to rule Scotland. Unfortunately, he had been brainwashed and was Scottish in name only, and through marriages with English royalty, lacking even Scoti blood. In the Scottish court and at the border of the Highlands, the concept of chief and clansman began to lose ground to the concept of lord and subject. The nobles from England curried favor with the weak, Anglicized, Scottish kings, and in return, for their money and daughters, they were given land, titles, and privileges. The lands were often taken from Highland clans who backed the losing side in the intrigues over who was the rightful king. The concept of land ownership within the feudal system slowly became imposed on much of Scotland, which meant that the king and not the clans owned the land. A Slow Demise The clan system reached its high point in 115658 when Somerled took control of Argyll and the western Isles from the Norse overlords. He never had a chance to rest due to constant pressure from the feudal tide from the south. In 1164, on the eve of his first great battle with Malcolm IV (the Maiden), King of Scotland, 1 Somerled was murdered and the battle was lost. 2 One would think that a united Scottish Kingdom would be good for the clan system, but the system was based on the independence of the clans loosely held together by an appointed king. Starting with this victory, the kings of Scotland began to impose the feudal system on the Highlands, including an inherited monarchy. This led to a Scottish civil war, which superficially ended in 1266 when the feudal King of Scotland, Alexander III, defeated The MacDonald, Lord of the Isles, the strongest supporter of the clan system (as long as it suited him). By outward appearances, Scotland was at its strongest, with both the Highlands and Lowlands united under one feudal king who was still of direct Scoti descent and to whom all owed their fealty (feudal allegiance). However, neither the marriage between the clan and feudal systems nor the marriage between the Gaelic and English cultures, was ever consummated. The internal conflicts based on their inherent differences contributed to constant conflict and the eventual loss of Scotland’s independence. Not by coincidence, Alexander III (1249 – 1286) was the last King of Scotland with a direct Scoti blood descent. The demise of the Gaelic culture in Scotland was also unfolding in Ireland but with less subtlety. There were direct attempts by the English to conquer, subjugate, and, if necessary, annihilate the Irish Gaelic population in order to take over their Isle of Destiny. The first attempt was by the newly established King, William the Conqueror. His Normans conquered Ireland in a military sense, but they, in turn, were conquered by the Gaelic culture, which they found so enjoyable that they became "more Irish than the Irish." However, that didn’t stop the English kings from trying again and again. The efforts intensified when Henry VIII’s new religion made it legal to kill Roman Catholic priests and to steal from the Irish monasteries. Ireland was now seen as the bastion of Catholicism. Elizabeth, the First, carried on where her father left off, and it was close to genocide. The resistance of the Gaelic chiefs (earls) led by Hugh O’Neill, Earl of TirOwen, continued for nine years. Although the English lost most of the battles, their superior numbers and armament eventually wore the Irish down. The Gaelic king, "The O’Neill," 3 with a red hand on his banner, reluctantly agreed to terms. But Elizabeth I, died before the agreement was signed. Her successor, King James VI of Scotland, now became King James I of England as well. King James was an ardent Protestant and his Irish solution was to settle Scottish Protestants in O’Neill’s Ulster so he could control the Catholics Gaels. So, in 1607, The O’Neill and his earls were forced to leave Ireland for the Continent. This tragic event in Irish history is known as "The Flight of the Earls" and signaled the end of 2500 years of Gaelic rule in Ireland. The O’Neill was eventually hunted down and murdered in France. It is indeed ironic that this took place at the hands of a Scottish king who should have supported
1. He was the King of Scotland but not a Scottish king because only a small portion of the King’s blood was Scottish and he possessed even less Scottish culture. After all, English had been the language of the Scottish court for 100 years, starting with Malcolm III (Canmore) and his Saxon wife, Margaret. 2. In Part II you will see how some would blame a MacIntyre for the death of Somerled and by inference, the death of the clan system. 3. In an act of defiance, Hugh O’Neill, called Earl of TirOwen under the feudal system, returned to his Gaelic roots, publicly rejected his Earldom, and henceforth, was only addressed by his Gaelic title, The O’Neill.
Gaeldom. Unfortunately for the Irish, James had become "more English than the English." Once the Ulster chiefs had left Ireland, their lands became forfeit and King James gave them to his English and Scottish supporters. The consequences of his policy to bring in Scottish Protestants to manage the Ulster Plantations continue to this very day in the violent religious and cultural divide known euphemistically in Northern Ireland as "The Troubles." After their "success" in Ireland, the English monarchs turned their attention once more to putting an end to the last vestige of Gaeldom, the Scottish clan system in the Highlands. This should have been easy since for over three hundred years, Scottish kings hadn’t been of Gaelic or Scoti descent, and Gaelic hadn’t been spoken in the Scottish Court or Parliament. Yet, the Highlanders were still speaking Gaelic and acting as if they were Gaels, and this represented a real threat to the Crown. Time after time, it appeared that the clans were doomed starting with Malcolm IV, who ostensibly united the Scottish Kingdom as far back as 1164. Then in 1266, Alexander III defeated The Lord of the Isles, which again, supposedly removed the last opposition to the king and the feudal system. In 1314, Robert the Bruce (although a Scot on by acculturation) appeared to maintain and strengthen an independent Scottish Kingdom at Bannockburn. Technically, an independent Scottish kingdom was maintained in 1603, when the crowns of the two kingdoms (Scotland and England) were united under the Scottish King, James Stewart, the sixth of Scotland, and the first of England. But James and his Stewart successors stayed in London. In 1707, the de facto domination of England became a legal reality, when the two kingdoms (with one king) became one kingdom, the United Kingdom. Under immense pressure, liberal bribes, and threat of invasion from England, the Scottish Parliament, by passing the Act of Union, created a single country, Great Britain. 1 This appears to be the only instance where a sovereign nation voted itself out of existence. Resistance The royal union of Scotland and England under one monarch in 1603 coincided with the subjugation of the Gaels in Ireland. The Highland clans continued their resistance to this "union" for another 150 years. The clan system, with its family ties based on equality and a blood relationship, was so strong that it could not be dismissed easily or peacefully. In a direct effort to weaken the clan system, an Act of Parliament in 1608 officially severed the patriarchal relationship of the chief to his clansmen by making him their legal landlord. Although this did not change the hearts of the Highlanders or their loyalty to their Chief, it was another incursion of the feudal system. It was now necessary to provide proof of title, both to land and nobility. This included a coat of arms, a land designation, and an honorary title. Even the staunchly Gaelic chiefs began to accept this system of nobility, including those who didn’t have title to their land e.g., MacDonald of Keppoch and MacIntyre of Glenoe. The Scottish chief’s coat of arms signified his families’ past and therefore the past of his clan, but it was also a symbol of feudalism. HIGHLAND WARS Feuds There were always feuds among clans that sporadically resulted in minor battles. 2 These battles were short because they took the combatants away from their families and cultivation of their meager crops. The feuds ranged from a single death (blood feud) to conflicts over land, inheritance, or power (king of the hill). Every so often, feuds escalated into major conflicts. These were usually kept within the confines of Scotland, but when they involved the Scottish monarchy, one side often sought help from the English, with disastrous consequences. The wars were ostensibly fought over important principles, but the underlying conflict was between the GaelicHighland culture and the Englishfeudal system. Among the more significant "feuds" was Robert the Bruce and the MacDougalls who fought at the Pass of Brander. This ultimately led to the ascendancy of the Campbells in the Highlands, and a feud massacre of the MacDonalds by the Campbells at Glencoe, which has caused many Highland clans to associate the name Campbell with the English.
1. See Robert Burn’s poem, Such a Parcel of Rogues in a Nation, with the famous line "… bought and sold for English gold." 2. A minor battle except for those who died.
Ardchattan Priory, near Oban
The Pass of Brander, near Oban
Diarmids Pillar Glen Lonan, near Oban and white cattle herd
— photos Hutchinson UK04
Independence There were a series of wars to establish or maintain Scotland as a separate nation. The most famous of these were there ones led by Wallace in 129798, and by Bruce in 1314 at Bannockburn. Prior to these was Somerled’s successful sea battle n 1556, to free western Scotland from the Norse, and a second one by Alexander III against King Haakon of Norway, at Largs in 1263. There were a number of other battles to maintain independence as the goal, including Flodden Field in 1513, and both Dunbar and Worcester in 1651.
Robert the Bruce at Bannockburn — photo Hutchinson UK04
Civil War Starting in the late 1500s there was disagreement over governance of the Scottish church. On one side were the King and his appointed bishops, known as Royalists. Opposing them was the laity, known as Presbyterians or Covenanters. The result was a civil war. Although it was the reverse of their normal position, the MacDonalds supported the King and the Campbells supported the Covenanters. This was just the beginning of a long period of large scale fighting which saw clans fighting on one side and then reversing themselves and fighting for the other side. The changes were some times just pragmatic to be on the winning side or based on a change in the issue, e.g., from church governance to independence from English domination. Among the major events during this period of upheaval were the execution of the Stuart King Charles I of the United Kingdoms, the exile of Charles II, the rise and fall of Oliver Cromwell, the restoration of Charles II, the execution of the Marquis of Argyll, the rise and fall of James the VII of Scotland and II of England, the accession of William and Mary, and the massacre of the MacDonalds at Glen Coe. The Last Rebellion The civil discord that started in the late 1500s never really ended because the Scots were never free of the English yoke. The Parliament was in London and the new King, William of Orange, had no connection with Scotland. In 1715, the monarchy was given to George I, a German from Hanover. This instigated a failed rising in support of James, the son of James II, who was the legitimate blood successor to the throne of the United Kingdom through the Stuart line. Once again, it was the MacDonalds leading the Highland clans in support of a Scottish king who was more English than Scottish in opposition to the Campbells, who supported the established monarchy, even though the English king was a German! The rebels were called Jacobites, Latin for James. If successful, James, called the Old Chevalier or Old Pretender, would have been James VIII of Scotland and would have separated the two kingdoms that had only officially united eight years earlier. In 1745, there was one last great rebellion to return to the throne the son of James, the Old Chevalier, Charles James Stuart. His supporters called him Bonnie Prince Charlie, and his detractors called him the Young Pretender. The motivation for the Highlanders was to free Scotland from English domination even if it meant accepting a hated feudal system. As we all know, after initial success brought the rebels to the
Battle of Culloden
Culloden Battlefield — photos Hutchinson UK04
doorstep of London, the rebellion ended at Culloden, where the depleted and bedraggled Highland clans were defeated on April 16, 1746. Aftermath of the ’45 Rebellion. Despite loss of their rights, internal warfare, and total military defeat at Culloden, the sense of clan loyalty, based on eternal feelings of kith and kin, the Gaelic culture, and the Highland lifestyle could not be quenched. The losing chiefs fled to the Continent and many of their clansmen voluntarily or involuntarily emigrated to the colonies. The concept of the clan and the loyalty that it demanded was still alive during the major Scottish emigration to the New World. While clans have been characterized by the feuds between the Martins and the McCoys, the clan system and Gaelic culture served as a source of strength for the Scottish immigrants. The warm coals of clanship remained and were rekindled wherever they were taken. They continue to burn in the hearts and minds of Scots to this very day in every corner of the earth. As happened to the Irish earls 150 years before, the lands of the Highland chiefs who supported the Jacobite cause were forfeited to the Crown and given to chiefs who supported the Government. Unlike what happened in Ireland, the forfeited lands in Scotland were given to Scots, instead of foreigners. However, this didn’t end the strife because, in one respect, the new landlords were worse than foreign conquerors, they were traitors! The Campbells were the major beneficiary of this land grab and in Argyll; they became the hated agents of the Crown who collected the unjust and exorbitant rents. Many clansmen remained loyal to their exiled chiefs and in addition to paying rent to their new "LandLord," they made a secret payment to their chiefs in exile. In this way, they recognized their clan obligations even though there was no legal bond. The victorious English forged ahead with numerous steps to eliminate the last vestiges of the Scottish clan system. Following the indiscriminate butchery of the survivors of Culloden, laws were enacted that kept Scots from bearing arms or even playing the bagpipe, for the pipes were considered Articles of War. (There was an element of logic in this since the kilted Scots were piped into battle. There are many stories of how the pipes saved the day. The one I liked as a child (as told by my father) was how the Scots fooled the English by tripling the number of pipers. Since the Scots were out of sight, the English assumed they had three times as many fighters are than actually had and decided to retreat when they actually far outnumber their outnumbered Scots. Perhaps the most celebrated occasion was at Waterloo, when the Duke of Wellingon ordered the Highland regiments to the weakest point of the line to stave of a fierce counterattack by Napoleon. Wellington ordered their pipers to play "as if your lives depended upon it." The rest is history.) Recognizing the potential threat from cultural and family ties, the Hanoverian government outlawed and ruthlessly suppressed the wearing of the kilt or showing the tartan. They had previously abolished the hereditary jurisdiction of the chiefs as local magistrates and they fostered the feudal system that discouraged a family relationship between the lord of the manor and his tenants. These restrictions were retained for almost forty years, more than a generation, during which they were resisted by Scots whenever possible. The resistance is evidenced in one of R.R. McIan’s famous prints where a MacIntyre has a plant badge of white heather in his bonnet and has used a skirt of purple cloth stitched down the middle, to masquerade as trews (trousers). The white heather was a statement that he was a member of the MacIntyre clan, and the pants were clearly a kilt in disguise, sans tartan. Duncan Ban MacIntyre, a famous Gaelic poet, protested the ban on wearing the kilt in his The Song of the Breeches and he spent time in jail for his breach of the peace. It was not until 1782 that the fear of another clan rebellion had receded enough for James, Marquis of Graham, to obtain a repeal of the ban on the wearing of tartan and kilt. Duncan Ban celebrated its repeal in his verse, The Highland Garb, but the "clan" as a way of life and governance, was doomed forever. It was the very next year that the first MacIntyre from the chief’s line, Donald, the Younger, and heir apparent to James (III), emigrated to the New World on the heels of the defeat of the English in the American Revolution. Although the Stuart crown was lost, the Jacobite cause lingered on into the present century. It was fueled by sentimentality rooted in the Highland and Scoti clan culture and traditions. In January 1966, the Royal Stuart Society held a meeting of the Jacobites in England to celebrate a mass for James VII of Scotland and III of Great Britain. They proclaimed Albert of Bavaria as the legitimate Stuart successor to the claims of Prince Charles Edward and their "rightful" king, although they knew that the German Prince Albert would not claim the throne or apply for recognition to the Court of the Lord Lyon, King of Arms as Chief of the Royal Stewarts.
THE SCOTTISH DISPERSION The many military defeats resulted in both voluntary and involuntary exile of Scots to all the continents. At the same time, there were social and economic changes that worked against the survival of the clan system and caused many people to leave Scotland. Mercenaries Fighting was a wellknown vocation and avocation for Highlanders. For centuries, clansmen had fought in foreign armies, either as mercenaries or for a cause in which they deeply believed (e.g., against England). The Kings of France had a Scots Guard in which you could find clansmen with names like Bouquenaine and Ualis, which had been Buchanan and Wallace. There were Scots in the army of King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, who took part in the Thirty Years War in Germany. The Protestants served Sweden and their military experience later helped the Covenanting Army. The Catholics entered the service of Spain, Austria, and France. Often a bantering over a rampart or a challenge by a Scot in Gaelic would be answered in Gaelic! Centuries later, Scots who served in the British navy went to Chile to train their sailors and many stayed. While some Latinized their names, there was an Admiral Donald MacIntyre in the Navy of Chile some generations later. Deportation After each of the continuing conflicts, clansmen and clanswomen were forced into exile, most of them never to return. The most common relocation was to Ireland but this was too close for comfort and these "unsociable" Scots had too much in common with the "unsociable" Irish. The next best place to get rid of prisoners was the American Colonies. There was a major shipment following the Battles of Dunbar and Worcester in 1651 when many Scots lost their lives but many more were captured. Oliver Cromwell did not want to send the prisoners back to Scotland, to live and fight another day. Instead, as virtual slaves, they were sent to the American colonies in Massachusetts, the Carolinas, and the Barbados to work off their sentences. Among them were MacIntyres. Almost a century later, following the debacle of Culloden, a second contingent of prisoners arrived in the Barbados and, to their amazement, heard the natives and nonScottish slaves speaking Gaelic that they had learned from their Scottish overseers! After 1776, the Americas were no longer a place to send undesirables and Australia became the prime destination. Irish Plantations Since the time when the Scots came from Northern Ireland to settle Alba (Scotland), there had been continuous interchanges between these two lands, especially between Ulster and Argyll. County Antrim in Ulster is only 20 miles across the Irish Sea from Kintyre in Argyll. The Scottish MacDonnell, Lords of Islay and Kintyre at one time held the Glynns (Glens) of Antrim, married with the O'Neills, fought against plans to colonize Ulster with English settlers, and one of his descendants became the 1st Earl of Antrim. Ireland was always a place where Scots who lost their land in Scotland could go and still maintain their Gaelic culture. As mentioned previously, to subdue the Irish Catholic rebels and to stabilize control of the forfeited territory, Queen Elizabeth I conceived the Plantation of Ulster, which gave the lands of the Gaelic Chiefs to English and Scottish friends of the Crown. Her successor, James VI/I of the United Kingdom implemented Elizabeth’s plans and brought Scots to Ulster to manage the plantations (160820). MacIntyres were among those leaving Scotland to settle on plantations in Northern Ireland, particularly Tyrone and Donegal. 1 Scots were considered the best settlers because of their work ethic and Protestant religion. The major problem was their tendency to intermarry with the native Irish.
1. A map of Ireland, published on St. Patrick's Day, March 17, 1954 by The Washington Post Washington, D.C. shows MacIntire in County Donegal and MacIntyre in County Tyrone among the great names of the Emerald Isle.
The ScotchIrish They were called ScotchIrish because they came from Ireland but they were Scots by culture. After all, they had only been in Ireland for 150 years. Continuation of their Scottish culture was aided by their relative isolation in a separate layer of society and the northeast corner of Ireland, site of the Ulster plantations. In 1717, drought caused an economic depression that forced around 5,000 of these Scotch Irish to leave Ulster for emigration to America. This continued in significant numbers for half a century, until 1775. By 1790, the ScotchIrish were the second largest nationality group in the United States. 1 They preferred the Appalachian mountain range, because it reminded them of Scotland. They initially settled in New York and moved south across Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and Georgia. Significant concentrations of MacIntyres can still be found in the mountains of New York and North Carolina. Voluntary Emigration Some decided to leave on their own, perhaps seeing the writing on the wall. The Argyll Colony was one of the earliest Scottish settlements in what was to be the United States. The first colonists arrived from Argyll on the Thistle after a three and a half month voyage from the Isle of Gigha to what is now Wilmington, North Carolina at the mouth of the Cape Fear River. Others followed including some, like John McIntyre from Glenorchy, in 1775. This colony was the source of many descendants who still live in the area and some went on to concentrate in other areas, such as Charleston, South Carolina and Mississippi. Of course, there were those, Like Donald (IV) who decided to come to the new world alone to use their skills where they were most needed. Canada was another place where Scots were welcomed. There were undoubtedly a significant proportion of Scots in the English armies that came to fight in the French and Indian wars and later in the English Army in the Americans War of Independence. Some certainly remained in Canada rather then returning to a less than certain life in England or Scotland. There were others, like the daughters of James III, who left Glenoe for Canada and then the United States at a time when successive droughts had made farming in Scotland increasingly difficult. Australia, although halfway around the world, became another destination for voluntary emigration. The word got back from former prisoners that life wasn’t so bad and the opportunities were good. This fostered the first wave of emigration to Australia in 1830s coinciding with the clearances in Scotland and bolstered by the gold rush from 185060.
1. The Germans were the largest group and the English were third.
Rob Roy's Grave in Balquhidder — photo Hutchinson UK04
The Clearances Although relatively peaceful, the period from 1775 to 1825 was perhaps an even more difficult challenge to the clans than the ‘45 defeat. This period included crop failures, fear of war with France, and more importantly, the rapid advancement of the Industrial Revolution. These problems weren’t as acute as a war, but the ultimate effect was more devastating and long lasting. The threat and reality of the Napoleonic wars required coke to stoke the iron furnaces and the coke was made from Highland timber. Wool for the mills could not be obtained from the continent so the Highland pastures were converted from cattle to sheep. These two activities, tree cutting for coke and pasturage for sheep, complemented each other. The forested hills of Scotland quickly became the largely barren, grazing hillsides we see today. The higher elevations were used for deer hunting by the Lords and their friends. One shepherd could look after many sheep and what was left of the forest as well. As a result, many of the crofters were put off the land. The removal of the tenants was chronicled in the two books, Highland Clearances by John Prebble and The History of the Highland Clearances by Alexander Mackenzie. By this time, fewer and fewer Scottish tenants were blood relations or even in the same clan as the owner of the land. Also, the sense of clan obligation had diminished over the 200 years since the time when the clans owned the land. Despite these major economic and social changes, between 1755 and 1795 there was only a small reduction in the population around Glen Noe. This was only a temporary reprieve because in the ten years between 1831 and 1841, there was a sixty percent reduction in the population of Argyll. The new, largely absentee, landlords used the land for the highest monetary return. In only a short fifty years, sheep had replaced cattle and then hunting had replace sheep as the most valuable use of land. An important factor was the economics, with that land for hunting requiring even fewer workers than sheep. Fewer workers meant fewer problems and fewer expenses for the lords who used the added profits to pay for townhouses in Edinburgh and London. The uprooted tenants had three choices: seek their fortune overseas, go to England as beggars or servants, or enlist in one of the King’s kilted regiments that forged the bonds of the Empire upon which the sun never set. Prologue Regardless of the reasons for their emigration, a Scot kept a warm spot in his heart for the glen he called home. He also took with him his stories of loyalties and injustices, which he passed on to his descendants, via the same oral method that his father and grandfather used; in fact, the same way my father passed them on to me (until he wrote this book). Thus, clan loyalties (and feuds) did not die with the destruction of the clan system. To this day, there remains a strong kinship among people of Scottish descent, especially those who bear the same name. There is no other explanation for the feeling of pride or disgrace that we feel when someone with our name is in the news. Regardless of their socioeconomic status, location, religion, or race, we know that we are somehow connected to them and that this connection is important. The rivalry between clans remains, especially between clans who in the past were deadly enemies. At annual clan gatherings, there is a feeling of Scottish unity while maintaining, in jest (usually), the traditional clan feuds such as, the MacDonalds vs. Campbells with the MacIntyres still caught in between. Even as we toast the Queen, we think of her as the Scottish Queen, so we can retain our enmity toward the English who tried, and still try, to take away our Highland heritage and independence. We also smile when we see the present monarchs take pleasure in wearing the kilt on their Scottish holidays at Balmoral Castle, especially because the "Queen Mum" was a Scot by birth. Despite centuries of defeats on the battlefield, the culture of the clan has survived, as witnessed by this book, the Clan Societies, and the many annual Highland gatherings. Tartan, kilt, bagpipe, Scotch whiskey, country dancing, Highland dancing, country music, and golf, have all found their way into the fabric of daily life wherever the Scots have settled. A worldwide gathering of the clans was held in Edinburgh, Scotland in May 1977, when the descendants of those who had left centuries before, returned to celebrate their clan’s survival and to visit the land their clans once held. This reunion was testimony to the hardiness and luck of ancestors who survived war, famine, pestilence and the other hardships of life in both the old and the new world. The motto of all of the clans might well be that of the MacIntyres, Per Ardua.
History of the MacIntyre Clan Part II Mac Intyre History – c. 800 TO 2000 A.D.
ORIGIN OF CLAN MAC INTYRE
Meaning of the Name
MacIntyre in Gaelic is MacantSaoir and means Children of The Wright. In ancient Scotland, wright meant shipwright. Although, saoir also means carpenter, in Scotland there was no need for someone with special skills to build and furnish a simple Highland dwelling. Conversely, there was a clear need for the skills of a wright to build a seaworthy galley. 1 This doesn’t mean that Scots who changed their name when they emigrated to England, always changed it to Wright. They may have very well changed it to Carpenter or Joiner, as they moved further south into England.
Traditional Origin Legends
When there is no written history, weight must be given to the stories passed down through the ages by clan bards and seanachies because these individuals were held in high esteem and were trusted with the solemn duty of preserving the history of their chiefs. 2 Although many of these tales sound far fetched, we know that new clans and surnames were often established after a heroic act or acquisition of new territory through inheritance or warfare. These stories had common threads and were important enough to be told and retold. Assuming the legends are based on facts, or are allegories representing real events, the following summary seems reasonable. At the beginning of the 2nd century, Conn of the Hundred Battles was the High King of Scotia. 3 Cabris Riada, a grandson or nephew of Conn, established a colony in Argyll and the western islands. One of Cabris’s sons, Colla Uais maintained and enlarged this colony, called Dalriada. Clan Donald and Clan MacDougall claim to be direct male descendants of the ConnCabrisColla line. In the latter half of the 4th century, a great ruler in Ulster, Nial of the Nine Hostages, The O’Neill, came to the rescue of the Dalriada colony in their battle with the Picts. The MacNeils are the descendants of The O’Neill. From 800A.D. to1100 A.D., the ancestors of those who would eventually be called MacIntyres, MacDonalds, MacDougalls, and MacNeils, lived on the islands west of Scotland. 4 It was from these early times, before written history, that the first MacIntyre legends originated. The Thumb Carpenter. The origin story favored by Duncan Ban MacIntyre, the Gaelic poet, concerns these earliest ancestors. As the story goes, an ancestor of a MacDonald living in Sleat, finding his boat about to sink from a leak, stuck his thumb in the hole, chopped it off and hammered it firm, so saving the boat and crew. For this heroic act, he was called the thumb carpenter or Saornahordaig and, according to custom, his son was the first to be called MacantSaoir, son of the carpenter. This story may have simply been Duncan Ban’s poetic license because an almost identical story is told of the illegitimate son of a MacDonald King, Fingal of Islay, who was then called the Thumb Carpenter and whose descendants were called Sons of the Wright. It is the MacDonald version of the story, which has given them the notion that MacIntyres are descendants of the MacDonalds. Maurice MacNeil and Somerled. The second tale is later and the time it occurred can be accurately th pinpointed. In the first half of the 12 century, a man named Somerled was the Thane of Argyll. Somerled claimed direct descent from Colla Uais in the male line but had Norse blood as well. Between 11001120, a sister of Somerled married a younger son of the MacNeil chief. From this union of a MacNeil and his "Colla" wife issued a son, Maurice, who was destined to be the progenitor of Clan MacIntyre. This story is recounted in Collectanea de Rebus Albanicis, c. 1450 and is the first MacIntyre legend to be found in print. 5 Of course, being first isn’t proof of truth or accuracy, especially since it was written three centuries after the fact.
1. The early Highland dwellings had stonewalls, thatched roofs, dirt floors, and minimal furniture.
While the account could be partly fictional, the marriage of Somerled to Ragnhild, daughter of Olav, was real and took place c.1140 A.D. It seems that Somerled wanted to wrest possession of the Western Isles from his Norse over ruler, Olav, King of Man, and the Western Isles. Somerled was not strong enough to do this by force so he tried a common alternative marriage. He offered to support Olav in a raid on the English coast in return for the hand of Olav’s daughter, Ragnhild. Olav refused and Somerled had no choice but to go on the raid anyway. This is where the story would have ended except Somerled had a nephew, Maurice MacNeil, 1 who just happened to be Olav’s foster son. 2 In this struggle for power, Maurice had to choose his uncle or to his foster father and he chose his blood relation, Somerled. Maurice devised a plan that took advantage of his being stationed on Olav’s galley. The night before they sailed, while everyone was feasting on the shore, Maurice secretly bored holes just above the waterline and plugged them with tallow. The fleet of galleys set sail in the morning and, as expected, they encountered rough seas just past the point of Ardnamurchan. The strong waves dislodged the tallow plugs in Olav’s ship and it began to sink. Faced with certain death, Olav called to Somerled’s galley for help and gave a solemn pledge of his daughter’s hand in marriage in return for his life. Once Olav was safely aboard Somerled’s galley, Maurice plugged the holes with wooden pegs he had made. For this cunning and heroic act, Maurice was called "The Wright or Saoir" and his descendants were called MacantSaoir. Olav died in 1053 and within a few years Somerled was King of the Isles. Sometime thereafter, Maurice "The Wright" became a clan chief and his son the first son of The Wright and Chief of Clan MacIntyre. 3
Books and commercial pamphlets on clan tartans and histories are replete with false explanations of the origin of Clan MacIntyre. They often contain a kernel of truth and some of the explanations even sound plausible, but so did the idea that the sun revolves around the earth. Nevertheless, these explanations are neither based on historical fact nor supported by the legends. Trade Name. The most common, yet patently false, explanation is that MacIntyres are a clan of carpenters or shipwrights. In daily conversation, it was normal to refer to someone by his skill, like "John the Baker." However, clans were not trade groups or guilds. If MacIntyres were all shipwrights or carpenters, they would have been found all over Scotland instead of being concentrated in Argyll. This concentrated distribution continues to the present day. No one suggests that Clan MacNab (son of the abbot) was a clan of clergymen although its founder may have been one just as Maurice MacNeil may have been a shipwright.
1. Maurice is also referred to as Murdoch, and MacNeil as MacArill or O’Neill. 2. It was a common practice to exchange children (fostering) or marry into families to ensure peace where there might otherwise by enmity. 3. Donald J. MacDonald of Castleton in his 1978 history, Clan Donald, takes his version of this story from an earlier history by the, socalled Sleat Seanachie. This history corroborates the Maurice MacNeilSomerled story with one significant exception. His first reference to Maurice MacNeil is as a "skillful shipwright" and a "Saor Sleibhteach (Sleat Carpenter)" who disabled Olav’s galley to achieve Somerled’s marriage to Ragnhild. However, when describing Somerled’s death, there is a second reference to a Maurice MacNeil described as "a near relative" who murdered Somerled for money or land! So, the seanachies of the Donalds give to the MacIntyres with one hand and takes with the other! However, neither the shipwrighthero Maurice nor the murdering relative, Maurice, would qualify MacIntyres as a sept of Clan Donald. There is some sense to the shipwrighthero story, since it would take the skill of a wright to quickly bore the holes in the correct location. For those who would like to think the worst and who love conspiracies, there is this possibility based on the tale by the Sleat Seanachie. In this scenario, Maurice would be both the nephew of Somerled and the skillful shipwright. After developing and executing a daring plan to secure Ragnhild for his uncle, Somerled failed to reward the "Sleat Wright" as promised. After waiting for 14 years for his reward, Maurice accepted a promised of land from King Malcolm III in return for delivering Somerled to him. According to the Donald historian, Maurice murdered his Uncle Somerled but when Somerled’s corpse was kicked by one of the King’s men, Maurice killed the soldier for dishonoring his dead Uncle. Despite this second murder, King Malcolm III fulfilled his promise to Maurice and gave him his reward. Could this have been Glenoe and could King Malcolm III be the king (as told by Duncan Ban) who gave the MacIntyre chiefs their coat of arms? Now that would be some story! Are there two Maurice MacNeils or only one? Surely, we shall never know. 5. Nevertheless, it would have been possible for St. Ciaran to be the founder since the Celtic Church permitted clerics to marry and have families.
Ecclesiastical. There were a number of famous Scoti ecclesiastics with the name, MacIntyre. The first to be recorded was Ciaran MacantSaoir in 541. Later known as St. Ciaran, he founded the famous monastery of Clonmacnoise, near Athlone, Ireland and was called Mac antSaoir simply because his father was a carpenter or artificicer (one who is skilled in building). St. Ciaran, who died without issue, could not have been the founder of a hereditary Clan MacIntyre. 1 There was an added religious significance to their name because Jesus was the son of a carpenter. In the Gaelic New Testament (Matthew XIII, 55) you will find the question, in referring to Jesus, "Nach e so mac an tsaoir?" Is not this the carpenter’s son? Two hundred years later, in 762, another Ciaran Mac ant Saoir was Abbot of Eanach Dhu in the north of Ireland and just a few years later in 773 a Conall Mac ant Saoir was named an Abbot of Beannchair. Again, three hundred years, in 1029, another Irish cleric, Mael Brighde was called Mac antSaoir. By this time, it appears that Mac antSaoir had become a sort of title within the Church, to denote wisdom or to venerate St. Ciaran, rather than being a family name. 1 Finally, in 1268 there was Michael Mac antSaoir who was Bishop of Clogher in Tryone. Mac antSaior was his family name, but there is no evidence that it was a clan name. Territorial. Some references falsely state that MacIntyres are descended from MacDonalds of Kintyre. Indeed, there was a MacDonald of CeanTire (pronounced Kintyre and meaning headland) because he possessed land in Kintyre. This MacDonald had a son with land near Ben Cruachan and he was known as Donald MacCeinTeireCruachan. While this derivation has an English language, "soundslike" plausibility, the Gaelic spelling is completely different. With few exceptions, clan names were not derived from place names except to distinguish branches of the same clan e.g. Stewart of Appin vs. Stewart of Atholl.
Where From and Where To?
Because the name MacIntyre, was easily derived as the son of a wright or carpenter, it is certainly possible that it could have developed independently in Ireland and Scotland, just as it is also possible that after it was established in Scotland, the name came back to Ireland during multiple waves of immigration from Scotland. In about 300 A.D., the Scoti came from northeast Ireland to colonized Argyll and the Western Islands including Sleat. These people would have included the ancestors of the MacIntyres as well as the MacDonalds, MacDougalls, and MacNeils. At that time, these clans were not known by these names, with the possible exception of the MacNeils. In fact, the use of surnames did not develop until c. 1000. The MacIntyre oral tradition places the homeland of the ancestors of Clan MacIntyre in Sleat at the southern tip of the Isle of Skye. There are two legends about how the MacIntyre’s arrived on the mainland and eventually at Glenoe. Two Brothers. Two brothers one the ancestor of the MacDonalds and the other the ancestor of the MacIntyres sailed in their galleys from one of the northern islands of Skye. When in sight of the mainland they agreed that the country should be named and owned by the one who should first touch it. They were pretty well matched sailing side by side. When they were nearing the shore, Donald was ahead but his boat sprung a leak. In order to win, he stuck his finger in the hole, cut it off with his dirk, and continued sailing. 5 Upon seeing that he was about to lose, the other brother, the Saoir or Wright, cut off his left hand and threw it on the land, thereby claiming first possession. A similar story is found in the MacDonald legends, and before that in the Irish Scoti legends. Let us hope that these heroic amputations were merely allegories representing the separation of the cousins or twins into separate clans. 6 Second Sight and Mountain Spirits. An ancestor of the MacIntyres lived in Sleat and was constantly harassed by Viking raids. After one such raid, a white cow was spared, having been overlooked in the snow. In desperation, he sought advice from an old lady gifted with secondsight. 7 She told him that he would find peace and happiness if he left Sleat and settled his family where the cow would first lie down after landing. MacIntyre, his wife, two sons, and the white cow (who fortunately was in calf) left Sleat in a galley and landed on the mainland. The wellknown Gaelic poet, Ailein Dall of Glencoe said: MacIntyres were bold, hardy, and fleet, Though they lost what belonged to the Clan when in Sleat The Wright arrived on the mainland with his family at a place called CownnaGara 9 where they stayed quite a few years until their white cattle became so numerous that they had to find a place with more pasture.
Arriving at the side of Ben Cruachan on Loch Etiveside, they tried to drive their cattle through several passes but were each time prevented by the Mountain Spirit. 10 They persevered until the spirit finally let them pass through an opening (larig) to Glenoe, a beautiful rich grazing valley northeast of the mountain. The Spirit told them to stop and build their house where the cow should first lie down. In another version, the MacIntyres first landed on the mainland at BaghnaTorrach (castle bay) near Dunollie (Fort of Olav) and then followed the shores of Loch Etive until they came to Ben Cruachan. At first, the Mountain Spirit turned them back but let it be made known that it was not from ill will that he repulsed them. He then told them that if they went to the other side of the mountain they would find a habitation where they could settle under his guardianship. 11 It was to be called, Glenoe.
The legends suggest that the ancestors of the MacIntyres came from the islands off the western shore of Scotland and eventually to Glenoe on the mainland. Combining the legends with known historical facts, gives credence to the idea that around 1150 Clan MacIntyre was formed by Maurice MacNeil, The Wright. We can also be fairly sure that by 1314 there was a recognized Clan MacIntyre, because pipers identified by the Menzies as MacIntyres led them into battle for King Robert the Bruce at Bannockburn. 12 Supplying hereditary pipers to another clan suggests that MacIntyres were a wellestablished clan that existed for many generations before 1314. In dealing with traditions such as these, one must give or take a couple of hundred years. 13 This scenario gives ample time for the large body of legends to develop and age, like a fine singlemalt Scotch in a seasoned oak barrel.
1. Nevertheless, it would have been possible for St. Ciaran to be the founder since the Celtic Church permitted clerics to marry and have families. 5. When Clan Donald tell this story it is the ancestor of the MacIntyres who cuts off his thumb (hence the thumb carpenter) and it is the ancestor of the Donalds who cuts off his hand and wins the land. In the Donald’s version the land is Sleat and the MacIntyres have to seek land elsewhere. 6. There are multiple versions of the thumb and hand story with opposing views as to who cut off a hand or thumb and whether is was the right or left. This would change who won the race and claimed the land. The stories also vary as to what land they were trying to reach, Ireland or Sleat or Glenoe. 7. Traditionally Scots have been believers in spirits, fairylore, and secondsight. 9. The location of CownnaGara is unknown. 11. According to Alexander James MacIntyre of Inveraray, Argyll. 12. From the Red and White Book of Menzies page 52 on the Battle of Bannockburn, Monday 24, June 1314. "In front of them (the Menzies) were played the bagpipes by their hereditary pipers, the MacIntyres." 13. Assuming 25 years per generation, the year 1314 would be twentyeight generations ago and 1150 would be eight generations more, for a total of thirtyfour generations.
Connell Bridge near the Falls of Laura — photos Hutchinson UK04
Glenoe in 2004 — photos Hutchinson UK04
GLENOE HOME OF THE MAC INTYRES
The spot where the cow first lay down to rest was at Glenoe, Loch Etiveside, at the base of Ben Cruachan. The place is still known as LarachnabaBaine, meaning the Site of the White Cow. Glenoe is about three miles long by three broad on the north face of Ben Cruachan. In Gaelic, Glenoe is Glenna Nodha meaning speckled or brindled valley. 1 The origin of this name suggests a variety in the color of the trees including the yew and alder trees that could give this speckled appearance when seen from a distance. 2 Snow from the corries of Ben Cruachan feed the River Noe, which runs down the west side of the glen. Twothirds of the way down is a beautiful waterfall, which is nameless on the survey map. I have taken the liberty of naming it MacIntyre Falls. Where the River Noe enters Loch Etive, is called Invernoe. Going along the shoreline toward the head of Loch Etive, one comes upon a small meadow where sheep may be grazing. Near the shore is a mound of stones, a memorial cairn that was raised in 1976 to honor the MacIntyre Chiefs. Over the years, visitors have added stones to the cairn from a ready supply on the shore and it has become so large that it is identified on the official 2000 ordinance survey map. Continuing along the shore is a small jetty followed closely by forested hillock covered with alder trees. On the other side of the hillock is a stone house built in 1858. This may have been the site of LarachnabaBaine, where the Chief built his first dwelling. Another possible site is the remains of a stone structure a short distance up the glen. This ruin could have been a holding pen for livestock but the Highland house served both man and beasts on cold winter nights. 3
4 Loch Etive is a narrow sea loch that enters the Firth of Lorn next to Loch Linnhe. Loch Etive is easy to see on a map because it looks like a bird in flight, a boomerang, or a bent arm depending on your imagination. It is a sea loch, which means it has both fresh and salt water. The fresh water comes from small rivers and streams that enter along its shoreline, starting at its head, Inveretive, where the River Etive enters the loch. Another major source of fresh water is at the elbow (Inverawe), where the River Awe discharges into Loch Etive.
The salt water in Loch Etive comes from a unique opening to the sea at Connel. Twice a day, as the tide comes in, the salty seawater rushes over a natural rock dam into Loch Etive creating the Falls of Lora. Boats and sea life can enter and exit only during the few hours of high tide. The presence of seawater is evidenced by the seals sunbathing on rocky islands in the middle of Loch Etive and sheep eating seaweed on the shoreline.
At 3689 feet, Ben Cruachan is the tallest mountain in Argyll. The large cupshaped depression on the northwest side above Glenoe is probably from a glacial flow as the ice receded to the North at the end of the last Ice Age. It is from Ben Cruachan’s snow pack that the River Noe originates and flows down to Loch Etive. Even in the early summer, you can find snow deep in the crevices that never see the light of day. Viewed from the south or north, the distinctive twin peaks of Ben Cruachan were formed long before man arrived. In Gaelic, Cruachan mean pointed or conical. With Ben Cruachan on one side and Loch Etive on the other, Glenoe was fairly well protected from the prying eyes of both strangers and neighbors.
1. This is only one definition of the meaning of Noe or Nodha, but it makes the most sense to the author. Other meanings ascribed by various authors are: new, verdant, virgin, and north. All of these definitions could apply, since the glen was at one time new to the inhabitants with a green, virgin forest and it is on the North side of Ben Cruachan. However, at one time these other definitions would have applied to thousands of Scotland’s many glens. The special coloration of the variety of trees that were once abundant in this small glen could have inspired the name, Glenoe. 2. When viewed from above on Ben Cruachan or from the other side of Loch Etive. 3. The Glenoe property is presently owned by Mr. HeriotMaitland. 4. A sea loch is subject to tidal changes and the Falls of Lora is a tidal fall created by a rocky area at the narrow mouth of the loch where it enters the sea. When the tide is out, the rocks are a visible barrier to entering or leaving the loch. When the tide comes in, the seawater rushes over the rocks creating the Falls of Lora. At high tide, the water level is above the top of the falls and it is possible to see how small boats can cross in and out over the falls if the boat’s draft is shallow. When the crossing hasn’t been timed correctly with the tides, the results have been disastrous with foundering of the boat and loss of life.
The First MacIntyres
We can’t verify when the first MacIntyres arrived in Glenoe or even if they were known as MacIntyres. Various accounts place the MacIntyre settlement of Glenoe from as early as c.800 A.D. The oldest written surviving contemporary document is from 1556 and it refers to an event involving MacIntyres in 1440 at Glenorchy, on the other side of Ben Cruachan from Glenoe. We do know that MacIntyres eventually lived at Glenoe on Loch Etiveside and in the adjoining glens where they were probably the hereditary foresters to those who ruled Lorn. It is likely that the 1314 pipers for the Menzies originally came from Glenoe. The only information by a member of the Chief’s family is a statement by Mary MacIntyre, a surviving younger sister of the MacIntyre Chief, James (III). She said, "James McIntyre of Gleno . . . with his predecessors … resided upon the farm at Gleno for about 700 years past . . ." 2 This is the only account of a member of a MacIntyre Chief’s family that states the approximate length of time that MacIntyres were in Glenoe. She could have said any number of years but she said 700, which would take us back to the 1100s, exactly when Somerled ruled Argyll and could have given Glenoe as a reward to Maurice MacNeil, The Wright. Coll MacDonald of Dalness, 3 a Writer to the Signet 4 in Edinburgh, said he found documents in the Lyon Registry Office showing that the MacIntyres had occupied Glenoe for upwards of 1000 years. The poem in the dedication to this book says that the apple tree and MacIntyres of Glenoe are the oldest farmers in Scotland, which suggests an early origin. For those who would like to imagine what it might have been like to be a MacIntyre living at Glenoe c. 8001200 A.D., Alexander James MacIntyre has written an unfinished historical novel based on the stories he was told as a child by his grandmother and greataunt. Here is a brief excerpt from the story, which is in Part V:
The Tale of the Mystic Brindled Stone
Chapter I Introduces the reader to three of the principal characters Alert and eagerly the man and boy searched the rockstrewn shore near high water mark. Now, at the water’s edge, each followed his own path, never uttering a word. They both carried long cromacks in their hands, which they used with a peculiar twist to turn over large stones or to search below the sea tangle. It was evident that a very diligent search was being made for something which they knew was there but was seemingly very difficult to find. Behind them right to the shore stretched the impenetrable Caledonian Forest, tall firs, birches, and ancient oaks mingling together in a confused mass. Complete solitude and utter desolation were it not that in the distance, rising above the trees, could be seen a slight wisp of blue wood smoke almost obscured by the mist, proclaiming that even in the midst of this wilderness of forest, mountain and sea, cosy fires burned to welcome the wanderers home. The short winter’s day was fast drawing to a close; the note of the sea bird’s cry had changed. No longer was the search for food possible; their cry was the roosting cry as they settled to rest in sheltered corners of the shore. Down the steep sides of Cruachan echoes the sharp bark of the shewolf gathering the pack before setting out to their nightly hunting ground. The searchers continued on their quest (continue in Part V. Legends and Stories)
1. Kin are relatives by blood or marriage. They include those who came before (ancestors) and those who came after (descendents). Kith are unrelated neighbors. 2. From an appeal for assistance to Lord Glenorchy in 1810. 3. In 1962, the author (L.D. MacIntyre) saw the tomb of Coll MacDonald of Dalness surrounded by an iron fence and padlocked in the fashion of that period to discourage grave robbers seeking cadavers to sell to medical students for dissection. 4. A judicial officer who prepares warrants, writs, etc; originally a clerk in the office of the Secretary of State.
In studying a Scottish clan, you can go both forward and backwards from the time of the person identified as the progenitor. For the MacIntyres, that person is Maurice MacNeil, The Wright, and the time is c.1150 A.D. The legend of Maurice and Somerled explains how a new chief and clan could be peacefully established on territory already under Somerled’s control. It is important to trace the blood relationships before the time of Somerled in order to understand what happened afterwards. The table, MacIntyre Ancestors, shows the blood relationships before the clans were formed under their present names. This demonstrates that MacIntyres are cousins to the MacDonalds and MacDougalls on the female side prior to establishment of these names as independent clans. Their common ancestor was Gillebride, father of Somerled, who was paternal grandfather of Dougal (MacDougall), maternal grandfather of Maurice, The Wright (MacIntyre) and paternal great grandfather of Donald (MacDonald). This makes sense of the story about the boat race between the ancestors of the MacDonalds and the MacIntyres but instead of the story being titled "Two Brothers," it should be "Two Cousins." MacIntyres are also cousins to the MacNeils on the male side. In discussing the origins of Clan MacIntyre, Duncan McIntyre of Australia uses the most conservative criteria only what can be safely stated without direct denial. He concludes that Clan MacIntyre developed parallel with the MacDonalds, and therefore, not as their sept or branch. He dates the beginning of Clan MacIntyre as "...not later than 1400", because he feels sure there was a Clan MacIntyre at the beginning of the 1400s, but he feels he can’t accurately say how much earlier. Of course, this does not rule out the possibility that it could be c.1150, in keeping with the Somerled connection, espoused by other clan historians. The location of the Thumb Carpenter legend on the Isle of Skye and its allegorical nature suggests an even earlier origin but there is no way to prove it or date it. The most plausible argument against an earlier date is the fact that Clans Donald and MacDougall were named after ancestors living in the 1100s.
After a clan became established, there were situations in which it became necessary or desirable to form a cadet or branch. Cadets were headed by a younger son of the chief who wanted to establish his own identity or had acquired his own land through marriage or inheritance. If this occurred more than once, the first cadet is referred to as the senior cadet and the later ones as junior cadets. Cadets are within the heraldic system and require the same process of recognition and documentation of inheritance. The head of a cadet is usually called a chieftain or representer. The House of CamusnahErie is the senior cadet of Glenoe and is presently in its seventeenth generation. It originated before written records when a younger son of an unnamed MacIntyre chief moved to Loch Leven and established himself as a cadet of the House of Glenoe. The Lord Lyon, King of Arms, recognized the CamusnahErie cadet in 1955 when he awarded Arms to Alastair MacIntyre, as sixteenth Chieftain of the senior cadet of Glenoe. The House of Stranmore is reputedly the Glenorchy cadet of Glenoe that produced Duncan Ban MacIntyre, the famous MacIntyre Gaelic poet, and James Alexander MacIntyre, a clan historian/storyteller in the first half of the twentieth century. This cadet has not been recognized by the Lyon Court and has no known living descendant. The House of Etive, if it actually ever existed, would have been located at Dalness near the site of the encampment of Deirdre of the Sorrows. This cadet is not recognized by the Lyon Court and has no known living descendant.
All of the reasons for calling a group a sept of a clan apply to septs of Clan MacIntyre. In this second edition, Wrightson has been added the list of septs because it means, son of the wright. Of course, Wrightson or Wright could be of English origin, but if the family originated in Scotland, the presumption is that they are MacIntyres. Wellknown septs will be discussed with the stories associated with their origin and existence. MacIntyres of Glenorchy. Glenorchy is on the other side of Ben Cruachan, southeast of Glenoe and north of Loch Awe. Whether they were a sept or a cadet of Clan MacIntyre is not known at this time. However, we do know that they were a large enough to have their own identity and tartan. They were also
known as Clan Teir and from a feudal standpoint were under the sway of Campbell of Glenorchy. There is a question as to whether Clan Teir was synonymous with Clan MacIntyre of Glenoe. Even if they owed a feudal allegiance to Glenorchy, they still owed their Gaelic family allegiance to MacIntyre of Glenoe. A feudal superior held the power of life and death over his subjects. Lord Glenorchy, when he became the Earl of Breadalbane, held court at Taymouth Castle where he gave summary judgment of guilt, which could be quickly executed, from The Hanging Tree. There is an entry in The Black Book of Taymouth regarding Clan Teir under date of June 4, 1556. This agreement, called a Bond, was a written confirmation of an oral agreement made between 1410 and 1453. It states that during the minority of King James I or II, 2 a person known as Johne Boy M`Ynteir committed cruel slaughter of Johne M`Gillenlag, a foster brother of Sir Colin Campbell of Glenorchy. As punishment, Lord Glenorchy decided that Clan Teir must elect him and his heirs as their feudal chiefs and masters. One hundred and sixteen years later, on June 4, 1556, a meeting was held at the Castle of Glenorchy to have Clan Teir ratify this bond in writing and to pledge to keep the peace. Present as witnesses were the chiefs of two neighboring clans, Alexander Menzies of Rannoch and John MacGregor of MacGregor. 3 BOND TO GLENORCHY Duncan M’Olcallum, V’ane V yntere, Gillecrist M’Corkill V Inteir, Johne M’Corkill V. Ynteir, Torkill M’Ane V Inteir, Johne Glas M’Olvorie V. Inteir, and Johne M’Ewin V.Oldouuycht V Inter . . .foresamekill as our predecessouris for the tyme happinit to commit slauchter upon wmquhile [the late] Sir Colyne Campbell of Glenurquhay, knycht in the minority and less aige of Kyng James the First in the cruel slauchter of ane fostir brothir of the said Sir Colyn callit John M’Gillenlag for sythment and recompens of the said slauchtir our saidis predecessouris to eschew the hatrint and pirsute of the said Sir Colyn deliverit to hym ane of the principile committaris of the said slaughter callit Johne Boy M’Ynteir to be pwnesit at the will of the said Sir Colyne. And may rouer that thai and thair posterite mycht remaine in favouris of the said Sir Colyne electit and tuke hymn and his airis for thair chieffis and masteris … and ….. gev …. to the said Colyn and his airis thair calpis … quhilkis calpis the said Sir Colyne Sir Duncan Campbell of Glenurquhay knycht his sone that decessit at Flowdown and all utheris lardis of Glenurquhay sen syne tuk lirk wp: the Said Clan Teir of new ratify the said Bond in favour of Colyne now of Glenurquhay. Dated at the castle of Glenurquhaybefore witnesses Alexander Menzis of Rannoch, Johne M’Conachy Gregour, John M’Conachy Roy, and Sir Malcum M"Gillequhonill 4 June 1556 The following is a nonliteral (but hopefully accurate) translation. Duncan son of Malcolm son of Joh MacIntyre, Gillecrist son of Torkill MacIntyre, John son of Torkill MacIntyre, and Torkill son of John MacIntyre, and greyhaired John son of Olvorie MacIntyre, and John son of Ewan son of Oldouycht MacIntyre, For our ancestors, who in the minority of King James I, committed a crime against the late Sir Colin Campbell of Glenorchy, by killing his foster brother, John MacGillenlag, and to compensate for this crime and to relieve the hatred and pursuit of Sir Colin, our ancestors delivered to
2. Two individuals have made copies of the original document and after the name "King James" one has "the [blank} and the other has "the First." If it was King James I then it was from age one in 1395 to 1413 at age 18, and if it was James II then it was between 1431 and 1448. The significance of this is discussed in the body of the text. 3. The 1556 meeting was most unusual because the representatives of Clan Teir were being held accountable for a crime committed at least 116 years and four to six generations earlier!
him the main perpetrator, called John Boy M’Ynteir, to be punished at the will of Sir Colin. And moreover, (agreed) that they and their descendents would remain in favor of Sir Colin and elect and take him and his heirs for their chiefs and masters and give to Sir Colyn and his heirs death duty, the same death duty that Colin, Sir Duncan Campbell of Glenorchy, his son who died at Flodden, and all other Lords of Glenorchy have required since then; the said Clan Teir renews this Bond in favor of Colin, now of Glenorchy. Dated at the Castle of Glenorchy before witnesses Alexander Menzies of Rannoch, John M’Conachy Gregour, and Johne M’Conachy Roy, and Sir Malcolm M’Gillequhonill. 4 June 1556 There is a story that may be connected to this event and could explain why there were so many MacIntyres in the Campbell territories of Glenorchy. The story is about Duncan, a MacIntyre Chief of Glenoe, whose two sons drove their white cattle from Glenoe to Tyndrum, in Glenorchy. They were planning to sell the cattle to some Campbells but a dispute arose in which one or more Campbells were killed. One of the punishments was an annual death duty that was not specified but may have been the snowball and white calf. But there was a more onerous punishment the MacIntyre chief’s two adult sons and their families were required to live in Glenorchy under the thumb of the Campbells! This story and the Bond to Lord Glenorchy both deal with the relationship between the MacIntyres and the Campbells. Since the Bond is the first that identifies a Clan Teir or MacIntyre, three writers, Alexander James MacIntyre, L. D. MacIntyre, and Duncan McIntyre, have analyzed its significance with varied interpretations. Each variation will be summarized followed by a fourth one by this author. In 1936, Alexander of Inveraray copied the Bond in long hand from the original document. He was also the writer who recounted the story of Chief Duncan of Glenoe and his two sons, as told to him by his father.. He treats the story and the Bond as two versions of the same events. Alexander copied that it was during the minority of King James the First (between 1395 – 1412). At that time, MacIntyres at Glenoe were not under the territorial or judicial control of the Campbells. Nevertheless, the Campbells apparently were able to insist on a death duty (calps) to atone for this killing by MacIntyres. Even then, possession was nine parts of the law and they probably possessed the Chief’s sons, which Johne Boy was able to escape. The Bond say that Johne Boy was the primary perpetrator, and the legend suggests that the Chief’s sons were involved and their punishment was permanent house arrest in Glenorchy for them, and their families. Alexander felt that the calps referred to in the Bond may have been the snowball and fatted calf on Midsummer’s Day between Glenoe and Glenorchy at the pass near the summit of Ben Cruachan. Alexander made no mention of the continuing obligation of manrent or the loss of MacIntyre’s independence or MacIntyres becoming a sept of the Campbells. He does say that this incident was the beginning of the Glenorchy MacIntyres and in a separate place said that it was the end of any chance for MacIntyres to become a powerful Clan. He also tells a number of stories that indicate MacIntyre independence and mutual mistrust between the MacIntyres and the Campbells. In one of these, Donald Fraich (Duncan’s second son and eventually a Chief) was insulted by the Campbells when he delivered the snowball and calf and he never deliver it again. This would have been less than one generation after the death duty was imposed. In 1987, L. D. MacIntyre used Alexander’s text, but came to a somewhat different conclusion. First, he did not connect the Bond with the Legend of Duncan and his sons. He said that "some of the MacIntyres forfeited their allegiance to the Chief Glen, but while the word Chief is used in the bond, it could be construed to mean that this is a bond of manrent . . ." This was why Archibald MacIntyre fought along side Sir Colin Campbell at Flodden and brought back his body. He doesn’t acknowledge that Clan Teir is the same as Clan MacIntyre but by putting their under MacIntyres of Glenorchy as in this edition as well, is suggesting that Clan Teir is a Glenorchy sept and the main Clan MacIntyre, is in Glenoe. This interpretation permits the MacIntyes of Glenoe to remain independent while the MacIntyres of Glenorchy may have lost their independence by becoming a sept of Clan Campbell. In 1991, Duncan MacIntyre of Australia, asserted that the Bond meant that the MacIntyre Chief of Glenoe forfeited his clan’s independence in favor of Clan Campbell, and thenceforth, Glenoe would have only have been a chieftain of a sept of Clan Campbell. This is based on the use of the word chief in describing the relationship of Lord Glenorchy to the members of Clan Teir. It also is based on the assumption that Clan Teir is synonymous with Clan MacIntyre of Glenoe. The bond of manrent would have required the MacIntyres of Glenorchy and Glenoe to furnish men upon demand to the Lords of Glenorchy. 1 It is a matter of record that MacIntyres did fight in the Clan Battles in 1445 and at the Battle of Flodden in 1513. Finally, Duncan of Australia read the original Bond and his copy has one major difference from
Alexander’s copy. Where Duncan’s says, "King James the [blank]", Alexander has "Kyng James the First." Duncan feels certain that it was James II and not James I, based on other historical facts, specifically, the date of the first Lord Glenorchy(1432). King James II was in his minority from 1431 to 1448, which would suggest James II. It is also on the basis that Glenoe became a part of Lord Glenorchy’s holdings by 1457 and the Lordship of Lorn became Campbell in 1469. In 2001, six hundred years after the event, and 450 years after the document was signed, I (the author of the second edition) will make yet another attempt to explain the relationship between the MacIntyres and the Campbells by using the Bond, the legends, historical facts, logic and common sense as guides. There are important questions to be answered. Was the first name on the Bond the name of the MacIntyre Chief (chieftain) of Glenoe? Did his ancestor forfeit the clan’s independence? and if yes, when? after the murders in the 1400s or only after the Bond was signed in 1556? Was Clan Teir synonymous with Clan MacIntyre? Was there a direct connection between the events cited in the Bond and the Legend of Chief Duncan? Why was a written document required for something that the parties agreed happened more than one hundred years earlier and had been faithfully adhered to since that time? Finally, was this event during the time of the minority of James I or James II? Let’s start with the last question first. Whether it occurred in the minority of James I or II is very important in determining what actually happened and perhaps why a written document was needed over one hundred years later, in 1556. The answer to this question can be further defined by the fact that the person who was murdered was the foster brother of Sir Colin Campbell, the aggrieved party listed in the Bond. We know that Sir Colin could not be born before????. We can assume that his foster brother was younger than he and was of an age when he might be hot headed (16 to 20) and thought he should be shown deference by the older, but less well connected, MacIntyres. The question is, could this have occurred before 1412 or after 1431 and if both, which is more likely? Based on the birth date of Sir Colin and the likely age of his foster brother being over sixteen and under thirty, it is highly unlikely ,if not altogether impossible, for it to be during the minority of King James I. If James II, then the original agreement was under the jurisdiction of Lord Glenorchy who was installed in 1432 and the likely date for the altercation and agreement would be c.1440. Even in 1440, Lord Glenorchy did not have control over Glenoe, which was still under the jurisdiction of the Stewarts of Lorn. This might have been reason enough for the Lord Glenorchy in 1556 to decide to "put it in writing" now that he controlled both Glenoe and Glenorchy. He might have also wanted to force other Clans that bordered on and had prior claims to Glenorchy (especially the MacGregors) to be witness and therefore warned of the consequences if they were to get out of line (as if they needed to be reminded). Why the document was [blank] is not known but it may be possible to check if the size of the blank space is more consistent with the five letter word, "First" or six letter word, "Second." There are things that can be extrapolated from the Bond, that aren’t controversial or muddled. For example, at the time of the murder, there was a distinction between Glenoe and Glenorchy. It speaks of handing over the principle perpetrator, which means he escaped to a place from which he needed to be extradited (Glenoe?) It also seems curious that in 1556, the Bond makes no mention of Glenoe or a chief/chieftain but it does mention Clan Teir. This suggests that Clan Teir may have been separate from or only a sept of Clan MacIntyre back in 1440 and still in 1556. Finally, there is no evidence that after 1556, MacIntyres from Glenoe were required to fight for the Campbells although MacIntyres of Glenorchy seemed to have done so. It is my conclusion that there was a murder c.1440 involving the MacIntyres of Glenoe and the Campbells of Glenorchy. That MacIntyres were detained in Glenorchy and held accountable for this murder, possibly by house arrest (as in the legend) and certainly by death duties (probably the snowball and fatted calf). The death duty was delivered by the MacIntyre Chief or his heir, on Mid Summer’s Day at the border of Glenoe and Glenorchy. That for an indeterminate period, MacIntyres in Glenorchy and perhaps Glenoe were required to fight at the call of Lord Glenorchy. Finally, these requirements, did not alter the position of the Glenoe, as the Gaelic Chief of Clan MacIntyre. Other than the 1556 Bond, to this present day Clan Campbell has never claimed Clan MacIntyre as one of their septs, and there is no other evidence in the historical documents of Clan Campbell that MacIntyres are their sept.
1. In 1595, MacDonald of Keppoch, because he was on the losing side of a battle, had to enter into a bond of service and protection with Campbell of Argyll and surrender his son Angus to ensure compliance. This lasted only two years, the time that the balance of power was in Argyll’s favor.
The 1556 Bond to Glenorchy has some significant historical meaning. First, it is evidence that MacIntyres, or a sept of the MacIntyres, were recognized as a distinct clan as early as 1440 and undoubtedly much earlier. Second, it indicates that they had a significant number of ablebodied men who the Campbells wanted to be on their side in times of trouble. Finally, the need for this document and the attendant meeting, show the importance of MacIntyres to the Campbells. It has been said that the MacIntyres of Glenorchy, at the height of their strength, could produce 200300 fighting men. There was occasion to test their prowess when Sir John Campbell of Glenorchy (16351716), known as John Glas or Grey, had a dispute with the heir of George Sinclair, sixth Earl of Caithness, whose name and arms he had seized upon Sinclair's death as a settlement of debt. To enforce his claim he sent the fiery cross around Loch Tay to assemble the clansmen to make good his claims. The test of qualification for this expedition was the ability of each man, with full equipment and in marching order, to leap over a double plaid a height of 4 feet 9 inches. After this rigorous selection, Sir John had an army of 700 to 800 men with which he invaded Caithness and dispossessed Sinclair of Keiss, the lawful successor. 1 There is an old song, 2 composed in 1677 on the defeat of the Sinclairs near Wick, in which the MacIntyres are singled out for distinction. The English translation is as follows: Glenorchy's bold MacIntyres, true shots that will not miss, Bullets sure hitting that fast slay the carles There where the river bends, arrows fast pierced you quick, Many's the househead that rests without waking. The full song contains a derisive remark about the Sinclairs – they, being on horseback, wore trews (trousers). Duncan McIntyre‘s Clan history contains a report by Alexander James MacIntyre of Inveraray, an earlier historian, that there is an unrecognized MacIntyre cadet of Glenoe in Glenorchy called, the House of Stranmore. Among it clansmen were the 18th century Highland bard, Duncan Ban MacIntyre, who will be discussed in detail in Part IV. MacIntyres of Badenoch. As a rule, those who sought the protection of Clan Campbell were absorbed into the clan and frequently were forced to change their name to Campbell. Examples of this are Clan MacIver, and the MacEacherns of Craignish who were originally a branch of the MacDonalds of the Isles, yet all became Campbells. To avoid such a fate, the Clan Chattan Confederation officially came into being in 1337. It consisted of the MacIntoshes 3 and the MacPhersons plus smaller clans who, over the years, joined the confederation for mutual strength and defense without sacrificing their individual identities. An example of this was Bard MacIntyre who, in the year 1496 or 1497, fled the Camerons and sought the protection of William, 13th Chief of Clan MacIntosh, and 14th Chief of Clan Chattan. This family of MacIntyres became the hereditary bards of Clan Chattan while remaining a sept of the MacIntyres of Glenoe. The MacIntyres of Badenoch prospered with land on the sides of Loch Laggan and were the last clan to be admitted to the Clan Chattan Confederation, as No. 16, Clan Intier. MacIntyres are still a member of the Clan Chattan Confederation.
1. Note: Upon "gross and false representation Sir John Campbell of Glenorchy was created Earl of Caithness, Viscount of Breadalbane, etc. with `the name and arms of Sinclair'". King Charles II annulled the patent and reconfirmed Sinclair of Keiss. In 1681 Sir John was issued a new patent as Earl of Breadalbane, Lord Glenorchy, etc. but not Earl of Caithness, though he married George Sinclair's widow in that hope! 2. In L.D.’s earlier research regarding the MacIntyres of Glenorchy, he found a statement that their marching song was The Bold Bad MacIntyre, but the song quoted above is the only reference that he have found that might give color to that assumption. 3. Clan Chattan was a clan in its own right and continues to this day. However, a daughter inherited the chiefship and when she married the MacIntosh Chief, their son embodied two chiefships, Chattan and MacIntosh. When other clans began to associate themselves with Chattan, it became a confederation of clans, many of who had no blood relation to Chattan or MacIntosh.
MacIntyres of Craignish. These MacIntyres lived in the same area as the MacEacherns who were mentioned previously as becoming Campbells. The MacIntyres kept their identity even though they were under the necessity of signing a bond of manrent in 1612 to Campbell of Barrichbyan. This obligated them to give service in time of trouble. While they were, strictly speaking, feudal dependents of the Campbells, they were still a sept of Clan MacIntyre. Malcolm, who signed the bond of manrent, signed for Clanntyre Vc Coshem as Malcolm M'Donchie (Duncan) Vc Intyre Vc Coshem. 1 These MacIntyres have been made famous in literature by Duncan Ban MacIntyre, who called his gun Coshem's Daughter, because he bought it from a kinsman living in Glen Lochay. The name MacCoseam was still known in 1893, so the tradition may be true. MacIntyres of Rannoch. MacIntyre pipers from Badenoch left to live in Rannoch where they became hereditary pipers for Menzies of Menzies. They had in their possession a set of pipes (or, by this time. portions of pipes) played at Bannockburn in 1314. However, it was more than 300 years after Bannockburn before we know the name of the piper holding this position. He was Donald Mor MacIntyre, piper to Sir Alexander Menzies of Menzies in 1638. Donald Mor took the sevenyear course in harmony and composition at the celebrated pipe school of the MacCrimmons at Borreraig in Glendale in the Isle of Skye. 2 At the same school, his son John studied under the famous Patrick Og MacCrimmon and composed a salute to Clan Menzies about 1715. John composed the Field of Sheriffmuir and My King Has Landed in Moidart on the landing of Prince Charlie in 1745. These pipe compositions are to be found in Angus 3 MacKay's Collection of Piobaireachd, first published in 1838. He also composed Failte Phrionnsa, the Prince’s Salute, on the landing of H.R.H. James, Prince of Wales, in Britain, ANNO 1715. This will be found in Donald MacDonald’s Collection of Pipe Music. Four hundred years after Bannockburn, John's son, Donald Ban, continued as Menzies’ hereditary piper. He had two sons, Donald and Robert, who were pipers. Robert became were hereditary pipers to W. Robertson MacDonald, 19th Chief of Clan Ronald, 4 when the MacIntyres of South Uist, who had filled this position, probably were left without a son. On the death of this Chief, Robert emigrated to America in 1793. He left his bagpipes with Donald MacDonald of Loch Moidart and Mrs. MacDonaldMacVicker of Invermoidart returned them to Clan Menzies. Meanwhile, Robert’s father, Donald died in Rannoch in 1834 or '35, leaving his eldest son Donald to continue as the hereditary piper to Sir Neil Menzies until 1840, when Donald left his farm Allarich at the top of Loch Rannoch and sailed for America. This ended a hereditary piping position that lasted over 500 years! MacIntyres of Cladich. There was a colony of weavers, almost all of them named MacIntyre, in the village of Cladich, on the eastern shore of Loch Awe. Their specialty was fine hose and garters, woven in the various clan tartans. At one time, no Highland costume was complete without a pair of Cladich garters, as they were called. The last MacIntyre weaver in Cladich died about 1870. Perhaps these garters were the inspiration for the diamond pattern Argyle socks, that young ladies in the 1940s and 1950s knitted for their sweethearts. The Cladich MacIntyres were probably a subgroup of the MacIntyres of Glenorchy and the source of the MacIntyre tartans. Other MacIntyres of Argyllshire and Lorn In the 1600s, the name MacIntyre was so numerous in Argyll that it was second only to Campbell. In the Argyllshire list of fencibles (fighting men) in 1685, MacIntyre comprised over thirty percent, while only 5 six percent had the name Campbell. In those days, you could pay someone to take your place and many Campbells could afford to do just that. Among those listed for "Glenoa" were "Duncan MacIntyre, past sixty" Duncan (I), first Chief of record and his son "Donald, younger," later Donald (II).
1. Coshem in Gaelic is spelled Coiseam and is known among obsolete names derived from St. Constantin in Gaelic GilleConstantin. It was transmogrified as a personal name. 2. The MacCrimmon era, 15701825, represents the classical solo (Piobaireachd) period of the great Highland bagpipe. 4. Clan Ronald is MacDonnell of Keppoch and is not the same as Clan Ranald 5. Sheila MacIntyre of Inveraray from Inveraray historical records.
There were groups of MacIntyres all around Loch Etive and at the head of Loch Awe and in Dalness, the land held by a cadet branch of the MacDonalds of Glencoe. In 1463, after his father was murdered, the recently legitimized Dugald Stewart, under threat from the Campbells, gave up the Lordship of Lorn and was left with Appin. "When the rest of Lorn fell to the hated Campbells, the people left the country in such 1 numbers that the event became known as Imeach Mor, or the Great Flitting of Lorn. Since the relations between the Stewarts and the MacIntyres had usually been cordial, some of those who "flitted" were MacIntyres. Clan Campbell knew of this tie and how much they were disliked, so they kept a close watch on comings and going of the MacIntyres. The following illustration is taken from the unpublished 2 manuscript of Alexander James MacIntyre of Inveraray: "On a certain evening, several of the Glenorchy MacIntyres made up their minds to visit their friends in Cladich. They had not long started when Glenorchy (Campbell) was informed that several members of Clan MacIntyre were on the move. He sent several of his men to stop them, with the result that a free fight ensued, but the MacIntyres kept to the highway and had a jolly evening with their clansmen in Cladich. On their way home, they were headed by a piper who hurled defiance at the Campbells by playing Gabhaidh Sinn an Rathad Mor (MacIntyre March). From this example among others which could be cited, it is evident that the Campbells did not trust Clan MacIntyre very much."
The clans surrounding the MacIntyres of Glenoe were always more populous and more powerful. No matter what the conflict, the MacDonalds were on one side and the Campbells on the other. The MacIntyres at Glenoe were caught in the middle between the warring parties. Just as important, MacIntyres had connections with both sides: marital and feudal connections with the Campbells, but blood and cultural connections with the MacDonalds. Ignoring either of these powerful clans could have been fatal. This predicament was ultimately to the MacIntyres’ benefit because these two clans kept each other occupied and didn’t have time to trouble the MacIntyres, at least not enough to eliminate them. They may have even viewed MacIntyre as a buffer and honest broker friendly to all, beholden to none, and always surviving . . . Per Ardua. At the end of the day, the chiefs of surrounding clans acknowledged MacIntyre of Glenoe as chief of Clan MacIntyre. MacDonalds As is befitting even distant cousins, MacIntyres and MacDonalds had a friendly relationship and expectations of mutual aid. Among the purely Highland clans descended from the Scoti, Clan Donald (MacDonalds) was preeminent in strength and numbers. They took their name from Donald, the grandson of Somerled. It was the power of the MacDonalds, from 1200 – 1400, that allowed them to claim so many other clans as their septs. But their cousins, the MacIntyres of Glenoe, were not, never 3 have been, and are not now a sept of Clan Donald or, for that matter, any other clan. The nearest 4 MacDonalds were at Glen Coe, site of the infamous massacre. The MacIntyre’s involvement in this event 5 is described in Part V. MacDonell of Keppoch played an important part in the continuation of the MacIntyre chiefship as described in Part III.
1. Bibliography 6, page 153. 2. Bibliography 8. 3. At Highland games, Clan Donald often lists MacIntyre as one of their septs. This probably started when there was no recognized Chief of Clan MacIntyre and it looked ripe for the picking. This was a less violent way to do what would have been done by force in the past. However, the Court of the Lord Lyon and the Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs recognize the Chief of Clan MacIntyre as an equal of the Chief of the MacDonalds. Published histories of Clan Donald make no claim and present no evidence that MacIntyres are a sept or cadet. The only connection is through a common relative in the female line, which was before the birth of the progenitor of the Donalds. It would make more sense to say that all clans are septs of Clan MacAdams! 4. It is significant that massacres and hospitality were part of the same culture and there was a massacre that required the qualification, "infamous." 5. Another reminder that spelling was not hard and fast in those days, especially family names, so MacDonnell or MacDonald are the same. Even first names such as Donald or Daniel, Peter or Patrick were interchanged just as we do today e.g., Katherine, Kathrine, Catherine or William, Will, and Bill.
MacDougalls The MacDougalls were just as close distant cousins of the MacIntyres as the MacDonalds. The connection is through Gillebride, their common grandfather. Beginning with Dugall, their progenitor, they were the Lords of Lorn and the adjoining islands for 300 years. They built two castles; Dunollie at Oban and Dunstaffnage, near the entrance to Loch Etive. They also built the Priory at Ardchattan c. 1230 on the north shore of Loch Etive. This is where the MacDougall chiefs were buried until 1737 and where Duncan (I), the MacIntyre chief, was buried around 1722. The MacDougalls lost Lorn in 1318 for opposing Robert the Bruce, but regained it in 1344 by marrying The Bruce’s granddaughter. The last MacDougall, Lord of Lorne died in 1388 without a male heir and the Lordship passed through marriage to the Stewarts. Stewarts The Stewarts originally came from Brittany with the Norman conquest of England. When King David the First claimed the Scottish throne in 1124, he created an inheritable position of High Steward of Scotland. The first Steward was a military commander in King Malcolm IV’s defeat of Somerled in 1164. Many generations later, one of the Steward’s male descendants married Robert the Bruce’s eldest daughter, Marjory. The only child from this marriage, Robert Stewart, became first Stewart King of Scotland when Bruce’s grandson, David I, died without a son. 1 The Stewarts of Appin were descendants of the fourth High Steward but didn’t obtain Appin until the late 1400s. Thus, the Stewarts were not associated with the Highlands by descent but via land obtained through their royal connections and as a reward for their loyal opposition to rival claimants to the Scottish Crown. In 1463, Sir John, the last Stewart Lord of 2 Lorne, was assassinated and by 1470, it belonged to the Campbells. Although MacIntyre of Glenoe was now surrounded by Campbells, his position as forester of Lorn remained unchanged. Campbells Like the Stewarts, the Campbells were neither of Scoti nor of Highland origin. They were most likely descended from the Britons which they claim to be King Arthur. They always seemed to pick the winning side at the most important times. They sided with Robert the Bruce in the early 1300s and later with the English in the 1745 rebellion. They were equally good at marrying into land, money, and titles, resulting in their eventual control of most of Argyll. The losers were the MacDougalls, the MacGregors, the Stewarts, and eventually the MacDonalds. The important Campbells were, Neil Campbell, who fought with Robert the Bruce at Bannockburn and against the MacDougalls; Sir Duncan of Lochawe, who married Marjory Stewart, descendant of the Bruce; his grandson, Sir Colin, First Earl of Argyll, 1457 and of Lorn, 1470 and Sir Duncan of Lockawe’s brother, also Sir Colin, First Lord of Glenorchy, later Earls of Breadalbane; and Patrick Dubh Beag of Barcaldine, a son of Lord Glenorchy 1620s. Despite being surrounded by the Campbells, with their welldeserved reputation as both acquisitive and ruthless, MacIntyre chiefs were able to retain their name and status as an independent clan. It is probably no accident that MacIntyre chiefs often married the younger daughters or granddaughters of Campbell chiefs.
1. The spelling for this Royal Branch was changed to Stuart from the French influence. It has also been spelled Steuart for the same reason. 2. Sir John Stewart also had one natural (illegitimate) son by his mistress. He wanted to prevent his Campbell sons inlaw from inheriting his lands and title so when his first wife died, he decided to marry his mistress and legitimize their son. During the ceremony, Sir John was murdered (by a Campbell or some say, a MacDougall). Regardless, with his dying breath, the groom said, "I do", completing the marriage vows. The Campbells got the land anyway from Sir John’s brother ,Walter. Only Appin was retained by his newly legitimate son. So, in the end, all we can say for poor Sir John is, "Good try old chap."
History of the MacIntyre Clan
Transcription of the 16 Feb. 1737 agreement signed by Donald McIntyre (II) of Gleno Here is my transcription of the 16 Feb. 1737 agreement signed by Donald McIntyre (II) of Gleno, which represents an accounting of the status of the Glenoe's wadset and rental payments with the Earl of Breadalbane. It answers many questions, gives new information and raises some other questions. Of course, what it tells us depends on an accurate understanding of what it means and I have listed the meaning of the terms that either help or keep us from understanding. My analysis follows the transcription. DEFINITIONS: advance = loan; augmented = increased, raised; bargain = agreement; ciking = attaching; conform = in agreement; deducted = subtract; duty = rent or fee; interest = interest on a loan; merk = approximately an English shilling; redeem = reclaim; renounce = disclaim, give back, return; reduced = subtract; secured = claim, obtain; surplus = superplus = remainder
Rental and State of Glenoe's wadset
th 1. The preceding document, dated 16 Feb. 1737, refers to the 1656 Glenoe's wadset and also to rental payment.
2. Donald (II), MacIntyre of Glenoe, obtained the wadset, (after which he and his predecessors were called "of Glenoe"). The MacIntyre chiefs had lived at Glenoe for at least a century and probably many centuries before 1656. It is not known on what basis the MacIntyres lived at Glenoe before 1656 although the legend says it was for a nominal rent of a snowball and a fatted calf delivered on MidSummer's Day. This was probably started with the possession of Lorn by the Campbells around 1469. The basis for possession of Glenoe by the MacIntyres before that is unknown. A wadset is a possession in lieu of repayment of a loan and allows the person who has the wadset to use the property as he see fit, including subletting part or all of the property, improving the property, and passing on the wadset as an inheritance. The Glenoe wadset was obtained by Glenoe in return for a loan of 3000 merks to the then son, and later, Earl of Breadalbane. The use of the land was considered sufficient compensation pending repayment of the loan. 3. The heading on the top right is Surplus Duty. What does this mean? First, the terms superplus and surplus seem to be interchangeable, the latter being a shortened form. Thus, word surplus was originally superplus. The question is what does the "duty" represent? tax?, rent? It shouldn't be rent since it was a wadset but it appears to be synonymous to rent, as will be seen in the next statement where it refers to the renouncing of the Barrs part of the wadset and the 20 pounds rent attached to it. The 20 pounds rent was subtracted from the 51 pounds of surplus duty, because Gleno (the person) no longer had to pay it. This reduced the addedon rent (duty) on Gleno to 31 pounds. Why would Gleno need to pay rent if he held the property as a rentfree wadset? My thought is that sometime between 1656 and 1737 an additional charge, or duty, was added to the wadset. Perhaps it was the tax that the Earl had to pay the Crown for the lands he held from the Crown. That is, the Earl had the land as a gift from the King in return for his loyalty. The Earl, in turn, gave Gleno to the MacItnyre chief as a wadset in return for an indefinite loan. The King, needing money, would require the Earl to pay him, and in turn the Earl passed this charge on to Glenoe. This would be called "superplus" or an addon. 4. The document lists the Glenoe wadset as including Gleno, Duo and Barrs of old (Barsalchan) and valued at 3500 merks. Glenoe also had an "Inveraw's wadset" which Glenoe probably obtained from the Earl as collateral for a separate loan of 500 merks. This 500 merks was probably added on to the 3000 Glenoe wadset at the time the Earl redeemed his Inveraw wadset (so he could get the income from the property). This would have been the start of a repeated practice of adding on to the value of the Glenoe wadset when redeeming a wadset or a loan. 5. Prior to this time, Glenoe (of late) made a bargain with the Earl. The nature of the bargain is not stated but it was at the same time as the Inveraw wadset and Barrs part of the Glenoe wadset were redeemed. That bargain may have been to educate James (III) who would have been under age ten at the time of the bargain while his father was nearing age 60. 6. Donald then loaned the Earl 800 merks as an advance on the superplus duty that Glenoe would eventually have to be pay in the future, and the Earl paid "interest" on the 800 merks amounting to 26 pounds, 11 shillings and 4 pence per annum. This is approximately 3.3% interest. The maximum allowable interest at that time was 5% (anything above this was considered usury). This loan was not a wadset (which would have included inheritable rights) and this is why there was interest. This interest was then subtracted from the 31 pounds of annual duty owed by Glenoe, leaving a balance of 4 pounds 6 shillings and 8 pence (very close to a negative balance). This demonstrates that the Surplus Duty was being paid by Glenoe to the Earl and that the interest was to be paid by the Earl to Glenoe. The numbers under the merks column was the amount that the Earl had to pay Glenoe if he were to redeem the Glenoe wadset. In the late 1500s (Henry VIII), the law against charging interest on a loan of money was repealed although maximum limit were set at 10% and later reduced to 5%. Before this time there was a religious prohibition (usury) against one Christian loaning to another Christian. Nevertheless, it was necessary to borrow money so up to the year 1300, money was borrowed from Jews. Jews were also prohibited by Mosaic Law from loaning to Jews but they could lend to nonJews. These Jews had come to England as a result of the Inquisition in Spain. This view of charging interest was so definite, that in England, if a Jew converted to Christianity, all his possessions were confiscated because they had been soiled by usury! In the late 1200s, it became acceptable in England
(although not legal) to charge interest, and the Jews were expelled. The Jews were replaced by nonEnglish Christian goldsmiths from Lombardy (now Italy). These goldsmiths eventually became the bankers. Apparently, there is still a Lombard St. in the financial section of London. 7. An additional 62 pounds, 6 shillings, and 8 pence were added at the time of this document to the surplus duty without any explanation as to what it was for, thus raising it to 66 pounds, 13 shillings and 4 pence. This sounds fishy to me. Arm twisting? There was no rent control in Campbellland! The Earl was apparently very hard up. It looks like he had to raise the duty arbitrarily to cover any interest he would have to pay on the money he was borrowing and to keep the surplus above zero or worse have to pay the MacIntyre chief interest out of pocket. So it appears that the surplus duty was rent in another disguise to keep the Earl from having to pay the lower ranked Glenoe, an annual payment (interest) out of pocket. He just kept subtracting the interest from the "Surplus Duty" which he kept adding on to cover the interest! There may be another explanation but it isn't found in this document. 8. A similar practice was being followed with respect to the principal of the loans. They were either secured by a wadset or secured by property but with interest being paid. Then the loan or wadset was redeemed and the principal added to the Glenoe wadset amount. 9. The next instance was when Donald (Glenoe) loaned the Earl 1200 merks secured by holdings of Gulalchulin, Kinlochetive and fishing rights. Then, in this document, these holdings were also redeemed and instead of paying back the 1200 merks the Earl attached (added) that amount to the value of the Glenoe wadset, bringing the total to 5500 merks that has been loaned. The interest of 40 pounds was subtracted from the surplus duty, which had fortunately been raised by over 62 pounds to cover the 40 pounds. 10. This was the third, and probably fourth instance where he borrowed money from the MacIntyre chiefs (3000 merks in 1656 secured by the Gleno wadset, 500 merks sometime between 1656 and 1737, secured by the Inveraw wadset, 800 merks, also secured by the Glenoe wadset and then 1200 merks, secured by Gulachulin, Kinlochetive and fishing rights probably fishing rights at the entrance of the River Etive into Loch Etive on which interest was owed, and then subtracted from the annual surplus duty). The principals of the loans were not paid but simply added (ciking = attached?) to the redemption value of the Glenoe wadset. Thus the 500, 800 and 1200 merk loans were not repaid but only added on to the total owed and the interest wasn't paid but subtracted from the surplus rent (surplus because there was no allowance for rent in a wadset). Glenoe received nothing from these transactions but he probably had no choice either. 11. The 1200 merks was a loan and not a wadset because there was interest assigned of 40 pounds (the same rate of 3.3%). The 40 pounds of annual interest that was owed was subtracted from the 66 pounds, 13 shillings 4 pence Duty to leave a surplus duty owed by Glenoe of 26 pounds, 13 th shillings, 4 pence to be paid on St. Martin's Day or Martinmass (Nov.12 ). By adding this loan to the existing wadset loan, the Earl avoided having to make any payments while still requiring Glenoe to make some payment. It also permitted the Earl to collect rents from these properties, which during the period of the loan, had been collected by Glenoe. That Glenoe could do this (give up these incomes and properties without any concurrent compensation) probably means that he was financially secure. It also meant that it put him in a better position vis a vis the Earl, so long as the Earl couldn't pay back the loan. 12. Although the statement is only signed by Glenoe, and the only payment acknowledged is for 26 pounds 13 shillings and 4 pence to be paid by Glenoe, it is clear that the Earl owes Glenoe 5500 merks, the ever increasing value of the remaining Glenoe + Duo wadset.
13. This agreement has nothing to do with the snowball and calf being exchanged for rent. What the
snowball and calf were payment for and at what point the payment was no longer observed is unknown. It could have been rent and, if so, it would have stopped when the wadset began. It could have been a token payment for the murder that took place around 1440. This could have stopped when the Campbells made fun of the Chief's son (as told in the story by Aleck of Inveraray) or just a lapse in tradition as the cultural climate changed over the years. 14. There is one very important question, "what is a merk worth?" I have saved this for the last since it involves arithmetic and guesswork. The numbers on the right side are clearly money and are related to the numbers on the left side but the relationship needs clarification. For example, the 2/3 first number on the left at the top has the pound sign and 194. 8. 10 or . This is apparently
equal to the 3500 merks on the right side. There are other places where equivalents can be noted 2/3 44.8.10 equals 800 merks. These numbers would lead you to think that 18 merks on the right side equals on Pound on the left side (3500/194 = 18). However, there is another obvious 1/3 equivalent that indicates that L 2.4.5 on the left side equals L 26 13S 4 P, or 6,504 pence. If this were to equal 2 Pounds 4 shillings and 5 1/3 pence (565 1/3 pence) then the L on the left side is worth 11 times that on the right side (6504/565 = 11+). The most obvious explanation is that they represent different currencies, e.g. English on the left side and Scottish on the right side. 2/3 However, this doesn't explain the 10 . The two/thirds could be short for 8 pence, which is 2/3rds of a shilling. However, if this were the case then the 10 would be shillings and the 8 would be pounds and then what would the 194 be? There was a coin that was smaller than a pence, called a farthing, but there were four farthings in a pence so it couldn't have been 2/3 of a pence. 15. Another question concerns the merks column on the right side, which is separate from the pound, shillings and pence. This is probably because merks are a land value and the redemption value of the wadset, while the coins are used for exchange (rent/interest/duty etc.). We must remember that this was the period when they were converting from the barter system to a monetary system.
Per Ardua, Marty MacIntyre
History of the MacIntyre Clan
Muster list for the rebels at Battle of Culloden showing 24 MacIntyres involved
FYI, My correspondent in Scotland obtained the muster list for the rebels showing 24 MacIntyres involved. The regiments are listed below with the names of the MacIntyres for each regiment. Dad's books says there were five MacIntyres fighting with the Stewarts of Appin but I don't know the names. If anyone had the source of the reference showing there were five, let me know. I thought some of you might find this intresting. Here are further details re the Muster List. As well as the names there are some occupations, as well as the home location. It is not known if any of the individuals noted were present at Culloden. Where it is noted, I have included the fate of the individual in brackets: Martin MacIntyre.
Stewarts of Appin (Present at Culloden) Donald MacIntyre, Coull, Appin Estate Duncan MacIntyre, Aucharn, Airds Estate John MacIntyre, Kinlochlaigh, Appin Estate Duncan MacIntyre, Brewer, Kinlochiel (Transported) Kilmarnocks Horse (Present at Culloden) Daniel MacIntyre Atholl Brigade (Present at Culloden) Alexander MacIntyre, Merchant, Keltney Burn (Lurking) (Standard Bearer) Earl of Cromarty (Ambushed day before Culloden) Donald MacIntyre, Servant, Milton, Kilimuir (Majority of Regiment were killed or Transported) MacDonell of Glengarry (Present at Culloden) John MacIntyre, Graskie (Surrendered 15.5.1746, Died?)
MacDonell of Keppoch (Present at Culloden) Angus MacIntyre, Baggageman, Perthshire (Deserted, taken prisoner Nov.1745, Pardoned) MacPhersons of Cluny (Within a few miles of Drummosie Moor when met fugitives from battle, formed rearguard of retreat) (All of the following Surrendered) Alexander MacIntyre, Garben Alexander MacIntyre, Nuid Donald MacIntyre, Coraldie Donald MacIntyre, Coronach Donald MacIntyre, Dalannach Donald MacIntyre, Nuid Donald MacIntyre, Phoness Duncan MacIntyre, Crathyerog Duncan MacIntyre, Renrumknock John MacIntyre, Alvie John MacIntire, Ruthven John MacIntire, Nuid John MacIntyre, Shirramore Malcolm MacIntyre, Balannach
MAC INTYRES AT GLENOE
Before the MacIntyres
We don’t know who the first inhabitants of Glenoe were but there are archeological sites of the Neolithic 1 Stone Age peoples located all over Lorn. The next group was probably the Picts. The first literary mention is by a Scoti girl, Deirdre of the Sorrows who came to Loch Etive in Alba from Ireland (Scotia). She stayed for a number of years before returning to Ireland. As her galley left the shores of Loch Etive and passed over the Falls of Lora, she looked back for the last time at the majestic Ben Cruachan and sang this lament "Farewell to Alban." Glen Eta (Etive), yes! Glen Eta, garbed in radiant beams; Where first my virgin home was proudly raised; Thy leafy woods and Cruachan's grandeur viewing; Flooded with sunshine rays, made glorious, my Glen Eta. . . . . Thou virgin glen! my beauteous green Gleno (oigh); To sleep serene embower'd mid'st pastures quiet; Fish, venison, with rare salted boar our fare; Plenteous my lot was, in grand tho' lone Gleno. 1
Before Written History
For up to a thousand years, MacIntyres lived around Ben Cruachan and Loch Etive. 2 There are graves and monuments, particularly at the 13th century Priory of Ardchattan, where Duncan, the first Chief of record is buried. Other graves can be found in Kilchrenan, Glenorchy, Dalness, and Glen Kinglass. The center of this circle was Glenoe and MacIntyre of Glenoe was always the chief of Clan MacIntyres. 3 There is evidence of this in the history of other clans with which MacIntyres were associated, including the MacDonald, the Campbells, the Clan Chattan Federation, and the Menzies. The MacIntyres prospered at Glenoe with their herds of white cattle. These white cattle did not look at all like the typical longhaired, red cattle associated with the Highlands. They had highbridged noses and curly ringlets on their foreheads, making them look like mythical beasts. This unusual physiognomy is still found in white cattle this author has seen near Glenoe. These same white cattle can be found in Ireland, another sign that ancestors of both these cattle and the MacIntyres originated in Ireland. Cattle were a measure of wealth, as it is in most tribal societies. In both the Scot’s and Brehon law, death duties for an unjust killing were usually paid in cows, depending on the station of the deceased. 4 White cattle also played an important part in both Druid and Christian ceremonies.
1. Cruachan Vistas: Angus Macintyre (Fraoch Geal) John Menzies & Co., Ltd. Edinburgh and Glasgow. Pages 43 and 42. 2. There are those who assert that the Livingstons occupied Glenoe in the early 1300 before moving away. 3. See Part III. 4. Brehon Law is the oral law passed down in the Celtic tradition from the Irish Gaels and brought with them to Scotland. Scot’s Law is the incorporation of portions of the Brehon Law and put into writing. It is called Scot’s law because it differs from the new laws passed by the Scottish Parliament or incorporated from the English Law. The Scot’s Law required giving one cow for the death of a person of the lowest station up to 16 for a prince. Encyclopedia American, 1945.
Snowball and Fatted Calf
This is the best known and most established legend associated with MacIntyres after they were at Glenoe. In the 1400s, following the ascendancy of the Campbells in Argyll, something happened that caused the MacIntyres at Glenoe to make an annual payment to the Campbells. Although there are no written records establishing this payment, there is evidence that it was based on fact. What happened and why was discussed earlier under Glenorchy and will be discussed in detail in Appendix I, Tenure of Glenoe. For the moment, we will concentrate on the payment itself – a snowball and a fatted calf delivered on Midsummer’s Day 1 at a place called ClachanLaoighBhiat, (Stone of the Fatted Calf). This unusual stone is still at the top of Glenoe in Lairig Noe, the pass that leads from Glenoe to Glenorchy. 2 Even in early summer, snow could be found in the deep corries at the back of Ben Cruachan, and a fatted calf could be obtained from the MacIntyres’ fine herd of white cattle. According to the legend, the payment of a snowball and calf continued until the early 1700s when John Campbell, 1st Earl of Breadalbane, suggested to Donald (II), the MacIntyre Chief, that there might come a year when there would not be a white fatted calf in the herd and he would lose his rights to Glenoe. It is alleged that the Chief "foolishly" agreed to replace the inkind payment with a small payment in coin. Unlike a snowball and fatted calf, money rent can be "adjusted" upwards and the amount was raised to the point where the family of the MacIntyre chief had to emigrate to the United States. The factual basis for this story will also be discussed in detail under "Tenure of Glenoe."
Early MacIntyre Chiefs
In the midst of all the momentous changes that took place over the centuries, the MacIntyres continued to live as others did, doing their best to keep up with the times, wending their way through the minefields of clan feuds, and most of all, trying to survive. Many other clans, chiefs, and their clansmen did not survive, perishing on the battlefields, succumbing to diseases (especially mothers and newborns in childbirth). They frequently failed to have a living descendant, and this would allow their clan to be swallowed up by a more powerful clan according to the survival of the fittest. Considering these possibilities, the MacIntyre chiefs did very well for their clan. Almost nothing is known about the MacIntyre chiefs before 1700 because there are almost no records. The few records we do have are of the legal type and they often record unpleasant events, like murder. Perhaps the sparsity of this type of record explains why the MacIntyre chiefs survived. A table of possible MacIntyre Chiefs according to different sources is in Appendix A. Since the oral tradition is the major source of information, there is both agreement and disagreement among the sources. An analysis shows a repetition of names like Malcolm, Duncan, Ian, Donald, and Angus but these are common given names. The first MacIntyre chief mentioned in the legends is Maurice, who was to become known as "The Wright" and gave that name to his descendants as Clann Mac antSaoir, descendants of The Wright. If the legend is true, then we can date this in the midtwelfth century, 11401164, between the marriage of Somerled and Ragnhild to the death of Somerled. This early origin of Clan MacIntyre is supported by Mary MacIntyre (a younger sister of James, Third Chief of Record) who wrote in 1810, "that MacIntyres had been at Glenoe for 700 years." The next name of a MacIntyre chief comes from a legend about a Chief Duncan and his two sons, Duncan Og and Donald Faich. This story is in Part V. Because this story involves the Campbells of Glenorchy, we can assume that it was after 1432 when the Campbells displaced the MacGregors of Glenorchy.
1. Midsummer’s Day is June 24th and is the day when rent was paid or property vacated. Each year had four of these business days, which coincided with religious, seasonal, and astrological events. Midsummer’s Day was close to the summer solstice. 2. The stone has been broken in half by the weather. Taken together the stone is about 9 feet wide, 14 feet long and 3 feet high with a flat top. The largest section looks like it is two flat stones one placed on top of the other. The perfectly straight horizontal line that goes completely around the middle of the stone could be a natural crack but certainly looks manmade. It is said that the calf was slaughtered followed by a feast. Could this have been an altar or sacrificial stone of the Glenoe stoneage inhabitants? The photographs, courtesy of Colin and Ross McIntyre, were taken on Midsummer’s Day, June 24, 2000.
Due to a tradition of keeping only oral accounts of historical events, written records were a relatively th recent practice in the Highlands of Gaelic Scotland. 1 In the 14 century, clans began to keep records in a book that was referred to by the color of its binding, usually black. 2 The Black Book typically included births, marriages, and deaths. Later, this information was kept in parish church records. The clan book also contained information about important events, both positive and negative. For example, if there were a fatal altercation that required death duties and other penance, it might be in the records of the clan that was wronged. Unfortunately, the MacIntyre’s Black Book of Glenoe was lost. Perhaps some day, it will be found under dusty records in a solicitor's office! This will be discussed later under the history of the individual MacIntyre chiefs. MacIntyre Chiefs. Without the Black Book of Glenoe, the genealogy of the chiefs of Clan MacIntyre cannot be stated with accuracy before Duncan (I), so called, because he is the first chief for whom a written record is available.However, the records of other clans in the neighborhood indicate that the MacIntyre Chiefs and their sons and daughters were connected with many of the Highland families by marriage or descent prior to Duncan (I). There are also legal contracts with their names. There is a record in the 1400s of the marriage of a Fingula MacIntyre to the Chief of the MacGregors, an ancestor of Rob Roy. 3 Prior to 1432, the MacGregors controlled Glenorchy, which is on the other side of Ben Cruachan. It was common practice for a chief to marry the daughter of a neighboring chief to maintain peaceful relations. So, by deduction, Fingula MacIntyre was probably a daughter of the unnamed MacIntyre chief. The first written record that might identify a MacIntyre chief or chieftain by name is the 1556 "Bond to Glenorchy." In this document, the first, and probably most important, MacIntyre listed is Duncan son of Malcolm son of Ian. If Duncan were the Glenoe Chief, then his name tells us the names of the two preceding chiefs, i.e., Malcolm and Ian, his father and grandfather. This would make Ian the first MacIntyre Chief of record and would takes us back two more generations (approximately fifty years) to about 1500.
th The next persons we might identify as Chiefs are Donald and Duncan, around the turn of the 16 century. They were the father and grandfather of Duncan (I), the first chief of record. In a 1682 document, Duncan (I) is identified as Duncan, son of Donald, son of Duncan. He is further identified as "of Glenoe". His name identifies his father as Donald (f) as and his grandfather as Duncan (gf). By the same reasoning as before, this would make Duncan (gf) as the first Chief of record and his father, Donald (f) as the second Chief of record, and Duncan (I) would become Duncan (III). Because of the lack of information on births and deaths for these individuals, the system for numbering the chiefs will be left unchanged from the first edition. This is not the only confusing factor in the numbering system for the chiefs, as you will see in Part III. The other reason for not changing the numbering system is that Duncan (I) was the first Chief of record documented as having Glenoe as a freehold. This is signified by the chief being called, "of Glenoe," rather than "in" Glenoe. "Of" means you possesses the land and "in" means you only live on it. The type of tenure the MacIntyre chiefs had at Glenoe is an important part of the MacIntyre history and is covered in the section "Tenure of Glenoe."
Although we know very little about Duncan (gf) and Donald (f) we can infer that they were relatively well off because Donald (f) made a large "wadset" loan to the eldest son of Lord Glenorchy, his feudal superior. To do this would have required saving substantial amounts of money over a number of generations, presumably from selling their prized white cattle. There were no getrichquick schemes in those days, except by "marrying into money." Of course, the legends tell us that Clan MacIntyre had possession of Glenoe at some earlier time, which was long before the 1432 date that the Campbells came on the scene. Another sign was the large number of MacIntyres in comparison with their position in the pecking order. There are no legends about losing Glenoe to the MacDougalls, Stewarts, or MacGregors. In fact, there was a story that the MacIntyres regained Glenoe from the Stewarts without a story about how they lost it.
1. In the 1500s. 2. The book was commonly black and was referred to as "The Black Book of (Clan Name)." The Menzies had a red and white book. 3. The entire MacGregor Clan was outlawed and Rob Roy was their champion, made famous by his physical prowess and as the leading character in Sir Walter Scott’s novel of the same name. His piper was a MacIntyre.
Approximate Line and Dates of Accession for MacIntyre Chiefs before Duncan (I) 1432. Duncan (of Duncan and his two sons) 1440 Altercation with Campbells identified in the Bond to Glenorchy and in, Duncan and his Two Sons 1455. Duncan Og 1470. Donald Faich 1500. Ian (son of either Donald Faich or Duncan Og) 1525. Malcolm (if he is MacIntyre in Glenoe and not a MacIntyre in Glenorchy) 1556. Duncan (listed in the Bond to Lord Glenorchy) 1590. Malcolm (important enough to require a bond to guarantee his appearance) 1610. Duncan (identified as grandfather in 1656 wadset agreement) 1635. Donald (identified as father in 1656 wadset agreement) 1650. Duncan (I) [First chief documented as "of Glenoe." In 1656 wadset agreement]
MacIntyres in the Highland Wars
Fortunately, the MacIntyre Chiefs were never adversely affected by the many clan feuds, civil wars, and rebellions. This is despite the fact that geographically, as well as ideologically, they were usually caught in the middle. It is equally true that the MacIntyre Chiefs never gained from the Highland wars. Civil War. In 1644, James Graham, Marquis of Montrose, gathered MacDonalds, Camerons, and Stewarts in a royalist army on behalf of Charles I, opposing the Covenanting Army 1 led by Campbell of Argyll. Montrose sent a detachment 2 under Alastair MacColla Ciotach MacDonald to ravage the Campbell territory around Loch Etive with fire and sword. His English name was Sir Alexander MacDonald but he was popularly known by his father's nickname ‘Colkitto’ meaning lefthanded Coll or Colla. 3 One of his soldiers was about to put a hot coal to the thatched roof of Duncan’s (gf) house at Glenoe, when Colkitto asked to whom the house belonged. When told that it was MacIntyre of Glenoe, he cried out, "Let be, let be, he is of our own blood" and Glenoe was spared. Many MacIntyres joined Colla's army even though (or perhaps because) it was against the Campbells. Among them was the MacIntyre Chief's own piper, whose piping Colla had praised at an entertainment given him by the Chief of Clan MacIntyre. The Chief was honored to have his favorite MacIntyre piper, lead the great Colla into battle. It was probably for this
1. They were called "Covenanters" for their support of the National Covenant of the Church of Scotland, which outlawed Episcopacy, the governing form of the Church of England in favor of the more local and democratic form called Presbytery. This put the Scottish Parliament in direct opposition of Charles I, the Stuart King of England and Scotland. As a result, the Covenanters invaded England in 1640 and they entered into combat within Scotland against those clan who supported the King, regardless of all previous alliances. On the surface, it was a religious war, something that Scotland had avoided previously. However, beneath the surface, it was about governance and not dogma, so it was really a political war in the guise of religion. 2. This detachment was composed of MacDonalds from Ulster (Ireland) furnished by the Irish, Earl of Antrim, for the benefit of his Scottish brethren. 3. Named Colla in honor of their claim to descent from Colla Uais, the third century, High King in Ulster.
reason rather than the distant blood relations between the MacIntyres and MacDonalds, that Glenoe was spared while the surrounding properties of the Campbells were destroyed. Although Colkitto won the initial battles, the Campbells, in support of the Covenanters, won this segment of the war. During a lull in the fighting, it is said that the Chief of Clan MacIntyre was summoned by Campbell of Glenorchy to explain his assistance to Colla. Failing this, he was sent to Inveraray to explain his conduct to the great Colin, Marquis of Argyll and Chief of all the Campbells. No one knows what was said, but the MacIntyre Chief returned safely to Glenoe. However, one may hazard a guess, for at the Battle of Inverlochay in February 1645, Donald (f), the Chief’s son and heir apparent, was fighting side by side with Colin Campbell, the son of Patrick Campbell of Barcaldine. The Marquis of Argyll lost half of his army in this battle and his nephew, Colin, was badly wounded. Colin was carried to Glenoe and Duncan (gf) MacIntyre gave him refuge from the MacDonalds in the same house that earlier had been spared by the MacDonalds! Such were the vicissitudes of Highland life in those times. There is no records of the Glenoe MacIntyres involvement in the fighting to retain James II as King of Scotland, after he was deposed in England by William III of Orange. But Duncan (I) was Chief in 1692 when the Glencoe Massacre took place at the top of Glen Etive when McIain, Chief of the MacDonalds of Glencoe was slaughtered along with most of his clan, supposedly for being late in asking William III’s pardon. (See Part V – Clach Nodha). The ’15 & ’45 Rebellions. The 1715 rebellion didn’t last long and there is no evidence that the MacIntyre Chief, Duncan (I), age 75 or his heir, Donald (II), age 50, took part in the fighting. However, there is evidence that the Stranmore, the cadet of Glenoe in Glenorchy, were certainly involved in support of the Campbells, who this time chose the wrong side and the MacIntyres paid dearly for it with their lives. According to the genealogy of Alexander James MacIntyre of Inveraray, five of the six sons of Archibald MacIntyre died in this brief rising. This Archibald was the g,g,g,g,g,ggrandson of the Archibald nd who two hundred years earlier in 1513, had brought back the body of the 2 Duke of Argyll from Flodden. The last great rebellion, known as the ‘45, was an attempt to return to the throne Charles James Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, as Charles III. 1 For the Highlanders, it was their final attempt to free Scotland from English domination by force. The MacIntyre Chief, Donald (II) had just died and his son and heir, James (III), was just age eighteen. James (III) wisely chose to remain neutral although he was old enough to bear arms and may have had sympathies for the cause of young Prince Charles. In the midst of a rebellion, the young James (III) had to manage a farm that was on the border between the warring parties and to carefully consider his divided loyalties. His clan heritage linked him to the Gaelic Highlands and his neighbors, the MacDonalds and Stewarts of Appin, who were primary supporters of Prince Charlie. At the same time, James was surrounded by Campbells, who were the leading clan supporting the Hanoverian government in opposition to the Prince. He was also indebted to them for sponsoring his education. There was one further complication in the form the "wadset" loan made by his grandfather, Duncan (I) to the Campbells. If James chose to side with the Prince and lost, then the loan, which gave him possession of Glenoe would be lost, not to mention his life and his family’s wellbeing. If he fought for the Crown and lost, he might have been treated more kindly, but his sympathies lay with the Prince. James (III) had a herd of valuable white cattle and probably some sheep. Because he inherited the Glenoe Wadset, James didn’t pay rent. Compared to his peers he was in a sound financial condition and he would have risked a great deal if he actively supported either side. His mother and two older sisters were totally dependent on him. Being neutral was not treasonous since there were MacIntyres fighting on both sides for reasons of a bond of manrent or economic gain, and possibly their political or religious persuasions. James’ best bet was to lay low and wait it out, which is exactly what he did. If James (III) had sided with Prince Charles, the end of the direct line of MacIntyre Chiefs might have been his death at Culloden. At best, James (III) his Glenoe Wadset would have been forfeited and he would have been forced into exile or, like so many others, transported overseas. On the other side of Ben Cruachan, his cousins in Glenorchy were under pressure to support the Campbells and fight against the rebels. This was a war in which brother fought against brother, either knowingly or unknowingly. In spite of the Campbells, the MacIntyres were found fighting on the side of Prince Charlie at Culloden. It is a matter of record that among the Stewarts of Appin regiment, five MacIntyres were killed and five wounded. D. MacDonell MacDonald reported in Scotland's Magazine of November 1973 that in the 1745 Rising, there were nine prisoners from Clan MacIntyre, including two
1. He was known as Prince because his father was still alive. Otherwise, he would have been called King Charles III even if in name only.
named Ann MacIntyre and Mary MacIntyre who were "taken at Carlisle." Both women were transported to Antigua in the Caribbean Islands in 1747. There were some MacIntyres, probably from Glenorchy, who fought beside the Campbells for Hanover King, George II. We know that Duncan Ban MacIntyre of Glenorchy, our famous Gaelic poet, was one of them and was in the Government’s first major battle against the "rebels" at Falkirk. His reasons for fighting were money and a future consideration of employment by Lord Glenorchy, rather than a conviction that one side or the other was in the right. Fortunately for Duncan Ban and for our literary history, Falkirk was Duncan Ban’s first and last battle. From his poems, it would appear that his sympathies were with the Highland way of life, but that way of life had changed forever and probably was gone forever even if Bonnie Prince Charlie had triumphed. The experiences of Duncan Ban and James (III) and the earlier experiences of the MacIntyre Chiefs during the 1644 civil war and the 1715 rising are evidence that the1440/1556 summary judgment for the bond of manrent was no longer in force and MacIntyres were not under a feudal obligation to fight for Lord Glenorchy.
The Last MacIntyre Chief at Glenoe
While it is understandable that we don’t know exactly when, why and how the MacIntyres arrived at Glenoe many centuries ago, it is difficult to understand why there should be any mystery surrounding when and why the MacIntyre Chiefs left Glenoe. The story most often told is that the MacIntyre Chief couldn’t afford to pay the rent after foolishly exchanging an annual payment of a snowball and calf for a small monetary sum. Contrary to this story is the fact that James III, the last MacIntyre Chief to rent Glenoe, died there in 1799. During the period from 1775 to 1825, tenants all over Scotland left the land because they were unable to pay the rising rents or they thought the opportunities were better elsewhere. There were also a series of years from 17811783 where there were little or no crops due to drought. The land was becoming valuable in a way that didn’t require the presence of caretakers or depend so heavily on good weather. There was a need for coke to stoke the iron furnaces, including the Bonawe Furnace at Taynuilt, next to Glenoe. The forests on Ben Cruachan, including Glenoe, were quickly denuded to meet the demand for coke. More often than not, the tenants were no longer related or in the same Clan as the owner of the land. Even when they had the same name, the sense of clan obligation had been eroded over the 200 years since the law disallowed clans from owning land. Despite these major economic and social changes, between 1755 and 1795 there was only a small reduction in the population around Glenoe especially when compared with the rest of Scotland and even the rest of Argyll. Also, there is no documentation to support the story that MacIntyres left Glenoe because they could not afford the rent. We do know that in 1770, James (III) was repaid the 3000 merks loaned in 1656 by his greatgrandfather Donald to the Earl of Breadalbane’s great grandfather John. With this repayment, Glenoe was no longer a "rent free" wadset, and James (III) had to pay rent. Nevertheless, we have a 1775 rental receipt showing that "James (III) Esquire," sublet onequarter of Glenoe to another MacIntyre from whom he received rent, both in kind and silver. Thus, while James (III) of Glenoe was paying rent to Breadalbane, he was receiving rent as well. As a further indication of James (III)’s social status and financial condition, his eldest son, Donald younger and heir apparent, was wellschooled and sent to study medicine at the University of Edinburgh. Perhaps some of the wadset repayment of 3000 merks in 1770 went toward the cost of Donald’s education. In 1783, Donald emigrated to the United States to practice medicine. Although he may not have competed the full course at the medical school, there is no reason to believe that Donald did this because the family needed the money, as has been suggested in some of the references. It is likely that he knew his skills would be in great demand in the New World where there were no medical schools. Left behind at Glenoe were his father, James (III), age fiftyseven, his mother, Lady Ann, and his younger brothers, Duncan, age twenty and Martin, age twelve. Duncan was a Captain in the Highland Argyllshire Militia when in 1788, Martin died at age seventeen. This may have been the primary reason why Duncan left the Militia and returned with his wife and daughter to manage Glenoe. At age sixtytwo, James (III) might have been ready to retire. This meant that the farm at Glenoe could support all of them. In 1792, there was more tragedy when Dr. Donald, the heir apparent, had died in the United States leaving a young widow with four young sons. The eldest son was seven yearold James, the new heir apparent. We know that James (III) lived for another seven years until 1799 carrying on his scholarly pursuits, for which he was well known in Edinburgh and beyond. Lady Ann died the following year. Duncan continued to manage Glenoe until 1806, when he left for Edinburgh with his wife and their daughter, Jane. In all, Duncan had managed Glenoe for eighteen years including
seven years after his father’s death. This was during a period when many others Scots in Argyll had already left because they couldn’t make a go of it. Family correspondence shows that Duncan left Glenoe with the understanding that Doctor Donald’s son, James, the fifth Chief of record and age twentyone, was coming to Glenoe from America. James was the eldest son of Duncan’s brother, Dr. Donald, who had predeceased their father, James (III) making young James the Chief of Clan MacIntyre. James was coming to Glenoe and we can only conjecture why at age fortythree, Duncan left instead of sharing the farm with James. He may have wanted to leave years before but felt obligated to stay while his parents were alive and his nephew hadn’t reached his majority. Edinburgh certainly would provide greater social life for his wife and teenage daughter. Other possibilities include the need for medical attention (he died two years later) or a dwindling profit margin. These latter two possibilities are unlikely because Duncan was fit enough to reenlisted in the Army, albeit at a lower grade, and another tacksman farmed Glenoe for the next 20 years and renewed the lease. Duncan apparently took the Black Book of Glenoe with him when he left Glenoe. Duncan left. In 1808, he died while stationed in London. His widow had to pay his debts by selling the family’s furnishings. It’s possible that the Black Book of Glenoe was carefully stored in a desk that was sold. Ann remarried and Jane MacIntyre, died unmarried. In 1806, James (V) set foot for the first time on Glenoe, the birthplace of his father and most of his ancestors. At age twentyone, he was the same age as his father, was when he left Scotland for America, twentythree years earlier. We know that when James arrived, Duncan had already left. Two years later, in 1808, James (V) posted a letter from Glenoe to his family and friends in the United States. He said that he just missed meeting his Uncle Duncan in Edinburgh by a single day. He may have met Duncan’s wife and daughter since they were living in Edinburgh while Duncan was stationed in London. It is possible that James and Duncan never met since Duncan died within the year. Records show that in 1810, Glenoe was still being leased in the name of Capt. Duncan, not James, even though Duncan had died in 1808. James (V), in his unpublished family history, doesn’t tell us what transpired from 1808 until 1816. In his 1808 letter, he said, "Everything is in a miserable way in this Country just now. Taxes and rents are very high." He goes on to mention the low prices for sheep and cattle and the high cost of all kinds of fodder listing the price of oats, barley, wheat, and potatoes. He continues, " . . . a number of the farmers have given up their farms about here and I believe Lord Broadalbaine (Breadalbane) and the Duke of Argyle’s tenants are worst off, a number of the finest merchants have failed." We know James missed his friends and the land of his childhood. He also mentioned his fears that war with the United States was imminent. (The war between the United Kingdom and the United States started in 1812 and didn’t end until 1818). James probably had left Glenoe by 1810, when John MacIntyre, who had previously leased onethird of the area from Duncan, became the tacksman 1 for the entire Glenoe parcel. John MacIntyre renewed the lease in 1826 so apparently he was able to "live off the land" despite the rent. This is another indication that Glenoe wasn’t a losing proposition or the reason Dr. Donald emigrated to America. Many years later, James recounted in his family history that there were white cattle at Glenoe until 1816. We can say with certainty that James (V) was the last MacIntyre Chief to live at Glenoe. We know that James came to Scotland to see the homeland of his father and perhaps claim his Clan inheritance. We don’t know exactly why he stayed so long. Initially, it was probably from an obligation to his family’s heritage, and perhaps to find a Scottish wife. In his 1808 letter, he lamented the fact that his friends were probably getting married. James could have stayed as tacksman of Glenoe instead of going elsewhere, since it was in his Uncle’s name. The reason for his leaving Glenoe is obvious to anyone who has been there. Then, as now, its isolation was not conducive to meeting eligible young ladies or anyone else, for that matter. Although he was a Scottish chief by inheritance, James was an American by birth and upbringing. To learn the ways of the Scots it was necessary to go to a community where there were more people. He was recognized in the surrounding community as the MacIntyre Chief, and was called
1. A tacksman leases land from the owner of a long period of time and is more than just a renter or manager of a farm
"James MacIntyre of Glenoe", even when he no longer lived at Glenoe. In 1817, he married a Scottish lassie, Ann Campbell of Corries, at Glenorchy Parish. Why did James (V) leave Scotland, never to return, sixteen years after he arrived and five years after he married? He probably stayed until their two boys were old enough to travel and his wife finally became resigned to leaving her homeland and family. He probably left to rejoin his American family and perhaps in search of better opportunities in the United States where he could hope to own property rather than renting it, as in Scotland. What became of Glenoe after James left Scotland? We know that a John MacIntyre renewed the lease in 1826. What occurred between 1826 and the 1970s remains to be discovered by diligent research of the records. In the 1970s Glenoe was owned by Lady Wyfold, whose name is associated with the Wyfold Cup at the Henley Regatta and who was related to Ian Fleming of James Bond, 007, fame. Glenoe has changed hands since then and is presently owned by Mr. HeriotMaitland, who raises sheep, hunts, and lives in Edinburgh.
These stories and historical facts, demonstrate that this small area of Alba around Loch Etive, including Glenoe, is steeped in Scottish history and is rightfully called the birthplace of Scotland and of Clan MacIntyre. It was the home of the MacIntyre Chiefs for up to one thousand years before they left on the tides of history. Perhaps one day, MacIntyres and their white cattle will return and MacIntyres can reclaim Glenoe.
MacIntyre dress tartans
MacIntyre hunting tartan
MacIntyre Tartan (MacGregor & Hastie)
MacIntyre of Whitehouse
Glen Orchy or MacIntyre District Tartan
MAC INTYRES OUTSIDE OF SCOTLAND
Recent research by a group interested in their origins in Ireland, has been interested in the possibility that in Ireland, the MacAteers and MacIntyres come from the same root. It is well known that transliteration from Gaelic to English, often disguises the original Gaelic name and meaning. To further confuse matters, names were often written in a contracted form that belied the spoken form or the origin. Thus, it is within the realm of possibility that Mateer, MacAteer, and MacIntyre could, in some instances, be the same name in Gaelic, at least in Ireland. Another possibility is that the name and clan developed independently in Scotland and Ireland. This question and research, stands to demonstrate that in the year 2001, the search for ones roots is alive and never completely ends. To demonstrate openness to these possibilities, Mateer and MacAteer have been added as "possible septs" of Clan MacIntyre. This does not represent a conclusion or the type of action taken by at least one clan to improperly include MacIntyres as their sept. MacIntyres were only a small part of a numerous spurts of emigration from Scotland to the rest of the world. When added together, the numbers were quite large. In addition to America, they went wherever English was spoken: United States, Canada, Ireland, West Indies, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa. In Canada, there were many MacIntyres in Nova Scotia and Ontario as well as the Western Provinces. There is hardly a town of any size in the United States, whose phone book doesn’t have more than one MacIntyre, in its various spellings. They are also found in countries where the English sent Scottish prisoner, such as the islands of the Caribbean. The first MacIntyres to arrive in the New World were probably prisoners rather than settlers. The earliest record is of "slaves" aboard the ship "Unity" that arrived at Charlestown, Massachusetts, in the spring of 1651. Among the 150 Scots prisoners on board were three brothers, Philip, Robert, and Micum MacIntire. These men had fought a losing battle at Dunbar against Cromwell in a vain attempt to retain Charles II as King of Scotland. They were sold to an Englishman to work in the Saugus Ironworks near Boston, perhaps the first ironworks in the Americas. They were allowed to marry and since they were the first to arrive, it is likely that they are the ancestor of more American MacIntyres then any other MacIntyre immigrant. Their descendants still meet annually and are called the Micum MacIntires (see under MacIntyre Organizations). Other prisoners were sent to the Caribbean Islands. There was a group called the Argyll Colony including MacIntyres that arrived at Wilmington, North Carolina in 1739 and settled near Fayetteville. Others arrived individually or in small groups and settled in the southern colonies of Virginia, Carolinas, and Georgia. Canada was a destination, especially for those who might have had sympathies for the Crown. Australia was another destination of MacIntyres seeking a better life but just as likely, being deported from Scotland or England for breaking the law. An explorer, Allan Cunningham named the Macintyre or McIntyre River, a tributary of the Darling, after his friend, Capt. Peter McIntyre or Macintyre. His descendants are sure that Peter was the grandson of the Highland poet, Duncan Ban MacIntyre. Another destination for MacIntyres was a return to their Isle of Destiny, Ireland. They went as deportees, workers on the plantations, or adventurers. As early as the late 1200s, MacIntyres may have left Scotland for Ireland as the socalled gallowglass soldiers, in support of the Irish Chiefs in their battles against the English. In the 1600s, after the Covenanting wars, the emigrants were Catholics rather than Protestant. By discovery, honor, or ownership, MacIntyres have given their name to many places including to Lake MacIntyre in Nova Scotia, Mt. MacIntyre and the MacIntyres Mines in the Adirondacks of New York (after Archibald MacIntyre), in Australia, there is a Glenoe and the Macintyre River. Many went to Tasmania, where they named a mountain `Cruachan' after the one they loved so well.
1. We know that Ann returned to Scotland for a visit in the 1830s. She was probably visiting her aging parents for the last time.
Search for the Lost Chief
Although the existence and location of the MacIntyre Chief was known in Scotland, in the United States there was no general interest in the Chief and his whereabouts. It was the curiosity of the L. D. MacIntyre in 1931 that led to locating the Chief and generating interest in Clan MacIntyre in the United States. His search for the Chief and for a history of Clan MacIntyre required correspondence with a large number of strangers with the name MacIntyre. In order to pay for the postage, L. D. rendered the Chief’s coatof 1 arms based on the knowledge he had at that time. He had it printed as a bookplate and letterhead. He sent out a mass mailing with a request for donations to aid him in writing a history. He thought that the enclosed bookplates would be an incentive for a generous donation. In truth, the generous donations from thrifty Scots were only sufficient to cover the printing and postage. However, value isn’t always measured in money. Gold was struck in the form of a letter from one individual who provided the Chief’s address! From this developed a long correspondence between the author and Donald, eighth chief of record. The Chief had already been corresponding with Alexander James MacIntyre of Inveraray, Scotland. It was the Chief, Donald (VIII), who introduced the two budding historians. L. D. and Alexander corresponded intermittently from 1934 to 1964, shortly before Alexander’s death. This early success provided the impetus for the L. D.’s lifelong study of all things Scottish, especially about MacIntyres, which culminated in the first edition of this book. But, what about the MacIntyre Chief and his official 2 recognition?
MAC INTYRE ARMORIAL BEARINGS
Coat and Shield of Arms
The origin of noble families having an insignia, bearings, or eschuteon is obscure, but it seems to be associated with the feudal system. When the armorial bearings were put on the knight’s shield they were called the shield of arms, and when they were placed on the vest that went over the knights armor, they were called the coat of arms. These bearings were called armorial bearings since they were part of the knight’s armor. The display was to identify the knight whose face was covered by his helmet shield, so both his opponent and friend could identify him. This tradition seems to have taken hold on the Continent around the 12th century but may not have arrived in the Gaelic Highlands until the 14th or 15th century. A Highland chief displayed his armorial bearings in his home as a source of pride, distinction, and family history. In the form of the great seal or signet ring, it could also have been used to make an imprint to ensure the authenticity of a document. An armorial bearing is not an arbitrary drawing or carving. It starts as a description blazon and the elements of the blazon relate to the family’s history. In 1399, the Scottish Crown established the Lyon Court composed of officers of arms called Heralds and presided over by the principal officer, the Lord Lyon King of Arms. The function of this royal court was to verify the authenticity of the king and nobles (barons and chiefs), including their armorial bearings. It may also have been a means of taxing those who wished to have these symbols of rank and to establish that it was the Crown and not the clans who determined the Who’s Who of the Highlands.
MacIntyre Coat of Arms
There are many similarities among the coats of arms of the Clans that derived from Somerled and from MacNeil. For example, a galley is in the coats of arms of the MacIntyres, MacDonalds, MacDougalls, and MacNeils; an eagle and a crosslet are shared by MacIntyres and MacDonalds; the MacIntyres and MacNeils share a red hand, which was the banner of Niall of the Nine Hostages, the MacNeil progenitor. The red hand could also be the one that was cut off in the legendary race between ancestors of MacIntyres and MacDonalds. Despite these similarities, these symbols can be found in the Arms of many other Highland clans that have no direct or legendary connection to the MacIntyres. The differences among the coats of arms are consistent with the premise that the MacIntyres were a related but separate clan from
1. At that time, he did not know that this use of the coat of arms was strictly proscribed. Of course, he also didn’t know that the Arms weren’t recognized in Scotland, so perhaps the only offense was to the Chief and not the Lyon Court or the Laws of Heraldry in Scotland. 2. Coat of Arms, like tartans, may be a relatively recent artifact and therefore are less likely to be represent historical facts.
the MacDonalds and MacDougalls. For example, MacIntyres do not have a lion rampant so are not a direct descent from Somerled. The use of the Arms to show a connection or lack thereof, assumes that 1 they were designed from a very early date or at least with a direct line of knowledge. The Chief of the MacIntyres was entitled to a coat of arms. According to Duncan Ban MacIntyre in his 2 Verses on Arms, the King gave the coat of arms to the Chief. The King he referred to could have been Somerled, c. 1154, King Malcolm IV, c.1164, King Robert "The Bruce" in 1318, or "in the name of the King" by the Lyon Court after its establishment in 1399. If a King gave Arms to the Chief of the MacIntyres, it would have been long before the establishment of the Lyon Court’s Public Registry of Arms. MacIntyre of 3 Glenoe was not in the first published Public Registry of Arms in 1675, but it was common for chiefs to not reregister their Arms. Duncan of Australia feels that it is just as likely that many Chiefs awarded arms to themselves when it became fashionable to have Arms. Continuing along this line, he feels that the Registry might have been established in 1675 to stop this type of activity or at least to obtain income from it. However, experts have also said that about the tartan design, and even about clans themselves. I tend to side with those who say that traditions are usually older, not younger, than we think. The Lyon Court 4 has been the final authority for awarding and designing the arms of Scottish chiefs and nobility. According to Duncan McIntyre of Australia, many chiefs of Highland clans, including the MacIntyre chiefs, ignored this feudal requirement and continued to display their personal arms among their clansmen and friends. For a number of reasons, to be discussed later, these chiefs either did not accept the authority of the Lyon Court or they feared that, on a technicality, they might not receive 5 recognition and would lose something they held dear. For obvious reason, the deposed Royal House of Stewarts has never repetitioned the Lyon Court for recognition, although their coat of arms is well known and authenticated. The Duke of Argyll, Clan Campbell, was also among those who didn’t petition for arms, saying that his existed long before there was a Lyon Court. It appears that he too has bowed to the pressures of the time (commercial and otherwise).
2. It has always seemed odd that the MacIntyres has the same war cry as the Campbells. It has been assumed that this was due to the Campbell’s power and the proximity of their territory to Ben Cruachan. However, one would think that if the MacIntyres arrived after the Campbells they would have certainly chosen a different war cry and vice versa. It seems clear that the MacIntyre were there first. It would be understandable that the Campbells might have expropriated the MacIntyre’s war cry, as they did the MacIntyre March. It would seem that having the same war cry would be confusing if you were calling for aid in a battle. This suggests another explanation perhaps a different MacIntyre war cry, as suggested in a spirited series of letters to the editor of the Oban Times in 1888. The initial debate concerned the origin of the MacIntyre March. One correspondent used the nom de plume, Lamh Dhearg, meaning red hand. As an aside, he said this was the true war cry of the MacIntyres. On a purely rational basis, this would make sense, especially if the MacIntyres were related to the MacNeils on the male side, since the red hand is the banner of the MacNeils and Maurice, The Wright, was the son of a MacNeil. 3. The Registry was authorized in 1672, the first list was in 1675, and the date of publication was 1678. 4. In 1399, the Lord Lyon King of Arms was delegated authority by his Sovereign over all matters of Scottish Heraldry. In 1672, the Public Register was established for all Arms and Bearings, their matriculation, rights of succession by Clan Chiefs and even the proper clan tartan. 5. Duncan I was living in Scotland in 1672 when the Public Register of all Arms and Bearings in Scotland was established. It is assumed that neighboring Chiefs recognized his arms and that this was sufficient for him.
1 Armorial Bearings of MacIntyre of Glenoe
Between 1672 and 1955, the Public Register of all Arms and Bearings in Scotland did not contain Arms for a MacIntyre Chief or Chieftain. In 1955, Arms were registered for the representer of the Camusnah Erie cadet and in 1991; the Arms for Glenoe, Chief of Clan MacIntyre were registered. The story of how there came to be two coats of arms within 35 years after almost 300 years without any being recognized if material for a soap opera. As with all the previous stories, there are many missing or fuzzy pieces even though it occurred within the last 50 years. As with many other aspects of the Clan MacIntyre history, the origin and meaning of the armorial bearings of MacIntyre of Glenoe are shrouded in mystery. Until recently, there was even a question as to whether there would be a recognized armorial bearing for MacIntyre of Glenoe and whether the traditional armorial bearings would be the one approved by the Lyon Court. There have been many references in published and unpublished documents to the chiefship of Clan MacIntyre and his Arms. An analysis of all of these leaves little doubt as to the main facts. Glenoe was recognized as chief of Clan MacIntyre before the Act of Parliament in 1672, which established A Public Register of all Arms and Bearings in Scotland. The Arms are on the carved wooden great seal and a silver signet ring handed down through the generations from Glenoe to Glenoe. The Arms are also on a great wooden seal and on a gold ring that came from Glenoe and are in the possession of the present Camusna hErie chieftain. The chancel of St. Conan's Kirk at Loch Awe where stalls carved of Spanish chestnut 2 show the full coatsofarms of chiefs who held land in the neighborhood. The other notables, who have their Arms in the stalls adjoining MacIntyre of Glenoe, indicate the care with which these coat of arms were researched. These are The Duke of Argyll, Chief of the Campbells; his wife, H.R.H. The Princess Louise (daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert); MacCorquodale of Loch Trommlie; and MacGregor of Glen Strae. It is unlikely that they would have allowed incorrect Arms to be used for this purpose since it would have been illegal according to the rules of the Lyon Court. The most notable written document is circa 1765 ‘Verses on Arms’ by Duncan Ban MacIntyre upon seeing the arms when 3 visiting James (III). The only other written documentation of the arms is in the 1852 memoirs of James, fifth chief. Finally, the 14th CamusnahErie acknowledged the traditional arms of Glenoe in his book on 4 Clan MacIntyre. There is no doubt that a chief of Clan MacIntyre existed long before the Lyon Court register was established and it is likely that he also had arms which were recognized by his peers. If this were not so, then beginning in 1678 or earlier, the MacIntyre chiefs residing at Glenoe would have been acting outside the law and could have been prosecuted. The Verses of Arms by Duncan Ban MacIntyre gives no hint of subterfuge but instead is open and optimistic in describing the Arms and his acknowledged Chief. It is this author’s opinion that the arms of Glenoe are ancient and carry the weight of tradition. This may seem a contradiction to what a clerk at the Lord Lyon King of Arms at H.R.H. Registry House, Edinburgh, told L. D. MacIntyre in 1955 L.D. was told uncategorically, that the undifferenced Arms for MacIntyre of Glenoe had never been officially determined. However, he only meant that there was no existing record of a petition for recognition after the establishment of the Public Register. In fact, the most recent book published on the subject, written by a Herald of the Lyon Court, does not include the Royal Clan Stewart as having a recognized chief because no one has repetitioned the Lyon Court to be recognized as the chief. This does not mean that the Royal Stewarts didn’t have a chief or a coat of arms because they were the Kings of Scotland and had these by definition. One reason for this is that it would be an admission by the Stewart chief
1. There are two copies shown of the Armorial Bearings, the one awarded to ninth Chief, James in 1991 and the one described in the unpublished 1852 memoirs of James, the fifth Chief. The latter description says it was extracted verbatim from the Lyon Office in Edinburgh although Argent is missing after `3rd'. 2. The Guide Book for Saint Conan’s Kirk Loch Awe, states that this kirk (church) was built expressly for the use of the mother of a Walter Douglas Campbell, younger brother of the First Lord Blythswood. Walter lived with his mother and sister in a mansionhouse on the nearby Island of Innischonain in Loch Awe 3. `The Songs of Duncan Ban MacIntyre' Appendix II; Bibliography 25, pages 234237; 26, pages 30912. 4. Explanation of Heraldic terms: Or gold; Eagle displayed wings expanded and legs spread (in heraldry one of the most noble bearings); Gules red; Langued tongue visible, different color; Sable black; Argent silver; Sinister left; Dexter right; Fesse projecting from the center of the quarter; Cross crosslet fitched (fitchy) a cross with a cross at three arms with the lower arm pointed and symbolizes the croistaraidh used to rally the Clan members; Azure blue. Proper natural color; pommeled having a round knob on the hilt.
that the Stewart (Jacobite) succession to the Crown of the United Kingdom is at an end. It would also appear that the person who has the best claim to Stewart chiefship resides in Germany. It is clear that the MacIntyre chiefs had good company among those who did not petition the Lyon Court for recognition of their Arms. In fact, there are still clans who have not petitioned or may not have enough information to substantiate their claim. There are two reasons to believe that the traditional coat of arms may have been officially recognized before the establishment of the Lyon Court. First, in Duncan Ban MacIntyre’s Verses on Arms, the third and fourth lines of Stanza IV says that the coat of arms had been given to the Chief by the king: The coat of arms correct and handsome Which the King for his (the Chief’s) use settled, Stanza I suggests that Duncan Ban is describing a gold ring with a precious stone in the center. I saw today the stone of might, The jewel splendid, Settings of gold around its light In Cirque defended; . . . The ring in the possession of the present Glenoe is a silver signet ring with the armorial bearings etched or carved on the stone. This means that the stone cannot be a precious stone. Of course, precious could be poetic license since the arms are indeed precious, but it is doubtful that he would have substituted gold for silver. A gold ring with a precious center stone did exist and was given to Jean MacIntyre, daughter of 1 James (III) of Glenoe when she married the Rev. Duncan MacIntyre, of CamusnahErie. In Johnston’s 1906 edition of Scottish Clans and Tartans, it says that the ring was said to be, "engraved with the crest and the words, Per Ardua," but there is no mention of the coat of arms. Rather, it states that Duncan Ban wrote his Verses on Arms "descriptive of the ring and the Arms" as if they were separate items. The second evidence of prior recognition of the Glenoe coat of arms by the Lyon Court is supported by the memoir of James (V), which states that the description was "verbatim, as extracted from the Lyon Office in Edinburgh." James may have visited the Lyon Office on the trip to Edinburgh when he failed, by one day, to meet his Uncle Duncan. Perhaps if they had met, the Black Book of Glenoe would not have been lost. The existence of a coat of arms in the Lyon Office would not alter the chiefs’ claims that they never petitioned nor paid for recognition, and it wouldn’t alter the Lyon Court’s claim, that the coat of arms was never authenticated. It is quite possible that the recognition by the King was an honor bestowed on the first MacIntyre Chief Duncan (I) or an earlier chief, requiring neither petition nor payment. Re petitioning may have been a requirement for listing it in the 1672 Public Registry, and was ignored by the Duncan (I) as it was by many chiefs. It would seem that Duncan (I) could have afforded the fee, and there is little doubt that he would have known about the registration procedure. Maybe it was a silent protest against the system, which only ended 400 years later in 1987 (and almost didn’t occur then either)? In 1747, after the Battle of Culloden, the wearing of the kilt was proscribed in the Disclothing Act and clan identity was suppressed. In 1782, the proscription was repealed but by now the clan chiefship was only honorary, without any judicial authority. That was the year before Donald, the heir apparent, emigrated to the United States. At that time, there may have been a need to raise money to support the Lyon Court, and there may have been a fee if a Scottish chief wished to have the status of a noble. Many of them lost their land in the rebellion or never had land of their own. Requiring repetitioning would have been a way to place the Scottish chiefs on a par with English nobility, raise money, and eliminate some of the smaller, less wealthy Highland chiefs who coincidentally were the same chiefs who fought against the Crown and who were continuing to maintain their Gaelic identity. If this were the case, repetitioning was either ignored by James (III) and by James (V), or it might not have been required until after James (V) returned to the United States in 1822. A desire to establish a distinction based on social class would be consistent with the feudal system and with English culture, which had replaced the more egalitarian, first among equals, position of the Gaelic chiefs. On the other side of the ledger, repetitioning could have been a way to force the chiefs who fought against the Crown to acknowledge the King’s authority with their tails between their legs, or be discredited by not doing so.
1. In, Scottish Clans and their Tartans (1906) states that the Glenoe ring, which Duncan Ban examined before writing Verse on Arms, was in possession of Duncan MacIntyre, 14th CamusnahErie Representer (Chieftain).
Scottish clan chiefs must have used armorial bearings long before 1672, the date when they were first recorded in the Public Register of all Arms and Bearings in Scotland. It is assumed that those claimed by MacIntyre of Glenoe were handed down in the family through the centuries and according to Duncan Ban; the King gave them to the MacIntyre chief. In 1962, L. D. MacIntyre showed the description of the CoatofArms to Colonel H. A. B. Lawson, Lyon Clerk, and Keeper of the Records. After a brief glance, he dismissed the Arms claimed in 1852 by James, fifth Chief, as incorrect and probably from Burke's General Armory in Ireland, which the Lyon Office did not recognize. The descriptions were similar, but not identical, and the first edition of Burke's volume was published in 1884, thirtytwo years after James’ memoirs. The description in the memoirs specifically states that they came from the Lyon Office. James (V) visited Edinburgh in 1808, and it is possible that he checked on his heritage at that time or sometime later in the 16 years he lived in Scotland. Duncan of Australia surmises that he received the information from a CamusnahErie relative with whom he corresponded after returning to the United States. This is based on the premise that no arms were registered by the Lyon Court and therefore they couldn’t have been copied "verbatim "by James (V) or anyone else. It is possible that the Lyon Court had a library that included arms that hadn’t been registered, just in case there was a petition.
Recognition Of the MacIntyre Chief
When contacted by L.D. MacIntyre in 1933, neither James (VII) or Donald, younger and heir Apparent, expressed interest in applying to the Lyon Court for recognition. As they told L.D. MacIntyre, "Why should we pay someone to tell us what we already know?" For all the preceding MacIntyre chiefs, it had been sufficient recognize their heritage and to possess the symbols of the chiefship. Official recognition had no obvious benefit and included added responsibilities and expenses. By petitioning for recognition, they would have acknowledged the jurisdiction of the Lyon Court over their claim of the chiefship. Long before these relatively modern courts were established, a chiefship was granted at the largess of the King. Before that, it was by Gaelic tradition, where blood relations voted in a meeting called a derbhfine. To petition the Lyon Court for recognition would risk the status quo, including the design of the coatofarms changes that might not be for the better. Yet, until the Court registered the MacIntyre Chief’s Arms, their use would be under a legal penalty, presumably anywhere in the World. 1,2
Matriculation of the CamusnahErie Armorial Bearings
In 1967, because there was no MacIntyre chief recognized by the Lyon Court, Sir Ian Moncreiffe of that Ilk, Lord Lyon King of Arms, approved a clan map of Scotland in which MacIntyre was listed as a surname but not as a clan. In his book on Scottish clans, the only reference was to MacIntyres of Badenoch, as Clan Intire, the 16th member of the Clan Chattan Confederation. MacIntyre of Glenoe was not mentioned. With the advent of Sir Thomas Innes of Learney as Lord Lyon King of Arms, the use of any coatofarms that wasn’t officially registered with the Lyon Court was considered a breach of the law. The Court decided to start enforcing their rule, which made it illegal to sell or even wear a crest badge of an unrecognized chief or chieftain. This meant that the traditional MacIntyre crest badge of Glenoe could no longer be legally sold in stores and at Scottish games. In the 1952 revision of Sir Thomas’ earlier volume of The Scottish Tartans, the MacIntyre arms were intentionally deleted, although the tartan, slogan, and badge (in error) were still displayed. This action by the Court automatically stopped the legal sale of the existing crest badges i.e., the crest of the clan chief encircled in a strap and buckle and proper for all clansmen to wear. Until that time, neither Glenoe nor the Representer of the House of CamusnahErie had petitioned for recognition. This put the companies who sold these items in a legal bind. It must have been with some relief to the Lyon Court when it received a petition from Alastair MacIntyre, th Esquire, for recognition as the 16 Chieftain of CamusnahErie, senior cadet branch to the MacIntyres of Glenoe. His Arms were matriculated and Letters Patent were granted in 1955. If MacIntyre of Glenoe had been previously recognized as Chief, then the CamusnahErie Arms would have been almost identical to Glenoe’s except for a bordure or difference, to denote a close relationship with the Chief’s 3 family.
1. There is another court of heraldry, the Atholl Court, which claims jurisdiction from the time when Scotland was a separate kingdom. 2. It is highly doubtful that anyone, even the Lyon Court, could win a suit in the United States against the Chief using his own coat of arms. 3. "with a bordure or difference" means it is the same arms of the recognized Chief with a small difference to indicate that it is "of the Chief’s family" but not the Chief’s arms.
Predating 1955, the arms of Glenoe could be found in reference books as well as being described in poetry. th In fact, a short history of Clan MacIntyre written by Duncan, 14 Chieftain of the House of Camusnah Erie, included the traditional Glenoe coatofarms. No one had challenged the authenticity of the Arms other than the Lyon Court, who only stated the obvious, that there were no record of a petition for their recognition. This presented a problem for the Lyon Court in designing Arms for the CamusnahErie cadet. If the Lord Lyon awarded the traditional arms of Glenoe with a difference, it would appear that they were giving de facto recognition of Glenoe’s arms without a Chief recognized by the Court. Perhaps to avoid giving tacit recognition to Glenoe, he designed and awarded entirely new Arms based on the tombstone that Duncan (I) had designed for his family. It was normal for gravestones to have emblems of activities in which the deceased had taken pleasure. In the case of Duncan (I), this may have been hunting (a stag's head), fishing (a salmon), sports (shinty ball), sailing, or a symbol from his heritage (a galley). There is not doubt that these symbols are displayed on the tomb within the outline of a shield and he could have displayed his coat of arms. The shield lacks a crest and other characteristics of armorial bearings to signify his rank. Perhaps the coat of arms weren’t displayed because Duncan (I) hadn’t petitioned for their recognition? If he had used the traditional Arms, it would have been illegal. The tomb also has a skull and crossbones, that rightly were not included in the CamusnahErie coat of arms. The CamusnahErie crest was similar to the original except for the addition of a snowball on the point of the dirk, perhaps representing the snowball that is a prominent part of MacIntyre legend, although not necessary something of which to be proud and not part of their origin legends. We know that the symbols on Duncan (I)’s tombstone are not the arms carried by James (III) as described by Duncan Ban MacIntyre in 1760s. Further, they are not found on the CamusnahEire gravestones or anywhere else. Nevertheless, the CamusnahErie Arms awarded by the Lyon Court are based on the earliest extant visual material that might be considered arms, the shield on the tombstone of 1 Duncan (I) dated 1695. The snowball in the crest is a part of MacIntyre legend but not part of the legend describing the Clan’s origin. The result was that, after 1955, the crest badge with a snowball was the only one that could be legally produced and displayed in Scotland. Once the CamusnahErie arms were granted, there was every reason to believe, based on tradition, that if a Glenoe were to subsequently successfully petition the Lyon Court for recognition, the Court would grant him the CamusnahErie arms without a difference. This would mean that the traditional Arms of Glenoe, shown on the Cognizances in the possession of the Chief and the chieftain, would become historical relics. In hindsight, it may have been fortunate that Donald (VIII) did not petition for recognition in 1960s and 1970s.
Matriculation of the Glenoe Armorial Bearings
For L. D. MacIntyre, and for everyone who proudly carried the name MacIntyre (or variations thereof), official recognition of their Chief was important. Somehow, lack of recognition represented a secondclass chiefship and clanship and it had already resulted in omission from reference books. The first edition of this book was written to provide recognition to the Chief and clan, which would never occur because official recognition seemed hopeless. First, the chief hadn’t sought recognition, and second, by all indications, the Lyon Court wouldn’t grant recognition, even if there were a bona fide petition. Nevertheless, the clan motto, Per Ardua, demanded that an effort be made in hopes that a compromise could be found to have the Chief recognized and his correct arms matriculated. Ad Hoc Derbhfine. On 23 March 1982, the Lord Lyon proposed a plan to L. D. MacIntyre for regularizing the Arms of the Chief of Clan MacIntyre. On 5 May 1982, L.D. MacIntyre received permission from Donald (VIII) to take steps toward achieving recognition of his hereditary chiefship of Clan MacIntyre by the Lyon Court in Scotland. To have the correct arms matriculated you need well documented proof from as far back as possible in order for the Lyon Court to be sure there are no other legitimate claimants. The proof usually comes from family Bibles, church, and government records of births and deaths, family correspondence, and legal contracts. All of these can be difficult and expensive to locate. For the MacIntyre chiefs, this would be more difficult to prove because Dr. Donald immigrated
1. If there is any organic material on the great seals, e.g., wood, it would now be possible to date them by scientific methods and determine if they were made before or after 1695. If before, then they would be the oldest example of the coat of arms and would mean that they were the true Arms
to the United States in 1783 and died before his father, James (IV). This meant the chiefship actually skipped a generation from James (III) to James (V). In 1792, when Dr. Donald died in the United States, the recording births, marriages, and deaths was still in its infancy, as were most governmental functions in a country where the U. S. Constitution has only been ratified five years earlier. The Black Book of Glenoe that might contain the missing information was lost. It appeared that too much crucial information was missing on both sides of the Atlantic for a petition to be successful. Fortunately, or so it seemed at the time, there was an ancient Gaelic alternative method called an ad hoc derbhfine, that was available to the Lyon Court for approving a chief. A derbhfine is a reference to the time in the Celtic and Gaelic tradition when the clansmen chose their chief from among those eligible males who had a common grandfather. The modern equivalent within the rules of the Lyon Court is a group of seven clansmen who met strict qualifications of being titled or landed. In the absence of a recognized Chief, the ad hoc derhbfine could be assembled under the auspices of the Lyon Court. They would have to unanimously recommend to the Lord Lyon, King of Arms, an individual worthy to be the interim chief. This individual need not be a blood descendant of the chief. If chosen and approved by the Court, the individual would be the Acting Chief for a period of twenty years, during which a petition could be made by a blood descendent based on the normal criteria. If no petition was approved at the end of twenty years, the Acting Chief, would become the recognized chief. To be a member of the ad hoc derbhfine an individual has to have his or her own registered arms or be landed. "Landed" means more than simply owning land. The land has to be in the countryside of Scotland. In 1983 to avoid what seemed to be an impossible task of tracing Donald (VIII) in New York back to his family’s roots in Glenoe, an advertisement was placed in Scottish newspapers and magazines to find seven individuals who would constituted an ad hoc derbhfine and would agree to recommend Donald (VIII) as the interim chief. In this way, the rightful chief would be recognized as the interim chief, and in due course, would become the permanently recognized Chief as well. L.D. and Alice MacIntyre went to Scotland to personally locate seven qualified individuals. They located six and signed up four of them. However, in doing so, one of the individuals decided that an "American" shouldn’t be a recognized Scottish chief, and further, that he, himself, would make a fine chief. He began to collect names of individuals in support of his claim. When he actually petitioned for recognition via an ad hoc derbhfine, and it seemed there was, at least, a slight chance that he might succeed, the recognized CamusnahErie chieftain of the senior cadet, came forward as a more logical candidate living in the United Kingdom. After all, at least he had a recognized blood connection with the Chiefs of Glenoe on both the paternal and maternal side of his family. Now, instead of one claimant for the position of Chief of 1 Clan MacIntyre, there were three, Glenoe, CamusnahErie, and an unnamed individual. The confusion was not over, because there was a mysterious fourth claimant! To the many advertisements seeking persons qualified for the ad hoc derbhfine, there had been just one response, and what a response it was. The postmark on the letter was from France, and the writer claimed that she was the rightful chief (a female heir can become chief under certain circumstances). She said she was the direct descendant of the MacIntyre chief who fled from Scotland to France along with many other chiefs after Culloden in 1746. She explained her long silence by the simple statement "there is still a price on my head!" According to her claim, her ancestor, the chief of Clan MacIntyre, had been proscribed from returning to Scotland on pain of death for his part in supporting Bonnie Prince Charlie. She said that this proscription extended to each succeeding generation until the punishment was meted out (ouch!) and the law had never been repealed. Thus, she was an outlaw chief. The letter did not give the names of her ancestors. Unfortunately, there was no attempt to continue the correspondence or followup on her claim, since at the time, it seemed false on its face and it was counter to the intended purpose of the advertisement the selection of Donald of New York State as the interim chief using an ad hoc derbhfine. Back in the early 1980s, it appeared highly unlikely that a presumptive Chief, living in the United States, would ever be able to prove his case before the Lyon Court in Edinburgh, which was the reason for having an ad hoc derhbfine. For the ad hoc derhbfine to be successful there needed to be unanimity, and since this was clearly absent, the Lyon Court had no alternative but to stop any further proceeding in this direction. Back to square one. Research and Petition. It was pure serendipity, that just when the ad hoc derhbfine collapsed, there was a Clan MacIntyre Association ready to step in and provide assistance. Money from a special "Glenoe Fund" was voted to pay for a solicitor in Scotland who was familiar with the Lyon Court. Sir Crispin 1 Agnew, and on his recommendation, Hugh Peskett, a professional genealogist, were retained. These
1. Sir Crispin is presently Rothesay Herald on the Lyon Court
individuals proved crucial because their excellent reputations gave added weight to their research and presentation of the findings. As is usual in these matters, the effort proceeded slowly and the costs mounted, but the Association held firm to its quest. A representative of the Association met with a representative of the Lyon Court and with the two other formal claimants. There was an informal agreement of a oneyear deadline for completing the necessary documentation. One year passed and everything that could be done in Scotland had been successfully completed. Unfortunately, there was still missing information that could only be obtained in the United States. The major gap concerned the life and death of Dr. Donald, or Donald (VI) and his children. Without authentication of his death, and evidence that he was the father of James (V), there could be no proof of a continuous hereditary chiefship. During this final crucial period of research, Donald (VIII) died and his son James (IX) became the chief for whom recognition was being sought. All the prior activities had gone forward with the written consent of Donald, and knowledge of James. However, until this moment, there had been no need for direct involvement on their part. Now, it was necessary to get as much information from the Chief as possible. One individual was assigned this task and because the stated deadline had already passed, urgency seemed to be in order. A number of wellmeaning individuals began to make independent inquiries in the hope that "many hands" would make "light work." This resulted in overlapping visits to the family gravesites and increasing contacts with the Chief and his relatives that became more and more intrusive. At one point, the Chief received five requests for the same piece of information. The Chief and his immediate family were overwhelmed by what this might foretell, should the petition be successful. The necessary information was finally obtained and it seemed to be adequate for a successful petition. However, there was one formality remaining, a written petition from the Chief for recognition by the Lyon Court. Up to this point, the Chief had consented to the efforts on behalf of himself, his ancestors, and his descendants. But now, he and his family were having second thoughts. In addition to the major issue of loss of privacy, the petition for recognition had one major drawback, which could lead to additional problems. Petitioning the Court meant accepting the authority of the Lord Lyon over the Chief’s claim and the possibility that the claim would be denied. If denied, the Court could then approve another claim. From the Chief’s point of view, the status quo was preferable to rejection of his petition. Second, the Lyon Court could approve the petition but award a different coat of arms. It is within the power of the Lyon Court to design and award the coatofarms regardless of precedence or the wishes of the Chief, although they try to come to an amicable result. Nevertheless, in this particular instance, there was a strong possibility that the Arms awarded by the Lyon Court as correct might not be the traditional ones. When arms already exist, the normal practice is to award the same arms with a difference. However, in the case of Clan MacIntyre, the Court had already awarded Arms to the CamusnahErie cadet, and they were not the traditional arms with a difference although they were intended to be the Arms of Glenoe with a th difference. In fact, the 40 volume, 1955 of the Public Register of Arms in Scotland contains a not by Lord Lyon Innes of Learney that the CamusnahErie Arms would be the basis of the undifferenced Arms for MacIntyre of Glenoe, if he made a claim that was approved! This meant that there was a real possibility for Glenoe to be awarded the undifferenced CamusnahErie Arms, something totally unacceptable to the Chief. After all, he had in his possession the great seal and the signet ring carrying the traditional arms. Once the petition was signed, it would be out of the Chief’s hands and he would be at the mercy of the Court. With all of these possibilities before them, and with the loss of their privacy in the balance, the Chief’s family met and decided to forego recognition in Scotland! An urgent plea was made to the Chief and his family on behalf of his clansmen, especially on behalf of the ninety year old L. D. MacIntyre. L.D. had spent more than half of his life toward this goal, and had exhibited the highest level of friendship, and loyalty to three generations of Chiefs: James (IX), and to his father, Donald (VIII) and to his grandfather, James (VII). On the verge of the successful culmination of L.D.’s lifelong effort, it would be a crushing blow to have it fail, precipitated by the illtimed enthusiasm of a few, wellmeaning individuals. If Glenoe would but sign the petition to the Lord Lyon, a promise was made to maintain his families’ privacy and to do everything possible to have the traditional Arms approved. Shortly thereafter, Glenoe mailed the signed petition to the Lyon Court. Success of the Petition and Quest. After what seemed like ages, a draft of the Letters Patent was received from the office of the Lord Lyon, King of Arms and Heraldry in Scotland. The good news was that the crest would be the traditional one, without a snowball to distinguish it from the CamusnahErie 1 cadet. There were some minor changes in the Arms a rondel on the breast of the eagles and a flaming
beacon on top of the mast of the galley. From a distance and to a novice, the proposed Arms appeared to 2 be the same as the traditional one. An unexpected surprise was the awarding of supporters, which gave Glenoe a higher status than was anticipated, and membership in the Council of Scottish Chiefs. Glenoe was also awarded a pinsel, and banner. In 1991, at age ninetyfour, L. D. MacIntyre had finally completed the quests he conceived 60 years earlier location of the MacIntyre Chief, completion of a history of Clan MacIntyre, and recognition of the MacIntyre Chief in Scotland.
1. A round object, with only decorative significance. It isn’t a snowball although it looks like one. 2. Supporters are animals, monsters, or humans who are on each side of the Shield of Arms, holding it up. They are not awarded to every petitioner and represent a higher level of nobility including automatic membership on the Council of Scottish Chiefs.
History of the MacIntyre Clan
Part III HOUSES OF CLAN MAC INTYRE
Part II covers Clan MacIntyre and its Chiefs, within a historical context. Part III is a more detailed account of the Houses of Clan MacIntyre, and the lives of individual Chiefs and Chieftains. Some of this information is in Part II, but it will be repeated for continuity, and to avoid flipping the pages back and forth.
1 There are many living blood relations of the Chiefs and Chieftains, who are personally interested in what will be said about their family and ancestors. They can be assured that the present Glenoe and Camusna hErie have taken the opportunity to review this material for accuracy and sensitivity. I have tried to be historically accurate within the bounds of good taste.
THE HOUSE OF GLENOE
There have been lists of MacIntyre Chiefs compiled by MacIntyre seanachies that go back as far as 500 A.D. but they have lacked any information on the source. The argument for them being factual is the Gaelic tradition of reciting the genealogy of a family, especially the chief’s lineage. Even when addressing someone, you might recite an individual’s name, including the names of the father, the grandfather, and often further back than that. The argument against their accuracy is the same in reverse; that the custom of reciting more than the given name and a surname, disappeared more than two hundred years ago, when it became fashionable to have stories that put the chief in a favorable light. MacIntyre chiefs haven’t been flattered in this way, which gives more credence to their stories. You will have to judge what to believe and disbelieve. Some of you will be led by your heart, and others, by your head. This author’s opinions will be somewhere in between intelligent guesses combined with a sprinkling of wishful thinking, after a few plucks on the old heartstrings.
Although there are MacIntyre legends that appear to predate 1100 A.D., there is no mention in these legends of a chief with a given name. The first name of a possible MacIntyre chief associated with a verifiable date, is Maurice or Murdock, The Wright, c.1150. According to this legend, Maurice became the first MacIntyre chief as a reward for helping his uncle, Somerled, King of Argyll and the Western Isles. The son of Maurice, The Wright, whose given name is unknown, would have been the first to be called MacIntyre or Son of The Wright. For the next two centuries, we have no mention of a MacIntyre chief. Duncan is the next name of a chief to appear, and the first to be associated with Glenoe. We know about Duncan through a story told to Alexander James MacIntyre of Inveraray by his father, Alexander, who was told by his mother, Jean Bell MacIntyre about the Two Sons of Chief Duncan (see Part V). Because the story involves the Campbells, we can place it sometime after 1332, when King Robert the Bruce gave Glenorchy to the Campbells in repayment for their support of his claim to the Scottish crown. Glenorchy was occupied by MacGregors and Menzies, among others and the Campbells decided to not press the issue. A century later, Campbell finally took possession and became Lord Glenorchy. This is important because the key to Chief Duncan’s story is Ben Cruachan looming large between Lorn and Glenorchy. Glenoe was in Lorn and until 1469, Lorn was controlled by the Stewarts. That is why Chief Duncan stayed in Glenoe while his sons had to stay in Glenorchy with their families as hostage against flight. The murder and punishment had to occur after 1432 when the Campbells took possession of Glenorchy but before 1469 when the Campbells of Glenorchy took possession of Lorn, including Glenoe. If the story is true, then we know the names of three MacIntyre chiefs, Duncan and his sons, Duncan Og and Donald Faich. As you will see, there may be documents to support this possibility.
1. Chief, refers to the head of the main line of a clan, and Chieftain refers to the Representer of a cadet (branch) of a clan.
Malcolm is the next name identified as a MacIntyre chief from a story about his grandnephew, Archibald nd MacIntyre (d.1532), who brought back the body of the 2 Duke of Argyll from the Battle of Flodden in 1 1513. Archibald is said to have been the son of Duncan (d.1480), who was the second son of Malcolm, 2 Chief of Glenoe. This would make Malcolm the chief c.1475, give or take, twenty years. ,3 This Duncan is reputed to be the progenitor of the cadet House of Stranmore.
First Documented Chief.
The first legal document in which a MacIntyre chief or chieftain is identified, is the Bond to Lord th Glenorchy, dated June 4 1556. By swearing before witnesses to the contents of this document, MacIntyres of Clan Teir accepted responsibility, on behalf of Johne Boy M’Ynteir, for the cruel slaughter of Johne M’Gillenlag, the foster brother of Sir Colin Campbell, first Lord of Glenorchy. What makes this document even more remarkable is that this murder took place 116 years before, in 1440! Assuming the MacIntyres listed in the Bond were from Glenoe, and further, that the first MacIntyre listed was the chief, then two earlier chiefs, can be identified from his name, which was Duncan, son of Malcolm 5 son of Ian (John) MacIntyre. This makes Duncan the chief, Ian the chief before him, and Malcolm the chief before him (father and grandfather, respectively). Thus, from one name, we can gain knowledge of three ancestors and possibly three chiefs. This demonstrated the purpose and value of naming children in this manner. Working backwards and using twentyfive years for each generation, this would take us back fifty years to 1500, when Ian would have been the chief. Based on the other names on the list, it appears that neither Duncan’s father (Malcolm) nor his son (perhaps Malcolm) were present at the meeting. This means that Duncan’s son was not old enough to be listed (under twentyone) and that Duncan’s father was not alive. Assuming that Duncan’s father died of natural causes, this would place Duncan’s age at between forty and fifty, in the year 1556. If Duncan’s father, Malcolm, was named after his grandfather, Malcolm (Ian’s father) it would bring us back to 1475, not too far from the 1450 date that was estimated for the legendary, Chief Malcolm. Going forward from 1556, Malcolm would also have been the name of Duncan’s first son who would have been chief around 1580. Duncan MacIntyre of Australia located a 1590 bail bond listing a Malcolm MacIntyre as being sought. The fact that his presence was worth being guaranteed by others with their money, suggested to Duncan of Australia that he might well have been a chief, and his name just happens to be, Malcolm.
MacIntyre Chiefs and Glenoe.
Although the Bond to Glenorchy is a written document, it does not mention Glenoe, so we can’t be certain that these MacIntyres are from Glenoe. It is also possible, as argued in the first edition by L. D. MacIntyre, that Clan Teir was a sept of Glenoe living in Glenorchy. This would be consistent with the fact that in 1440, Glenoe was still under the Stewart, Lord of Lorn and Glenorchy was under the Campbells. In the Bond, they are referred to as Clan Teir and not MacIntyre or Intyre. In the story about Duncan and his two son, it was a killing of a Campbell that created the problem and forced the son to stay in Glenorchy as
1. The battle of Flodden accounted for the deaths of many of the clan chiefs and many of their heirs who were old enough to fight beside them. This was especially true of the Campbell heirs. 2. Without records, it is very difficult to estimate dates of birth, death, and chiefship. This is because of the high death rate of children from acute illness, death surrounding childbirth, a relatively high number of young men who died in battles, blood feuds, incidental arguments and accidents before they fathered children, and a high death rate among adult males as a result of mortal combat. This means that a chiefship could last a very short time but on a rare occasion, a long time. 3. Despite the difficulty in making estimates, it is still possible to narrow the possibilities by the process of elimination. The questions are: could Malcolm be the son and heir of Duncan Og or Donald Faich and could this be the same Malcolm who was the Glenoe chief who was Archibald’s grandfather? My answer is yes based on this brief analysis. Since Duncan was the second son, he wasn’t named after his paternal grandfather Duncan, which means his grandfather, couldn’t have been Duncan Og, but he could have been Donald Faich. In 1440, Chief Duncan had adult sons and grandchildren, one of whom could have been Malcolm, Donald Faich’s son. It is possible for Malcolm to have died in 1480 and still have had a second son Duncan and a grandson Archibald, who was old enough to bring back the body of Argyll. This analysis only says that it is within the realm of possibility, which, without records, is as much as you can expect.
part of their punishment. To reconcile these two accounts, it might have been necessary to prepare a post facto, legal document that would require a MacIntyre of Glenoe to declare feudal allegiance to the Campbell Chief for a killing over which, 114 years earlier, he had no jurisdiction. The death calps (death duty) referred to in the document may have been the legendary snowball and a fatted calf on Midsummer’s Day. It is also significant that the exchange was made at Lairg Noe, which in 1440 would have been the border between the Stewart’s Lorn and the Campbell’s Glenorchy. The MacIntyre legends link them with Glenoe from long before the 1400s but the first document linking a MacIntyre Chief with Glenoe is not until 1656, exactly one hundred years after the first document that mentioned a MacIntyre who might have been a chief. The Glenoe document was the 1656 Wadset, which 1 identifies Duncan, son of Donald, son of Duncan MacIntyre in Glenoe. This Duncan has been styled as (‘I’) by the clan seanachies, because he is the first documented Chief of Glenoe. The wadset gave unlimited use of Glenoe to Duncan, in return for a loan of 3000 merks given to the Marquis of Glenorchy with an 2 open date for repayment. Duncan’s name (Duncan son of Donald son of Duncan) indicates that his father was Donald (F) and that his grandfather was Duncan (GF) and by deduction they were the two preceding chiefs. In a later document, dated February 16, 1737, Duncan (I)’s son, Donald, is referred to as 2nd of Glenoe. The designations ( I, II, III ..) after a MacIntyre chief’s name, only indicates his position in the sequence of chiefs starting with the 1656 document. Thus, the numbering system does not start with Duncan (I)’s father, Donald (F), his grandfather, Duncan (GF) or with his great grandfather, who might have been Donald (GGF). Nor does it start with Malcolm, or Duncan with his two sons, or with the progenitor, 4 Maurice, all of whom preceded Duncan (I) by one to twenty generations. Using the 1656 Wadset, coupled with a few pieces of ancillary information and a little detective work, we can infer significant information about Duncan (I)’s father, Donald (F) and his grandfather, Duncan (GF). First, both of these latter gentlemen were dead by 1656, because otherwise, one or the other would have lent the money to Lord Glenorchy’s son, and the wadset would have been in their name. Second, Duncan (I) was not old enough to have the wadset legally in his name, even though the Glenoe wadset was being given to him. Instead, it was in the name of Gilpatrick MacIntyre to be held in safekeeping until Duncan (I) came of age. Third, it is likely that Donald (F) and Duncan (GF) were prosperous, because it would have taken at least two and probably many more generations to accumulate enough wealth to be able to lend 3000 merks and still maintain a sense of financial security. Fourth, in 1661, the Glenoe Wadset was transferred from Gilpatrick to Duncan (I), which means he was probably age twentyone. During the Scottish civil war in the164546, Donald (F) would have been in his early or midforties and his son, Duncan (I), would have been five years old. Their respective ages and Gilpatrick’s guardianship, when taken together, suggest that Donald (F)’s death could have been from violence, probably war wounds. (Part II. MacIntyres in the Highland Wars.)
5 According to the Wadset, in 1656, Gilpatrick MacIntyre loaned 3000 merks, on behalf of Duncan (I), to 6 John Campbell, the Marquis of Glenorchy, who was probably short of cash following the war. It appears that this loan was from money to be inherited by Duncan (I), who at that time was still a minor, and therefore not able to sign a legal document. Both his grandfather and his father were dead, so it is likely that Gilpatrick was his uncle or older adult cousin, acting as trustee of the inheritance or guardian, until Duncan (I) was of age. The document mentions Duncan (I) by name and acknowledges the wadset or mortgage provides free use of Glenoe and an adjoining parcel of land called Barschallan, that together 7 were referred to as Duo. This deed was to continue indefinitely until the loan was repaid and it could be inherited. On June 1, 1661, the wadset was transferred from Gilpatrick MacIntyre to Duncan (I), presumably because Duncan had reached age twentyone. 3
1. "Duncan McDonald vic Donichie vic intyre in Glennoe" 2. The document will be discussed in detail in the next section. 3. Hugh Peskett, Second Report, Appendix XIV, page 65, 66. Breadalbane Archives, [GD 112/10] Box 1. Bundle 4: Tacks 17551778. 4. The twenty generations is loosely based on twentyfive years per generation going back from Duncan in 1656 to Maurice, The Wright, c. 1150. 5. A merk was a monetary value that began as a value put on land. 6. A Marquis is the title held by the heir apparent of a Lord. 7. Duo means two parcels.
Duncan, First Documented MacIntyre, Chief of Glenoe 1
Duncan (I) was born c.1640. This birth date is not from records but determined from the wadset charter, which strongly suggests that he reached age twentyone in 1661. It is likely that he was the only son of Donald (F). Two years later, in 1663, Duncan (I) married Mary Campbell. She was a younger daughter of Patrick Campbell (Para Dubh Beag or little Black Peter or Patrick), first Lord of Barcaldine, by his th second wife, Bethia Murray of Ochtertyre. Para Beag was the son of Sir Duncan Campbell, 7 Lord Glenorchy. The Glenorchy line became the Earls of Breadalbane and figured prominently in the life of the MacIntyres. Lady Mary was the first of a number of marriages between the MacIntyre chiefs and daughters of Campbell chiefs or their sons. These MacIntyreCampbell unions always produced an heir, so the MacIntyre inheritance wasn’t lost to the Campbells, as happened in Campbell marriages with Stewarts and MacDougalls. It is possible that the marriage of Duncan and Mary was an unwritten part of the 1656 loan agreement, since Lord Barcaldine was the younger brother of the Marquis. The marriage contract included income for 2 Mary from onehalf of Glenoe, should Duncan predecease her. It was from Duncan’s marriage to Mary Campbell that some individuals have speculated a blood connection between the succeeding MacIntyre chiefs and Robert I, The Bruce, King of Scotland. However, a thorough analysis by Duncan McIntyre of 3 Australia has convinced this author that this was not possible. Even if it were within the realm of possibility, I don’t think that anyone would want to disinter Lady Mary’s bones at Ardchattan Priory along with a known descendant of The Bruce, to prove or disprove this claim . . . or would they? MacIntyre chiefs have never claimed a blood connection to The Bruce.
4 Duncan and Mary had two children, Donald, younger and heir apparent, and John. Lady Mary predeceased Duncan (I) in 1695, and was laid to rest in a tomb at Ardchattan Priory that Duncan designed for his family. The tomb is befitting an affluent chief whose wife was the daughter of an even more prominent Chief. In the first edition, the year of Duncan’s death was given as 1695, the date on the tomb. However, we now know that Duncan (I) witnessed the marriage contract of his son, Donald in 1714. This means that the 1695 date on the gravestone only applies to Lady Mary. The gravestone has remained in a good state of preservation because some years ago a protective wooden shelter was placed over it. However, the shelter deteriorated and has since been removed. An effort is being made to have it replaced to protect the gravestone from the weather. Ardchattan Priory is privately owned by the PrestonCampbell family of Inverawe. There is reason to believe that Duncan died in 1722, at age 82, leaving two adult sons, 5 Donald (II) and John.
Donald, Second of Glenoe
Donald (II) was born at Glenoe between 1664 and 1670, with 1667 being a good estimate. Donald’s life was probably typical of the heir apparent of a Chief whose family had recently combined affluence and
1. Duncan of Australia feels there is a significant distinction concerning a person’s connection to the land and how they are addressed. The distinction is between "in" or "of" Glenoe, with "in" representing a lessee or tacksman and "of" representing a wadset, freehold, or outright ownership. 2. According to Duncan of Australia, this marriage was a sign of the MacIntyre Chief’s return to a significant position in the eyes of the powerful Campbells that surrounded him and was probably due to the MacIntyres’ affluence at a time when the Campbells were having monetary difficulties. Apparently, there was some social interaction between Duncan (I) and the Barcaldines when he was a child, perhaps seeing and playing with Mary and her brother(s) in the gardens at Ardchattan Priory before and after Sunday church services. 3. To have any connection to The Bruce, Mary’s ancestor would have to be Marjory Stewart, The Bruce’s daughter. She was the first wife of Sir Duncan Campbell of Lochawe who was progenitor of three Campbell lines – Argyll, Glenorchy (later Breadalbane) and Barcaldine. Sir Colin, Sir Duncan’s eldest son, was Mary’s MacIntyres ancestor. Although the Campbells wished that Marjory was Colin’s mother, the preponderance of the evidence indicates that his mother was Margaret Stewart, Sir Duncan’s second wife. Perhaps the Campbells desire for a Bruce connection, coupled with the similarity in the names of the two wives (Marjory and Margaret), gave rise to the speculation on a connection with The Bruce, first by the Campbells and then by MacIntyre hopeful. Sir Duncan and Margaret were Mary‘s g g g g greatgrandfather and grandmother. The Bruce (de Brue) was a great leader and King of Scotland, was not Highland bred and his ancestors were FrenchNormans (Vikings from Normandy), not descendants of the Scoti. 4. A third child, Patrick, has been mentioned but is not confirmed by any document. There is always a possibility of a child who died shortly after birth. 5. H. Peskett, in background for recognition of James (IX) to Lyon Court found a court record indicating that John was alive in 1749.
respectability. 1 As the story goes, the young Donald was at the Falkirk Fair and a piper of the Stewarts of Appin played a tune, perhaps the MacIntyre March, in such a way that Donald felt it was purposely insulting to him and to MacIntyres. To show his displeasure and to silence the insulting noise, he plunged his dirk into the piper’s bag. Unfortunately, the dirk went through the bag into the piper, with a fatal result. Donald quickly left the th scene and sought refuge with Archibald MacDonnell, 15 of Keppoch. While under Keppoch’s protection in Lochaber, Donald married Keppoch’s daughter, Janet. Donald and Janet had one daughter. After many years, he returned to Glenoe but did not venture into Appin without a bodyguard of twelve men and a piper. Eventually Stewart and MacIntyre made peace through the mediation of Keppoch. There is no record of his paying any death duty but in those days, according to Scot’s Law, the rate went from one to sixteen cows depending on the status of the person who was murdered. The punishment might have been lenient because of Donald’s motive (upholding the honor of his Clan), his intent (only to deflate the bag and not the piper), or because the piper’s own clansmen were happy to see this particular piper meet his Maker, and doubly glad that it was at the hands of an outsider, thus avoiding a blood feud within the clan. After Janet’s early death (perhaps in childbirth), Donald didn’t remarry until 1714 when he was in his late forties. His second marriage was to Catherine MacDonald of Dalness. Their marriage contract wasn’t concluded until 1722, which was eight years after the marriage. This is why 1722 is a good candidate for the death of Duncan (I). At that point his property, the Glenoe Wadset, was inherited by Donald (II), who could then pledge it in his own right as support for his wife, should he die before her. Donald and Catherine had five children – Duncan, who died in infancy; Alexander, who died before his 2 father; Catherine; Mary, and James, who later became Chief. As was the custom for the firstborn son, Duncan was named after his paternal grandfather. Alexander was presumably named after his maternal grandfather. It is because of the early deaths of his two brothers that the name James came into the sequence of the MacIntyre chiefs. Since then, the names have alternated by custom, between James and Donald. James was born when Donald was already fiftynine and until then, without a living son. The advanced age of Duncan and James the only son, were important factors in shaping future events. Due to the long life of Duncan (I), Donald (II) did not become chief until he was in his midfifties, c.1722. He will be remembered most for the part he played in an agreement with the Earl of Breadalbane in 1737. The agreement is purported to have converted the annual payment of a snowball and a fatted calf into an annual monetary fee. Another part of the agreement was for Glenorchy to pay for James' education until he was old enough to bear arms, which, in those days, was age sixteen. Perhaps this was a quid pro quo. The 1737 document is known to exist but, for the moment, has mysteriously disappeared, as has occurred with so many other important documents. There is no record of Donald (II)’s death c.1744, at age seventy seven. The year of death is based on the level of education his son James had attained when Donald (II) died. He was survived by his wife, one living son, James (III) and two daughters. The year of death of his second wife, Lady Catherine, is unknown. James, Third of Glenoe James (III) was born c.1727, the only living son of Donald (II)’s second wife, Catherine. James became Chief at age seventeen, interrupting his apprenticeship as a lawyer under Breadalbane’s sponsorship. James returned to Glenoe to accept his responsibilities as head of his family and Chief of Clan MacIntyre. At that time, the household included his mother, Lady Catherine, two unmarried sisters, and perhaps a servant. A few years later, Bonnie Prince Charlie raised the Royal Stewart standard at Glenfinnan on August 19, 1745. Some have conjectured that the eighteenyearold 3 James wished to join the Jacobite Rising. However, the influence of Breadalbane undoubtedly swayed him against this dangerous course of action. Another consideration may have been that he was unmarried
1. If Donald (II) had been born one year after his parent’s marriage, then his birth year would have been 1664. However, miscarriages and infant mortality were common in those times. It is quite possible that Donald was not the first child but rather, the first male child to survive his first year. In other words, he was born between 1664 and 1667. 1667 is more likely based on the date of his death (c.1743) and the age of his son when he died (16). 2. Catherine married Charles Campbell, a customs officer. According to James (V), they told him when he visited them during his time in Scotland, that they had been married over eighty years, and had never been apart for more than four nights! 3. Charlie Prince Charles Edward , the Young Chevalier or Pretender, was so called because his father, James Francis Edward Stuart, was styled the Old Chevalier or Pretender, after his 1715 claim to the throne of Great Britain as James, VIII of Scotland and James III of England, in opposition to the Hanoverian government of George II. Supporters of James (Latin, Jacobus) were called Jacobites.
and the only male descendant. If he had been killed in action, the direct male line of Glenoe would have ceased. Had he joined the rebels live or die it would have brought grief to all those with the name MacIntyre who remained in Scotland. Instead, James stayed at Glenoe to care for his mother and older sisters. We know that James was at Glenoe during the rebellion, because he was given a military pass dated April 13th, 1746, signed at Inveraray by Major General, John Campbell. The pass permitted "James McIntyre of Gleno, with four persons to pass and repass unmolested to and from Inveraray." Not only does this tell us that James was at Glenoe, but it also tells us that four others were living with him. In all likelihood, these were his .1 mother, his two sisters, and perhaps a servant
2 On January 28,1758, at age thirty, James married Ann Campbell, natural daughter of Alexander Campbell of Barcaldine. This was the same house as Mary Campbell, James' grandmother. Ann’s father, th Alexander, was a Lieutenant in Lord Loudon’s Highlanders, and the fifth son of Patrick, 4 Lord Barcaldine. Alexander Campbell was the brother and Ann was the niece of the famous (infamous) Colin Campbell of Glenure. Colin, called the ‘Red Fox’, was murdered while collecting rents. The story was 3 famous as told by Robert Louis Stevenson in Kidnapped. In another connection, Duncan Ban MacIntyre, wrote an elegy in where he calls Colin his foster brother.
James and Lady Ann had three sons and six daughters. The sons were Donald, heir apparent; Martin and Duncan. Martin died at age seventeen without issue, and is buried beside Duncan (I) in Ardchattan Priory. Duncan entered military service. The daughters were Catherine, Anne (Nancy), Isabella, Lucy, Jean, and Mary. Although James (III) did not complete his legal training, he continued to educate himself. He was an excellent Gaelic scholar and bard. He was a contemporary of the most famous Highland Gaelic bard, Duncan Ban MacIntyre of Glenorchy. Duncan Ban visited Glenoe and wrote a tribute to James (III), 4 Verses on Arms, in which he extols Glenoe as "the Chief who never will disclaim us." In his famous (or infamous) visit to the Hebrides, and recounted by James Boswell, Dr. Samuel Johnson was not impressed by the hospitality of Sir Alexander MacDonald of Sleat. James (III) was greatly offended by Dr. Johnson's description of Highlanders as rude and ignorant people. For this reason, Johnson was the sarcastic subject for many of James’ poems. They were good enough to be found in more than one collection of Gaelic poetry. There were indications that James and some literary friends were preparing a Gaelic dictionary, but that may have gone the way of Leabhar dubh GhlinnNodha, "The 5 Black Book of Glenoe" and James’ Gaelic manuscript of The Sons of Usnoth (Uisneach). James may have had an opportunity in c.1755 to own Glenoe outside of the 1656 Wadset. In keeping with the Campbell modis operandi, the Earl of Breadalbane inherited through marriage, a third of the land of the old Stewarts of Lorn. A dispute arose among his brethren Campbells regarding the boundary lines, and James (III) was asked to arbitrate the matter, since he had studied law and had a reputation for fairness. His role as arbiter was accepted by all parties, perhaps because he had connections with at least two of them (a wadset with Breadalbane and a marriage to a Barcaldine). The Earl of Breadalbane was so pleased with the settlement, that he offered James (III) any spot of land he wanted. It is said that James didn't accept the offer because it would look like a payoff rather than a fee. The story continues in 1770 when the same Lord Breadalbane, conveniently forgot the services James had rendered or the offer of
1. In a poem by Shaw about James III, he refers to "servants" cleaning the deer that the Chief had downed. 2. "Natural" was a euphemism to describe an acknowledged child, born out of wedlock. Apparently, this occurred more frequently among the wealthier class who were obliged to marry for money or position while the males were permitted and could afford to have more passionate liaisons. 3. James Stewart of the Glens was seized, without warrant, for the murder of Colin ‘Red Fox Campbell of Glenure, and unjustly tried at the Courthouse in Inveraray by a jury of Campbells. L. D. MacIntyre saw the jury room, which had become the sitting room of Ivy House, the home of Alexander James MacIntyre of Inveraray. There was a closet with steps down from the courtroom by which the Duke of Argyll, as Lord Justice General of Scotland, came to the jury room and instruct the jury as follows: "You will find the prisoner guilty as charged." James Stewart of the Glens was hanged at sunset on the 8th of November 1752. 4. The exact date or even year of this poem is unknown. However, based on where it fits in the sequence of poems is was probably c.1760. 5. The same story as Deirdre of the Sorrows.
land, and summarily forced James (III) to renounce the 1656 Glenoe Wadset by paying back the 3000 merks his grandfather had borrowed from James’ grandfather. The story ends in 1782, when Breadlabane, on his deathbed, said in Gaelic, "The man who made the offer was a fool (meaning James himself ), but the man who refused it was seven times a fool (meaning James (III))." The statement tells us something 1 about both men. As described later, Donald, the heir apparent received medical training and emigrated to the America after the American Revolutionary War of Independence. Following the lead of their eldest brother, four of James (III)’s six daughters emigrated to Ontario, Canada and then on to Johnstown, New York. In another interesting sidelight, four of the six daughters married MacIntyres. Anne, and then Catherine, married brothers, Donald and Peter MacIntyre in separate ceremonies at Ardchattan Priory (1787 and 1792). The couples emigrated to Canada shortly after the second ceremony. The brothers were from the 1 House of Etive and were the g. g. grandsons of Duncan (I) and Mary Campbell. At the end of 1792, Jean, 2 who was fifteen, married her distant cousin, the thirtyone year old, Rev. Duncan MacIntyre of Camus nahErie. Isabella married a McLennan and Lucy married John MacIntyre, after reaching the United States. The two youngest daughters, Jean and Mary, remained in Argyll. Jean’s marriage later became important in the lineage of the CamusnahErie cadet. Mary, the youngest daughter, did not marry, remaining in Glenoe with her parents and after their death, with her brother Duncan’s family, until they also left in 1806. Mary stayed in the area and in 1810 petitioned Lord Breadalbane for a pension, in the name of Glenoe. James (III) died at Glenoe in 1799 and his wife, Lady Ann, died one year later in 1800. They were survived by one son, Capt. Duncan, and six daughters.
3 Donald, Fourth of Glenoe
Donald (IV), Younger and Heir Apparent, was born c.1762, at Glenoe. According to Alexander James MacIntyre of Inveraray, a deputation of Masons went to Dalmally in 1780 and inducted him into St. John 4 5 No. 50 Masonic Lodge. He was the second generation to enter the professions, which at that time was expected of the first son of a Chief. He studied medicine in Edinburgh, where there is a record of his 6 passing his examinations for the medical faculty in 1782 and 1783. There is no other record concerning what, if any, additional training remained, although it probably involved a period of apprenticeship. In 1783, at age twentyone, just after the conclusion of the American Revolution, Donald emigrated to New York to practice medicine. He left behind at Glenoe, his father, age fiftysix, his mother, two younger brothers, and six unmarried sisters. In some references, it is said that the emigration of Donald to the United States was due to his family’s financial distress due to overbearing rental fees charged by Breadalbane. This assertion has no factual 7 support. Dr. Donald started providing medical services on Long Island, New York. In 1784, one year after he arrived in America, Donald married a young lady of Dutch descent, Esther Haines of Mamaroneck, New York. Dr. Donald treated a wide variety of patients including Germans, Dutch, Native Americans, and even animals.
1. Duncan of Australia puts a different spin on this tale. He thinks that this story is an attempt by the MacIntyres to put the best light possible on an unfortunate set of circumstances which started with the 1656 wadset and ended in 1770, with the wadset being reclaimed without a return to the nominal payment of a Snowball and Fatted Calf. 1. They were 4th cousins. This information is from the late Roger Morris of South Africa via Marcia McIntyre of Australia. 2. 10th cousins from an unnamed Chief of Glenoe, who was the father of Patrick, 1st CamisnahErie. 3. As mentioned previously, Donald IV was never Chief, because he predeceased his father James (III). 4. Alexander James MacIntyre said Donald was inducted into Lodge St. John No. 50 of Inveraray at Damally in 1780. Duncan McIntyre of Australia has found that at that time, Lodge 50 was north of Stirling and not in Inveraray, and there is no record at this Lodge of Donald’s induction. However, he did find a record of an induction in 1782 of a "D. McIntyre into the Lodge Canongate, Kilwinning, No. 2 in Edinburgh, where medical students were commonly inducted. 5. Professions would be considered physician, lawyer, minister, and usually for younger brothers, the military. 6. The research was by Duncan of Australia. 7. Long Island was originally a Dutch possession when Henry Hudson explored it for the Dutch East India Company.
The level of training at the University of Edinburgh far exceeded anything in the United States at that 1 time, where medical education was still only by apprenticeship. Dr. Donald and Lady Esther moved up the Hudson River to Newburgh, New York where James, younger, and heir apparent, was born the first day of December 1785. The family moved again to Northumberland, Pennsylvania where they had three more sons, Donald, Thomas, and Martin. There were no records of Donald being licensed to practice medicine in either New York or Pennsylvania because there were no medical schools or licensing boards and in 1785, the Constitution of the United States had yet to be ratified. In the 1790 Census, a Doctor Donald McIntire, a wife, three sons, and an adult female, were listed as living in Northumberland County, Pennsylvania. The adult female (not his wife) could have been a servant or possibly his sister Lucy, who had immigrated before she married. Donald’s last son, Martin, was born only weeks before Donald died in 1792. The records for administration of his estate, describe Donald (IV) both as a yeoman and doctor. His grave, in Northumberland, Pennsylvania, has never been located. We know the Cognizances of the Chief were kept in the family and that their correspondence always referred to him with pride, as Doctor Donald.
th In the first edition, Dr. Donald was listed as the 4 of Glenoe. This was based on the records available in 1977 and the fact that there were no records to the contrary or even a tombstone with a date. Subsequent research has revealed that, without question, Dr. Donald died in 1792, seven years before his father, James (III), and therefore, he never became chief. Two hundred years later, this fact almost prevented the recognition by the Lyon Court of his gggggrandson, James (VIII) of Glenoe. The numbering system, which includes Donald as the fourth Of Glenoe, was probably started in 1901 by Duncan MacIntyre, (XIV) 2,3 of CamusnahErie, in the only other published history of Clan MacIntyres. At that time, the birth and death dates were not clearly established and there was the added problem of the movement of the Chiefs back and forth across the Atlantic. In this, the second edition of Clan MacIntyre, A Journey to the Past, Dr. Donald will remain as Donald (IV) primarily to avoid confusion when making comparisons with the first edition, but also to indicate his pivotal role in bringing the chiefship from Scotland to the United States at the time of a significant moment in the history of western civilization. In any event, the numbering system of chiefs is somewhat arbitrary and there is no official system. However, it is the general custom for Scottish chiefs to be numbered according to their sequence in their list of clan chiefs, regardless of their name. Usually, the given name is not used but replaced with their title, e.g. Tenth of Glenoe. Even so, as mentioned before, Duncan (I) was not the first Chief of Clan MacIntyre, or even the first name identifiable as chief. He is called, "first", because he is the first to be in a legal document that connected him with Glenoe. It is also based on subsequent documents, which refer to his son Donald, as Second of Glenoe. We could have started with earlier dates and earlier Chiefs, if the information were authenticated and more complete. Duncan (I)’s grandfather, Duncan, is the first Chief for whom we can accurately identify a name.
In 1792, Dr. Donald MacIntyre died at about age thirty, and was buried in Sunbury, Pennsylvania. He was survived by his three sons, and Lady Esther, who died in 1823.
1. Edinburgh Medical School was established in 1736 and was the first in the English speaking world with a real curriculum. It was considered the leading center of medical education when it was attended by Donald (IV). Among it’s instructors was Dr. Alexander Munro, considered a master anatomist. He was succeeded by his son, who probably was Duncan’s anatomy instructor in 1778, when he entered Edinburgh Medical School. This school supplied most of the leading physicians, researchers, and educators to the school in London and Dublin and the rest of the English speaking world, including the United States where the first small school was not established until 1807. The first physician to achieve fame in the United States was Ephraim McDowell, "a welltrained physician who had studied at Edinburgh Medical School" before beginning practice in on the Kentucky frontier. Dr. Donald MacIntyre was among those students of Edinburgh Medical School who preceded Dr. McDowell. Ref. Medicine, An Illustrated History, A. S. Lyons and R. J. Petrucelli, Pub. By H. N. Abrams, 1978. 2. The MacIntyres of Glenoe and CamusnahErie, by Duncan MacIntyre, Edinburgh, 1901. 3. For those who might compare this history with other histories, note that MacIntyres, A Clan History by Duncan McIntyre of Australia, has numbered the Chiefs in the technically correct order, excluding Dr. Donald as a Of Glenoe because he predeceased his father. Thus, in Duncan’s history, James V, to be discussed next, is James (IV) in place of Donald (IV), and each succeeding Chief is accordingly numbered one lower.
James, Fifth of Glenoe
James (V) was born in 1785 in Newburgh, New York State, United States of America. He was only seven years old when his father died. The family moved from Pennsylvania to Johnstown, New York, to be near their aunties (Catherine, Anne, Isabella, and Lucy). As mentioned before, James, heir apparent, did not become Chief upon the death of his father because his grandfather, James (III), was still alive at Glenoe. James, the younger, now replaced his father as heir apparent to his grandfather. When James (III) died in 1799, his grandson James, now age fourteen, became the Chief, and in deference to his father, Dr. Donald, he is styled, James (V). This the youngest age for any MacIntyre to become chief although James (III) was not much older at sixteen. In 1806, seven years after the death of his father, James received a letter from his Uncle Duncan. Duncan told him he was leaving Glenoe and moving his family to Edinburgh. Although only 21 years old, James 1 went to Scotland and arrived at Glenoe shortly after Duncan had departed. James left behind in the United States, his widowed mother, and three younger teenage brothers. This suggests that the family may have thought there would be improved educational and financial opportunities in Scotland or simply that it was his duty to return, whatever the cost. In a letter from James (V), written two years after his arrival in Scotland, he said he had been traveling and he was sympathetic to the economic distress of others, without mentioning any difficulties of his own. James (V) stayed at Glenoe off and on from 1806 4 until 1810. There is no evidence that he left Glenoe because of economic hardship. The tacksman contract to farm Glenoe was transferred from Duncan (who had died in 1808) to a John MacIntyre who had previously shared in running the sheepfold and apparently thought he could make a go of it. James (V) must have had some financial success since he stayed in Scotland for twelve more years, married, and started a family. A family story handed down through the generations says that James went back to Scotland to further his 1 education, where his father and grandfather were educated in the professions. Whatever his motivations and intentions, in a letter of 1808, James mentions traveling but nothing about furthering his education. He did mention trying to locate his Uncle Duncan in Edinburgh and having missed him by one day. We also have a copy of the coat of arms that James V said he copied verbatim from the Lyon’s office in Edinburgh. Thus, we know that James V had an interest in his family heritage. In his family history, James V, says that the last white cattle were seen at Glenoe in 1816. They might possibly have been remnants that John MacIntyre kept when he took over. The fact that James V mentioned these cattle indicates how closely the white cattle were associated with the history of Glenoe and the MacIntyre chiefs, who brought them there from Sleat and, possibly before then, from their legendary past in Scotia (Ireland). Thus, we are left with conflicting dates as to when MacIntyre were last resident at Glenoe. There is 1806, mentioned in some references, because it is the year that Duncan left. Then there is the 2 letter from James (V) posted from Glenoe in 1808. 1810 is the date assigned by George Calder in his 3 notes on Verses on Arm and it is the year Duncan’s lease was transferred to John MacIntyre. It may have 4 been the year that James (V). Finally, there is 1816, the year white cattle were still at Glenoe. We know that at by 1818 James was living in Arichastlich, in Glenorchy. Perhaps James (V)’s mention of the last sighting of white cattle at Glenoe signified the passing of the last vestige of the MacIntyre chiefs in Scotland other than Glenoe itself. The cattle were probably replaced with sheep, which was the common practice at that time. In the early Gaelic culture, ones worth was not in terms of land, which belonged to the clan but in terms of cattle, as was the case in most tribal systems. In Scots law, cattle were used to award and pay death duties. Today, there are still sheep, but there are no white cattle at Glenoe. Perhaps,
1. It is an interesting coincidence that it was at age twentyone that James’ father, Dr. Donald, left Scotland to practice medicine in the United States, the same age James left the United States to live in Scotland. 2. Although the last direct connection between James (V) and Glenoe was in the letter of 1808 there are good reasons for selecting 1810 as the date that all connections were severed between the MacIntyre chiefs and Glenoe. 1810 was the year the lease was transferred from Duncan to another MacIntyre and it was the year that Mary MacIntyre, James (V)’s aunt, requested a pension from the Earl of Breadalbane in the name of MacIntyres of Glenoe. Thus, 1810 is probably the year that both James and Mary left. 3. The family genealogy, written by James V at the request of his children, does not provide any details concerning the motivations for his return to Scotland and Glenoe. 4. Although James (V) posted a letter from Glenoe in 1808, he says in his manuscript that Duncan was the last to "occupy" Glenoe. This could refer to the fact that the lease was in Duncan’s name and remained so until 1810, two years after Duncan’s death. While it appears that James (V) stayed at Glenoe, he didn’t think it correct to say he occupied it.
if Glenoe is ever owned by MacIntyres, white cattle will return. On October 9, 1817, eleven years after returning to the land of his heritage, James (V), at age thirtyfour, married Ann, the daughter of Joan Cameron and Patrick Campbell of Corries. They had nine children, eight sons and one daughter, of which seven survived past infancy. Their first three children, Donald, Peter, and James, were born in Argyllshire. In 1822, after sixteen years in Scotland, James returned to the United States with his family. They and settled on a farm north of Johnstown, Fulton County, New York. They had one daughter, Joan (Ann). Lady Ann did return to visit Scotland in 1831 when she would have been age 39 and perhaps while her parents were still living. In 1852, James (V) authored an unpublished genealogy, which was invaluable in preparing this history of Clan MacIntyre. He also prepared a will in 1860 that specifically listed his heirlooms such as, ". . .my largest gold seal on which is engraved the Coat of Arms of the McIntyres of Glenoe, aforesaid mentioned also my silver cup or quaick. . . . six silver tablespoons having crest engraved upon them, . . . my gold seal ring, a crest engraved thereon." The whereabouts of the tablespoons is presently unknown. Donald, younger and heir apparent, and Peter were both farmers, like their father. James manufactured 3 gloves in Johnstown, Ewen founded a drug firm in New York City, Archibald became a wholesale provision merchant in Albany, New York, and Martin was a druggist in Fonda, New York. James died in 1863, age seventyseven and his wife, Lady Ann, died in 1887, age ninetyfive.
Donald, Sixth of Glenoe
Donald (VI) was born in 1818 at Glenorchy, Argyllshire, Scotland. He is the last MacIntyre Chief (Glenoe) to be born in Scotland. When he was only four years old, his parents emigrated to the United States. As a child, he lived near Johnstown and as an adult had a farm near Fonda, New York. Around age twentyfive, he married Phoebe Shepherd. They had five daughters before having their one and only son, James, heir apparent. In the order of birth, the children were Ann, Harriet, Jane, Laura, Marie (Minnie), Harriet, Jane, and James. Phoebe was age fiftyone at the time of James’ birth which was extremely unusual then and still is today. This was the fourth time starting with Duncan (I), that there was only one surviving son at the time of the Chief’s death. Donald became Chief at age fortyfive. He died in Johnstown, New York in 1887 at the age of sixtynine, predeceased by Lady Phoebe in 1882.
James, Seventh of Glenoe
James (VII) was born January 24,1864 at Switzer Hill, New York, just east of Fonda. At age twentythree, James became Chief, and one year later, in 1888, he married Elizabeth Hopple. They farmed in McKinley, New York (Town of Mohawk) and raised seven children, three girls followed by four boys. In order of 4 birth, the children were Margaret, Madeline, Emma, Donald, Wallace, John, and Lewis. He was predeceased by Lady Elizabeth, in 1915. In the late 1920s, James (VII) began corresponding about the family history with Alexander James MacIntyre of Inveraray, Argyllshire, Scotland. He continued farming until 1925. In his last ten years of life, he stayed with his daughter, Madeline, in Canton, Pennsylvania. He died there in 1946, still working 3 outdoors at age eightytwo.
Donald, Eighth of Glenoe
Donald (VIII) was born on January 1 2,1896 at Palatine Bridge, New York. He was a farmer, in the tradition of all the Chiefs up to that time, except for Dr. Donald. On April 1921, at the age of twentysix, he married Catherine Mary Hughes. They had a farm near Sharon Springs, New York where they raised their four children, James, Thomas, Robert, and Winifred. In 1933, he began corresponding with L. D. MacIntyre on behalf of his father, (James VII). He sent L.D. a copy of the MacIntyre history that they had
1. The twelvestory McIntyre Building is at the corner of 18th and Broadway in New York City. As described in a New York Times article, April 9, 2000, it is a designated a city historic landmark with the outside restored to its original appearance and the inside converted to cooperative apartments. Ewen was given an honorary doctorate by Columbia University, New York City, for his part in founding its School of Pharmacy. 2. It is via the Internet that contact was made with the descendants of Lewis, that produced items of historical interest, including letters between L.D. MacIntyre and Donald (VIII). 3. James was fatally kicked by a horse.
received from Alexander James MacIntyre of Inveraray, a copy of the 1901 history by Duncan (XIV) of th CamusnahErie, as well as the brief history James 5 of Glenoe wrote for his children. Thus, it was the Chief and his heir apparent, who introduced the two selfmade historians of Clan MacIntyre. Donald became chief at age fifty. He retired from active farming but continued to work repairing farm implements and his correspondence with L. D. MacIntyre on Clan MacIntyre historical matters. In 1983, Donald (VIII) appointed L. D. MacIntyre as his Commander, in recognition of his lifelong effort as a Clan MacIntyre seanachie (historian), and for his efforts on behalf of the Chief. The position of Commander CeanCath was traditionally given to an individual who was acting on behalf of the Chief in time of conflict, or when the Chief was not able to act due to age or infirmity. At the same time, in recognition of their respective ages, eightyseven and eightyeight, Donald appointed M. L. MacIntyre, the son of L. D. 1 MacIntyre, as Commanderelect. Donald (VIII) died in 1984 at Ames, New York followed shortly thereafter, in 1985, by Lady Catherine.
James, Ninth of Glenoe
James Wallace MacIntyre was born in June, 1922 at Canajoharie, New York. He married Marion Edith Williams on March 3, 1951. They had three children, Donald, Younger and Heir Apparent, Jeffrey and Jennifer. His vocation was auto mechanics, perhaps influenced by his father’s skill in this area. He was 2 age sixtytwo when he became Chief. James ( IX) reconfirmed L. D. MacIntyre as his Commander and M. L. MacIntyre as CommanderElect. In 1989 James applied for the matriculation of his Arms and in 1991, he was awarded Letters Patent as Glenoe, Chief of Clan MacIntyre. Upon the death of L. D. MacIntyre, October 1991, M. L. MacIntyre became Commander to James (IX). James died in 1994 at age seventytwo and was survived by his wife, Lady Marion, and their three children. Donald,
Donald, Tenth Of Glenoe
Donald Russell MacIntyre was born on January 1, 1952 at Canajoharie, New York. He served in the United States Coast Guard and his vocation is carpentry. He became Chief in 1994 at age fortytwo. Donald (X) possesses a quaffing cup, a great seal, and a signet ring, that are emblems of his Chiefship. The latter two are engraved with the traditional Arms of MacIntyre of Glenoe. In February 1998, Donald and his wife, Lady Louise, were blessed with the birth of James Thomas, younger and heir apparent.
1. The title Commander is now used by the Lyon Court to recognize a temporary head of a Clan pending the recognition of a Chief. 2. This was the oldest recorded age for assuming the MacIntyre Chiefship.
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
Name of the Chief Maurice,The Wright Son of The Wright Son of Maurice (M) M’s g’son M’s gg’son M’s ggg’son M’s gggg’son M’s ggggg’son M’s gggggg’son M’s ggggggg’son M’s gggggggg’son
Reign as Chief A 1158 1175 1200 1225 1250 1275 1300 1325 1350 1375 13951420 14201445 14451455
Age at Accession
Age at Death
Years as Chief
25 25 10 20 15 30 30 30 25 50 45 10 56* 17 0 7* 45 23 50 82 79 72 31 71 69 72 50 5 72* 23 55 0 64 24 49
2 Donald C Malcolm 2, D John
14751490 14801510 15101540 15401570 15701595 15951645 16451650 16501722 17221744 17441799 Apparent 17991863 18631887 18871946
2 Duncan E Malcolm
2 Donald o Duncan F (I)
Donald (II) James o (III) Donald (IV) James (V) Donald (VI) James (VII)
28 30 31
Donald (VIII) James (XI) G Donald (X)
19461984 19841994 1994
50 52 42
Footnotes to the Genealogy of the Chiefs
The bold type indicates documented information o The superscript letter ( o ) indicates the only son living son of the Chief. 2 The superscript number ( 2 ) indicates that it was the second son of the chief who inherited the chiefship. The second son inherited when his older brother died prior to the death of their father and before he had a son (apparent). The name is determined by the tradition of naming of the chief’s first son, younger, after the chief’s father (the son’s paternal grandfather) on the male side) and naming the second son after the grandfather on the mother’s side. When the names don’t match this pattern, it is assumed that the first son lived long enough to be named (usually one year), but died before his father without having a living son of his own. Death in infancy, or a violent death before marriage, was a common occurrence. In this instance, since the name of Duncan’s first son was Duncan, it can be assumed that Duncan’s father was Duncan. The precedence for naming the second son when both grandfathers had the same name is not known by this author. A – The reign as Chief is a single date when there is no death date for the preceding chief. These dates are guesstimates working back from known dates and using twentyfive years as one generation, i.e. the age at which the Chief had a living son that inherited the chiefship. Other information that is used in the estimates includes knowledge of whether an heir was of age, the father was still living, and the likely age of the person(s) involved in the activity (witness, warfare, birth, death, average lifespan.) B – Donald is Duncan’s brother and therefore there isn’t a generation between them. According to the story, his older brother’s widow was still living, and so was his older brother’s son, Duncan, who would and should have been heir apparent if fate had not intervened. C This is from a list of Chiefs that focused on Archibald (d.1532), grandson of Malcolm’s second son, Duncan, and the beginning of the House of Stranmore. Archibald is reputed to have brought back the body of the slain 2nd Duke of Argyll from the Battle of Flodden, 1513. This would have meant that Archibald was old enough to fight in 1513 (i.e., over age 16 ) and responsible enough to be trusted with the Dukes body (probably age 25). If this has given you a headache, you can imagine how many I have endured trying to keep these names, places, and dates straight. D 1556 Bond to Glenorchy. From the names listed on this document, it is clear that Duncan’s father and son weren’t present. Except for illness, this means Duncan’s father, Malcolm, was dead and his son was not old enough to be a witness. This would make Duncan at least 21 (to be a witness) but more likely closer to 45 years old (or his father would still be alive). If he were older than 45 his son might have been old enough to be a witness. This means he could have become Chief around age 30 –35 (age at the death of his father) which would make the year 154045. From this date, you can work back by generations to speculate on the beginning of the reign of his father and grandfather. However, with each generation removed, the range gets wider because the degree of speculation increases. It wasn’t until 1432, that a Campbell became Lord Glenorchy. Therefore, the murder of a Campbell in the story of The Two Sons of Duncan, had to have been after 1432 for a Lord Glenorchy to have jurisdiction. The only other information we have as to the date is it was in the minority of King James the First, by one account and a blank for which King James, by another account. If it were James I of Scotland, then it would be between 1394 to 1412. If it were James II of Scotland, then it would be between 1431 and 1449.. The murder referred to in the 1556, Bond to Glenorchy was close to1440. It is conceivable that they refer to the same event. E The name came from a bail bond in 1590. Researched by Duncan of Australia. F The first MacIntyre recorded as a Chief on an existing document G The first MacIntyre Chief known to be recognized by the Lyon Court of Heraldry and Arms. If you count back seventeen generations from James (IX) you will reach Duncan and Donald the two sons of Chief Duncan and his two sons. In the story, one of the sons had to leave the area with his family so there wouldn’t be a disputed chiefship. It is probably just a coincidence, but the present CamusnahErie is the XVII, and he is approximately the same generation in age as James (IX). Could it be that Patrick, the first CamusnahErie from the Glenoe Chief wasn’t the younger brother of the chief but instead the eldest living son of either Duncan or Donald, whoever left Glenoe? H Starting with Maurice the Wright, as the first Chief, this would make Donald, the the 31st Chief of Clan MacIntyre and the 10th to be styled "of Glenoe." By comparison, the 12th Duke of Argyll is the 26th Chief of Clan Campbell. The Chiefs of Clan MacIntyre must predate by many generations its cadet, the 17th CamusnahErie, and since the Campbells were not part of the original Scoti clans, it stands to reason that it also predate the Campbells by many generations. Conversely, if Clan MacIntyre originated only shortly before its cadet (1400s), then one would expect a legend of heroics, military prowess or wealth to account for such a late beginning and this would be found in the stories of the neighboring Clans. Instead, we find no legends, only a 1440 murder of a Campbell, and a 1556 Bond to Glenorchy. As unhappy as that event must have been, it certainly demonstrates the ancient derivation of Clan MacIntyre.
Name and dates ( birth, marriage and death) of the MacIntyre Chiefs of Glenoe and their families.
Duncan (GF) b. ~ 1590, Glenoe d. ~ 1640, Glenoe m. __________________________ Donald (Gillepatrick)? b. ___________ d. ____________ Donald (F) b. ~ 1605 d. before 1661 m. __________________________ Duncan b. ___________ d. ____________ Duncan (I) b. ~ 1640, Glenoe d. ~ 1722, Glenoe m. (1663) Mary, daughter of Patrick Campbell, (I) of Barcaldine Donald John (Patrick)? b. 1643 d. 1695, Glenoe Donald (II) b. 1666 Glenoe d. ~ 1743, Glenoe m. (1) Janet, daughter of Gillespic (Archibald) MacDonnell of Keppoch (~ 1691) Daughter (name unknown) (2) Catherine, daughter of Alexander Duncan Alexander James Catherine Mary MacDonald of Dalness (1714) b. 1682 d. 1763 James (III) b. 1727, Glenoe d. 1799, Glenoe m. Ann, daughter of Alexander Campbell Donald Martin Duncan Catherine Anne Isabella Jean Mary of Barcaldine (1758) b. 1741 d. 1812 Donald (IV) Apparent b. 1762, Glenoe d. 1792, Northumberland, PA Emigrated to Long Island, New York in 1783 m. Esther Haines (1784) James Donald Thomas Martin b. 1765 d. 1823 Mamaroneck, NY Johnstown, NY James (V) b. 1 Dec 1785 d. 9 Jan 1863 Newburgh, NY Johnstown, NY m. Ann, daughter of Peter Campbell of Corries Donald Peter James Ewen Archibald Joan Martin (Descended from Barcaldine) (1817) b. 27 Jul 1792 d. 26 Feb 1887 Corries, SCT Johnstown, NY Duiletter Donald (VI) b. July 1818 d. 29 28 Sep 1887 Argyllshire, SCT Johnstown, NY m. Phebe Shepard abt. 1843 Ann Harriet Jane Laura Minnie James b. 6 Jan 1813 NY City d. 2 Aug 1882 6/12/1812 1819? James (VII) b. 24 Jan 1864 d. 26 June 1946 Switzer Hill, NY Canton, NY
m. Elizabeth Hopple (31 Oct 1888) Donald John Wallace Louis Margaret Madeline Emma b. 25 Jul 1866 d. 24 Oct 1915 Mohawk, NY Donald (VIII) b. 12 Jan 1896 d. 17 Apr 1984 McKinley, NY Ames, NY m. Catherine Mary Hughes (3 Apr 1921) James Thomas Robert Winifred b. 4 Sep 1901 d. 22 Mar 1985 Palatine Bridge, NY James (IX) (James Wallace) b. 17 Jun 1922 d. 22 May 1994 Canajoharie, NY Canajoharie, N.Y. Donald Jeffrey Jennifer m. Marion Edith William (3 Mar 1951) Living, Palatine Bridge, NY Donald (X) (Donald Russell) b. 1 Jan 1952 d. Living m. Louise (full name) James b. ? James, Apparent (James Thomas) b. 1998 d. Living
THE HOUSE OF CAMUSNAHERIE (EIREADH)
Prior To The First Chieftain of Record
The House of CamusnahErie is the senior and only recognized cadet (branch) of MacIntyre of Glenoe. This House is descended from Patrick, a younger brother of a chief of the House of Glenoe, many generations before Duncan (I). Assuming an average of twentyfive years for each generation, this would bring the birth of Patrick's elder brother (The Glenoe) back seventeen generation or 425 years. This would be c.1450 going back from the present CamusnahErie (1979). If we start at 1725, the date Duncan, the ninth of CamusnahErie was age thirty, it would bring us back 225 years to 1500. The elder brother of Patrick (I) would have been either John or Malcolm. A flight of fancy could have Patrick as the son or grandson of Duncan Og, or Donald Faich. It would also be safe to assume that the Glenoe chiefship probably extended many generations prior to the establishment of a cadet. Fourteen generations prior to the establishment of the House of Camusnah Erie, would bring us to 1150, the date of Somerled, mentioned in one version of the origin of Clan MacIntyre. Patrick (I) possessed land on the shores of Loch Leven, at Camus na hEireadh. It is also spelled, Camus na hEirghe, CamusnaHeridhe and, as one word, Camusnahere. As with many things associated with the MacIntyres, the mean of CamusnahErie is unclear. In the first edition it was translated as, ‘the Bay of the Alders’. There is agreement that Camusnah means ‘bay of the’ but the meaning of Erie (spelled and perhaps pronounced two or three different ways) is unclear. Besides ‘alder’ it could mean ‘boundary’, ‘wall’, or ‘between marshes’. Thus, it remains for Gaelic scholars to agree on the meaning of the name, after comparing it with the actual site. Looking at a map there is a small dip in the shoreline, which might be called a bay and there is a riverlet that empties into Loch Leven at this point. Many family members of this cadet branch are buried on the Island of St. Munn (Eilan Munde) in Loch Leven, which is called Tom Chamuisnaherie (mound CamusnahErie). As listed by the Lyon Court in their1955 Letters Patent for CamusnahErie cadet, the chieftains or representers, are named as follows: Alexander (II), Angus (III), John (IV), William (V), Duncan (VI), John (VII), William (VIII). These names don’t seem to follow the paternal grandfather pattern for naming the first son and heir. However, this can be easily explained by the high death rate in childhood which would bring other names while still following the traditional naming practice. This would also have the effect of lengthening the time between generations by having younger sons inheriting.
Duncan, Ninth of CamusnahErie
Duncan (XI) was probably born in c.1695. He is the first Chieftain for which there is a definitive record. According to the 1901 history of Glenoe and CamusnahErie, the gravestone of Duncan and his wife 1 Mary Mackenzie was in the family burial ground on the Isle of St. Munn. It said, "the ninth in descent from his Chief Glenoe." Duncan and Mary had three sons John, heir apparent, William, who lived to be 101 and the youngest son, Donald, who died at Culloden, age eighteen. They also had one daughter. Duncan died in 1755.
John, Tenth of CamusnahErie
John (X) was born shortly before c.1719. He married Margaret MacDonald, just before or just after he went to fight in the 45' Rising. He was wounded in 1746, fighting on the victorious Jacobite side at the Battle of Falkirk. On the opposite side of the same battle was Duncan Ban MacIntyre. Since Duncan’s sword was not only lost, but never used, we can be certain that John wasn’t wounded by his MacIntyre clansman. John was perhaps lucky to have been wounded in that first battle since his younger brother, Donald, was killed in the last battle at Culloden. John and Lady Margaret had three sons (Ewen, Alexander and Duncan) and three daughters (Fanny, Jean and Catherine). Ewen, and any male issue he may have had, predeceased John (X), so Alexander became heir apparent. The third son, Duncan, became a minister in the Church of Scotland. When he was 35, he married Jean MacIntyre, the youngest daughter of James (III) of Glenoe, who was only age fifteen. They had 15 children, 8 boys and 7 girls.
Alexander, Eleventh of CamusnahErie
Alexander (XI), was born in 1747 or 1748. He married Julia MacIntyre, the daughter of a physician in Ft. William. This indicates that there were MacIntyres who weren’t close relations and lived outside of Loch Leven, Loch Etive, or Glenorchy. She was born in 1761 and assuming she was at least fifteen years old before marrying, they were married after 1776. They were the last of this line to possess CamusnahEire and probably left it for reasons similar to Glenoe. Although no longer possessing the land, they continued to live there. They had 10 children, 5 boys, and 5 girls. Alexander (XI) died in 1814, at age c. 65 leaving Peter as his only surviving son.
Peter, Twelfth of CamusnahErie
Peter (XII) was a Lieutenant in the Royal Marines and served against Napoleon. He was an accomplished poet and one of his poems is included in Part V. There is no information on his birth date or the date he married Miss Falconer. Assuming, that his parents were married after 1776, and that he was born a year later, then he would have been born in 1777 and became Chieftain at age c. 37. He died without issue in 1855, at the age of 78.
John, Thirteenth of CamusnahErie
John (XIII) was born in 1794, the eldest son of Rev. Duncan and Jean MacIntyre, the daughter of James th MacIntyre, 3rd of Glenoe. Rev. Duncan was the third son of John, 10 of CamusnahErie.. When Peter, th 12 of CamusnahErie, died in 1777 without issue he was succeeded by his nephew John, who was 61 th when he became Chieftain. He was the 13 CamusnahErie in descent from his chief, Glenoe, in the nd in the female line through his mother Jean. It is through his mother that the House of male line, and 2 CamusnahErie possesses a Glenoe cup and seal, and possibly the Glenoe Box. John was educated at King’s College Aberdeen and like his father, became a Presbyterian minister. In 1826, at age 32, he married Eliza Clark. They resided in Kilmonivaig, Argyllshire where he was the parish minister for forty two years. They had 10 children, 5 boys and 5 girls. He was a poet, Gaelic scholar, and promoted education in the Highlands. During his lifetime, he gave personal references to many of the MacIntyres 1 who emigrated to Australia, New Zealand, and Canada. In honor of his many accomplishments, he was awarded an honorary LL.D. degree by his alma mater, King’s College. He died in 1870 at age seventysix. Lady Eliza died in 1878.
Duncan, Fourteenth of CamusnahErie
Duncan (XIV) was born in 1831 at Blarour. At age thirty, he married Marion Martin, daughter of the Provost of Greenock where he worked for Her Majesty’s Customs. They had one sons, Ian, heir apparent. Duncan owned an ocean going ship at Leith. Marion was given a large, leatherbound Bible by her nephew William and since then, all births, marriages and deaths have been recorded there and passed down through the generations. In 1888, Duncan’s younger brother, John Walker MacIntyre, wrote about Clan MacIntyre in a letter to the editor of the Oban Times. In 1901, Duncan published the first extant book on the history of Clan MacIntyre from which much of the information about the CamusnahErie and Glenoe ancestors is taken. Prior to these actions, the only written documentation about Clan MacIntyre was the letter from James (V) of Glenoe to his children in 1852. Duncan and Lady Marion died in 1916.
Ian, Fifteenth of CamusnahErie
Ian (XV) was born in 1869. In his youth, he played rugby, representing Scotland. He graduated from Fettes College, was a lawyer, became a Writer to the Signet, and sat in the House of Parliament in Westminster as MP for West Edinburgh. At age twentyseven, he married Ida van der Gucht. They had six children, two sons, and four daughters. The first son, Duncan, who was named after his grandfather, predeceased his father in 1930, without issue and Alastair, the second son, became heir apparent. In 1946, Ian died suddenly at age 77 after giving a Founder’s Day speech at his alma mater, Fettes College. Ida predeceased him in 1942.
1. It was very important to carry a letter of introduction and none better than from the minister of your parish in Scotland.
Alastair, Sixteenth of CamusnahErie
Alastair (XVI) was born in 1913. Like his father, he was educated at Fettes College, a tradition which has continued to the present day. He received a scholarship to Caius College, Cambridge University. At age 26 he married Margery Constance GrantMorris on the fourth of September, 1939, the day after Great Britain declared war on Germany. Alastair and Margery met as actors on the London stage. Alastair volunteered for service and was a Major in the Royal Scots at the end of the war. He was wounded crossing the Rhine in 1944. His earlier acting experience and sonorous voice led naturally to his postwar vocation in radio broadcasting. In 1949 he was appointed Chief Announcer for the BBC in Scotland.
th In 1946, at age 33, he became the 16 CamusnahErie chieftain. Alastair was granted Arms by the Lyon Court in 1955, as the Representer (Chieftain) of the senior cadet of MacIntyre of Glenoe. The Arms were designed by the Lyon Court using the emblems from Duncan (I) of Glenoe’s tombstone. His Arms are significantly different from the traditional Arms of Glenoe as represented by the great seal.
Alastair and Margery had two sons, Ian, younger and heir apparent, and Peter. Peter became a colonel in the Royal Scots Regiment. Alastair (XVI) died in 1979 and Lady Margery predeceased him in 1978.
Ian, Seventeenth of CamusnahErie
Ian (XVII) was born in 1940. He was educated at Fettes College, Geneva University in Switzerland, Trinity College in Dublin, Ireland, and Christ’s College in Cambridge, England, where he studied languages. At age twentyeight, he married Angela Tickner. They had three children, Duncan Ban, younger and heir apparent, Anabell, and Abigail. Ian has had a business career as a wine merchant, a sheepskin clothing company, and lastly, Director for Export Sales for Aquascutum. In 1993, he joined the Her Majesty’s Department of Trade and Industry to encourage exports to Scandinavia. He is now divorced and lives in Edinburgh. Duncan Ban, Younger and Heir Apparent, was named after the famous MacIntyre poet. Duncan graduated in Latin American Studies at Essex University and is Director of Chase Manhattan Bank in the City of London. Anabell, graduated in History of Art at Northumberland University and works for Warner Bros. Abigail graduated in Archaeology at Edinburgh University.
th Ian became 17 of CamusnahErie 1979, at age 39. He possesses a cup and a great seal of Glenoe, and a traveling desk called the Glenoe Box. The Glenoe Box is of high quality and would have been worthy of the home of a chief and man of letters, James (III) of Glenoe. It now contains the transatlantic correspondence between the CamusnahErie family in Scotland and the Glenoe family in the United States during the 1800s.
How did a cup and seal of Glenoe come into the possession of the senior cadet? Here is my guess, which is certainly open to being contradicted by argument or evidence. James (III) had seventeen years to live when his heir apparent, Donald, Younger, emigrated to the United States in 1783. Before Donald left, his father gave him a gold signet ring with the crest, a silver cup, silver spoons, and a great seal. However, James retained another cup and seal as emblems of his Chiefship. These may have been bequeathed by James (III) or by his wife, Lady Ann, to their daughter Jean, who was married to the Rev. Duncan th MacIntyre. Rev. Duncan was the youngest son of John, 10 of CamusnahErie. It was their son, Duncan th of CamusnahEire and these congnizances of the Glenoe Chief have been passed down who became 13 in the senior cadet through the generations. But why would they be given to Jean and not to another daughter or to his only surviving brother, Capt. Duncan? James (III) had never seen James, Heir Apparent, a fourteen year old in far off United States with a widowed mother. James, had already had inherited a cup, great seal and signet ring from his father, Dr. Donald. James (III) had given these to Dr. Donald before he left for the New World. James (III)’s brother, Capt. Duncan, had only one child, a daughter and his other daughter, Mary, was unmarried. So Jean’s son John, was the only male left in Scotland to carry on the family name and as a bonus, of sorts, Jean was married a MacIntyre of the CamusnahErie, the senior cadet. Under these circumstances, it would have been natural for him to pass on the remaining heirloom to his daughter Jean and her son John. Again, we will never know the absolute truth unless someone finds a letter or record somewhere. This is a good reason for cleaning out the attic but not before emptying every box and reading everything in them. Unfortunately, these are mutually exclusive activities.
1 Chieftains of the House of CamusnahErie
Patrick (I), younger brother or son of a Glenoe Chief who became established at CamusnahErie Alexander (II) Angus (III) John (IV) William (V) Duncan (VI) John (VII) William (VIII) Before written records are available. Duncan (IX) First verifiable chieftain, as recorded on his tombstone (1695). John (X) – Ewen (without issue), Alexander (XI), Duncan (married Jean, daughter of James (III) Glenoe) Alexander (XI) Last to occupy CamusnahErie Peter (XII) – Without issue. John (XIII) Son of Duncan and Jean Duncan (XIV) Ian (XV) Alastair (XVI) Ian (XVII) – Duncan Ban, younger, heir apparent
1. From the Letters Patent awarded Alastair MacIntyre (XVI) of CamusnahErie by the Lyon Court in 1955.
HOUSE OF STRANMORE, GLENORCHY
Glenoe is acknowledged as the Chief of the main branch of Clan MacIntyre. CamusnahErie is acknowledged as the senior cadet branch of the House of Glenoe. These are the only MacIntyre Houses recognized by the Lyon Court and the only ones to have petitioned for such recognition. However, there are a number of other places where there were concentrations of MacIntyres who may have been a cadet or sept of Clan MacIntyre. One of these resided on the other side of Ben Cruachan in Glenorchy, where there were arguably more MacIntyres than in Glenoe; large enough to have a tartan ascribed to them. It is also known that in the 1556 bond of manrent, that the MacIntyres who were present and referred to as Clan Teir, probably resided in Glenorchy. From their close proximity to Glenoe, it is possible, even likely, that they were a cadet of Glenoe. Appendix 6 of Duncan of Australia’s history, lists the genealogy of a family, designated as "MacIntyres of Stranmore, Glen Orchy" beginning c.1480 with Duncan, the son of Malcolm, a Glenoe Chief. Stranmore is the family to which James Alexander MacIntyre of Inveraray thinks he and Duncan Ban MacIntyre belong. Duncan of Australia urges caution in accepting this list as fact, which is true of all undocumented lists. Regardless, a large concentration of MacIntyre have resided in Glenorchy of centuries. They have a separate tartan and probably, at one time, had a Chieftain as well. The existence of a MacIntyre House of Stranmore in Glenorchy as a sept or cadet of MacIntyre of Glenoe, is consistent with the many legends (see Part V, The Two Sons of Duncan).
House of Stranmore
Stranmore Anon. 1455 80 14791532 1504 30 1530 60 1555 90 15801615 Duncan Archibald Duncan Alexander John Alexander Year Duncan Ban’s Duncan Archibald Duncan Alexander John Alexander Year Alexander James of Inveraray
1605 40 1630 65 1655 90 16801724 1705 50
Alexander John Alexander Duncan Donald
Alexander John Alexander 1700 1724 1812 Duncan Ban 1725 (poet) 1750 Donald? 1750 1799 1850 1895 1922 1645 Archibald (killed in ambush) First five sons killed in battle th Alexander – 6 son, joiner st Alexander – 1 son Alexander
th Alexander – 6 child th Alexander – 9 child
Alexander James Alexander Bell
Birth and Death
1450 Malcolm, Chief of Glenoe 1480 Duncan (I), second son of Malcolm and first Chieftain of this unofficial Cadet of Glenoe. nd 1532 Archibald (II), brought back body of 2 Duke of Argyll from the Battle of Flodden in 1513. 1562 Duncan (III) Callum 1596 Alexander (IV) Hamish 1625 John (V) Ian (John) 1650 Alexander (VI) Alister 1675 Archibald (VII) Alister 1750 Alexander (VIII) / 1775 Alexander (IX) / 1800 Alexander (X) / 1850 Alexander (XI) 1900 Alexander (XII) 1922 Alexander (XIII)
HOUSE OF ETIVE
There is even less reason to mention this group as a separate House except we know that there were concentrations of MacIntyres in Dalness and it vicinity at the head of Loch Etive.. It may appear on the map as being close to Glenoe and it certainly is on the same side of Ben Cruachan. However, if one were to try to walk from Glenoe to Dalness at Inveretive it would become apparent that this did not occur frequently. The best method was and still is by boat on Loch Etive. Even so, it takes some time, and if it were by paddling, a great deal longer.
Bem Cruachan Summit
History of the MacIntyre Clan
Part IV MAC INTYRE CULTURE
This section on the cultural history of Clan MacIntyre will cover artistic works and the persons who created them. Some are specific to Clan MacIntyre and some are works of art by a MacIntyre without reference to Scotland.
VISUAL ARTS and ARTISTS
Normally, when we think of visual arts, we think of a painting or sculpture. However, when considering an ancient culture like Scotland’s, we must also consider items as diverse as carvings on gravestones and clothing design. There is no artistic design more distinctive, universal, or popular than the tartan patterns of Scotland. Tartan and Plaid Before discussing the individual MacIntyre tartans, the terms plaid, tartan, and sett need to be defined because the original meanings of tartan and plaid were different meanings from what we know now. Plaid. Originally, plaid was a large piece of tartan material that was used by Scottish men to create their primary dress, cloak, and outdoor bedding. Plaid has come to mean any crisscross Scottish design,. Tartan. Originally, tartan was the name for locally woven woolen twill cloth. Now it means the patterns associate with each clan or area, and more recently, to the names of groups and individuals. Sett. Sett is the pattern of the specific tartan design. The tartan material didn’t always have a design. However, the vertical and horizontal stripes of various widths and colors were popular, and they gave the weaver an outlet for individuality and artistic expression. When weaving was done by hand, it was too labor intensive to permit more than one or two designs by a single weaver or group of weavers. So, it was natural for a popular design to be repeated. Since the users lived near the weaver, and most of the people were from the same clan, a specific tartan design became associated with that area and clan name. The sett is repeated many times in each piece of tartan material. A smaller sett is needed for a necktie and a larger one for a blanket, but originally there was only one size for use with the plaid (tartan material of a standard size). Regardless of the sett size, the relationship of the stripes and colors is constant, so the design is always recognizable Colors. Vegetable dyes were used in the oldest tartans the colors were not as bright as animal dyes and over time they faded in the sunlight and harsh weather. It has been said that there are similarities between the setts and colors of related clans. It is easy to find examples to support or reject this idea. Some have argued that most, if not all, tartan designs are new and were only developed to meet a commercial demand in the late 1800. Others say they are steeped in tradition and were brought with the Gaels from the Mediterranean. These assertions are difficult to prove or disprove. The Kilt To use the plaid as clothing, a belt was placed on the floor and the plaid was laid lengthwise over the belt. The half below the belt was pleated in the middle to reduce its length. The pleated half covered from the waist to the knee. To achieve this, the user, clad only in a long shirt, would lie down with his waist even with the belt and his bottom on the pleated portion. Then one side of the plaid was drawn over his front and the other side brought forward to overlap the first side. The folds and pleats were held together by buckling the belt tightly around the waist. The user then stood up which caused the upper half of the plaid to drape down over the belt toward the floor. Both ends of this material were brought together behind the wearer, pulled over one shoulder, and pinned to the front of his shirt.
Long plaid as it was assembled and worn by a Scot. This was called the breacan feile, or belted plaid. In cold and windy weather, the upper half was used as a cape, and at night, when away from home, the plaid became a sleeping blanket. Thus, one piece of heavy woven material (tartan), in one large size (plaid) was all the clothing and bedding that a Scot required. Once you learned the method of assembly, the only downside to the belted plaid was the large amount of bulky material. Perhaps this is why the Scots removed the breacan feile before going into battle. Others think it was just to avoid getting blood on it. As the need for a cape and outdoor bedding diminished, the long plaid was replaced by the feile beag or short plaid, which became known as the kilt. In the kilt, the pleats were prefolded and ironed flat. The thickness and toughness of the tartan material kept the pleats in place. The extra material of the belted plaid was replaced by the kilt jacket. The manufacturer of the kilt became possible when the weaving of the tartan material became mechanize. The increase efficiency permitted a lower cost, time for sewing as well as a variety in designs and weight of the material. History of the Tartan kilt Prior to the 1745 revolt against English rule, the beag, whether long or short, was considered normal daily wear for Scottish men, especially in the Highlands. The tartan designs were not officially assigned to a specific clan. Nevertheless, it was only natural that a design made by the MacIntyre weavers in Cladich, for example, would be worn by MacIntyres, and associated with their name. If those same weavers made another design, and it was used primarily by the MacIntyres in Glenorchy, then it would be associated with them. In 1746, wearing of the kilt and displaying of the tartan designs were banned because they were considered emblems of the rebellious Scottish Highlander. The ban remained for thirtysix years, until the "Disclothing Act" was repealed in 1782. The repeal of the Disclothing Act increased interest in Scottish heritage, including clan identification, the kilt, and the tartan. The resurgence of clan and Highland pride, along with the commercial viability of tartan designs outside of Scotland, encouraged the identification of specific designs with specific clans. Before this market developed, there was no need to specify the clan since the "locals" all knew which tartan belonged to neighboring clans and served to alert them to the possibility of a friendly or unfriendly encounter. However, when someone of Scottishdescent in the United States asked the sales person, "Whose tartan is this?," the response might have been, "Oh, it’s MacIntyre." In response to the request for clan specific tartan design identification, reference books were printed with the tartans assigned to specific clans with a brief description of the history of that clan. As we now know, these histories were not always accurate. Perhaps to avoid conflicts and to recognize that tartans were associated with clans, the Lyon Court began to officially recognize some tartans along with clan emblems, such as the plant badge, to go along with the approved heraldic shield and crest.
Use of the Tartan and Kilt Tartan use isn’t limited to the kilt or trews (trousers), nor is wool the only fiber. You will find tartan designs in blankets, drapes, upholstery, ribbons, tablemats, and all types of clothing. Tartan designs have been woven in cotton, silk and synthetics. What is the common thread that makes so many distinct Scottish tartan designs so popular outside of Scotland? The crossing lines, multiple colors in a repeated pattern, attracts immediate attention, yet isn’t garish. In addition to being pleasing to the eye, it is an emblem of Scottish virtues, such as, thrift and honesty. Checks and paisley are examples of other internationally recognizable designs, but tartan is the most popular, and only Scotland can claim it, just as only MacIntyres can claim the MacIntyre tartan designs. The kilt has also become an international symbol of Scotland fashion design, regardless of the materials used or the gender of the wearer. Designers quickly discovered that the pleats provided comfort and the tartan design enhanced the appearance of the wearer’s posterior. Tartan design is pleasing without any reference to its Scottish origin. Nevertheless, the association with a specific clan adds to its popularity. Tartan has become so popular, that new tartan designs have been created to honor organizations (Black Watch) and individuals (Lady Diana). Clothes designers have created unofficial tartanlike designs, which are called plaids, to differentiate them from tartans. Thus, the originals meaning of tartan and plaid has changed as their primary use has changed from normal daily wear to fashion.
MacIntyre Tartans There are three MacIntyre tartans: Hunting, Glenorchy, and District or Dress. Each tartan has a distinctive sett and multiple colorations. MacIntyre Hunting and Glenorchy have three shades of the same coloration and sett: Ancient, Ancient Faded, and Modern. The District designs has two colorations: Ancient and Modern. The modern colors are brighter, reflecting animal dyes, and the ancient colors are more muted, representing vegetable dyes. Vegetable dyes are no longer used but the faded coloration, also known as weathered or muted, was created to reproduce the faded appearance. For example, in the Faded, Ancient MacIntyre Hunting tartan, the green becomes brown and the blue becomes light greenish blue. The wearing of any of these MacIntyre tartans proudly associates the wearer with the name MacIntyre. The description of the MacIntyre Ancient Hunting Tartan given by John Sobieski Stuart in `Vestiarium Scoticum' was simple:
twy wyd stryppis of bleu upon ane fyeld grene, and upon e e e y ylk ane sprang redd, and upon y midward of y grene sett ane sprang quhite This can be translated as, "Two wide stripes of blue upon a field of green, and upon each blue there is a red stripe and upon the middle of the green there is a white stripe. A later description was: On one field of green two blue stripes, a stripe of white in the midward of the green and two streaks of red in the midward of the blue (a streak is narrower than a stripe.). This has been standardized by the Office of the Lord Lyon so that a weaver can reproduce the sett in any size. The official formula is now: 2 white, 16 green, 6 blue, 1 red, 6 blue, 2 green (center of sett) doubled. The color of green or blue is not specified which varies between ancient and modern, and among vattings of the dyes.
Clan MacIntyre Tartan There is a doublet in Kingussie Museum dated 1800 in this tartan. It also appeared in the Vestiarium Scoticum (1842) and in the Lord Lyon's Register of Arms (1955) The source of tartan 743 was: Kingussie museum
The Glen Orchy sett is sometimes known as the MacIntyre and Glenorchy, although the MacIntyres occupied only part of the Glen. The source of tartan 812 was: Old & Rare Scottish Tartans. D W Stewart 1893
Clan MacIntyre Tartan II This sample comes from the MacGregor Hastie collection which forms the basis of the cloth archive of the Scottish Tartans Society. Some of the samples, including this one, were unmarked. One can assume that the sample dates between 1930 and 1950. The source of tartan 56 was: MacGregor & Hastie Buchan Cumming MacIntyre District Tartan Also MacIntyre and Glenorchy. Adopted by the Buchan family around 1965, on account of their long association with the Cummings which began with the marriage of Margaret, daughter of King Edgar, to William Coymen, sheriff of Forfar in 1210. The name, Buchan, though a family name, is territorial in origin. The sett is asymmetrical. The source of tartan 1991 was: Chief David Buchan of Auchmacoy MacIntyre or Perthshire Artifact Tartan Typical of Perthshire rural weave. Belonged to MacIntyre's of Littleport Farm, St Fillans, Perthshire. The source of tartan 1901 was: MacIntyre's of Littleport
MacIntyre & Glenorchy Tartan Smiths' version is also known as MacIntyre of Whitehouse. Though different from the sett recorded by Lord Lyon it is the one most often available in modern times. Before moving to Badenoch to take protection for Clan Chattan, the MacIntyres were listed as followers of Stewart of Appin. The source of tartan 402 was: Smith Pl 32
Bards, pipers, storytellers, and seanachie were members of honored Gaelic professions who passed on a clan’s history and culture. Their poems, stories, songs, and music recounted the Chief’s and Clan’s victories, and on rare occasions, their losses, but never defeats! They also traced the genealogy of the family of the Chief. Those individuals described below are the ones who achieved public notice but there are many MacIntyres who have written poetry inspired by their MacIntyre heritage. BARDS Duncan Ban MacIntyre (b. 1724 , d. 1812) Among the poets of Clan MacIntyre, the most famous, by far, is Duncan Ban Nan Oran. He is often referred to as the Burns of the Highlands, and is recognized as the last great Scottish poet of the Gaelic language. His Verses on Arms, a tribute to James (III), is especially important because it is the first documentation of the Glenoe Arms. Duncan MacIntyre was born On March 20, 1724, at Druim Liaghart, a small crofting community beside Loch Tulla, in Glenorchy, Argyllshire. There was no school nearer than fifteen miles down the glen at ClachananDiseirt, now called Dalmally. This made a formal education impossible so Duncan Ban could neither read nor write, even in Gaelic. However, the urge to describe what he saw, and the Gaelic tradition of the bards, was so great, that his talent could not be denied, despite his lack of formal training. His many verses were all committed to memory and, were designed to be sung. It was for this reason that he was known as DonnchabannanOran, or Fair Duncan of the Songs. He was to the Highlands what Robert Burns was to the Lowlands, the darling of the people. It was left to others to translate his songs into Gaelic and English and to have them published. He then went on tour to sell his book, like the modern rock stars sell their songs. Duncan was quick at repartee. Once, when he was singing his songs at Ft. William, he was holding his book upside down. When this was called to his attention he retorted promptly in Gaelic, "It makes no difference to the good scholar what end is towards him (or uppermost)." He was a contemporary of his Chief, James (III). Older than James by three years, at age twentyone Duncan was already in the Argyll Miltia when the ’45 rebellion began. He participated on the side of the Government at the behest of his Glenorchy master, the Earl of Breadalbane. He didn’t volunteer to fight but was paid 300 merks to take the place of a Campbell named Archibald Fletcher. Duncan, who risked his life for money and future employment, was on the losing side at the initial Battle of Falkirk. When Duncan eventually returned without the sword, Fletcher refused to pay him because he lost the sword. In a poem about the battle, Duncan describes the sword as old, bent, jagged, and rusty to show it wasn’t worth a farthing, let alone 300 merks. The sword was probably "lost" when it slowed Duncan’s "retreat" through the marshes along with the other Government soldiers, who were routed by Prince Charlie’s enthusiastic and unpaid rebels. Fletcher was one of the many "gentleman" who did not wish to fight beside his Campbell kinsman, and could well afford to pay a MacIntyre to fight in his place. Perhaps Fletcher was hoping that both Duncan and the sword wouldn’t return and that the widow MacIntyre would be too intimidated to collect the 300 merks? Scotland and Clan MacIntyre were the better for Duncan surviving without the sword. Duncan was eventually paid after the intercession of the Earl of Breadalbane. For most of his long life, Duncan earned his living as a forester to the 2nd and 3rd Earl of Breadalbane. All of the mountains he surveyed are mentioned in his poems, of which he most famous and finest was The Praise of Ben Dorain. He is also famous with his countrymen for his poems about the Battle of Falkirk, and two poems of a historical nature, one criticizing the banning of the kilt (for which he was briefly imprisoned) and another celebrating the return of the kilt. However, his clansmen are most indebted to him for his composition, Verses on Arms, composed upon seeing the emblems on the his Chief’s Ring and Seal when visiting his fellow poet, James (III), at Glenoe. Outstanding among the songs of affection is Song to his NewlyWedded Wife. He brought his young bride, Mairi Bhan Og or "Fair Young Mary,"to their first home on the estate of Alexander MacDonald of the lands of Dalness. Mary was also a MacIntyre, whose father, Nicol MacIntyre, was the keeper of a small wayside inn at Inveroran. It is said that Duncan, being a poet and of an easy disposition, made it necessary for his wife to be quite practical, as this anecdote will show: "One rainy day as he lay in bed composing his poems, the wet made itself disagreeably felt. Addressing her by the classic title she then
enjoyed and has ever since retained, "Fair Young Mary", quoth he, "go forth and thatch the house; the ooze comes in." "Fair Young Mary" was an efficient helpmate to her husband, bore his children, and in later years, accompanied him on his many trips through the Highlands and the Isles to obtain subscribers to the third edition of his poems. In his songs of nature and his use of the Gaelic language, Duncan Ban MacIntye was supreme. Following his death in 1812, in his 89th year, The Scots Magazine for October commented at length, of which the following is an extract: . . .nothing like the purity of his Gaelic, and the style of his poetry, has appeared in the Highlands of Scotland since the days of his countryman, the sublime Ossi. Duncan lies buried in Old Grey Friars Churchyard, Edinburgh, along side Mary, who followed him there February 28, 1824. Of his monument it is said, "Here marks the spot that will ever be sacred to all who speak the Gaelic language and appreciate the grace and grandeur of the songs bequeathed to them by Duncan Ban MacIntyre." On September 2, 1859, a second monument to the poet's memory was raised on Creaganchaorach, Dalmally, near the Beacon Hill to the east of Loch Awe. A hundred years later, the monument suffered extensive damage from lightning but it has been restored through the work of a Committee under the convenership of Angus McIntyre of Crianlarich.
Duncan Ban MacIntyre Monument, Loch Awe.
rd James MacIntyre 3 of Glenoe (b. 1727 d. 1799) James, the third Chief of record, was also a recognized poet. Except for verses expressing admiration for the Rev.Donald MacNicol of Lismore, his verses were scathing sarcasm, primarily aimed at the renowned English scholar, Dr. Samuel Johnson. Three of these poems are in Gillies’ Collection, and a sample of his style is found in the translation by Moray McLaren of his verses "On Samuel Johnson, Who Wrote Against Scotland." The original of this poem, in Gaelic, may be found in the Transactions of the Gaelic Society of Inverness, which quotes from the MacLagan mss. Le Seumas MacantSaoir, Fear a Ghleinne Nodha, 1775 (James MacIntyre of Glen Noe). It was this same James, who was the subject of Duncan Ban’s laudatory poem, as well as a poem by James Shaw, a fellow poet and scholar. th Peter MacIntyre 13 of CamusnahErie (b. 1763?, d. 1855) Peter, the twelfth Representer of the House of CamusnahErie, wrote under the nom de plume of "Cruachan." Peter was a Lieutenant in the Royal Marines and cousin of the Rev. John MacIntyre of Kilmonivaig, who succeeded him as representer of the branch upon Peter’s death on June 30, 1855. His best remembered poem is Traghadh mo Dhuthcha, which means `Longing for my homeland'. This Gaelic poem was included in Munro's edition of songs, Am Filidh published in 1840.
Patrick MacIntyre of Loch Awe (b. 17??, d. 1855) Some poems are meant to be sung, and this is particularly true of "Cruachan Ben" composed by Patrick MacIntyre who was born at Letterwood, Loch Awe, in 1782. In 1811, he became the parish schoolmaster of Innisail, at Achnacarron, and served there until his death in 1855. He is buried in Glenorchy.
th John MacIntyre of 15 of Camusnaherie (b. 1794, d. 1870) As a young boy, around age nine or ten, John had the pleasure of seeing Duncan Ban MacIntyre and his wife Mary when they visited the house of his father, Duncan MacIntyre whose wife was Jean, daughter of James (III). Duncan Ban and Mary were seeking subscriptions to his book of poetry. He wrote poetry and
translated from English into Gaelic other poets, such as Burns and Scott. Thus, Peter, Patrick and John has knowledge of Duncan Ban and James (III) and carried on their legacy. Angus MacIntyre of Glasgow (b. 18??, d. after 1936) Cruachan Vistas is a collection of poems, edited by Angus MacIntyre. It includes poem by Angus as well as the music for "Cruachan Ben" by Patrick MacIntyre, with Gaelic words. This was the first Gaelic song harmonized by John Macintyre for a St. Columba Gaelic choir concert in 1876. Angus MacIntyre of Taynuilt and Tobermory The most recent, wellknown, published Scottish poet of the name MacIntyre or Wright came from Taynuilt, the nearest town to Glen Noe. Like Duncan Ban, Angus’father was a forester and as a child, Angus spent manyaday with his father hunting, fishing, and observing the beauties of nature around Taynuilt at the foot of Ben Cruachan. As an adult his live in Tobermory on the Isle of Mull and continued his poetry on local subjects.
MAC INTYRE STORYTELLERS
Alexander James MacIntyre of Inveraray (b. 1895, d. 1968) The only MacIntyre storytellers by name are from the House of Stranmore. The only one to attempt to put these stories down in writing was Alexander (Alick) James MacIntyre of Inveraray. He is the source of a number of the stories in this volume as they weretold to him by his Grandmother, Jean Bell Tullick . He had the "gift of gab" in the best sense of the phrase, in his love of the story, the telling of it, and his way with words. Angus MacIntyre of Tobermory Writing poety was not enough to sustain a family, so Angus became a banker. After posts in a number of other cities, he was assigned the bank’s branch in Tobermory, on the Isle of Mull. There he remained the rest of his life, raising a family and soaking up the lore of that Isle. These are reflected in his collection of poem, but also in the many stories he wrote. Because he was so good at storytelling, and it was a respected profession among the Gaels, he became Mulls most sought after speaker, for all occasions. The affection for him was so great, that on his retirement from the bank, he was given the keys to the city, and a rent free apartment over his bank in Tobermory.
MUSIC AND MUSICIANS
MacIntyre March The MacIntyre March is considered one of the finest march tunes and deserves more than passing mention. Gabhaidh Sinn An Rathad Mor is variously translated as "We Will Take the Good Old Way" or "We Will Take the Highway." The English version of the Gaelic is from the translation by Rev. Dr. Alexander Stewart of Nether Lochaber, composed in 1873. Because the tune was so fine, other clans have expropriated it and substituted their own words. It will therefore be found in other collections under titles such as `The Stewart's March', `The Highway', `The Sherra'muir March' and so forth. In those cases, there may be a claim of origin for their clan and a lively discussion on this very subject was carried in the Oban Times in 1888 over a period of months! The Gaelic words for the MacIntyre March are attributed to Iain Breac MacEandraic (Freckled John Henderson), a native of Appin. The Stewarts first played it in 1547, as they returned from the disastrous Battle of Pinkie. There can be no doubt that the March belongs first to Clan MacIntyre for it is the Clan referred to in the oldest set of Gaelic words. These words contained a jeering reference to the Clan Campbell as luchd nam braoisg or "wry mouthed" in spite of the fact that the powerful Clan would resent such independence on the part of the weaker Clan MacIntyre. The third verse attributes this feeling of independence to the fact that the singer had spent the night in the company of his clansmen, the MacIntyres of Cladich. The MacIntyre March is said to be the tune to which Bonnie Prince Charlie made his triumphal entry into Edinburgh on September 17, 1745, preceded by "A Hundred Pipers an `a an `a."
MAC INTYRE SEANACHIES (HISTORIANS)
TH James MacIntyre, 5 Chief of Glenoe (b. 1785, d. 1863) James was born in New York, but at the age of twentyone he returned to Scotland and Glen Noe. After a stay of sixteen years, he returned to New York. In 1852, at the request of his children, he described to the best of his memory what he knew about the history of Clan MacIntyre and his forbearers. In this sense, he was the first Clan MacIntyre historian of record. The only other historical record prior to this was Duncan Ban’s Verses on Arms discussed previously. Of course, there is a strong possibility that his grandfather, James (III) had written in the Black Book of Glenoe as had others before him, but until it is found we will never know. TH Duncan, 14 Chieftain of CamusnahErie (b. 1831 d. after 1901) Duncan was born at Balrour, Scotland in 1831. He published a bound monograph on Clan MacIntyre, including both the Glenoe Chiefs and CamusnahErie Chieftains with their respective genealogies. He obtained his information from correspondence with James (V) and Donald (VI) in the United States as well as from his father and grandfather on the CamusnahErie side of his family.
MAC INTYRE GENEALOGISTS
There are numerous family genealogists among Clan MacIntye. However, those listed here have put into print, what their research has uncovered. The many others who are deserving of mention will hopefully be encourages to publish their finding and thus, be included in the next edition.
th James 5 of Glenoe th Duncan, 14 of CamusnahErie
Angus MacIntyre of Glasgow He felt that he had traced the Chiefs back to Biblical times. He founded the first Clan MacIntyre Association in Glasgow in 1923. Fortunately, L. D. MacIntyre, didn’t agree with Angus’ opinion that someone outside of Scotland couldn’t write a history of Clan MacIntyre. Marianna Malkowski – McIntyres of Michigan (b. 18 , d. 196?) Keith McIntyre – Clan McIntyre of Otonabee (b. 18 , d. 196?) Lois McIntire Salisbury – MacKentire (b. 18 , d. 196?) Lois began the history of the Micum MacIntyre descendants. Alan Bridgeman MacIntyre of North Carolina, descendant of James (V), the Glenoe Chief and Clan MacIntyre Association genealogist (b. 18 , d. 196?) Tom MacIntyre (Clan MacIntyre Society genealogist) (b. 18 , d. 196?) Marcia MacIntyre of Australia, wife of a descendant of both the Glenoe and Camusnah Erie
MAC INTYRE ORGANIZATIONS
Clan MacIntyre Association. In 1890, a group of MacIntyres in Glasgow started to meet for the purpose of promoting their identity as members of a larger family, Clan MacIntyre. In a letter dated 1914, a Julia MacIntyre is corresponding with the Chief at that time, James (VII) in New York. It seems that the organization was not formalized but was still in existence twentyfour years after it began. It probably lost momentum as minds and hearts were concentration on the "war to end all wars." The next reference to a Clan MacIntyre Association was in 1923 when it was reinstituted under the leadership of Angus MacIntyre, who acted as its secretary, a position that did not come and go as presidents might. He was what one might term, a character, with definite views and a great interest in all things MacIntyre. The Association had general meetings with various committees. It had a letterhead,
which identified James (VII) of New York as the Chief of Clan MacIntyre. This Association continued into the late 1930s when it met the same fate as the first attempt and for the same reasons as World War II began in 1939. Clan McIntire of Maine, United States of America. This group began in 1916 and as the `Micum McIntire Clan' instituted annual gatherings of the descendants of the first Malcolm which was owned by General Jeremiah McIntire. Malcolm McIntire was probably the first of the name to settle in what became the United States. He is mentioned in the New England Genealogical Records as Micum the Scot, Micum being the pronunciation of Malcolm. It is stated that he was a giant, well over 6 feet, who had been captured by Cromwell's forces at the Battle of Dunbar on September 3, 1650. He was included with those who were to be executed, the way prisoners of war were handled in those days. This probably accounts for the ferocious fighting, since one died one way or the other. Malcolm broke away from the group and it took quite a few of Cromwell's men to overtake and subdue him. Perhaps in recognition of his valor, the sentence of death was commuted to seven years of servitude in the salt mines of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, and he was deported with the 150 prisoners on the `Unity' which sailed to Boston 165051. After serving his time in the present Dover, New Hampshire, he next is located in what is now York, Maine circa 1667. His size and strength was commemorated in this poem: And there was Micum McIntyre With his great foot and hand He kicked and cupped Sam Treathy so He could neither go or stand. There, Malcolm, shortly after December 1670 married the widow of a friend and fellow prisoner, Alexander Mackanere, who on his deathbed asked that Malcolm do so to protect her. The widow owned a house, which in later years became known as the McIntire Garrison House because it was used to quarter troops that were in that section to protect the settlers from the Indians. The upper story juts out over the lower one, supposedly so that hot water and oil could be poured down on anyone below trying to set fire to the house. Malcolm’s will, dated April 17, 1700, is signed, Micom X Mecantire. The direct male line of the first Malcolm McIntire ended in the late 1940s but annual gatherings of the `clan' continue to be held and there are probably more descendants of this MacIntyre family in the United States than any other MacIntyre family, simply on the basis of longevity. Clan MacIntyre Association This is the third carnation of the Clan MacIntyre Association and when it was created, it was the only known association open to all MacIntyes and associated names. In 1976, M. L. MacIntyre, the youngest son of L. D. MacIntyre, decided to celebrate the United States of America’s BiCentennial by going to Glen Noe and symbolically reclaiming the land for all MacIntyres. An advertisement for a piper, boat, and photographer in the Oban Times drew the attention of the editor who contacted the London Sunday Express. Their correspondent in Washington D.C. contacted the family. An article about the planned trip appeared in the London paper on the day of their arrival, about one week before the event. It was read by Ian Stuart McIntyre who had always wanted to go to Glen Noe since he was age four when a planned trip was canceled by bad weather. This was during the World War II Blitz when, like many young children, he was resettled with rural relatives in Scotland, away from the bombs. So it was that Ian finally made his long delayed trip to Glen Noe. Ian was amazed by the L.D.’s knowledge of Scottish and MacIntyre history. He insisted that a history be published. As a result of the trip, a film was produced but more importantly, one year later, on August 8, 1977, at L.D.’s eightieth birthday celebration, the first copy of the first edition of this history was given birth. As with the bookplate and letterhead that L.D. printed 50 years before, there was a mass mailing to recover the cost of printing. Any profits were to be used for a future printing. There were a modest number of sales that eventually covered the costs and, as with the search for the Chief, and the trip to Glen Noe, there was an unexpected result. Dr. Roger MacIntyre, one of the first purchasers of the book, offered to start an association of MacIntyres. L.D. became a cofounder and the first President and Alice MacIntyre, became the first SecretaryTreasurer and Editor of the newsletter, Per Ardua. L.D. made sure that one of the prime objectives of the Association was to have the Chief recognized by the Lyon Court in Scotland and to return Glen Noe to the MacIntyres. A Glenoe Fund was established in 1983 to raise fund
that could be used to support the recognition of the Chief in Scotland and eventually, to purchase all, or part, of Glenoe. The first goal was accomplished in 1991, so only reclaiming Glenoe remains. The Association has an annual meeting in conjunction with a Highland gathering at various locations in United States and Canada. They publish a quarterly newsletter, Per Ardua and sponsor a ? . Clan MacIntyre Society, Inc. This group is headquartered in Tacoma, Washington and the majority of its membership comes from this area. Their special interest is Clan MacIntyre genealogy and education in the Scottish and MacIntyre heritage. They created the first Clan MacIntyre organization website. They have a quarterly newsletter and two special events, a High Tea in October and an Annual Meeting in the Spring. They host tents at Highland games in the northwest United States. Irish MacIntyres. There is a organization of Irish MacIntyres that is, surprisingly, located in Ireland. Surprisingly, only because most organizations of this type are started by the homesick among us and not by those who never leave. On the Internet, there are Irish MacIntyres who have formed an impromptu chat group searching for their origin as Irish MacIntyres and their relationship, if any, with Irish McAteers, as well as with Scottish MacIntyres since in Gaelic both are spelled, Macant Saoir. One Home for all MacIntyres and Wrights. An attempt is being made to have the various existing MacIntyre groups come under one umbrella organization so their combined knowledge and energy will not be diluted. The World Wide Web may become the place where all MacIntyres can meet and share their knowledge in all things MacIntyre. But, just like the world before the Internet, when you put in the name MacIntyre, you will find not one but many websites and many versions of the same stories about MacIntyres.
IN MEMORIAM: L. D. and ALICE MAC INTYRE
L.D. MacIntyre and Alice Sonnenschein MacIntyre were such an important part of the recent history of Clan MacIntyre that it is necessary to say a few words about them so future generations may know what it took to bring this history to life and what it will take to continue the effort. It is hard to imagine spending fiftyfive years of sustained effort to complete anything. And it is just as difficult to imagine in today’s world, that a young man of fourteen, in a little town of Rochester, Indiana, would learn to love history by sitting in his Uncle’s attic reading three ponderous volumes of The History of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. It was this thirst for knowledge that sustained L. D. MacIntyre in collecting the information for the first edition of this book and that made him work tirelessly until the Arms of James IX were matriculated in Scotland by the Lyon Court. In acknowledging this, Rothsay Herald, Sir Crispin Agnew Bt, wrote, "without [L.D.’s perseverance] the recognition would never have succeeded." This level of achievement is more than most of us can expect in our lifetimes. And when better to experience a crowning achievement than in your last moment of life? Herodotus, the father of occidental historians, in his History of the Persian Wars reported that Solon, known as the wisest man of his age, during his ten year selfexile from Athens, visited King Croesus of Lydia. After Croesus showed Solon his immense wealth, he asked Solon, "Whom, of all the men that you have seen, do you consider the most happy?" He assumed that his gold and jewels would surely qualify him as number one.. Without hesitation, Solon’s first and second choices were individuals of no renown. In disbelief, Croesus asked how it was possible that these simple men could possibly be happier than a King, who was also the wealthiest man on earth? Solon responded with this simple truth. He who unites the greatest number of advantages and, retaining them to the day of his death, then dies peaceably, that man alone, is entitled to bear the name of "happy." So it was, that my father achieved happiness, something that has eluded many, especially the rich and famous. Alice, my mother, was just as fortunate. The youngest daughter of Jewish Hungarian immigrants to the United States, she worked her way through the University of Missouri and graduated as an English major, honor student, and tennis champion. She met L.D. on a summer job with the Red Cross for a flood disaster in Arkansas. Her life as a wife, mother and worker were marked by hope, hard work, highest standards, giving, and always encouraging others to do the same. Unlike L.D., Alice didn’t take 50 or 60 years to complete a project. Once she decided to do it, you knew it would be done well and in the shortest possible time. After all, again unlike L.D., she knew perfection was impossible and that time didn’t stand still. Without her impetus, this history, like so many other untold histories, would still be boxes of notes in a basement and eventually lost, like the Black Book of Glenoe. L.D.’s notes were on little scraps of paper that could only be connected by synapses in his brain. It is beyond my understanding how one brain could hold so much about one thing without bursting. But, it was Alice who said it must be done and gave a one year deadline, L.D.’s 80th birthday. It was Alice who did the transcription on an IBM Selectric typewriter from audio tapes. It was Alice who edited and lovingly cracked the whip. It was Alice who met the deadline after 50 years of L.D.’s search for perfection, or from Alice’s view, procrastination. What a perfect pairing of two very different individuals, with different personalities and skills that combined to reach one goal, a history of Clan MacIntyre. But it didn’t end there. This history gave rise to the reformation of the Clan MacIntyre Association, and here again Mac and Alice, Alice and Mac, were the inseparable founders, first Councilors, first President and Secretary/Treasurer, first Editor of Per Ardua, and the parents that every young organization needs to help it through the early years. Mac was the head and Alice was the heart, lungs, arms, and legs. Alice lived to see the Clan MacIntyre Association and her beloved Per Ardua grow and flourish and Mac lived live to see the Chief recognized in Scotland just days before he died. We should all be so lucky, and talented, and dedicated. May they rest in peace in the knowledge that they live on in our minds and hearts and in this volume as part of the history of Clan MacIntyre.
TOUR OF MAC INTYRE COUNTRY
Dunstaffnage Castle, Falls of Lora, Ardchattan Priory, Taynuilt, Loch Etive, Ben Cruachan, Glen Noe, Airdeny, Stone Age relects, Kilchrenan Church graveyard, The Pass of Brander, 1 Cruachan Hydroelectric Plant, St. Conan’s Kirk, and Duncan Ban MacIntyre’s Monument. This tour takes you along route A85 with side trips all along the way. Dunstaffnage Castle. Starting at Oban, drive north about 3 miles on Route A85/A828 to the signs for Dunstaffnage Castle on the left. The castle is considered by most to be the essence of an early Scottish fortress. This may be the site of the first capitol of a united Scotland where the Stone of Dentiny (Lia Fail) was kept. In response to the threat of Viking raids, the capitol and the Stone of Destiny were moved inland to Scone, the former capitol of the old Pictish Kingdom. Dunstaffnage was the Castle in the story of the Piper’s warning and it was where Flora MacDonald, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s, Highland heroine, was held after saving him from certain capture. Ardchattan Priory and Duncan’s grave. To visit the gravesite of Duncan, the first documented Chief of Glenoe, record, continue north on A85/A828 and take A828 across the Connel Bridge in the direction of Fort Williams and North Connel. As you cross the bridge, the Falls of Lora will be below you on your right. After crossing, immediately turn right to go along the shore of Loch Etive, which will lead you to the Ardchattan Priory. The Priory was built in 1291 by Sir Duncan MacDougall of Lorn, and most importantly, it is the burial site of Duncan (I) and many other MacIntyes. According to Angus MacIntyre, a 20th century poet born in Taynuilt, King Robert the Bruce convened the last meeting of the Scottish Council of Chiefs at which Gaelic was spoken, at Ardchattan Priory in 1308, six years before Bruce defeated Edward I at Bannockburn and then defeated the MacDougalls at Brander Pass. Arcchattan Priory is now a private residence with an attractive garden. At one time it had a tea room but it is no longer open. You should have no difficulty in locating the graveyard and with a little searching the tombstone of Duncan (I) and his Lady Mary. During the construction of the Priory, the workers needed a place of worship and built a small chapel at the top of the hill behind the Priory. The chapel and grounds of this earlier ruin contain several other MacIntyre graves and stones. Barcaldine Castle. While on the north side of Loch Etive, you might want to drive up to this Castle of st Patrick (Para Beeg) Campbell, 1 Lord Barcaldine. Patrick was father of Mary Campbell, wife of Duncan (I). To get there, return from the Priory until to reach the shore road and go straight. This will take you to A282, a couple of miles north of where you left it before. Turn right and continue north for about 6 miles. Turn at the Barcaldine Castle sign. The Castle is open for a small fee and it has a nice tea room and a gift shop. The books they sell don’t mention that Para Beeg (Little Black Patrick) was one of the patriarchs of the MacIntyres of Glenoe. Taynuilt. Return the way you came, cross the bridge and turn east on Route A85 for about six miles until you reach Taynuilt, the nearest concentrated population to Glen Noe. On the way to Taynuilt, on the right, is the Falls of Lora Hotel where Mr. Ian Hamilton planned the restealing of the Stone of Scone/Destiny from Westminster Abbey. It was also the Hotel used during the making of the movie "Return of the MacIntyre." On the left is Airds Bay, Airds Park, and Airds Point. This is the location of Muckairn Parish Church where the cemetery contains over twenty MacIntyre tombstones. Back on the road, follow the signs to Taynuilt where you will turn left off A85. Taynuilt is a nice village with everything you might need to stay for a few days; grocery, police, ScotRail station and B&Bs. Their annual Highland Games are the second Saturday in August. They have a Monument to Nelson, Bonawe Furnace Iron works, an honor system ninehole golf course, and an excellent car repair shop conveniently located near the narrow railroad bridge for those who forget that the ‘right’ side of the road is not the ‘correct’ side of the road. Continue through the town on the left side of the road you cross a narrow bridge over the train tracks. Don’t forget to stay on the left side of the road after crossing the bridge and continue to keep left even when there is a sharp left turn. This will bring you the Polfearn Hotel and then to the pier at the end of the road. On the way you will pass by a sign to the Bonawe Furnace and Monument to Lord Nelson. Keep the location of that turn in mind so you can go there on your return. Next to the pier is Inverawe, the entrance of the River Awe into Loch Etive. This is "the elbow" where Loch Etive bends to the Northeast. The River Awe is prized for salmon fishing. Fishing laws are strict but you can fish without a license as long as you stay close to the lock where the sea water from Loch Etive and the fresh water from the River Awe mix. Loch Etive is famous for its mussels, salmon, and sea trout.
A short distance up the River Awe but on the other side is a fishing lodge, a smoke house and a fly casting pond stocked with trout. You can reach the other side by crossing a swinging foot bridge and about an hour later be in Glenoe. You will also pass them later when traveling by car to Glen Noe. Only a short distance past the pier and river, the southeastern shoreline of Loch Etive runs right into the side of Ben Cruachan, which is a formidable barrier to all but the most determined hiker. This is perhaps where the first MacIntyres tried to reach the other side of the mountain and were repulsed by the mountain spirits because it was too dangerous to traverse. On the other side of this barrier, sheltered from the world, is Glen Noe, the first of three glens. It is only in recent times that a forestry logging road was carved into the side of Ben Cruachan permitting land access to Glen Noe, Glen Liver, Glen Kinglass and beyond. Before this road was carved through the steep mountain slope, the best access to Glen Noe was over the high pass from Glenorchy below the top of Ben Cruachan or by boat on Loch Etive. By boat is still the easiest way to Glen Noe and it is the way the Royal Mail is still delivered each day. A boat can land at the Glen Noe dock only during high tide so timing is very important. You could take the boat tour now or postpone it if you can’t wait to set foot on the land where MacIntyre Chiefs of old lived for centuries. The commercial boat tour takes about 2 hours and you will see the mussel farming, the Glenoe pier, meadow and cairn in memory of the chiefs of Clan MacIntyre. You will also see the other Glens and probably the seals, bird life and deer, if you have binoculars. Dress warmly. On your return from the boat trip to Taynuilt village, be sure to stop and see the Bonawe Iron Furnace and the Monument to Lord Nelson. At this point, decide if you want to go to Glen Noe immediately or the other sights. I recommend that you save an entire day for Glenoe so either do this on your first day (if you can’t stand to wait) or complete rest of the tour and see Glenoe the next day. Airdeny, Glen Lonan, and Diarmid’s Pillar. Return to the intersection where you entered Taynuilt and go directly across A85 toward Airdeny and Glen Lonan. Airdeny is not a town but a place named after one of the brothers who accompanied Deirdre and Noise to Alba and Loch Etive. Stop long enough at Ardeny to look back at the twin peaks of Ben Cruachan. Continue toward Glen Lonan and Strontoiller’s farm, near to which , you will find a stone ring of low boulders. At Glen Lonan you will find a group of cairns know as Diarmid’s Pillar. The standing stones, circles, and cairns are the only visible signs of the people who lived here before the Picts and Scots arrived. Return the way you came to A85. Glen Nant and Kilkrennan Church graveyard. Turn right onto A85 and after a very short distant turn right again onto B845. This will take you through the Caledonian Forest of Glen Nant, along side the River Nant, past Loch Nant to Kilkrenan on Loch Awe. The churchyard has the gravestones of many MacIntyres, from the distant past to the present. It is here you will find an 1815 monument to Robert McIntyre with the MacIntyre Arms. Return the way you came and turn right on A85 to finally have your Glen Noe adventure. Glenoe. Travel about 2.5 miles toward the Pass of Brander in the direction of Dalmally. Immediately after crossing the bridge over the River Awe, take a sharp left to Inverawe on a singletrack road. You stay on this road for two miles keeping to the right at the Yfork until you reach a locked gate with a sign (Private Road). Before you reach this gate, you will pass the fishing lodge on the left at Inverawe House, the site of a famous ghost story. It seems that late one night in the mid 1700s, Duncan Campbell was home alone at Inverawe House when there was a knock at his door. When he opened the door there was a Highlander with blood on his clothing. He admitted to having killed a man in a brawl but asked for shelter and protection. In an act of Highland kindness, he promised with an oath on his dirk not to give him protection. No sooner was he hidden, than his pursuers knocked at the door and told Duncan that his nephew foster brother Donald had just been murdered and his murderer was nearby. True to his solemn oath, he did not reveal the fugitive’s hiding place. That night, with the murder under his roof, Duncan slept poorly and a vision of his bloodied nephew appeared. The ghost demanded that he not shelter his murdered. Duncan took the fugitive to a cave in the hills but the ghost returned the next night and said, "Blood has been shed. Do not shelter my murderer." The terrified Duncan went to the cave but the fugitive was gone. The ghost appeared one more time and said, "Farewell, till we meet at Ticonderoga." Duncan did not know what that meant, but it preyed heavily on his mind. In 1758, Major
nd Duncan Campbell of the Black Watch’s 42 Regiment was called to duty and sent to America to fight the French. He was part of the British forces assigned to attack Fort Carrillon. Days before the battle, Duncan heard that the Indian name for the place was Ticonderoga and it filled him with dread and thoughts of death. The morning of the attack the vision appeared, and said, "This is Ticonderoga." Duncan died that day as he knew he would. His grave is still to be found there. It is said that back at Inverawe, many local people saw a vision in the sky of the battle of Ticonderoga.
Perhaps you better delay your visit to the Smokery and flycasting ponds stocked with trout, until after you make your pilgrimage to Glenoe. So continue on the narrow road darkened by the heavy forest until you reach the locked gate with a sign (Private Road). If you aren’t completely spooked, you will need to park your car to the side of the road and walk or bicycle for about 2.5 miles until you cross the River Noe and reach Glen Noe. The first 1.5 miles goes up and down until you come to a second locked gate, which you also go around, and then continue about a mile to the Glenoe Farm. The walk is not too difficult, since the owner, Mr. HeriotMaitland of Aberdeen, takes good care of the road. It will take about 12 hours each way with good walking shoes. Glenoe Farm has about 3000 sheep tended by the farm manager who lives in the "new" house that you come to first. Farther along is a house said to be built in 1858, and restored with modern conveniences within the last 20 years. During the season, it is used by the owner as a hunting lodge and during the summer as a selfcatered rental retreat. There are no "No Trespass" laws in Scotland but you must leave it just as you find it and avoid contacting or otherwise interacting with those who live there. Simply enjoy the peace and quiet that are sorely missing in most of the world and commune with the spirits of your forefathers. There is a trail that goes up the glen along the River Noe. You will soon reach an idyllic spot where there is a waterfall with a pool below it. Some kind soul has put a bench there to sit and contemplate the origin of MacIntyres and life itself. For the adventurous and hearty, there is the climb to the top of the pass where in days gone by the MacIntyres and Campbells would meet on Midsummer’s Day and have snowball fights followed by roasting and eating the fatted calf at the Stone of the Fatted Calf. Down at the shore, the road continues along the loch side up a hill about 1.5 miles beyond Glenoe to Glen Liver, which is owned by Dorothy Fleming who lives there. Another 1.5 miles beyond Glen Liver, is Glen Kinglass and Ardmaddy. This land is owned by another member of the Fleming family, who owned Glenoe before Mr. HeriotMaitland. A farther four miles and you will reach the River Etive, headwater for Loch Etive. Pass of Brander. Again, retrace your steps back to A85 and turn left to continue south. The River Awe, the railway tracks and the highway all passes through a gorge formed by Ben Cruachan on one side and a smaller with sheer walls on the other side of the river. This gorge is called the Pass of Brander and has been the site of a number of ambushes and battles that are an important part in the history of the Highlands and Scotland. At the Pass of Brander, the forces led by Sir William Wallace met 1,400 Irish mercenaries led by MacFadyen. This Irish freebooter had been given permission by King Edward I of England to plunder Lorn and throw Scotland into further chaos during a period of uncertainty over who was their rightful king. The narrowness of the Pass of Brander ensured fierce hand to hand combat. Wallace’s forces were triumphant but MacFadyen and some of his henchmen sought to escape by hiding in caves on the sheer rock face across from Ben Cruachan, called Creag an Aoinidh, on the southwestern side of the Pass. At that time, Robert, the Bruce (later King Robert I) was under the command of Sir Wallace and was sent with his men to find the fugitives. They found them in their hiding place and quickly dispatched them. They displayed their severed heads on the top of what is now called MacFadyen’s Cave. The Ambush. After King Robert I was defeated at Methven by Edward I of England, his bedraggled troops were ambushed by John MacDougall, Lord of Lorn at Tyndrum. The MacDougalls had a blood feud against The Bruce because, in his quest to be King, Bruce murdered Red Comyn, who claimed the kingship and was a relative by marriage of the MacDougalls. Bruce narrowly escaped with his life after losing, to a swipe of the sword, part of his plaid and the brooch that held it. You can still see Bruce’s "Brooch of Lorne," at the MacDougall’s Dunollie Castle in Oban. For the MacDougalls it was too bad they only had a plaid and a brooch to show for their efforts, because Bruce did not forget. After his success at Bannockburn, Bruce came straight to Lorn to finished off the MacDougalls. This time they met in the Pass of Brander that was quite familiar to Bruce from his earlier encounter with MacFadyen’s Invasion. Bruce went over the top of Ben Cruachan from the side where the MacIntyres lived and down its steep sides to trap the MacDougalls at the bottom of the Pass. His archers made quick work of the defenseless MacDougalls who had great losses.
In 1314, there were MacIntyres who supported King Robert the Bruce at Bannockburn. At that time Lorn, and therefore Glen Noe were under the control of the MacDougalls. Since there were MacIntyres who led the Menzies into battle at Bannockburn their may have been MacIntyres who sided with Bruce against the MacDougalls. Who knows? Perhaps the MacIntyres of Glenorchy gave him aid after he was almost killed by the MacDougalls at Tyndrum? R.B.M. alluded to a story in his email. Perhaps he has one to tell? Cruachan Hydroelectric Plant. Continue South on A85 until you see a sign on your right for the unusual Cruachan Hydroelectic Plant, opened in 1965. If you were in an airplane or helicopter flying over Ben Cruachan, you would see that behind those twin peaks is a reservoir, like a sink full of water, on the mountaintop. At the base of this sink is a giant drain, which empties straight down through a pipe in the center of the mountain. The force of the falling water drives turbines that produce electricity. At night, when the use of electricity is low they pump the water back up to the top so it can fall down again during the day. There are tours into the bowels of Ben Cruachan to see the hydroelectric equipment. When the water arrives at the bottom it is directed into the River Awe that runs beside Ben Cruachan and then on a short distance to Loch Etive and then out to sea. In 1983, this power station produced 400 megawatts, which was onethird of all the power generated by the fiftyfive power stations of the North of Scotland Hydro Electric Board. St. Conan’s Kirk. Continuing along A85 east you will come to where the River Awe originates as it drops from Loch Awe to Lock Etive through the Pass of Brander. Near here are the cairns raised to the dead MacDougalls whose lives were lost in their battle with Robert the Bruce. As the road turns to the left between the mountain and the shore of Loch Awe, is St.Conan’s Kirk on the right. Inside the church are carved choir stalls with the traditional MacIntyre coatofarms along side the other clans of the area and a th stall for HRH the Princess Louise, the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria and the wife of John, 9 Duke of Argyll. The church was built in 1881 by the Campbells of Blythswood. Ben Cruachan. There is a threemile, single track, ten feet wide, access road along the side of Ben Cruachan up to the dam at the top. There are laybys along the way on the outer edge that allow two vehicles to pass. The rule is "Keep to the Right." With the descending vehicle using the laybys so the ascending traffic can pass. Once at the top, you will have a spectacular view of Lock Awe, The Pass of Brander, and the islands off Oban.
Kilchurn Castle. You have been on a narrow road that is circling the base of Ben Cruachan. After St. Conan’s Kirk, you will see on the right, Kilchurn Castle, situated in a commanding position on a peninsula that juts out into the north end of Loch Awe and next to where the River Orchy enters the Loch. It was built c.1450 by Sir Colin Campbell of Lochow, and became the home of the Campbells of Glenorchy until they moved to Taymouth Castle in Perthshire, after becoming, the Earls of Bredalbane. Duncan Ban MacIntyre’s Monument. . As you curve around the end of Loch Awe and the Kilchurn Castle you will come to the intersection with A819 leading to Inveraray. Continue straight toward Damally and high above on the right you will see a stone structure, a monument in memory of Duncan Ban MacIntyre. From a distance it may not appear imposing, but once you arrive at its base you will see it is extremely large and in keeping with the high regard that Duncan Ban MacIntyre is held by the people of Scotland and especially those who live near to his birthplace. Cladich, Loch Fyne, Inveraray, and Glasgow. If you turn onto A819, the road will take you down the side of Loch Awe toward Loch Fyne and Inveraray, location of the Castle of the Duke of Argyll. Shortly after turning you can make a slight detour to Cladich, where the group off MacIntyre weaver lived and were probably responsible for designing the various Macintyre tartans. The town is only a memory but it lives on in the MacIntyre tartans and the Cladich garters which may have been popularized as Argyll Socks. Glenorchy, Tyndrum, Stirling Castle, and Edinburgh. If you continue on A85 you will be in Glenorchy , where the Earl of Breadalbane was located. He apparently didn’t feel too safe here because he chose to build a much large and grandiose castle to the east in Taymouth, where he was conveniently further from his potential enemies. If you continue on A85 to the east, you will pass Damally and Inverlochy before reaching Tyndrum. Tyndrum was not only the site of a Battle between Robert the Bruce and the MacDougalls where he lost his Brooch and almost his life. It was also a cattle market where a Campbell lost his life at the hands of a MacIntyre, which may have sealed the fate of any hope the MacIntyres had of being a powerful influence in the region. This may have been fortunate because it was only the Campbells who manage to survive the constant feuds and warfare that were the daily fare. At Tyndrum you can turn left and follow A82 to Fort William via Glencoe, the site of the infamous massacre. If you turn right you can travel to Edinburgh via Stirling Castle and Bannockburn or take another turn to Loch Lomond and Glasgow. So in the beginning, Jacob’s Pillow was picked up by Niul the Gael traveling from Mesopotamia to Egypt. His descendants took their "Stone of Destiny" or Lia Fail to Spain and their descendant, Queen Scota and her sons, took it to Ireland, where it was used to crown the High King (Ard Ri) of Scotia at Tara. After many centuries, it was brought to Iona and then to Dunstaffnage to crown the Kings of Scotland. In 849, for protection from viking raids, the Stone of Destiny was moved to the Abbey at Scone where it became known as the Stone of Scone. In 1296, Edward I of England took the Stone of Scone from the Abbey at Scone and placed it under his throne in Westminster Abbey in London, to crown the Kings of England and Scotland until Charles II the last Stuart King was crowned. There it lay until 1950 when it was stolen by Scottish Nationalists. Either it or a replica was returned to its place under the Throne in Westminster until 1999 when it was once again brought back to Scotland, this time legally.
Ben Cruachan from Taynuilt
History of the MacIntyre Clan
Part V Stories of MacIntyres and Scotland
These stories are all connected in some way with the MacIntyres. They are the source of our history because this is how the Scots pass on their history from generation to generation in the Gaelic and Celtic manner. As we draw nearer to the present, the stories become closer to being authenticated, and as we go back in time, they become draped in the mantle of legend or myth. Try to remember the smallest detail because you never know when it will come pop up in another story. So let us begin at the beginning.
The Isle of Destiny
Long ago in Pharaoh’s Egypt, a child, named Gaodhal Glas, was cured of a serpent’s bite by none other than Moses, the Hebrew Prophet. Like Moses, the child’s father was not an Egyptian, but had come to Egypt from yet another a far off land in Asia Minor called Gaedhal or Gael. 1 Moses told the boy that he and his people would one day reach an Isle of Destiny that would be free of all poisonous serpents. 2 Goadhal Glas went back to his homeland, but in time, his grandson, Niul, went to Egypt as a teacher or soldier. On his way, he found a large, unusual shiny stone, on the Plains of Luz, and brought it with him to Egypt. This stone, called the Stone of Destiny, was later thought to be the stone that Jacob used as a pillow when he had his dream of the ladder to heaven. Niul must have had great skill, and perhaps royal blood, because he was allowed to marry Scota, one of Pharaoh’s daughters. Their descendants became too rich and powerful, causing them to be banished from Egypt. They took with them their Stone of Destiny on which their leaders were anointed. After wandering for many years, they eventually settled on the 3 Iberian Peninsula. The Gaels were successful in Iberia and around the Biblical time of Solomon, they had a famous King, named Milesius, after whom they were called Milesians. His queen was Scota, named for their first queen. Milesius died and Queen Scota decided it was time to lead her people to the Isle of Destiny prophesied in their legend. With her sons, followers, and their Stone of Destiny, they arrived on the shores of Ireland, named after the local Queen, Eiré. The Milesians and Queen Scota were victorious over Queen Eiré, but both queens died in battle. The Island eventually became known as Scotia, after their dead Queen, and the new rulers were called Scoti. The descendants of the Scoti ruled their Isle of Destiny for almost two millennia, until the reign of Queen Elizabeth I of England.
1. Others say his homeland was Greece and his father was the King. Still others say it was Scythia. These are all in the same general area. 2. This may be the source of the legend that one of the lost tribes of Israel came to Ireland. 3. The Iberian peninsula includes what is presently Spain and Portugal.
The Stone of Destiny
Someone, who didn’t give his name, called the police and told them they might find something they were looking for at the Abbey of Arbroath. This is the Abbey where in 1320, King Robert Bruce, and many Scottish nobles signed the first Declaration of Independence from England and sent to the Pope by special courier. 1 Inside the Abbey, the police found what they thought they were looking for, a large plain block of gray sandstone with a saltire 2 on top of it. This was reputed to be the famous Stone of Scone, the Lia Fail, the Stone of Destiny. According to the legend, it was none other than Jacob’s pillow, the very stone on which the biblical patriarch rested his head as he dreamed he of angels climbing a ladder to heaven. Niul, the Celtic Gael, found the stone on the plains of Luz, 3 and brought it to Egypt. 4 The descendents of Niul took the stone with them to Iberia and much later, their Queen Scota, brought this same stone to Ireland where it was placed at Tara, the site where their High Kings were inaugurated. 5 It was now called the Lia Fail. In the sixth century, it went to Iona, an island near Scotland, and then on to Dunnad, the new capitol of the Dal Riada. For safety, it was moved to the fortress, Dunstaffnage, which had become the capitol of Scotia Minor. Dunstaffnage is at the entrance to Loch Etive near the Falls of Lora. In the ninth century, Viking raids threatened Dunstaffnage and the Lia Fail or Stone of Destiny, was moved once again, to Scone, the capitol of what had become the Scottish Kingdom. The Lia Fail was kept in the Abbey of Scone for the inauguration of the Scottish kings and for this reason it became known as the Stone of Scone. In 1296, Edward I of England stole it and placed it under the throne in Westminster Abbey where the English kings were crowned. Some say the Scots knew Edward was coming, and hid their precious Stone of Scone replacing it with a plain old stone. The real stone is reputedly black marble with intricate carvings in the shape of a seat, and is kept by a secret society somewhere in Scotland. Scottish Nationalists say, with derision, that what Edward I stole was a Gaelic phrase "toilet seat." Regardless, having the real or fake stone in English hands was too much for any Scot to take, and Edward paid for it with his life in a battle at the border of Scotland. His son, Edward II also paid dearly when the outnumbered Scots at the Battle of Bannockburn defeated him. Whether real or fake, the stone is still a symbol of Scottish independence, and as long as it was under the throne in London, it was a symbol of English domination. It was all but forgotten under Edwards throne, at least by the English, until Christmas Day 1950, when a curate at Westminster Abbey discovered the throne was ajar and the Stone of Destiny was missing! It had been stolen by four Scottish nationalists, who hid themselves in Westminster Abbey the night before and had walked out with the Stone of Scone the next morning, in broad daylight, right under the noses of the English. This sounds like another farfetched Scoti legend, but it is an absolute fact. The idea was to keep the stone hidden until Scotland was once again free and then return it to the Abbey at Scone to crown a new King of Scotland. The ringleader of this rebel group was none other than Ian Hamilton, husband of the owner of the Falls of Lora Hotel on the shore of Loch Etive. After the Stone was moved around England for a number of days, it finally arrived in Scotland on Hogmaney, the Scottish New Year’s Day. More than four months later, on April 11, 1951, it was left like an orphaned child at Arbroath Abbey draped with St. Andrew’s cross. Some say it was Hamilton tipped off the constable. He and the three other perpetrators were held for questioning but released. Another rumor was that they only returned a sandstone replica of the sandstone the "toilet seat" that Edward I stole in ignorance, over 600 years earlier. Only in Scotland would it make sense to steal a fake and replace it with a fake! No one really knew
what the stone looked like because it had been gathering dust under the throne. Whether it was the real Stone or a fake, or a fake of a fake, will not be known until the real Stone of Destiny, the Lia Fail, the Stone of Scone surfaces one day, perhaps on Iona, or better yet, in the ruins of Dunstaffnage Castle, at the head of Loch Etive, next to the Falls of Lora, in the land of the MacIntyres. A sandstone version of the th "Stone of Destiny" was returned to Scotland on November 15 , 1996 and placed in Edinburgh Castle in preparation for the 1999 reestablishment of Scottish Parliament.
1. This is perhaps the first written Declaration of Independence in human history and predates the American Declaration of Independence from English rule by more than 450 years! The last two sentences read, "For, so long as one hundred remain alive, we will never in any degree be subject to the dominion of English. Since not for glory, riches or honors do we fight, but for freedom alone, which no good man loses but with his life … ." Declaration of Arbroath, 1320. 2. An object that is in the form of a St. Andrew’s cross 3. A plain in what is now Israel or Palestine. 4. Note the similarity between Niall and Niul who married the Egyptian Princess Scota. This is the origin of the Clan O’Neill or MacNeil, who may be connected to the origin of the MacIntyres 5. This was before Christianity and the Kings were neither anointed nor crowned.
Falls of Lora Hotel, on the shore of Loch Etive
— photo Hutchinson UK04
Deirdre of the Sorrows
Around the first century A.D., a daughter was born to the storyteller of Conchobar or Conor, King of Ulster. Her name was Deirdre, and a Druid priest prophesied that her beauty would bring bloodshed and death. To overcome this prophecy, the King had her raised in seclusion until she was old enough to marry him. However, she saw and fell in love with Naisi, one of three sons of Uisnech. Deirdre and Naisi, accompanied by Naisi’s two brothers, escaped to Loch Etive in Alba. The four of them lived there simply but happily. There is still a place on Lochetiveside, near Dalness that is supposed to be the site of their hut. King Conchobar sent an emissary, whom these young people new and trusted, to persuaded them to return to Ulster. He carried the King’s promise of safe conduct and forgiveness. As Deirdre left the shore of Alba, after crossing the Falls of Lora into the Irish Sea, she looked back at Loch Etive and Ben Cruachan. This sight inspired her to compose and sing her "Farewell to Alban". This song has survived almost 2000 years and below are two verses translated from the Gaelic by Angus Macintyre, in 1872:
Glen Eta (Etive), yes! Glen Eta, garbed in radiant beams; Where first my virgin home was proudly raised; Thy leafy woods and Cruachan's grandeur viewing; Flooded with sunshine rays, made glorious, my Glen Eta. . . . . Thou virgin glen! my beauteous green Gleno (oigh); To sleep serene embower'd mid'st pastures quiet; Fish, venison, with rare salted boar our fare; Plenteous my lot was, in grand tho' lone Gleno. As the title of this story suggests, the ending was not a happy one. When they arrived in Ireland, Naisi and his two brothers were murdered and Deirdre was given to the King, as his unwilling bride. Because her sorrow was so great at the loss of her beloved Naisi, she threw herself onto a rock and died.
The Thumb Carpenter
As the story goes, a MacDonald of Sleat, finding his boat about to sink because of a leak, stuck his thumb in the hole, chopped it off and hammered it firm, so saving the boat and the loss of the crew. For this heroic act, he was called the "thumb carpenter" or Saornahordaig and, according to custom, his son was the first to be called, MacantSaoir, Son of The Carpenter.
Two Brothers And One Prize
There were two brothers one the ancestor of the MacDonalds and the other, ancestor of the MacIntyres, who sailed in their galleys from one of the northern islands of Skye. When in sight of the mainland they agreed the country should be named and owned by the one who should first touch it. They were pretty well matched sailing side by side. When about to get to shore first, Donald's boat was sprung a leak. In order to win he stuck his finger in the hole and cut it off with his dirk. Upon seeing that he was about to lose, the other brother, the Soar or Wright, cut off his left hand and threw it on the land, thereby claiming first possession.
A Viking’s Magic Stone
Tradition has it that while in Sleat, a distant ancestor of the MacIntyre chiefs was given a stone by a wounded Viking raider. Normally, no prisoners were taken, but this person (probably not known yet as MacIntyre) was injured and had a kind heart. So, he spared this Norseman the normal coup de grâce and instead nursed him back to health. As thanks for this most unexpected act of mercy, the Viking gave our ancestor the only thing he had of value and the thing he gave credit for his good fortune. It was just a little stone, you might find on any shoreline, even on Loch Etive, but it had a speckled or brindled surface with a dark line across it. According to the Viking, this stone had healing properties and the dark vein could foretell success or failure before a foray. (Was it right or wrong in this case, where he lost the battle but was saved from death?) The normal practice was to drop it over your left shoulder and the augury was made according to the position of the vein as it landed on the ground. It is known as the Clach Nodha or speckled stone. It was brought to the mainland and Glen Noe with the first MacIntyres and is now in the possession of Alexander Bell MacIntyre of Inveraray and Dunoon, as part of his inheritance as the eldest son of the late Alexander James MacIntyre of Inveraray.
A Viking Raid and the White Cow
The MacIntyres, or their ancestors, lived in Sleat and had been ravaged by frequent Viking raids with the loss of their homes and cattle. After one such raid, there was snow on the ground so the Norseman overlooked one of MacIntyre’s white cows. In desperation, MacIntyre sought the advice of an old lady 2 gifted with secondsight. She told him that he would find peace and happiness if he left Sleat and settled his family where the cow would first lie down to rest after landing. MacIntyre, his wife, two sons, and the white cow, which fortunately was in calf, left Sleat in a galley, and landed on the mainland. It may be noted that the MacIntyre coat of arms has a galley, which may represent the one that was involved in starting the clan (Somerled and Ragnhild) or the one that brought them to the mainland from Sleat with their white cow, or both.
Maurice MacNeil and Somerled
Somerled, Thane of Argyll and a descendent of the early Scoti colonists, wanted to wrest possession of the Western Isles, including the Isle of Skye, from his Norse overruler, Olav the Red, King of Man. Somerled was not strong enough to do this by force so he had to resort to cunning. At first, he offered to support Olav in a raid on the English coast in return for marriage to his Olav’s daughter, Ragnhild. Olav refused and Somerled had to agreed to go anyway. As was common among those who didn’t trust each other, men from each group were assigned to the other groups boat as a sign of goodwill. Somerled’s nephew (sister’s son) called Maurice O’Neill was assigned to Olav’s galley and he had a plan. The night before they sailed, he secretly bored holes near the waterline, plugged them with tallow, and prepared wooden plugs to fit the holes. The galleys set sail in the morning and, as expected, they encountered rough seas past the point of Ardnamurchan. The waves dislodged the tallow plugs and Olav’s ship began to leak. Faced with certain death, Olav gave Somerled his solemn pledge of his daughter’s hand in marriage. Once Olav was safely on Somerled’s galley, Maurice plugged the leaks. For this heroic act, Maurice was called "The Wright or Soar" and his descendants were called, MacIntyres, children of The Wright.
The Mountain Spirits and Glen Noe
The MacIntyres came ashore at `CownnaGara'. They stayed there for quite a few years until their white cattle became so numerous that they had to find a place with more pasture. Arriving at the side of Ben Cruachan on Lochetiveside, they tried to drive their cattle through several passes and each time they were prevented by the Mountain Spirit. They persevered until the spirit finally let them pass through an opening to Glen Noe, a beautiful rich grazing valley at the base of Ben Cruachan on the south shore of Loch Etive. The Spirit told them to stop and build their house where the cow should first lay down. This they did. In another version, the MacIntyres first landed on the Scottish mainland at BaghnaTorrach or `castle bay' near Dunollie (the Fort of Olav) and then followed the shores of Loch Etive until they came to Ben Cruachan. The Mountain Spirit, after repulsing them, let it be made known that it was from no ill will that he did this, and that if they went to the other side of the mountain they would find a habitation where they could settle down under his guardianship.
1 The First MacIntyres At Glen Noe
This is the beginning of a historical novel by Alexander James MacIntyre of Inveraray, one of Clan MacIntyre’s twentieth century storytellers. It appears to combine facts from over a number of centuries into one moment of time, which is the novelist’s prerogative. In truth, the landscape and living conditions probably didn’t change very much for many centuries. There is no evidence of any kind that MacIntyres or even their ancestors were present in Glen Noe in the 600s which might be inferred from references in the Alexander’s story. Having said that the description of the living conditions, lifestyle and fortifications in this abbreviated romantic tale didn’t change substantially for the next 1000 years!
"An Clach Nodha" Or The Tale of the Brindled Stone
Being a collection of stories connected with the mystic stone of the MacIntyres of Glenoe By Alexander James MacIntyre Inveraray, Scotland 1936 An Apology Long and earnestly have I considered this matter, as to whether I should attempt to commit this tale to paper. Well knowing my own limited abilities as a storywriter I hesitated, but always bearing in mind that I may be the last of my race to take any interest in these tales I feel it is my duty. I may never be able to complete the task I have set myself, but will, at least, leave a record of a wellmeant intention. As generation succeeds generation, each bringing its own changes, all writing their history in the world’s pages, so do I write of long forgotten days, when the Highland Clans of Scotland were each paving the way towards the glorious position Scotland holds in the world today. I have tried to collect the scattered stories regarding this mystic stone into a sequence, which, when they were told to me as a boy, I have always thought they should have; with what success, if any, I have met, I leave my readers to judge.
Part I How the stone came to Glenoe
Chapter I Introduces the reader to three of the principal characters.
On a gloomy midwinter evening when the mist had settled low on the surrounding hills of Loch Etive, hiding their snowcapped peaks in an impenetrable blanket, a man and a young boy wandered seeming aimlessly along the seashore. Not another soul was in sight and only the screaming of the hungry sea birds disturbed the sombre silence. A piercing noreast wind was blowing from the Appin hills sending the loch into sheets of white foam and as the wanderers moved about they held their plaids closely around them to obtain the maximum amount of warmth possible. They were a curiously assorted pair. The man tall broad shouldered and with a spring in his step which gave him the appearance of a real athlete, but what attracted attention most was his great shaggy head crowned by a mop of fiery red hair while his beard of the same colour reached almost to his waist. As he walked along at each step his head moved
from side to side a peculiarity which gave him the name amongst his friends of "The Watcher" because this peculiarity in his walk was supposed to give him the ability to see all around him. His companion was a complete contrast. He appeared to be about seven years old, but when you caught a glimpse of his squat little face he might be any age. He had raven black hair which came down in a frill over his forehead, a small turned up nose set between two eyes with a horrible, almost evil squint, while a great protruding under lip made him unable to close his mouth properly. His body was equally misshapen. His arms were unusually long reaching almost to the ground; his back bent almost double supported by legs so slender and bent that they appeared almost too fragile to support his poor twisted body. Alert and eagerly this man and boy continued to search the rockstrewn shore near high water mark. Now at the water’s edge, each followed his own path, never uttering a word. They both carried long cromacks in their hands, which they used with a peculiar twist to turn over large stones or to search below the sea tangle. It was evident that a very diligent search was being made for something which they knew was there but was seemingly very difficult to find. Behind them right to the shore stretched the impenetrable Caledonian Forest, tall firs, birches, and ancient oaks mingling together in a confused mass. Complete solitude and utter desolation were it not that in the distance, rising above the trees, could be seen a slight wisp of blue wood smoke almost obscured by the mist proclaiming that even in the midst of this wilderness of forest, mountain and sea, cosy fires burned to welcome the wanderers home. The short winter’s day was fast drawing to a close; the note of the sea birds’ cry had changed. No longer was the search for food possible; their cry was the roosting cry as they settled to rest in sheltered corners of the shore. Down the steep sides of Cruachan echoed the sharp bark of the shewolf gathering the pack before setting out to their nightly hunting ground. The searchers continued on their quest until it seemed almost impossible to see what they sought when suddenly a shout from the boy brought his companion running to his side. He was on his hands and knees pulling furiously at a length of copper chain, which was wedged tightly beneath a large stone. By their combined efforts assisted by their cromacks, the stone was moved and the boy seizing the chain sprang to his feet dancing in a paroxysm of delight shouted, "Amadan was right; Amadan is always right." The man watched him until the boy tired and obtaining possession of the chain examined it carefully. Turning to the lad, he laid his hand on his shoulder saying, "Amadan is truly right. They were here last night in their curved birlinn (small galley) and this chain was forged in the fires of Crin. What the Crinach seek on the bleak shores of Etive I know not." The boy, or Amadan as we shall call him in future, resumed his queer dancing capers with an excited look on his face yelling as he danced about. "Amadan was right; Amadan is always right." He continued this until from sheer exhaustion he sank on the shore where he lay with his head cupped in his hands and his legs drawn up below him. The Watcher stood by for some time looking down at the boy and then looking up at the sky and noting the fast approaching night, turned on his heels saying, "Amadan, its time we were on the road home." Amadan silently obeyed and followed The Watcher who set the pace heading for a tall fir tree which stood on the shore edge. As they approached the tree they were greeted by a low growl and immediately a huge deerhound arose from a clump of bracken and advanced to them wagging his tail. The Watcher patted his back murmuring, "Lead on Dealas, my boy." And the dog acting as guide led his companions into the forest. Here we must leave them meantime to find their way home.
Chapter 2 The Clachan of Invernodha
In order to more understand, as near as possible, the time in which my tale opens it is necessary for me to make a slight historical reference. Argyll had for many years been divided between the Dalriadic Scots and Picts of Ancient Caledonia. The MacIntyres, who had settled in Glenodha came from the Isle of Sleat as the ancient legend tells us and had thrown in their lot with Lorna, who was King or Chieftain of the district now know as Lorne. This district under the wise rule of Lorna had long enjoyed peace except for a few tribal fights. Protected from invasion by the lonely glens, wild corries and impassable mountains, the people of Argyll were able to pursue their native occupations without help or hindrance. The Picts, who were in strong occupation of Lochaber, were the only troublesome element and the men of Glenodha had often been called to assist their neighbours and blood brothers, the McIans of Glencoe, in keeping them in check. For some time past, as soon as spring came, melting the snows and transforming the bogs and marshes into glorious pastureland, strange rumours had been carried into the glens by wandering minstrels. These rumours came from every quarter. A minstrel, who had been entertaining for many weeks in the north castle of Beregonium, told how men were kept continually under arms there; the same was said of Dunstaffnage where the King ordered constant watch to be kept. The cause of these rumours and continual alertness was the alwayspresent fear of invasion from the sea, the only side for which their land had not been provided by nature. Shangi ships had been seen on the locks and firths, so these stories went. Parties had been seen coming ashore and exploring the land where it was possible. It was said that some were heavily armed while others, who came in small ships, carried no armour and tried to make friends with people whom they met. It was also said that these unarmed men were clad in robes like Druids and had travelled unto the far north to where the great King Bude of the Picts lived and that the great King had welcomed them because of the wondrous stories they told of a god above all other gods. He had given them the Isle of Ey to settle on. Other tales were told of warlike men who landed from huge ships with many oars destroying all they found, killing the people, and carrying off their sheep, goats, and cattle. Loch Etive might attract these people, protected as it was by its fierce rapids at Connel. On the next day in peaceful Glenodha, the yellow or dappled glen, shouldered by Mighty Cruachan but exposed to the sea except for its forest and bog, the whole clachan of Invernodha was agog with excitement. On the evening before, Dhol Alister known as the Amadan because of his peculiar ways and deformity accompanied by The Watcher whose real name was Donald MacIntyre or ‘Dhol Fiach’, rushed home to the village with an alarming story about how, when they had been in pursuit of a badger which had been annoying some of the penned sheep during the night before, they had chased it to the sea shore and on arriving there, they had sighted a mighty ship approaching the shore near the huge rock know as Clach a Bhat and that many Shangi men had come ashore from her, headed by an old greybearded man who wore long flowing robes carrying a cross before him which glittered in the moonlight as if it were on fire. A gale of Nor’West wind had been raging and during the time the party were ashore their boat was in danger of being smashed. Seeing this, the old man shouted an order and half the party remained beside the boat to watch it while the remainder proceeded along the shore, the veteran leader in front singing a queer chanting song as they went. Dealas, Amadan’s faithful friend and constant companion, alarmed by this queer sight, broke away from his master and rushed after them giving vent to the deepthroated bray which his kind do when prepared for battle. The strangers, thinking perhaps they were being attacked by wolves and being apparently unarmed, hastily returned to their ship, which even during the short time they were ashore had become almost unmanageable because of the increasing storm and huge waves. They had put ashore an anchor chain which had become entangled in the rocks and before they could get away one of the party had to break it with a hammer. As they left the shore battling against the storm, the old man stood in the bow with the cross uplifted encouraging his men to keep singing their mournful song while they strained at the oars. As soon as they were out of sight, Amadan and Watcher had searched the seashore until they found the remains of the chain and now brought it with them as evidence. In modern times a story recited by a halfwit such as Amadan would have been treated as a joke, even though it was corroborated by The Watcher, but it has always been different in the Highlands. Those deformed either in brain or body being treated with great respect; and it was often believed that their infirmities were the mark of some fairy, which had been present at their birth. When the then Chief of the MacIntyres, Patrick Ruadh by name, heard their story he gave orders calling together the chief men of the clan early the following morning. The Clachan of Invernodha was centred on a rising piece of ground in the middle of a huge clearing in the forest. All around it was hidden by the dense forest except on the side of the river Oe which during the rainy season was accustomed to overflow its banks forming a vast bog. From the point of view of defence
no better position could have been chosen; but even these defences were not considered sufficient and a palisade of rough logs had been erected completely around the houses. In the distance, Mighty Cruachan looked down on this scene of solitary grandeur, silent guardian of her sons. The clachan consisted of about forty stone built houses. They were all thatched and had a central chimney. On the highest part of the mound stood an ancient oak tree under whose spreading branches lay a huge flattopped stone. This was the centre of the community and the gathering point of the clan. It was round this tree that early next morning the clan gathered to discuss the report, which had come in the night before. I must leave it to my readers to picture this scene: many a time had these same people gathered here to discuss local gossip or hear the tales of some wandering bard, but as they gathered this morning there was an atmosphere of anxiety everywhere. They collected into small groups and among them moved Amadan looking very important. Talk went on until the chief was seen approaching. There was then a general rush to see who could get nearest the central stone. They made way to allow the chief to gain the vantage point on the stone and on a word from him all was silent. He looked an imposing figure in his rough tartan kilt over six feet in height; he stood and gazed over his people. Placing his hands on the hilt of his drawn sword he spoke to them in a clear audible voice. "My friends, the tale that has been told by Amadan is now known to you all. Strange things are happening in our land and whether those visitors from across the wide waters be friend or foe I know not. As in the past we must defend our lands, wives and children. Just as our ancestors sailed from the distant Isles to settle in our lovely glen, so may these strangers be seeking settlement and it is our duty to ourselves, and our fathers, to protect our lands. I know every son of an Saoir can be depended on." He raised his heavy sword and kissed it; every man following his example; and afterwards lifting their swords on high shouted, "We will." The shouts of approval having died down the chief signalled to someone at the back of the gathering and immediately a very aged man with a long grey beard started to push his way forward. He was almost bent double with age and helped himself along with a stout stick. It was easily seen that he had the respect of all the clan. As they moved aside to let him pass they made a slight bow, which he acknowledged by a friendly smile. He was too crippled to mount unaided the stone where the chief stood and had to be assisted. He took up his position beside the Chief, who on seeing him safely at his side with sword still upraised spoke again to his followers saying, "My men, in times of stress it has always been our custom to seek the advice of those made wise by long experience. None were ever more fitted to advise than Aoidan Mac Ian and we now seek his neverfailing guidance." He placed his hand reverently on the old man’s shoulder taking a pace back as he did so. The old man looked around and spoke in the attitude of a father speaking to his children. "I can say little as yet. My advice is as heretofore; avoid conflict where possible. Nothing as yet can be done but watch. Watch by day, watch by night, watch even when you sleep. No harm can befall the constant watcher. Choose he who can watch behind him even when he looks in front like the Red Fose (Face) of Ben Glass." He raised his hand to his head with a tired expression, but a few seconds later raised his eyes to mighty Cruachan gazing intently at the distant snowcovered peaks lost in thought. He remained this way for some time and no one in the gathered throng attempted to disturb his reverie. Still with eyes on the snow covered ben his demeanour seemed to change. He appeared as if trying to straighten out his twisted body raising his stick he pointed to the distant hills, and as if gasping for breath shouted, "All is clear. I have seen on the distant corries a vision of he who shall guard our homes. He comes pursued by wolves, but none dare draw near because he watches their coming pursuit while he unerringly treads the rough mountain paths. I see the Sionnag Ruadh, the red fose of Glenoe; he is your ‘Watcher.’ He has already seen the strangers and will watch for their coming. I call on Alister Mac Dhol, already known as the Watcher, to guard us." There was a stir in the gathering after this long speech and a lot of shouting of approval as a man, whom we could easily recognise as the one whom we had previously heard about when searching the seashore, moved forward. He climbed to where the chief stood, drew his sword, kissed it, and spoke as follows,
"My Chief and my clansmen. The onerous duties you have given me I will do my best to fulfil. I shall watch while watching can be done, but this I ask (crave) of you, that my friend and companion, Mac Aonas and his faithful Dealas, may also watch with me. They have seen and they know just as I have." "It shall be." they unanimously shouted and, everything being apparently settled to their satisfaction, started to wend their way back to their daily tasks, while Amadan M’Aonas with his huge deerhound moved with the Watcher slowly towards the forest.
Chapter 3 Preparation
The night cry of the MacIntyres from very ancient times was the screech of the female owl and it was part of every boys training to be able to imitate the cry of the bird faithfully, and to such an exactitude were they able to reproduce this call, only those who knew the peculiar note could distinguish the imitator from the real. The habit of the bird was carefully studied. They noted the peculiar resting cry, also the long drawn out cry of alarm and used these cries to their own use. The danger call at night could be used to guide parties through the forest and bog. If danger was imminent, the call was repeated often so that the clan could judge when haste was necessary. The call was often timed by counting the beat of the heart: twenty beats between each call. This method of night calls was adopted by many other Highland clans, though each kept its own peculiar code a secret and as it was seldom necessary to use this signalling system except in cases of peril, the night cry of an owl was always looked on as an ill omen. In later days, this was used by the Christian missionaries to further their teaching. They said that when the owls screech it was the friendly St. Peter giving a warning of approaching death. By this, St. Peter had become a real live patron to the Highlanders. In times of danger the news was sent from clachan to clachan, which left each little settlement responsible for its own safety. Vantage points were manned by day and night and at night the chief could tell whether his watchers were alert by using the high pitched breeding call of the owl, which demanded a response from each sentry. When all had replied, the Chief could rally his whole clan in a very short time by repeating the call twice over to the beat of twenty. The huge oak in the centre of Invernodha was the clan's gathering point and very often when calling the clan by day, a fire letting out a huge volume of smoke was used. On the sea shore the main feature was the tall fir tree, which I have already mentioned. On the topmost branches of this tree there had been built a platform with a small hut on it. It was screened by the thick branches; so that it was invisible from below but had a full view of the seashore for several miles. This was one of the clan's most important vantage points as it guarded the easiest road from Lochaber to Lorne along the coast. It was from this direction that the MacIntyres always expected danger to come. The platform was known as Lighcure or the watch house and the tree as Croabh an Ligh aire. It was to this tree that the Watcher made his way accompanied by his friends. Silently they moved along apparently thinking of the arduous and responsible duties they had before them. They had only gone a short distance when they were met by the Chief, who had hurried after them. He was rather out of breath when he joined them and asked them to sit down on a nearby heap of stones while he spoke to them. "Never," he said, "in the history of my people has greater trust and responsibility been placed on two men, than is now placed on you both. I have sent word through the glen that all watch mounds are to be manned. I have sent word to the M’Ians and the Appin Stewarts so they will watch and guard their own. I trust you both as I would trust my own son had the fate granted me one." "We know our work. The watch will be well kept, but tell us Chief, who shall be the oak tree watcher? Will the Chief himself watch out homes in Invernoe?" "That, my men," replied the Chief, "is why I have hurried after you, because Shuna (Sheena), my daughter, knowing how I miss a son’s help wishes to be daughter and son to me and has taken a vow that no one but she will watch by the oak tree. She is a true daughter of the clan and I have no doubt that she will do a man’s work well, but the weather is wild and the heavy winter snows are coming and the task is too great even for a brave woman. I ask you to watch by the oak tree and leave ‘Lighaire’ to some other clansman." "I mark your words, Chief," said the Watcher, "I would obey you were times more peaceful. You are filled with anxiety because of your daughter's vow but if it is the will of Shuna to watch, Clan an Saoir can rest in
peace; she will not tire or feel the cold blast of winter storms. Her true heart will bear her up through all storm and stress." The Chief looked up at The Watcher and seemed about to speak when Amadan, who up till now had not joined in the conversation, suddenly exclaimed, "Chief, our Shuna need not be alone. My Dealas will guard her. He follows no one except Shuna and me. He will be her constant companion should I tell him." "Thank you, my boy," said the chief, "I am content. I leave all in your hands." He arose and moved away. When he had gone some distance towards the clachan he was joined by a tall slim young girl who seeing The Watcher and Amadan still sitting on the cairn, waved her hand to them with a free and easy grace. She took the chief’s arm and escorted him toward the largest house in the village. The Watcher returned her wave and remained gazing at her until she had disappeared. Then turning to Amadan he said, "There she goes, the finest maiden in Glenoe. I would that she might look kindly on me." "Never fear," said Amadan. "Never fear, my friend. Little you know how kindly she thinks of you because there’s not another man in the clan like you." "Aye Aye", said the Watcher, "that may be. We’ll see, we’ll see, but its time we got to work. You had better go to the chief and see about food and coverings for Lighaire. Tell him we’ll report each day and that we just want enough food for one day. I’ll off to the shore and will see you there when you have everything ready."
Chapter 4 Introduces the ladies
In a central position of the village of Invernodha, stood the Chief’s house, easily distinguished from the others by its size and by the fact that it was the only house surrounded by a dry, stone wall. All the other houses, of which there were about forty, looked alike, built of dry stone with turfs of earth used as mortar and thatched with rushes. One thing was noticeable, that the doors of all the houses looked towards the centre of the village and rough stone walls connected the outer ones this providing a second line of defence should the defenders be unable to hold the outside palisades. Rough pathways of flat stones were laid between the houses, which gave the place an appearance of cleanliness. Yet a third line of defence consisted of a number of rough stone pens, which occupied the centre of the clachan. These were used to pen up the cattle during winter or when danger threatened. Since their arrival in Glennodha, the MacIntyres had become famous for their splendid herd of white cattle, descendants from the animal, which had led them to this glen. They had therefore devised this very secure system of protecting their herd. Wild winter weather had flooded most of the lower part of the glen and a number of cattle strayed amongst the houses unwilling to go further a field in search of fodder. Amadan left his friend and made straight for the Chief’s house where he was always a welcome visitor and without ceremony pushed aside a rough curtain which gave entrance to the main room where he found the chief warming his hands in front of the central fire. "Come away in, my boy," he said, "it’s you should be a proud lad today, to have been chosen by The Watcher." "I am," was the boy’s reply. "I’ll learn many a thing and hear many a story while I’m out with him." "Aye, that your will," said the Chief, "and take heed because The Watcher knows his task. But what might you be seeking?" "I seek a word with Shuna," answered Amadan. "Where might she be?" There came an immediate reply from a corner of the room, which was in some darkness, "And what might you be seeking from me; surely you and your great Watcher do not need my help."
Pulling her plaid over her shoulder, Shuna joined them round the fire and gave Amadan a friendly pat on the shoulders. In the semidarkness of the room one was immediately struck by her handsome appearance. She had a magnificent head of golden hair, which looked like gold as the light of the burning log fire glinted on it. It fell in a luxuriant mass over her shapely shoulders reaching far below her waist. Her skin was fair and her eyes blue and she had an easy engaging manner. At the time of my story, she was just seventeen years old and was considered the belle of the clachan and was known to all as the Golden Sunbeam. Amadan, who worshiped her, called her Greine. The Watcher and she were never separated in their younger days, although he was about ten years her senior. She had looked on him as her big brother and protector, but as she grew up into womanhood, the Watcher’s affection had gradually grown into a stronger passion. He never allowed this to be known by word or look, though to Amadan, the fact was well known. He who knew no fear in the face of his foes was a coward in this direction. He would have given his all to know if his love was even in the smallest degree returned. He who was considered the sharpestwitted warrior in the village; he who knew the hidden tracks through the hills and could track the bear and the wolf to their secret lairs, but he could not mashie up enough courage in love. His great fear was that by word or action he might destroy the lifelong companionship, which had existed between Shuna and himself. As time went by and he was no nearer the solution of his dilemma, he began more and more to confide in Amadan. He began to withdraw from her company depending on his friend for all news of her doings. 1
1. N.B. Unfortunately, this is the end of the manuscript that is in my possession. I can’t tell if this is all there is, just all that was in my father’s possession, or it was as far as Aleck had progressed when he sent it to my father. It was written in long hand and was at the end of the materials which constituted Aleck’s history of Clan MacIntyre. I will try to locate the rest because I want to know what happened. Even for those of us who have been to Glenoe, this story brings Glen Noe to life in a way that seeing it or simple history cannot). MLM
The Two Sons of Chief Duncan
In the 1400s or earlier, Duncan, Chief of the MacIntyres at Glen Noe, had two sons who were in some way implicated in the death of a Campbell in Glenorchy. The two sons were Duncan Og (heir apparent) and Donald Fiach (next in line). Much to the Chief’s sorrow, their punishment was exiled with their families to Glenorchy, on the other side of Ben Cruachan. The Chief was permitted to visit his sons and grandchildren but they could not visit him at Glenoe. Upon the death of Old Duncan, his eldest son, Duncan Og, was allowed to return to Glenoe claim his place as Chief. Much to his dismay, his wife, and five children had to remain behind in Glenorchy as hostages against his good behavior. This so angered Duncan Og that he devised a scheme to return his wife and children to Glen Noe where they belonged. The plan required the complete confidence of his wife, his brother, his brother’s wife, and every MacIntyre clansmen in Glen Noe and Glenorchy. Over the years, they conspired to fake the death of each of their five children, by substituting a child who had recently died in Glen Noe. It was an unhappy, but normal, circumstance in those days, when children of all ages could die suddenly after a brief illness. The death of a MacIntyre child in Glen Noe would be unknown to Campbells living in Glenorchy on the other side of Cruachan because there were no Campbells living in Glenoe. Prior to each faked death, late in the evening, Duncan Og would cross over the pass at Lairg Noe, near the top of Ben Cruachan for his usual visit his family in Glenorchy. Under his plaid was concealed the corpse of a child! The next day was the funeral and that night, in the darkness, Duncan Og returned to Glen Noe with the child, who the Campbells thought he had buried that morning! Five times Donald Og’s wife reacted with great sorrow, as any mother would, at the new grave of one of her children, and five times Donald Og carried his human cargo both ways over the pass. When the last child died, Lord Glenorchy felt pity for Donald Og’s wife and allowed her to return to Glen Noe to console her husband, who had no heir and was unable to father another. Little did Glenorchy know that their five children were alive and well, being fostered by families in Glen Noe where the secret was well kept. It came to pass that Duncan Og died, without issue, or so it seemed. To maintain the deceit, his brother, Donald Fiach, took over the chiefship. Donald Fiach was now allowed to return to Glen Noe but, as happened to Duncan Og before him, his wife and family had to remain in Glenorchy as hostages. The secret was safe until the death of Donald Fiach. Remember, he had become chief only because his brother, Duncan Og, apparently had no living heirs. Thus, the heir to the chiefship was the eldest son of Donald Fiach, who by now, was an adult. But Duncan Og’s widow had kept alive the hope that by the time Donald Fiach died, there would be a new Lord Glenorchy who would have forgotten or forgiven the past indiscretions and would permit her first born son to inherit his rightful place as "Glenoe." However, the widow of Donald Fiach, having spent years of exile in Glenorchy without her husband and keeping her brotherinlaw’s secret, was not about to have her son give up the chiefship. Duncan Og’s widow was just as adamant. It is not known if anyone told Lord Glenorchy or if they merely threatened to tell, but what is known is that soon after the death of Donald Fiach, many MacIntyre families left Glen Noe and resettled in Badenoch, or perhaps Lochaber. It has been said that the old name for Tyndrum was "place of sorrow" for it was there that the MacIntyres lost all hope of becoming a major clan.
The Snowball and the Fatted Calf
Before recorded history, there was a time when the MacIntyre Chiefs were required to give a payment to the Campbells of Glenorchy, in return for being left alone at Glenoe. The payment was given at a ceremony each Midsummer’s Day, which is June 24th, close to the summer solstice, which is June 21st, or 22nd. Midsummer’s Day was one of the days when people traditionally would pay their rent or other obligations. The payment was a snowball and a fatted white calf. There is a possibility that this was actually a death duty since a calf is the normal payment for a serious offense. Perhaps it was related to the incident at Tyndrum mentioned earlier in the story of about Chief Duncan and his two sons. The snowball was obtained from the corries 1 on the side of Ben Cruachan that never saw the sun and where even in late June, snow can still be found. The white fatted calf came from the MacIntyres prized herd. These tokens were delivered to the Campbells at a stone, just below the majestic peaks of Ben
1. Deep clefts in the mountain side.
Cruachan at the top of the pass leading from Glenoe to Glenorchy. To this day, this stone is called Clach anLoaigh Bhiata, the Stone of the Fatted Calf. The stone is quite remarkable. Not only is it large, but it also appears to have been brought there by men and then carved into its present shape. It has broken into three parts, which, it put back together would form a rectangular box shape. It may have been one large stone but just as likely it was three large stones placed together as one large object. Two parts are at a lower level and tilted after what appears to have been erosion or sinking of the ground beneath them. The largest section appears to be in two parts, both perfectly flat, one on top of the other. It is possible that this was an altar, erected by Stone Age people in the far distant past. It could have even been used for sacrificial offerings to the gods, who they probably felt resided in Ben Cruachan. It is hard to imagine how so large a stone or stones, arrived at the very top of the pass and the effort involved in carving them with other stones. It has been said that the MacIntyres continued to bring the calf and snowball to this place every year until 1737.
The Piper’s Warning
James Graham, fifth Earl and first Marquis of Montrose, was a brilliant military tactician who in 1644 defeated Campbell of Argyll and his Covenanting Army at Inverlochay after ravaging his territory. When Glen Noe was spared because of the relationship between the MacIntyres and the MacDonalds, the MacIntyre Chief's favorite piper was permitted to go with Montrose' celebrated commander, Alexander MacDonald, better known as Coll Ciotach or Coll Kitto. He was known by the nickname Col Kitto, which means lefthanded, even though he wasn’t lefthanded. It was his father's nickname and he was called that in honor of his father. In 1645, The Earl of Argyll commissioned Campbell of Calder to expel the MacDonalds from Islay, where Colkitto had retreated with his depleted army. Calder levied troops from all of the branches of Clan Campbell and assisted by the MacDougalls of Lorn expelled Coll's smaller forces from the Castle of Dunadd, which was then razed to the ground. Coll Kitto retreated again to the Castle of Dunyveg, where he was again attacked. Under the cover of night, Coll escaped by boat to seek assistance in Kintyre and Ireland, leaving Dunyveg in charge of his mother. Discovering this, Calder likewise left for reinforcements. There is a tradition that a woman commander should be opposed by another woman, so Calder left his troops under the command of the Lady of Dunstaffnage. While both male commanders were away, the Lady of Dunstaffnage discovered that a wooden pipe supplied the Castle with water and forced a surrender by cutting off the supply of water. With no outward sign of the change in command, a perfect trap was laid for Coll's return. In those days, piping was a greatly respected profession and so, while others were kept as prisoners below in the Castle of Dunyveg, the MacIntyre piper was granted freedom within the castle. Recognizing a galley in the distance as belonging to his master Coll, he asked permission to play a piece of music, which he had composed on the misfortune of his party. The request being granted, he stood on the battlements of the castle and played a Piobaireachd just as Coll was entering the bay. Coll, hearing the tune and recognizing what had happened, at once put about and escaped. This tune, now high, now low, and full of menace, is known as Piobaireachd dhun Naomhaig or `The Piper's Warning to his Master'. MacIntyre was a master piper and his deliberate mutilation of a known tune was sufficient warning to Coll Kitto MacDonald that something was wrong in fact that Dunyveg Castle had been captured. It did not take the lady commander long to discover what had happened and that with Coll's escape the trap had failed. On the following day she made the MacIntyre piper play tunes of the merriest kind as he walked before her on the top of a nearby hill, and then she ordered his fingers to be cut off so that never again might he give a similar warning. It is said that this hill, which is the highest in Islay, has from that day been known as `The Hill of the Bloody Hand'. A similar story has been told about the capture of the Castle of Dunaverty by General Leslie of the Covenanting Army at about this period with the consequent massacre of all of those taken prisoner. Coll Kitto’s father, the elder Coll Kitto was captured at Dunyveg and in 1647 was hanged at Dunstaffnage from the mast of his own galley, Montrose's initial successes had not won permanent victory, and by 1647 the superior forces of the Campbells had gained the upper hand.
Hate and Love Between the MacIntyres and Campbells
The MacIntyres and the Campbells have a long history of mistrust and marriage. One might think these make strange bedfellows but in the Highlands, they were like two peas in a pod. If one clan mistrusted their neighboring clan, there were three choices – constant fighting or keeping hostages. The latter was in the form of fostering each other’s children, and intermarriage. The Campbells also used marriage as a way of inheriting land. Of the next four stories told by Alexander James MacIntyre of Inveraray , three are about mistrust and one about marriage. Never Again. Chief Donald Fiach of Glenoe, from a previous story had the onerous duty of personally delivering to the Campbells, the tribute of a snowball and calf. On one such occasion, ". . . when driving the calf to the appointed place, it got very badly stuck in the peat bog. In rescuing it (temporarily 1 ), Donald himself, got as badly covered with peat as the calf. When they arrived at Clach an Larigh Bhiata they were in such a mess that the Campbells who were waiting to receive the tribute, laughingly said that they had come to receive a white calf from a MacIntyre, not a black one from a son of the Devil. Donald looked at the Campbells with a scowl on his face, tore open his tunic, shouting as he exposed his chest, "Black MacIntyre is as white beneath as snow covered Cruachan is black beneath. Turning on his heels he never again delivered the tribute to the Campbells." A Party with a Purpose. Although the MacIntyres had free access to Glenorchy, they didn’t give the same access to Glenoe to the Campbells of Glenorchy. So the Campbells, probably with good reason, assumed that the MacIntyres might be hiding something from them ,and they also seemed to cozy up to the Stewarts of Appin, a Campbell enemy, who lived across Loch Etive. For this reason, Lord Glenorchy was accustomed at times to sending a spy on some pretense or other into Glenoe, a fact that was well known to the MacIntyres. Once the chosen spy was a Campbell, who was smitten with a Glenoe lassie. In order to ingratiate himself with his sweetheart, the young man told Glenoe the real reason for his visit. Of course, Glenoe already knew this and Glenorchy’s fear that the MacIntyres were too chummy with the Stewarts. To use this situation to his advantage, he invited as many Stewarts as he could to Glenoe for a ceilidh 2 that night. He took the opportunity to lavish praise on Glenorchy. Of course, the Stewarts had been well appraised beforehand that the MacIntyre chief would do this. The spy dutifully went back to Glenorchy and honestly gave a glowing report that temporarily set his fears at rest. Music as Insult. The Campbells were naturally suspicious of any visits between groups of MacIntyres. As told by Alexander James MacIntyre, "On a certain evening, several of the Glenorchy MacIntyres made up their minds to visit their friends in Cladich. They had not long started when Glenorchy (Campbell) was informed that several members of Clan MacIntyre were on the move. He sent several of his men to stop them, with the result that a free fight ensued, but the MacIntyres kept to the highway and had a jolly evening with their clansmen in Cladich. On their way home, they were headed by a piper who hurled defiance at the Campbells by playing Gabhaidh Sinn an Rathad Mor (MacIntyre March)." Marriage Keeps the Boar at Bay. Despite these stories of mistrust and dislike, the facts show that, at times the relationship between MacIntyres and Campbells was based on marriage. The MacIntyres of Glenoe and the Campbells of Barcaldine both attended church at Ardchattan Priory. One might assume that before, after, and perhaps even during church services, their children played hide and seek in the beautiful gardens and, heaven forbid, in the grave yard of their ancestors. In this way, the children would naturally become friends, perhaps later on lovers, and, if the circumstances were right, they might be suitable marriage partners. The last did occur on more than one occasion, specifically, the marriage of Duncan (I) of Glenoe to Mary Campbell, younger daughter of the 1st Lord Barcaldine and two generations later, the marriage of married James (III) of Glenoe to Ann Campbell, the daughter of a younger son of the 4th Lord Barcaldine. Both of these marriages can be considered as partially due to a desire to maintain peaceful relations between Clan MacIntyre and a branch of Clan Campbell. James III was also connected to the Campbells of Glenorchy by the Earl of Breadalbane sponsorship of his education. This may have played a part in his not fighting for Prince Charles against the Campbells and King George. Finally, James (V) of Glenoe married Ann Campbell, a relative of the Barcaldine Campbells although it was not done to cement clan relations.
1. The rescue was temporary because the butchered the calf on the Stone and had a barbecue. 2. A Scottish party with song, dance and storytelling.
Clach Nodha and the Glen Coe Massacre
The story of the massacre of Glencoe has been told and retold but it deserves telling again because of the aftermath connection with the MacIntyres, which involves the Clach Nodha, the magical stone given to a MacIntyre by a grateful Viking prisoner. In August of the year 1691, when Duncan I was the MacIntyre Chief, a Campbell Chief, the Earl of Breadalbane was given the task of bribing the important Highland chiefs with English gold so they would recognize King William as ruler of Scotland, instead of James II, the Stuart King. James II had fled the country to take refuge at the court of Louis XIV of France. All the chiefs had until January first to make their submission of loyalty to the crown. Apparently, Glenoe made his submission on time. However, Alexander MacIan, the Chief of the MacDonalds of Glencoe, had territory which bordered with the Campbells and there was naturally was a longstanding feud between them and perhaps some cattle rustling. The old MacDonald Chief was determined to wait until the last minute before making a submission. The weather was unusually severe and it took him some time before he got to Ft. William. However, the official there said that he had no power to receive his submission because Glencoe was not in his jurisdiction. So the Chief, called MacIan, had to go back through the snow in the dead of winter to try to reach Inveraray, the county seat of Argyllshire, before the deadline. On his return he was delayed again at Barcaldine Castle, a Campbell stronghold and he didn't even stop at his home in Glencoe, where the MacIan MacDonald’s numbered 200, at the most. Glencoe is formed by the River Coe, which falls into Loch Leven. Starting at the top of the same mountain but going in the southerly direction is Glen Etive down which flows the River Etive that empties at the head of Loch Etive. The first of January had already passed by the time McIan reached Inveraray but the Sheriff there, seeing that he was trying to comply with the spirit of the statute, accepted his oath of submission and asked the military parties not to annoy him. So, MacIan returned home confident that the government to which he had sworn allegiance would now protect him. He even called the Clan together and told them they should not give cause for offense. This was quite important because it was his nextdoor neighbor, the Earl of Breadalbane, who bore him ill will, because of MacIan’s cattle raids. What the old Chief did not know was the extent of the Earl's vindictiveness. In the preceding fall, Breadalbane hoped that by holding out, MacDonald of Glencoe would give a legal excuse for the Campbells to ravage his land. Breadalbane, was particularly incensed because he suspected that the McIan and the other Highland chiefs, had accepted King Williams's gold but still owed allegiance in their hearts to James II, and he was probably right. So he was looking for an example that would be so severe as to terrify the others, and the little band of MacDonalds of Glen Coe seems to be the best choice. The Secretary of State of Scotland, the Master of Stair, Sir John Dalrymple, sharing the feelings of the Earl of Breadalbane, deleted from the records the oath that MacIan had taken and put in the record these words: "As for MacIan of Glencoe, and that tribe, if they can be welldistinguished from the rest of the Highlanders, it will be proper, for the vindication of public justice, to extirpate that set of thieves". Later the Secretary of State, in letters to military officers, took such a personal interest in the execution plans that he indicated that the winter was the proper time to maul them ‘in the long dark nights’ which was the only season when the Highlanders could not carry off their wives, children and cattle to the mountains, and no constitution could stand the freezing weather. His instructions continued, "to plunder their lands,
or drive off their cattle, would be only to render them desperate; they must be all slaughtered and the manner of execution must be sure, secret, and effectual". So, before the end of January 1692 a party of the Earl of Argyll's regiment, commanded by Captain Campbell of Glenlyon, came to take up quarters in Glencoe under the pretext of relieving the garrison at Ft. William where the quarters were overcrowded. They were received with hospitality as of friendly disposition, since Alister MacDonald, one of the sons of the Chief of MacDonalds of Glencoe was married to a niece of Glenlyon, who was in command of the party of soldiers. The Clan members were defenseless, having assumed that the soldiers might have a commission to disarm them, they hid their weapons out at a distance. After enjoying the hospitality of the Clan for some 14 or 15 days, Glenlyon received his instructions (see left), which were to put to the sword all persons under 70 and not to be troubled with prisoners. Major Robert Duncanson asked that they fall upon the rebels (men of Glencoe) at 4 o'clock in the morning of February 13, at which time he would be at the eastern passes out of Glencoe with 400 men prepared to intercept any who had escaped the fire and the sword, the gun and the dirk. The murders were carried out on schedule. The aged Chief was killed in his bed and others, fleeing their burning huts, halfnaked in the winter morning of darkness, in a storm, the worst the Highlands had known in many years, had to make their way through mountain passes for 12 miles before they could reach any kind of help and protection. Fortunately, the heavy snowfall delayed Major Duncanson and he did not arrive with his 400 men at the eastern passes of Glencoe until 11 o'clock, when the major portion of the people had already escaped. The men found only one MacDonald left in Glencoe an old man of 80 whom they killed. Even after the passage of almost 300 years this foul deed is still execrated as murder under trust by government order. The penalty under Scot's Law for murder under trust carried the cumulative penalties of hanging, beheading, disemboweling, and quartering. But after a threeyear inquiry, none was brought to justice. The Wax Museum in Edinburgh, Scotland, has a tableau of MacIan of Glencoe shot as he arose from bed.
1 From the Unpublished Manuscript of Alexander James MacIntyre we hear that the refugees from the massacre were trying to escape through the worst blizzard in many years. The MacIntyres of Appin and Loch Etive opened their doors and gave hospitality and shelter to those who had escaped. They sheltered all the stronger men in a cave near Dalness and shared their homes, as small as they were, with the women, children, and older folks. Lady Glencoe, as the wife of the Chief was known, had been brutally mistreated by a Campbell soldier who tore her rings from her fingers with his teeth. Although not strong, she escaped across the hill passes, through snowwreaths and swirling drift eventually arriving in Dalness, at the head of Loch Etive.
A rescue party made up of about 20 MacIntyres, Stewarts and MacDonalds was sent out to the head of Glen leac nan bhuidhe and were able to help about 30 to safety including Lady Glencoe and an infant who was found on a big stone near the burnside on the only part free from snow. The Clach Nodha was used successfully to heal Lady Glencoe's septic fingers. The baby boy found on the stone was adopted by Lady Glencoe and was called Donald MacIntyre MacDonald. One in the rescue party was captured in the glen where they were on watch and he was taken to Inveraray, where everything was done to him to make him divulge the aid the people of Appin had given the MacDonalds of Glencoe. He refused. It is said that he was hung, on what charges nobody knows.
1 The Fairy Dart of Glen Noe
There may be something to the mystical nature of Glen Noe, Ben Cruachan, and Loch Etive. After all, wasn’t this where Deirdre of the Sorrows and the three sons of Uisnech lived happily until, by a tragic ruse, they were lured back to their death in their native Scotia? Wasn’t this where the "Stone of Destiny", the Lia Fail, was first brought to Scotland? Wasn’t this were the spirit first kept the MacIntyres from entering Glen Noe and then led the white cow to where she should lie down? And then there was the Clach Nodha. But there was yet another magical stone to grace Glen Noe. A man by the name of Dr. Stewart was directed to find an unnamed gentleman in Oban who possessed a relic with an interesting story attached to it. When Dr. Stewart saw it, the relic was in a small iron casket the size of a snuffbox with a carved lid. The box was opened by pressing a spring. Inside was a flint arrow lying on a bed of frayed and faded brown silk. It was creamy grey in color like Ballachulish stone but of the tangless variety with a nosserated head. He carefully took it out. The base of the dart had a hole in it with a small silver ring attached. Through the ring was a faded dirty orange ribbon that must have been bright scarlet when it was new. The relic was carefully replaced, the lid closed, and the owner commenced to tell this story. About the year 1700, in the time of Ian Splagach (splayfooted John) second Earl of Breadalbane, there lived at the head of Glenoe a Patrick MacIntyre who was one of the Earl’s foresters. One fine summer’s day, Patrick’s wife, who was a MacGregor, was in a lonely corrie on the back of Ben Cruachan milking her goats. Because her pails were full and the heat was oppressive, she sat down to rest and fell asleep. After a considerable time, she was awakened by something cold on her bosom. She was afraid that it might be a poisonous serpent or dease (newt or elf) and started to pluck it away when lo! it proved to be no living creature but a very splendid "saighead or sìthiche" or Fairy Dart, the same one you have just examined. They were all superstitions then and many still are, although they would not admit it. She had no doubt that the Fairy Dart was a gift to her from a benevolent fairy and she was so convinced that she completely recovered from an ailment that had troubled her for years. I should tell you that soon after the Dart came into her possession she had sewn it up in a square red cloth and suspended from a ribbon or string worn constantly around her neck. It was covered by her neckerchief or dress so that only members of her family and a few intimate friends knew of it. It was however under the following circumstances that the already widely known, "Dart of Glenoe" reached its pinnacle of fame. One day while hunting in the forest, Lord Breadalbane took occasion to tell MacIntyre that he was in a state of great anxiety about Lady Breadalbane’s health. She had for some time been out of sorts suffering from an insidious disease which the doctors did not seem to understand. MacIntyre was of course very sorry to hear of her ladyship’s illness (she was the Earl’s second wife) and took leave to suggest that perhaps his very own wife might be of some use because many years before she had suffered an illness with similar symptoms. His lordship very readily arranged for an immediate visit of the forester’s wife to the ailing Countess at the Castle of Bealach (Taymouth). What else she did, the tradition sayeth not, but it is certain that she got the Countess to wear the Fairy Dart around her neck. In a few weeks the Countess was fully recovered and much of the credit for her cure, if not all, was attributed to the mysterious virtue of the Fairy Dart talisman of Glenoe. Soon after this, the Countess left for London still wearing the Dart, the virtue of which she fully believed. While in the south she took it to a jeweller and had the silver ring attached to it with the scarlet ribbon. She also had the casket specially made to keep it safe. In due time the Countess sent the talisman back to its proper home in Glenoe with an accompanying present to the forester’s wife of a white faced dun cow of superior size and excellence as a milker. As nearly as I can make out this was about 1710 and well down into the present century the white faced dun cows "Strainal a mhairt on hair Phlar" were in high repute and brought the highest prices whether for grazing or dairying purposes. The repute of the Fairy Dart spread all over Breadalbane and was in constant demand. On such occasions as it was used, it was always returned with some accompanying gift and it became a very valuable possession to its owner. It was a granddaughter to the wife of Glenoe, an aged and childless widow, who on her deathbed bequeathed the talisman and casket to my mother, who always looked on it with respect and preserved it with care although the popular faith in its efficacy had long been on the wane. Only twice, I think, was it called into use whilst in my mother’s possession and never since it came into mine. We don’t know the present whereabouts of the fairy dart. Perhaps it has been returned to the fairies.
The ‘Loss’ of Glenoe
It has been said that at one time the MacIntyre Chief’s owned Glenoe but lost it by being tricked or simply by being foolish. This story has a life of its own and has been a central part of the latter day Clan mythology. This story impressed and angered me so much as a little boy that I insisted on my father telling it over and over. It wasn’t right; it wasn’t fair; and we were tricked. I don’t know what I thought I would do to make it right, but I didn’t want to forget the wrong that was done. My father felt the story was based in fact, but I now have my doubts so will tell it only as the story I was told so often, and still motivates me to find the truth. The MacIntyre chiefs kept Glenoe by paying to the Campbells at Midsummer’s Day, a snowball and a fatted calf. The payment was delivered on the stone of the fatted calf at the top of the pass between Glenoe to Glenorchy, just below the twin peaks of Ben Cruachan. Sometime in the early 1700s, as Midsummer’s Day was approaching, the Earl of Breadalbane made a seemingly harmless and even helpful suggestion to the chief of the MacIntyres. "Wouldn’t it be better to replace the snowball and calf with a few hay pennies?" After all, this old fashion tradition was no longer necessary, and the Chief could lose Glenoe, if by chance, a snowball could not be produced on the appointed day. 1 Foolishly, the Chief agreed, and year after year, the Earl increased the number of pennies (something he couldn't do with the snowball and calf). Eventually, there came a time when the Chief’s descendants could not pay the rent. They had to leave their beloved Glenoe and Scotland forever. They came to America. 2 1 The Earl never saw the calf, because it was butchered on the Stone of the Fatted Calf and eaten by the emissaries of the Campbell and MacIntyre chiefs, perhaps as a belated celebration of an even longer tradition, the Summer Solstice. 2 Perhaps, this is why I have an aversion to the name, Campbell, even though it is prominent in the family of our Chiefs. Of course, this is how feuds are perpetuated from generation to generation, sometimes with fatal consequences.
Return of the MacIntyres: The Movie
In 1976, Glen Noe was part of the West Highland Estates of Lady Wyfold. So that the members of Clan MacIntyre the world over might feel they still have a bit of Glen Noe they could call home, an offer was made to purchase a plot three meters square for that symbolic use. There was no answer, but Lady Wyfold's brother, Lord Wyfold, stated to the press that it would be too difficult to sell a bit from a sheepfold. On April 16, 1976, a family of MacIntyres from the United States and one MacIntyre from Great Britain raised a cairn in memory of past Chiefs on the shore of Loch Etive at Glen Noe. It is so distinctive that it now appears on the Year 2000 Ordnance Survey Map. For the last twentyfive years, the cairn has been increased in size by MacIntyres who visit Glen Noe, and it is always pointed out as a tourist attraction on the boat tour of Loch Etive. There are local people who still remember hearing about this adventure and seeing the boat as it went by the Taynuilt jetty towards Glen Noe. Rosemary and Martin MacIntyre described the trip in an article in the travel section of the Washington Post newspaper. This trip gave impetuous to L. D. MacIntyre to complete the first edition of this book, and the publication of the book gave rise to the renewal of the Clan MacIntyre Association. (Article from the Washington Post)
A Very Special Delivery
When writing the first edition of this book, my father discovered that the magic stone was real and still existed. It was in the possession of Alexander Bell MacIntyre of Dunoon, son of Alexander James MacIntyre of Inveraray. L.D. wanted a photograph of the stone to put in the book, so he wrote to Alexander Bell and then forgot about it. As preparation of the book progressed, the place for the photo of the stone remained empty. The day for the book to be complete was August 8th, 1977, my father’s eightieth birthday. The last day that photo could be place in the book was one week before, August the 1st. As the end of July approached and there was no photograph, we finally had to call Scotland to see if it was going to arrive in time.
Alexander told us that it had been sent many months ago! We thought he meant the photo. There wasn't much else to say or do. If it hadn’t arrived by now, it never would, and it was too late to mail another one. On July 31st a package arrived with Alexander Bell’s return address in Dunoon, Scotland. We were overjoyed when we saw it, although it was battered and torn as if it had been through Hell. You couldn’t miss the message on the front in handwritten, big, bold letters, S A M P L E. It was then that we noticed that the first of a number of unexplained events; the stamps on the package weren’t from the United Kingdom, they were from the United States! We carefully opened the parcel hoping almost sure that the photo was inside and it needed to be, because this was the last day we could send it to the printer. We hadn’t even thought about was we would put in its place. Inside there was a lot of crumpled up paper but so far, no photo. We kept removing the paper and at the bottom was a MIRACLE. Alexander hadn’t sent a photo of the magic stone, he had sent The MAGIC STONE, as a sample and it arrived at the last possible moment. We couldn’t believe it. We immediately rubbed it on everything we could, because it was known to have magical healing powers and who knew what else? In fact, we knew it had magical powers, because how else could that box have survived the journey of many months without the proper stamps, without being registered, and, instead of being insured for how many dollars or pounds as a priceless, irreplaceable relic, it was sent as a sample? Were the United States custom officials suspicious and opened it? Were they embarrassed or dumbfounded by what they found? If this were a sample, was the sender planning to send more stones to the United States? What possible commercial value could there be for a simple stone? Did the Customs officials have meetings about what to do with it? The could send it back, but what reason could they give contraband, an illegal weapon (like David might have used against Goliath)? What happened to the UK stamps? Perhaps Alex used some U.S. stamps and put them on the package and then put the package inside another package that he was sending to a customer in the U. S., with a request to forward it to us? Maybe it was that other package that was opened by Customs officers, and inside they found this package with U.S. stamps? Our minds were racing with questions and our hearts were delirious. Imagine, the real thing, at the last possible moment, a magic stone that came from Norway via Sleat on the Isle of Sky to Glenoe and now to the United States. We immediately took the picture that you can see on page ___ with the ancient mystical stone in L. D. MacIntyre’s hand. We sent it back first class, special delivery, and registered, because we didn’t have as much faith in its miraculous power as Alexander Bell MacIntyre. We never asked him how he sent it, and why it came with U.S. stamps and his return address. In hindsight, we should have saved the package. Anyway, it was too good a story to spoil with the truth, although maybe the truth is even more miraculous. When Alex reads this story he can decide whether to spoil the fun or top it with the magical truth.
Another MacIntyre Miracle The "Wright" Man at the Right Time
In 1984, at the Stone Mountain Highland Games in Georgia, a young man appeared at the Clan MacIntyre tent out of nowhere. Politely, almost timidly, he asked if he could be our champion to compete for the Clan Trophy or what everyone called, the Battle of the Clans. At many Highland Games the clans compete in a tug o’ war, but at Stone Mountain, individual Clan champions are pitted against each other. The competition was only open to amateurs and was the last and most important prize to be awarded in the closing ceremony of the games. This "boy" didn’t look particularly well suited for Highland sports but at least we would have someone representing the MacIntyres. But . . . wait a minute. He has to be a member of Clan MacIntyre and I think he said he had come a long way just to compete for Clan Gunn and they didn’t have a tent this year. To avoid an unwanted feud, we felt obliged to query him about his ancestry. Much to our relief, he was a Gunn on his father’s side but his mother was a Wright . . one of us! The site of the contest was near to our tent and as we gathered to watch, it was clear that our champion wasn’t the tallest or the heaviest by far and he certainly looked inexperienced. In fact, while the others warmed up and practiced, our man ... boy, just watched . . . as if he were on the sidelines getting the gist of it before trying for the first time. And then the contest began. In total disbelief, our boy won the hay toss. What he lacked in size he replaced with grace. The next contest was the weight throw. He hadn’t a chance
Wait . . . could it be? Was that OUR MAN who hurled the weight for a record distance? It couldn’t be! IT IS ! ! ! ! ! ! What’s next? He’s won again!! He’s won everything so far. He seems to have grown in the process, much bigger and stronger than before. Why isn’t everyone here to see this? Only the dreaded caber toss remained. Oh, it’s too heavy and too long. During the practice session, most of the champions had trouble even picking it up, let alone turning it over. Our champion hadn’t even practiced! Each clan champion took his turn and each failed miserably. But then it was the turn of Montgomery’s champion. He was 6 feet tall but looked much shorter because he had short legs and he was four feet wide. This man looked like he was created for the caber toss. Now our champion looked small again. Three times Montgomery, in his purple kilt with black and red stripes, tried and three times, he failed. After the last attempt the disgusted Montgomery had turned away, the caber fell back, and it hit him in the head. He certainly had a hard head because it didn’t seem to faze him. However, to those of us watching it was a bad omen. If Montgomery couldn’t even turn it over, how could our boy have a chance? We hoped he hadn’t seen what happened. Now it was our Champion’s turn. Without evidence of mental or physical preparation . . . without a shiver, shake or even a step . . . our champion picked up the caber and in one fluid motion tossed it like a toothpick, end over end, straight at 12 o’clock. The judge raised both hands high over his head . . . a perfect toss! Just to rub it in he did it again and again . . . three perfect tosses of the caber a m i r a c l e. I swear it’s the truth. Ask Jerry, he was there. It was almost too much to take. I was screaming with joy . . . close to delirium, rolling in the grass, laughing and crying, like a little boy. We held an ad hoc derhbfine (council meeting) and awarded this mighty Wright . . . this MacIntyre (I don’t think we ever got his proper name) an honorary membership and book, signed by the author. After huddling to agree on a dinner invitation, we turned around only to discover that our guestofhonor had gone, as mysteriously as he had come. At the closing ceremony, the massed bands came in, led by the Air Force pipe band dressed in handsome, handmedown Ancient MacIntyre hunting tartan kilts! With the clans assembled and the dignitaries from Scotland in their places on the podium, our very own L. D. MacIntyre, now over 80 years old, was asked to come forward and accept, on behalf of Clan MacIntyres and their champion, the final and most coveted prize of the games, the Clan Trophy. We had had the "Wright" man at the right time, truly another modern MacIntyre miracle.
This is a collection of poetry by, or about, MacIntyres and their homeland. For so small a clan, with such a mysterious and elusive history, we can be justly proud of our wealth of poets and poetry.
1 VERSES ON ARMS
By Duncan MacIntyre of Glenorchy, Gaelic Poet known as `Fair Duncan of the Songs.' (These verses were composed in commemoration of a visit to James MacIntyre of Glenoe, 3rd Chief of Clan MacIntyre, 17271799, and are a tribute to his Armorial Bearings) I I saw today the stone of might, The jewel splendid, Settings of gold around its light In cirque defended; The blazon strong upon the banner Of my kindred, Who firmly clung to their old manner, As use inbred. II A device to traverse danger through By host untiring Men who never dread or panic knew At sound of firing; A clan who often moved amain Where foes did yield, And no return sought save with gain, Or stricken field. III You were once serenely sailing On salt billow, From a stave there sprang a nail in The boat's hollow, With all haste he thrust his thumb Down the cleft, With a hammer struck it home, Its end he left. IV What the Sleat wright won of meed, With all prestige thence arising, Has been still kept for his seed, All foes' injustice despising; The coat of arms correct and handsome Which the King for his use settled, Good as man has of that stout stem, Coll, the Spaniard, hundredbattled. V A gentle hand, a hand on blade, With cross of fire, Eagles with swift wings displayed For danger dire,
Ship on back of billows moving With sails furled, The arms of MacIntyre of Cruachan, Summit of the Argyll world. VI Your men often are seafaring, Captains brave that fear no harm, they Have a graceful, handsome bearing, Part of them in many an army; Ah! they loved to tread hill country, Early and late to hunt wilds swarming; Numbers more of them are gentry, Yeomen some of them at farming. VII A kingly story all yet heard About thy party, A numerous stay, those that are spared, Did fortune thwart thee: Every suchlike virtue claims Abode within Glenoe, the famous; Bagpipe, flag, and strength has James, The chief who never will disclaim us. 1. Metrical translation by George Calder, pages 30913, `Songs of Duncan MacIntyre', 1912. Other translations are those by Angus Macintyre found on pages 6466 of `Cruachan' Vistas and by Angus MacLeod, pages 23537 in `The Songs of Duncan Ban MacIntyre, 1952'. A free metrical description of the Armorial Bearings in `Verses on Arms' by Rev. James M. Joass, L.L.D., Blarour in Lochaber from `The Celtic Monthly', 1905, page 168. The Crest a hand and dagger bright, Borne in many a bloody fight To fame and fortune pierced a way, As motto saith `Per Ardua.' Beneath the Crest, on ground of `or' The Shield the brave devices bore, Two eagles bold of plumage red, With crests erect and wings outspread, Above with fluttering pinions see, A galley on a silver sea; Below, behold on field of same A gentle hand with cross of flame Summoned the clan from cot and hall To stand by their chief Troimh chruadal. Such are the Motto, the Crest, and the Shield Which oft fought and won by flood and field, Have handed down from sire to son, 'Mong the MacIntyres of Cruachan Ben, And still reflect the untarnished glow The fame of thine ancient house Glenoe.
DUNCAN BAN MACINTYRE'S GRAVE IN EDINBURGH
Taken by Colin and Ross McIntyre
1 CRUACHAN BEANN (Cruachan Ben)
Gaelic words by Patrick MacIntyre (17821855) Translation by Malcolm MacFarlane 1. Noblest hill e'er I saw! It is grander a handle Than ought Europe can show, When it wears its snowy mantle. CHORUS Cruachan ben, Cruachan ben, King o' mountains, To the lift towers its head, Down its shoulders pour the fountains. 2.Macintyres were the clan That its precincts frequentit; Now there's nane o' them there, And fu' sair I lament it. 3.'Twas in days o'langsyne Bonnie Cruachan they claimit, And as lang as water flows, Still on it they'll be namit. 4.I was reared at Letterben, Far the grandest of onie; Deers and roes bounded free Owre its knowes green and bonnie. 5...... 6.I nae mair shall behold Spot on earth half sae takin'; But they've put it under deer, And my heart's nigh abreakin! 7...... 8.Fare thee well, Cruachan ben! Every scaur, glen and fountain! Lang may Macintyres be found Round their ain glorious mountain. 1. Bibliography 17, pages 124, 125
Nostalgia By Angus Macintyre of TayNiult The honeyscented, dewwet flowers, That made the air so sweet; The stillness of the gloaming hours And the burnie at my feet, The corncrake’s rasp in the meadow grass And the witching Highland moon; Why did such joy so swiftly pass, Oh why did it go so soon? The peatflame flickers and fades and dies, Grotesque on the bothy wall; The dusk is filled with seabirds’ cries And the curlew’s fluted call; But I heed them not, for my memory strays Far back to the time lang syne; To the golden, fleeting summer days, When the world was fair and fine, And the simple joys were all our need, In the happy, Highland glen, When friends, longmade, were friends indeed, Steadfast as Cruachan Ben. This way my land, my bonny land, Beloved, dear to me; Each rocky shore, each silver strand, Laved by the sunlit sea. Each corry on the snowy Ben, The Gorse in yellow blaze, The Burnie chuckling in the glen, Enchanted boyhood days. I cannot see, my eyes are old, The brae is steep and sore, But richer far than miser’s gold, The memories that I store. Within my heart I hold an keep, For now and evermore, Sweet mem’ries of the friends who sleep Far, far on Etive’s shore; And the Awe keeps purling in my ears, As its limpid waters run Down, Down the valley of my years To Loch Etive in the sun. Oh, Blessed me, Oh, happy man, Of heaven’s favoured band, To pass my joyous mortal span In that sweet bonnie land.
The Stone of the White Calf by Colin McIntyre, (firstname.lastname@example.org) The Clach an Laoigh Bhiata or Stone of the White Calf can still be seen in Glen Noe at Ordnance Survey map reference 103.318 (Landranger series number 50). It is situated just below the summit of the Lairig Noe. You should come off the A85 road onto the B8077. A path then leads more or less straight to the stone from a bridge. I've often travelled to the Loch Awe / Glen Etive area, mainly to climb Cruachan. To tell you the truth, I've never actually been to the Clach an Laoigh Bhiata, although I've known where it is for years. It's one of those things I've been meaning to do for a while. If you do intend to visit the stone I would recommend that you take a water proof jacket and wear a stout pair of shoes or walking boots. It's a 5 km walk from the bridge on the B road to the stone. If your in the Glen Noe area you could also visit the site of the Larach a Bo Bainne or Township of the White Cow (Map ref: 056.342). Local legend has it that the MacIntyres hailed from the Western Isles. Prompted by a prophecy that fortune would be theirs if they followed a white fairy cow and settled where it finally rested, they eventually found their way to Glen Noe. Again, this is also approximately a 5 km walk. Also, you can travel deep inside Cruachan courtesy of Scottish Power who run a Hydro Electric Power Station deep inside the mountain. The visitor centre is on the A85 at the foot of Cruachan on the shore of Loch Awe.
The Stone of the White Calf
2008 WORLD GATHERING OF MAC INTYRES TAYNUILT, SCOTLAND
By Martin MacIntyre, Convener
The fourth weekend of July 2008 will be the First World Gathering of Clan MacIntyre, held in conjunction with Taynuilt Highland Games, the village nearest to Glennoe, our ancestral home. This is the first official announcement, although I have been planning for two years and have an email list 350 individuals from all over the world.
th th From Thursday, July 24 through Sunday, July 27 there will be four days of activities for 5001000 MacIntyres/Wrights. It will be organized so everyone can enjoy themselves without worrying about where to go, which side of the road to drive on, or waiting in lines. I want all of your time spent looking, listening, talking, meeting other clanspersons, taking pictures, singing, dancing and laughing your way around MacIntyre Country. Highlights will include: · Two days touring MacIntyre sites by bus, within a 30 mile radius of Glennoe. · Taynuilt Highland Games · Grand Banquet · Ceilidh with MacIntyre entertainers · Church Service · Visit to Glennoe and adding stones to the Chiefs’ Cairn.
I have already contacted the Taynuilt Highland Games committee and a registered tour agency in Scotland that specializes in custom tours. The tour agency’s research had shown there are plenty of suitable lodgings within a reasonably close distance at a wide range of pricing. It is three short years away and not too soon to start planning and saving. The first question is always: How much will it cost? Here are estimates per person, double occupancy, for four days of the Gathering including breakfast and bus transportation/tours, the Grand Banquet and Ceilidh, but excluding other meals. 1. <$150 camping out 2. $150 selfcatering (one week rental required and minimum of four per lodging) 3. $300 B&B or guest house 4. $500 standard hotel 5. $900 luxury accommodations. In addition to the above costs, there will be the costs of getting from where you live to Taynuilt and the cost of any pre or post Gathering trips. I am assuming that those who attend have always wanted to visit or revisit Scotland, especially MacIntyre Country, and the existence of the World Gathering will started the ball rolling or tip the balance. Optional side trips will be arranged with pricing dependent on the number traveling in each group. Between the years 1750–1850 there was a large exodus of MacIntyres from Argyll, but many can still be found in the Argyll telephone directory, especially within a short drive of Glennoe. The local MacIntyres should swell the numbers at the Games, Grand Banquet and Ceilidh. The sooner I know how many people might attend, the better the chance of meeting everyone’s needs. Don’t say no just because you think it will be too expensive, your health might not allow it, or you have children. I’m not asking you to put down money yet, so you can dream without obligation. Who knows, you might win the lottery. In July 2006 (two years before the event), I will ask for a $50 refundable deposit, as a way of making you say, “I’m really interested” and a way for me to show the local tour agency and officials in Taynuilt and Oban that this event is really going to happen. It will also give me a good idea of the real need for room, board and transport. In July 2007 (one year before), I will ask for an additional deposit of $100 with the $150 still fully refundable by a cutoff date, perhaps as late as May 1, 2008 when the full nonrefundable payment will be due for whatever trip(s) you have selected. By that date you will already have your passports, clothing (perhaps a kilt?), and a plane ticket.
Let me know. I look forward to hearing from you soon and eventually meeting you, and hundreds of other MacIntyres/Wrights, at Glennoe in July 2008. If you think there is even a slight chance you might attend, let me know how many might be in your party. Email me at email@example.com, write me at 41 Temescal Terrace, San Francisco, CA or call me at 4158310602. Give me your email address or mailing address so I can give you periodic updates. A detailed list of sites and potential side trips follows that announcement. Per Ardua, Martin MacIntyre, Convener P.S. Yes, I’m still working on the second edition of my father’s history of Clan MacIntyre, which I must complete by 2007, or sooner, so you can read it before making a final decision. For a draft tour guide go to www.electricscotland.com/webclans/m/macinty.html, click on History of Clan MacIntyre and click on Part IV, MacIntyre Culture and go to MacIntyre Country.
2008 MAC INTYRE GAMES IN TAYNUILT, SCOTLAND
Martin MacIntyre firstname.lastname@example.org, 4158310602 41 Temescal Terrace, San Francisco, CA 94118 A fourday world gathering of MacIntyres/Wrights at Taynuilt, Scotland July 24/27, 2008. Thursday, July 24 and Friday July 25, 2008 Visits to Historic Sites: Groups will be arranged so that they will be distributed among these sites with a minimum of congestion. Glenorchy/Glen Strae Loch Awe and River Awe St. Conan’s Kirk Choir Stall with carving of the MacIntyre Coat of Arms The Stone of the Fatted Calf –ClachanLaoighBhiata below Ben Cruachan where the snowball and white calf were delivered to the Campbells on Midsummer’s Day – (LimitedPreregistration) Climb Ben Cruachan (only the fittest) Kilchrenan Churchyard burial of many MacIntyres Arden and Dunadd Standing Stones from the Stone Age, location of the MacIntyres of Craignish Dalmally, Monument to Duncan Ban MacIntyre our renowned Gaelic poet. Cladich – Home of the famous MacIntyre weavers Inveraray and Castle of the Duke of Argyll, Chief of Clan Campbell Tyndrum – Site of murder that changed the history of Clan MacIntyre Friday, July 25, 2008 Oban, Seat of Clan MacDougall Battles in Brander Pass where Robert the Bruce lost his broach but not his life Dunstaffnage, Dunollie, and Barcaldine Castles Falls of Lora, Falls of Lora Hotel and the Stone of Destiny Grave of Duncan (I) and his wife Mary Campbell at Ardchattan Priory Ft. William Museum, the MacIntyre Faery Pipes played at the Battle of Bannockburn Glencoe, scene of the infamous massacre Displays (Taynuilt Town Hall) The Magic Stone (Clach Nodha) possessed by Alexander MacIntyre of Inveraray A Cladich garter The traveling secretary desk of James III of Glenoe and possessed by Ian MacIntyre, XVII of CamusnahErie Kinsman Cup Other Glenoe Heirlooms Saturday July 26, 2008 Parade through Taynuilt to the Games led by MacIntyre Pipers and Dignitaries Taynuilt Highland Games, view and participate MacIntyre tables and experts on: Genealogy History Culture Storytelling Author’s Corner Descendants of Glenoe and CamusnahErie Groups : Scotland, North America, Australasia, UK, Ireland, Africa, South America, etc. Banquet Scottish Salmon, Angus Beef, Haggis, and coffee from the MacIntyre plantation in Panama. Honored guest (this is a “hope for” list with no formal invites issued yet but * for acceptances) Donald, X of Glenoe * Ian, XVII of CamusnahErie * Ranald Alexander MacDonald, Captain of Clanrannald, * Archie McIntyre, First Gentleman of the Household of Clanranald, Gentleman Piper to Clanranald, Piper to the High Council of Clan Donald Chiefs Sir Crispin Agnew, Rothesay Herald on the Lyon Court *Alastair McIntyre, FSA, Owner and Manager, www.electricscotland.com Saturday July 26, 2008 Ceilidh Entertainment by MacIntyres (this is a “hope for” list with * for acceptances) Lorn MacIntyre, noted author and son of Angus MacIntyre, poet of Taynuilt and Tobermory
MacIntyre Seannachies, Duncan McIntyre, Sydney, Australia, *Martin MacIntyre, San Francisco, *Brian McIntyre of Falkirk, Robert Bruce McIntyre, Gaelic and MacIntyre Seannachie of Oklahoma *Robert and Teri Wright, Ceilidh leader *Erin McIntyre of California, Highland Dancer. *Robin Wright, Pipe Major, England *Cherie McIntyre of California, Kiltmaker Singers from Utah, Colorado, San Francisco, USA, Storytellers, Other MacIntyre artists (suggestions welcomed) Sunday July 27, 2008 Church Service in Taynuilt Presentations on MacIntyre history Boat excursion up Loch Etive Gathering at the Glennoe Meadow to add stones to the MacIntyre Cairn Group photo at Glennoe Place where the white cow laid down LarachnabaBaine MacIntyre Falls in Glen Noe (limited – preregistration) Pre and Post Gathering Tours of Scotland – Some of you will be visiting Scotland for the first of many times, some for the first and last time, and others for the last of many visits. There will be tours for each category and budget plus one for qualified hill climbers to explore MacIntyre sites on Ben Cruachan. The Gathering will be the central event sandwiched between tours of other parts of Scotland related to MacIntyre and Scottish history. Sites on selected tours might be: Alloway – birthplace of Robert Burns Dunbar where Micum, Philip and Robert McIntire were taken prisoner and transported to the salt mines in Massachusetts. Edinburgh – burial site of Duncan Ban MacIntyre Bannockburn where the MacIntyre piper played the Fairy Pipes of Moidart leading the Menzies into that famous battle in 1314. Falkirk – Where Donald II of Glenoe had a mortal encounter with a Stewart of Appin piper. Keppoch – Where Donald II of Glenoe took refuge and married Janet, daughter of Chief McDonnell of Keppoch. Inverness/Culloden – The final battle of the ’45 Revolution. Sleat and the Isle of Skye Where MacIntyre were before coming to Glen Noe and the MacDonald Centre, Isle of Mull and Iona Ardnamurchan – Where Muirdach MacNeil, the Wright, secured for Somerled the hand of Ragnhilda. Badenoch – Home of a famous MacIntyre bard who started his own branch and joined as No. 16 Intier, the last clan of the famous clan confederation, Clan Chattan, Barcaldine Castle, Home of Campbell Chief whose son fathered Ann, wife of James III. Bon Awe iron furnace that produced cannon balls for Lord Nelson but also deforested Glen Noe. Loch Ness – deep and mysterious remnant of the collision of continents Loch Lomond – beautiful scenery to go with the beautiful song. Loch Leven and St. Munn – Loch and Island where the CamusnahErie Chiefs were buried. All pretours will arrive in MacIntyre Country on Thursday for the fourday 2008 Gathering events and posttours will leave on Monday morning.
2/06 UPDATE WORLD MAC INTYRE/WRIGHT GATHERING JULY 2427, 2008 TAYNUILT, SCOTLAND Martin MacIntyre
As officially announced last fall, I am convening a world gathering of MacIntyres, in conjunction with the 2008 Taynuilt Highland Games. The major events from July 24 – 27 will be: · · · · · · Twoday tour of MacIntyre sites Taynuilt Highland Games Grand Banquet Ceilidh with MacIntyre entertainers Church Service Visit to Glennoe.
Attendance: At 900+ days left …and counting, I’ve received responses indicating over 350 MacIntyres and Wrights who are planning to attend, God willing. This doesn’t include the locals who don’t have to take vacation days, make plane reservations, book rooms or begin savings accounts. Here are samples of two typical responses. “We were planning a trip to Scotland in 2007 but will wait till the clan gathering. It sounds too good to miss. There are eight in our party and we are traveling from Edmonton Alberta. Please keep us up dated.” “I have previously sent in a reservation for five (5) McIntyre's planning to attend the Gathering in 2008. Since then, others in my family indicated they would like to attend, which would bring the total to fourteen (14). I think we are going to have our own Family Reunion at our forefather's place of birth in Balvicar on the Isle of Seil, following the World Gathering. Sounds like a lot of fun to me. “ Cost: When I made the initial announcement, the exchange rate between pound sterling and the US dollar was awful, $1.90 to buy one BP (British pound). Fortunately, that was the high point and it is now down to $1.80. Keep your eye on the financial section of the newspaper or go to www.xe.com/ucc/ for current exchange rates. $1000/person on the average will get you to Scotland from overseas. Once you are there, three major costs remain for the fourday Gathering: lodging, transportation and the banquet ceilidh. The numbers shown below are rough estimates for one person for the four days only. Assume the cost will be 20% more to be on the safe side. $125/person – fourday bus transportation and the Grand Banquet/Ceilidh (maybe less for children). The cost of lodging can vary widely. Here is my initial per/person estimate for the four days and four nights in U.S. dollars with better estimates by the fall 2006 update after Rosemary and I conclude our visit this summer. Always budget 20% more just to be sure Lodging per/person with double occupancy for four days/nights. <$75 camping out $75 selfcatering (one week rental required and minimum of four per lodging) $175 B&B or guest house $375 standard hotel $775 luxury accommodations. B&B and hotels include breakfast. There will be some per/person decrease for family groups or longer stays. There will be a supplemental charge for single occupancy. Lunch and dinner (except for the Banquet) and optional side trips before and/or after the Gathering, will be additional costs. The Oban Tourist Board has offered me their help with lodging and many other details. Lodging: Some early birds have already checked out lodgings and found that you can’t get reservation this far ahead. You can go to these web sites to see what is available. More sites will be listed in the spring update. http://www.welcomescotland.com/hotelsscotland/ http://www.4hotels.co.uk/uk/scotlandargyllbute.html
http://www.hotelenglandaccommodation.com/edinburgh/edinburghinformation.htm There are also camp grounds in the area. Transportation for the Gathering: My initial plan is to provide all the transportation for the four days within a certain distance of the events and that is why transportation is included in the above cost. Otherwise, we will have chaos with traffic jams, automobile accidents and no ability to coordinate schedules of visits to sites that we all want to see. Here are some web sites you can look at to estimate distances and travel before and after the Gathering. http://www.mapquest.co.uk/ http://scotlandvacations.com/scottishtourist.htm http://www.travelinescotland.com/timetables.htm (public transport) Pipers, Pipe Band, Dancers, and Singers: Archie MacIntyre, the hereditary piper for the Captain of Clan Ranald (MacDonald) has agreed to advise me on piping matters, protocol and will play the Salute to the Chief on Sunday at the Glenoe memorial cairn. A 20+ member performance pipe band, led by Robin Wright, will be in the parade to the Games and at the Ceilidh. You can see them at their website http://www.1066pipesanddrums.com. I know of a number of accomplished MacIntyre singers and dancers who will be attending. Photography: No longer will they be using that obsolete expression: “I can’t wait to get the film developed.” With the advent of digital photography the new expression is, “Look at this” when sharing little pictures on little camera or phone screens. One attendee is a professional film maker (Glenoe Media) and has offered to digitally film some of the major events. Planning: Next spring, I’ll be sending out a survey to those who have expressed an interest in attending. I’ll want to know approximately how long you expect your entire trip to be, where else you might want to go, whether you would be interested in side trips arranged by a travel agency in Scotland, any special needs, and similar questions. Rosemary and I will be at the Taynuilt Games this summer to meet with their officials and see what is, or isn’t, feasible. We’ll need to have the survey responses for our discussion with them and potential tour agencies. Deposit: Along with the survey, I’ll be asking for a $50 deposit for each family group up to three individuals. This will go into a special account that will be fully refundable until a deposit is needed for the transportation, banquet hall and caterer. The account will require two signatures including one person who isn’t a MacIntyre. The deposit is needed before this summer’s planning meetings to demonstrate to tour agencies and lodging providers that this is not a pipe dream of a child of Aquarius, but a serious event of a Capricorn, with financial backing. Activities:
th th Thursday and Friday, July 24 and 25 , These two days will be devoted to bus trips as shown below. The sites are divided into two sections. The actual sites will be determined by a reality time check that we will do this summer. Each day, half of us will be going on one of the two trips and on the second day we will switch. Each bus will start at a different site to reduce congestion. The buses will be small (16 persons), maneuverable requiring a minimum amount of time to get on and off. Here is the tentative list of historic MacIntyre sites to visit and sights to see.
Glenorchy/Glen Strae Loch Awe and River Awe St. Conan’s Kirk Choir Stall with carving of the MacIntyre Coat of Arms Kilchrenan Churchyard burial site of many MacIntyres Arden Standing Stones from the Stone Age Dalmally, Monument to Duncan Ban MacIntyre our renowned Gaelic poet. Church at Glenorchy Cladich – Home of the famous MacIntyre weavers Tyndrum – site of murder that changed Clan MacIntyre history Inveraray Castle (if time permits).
Oban, Seat of Clan MacDougall Battles in Brander Pass where Robert the Bruce lost his broach but not his life
Castles of Dunstaffnage, Dunadd, Dunollie, and Barcaldine Falls of Lora and Deirdre of the Sorrows Grave of Duncan (I) and his wife Mary Campbell at Ardchattan Priory Ft. William Museum, the MacIntyre Faery Pipes played at the Battle of Bannockburn Glencoe, scene of the infamous massacre of the McIans by the Campbells (if time permits). One site, on either or both days, will be a display of MacIntyre memorabilia, possibly at the Taynuilt Town Hall. These might include: The Magic Stone (Clach Nodha) possessed by Alexander MacIntyre of Inveraray and New Zealand. A Cladich garter The traveling secretary desk of James III of Glenoe and possessed by Ian MacIntyre, XVII of CamusnahErie Glenoe Heirlooms and Kinsman Cup Saturday July 26, 2008 Parade through Taynuilt to the Games led by MacIntyre Pipers and Dignitaries Taynuilt Highland Games, view and participate MacIntyre tables and experts on: Genealogy Glenoe genealogist, *Alan Bridgeman MacIntyre History Duncan McIntyre, Sydney, Australia, *Martin MacIntyre, San Francisco, *Brian McIntyre of Falkirk, and Robert Bruce McIntyre of Oklahoma Culture Storytelling Author’s Corner Descendants of Glenoe and CamusnahErie Groups: Scotland, North America, Australasia, UK, Ireland, Africa, South America, etc. MacIntyre historians – Banquet: There are two possible locations in Oban that can hold 500+ for the Grand Banquet. Feast: Scottish Salmon, Angus Beef, Haggis, and coffee from the MacIntyre plantation in Panama. Honored guest (this is a “hope for” list with no formal invitations yet but * for known attendees) Donald, X of Glenoe * Ian, XVII of CamusnahErie *Alastair McIntyre, FSA, Owner and Manager, www.electricscotland.com *Archie McIntyre, First Gentleman of the Household of Clanranald, Gentleman Piper to Clanranald, Piper to the High Council of Clan Donald Chiefs * Ranald Alexander MacDonald, Captain of Clanrannald, Sir Crispin Agnew, Rothesay Herald on the Lyon Court Lady MacDougall Lorn MacIntyre, noted author and son of Angus MacIntyre, poet of Taynuilt and Tobermory Representatives of other clans.
Ceilidh: Robert and Teri Wright of Michigan have agreed to lead the Ceilidh as long as I agree to meet the standards expected in Scotland. I gladly agreed. I have someone checking into the availability of a highly recommended Ceilidh band (as distinct from a pipe band). In addition to the aforementioned performers there will be poets and storytellers to keep the entertainment continuous and varied until the wee hours of the morning. Entertainment by MacIntyres (* for acceptances) Highland Dancer *Erin McIntyre of California, Pipe Major and Pipe Band, England *Robin Wright, Kiltmaker *Cherie McIntyre of California, Singers from Utah and Colorado Storytellers Film – Return of the MacIntyres, 1976 Oban and Lorne Reel and Strathspey Society Other MacIntyre artists (suggestions welcomed)
Sunday July 27, 2008 Church Service: I hope we will be able to have a special church service in Taynuilt for those who can get up and dressed by 10 A.M. Sadly, my hope to have The Very Rev. Professor John McIntyre officiate is no longer possible. I am including his obituary here
The Very Rev Professor John McIntyre
Distinguished theologian Published: 21 January 2006 The Independent – Online Edition. John McIntyre, theologian and minister of the church: born Glasgow 20 May 1916; ordained minister 1941; Minister, Parish of Fenwick, Ayrshire 194345; Hunter Baillie Professor of Theology, St Andrew's College, University of Sydney 194656, Principal 195056, Honorary Fellow 1990; Professor of Divinity, Edinburgh University 195686 (Emeritus), Dean of the Faculty of Divinity 196874, acting Principal and ViceChancellor 197374, 1979; Dean of the Order of the Thistle 197489; Extra Chaplain to the Queen in Scotland 197475, 19862005, Chaplain to the Queen in Scotland 197586; Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland 1982; married 1945 Jan Buick (two sons, one daughter); died Edinburgh 18 December 2005.
Glennoe Pilgrimage: Great News. On Sunday, July 27, 2008, high tide will be 3.07 meters at 1:00 P.M. http://www.fisica.uniud.it:8080/locations/4429.html?y=2008&m=7&d=27. This means those coming by boat (vs. buses, bikes or walking), can probably off load at the Glennoe pier starting at Noon. There will be enough time for the activities at Glennoe before the tide goes out too far. Here are some preliminary thoughts on activities at Glennoe. We will definitely add stones to the cairn from the many available on the bank above the water line. Then we will have a solemn dedication of a plaque to the MacIntyre chiefs and our ancestors while our senior piper, Archie McIntyre, plays the MacIntyre Salute to the Chief. There will be piping, dancing, and singing as they were meant to be (without loudspeakers). For those who are able, and with permission of the owner of Glennoe, we will have a walking tour of the immediate area to see Larachna bobane (Site of the White Cow) the legendary place where the first MacIntyres settled. We will turn around and see Ben Cruachan, just as our ancestors saw it, with a group of hearty modernday MacIntyres looming ever larger as they come down to meet us after crossing Larig Noe, the mountain pass from Glenorchy to Glennoe. A few will be able to visit one of the MacIntyre Falls in Glen Noe (limited – preregistration) I need to give some more thought about food, drink and other necessities. We may have to limit the time to 2 hours to reduce these requirements, depending on the number in attendance and transportation time. Of course, there will be the group picture. Finally, we will have to make sure we leave Glennoe as beautiful as we will find it. Hiking: There are two MacIntyre sites that are too difficult to get to by bus, boat, bike or even normal walking. They are the top of Ben Cruachan and The Stone of the Fatted Calf –ClachanLaoighBhiata below Ben Cruachan where the snowball and white calf were delivered to the Campbells on Midsummer’s Day. These will only be possible for the fittest among us and will probably have to accomplish before or after the Gathering, unless you can forgo one of the day tips. I hope we can find guides to ensure a safe and respectful visit to these sites. Q & A: Let me know your questions so I can do what I can to help. I know a number of people will be purchasing their first kilt and I have already received questions about which of the excellent MacIntyre tartans I would recommend. email@example.com
Martin and Rosemary MacIntyre’s Scotland Itinerary – 2006 in Preparation for 2008.
1 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 7/1Sa 2Su 3Mo 4Tu 5We 6Th 7Fr 8Sa 9Su 10Mo 11Tu 12We 13Th 14Fr Edinburgh Edinburgh Edinburgh Edinburgh See Duncan Ban’s Grave See National Archives of Scotland Meet with Tour agencies Meet CamusnahErie, MacIntyre chieftain Meet HeriotMaitland, Owner of Glenoe Edinburgh Aberfoyle Meet Brian MacIntyre, MacIntyre Archivist in Falkirk Blaquhidder Aberfoyle See MacGregor/MacIntyre graveyard Kingussie See Badenoch MacIntyes, Clan Chattan Kingussie Nairn. Clifton House – Gordon MacIntyre proprietor Inverness Nairn See Culloden, Inverness, Findhorn Community Inverness Tongue See Cape of Wrath – Top of Scotland Gardens Unapool Tongue Lewis & Harris Ullapool See Lewis, Harris and Standing Stone Circle Harris S & N.Uist Home of many MacIntyres N. Uist Uig, Skye Sleat – MacIntyres before Glenoe Clan Donald Centre Meet Peter MacDonald, High Chief Uig Armadale Mallaig Armadale Pt Ardnamurchan: the beginning of Clan MacIntyre Morvern: Where Somerled got his start Mallaig Ft. William Highland Museum, Famous MacIntyre Faery Pipes, Glencoe Fort William Glencoe Massacre, Glencoe Tyndrum Johne Boy M’Inteir murdered Campbell representative in selfdefense (of course) but MacIntyres paid a price. Tyndrum Taynuilt Enact both of the oneday, tours of MacIntyre Country (see below) Meet with banquet halls proprietors Meet with Oban Times for publicity Meet with Tour agency(s) and tourist bureau Meet with PrestonCampbell owner of Ardchattan Priory Visit Ardchattan Priory, Duncan (I), & MacIntyre’s graves above Ardchattan Attend Taynuilt Highland Games Announce the 2008 World Gathering. Hike to Glenoe and put a stone on the chiefs’ cairn.
12 16Su 13 17Mo 14 18Tu 15 19We 16 20Th 17 21Fr 18 22Sa 19 23Su These are two possible tours of MacIntyre Country for the 2008 Gathering South Tour 2.5 hrs travel 10 am 5 pm 6 hours including lunch 72408 5 stops 120 miles 30 min. stops Home Kilchrenan 1MacIntyre Grave Stones Kilchrenan Kilmartin 2Standing Stones, Craignish MacIs Kilmartin Inveraray 3 Argyll’s Castle, Inveraray Dunbeg 4. Cladich Dunstaffnage Dunbeg Ardchattan 5 Duncan (I) grave Ardchattan Home Groups will be reversed each day and also have different starting locations & starting times to reduce congestion. North Tour 2.5 hrs travel 10 am 5 pm 6 hours including lunch 72508 5 stops 120 miles 30 min. stops Home Barcaldine 1 Duncan I, Barcaldine Castle, Appin Barcaldine Fort William 2Faery Pipes at Museum Fort William Glencoe 3Glencoe Massacre, CamusnahErie, Loch Leven Glencoe Tyndrum Johne Boy et al. murder in Glenorchy Tyndrum Home 4Dalmally, Duncan Ban MacIntyre 5St. Conan’s Kirk
Cousins, Ancient Cousins, Gentlemen & Donna, I thought you might enjoy seeing two museum quality Scottish/Irish Targes (war shields) that I have re created based upon the oral history of the MacIntyres and a lifetime of research to verify the same. The first belongs to Conn Of The Hundred Battles. He is the direct ancestor of Muirdach, the father of all MacIntyres, and the King from which virtually all of the ancient Royal Irish and Gael King of Scots descend in either the male of female line, sometimes both. His targe prominently features his rising Red War Eagle symbol. Conn is most famous for reuniting Eirinn under one High King, with the four provincial Kings under him. He was Ard Righ, or High King of Eirinn (Ireland) around 150AD.
The second targe belongs to Muirdach mac Neill/mac Nial/O'Neill who is the father of all MacIntyres and would be his shield after 1140 AD, the date of Somerled's marriage to Ragnhilda, and Muirdach's being made a prince of The Kingdom of Argyll and The Isles by his Uncle Somerled. Muirdach was Conn's direct descendent in the male line of the High Kings of Eirinn. The symbols he used explain his derivative ancestry directly from Conn and visibly explain both his mother and father's lineage (diagonals) along with his fostering to Godred Croven, King of Man. Hence, his unique Title, "Prince of Three Kingdoms". Those would be in order, Eirinn by birth, Mann by fostering, and Argyll and the Isles by way of King Somerled and Muirdach's mother (Somerled's older sister). Please note the outer Celtic knot border which was handed down in each generation from Conn's time among some but not all of his descendants and is also utilized by the main branch of the Clan Donald, and several others Highland Clans who descend from him. Also note the colors utilized were also handed down, red, black, silver & gold the latter two denoting Royal Blood. Bruce McIntyre
Cousins, Ancient Cousins, Alastair, and friends: I've just finished the two MacIntyre Chieftains targes, circa pre 1440 AD and the much lamented coming of the Campbells and the long arm of feudalism to the Highlands of Scotland (prompting the flitting of Lorn, the end of elected Chiefs, etc). Please note that a Chieftain's Targe was differentiated from the Clan Chief's Targe only by the symbol in the center, while everything else remained the same on the Targe's overall design among MacIntyres. At our zenith we had 20 plus Chieftains on our High Council, plus a Bard and a Seannachie, and could muster well over 2000 Highland fighting men. There would have been upwards of twenty different Chieftains symbols in the center of those targes so let your Celtic imagination run wild. Additionally, the only difference between a Clansman's Targe and one of these is that they were not so lavish with brass nails, gold and silver leafing/paint, etc, so the symbols would be tooled into the leather and painted (if the Clansman had the time, the material, or the means). With this said, where you see the three pointed triscal on Tyson's Targe and the Triscal whorl on Garrett's Targe, those would be replaced by the Red Rising War Eagle in the Center for the elected Chief. Finally, keep in mind that these Targes represent Gaeldom and Tannistry and not the hated feudalism of later, and much sadder times. The feudalists made these and virtually all other Clan symbols the personal property of the Chief and not a Clan's High Council as had been the case for centuries.
Chieftains Targe 3 pointed triscal
Chieftains Targe triscal whorl
PHOTOS FROM COLIN MACINTYRE
The path along Loch Etive towards Glen Noe
The Cairn to the MacIntyre Chiefs on the shore of Loch Etive
Two views towards Cruachan, which is shrouded in cloud. The Lairig Noe can be seen in right hand picture just below the bright patch in the sky
Views of the waterfalls on the River Noe
Looking towards the Lairig Noe with Cruachan on the right
Photo of Colin McIntyre at the summit of Cruachan. As you can see there was a dusting of snow. Glen Noe is visible behind the summit as well as Loch Etive
Cruachan taken from the summit of Ben Lui, near Tyndrum, November 2004.
We Will Take The Good Old Way MacIntyres will lead the way Lead the way into the fray MacIntyres will lead the way The way the lies before us.
Chorus We will take the good old way We will take the good old way We will take the good old way The way that likes before us. Climbing stiff the heathery ben Winding swiftly down the glen Should we meet with stragglers then Their gear will serve to store us. MacIntyres watch on the hill Be their wishes good or ill We will keep whate're their will The way that likes before us. O'er the mountain's rocky steep Down Glencoe out course will keep In the King's name we will sweep The rebels on before us. To Glengarry and Lochiel Keppoch trusty, true as steel Hearts and claymores ever leal, As were their sire's before them. Bold McPersons will come forth, With MacKenzies from the north Where be they would try their worth, In battles strife before them? Fierce MacGregors, to us speed, Stewars of the royal seed Bagpipes ready, pipers, lead The way that lies before us!
Gaelic Version Gabhaidh Sinn An Rathad Mór[Séisd:] Gabhaidh sinn an rathad mór, Gabhaidh sinn an rathad mór, Gabhaidh sinn an rathad mór, Olc air mhath le càch e.
Chorus Olc air mhath le Cloinnantsaoir, Olc air mhath le Cloinnantsaoir, Olc air mhath le Cloinnantsaoir, ‘S bodaich mhaol an làgain. Gu Mac’icAlasdair ‘s Lochial, Bidh iad leinn mar bha iad riamh, ‘S FearnaCeapaich mar ar miann, Olc air mhath le càch siud. Thig Cloinn’Phearsoin, feachd nam buadh, ‘S thig CloinnChoinnich o’n Taobhtuath, ‘S mairg an dream do’n nochd iad fuath Nuair dh’éireas gruaim nam blàr orr’! Thig Clann Ghriogair, garg ‘san strì, Stiùbhartaich ‘s iad sluagh an Rìgh. Meàrsaibh uallach: suas i ‘phìob Olc air mhath le càch e.
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