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BJT Biasing Circuits

LE210 Lecture Notes 2002 Edition: BJT Biasing Circuits 1

Base Bias
VCC

RC

In a simple biasing circuit, VBB is eliminated by connecting the resistor RB to the supply VCC.
VCC

RB VBB

RB

RC

As shown in the above circuit, two dc voltage supplies are needed to bias a BJT which is not practical. • This biasing circuit is called base bias, or fixed bias.
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LE210 Lecture Notes 2002 Edition: BJT Biasing Circuits

VCC


IC

Since IC = βDCIB ,

RB

IB

RC C B VBE E

IC =

VCE

Applying KVL, VCC = ICRC + VCE Therefore, VCE = VCC – ICRC

β DC (VCC -VBE ) RB

• • Applying KVL, VCC = IBRB + VBE Therefore,

• •

VCC -VBE IB = RB

βDC varies from device to device resulting in the variation of IC. A good biasing circuit is to maintain a constant IC while βDC varies.

LE210 Lecture Notes 2002 Edition: BJT Biasing Circuits

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DC Load Line
• The dc load line is a graph that represents all the possible combinations of IC and VCE for a given BJT circuit.
VCC

IC IC(sat)

RB

IB

RC C B VBE E

IC

VCE(off) A generic dc load line
VCE

VCE

Ideally,
Saturation: VCE = 0 VCC = IC R C IC(sat) = VCC RC
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Cut-off: IC = 0 VCE(off) = VCC

LE210 Lecture Notes 2002 Edition: BJT Biasing Circuits

Example 1: Plot the dc load line for the circuit shown below.
+12 V

IC
2 kΩ RB

6 mA

IC(sat) =

VCC 12 = = 6 mA R C 2k

12 V The dc load line

VCE

VCE(off) = VCC = 12 V
LE210 Lecture Notes 2002 Edition: BJT Biasing Circuits 5

Q-Point
+8 V


2 kΩ 360 kΩ βDC = 100

IC and VCE at Q-point are called ICQ and VCEQ respectively. Determine IC and VCE if VBE is assumed to be 0.7 volt.
β DC (VCC -VBE ) IC = RB = (100)(8-0.7) =2.028 mA 360k

• •

When a BJT does not have an ac input, it will have specific dc values of IC and VCE. These values will correspond to a specific point on the dc load line. This point is called the Q-point. The letter Q comes from the word quiescent, meaning at rest.

VCE = VCC - IC R C = 8 - (2.028mA)(2k) = 3.94 V

LE210 Lecture Notes 2002 Edition: BJT Biasing Circuits

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Determine IC(sat) and VCE(off).
+8 V

Construct the dc load line and plot the Q-point.
IC 4 mA

2 kΩ 360 kΩ

βDC = 100

2.028 mA

Q

IC(sat)

V 8 = CC = = 4 mA R C 2k

3.94 V

8V

VCE

The dc load line

VCE(off) = VCC = 8 V

The circuit is said to be midpoint biased since the values of IC and VCE at Q-point are one-half of their maximum values.

LE210 Lecture Notes 2002 Edition: BJT Biasing Circuits

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Feedback Bias: Collector-Feedback Bias
VCC

Applying KVL,

VCC = VRC +VRB +VBE
RC RB IB B VBE E IC C VCE

= (IC +I B )R C +I B R B +VBE = β DC I B R C +I B R C +I B R B +VBE = (β DC +1)I B R C +I B R B +VBE IB = ICQ = VCC -VBE R B +(β DC +1)R C β DC (VCC -VBE ) R B +(β DC +1)R C

VCEQ = VCC - (ICQ +I B )R C ≈ VCC -ICQ R C ; β DC >> 1
LE210 Lecture Notes 2002 Edition: BJT Biasing Circuits 8

Feedback Bias: Emitter-Feedback Bias
VCC


RB

Applying KVL,

VCC = VRB +VBE + VRE
IB RC IC

= I B R B +VBE + ( β DC + 1) I B RE IB =
VCE

C B VBE E

VCC -VBE R B +(β DC +1)RE β DC (VCC -VBE ) R B +(β DC +1)RE

ICQ =

VCEQ = VCC - ICQ R C + I E R E
RE IE

≈ VCC -ICQ (R C +R E ) ; β DC >> 1

LE210 Lecture Notes 2002 Edition: BJT Biasing Circuits

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Voltage-Divider Bias
VCC
RC VCC IC

R1

I1 IB

RC C

IC
RBB VBB

IB

B VBE RE E IE

VCE

RE

IE

R2

I2

• •

Replace circuit A with the thevenin equivalent circuit. Find VBB and RBB.

Circuit A LE210 Lecture Notes 2002 Edition: BJT Biasing Circuits 10

VCC

VCC
RC IC

R1

I1

VBB =
+ R2 I2 VBB=VOC -

R1 VCC R1 +R 2

IB RBB VBB RE IE


R1

Applying KVL,
VBB = I B R BB + VBE + I E R E = I B R BB + VBE + (β DC + 1)I B R E IB = ICQ = VBB - VBE R BB +(β DC + 1)R E β DC (VBB - VBE ) R BB +(β DC +1)R E

R BB = R1 // R 2
R2 RBB

VCEQ = VCC - (R C + R E )ICQ ; β DC >> 1
LE210 Lecture Notes 2002 Edition: BJT Biasing Circuits 11