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BJT

Biasing Circuits

LE210 Lecture Notes 2002 Edition: 1


BJT Biasing Circuits
Base Bias
VCC
• In a simple biasing circuit, VBB is
eliminated by connecting the
RC resistor RB to the supply VCC.
VCC
RB

VBB

RC
RB

• As shown in the above circuit, two


dc voltage supplies are needed to
bias a BJT which is not practical.

• This biasing circuit is called base


bias, or fixed bias.

LE210 Lecture Notes 2002 Edition: 2


BJT Biasing Circuits
Since IC = βDCIB ,
VCC

β DC (VCC -VBE )
IC IC =
RB IB
RC
RB
C • Applying KVL,
B VCE VCC = ICRC + VCE
VBE E

• Therefore,
VCE = VCC – ICRC
• Applying KVL,
• βDC varies from device to device
VCC = IBRB + VBE resulting in the variation of IC.
• A good biasing circuit is to
• Therefore, maintain a constant IC while βDC
VCC -VBE varies.
IB =
RB
LE210 Lecture Notes 2002 Edition: 3
BJT Biasing Circuits
DC Load Line
IC
• The dc load line is a graph that
represents all the possible IC(sat)
combinations of IC and VCE for a
given BJT circuit.
VCC

IC VCE(off) VCE
RC
RB IB
A generic dc load line
C

B VCE • Ideally,

VBE E Saturation: VCE = 0 Cut-off: IC = 0


VCC = IC R C VCE(off) = VCC
VCC
IC(sat) =
RC

LE210 Lecture Notes 2002 Edition: 4


BJT Biasing Circuits
Example 1: Plot the dc load line for the circuit
shown below.
+12 V

IC

2 kΩ
RB 6 mA

12 V VCE
VCC 12
IC(sat) = = = 6 mA
R C 2k The dc load line

VCE(off) = VCC = 12 V

LE210 Lecture Notes 2002 Edition: 5


BJT Biasing Circuits
Q-Point
+8 V

• IC and VCE at Q-point are called ICQ


360 kΩ
2 kΩ
and VCEQ respectively.
βDC = 100

• Determine IC and VCE if VBE is


assumed to be 0.7 volt.

β DC (VCC -VBE )
• When a BJT does not have an ac IC =
input, it will have specific dc RB
values of IC and VCE. (100)(8-0.7)
= =2.028 mA
• These values will correspond to a 360k
specific point on the dc load line.
• This point is called the Q-point. VCE = VCC - IC R C
The letter Q comes from the word = 8 - (2.028mA)(2k) = 3.94 V
quiescent, meaning at rest.

LE210 Lecture Notes 2002 Edition: 6


BJT Biasing Circuits
• Determine IC(sat) and VCE(off). • Construct the dc load line and plot
the Q-point.
+8 V IC

2 kΩ
360 kΩ 4 mA

βDC = 100

2.028 mA Q

3.94 V 8V VCE
V 8
IC(sat) = CC = = 4 mA
R C 2k The dc load line

VCE(off) = VCC = 8 V • The circuit is said to be midpoint


biased since the values of IC and
VCE at Q-point are one-half of their
maximum values.

LE210 Lecture Notes 2002 Edition: 7


BJT Biasing Circuits
Feedback Bias: Collector-Feedback Bias
VCC
• Applying KVL,
VCC = VRC +VRB +VBE
RC
= (IC +I B )R C +I B R B +VBE
RB = β DC I B R C +I B R C +I B R B +VBE
IC = (β DC +1)I B R C +I B R B +VBE
IB C
VCC -VBE
IB =
B VCE R B +(β DC +1)R C
β DC (VCC -VBE )
VBE E ICQ =
R B +(β DC +1)R C
VCEQ = VCC - (ICQ +I B )R C
≈ VCC -ICQ R C ; β DC >> 1

LE210 Lecture Notes 2002 Edition: 8


BJT Biasing Circuits
Feedback Bias: Emitter-Feedback Bias
VCC

• Applying KVL,
RB

VCC = VRB +VBE + VRE


IB
RC
IC = I B R B +VBE + ( β DC + 1) I B RE
VCC -VBE
IB =
C R B +(β DC +1)RE
B VCE β DC (VCC -VBE )
ICQ =
VBE E
R B +(β DC +1)RE
VCEQ = VCC - ICQ R C + I E R E
RE
IE ≈ VCC -ICQ (R C +R E ) ; β DC >> 1

LE210 Lecture Notes 2002 Edition: 9


BJT Biasing Circuits
Voltage-Divider Bias
VCC
VCC

IC
RC

IC IB
RC
R1 I1
RBB
C
VBB
IB
B VCE RE IE

I2 VBE E
R2
IE
• Replace circuit A with the
RE
thevenin equivalent circuit.
• Find VBB and RBB.

Circuit A

LE210 Lecture Notes 2002 Edition: 10


BJT Biasing Circuits
VCC

VCC

IC
RC

R1 I1
IB

R1
VBB = VCC RBB
R1 +R 2 VBB
+
RE IE
I2
R2 VBB=VOC

• Applying KVL,
VBB = I B R BB + VBE + I E R E
R1
= I B R BB + VBE + (β DC + 1)I B R E
R BB = R1 // R 2
VBB - VBE
IB =
R BB +(β DC + 1)R E
RBB
R2
β DC (VBB - VBE )
ICQ =
R BB +(β DC +1)R E
VCEQ = VCC - (R C + R E )ICQ ; β DC >> 1

LE210 Lecture Notes 2002 Edition: 11


BJT Biasing Circuits