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# The Cellular Concept

Introduction to Cellular Systems
 Solves the problem of spectral congestion and user capacity.
 Offer very high capacity in a limited spectrum without major
technological changes.
 Reuse of radio channel in different cells.
 Enable a fix number of channels to serve an arbitrarily large
number of users by reusing the channel throughout the
coverage region.
 Similar to honeycomb structure.
Frequency Reuse

 Each cellular base station is allocated a group of radio
channels within a small geographic area called a cell.
 Neighboring cells are assigned different channel groups.
 By limiting the coverage area to within the boundary of
the cell, the channel groups may be reused to cover
different cells.
 Keep interference levels within tolerable limits.
 Frequency reuse or frequency planning
•seven groups of channel from A to G
•footprint of a cell - actual radio coverage

Why Hexagonal Cells?
 Firstly, the distance from the centre to all the other
edges should be equal. Options could be Circle, Square,
Equilateral triangle and hexagon
 Circular shaped cells would leave out few spaces
without any coverage.
 The cell must be designed to serve the weakest mobiles
within the coverage area and these weakest points are
located at the edges of a cell.
 For a given distance between centre of a polygon and its
farthest perimeter points, the hexagon has the largest
area out of square and triangle.
 Thus, hexagonal geometry is used which provides full
coverage with fewest no. of cells.

Possible cell structures

 Consider a cellular system which has a total of S duplex
channels.
 Each cell is allocated a group of k channels, .
 The S channels are divided among N cells.
 The total number of available radio channels
 The N cells which use the complete set of channels is called
cluster.
 The cluster can be repeated M times within the system. The
total number of channels, C, is used as a measure of capacity
 The capacity is directly proportional to the number of replication
M.
 The cluster size, N, is typically equal to 4, 7, or 12.
 Small N is desirable to maximize capacity.
 The frequency reuse factor is given by

S k <
kN S =
MS MkN C = =
N / 1

 Hexagonal geometry has
 exactly six equidistance neighbors
 the lines joining the centers of any cell and each of its neighbors
are separated by multiples of 60 degrees.
 Only certain cluster sizes and cell layout are possible.
 The number of cells per cluster, N, can only have values which
satisfy
 Co-channel neighbors of a particular cell, ex, i=3 and j=2.

2 2
j ij i N + + =
Channel Assignment Strategies
 Frequency reuse scheme
 increases capacity
 minimize interference
 Channel assignment strategy
 fixed channel assignment
 dynamic channel assignment
 Fixed channel assignment
 each cell is allocated a predetermined set of voice channel
 any new call attempt can only be served by the unused channels
 the call will be blocked if all channels in that cell are occupied
 Dynamic channel assignment
 channels are not allocated to cells permanently.
 allocate channels based on request.
 reduce the likelihood of blocking, increase capacity.
Handoff/ Handover
 When a mobile user travels from one cell to another cell
within a call’s duration the call should be transferred to the
new cell’s base station.

 Otherwise, the call will be dropped because the link with
the current base station becomes too weak as the mobile
recedes.

 This ability for transference is a design matter in mobile
cellular system design and is called handoff .
Handoff Strategies
 When a mobile moves into a different cell while a conversation
is in progress, the MSC automatically transfers the call to a
new channel belonging to the new base station.
 Handoff operation
 identifying a new base station
 re-allocating the voice and control channels with the new base
station.
 Handoff Threshold
 Minimum usable signal for acceptable voice quality (-90dBm to -
100dBm)
 Handoff margin cannot be too large
or too small.
 If is too large, unnecessary handoffs burden the MSC
 If is too small, there may be insufficient time to complete
handoff before a call is lost.
usable minimum , , r handoff r
P P ÷ = A
A
A
Signal strength in Handoff process
 Handoff must ensure that the drop in the measured signal is
not due to momentary fading and that the mobile is actually
moving away from the serving base station.

 Running average measurement of signal strength should be
optimized so that unnecessary handoffs are avoided.
 Depends on the speed at which the vehicle is moving.
 Steep short term average -> the hand off should be made quickly
 The speed can be estimated from the statistics of the received
short-term fading signal at the base station

 Dwell time: the time over which a call may be maintained within
a cell without handoff.

 Dwell time depends on
 propagation
 interference
 distance
 speed

 Handoff measurement
 In first generation analog cellular systems, signal strength
measurements were made by the base station and
supervised by the MSC.
 In second generation systems (TDMA), handoff decisions
were mobile assisted, called mobile assisted handoff
(MAHO)
 Intersystem handoff: If a mobile moves from one cellular
system to a different cellular system controlled by a different
MSC.
 Handoff requests are more important than handling a new call.
Prioritizing Handoffs

 First Method: Guard Channel Concept, whereby a
fraction of the total available channels in a cell is
reserved exclusively for handoff requests from ongoing
calls which may be handed off into the cell.
Disadvantage: This method reduces the total carried traffic
as fewer channels are allocated to originating calls.
 Second Method: Queuing of Handoff requests is done
during the time the received signal level drops below the
handoff threshold and the time the call is terminated due
to insufficient signal level.
Advantage: This method decreases the probability of forced
termination of the call.
Practical Handoff Consideration
 Different type of users
 High speed users need frequent handoff during a call.
 Low speed users may never need a handoff during a call.
 The MSC becomes burdened if high speed users are
constantly being passed between very small cells.
 To Minimize handoff intervention
 handle the simultaneous traffic of high speed and low speed users.
 Large and small cells can be located at a single location
(Umbrella cell approach)
 different antenna height
 different power level
 Cell dragging problem: pedestrian users provide a very strong
signal to the base station
 The user may travel deep within a neighboring cell

Umbrella Cell Approach
 The umbrella cell configuration consists of one BTS with high
transmission power and an antenna installed high above the
ground that serves as an “umbrella” for a number of BTSs with
low transmission power and small diameters

 The use of both “Large” and “Small” cells for high speed
moving users and for pedestrian or slow moving mobile users.
Interference and System Capacity
 Sources of interference
 another mobile in the same cell
 a call in progress in the neighboring cell
 other base stations operating in the same frequency
band
 Two major cellular interference
 co-channel interference
Co-channel Interference and System Capacity
 Frequency reuse - there are several cells that use the same set
of frequencies
 co-channel cells
 co-channel interference
 To reduce co-channel interference, co-channel cell must be
separated by a minimum distance.
 When the size of the cell is approximately the same
 co-channel interference is independent of the transmitted power
 co-channel interference is a function of
 R : Radius of the cell
 D : distance b/w the centers of the nearest co-channel cells
 Increasing the ratio Q=D/R, the interference is reduced.
 Q is called the co-channel reuse ratio

 For a hexagonal geometry

 A small value of Q provides large capacity

 A large value of Q improves the transmission quality - smaller
level of co-channel interference

N
R
D
Q 3 = =

 Let be the number of co-channel interfering cells. The
signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) for a mobile receiver can be
expressed as

S: the desired signal power
: interference power caused by the ith interfering co-channel cell base
station

 The average received power at a distance d from the
transmitting antenna is approximated by

or n is the path loss exponent which ranges between 2 and 4.
0
i
¿
=
=
0
1
i
i
i
I
S
I
S
i
I
n
r
d
d
P P
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
0
0
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
0
0
log 10 ) dBm ( ) dBm (
d
d
n P P
r
 When the transmission power of each base station is equal,
SIR for a mobile can be approximated as

 Consider only the first layer of interfering cells
( )
0 0
3 ) / (
i
N
i
R D
I
S
n
n
= =
frequency to the desired signal.
 Imperfect receiver filters allow nearby frequencies to leak into the
passband
 Performance degrade seriously due to near-far effect.
desired signal
receiving filter
response
desired signal
interference
interference
FILTER

 Adjacent channel interference can be minimized through
careful filtering and channel assignment.
 Keep the frequency separation between each channel in a
given cell as large as possible
 A channel separation greater than six is needed to bring the
adjacent channel interference to an acceptable level.
Power Control for Reducing Interference
 Ensure each mobile transmits the smallest power necessary to
maintain a good quality link on the reverse channel
 long battery life
 increase SIR
 solve the near-far problem
 Erlangs: One Erlangs represents the amount of traffic density
carried by a channel that is completely occupied.

 Grade of Service (GOS) : The likelihood that a call is blocked.

 For a system containing U users and an unspecified number of
channels, the total offered traffic intensity A, is given by
Improving Capacity in Cellular Systems
 Methods for improving capacity in cellular systems

 Cell Splitting: subdividing a congested cell into smaller cells.

 Sectoring: directional antennas to control the interference and
frequency reuse.

 Coverage zone : Distributing the coverage of a cell and extends
the cell boundary to hard-to-reach place.
Cell Splitting

 Split congested cell into smaller cells.
 Preserve frequency reuse plan.
 Reduce transmission power.

microcell
Reduce R to R/2
Sectoring

 Decrease the co-channel interference and keep the cell radius
R unchanged
 Replacing single omni-directional antenna by several directional
antennas
 Radiating within a specified sector

 Interference Reduction

position of the mobile
interference cells

Introduction to Cellular Systems
 

Solves the problem of spectral congestion and user capacity. Offer very high capacity in a limited spectrum without major technological changes. Reuse of radio channel in different cells. Enable a fix number of channels to serve an arbitrarily large number of users by reusing the channel throughout the coverage region. Similar to honeycomb structure.

Frequency Reuse

 

 

Each cellular base station is allocated a group of radio channels within a small geographic area called a cell. Neighboring cells are assigned different channel groups. By limiting the coverage area to within the boundary of the cell, the channel groups may be reused to cover different cells. Keep interference levels within tolerable limits. Frequency reuse or frequency planning
•seven groups of channel from A to G •footprint of a cell - actual radio coverage

of cells.Why Hexagonal Cells?      Firstly. The cell must be designed to serve the weakest mobiles within the coverage area and these weakest points are located at the edges of a cell. hexagonal geometry is used which provides full coverage with fewest no. Options could be Circle. the distance from the centre to all the other edges should be equal. Equilateral triangle and hexagon Circular shaped cells would leave out few spaces without any coverage. Square. For a given distance between centre of a polygon and its farthest perimeter points. . Thus. the hexagon has the largest area out of square and triangle.

Possible cell structures .

The total number of channels. S  kN The total number of available radio channels C  MkN  MS The N cells which use the complete set of channels is called cluster. k  S . 7. The S channels are divided among N cells. The cluster can be repeated M times within the system. is used as a measure of capacity The capacity is directly proportional to the number of replication M. C. or 12. The frequency reuse factor is given by 1 / N . Each cell is allocated a group of k channels. The cluster size.          Consider a cellular system which has a total of S duplex channels. N. is typically equal to 4. Small N is desirable to maximize capacity.

 Hexagonal geometry has   exactly six equidistance neighbors the lines joining the centers of any cell and each of its neighbors are separated by multiples of 60 degrees.    Only certain cluster sizes and cell layout are possible. N. The number of cells per cluster. . i=3 and j=2. ex. can only have values which N  i 2  ij  j 2 satisfy Co-channel neighbors of a particular cell.

increase capacity.  Channel assignment strategy    Fixed channel assignment     Dynamic channel assignment    . reduce the likelihood of blocking.Channel Assignment Strategies  Frequency reuse scheme   increases capacity minimize interference fixed channel assignment dynamic channel assignment each cell is allocated a predetermined set of voice channel any new call attempt can only be served by the unused channels the call will be blocked if all channels in that cell are occupied channels are not allocated to cells permanently. allocate channels based on request.

the call will be dropped because the link with the current base station becomes too weak as the mobile recedes.  This ability for transference is a design matter in mobile cellular system design and is called handoff .  Otherwise.Handoff/ Handover  When a mobile user travels from one cell to another cell within a call’s duration the call should be transferred to the new cell’s base station. .

Handoff Strategies   When a mobile moves into a different cell while a conversation is in progress. Minimum usable signal for acceptable voice quality (-90dBm to 100dBm) Handoff margin   P . unnecessary handoffs burden the MSC If  is too small.  Handoff Threshold     . the MSC automatically transfers the call to a new channel belonging to the new base station.handoff  P . Handoff operation   identifying a new base station re-allocating the voice and control channels with the new base station.minimum usable cannot be too large r r or too small. If  is too large. there may be insufficient time to complete handoff before a call is lost.

.

Signal strength in Handoff process .

 Handoff must ensure that the drop in the measured signal is not due to momentary fading and that the mobile is actually moving away from the serving base station. Steep short term average -> the hand off should be made quickly The speed can be estimated from the statistics of the received short-term fading signal at the base station  Dwell time: the time over which a call may be maintained within a cell without handoff. Dwell time depends on      propagation interference distance speed .     Depends on the speed at which the vehicle is moving. Running average measurement of signal strength should be optimized so that unnecessary handoffs are avoided.

signal strength measurements were made by the base station and supervised by the MSC.   Handoff measurement  In first generation analog cellular systems. Handoff requests are more important than handling a new call. called mobile assisted handoff (MAHO) Intersystem handoff: If a mobile moves from one cellular system to a different cellular system controlled by a different MSC. handoff decisions were mobile assisted. .  In second generation systems (TDMA).

whereby a fraction of the total available channels in a cell is reserved exclusively for handoff requests from ongoing calls which may be handed off into the cell.  .Prioritizing Handoffs First Method: Guard Channel Concept. Advantage: This method decreases the probability of forced termination of the call.  Second Method: Queuing of Handoff requests is done during the time the received signal level drops below the handoff threshold and the time the call is terminated due to insufficient signal level. Disadvantage: This method reduces the total carried traffic as fewer channels are allocated to originating calls.

 Large and small cells can be located at a single location (Umbrella cell approach)   different antenna height different power level  Cell dragging problem: pedestrian users provide a very strong signal to the base station  The user may travel deep within a neighboring cell .   The MSC becomes burdened if high speed users are constantly being passed between very small cells. Low speed users may never need a handoff during a call.Practical Handoff Consideration  Different type of users   High speed users need frequent handoff during a call. To Minimize handoff intervention  handle the simultaneous traffic of high speed and low speed users.

.Umbrella Cell Approach  The umbrella cell configuration consists of one BTS with high transmission power and an antenna installed high above the ground that serves as an “umbrella” for a number of BTSs with low transmission power and small diameters  The use of both “Large” and “Small” cells for high speed moving users and for pedestrian or slow moving mobile users.

.

Interference and System Capacity  Sources of interference    another mobile in the same cell a call in progress in the neighboring cell other base stations operating in the same frequency band co-channel interference adjacent channel interference  Two major cellular interference   .

the interference is reduced. Q is called the co-channel reuse ratio .Co-channel Interference and System Capacity  Frequency reuse .there are several cells that use the same set of frequencies   co-channel cells co-channel interference   To reduce co-channel interference. When the size of the cell is approximately the same   co-channel interference is independent of the transmitted power co-channel interference is a function of   R : Radius of the cell D : distance b/w the centers of the nearest co-channel cells   Increasing the ratio Q=D/R. co-channel cell must be separated by a minimum distance.

 For a hexagonal geometry Q D  3N R  A small value of Q provides large capacity A large value of Q improves the transmission quality .smaller level of co-channel interference A tradeoff must be made between these two objectives   .

 S: the desired signal power i 1 I i : interference power caused by the ith interfering co-channel cell base station  Let i0 be the number of co-channel interfering cells. d  Pr (dBm )  P0 (dBm )  10n log   d   0 . The signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) for a mobile receiver can be expressed as S S  i0 I Ii  The average received power at a distance d from the n transmitting antenna is approximated by d  Pr  P0   d   0 or n is the path loss exponent which ranges between 2 and 4.

 When the transmission power of each base station is equal. SIR for a mobile can be approximated as Consider only the first layer of interfering cells S ( D / R)  I i0 n    3N  i0 n .

  Imperfect receiver filters allow nearby frequencies to leak into the passband Performance degrade seriously due to near-far effect.Adjacent Channel Interference  Adjacent channel interference: interference from adjacent in frequency to the desired signal. receiving filter response signal on adjacent channel desired signal signal on adjacent channel FILTER interference desired signal interference .

Keep the frequency separation between each channel in a given cell as large as possible A channel separation greater than six is needed to bring the adjacent channel interference to an acceptable level.   Adjacent channel interference can be minimized through careful filtering and channel assignment. .

Power Control for Reducing Interference  Ensure each mobile transmits the smallest power necessary to maintain a good quality link on the reverse channel    long battery life increase SIR solve the near-far problem .

Trunking and Grade of Service  Erlangs: One Erlangs represents the amount of traffic density carried by a channel that is completely occupied. For a system containing U users and an unspecified number of channels. Grade of Service (GOS) : The likelihood that a call is blocked. is given by   . the total offered traffic intensity A.

 Sectoring: directional antennas to control the interference and frequency reuse.Improving Capacity in Cellular Systems  Methods for improving capacity in cellular systems  Cell Splitting: subdividing a congested cell into smaller cells. Coverage zone : Distributing the coverage of a cell and extends the cell boundary to hard-to-reach place.  .

Cell Splitting  Split congested cell into smaller cells. Reduce transmission power. Reduce R to R/2 microcell .   Preserve frequency reuse plan.

Sectoring  Decrease the co-channel interference and keep the cell radius R unchanged   Replacing single omni-directional antenna by several directional antennas Radiating within a specified sector .

 Interference Reduction position of the mobile interference cells .

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