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UHF Lab File

UHF Lab File

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Published by Rajesh Junghare

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Published by: Rajesh Junghare on Oct 23, 2011
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LlS1 Cl LxÞL8lMLn1ť

Sr noŦ name of LxperlmenL
1 1o sLudy Lhe Mlcrowave LesL bench and componenLsŦ
1) klysLron power Supply
2) Cunn Þower Supply

2 1o sLudy Lhe characLerlsLlcs of Lhe reflex klysLron Lube and Lo deLermlne lLs elecLronlc
Lunlng range
3 1o deLermlne Lhe frequency and wave lengLh ln a recLangular wavegulde worklng ln 1L
10

mode
4 1o SLudy Lhe varla ble aLLenuaLor and Þower measuremenL uslng vSW8 meLer
3 1o SLudy Lhe MulLlhole ulrecLlonal Coupler by measurlng Lhe followlng parameLers
1Ŧ Malnllne and auxlllary Ŷllne vSW8
2Ŧ 1he coupllng facLor and dlrecLlvlLy of Lhe coupler

6 1o sLudy Lhe vl CharacLerlsLlc of Cunn ulode
EXPERIMENT NO 1
AIM: To study the Microwave test bench and components.
1.Klystron power Supply
2.Gunn Power Supply

Theory :
Write the Description each the oI Component :
1) Klyston power supply
2) Klystron tube Mount
3) Frequency meter
4) Slotted line
5) Variable Attenuator
6) Termination
7) E-plane Tee
8) H-plane Tee
9) Magic TEE
10)Fixed Attenuator

LxÞL8lMLn1 nC 11
Almť 1o sLudy Mlcrowave Lralner klL and lLs componenLs
1he klL under sLudy ls Luned mlcrowave LesL benchţ followlng us guldellne on Lhe descrlpLlon of
componenL of avallable on LhaL klL
1PLC8? ť
uLSC8lÞ1lCn Cl CCMÞCnLn1S
(Noteť Draw a|| the component d|agram on the |eft hand s|deŦ)
kL?S1Cn 1u8L MCun1
lL ls Lhe slmplesL arrangemenL of a 2" lengLh of kg 3ǃ wavegulde LermlnaLed wlLh vg Sg flags aL Lhe o/p
of sLandard acLual sockeL of wavegulde 1he proper dlsLance Lo LhaL Lhe anLennaŦ
l8LCuLnC? ML1L8
lL ls Lhe cyllndrlcal cavlLy mounLed on Lhe 8g S2 wavegulde and LermlnaLed wlLh 8g 39 Lype plunger Lhe
plunger ls ad[usLed for cavlLy volume by a mlcromeLer lL ls seL 99Pz Lo Lune aL abouL 400 + 10 dlvlslon ls
8CPZ ŦSomeLlmes freq abouL 99CPZ may be Lune aL 2
nd
mode wlLh mlcromeLer seLLlng hlgher Lhan 600
such lmpllcaLlons should be lgnoredŦ
A hlgher degree of coupllng are used Lo LhaL zeros wlll easlly flnd LhaL resource ŦAccordlngly Lhe
frequency meLer should be uŦC Luned when noL speclally used ln a mulLlple componenL seL upŦ
SLC11Lu LlnL
A sloLLed llne ls a 4''

lengLh of 8CS2 wavegulde LermlnaLed aL each end wlLh 8g Ŵ39 flagŦ 1he cm scale
measure Lhe dlsLance of probe from open or shorL end of Lhe wavegulde Lhe probe ls ad[usLable ls
depLh wlLh mounLed slgned and full galn of s/o Ŷampllfler Lhe probe doesn'L need Lo Lhe wavegulde
more Lhan 0Ŧ011"
vA8lA8LL A11LnuA1lCn
lL conslsLs of lengLh of wavegulde LermlnaLed wlLh each end wlLh kg 39 flagŦ 1he aLLenuaLlng wave ls
made up of absorblng maLerlal deposlLed on backelllLe and has a reslsLance of 300ǃŦ AlLernaLlon ls from
o Lo 20 db and lnserLlng ls approxlmaLed by scaleŦ 1he wave con callbraLe more accuraLely by uslng 3 Lo
6 dbţ 373 A and 8 flxed aLLenuaLlon vs roLaLlon may be madeŦ
1L8MlnA1lCn
1ermlnaLlon on dummy load 2'/2" lengLh of 8CS2 wavegulde wlLh kgŴsg flange and lengLh of
absorblng maLerlal LhaL has on lmpedance of approxlmaLe 300ǃ Lo maLch Lhe characLerlsLlcs
lmpedance of wavegulde and wlll dlsslpaLe Lhe resldual energy belng LransmlLLed ln Lhe wavegulde Lo
LhaL Lhe LermlnaLlng Lhe servlce of componenLŦ
1PL1MlS1C8 MCun1
1hermlsLor mounL ls2" lengLh of 8C32 wavegulde on one end and o/p Ŷ 1094 permlLs a cable (13v) Lo
connecL Lhe LhermlsLor brldge whlch ls a porL of s/o Ŧ A power supply exp1 glves comp for 100ǃbrldge
Lhe ÞS moLor senslLlvlLy ls 100 when Lhe LhermlsLor brldge ls balanced Lo zero wlLh no 8l power fed aL
full scale Lhe LermlnaLlon ls approx 300ǃ
Þower Supply
1he power supply provlde on ad[usLable repelled volLage for changlng Lhe mode of form of operaLlon
of reflex klysLron of Lhe 723 a/b 2»23 Lype approxlmaLe cavlLy volLage of 230 v dc and varlable
repelled volLage aL 230v Lo 300v and 8eam volLage for Lhe klysLron are provlded connecLed of klysLron
are properLyŦ
1he volLage for Lhe klysLron are properLy connecLed wlLh Lhe 3/10 a power supply Lo preseL Lhe klysLron
Lo be operaLed wlLh Lhe cavlLy guard Ŧ1he klysLron caLhode ls 230 (Ŵve) wlLh vSW8 and or Ŵ30 LhermlsLer
brldge
1he audlo ( vSW8) has a volLage galn of approxlmaLe 73 db and ls ad[usLable for 0 Lo maxlmum Ŧ A sLep
ŶaLLenuaLor of 6 and 20 db ls parallel wlLh meLer o/p and l/p Lo Lhe oscllloscope no damage can occur
from mlsconnecLlng arrays of Lhe l/p cable can mlsad[usLlng on all Lhe conLrols of fronL panel Ŧno lf
scale readlng on Lhe meLer can damage Lhe meLer even lf malnLalned for used a noL Lo operaLe Lhe
klysLron wlLhouL repelled connecLlon ln phase
PŴÞLAnL 1LL
lL conslsL of Lhe lengLh of Lhe 8CS2 wavegulde connecLed Lo Lhe 1 dlmenslon slde Lo anoLher lengLh
8CS2 Lo form a shunL wlLh Colllnear armŦ
ulvlded enLlrely from Lhe l/p porL s Lo Lhe o/p porL Lhls Lype of coupllng ls ln magneLlc fleld o/p are
consldered and o/p are consldered red Lo be parallelŦ
llxLu A11LnuA1C8
lL conslsL of Lhe lengLh of 8CŴS2 wave gulde and has lnserLlon loss of 6 db cable conslsL of 2 fL of 8C and
coŴ axlal Lermlnals boLh end wlLh vg21 connecLlng Lhe lnserLlon losses of Lhe cable aL 93Pz ls
approxlmaLe by 2db when 8C8 co axlal ls noL used over a perlod of LlmeŦ

L ÞLAnL 1LL
lL conslsL of Lhe lengLh of 8CS2 wavegulde connecLed on Lhe 'a' dlmenslon slde Lo form Lhe serles Lee
power ls dlvlded enLlrely Ŷ l/p porL Lo Lhe 20db porLs Ŧ1hls Lype of coupllng ls ln Lhe elecLrlc fleld and
o/p ls consldered Lo be ln serlesŦ
1unnlng probe
lL conslsL of Lhe lengLh of 8CS2 wavegulde whlch ls sloLLed ln Lhe LŴÞLAnL abouL 8 cŦm
LŴP Þlane 1LL
1hls ls a serles of comblnaLlon of 8CS2 wavegulde
ShorLlng plaLe
lL shorL or LermlnaLe kC39 flanges
WAvLCuluL S1AnuS
1hey are sulLable for malnLalnlng LesL bench componenLs aL flxed helghL for LesL bench used for Lhe
experlmenLŦ
PC8n An1LnnA
lL conslsL of Lhe sloLLed lengLh of kC32 wavegulde and o/p lncrease 4Ŧ7x3Ŧ2 cm whlch wlll glve a galn of
10 db aL 9 CPZŦ







Result: The above mentioned component have been studied .









LxÞL8lMLn1 nC 2
S1uu? Cl 1PL CPA8AC1L8lS1lCS Cl 1PL kL?S18Cn 1u8L
AlM ť 1o sLudy Lhe characLerlsLlcs of Lhe reflex klysLron Lube and Lo deLermlne lLs elecLronlc
1unlng rangeŦ
LCulÞMLn1S 8LCul8Luť
(1) klysLron Þower Supply ŴSkÞSŴ610ţ
(2) klysLron 1ube 2kŴ23 wlLh klysLron MounL ŶxM Ŵ231ţ
(3) lsolaLor xlŴ621ţ
(4) lrequency MeLer xlŴ710ţ
(3) varlable ALLenuaLor xAŴ320ţ
(6) ueLecLor Mouny xuŴ431ţ
(7) Wave Culde SLand xuŴ333
(8) vSW8 MeLer SWŴ213 and
(9) Cscllloscope
(10)8nC Cable



1PLC8?
1he 8eflex klysLron makes Lhe use of veloclLy modulaLlon Lo Lransform a conLlnous elecLronbeam lnLo
mlcrowave power Ŧ LlecLrons emlLLed from Lhe caLhode are acceleraLed Ǝ passed Lhrough Lhe poslLlve
resonaLor Lowards negaLlve reflecLor ţ whlch reLards and ţflnally reflecLs Lhe elecLrons and Lhe elecLrons
Lurm back Lhrough Lhe resonaLorŦ Suppose an rfŴfleld exlsLs beLween Lhe resonaLor ţ Lhe elecLrons
Lravelllng forward wlll be acceleraLed or reLardedţ as Lhe volLage aL Lhe resonaLor changes ln ampllLudeŦ
1he acceleraLed elecLons leaves Lhe resonaLor aL an lncreased veloclLy and Lhe reLarded elecLons leave
aL Lhe reduced veloclLyŦ 1he elecLrons leavlng Lhe resonaLor wlll need dlfferenL Llme Lo reLurnţ due Lo
change ln veloclLles Ŧ As a resulLţ reLurnlng elecLrons groups LogeLher ln bunchesţ As Lhe elecLrons
bunches pass Lhrough resonaLorţ Lhey lnLeracL wlLh volLage aL resonaLor grldsŦ lf Lhe bunches pass Lhe
grld aL such a Llme LhaL Lhe elecLrons are slowed down by Lhe volLage Lhen energy wlll be dellvered Lo
Lhe resonaLorţ and klysLron wlll osclllaLeŦ llgŦ 2 shows Lhe relaLlonshlp beLween ouLpuL power ţ
frequency and reflecLor volLagesŦ
1he frequency ls prlmarlly deLermlned by Lhe dlmenslons of resonanL cavlLyŦPence by changlng Lhe
volume of resonaorţ mechanlcal Lunlng of klysLron ls posslble Ŧ Also a small frequency change can be
obalned by ad[usLlng Lhe reflecLor volLageŦ 1hls ls called LlecLronlc 1unlngŦ
Þ8CCLuu8L
A Ŧ Square Wave CperaLlon
1Ŧ ConnecL Lhe equlpmenLs and componenLs as shown ln Lhe flgŦ1
2Ŧ SeL MlcromeLer of varlable aLLenuaLor around some ÞoslLlonŦ
3Ŧ SeL Lhe range swlLch of vSW8 meLer aL 40 db poslLlonţ lnpuL selecLor swlLch Lo crysLal
lmpedance poslLlon
4Ŧ SeL Mod ŶselecLor swlLch Lo AMŴMCu poslLlon Ŧbea volLage conLrol knob Lo fully anLlclockwlse
poslLlonŦ
3Ŧ SwlLch 'Cn' Lhe klysLron Þower SupplyŦ vSW8 meLer and coollng fanŦ
6Ŧ SwlLch 'Cn' Lhe beam volLage swlLch and roLaLe Lhe beam volLage knob clockwlse upLo 300v
deflecLlon ln meLerŦ
7Ŧ keep Lhe AMŴMCu ampllLude knob and AMŴl8Lţ knob aL Lhe mldŴ poslLlonŦ
8Ŧ 8oLaLe Lhe reflecLor volLage knob Lo geL deflecLlon ln vSW8 meLerŦ
9Ŧ 8oLaLe Lhe AMŴMCu ampllLude knob Lo geL Lhe maxlmum ouLpuL ln vSW8 meLerŦ
10Ŧ Maxlmlze Lhe deflecLlon wlLh frequency knob Lo geL Lhe maxlmum ouLpuL ln vSW8 meLerŦ
11Ŧ lf necessary change Lhe range swlLch of vSW8 meLer 30db Lo 30db lf Lhe deflecLlon ln vSW8
meLer ls ouL of scale or less Lhan normal scale respecLlvelyŦ lurLher Lhe ouLpuL can be also
reduced by varlable ALLenuaLor for seLLlng Lhe ouLpuL for any parLlcular poslLlonŦ
llnd Lhe osclllaLor frequency by lrequncy MeLer as descrlbed ln Lhe earller seLupŦ
8 Ŧ Mode SLudy on Cscllloscope
1Ŧ SeL up Lhe componenLs and equlpmenLs as shown ln flg1
2Ŧ keep ÞoslLlon of varlable aLLenuaLor aL mlnŦaLLenuaLlon poslLlonŦ
3Ŧ SeL mode selecLor swlLch Lo lMŴMCu poslLlon ŦlM ampllLude and lM frequency knob aL mld
poslLlonţkeep beam volLage knob fully anLlclockwlse and reflecLor vloLage knob Lo fully
clockwlse and 8eam swlLch Lo ºCll" poslLlonŦ
4Ŧ keep Lhe Llme/dlvlslon scale of oscllloscope around 100Pz frequency measuremenL and volL/dlv
Lo lower scaleŦ
3Ŧ SwlLch 'Cn' Lhe klysLron Þower Supply and Cscllloscope
6Ŧ SwlLch 'Cn' 8eam volLage swlLch and seL beam volLage Lo 300v by beam volLage conLrol knobŦ
7Ŧ keep ampllLude knob of lM ModulaLor Lo maxlmum poslLlon and roLaLe Lhe reflecLor volLage
anLlclockwlse Lo geL modes as shown ln flg 4 on Lhe oscllloscopeŦ 1he horlzonLal axls represenLs
reflecLor volLage axls and verLlcal represenLs ouLpuL powerŦ
8Ŧ 8y changlng Lhe reflecLor volLage and ampllLude of lm modulaLlon ţany mode of klysLron Lube
can be seen on CscllloscopeŦ






8esulL ť Pence we have sLudled Lhe above charaLerlsLlcs of 8eflex klysLron and dlfferenL modes of
oslcllaLlon Ŧ














LxÞL8lMLn1 nC 3
l8LCuLnC? Ǝ WAvLLLnC1P MLASu8LMLn1
AlMť 1o deLermlne Lhe frequency and wave lengLh ln a recLangular wavegulde worklng ln 1L
10
mode

LCulÞMLn1ť
(a) klysLron 1ube 2k23
(b) klysLron Þower Supply 3kÞSŴ610 ţ klysLronMounL xMŴ231 lsolaLor xlŴ621ţ lrequency
MeLer xl710 ţ varlable ALLenuaLor xAŴ320 ţ SloLLed SecLlon xSŴ631ţ 1unable Þrobe xÞ Ŵ
633ţ vSW8 MeLer SWŴ113 ţ Wavegulde SLand xu Ŵ333 ţ Movable ShorL x1Ŵ481 MaLched
1ermlnaLlon xL Ŵ400

1PLC8?
lor domlnanL 1L
10
mode recLangular waveguld l
o
ţl
g
and l
c
are relaLed as below


Where l
o
ţ ls free space wavelengLh
l
g
ţ ls gulde wavelengLh
l
c
ţ os cuL off wavelengLh
lor 1L
10
modeţl
o
ƹ 2a where 'a' ls broad dlmenslon of waveguldeţ
Þ8CCLuu8L ť
1Ŧ SeL up Lhe componenLs and equlpmenLs as shown ln flg4Ŧ
2Ŧ SeL up varlable aLLenuaLor aL mlnlmum aLLenuaLlon poslLlon
3Ŧ keep Lhe conLrol knobs of vSW8 MeLer as below
8ange 30db
lnpuL SwlLch CrysLal low lmpedance
MeLer SwlLch normal poslLlon
Caln (Coarse Ǝ llne) Mld poslLlon
4Ŧ keep Lhe ConLrol knob of klysLron power supply as below
8eam volLage Ŵ Cll
ModŴSwlLch Ŵ AM
8eam volLage knob Ŵ lully anLlclockwlse
8eflecLor volLage Ŵ lully clockwlse
Am ŶampllLuLe knob ŴAround fully clockwlse
AmŴlrequency knob Ŵ Around Mld poslLlonŦ
3Ŧ SwuLch 'Cn ' Lhe klysLron power supply ţ vSW8 MeLer and Coollng lan SwlLchŦ
6Ŧ SwlLch 'Cn' Lhe beam volLage swlLch and seL beam volLage aL 300v wlLh help of beam volLage
knobŦ
7Ŧ Ad[usL Lhe reflecLor volLage Lo geL some deflecLlon ln vSW8 MeLerŦ
8Ŧ Maxlmlze Lhe deflecLlon wlLh AM ampllLude and frequency conLol knob of power supplyŦ
9Ŧ 1une Lhe plunger of klysLron MounL for maxlmum deflecLlonŦ
10Ŧ 1une Lhe reflecLor volLage knob for maxlmum deflecLlonŦ
11Ŧ 1une Lhe probe for maxlmum deflecLlon ln vSW8 MeLerŦ
12Ŧ 1une Lhe frequency meLer knob Lo geL a 'dlp' on Lhe vSW8 Scale and noLe down Lhe frequency
dlrecLly from frequency meLerŦ
13Ŧ 8eplace Lhe 1ermlnaLlon wlLh movable shorLŦ And deLune Lhe frequency meLerŦ
14Ŧ Move Lhe probes along Lhe sloLLed llne Ŧ 1he deflecLlon ln vSW8 meLer wlll varyŦ Move Lhe
probe Lo a mlnlmum deflecLlon posLlon ţ Lo geL accumLe readlngŦ lf necessary lncrease Lhe vSW8
meLer range db swlLch Lo hlgher poslLlonŦ noLe and record Lheprobe poslLlon Ŧ
13Ŧ Move Lhe probe Lo nexL mlnlmum poslLlon and record Lhe probe poslLlon agalnŦ
16Ŧ CalculaLe Lhe gulde wavelengLh as Lwlce Lhe dlsLance beLween Lwo successlve mlnlmum poslLlon
obLalned as aboveŦ
17Ŧ Measure Lhe wavegulde lmmer broad dlmenslon 'a' whlch wlll be around 22Ŧ86mm for xŴbandŦ
18Ŧ CalculaLe Lhe frequency by followlng equaLlonŦ



19 verlfy wlLh frequency obLalned by frequency meLerŦ
20 Above experlmenL can be verlfled aL dlfferenL frequenclesŦ

CbservaLlon ť

1hoeroLlcal lrequency ťŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴ CPz
Cbservable lrequencyť ŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴCPz
1heorLlcal WavelengLh ť ________________________
Cbservable WavelengLh ť______________________


8esulL ťPence we have sLudled Lhe frequency and wave lengLh measuremenL ln uslng
frequency meLerŦ
LxÞL8lMLn1 nC 4
AlMť 1o SLudy Lhe varla ble aLLenuaLor and Þower measuremenL uslng vSW8 meLer
LCulÞMLn1S 8LCul8Luť
(1) klysLron Þower Supply ŴSkÞSŴ610ţ
(2) klysLron 1ube 2kŴ23 wlLh klysLron MounL ŶxM Ŵ231ţ
(3) lsolaLor xlŴ621ţ
(4) lrequency MeLer xlŴ710ţ
(3) varlable ALLenuaLor xAŴ320ţ
(6) ueLecLor Mouny xuŴ431ţ
(7) Wave Culde SLand xuŴ333
(8) vSW8 MeLer SWŴ213 and
(9) Cscllloscope
(10)8nC Cable
















1heoryť
1he aLLenuaLor ls a Lwo porL bldlrecLlonal devlce whlch aLLenuaLes some power when lnserLed lnLo Lhe
Lransmlsslon llneŦ
ALLenuaLlon A (d8) ƹ 10 log Þ1/Þ2
Where Þ1 ƹ Þower deLecLed by Lhe load wlLhouL Lhe aLLenuaLor ln Lhe llne
Þ2ƹ Þower deLecLed by Lhe load wlLhouL Lhe aLLenuaLor ln Lhe llne
1he aLLenuaLor conslsL of a reslsLlve vane lnslde Lhe wavegulde Lon absorb lcrowave power accordlng Lo
lLs poslLlon wlLh respecL Lo slde wall of Lhe waveguldeŦ As elecLrlc fleld ls maxlmum aL Lhe cenLre ln 1L10
modeţLhe aLLenuaLlon wlll be maxlmum lf Lhe vane ls placed aL cenLre of Lhe wavegulde ŦMovlng from
cenLre Loward Lhe slde wall aLLenuaLlon decreses Ŧ ln Lhe flxed aLLenuaLor Lhe vane poslLlon ls flxed
where as ln varlable aLLenuaLor ţlLs poslLlon can be changed by Lhe help of mlcromeLer of by oLher
meLhods Ŧ

Þrocedureť
1) ConnecL Lhe equlpmenL as shown ln Lhe flg 1Ŧ
2) Lnergzlse Lhe mlcrowave source for maxlmum power aL any frequency of operaLlon Ŧ
3) Ad[usL Lhe power ln d8 as 30 d8 ţ31 d8 so onŧŦŦ wlLh help of varlable aLLenuaLor Ŧ
4) noLe down Lhe mlcromeLer readlngs Ŧ

CbservaLlon 1able ť
SrŦnoŦ mlcromeLer readlng (mm) vSW8 meLer readlng (d8)











8esulL ť Pence we have sLudled Lhe varlable aLLenuaLor uslng vSW8 meLer Ŧ

LxÞL8lMLn1 nC 3
AlM ť 1o SLudy Lhe MulLlhole ulrecLlonal Coupler by measurlng Lhe followlng parameLers
1Ŧ Malnllne and auxlllary Ŷllne vSW8
2Ŧ 1he coupllng facLor and dlrecLlvlLy of Lhe coupler





LCulÞMLn1Sť
1Ŧ Mlcrowave Source (klysLron or Cunn ulode)ţ
2Ŧ lsolaLpr ţlrequency MeLer ţvarlable ALLenuaLor ţSloLLed Llne ţ1unable Þrobeţ ueLecLor MounL
MaLched 1ermlnaLlonţ MPu Couplerţ Wavegulde SLand ţCables and Accessorles ţ vSW8
meLerŦ

1PLC8? ť
A dlrecLlonal coupler ls a devlce wlLh whlch lL ls posslble Lo measure Lhe lncldenL and reflecLed wave
separaLely Ŧ lL conslsL of Lwo Lransmlsslon llnes Lhe maln arm and auxlllary armţ elecLromagneLlcally
coupled Lo each oLher 8efer Lo Lhe flgŦ1 1he power enLerlng ţln Lhe maln Ŷ arm geLs dlvlded beLween
porL2 and 3ţ and almosL no power comes ouL ln porL (4) Þower enLerlng aL porL 2 ls dlvlded beLween
porL 1 and 4Ŧ
1he coupllng facLor ls deflned as

Where Þ
1
ls maLchedŦ WlLh bullL Ŷln LermlnaLlon and power enLerlng aL porL 1ţ Lhe dlrecLlvlLy of Lhe
coupler ls a measure of separaLlon beLween lncldenL wave and Lhe reflecLed waveŦ ulrecLlvlLy ls
measured lndlrecLly as follows measured lndlrecLly as follows

Maln llne vSW8 ls SW8 measured ţ looklng lnLo Lhe maln Ŷllne lnpuL Lermlnal when Lhe maLched loads
are placed aL all oLher porLsŦ
Auxlllary llve vSW8 ls SW8 measured ln Lhe auxlllary llne looklng lnLo Lhe ouLpuL Lemlnal when Lhe
maLched loads are placed on oLher LermlnalsŦ
Maln llne lnserLlon loss ls Lhe aLLenuaLlon lnLroduced ln Lhe Lransmlsslon llne by lnserLlon of coupler ţ lL
ls deflned as ť

AŦ MAln LlnL SW8 MLASu8LMLn1
1Ŧ SeL up Lhe equlpmenLs as shown ln Lhe flg2
2Ŧ Lnerglze Lhe mlcrowave source for parLlcular frequency of operaLlon as descrlbed ln Lhe
procedures glven ln Lhe operaLlon of klysLron Lube /Cunn CsclllaLorŦ
3Ŧ lollow Lhe procedure as dedcrlbed for vSW8 measuremenL (low and medlum SW8
measuremenL )Ŧ
4Ŧ 8epeaL Lhe same for oLher frequenclesŦ

8Ŧ AuxlLlA8? LlnL SW8 MLASu8LMLn1
1Ŧ SeL up Lhe componenLs and equlpmenLs as shown ln Lhe flg 2
2Ŧ Lnerglze Lhe mlcrowave source for parLlcular frequency of operaLlon as descrlbed ln Lhe
operaLlon of klysLron Lube / Cunn CsclllaLor Ŧ
3Ŧ Measure SW8 as descrlbed ln Lhe experlmenL of SW8 measuremenL ( low and medlum SW8
measuremenL )
4Ŧ 8epeaL Lhe same for oLher frequenclesŦ

CŦ MLASu8LMLn1 Cl CCuÞLlnC lAC1C8 ţ lnSL81lCn LCSSţ lSCLA1lCn Ǝ ul8LC1lvl1?
1Ŧ SeL up Lhe componenLs and equlpmenLs as shown ln Lhe flg 3
2Ŧ Lnerglze Lhe mlcrowave source for parLlcular frequency of operaLlon
3Ŧ 8emove Lhe mulLlhole dlrecLlonal coupler and connecL Lhe deLecLor mounL on Lhe
frequency meLerŦ 1une Lhe deLecLor for maxlmum ouLpuL Ŧ
4Ŧ SeL any reference level of power on vSW8 meLer wlLh Lhe help of varlable aLLenuaLor ţ galn
conLrol knob of vSW8 meLer ţ and noLe down Lhe readllng ( reference level leL x)Ŧ
3Ŧ lnserL Lhe dlrecLlonal coupler as shown ln second flg 3 wlLh deLecLor Lo Lhe auxlllary porL 3
and maLched LermlnaLlon Lo porL 2 ţ wlLhouL changlng Lhe poslLlon of varlable aLLenuaLor
and galn conLrol knob of vSW8 meLerŦ
6Ŧ noLe down Lhe readlng on vSW8 meLer on Lhe scale wlLh Lhe help of rangeŴdb swlLch lf
requlred Ŧ LeL lL be ?Ŧ
7Ŧ CalculaLe coupllng facLor whlch wlll be xŴ? ƹC (d8)Ŧ
8Ŧ now carefully dlsconnecL Lhe deLecLor from Lhe auxlllary porL 3 and maLch LermlnaLlon from
porL2 wlLhouL dlsLurblng Lhe seLŴ upŦ
9Ŧ ConnecL Lhe maLched LermlnaLlon Lo Lhe auxlllary porL 3 and deLecLor Lo porL 2 and
measure Lhe readlng on vSW8 meLerŦ Suppose lL ls ZŦ
10Ŧ CompuLe lnserLlon loss xŴZ ln dbŦ
11Ŧ 8epeaL Lhe sLeps from 1 Lo 4
12Ŧ ConnecL Lhe dlrecLlonal coupler ln Lhe reverse dlrecLlon ţlŦe porL 2 Lo frequency meLer sldeŦ
MaLched LermlnaLlon Lo porL 1 and deLecLor mounL Lo porL 3 wlLhouL dlsLurblng Lhe
poslLlon of Lhe varlableţ aLLenuaLor and galn conLrol knob of vSW8 meLerŦ
13Ŧ Measure and noLe down Lhe readlng on vSW8 meLerţ leL lL be ?
d
x
d
Ŷ?
d
glves lsolaLlon
l(db)Ŧ
14Ŧ CompuLe Lhe dlrecLlvlLy as ?Ŵ?
d
ƹlŴC
13Ŧ 8epeaL Lhe same for oLher frequenclesŦ



CbservaLlon ť
1) Þower aL ÞorL 1 ťŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴ d8
2) Þower aL ÞorL 2 ťŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴ d8
3) Þower aL ÞorL 3 ťŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴ d8
4) Þower aL ÞorL 4 ťŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴ d8
3) Coupllng ťŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴd8
6) ulrecLlvlLyťŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴd8

8esulL ť Pence we have sLudled Lhe MulLlhole ulrecLlonal CouplerŦ


















LxÞL8lMLn1 nC 6
AlM ť 1o sLudy Lhe vl CharacLerlsLlc of Cunn ulode
LqulpmenLť Cunn Þower Supply ţCunn osclllaLorţ lsolaLor ţlrequency meLer and maLched LermlnaLlon

llC 1 SL1 uÞ lC8 1PL S1uu? Cl uC vŴl CPA8AC1L8lS1lCS Cl Cunn CSClLLA1C8


1heory ť 1he gunn osclllaLor ls based on negaLlve dlfferenLlal conducLlvlLy effecL ln bulk semlconducLor
whlch as Lwo conducLlon bands separaLed by an energy gap (greaLer Lhan Lhe Lhermal energles )Ŧ A
dlsLurbance aL Lhe caLhode glves rlse Lo hlgh fleld reglon whlch Lravels Lowards Lhe anode ŦWhen Lhls
fleld domaln reaches Lhe anode ŦlL dlsappears and anoLher domaln ls formed aL Le caLhode and sLarLs
movlng Lowards anode and so on Ŧ
1he Llme requlred for domaln Lo Lravel from caLhode Lo anode (LranslL Llme ) glves oslllaLlon frequency Ŧ
ln Cunn osclllaLor ţLhe Cunn dlode ls placed ln a resonanL cavlLyŦ 1he oslcallaLlon frequency ls deLermlne
by cavlLy dlmenslonsŦ
AlLhough Cunn osclllaLor can be ampllLude modulaLed wlLh Lhe blas volLage Ŧ we have uesd a Þln
modulaLor for Lhe square wave modulaLlon of Lhe slgnal comlnbg from Cunn dlode
A measure of Lhe square wave modulaLlon capablllLy ls Lhe modulaLlon depLh lŦeŦ Lhe ouLpuL raLlo
beLween 'Cn ' and 'Cll' sLaLe Ŧ

Þ8CCLuu8Lť
1 SeL Lhe componenLs as shown ln Lhe flg1

2 keep Lhe conLrol knobs of Cunn Þower Supplu as belowť

MeLer SwlLch Ŵ 'Cll'
Cunn blas knob Ŵ lully anLlclockwlse
Þln blas knob Ŵ lully anLlclockwlse
Þln Mode frequency Ŵ Any poslLlon
4Ŧ SeL Lhe mlcromeLer of Cunn CsclllaLor for requlred frequency of operaLlonŦ
3Ŧ SwlLch 'Cn' Lhe Cunn Þower SupplyŦ

6Ŧ Measure Lhe Cunn dlode currenL correspondlng Lo Lhe varlous Cunn blas volLage Lhrough Lhe
ulglLal panel meLer and meLer swlLch Ŧuo noL exceed Lhe blas volLage above 10 volLs

7Ŧ ÞloL Lhe volLage and currenL readlngs on Lhe graph as shown ln flg 2

8ŦMeasure Lhe Lhreshold volLage whlch corresponds Lo maxlmum currenL

nC1L ť uC nC1 kLLÞ Cun 8lAS knC8 ÞCSl1lCn A1 1P8LSPCLu ÞCSl1lCn lC8 MC8L 1PAn
10Ŵ13 SLCCnuS 8LAulnC SPCuLu 8L C81AlnLu AS lAS1 AS ÞCSSl8LL C1PL8WlSL uuL 1C
LxCLSSlvL PLA1lnC ţ Cunn ulCuL MA? 8u8n









CbservaLlon Lable ť
Sr no volLage (v) CurrenL (l )(mA)


















8esulL ť Pence We have observe Lhe vŴl characLerlsLlcs of Cunn CsclllaLor

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